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Full text of "Journal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall"

}1. 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



<5^ 







VOLUME XI 



1891-1893. 



TRURO: 
PRINTED BY LAKE AND LAKE, PRINCES STREET, 

1895. I "S ^ 6> i^ 7^ 



^tst ti^ yi'fsibcnls. 



Rt. Hon. Viscount Exmouth, G.C.B., &c. i8[8-3o. 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., M.A., F.R.S., 

M.P. 1830-57. 

W. Mansel Tweedy, Esq. .. .. '857-59. 

Charles Barham, M.D. . . . . . . 1859-61. 

Sir E. Smirke, Kt., M.A., Vice- Warden. 1861-63. 

Augustus Smith, F.G.S., M.P 1863-65. 

Sir E. Smirke, Kt, V.W 1865-67, 

J. JoPE Rogers, M.A., M.P 1867-69. 

W. JoRY Henwood, F.R.S. .. 1869-71. 

Rt. Hon. Lord St. Levan . . . . 1871-73. 

James Jago, M.D., F.R.S. .. .. 1873-75- 

Jonathan Rashleigh, Esq. .. .. 1875-77. 

W. CopELAND Borlase, M.A., F.S.A. .. 1877-79. 

Lord Bishop of Truro (Archb. Benson, D.D.) 1879-81. 
Rt. Hon. Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, 

Lord-Lieut 1881-83. 

A. Pendarves Vivian, M.P. ., .. 1883-85. 

Rev. W. Iago, B.A 1885-87. 

John Tremayne, M.P 1887-89. 

Edwin Dunkin, F.R.S., F.R.A.S. .. 1889-91. 

Sir John Maclean, Kt., F.S.A., F.R.S.A. 1891-93. 

John Davies Enys, F.G.S. . . . . 1893-95. 



hnkiOCi'iJ ^tMkh I — Rev. W. Iago, B.A., 1890. 
J. H. Collins, F.G.S., 1893. 



r 



CONTENTS. (Seriatim.) 



Ill 



Page 

List of OflScers, Proprietors, Life and Subscribing Members ... ... 1 

Spring Meeting (1891) ... ... ... ... ... ... 9 

President's Address (E. Dunkin, F.E.S.) ... ... ... ... 10 

Annual Excursion (1891) ... ... ... ... ... ... 34 

Annual Meeting (1891) ... ... ... ... ... ... 38 

Balance Sheet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 52 

Meteorological Tables ... ... ... ... ... ... 53 

Ancient Settlement on Trewortha Marsh, by the Rev. S. Baring-Gould, 

M.A., Parti (see also page 289). ... ... ... ... 57 

Sketch Sections of a Pit excavated on the N.E. side of Pendennis, 

Falmouth, by H. Fox, F.G.S., and N. Whitley, F.R.Met.S. ... 71 

Private Trade on the Falmouth Packets, by A. H. Norway ... ... 73 

Cornubiana, by the Rev. S. RuNDLE, M.A. ... ... ... ... 84 

Excavations on the site of Launceston Priory, by OrHO B. Peter, Part 1. 91 

St. Petroc's Church, Padstow, — Address by the Right Rev. Edward 

Trollope, D.D., F.kS.A. ... ... ... ... ... 97 

Colour Changes in Cornish Stoats, by Henry Crowthek, F.R.Micr.S. 103 

Little Petherick, otherwise St. Petroc Minor, by the Rev. the Right 

Hon. Samuel Vjscottnt Molesworth, M.A. ... ... 108 

Origin and Development of Ore Deposits in the West of England, by 

J. H. Collins, F.G.S., Part 2, continued from Vol. X, p. 109 ... Ill 

A Fear's Weather — A series of Monthly Letters to the Newspapers, by 

Henry Crowther, F.R.M.S., Curator of the Museum .. ..'. 185 

Obituary Notices of Messrs. Whitley, F.R.Met.S. & Jeffery, F.R.S. 206 

Notes and Queries ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 214 

Spring Meeting (1892) ... ... ... ... ... ... 219 

President's Address (Sir John Maclean, F.S. A.) ... ... ... 220 

Annual Meeting (1892) ... ... ... ... ... ... 235 

Report of the Council .. ... ... .. ... ... 235 

Balance Sheet ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 244 

Meteorological Tables ... ... ... ... ... ... 245 

Notes on Further Excavations on the site of Launceston Priory, by Otho 

B. Peter, Part 2, see also p. 91 ... .. ... ... 249 

Historical Notes on the Parish, Manor and Advowson of Otterham, 

Cornwall, by Sir John Maclean, F.S. A., &c., President ... 251 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Magnetic Rocks of Cornwall, by T. Ci.ark ... 

Ogam Stone* at Lewannick, by A. G. Lanqdon 

Ancient Settlement, Trewortha, part 2 (see p. 57), by tbe E,EV 



Gould, M.A. 
Cornish Landowners, 1256, by the late W. Sincock 



280 
285 



S. Baring 



289 
291 



Pelagic Lifef in and near Falmouth Harbour, by Rupert Vallentin ... 304 

Origin and Development of Ore Deposits in the West of England, by 

J. H. Collins, F.G.S., Parts, see also p. 111... ... ... 327 

The Diamond Prospecting Core Drill, by Stephen Rogers, F.G.S. ... 378 

A Year's Weather (1892) — A series of Monthly Letters to the Newspapers, 

by H. Crowthee, F.R.Micr.S., Curator of the Museum ... 381 

Obituary Notice of James Jago, M.D., F.R.S. ... ... ... 407 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 



* Inscribed Stone at Lewannick : — 

The Editors wish to state that the reading of this stone is in dispute. Mr. 
Langdon (the discoverer of the Inscriptions) gives, in his illustrated account, the 
Roman letters as INCENVI MEMORIA;— but the Rev. W. lago, on the 
contrary, finds that the 3rd letter is G, the legend being therefore INGENVI 
MEMORIA, and consequently commemorative of "Ingenuus;" — (not of 
" Cenuus," as the writer of the paper seems to suppose). 

Mr. lago's view has been arrived at, after careful and repeated inspections 
of the stone, by Mr. Langdon's invitation, and is supported by casts, rubbings, 
and photographs. The occurrence of G in the Ogham (duplicate) version of the 
legend, is also evidence in favour of Mr. lago's identification of the true name of 
the deceased. 



t Pelagic Life : page 325, line 18, for quadruped, read mammal. 



INDEX TO VOL. XL 



Adams, Mr. J. Couch, 23. 

An Ancient Settlement on Trewortha 

Marsh,by the Rev.S. Baring-Gould, 

57, 289. 
Annual Excursions, 20th August, 1891, 

34; 30th August, 1892, 237- 
Annual Meeting (73rd) Nov. 24th, 

1891,38. (74th) Nov. 29th, 1892, 

235. 
Associates, List of, 7. 
Astronomical Society, Royal, 18, 20. 
Australia, 32. 

Balance Sheets, 1891, 52 ; 1892, 244. 
Basset, Mrs. and Mr. A. F., Society 

entertained by, 238. 
Baring-Gould, Rev. S., An Ancient 

Settlement on Trewortha Marsh, 

57, 289. 
Beche De la. Sir Henry, Geological 

Survey, 12. 
Bell, Mr., 74. 

Bellocampo, Stephanus de, 294. 
Bibliotheca Cornubiensis, 11, 223. 
Bishops of Truro, 38, 39 ; Nottingham, 

35, 97 ; Fred'ton, 235; Exeter, 

94 ; London, 20. 
Boase and Courtney, 223. 
Boase, G. C, Collectanea Cornubien- 

sia, 17. 
Books purchased, 1891, 49. 
Bosahan, 36. 
Bourke, Sub. Dean, 9. 
Bouvard, Tables of Uranus, 23. 
British Association, Presidents of, 19. 
Brixham Cavern, 11. 
Bryant, Capt., Specimens of Minerals, 

15 
Calwoodley, Robert, 101 ; John, 102. 
Carlyon, Mr. Edward Trewbody, 14. 
Carlyon, A, H., Specimens of Minerals, 

15. 
Carmeneu, Robert de, 295. 
Cathedral, Truro, 13. 
Chaldeans, 33. 
Christiana, Fiord, waters of, 27. 



Chronogram, 86. 

Church, Rev. G. L., Obit. Notice of, 13. 

Clark, Thomas, 15, 17; Geological 
and Mineralogical Specimens, 42 ; 
Cornish Stoat, 104 ; Paper and 
Sketch Map of Cornwall, shewing 
locality of Magnetic Rocks, 280. 

Classes, Science, 16, 44, 238. 

Collectanea Cornubiensia, 17, 223. 

Collins, J. R., Mayor of Bodmin, 36. 

Collins, J. H., 9 ; On the Origin and 
Development of Ore Deposits, 111, 
327 ; Minerals from Mexico, 15, 
Mineralized & Geological Memoirs. 
17 ; Gold Medalist, p. ii. 

Colour Changes in Cornish Stoats, 
Henry Crowther, 103. 

Cook, Capt., Transit of Venus in 
1769, 25. 

Comets, 29. 

Core, Rev. J., 37. 

Couch, Jonathan, 103. 

Cornish, Archdeacon, 39, 219. 

Cornish, Thomas, 12. 

Cornish Crosses, A. G. Langdon, 214. 

Cornish Chough in Heraldry, The, 88. 

Cornish Landowners, 1266, William 
Sincock, 291. 

Cornubiana, No. 1, Rev. S. Rundle, 
84. 

Corresponding Members, List of, 7. 

Cotehele, 36. 

Council, Royal Institution, 1, 44, 238. 

Council, Reports of, 24th November, 
1891, 39 ; 29th Nov., 1892, 235. 

Cragoe, T. A., Obit. Notice, 235. 

Crosses, 214 ; Cross, St. Rumon's, 215. 

Crowther, H., Museum, 15 ; Winter 
Classes, 16, 238 ; Colour changes in 
Cornish Stoats, 103 ; A Year's 
Weather, 185, 381 ; Arrangements 
in Museum, 237 ; Weather Letters, 
237 ; List of British Lepidoptera, 
Appendix ; Mummies, 217. 

Cury Church, Dedication of, 216. 



VI 



INDEX. 



Curgenven, Miss, Gift of Books, 235 ; 

Legacy of £50, 236. 
Daubuz, Mr. J. Claude, High Sheriff, 

Presentation of Carved Oak from 

Old St. Mary's Church, 41, 219. 
Deake, Capt., 80. 
Dedication of Cury Church, 216. 
Diamond Prospecting Core Drill, 

Stephen Rogers, F.G.S., 378. 
Dolcoath, Visit to, 237. 
Donaldson, Canon, 219. 
Dones, Henricus de, 302. 
Drake, Dr H. H., 51. 
Draenas, Kobertus de, 301. 
" Duke of York," Falmouth Packet, 

81. 
Dunkin, Edwin, F.R.S., 9 ; President's 

Address, Spring Meeting, 1891, 10, 

38 ; Obit. Notice of Dr. Jago, by, 

407. 
" Earl Gower," Falmouth Packet, 80. 
Edwards, A J., 15. 
Eggecomb, Sir Piers, 224. 
Encke, M., Distance of the Sun, 25. 
Enodoc, St., Church of, 35. 
Enys, John D, F.G.S., Books on 

Natural Hist, and Geology of New 

Zealand, 15; Reports of British 

Association, 41 ; President, p. ii. 
Excavations on the site of Launceston 

Priory, Otho B. Peter, 91 ; Note 

on further Excavations, 249. 
Exchanges with other Societies, 49. 
Excursion, Annual 1891, 34. 
Extracts from Parish Accounts, 87. 
Falmouth Packets, Private Trade of, 

73. 
Flamanc, Marc le, 298. 
Fortescue, Col. C. D., Obit. Notice of, 

13. 
Foster, Dr. C. Le Neve, Royal College 

of Science, 19. 
Fox, Howard, 9 ; Specimens of 

Minerals, 15 ; Rocks from the 

Lizard, 42 ; Sections of a Pit near 

Pendennis, 71, 72. 
Frederickton, Bishop of, Obit. Notice, 

235. 
Geological Society, London, 12. 
Gifts to the Library, 1891, 47, 241. 
Gold Medal, 16 ; Award of, in 1890, 

19 ; ditto, 1893, p. ii. 
Gotha, 25. 

Greenwich, Observations made at, 25. 
Grenuile, Richard de, 302. 
Gwarthendra, 35. 



Hacumb, Jordanus de, 300. 

Halley,Dr., 25. 

Hall, Asaph, Prof., 28. 

Hansen, Prof., Lunar Theory, 25. 

Hamilton, Rev. W. A., 15. 

Harding, Col., 232. 

Harris, Walter H., Models of Dia- 
monds, 14. 

Harris, W., Specimens of Natural 
History 15. 

Harvey, Robert, Gift of Portrait of 
Henry Rogers,the Helston Pewterer 
14 ; Minerals from Bolivia, 42, 43. 

Harvey, Charles, Obit. Notice, 40. 

Henderson, Capt., the Rapid Traver- 
ser, 239. 

Kenwood, Gold Medal, 16, 18. 

Herodotus, 33. 

Hector, Sir James, F.R.S., 15. 

Hill, G. W., 25. 

Honorary Members, List of, 7. 

Hopkyn, William, 95. 

Hope, Cape of Good, Telescopes at, 
32 ; Image Linkebrew, 51. 

lago. Rev. W., B.A., Archaeological 
Discoveries, 16, 18, 35, 38 ; Ancient 
Hammer, 51 ; his long membership, 
239 ; Gold Medalist, 18. Inscr. iv. 

