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JOURNAL 



OF A 



RESIDENCE IN CHILE, 



DURING THE YEAR 1822. 



AND A 



VOYAGE FROM CHILE TO BRAZIL IN 1823. 



By MARIA GRAHAM. 



HAPLY THE SEAS AND COUNTRIES DIFFERENT 
WITH VARIABLE OBJECTS, SHALL DISPEL 
THIS SOMETHING SETTLED MATTER IN HIS HEART. 




LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, BROWN, AND GREEN, 

PATERNOSTER-ROW ; 

AND JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE-STREET. 
1824. 



London : 

Printed by A. 6c 11. Spot tis woo de, 

Now-Street-Square. 



PREFACE, 



The Journal of a residence in Chile should naturally have been 
placed between the two visits to Brazil, which are the subject of the 
writer's former volume. The reasons for dividing the Journals have 
been given in the preface to that of the residence in Brazil. 

The Introduction to the present volume is, perhaps, its most im- 
portant part. Of the first six years of the revolution in Chile, no 
account is to be procured, either from the offices of the secretaries of 
state, or among the papers of the actors in the scene. During the 
few wretched days that elapsed between the defeat of the Patriots at 
Rancagua and their crossing the Andes, the whole of the public 
papers and documents that could be collected were burnt, in order 
to prevent them from falling into the hands of the Spaniards, who 
might have persecuted those families who remained in their country, 
and whose names might have been found among those of the Patriots. 
Hence until 1817, no records are to be traced even in the hands of 
government; and until the middle of 1818 nothing whatever was 
printed in Chile ; so that a few years hence all remembrance of the 
early period of the revolution in that country may be lost. 

It was the writer's good fortune while in Chile, to become 
acquainted with several persons, who, having participated either as 

a 2 



/?c/FS 



IV PREFACE. 

actors or spectators in the great event, were kind enough to allow 
her to write down, from their verbal account, the main particulars 
which she has detailed. What was related by those still Royalists, 
agreed in all facts with what was told by the patriots, and all with 
the clear and spirited narratives of the Supreme Director, O'Higgins ; 
whose liberality and politeness on this, as on every other point, to- 
wards the writer, deserve her warmest acknowledgements. From 
1818 to 1821 ample accounts were published in the gazettes of every 
public occurrence, and every document was during that period laid 
before the people. But sometime in the year 1821, it became 
evident that the political speculations of the Protector of Peru, and 
the commercial schemes of the ministers in Chile, were of a nature 
not to be unveiled, and the public papers are accordingly very defec- 
tive from that time. The writer cannot flatter herself that she has 
been able to supply the deficiencies entirely ; but she trusts that the 
leading marks she has been able to set up will be found sufficient 
to induce others, more capable of the task, to fill up the outline 
which she has but sketched. 

As the struggle in Spanish America was purely that of the colo- 
nies with the mother country, the writer had of course nothing to do 
with the mention of any transactions between the neutral trading 
nations, whose vessels, either of war or of commerce, might be in 
the seas of Chile, unless where a direct interference, as in the case of 
Captain Hillier's guarantee of the treaty in the south of Chile, 
renders it absolutely necessary. 

The Postscript to the Journal contains papers from which the pre- 
sent political state of Chile may be understood. There is so much 
of good in that country, so much in the character of the people 
and the excellence of the soil and climate, that there can be no 



PREFACE. v 

doubt of the ultimate success of their endeavours after a free and 
flourishing state : but there are no ordinary difficulties to get over, 
no common wants to be supplied ; and if the following pages shall 
in the slightest degree contribute directly or indirectly to supply 
those wants, or to smooth those difficulties, by calling attention to 
that country either as one particularly fitted for commercial inter- 
course, or as one whose natural resources and powers have yet to be 
cultivated, the writer will feel the truest satisfaction. 



VIGNETTES. 



Page 1)3. — Fort at Valparaiso, in which several English Officers are buried. 

142. — A Peruvian Double Vase, which being half filled with water and moved 

from side to side, produces a whistling sound. These jars were buried 

with the dead, and are now occasionally found on breaking open the 

tombs in Peru; the specimen from which this cut was taken was 

given me by an English Officer. 
190. — The Cart, Plough, and Leather Bucket of Chile. 
227. — The Capelita or little Chapel of Colinas, — drawn from the Roof of the 

Bathing House 
262. — Great Ovens for baking the Wine Jars, &c. on the Plain of Mellipilla. 
299. — The Chile Palm Tree. — The Agave is growing near it, and the small 

Bread Oven is at its foot. 
304. — A Corner View of the Drawing-room Division of Lord Cochrane's House 

of Quintero, as it stood before the Earthquake of the 19th of Nov. 
324. — A Quebrada or Ravine, — sketched between Quintero and Valparaiso. This 

and some others of the Vignettes are not very accurately placed ; but 

they are true to the Scenery of the Country. 
3.54. — Cape Horn. 
L_ "858. — A Brick Kiln at Valparaiso. 



PLATES. 



Plate I. Travelling in Spanish America . ... to face the Title Page. 

II. Iglezia Matriz of Valparaiso to face Page 116 

III. View of Valparaiso Bay from my House 146 

IV. View from the Foot of the Cuesta de Prado 196 

V. View over the Plain of Santiago from the Top of the Cuesta de Prado 1 97 

VI. Salta de Agua 213 

VII. Country-house in Chile. This is that of M. de Salinas . . . 241 

VIII. Lake of Aculeo 247 

IX. View from the House of Salinas ....... 254 

X. Costume of Chile 262 

XI. Street of San Domingo in Santiago, from my Balcony — Sketched on 

the 18th September, the Houses adorned with Flags . . . 269 

XII. Quintero Bay, seen from the Place where the House was . . 329 

XIII. Landing Place at Juan Fernandez . . . . . . 351 

XIV. Cacique with his Troops advancing to meet Carrera . . . 419 



INTRODUCTION. 



SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF CHILE. 

Ihe discovery of Chile by the Spaniards, arid the accounts of 
their first settlements there, form one of the most romantic chapters 
in the history of the European conquest of South America. After 
"the death of the Inca Atahualpa in 1535, Pizarro, jealous of the in- 
fluence and ambition of his companion Almagro, represented the 
conquest of Chile as an object worthy of his talents, and engaged 
him in it notwithstanding his advanced age, which was then upwards 
of seventy years. 

The desert of Atacama separates Peru from Chile, and of the 
two practicable roads connecting those provinces, Almagro's eager 
impatience chose the shortest, though the most difficult, by the 
mountains, instead of that by the sea-coast. The sufferings and loss 
of Almagro's army, from cold and famine, during their march, ap- 
pear incredible ; and, had not a few soldiers, better mounted than 
the rest, pushed on to the valley of Copiapo, and obtained supplies 
from the hospitable natives, which they sent back to meet their 
suffering companions, in all probability the greater number must 
have perished. 

The Spaniards were kindly treated, and at first received by the 
Chilenos with a veneration bordering on idolatry : but the thirst of 
gold and silver, which had led them to seek the country through 
burning deserts and over snowy mountains, soon led to disputes be- 
tween the inhabitants and the soldiers, which Almagro revenged on 
the former severely, and thus laid the foundation for that opposition 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

on the part of the natives which still lays waste some of the best 
provinces of the state. On reaching the southern side of the Cacha- 
poal the Spanish army met several of the Indian tribes, and par- 
ticularly the Promaucians, ready to oppose their further progress; 
and though Almagro was on the whole victorious, he considered the 
worth of the conquest as insufficient to reward the toils of the 
conquerors, and in the year 1538 returned with his army to Peru, 
where, after having possessed Cuzco for a short time, he was put 
to death by order of Francisco Pizarro, in the seventy-fifth year of 
his age. 

Pedro de Valdivia was the next Spanish leader deputed by 
Pizarro to conduct an army into Chile : he accordingly entered it in 
1540 with 200 Spaniards and a large body of Peruvians, taking the 
same road as Almagro ; but as it was the summer time, the soldiers 
had nothing to fear from the cold, which had proved so fatal to 
Almagro. The reception of Valdivia was very different from that 
o-iven to his predecessor. The Chilenos had learned to hate as well 
as to fear the invaders. Every step was won by force of arms ; and 
the settlements or colonies established by Valdivia were repeatedly 
destroyed. Even Santiago, which he founded in 1541, did not find 
sufficient defence in its citadel of Santa Lucia, but was burnt by the 
people of the valley of Mapocho while Valdivia was advancing to 
the banks of the Cachapoal to repel the Promaucians. On his 
return from that expedition, he sent Alonzo Monroy and Pedro 
Miranda, with six companions, towards the frontiers of Peru in order 
to obtain succours ; and that they might the more readily entice 
the European soldiers to join them, their bits and stirrups and spurs 
were made of gold. This little company was however attacked by 
the people of Copiapo, and Monroy and Miranda only escaped. 
They were carried to the ulman or governor of the valley, who had 
condemned them to death ; but the intercession of his wife saved 
them ; a benefit which they repaid with the basest ingratitude. She 
requested them to teach her son to ride, several of the Spanish 
horses having been taken and brought to her. They made use of 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

the opportunity to escape, but first needlessly stabbed her son, and 
then fled to Cuzco. 

That city was then governed by Castro, the successor of Pizarro, 
who granted the assistance desired by Valdivia ; and Monroy led a 
small body of recruits by land to Copiapo, while a considerable force 
was conveyed by sea, under Juan Baptista Pastene, a noble Genoese. 
Meantime Valdivia had obtained possession of the rich gold mines 
of the valley of Quillota ; and, sensible that nothing effectual could 
be done without a communication by sea with Peru, had begun to 
build a vessel at the mouth of the river of Aconcagua, which rises 
near the Cumbre pass of the Andes, traverses the whole valley of 
Quillota, and falls into the dangerous bay of Concon, between the 
harbours of Valparaiso and Quintero, neither of which receive any 
considerable rivers. 

On receiving the reinforcement from Castro, Valdivia imme- 
diately ordered Pastene to explore the coast of Chile, as far as the 
straits of Magellan ; and then despatched him to Peru for fresh 
succours, as the natives became daily more enterprising, and had 
recently put to death the whole body of soldiers stationed at the 
gold mines near Quillota, burned the vessel which was just finished, 
and destroyed the store-houses at the mouth of the river. On re- 
ceiving news of this disaster, Valdivia marched from Santiago, 
revenged the death of his people by exercising as much cruelty as 
possible towards the unhappy Quillotanes, and built a fort for the 
protection of the miners. Thence he advanced to meet his new 
reinforcements under Villagran and Escobar, who brought him 300 
men from Peru ; and desiring to have an establishment in the north- 
ern part of Chile, he pitched upon the beautiful plain at the mouth 
of the Coquimbo, where he established the colony of La Serena, 
commonly called Coquimbo, in 1543. 

The year following was marked by gaining over the Promaucian 
Indians to the Spanish cause, to which they have ever since faithfully 
adhered, impelled probably by their jealousy of their immediate 
neighbours the Araucanians. Valdivia then pursued his conquests 

b 2 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

to the southward ; but after crossing the Maule was defeated at 
Itata, and obliged to go in person to Peru to obtain reinforcements. 
During his absence, the people of Copiapo, who had not forgotten 
the treacherous murder of their young chief by Monroy and Miranda, 
fell upon a detachment of forty Spaniards, and put them to death ; 
and those of Coquimbo massacred all the inhabitants of the new 
colony, and levelled its walls to the ground. Francis Aquirre was 
immediately sent thither, and rebuilt the town in a more convenient 
situation in 1549 ; and Valdivia having returned with a considerable 
number of new adventurers, the northern part of Chile was, after 
nine years of incessant and excessive fatigue on the part of the 
general, reduced to tranquillity, and the lands parcelled out amongst 
his oldest followers, according to the feudal customs then prevailing 
in Europe. 

The next year, 1550, Valdivia proceeded as far south as the 
Biobio, near whose mouth, in the beautiful bay of Penco, he founded 
the city of Conception, in one of the richest and most fertile pro- 
vinces of Chile. But his progress was stopped here by the Cacique 
or Toqui Aillavilla, the chief of the Araucanians, who crossed the 
Biobio in order to succour the people of Penco, and to resist to the 
death these invaders of their territory. 

Araucana is a rich and fertile province, extending from the Biobio 
to the Callacalla, generally very woody, full of hills, and well 
watered. The inhabitants are hardy, brave, and passionately fond of 
liberty : they have never yet been subdued, having equally resisted 
the armies of the Incas, and those of the Spaniards. It has been 
their fortune to have a poet in the person of Ercilla, among their 
enemies, who has done justice to their valour, and preserved the 
memory of their very singular customs and polity, of which he was 
an eye-witness, having taken a distinguished part in most of the 
battles he describes. 

Between the first foundation of Conception, 1550, and its destruc- 
tion in 1554, the activity of Valdivia had founded Imperial on the 
river, which forms a port at the very walls of the city, which, during 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

the short period of its existence, was the richest city in Chile ; Villa- 
rica, on the banks of the lake Lauquen ; Valdivia on the Callacalla 
which commands the most beautiful and commodious harbour of the 
Pacific : Angol, or the City of the Frontiers ; and had built the fort- 
resses of Puren, Tucapel, and Arauco, the two latter of which were 
quickly destroyed by the Cacique Caupolican, who by the assistance 
of Lautaro, a young hero of his nation, overcame the Spaniards in a 
great battle, in which Valdivia was taken and put to death. 

Lautaro had been taken prisoner by Valdivia, who educated him, 
and made him his page. He seemed attached to his conqueror, and 
had never evinced a desire to join his countrymen, till, seeing them 
routed in battle, and flying before the Spanish artillery, he was seized 
with shame, stripped off his European garments, ran towards his 
countrymen, and calling on them in the name of their country to 
follow him, led them on to that victory which was confirmed by the 
death of Valdivia. From that day he became their principal leader. 
Villagran, who succeeded to Valdivia, immediately evacuated Con- 
ception, which was burned to the ground by Lautaro ; but the small- 
pox having appeared among the Araucanians, the Spaniards took 
advantage of the distress occasioned by that dreadful malady, and 
rebuilt Conception, 1555. Lautaro, however, immediately attacked 
the new colonists, once more destroyed their city, and marched 
directly towards Santiago. On the road, however, he was met by 
Villagran, whom a spy had conducted by a secret path to the sea 
shore, where the Araucanians had halted in a pass between a high 
hill and the ocean. He came upon them at day-light, and just as 
Lautaro, having watched during the night, had retired to rest. Lau- 
taro, who ran to the front of his army as soon as he heard the 
approach of the enemy, received an arrow through his heart ere he 
could give directions for the fight ; but his people perished to a man ; 
and their enemies record their unshaken valour, and the virtues of 
the young hero, who, dying in his nineteenth year, has left a name 
pie-eminent in the history of patriotism. 

After the death of Lautaro, Conception was rebuilt, Canete 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

founded, and the Archipelago of Chiloe discovered by the Spaniards. 
Ercilla accompanied the discoverers, and inscribed some verses on a 
tree, recording his name and the date of the discovery, January 31st, 
1558 ; and on the return from Chiloe, the city of Osorno was built. 

At this period the Araucana of Ercilla closes ; the poem having 
extended to the events of nine years, the time of the poet's service 
in the South American army. He then returned to Spain, and was 
employed in the European wars of Philip II. The continuation of 
the poem by Osorio is far from possessing equal merit with that of 
Ercilla : it extends no farther than the death of the second cacique 
(called Caupolican), the temporary subjugation of Araucana, and the 
disappearance of its chiefs. 

But while the Spanish governors were engaged in invading 
Tucuman, and building the towns of Mendoza and San Juan, beyond 
the Andes, the Araucanians were silently preparing for new wars, 
and, ere they were expected, sallied from their woods and destroyed 
the flourishing town of Canete, which was however rebuilt (1665) by 
the younger Villagran, who had succeeded his father in the govern- 
ment. The next year Ruiz Gamboa was sent to take possession of 
Chiloe, and founded the city of Castro and the port of Chacao. 

Meantime, the long continuance of the war in so important a 
province as Chile, and the consideration of the great inconvenience 
of applying to Peru in all cases of civil and criminal jurisdiction, 
induced Philip II. to establish a court of audience at Conception ; 
but the court, arrogating to itself military as well as civil authority, 
was soon discovered to be worse than useless, and was therefore 
suppressed in 1575. There had been a suspension of hostilities 
between the Spaniards and Chilenos for nearly four years, owing, in 
great measure, to the effects of an earthquake, which had laid waste 
a great part of the country ; but the Araucanians had employed the 
interval in diligently seeking allies among the neighbouring Indians, 
and had engaged the Pehuenches, a mountain nation, and the Che- 
quillans, the most savage of the Indians, to assist them in resisting 
the Spaniards; and the same harassing and continued warfare took 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

place which had marked the government of each successive captain- 
general from the time of Valdivia. 

Notwithstanding these continued disturbances in the south, the 
quantity of the precious metals derived from Chile, the fertility of 
the country, and the mildness of the climate, began to attract the 
attention of other nations. The English, under Sir Thomas Caven- 
dish, who arrived in 1586, with three ships, attempted to form a 
settlement in the bay of Quintero, but were immediately attacked 
and repulsed by the Spaniards, who suffered no nation to interfere 
in their new settlements. A second expedition under Sir John 
Narborough, in the reign of Charles II., was still more unfortunate, 
the whole fleet being lost in the straits of Magellan. 

The Dutch also, with five ships, attempted in 1600 to make a 
settlement in the Island of Chiloe, and began by plundering the 
settlement and massacring the settlers ; but the crew of their 
commodore having landed at Talca, the Indians fell upon and de- 
stroyed them, and the enterprise was therefore abandoned. Mean- 
time the Araucanians, under Paillamachu, had leagued themselves 
with all the Indian tribes, as far as the Archipelago of Chiloe. 
Every Spaniard that was found outside of the fortresses was slain, 
and the cities of Osorno, Valdivia, Villarica, Imperial, Cahete, Angol, 
Coya, and the smaller fortresses, were invested at once. Conception 
and Chilian were burned, and in little more than three years all the 
settlements of Valdivia and his successors between the Biobio and 
Chiloe were destroyed : the inhabitants, after suffering the extremes 
of famine, were made prisoners, and the unmarried of both sexes 
o-iven to people of the country, but the married allowed to retain 
their wives and families. The descendants of these prisoners are 
among the most inveterate enemies of the Spaniards, but the Indians 
have improved in the arts of civil life by their means. The fortunate 
cacique died in 1603, the year after the taking of Osorno, the last 
place that he reduced. 

To prevent a recurrence of these disasters, a body of 2,000 regular 
troops was established on the frontier in 1608, which has at least 



g INTRODUCTION. 

served the purpose of preventing the Indians from any serious in- 
vasion of the northern districts ; but their predatory inroads have 
never been wholly repressed, and Araucana continued free. 

In 1609, the court of audience, which had been suppressed at 
Conception, was re-established at Santiago, a city far enough from 
the Indian frontier not to dread the incursions of the natives, but 
too distant from the sea, being ninety miles from Valparaiso, its 
nearest port. This situation, however, had at that period its con- 
venience, as it was out of the reach of the French, Dutch, and 
English adventurers, who then disturbed the tranquillity and 
endangered the possessions of the Spanish settlements on the 
shores of the Pacific. 

In 1638, the Dutch made an attempt to form an alliance with the 
Araucanians, and thus obtain possession of Chile ; but that nation 
refused all intercourse with Europeans, and destroyed the parties the 
Dutch had landed both in the islands of Mocha and Talca. Not 
disheartened, however, that enterprising people returned in 1643 
with a numerous fleet, troops, and artillery, took possession of the 
deserted Valdivia, and began to build three strong forts at the en- 
trance of the harbour. But the Indians not only refused to assist 
them in arms, but denied them provisions ; and they were compelled 
to abandon the place three months after their landing. The 
Spaniards availed themselves of the labour of the Dutch ; finished 
their forts, and strengthened the island of Mancura. So that the 
settlement remained undisturbed from without till the late revolution. 

While the provinces of southern Chile were thus desolated and 
depopulated by a continual warfare, the same causes that threw back 
the other Spanish provinces operated also upon this small state. 
The unnatural aggrandisement of Spain during the reign of Charles V. 
involved it in all the wars of the continent of Europe; and as it had 
lost the advantages it had derived from the arts and agriculture of 
the Moors, which were never replaced by any corresponding industry, 
the sole resources whence the long and expensive contests of that 
prince could be supplied, lay in the quantity of the precious metals im- 



INTRODUCTION. g 

ported from the new world. Hence the short-sighted policy of 
repressing all industry in the colonies, that was not directly applied 
to the procuring gold and silver, the jealous exclusion of com- 
merce, and the prohibitions of manufactures, excepting the very 
coarsest for home consumption. The misfortunes which attended 
the successors of Charles in some measure fell also on their foreign 
possessions ; and as the demand for treasure became more urgent, 
the circumstances of South America became such as to render the 
supply more difficult. The wars and the cruelties of the Spaniards 
had destroyed so many of the Indians, that there were scarcely any 
left to labour in the mines ; and though a bargain was made with the 
Dutch to supply African negroes for the purpose, the number of 
these, in Chile at least, was never great. The first viceroys and 
governors had been men of enterprise and talents ; and although the 
character of Valdivia is not free from the imputation of cruelty, yet 
the building of towns, establishing something like lawful tribunals, 
and a disposition to win over, if possible, the natives, which form the 
principal object both of his government and that of some of his imme- 
diate successors, were highly beneficial. But before the accession of 
Philip V. the wants of a needy court had set up the high offices of the 
Indies to sale. The viceroys no longer sought to distinguish them- 
selves by arms or policy ; and they jealously guarded commerce from 
the intrusion of strangers only that they themselves might become 
the sole monopolists. The instructions sent by the court of Ver- 
sailles to Marsin, the ambassador at Madrid, in 1701, contain the 
following observations:— "The rights of the crown of the Western 
" Indies have been sacrificed to the avarice of viceroys, governors, and 
" inferior officers." And again, — " The different councils of Madrid 
" are full of abuses, and that of the Indies particularly so. In it, so far 
" from punishing malversations, the guilty are supported in propor- 
" tion to their bribes. The excesses of the viceroys and other officers 
" remain unpunished. This impunity, and the immense property 
" which they bring back, encourage their successors to follow the same 
" example. On the contrary, if any one, from a principle of honour, 



e 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

" pursues a different course, his disinterestedness is punished by a 
" shameful poverty. If he is a subaltern, the reproach which his 
" conduct draws on his superiors, or the attention he bestows to 
" throw light on theirs, exposes him to hatred. He soon feels the 
" effects, in the loss of his employments; for truth never reaches the 
" king of Spain ; distance gives facilities for disguising it, and 
" timely presents can always obscure it." 

Meanwhile, the ambitious and enterprising court of Louis XIV. 
had turned its views to the advantages to be derived from a colony 
on the western coast of South America, or, at least, an exclusive 
right of commerce. Accordingly, having obtained the privilege of 
supplying Peru and Mexico with slaves, instead of the Dutch, the 
French ships began to trade thither ; and, as opportunity occurred, 
men of science in different branches were sent to observe and report 
on the state of the country. Father Feuille, to whom we are indebted 
for the best botanical account of Chile, where he resided for three 
years, was one of these ; and Frezier, whose " Voyage to the South 
Sea" can never be sufficiently commended for its accuracy, was 
another. But the consequences of this French commerce, as exclu- 
sive as that of the Spaniards themselves, were far from beneficial to 
Spain or the colonies. The French traders were formed into two 
companies, which interfered with the rights of the Spanish merchants, 
and excluded all others; and in 1709 we find the following remark- 
able passage in the memorial on the state of Spain, transmitted by 
the French minister, Amelot, from Madrid : — " The riches of Peru 
" and Mexico, those inexhaustible sources of wealth, are almost lost 
" to Spain. Not only are complaints made against the French mer- 
" chants for ruining the trade of Cadiz and Seville, in spite of the 
" regulations of the French court against those who infringe the 
" established rules ; but the enormous abuses of the administration 
" of the viceroys continue in full force. Avarice and pillage are un- 
" punished ; fortresses and garrisons are neglected ; all things seem 
" to portend a fatal revolution." At this period the viceroys were 
recalled ; and an attempt was made to restrain the enormous profits 



INTRODUCTION. | J 

arising from their offices. Chile was then under the viceroyalty of 
Peru, and the captains-general often, if not always, nominated by the 
viceroys ; so that the same system of extortion went on, in order to 
furnish means for the same system of bribery, in a subordinate 
degree, at the vice-court of Lima, as pervaded the council of the 
Indies at Madrid. 

The feeble monarchs of the house of Bourbon in Spain, were too 
much harassed by their continual domestic struggles with their 
people, who never heartily loved or respected the French dynasty, 
and by the share they took in all European wars, and in that between 
England and her North American colonies, to have either leisure or 
power to ameliorate the condition of the western kingdoms. Indeed 
after the provincial edicts of 1718, drawn up with ability, and well 
adapted to the circumstances of the country, it does not appear 
that any considerable effort was made in Europe in favour of the 
colonists. Some of the captains-general, and viceroys, it is true, earned 
the name of fathers of the people over whom they presided ; and 
Chile, in particular, has reason to be grateful to Don Ambrosio 
O'Higgins, an Irish soldier, who, having served in the Spanish 
armies, afterwards commanded the troops on the frontier of Chile, 
and having repulsed the Indians, who had once more begun to 
threaten the tranquillity of that state, he put many of the fron- 
tier towns and forts in a state of proper defence, discovered the 
ruins of Osorno, which he rebuilt, and made an excellent road from 
Valdivia to that city, thereby facilitating the intercourse with Chiloe. 
These services were rewarded with the title of Marquis of Osorno, 
and the office of captain-general of Chile. He continued his bene- 
ficent and splendid works on his removal to the capital. He built 
bridges, he formed the present road by the Cumbre pass across the 
Andes from Santiago to Mendoza, on which he caused rest-houses 
to be built for the accommodation of travellers, and he caused the 
broad carriage-road from Valparaiso to the capital to be constructed 
in such a manner, that, though it has not since been repaired, it 
has resisted the rains and earthquakes so often destructive in Chile. 

c 2 



j 2 INTRODUCTION. 

On his removal to Lima, as viceroy of Peru, the same disin- 
terestedness as to private fortune, the same regard to public utility, 
continued to distinguish his character. To him the Limanians are 
indebted for the fine road between their city and the port of Callao, 
and for other works of usefulness and ornament. His justice and 
beneficence, during his administration, are still remembered with 
gratitude, both in Chile and Peru ; and his death, in 1799 or 1800, 
when he left his family far from rich, was most sincerely regretted. 

This event brings us within a very few years of the period when 
the South American colonies of Spain began to claim, first, equal 
privileges with the mother country ; and, finally, that independence 
as a right, of which they prepared to assert their possession as a fact, 
which the fleets and armies of Old Spain were in no condition to 
controvert. The emancipation of North America had produced an 
effect, at first unnoticed, but which broke out from time to time in 
impatient and impotent struggles, both in the Spanish and Portu- 
guese colonies. As the courts of Europe became either more feeble, 
or more deeply engaged in the momentous concerns of the long 
revolutionary war, their western settlements came to feel not only 
that they were strong enough to protect themselves, but that they 
might eventually be forced to do so, if they wished to evade sub- 
jection to a power, whose manners, habits and language, were foreign, 
and consequently hateful to theni. The period during which they 
were thus, in a manner, left to themselves, taught them to discover 
and to depend on their own resources ; and the constant demands 
for money supplies from a distant government, which could afford in 
return little aid or protection, disgusted the natives with so distant 
and expensive a monarchy. 

The influence of the church too, which had hitherto been almost 
omnipotent in favour of the ancient order of things, began to be 
exerted, perhaps unintentionally, in the cause of independence. To 
prevent South America from falling into the hands of the French, 
a nation without an inquisition, and tolerant alike of Jew, heretic, 
and infidel, became a serious object with the priests; and hence, 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

while the revolutionists proceeded at first cautiously, and only pro- 
fessed to hold the country for the legitimate sovereign, resisting the 
French usurpation, the priests were always to be found on the 
patriot side. They began to discover the necessity of more education 
among themselves ; hence, books long proscribed and placed on the 
interdicted lists, were sought after, and read with eagerness. Per- 
sons were sent even to England to purchase these ; and though, in 
the first heat of the moment, good and bad were taken together, 
and systems of all kinds mingled and confused, yet all tended to 
produce an anxious longing for independence, a serious determin- 
ation to cast off the yoke of the mother country. 

This design was furthered in no small degree by emissaries from 
the central junta of Old Spain, who came partly to raise supplies for 
the Peninsular war, partly to persuade the colonies to disavow the 
sovereignty of Joseph Buonaparte, and to reserve themselves for 
their rightful sovereign Ferdinand. They brought with them the 
opinion of Don Gaspar Jovellanos, delivered on the 7th of October, 
1808, before the central junta, where he says, " When a people 
" discovers the imminent danger of the society of which it is a 
" member, and knows that the administrators of the authority, who 
" ought to govern and defend it, are suborned and enslaved, it 
" naturally enters into the necessity of defending itself, and of con- 
" sequence acquires an extraordinary and legitimate right of insur- 
" rection." The South Americans were too much in earnest in their 
wishes for independence to let slip so favourable a pretext, and those 
who had not begun the work of revolution before, now advanced 
. towards it with greater or less caution as their situation permitted. 

But there is no comparison between the circumstances under 
which the British colonies of. North America asserted their inde- 
pendence, and those in which the Spaniards in South America are 
now struggling for it. The Spanish colonies, from the first, had 
furnished such abundance of gold and silver, that they became at 
once the objects of the attention, and of the interference of the 
government in Europe. The whole cumbersome machinery of an 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

old monarchy, ecclesiastical, military, and civil, was at once trans- 
ferred to them. The rights of Mayorasgo, which is, in fact, a strict 
entail, by keeping immense tracts of uncultivated land in the hands 
of individuals, checked population by preventing that division of 
property so favourable to cultivation, and consequently to the 
increase of hands. * And, finally, every act of government ema- 
nated directly from the council at Madrid, and every officer of 
consequence, was a Spaniard sent from Europe, so that there was 
no occasion which could call out the talents, or exercise the powers 
of the natives of the country. 

But the political institutions of the British colonies were more 
favourable to the improvement of the states, and the cultivation of 
the land, than any other. Many of the original settlers were men 
who were carried there by the desire of liberty of conscience, who 
took with them that sturdy and independent spirit which resists 
interference, as oppression ; and who, forming their own provincial 
councils, legislated and governed for themselves, and transmitted 
that privilege to their children. The land too was by no means so 
engrossed. Alienation was made easy, and as each person obtaining 
a new grant was obliged to cultivate a certain proportion of his 
land, population increased as rapidly as the means of subsistence ; 
and the governors being mostly chosen from among the colonists 
themselves, there was always a proportion of men so educated as 
to be capable of that important task. 

Hence the states of North America, firm and united in purpose, 
and prepared by the best education (for there is an education of 
states as well as men), rose at once from the state of a disunited 
colony, after an expensive war, to the dignity of a great nation, while 
years must, perhaps, elapse before the harassed provinces of Spanish 

* I am aware that the subdivision of property may be carried to a mischievous length, 
as is now, or will shortly be, the case in France by the operation of the Agrarian law. 
But in Chile the enormous estates are mischievous, because it is impossible that any one 
proprietor in the present state of the country, or perhaps in any state, should attempt the 
improvement of a twentieth part of his land. 



INTRODUCTION. \g 

America can assume a national character, even now that the yoke of 
Spain is virtually broken, for want of the internal material, if I may 
so speak, to form a government. 

The whole system of Spain, while the colonies were kept close, 
was, with regard to them, commercial, and not political. The vice- 
roys were, in fact, after the first wars with the natives were over, no 
more than the presidents of a set of monopolists ; their views were 
bounded by their sordid and narrow mercantile interests, and the 
government and occupation of Mexico and Peru were never looked 
upon otherwise than as a means of acquiring riches, while the 
freedom, happiness, or interest of the inhabitants was neglected. 
Sloth and ignorance were the necessary consequences ; and when the 
people roused, as from sleep, and asserted their independence, the 
habits and ideas of the class, from which of necessity the chiefs and 
governors were chosen, had been so moulded on those of the ancient 
order of things, that they have followed the same path ; and regard- 
ing the possession of power as merely that of the capital of a mer- 
cantile company, they have speculated accordingly, and, by petty 
trafficking, public and private monopolies, and trading schemes, have 
injured the people they ruled, excited distrust among foreigners, and, 
in many cases, ruined themselves. 

Such, at least, has been the case in Chile, and such I believe 
it to have been in Peru and the provinces of La Plata. I am too 
little informed of the facts relating to Columbia and Mexico, but, 
from what has come to my knowledge, I suspect it has not been 
very different with them : but it is time to return to the history of 
Chile, of which alone I can speak with certainty. 

It was on the c 2'2d of June, 1810, that Carasco, captain-general of 
Chile, having convened the inhabitants of Santiago to a meeting in 
the palace square for the purpose of promulgating to them the orders 
of the expatriated court of Spain to obey the French regency, that 
the first popular tumult took place. Some private meetings had 
been held before. The agents of the central junta were not inactive, 
but no public occasion had yet appeared to call forth the public 



Ig INTRODUCTION. 

sentiment. On that day, however, it was loudly declared, and 
although Carasco was suffered to remain in his office, the whole of 
the other members of his government, with the exception of Reyes, 
the secretary, were dismissed, imprisoned, or banished. A few days 
afterwards Carasco himself was cashiered, and brigadier-general 
Torre, Conde de la Conquista, was elected captain-general by the 
people. 

At this time the royal troops in Chile consisted only of the usual 
2000 men on the Indian frontier, with about fifty dragoons in the 
capital ; and of these a part had been already gained over to the 
cause of independence by Don Bernardo O'Higgins, then bearing a 
colonel's commission, and stationed at Chilian, his native town. 
This officer was the son of Don Ambrosio O'Higgins, Marquis of 
Osorno, who sent him early to Europe, where he remained some 
years, five of which were spent in England, at the academy of 
Mr. Hill, at Richmond, in Surrey, where he had not only learned the 
language perfectly, but a good deal of the free and independent spirit 
of the nation. 

The conditions on which Torre was made captain-general were, 
that he should not acknowledge the French regency, but reserve the 
province of Chile for king Ferdinand, adhering meantime to the 
principles and constitution of the junta. But some bolder patriots 
ventured to hint at a more complete independence, and the Marquis, 
with his natural timidity, at first endeavoured to silence these whis- 
pers, and afterwards sent the authors of them, among whom was the 
poet Dr. Vera, prisoners to Lima. Mean time the principal persons 
of the country had resolved on a complete change in the form of 
government, and on the 18th September of the same year a meeting 
was held, at which the office of captain-general was suppressed, and 
a junta was appointed which was to acknowledge the rights of Fer- 
dinand, but to resist every foreign authority. Torre, the ex-captain- 
general, was named president ; his colleagues were the Marquis de la 
Plata (the richest man in Chile), Don Francisco Rayna, Don Juan 
Henrique Rosales, Don Juan Martinez Rosas, and Don Ingnacio 



INTRODUCTION. J 7 

Carrera, the speaker or . secretary of the junta. The president was 
allowed a casting vote. 

The first act of the junta was to levy an army, if we may call two 
small bodies of raw recruits by that name. The first of infantry was 
intrusted to Jose Santiago Luco, the agent for the junta of Old Spain, 
and, under him, to Don Juan Jose Carrera, the second son of Don 
Ignacio, and the other, a mounted troop, was placed under Torre, 
the son of the president. The next object to which the junta directed 
its attention was the assembling a national congress, to consist of 
members from every township in Chile, and while means were taking 
for carrying this desirable measure into effect, the Marquis de la 
Conquista died in the month of November, and the more active 
Rosas was elected president in his stead. It was not until the 11th 
of April of the following year (1811), that the people of the different 
towns met to elect their representatives, and on that occasion the first 
blood was shed on account of the Revolution. The immediate cause 
of this was as follows : — The royal party of Buenos Ayres had request- 
ed assistance from Chile, and accordingly 400 men had been detached 
from the army of the southern frontier under Don Tomas Figaroa by 
sea, from Talca to Valparaiso, whence they were proceeding by land to 
cross the Andes by the road of the Cumbre to Mendoza. They had 
already reached Casablanca on their way, when the fifty dragoons of the 
capital, alarmed at the electorial meetings, sent to Figaroa, entreating 
him to hasten his march, and to take under his command, not only 
their troop, but the recruits which were in training for the patriot 
army, whom they engaged to secure. Figaroa, leaving his 400 
men to follow, pushed on to Santiago, and putting himself at the 
head of the dragoons, who had performed their promise of securing 
the recruits, whom they forced sword in hand to join them, went into 
the placa with the imprudent determination of dispersing the people 
assembled for the purpose of electing their representatives. They 
were not, however, to be deterred from their purpose, and turning 
on the royalists, completely discomfited them and forced them to 
retreat, leaving about forty persons of both sides deadin the square. 

D 



18 INTRODUCTION. 

Figaroa took refuge in the convent of San Domingo, where he was 
discovered the next day and brought out and shot in the placa. * 

Meantime the business of election proceeded, and in June the 
congress met. Don Bernardo O'Higgins, who was afterwards to act 
so conspicuous a part in the Revolution, being the deputy from 
Chilian. The first act of the representative body was to depose the 
junta, and constitute itself a legislative assembly, confiding the 
executive power to the commission of three men, Rosas, the pre- 
sident of the former junta, Don Martin de Incarada, and Don 

Mackenna. But Rosas was, at this time, absent at Conception, called 
thither by a species of civil discord which had nearly ruined the 
patriot cause. Conception having had some former claims to being 
considered the capital of Chile, being in fact nearly in the centre of 
its provinces, and situated on a harbour the most advantageous for 
commerce, had also been the most forward in furthering the cause 
of independence. Its inhabitants, therefore, insisted that the seat of 
government should be there placed, and particularly that the con- 
gress should sit there. The people of Santiago, however, who had 
long enjoyed the advantages attendant on having the metropolis fixed 
in their city, were not disposed to give them up. They pleaded also 
the safety of their situation, equally removed from the Indians and 
the sea ; whereas Conception, so near the Araucanian Indians, who 
might easily be prevailed on to invade and waste their lands, (as 
indeed they have done since,) was too much exposed to be proper for 
the assembly of the legislative body. The prudence of Rosas for 
the time quieted the clamour of the people of Conception ; and, as 
he still remained among them, Don Juan Miguel Benevente was 
appointed his proxy as one of the executive triumvirate. 

The first act of the legislative assembly was to abolish slavery. 
All children of slaves were from that moment born free, and all 

* May 5th, 1810. The viceroy, Cisneros, unable to resist the public voice at Buenos 
Ayres, had called together the first junta of government to resist the French claims on 
that province, and to establish a provisional government. In 1811, Artigas began to dis- 
tinguish himself; — there has been scarcely a three months' cessation of civil war in that 
wide province since. 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

slaves brought to Chile were to become free on six months' 
residence there. But the congress, as is usual with all new poli- 
tical bodies, attempted to compass more than was within its reach 
at so early a period. Not content with seeking to establish inde- 
pendence by adapting old institutions to circumstances, substituting 
new where necessary, raising troops, and above all guarding the 
frontier ; a college, museum, printing-office, and other public esta- 
blishments were projected, which, however, there was not time to 
bring to any degree of perfection before another revolution took 
place, by means of a young man who acted so conspicuous a part in 
several succeeding years, both in Chile and the states of Buenos 
Ayres, that some account of him cannot be altogether uninter- 
esting. 

Don Jose Miguel Carrera was the second son of Don Ignacio Car- 
rera, of an ancient Creole family, rich itself originally . but still richer 
at the period of the revolution, from the grants or easy purchases 
obtained by Don Ignacio, of certain lands forfeited either by old 
Spaniards, or by religious bodies which had been suppressed. This 
young man, possessed of great advantages of person, natural intel- 
ligence, and many qualities of a higher class, was uneducated and 
wild. In early life, like the heroes of Moliere's comedies, he had 
recourse to all sorts of petty and entertaining roguery to raise money 
to supply his private, and not always innocent expenses ; till, at 
length, one of these expedients encroached so largely on the fortune 
of an uncle established as a merchant at Lima, that Don Ignacio, 
by way of separating him at once from the evil companions whom 
he regarded as the seducers of his son, sent him to Spain, where he 
entered the army. There is a dark story of an Indian murdered 
while defending the honour, of his wife or daughter, which his 
enemies talk loudly of, and his friends know to be too consonant 
to his habits not to fear it true. 

But Spain, at that period, was the last place which could reform 
either the morals or manners of a youth so gifted as Jose Miguel 
Carrera ; — overrun with armies from every country in Europe ; full 

d 2 



20 INTRODUCTION. 

of all the crimes and wretchedness attendant on foreign and domestic 
strife. He imbibed indeed a spirit of enthusiasm, and a knowledge 
of the partisan or guerilla warfare which harrassed the French, and, 
even more than the victories of Wellington, drove them out of 
Spain ; and he returned to Chile with no profit but a wish to join 
in the struggle for independence, and no desire but to imitate Napo- 
leon, — to profit by what had been done by others, and to possess the 
country, and raise his family to a rank hitherto unequalled there. 

The influence of his family was great. Don Ignacio, no longer 
a member of the actual government, yet possessed great weight ; 
Juan Jose was already second commander of the chief body of the 
troops ; the sister, Donna Xaviera, a lady of great beauty and address, 
both by her first and second marriage was connected with some of 
the principal families of Chile ; and the younger brother, a singu- 
larly handsome youth, was very generally beloved on account of the 
sweetness of his manners, and his uncommonly amiable disposition. 

With these advantages, Jose Miguel did not find it difficult to 
cause the dismissal of Luco from the head of the army, and to pro- 
cure his own appointment to succeed him. His frank and noble 
manners quickly engaged the affections of the soldiers, his liberality 
confirmed their attachment, while his enthusiasm and eloquence 
gained him many partisans among the higher classes. But the 
command of the army while subject to the congress, and while that 
command was divided with the colonel of the artillery and other 
officers not of his family or faction, did not satisfy his ambition : he 
therefore began to sound the opinions of the various parties which 
a time of revolution is sure to form. To the patriots he pretended 
a thorough zeal for their cause mingled with hints of the slow pro- 
gress of the congress ; to the royalists he promised to restore the 
ancient order of things ; and his own party were to see a council 
established with Don Ignacio at their head, and the three sons in 
command of the horse, foot, and artillery of the state. These 
schemes were not so quietly agitated but that reports and rumours 
of them got abroad ; but so frankly did Jose Miguel carry himself, 



INTRODUCTION. 21 

so fearlessly did he deny or laugh at all who ventured to name them, 
that all suspicion seems to have been lulled. On the night of the 
14th of Nov., when Mackenna, the commander of the artillery, called 
on Juan Jose in his quarters, he found the whole family assembled ; 
the three brothers, Donna Xaviera, and the father : but as Juan 
Jose seemed to be confined by illness, even the unusual appearance 
of Don Ignacio in town, did not excite surprise. Jose Miguel 
accompanied Mackenna back to his lodging, saying laughingly, " cer- 
tainly now they will say that my father is come to town to place 
himself at the head of affairs." The next morning, at daybreak, the 
city was alarmed by the sound of beating to arms. The prin- 
cipal officers of the artillery and grenadiers were placed under arrest. 
Juan Jose remained at the foundling barracks, while Luis put him- 
self at the head of the artillery and detached two guns to the aid of 
his brother. Jose Miguel dispersed the senate and established a 
new junta of which he was declared president, and all the offices of 
government were filled by the Carreras and their connections. 

Such a government, however, where the chief power was in the 
hands of a man of talent, it is true, but of so imprudent a character 
that no one could trust him, — of so changeable a will that himself 
knew not always what his own intentions were, — and so great a lover of 
pleasure, that the slightest temptation allured him to forget the 
gravest affairs of state in music and dancing, displeased all the pro- 
vinces which were not in the immediate neighbourhood of the capital. 
The juntas of Valdivia and Conception, in particular, made heavy 
complaints ; the old claim of the latter city to be considered as the 
metropolis was revived ; and a civil war appeared inevitable.* The 

* The account given above of the early life of Jose Miguel Carrera, and of the manner 
in which he seized the government, was communicated to me by a gentleman who had 
resided during the whole period at Santiago, who was tenderly attached to Luis Carrera, 
his schoolfellow, and who evidently softened many things in his recital as much as possible. 
Nevertheless, I print as an appendix Mr. Y.'s very interesting paper, entirely satisfied of 
the truth of every part where Mr. Y. was an eye-witness, and knowing the rest to be the 
story told by the family, who undoubtedly loved Jose Miguel with a warmth honourable 
to him, although even his friends confess that he had no steadiness and little principle 
even in private life. 



22 INTRODUCTION. 

discontent of the south, indeed, had arisen to such a pitch, that Carrera 
put himself at the head of the troops, and advanced as far as the 
Maule, in order to reduce Conception ; but Rosas was still there, 
and, having heard of the march of the army, he went out to meet it. 

On reaching Carrera's head-quarters on the banks of the river, 
his prudent representations induced the young general to withdraw, 
and for this time to spare the efFusion of blood. He therefore re- 
turned to the capital on the 12th of March, 1813, and resumed the 
reins of government. The sixteen months of his power had been of 
little use to the country. His profuseness to the soldiers increased 
their numbers indeed, but it was at an expense so new a state was ill 
able to bear ; and of many useful projects he had formed, not one was 
really accomplished, partly owing to his unsteadiness, and partly to 
want of money.* 

Meanwhile the viceroy of Peru, Abascal, was no indifferent spectator 
of the affairs of Chile ; and seeing the discord that prevailed, he had 
ordered general Pareja, who commanded in Chiloe, to observe both 
parties carefully, and to seize on the first favourable occasion to restore 
the royal government. In consequence of this order, Pareja landed in 
Chile in the middle of the very month in which Carrera had made 
his excursion to the Maule. It appears that the royalists in Con- 
ception and Valdivia had believed Carrera to be in earnest in his pro- 
fessions of attachment to their party, at the time he had first seized 
the government, and that he would unite himself with Pareja as 
soon as a fit opportunity occurred. They therefore openly declared 
themselves for the royal cause. There was no union in the opposite 
party ; and the whole of the south of Chile was soon in the hands of 
the invader. 

But the Carreras, though by their imprudence they often forwarded 
the royal cause, or hurt that of the patriots, were not traitors ; at 



* The means which were resorted to in order to procure horses and other necessaries 
for the army rather resembled the lawless actions of a freebooter than those of the head 
of a regular government, — for private property was in no case respected. 



INTRODUCTION. 28 

least in that sense. They immediately marched towards the south, 
and in the very beginning of April the head-quarters of their army 
were at Talca. All the officers which their dissensions had cashiered 
or rusticated, were recalled. Mackenna was quarter-master-general ; 
O'Higgins commanded all the troops of the south, and the native militia 
— a useful body in such a country, being most expert horsemen, and 
armed with lances fifteen feet long. The deep and rapid Maule 
formed the line of defence, whose very fords are not always practi- 
cable for horse, much less for infantry. A person named Poinsett, 
acting as American consul, was then with the Carreras, and ap- 
pears to have taken an active part in all affairs, even to interfer- 
ing in the military business of the time ; but his ignorance, if not 
his cowardice, seems to have been of singular disservice to those 
unfortunate young men, who, following his advice, more than once 
retired to safe quarters, while inferior officers were gaining advantages 
over the enemy ; and the unhappy issue of the affair of Yervas-buenas, 
which at first appeared favourable to the patriots, is entirely attri- 
buted to him. 

Jose Miguel remained at head-quarters at Talca, five leagues from 
the river, while the great body of the army under Luis was on the 
bank of the Maule. Fortunately for the Chilenos, Pareja seems to 
have been a man of as little capacity for military affairs as their own 
leaders. Numerous skirmishes took place, the patriots generally 
gaining ground, till at length, in the beginning of October, the action 
of the Roble, where O'Higgins turned the fortune of the day, drove 
the enemy into Chilian, and left the Chilenos masters of the country 
between the Maule and Itata. 

The singular and irregular conduct of the Carreras had now dis- 
gusted most of the Chilenos ;. their absence from the capital allowed 
time and opportunity for conspiring against them, and their over- 
throw was carried into effect quietly and decorously. It is believed, 
that the family of La Rayna was the centre of the plot ; but they pru- 
dently took no direct share of the government themselves, appointing 



24 INTRODUCTION. 

as Supreme Director of the state, Don Henriquez Lastra*, a man of 
unquestioned probity and great good sense, though slow in business, 
then governor of Valparaiso and head of marine, and sending an order 
to Jose Miguel Carrera to place the command of the army in the hands 
of Don Bernardo O'Higgins. This order was for some time evaded, 
but at length complied with about the period when the brothers, 
Jose Miguel and Luis, were taken prisoners by the royalists and con- 
fined in Chilian. Meantime the patriots had recovered most of the 
territory north of the Biobio, and particularly the town of Concep- 
tion. O'Higgins found the army in a sad state of want, the military 
chest exhausted, and daily parties were deserting j ; so that he did not 
refuse to negotiate with the new Spanish general, Gaenza, who had 
been deputed from the vice-court of Peru, on the death of Pareja. 
The British captain, Hillier, of His Majesty's ship Phcebe, became 
guarantee for the performance of the conditions of the peace, the arti- 
cles of which were signed at Lircae near Talca, on the 3d of May, 1814. 
It was stipulated that Chile should acknowledge the sovereignty of 
Ferdinand, at least until his restoration : and, meantime, govern her- 
self by congress, and enjoy a free trade. Gaenza was bound to give 
up the Carreras, and with his army to evacuate Chile. But while 
the commissioners repaired to Lima to submit these articles to the 
consideration of the viceroy, a new change of affairs placed the 
Carreras once more at the head of the government. 

The escape of the brothers from Chilian is said to have been 
managed by a royalist lady, who delivered them from prison, and 
gave them horses and money to convey them to Santiago. They 
disguised themselves as peasants ; and early in August arrived at the 
city, where they went from house to house, and from barrack to 

* Juan Jose Carrera had married Donna Ana Maria de Cotapos, a most beautiful 
woman, and niece to Don Henriquez Lastra. There had been a family dispute, owing 
to which Juan Jose had gone to Mendoza while Jose Miguel and Luis remained with 
the army. 

f The army was so destitute of weapons that the yokes of the oxen were taken and used 
as clubs. O'Higgins caused a large wooden cannon to be made and bound it round with 
hide, but it burst after the fourth discharge. 



INTRODUCTION. 25 

barrack where they were known ; and having prepared their party, 
and won over most of the soldiers, they deposed Lastra, and Jose 
Miguel once more became the chief of the state*. The first object 
of the brothers was to seize the treasury, which contained 800,000 
dollars ; they then gave way to all the imprudence of their charac- 
ters, and their government became insufferably oppressive. 

While these things were going on in Chile, the terms of the con- 
vention of Lucae had reached Lima, where Abascal was on the point 
of signing them, when the regiment of Talavera, with Marco at its 
head, arrived from Spain, and volunteered to go alone and overrun 
Chile; on which the viceroy changed his determination, and sent a 
strong body of troops f under General Osorio, who sailed from Callao 
on the 18th of July, landed at Talcahuana on the 12th of August, 
and marched immediately towards Santiago. " The incapacity of a 
" weak and distracted government," says Gibbon, " may often assume 
" the appearance and produce the effects of a treasonable corres- 
" pondence with the public enemy." And this juncture furnishes 
a fatal proof of the justice of the remark, for while General O'Hig- 
gins, who had been indefatigable in forming new troops and reduc- 
ing the old to order, hung upon and harassed the march of Osorio, 
and was on the point of giving him battle in the neighbourhood of 
San Fernando, he received a deputation from all the authorities of 
Santiago and the neighbouring towns, entreating him to march 
immediately to the capital against a worse foe than the Spaniards 
themselves, in the person of Carrera, whose yoke had become into- 
lerable. He accordingly left the main body of the army, consisting 
of about 2000 men, to observe the enemy, and marched towards the 
city with 900, when he met Carrera at the head of a very superior 
force, on the plain of Maypu, at a place called the Espejo, and sus- 
tained a decided defeat. After which he appealed both to the versatile 
Carrera and to those who had sent to invite him to leave the army, 



• His colleagues were Don M. Munnos Orroa and Don Jose Urive. 
+ The regiment of Talavera alone was 700 strong. 

E 



26 INTRODUCTION. 

whether it would not be better to unite to destroy the common enemy, 
and afterwards adjust their internal disputes, representing also to 
his own party, that the tyranny of Carrera being new would easily be 
put down, but by no means must they allow the Spaniards to regain 
their ancient dominion. The proposal was approved, Jose Miguel 
Carrera returned to the city, O'Higgins marched to Rancagua, where 
the enemy had arrived, and Juan Jose at the head of a large body of 
troops was to follow and join him. But O'Higgins was disappointed, 
the troops of Carrera never arrived. He was surrounded in Ran- 
cagua, and for thirty-six hours a fight continued from street to street, 
and from house to house, the Spaniards giving no quarter. About 
noon of the second day, Osorio sent a deputation to O'Higgins, offer- 
ing him personal safety, and even royal favour, if he would surrender. 
This he indignantly refused, saying, he would not accept even of 
Heaven from the king, and that though he gave quarter he desired 
none. In an hour afterwards the town was on fire in several places. * 
" They covered us," said the general •)•, " with black and red, death 
" and fire. So I took my banner, and I caused them to sew a black 
" stripe across it ; and the fire having now reached the very house 
" from which we were fighting, and our ammunition being all 
" expended, we broke through one of the squares that had been 
" formed round our house, sword in hand, and made our way to the 
" capital." 

On joining Carrera, O'Higgins represented to him, that as Osorio 
had lost many men, if all the troops were united they had still enough 
to overcome him, and save the capital. But a panic seems to have 
seized the whole body of government. Carrera hastily gave orders 
for the demolition of several of the public works, particularly the 

• In June, 1818, in memory of the Bufferings of Santa Cru/.e de Triano, or Rancagua, 
it received the title of the very faithful and national city; also permission to bear as 
arms, a red shield surrounded with laurel, a phcenix rising from llie flames with the 
tree of liberty in its right claw, and the motto, "Rancagua rises from its ashes, for its 

patriotism rendered it immortal." 

f I once heard Don Bernardo O'Higgins relate, with the greatest simplicity, the history 

of this action ; I am sure lie used the words in English as I have given them. It was 
on this occasion that the patriots loaded their guns with dollars 



INTKODUCTION. 27 

powder mills ; all the public papers and acts of the new government 
were burned ; and, taking with him the remains of the public money, 
he beo-an a disorderly retreat towards Mendoza on the first of October, 
1814, and Osorio entered the city on the fifth of the same month, 
and, re-establishing the chamber of royal audience, appointed himself 
captain-general, and exercised his functions by punishing with se- 
verity the most distinguished patriots, many of whom were exiled to 
Juan Fernandez. 

Mean time, some of those who had been most inimical to the royal 
cause sought safety in flight, and accompanied the 600 troops who 
followed Carrera across the Andes. The season was particularly 
backward ; the snows had not yet melted ; and of the 2000 persons 
who left the city, many, especially among the women and children, 
perished from cold and hunger in the Cumbre. It was too early for 
horses or any beast of burden to travel : so that these wretched 
fugitives performed the long and painful journey on foot, laden with 
the necessary provisions for the passage. 

On their arrival at Mendoza, the Carreras instantly claimed a right 
to the government of the town ; a claim evidently inconsistent with 
their fugitive situation, and which San Martin*, who then governed 
that town under the junta of Buenos Ayres, certainly would not 
attend to, but which had the effect of beginning that rooted dislike 
to them which at length brought about the death of the three brothers. 

Such were the events of the first revolution in Chile, in which 
much was done, because the old systems had been broken up, and 
the people had learned in some measure to know their power : they 
also had learned, that unless they turned their attention to the marine, 
and formed a naval force, they could never be safe from the invasion 
of troops from Lima, or even from Spain. Hitherto they had pos- 
sessed only two or three miserable gun-boats and launches, which had 

• I have never been able to ascertain exactly either the place of his birth or his true 
parentage. He was in Spain attuched to the military police, and is a very different person 
from the brave general San Martin, for whom many persons have mistaken him. 

E 2 



28 INTRODUCTION. 

been chiefly employed in carrying intelligence along the coast, and 
keeping up a correspondence with the patriots of Peru. 

Osorio's government lasted two years, during which time the 
Carreras, with their sister, Donna Xaviera, and their wives, had been 
occasionally residents in Montevideo, Buenos Ayres, &c. Jose 
Miguel had gone to North America to endeavour to raise supplies 
and procure ships, O'Higgins served in the patriot army of Buenos 
Ayres, and Mackenna was killed in a duel by Luis Carrera. 

But it was not the mere possession of the government by a Spanish 
general that could again reduce Chile under the Spanish yoke. 
Besides the wish for independence, and for deliverance from their 
double thraldom, (for such it was, being bound both to the king of 
Spain and the vice-king at Lima), many individuals had risen to a 
consequence they had scarcely hoped to attain, and which, having 
attained, they were not likely to part with. " From shopkeepers 
and tradesmen, and attornies, they had become statesmen and 
legislators ;" and as all men desire to possess influence and conse- 
quence, at least in their own country, this motive once felt, there 
was no reasonable hope of easily overcoming it. The reign of Osorio, 
or of Marco, his deputy, in Santiago, therefore, was not very tranquil ; 
and as the wretched state of Spain prevented her from succouring 
her generals in the colonies, he was but ill prepared for the events 
of the early part of 1817, which lost Chile for ever to the crown of 
Spain. The state of the country itself was deplorable. The effects 
of civil war are at all times shocking to humanity. This had been 
both a civil war and a foreign one. Natives of the country had fought 
on either side, and foreign soldiers and generals were engaged; 
hence there were the petty and private hatred and malice of the 
first, and the want of sympathy with the sufferers of the last. Many 
of the dismissed soldiers had formed bands of thieves and murderers, 
and infested the thickets every where to be found between Santiago 
and Conception ^ nor was the road to Valparaiso exempt from the 
same. The regiments of Chilian and Talavera were employed in 
detachments which took it in turn to scour the country, and, if pos- 



INTRODUCTION. 29 

sible, seize and bring to the city the persons of the robbers ; — a most 
harassing employment for them, and one which but ill answered its 
purpose. In any other country and climate famine would probably 
have been the consequence of these misfortunes ; but Chile, as if 
spontaneously, still continued to produce her seventy and eighty fold 
of corn, and to supply Peru. 

Buenos Ayres, under all its various governors and forms of govern- 
ment, had always looked upon Chile as linked in interest with itself. 
Those who thought of establishing one great empire, regarded it as 
the province which should command the trade of the Pacific, and 
probably secure the riches of the Philippines and Moluccas beyond 
it ; while those who contemplated a federal state, saw it as a 
member under a light at least as flattering ; and all depended upon its 
union with the provinces to the eastward of the Andes, as a matter of 
course. Hence, when the Chileno fugitives, after the battle of 
Rancagua, reached Buenos Ayres, they were not only favourably 
received, but a great effort was made to restore them to their country, 
and to assist them once more to shake off the Spanish dominion. 
There was besides a strong motive for such an effort. The passages 
across the Chilian Andes are short and easy, while those from Peru 
are distant and difficult ; so that while the royal troops possessed 
Chile, the viceroy of Peru could always succour or communicate with 
the old Spaniards beyond the mountains by means of the port of 
Valparaiso. Therefore, to cut off this communication was of the 
greatest consequence to Buenos Ayres itself. Accordingly, the latter 
end of 1816 was employed in collecting a force at Mendoza, under 
general Don Jose de San Martin. Besides the Chilenos who had fled 
after the action of Rancagua, and many others on that side of the 
Andes, there were some troops from Buenos Ayres, particularly two 
negro regiments, which were placed under the immediate orders of 
General O'Higgins. General Saleres also commanded a considerable 
body of troops; and the whole number of the " army of the Andes" 
amounted to about 4000 men. 

While San Martin was preparing all things at Mendoza for his 



30 INTRODUCTION. 

invasion of Chile, he caused himself to be surprised more than once 
by some Spanish prisoners of war that were on the point of return- 
ing to Osorio, in the act of examining maps and plans of the road by 
the south, called the Planchon, into Chile, and even went so far as 
to write false despatches and cause them to be surprised, intimating, 
that, in order to avoid the difficulty of the Cumbre, he meant to march 
by the Planchon. Accordingly most of the royal troops were kept in 
that quarter to be ready to receive him. In fact, a small party under 
General Don Ramon Freire did march that way ; another small divi- 
sion took the usual road of the Cumbre ; while the main body of the 
army pursued the way of San Juan de los Patos, with such complete 
secrecy, that the whole had crossed the mountains and reached the 
plain of Chacabuco before the enemy knew that they had left Mendoza. 
It was on the 4th February, 1817, while every body was expecting to 
hear of invasion in the south, that unwelcome intelligence was re- 
ceived in Santiago, that a party of the patriots had surprised the 
guard of the Andes about fifteen leagues from the villa of Santa 
Rosa, and that only thirteen men had escaped to bring the news. 
The guard of los Patos also brought intelligence that the enemy had 
been seen in that pass. The city was instantly in the greatest 
agitation : Marco the governor, together with the Cabildo, ordered 
and counter-ordered, appointed officers and changed them, and even 
then seemed preparing for flight. On the 5th Col. Quintanilla * was 
despatched from the city, to reinforce the troops already stationed in 
Aconcagua, Santa Rosa, and on the roads. He found on the 6th 
that most of the forces under Major Atero had retired to the heights 
of Chacabuco, leaving behind their ammunition and baggage, so 
hasty had been their retreat. On the 7th there was some skirmishing 
between the outposts near Curimon, in which the royalists were 
worsted ; but it was not till the 12th that the great action of Cha- 
cabuco was fought, an action of infinite importance, not only to Chile, 
but to the whole of South America. Bolivar had been driven out 



The same who, with persevering loyalty, still (1823) holds Chile for the king of Spain. 



INTRODUCTION. 



31 



of Terra Firma, and had taken refuge in Jamaica, the Buenos Ayrians 
had just suffered a signal defeat at Tucuman ; and had Marco's troops 
gained the victory, the communication between the royalist armies 
would have been open, and the most mischievous consequences must 
have ensued. 

General O'Higgins happened early on the morning of the twelfth 
to be looking over the plain from the summit of a rock, he perceived, 
and pretty justly estimated the number of the enemy at 3000. * San 
Martin was determined not to think them so numerous : but 0'Hio> 
gins, certain of what he saw, persuaded Soler to join in his represent- 
ation, and then begged permission, though his was not the division 
appointed to attack, to meet the enemy in a certain favorable situation : 
several refusals could not make him yield the point, and at length he 
rather extorted permission than gained assent, and made the attack at 
three o'clock in the afternoon. The patriots were once so hardly beset, 
being but the handful of O'Higgins's own division, that they sent for 
assistance, but did not wait for it, and before help arrived it was un- 
necessary. O'Higgins charged and broke the first line : every one 
fled, and the patriots remained masters, not of the field only, but f 
the baggage, ammunition, &c. ; and the royalists fell back in every 
direction, under their leaders Maroto and Eloriaga. 

When the loss of the battle was known in Santiago, the confusion 
was beyond description ; every one escaped as he could, loaded with 
what he could carry, and the chief among the first. Some made 
their way by the Cuesta de Prado, others by the defiles of the Espejo, 
and some by the road of Melipilla : all crowded towards the sea. 
On the evening of the 13th, the confusion was transferred to Val- 
paraiso, where, when some officers of rank arrived, they could scarcely 
find room in the crowded vessels. The magistrates had all embai'ked ; 

* 1000 horse, 1100 foot, 360 hussars, and artillery men for their four field-pieces, be- 
sides servants, &c. 

The greater part of this account of the battle of Chacabuco is from an interesting- 
paper written by an old Spaniard, called " Relacion de los acontecimientos de la per- 
dida del reyno de Chile ;" the rest from the verbal account of the director Don B. 
O'Higgins. 



32 INTRODUCTION. 

the port was abandoned ; the populace in parties were ransacking 
the houses, and the beach was covered with people trying in vain to 
get on board the ships. 2000 ounces of gold and silver belonging to 
the treasury had been lost or stolen, and the prisoners had broken 
loose, and turned the guns of the batteries upon the royalists. Nine 
ships full of the fugitives sailed for Peru, but being in want of water, 
put into Coquitnbo, where the patriots fired on their boats, and they 
proceeded to Guasco, where they discovered, that in the hurry of 
their departure they had left their chief, Marco, behind, each vessel 
thinking he was in the other. Upon this discovery, Don Manuel 
Olaguer Zelin took the command, and the little fleet proceeded in 
safety to Lima. 

The patriots immediately marched into Santiago, where all their 
friends, and all who found it convenient to appear such, joined them. 
General San Martin was called upon to take the office of supreme 
director ; but he excused himself, and recommended to their choice 
Don Bernardo O'Higgins, a native of the country, as one of her 
bravest and most enlightened defenders ; San Martin remained at 
the head of the army. Meantime, the royalists still possessed the 
provinces of the south, and maintained a constant communication 
with Peru by means of their superiority at sea, a superiority which 
threatened to render vain all the exertions of the patriots.* The 
attention of the new government was, therefore, immediately turned 
to the creating a naval force. Captain Tortel, a Frenchman, who had 
been a privateer and a smuggler on so large a scale as to have been 
almost the commander of a man of war, and almost a merchant, had 
long been settled in Chile. He was from Toulon, and had the prin- 
ciples and feelings of the best and earliest of the French republicans. 
The two launches which, in the former patriot government, had done 

* See Appendix. Manifesto del Gubrerno. The English merchants had effectually 
assisted the patriots by supplying them regularly with arms and accoutrements. As 
official paper of the royalist government of 1816, alleges as a recent reason for not allow- 
ing strangers to enter the ports, even to trade in copper, that Don Juan Diego Ber- 
nard had supplied the patriots with ninety -eight pair of pistols. 



INTRODUCTION. gg 

such good service by conveying intelligence along the coast were his, 
and he now, with incredible pains, had begun to form a little squadron, 
having been appointed captain of the port ; persons were empowered 
to purchase two frigates in North America ; and the agents of the 
patriots had instructions to treat with officers in England, and to 
purchase vessels there. 

But the first object, unquestionably, was to regain the southern part 
of Chile; and accordingly in the month of May, 1817, i.e. two 
months after the action of Chacabuco, O'Higgins took the command 
of the army of the south, leaving the government in the hands of 
three commissioners, but some difficulties and disputes arising amono- 
them, Don Luis Cruz * was appointed deputy-director. It was not 
long before great part of the province and the town of Conception 
were reduced; but in the beginning of 1818 a strong reinforcement 
arrived at Talcahuana from Lima, commanded by Osorio, who im- 
mediately marched towards Santiago with 5000 men. He was met 
by San Martin at the head of the patriot troops, over whom, on the 
19th of March, at a place called Cancharayada, near Requelme, he 
gained a complete victory, dispersing the Chilenos and wounding 
O'Higgins, who returned immediately to the capital, where all was 
alarm, and many women and children went out and crossed the 
mountains to Mendoza, as after the battle of Rancagua. j- But the 
director exerted himself to repair the evil : money, clothes, and pro- 
visions, were instantly dispatched to the army. Many families o-ave 
their plate to be coined; the foreign merchants contributed their 
goods, their money, and their credit, so that by the fifth of April, 
the Chileno army under generals San Martin and Belcarce, and 
colonels Las Heras, Freire, and others, again interrupted Osorio on 
his way to Santiago. At one. day's march from that city, the battle 
of Maypu was fought, on the plain to the south, called the Espejo. 
and never was action more decisive. Of Osorio's army 2000 were 



* Afterwards Governor of Callao. 

f On this occasion all the public papers, orders, documents, accounts, &c. were burnt 
that private families might not be subjected to Osorio's revenge. 



F 



34 INTRODUCTION. 

left dead on the field, 2500 were made prisoners, besides 190 officers ; 
the artillery, medical establishment, and military chest, all fell into 
the hands of the Chilenos ; but Osorio, with 200 horse, escaped. 
This victory was justly hailed as the greatest and most complete, 
as well as the most important in its consequences, that had been 
gained during the long course of the revolutionary war. It was, 
indeed, the last effort the Spaniards made for the recovery of Chile, 
though Talcahuana, Valdivia, and Chiloe, still held out against the 
patriots, and it allowed the Chilenos to carry the war out of their 
own territory, an advantage still more important. 

But, while the public papers and public proclamations hailed gene- 
ral San Martin as the hero of Chacabuco and Maipu, those engaged 
in these battles, and who, consequently, were eye-witnesses of his 
conduct, ventured to doubt his personal bravery. At Chacabuco he 
was scarcely within sight of the action. At Maipu general Belcarce, 
colonels Las Heras and Freire and some others had fixed the atten- 
tion of their fellow-soldiers, and it was not till he appeared leading the 
victorious troops after the action, that they remembered San Martin. 
However, pyramids, and medals, and ribbons, were decreed, and the 
general joy was too great to admit of very nice inquiries. 

The forces on either side were not numerous ; Osorio's, as we 
have seen, amounted to little more than 5000 men : but they were 
principally of trained and disciplined troops ; while the Chileno 
army chiefly consisted of raw recruits and the country militia, armed 
only with Indian lances ; the numbers were 4500 foot, and 2500 
horse, with twenty pieces of artillery. 

After the relation of such a victory, it is painful to advert to the 
tragical event which took place nearly at the same period at Men- 
doza. The attempt of the Carreras to seize on that town, on their 
retreat from Chile in 1814, had neither been forgotten nor forgiven 
by San Martin, who then governed it ; and the restless and ambi- 
tious spirit of Jose Miguel, had involved his brothers too deeply in 
his projects, to render it safe for them to cross the path of their 
enemy. Nevertheless, Juan Jose, and Luis, after many various ad- 



INTRODUCTION. 



35 



ventures, depending on the temper of the ruling parties of Buenos 
Ayres, and wishing to join their family in Chile, proceeded towards 
it in disguise by different roads, and at different times. They had 
been seized and recognised, however, near Mendoza, and there 
closely imprisoned. They more than once attempted their escape, 
well knowing that they could expect but little mercy from the mili- 
tary governor. The young and lovely wife of Juan Jose, accom- 
panied her husband, and sold every thing of value belonging to her, 
to provide him even with common necessaries in the prison : it will 
give some idea of their sufferings, when it is stated, that a friend 
having sent her a fanega of flour, she actually went to the public 
market-place to sell it, to obtain a supply of other necessaries for her 
husband ; and that a shoemaker whom she had formerly employed, 
seeing her in the market, and touched by her distress, made her 
rest in his house, while he disposed of the flour to the best ad- 
vantage; and on the price obtained for it she and her husband 
subsisted almost until his untimely death. Meantime a commis- 
sion had been sitting to take cognizance of the crimes of the Carreras. 
I have read the published account of it attentively ; the chief article 
is the attempt to escape from prison — for as to having been mem- 
bers of the government of Chile, and having endeavoured to re- 
possess themselves of their former influence, times of civil war open 
but too fair a field to all adventurers not to warn any successful leader 
to beware how he punishes such attempts too severely, lest the axe 
should fall in turn on his own neck. After the commission had sat 
some time in Mendoza, San Martin's confidential secretary, Montea- 
guda, arrived there, it was said solely in consequence of the rout of 
Cancharayada. But on the 8th of April, not many hours after he 
reached the place his name appeared affixed to the sentence of death 
pronounced on these unfortunate young men, which sentence was 
executed at six o'clock the same evening. They were seated on a 
bench in the public square, and, as the soldiers fired, they embraced 
each other, and so died ! Their death excited pity for them, and 
fear of the party that so wantonly used its power : that fear has been 

f 2 



36 INTRODUCTION. 

deepened into horror against some of the individuals. It must be 
confessed, that the severity was useless ; and useless severity in go- 
vernments, is always criminal. Their authority is conferred, that 
they may increase and guard the happiness of the community with 
the smallest possible abridgment of freedom, or happiness to indivi- 
duals. But even while the struggle for independence was going on, 
the new governors became so intoxicated with power, that, with the 
name of freedom on their lips, they oppressed and murdered, and, 
while they gratified their own base passions, they called it public 
duty. 

The Carreras were neither good nor useful citizens, but the two 
who had now suffered were, at least, harmless, and might surely with 
their families have been permitted to breathe in some climate, where 
they could not have interfered with the soldiers or governors of 
Chile. * 

Meantime, the Spaniards had blockaded the port of Valparaiso by 
means of the frigate Esmeralda of 40 guns, and the brig Pezuela ; 
but as the government had purchased a large vessel, called the Lau- 
tai'o, armed and manned as a ship of war, and had given the command 
of it to Mr. George O'Brian, a lieutenant in the British navy, he 
resolved to go out and attack the enemy on the 27th of April, 1818 ; 
he did so accordingly, and both vessels had actually struck : but 
Captain O'Brian, having headed the boarders, who had taken pos- 
session of the deck of the Esmeralda, was shot by a man from below, 
whose life he had just spared. This sad event, by which Chile lost an 
active and intelligent officer, together with the confusion occasioned 
by the Esmeralda taking fire, obliged the Lautaro to retire without 
her prizes who escaped, but the port remained free from blockade. 
This little, though brilliant action, raised the spirits of the Chilenos 
to the highest pitch ; and they redoubled their efforts to raise money 
to procure and equip a squadron. Taxes, voluntary loans, and sub- 
scriptions were all resorted to, and all were paid cheerfully for the 

* See Mr. Yates's paper, in the Appendix. 



INTRODUCTION. 37 

great object. In aid of this, several privateers were fitted out, 
which at least served to procure intelligence of the motions of the 
enemy. But the encouragement of the privateers having been 
found detrimental to the manning of the regular ships of war, an 
order was published commanding them to give up their men, and 
to return to trade some time in August, in which month also are 
dated the first regulations for the rank of officers, and the first naval 
appointments, the admiral being Don Manoel Blanco Encalada, an 
artillery officer, who had many years before served as a midship- 
man in the Spanish navy ; and the other officers were, with few 
exceptions, nearly as little qualified by previous habits for the 
service. During the course of the same month, a large ship, called 
the Cumberland, laden with coals, and commanded by Mr. Wilkinson, 
who had been first mate of an East Indiaman, arrived at Valpa- 
raiso : she was immediately purchased, and her captain persuaded 
to stay with her ; and by the 30th of August she was converted into 
a ship of war, new named the San Martin, and hoisted the Chileno 
flag. 

A singular piece of good fortune befell the Chilenos at this junc- 
ture. The Spanish government had fitted out nine transports, 
under the convoy of the fifty-gun frigate, the Maria Isabella, in 
which were embarked upwards of 2000 troops, under Don Fausto 
del Hoyo, destined to reinforce the viceroy of Peru. The crew of 
one of the transports, the Trinidad, or rather the soldiers on board, 
rose on the officers, seized the ship, and carried her into Buenos 
Ayres, where they joined the patriots, and gave information of the 
force of the rest, and their destination to the south of Chile. A 
courier was immediately despatched across the Andes : the govern- 
ment took its measures accordingly, and, redoubling every effort to 
get the squadron to sea, it sailed on the 9th of October in pursuit 
of the enemy. The force consisted of the San Martin, 64 guns, 
commanded by Captain Wilkinson, and bearing Admiral Blanco's 
flag ; the Lautaro, 50 guns, commanded by Captain Worcester, who 

* fS 



38 



INTRODUCTION. 



was master of an American privateer during the last war, and who 
went to Chile on mercantile speculation ; the 20 gun corvette, 
Chacabuco, under Don Francisco Diaz, an artillery officer, and an 
old Spaniard ; the brig Araucana, 1 8 guns, Captain Morris ; and the 
Pueyrredon, Captain Vasquez. On the 28th of the same month, 
the squadron discovered the Maria Isabella and transports in Tal- 
cahuana bay, under the guns of the fort, which contained four field- 
pieces, four one pounders, and three other guns of the same calibre. 
But with these it could do little or nothing to annoy the ships. The 
Maria Isabella and the transports were in a dreadful state — one- 
third of the crews and soldiers having died on the passage, partly 
because too many men had been put on board in proportion to the 
tonnage of the vessels, — partly from the want of ventilation and 
cleanliness in the ships during so long a voyage ; and the crew, of 
the Spanish frigate, after landing her sick, was reduced to 200 men 
at the most. Such was the condition of the adverse ships when 
the patriots, having about 1000 men, arrived in the bay. The 
Spaniards made a defence creditable to themselves, and when ob- 
liged to strike, the Maria Isabella ran ashore under the batteries, 
which endeavoured to protect her, but they were too weak for the 
purpose, and she was got off the day after. This was a real subject 
of triumph for the people of Chile. They had not only reduced 
the enemy's power, but they had gained a ship for their own squadron 
second to none of her class, an admirable sailer, and provided amply 
with all kinds of stores. .Meantime the Buenos Ay res brig of 
war, Intrepid, had come round the Horn to assist the Chileno 
squadron, but did not arrive until the 11th of November, on which 
day, one of the transports, on her way to Lima, was captured ; 
and before the ships reached Valparaiso, the Helena, another be- 
longing to the same convoy, was seized. Of the nine that sailed 
from Cadiz, one, the Trinidad, went to Buenos Ayres, seven were 
captured by the Chilenos, and one was never heard of. Never 
had a fleet been so welcome to Chile as was the return of the 
squadron from the south on the 17th of November: it gave a 



INTRODUCTION. 39 

prospect of hastening the plans which had long been meditated for 
carrying the war out of the country. But the government, though 
gratified with this first success, and proud of the number of ships 
raised within seven months, still bitterly felt the want of competent 
officers. Their hopes were anxiously turned towards England, whence 
indeed the Galvarino* had lately arrived, and had been received 
into the service. Besides her commander, Captain Spry, she brought 
out Captain Guise, of the English navy, who was not without hopes 
of obtaining the command of the naval forces of the Country ; and a 
number of followers were about him who were so much interested 
that it should be so, that they seemed to consider it as his right, and 
had partly persuaded him to think the same. Captain Forster, of 
the British navy, had also gone to Chile with similar hopes and 
similar fancied claims ; and at that juncture the success of the late 
expedition had not rendered either Captain Wilkinson or Captain 
Worcester willing to yield to any junior officer in the Chileno 
employ. Where these disputes might have terminated it is idle 
to inquire : they were, for the present at least, silenced by the ar- 
rival of one of the ablest officers that even England had ever pro- 
duced. 

By one of those singular coincidences which not the fondest cal- 
culation for the benefit of Chile could have anticipated, the agents of 
the government of that country, who had been instructed, if possible, 
to procure the assistance of some able commander, (Sir H. Popham, 
was once named,) were fortunate enough to find Lord Cochrane at 
liberty to devote himself entirely to the cause of South American 
independence — A cause to which he could honestly give his talents 
and his time, without violating those principles of regulated freedom, 
from which he had never departed. 

The state of the Chilian navy required a man of prudence as well 
as courage, of temper as well as firmness, and in no one man did 

* Formerly the Hecate, an English 18-gun brig of war. Captains Guise and Spry 
bought her, and brought her to Chile on speculation. She was purchased from them by 
the government of Chile, after being refused at Buenos Ayres. 



40 INTRODUCTION. 

these qualities ever meet in so eminent a degree. His naturally 
powerful mind had received all the solid advantage and much of the 
grace of cultivation ; and his singularly gentle and courteous man- 
ner, which veiled while it adorned the determination of his character, 
was admirably calculated to conciliate all parties. * 

He arrived with his family in a small vessel called the Rose, on 
the 29th of November, and was received with the greatest joy by the 
director, who came from Santiago to Valparaiso to welcome him. 
On the 9th of December the Maria Isabella was named the O'Higgins, 
and it was understood that she was to be offered to Lord Cochrane, 
but he did not hoist his flag on board of her until the 22d. There 
had been a petty scheming and intriguing cabal among the officers 
already in Chile, who, rather than see one so superior to them all at 
their head, or perhaps afraid lest he should lead them into danger, 
actually endeavoured to bring about a sort of divided command, 
wishing, as they said, two commodores and no Cochrane. This was 
not merely the cry of the English officers, they had gained some of 
the inferior ministers, whose jealousy of a nobleman and a foreigner 
it was not difficult to excite ; but Admiral Blanco, the only man whose 
rank and interest were really likely to be affected by Lord Coch- 
rane's arrival, cordially supported him, convinced that he was the 
only proper person for the situation. 

Such was the state of the naval affairs of Chile at the close of the 
year 1818, the most eventful in the history of the country since its 
discovery. It will be necessary to go back a few months, in order to 
notice the state of the civil government. 

On the first appointment of the director, all power, legislative as 
well as executive, devolved necessarily on him. No monarch is ever 
so absolute, for the moment, as a military chief just successful, es- 



* If I had less cause for gratitude towards Lord Cochrane, I should probably do 
more justice to him, but to speak of him as he should be spoken of, would require not only 
an abler pen, but feelings more free from that sensitiveness that makes a friend modest in 
speaking of friend, as though he were a part of himself. 



INTRODUCTION. 41 

pecially in the cause of independence, since he has the power of 
opinion as well as the power of the sword along with him. 

Le premier qui Jut lioi, Jut tin Soldat heuretuc. 

But it became necessary to think of some kind of constitution for 
the country. -Accordingly, the director named a commission for the 
purpose of drawing up the project of a provisional government *, to 
serve until circumstances permitted the calling together a represent- 
ative congress. As soon as it was framed, books were opened in every 
parish, where every head of a family, or man who had means of living 
by his own industry, provided he was not actually accused of any crime 
before a court of justice, was competent to enter his assent or dissent, 
in presence of the curate, judge, and scrivener: the majority of votes 
determined the adoption of the provisional constitution, and on the 
23d of October it was solemnly sworn to. On the same day, agree- 
ably to one of its articles, the director named a senate, to advise with 
and assist him, whose province it was to make and modify laws and 
regulations, and superintend the business of the state ; but the whole 
executive power remained with the director, and no secretary or em- 
ployed minister was to be admitted into the senate. Its members 
were five : — 

Don Jose Ignacio Cienfuegos, Governor of the province of San- 
tiago. 

Don Francisco de Borgo Fuentisilla, Governor of the City. 

Don Francisco Antonio Perez, Dean of the tribunal of Appeals. 

Don Juan Augustin Alcalde. 

Don Jose Maria Rosas. 

Each of these was provided with a deputy or proxy, in case of 
sickness or absence. 

The first labours of the senate were naturally directed to the im- 
provement of the finances, which, in spite of a total want of know- 
ledge and principle in political economy, did advance considerably. 
Their attention was then turned to the establishing schools, the 

* Projecto de Constitution provisoria para el estado de Chile, 1818. 

G 



42 INTRODUCTION. 

repairing of the old public works, and the forming new, particularly the 
canal of Maypu, which conveys the waters of that river along a high 
level, for the purpose of irrigating an immense plain, formerly bai'ren, 
and the resort only of robbers, but with water capable of every kind 
of improvement. * These works had the advantage of giving employ- 
ment to the numerous prisoners of war, whose subsistence would 
otherwise have been a heavy burden upon the state, and whose treat- 
ment was such when not so employed as humanity would gladly 
draw a veil over. But the Spaniards had given terrible examples, — 
no wonder if the nations they had oppressed sometimes retaliated. 

General San Martin meantime had visited Buenos Ayres, but 
chiefly resided at Mendoza ; he was augmenting the army, for the 
purpose of invading Peru, so soon as the troops and money could be 
ready, by means of the Chileno squadron ; and he was believed, not 
without reason, to be the real director of all the affairs of Chile. The 
ascendency this man had acquired is singular ; his courage is more 
than doubtful, and his talents are not above mediocrity. But he has 
a handsome person ; an imposing air ; a versatile manner, accom- 
modating itself to all tastes, from that of a finished courtier to a 
country clown ; and a great power of feigning. He is one of those 
of whom Bacon says, " There be that can pack the cards, and yet 
" cannot play well : so there are some that are good in canvasses 
" and factions, that are otherwise weak men." His seci'etary, Mon- 
teagudo, has many qualities in common with him ; but the fail- 
ings of the master are carried to a greater length, and certainly he 
is superior even to San Martin in unfeeling cruelty. But his acute- 
ness is astonishing ; he is " perfect in men's humours," — and so 
leads them by their own foibles : his eloquence was of great service to 
the good cause, though on many occasions his proclamations and state 
papers savour too much of that bombastic turn which the Spaniards 
in general are reproached with, and which is, indeed, very conspi- 
cuous on the western side of the Atlantic. The plain simple good 



* The sale of the land and of the water on this plain has more than paid the expense, 
and is beginning to be a profitable concern to the government. 



INTRODUCTION. 43 

sense, honesty, and right feeling of O'Higgins, was not always a 
match for the more worldly talents of San Martin ; and he was too 
apt to rely on the honesty of others from the very uprightness of 
his own intentions. It is singular, that, with that natural straight- 
forward honesty, he should ever have been induced to admire or 
practise any thing like a crooked policy ; but he was taught to con- 
sider it as a necessary evil in civil government, and therefore always 
preferred the camp to the palace, as there, at least, deception could 
not be requisite. The secretary, Zenteno, afterwards minister of 
marine, and governor of Valparaiso, was now rising into impor- 
tance. He had been an attorney in Conception, had joined the 
patriot army early in the revolution ; and, having been among the 
fugitives in 1814, had been so reduced as to serve as a boy in a 
pulperia, drinking-house, in Mendoza, for a maintenance, but rejoined 
the army of the Andes in 1817, and reappeared in his proper station. 
Zenteno has read a little more than is usual among his countrymen, 
and thinks that little much : like San Martin, he dignifies, scepticism 
in religion, laxity in morals, and coldness of heart, if not cruelty, with 
the name of philosophy ; and, while he could show creditable sensi- 
bility for the fate of a worm, would think the death or torture of a 
political opponent a matter of congratulation. His manner is cold ; 
but, as he is always grave and sententious, and possesses much of the 
cunning and quickness commonly attributed to his former profession, 
he passes for clever. 

Such were the principal persons with whom Lord Cochrane had 
to deal on his arrival in Chile. O'Higgins was sincere ; and of San 
Martin it may be said, that, like Lord Angelo, 

" I partly think 
" A due sincerity governed his deeds, 
" Till he did.look on — " 

the possibility of exercising absolute power in the rich country of 
Peru. But events will speak for themselves. The present business is 
with the history of Chile, during the early part of the year 1819. 
The squadron of Chile then consisted of the O'Higgins, Lord 

a 2 



44 INTRODUCTION. 

Cochrane's flag-ship, commanded by Captain Forster, the Lautaro ; 
Captain Guise ; the San Martin, Captain Wilkinson ; and the Chaca- 
buco, Captain Carter. * These ships sailed from Valparaiso under 
Lord Cochrane's command, on the 15th of January. Most anxiously 
did the people of Chile look upon this expedition. It was the first 
time they had dared to attack the enemy in his own strong-hold. 
Callao had always been deemed inexpugnable, and the ships of 
Spain had been accustomed to consider it as an inviolable sanctuary. 
Now the Chilenos saw their ships sailing to attack it, and a feeling 
of dread at the daring mingled with their hopes. Their own port 
had been blockaded "but a few months before, and all their wishes had 
then been confined to being freed from the enemy's ships. But 
they had changed situations ; theirs was now to be the inviolable port, 
and their ships were to attack the strong-hold of the enemy. 

No wonder that every report was eagerly listened to, and that a 
stranger sail giving flattering news of their squadron was eagerly 
received ; at length, however, true despatches arrived, and they were 
published in a series of extraordinary gazettes, as the most important 
documents that had ever reached Chile. The fleet had been prin- 
cipally manned with natives, many of whom were wild from the 
mountains : the whole squadron might have on board 300 foreign 
seamen, including officers ; so that there was ground for anxiety on 
more than one account concerning the expedition. But the very 
first trial was sufficient to prove that the navy of Chile would in a 
short time have the dominion of the Pacific. 

The squadron had fallen in with several vessels ; and from the 
information obtained from them, the admiral had determined to 
cruize off Lima until the 21st of February, to intercept the San An- 
tonio, which was bound for Cadiz with a considerable treasure on 
board ; and then, on the 23d, the last day of the Carnival, to run into 
the bay with the Lautaro, and attack the ships and forts during the 
confusion usually occasioned by that festival, f The San Martin 

* There were also the Galvarino, Araucano, and Pueyrredon. 

f The reason (said to be so by some) for running in with only two ships, and those 



INTRODUCTION. 



45 



was to remain behind the island of San Lorenzo, to act according to 
circumstances. But, on the 21st, so thick a fog came on that the 
ships lost sight of each other : it continued for four days, so that 
the plan for the 23d was frustrated. On the 26th it cleared a little, 
and the San Martin took the Victoria, laden with provisions from 
Chiloe to Lima; but the fogs which are so common on the coast of 
Peru still rendered it impossible for the squadron to act until the 29th, 
when a heavy firing was heard, which the admiral imagined was one of 
his ships engaging the enemy ; he therefore stood towards the bay of 
Callao. The San Martin, Lautaro, and Chacabuco, who each imagined 
the admiral in action, steered the same way ; and, just as the fog cleared 
away for a moment, they discovered one another. That moment of 
light had also discovered a strange sail among them ; the O'Higgins 
followed and took her : she was a gun-boat, having on board a lieu- 
tenant and 20 men, one 24 pounder, and two pedreros. The admi- 
ral learned from the gun-boat, that the firing heard in the morning- 
was in honour of the viceroy, who was visiting the forts and ships. 
Lord Cochrane, sure that some of his ships had been seen, determined 
to run into Callao, both to try his ship's company, and to endeavour 
to capture some vessel of war, or at least some of the gun-boats ; 
the Lautaro followed him closely. They found the enemy's ships 
arranged in a half-moon of two ranks, the rear rank so disposed as 
to cover the intervals between the ships of the front rank; the mer 
chant vessels were stationed in the rear, and the neutrals were 
anchored on the right. The O'Higgins had neutral colours* : but it 
was of little consequence. At four o'clock in the afternoon, the 
Esmeralda began to fire on the two ships; her fire was immediately 
followed by that of the whole line of Spanish ships, and of the 
batteries. Unfortunately Captain Guise was severely wounded early, 
and his ship retired from action. Neither the San Martin nor 



under English colours, was, that they had information that two English ships were 
expected in Lima. 

» The O'Higgins and Lautaro had both been painted to resemble ships of War of the 
United States. 



46 INTRODUCTION. 

Chacabuco came to support the O'Higgins, whether from a doubt as 
to the result, or from mistaken orders, has never appeared ; and, 
therefore, the admiral, after sustaining the fire of three hundred guns 
from the ships and forts for two hours, was obliged reluctantly to 
retire. * The port of Callao was now declared in a state of blockade ; 
and the squadron, when not cruizing, lay under the island of San Lo- 
renzo, off the forts of Callao, about two and a half miles distant. On 
the 2d of March, the boats of the squadron, under Captain Forster, 
attacked the signal post on the island of San Lorenzo, destroyed it, 
released twenty-nine Chilenos, part of the crew of the Maypu who 
were chained and employed on the public works ; and a few Peruvian 
prisoners were made. 

As soon as the patriot squadron appeared in the bay of Callao, it 
had been debated in the vice-regal council whether red-hot shot might 
be lawfully employed against it, and the opinion of the archbishop 
declared in favour of it ; but although some fell near the O'Higgins, 
as she was crossing the bay in spite of the firing of the ships and 
forts to stop a vessel entering, none seem to have done any damage. 
Between the 4th and the 17th of March a correspondence, of so sin- 
gular and characteristic a nature, that I shall give large extracts at 
the end of the volume, took place between Lord Cochrane and the 
Viceroy of Peru. The subject was, the exchange of prisoners, man 
for man, and rank for rank. The letters of Lord Cochrane are full of 
humanity and gentleness ; they aim at introducing a more humane 
system of warfare than that which had hitherto disgraced the struggles 
in South America ; and they contain, on the part of his country, him- 
self, and the men of his own rank in his country, the most dignified 
justification of his conduct in the war of independence. 
• Meantime there were constant skirmishes with the gun-boats. 
On the night of the 22d of March, a project that was first planned 
for that of the 19th, but then abandoned because the enemy became 

* Lord Cochrane's little son walked the deck during the whole time with his father, 
holding by his hand ; a man being killed at the quarter-deck guns, he said to his father, 
" The ball is not made for little Tom yet, papa !" 



INTRODUCTION. 47 

aware of it, was to be carried into execution : the boats were sent into 
the harbour first with a fire-ship, and the large ships were to follow, 
cover, and support them ; but, by some inexplicable fatality, none but 
the O'Higgins joined, and thus the scheme was rendered nugatory. 
By this time the squadron was in want of water and other necessaries, 
and therefore on the 25th it sailed to Huaura to procure them. 
Here, after two days' amicable intercourse with the natives, the 
officers suddenly found the water refused, and the people forbidden 
to bring them provisions ; upon which a party was landed from the 
ships, which marched to the little towns of Huacho and Huaura, and 
took them on the 30th without difficulty, thereby securing a good 
watering place and market for provisions. While the squadron was 
at Huaura, Admiral Blanco arrived there in the Galvarino. This 
officer hoisted his flag on board the San Martin as second in com- 
mand, and shortly afterwards sailed to join the cruising squadron 
and maintain the blockade of Callao. 

From the information received on the coast, Lord Cochrane found 
that several neutral vessels were in the different little ports embark- 
ing Spanish property ; on which he ran along the coast with some 
of the vessels, and parties were landed to take possession of the small 
towns, the inhabitants being not unwilling to be taken. At Patavilca 
a considerable prize was made, in money (about 67,000 dollars) and 
provisions, sugars and spirits. At Guambacho 60,000 dollars were 
taken out of a brig, which was smuggling them on board. AtSupe 
his lordship disembarked the marines, who intercepted about 120,000 
dollars under an escort of Spanish infantry. The money was claimed 
as private property by a Mr. Smith, an American ; but as it was 
under a government escort, it was sent on board the O'Higgins ; and 
it afterwards appeared that it was to have been embarked at 
Guarmey, in the American 'schooner, Macedonia, in the names 
of Abadea and Blanco, the agents for the Philippine Company. 
The American, Smith, was so enraged at the capture of the money, 
that in the cabin of the O'Higgins he pulled out a pistol and pre- 
sented it at the head of Lord Cochrane, who put it aside with his 



48 INTRODUCTION. 

band, saying, " Put up your pistol, Mr. Smith, you may make a 
" more prudent use of it," and proceeded coolly with the business 
he was about without farther notice of the enraged merchant.* 

About the middle of April, part of the squadron appeared before 
the town of Payta, which the Admiral summoned to surrender. But 
the Spanish governor, although he must have been conscious of his 
want of power to resist, defied the patriots. Lord Cochrane, anxious 
to save bloodshed, sent a second flag of truce, which the Spaniards 
fired upon, and his lordship therefore landed some troops and his 
marines, and the town was almost instantly taken, together with the 
schooner Sacramento, three brass eighteen pound guns, two field 
pieces, a quantity of ammunition, sugar, cotton, cocoa, pitch, &c. 
Some of the marines having stolen some of the church ornaments, 
the Admiral caused them to be restored, and punished the offenders, 
besides sending to the chief priest a thousand dollars to repair the 
mischief done to the sacred edifices. f About the same time a rich 
prize, the fleet of Guayaquil, escaped owing to the caution given to 
it by an American vessel. 

While Lord Cochrane was engaged in this expedition to the 
northward, Admiral Blanco was maintaining the blockade of Callao 
with the San Martin, Lautaro, Chacabuco, and Pueyrredon, which 
was continued till the beginning of May, when the squadron re- 
turned to Chile amidst the congratulations of all ranks of people. % 
There was indeed cause for exultation. During the first month the 
Chilian squadron consisted only of the 

O'Higgins, - 48 guns 

Lautaro, - - 38 

* See the Gazette extraordinary of 2d August, 1819, by which it appears that Mr. 
Smith had forfeited his claim to be considered as a neutral merchant, having entered 
warmlv into the service of the Viceroy, conducting his dispatches, and carrying his officers 
from port to port, all which services the Viceroy acknowledges in his public letters. 

f See Gazette extraordinary of August 9. 1819. 

| Admiral Blanco was put under arrest on his arrival at Valparaiso, on the 26th May, 
for having raised the blockade, though the ships were in want of provisions. A court- 
martial, of which Lord Cochrane was president, and Jonte judge-advocate, acquitted him 
honourably on the 22d of July. 



INTRODUCTION. 49 

San Martin, - 60 
Chacabuco, 24 

This little force had completely blockaded the port of Callao, whose 
batteries are tremendous, and where there were lying the 

Venganza, - 42 guns 

Esmeralda, - - 44 
Sebastiana, - 28 

I § Resolution, - 36 

II § Cleopatra - 28 
§ La Focha, - 20 

|| BrigMaypu, - 18 

|| Pezuela, - - 22 

|| Potrillo, - - 18 

Name unknown, - 18 
Schooner, 1 long 24 pounder, 20 culverins 
§ Ship Guarmey, - 18 
§ San Fernando - 26 
§ San Antonio, - 18* 
besides 28 gun vessels. Two hundred thousand dollars belonging to 
the Philippine company had been taken, besides smaller prizes, and 
many towns on the coast freed from the Spanish yoke. 

Thus the viceroy found himself in the most humiliating situation, 
deprived of the provisions which were absolutely necessary to the 
country, and shut up in his capital by a force of not one quarter the 
strength of his own, but which, with an activity unexampled in these 
seas, went from port to port, put down all opposition, arrested his 
convoys both by sea and land, and attacked his forts and vessels even 
in their strongest hold. 

On the return of the squadrpn to Chile, among other compliments 
paid to Lord Cochrane, a public panegyric on His Lordship was pro- 
nounced at the national institute of Santiago, of which I have only 

* The vessels marked thus § are merchant ships, but hired and armed for the king's 
service ; those marked thus || are ready for sea. 



50 INTRODUCTION. 

been able to procure the following extract : — " He arrives at Callao : 
" that port is defended by the strongest forts of the Pacific, and 
" crowned with batteries. Ten ships of war, and a number of gun- 
" boats present a formidable barrier. The gallant admiral seizes 
" on the isle of San Lorenzo, anchors his squadron there, undertakes 
" to force an entrance into the port, and goes forward with the 
" O'Higgins and Lautaro : 300 pieces of artillery vomit death all 
" around him. From three sides the shots come to destroy his 
" ships : but he advances, unalterable, at a steady pace through these 
" torrents of fire : he strikes terror into the enemy, he spreads 
" around horror and death, he fires into their ships, and their fear 
" arises to such a height, that they make use of forbidden means, 
" firing red-hot shot from all the castles. After having harassed them 
" severely, he returns, serenely victorious, to the rest of his squa- 
" dron," &c. 

Meantime, one of the frigates bespoken in New York, had 
arrived in Chile. * Both had reached Buenos Ayres. It appears 
that by the terms of a treaty with Spain, America was bound not to 
furnish the patriots of South America with armed vessels ; there- 
fore, on the application of the Buenos Ayrian government for two 
frigates for Chile, two vessels, the Horatii and the Curiatii, were 
fitted out completely in every thing but arms and ammunition ; 
which, however, followed the frigates in the ship Sachem, and 
arrived a few days after them at Buenos Ayres. The scarcity of 
specie at that city prevented the full purchase money from being paid ; 
on which the Curiatii alone hoisted the Chilian flag, after receiving 
her guns and her complement of marines ; and the Horatii sailed for 
Bio Janeiro, where she was bought by the government f , the part of 
the purchase money already advanced being thus forfeited. 

On the return of Blanco's division of the squadron, the supreme 
director came to Valparaiso to receive them, and also to inspect the 



* 23d May, 1819. 

f She is now in the Imperial service, and called Maria da Gloria. 



INTRODUCTION. 51 

new ship which had been partly promised to Captain Guise. On the 
arrival of the O'Higgins, however, on the 16th of June, Captain 
Forster, the senior officer, was appointed to her, and she was named 
Independencia or Nuestra Senora del Carmen. Some other slight 
changes took place in the squadron, and every exertion was made to 
refit and victual it, in order to resume the blockade of Callao. 

While the navy was thus harassing the enemy's coast, the army of 
the south, under General Belcarse, was gradually gaining ground. 
The war there was, howevei*, carried on in a more desperate manner. 
The royalist Benevedeis, in particular, had rendered his name odious 
by many atrocities, and particularly by the murder, in cold blood, of 
an officer sent by Freire to him with a flag of truce, and of the whole 
party that was with him, as well as other prisoners ; they were cut down 
with sabres to save the waste of powder. General Sanchez was little 
behind him in cruelty. The latter had evacuated Talcahuana. Freire 
had taken Chilian, and success every where attended the patriots. 
(See Gazette, March 13th, 1819.) The most conciliatory proclam- 
ations were addressed to the Indians, who were invited as brothers to 
join the cause of independence, and hopes were entertained of their 
unitingwith the patriots against the Spaniards. The domestic govern- 
ment seemed also to be settling into tranquillity. The adherents of 
the Carreras were, for the time at least, silenced. No foreign nation 
interfered between the mother country and the colonies, but all 
seemed to look with complacency on a change which promised a free 
commerce to the Pacific. 

It is singular, that the experience of centuries has not been able 
to teach any nation that it is impossible to confine gold and silver, 
beyond a certain portion, within any particular state; or that so con- 
fined, they do not render the country any richer ; because the mo- 
ment there is more than sufficient for the purchase of other articles, 
the gold and silver becomes totally valueless. This applies particu- 
larly, where the precious metals are the chief products of the country. 
Yet even the reformed governments of South America, lay so heavy 
a duty on the exportation of gold and silver, that it would amount 

h 2 



52 INTRODUCTION. 

to a prohibition, did not all nations combine to smuggle it away. In 
countries like these, where there are no manufactures, and little raw 
produce of any kind but the precious metals, the advantage of 
exchanging these for goods of every kind is most apparent. But 
the Spanish habits of thinking still prevail, hence the smuggling 
which elsewhere would be accounted scandalous, is openly practised 
even by British ships of war here, because in no other way, can the 
merchant obtain a return for his goods. Might not this be an article 
to be considered in any treaty entered into for acknowledging the 
independence of South America ? 

The British merchants had been of material use to the independent 
cause, by the large importations of arms and stores, both naval and 
military, which, in spite of every prohibition, they continued to 
furnish. It is true, that sometimes they also supplied the royalists ; 
but in general their cargoes of this nature were for the patriots, be- 
tween whom and themselves, there was a much more cordial inter- 
course than they had ever maintained with the Spaniards. In Chile 
the Protestant worship in private houses was connived at, and the 
Protestants had been permitted to purchase ground for a burial place, 
both in the city and at the port ; and something had been attempted 
as to facilitating marriages between Protestants and Roman Catholics, 
but it was too early as yet to hope for perfect and public toleration : 
yet the officers entering into the service, naval or military, were 
never incommoded on account of their form of worship, or even re- 
quested to change it. 

The rainy season, with strong gales from the northward, was now 
set in, but the equipment of the ships went on with zeal, so that by 
the 11th of September, the squadron was ready to put to sea: a loan 
of 2000 dollars had been requested from the merchants of Valparaiso ; 
they refused, however, any thing like a forced contribution, but in- 
stantly subscribed 4393 dollars, a fourth of which was from the English 
merchants, as a free gift to forward the expedition, which was now 
to adopt more active measures than on the former occasion. ( Lord 



INTRODUCTION. 53 

Cochrane offered as a loan for an unlimited time, the prize money he 
had made during the expedition. * 

The squadron, consisting of the O'Higgins, Lord Cochrane ; the San 
Martin, Captain Wilkinson ; the Lautaro, Captain Guise ; the Inde- 
pendencia, Captain Forster ; the Galvarino, Captain Spry ; the Arau- 
cano, Captain Crosbie ; and the Pueyrredon, Captain Prunier, met at 
Coquimbo, to complete their water and other stores. They had with 
them two transports, chiefly employedinconveyingmortars and rockets, 
with which it was intended to annoy the enemy. On the 28th of 
September, the squadron arrived off Callao, and began immediately 
to construct their rocket and mortar rafts, and to prepare the ships 
for action. The admiral began by several False attacks, in order to 
weary out the enemy ; but on the night of the 1st of October, the 
Galvarino, Araucano, and Pueyrredon, entered the bay of Callao, each 
towing a raft, two for the rockets, and one for the mortars : the In- 
dependencia was ordered, also, to go in to protect the brigs, but by 
some mischance anchored eight miles off. Unfortunately one of the 
rocket rafts blew up, and severely wounded Captain Hind who com- 
manded, and the men employed. The rockets themselves, either 
from bad materials or unskilful composition, did not answer their 
purpose ; but the shells produced some effect and a constant dis- 
charge of them was kept up. Meanwhile the forts and shipping- 
were firing incessantly on the brigs and rafts, and red-hot shot was 
used ; but the damage done by it was trifling considering the cir- 
cumstances, amounting to little more than the wounding the Arau- 
cano's foremast, and breaking one of her anchors f ; the Galvarino 
lost Lieutenant Bealy and some men. On the three following nights 
feint attacks were made which annoyed the enemy as appeared par- 
ticularly from an attempt made by their ships to escape from the bay 
on the night of the third : by the fifth every thing was ready for an- 
other serious attack. The brigs, as before, towed the rafts into their 

* See Gazette, July 3. 1819. 

f Stores were so scarce in the squadron, that the mast was fished with an anchor 
stock from the Lautaro, and an axe was borrowed from the O'Higgins. 