Ligenuus, Inscribed Stone, p. iv. 

Inscribed Stone, Lewannick, 285, iv. 

Jago, James, M.D., F.R.S.,Obit. Notice 
407. 

James, Jno. H., 43. 

Jeffery, H. M., M.A., F.R.S., Vice- 
President, 18; Obituary Notice of, 
39, 208 ; Gift of Books, 236. 

Jupiter, 25, 27. 

Kensington, South, Royal College of 
Science, 19. 

Kew Observatory, 237. 

King Henry VIII, 239. 

Label List of British Lepidoptera, 
Henry Crowther, Appendix. 

Lai oratory. Chemical, 238. 

Lacey, Bishop of Exeter, 94. 

Lamorran Church, Plate of, 1579, 239, 

Langdon, A. G., Ornaments on Cor- 
nish Crosses, 16 ; Cornish Crosses, 
214 ; Ogham Stone at Lewannick, 
285. iv. 

Launceston Priory, Excavations, 91, 
249. 

Legends in Concrete form, 85. 

Lewannick, Inscribed Stone p. iv, 285 

Library, Gifts to, 47. 
' Licinius, Emperor, 35. 



INDEX. 



Vll 



Life Members, List of, 2. 

Little Petherick,otherwise St. Petrock 
Minor, The Rev. the Right Hon. 
Samuel Viscount Molesworth, M.A., 
108. 

Lockyer, Prof., 29. 

London, Bishop of, Temple Observa- 
tory, 20. 

Lyme Regis, 20. 

Maclean, Sir John, F.S.A., 38, 219, 
President's Address, Sprinj^ Meet- 
ing, 1892, 220, 235 ; Historical 
Notes on the Parish, Manor, and 
Advowson of Otterham, Cornwall, 
251 ; died March 5th, 1895. 

Mars, 27. 

Members, List of, 3. 

Mesy, Roger de, 293. 

Meteorological Tables, 1891, 53 ; 
1892, 245. 

Meteors, 29. 

Michel^on, M., Transits of Venus, 26. 

Mitchell, F. W., 219. 

Molesworth, the Rev., the Right Hon. 
Samuel Viscount, M.A., 34 5 Little 
Petherick, otherwise St. Petrock, 
Minor, 108. 

Moor, Canon A. P., 36, 235. 

Moor, Mrs. A. P., Eocene Fossils from 
New Zealand, 42. 

Mount Edgcumbe, Earl of, 36 ; Im- 
provements in Museum, 237. 

Museum, Admissions to, 41, 236. 

Museum,Presents to,45; Mummies,2l7. 

Nalder, F., 236. 

Neptune, Discovery of, 23, 24. 

Newcomb, Prof., 25. 

Newcombe, William, Curator and 
Librarian, 14. 

New Zealand, 15. 

Newton, Sir Isaac, Laws of Gravita- 
tion, 24. 

Negretti and Zambra, Instruments 
from, 237. 

" Nine Maidens," The Wendron, J. 
Wills, 216. 

Nix, A. P., Collection of Eggs, 43. 

Norway, in 1851, 26. 

Norway, Arthur Hamilton, Private 
Trade on the Falmouth Packets, 9, 
73. 

Notes and Queries, 214. 

Nottingham, Bishop of, 35, 97. 



Obituary Notices, Sir Warrington W. 
Smyth, 1 1 ; Thomas Cornish, 12 ; 
Rev. Canon Phillpotts, 13 ; Rev. G. 
L. Church, 13 ; W. J. Rawlings, 13 ; 
Col. Fortescue, 13 ; Right Hon. Sir 
Montague E. Smith, 11, 13 ; N. 
Whitley, 39, 206 ; H. M. Jeffery, 
39, 208 ; W. Sincock, 39 ; George 
Williams, 39 ; Chas Harvey, 39 5 
Dr. Jago, 407 ; T. Crago and Bp. 
Medley, 235. 

Observatory, Washington, 25. 

Officers, List of, 1, 44, 238. 

Ogham Stone at Levvannick, An, 
Arthur G. Langdon, 285 iv. 

On the Origin and Development of 
Ore Deposits in the West of England, 
J. H. Collins, F.G.S., HI, 327, ii. 

Osborne, James, Mineralogical Speci- 
mens from Spain and Portugal, 15 ; 
Minerals from Rio Tinto Mines, 42. 

Otterham, Notes on the Parish of. Sir 
John Maclean, F.S.A., 251 ; Ancient 
Roads and Tracks, 253 ; Table 
showing the Devolution of the 
Manor and Advowson, 255. 

Paper and Sketch Map of Cornwall, 
shewing Locality of Rocks posse.'-sing 
power to deflect the Magnetic 
Needle, Thomas Ciark, 280 

Parkyn, Major, 34, 39 ; Minerals from 
the Hartz and Italy, 42 ; Report of 
Council, 235. 

Pascoe, Saml., Specimens of Minerals, 
15. 

Pearce, Richard, Tin and Copper-ore 
from Spain, 42, 43 ; British Butter- 
flies and Birds' Eggs, 14. 

Pedestal found at Carminow, 84 

Pelagic Life, Falmouth, Rupert 
Vallentin, 304. and p. iv. 

Pendennis, Square Pit near, 71. 

Penzance, Freedom of, 12. 

Penzance Natural History Society, 13. 

Peter, Thurstan C., Thesaurus 
Ecclesiastus, 15. 

Peter, Otho B., Excavations on the 
Site of Launceston Priory, 91 ; 
Note on further Excavations on 
Launceston Priory, 249. 

Phillpotts, Rev. Canon, Vice-President, 
13. 

Pinwill, Capt., Specimens of Minerals, 
15. 



Vlll 



INDEX. 



Plan of Ancient Settlement, Tre- 

wortha (Illustration) 56. ; Plan of 

Principal House, Trewortha, 60 ; 

Plan of Huts, Trewortha, 64. 

Planets, Minor, 29. 

Pombre, Henry, son of Henry de la, 

295. 
Portraits of Presidents, &c., 15. 
Portugal, 15. 

Presents to the Museum, 45, 239. 
President's Address (Edwin Dunkin, 

F.R.S.) Spring Meeting, 1891, 10. 
President's Address (Sir John Maclean, 

F.S.A.) Spring Meeting, 1892, 220. 
Prehistoric Remains, 84, 253. 
Prideaux Castle, 34. 
Private Trade on the Falmouth 
Packets, Arthur Hamilton Norway, 

73. 
Prideaux, Nicholas, 35. 
Prideaux-Brune, Mr., and the Honble. 

Mrs., 35. 
Proprietors, List of, 2. 
Eawlings, W. J., Obituary of, 13. 
Roberti, Willi. Alius, 296. 
Rogers, Stephen, F.G.S., Diamond 

Prospecting Core Drill, 239, 378. 
Rogers, Ralph Baron, Shells presented 

bv, 43, 236. 
Rogers, Rev. C. F., Roads and Road- 
making, 239. 
Rousdon Observatory, 20. 
Royal Society, 12, 18. 
Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, 

12. 
Royal Institution of Cornwall, 1,14,219 
Rugby School, Observatory at, 20. 
Rundle, Rev. S , Cornubiana, 84. 
Rundle, Edmund, Electric Fishes, 9 ; 

Indian Butterflies, 15. 
Salisbury, Marquis, Chemical Society, 

21. 
Saturn, 25, 27. 
Sharp, Mrs., Shells presented by, 43, 

236. 
Sketch Section of Pit near Penden- 

nis, Howard Fox and Nicholas 

Whitley, 71. 
Sincock, William, Mediaeval Cornish 

History, 17 ; Obituary Notice, 39, 

219 ; Cornish Landowners, 291. 
Smith, Sir Montague E., 13; Obituary 

Notice, 39. 



Smyth, Sir Warrington W., F.R.S., 

Vice-President, 11, 19. 
Spain, 15. 
Spring Meetings, May 28th, 1891, 9 ; 

May 31st, 1892,219. 
St. Thomas A. Beckett, 89. 
St. Petroc's Church, Padstow, Bishop 

Trollope, 36, 97. 
St. Rumen's Cross, 215. 
St. Michael Penkevil, 225. 
St. Breock Church, 34. 
St. Petrock Minor Church, 34. 
Subscribers to Illustration Fund, List 

of, 6. 
Sun, Total Eclipse of, 26. 
Sudeley, John de, 292. 
Sudeley, Ralph de, 292. 
Table showing the Devolution of the 
Manor and Advowson of Otterham, 
255. 
Tahiti, Venus Point, 25. 
Tehidy, Entertainment at, 237- 
Thomas, Capt. Josiah, Entertained by, 

237. 
Thomas, W.R., specimens of Uranium, 

42. 
Tomlinson, Rev. A. R., Silver Paten 

exhibited by, 239. 
Tracey, Thomas de, 292. 
Tregellas, W. H., Truro Grammar 

School, 17. 
Trematon Castle, Shells from, 43, 236. 
Tresillan, Ancient Lake at, 57- 
Trevail, Silvanus, Presentation by, 51. 
Trewortha, 57. 

Trollope, Bp. of Nottingham, 35, 97. 
Truro (Grammar School, 17; Church,41 
Tucker, Admiral, Shells from Collec- 
tion of, 43. 
Tweedy, Robert, 9. 
United States Government, 15. 
Uranus, Tables of, 23, 
Vallentin, Rupert, Pelagic Life, Fal- 
mouth, 304. 
Valletorta, Philippus de, 301. 
Venus, Transit of, 25. 
Verrier, M. Le, 23. 
Vivian, Pendarves, Society entertained 

by, 36. 
Waryn, Robert, 94. 
Warlewast, William, Bishop of 

Exeter, 91. 
Washington Observatory, 28. 



Index. 



IX 



Wendron, " Mne Maidens," The, 
J.Wills, 216. 

Whitley, Nicholas, Sketch Section of 
a Square Pit near the Beach on the 
N.E. side of Pendennis Head, Fal- 
mouth, 9, 71 ; Obituary Notice of, 
11,39,206. 

Whitley, H. Michell, Truro Grammar 
School, 17. 



Williams, George, 13 ; Obituary 

Notice of, 39, 40. 
Wills, J., The Wendron " Nine 

Maidens," 216. 
Winn, Dr., 42. 
Wise, Willielmus, 299. 
Woodward's Mollusca, 236. 
Year's Weather, A., Henry Crowther, 

185,381. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plan of Ancient Settlement at Trewortha 

Plan of Principal House at Trewortha 

Plan of Hut E., with elevation of different walls, and section 
Seats, &c., at Trewortha Settlement ... 

Sketch Section of Excavations at Penrlennis 

Prehistoric Remains found at Godolphin, Cornwall 

Plan of Foundations of the Ancient Priory at Launceston 

Sections of Strata ... 

Otterham Church ... 

Ground Plan and Elevation of Otterham Church 

Sketch Map of Cornwall, shewing Magnetic Rocks 

Ogam Stone, Lewannick* ... 

Plan of Huts, &c., at Ancient Settlement of Trewortha 

Samples of Ornament on the Pottery found at Trewortha 



of 



Lockers, 



67 
63 

65 

72 
84 
91 
112 
129 
274 
275 
280 
286 
290 
290 



* Concerning this Inscription, see also p. iv. 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



^opl j nstttittion 0| |^0i[itujall 




VOLUME XI. 



lavt ^ — A^rz/, i8g2. 



TRURO: 
PRINTED BY LAKE AND LAKE, PRINCES STREET. 



rrr-r-^'r*^' 



iJTontrnts. 



by the Eev. 



8. 



List of Officers, Proprietors, Life & Subscribing Members 

Spring Meeting (1891) 

President's Address . , 

Annual Excursion (1891) 

Annual Meeting (1891) 

Balance Sheet . . 

Meteorological Tables 

Ancient Settlement on Trewortha Marsh, 
Baring Gould, M.A. . . 

Sketch Sections of a Pit excavated on the N.E. side of 
Pendennis, Palmouth, by H. Fox, P.G.S., and N. 
Whitley, F.E.Met.S 

Private Trade on the Falmouth Packets, by A. H. Norway 

Cornubiana, by the Rev. S. Eundle, M.A. . . 

Excavations on the site of Launceston Priory, by Otho B. 
Peter 

St. Petroc's Church, Padstow, — Address by the Eight Eev. 
Edward Trollope, D.D., F.S. A 

Colour Changes in Cornish Stoats, by Henry Crowther, 
F.E.M.S 

Little Pethericb otherwise St. Petroc Minor, by the Eev. 
the Eight Hon. Samuel Viscount Molesworth, M.A. 

Origin and Development of Ore Deposits in the West of 
England, by J. H. Collins, F.O.S 

A Year's Weather, a series of monthly letters to the News- 
papers, by Henry Crowther, F.E.M.S., Curator of 
the Institution . . .;. 

Obituary Notices . . . . . , . . . . 

Notes and Queries 



1 
9 
10 
34 
38 
52 
53 

57 

71 
73 
84 

91 

97 

103 

108 

111 

185 
206 
214 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



jjffgal ; nstitttlion 4 1 optuall, 




VOLUME XI. 



^Part ]p —April, isp 




TRURO: 
PRINTED BY LAKE AND LAKE, PRINCES STREET, 



The Council of the Royal Institution of Cornwall desire 
that it should he distinctly understood that the Institution as a 
body is not res])onsihle for any statements or opinions expressed in 
the Journal ; the Authors of the several communications being alone 
answerable Jor the same. 