54 



INTRODUCTION. 



ulaces. Mr. Morgell had the command of the fire-ship Victoria ; 
and the squadron was so placed, as to prevent the escape of the 
vessels from the roads : the moment the brigs were within gun-shot, 
the ships and batteries opened upon them. As soon as the fire-ship 
was within grape-shot, and close to the chain which defended the 
ships, Mr. Morgell set fire to her, and in ten minutes she exploded : 
had there been a breath of wind, the greater number, if not the 
whole of the enemy's ships, must have been destroyed. But, unfor- 
tunately it was calm, and it produced little effect ; the rockets too, 
again failed although managed with still greater care than before, 
and Lord Cochrane determined to adopt some other mode of 
proceeding. * 

The Spanish frigate, Prueba, having been reported ofT the bay, the 
squadron immediately chased her, but she escaped, and most of the 
ships sailed towards Pisco, in order to obtain stores, particularly 
spirits for the ship's companies, leaving the Araucano to look out 
at Callao, At Pisco, the troops from the squadron were landed and 
placed under Colonel Charles, of the marines, a brave and excellent 
officer, who deserved a better fate than to be killed at the taking of 
so paltry a fortress, f Major Miller was also severely wounded, and 
the patriots lost 10 men. The end, however, was answered, and the 
stores procured. 

On returning to Callao, Lord Cochrane was informed that the 
Prueba had proceeded to Guayaquil, where, with other Spanish ships, 
she had taken refuge. He immediately went in pursuit of her, with 
the Lautaro, Galvarino, and Pueyrredon ; and, arriving on the 25th 
of November, off the island of Puna, at the entrance to the river of 
Guayaquil, undertook, notwithstanding the prejudices to the con- 
trary ingeniously kept up by the Spanish charts, to pilot his squa- 
dron up the rapid and dangerous stream. The night was the only 



* The persons particularly praised in Lord Cochrane's despatch are Captains Spry, 
Crosbie, Prunier, and Morgel; and there is a handsome compliment to Admiral 
Blanco. 

f He was buried at Valparaiso with military honours, on the return of the squadron. 



INTRODUCTION. 55 

time for this bold undertaking ; accordingly on that of the 26th he 
entered the river, but want of wind obliged him to stand out again, 
and it was not till the evening of the 27th that he was able to pro- 
ceed. Meantime he had learned that the Prueba had run up, even 
without discharging her guns, at Puna, a usual precaution on account 
of the shallows in the river, and was now under the batteries, which 
he vvas induced to believe very strong ; but that the Aquila, of 
■'30, and Vigona, of 20 guns, the best of the hired armed ships, were 
lying where he had expected to have found the Prueba. He imme- 
diately made sail for them, and at daybreak they saw with dismay 
the O'Higgins at their very anchoring ground, 40 miles up the river. 
The ships had each about 100 men on board, and they kept up a 
brisk fire for 20 minutes, but the broadsides of the O'Higgins were 
too much for them, and the crews took to the boats leaving the 
ships to the admiral. During this action the Lautaro and brigs 
which had remained outside of the Puna, were alarmed at the firing, 
concluding it was from the Prueba, and had prepared to sail in case the 
action had been unfavourable to the admiral ; but they were relieved 
by the appearance of the prizes.* Lord Cochrane remained three 
weeks off the island of Puna, having occupied the village of that 
name, for the purpose of watering and procuring provisions for the 
ships, as well as cutting timber to load the prizes, f 

Having received intelligence, that one of the Spanish frigates 
had taken refuge in Valdivia, the admiral resolved to proceed thi- 
ther immediately on leaving Guayaquil, and accordingly sailed for 
that port on the 17th of December. On his way he fell in with and 

* The beautiful brass guns of the Vigonia (15 pounders) were given to the Lautaro 
to complete her armament. 

f There are upwards of twenty different kinds of timber to be procured at Guayaquil : 
that most esteemed for ship-building is called oak, though it has no resemblance to that 
tree ; the wood is yellowish and brittle, therefore not fit for planking : but it is very dura- 
ble, and bears being under water. The cedar and balsam timber is good ; the ebony 
coarse. The ship-building at Guayaquil was one great source of the prosperity of that 
province, which has few or no mines. It produces cacao, rice, salt, cotton, tobacco, 
cattle, and wax. 



5(3 INTRODUCTION- 

captured the Potrillo, a small Spanish vessel with provisions, stores, 
and 20,000 dollars in money, which she was conveying to the garri- 
son of Valdivia, and having sent her to Valparaiso, he proceeded to 
Talcahuano bay, where he arrived on the 22d of January, 1820. 
There he found the Chilian States' schooner, Montezuma, and the 
brig of war, Intrepid, belonging to Buenos Ayres ; and, desiring to 
reconnoitre the port of Valdivia, he left the O'Higgins at Talcahuano, 
and proceeded in the schooner, under Spanish colours, to make his 
observations on the harbour. 

Valdivia had always been considered as impregnable. The har- 
bour is formed by the river of Callacallas, which, widening opposite 
the town to an aestuary of four leagues broad, narrows again at its 
mouth to half a league. Four considerable forts defend the narrow 
entrance, besides a battery at the Morro Gonzales, or the English- 
man's watering place, in which there are altogether upwards of 100 
guns, the fires of which cross each other from every point. Under 
the Spanish flag, however, Lord Cochrane ran in so close to the place 
that the health boat boarded him, and from the officer he learned the 
state of the ports and of the garrison, and immediately returned to 
Talcahuana to take measures for the attack he meditated. 

On being made acquainted with His Lordship's plans, General 
Freire frankly lent him 250 men, under Major Beauchef ; and, supe- 
rior to the petty jealousy and bargaining which too often disgrace 
the operations of war, where the navy and army have to act together, 
he placed them absolutely at the admiral's disposal, and on the 29th, 
they were embarked in the O'Higgins, Intrepid, and Montezuma, 
and sailed on the 30th. Unfortunately the frigate struck on the rocks 
off the island of Quinquina in getting out, but as it did not appear 
that she was much damaged at the time, the little fleet proceeded, 
and on the 2d of February, 1820, arrived off Valdivia, 10 leagues 
to the southward, when the whole of the troops were put on board 
of the small vessels, and the O'Higgins was ordered to keep out of 
sight till the next day. At sunset, the troops were landed at the 
Englishman's bay, Lord Cochrane accompanying them, and, as they 



INTRODUCTION. 57 

marched, rowing along the beach with four boys in his gig, exposed 
to the enemy's fire, to direct the march. The first fort to be attacked 
was that of the Englishman, situated on a promontory and defended 
by a strong palisade, headed by six guns which swept the beach. The 
soldiers, two abreast, continued to march along close to the palisade, 
which appeared impracticable, when a Chileno midshipman perceived 
one of the pales to be rotten at the bottom ; he seized it ; it gave 
way, but finding it still impossible to enter, on account of his large 
hat, he took it off, threw it over the palisade, got through himself, 
and quickly enlarging the opening, the rest followed him and attacked 
the fort so vigorously that it was carried in a few minutes. The mo- 
ment this position was secured, the troops proceeded to the fort of 
the Corral, the strongest and most important of all, without paying 
attention to some smaller batteries behind. It was also speedily 
reduced, and of course all the southern batteries, Avanzada, Barros, 
Amargos, and Chorocomayo followed. The Colonel, Don Fausto del 
Hoyo, with what remained of his regiment (the Cantabrian), was 
taken. The enemy's loss in killed and wounded was great, that of 
the patriots was only 6 killed and 18 wounded. 

Next morning the O'Higgins arrived, and those on board suffered 
the most lively alarm from a trifling circumstance. Knowing the 
extreme danger of the meditated attack, they had obtained a promise 
from the admiral, that if all was well, he would hoist two flags of 
any kind on the outer flag-staff. As they approached they saw but 
one, and that one Lord Cochrane's boat's ensign, the Chile colours. 
His Lordship had but that one with him and could get no other. 
They began to fear he had been taken, and that the flag was hoisted 
as a decoy. Meantime, the troops in the northern forts, perceiving 
the frigate, hoped she was a Spaniard and made their private signal, 
which she answered and continued advancing, when a boat boarded 
her. All was safe, the admiral well. The Spanish flag was instantly 
hauled down, the patriot ensign hoisted in its place, and the troops no 
longer hoping for assistance, precipitately abandoned the town and 



58 INTRODUCTION. 

remaining forts, and fled in every direction ; and the standards, 
barrack stores, military chest, &c, fell into the admiral's hands. * 

This action is perhaps one of the most daring and successful on 
record, and done, like every thing Lord Cochrane has performed, for 
the use of the thing, and not for the display of his own courage or 



" Sir, 



" Port of Valdivia, February 5th, 1820. 



" Resolving to profit by the advantages gained last night, by our brave officers and men, 
1 ordered the Montezuma to pass forts Niebla and Mancera this morning, in company with 
the brig Intrepid, and they both anchored under the guns of the Corral without other 
danger than that from two balls which touched the Intrepid. The troops embarked im- 
mediately in the two vessels, with the intention of entering the river, and taking possession 
of the enemy's head-quarters in the battery del Piojo ; but we had hardly made sail, when 
the O'Higgins hove in sight abreast of the Morro de Gonzalo at the mouth of the port, 
and the garrison abandoned the works, flying precipitately. 

" This unexpected retreat of the enemy having caused me to change my plans, the 
Montezuma and Intrepid were ordered to approach as near the shore as possible, and the 
troops were landed at the Niebla, until the tide should permit the boats to convey them to 
Valdivia. By this operation, the 100 guns of the castles, forts, and batteries of the ene- 
mies of Liberty and Independence are turned against themselves. &c. &c. &c. 

" Cochrane." 

" Head-Quarters Valdivia, February 6th, 1820. 
" Sir, 

" While our troops were actually embarking in the boats, to follow the garrisons which 
had fled to Valdivia, we perceived a flag of truce coming down the river. By it we 
learned that the enemy had abandoned the town in the greatest confusion, after rifling the 
houses of private persons, and the public store-houses. We, at least, have the happiness 
to know, that we have omitted nothing that might protect the people, who, distinguishing 
between friends and oppressors, have assisted in the maintenance of good order. Those 
who had fled from their houses are beginning to return, and I hope that the governor, 
whom the people will name to-morrow, will secure order and tranquillity. To this end 
I have circulated proclamations, assuring the inhabitants, that they will not be molested 
in the slightest manner, and that the troops shall not interfere in any way, in civil matters. 
Want of time prevents my enclosing a copy of these papers. &c. &c. &c. 

" Cochrane. 

" To Don Jose Ignacio Zenteno, Minister at War and of Marine." 

In another letter, Lord Cochrane says : — 

" At first it was my intention to have destroyed the fortifications, and to have taken the 
artillery and stores on board ; but I could not resolve to leave without defence the safest 
and most beautiful harbour I have seen in the Pacific, and whose fortifications must 
doubtless have cost more than a million of dollars." 



INTRODUCTION. 59 

talent * ; by it, the enemy was deprived of his last hold of Chile, 
and what is of still greater consequence, the Chilenos learned to 
place confidence in themselves and their officers, and to have the 
moral as well as the physical courage necessary for all great achieve- 
ments. 

But there is no character so perfect, no action so heroic, as to be 
safe from envy. As the Spanish poet says — 

" Envy is Honour's wife, the wise man said, 
Ne'er to be parted till the man was dead." 

On the arrival of the news of the taking of Valdivia at Valparaiso, 
all the mean and bad passions of little men were awakened. The 
people at large showed a joy that perhaps exasperated the envious ; 
but it is certain that there were many persons in power, with Zen- 
teno at their head, and some even of his own countrymen, who scru- 
pled not to say, that Lord Cochrane deserved to lose his head for 
daring, unbidden, to attack such a place, and for endangering the 
patriot soldiers, by exposing them to such hazard. 

But the time was not yet arrived for any effectual attack on Lord 
Cochrane. The government felt his value, or rather the absolute 
necessity of the state required his services, and the clamours of the 
envious and ungrateful were for once stifled, f 

Unconscious of these cabals, and encouraged by his success at Val- 
divia, Lord Cochrane naturally turned his attention to Chiloe, where 

* A force of 2000 men, with 100 guns, had been overcome by 350, aided by the pre- 
sence and name of their great chief. 

f On the 2d of March, the people of Coquimbo sent a congratulatory address to the 
director and the admiral on the taking of Valdivia. 

On the 14th of August, the government voted medals to the captors of Valdivia, to be 
suspended by a tricoloured ribbon; to Lord Cochrane, Captain Carter, Major Miller, 
Major Beauchef, and Major Vicente,' gold medals ; and silver medals to 23 others. 
The decree says' of the capture of Valdivia, " It was the happy result, of the devising of 
" the best arranged plan, and of the most daring and valorous execution." And it 
concludes, by conferring on Lord Cochrane, an estate from the confiscated lands of Con- 
ception, of not less than 4000 quadras in superficies. 

This estate Lord Cochrane begged leave to return, that it might be sold for the pay- 
ment of the sailors of the squadron. This offer was not accepted. 

i 2 



£Q INTRODUCTION. 

the Spaniards had still a strong position, under an able and deter- 
mined officer, Colonel Quintanilla. The account of that expedition 
is best o-iven in His Lordship's own letter addressed to the Minister 
of Marine : — 

« Sir, 
" The unfortunate circumstance, of the running ashore of the brig 
Intrepid, on the day I last had the honour of addressing Your Excel- 
lency, and her total loss in this port without either wind or storm, 
owing to her being quite rotten, deprived me of the greater part of 
the force and means for taking Chiloe. Nevertheless, I determined 
to proceed with the schooner Montezuma, and the transport Dolores, 
Captain Carter of the Intrepid having volunteered to command the 
latter, in order to reconnoitre the port of San Carlos, and to offer the 
inhabitants such assistance as was in my power, if they showed an 
inclination to shake off the yoke of Ferdinand. 

" With this purpose we landed in the bay of Huechucucuy in the 
evening of the 17th. The soldiers, with the marines of the O'Hig- 
gins and Intrepid, took possession of the three outer batteries which 
defend the port, dislodging about thirty foot and sixty horse ; but 
having afterwards lost their way, owing to the darkness of the night, 
in roads almost impassable, they halted till dawn, by which time 
the militia headed by the friars, armed with lances or whatever wea- 
pons they could get, had assembled in such numbers in the fort of 
A<my, that it rendered the taking of that strong hold with so small 
an attacking force impossible. The brave Col. Miller being severely 
wounded, Captain Erezcano of Buenos Ayres, agreeably to my in- 
structions not to engage the troops farther, caused them to retreat 
and go on board. 

" Having re-embarked them, I resolved to return to Valdivia, con- 
ceiving that the securing that place and expelling the enemy from 
the province were more important objects than even the establishing 
a garrison in Chiloe. 

" I ought to add, that the outer defence of San Carlos was entirely 



INTRODUCTION. gj 

destroyed by us, that there is safe anchorage, and that Chiloe is at 
the mercy of 500 men, whenever it shall please the government of 
Chile to incorporate it with the cause of liberty and independence. 

" All the troops behaved with the greatest bravery ; our loss con- 
sists of four killed and ten wounded. May God keep you many 

y ears - " Cochrane." 

" Chiloe, Feb. 19. 1820. 

On Lord Cochrane's return to Valdivia, he furnished what arms 
he could to the people of the neighbourhood, to assist in drivino- out 
the enemy, and despatched Beauchef to Osorio with 100 men to 
secure that town, which commands one source of the supplies of 
Chiloe. Beauchef and his little troop were received by all the 
Indians both in the country and at Osorio with the greatest joy. 
" I believe," says that officer, in his official letter addressed to Lord 
Cochrane, " that I have embraced more than a thousand caciques 
" and their followers. They have all offered their people to serve 
" in the patriotic cause ; but as circumstances do not require this, 
" I have invited them to return to their own lands, and have received 
" their promises to be ready if the country should call for their ser- 
" vices. I have distributed to each on taking leave, a little indio-o, 
" tobacco, ribbon, and other trifles." The flag of Chile was hoisted 
on the castle of Osorio on the 26th of February ; some cannon, 
forty muskets, and ammunition were found there, but no resistance 
was made, the Spaniards having escaped to Chiloe. 

Meantime, in consequence of the damage sustained by the O'Hig- 
gins when she struck at Quinquina, she was disabled from o-oino- to 
sea, and was therefore hove down at Valdivia to be repaired, while 
the admiral returned to Valparaiso in the Montezuma. Upon his 
departure, some feeble efforts were made by the dispersed Spaniards 
to repossess themselves of Valdivia, and to induce the Indians to fall 
upon Beauchef: but that brave officer speedily put an end to the 
struggle, and placing sufficient guards in Osorio and other posts, 
fixed his own head-quarters at Valdivia. 



g2 INTRODUCTION. 

As soon as Lord Cochrane arrived in Valparaiso, he despatched 
the Independencia and Araucana with every thing necessary for 
repairing the O'Higgins, and with orders to return with her to that 
port as soon as possible. The great expedition, so long looked for- 
ward to, for the coast of Peru was now to be undertaken. The 
political temper of the Peruvians, and especially of the people of 
Lima, was ripe for it. A considerable body of troops had been 
assembled, and the taking of Valdivia having driven the enemy from 
his last strong hold in Chile, it only remained to prepare and victual 
the fleet in order to attack the provincial capital itself; and it was 
resolved that immediately after the next rainy season the expedition 
should sail. * 

Meanwhile the ships were employed under Lord Cochrane' s own 
eye, in surveying the coast in the neighbourhood of Valparaiso ; par- 
ticularly the bays Concon and Quintero, the former at the mouth of 
a very large river, and which might be important as a port for em- 
barking produce brought down the river from the interior ; the 
latter as being a fine harbour, better defended from the winds than 
that of Valparaiso, and better situated with regard to the facility of 
wood, water, and provisions, though more distant from the capital. 
Some of the ships' crews were also employed in forming piers for 
the embarkation of the troops, in fitting transports and other pre- 
parations for the expedition. 

But the short-sighted policy of the financiers of these new govern- 
ments who will not see that it is more profitable to purchase good- 
will and faithful service by punctual payment to the soldiers and 
sailors, than to retain the money in their hands, even if they trade 
with it, or lend it for usury, which is not uncommon, had nearly 
unmanned their squadron, and deprived them of half their officers, f 

* The instructions of the Viceroy Pezuela to the governor of Valdivia, found in the 
public office of the place, urge him strongly to maintain himself there ; not only as pre- 
serving a footing in Chile, but as preventing the government from making the threatened 
attack on Peru, by diverting a considerable part of the forces. (See Gazette of the 22d 
and 29th of April, 1820.) 

f On this occasion it was that Lord Cochrane offered the estate to be sold to pay the 
people. 



INTRODUCTION. 53 

The discontent broke out in the San Martin and Araucana early in. 
May ; but it was not until the middle of July that the only proper 
and just remedy was applied, that of paying the people and officers, 
which immediately restored tranquillity, and nothing of any moment 
occurred before the sailing of the ti'oops for Peru. 

While the arms of Chile were thus successful, the civil government 
was, at least, improving. Some sort of order had been introduced 
into the financial department ; and, although the custom-house 
regulations were still, in great part, formed upon the ancient narrow 
Spanish system, there was a considerable improvement even in them. 
A college had been instituted in Santiago, and other works of utility 
had been carried into effect. A public library was founded, a theatre 
was built, and the director had even intended to have erected a tele- 
graph ; but the prejudices of the people, and especially the priests, 
against such a miraculous mode of communication, were too strong, 
and a telegraph must wait, at least, twenty years before it can be 
admitted in Chile. 

But the army destined for Peru was now (August, 1820,) assembled 
at Valparaiso, and the name of Exercito Libertadore (liberating 
army) was resounded in all parts. The director had come to Val- 
paraiso to be present at the sailing of the squadron ; and he and 
General San Martin, who was appointed captain-general of the liber- 
ating forces, renewed solemnly those protestations in favour of 
Peruvian liberty which they had formerly made in the proclamations 
issued by them, and distributed among the people of Peru, during 
the preceding 18 months. In one of those of O'Higgins, dated 
Feb. 1819 *, he says, after telling them the expedition is almost 
ready — " Do not think that we pretend to treat you as a conquered 
" people; such a desire could have entered into the heads of none 
" but those who are inimical to our common happiness. We only 
" aspire to see you free and happy : yourselves will frame your govern- 
" merit, choosing that form which is most consistent with your cus- 



See Appendix. 



64 



INTRODUCTION. 



" toms, your situation, and your wishes. You will be your own 
" legislators, and, consequently, you will constitute a nation as free 
" and as independent as ourselves." 

In another of a later date, he says — 

" Peruvians, — These are the compacts and conditions on which 
" Chile will affront death and toil to save you, contracted in the 
" presence of the Supreme Being, and calling on all nations to bear 
" witness, and to avenge their violation. You shall be free and 
" independent ; your laws and your government shall be constituted 
" by the sole spontaneous will of your representatives. No in- 
" fluence, civil or military, direct or indirect, shall be exercised by 
" these your brothers, over your social institutions. You shall send 
" away the armed force that is now going to pi-otect you the moment 
" you will ; and no pretext of your danger or your security shall serve 
" to keep it with you, against your consent. No military division shall 
" ever occupy a free town, unless invited by the lawful magistrates ; 
" and the peninsular parties and opinions that preceded the times of 
" your independence shall not be punished by us, or by. our help." 

A long proclamation* of San Martin, dated March, 1819, speaks 
the same language. After declaring that he is justly empowered by 
the Independent States of the United Provinces of South America 
and of Chile, to enter Peru, in order to defend the cause of freedom ; 
he laments, at large, over the slavery of that kingdom, and rejoices 
that deliverance is at hand. " My address," he says, " is not that of 
" a conqueror, who treats of systematizing a new slavery. The force 
" of things has prepared this great day of your political emancipation, 
" and I can be only the accidental instrument of justice, and the 
" agent of destiny." He then goes on exulting in the certainty of 
victory over the oppressors, saying, " The result of the victory must 
" be, that the capital of Peru will see, for the first time, its sons 
" united, and freely electing a government, and appearing in the face 
" of the world in the rank of nations." Such were the views held 

* See Appendix. 



INTRODUCTION. g 5 

out by the chiefs of the expedition. Views in which Lord Cochrane 
sincerely participated ; and his sentiments in favour of leaving the 
Peruvians to govern themselves were so well understood, that San 
Martin, fearing lest they should thwart some private projects of his 
own, actually obtained from the Chileno government secret instruc- 
tions, empowering him to act as a check on the admiral's conduct ; 
but it was long ere he found it convenient to make known that he 
possessed such instructions. 

The Chileno officers, both native and foreign, of the army and 
navy, certainly believed in the sincerity of their leaders ; and they 
imagined that, prepared as Peru was to receive them, they would have 
been led immediately to attack the capital, in order to put an end 
to the war at once. All were in the highest spirits, and on the 21st 
of August, 1820, San Martin hoisted the captain-general's flag on 
board the ship named after himself, and sailed with the squadron 
and transports, amidst the congratulations of all ranks of people. 
San Martin had with him the soldiers of Chacabuco and Maypu ; 
and Lord Cochrane himself commanded the squadron. Victory was 
considered as certain ; and the departure of the army was like a 
triumph. * 

The soldiers and sailors were animated by the hopes of extraordi- 
nary rewards : San Martin having promised them a bounty of a year's 
pay, in addition to their wages, on the taking of Lima. 

At Coquimbo, the squadron stopped to take in more provisions, 
and to embark the troops assembled in that town, and then pro- 
ceeded towards Peru. Meantime, the director declared all the ports 
between lat. 2° 12' and 21° 48' south, or from Iquique to Guayaquil 
in a state of blockade, unless they should fall into the hands of the 
Chileno leaders : but in order not to oppress neutrals more than was 
necessary, the admiral had full powers to grant licenses upon certain 
conditions, for landing or trans-shipping their cargoes, f 



* Among the poems that appeared on the occasion, the farewell of the ladies of Chile 
to the liberating army, and the answer, are the most considerable. 

t Against this blockade the British commander-in-chief remonstrated, somewhat intem- 

K 



66 INTRODUCTION. 

This necessary document being published, the director next caused 
a manifesto to be circulated, dated 31st of August, 1820. It is en- 
titled " Manifesto from the Captain-General of the Army, Don 
" Bernardo O'Higgins, to the People whom he governs." It begins 
by congratulating them on the sailing of the Liberating Expedition, 
and then proceeds to give a short but clear statement of his political 
life, and the events, civil and military, in which he had been engaged. 
He says ; " Educated in the free country of England, that desire for 
" independence which is born with every man in the climate of 
" Arauca was strengthened. Loving liberty, both from sentiment 
" and principle, I swore to assist in procuring that of my country, 
" or to bury myself under its ruins." The paper is well written, 
and the sentiments expressed do honour both to the head and heart 
of the supreme director, whose personal character has always been 
esteemed, while such of his actions as have dissatisfied the people 
have uniformly been ascribed to the influence of his ministers. 

Meanwhile, the expedition had arrived at Pisco. On the 7th of 
September, the squadron passed San Gallan, and anchored off that 
place at six o'clock in the evening. Lord Cochrane immediately 
proposed to land a small detachment, and surprise the town before 
the enemy should have time to convey away the slaves, cattle, and 
provisions. The army was in want of recruits and horses, and as the 
ships were scantily victualled, it was of importance to secure the 
spirits and other stores known to be at Pisco : but this proposal of 
his lordship's appeared too hazardous to the captain-general, and the 
attack on the place was postponed till next morning. On the 8th, 
therefore, the first division of the troops was landed under General 
Las Heras, with two pieces of artillery, and formed into two squares, 
each of 1000 men, on the burning beach of Paraca, where they con- 

perately, telling Chile in so many words, that a little nation had no business to attempt a 
great operation ; and saying something about the law of nations, as if that law was not 
the same for little as well as great nations. The answer written by Zenteno, told him* 
that the Esmeralda had been taken, and that the addition of force gained by it gave Chile 
quite enough ships to maintain the blockade. Gazette, Feb. 24. 1821. See Appendix. 



INTRODUCTION. 6 7 

tinued until sunset. Meantime, about sixty of the enemy's horse 
were seen on a hill above, having come apparently to reconnoitre, 
but they were dispersed by a few shots from the Montezuma ; and 
when the troops at length arrived in Pisco, after a march of six hours, 
they found that the Spaniards had conveyed away all the stores, and 
had sent the slaves and cattle into the interior, they themselves had 
retired to lea, leaving nothing behind but jars of the brandy of the 
country, generally called Pisco : this was divided between the fleet 
and the army, and was most acceptable to the sailors, as they were in 
great want of spirits or wine. The next day the rest of the troops 
landed, and head- quarters were fixed at Pisco, whence regular bul- 
letins were issued, containing rather pompous details of the feats of 
the great expedition ; and several proclamations relative to the good 
order and discipline of the troops. In these bulletins, the real 
failures or oversights in the marching, ordering, or commanding the 
troops were corrected for the public eye. The foraging parties 
brought in horses and cattle sufficient for the army, but the fleet con- 
tinued without adequate supplies. 

During the fifty days that the head-quarters of the army were at 
Pisco, Colonel Arenales occupied lea, Palque, Nazca, and Acari, 
taking a quantity of military stores, and revolutionising the country 
as he marched : but the captain-general remained completely in- 
active. Indeed, from the 26th of September to the 4th of October, 
he was carrying on a negotiation with the viceroy, an armistice 
having been concluded at Miraflores for that purpose. What the 
hopes of either party could have been, from the negotiation seem 
unintelligible. The grounds, however, on which the viceroy treated, 
were, that the king of Spain had sworn to adhere to the constitution 
in the month of March preceding. The same constitution had been 
published in Lima on the 9th, and sworn to on the 15th of this very 
month. Was it by Pezuela's authority, and on account of the arrival 
of the liberating force, that he had given directions, in consequence, 
that all the states, which had in fact separated themselves from the 
mother-country, should be invited to rejoin her, under the protection 

k 2 



68 



INTRODUCTION. 



of the constitution, their first magistrates receiving all the honours, 
and all the consideration consistent with the dignity of the Spanish 
crown ? 

But Pezuela must have been strangely deceived as to the temper 
of the South Americans, if he could have imagined that on such 
vague invitations, they would give up that independence that had 
already cost them so much : or, that an army, like that now at Pisco, 
would quietly withdraw from an enemy's country, on the mere requi- 
sition of its government. However, that no opportunity might be 
neglected of attaining that freedom peaceably, which, if not conceded 
by Spain, every man had sworn to die for, the proposals of the 
viceroy were listened to, and Colonel Don Tomas Guido and the 
secretary, Garcia del Rio *, were appointed plenipotentiaries on the 
occasion. But, as the viceroy insisted on the submission of all the 
South American provinces to the crown and cortes of Spain, the ne- 
gotiation fell to the ground. The most conciliatory paragraph to be 
found in the viceroy's letters, after telling San Martin that his best 
way would be to submit to the king, and swear to the constitution, 
is the following : — " Although the Americans may have made some 
" objections, and some complaints concerning points in which they 
" feel themselves aggrieved, this appears to be of little moment; 
" for I assure your excellency, that wherever their complaints are 
" reasonable, they will be done justice to by the cortes and the king." f 
And on other grounds than that of first taking the oaths to the con- 
stitution of the cortes, the viceroy refused to treat, while the deputies 
of San Martin insisted on his recognizing the full authority of Chile 
as an independent representative government. The truce of Mila- 
flores was, therefore, speedily ended, and hostilities were declared to 
have recommenced on the 4th of October, on which day the news of 
the revolution of Guayaquil arrived. 

The commander-in-chief having sufficiently recruited his army, 

* The same who was afterwards employed in conjunction with Paroissien, in libelling 
Lord Cochrane, not only in Chile, but in Brazil as well as in England, 
f See the Gazettes, and the manifesto printed at Pisco, Oct. 13.1 820. 



INTRODUCTION. go, 

during fifty days at Pisco, re-embarked on the 28th of October *, and 
directed his course to the northward, but not, as every officer and 
man in the army hoped, to Lima itself. His first intention was to go 
to Truxillo, a town not less than four degrees to leeward of Callao, 
and where the army could have had no advantage, but that of being 
safe from an attack from Lima, as it was not approachable by land, 
and the squadron would have protected it by sea : with some difficulty 
General San Martin was prevailed on to abandon this plan, and to 
approach a little nearer the principal point of attack. Had he done 
so at once, the people were all so prepared throughout the country 
for receiving the liberating forces with open arms, that his success 
was certain : but he lingered. Some declared too soon for him ; and 
they were fined or imprisoned, or corporally punished by the viceroy ; 
others rendered cautious, demurred on the approach of San Martin's 
people about supplying them, and they were treated by him with 
military rigour; thus the people were worn out, and harassed till 
they looked upon both parties alike as oppressors, and lost the taste 
for national independence introduced by the violation of civil liberty. 
The General's conduct appears to have been guided by an idea, that 

* The only event that marked the interval was the death of the auditor, General Jonte, 
on the 22d : the whole army mourned three days for him : this man had been one of the 
agents for Chile in England. He was one of those who mistake cunning for wisdom, and 
scrupled not to employ any petty means of obtaining the information he wanted, and of 
which he made use either for himself or his employers, well knowing how to dole it out. 
Such men, as they begin by the petty tricks of espionage, are apt to contract a love for 
the thing itself. Hence, not only public papers, but private letters, are violated ; and 
I have seen an account of cattle opened, examined, and sealed up again, with wily 
cautiousness, in order to see if the very cow-keepers wrote politics. As for Jonte, his 
curiosity had become a passion almost insatiable, and the meannesses which he would 
have started from on other accounts, were practised daily by him for its gratification. It 
was believed, that he had been commissioned to offer Peru, Chile, and, I think, the 
Buenos Ayrian provinces as a sovereignty, first to a prince of the blood-royal of England, 
and next to a Bourbon prince. If so, it could have been only with a view of inducing 
those powers to stand by in neutrality, in hopes of a rich possession, while the Spanish 
American colonies were struggling for their freedom. The petty scheme was worthy of 
its authors, who certainly never meant to realise such plans, but merely to bribe England 
and France to abstain from assisting Old Spain : the cunning was childish and useless, and 
it marks the weakness of the employers of Jonte. 



70 INTRODUCTION. 

by simply appearing on the coast he could frighten the viceroy into 
submission, and that by harassing the petty villages along the shore, 
he could possess himself of the castles of Callao. However, on the 
28th, as we have seen, he embarked ; on the 29th, the fleet anchored 
in the bay of Callao, and having gratified his curiosity by a sight of 
the castles, and the naval forces, the captain-general proceeded on 
the 30th to Ancon, where he remained with the troops on board 
the transports for ten days. Meantime, on the 2d of November, 
the regiment of Numancia deserted the Spaniards and joined the 
patriots. 

While the army was thus inactive, Lord Cochrane had been dili- 
gently employed in reconnoitring Callao, having formed the design 
of seizing the frigate Esmeralda, of 40 guns, -which then lay in 
the bay under protection of the castles. Besides 300 pieces of artil- 
lery on shore, she was defended by a strong boom and chain-moor- 
ings ; several tiers of old ships, armed as block-ships, guarded her ; 
she was surrounded by 27 gun-boats of different sizes ; and the 
enemy, dreading, lest she should be attacked, had supplied her and 
the block-ships with additional men, so that she had about 370 on 
board of the best sailors and marines that could be procured, and 
they had slept at quarters for six weeks. On the fifth of November, 
the purpose for which the necessary preparations for the enterprise 
had been made was first communicated to the officers and ships' 
companies ; when the following address was read to them : — 

" Marines and seamen ! 

" This night we are going to give the enemy a mortal blow: 
" to-morrow you 'will present yourselves proudly before Callao, and 
" your companions will look on you with envy. One hour of cou- 
" rage and resolution is all that you require in order to triumph. 
" Remember, that you are the conquerors of Valdivia : and do not 
" fear those who are accustomed to fly from you on all sides. 

" The value of all the ships taken in Callao will be yours ; and 
" besides, the same sum will be distributed among you, that has 



INTRODUCTION. 72 

" been offered in Lima to those who shall capture any vessel of the 
" Chilian squadron.* The moment of glory approaches : I trust 
" that the Chilenos will fight as they have done hitherto, and that 
" the English will do as they always have done, both in their own 
" country and elsewhere. 

" Cochrane." 

" On board the 0'Higgins f 
" Nov. 5th, 1820. 

The whole of the marines and seamen of the 0'Higgins,Lautaro,and 
Independencia, volunteered for the service, but 240 only were accepted ; 
and at eight o'clock in the evening all the boats, fourteen in number, 
assembled alongside of the O'Higgins, with their crews dressed in 
white, and each armed with a cutlass and pistol. The first division 
of boats was intrusted to Captain Crosbie, the second to Captain 
Guise; and, at 10 o'clock, Lord Cochrane, having given a few orders 
enjoining strict silence and the exclusive use of swords, got into his 
boat and pulled directly for Callao. They were first challenged by 
one of the gun-boats astern of the Esmeralda, when Lord Cochrane, 
rising in the boat and drawing his sword, said in an under tone, 
" Silencio o Muerte !" and was obeyed. He demanded the sign 
and countersign of the night. Victoria — Gloria ; a good omen, 
and they passed on unmolested. In a few minutes the boats were 
alongside of the frigate, the starboard and larboard side being boarded 
at once. Lord Cochrane was the first man on board, and was shot 
immediately, through the flesh of the right-thigh just above the 
knee ; but, having first seized the sentinel who fired at him by the 
heel and thrown him overboard, he seated himself on the hammock- 
netting and continued to give his orders. Meantime the Spaniards 
had retreated to the forecastle, .and seemed resolved to defend their 
post. Twice did Captains Guise and Crosbie charge along the gang- 



* The sum of 50,000 dollars having been offered by the Spaniards for a Chileno frigate, 
the same sum was levied on them on the fall of Lima, as if for the captors of the Esme- 
ralda ; but the money was appropriated by San Martin, and neither that nor the value of 
the vessel ever paid. 



72 INTRODUCTION. 

ways at the head of their divisions and were repulsed ; and it was 
not until the third attack that they carried it. The marines, to a man, 
had fallen in their place on the quarter-deck. 

The fight was renewed on the main deck, but it was, in comparison, 
feebly sustained, most of the people having now taken refuge in the 
hold, and the ship at length surrendered. 

Lord Cochrane now ordei'ed the boats to be manned, that he might 
pursue his plan of taking out the Maypu and some other vessels ; but 
the men were busy plundering, and the darkness and confusion ren- 
dered it impossible to enforce the order. Besides, the castles had 
begun a heavy fire upon the frigate ; and, although she had hoisted 
the same lights with the neutral ships, the Hyperion, English frigate *, 
and the Macedonia, United States' ship of war, the firing continued; 
so that to prevent her being damaged, her sails were set and her chain 
cables cut, and she was anchored out of gun-shot, with two of the 
largest gun-boats which Lord Cochrane had also taken. 

The enemy's loss in killed, wounded, and drowned, was very great. 
All the officers, three of whom were wounded, were taken prisoners, 
and Captain Coig, the commander, received a severe contusion from 
a ball from the batteries ; 150 of the crew were also taken, with the 
standard of the commander-in-chief; a considerable quantity of naval 
stores, and some treasure. The loss on the Chileno side was 15 killed 
and fifty wounded. 

Although Lord Cochrane was not able to complete the whole of 
his plan, the success he had gained surpassed all that had ever been 
done or imagined in those seas ; and, indeed, if we except his own 
actions in the service of his own country j-, no age or nation has 

: The Hyperion and Macedonia had hoisted lights to distinguish them as neutrals. 
A midshipman of the Hyperion was standing on the gangway looking on, and seeing 
Lord Cochrane's noble bearing, clapped his hands in congratulation, and exclaimed, " Well 
and Englishly done !" Captain S. reprimanded him, ordered him below, and threatened 
to put him under arrest ! Had Lord Cochrane been an enemy, a generous man would 
have felt with the midshipman; — but a neutral and a countryman ! — The Macedonia 
behaved very differently. 

f See the English Gazettes, of Aug. 1801, for the taking of the Spanish zebeck by 
the Speedy, in 1801 ; and from that time to Basque Roads, a series of exploits, of which 
every Englishman is proud. 



INTRODUCTION. 73 

witnessed so bold a design so ably executed. But who ever pos- 
sessed, like him, the quick eye to perceive every advantage; the 
resolute spirit to undertake ; and, above all, the perfect self-posses- 
sion, in every situation, that is necessary to accomplish great actions ! 
The secrecy with which this blow was planned, and the suddenness 
of the execution, secure to Lord Cochrane the double praise of the 
politician and the warrior. " For the helmet of Pluto," says Lord 
Bacon, " which maketh the politic man to go invisible, is secrecy in 
" the council and celerity in the execution ; there is no secrecy com- 
" parable to celerity ; like the motion of a bullet in the air, which 
" flyeth so swift as it outruns the eye." 

Coriolanus, when his country was ungrateful, went and commanded 
the armies of her enemies and revenged himself. Alcibiades fled to 
a tyrant's court, and disgraced the land he had left by his excesses; 
and most of those who have been obliged to " teach them other 
tongues, and to become no strangers to strange eyes," have followed 
either the one example or the other. But Lord Cochrane, when he 
left his beloved home, refused the splendid offers of a court, because 
he could not fight against the principles of his country, but went to 
a remote and feeble nation and employed his talents in assisting the 
sacred cause of national independence. And though, as all things 
sublunary are imperfect, Chile is still far from enjoying all the ad- 
vantages that she should derive from that blessing for which he 
fought, — his part was done : the fleets of the oppressors were driven 
from the shores of the Pacific ; and some principles established, and 
some seeds of future good were sown, that will immortalise him as a 
benefactor to mankind as well as a hero — things too often, alas! 
so widely different. But to return to our narrative. 

On the morning of the 6th, a horrible massacre was committed 
chiefly by the women of Callao on the boats' crews of the Mace- 
donia. It was not believed that Lord Cochrane with boats alone 
could have cut out the Esmeralda without the assistance of the 
English ships ; and, as the people could not distinguish between the 
English and North Americans, they fell on the boats' crews that had 

L 



74 



INTRODUCTION. 



gone as usual to the market-place for fresh beef and vegetables, and 
butchered the greater part of them. As soon as this was reported 
at the castle, the governor sent out troops to protect the strangers, 
and the few that escaped owed their lives to this precaution. The 
admiral procured an exchange of prisoners on this occasion. 

The same evening the Araucano carried the news to Ancon, where 
it was received in the most enthusiastic manner by the army. On 
the 8th the O'Higgins and Esmeralda also arrived at Ancon, where 
again the army cheered the admiral, and were full of hopes that they 
should now attack the town. Guayaquil had declared itself inde- 
pendent ; the Numantian regiment had joined the liberating force. 
The enemy's best ship was taken, and the moral effect of these 
events, not to speak of the daily, though slight advantages gained by 
several officers, were calculated not only to elevate the patriots and 
to encourage their secret friends to declare themselves, but to dispirit 
the enemy. But though every thing seemed to court him to action, 
San Martin could by no means be induced to change his cautious 
plans, and therefore on the 9th he proceeded to Huacho, still farther 
from Lima, and, with the whole army, disembarked and fixed his 
head-quarters at Supe, whence he proposed to detach one-half of his 
army to Guayaquil, probably with a view to secure that province as 
part of his future empire. This most imprudent scheme was how* 
ever abandoned, and the general contented himself with causing the 
troops to fall back from Chancay to Huaura, at the very time 
when, in addition to the happy circumstances already mentioned, 
Truxillo * had emancipated itself, and General Arenales had obtained 
a decided victory over the royalists under General O'Reilly at 
Pasco, on the 6th of December, "f The troops soon began to feel the 
bad effects of the unhealthy situation of Huaura, and nearly one- 

* The province of Truxillo was declared free on the 29th of December by the Governor, 
the Marques de Torre Tagle. 

f The enemy's loss was 58 killed, 18 wounded, 343 prisoners, including 28 officers, 
two pieces of artillery, 300 muskets, the banners, ammunition, &c. ; the rout was so 
complete, that O'Reilly fled with only three lancers, the battle having lasted forty minutes. 
Arenales lost one officer and five men killed, and twelve wounded. 



INTRODUCTION. 75 

third of them died of fever during the many months they continued 
there. 

Meantime Don Tom as Guido and Colonel Luzuriago were de- 
puted to Guayaquil to return the compliments paid to the liberating 
chiefs by Escobedo, the chief of that city, who had offered all the 
assistance of the rich province of which it is the capital, towards the 
accomplishment of their designs. Other views were also in San 
Martin's contemplation : the extraordinary successes of Bolivar in 
the north had given rise to the idea that his indefatigable zeal might 
lead him to the provinces of Peru. But it was by no means the wish 
of San Martin that such an expedition should be so far successful 
as to deprive him of any part of the empire he had now begun to 
contemplate for himself. His deputies, therefore, represented that 
on the fall of Lima, Guayaquil would become the principal port of 
a great empire, that the establishment of the docks and arsenals 
which San Martin's navy would require, must enrich not only the 
individuals actually concerned in them, but the whole city ; whereas, 
if Guayaquil were subdued by Bolivar, it would be considered only 
as a conquered province, and of scarcely any importance to the 
immense state of Columbia. The existing government was therefore 
persuaded to form a militia, and to take every measure for keeping 
out any Columbian invader. 

This was not the only negotiation carried on from head-quar- 
ters at Supe : a correspondence, voluminous enough for the whole 
states of South America, took place between San Martin and the 
viceroy, sometimes concerning the exchange of prisoners, sometimes 
that of titles of honour, and now and then the liberator complains 
of the petty abuse of the Lima newspapers, which complaints are 
retorted by the viceroy. 

Nor was the press of Supe idle ; besides the bulletins of the liberat- 
ing army, edicts were published calling upon slaves to join the army, 
and promising to pay their masters ; and flattering proclamations 
addressed to the European Spaniards. 

Since the departure of the expedition from Chile, the director and 
senate had been uniformly engaged in endeavours to increase the 

l 2 



76 INTRODUCTION. 

revenue : but they wanted the principles of political economy, and 
were never able to effect more than temporary supplies. They were 
more successful in the other branches of government : the laws 
concerning marriage were revised and placed on a more liberal foot- 
ing than before. The police of the capital was improved, and gene- 
rally speaking, a stricter execution of the laws provided for. The 
southern provinces however had been disturbed by the activity of 
Benevidies, a man of a ferocious character, who rendered himself 
hateful, not only by his rigorous obedience of his orders from Spain 
not to give quarter to Europeans found in arms in favour of the 
patriots, but by extending the cruel practice to the natives them- 
selves of all ranks. The atrocities on both sides were shocking to 
humanity, and the scandalous manner in which the priests prostituted 
Christianity to the purposes of policy and war is not among the 
least revolting circumstances of the time* ; upon the whole, the end of 
the year 1820 was far from being favourable on the southern frontier. 
About this time, two circumstances occurred characteristic of the 
times, but otherwise of no importance. An English vessel put into 
San Carlos of Chiloe in distress, in order to refit and revictual ; 
the governor seized the crew, alleging that Lord Cochrane and 
most of the crews of the Chile squadron were English, and that but 
for them the enemies of the king, his master, could never succeed. 
The other circumstance seems to give countenance to the idea that 
at some time and by some party, an imperial crown in South Ame- 
rica had been offered to a Bourbon prince. Papers from Rio de 
Janeiro had stated that a number of French ships of war had ar- 
rived in the southern seas to convoy a great personage, whose views 
were however, for the present, frustrated by the actual state of Buenos 
Ayres. Shortly after the arrival of this report, several French ships 
of war did actually double Cape Horn, and enter different harbours 
in Chile, upon which the minister of marine applied by letter to the 

* A figure of the Virgin was placed in a conspicuous situation ; the patriot flag was 
presented to her, she shook her head ; — a Spanish flag was brought, the arms of the 
figure instantly embraced it ; and the omen was of course accepted by the multitude. 



INTRODUCTION. 77 

French commodore, to know why they had come into the Pacific. 
The answer calmed all their fears. In a very polite letter, M. Jurien 
assured the government of Chile, that the only object of His Most 
Christian Majesty for sending ships thither, was to form his young 
naval officers, and survey those seas. 

Meanwhile, the blockade of Callao was carried on vigorously by 
Lord Cochrane ; on the 2d of December, 16 gun-boats came out of 
the bay to attack the O'Higgins and Esmeralda, but after an action 
of upwards of an hour they were obliged to retire, with loss. A 
similar attempt was made, with the like success on the 26th, but 
nothing farther occurred till the beginning of 1821, except the taking 
of several prizes, chiefly laden with provisions. The month of Ja- 
nuary was employed in a similar manner ; the squadron keeping up 
a close blockade, and detachments of the army under Arenales, &c. 
gaining slight advantages in the neighbourhood, but the main body 
continuing totally inactive. 

The month of February was every way more remarkable. In the 
first place, General Lacerna superseded Pezuela as viceroy of Peru, 
by the will of the soldiery ; in the next, San Martin published, on 
the 12th, a "Provisional regulation to establish the bounds of the 
" territory actually occupied by the liberating army, and the form of 
" administration to be observed until a central authority may be 
" constituted by the will of the free cities." A few phrases of which 
are worth transcribing, to show the style and spirit of the captain- 
general's publications. " Charged with restoring to this vast portion 
" of the American continent, its existence and its rights, it is one 
" of my duties to consult, without restriction, every means which 
" may contribute to that great work. Although victory should make 
" a strict alliance with my arms," there would remain a perilous void 
" in the engagements I have contracted if I did not prepare in anti- 
" cipation the elements of universal reform, which it is neither 
" possible to perfect in one day, nor just to defer entirely under any 
" pretext. The most brilliant successes in war, and the most glori- 
" ous enterprises of the genius of man can only excite in the people 
" a sentiment of admiration mingled with anxiety, if they do not 



78 INTRODUCTION. 

" perceive, as their termination, the amelioration of their institutions, 
" and an indemnification for their actual sacrifices. Between the 
" shoal of premature reform, and the danger of leaving abuses un- 
" touched, there is a mean whose amplitude is pointed out by the 
" circumstances of the moment and the great law of necessity." 
After a good deal more of the same kind, there follow twenty regu- 
lations, in not one of which is a single evil removed ; but they all 
relate to the appointment of new governors, and tax-gatherers, and 
to his own full powers to rule ; and especially to punish those whose 
political proceedings shall be offensive to him, or contrary to his views. 

But the jealousy which had begun to intrigue against Lord Coch- 
rane, even before his arrival, was now about to break out in a manner 
highly disgraceful to many of the officers of the Chileno squadron, 
and extremely injurious to the cause they served. Each, having 
come out as an independent adventurer, conceived, notwithstanding, 
that Chile had formally adopted the rules and regulations of the Bri- 
tish service, that the ship he was appointed to was his own ; and that 
his obedience to the admiral was in a manner optional, particularly 
in matters concerning the officers of those ships. Such ideas neces- 
sarily disturbed the discipline and good order of the service ; and, 
unfortunately, the supplies to the squadron were so scanty, both as 
to war and sea stores, and clothing, and even victuals for the crews, 
that there was always some ground for complaints, and always too 
good a reason for overlooking improprieties, that might otherwise, 
probably, have been checked and prevented from growing into seri- 
ous evils. 

On the 28th of January, the government, wishing to compliment 
Lord Cochrane, resolved to change the name of the frigate Esmeralda. 
They had already a Lautaro, an O'Higgins, and a San Martin, in the 
squadron, and intended to have the Cochrane, but His Lordship chose 
rather to call her the Valdivia, in commemoration of the taking of 
that place ; on which the surgeon, purser, and two of the lieutenants, 
wrote a most insolent letter to Lord Cochrane, stating that they had 
no objection to the ship being called Cochrane, but they thought her 
new name ought to have some reference to her captors, and not to 



INTRODUCTION. 79 

be that of the man who had been the first tyrant in Chile. This was 
followed up by other letters equally improper ; so that in order to 
dissipate what was in reality a petty conspiracy, the admiral ap- 
pointed these gentlemen to other ships, and substituted other officers 
in the Valdivia. 

Notwithstanding this unpleasant business, however, Lord Coch- 
rane had formed a plan, which doubtless would have succeeded but 
for these cabals. Having carefully reconnoitred the bay of Callao 
himself, he intended to go in with the San Martin, and all the boats 
of the squadron, seize the ships and gun-boats, and turn all the 
enemy's own guns upon the castles. The officers and crew of the San 
Martin volunteered with three cheers for the service, and everything 
was appointed for the execution of this spirited project, when, just as 
it was to be carried into effect, Captain Guise declared he could not 
serve unless he had his own officers back ; Captain Spry declared he 
should stand by Captain Guise, and the whole squadron was in com- 
motion. On the 23d, these two officers resigned their commissions 
in the navy of Chile ; and on the 1st and 2d of March, a court-mar- 
tial was held on the officers of the Valdivia, when, Michael, the sur- 
geon, and Trew, the purser, were dismissed the service ; the lieu- 
tenants, Bell and Freeman, with Kenyon, the assistant-surgeon, dis- 
missed their ship ; and Captain Spry was also dismissed his ship and 
placed at the bottom of the list, by sentence of a court-martial. * 

These persons, together with Captain Guise, immediately pro- 
ceeded to San Martin to induce him to cause them to be reinstated, 
and he accordingly sent them back to Lord Cochrane with a request 
to that effect. To Captain Guise His Lordship offered his ship, and 
to the lieutenants, commissions in other ships ; but they refused to 
serve unless with their own captain, and by his order, and accordingly 
withdrew altogether from the service. The admiral was grieved not 
only at the occurrence which seemed to threaten the worst con- 
sequences to the squadron, but at the interference of the commander- 
in-chief in favour of these persons. Captain Guise's conduct seems 

* Captain Spry afterwards deserted. 



80 INTRODUCTION. 

to have been a renewal of that hostile spirit, which at Valparaiso had 
instigated the contemptuous and insolent behaviour towards the 
admiral, that disgraced him before the sailing of the expedition, but 
which subsequent events seemed to have obliterated from the minds 
of both. Captain Spry was a low-minded man, and, perhaps, even 
then had in contemplation that treachery for which he was not long 
afterwards so liberally rewarded. His cunning had obtained great 
influence over Captain Guise, and he is believed to have been his 
chief adviser. 

The next occurrence worthy of notice is the second taking of Pisco. 
That wretched place, after having been forced to maintain the patriot 
army for fifty days, had again fallen into the hands of the Spaniards 
who had severely punished the defection of the inhabitants. It was 
retaken by 500 patriots, under Colonel Miller, on the 22d of March, 
who collected the first day 300 horses for the use of the army, and as 
many oxen, sheep, and mules. Lord Cochrane, who had accompanied 
this little expedition, hoisted his flag on the 18th on board the San 
Martin, leaving the O'Higgins and Valdivia to protect the troops at 
Pisco, and returned to Callao, where he again attacked the gun-boats 
with effect. Meanwhile General Arenales had obtained another 
decided advantage over General Ricaforte and 2000 men. 

Early in May a vigorous attack was made on Arica* ; but the land- 
ing-place being strongly fortified, the troops disembarked a little to 
the northward, and after the town had been bombarded for five days 
the Spaniards left it; and a considerable booty, besides 120,000 
dollars in money was collected. These successes of the patriots 
induced the new viceroy to propose an armistice for three weeks to 
General San Martin, who gladly accepted it as the forerunner, it was 
hoped, of a pacific termination to a campaign wearisome to the 

* Arica, the capital of a province of the name, is the southernmost port of Peru. The 
mines of gold and of copper are extremely rich, but the want of water in their district, and 
indeed in the whole province, is an obstacle to working them properly. The valley 
behind the town is fertile, and produces an immense quantity of red pepper. The town 
has suffered severely from earthquakes, and in 1680, it was sacked by the notorious 
Captain Sharpe, from which misfortune it never entirely recovered. There is a great 
volcano in the eastern part of the province, from the side of which flows hot fetid water. 



INTRODUCTION. gl 

invaders, and cruelly oppressive to the inhabitants of the country. 
However, as General Lacerna was no more empowered than his 
predecessor to acknowledge the absolute independence of the South 
American colonists, the negotiation only served to gain a little 
breathing time to both parties. 

But the blockade had been maintained with such vigilance and 
spirit by the squadron, that the viceroy found the city was no longer 
tenable for want of provisions. The people had become clamorous, 
and all hope of assistance from Spain was abandoned ; therefore, on 
the 6th of July, Lacerna evacuated Lima, and the liberating force 
was eagerly expected by the inhabitants to take immediate posses- 
sion. Nevertheless, to the astonishment of both Peruvians and 
Chilenos as well as that of the neutrals in the harbour, San Martin's 
army made not the slightest movement towards the town until the 
9th, when a small detachment was sent thither. * In the interval, 
as all the troops were withdrawn and the government broken up, it 
was apprehended that serious disorders would take place in the city; 
and Captain Basil Hall of his Britannic Majesty's ship Conway, sent 
to offer the services of his seamen and marines to the cabildo, in 
order to maintain tranquillity and to protect both the public and 
private property. The general himself arrived at Callao in the 
schooner Sacramento, on the 6th or 7th ; and having waited till one 
detachment of his army was safely quartered in Lima, and a solemn 
deputation from the city to invite him to take possession had been 
sent to him, he landed and went thither quietly on the evening of 
the 10th. 

The first days were employed in publishing flattering proclam- 
ations, and in those acts of self-praise and congratulation which 
every general or army occupying a new territory is in the habit of 
indulging in, but which San Martin carried farther than any com- 
mander whose manifestoes I ever had occasion to see. Although he 

* Among other patriotic papers printed at the time, there was a sort of comedy, repre- 
senting the men and women of Lima all on the high road, looking anxiously for the 
excercito libertador, and lamenting the dilatoriness which keeps it from blessing their sight. 

M 



82 INTRODUCTION. 

had passed the time since his arrival on the coast of Peru in total 
inactivity, and although the capital had been reduced by famine 
occasioned by the exertions of the squadron, aided by the civil dis- 
sensions naturally arising from great private distress, yet he takes on 
himself the style and title of a conqueror, and, to read his official 
papers, one might think he had won the city by hard fighting. 
Callao, however, held out, though it was reduced to still greater 
straits by the occupation of Lima. The squadron continued to 
attack the forts and gun-boats on every opportunity ; and on the 
24th, Lord Cochrane, having observed an opening in the chain which 
secured the vessels, sent in Captain Crosbie with the small boats of 
the squadron that night, who brought out the San Fernando, Milagro, 
and Resolution, ships of war, besides several boats and launches, and 
burned two other vessels. A few days before, the squadron had 
suffered a severe loss in the San Martin which was wrecked at the 
Chorillas, having gone thither with corn to be sold to the poor at a 
low rate on the 15th July, and was totally lost on the 16th. * 

But the exultation and ferment occasioned by the attainment of the 
grand prize for which all the exertions of Chile had been made, 
occupied all tongues and all eyes. On the 28th the independence of 
Peru was solemnly sworn to ; but an incident happened that very 
night, which, like the sitting of Mordecai the Jew in the king's gate, 
poisoned the enjoyment of San Martin. Being at the theatre with 
Lord Cochrane, the people received them with the loudest acclam- 
ations : they gave San Martin all the epithets and titles that could 
gratify him, except that of brave, which they constantly coupled 
with Lord Cochrane's name ; an invidious distinction which he com- 
plained of to His Lordship on leaving the theatre, who generously 
made light of it, and applying the words addressed by Cromwell to 
Lambert, which Lambert afterwards recollected as a prophecy, he 
said,f " General, they are only old Spaniards, who would shout in the 

* This was prize corn belonging to the squadron, who cheerfully gave it up at the sug- 
gestion of San Martin, who took all the credit of the timely supply, while it was literally 
given by the ships. See the Gazettes and Proclamations of that date. 

f Bishop Burnet's history of his own times. 



INTRODUCTION. gg 

same manner if you and I were going to be hanged." To which he 
replied, vehemently repeating the words several times, " Oh, I will 
punish them in the most cruel manner." * From this moment his 
measures against the old Spaniards were determined, although the 
time was not yet arrived for completing his revenge. Nor were they 
alone the objects of his anger. To the jealous, " trifles light as air 
are confirmations strong as proofs of holy writ;" and I have no doubt 
that his jealousy of Lord Cochrane was increased to that fury which 
afterwards broke out, in great measure by this circumstance. 

On the 29th, the most solemn masses were performed in thanks- 
giving for the deliverance of Lima from the Spaniards; and San Martin, 
a professed unbeliever, not content with a decent acquiescence in 
the rites at which he was necessarily present, distinguished himself 
by a zeal for all holy things, an energy of worship, and, above all, by 
excessive veneration for the tutelar Saint Rosa f, which I think 
rather prejudiced than favoured his cause, even among the clergy 
themselves. But at this present juncture all means were to be re- 
sorted to to conciliate all men ; the clergy were particularly courted. 
A letter was written to the bishop to entreat him to use his good 
offices to keep the people quiet, and to show them the benefits of the 
new order of things. The Spaniards were flattered and assured of 
personal protection, and those who chose to remain were promised 
also the enjoyment of their whole property upon their soliciting or 
purchasing letters of citizenship. The officers of the squadron were 
caressed, and many of them flattered with assurances of honours, 
rewards, and personal friendship from the general. 

At length, on the fourth of August, the grand measure which all 
these preparatives announced was carried into effect ; and San Martin 
published a proclamation, declaring himself protector of Peru 
with an authority absolute and undivided. In direct violation of his 

* Je les traiterai de la maniere la plus feroce. — They were speaking French. 

f At her church they show the dice with which she used to play when Christ came to 
amuse her in peison. This is one of the most harmless and decent legends concerning 
her intercourse with the Saviour. 

M 2 



84 INTRODUCTION. 

former promises*, he tells the Peruvians that his ten years' experience 
of revolutions had proved to him the dangers of assembling con- 
gresses while the enemy still had footing in the country ; and that 
therefore, till the Spanish forces were entirely driven out, he should 
direct the affairs of Peru, though he sighed for a private station. 
He named Garcia del Rio his minister for foreign affairs, Bernardo 
Monteagado, minister of war and marine, and Torre Tagle that of 
finance. The despotism was absolute : all old laws were annulled, 
but nothing was substituted in their room but the protector's own 
will ; and it was not long before that will displayed itself in acts 
for which nothing can account but the intoxication occasioned by 
absolute power. 

No time was lost in transmitting the tidings of these transactions 
to the director of Chile ; and perhaps San Martin thought, that by 
sending him the four flags which Osorio had taken at Rancagua, and 
which were found in the cathedral at Lima, he made up for that 
breach of his oaths of fidelity to Chile and its government, which he 
had now virtually committed by declaring himself an independent 
chief.f 

Nor was this the only injury he meditated against the country he 
had left. The squadron had now been a year in constant activity ; 
scantily supplied at first with rigging and sails, and provisioned only 
for a few weeks, nothing could have maintained it, but the good 
conduct of the officers generally, and the activity and vigilance of 
its commander. Sometimes making use of the powers given him to 
commute custom-house duties into supplies for the fleet ; or, accord- 

* See Appendix, for San Martin's proclamation before the squadron sailed from Chile. 

f This seems indeed to have produced great effect on the director, who, in his circular 
letter published in the Gazette on the 25th August, 1821, congratulating the country on the 
success of the army and squadron, and on the acquisition of a sister republic, dwells at great 
length on the restoration of the flags in question. On the 30th of September they were 
sent in solemn procession, under an escort, to Rancagua, and delivered to the municipality, 
with a proclamation from the director. On the 2d of October, the anniversary of the 
unfortunate rout of Rancagua, they were conveyed to the altar of N. S. da Carmen, the 
protectress of the arms of Chile, and consecrated. The city presented a scene of festivity 
for several days. 



INTRODUCTION. 35 

ing to the same powers, granting licences to neutrals to trade on the 
blockaded coast, on the same consideration; at others, purchasing 
from his own private funds, and those of the officers of the squadron, 
the articles more immediately necessary ; or seizing and con verting 
the enemy's stores to the use of the patriots ; he had thus long kept 
the squadron afloat. But the time for which the greater part of the 
seamen had engaged was now expired, and they began to be cla- 
morous for their pay, more especially as the additional bounty of 
a year's wages, which was promised to them on the fall of Lima, 
seemed to have been forgotten. Lord Cochrane applied to San 
Martin on this head, on the day on which he became protector j 
excuses were first made on the score of want of funds, although the 
mint of Lima was in his hands ; but at length he declared that he 
would never pay the squadron of Chile, unless that squadron were 
sold to him by the admiral, and then the pay should be considered 
as part of the purchase money. The indignation expressed by Lord 
Cochrane on this occasion violently exasperated the new protector ; 
but as Callao had not yet fallen, his passions remained under some 
constraint, though his determination to possess the squadron was 
probably strengthened. This determination prompted him, in order 
to prevent the ships from withdrawing from the coast, to refuse all 
supplies and provisions, (so that the crew of the Lautaro was abso- 
lutely starved out, and obliged to abandon her,) in hopes of forcing 
the officers and men to go over to him. 

The day following, Lord Cochrane wrote a letter to the protector, 
in which he asks him, " What will the world say, if the protector of 
" Peru shall violate, by his very first act, the obligations of San 
" Martin ; even although gratitude may be a private and not a 
" public virtue? What will it -say, if the protector refuses to pay the 
" expenses of the expedition that has placed him in his present 
" elevated station ? — and what will be said if he refuses to reward the 
" seamen, who have so materially contributed to his success ?" Not- 
withstanding this letter, and others still more urgent to the same 
effect, nothing was done. The ships were left so destitute of sails, 
rigging, and stores, that their safety was endangered ; the provisions 



86 INTRODUCTION. 

were scanty, and consisted solely of old charqui * ; the men had no 
spirits, and their clothes now were in the most wretched condition. 
The admiral more than once represented that they were on the point 
of mutiny : he himself remained on board to tranquillise them ; for 
they now began to suspect that there had never been an intention 
of paying them, and they threatened to seize the ships, and pay 
themselves, by taking whatever vessels they found on the coasts. 
On the fifteenth of August, however, alarmed by the representations 
of Lord Cochrane, the protector renewed his promises of paying 
the squadron as soon as he should raise money sufficient, having 
allotted a fifth of the customs for that purpose. That fifth, however, 
was to be divided with the army ; and the sailors were too well 
accustomed to the nature of divisions with the army, not to be still 
further irritated by a promise that seemed but a mockery of their 
sufferings. 

But before I proceed with the affairs of the squadron, it will be 
necessary to return to those of the army for the last time, because as 
San Martin had now declared himself independent, and the liberating 
army of Chile had become the protecting army of Peru, my design 
is not to follow their history farther than as it is connected with the 
concerns of Chile and its squadron. 

On Lacerna's quitting Lima he retreated to Jauja, where he 
formed a junction with the Spanish General Canterac ; and they 
resolved, if possible, either to succour Callao, or at least to save 
the treasure which had been deposited there to a vast amount. 
Had San Martin continued the blockade of the fort by land, as he 
certainly might have done, especially as the squadron continued ac- 
tive in the bay, having, on the 15th of August, cut out two other 
ships and a brig from within the booms, such a scheme would 
have been hopeless ; but he had fallen back with his army under 
the walls of Lima, and Canterac, profiting by the circumstance, 
made a forced march, and on the 10th of September, reached the 
neighbourhood of Callao. San Martin's army was drawn up in order 

* Dried beef. 



INTRODUCTION. 87 

of battle. The brave General Las Heras and Lord Cochrane were 
on horseback, with some hundreds of officers and private gentlemen, 
eager to come to action ; the enemy's force was small compared to 
the protector's army, and the general himself, as he called to the 
two officers above-mentioned, seemed really animated with a sincere 
desire of action, and a determination to engage ; but he gradually 
cooled, wasted the morning in unimportant gossip, went to his 
customary siesta, and then ordered the soldiers to go to dinner. 
They however were resolved to exercise their sabres, and accordingly 
charged a flock of sheep, killed them, and then obeyed the General's 
latest orders, while the enemy, unmolested, proceeded to enter 
Callao. It was on this occasion that Las Heras, after having in vain 
urged the advantages of attacking Canterac, broke his sword, and 
vowed never again to wear the habit of that disgraceful day. * The 
admiral, (it was the last interview he ever had with San Martin,) also 
urged him, even at the last minute, and pointed out the way still left 
to preserve his own honour and that of the army ; when he answered, 
" I alone am responsible for the liberty of Peru," and retired. This 
scene was followed up on the 15th by one equally disgraceful to the 
general. Canterac's army retired from Callao, carrying with it the 
treasure, and all the military accoutrements, without even an attempt 
being made to stop them. 

Meantime Lord Cochrane and San Martin had both been endea- 
vouring to negotiate for the surrender of Callao, with La Mar the 
governor. Lord Cochrane, intending to fulfil his promises, offered 
to give safe conduct and personal protection to all, on condition of 
delivering the forts to the fleet, giving up one-third of the Spanish 
property, and paying passage money or freight to such ships as he 
should provide, to transport t'hem to any country. San Martin, 
however, who had no intention of keeping his word, offered un- 
limited and unconditional protection, both to persons and pro- 

* He kept his word, and retired to Chile, where he lived in retirement till San Martin 
fled thither in Oct. 1 823, when Las Heras retired to Buenos Ayres. 



88 INTRODUCTION. 

perty, on the individual's purchasing letters of citizenship. * Lord 
Cochrane's proposals were therefore rejected, and his hopes of 
obtaining thereby a sufficient sum for the payment of the seamen, 
and the repair and refitting of his ships, were frustrated, f He 
therefore resolved on a bold measure, but one which in the relative 
circumstances of all parties appears to me to be perfectly just. It 
must be remembered, as I have stated before, that the squadron had 
been twelve months at sea in constant activity ; the men had received 
neither pay nor clothing ; they had had no supplies of provisions but 
what they had captured, either on shore or at sea ; some of the ships 
were leaky, and all were in want of stores of every kind ; and, above 
all, the crews, who were at least half English, complained of the want 
of grog. The army, on the contrary, had been supplied with waste- 
ful profusion, and all the honours and all the advantages of the cam- 
paign had been bestowed on its soldiers ; its general had thrown off 
his allegiance to the country to which both army and navy had 
sworn to be faithful, and now wished to buy that fleet of its officers, 
which was, in the first place, not theirs to dispose of, and which 
they were bound to maintain for the Chilian government. San Mar- 
tin had promised not only to pay but to reward the fleet ; but he had 
failed to do either, and now denied his engagement to that purpose. 
He had also claimed for his own use several of the prizes made by 
the squadron. 

Alarmed by the advance of Canterac's troops, San Martin had sent 
all the money and bullion from the mint and treasury at Lima to 
Ancon, and shipped it on board the transports, by way of safety. 

* San Martin, after having gotten the old Spaniards into his power, exacted from them 
one-half of their property as a means of securing the rest; when they attempted to remove 
or transport the remainder, it was seized, and the persons of the Spaniards were, with few 
exceptions, imprisoned or murdered. 

f A great number of Spanish fugitives, with their property, having taken refuge in the 
vessels, Lord Lynedoch and St. Patrick, which were detained on that account, Lord 
Cochrane permitted them to ransom themselves, applying the money to the supply of the 
squadron. One or two, who preferred trusting to San Martin, were afterwards cruelly 
treated, and deprived of all their property. 



INTRODUCTION. gg 

Besides this treasure, there were other public monies, with consider- 
able sums belonging to individuals ; and also, on board the Sacra- 
mento, the protector's own private property in gold and silver, the 
latter of* which was in such quantity that the vessel threw out her 
ballast to make room for it ; and the coined gold had loaded four 
mules, not to speak of gold bullion.* 

As soon as Lord Cochrane knew that so much public property was 
on board the transports, he sailed for Ancon, where the Lautaro was 
then lying with the transports, and seized the whole of the money, 
excepting what was plainly proved to be private property f, and ex- 
cepting also, the cargo of the Sacramento, which was left untouched. 

The moment San Martin heard of the seizure, he employed every 
means of flattery and threats to induce Lord Cochrane to give up the 
public money, and to trust it in the hands of his commissioners, who, 
in order to save his dignity, would pay the ships' companies in his 
name ; but to this Lord Cochrane of course refused to consent, 
though, in hopes that the Protector would send a commissary on 
board to attend to it, he deferred the payment until the men became 
so discontented, having begun to desert for want of their pay, that 
he felt he could no longer delay it. Meantime the forts of Callao 
had surrendered to the republican flags of Peru and Chile ; and all 
farther dread of danger, from the squadron being in a state to leave 
the coast, being over, San Martin gave a reluctant consent to the 
payment of the squadron out of the money taken at Ancon. The 
ships' companies were immediately paid, and the officers, with the 
exception of Lord Cochrane himself, who received nothing, had 
their full arrears given them. 

This, however, was not done without further struggles on San 
Martin's part to gain possession of the money, or at least to revenge 
the taking of it ; to gain the first end, he had sent Monteagudo to talk 
to Lord Cochrane, well knowing that he was skilled to " make the 

* The general's aide-de-camp who embarked this private property, loaded the return 
mules with goods smuggled from an English vessel, the Rebecca. 

•J- Even after he had the treasure on board, all that could prove their right by any writ- 
ing or witness had their money restored, — this restitution amounted to 40,000 dollars. 

2V 



90 INTRODUCTION. 

worse appear the better cause ;" and then Lord Cochrane agreed, 
that on condition of receiving necessaries for the ships, and particu- 
larly anchors *, some portion of the bullion should be restored ; but 
as the stores, &c. were refused, the money, amounting to 285,000 
dollars was detained, and distributed as above stated ; regular ac- 
counts being kept, and all being placed to the credit of the Chileno 
government. The scheme for revenge was more successful. At 
midnight, on the 26th of September, the very day on which the Pro- 
tector had desired the admiral to make what use he pleased of the 
money, San Martin's two aides-de-camp, Captain Spry j" and Colo- 
nel Paroissien, boarded the several ships of the squadron, and then, 
for the first time, made known the secret instructions and full powers 
granted by Chile to the Protector concerning the squadron. Besides 
this communication, they offered commissions, and held out the 
prospect of honours, titles, and estates, to such as might desert 
and serve under Peru. Then, finding that the admiral had discovered 
their nocturnal visits, Paroissien insolently went to him, and held 
the same language ; hinting that it was better to be admiral of a 
rich country like Peru, than vice-admiral of so poor a province as 
Chile, and attempting anew to gain or bribe him. Of those officers 
who basely deserted their flag on these suggestions, most have been 
punished by the disappointment of their hopes, — and all by the 
contempt of both friends and enemies. The seamen were enticed to 
enter the Peruvian service by every possible means ; and, while on 
shore enjoying themselves after receiving their pay, were either bribed 
or threatened into compliance. Nay, the faithful officers were put 
into the guard-house for attempting to induce them to return to their 
former ships. Thus the squadron, in bad repair and scantily sup- 
plied, was half unmanned. Yet, under these circumstances, now that 
Callao had surrendered, San Martin peremptorily ordered Lord 

* Two that had been cut from the Esmeralda when she was taken, and one lost by the 
O'Higgins in an attack on Callao, were then in San Martin's possession, — he refused 
them. 

f The same who had been dismissed his ship by sentence of a court-martial, and had 
afterwards deserted. 



INTRODUCTION. gj 

Cochrane to leave the coast of Peru, with all the vessels under his 
command * ; on which order, communicated through Monteagudo, 
Lord Cochrane wrote the following letter to that minister, which I 
insert because it corroborates facts which might otherwise appear in- 
credible: — f 

On board the O'Higgins, Callao Bay, 28th Sept. 1821. 
Sir, 

I should have felt extremely uneasy had the letter you have ad- 
dressed to me, by order of His Excellency the Protector of Peru, 
contained the commands of the Supreme Chief to depart from the 
ports under his dominion, without assigning his motives ; and I 
should have been distressed indeed, had these motives been founded 
in reason, or on facts ; but when I find that the order originates in 
the groundless imputation, that I had declined to do what I had no 
power to effect, I console myself that His Excellency the Protector 
will be ultimately satisfied that no blame rests with me ; at all events, 
I have the gratification of a mind unconscious of wrong, and glad- 
dened by the cheering conviction, that, however facts may be dis- 
torted through the refracting medium of sycophantic breath, yet 
mankind who live in the clear expanse, view things in their proper 
colours, and will do me the justice I deserve. 

You address your argumentative letters to me, as if I required to 
be convinced of your good intentions. No, Sir, it is the seamen who 
are to be persuaded ; it is they who give no faith to professions after 
they have once been disappointed. They care not whence the sup- 
plies of the squadron come, whether from the pockets of the Spaniards, 
in captured cattle and Pisco, as they have done, or from the treasury 
of their employers ; they are men of few words, but decisive acts ; 
they say, that for their labour they have a right to pay and food, and 
that they will work no longer than while they are paid and fed. 

* San Martin issued orders, knowing the state of the ships, that, at the ports of Peru 
where they might touch, all supplies, even wood and water, should be refused. 

f This letter was communicated to me at a time when I could not ask the admiral if it 
was quite correct ; but I have reason to believe it is so, with the exception of such verbal 
inaccuracies as may have occurred in translating it from the Spanish. 

N 2 



92 INTRODUCTION. 

This, Sir, is un courtly language, unfit for the ear of high authority. — 
Moreover, they urge that they have had no pay, whilst their fellow 
labourers, the soldiers, have had two-thirds of their wages ; that they 
are starved, or living on stinking charqui, whilst the troops are 
fully fed on beef and mutton ; that they have had no grog, whilst 
the others have had money and opportunity to obtain that beloved 
beverage, and all else they desired. Such, Sir, are the rough grounds 
on which an English seaman founds his opinion, and rests his rude 
argument. He expects an equivalent for the fulfilment of his contract, 
and when, on his part, it is performed with fidelity, he is boisterous 
as the element on which he lives, if pay-day is past, and his rights 
are withheld. It is of no use, therefore, for you to make up an 
account upon the correctness of which I can make no remark. 

You seem, in the next paragraph of your letter, to express surprise 
that when twenty days only have elapsed, we should again require 
provisions; but all wonder will cease if you refer to my letters, and to 
your own order, to supply twenty-days' provisions thirty-days ago. 
As to your assertion regarding the gratuitous supply of Pisco, I have 
to inform you that the charge for it was 1900 dollars, as appears by 
my account, supported by receipts and vouchers received at Pisco, 
and delivered to me by Captain Cobbet of the Valdivia, whose 
veracity and integrity I will pledge against that of any of the most 
honourable of your informants. In the meantime, on the delicacy of 
your contradiction of my assertion, I shall abstain from remark, and 
institute an enquiry, in order that whosoever has falsified the fact, 
may be publicly exposed to the merited contempt of mankind. 

You tell me, Sir, that it is in vain to refer to my letters, stating 
the situation of the squadron to save my responsibility, because 
these letters have been answered (and in fair words too you might 
have added) ; but did I not warn you, that words were of no avail 
against the brute force of disappointed men clamouring for their 
rights ? Did I not ask you in person to speak to these seamen, 
saying that I would co-operate with you as far as I could, and did 
you not neglect to perform this duty ? How then can you assert 
that I refused to acquiesce in the views of government? 



INTRODUCTION. 93 

In what communication, Sir, have I insisted on the disbursement 
of 200,000 dollars ? I sent you an account of money due it is true *, 
but, in my letter, I told you it was the mutinous seamen who de- 
manded the disbursements, and that I had done all in my power, 
though without effect, to restrain their violence and allay their fears. 
You add, that it was impossible to pay the clamorous crews. How 
then is it true (and the fact is indisputable), that they are now paid 
out of the very money then lying unemployed at your disposal ? I 
shall only add, that promise of sharing 20 per cent, of the customs 
with the soldiers did not satisfy the minds of the sailors, knowing 
the nature of the divisions already made. My warning you that they 
were no longer to be trifled with was founded on a long acquaintance 
with their character and disposition ; and facts have proved, and may 
yet more fully prove, the truth of what I have told you. 

Why, Sir, is the word " immediate" put into your order to go forth 
from this port? Would it not have been more decorous to have 
been less peremptory, knowing, as you do know, that the delay of 
payment had unmanned the ships ; that the total disregard of all my 
applications had left the squadron destitute of provisions, and that 
the men were enticed away by persons acting under the authority of 
the government of Peru ? That you yourself have given me no 
answer to an official letter, dated the 23d, calling upon you to put a 
stop to such unjustifiable proceedings ? Was it not enough to land 
the supplies brought by the Montezuma, whilst the squadron for 
which they were meant was in absolute want, without the insult of 
placing guards on board and ashore, as if you felt a conviction that 
the necessity to which you had reduced the squadron might warrant 
the taking of food by force ? If so, why are matters pushed to this 
extremity by the government of Peru ? 

I thank you for the compliments paid me regarding my services 

* The accounts of money due to the Chileno squadron contained items for wages, pro- 
mised rewards, prize-money, payment for ships taken and used by the Peruvian government, 
and freight of vessels belonging to the squadron as transports, besides the price of sail-cloth, 
cordage, and slops for the people. All this San Martin was bound to pay to the govern- 
ment of Chile, which had fitted out the whole expedition. 



94 INTRODUCTION. 

since the 20th of August, 1820, which shall ever be devoted to the 
country I serve. And I assure you that no abatement of my zeal 
towards His Excellency the Protector's service took place until the 
5th day of August, the day on which I was made acquainted with His 
Excellency's installation, when he uttered sentiments in your pre- 
sence that struck a chill through my frame, which no subsequent act 
or protestation of intentions has yet been able to do away. Well 
do I remember the fatal words he spoke, which I would to God had 
never arisen in his thoughts. Did he not say, aye, did I not hear 
him declare, that he never would pay the debt to Chile, nor the 
dues to the navy, unless Chile would sell the squadron to Peru ! 
What would you have thought of me as an officer, sworn to be 
faithful to the state of Chile, had I listened to such language in cold 
calculating silence, weighing my decision in the scale of personal 
interest ? No, Sir, the promise that my " fortune should be equal 
to that of San Martin," will never warp from the path of honour 

Your obedient, humble servant, 

Cochrane. 

After this letter, little communication, and none of a friendly 
nature, took place between Lord Cochrane and San Martin. His 
Lordship continued the payment of the officers and crews, and now 
that Callao had fallen, the great object for Chile being the taking or 
destroying the two Spanish frigates Prueba and Venganza, the last of 
the ships of that nation that remained in the Pacific ; he prepared to 
follow them to the northward, and accordingly sailed for that purpose 
on the sixth of October. * 

It is now time to return to the domestic affairs of Chile. Bene- 
vidies still kept up an active and cruel warfare in the south ; and 
Jose Miguel Carrera, improved by the experience of eight years, 
and thirsting for revenge on the destroyers of his brothers, was at the 

* The squadron consisted now of O'Higgins, Captain Crosbie ; Valdivia, Captain 
Cobbet ; Independencia, Captain Wilkinson ; Lautaro, Captain Worcester ; and the San 
Fernando. 



INTRODUCTION. 95 

head of a small but determined army, and had fought his way across 
the continent of South America, making alliances with the Indians 
and keeping up a correspondence with Benevidies by their means 
as well as with numerous discontented persons in Chile. Benevidies 
had met with various success, but upon the whole had lost ground. 
The patriot commanders, of whom Freire was certainly the most 
distinguished, had gradually closed in upon him, and though he 
had incited the Indians to commit great ravages, and to burn the 
farms and carry off the produce of the southern provinces, he re- 
ceived no such aid from them as could prevent his final destruction, 
unless he received assistance from abroad, which the superiority of 
the Chileno squadron rendered almost hopeless. 

On the 31st of August, Carrera' s army, reduced by its very victories, 
and now consisting only of 500 soldiers, but embarrassed with a 
number of women and other followers, was completely routed. 

Carrera himself, his second in command Don Jose Maria Benevente, 
with twenty-three other officers, were taken at the Punta del Medano, 
and carried to Mendoza, where he and several of his principal officers 
were shot in the public market-place, by, in my opinion, a piece of 
the most unjustifiable cruelty and false policy. I refer to Mr. Yates's 
paper in the Appendix for the reason of Benevente's safety, and the 
particulars of the death of Jose Miguel ; the gazettes in which these 
things were announced to the public, breathe a fierce and atrocious 
spirit of revenge, disgraceful to the leaders of the nation and to the age. 

Don Jose Miguel Carrera was only 35 years of age. His person 
was remarkably handsome, and his countenance beautiful and pre- 
possessing. I have heard that his eyes seemed even to possess a power 
of fascination over those he addressed. Among all who have arisen 
to notice in the struggle for South American independence, he was 
undoubtedly the most amiable, his genius was versatile, his ima- 
gination lively, and his powers great, where he chose to apply 
them. I have heard that while at Montevideo, he wished to print 
some papers for distribution, and not having the means to do so, 
he shut himself up for weeks, and actually constructed a press, and 



96 INTRODUCTION. 

printed his manifesto himself. His spirit was gay and cheerful, and 
his body indefatigable ; but he had little prudence and no reserve, so 
that he was as little to be trusted with the plans of others as de- 
pended on in his own, which, however, were always conceived with 
precision and energy, and bore directly on the point he aimed at ; 
but then he proclaimed them too openly. He wanted education, 
for he had neither principles nor reading to direct him ; and his 
character altogether appears to me to resemble no one so much as 
that of Charles the second's Duke of Buckingham. It is no wonder 
therefore that he did not succeed in placing himself, or rather in 
keeping himself at the head of any of the newly freed states of South 
America. His love of pleasure led him into expenses which swal- 
lowed up the means of either bribing or paying followers, and his 
careless, easy nature prevented his securing those who might be 
dangerous to him. 

After his death, his principal followers and some of his nearer 
connexions were put in close confinement, others were banished, 
and some escaped to the woods and mountains, where they lived 
precariously till they were either able to get to some friendly place, 
or till the act of oblivion of September, 1822, allowed them to return 
to their houses. 

The fortune of Chile was thus delivered from the dangers arising 
from that powerful and active family. The father had died shortly 
after the execution of his other two sons, and now the last and 
greatest of his house was gone. Of those bearing the same name, 
Don Carlos, a quiet citizen, lived at his farm at Vina a la Mar, near 
Valparaiso, without meddling in politics, and of his three sons, one 
only survived, whose low habits and mean mind seemed to secure 
him from either doing or experiencing evil. Of the other two, one 
had perished early in the revolution, and the other had been killed 
in an insurrection at Juan Fernandez, whither he had been banished. 

The tranquillity of the state was still farther secured by the total 
overthrow of Benevidies, in the month of December. This man 
was the son of the inspector of the prison of Quirihue of Con- 



INTRODUCTION. 97 

ception, and had been a foot soldier in the first army of the patriots ; 
having been made prisoner by the royalists, he entered their army, 
and was taken soon after by Makenna, who sent him to head-quarters 
on the banks of the Maule, to be tried as a deserter : thence he 
escaped, by setting fire to the hut in which he was confined, and 
returned to the royalists, when he soon distinguished himself by his 
talents, and bore an honourable rank in the army of Osorio at the 
battle of Maypii. There he was again taken prisoner, and was con- 
demned to death as a deserter, in company with many others : he fell 
among the dead, but did not die as was supposed ; and in a romantic 
way he sent to request an interview with San Martin, who appointed 
to meet him in the pla fa alone, and the signal of recognition to be three 
sparks from the mechero. * Benevideis struck the signal, San Martin 
presented his pistol in return; Benevideis put it aside, and observing 
him start, assured him, he did not wish to murder, but to serve him, 
which he could do effectually by his local knowledge of the southern 
provinces, and his personal acquaintance with the troops there. San 
Martin accepted his services, but retained the dread of him, which 
his sudden and ghastly appearance before him had excited ; and 
therefore, although there was not the slightest ground for supposing 
he meant to betray him, he began to suspect him, and attempted to 
seize his person once more. But the spirit of Benevideis revolted at 
this : being accused of treachery he turned traitor, if it can be called 
so, and openly joined Osorio ; animated by a fierce desire of revenge, 
which, once awaked, never slept in his bosom. Hence arose the 
cruelties, and they are monstrous, with which he is charged. He 
murdered his prisoners in cold blood ; and his great delight was to 
invite the captured officers to an elegant entertainment, and after 
they had eaten and drunk, march them into his court-yard, while he 
stood at the window to see them shot. Some to whom he had pro- 
mised safety he delivered over to the Indians, whose cruel customs 



* The mechero is the aparatus for striking fire to light the segars, which every person 
in Chile carries with him. 



98 INTRODUCTION. 

with regard to prisoners of war he well knew ; and they were horribly 
murdered. When General Prieto wrote to inform him of the fall 
of Lima, and the hopelessness of his further perseverance in warfare, 
he answered, that he would " struggle against Chile with his last 
" soldier, even although it should be acknowledged by the king and 
" the nation." He fitted out a privateer to cruize against every flag, 
and so to provide himself with food and ammunition ; and at length, 
on the 1st of February, 1822, finding he could hold out no longer, 
he attempted to escape to some of the Spanish ports in a small boat, 
but being obliged to put into Topocalma for water, he was recognised, 
seized, and sent to Santiago, where, on the 21st, he was tried and 
sentenced to death. 

On the 23d he was dragged from prison, tied to the tail of a mule, 
and then hanged in the palace square : his head and hands were cut 
off, to be exposed in the towns he had ravaged in the south, and such 
indignities offered to his remains as appeared more like the revenge 
of savages than the punishment of a just government in the 
nineteenth century. 

However, though the director gave way to this execution, he forbid 
any of the followers of Benevideis to be punished with death, as the 
continental part of Chile was now free from enemies ; and there only 
remained the troops under Quintan ilia, who still held out in Chiloe. 

It is difficult to imagine on what grounds a report was spread about 
this time, that when Lord Cochrane sailed in pursuit of the enemy's 
frigates towards the northern ports, he would never return to Chile. * 
Possibly it might arise from the knowledge of the dreadful state of 
his ships, in which no other commander would probably have ven- 
tured to sea ; and that some hoped, while many dreaded, that they 
would never again be heard of. However that may be, San Martin 
made use of the period of his absence to endeavour to ruin him in 

* Judging by themselves, the propagators of the reports pretended to imagine, that 
having sent his family home in order that his children might be educated in England, the 
admiral meant to seize on such Spanish property on the coast as would enrich him, and so 
render him careless of the country he had engaged to serve. But they little knew him. 



INTRODUCTION. 99 

the opinion of the government of Chile ; and sent his worthy depu- 
ties, Colonel Paroissien (who owed every thing to Lord Cochrane) 
and Garcia del Rio, to Chile, with a string of accusations, some of 
them of the most ridiculous nature, and others, though of a deeper 
colour, equally false and impossible with regard to His Lordship. 
Cowardice, cruelty, and treachery, the vices of his own character, 
San Martin did not venture to impute to him, so he charged him 
with dishonesty and avarice ; and adduced as proofs, the demands 
His Lordship had made in behalf of the seamen of the squadron, 
and for supplies to the ships. * But the government did not 
appear to believe the charges, though the dread of coming to hos- 
tilities with San Martin kept them quiet for the present. Docu- 
ments, in fact, existed in the public offices at Santiago which dis- 
proved the whole of the direct charges against the Admiral. But the 
latter part of the memorial presented by Paroissien and Del Rio, 
calling on the Director to inflict condign punishment on Lord Coch- 
rane for slights offered to the honour and dignity of the Protector of 
Peru, lets us into the whole secret of His Excellency's motives in 
attacking one whom the people had called brave and generous, while 
San Martin was named only the fortunate. 

Meantime the squadron had proceeded to Guayaquil ; and, not- 
withstanding the usual opinion, that the river was dangerous, or 
rather not navigable for large ships, unless they landed their guns at 
the entrance, the admiral himself piloted the O'Higgins up to the 
town, and astonished the inhabitants by appearing abreast of their 
forts on the 18th of October, along with the Independencia, Valdivia, 
Araucano, San Fernando, and Mercedes. They were extremely well 
received, and exchanged salutes with the forts, f 

Lord Cochrane then proceeded to repair and refit his ships, for 
which purpose there could not have been a properer place. Timber 

* These accusations were industriously circulated at Valparaiso, with some diversity in 
the copies suited to the persons to whom they were shown. I have seen two varieties. 

f £ less 4 was the shallowest water going up. The squadron found seven gun-boats 
and seven merchantmen in the harbour. 

o 2 



100 INTRODUCTION. 

of all kinds abounds there, and there were many excellent artificers. 
The government countenanced and encouraged all his proceedings. 
Public entertainments were given by both parties, and the most 
friendly intercourse was kept up. 

The expenses of all the repairs, as well as of revictualling the ships, 
were defrayed by His Lordship, out of money that he had on board 
belonging to himself and the squadron : they willingly applied it in 
that way, trusting to be reimbursed by the government of Chile ; and 
they were too eager to accomplish their object of lowering the last 
Spanish flags flying in the Pacific to brook any delay. 

The artificers wrought so diligently, that by the 20th of November 
the ships were ready for sea. On Lord Cochrane's departure, the 
people of Guayaquil complimented him with a poem in his honour, 
illuminated with gold letters, and placed under a glass in an ebony 
frame. His Lordship returned the compliment by an address to the 
people of Guayaquil, which is as follows : — 



" To the worthy and independent Inhabitants of Guayaquil. 

" The reception that the squadron of Chile has met with from you, 
not only shows the generous sentiments of your hearts, but proves, if 
such proof were necessary, that a people capable of asserting its inde- 
pendence in spite of arbitrary power, must always possess noble and 
exalted feelings. Believe me, that the state of Chile will be for ever 
grateful for your assistance ; and more particularly the Supreme 
Director, by whose exertions the squadron was created, and to whom, 
in fact, South America owes whatever benefit she may have derived 
from it. 

" May you be as free as you are independent ! and may you be as 
independent as you deserve to be free ! With the liberty of the press, 
which is now protected by your enlightened government, which has 
derived its extensive knowledge from that fount, Guayaquil can never 
be enslaved. 



INTRODUCTION. 101 

" Observe the difference that a year of independence has produced 
in public opinion. In those whom youthen looked upon as enemies 
you have discovered your truest friends ; and those that were esteem- 
ed friends have proved to be your enemies. Remember the ideas 
that were received a short time since, concerning commerce and 
manufactures ; and compare them with the just and liberal notions 
you now entertain on these matters. Did you not, accustomed to 
the blind habits of Spanish monopoly, believe, that it would be a 
robbery to Guayaquil if her commerce were not limited to her own 
merchants ? Were not all strangers forbidden by restrictive laws 
from attending to their own business or interests, as if they had come 
only for your benefit ? and you kept officers, seamen, and ships, for 
your own commerce, without needing that of other nations. Now 
you perceive the truth ; and an enlightened government is ready not 
only to follow the public opinion in the promotion of your riches, 
happiness, and strength, but to assist it by the glorious privilege of 
disseminating, by means of the press, the just opinions of great and 
wise men on political matters, without fear of the Inquisition, the 
stake, or the faggot. 

" It is very gratifying to me to observe the change that has taken 
place in your ideas concerning political ceconomy, and to see that 
you can appreciate and despise as it deserves the clamour of the 
few that still perhaps desire to interrupt the general prosperity, 
although I cannot believe that any inhabitant of Guayaquil can be 
capable of placing his private interest in competition with the public 
good. However, if such a one do exist, let us ask that monopolist, 
if his particular profit is superior to that of the community, and if 
commerce, agriculture, and manufactures are to be paralysed for him ? 

" Enlightened Guayaquilenos ! cause your public press to declare 
the consequences of monopoly, and affix your names to the defence 
of your system : demonstrate that if the province of Guayaquil 
contains 80,000 inhabitants, and that eighty of those are privileged 
merchants, the effects of the monopoly bear upon 9999 persons 
out of 10,000, because the cottonsj coffee, cocoa, tobacco, timber, 



102 INTRODUCTION. 

and all the various productions of this beautiful and rich province, 
cultivated by the 9999, must ultimately come to the hands of 
the monopolist as the only purchaser of what they have to sell, 
and the only seller of all they must necessarily buy ! Show that 
the inevitable consequence of the want of competition will be, 
that he will buy (and let him deny it if he can) the produce of the 
country at the lowest possible rate, and he will sell his mer- 
chandise to his 9999 fellow-citizens as dear as possible ; so that 
not only will his 9999 countrymen be injured, but the lands will 
remain waste, the manufactures without workmen, and the inha- 
bitants of the province will be lazy and poor from the want of a 
sufficient stimulus. Teach that it is a law of nature, that ' no man 
will labour solely for the gain of another.' 

" Tell the monopolist that the method of acquiring general riches, 
political power, and even his own private advantage, is to sell the 
produce of the country as high, and foreign goods as low as possible ; 
and that the only road to effect this truly desirable end is, to permit 
a public competition. Let the supercargoes, masters, and agents of 
the ships that wish to come, be permitted to introduce and sell their 
goods to the best advantage ; let the merchants who bring capital, 
or those who practise any art or handicraft, be permitted to settle 
freely, and thus a competition will be formed which will give to 
every one of the 9999 foreign articles at the lowest price, and will 
sell the produce of this province at the very highest which the 
market demanding it will allow. 

" Then the land and fixed property will be worth four times as much 
as it is now ; then the fine buildings on the banks of the river will 
have their magazines full of the richest foreign and domestic pro- 
ductions, instead of being the deposits of comparative poverty, and 
the receptacles of filth and crime; then all will be activity and 
energy, because the reward will be in proportion to the labour. 

" Commerce being so facilitated, your spacious river will be filled 
with ships of all nations ; your noble docks will display a line of 
vessels building or repairing, either belonging to yourselves, or to 



INTRODUCTION. 103 

the neighbouring friendly provinces and kingdoms. Both building 
and repairing will be done for a fourth of what they cost now, from 
the facility afforded by machinery, which till this time you have 
never employed at all. Then will the monopolist be degraded and 
shamed. Then he who thinks he knows all things, ignorant that he 
knows nothing, will humble himself before his Creator, and bless the 
day in which Omnipotence permitted the veil of obscurity which so 
long hid the truth from your eyes under the despotism of Spain, the 
abominable tyranny of the Inquisition, and the want of the liberty 
of the press, which your government has now secured to you for 
the instruction and happiness of the public, to be torn aside. 

" Let the duties be as moderate as the government seems inclined 
to make them, in order to promote the greatest possible consumption 
of foreign and domestic goods for the convenience and the luxury 
of the town ; then smuggling will cease, and the returns to the 
treasury will increase ; and let every man be permitted to do as he 
pleases in his own property, views, and interests, because every 
individual will watch over his own with more zeal than senates, 
ministers, or kings. Set an example by your enlarged views to the 
New World ; and thus, as Guayaquil is by its situation the Central 
Republic, so it will become the centre of the agriculture, commerce, 
and riches of this portion of the globe. 

" Guayaquilenos ! the liberality of your sentiments, and the justice 
of your opinions and acts, are a bulwark to your independence and 
liberty, more secure than armies and squadrons can afford. 

" That you may pursue the road that will render you as free and 
happy as the territory you possess is fertile and may be productive, 
is the sincere wish of your obliged friend and servant, 

" Cochrane." 

I have translated this paper to show the spirit in which Lord Coch- 
rane dealt with the South American provinces. No petty intrigues, 
or bargaining for power or personal advantages, which, situated as he 
was, he might have commanded to any extent ; but contenting 



1 04 INTRODUCTION. 

himself with the advantages to be fairly derived from the service he 
had engaged in, he did his utmost to enlighten the countries he 
protected, and to teach them the principles of rational freedom. 

I have now to relate his expedition to Acapulco, which will bring 
the affairs of Chile and its squadron up to the date of my arrival at 
Valparaiso, when the rest, to the beginning of 1823, will be given in 
the course of the Journal. 

Although the squadron left Guayaquil on the 20th November, it 
was the 3d of December before it sailed from the river. The 
necessity for getting speedily to sea in pursuit of the enemy's frigates 
had, of course, precluded more than a temporary repair of the vessels, 
and I find a notice in the log-book of the O'Higgins, that her leak 
made three inches of water per hour. On the 5th, the admiral con- 
tinued on his way, however, coasting the land and examining every 
- port and bay for the objects of his search. On the 19th, the ships 
anchored in the bay of Fonseca to procure water, and to repair the 
pumps of the O'Higgins, which were by this time worn out by 
constant use. 

The water first discovered proving too brackish for use, the boats 
were despatched in search of springs, and, on the 21st, they dis- 
covered good water eight miles from the first anchorage ; on the 
25th the ships removed thither, calling the place Christmas Bay. 
They set about burning the woods to make a road to the water, and 
got it both abundant and good. Meantime the O'Higgins had got 
two new pumps prepared, but the water had risen to such a height 
in the hold, that the people were baling at all the hatchways ; and 
though by the 26th her pumps were refitted, the after-hold and 
bread-room were obliged to be cleared, and the provisions were 
stowed in the hammock nettings. During all this time of difficulty 
and distress, the admiral was first in all exertions to relieve the ship 
and people, and the last in every thing like self-accommodation. 
On one occasion, when every body had given up all for lost, and the 
carpenter at length, with tears, declared he could do no more, Lord 
Cochrane took his place, laboured himself till the pumps were brought 



INTRODUCTION. 



105 



to act, and inspired courage and spirit that brought about the means 
of safety. But the crew were so exhausted with their incessant labour 
of pumping and baling, that thirty men were borrowed from the 
Valdivia, and twenty from the Independencia, to assist at the pumps ; 
and having at length cleared the ship, on the 28th the squadron left 
Fonseca bay. 

On the 6th January, 1822, Lord Cochrane put into the bay of 
Tehuantepec * for water, where, not far in-land, he observed five 
remarkable volcanoes : the district around is said to be fertile, and 
the town of that name has a tolerable harbour, which, however, has 
the inconvenience of a bar across the entrance. 

On the 15th they hove-to again off a white island, where they 
found plenty of fresh water ; and having refreshed and watered, pur- 
sued their voyage on the 19th, and on the 29th anchored at Acapulco. 
This town, which owes all the celebrity it ever had to the rich Manilla 
fleets and Spanish galleons which used to anchor in its harbour, which 
is spacious and safe, is now little better than a mean village. It has 
a castle, however ; a parish church, and two convents. Its permanent 
inhabitants are about 4000, which number is doubled on the arrival 
of the now only annual ship from Manilla. At that time a great 
fair is held, when the inhabitants of the country round assemble, 
and remain some weeks at Acapulco for the purposes of trade. But 
they return to their homes as soon as possible, to escape from the 
fever which is peculiar to the place. The climate is hot, damp, and 
unhealthy, notwithstanding the admission of the free air through the 
famous abra de San Nicolas, a passage opened through a mountain 
for the purpose. After procuring some provisions, the squadron left 
it on the 3d February, disgusted with the insolence, and, at the same 

* Tehuantepec, taken by the Buccaneers, 1687. There were only 180 of them; they 
marched 1 2 miles over-land ; took the city, which had a population of 6000 Spaniards and 
40,000 negroes and Indians, well fortified, and an abbey also very strong. The Buccaneers 
took the market-place, with the cannon of the walls ; carried the abbey, sword in hand ; 
kept possession and plundered for three days ; and then retired in good order to the 
ships. 



106 



INTRODUCTION. 



time, the meanness of the governor; and having ascertained that the 
two frigates had sailed for Guayaquil. 

Lord Cochrane therefore began his voyage southward, which was 
incomparably more irksome than that to the northward had been ; 
for, in addition to the frequent and sudden gusts of wind on that 
coast, the water was so scarce that they had to watch the thunder 
showers and catch the rain as it fell in sails ; and this was all they had 
for the ships' companies. Captain Crosbie told me he had often sat 
in the quarter-boat with his wide hat on, to catch a good drink in 
the brim of it, when it was so hot that a draught of cold water was 
thought of as the highest luxury. All this time the leak in the 
O'Higgins rather increased than lessened ; and, to aggravate their 
misfortunes, on the 10th the Valdivia discovered a most dangerous 
leak under her fore-chains, and began to make three feet water per 
hour. On the 13th they thrummed a sail and passed it under her ; 
but the weather being boisterous, they found it impeded their course, 
and on the 16th took off the sail and frapping. 

The Independencia being in good repair was ordered to remain on 
this coast, to survey and also to watch the Spanish vessels that might 
be hovering there. She put into the bay of San Jose for the purpose 
of watering, salting beef, and making candles ; after which she pro- 
ceeded with her survey, and did not arrive at Valparaiso till the 29th 

of June. 

In the meantime one of her lieutenants, two of her marines, and 
two seamen, had been murdered on shore. 

Lord Cochrane stopped in the bay of Tacames, near the river Es- 
meralda, for provisions, and then proceeded, in company with the 
Esmeralda, to Guayaquil, where a decided change in the temper of the 
government had taken place. The agents of San Martin had arrived ; 
and, partly by bribes, partly by threats, had brought the governor over 
to their master's interest, and had excited a jealousy of Lord Coch- 
rane, which, though his activity and spirit might have justified, his 
experience of his character and conduct ought to have allayed. 
Some attempts were made to annoy, and some to intimidate His Lord- 



INTRODUCTION. 107 

ship ; but he sailed up to the forts, anchored abreast of them as be- 
fore, and awed them into decency, if not civility. The Venganza he 
found at Guayaquil ; and certainly had a right to consider her as his 
lawful prize, having chased her from every other place, and forced 
her into that port in such a state as to be obliged to surrender ; and 
the Prueba in the same state had gone to Callao. But the agents of 
Peru had tampered with the commanders of both the Venganza and 
Prueba; they promised them lands and pensions in Peru, if they 
would give up the ships to that government, which they accordingly 
did. So that San Martin thus tricked Chile of the prizes that 
belonged to her squadron, and induced the captains of the Spa- 
nish frigates to sell the ships to which they were appointed by their 
government. However, Lord Cochrane, determined not to embroil 
the country he served in any thing like hostilities with its neighbours, 
sent Captain Crosbie on board the Venganza to take the command 
for Chile and Peru jointly ; and on the representation of the govern- 
ment of Guayaquil, left that frigate in the port under Guayaquil co- 
lours, taking a bond that she should not be given up to any other 
government whatever, without the express consent of Chile, under a 
penalty of 8,000 dollars. But these South American governments 
seem to laugh at contracts. This was shortly broken, and the penalty 
has never been paid ; so that the officers and men of the squadron, 
which pursued them at their own expense, having paid for the re- 
pairs, stores, and provisions necessary to enable them to do so, have 
not only never received the prize-money due for the taking of those 
ships, but have literally been defrauded of the sums they spent in their 
pursuit. The causes and consequences of this public dishonesty will 
appear from some facts which will be hereafter stated. 

The squadron put in at Guambacho, a little bay south of Guaya- 
quil, to afford the Valdivia an opportunity of careening. She accord- 
ingly repaired the larboard leak, which was the worst, and managed 
to keep tolerably clear with the pumps, of the water made by the star- 
board one. The ships then proceeded ; and on the 25th of April 

p 2 



108 



INTRODUCTION. 



the O'Higgins and Valdivia reached Callao *, where they remained 
until the 8th of May. On their arrival, San Martin made every pos- 
sible effort to get Lord Cochrane into his power, but without effect. 
Monteagudo went on board to wait on His Lordship. He assured 
him of San Martin's high regard for him, entreated him to go ashore, 
and that the minister, Torre Tagle, had prepared his own house for 
his reception. He proposed that Lord Cochrane should take upon 
him the title of admiral of the joint squadrons of Peru and Chile ; 
which was only another means of getting possession of the Chileno 
ships. He held out to him the prospect of making an immense for- 
tune by the taking of the Philippine Islands, which San Martin con- 
templated ; and, among other bribes, fitted well enough indeed to the 
semi-barbarous taste of his employer, he talked to Lord Cochrane of 
a diamond star of the Order of Merit which had been prepared for 
him, and which, as well as a kind letter from San Martin, had been 
withheld on the receipt of a letter which he had addressed the day 
before, which was that of his arrival, to the minister of war. Lord 
Cochrane's answer to all this was — That he could not and would not 
accept office, title, or honours, from a government founded on the 
breach of that faith which had promised the free choice of its con- 
stitution to the people of Peru, and which was supported by tyranny, 
oppression, and the violation of all laws : that he would hoist no 
flag but that of Chile on board of her ships ; nor would he hoist his 
on board the Prueba, because he would not deceive the government 
of Peru. He thanked Torre Tagle for the offer of his house ; but had 
resolved never to set foot in a land governed not only without law, 
but contrary to law. And that as to fortune, his habits were frugal 
and his means sufficient. 

I have been the more particular in the account of this conference, 
because it took place on the 26th of April, six weeks after Garcia del 

* When the Honourable Captain F. Spencer, of His Majesty's ship Alacrity, saluted 
Lord Cochrane's flag, His Lordship it is said was unable to return the compliment till 
next day, his guns being shotted, as it was not safe to be in Callao without precaution. 



INTRODUCTION. 109 

Rio and Paroissien had laid their file of accusations against Lord 
Cochrane before the government of Chile, and had demanded signal 
vengeance on him in their employer's name. It sets the character 
and conduct of San Martin in a light sO odious as to gain full credit to 
the idea, that he was the instigator of two attempts to assassinate the 
admiral about this time, made by persons who contrived to get on 
board the ship by stealth. One of these was an Englishman, who had 
been for some time confined in the prison at Callao for murder of 
an atrocious kind, and who was suddenly liberated, no one knew how 
or why. This wretch, on being detected lurking about the ship, could 
give no account of himself or his business ; and it was only known 
that he was protected by San Martin. That Monteagudo should be 
the willino- agent in a scheme for trepanning Lord Cochrane for the 
purpose of destroying him, no one who knows his character can 
doubt ; and that both he and San Martin should use courteous pro- 
mises to lure him ashore for the better and surer accomplishment of 
their vengeance, those will believe who remember the fate of the pri- 
soners of war who carried letters of recommendation to the governor 
of San Luis, desiring they might be treated with every courtesy and 
distinction, and feasted three or four days ; but that care was to be 
taken they did not pass a certain wood ; and in that wood several, 
one of whom was Col. Rodrigues, have disappeared, nor ever have 
they been heard of since. 

Lord Cochrane remained before Callao until the 9th of May : he 
claimed, though in vain, the arrears of pay and prize-money due by 
the Peruvian government to the Chileno fleet, and such stores and 
provisions as were necessary. — The fear that possessed San Martin 
during the time of the admiral's stay was ludicrous. He caused the 
Prueba to be surrounded with booms and chains. Men were so 
crowded into her that she could scarcely contain them every night, 
and every thing was done to prevent a fate similar to that of the 
Esmeralda ; but His Lordship is said to have sent word he did not 
mean to take her, otherwise he would do it in spite of all precautions, 
and that in midday too. 



HO INTRODUCTION. 

On the 2d of June Lord Cochrane brought the O'Higgins and 
Valdivia to Valparaiso. On the 4th, the following letters of thanks 
and congratulation were addressed to him and the officers of the 
squadron by the supreme government at Santiago ; and every thing 
appeared as favourable to the interests of the squadron as they could 
wish. 

" Ministry of Marine, 
" Santiago de Chile, 4th June, 1822. 

" Most Excellent Sir, 

" The arrival of Your Excellency in the city of Valparaiso with the 
squadron under your command, has given the greatest pleasure to 
His Excellency the supreme director ; and in those feelings of gra- 
titude which the glory acquired by Your Excellency during the late 
protracted campaign has excited, you will find the proof of that high 
consideration which your heroic services so justly deserve. 

" Among those who have a distinguished claim are the chiefs and 
officers, who, faithful to their duty, have remained on board the 
vessels of war of this State, a list of whom Your Excellency has ho- 
noured me by enclosing. These gentlemen will, most assuredly, 
receive the recompense so justly due to their praiseworthy constancy. 

" Please to accept the assurance of my highest esteem. 

" JOAQUIM DE EcHEVERRIA. 

" To His Excellency the Vice Admiral and Commander- 
" in-chief of the Squadron, the Right Honourable 
" the Lord Cochrane." 



" Ministry of Marine, 
" Santiago de Chile, 19th June, 1822. 

" Most Excellent Sir, 

" His Excellency the Supreme Director, being desirous of making 

a public demonstration of the high services that the squadron has 

rendered to the nation, has resolved, that a medal be struck for the 

officers and crews of the squadron, with an inscription expressive of 



INTRODUCTION. HI 

the national gratitude towards the worthy supporters of its maritime 
power. 

" I have the honour to communicate this to Your Excellency by 
supreme command, and to offer you my highest respect. 

(Signed) " Joaquim de Echeverria. 

" To His Excellency the Right Honourable the Lord Cochrane, 

" Vice Admiral and Commander-in-chief, &c. &c. &c." 

Lord Cochrane had now been two years and a half at the head of 
the naval force of Chile ; he had taken, destroyed, or forced to sur- 
render every Spanish vessel in the Pacific ; he had cleared the western 
coast of South America of pirates. He had reduced the most im- 
portant fortresses of the common enemy of the patriots, either by 
storm, or by blockade ; he had protected the commerce, both of the 
native and neutral powers ; and had added lustre even to the cause 
of independence, by exploits worthy of his own great name, and a 
firmness and humanity which had as yet been wanting in the noble 
struggle for freedom. 




JOURNAL. 



His Majesty's ship Doris, Valparaiso harbour, Sunday night, April 28th, 
1822. — Many days have passed, and I have been unable and unwilling 
to resume my journal. To-day the newness of the place, and all the 
other circumstances of our arrival, have drawn my thoughts to take 
some interest in the things around me. I can conceive nothing 
more glorious than the sight of the Andes this morning on ap- 
proaching the land at day-break ; starting, as it were, from the 
ocean itself, their summits of eternal snow shone in all the majesty 
of light long before the lower earth was illuminated, when suddenly 
the sun appeared from behind them and they were lost ; and we 
sailed on for hours before we descried the land. 

On anchoring here to-day, the first object I saw was the Chile 
State's brig Galvarino, formerly the British brig of war Hecate, 

Q 



114 JOURNAL. 

the first ship my husband ever commanded, and in which I sailed 
with him in the Eastern Indian seas. Twelve years have since passed 
away ! 

We found His Majesty's ship Blossom here. Her commander, 
Captain Vernon, will, I believe, take the command of this ship 
to-morrow. 

The United States' ships Franklin and Constellation are also here. 
As soon as Commodore Stewart saw the Doris approach the harbour 
with her colours half-mast high, he came to offer every assistance 
and accommodation the ship might require ; and hearing that I was on 
board he returned, bringing Mrs. Stewart to call on me, and to offer 
me a cabin in the Franklin, in case I preferred it to remaining here, 
until I could procure a room on shore. 

Monday, 2,9th. — This has been a day of trial. Early in the morn- 
ing the new captain's servants came on board to prepare the cabin 
for their master's reception. I believe, what must be done is better 
done at once. Soon after breakfast, Captain Ridgely, of the United 
Sates' ship Constellation, brought Mrs. and Miss Hogan, the wife 
and daughter of the American consul, to call and to offer all the 
assistance in their power ; and told me, that the Commodore had 
delayed the sailing of his frigate, the Constellation, in order that she 
might carry letters from the Doris round Cape Horn, and would 
delay it still farther if I wished to avail myself of the opportunity to 
return home immediately. I was grateful, but declined the offer. I 
feel that I have neither health nor spirits for such a voyage just yet. 
Immediately afterwards, Don Jose Ignacio Zenteno, the governor 
of Valparaiso, with two other officers, came on board on a visit of 
humanity as well as respect. He told me that he had appointed a 
spot within the fortress where I may " bury my dead out of my 
sight," with such ceremonies and honours as our church and service 
demand, and has promised the attendance of soldiers, &c. All this 
is kind, and it is liberal. 

At four o'clock I received notice that Mrs. Campbell, a Spanish 
lady, the wife of an English merchant, would receive me into her 



VALPARAISO. 



115 



house until I could find a lodging, and I left the ship shortly after- 
wards. 

I hardly know how I left it, or how I passed over the deck where 
one little year ago I had been welcomed with such different prospects 
and feelings. 

I have now been two hours ashore. Mrs. Campbell kindly allows 
me the liberty of being alone, which is kinder than any other kind- 
ness she could show. 

April 30th. — This afternoon I stood at my window, looking over 
the bay. The captain's barge, of the Doris, brought ashore the 
remains of my indulgent friend, companion, and husband. There were 
all his own people, and those of the Blossom and of the American 
ships, and their flags joined and mingled with those of England and 
of Chile ; and their musicians played together the hymns fit for the 
burial of the pure in heart ; and the pi - ocession was long, and joined 
by many who thought of those far off, and perhaps now no more ; 
and by many from respect to our country : and I believe, indeed I 
know, that all was done that the pious feelings of our nature towards 
the departed demand ; and if such things could soothe such a grief 
as mine they were not wanting. 

But my mind has bowed before him in whose hand are the issues 
of life and death. And I know that I cannot stay long behind, 
though my life were lengthened to the utmost bounds of human 
being. And I trust, that when I am called to another state of 
existence, I may be able to say, " Oh Death, where is thy sting ? 
" Oh Grave, where is thy victory ?" 

May 6th. — I have been very unwell; meantime my friends have 
procured a small house for me at some distance from the port, and 
I am preparing to remove to it.' 

9th of May, 1822. — I took possession of my cottage at Valparaiso ; 
and felt indescribable relief in being quiet and alone. 

By going backwards and forwards twice between Mr. Campbell's 
and my own house, I have seen all that is to be seen of the exterior 
of the town of Valparaiso. It is a long straggling place, built at the 

Q 2 



116 JOURNAL. 

foot of steep rocks which overhang the sea, and advance so close to 
it in some places as barely to leave room for a narrow street, and open 
in others, so as to admit of two middling squares, one of which is the 
market-place, and has on one side the governor's house, which is back- 
ed by a little fort crowning a low hill. The other square is dignified 
by the Iglesia Matriz, which, as there is no bishop here, stands in 
place of a cathedral. From these squares several ravines or quebra- 
das branch off; these are filled with houses, and contain, I should ima- 
gine, the bulk of the population, which I am told amounts to 15,000 
souls ; further on there is the arsenal, where there are a few slips for 
building boats, and conveniences for repairing vessels ; but all appear- 
ing poor ; and still farther is the outer fort, which terminates the port 
on that side. To the east of the governor's house, the town extends 
half a quarter of a mile or a little more, and then joins its suburb the 
Almendral, situated on a flat, sandy, but fertile plain, which the re- 
ceding hills leave between them and the sea. The Almendral ex- 
tends to three miles in length, but is very narrow ; the houses, like 
most of those in the town, are of one story. They are all built of 
unburnt bricks, whitewashed and covered with red tiles ; there are 
two churches, one of the Merced *, rather handsome, and two con- 
vents, besides the hospital, which is a religious foundation. The Al- 
mendral is full of olive groves, and of almond gardens, whence it has 
its name ; but, though far the pleasantest part of the town, it is not 
believed to be safe to live in it, lest one should be robbed or murdered, 
so that my taking a cottage at the very end of it is rather wondered 
at than approved. But I feel very safe, because I believe no one 
robs or kills without temptation or provocation ; and as I have nothing 
to tempt thieves, so I am determined not to provoke murderers. 

My house is one of the better kind of really Chilian cottages. It 
consists of a little entrance-hall, and a large sittingroom 16 feet 
square, at one end of which a door opens into a little dark bedroom, 

* The royal, religious, and military order of the Merced was instituted by the king 
Don Jayme el Conquistador, for the purpose of redeeming captives. 



II - 1= 



I 

H 
ea 



$> 
3 



ea 




VALPARAISO. 117 

and a door in the hall opens into another a little less. This is the 
body of the house, in front of which, looking to the south-west, there 
is a broad veranda. Adjoining, there is a servants' room, and at a 
little distance the kitchen. My landlord, who deals in horses, has 
stables for them and his oxen, and several small cottages for his 
peons and their families, besides storehouses all around. There is a 
garden in front of the house, which slopes down towards the little 
river that divides me from the Almendral, stored with apples, pears, 
almonds, peaches, grapes, oranges, olives, and quinces, besides pump- 
kins, melons, cabbages, potatoes, French beans, and maize, and a few 
flowers ; and behind the house the barest reddest hill in the neigh- 
bourhood rises pretty abruptly. It affords earth for numerous beau- 
tiful shrubs, and is worn in places by the constant tread of the mules, 
who bring firewood, charcoal, and vegetables, to the Valparaiso mar- 
ket. The interior of the house is clean, the walls are whitewashed, 
and the roof is planked, for stucco ceilings would not stand the fre- 
quent earthquakes, of which we had one pretty smart shock to-night. 
No Valparaiso native house of the middling class boasts more than 
one window, and that is not glazed, but generally secured by carved 
wooden or iron lattice-work; this is, of course, in the public sitting- 
room ; so that the bedrooms are perfectly dark : I am considered 
fortunate in having doors to mine, but there is none between the 
hall and sittingroom, so I have made bold to hang up a curtain, to 
the wonder of my landlady, who cannot understand my finding no 
amusement in watching the motions of the servants or visitors who 
may be in the outer room. 

May 10th. — Thanks to my friends both ashore and in the frigate, 
I am now pretty comfortably settled in my little home. Every body 
has been kind ; one neighbour "lends me a horse, another such fur- 
niture as I require : nation and habits make no difference. I arrived 
here in need of kindness, and I have received it from all. 

I have great comfort in strolling on the hill behind my house ; it 
commands a lovely view of the port and neighbouring hills. It is 
totally uncultivated, and in the best season can afford but poor 



1 ] 8 JOURNAL. 

browsing for mules or horses. Now most of trie shrubs are leafless, 
and it is totally without grass. But the milky tribe of trees and 
shrubs are still green enough to please the eye. A few of them, as 
the lobelia, retain here and there an orange or a crimson flower ; 
and there are several sorts of parasitic plants, whose exquisitely beau- 
tiful blossoms adorn the naked branches of the deciduous shrubs, and 
whose bright green leaves, and vivid red and yellow blossoms shame 
the sober grey of the neighbouring olives, whose fruit is now ripen- 
ing. The red soil of my hill is crossed here and there by great ridges 
of white half marble, half sparry stone ; and all its sides bear deep 
marks of winter torrents ; in the beds of these I have found pieces of 
green stone of a soft soapy appearance, and lumps of quartz and coarse 
granite. One of these water-courses was once worked for gold, but 
the quantity found was so inconsiderable, that the proprietor was 
glad to quit the precarious adventure, and to cultivate the chacra or 
garden-ground which joins to mine, and whose produce has been 
much more beneficial to his family. 

I went to walk in that garden, and found there, besides the fruits 
common to my own, figs, lemons, and pomegranates, and the hedges 
full of white cluster roses. The mistress of the house is a near rela- 
tion of my landlady, and takes in washing, but that by no means im- 
plies that either her rank or her pretensions are as low as those of 
an European washerwoman. Her mother was possessed of no less 
than eight chacras ; but as she is ninety years old, that must have been 
a hundred years ago, when Valparaiso was by no means so large a 
place, and consequently chacras were less valuable. However, she 
was a great proprietor of land ; but, as is usual here, most of it went 
to portion off a large family of daughters, and some I am afraid to 
pay the expenses of the gold found on the estate. 

The old lady, seeing me in the garden, courteously invited me to 
walk in. The veranda in front of the house is like my own, paved 
with bricks nine inches square, and supported by rude wooden 
pillars, which the Chileno architects fancy they have carved hand- 
somely ; I found under it two of the most beautiful boys I ever saw, 



VALPARAISO. U9 

and a very pretty young woman the grandchildren of the old lady. 
They all got up from the bench eager to receive me, and show me 
kindness. One of the boys ran to fetch his mother, the other went 
to gather a bunch of roses for me, and the daughter Joanita, taking 
me into the house gave me some beautiful carnations. From the 
garden we entered immediately into the common sittingroom, 
where, according to custom, one low latticed window afforded but a 
scanty light By the window, a long bench covered with a sort of 
coarse Turkey carpet made here, runs nearly the length of the room, 
and before this a wooden platform, called the estrada, raised about 
six inches from the ground, and about five feet broad, is covered 
with the same sort of carpet, the rest of the floor being bare brick. 
A row of high-backed chairs occupies the opposite side of the room. 
On a table in a corner, under a glass case, I saw a little religious 
baby work, — a waxen Jesus an inch long, sprawls on a waxen 
Virgin's knee, surrounded by Joseph, the oxen and asses, all of the 
same goodly material, decorated with moss and sea shells. Near 
this I observed a pot of beautiful flowers, and two pretty-shaped 
silver utensils, which I at first took for implements of worship, and 
then for inkstands, but I discovered that one was a little censer for 
burning pastile, with which the young women perfume their hand- 
kerchiefs and mantos, and the other the vase for holding the infusion 
of the herb of Paraguay, commonly called matte, so universally 
drank or rather sucked here. The herb appears like dried senna ; 
a small quantity of it is put into the little vase with a proportion 
of sugar, and sometimes a bit of lemon peel, the water is poured 
boiling on it, and it is instantly sucked up through a tube about six 
inches long. This is the great luxury of the Chilenos, both male 
and female. The first thing in* the morning is a matte, and the 
first thing after the afternoon siesta is a matte. I have not yet tasted 
of it, and do not much relish the idea of using the same tube with 
a dozen other people. 

I was much struck with the appearance of my venerable neighbour ; 
although bent with age she has no other sign of infirmity ; her walk 



120 JOURNAL. 

is quick and light, and her grey eyes sparkle with intelligence. She 
wears her silver hair, according to the custom of the country, un- 
covered, and hanging down behind in one large braid ; her linen 
shift is gathered up pretty high on her bosom, and its sleeves are 
visible near the wrist : she has a petticoat of white woollen stuff, and 
her gown of coloured woollen is like a close jacket, with a full-plaited 
petticoat attached to it, and fastened with double buttons in front. 
A rosary hangs round her neck, and she always wears the manto or 
shawl, which others only put on when they go out of doors, or in 
cold weather. The dress of the granddaughter is not very different 
from that of a French woman, excepting that the manto supersedes 
all hats, caps, capotes, and turbans. The young people, whether 
they fasten up their tresses with combs, or let them hang down, are 
fond of decorating them with natural flowers, and it is not uncom- 
mon to see a rose or a jonquil stuck behind the ear or through the 
earring. 

Having sat some time in the house, I accepted Joanita's proposal 
to walk in the garden ; part of it was already planted with potatoes, 
and part was ploughing for barley, to be cut as green meat for the 
cattle. The plough is a very rude implement, suchas the Spaniards 
brought it hither three hundred years ago ; a piece of knee timber, 
shod at one end with a flat plate of iron, is the plough, into which 
a long pole is fixed by means of wedges ; the pole is made fast to 
the yoke of the oxen, who drag it over the ground so as to do little 
more than scratch the surface.* As to a harrow, I have not seen or 
heard of one. The usual substitute for it being a bundle of fresh 
branches, which is dragged by a horse or ox, and if not heavy enough, 
stones, or the weight of a man or two, is added. The pumpkins, 
lettuces, and cabbages, are attended with more care : ridges being 
formed for them either with the original wooden spades of the 
country, or long-handled iron shovels upon the same plan. The 

* I recollect a bit of antique mosaic, I think, but am not sure, in the Villa Albani, near 
Rome, representing just such a plough, and so yoked; the oxen are represented kickin", 
as if stung by a gadfly. 



VALPARAISO. 1 21 

greatest labour, however, is bestowed on irrigating the gardens which 
is rendered indispensable by the eight months of dry weather in th e 
summer. A multitude of little canals cross every field, and the 
hours for letting the water into them are regulated with reference to 
the convenience of the neighbours, through whose grounds the com- 
mon stream passes. One part of every chacra is an arboleda, or 
orchard, however small, and few are without their little flower plot, 
where most of the common garden flowers of England are cultivated. 
The lupine both perennial and annual is native here. The native 
bulbous roots surpass most of ours in beauty, yet the strangers are 
treated with unjust preference. Roses, sweetpeas, carnations, and 
jasmine are deservedly prized ; mignonette and sweetbriar are scarce, 
and honeysuckle is not to be procured. The scabious is called here 
the widow's flower, and the children gathered their hands full of 
it for me. 

From the flower-garden we went to the washing-ground, where I 
found a charcoal fire lighted on the brink of a pretty rivulet. On 
the fire was a huge copper vessel full of boiling water, and swimming 
in it there was a leaf of the prickly pear [Cactus Jicus Indicus), here 
called tunia ; this plant is said to possess the property of cleansing 
and softening the water. Close by there stood a large earthen vessel, 
which appeared to me to be full of soap-suds, but I found that no 
common soap was among it. The tree called Quillai, which is com- 
mon in this part of Chile, furnishes a thick rough bark, which is so 
full of soapy matter, that a small piece of it wrapped in wool, moist- 
ened, and then beaten between two stones, makes a lather like the 
finest soap, and possesses a superior cleansing quality. All woollen 
garments are washed with it, and coloured woollen or silk acquires 
a freshness of tint equal to new by the use of it. I begged a piece 
of the dry bark ; the inside is speckled with very minute crystals, and 
the taste is harsh like that of soda. 

In my walk home from the washing-ground, I had occasion to see 
specimens both of the waggons and carriages of Chile. The wheels, 

R 



122 JOURNAL. 

axletree, carriage, all are fastened together without a single nail or 
piece of iron. The wheels have a double wooden felly, placed so 
as that the joints in the one are covered by the entire parts of the 
other, and these are fastened together by strong wooden pins ; the 
rest is all of strong wooden frame-work bound with hide, which 
being put on green, contracts and hardens as it dries, and makes the 
most secure of all bands. The flooring of both cart and coach con- 
sists of hide ; the cart is tilted with canes and straw neatly wattled ; 
the coach is commonly of painted canvass, nailed over a slight frame 
with seats on the sides, and the entrance behind. The coach is 
commonly drawn by a mule, though oxen are often used for the pur- 
pose ; and always for the carts, yoked as for the plough. Oxen will 
travel hence to Santiago, upwards of ninety miles, with a loaded 
waggon in three days. These animals are as fine here, as I ever saw 
them in any part of the world ; and the mules particularly good. 
It is needless to say anything of the horses, whose beauty, temper, 
and spirit, are unrivalled, notwithstanding their small size. 

11th May. — This morning, tempted by the exceeding fineness of 
the weather, and the sweet feeling of the air, I set out to follow the 
little water-course that irrigates my garden, towards its source. 
After skirting the hill for about a furlong, always looking down on 
a fertile valley, and now and then gaining a peep at the bay and 
shipping between the fruit trees, I heard the sound of falling water, 
and on turning sharp round the corner of a rock, I found myself in 
a quebrada, or ravine, full of great blocks of granite, from which 
a bright plentiful stream had washed the red clay as it leaped down 
from ledge to ledge, and fell into a little bed of sand glistening with 
particles of mica that looked like fairy gold. Just at this spot, where 
myrtle bushes nearly choaked the approach, a wooden trough detained 
part of the rivulet in its fall, and led it to the course cut in the hill 
for the benefit of the cultivated lands on this side ; the rest of the 
stream runs to the Santiago road, where meeting several smaller 
rills, it waters the opposite side of the valley, and finds its way to the 



VALPARAISO. 123 

shore, where it oozes through a sand-bank to the sea, close to a little 
cove filled with fishermen's houses.* On ascending the ravine 
a little farther, I found at the top of the waterfall, a bed of white 
marble lying along on the sober grey rock ; and beyond it, half con- 
cealed by the shrubs, the water formed a thousand little falls — 

" Through bushy brake and wild flowers blossoming, 
And freshness breathing from each silver spring, 
Whose scattered streams from granite basins burst, 
Leap into life, and sparkling woo your thirst." 

But this valley, like all those in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Valparaiso, wants trees. The shrubs, however, are beautiful, and mixed 
here and there with the Chilian aloe (Pourretia Coarctata), and the 
great torch thistle, which rises to an extraordinary height. Among 
the humble flowers I remarked varieties of our common garden herbs, 
carraway, fennel, sage, thyme, mint, rue, wild carrot, and several 
sorts of sorrel. But it is not yet the season of flowers ; here and 
there only, a solitary fuscia or andromeda was to be found ; — but I 
did not want flowers, — the very feel of the open air, the verdure, the 
sunshine, were enough ; and I doubly enjoyed this my first rural 
walk after being so long at sea. 

Friday, May 11th. — Three days of half fog, half rain, have given 
notice of the breaking up of the dry season, and my landlord has 
accordingly sent people to prepare the roof for the coming wet 
weather. This has given me an opportunity of being initiated in all 
the mysteries of Chileno masonry, or architecture, or whatever title 
we may give to the manner of building here. The poorest peasants 
live in what I conceive to be the original hut of every country, a 
little less carefully constructed here, where the climate is so fine and 
the temperature so equal, that, .provided the roof is sufficient during 
the rains, the walls are of little consequence. These huts are made 
of stakes stuck in the ground, and fastened together with transverse 



• This is the only rivulet near Valparaiso : the old maps and travels, therefore, which 
represent the port as standing at the mouth of a river are wrong. Valparaiso is midway 
between the mouths of the Acoucagua and of the Maypu. 

R 2 



124 JOURNAL. 

pieces of wood, either with soga or twine, made from the hemp of 
the country, with the bark of a water tree not unlike the poplar, or 
with thongs. Some have only a thick wattled wall of myrtle, or 
broom ; others have the chinks in the wattling filled in with clay, 
and whitewashed either with lime, — which the natives knew how to 
prepare from beds of shells found in the country before the invasion 
of the Spaniards, — or with a kind of white ochre, which is very fine, 
and is found in pretty large beds in different parts of the country. 
The roofs are more solidly constructed, having usually over the 
supporting rafters a layer of branches plaistered with mud, and 
covered with the leaves of the Palma Tejera, or thatch palm, 
which abounds in the valleys of Chile. Broom, reeds, and a long 
fine grass, are also used for roofs. However poor the house, there is 
always a separate hut for cooking at a little distance. 

The better houses, mine for instance, have very solid walls, often 
four feet thick, of unburnt bricks of about sixteen inches long, ten 
wide, and four thick. These, like the mortar in which they are 
bedded, are formed of the common earth, which is all fit for the 
purpose in this neighbourhood. When a man wishes to build, he 
digs down a portion of the nearest hill, and waters the loose earth till 
it acquires the consistence of mortar ; a number of peons, or country- 
men, then tread it to a proper smoothness and consistency ; after 
which a quantity of chopped straw is added, which is again trodden 
till it is equally distributed through the mass, which is of course 
more solid for the bricks. These bricks are formed in a wooden 
frame, and then placed in the shade to dry, after which they are 
exposed to the sun to harden. After the walls are built they are 
generally allowed to stand a short time to settle before the rafters 
are laid on, and indeed the roof is a formidable weight. A very 
thick layer of green boughs, leaves and all, is first fastened with 
twine upon the rafters, whose interstices are pretty closely filled up 
with canes ; a layer of mortar, or rather mud, of at least four inches 
thick, is spread above that ; and in that mud are bedded round tiles, 
whose ridge rows are cemented with lime-mortar, a thin coat of 



VALPARAISO. 125 

which is spread over the coarser plaister, both without and within 
the houses. 

The brick buildings, and such huts as are plaistered within and 
without over the wattled work, and tiled, are called houses ; the 
others are called, generally, ranchos. The word rancho is, however, 
also applied to the whole group of buildings that form the farm- 
steading of a Chilian peasant. Every thing here is so far back with 
regard to the conveniences and improvements of civilised life, that if 
we did not recollect the state of the Highlands of Scotland seventy 
years ago, it would be scarcely credible that the country could have 
been occupied for three centuries by so polished and enlightened a 
people as the Spaniards undoubtedly were in the sixteenth century, 
when they first took possession of Chile. 

The only articles of dress publicly sold are shoes, or rather slippers, 
and hats. I do not, of course, mean that no stuffs from Europe or 
dresses for the higher classes are to be bought; because, since the 
openincr of the port, retail shops for all sorts of European goods are 
nearly as common at Valparaiso as in any town of the same size in 
England. But the people of the country are still in the habit of 
spinning, weaving, dying, and making every article for themselves in 
their own houses, except hats and shoes. The distaff and spindle, 
the reel, the loom, particularly the latter, are all of the simplest and 
grossest construction ; and the same loom, made of a few cross sticks, 
serves to weave the linen shirt or drawers, the woollen jacket and 
manteau, as well as the alfombra, or carpet, which is spread either 
on the estrada, or the bed, or the saddle, or carried to church as the 
Mussulman carries his mat to the mosque to kneel and pray on. 
The herbs and roots of the country furnish abundance and variety of 
dyes; and iew, if any, families are without one female knowing in the 
properties of plants, whether for dying or for medicine. The bark 
of the Quillai is constantly used to clear and bring out the colours. 

The dress of the Chilian men resembles that of the peasants of the 
south of Europe ; linen shirts and drawers, cloth waistcoats, jackets, 
and breeches with a coloured listing at the seams ; left unbuttoned at 



126 JOURNAL. 

the knee, and displaying the drawers. In the neighbourhood of Val- 
paraiso trowsers are fast superseding the short breeches, however. 
White woollen or cotton stockings, and black leather shoes, are 
worn by the decent class of men : the very lowest seldom wear stock- 
in ws ; and in lieu of shoes they have either wooden clogs or oxotas, 
made of a square piece of hide bent to the foot, and tied in shape 
while green ; the latter are sometimes put over shoes in riding 
through the woods : the hair is usually braided in one large braid 
hanging down behind, and a coloured handkerchief is tied over the 
head, above which a straw hat is fastened with black cord. In some 
districts black felt hats are used ; in others, high caps. When the 
Chileno rides, which he does on every possible occasion, he uses as 
a cloak, the poncho, which is the native South American garb : it 
is a piece of square cloth, with a slit in the centre, just large enough 
to admit the head, and is peculiarly convenient for riding, as it 
leaves the arms quite free, while it protects the body completely. 
A pair of coarse cloth gaiters very loose, drawn far up over the 
knee, and tied with coloured listing, defend the legs ; and a huge 
pair of spurs, with rowels often three inches in diameter, complete 
the equipment of an equestrian. These spurs are sometimes of 
copper, but the true pride of a Chileno is to have the stirrups, 
and the ornaments of his bridle, of silver. The bridles are usually 
made of plaited thongs, very neatly wrought ; the reins terminate 
in a bunch of cords also of plaited thongs, which serves as a whip. 
The bit is simple, but very severe. The saddle is a wooden frame 
placed over eight or nine folds of cloth, carpet, or sheepskin ; and 
over that frame are thrown other skins, dressed and dyed either blue, 
brown, or black ; above all, the better sort use a well-dressed soft 
leather saddle-cloth, and the whole is fastened on with a stamped 
leather band, laced with thongs instead of a buckle. Some go to 
great expense in their saddle-cloths, carpets, skins, &c. ; but the 
material is in all nearly the same, and a saddled horse looks as if he 
had a burden of carpets on his back. To the saddle is usually fas- 
tened the laza or cord of plaited hide, which the Spanish American 



VALPARAISO. 127 

colonists on both sides of the Andes throw so dexterously either 
to catch cattle, or to make prisoners in war. The stirrups appended 
to these singular-looking saddles are either plain silver stirrups, hav- 
ing silver loops, &c. on the stirrup leathers ; or in case of riding 
through woods on long journeys, a kind of carved box very heavy, 
and spreading considerably, so as to defend the foot from thorns 
and branches. Returning from a short walk to-da}^, I had a good 
opportunity of seeing a group of horsemen, young and old, who had 
come from the neighbourhood of Rancagua, a town near the foot of 
the Andes, to the southward of Santiago, with a cargo of wine and 
brandy. The liquor is contained in skins, and brought from the 
interior on mules. It is not uncommon to see a hundred and fifty 
of these under the guidance of ten or a dozen peons, with the 
guaso or farmer at their head, encamping in some open spot near 
a farm-house in the neighbourhood of the town. Many of these 
houses keep spare buildings, in which their itinerant friends secure 
their liquor while they go to the farms around, or even into town, 
to seek customers, not choosing to pay the heavy toll for going into 
the port, unless certain of sale for the wine. I bought a quantity 
for common use : it is a rich, strong, and sweetish white wine, 
capable, with good management, of great improvement, and infi- 
nitely preferable to any of the Cape wines, excepting Constantia, 
that I ever drank. I gave six dollars for two arobas of it, so that 
it comes to about S\d. per bottle. The brandy might be good, but 
it is ill distilled, and generally spoiled by the infusion of aniseed. 
The liquor commonly drank by the lower classes is chicha, the regular 
descendant of that intoxicating chicha which the Spaniards found the 
South American savages possessed of the art of making, by chewing 
various berries and grains, spitting them into a large vessel, and 
allowing them to ferment. Rut the great and increasing demand 
for chicha has introduced a cleanlier way of making it ; and it is 
now in fact little other than harsh cyder, the greater part being 
produced from apples, and flavoured with the various berries which 
formerly supplied the whole of the Indian chicha. 



128 



JOURNAL. 



18th. — One of my young friends from the Doris, some of whom 
have been with me daily, has brought me some excellent partridges of 
his own shooting. They are somewhat larger than the partridges in 
England, but I think quite as good, when properly dressed, or rather 
plucked ; but the cooks here have a habit of scalding the feathers 
off, which hurts the flavour of the bird. There are several kinds of 
birds here good to eat, but neither quail nor pheasant. They have 
plenty of enemies : from the condor, through every variety of the 
eagle, vulture, hawk, and owl, down to the ugly, dull, green parrot 
of Chile, which never looks tolerably well, except on the wing, and 
then the under part, of purple and yellow, is handsome. The face 
is peculiarly ugly : his parrot's beak being set in so close as to be to 
other parrots what the pug dog is to a greyhound. They are great foes 
to the little singing birds, whose notes as well as plumage resemble 
those of the linnet, and which abound in this neighbourhood. We 
have also a kind of blackbird with a soft, sweet, but very low note ; 
a saucy thing that repeats two notes only, not unlike the mockbird, 
and that never moves out of the way ; swallows and humming-birds 
are plenty ; and the boys tell me they have seen marvellous storks 
and cranes in the marshes, which I shall take occasion to visit after 
the rains. I know not if we are to believe that the aboriginal Chi- 
lenos possessed the domestic fowl. At present they are abundant 
and excellent, as well as ducks, both native and foreign, and geese. 
Pigeons are not very common ; but they thrive well, and are made 
pets of: — in short, this delightful climate seems favourable to the 
production of all that is necessary for the use and sustenance of man. 

Monday, May 20th. — This is but a sad day. The Doris sailed early, 
and I feel again alone in the world ; in her are gone the only relation, 
the only acquaintance I have in this wide country. In parting between 
friends, those who go have always less to feel than those who re- 
main. The former have the exertion of moving, the charms of 
novelty, or at least variety of situation, and the advantage that new 
objects do not awaken associations connected with the subjects of 
our regret. Whereas the stationary person sees in each object a 



VALPARAISO. 129 

memorial of those that are gone : the well-known voice is missed at 
the accustomed hour, and the solitary walk becomes a series of re- 
collections, which bring at least the pain of feeling that it is solitary. 
Shakspeare, 

" Who walked in every path of human life, 
Felt every passion," 

often expresses this feeling, but never, in my mind, more truly or 
beautifully than when he makes Constance exclaim — 

" Grief fills the room up of my absent child, 
Lies in his bed, walks up and down with me ; 
Puts on his pretty looks, repeats his words; 
Remembers me of all his gracious parts ; 
Stuffs out his vacant garments with his form : — 
Then have I reason to be fond of Grief." 

In the course of the day, however, the kindly acts and expressions 
of my new neighbours, and the friendly attentions of Commodore 
and Mrs. Stewart of the American line-of-battle ship Franklin, of 
Baron Macau of His Catholic Majesty's ship Clorinde, and others, both 
English and foreigners, persuade me that there are yet many kindly 
hearts around me, and check the regrets I might otherwise indulge 
in. Yet I cannot forget that I am a widow, unprotected, and in a 
foreign land ; separated from all my natural friends by distant and 
dangerous ways, whether I return by sea or land ! 

12d. — We have news from Peru, for the first time since my arrival, 
I think. A body of General San Martin's army has been sur- 
prised, and destroyed by the royalists. The Chileno squadron, under 
Lord Cochrane, has returned to Callao, from its dangerous and diffi- 
cult voyage to Acapulco, after chasing the two last remaining Spanish 
ships into patriot ports, where they have been forced to surrender ; 
and it is said that San Martin has offered most flattering terms of 
reconciliation to Lord Cochrane. If I understand matters aright, 
it may be possible for His Lordship to listen to them, for the sake 
of the cause ; but, personally, he will surely never repose the slight- 
est confidence in him. 



130 JOURNAL. 

23c?. — To-day, for the first time since I came home, I rode to the 
port ; and had leisure to observe the shops, markets, and wharf, if 
one may give that name to the platform before the custom-house. 

The native shops, though very small, appear to me generally cleaner 
than those of Portuguese America. The silks of China, France, and 
Italy; the printed cottons of Britain ; rosaries, and amulets, and glass 
from Germany ; — generally furnish them. The stuffs of the country 
are very seldom to be purchased in a shop, because few are made 
but for domestic consumption. If a family has any to spare, it goes 
to the public market, like any other domestic produce. The French 
shops contain a richer variety of the same sort of goods ; and there 
is a very tolerable French milliner, whose manners and smiles, so 
very artificial compared to the simple grace of the Chileno girls who 
employ her, would make no bad companion to Hogarth's French 
dancing-master leading out the Antinous to dance. The English 
shops are more numerous than any. Hardware, pottery*, and cot- 
ton and woollen cloths, form of course the staple articles. It is 
amusing to observe the ingenuity with which the Birmingham artists 
have accommodated themselves to the coarse transatlantic tastes. 
The framed saints, the tinsel snuff-boxes, the gaudy furniture, make 
one smile when contrasted with the decent and elegant simplicity 
of these things in Europe. The Germans furnish most of the glass 
in common use : it is of bad quality to be sure ; but it, as well as 
the little German mirrors, which are chiefly brought to hang up as 
votive offerings in the chapels, answers all the purposes of Chileno 
consumption. Toys, beads, combs, and coarse perfumes, are likewise 
found in the German shops. Some few German artificers are also 
established here, and particularly a most ingenious blacksmith and 
farrier, one Frey, whose beautifully neat house and workshop, and 
his garden, render- him an excellent model for the rising Chilenos. 

* A great deal of coarse china ware is brought by the English traders directly across 
the Pacific. A few silks, crapes, and stuffs, with Indian muslins, also come here ; but 
most of the fine articles go at once to Santiago. 



VALPARAISO. 131 

English tailors, shoemakers, saddlers, and inn-keepers, hang out 
their signs in every street ; and the preponderance of the English 
language over every other spoken in the chief streets, would make 
one fancy Valparaiso a coast town in Britain. The North Americans 
greatly assist in this, however. Their goods, consisting of common 
furniture, flour, biscuit, and naval stores, necessarily keep them 
busier out of doors than any other set of people. The more elegant 
Parisian or London furniture is generally despatched unopened to 
Santiago, where the demand for articles of mere luxury is of course 
greater. The number of piano-fortes brought from England is 
astonishing. There is scarcely a house without one, as the fondness 
for music is excessive ; and many of the young ladies play with skill 
and taste, though few take the trouble to learn the gamut, but trust 
entirely to the ear. 

As to the market, meat is not often exposed in it, the shambles 
being out of town in the Almendral, and the carcases are brought 
into the butchers' houses on horseback or in carts. The beef, mutton, 
and pork, are all excellent ; but the clumsy method of cutting it up 
spoils it to the English eye and taste. A few Englishmen, however, 
have set up butcheries, whei'e they also corn meat ; and one of them 
has lately made mould candles as fine as any made in England, which 
is a real benefit to the country. The common candles, with thick 
wicks and unrefined and unbleached tallow, are, indeed, disgusting 
and wasteful. 

The fish-market is indifferently supplied, I think chiefly from indo- 
lence, for the fish is both excellent and abundant. One of the most 
delicate is a kind of smelt ; another, called the congrio, is as good as 
the best salmon trout, which it resembles in taste ; but the flesh is 
white, the fish itself long, very flat towards the tail, and covered with 
a beautiful red-and-white marbled skin. There are excellent mullet, 
which the natives dry as the Devonshire fishers do the whiting to 
make buckhorn; besides a number of others whose names, either 
English or native, I know not. There is one which, if eaten quite 
fresh, is as good as the John doree, to which it bears great external 

s 2 



132 JOURNAL. 

resemblance, but which is not eatable in a very few hours. * The 
shell-fish are various and good : clams, limpets, particularly a very 
large kind called loco, and most admirable crabs quite round in 
shape, are abundant. A large kind of muscle is frequently brought 
from the southern provinces ; and the rocks of Quintero furnish the 
pico, a gigantic kind of barnacle, the most delicate shell-fish, without 
exception, I ever tasted. 

With regard to the vegetables and fruit of the Valparaiso market, 
they are excellent in their way ; but then the backward state of hor- 
ticulture, as of every thing else, renders them much worse than they 
might be. Here fruit will grow in spite of neglect ; and, though this 
is not the season for green or fresh fruits, the apples, pears, and 
grapes, the dried peaches, cherries f , and figs, and the abundance of 
oranges and limes, as well as quinces, prove that culture alone is 
wanting to bring almost every fruit to perfection. As to the kitchen 
vegetables, the first and best are the potatoes, natives of the soil, of 
the very first quality. Cabbages of every kind ; lettuces, inferior only 
to those of Lambeth ; a few turnips and carrots, just beginning tp 
be cultivated here ; every kind of pumpkin and melon ; onions in 
perfection, with their family of chive, garlic, and eschalot ; and I am 
promised in the season cauliflower, green peas, French beans, celery, 
and asparagus ; the latter grows wild on the hills. The French beans 
are, of course, the very best ; as the ripened seed is the frijole here, 
the faggioli of Italy, the haricot of France, and the caravansa of all 
seafaring nations. 

As to the poultry, it is good in itself; but a London poulterer would 
be not a little shocked at the state in which it makes its appearance 
at market. All these things are brought on mules or on horseback 
to town. The fruit in square trunks made of hide, ingeniously plait- 
ed and woven ; and the vegetables in a kind of net made also of hide, 
which, indeed, serves for almost every purpose here : buckets, bas- 

* See Frezier, for a better catalogue of the fishes. 

f A single cherry plant was brought into Chile about the year 1590, whence all those of 
Chile and Juan Fernandez have sprung. 



VALPARAISO. 133 

kets, bags, doors, flooring, hods to carry mortar in, hand-barrows, 
every thing, in short, is occasionally made of it. 

Besides these articles of ordinary consumption, ponchos, hats, 
shoes, coarse stuffs, coarse earthenware, and sometimes jars of fine 
clay from Mellipilla, or even Penco, and small cups of the same for 
the purpose of taking matee, are exposed for sale by the country 
people ; who crowd round the stalls with an air of the greatest impor- 
tance, smoking, and occasionally retiring to a line in the back- 
ground, where the savoury smell and the crackling of the boiling fat 
inform the passengers, that fritters both sweet and savoury are to 
be procured ; nor are the cups of wine or aguardiente wanting to im- 
prove the repast. But the greatest comfort to the market people is 
a fountain of excellent water which falls from a hideous lion's mouth 
in the wall of the government house, or rather of the little fort which 
the governor inhabits, into a rude granite basin. There is no want 
of water about Valparaiso ; but it is clumsily managed, as far as 
relates to domestic comfort and to watering the shipping in the 
harbour. The most convenient watering-place is supplied by a pretty 
abundant stream that is led close to the beach ; but it passes by and 
through the hospital, and there is consequently a prejudice against it. 
Besides, I have heard that the water of this stream does not keep. 
There is another which has not that defect, where a small sum is paid 
for every vessel filled, whether large or small ; and I believe the 
English ships of war usually fill their tanks there. 

Returning from my shopping, I stopped at the apothecary's (for 
there is but one), to buy some powder-blue, which, to my surprise, I 
found could only be procured there. I fancy it must resemble an 
apothecary's of the fourteenth century, for it is even more antique 
looking than those I have seen- in Italy or France. The man has a 
taste for natural history; so that besides his jars of old-fashioned 
medicines, inscribed all over with the celestial signs, oddly inter- 
mixed with packets of patent medicines from London, dried herbs, 
and filthy gallipots, there are fishes' heads and snakes' skins; in 
one corner a great condor tearing the flesh from the bones of a 



134 JOURNAL. 

lamb ; in another a monster sheep, having an adscititious leg grow- 
ing from the skin of his forehead ; and there are chickens, and cats, 
and parrots, altogether producing a combination of antique dust and 
recent filth, far exceeding any thing I ever beheld. — " England, with 
all thy faults, I love thee still," Cowper said at home, and Lord 
Byron at Calais. For my part , I believe if they had either of them 
been in Valparaiso, they would have forgotten that there were any 
faults at all in England. It is very pretty and very charming to read 
of delicious climates, and myrtle groves, and innocent and simple 
people who have few wants ; but as man is born a social and an im- 
provable, if not a perfectable animal, it is really very disagreeable to 
perform the retrograde steps to a state that counteracts the blessings 
of climate, and places less comfort in a palace in Chile than in a 
labourer's hut in Scotland. Well did the Spirit say, " It is not good 
for man to live alone." While I had another to communicate with, 
I used to see the fairest side of every picture ; now I suspect myself 
of that growing selfishness, that looks with coldness or dislike on all 
not conformable to my own tastes and ideas, and that sees but the 
sad realities of things. The poetry of life is not over; but I begin to 
feel that Crabbe's pictures are truer than Lord Byron's. 

Monday, May 21th. — Tempted by the fineness of the day, and a 
desire to see wild trees again (for there are none but fruit trees in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Valparaiso), I determined to take a 
country ride, and to treat my maid with the same. The difficulty 
was in mounting her, as I had but one side-saddle ; however she 
managed to sit on one of the pillions of the countrywomen, 
who ride on what we should call the wrong side of the horse, on little 
saddles like those sometimes used for donkeys without pummels, and 
having a back and sides like an ill-made chair, covered with coloured 
velvet ; and we went boldly up the Sorra or Sierra, that backs the 
town, by the Santiago road for a few miles, and then turned into a 
delightful valley called the Caxon de las Palmas, being part of the 
large estate of the same name depending on the Merced. For the 
first half mile we descended a steep hill, not richer in herbs or shrubs 



VALPARAISO. 135 

than those we had left on the great road ; but having reached a beau- 
tiful little stream, that leaps from stone to stone, now forming minia- 
ture cascades, and now little lakes among the short thick grass, the 
shrubs became of higher growth ; and as we brushed through them, 
the fragrance that exhaled from their leaves brought Milton's bowers 
of Paradise to my mind — 

" The roof 
Of thickest covert, was inwoven shade ; 
Laurel and myrtle, and what higher grew 
Of firm and fragrant leaf: on either side 

each odorous bushy shrub 

Fenced up the verdant wall." 

The varieties of laurel and myrtle are most conspicuous ; and there 
are abundance of other trees and shrubs, most of whose leaves emit, 
on being crushed, a spicy flavour. One of the largest and most 
beautiful is the canela, or false cinnamon, which is used in medicine 
by both Indians and Spaniards, and whose properties are very similar 
to those of the real cinnamon of the East. * It is moreover an inter- 
esting tree, as connected with the history and superstitions of the 
natives. Under it the PaganChilenos performed their sacrifices to 
their deities, and invoked Pillam, the supreme judge ; and I believe 
that some tribes of the Araucanians still revere it. It is certain that 
the branches of this tree, dipped in the blood of sacrifices, are used 
to sprinkle and consecrate places of council ; and that such branches 
are considered as tokens of peace, and delivered accordingly to am- 
bassadors on the forming of any treaty, f It was here as the oak 
was to the ancient Druids ; and its beauty, its fragrance, and its wide- 
spreading shade, give to it in amenity what it wants of the grandeur 
of the king of forests. 

After riding some time, partly up the bed of the rivulet, partly 
along its soft green margin and through its fragrant groves, we came 

* For a descriptive catalogue of some of the most remarkable trees of Chile, I refer to 
the Appendix. I know it is botanically deficient; but having been drawn up by order of 
government for a particular purpose, I believe it to be authentic as far as it goes. 

f e.g. That with the Spaniards in 1643. 



136 JOURNAL. 

to an open space; where three or four picturesque cottages, with 
gardens and a few fields, occupied a diminutive plain, enclosed by 
steep woody mountains, where the palms that give name to the 
valley first appeared. The gardens are pretty extensive, but are 
chiefly occupied by strawberry beds. The fields are newly ploughed, 
and the cattle were grazing on the lower slopes of the surrounding 
hills : two or three palms rise from out the hedges of fruit trees 
that border the little gardens ; they are different from any of the 
tribe I have seen, and produce a nut of the shape of the hazel, but 
much larger ; the kernel is like a cocoa-nut, and, like it, when young 
contains milk ; the leaf is larger, thicker, and richer than that of the 
great cocoa-nut palm, and therefore better adapted for thatching, to 
which use it is commonly applied here, and accordingly receives the 
name of Palma Tejera ; the lower leaves are cut annually, and not 
above two or three of the upper ones left : by this means the tall 
straight trunk becomes crowned with a peculiar capital before the 
leaves branch off; and this is so similar to some of the capitals in the 
ruins of ancient Egypt, that I could not help fancying that I beheld 
the model of their solid yet elegant architecture before me. 

This palm differs considerably from any I have seen in any part of 
the world. The height of those I have seen when full-grown is from 
fifty to sixty feet ; at about two-thirds of that height the stems 
narrow considerably. The bark is composed of circular rings, knotty 
and brown ; they are always upright, and exceed in circumference all 
the palms I know, except the dragon tree : the spathe containing the 
flower is so large, that the peasants use it to hold various domestic 
articles ; and it is shaped so exactly like the canoes of the coast, that 
I think it must have served as the model for building them. I have 
not seen the flower, but, like most of the tribe, the male and female 
flowers are produced on different plants ; and trees bearing the nuts 
are more respected by the natives, who do not cut the leaves, or at 
least do not so completely strip the trees of them as they do the 
barren plants. Perhaps, however, the accident of a palm growing 
within the limit of the fields may account for this, and that the 



VALPARAISO. 



137 



cutting the out-lying palms so close may injure them so as to prevent 
the growth of the fruit. This tree, when it is old, that is, when the 
people calculate that it may have seen a hundred and fifty years pass 
by, is cut down; and, by the application of fire, a thick rich juice 
distils from it, called here miel, or honey. The taste is between that 
of honey and the finest molasses. The quantity yielded by each tree 
sells for 200 dollars. Some other species of palms I know produce a 
sort of sugar. The date tree is one ; but that, I remember, used to be 
tapped for the saccharine juice in the East Indies. I mean to suggest 
to some of my friends to try whether this tree, like the true cocoa-nut 
and the palmetto of Adamson, as well as the cycas or todda-pana, 
yields the toddy from which the best East Indian arrack is distilled. 
Pedro Ordonez de Cevallos says the Indians call it Maguey, and 
make honey, wine, vinegar, cloth, cord, and thatch from it. * 

After stopping some time at the first group of palms, we rode 
along the Caxon by the wood- cutters' paths, till stopped by the 
thickets, following the course of the stream ; which sometimes flowed 
through a smooth valley, and sometimes between mountains so steep 
that the sun had not reached the bottom by noon-day, and the shrubs 
were sparkling with white dew. On our return, we met the first 
flock of sheep I had seen here. They are rather small ; the fleeces 
appear fine and thick ; they fetch at present from two to three, or 
even four reals, when very fine ; but just now the price of the whole 
sheep would not exceed seven reals. I am happy to say, that during 
my ride I saw several fields newly brought into cultivation : it is 
painful to see the waste of fertile land here ; but the country wants 



* Is this the honey which Cabeza de Vacca found among the Guaranies in such plenty 
when he crossed from St. Catherine's to Assumption over-land ? The bread made of pine 
flour may have been plentiful, but not very agreeable. The nut fresh is larger, but like 
the pine-nut of Italy : there are two kinds ; one like the chocolate-nut, the other longer, 
paler, and shining ; both produced in great abundance in the Cordillera de los Andes. 
The Chilian Agave is also described under the name of Maguey ; and, in the northern 
provinces, its juices are converted into a kind of treacle and a fermented drink. The fibres 
of the leaves make good canvass and cordage. I suspect this is the true Maguey. 

T 



138 JOURNAL. 

people. I believe the whole population of the states of Chile does 
not equal that of London. But it is too early to judge of these things 
yet. As it is, I am disposed to think highly of the temper and dis- 
position of the natives. They are frank, gay, docile, and brave; and 
surely these qualities should go to the making of a fine people — a 
nation that will be something. 

May 30th. — I dined to-day in the port, with my very kind friends, 
Mr. Hogan, the American consul, and his wife and daughters ; and met 
Captain Guise, lately of the Chileno naval service, together with his 

followers Dr. and Mr. . Captain Guise was exceedingly polite 

to me, and appears to be a good-natured gentlemanlike man. I have no 
doubt that, in the service, the technical and professional knowledge of 

Dr. and Mr. has been of infinite service, and that they 

have claims on the gratitude, to a certain degree, of all who love the 
cause of independence ; but they neither possess the elevated tone 
of mind necessary for leading men and influencing council, nor in- 
formation for guidance by precedent. In short, I must look upon 
them as adventurers, whose only aim has been to accumulate wealth 
in these rich provinces, without either the philanthropic or the chi- 
valrous views which I am persuaded have accompanied the hopes of 
personal advantrge in the minds of many of their fellow-labourers, in 
the great struggle for independence. To all whose views have been 
so bounded disappointment must be the consequence. Mere gold 
and silver scarcely render individuals rich ; and nations they have 
in many cases rendered poor. Hence, Chile and Peru, who only 
possess money, and not money's worth, are far too poor to give ade- 
quate rewards to their foreign servants ; and all that could rationally 
be anticipated was the precarious chance of Spanish prize-money. 
I feel convinced that the divisions that I hear have taken place in 
the squadron have arisen from the disappointment of such hopes 
too highly raised ; unless indeed, what I should shudder to think true, 
any English officers expected that their service in Chile would be 
only a kind of licensed buccaneering, where each should be master 



VALPARAISO. 139 

of his own ship and his own actions, without rule or subordination. 
But the government wisely foresaw that danger ; and the English 
naval code was adopted, and rigid subordination established ; the 
supreme command confided to able, firm, and honourable hands ; and 
I fondly trust, that the benefit of this sage measure will be perma- 
nently felt. 

By letters from Lima received this day, it appears that Lord Coch- 
rane had not gone on shore in Peru * ; that he lies in Callao bay, 
with his guns shotted ; and that we may soon expect him here. 

I had an opportunity to-day of observing how carelessly even sen- 
sible men make their observations in foreign countries, and on 
daily matters concerning them. A physician, at dinner, mentioned 
the medicinal qualities of the culen (Cytisus Arboreus f), and that 
it would be worth while to bring it into Chile, or at least to the 
neighbourhood of Valparaiso, to cultivate, for the purpose of ex- 
portation. I was almost afraid to say, as I am a new-comer, that 
the country people had shown me a plant they called culen ; but, 
on venturing to tell the gentleman so, he said it could not be because 
he never heard of it here. I went home, walked to the Quebrada, 
found the rocks on both sides covered with the best culen, and the 
inferior sort which grows much higher, not uncommon. Yet he is 
a clever man, and has resided some years in the country. This 
same culen is very agreeable as tea, and is said to possess antiscor- 
butic and antifebrile qualities, the smell of the dried leaves is pleasant, 
and a sweetish gum exudes from the flower-stalks. This gum is used 
by shoemakers instead of wax ; and the fresh leaves formed into a 
sajve with hogs'-lard, are applied with good effect to recent wounds. 

The mistakes about the culen put me in mind of Mrs. Barbauld's 
admirable tale, in the " Evenings-at Home," of " Eyes and no Eyes." 
How much we are obliged to that excellent woman, who, with genius 



* See page 108. of the Introduction to this part of the Journal, for the reasons of this, 
f Frezier gives an excellent plate and description of it. See likewise the Appendix. 

T 2 



140 JOURNAL. 

and taste to adorn the first walks of literature, gave up the greatest 
fame to do the greatest good, by forming the minds of the young, 
and leading them to proper objects of pursuit. I am proud to belong 
to the sex and nation, which will furnish names to engage the rever- 
ence and affection of our fellow-creatures as long as virtue and liter- 
ature continue to be cultivated. As long as there are parents to 
teach and children to be taught, no father, no mother will hear with 
indifference the names of Barbauld, Trimmer, or Edgeworth. Even 
here, in this distant clime, they will be revered. The first stone is 
laid ; schools are established, and their works are preparing to form 
and enlighten the children of another language and another hemi- 
sphere. 

Friday, May 31st.— To-day I indulged myself with a walk which 
I had been wishing to take for some days, to an obscure portion of the 
Almendral, called the Rincona, or nook, I suppose because it is in a 
little corner formed by two projecting hills. My object in going thi- 
ther was to seethe manufactory of coarse pottery, which I supposed 
to be established there, because I was told that the ollas, or jars, for 
cooking and carrying water, the earthen lamps, and the earthen 
brassiers, were all made there. On quitting the straight street of the 
Almendral, a little beyond the rivulet that divides it from my hill, I 
turned into a lane, the middle of which is channelled by a little 
stream which falls from the hills behind the Rincona, and after being 
subdivided and led through many a garden and field, finds its way 
much diminished to the sand of the Almendral where it is lost. 
Following the direction, though not adhering to the course of the 
rill, I found the Rincona beyond some ruined but thick walls, which 
stretch from the foot of the hills to the sea, and which were once 
intended as a defence to the port on that side : they are nothing now. 
I looked round in vain for any thing large enough either to be a manu- 
factory, or even to contain the necessary furnaces for baking the pot- 
tery ; nevertheless I passed many huts, at the doors of which I saw 
jars and dishes set out for sale, and concluded that these were the huts 



VALPARAISO. 142 

of the inferior workmen. However on advancing a little farther I 
found that I must look for no regular manufactory, no division of la- 
bour, no machinery, not even the potter's wheel, none of the aids to 
industry which I had conceived almost indispensable to a trade so 
artificial as that of making earthenware. At the door of one of the 
poorest huts, formed merely of branches and covered with long grass, 
having a hide for a door, sat a family of manufacturers. They were 
seated on sheep-skins spread under the shade of a little penthouse 
formed of green boughs, at their work. A mass' of clay ready tem- 
pered * lay before them, and each person according to age and abi- 
lity was forming jars, plates, or dishes. The work-people were all 
women, and I believe that no man condescends to employ himself in 
this way, that is, in making the small ware : the large wine jars, &c. 
of Melipilla are made by men. As the shortest way of learning is to 
mix at once with those we wish to learn from, I seated myself on the 
sheep-skin and began to work too, imitating as I could a little girl who 
was making a simple saucer. The old woman who seemed the chief 
directress, looked at me very gravely, and then took my work and 
showed me how to begin it anew, and work its shape aright. All this, 
to be sure, I might have guessed at ; but the secret I wanted to learn, 
was the art of polishing the clay, for it is not rendered shining by any 
of the glazing processes I have seen ; therefore I waited patiently and 
worked at my dish till it was ready. Then the old woman put her hand 
into a leathern pocket which she wore in front, and drew out a smooth 
shell, with which she first formed the edges and borders anew ; and 
then rubbed it, first gently, and, as the clay hardened, with greater 
force, dipping the shell occasionally in water, all over the surface, 
until a perfect polish was produced, and the vessel was set to dry in 
the shade. 

Sometimes the earthenware so prepared is baked in large ovens 
constructed on purpose ; but as often, the holes in the side of the hill, 

* The clay is very fine and smooth, and found about nine inches or a foot from the sur- 
face ; it requires little tempering, and is free from extraneous matter ; the women knead 
it with their hands. 



142 JOURNAL. 

whence the clay has been dug, or rather scraped with the hands, 
serve for this purpose. The wood chiefly used for these simple fur- 
naces is the espinella or small thorn, not at all the same as the espina 
or common firewood of the country, which is the mimosa, whose 
flowers are highly aromatic. The espinella has more the appear- 
ance of a thorny coronilla. It is said to make the most ardent fire 
of any of the native woods. The pottery here is only for the most 
ordinary utensils ; but I have seen some jars from Melipilla and 
Penco which in shape and workmanship might pass for Etruscan. 
These are sometimes sold for as high prices as fifty dollars, and are 
used for holding water. They are ornamented with streaks, and vari- 
ous patterns, in white and red clay, where the ground is black ; and 
where it is red or brown, with black and white. Some of the red jars 
have these ornaments of a shining substance that looks like gold 
dust, which is, I believe, clay having pyrites of iron ; and many 
have grotesque heads, with imitations of human arms for handles, 
and ornaments indented on them ; but, excepting in the forming of 
the heads and arms, I do not recollect any Chileno vase with raised 
decorations. * 




* On the Peruvian vases procured from the tombs, there are many and various patterns 
in relief; but I have not seen any modern Peruvian pottery. 



VALPARAISO. 143 

It is impossible to conceive a greater degree of apparent poverty 
than is exhibited in the potters' cottages of the Rincona. Most, 
however, had a decent bed ; a few stakes driven into the ground, 
and laced across with thongs, form the bedstead ; a mattress of wool, 
and, where the women are industrious, sheets of coarse homespun 
cotton and thick woollen coverlets form no contemptible resting- 
place for the man and wife, or rather for the wife, for I believe the 
men pass the greater part of every night, according to the custom 
of the country, sleeping, wrapped up in their ponchos, in the 
open air. The infants are hung in little hammocks of sheep- 
skin to the poles of the roof; and the other children or rela- 
tions sleep as they can on skins, wrapped in their ponchos, on 
the ground. In one of the huts there was no bed ; the whole 
furniture consisted of two skin trunks ; and there were eleven 
inhabitants, including two infants, twins, there being neither father 
nor man of any kind to own or protect them. The natural gentle- 
ness and goodness of nature of the people of Chile preserve even 
the vicious, at least among the women, from that effrontery which 
such a family as I here visited would, and must, have exhibited in 
Europe. My instructress had a husband, and her house was more 
decent: it had a bed; it had a raised bench formed of clay; and 
there were the implements of female industry, a distaff and spindle, 
and knitting needles formed of the spines of the great torch-thistle 
from Coquimbo, which grow to nine inches long. * But the hamlet 
of the Rincona is the most wretched I have yet seen. Its natives, 
however, pointed out to me their beautiful view, which is indeed 
magnificent, across the ocean to the snow-capped Andes, and boasted 
of the pleasure of walking on their hills on a holiday evening: then 
they showed me their sweet and wholesome stream of water, and 
their ancient fig-trees, inviting me to go back " when the figs should 
" be ripe, and the flowers looking at themselves in the stream." 
I was ashamed of some of the expressions of pity that had escaped 

* The more delicate spines of the lesser torch-thistle serve here for pins. 



144 JOURNAL. 

me. — If I cannot better their condition, why awaken them to a 
sense of its miseries ? 

Leaving the Rincona, instead of going directly to the Almendral, 
I skirted the hill by the hamlet called the Pocura, where I found 
huts of a better description, most of them having a little garden with 
cherry and plum trees, and a few cabbages and flowers. In the 
veranda of one of them a woman was weaving coarse blue cloth. The 
operation is tedious, for the fixed loom and the shuttle are unknown ; 
and next to the weaving of the Arab hair-cloths, I should conceive 
that in no part of the world can this most useful operation be per- 
formed so clumsily or inconveniently. At the further part of the 
Pocura an English butcher has built a house that looks like a palace 
here, to the great admiration of the natives. Immediately above, 
on a plain which may be from 80 to 100 feet above the village, is 
the new burying ground or pantheon, the government having wisely 
taken measures to prevent the continuance of burying in or near the 
town. The prejudice, however, naturally attached to an ancient 
place of sepulture prevents this from being occupied according to 
the intention of the projectors. Separated from this only by a wall, 
is the place at length assigned by Roman Catholic superstition to 
the heretics as a burial ground ; or rather, which the heretics have 
been permitted to purchase. Hitherto, such as had not permission 
to bury in the forts where they could be guarded, preferred being 
carried out to sea, and sunk; — many instances having occurred of 
the exhumation of heretics, buried on shore, by the bigotted natives, 
and the exposure of their bodies to the birds and beasts of prey. 

The situation of this resting-place is beautiful ; surrounded by 
mountains, yet elevated above the plain, it looks out upon the ocean 
over gardens and olive groves ; and if the spirit hovers over its mor- 
tal remains, here at least it is surrounded with " shapes and sights 
" delightful." But I trust it is better employed than in watching the 
frail and perishable creature of clay ; a task, alas ! but irksome, when 
life itself is the reward, but how disgusting to a pure intelligence, 
which, once freed from its sublunary fetters, must delight in its liberty 



VALPARAISO. X45 

and its unchecked powers. Oh ! what, when the busy longing after 
immortality is gratified, can have power to bring the spirit down to 
earth ? Not, surely, a lingering fondness for its ancient dwelling ; — 
no, it must be love, which feels like an immortal sentiment for some 
kindred and congenial spirit that could prompt us to hover near till 
that spirit joined us in our flight to eternity. I firmly believe that 
no communication can take place between those once gone, and the 
habitants of earth. But will not the happier friend be conscious of 
the feelings and regrets of those he has left ; may he not watch over 
them and welcome them at last to his own state ? There is nothing 
contrary to reason in such a belief; and I think revelation encourages 
it. And surely it is one means of reconciliation, — one source of 
comfort to those who have closed the dying eyes of all that was best 
and dearest. 

It was twilight long before I reached home, and the evening had 
become chill and gloomy ; and I sat down in my solitary cottage, and 
thought of the hopes and wishes with which I had left England, and 
almost doubted whether I, too, had not passed the bounds of life : 
but such abstractions can never happily last long. The ordinary 
current of existence rolls not so smoothly, but that at every turn 
some inequality awakens consciousness ; and I roused myself to my 
daily task of study, and of writing down the occurrences of the day. 

I have often thought a collection of faithful journals might furnish 
better food to a moral philosopher for his speculations, than all the 
formal disquisitions that ever were written. There are days of hurry 
and happy occupation, that leave also a hurry of spirits, that per- 
mits but the shortest and most concise entries ; others there are, 
where idleness and the self-importance we all feel, more or less, in 
writing a journal, swell the pages with laborious trifling ; and some, 
again, where a few short sentences tell of a state of mind that it 
requires courage indeed to exhibit to another eye. A copied journal 
is less characteristic : it may be equally true, it may give a better, 
because a more rational and careful account of countries visited ; 
and the copying it, may awaken associations and lead the writer to 

u 



146 JOURNAL. 

other views, — to descant with other feelings on the same occurrences. 
And though there be no intentional variation, some shades of cha- 
racter will be kept under by fear, some suppressed, it may be through 
modesty, and there are feelings for others which will blot out many 
more : yet the journal is true ; true to nature, true to facts, and 
true to a better feeling than often dictates the momentary lines of 
spleen or suffering. This truth I solemnly engage myself to preserve. 
I cannot give, and I trust no one will demand, more. 

June 2d. — A rainy morning, and feeling cold, yet the thermometer 
not below 50° of Fahrenheit. While I was at breakfast, one of my 
little neighbours came running in, screaming out " Senora, he is come ! 
" he is come !" — " Who is come, child?" — " Our admiral, our great and 
good admiral ; and if you come to the veranda, you will see the flags in 
the Almendral." Accordingly, I looked out, and did see the Chilian 
flag hoisted at every door : and two ships more in the roads than there 
were yesterday. The O'Higgins and Valdivia had arrived during 
the night, and all the inhabitants of the port and suburbs had made 
haste to display their flags and their joy on Lord Cochrane's safe re- 
turn. I am delighted at his arrival, not only because I want to see 
him, whom I look up to as my natural friend here *, but because I 
think he ought to have influence to mend some things, and to pre- 
vent others ; which, without such influence, will, I fear, prove highly 
detrimental to the rising state of Chile, if not to the general cause 
of South American independence. 

My mind, for a time after I arrived, was not sufficiently free to 
attend, with any degree of interest, to the political state of the coun- 
try : yet a measure of vital importance is now pending. 

On the first settlement of affairs after the battle of Chacabuco, 
Don Bernardo O'Higgins had been chosen to preside over the nation, 
under the title of Supreme Director of Chile. A senate was chosen 
from among the respectable citizens to assist him, and a provisional 



* Captain Graham was a very young midshipman in the Thetis when Lord Cochrane 
was an elder one. Sir A. Cochrane was the captain. 




•«*! 



VALPARAISO. 



147 



constitution was adopted. The law of the land continued to be such 
as the Old Spaniards had bequeathed it. The constitution gave equal 
rights to all ; abolished slavery, limited the privileges of the mayor- 
asgos, diminished the power and revenue of the church, and adopted 
the English naval code for the regulation of its maritime affairs. But 
three years and a half of internal peace and success in all distant 
expeditions had given leisure to the northern provinces of Chile, and 
particularly to the capital, to see and feel the inconveniences of the 
actual form of government ; which was in fact a despotic oligarchy at 
first, and, by the absence or secession of the members of the senate, 
who were disgusted at the opposition they met with in a plan for 
declaring their office perpetual and hereditary, the whole power had 
been left in the single hands of the director : if he had had a spark of 
ordinary ambition, he might have made himself absolute. It is 
seldom that a successful soldier like O'Higgins has the sense to see, 
and the prudence to avoid, the danger of absolute power : he, how- 
evei', has had both ; and the senate being dissolved, he has convoked 
a deliberative assembly for the purpose of forming a permanent con- 
stitution. The members are to be named by him and his private 
council, from among the most respectable inhabitants of each town- 
ship in Chile. This assembly is to devise the means for forming and 
securing a national representation ; and, till such representation can 
be called together, to sit as a legislative body, for a period not ex- 
ceeding three months, while the executive power still remains in the 
hands of the director. * 

If such an assembly should honestly do its duty, nothing could be 
wiser than this measure. But chosen by the executive, and therefore 
biassed not unnaturally in its favour, it appears to me, that every pos- 
sible difficulty lies in the way of obtaining through that assembly an 
effective representative government ; and it might have been wiser, 
and certainly, as the government is constituted, as legal, to have 
issued a decree for electing representatives for the towns at once. 

* See Gazeta Ministeriel de Chile, No. 44. torn. iii. 

u 2 



148 JOURNAL. 

These, as the people of the country increased and became enlightened, 
would naturally add to their numbers, and the government would 
grow along with the people. I am too old not to be afraid of ready- 
made constitutions, and especially of one fitted to the habits of a 
highly civilised people applied too suddenly to an infant nation like 
this. Nothing here can be too simple ; perhaps, the director and 
senate, or at most, the director with a principal burgess from each 
town, to be changed annually, and representing the council of the 
primitive kings or patriarchs, would for many years suit such a state 
of society better than any more complicated form of legislature. 
To this council should certainly be called the chiefs of the army and 
of the navy. With so limited a population, boards for the regulation 
of different departments of government must be worse than useless. 
Neither the men nor the money can be spared for such purposes, and a 
single accountable chief from each department would answer every end. 

Here, where so few have received an education fit to become 
legislators, the lawyers and the clergy must bear an undue propor- 
tion to the rest. For the maritime town of Valparaiso a priest is 
elected ; and the merchants, who will fill up the other places with 
perhaps three or four soldiers, while there is no representative for the 
navy, are men whose views have become contracted by their hitherto 
confined speculations, and from whom, however well-intentioned, it 
would be vain to expect any very enlightened proceedings. 

I am interested in the character of the people, and wish well 
to the good cause of independence. Let the South American 
colonies once secure that, and civil liberty, and all its attendant bless- 
ings, will come in time. 

But I have been writing away the rainy morning, and indulging 
in thoughts too much akin to those of Milton's conceited inhabit- 
ants of Pandemonium. What have I to do with states or govern- 
ments, who am living in a foreign land by sufferance, and who can 
tell from experience 

" How small of all that human hearts endure 
The part that kings or laws can cause or cure !" 



VALPARAISO. 149 

June 6th. — To-day the feast of the Corpus Domini was celebrated ; 
and I went to the Iglesia Matriz with my friend Mrs. Campbell to 
hear her brother Don Mariano de Escalada preach. We went at 
9 o'clock : she had put off her French or English dress, and adopted 
the Spanish costume ; I did so also, so far as to wear a mantilla 
instead of a bonnet, such being the custom on going to church. 
A boy followed us with missals, and a carpet to kneel on. The 
church, like all other buildings here, appears mean from without ; 
but within it is large and decently decorated : to be sure the Virgin 
was in white satin, with a hoop and silver fringes, surrounded with 
looking-glasses, and supported on either hand by St. Peter and 
St. Paul ; the former in a lace cassock, and the latter in a robe 
formed of the same block which composes his own gracious person- 
age. As there was to be a procession, and as the governor was 
to be a principal person in the ceremonies preceding it, we waited 
his arrival for the beginning of the service until 11 o'clock; so that 
I had plenty of time to look at the church, the saints, and the ladies, 
who were, generally speaking, very pretty, and becomingly dressed 
with their mantillas and braided hair. At length the great man 
arrived, and it was whispered that he had been transacting business 
with the admiral, and transmitting to him, and the captains, and other 
officers, the thanks of the government for their services. * But the 
whispers died away, and the young preacher began. The sermon 
was of course occasional ; it spoke in good language of the moral 
freedom conferred by the Christian .dispensation, and thence the 
step was not far to political freedom : but the argument was so 
decorously managed, that it could offend none ; and yet so strongly 
urged that it might persuade many. I was highly pleased with it, 
and sorry to see it succeeded by the ceremony of kissing the reliquary, 
which seemed as little to the taste of Zenteno as might be, by the 
look of ineffable disdain he bestowed on the poor priest who pre- 
sented it. The procession was now arranged ; and my friend and I, 



* See these letters in the Introduction, p. 110. 



150 JOURNAL. 

to escape joining it, hurried out of church, and took a stand to see it 
at some distance. As I saw the mean little train appear, — for mean 
it was, though composed of all the municipal and military dignitaries 
that could be collected, — I could not help thinking of the splendid 
show which three years ago I saw on the day of the Corpus Domini 
in Rome, and thinking how, in both cases, the " form of godliness 
denied the power thereof," and as I knelt to the symbols of religion, 
how widely different was that faith which worships God in spirit and 
in truth. 

There was a pretty part of the show, however, on the water : about 
150 little boats and canoes, dressed with the national colours, and 
firing rockets every now and then, rowed round the bay, and stopped 
at every church, and before every fishing cove, to sing a hymn, or 
chaunt. After accompanying them for some time, I went into 
Mr. Hoseason's house, and there I found Lord Cochrane. I should 
say he looks better than when I last saw him in England, although 
his life of exertion and anxiety has not been such as is in general 
favourable to the looks. — How my heart yearned to think that 
when our own country lost his service, England, 

" Like a base Ethiope, threw a pearl away 
Richer than all his kind." 

But he is doing honour to his native land, by supporting that cause 
which used to be hers ; and in after-ages his name will be among 
those of the household gods of the Chilenos. 

On Lord Cochrane's arrival here from Lima, every body was of 
course anxious to hear what he, and the officers of the squadron in 
general, think and feel concerning the protectorate of Peru. His 
Lordship, however, does not say any thing concerning the conduct 
of San Martin ; but the officers are not so discreet : they universally 
represent the present government of Peru as most despotic and 
tyrannical, now and then stained by cruelties more like the frenetic 
acts of the Czar Paul than the inflictions of even the greatest military 
tyrants. I have a letter from an officer of the Doris, saying that an 
elderly respectable woman in Lima, having imprudently spoken too 



VALPARAISO. 151 

freely of San Martin, was condemned to be exposed for three 
hours in the streets in a robe of penance ; and that as her voice had 
offended, she was gagged, and the gag used was a human bone. She 
was taken home fainting with a natural loathing, and died ! 

There is now in this port a vessel, the Milagro, full of Spanish 
prisoners, to whom San Martin had promised security and protection 
for their persons and property. However, after paying half their 
property for letters of naturalisation, and for permission to retain 
the rest, and with it to leave Lima, they were seized and stripped 
on the road to Callao, huddled on board the prison-ship, and are 
now in the bay to be sent to the rest of the prisoners at Santiago, 
whose captivity is too probably for life, as they are only to be liber- 
ated when Old Spain acknowledges the independence of her colonies. 
These poor people have arrived without the common necessaries of 
life, and leave has been refused to supply some of their most press- 
ing wants ; — but Lord Cochrane has done it without leave. Would 
that he could inspire these people with some of the humanities of 
war as practised in Europe ! 

Two agents of the Peruvian government are said to have arrived 
in the Milagro, for the purpose of spying the state of Lord Cochrane's 
ships, and perhaps of tampering with the officers, or the government 
itself, to get them for Peru. It is given out, however, that they are 
only agents for the prisoners ; it may be so, but the report shows 
the opinions entertained of the honesty of the Protector of Peru. 

The admiral is on the point of visiting the director at Santiago. 
I do hope the government will set about doing him the justice of 
repairing the ships : there is still enough for him to do. While the 
royalists unddr Quintanilla continue to hold Chiloe, there will always 
be a shelter and receptacle for reinforcements from Spain ; and 
though I believe it impossible that these provinces should ever again 
be united to the mother country, yet the contest and the miseries 
of civil war may be protracted. Besides, what is to protect the 
long coast of Chile but its squadron ? 

8th. — I went to pay a visit to the wife of my landlord, who had 



152 JOURNAL. 

often entreated me to go and take matee with her ; but my dread of 
using the bombilla, or tube which passes round to every body for the 
purpose of sucking it up, had hitherto deterred me. However, I 
resolved to get over my prejudice, and accordingly walked to her 
house this evening. It is built, I should think, something on the plan 
of the semi-Moorish houses which the Spaniards introduced into this 
country. Passing under a gateway, on each side of which are shops, 
occupied by various owners, looking towards the streets, I entered a 
spacious court-yard ; one side of which is occupied by the gate, and 
into which the windows of the house look out. A second side of the 
quadrangle appeared to be store-houses ; the other two, by their ja- 
lousied windows, showed that the dwelling apartments were situated 
there. In the entrance-hall the servants were sitting, or standing 
loitering, for the working time of day was over ; and they were look- 
ing into the family apartment, where the women were lolling on the 
estrada, or raised platform covered with carpet (alfombra), supported 
by cushions, on one side of the room ; and the men, with their hats 
on, were sitting on high chairs, smoking and spitting, on the other. 
Along the wall by the estrada, a covered bench runs the whole 
length of the room ; and there I was invited to sit, and the matee 
was called for. 

A relation of the lady then went to the lower end of the estrada, 
and sat on the edge of it, before a large chafingdish of lighted 
charcoal, on which was a copper-pot full of boiling water. The 
matee cups were then handed to the matee maker, who, after putting 
in the proper ingredients, poured the boiling water over them, ap- 
plied the bombilla to her lips, and then handed it to 'me ; but it was 
long ere 1 could venture to taste the boiling liquor, which is harsher 
than tea, but still very pleasant. As soon as I had finished my cup, 
it was instantly replenished and handed to another person, and so 
on till all were served ; two cups and tubes having gone round the 
whole circle. Soon after the matee, sugar-biscuits were handed 
round, and then cold water, which concluded the visit. The people 
I went to see were of the better class of shopkeepers, dignified by 



VALPARAISO. 153 

the name of merchants ; and holding a small landed estate under one 
of the mayorasgos near the chacra where I reside. Their man- 
ners are decent ; and there is a grace and kindliness in the women 
that might adorn the most polished drawing-rooms, and which pre- 
vents the want of education from being so disgusting as in our own 
country, where it is generally accompanied by vulgarity. Here the 
want of cultivation sends women back to their natural means of per- 
suasion, gentleness and caresses ; and if a little cunning mingles with 
them, it is the protection nature has given the weak against the 
strong. In England a pretty ignorant woman is nine times in ten 
a vixen, and rules or tries to rule accordingly. Here the simplicity 
of nature approaches to the highest refinements of education ; and a 
well-born and well-bred English gentlewoman is not very different in 
external manners from a Chilena girl. 

June 12th. — After three days' rain, this morning is as fine " as 
that on which Paradise was created." So I spent half of it in gar- 
dening, half in wandering about the quebradas in search of wild 
flowers ; and first, in the sandy lane near me I found a variety of the 
yellow horned poppy, and the common mallow of England, besides 
the cultivated variety with pink flowers ; vervain, two or three kinds 
of trefoil, furniatory, fennel, pimpernel, and a small scarlet mallow 
with flowers not larger. These, with three or four geraniums, sorrel, 
dock, the ribbed plantain, lucerne, which is the common fodder here, 
and several other small flowers, made me imagine myself in an Eng- 
lish lane. The new plants that first struck me were the beautiful 
red quintral, which some call the Chile honeysuckle, from its fancied 
resemblance to that shrub ; but it is scentless, and it is a parasite. 
And a beautiful little flower, also a parasite, called here cabella de 
angel, or angel's hair (Cuscuta).- It has no leaves, but their place is 
supplied by long semi-transparent stalks ; which, waving in the air 
from the branches of the trees on which they have fastened, appear 
like locks of golden hair, and have given name to the plant. The 
flower grows in thick close clusters, and looks like white wax, with a 
rosy tinge in the centre ; it is five-petalled, about the size of the single 

A" 



154 JOURNAL. 

florets of lily of the valley, and very fragrant. Both these parasites 
are considered by the natives as emollients, and are applied to 
wounds. 

I soon found myself beyond my own knowledge of plants, and 
therefore took a large handful to a neighbour, reputed to be skilful 
in their properties ; and, as I went in, thought on the beautiful passage 
in the " Faithful Shepherdess," where Chlorine apostrophises the sim- 
ples she has been gathering. 

" Oh, you sons of earth, 
You only brood, unto whose happy birth 
Virtue was given ; holding more of nature 
Than man, her first-born and most perfect creature ; 
Let me adore you ! You, that only can 
Help or kill nature, drawing out the span 
Of life and breath, e'en to the end of time ; 
You, that these hands did crop long before prime 
Of day, give me your names, and next your hidden powers." * 

And, first, the culen, whose virtues I have mentioned before, and 
which I now learned was also a charm against witchcraft. The litri, 
the leaves of which blister the hands, nay, so acrid is the plant, that 
persons but passing by, have their faces swelled by it, and it is dan- 
gerous to sleep in its shade. Nevertheless, a drink made from its 
berries, is considered wholesome : the wood is hard as iron, and is 
used for plough-shares. The algarobilla, a pretty small acacia, yields 
a black dye, and common writing-ink is made from it. Quilo, a small 
flowering trailing shrub., the flower is greenish-white, succeeded by a 
berry, or rather seed, enclosed in a fleshy cup, divided into five seg- 
ments, and exposing the seed ; the whole berry is of the size of a 
currant, and of a pleasant sub-acid taste : the roots, when boiled, are 
used to restore grey hair to its original colour. The floripondio, 
{Datura Arborea,) whose beautiful funnel-shaped flower, milk white, 
ten inches long and four broad, smells sweet as the sun goes down. 
Some beautiful varieties of lady's slipper, [Calceolarea,) romarillo or 

* See " Faithful Shepherdess," Act II., for these, and the next thirty-seven lines, for a 
delightful descriptive catalogue of some of our English simples. 



VALPARAISO. 155 

bastard rosemary, an infusion of which is drank to strengthen the 
stomach. Palqui, the yellow and the lilac-flowered ; the last smells 
like jasmine during the night, but is disagreeable after sun-rise : the 
plant is hurtful taken inwardly, but useful as a lotion, for swellings 
and cutaneous eruptions : it is chiefly used for making soap, as it 
yields the finest ashes, and in the greatest quantities of any plant 
here. Yerva Mora is a variety of solatium, a specific for complaints 
in the eyes : there is a beautiful azure-blue variety, with deeply-in- 
dented leaves. * Manzanilla, so called from its smelling of apples, 
is a strong bitter, like camomile, and is used in the same manner. It 
looks like camomile with the outer florets stripped off: the true 
camomile is called Manzanilla de Castilla. The maravilla or shrubby 
sunflower, grows abundantly on all the hills around, and affords ex- 
cellent browsing for the cattle. Mayu f, whose pods furnish a dark 
powder that makes excellent writing-ink. Pimentella, a kind of sage, 
with splendid flowers but dull grey leaves, used for rheumatic pains. 
The quillo quilloe, or white lychnis and tornatilla, a mallow, are 
also used in medicine; and I saw in the house bundles of dried 
Cachanlangue, or lesser herb-centaury, which I was assured was a 
sovereign remedy in spitting blood. Besides all these useful plants, 
I had gathered the Flor de Soldado, (scarlet celsia,) the Barha de 
Viejo, a shrub with a small aggregate flower growing in clusters, and 
smelling like queen of the meadow, andromeda, and the lesser fuscia : 
so that, considering that it is not yet the season of flowers, I had been 
pretty successful. I am sorry I know so little of botany, because I 
am really fond of plants. But I love to see their habits, and to know 
their countries and their uses ; and it appears to me that the nomen- 
clature of botany is contrived to keep people at a distance from any 
real acquaintance with one of the most beautiful classes of objects in 
nature. What have harsh hundred syllabled names to do with such 
lovely things as roses, jasmines, and violets? . 



* Such as Smith, in his botany, calls lyrate. See No. 59. in the plates of the leaves, 
f Belongs to Linnaeus's natural order, Lomentacea. 

A" 2 



156 JOURNAL. 

Wednesday, June 19th. — These few last days I have been less 
alone. My friend Miss H. is staying with me, and we have had many 
pleasant walks together ; and I have become acquainted with several 
of the Chileno naval officers. Captain Foster, who was the senior 
captain, has given up his command, and, it is said, has tendered his 
resignation to the supreme government : he very kindly came the 
other day to superintend the putting up a stove in my little sitting 
room. I have hitherto used an open brasier, but, though very com- 
fortable, the fumes of the charcoal must be hurtful ; but with a stove, 
they pass off through the funnel. Several houses have now English 
stoves and grates, but the burning of coal is not yet very general. 
English coal is of course dear, and the coal from the province of 
Conception, which resembles the Scotch coal, is not yet worked to 
a sufficient extent to supply the market. 

Of the officers actually belonging to the squadron, I have seen 
Captain Crosbie, Lord Cochrane's flag captain, a pleasant gentleman- 
like young Irishman, brave as Lord Cochrane's captain ought to be, 
and intelligent. Captain Cobbet, the nephew of Cobbet, with a great 
deal of the hard-headed sense of his uncle, and also, if all physio- 
gnomical presages are not false, endowed with no small share of his 
selfishness, owes every thing, education and promotion, both in the 
English navy and this, to Lord Cochrane, and has the reputation of 
being an excellent seaman : I find him polite, intelligent, and com- 
municative. But the person who seems peculiarly to possess the 
information concerning all I want to know, is the physician of the 
O'Higgins, Dr. Craig. Skill in his profession, good sense, rational 
curiosity, and enthusiasm of character concealed under a shy exterior, 
render him a more interesting person than ninety-nine in a hundred 
to be met with on this side of Cape Horn ; and I feel peculiarly 
happy in making his acquaintance. 

It is not unpleasant to have one's solitude now and then broken 
in upon by persons who, like these, have characters of their own ; but 
there is a sad proportion in the English society here of trash. How- 
ever, as vulgarity, ignorance, and coarseness, often disguise kindness 



VALPARAISO. 157 

of heart, and as I have experienced the latter from all, it scarcely 
becomes me to complain of the roughness of the coat of the pine- 
apple while enjoying the flavour of the fruit. * Of many of these I 
may say,— 

" That still they fill affection's eye, 
Obscurely wise and coarsely kind." 

Yesterday a very interesting person sailed from hence for Lima, 
Mr. Thompson, one of those men whom real Christian philanthropy 
has led across the ocean and across the Andes to diffuse the benefits 
of education among his fellow-creatures. He had spent some time 
in Santiago, where, under the patronage of the supreme director, he 
has established a school of mutual instruction on the plan of Lan- 
caster. He has been in Valparaiso some time superintending the 
formation of a similar school, to the maintenance of which part of 
the revenue of a suppressed monastery has been appropriated. The 
governor, with the Cabildo and military officers in procession, accom- 
panied Mr. Thompson on the opening of the school, so that all the 
importance was given it that was possible, and I am happy to say 
with good effect. It is now, though so recent, well attended, and I 
have met many of the country people bringing in their children in 
the morning to go thither, f The immediate wants of Chile are 
education in the upper and middling classes, and a greater number 
of working hands. I ought, I suppose, to say productive labourers ; 
but hands, both indirectly and directly productive, are wanting. Not 
a hundredth part of the soil is cultivated, and yet it produces from 
sixteen fold on the bare coast, to a hundred fold of wheat in the 
upper country ; ordinarily sixty every where, and in some spots 
ninety of barley, and so on of maize ; not to mention that the fruits 
transplanted hither seem to have adopted the soil, and even to im- 
prove in quality and in quantity in this favoured climate. 

* Bishop Home, speaking of Dr. Johnson, says, that " to refuse to acknowledge the 
merit of such a man on account of the coarseness of his behaviour, what is it but to 
throw away the pine-apple, and to allege for a reason the roughness of its coat ?" 

f Mr. Thompson has been solemnly declared a free citizen of Chile by the government. 



158 JOURNAL. 

20th. — To-day, being anxious to procure a variety of scene for 
my young friend, we walked to what is usually called the flower- 
garden here, and I, at least, highly enjoyed the day. On reaching 
the house of the mistress of the garden, we found her seated on the 
brick bench before the door. She appears very old : her hair, which 
fell in a single braid down her back, being perfectly grey. She is 
tall and hale-looking, and soon summoned three of her five daughters 
to receive us. The youngest of these appeared to be at least fifty, 
tall, muscular, well made, with the remains of decided beauty, with 
an elastic step and agreeable voice : they stepped forward bearing 
carpets for us to sit on, and oranges to refresh us. The other two, 
of scarcely less imposing appearance, joined us, and invited us to walk 
into the garden. As yet none of the cultivated flowers appear, but 
the taste of these women has adorned their arboleda, or orchard, of 
peach, cherry, and plum, with all the wild flowers of the neigh- 
bourhood, some of which grow almost into the little stream that 
runs through the grounds, and others twine up the stems of the fruit 
trees now beginning to blossom. I wish, however, all this was more 
neatly kept. Even Eve weeded her garden, and Adam was com- 
manded to dress as well as to dig the ground. They showed us a 
beautiful green spot, in a recess formed by two hills, where the 
young and pretty Lady Cochrane used to bring her parties to dine, 
and enjoy the country scenery. Her gaiety and liveliness seemed to 
have produced a strong impression on the natives, who talk of her 
with admiration and regret. On returning to the house we passed 
through the more private garden, and I saw, for the first time, the 
lucuma (Achrces Lucumo), a fruit rare here, but sufficiently abundant 
in Coquimbo, and which flourishes well in Quillota. The seed, 
which resembles a chesnut, is enveloped in a pulp, like the med- 
lar in substance, and of an agreeable sweetish flavour. There is 
also the chirimoya, (an Anonna, *) so famous in Peru ; it is a better 
kind of custard apple, and the trees bear a strong resemblance to 



* One of the coadunatas of Linnseus's natural method. 



VALPARAISO. 1 59 

each other. We found our old lady sitting where we had left her, 
distributing advice and plants of various kinds to two or three women 
and children, who had collected round her while we were in the 
garden : 

For herbs she knew, and well of each could speak, 

That in her garden sipped the silvery dew, 
Where many ajlower- displayed its gaudy streak 

With herbs for use, and physic not a few, 
Of grey renown, within whose borders grew 

The tufted basil, pun-provoking thyme, 
Fresh baum, and marigold of cheerful hue, 

The lowly gill that never dares to climb ; 
And more I fain would sing, disdaining here to rhyme. 

Among the little girls were two fishermen's children with.laver, 
another sort of sea-weed, and several kinds of shell-fish for sale, 
some of which I had never seen before ; and upon my saying so, my 
young companion and I were asked to come some day to eat of them 
dressed in the country fashion. It was too late to-day to prepare 
any ; but we were so earnestly pressed to come back after our 
intended walk to the Quebrada, farther on, and partake of the family 
dinner, that I, loving to see all things, readily consented ; and 
accordingly returned at two o'clock to the flower-garden house. 

We found the mother sitting alone on the estrada, supported by 
her cushions, with a small low round table before her, on which was 
spread a cotton cloth, by no means clean. The daughters only 
served their mother ; but ate their own meals in the kitchen by the 
fire. We were accommodated with seats at the old lady's table. 
The first dish that appeared was a small platter of melted marrow, 
into which we were invited to dip the bread that had been presented 
to each, the old lady setting the example, and even presenting bits 
thoroughly sopped, with her fingers, to Miss H., who contrived to 
pass them on to a puppy who sat behind her. I, not being so near, 
escaped better ; besides, as I really did not dislike the marrow, 
though I wished in vain for the addition of pepper and salt, I dipped 
my bread most diligently, and ate heartily. The bread in Chile is 



160 JOURNAL. 

not good after the first day. The native bakers usually put suet or 
lard into it, so that it tastes like cake ; a few French bakers, how- 
ever, make excellent bread ; but that we had to-day was of the coun- 
try, and assimilated well with the melted marrow. After this apetizer, 
as my countrymen would call it, a large dish of charqui-can was 
placed before us. It consists of fresh beef very much boiled, with 
pieces of charqui or dried beef, slices of dried tongue, and pumkin, 
cabbage, potatoes, and other vegetables, in the same dish. Our host- 
ess immediately began eating from the dish with her fingers, and 
invited us to do the same ; but one of her daughters brought us each 
a plate and fork, saying she knew that such was our custom. How- 
ever, the old lady persisted in putting delicate pieces on our plates 
with her thumb and finger. The dish was good, and well cooked. 
It was succeeded by a fowl which was torn to pieces with the hands ; 
and then came another fowl cut up, and laid on sippets strewed with 
chopped herbs ; and then giblets ; and then soup ; and, lastly, a bowl 
of milk, and a plate of Harina de Yalli, that is, flour made from a small 
and delicate kind of maize. Each being served with a cup of the 
milk, we stirred the flour into it ; and I thought it excellent from its 
resemblance to milk brose. Our drink was the wine of the country ; 
and on going out to the veranda after dinner, apples and oranges 
were offered to us. As it was not yet time for the old lady to take 
her siesta, I took the opportunity of asking her concerning the belief 
of the people of the country as to witches. There is something 
in her appearance, when surrounded by her five tall daughters, that 
irresistibly put me in mind of the weird sisters, and I felt half inclined 
to ask what they were that " look'd not like th' inhabitants of earth, 
and yet were on it." If I had done so, instead of asking the simple 
question I did, my hostess could not have looked more shocked : 
she crossed herself, took up the scapulary of the Merced, which she 
kissed * ; and then said, " There have been such things as witches, 



* This scapulary is a bit of cloth or silk, on one side of which is embroidered a white 
cross, on a red ground ; and on the other, the arms of Arragon : this is hung round the 



VALPARAISO. 



161 



but it would be mortal sin to believe or consult them ; from which, 
may our lady defend me and mine :" and little more was to be got 
from her on that subject, though she launched out at great length 
into a history of saints and miracles, wrought particularly against the 
heretics ; especially the Russians, in favour of the faithful Spaniards. 
I find, however, that witches here do much the same things as in 
Europe ; they influence the birth of animals, nay, even of children ; 
spoil milk, wither trees, and control the winds. It is scarcely thirty 
years since the master of a trading ship was thrown into the prison 
of the Inquisition for making a passage of thirty-five days from Lima, 
a time then considered too short to have performed the voyage in 
without preternatural assistance. The people here are so Spanish 
in their habits, that it would be difficult for any one to detect what 
portion of their superstitions, their manners, or customs, are derived 
from the aboriginal Chilenos ; and it is particularly so to me, as I 
have never been in Old Spain ; so that where the manners differ from 
those of the peasantry in Italy, I am equally ignorant whether that 
difference arises from the Spanish Moresco, or the Chileno ancestry 
of the people. 

The superstitions and the cookery of to-day are both decidedly 
Spanish, though some of the materials for both are aboriginal Ame- 
ricans : no bad type, I fancy, of the character of the nation. 

24th, St. John s day. — The balmy nucca drop* of the midnight, 
between the eve of St. John and this day, seems to have fallen here : 
all is gay and idle, every body walking about in holyday-clothes. I 
am sorry, however, to find that the time of the Spaniards is talked 
of with some little lingering regret. The present government, by 
suppressing a great many of the religious shows, has certainly re- 



neck, and put me in mind of the Brahminee thread. On the day of the Assumption, those 
who have joined that Hermandad, or society, pay two reals, and one more monthly, for the 
right of burial in the consecrated ground of the Merced. The scapulary is the receipt the 
holy brothers give for the money received. 

* The drop which falls from heaven, and slops the plague in Egypt. Persons under 
the influence of witchcraft are freed by it, &c. &c. See all oriental tales, and though 
among the latest, yet the loveliest, Paradise and the Peri. 

r 



162 JOURNAL. 

lieved the people from a heavy tax, but then it has curtailed their 
accustomed amusements ; and in a climate such as this, where con- 
stant labour is not necessary to support life, some consideration 
ought to be had to the necessity of amusement for those classes, es- 
pecially where purely mental entertainment is nothing. The festival 
of St. Peter, peculiarly adapted to a maritime place, should not, I 
think, have been abolished. On his day, his statue, kept in the 
Iglesia Matriz, used to be solemnly brought out and placed in an 
ornamented goleta, decked with flags and ribbons, and gilding, and 
attendant images. The goleta, manned by fishermen, was rowed 
round the harbour, followed by all the fishing boats and canoes. 
Bands of music were stationed on each point bounding the bay ; and 
when the goleta reached them, rockets and guns saluted it. 

I have often admired the wisdom of Venice with regard to its 
festivals ; there was scarcely one of the church that was not converted 
into a national monument. On the feast of the Purification, was cele- 
brated the seizure and recapture of the brides of Venice, under the 
name of the Marias, which has furnished the subject of tales and poems 
in all languages. The ceremonies of the last day of the carnival com- 
memorated the suppression of an internal division in the city. But 
among a thousand others, the greatest, in every sense, was that cele- 
brated on the day of the Ascension, when the doge, proceeding in the 
Bucentaur to the open sea, solemnly espoused the Adriatic, in com- 
memoration of the triumphant return of the Doge Urseoli on the 
day of the Ascension, after having subjected the whole of the Adriatic 
to Venice. * It may be said, that to engraft the sacred feelings of 
patriotism thus upon the stock of superstition, only fosters the latter ; 
and that the enlightened policy of this age, ought to be superior to 
the temporising spirit which such a union demands. But the people 
are, perhaps, nowhere sufficiently enlightened to be altogether in- 

* See the " Origine delle Feste Veneziane," by one whom I am proud to have seen and 
known, whose knowledge, as displayed in her work, is the least of her merits, but whose 
truly patriotic feeling for her ruined country must find an echo in every breast. Need I 
add the name of Justin a Renier Michiele? 



VALPARAISO. jg3 

sensible to show, to amusement, and to external associations. Is it 
not, therefore, wise to turn these shows and associations to the account 
of patriotism ? And is it not more probable that the superstition 
will be forgotten, while the near and almost personal feelings that 
belong to national triumph strengthen with time. Shakspeare un- 
derstood the value of such associations, when he makes Harry the 
Fifth say — 

" Crispin Crispian shall ne'er go by, 
From this day to the ending of the world, 
But we in it shall be remembered." 

And who in England has forgotten Agincourt ? But who, besides 
the shoemakers, ever thinks of St. Crispin ? 

Chile is so obviously a maritime country, shut up as she is to 
landward, by the Andes from the eastern provinces, and the desert of 
Atacama from those to the north, that I would, were I its legislator, 
turn every feeling and passion towards the sea. St. Peter's day should 
be a national and naval spectacle : I would distribute prizes to fisher- 
men and boatmen ; I would bestow honorary rewards on officers ; I 
would receive and answer petitions and representations from all con- 
nected with the sea ; in short, I would, on that day, let them feel 
that the protection of government went hand in hand with that of 
religion over the most useful, and therefore the most favoured class 
of Chileno citizens. 

June 25ih. — I went with a party to the Lagunilla, a small fresh- 
water lake formed from the waters of several little streams, and 
divided from the sea only by a bank of sand : the road into the 
valley of the lake is good, but the steepest I ever recollect riding. 
On leaving Valparaiso, from which the lake is three leagues distant, 
we found ourselves on a high table land, whence we enjoyed a mag- 
nificent view of the central Andes on one hand, and the coast with 
all its harbours and bays on the other. The little bay of the Lagunilla 
is said not to be safe for ships, who always make it in coming from 
the southward. At the bottom of the valley we found a Rancho, which 
just now looks poor and miserable : but it is the poor time of year ; 

y 2 



jg4 JOURNAL. 

the provisions laid up for the season are nearly exhausted, that is, all 
but mere necessaries. Everything in the shape of luxury is gone ; 
and the peasant waits, not impatiently however, (for the Chilenos are 
good-humoured and gay,) for the return of the season that brings his 
apples to render his bread more palatable, and the green boughs to 
refresh his sheds and his hedges, which, since the crop was taken off 
his garden-ground, have gradually disappeared to feed his fire. We 
had sent a mule laden with provisions to the spot, and some of our 
party had shot some partridges, which were dressed at the Rancho. 
Our tablecloth was spread in a pleasant green place, and we dined 
within hearing of the little rill that murmurs down the valley, ren- 
dering it green and fertile. A few fruit trees grew among the huge 
blocks of stone, that in its winter fury it has washed from the neigh- 
bouring mountain. It was the first party I had joined since my 
arrival, and I had done it with reluctance, because I am scarcely yet 
fit company for the young and the cheerful ; but I am glad I did so. 
Fine weather, exercise, and agreeable scenery, must do good both to 
mind and body ; I feel better than I had ever hoped to be when I first 
landed on these shores. 

As we returned, we perceived an English frigate, the Aurora, just 
going into Valparaiso from Brazil ; she saluted Lord Cochrane's flag 
as she entered. His Lordship himself is still in Santiago ; the 
world says, occupied in endeavouring to obtain from the justice of 
the government the arrears of pay and prize money for the squadron. 
Some of his friends, I think injudiciously, and I am confident untruly, 
talk of him as interfering with the new government regulations to be 
made. Others, perhaps better informed, represent his business to be 
the refutation of the absurd charges brought against him by San 
Martin.* These charges have proceeded from the basest motives : 
envy of his reputation, jealousy of his actions, and fear of his re- 
sentment ; besides the unwise anger occasioned by his esteeming it 
" more honourable to show marks of open displeasure, than to en- 



* See p. 99. of the Introduction. 