I 



opl Jnstitutiatt of Qjanmall 



FOUNDED 1818. 



Ipatron. 
The Queen. 

W(ce=lpatron. 
H.E.H. THE Prince of Wales, Duke op Cornwall, &c., &c. 

trustees. 

Lord Eobartes. 

Sir C. B. Graves-Sawle, Bart. 

Mr. F. G. Ents. 

Col. Trematne. 

©OUNeiL FOR THE YEAR 1891-92. 

presi&ent. 
Sir John Maclean, F.S.A. 

1I'ice=lpresi^cnt8. 
Dr. Jago, F.R.S. | Ven. Archdeacon Cornish, M.A. 

Rev.CanonMoor,'M.A., M.E.A.S. | Rev. W. Iago, B.A. 
Mr. Edwin Dunkin, F.B.S., F.R.A.S. 

treasurer. 
Mr. a. p. nix, Truro. 

Secretaries. 
Mr. H. Michell Whitley, F.G.S., Trevella, Eastbourne. 
Major Parktn, F.G.S., Truro. 



©tber /TOembers of Council. 



Mr. John D. Ents, F.G.S. 
Mr. Howard Fox, F.G.S. 
Mr. Hamilton James. 
Eev. a. H. Malan, M.A. 



Mr. E. M. Paul, M.A., 

Mr. Thurstan C. Peter. 

Mr. Edmund Bundle, F.E.C.S.I. 

Eev. a. E. Tomlinson, M.A. 



Mr. F. W. Michell, C.E. [ Mr. Eobert Tweedy. 

CorresponSfng Sccretari? for Eaat dornwall. 
Eev. W. Iago, B.A., Westheath, Bodmin. 

Ebitor of tbe Sournal. 
Mr. H. Michell Whitley, F.G.S. 

Xibrarian an& (Curator of Museum. 
Mr. Hbnrt Crowther, F.E.M.S., Boyal Institution, Truro, 



MEMBERS. 



l^to^tutoxz. 



Lord Churston, 

Lord Kobartes. 

Sir T. D. Acland, Bart., M.P. 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., F.R.S, 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. 

Sir C. B. Graves Sawle, Bart. 

Sir R. R.Vyvyan, Bart., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir WiUiam Williams, Bart. 
Sir S. T. Spry. 
Baynard, William. 
Boase, G. C. 
Buller, J, H. 
Carlyon, E. T. 
Carpenter, John, 
Chilcott, J. G. 
Clyma, W. J. 
Edwards, Miss. 
Enys, J. S., F.G.S. 
Fox, Charles. 
Fox, R. W., F.R.S. 
Gregor, F. G. 
Hartley, W. H. H. 
Hawkins, J. H., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Hawkins, C. H. T. 
Hendy, James. 
Hogg, John, M.D. 
Hogg, Mrs, 
lago. Rev, W., B.A. 
Jenkins, Rev. D. 
Leverton, Mrs, 
Leverton-Spry, E, J. 



Michell, Edward. 

Michell, W, 

Michell, Col. 

Milford, J. J. 

Nankivell, J. J. 

Nankivell, J. T. 

Paddon, W. H. 

Parkyn, Major, F.G.S. 

Potts, Miss. 

Rogers, Francis. 

Rogers, Rev. H. St. Aubyn, 

Rogers, Rev. R. Bassett, B.A. 

Rogers, Capt. R.A. 

Rogers, Rev, W,, M.A. 

Rogers, Reginald. 

Spry, Mrs. 

Stokes, H. S. 

Tweedy, Robert. 

Tweedy, E. B. 

Tweedy, W. 

Tweedy, R. M. 

Tweedy, Charles, 

Tweedy, Miss. 

Tweedy, Miss C, 

Vivian, John Ennis. 

Wightman, Lieut.- Col. George, 

Williams, R. H., M.R.C.S. 

Williams, B. 

Willyams, H. 

Willyams, A. C. 

Viscount Falmouth. 

Lord Clinton, 



'gift '^tvahtts* 



Fredericton, Right Rev, Lord 

Bishop of, D.D 

Parkyn, Major, F.G.S,, Kon. See. 
Foster, C. Le Neve, D. Sc, F.G.S, 
Fox, Robert 



New Brunswick, Canada. 

Truro. 

Llandudno. 

Falmouth. 



Collins, J. R Bodmin. 



MEMBERS. a 

His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales . . £20. 

SUBSCRIBERS OF TWO GUINEAS. 

Falmouth, Col. The Right Hon. Tregothnan, Truro. 

Viscount 

Robartes, The Right Hon. Lord Lanhydrock, Bodmin. 

Tremayne, John Heligan, St. Austell. 

Williams, John Charles . . . . Caerhays Castle, St. Austell. 

SUBSCRIBERS OF ONE GUINEA. 

Truro, the Lord Bishop of . . . . Lis Escop, Truro. 

Adams, Josiah O., B.A Cornwall Asylum, Bodmin. 

Acland, C. D., M.P Sprydoncote, Exeter. 

Barratt, Francis Prideaux, Par Station. 

Barrett, Henry Robartes Terrace, Truro. 

Barrett, John 30, Lemon Street, Truro. 

Barrett, William Chapel House, Truro. 

Basset, Arthur F Tehidy, Camborne. 

Bawden, J. H. i. Upper Lemon Villas, Truro. 

Beauchamp, E. Beauchamp . . Trevince, Scorrier. 

Boase, G. C s^) James Street, Buckingham 

Gate, S.W. 

Bolitho, Col. Poltair, Penzance. 

Bolitho, W., Jun Ponsandane, Penzance. 

Bonython, J. Langdon . . . , Adelaide, South Australia. 

Bourke, Rev. Sub-Dean, M.A. . . The Rectory, Truro. 

Bryant, James 6, Parkvedras Terrace, Truro. 

Buck, Henry Truro. 

Carlyon, F. H., M.D Lemon Street, Truro. 

Carter, Rev. Canon, M.A The Avenue, Truro. 

Carter, R. H Hill Road, Abbey Road, St. 

John's Wood, London,N.W. 

Chivell, Wm Kimberley Villa, Truro 

Clyma, W. J 10, St. Nicholas Street, Truro. 

Collins, Digby Newton Ferrers, Callington. 

Coode, Edward Polapit-Tamar, L-aunceston. 

Cornwall, Ven. Archdeacon of^ The Vicarage, Kenwyn. 

J. R. Cornish, M.A. 

Cornwall, Chancellor of Southleigh, Truro. 

Diocese of, R. M. Paul, M.A. 

Cozens, F. A 19, King Street, Truro. 



4 MEMBERS. 

Daubuz, J. Claude Killiow, Truro. 

Dorrien- Smith, T. A Tresco Abbey, Isles of Scilly. 

Dorrington, T. L Colchester Villas, Truro. 

Dunkin, Edwin, F.R.S Kenwyn, KidbrookePark Road, 

Blackheath, S.E. 

Enys, F. G Enys, Penryn. 

Enys, John D., F.G.S Enys, Penryn. 

Fenwick, Rev. W. A., M.A. . . The Vicarage, Bodmin. 

Fisher, Herbert W. . ■ . . . . Tower Hill House, Gomshall, 

Guildford. 

Flint, Rev. S. R., M.A Nansawsan, Ladock. 

Fortescue, J. B Boconnoc, Lostwithiel. 

Foster, Lewis C The Coombe, Liskeard. 

Foster, R., M.A Lanwithan, Lostwithiel. 

Fox, Howard, F.G.S Falmouth. 

Freeman, W. G Penryn. 

Furniss, Mrs. J. C Lemon House, Truro. 

Gilbert, C. Davies Trelissick, Truro. 

Gill, W. N . . . . Comprigney, Truro. 

Graves-Sawle, Sir C. B. Bart. , . Penrice, St. Austell. 

Gregory, Charles Chiswell House, Finsbury 

Pavement, London, E.G. 

Griffin, R. Palk, M.R.O.S. . . Padstow. 

Grylls, W. M Falmouth. 

Gould, Rev. S. Baring, M.A. . . Lew Trenchard, N. Devon. 

Hancock, James Carclew Street, Truro. 

Harris, Walter H 12, Kensington Gore, London. 

Harvey, Rev. Canon, M.A. . . The Sanctuary, Probus. 

Harvey, Robert i. Palace Gate, London, W. 

Harvey, J. Boyd Iquique, Chile. 

Hawken, Theodore 4, Paul's Terrace, Truro. 

Heard, E. G Boscawen Street, Truro. 

Helm, G. H., M.D Marazion. 

Hodgkin, Thos Banwell Dene, Newcastle-on- 

Tyne. 

Hodgkin, Rev. G. Hanslip, M.A. Week St. Mary, Stratton. 

Hutt, Rev. R. G Helland, Bodmin. 

lago. Rev. W., B.A Westheath, Bodmin. 

Jago, James, M.D., F.R.S . . Robartes Terrace, Truro. 

James, Hamilton Lemon Street, Truro. 

James, John Colchester Villas, Truro. 

Johnstone, Capt., R.N., Governor Bodmin, 
of H.M. Naval Prison 

King, F., M.R.C.S 75, Lemon Street, Truro. 

King, T., M.A Falmouth. 



MEMBERS. 5 

Lach-Szyrma, Rev. W. S., M.A. Barking Side Vicarage, Ilford. 

Lake, T. H. Moresk, Truro. 

Laverton, Arthur Bella Vista, Truro. 

Leverton-Spry, E. J. . . . . St. Keverne, Helston. 

Malan, Rev. A. H., M.A Altarnon Sanctuary, Launceston 

Marshall, F 6, Strangway's Terrace, Truro. 

Martyn, Henry J Seaward Villa, Newquay. 

Michell, F. W., C.E Redruth. 

Moor, Rev. Canon, M.A., The Vicarage, St. Clements. 

M.R.A.S., F.R.G.S. 

Moore, Rev. Canon, M.A. . . Treneglos, Kenwyn. 

Mount Edgcumbe, The Right Mount Edgcumbe, Devonport. 

Hon. the Earl of 

Nalder, F. Falmouth. 

Nix, Arthur P Mount Charles, Truro. 

Norway, A. Hamilton . . . . i6, Somerset Road, Ealing, 

London. 

Osborne, J., C.E., F.G.S ^, Clifton Villas, Truro. 

Pascoe, Samuel Pentreve, Truro. 

Rashleigh, Jonathan Menabilly, Par Station. 

Paull, Mrs. J. R. . . - . . • Bosvigc, Truro. 

Pearce, R., F.G.S., H.B.M.Vice- Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. 

Consul 

Pearce, Gilbert B Marazion. 

Pease, Wm . . Lostwithiel. 

Pendarves, W. Cole Pendarves, Camborne. 

Peter, Thurstan C Redruth. 

Pinwill, Capt Trehane, Probus. 

Pole-Carew, Col. Antony House, Devonport. 

Pooley, W. Mason, M.D Falmouth. 

Prideaux-Brune, C. G Prideaux Place, Padstow. 

Rodd, Francis R Trebartha Hall, Launceston. 

Roe, Rev. R. J., M.A Lanteglos, Camelford. 

Rogers, Capt., R.A Penrose, Helston. 

Rogers, Joseph Glenserth, Strangway's Terrace, 

Truro. 

Rogers, Ralph Baron Penalverne, Falmouth. 

Rogers, Rev. C. F. , St. Sithney, Helston. 

Rogers, Stephen, F.G.S 14, Ferristown, Truro. 

Rundle, Edmund, F.R.C.S.L . . Royal Cornwall Infirmary, 

Truro. 

Rundle, Rev. S., M.A Godolphin Vicarage, Helston. 

Salmon, A.G., M.D Bodmin. 

Smith, Col. George J. . . . . Treliske, Truro. 

St. Levan, The Rt. Hon. Lord . . St. Michael's Mount, Marazion. 

St. Germans, The Right Hon. Port Eliot, St. Germans. 

the Earl of 



MEMBERS. 



Sharp, Edward, M.R.C.S i8. Lemon Street, Truro. 

Smith, Lady Protheroe . . . • Tremorvah, Truro. 

Smith, W. Bickford, M.P Trevarno, Helston. 

Smith, T. J... Hillside Villa, Truro. 

Stephens, Rev. T. S., M.A. . . The Rectory, St. Erme. 

Swift, W 23 » Lemon Street, Truro. 

Tangye, George Birmingham. 

Tangye, Richard Glendorgal. Newquay. 

Thomas, John Campfield Villa, Truro. 

Thomas, John 25, Kensington Palace Man- 
sions, London, W. 

Thomas, W. R Uranium Mines, Grampound 

Road. 

Tomlinson, Rev. A. R., M.A. .. St. Michael Penkivel, Probus. 

Trelawny, Sir W. L. S., Bart. . . Trelawne, Duloe, Cornwall. 

Tremayne, Col Carclew, Perran-ar-worthal. 

Tremenheere, H. Seymour, C.B., 43, Thurloe Square, South 

M.A., F.G.S Kensington, London. 

Trevail, Silvanus, M.S. A 80, Lemon Street, Truro. 

Tripp, C. Upton, M.A The Grove, Addlestone, near 

Weybridge, Surrey. 

Tweedy, Robert Truro. 

Vinter, H.W., M.A., F.G.S. . . Truro College, Truro. 

Vivian, Sir Hussey, Bart., M.P. Singleton, Swansea. 

Vivian, Arthur Pendarves, F.G.S. Bosahan, Helston. 

Vyvyan, Rev. Sir Vyell, Bart. . . Trelowarren, Helston. 

Wade, W. Cecil Plymouth. ^ 

Whitaker, F. O Strangway's Terrace, Truro. 

Whitley, H. Michell, FG.S. .. Trevella, Eastbourne. 

Whitehouse, William Eddy . . Princes Street, Truro. 

Williams, Mrs ■ • Scorrier House, Scorrier. 

Williams, Mrs. M. H Pencalenick, Truro. 

Williams, Michael Gnaton Hall, Yealmpton. 

Williams, 8 20, Frances Street, Truro. 

Worth T • • • • Lemon Street, Truro. 

Wiinsch, E. A., F.G.S Carharrack, Scorrier. 



^nbuxxbtn to ^llmtmtxan ^witir. 



Boase, G. C London. 

Coode E Polapit-Tamar, Launceston. 

Gilbert, C. Davies Trelissick, Truro. 



MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATIES. 

Pole-Carew, Col Antony, Maker. 

Harvey, Robert i. Palace Gate, London, W. 

Jago, James, M.D., F.R.S. . . Robartes Terrace, Truro. 

Rashleigh, Jonathan Menabilly, Par Station. 

St. Levan, Lord St. Michael's Mount. 

Tremenheere, H. Seymour, C.B. 43, Thurloe Square, London. 



Babington, Charles Cardale, M. A., Cambridge. 
F.R.S. 

Collins, J. H., F.G.S 13, Basinghall Street, London, 

E.C. 

Dickenson, Joseph, F.G.S. . . Manchester. 

Maclean, Sir John, F.S.A. . , Glasbury House, Clifton. 

Rowe, J. Brooking, F.L.S. . , Castle Barbican, Plympton. 



(SjoxusgoxibixiQ ^tmbtn. 



Dunkin, E. H. W 5, Therapia Road, Honor Oak, 

S.E. 
Pattison, S. R.. F.G.S. .. 5, Lindhurst Road, Hampstead. 

London, N.W. 
Tregellas, W. H Morlah Lodge, Tregunter Road, 

B romp ton, London. 
Worth, R. N., F.G.S Plymouth. 



Cole, Thomas, C.E Victoria Street, London. 

Hare, N Liskeard. 

Lobb, Thomas Devoran. 

James, J. H Truro Vean Terrace, Truro. 

Michell, S. H Swansea. 

Pearce, R., F.G.S Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. 

Thomas, Josiah Tregenna, Camborne. 

Williams, R. H., F.G.S Cuddra, St. Austell. 

The Honorary Secretaries would be pleased if the Members woidd notify errors or alterations 

in the list. 



The MUSEUM is open to Members and their families every day 
except Sundays, between the hours of Ten and Four o'clock during the 
winter, and between Ten and Five o'clock in the summer. 

The Museum is open to the public, free of charge, on Wednesdays, 
from Eleven until Four. On other days, an admission fee of sixpence is 
required. 

A Subscription oj One Guinea entitles the Subscriber to all the 
publications issued by the Institution, to admission to the Museum, for 
himself and family on every day in the week (except Sundays), and to the 
Meetings of the Society ; and to ten transferable Tickets of admission to 
the Museum whenever open. 



I^ogal institution of (EorniDalL 



SPEING MEETING. 



The Spring Meeting was held on May 28tli, 1891, at the 
Rooms of the Institution. 

The Chair was taken by the President, Mr. E. Dunkin, 
F.P.S., who delivered an Address on Mathematical Astronomy. 
On the motion of Mr. Tweedy, seconded by Sub-Dean Bourke, 
a vote of thanks to the President, for his address, was carried 
by acclamation. 

The following papers were then read : — 

"Private Trade on the Falmouth Packets." — Mr. A. H. 
Norway. 

"Electric Fishes."— Mr. E. Eundle, F.E.C.S.I. 

"Thirteen Cornish Landowners. Temp. Henry III." — Mr. 
W. Sincock. 

" Origin and Development of Ore deposits." — Mr. J. H. 

Collins, F.d.S. 

"Note on a Sand-pit on the north east side of Pendennis 
Head,"— by the late Mr. N. Whitley, F.E.Met.S. This paper 
was supplemented by a few remarks from Mr. Howard Fox, 
F.G.S., who said it was the result of probably the last of the 
late Mr. Whitley's geological excursions. 

On the motion of Canon Moore, seconded by Mr. MicheU, a 
hearty vote of thanks was passed to the Authors of papers, and 
to the Donors to the Museum and Library. 



10 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT. 

EDWIN DUNKIN, F.R.S., 

Past- President of the Royal Astronomical Society. 



On the last occasion wlien I had the pleasure of addressing 
you, I selected for our consideration a few of the more important 
researches in the physics of astronomy, a subject which has 
been cultivated with remarkable success during the last thirty 
years or more. At the same time I was able to draw your 
attention to some of the marvellous deductions derived from the 
spectroscopic analysis of solar and stellar light. I also pointed 
out that for this great work we are chiefly indebted to the 
energy and perseverance of a few devoted men of science, 
whose original and refined investigations in astronomical physics 
have assisted to build up the well-considered theories, on which 
all our present knowledge of the physical composition and 
distribution of the heavenly bodies is based. We also consid- 
ered some of the wonderful astronomical discoveries made from 
the photographic delineation of the starry heavens by means of 
the telescopic camera, and I was able to give you some slight 
idea of the illimitable exte'nt of the universe. Although there 
is no more interesting section of astronomical research than that 
represented by what is frequently referred to as the " new 
astronomy;" it is not my intention to continue the subjects of 
spectrum analysis and stellar photography, as, on the present 
occasion, I am anxious to ofler a few remarks on some of the 
principal advances made in the " old astronomy," especially in 
relation to the physical features and movements of the different 
members of the solar system. Before, however, entering on 
the consideration of these important subjects, it is only proper 
that I should refer briefly to some matters illustrating the 
progress of the Institution during the past year, for some of the 
details of which I am again indebted to the kindness of my 
friend, our excellent Honorary Secretary. 

At our Spring Meetings the first duty of the President is 
usually a melancholy one, as his thoughts are naturally directed 
to the memory of those who until recently were included among 



peesident's address. 11 

our members, but now surviving only in their works. I regret 
to notice that the names of several members of long standing 
have disappeared, by death, from the roll of the Institution, 
most of whom have been much interested in its proceediags, and 
in scientific pursuits generally. Many of these losses by death 
during the past year have been already recorded by the Council 
in their last Annual Report. It is appropriate, however, to 
repeat their names here, and to add a few personal remarks to 
what has been there given. 

By the death of Mr. Nicholas Whitley, O.E., a Member of 
of the Council, and a former Honorary Secretary and Vice- 
President, the Institution has lost one of its oldest supporters, 
who always took a deep and intelligent interest in its affairs. 
He was officially connected with the management of the Insti- 
tution for the long period of thirty-two years, and from 1859 to 
1879 discharged the duties of Honorary Secretary with great 
efficiency. Though much occupied with the details of his 
profession, Mr. Whitley found time to prepare many interesting 
and valuable papers on geological, archaeological, meteorological, 
and agricultural subjects, the first being a contribution in 1840 
to the Reports of this Institution. The titles of about fifty 
papers are given in the ''Bibliotheca Cornubiensis." Latterly, 
he turned his attention to the critical study of the probable 
origin of the flint implements discovered in the Brixham Cavern 
and other places, in relation to their evidence of the antiquity 
of man. He was also much interested in the enquiry on the 
influence of climate on agriculture, as shown by the sensible 
remarks contained in his papers published in the Journal of the 
Eoyal Agricultural and other Societies. By the death of Mr. 
Whitley, local science generally has been deprived of a most 
devoted supporter. Though he had arrived at a good old age, 
he was a regular attendant at the meetings of this Institution 
at which his well-known face will be sadly missed during many 
years to come. Mr. Whitley was a Fellow of the Eoyal 
Meteorological Society. 

Q-eological and mineralogieal science has lost one of its 
highest authorities by the death of Sir Warington W. Smyth, 
F.E.S., a Vice-President of the Institution, who suddenly and 
peacefully passed away in his study on June 19, 1890, in the 



l2 peesident's addeess. 

full plenitude of his powers. In early life, through the 
influence of Sir Henry De la Beche, he was attached to the 
Geological Survey as Mining Geologist, and in this capacity was 
the author of some valuable memoirs, especially on certain 
mining districts in Wales and Ireland. In 1851, when the 
School of Mines was established in Jermyn Street, he was 
appointed lecturer on mining and mineralogy ; and the Professor- 
ship of mining in the Eoyal College of Science, South Kensington, 
he retained to the day of his death. Sir Warington Smyth held 
for a long period the important office of Inspector of the mineral 
property of the Duchy of Cornwall, and also that of Chief 
Mineral Inspector to the Crown, through which he became 
intimately connected with the mining interest in Cornwall. 
During a portion of each year, he usually resided at Marazion, 
where he was much respected, both in that town and at Penzance ; 
so much so that he was one of the four gentlemen selected by 
the Town Council of Penzance as the first to have their names 
inscribed on the roll of Preemen of that borough. He was for 
more than thirty years a member of the council of the Geological 
Society of London, having filled successively the offices of 
Secretary, President, and Foreign Secretary. He also had a 
seat on the council of the Koyal Society on several occasions, 
and was President of the Eoyal Geological Society of Cornwall. 
He had an intimate acquaintance with the geology and miner- 
alogy of the western counties, in which he took much interest, 
as shown in his papers on Cornish mining. He also rendered 
valuable services to the mining community in connection with 
various International Exhibitions, especially those of 1851 and 
1862 ; but his most important labours extraneous to his ordinary 
official work, were performed between 1879 and 1886 as Chairman 
of the Royal Commission on Accidents in Mines, and it is 
generally understood that he was the principal author of the 
report. By the death of this distinguished mineralogist, the 
nation has been deprived of one of its most active workers in 
science, and it will be difficult to replace him in the particular 
branches which he had made especially his own. 

Local science has sustained a severe loss by the death of 
Mr. Thomas Cornish, of Penzance, a gentleman of considerable 
attainments in natural history, and a contributor to our Journq,!. 



peesident's addbess. 1 3 

"He was a most active public officer, and at the time of his death, 
held numerous appointments in Penzance and neighbourhood- 
He was formerly President of the Penzance Natural History 
and Antiquarian Society, and afterwards a Vice-President, and 
his genial presence at the meetings always ajfforded pleasure to 
the members. His death has been much regretted, and by it a 
great loss has fallen upon the societies of West Cornwall. 

Of the many other members of the Institution who have 
passed away during the past year, it is only proper that I should 
refer briefly to the great loss the Institution has sustained by 
the deaths of so many old and long tried members, such as the 
Eev. Canon Philpotts, of Porthgwidden, a former Yice-President, 
who will be remembered for the active interest he took in the 
building of Truro Cathedral, and also for his personal interest 
in the welfare and prosperity of our Institution ; the Eev. G. L. 
Church, a frequent attendant at our meetings and excursions ; 
Mr. W. J. Eawlings, of Hayle, who assisted the Institution in 
many ways, particularly at the time when the Mining School 
was carried on at Truro ; and Col. C. D. Portescue, of Boconnoc, 
late of the Coldstream G-uards, who after the hardships and 
fatigues endured during the late Egyptian campaign, retired 
from the service, and passed the greater part of his time on his 
Cornish estate, where he was much esteemed as a good landlord 
and a kind friend. The family of Boconnoc have been liberal 
benefactors to the Institution for more than half a century. 

Another loss to the Institution has been caused by the 
recent death of the Eight Hon. Sir Montague E. Smith, who 
joined us as a subscribing member so long ago as 1849, on his 
first visit to Truro as a candidate for parliamentary honours. 
Sir Montague was the brother of our late member. Sir Philip 
Protheroe Smith, and was thus identified with the interests of 
this city to the time of his death. He represented Truro in the 
House of Commons from 1859 to 1865, which he vacated on his 
elevation to the Bench. Sir Montague was distinguished as a 
Judge, first of the Court of Common Pleas, and afterwards of 
the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. I also regret the 
death of Mr. George Williams, of Scorrier, who had only 
recently joined the Institution. I have been informed that had 
he been spared, it was expected that he would have taken a 



14 pbesident's address. 

considerable personal interest in its work. The recent death, of 
Mr. Edward Trewbody Carlyon has removed a prominent member 
of a family so well-known in Cornwall, which has been associated 
with the Eoyal Institution from its foundation in 1818. 

In addition to the above, the late curator, Mr. William 
Newcombe, has also passed away at the ripe age of eighty-five. 
He faithfully carried out the wishes of the Council during the 
long period of thirty-five years, as the curator in personal charge 
of the Library and Museum. I have had, on several occasions, 
personal proofs of his kindness and civility, and I am sure that, 
on his retirement in 1888, he had earned the highest esteem and 
sympathies of those with whom he had so long been connected. 
Adopting the expression of the Council in their Annual Eeport, 
I may confidently repeat that "to trace the incidents which 
have occurred during his term of office, would be to give an 
epitome of the progress of the Institution, he and it having 
had, as it were, one existence for the third part of a century." 