VALPARAISO. 165 

" tertain secret hatred," on the discovery of San Martin's infamous 
designs against the state he had sworn to serve. These charges are 
so frivolous, so mean, so paltry, so much what a thief at the foot of 
the gallows would be apt to lay against an innocent man who had 
offended him, that I have always felt that, in this case, to vindicate 
the integrity and freedom from corruption of such a man, would be 
an affront to his virtues.* 

9Hth. — I paid a visit to Madame Zenteno the governor's lady, a 
pleasing, lively little woman, who received me very politely, and sent 
for her husband, who came immediately, and seemed delighted to 
display the English comforts of the apartment I was received in. An 
English carpet, an English grate, and even English coals, were all 
very agreeable on this cold raw day. Zenteno assured me that he 
found a fire thus burned in an open stove was the best promoter of 
conversation, and regretted the many years he had passed without 
even guessing at its comforts. He is properly anxious to promote a 
taste for the elegancies of civilised life; but under any other circum- 
stances, I should say that there was even a little affectation in his 
great admiration for everything English. However, the people of 
Valparaiso are indebted to him for considerable improvements in the 
roads and streets ; and a plan for a new market-place, as soon as 
the funds will permit, is to be carried into execution. These things 
seem little to Europeans. But they forget that this Valparaiso, one 
of the greatest ports on this side of the vast continent of South Ame- 
rica, is little more in appearance than an English fishing town. 
Sidmouth is a capital city in comparison. From the governor's house 
I went to the jail, a strong uncomfortable building now empty. The 
prisoners are transferred to the hospital of San Juan de Dios ; and 
I am ashamed to say the Spanish prisoners from Lima, sent by San 
Martin, are there also, along with the common felons. The Spaniards 
were in so wretched a condition on their arrival, that the English 
inhabitants, in order to save them from starving, have raised a 

* Aikin's translation of the life of Agricola. 



166 JOURNAL. 

subscription ; and one of the merchants daily sees their food dis- 
tributed. 

29th. — The Independencia, one of the Chileno squadron, came in 
to-day. She was left by Lord Cochrane on the coast to the north- 
ward, for the purposes of surveying, aiding the cause of indepen- 
dence, and procuring provisions.* The Araucana had been left with 
her, but while she was detached on a particular service to the Bay 
of Lorero, the captain and others being on shore on duty, the mas- 
ter, gunner, and boatswain mutinied, seized the ship, and having 
landed all the Chilenos, and such English as would not join them, at 
Dolores, they, with sixteen men, sailed, and have not since been heard 
of. Forty- seven of the crew, under the captain, are preserved to 
the service ; and it is remarkable that there was not a Chileno among 
the deserters. 

The Independencia has brought some good surveys, and in some 
cases has been of use to the good cause, by encouraging the coast 
towns to declare their adherence to the independent governments, in 
whose territories they are situated. It is however to be regretted, 
that the intemperate behaviour of one of the officers, lor which in- 
deed he atoned with his life, occasioned some disturbances, which 
must, I fear, have a bad effect. 

39th. — To-day 300 of the prisoners from Lima were sent off to 
Santiago, some on foot, and others, whose age and infirmities ren- 
dered it impossible for them to march, in waggons. Among the lat- 
ter, one old man with thin grey hair was seated, and was heard to 
apostrophise the sea, whose shores he was leaving, as the only road 
to his native country ; and feebly lamenting, he sat carelessly on the 
edge of the vehicle ; when, just as it turned to go up the first cuesta, 
he fell and died on the spot, — it was not of the fall, but of a broken 



* All the orders to procure provisions for the Chile squadron, most particularly enjoin 
that they shall be duly paid for ; or in case of its not being possible to do so, to use force 
only with regard to public property under Spanish colours, carefully respecting all private 
claims. (See orders to Araucana, &c.) Such lias been the constant practice of the squa- 
dron, while under Lord Cochrane. 



VALPARAISO. 157 

heart. His companions say, that, with the word Spain on his lips, he 
died in the cart and then fell. These are things to make the heart 
ache ; and the more painfully, as that the evil comes not from the 
ordinary course of nature, wherein men's sufferings and trials come 
proportioned to their strength, or from that high hand which is mer- 
ciful as powerful ; but from man — man who preys upon his fellows ; 
and who to cruelty adds hypocrisy, and commits his crimes in the 
sacred name of virtue. * The story of these prisoners combines all 
that is base and cruel, and cowardly ; but when was a cruel man 
brave ! f 

It is the festival of Nuestra Sefiora del Pilar La Avogada de los 
Marineros. How could I do otherwise than observe it ? I went to 
my old friend at the flower-garden, who is commonly called La Cha- 
velita ; and, as I knew she intended being at the ceremony which 
takes place at the church of the Merced, I obtained permission to 
accompany her ; and the afternoon was productive of considerable 
amusement and information, which I could not have obtained without 
such a companion. In the first place, I do not know if I should other- 
wise ever have had courage to go into a ventana or wine-house, which 
I did to-day. We arrived at the church-door too early ; and, after 
walking up and down the space proposed for the procession, we went 
to the said ventana, which is exactly opposite to the church. I ima- 
gined, at first, that it was a private house belonging to a friend of 
La Chavelita ; and the table at the door set out with fruit and cakes 
for sale, seemed to me to be only a compliment to the festival. On 
entering a very large room, with benches round three sides and a 
brassero in the middle, I saw on the fourth side of the apartment, a 
table covered with jugs and bottles, containing various kinds of liquor, 
and glasses of different sizes by them. On one of the benches sat 
two religious of the order of the Merced, with their long, full, white 
robes with black crosses and enormous hats, smoking and talking 

* We all remember the exclamation of Madame Roland, in passing the statue of 
Liberty : " Oh Liberte ! que de crimes on commet en ton nom." 
f See p. 88. of the Introduction. 



168 JOURNAL. 

politics. The exile of the bishop ; the probable effect of the expect- 
ed assembly on church affairs ; and some murmuring at the choice 
of the provincial of the church of San Domingo, Don Celidon Mar- 
ques, as deputy for Valparaiso, while the worthier brethren of the 
Merced had been neglected, were their principal themes. Our en- 
trance interrupted them for an instant ; when, after a few minutes 
whispering, in which I now and then heard the words Viuda Inglez, 
they resumed their politics ; and then, having finished their segars, 
walked out. Meantime I had observed several elderly fat women 
running about, and mixing various liquors, and carrying them into 
several inner apartments ; some of these liquors I tasted. Little 
spirits or wine was called for ; but several kinds of sherbet, the best 
of which is Luca, were in great request. The Luca, is an infusion 
of Culen, Can ela wild cinnamon, with a little syrup, and is said to 
be as wholesome as it is pleasant. The house shortly began to fill. 
Company after company of young men arrived, and were shown into 
different rooms, and I then found out where I was. Some parties 
called for dinners of so many dishes, others for wine ; some for 
sweet drinks and cakes, and music ; and all for segars. Some good- 
looking girls now made their appearance, and with guitars entered 
the rooms where music had been ordered. Soon we heard the sound 
of singing and dancing, and I was quite satisfied that every body was 
happy and merry, and left the place, persuaded that the evening 
would be still gayer, and that the dances I had often seen among the 
very common people in the smallest public-houses, as 1 rode through 
the Almendral at night, are practised, though more privately, by the 
decenter sort, in these more quiet houses. Gambling is very com- 
mon here among the lower orders as well as among the gentry. 
Every rude nation gambles ; every very refined people does the 
same. The savage has in the intervals of hunting and making war 
too much leisure ; life stagnates, he must have a stimulus — he gam- 
bles. The gentleman of civilised society needs not hunt for his sub- 
sistence ; and, if he does not do it for exercise, he also, to procure 
that stimulus which seems necessary to existence, gambles. Com- 



VALPARAISO. 



169 



mercial speculations and war are only gambling on a larger scale. In- 
tellectual pleasures alone supply sufficient stimulus to exertion and 
excitement to curiosity, on which gambling to see the end principally 
depends, and leave man the richer and better for the exercise. Seve- 
ral games are played here so like the games of Europe, and of the 
East, that they must of course have been imported by the Spaniards. 
The sort of golf played on horseback in Persia, is played in the same 
manner here. * Cards, dice, and billiards, are seen within doors ; 
bowls and skittles, and flying kites, which is equally the sport of the 
old and young, are exercised in the open air. One kind of bowls is 
new to me. The space of playing is always under a shed. A frame 
of wood being laid down, a floor of clay, about 30 feet long by from 
15 to 18 feet broad, is very nicely laid, the frame-work rising about 
six inches, or from that to a foot, round the whole : a rino- fixed on 
a pivot and turning with the slightest touch, is placed about one-third 
from the upper end of the floor ; the player seats himself on the frame 
at the opposite end, and endeavours to send his bowl through the 
ring without striking it. This is a very favourite game, and I am 
persuaded that few of the neighbouring peons do not lose and win, 
not only all their money, but even their clothes at it, half-a-dozen 
times every year. 

It was now time, however, to repair to the church. And there, 
kneeling before the high altar, we heard the mass to our lady of the 
glittering brow, and prayed for the safety of the living seamen, and for 
the souls of those who were gone. I cannot and I will not think it 
unlawful to join in such prayers ; and I never felt my devotion more 
fervent : but I was soon roused from it to join in the procession, and 
then, indeed, I felt my Protestant prejudices return. Our lady was 
taken out dressed in brown satin, and jewels of value, and carried 
towards the sea, through a lane formed of boughs of green myrtle and 
bay. Here and there was a shrine at which she stopped, and a chaunt 

* This is said to have been an Aboriginal game : till the arrival of the Spaniards, it was 
played on foot ; but since the horse was introduced, every thing is done on horseback in this 
country. 

Z 



170 JOURNAL. 

was sung. Then, having thus visited San Josef, Santa Dolores, and 
Santa Geltrudes, she was carried back at sunset to her own altar, and 
the Ave Maria Stella was sung. The paltry decoration of the saints 
here discovers, by daylight, the hideousness of the superstition : the 
looking glasses and the toys are coarse and inelegant. Now, night 
had come on, all this was hid, " Ave Maria Stella" brought back 
Italy and that magic power, which even in her decrepitude throws 
lustre over her, to my mind. How many a balmy evening I have 
listened with delight to the voices singing Ave Maria in the modu- 
lated tones of Italy, while Rome herself was hushed at the mo- 
ment into religious, awful silence : all save the chaunt mingled with 
the noise of the fountains. Of all the characters of the Virgin I love 
this best : — 

" Star of the dark and stormy sea, 

Where wrecking tempests round us rave, 
Thy gentle virgin form we see 

Bright rising o'er the hoary wave. 
The howling storms that seemed to crave 

Their victims, sink in music sweet; 
And surging seas retreat to pave 

The path beneath thy glistering feet." 

Ave Maria Stella. * 

July 1st. — Late last-night His Majesty's ship Alacrity came in 
from Lima, and brought me letters from my friends of the Doris. 
She also brought intelligence concerning Lima, which confirms all 
that we have heard of the hateful though plausible San Martin. It is 
well known that the merchant Don Pedro Abadia, besides being one 
of the richest merchants in South America, was also one of the most 
enlightened, liberal, and respectable men. For this excellent person 
San Martin had always professed the greatest friendship, and made 
use of his knowledge and talents in the regulation of his custom- 
houses and his taxes. But having obtained his end thus far, the 
riches of Abadia excited his cupidity, and he proceeded by the basest 



« From the beautiful translation of a Portuguese hymn, by my lamented friend Dr. 
Leyden. 



VALPARAISO. j Yl 

treachery to procure an excuse for arresting him. Knowing that an 
immense property of Abadia's was in the hands of the royalists at 
Pasco, San Martin instructed two monks to go to him and offer to 
convey such letters to the commanders of the Spanish troops as 
might, at least, prevent the absolute ruin of the property, which 
chiefly consisted in mines, and in most expensive machinery which 
he had imported from England, with the idea and the hope of im- 
proving the country by the introduction of such machinery into it. 
The monks of course betrayed Abadia. He was thrown into prison, 
and tried before a tribunal instituted by San Martin. Yet, as his 
letters had been strictly confined to the business of his estates and 
machinery, he was acquitted, although the sentence was sent back 
more than once for revisal. However, before he was liberated, he 
was forced to pay an immense fine; and his wife and children were 
detained as hostages for his banishing himself to Panama, or some 
place not nearer. He took refuge on board the Alacrity, and then 
went into the Doris, where he won the esteem and regard of every 
person on board both ships. San Martin has vulgarly been said 
to drink : I believe this is not true ; but he is an opium eater, and 
his starts of passion are so frequent and violent, that no man feels his 
head safe. Every thing is given to the soldiers, therefore his govern- 
ment is popular with them ; but it is precarious, and it is thought not 
impossible that Lacerna, the royalist general, may recover Lima ; in 
which case, it is expected that he will declare Peru independent, and 
dismiss by fair means or foul the Exercito Libertador. It is true 
that military despotism is the greatest curse under which a nation 
can suffer. But it never lasts long. One change has been effected, 
therefore the possibility of another is proved : the bands of tyranny 
are slackened ; and the people will grow, and be educated, a little 
roughly perhaps, but knowledge will advance ; and, as knowledge is 
power, they will, at no distant period, be able to shake off the tyranny 
both of foreign governments and domestic despots, and to compel 
their rulers to acknowledge that they were made for the people, and 
not the people for them. 

z 2 



172 JOURNAL. 

July 2d. — To-day, as I was standing on the hill behind my house 
admiring the beautiful landscape before me, and the shadows over the 
sea as the clouds rolled swiftly along, and sometimes concealed and 
sometimes displayed the cliffs of Valparaiso, the scene was rendered 
more grand by the firing a salute from the Aurora, the smoke from 
which, after creeping in fleecy whiteness along the water, gradually 
dilated into volumes of grey cloud, and mixed with the vapours that 
lay on the bosoms of the hills. This salute was in honour of Lord 
Cochrane, who had gone on board that frigate on his return from 
Santiago. His Lordship rode down to my house in the evening to 
tea. He tells me he has leave of absence for four months, with the 
schooner Montezuma at his disposal, and that he means to go to visit 
the estate in Conception decreed to him by the government long 
ago ; but from which he has, as yet, derived no advantage, although 
it is one of the most fertile of that fertile province. The truth is, it 
is so near the Indians' frontier, and so exposed to their depredations, 
that it has lain for some years unoccupied, and the pix>duce has been 
only in part gathered in. The bringing such an estate again into 
cultivation would be a public much more than a private benefit. The 
very example of so courageous an undertaking would do much ; and, 
in a short time, it might be hoped that that delightful land, which has 
suffered more than any of the other provinces, will once more be 
what it was when Villa Rica was its capital, and when the author of 
Robinson Crusoe, collecting the narratives of the English adventurers 
of his day concerning the southern part of Chile, described this pro- 
vince as the terrestrial paradise, and the inhabitants as beings worthy 
to possess it. * 

July 1th. — Yesterday morning I rode early to the port, on Lord 
Cochrane's invitation, to join a party which was to sail with him in 
the steam-vessel, the Rising-star, to his estate of Quintero, which lies 
due north from this place about twenty miles, though the road by 
land, being round the bay of Concon, is thirty. 

* See De Foe's New Voyage round the World. 



VALPARAISO. 173 

Our company consisted of Don Jose Zenteno, governor of Val- 
paraiso ; his daughter Sefiora donna Dolores ; the honourable Captain 
Frederick Spencer, of His Majesty's ship Alacrity ; Captain Crosbie, 
Captain Wilkinson, some other officers of the Patriot squadron with 
whom I am not acquainted, besides some other gentlemen. The 
admiral went on board with me about ten o'clock. The first thing 
I did was to visit the machinery, which consists of two steam- 
engines, each of forty-five horse power, and the wheels covered so as 
not to show in the water from without. The vessel is a fine polacre, 
and was in great forwardness before Lord Cochrane came here, but 
only arrived in these seas this year. It was with no small delight 
that I set my foot on the deck of the first steam- vessel that ever 
navigated the Pacific, and I thought, with exultation, of the triumphs 
of man over the obstacles nature seems to have placed between him 
and the accomplishment of his imaginations. With what rapture 
would the breast of Almagro have been filled, if some magician could 
have shown him, in the enchanted glass of futurity, the port of Val- 
paraiso filled with vessels from Europe, and from Asia, and from 
states not yet in existence, and our stately vessel gliding smooth and 
swiftly through them without a sail, against the wind and waves, car- 
rying on her decks a stronger artillery than he ever commanded, and 
bearing on board a hero whose name, even in Peru and Chile, was to 
surpass, not only his own, but those of his more famed companions, 
the Pizarros. 

The cruel policy of Spain with regard to these countries always 
repressed any attempt at establishing a coasting trade, although the 
shores of Chile abound with harbours most commodious for the pur- 
pose. Hence, these harbours were either not surveyed or so erro- 
neously set down in the published maps as to deter ships of all na- 
tions, Spanish as well as others, from attempting them, and the whole 
traffic is carried on over some of the most difficult roads in the world 
by mules. For instance, the copper of Coquimbo, which in a direct 
line lies only three degrees and a half from Valparaiso, is all con- 
veyed by a very mountainous and stony road on the backs of mules ; 



174 JOURNAL. 

while not a boat is employed for carriage. The enormous taxes laid 
on water carriage under the name of port dues, &c. in Valparaiso, 
and which bear more upon small vessels conveying even provisions 
than any others, prevents not only the trade which should be a nur- 
sery for the seamen of Chile, but also the cultivation of many fertile 
tracts along the coast. The nearness of the mountains to the shore, 
and their very abrupt descent, prevent the existence of very large 
rivers or such as are navigable for any extent, but the mouths of the 
smaller streams form little harbours, whence the produce of their 
astonishingly fertile banks being floated down from the interior might 
be embarked with convenience. Yet I do not know one, where any 
thing approaching to a coasting trade is encouraged. Hence, the coal 
of Conception, though abundant and good, and worked within 300 
miles, is dearer in Valparaiso than that brought from England. 
Hence, too, the tracts of alluvial soil, washed from the nearer hills by 
the winter rains, and kept fruitful by the fresh lakes which are formed 
every where by those rains collecting in the valleys, are left uncul- 
tivated, though fit for the production of every vegetable ; and now 
these tracts only contribute to the summer grazing of the cattle ; 
whereas, if applied to the culture of the more nourishing and pro- 
ductive vegetables, sheep, concerning which the greatest difficulty 
here is winter fodder, might be encouraged to any extent ; and the 
wool, which is of excellent quality, would become a valuable article 
of trade. But who will grow turnip or beet, when he must pay as 
much for the harbour dues of a boat to carry it to market as the 
whole culture has cost ? Or who will feed sheep when the wool, if 
dyed or manufactured, pays a duty on exportation higher than the 
price of cloths imported into the country ? I particularly recollect 
that at Coquimbo, in the Copper-mine country, Don Felipe de Solar 
paid more in duty upon some copper vessels that he was exporting 
than the price of equally good and weighty articles imported from 
Bengal. This is a direct and most oppressive tax on industry, and 
by its effects retards the population of the country, as well as its 
civilisation. These reflections were suggested naturally by the sight of 



VALPARAISO. 175 

the little harbours and creeks of the shore as we passed rapidly along, 
and by our situation on board the first vessel that has brought to these 
seas the most complete triumph of the genius of man over the ob- 
stacles presented by brute matter. I trust the time is not far distant, 
when the Rising Star will not be the only steam-vessel on the coast, 
and that the wise and benevolent views with which she was brought 
out will be fulfilled. * Nothing can be better adapted for packets on 
these coasts. The regular winds which now force ships out as far as 
Juan Fernandez, in order to make a reasonable passage from Lima 
to Valparaiso, are never so strong as to hinder the working of a 
steam ship ; and the facility of communication between these as well 
as the intermediate ports would not only promote their commercial 
interests, but be a means of security against the attempts of any 
enemy these countries have to fear from abroad. As long as Europe 
continues quiet, and until Spain recovers from the madness of civil 
dissension, perhaps South America is safe enough from foreign inva- 
sion : but if any of the powers that have not acknowledged the inde- 
pendence of the states should go to war with Spain, who can say 
whether, availing themselves of not having made that acknowledge- 
ment, they might not be disposed to seize on some part of them as 
provinces de jure belonging to the mother-country ; and I confess 
that a French invasion (for I will not think England so wicked) 
would be a most fearful misfortune to these rising states, and one 
from which nothing but a naval force could defend them. 

I had as much conversation with Zenteno as my yet imperfect 
knowledge of Spanish would permit. He seems truly desirous of 
the good of Chile ; but wonderfully unknowing in those things which 
would most contribute to it. The morning, however, passed plea- 
santly away ; and we sat down to a table which Europe and America 
equally supplied with luxuries ; and amused ourselves, perhaps un- 

* All the materials for two smaller steam-vessels were carried to Valparaiso ; but I find 
that instead of constructing them properly on their arrival, the machinery has been left in 
the warehouse which first received it, and the timber applied to the building a ministerial 
trader, by which Zenteno and his partner have made large sums. — 1824. 



!76 JOURNAL. 

seasonably, with the gluttony of the curate of Placilia, a village near 
the mouth of the little river Ligua, which runs into the bay of Quin- 
tero, and on whose banks lies the town of La Ligua, famous for its 
pasture, and its breed of horses. The poor curate, who had on 
various occasions been treated with English beer by his foreign 
friends, now took Champagne for white beer, and drank it accordingly, 
vowing he would grant absolution unconditionally for a hundred 
years, to all who drank of such divine liquor, and would doubtless 
have made a second Caliban of himself, and worshipped the bottle- 
bearer, but for an accident that rendered us all a little grave. A 
small bolt in the machinery gave way, principally from imperfect 
fitting, as this was the first time the machinery had been fairly 
tried in these seas ; and our voyage was stopped just as we were 
nearly abreast of Quintero. The wind was a-head ; but we were so 
near that it was voted almost by acclamation that we should go on, 
and accordingly we trusted to the tide to take us into port. But — 

" foresight may be vain : 



The best laid schemes of mice and men 
Gang aft agee." 

The evening closed in, and it was a dull, raw, foggy night : those 
not accustomed to the sea grew faint and weary. The curate, and 
other partakers of the white beer, began to feel its effects, combined 
with those of the motion of the vessel, now considerably agitated by 
the waves, which began to rise obedient to a very fresh contrary 
wind which had sprung up ; and all agreed to retire to rest. Shortly 
after the strangers were in bed, the sails which had not been bent, 
so sure had we been of making our passage, were got to the yards, 
and the first thing that happened was, that the two chimneys belong- 
ing to the engines went through the foresail. Then the wind and 
weather increased, and the furniture began to roll about ; and at last, 
in the morning, we found ourselves farther than ever from our place 
of destination. However, breakfast gave us courage; and it was 
determined to persevere a few hours longer : but the weather grew 
worse and worse ; the sky became blacker and blacker, 



VALPARAISO. 177 

" Till in the scowl of heav'n each face 
Grew dark as he was speaking." 

So at length we bore up for Valparaiso, and landed there at two 
o'clock to-day. 

A great pleasure awaited us, and almost consoled us for the failure 
of our expedition ; that is, if ever public news consoles one for pri- 
vate disappointment. Mr. Hogan met me on the beach with the 
joyful intelligence that the Congress of the United States had 
acknowledged the independence of the Spanish American colonies 
of Mexico, Columbia, Buenos Ayres, Peru, and Chile. This is indeed 
a step gained, and so naturally too, as to be worth twenty, where 
there could have been a suspicion of intrigue : but the United States, 
themselves so lately emancipated from the thraldom of the mother- 
country, are the natural assertors of the independence of their Ameri- 
can brethren ; and the moral of the political history of the times would 
have been less striking had any other state set the example. * 

I dined at Mr. 's, and in the evening Lord Cochrane joined 

our party, and we shortly after had a scene that I at least shall never 
forget. His Lordship's secretary, Mr. Bennet, arrived from Santiago, 
whither he had been on business, and brought with him Col. Don 
Fausto del Hoyo. This gentleman had been taken prisoner by 
Lord Cochrane at Valdivia ; and His Lordship had obtained from 
the government a promise of generous treatment for the Colonel. 
However, after the Admiral sailed, the same unjust and cruel restric- 
tions were laid on him, as on all the other prisoners of war of every 
rank. He was thrust into a dark dungeon, and there detained with- 
out fire, without light, without books, as if the cruel treatment of 
individual prisoners could have forced Old Spain to acknowledge the 
independence of Chile ! He had -now been liberated on parole by Lord 
Cochrane's intervention ; and never, never, shall I forget the fervent 
expression of acknowledgment, not in words indeed, with which he 

* It was not until the 10th of August that we received the direct intelligence of the 
vote of Congress for the acknowledgment of the independence of Chile, which was passed 
by a majority of 191, against only one dissentient voice ; in the Senate, 37 ayes, 17 noes. 

A A 



178 JOURNAL. 

met his generous conqueror, nor the gentle and modest manner in 
which they were received and put an end to by His Lordship. After 
this had passed, I did not wonder that, notwithstanding our disap- 
pointment in the steam-vessel, His Lordship appeared in better 
spirits than I have yet seen him in. 

July Sth. — To-day, a young man born in Cundinamarca, but 
brought up in Quito, came to stay with me, that I may put him in 
the way of improving a great natural talent for drawing. He has 
been long on board Lord Cochrane's ship, in I know not what capa- 
city, and has displayed considerable taste in some sketches of cos- 
tume, &c. The people of Quito pride themselves on retaining that 
excellence in painting which distinguished their predecessors of the 
time of Pizarro. Of course the Christian priests have introduced 
European models and European practice ; but the talent for the 
imitative arts is said to be inherent in all, or almost all the Quiterios ; 
and it is cei'tain that the painters, whether of portraits or history, 
that are to be met with in various parts of South America, are almost 
universally Quitenos. My scholar is gentle and persevering; rather 
indolent ; possessed of good sense, and a strong poetical feeling. 
If I had him in Europe, where he could see good pictures, and above 
all, good drawings, I have no doubt but he would be a painter ; as 
it is, seeing nothing much better than his own, there is little chance 
of very great improvement. I have heard extravagant praises of 
the pictures of various South American painters ; but these were 
given by persons who probably never saw a first-rate picture in 
Europe, especially as they often in the same breath extolled their 
sculpture also to the skies. Now, on enquiry, I found that all the 
sculpture practised here consists in carving the heads, hands, and 
feet of the saints to be dressed : these are painted afterwards, and I 
have no doubt give a strong impression of reality ; but that is not 
sculpture. It perhaps may come near to Shakspeare's Hermione, 
the maker of which " would beguile nature of her custom, so per- 
fectly is he her ape." But sculpture is not the ape, but the perfecter 
of nature ; so I hear with distrust all these splendid accounts of the 



VALPARAISO. 179 

pictures and sculpture by native hands that adorn the churches of 
Quito and Lima. Such as I have seen here, in the ceiling of the 
Merced for instance, are well for the place ; and are evidently the 
work of some of the Spanish monks, who have decorated their 
churches with as much of splendour in the taste of Europe as their 
circumstances would permit. The likenesses I have seen are cer- 
tainly a degree better than the portraits of China, but they are equally 
stiff; and though the Madonas have an air of grace something like 
those ancient ones painted before the revival of art, they are ill 
drawn, and, above every thing, the extremities are hardly defined 
at all. I do not believe that there is a single painter, native or 
foreigner, now in the whole of Chile. I am sorry that they have 
something of more pressing importance than the fine arts to attend to. 

July \Oth. — Capt. breakfasted with me, and afterwards 

was so kind as to accompany me in a round of calls, by way of re- 
turning the visits of the English ladies here. It is curious, at this 
distance from home, to see specimens of such people as one meets no 
where else but among the Brangtons, in Madame D'Arblay's Ceci- 
lia, or the Mrs. Eltons of Miss Austin's admirable novels ; and yet 
these are, after all, the people most likely to be here. The country 
is new ; the government unacknowledged by our own ; the merchants 
are chiefly such as sell by commission, for houses established in 
larger and older states ; and, as all Englishmen, from the highest to 
the lowest, love to have their home with them, the clerks, who fall 
naturally into these sort of employments, either bring or find suit- 
able wives : therefore society, as far as relates to the English, is of a 
very low tone. The sympathies of the heart, however, are as lively 
here as in more polished circles ; and, while one turns one moment 
in disgust from the man who * familiarly calls his wife by one nick- 
name, and his daughter by another ; yet the next, one looks at him 
with respect as the benevolent receiver and comforter of the sick and 
the dying, whose house has been the asylum, and his family the 
attendants, of more than one of Ills countrymen, who have ended their 
being thus far from their friends and native land. 

A A 2 



IgO JOURNAL. 

IQth. — We have had two slight shocks of an earthquake to-day. 
The sensations occasioned by them are particularly disagreeable. In all 
other convulsions of nature it seems possible to do, or at least attempt, 
something to avert danger. We steer the ship in a storm for a port ; 
our conductors promise to lead the lightning harmless from our 
heads : but the earthquake seems to rock the very foundations of 
the globe, and escape or shelter seems equally impossible. The phy- 
sical effect too is unpleasant — it resembles sea-sickness. The fre- 
quency of earthquakes here by no means renders the people insensi- 
ble to their occurrence. In the streets of Valparaiso, I recollect 
seeing them run out, fall upon their knees, and pray to all the saints. 
Here, in the country, the peasants leave off work, pull off their hats, 
beat their breasts, and cry Misericordia, and all leave their houses. 
One of the shocks to-day lasted nearly a minute ; it was accompanied 
by a loud noise, like the sudden escape of vapour from a close place. 
It is said that earthquakes are most frequent about the beginning of 
the rainy season. Some however, I know not on what data, have 
fixed on the months of October and November as most liable to 
them. Some writers have asserted, that the provinces of Copiapo 
and Coquimbo are exempt from them ; yet twice within the last five 
years Coquimbo has been totally destroyed, and Copiapo seriously 
injured, and once nearly ruined. Nearly ninety years ago, during 
one at Valparaiso, the sea overflowed the whole of the Almendral ; 
and about the same period nearly one-third of Santiago, the capital, 
was thrown down. 

ISth. — The earthquakes have been followed by two days of inces- 
sant rain ; but the thermometer, though it is mid-winter, has not 
fallen below 50°. The rivulet between the Almendral and my gar- 
den is so swollen, that there has been no communication with the 
town these two days, and a man was drowned yesterday in attempt- 
ing to cross it. There is a report, that this government will join the 
Peruvian in an attack on Arica, where the royalists are again mas- 
ters, and that the Admiral is to conduct the expedition. 'Tis not 
probable. In the first place, His Lordship has returned to his coun- 



VALPARAISO. |81 

try seat, having leave of absence for four months ; and in the next, 
the ships of the Chileno squadron are in no state to go to sea ; and 
as the officers and seamen have not been paid, it is scarcely possible 
for the government to think of employing them. 

22d. — The wet weather continues, though with hours of sunshine 
occasionally. I have been delighted with reading the first new books 
I have seen in Chile ; Lord Byron's Foscari, Cain, and Sardana- 
palus. He cannot write without stirring our feelings. Foscari has 
in it passages that, though they perhaps owe some of their magic to 
my actual situation so far from home, surely must touch every heart. 
But who that has never left their sweet home except on an expedi- 
tion of pleasure, can feel like me this passage — 

" You never 
Saw day go down upon your native spires 
So calmly, with its gold and crimson glory; 
And, after dreaming a disturbed vision 
Of them and theirs — awoke and found them not !" 

The reading of these dramas has afforded me great enjoyment — 
and 'tis the first for many a day. 

July 24:th. — I went to the port to dine with my friends, the 

H s, and while there received the account of the first meeting of 

the constituent assembly, yesterday, which appears to me to have, in 
one instance at least, taken on itself the duties of a legislative as- 
sembly ; perhaps it is difficult to separate the two : there were 
twenty-three members present, and seven absent. The Director went 
in state to the chambers of the convention, and his arrival was an- 
nounced by a salvo of artillery, without which nothing is done here. 
He opened the session with a short speech, adverting to the mistakes 
and untimely dissolution of the convention of 1810, and anticipating 
a happier result from this. The members then proceeded to the 
election of a president and vice-president ; when, amid cries of 
" Viva la patria !" " Viva la convencion !" the Director presented a 
memorial, which he entreated might be speedily read, and retired. 
The paper contains a congratulatory address to the convention ; a 
rapid sketch of the Director's political life ; advice as to the measures 



182 JOURNAL. 

to be pursued, and a statement of the wants of the country ; con- 
cluding with a resignation of his authority. 

The whole memorial does the Director the highest credit, except- 
ing the resignation. This constituent, or, as it is called, preparative 
convention, surely is not comeptent to accept it. Indeed, the mem- 
bers appear to be aware of it, for they have insisted on his resuming 
his authority ; and after a long and learned speech from the vice-pre- 
sident about the Romans, and the Carthagenians, and the Phenicians, 
a deputation waited on the Director, and conferring his office anew 
upon him, paid him those compliments so justly due, on account of 
his past administration. I think this transaction a mistake on both 
sides ; the preparative convention, chosen by the Director himself, was 
not the proper assembly into whose hands he could resign the au- 
thority committed to him on the recovery of the freedom of Chile 
after the day of Chacabuco, nor could he receive it anew from the 
hands of that convention. But if an assembly, chosen by the people, 
even in form, were to meet, then and there would these things be 
properly done : I may be mistaken ; perhaps he understands his 
countrymen. Of course, the meeting of the convention occasions a 
great deal of gaiety among the women, and a great deal of specu- 
lation among the men. Some are fixing beforehand the new custom- 
house regulations ; some the number of old laws to be abrogated, 
and the new to be enacted. Many are astonished that no direct pro- 
vision is made for the navy of Chile, and the payment of both that and 
the army, all being in arrears, so that neither soldiers nor sailors are 
in a state to be depended on in case of necessity. But Chile is con- 
sidered safe ; and the minister Rodriguez, acting, I presume, upon the 
principle, that individual riches make public prosperity, is making 
private speculations jointly with his friend Areas the merchant, and 
purchasing with the government-money all the tobacco and spirits 
now in the market, in contemplation of the heavy duties he means to 
lay on these articles by the new reglamento. 

July 30th. — As there are no places of public amusement for gen- 
tlefolks at Valparaiso, the English, when they make a holyday, go in 



VALPARAISO. J 83 

parties to the neighbouring hills or valleys, and under the name of a 
pic-nic, contrive to ride, eat and drink, and even to dance away most 
gaily. I joined one of the soberer kind of these, and rode over a 
good deal of ground with my younger friends ; sometimes over steep 
rocks, sometimes through dingles and bushy dells, and here and there 
through bits of meadow, where the finest mushrooms in the world 
grow. The peach and cherry trees are in blossom, and all looks gay 
and cheerful. Most of us went to the place of rendezvous in the 
valley of Palms on horseback ; but some preferred the quieter convey- 
ance of a Chile waggon, drawn by four noble oxen, who had to drag 
the additional weight of an excellent dinner. The spot was at the 
foot of a steep hill covered with myrtle : our canopy, hung something 
like the draperies that Claude sometimes introduces in his landscapes, 
was the striped and starred banner of the United States, whose con- 
sul was the father of the feast ; and close by us flowed a rivulet of 
sparkling water. The kind-hearted Chilena women of the neigh- 
bouring rancho came round us, assisted in our little arrangements, 
brought us flowers, and helped us to cut the myrtle of which we made 
our seats. Some were very happy : but happiness is not of every- 
day growth, and there are not many hands destined to pluck the 
golden bough ; but it is always worth while to be cheerful, and I en- 
joyed the day more than I thought three months ago I could have 
enjoyed any thing. 

August 2d. — Mr. Hogan brought Judge Prevost, the American 
consul-general, who acts also in a sort of ministerial capacity, to visit 
me. He is of the family of Prevost of Geneva, which has, although 
retaining at home the first of the name*, given many respectable, 
and some remarkable, citizens both to England and the United States. 
He is warmly interested in the* fate of Chile, and regards, with the 
fondness which his own country and that of his father entitle him 
to feel, this rising republic. But I am sure that he is wrong in en- 
deavouring to impress on the government that Chile has no business 

* Professor Prevost. 



184 JOURNAL. 

with ships of war, or of trade, for these hundred years to come, and 
that she should hire the former, and employ foreign carriers in lieu 
of the latter ; the interest of the nation which would in such case 
be the gainer is so palpable, that I wonder it did not make the 
Judge hesitate to offer or support it. But the simple-minded 
Chilenos are no match for Genevese sagacity, united to North Ame- 
rican speculation. 

Ath. — A great deal of interest has been excited by the circum- 
stances under which the captain of an American trading vessel has 
committed suicide : two years ago he was shipwrecked in the neigh- 
bourhood of Cape Horn, and made his way with one or two wretched 
companions along the coast in his whale boat to this place, subsisting 
on shell-fish and seals. He returned to North America, where he 
had a wife and family, and employed the greater part of his property 
in fitting out a whaler, with which he hoped to redeem his past 
losses, and on board of which he once more entered the Pacific. 
But at the end of a long cruize he put into Valparaiso without a 
single fish ; and after walking about in a wretched state of despond- 
ence for two or three days, he retired to his cabin, wrote to his family ; 
and leaving instructions to have his body committed to the deep, he 
shot himself ! 

August 5th. — The news from the south is not of the most pleasant 
nature : there has been a serious conspiracy at Valdivia; it was crushed 
by stratagem. At some meeting, convened under I know not what 
pretext, the whole of the officers implicated were so placed as that 
each should find himself by the person employed to seize him, and 
they were all accordingly secured. Their fate is not yet determined. 
The expedition headed by Beauchef, that was to have gone to Chiloe 
under the protection of the Lautaro, has, on this and other accounts, 
but chiefly for want of provisions, been now so long delayed that 
there are no hopes of its proceeding this season ; and Quintanilla has 
probably another year in which to display a loyalty like that of the 
old knights of romance, rather than any thing one meets with in 
modern days. Shut up in the little port of San Carlos, surrounded 



VALPARAISO. 



185 



by a wild Indian enemy, threatened by the regular troops and ships 
of Chile, with no communication direct or indirect from the mother 
country ; he has never faltered for a single instant. 

August 12th. — Mr. D came to breakfast, and to escort me to 

Con con, a parish about fifteen miles from hence, lying on the great 
river of Aconcagna, which flows from the pass of the Andes called 
the Cumbre, and waters the fertile valley of Santa Rosa and the 
garden-land of Quillota. The ride is pleasant, although most of the 
road is so bad that it would scarcely be deemed passable in England ; 
but I have seen worse in the Appenines. It winds in many places 
along the edges of precipices. From Valparaiso to Vina a la Mar, 
upon the little river Margamarga, the scenery is the same as that 
immediately about the port. Steep hills and rocks mostly covered 
with flowering shrubs ; little cultivation except in the glens, which, 
formed by the rivulets, open to the sea, and where gardens and patches 
of barley surround every hut. The ocean is always in sight ; some- 
times breaking at the foot of the high rocks we passed over, and 
sometimes washing gently in upon the yellow sands at the mouth 
of the streams from the cultivated valleys. At Vina a la Mar, a fine 
estate belonging to a branch of the Carrera family, the scenery begins 
to change. The plain there is wide and open, the vineyard and po- 
trero very extensive; the shrubs assume almost the appearance of trees; 
on the hills there are frequent plots of fine grass, where sheep and 
cattle find abundant pasture ; and the palm here and there adorns 
the sides of the vales. The near view is like some of the finest parts 
of Devonshire ; but the hills of Quillota, over which the volcano of 
Aconcagua, which forms a remarkable point in the central ridge of 
the Andes, towers, render it unlike any thing in England, I might say 
in Europe. The high mountains of Switzerland are always seen from 
a point extremely elevated ; but here, from the sea-shore, the whole 
mass of the cordillera rises at once, at only ninety miles' distance. 
This gives a peculiarity to the landscape of Chile which distinguishes 
it, even more than its warm colour, from any I have seen before. 
The proprietor of Vina a la Mar is improving his estate in every 
way ; miles of new fences are rising, thickets are disappearing, corn 

B B 



Ig6 JOURNAL. 

is coming up in the valleys, and the best breed of sheep is beginning 
to people the hills. All the digging of ditches, &c. is still done with 
a wooden spade. I did indeed once see a man labouring in his gar- 
den with the blade-bone of a sheep tied to a stick by way of a spade ; 
and I have read that the ancient people of Chile ploughed their land 
with the horns of goats and the bones of oxen.* 

From Vina a la Mar the country improves in picturesque beauty ; 
and at length the lovely valley formed by the river opens at once, 
bounded at either end only by the ocean and the Andes. 

I found my friends Mrs. and Miss Miers, whom I was going to see, 
busy on one of the hills digging for bulbous roots, which abound here. 
I immediately joined them, and proceeded on foot towards their 
house, which is near the river ; not too near, however, because the 
winter floods often encroach largely on the neighbouring plain. 

Mr. Miers came to Chile with a large apparatus for rolling cop- 
per, with dies for stamping metal, and other machinery, which 
are adapted only for a country in a much higher state of advance. 
He has, however, converted some of his apparatus into excellent 
flour mills, and has likewise set up some circular saws for the pur- 
pose of sawing barrel-staves, there being abundance of wood fit for 
the purpose in the neighbourhood. But the whole of Mr. Miers's 
establishment is at least one hundred years too much civilised for 
Chile. However, the very sight of saw mills and turning lathes, to 
say nothing of the more complicated machinery, will do good in time: 
I may regret that they are little likely soon to repay the spirited 
individuals who brought them first here, — but they will do good. 

After a very pleasant day spent in seeing things fit and unfit for 
the present state of things in the country, and in admiring the various 
sites and habits of many plants I have never before seen, Mr. and 
Mrs. Miers rode with me to Quintero on the morning of the 

13th of August. — After fording the rapid river of Aconcagua in 
three branches, the road for three leagues lies along a wild and deso- 
late tract of sea-beach. On one hand are great sand hills, where no 

* But there were no oxen in Chile before the Spaniards. 



QUINTERO. 187 

green thing finds root, and which are high enough to exclude the view 
of every other object ; on the other hand, a tremendous surf, which 
permits not the approach of boat or canoe, beats unceasingly. Half- 
way between Concon and Quintero, the great lake of Quintero com- 
municates with the sea. In mild weather it only drains through the 
sand ; at other times it breaks through its bar, and the ford is not 
always safe. When we passed, it was covered with various kinds of 
water-birds : the flamingo, with his rose-coloured bill and wings ; the 
swan of Chile, whose feet are white, and his neck and head jet black ; 
a brown bird, with wings like burnished bronze, and a head, bill, and 
feet exactly resembling the Egyptian ibis ; and geese, water hens, 
and all the duck tribe, innumerable. 

On leaving the beach, we ascended a low hill, and immediately 
entered a broad green forest walk, so level that it seemed to be the 
work of art ; on either side brushwood between us and the taller trees 
whose leaves breathed odours, gave shelter to flocks of wood pigeons, 
ground doves, and partridges, among whom my old pointer, Don, 
seemed bewildered with joy ; but every now and then, after a point, 
looked back as if reproachfully, because there was no gun of the party. 
The south-west wind here bends the trees into the same figure as in 
Devon shire, excepting where the gently undulating hills afford 
shelter. 

The house Lord Cochrane is building at Quintero is far from 
being in the best or pleasantest part of the estate ; and it has the 
great inconvenience of having no water near it. But had Quintero 
become, as was once intended, the port for the ships of war, the new 
house would have possessed every advantage of being not only near 
the squadron, but of commanding a view of the whole. The bay of 
Quintero, or rather the Heradura, is very beautiful ; better sheltered 
from the fierce north winds than that of Valparaiso, better furnished 
with wood and water in itself, and nearer to the supplies from Quil- 
lota and the valley of Santa Rosa for provisioning ships. Some rocks, 
very well known, lie off the mouth of the bay ; but within, excepting 
in a very few places, the anchoring ground is good. The Dutch 
circumnavigator, the famous George Spilberg, with his fleet, consist- 

b b 2 



188 



JOURNAL. 



ing of the Rising Sun, the New Moon, Venus, Hunter, Eolus, and 
Lucifer, having tried in vain to water at Valparaiso, put into Quin- 
tero, where he erected a half-moon battery, and sent his mariners 
ashore to protect his people while wooding and watering. He calls 
Quintero a port second to none for shelter, safety, fish, and water. 
After him, our countryman Cavendish, and I think some of the buc- 
caneers, attempted to settle here ; but the jealousy of the Spaniards 
soon expelled them. 

Looking from the house, just where the eye rests upon the grace- 
ful sweep of the bay, backed by the cordillera, a beautiful fresh-water 
lake seems to repose within its grassy banks. Little hills rise from 
it in every direction partially covered with brushwood, partly shaded 
by groves of forest trees; and herds of cattle may be seen, morning 
and evening, making their accustomed migration from the wood to 
the open plain, from the plain to the wood. 

The house of Quintero is as yet but just habitable ; great part of 
it being unfinished. Like other houses in Chile, it is of one story 
only. The rooms are placed in detached groups, and promise to 
be very agreeable when finished. But who could think of the house 
when the master is present ? Though not handsome, Lord Cochrane 
has an expression of countenance which induces you, when you have 
looked once, to look again and again. It is variable as the feelings 
that pass within ; but the most general look is that of great benevo- 
lence. His conversation, when he does break his ordinary silence, 
is rich and varied ; on subjects connected with his profession, or his 
pursuits, clear and animated ; and if ever I met with genius, I should 
say it was pre-eminent in Lord Cochrane. 

After dinner we walked to the garden, which lies in a beautiful 
sheltered spot, nearly a league from the house. At the entrance lay 
several agricultural implements, brought by His Lordship for the 
purpose of introducing modern improvements into Chile, the country 
of his adoption. The plough, the harrow, the spade, of modern 
Europe, all are new here, where no improvement has been suffered 
for centuries. Within the garden fence a space is devoted to raising 
larch, and oak, and beech : the larch I should think peculiarly adapted 



QUINTERO. 189 

to this climate. Vegetables unknown before here, such as carrot, 
turnip, and various kinds of pulse, have been added to the stores of 
Chile since his arrival. On returning to the house we looked over 
various drafts of small vessels fitted to be employed in a coasting 
trade ; and the evening to me passed more pleasantly than any since 
I have been in Chile. 

14th. — Soon after breakfast we all mounted our horses, and rode 
to the outer point of the Heradura, a peninsular promontory, where 
the cattle of the estate were to be collected in order to be counted. 
This sort of meeting is technically called a rodeo, and usually takes 
place in the summer, or rather autumn ; when the young animals 
are sufficiently strong to be driven to the corral, or place of ren- 
dezvous, from the mountains and thickets where they were born. 
All the tenants of an estate assemble on such an occasion ; and the 
young girls are not backward to dress themselves gaily, and appear 
at the corral. When the day of the rodeo is appointed, the men, 
being all mounted, divide ; and each troop has a chief, under whose 
orders it advances, keeps close, separates, or falls back, according 
to the nature of the ground, — none is too rough, no hill too bold, 
no forest too thick to pierce. In order to defend their arms and 
legs from the bushes, they have curious leathern coverings, which 
fasten at the hip, and defend the knee and lower leg entirely ; these 
are generally of seal-skins worked very curiously, and are tied fantas- 
tically with points. I have seen them as high-priced as fifteen 
dollars. The leathers for the arms are plainer. These men often 
stay several nights with their dogs on the hills to bring in the cattle ; 
and when collected, all stranger beasts are set apart for their owners, 
and the estate cattle are marked. A rodeo is a scene of enjoyment: 
there one sees the Chilenos in their glory; riding, throwing the laca, 
breaking the young animals, whether horses or mules ; and some- 
times in their wantonness mounting the lordly bull himself. The 
rodeo of to-day is not of so festive a kind : it is merely to count 
the cattle on the estate, which ought to be 2000 ; but of which, it 
is feared, there has been a great neglect or waste, or loss, since 



190 



JOURNAL. 



Lord Cochrane last sailed from hence. But a few hundreds were 
brought together to-day ; however, 'tis but the first, and as it is not 
the regular season, probably there will be nearly the whole in a few 
days more. The head vaccaros, or cowherds, ought, generally speak- 
ing, to be born on the estate where their business lies. The haunts 
of the cattle are so wide apart, and the country so little inhabited, 
and so little travelled, that tracks and landmarks there are none, 
and only experience can guide the vaccaro at the different seasons 
to the different haunts of the beasts. His business is, besides attend- 
ing at the rodeos, to bring them either to the plain or to the hill, 
to feed or to browse, according to the season ; to portion them so 
as to secure free access to water ; and to be watchful over the young, 
whether calves, young horses, or mules. A real vaccaro is seldom 
off his horse ; and it may be doubted, if the human and the brute 
parts of the centaurs were ever more inseparable than the vaccaro 
and his steed. Each of these men has a certain number of cattle 
committed to his charge, for which he is accountable to the land 
steward. — One part of the ceremony of the rodeo is very agreeable 
to the men concerned. About 12 o'clock to-day, one of the peons 
was desired to laza a bullock ; which was immediately killed and 
dressed for the public : the skin, however, belongs to the estate, and 
was instantly cut up into thongs to make lazas, halters, and all man- 
ner of useful things. 




QUINTERO. 191 

Having spent the forenoon in riding to see the cattle, and plant- 
ing fruit trees and strawberries in the garden, Mrs. Miers and I took 
leave after dinner, and returned to Concon by way of old Quintero 
House, most picturesquely situated near the lake, of which we had 
seen the seaward end in riding along the beach. Some of the 
scenery is very pretty, particularly about the house itself; but as we 
coasted the lake towards the ocean, the vegetation began to give way 
to sand, and we soon found ourselves going cautiously along a 
formidable slope, where to have slipt would have precipitated us 
into a very deep lake, and where the sand was of so loose a texture, 
that to slip seemed almost inevitable. At length we reached the 
sea-beach, and there found, that owing to the high wind and tide of 
to-day, the barrier of the lake was burst ; and we had to search a long 
time for a ford. At length, however, we got over safely ; but it was 
not until dark that we crossed the river at Concon. The sagacity of 
the horses, who, having once passed it, had no hesitation in choosing 
the ford, carried us across with safety, though there is something 
fearful in fording a deep and rapid river in the dark. The rushing of 
the waters, the sensation of struggling owing to the resistance they 
offer to the horses' feet, the cry of a water-bird startled from its nest 
on the margin, might easily become the shriek of the water sprite, 
and his attempts to seize the traveller. Night, doubt, and fear, are 
powerful magicians, and have done more to. people the world of 
fiction than half the romancers that ever lived. 

15th. — On returning from a long and pleasant walk we met 
Captain F. S., and two other gentlemen, who had kindly ridden 
from Valparaiso to escort me home. I was really sorry to leave my 
kind hosts, who are so superior in knowledge and rational curiosity 
to any family I have seen for. a long time, that I have enjoyed 
my visit more than I can say. We were three hours in reaching 
my house, for the road, in many places, does not admit of fast riding ; 
but a fine sunset, a beautiful view, and agreeable companions, made 
up for the road and all its difficulties. 

Valj)araiso, August 1 1th. — I rode to the port to prepare for a 



192 JOURNAL. 

journey I mean to make to Santiago. Now the rainy season is over, 
I begin to be impatient to see the capital ; and though the distance is 
only ninety miles, I must take beds as well as clothes, because the inns, 
with the exception of that at the first stage, Casablanca, are not 
provided with such things. Then I must have mules for my baggage ; 
my own peon serves as a guide, and I mean to be part of three days 
on the road. 

While in town, I met Captain Morgell, late of the Chile States 
brig Aranzacu, which sunk as they were endeavouring to heave her 
down to repair. He left Guayaquil twenty-eight days ago; at which 
time the place was actually in possession of Bolivar, who was making 
common cause with San Martin, and had promised to send him 4000 
men to aid in the final reduction of Peru. The people of Guayaquil, 
influenced by agents from Lima, had been behaving very ill to the 
Chile States vessels of war, and even threatened to fire on the 
Aranzacu and Mercedes. But they have been kept quiet by Bolivar, 
who, though he hates, and is jealous of foreigners, knows, that in the 
present state of South America, it is impossible to do without them. 

August 22c?. — I began my journey to Santiago. My companion 
was the Honourable Frederick de Boos, midshipman belonging to His 
Majesty's ship Alacrity ; and I took with me my maid and my peon, 
with three baggage mules. We were escorted to the first post-house, 
about twelve miles from Valparaiso, by a party of friends, male and 
female, who had breakfasted with us. Instead of ascending the 
heights of the port by the broad carriage road which Chile owes to 
the father of the present Director, we followed the old rugged path, 
which, being shorter, is still used by the woodcutters' mules, and 
sometimes by the common baggage cattle. This by-way is ex- 
tremely rugged, being every where cut through by the winter rains ; 
which, collecting on the flat grounds above, pour down the hill, fur- 
rowing deep channels in the soft red soil. Having once gained the 
height, an immense plain, called the Llanos de la Pehuela, extended 
itself before us, with hills beyond, over whose tops the snowy Andes 
appeared. Numerous streams, but none very large, cross this plain, 



ROAD TO SANTIAGO. 193 

and herds of cattle were grazing on it ; but it wants trees. At the 
end of the plain there is a second post-house ; beyond which we en- 
tered a winding road, through a hilly ridge that separates the Llanos 
de la Pefiuela from those of Casablanca. The pastoral and pictur- 
esque appearance of this pass reminded us of Devonshire, — the same 
grassy hills, and small shaded streams, and groups of cattle. Beyond 
the pass, a strait and perfectly flat road of about twelve miles leads 
to Casablanca. The plain on either side is nearly covered with es- 
pinella, or mimosa, whose fragrant sessile flowers just coming into 
blossom perfume the whole atmosphere ; and the earth is almost 
carpeted with thrift, wood-anemone, Oenothera white blue and yellow, 
star of Bethlehem, saxifrage, and an endless variety of mallows and 
minute geraniums. But it is yet too early for the most beautiful 
part of the Flora of Chile. 

Casablanca is a mean little town, with one church, a governor, and 
several justices, and sends a member to the convention. It is famous 
for its butter and other products of the dairy ; but derives its chief 
importance from being the only town on the road between the port 
and the city, and also the place at which the produce, whether for 
home consumption or exportation, from several neighbouring districts 
is collected, before it proceeds either to the city or to Valparaiso. 
One long street and a square constitute the town, but the greater 
part of the population of the parish resides in the farms in the neigh- 
bourhood. The square is not unlike a village green ; the little 
church stands on one side, two inns and a few cottages and gardens 
occupy the other three ; and, in the centre, an annual bull-fight 
takes place, on so diminutive a scale that the people of Santiago 
thought it a fit subject for ridicule, and, accordingly, to the no small 
annoyance of the natives, they brought out a farce on the stage 
called the " Bull-fight of Casablanca." I do not know whether 
Casablanca has any other literary claim to notice excepting, per- 
haps, the chapter in Vancouver's Voyages where he mentions the 
building of the houses precisely the same with that of Valpa- 
raiso, and there, I think, says that his party taught the people 

c 1 c 



J 94 JOURNAL. 

of Chile for the first time the use of brooms to sweep their houses ; a 
slander which is greatly resented by the Chilenos, who are remarkably 
neat in that particular, and who sweep their floors at least twice a day. 

Captain the Honourable F. Spencer had kindly accompanied us 
thus far. I felt little fatigue from the ride, which is only thirty miles, 
but my poor maid was so fagged that I began to regret having brought 
her, as we had only accomplished one-third of our journey ; however, 
a good night's rest in beds so decent as to induce me not to unpack 
our own for this night, an excellent dinner, and still better breakfast, 
made us all so strong that there was no doubt of doing well when we 
set off next morning. The inn is kept by an English negro, who 
understands something of the comforts required by an Englishman, 
and really presents a very tolerable resting-place to a traveller. 

23d. — Capt. Spencer went with us to the Cuesta de Zapata, a 
very steep mountain, up which the road winds in such a manner 
as to form sixteen terraces, one above the other, making a most 
singular appearance, seen in perspective from the long straight road 
which leads directly to it from Casablanca. The plain on this side 
of the town appears much richer than what we passed yesterday ; 
amidst the thickets of espinella clear spaces appeared belonging to 
different dairy farms. The road-side is bordered with fine trees ; 
maytenes, Chile willows, molle, and other evergreens, which became 
more numerous as we approached the Cuesta, and formed groves 
and woods in the deep glens into which it is broken. At the foot of 
the hill Capt. Spencer left us, to my great regret ; for so agreeable 
and intelligent a companion, delightful every where, is doubly valua- 
ble at this distance from Europe. 

I wonder that I have never heard the beauty of this road praised. 
Perhaps the merchants who use it frequently may be ruminating on 
profit and loss as they ride ; and our English naval officers, who take 
a run to the capital for the sake of its gaieties, think too much of the 
end for which they go to attend to the road which leads thither. It 
reminds me of some of the very finest parts of the Appenines. The 
undulating valley, called the Caxon de Zapata, that opened on our 



ROAD TO SANTIAGO. 



195 



reaching the height, its woody glens, and the snowy mountains beyond, 
formed a very beautiful picture; the sky was serene, and the tempera- 
ture delightful. In short, it might have been Italy, but that it wanted 
the tower and the temple to show that man inhabited it : but here all 
is too new ; and one half expects to see a savage start from the nearest 
thicket, or to hear a panther roar from the hill. As soon as we could 
prevail on ourselves to leave the beautiful spot which commanded the 
view, we descended into the vale below, where we came to the post- 
house, and rested our horses ; while doing so, the hostess obliged 
us to walk in and sit down at her family dinner. The house is a 
decent farm-house, and not by any means an inn, though the post 
is stationed there. Our repast was the usual stew, charquican, of the 
country, fresh and dried meat boiled together, with a variety of 
vegetables, and seasoned with aji or Chile pepper, the whole served 
up in a huge silver dish ; and silver forks were distributed to each 
person, of whom, with ourselves, there were eight. Milk, with maize 
flour and brandy, completed the dinner. At length, ourselves and 
our horses being refreshed, we renewed our journey, our peon and 
mules having gone on before ; and on leaving the Caxon, entered on 
the long deep vale on which both Curucavia and Bustamante stand. 
The first lies pretty widely scattered among its orchards at the foot 
of a mountain, and on the margin of a broad stream called the Estero 
of Curucavia, which issues out of a deep valley beyond, and the 
fording passage of which is exactly at the most picturesque spot. 
Bustamante is a hamlet, so named from the mayorasgo to whom it 
belongs ; it lies under part of the ridge that forms the Cuesta de 
Prado, and has little remarkable to recommend it. The post-house 
is kept by a most civil and attentive old lady, who gave us very good 
mutton and excellent claret for dinner, and a clean room to sleep in : 
the floor is mud j and in different corners posts are stuck so as to 
form bed-places, on which we placed our matrasses, and slept 
extremely well, my maid, as before, being the most fatigued of 
the party, a proof that youth and health are riot always the hardiest 
travelling companions ; — she went to bed, while I remained up to 
write and prepare every thing for to-morrow. 

c c 2 



196 JOURNAL. 

24th. — At seven o'clock we resumed our journey, in company with 
the peon Felipe ; and about a mile from Bustamante, another peon 
with baggage joined us without ceremony, and performed the rest 
of the journey with us. As the new road over the Cuesta de Prado 
makes a circuit of several miles, Felipe wisely determined on leading 
us up the old mountain-path, which, but that we had been inured 
gradually to the sight of precipices, might have appeared tremendous. 
About half a mile from Bustamante we quitted O'Higgins's road, and 
entered what is here called a monte or thicket * of beautiful under- 
wood, and occasionally very large trees. The giant torch-thistle, 
starting up here and there among the lower shrubs, gave a pictur- 
esque peculiarity to the scene. About the centre of the monte, 
a large clear space presented a pleasing picture : it was the resting- 
place of a string of mules employed in carrying goods across the 
cordillera ; the packages were placed in a circle, two bales together, 
and in the midst the masters and animals were reposing or eating, 
as pleased them ; and at their little fire, close at hand, two or three 
of the men were employed in cooking. We soon began to ascend 
the sharp and rugged mountain, and could not help stopping every 
now and then to admire the beautiful scene behind us, and to look 
down into the leafy gulfs at our feet. Here and there the windings 
of the road were marked by strings of loaded mules on their way to 
the capital, and the long call of the muleteers resounding from the 
opposite cliffs harmonised well with the scene. 

At length we reached the summit, and the Andes appeared in 
hoary majesty above a hundred ranges of inferior hills ; but we had 
not yet come to the most beautiful spot ; that lies about three fur- 
longs from the junction of the old and the new roads of the Cuesta 
de Prado. Looking to one side, the long valleys we had passed 
stretched out into a distance doubled by the morning mist, through 
which the surrounding hills shone in every variety of tint ; on the 
other hand, lies the beautiful plain of Santiago, through which the 

* The application of the word Monte arose, it seems, in the plains of Buenos Ayres, 
which are so flat, that wherever there is a grove, the distant effect is in truth that of a Kill. 



: ' 






s 











CUESTA DE PR ADO. — PUDAGUEL. 197 

road is discernible here and there. The high hills which surround 
the city, and the most magnificent range of mountains in the world, 
the cordillera of the Andes, now capped with snow, shooting into 
the heavens, with masses of cloud rolling in their dark valleys, pre- 
sented to me a scene I had never beheld equalled. In the fore- 
ground there is a great deal of fine wood ; and had there been water 
in sight, the landscape would have been perfect. 

At the foot of the Cuesta, on the city side, we were happy to find 
an excellent breakfast of broiled mutton after our long ride; and we 
rested both ourselves and our horses for some time. The road from 
thence to the next stage, Pudaguel, is over a hot sandy plain, sprinkled 
with mimosas, and rendered hotter by the reflection of the sun from 
the arid surface. Pudaguel is a post on the banks of the lake of 
Pudaguel, which terminates at this point. It is vulgarly imagined 
that the river Mapocho, on which the city of Santiago is built, runs 
thus far, and here sinks through the gravel and sand to reappear by 
seven mouths on the other side of the mountain San Miguel, whence 
it flows into the vale of the Maypu, falling into that river near Melli- 
pilla ; but the lake of Pudaguel does not communicate with the Mapo- 
cho, it is fed by the streams of Colinas and Lampa. The Mapocho, 
much diminished by the canals taken from it for irrigation, does dis- 
appear somewhere in the plain of Maypu ; and the water of the beau- 
tiful fountain from San Miguel, being of the same sweet, light, and 
clear quality as that of the Mapocho, is called by that name until it 
joins the white and turbid Maypu. It is such accidents as these which 
the poetical Greeks delighted to adorn with the rich fabulous imagery 
which spreads a charm over all they deigned to sing of. How much 
more beautiful is the scenery round the banks of Pudaguel, than the 
dirty washing-place that marks the fountain of Arethusa in Syracuse! 
And yet, when I stood there actually hearing and seeing vulgar Sici- 
lians, surrounded by mean squalid houses and with nothing more 
sacred than a broken plaster image of the Virgin, my imagination, 
longing from youth to see where " Divine Alceus did by secret 
sluice steal under-ground to meet his Arethuse," soon encrusted the 



jgg JOURNAL. 

rock with marble, and restored the palaces, and the statues, and the 
luxury of that fountain which once deserved the praise or the re- 
proach of being the most luxurious spot of a luxurious city. Here 
Pudaguel sinks in lonely beauty unsung, and therefore unhonoured. 

The view from the pass of Pudaguel is most beautiful. Looking 
across the river, whose steep banks are adorned with large trees, the 
plain of Santiago stretches to the mountains, at whose foot the city 
with its spires of dazzling whiteness extends, and distinguishes this 
from the other fine views in Chile, in which the want of human 
habitation throws a melancholy over the face of nature. 

Three miles beyond Pudaguel, we met Don Jose Antonio de Cota- 
pos, whose family had kindly invited me to stay in their house while 
I was at Santiago ; and though I had declined it, fancying I should 
be more at liberty in an English inn, my intentions were overruled, 
when I was met a few miles farther on by M. Prevost, who told me 
the ladies would be hurt if I did not go to their house, at any rate in 
the first instance. This was hardly settled, before I saw two car- 
riages with Madame de Cotapos and three of her remarkably pretty 
daughters, who had come to meet me and carry me into the city. 
The latter I declined, not liking, dusty as I was, to enter their carriage. 
I therefore rode on, and was received most kindly by Dona Merce- 
dita, a fourth daughter, whose grace and politeness equals her beauty. 
After a little rest, and having refreshed myself by dressing, I was 
called to dinner ; where I found all the family assembled, and several 
other gentlemen, who were invited to meet me, and do honour to the 
feast of reception. The dinner was larger than would be thought 
consistent with good taste ; but every thing was well dressed, though 
with a good deal of oil and garlic. Fish came among the last things. 
All the dishes were carved on the table, and it is difficult to resist the 
pressing invitations of every moment to eat of every thing. The 
greatest kindness is shown by taking things from your own plate and 
putting it on that of your friend ; and no scruple is made of helping 
any dish before you with the spoon or knife you have been eating 
with, or even tasting or eating from the general dish without the 



SANTIAGO. 1 99 

intervention of a plate. In the intervals between the courses, bread 
and butter and olives were presented. 

Judging from what I saw to-day, I should say that the Chilenos are 
great eaters, especially of sweet things ; but that they drink very little. 

After dinner we took coffee ; and, as it was late, every thing passed 
as in an English house, except the retiring of most of the family to 
prayers at the Ave Maria. In the evening, a few friends and l-ela- 
tions of the family arrived, and the young people amused themselves 
with music and dancing. The elder ones conversed over a chafing- 
dish, and had a thick coverlet spread over it and their knees, which 
answers the double purpose of confining the heat to the legs, and 
preventing the fumes of the charcoal from making the head ache. It 
is but lately that the ladies of Chile have learned to sit on chairs, 
instead of squatting on the estradas. Now, in lieu of the estrada, 
there are usually long carpets placed on each side of the room, with 
two rows of chairs as close together as the knees of the opposite par- 
ties will permit, so that the feet of both meet on the carpet. The 
graver people place themselves with their backs to the wall, the 
young ladies opposite ; and as the young men drop in to join the 
tertulla, or evening meeting, they place themselves behind the ladies ; 
and all conversation, general or particular, is carried on without cere- 
mony in half whispers. 

When a sufficient number of persons is collected the dancing 
begins, always with minuets ; which, however, are little resembling 
the grave and stately dance we have seen in Europe. Grave, indeed 
it is, but it is slovenly ; no air, no polish, nothing in which the famous 
Captain Nash of Bath would recognise the graceful movements of the 
rooms, where he presided so long and so well. The minuets are fol- 
lowed by allemandes, quadrilles, and Spanish dances. The latter are 
exceedingly graceful ; and, danced as I have seen them here, are like 
the poetical dances of ancient sculpture and modern painting ; but 
then, the waltz never brought youth, and mirth, and beauty, into such 
close contact with a partner. However, they are used to it, and I 
was a fool to feel troubled at the sight. After all the dancing was 



200 JOURNAL. 

over, and the friends had retired, the gates were shut carefully, the 
family went to their principal meal — a hot supper ; and, as I never 
eat at night, I retired to my room highly pleased with the gen- 
tle and kind manners, and hospitable frankness of my new friends, 
and too tired to think of any thing but sleep. It was so long since 
I had heard a watchman that I could scarcely believe my ears, when 
the sound of " Ave Maria purissima las onzes de noche y sereno" 
reached me as I was undressing, and awakened many a remembrance 
associated with 

" The bellman's drowsy charm, 

To bless the doors from nightly harm." 

25th. — My first object this morning was to examine the disposi- 
tion of the different apartments of the house I am in ; and first I went 
to the gate by which I entered, and looked along the wall on either 
hand in vain for a window looking to the street. The house, like all 
those to which my eye reached, presented a low white wall with an 
enormous projecting tiled roof: in the centre a great portal with 
folding gates, and by it a little tower called the Alto, with windows 
and a balcony at the top, where I have my apartment ; and under 
it, close by the gate, is the porter's lodge. This portal admits one 
into a great paved quadrangle, into which various apartments open : 
those on either hand appeared to be store-rooms : opposite, are the 
sala or drawing-room, the principal bed-room, which is also a public 
sitting room, and one or two smaller public rooms ; behind this band 
of building there is a second quadrangle laid out in flower-plots, 
shaded with fruit trees, and of which a pleasant veranda makes part. 
Here the young people of the family often sit, and either receive 
visits or pursue their domestic occupations. Round this court or 
pateo, the private apartments of the family are arranged ; and behind 
them there is a smaller court, where the kitchen, offices, and servants' 
apartments are placed, and through which, as in most houses in San- 
tiago, a plentiful stream of water is always running. 

Thb disposition of the houses, though pleasant enough to the in- 
habitants, is ugly without, and gives a mean, dull air to the streets, 



SANTIAGO. 201 

which are wide and well paved, having a footpath flagged with slabs 
of granite and porphyry ; and through most of them a small stream 
is constantly running, which, with a little more attention from the 
police, might make it the cleanest city in the world : it is not very 
dirty ; and when I recollect Rio Janeiro and Bahia, I am ready to 
call it absolutely clean. 

The house of Cotapos is handsomely, not elegantly furnished. 
Good mirrors, handsome carpets, a piano by Broadwood, and a rea- 
sonable collection of chairs, tables, and beds, not just of the forms of 
modern Paris or London, but such, I dare say, as were fashionable 
there little more than a century ago, look exceedingly well on this 
side of the Horn. It is only the dining-room that I feel disposed to 
quarrel with : it is the darkest, dullest, and meanest apartment in the 
house. The table is stuck in one corner,- so that one end and one 
side only allow room for a row of high chairs between them and the 
wall; therefore any thing like the regular attendance of servants is pre- 
cluded. One would almost think that it was arranged for the purpose 
of eating in secret ; and one is led to think, especially when the 
great gates close at night before the principal meal is presented, 
of the Moors and the Israelites of the Spanish peninsula, jealously 
hiding themselves from the eyes of their Gothic tyrants. 

My breakfast was served in my own room according to my own 
fashion, with tea, eggs, and bread and butter. The family eat nothing 
at this time of day ; but some take a cup of chocolate, others a little 
broth, and most a matee. The ladies all visited me on their way to 
mass ; and on this occasion they had left off their usual French style 
of dress, and were in black, with the Mantilla and all that makes a 
pretty Spaniard or Chilena, ten times prettier. 

About noon, M. de la Salle, one of the Supreme Director's Aides 
de Camp called, with a polite compliment from His Excellency, wel- 
coming me to Santiago. By this gentleman I sent my letters of 
introduction to Dona Rosa O'Higgins ; and it was agreed that I should 
visit her to-morrow evening, as she goes to the theatre to-night. 

D D 



202 JOURNAL. 

Soon after dinner to-day, Mr. de Roos and I accompanied Don 
Antonio de Cotapos and two of his sisters to the plain on the south- 
west side of the town, to see the Chinganas, or amusements of the 
common people. On every feast-day they assemble at this place, 
and seem to enjoy themselves very much in lounging, eating sweet 
puffs fried on the spot in oil, and drinking various liquors, but espe- 
cially chicha, while they listen to a not disagreeable music played on 
the harp, guitar, tambourine, and triangle, accompanied by women's 
voices, singing of love and patriotism. The musicians are placed in 
waggons covered with reeds, or regularly thatched, where they sit 
playing to draw custom to little tables, placed around with cakes, 
liquors, flowers, which those attracted by the songs buy for them- 
selves or the lasses they wish to treat. Some of the flowers, such 
as carnations and ranunculuses, are extravagantly dear : half a dollar is 
frequently asked for a single one, and a yellow ranunculus, with petals 
tipped with crimson and a green centre, is worth at least a dollar, in 
order to make a present of. Men, women, and children, are passion- 
ately fond of the Chinganas. The whole plain is covered with parties 
on foot, on horseback, in caleches, and even in carts ; and, although for 
the fashionables, the Almeida is most in vogue, yet there is no want 
of genteel company at the Chinganas * : every body seemed equally 
happy and equally orderly. In so great a crowd in England, there 
would surely have been a ring or two for a fight ; but nothing of the 
kind occurred here, although there was a good deal of gambling and 
some drinking. In the evening I joined the family Tertulla, where 
the usual music and dancing and gossip went on ; and I found that 
even in Chile the beauty and dress of one young lady is criticised by 
another just as with us. And now I think of it, I am sure I never 
saw so many very pretty women in one day, as I beheld to day : 1 am 
not sure that any were of transcendant beauty, but I am quite sure I 
did not see one plain. They are generally of the middle size, well 
made, and walk well, with fine hair and beautiful eyes, as many 

* See Frezier. 



SANTIAGO. 203 

blue as black, good teeth, and as for their complexion, — the red 
and white. " Nature's own pure and cunning hand" never laid on 
finer, — but, alas ! " liberal not lavish is kind nature's hand;" and these 
pretty creatures have generally harsh rough voices, and about the 
throats of some there is that fulness that denotes that goitres are 
not uncommon. 

26th. — This morning, on looking out soon after day -break, I saw 
the provisions coming into town for the market. The beef cut in 
quarters, the mutton in halves, was mounted on horseback before a 
man or boy, who, in his poncho, sat as near the tail of the horse as 
possible. Fowls in large grated chests of hide came slung on mules. 
Eggs, butter, milk, cheese, and vegetables, all rode, no Chileno con- 
descending to walk, especially with a burden, unless in case of dire 
necessity ; and as the strings of beasts so laden came along one way, I 
saw women enveloped in their mantos, and carrying their alfombras 
and missals, going to mass another. 

The cries in the streets are nearly as unintelligible as those in 
London, and, with the exception of Sweep and Old Clothes, concern 
the same articles. Judge Prevost came in soon after breakfast 
and settled my mode of paying my respects to Dona Rosa O'Higgins 
in the evening. It appears that to walk even to a next-door neigh- 
bour on occasions of ceremony is so undignified, that I must not 
think of it, therefore I go in a chaise belonging to the family where 
I live, and two of the ladies will accompany me. This last proposal 
I own startled me. They are of one of the best families here ; but 
a daughter was married to a Can-era : they were all partizans of Car- 
rera, and more than one have been implicated in conspiracies against 
the present government : nay, it is said against the Director's life ; 
and I know that no intercourse, of a friendly nature, notwithstanding 
the good-natured wishes of Mr. Prevost, has as yet taken place be- 
tween the palace and the house of Catapos. If I am the means of 
spreading peace, so much the bettei", though I perhaps would rather 
know openly the use to be made of me. 

d d 2 



204 JOURNAL. 

I walked out to see the Plaza : one side is occupied by the palace 
which contains the residence of the director, the courts of justice, 
and the public prison. The building is from its size extremely hand- 
some, but it is as yet irregular, because when the directorial palace 
was added money was scarce, yet all the lower story corresponds 
with the Doric order of the rest, and may be raised upon whenever 
the government is rich enough. The west side of the square is oc- 
cupied by the unfinished cathedral, also Doric, the bishop's palace, 
and a few inferior buildings : the south side has an arcade in front of 
private houses, the lower stories of which are shops, and under the 
arcade are booths something in the style of the bazars of modern 
London. On moonlight nights this arcade is exceedingly gay. It 
is the fashion then for ladies to go shopping on foot ; and as every 
booth has its light, the scene is extremely pretty ; the fourth side 
is filled up by mean houses, one of the best of which is the Eng- 
lish inn. We passed several other public buildings which are, gene- 
rally speaking, handsome, the Doric order being almost universally 
adopted ; yet the streets have a mean air, owing to the dead walls of 
the private houses. 

After dinner, Mr. de Roos and I walked to the Tacama and the Al- 
meida. The Tacama is a strong mound of masonry built to defend 
the city from the floods of the Mapocho, which, though now a mere 
rivulet stealing its way in a narrow channel in the midst of a wide 
bed of pebbles, is twice a year an ungovernable flood. The winter 
rains and the melting of the snows being the seasons when it rolls its 
mighty flood across the plain, and but for the Tacama would over- 
flow the greater part of the city. The Almeida is within the 
Tacama : it is a charming walk, bordered with rows of willow trees, 
and commanding delightful views. From thence we followed a 
narrow street to the fort on the little rock of Santa Lucia, which 
should be the citadel of Santiago. It rises in the midst of it, or 
nearly so, and commands it, and there are now in fact two little 
batteries on its opposite extremities. As we went we could not but 
admire the huge blocks of granite that nature seems to have disposed 



SANTIAGO. 



205 



here as in sport ; now forming caverns and now overhanging the road ; 
and reminding us of the loosened mountains with which the ancient 
Caciques used to overwhelm their invaders. From Santa Lucia, we 
discovered the whole plain of Santiago to the Cuesta de Prado, the 
plain of Maypu stretching even to the horizon, the snowy Cordillera, 
and beneath our feet the city, its gardens, churches, and its magnificent 
bridge all lit up by the rays of the setting sun, which on the city, the 
plains, and the Prado produced such effects as poets and painters have 
described. But what pen or pencil can impart a thousandth part of 
the sublime beauty of sunset on the Andes ? I gazed on it 

" till the place became 



Religion, and my heart ran o'er 
In secret worship." 

What had St. Isidore's bell to do, to awaken one from such contem- 
plation to look on his petty church under a huge dark cloud, whence 
issued a long and solemn procession of monks and priests performing 
the first of a nine days' prayer to their patron Isidore, and jointly with 
Saint James, patron of the city, for rain ? 

I wish that superstition had not gone farther than assigning a guar- 
dian to each country, city, and individual ; there is something so 
soothing in the feeling that a superior being is watching over us, 
and ready to intercede for us with the great Judge of all. The 
light-hearted Athenian had his Minerva, the sturdy Roman his Jupiter 
the greatest and the best, England even yet keeps her George, and 
why not St. Iago her James, the mirror of knighthood, and Isidore, 
the husbandman ? I entered into conversation with a woman on the 
rock, who told me that dry weather is considered as unwholesome 
here, and that people's bodies dried up like the earth without rain, 
therefore there was much need of the interference of the saints to 
keep sickness as well as dearth' from the city. She said also that 
fever and pains in the throat came from the dry weather. If this 
is not prejudice, it is curious. 

We came home to dress for the palace, where we went accompa- 
nied by Judge Prevost, Madame Cotapos and her second daughter. 



206 JOURNAL. 

Mariquita, a young woman more cultivated than is usual here. The 
ladies both apologised for appearing in cotton stockings and coarse 
black shoes, by saying that it was in consequence of a vow made 
during a severe illness of the old gentleman, Don Jose Miguel Cota- 
pos, by which they had obliged themselves to wear such stockings and 
shoes a whole year, if his life was granted to their prayers. If I 
smiled at the superstition of this, the affection whence it proceeded 
was too respectable to permit me to laugh ; and I was well aware of 
the extent of the merit of the vow, as there is nothing in which a lady 
of Chile is so delicate as the choice of her shoes. Madame Cotapos 
whispered to me that the torment hers had occasioned was such that 
she had been obliged to slip a little cotton wool into them to save 
her feet. Luckily she did not understand me, as I could not help 
muttering Peter Pindar's words, " I took the liberty to boil my peas." 
Mariquita performs her vow, however, without reservation of any kind. 
On arriving at the palace, we walked in with less bustle and attend- 
ance than I have seen in most private houses : the rooms are hand- 
somely but plainly furnished ; English cast-iron grates ; Scotch car- 
pets ; some French china, and time-pieces, little or nothing that 
looked Spanish, still less Chileno. The Director's mother Doha 
Isabella, and his sister Doha Rosa, received us not only politely but 
kindly. The Director's reception was exceedingly flattering both to 
me and my young friend De Roos. His Excellency had passed se- 
veral years in England, great part of which time he spent at an aca- 
demy at Richmond in Surrey. He immediately asked me if I had 
ever been there, enquired after my uncle Mr., now Sir David 
Dundas, and several other persons of my acquaintance, by name, 
and asked very particularly about his old masters in music and other 
arts. I was very much pleased with the kindliness of nature shown 
in these recollections, and still more so when I saw several wild- 
looking little girls come into the room, and run up to him, and 
cling about his knees, and found they were little orphan Indians 
rescued from slaughter on the field of battle. It appears that 
the Indians, when they make their inroads on the reclaimed 
grounds, bring their wives and families with them ; and should a 



SANTIAGO. 207 

battle take place and become desperate, the women usually take 
part in it. Should they lose it, it is not uncommon for the 
men to put to death their wives and children to prevent them 
from falling into the hands of the enemy, and indeed till now 
it was only anticipating, by a few minutes, the fate of these wretched 
creatures ; for quarter was neither given nor taken on either 
side, the Indians in the Spanish ranks continuing their own war 
customs in spite of their partial civilisation. The Director now 
gives a reward for all persons, especially women and children, saved 
on these occasions. The children are to be educated and employed 
hereafter as mediators between their nations and Chile, and, to this 
end, care is taken that they should not forget their native tongue. 
The Director was kind enough to talk to them in the Araucanian 
tongue, that I might hear the language, which is soft and sweet ; 
perhaps it owed something to the young voices of the children. One 
of them pleased me especially : she is a little Maria, the daughter of a 
Cacique, who, with his wife and all the elder part of his family, was 
killed in a late battle. Dona Rosa takes a particular charge of the 
little female prisoners, and acts the part of a kind mother to them. 
I was charmed with the humane and generous manner in which she 
spoke of them. As to Dona Isabella, she appears to live on her son's 
fame and greatness, and looks at him with the eyes of maternal love, 
and gathers every compliment to him with eagerness. He is modest 
and simple, and plain in his manners, arrogating nothing to himself; 
or, if he has done much, ascribing it to the influence of that love of 
country which, as he says, may inspire great feelings into an ordinary 
man. He conversed very freely about the state of Chile, and told 
me he doubted not but that I must be surprised at the backwardness 
of the country in many things, and particularly mentioned the want 
of religious toleration, or, rather', the very small measure of it which, 
considering the general state of things, he had yet been able to grant, 
without disturbing the public tranquillity ; and he seemed a little 
inclined to censure those Protestants who wished prematurely to force 
upon him the building a chapel, and the public institution of Pro- 



208 JOURNAL. 

testant worship ; forgetting how very short a time it is since even 
private liberty of conscience and a consecrated burial-place had been 
allowed in a country which, within twelve years, had been subject to 
the Inquisition at Lima. He spoke a good deal also of the necessity 
of public education, and told me of the Lancasterian and other schools 
lately established here, and in other towns in Chile, which are cer- 
tainly numerous in proportion to the population. 

Several other persons now joined the party, among whom was 
a Colonel Cruz ; whom the Director particularly introduced as the 
intended new governor of Talcahuana, and recommended me to his at- 
tention during the journey I mean to make shortly to the southward. 
The military men who came in afterwards were some of them French- 
men, but they did not appear to me to be of the most polished of their 
countrymen : they sat in dead silence, while some of the members of 
the cabildo, i. e. the municipal chamber of Santiago, discussed various 
questions of policy connected with the projected constitution ; till 
Dona Rosa, finding the conversation likely to become exclusively 
political, proposed to Dona Mariquita to play some French music, 
which she instantly did, without book, extremely well, having a fine 
ear and an excellent finger ; and I had time to look at the persons 
round me. The Director was dressed, as I believe he always is, in 
his general's uniform ; he is short and fat, yet very active : his blue 
eyes, light hair, and ruddy and rather coarse complexion, do not bely 
his Irish extraction ; while his very small and short hands and feet 
belong to his Araucanian pedigree. Dona Isabella is young-looking 
for her years, and very handsome, though small. Her daughter is 
like the Director, on a larger scale. She was dressed in a scarlet satin 
spencer and white skirt, a sort of dress much worn here. The Chileno 
men are an uglier coarser race, as far as I have seen, than the women, 
who are beautiful, and, what is more, lady-like : they have a natural 
easy politeness, and a caressing manner that is delightful ; but then 
some of their habits are disagreeable ; for instance, a handsome fat 
lady, who came all in blue satin to the palace to-night, had a spitting- 
box brought and set before her, into which she spat continually, and 



SANTIAGO. 



209 



so dexterously, as to show she was well accustomed to the manoeuvre. 
However, the young ladies, and all who would be thought so, are 
leaving off these ugly habits fast. 

At about ten o'clock we left the palace, and found our young 
people at home still engaged in their minuets. I sat with them a short 
time, and then came to my alto to write the journal of this my second 
day in Santiago, with which I am very well pleased. 

21th. — Visited Dona Mercedes do Solar, whose father, Juan 
Henriques Rosalis, was one of the members of the first junta of the 
revolutionary government in 1810. She is a very pretty, and very 
polished woman ; seems well acquainted with French authors, and 
speaks French extremely well. I found her sitting in the bed- 
room, which, as I have noticed, is often used as a drawing-room ; 
she was surrounded by some lovely children, and had with her 
some pretty nieces ; books and needlework were on a small French 
table by her, and before her was a large chafingdish of well-burnt 
charcoal. The dish was of massy silver, beautifully embossed, set in 
a frame of curiously inlaid wood ; and there was a wrought silver 
spoon to stir the coals with. I have seen several of the same kind 
before ; but it seemed here in keeping with the rest of the room, 
and the persons. The stately French bed, the open piano, the guitar, 
the ormoulu time-piece, the ladies, the children, the books, the work, 
and the flowers in French porcelain, with the rich Chilian brassiere, 
into which perfume is now and then cast, made a charming picture, 
which, lighted as it was from a high window behind me, I heartily 
wished in proper hands to copy. I would not have changed the 
purple pelisse of the mother, setting off her white and rather full 
throat, or even the pale looks of little Vicente, for all the inventions 
of all the painters that ever tricked out interiors with fullest effect. 
I have a particular interest in Vicente, besides his being a clever 
child. He came with me in the Doris from Rio, whither he had 
gone in the Owen Glendower. He suffered from cold in coming 
round the Horn, and I had him with me in the cabin as much as 
circumstances would permit. One day we were speaking of the 

E E 



2^0 JOURNAL. 

newly discovered South Shetland *, and of the wreck of the Spanish 
line-of-battle ship which had been found there, — a ship which had 
been bound to Chile with troops, but had never been heard of. The 
boy was listening eagerly, and then looked at me, — " Mirad la For- 
tuna de Chile," said he ; " when the tyrants send ships to oppress her, 
God sends them to wreck on desert coasts." I trust, the stuff he is 
made of will not be spoiled by the constant intercourse he has with 
the French who frequent his father's house ; Don Felipe de Solar 
being general agent for all French vessels arriving in Chile. This 
is, I believe, an illiberal feeling, but I cannot help it ; there are some 
things, which, like faith, do not depend upon the will, and this is 
one of them. Perhaps I envied the French authors their place on 
Madame Solar's table, and would have liked to have seen the Rape 
of the Lock there, rather than the Lutrin. 

In the evening we rode to the quinta of the Canonico Erreda by 
the Almeida, and so to the north-east. The house is spacious and 
pleasant ; the garden delicious : little water-courses, led in quaintly- 
figured canals among the flower-beds, maintain a never failing suc- 
cession of all the sweetest and rarest flowers, — the violet and wall- 
flower, the carnation and ranunculus ; and there are delicious oranges, 
of which we ate no small number ; and limes, and a large peach- 
orchard, and a vineyard, and cows, and a dairy, and all manner of 
rural wealth and comfort. 

From the Canonico's we rode by the olive grove with the thickest 
shade of olive trees on one hand, and on the other long orchards 
of cherry, peach, apple, and pear, all now in blossom ; and crossing- 
two or three enclosures at each gate of which we were sure to meet 
some one to open it, and as surely some one to beg, — a practice 
nobody seems ashamed of here, — we reached the Canada, formerly 
only a marshy suburb of the town ; but O'Higgins is causing it to 
be drained, and cleared, and planted with trees, so that it will soon 
exceed the Almeida in beauty, as it does in extent. The water, 

* New South Shetland should rather be called a re-discovery : Raleigh was there, and 
hanged some mutineers on the coast. 



SANTIAGO. 211 

instead of overflowing, is now conveyed in a regular canal, with 
shrubs on each side, and gravel walks for foot passengers, and wider 
roads for carriages and horses ; about one third of this is done, and 
the rest is in progress. 

28th. — St. Austin's Day. I am no favourite with the saint, for 
he has been thwarting me all day long. But all things in order. 
Early in the morning I heard a bell ringing exactly like that which 
on winter evenings in London announces the approach of " muf- 
fins ;" I looked out, and saw first, a boy ringing the said bell, then 
another with a bundle of candles : all the people in the streets 
pulled off their hats, and stood as if doing homage. Then came a 
dark blue caleche, with glories and holy ghosts painted on it, and 
a man within dressed in white satin, embroidered with silver and 
coloured silk. In front sat a man with a gilt lanthorn ; behind, 
people with umbrellas. I asked what it was, and was told it was the 
Padre Eterno. The expression sounds indecent to a protestant ; 
it is holy to a Spaniard, who must think that such indeed is the Host 
on its way to a dying person ; — such in fact was the procession 
I saw. This was the only thing that happened before the disappoint- 
ments occasioned by St. Austin began. The first of these occurred 
when I went with Mr. de Roos to see the Lancasterian school ; we 
found the boys all gone to Mass in honour of St. Austin, and the 
school shut : we proceeded to the national printing-office ; the doors 
were shut, and the printers at Mass. Thence we went to the chamber 
of the Consulada, hoping to be present at a session of the convention : 
but the members were at Mass. Then despairing of seeing any 
public place or people, I thought I would draw ; so repaired to the 
Placa, where I had been promised a balcony to sketch from : but the 
master had gone to Mass, and taken the keys in his pocket ; so I 
went home, resolving to do better in the afternoon, and began to 
sketch the inner pateo of the house : but, being a holiday, numerous 
visitors came, and little was done. 

After dinner I took fresh courage, and set off with Madame Cota- 
pos and her daughters to visit the nunnery of St. Austin : but it had 

e e 2 



2X2 JOURNAL. 

been the festival of their saint ; and what with that and the vigil, 
the lady abbess and her nuns were so fatigued, having been singing 
all day and part of the night, that they could not receive us. The 
note containing this disagreeable news reached us when we were all 
dressed and ready for walking ; so we went to visit the ladies Godoy, 
in whose house Judge Prevost lives. These ladies are near relations 
of Madame Cotapos, and are extremely lively and agreeable. We 
sat chatting in the inner pateo or garden, which looks like every 
thing romancers and travellers tell us is Moorish : and had matee 
brought to us by some pretty little Indian girls, very nicely dressed ; 
and then we adjourned to the house, which has lately assumed in 
its fire-places, and other comforts, a very European air. We had 
a little music here, and then walked home ; my friends as usual with- 
out hats or veils, and in their satin shoes. 

In the intervals between the disappointments occasioned by St. 
Austin, I went into the large and handsome church formerly belong- 
ing to the Jesuits, where the troops were assembled to hear Mass ; 
and their military music joined to the solemn organ had a fine effect. 
I also went into the cathedral, having put on a mantilla for the pur- 
pose, as bonnets are not allowed to appear in church. The interior 
of the building is very handsome, though unfinished. There is some 
rich plate, particularly a fine chased altar-piece. 

29th of August, 1822. —A party, consisting of Judge Prevost, who' 
is always ready to promote my wish of seeing every thing curious in 
Chile, Mr. de Roos, Doiia Mariquita Cotapos, Don Jose Antonio Co- 
tapos, and some young Englishmen, rode out to see the Salta de 
Agua, the only remaining work of the ancient Caciques in the neigh- 
bourhood. We crossed the handsome stone bridge built by Ambrose 
OTIiggins over the Mapocho ; and, after passing through the suburb 
La Chimba*, we proceeded to the powder-mills, now in a ruined state. 
They were wrought by water ; the machinery clumsy and dangerous, 
the mixture being pounded in stone mortars instead of ground. 
These works, which had cost the government of Old Spain a prodi- 

* The Chimba is famous for an excellent brewery, and for curing bacon. 




' 



Engraved by Ecbr 



SA3L1PA B?3E AOTAo 



'..■.. 



SANTIAGO. 213 

gious sum of money, were destroyed by the Carreras, in the retreat 
before Osorio, in 1814, and have never been re-established, although 
much wanted. We found part of the ground about the mills occu- 
pied by Mr. Goldsegg, an ingenious artist, formerly employed in 
Woolwich warren, but who came here with his wife and family, after 
the peace, in order to make rockets for the expedition against Callao. 
By some fatality his rockets failed, and he has been living on here 
in hopes of employment. But the mercantile speculations of the 
minister Rodriguez have diverted the funds that should repair public 
works and repay public artificers into such very different channels, 
that I fear poor Goldsegg, with all his merit, will add one to the 
many victims of disappointed hope. 

From the powder-mills the road continues along a low rich plain, 
watered by numerous artificial streams, and surrounded by hills ; at 
the foot of one of the steepest of these, we beheld the water of the 
Salta (Leap) leaping from cliff to cliff, from the summit, sometimes 
concealed by tufted wood, and sometimes shining in the midday sun. 
Those who have seen the Cascatelle of Tivoli, have seen the only 
thing I remember at all to be compared to this ; but there is no villa 
of Mecsenas to crown the hill, no Sybil's temple to give the charm of 
classic poetry to the scene. I was a few minutes apart from my com- 
panions ; and, as a dense cloud rolled from the Andes across the sky, 
I could, in the spirit of Ossian, have believed, that the soul of some 
old Cacique had flitted by ; and, if he regretted that his name and 
nation were no longer supreme here, was not ungratified at the sight 
of the smiling cultivated plain his labours had tended to render fruit- 
ful ; nor, it may be, of me, as one of the white children of the East, 
whence freedom to the sons of the Indians was once more to arise. 
However that may be, the cloud passed, and my good horse began 
to make way up one of the steepest pieces of road any four-footed 
thing, except a goat, ever thought of climbing ; so that I began to 
think I had a good chance of being drowned in one of the water- 
courses, after having crossed the ocean. However, a short time 
brought both horse and rider safe to the top of the cliff, about two 
hundred and fifty feet or thereabouts, more rather than less, of actual 



214 JOURNAL. 

height above the knoll where we first saw the Salta, and where there 
is a little village. Here I dismounted, and by the assistance of two 
of my friends, stepped across one of the water-channels to have a per- 
fect view of the work, and of the fall below. We had not descended, 
perceptibly, since we left Santiago ; yet, though we had climbed the 
steep cliff of the fall, we found ourselves still on the plain of the city; 
having between it and us a very high hill, whose base is uneven, so 
that the north side rests below the fall, and the south side above it. 
On either side, the country appears to the eye perfectly level. The 
river Mapocho flows from the Andes through the upper plain ; the 
lower one is without a natural stream, but the land is evidently better 
than that above. The Caciques observing this, cut channels through 
the granite rock, from the Mapocho to the edge of the precipice, and 
made use of the natural fall of the ground to throw a considerable 
stream from the river into the vale below : this is divided into numer- 
ous channels, as required ; and the land so watered is some of the 
most productive in the neighbourhood of the city. The Indian 
chiefs, instead of one large channel, have dug three smaller ones, 
directing them to the centre of the vale, and to the sides of the hills 
on either hand, so as to fertilise the whole district; an advantage as 
great to the admirer of picturesque beauty as to the cultivator. To 
the beautiful artificial waterfalls praised by travellers, I must add 
this, which is quite as rich in natural beauty as Tivoli ; and as 
singular, as a work of early art, as the channel by which the Velinus 
falls into the Nar. I appreciate the work of the Caciques the 
better for having seen that of the Roman consul ; and only regret 
that I am not a poet to immortalise these beautiful waters which 
precipitate themselves into the vale below, and reappear in 
sparkling rills to fertilise the plain beyond. We left the fall with 
regret to return to the city, or rather to go to it by a very different 
road. We proceeded over a plain completely covered with shingle, 
and only here and there a clump of some low sweet shrubs, of which 
the horses are very fond. This is the winter channel of the Mapo- 
cho, which covers the land far and near with its waters, and rolls 
these pebbles over it. 



SANTIAGO. 



215 



Halfway between the Salta and the city, we stopped at a quinta 
belonging to the brother of Madame Cotapos, or, as I ought properly 
to call her, Doha Mercedes de Cotapos. This gentleman, Don Hen- 
riquez Lastra, the ex-director of Chile, is at present entirely removed 
from public life, and devotes himself to the cultivation of his farm or 
hacienda, and to making various experiments for the improvement of 
the wines of the country. He has succeeded in making a wine little 
if at all inferior to champaign ; and his ordinary wine, in which he has 
pursued the Madeira method, is like the best vino Unto of Teneriffe. 
In general the wines here are sweet and heavy. His fields appear to 
me to be in excellent order ; and all about the farm looks more like 
European farming than any thing I had seen in this country. Don 
Henriquez was not at. home when we arrived, but we were most 
kindly welcomed by his lady, who is of the family of Izquierda de 
Xara Quemada. She was in the midst of her eight fine children, 
instructing some, and working for others. The house is small, but 
new building is going on sufficient to double its size ; and the prin- 
cipal rooms are to be built with chimneys, and English grates are to 
supersede brasseros : these steps towards improvement are great in 
this country, which has hitherto remained, of all others, the most 
backward, partly from political, partly from moral and physical causes 
peculiar to itself. The ex-director soon came in : he appeared to be 
a plain sensible man, of simple but courteous manners ; and, very 
soon, in his conversation I discerned a polish that here must have 
been acquired from books, and a strength that the circumstances 
of an active life engaged in such a revolution as has taken place 
may well have produced. Yet I should think him a slow man, arid, 
perhaps, not gifted with that readiness and presence of mind calcu- 
lated to meet extraordinary occurrences which are absolutely neces- 
sary for public men at such a time. The present study of Don 
Henriquez is small, and might excite a smile in a London or Parisian 
statesman, accustomed to all the luxuries of labour ; but the new 
house will give room to a larger library, directed by the same good 
sense that has hitherto preferred useful to o namental learning. 



216 JOURNAL. 

The luncheon at Don Henriquez's was all the produce of the farm. 
Sausages as good as those of Bologna ; bread of his own wheat, as 
white as that made of the Sicilian grain ; butter that the dairies of 
England might have been proud of; and of the wines I have spoken 
already. I was delighted with the visit in every way ; the hospitality 
of the house, and the improvements going on, which must all tend to 
the good of the country. 

Soon after we reached home, I received a magnificent present of 
fruit and flowers from Doha Rosa O'Higgins. The fruit was water- 
melons, lucumas, oranges, and sweet limes, no others being as yet in 
season ; and the flowers, of all the finest and rarest. They were ar- 
ranged on trays, covered with embroidered napkins, and borne on 
the heads of servants in the full dress of the palace livery ; one out 
of livery entering first to pay me a compliment from the lady. At 
night the young ladies Cotapos, and their brother, Don Jose Antonio, 
danced for me the cuando, a national dance. It is performed by two 
persons, and begins slowly like a minuet ; it then quickens according 
to the music and the song, which represent a sort of loving quarrel 
and final agreement ; the skill of the dancer consisting in holding his 
body steady, beating the ground with inconceivable quickness with 
his feet in a measure called zapatear (to s7we). Doha Mariquita played 
and sung the song which she herself has adapted to the music, the 
ordinary verses being love verses, which she does not choose to sing, 
being proper for the gentleman to sing to his partner. But there are 
several songs to the cuando ; and in the country where Sancho 
Panca's language is spoken, it is to be supposed that some are 
burlesque. * 



* First Cuando. 

Anda ingrata que algun dia 
Con las mudanzas del tiempo, 
Lloraras como yo lloro, 
Sentiras como yo siento. 

Cuando, cuando, 

Cuando, mi vida cuando. 



SANTIAGO. 



217 



30th. — Santa Rosa's day, which is kept as a great festival here : 
first, because Santa Rosa is a South American saint ; and secondly, 
because it is the day of His Excellency the Director's sister. Every 
body of course called at the palace to leave cards of compliment. 
I am in no state of spirits for public amusements ; but in a new 
country they are always to be observed, as they indicate more or less 
surely the genius of the people : I therefore determined to take a 
box at the theatre to-night ; and accordingly, after taking matee with 
the ladies Izquierda, I went with my friends to the play at Santiago. 
On one side of the square, between the palace of the Consulado 
and the Jesuits' church, a gate in a low wall admitted us to a square, 
in which there is a building that reminded me of a provincial tem- 
porary theatre ; but the earthquakes of Chile apologise for any 
external meanness of building but too satisfactorily : the interior is 
far from contemptible ; I have seen much worse in Paris. The stage 
is deep, the scenery very good, but the proscenium mean. On the 
green curtain, there is wrought in letters of gold — 

Cuando sera esa dia 
De aquella feliz Mariana, 
Que nos lleven a los dos, 
El chocolate a la Cama." 

There is another of this class, of which I have not caught the Spanish words ; but the 
lover asks the lady, when, when she will call his mother hers, and his sister hers : the 
first lines, however, are the same. 

Second Cuando. 

" Cuando, cuando, 
Cuando yo me muere. 
No me lloren los parientes, 
Lloren me las Alembiques, 
Donde sacan Aquardientes, 
A la plata me remito, 
Le demas es "boberia, 
Andar con la boca seca, 
E la bariga vacia." 

These are both favourites with the Chinganas, and used to be not unacceptable to all 
classes, till within these very few years. But the opening the ports of South America, 
by permitting a free intercourse with strangers, has rendered the taste of the higher ranks 
more nice. 

F F 



218 JOURNAL. 

" Aqui es el espejo del vertud y del vicio, 
Mirados en el y pronunciad j uicior" 

The Director's box is on the right hand of the stage, it is handsomely 
fitted up with silk of the national colours, blue, red, and white, bor- 
dered with gold fringe. Opposite is the box of the Cabildo, a little 
less handsome, but decorated with the same colours. The theatre is 
a very favourite amusement here, and most of the boxes are taken by 
the year, so that it was by favour only that I obtained one to-night : 
the theatre was quite full, and the general beauty of the women was 
particularly conspicuous on the occasion. Shortly after we were 
seated, the Director and his family, including the little Indian girls, 
came in. I am so accustomed to see respect paid to the actual 
sovereign of a country, that I instantly rose and courtesied, and was 
quite abashed to see that I was the only person in the house who did 
so : however, it passed for a particular compliment, and was parti- 
cularly returned. The national hymn was then called for and sung, 
and played as is usual before the beginning of the piece. One party 
of ladies became conspicuous, by sitting down, turning their backs, 
and talking loud during the playing of the hymn, — a piece of gross 
and imprudent impertinence, that would have been tolerated no 
where but under the good-natured eye of the Director O'Higgins. * 



* On the 20th of September, 1819, the national hymn, of which the following is the 
first verse and chorus, was published by authority of government, and ordered to be sung 
at the theatre before every play. There are ten verses, all good ; but it is too long. 

" Ciudadanos, — el amor Sagrado 
De la Patria os convoca a la lid : 
Libertad es el eco de alarma 
La divisa triunifar o morir. 

" El cadalso, 6 la antigua cadena, 
Os presenta el soberbio Espanol : 
Arrancad el punal al tirano, 
Quebrantad ese cuello feroz. 
" Coro. — Dulce Patria, recibe los votos 
Con que, Chile en tus aras juro, 
Que 6 la tumba serais de los libres, 
O el asilo contra la opresion," 8cc. 



SANTIAGO. 



219 



The actors have one good quality, — they speak very plainly ; but they 
are very tame, and rather seem to be repeating a lesson, than either 
speaking or declaiming : the piece may be to blame for this. It was 
" King Ninus the Second ;" but I cannot recollect any king of that 
name who ever had a tragical story of the kind belonging to him : 
and I have no books here, and no literary ladies, or even gentlemen, 
so I must rest in ignorance ; though, if I remember right, there is 
something like the history of Zenobia in the plot : however, there is 
a great deal of love and murder in it. 

The farce was the " Madmen of Seville." The graciosa of the piece 
a beggar, has by some accident got into the bedlam of the city, and 
the amusement consists in the different tricks played to him by the 
patients of the hospital, who each insist on taking him as a com- 
panion. I was half sorry not to be able to join in the excessive 
mirth apparently caused by the piece, but I was rather glad when it was 
over : we all enjoyed some ices very much, which were brought into 
the box ; and we were not the only persons who regaled themselves 
in the same manner, though I think sweetmeats and wine seemed to 
be the favourite refreshments. The gallery is appropriated to the 
soldiers, who enter gratis. 