It is very gratifying to be able again this year to speak of 
the continued progress of the Eoyal Institution. The public 
has shown no decrease of interest in the Museum, and the many 
valued additions, both to it and the library made since I last 
addressed you, show that our friends in almost every part of the 
world are still ready to help us. Our member, Mr. Robert 
Harvey, has again liberally assisted in carrying out the objects 
of the Institution. Besides a donation of ten guineas, he has 
presented a rare portrait of the celebrated Henry Rogers, the 
Helston Pewterer. Mr. Richard Pearce, of Denver, U.S., has 
presented a further donation of five guineas, and also a collection 
of British butterflies and bird's eggs, a most valuable addition 
which will materially assist in completing the collections of 
objects of this kind already in the Museum. Mr. Walter H. 
Harris, late Sheriff of London, is the donor of a beautiful set 
of models of diamonds, gems, and crystallographic forms of 
minerals, which have been placed in the handsome case presented 
by him in the spring of last year. 

The Museum has also been enriched by a considerable 
number of valuable contributions from various other friends of 
the Institution. I have only time to refer to a few of these 



president's address. 15 

presents, but they will be described in full detail in tbe next 
Annual Report of the Council. Mr. John D. Enys has, through 
his influence with Sir James Hector, F.E.S., the Director of the 
Colonial Museum, New Zealand, procured for us a most 
valuable collection of books dealing with the natural history and 
geology of that interesting colony. Mr. James Osborne has 
sent us a series of mineralogical specimens, illustrating the 
occurrence of ores in the mines of Spain and Portugal, Mr. J. 
H. Collins has contributed a small collection of minerals from 
the mines of Mexico. Mr. E. Eundle, a member of Council, has 
generously given two cases of Indian butterflies. Interesting 
specimens of minerals have been presented by Captain Pinwill, 
Mr. S. Pascoe, Mr. A. H. Carlyon, Captain Bryant, and Mr. 
Howard Pox, a member of Council; while specimens in other 
sections of natural history have been contributed by the Pev. 
W. A. Hamilton, Mr. A. J. Edwards, Mr. W. Harris, Mr. Brown, 
Mr. T. Clark, and others. Mr. Thurstan C. Peter has presented 
to the library a copy of " Thesaurus Ecclesiasticus," or a survey 
of the diocese of Exeter, which is now a rare book. The 
United States G-overnment has also been very liberal in its gifts 
of those valued contributions which are submitted to it by the 
superintending o£B.cers of its Geological and Geographical 
Surveys. 

The members will be pleased to know that the series of 
portraits of gentlemen who have filled the office of President of 
the Eoyal Institution of Cornwall, some of which have been 
wanting, will shortly be completed. In addition to these, several 
portraits of members who are taking an active interest in the 
progress of the Institution, have also been presented. 

The Curator, Mr. Henry Crowther, has continued the good 
work referred to in my address this time last year, evidences of 
which may be found in all parts of the Museum ; the re-arrange- 
ment of the minerals is still occupying his attention, and it is 
hoped that, during the present summer, the Cornish section will 
be completed. Much of the Curator's attention will be directed to 
the classification of the Indian and British butterflies which the 
Institution has recently acquired. This classified arrangement 
will be another step towards bringing the zoological collections 
together. 



16 president's address. 

During the winter, classes have been established by Mr. 
Crowther, which have been carried on most successfully in the 
rooms of the Institution, with the approval of the Council. The 
subjects taken were botany, geology, mineralogy, and hygiene. 
The Council would be willing to give their countenance to a 
further development in this direction. 

Parts 36 and 37, forming Vol. X, of the Journal, have both 
been issued since the last spring meeting. I must congratulate 
the members on the publication of this important volume. The 
subject matter contained in it may favourably be compared with 
that in former volumes, or in the " Proceedings " of most of the 
London Societies. This general excellence of the papers may 
be partly due to the effect of the late award of the Henwood 
Gold Medal, and partly to a growing interest in science, and in 
the progress of the Institution. Perhaps without the prospect 
of an early award, we might not have had some of those 
important memoirs which have assisted in giving a high character 
to the volume ; but there are many other contributions, not 
included in the terms of the award, which are also of great local 
interest. Without entering into any detailed analysis of the 
separate papers— for I have no doubt you have already done 
this for yourselves — I cannot refrain from making a special 
reference to the memoirs of Mr. A. G-. Langdon and the Eev. 
W. lago, and more briefly to one or two others. It gives me 
much pleasure in stating, and I do so without any hesitation, 
that, in my opinion, Mr. Langdon's memoir on "The Ornament 
on the Early Crosses of Cornwall," is a most valuable contribu- 
tion to Cornish archaeology, not only for its originality, but also 
for the careful classification of the various patterns inscribed on 
crosses distributed over the county. The subject as treated by 
Mr. Langdon possesses a charm which makes the paper exceed- 
ingly readable and attractive ; while it is clear that its preparation 
must have cost the author much original research and personal 
application. The memoir on " Some Recent Archaeological 
Discoveries in Cornwall," by the Pev. W. lago, is also one of 
high merit, showing, as we might expect, the author's acquaint- 
ance with Cornish archaeology, which probably can hardly be 
equalled at the present time. It embodies much new and 
valuable information, and exhibits originality and depth of 



president's address. 17 

research.. If we were to obliterate the name of the author from 
the title, it would not be dif3S.cult to discern that this memoir is 
the work of a matured and accomplished archaeologist — one 
who has an intimate acquaintance with the antiquities he 
describes, and the historical bearing they have on the early 
period to which they may be referred. 

Among the other papers contained in Vol X., I ought to 
draw your attention briefly to the elaborate and important 
mineralogical and geological memoirs by Mr. J. H. Collins and 
Mr. Thomas Clark; the three papers on Mediaeval Cornish History 
by Mr. W. Sincock ; and to many of the interesting notes on 
Local Topography which have been prepared with considerable 
care and attention. Mr. W. H. Tregellas's paper on " The 
Truro Grammar School," illustrated by two excellent sketches of 
the exterior and interior of the school by Mr. H. Michell 
Whitley, will interest many of our older members. 

Most of the members, I am sure, will cordially join me in 
congratulating Mr. G. C. Boase on the publication of his 
"Collectanea Oornubiensia," a comprehensive and valuable 
contribution to the personal and topographical history of the 
county. The vast number of facts included in the text have 
been accumulating in the hands of Mr. Boase during several 
years, and the primary object of their publication is the 
preservation for the use of future writers on Cornwall of all 
this information, most of which might otherwise have been lost 
and difficult to ascertain. The numerous items given on matters 
relating to the county may be conceived, when we consider that 
the index alone consists of 304 columns, with about 14,365 
entries. Some of the family pedigrees are worked out with 
considerable detail, which must have entailed an enormous 
labour on the author. These are very valuable in many ways, 
and I have already derived much interesting information concern- 
ing many of our old Cornish families. I have also consulted the 
topographical section with great advantage, in which a mass of 
local facts may be found relating to most of the parishes and 
towns in Cornwall. Though in a compilation of such magnitude, 
numerous unavoidable errors and many entries of little import- 
ance may naturally be found, yet every true Cornishman must hail 
the appearance of the "Collectanea Cornubiensia," which, taken 



18 president's address. 

in conjunction with, the "Bibliotheca Oornubiensis," may be 
considered as one of the most important contributions to the 
literature of Cornwall published in recent years. 

It gave me much pleasure that I was able to preside over 
the special meeting of the Council held on June 16, 1890, at 
which the award of the first Hen wood Gold Medal was made 
to the Eev. William lago, B.A., a Past-President of this 
Institution, for his excellent memoir on " Recent Archaeological 
Discoveries in Cornwall." I much regret, however, that I was 
unable to be present at the annual meeting in November, at 
which the formal presentation was made, but it was very 
gratifying to me that my esteemed friend, Mr. H. M. JefEery, 
M.A., F.E.S., occupied the chair on that occasion, and that his 
graceful and appropriate remarks sufficiently explained the 
grounds which guided the Council in selecting the memoir of 
Mr. lago as the most important paper published in the Journal 
during the preceding three years. 

I have had considerable experience as a member of the 
Councils of the Royal Society and Royal Astronomical Society, 
in assisting in the annual awards of various gold medals for 
scientij&c work, and I can truly say that, on these occasions, the 
most careful scrutiny of the claims of the different nominees is 
always made before the final decision. Though it is often found 
that the discrimination between the respective merits of important 
researches is a difficult matter, and sometimes decided only by a 
numerical majority, yet I have never known the selection of the 
medallist questioned, either by the minority in the Council, or 
by the Fellows of the Society, by whom the judgment of the 
Council is always received with respect. I can assure you that, 
in the case of the award of the Henwood Gold Medal, a similar 
careful consideration was given by your Council to the respective 
merits of each qualified memoir. I concur most cordially with 
all that Mr. Jeffery has said on the subject, and I may with 
advantage repeat here his words, that " the most scrupulous care 
was taken on weighing the comparative excellencies of the 
authors, who have written with power in the Journal on widely 
differing subjects during the preceding three years. In order to 
mature their own judgment in the last resort, the Council had 
adopted the practice of eminent contemporary societies in 



president's address. 19 

submitting each, remarkable paper to two qualified referees, 
eminent in their several departments of study." In congratulating 
our first Henwood Gold Medallist, I am certain that we shall 
still find him taking an unceasing interest in his favourite 
investigations, and that Cornish archaeology will long continue 
to receive the benefit of his antiquarian talents, which I have 
no doubt in the future will be the means of giving us much 
additional information concerning the habits of our forefathers. 
Meanwhile, a second gold medal will be awarded in 1893, a 
knowledge of which, it is hoped, will again awaken sufficient 
interest among authors to contribute a series of papers on the 
natural history and antiquities of Cornwall, excelling, if possible, 
the first-class memoirs which competed for the medal in 1890. 

It is pleasing to mention here that Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, 
a former secretary of this Institution, has been appointed to fill 
the chair of " The Principals of Mining" in the Eoyal College 
of Science, South Kensington, so long and ably occupied by our 
late Vice-President, Sir Warington W. Smyth. I feel sure 
that the Cornish friends of Dr. Poster and every member of the 
Institution are gratified to know that the Government has in this 
manner shown its appreciation of the eminent abilities exhibited 
by him as one of its Inspectors of metalliferous mines. 

In my address at the last spring meeting, I expressed a 
desire to deviate, in some measure, from the strictly local 
character of the addresses of most of my predecessors in this 
chair, and to devote my remarks generally to the science of 
astronomy, a subject that has been my daily thought during a 
somewhat long professional career. In adopting this course, I 
considered that I was only following the custom of most scientific 
men, such as the Presidents of the British Association, who 
invariably choose the subject of their discourses from their own 
special branches of study. I therefore take for granted that, 
on occasions like the present, it is far more satisfactory, in a 
formal address, that the speaker should devote his attention, for 
the most part, to those scientific or literary subjects with which 
his usual habits have made him familiar, than to attempt a theme 
with which he is only imperfectly acquainted. In a general as 
well as in a scientific point of view, the principal interest attache d 
to a Presidential address consists not to much in the multitude 



20 president's address. 

of things brought forward, as in the individuality of the mode 
by which they are treated. I propose therefore to confine my 
remarks to-day, in this the second division of my address, to the 
consideration of a few points connected with the mathematical 
and observational sections of astronomy, which have attracted 
considerable attention during recent years. 

The value of a scientific or technical education is gradually 
becoming more and more acknowledged in most of our great 
public schools, and there are very few of them which have not, 
at the present time, some department devoted to the special 
instruction of one or more branches of practical science. Even 
astronomy, which is not usually considered to be a very 
practical science, is now attracting considerable attention, and 
I am glad to be able to state that one, at least, of our public 
schools has founded an astronomical observatory, furnished with 
excellent instruments. The Temple observatory at Eugby 
School, built some years ago as a memorial to the present Bishop 
of London, a former distinguished head master, has already 
done good service towards the promotion of astronomy, and 
several valuable contributions from it have been published in 
the "Memoirs" of the Eoyal Astronomical Society, containing 
catalogues of double stars and other observations made by some 
of the masters and senior scholars, many of whom have taken 
a great personal interest in the work. The successful formation 
of a new astronomical society, under the name of " The British 
Astronomical Association" also gives encouraging evidence of 
the growing interest in the science among those who desire some 
popular acquaintance with the great truths in astronomy. One of 
its chief objects is the association of amateur observers, especially 
the possessors of small telescopes, for mutual help in the 
organisation of the work in different sections of astronomical 
observations. I have no doubt that there are many in this 
county who sympathize with the objects of this new association 
in their endeavour to stimulate the study of the peculiar features 
and movements of the heavenly bodies. But this cannot be 
efl&ciently done without steady and continuous telescopic work 
with fixed instruments, and I am rather surprised that there is 
no public or private astronomical observatory of any pretension 
in Devonshire and Cornwall, west of the Eousdon observatory, 
near Lyme Eegis. 



president's ADDBE88. 21 

Although astronomy gives ample opportunities for the 
exercise of the imagination when we are dealing with hypotheses 
concerning the probable composition and movements of the 
heavenly bodies hundreds of billions of miles away, yet in many 
of its branches it is very far from being purely a speculative 
science ; at any rate the assertion of some that it is so is totally 
misleading, so far as regards the great fundamental laws of 
gravitation which govern the motions of all celestial bodies. 
But in comparison with the more practical sciences dealing with 
terrestrial elements, such as chemistry, geology, and mineralogy, 
astronomy must always appear somewhat dependent on the 
imagination of the observer, for the objects of his scrutiny are 
usually far too distant to ascertain their true characteristics 
without having some recourse to speculative analogy. How 
different all this is in chemistry and other experimental sciences. 
Here the experimenter has no occasion to go beyond what he 
has before him, as he has the advantage of always being certain 
of the discoveries that he makes. All that he has to do, if he 
is in doubt, is to repeat his experiment, and thus he can make 
sure of the effect of his discovery. Many of you probably will 
partly agree with the remarks made recently by the Marquis of 
Salisbury, when addressing the Chemical Society at their 
late Jubilee meeting, "that of course when a man discovers 
what happened fifty millions of years ago, it is not so easy to be 
exactly accurate as to the nature of his discovery ; and when a 
man discovers what is going on fifty billions of miles away, 
although the discovery may be probable, it certainly has not the 
character of certainty that attaches to the discovery of a man 
who can go back to his laboratory and repeat his experiments. 
For it must be acknowledged that astronomy is largely composed 
of the science of things as they probably are, and that geology 
consists mainly of the science of things that probably were a long 
time ago, and chemistry is the science of things as they actually 
are at the present time." Whatever truth there may be in this 
comparison, his lordship, who is himself a distinguished practical 
chemist, forgets that in the present advanced teachings of chemis- 
try, the chemical imagination is essentially mathematical, for the 
formulse deduced from analysis ordinarily give very little ex- 
planation of the reason why the combination of elements has 



22 president's address. 

certain properties. Two substances having different properties 
not uncommonly give, on analysis, formulae almost identical. 
Hence chemists endeavour to obtain a correct grouping of the 
elements, as well as of their quantitative proportions, and in 
this operation the scientific imagination has most arduous work 
to perform. 

But though imagination must necessarily enter deeply into 
some astronomical problems, it is a very different thing from the 
faculty that substitutes conjecture or speculation for ascertained 
fact. Original scientific research in all its branches could 
scarcely be carried on without bringing the imaginative powers 
into action, or we could have none of the fruitful yet purely 
tentative theories by which the results of research are system- 
atized. Sometimes a certain number of facts may be joined 
together to form an intellectual frame- work, from which the 
scientific imagination may, by analogy, carry it into the 
neighbouring region of the unknown. These tentative theories 
may sometimes turn out to be wonderfully exact ; at other times 
they may have to be abandoned, but in either case they offer 
most valuable assistance to the inquirer in researches of this 
nature. This style of reasoning is particularly noticeable in 
astronomy, especially in some deductions derived from spectrum 
analysis ; in the problem of the motion and direction of the sun 
and its system in space ; and in such a speculative subject as the 
new meteoritic hypothesis. In the consideration of all these 
delicate researches, imagination of some form must naturally 
enter very fully into combination with much that is derived from 
undoubted facts capable of scientific explanation. 

Imagination, however, has very little part in our conceptions 
of the movements of the sun, moon, and planets in their respec- 
tive orbits. These have been determined with an accuracy 
almost marvellous, the proof of which is daily presented to our 
minds by the never failing recurrence of the various astronomical 
phenomena at the predicted times given by calculation. So 
perfect are the existing theories of the movements of the 
different members of the solar system, that the positions of the 
sun and moon may be ascertained for any given moment in the 
past, present, or future, within a fraction of a second of time, 
while those of the planets may also be determined within very 



president's address. 23 

small limits. The construction or improvement of these theories 
from the comparison of the observed and tabular places obtained 
over a long series of years, is the highest class of modern 
astronomical research, and it is only undertaken by mathema- 
ticians specially conversant with gravitational astronomy. 

Perhaps I could not illustrate more clearly the perfect 
reasoning employed in some of these difficult problems of 
mathematical astronomy, than by referring to that great triumph 
of human intellect which culminated in the discovery of the 
planet Neptune, the most distant known member of the solar 
system. The problem was indeed a difficult one to solve. For 
if we wish to determine in what way two known planets of given 
distance, mass, and other ascertained elements will affect each 
other, the most skilful mathematicians sometimes fail in explain- 
ing certain marked peculiarities in their movements, although 
they are necessary consequences of the relations already known 
to exist between the two bodies. How much more difficult then 
it must be to infer from the observed irregularities in the motion 
of one planet, the distance, mass, and position of another planet 
hitherto unknow^n. This was, however, the problem that two 
mathematicians independently attempted to solve. 

Since the publication in 1821 of M. Bouvard's tables of 
Uranus, the apparently great irregularities in the motion of this 
planet caused considerable interest, and various explanations 
were suggested to account for this irregular motion. About the 
year 1843 it occurred to Mr. J. Couch Adams, a name honoured 
by all Cornishmen, who had just taken the highest mathematical 
honours at Cambridge, and shortly afterwards to M. Le Verrier, 
of Paris, that by taking these apparent deviations from the 
planet's true motion as a basis of calculation, they might be 
able, on the assumption that the irregularities were produced by 
perturbations caused by the attraction of an exterior planet, to 
point out, by an inverse process of calculation, the exact position 
in the heavens where such an unknown attracting body would 
probably be found. Each of the two astronomers was fully 
convinced in his own mind of the reality of the problem, a belief 
afterwards confirmed by the discovery of the suspected planet 
very near the identical places in the heavens indicated by them. 



24 president's address. 

In this marvellous manner, Neptune, the fourth of the major 
planets, was added to the known members of the solar system^ 
and the perturbations observed in the motion of Uranus were 
ever after duly accounted for. Thus it was Sir Isaac Newton 
who explained the laws of universal gravitation, by which the 
heavenly bodies move in space ; while it was reserved for Adams 
and Le Verrier to interpret these laws, and to indicate where a 
hitherto unknown planet could be found. Newton recognised 
laws not previously explained, and Adams and Le Verrier, by 
the highest mathematical analysis, inferred from them the 
existence of a world that had never before been seen as a planet 
by the human eye. 

Prom the preceding remarks we may easily conclude that 
the science of astronomy must be considered as pre-eminently 
one of calculation and prediction — calculation of the past and 
prediction of the future. The first object that enters the 
astronomer's mind is therefore to extract laws and numerical 
elements from the phenomena that have occurred; while his 
second object is to apply these laws on the assumption of their 
invariability to the phenomena that will occur. By this means, 
any error that may have been committed in these fundamental 
assumptions can, by a comparison of the predicted with the 
corresponding observed results, be accurately ascertained. If 
we examine successive stages in the history of physical astronomy, 
we shall find that in all the various forms which the science has 
taken at different periods, we have certainly presented to us, 
either the struggle of reducing laws and elements to agreement 
with new phenomena, or the anxious search for some hitherto 
neglected causes of discordance, such as the effect of the 
perturbations on the motion of Uranus, produced by the powerful 
attraction of Neptune ; or finally, the triumph of finding that 
assumptions were well founded, and that the agreement between 
observation and theory is sufiiciently exact. The last of these 
conditions has been amply verified by the most recent invest- 
igations of the lunar and planetary theories, which now represent 
the motions of the sun, moon, and planets, sufficiently near for 
all practical purposes. 

This intellectual advance in theoretical astronomy is owing, 
in a great measure, to the noble work of M. Le Yerrier, who 



president's address. 25 

devoted most of his life to the examination of the theories of 
the movements of the earth and the large planets from Mercury 
to Neptune. Prof. Newcomb and Mr. G. W. Hill, of Washington, 
have also been employed on similar researches. The former has 
exhaustively treated the theories of Uranus and Neptune, and 
the latter has very recently published an exposition of those of 
Jupiter and Saturn. These important investigations are the 
results of the most profound mathematical research based on a 
comparison of the calculated with the observed places of each 
planet. 

The difficult problem of ascertaining the distance of the 
sun from the earth has specially occupied the attention of 
astronomers during the last thirty years. Several investigations 
by di:fferent methods have been undertaken, but the most 
popular was the observation of the transits of Venus across the 
sun in 1874 and 1882, both of which were utilised for this 
purpose. Since Dr. Halley in 1716 drew the attention of the 
Eoyal Society to this question, the transits of Venus have been 
generally considered to be one of the best methods for determin- 
ing the value of the solar parallax, or the angle produced by 
the earth's semidiameter as viewed from the sun. Perhaps not 
many here to-day are aware that the first voyage of the celebrated 
Captain Cook was organized principally for obtaining observ- 
ations of the transit of Venus in 1769, on which occasion he 
was successful on the shore of the island of Tahiti, still known 
as Venus Point. When my attention was first directed to 
astronomy implicit faith was placed in the distance of the sun 
as determined in 1824 by Encke frOm a discussion of all the 
observations made of the transits of 1761 and 1769. Prof. 
Hansen, of Grotha, while employed on his investigations on the 
lunar theory, found that in order to satisfy the refined observ- 
ations of the moon made at Grreenwich, it was necessary to make 
a considerable increase in Encke 's value of the solar parallax, 
and consequently, a corresponding decrease in the distance of 
the sun. Le Verrier also found that to reconcile some 
discrepancies in his planetary theories, a larger solar parallax 
was required. Some recent determinations of the velocity of 
light also pointed to the same conclusion. Much was therefore 
expected from the two transits of Venus in 1874 and 1882, both 



26 president's address. 

of which were observed successfully at the principal stations. 
The value of the solar parallax determined from all the observ- 
ations is about 8"-80, from which the mean distance of the sun 
from the earth is calculated to be about 92,885,000 miles. Prof. 
Newcomb and Mr. Michelson have since made independent 
determinations of the velocity of light per second, from which 
they have deduced a value di:ffering very little from that 
determined from the transits of Venus. You may easily imagine 
how difficult a problem the astronomers have had to solve, when 
it is considered that a second of arc is only equivalent to the 
angle subtended by a ring one inch in diameter, when viewed 
at a distance of more than three miles, and the correction to the 
solar parallax is just one-third of this. Or it is what a human 
hair would appear to be if viewed at the distance of 150 feet. 
Such are the minute quantities with which -astronomy has to 
deal. If then a second of arc is so minute a measurement, 
what must we say when this second is again divided into a 
hundred parts, every one of which represents 100,000 miles in 
the distance of the sun. And yet this almost mathematical 
accuracy is hoped to be obtained eventually from the combined 
series of all the observations of the recent transits of Venus 
over the disc of the sun. 

A total eclipse of the sun is another phenomenon which 
always creates much interest, as on these occasions most valuable 
observations are made on the constitution of the chromosphere 
and corona, which are usually visible during totality, but at 
other times hidden by the glare of sunlight. In England, total 
eclipses of the sun seldom occur, and then only at long intervals. 
The last occurred in 1724, and the next wiU not take place until 
1927. Before the red solar prominences were found to be 
observable in sunlight, by means of the spectroscope, the 
expeditions formed for viewing an eclipse were of a more 
interesting character than the purely scientific expeditions of the 
present day ; as now the attention of the observers is usually 
confined to spectroscopic and photographic observations of the 
corona and prominences, and thus all the sentimental beauty of 
the phenomenon is sacrificed to pure science. In 1851, 1 had the 
good fortune of witnessing a total eclipse in Norway, and the 
impressions then fixed on my mind of its sublime character, are 



president's address. 27 

very vivid even now, after an interval of so many years. The 
beauty of the corona on these occasions, especially when the sky 
is free from cloud, is always admired for its silvery whiteness ; 
while in the telescope rose-coloured solar prominences, consisting 
of incandescent hydrogen gas, are usually seen shooting out 
from the sun at the edge of the dark body of the moon, to an 
occasional height of 100,000 milesor more. At Christiania, the 
dark shadow-path was seen to approach gradually from the 
west, and after the few minutes of total darkness, it was noticed 
to pass as gradually away towards the east. The varying effects 
of light and shade on the landscape and on the waters of the 
Fiord was a sight worth a long journey to see. 

Since the construction of the powerful space-penetrating 
telescopes, with which almost every observatory of importance 
is now furnished, great attention has been given to the 
delineation of the special features observed on the discs of the 
planets Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The changes of detail that 
are continually visible on the surfaces of these interesting 
planets show that they are subject to atmospheric storms of far 
greater magnitude than what we experience on the earth. For 
example, we see on Jupiter aU the signs of great atmospheric 
disturbances, produced by forces indicating the existence of very 
strong winds, bearing some analogy to our trade winds. The 
cloud-like formations are sometimes seen to change so rapidly in 
shape, that they can hardly be accounted for except by supposing 
that large quantities of rain has fallen, and thus new clouds 
would naturally be formed ; or else that great cloud-masses have 
been driven along with enormous rapidity by immense currents 
of air moving with the velocity of a hurricane. It has been 
calculated that this velocity of the wind cannot be less than two 
hundred miles in an hour. The physical features of Jupiter are 
interesting subjects of study to the amateur astronomer, as all 
the variations in the form of the belts are easily distinguished 
in most ordinary telescopes ; and what these features are have 
been well shown in most of the beautiful drawings that have 
been made of this giant planet in recent years. During the last 
twelve years an enormous red spot of an oval form has been 
peculiarly attractive. Other spots of a reddish colour, and some 
almost a pure white, are occasionally noticed, but these are not 



28 president's address. 

usually of so permanent a character as the great red spot, 
which, however, at the present time appears to be on the wane. 
On Saturn also, faint streaks of light and shade have been 
observed on the ball, leading us to infer that this planet is 
likewise surrounded by an atmosphere of some kind, subject to 
all its attendant meteorological phenomena. But these two 
distant planets do not exhibit so many permanent markings as 
may be observed on the surface of Mars, which of all the planets 
has the most terrestrial appearance. The markings on Mars are 
very distinctly defined, forming apparent continents, islands^ 
seas, and inlets. The brightest parts, excepting the white 
patches near each pole, have a faint ruddy tint, while over- 
spreading the continents networks of fine lines have been 
noticed, to which the name of canals have been given. 