Saturday, August S\st. — ■ Having ascertained that there was no 
saint in the way to prevent us, Mr. De Roos and I set out once more 
this morning to see what we could of the city ; and meeting Mr. Pre- 
vost, we availed ourselves of his polite offer of showing us the mint. 
It is, indeed, a magnificent building, — I was going to say, too mao-- 
ficent for Chile, till I recollected that it was erected by the Spanish 
government chiefly for the assay and stamping of the product of those 
rich mines, which the mother country long considered as the only 
objects to be attended to in her American dominions. The building 
is of a single range of fine Doric three-quarter columns and pilasters, 
which cover two stories ; i. e. the public works below, and the houses 
of the officers above. On entering a handsome gate, another interior 
building, like the cell of a temple, of the same order, presents itself; 
and there the treasury, and mint, and assay office are situated. The 

f f 2 



220 JOURNAL. 

machinery is clumsy beyond what I could have imagined, and the 
improvement talked of is to be on a French model ; which will be 
more expensive than one of Boulton's, and, compared with it, is as 
the old hammer for striking coin is to the screw dies now used here. 
The greater part of the coin still current in Chile is of rough pieces 
of silver, weighed and cut in any shape, and struck with the hammer, 
and far ruder than any I had seen before. This mode of coining is, 
however, now discontinued ; and the scarcely less tedious method of 
first punching the metal, and then placing each piece by hand in the 
screw, has taken place of it. The assay department, however, is in a 
better, i. e. a more modern state ; but I am too sorry a chemist to be 
able to give a proper account of it. I understand government has it 
in contemplation to issue a coinage of low value, which will be of 
great advantage to the people. I have often been struck with the 
inconvenience of the want of small coin here. There is nothing in 
circulation under the value of a quartillo, or quarter of a real, which, 
if the dollar be worth four shillings and sixpence, is more than three 
half-pence ; and quartillos are not coined here, and are so scarce, that 
I have only seen three since April : consequently we may call the 
smallest common coin the medio, or near threepence halfpenny; a 
sum for which, at the price of bread and beef here, a whole family 
may be fed. What then is the single labourer to do ? This evil, 
great as it is, has occasioned a greater. In order to accommodate 
purchasers with a quantity under the value of a medio, or quartillo, 
the owners of pulperias (a kind of huckster's shops) give in exchange 
for dollars or reals promissory notes : but these notes, even where 
the article bought is half a dollar, and the note for half, the pulperia 
man will not discount in cash, but in goods ; so that he makes sure 
of the poor man's whole coin, besides the chance that a peasant, who 
does not read or write, may lose or destroy the note itself. Many 
and rapid fortunes have been made by these notes, and the loss to 
the poor has amounted to more than any one of the government 
direct taxes. This has not been overlooked by some of the great 
merchants connected with the minister here; and a number of retail 
shops have been set up at their expense, though under the names of 



SANTIAGO. 221 

inferior agents. And this is probably one of the reasons for the delay 
of the very necessary coinage of small money. 

From the mint we went to the Consulado, where I meant to have 
been at the very beginning of the sitting. I had previously asked 
the Director if there was any objection to a woman going thither. 
He told me his mother and sister had gone on the first day, and that 
it was open to strangers ; but in case the unusual appearance of a 
lady should startle the members, he would speak to the President. 
Mr. De Roos and I went thither, unhappily without any person to 
tell us who was who. However, we knew that the President was 
Albano, the deputy from Talca, and the Vice-president Camillo Hen- 
riquez, the editor of the " Mercurio de Chile," and an occasional poet. 

We entered just as the house was passing a resolution, that in dis- 
cussing the project of laws, the consent of two-thirds of the members 
should be necessary for the passing each article. There were not 
above twenty members present, and about half a dozen lookers-on 
besides ourselves. The chamber is a very fine one, from its great 
size. At one end is the President's seat, under a very handsome 
canopy of blue, red, and white, enriched with gold. When the 
Director appears this is his place, and the President sits on his right 
hand ; the Deputies sit on benches close to the wall on either side, 
the Secretaries and Vice-president at a table immediately before the 
President, and the spectators on benches like those of the members, 
onlv at a greater distance from the President. After all, I thought it 
was a strange position for an English woman and an English mid- 
shipman to be assisting at the deliberation of a national representative 
assembly in Chile. But what in Addison's time would have been 
romance, is now, every day, matter of fact. I was in the Mahratta 
capital while it was protected by an English force ; I have attended 
a protestant church in the Piazza de Trajano in Rome ; I sat as a 
spectator in an English court of justice in Malta : and what wonder 
that I should now listen to the free deliberations of a national repre- 
sentative meeting in a Spanish colony ? Perhaps the world never 
experienced so great a change as in the last thirty-five years : that all 
should have been for the better, no one, who reflects on the imperfect 



222 JOURNAL. 

state of humanity, will believe ; but I will hope that most of these 
changes have bettered the general condition of human nature. How 
long I might have gone on musing I do not know, if the Vice-Pre- 
sident and Secretary had not interrupted the silence that followed 
the resolution passed when we entered, by reading the report of it to 
the President, who having approved of it, the house proceeded. The 
President then read a message from the Director, submitting to the 
assembly the propriety of sending envoys to different foreign states, 
and desiring them to appoint proper salaries. This gave rise to a 
lively discussion of a much freer tone than I had expected in so 
young a convention, especially one appointed by the executive power 
alone. To the expediency of sending the envoys there was no 
opposition ; but on the appointing salaries there were several ques- 
tions ; — first, could it be done before the actual revenue of the 
country was ascertained and reported to the convention ; and next, 
could a grant of money be made for a new purpose while the army 
was so greatly in arrear (upwards of 1 8,000 dollars) ? They might 
have added the navy also. The speech of the President on opening 
the business, and also his reply to the proposed amendment request- 
ing that the public accounts should be looked into before funds were 
allotted for such a purpose, were extremely clever, and delivered with 
the ease and eloquence of a man accustomed to speak in public : he 
is a priest. The discussion was very warm, but carried on with great 
decorum, the members, in their ordinary dresses, standing up in their 
places ; and when two rose at once, he that first caught the President's 
eye had the preference. 

I was very much gratified with my visit to the convention, and 
withdrew from it with hopes of a speedier and firmer settlement of a 
regular government here than I had hitherto allowed myself to 
entertain. 

It seems to me, that the progress made is astonishing ; but I 
believe that men, like other articles, arise when there is a demand 
for them. There are elements in Chile for the formation of a state ; 
but education is wanting before that which essentially constitutes a 
state will be found ; i. e. — 



SANTIAGO. 223 

" Men, high-minded men — 
Men who their duties know; 
But know their rights, and knowing dare maintain." 

Hitherto a strong feeling of resentment against past tyranny, on 
the part of Spain, has urged them on : but their ideas still continue 
essentially Spanish ; and time and education are still wanting to 
develop and form the Chileno national character. 

On returning home I found Dona Isabella and Dona Rosa O'Hig- 
gins waiting to see me ; though I had been assured it was impos- 
sible they should call at the house of Cotapos. But, now that there is 
not one of the Carreras left, and that that faction is believed to be at 
an end, it is surely the business of those at the head of the affairs of 
Chile to buy golden opinions of all sorts of men ; and I have no 
doubt but that they are glad I am here as an excuse to call without 
the formalities of reconciliation. 

In the evening I went to the palace, and had a great deal of con- 
versation with the Director, especially concerning the early part of 
the revolution, in which he has borne so conspicuous a share. Men- 
tioning the scarcity of arms, while the patriot army occupied the 
banks of the Maule, he said that the people had often no 'arms but 
the yokes of their oxen, with which they fought the royalists hand to 
hand. He himself, among other expedients, had a wooden cannon 
made, bound round with green hide, which stood four discharges 
and then burst. I engaged him to speak of his own part in public 
affairs, which he did modestly and freely ; until several gentlemen 
entering, the conversation became general. It turned upon the 
affairs of the Libertador Simon Bolivar, and the reception of the 
Spanish deputies in the Caraccas ; deprecating the idea of listening 
to any terms not founded on the acknowledgment of the independ- 
ence of Spanish America. 

I left the palace early, and then walked across the square to see 
the evening shopping in the arcades, which is quite as pretty a scene 
as I expected it to be : every little bench has its candle or lamp ; the 
best wares are displayed ; and, as it is a sort of dressed lounge, the 
ladies look particularly well. This place is beautiful by day, but by 



224 JOURNAL. 

moonlight is still more so, — the defects are less seen, the beauties 
more observed. At night the shadows cast by the far-projecting 
roofs prevent our noticing the lowness of the houses ; but the wide 
streets, and handsome public buildings, and, above all, the lofty 
mountains, which tower above every thing, and which, although at 
least twenty miles hence, seem actually to touch the city, appear to 
the greatest advantage. 

Sunday, Sept. 1st, 1822. — I went this evening with my friends to 
the house of the ladies Godoy, where we found M. Prevost, and about 
a dozen other persons, apparently waiting for us to take a walk into 
the country. Accordingly we set off, the elder ladies in caleches, 
the rest of us on foot, to the plain where the Chinganas usually are. 
But, alas ! no Chinganas were there. The city is making a nine- 
days' rogation to St. Isidore for rain ; and the amusements of the 
common people are hushed by way of assistance. However, though 
the musicians' waggons are banished from the plain, there is the 
usual quantity of frying, roasting, and codling, going on at the fruit- 
stalls, and at least as much drinking ; and the people gaping about, 
seemingly wondering what St. Isidore and the rogation have to do 
with the singing- women, who must to-day lose their accustomed reals 
and medios. However they take it quietly, and say, " To be sure the 
gardens want rain, and the padres know best how to pray." When 
all our party had reached the plain, we walked towards one of the 
prettiest parts of it, and there we found that the servants of the house 
of Godoy had laid carpets, and set chairs and cushions for the party ; 
and, at little tables adjoining, they were making tea and matee with 
milk, and had fruits and cakes for the party. As soon as we were 
seated, Dona Carmen Godoy presented us each with a flower ; she 
is remarkably lively, and had some pleasant thing to say to each. 
The cavaliers began to serve the ladies, and we passed an hour very 
pleasantly, and then walked about among the people, observing their 
different dresses and games. The young ladies are not allowed by 
custom to take the arm of a cavalier, although they waltz and dance 
with them. Some few fair Chilenos are beginning to break through 
this rule ; but our young ladies continue to be exceedingly punctil- 



SANTIAGO. 



225 



ous. The people of Chile, in their taste for rural amusements, put 
me in mind of what we are told of the inhabitants of the happy valley 
of Cashmeer, who spend their days and moonlight nights in skiffs, 
floating about their lovely lake, or wandering in the flowery islands 
that adorn it. A Chileno family knows no pleasure greater than a 
walking or riding party into the country ; a matee taken in a garden, 
or on the brow of a hill under some huge tree; and all ranks seem 
sensible to the same enjoyment. At sunset we all adjourned to the 
Casa Cotapos, where the young people sung and danced to a late 
hour. 

In the forenoon, Don Camilo Henriques, the deputy from Valdivia, 
and the last month's secretary to the convention, called ; he is clever 
and agreeable : with him was Dr. Vera, a man of literature and a 
poet. He has the talent of extemporary versification, if what I hear 
be true, in as great a degree as Metastasio ; and it is also said that 
his written poetry is as polished. This gentleman is a perfect Albino : 
his hair, eyes, and complexion, all are like those we sometimes see 
in Europe ; but his intellect is far from partaking of the weakness 
which has generally been observed to accompany the physical pecu- 
liarity of the Albinos : on the contrary, it is above the common rate 
of his countrymen ; indeed I may say more, Dr. Vera would figure 
as a literary man in Europe. He is lately released from the discom- 
fort of a goitre : his was remarkably large, so much so indeed as to 
threaten him with suffocation, when a friend advised him to bathe it 
with Cologne water. This he did diligently several times a day, and 
the swelling is now so decreased that he wears a neckcloth like an- 
other man ; and I did not perceive that he had a goitre till I was told 
of it. Nobody pretends to account for this cure: I write it as he 
relates it. 

2d Sejrt. — At ten o'clock Mr. Prevost, Mr. de Roos, Dona Mari- 
quita, Don Jose Antonio, and I, set off to see the baths of Colinas, 
about ten leagues or a little more from the city. The first three 
leagues of road are on that which leads to Mendoza, and lie along 
a plain, for the most part stony, with the exception of a little rise, 
called the Portesuelo or Gap, by which we passed between two hills 

a G 



226 JOURNAL. 

to another part of the plain ; the part near the city is covered prin- 
cipally with garden grounds, irrigated from the Salta de Agua : be- 
yond the Portesuelo, we came to a very extensive hacienda belong- 
ing to one of the Izquierdas, where every thing was in preparation 
for the annual rodeo. The scenery of a cattle farm, being like that 
of our forest lands at home, is much more picturesque than any other ; 
but it is wilder, and gives less the air of civilisation. We passed 
along by the foot of a high mountain projecting immediately from 
the Andes for about four leagues more, and then entered the Gar- 
gana, or gorge of the mountain in which the baths are situated. The 
approach to it is marked by wider channels of floods, now partially 
dried, higher trees, and more varied though confined scenery. We 
had passed in the morning several farm-houses ; at one of which we 
had stopped to rest, and get refreshments. The farm servants being 
all about, gave an air of liveliness and interest. But now we lost 
sight of all marks of habitation, and proceeded along the gorge 
by a narrow path made with some labour, but scarcely safe for five 
or six miles, when we came to the baths. Nothing can be more 
desolate than their appearance now, and perhaps the dulness of the 
day contributed to that effect. Midwinter still reigns ; no grass 
enlivens the red mountain side ; but here and there an evergreen 
shrub, with its spiry buds still closely folded, overhangs the valley 
below. A bright beautiful stream breaks its way down the whole 
vale, and the sources of this are the celebi'ated baths. From under 
the living rock, several copious springs gush out at a temperature 
not below 100° of Fahrenheit. The water is perfectly limpid, and 
without peculiar taste or smell, but is said to acquire both if bottled 
up a few hours. Over the fountain heads, two little ranges of brick 
buildings, each divided into several rooms (three I think in one, and 
four in the other, or three in each), are built to protect the baths from 
rain or from dust : the water is lodged in hollows of the rock, with 
a brick facing, in which there is a square outlet to permit it to run 
out freely ; so that through each basin there is a constant stream 
passing, and not communicating with any other. The quantity of 
hot water is so great, that on flowing out of the baths, with the 



COLINAS. 



227 



addition of one small branch, it forms the river Colinas, which has a 
meandering course of upwards of thirty leagues, and feeds the lake 
of Pudaguel. Adjoining to the baths are three long ranges of build- 
ings, each containing ten or twelve apartments, and a general veranda 
along the front of the whole ; and these furnish the accommodation 
for the bathers who frequent Colinas in the summer, that is, from 
November till June. The waters are considered good for rheuma- 
tism, jaundice, scrofula, and all cutaneous diseases. One range of 
buildings is for the accommodation of the poorer sort, and there 
the rooms are about six feet by seven ; and into each a whole family 
will creep ; having first built a shed for a kitchen in some contiguous 
spot. The rich are accommodated in the same manner, only that 
their rooms are larger, some of them being fifteen feet square. But 
while at Colinas, people live chiefly out of doors ; for then the 
mountain side is beautiful with flowers, and the woods are dry and 
shady. The little chapel occupies the prettiest spot in the valley ; 
but now it is shut up, neither priest nor parishioner being tempted 
to winter here among the snow and barrenness. So in the first week 
in June or earlier, the patients withdraw, the doors are shut up, 
the priest takes the key of his chapel, and all is left in solitude. 




228 JOURNAL. 

We seated ourselves in one of the verandas, and ate the luncheon 
we had brought with us ; and I was so cold that I was glad to drink 
the warm water from the spring with my wine, and warm my hands 
in it. While the horses were getting ready, Dona Mariquita and 
I had the curiosity to enter one of the rooms which we found open, 
and dearly we paid for our curiosity ; for we were instantly covered 
with myriads of fleas, who I suppose had had no fresh food for 
several months, for they attacked us so unmercifully, that I thought 
I had some violent eruption on my skin. After we had mounted 
and reached the little knoll behind the chapel, I stood a moment 
to look back at the tenantless houses, deserted fane, bare bleak 
banks, and now darkly lowering clouds ; so different from the cheer- 
ful character which I have been told belongs to it in summer, when 
the sick and old who come in quest of health and vigour, bear a 
small proportion to the young and strong who come in search of 
pleasure or beauty, which last the Colinas waters are firmly believed 
to bestow : but though Doiia Mariquita and I applied them to our 
faces, we were not sensible of any change ; and so had no fairy tales 
to tell after our journey. As soon as we quitted the gorge, instead 
of pursuing the road back to the city, we turned to the right ; and 
after a gallop of three leagues arrived at the village of Colinas, 
the first stage from St. Iago to Mendoza, and about halfway between 
the city and the famous field of Chacabuco. 

About half a mile beyond the church of Colinas is the hacienda 
of Don Jorge Godoy, with whose lady and daughter I am well ac- 
quainted. There we were to sleep, and so return home in the morn- 
ing. We found the old gentleman sitting at his door after the fa- 
tigues of the day in his cap and slippers, and poncho. He very rarely 
goes to town, but resides here with his nephew, like a patriarch in 
the midst of his husbandmen. It began to rain heavily, to the credit 
of St. Isidore, as soon as we got into the house ; and we congratu- 
lated ourselves on being sheltered from the storm, and having the 
comfort of a huge brassero of coals, and sheepskins laid under our 



COLINAS. 



229 



feet while we took matee, more refreshing still than tea after a day's 
journey. 

In due time a most plentiful supper appeared, beginning with 
eggs in various forms, followed by stews and ollas of beef, mutton, 
and fowls, and terminated by apples ; to which full justice was done, 
from the egg to the apple, as well as to Don Jorge's wines. 

September 3d. — This morning the sun rose clear and bright, and 
discovered the Andes, and even the nearer hills, completely covered 
with snow which fell last night, while it rained below. Before break- 
fast we were shown the storehouses of the farm. First, the granary, 
now nearly emptied of its wheat : on one part of the spare floor a 
well-dried hide was spread, and on it fresh beef for immediate use, 
according to the fashion of the country, cut in strips about three 
inches wide, the bones being thrown away. There were, besides, 
hanging round thongs of every kind, and lacas, and bands all ready 
for use. Within the granary was a second dispense, hung round with 
tallow candles ; on the floor, there were many hundred arobas of 
tallow in skins, ready for sale ; and, in one corner, I saw a heap of 
skimmings, i. e. the refuse fat after the melting of the suet for tallow. 
This, I find, is what the peons use, instead of butter or oil, to enrich 
their cookery, and it is as necessary to them as ghee to an East 
Indian. In another place, were the yokes and goads for the oxen, 
and the spades for the diggers of water-channels, &c. ; these are of 
very hard wood, with a long handle, the use of iron spades being, as 
yet, confined to the gardens near the city and places near the port, 
where foreigners have made them common. A side-door in the 
storehouse admitted us into a square court ; on one side of which is 
the butchery, where, in the proper season, that is, late in autumn, 
the beasts are slaughtered for hides, tallow, and charqui. At present 
it looks like an unfinished shed ; in the season it is covered with 
green boughs, in order that the animals, and all about them, may be 
kept cool. On one side of the square is a melting-house for the 
tallow. The pots are made of clay upon the estate ; they are two 
inches and a half thick. Next to the melting-house is the shed with 



230 JOURNAL. 

furnaces for boiling the lees, which they put into the wine to hasten 
the fermentation ; and beyond, a still of the simplest kind for making 
brandy. From sixteen to twenty labouring families live on the 
estate, and twice or thrice that number of hired peons are employed 
at different seasons, when there is a press of work. The wages of 
these are high, not from the high price of food, but from the want of 
hands. 

The low population of Chile, notwithstanding the natural fruit- 
fulness of the soil, and a climate favourable to human life, is not 
wonderful. The grants of land to the first Spanish settlers still re- 
main, for the greater part, unrevoked. These are so extensive, that 
between Santiago and Valparaiso three superior lords, or mayorasgos, 
possess the soil. Now the original proprietors, intent only on the 
procuring of the precious metals, the only thing then looked for in 
this country, cultivated no more of the land than was sufficient for 
the supplying their household with necessaries : this cultivation, 
scanty as it was, was performed by encomiendas, or duty-work, done 
by the Indians ; and this was a species of slavery highly unfavourable 
to the advance of population. In the first year of the revolution, 
duty-work and slavery were utterly abolished. Servants are now 
paid, and they are beginning to have houses of their own, with little 
gardens. Yet still much duty-work is done, in fact, by the peons 
and half Indians on every estate, although it may not be strictly 
legal : but what are the poor to do ? They must take their shelter 
and their food from some employer, and the employer will often 
exact from his servant labours beyond the law. Government has it 
now in contemplation to empower mayorasgos to sell small portions 
of their lands, and to grant either long or perpetual leases, by which 
means the soil will fall into the hands of those who have a personal in- 
terest in it, and population will grow with the means of supporting it. 

On our return from the farm-yard we found an excellent breakfast 
awaiting us, and our horses brought in from the clover (lucern) field 
to be saddled while we ate ; and then returned to Santiago, which we 
reached about one o'clock. 



SANTIAGO. . 231 

I spent the evening in my room, where the young ladies came 
occasionally to me ; and Mr. De Roos, Don Jose Antonio, and Don 
Domingo Reyes, spent the evening. Don Domingo is a grave, 
well-informed, kindly person, to whom I am obliged for much of the 
knowledge I have of the country, both historical and physical. His 
father was secretary to Don Ambrose O'Higgins, and to several other 
captains-general ; he was even so to Osorio, in the interval between 
the battle of Rancagua and that of Chacabuco, after which he emi- 
grated. But his conduct had always been so honest and honourable 
that all parties trusted him, and none disliked him. He was there- 
fore recalled, his property restored, and himself employed. The 
character of Don Domingos is one formed by the times : a pre-emi- 
nent point in it is love for the father he has seen so tried. And he 
is pious, — I should say almost to superstition, did I not know what a 
life he has seen ; yet he is quietly cheerful, and actively kind to his 
friends, and possesses a most affectionate disposition. My friend 
Don Antonio has neither the knowledge, nor intelligence, nor cul- 
tivation of Reyes ; but he is good-natured and kind-hearted. He 
takes half a dozen matees when he first rises, smokes segars all day, 
goes to his counting-house I believe regularly, and at night loves to 
dance cuandos, and sing, and play the guitar better elsewhere than at 
home ; all this is not very unnatural, and moreover not inconsistent 
with the character of a Chile beau : to-night he sung and played very 
pleasantly several of the songs with which the young gentlemen of 
Chile serenade their loves ; a custom at least as prevalent here as in 
Italy. After all, the most beautiful thing of the kind in the world is 
Shakspeare's own, " Hark, the lark at heaven's gate sings ;" which 
puts to shame all other minstrelsy to ladies sleeping, or waking in the 
hope of hearing music. 

Thursday, Sejit. 5th. — A large-party, consisting of the whole of the 
Cotapos family, and a number of others, amounting to thirty, includ- 
ing Mr. Prevost, Mr. De Roos, and myself, spent a day in the country. 
The ladies who did not ride went in carretons, small covered vehicles 
of the country, in which they sit on carpets and cushions. The ser- 



232 JOURNAL. 

vants and provisions were in another, thatched at the top exactly like 
a cottage. The whole party was collected in the pateo of the Casa 
Cotapos, and set off by nine o'clock, as gay as youth, health, and a 
resolution to be pleased, could make them. I should say us ; for, at 
least in the resolution to be pleased, I equalled the rest. 

After a short pleasant ride of about five miles to the eastward, we 
reached Nnuhoa, a pleasant village, where the bishop has a seat, and 
where, a chacra having been lent us for the purpose, we spent a most 
agreeable day. The place is exceedingly pretty, being full of gardens 
and orchards, and surrounded by corn-fields ; and the rich back- 
ground of mountains on every side, especially the cold snowy Andes, 
set off the flowery fields of Nnuhoa to the greatest advantage. 

Dona Mariquita and I, with two or three others, among whom was 
Doha Mariquita's father, Don Jose Miguel de Cotapos, a most gen- 
tlemanlike old man, in his poncho of plain Vicunha wool of the 
natural colour, and his broad hat, his silver-mounted bridle, stirrups, 
&c, rode off to a casita about two leagues farther on. — I should 
have described our party. Don Jose Miguel was not the only man in 
a poncho, or rather few went without, though several of the young 
men had tied theirs round their waists, instead of wearing them over 
their shoulders. Most had Chileno saddles, with all manner of car- 
pets and skins upon them. All the ladies had English saddles ; the 
greater number of female riders had coloured spencers, and long white 
skirts with close bonnets and flowers ; two had small opera-hats and 
feathers, and beautiful silk dresses : only my maid and I had sober 
riding-habits. We looked like some gay cavalcade in a fairy tale, 
rather than people going to ride soberly on the earth ; and I was 
sorry that I could not sketch the figures. Here Mariquita in scarlet 
and .white, and a becoming black beaver bonnet; there Rosario with 
a brown spencer, flowing white skirt, straw bonnet, and roses not so 
gay as her cheeks ; then Mercedes Godoy and another Mercedes, 
with feathers gracefully waving in the wind, reining up their managed 
horses, and their silks glittering in the sun : and by their sides the 
merry Erreda with his green frock ; Jose Antonio with his poncho 



SANTIAGO. 233 

of turquois blue, striped with flowers ; and De Roos with his grey 
silk jacket and sunny British countenance. While Reyes and some 
of the graver men attended the carretons, where the elder ladies were 
all dressed in gala habits. Such was the show at Nnufioa, when our 
small party determined to ride on to the Casita de Gana, the most 
elevated dwelling in the neighbourhood. The road to it is very 
beautiful, between fields of corn and olive gardens, and through a 
pretty hamlet ; whence a lane, bordered by willows just coming into 
leaf, leads to the casita. It is a small house, decorated with coloured 
paper and prints, and only calculated for a few days' summer resi- 
dence. It is so high on the slope of the cordillera that the master 
can always command snow to cool his drink ; and he has two unfail- 
ing springs crossing his orchard. The view from hence is very fine : 
several villages and rich corn land are in the fore-ground ; then the 
city, with Sta. Lucia and San Cristoval, and the adjacent hills, which 
in other countries would be mountains ; beyond that the plain, ter- 
minated by the Cuesta de Prado, now capped with snow. 

On our return to the Nnufioa we found our friends busy dancing 
to the quita. They had procured two musicians to hire, and were 
engaged in minuets, and Spanish country-dances, perhaps the most 
graceful in the world. But what most delighted me were the 
cuando and samba, danced and sung with more spirit than the city 
manners allow ; yet still decorous. Dancing can express only two 
passions, — the hatred of war, and love. Even the grave minuet de la 
cour will, by its approaching, retiring, presenting of hands, separating, 
and final meeting, express the latter; how much more the rustic 
dance that gives the quarrel and reconciliation ! This it is which 
makes dancing a fine art. The mere figures of dances where more 
than two are concerned, such as vulgar French or English dances, 
have as little to do with the poetry of dancing as the inventors of 
patterns for printed linens have to do with the poetry of painting. 
My Chilenos feel dancing ; and even when they dance a Scotch reel, 
they contrive to infuse a little of the spirit of the muse into it. 

H H 



234 JOURNAL. 

The dancing was interrupted by dinner, after which a new talent 
was displayed by some of my friends. Dona Mariquita was first 
called on for a toast : she gave one in four couplets of graceful poe- 
try adapted to the occasion and the company, with an ease that 
showed she was accustomed to extempore composition. This was 
followed by several others, some really witty from the gentlemen ; 
and the young people of both sexes who possessed this charming 
talent exercised it when called on, equally without shyness and with- 
out ostentation. 

In the evening I undertook to make tea for the dancers ; after 
which we rode back to the city as gay a cavalcade as ever entered it, 
and the day was ended by a tertulla at the Casa Cotapos. 

5th September. — Visited several persons, English and Chileno. I 
say nothing of the English here, because I do not know them except 
as very civil vulgar people, with one or two exceptions, Mr. B., for 
instance, commonly called Don Diego ; he has lived many years here 
since the revolution, and says he has never met with injustice or un- 
kindness in the country : he knows it better than most persons. 
Mr. C. has gone through much, — has I may say been a party in 
the southern war, lending his money, horses, and ships to the patriot 
cause ; and he, I think, seems to possess the clearest ideas concerning 
the state of Chile of any man I have met with. And there are se- 
veral very good people, some acting the fine gentleman, others 
playing the knave, just as it happens in other places ; only I do wish 
that some more of the better specimens of English were here, for 
the honour of our nation and the benefit of Chile. 

1th. — I went early to the national printing-office, which is creditable 
enough to the little state ; but the types are very scanty. I doubt 
if they could print a quarto of four hundred pages. I bought the 
gazettes from 1818 to the present time; nothing was printed here 
before. I also got some laws, rules, and songs. Under the old 
Spanish government I believe Chile had no press at all, but am not 
quite sure ; nor could I learn. But every thing necessary was printed 



SANTIAGO. 235 

at Lima ; i. e. every thing that the Viceroy, the Archbishop, and the 
Grand Inquisitor chose to promulgate. 

In the afternoon we went to visit the nuns of St. Augustin's. 
Thank God, by the new regulations the convents have all become so 
poor, that there is good hope the number will soon diminish. These 
nuns are old and ugly, with the exception of one, who is young,has sweet 
eyes, and is very pale ; a dangerous beauty for a cavalier : she moved 
my pity. The old ladies gave us matee, the best I have tasted, made 
with milk and Chile cinnamon ; and the cup was set in a tray of 
flowers, so that both taste and smell were gratified. This convent 
is one of the finest in Chile, having seven quadrangles : we saw 
through the parlour into one of them, where, in the centre of a pool, 
there is the ugliest Virgin that man ever cut in stone, intended to 
spout water from her mouth and breast ; but she is now idle, as the 
fountain is under repair ; and the masons, with half a dozen soldiers 
to guard them or the nuns, were busy round the pool. During the 
short time I remained at the grate, I heard more gossip than I have 
done for months, and perceived that the recluses continue to take a 
lively interest in the things of this wicked world. I was not sorry 
when summoned to go to another place ; and having left a golden 
remembrancer with the good ladies, I accompanied Mr. Prevost and 
Mr. de Roos to the public library. There may be about ten or 
twelve thousand volumes lodged for the present in the college ; but 
the convent of San Domingo having offered its library to the state, 
these books are to be transferred thither as soon as rooms are ready, 
and the whole will then be open to the public. The librarian is Don 
Manuel de Salas y Corbalan, a polite and well-informed man, who 
showed me a beautiful Cluverius, and told me he prided himself on 
the collection of voyages, travels, and geography. Law fills up half 
the shelves ; and there is a great proportion of French, but little 
English, and of that little Vancouver's Voyage is best known; because 
as it has slandered Chile, they are all too angry here not to point it 
out to all visitors. I met in the library the deputy Albano, whom I 

H H 2 



236 



JOURNAL. 



had seen as president of the Convention, and with whom I had "an 
hour's pleasant conversation. In passing by the law-shelves he said, 
" Here is the plague of Chile : thirty seven thousand of these ordi- 
" nances are still in force, and there are at least thrice the number 
" of commentaries on them. The Chilenos are extremely litigious ; 
" it is honourable to have a pleyto ; and yet a pleyto often lasts for 
" years, and ruins more families than all the other causes of ruin, 
" except gambling, put together." Albano hopes to effect some 
establishment analogous to that of our justices of the peace, to 
obviate the evil of arbitrary imprisonments, which are frequent here. 
He mentioned with respect a royal decree of 1718, for the guidance 
of the judges of districts in Spanish America, and seemed to wish 
that it might be adopted here as the basis of the civil administration. 

I was so pleased with the President's discourse, that I was quite 
sorry to be reminded that I had already encroached on the com- 
plaisance of the librarian, and that the ladies Godoy expected me to 
take matee. To them I went, however, and met pretty Madame 
Blanco, the wife of the former Rear-admiral of Chile, now San 
Martin's naval commander-in-chief. She is gay and pleasing. 

8^, — I bought my roan horse Fritz : he has white feet, and two 
blue eyes ; is tall and strong, and never carried a woman in his life : 
but I wanted to give my pet Charles some rest, so thought twenty 
dollars not too much ; therefore I gave it at once, mounted Fritz 
without ceremony, and rode to the Director's chacra with Mr. de 
Roos, to pay a forenoon visit. We were not allowed, however, to 
leave it before dinner. We found the ladies sitting in their garden, 
with their little Indian girls playing about them. This place is called 
the Conventilla, and belonged to the Franciscan friars, who long ago 
began building close to it a church to Our Lady, and collected money 
from every passenger for the completion of the chapel ; which, how- 
ever, never made any progress, notwithstanding the large sums that 
were levied in this manner on the public. The Director, therelbre, 
bought all the ground, and bargained with the friars for their church ; 



SANTIAGO. 



237 



so that he has caused that imposition to cease : besides, his purchas- 
ing, building, and planting to the extent he is doing, gives people 
confidence in the stability of the government ; and that confidence 
of itself will contribute to the stability it looks to. This is rather 
a remarkable day in Chile: Rodriguez the bishop, who has lono- 
been an exile on account of his political principles, and his inter- 
ference in state matters, has at length been recalled. A few days 
since he came privately to his lodge at Nnunoa ; and to-day he made 
his first public appearance in the cathedral. Before that ceremony 
he waited on the Director, who congratulated him on his return to 
his diocese, telling him he trusted that he would henceforth remem- 
ber that the advancement of the age and of public opinion demanded 
a more liberal feeling and action in ecclesiastical matters, than was 
the case formerly ; that he trusted to His Lordship's good sense to 
shape his conduct accordingly : but that while he was Director of 
Chile, neither pope nor priest should possess temporal power, or a 
right of exemption from the civil and criminal jurisdiction of the 
country. The bishop then proceeded to take fresh possession of the 
see, with what appetite he might ; and performed a solemn Mass 
himself in the cathedral on the occasion. His restoration has mven 
satisfaction to many of the devout, who have languished for their 
spiritual pastor ; to numerous private connections, by whom the 
bishop is beloved ; and more than all, to the families of persons exiled 
for political crimes, because seeing the greatest of these recalled, they 
may entertain hopes of the restoration of others. * 

Fortunately for us there were no strangers but ourselves ; and the 

* A few days before I came to Santiago, the festival of St. Bernardo, the Director's 
patron, was celebrated. It had been the old Spanish custom for the captains-general of 
the province to grant some boon on their .birth-days or saints'-days ; and this year the 
Director was entreated to mark his feast by the recall of the exiles. He answered, " No :" 
I am but a private citizen, and have no business to distinguish my day ; but if you apply 
to the Convention to mark the 18th of September, the anniversary of your independence, 
by such an act of grace, I will support the request with all the power and all the influence 
I possess." 



238 JOURNAL. 

Director readily led the conversation to the affairs of Chile, and to 
the events of his own life. * Of the recent affairs in Peru (the dis- 
placing Monteagudo, &c.) he expressed himself with regret, consider- 
ing that minister's conduct, and the consequences of it, as a stain on 
the o-ood cause. I wish I had dared to hint, that a conduct as bad, 
though in a different way, in Rodriguez, his own minister, was pro- 
ducing effects at least as vexatious here. 

We walked a good deal about the gardens, and amused ourselves 
for some time with a fine telescope ; through which the Director 
pointed out to me many farms on the plain of Maypu, in the line 
of the canal of irrigation which he has made since he was Director, 
where all was formerly barren, and behind whose thickets robbers 
and murderers concealed themselves, so that the roads were unsafe. 
These ruffians have now disappeared, and peaceful farms occupy the 
ground. From the garden we went in to dinner, where all was plain 
and handsome. English neatness gave the Chileno dishes every thing 
I had ever thought wanting in them. Dona Isabella, Doha Rosa, 
Doha Xaviera the Director's niece a beautiful young woman, and 
one aide-de-camp, besides ourselves, formed the whole party. The 
little Indians had a low table in the corner, where the little daugh- 
ter of the Cacique presided ; and where they were served with as 
much respect as Dona Rosa herself. The entrance of some strangers 
after dinner put an end to all confidential intercourse ; and I then 
walked about the house with Dona Isabella. The ladies' bed-rooms 
are neat and comfortable every way. The Director, when here, 
sleeps on a little portable camp-bed ; and to judge by his room, is 
not very studious of personal accommodation. At sunset we re- 
turned to town, and at the same time His Excellency's family went 
thither also to attend the opera, which Dona Rosa never misses. 
Their equipage is English ; and though plain, handsome. 

* By his permission, I have made use of this conversation in the sketch of the History 
of Chile. 



SANTIAGO. 239 

Monday, September 9th. — This morning, Dona Rosario, Don Jose 
Antonio, Mr. de Roos, and I, attended by my peon Felipe, left the 
city on a little expedition to the hacienda of Don Justo Salinas, a son- 
in-law of my host. The road lies over the plain of Maypu, which is 
perfectly level between the city and the river, a distance of from twenty 
to thirty miles ; and this is the part newly fertilised by the Director's 
canal, which waters the land formerly barren between the Mapocho 
and Maypu. The old Spanish government had at one time the same 
object in view ; but after spending a large sum in preparation for the 
water-courses, nothing was done. The republic has laid out 25,000 
dollars on the main canal ; and by selling the land at a nominal valu- 
ation, a small annual quitrent only being payable, but requiring 500 
dollars for the water sufficient for a large farm, has repaid itself, or 
rather I should say, has raised a large sum, — near 200,000 dollars, I 
am told. The proprietor of each farm is bound to face his part of 
the canal with stone, and to maintain the water-course. The crops 
are looking very fine all along the plain ; the soil seems to me to be 
a light vegetable mould mixed with sand, and full of pebbles, as if it 
had been long under water : these pebbles are larger and more irre- 
gular on the plain than in the beds of the Mapocho or Maypu, ex- 
cepting where the latter, in the very midst of its channel, has lodged 
or uncovered rocks of considerable size. Midway between the city 
and the river, one of the little ranges of hills which cross the plain 
at right angles with the Andes, and seem to connect the inferior 
ridges of the Prado and others with the grand cordillera, runs across 
the road, sinking completely into the plain before it reaches the 
mountain. The pass between the last little cone of this range and 
the main part is called the Portesuelo of St. Austin de Fango ; and 
just at its entrance there are a few cottages, surrounded by some little 
orchards watered by an old cut from the Maypu, the sight of which 
was quite refreshing after a fifteen miles' ride without a variety. 
Fifteen miles more, very nearly as monotonous, brought us to the ford 
of the rapid and turbid Maypu. This river flows out of the Andes, 



240 JOURNAL. 

where there is a pass called the Portillo, little practised, because the 
sides are so steep as to afford no escape from the avalanches that con- 
tinually roll down from above. It is, however, shorter than that by 
the Cumbre, and is often passable when the latter is not. I am told 
that the scenery in that deep valley, where the rapid flood breaks its 
way over a rugged bed, and makes frequent falls, is truly sublime ; and 
were the season favourable, I should be tempted to go half a day's 
journey into it. The passage of the Maypu is exceedingly dangerous 
during the floods, and must be at times impassable, if I may judge by 
the depth of the banks on either side, which cannot be much less than 
forty feet ; and the space between them must be nearly a quarter of a 
mile. Within this great bed the river now divides itself into several 
channels, which are all easily forded, the main branch indeed being 
deep and rapid : over this there is a bridge of the ancient Indian 
construction, which is used when the river is not fordable. It con- 
sists of upright poles, fixed at both sides of the stream ; and across 
these thongs of hide are stretched, and these again interlaced with 
others, so as to make a swinging bridge, suspended now as it seems 
in mid air. This simple bridge is removed during the great floods, 
and replaced as soon as the ordinary passage is opened. On the 
north side of the river there is not a tree, and the eye ranges over 
an immense space without a rising ground of any kind ; on the south 
side the country is richer, and more cultivated, particularly at 
Viluco ; near which is the village and the chapel of Maypu, the parish 
church of an immense district. Viluca is an estate belonging to the 
Marques la Rayna, one of the richest men in Chile : it is worth about 
25,000 dollars a year, and is in a high state of cultivation ; a wall two 
full leagues in length separates it from the road, and I was really 
weary of it. The walls for enclosures here are formed of clay beaten 
hard into wooden frames fixed on the spot, and removed when filled 
to the end of the former piece, and filled again ; so that when it is 
done, the wall looks as if of giant bricks. At length we came to a 
piece of bad muddy road on the banks of the little river Paine, which 



ANGOSTURA DE PAINE. 241 

runs rapidly from a projecting branch of the cordillera, which ad- 
vances here so as almost to meet the Cerro de Penigue, and forms the 
narrow pass, or Angostura de Paine, commonly called here 1' Angostura, 
through which the road leads to Rancagua. From Paine, where there 
is a post-house, the road is bordered on each side with magnificent 
trees, chiefly may ten es ; and country-houses and rich plantations take 
place of the wide and wild plain we had passed. One of the finest 
estates belongs to the hospital of San Juan de Deos, and is rented by 
one of the Valdezes ; and there we turned off the main road to 
follow the course of a beautiful river which flows out of the pass, 
and is therefore commonly called the Rio de l'Angostura. We 
passed some haciendas of Erreda's and Solar's, and then arrived at 
that of Salinas, where we were most kindly received by both master 
and mistress : she is the eldest daughter of my host and hostess, the 
widow of the unfortunate Juan Jose Carrera, who I trust has found 
in her second marriage some compensation for the sufferings endured 
during the first. She has one of the most beautiful faces I ever 
beheld : an eye both to entreat and to command ; and a mouth 
which neither painter or sculptor, in his imagined Hebes or Graces, 
could equal. Her age is now only twenty-five; her countenance 
would say seventeen ; and as I stood a moment entranced by her 
beauty, and remembered her story, I doubted whether I had not 
suddenly dreamed of things that romances only had hitherto brought 
me familiar with. Don Justo is a fine well-looking young man, two 
years younger than his wife. They were not a little delighted to 
see their brother and sister ; but their welcome was almost as kind 
to Mr. de Roos and me. 

The evening was excessively cold, a brisk wind from the mountain 
having set in ; and we all crowded round the brassero, which was 
placed in the corner of a very pretty drawing-room, till supper was 
served, about nine o'clock ; and we were complimented on having 
ridden well, as the distance from the city is upwards of fourteen 
leagues, which we had done in nine hours with the same horses, 



242 JOURNAL. 

including two hours' rest, which we had given our steeds, and some 
time wasted in mending my stirrup, which broke on the road. 

10th. — Breakfast in Chile is usually at a latish hour, and con- 
sists sometimes of soup, or meat and wine ; but every body takes 
matee or chocolate at their bed side. Dona Ana Maria, aware how 
different our customs are, sent tea, bread and butter, and eggs, to my 
room, for Mr. de Roos and me. I ought to describe the house. The 
outer door opens into the principal bed-room, which is the common 
sitting-room. On one side is a dressing-closet, and the nursery 
for the two little boys ; on the other, the drawing-room ; and beyond 
that the dining-room, a light cheerful apartment. A veranda runs 
along the front ; and from it other apartments enter, such as Salinas' 
own room, and bed-rooms for guests. Dona Rosario and I occupied 
one, and Don Jose Antonio and Mr. de Roos another. But the 
privacy of bed-rooms is not respected in Chile as in England ; so I 
find an additional advantage in my habit of rising early, as it anti- 
cipates intrusion. Great part of the day is passed in the veranda ; 
and I do not wonder at it, the air is so pleasant and the view so fine. 
In the course of the day I saw almost the whole farm ; and first I 
went into the vineyards. The principal one is two quadras, about 
the sixth of a mile, square : the vines are supported on stakes, and 
are pruned down to five feet in height. The soil between the rows 
is not annually loosened, as in Italy, but only once in twenty or 
thirty years the roots are laid open and trimmed. From the vine- 
yard we proceeded to the orchard, where there are walnuts, peaches, 
plums, apricots, pears, and cherries, only beginning to blossom ; be- 
cause, besides that we are now nearly a degree farther to the south, 
we are nearer the mountain here, and more exposed to the chilly 
winds. From the orchard we went to look at the cows, which are 
very fine ; the calves are beautiful. But the dairy is very ill managed 
here : with sixteen fine milch cows they do not make twelve pounds 
of butter a week ; nay, sometimes not above half that quantity ; 
and the quantity of cheese is inconsiderable, though both the butter 



ANGOSTURA DE PAINE. 



243 



and cheese are exceedingly good. The sheep are very fine ; their 
fleeces are good, and the wool is of a very long staple, and each 
fleece fetches at least three reals. The shearing time is October. 
I also saw a sheep from the Pehuenches with five horns, no two of 
which seemed to form a pair. Hanging up before the door, there 
was a young stuffed jaguar, commonly called the Chile lion, an inha- 
bitant of the hills here, and very destructive among the sheep and 
the young cattle ; but I believe it never meddles with man. Don 
Justo gave me the paw of a large one, which measures six inches 
across, and must have belonged to a very formidable brute. The 
cellars are fitted up with earthen jars sunk into the ground, in the 
same manner as the Jesuits tell us the Indians of the interior prac- 
tised with their chicha jars. Into the smooth clay floor the jars are 
sunk nearly to the middle. Each cellar contained about sixty jars, 
every one holding twenty-five arobas : they are made of clay from 
the neighbouring hills, and four reals for each aroba they contain 
is the price. When the must is to be converted into wine, one aroba 
of boiling grape-juice is poured into every four arobas of must, to 
hasten the fermentation ; the delicacy of making wine consisting in 
never allowing the juice actually to boil, but to stop it just on the 
point, lest it should communicate an empyreumatic taste to the wine. 
The jars are luted up for a season to ripen the liquor; which, 
when ready, is put into skins, for the merchant. I tasted several 
sorts of wine and must to-day, most of them very good; and the 
brandies exceedingly pleasant, though the stills are rudely con- 
structed. In the fields here wheat yields an hundred-fold ; barley 
seventy-fold. The ground is used one year for corn, and two for 
grazing ; lucern being the artificial grass sown. However, some 
natural kinds of fodder grow spontaneously after the corn. The 
most pleasant to the cattle, of these, is the alfilerilla, so called from 
the shape of its seed : it is the musk geraneum, indigenous in Eng- 
land, as well as here ; and is said to communicate a pleasant flavour 
to the flesh of the animals who feed on it at certain seasons. Ano- 
ther favourite plant of the cattle is the cardoon, or large eatable 

ii 2 



244 JOURNAL. 

thistle ; and it is in season at the end of the dry weather, when it 
is doubly valuable. Llike the thistle heads so well myself, either as 
salad or stewed, that I am not surprised at the complaints I have 
heard that the cattle break down hedges to seek them. In the country 
here, the flies that surround the cow-litter are caught and preserved 
for their fragrance. 

Ip the evening, a certain Don Lucas, who happened to be on a 
visit at Don Justo's, played the guitar, and sung several Guaso songs, 
and danced several dances of the country, especially one called the 
Campana, which I had never seen, with spirit and glee. Folding the 
edges of his poncho over his shoulders, he seized his guitar ; then 
leading out one of the ladies, he danced, ogled, played, and sung all 
at once, in most grotesque style. The campana, indeed, is a pas 
seul, and the words of the song about as significant as " Hey diddle 
diddle, the cat and the fiddle." However they served to excuse the 
grimaces of Don Lucas, whose face is as grotesque as Grimaldi's, to 
which it bears some resemblance. 

The words of " La Campana' are as follow: 

" Al mar mi avojasa por una rosa, 
Pero le temo al agua die e peligrosa, 
Repiquen las campanas con el esquilon, 
Che si no hai barajo con el corazon, 
Pescado salado desecho ya un lado, 
Repiquen las campanas de la catedral. 
Por ver se te veo hermosa deidad, 
Un clavel que me distes por la ventana, 
En una jara de oro lo tengo in agua, 
Repiquen las campanas de la catedral." 

I believe this song, like Yankee Doodle, is capable of being length- 
ened ad infinitum by the singer. 

After the dancing was over Don Lucas seated himself in the corner 
of the room on a low ottoman, and once more tuned his guitar to 
accompany his voice in some ballads and tristes, which owed more 
to the words and manner than to the voice ; one of them, though 
abounding with conceits, struck me as being very pretty : — 



ANGOSTURA DE PAINE. 245 

" Triste. 

" Llorad corazon llorad, . . 

Llorad si tienes porque, 
Que no es delito in un hombre, 
Llorar por una Muger. 

" Llora este cielo sereno, 
Marchitando sus colores, 
La tierra Llora en vapores, 
L'agua que abriga en su seno, 
Llora el aroyo, mas lleno, 
Se espera esterilidad, 

Y las flores con lealdad, 
Le lloren de varios modos, 
Pues Ahora que lloren todos. 

Llorad corazon llorad." 

" Llora el prado a quien destine, 
El cielo una esteril suerte, 
El arbol mas duro vierte, 
Sus lagrimas en racine. 
Llora pues se se examina, 
Todo insensible que ve, 
Una mal pagada fe, 

Y si lo insensible llora, 
Llorad corazon ahora. 

Llorad que tienes porque. 

" Llora l'ave su huerfandad, 
Mirando a su dueno ausente, 
El jirguerillo inocente, 
Llora su cautividad. 
El pesco llora limpidad, 
D'el que le prende, y el hombre, 
Llore porque, mas tu asombres, 
Pues en estremo tan raro, 
No es culpo en ellos es claro. 

Que no es delito in un hombre. 

" Llora el bruto y no es dudable, 
Que llora pues es pasible, 
Quando sente lo insensible, 

Y llora aun lo vegetable, 
Llora todo lo animable, 
Porque puede padecer, 

Y se el hombre ha de tener, 
Sentido mas exquisito, 
Como sera en el delito. 

Llorar por una Muger." 



246 JOURNAL. 

Don Justo has the best memory for verses of any person I know, 
and repeated more songs than I can remember, or than Don Lucas 
could sing. It is one of the necessary accomplishments of a young 
Chileno cavalier ; so he who cannot sing his song in their country 
parties may at least tell his story. 

Not very long ago Don Justo was dangerously ill at his father-in- 
law's house at Santiago ; and of course there were vows made for him 
by all the family, and especially his sisters-in-law, with whom he is a 
great favourite. On the day he was pronounced out of danger, Jose 
Antonio and the girls all assembled under his window, and the guitar 
being tuned to an air of Mariquita's composition, she first sang her 
congratulations, and then followed each of her sisters with a verse, 
and a chorus of the four in the name of the rest of the household, all 
of Mariquita's composition. Their tenderness overcame the sick 
man, and he burst into tears ; when Jose Antonio with readiness 
quickened the measure, and parodied the lines in his own person so 
gracefully that the tears dried, and from that time Salinas began to 
recover rapidly. The fashion and talent of occasional versifica- 
tion of course the Spaniards brought with them from Old Spain. 
Who does not remember the beautiful stanza sung in praise of Pre- 
ciosa by Clement and Andrew, in Cervante's beautiful tale of La 
Gitanilla ? We were all astonished at the lateness of the hour when 
we separated ; but verse and song, and Ana Maria's beautiful coun- 
tenance and sweet voice, were excuse enough, if excuse we needed. 

llth of September. — Descriptions are very often totally untrue ; 
whence is this ? One should think nothing could be so simple as to 
describe that which we have seen with attention. However not one 
person in a hundred succeeds in giving to another a true idea of what 
he has seen. I had a proof of this to-day. We went to see the lake 
of Aculeo : I had heard it described as round, and deep in hills, 
and still as Nemi ; and, to increase the wonder, that it was salt 
as the sea. None of all this is true : it is irregular and winding, 
with sunny islands in it ; some steep mountains overhang it, but the 
margin oftener slopes gently, and affords pasturage to numerous 




< 



S3 

4 



LAKE OF ACULEO. 



247 



cattle, and its little valley opens to the eastward, on which side it 
sends forth its stream to swell the river of the Angostura. The road 
from Don Justo's to Aculeo is beautiful, through woods and fertile 
plains, surrounded by mountains watered by numerous streams, and 
enlivened by several good country-houses ; round each of which a 
village of peons is generally collected, like the large English farm 
homesteads. 

The scenery of the lake reminded me of that around the Laso 
Maggiore ; the snowy Andes, rich banks, and bright islands, even 
the very climate, seemed those of Northern Italy. We stopped a 
moment at a small house on the side of the lake where there is 
usually a boat to be had, but she was under repair. The estate be- 
longs to one of the La Raynas, and the fish from the lake forms a 
considerable portion of the income from it. 

Dona Ana Maria, Doha Rosaria, and Jose Antonio, chose to re- 
main at the cottage. Mr. de Roos and myself, attended by the two 
peons, rode two leagues farther up the right bank of the lake, having 
first tasted the water, which we found to be perfectly sweet and fresh. 
I had never seen such forest scenery out of Europe as we passed 
through on our ride ; and then there was the peculiar fragrance of 
the Chile woods, sometimes from the boughs of the aroma, now in 
blossom, sometimes from the crushed leaves over which we trod. 
But this lovely scene is quite solitary ; one small fishing house, on an 
island, alone tells that man has any part in it. But the eagle soars 
over it, and the swan, and all the meaner tribe of aquatic fowls, brood 
on it. Consideration for our horses induced us to return, after 
making one sketch, to our friends at the cottage, where we found 
dinner awaiting us ; and then every body went to sleep, — even I did 
so for a few minutes. On the estrada lay the ladies ; the gentlemen, 
on the saddlecloths and ponchos,- slept the hot hour under the shadow 
of a tree ; and the owners of the cottage each in her separate bed : one 
of these is a woman of about fifty-five, who is the best horse-breaker 
in the country, and many an untractable colt is brought to her to 
tame. At three o'clock every body was roused to take matee, and 



248 



JOURNAL. 



about four o'clock we rode homewards, the distance being four long 
leagues. The tints on the mountains were beautiful to-night, — from 
almost black purple to the purest rose-colour ; and there were some 
sudden and deep sounds from the eastward, that might have been the 
falls of avalanches, or the voice of some of the half-extinguished 
volcanoes in the neighbourhood. 

Don Justo met us about a mile and a half from the house, and on 
our arrival at the door we found two strange cavaliers. One was 

E , whose gay cheerful spirit makes him welcome every where. He 

introduced to us a man, dressed in the coarsest decent dress of the 
country, by the title of Juan de Bonaventura ; a farmer on his own 
estate, and a good man, though unfortunately a tonto, i. e. a half-witted 
clown. When we entered the house, and I saw the tonto by the full 
light, I thought that nature does indeed sometimes play the huswife, 
in bestowing such a form and such features on one without a mind. 
However, we assembled and took tea, after having changed our riding 
dresses ; and Mr. de Roos, Dona Rosario, and Don Lucas, formed 
one group on the ottoman in the corner, where Don Lucas's guitar 
and songs made them very merry. Don Jose Antonio and Don Justo 
were not with us, Don Justo not being well. Doha Ana Maria and I, 
therefore, sat at the table, where she had her work and I my drawing, 

with E and the tonto. We talked of all manner of things, and 

now and then, from civility, I appealed to the handsome fool, whose 
answers were more like Shakspeare's Touchstone than those of any 
fool I have met : and still I wondered at such a gracious outside, 
where " every god had seemed to set his seal," coupled with so weak 
a mind. It made me quite melancholy, and I was glad to go to supper ; 
where Don Lucas's buffooneries furnished a natural laugh, while 
those forced by the tonto are melancholy ; and I went to bed actually 
sad. 

lltJi. — On rising to-day, I found that Don Lucas had set off, in 
the fog and rain, for the city, without taking leave of us ; so adieu to 
our dancing. I employed the morning in writing up my journal, 
going into the dairy, and making enquiries concerning the tonto, 



ANGOSTURA DE PAINE. 249 

about whom I could receive no satisfaction. At twelve o'clock the 
mist cleared away ; and in the afternoon Don Justo, Dona Ana Maria, 
Rosario, Mr. de Roos, and I, rode to a hill in the neighbourhood 10 see 
a lovely view over the plain of Maypu, and to take our matee and 
chat till sunset. I may repeat, a thousand times over, 'tis the loveliest 
day I have seen ; for, in the fresh untouched scenes of nature, each 
succeeding one is lovelier than the last. The star-like flower beneath 
my feet, the magnificent purple shrub that bent over the cliff hun- 
dreds of feet above the nearest resting-place, and where Salinas clung 
like a wild roe as he grasped the splendid plant; the pinnacle on 
which the skins were spread, where Ana Maria and Rosario, — two 
creatures more lovely than the flowers about them, — reclined while 
the matee was brought in silver cups ; — all, all were beautiful ; and we 
talked till many a story of living people was told, that romancers 
would be glad to possess. Dona Ana Maria's first husband was, as I 
knew long before, Juan Jose Carrera. * After his death, her brother 
Jose Antonio crossed the Andes to Mendoza, and brought her home 
to her family, where she lived for a time in utter seclusion. 
At nineteen years she had seen her husband at the head of the 
government of his country, or, at least, only second to his brother ; 
she had twice followed him across the Andes as a fugitive ; she had 
shared his prison ; she had begged for him ; she had seen him expire, 
locked in his youngest brother's arms, on the scaffold ; — what wonder 
that she was dear to the surviving Carrera ! What wonder that he 
wrote to her in that confidential cipher which had nearly cost her her 
life ! Some of his letters were intercepted ; and she was imprisoned 
in the convent of the Augustine nuns in Santiago. But I will write 
down this part of her history, as nearly as I can, in the words of her 
mother, addressed to me some days ago : — " On Ana Maria's return 
" from Mendoza we found her health so impaired by her sufferings, 
" that we hurried her into the country, whither poor Miguel and I 
" accompanied her. I was speedily recalled to town on Mariquita's 

* See Introduction, p. 24. ; and Mr. Yates's paper in the Appendix. 

K K 



250 JOURNAL. 

" account, who had a very dangerous fever. On the very day of the 
" crisis of her illness, an officer from the senate arrived, demanding 
" our eldest daughter. My husband went to the Director, represent- 
" ing the wretched state of the family, and especially the delicate 
" state of my Ana Maria. But he was told that it was an affair of 
" state, and she must appear ; so I left Mariquita with her sisters, 
" and set off with the officer to fetch my daughter. 

K We brought her to town ; she was taken before the senate, and 
" there the letter written by Jose Miguel was shown her *, and she 
" was desired to read it. She answered, that she did not know the 
" cipher, and therefore could not. One of the court reminded her, 
" that she had often used a cipher in her letters to her husband while 
" he was imprisoned at Mendoza. She who, till then, had not heard 
" her husband's name without convulsions, now seemed inspired with 
" courage from above. ' Yes,' she said, ' we did occasionally write a 
" line in cipher. Could we expose our intimate concerns to the 
" strangers who, we knew, read our letters ere they reached us ? Or 
" could we bear the coarse laugh of the guard-room, where they were 
" read, at the effusions of our tenderness ? But when ye took from 
" me the letters and papers of my martyred husband, ye took from 
" me also the key of that cipher, and I know no other.' One of the 
" senators, looking sternly at the beautiful girl, said, — ' Does Dona 
" Ana Maria choose to have the words martyred husband inserted into 
" the minutes of her examination ?' She answered, ' I have said, and 
" I do say, martyred husband.'' The examiners then told her, that 
" unless she read the letters in question to the council there assembled, 
" she should be shut up in a convent. Her reply still was — ' I cannot, 
" I know not the cipher. And if the letter were addressed to me, of 
" which you have no proof, does another person's act in addressing 
" me make me a criminal ? There are, alas ! other women, and other 
" widows of my name and family, to whom it might well have been 

* This letter was really written to her, and treated not of schemes and purposes, so 
much as hopes, for the subversion of the actual government. It was highly imprudent — 
perhaps worse. 







s 



9 



ANGOSTURA DE PAINE. 251 

" directed. Besides, if it be criminal to correspond, have you proof 
" that I have written, or replied to, or any way acknowledged, the 
" letters of Don Jose Miguel ? Or is it wonderful, that in the 
" desolation of his house, he should write to and condole with his 
" martyred brother's wife ?' She was that day questioned no farther, 
" but sent to the Augustine nuns, whence she was twice led to be re- 
" examined ; but she never varied her answers. After this, her health 
" becoming daily more delicate, her mother and youngest sister were 
" allowed to attend her in the convent, which they did for five 
" months." — After which the Director himself caused her to be 
liberated, I believe at the instance of Mr. Prevost. Some persons 
consider her as really implicated in a state intrigue. Her family 
look on her as a suffering angel. 

While she was confined in the convent, she became intimate with 
a most interesting young person, whose misfortunes, of a different cast 
from her own, had induced her to retire thither for life. Her husband 
had been won over from the patriot to the royal cause, at an age 
when principles can rarely be fixed ; — he had been faithful to it. 
He was taken in battle, and imprisoned rather as a deserter than an 
honourable enemy. She, being at that time at Talcahuana, and near 
her first lying-in, resolved to join her husband ; and so set out with 
one faithful female servant, on foot, and with so little money, as to be 
dependant for the greater part of the road, 500 miles, upon the 
hospitality of her countrymen ; to whom her name, indeed, was not 
indifferent. She reached Santiago; — a relation received her kindly. 
She bore her infant, sending daily to the prison to know how her 
husband was, and had always an answer of comfort. One morning 
she heard a volley, and then another, of small arms — she was seized 
with a shivering : she enquired after her husband ; she was told, 
" He is out of prison, and will' never be molested more." She askeci 
no farther, but rose from her bed as soon as she was able, and retired 
to the Augustines. She was right, — he was shot that morning : his 
child had died. In her solitude she was sometimes visited by her 
friends, and her brother Justo Salinas was among the number. 

k k 2 



252 JOURNAL. 

Sometimes he saw with her Ana Maria, the widow of Carrera. The 
young naturally feel for the young. He heard her story, — as who in 
Chile did not? — and told it to his mother, an aged lady, who lived in 
the country, at the house we are now staying at. 

When Dona Ana Maria was released from her honourable prison in 
the Augustines, she found her brother Don Miguel labouring under 
a severe infirmity ; and as she was banished from Santiago, and 
ordered to live at the country-house she had inherited from her 
husband, she proposed that he should accompany her thither for the 
benefit of bathing in running water ; which, I observe, is considered 
here as a specific for many complaints. AnaMaria's tender attention 
to this brother attracted the observation of her neighbours, more espe- 
cially of the lady of Salinas, who insisted on her removing to her house, 
where the waters were purer and the stream stronger. She accord- 
ingly accompanied Don Miguel to Salinas. Don Justo arrived some 
time after : — need I say she was invited to make Salinas hers ? I am 
not sure that all this was talked or told to-night ; but this discourse 
made out some parts of a story which I longed to know more com- 
pletely, and which, even now, wants some links of the chain. 

The sun at last summoned us to leave our mountain station ; and 
we descended by a winding rocky path and through a wood, where 
the branches often threatened to impede our progress. On such oc- 
casions Salinas, who, like every Chileno, travels with his forest knife, 
drew it, and quickly cut the overhanging boughs ; and we reached 

home just as E with his tonto again made his appearance at 

the door. The parties in the evening were much as last night ; E 

and Jose Antonio occasionally taking Don Lucas's place, with Dona 
Rosario, and Mr. de Roos. There was something in the tonto's 
appearance to-night that led me to notice him more particularly than 
before ; and I purposely led the conversation to points connected 
with farming, with the state of the roads in the country, and the 
practicability of going to Conception alone in a few weeks ; and at 
length the answers became more and more rational, till I was half 
convinced that the tonto was an assumed character : when E came 



ANGOSTURA DE PAINE. 253 

up, and said something aloud, calling him by name, and the answer 

was so completely that of an idiot, that I turned to E to avoid 

more discourse with the unhappy creature. I spoke of Santiago and 
the Director, which I have not done here on account of Doha Ana 
Maria ; and of the 18th of September, the approaching anniversary 
of the independence of the country ; and asking him if he, as captain 
of militia, would not be on parade with the lancers, again I saw the 
tonto's eyes fixed on me, with an intelligence and an expression that 
interested me anew, and I thought that perhaps his state of mind 
was owing to some misfortune sprung out of the civil war ; so I talked 
on, and mentioned more especially the Director's promise of backing 
any request to be made to the Assembly for a general amnesty for 
all persons held criminal for political opinions, and recal to all exiles. 
There was something in the faces of all that induced me to repeat 
this distinctly again ; and then I went on with the drawing I was 

about, and E went away : I then heard the tonto speak about 

me in a whisper to Doha Ana Maria, who answered him in the same 
tone, and then she spoke to me ; and the conversation led me to say 
to the tonto, " And why should not you, who live in the country and 
have your farm, be happy as any of us ?" He answered quickly ; and 
this time his voice and language corresponded with the dignity of 
his figure and his fine features — "/happy with farms, and peons, and 
cattle ! — No ! for years I was wretched, and the first moment of 
happiness I owe to you."- — "Indeed !" said I. " Then you are not what 
you seem ?" — He started up and stretched himself to his full height, 
and his eye flashed fire. — "No, — 1 will no longer play this fool's 
part ; it is unworthy the son of Xabiera, the nephew of Jose Miguel 
Carrera. I am that unhappy exile Lastra, reduced to fly from desert 
to desert, to hide me in caves, and to feed with the fowls of the air, 
till my limbs are palsied and my youth is wasted ; and my crime has 
been to love Chile too well. Oh, my country ! what would I not suffer 
for thee !" I had been immoveable during this burst of feeling : but 
now I rose astonished, as I believe all present were ; not indeed at 
the disclosure, — for only de Roos besides myself had any thing to 



254 JOURNAL. 

learn, — but at Lastra's making it. However, I went up to him and 
gave him my hand, and desired he would come to see me in San- 
tiago, like himself, after the 18th. This restored us to our ordinary 
state of cheerfulness, and the rest of the evening was occupied in 
giving and receiving details concerning the wanderer's life. He had 
been taken in arms for Carrera, and imprisoned — and the prison in 
Chile is cruel. He had escaped, and was consequently outlawed. For 
years he has lived in the desert ; now and then entering the town in 
the disguise of a common peon, to hear of his friends, or to obtain 
some assistance from them ; sometimes living in villages where he 
was unknown ; and then hastily escaping those who had discovered 
his retreat, and sought to betray him ; and occasionally, as now, 
venturing from hiding-places in the woods at nightfall to sup with 
his friends, but retiring without sleeping. At one time he had been 
so long exposed to the damp in the rainy season, that he was laid up 
with rheumatism for two months in a cave ; and had it not been for 
the fidelity of a little boy who brought him food daily, he must have 
perished : and this was the exile's life. And thus years have passed 
of the life of one of the best educated, most accomplished young 
men in Chile ! When we separated for the night, I felt sorry that 
we were to leave the hacienda of Salinas in the morning, without 
at this time knowing more of the tonto. * 

September 11th. — We left the hacienda of Salinas in a thick drizz- 
ling fog to ride to Melipilla, one of the chief towns of Chile, about 
twenty leagues from 1' Angostura de Paine. We crossed the river at a 
beautiful spot, where the branch from the pass receives another equal 
in depth and clearness, and which I imagine to be the Paine itself. 
They meet in a little grassy plain, where there are some very fine 
timber trees scattered irregularly, and bounded to the north by the 
fences of, the magnificent corn-fields of Viluco. The fog shut out all 
the mountains, and whatever is peculiar in the landscape of Chile ; 



• Before I left Chile, I had the pleasure of shaking hands with him, — restored to his 
family and friends. 



viluca. 255 

so that the scene reminded me of some of those quiet rich views we 
have in the heart of England, — a few sheep grazing on the green 
banks, and cattle spotted like our Lancashire cows, added to the like- 
ness. Coming suddenly to such a place gives one a feeling not 
unlike that of the sailors who found the broken spoon, marked 
" London," in Kamschatka : I could scarcely persuade myself that I 
had not been often and familiarly at the place before. 

Four leagues from the farm of Salinas lies the house of Viluca, 
which is one of the most remarkable in the country : it belongs to 
the Marques la Rayna, and is a princely establishment, kept in ex- 
cellent order. The chaplain presides in the house, and there is 
always an establishment of servants ; so that travellers are always 
welcomed, whether the master be there or not. There are a certain 
number of rooms appointed for their accommodation, and a table is 
kept for them ; so that, known or unknown, the stranger is at home at 
Viluca. The house is good and substantial, and well furnished, though 
plainly for the country : the garden is a jewel in its kind ; the walks 
and alleys are paved in mosaic ; the parterres laid out in every fan- 
tastic shape, and each has its little run of water round it ; the centre 
of each has also its pyramid, or urn, or basket, nicely clipped, of rose- 
mary just in blossom ; and all around wall-flowers, pinks, ranunculuses, 
and anemones : over-head, the orange, lime, lemon, and pomegranate, 
form a shade ; and along by the house, birds of all kinds have their 
appropriate cages, with living plants within. This garden opens to 
a wide alley of trellis-work, over which vines are led as a shade ; and 
on either hand are orchards of fruit trees and vineyards. From the 
gardens we went to see the granaries, the slaughter-houses, and the 
drying lofts for hides and charqui ; which are all upon a grander scale, 
and more carefully kept, than any thing I have seen as yet. The 
cattle on this estate is computed at 9000 head ; last year 2000 were 
killed, and the hides sold in one lot to an English merchant at twenty- 
two reals a piece. Some complaint is made that, since the beginning 
of the civil war, the number of cattle in Chile is greatly decreased, 
and the blame is laid on the war. The evil, so far as it is an evil, 



256 JOURNAL. 

may perhaps be justly charged on the war ; but the waste in the 
management of the dairy and butchery is still such, that I think the 
number might bear a much further diminution without producing 
any distress, — nay, that the country would be benefited by it. In 
Padre Ovalle's time, nothing but the tongues and ribs of their oxen 
were used ; the rest was thrown into the sea on the coasts, or on the 
bone-heap in-land for the vultures. Even now the heads in some 
places, in all the bones, when the main part of the flesh is cut off, 
are thrown out, excepting where there are foreigners to make soup ; 
the hearts and livers are also thrown away ; so that nearly a quarter of 
the food which an ox would furnish in Europe is lost here, not to 
mention that the horns, hoofs, and bones are utterly wasted. But the 
war is not the only cause of the diminution of the number of the 
cattle; — a great deal more land is now brought into cultivation 
for corn ; the people eat more bread ; they have a large demand 
for the provisioning the foreign ships and fleets in the Pacific, and 
they export more grain ; consequently more land is enclosed, and 
those who formerly derived their whole income from cattle have 
discovered that it is more profitable to grow a certain proportion 
of corn. 

We had scarcely left Viluca when the day began to clear. I never 
beheld any thing finer than the gradual opening of the clouds, now 
rollino- far below the summits of the mountains and seeming to fill 
up their valleys, and now curling over their tops and dispersing in 
the air. At a short distance from the house of Viluca we came to a 
ford of the Maypu, much more difficult than that we passed before. 
The gravelly bed of the river here spreads at the foot of a mountain 
nearly a mile, but the stream itself occupies but a small portion. 
We crossed six great branches ; four of which took the horses to the 
girths, and one was so rapid that some of the animals were fright- 
ened, and began to give way ; but the example of the rest encouraged 
them, and we crossed happily. Above and below the ford, where 
the stream is all in one, it is impossible to attempt crossing : a guide 
is quite necessary in travelling in Chile on account of the rivers. 



ROAD TO MELIPILLA. 257 

which are very rapid, and whose fords are perpetually changing. 
About five leagues beyond the ford, we came to the beautiful village 
of Longuien, where the road lies between a mountain and two little 
knolls that project from it : the place is very populous, and seems 
thriving. The hills on both sides abound with projecting rocks, 
whose heads form platforms, each occupied by its cottage and garden ; 
all the fences and ditches are in excellent order, and we even found 
well-hung gates. Through one of these we passed, and ascended the 
highest of the two knolls above mentioned, on the very summit of 
which is the house of Tagle, the first president of the convention : 
it is a mere country lodge, with some pretensions to taste ; but it is 
chiefly delightful for its view, extending all over the rich valley 
through which the Maypu flows. On one hand lies the high ridge 
of the mountains of St. Michael ; on the other, that of which Cho- 
colan — stupendous, if the Andes were not in sight — is the highest 
peak. There is little corn in this part of the country, but that little 
is fine ; and the vines and olives are few. The chief produce between 
this place and Melipilla being butter, cheese, hides, tallow, and 
charqui ; the banks of the Maypu are entirely occupied by pasture 
lands. We sat nearly an hour at Longuien to rest our horses, and 
to eat a luncheon we had brought with us. While we were thus 
occupied, we saw in the fields below the whole business of the rodeo 
going on in a corral just beneath the house ; the separating and 
marking the cattle, and taking up the calves from the mothers. 

From Longuien to the town of San Francisco de Monte the road 
lies through a thicket of the espina or yellow scented mimosa, which 
affords not only the best fuel in the country, but shelter for the cattle, 
without injuring the quality of the grass beneath. Near San Fran- 
cisco we crossed the Mapocho, after its re-appearance from the hills 
of St. Michael's, on its way to join the Maypu ; it really is a beauti- 
ful stream, and I do not wonder at the favour with which it is 
regarded on account of the sweetness, clearness, and lightness of its 
waters. A number of asequias or leads are taken from it here for 

L L 



258 JOURNAL. 

mills, for irrigation, and for drinking. About a league from San 
Francisco we passed the Indian village of Talagante, distinguished 
by its three beautiful palm trees, the first I had seen for a long time. 
It was one of the early settlements formed by the Franciscans, but 
was transferred to the management of the Jesuits, on whose fall the 
spiritual affairs of the Cacique and his people reverted to the Fran- 
ciscans, and the temporal matters to the captain of the district. The 
most remarkable building on entering San Francisco is the house, 
formerly that of the Jesuits, now belonging to the Carreras, whose 
chief property lay in this district. We did not stop, though I was 
inclined to do so, in this pretty little town, as the day was far spent, 
and we had still several leagues to ride. The populous suburbs of 
San Francisco reached a long way, and the country improved in rich- 
ness as we advanced. At Payco, about two leagues from Melipilla, 
there are some of the finest dairies in the country ; and there I 
observed some remarkably fine forest trees by a little stream that, 
flowing across the road, enters an almost impervious thicket of molle, 
the sweet scent of which filled the evening air. We had nowTidden 
fifty-four miles, and our horses as well as ourselves began to be a 
little eager to get to the end of our journey : the evening began to 
close, and a thick drizzling rain made our entrance to Melipilla as 
disagreeable as might be; and to mend the matter, the person on 
whom I had depended for lodging was absent. Cold, and hungry, 
and tired, we then had to seek a shelter. That was soon found ; but 
the house was large, and cold, and empty. However the neighbours 
seemed willing to lend what accommodation they had ; and, by the time 
Doiia Rosario and I had made a seat of our travelling cloaks, we had 
a panful of coals, and hopes of a supper. Meantime, however, Don 
Jose Antonio had enquired out a more comfortable house, where we 
found fire ready, and were charmed by the appearance of an estrada, 
covered by a comfortable alfombra ; on which we gladly sat, at the 
invitation of a pleasant-looking woman, and took matee while supper 
was preparing. The mistress apologised for the supper on the score 



MELIPILLA. 259 

of the shortness of the time allowed for preparation, but our hunger 
would have relished a much worse ; there was excellent roast beef, 
a stewed fowl, good bread, and a bottle of very tolerable wine. The 
beds appeared to embarrass Mr. de Roos more than any thing : but I 
am an old traveller, and our Chileno friends are used to the sort of 
thing ; so my young Englishman made up his mind to our all passing 
the night within the same four walls. An excellent matrass, with all 
proper additions, was laid on one end of the estrada for Dona Rosa- 
rio and me ; and across the foot of our couch the skins and carpets 
of the saddles furnished forth Mr. de Roos, while another of the same 
kind served Don Antonio. I thought of the " Sentimental Jour- 
ney," and placed a parcel of high-backed chairs, and spread the long 
skirt of my riding-habit between Rosario and me and our companions, 
— a work of supererogation, if all slept as soundly as I did, which I 
presume they did, because when I rose at day-break I found them 
all still ; so I crept into a little closet, where potatoes and wool had 
been kept, and where I had contrived a dressing-room ; so that I was 
ready to receive two strangers, who walked into the room before any 
of the rest were stirring, and -seating themselves without ceremony, 
began to question us about ourselves and our journey. I soon found 
that one of these was an Englishman, who had belonged to a whaler 
which foundered off Juan Fernandez. He is now at the head of a 
large soap and candle manufactory here, belonging to a gentleman 
of Chile. This is a favourable situation for such a business, both on 
account of the tallow, and of the facility of procuring ashes and 
charcoal : by-the-bye, I saw them making charcoal near Longuien. 
The pieces of wood are cut about two feet long, then laid in a trench 
covered with earth, and so burned. I suppose this to be a wasteful 
process. Were not the discouragement of all coasting trade so great 
here, Melipilla might be immensely rich : it is only ten leagues from 
the mouth of the Maypu, where there is the safe little harbour of 
Saint Augustin ; where the cheese, butter, charqui, hides, tallow, 
soap, and earthenware might be shipped for every port of Chile. 

l l2 



260 JOURNAL. 

But as it is, all these articles find their way by the expensive and 
circuitous in-land roads of Santiago, Casa Blanca, and Valparaiso. It 
is to be regretted, that the old Spanish principles still regulate all 
these things, to the great injury of foreign commerce and the utter 
destruction of internal traffic. 

I fancy the Melipillans had never seen an Englishwoman before, 
the court of our house being absolutely crowded with men, women, 
and children ; among whom I found that my close cap and black 
dress made me pass for a nun of some foi'eign order. I went out 
and spoke to them, and explained who I was, and we were soon re- 
lieved from all but those who insisted on staying to admire the rubio, 
(fair man,) as they called Mr. de Roos, whose golden locks and bright 
complexion are objects of universal admiration here. The fore-court 
of our lodging is surrounded by workmen's sheds of different de- 
scriptions ; so that when the family requires a job done, the workman 
and his tools are hired for the day or the week, and he finds his 
workshop fitted up. The back-court is open to a very good garden, 
and there the kitchen and other out-houses are situated. After 
breakfast we went out to see the town, which is built on the same 
plan as Santiago ; that is, all the streets perfectly straight at right 
angles. Nearly in the centre is the Iglesia Matriz, on one side of a 
considerable square ; another side is occupied by the house of the 
governor Don T. Valdez, and the barracks adjoining. The govern- 
ment house, like every other in the town, has a dull air ; because 
towards the squares and streets, there is only a dead wall with a large 
gate, the house being within a court. And Melipilla is peculiarly 
sombre; because, excepting the public buildings, which are white- 
washed, they are all of the natural colour of the clay of which the 
unburnt building-bricks are formed. Melipilla has still its annual 
bull-fights, which are held in the great square ; but it has no other 
place of public amusement, not even a public walk. The church of 
St. Austin and that of the Merced are the only ones besides the 
great church ; but there are a few private chapels belonging to the 



MELIPILLA. 261 

principal houses in the town. Besides the manufactures of soap and 
earthenware, a great many of the finer kinds of ponchos and alfom- 
bras are wove ; as the wool in the neighbourhood is very fine, and 
the plain abounds with drugs for dying. The weaving is managed 
with great skill, but the loom is the most clumsy I ever beheld ; and 
most of the work is done without a shuttle at all. 

In the evening we went to the chacra of Don Jose Funsalida, to 
see the pits whence the fine red clay used in the famous pottery of 
Melipilla is taken. Overlooking the plain eastward from the town, 
there is a long high perfectly flat bank of great extent ; and there, 
under a layer about two feet thick of black vegetable mould, lies the 
red clay, almost a3 hard as stone. Of this the fine red water-jars, and 
the finest vessels for wine, as well as jars for cooking and many other 
uses, are made. The plain beyond the clay bank is covered with 
large ovens for baking the wine-jars, and alembics for distilling ; not 
that there is any large manufactory for them, but every peasant here 
makes jars, and the richest and most skilful of course has most 
trade ; and, of all the ovens we saw, not more than three belonged 
to any one man. 

There is no difference between the method of pottery practised 
here and that at Valparaiso in making the coarsest ware, excepting 
that I think more pains is taken in kneading the clay. I went to one 
of the most famous female potters, and found her and her grand- 
daughter busy polishing their work of the day before with a beau- 
tiful agate. There I saw the black clay of which they make small 
wares, such as matee-cups, waiters, and water-jars, often wrought 
with grotesque heads and arms, and sometimes ornamented with the 
white and red earths with which the country abounds. The large 
wine-jars and alembics are made by men, as the work is laborious ; 
especially as no wheel is used, or indeed known, in the country. The 
small ware is still often baked in holes in the earth, the large vessels 
in ovens; where indeed they are often made, the workmen forming 
the jars where they are to be baked. 



262 



JOURNAL. 




The furnace is built a little under-ground, yet so as to admit a free 
current of air ; the flooring is about eight feet square, and the whole 
18 feet high. These are of picturesque forms, and, scattered over 
the plain, gave me the idea of antique tombs : on one hand the river 
was flowing majestically past the town, and beyond it Chocolan, with 
light evening clouds hanging round its sides, and woods burning in 
different places near the summit ; to the east the Andes, at about the 
same distance that Mont Blanc is from Geneva, are seen at the end 
of a long valley, whose boundary mountains sink into nothing before 
the " Giant of the Western Star." 

Shortly after we returned from our walk, some young women 
neatly dressed, with their long hair braided hanging down their 
backs, and natural flowers placed in it, came and seated themselves 
under the window and played on their guitars, singing at the same 
time some verses welcoming us to Melipilla. We then invited them 
to enter, and they sat with us till a late hour, singing ballads and 
tristes, and dancing various dances ; the newest and most fashionable 
being the Patria, with suitable words not ill adapted to the times. 

1 5th September. — This morning Doha Rosario and her brother 
went to early Mass, while Mr. de Roos and I prepared all things for 
beginning our journey back to Santiago. So we left Melipilla quite 



SAN FRANCISCO DE MONTE. 263 

satisfied, that, in its present state, there is little interesting in it; and 
also, that it might be one of the most flourishing cities of South 
America. Its potteries, already considerable, might be rendered 
infinitely more profitable ; its manufactures of ponchos and carpets 
infinitely increased, because its wool and its dyes are excellent and 
inexhaustible. Hemp, of the very finest quality, abounds in the 
flat lands near it. Its dairies are the best in this part of Chile ; and 
its charqui, hides, and all other produce depending on its cattle, 
might be, more easily as well as advantageously, disposed of from its 
port of St. Austin's, only thirty miles off; to which every thing 
might go by water, though the rapidity of the stream would prevent 
boats from re-ascending the Maypu. Melipilla might derive another 
advantage, which is not mean in Chile, from the existence of the 
medicinal wells in its neighbourhood, at the spot where the Poangui 
falls into the Maypu. People crowd thither in the bathing season to 
be very uncomfortable in huts at the spot, while it would be very 
easy for the town of Melipilla to keep comfortable and well-supplied 
houses and baths for their accommodation. I have been told, that 
the waters of the Poangui are warm in the morning and cold at night. 
This is so contrary to experience and reason, that, as I have not tried 
them myself, I suspect that there is as great a mistake as in the case 
of the saltness of the lake of Aculeo. We had no intention this day of 
going farther than San Francisco de Monte, where there is a tolerable 
house for travellers, kept by an old servant of a relation of the Cotapos. 
As soon as we arrived there, the gentlemen rode off to visit a relation 
of our companions, while Dona Rosario and I remained to perform 
rather a more careful toilette than we had been able to do at Melipilla. 
The house we were in is, in all senses, a pulperia, combining the 
characters of a huckster's shop and an alehouse. The host has some 
Indian and some African blood in his veins, and is a shrewd in- 
genious man. He has set up a proper loom for weaving ponchos, 
by which means he produces more work in a week than the weavers 
of Melipilla in a month. His wife spins and dyes the wool ; and by 
this trade, and the profits of their shop, they earn a very decent live- 



264 JOURNAL. 

lihood. As soon as I had changed my dress I went out to walk round 
the little town, whicli I found laid out with great neatness ; and 
admired the gardens and fields, though I could perceive that San 
Francisco had once boasted inhabitants of a higher class than those I 
saw. The best houses are shut up, and there was an air of decay in 
their immediate neighbourhood. They did belong to the Carreras. 
The heiress, Dona Xaviera, is now living as an exile at Monte Video. 
I "went towards the Placa, where there are the church and convent of 
the Franciscans, and several extremely good houses. I was attracted 
by a great crowd at the door of one of these. The mounted guasos 
were standing by with their hats off, and every body seemed as if 
performing an act of devotion. I was a little astonished when I 
arrived at the centre of the crowd, to which every body made way for 
me, to find nine persons dancing, as the Spaniards say, con mucho 
compos. They were arranged like nine-pins, the centre one being a 
young boy dressed in a grotesque manner, who only changed his place 
occasionally with two others, one of whom had a guitar, the other a 
ravel. The height and size of limb of the dancers might have belonged 
to men, the apparel was female ; and I thought I had been suddenly 
introduced to a tribe of Patagonian women, and enquired of a by- 
stander whence they came, when I received the following information 
concerning the dancers and the dance. — When the Franciscans first 
began the conversion of the Indians in this part of Chile, they fixed 
their convent at Talagante, the village of the palms which we passed 
through the other day, their proselytes being the caciques of Talagante, 
Yupeo, and Chenigue. The good fathers found that the Indians were 
more easily brought over to a new faith, than weaned from certain su- 
perstitious practices belonging to their old idolatry ; and the annual 
dance under the shade of the cinnamon, in honour of a preserving 
Power, thoy found it impossible to make them forget. They therefore 
permitted them to continue it ; but it was to be performed within the 
convent walls, and in honour of Nuestra Senhora de la Merced, and 
each cacique in turn was to take upon him the expense of the feast. 
On the removal of the convent to its present station the dance was 



SAN FRANCISCO DE MONTE. 265 

allowed in the church ; and the dancers, instead of painted bodies, and 
heads crowned with feathers, and bound with the fillet, — still thought 
holy, — are now clothed completely in women's dresses, as fine as they 
can procure : and as the priests have much abridged the period of 
the solemnity, they are fain to finish their dance in the area before 
the church, where they are attended with as much deference as in the 
temple itself. After having performed this duty, the dancers, and as 
many as choose to accompany them, repair to the Cacique's house, 
where they are treated with all the food he can command, and drink 
till his stock of chicha is exhausted. I considered myself very fortunate 
in having met with these dancers, and pleased myself with the idea 
that they were the descendants of the Promaucians, who had resisted 
the Incas in their endeavours to subdue the country, and who, after 
bravely disputing its possession with the Spaniards, being once 
induced to make a league with them never deserted them. 

I was lucky too in the person to whom I applied for information. 
He is a deformed, but sprightly-looking man, who acts the double 
part of schoolmaster and gracioso of the village. While we sat at 
dinner to-day he entered to pay his compliments, and began a long 
extempore compliment to each of us in verse, in a manner at least 
as good as that of the common i?nprovisatori of Italy. For this I 
paid him with a cup of wine ; when he began to recite a collection 
of legendary and other verses, till, heated I presume by the glasses 
handed to him by our young men, his tales began to stray so far 
from decorum that we silenced the old gentleman, and sent him to 
get a good dinner with the peons. 

Mr. de Roos and I had a great wish to have gone to the Cacique 
of Chenigue, to see even at a distance the triennial feast ; but we 
,found it was too far to walk, and we could not think of taking out 
the horses, who had to travel onward in the morning to Santiago ; 
we therefore were forced to content ourselves with a visit to the 
Cacique of Yupeo, whose village joins San Fancisco de Monte. We 
found that His Majesty — must I call him ? — was absent, probably at 
the feast at Chenigue. His wife received us very kindly : she is a 

M M 



266 JOURNAL. 

fine-looking intelligent woman ; and when we entered, she was sit- 
ting on the estrada with a friend and one of her daughters, while 
another, a most beautiful girl, was kneading bread. The house is of 
the simplest description of straw ranchos, though large and commo- 
dious. The gardens and fields behind it are beautiful, and in the 
highest order, maintained by the labour of the Cacique, his two sons, 
and his Indians ; over whom he still exercises a nominal jurisdiction, 
and possesses the authority of opinion, not less powerful here than in 
more civilised nations. As the land is all supposed to be his of 
right, he receives a small voluntary contribution in produce, by way 
of acknowledgment, for each field. Two-thirds of his village have 
been taken from him during the two last generations ; so that now 
the Cacique is but a shadow. He talks of going, attended by a score 
of his best men, to the capital, to talk face to face with the Director, 
and to free himself from the interference of the commandants of 
districts, who vex him in every way. There is no difference what- 
ever between the language, habits, or dress of these Indians, and 
other Chilenos, — a few customs only distinguish them ; so completely 
have they assimilated with their invaders, who, on the other hand, 
have borrowed many of their usages. 

On our return from the Cacique's, where our visit was acknowledged 
as a favour, and much regret that he himself had missed the oppor- 
tunity of receiving English people in his house, and showing us how 
he had improved it *, we entered another Indian cottage, to return 
a staff which the mistress of it had kindly lent us to assist in crossing 
a muddy pool on the road. There we found a woman very ill with 
ague, and another consumptive ; and I learn that these complaints 
are common, owing to the undrained marshes below the town. I 
should think the mud floors and the straw walls of the cottages, which 
cannot keep out the keen frosty winds from the Andes, must be 
equally injurious. 

In the evening, Dona Dolores Ureta and her very pleasing daugh- 

* He has actually made windows in it. 



TALAGANTE. 



267 



ters came to visit us. It was to this lady's house that the youno- 
men had ridden in the morning. She apologised for her husband's 
absence, on account of a severe indisposition. I have seldom seen 
a more pleasing ladylike woman, and her daughters are quite worthy 
of her. I was really glad of her presence, and the countenance I de- 
rived from it in my lodging. It being Sunday night, the principal 
room, which I thought was ours, filled with persons of all classesand 
sexes, and the usual amusements began. First, the gracioso, with his 
staff in the middle of the floor, performed a number of antics, and 
made speeches to every person present. He then sent for his harp, 
and played, while all manner of persons danced all sorts of dances. 
Dona Rosario and I, seated on our bed, with our visitors by us, saw 
as much or as little as we pleased of the holiday evening of a pul- 
peria. These scenes, however, are only delightful in description. 
Le Sage, or Smollet, might have woven a charming chapter out of 
Dona Josefas' inn ; but, like certain Dutch pictures, the charm is in 
the skill of the representation, not the scenes themselves. I was 
really sorry when Dona Dolores left us ; but I believe the company 
took it as a hint to depart, for we saw no more of them. Shortly 
after we had seen the ladies to their carriage, we discovered that a 
large house in the neighbourhood was on fire, and thither every body 
flocked : the night was intensely cold ; and as soon as I had heard 
that there were no inhabitants to be injured by the conflagration, I 
returned to the house, having a slight pain in my side. 

16th Sept. — We left San Francisco by Talagante, intending to go 
close by the mountain of San Miguel, to the farm where the new 
Mapocho comes by several copious springs from under-ground. We 
stopped at the Cacique's to pay our compliments, and bought some 
small jars and platters of red claj, ornamented with streaks of earth, 
to which iron pyrites give the appearance of gold dust. Talagante 
is a very populous village, and the women at every hut appear to be 
potters. The men are soldiers, sailors, carriers, and some few hus- 
bandmen ; a fine, handsome, that is, well-made race, with faces very 

m m 2 



268 JOURNAL. 

Indian. We had scarcely left it a league, when I was obliged to 
lag a little behind the party by a violent cough, and then I broke a 
small blood-vessel.* It was some time before I could rejoin my 
friends ; and then there was great consternation among them, as we 
were at least ten leagues from home. I proposed to them to ride 
on, and leave me to proceed slowly with the peon : this they refused 
to do ; and the hemorrhage increasing, I felt pleased that they 
remained with me. I had nothing with me to stop the bleeding, 
and I longed for water ; on which Don Jose Antonio recollecting a 
spring not far off, he and Mr. de Roos rode off to it, and filling the 
little jars we had brought with us, we put some orange-peel into it, 
and whenever the cough returned I took a mouthful. I found I 
dared not speak, nor ride fast ; so at a foot's pace we went on to San- 
tiago. I had two very serious attacks before I reached the city, but, 
on the whole, I cannot say I suffered much ; it was a delightful day, 
and the scenery was beautiful and grand. We crossed the plain of 
Maypu farther to the westward, and nearer the scene of the great 
action than before. The ground was covered with flowers, and flocks 
of birds were collected round them. I thought if it were to be my 
last ride out among the works of God, it was one to sooth and com- 
fort me ; and I did not feel at all depressed. I may think, with more 
ease than most, of my end, detached as I now am from all kindred. 

A few miles before we reached home Mr. De Roos rode on, and 
having told Dona Carmen what had happened, she ordered my maid 
to have fire, warm water, and my bed prepared. Mr. De Roos also 
found Dr. Craig, who came immediately, and as I was almost with- 
out fever and very well disposed to sleep soundly, the accident of 
the day promised to be of little consequence. 

11th. — Letters from Valparaiso announce the arrival of the Doris, 
and that my poor cousin Glennie has taken possession of my house, 
being in a state of health that gives little hope of his recovery. He 

* I was the more vexed at the accident, as it prevented my seeing the coming out of 
the Mapocho, if it be indeed that river. 




Drawn b . 



i wf Fmdoi 



SEIE-IBBE (Off SA^T JD>©SffiX»r©<0 SAHTT3EA©© ESHt (DIET 






SANTIAGO. 269 

broke a blood-vessel in consequence of over-exertion at Callao, and 
is obliged to invalid, as the surgeon thinks the voyage round the 
Horn, whither the ship is bound, would be fatal. It is very dis- 
tressing to me not to be able to go instantly to Valparaiso to receive 
him, but 1 am confined to bed myself. I have also kind letters 
from Lord Cochrane, enclosing an introduction to General Freire, 
in case I should ride down to Conception, as I intended, from hence : 
but proposing the better plan of going by sea in the Montezuma, 
when His Lordship himself goes. Alas ! I can do neither ; and I fear 
I must give up my hopes of visiting Peru, as well as going to the 
south of Chile. My own slight illness I should think nothing of, 
but the poor invalid at Valparaiso must have all my time and 
attention. 

18th. — The anniversary of the independence of Chile. The first 
thing I heard after a long sleepless night was the trampling of horses ; 
and I got out of bed and went to the balcony, whence I saw the 
country militia going to the ground where the Director is to review 
them all. They are in number about 2000; armed with lances, 
twenty feet long, of cane, headed with iron. The men are dressed 
in their ordinary dress, with military caps and scarlet ponchos ; and 
the different divisions are distinguished by borders or collars, or some 
other trivial mark. I have heard many jests upon the discipline of 
the red cloaks ; but B., who knows them well, says, " True, they 
may on parade mistake eyes right for eyes left, but at the battle of 
Maypu they never mistook the enemy ;" and, in truth, on that day, 
when the regular troops had begun to give ground, they are said to 
have turned the fortune of the day. They are admirable horsemen, 
as indeed every country-bred Chileno is. They ride like centaurs, 
seeming to make but one person with their horse ; and I have seen 
them wrestle and fight on horseback as if they had been on foot. I 
I was glad the Casa Cotapo stands so directly in the way of the exer- 
cising ground. The only compensation I can have for not being 
present at the national rejoicing is the seeing the troops pass. I 



270 



JOURNAL. 



thought of young Lastra, and am charmed to learn that the decree 
of amnesty has this day passed, which will restore him and many 
others to their families. 

To day the bishop performed Mass in the cathedral, for the first 
time since his restoration. The ladies have been visiting and com- 
plimenting each other ; and the streets, both last night and to-night, 
were illuminated. I felt low and ill all day. 

21st of Sept. — The good-natured inhabitants of Santiago have all 
testified, in some way or other, their sympathy with my sufferings ; 
from the Director, who sent M. De la Salle with a very kind letter, 
in his own name and that of the ladies, to the poor nuns I had visited, 
who sent me a plate of excellent custard, made according to one of 
their own private recipes. Reyes has been constant in his visits, and 
has procured me a plan of the city, and an account of the most 
remarkable indigenous trees, with permission to copy both. 

24:th. — I have been better, and am much worse. My friend Mr. 
Dance, from the Doris, arrived the day before yesterday with letters 
from every body on board, and a better account of poor Glennie. 

Mr. B has interested himself to procure a comfortable caleche 

for me to travel to the port, as I am anxious to get home, and am 
not able to think of riding thither. Nothing can be more truly kind 
than Doha Carmen de Cotapos and all her daughters, since I first 
became their guest, and especially since my illness. Mr. Prevost 
too has been unwearied in his friendly attentions ; but what can I 
say of my good and skilful physician Dr. Craig, that can acknow- 
ledge my obligations sufficiently ? As to my own sea friends, their 
affectionate care is only what I depended on. 

I have been grieved since I came back from Melipilla by the state 
of a beautiful and amiable girl, which has arisen from a misunder- 
stood spirit of devotion. Before I went away she was gay and cheer- 
ful, the delight of her father's house. Her music and her poetry, 
and her reading aloud while others worked, formed the charm of her 
home. But her mother, though a clever woman, is a bigot ; and 



SANTIAGO. 



271 



Maria's mind, of a high and lofty nature, is peculiarly susceptible of 
religious impressions. Under these, the tender-conscienced girl, to 
punish herself for an attachment not favoured by her house, which 
she still felt, though at her parents' bidding she had given up its 
object, resolved to go for ten days to a Casa de Exercisio. There, 
under the guidance of an old priest, the young creatures who retire 
thus are kept praying night and day, with so little food and sleep 
that their bodies and minds alike become weakened. All the inter- 
vals between the Masses, which are of the most lugubrious chants, 
are passed in silence ; rfo voice is heard above a whisper, and the 
light of heaven is scarcely admitted. A young married woman who 
went in with Maria came out even gayer than she entered ; doubtless 
her heart had rested on her husband and their home. But what was 
to occupy the thoughts and affections of the girl whose best feelings 
were to be crushed ? Could she harbour there 

" A wish but death, a passion but despair ?" 

And she has returned as it were to earth, — on it, but not of it. 
The sight of friends throws her into fits of hysterical weeping ; and, 
only prostrate before the altar, and repeating the Masses of her house 
of woe, does she seem soothed or calmed. Such are the effects of 
the house of exercise. I might have thought that my }'Oung friend's 
peculiar disposition alone had caused this ; but I know a youth who 
was, I am told, once all that parents could wish, — accomplished and 
enlightened, and possessed of honour and spirit. He is now little 
better than a drivelling idiot. He went into a house of exercise a 
man, — he came out of it what he is. Oh ! if I had power or in- 
fluence here, I would put down these mischievous establishments. 
Even when they do not cause, as in this instance, a derangement of 
the intellect, they are nurseries of bigotry and fanaticism. To have 
been in one is a source of vanity, to conform to the sentiments in- 
culcated there a point of conscience ; and as it is easier to be a bigot 
than a virtuous man, great laxity of conduct is permitted, so the spirit 



272 



JOURNAL. 



is bent to maintain the church, and to persecute, or at least keep 
down, those who are not of it. 

It was not without regret that on the 28th September I left 
Santiago, where I have been so kindly received, and where there is 
still much new and interesting to see. I do hope to return in 
summer, when I mean to cross the mountain by the Cumbre pass *, 
visit Mendoza, and return by the pass of San Juan de los Patos ; by 
which the great body of San Martin's army entered the country in 
1816. However, in the meantime I must gain a little more health, 
and a great deal more strength. I am scarcely sorry that I was 
obliged to travel in a caleche for once. All our party assembled after 
passing the toll-house, and other necessary ceremonies at the house of 
Loyola, the owner of the caleche, about a league from Santiago, on 
the plain called the Llomas j and then, sick as I felt, I could not help 
laughing at the " set out.'''' In the first place, there was the calisa, a 
very light square body of a carriage, mounted on a coarse heavy axle, 
and two clumsy wheels painted red, while the body is sprigged and 
flowered like a furniture chintz, lined with old yellow and red Chinese 
silk, without glasses, but having striped gingham curtains. Between 
the shafts, of the size and shape of those of a dung-cart, was a fine 
mule, not without silver studs among her trappings, mounted by a 
handsome lad in a poncho, and armed with spurs whose rowels were 
bigger than a dollar, and with a little straw hat stuck on one side. 

CO * 

On each side of the mule was a horse, fastened to the axle of the 
wheel, each with his rider, also in full Chile costume. Then there 
was Loyola's son as a guide, handsomely dressed in a full guaso dress, 
mounted on a fine horse : with him Mr. Dance and Mr. Candler, of the 
Doris, also in the same dress ; my young friend de Roos having left 
us some days before on the expiration of his leave of absence. Last, 
though by no means least, in his own esteem, was my peon Felipe, 
with his three mules and the baggage, accompanied by another peon 

* The barometer gives 12,000 feet as the greatest height of the pass at the foot of the 
volcano of Aconcagua, where that river flows to the west, and that of Mendoza to the east. 



VALPARAISO. 



273 



with the relay horses for the calisa. When seated in the chaise I 
observed how the horses were harnessed. A stout iron ring is fixed 
to the saddle, and a thong passes from the axle-tree to that ring, so 
that it serves as a single trace, by which the horse drags his portion 
of the weight on one side. Occasionally they change sides, to relieve 
the cattle. On going down any little declivity the horses keep wide of 
the carriage, so as to support it a little ; and on descending a mountain 
they are removed from the front, and the thongs are brought back- 
ward from the axle-trees and fastened to rings in the fore part of the 
saddles ; and the horses serve not only instead of clogs to the wheels, 
but support part of the weight, which might otherwise overpower the 
mule in the descent. The season is considerably advanced since we 
went to the city ; the plains are thickly and richly covered with grass 
and flowers ; the village orchards are in full leaf and blossom, and 
the pruning of the vines is begun. The horses, and other animals, 
are once more sent into the potreros to grass, and spring comes to all 
but me. Mine is past, and my summer has been blighted ; yet hope, 
blessed hope ! remains, that the autumn of my days may at least be 
more tranquil. 

I suffered a great deal the two first days on the road, but the third 
I felt sensibly better, and fancied myself almost well ; when, at the 
first post-house from Valparaiso, I found Captain Spencer, with half- 
a-dozen of my young shipmates, whom he had good naturedly brought 
out to meet me, and among them poor Glennie. We all made a 
cheerful luncheon together, and then rode to Valparaiso ; my maid 
mounting her horse, and Glennie taking her place in the calisa. 

At home I found Mr. Hogan, and several other friends, waiting to 
welcome me. And truly 1 have seldom enjoyed rest so much as this 
night, when both mind and body reposed, as they have not done 
since I knew of Glennie's arrival in bad health. 

October 1st. — I find that the affairs of the squadron are much 
worse than when I left the port : the wages are yet unpaid, and the 
crews of the ships are becoming clamorous for money, for clothing, 
and all other necessaries. Discontent is spreading wide, and, as usual, 

JV iV 



274 JOURNAL. 

directed against every object and every person, with or without 
reason. Even Lord Cochrane, after all his exertions and sacrifices 
both for the state and the squadron, has been made the object of a 
malicious calumny, which, indeed, he has condescended to disprove 
most convincingly ; but which is, nevertheless, mortifying, as coming 
directly from individuals who have been benefited and trusted by him 
and the country they serve. This calumny charges him with having 
made a private advantageous bargain for himself, and having already 
received from the government the greater part of the money destined 
for the pay of the whole squadron. I have been much pleased by a 
letter written to him by the lieutenants of the squadron on the occa- 
sion, dated only yesterday, and of which a copy has been obligingly 
given me by one of those signing it. 

" May it please Your Excellency, 

" We, the undersigned officers of the Chile squadron, have heard 
" with surprise and indignation the vile and scandalous reports tend- 
" ing to bring Your Excellency's high character into question, and to 
" destroy that confidence and admiration with which it has always 
" inspired us. 

" We have seen with pleasure the measures Your Excellency has 
" adopted to suppress so malicious and absurd a conspiracy, and 
" trust that no means will be spared to bring its authors to public 
" shame. 

" At a time like the present, when the best interests of the squa- 
" dron, and our, dearest rights as individuals, are at stake, we feel 
" particularly indignant at an attempt to destroy that union and con- 
" fidence which at present exists, and which we are assured ever will, 
" while we have the honour to serve under Your Excellency's 
" command. 

" With these sentiments, we subscribe ourselves 

" Your Excellency's most obedient humble servants. 

(Signed) " P. O. Grenfell, Lieut. Commanding Mercedes, 
" And all Officers of the Squadron." 



VALPARAISO. 275 

The reports alluded to, though apparently caused by the thought- 
lessness of an indifferent person, tend so directly to the accom- 
plishment of the ends of a certain party in the state, that one 
cannot help connecting them. The jealousy entertained against the 
Admiral by those whose genius quails before his, strengthened by 
the suspicions to which foreigners are universally exposed, is now 
more at liberty to rage, because the great object of destroying the 
mother country's maritime power in the Pacific is accomplished. 
And this jealousy has been ingeniously fostered by subordinate per- 
sons, interested in getting rid of what has been felt to be an English 
interest here, particularly by some of the agents of the United States, 
who have made common cause with San Martin and his agents. 
Could the creatures of this party separate Lord Cochrane from the 
squadron in any way, their great object would be easily accomplished ; 
and for this end the present juncture is favourable. The sufferings 
and poverty of the squadron in general are hard to bear ; and to 
make the officers and men believe that the Admiral had made a 
favourable arrangement for himself, neglecting them, was a direct 
means of destroying that confidence and union which has constituted 
hitherto the strength of the squadron. For this time the design has 
failed ; but who can say how long the present calm may last ? 

2d. — As my own health is far from being strong, and my poor 
invalid requires every moment's attendance, I cannot go out in search 
of news, therefore I take it all at once as it is brought to me ; and 
to-day I have been almost overwhelmed with details about the new 
regulations of trade, the taxes to be laid on, and the monopolies of 
the minister Rodriguez, and his partner Areas. In addition to the 
spirits and tobaccos they long ago purchased with the government 
money, they have now bought up the cottons, cloths, and other arti- 
cles of clothing, and only their own agents or pulperie-men are able 
to procure such for any customer. This, added to the want of a small 
coin, and the use of notes for tbree-pences, only payable, or rather 
exchangeable, for goods from their own shops, is a severe grievance, 
and will, of course, at once retard civilisation and rob the revenue ; 

iV AT 2 



276 JOURNAL. 

for it will drive the people back to their habits of wearing nothing 
but their household stuffs, and thereby afford less leisure for agri- 
culture, thence less food, and consequently check the now increasing 
population ; at the same time that, by discouraging the use of foreign 
stuffs, the import duties must fail. Are nations like individuals, who 
never profit by each other's experience? and must each state have its 
dark age ? 