All the planets from the earth to Neptune are now known 
to be attended by one or more satellites. The two moons of 
Mars were unknown before 1877, when they were discovered by 
Prof. Asaph Hall, at the Washington Observatory. To an 
observer on Mars they must present a remarkable appearance in 
the heavens, as the nearer of the two revolves around the planet 
in less than eight hours, and the more distant satellite in about 
thirty hours, at a distance of only 4,000 and 12,000 miles 
respectively from the surface of Mars. The telescopic view of 
Jupiter and its four attendant moons always affords considerable 
interest, especially the continual change in the positions of the 
different satellites relatively to themselves and their primary. 
If we may be permitted to imagine that there are any intelligent 
beings on Jupiter, we may almost picture to ourselves the 
very startling nocturnal phenomena presented to their view. 
The nights must always be favoured with moonlight, for when 
any one of the satellites is absent from the visible firmament, 
one at least of the others is almost certain to be present. 
Frequently, the surface of Jupiter is enlightened by three moons 
at the same time, all exhibiting different phases. The changes 
that are continually taking place in the Jovian aspect as the 
planet rotates on its axis, taken in combination with the constant 
variations in its cloudy envelope, must be singularly impressive 
and suggestive to any reasoning creatures, supposing that there 
are such on these four attendant worlds circling around Jupiter. 



president's address. 29 

Some recent photographs that I have seen exhibit the peculiar 
spots and other features of this planet with a remarkable 
clearness of definition. 

But perhaps one of the most interesting of aU the recent 
discoveries, relating to the solar system, is that of the minor 
planets, of which up to the present time 309 have been detected. 
These minute bodies, supposed to vary in their diameter from 
about twenty to two hundred miles, are all included between the 
orbits of Mars and Jupiter. The first four of the minor planets 
were discovered near the beginning of the present century, and 
for sometime were considered to be fragments of a large planet 
shattered to pieces by some internal convulsion ; but owing to 
the great diversity in the observed inclinations and other 
elements of their orbits, this hypothesis is hardly tenable. I 
remember very distinctly the enthusiasm with which the discovery 
of a fifth member of the group in 1845 was received, the first 
of the yearly discoveries that have been made to the present 
time. While watching one of these minute objects in the 
transit-circle at Grreenwich, it has always appeared to me that 
the general truth of the fundamental laws of astronomy is 
made apparent, when the faint point of light representing a 
minor planet faithfully enters the field of view at the exact 
moment, and in the exact position in the heavens to which the 
telescope is directed, as predicted by the computer, with the 
same accuracy as the large planets. The elements of the orbits 
of all these 309 minor planets have been calculated, some of 
them with great precision. 

Minor planets, however, are not the only minute bodies 
circulating in orbits around the sun, for within the confines of 
our solar system, swarms of meteors are now known to move in 
periodic orbits, accompanied by comets travelling in the midst 
of the swarm. Comets and meteors are therefore supposed to 
be physically connected. Indeed, the elements of the orbits of 
several comets are found to be almost identical with those of 
corresponding streams of meteors, and spectrum analysis has 
proved that their elementary composition has much in common. 
Prof. Lockyer, however, has expresssed an opinion that all self- 
luminous bodies in the celestial vault may probably be composed 
of meteorites or masses of meteoritic vapour, produced by heat 



30 president's addbess. 

brought about by condensation of meteor swarms due to gravity, 
so that the existing distinction between stars, comets, and 
nebulee, rests on no physical basis — all alike are meteoritic in 
origin, the difference between them depending upon differences 
of temperature, and in the closeness of the component meteorites 
to each other. These suggestive opinions of so distinguished 
an astronomer are deserving of every consideration, though 
scientific imagination must necesarily have an important influence 
in speculative questions of this nature. 

I have remarked, on a former occasion, that the romance of 
astronomy is always a subject of attraction to early students of 
the stars, and that the study of the science is most fascinating 
when the object to be obtained is a real scientific acquaintance 
with the countless luminaries visible overhead on a clear autumn 
or winter night. But what I wish to do now is to pass over the 
romantic portions of the science, and to devote a few words on 
the connection of astronomy with our daily life. I shall thus 
be able to show you that although there may be some imagina- 
tion employed in the solution of imperfect or doubtful data, 
astronomy is yet a necessary help to us all in our domestic and 
business occupations. Anyone can realize the great advances 
made in electrical science, for he is continually reminded of them 
by the practical benefits derived from the use of the electric 
telegraph and the telephone, but how few there are who connect 
astronomy with anything that is practical. And yet it is 
employed in various ways unknown to the general public. 
The clock-time exhibited by every public clock, by your 
household timepieces, and even by the watches in your pockets, 
would soon go astray were it not that the astronomer at 
Greenwich is ever referring his standard timepiece to the 
unerring great star-clock. Daily he is on the watch for an 
opportunity to make this necessary comparison, so that he may 
be in a position to disseminate true Greenwich time throughout 
the country. This is accomplished by means of an elaborate 
system of galvanic time-signals, which are transmitted from the 
Royal Observatory, at stated times, to all the principal post 
offices and railway stations in the kingdom, through the wires 
of the Post Office telegraph department. Time-balls, giving the 
correct time, are dropped daily at various places by a direct 



president's address. 31 

signal from Qreenwieh; and two under the sole control of 
the Astronomer Eoyal are also dropped daily at 1 p.m., one 
at the Eoyal Observatory and the second at Deal. The 
dissemination of Greenwich time-signals has been the means 
of adding considerably to the punctuality of railway trains, as 
since the adoption of Greenwich time throughout the kingdom, 
no excuse can be made on account of the difference of clocks. 

But if true Greenwich time is found to be essential in our 
home life, how much more necessary it becomes to the seaman 
when thousands of miles away from port. Let us see how the 
astronomer comes to his assistance. Just look for one moment 
into the chronometer room at the Eoyal Observatory. You 
cannot avoid being attracted by a universal buzz, reminding you 
of the hum of a beehive, for sometimes more than two hundred 
chronometers are stored here at one time, all of which are rated 
daily and kept ready for use in Her Majesty's ships when 
required. It is pleasing to know that the commanders of our 
noble ships may obtain one of these delicate chronometers, 
preserved and rated daily by astronomical observations, by 
which they are enabled to ascertain accurate Greenwich time 
when at sea. Without this information and the predicted 
positions of the sun, moon, and stars, given in the " Nautical 
Almanac," and derived from the refined theories of the mathe- 
matical astronomer, the seaman could never ascertain his true 
longitude and latitude at sea, but would have to rely on the 
primitive methods of navigation practised by the ancient 
mariner. 

Astronomy is also employed in determining the figure of 
our globe, and the relative positions of points on its surface. 
By a comparison of the respective local clock-times found 
directly from observations of selected stars at two distant 
stations, the difference of longitude is at once found, and by 
observing on the meridian the altitudes of stars whose declination 
is accurately known, the latitude of any station can also be 
determined. Longitudes may be obtained by several astron- 
omical methods, but the easiest, and at the same the most 
satisfactory, is by the observation of galvanic signals transmitted 
from one station to the other, the local clock-times and signals 
T?eing recorded automatically on a chronograph at both stations. 



32 peesident's address. 

The differences of longitude between most of the principal 
observatories have been determined in this manner. 

I trust that I have now made it clear to you that though in 
the speculative branches of astronomy imagination may occasion- 
ally assist in forming conclusions from probably insufficent data, 
there are other and more important branches which rest on a 
solid and truthful basis, such as the well-proved theories of the 
movements of the sun, moon, and planets, in their respective 
orbits, and the numerous facts relating to the physical 
constitution of the heavenly bodies, many of which have been 
proved over and over again by different observers and methods 
of observation. Even an inexperienced star-gazer may soon be 
convinced of the reality of what he sees in his telescope as he 
scans the varying lights and shadows seen on the faces of the 
sun, moon, and planets. Astronomy is indeed a fascinating 
science to those who are sufficiently educated to appreciate and 
understand the general principles of the construction of the 
starry universe, and who are anxious to become interested in the 
movements and composition of the heavenly bodies. 

And now, ladies and gentlemen, I cannot conclude this 
necessarily imperfect astronomical portion of this address, 
without impressing upon you the pleasing fact that however 
much has been unfolded to our minds by the remarkable activity 
of observers in all countries up to the present time, there is a 
strong indication that astronomical knowledge is still advancing 
from year to year. Most powerful telescopes, the like of which 
could hardly have entered into the minds of the astronomers of 
the last generation, are now constantly directed to the heavens 
in Europe, America, the Cape of Good Hope, and Australia, by 
men eager for discovery, and intellectually competent to turn to 
the best advantage whatever novelty they may see. As on our 
earth it has been proved that nearly every apparently rude element 
teems with animal life, so do the regions of infinite space teem 
with unexhausted wonders, requiring only the clear and 
intelligent mind, and the observant eye of the astronomer to 
detect. The works of creation are as boundless in the distant 
regions of the universe, as under our own eyes in this compara- 
tively little world which we call the earth. Planets countless 



president's address. 33 

in numbers probably still roll on in their courses around the sun 
unseen by man. We know that more than three hundred of 
these little asteroids are revolving in unerring orbits between 
Mars and Jupiter, and possibly many hundreds more may be 
discovered during the life of the present generation. Stars, the 
centres of other systems as boundless as all that we behold on 
the most brilliant night in winter, have been proved to possess 
the most mysterious peculiarities, some of which we may be able 
to explain, while the rest must remain to be deciphered by the 
advanced astronomy of the future. 

But though astronomy may claim an antiquity reaching, by 
tradition, so far back as the time of Abraham, when the 
Chaldeans, according to Herodotus, gave the names to thirty-six 
of the principal constellations, much that is included in modern 
astronomy makes it comparatively a new science, if we consider 
the wonderful discoveries made during the last 120 years. 
However, astronomy is still advancing with giant strides, in 
company with many of the other physical sciences, and we 
entertain no fear for the future nor need we envy our descend- 
ants the enjoyment of the accumulation of observed facts, or 
the comprehensive grasp which they must naturally have of the 
science of the visible universe, compared with what we are 
enjoying near the end of the nineteenth century. It is sufficient 
for us to know that there is still good astronomical work 
remaining for us to do, while at the same time we may devoutly 
recognise the scantiness of our knowledge compared with the 
vast universe of created worlds, and humbly exclaim when we 
give an intelligent glance upwards to the starry heavens, " 
Lord, how manifold are Thy works ! in wisdom hast Thou made 
them all." 



34 



ANNUAL EXCURSION, 1891. 



The Annual Excursion of tlie Eoyal Institution of Cornwall 
took place on Aug. 20th., and was as successful as such an enter- 
prise could be in a continuous and heavy downpour of rain. 

The party, which numhered over fifty, assembled at "Wade- 
bridge at half -past nine in the morning, took carriage and rode 
away for St. Breock Church. Very soon after the start the rain 
commenced to fall, and for the remainder of the day never 
ceased. The first halting place was St. Breock Church, where 
the members, met by the vicar (the Eev. W. P. P. Matthews), 
paused for a few moments to inspect an early slab commemor- 
ating, in Norman French, "Tomas le Vicarie de Nansegn," a 
curious armorial tomb of Yyell, and some Tredinnick family 
brasses. On through the rain the party then went to St. Petroc 
Minor Church, a beautifully decorated fabric, which was re- 
opened for services after re-building in 1858. Among the relics 
which were inspected with interest was the Norman Erench slab 
of a certain Sir Poger, now lying under a low arch constructed 
for its reception on the north side of the sacrarium. It is a flat 
stone, with a simple floriated cross cut upon it in low relief, and 
surmounted by a tonsured human head. St. Petroc, the patron 
saint of the church, is said to have visited Ireland and thence 
crossed over to Padstow A.D. 518. He afterwards settled at 
Bodmin, where he died. The Pev. Viscount Molesworth, the 
vicar, courteously explained to the visitors the features of interest 
in the church. Prom this point, however, a large part of the 
programme, including a trip to Trevose Head, was, by common 
consent, abandoned, and a rapid drive was made to Padstow. 
One waggonette proceeded to St. Merryn, where its church was 
inspected. Major Parkyn had remembered his errant brothers 
and sisters, and they gladly found at Padstow the refection which 
had been reserved for them. Some of the party then rested, some 
walked to the battery, and others strolled about Padstow until 
half-past two o'clock, when, by invitation of Mr. Prideaux-Brune, 
they visited Prideaux Place, once known as Prideaux Castle, a 



THE ANirtTAIi EXCimSION. 35 

name in consonance with, its castellated style. And in the old, 
old days it was called Gwarthendra. The present building is 
Elizabethan, and has not suffered much alteration. Carew 
describes it as " the new and stately house of Mr. Nicholas 
Prideaux, who thereby taketh a full and large prospect of the 
toune, haven, and country adjoining ; to all of which his wisdom 
is a stay, his authority a direction," — a tradition which is 
admirably maintained by the present highly esteemed repre- 
sentatives of that ancient family, Mr. and the Hon. Mrs. 
Prideaux-Brune. The house is believed to occupy the site of 
an ancient monastery, which was destroyed by the Danes, when, 
according to the Saxon Chronicle, they plundered and set fire to 
the town. 