■ I have received many visits in the course of the day to congratulate 
me on my return, the most and the kindest from my naval friends ; 
and I am particularly flattered by Lord Cochrane's coming with 
Captains Wilkinson and Crosbie, and Mr. H. E. to tea. Before I 
could give it to them, an incident truly characteristic happened : we 
were obliged to wait while a man went to catch a cow with the laca 
on the hill, to procure milk. After what I had seen of the manage- 
ment of the dairy at M. Salinas', I could not wonder, and had 
nothing to do but sit patiently till the milk arrived, and my guests 
being older inhabitants of the country than I am, were equally re- 
signed ; and the interval was filled with pleasant conversation. 

6th. — The exorbitant duties, not yet formally imposed but an- 
nounced, on various English goods, have induced Capt. Vernon, of 
H. M. ship Doris, to go to Santiago ; and, if possible, procure some 
mitigation of the duties, or at least a less vexatious regulation with 
regard to the manifesto. I wish our government would acknowledge 
the independence of the states of South America at once; and send 
proper consuls or agents to guard our trade, and to take from it the 
disgrace of being little else than smuggling on a larger scale. How 
easily might it have been settled, for instance, that the brute metals 
of this country should be legal returns for the manufactured goods 
of Europe, India, and China; instead of, as now, subjecting them to 
all the losses and risks of smuggling : for, as they are the only 
returns the country can make to Europe, they will find their way 
thither ; and the attempt to confine them is as absurd as that ancient 
law of Athens which forbade the selling of the figs of Attica, lest 



s 



VALPARAISO. 277 

a stranger should buy and eat of what was too delicious for any 
but an Athenian palate. 

This new reglamento is not the only point on which some state 
ferment seems about to arise. The Director had appointed General 
Cruz to supersede General Freire as governor of Talcahuana and 
chief of the army of the south ; but the soldiers have refused to 
receive him, or to permit Freire to leave them, and are become as 
clamorous for their pay as the sailors are. Some politicians here do 
not scruple to attribute ambitious thoughts to Freire, and to accuse 
him of being the instigator of the clamours of the soldiers: but the 
true cause is in the bad faith of the government in refusing to pay 
up their arrears ; in neglecting to provide any compensation for the 
sufferings and losses of the people of Conception, who have under- 
gone more than those of any other province during the war of the 
Revolution ; and in tyrannically attempting to ruin every port in 
Chile but that of Valparaiso, for the sake of monopolising the com- 
merce of the country. 

As to the squadron, the men talk of seizing the ships if they are 
not paid forthwith ; and it is given out that their officers will stand 
by them. But these reports are built rather on the provocations to 
take the law into their own hands, than on any expressions of the 
parties themselves. 

8th. — My pleasure in receiving the visits of several of my friends 
to-day, has been sadly damped by the increased sufferings of poor 
Glennie. These sufferings have met with sympathy however, if not 
relief, in a quarter from which I scarcely looked for it ; namely, from 
La Chavelita, the old lady of the flower-garden, who appeared about 
four o'clock with a bundle of herbs, carried by a little serving boy, 
and stalking into the room with great dignity, her tall figure rendered 
still taller by a high-crowned black hat, she seated herself by the 
bedside, and began to question the patient as to his disease : she then 
turned to me, and told me she had brought some medicines, one of 
which she would administer immediately ; and in order to prepare 
it desired me to procure some warm brandy. This being done, she 



278 JOURNAL. 

produced from her leathern pocket a piece of cocoa grease, and dipping 
it into the brandy, began to anoint G.'s shoulders with it, harangue- 
ins all the time on the intimate connection between the shoulders 
and the lungs, and saying that whoever wished to cure the latter 
should begin by cooling the former. Having operated for a quarter 
of an hour, she suffered the patient to lie down ; and taking a bundle 
of cachanlangue {herb centaury) from the boy, desired me to infuse 
half of it in boiling water, and give the tea occasionally ; and the other 
half was to be placed in a glass of spirits, and the shoulders to be 
occasionally whipped with it. She assured me that the pulse would go 
down and the hemorrhage cease by degrees, by constant use of the 
herb. She also gave me a bundle of wild carrot, of which she di- 
rected me to make a tisane, well sweetened, to be drank occasionally, 
and then, having given a history of similar cases cured by her pre- 
scriptions, to which she sometimes adds an infusion of the leaves of 
vinagrillo {yellow wood-sorrel, with a thick fleshy leaf), she took 
leave. 

9th. — One cannot attend to private concerns two days together. 
This morning I learn that the squadron is in such a state from want, 
that a delegate has been sent to the supreme government ; and that 
the captains serving in the Chileno ships have addressed a serious 
letter to it, setting forth their claims, their sufferings, and the injustice 
done them.* In other respects, things are quieter; and it seems 
as if patience were allowing time for the effect of the remon- 
strances. 

Lord Cochrane and Captain Crosbie came in the evening ; and as 
we never talk politics while drinking tea and eating bread and 
honey, we had at least one pleasant hour without thinking of go- 
vernments, or mutinies, or injustice of any kind, — a rare blessing 
here, when two or three are together. There are so few people here, 
and all those are so directly interested in these matters, that it is not 

* See Appendix for this remonstrance, communicated to me shortly after it was for- 
warded to government by one of the captains ; and also for the letter on the same sub- 
ject addressed to the Admiral by the lieutenants of the squadron. 



VALPARAISO. 279 

wonderful nothing else should be talked of; but I, who am only a 
passenger, sometimes sigh for what I enjoyed this evening — a little 
rational conversation on more general topics. 

Captain Vernon returned this night with a copy of the reglamento 
in his pocket. I hear it is so inconsistent, that it will defeat its own 
purpose. 

13th. — Every one has been electrified to-day by the sudden ar- 
rival of General San Martin, the Protector of Peru, in this port. 
Since the forcible expulsion of his minister and favourite, Montea- 
gudo, from office by the people of Lima*, while he himself was 
absent visiting Bolivar at Guayaquil, he had felt some alarm concern- 
ing his own security ; and had, it is believed, from time to time de- 
posited considerable sums on board of the Puyrredon, in case of the 
worst. At length, at midnight on the 20th September, he embarked, 
and ordered the captain to get under weigh instantly, although the 
vessel was not half manned, and had scarcely any water on board. 
He then ran down to Ancon, whence he despatched a messenger to 
Lima, and his impatience could scarcely brook the necessary delay 
before an answer could arrive : when it did come, he ordered the 
captain instantly to sail for Valparaiso ; and now gives out here, that 
a rheumatic pain in one of his arms obliges him to have recourse to 
the baths of Cauquenes. If true, " 'tis strange, 'tis passing strange." 

\4_th. — Reports arrive this morning that San Martin has been 
arrested; and that having endeavoured to smuggle a quantity of gold, 
it is seized. 

N on. — So far from San Martin being arrested, two of the Direc- 
tor's aides-de-camp have arrived to pay him compliments, — besides, 
the fort saluted his flag. 

Many persons, knowing Lord Cochrane's sentiments with regard 
to the General, and that he looks on him both as a traitor to Chile 
and a dishonest man, made little doubt but that His Lordship would 
arrest him. Had he done so, I think the government would have 



* 25th July, 1822. 



280 



JOURNAL. 



wladly acquiesced. But the uprightness and delicacy of Lord Coch- 
rane's feelings have induced him to leave him to the government 

itself. 

Night. — The Director's carriage is arrived to convey San Martin 
to the city; General Priete and Major O' Carrol are also in attendance; 
and there are four orderlies appointed, who are never to lose sight of 
him. Some think by way of keeping him in honourable arrest, 
others, and I am inclined to be of the number, that real or affected 
fear for his life, while in the port, occasions the constant attend- 
ance of such a train. The General himself persists in saying that 
his visit to Chile is solely on account of his rheumatic arm, and at 
first sight it seems hard not to allow a man credit for knowing the 
motives of his own actions. But one of the penalties of conspicuous 
station is to be judged by others. 

" Oh, hard condition ! and twin-born of greatness, 

Subject to breath of ev'ry fool." Henri/ V. 

1 5th of October. — After a very busy day spent in seeing and 
taking leave of my friends of the Doris, who are to sail to-morrow, I 
was surprised, just as I had taken leave of the last, at being told that 
a great company was approaching. I had scarcely time to look up 
before I perceived Zenteno, the governor of Valparaiso, ushering in 
a very tall fine-looking man, dressed in plain black clothes, whom he 
announced as General San Martin. They were followed by Madame 
Zenteno and her step-daughter, Dona Dolores, Colonel D'Albe and 
his wife and sister, General Priete, Major O' Carrol, Captain Tor- 
res, who I believe is captain of the port here, and two other gentle- 
men whom I do not know. It was not easy to arrange the seats of 
such a company in a room scarcely sixteen feet square, and lumbered 
with books and other things necessary to the comfort of an Eu- 
ropean woman. At length, however, my occupation of much 
serving, being over, I could sit, and observe, and listen. San 
Martin's eye has a peculiarity in it that I never saw before 
but once, and that once was in the head of a celebrated lady. 



VALPARAISO. 281 

It is dark and fine, but restless ; it never seemed to fix for above a 
moment, but that moment expressed every thing. His countenance 
is decidedly handsome, sparkling, and intelligent ; but not open. His 
manner of speaking quick, but often obscure, with a few tricks and 
by-words ; but a great flow of language, and a readiness to talk on 
all subjects. 

I am not fond of recording even the topics of private conversation, 
which I think ought always to be sacred. But San Martin is not a 
private man ; and besides, the subjects were general, not personal. 
We spoke of government ; and there I think his ideas are far from 
being either clear or decisive. There seems a timidity of intellect, 
which prevents the daring to give freedom and the daring to be des- 
potic alike. The wish to enjoy the reputation of a liberator and the 
will to be a tyrant are strangely contrasted in his discourse. He has 
not read much, nor is his genius of that stamp that can go alone. 
Accordingly, he continually quoted authors whom he evidently knew 
but by halves, and of the half he knew he appeared to me to mistake 
the spirit. When we spoke of religion, and Zenteno joined in the 
discourse, he talked much of philosophy ; and both those gentlemen 
seemed to think that philosophy consisted in leaving religion to the 
priests and to the vulgar, as a state-machine, while the wise man 
would laugh alike at the monk, the protestant, and the deist. Well 
does Bacon say, " None deny there is a God but those for whom it 
maketh that there were no God;" and truly, when I consider his actions, 
I feel that he should be an atheist if he would avoid despair. But 
I am probably too severe on San Martin. His natural shrewd sense 
must have led him to perceive the absurdity of the Roman Catholic 
superstitions, which here are naked in their ugliness, not glossed 
over with the pomp and elegance of Italy ; and which from state 
policy he has often joined in with all outward demonstrations of 
respect : and it has been observed, that " The Roman Catholic 
system is shaken off with much greater difficulty than those which 
are taught in the reformed churches ; but when it loses its hold of 
the mind, it much more frequently prepares the way for unlimited 

o o 



282 JOURNAL. 

scepticism." And this appears to me to be exactly the state of 
San Martin's mind. From religion, and the changes it has un- 
dergone from corruptions and from reformations, the transition 
was easy to political revolutions. The reading of all South Ame- 
rican reformers is mostly in a French channel ; and the age of 
Louis XIV. was talked of as the direct and only cause of the French 
revolution, and consequently of those in South America. A slight 
compliment was thrown in to King William before I had ventured 
to observe, that perhaps the former evils and present good of these 
countries might in part be traced to the wars of Charles V. and his 
successor, draining these provinces of money, and returning nothing. 
A great deal more passed, ending in a reference to that advance of 
intellect in Europe which in a single age had produced the invention 
of printing, the discovery of America, and begun that reformation 
that had bettered even the practice of Rome herself. Zenteno, glad 
to attack Rome, and to show his reading, exclaimed, " And well did 
her practice need reform ; for she would have crowned Tasso, and 
did crown Petrarch, but imprisoned Gallileo." Thus taking the 
converse of Foscolo's true and admirable doctrine, — that the exact 
sciences may become the instruments of tyranny ; but never poetry, 
or history, or oratory. I was glad of the interruption afforded by the 
entrance of tea to this somewhat pedantic discourse, which I never 
should have made a note of but that it was San Martin's. I apo- 
logised for having no matee to offer ; but I found that both the 
General and Zenteno drank tea without milk, with their segars in 
preference. But the interruption even of tea, stopped San Martin 
but for a short time. Resuming the discourse, he talked of physic, 
of language, of climate, of diseases, and that not delicately ; and 
lastly, of antiquities, especially those of Peru ; and told some very 
marvellous stories of the perfect preservation of some whole families 
of ancient Caciques and Incas who had buried themselves alive on 
the Spanish invasion : and this brought us to far the most interesting 
part of his discourse, — his own leaving Lima. He told me, that, 
resolved to know whether the people were really happy, he used to 



VALPARAISO. 283 

disguise himself in a common dress, and, like the caliph Haroun 
Alraschid, to mingle in the coffee-houses, and in the gossipping par- 
ties at the shop doors; that he often heard himself spoken of; and 
gave me to understand, that he had found that the people were now 
happy enough to do without him ; and said that, after the active life 
he had led, he began to wish for rest ; that he had withdrawn from 
public life, satisfied that his part was accomplished, and that he had 
only brought with him the flag of Pizarro, the banner under which 
the empire of the Incas had been .conquered, and which had been 
displayed in every war, not only those between the Spaniards and 
Peruvians, but those of the rival Spanish chiefs. " Its possession" 
said he, " has always been considered the mark of power and authority ; 
I have it now ;" and he drew himself up to his full height, and 
looked round him with a most imperial air. Nothing so character- 
istic as this passed during the whole four hours the Protector 
remained with me. It was the only moment in which he was him- 
self. The rest was partly an habitual talking on all subjects, to 
dazzle the less understanding ; and partly the impatience to be first, 
even in common conversation, which his long habit of command 
has given him. I pass over the compliments he paid me, somewhat 
too profusely for the occasion ; but of such we may say, as Johnson 
did of affectation, that they are excusable, because they proceed from 
the laudable desire of pleasing. Indeed, his whole manner was most 
courteous : I could not but observe, that his movements as well as his 
person are graceful ; and I can well believe what I have heard, that 
in a ball-room he has few superiors. Of the other persons present, 
Colonel d'Albe and the ladies only volunteered a few words. It was 
with difficulty that, in my endeavours to be polite to all, I forced a 
syllable now and then from the other gentlemen. They seemed as 
if afraid to commit themselves ; so at length I left them alone, and 
the whole discourse soon fell into the Protector's hands. 

Upon the whole, the visit of this evening has not impressed me 
much in favour of San Martin. His views are narrow, and I think 
selfish. His philosophy, as he calls it, and his religion, are upon 

o o 2 



2 g4 JOURNAL. 

a par ; both are too openly used as mere masks to impose on the 
world ; and, indeed, they are so worn as that they would not impose 
on any people but those he has unhappily had to rule. He certainly 
has no genius ; but he has some talents, with no learning, and little 
general knowledge. Of that little, however, he has the dexterity to 
make a great deal of use ; nobody possesses more of that most useful 
talent, " fart de se faire valoir" His fine person, his air of supe- 
riority, and that suavity of manner which has so long enabled him 
to lead others, give him very decided advantages. He understands 
English, and speaks French tolerably ; and I know no person with 
whom it might be pleasanter to pass half an hour: but the want of 
heart, and the want of candour, which are evident even in con- 
versation of any length, would never do for intimacy, far less for 
friendship. 

At nine o'clock the party left me, much pleased certainly at hav- 
ing seen one of the most remarkable men in South America ; and 
I think that, perhaps, in the time, I saw as much of him as was pos- 
sible. He aims at universality, in imitation of Napoleon ; who had, 
I have heard, something of that weakness, and whom he is always 
talking of as his model, or rather rival. * I think too that he had 
a mind to exhibit himself to me as a stranger ; or Zenteno might 
have suggested, that even the little additional fame that my report 
of him could give was worth the trouble of seeking. The fact cer- 
tainly is, that he did talk to-night for display. 

\6th. — I have lost this day all my best known friends. Captain 
Spencer is gone to Buenos Ayres across the Andes : the Doris 
has sailed for Rio de Janeiro ; and I feel her departure the more, 
from the situation of my poor invalid. Of all who once made that 
ship interesting to me, none but poor G. remains with me ; and of 
the rest how probable it is that I may have lost sight of most of 
them for life ! 

11th. — Mr. Clarke called on his way to the city, and brought me 
San Martin's farewell to Peru. It is as follows : — 

* In his closet at Mendoza, his own portrait was placed between those of Napoleon 
and the Duke of Wellington. 



VALPARAISO. 285 

" T have been present at the declaration of the independence of 
" the states of Chile and of Peru. The standard which Pizarro 
" brought hither to enslave the empire of the Incas is in my power. 
" I have ceased to be a public man : thus I am rewarded with usury 
" for ten years of revolution and war. 

" My promises to the countries where I have made war are ful- 
" filled, — to make them independent, and to leave them to the free 
" choice of their government. 

" The presence of a fortunate soldier (however disinterested I may 
" be) is terrible to newly constituted states ; and besides, I am 
" shocked at hearing it said that I desire to make myself a sovereign. 
" Nevertheless, I shall always be ready to make the last sacrifice for 
" the liberty of the country ; but in the rank of a simple individual, 
" and no other. 

" As to my public conduct, my countrymen, as in most things, 
" will be divided in their opinions : their posterity will pronounce 
" a true sentence. 

" Peruvians ! I leave you an established national representation : 
" if you repose entire confidence in it, sing your song of triumph ; if 
" not, anarchy will devour you. 

" May prudence preside over your destinies ; and may these crown 
" you with happiness and peace ! 

" Jose de San Martin. 

" Pueblo Libro, Sept. 20th, 1822." 

If there be any thing real in this, if he really retires and troubles 
the world no more, he will merit at least such praise as was be- 
stowed on 

" The Roman, when his burning heart 

Was slaked with blood of Rome, 
Threw down his dagger, dared depart 

In savage grandeur home : 
He dared depart in utter scorn 
Of men that such a yoke had borne." 

For indeed he has not " held his faculties meekly ;" but yet he has 
done something for the good cause ; — and oh ! had the means been 



286 JOURNAL. 

righteous as the cause, he would have been the very first of his 
countrymen : but there is blood on his hands ; there is the charge 
of treachery on his heart. 

He is this day gone to Cauquenes, and has left the port not one 
whit enlightened as to the cause of his leaving Peru. It is probably 
like the retirement of Monteagudo, a sacrifice of his political exist- 
ence in order to save his natural life. * 

I think Lord Cochrane went either to day or yesterday to Quintero. 
The Valparaiso world would have rejoiced in some meeting, some 
scene, between him and San Martin : but his good sense, and truly 
honourable feelings towards the country he serves, have prevented this. 
If San Martin is unfortunate, and forced to fly his dominion, His 
Lordship's conduct is magnanimous ; if it be only a ruse de guerre 
on San Martin's part to save himself, it is prudent, and will leave 
him at liberty to expose the Protector as he deserves. 

Monday the c 2\st. — During these last few daysValparaiso has enjoyed 
nearly its ordinary state of dull tranquillity. It seems the convention 
had, notwithstanding the express wish of the executive, rejected the 
reglamento in toto ; but their vote being sent back for revision, its 
operation is to be suspended for a few months. 

My poor invalid continues suffering, though the kindness of my 
neighbours and the advance of the season enable me to procure for 
him all the little comforts which can amuse his mind, or gratify his 
still delicate appetite. Milk is very abundant at this season ; green 
peas are come in ; a friend sends us asparagus from the city ; and 
the strawberries are just ripe. It is the custom here, when this ele- 
gant fruit first comes in, to tie it up in bunches, with a rose, a pink, 
or a sprig of balm ; and these little bunches, laid on the evergreen 
leaves of mayten, shaded with sprigs of the same, and laid in little 
wicker baskets, are brought by the rosy-faced children, from all the 
wardens within ten miles, to the port for sale. I have known a real 



* See Lord Cochrane's letter, and Lima Justificada. 



VALPARAISO. 287 

given for a single strawberry on their first ripening, but now a real 
will purchase more than two persons could eat. 

2.6th. — The Lautaro arrived from Talcahuana under most uncom- 
fortable circumstances : she has had a serious mutiny on board, occa- 
sioned by the want of food and other necessaries while in the south ; 
and the officers themselves felt so severely the same evils, that they 
could not restrain the men, as in any other case they might have 
done. As soon as the ship went to a neighbouring port, where she 
could procure provisions, the people returned to their duty ; and the 
captain and officers would fain have passed over the whole thing, but 
the mutiny was already reported to government, and it is said that it 
is determined to punish some of the ringleaders. I trust, however, 
that in their justice they will remember mercy, and think of the wants 
that exasperated the crew and their good conduct afterwards. 

We learn that Lord Cochrane is gone to the city on business con- 
nected with the squadron ; and as he is said to be living with the 
Director, it is hoped that at length the government will do justice in 
its naval department. 

October 31st. — This month has been a most important one for 
Chile. The government has promulgated its new constitution and its 
new commercial regulations, neither of which appear to me to an- 
swer their purpose. 

The reglamento, or commercial regulation, begins by a long pre- 
amble, addressed by the minister of the interior to the convention 
on laying before it the rules drawn up by a committee composed 
partly of ministers and partly of merchants : I understand not much 
of these things ; but there are passages so opposite to common sense, 
that a child must be struck with them. The three first sections 
concern the establishment and subordination of custom-house officers, 
of whom some are to be stationary and some ambulatory ; the latter 
are to be obeyed wherever they are met, on the hills, in the road, or 
out of it, in all weathers. They are to have a copper badge about 
the size of a crown-piece, which they are to wear concealed ; and yet 
if they stop a cargo in the midst of the widest plain, or in the worst 



288 JOURNAL. 

weather, that cargo must be opened, and is not to be removed till 
proper officers are fetched to watch it to the nearest station, to see 
whether it contains smuggled goods, or whether a piece of cotton 
runs a yard more or less than the manifest ; for now, every bale must 
have the precise number of yards specified as well as pieces. By 
this regulation many sorts of goods must be destroyed, most injured ; 
and in case of rain, the sugars, for instance, taken from the backs of 
mules and examined in the open road, must be damaged, if not lost. 
This clumsy attempt at exactness must of course soon be put an 
end to. 

The sixth section declares Valparaiso to be the only free port of 
Chile, thus doing a manifest injustice to all the others ; a declaration 
too, highly imprudent, considering the jealousies on the subject that 
have always existed in the south, and those that have occasionally 
appeared at Coquimbo. The lesser ports, as Concon, Quintero, &c. 
are absolutely closed against all foreign vessels ; and native ships 
have some hard restrictions imposed on them, such, for instance, as a 
prohibition to touch at those ports on their arrival from foreign 
countries. Besides Valparaiso, foreign ships are allowed to touch 
at Coquimbo, Talcahuana, and Valdivia ; also San Carlos de Chiloe, 
when it is conquered; and, with a government licence, they may 
go to Huasco and Copiapo, but solely for the purpose of taking in 
copper. 

All foreign vessels touching in any of these ports must pay four 
reals per ton, excepting whalers, who pay nothing : native ships 
coming from abroad to pay two reals per ton ; but if employed in 
coasting, nothing : for pilotage, anchorage, and mooring, all vessels 
with one mast pay five dollars ; with two masts, ten dollars ; with 
three masts, fifteen dollars. National ships or foreign whalers, not 
trading, to pay one half of the above duties. 

The seventh section confines the legal and free passes of the Andes 
to one ; namely, that by the valley of Santa Rosa. So that those of 
San Juan de los Patos, the pass of the Portillo, and that of the 
Planchon, are shut up : this is not the way to civilise a country. 



VALPARAISO. 289 

And, moreover, all cargoes must pass through Mendoza, and receive 
a certificate there, or they will not be allowed to enter Chile. All 
this is followed by the narrowest and most vexatious rules for mani- 
fests, for trans-shipments, for land-carriage, &c. that the ingenuity of 
man has devised, bearing alike upon foreigners and natives, merchants 
and husbandmen. 

The most curious thing in the whole production is the notice in the 
preamble of the twelfth section concerning importations. The duties 
on all these are so high, as in many cases to amount to a prohibition, 
with the viewof protecting home-manufactures, forgetting that, except- 
ing hats and small beer, there is not a single manufactory established 
in Chile ; for we can hardly call such the soap-boiling and candle- 
dipping of the country. And because a man in Santiago has actually 
made a pair of stockings in a day, no more foreign stockings are to 
be introduced ; so that the ladies must learn to knit, or go barefoot ; 
for it is hardly to be hoped that the one pair manufactured per day 
will supply even the capital. Better take a few Manchester stockings 
until he of Santiago has a few more workmen employed. As there 
are literally no Chilian cabinet-makers, the prohibitions of foreign 
chairs and tables will send the young ladies back to squatting on the 
estrada ; and as it must be some years, perhaps centuries, before they 
will raise and weave silk here, or manufacture muslins, we shall have 
them clad in their ancient woollen manteaus ; and future travellers 
will praise the pretty savages, instead of delighting in the society of 
well-dressed and well-bred young ladies. The passage which I allude 
to is so curious I must copy it, for the benefit of those of my friends 
who wish to form a just estimate of the wisdom of the Chileno legis- 
lature in these matters. 

After noticing that these regulations must lead either to an increase 
of the public funds, or to an entire cessation of all importations, 
which the minister very properly contemplates as the most probable 
result, he says, " Would to God that these regulations may bring 
" about the day when we shall see the total products of our 
" custom-houses, as far as relates to foreign goods, reduced to a 

p p 



290 JOURNAL. 

" cipher ! Then should we see the true rising-star of our prosperity. 
" Our fertile soil abounds in productions of all sorts, and we need 
" but little from abroad. On whichever side we look, Nature is 
" overflowing, and only wants funds, talents, activity, industry. Yes, 
" I repeat, — let that day arrive, our exports will augment, and im- 
" portation will decrease ; and in a happy hour may the receipts of 
" the treasury decrease with them," &c. &c. &c. This, for a state 
yet in infancy, with a bare million of inhabitants, and those half 
savages, and which produces, ready made, that metal from its hills 
which may purchase the manufactures of the world, is perhaps as 
exquisite a specimen of the perversion of principles, and of their 
misapplication, as it is possible to conceive. The discourses of Men- 
tor in Telemachus would be just as applicable. Chile for a long 
period ought not to spare people to manufacture any thing beyond 
necessaries ; she wants hands to till the ground, to dig the mines, 
to man the ships, which she must have if she will have any thing. 
Her raw production, her staple commodity, is gold, or the equally 
valuable copper ; and it grieves one to see a parcel of rules well 
enough for a ready-civilised country in Europe, — where the niggard 
earth yields not wherewithal to trade, and all must be laboured and 
fashioned, and the gold and silver must be made with men's hands, — 
adopted here, where every circumstance is diametrically opposite. 

This is quite enough of the reglamento for me. I have no pa- 
tience for custom-house registers, and manifests, and invoices, and un- 
derstand them as little as I like them. Besides, I have nothing to 
do with them, except as they are here part of an essay towards go- 
verning a new state by no means as yet prepared for them. 

I remember the time when I should as little have thought of read- 
ing the reglamento of Chile, as I should of poring over the report 
of a committee of turnpike roads in a distant country ; and far less 
should I have dreamed of occupying myself with the Constitution 
Politica del estado de Chile. But, times and circumstances make 
strange inroads on one's habits both of being and thinking; and I have 
actually caught myself reading, with a considerable degree of interest, 
the said Political Constitution. It was promulgated on the 23d of this 



VALPARAISO. 291 

month* and is but newly printed ; and in order to print it the 
public journals were stopped, as there are neither types nor workmen 
enough, — though I believe the chief deficiency is in the latter, — to 
print gazettes and a constitution at once. 

The constitution is divided into eight sections ; and these into 
chapters and articles, as the subject requires. It begins by asserting 
the freedom and independence of Chile as a nation, and with defin- 
ing the limits of the territory, fixing Cape Horn as its southern point, 
and the desert of Atacama as its northern boundary ; while the 
Andes to the east, and the ocean to the west, form its natural limits. 
It claims besides, the islands of the archipelago of Chiloe, those of 
Mocha, of Juan Fernandez, and Saint Mary. The second chapter of 
the first section concerns those who may be called Chilenos : 1st, 
those born in the country ; 2d, those born of Chilian parents out of 
it ; 3d, foreigners married to natives after three years' residence ; 
4th, foreigners employing a capital of not less than 2000 dollars 
who shall reside for five years. All Chilenos are equal in the eye of 
the law ; all employments are open to them ; they must all contribute 
their proportion to the maintenance of the state. 

The second section declares the religion of the state to be the 
Catholic Apostolic Roman, to the exclusion of all others ; and 
that all the inhabitants must respect it, whatever be their private 
opinions. 

The third section declares the government to be representative, 
and that the legislative power resides in the Congress, the executive 
in the Director, and the judicial in the proper tribunals. All are 
citizens who, being Chilenos, are of twenty-five years of age, or who 
are married ; and, after the year 1833, they must be able to read and 
write. Persons shall lose their right of citizenship who, 1st, are na- 
turalised in other countries ; 2d,' accept employment from any other 
government ; 3d, are under any legal sentence not reversed ; 4th, 
remain absent from Chile, without leave, more than five years. These 
rights are suspended, 1st, in case of interdiction, or of moral or 
physical incapacity ; 2d, insolvents ; 3d, defaulters to the public 

p p 2 



292 JOURNAL. 

funds ; 4th, hired servants ; 5th, those who have no ostensible 
means of livelihood ; 6th, during a criminal process. 

The fourth section contains sixty-two articles, and concerns the 
powers and divisions of the Congress, which is to consist of two 
chambers, — the Senate, and the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate, 
or court of representatives, is to consist of seven individuals, chosen 
by ballot by the deputies ; four of whom, at least, must be of their 
own body ; and the ex-directors, the ministers of state, the bishops 
having jurisdiction within the state, or, failing them, the head of the 
church for the time being; one minister of the supreme tribunal of 
justice ; of three military chiefs, to be named by the Director ; of the 
directorial delegate of the department where the Congress sits ; of a 
doctor from each university ; and of two merchants, and of two landed 
proprietors, whose capital shall not be less than 30,000 dollars. 
These to be named by the deputies. The members will thus not be 
less than twenty, the president being the oldest ex-director. This 
senate is to sit as long as the term of the Director's power, i. e. six 
years ; and if he be re-elected, it may continue to sit. 

The Chamber of Deputies is annual, the elections being made by 
lists, allowing one deputy for about 15,000 souls. All citizens above 
twelve years old are eligible as electors, and such military men as do 
not command troops of the line ; as deputies, such as, besides the 
above qualifications, have landed property to the amount of 2000 
dollars, or are natives of the department where they are elected. The 
Congress is to meet for three months every year, on the 18th of 
September ; and an oath is required from the deputies, to be taken 
before the Director and Senate, in the following form : — " Do you 
" swear by God and your honour to proceed faithfully in the dis- 
" charge of your august functions, dictating such laws as shall best 
" conduce to the good of the nation, political and civil liberty, private 
" safety and that of individual property, and to the other ends for 
" which you are assembled, as set forth in our constitution ?" — " Yes, 
" I swear." — "If you do this, God enlighten and defend you ; if not, 
" you must answer to God and the nation." 

The fifth section of the constitution contains sixty-one articles. It 



VALPARAISO. 



293 



concerns the executive power ; and first, the Director, who is declared 
to be elective, and that the office is incapable of becoming hereditary. 
The direction is to last six years, and the Director may be re-elected 
once for four more. He must be a native of Chile, and have resided 
in it the five years immediately preceding his election. He must be 
above twenty-five years of age, and he must be elected by both Cham- 
bers of the Congress, by ballot. Two-thirds of the votes shall suffice 
to elect a Director. The election made by the Convention this year 
of the present Director shall be considered as the first. 

In case of the death of the Director while the Congress is not sitting, 
the Director shall, on the 12th of February, the 5th of April, and the 
18th of September, deposit in a box, with three several keys, to be 
kept by several persons, a paper sealed and signed, containing the 
names of the Regency who are to take charge of the government, 
until his successor be appointed in Congress. As the Senate is per- 
manent, it will co-operate with the Regency in calling together the 
Deputies, as an extraordinary meeting of Congress, which shall sepa- 
rate as soon as the business of the election is over. 

The Director is declared head of the army and navy. He has full 
powers to treat with foreign nations, and to make peace and war. 
Together with the Senate, he is to present to the bishoprics, and all 
other ecclesiastical dignities and benefices. He has the command of 
the treasury. He is to appoint ambassadors, to name the ministers, 
and secretaries of state, and to name also the judges of circuits. He 
may pardon or commute punishments. 

After setting forth these powers and privileges, there are a few 
articles that look like restrictions ; but as I see no means of enforcing 
them, they act rather as the fear of punishment in another world 
does on too many sinners here, than as real limitations to absolute 
authority. 

There are three ministers of state. 1. The Secretary for Foreign 
Affairs ; — 2. Of the Home Department ; — 3. Of War and Marine. 
If the Director pleases he may give two of these offices to one per- 
son. These ministers lie under a limited responsibility, i. e. no re- 
sponsibility at all. 



294 JOURNAL. 

The sixth section of the constitution relates to the internal govern- 
ment of the state. The ancient Intendencias are abolished, and the 
country is divided into departments and districts. In each depart- 
ment there shall be a delegate commanding its civil and military 
affairs, and these are to be named by the Director and Congress. To 
these delegates all the superintendence of the courts of justice, the 
custom-houses, and duties, &c. is confided. And they are to preside 
in the cabildos or town councils, which in other respects are to re- 
main on the old footing. No member of a cabildo may be arrested 
without the express permission of the Director. 

The seventh section concerns the judical powers. They reside in 
the usual tribunals. There is a supreme court of five judges, without 
whose sanction no execution can take place. This court serves also 
as a court of appeal. It is entitled to examine and recommend to 
the executive to amend the laws. The members to visit the prison 
each week in turn : they are to sit as council for the Director and 
Senate on points of law, &c. &c. All emoluments beyond their ac- 
tual pay are forbidden. 

There is also a Chamber of Appeal composed of five members. But 
all these things in all their parts are so complicated and tiresome, not 
fitted for the country because they ai*e the laws of Spain, Moorish, 
Gothic, Latin, all mixed, and then local customs, in short, 72,000 
laws, where there are not twice the number of people who can read, 
that I cannot go through with them. The only sensible paragraph 
in this part of the constitution is the declaration that no inquisitorial 
institution shall ever be established in Chile. 

A little section follows on public education which is very well, 
and shows the intention of establishing many schools and encourag- 
ing a national institute. 

The section concerning the army, and militia, and navy, only places 
them all at the disposal of the Director. 

And the last section concerns the observance and promulgation of 
the constitution, and the signatures of the Convention and Director. 

November 1st. — My invalid is now so much better, that we have 
been riding out upon the hills, and getting acquainted with new 



VALPARAISO. 295 

paths and new flowers. Poor fellow ! he seems more delighted at 
his renewed liberty even than I am at mine. The charm of a re- 
covered health has been so often felt that one wonders it should 
delight again ; but 

" Sans doute que le Dieu qui nous rend l'existence, 

A l'heureuse convalescence, 
Pour de nouveaux plaisirs donne de nouveaux sens ; 

A ses regards impatiens, 
Le cahos fuit ; tout nait, la lumiere commence ; 

Tout brille des feux du printemps ; 
Les plus simples objets, le chant d'une fauvette, 
Le matin d'un beau jour, la verdure des bois, 

La fraicheur d'une violette, 

Mille spectacles, qu'autrefois 

On voyoit avec nonchalance 
Transportent aujourd'hui, presentent des apas 

Inconnus a l'indifference, 

Et que la foule ne voit pas." 

I cannot doubt that these beautiful lines of Gresset were in Grey's 
mind, when he wrote his ode on recovering from sickness : the feel- 
ings are native in every heart, however, and one wants only the 
power of poetical expression to clothe them in verse. But inde- 
pendent of all this, the neighbourhood of Valparaiso is peculiarly 
beautiful at this time. The shrubs have all been refreshed by the 
rains ; the ground is covered with a profusion of flowers ; the fruit 
is just ripening ; and the climate, always agreeable, is now, in this 
spring-time, delicious. No poet ever feigned for his Tempe a more 
charming sky than that of Chile ; and there is a sweetness and soft- 
ness in the air that soothes the spirits and doubles every other 
pleasure. 

c 2d. — We have had a great many visitors, and of course some 
news, the most interesting of which is, that the government is in 
earnest in its intentions to pay the squadron. One half of the pay- 
ments will, it is said, be made in money, the other half in bills upon 
the custom-house. Lord Cochrane arrived from the city last night, 
and is pitching tents by the sea-shore beyond the fort for himself, 
because he does not choose to accept a house from government, in 



296 JOURNAL. 

the way these things are managed here. He has of course a claim to 
the accommodation of a dwelling on shore ; and an order was sent to 
the governor of Valparaiso to provide one. The governor con- 
sequently pitched upon one of the most commodious in the port, and 

sent an order to Mr. C , an Englishman, to remove with his 

family, and to leave it furnished for the Admiral, such being the old 
Spanish custom. But His Lordship would by no means allow Mr. C. 
to move, and has accordingly pitched a tent. His friends are a little 
anxious about this step. No Chileno would lift his hand against 
him ; but there are persons now in Chile who hate him, and who 
have both attempted and committed assassination. 

Sunday, November 3d. — This evening, at about nine o'clock, the 
Director came quietly to the port. It is said he is come to see the 
squadron paid. Some assert that he is come in order not imme- 
diately to meet San Martin, who, having bathed at Cauquenes, is 
about to move into the city, and is to take up his residence in the 
directorial palace, only, however, as a private visitor.* He is to have 
a double guard : but if he is, as it is said, so beloved, why should he 
fear? I suspect that, like other opium-eaters, he is become nervous. 

I trust, for the honour of human nature, that an opinion which I 
have heard concerning the Director's appearance in the port, is un- 
founded : it is, that he is come hither in order to seize an opportunity 
of getting possession of Lord Cochrane's person, that is, to sacrifice 
him to the revenge of San Martin in compliance with the entreaties 
forwarded from Peru, by the agents Paroissien and Del Rio. 

November 1th. — We have been riding about for several days, and 
making acquaintance among the neighbouring farmers : every where 
we are invited to alight and take milk, or at least to rest, and walk in 
the gardens and gather flowers. It is quite refreshing to see the 
gentle and frank manners of the peasants of the country, after all 
the bustle and petty intrigue of the port and its in-dwellers. To-day, 

* If I were first magistrate of a country, however, I should not choose to accustom the 
people to see another in my place. 



VALPARAISO. 297 

however, I have spent very agreeably to myself, chiefly at the Ad- 
miral's tents ; but that is far enough from the town not to hear its 
noise. Having lodged Glennie at the tents, I returned to the. town 
and called on the Director, who is living in the government-house ; 
and Zenteno and his family are gone to another. His Excellency 
looks very well, and received me as courteously as I could wish ; and, 
according to the custom of the country, as soon as I was seated pre- 
sented me with a flower. I know not how it happened, but the dis- 
course turned on nunneries, and I mentioned the Philippine nuns in 
Rome ; on which he begged to have a particular notice of them and 
their rule, in order to better the condition, if possible, of the nuns of 
Chile, and especially of such as superintend the education of young 
girls. This I promised ; and as soon as I came home, sent him such 
notices as I had, with references to the ecclesiastical histories I sup- 
pose he can command in the public library. I little thought, when 
visiting in the parlour of that convent, which was once Caesar Borgia's 
palace, and looking over the ruins of Rome from its galleries, painted 
by Domenichino, I think, that that visit might become of consequence 
to the forlorn recluses of Chile ! 

Having paid my visits, I returned to the tents, and found that my 
patient had been sleeping quietly. Lord Cochrane, much interested 
in him, kindly pressed me to take him for change of air to Quintero, 
which I am most willing to do ; and as soon as he is strong enough, 
I mean to go. The Admiral himself does not look very well, but 
that is not marvellous ; the squadron is still unpaid. The charges 
preferred against him by San Martin, though never credited by the 
government, which possesses abundant documents in its own hands to 
refute them, have remained uncontradicted by him, at the request of 
that government, in order to avoid exciting party spirit, or a quarrel, 
perhaps a war, between Peru and Chile. But now that all danger of 
that kind is over, and as San Martin is honoured by having the palace 
itself appointed for his residence, and receives every mark of public 
attention, as if on purpose to insult Lord Cochrane, those charges 
should and will be answered ; and answered too with facts and dates 
which will completely overwhelm all the accusations, direct and in- 

Q Q 



298 JOURNAL. 

direct, that were ever drawn up or insinuated against him. There are 
other causes too why those now in high station in Chile should be 
anxious : there are reports and whispers from the north and from the 
south, of discontents of various kinds. The brothers and kindred of 
the dead, and of the exiled, have not forgotten them ; and to see the 
man whom they consider as the author of their misfortunes received 
and honoured, irritates them. With every respect for the personal 
character of the Director, they see him as the friend and ally of San 
Martin, and the supporter of Rodriguez and his comrades ; and I can 
hear that sort of covert voice of discontent that precedes civil strife. 
The government of Santiago throws all the blame of this discontent 
on the squadron, and has sent a few troops here, it is said, to intimi- 
date it : but the number is so small, that it would scarcely suffice to 
guard the Director, or to secure a state prisoner ; to which latter 
purpose those who best know the dispositions of the government 
believe them to be destined. The Admiral is undoubtedly the per- 
son who would be seized, if the partisans of San Martin dared 
commit so great an outrage ; nor would they stop there. San 
Martin's victims never survive his grasp. I am grieved that the 
Director should lend himself to such a purpose. The people in the 
port seeming not to dare to speak, say in fact every thing ; and I was 
glad to take refuge from hearing disagreeable things at the tents, 
where, at least, we are secure from hearing of the politics of Chile. 

12th. — I may say, with the North Americans, every thing is pro- 
gressing ; Glennie is much be:ter ; the discontents are spreading. The 
squadron is in a way to be paid, though, perhaps, too late ; but when 
the money came down, they forgot to send stamped paper to make 
out tickets, &c. ; so the officers and sailors must wait till proper paper 
can be stamped, and sent from Santiago for the purpose. I have re- 
ceived a letter from the Director in answer to mine about the nuns. 
The reglamento is producing all manner of confusion ; Lord Cochrane 
is proceeding with his refutation of San Martin ; and I have seen him, 
and fixed on a time for being at Quintero. The only thing that is not 
progressing is the repairing the ships. I understand that Mr. Olver, 
a most ingenious artificer, has made the estimates, and undertaken 



VALPARAISO. 



299 



the execution : but it is doubtful if the government, which, like some 
others, is sometimes penny-wise and pound-foolish, will think it ex- 
pedient to part with the necessary sums to put its ships in order. 
Yet if it do not, the coasts must be left defenceless, or new ships 
bought at an exorbitant price. 

I have been looking back at my journal of the last six weeks, and 
it struck me as I read it that it is something like a picture gallery ; 
where you have historical pieces, and portraits, and landscapes, and 
still life, and flowers, side by side. Every other thing written pretends 
to be a whole in itself, and to be either history, or landscape, or por- 
trait ; and generally the author finishes it for a cabinet picture. But 
my poor journal, written in a new country and in a time of agitation, 
to say the least of it, can pretend to no unity of design ; for can I 
foresee what will happen to-morrow? And, as my heroes and he- 
roines (by-the-bye, I have but a scanty proportion of the latter,) are all 
independent personages, I cannot, like a novel-writer, compel them 
to figure in my pages to please me, but they govern themselves ; and 
that, where to write a journal is only a kind of substitute for reading 
the new books of the day, which I should assuredly do at home, is 
perhaps as well : the uncertainty of the end keeps up the interest. 




300 JOURNAL. 

November lAth, Concon. — This morning we set off early from 
home, and at eleven o'clock arrived at Vina a la Mar, the hacienda of 
the Carreras. The family has suffered much during the revolution, 
the head of it being cousin-german to Jose Miguel Carrera. Some of 
the sons met an untimely death ; one of them is now an exile in the 
service of Artigas : three daughters only, out of nine, are married ; 
the rest are living with their parents at Vina a la Mar. It is a noble 
property : the little stream Margamarga flows through it to the sea, 
forming a valley exceedingly fertile ; and at the village, whence the 
stream takes its name, the best dairies in the district are situated. The 
house of the hacienda is placed nearly in the middle of a little plain 
formed of the alluvial soil washed down from the surrounding moun- 
tains, which rise behind it like an amphitheatre. A few fields and 
some very fine garden ground, cultivated by a Frenchman, Pharoux, 
occupy the space between it and the sea. Behind it lies the exten- 
sive vineyard, which is gradually making way for corn, which is both 
more successful and more profitable than wine here. 

We were received most hospitably by Madame Carrera, who was 
sitting on a very low sofa at the end of the estrada, on which some 
of her grand-children were at play, while her daughters sat round on 
chairs and stools. Refreshments were offered instantly, and warm 
milk with sugar and a little grated cinnamon was brought in and pre- 
sented, with slices of bread. The invalid was then taken into a 
pleasant cool room to rest ; and while he slept, the young ladies 
showed Mr. Davidson, who had escorted us from the port, and my- 
self, the garden, orchard, and farm offices, which differed little from 
those I had seen before, except that they were much out of repair. 
But as the nature of the farm is changing from a wine to a corn farm, 
all the vats and the alembics for brandy, &c. are becoming useless, 
and will be replaced by granaries. The dinner was a mixture of 
Chileno and English customs and cookery ; the children and the 
grandmother being most Chilian, the young ladies most English. 
After a reasonable time after dinner, we rode on to Concon, and were 
met about half way by Mr., Mrs., and Miss Miers. It was one of the 



CONCON. 30i 

loveliest evenings of this lovely climate, and I felt more than com- 
monly exhilarated and disposed to enjoy it, not having been so far 
on horseback since my disastrous ride from San Francisco de Monte 
to Santiago. 

15///. — Rode to the mouth of the river ; part of the water of which 
is lost in the sand accumulated there, part is kept back on the land, 
and produces a marshy lake ; but there is enough left to form a con- 
siderable stream at the regular outlet. I was grieved to see a great 
quantity of very fine machinery, adapted for rolling copper, lying on 
the shore, where Mr. Miers had thrown out a little pier. This ma- 
chinery has been regarded with jealousy by certain members of the 
government, because some part of it may be used for coining ; and 
yet that jealousy will not, I fear, prompt the state to buy it, and 
thereby reform their own clumsy proceedings at the mint. However, 
here lie wheels, and screws, and levers, waiting till more favourable 
circumstances shall enable Mr. Miers to proceed with his farther 
plans. But time, his becoming a citizen with some landed property, 
and the circumstances of his children being born here, will, I trust, 
do every thing for him. 

The hills here have no longer the same character as about Valpa- 
raiso : there, a reddish clay, with veins of granite and white quartz, 
form the greater part, if not the whole mass ; here they consist of a 
greyish or blackish sand, with layers of pebbles and shells visible at 
different heights by the sea-side. The plain on either side of the 
river is rich deep soil, with all sorts of things in it that a large river 
swelling and passing its bounds twice a year may be supposed to 
deposit. The first inundation, for it is little less, is during the rains ; 
the second on the melting of the snows of the Andes : it is said also 
to rise in misty weather ; but this place is so close to the moun- 
tains, that it must feel the daily changes ofweatner in the cordil- 
lera ; and, indeed, I believe there is always less water in the morn- 
ing than in the evening, owing, of course, to the melting of snow in 
the day time. 

11th. — We rode to Quintero, stopping to rest at the old house on 



302 JOURNAL. 

the lake. As this is a cattle estate, it is not populous in proportion 
to its extent ; but still every valley has its little homestead or two, 
around which, at the latter end of the rains, and while the cattle are 
in the mountains, the peasants form their little chacra, or cultivated 
spot, for pease, gourds, melons, onions, potatoes, French beans, 
(which, dried, as frixole, forms a main article of their food,) and other 
vegetables. This little harvest must all be gathered in before the 
season for the return of the cattle to the plain, as the landlord has 
then a right to turn in the beasts to every field ; and this is often a 
great hardship, because the peasants are bound to duty-work per- 
haps six, eight, ten, twelve, or more days in the year, at the will of 
the landlord as to season. Now, it often happens that he employs 
his people to clear his own chacra just at the moment when theirs is 
ready to be cleared ; and the time passes, and the poor man's food 
is trodden down by the oxen : here on this estate, while the present 
master is in the country, such things cannot happen ; but the legal right 
exists, and a hard master or overseer may exercise it. Under Lord 
Cochrane, the peasantry have found an unwonted freedom which 
they are so totally unused to, from motives of humane consideration, 
that they have taken it for carelessness, and have abused it ; but 
better so, than that they should be oppressed ! Each settler pays a 
few reals as ground-rent ; two dollars, on some estates more, lor pas- 
ture for every horse, mule, ox, or cow, and double for every hundred 
sheep. The tenants of Quintero, taking advantage of the owner's 
long absence, and the carelessness or dishonesty of the overseer, have 
increased their private flocks and cattle beyond what the estate will 
bear, without account or payment, and thus materially injured it. 

We found Mr. Bennet, Lord Cochrane's Spanish secretary, and my 
friend Carrillo, the painter, ready to receive us. The former is a 
remarkable person, on account of his long residence and singular 
adventures in South America. 77 narre bien, and I suspect better in 
Spanish than in English ; but there is something not unpleasant in 
the broad Lincolnshire dialect which gives an air of originality to his 
thoughts, as well as his stories. He affects a singularity of dress : 



QUINTERO. 303 

sometimes a loose shirt and looser trousers, nankeen slippers, a 
black fur cap, and a sash, form the whole of his habiliments ; at 
other times, wide cossack trousers, a blue jacket, real gold buttons, 
a small pair of epaulettes, and a military cap, and the sash tight round 
his waist, adorn him ; — rarely does he condescend to wear a neck- 
cloth, even when the rest of his dress is in conformity with common 
usage ; but when in full costume, his thin pale personage, and eye 
with an outward cast in it, are set off by a full suit of black, with 
shiny silk breeches that look like constitutional calamanco (v. Re- 
jected Addresses), enormous bunches of ribbon at the knees, and buckles 
in his shoes. I never could help laughing when I saw him in this 
stiff dress, forming so complete a contrast with the description he 
gives of his costume while, during the early period of the revolution, 
he was governor at Esmeraldas ; an honour which, I can well believe, 
was forced on him. Then, his body was painted, his head adorned 
with feathers, and his clothing as light as that of any wild Indian. 

He was dressed now in middle costume, to do the honours of 
Quintero ; and most politely he did them to Mrs. Miers and me, and 
most kindly to Glennie. After dinner we engaged him to tell us 
various parts of his adventures ; and were vulgar enough to prefer his 
account of the earthquake he experienced at the Baranca, when the 
dismayed inhabitants fled to the hills, and expected every moment to 
see their ruined town swallowed up, as Callao had been in 1747. * 
After the earthquake, he told us of his visits to tremendous volcanoes, 
and said, that he had himself descended lower into the crater of 

* The destruction of Callao was the most perfect and terrible that can be conceived : 
no more than one of all the inhabitants escaping, and he by a providence the most singular 
and extraordinary imaginable. This man was on the fort that overlooked the harbour, 
going to strike the flag, when he perceived the sea to retire to a considerable distance ; 
and then, swelling mountains high, it returned with great violence. The inhabitants ran 
from their houses in great terror and confusion ; he heard a cry of miserere rise from all 
parts of the city, and immediately all was silent. The sea had entirely overwhelmed this 
city, and buried it for ever in his bosom ; but the same wave which had destroyed this 
city drove a little boat by the place where the man stood, into which he threw himself and 
was saved. 

Burke's Account of the European Settlers in America. 



304 



JOURNAL. 



Pinchincha than where Humboldt had left his mark. I enquired of 
him, whether the people in any of the countries he has lived in had 
an idea that earthquakes could be considered as periodical, and 
whether the few instances in which they had occurred twice at 
regular intervals were thought to promise farther coincidences ; men- 
tioning, that in that case we wanted but a year or two at most of the 
return of the severe earthquake of this part of Chile. But I could 
not learn that any Indian superstition or tradition pointed that way, 
any more than the speculations of European natural philosophers ; 
and, indeed, twice within these five years, Coquimbo and Copiapo, 
hitherto described as never touched by these calamities, have been 
utterly destroyed, and have thus contradicted some theories about 
situations, soils, &c. * 

18th. — We tried to persuade Mrs. Miers to remain with us, but in 
vain. She was anxious to return to her children, and accordingly 
left us in time to get home by daylight. I made a little sketch of the 
house ; and having found a lithographic press here, I mean to draw it 
on stone, and so produce the first print of any kind that has been 
done in Chile ; or, I believe, on this side of South America. 




* This conversation may appear to be imagined after the event ; but it was not so. 
Our company consisted of Mr. Bennet, Mrs. Miers, Mr. Glennie, and myself; and many 
a time afterwards did we recall this evening's discourse. 



QUINTERO. 305 

November 20th. — Yesterday, after dinner, Glennie having fallen into 
a sound sleep in his arm-chair by the fire side, Mr. Bennet and I, 
attracted by the fineness of the evening, took our seats to the veranda 
overlooking the bay ; and, for the first time since my arrival in Chile, 
I saw it lighten. The lightning continued to play uninterruptedly 
over the Andes until after dark, when a delightful and calm moon- 
light night followed a quiet and moderately warm day. We returned 
reluctantly to the house on account of the invalid, and were sitting 
quietly conversing, when, at a quarter past ten, the house received 
a violent shock, with a noise like the explosion of a mine ; and 
Mr. Bennet starting up, ran out, exclaiming, " An earthquake, an 
earthquake ! for God's sake follow me !" I, feeling more for Glennie 
than any thing, and fearing the night air for him, sat still : he, look- 
ing at me to see what I would do, did the same ; until, the vibration 
still increasing, the chimneys fell, and I saw the walls of the house 
open. Mr. Bennet again cried from without, " For God's sake, come 
away from the house !" So we rose and went to the veranda, mean- 
ing, of course, to go by the steps ; but the vibration increased with 
such violence, that hearing the fall of a wall behind us, we jumped 
down from the little platform to the ground ; and were scarcely there, 
when the motion of the earth changed from a quick vibration to a 
rolling like that of a ship at sea, so that it was with difficulty that 
Mr. Bennet and I supported Glennie. The shock lasted three minutes ; 
and, by the time it was over, every body in and about the house had 
collected on the lawn, excepting two persons ; one the wife of a 
mason, who was shut up in a small room which she could not open ; 
the other Carillo, who, in escaping from his room by the wall which 
fell, was buried in the ruins, but happily preserved by the lintel 
falling across him. 

Never shall I forget the horrible sensation of that night. In all 
other convulsions of nature we feel or fancy that some exertion may 
be made to avert or mitigate danger ; but from an earthquake there 
is neither shelter nor escape : the " mad disquietude" that agitates 
every heart, and looks out in every eye, seems to me as awful as the 

R R 



306 JOURNAL. 

last judgment can be ; and I regret that my anxiety for my patient 
overcoming other feelings, I had not my due portion of that sublime 
terror : but I looked round and I saw it. Amid the noise of the de- 
struction before and around us, I heard the lowings of the cattle 
all the night through ; and I heard too the screaming of the sea- 
fowl, which ceased not till morning. There was not a breath of air ; 
yet the trees were so agitated, that their topmost branches seemed 
on the point of touching the ground. It was some time ere our 
spirits recovered so as to a'sk each other what was to be done; but 
we placed Glennie, who had had a severe hemorrhage from the 
lungs instantly, under a tree in an arm-chair. I stood by him while 
Mr. B. entered the house and procured spirits anfl water, of which 
we all took a little ; and a tent was then pitched for the sick man, 
and we fetched out a sofa and blankets for him. Then I got a man 
to hold a lioht, and venture with me to the inner rooms to fetch 
medicine. A second and a third shock had by this time taken place, 
but so much less violent than the first, that we had reasonable hopes 
that the worst was over ; and we proceeded through the ruined sit- 
ting-rooms to cross the court where the wall had fallen, and as we 
reached the top of the ruins, another smart shock seemed to roll 
them from under our feet. At length we reached the first door of 
the sleeping apartments ; and on entering I saw the furniture dis- 
placed from the walls, but paid little attention to it. In the second 
room, however, the disorder, or rather the displacing, was more 
striking ; and then it seemed to me that there was a regularity in the 
disposal of every thing : this was still more apparent in my own 
room ; and after having got the medicines and bedding I went for, 
I observed the furniture in the different rooms, and found that it 
had all been moved in the same direction. This morning I took in 
my compass, and found that direction to be north-west and south- 
east. The night still continued serene ; and though the moon went 
down early, the sky was light, and there was a faint aurora australis. 
Having made Glennie lie down in the tent, I put my mattress on the 
ground by him. Mr. Bennet, and the overseer, and the workmen, 



QUINTERO. 3q>7 

lay down with such bedding as they could get round the tent. It 
was now twelve o'clock : the earth was still at unrest ; and shocks, 
accompanied by noises like the explosion of gunpowder, or rather 
like those accompanying the jets of fire from a volcano, returned 
every two minutes. I lay with my watch in my hand counting them 
for forty-five minutes ; and then, wearied out, I fell asleep : but a 
little before two o'clock a loud explosion and tremendous shock 
roused every one ; and a horse and a pig broke loose, and came to 
take refuge among us. At four o'clock there was another violent 
shock ; and the interval had been rilled with a constant trembling, 
with now and then a sort of cross-motion, the general direction of 
the undulations being north and south. At a quarter past six o'clock 
there was another shock, which at another time would have been 
felt severely ; since that hour, though there has been a continued 
series of agitations, such as to shake and even spill water from a 
glass, and though the ground is still trembling under me, there has 
been nothing to alarm us. / write at four o'clock p. m. — At day- 
light I went out of the tent to look at the earth. The dew was on 
the grass, and -all looked as beautiful as if the night's agitation had 
not taken place ; but here and there cracks of various sizes appeared 
in various parts of the hill. At the roots of the trees, and the bases 
of the posts supporting the veranda, the earth appeared separate, 
so that I could put my hand in ; and had the appearance of earth 
where the gardener's dibble had been used. By seven o'clock per- 
sons from various quarters had arrived, either to enquire after our 
fate, or communicate their own. From Valle Alegri, a village on the 
estate, we hear that many, even of the peasants' houses, are damaged, 
and some destroyed. In various places in the middle of the gardens, 
the earth has cracked, and water and sand have been forced up 
through the surface; some banks have fallen in, and the water- 
courses are much injured. 

Mr. Cruikshank has ridden over from old Quintero : he tells us 
that great fissures are made on the banks of the lake ; the house is 
not habitable ; some of its inmates were thrown down by the shock, 

rr 2 



308 JOURNAL. 

and others by the falling of various articles of furniture upon them. 
At Con con the whole house is unroofed, the walls cracked, the iron 
supporters broken, the mill a ruin, and the banks of the mill-stream 
fallen in. The alluvial soil on each side of the river looks like a 
sponge, it is so cracked and shaken : there are large rents along the 
sea-shore ; and during the night the sea seems to have receded in an 
extraordinary manner, and especially in Quintero bay. I see from 
the hill, rocks above water that never were exposed before ; and the 
wreck of the Aquila appears from this distance to be approachable 
dry-shod, though till to-day that was not the case in the lowest tides. 

Half past eight p. m. — We hear reports that the large and po- 
pulous town of Quillota, is a heap of ruins, and that Valparaiso is 
little better. If so, the destruction there must have reached to the 
inhabitants as well as the houses, — God forbid it should be so ! At 
a quarter before six another very serious shock, and one this moment. 
Slight shocks occur every fifteen or twenty minutes. The evening 
is as fine as possible; the moon is up, and shines beautifully over the 
lake and the bay : the stars and aurora australis are also brilliant, 
and a soft southerly breeze has been blowing since daylight. We 
have erected a large rancho with bamboo from Guayaquil and reeds 
from the lake, so that we can eat and sleep under cover. Glennie 
and I keep the tent ; the rest sleep in the rancho. 

Thursday, November 21st. — At half past two a.m. I was awoke, 
by a severe shock. At ten minutes before three a tremendous one, 
which made us feel anew that utter helplessness which is so appalling. 
At a quarter before eight, another not so severe; a quarter past nine, 
another. At half past ten and a quarter past one, they were re- 
peated ; one at twenty minutes before two with very loud noise, 
lasting a minute and a half; and the last remarkable one to-day at a 
quarter past ten. These were all that were in any degree alarming, 
but slight shocks occurred every twenty or thirty minutes. 

Mr. M is returned from the port. Lord Cochrane was on 

board the O'Higgins at the time of the first gi*eat shock, and went 
on shore instantly to the Director; for whom he got a tent pitched 



QUINTERO. 3Q9 

on the hill behind the town.* His Lordship writes me that my 
cottage is still standing, though every thing round is in ruins. Mr. M. 
says, that there is not a house standing whole in the Almendral. 
The church of the Merced is quite destroyed. Not one house in 
the port remains habitable, though many retain their forms. There 
is not a living creature to be seen in the streets ; but the hills are 
covered with wretches driven from their homes, and whose mutual 
fears keep up mutual distraction. The ships in the harbour are 
crowded with people ; no provisions are to be had ; the ovens are 
ruined, and the bakers cannot work. Five English persons were 
killed, and they were digging out some of the natives ; but the loss 
of life has not been so great as might have been feared. Had the 
catastrophe happened later, when the people had retired to bed, the 
destruction must have been very dreadful. We hear that Casa 
Blanca is totally ruined. 

Friday, November 22d. — Three severe shocks at a quarter past 
four, at half past seven, and at nine o'clock. After that there were 
three loud explosions, with slight trembling between ; then a severe 
shock at eleven; two or three very slight before one o'clock; and then 
we had a respite until seven p. m., when there was a slight shock. 

As we are thirty miles from the port, and ninety from the city, the 
reports come to us but slowly. To-day, however, we learn that 
Santiago is less damaged than we expected. The mint has suffered 
seriously ; part of the directorial palace has fallen ; the houses and 
churches are in some instances cracked through : but no serious 
damage is done, excepting the breaking down the canals for irrigation 
in some places. A gentleman from Valparaiso describes the sens- 
ation experienced on board the ships as being as if they had suddenly 



* Don Bernardo O' Higgins, the Director, whose business at Valparaiso was of a na- 
ture decidedly hostile to Lord Cochrane, narrowly escaped with his life in hurrying out 
of the government house. He received on that terrific night protection and attention 
from the Admiral, which I hope for the honour of human nature caused him at this 
time to suspend his hostile intentions : But I fear that his temporary retirement from the 
government on reaching Santiago, was only to leave others at liberty to do as they pleased. 



310 JOURNAL. 

got under weigh and gone along with violence, striking on rocks as 
they went. Last night, the priests had prophesied a more severe 
shock than the first. No one went to bed : all that could huddle 
themselves and goods on board any vessel did so ; and the hills were 
covered with groups of houseless creatures, sitting round the fires in 
awful expectation of a mighty visitation. On the night of the nine- 
teenth, during the first great shock, the sea in Valparaiso bay rose 
suddenly, and as suddenly retired in an extraordinary manner, and 
in about a quarter of an hour seemed to recover its equilibrium ; but 
the whole shore is more exposed, and the rocks are four feet higher 
out of the water than before. 

Such are our reports from a distance. Nearer home we have had 
the same prophecy, concerning a greater shock with an inundation 
to be expected ; and the peasants consequently abandoned their 
dwellings, and fled to the hills. The shock did not arrive, and that 
it did not has been attributed to the interposition of Our Lady of 
Quintero. This same Lady of Quintero has a chapel at the old house, 
and her image there has long been an object of peculiar veneration. 
Thither, on the first dreadful night, flocked all the women of the 
neighbourhood, and with shrieks and cries entreated her to come to 
their assistance ; tearing their hair, and calling her by all the endear- 
ing names which the church of Rome permits to the objects of its 
worship. She came not forth, however ; and in the morning, when 
the priests were able to force the doors obstructed by the fallen 
rubbish, they found her prostrate, with her head off, and several 
fingers broken. It was not long, however, before she was restored to 
her pristine state, dressed in clean clothes, and placed in the attitude 
of benediction before the door of her shattered fane. 

We had a thick fog to-day, and a cold drizzling rain all the morning 
till noon; when it cleared up,and became still and warm. During many 
of the shocks, I observed wine or water on the table was not agitated 
by a regular tremulous motion, but appeared suddenly thrown up in 
heaps. On the surface of the water, in one large decanter, I observed 
three such heaps form and suddenly subside, as if dashing against the 



QUINTERO. 3jj 

sides. Mercury, in a decanter, was affected in the same manner. 
We had no barometer with us, nor could I learn that any observ- 
ations had been made. 

Saturday, 23d. — The shocks diminished in frequency and force 
during the night and the early part of the day, only one having been 
felt before four p. m. ; when there were four between that and this 
hour, ten o'clock. The weather has been cloudy but pleasant 
to-day. 

More reports from the neighbourhood. The fishermen all along 
the coast assert, that on the night of the 19th they saw a light far out 
at sea, which was stationary for some time ; then advanced towards 
the land, and, dividing into two, disappeared. The priests have con- 
verted this into the Virgin with lights to save the country. 

A Beata saint at Santiago foretold the calamity the day before ; 
the people prayed, and the city suffered little. A propio was de- 
spatched to Valparaiso, who arrived too late, although he killed three 
horses under him, to put the people on their guard. 

Since the 19th the young women of Santiago, dressed in white, 
bare-footed, and bare-headed, with their hair unbraided, and bearing 
black crucifixes, have been going about the streets singing hymns 
and litanies, in procession, with all the religious orders at their head. 
At first, the churches were crowded, and the bells tolled the dis- 
tress incessantly, till the government, aware that many of the belfries 
and some of the churches were cracked, shut them up, lest they 
should fall on the heads of the people; so that now they per- 
form their acts of devotion in the streets, and each family devotes its 
daughters to the holy office. 

At length we have an account of the catastrophe as it affected 
Quillota from Don Fausto del Hoyo, Lord Cochrane's prisoner. Don 
Fausto's head-quarters, now he is a prisoner at large, have been 
generally at that place, though he is equally at home at Quintero. 
He always speaks of Lord Cochrane as el tio (uncle), a term of en- 
dearment used by soldiers to their chief, by children to their 
older friends. He is a shrewd man, but not clever, — unconquerably 



312 JOURNAL. 

attached to his country, Old Spain, and firmly resolved to have 
nothing more to do with war. He was with Romana in the north of 
Germany and Denmark ; embarked with him in the Victory, fol- 
lowed his fortunes, and at length came to Chile with the expedition, 
when the Maria Isabella, now the O'Higgins, came out, and he him- 
self was taken prisoner at Valdivia. 

Don Fausto then reports from Quillota, that he and some friends 
were in the placa, mixing with the people in the festivities of the 
eve of the octave of San Martin, the tutelar saint of Quillota.* The 
market-place was filled with booths and bowers of myrtle and roses ; 
under which feasting and revelry, dancing, fiddling, and masking, 
were going on, and the whole was a scene of gay dissipation, or 
rather dissoluteness. The earthquake came, — in an instant all was 
changed. Instead of the sounds of the viol and the song, there arose 
a cry of " Misericordia ! Misericordia !" and a beating of the breast, 
and a prostration of the body ; and the thorns were plaited into 
crowns, which the sufferers pressed on their heads till the blood 
streamed down their faces, the roses being now trampled under- 
foot. Some ran to their falling houses, to snatch thence children 
forgotten in the moments of festivity, but dear in danger. The 
priests wrung their hands over their fallen altars, and the chiefs 
of the people fled to the hills. Such was the night of the nineteenth 
at Quillota. 

The morning of the 20th exhibited a scene of greater distress. 
Only twenty houses and one church remained standing of that large 
town. All the ovens had been destroyed, and there was no bread : 
the governor had fled, and the people cried out that his sins had 
brought down the judgment. Some went so far as to accuse the 
government at Santiago, and to say its tyranny had awakened God's 

* Don Fausto calls it San Martin de Tours; if so, it was the octave, not the eve, 
because St. Martin of Tours has his festivals on the 4th July, 13th December, and 11th 
of November : the last is the principal festival ; therefore the octave would fall on the 
nineteenth. If it were the eve of the octave, then the saint must be the Pope Saint 
Martin, whose feast is held on the 12th November. 



CONCON. 



313 



vengeance. Meantime the deputy-governor, Mr. Fawkner, an Eng- 
lishman hy birth, assembled the principal persons to take measures 

for relieving the sufferers; among the rest, came Don Dueiias, 

a man of good family, married to one of the Carreras of Vina a la 
Mar, and proprietor of the hacienda of San Pedro. He had been 
in his house with his wife and child : he could not save both at once? 
he preferred his wife; and while he was bearing her out, the roof fell, 
and his infant was crushed. His loss of property had been immense. 
This man then, with this load of domestic affliction, came to Fawkner, 
and told him he had ordered already four bullocks to be killed and 
distributed to the poor ; and desired him, as governor, to remember, 
that though his losses had been severe, he was comparatively a rich 
man, and therefore able as he was willing to deal of his property 
to his neighbours and fellow-sufferers. 

Sunday, 24th. — Our register of shocks to-day gives one at eight 
o'clock a. m. ; and again at one, at three, at five, and at eleven, p. m. 
I was on horseback, and did not feel the first. 

I had wished to go to the port on the 20th, but the river had 
swelled so much that the ford was unsafe until to-day, when I left 
Quintero at six o'clock. The loose banks and the edges of the water- 
courses are pretty generally cracked or broken down ; there are 
cracks along the beach between the Herradura and Concon, but they 
have been nearly filled up by the loose sand falling in ; some rocks 
and stones that the lowest tides never left dry, have now a passage 
between them and the low water-mark sufficient to ride round 
easily. As I approached the river, the cracks and rents in the allu- 
vial soil almost assumed the appearance of chasms, and the earth 
appears to have sunk on the sides of the river, where, as in Valle 
Allegri, water and sand have been forced up through the rents. The 
water at the ford was uncomfortably high, but we passed safely ; 
though a mule I had brought for baggage lost her footing, and was 
carried a little way down the stream before she could recover enough 
to swim to the opposite shore. My friends at Concon have suffered 

s s 



314 JOURNAL. 

a good deal : their house is unroofed ; that is, on one side every 
tile is off, and a considerable part of those on the other side. The 
walls of the mill are quite destroyed ; but the strong corner-posts 
have supported the roof, and the machinery is but little damaged. 
The sides of the mill-lead have fallen in ; but the mill has gained by 
such an alteration in the bed of the river as has given the water 
several inches more fall than it had. — The night of the 19th was ter- 
rific here. The two children of Mr. Miers were in bed in rooms 
which had no communication with each other, and one of them none 
but from the outer veranda with any part of the house. Mr. Miers 
hurried his wife from the house, she shrieking for her children : he 
ran back for the youngest, — the showers of tiles prevented his ap- 
proaching the place where the eldest was : there was a moment's 
pause, — he found the child asleep, and brought him out safe. The 
family spent that night without sleep, walking in front of their ruined 
home. In the morning they pitched a tent ; and by the time I ar- 
rived there they had a ramada, or hut of branches. During the 
great shock the earth had rent literally under their feet, and they 
describe the sound along the valley as most fearful. The church of 
Concon is overthrown, and the estate « house nearly destroyed. 

At Vina a la Mar I found the whole family established in a 
ramada at their outer gate-way ; there nothing was standing but part 
of the front wall of the dwelling-house : the ruin had been complete ; 
not a shelter remained for any living thing. The whole of the little 
plain is covered with small cones from one to four feet high, thrown 
up from below on the night of the 19th, and from which sand 
and water had been thrown out. I attempted to ride up towards 
one of them ; but on approaching it, the horse began to sink as in a 
quick-sand ; therefore I desisted, not choosing to pay too dearly for 
the gratification of my curiosity. 

The road between Vina a la Mar and the port is very much in- 
jured by the falling of the rocks from above : in one place indeed it 
is rendered extremely unsafe ; but the horses of Chile are so sure- 



VALPARAISO. 315 

footed, that I had no apprehension but from the chance of a severe 
shock while passing the perilous place. At length I reached the 
heights of the port ; and looking down, from thence, there appears 
little difference on the town, excepting the absence of the churches 
and higher buildings : from a distance, the ruins in the line of the 
streets fill the eye as well. As I approached nearer, the tents and 
huts of the wretched fugitives claimed my undivided attention ; and 
there indeed I saw the calamity in a light it had not hitherto ap- 
peared in. Rich and poor, young and old, masters and servants, 
were huddled together in intimacy frightful even here, where the 
distinction of rank is by no means so broad as in Europe. I can 
quite understand, now, the effect of great general calamities in de- 
moralising and loosening the ties of society. The historians of the 
middle ages tell of the pestilence that drove people forth from the 
cities to seek shelter in the fields from contagion, and returned them 
with a worse plague, in the utter corruption of morals into which 
they had fallen. Nor was "the plague in London" without its 
share of the moral scourge. " Sweet are the uses of adversity" to 
individuals and to educated men ; but I fear that whatever cause 
makes large bodies of men very miserable, makes them also very 
wicked. 

I rode on in no very cheerful temper to my own house, where I 
found some persons had taken refuge. It had suffered so little, that 
I think fourteen tiles off one corner was the extent of the damage ; 
but the white-wash shaken off the walls, and the loosening of every 
thing about it, showed that the shock had been severe. I was in 
hopes, seeing the state of the ranchos of the peasants around, that my 
poor neighbours had likewise escaped. But poor Maria came to me 
evidently sick at heart. I asked for little Paul, her son, a fine boy of 
five years old ; when she burst into tears. He was sleeping in the 
rancho on his little bed : she had been out at a neighbour's house. 
She ran home to seek her son : she entered her cottage, — he lay on his 
bed; but a rafter had been shaken from its place, — it had fallen on his 

s s 2 



316 JOURNAL. 

little head, and from the face alone she could not have told it was 
her own child. And then came another grief: they came to take 
the body and bury it, — she had not four dollars in the house ; the 
priests, therefore, as she could not pay the fees, refused to bury it in 
consecrated ground : and " They have thrown my child into a pit 
" like a dog, where the horses and the mules will walk over him, 
" and where a Christian prayer will not reach him !" — All comment 
on this would be idle ; as were my words of comfort to the sad 
mother. She only answered, " Ah, Senora ! why were you not here ?" 

Seeing that my house was in a manner untouched, the priests re- 
solved to make a miracle of it; and accordingly, by daylight on the 
20th, Nuestra Senora del Pilar was found, in her satin gown, standing 
close. to my stove, and received numerous offerings for having pro- 
tected the premises, and I suppose carried off a silver pocket-com- 
pass and a smelling bottle, the only two things I missed. 

Finding there was little to be done at home this afternoon, I rode 
on to the port as soon as I had taken some refreshment. The Al- 
mendral presents a sad spectacle : not a house remains habitable ; 
all the roofs and walls of the land-side are ruined, those of the sea- 
side are seriously injured. The tower of the church is a heap of 
sand, and broken brick, and gilt and painted plaister, and all that is 
ugly arid painful in a recent ruin : part of the roof still remains, 
suspended between some of the side buttresses, and its hideous 
saints and demons only make the devastation appear more horrible. 
The port itself is in some parts utterly destroyed, in others scarcely 
injured : here a fort with not a stone left on another ; there a shop 
whose tiles have scarcely been loosened. The ruined and the un- 
ruined form alternate lines. It appears that where the veins of 
granite rock ran under the foundations, the buildings have stood 
tolerably well ; but wherever any thing was erected on the sand or 
clay it has been damaged. 

There was not a human being in the town ; so I went on board the 
English merchant vessel Medway, where Captain White had shel- 



VALPARAISO. 



317 



tered my friends the Hogans, among many others, and there I was 
kindly invited to sleep. The reports I heard on arriving here once 
more awakened my attention to the affairs of Chile, which the more 
immediate feelings connected with the earthquake had made me, for 
the moment, lose sight of. 

At length the government had resolved to pay the squadron ; and 
the first plan, not uninfluenced, it is believed, by the counsels of San 
Martin, was to pay the men and petty officers before the officers ; 
also to pay them ashore, the pay office being provided either with 
leave-tickets for four months, or discharges to give them on demand, 
so as to have left the ships, the Admiral, and the officers in the har- 
bour, without a man. This plan, of course, the Admiral would not 
suffer, and therefore the payments are making on board : the first 
took place on the very day of the earthquake ; and I have been told 
that the confusion of the scene in the streets on that disastrous night, 
was increased by the number of sailors ashore on leave, and making 
merry with their friends on their newly-received pay. They receive 
bills of twenty-five dollars ; four only of which they will get silver for, 
the rest they are compelled to expend in clothes at the shops set up 
for that purpose by Areas in the port. 

This day the Independencia, the only effective ship of the squa- 
dron, was despatched without the Admiral's leave, without even the 
formality of transmitting the orders through him ! But Zenteno, as 
minister of marine, took upon himself to send her on a particular 
service. It is understood to be in pursuit of a vessel or vessels going 
to San Carlos of Chiloe with money and stores, which are to be in- 
tercepted. 

Monday, 25th. — So severe a shock took place at a quarter past 
eight o'clock this morning, as to shake down a great deal of what had 
been spared on the night of the 19th. Two others occurred in the 
course of the forenoon, and two after seven at night. I have been 
busy all day packing my books, clothes, &c, to remove ; because my 
house is let over my head to some persons who, seeing how well it 



318 JOURNAL. 

has stood, have bribed the landlord to let it to them. — They are 
English ! 

While I was thus busy, Lord Cochrane called, with Captain Crosbie. 
His Lordship most kindly, most humanely, desired me to remain at 
Quintero, with my poor invalid, and not to think of removing him or 
myself until more favourable times and circumstances ; and told me 
he would soon go thither, and settle whereabouts I should shelter 
myself and Glennietill he should be well enough finally to remove. 

Tuesday, 26th. — There were five shocks during this day : I must 
now omit many ; because, unless they are very severe, I never awake 
in consequence of them during the night. While I was at my 
own house packing up, I was surprised to see my friend Mr. C. 
ride up : he had just arrived from Conception, a distance of 170 
leagues, which he had ridden by by-ways in five days. He had 
passed through Talca and San Fernando ; at both of which places, as 
well as Conception, the earthquake of the 19th had been felt, but not 
severely. Mr. H., who has just returned from the city, tells me that 
Casa Blanca and Melipilla are both a heap of ruins : Illapel is also 
destroyed, and all the village churches have suffered ; nothing but 
the ranchos escape : they are built like hurdles, and though the mud 
shakes from the interstices, they are safe. Mi*. C. has indeed, 
however, brought intelligence more important than any thing con- 
nected with the earthquake. The people of Conception, enraged at 
the unjust provisions of the reglamento, and at other oppressive 
measures, have burnt the same reglamento and the constitution 
in the market-place ; have convoked an opposition convention ; and 
have insisted on Freire's taking the field with the acknowledged 
purpose of turning out Rodriguez and the rest of the iniquitous 
administration. Freire has already marched, but as yet his motions 
cannot be known at Santiago ; and of course I am tongue-tied as to 
the intelligence, till it comes from some public quarter : conjecture 
is free, however ; and I cannot hep thinking that the object here has 
been to secure the squadron in Freire's interest. But that may 
not be : honour forbids it, I think ; and the Chilian squadron 



VALPARAISO. 



319 



will not forget honour, while its present chief is even nominally its 
admiral. 

Wednesday, 27///. — Several slight shocks to-day : a very severe one 
at ten o'clock a. m., and again at six p. m. My pleasant friend 
Mr. B. called to-day : he has announced his intended marriage with 
a lady of Chile, and the circumstances connected with it form rather 
an interesting point in the history of the progress of toleration in 
the country. In other marriages of the kind, the foreigners have 
generally changed their nominal religion for the sake of their brides, 
but my friend has more of the feelings of Richardson's days ; and 
though I do not mean to say that he is full-dressed in bag and wig, 
like Sir Charles Grandison, at six o'clock in the morning, or to com- 
pare the lady with the incomparable Clementina, his conduct in the 
matter has been firm and right for himself, and wise for the country 
he has now adopted. In this conduct he has been supported by the 
Director, against all superstitious and party opposition. Neither 
wishing his intended wife to change her faith, nor willing to change 
his own, he applied to the Bishop for a licence and dispensation to 
marry ; this the prelate positively refused, unless Mr. B. would enter 
into the bosom of the church. The government now interfered, re- 
presenting to the Bishop that the present state of the world demanded 
less bigotry, and the advantage of the country required the greatest 
degree of liberality towards strangers. Still His Grace was inexorable ; 
when he received notice, that until he were more tractable, certain 
tithes and emoluments which in the late commotions the church had 
lost should not be restored. And now, after granting his dispensation 
thus reluctantly, all he has gained is the framing a concordat by the 
government, which will curtail his revenues, and diminish his power. 
He is a bigoted ambitious man, holding, to appearance, with the pre- 
sent government by various ties, the most efficient of which is cer- 
tainly the partnership of Areas, who has married his niece, with 
Rodriguez, but having stronger connections with all those who oppose 
O'Higgins, whether as partisans of the unfortunate Carreras, or 



320 JOURNAL. 

merely as discontented men. The disputes on this marriage have 
been violent ; but Mr. B.'s firmness and temper have brought them 
to a proper conclusion. Many compromises and irregular ways, to 
save appearances for the church, were proposed to him ; but he 
wished, not only for bis own sake, but in order to establish an im- 
portant precedent, to have the matter publicly and legally settled. 

I intended to have returned to Quintero to-day, the launch of the 
Lautaro having been obligingly lent to me for that purpose. But, 
contrary to all experience at this time of the year, a strong northerly 
wind set in, which totally prevented it ; and at night a heavy torrent 
of rain fell, which has done great damage by injuring the goods left 
exposed by the falling of the houses, and which has rendered the 
miserable encampments on the hills thoroughly wretched. Yet the 
people are rejoicing at it ; because they say that the rain will ex- 
tinguish the fire that causes the earthquake, and we shall have 
no more. 

28th. — Notwithstanding the rain, which lasted till midnight, we 
have experienced no less than five shocks to-day. Superstition has 
been busy during this calamitous period ; thinking the moment, no 
doubt, favourable for regaining something of the ground she has been 
losing for some time past. This day was appointed for the execution 
of a Frenchman and three Chilenos, for having gotten on board of 
a ship in the harbour during the night, and after dangerously wound- 
ing the master and chief mate, plundering it of a considerable sum. 
The priests have been stirring up the people to a rescue, declaring 
that the misfortunes of the times will be redoubled if good Catholics 
are thus to be executed for the sake of heretics. The government 
was apprised of these cabals, and surrounded the place of execution 
with soldiers enough to destroy the hope of rescue, and the execution 
took place quietly : nor is this the only clamour of the kind. Some 
attempts, among the lower clergy, have been made to stir up the 
people to attack the heretics generally, but without success ; either 
because they are really indifferent, or because they do not recognise, 



QUINTERO. 321 

in the humane and courteous strangers among them, the horrible 
features and manners which it had pleased the priests to decorate 
the poor heretics with in their imaginary pictures. 

I went on board the Admiral's ship soon after breakfast to call on 
some of my friends, who, with their families, had taken refuge there 
on the night of the 19th, and to whom he had given up his cabin 
and lived himself in a tent on deck. The officers with whom 
I talked on the effect of the earthquake on board, told me, that, on 
feeling the shock and hearing the horrid noise, compounded of the 
aweful sound from the earth itself and that of the falling town, they 
had looked towards the land, and had seen only one cloud of dust and 
heard one dreadful shriek : Lord Cochrane and others threw them- 
selves immediately into a boat, to go to the assistance, if help were 
still possible, of the sufferers. The rushing wave landed them higher 
than any boat had been before ; and they then saw it retire fright- 
fully, and leave many of the launches and other small vessels dry. 
They fully expected a return, and the probable drowning of the town ; 
but the water came back no more, and the whole bottom of the bay 
has risen about three feet. Every one had some peculiar escape to 
relate. Poor Mrs. D. was alone, her father and husband having both 
gone out to spend the evening. Her servants fled from the house at 
the very first of the shock : she had two children, and could not 
carry them both out. She was with them in an upper room, — the 
infant was at her breast ; she carried it to the cradle where her eldest 
lay, and leaning against the bed of one, with the other in her arms, 
she waited in mortal agitation to the end, when some one came to 
her relief, and carried her on board a vessel in the harbour. 

After spending a very interesting forenoon on board the O'Higgins, 
listening to these tales of terror, I returned to Quintero in the Lau- 
taro's launch, which performed the voyage in three hours ; and might 
have done it in less, but for the swell, the consequence of yesterday's 
north wind. 

29th. — Only one very sensible shock to-day. 

T T 



322 



JOURNAL. 



30/7;. — Before ten o'clock, and at two, shocks accompanied with 
an unusually loud noise : it is seldom that any shock is entirely with- 
out. Sometimes a sound like an explosion takes place before the 
shock ; sometimes a kind of rumbling noise accompanies it ; and we 
often hear the sound without being sensible of any motion, though 
the quicksilver in the decanter is perceptibly agitated. 

Dec. 1st. — The shocks have been slight, but frequent. We rode 
to-day to the village of Placilla, through the estate of May tens, and 
by the lake of Carices, which bounds the Quintero estate ; the scenery 
is extremely beautiful, and the valley of the lake rich and fruitful. 
Placilla is a pleasant village, and puts me in mind of something in Eng- 
land : it is prettily situated on the little stream of La Ligua*; the 
ranchos are of the better kind, and intermixed with orchards and 
wardens. Corn and pasture surround it, and the mountains rise at 
an agreeable distance. We found the people just coming from Mass, 
which had been celebrated in a ramada, built up in the church-yard ; 
the church and parsonage, the only two brick-and-mortar edifices 
in the village, having been shaken down on the night of the 19th. 
The parsonage, however, is only partially destroyed. We found the 
curate in a little dirty room in a corner of the house, which I sup- 
pose is his study, with about a score of old books with greasy black 
leather covers ; and in the corner a parcel of wool : after giving us 
some rum there, he led us over a heap of ruin to another corner- 
room but little damaged, where he set before us bread, butter, cheese, 
milk, and brandy, insisting that we should take luncheon with him ; 
which we, nothing loath, consented to. I then went to settle accounts 
with the daughter of the judge of the village, — no less a personage 
than my washerwoman. But in ancient times the queens and 
princesses themselves washed for their fathers and brothers ; and, 
I think, like the ladies here, the Princess Nausicaa took the foul 
clothes to the river-side to whiten. It must be confessed, that a 



The little town of La Ligua, famous for horses, was destroyed on the 19th. 



QUINTERO. 323 

Chilena washerwoman lias decidedly the advantage, in elegance of 
appearance, over our ladies of the suds at home ; but whether it be 
for the advantage of the community that the daughters of the judges 
and justices should so employ themselves, T leave to graver persons 
to determine; — though I think there is something against it in a 
statute of the first year of George the Third's reign, wherein the 
independence of judges is considered as necessary to their upright- 
ness. But this is a long way from England. 

Dec. 2d. — We have felt but one shock early this morning. I 
remember exclaiming on the apathy of the people of Carracas, who 
returned to rebuild their houses when the earthquakes returned only 
once in six hours, or some such period ; and that was after several 
months passed without any considerable convulsion. But man is 
the creature of habit ; and though it is scarcely a fortnight since all 
around us, " temple and tower, fell to the ground," and though we 
ourselves are living in tents and huts pitched round our ruined dwell- 
ing, we pursue our business, and even our amusements, as if nothing 
had happened, and lie clown to sleep as confidently as if we had not 
lately seen the earth whereon we repose reeling to and fro. We 
have time too to turn to history and poetry, to compare the descrip- 
tions of men who did not feel the fearful times with the passing facts. 
One of these appears to me to have superior beauty and truth ■ 
Childe Harold is telling of the day of Thrasimene, when, in the fury 
of the battle, " an earthquake reeled unheededly away." 

" The earth to them was as a rolling bark 
Which bore them to eternity ; they saw 
The ocean round, but had no time to mark 
The motions of their vessel ; Nature's law, 
In them suspended, reck'd not of the awe 
Which reigns when mountains tremble, and the birds 
Plunge in the clouds for- refuge, and withdraw 
From their down-toppling nests, and bellowing herds 
Stumble o'er heaving plains, and man's dread hath no words." 



T T 2 



324 



JOURNAL. 



«Hfe 



MSH| 



aim 

WMmh?--- 




The southern winds are now come, and they often bring us such 
clouds of dust that our attempts to write are in vain ; and our food 
would be defiled did we not retire to a little bower under the shelter 
of a hill, — where, in a dining-room of Nature's own making, with its 
door and windows looking to the ocean complete, we eat and re- 
main until the evening calm comes on, when we collect round a large 
fire * that we burn at the front of our tents, and talk till bed time. 
Don Benito is perhaps the best companion for such a time that we could 
have had : he has seen so much of every thing that we have n,ever 
either seen or heard, that his tales are always new ; and for memory, 
the Sultaness Scheherezade herself did not surpass him : so we have 
named his stories the " Peruvian Nights' Entertainments ;" and listen 
sometimes to the histories of the college of Quito, which prove that 
professors and students are on the same footing there that professors 
and students are, and have always been, in all times and countries ; 
and love stories, that show that young hearts can feel, and confide, 



* I afterwards learned, that this fire being seen from Valparaiso night after night, oc- 
casioned the. report that a volcano had burst out at Quintero. 



. QUINTERO. 325 

and even break, on the skirts of the Andes, as in the valleys of Europe ; 
and to histories of revolution, when every passion and affection is 
called into action. These are incomparably the most interesting: 
they are the materials out of which tragedy and romance are built. 
The two following were told last night. 

Juana Maria Pola, of Santa Fe de Bogota, was a woman whose 
husband, and brothers, and sons, were deeply engaged in the patriot 
cause. When Santa Fe was taken from the royalists, after the 
barracks of the infantry and cavalry had been seized, the patriots 
paused to collect numbers sufficient to attack the artillery ; and then 
was that interval, when " the boldest held his breath for a time." 
Juana Maria found her son among the troops, who were awaiting the 
rest. " What do you do here ?" said she. — " I expect each moment to 
fight for La Patriot," — " Kneel down then, and take a mother's bless- 
ing. We women will go on and receive the first fire, and over our 
bodies you shall march and take yonder cannon, and save your 
country." She blessed her son, and rushed on with the foremost, 
and the day was theirs. From that day she held a captain's pay and 
rank. But the royalists retook Santa Fe, and Juana Maria Pola 
was one of their first victims : she was led to the market-place and 
shot. 

Jose Maria Melgado was a young man of good family and excel- 
lent education. He was an advocate at twenty-two years of age, and 
on the point of being married to the woman of his choice. When 
Pomacao arose, Melgado instantly joined him, and became judge- 
advocate to the patriot army. Shortly afterwards General Ra- 
mirez took the place which was then Pomacao's head-quarters, and 
Melgado with others was taken and condemned to death. His 
family and friends, however, possessed such interest that he might 
have obtained his pardon, would he have submitted to the royal 
mercy, and embraced the royal cause. But to all that could be 
urged to that effect he appeared absolutely deaf, and persisted in re- 
turning no answer whatever. At length he was led out for execu- 
tion ; and the priest came to confess him, and even then and there 



326 JOURNAL. 

exhorted him to make his peace by a free and full acknowledgment 
of guilt, and to submit to the King ; in which case he promised him 
a reprieve. He answered with great warmth, that it least of all be- 
came a priest to disturb the last moments of a dying man ; and to 
call him back to worldly cares, when his soul had put them off: 
that it was nonsense to talk to him of a reprieve, for that his doom 
had been sealed, and he knew it ; ay, even from the hour in which 
he had joined Pomacao, " A man," said he, "should be careful how 
he changes his opinions or his party ; but having once seriously con- 
sidered and adopted them, he should never swerve from them. 
Besides, it is too late to talk to me of reprieve or change. What I 
have done, I have done ; and I do not regret it. I thought it right 
to espouse the cause of the freedom of my country; I think so still, 
and am willing to die for it. It ill becomes you to harass my last 
hour !" — The priest withdrew : the adjutant being by, Melgado 
asked leave to smoke a segar, saying he was a little ruffled, and 
wished to calm himself. Leave being given, he looked round to the 
spectators, and said, " Will any body for God's sake give me a segar ?" 
A soldier handed him one : when he had half-smoked it he laid it 
down, saying he was ready, and felt calm again. The officer ap- 
proached to bandage his eyes ; he repulsed him, and said, " At least 
let me die with my eyes free." He was told it was necessary : " Well, 
well, this will do;" and placing his hand across his eyes, he signified 
that he was ready, and received the shot ! 

There is a real enthusiasm in the people of South America. They 
are ignorant, oppressed, and, perhaps, naturally indolent and timid. 
But the cry of independence has gone forth : the star of freedom has 
appeared on their hoi'izon, — not again to set at the bidding of Spain, 
not to be hushed by the hitherto powerful talisman of kingly 
authority. Armies have penetrated forests, and scaled mountains, 
and waded through morasses, only to hail each other as fellow- 
labourers in the same cause, as co-partners in that new-won freedom 
they are resolved to leave to their children. It may, perhaps, be 



QUINTERO. 327 

long ere their states may be settled ; the forms of their government 
may long fluctuate, and perhaps much blood may yet be shed in the 
cause, — for, alas! what human good is there which has not been 
purchased by some evil ? But never again will the iron sceptre of 
the mother-country be stretched out over these lands. 

Tuesday, December Hd. — The earth, which seemed to have re- 
sumed its stillness, has this day been violently convulsed. At half 
past three a. m. ; at nine ; at noon, a long and very severe shock with 
much noise ; at two o'clock another ; and at midnight a fifth, not in- 
ferior to those of the three first days, always excepting the first 

great one. 

Wednesday, 4th. — Four severe shocks before eight o'clock this 
morning seemed to threaten a renewal of the first days after the 
19th November ; but since we have had only two slight ones to-day. 

The tidings of Freire's march from Conception is now public, as 
well as the news of the meeting of the provincial convention, and its 
censure of that of Santiago, first, for declaring itself the first repre- 
sentative assembly ; secondly, for receiving the Director's resignation 
and re-electing him : each of which acts is considered as illegal. It 
is whispered, that the Director talks of resigning. He is much hurt 
at what he calls, and perhaps feels, the ingratitude of Freire, to whom 
he was attached as one brave man to another, and whom he had 
always favoured. But Freire and his soldiers have carried on suc- 
cessfully a long and harassing war. They have not been paid ; and 
it is said that Freire has another cause for resentment against the 
Director's family, if not against himself. General Freire was, it 
appears, passionately attached to a young lady, an orphan, who 
became so by the event of the battle of Maypu ; and his regard was 
returned, and he hoped to marry her ; — when, as the lady was, by her 
orphan state, a ward of government, her hand was bestowed upon 
another ; and thus, with her rich possessions, she was taken from 
her lover to reward, it was said, a deserving officer. But who could 
deserve more than Freire ? He said nothing — but can he have 
forgotten this ? Besides, another marriage was offered to him from 



328 JOURNAL. 

which he could not but turn with disgust, thus doubling the injury 
done to his feelings. 

Less provocation than this has, ere now, armed nation against 
nation ; and, in the half-civilised state of this country, private feelings 
will tell more in the sum total of the causes of civil wars than in 
more polished states, — where men are smoothed down to such a 
resemblance to each other, and trained to such a command over the 
external signs of passion, that individual emotions have seldom in- 
fluence beyond a family circle. 

General Freire is a native of this country ; but his father was 
an European, either English or French. He was never in Europe, 
and has read nothing; but he has strong natural powers and sa- 
gacity, an honourable and generous spirit, and has devoted himself 
entirely to military conduct and affairs. I do grieve for Chile. In 
the state to which the country had advanced, every day of tran- 
quillity was a gain, in spite of bad government. There are elements 
of good here, which only want time and tranquillity to grow ; and it 
is cruel, that the misdemeanors of the ministers should stir up civil 
strife, that worst of plagues, and so retard the progress of all that 
the nation has been struggling for. I could address the republic in the 
words of an old poet : — 

" Ill-fated vessel ! shall the waves again 

Tempestuous bear thee to the faithless main ? 

What would thy madness, thus with storms to sport ? 

Ah ! yet with caution keep the friendly port. 

* * * The guardian gods are lost, 
Whom you might call in future tempests tost." 

Francis's Horace. 

Thursday, 5th December. — We are again more quiet ; only three 
slight shocks to-day. 

Friday, 6th. — Only two shocks ; but the highest wind I remember. 
A beautifully bright day ; and the bay as lovely as possible, with the 
white waves dashing over the dark-blue surface. We were obliged to 



QUINTERO. 329 

take shelter in the grove, as the showers of sand penetrate the rancho 
in every direction, and nearly suffocate us. I have tied the branches 
of the quintral that hangs from the maytens to the shrubs below, and 
so made our wall firmer, and our window more shapely, that we may 
look out upon the sea and the hills ; and having stuck four posts into 
the earth, and laid one of the fallen doors upon them, we are furnished 
with an admirable dining-table. 

- December 1th. — A slight shock at six a. m., immediately followed 
by a severe one : and another in the evening. 

Lord Cochrane arrived in the Montezuma with Captain Winter 
and Messrs. Grenfell and Jackson. Glennie, who appeared to have 
been gaining ground for a fortnight, had another attack to-day. 
Sunday, 8th. — A very severe shock. 

Monday, 9th. — One very slight shock ; the day dull and cloudy ; 
the thermometer at 65" Fahrenheit. In the evening I had a pleasant 
walk to the beach with Lord Cochrane ; we went chiefly for the pur- 
pose of tracing the effects of the earthquake along the rocks. At 
Valparaiso, the beach is raised about three feet, and some rocks are 
exposed, which allows the fishermen to collect the clam, or scollop 
shell-fish, which were not supposed to exist there before. We traced 
considerable cracks in the earth all the way between the house and 
the beach, about a mile, and the rocks have many evidently recent 
rents in the same direction : it seemed as if we were admitted to the 
secrets of nature's laboratory. Across the natural beds of granite, 
there are veins from an inch to a line in thickness. Most of these 
are quite filled up with white shiny particles, I suppose quartz, 
and in some places they even project a little from the face of the 
rock ; others only begin to have their sides coated, and have their 
edges rounded, but are not nearly filled. The cracks of this earth- 
quake are sharp and new, and easily to be distinguished from older 
ones : they run, besides, directly under the neighbouring hills, where 
the correspondent openings are much wider ; and in some instances 
the earth has actually parted and fallen, leaving the stony base of the 
hills bare. On the beach, although it was high water, many rocks, 

u u 



330 JOURNAL. 

with beds of muscles, remain dry, and the fish are dead ; which proves 
that the beach is raised about four feet at the Herradura. Above 
these recent shells, beds of older ones may be traced at various 
heights along the shore ; and such are found near the summits of 
some of the loftiest hills in Chile, nay, I have heard, among the 
Andes themselves. Were these also forced upwards from the sea, 
and by the same causes ? On our return, I picked up on the beach, 
in a little cove where there is a colony of fishermen, a quantity of 
sand, or rather of iron dust, which is very sensible to the magnet. 
It exactly resembles some that was brought me from the Pearl 
Islands lately. Here the rocks are of grey granite, and the soil is 
sand mixed with vegetable mould, and layers of pebbles and sea- 
shells ; some of these upwards of 50 feet above the present beach. 
Nothing can be more lovely than the evening and morning scenery 
here. This evening, as we returned to the house, the snowy Andes 
were decked in hues of rose and vermilion ; and the nearer hills in 
dazzling purple, streaming to the ocean, where the sun was setting 
in unclouded radiance. 

Tuesday, 10th, — While sitting at dinner with Lord Cochrane, 
Messrs. Jackson, Bennet, and Orelle, we were startled by the longest 
and severest shock since the first great earthquake of the 19th No- 
vember. Some ran out of the house * (for we now inhabit a part of 
it), and I flew to poor Glennie's bed-side : it had brought on severe 
hemorrhage, which I stopped with laudanum. Soon afterwards we 
had a slighter shock, and again at half past three a severe one. The 
wind was most violent, the thermometer at 65°. 

l\th. — A loud explosion and severe shock at half past seven a. m. ; 
another at ten ; and then two, very slight. 

12th. — A violent shock at noon, a slight one afterwards. As we 
were riding home to-day from a little tour by Valle Alegri and the 
Carices, we found a long strip or bed of sea-weed, and another of 



* The portion of the house built of wooden frame-work and plaistered stood perfectly, 
only the plaister was shaken off. 



QUINTERO. 33J 

muscles, dead and very offensive ; they had never been within reach 
of the tide since the J 9th November. It was as fine a day as I ever 
remember. 

" On the surface of the deep, 
The winds lay only not asleep ;" 

and as thev stole through the woods of odoriferous shrubs, con- 
veyed an almost intoxicating feeling to the sense. I cannot conceive 
a finer climate than that of Chile, or one more delightful to inhabit ; 
and, now I am accustomed to the trembling of the earth, even that 
seems a less evil than I could have imagined. Old Purchas's quaint 
description of Chile is as true as it appears singular from its antiquated 
garb. — " The poor valley," says he, speaking of Chile, " is so ham- 
" pered between the tyrannical meteors and elements, as that shee 
" often quaketh with feare, and in these chill fevers shaketh off 
" and loseth her best ornaments. Arequipa, one of her fairest 
" townes, by such disaster in the yeere 1582, fell to the ground. 
" And sometimes the neighbour hilles are infected with this pes- 
" tilent fever, and tumble down as dead in the plain ; thereby 
" so amazing the feareh.il rivers, that they runne out of their channels 
" to seeke new, or else stand still with wonder, and the motive 
" heate failing, fall into an uncouth tympany, their bellies swelling 
" into spacious and standing lakes : the tides, seeing this, hold back 
" their course, and dare not approach their sometime beloved 
" streames by divers miles' distance, so that betwixt these two 
" stools the ships come to ground indeed. The sicke earth thus 
" having her mouth stopped, and her stomache overlaied, forceth 
" new mouthes, whence she vomiteth streams of oppressing waters. 
" I speake not of the beastes and men, which, in these civil warres 
" of nature, must needes bee subject to devouring miserie." 

Dec. 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th. — : There have been four shocks each 
day, accompanied by much noise ; and we have heard several ex- 
plosions, without feeling any motion, like the noise of heavy guns at 
sea. I have been occupied in reading San Martin's accusations of 
Lord Cochrane, and His Lordship's reply. The accusations are as 
frivolous as they are base ; and are exactly calculated to excite and 

uu 2 



332 JOURNAL. 

keep up that jealousy which his being a foreigner and a nobleman, 
and his great talents, have excited. Presented to the government of 
Santiago while His Lordship was absent, and by envoys whose pri- 
vate malignity added to every accusation all the force of hints and 
inuendos, they struck at his honour and his personal safety equally. 
Happily there were some feelings which prevented the Director from 
giving credit to some of the charges, and he knew that documents 
existed which disproved others ; and with this knowledge, and these 
feelings, he had entreated Lord C. not to answer San Martin imme- 
diately on his arrival, lest such an answer as he might give should 
involve the governments in contention or war. Now, however, that 
San Martin has retired from the government of Peru, and that no 
evil can arise to the public from a refutation of the atrocious 
calumnies he has taken pains to spread here and to send into foreign 
countries, Lord C. has addressed a letter to him, not only excul- 
pating himself, but exposing the baseness, cruelty, and cowardice of 
San Martin. * Had the letter nothing to do with Lord Cochrane's 
justification or San Martin's accusation, the picture it presents of 
the conduct of the war in Peru would render it one of the most 
curious documents that has yet appeared before the public concern- 
ing the affairs of South America. 

Dec. \7th. — Mr. Grenfell arrived from the port to-day, bearing- 
important news. General Freire has advanced as far as Talca, and 
a division of the army of Santiago is ordered to be in readiness to 
meet him. The marines belonging to the squadron, with Major 
Hyne at their head, marched towards the city last night, by orders 
from the minister of marine, to reinforce the Director's troops. 
Many arbitrary orders have also been issued to the squadron, so that 
the Admiral has resolved to go and resume the command to-night. 
The Galvarino was ordered to be in readiness for sea ; it is rumoured 
to take some important personage, perhaps San Martin, on board, 
and so convey him to Buenos Ayres, or some other place of safety, 

* See the Sketch of the History of Chile prefixed to this part of the journal, particu- 
larly from p. 83. to the end. 



QUINTERO. 



333 



imagining that his retreat by the Andes would be cut of. Some 
time ago the same order was given, and it was supposed for the same 
purpose in fact, although it was to be executed by the vessel running 
along the coast, and taking up the passenger or passengers at the 
mouth of the Maypu. But neither then nor now would the squadron 
hear of her sailing, having a claim on her, as she was pledged to be 
sold to pay the officers and men. The Lautaro has accordingly 
loaded her guns, and is to sink her if she attempts to move without 
the Admiral's express permission. The fort has loaded its guns also, 
but this the squadron may laugh at. His Lordship's resuming the 
command will no doubt restore every thing to order. 

The party in the South have not been inactive by sea any more than 
by land. Captain Casey, who was captain of the port at Talcahuana, 
has the command of a large vessel which arrived off Valparaiso last 
night, but did not anchor. She sent a boat on board the O'Hiawins, 
it is conjectured with the design of engaging the squadron to aban- 
don the cause of the Director, and to act in opposition to the govern- 
ment, whose sworn subjects every officer and man are. But if such 
were the design, it has failed. Captain Casey has proceeded to 
Coquimbo, where he is likely to meet with more success. That port, 
like those of the South, is grievously injured by the reglamento ; the 
troops are equally indignant at the non-payment of their wages ; and 
if I may trust the reports brought by cattle-dealers and other itine- 
rant persons, they are all ready to revolt. The troops at Quillota and 
Aconcagua have refused to march to the capital ; and though the re- 
cruiting is going on in all the neighbouring districts, it is doubtful on 
which side the new troops will engage. We begin to feel the anxie- 
ties preparatory to a civil war. Our pistols are cleaned ; we have 
prepared a store of bullets: we feel an unusual uneasiness on account 
of the Admiral, who is riding to -town with only his one peon. 
Wednesday, December \&th. — Three shocks to-day, all slight. 
Thursday, \9th. — One long shock, with a very loud noise, and 
several slight shocks. 

Friday, 20th. — Some very slight shocks ; none of which I felt, being 



334 



JOURNAL. 



on horseback at the time. Unless the shocks are very violent, or the 
sound very loud, the horses and mules do not appear to feel them. 

I rode to Valparaiso : the morning was dull and drizzling. I can- 
not describe the effect of such a day on the scenery between Quintero 
and Concon, by the long beach of nine miles : on one side the sand- 
hills with not a sign of vegetation, on the other a furious surf; both 
seeming interminable, and being lost in the thick air ; or if a breeze 
now and then blows the haze aside, the distant dreary points of 
land seem suspended far above the visible horizon, and one goes on 
with a kind of desperate eagerness to see what will be the end. I 
was in a fine humour for moralising. Earthquake under me, civil 
war around me ; my poor sick relation apparently dying ; and my 
kind friend, my only friend here indeed, certainly going to leave the 
country, at least for a time.* All this left me with nothing but the 
very present to depend on ; and, like the road I was travelling, 
what was to come was enveloped in dark clouds, or at best afforded 
most uncertain glimpses of the possible future. 

In such cases the mind is apt to make a sport to itself of its very 
miseries. I more than once on the way caught myself smiling over 
the fanciful resemblances I drew between human life and the scene 
I was in ; or at the fatality which had brought me, an Englishwoman, 
whose very characterestic is to be the most domestic of creatures, 
almost to the antipodes, and placed me among all the commotions of 
nature and of society. But if not a sparrow falls unheeded to the 
ground, I may feel sure that I am not forgotten. Often am I obliged 
to have recourse to this assurance, to make me bear evils and incon- 
veniences that none, not the meanest, in my own happy country 
would submit to without complaint. 

The appearance of Mr. Miers at the little rock near the mouth of 
the river dissipated all my misty reflections, however. He had come 
to show me the new ford, the old one being now dangerous ; and we 
had a pleasant ride together to his house, where we breakfasted. I 

* See Lord Cochrane'.* address to the Chilenos hereafter in the Journal. 



VALPARAISO. 335 

had been an hour and a quarter in riding the twelve miles, including 
the ford ; which takes a long time both to find and to cross, the river, 
though shallow, being wider and more rapid than the Thames at 
London-bridge. Mr. Miers accompanied me to the port ; and after 
transacting some business (for some of the merchants do appear in 
the day time at their warehouses, or the scites of them), and chang- 
ing my riding-dress, 1 went on board the O'Higgins to dinner. 

I find that although Lord Cochrane has twice tendered his resign- 
ation to the government, it has not been accepted. But he is not the 
less resolved on a temporary absence. After dinner, as I was waiting 
for a boat to pay a visit on board another ship, and leaning over the 
taffel-rail of the frigate, musing on all the discomforts of my situation, 
and the dreariness of my prospects, especially if the rains should 
come before Glennie was able to move to some warm dry house, I 
felt a heaviness of heart that few occurrences of my life, and many a 
painful one I have abided, had occasioned. I saw no prospect of 
comfort ; and suddenly it came from a quarter where I had not ex- 
pected, indeed where I should not have dared to expect it. Lord 
Cochrane came up to me where I stood, and gently calling my atten- 
tion, said, that as he was going to sail soon from this country, I 
should take a great uneasiness from his mind if I would go with 
him. He could not bear, he said, to leave the unprotected widow 
of a British officer thus on the beach, and cast away as it were in a 
ruined town, a country full of civil war ! I replied, 1 could not 
leave my sick relation, — I had promised his mother to watch him. 
" Nor do I ask you to do so," answered Lord Cochrane. " No, he must 
go too, and surely he will be as well taken care of with us, as you could 
do it alone." I could not answer — I could not look my thanks ; but 
if there is any one who has had an oppressive weight on the heart, 
that seemed too great either to bear or to obtain relief for, and who 
has had that weight suddenly and kindly removed, then they may 
understand my sensations, — then they may guess at a small part of 
the gratitude with which my heart was filled, but which I could 
not utter. 



336 JOURNAL. 

21st. — One great and several lesser shocks to-day. I find my 
English friends what may be called comfortably settled now, on 
board the several vessels in the harbour, where they have either hired 
the whole or part of the cabins, by way of dwelling-houses. The 
governor of Valparaiso and his family have the sheds of the dock- 
yard fitted up, and are living there. Many of the richer inhabitants 
are gone to Santiago ; the poor and middling classes still continue 
encamped on the neighbouring hills. In clearing the rubbish in the 
town, many more dead are found than it was at first supposed there 
could be. Some of the merchants have erected tents and wooden 
houses in the broad parts of the streets, where they sleep at night 
to guard their goods ; but no one ventures to pass the night in his 
house, except Madame Pharoux, the pretty wife of the keeper of the 
French hotel, who still appears at the bar smiling, and only shrug- 
ging her shoulders a little at things " inouies a Paris ;" but for the 
rest, profiting, I believe, by the commotion that has extinguished 
most kitchen fires but her own. She has been fortunate, and de- 
serves it. 

22d. — Only three slight shocks. The business of preparing for 
my voyage still keeps me in Valparaiso : I pass the day packing on 
shore, eating with my different friends afloat ; and I sleep in a 
corner of the cabin where Mrs. D. and her family have found refuge, 
on board the O'Higgins. Well does Sliakspeare say, " Misery ac- 
quaints a man with strange bedfellows :" we are all, English and 
Chilenos, men, women, and children, brought together in a way 
that nothing but the miseries we have all felt could account for. 

c 23d. — A few very slight shocks, felt as perceptibly on board as on 
shore. I went down to Quintero with my goods in the Lautaro's 
launch ; we were four hours and a half on the voyage. My arrival 
was a matter of some importance at Quintero. I had laughingly told 
my friends there, that 1 was determined we should have a plum- 
pudding on Christmas-day, and that I would return with sufficient 
materials, and in good time to make it. Accordingly, the first things 
thought of were raisins and sugar, spices and sweetmeats ; and I 



QUINTERO. 337 

found that I had not been singular in remembering the promise, 
for I was greeted on my return with a gay little poem, by Mr. Jack- 
son, on the subject ; and to us, who never see a new book, or only 
by chance, when an American trader brings out the Philadelphia 
reprint of a new London or Edinburgh novel (the Pirate is the 
last we have seen), a new poem, even of a hundred or half a hun- 
dred lines, on any subject, is a literary treat, and is valued accord- 
ingly. At any rate, I am sure no birth-day ode, saving, perhaps, the 
celebrated probationary odes, ever gave the readers more pleasure 
than our pudding rhapsody ; and as the walls of Thebes arose to the 
sounds of Amphion's lyre, so my plums were picked and my pud- 
ding compounded to the rhymes of Mr. Jackson's verse. I can be 
delighted with every thing, now I am relieved from my anxiety and I 
have a prospect of seeing home once more. 

December 25th. — The perfect stillness of the earth yesterday little 
prepared us for the tremendous shock we experienced at eight o'clock 
this morning. It was only not so severe as that of the 19th November, 
and was followed by several slighter ones ; but nothing alarming 
occurred after the first. We are all busy with preparations for leav- 
ing " this delightful land," for such it is in spite of its earthquakes. 
I should feel less regret at leaving it if I saw it prosperous and at 
peace ; but every hour brings fresh reports of wars and rumours of 
wars. The people of Coquimbo have openly thrown off their alle- 
giance to the Director ; and have convened a provincial congress, and 
mean to oppose the government of Santiago by every means in their 
power. 

26th. — Only two shocks to-day. 

27//*. — Four shocks. We learn to-day that the greatest conster- 
nation prevails in the city. Arcas's bills are said to be at a discount 
of 40 per cent. : he himself refuses them ; and we hear that an officer 
of distinction has been imprisoned on account of some dispute that 
arose on the subject, in which Areas behaved extremely ill. Be that 
as it may, the government shows its alarm by having recourse to 
petty expedients. In order to appear strong and rich, orders have 

x x 



338 JOURNAL. 

been issued concerning the rebuilding of Valparaiso, and magnificent 
plans talked of. But the grand stroke is the order given to the 
Admiral to place the O'Higgins and Valdivia under the charge of the 
commandant of marine, in order, as it is said, to be repaired, and to 
make a store-ship of the Lautaro. This is intended to answer no 
less than three ends. The people are to be deluded by seeing that 
the government has confidence enough to undertake so heavy an 
expense as the repair of the two ships at this time. Lord Cochrane 
is deprived of even the slightest authority ; and as they have not 
accepted his resignation, he is, they flatter themselves, a kind of state- 
prisoner ; and I doubt not would, the moment they dared, be sacri- 
ficed to the same private malignity which instigated the charges laid 
against him in April. He remains in the port until he has put it out 
of the power of the Lautaro to put to sea, by causing her to strike 
her masts, &c. And he has hoisted his flag on board the schooner 
Montezuma, the only thing now serviceable at Valparaiso ; the 
Galvarino, with not an Englishman in her, having at length sailed 
by his permission, on the request of the Director, for some secret 
service. Those who planned this blow forgot the schooner, I pre- 
sume. Thank God, he will soon be beyond the reach of the ill-treat- 
ment of those for whom he has done so much ! All the seamen are 
paid off. The officers only are retained, and on full pay. The arrears 
have been also paid, excepting to the crew of the Montezuma, and 
part of that of the Lautaro. The troops are dissatisfied ; and I suspect 
that nothing but the personal respect felt for the Director still holds 
his wretched government together. 

28^A. — Some slight shocks felt to-day. 

Sunday, 29th. — The earth has been remarkably quiet these last 
twenty-four hours. 

Lord Cochrane arrived, bringing with him the D — s, and all their 
family. They had taken refuge on board the O'Higgins, and now 
the ship is dismantled they have not where to lay their heads : here 
there is at least shelter among the tents and ranchos, and quiet and 
kindness.- 



QUINTERO. 339 

We are a motley company it must be confessed ; and a strange 
locality we present. The main part of the house is lying flat before 
us. All the wood-work has been removed ; and the whited walls, 
nearly entire, of the two large rooms are lying flat upon the earth 
before the windows of the still habitable part of the dwelling. A 
little round vestibule still stands, occupied as a secretary's room ; and 
there some one or two, or more, of the gentlemen sleep : then there 
is a room, by courtesy called mine, in which Glennie, my maid, and I, 
all live ; besides all my clothes, books, and furniture, i. e. what the 
room will hold ; the rest is in the open air before it. Next stands 
His Lordship's room ; where he sleeps on a sofa, where all his 
business is transacted, and where, when the wind renders it impos- 
sible to dine in the rancho, we all eat. It serves, besides, as a pantry. 

Then Mrs. D 's room, where she, her husband, two children, and 

two female servants, all live : two tents near the dining rancho shelter 
some of the servants. Mr. Bennet, commonly called Don Benito, has 
pitched his tent in a little grove at a distance : the rancho shelters, in 
one corner, our prisoner Don Fausto ; and a very strange collection 
of servants and idlers take refuge in the half-standing kitchen and 
cellar. Such are the inhabitants, and such the present situation of 
the house of Quintero ! Persons brought together by the state of the 
country, that no other possible combination of circumstances could 
have forced into any thing like intimacy, as different from each other 
in education, habits, and manners, as they are in rank and character, 
and only holding together by the common necessity that leaves them 
no choice ; and that house in ruins which was not quite finished, and 
had been built with a view to comfort and elegance ! 

Tuesday, Dec. 31st, 1822. — The earth has been pretty quiet during 
these last days. Once or twice in the course of the day, and 
generally as often in the night,, there are sensible shocks, and still 
oftener loud noises ; but nothing alarming. Our preparations for 
leaving the country afford little time for attention to much else. 
We hear, however, that the disaffection to the existing government 
is daily spreading, especially to the northward ; and that the Coquimbo 

x x 2 



340 JOURNAL. 

convention is doing its utmost to raise money &c, and to oppose 
O'Higgins, and has actually sent 20,000 dollars to Freire. 

After dinner we generally walk to the sea-side to enjoy the pros- 
pect and the music of the sea, which comes, " like the joys that are 
" past, sweet and mournful to the soul." To-day we sat long on the 
promontory of the Herradura, to see the last sun of 1822 go down into 
the Pacific, and we watched how long his rays gilded the tops of the 
Andes after he himself was hid in ocean. The sea was beating 
nearly round us ; as far as the eye could reach, there was but the 
ruins of one human habitation ; the deep shadows of evening con- 
cealed the narrow traces of cultivation, that here and there encroach 
on the wild thickets, bounded by the mountains ; the cattle had re- 
tired to the woods ; and nothing living but the night-birds flitting 
round us, told that we still belonged to a living race. My thoughts 
naturally went back to times when life and its enjoyments were 
young ; when I had hearts that sympathised, friends that felt with 
me. Nay, even the last sun of the last year went down with hope, 
almost with confidence, for me. But now, the generous feeling of 
almost a stranger, alone bestows a momentary comfort on me. 
Misery and death have been busy with me : my best hopes have 
been disappointed ; and I have to seek new interests, ere life itself 
can be otherwise than burthensome. 

My companion at length roused me to recollection, by naming 
the hour. A silent walk home, with a not unpleasant feeling of sad 
remembrance, ended this, perhaps the most disastrous, year of my 
life. 

January 1st, 1823. — Well might Young exclaim, " Tired Nature's 
" sweet restorer, balmy sleep !" This fine, fresh, fair morning has 
awakened me to life, and light, and hope, and at least the certainty 
that come what will, this year cannot be so disastrous as the last. I 
have now nothing to lose, and every common enjoyment must be a 



gain to me. 



The inconvenience of dwelling with so many people is begin- 
ning to increase, as our packages are made up. Therefore Lord 



QUINTERO. 341 

Cochrane has ordered some tents to be pitched on the sea-shore ; 
whither the goods will be taken immediately, and at least part of the 
family will also go. I have been busy in my vocation, and have the 
pleasure to see my invalid gradually improving in health. 

2d. — At length we have divided the enormous party of Quintero. 
The dining-room is carried down and placed by the tents ; and the 
D s are left in quiet possession of the house, along with the over- 
seer of the estate, Avho has established a salting-house here, where he 
has cured about ten thousand dollars' worth of beef, as fine as any Irish 
beef I ever saw. Our new settlement forms a line along the sea- 
beach in the following order : first, the dining rancho nearest to the 
hill, where a fisherman's hut serves as a kitchen, and where there is 
a well of sweet water ; next, stands a very large tent, across which 
a screen is placed, thus forming two apartments for Glennie and 
me ; Lord Cochrane inhabits the second tent ; the third is appropri- 
ated to packages, and a guard sleeps there ; the fourth is Mr. Jack- 
son's ; the fifth, Don Fausto's ; the sixth, Carillo's ; and Don Benito 
has pitched his out of the line behind the rest : so that now every 
person has his own separate apartment ; and every body may meet 
the rest in the rancho when it is agreeable. The sea reaches to 
within a few yards of our tents, rolling smoothly in, just opposite, 
and breaking a little to the left round the rocks and the wreck of the 
Aquila, one of the Admiral's Guayaquil prizes. The shell-fish have 
already taken possession of her, within and without ; and we are fre- 
quently indebted to that circumstance for one of our greatest dainties, 
the large eatable barnacle, peculiar in Chile to the bay of Quintero, 
and known by the name of pico. I have sent my maid to Concon to 
take care of Mrs. Miers's children, as she was of no use here; and I 
did not think the sort of Robin Hood life we are leading, the most 
advisable thing in the world for -a young good-looking girl. She will 
be safe and happy where she is. 

January 3d. — To-day I set up the lithographic press in Lord 
Cochrane's tent, to print the following address to the Chilenos - x 
which we hope to get ready to-morrow : — 



342 



JOURNAL. 



" Lord Cochrane to the Inhabitants of Chile. 
" Chilenos — My Countrymen ! 

" The common enemy of America has fallen in Chile. Your Tri- 
" coloured flag waves on the Pacific, secured by your sacrifices. Some 
" internal commotions agitate Chile : it is not my business to inves- 
w tigate their causes, to accelerate or retard their effects ; but I can 
i( only wish the result that may be most favourable for all parties. 
" Chilenos ! You have expelled from your country the enemies of 
" your independence : do not sully the glorious act by encouraging 
" discord, and promoting anarchy, that greatest of evils. Consult the 
" dignity to which your heroism has raised you ; and if you must 
" take any step to secure your rational liberty, judge for yourselves, 
" act with prudence, and be guided by reason and justice. 

" It is now four years since the sacred cause of your independence 
" called me to Chile : I assisted you to gain it ; I have seen it ac- 
" complished ; it only remains to preserve it. 

" I leave you for a time, in order not to involve myself in mat- 
" ters foreign to my duties, and for reasons concerning which I 
" now remain silent, that I may not encourage party spirit. 

" Chilenos ! You know that independence is purchased at the 
" point of the bayonet. Know also, that liberty is founded on good 
" faith, and on the laws of honour ; and that those who infringe upon 
" them are your only enemies, — among whom you will never find 

" Cochrane. 

" Quintero, January 4th, 1823." 

We have also another of the same date to print, addressed to the 
merchants of England and other nations trading to the Pacific. It is 
as follows : — 

« Quintero, Chile, January 4th, 1823. 

" Gentlemen, 
" I cannot quit this country without expressing to you the heart- 
" felt satisfaction which I experience on account of the extension 
" which has been given to your commerce, by laying open, to all, the 



QUINTERO. 343 

" trade of those vast provinces, to which Spain formerly asserted an 
" exclusive right. The squadron which maintained the monopoly 
" has disappeared from the face of the ocean ; and the flags of inde- 
" pendent South America wave every where triumphant, protecting 
" that intercourse between nations which is the source of their riches, 
" power, and happiness. 

" If, for the furtherance of this great object, some restraints were 
" imposed, they were no other than those sanctioned by the practice 
" of all civilised states ; and though they may have affected the im- 
" mediate interests of a few who were desirous to avail themselves 
" of accidental circumstances presented during the contest, it is a 
" gratification to know that such interests were only postponed for 
" the general good. Should there, however, be any who conceive 
" themselves aggrieved by my conduct, I have to request them to 
" make known their complaints, with their names affixed, through 
" the medium of the public press, in order that I may have an 
" opportunity of particular reply. 

" I trust you will do me the justice to believe that I have not de- 
" termined to withdraw myself from these seas, while any thing 
" remained within my means to accomplish for your benefit and 
" security. 

" I have the honour to be, Gentlemen, 

" Your faithful humble servant, 

" Cochrane." 

Mr. C , who understands the management of the press bet- 
ter than any of our party, has kindly volunteered to come and assist 
in taking the impressions from the stone. 

I like this wild life we are living, half in the open air ; every 
thing is an incident ; and as we never know who is to come, or what 
is to happen next, we have the constant stimulus of curiosity to bear 
us to the end of every day. The evening walk is the only thing we 
are sure of. Sometimes we trace the effects of the recent earthquake, 
and fancy they lead to marks of others infinitely more violent, and at 



344 JOURNAL. 

periods long anterior to our knowledge. Often we have little other 
object than the mere pleasure of the earth, and air, and sky. Sometimes 
we go to the garden, where every thing is thriving beyond all hope. 
And we are busy collecting seeds of the wild plants of the country, 
though it is too early in the season to find many ripe. 

5th. — We have again lost the Admiral for a few days. The press 
is removed to my tent, where we are more free to work at all hours, 
without interrupting business or being interrupted by it ; and we 
might flatter ourselves that we were going on extremely well, were it 
not that the ink sent by the makers of presses for exportation is so 
very bad that we are obliged to renew the writing on the stone very 
frequently, so that we might have multiplied the copies almost as 
quickly with the pen. 

9th. — We have been surprised at seeing a large ship come into the 
bay, and stand off and on for some hours. Every thing now awakens 
suspicion ; and as the Admiral has been longer absent than was ex- 
pected, and that without writing, we are beginning to be a little 
alarmed on his account. 

The public news shows, I think, that the event of the present 
struggle must be decided ere long. Freire has reached the Maule, 
only six days' march from Santiago ; and though the Director pro- 
tested at first that he never would give up Rodriguez - , it appears now, 
that not only the minister, but the measures — not only Rodriguez, 
but the reglamento, have been sacrificed, too late, in all probability, 
to save the rest. The will to defend the abuses has been shown, the 
weakness that was forced to abandon them proved, and the respect 
and the love for the old government proportionably diminished. 1 
am very sorry for the Director, — I believe truly that he meant well, 
and I cannot forget his great kindness to myself. * 

* I cannot help referring here to the 1st chapter of the 2d book of Delolme on the Con- 
stitution of England, from the paragraph beginning, " If we cast our eyes on all the 
states that were ever free," to the end of the quotation from Machiavel's History of 
Florence, as rather a history than a description of the events that have taken place in Chile 
since 1810, when the faction of the Carreras led the way to all that has happened since. 



QUINTERO. 345 

10th. — Lord Cochrane returned to us in the Montezuma; — every 
thing is finally settled as to our departure. The brig Colonel Allen 
is to come to Quintero, where we are all to embark ; and in less 
than a week we expect to be under weigh. All hands are now 
employed ; the overseer's people on the hill salting beef, the car- 
penters nailing up boxes, people cutting strips of hide for cordage, 
secretaries writing, the press at work, sailors fitting spars across the 
light logs, called balsas, to make a raft to ship the goods with * ; and 
amidst all this, people coming and going, foreigners and English, 
to take leave of the Admiral ; and some, I am sorry to say, for the 
purpose of being, and showing themselves, ungrateful. Men for whom 
he had done every thing, both in the Chilian service and long before 
they joined it, — nay, who owed their very bringing up at all to him, 
reproach him for their own disappointed vanity or desire of gain ; as 
if he had the dispensing of honorary titles or distinctions, or the 
disposal of the public funds. He did for them on his return from 
Acapulco what he did for himself, — he obtained a solemn promise 
from the ministers both of pay and of reward, f If any of the officers 
have now made a private bargain for their own personal advantage, 
they best know on what terms they have made it. However, some 
in this country, and those among the best, have, I really think, a 
sincere regard for the Admiral ; but I believe in friendship as in love, 
" ce rHest pas tout d'etre aimc ; ilfaut etre ajjprecie :" and I scarcely know 
one here who is capable of appreciating him justly ; so that even the very 
homage he receives is unworthy of him. Oh, why is he not at home ! 
11th. — At length every thing is embarked, and we are ready to 
sail. This morning I walked with Lord Cochrane to the tops of 
most of the hills immediately between the house of the Herradura 
and the sea : perhaps it may be the last time he will ever tread these 
grounds, for which he was doing' so much ; and I shall, in all proba- 

* Balsas are literally rafts : but the name is extended to those large trunks of trees as 
light as cork, which are now commonly used instead of the inflated seal skins, which the 
native Chilenos had adapted to the same purpose. 

f See the letters of the 4th June, and the 19th June. 1822, in the Introduction, p. 110. 

Y Y 



346 JOURNAL. 

bility, never again see the place, where, in spite of much suffering, I 
have also enjoyed much pleasure. We gathered many seeds and 
roots, which I hope to see springing up in my own land, to remind 
me of this, where I have met with a kindness and a hospitality never 
to be forgotten.* As to the Admiral, he must always feel that if he 
has not been well requited, he has done good to the great cause of 
independence ; he has done good also to the people of this country, 
by giving them the first ideas of many improvements in their agri- 
culture, their arts, and even their government, all of which will 
produce fruit, though it may be late. And, on this ground, his 
recollections of Chile can never be otherwise than agreeable. — On 
returning to the tents we found several friends assembled to take 
leave : the tents, indeed, had been struck, and nothing remained but 
the rancho, where we dined most cheerfully, though rudely enough ; 
the servants having carried every thing but a few knives and plates on 
board. However, we cut forks out of pieces of wood, and passed the 
knives round ; and, with a roast dressed in the open air, and potatoes 
baked in the ashes, we made our last dinner at the Herradura. 

18th. — Every body slept on board last night; and this morning 
was spent in getting in wood and water. At six o'clock, Captain 
Crosbie went on board the Montezuma to haul down Lord Cochrane'sf 
flag, and thus formally to give up the naval command in Chile. One 
gun was fired, and the flag was brought on board the Colonel Allen 
to His Lordship, who was standing on the poop : he received it with- 
out apparent emotion, but desired it to be taken care of. Some of 
those around him appeared more touched than he was. J Under that 
flag he had often led them to victory, and always to honour. Quin- 
tero is fading fast behind us ; and God knows if we may any of us 
ever see it again. 

* While this sheet was in the press one of the bulbous roots, called in Chile Mancaya, 
flowered in the garden of Messrs. Lee and Kennedy, at Hammersmith; it is now called 
the Cyrlanthia Cochranea. 

f The flag he used on board the O'Higgins had been previously sent to the go- 
vernment. 

X Captain Crosbie, and Lieutenants Grenfell, Shepherd, and Clewly, with some civilians. 



JUAN FERNANDEZ. 347 

Lord Cochrane had adopted Chile as his country : its government 
has used him ill ; and now at a time when, if he had been so 
minded, revenge on the authors of the ill-usage he has suffered would 
have been easy, he withdraws. I know that it has been thought right 
that in civil commotions every honest man should take part, in order 
that the wiser might bring matters to an accommodation. This is 
good for the natives of a country, but is no ways to be desired from 
a stranger, especially a martial man of high reputation and rank, 
who might be supposed to have the inclination as well as the power to 
set up his own authority. In this case, having done every thing to 
deliver the country from a foreign enemy, and to secure its national 
independence, it is wisdom, it is generosity, to stand aloof and let the 
seed of the soil be the arbiters of the concerns of the soil. Law and 
justice themselves can but guard the citizens from external evils, but 
may not meddle in their family affairs. 

From the 18th to the 21st we had weather very uncomfortable, 
and a disagreeable sea ; but this morning (22d) we descried the island 
of Mas-afuera about seven leagues off, right a-head, through a fog ; 
and shortly after bore up for Juan Fernandez, where we were to 
complete the water for the ship. I should have been sorry, indeed, 
to have left the Pacific without seeing the very island of Alexander 
Selkirk, the prototype of that most interesting of all heroes of ro- 
mance (excepting Don Quixote), Robinson Crusoe. 

24//*. — Yesterday and to-day in sight of Juan Fernandez, and 
working for it, but could not reach it till near sunset. It is the most 
picturesque I ever saw, being composed of high perpendicular rocks 
wooded nearly to the top, with beautiful valleys ; and the ruins of 
the little town in the largest of these heighten the effect. It was too 
late to go ashore when we anchored ; but it was a bright moonlight, 
and we staid long on deck to-night, admiring the extraordinary 
beauty of the scene. 

25th. — Before daylight this morning Lord Cochrane and most 
of the other gentlemen went ashore to climb to the high ridge behind 
the port, and look over to the other side of the island, where it is 

yy 2 



348 JOURNAL. 

reported there are some plains and arable land. I watched them 
ascend up a very high peak, and then went ashore with Glennie and 
others to walk about and dine ; I found His Lordship's party re- 
turned from their walk much disappointed. The boatswain of the 
brig, who had been for several days on the island some years before, 
had undertaken to guide them ; but instead of leading them to the 
ridge of the highest land, he only conducted them with much labour 
to the top of a fearful pinnacle, whose height is about 1500 feet ; but 
as it is surrounded by still higher rocks, nothing more was to be 
seen from it than from below. Lord Cochrane brought from the 
summit a piece of heavy black porous lava ; and under that he found 
some dark hardened clay full of cells, the inside of which appear 
slightly vitrified. The island seems chiefly composed of this porous 
lava ; the strata of which, being crossed at right angles by a very 
compact black lava, dip on the eastern side of the island about 22°, 
and on the west side 16°, pointing to the centre of the island as an 
apex. The valleys are exceedingly fertile, and watered by copious 
streams, which occasionally form small marshes, where the panke 
grows very luxuriantly, as well as water-cress and other aquatic 
plants. The soil is generally of a reddish brown : there are several 
small hills and banks of bright-red clay ; and I thought I found 
puzzolano, and some fragments of coarse pumice-stone. The 
little valley where the town is, or rather was, is exceedingly beau- 
tiful. It is full of fruit trees, and flowers, and sweet herbs, now 
grown wild : near the shore it is covered with radish and sea-side 
oats. The colony of Juan Fernandez had been used as a place of 
confinement for state-prisoners. I do not know in what precise year 
it was founded ; but it could not have been long before the revolution 
in Chile, as I find over the door of the ruined church the following 
inscription : — 

" La casa de Dios es la puerta del cielo y 
Se coloco, 24 Setembre, de 18] 1." 

A small fort was situated on the sea-shore, of which there is 
now nothing visible but the ditches and part of one wall. Another, 



JUAN FERNANDEZ. 



349 



of considerable size for the place, is on a high and commanding spot : 
it contained barracks for soldiers, which, as well as the greater part 
of the fort, are mined ; but the flag-staff, front wall, and a turret are 
standing ; and at the foot of the flag-staff lies a very handsome brass 
gun, cast in Spain A. D. 1614. A few houses and cottages are still 
in tolerable condition, though most of the doors, windows, and roofs 
have been taken away or used as fuel, by whalers and other ships 
touching here. 

The colony was in a tolerably flourishing condition for some years, 
and the exiles had found means to cultivate vegetables and fruit, 
which thrive so well here that many of the kinds have become 
wild, to such an extent as, by supplying ships, to obtain additional 
comforts in their exile. Some jealousy was, however, entertained 
against this, and the banished men were forbidden the indulgence. 
The cultivation of the grape, which was found to thrive wonderfully, 
was also prohibited ; and dogs were sent over to the island to hunt 
the cattle out of the woods, in order that the settlers might not be- 
come too independent. Still, however, the settlement was kept up, 
and ships frequently touched there, especially for water, which is 
much better and more abundant than at Valparaiso, and keeps well 
at sea; but the island, no longer permitted to raise provisions, was 
victualled from Chile. At length, in the middle of 1821, an insur- 
rection against the governor, headed by one Brandt, a North Ame- 
rican, took place ; in which it was believed that one of the unhappy 
Carreras of Vina a la Mar was implicated. This young man had 
been banished to the island for some political crime, and was killed 
in the very first of the disturbances; so that it is extremely doubt- 
ful whether he had any thing to do with the conspiracy. I have 
heard, indeed, that one of the exiles, who was jealous of him, not 
without reason, took the opportunity afforded by the disturbance of 
revenging himself. The insurgents having confined the governor 
and overcome the garrison, seized the boats of an American whaler, 
which had touched there, with the intention of going on board the 



350 JOURNAL. 

ship, and so escaping to some foreign land. The whaler left her 
boats, and brought news of the state of the island to Valparaiso. * 

This insurrection of Brandt's determined the government of Chile 
to abandon the settlement. The garrison was consequently with- 
drawn, the fort dismantled, and the place rendered as far as possible 
unfit for future inhabitants. Nevertheless, early this year the 
government of Chile published a manifesto, setting forth its claim to 
the place, and forbidding any persons whatsover to settle there, or to 
kill the cattle, or take the wood of the island. After walking about 
a long time among the ruined cottages and gardens, I returned to the 
place where I left my companions, and found that the young men 
had pitched on a most charming spot for a dining room. Under 
the shade of two enormous fig-trees there is a little circular space 
bounded by a clear rivulet, which in its rapid descent bounds from 
stone to stone, and mixes its murmurs with those of the breeze and 
the distant ocean. Here I found Lord Cochrane and the rest seated 
round a table-cloth of broad fig-leaves covered with such provision 
as the ship afforded, eked out with fruit of the island hardly yet ripe. 
Our claret was cooled in a little linny in the stream, and the deco- 
rations of our bower were the rich foliage and fruit of the overhang- 
ing trees, and the flowers of the opposite bank, on which stands the 
castle, reflected in the broken silver of the water that gurgled past. 

After dinner I walked with Lord Cochrane to the valley called 
Lord Anson's Park. On our way we found numbers of European 
shrubs and herbs, 

" Where once the garden smiled, 
And still where many a garden flower grows wild." 

And in the half-ruined hedges, which denote the boundaries of former 
fields, we found apple, pear, and quince trees, with cherries almost 
ripe. The ascent is steep and rapid from the beach even in the valleys, 
and the long grass was dry and slippery, so that it rendered the walk 

* In consequence of this the British Commodore sent notices to the ports of Brazil and 
the Spanish Colonies, to prevent English merchantmen from touching at Juan Fernandez, 
lest the exiles should seize them and so escape. 



JUAN FERNANDEZ. 



351 



rather fatiguing ; and we were glad to sit down under a large quince 
tree on a carpet of balm bordered with roses, now neglected, and 
rest, and feast our eyes with the lovely view before us. Lord Anson 
has not exaggerated the beauty of the place, or the delights of the 
climate ; we were rather early for its fruits ; but even at this time we 
have gathered delicious figs, and cherries, and pears, that a few more 
days' sun would have perfected. I was quite sorry to leave our station 
in the park, and return to the landing-place to embark for the dark 
close ship. 

The landing-place is also the watering-place ; and there a little 
jetty is thrown out, formed of the beach pebbles, making a little 
harbour for the boats, which lie there close to the fresh water, which 
comes conducted by a pipe, so that with a hose the casks may be 
filled, without landing, with the most delicious water. Along the 
beach some old guns are sunk to serve as moorings for vessels, which 
are all the safer the nearer in-shore they lie : violent gusts of wind 
often blow from the mountain for a few minutes. Dunne our ab- 
sence, we found that Glennie had been calculating the height of the 
island, which he makes about 3000 feet. 

26th. — I went ashore with Lord Cochrane's party early to-day, as 
I wished to make some sketches, and, if possible, to climb up some 
of the hills in search of plants ; therefore, when they all resumed 
their scheme for reaching the highest point in order to see the other 
side of the island, I remained behind. They were soon out of sight : 
the vessel was far from hearing ; no boat was ashore ; and I was left 
alone among the ruins of the once-flourishing colony. I did not 
long stay there; but walked, or rather crawled — for the steepness of 
the land rendered it necessary often to depend partly on my hands 
in the ascent — to a place where the marks of cultivation led me to 
search for the herbs or trees which might have been imported ; and 
there I found the vine grown wild over a pretty considerable track ; 
pot-herbs, particularly parsley, I found abundance of; and such beds 
of sweet mint spread along the water-courses, that I think it must be 
native ; so are the strawberry and the winter cherry. 



352 JOURNAL. 

And now I had reached a lonely spot, where no trace of man could 
be seen, and whence I seemed to have no communication with any 
living thing. I had been some hours alone in this magnificent wilder- 
ness ; and though at first I might begin with exultation to cry — 

" I am monarch of all I survey, 

My right there is none to dispute," 

yet I very soon felt that utter loneliness is as disagreeable as unna- 
tural ; and Cowper's exquisite lines again served me — 

" Oh, solitude ! where are thy charms 
That sages have seen in thy face? 
Better dwell in the midst of alarms, 
Than reign in this horrible place." 

And I repeated over and over the whole of the poem, till I saw 
two of my companions of the morning coming down the hill, when 
I hurried to meet them, as if I had been really " out of humanity's 
reach." 

The two were His Lordship and Mr. Shepherd, who having reached 
the ridge, or rather the gap in it, by which the two sides of the 
island communicate, had contented themselves with a Pisgah view, and 
had left the others to pursue their journey through the wood below. 

They report that there is not more flat ground there than here, 
and that there is no perceptible difference in the vegetation. They 
are enraptured with the wild beauty of the scenery, and have brought 
me many splendid flowers and shrubs, — the giant fuscia, andromedas, 
and myrtles ; but above all, a lovely monopetalous flowering shrub : 
the leaves are thick-set, shiny green ; the flower and berry of the 
richest purple. I never saw any thing like it. While we were sort- 
ing these in our dining-room under the fig-trees, the rest of the party 
joined us, reporting traces of recent habitation, such as fresh embers, 
and a horse evidently used for the saddle ; so that, though we had 
not seen them, we concluded that there were probably some of the 
cowherds here, who on government account make charqui and cure 
hides for Valdivia ; and this we afterwards had confirmed. 

After dinner we went to the western side of the town, and there 
we admired the extraordinary regularity of the structure of the rocks, 



JUAN FERNANDEZ. 353 

and some curious caverns like those of Monte Albano. In one of 
the largest of these we found an enormous goat dead, which of 
course reminded us of " Poor Robin Crusoe." The island abounds in 
these animals ; but though in my walk to-day I found the lairs of 
several, I saw nothing alive. 

And now, just as we were going to re-embark, a man made his 
appearance, and told us that he and four others were stationed on the 
island, as we supposed, on account of the cattle, and that a cargo of 
charqui, tallow, &c, had recently sailed for Talcuhana : we imagine 
this visit was occasioned by the appearance of our party on the other 
side this morning. Some tallow and hides that the master of the 
vessel had taken on board, Lord Cochrane now paid for. After 
which I left Juan Fernandez, probably for ever. 

9,1th. — The vessel was anchored so far off shore, that she dragged 
her anchor and chain-cable out to a considerable distance ; the 
anchoring ground being almost as steep as at St. Helena. I remained 
on board, making sketches of the two bays ; and the gentlemen went 
a-fishing, and brought on board a boat-load of the finest fish imagin- 
able, both of known and unknown kinds. Of the known kinds the 
principal were some fine rock-cod and crawfish, the latter nineteen 
inches long. 

28th. — Having completed our water we sailed from Juan Fernan- 
dez, highly pleased with our visit. Cattle, and wine, and vegetables, 
might be produced here to a great extent ; but any nation that takes 
possession of it as a harbour would have to import corn. The island 
might maintain easily 2000 persons, exchanging the surplus beef, 
wines, and brandy, for bread and clothing; and its wood and its 
water, besides its other conveniences, would render it valuable as a 
port in the Pacific : as it is, our whalers resort thither continually. 
The three bays called the East, the West, and the Middle Roads, are 
all under the lee of the island, so that the water is always smooth ; 
they are all well watered, and very beautiful. 

Monday, February 10th. — Since we left Juan Fernandez we have 
had a tolerable run. The thermometer has not been below 40°, 

z z 



354 JOURNAL. 

though we are now near Cape Horn. My poor invalid is very ill, 
and confined to his bed. 




Tuesday, February Wth. — This day, we came early in sight of the 
land about Cape Horn, which we doubled about sunset. There were 
mists and clouds overhanging the land ; now and then we had fine 
sunshine, but oftener cold misty breezes. The coast is high and re- 
markable, especially about False Cape Horn, where there are several 
large conical hills ; but we were not near enough to distinguish them 
very clearly. Lord Cochrane had landed here on his passage to 
Chile ; and tells me he walked some hours in a delightful valley, in 
the month of November, full of beautiful evergreens and flowers. 
Very high mountains come near the sea, and even now, in autumn, 
the highest are covered with snow. The near hills are bold and 
precipitous : the cliffs of Cape Horn itself are white as chalk, and rise 
in fantastic spiry points, like the ruins of some old castle ; and as 
the sun went down through the hazy air, they took fine glowing tints 
of gold and purple. The light just served us to see the inhospitable 
naked peaks of Barneveldt's Isles, or rather rocks : beyond which high 
mountain-tops peeped through heavy clouds. The names of Home 
and Barneveldt preserve to the Dutch their seniority in the discovery 
of this easy passage into the Pacific. It was in 1616 that Le Maire, 
a native of Home in Holland, first doubled this Cape, and by naming 
it after his birth-place, gave to that little town one of the most re- 
markable monuments in the known world. I am very well pleased 
to have seen the Cape ; but I wished rather to have come through 
the Straights of Magellan, for the sake of the early navigators, Drake, 



VOYAGE ROUND CAPE HORN. 355 

Cavendish, and others, whose adventures and sufferings give an in- 
terest to these savage scenes which their own desolateness, though 
grand in itself, could not inspire : for the same reasons, I regret not 
having seen Chiloe for Byron's sake. 

\1tli February. — To-day we ran through the straights of Le Maire. 
The land on the side of America about Cape Good Success seems 
good and pleasant, with many gentle hills covered with grass and 
trees : beyond, are high mountains ; and on the coast some abrupt 
rocks, and frequent harbours and coves. Staten Land on the east side 
of the straights, is so bleak and barren-looking, that I suppose it will 
be one of the last spots on the globe that will be inhabited. 

The weather is chilly and uncomfortable. 

14t7i, off Falkland's Islands. — This morning we found ourselves 
off the western Falkland Island. It is moderately high, and com- 
pletely bare of trees, as far as we could see ; but covered with short 
grass, and here and there patches of low green shrubs. The rocks 
appear to be all of sandstone in horizontal layers : where they dip at all, 
it is to the southward. The coast is surrounded by broken rocks, which 
stand up like the pinnacles of churches ; and here and there natural 
gateways and windows, that put me in mind of the scenery of Holy 
Island on our own shores. There are many admirable bays, but all, 
are uninhabited. The Spaniards destroyed cruelly our settlement at 
Port Egmont ; and they have been obliged to abandon their own, 
owing, it is said, to the severity of the climate, and barrenness of 
the land. But I imagine cultivation might cure both these evils ; 
and nothing can be better situated than these islands for fitting ships 
destined for the Pacific. The thermometer has fluctuated to-day 
between 43° and 50°, and we have had snow and sleet ; the baro- 
meter gives us from 29 — 15 to 29 — 20. The temperature of the sea- 
water 48°. 

1st March. — We came in sight of the land about Cape Santa 
Marta. At night there was the most beautiful lightning possible ; 
and while we were looking at it, we heard something fall into the 
sea like a heavy body from a height, at some distance from us ; and 

z z 2 



356 



JOURNAL. 



about half an hour afterwards Mr. J saw, and some of the 

others heard, a second body fall into the water. Could these be 
meteoric stones ? The thermometer for some davs not under 80°. 

4th. — We are going slowly along the land, thermometer 82° morn- 
ing and evening ; 89° at noon. 

9th. — Sailing along the land and among the islands of the bay of 
Santos, not one half of which appear in the charts. They are mostly 
high ; many of them rocky, and many covered with palm trees. We 
have had the thermometer at 94° ; but last night a thunder-storm 
and some heavy squalls of wind and rain have cooled the air. 

13th. — We anchored in the harbour of Rio de Janeiro. 




POSTSCRIPT. 



I he civil war that had broke out before I left Chile was not of 
long duration, and occasioned little bloodshed. It terminated in 
the election of Freire to the directorship, and the calling of a new 
convention ; which it is devoutly to be hoped will profit by the errors 
of the last. The Director O'Higgins, a few days after his return to 
Santiago, having narrowly escaped with his life from the earthquake 
at Valparaiso, retired to rest and recruit his strength at the Conven- 
tilla, his country seat ; and in order that public affairs might not 
suffer, perhaps also to give still more consequence to Rodriguez, 
who was San Martin's creature, and whom he was resolved at that 
time to support, he delegated his authority to that minister and 
three others, who appear to have exercised it but a few days. — Affairs 
in the South were coming to a crisis : the soldiers and money ex- 
pected from Coquimbo were turned against the government of San- 
tiago. Aconcagua followed the example, and sent deputies to the 
convention of Coquimbo; and the attempt to recruit for the army of 
O'Higgins cost several lives in Quillota : as a last resource, Rodriguez 
was given up, on which Areas fled. San Martin also hastily aban- 
doned the man whom his evil counsels had in part ruined, and the 
only resource remaining to the Director was the attachment of the 
troops. He went to the barracks, — he called on them in the name of 
the country to stand by him ; he spoke to them of the glory they had 



358 JOURNAL. 

won together, of his pride in their attachment. A very few, on this 
appeal, declared for the Director. Many said the cause of the coun- 
try had been ruined by his measures ; Freire was as well beloved as 
he, and had also been their companion and leader ; and to crown all, 
the names of the Carreras were whispered in the ranks. He bared 
his breast, and told them since he had failed to satisfy his country- 
men and fellow-soldiers, he offered them a life now little worth ; and 
after one cry of " Long live the Director O'Higgins !" from his own 
guard only, he retired, charging them all to remain quiet, as he would 
not hazard the shedding the blood of his fellow-citizens ; and this I 
believe was the last public act of that good though weak man. 

He had been made the tool of a speculating trading company, 
through the influence of his mother and sister, and his fall was not 
surprising. He wished to retire to Ireland, the country of his fathers ; 
but he has been detained under I know not what pretence of making 
him accountable for the treasury expenditures, and he was placed in 
the custody of Zenteno. 

The army of Freire marched straight to Valparaiso, where it 
was joined by a small force by sea from Talcahuana. Hence it 
pi*oceeded to the capital ; not, however, so suddenly as to rouse what- 
ever spirit of affection for the Director might have prompted resist- 
ance from the troops. Meantime the partizans of Freire and the 
enemies of O'Higgins made common cause : the old convention 
was dispersed, and the new one, consisting, however, of many of the 
old members, met, elected in a more popular manner. Freire long 
resisted the solicitations of all parties to assume the dictatorship, 
alleging his proclamations and avowed intentions only to remove 
bad ministers by his expedition from the South. But it was clear that 
O'Higgins would be no longer suffered. The country required some 
chief magistrate ; and at length on the 31st of March, 1823, an official 
letter was presented to him, signed by the deputies plenipotentiary 
of Santiago, Conception, and Coquimbo, insisting on his accepting 
the office. Another was also written, appointing these three, i. e. 
Juan Egana plenipotentiary for Santiago, Manoel Novoa for Con- 



postscript. 359 

ception, and Manoel Antonio Gonzalez for Coquimbo, together 
with the new Director, and the secretary Alamos, as a senate, autho- 
rised to pass an act of union, and to bring together the conventions 
of the three divisions of the state. On the 1st of April, Freire ac- 
cepted the office of Director, the Senate entered on its functions, 
and the Convention appears to have proceeded to business. 

The revolution has been thus far conducted with unusual moderation 
and temper ; a circumstance creditable to the leaders on both sides, 
and which will, it is to be hoped, continue to actuate the farther 
proceedings of the new government. I do not know better how to 
end this short notice of the changes that have happened since my 
departure from Chile, than by the following memorial, addressed to 
the new Convention, and signed by the members of the junta of 
government which had exercised the supreme authority from the 
time of the abdication of the Director-general O'Higgins, to the meet- 
ing of the Congress, or rather till the new Senate was chosen : — 

" Gentlemen Deputies, 
" The meeting of the representatives of the people in this august 
" assembly is the moment desired by the country, in order to apply 
" the necessary remedies to the terrible evils that afflict her ; and 
" never was any administration in circumstances to desire reform 
" with such ardour as the junta of government at the present crisis. 
" You are about, Gentlemen, to regenerate the nation which misfor- 
" tunes, not easy to foresee, threatened to annihilate. Six years of 
" a government crowned with success in all its enterprises, respected 
" abroad, and at least feared at home, had given to the past directory 
" the power of doing good. To the fervour of military feeling, and 
" to the exaltation of the passions that accompany the first moments 
" of all revolutions, the calm of peace had succeeded. The people 
" had learned that its rights did not consist in the use of an unlimited 
" power, which, injudiciously exercised, would only plunge it into 
" anarchy ; and that its solid happiness consisted in good order, and 
" in establishing guardian institutions, which, under the empire of 



360 JOURNAL. 

" law, might defend it from arbitrary rule. But by a misfortune 
" which often attends the fate of nations, the government, which 
" might have done the most good, wanted talent to accomplish it. 
" Public discontent has broken through the barrier of oppression ; 
" and the passions agitated in this impetuous shock against the for- 
" mer government, threaten ills which, if they be not stopped be- 
" fore they become irremediable, will hurry the country to its ruin, 
" and blot out the records of twelve years of glory and of sacrifices. 

" To you, then, fathers of the people ! it belongs to avert the con- 
f< fusion, the disorganisation, the dishonour of the country. This is 
" the necessary and grand object for which you are called. The 
"junta is not afraid to say it — Chile never was in a more dangerous 
" state. Our revolution presents vicissitudes in which almost all the 
" errors and inadvertencies of which the human mind is capable have 
" been committed ; but in a government always concentrated, and in 
" the strict union of the citizens, the country found a defence against 
" the misfortunes that threatened to overwhelm it. For the first time, 
" we have this day heard the cry of disunion ! a word even harsher to 
" the hearts than the ears of true patriots. Prudence, and a generous 
" contempt of petty interests, which are nothing compared with the 
" general good of the state, and principles of exact equality and 
" justice, alone will avert the disorders, the divisions, which might 
" lead the people to curse the day when they shook off their peaceful 
" slavery. 

" It is nearly two months since the votes of our fellow-citizens 
" called us to take upon ourselves the administration of affairs, and 
" no one day of that short period has passed that has not been 
" marked by some circumstance to aggravate the bitterness of our 
" hearts. In presenting to you the political situation of the state, we 
" direct your eyes to a picture of present misfortunes and of fears 
" for the future, which fill us with shame, and which we would con- 
" ceal, in order that the internal miseries of Chile might not be known 
" abroad, if the evil called less urgently for redress, and if it were 



POSTSCRIPT. 361 

" not in our own power to mend our fate, and to be respectable and 
" happy when we truly desire it. 

" In the beginning of last November, Chile formed one indivisible 
" republic: the towns, distressed by the weight of oppression, with- 
" drew their obedience from the director of the state, and established 
" assemblies which might unite the representation of each respective 
" province. This generous effort, directed solely against the citizen 
" who governed arbitrarily, could not be a revolt against ourselves ; 
" it could not have had for its object to impugn the unity of the nation. 
" The Director, during the last days of his command, in order to 
" restore that peace to the country which he could not maintain, offered 
" to the representatives of Conception (who were said to act in con- 
" cert with those of Coquimbo), to abdicate his supreme direction of 
" the state which he had exercised, in favour of a person to be pro- 
" posed by them, in order that the change might not affect the 
" dissolution of the republic. The city of Santiago, ignorant of this 
" proposal, and which, besides, could not believe that the provinces 
" would accept offers from the chief against whom they were armed, 
" and of whose influence they were jealous, hastened to complete the 
" revolution, in order to unite itself with the rest of the nation. 

" Permit, Gentlemen, to the junta a species of vanity which, 
" although the characteristic of weakness, is that which reflects least 
" on the reputation of honest men. Its members had the satisfac- 
" tion to believe, that by taking on them the provisional government 
" they might collect the will of the nation. The constant enemies 
" of despotism, and consequently of the late administration, fear- 
" less defenders of the rights of the people, and having given proofs 
" of their disinterestedness, they were persuaded that if the provinces 
" had taken up arms solely against the person of the Director, in 
" order to procure a congress, the deposing of the former and the 
" calling together of the latter would satisfy the general wish. Be- 
" sides, what evils had been suffered by Conception and Coquimbo 
" which had not been felt still more heavily by Santiago ? What 
v ' advantages could they promise themselves from reform that San- 

3 A 



362 JOURNAL. 

" tiago might not likewise hope for? Their evils were the same, 
" their wants the same, their circumstances the same, and the reme- 
" dies the same : in no one province could there exist separate 
" interests or separate views. Nevertheless the junta had not the 
" folly to assume the supremacy without the consent of the other 
" towns. It indeed desired that the republic should continue entire, 
" and informed the provinces, that it was about to call a congress ; 
" and that in the meantime it was necessai-y, in order to avoid the 
" appearance of anarchy, that a central and supreme authority should 
" exist ; that it was in the power of the provinces themselves to ap- 
" point it provisionally to act till the meeting of the Congress ; but 
" that as the election of the deputies to the Congress, as well as that 
" of members for the provisional government, must be a work of 
" time, it appeared better and more consonant to the despatch with 
" which the nation desired to call together its representatives, to ac- 
" knowledge the junta of government as a provisional government, 
" until the installation of the said Congress ; for whose convocation 
" the assemblies of Conception and Coquimbo were consulted, in 
" order that the terms and time of election might be agreed on. The 
" answers of the provinces were contradictory : none were willing to 
" recognise the central authority of the junta of government, nor to 
" agree to the convocation of a congress, without first establishing 
" a new provisional government. We then perceived that the dreaded 
" evil was hanging over our heads — the immediate separation of the 
" different provinces of the state. In order to form a general go- 
" vernment, a centre of union to a republic, one and indivisible, the 
" junta opened negociations with General Freire and his deputies ; 
" of which the minister will give a particular account. These were 
" in great part listened to, but remained ineffectual to the end, on 
" account of the full powers which the deputies from Conception de- 
" clared they had demanded from that assembly. To this day, the 
" provinces therefore are independent in fact ; and a deputation from 
" the assemblies of Conception and Coquimbo have but now arrived 
" in this capital, with ample powers to bring about the re-union of 



POSTSCRIPT. 3g3 

" the nation. The junta does not consider these provinces, any more 
" than Santiago, as sovereign and independent states. It looks on 
"them as a fraction of the nation, whose magnates and representa- 
" tives, occupying the command in order to preserve order during the 
" dissolution of the former government, are now treating of the 
" means to re-establish the union of the republic. 

" Meantime the province of Santiago, as far as the Cachapoal, ac- 
" knowledges, tranquilly and willingly, the authority of the junta of 
" government. Tiie districts of Colchagua and Maule obliged, ac- 
" cording to the representations of their cabildos, by the force of 
" circumstances, had united with the province of Conception. Ex- 
" horted by the junta to re-unite themselves to the province of which 
" they had always formed a part, Colchagua returned to her ancient 
" position ; while Maule, in consequence of an order from the as- 
" sembly of Conception forbidding the measure, adheres to that 
" province. On this head General Freire seconded the wishes of the 
"junta, declaring to these districts his acquiescence in their re-union 
" with Santiago. Curico has always proclaimed its constant attach- 
" ment to the government of the province, which has now suffered 
" no other loss than the dismemberment of the territory of Maule. 

" The example of provinces separated from the indivisibility of the 
" state, of districts divided from the provinces, of municipal govern- 
" ments elected under a variety of forms, has been fatal to internal 
" quiet, much more to our external relations ; and will be incom- 
" parably more so in the course of time, as factious ideas spread 
" and become familiar. Nothing is more certain, than that nations 
" are often so mistaken in their ideas of freedom as to embrace in 
" her stead a monster, the certain forerunner of slavery. Various 
" towns have shown symptoms of that disorder, the last degree at 
" which public misfortune can arrive. In Casablanca a meeting of 
" the people took up arms against the lieutenant-governor. In Quil- 
" lota some discontented persons offered to Chile, for the time, the 
" lamentable spectacle of the blood of the children of the soil shed 
" in her streets in a civil dispute. In other places the junta has suc- 

3 a 2 



364 JOURNAL. 

" ceeded in checking intestine dissensions by means of gentleness and 
" prudence. 

" The outworks of good oi'der once saved, the government neces- 
" sarily felt its weakness ; for without obedience, and the effective 
" co-operation of the subjects, it is impossible to make use of the 
" only means it has of managing the body politic. The towns 
" threaten with separation or confederation as it suits them. Private 
" citizens fancy that they exercise the supremacy that resides in the 
" people every time that they meet, and attempt a revolt. The public 
" functionaries, vacating and fluctuating between doubts and fears of 
" sudden change, do not act with the vigour requisite to prevent the 
" ruin of the community. The subaltern no longer obeys his superior, 
" whose authority he considers as temporary, and therefore easy to 
" escape. In such circumstances, without freedom and without 
" power, what could the administration do ? The nation was de 
"facto divided into three separate sovereign states, who each go- 
" verned itself, without either agreeing or consulting with the others : 
" all affairs of general interest, all that belonged to the body of the 
" republic, was abandoned, to the disgrace and ruin of the country. 
" Peru, Gentlemen, is the most piteous and most interesting object 
" which can come before our eyes. The liberating army, composed 
" of the conquerors of Chacabuco and Maypu ; that army whose 
" transport to give liberty to the empire of the Incas had cost Chile 
" such enormous sacrifices, has been beaten by General Canterac. 
" Peru must once again crouch under the yoke of irritated and 
" wicked Spain, if Chile, to whom our unhappy brethren now 
" stretch forth their supplicating hands, do not administer a prompt 
" and efficacious succour. Not only the general interest which en- 
" gages us to support the cause of independence, not only humanity 
" and the faith of treaties, but our own proper salvation, impels us 
" to the assistance, to the defence of America, in that last theatre of 
" war. Defending Peru, we defend Chile and the whole continent on 
" her ground. Who ever doubted that the most noble, most useful, 
" and most necessary pledge that the country has at any time con- 



POSTSCRIPT. 3g5 

" secrated to liberty, was that defence ? The junta decreed it, after 
" having consulted the general authorities of the state : but the want 
" of a supreme central government formed an obstacle to the enter- 
" prise, that is to say, to the salvation of our existence. 

" It is impossible to conceive a situation more deplorable than that 
" of the public exchequer. More than a million of urgent immediate 
" debt ; more than 40,000 dollars in advance for absolute necessaries 
" at the moment ; and a monthly list four times greater than the 
" actual receipts of the treasury ; — offer a picture of almost desperate 
" wretchedness. The minister of this department will lay the parti- 
" culars before the Assembly. To establish a new system of finance, 
" to reform abuses, to reduce the expenses to a just proportion with 
" the receipts, are steps which require the concentration of the 
" government. 

" A ruinous loan, which must fetter the nation and its resources 
" for many years, calls for the attention of government, either to re- 
" move from us, if possible, the weight of this insupportable burthen, 
" or to render its consequences less fatal. Every day augments the 
" debt, and our responsibility becomes the heavier. Consider, Gen- 
" tlemen, how urgent a motive this is to accelerate the concentration 
" of the government. 

" The national squadron, that squadron to which we indubitably 
" owe the destruction of tyranny, is now laid up in our ports ; where 
" the ships are either gone to ruin, or, by continual waste, are ap- 
" proaching it. Meanwhile its officers, who have so often covered 
" themselves with glory in the Pacific, are on half-pay; or, being mostly 
" foreigners, are leaving us daily, a loss irreparable in the hour of 
" danger. A central government, making a proper use of the resources 
" of the country, might restore it to the brilliant footing of 1820. 
" Now a single province, inadequate to such an expense, must be the 
" sad spectatress of the annihilation of the main force of a nation 
*' whose foe is beyond seas. 

" Among the enterprises which the Director particularly had de- 
" termined on, was the occupation of Chiloe. This archipelago is 



366 JOURNAL. 

" not only an important part of Chile, which ought to be united to 
" the rest of the nation ; but the enemy having possession of it, it 
" furnishes a serious and continual subject of alarm, and renders the 
" war of Valdivia interminable. The continual expense demanded 
" by the land and sea forces to cover that point to which the enemy 
" calls continual attention, is well worth the effort, once for all, of 
" destroying that last refuge of tyranny in Chile. By a new popular 
" sacrifice, an expedition against Valdivia had been concerted ; which, 
" by the preparations for it, and the bravery of our troops, ought to 
" have ended the continental war. Our political movements have 
" rendered this enterprise abortive. Great part of the garrison re- 
" turned to Valparaiso ; and although the junta, in concert with 
" General Freire, had sent back the necessary force to Valdivia, 
" Chiloe continues under the Spanish yoke, and is a point whence 
" tyranny in its last act of desperation, and with the important assist- 
" ance it has received, may renew the scenes of 1813, organising 
" and directing on the continent armies which may subdue us. A 
" general government might revive the expedition to Chiloe, and blot 
" out the disgrace from the country of still suffering a foreign enemy 
" to remain within its limits. 

" Our external relations subsisting on the same footing as in July 
" last, although they give us no fresh motives of affliction, remind 
" us that our misfortunes must bring with them the dishonour of 
" Chile, and the loss of the credit acquired so dearly during twelve 
" years. In Europe there was no want of confidence in the fate of 
" America. The union and the consistency of our governments 
" were justly looked upon as the best security for our independence ; 
" and Spain, in order to keep back the European powers from the 
" solemn recognition of our independence, used no other means 
" than those of representing us as plunged in anarchy. In America 
" the reverses of Peru will be remediable from the moment we are 
" united ; and the junta, after having gained time here to renew our 
" relations with Columbia and the trans-andine states, has exhorted 



POSTSCRIPT. 357 

" them in the common danger to the defence of Peru. The minister 
" for foreign affairs will lay before you the steps taken for this end. 

" Gentlemen, our institutions and internal administration do 
" not offer a very consolatory picture. Not one but needs reform ; 
" and if the happy destiny of the country should place at its head a 
" genius capable of directing her, all must be erected anew. Edu- 
" cation, the base of national prosperity, is in the most deplorable 
" state. 

" Neglected, not to say abandoned, without encouragement, with- 
" out a plan, we feel the consequences of the evil in our daily pro- 
" ceedings. The administration of justice demands important 
" reformation ; or rather, it demands an entire new system, agreeable 
" to the progress of the age, and to the rights of recovered humanity, 
" in order to place us on a level with that nation on whom we for- 
" merly depended, and whose barbarous and destructive usages we 
" have preserved without profiting by the amendments that she her- 
" self has lately made. The police, absolutely abandoned in all its 
" branches, no longer exists, any more than any other establishment 
" of public utility, either for the advantage of commerce, mining, in- 
" dustry, or agriculture. 

" Our military force is entrusted to General Freire, an officer who in 
" fourteen years of uninterrupted services, and of glorious actions, the 
" pride of the nation, has proved his patriotism and his moderation. 
" If the proceedings of the junta had not been so frank and open ; if 
" the testimony of conscience did not assure its members that they 
" had done for the good of the country all that honour, justice, and 
" policy demanded ; if in the eminently difficult circumstances in 
" which it was constituted, there had been any other road to pursue ; 
" — it might have feared the weight of a responsibility which it could 
" not have borne. — When the directorial government expired, Ge- 
" neral Freire was the citizen who enjoyed the public favour. He 
" was, besides, the only man who could curb the exalted passions, and 
" the evil effects, the political illusions, arising from ill-understood and 
" ill-applied principles : in short, he was the man who was to rescue 



368 JOURNAL. 

" the nation from the fangs of the anarchy which threatened to over- 
" whelm it ; and procure for his country the happiest and most bril- 
" liant destiny. Never mortal saw himself in a situation to render 
" more important services to the country to which he owed his 
" birth, the theatre of his exertions and his glory. His voice, heard 
" with the liveliest emotions of pleasure from one end of the re- 
" public to the other, was to be the signal of re-union for the whole 
" nation, under a government as respectable and vigorous as that 
" which had passed away, and as free, just, and beneficent as we 
" had a right to expect. In this conjuncture he presented himself 
" in Valparaiso at the head of an army, and of an expedition which 
" had sailed from Talcahuana, after having received communications 
" from the junta assuring him of its cordial support, of the abdi- 
" cation of the Director, and of the unanimous wishes of the nation. 
" This act, which perhaps might have been considered by some as an 
" indication of a conduct hostile, or at least equivocal ; as marking 
" exorbitant pretensions, founded on the strength of arms ; as want- 
" ing in respect to the government, without whose authority, and 
" even without a pretence, he had brought an army into the territory 
" it ruled ; — surprised the junta, but did not alarm it. Why distrust 
" the man whose modesty and the liberality of whose principles 
" were so well and so generally known ? Why draw back from the 
" citizen in whom the country placed its hopes, and to whose virtue 
" it was willing to trust its fate ? He was invited to Santiago : he 
" was called to the meeting, whose object was the general good of 
" nation. We assure you, Gentlemen, that we have omitted no 
" means, proposals, or efforts, in order to avail ourselves of his in- 
" fluence in healing the public dissensions. He demanded the com- 
" mand of the army of the province of Santiago, and it was granted 
" him as a proof of our unlimited confidence, as a guarantee of our 
" uniformity of sentiment ; and on condition of acknowledging the 
" authority of whoever should receive that command, that we might 
" not be wanting to the duties imposed on us by the people, when, 
" together with the government, they entrusted us with the force 



POSTSCRIPT. 3gg 

" destined for its defence, and made us responsible. On perceiving 
" that without establishing a central junta, the chief, who called him- 
" self the general of a province independent de facto, transported 
* thither the troops of Santiago ; on observing that officers were re- 
" moved, and others named, without consulting the junta, and even 
" against its will ; — it made such representations as appeared suitable 
" to its duty and its dignity. The ministers of state will lay before 
" you the correspondence that took place between General Freire 
" and the various public offices : in it you will find that the General 
" had declared solemnly and formally, that neither he nor the army 
" are subject to the junta ; and that he does not acknowledge in it any 
" authority whatever over the military, the sole, independent, and 
" exclusive command of which belongs to himself: in it you will 
" also observe, that on this account the preparations for sending 
" troops to the immediate assistance of Peru were suspended; an 
" evil which, among the many existing, has not been the least that 
" has harassed the better days of our administration. 

" If the junta has not been able to preserve strict harmony with 
" General Freire, we strongly recommend to you, Gentlemen, to en- 
" deavour to accomplish that desirable end : do not forget that he is 
" the only man who can save the country, — and rely on his disin- 
" terestedness. Call him to your bosom, and may you be happier 
" than we, in inspiring him with confidence, and erasing impres- 
" sions which savour of provincialism and dangerous principles ! Let 
" not the evil-minded, or those who are led by personal interest, or 
" the giddy and the weak, triumph, and tear away the laurels of peace 
" destined for the citizen who shall restore his country, oppressed 
" by internal grievances, to prosperity. 

" If General Freire, by keeping the independent command of the 
" army, sought to avoid the horrors of civil war, the necessary con- 
" sequence of anarchy ; if his object was to prevent the dissolution of 
" the army ; if, with all the forces of the republic at his disposal, he 
" sought to preserve his influence and dignity, only in order that he 
" might place himself in a situation to procure the immeasurable be- 

3 b 



370 JOURNAL. 

" nefit of en ding strife ; if he makes use of his credit and his influence 
" to restore the republic immediately to its former unity under asu- 
" preme and energetic government ; if, with his forces, he does not 
" remain an indifferent spectator of the public misfortunes, or allow 
" the provinces to plunge into endless disputes about theoretical 
" rights ; if in the best way in which circumstances will permit, and 
" with all possible provisions for the security of liberty in the mean- 
" time, he concurs in establishing a provisional government until the 
" meeting of the General Congress which shall in full liberty dictate 
" the permanent constitution of the state ; — he will have pursued a 
" policy as sublime as beneficent, and will be in every sense the de- 
" liverer of his country. 

" Such is the general picture of our public affairs : and your labours 
" will be as arduous as important. A thousand improvements, a 
" thousand useful provisions, would have been dictated by the junta, 
" if its vacillating authority, the political situation of the state, and 
" its attention, directed exclusively to the union of the nation, had 
" not opposed insuperable obstacles. Perhaps we have been mis- 
" taken ; perhaps error may have presided over many of our deliber- 
" ations, — it is inseparable from human nature : but pardon, Fathers 
" of the country ! pardon faults which certainly have been committed 
" without tainting the general disinterestedness and patriotism on 
" which we pride ourselves. God grant that our authority may be 
" short, in order that you may accomplish as speedily as possible the 
" establishment of a supreme government. Reason, experience, and 
" public opinion, all agree that the executive power ought to be 
" trusted to one alone. Relieve us from a burthen which oppresses 
" us ; and let this be the reward of an administration, whose labours, 
" difficulties, and grievances, have exceeded both our time and our 
" strength. 

" AUGUSTIN DE EyZAGUIRRE. 

" Jose Miguel Infante. 
" Fernando Ezrazuris. 
" Mariano de Egana." 



APPENDIX. 



3s 2 



APPENDIX. 



A brief Relation of Facts and Circumstances connected with the Family 
of the Carreras in Chile ; with some Account of the last Expedition 
of Brigadier-General Don Jose Miguel Carrera, his Death, fyc. 

By Mr. YATES. 

Don Juan Jose, Don Jose Miguel, and Don Luis Carrera, were the sons 
of Don Ignacio Carrera, who was the descendant of an ancient and honour- 
able line of ancestors. His sons were destined for the service of their 
country ; and were at an early age entered as cadets in the Spanish service. 
Don Jose Miguel was sent to Europe, as the war in the Peninsula was con- 
sidered to be the most promising school for the acquirement of those quali- 
fications which are most necessary to complete the character of an officer 
and statesman. 

Having arrived in Spain, his merit soon recommended him to the consi- 
deration of his superiors ; and in reward for his zeal, assiduity, and attention 
to the service, he was promoted by the regular gradations of rank to be 
lieutenant-colonel and commandant of a regiment of hussars. 

At this time the revolution in America had begun to wear a favour- 
able aspect. Buenos Ayres had solemnly declared her independence ; and 
Chile (though apparently without a person capable of conducting her in so 
arduous an undertaking,) seemed willing to throw off the long-worn and 
galling yoke of the mother country. Carrera, anxious for the success of 
Chile in particular, and desirous of lending his arm in the cause of Ame- 
rican emancipation in general, took the earliest opportunity to transport 
himself across the Atlantic ; which he effected with some difficulty, owing to 
the distrust which was then generally entertained in Spain with regard to the 
loyalty of the American officers in her service. 



374 APPENDIX. 

Previous to his arrival in Chile (about the year 1811) some attempts had 
been made towards the abolition of the Spanish authority. Carasco, the 
Spanish President, had been deposed, on a pretence of his incapacity to serve 
the Spanish monarch. The government was assumed by a Cabildo and Pre- 
sident, all of whom were Americans, and enemies to the tyrannical system 
which had hitherto been observed and followed ; but as they were entirely 
destitute of the abilities which were necessary to enforce the execution of 
their plans, and unequal to the power with which they had invested them- 
selves, they were obliged to follow the old form of government ; professing 
to take a lively interest in the welfare of their Spanish sovereign and his do- 
minions, whilst they were really his most inveterate foes. 

Such was the state of anarchy in which Don Jose Miguel Carrera found 
Chile on his arrival : without an army, without a navy, without funds, or 
any preparation whatever towards carrying on an inevitable and sanguinary 
war ; the necessary effect of the steps which they had alr.eady taken. His 
country entertained the highest opinion of the virtues and abilities of Car- 
rera. He was considered as the only person who could be found capable of 
extricating the state from the snares of that labyrinth into which it had 
incautiously plunged itself.* 

In order to effect this he was trusted with the supreme authority of Pre- 
sident of the Congress ; and also nominated general to command an army 
which did not yet exist, but of which the immediate formation and organiz- 
ation were looked to as the only guarantee of success and future safety to 
the new state. 

It is not difficult to imagine the many inconveniences attending the levy- 
ing an army designed to operate against the established authority, in a 
country more remarkable for its bigotry and superstition, than for virtue, 
liberality, or patriotism ; and whose inhabitants, notwithstanding the servile 
and humiliating yoke under which they lived, were taught by their priests, 
that any attempt against the person or interests of their prince was an in- 
fringement on religion itself, and consequently contrary to the divine will of 
Heaven. 

However, having great influence in the country, Carrera undertook to 

* In this early part of this paper the reader is requested to remember that it is the party and 
family history of Carrera, and that the truth is more nearly that which is related in the Intro- 
duction ; I have thought it right, however, to print it unaltered in any way. — M. G. 



APPENDIX. 3^ 

silence the zealots, and set Chile free at any expense. He commenced by 
dedicating his fortune (which was very considerable) with those of his relations 
and friends to the cause of independence, thereby supplying the defect of a 
public fund. He began to recruit for his army, paying to each soldier a 
premium on his entrance, as practised in European nations ; a method never 
used in America but by him. From the most respectable citizens he selected 
officers ; who were indeed ignorant of all military knowledge, but whose cha- 
racters, probity, and well-known attachment to their country, made ample 
amends for all other defects. The regiments thus organized were well 
clothed, armed, regularly paid, and disciplined under his own immediate 
inspection. Carrera was colonel of the dragoon regiment of national guards, 
general inspector of cavalry, and commander-in-chief of the national forces. 
His elder brother, Don Juan Jose, was colonel of grenadiers, and commandant 
of all the infantry ; and the youngest of the three, Don Luis, commanded a 
regiment of artillery which had garrisoned Santiago in the time of Ferdi- 
nand VI 1. but had been prevailed on to espouse the cause of independence, 
and follow the banners of Chile.* 

It may be necessary to observe here, that the general head-quarters of the 
Spanish troops in Chile has generally been in the province of Penco, the 
capital of which is Conception. The troops which were in that garrison in 
the beginning of the revolution, were Americans by a great majority ; and 
were, by the liberality of the inhabitants of the town, and the promises of the 
American officers amongst them, easily prevailed on to revolt and deny all 
future allegiance to the Spanish monarch. Thus far the revolution was un- 
stained with blood ; but a circumstance soon after occurred which menaced 
the country with the horrors of a civil war. The inhabitants of Conception 
asserted, that it was better adapted for the seat of government than Santiago, 
as it had a communication with the sea, and many local advantages favour- 
able to commerce, &c. &c. Carrera endeavoured to convince them of the 
impropriety of such a measure ; but finding that his arguments were not 
likely to dissuade them, he adopted other means. He opened a negociation 
with them ; in which it was stipulated that the army of Conception, then 
encamped on the southern bank of the Maule, should not pass that river, 
nor that of Chile make any advance, during a certain time. Before the expir- 

* There were only fifty soldiers of any kind in Santiago before the revolution. This state- 
ment is very wrong. — M. G. 



376 APPENDIX. 

ation of the time fixed, emissaries had been sent to the army of Conception 
by Carrera : by their generous offers matters were amicably adjusted, a 
reconciliation and coalition of parties was effected, and the enterprise of 
removing the seat of government to Conception was totally destroyed. 

The Spaniards having received reinforcements from Lima, Chiloe, and 
Coquimbo, began to concentrate themselves in the south of Chile, in order 
to oppose the progress of Carrera, who was not remiss in his preparations to 
meet them. He nominated a Vice-President in his absence, and marched 
to encounter them with the united forces of Chile and Conception. An infi- 
nity of actions, sieges, and skirmishes succeeded, in which the Americans, 
though little experienced in war, were generally victorious over their 
oppressors. 

It was in these guerillas that Don Bernardo O'Higgins (now Supreme 
Director of Chile) first distinguished himself. His father was a native of 
of Ireland, who had served some time in the English army ; but not meeting 
the attention or preferment which he considered as due to his merit, he 
resigned, and passing to Spain, received an appointment in the army of that 
country ; from whence he accompanied an expedition to Chile, where he 
evinced so much intrepidity, prudence, and application, in a war against the 
Indians, as induced His Catholic Majesty to create him a brigadier of his ser- 
vice, and captain-general of Chile. He discharged the duties of these high 
offices to the general satisfaction of his king and the people. He did not ne- 
glect the education of Don Bernardo, who was but a natural son by a woman 
named Isabella Riguelme, whose morals (it is said) were not altogether irre- 
proachable. He was sent to England when young, where he continued 
some time in an academy or college. At the commencement of the revo- 
lution he resided on a farm which was bequeathed him by his father. His 
military rank was captain of country militias ; but, in consequence of his 
extraordinary courage and serenity in several actions against the Spaniards, 
Carrera promoted him to the rank of lieutenant-colonel of the army of 
the line, as an encouragement to valour among his officers. O'Higgins 
continued to merit the esteem of his general, and almost every action 
brought him new honours : he attained at last the rank of brigadier-general ; 
and Carrera placed in him as much confidence as he did in either of his 
brothers. 

Subsequent to these flattering marks of favour and distinction with which 
he had been honoured, Carrera and his brothers were shut up in the garrison 



APPENDIX. 377 

of Talca (if I recollect rightly), and besieged by the Spaniards ; the town 
was assaulted and taken ; and the Carreras, with all the officers of the garri- 
son, were made prisoners. 

The whole command of the army now devolved on Brigadier-General 
O'Higgins ; who, instead of taking the necessary steps to procure the en- 
largement of Carrera his chief, by exchange or otherwise, seized on the 
favourable opportunity of assuming the civil power, and caused himself to be 
proclaimed President : in these proceedings he was supported by the officers 
and soldiers of Conception, his native town. Brigadier-General M'Kenna 
(who was afterwards shot in a duel by Don Luis Carrera) was appointed as 
second in command to O'Higgins. The city was governed as before, by a 
Vice-President, whilst the new President remained in front of the enemy. 
He was making vigorous preparations to carry on the war, when his attention 
was called to a quarter he least expected. 

The Carreras having procured and distributed money among the Spa- 
nish soldiers who guarded them, were allowed to escape ; of which O'Higgins 
being apprised, he offered a reward for their apprehension and delivery to him. 
However Carrera, from his popularity in the country, had little to fear from 
such a rival. He proceeded towards Santiago with his brothers, disguised as 
peasants ; and on his arrival in that city, he requested of his brother Luis to have 
himself discovered that he might be made prisoner, at the same time assuring 
him that he would liberate him that very night. Luis acted accordingly. He 
entered a tavern ; and calling a peasant, gave him some money, and desired 
that he would go and inform the town-major, that he could guide him to the 
house in which Don Luis Carrera was lodged : the countryman made some 
remonstrances ; but being ordered peremptorily he obeyed, and soon returned 
with a guard, which made Luis prisoner. 

In the meantime General Carrera, having an unbounded confidence in the 
soldiers whom he once commanded, introduced himself disguised (by being 
inveloped in a large cloak) into the barrack of the artillery ; and on being 
challenged by the sentinels, he answered that he was Carrera ; upon which 
the officers and soldiers crowded round their proscribed general with enthu- 
siasm and approbation, swearing to stand or fall with his fortunes. He 
ordered them to form, and immediately marched at their head to the plaza, 
liberated his brother Luis ; and as soon as his arrival in the town was known, 
he was joined by all the detachments in the garrison, and congratulated by 
all the citizens, who reinstated him in his former power. 

3 c 



378 APPENDIX. 

O'Higgins, on being acquainted with all that had happened, thought proper 
to prefer the gratification of private animosity to the safety or good of the 
public in general. He abandoned his station in front of the enemy, and with 
his whole force marched towards Santiago, to wreak his vengeance on his 
greatest benefactor, — on the man who had raised him from amongst the un- 
distinguished multitude, to act in a sphere so far above his expectations! 

Carrera being advertised of the redoubled marches of his rival, despatched 
deputies to meet and expostulate with him on the impropriety of having left 
the country unprotected and at the mercy of the Spaniards ; and also to 
propose the union of their forces, and joint exertions to expel their common 
enemy (who profited by their disunion) ; after which they could at their 
leisure decide their private disputes either by the fortune of war, or by the 
general suffrage of the people in favour of one or the other. As O'Higgins, 
with the exception of a few detachments, had the whole of the veteran forces 
under his command, he rejected with contempt these proposals of Carrera ; 
who making known to the citizens of Santiago, and the peasantry of the 
country, the issue of the negociations with O'Higgins, they saw that there 
was no alternative left between submitting to an usurper, or preparing to 
reduce him to subjection by force. The latter was unanimously agreed to. 
The citizens enrolled themselves in corps with alacrity ; the country militia 
assembled ; and being united, they marched out with Carrera to meet O'Hig- 
gins, and by a battle decide their fate. 

Carrera's men were badly armed, and ignorant of service ; their antago- 
nists were soldiers disciplined, and already accustomed to conquer. 

Carrera chose a position on the plains of Maypu, which he fortified, and 
there waited the arrival of O'Higgins, who did not long detain him. The 
two armies being in front of each other, O'Higgins, having disposed his 
troops for the assault, commanded the charge, and led his soldiers on with 
his usual bravery. Carrera waited the shock of the enemy in his entrench- 
ments, and on their near approach he opened on them a heavy fire which 
caused them to retire ; they were pursued, and called on to surrender by the 
peasants of Carrera, who had given orders not to take the lives of any of the 
fugitives. The soldiers of O'Higgins, as if intimidated by the idea of their 
disloyalty to their chief, laid down their arms, and were generously received 
and forgiven. O'Higgins and his principal officers were made prisoners, and 
experienced the clemency of the conqueror. The spoils of the field were 
divided amongst the victorious volunteers ; and the vanquished, from O'Hig- 



APPENDIX. 



379 



gins down to the meanest soldier, were amply remunerated by Carrera for 
the loss of their baggage, &c. 

After they had considered themselves prisoners for a few hours, the scattered 
remains of those corps (which but just now were his enemies) were incor- 
porated in a division with their own officers, and, what is still more surprising, 
with O'Higgins himself at their head. This division was appointed to act as 
van-guard to the army; and O'Higgins thus reconciled, and obliged not only 
for his employment, but for his life, to Carrera, after receiving his instruc- 
tions, marched to possess himself of a post which he was ordered to occupy in 
order to check the enemy. 

Carrera, ever frugal of the blood of his country, endeavoured by unexam- 
pled generosity and clemency to engage those in his favour who, according 
to the laws of war, of society, and of nature itself, had justly forfeited their 
lives : but he unfortunately miscarried in his attempts to disarm his enemies 
by these laudable means. Noble actions can only shed their influence on 
noble minds, and are but lost on the envious and ungrateful. Nevertheless, 
Carrera' s noble forgiveness of so great a crime on this occasion throws a 
brilliant light on that disinterested magnanimity and humanity which 
characterised the actions of his public life. Though he had repeated instances 
of the ingratitude of those whom he had served, yet he was not the less ready 
to extend his generosity or protection to all friends, or enemies, who stood in 
need of it. 

The Spaniards profited by the domestic dissensions of Chile. The strength 
of the army was much reduced by their strife, and the army of Carrera was 
obliged to take refuge in Rancagua ; which the Spaniards besieged, assaulted, 
and after a defence of forty-eight hours, without intermission of fire, the town 
was taken for want of ammunition to defend it longer. In this action the 
patriots were obliged to supply the place of grape-shot by dollars, which they 
fired from their artillery at the close of the second day. 

The remains of the army which escaped the fury of the Spaniards passed 
the Andes, with General Carrera and his brothers, O'Higgins, M'Kenna, 
Benevente, Rodriguez, &c, and a vast number of respectable citizens, to seek 
an asylum amongst the patriots of the Provincias del Rio de la Plata ; from 
whence, after recruiting their army, they expected to recross the Andes, and 
again dispute the fate of Chile with her oppressors. 

After a short residence in Buenos Ayres, Carrera, who was without funds, 
saw that it would be impossible for him to effect his plans. He therefore pro- 

3c 2 



380 APPENDIX. 

ceeded to the United States, from whence he expected to derive some assist- 
ance : in which he was not disappointed, being furnished with five armed 
vessels, in which he embarked seventy English and French officers (not in- 
cluding the naval officers who came employed in the vessels) ; arms, ammuni- 
tion, and clothing, accoutrements, &c. for 12,000 foot ; sabres, pistols, &c. 
for 2000 cavalry ; with a great number of artizans of different denominations, 
their necessary implements, &c. &c. 

He concluded a treaty of commerce with the Congress, in which it was 
agreed that the duty on American imports in Chile (when liberated) should 
pay the debt incurred in fitting out the expedition alluded to j and when paid, 
the duties were to continue at a certain rate per cent, as stipulated in the 
treaty. Whether this money was advanced to Carrera by the government 
of the United States, or by a certain number of the members of Congress, I 
know not. Having thus formed a connection which he considered respect- 
able, he departed for the Pacific ocean, where his operations were to have 
commenced. 

In the meantime the conquest of Chile had been meditated by Pueyrredon, 
governor of Buenos Ayres : nothing less than the universal extension of his 
influence over the United Provinces, and Chile, would gratify the ambition 
of this monopolist of power. He well knew Carrera's character, though 
gentle, was not passive ; and therefore he resolved to appoint O'Higgins as 
President of Chile, being, as he considered, a more apt instrument to facilitate 
his private views. San Martin was the general appointed to lead the expe- 
dition into Chile which was then raising in the province of Cuyo. The 
brothers of Carrera, who had remained in Buenos Ayres, were denied the 
gratification of accompanying this expedition to their native country, and 
had strict injunctions not to leave Buenos Ayres, where they were confined 
on parole. 

Carrera, unconscious of the treachery which was designed against him, put 
into Buenos Ayres to take in fresh provisions, some troops and officers which 
he had left there, and to inform himself of whatever might have transpired 
relative to his country in his absence, previous to his passing the Cape to 
commence hostilities in Chile. No sooner did he arrive, than his vessel was 
seized by the government, himself and his officers made prisoners on shore ; 
but they afterwards put Carrera on board a gun-brig in the river, as a 
place of greater security. His brothers saw the imminent danger which 
surrounded them : they escaped from Buenos Ayres ; and, disguised in the 



APPENDIX. 



381 



apparel of muleteers, expected to reach Chile undiscovered. But in Mendoza 
they were betrayed by a servant, apprehended, cast into a dungeon, and 
loaded with irons, by order of San Martin ; from whence they never went 
forth, till called on to resign a life already made too loathsome by the tyranny 
of their oppressors. 

Three of the vessels of the squadron of Carrera entered the Rio de la 
Plata ; and on being informed of his imprisonment, they put to sea again, and 
returned to the United States. 

By the connivance and humanity of the officer to whose care Carrera had 
been committed, he escaped in a boat which two officers had provided for 
that purpose : the commander of the gun-brig, to prevent suspicion, fired 
several guns after him, and ordered some boats to pursue him j but not be- 
fore he was certain that he could not be retaken. 

Carrera, after some hours' sail, landed safely at Monte Video, and presented 
himself to General Le Cor, governor of the town, who received him with 
that kindness and respect which were due to his misfortunes and rank. 

Pueyrredon carried on a private negociation at this period with the Portu- 
guese court at Rio de Janeiro, relative to the delivery of the Provincias 
Unidas del Rio de la Plata to a prince of the house of Bourbon (Principe de 
Luco), reserving for himself a lucrative and honourable place in the state 
after the political regeneration it was expected immediately to undergo. 

Carrera ingratiated himself so far with his Portuguese friends in court, that 
he not only was informed of the very important business transacting there, 
but also furnished with copies and most authentic documents of the whole 
proceedings. 

Pueyrredon had much to fear from Carrera's situation and residence in 
Monte Video, and demanded of the Portuguese an order that he should be de- 
livered prisoner in Buenos Ayres, from whence he had escaped. Carrera 
was acquainted of this by his friend, who recommended him to hold himself 
in readiness to depart for Panana (a town in the jurisdiction of Artigas), in 
case the order should be granted against him ; assuring him that he would give 
him notice, and time for his escape. A few days after, the order was received 
for his apprehension in Monte Video.; and on being informed he departed, 
and with some difficulties reached Entre Rios. 

Ramirez, who was governor of that province, under Artigas, received 
Carrera hospitably, espoused his cause against Pueyrredon, and became his 
decided friend. Soon as Artigas knew that Carrera was in his territory, he 
wrote to Ramirez, ordering him to secure him, and send him to his head- 



382 APPENDIX. 

quarters on the frontier of* the Brazils. The order came too late ; Ramirez, 
though a stranger to him, had become his friend, and could not think of de- 
livering his friend to destruction. He put the letter into Can-era' s hands, re- 
questing he would direct him in so intricate a situation, and assuring him that 
he would sooner meet all the resentment of Artigas, than be guilty of deliver- 
ing him. Carrera told him not to fear Artigas ; and devised a plan by which 
Ramirez might establish himself, independent of Artigas, in the government 
of the province of Entre Rios for the present, and afterwards perhaps might 
supersede him in the government of the Ban da Oriental. A palliating letter 
was written by Ramirez to Artigas, stating that Carrera was a patriot, a friend 
of his, and that he stood in much need of his talents in the prosecution of 
the war against the Portenos, or Buenos Ayrians. Artigas thought it unavail- 
ing to use menaces to enforce his orders at such an immense distance, and 
therefore affected to acquiesce in the request of Ramirez ; not doubting that 
an opportunity might soon occur more favourable to the execution of his un- 
generous designs against a man already too unfortunate. Artigas's hatred 
to Carrera originated in an idea that Carrera, by his superior abilities, might 
supersede or supplant him in his government of the Banda Oriental. 

Some time had elapsed since San Martin and O'Higgins had crossed the 
Andes ; they had already gained some decided advantages over the Spaniards 
in Chile. The news of the battle of Maypu ; the death of his two brothers in 
Mendoza, and that of his father in Chile; the confiscation of all their estates 
and properties ; the declaration against them, the Carreras, as being traitors 
to their country, and to be proceeded against accordingly ; — all came to him 
the same day : add to tins catalogue of misfortunes, the imprisonment of his 
lady, Dona Mercedes, and Dona Jabiera, his sister, in Buenos Ayres. 

The popularity of the Carreras in Chile appeared so glaringly to San Mar- 
tin, that he resolved to end the existence of Don Juan Jose and Don Luis, 
whom he had left in Mendoza, lest they shoidd escape, well knowing that 
in Chile he could hold no competition with them. He therefore sent an order 
to Luzuriago, governor of Mendoza, intimating the advantages that would 
accrue to the state from the immediate execution of the Carreras. Luzu- 
riago, whose military preferment and admission into the honourable orders 
of new nobility established in Chile and Buenos Ayres, depended on his 
promptitude in assassinating those whom his employers would point out for 
victims, quickly put into execution the mandate of his fell master. 

The Carreras were conducted to the public plaza, to gratify the envy, am- 
bition, and revenge of a base tyrant. They died ! But they suffered death 



APPENDIX. 



383 



with such unshaken resolution, as astonished their savage executioners, and 
excited the pity and tears of their more feeling beholders : they refused to 
admit the officious assistance of the priests who were appointed to attend 
them ; and walking arm in arm to the place of execution, they embraced each 
other most tenderly, recollected their absent brother in a very affecting man- 
ner, at the same time expressing a thought, that if he still lived he would 
undoubtedly avenge the wrongs and vindicate the fame of his most unfortunate 
brothers. Then seating themselves on the bench, and again embracing each 
other, they requested of the soldiers to despatch them : the soldiers fired, 
and they fell, clasped in each others arms. Thus died the Carreras, whose 
only crime was, that they loved their country too well, and were too much 
beloved by their countrymen ! 

After their death, the form of a trial was drawn up by a lawyer, in which 
they were found guilty of having left Buenos Ayres without a passport, in 
order to circulate sedition in Chile. This most ingenious trial was published 
in Buenos Ayres, Chile, and all parts of the United Provinces, in order to 
hide the deformity of a most horrid violation of the common rights of indi- 
viduals, and of mankind in general. This mode of trial, however rare it may 
have been before, has since that time been but too common in America In- 
dependiente. It is a most excellent plan"; for the dead speak not, and 
the evidences are always such as to meet the entire approbation of the 
executioners. 

A bill of costs was presented, by order of His Excellency General San 
Martin, to Don Ignacio Carrera, in which he was charged with all the 
expenses arising to the state from the execution of his sons ; viz. gaolers' 
fees, plank and nails used in the seat on which they were shot, cordage (with 
which they were not tied), powder, ball, &c. &c. The aged and unfortunate 
father, whose property had been already confiscated, except a small allow- 
ance, discharged this unheard-of species of debt, and expired in a few days 
after ! 

Colonel Don Manuel Rodriguez, an officer of Carrera, who passed to Chile 
before the expedition of San Martin, and raised a force in the country, by 
whose influence and exertions San Martin was enabled to subdue Chile, was 
still more basely assassinated, because he was a known friend to the liberty of 
his country. 

General Carrera had brought with him from the United States several print- 
ing presses ; one of which had by some means escaped the general ruin : he 
had it in Entre Rios, where he lost no time in publishing manifestos of his 



384 APPENDIX. 

transactions and services during the revolution. His defence was ably stated, 
and in the sequel proved that he and his brothers were not traitors to their 
country, as had been declared by his enemies ; but that those enemies were, or 
wished to be, traitors. He stated, and made appear from the most authentic 
documents, the treaty which existed between Pueyrredon and the Portuguese 
court relative to the delivery of the United Provinces. These manifestos 
were distributed by his friends through the whole country. The town and 
province of Buenos Ayres began to distrust the patriotism of their Director 
and his Congress : they saw the justice which actuated the Federalists or 
Montoneros in their threatened invasion of the provinces, and looked forward 
to them rather as their deliverers than as enemies. 

Pueyrredon was sensible of his danger, and made timely preparations to 
meet it. General Belgrano, who commanded the army of Peru (then in 
Tucuman), was ordered to accelerate his marches towards the confines of 
Santa Fe and Cordova, where the first scene of action was anticipated. 

Ramirez and Carrera, finding the minds of the Portehos to be in a proper 
mood for their reception, crossed the Parrana, and hostilities commenced in 
the province of Santa Fe, where many actions were fought, all of which 
redounded much to the credit and valour of the Federalists. All the posts 
which the Portehos held were taken with slaughter ; and the remains of their 
army, under General Balcarse, took refuge in the town of Rosario, where 
they were besieged about fifteen days ; and, fortunately for them, some vessels 
had come to receive them previous to the assault of the town. In these ves- 
sels they embarked with great disorder, losing many soldiers, their artillery, 
and baggage: they sailed down the Parrana, and disembodied at San Ni- 
cholas; Viamon, who was general-in-chief of the Portehos, was taken 
prisoner in this campaign. 

The Federal army now completely victorious over the Portehos, marched 
towards the river Carcaraha, on the frontiers of Cordova, to encounter the 
celebrated army of Peru under General Belgrano, who had established his 
head-quarters in the Cruz Altra, a small town or village on the Cordova side 
of the Carcaraha. Here guerillas were blazing unceasingly at each other 
day and night, without any decisive advantage to one party or the other. 
Belgrano's army was highly disciplined, accustomed to the dangers and pri- 
vations of war, and had a desire to come to a general engagement, as they 
were much fatigued with the incessant toils, vigilance, and partial dangers 
inseparable from a soldier in front of his enemy ; but he was too prudent 
to hazard all his hopes in a general action against troops already considered 



APPENDIX. 385 

invincible, and wished to await reinforcements in his present position before 
he would venture an attack : his soldiers became impatient, and desertion 
began to threaten his army with total annihilation, whilst the deserters passed 
over to the Federalists, and strengthened their lines. 

The publications of Carrera were privately distributed and read in Bel- 
grano's army ; protection was offered to all officers, soldiers, provinces, &c. 
who should wish to throw off the oppressive yoke of the metropolis, Buenos 
Ayres. Many persons of rank and distinction in the country who were per- 
secuted for their political tenets, flocked to the Federal standard, and found 
an asylum beneath its influence. Thus the Federal army became more for- 
midable every day, and the knowledge of a revolution in Belgrano's army 
was what saved him from an attack in his intrenchments. 

Such were the prospects of the campaign, when the second in command, 
Don Juan Bautista, Coronel Mayor of the national forces, and General of 
the auxiliary army of Peru, fired with ambition, and anticipating the mu- 
tinous spirit of the soldiery, headed the revolution, and declared for the 
Federal army, requesting of Carrera and Ramirez to have him nominated to 
the government of Cordova, professing the highest veneration and attach- 
ment to his new allies, and his readiness to assist in forwarding their views, 
and the good of the country in general. 

Ramirez was of opinion that Bustos should be sent to Entre-Rios, and the 
army taken by himself and Carrera, and some other person, more worthy their 
confidence, appointed to the government of Cordova. But the idea was too 
ungenerous for Carrera : he believed the professions of Bustos, and had him 
appointed to the government. This army consisted of about four thousand 
veteran soldiers, seven hundred of which were Chilenos, and to be delivered 
by Bustos to Carrera, clothed, armed, &c. whenever he should demand 
them. 

The officers who had honour enough to detest the proceedings of Bustos, 
and did not wish to remain in that army, were permitted to retire whither 
they thought best : they were but few who retired. Belgrano was imprisoned 
by the PorteMos for an event which he could not foresee or prevent. He 
was in his youth a lawyer, and became a soldier in the revolution. Belgrano 
was the most able, honourable, and meritorious officer the Porteilos ever 
boasted ; and it was certainly a pity that his exertions were not employed in 
a better cause than the extension and support of a tyrant's authority. 

Before we proceed, it may not be amiss to notice slightly the birth of His 

3 d 



386 APPENDIX. 

Excellency Don Juan Bautista Bustos, governor of the province of Cordova. 
According to the religious institutes of Catholic countries, monks or friars are 
not supposed to extend their affections to any thing beneath the dignity of the 
church, the blessed Virgin, or some other heavenly chimera ; but that they 
have their weaknesses, and, like other men, are sometimes led aside from the 
paths of virtue, we have a living and unequivocal proof in the person of Don 
Juan Bautista Bustos, who was the son of a friar : his mother was indeed a 
slave j but she was one of the prettiest Mulatas in Cordova, so famed for that 
cast. She was afterwards purchased by the friar by whom she had many chil- 
dren. As Cordova is the seat of science and literature in America, it is very 
natural to suppose that Bustos imbibed some tincture of both. He served in 
the Spanish army as cadet ; and it is further said, that he particularly distin- 
guished himself in Buenos Ayres, in 1807, against the English. However 
that may be, Bustos is certainly a brave man, and his military promotions 
have been gained in the field by his merit : nevertheless, he is ungrateful, 
cruel, intriguing, and perfidious. 

Buenos Ayres now saw herself divested of those succours in which her 
confidence and security were founded. Santa Fe was lost, Cordova no longer 
recognised her authority ; and the army of Peru, which was expected to con- 
quer her enemies, now was foremost in asserting the rights of the provinces. 
The communication with the province of Cuyo was intercepted, and there 
were reasons to fear, that that province would follow the example of Cor- 
dova, whenever circumstances would be favourable to it. Thus deprived of 
all its resources, Buenos Ayres saw, in its most dreadful shape, the impending 
storm which was gathering over her head, and promised to crush her to the 
dust : the day of retribution seemed fast approaching, in which she should 
receive the punishment which was due to her insidious perfidy and un- 
bounded ambition. In this lamentable dilemma, Pueyrredon and his con- 
gress turned their eyes unanimously towards their champion San Martin, 
the immortal and invincible hero of San Lorenzo, Chacabuco, and Mai/pii, 
as the only person who could deliver them from the hands of their enemies. 

San Martin had crossed the Andes, and was with his grenadiers, dragoons, 
and Cazadores, in Mendoza. The army of the Andes, which San Martin 
commanded, belonged to Buenos Ayres. His obligations to Pueyrredon 
were, or ought to have been infinite, for having selected him, from amongst 
many who possessed greater merit, to fulfil the office which he held ; but he 
had cunning enough to foresee that the Federal army was superior to his 



APPENDIX. 



387 



own in every point of view : he saw the danger to which he would be exposed 
if he attacked them, and therefore wisely shunned it, thinking with Sir 
John Falstaff, (whom he also imitates in his love of the bottle,) that " dis- 
cretion is the better part of valour." The savage wished to cloke his cow- 
ardice under the mask of humanity and patriotism, and for that purpose 
issued a proclamation, expressing how extremely repugnant it was to his 
feelings to shed the blood of one single American : that it was his only 
wish to carry the sword of his country against its common enemies, the 
Godos or Spaniards : — he prepared to cross the Andes, resolved to put 
the army under his command at the disposition of the government of ChUe. 
On his presenting himself in Chile, these forces underwent an alteration of 
titles : they were styled by Buenos Ayres, Exercito de los Andes, 6 Exercito 
de Buenos Ayres ; but were now called Exercito de la Republica de Chile. 
Thus did this modern hero, this Washington of South America, not only fly 
from the government which had elevated, distinguished, and protected him 
in the moment of danger ; but also robbed her of those forces which some 
nobler spirit might have led to rally round the ruins of their falling state. 
A desertion, fraud, and cowardice worthy of San Martin, and of him 
only. 

I should be extremely sorry to insinuate any thing derogatory to the cha- 
racter of so great and illustrious a person as San Martin ; but if it is admitted 
that conscience sometimes damps a man's courage, — surely no person could 
be more likely to fear from its accusations than His Excellency. He must 
have recollected how much easier it was to gratify his brutal revenge on 
Carrera's brothers in a dungeon, and loaded with shackles, than it woidd be 
to meet him at the head of an army, determined to conquer. 

By his orders, the most notorious infraction on the rights of war and hu- 
manity, perhaps, that is recorded of any country having pretensions to any 
degree of civilisation, was perpetrated in San Luis by his friend Dupuy, the 
lieutenant-governor of that town. After the battle of Maypu, all the officers 
taken prisoners in that action had been sent to San Luis, and recommended 
by San Martin to the particular attention of Don Vicente Dupuy, the lieu- 
tenant-governor. They were about fifty in number, including General Or- 
donez, Colonels Riberos and Murgado, and other field officers. Every 
Sunday the general and field officers presented themselves to Dupuy, with 
whom they generally dined and passed the night in playing at cards, &c, &c. 
Dupuy, either from a malevolent and blood-thirsty inclination (as some sup- 

3-D 2 



388 APPENDIX. 

pose), or in obedience of orders from his master (which he afterwards in his 
trial endeavoured to prove), conceived a horrid plan of assassinating all the 
prisoners in the town, with the Spanish residents and officers. Accordingly 
on the night of the 7th of February 1818, General Ordonez, Colonels ltiberos 
and Murgado, and the officers of the general's staff", were invited to Dupuy's, 
and highly entertained ; the night as usual was passed over the cards, and 
at break of day Dupuy, impatient to commence his sanguinary undertaking, 
violently seized on the money which Riberos had won during the night, and 
which was placed on the table before him. 

Dupuy knew the high and unyielding temper of that meritorious officer, 
and supposed he would attempt to strike him in the moment he had been 
guilty of that breach of decorum ; he had a number of orderlies, or assassins 
(as we shall here consider them synonymous terms), in waiting, ready to rush 
forth on the first alarm. Riberos acted with a patience and sang-froid, to 
which he had heretofore been a stranger. He recollected that he was but a 
prisoner of war on parole, and the aggressor was an absolute tyrant and a 
governor : he therefore calmly remonstrated with him on the impropriety and 
baseness of the action of which he had just been guilty, telling him that if 
he availed himself of the authority invested in him as governor for acting in 
such an ungentlemanly manner, he found himsehj from his circumstances, 
obliged to allow it to pass unnoticed ; but that if it were understood in any 
other light, no man should insult Riberos and pass unpunished. Dupuy 
declared that he only availed himself of the authority of a gentleman, not 
that of a governor, and stood up at the same time by way of defiance. Ri- 
beros, now, not only considered himself justified in chastising his insolence, 
but obligated to do so ; and in contempt of the intreaties of his companions 
he knocked down Dupuy by a vigorous blow on the face. The confederates 
of Dupuy, then at the table, flew with one accord to a corner of the 
room, in which was deposited a quantity of arms for the purpose. The 
officers seeing their danger, followed the same example, and in a moment 
every person in the room was armed. 

It is not difficult to suppose that veteran officers accustomed to brave dan- 
gers, overawed these vile assassins, who were only active in their profession 
when secure from danger, or screened by the darkness of night. They stood 
motionless before the officers, who immediately secured the door, as the guards, 
prepared without, were entering the court yard. Dupuy and his gang being 
enclosed, and unable for the present to receive any assistance from his friends 



APPENDIX. 339 

without, thought it best to capitulate : — he pledged his word and honour to 
the officers, that if they would permit him to go out, he would pacify the 
tumult in the street, and bury in oblivion their mutual resentment. The 
officers acceded to this proposition. Dupuy went out, and telling the mob 
that he had escaped from the Godos who were in revolution against the town, 
he caused the drums to beat, and trumpets to sound the " General," which, 
seconded by the cries of " Down with the Godos," announced to the unfor- 
tunate officers that the fatal hour of their massacre was come. 

The gallant Riberos, _who considered himself the cause of that general 
misfortune, exhorted his companions to sell their existence at the dearest rate 
possible, but they saw the inutility of seven officers opposing themselves to 
the rage of an incensed rabble ; and expected, by offering no resistance, to 
find mercy amongst their butchers. Riberos finding them unwilling to ac- 
quiesce in his first proposal, insinuated that each Spaniard ought to fall by 
his own hand, but his comrades shrunk from the idea of suicide. The as- 
sassins began to fire, and advanced on the house : Riberos bid farewell to his 
companions, and exclaiming, " Un Americano indecente jamas quitterd la vida 
de Segundo Riberos," he finished his existence by discharging the contents 
of his pistol in his head : the remaining six threw down their arms, and were 
without resistance despatched by the ruffians, who immediately went all 
through the town assassinating every Spaniard individually in their houses or 
in the streets. 

This scene of barbarity commenced about seven o'clock in the streets on 
the 8th of February, 18 17. Only two Spaniards escaped their search, the 
one died insane from the terror of that day, the other still exists in the con- 
vent of San Lorenzo, province of Santa Fe. 

Ordonez, whose body was covered with wounds received in the French 
war in defence of his country with fifty officers, many of whom were Spanish 
noblemen, perished on that day by the hands of the merciless assassins: the 
number of residents of the town who died, is not known ; twenty-seven sol- 
diers, prisoners of the Federal army, were also suffocated in a dungeon the 
same day. 

Thus did Dupuy gain a memorable and signal victory over these brave 
though unresisting officers and soldiers. Prodigies of valour and patriotism 
were performed by his officers on this occasion. An official letter was des- 
patched to Buenos Ayres, stating the imminent danger of the Patria from the 
insurrection of fifty Godos, isolated from all intercourse with their friends 



390 APPENDIX. 

by a distance upwards of five hundred leagues, and surrounded by enemies 
on every side. The Patria, thus delivered from her enemies, could not do less 
than reward her sons. Pueyrredon, who never allowed this kind of merit to 
pass unrewarded, decreed, that each officer of Dupuy should be presented 
with a medal at the cost of the government of Buenos Ayres, with the date 
of the memorable event, and some appropriate insignia engraved on it. Du- 
puy was promoted to be Coronel Mayor of the national forces, and a member 
of the legion of merit, in recompence for his activity. 

This, perhaps, is the first example of an infamous clan of ruffians being 
honoured with, or daring to assume a distinction only due to merit, as the 
demonstration of their prowess in the horrid and detestable crime of assas- 
sination ! 

The Federalists, who had nothing to fear from the enemies in their rear, 
directed their marches towards the province of Buenos Ayres, leaving Bustos 
(whose army was now called the third division of the Federal army), in the 
province of Cordova to observe the operations of the interior provinces. 

The known resentment of Carrera and Ramirez to Pueyrredon made it 
necessary for him to retire from the government in Buenos Ayres, as the 
Federalists would enter into no treaty whilst Pueyrredon was director. He 
was obliged to resign, and was succeeded in the government by Brigadier 
General Don Jose Rondeau. This change in the administration did not 
satisfy the Federalists ; the congress still existed, and they would listen to no 
terms of accommodation whilst it did. 

Rondeau, who had acquired some credit in the campaigns of High Peru, 
availed himself of his popularity by persuading chosen detachments of civicos 
and country militia to accompany him with the veteran force then in Buenos 
Ayres, to the frontiers, to meet, and stop the progress of the Federalists, whose 
numbers were much reduced by having sent some of their force back to 
Entre-Rios, and leaving parties in several towns in their rear. The troops 
under Rondeau were about three thousand, those of Ramirez were at most 
nine hundred, including about forty northern Indians. 

It was evening when the contending parties discovered each other, and as 
it was late, and the Federalists fatigued with marching, it was determined to 
defer the attack till the next morning ; but soon as the night came on, the 
Portenos, notwithstanding the great superiority of their numbers, put them- 
selves in march, in order to retire to San Nicolas. The Federalists pursuing 
them, and harassing their rear, which was much encumbered by carts and 



APPENDIX. 



391 



baggage, they found it impossible to effect their retreat. However, they sus- 
tained their Guerillas, and continued their inarch, in order to possess them- 
selves of a strong and advantageous position on the Canada de Cepeda. On 
arriving there they halted. Their infantry, amounting to twelve hundred, 
formed a hollow square, the front of which was covered by their numerous 
carts, with artillery at proper intervals ; the flanks, or right and left faces of 
the square, were strengthened by cavalry ; and the rear face of the square was 
protected by the Canada on which it was formed. In this position the Por- 
teiios remained till morning, when Ramirez in person reconnoitred the 
ground, and a little after sunrise every thing was ready for a general attack. 
The charge was sounded, the Federalists advanced sword in hand, with a 
terror-striking courage, at full speed of their horses, amidst a heavy fire of 
artillery and musquetry. The cavalry of the Porteiios, accustomed to trust 
more to the fleetness of their horses, than to the keenness of their swords, 
could not resist the charge, but fled in disorder, leaving their infantry aban- 
doned. Rondeau himself was one of the first to fly. The fugitive cavalry 
were pursued with great havoc, whilst a corps de reserve of 150 men re- 
mained in observation of the infantry. 

The grass was extremely luxuriant, and rather dry by the intense heat of the 
season : it caught fire from the artillery, the breeze augmented the flames, 
and in a few minutes the camp appeared in a dreadful conflagration. 

The loss of the enemy's waggons, artillery, &c. was inevitable; they 
marched through the marsh in their rear, and gaining an adjacent lake, re- 
mained there during the time the fire continued to rage, which was about 
three hours ; the breeze then lessening, and the Federalists returning from the 
pursuit of that part of the enemy which had fled, the fire was by their exer- 
tions almost entirely extinguished. 

The situation of the enemy's infantry was the most pitiable which can be 
conceived; without cavalry to sustain them, without refreshment of any 
kind, not knowing the moment in which they might be engaged by their victo- 
rious enemies, and at least six or seven leagues distant from San Nicolas, the 
only post in which they could reasonably indulge a hope of being able to de- 
fend themselves. However, they were still in number much superior to the 
Federalists, and the spirit and courage of the three officers who commanded 
them was almost equal to the difficulty and danger of their situation. Bal- 
carse, who commanded in chief was summoned to surrender, but refused 
with great resolution ; he formed his men in close column, with parties of 



392 APPENDIX. 

light infantry on the flanks, and in that posture of defence began his march 
for San Nicolas. Ramirez formed his cavalry in column of divisions in order 
to attack him, and they must undoubtedly have perished, were it not for 
the interposition of Carrera, who had two objects in view, which impelled 
him not to concur in the attack on the column : — first, amongst the infantry 
of the enemy he knew there were six hundred Chilenos, who being the 
bravest would in all probability have been the first to perish. These soldiers 
he expected in a few days would be his own, and by destroying them then, 
he would have deprived himself of those men with whom he afterwards ter- 
rified his enemies. Secondly, he knew that veteran soldiers led by brave 
chiefs would dispute each yard of ground with an obstinate courage, and 
that many of the Federalists would necessarily fall in reducing them, which 
would cause a suspension of operations for some time, as the Federalists could 
not recruit their army without returning to Santa Fe or Entre-Rios ; which 
would give time to the government of Buenos Ayres, to make new prepar- 
ations. Such were the causes which made Carrera consider that a victory 
over this column of infantry would be too dearly bought. 

They harassed the rear of the column for a few leagues, many soldiers 
from excessive fatigue were obliged to throw themselves on the ground, and 
give themselves up to the parties which hung on their rear. — Colonel Major 
Balcarse, and Colonels Rolon and Vidal commanded the infantry. Their 
spirited resolution and good dispositions for their defence did them as much 
credit, as the shameful flight of the Director, Rondeau, did him dishonour. As 
only nine hundred infantry entered San Nicolas, their total loss in killed, 
wounded, and prisoners, may be computed at 300. 

The Federalists continued their march towards Buenos Ayres, leaving a 
small force in the vicinity of San Nicolas and San Pedro to observe the 
operations of the enemy. 

Rondeau with one of his aides-de-camp escaped from the field of battle, and 
arrived in Buenos Ayres about 4 o'clock the following morning. As they sup- 
posed themselves the only survivors of the expedition, they declared to the 
Congress the dreadful destruction which their cavalry had suffered, and which 
they supposed it altogether impossible their infantry could have escaped. 

About 7 o'clock in the morning a proclamation was published in all the 
streets, announcing to the people the dismal reverse of fortune which the 
Patria had just sustained; and the total loss of her son's horse and foot, in 
the battle of Cepeda, the governor " alone having escaped to tell them." This 



APPENDIX. 393 

proclamation was more adapted to prepare the minds of the inhabitants to 
bear with a meek and Christian resignation the vicissitude under which they 
had fallen, than to rouse thein to any new exertion for the defence of their 
capital. No immediate preparations were made by the government. No- 
thing but fear and consternation reigned in the town ; they even had the 
absurdity to believe that the body of the Federal army could advance with 
the rapidity of a courier and enter the city that night. It is remarkable that 
this was the first, and almost the only occasion on which the government of 
Buenos Ayres acknowledged a defeat of their forces ; although their arms 
were attended only with a series of uninterrupted misfortunes, owing to the 
ignorance or cowardice of the commanders of their expeditions. Although 
they had lost all the Banda Oriental, Entre Rios, Santa Fe, and all the towns 
of High Peru ; yet the gazettes were filled with fictitious and imaginary details 
of their victories, and plausible excuses for the necessity of sending such 
frequent reinforcements were given to the public. This last misfortune 
extorted from them not only a full, but an exaggerated description of their 
loss. 

However, two days afterwards an express arrived from San Nicolas with 
despatches from Balcarse. Their veteran infantry still existed ! A proclam- 
ation was immediately published, in which the former report of Rondeau 
was flatly contradicted. It was true, indeed, that the Director and his aid- 
de-camp, with all the cavalry, were pursued five leagues ; nevertheless the 
army rallied afterwards ; in fine, " their fellow citizens and soldiers were 
covered with immortal laurels, and the enemy defeated." 

The first confession was believed by the people to be genuine ; it was the 
only government news they had believed for a length of time. They, accus- 
tomed to hear nothing from their press but falsehood and deception, con- 
sequently found themselves under the necessity of learning to judge for 
themselves. It was known that the Federalists were advancing on the town ; 
and the inhabitants could not conceive how an enemy could receive such a 
defeat as the Congress would fain make it appear they had, and still continue 
to advance. 

The object of this last proclamation was to raise a contribution to pay the 
civicos, in order to put them between the Congress and her danger. The 
design did not succeed. The people had a right idea of their imbecile and 
corrupted governors ; and looked forward with anxiety to the hour which 
would free them altogether of their oppressors. 

3 E 



394 APPENDIX. 

In this very unfavourable state of affairs, the government recollected the 
services and abilities of Don Estanislao Soler, whom they had long neglected, 
and discarded from their notice ; and who lived on his little farm in the 
country, unregarded and obscure. Soler had been a brigadier-general, and 
had merited and received the approbation of his country, in the campaign 
of the Banda Oriental, and siege of Monte Video. 

In times which did not promise so rich a harvest of honour, the candidates 
for power in Buenos Ayres were numerous ; but on this occasion the fear of 
danger seems to have completely superseded the love of glory. There was 
not a man who would offer himself for his country. Soler was summoned by 
the Congress, on which he immediately waited, and was solicited by them to 
receive the command of whatever force could be raised. With this request 
he complied, without insinuating or perhaps recollecting their former 
ingratitude. 

The opinion of the public in favour of Soler was so great in Buenos Ayres, 
that he was congratulated by every class of citizens, on his return into office. 
In a few days he raised about 3,000 men to accompany him to the field, and 
established his head-quarters at the Puente Marco, seven leagues from 
Buenos Ayres. The Federal army was encamped at Pilar, distant from 
Puente Marco eight leagues. An armistice was concluded for fourteen 
days ; but before any further propositions should be made for peace, the 
Federalists required that the Congress should be dissolved ; which order 
Soler intimated to them, and the town had the gratification to see that assem- 
bly dismissed. 

The provinces of Tucuman, Salta, Santiago del Estere, Catamarca 
Arioja, and San Luis, encouraged by the example of Cordova, and protected 
by the Federalists, declared themselves independent of Buenos Ayres. Du- 
puy was superseded, cast into prison, and brought to trial for the massacre 
of the Spaniards, and various cruelties and assassinations. He was entirely 
void of that resolution which he so often had put to the proof in others ; the 
crimes of which he was accused were committed under the eyes of the town, 
and even his judges were witnesses of his barbarity : he therefore could not do 
otherwise than acknowledge the crimes laid to his charge ; but he alleged 
for his defence, that he was but a subaltern, and obliged to execute the orders 
of the captain-general of the province of Cuyo, Don Jose San Martin, who 
was his immediate chief. He produced the written orders of San Martin for 
the assassination of Rodriguez, Raposo, and Conde ; these orders were very 



APPENDIX. 395 

laconic, stating nothing more than — " Don Fulanowill pass through the town 
of San Luis on such a day: he has my passport ; receive him politely ; give him 
whatever assistance he may stand in need of, — but, take care that he pass not 
the wood on the other side San Luis. — Prontitud y silencio, asi conviene la bien 
de la Patria /" He made it appear, that previous to the departure of San 
Martin, he had, in conversation with him, received a verbal order for the mas- 
sacre of the Spaniards, lest they should take part with Carrera. 

Frivolous as this defence was, it had some weight with the pusillanimous 
and ignorant court by which he was judged. They were accustomed to 
tremble at the name of San Martin, and could not divest themselves of fear. 
They dreaded a vicissitude in their affairs by which San Martin might be 
enabled to reassume his authority ; in which case they would be responsible to 
him if they acted by his favourite as his crimes deserved. Thus the sentiments 
of fear overbalanced those of justice ; and the tyrant who had a thousand 
times forfeited his vile existence by his viler deeds, was only sentenced to be 
transported in irons to La Arioja; from whence he escaped, and followed his 
master to Lima, to inform him of the wonderful metamorphosis of America 
beyond the Andes. San Martin received him with the regard due to an able 
and faithful assistant in his iniquities, and appointed him to the command of 
the Castella de la Independencia in Callao. 

After the dismission of the Congress in Buenos Ayres, the supreme power 
was invested in the Cabildo, over which presided Don Pedro Aguirre Al- 
calde de Primer Voto. The treaty of peace now commenced ; and after a 
few days' negotiation, overtures were agreed to and signed by the stipulating 
parties. The articles of the treaty of Pilar were as follows, viz. — 

" That the war carried on by the Federalists against the government of 
" Buenos Ayres and her allies in the United Provinces was just, in every 
" acceptation of the word ; and had for its principal object and' end, the 
" emancipation of America in general, not only from her foreign, but also 
" from her domestic, yoke, which was still more galling and illiberal. 

" That the many petty governments and independent states bordering on 
" each other were inimical to, and incompatible with the peace, good order, 
" and prosperity of the nation ; war being inevitable whilst each petty 
" governor had exorbitant and avaricious desires to gratify, and a military 
'« force under his command. 

" That a Federal government was the most effectual preventative against 

3 e 2 



396 APPENDIX. 

these disorders, by uniting all the finances and forces of the nation under 
one Director or President, to be elected in the most just and constitutional 
manner. 

" That an assembly should be elected in each of the Federal provinces by 
the free and unbiassed votes of their constituents. From each of these 
assemblies, one or more deputies (according to the population of the pro- 
vince which they represented) should be nominated as members of a 
general Congress, which should meet at the convent of San Lorenzo, in 
the province of Santa Fe (being the most central situation), seventy days 
subsequent to the date of the treaty ; when they were to select from 
amongst their own body, the President before mentioned ; and enact such 
general laws as would be deemed most salutary for the public. That there 
might not remain a shadow of oppression in this convention, all military 
forces should be distant at least twenty leagues. 

" That in consequence of the vast extension of the territories included in 
this treaty, local circumstances, qualities, and properties peculiar to each 
province, must be admitted to have a particular influence on its laws and 
customs ; hence, it became necessary that each should be governed by 
laws established by its own assembly, the laws enacted by the Congress 
only tending to the general utility of the provinces collectively. 
" That the finances, and all the forces of the nation, should be exclusively 
at the disposition of the President and Congress. No particular province 
should raise, organise, or train soldiers or militia, but by orders of the 
supreme government ; and when such soldiers or militia were so organised 
or trained, they should be liable to be commanded to whatever part their 
presence might be most necessary. 

" That Don Manuel Saratea should be nominated Governor of Buenos 
Ayres for the time being, and till the will of the assembly of Buenos Ayres 
should be further known. 

" That the Federal army should retire from the province of Buenos Ayres, 
by divisions not exceeding two hundred men each, for the greater conve- 
nience of supplying them with provisions, &c. in their regression ; the first 
division to march in three days from that time, and the number of days 
between the marches of the succeeding divisions not to exceed eight." 
Saratea quietly took possession of his office according to the treaty. Cir- 
cular letters were despatched to the different provinces requesting the attend- 
ance of their deputies, at the time appointed. 



APPENDIX. 397 

Carrera had various solicitations from the most respectable citizens of 
Buenos Ayres to accept of that government. Ramirez also told him that it 
was impossible to place any confidence in a people who were so long their 
enemies, whilst a Portefio ruled them ; and advised him to become governor, 
strengthen himself with troops worthy his confidence, and revenge the indig- 
nities and wrongs he had sustained. Had Carrera directed his views to am- 
bition, and not to the good of his country, it cannot be denied that he had 
then an excellent opportunity of aggrandising himself: but he aspired not to 
an unbounded or extensive authority over his countrymen ; his exertions were 
directed only to Chile, and for her welfare, — he had not a wish beyond her 
narrow precincts. 

He hoped to see established a most liberal form of representative govern- 
ment, and waited with impatience the assembling of the Congress at San 
Lorenzo, where his eloquence, his abilities, and the uprightness of his conduct, 
would have opened for him the most effectual and direct road to redress his 
wrongs, and punish those who had endeavoured to defame his character and 
oppress his country. Had the Congress met, it was supposed that they would 
have furnished Carrera with every thing necessary for his expedition to Chile, 
which (after its regeneration) would have been united to the confederacy. 

America, thus united, under any chief capable of conducting her operations, 
would very soon have changed her aspect of anarchy : the political chaos 
would have been superseded by an organised and regular government, which 
(though it could not be supposed to have been perfect in the moment of its 
formation) would at least have had the most flattering form, and in all pro- 
bability would have been the foundation of future greatness to America. 

Balcarse having procured transports at San Nicolas embarked his troops, and 
came down the river to Buenos Ayres. It was late in the evening when he 
landed ; and marching immediately to the Plaza he formed his corps, collect- 
ing all the field-officers and captains to the centre, where he began to ha- 
rangue them on the vile submission to which their once glorious city and 
its territory were reduced ; protesting that he was still ready to rescue them 
with his force from the hands of their enemies, and restore them to their 
former greatness. 

Soler, French, Pagola, and several others of the officers of the new go- 
vernment, were present ; but they did not consider the time or place well 
adapted for entering into a defence of the late measures, or discussing the 
merits or failings which might be attached to them : they retired as soon as 



398 APPENDIX. 

propriety would admit. The eloquence of General Balcarse had the wished- 
for effect on his military audience : they were proud of his abilities, and not 
entirely blind to their own merit, as they supposed there was much due to 
them from their conduct at Cepeda. After some specious promises of pay, 
&c, officers and soldiers agreed to follow him ; and the next morning he was 
acknowledged in the Cabildo as captain-general of the province, &c. &c. 
The Cabildo could not with safety resist Balcarse ; their votes were forced, 
the hall being filled with officers, and the front of the Cabildo and all parts 
of the Plaza lined with soldiers, who were ready to act in case of any dif- 
ficulty arising to their general. 

Saratea, Soler, Bellino, French, Pagola, Martinez, and all the officers of 
Buenos Ayres, except those of Balcarse's two battalions, went out to Pilar, 
where Ramirez still remained with two hundred men : I was one amongst 
those officers also. We remained in Pilar two days, in which time we were 
joined by a vast number of citizens of Buenos Ayres, who had followed 
Saratea and his officers, thereby showing their attachment to his government. 

With a body of two hundred soldiers, as many officers, and a motley group 
of citizens, we commenced our march to Buenos Ayres, and in two days we 
arrived in the suburbs of the town. That night, Carrera and Ramirez, with 
a guard of forty men, entered Buenos Ayres, and were immediately joined by 
the artillery, dragoon, and grenadier regiments. The civicos and the greater 
part of the citizens joined us in the Corrales de Miserea the same night. 

Balcarse, seeing that all the citizens and soldiers (except his own two bat- 
talions) had deserted him, shut himself up in the fort : his soldiers, who a 
few days ago had sworn to support him, now saw it was utterly impracticable 
to do so, and meditated the surrender of the castle. However, the walls 
were manned by some parties who kept up a fire on a few soldiers who 
amused themselves galloping in front of them. Balcarse, Rolon, Vidal, and 
a few others, escaped by a private door which led to the river ; where they 
embarked in a boat, first possessing themselves of 14,000 dollars which were 
in the public coffers, in order to defray their expenses at Monte Video, or 
wherever their adverse fortune might drive them. 

Soon as the flight of the governor and his principal officers was known in 
the fort, a flag of truce was sent to the Federal generals, offering to surrender, 
and requesting pardon, which was granted : the castle gate was thrown open, 
the troops marched out, and formed in the line of Soler. The government 



APPENDIX. ggg 

and all its affairs were again arranged on the plan previously described in the 
treaty of Pilar. 

The town being perfectly tranquil, Ramirez retired to the Santos Lugares, 
where he encamped during six or seven days. Carrera remained in Buenos 
Ayres with Saratea, who permitted him to draw all the Chilian soldiers from 
the regiments in which they served ; and of these an hussar regiment was 
formed by Colonel Benevente and a few officers, having for their barrack a 
large country seat, about a league out of town. 

Alvear, who had preceded Pueyrredon in the government of Buenos Ayres, 
thought this a proper time to return from his banishment ; and, on his arrival 
in Buenos Ayres, he was arrested by Soler. Alvear had served with Carrera 
in Europe, where they lived together on terms of intimacy; and that 
intimacy was again renewed in the time of Carrera' s residence in Monte 
Video. In consequence of which Carrera had him released and enlarged in 
Buenos Ayres. 

As Alvear was the first who formed the corps of Buenos Ayres on a 
respectable footing, and the only Director who ever paid them for their ser- 
vices, he found little difficulty in causing a revolution amongst them. The 
troops all assembled at the retico in the suburbs, where they declared Alvear 
General, and deposed Soler. 

The civicos, under their favourite Soler, took arms against Alvear and the 
regulars ; who retired from the city, and came to our encampment, expecting 
that Carrera would give his sanction or assistance in favour of this revolution. 
Ramirez was on his march for Entre Rios ; where his presence and his forces 
were likely to be very necessary, as Artigas was directing his marches to- 
wards the frontiers on Entre Rios. We were also about to march the day fol- 
lowing for Santa Fe, where Carrera designed to encamp during the winter 
season. 

Alvear requested of Carrera to return to the town, and have him recog- 
nised as General of the Portenian army : Carrera refused to take any part in 
his revolution ; but told him that if he were obliged to fly, he might come to 
him, and that he would protect him. The troops of Alvear seeing that Carrera 
would not support them, thought of abandoning Alvear and throwing them- 
selves on the mercy of Soler, who had marched out after them with civicos. 
A few subalterns headed them, and next morning on parade usurped the 
command; and telling the rest of the officers that it was optional with them 
to follow their respective battalions or remain with Alvear, they began their 



400 APPENDIX. 

march to return to Buenos Ayres. Alvear requested of Carrera to impede 
their retreat ; but he repeated his determination not to compromise him- 
self for the affairs of another, and Alvear's corps retired unmolested. 

Alvear, seven colonels, and forty-seven officers, including lieutenant-colo- 
nels and majors, followed our regiment, with their servants, and a few sol- 
diers, who would not return to Buenos Ayres. 

Ramirez continued his march to the Entre Rios, as we did ours to Santa 
Fe. Nothing in the march occurred worthy of notice. We encamped in 
the Rincon de Gorondona, an angle of land formed by the confluence of the 
Carcaraiia and Parrana, covered with wood, and affording good pasture for 
our horses and cattle. Alvear's officers, who were under our protection, 
formed their encampment about a league below ours, on the bank of the 
Parrana. Ramirez passed over to the Bajada, where he was received with 
every demonstration of joy by his countrymen. 

In our encampment we remained two months ; during which our soldiers 
were trained to the cavalry exercise, charge, and manoeuvres. Two gun- 
brigs, with some gun-boats, came up the river, conveying arms, ammunition, 
clothing, and money, to Carrera, for our regiment : the arms, ammunition, 
and clothing, which were remaining, together with the gun-brigs and boats, 
were presented by Carrera to Ramirez, the officers and men still continuing 
in them to serve Ramirez in the river. 

About this time a captain came to our encampment with letters from Co- 
lonel Dorego in Buenos Ayres, informing Carrera, that by a revolution of 
Soler, Saratea had been deposed, and the inhabitants reduced to a more 
miserable state than ever. Soler had declared himself captain-general of the 
province, marched to Luxan, with his new-organised troops, formed an en- 
campment about one mile distant from that town, where he disciplined his 
corps, and obliged the Cabildo in Buenos Ayres to lay a weekly contribution 
on the people for the regular payment and support of his military establish- 
ment. A French officer also arrived with correspondences from Chile, soli- 
citing the speedy assistance of Carrera in co-operation with his country, in 
order to sustain a revolution which had been set on foot immediately on 
hearing that he was at the head of a force. As it was too far advanced in 
the season to cross the Andes, the revolutionists were obliged to desist, and 
a distant relation of Carrera gave information of the plan to O'Higgins ; in 
consequence of which several persons of the highest respectability were sent 
into exile in different places, and forty of the principal officers concerned were 



APPENDIX. 401 

sent to New Granada, in irons, with letters to Bolivar, informing him of 
their offence, unci offering him the indemnification of the state of Chile for 
whatever costs might be incurred by keeping them secure in prison. These 
officers were attached to their country's liberties ; and though that was a 
crime in Chile, in Columbia it was the best recommendation they could 
produce. Instead of being continued in irons, they were immediately re- 
leased from their tyrannical oppressors who bore them thither, supplied with 
every necessary in which they stood in need ; and such as wished to join the 
service of Columbia had their appointments directly. In answer to the 
official letter of O'Higgins, Bolivar returned, that he would provide for the 
comforts and safety of the unfortunate officers remitted to him as well as 
lay in his power, without receiving any remuneration from the state of 
Chile ; and also, that if meritorious Americans were found to be either a 
burden or a trouble in Chile, he requested they might be always sent to 
Columbia, where they should find a secure asylum ; adding, that the blood 
of worthy citizens and soldiers had already sufficiently stained the United 
Provinces and Chile. This reply of Bolivar seems to have sounded rather 
harshly to the ears of a government only accustomed to hear the soft sounds 
of adulation. Of the many exiles that left Chile since, none have ever been 
sent thither, Columbia having lost all credit with Chile as a place of exile. 

The regiment No. 1 de los Andes, of which Alvarado was colonel, had 
been left in San Juan with Don Juan Rosas, governor of that town. It con- 
sisted of 400 dragoons, and 500 light infantry. They declared themselves 
independent of San Martin ; deposed his governor, Rosas, at the request of 
the town, substituting in his place Don Mariano Mendizabal, who immediately 
declare'd in favour of Carrera, sending Lieutenant-Colonel Morillo with 
despatches, and inviting him to take up his winter quarters in San Juan ; 
offering him barracks, provisions, money, and auxiliary forces to cross the 
Andes the ensuing spring, provided such auxiliaries should be found 
necessary. 

Ramirez also sent an aide-de-camp to our encampment, requesting Carrera 

to cross the Parrana, as Artigas had declared hostilities against him. Thus 

Carrera had in his encampment at the same time four embassies, each solicit- 

ng his attendance in a different quarter ; viz. Buenos Ayres, Chile, San Juan, 

and Entre Rios. 

To Chile he could not pass till spring ; his presence was not necessary in 
San Juan, and it would be inglorious to go there to pass his time in ease and 

3f 



402 APPENDIX. 

tranquillity, leaving his friend Ramirez involved in a dangerous war ; his ex- 
perience taught him to expect that Buenos Ayres would he immediately re- 
duced to their former system, as the Portenos were extremely docile when 
threatened by an approaching enemy : on the contrary, he anticipated a long 
and sanguinary war between Artigas and Ramirez. He therefore prepared to 
march to the aid of Buenos Ayres, where he expected to leave every thing 
tranquil in the course of a month at furthest, and then cross the Parrana with 
whatever forces he could raise, to the assistance of Ramirez. Don Estanislao 
Lopez, governor of the province of Sante Fe, also entered into these mea- 
sures, and accompanied Carrera to Buenos Ayres with 400 men. 

Previous to our march to Buenos Ayres some ammunition and other mili- 
tary stores were sent to the allies in San Juan, as they were liable to be 
attacked by a force then raising in Mendoza. 

"We marched from our encampment on the 14th of June, 1820, towards 
Buenos Ayres. Our regiment was 600 ; the dragoons of Lopez were 400. 
We were badly mounted, being obliged to ride and walk alternately, that our 
horses might not be too much fatigued ; but after five days' march, we 
arrived in the neighbourhood of San Nicolas, when we provided ourselves 
with some excellent horses. 

Soler having drawn all his forces together, resolved to await our approach 
to his encampment, On our arrival at San Antonio de Areco, a squadron of 
200 cavalry, which had been sent as an advance guard to observe our march, 
made their commander prisoner, and passed to our division : these soldiers were 
left in San Antonio de Areco ; and the Generals Carrera and Lopez marched 
with an advance of about 200 men ; and early next morning, 28th of June, 
they discovered the encampment of the enemy at the Canada de la Cruz. 
They were formed in three divisions : that of the right consisted of the regi- 
ment called Colorados, and a strong detachment of Blandingos, with one 
piece of artillery, commanded by Colonel Pagola ; the centre division was 
formed by all the regulars, and four pieces of artillery, commanded by 
Major-General French ; and their left division was composed of militia and 
civicos commanded by regular officers. A river ran from right to left in their 
front. Soler, who commanded the whole, was stationed with his staff and a 
small corps de reserve in the rear of the centre division. 

As it was not supposed that we should meet the enemy till the following 
day, about 300 Chilenos and Santafecinos were detached on a necessary and 
important service, and could not be expected to return before midnight. 



APPENDIX. 



403 



The remainder of the Federal force was at San Antonio, five leagues 
distant from the Canada de la Cruz, where Carrera and Lopez were en- 
gaged with the enemy's guerillas. In the meantime expresses were sent 
to the detachments which were out, and to Colonel Benevente at Areco, 
desiring they would advance with all possible speed. Benevente mounted 
our division immediately; and about 11 or 12 o'clock we arrived on the 
field of battle, having galloped all the way: we changed our horses, and dis- 
positions were given for the attack. The militia of Rosario, with a detach- 
ment of Chilenos, formed our right division, commanded by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Garcia; the Chilian hussars occupied the centre, commanded by 
Colonel Benevente ; and the dragoons of Santa Fe, commanded by General 
Lopez, were opposed to the Colorados on the right of the enemy's line. 
General Alvear, who acted as captain of his company of officers, bravely 
repulsed all the enemy's guerillas. Our force was so very inconsiderable, 
that it was impossible to spare any part of it for a reserve. General Carrera 
commanded the whole, without assigning any particular place in the field 
for his station. 

All being ready, the action commenced by Lopez charging the Colorados 
on the enemy's right. Garcia, on the right of our line, also charged the 
enemy's left. No advantage appeared on one side or the other for some 
time ; the dragoons of Lopez were at length repulsed by the Colorados, 
and retired fighting, about three hundred yards. The Porteiios now con- 
sidering the action as gained, shouted for victory ; and their centre division, 
commanded by French, advanced to charge our regiment, French and Bene- 
vente (who were particular friends) first saluting each other in front of the lines. 
As the Porteiios charged they kept up a heavy fire on us : the Chilenos used 
not their fire-arms ; but, sword in hand, moved with such celerity and cou- 
rage, that the Portenos had not time to secure their carabines or draw their 
swords, before we were on their line, which was soon broken, and fled with 
precipitation and disorder. The left of the enemy's line, seeing their centre 
destroyed (on which all their dependence was placed), fled also ; and the 
Colorados on their right, who had gained much advantage over Lopez, 
were obliged to escape lest we should take them in the rear. 

The rout was complete, the fugitives being pursued about six leagues. 
The Santafecinos gave no quarter : the Chilenos took 250 prisoners, not 
including Major-General French, Adjutant-General Montes la Rea, and 

Sf 2 



404 APPENDIX. 

14 other field-officers, captains, and subalterns, with five pieces of artillery 
and two standards. 

The Porteilos lost, in killed, wounded, and prisoners, about 7&0 men. 
The wounded were collected in waggons that night on the field of battle, 
and sent to an hospital provided for them in Luxan. 

In our march to Luxan, the light infantry of Vidal (who had not time to 
arrive on the field the day before) capitulated. They were about 500 effect- 
ive men, and were given to Alvear, as were also the prisoners of the ranks 
taken in the action. These soldiers all took the oath of fidelity to Alvear, 
who summoned the alcaldes of the different towns and districts to meet in 
Luxan, where they declared him captain-general of the province of Buenos 
Ayres. 

This misfortune of Soler threw a shade over his past successes. He could 
not brook the idea of the disgrace arising from his having been defeated by 
a force not amounting to more than one-fifth of that which he commanded ; 
he determined, however, to evade it by passing to Monte Video, and thence 
to the United States. In the meantime, Colonel Pagola reached Buenos Ayres, 
where he raised himself to the dignity of captain-general of the province ; 
and was deposed two days afterwards by Colonel Dorego. 

We continued our march towards Buenos Ayres, and at the Puente Marco 
we were met by deputies from the town, who offered to ratify whatever con- 
ditions Carrera would please to grant. This humble strain, however, was 
quickly altered by the imprudence of Alvear, who was always as much hated 
by the citizens as he was beloved by the soldiers. Instead of endeavouring 
to cultivate a confidence with the citizens, he said to the deputies (when 
Carrera was not present), " You once dismissed me from your government, 
" but you shall not do so again. If ever an attempt be made against me, I 
" shall hang on the gibbet one half of Buenos Ayres." 

This harangue of the new governor caused an astonishing change on the 
minds of the deputies and people : they considered that if his promises were 
so very beneficent before he had any actual power in the town, his perform- 
ance would even exceed them when invested with authority. The deputies 
returned to Buenos Ayres ; and when the citizens knew that Alvear was 
appointed to be their governor, and heard his speech to their deputies, they 
Hew to arms to prevent our entry. 

The protection which Carrera dispensed to Alvear, his union with him, 



APPENDIX. 4Q 5 

and his march to Buenos Ayres, was much against the inclination of his officers; 
nay, even himself must have seen that such an union was contrary to his own 
interest, and to that of all who were connected with him : he lost, in a great 
measure, that high opinion which the respectable inhabitants of Buenos 
Ayres had entertained of him, by protecting their enemy. But he had seen 
many happy and miserable days with Alvear : they had been long intimates ; 
and he considered himself bound by the sacred laws of friendship not only to 
protect, but also to aid him. His judgment was sacrificed to the sincerity 
of his friendship, which led him to err; and that error may be considered as 
the principal cause of the difficulties under which he afterwards suffered. 

We marched from the Puente Marco to the suburbs of Buenos Ayres, 
which we besieged during eighteen or nineteen days, cutting off all commu- 
nication with the country. Colonel La Madrid was in the Magdalena, raisino- 
a force, whither we went in search of him ; but he left a strong division well 
mounted, which retreated as we pursued them, whilst he with a part of his 
force made a retrograde movement to the town of Moron, in which our in- 
fantry was stationed, and prevailed on the officers and soldiers to accompany 
him to Buenos Ayres. All which he effected with address, ingenuity, and 
despatch. 

The whole country and all its towns were ours. Buenos Ayres alone re- 
mained firm in the resolution to act on the defensive, though yet unable to 
undertake any offensive operations against us. To take the town by assault 
with Carrera's troops, which never exceeded 2000, was impossible ; therefore, 
as the soldiers were much fatigued by the rigours of service and severity of the 
season, he raised the siege and retired to Luxan, to invigorate the troops with 
a few days' rest previous to our march for Entre Rios, having determined to 
evacuate the province. 

Whilst we were in the encampment of Luxan, a considerable force of the 
enemy had advanced to the towns of San Isidro and San Fernando, on the 
coast of the river. These were surprised and dispersed at day-break by a 
detachment of our regiment, and another of the Santafecinos : some escaped 
on board their barks, others into the country, whilst the more resolute part of 
them undertook to defend themselves on their asoteas, or roofs of their houses. 
They were, however, obliged to surrender ; and as they were but civicos of 
the town and country militia, they were disarmed, and dismissed to their 
respective homes. 

Two days afterwards we began our march by the way of San Pedro, from 



406 APPENDIX. 

whose vicinity we collected some good horses. Here a party of ours was cut 
off: it consisted of a Serjeant and eighteen men, who were conducting a drove 
of horses^; when, intercepted by a division of the enemy, and not considering 
it warrantable to give up their horses, they fell on their numerous enemies, 
and all except three fell in the contest. Continuing our route in a direction 
parallel with and close to the river, we came to the Hermanos, where we 
learned that a vast number of horses were guarded by regulars and militia in 
the islands of the Parrana. As the channels of the river could only be passed 
by swimming, the defenders of these islands had great advantage in the 
morning, as they kept up a heavy fire on the men who had volunteered for 
that service : however, the channels were crossed, and the enemy driven from 
island to island ; but they still kept their horses secure in their van. About 
eleven o'clock a dreadful storm of thunder, lightning, and rain came on, 
which rendered fire-arms useless and burdensome. The fire ceased ; and as 
the contest remained to be decided by the sword, they entirely despaired of 
success ; and embarking on large rafts, they crossed the largest channel to an 
island, leaving their wives, daughters, &c, with 2000 excellent horses, in our 
possession. The women we left in possession of their islands, marching away 
with the horses. We arrived at San Nicolas, where head-quarters were estab- 
lished, to wait the arrival of a vessel from Buenos Ayres, which had on board 
military stores and money remitted by the friends of Carrera in that town. 
In a few days the vessel came to San Nicolas, and delivered 900 suits of 
uniform, shirts, and every necessary for the soldiers ; together with uniform, 
boots, pistols, &c. for the officers, 60,000 dollars in cash, and several pieces 
of cloth for cloaks ; which stores were deposited in the house of the command- 
ant of San Nicolas, where the General resided. 

The Santafecinos under Lopez had crossed the Arroyo del Medio, and 
encamped in their own province, ten leagues distant from San Nicolas ; and 
a detachment of Chilenos was also on that side of the Arroyo, about four 
leagues distant from our encampment. 

This great separation of our force can only be accounted for by taking 
into consideration the absolute security in which we supposed ourselves from 
any feeble efforts which our timid enemy could be supposed to make. 

A great levy had been made in Buenos Ayres and its adjacent country ; 
and on our retreat, an army of 3000 men, commanded by Dorego, Rodriguez, 
and La Madrid, followed the line of our march, always keeping about thirty 
leagues in our rear. The same captain who had been sent by Dorego to the 



APPENDIX. 407 

Rincon de Gorondono, to call Carrera to Buenos Ayres, and who had fol- 
lowed Alvear since his revolution in the army of Buenos Ayres (before 
mentioned), now thought it the best way to atone for his former perfidies by 
becoming a spy on our operations, and continually communicating with the 
enemy. 

The situation of our camp and distribution of our men were as follows : 
a strong detachment was at four leagues distance, in the province of Santa 
Fe ; other detachments were at one league from our encampment, guarding 
our horses ; the remainder of the cavalry were encamped in fenced orchards 
about one league from the town, and were not allowed to have horses sad- 
dled. A company of infantry, all the officers of Alvear, and some artillery 
soldiers, with five pieces of cannon, occupied the town. 

That the Portefios might succeed the better in taking us altogether unpre- 
pared, deputies were sent to treat with the generals ; and, breaking through 
all the laws of war and honour (being informed of our situation by their spy), 
they surprised us whilst in this treaty, and they succeeded so well that it 
became a general stratagem of our enemies in all our future actions with them. 

On the evening of the 31st July, our spies gave notice that about 150 of 
the enemy had entered San Pedro, about 14 leagues distant ; these we sup- 
posed to be the rear-guard of the enemy, who, though numerous, did not 
cause preparation, vigilance, or caution, on our part ; so very contemptible 
was the idea which we entertained of them. 

Lopez had information that Dorego intended falling on us .at day-break 
next morning, and was about to despatch an express, when Alvear, who was 
in his encampment, offered to caiTy the news. Lopez confided this commis- 
sion to his care ; but, owing to forgetfulness, inattention, or treachery, he 
supped at an intermediate house, slept there all night, and, consequently, 
deprived us of that information which would have secured us from so un- 
expected and dreadful a catastrophe. 

August 1st, before day, Carrera with the deputies proceeded from San 
Nicolas to the encampment of Lopez. At day-break the detachments 
which guarded our horses were surprised, and put to the sword : a soldier, 
however, escaped to our encampment with the information. Such officers 
and soldiers as had horses in the encampment, saddled and mounted them ; 
whilst those who had not, formed on foot, and began their retreat towards San 
Nicolas. The number of officers and soldiers who were mounted did not 
exceed 250 men, who took the field to protect the retreat of the dismounted 



408 



APPENDIX. 



soldiers to the town. An officer was despatched to San Nicolas, to acquaint 
the General, and receive his orders ; hat as he had crossed the Arroyo del 
Medio, the officer had orders to proceed to the encampment of Lopez, and 
call him to the assistance of the town. The Porteiiian army, consisting of 
about 3000 men, advanced (trotting) in four parallel columns, with a strong 
guerilla in their front. 

A detachment of fifty men were sent out to entertain the enemy; and our 
retreat was continued in column of divisions at the regular pace of our horses. 
Our guerilla repulsed that of the enemy, who immediately advanced a co- 
lumn of 800 men to sustain the attack on our rear. Reunion was sounded ; 
and our guerilla took its place in the column, which now began to trot. The 
enemy pressed close on the rear of our column, and annoyed it much by a 
heavy fire. A German officer, who commanded the rear division, seeing his 
men begin to fall, and rightly judging the fortune of the day to be desperate, 
preferred to die fighting his enemy, rather than fall in the retreat. He 
ordered his men to secure their carabines, sword in hand; and faced 
them about without any order from the Colonel, or even acquainting him of 
his design. He precipitated himself with his valiant little band of thirty on 
a division of the enemy consisting of 800 men, throwing them into great dis- 
order. Another of the enemy's columns, which was on our flank, quickly 
occupied the intervening space between our division and that brave officer, 
obliging Colonel Benevente to continue the retreat : as it was impossible to 
give any assistance to the men who were engaged, they all perished. Abeck, 
the officer who commanded that party, had served with Napoleon in Russia, 
and several other campaigns. He was an engineer, and possessed much 
professional knowledge ; in his private character and domestic qualities he 
was as amiable and generous, as he was honourable and brave considered as 
a soldier. The dismounted soldiers had by this time entered the town, which 
was fortified by a deep dike, having only two entries, which were defended 
by artillery : our column began to gallop, in order to enter the town ; but 
being closely pressed in the rear, friends and enemies entered together, 
thereby in a great measure rendering useless our artillery. Two columns 
of the enemy opened to the left, and surrounded the town by a strong line 
of battle, that none should escape. The brave Benevento rallied his men in 
the Plaza; where, with the assistance of a few infantry soldiers, he maintained 
the unequal conflict for upwards of two hours, — at the expiration of which 
time he had not more than thirty men, and a few officers on horseback : with 



APPENDIX. 



409 



these, however, he determined to cut his way through whatever obstacles 
might oppose him. He put himself at the head of his party, galloped full 
speed through the town, and leaping the fosse, proceeded with intrepidity 
to break through the enemy's line which surrounded the town. The two 
platoons or small divisions, to which the desperate fury of Benevento was 
directed, fearing to meet him, opened an avenue by wheeling on the right 
and left backwards, through which he passed under an oblique fire from each 
platoon with little loss. The greatest difficulty was now surmounted : the 
Portenos pursued, keeping up a heavy but ineffectual fire, and expected that, 
arriving at a precipice which lay in the direction, they would make an easy 
prey of their designed victims ; however, on coming up to it, men and horses 
went, or rather rolled, down it without any material injury. The detachment 
of the Arroyo del Medio now appeared ; and the Portenos retired, lest they 
should be chased in their turn. Of the thirty men who accompanied Bene- 
vente from San Nicolas only fourteen escaped. 

Our loss in San Nicolas was 16 officers and about 470 soldiers, not including 
50 officers and 200 men belonging to Alvear ; 6000 horses ; the General and 
Colonel's tents ; all our baggage and military stores ; five pieces of artillery ; 
an ammunition waggon with 12,000 rounds, and GO, 000 dollars for the pay 
of the regiment. Madam Carrera, who had come from Rosario to see the 
General the day previous, shared in the general misfortune of the day, being 
taken prisoner in the church ; however, two days afterwards Dorego sent 
her to the Arroyo Pabon, whither we had retired, with an escort and a polite 
message to the General. 

The conduct of our Colonel, Benevento, on that day (as on all other such 
occasions) was worthy of the highest praise : the surprise was most complete ; 
and though he had not more than 250 men (including officers) mounted, he 
defended himself against 3000 of the enemy from sunrise till mid-day, ho- 
nourably exposing himself, and protecting the retreat of the dismounted sol- 
diers to the town. 

The Portenos were not content with the ample share of plunder which 
they had acquired at our cost, — they also broke open every house without 
exception ; and in three days afterwards, upwards of 800 had deserted, 
loaded with booty : they returned to Buenos Ayres, resolved not to lose the 
honour they had gained in this by risking it in another action. 

This great victory, gained by a people only accustomed to defeats, had the 
most flattering effects ; the ancient spirit of Buenos Ayres (they supposed) 

3 G 



410 APPENDIX. 

had reanimated her children. Not content with retaining their own pro- 
vince, they began to dream of conquests; and passing the Arroyo del Medio, 
the boundary of their territory, they entered that of Santa Fe, which they 
resolved to add to their jurisdiction. 

Expresses were sent to all the provinces, announcing the death of Carrera, 
and the destruction of his division in the action of San Nicolas. The captain 
who had been spy in our encampment was the person who bore the wel- 
come news to Chile ; where his story seems to have been very gratifying, as 
he was presented with eight hundred dollars, and admitted as an honorary 
member of the distinguished legion of merit of Chile. Now, of what merit 
may have entitled him to this distinction I am still unable to form any idea : 
if a man who first betrays his own country, afterwards deceives and sells his 
friends and companions, and who is pliant to change with times, circum- 
stances, and interests, have any merit, then that distinguished order should 
decorate every traitor's breast ; if riding 300 leagues with despatches in the 
shortest time possible recommend a man so highly, why then we may sup- 
pose that all couriers who distinguish themselves in that way, ought to be 
admitted into this honourable and meritorious society of Chile. 

Lopez and his dragoons having united themselves to the remnant of our re- 
giment, which was about 130 men, we retired to the Arroyo de Pabon, about 
nine leagues from San Nicolas. Alvear was arrested by Lopez, who insisted 
on shooting him, with the deputies of the enemy, as accessaries to our mis- 
fortunes ; but Carrera would not permit it. He provided a boat for Alvear, 
and assisted him to escape from the fury of the soldiers, telling him that he 
could not suppose his late error to have proceeded from treachery ; that as 
he had once been the friend of Carrera, so he should ever consider him, but 
never again could admit him as a partner in his operations. — Alvear took a 
last leave of the friend whom his indiscretion had ruined ; and, passing the 
Parrana, travelled to Monte Video, where he was employed in his rank of 
hrigadier-general in the service of the Portuguese. 

The Portenos, following up their advantage, had approached within four 
leagues of our encampment at the Arroyo de Pabon. Dorego sent deputies 
to Lopez privately, offering him peace, and a continuation in his government 
in alliance with Buenos Ayres, if he would turn the arms of his province 
against Carrera, and deliver him prisoner with his men to him. Lopez made 
known these conditions to Lieutenant-Colonel Garcia, who was second in 
command in the province of Santa Fe, and a particular friend of Carrera. 



APPENDIX. 4U 

Garcia heard the proposition with contempt and indignation ; adverted to his 
officers on the baseness of their governor Lopez, in thinking of sacrificing 
his greatest friend to his most inveterate enemies the Portenos ; and finally 
made Lopez understand that his own safety was in question if he did not im- 
mediately desist. The plot was made known to Carrera, who had for some 
days previous suspected something of that nature to be on foot. Carrera 
dictated a letter, which the Governor was obliged to sign and send to the 
enemy, renouncing all further negociation of a private or dishonourable 
nature. 

The Portenos seeing their perfidious efforts against Carrera disconcerted, 
advanced to try the fortune of another action : their force consisted of 2100 
men ; ours was about 380, of which only 130 were Chilenos. But twelve 
days had elapsed since the surprise of San Nicolas, the impression of which 
was still fresh on the minds of the soldiers, although few of them had been 
there ; this, together with the great disproportion of our numbers, accounts 
for the unaccustomed timidity of our soldiers in the action of Pabon. 

The Portenos at first were charged, and obliged to retire ; but renewing 
the attack with vigour, our line was broken, and began to retreat : we were 
pursued several leagues. The Chilenos and a few Santafecinos protected the 
retreat by keeping a constant fire on the enemy.' Our men were not properly 
reunited before our arrival at San Lorenzo, a distance of ten leagues from the 
battle ground. Our loss was immaterial, not exceeding twenty men. The 
most remarkable occurrence of this retreat was, that a Porteiiian officer who 
accompanied us, and had been major of the famous hussars of La Madrid in 
High Peru, where he was considered little less than a Mars, was horse- 
whipped and discarded for having too great a desire to be one of the fore- 
most in the retreat. 

Having reunited our men at San Lorenzo, we continued to retire ; and pass- 
ing the Carcarana, we encamped in Las Barrancas. The Portenos occupied, 
and almost destroyed, the town of Rosario ; where they remained, not consi- 
dering it prudent to follow our flying remnant too far in a country where 
they were entirely destitute of friends. 

Lopez, finding that nothing but war would satisfy his officers and sol- 
diers, made a levy in the country, raising about 800 men j a few northern 
Indians also came to join him : our division was now augmented to about 
1000 men. We returned in search of the Portenos ; and when we were about 
to pass the Carcarana, our advance guard fell in with that of the enemy near 

Sg 2 



412 



APPENDIX. 



San Lorenzo, and killed forty of them, taking nine prisoners. This was an 
indication to the Porteiios that their former fortunes in war were about to 
return ; they, therefore, began to retreat, but were overtaken and brought 
to action. 

On the 10th of September, in the morning, the town of Pergamino, which 
was garrisoned by 350 of the enemy, was assaulted and taken ; 220 were 
taken prisoners, and the greater part of the rest died in the attack : and on 
the 12th, our entire division, and that of Dorego, presented themselves for 
battle in the Canada Vica, or Gamonal. The detachments destroyed in 
Pergamino and San Lorenzo, as well as desertion, made a considerable reduc- 
tion in Dorego's force ; and this was the first action in which we were opposed 
by equal numbers. 

Dorego, who attributed the success of the Federalists to their peculiar 
manner of fighting, determined to adopt the same plan, prohibiting his sol- 
diers, on pain of death, to fire a shot. He bravely charged in front of his 
line against the Santafecinos, who met him with an equal contempt of danger. 
Dorego succeeded in breaking through the line of Lopez, when he was im- 
mediately charged by the Chilenos, led by Benevente, who stopped his pro- 
gress : the fight became general and obstinate ; but at length the Porteiios 
had recourse to their long-practised expedient: they retired; and being 
closely pressed and broken, it was in vain that their General exposed himself 
by remaining in their rear, and labouring greatly to rally his flying troops : 
they were pursued six leagues. No quarters were given till the latter part of 
the chace, when 325 prisoners were taken. The number of killed were com- 
puted at 570 : Dorego very narrowly escaped in the retreat. 

Carrera and Lopez passed the Arroyo del Medio : it was the desire of the 
former to return to Buenos Ayres, and establish a government there which 
would be friendly to our cause ; but the latter only wished for a consum- 
mation of the treaty which he had commenced at Pabon. As our principal 
force consisted in militia, who were eager to return to their families and 
houses, they contented themselves with driving off as their booty 15 or 20,000 
head of cattle, and a great number of horses ; and on their arrival in their 
own province, they were disbanded, each returning to their respective homes. 

Carrera's head-quarters were at Rosario. The dragoons of Lopez were 
obliged to go to Santa Fe to curb the inroads of the northern Indians, who 
had taken offence against Lopez because he would not deliver up to their 
deputies a person who had killed an individual of their nation at Santa Fe. 



APPENDIX. 413 

Though Dorego had gained more honour for his country, and displayed 
more courage and ability, with a smaller force, than any former governor of 
Buenos Ayres ; yet, the Porteiios could not think of deviating from their 
long-received principle of deposing every Director as soon as he had been 
defeated, or otherwise unfortunate, without any regard to the abilities or vir- 
tues which he might possess. Hence the many mutations of government : 
their defeats were numerous, and each brought its political change. 

Martin Rodriguez thought this the most advantageous moment to assert his 
claim ; and his first step was to gain all the regular soldiers to espouse his 
pretensions. Soler (having recovered from the shame which he considered 
attached to himself in consequence of his defeat in the Canada de la Cruz) 
came to Buenos Ayres from Monte Video to offer himself as a candidate for 
the government ; but considering the power of Rodriguez to predominate, he 
united his faction with that of Dorego, that they might conjointly destroy 
Rodriguez, leaving futurity to decide the particular fate of each afterwards. 

Every thing being thus arranged between Soler and Dorego, they assembled 
their factions armed in the Plaza, when they fortified themselves with artil- 
lery, &c. Rodriguez lost no time ; he appointed the rendezvous for his veterans ; 
and when he inspected them he found they would not be sufficient to attack 
the Plaza : he therefore went to the prisons where the officers and soldiers 
of our regiment made prisoners in San Nicolas were, and offered them their 
liberty if they would lend their assistance to him that day. They unani- 
mously volunteered ; were immediately taken out of prison and armed ; and 
being united with Rodriguez's troops, he advanced to the attack of the Plaza. 
The citizens and civicos defended themselves for some time with resolution ; 
they were, however, obliged to yield to the superior courage of Rodriguez's 
inferior force, whilst he waded through the blood of 400 citizens to seize on 
the supreme power of the republic, against the general consent of the town and 
province. This mode of election is not very uncommon amongst the South 
American Republics. 

Rodriguez having established himself in the government of Buenos Ayres, 
and dispersed all the factions which had opposed him, performed his promise 
to the Chilenos who had aided him, by granting them passports to proceed to 
any of the provinces except Santa Fe, where we were : some of the officers 
passed over to Monte Video, from whence they united themselves again to 
our division. 

Rodriguez sent deputies to the Indians of the South, promising them great 



414 APPENDIX. 

rewards if they would declare war against us, which they promised to do ; 
and the Cacique Nicolas (the ally of Buenos Ayres) came with his tribe to 
Pergamino, from whence he marched with 200 Portenian soldiers to the vil- 
lage of Melingue, on the confines of Santa Fe. A detachment of ours which 
garrisoned the town was put to the sword, and all the females and children 
carried away by the Indians for slaves. The Cacique Nicolas promised to 
put at the disposition of Rodriguez 7000 Indians ; which force they considered 
would exterminate us without difficulty. 

Buenos Ayres, with her promised Indian allies, considered herself secure. 
Their miserable poets all rhymed of our inevitable destruction, and ridiculed 
in the most reproachful manner the political ideas of Carrera ; whilst those 
whose abilities did not reach to verse were more mischievously employed, in 
order to cause a dissension between Carrera and Lopez, by an extensive dis- 
tribution of their pamphlets : in these pamphlets and papers, which were 
carefully thrown in our way, they made it appear that Lopez was but a mere 
cipher, subservient to all the measures of Carrera, without ideas, will, or 
opinion, of his own. The idea suggested in these papers did not deviate 
much from truth ; but truth is not always pleasing. Lopez had self-love suf- 
ficient to make him feel the depth of his inferiority, which was now laid be- 
fore the public: however, he concealed as much as possible the envy that 
gnawed his ungenerous heart. 

The Portenos, rightly judging that their scheme might have had some effect 
on the uncultivated mind of Lopez, sent deputies to San Nicolas to resume 
the negociation, relative to Lopez giving up Carrera and his officers to the 
Portenos. Bustos, governor of Cordova, seeing Carrera without force, and 
forgetting all his obligations, refused to deliver to him 700 Chilenos which 
existed in his army, and which were to be delivered whenever Carrera would 
demand them. He also sent deputies to San Nicolas, to co-operate with those 
of Buenos Ayres in our destruction, having previously had his government 
acknowledged as legal by Buenos Ayres. 

The regiment No. 1. in San Juan, which had been given to Carrera by 
Mendizabal, governor of that province, had been led by its colonel to attack 
Mendoza without any orders from Carrera, who had only directed that they 
should act on the defensive in San Juan in case of being attacked. Corro, 
who commanded that regiment, knew them to be as good soldiers as any in 
America, and put all his confidence in their courage, without consulting his 
own capacity for conducting such an enterprise. He marched with his in- 



APPENDIX. 4] 5 

fantry and dragoons to the Positos, and from thence sent an advanced guard 
of 48 dragoons to Jocoli, a small village eight leagues distant from Mendoza. 
This guard was surprised and attacked by Caxaravillo, the celebrated Porteno, 
with 200 cavalry and 400 infantry. The guard charged, and routed the 200 
cavalry with considerable loss to the enemy ; and, on their return from the 
pursuit, had the audacity to attack the infantry, in which more than three- 
fourths of the guard perished : a remnant, however, returned to Corro. This 
victory of GOO men over 48, was not owing to their courage, or to the courage 
or dispositions of Caxaravillo, but to their impossibility of running away ; for 
if the infantry could have followed the example of their cavalry, they certainly 
would have done so : if they could have run, they would never have stood to 
conquer. This dear-bought victory of the enemy was celebrated in Mendoza 
with much pomp and ceremony. 

The officers and soldiers unanimously requested of Corro to lead them to 
the town, as the defeat which the guard had suffered only seemed to establish 
on firmer grounds the high opinion of their own superiority. But Corro saw 
it in another light. He was a most consummate coward ; void of ideas, dis- 
position, or any sense of honour or shame. He put his troops in retreat to 
return to San Juan ; whilst the Mendocinos, informed of his timidity, pursued 
him with 2000 men, causing him to redouble his marches : however, he 
arrived without any loss in San Juan, where his soldiers expected he might 
pluck up a little courage amongst the ladies, as he was a great gallant. On 
the approach of the Mendocinos (who had the promise of co-operation from 
a faction in the town) Corro inarched out, and was eagerly followed by his 
soldiers, who expected he was going to give the enemy battle on the Legua 
(a small plain outside San Juan) ; but their indignation was raised to the 
highest, when they were ordered to leave the ground they had devoted to 
the fortune of war, in order to retreat to La Arioja. The soldiers, seeing 
that Corro was only determined to run (as his name foretold for him), denied 
all further obedience to the coward, and dispersed to the different towns. 
About 200 soldiers, natives of Salta, still followed him, as he was going to 
that town. Mendizabal, governor of San Juan, was superseded by Don 
Antonio Sanchez in the government, and carried to Mendoza, where he was 
confined in a dungeon till after the death of Carrera, whose faithful friend he 
was ; and at the time of our passing the cordillera, he also was sent to Chile 
at the disposition of O'Higgins, who, either from a desire to be considered 
magnanimous, or from real principles of humanity and justice, desisted from 



416 APPENDIX. 

taking his life in Chile, but did not scruple prolonging his tortures in irons 
and in a dungeon ; and afterwards sent him to Lima, where his blood flowed 
to quench the insatiable thirst of the tyrant San Martin. Mendizabal was 
generous, brave, and disinterested ; faithful to his friends, and rather impla- 
cable with his enemies : no superstition tainted his mind ; and his resignation 
md courage in his last moments were worthy his former character. 

Shortly after the dispersion of our men in San Juan, a revolution took place 
in Mendoza, in which Godoy Cruz succeeded Cruz Vargas ; in consequence 
of which change, Colonel Aldao and his principal officers became obnoxious 
to the existing government. These were the officers who had commanded 
the expedition against our troops in San Juan ; and though they were the 
inveterate enemies of Carrera, they were now obliged to throw themselves on 
his clemency. He did not consider them worthy of resentment : their wants 
were relieved, and they participated the generosity and protection of him 
whom they had so materially injured. 

Lopez still carried on his private treaty with the deputies of Rodriguez 
and Bustos in San Nicolas. 

The Indians who were invited by Rodriguez to join in the war against us 
had an unconquerable hatred to the Portenos ; and at the period in which 
we expected them every day to fall upon us, a deputation of fourteen captains 
arrived in Rosario, sent by the principal cacique to treat with Carrera. They 
told him, in the names of their respective chiefs, of the very great rewards 
which Rodriguez had offered them for their services ; but declared they 
could never take part with their insidious enemies the Portenos ; and as to 
the rewards offered them, that they would sooner fight in company with 
brave men, independent of emolument, than they would in favour of such 
cowards as they knew the Portenos to be, notwithstanding any gifts they 
might offer. They made known to Carrera that their chiefs would be ex- 
tremely ambitious of his alliance and protection ; and that they were author- 
ised to grant him any number of Indians he would require. 

The conduct of the Indians, and their unasked assistance, seemed very 
mysterious, and made us suspect some treachery ; but on minute investigation 

it appeared that Don Guelmo, who had been a captain, and commandant 

of a town on the Indian frontiers in Chile, in the time of Carrera, had preferred 
living amongst the Indians to suffering the indignation which O'Higgins and 
San Martin heaped on the officers and friends of the former government in 
Chile, This Guelmo, though above eighty years old, wished still to make 



APPENDIX. 41 Y 

himself useful to his general, by engaging the Indians in his favour. Sur- 
rounded by enemies, and, what was worse, by false friends, the ray of hope 
which this unexpected intelligence communicated to each breast was far 
from disagreeable. Carrera knew the plot of the deputies in San Nicolas, 
and was aware that such an opportunity of extricating himself from their net 
was not to be rejected. He despatched five of the Indian deputies to the 
caciques, returning them thanks for the offer of their disinterested friendship, 
of which he accepted, and offered to become their protector against the 
Portenos ; at the same time requesting them to send six or seven hundred 
men into the Pampas, which were there to wait his orders, without showing 
themselves on the frontier. The other nine deputies were provided for in 
our encampment, where they remained to act as guides to us, in case of being 
obliged to escape precipitately ; and forty Indians, the guard of these deputies, 
were encamped in a village in the frontier, where we provided for them 
provisions, tobacco, &c. 

Carrera wrote to the deputies in San Nicolas, informing them that he was 
perfectly acquainted with the nature of their dishonourable and perfidious plot; 
that he even comprehended its most abstruse conditions and ramifications, as 
they respected the provinces of Santa Fe, Buenos Ayres, and Cordova. He 
demanded them immediately to desist from the measures in contemplation, 
and to allow him an uninterrupted march to Chile; to which, if they did not 
accede, they should consider themselves responsible to their provinces for 
the consequences which would follow. 

This letter of Carrera appeared to the deputies as an enigma which they 
could by no means solve. It was indeed very extraordinary how he could 
be acquainted with their private proceedings ; but it was still more so, that, 
not having more than 150 men at his disposal, he would dare to demand of 
the representatives of these powerful provinces a suspension of their designs, 
point out a line of conduct which they should pursue, and throw out such 
menacing insinuations in case they did not allow him to march to Chile. 
His union with his friend Ramirez appeared impossible ; and they could not 
conceive any other resource which was left him, or by which he could escape 
from their hands. 

The abilities of Carrera were acknowledged by all parties, and his enter- 
prising spirit was feared, as it was always known to be capable of some 
resource when danger threatened : they therefore resolved to put immedi- 
ately in execution their plans, lest he should counteract their scheme. 

3h 



418 APPENDIX. 

The treaty was signed by the parties on the following conditions : viz. 
that the government of Buenos Ayres should pay to Governor Lopez at 
Santa Fe the sum of 12,000 dollars, together with 30,000 head of cattle, on 
his delivery of Carrera and his officers to the Buenos Ayrian troops in San 
Nicolas ; that Lopez should continue in the government of Santa Fe, and 
Bustos in that of Cordova ; that the three states, Buenos Ayres, Santa Fe, 
and Cordova, should act defensively and offensively against Ramirez, or any 
other friend of Carrera who should resent or oppose their present undertaking. 
Lopez had sent to Santa Fe for his dragoons, who came down the river, and 
were disembarking at San Lorenzo in order to surprise us, and give us up to 
the enemy before we were apprised of our danger. Having received in- 
formation of the meditated surprise, we put ourselves in a posture for defence, 
and at the same time began our retreat, conducted by our Indian guides. 
We marched all that evening and night at an accelerated pace, and at twelve 
o'clock next day we united ourselves to the forty Indians who awaited us on 
the frontier. The dragoons of Santa Fe were unacquainted with the service 
on which they were about to be employed, till they were ordered to take 
horses in San Lorenzo, and then informed of the duty they had to perform. 
The soldiers unanimously refused to take arms against the Chilenos, as they 
called them their companions and defenders in their past campaigns. Hence 
it is that we were not interrupted in our retreat. We continued our march 
three days into the Pampas, not having any other food than the eggs of 
ostriches and other wild fowls, which were for the most part addled ; the 
soldiers, however, selected the best of them for us. We almost despaired of 
meeting the Indians in these Pampas, where they had promised to wait our 
orders : the Indians who accompanied us were also impatient, and on that 
night the divines or necromancers began their sacred ceremonies ; and after 
four hours' consultation, it was revealed to these prophets, that the next day, 
before noon, we should discover the Indians of whom we were in search. 

Next day, about ten o'clock, we discovered the van of the Indians (thereby 
fulfilling the prophecy of their priests), who sent out a party to reconnoitre ; 
we followed the like example, sending a party of the Indians who were with 
us : these parties quickly recognised each other for friends, and returned to 
their particular corps. .Soon after the main body of the Indians appeared, 
rising on the horizon, and continued to advance in line. A deputation of 
Indians (with interpreters) was despatched to wait on the General, and to 
request that the ceremonies of our meeting should be conducted in the same 










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APPENDIX. 



419 



manner as practised amongst them, and not in any other way customary 
among Christian armies. All their formalities being agreed to, one of the 
deputies was sent to announce to the Indians that we had acquiesced in their 
desire, and that they might advance ; whilst the rest remained with us, to 
assist us in going through the manoeuvres. 

Our men were formed in one rank, officers to the front, with an equal 
distance between them. On our left flank were about sixty Indians, formed 
in the same manner. Our Indian allies were about 900 in number, not 
including those which accompanied us from Rosario. They were formed in 
line, with an interval of about three yards between each troop ; the captain of 
each troop in front of its centre, and the caciques, at equal distances, in front 
of the whole. The Indians were naked, with exception of the waist, to 
which was suspended a small triangular piece of tanned sheep-skin, orna- 
mented on the border by a silver fringe ; their long black hair (which they 
wore all alike), after coming down over the ears and forehead, was again 
turned upwards, wound round the head, and tied at the extremity by a 
riband used amongst them for that purpose ; their lances were about 14 
feet long, and were held perpendicular in their right hands ; their horses 
(which were covered with many fantastic trappings) were excellent; and 
their line was actually the best formed I ever saw. 

All being ready, the ceremony began by each line advancing at a trot; and 
on approaching each other at a full gallop, as in a charge, the Indians 
brought their lances to the position of attack, and whilst they advanced with 
the greatest fury raised a hideous yell, which (as we were little acquainted 
with our new allies) made us doubt very much whether this were a real or 
mock charge. However, on coming within forty yards of us, the Indians 
halted on a sudden, their formation not having suffered the smallest alteration 
or confusion in their rapid advance. We wheeled to our left, and continued 
to gallop round them (according to our instructions) till we had encircled 
them three times, keeping up a fire during the whole, which very much 
gratified them. We then halted, and they returned us the same compliment 
by galloping round us three times in the same manner. 

The honours being over, they halted in front of our line ; and the prin- 
cipal cacique, with his subaltern caciques and captains, marched out in 
front of theirs, where they were joined by Carrera and his officers. After a 
long, but (I may say) unintelligible conversation, they offered us their hands, 
which we accepted, in token of our mutual attachment and promise to defend 

SH 2 



420 APPENDIX. 

each other. We encamped ; and were invited by the caciques to their 
quarters, where we feasted sumptuously on some good roast horses. The 
Indians took the same care that our soldiers should want for nothing which 
it was in their power to bestow. They made us many presents of horses, 
ornaments, ponchos, &c. in proof of the sincerity of their protestations; and 
showed the greatest solicitude and attention to please, and make us consider 
ourselves among friends. 

Having assuaged our hunger, the caciques rose in council, and requested 
the General would be present also. The subject in discussion was, whether 
the town of Salta (which was about three days' march from us), on the frontier 
of Buenos Ayres, should or should not be attacked. 

We had a long march to encounter, and it became necessary that we should 
enter the province of Buenos Ayres to furnish ourselves with cattle for our 
transit to the country of the Indians ; and also make some provision for the 
time of our residence there, that we might not be burthensome to our 
friends, having the opportunity of being independent at the expense of our 
enemies. 

La Madrid, whom we expected to attack, had retired towards Pergamino. 
The town of Salta was garrisoned by a detachment of forty men ; its own 
inhabitants capable of carrying arms might be from 150 to 200 men. Carrera 
knew too well the disposition of the Indians, and their mode of warfare, to 
give his assent to the assault of the town. He therefore used every expedient 
exertion to prevent and dissuade them from it, by showing the impossibility 
of succeeding in, and danger of attempting, any attack against the town ; 
in contrast with the exaggerated advantages of passing into the country, 
from whence they might drive to their habitations vast droves of horses, 
cattle, &c. He expatiated much on the destruction of the Indians, if they 
should have the temerity to advance against the musquetry and artillery of 
the town. But they were not to be deterred by words only. They protested 
that nothing should hinder them of destroying the Porteiios ; and requested 
he would give them thirty of his men to accompany them. Carrera finding 
them so importunate and unchangeable in their resolution, conceived the idea 
of counteracting their inhuman designs and saving the inhabitants, whilst he 
seemed to accede to their request. He called a captain, and gave him in- 
structions to march with thirty men as vanguard to the Indians towards the 
town, and immediately on receiving the fire of the enemy to put his men in 
retreat, and use all possible means to inspire the Indians with a sense of 



APPENDIX. 



421 



imminent danger if they advanced, that they might be induced thereby to 
abandon their project. It was rather a hard injunction to lay on a brave old 
officer, that he should show himself as a coward in front of his soldiers and 
the enemy. However it was complied with. Soon as the enemy in the 
town opened their fire from the church and batteries, Carrera put himself at 
the head of his picket, exchanged fire a few times with the enemy, and 
then ordered a retreat. The soldiers, little accustomed to shrink from 
apparent danger, were incensed against their captain for the cowardice he 
showed, refused to obey him, and even threatened to shoot him if he dared 
to give them any order. They called on the cornet to lead them on, and 
fearlessly advanced under the enemy's fire, followed by 900 Indians. The 
Captain accompanied the detachment as a soldier in order to redeem his lost 
reputation ; but all was vain : the impression on their minds against him ever 
after was indelible. The soldiers and Indians entering the Plaza, the 
Porteiios were panic-struck : they capitulated, on condition of being left un- 
molested in the fort and tower of the church, leaving their property, wives, 
children, and relatives, at the mercy of the unfeeling Indians. The scene 
which ensued was the most affecting and pitiable : the women (as is cus- 
tomary on such occasions) had run to the church to implore the protection of 
their patron saints ; but the Indians were ignorant of the existence of such 
patronage or protection. They broke open the door of the church, possessed 
themselves of all the females, old and young, children, sacred utensils, &c. ; 
even the images of the saints did not escape the general calamity. As that 
of the Virgin was magnificently decorated, it caught the fancy of a cacique, 
who dragged her away in the greatest precipitation : nor did he discover his 
prize to be inanimate till he had her in the street ; when, finding that he had 
been deceived by her very brilliant appearance, and lost the opportunity of 
making a more desirable booty, he undressed her, and carrying with him all 
the ornaments and clothing, he left the unfledged image with disgust and 
contempt in the street. Whilst all the time of the Indians was absorbed in 
search of the unfortunate women and children, our detachment employed 
themseves in plundering the town ; in which they found a considerable 
quantity of specie and valuable articles. Soon as the General was acquainted 
with the occurrences he hastened to the town ; but as he was two leagues 
distant, he could not arrive in time to prevent the excesses. The Indians 
were about to reduce the town to ashes, when the General arrived, and per- 
suaded them to desist and abandon the town ; which they did, conveying the 



422 APPENDIX. 

women on old horses, and such as were not able to travel otherwise were 
carried in the arms of the Indians. It is unnecessary to attempt a descrip- 
tion of the cries and agonies of these wretched creatures in the power of their 
savage masters, — it is easily conceived. Carrera claimed many of the most 
respectable amongst them as his relations ; and some of them, who were in 
possession of the caciques, were quietly delivered ; but such as had the mis- 
fortune of falling into the hands of the Indians were retained, as the authority 
of their chiefs did not extend so far as to command them to relinquish what 
they considered honourably gained in war. However, we employed every 
means of extricating several young women from the power of their cruel 
masters. We got some in exchange for our scarlet cloaks, caps, jackets, &c. ; 
others we stole, and disguised in the uniform of soldiers ; whilst we seized on 
others by force, alleging that they were our sisters, wives, or relations. 

The Indians were so irritated at our contempt of their sacred rights and 
customs respecting prisoners and war, that they prepared twice to sacrifice 
us as the victims of our insolence; but the interposition of Guelmo and their 
caciques, our prompt dispositions to resist them, the high idea they had 
formed of our prowess from the example of those who accompanied them in 
Salta, and a respect or timidity (which they had not yet lost) for fire-arms, 
all concurred in inducing them to desist, and become our friends again. 

That night thirty women, whom we had rescued or ransomed, were sent 
back to Salta under the care of a guard, and unknown to the Indians. The 
greater part of the remainder were afterwards ransomed; many of whom chose 
to remain in the division, and accompanied to the last. The number of 
women taken in Salta was about 250, and a great number of children. 

The very unfortunate catastrophe of Salta furnished our enemy's com- 
mentators with ample grounds for a liberal display of their encomiums on 
Carrera, and those who accompanied him. That the affair in itself was 
undoubtedly barbarous, and will admit of little apology, is but too evi- 
dent ; but any person curious enough to investigate the causes which led to 
the desolation of that town, will be convinced that it was not caused by 
Carrera, was not abetted by him, nor was it in his power to have prevented 
it. Seven thousand Indians had been called by Martin Rodriguez in order 
to extirpate us ; and he also showed the inhuman example of Indian warfare 
by sending 200 of his soldiers with the cacique Nicolas, who surprised Me- 
lingue (a town on the frontiers of Santa Fe, then our ally), carrying away all 
its inhabitants captives. This, Rodriguez observed to the cacique, was but 



APPENDIX. 423 

a foretaste of future plunder, as he would give them every assistance to 
destroy the whole of the province of Santa Fe when their force would 
arrive. Lopez, intimidated at this threat, and envious of Carrera, made 
a dishonourable peace with his enemy, — selling us, as has been before stated. 
Carrera was accidentally enabled to defend himself from the machinations 
of his insidious enemies, by uniting himself with those very Indians who had 
been called for his destruction ; and necessity obliged him to scourge his 
enemies with the same lash under which they had deliberately doomed him 
to suffer. 

Carrera did in no way encourage the Indians in their attack on Salta : on 
the contrary, he did every thing in his power, and perhaps more than was 
consistent with his safety, to dissuade them from it ; and though he permitted 
a detachment of soldiers to accompany them, it was for the express purpose 
of more effectually deterring them by showing an example of fear, that he 
might thereby prevent the disorders necessarily emanating from the surrender 
of the town. 

Unless by some such stratagem as that tried by Carrera, the destruction 
of Salta could not possibly have been prevented by us. The Indians are 
naturally jealous and distrustful ; and it cannot be supposed that Carrera 
could have such an unbounded ascendancy over their minds in the first days 
of our union with them, as he afterwards acquired by a longer acquaintance 
with them. There was no province that would receive us ; and Carrera, by 
restraining them from their project, would have shut the last and only 
avenue which was left us for retreat. If we absolutely refused to allow the 
assault, they would in the same moment mistrust us of being attached to the 
enemy, and as enemies they would proceed against us. Their force was 
upwards of 900, and our squadron about 140. However, Rodriguez in his 
proclamation hinted that we were more barbarous than the Indians them- 
selves, for not having opposed them. If Rodriguez judged of the Indians 
from his knowledge of the Porteiios, there is some excuse for him ; for our 
140 men were more than sufficient to control and drive 1000 Porteiios with- 
out difficulty; but with that disparity of numbers, against the Indians, we 
could indulge no rational hopes of success. Hence our open and active 
mediation in favour of the town would have been as useless towards its 
safety, as it would have been impolitic, injurious, and destructive, with regard 
to our interests. We had indeed an excellent opportunity of dying in 
defence of our most implacable enemies, one of whom would not have been 



424 APPENDIX. 

grateful enough to acknowledge the merit of such a sacrifice. But even that 
could not have saved them ; their destiny was inevitable ! 

In Rodriguez's very eloquent proclamation, particular descriptions of our 
imputed cruelties in Salta were given to the public : Carrera was accused of 
sacrilege ; and Rodriguez, as champion of the church, bound himself under a 
most solemn vow to the saints and Virgin who had been so vilely treated, to 
avenge their indignities on the head of the impious barbarian who had in- 
flicted them. He called on the citizens and soldiers to aid him in the per- 
formance of his sacred promise ; and hoped the matrons, virgins, and holy 
people would fast and pray for the success of his most laudable enterprise. 

He had little difficulty in raising a strong expedition ; for as the honour of 
their saints and their religion had suffered in Salta, their votaries flew to their 
banners, confident of success from the holiness of their cause. 

Rodriguez is no doubt a very good Christian whilst there are no motives 
to be otherwise ; but, whether his piety and veneration for the saints would 
be sufficient to triumph over the temptation held out by the appearance of 
the glittering chalices, vases, and candlesticks consecrated to them, or not, 
the inhabitants of Chuguisaca and their churches could determine without 
much hesitation. 

As Rodriguez was familiarised with sacrilege, it is not strange that it should 
be the uppermost of his inflammatory inventions against his enemies : men 
frequently judge of the vices and weaknesses of others by a knowledge of 
their own, but he fabricated his charges against Carrera merely to answer 
his own purposes ; and by a retrospect over his own former actions, he was 
furnished with all those crimes which he wished to attribute to us : and from 
the same source, so long as his memory aids him, he can always draw an 
abundant fund of invectives. 

We continued our march into the interior ; and Rodriguez followed us, but 
at a very respectful distance, not less than fifty leagues in our rear. The 
Portehos saw that it was inconsistent with their safety to march too far into 
the Pampas, as (in case of being attacked) their flight would avail them 
nothing, when at such an immense distance from their own province. They 
therefore encamped at the Laguna de Floras, and Rodriguez, leaving La 
Madrid in command of the army, returned to Buenos Ayres ; from whence 
he sent to the encampment a quantity of cloth, beads, bridles, toys, &c. as 
presents for the Indians of Nicolas (who were in their favour), or any others 
who might become proselytes to the interests of Buenos Ayres. 



APPENDIX. 425 

After thirty-two days' march we arrived at the toldos, or habitations of the 
Indians ; and chose for our encampment a situation at the base of a hill, about 
one mile distant from the dwelling of one of the caciques. A deep river 
and two smaller streams ran parallel with our front, which they covered 
securely ; our left flank was defended by a branch of the same river ; and 
our right was protected by an advanced post. Our position was the most 
eligible in the country, as it would be impossible to surprise us ; however the 
Indians requested we would decamp, as they had serious doubts for our safety 
if we persisted in our desire to hold this ground. It was supposed among 
them (from some tradition or prophecy) that that hill was the habitation 
and resort of an infinite number of gualichi or evil spirits, who punished with 
death or disease the temerity of all such as dared to intrude on the confines 
of this enchanted ground. Our first idea on receiving this information of 
the Indians was, that as the grass was luxuriant and of excellent quality, 
they wished by this artifice to preserve it for themselves, and induce us to 
remove to some other part ; but on consulting with Guelmo, the General was 
convinced that they spoke the sentiments of their minds, without any inten- 
tion to deceive us, and that their importunity in urging us to decamp was 
owing to their solicitude for our safety. The spot was most desirable, yet 
there was no vestige of habitation ; and the untrodden appearance of the 
ground, and their little knowledge of the passes of the river in that place, 
indicated that it was little frequented by the Indians. Carrera quieted their 
fears, assuring them that those gualichi had no power against his soldiers, and 
that in a very few days he did not doubt but they would be entirely ex- 
pelled from the hill. The Indians retired from the unhallowed ground, 
filled with hope and fear for our fate. Very early next morning they came 
to visit us, and hear what adventures we might have had in the course of the 
night ; and expressed the greatest joy and astonishment, at hearing that the 
evil genii of the mountain had no power when they were opposed by us. 
They gradually lost their fears of the place, and in a few days their visits 
became so frequent and of such duration as to be a test to our patience. 

Their attachment to Carrera daily increased. All the neighbouring 
caciques came to congratulate and welcome him to their country ; offering at 
the same time to serve with him in any part against his enemies. Deputies 
were sent to Chile and the more distant nations, requiring the attendance of 
their caciques in the encampment of the Pichi Rey, or little king (as such 

3/ 



426 APPENDIX. 

was the name they had given Carrera), naming a certain day for the assembly 
or junta of caciques to meet. 

The Portenos having used every method to alienate the confidence of the 
Indians from us, and finding them inflexible in their attachment to us, con- 
ceived the following scheme: — they circulated a report amongst the Indians 
that we were their friends, and that our object was to gain the rear of the 
Indians, and then attack them ; whilst they would meet them, and by this 
combination of operations they expected to annihilate the whole race. This 
ingenious intelligence was industriously circulated by the cacique Nicolas 
(their ally") and his captains amongst the other tribes, and did not fail to rouse 
the distrust and jealousy of the Indians towards us. 

Carrera heard their complaints against us with much patience and atten- 
tion, and succeeded in appeasing them, by making it appear that it was but a 
stratagem of the enemy, to cause a dissension between him and the Indians, 
that they might come afterwards and drive them entirely out of their country; 
and to show them that he was not the friend of Buenos Ayres, he determined 
to march in a few days tp attack them, desiring some Indians to be immedi- 
ately sent out to discover their position. The Indians sent out to explore 
the enemy's camp advanced with an incredible rapidity, and reconnoitred 
their encampment ; but in lieu of returning to report what they had seen, as 
had been ordered, they fell on the enemy by surprise, and again renewed 
their Offence against the Virgin, by putting to death all the soldiers who were 
under her protection : the soldiers no doubt had ready passports to heaven ; 
but the crime against their Holy Lady was aggravated by this defeat of her 
avengers. La Madrid, with his usual good fortune, escaped with a few 
officers, to give an account to Rodriguez of the success of the expedition, and 
its negotiation ; which account was so satisfactory, that he was induced to dis- 
continue any further efforts towards the accomplishment of his holy vow. 

The appointed time for the meeting of the caciques being come, they at- 
tended with punctuality ; each bringing with him a guard of Indians, to give 
an idea of strength and quality of his tribe. All being assembled, they sacri- 
ficed to their great patron and preserver the Sun, previous to opening their 
council. 

For this sacrifice a colt " without blemish" was chosen by the priests, and 
tied by their own hands. The principal priest then by an orifice in the side 
introduced his arm into the body of the victim, and tore out the heart, 



APPENDIX. 427 

liver, &c. whilst the animal was yet alive ; the blood from the heart he sprinkled 
upwards towards the sun, the other priests doing the same with the blood 
from the body. They (the priests) then devoured the heart, liver, lights, 
and entrails, reeking with blood ; whilst the caciques were permitted to eat 
the body of the sacrifice.* 

The sacrifice being finished, they proceeded to their divination or pro- 
phecies ; and as their revelations were of the most flattering nature, the 
council was permitted to be opened under the auspices of the Sun. The 
Indians were naked, as they are in all functions of war, council, religion, or 
athletic exercises. Their long hair was more than usually ornamented by 
white, red, blue, or yellow plumes ; and their faces frightfully painted with 
black, red, and white earths. 

The oldest cacique sitting cross-legged on a cloth prepared for that pur- 
pose, the next in seniority sat in the same manner on his left, and so in 
succession, till the junior cacique came to close the circle on the right of 
the senior. The General and his interpreters were seated in the centre of 
this circle. Our officers and the Indian captains formed a second and third 
rank round the circle; where we stood, to hear these turbulent sons of liberty 
represent their constituents in the open air, exposed to the rays of a scorching 
sun. All being seated, a profound silence reigned, which was at length 
interrupted by the principal or oldest cacique, in a short speech directed to 
the members, intimating the object of their union, &c. He then addressed 

himself to Carrera, saying, that having assembled tribe of Indians in 

council, he was authorized and required by their authority, and in their name, 
to congratulate and welcome the Pichi Rey to their country ; to enquire re- 
specting his health, and the difficulties he might have met in his march 
hither ; the state of the country from whence he came ; the strength of the 
military establishment there, and how employed, or likely to be employed ; 
a particular relation of the wrongs which he had suffered from his enemies, 
&c. &c. ; and to inform him, that as they were convinced that he was the 
true friend to the Indians, he had only to command their tribe, and they 

* It is curious that the account given here by Mr. Yates, of the sacrifice of the colt, 
agrees with what we are told of the ceremonies practised by the ancient Mexicans at a 
human offering. It should seem, therefore, that the horse is only a substitute for a man, 
The way is now open, and I do not doubt that an intelligent observer might find among 
the Araucanians much to throw light on the history of the more polished ancient Ame- 
rican states. 

3/ 2 



428 



APPENDIX. 



would fly to any part to revenge his injuries, and embrue their hands in the 
blood of his enemies. Guelmo, the interpreter, noted all the principal heads 
of the cacique's discourse; and Carrera, after examining it particularly, 
answered in a formal speech, which was interpreted to the Indians by Guelmo. 
They spoke each in the same simple form, and to the same effect ; and when 
they had all delivered the messages of their respective tribes, Carrera de- 
livered to them a speech, in which he returned them thanks for the confi- 
dence which they placed in him, and the force which they had put at his 
disposition, declaring to become their protector ; enumerating the advantages 
which would arise to them from this union with him, &c. &c. When this 
oration of Carrera was interpreted to them, they offered him their hands, 
which he cordially accepted one by one. 

As all they had hitherto spoken was not of or for themselves, but for the 
tribes which they represented, they now ventured to express their personal 
attachment to the Pichi Rey, whom they presented with various gifts, &c. 
Wine was served to this august assembly ; but as they were on important 
business, they observed perhaps as much moderation as might be expected in 
a more civilised society. Each dipping the middle finger of the right hand 
thrice in the cup, sprinkled the wine upwards as an offering, before they would 
taste it (a ceremony which is invariably observed before they eat or drink) ; 
they then merely tasted the wine, and ordering it away, resumed the business 
of the day. Each cacique gave in a report of the force which he could bring 
into the field, which collectively amounted to 10,000 warriors : they then 
proceeded to give their ideas on the mode of attack against the Christians ; 
and their horrid plans of bloodshed and desolation argued as much sagacity 
and penetration, as they did of ruthless barbarity and cruel inhumanity. 
Carrera used every argument to convince them of the evil of their method of 
carrying on war ; but no eloquence could prevail against the impropriety of 
a custom which long usage had rendered sacred. As the Indian maxim is, 
" Spare an enemy to-day, and to-morrow he will cut your throat," they can- 
not conceive either propriety, policy, or humanity, in allowing their victims 
to live, except women and children, who serve them as slaves. 

However Carrera made appear to them, that amongst those whom they 
considered as their enemies, they and he had many friends ; and that it would 
be preposterous to inflict on them the same chastisement as on their oppres- 
sors ; of which being convinced, they promised to respect all such as he would 
call his or their friends. Carrera then asserted, that as women or children 



APPENDIX. 429 

did not carry arms or go to war, it was unbecoming a brave and warlike 
people to kill or carry them away captives. They could not listen to this 
tenet, as it struck at the very foundations of their customs respecting war ; 
and even their honour was implicated. The honour of an Indian is computed 
by his train of captives : they destroy all their enemies of the male kind ; 
and if they took no women or children prisoners, they should have no captives, 
and consequently no honour. Such is the reasoning of the Indians on the 
subject ; and if any chief, however popular he might be, would undertake an 
expedition, and deny that right to the Indians, he would not have one solitary 
follower : Carrera seeing he could not prevail, waived all further conversation 
on the subject. The assembly was prorogued, and we retired with the caciques 
to dine on some bullocks, which had been roasted for the occasion ; and after 
dinner, a bacchanalian revel succeeded, in which they gave themselves up to 
the uncontrolled enjoyment of their favourite excess, — drunkenness : we 
continued the revel all night, amidst the prophecies and songs of priests and 
bards. It is an abomination to an Indian to eat, drink, or sleep, with a woman ; 
however, the principal or favourite women of some of the caciques had their 
meetings apart ; they were unnoticed by the Indians, but had some attention 
paid them by us : they were, if possible, more intoxicated than the men. 
Their songs seemed to take much effect on them, as they sometimes laughed, 
and sometimes wept, at the ideas which they expressed. The airs were wild, 
sweet, irregular, and plaintive ; rather pleasing, and not void of harmony. 

The repetitions of these fetes were numerous ; but it would be tiresome and 
unnecessary to enter into a particular detail of them, as what I have men- 
tioned may serve to give a general idea of their sacrifices, councils, and 
revels. 

These inhospitable regions of America, where water is extremely scarce, 
and wood in most places not to be found, were but little inhabited before the 
conquest by the Spaniards ; and were first peopled by refugees from the south 
of Chile, who came hither for the exercise of that liberty which they feared 
it would have been impossible for them to enjoy there. Various other causes 
since that time, such as wars with each other, &c, have driven various tribes 
and remnants of tribes to settle there, that they might escape the vengeance of 
their more powerful rivals. 

Amongst the various tribes there is no union of government : they are fre- 
quently at war with each other ; and only act in concert with each other, and 
under one chief, when threatened by some real or imaginary danger ; and 



430 APPENDIX. 

even then, there are no laws to compel them : the service of each tribe is 
voluntary, and during its own pleasure. 

Each tribe is governed by a cacique or chief) who is elected from amongst 
themselves. The qualifications necessary for him who would aspire to that 
honour are, acknowledged superiority of wisdom in council, courage and 
stratagem in war, and zeal for the tribe which he governs : the power of a 
cacique is so exceedingly limited, as to leave him merely the name of it. It 
is his province to assemble his tribe, and explain to them the advantages 
arising from a war, or the necessity of surprising or annihilating a rival nation ; 
but it is theirs to ratify or deny it. However, when they do ratify the propo- 
sition of their cacique on any occasion whatsoever, they adhere to it ever 
afterwards with a religious veneration ; and it is to them as laws are to other 
countries. When the chief and a majority of his tribe are for war, they can- 
not use any compulsory means to force those to take a part in it who might 
have been against it in council ; each being absolutely master of his own 
actions, so long as he does not injure the person or property of any individual 
of the society : but the soothsayers and bards begin their functions ; and by 
their prophecies and songs so elevate the minds of their martial audience, 
that few are so cold to fame as to stay behind, when honour and victory await 
them in the field. The war-cry being given, the Indians relinquish that tur- 
bulent and independent spirit which animates them in domestic life : they 
become tractable and subordinate to their captains and caciques, obeying them 
in every respect with the same punctuality which is expected from regular 
soldiers to their superiors, during the expedition. Nor can they recover their 
liberties before they return to their habitations ; when they are dismissed, 
again assume their arrogance, and have a power to bring to trial their 
chief, or enquire into his conduct in the time of his absolute authority, and 
punish him if he were obnoxious to them. — From what has been said of the 
government of Indian tribes, it is evident that the influence of a chief with 
his own tribe, or among the chiefs of neighbouring nations, depends in a great 
measure on his eloquence. The only privilege which they possess in time of 
peace is that of giving their advice ; and he who can express himself best, 
and touch the passions of his audience most forcibly, will be heard most 
attentively, and obeyed with least reluctance. The Indians pay a religious 
adoration to the sun, as the author of light, life, vegetation, &c. ; and also a 
kind of secondary veneration to the moon. Whenever they eat or drink, the 
three first morsels or drops are consecrated to the sun, by throwing them up- 



APPENDIX. 431 

wards : the priests, on occasions of danger, emergency, doubt, suspicion, &c, 
sacrifice to the sun, previous to their soothsaying, that the genius of truth may 
direct their prophecies ; at the return of each full moon, they perform some 
inferior ceremonies to that luminary. The eclipse of either sun or moon is 
looked on as a presage of some dire calamity, which they try to avert by 
sacrifice, or flight from the dwelling from whence they had seen it. That 
they have an idea of a state beyond the grave, appears from their having 
their horses, arms, and sometimes their favourite wives, buried with them, to 
accompany them to that unknown world ; but such an idea must indeed be 
very imperfect and undefinable, in an Indian mind! 

Their language is very imperfect, wanting a great number of nouns to 
express the names of many virtues, vices, ideas, arts, &c. Male and female 
are sometimes expressed by the same name, without any modification or dif- 
ference of termination by which the gender might be known ; thus, Pichi- 
boton is the name for boy or girl, young man or young woman, but an addi- 
tional number of qualifying epithets is necessary before we know in which of its 
meanings to consider it. Their verbs are also defective in the tenses, ex- 
pressing an action or passion without any direct idea of time, but in an 
indefinite manner : labouring under these difficulties, it must take many words 
to express the most simple idea. The manner in which the caciques speak 
in council is entirely different from that of common conversation. The 
harangues are given with astonishing fluency and rapidity : they seem never at 
a loss to express any word ; their sentences are equally divided by pauses of 
equal length, and they give an idea of blank verse, read without observing 
any pause but the final at the end of each line. They use neither action nor 
gestures ; but affect a most visible variation of the tone in which they deliver 
their sentiments. 

Agriculture is entirely unknown amongst them. They subsist altogether 
on their flocks, and remove from one part to another to accommodate them 
with pasture : when the society is small their stock is kept together, without 
distinction of property, except the horses, which in the way of stock are the 
only personal property of the Indians ; the cows, sheep, mares, and colts, 
are the common property of the tribe. Their flocks are entirely managed 
by their women and slaves (Christian women), who watch alternately during 
the night, mounted on horseback, and going the rounds among the cattle : 
if a sheep or any animal should be missing, the unfortunate woman is stripped 
and flogged in a most barbarous manner. The occupation of the women 
during the day is to catch and saddle the horses of the Indians, and cook 



432 



APPENDIX. 



their food. From day-break till dark, the women are busily employed in 
this last occupation. Soon as a boiler of the horse-flesh is cooked, it is taken 
from the fire and served to the Indians, sitting on their beds : every one has 
his earthen dish, out of which he eats and drinks ; and if there should be any 
left after the men have done eating, the women make a repast in a separate 
corner of the toldo. The boiler is again put over the fire and filled, — cook ed, 
and eaten; and the repetition of the same continues so long as they have 
light. The Indians in their toldos are very hospitable : always when we 
visited the toldos they took care to have beef and mutton for us ; which food 
they eat only in time of famine, or when they can procure no other. 

The toldo of an Indian is a species of tent formed by a few stakes made fast 
in the ground, and covered with skins. The fire is in the centre ; and at one 
side of the toldo the Indians sleep in little stalls on beds of sheep-skins, 
whilst their women occupy the other side in a similar manner. The Indians 
are as silent and pensive in their toldos, as they are noisy and turbulent in 
their public meetings and councils. They will sit on their beds for an hour 
without uttering a syllable, wrapt in some profound meditation, or plucking 
the beard from their faces with silver tweesers which they carry for that 
purpose, never permitting any hair to grow on their faces or bodies. Every 
Indian has absolute power over the lives and actions of his women and slaves ; 
his daughters are also at his disposition ; but they are accountable for their 
conduct towards their sons, soon as they have passed the state of childhood. 
If a woman is unfaithful to her owner, or even mistrusted by him of having 
other attachments, he is generally her executioner, ending her life with his 
own hand. When an Indian is first married, he gives a feast to the relations 
of the bride and his own friends ; but all the after-marriages are considered 
merely as commercial transactions. Polygamy is allowed amongst them, each 
being permitted as many wives as he can purchase. 

The Indians, owing to the simplicity of their lives, enjoy excellent health; 
diseases are so unfrequent amongst them that they do not acknowledge the 
existence of any natural distemper. Whenever an Indian is afflicted with 
any sickness at a premature age and dies, the soothsayers, who are also their 
physicians, impute the malady to some enemy of the deceased, who is sup- 
posed to have the power of magic or witchcraft; and if their science of pro- 
phecy should enable them to discover who the wizard is, he suffers an 
immediate death. When an Indian dies, his best horse, saddle, spurs, sword, 
and lance, are buried with him in a pit ; and if he should have a wife 
more dearly beloved than the rest, she accompanies him in his transit to a 



APPENDIX. 433 

more happy world, where her office is still to wait on him as a servant. 
Immediately after the interment the tents are struck, and the tribe marches 
in search of" a more hospitable habitation. 

Among the Indian tribes, crimes are not very frequent. They adhere 
strictly to what they consider justice ; and any great innovation on, or vio- 
lation of, their established customs is punished with death. A man who kills 
any member of the society is given up to the friends of" the deceased, and 
expiates his crime with his blood. This is the right of revenge, which is the 
unquestionable privilege of every Indian ; and should it be denied him, a 
civil war is generally the result, and the tribe becomes extinct. Though 
they suppress theft, murder, &c. in their own tribes, he who commits the most 
barbarous outrages on his enemies is considered most worthy of the respect 
and applause of every member of his own society. 

There may be considered four orders of Indian society ; the caciques, 
priesthood, captains, and people. They live together in the most perfect 
equality and enjoyment of their customs. Their occupations are nearly the 
same, except the priests' ; who at different times, and under different cir- 
cumstances, exercise the various functions of priest, prophet, physician, 
bard, &c. 

They compute their time by the lunar revolutions, and their distances by 
days ; thus, two moons mean two months ; and the number of days between 
one place and another, means the time in which an Indian can gallop from 
one to the other, and gives them a tolerably exact idea of distance. Their 
way of counting is complex and fatiguing. They begin by counting up to 
ten (which they cannot exceed) ; then making a mark on their beads, or with 
a piece of stick, they count other ten, which they mark in the same way, and 
so continue to proceed to ten tens or 100, which is marked apart ; a fresh 
score is begun, and continued to ten hundred or 1000, known by a different 
mark. Their numeration seldom goes beyond 1000, and cannot exceed 
10,000. A number of men or objects passing 10,000 is expressed amongst 
them by the word Many. 

Their exercise or diversions are performed on horseback with their lances, 
and are adapted to improve their strength and make them fit for war. They 
have also an exercise which they perform on foot with a ball, not unlike 
cricket. In all their exercises, diversions, and fetes, of whatever kind, they 
are invariably naked. 

The dress of an Indian in winter is a poncho, a piece of rug wound 
round his waist, like the chiripa of the peasants in this country, (i. e. Chile, 

3 K 



434 APPENDIX. 

where waistbands are generally used,) and a pair of horse-skin boots, all 
manufactured by their women. In summer the poncho is but little worn, 
as the weather is sufficiently warm without it. The women wear a cloth 
round the waist, which reaches to the knees : a square piece of cloth is 
passed underneath the right arm-pit, the corners of which are made fast 
over, and in front of, the left shoulder, by a large silver skewer about 12 
or 14 inches in length. Their breasts, which in general are immoderately 
large, and the greater part of the body, are entirely exposed to view. Their 
hair forms two long queues ; which, being bound in selvages, covered with 
beads of divers colours, are brought round the forehead and temples like a 
band, the ends tying over the forehead. Their ear-rings are large square 
pieces of silver, rather thin, and hang down on the shoulders. They wear 
broad necklaces of various coloured beads, and bracelets of the same. Some 
of them also wear broad girdles round the waist, which are covered with gold 
and silver coins, beads, &c. The unmarried women are known by wearing- 
bracelets on their legs, and their dresses are generally comparatively richer 
than those of the married women : by this superiority in dress, their fathers 
expect them to attract the attention of some rich warriors, who, to possess the 
fair, must give to her father some horses, money, ponchos, or an equivalent 
of some description, in exchange for his bride, who then becomes his slave, 
and whose life is from that moment at the disposition of her purchaser. Nor 
are females allowed any choice in the election of their conjugal masters. 
The avarice of the father is only consulted ; and when a marriage or ex- 
change of masters takes place, all the father's authority ceases, and the 
daughter looks on him only as a stranger, her filial love and obedience 
having been transferred with her person to her buyer. 

The women are affable, generous, and attentive to strangers. Their fea- 
tures are by no means displeasing : there are some among them whose coun- 
tenances are indicative of innate goodness ; and, though their costumes are 
not calculated to make the most advantageous display of their charms, there 
are many of them pretty, and exceedingly interesting. 

Many authors have supposed (and perhaps have had strong reasons for the 
supposition) that Patagonia was inhabited by a gigantic race of Indians : a 
contradiction from me would be as impertinent as unavailing against the 
torrent of opinion ; but I will say, that I have not seen any of that race, nor 
could I learn from any information of the natives that such a people do or 
did exist. 

They are of good stature, well made ; and if compared with the diminutive 



APPENDIX. 



435 



race of Peru, they will certainly appear to be large men ; but are by no means 
larger than the generality of English and Germans. They live in a con- 
tinual state of war, or preparation for war, among their own tribes, and against 
the Christians. Carrera succeeded in reconciling to each other all the rival 
chiefs ; but such reconciliation cannot be of long duration. 

The Indians are imperious and resentful ; vehement in all their passions ; 
jealous of their freedom and rights, and bold in maintaining them : they are 
exceedingly brave, but extremely cruel and fond of revenge ; distrustful 
of those whom they know not ; hospitable and faithful to those whom they 
recognise as friends ; inveterate to their foes, neither forgiving an enemy or 
forgetting an injury. 

During our residence in the country of the Indians various causes com- 
bined to render our soldiers insubordinate and mutinous ; viz. their inactivity, 
want of pay, &c. ; however we continued to punish them severely for every 
fault or disrespect, not overlooking the most trivial. In consequence of 
this, they projected a most villainous mutiny against the General and offi- 
cers, and only waited the arrival of a party which was out on duty to effect 
their designs. — A soldier named San Martin was appointed general by the 
soldiers ; the other officers necessary for the squadron were all selected from 
among themselves. Our division was formed of the prisoners taken in the 
battle of Maypu ; and as they had all served under the Spanish government, 
they still retained an occult allegiance to Fernando. Their plan was, that 
after putting to death the General and officers, they would pass to the south 
of Chile, conducted by an Indian, and there join Benevides, who was fighting 
for the Spaniards. 

Fortunately our soldiers were not all unfaithful. There were some of 
them who gave us exact information of the revolution, and swore to stand or 
fall with their officers ; these were in the quickest time possible formed into 
one troop, and amounted to 40. With this troop and the officers we did not 
despair of suppressing the conspirators. The General affected to be ignorant 
of the conspiracy. The ammunition was secured by us, and the principal 
leaders of the conspirators were sent on duty to the toldos of different 
caciques who lived distant, and who had orders not to permit the soldiers to 
return without a second order from the General. 

Having secured the ammunition, separated the conspirators and their prin- 
cipal leaders, and prepared ourselves to oppose whatever resistance might be 
offered, the General called the sergeants to his quarters, and made known to 

3k 2 



436 



APPENDIX. 



them that he was well acquainted with their base plot, and prepared to punish 
them as they deserved. The sergeants retired; and soon as the soldiers 
were acquainted with the conference which had been held between them and 
the General, they began to regret having lost the confidence of their General, 
and laid all the blame to the chief of the conspirators, San Martin. They 
requested that the General would visit them, that they might personally beg 
his forgiveness. In consequence of which an order was read to the soldiers, 
intimating that the General would speak with them that evening, on the sum- 
mit of the hill which overlooked the encampment. 

On the evening parade the line was formed on the summit of the hill be- 
fore mentioned. Soon as the General came in front they saluted, afterwards 
carried arms, and wheeled to the right and left on their centre to form a 
circle, in which the General stood, and from whence he harangued them 
for about an hour. He painted in such colours the enormity of their medi- 
tated crime, as caused several of the wretches to weep ; they prayed to be 
forgiven and received into the General's favour, promising that the general 
tenor of their future co