The company lunched, through the hospitality of Mr. 
Prideaux Brune, in the old oak-pannelled dining hall of the 
mansion ; and after luncheon, Dr. TroUope, the Bishop of 
Nottingham (suffragan of Lincoln), read an interesting paper 
on "the antiquities of the neighbourhood." He alluded to a 
volcanic hill and submarine forest on the other side of the river. 
He suggested that the forest was now submarine, by reason of 
the sinking of the ground, and not because of the encroachment 
of the sea. He mentioned the finding of many remains in that 
neighbourhood which he considered pointed unmistakably to 
that part of (Jornwall, at all events, having been occupied by the 
Romans. The Bishop also alluded to the shifting of the sands 
on the other side of Padstow harbour, and the discovery of the 
remains of the ancient church of St. Enodoc. 

There was no time to discuss the Bishop of Nottingham's 
paper; but time was of course found to thank Mr. Prideaux 
Brune for his hospitality. Mr. lago was the first to express the 
gratitude of the company for such a haven of rest and refreshment 
as Prideaux Place proved to be after the storms of the day. He 
observed also that he had long known Bishop TroUope as a 
writer on Cornish antiquities, and alluded to the recent discovery 
of another distinct trace of Eoman remains in North Cornwall 
of the time of the Emperor Licinius. Canon A. P. Moor then 
proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Prideaux-Brune for his liberal 
and graceful hospitality, and recalled a similar reception the 



36 THE ANNUAL EXCURSION. 

society had last year at the hands of Mr, Pendarves Vivian at 
Bosahan, and looked back also to the generous manner in which 
they were once entertained at Ootehele by the Earl of Mount 
Edgcumbe. Mr. J. E. Collins, Mayor of Bodmin, seconded the 
vote of thanks, and made some humorous observations which 
were appreciated. He expressed a hope also that they would 
soon be able to come to Padstow by the North Cornwall line. 
Mr. Prideaux-Brune, in reply, said it gave him great pleasure to 
see them there, and hoped the next time they were able to get 
to Padstow they would have better weather. 

There was unfortunately no time to view the house (with its 
many interesting portraits and its fine library) or the grounds, 
in which there are some old crosses and other remains of antiquity. 

A brief visit was paid to the fine old church of St. Petroc, 
on the way down to the conveyances. There the Bishop 
of Nottingham read another interesting paper. Viscount 
Moles worth's church is St. Petroc Minor, or Little Petherick, so 
Padstow is Petroc Major or Great Petherick, and there are 
dedications to St. Petroc also at Bodmin, Dartmouth, and Exeter. 
St. Petroc is believed to have been a British missionary, who 
came across to Padstow in 518, and settled and died at Bodmin 
in 564. According to the legend, he came across the sea on a 
millstone ; but Bishop TroUope thought that might mean that he 
came across with a cargo of millstones, or that his ship was said 
to be like a millstone. 

The site of the church was evidently the very old site of 
a sacred building. The remains of an ancient cross near the 
entrance to the churchyard he attributed to the Saxon era ; and 
there was a very beautiful cross of a later date. But the present 
building was perpendicular, there was no trace of Norman work 
in it. The tower was of 14th century style. The kind of 
fiamboyant tracery in some of the windows of the south chancel 
aisle, he thought, did not indicate any different period, but was 
merely the fancy of the architect, or of the benefactor for whom 
the aisle (as a chantry chapel) was built. The Bishop called 
attention also to the pulpit, the new screen, and to two old 
bench-ends which have recently been discovered and made into 
a seat for the sacrarium. These old bench-ends are very finely 



THE ANNTJAIi EXCURSIOIir. 37 

carved, one of them depicting a fox preaching to a congregation 
of geese. The Rev. J. Core, the curate-in-charge, was also 
present, and pointed out some of the features of interest, 
including brasses of some former vicars, one dated 1421, and the 
beautiful marble work above the altar, done by Mr. England, a 
Padstow workman. 

After leaving the church, came the ride back to Wadebridge, 
still more or less in the wet, and in due course the train took the 
excursionists to their respective destinations. The company 
included the following : — 

Mr. and the Hon. Mrs. Prideaux-Brune ; the Bishop of 
Nottingham ; the Hon. Mrs. Davies-Gilbert, of Trelissick ; the 
Misses Prideaux-Brune, Pev. E. Prideaux-Brune ; Rev. J. Core, 
Padstow, acting for the vicar ; Eev. Canon Moor, St. Clements ; 
Rev. A. H. Malan, Altarnon ; Eev. P. Eld, Worcester ; Eev. W. 
lago and Mrs. lago, Bodmin ; Mr. J. E. Collins, Mayor of 
Bodmin; Colonel Parkyn,- Major Shanks, E.M., and Dr. and 
Mrs. Salmon, Bodmin; Mrs. Paull, and Miss Lillie Paull, 
Bosvigo; Mrs. E. Sidebotham, Misses J. L. Stokes, Ekless, 
Smith, Pinkett, Bodmin ; Tomn, Ferris, M. Langdon, Truro ; 
Mrs. Casey, Dublin ; Mr. and Mrs. E. Whitworth, Mr. and Mrs. 
A. Blenkinsop ; Mr. and Mrs. A. Cragoe, Penhellick ; Messrs. 
Hamilton James, 8. H. James, Mozambique ; Henry Barrett, 
John Barrett, W. J. Clyma, Samuel Pascoe, Joseph Eogers, 
Stephen Eogers, P.G.S., Theodore Hawken, H. Buck, Thomas 
Clark, 0. 1. Blackford, P. E. Sach, Truro ; Mr. and Mrs. Hawken, 
and Mr. P. Cresswell, Liskeard; Mr. P. W. Michell, C.E., 
Eedruth; Mr. E. Palk Griffin, Padstow; Mr. and Mrs. Wilson, 
Mr. C. H. Ceilings, and Mr. H. J. Sanderson, London; Major 
Parkyn, F.G.S., Hon. Sec, Mr. H. Crowther, P.E.M.S., Curator. 
To Major Parkyn and to the Eev. W. lago thanks are particularly 
due for directing the expedition, which, but for the weather, 
would have been a most successful one. 



38 



laosal institution of <S:orntoaU. 



72nd annual GENEEAL MEETING. 



The Animal Meeting of the members of the Royal Institu- 
tion of Cornwall was held on Tuesday afternoon, November 24th, 
1891, in the Museum Rooms, the chair being taken by the Rev. 
W. lago, B.A., Hon. Secretary for Cornwall of the Society of 
Antiquaries, London, and Vice-President of the Institution, who 
presided in the absence of the retiring President, Mr. Edwin 
Dunkin, F.R.S., Past-President of the Royal Astronomical 
Society. 

The Chairman regretted the absence of their retiring Presi- 
dent, who had performed the duties of his office with such 
very great success and benefit to the Institution. The Council 
recommended the appointment of Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., — 
the well-known antiquary, the author of "The History of the 
Deanery of Trigg Minor," and other valuable works, — but he 
regretted that the prevailing influenza prevented his attendance 
that day. Sir John had written saying, although he had been 
elected president of other societies, he felt the greatest pleasure 
and honour in being chosen to occupy the presidential chair of this 
Royal Institution, Cornwall being his native county. It was 
at their suggestion that Sir John Maclean was not among them. 
They were not willing to risk the health of so valuable a presi- 
dent as Sir John would be, by his taking a journey in the present 
weather and coming into a district where influenza prevailed. 
Sir John wrote taking their suggestion and thanking them for it. 
Since they met last their worthy Bishop had left Truro, and now 
a new Bishop had taken his place. The first Bishop of Truro was 
one of their very best members. His successor was also a mem- 
ber, and, having had the honour and privilege of having the two 
Bishops as members, they looked forward to the time when Dr. 
Gott would also be enrolled. He (Mr. lago) had already invited 
the Bishop to join them, and he would have been there, had he 
not been engaged that day with a confirmation at St. Just. 



ANNUAL MEETING. 39 

Later on, Archdeacon Cornish announced that the Bishop 
would be pleased to become a member. 

Major Parkyn, the Hon. Secretary, read the Annual Report. 

EEPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Council of the Eoyal Institution of Cornwall, in 
presenting their 73rd Annual Report, have much pleasure in 
congratulating the members on the great advance in all branches 
of the Institution since the last annual meeting, for whether 
they regard the continued progress made by the Curator in the 
better display of the objects in the Museum, the general work 
of his classification, the many valuable additions to the collections, 
or the numerous gifts to the library, it must be evident 
to every one that the Society is passing through a period of 
progress and prosperity. 

Death, however, has been more than usually busy in the 
ranks of the members since the last annual report, and the 
Society have to lament the loss of Mr. N. Whitley, F.E.Met.S., 
Mr. H. M. Jeffery, M.A., F.E.S., the Eight Hon. Sir Montague 
Smith, Mr. W. Sincock, Mr. Gleorge Williams, and Mr. Charles 
Harvey. 

Mr. Whitley's connection with the Institution dates back 
some 40 years, during the whole of which time he took an active 
and leading part in the affairs of the Society ; he was a valuable 
and voluminous writer for the Journal, for many years he was one 
of the Secretaries and filled successively the offices of Member 
of Council and Vice-President. It will be unnecessary here to 
dwell more at length on his services to the Institution, as an 
obituary notice is promised for the next number of the Journal. 

Mr. Jeffery joined this Society immediately on returning to 
take up his permanent residence in his native county. It may 
be said of him that he threw himself heart and soul into the 
work of the Institution, and as a Member of Council was 
most regular in his attendance at the Meetings ; indeed, it 
was a very rare thing for him to be absent from them. It is 
somewhat remarkable that so abstruse a mathematician should 
in his anxiety to help on the objects of the Society and to assist 
in the literary work of the Council, have taken so much interest 
in archseologieal and topographical history, but we have only to 



40 ANNUAL MEETING. 

refer to his printed contributions in the Journal of the Eoyal 
Institution, to prove that his mathematical mind could be brought 
advantageously to bear on the elucidation of local history as 
•well as on abstract science. As stated just now in reference to 
the late Mr. Whitley, so in the ease of Mr. Jeffery, an obituary 
notice of some length will be written for the Journal. 

The Eight Hon. Sir Montague Smith, the eminent judge, 
was a very old subscriber, and when opportunities were afPorded 
him to be present at the Spring and Annual Meetings he 
generally attended. 

Mr. W. Sincock, of Melbourne, Australia, was introduced 
to this Society by Sir John Maclean, the President elect, and 
readers of recent numbers of our Journal will have noticed the 
valuable series of papers he contributed on the '* Landlords of 
Cornwall in early Mediaeval Days." 

Mr. George Williams, of Scorrier, we regret to say, was 
very soon removed by death after becoming a member. It is 
satisfactory, however, to note that his son has come forward to 
fill his father's place. 

The sad list closes with the loss of Mr. Charles Harvey, the 
youngest brother of Mr. Eobert Harvey, the munificent bene- 
factor of this Institution. He was a young medical man of 
great promise returning to this country from Chili in search of 
health, and died very suddenly at New York on his way home. 

It is pleasing now to dwell for a few moments on the great 
accession of members. During the past year no fewer than 25 
new subscribers have joined, and this has been accomplished 
without any pressing solicitation. It is probable that in no 
other year in the history of this Institution has there been such a 
large increase of members. 

The Meteorological observations have been carried on by 
the Curator with his usual care, and the results have been 
communicated to the public through the press of the two 
counties, in a monthly letter, and from the testimony received 
from the reading public it is evident these letters have been 
much appreciated. 

The Annual Autumn Excursion (a detailed account of which 
will appear in the Journal) took place in the Wadebridge and 
Padstow district. The weather proved most unpropitious, but 



ANNUAL MEETING. 41 

no ill effects are known to have ensued. The utmost kindness 
and hospitality were extended to those who took part in the 
expedition, by Mr. and the Hon. Mrs. Prideaux-Brune. The 
great Hall at Prideaux Place was an agreeable refuge from the 
heavy rain. The large number of our members and friends, 
who thronged it, were bountifully entertained by their kind host 
and hostess. An additional pleasure was also experienced when 
the Bishop of Nottingham, Dr. TroUope, the well-known 
antiquary, imparted to the guests much valuable information 
relative to Padstow, its Church, and neighbourhood. It was 
intended that Pawton Cromlech, Nanscowe Stone, and Trevose 
Lighthouse should also be reached, but those points had to be 
abandoned. The Eev. Yiscount Molesworth and the Eev. W. 
P. Pardee Matthews kindly shewed the interior of their churches, 
and gave such particulars as conduced to the purposes of the 
visit. Notwithstanding all difficulties caused by exceptionally 
severe atmospheric disturbance, good humour and cheerfulness 
prevailed. 

To Mr. J. Claude Daubuz, High Sheriff of the County, a 
highly esteemed member of the Institution, the sincere thanks 
of the Society are due for having presented some handsomely 
carved oak — formerly the stall or state-chair of the Mayors of 
Truro, in old St. Mary's Church, — in order that it may be used 
in the construction of a suitable official seat for our future 
Presidents. Such a distinctive chair has long been required. 
Mr. Daubuz' s gift will therefore not only prove useful, but will 
be the means of preserving in a satisfactory manner an interesting 
relic of fine proportions and workmanship, connected with many 
associations relating to the past history of the city. 

The Council have again to thank Mr. John D. Enys, F.Gr.S., 
for his presentation of the Report of the British Association 
Meeting as soon as issued. 

It is gratifying to find that the interest of the public in the 
Museum shews no falling off, and that a steady increase in the 
number of visitors is maintained. During the past year the 
numbers shew : 

Admitted Pree . . . . 3,894 

By Ticket 239 

By Payment . . . . 348 



42 ANNUAL MEETING. 

Furtlier progress has been made in the Geological room in 
forming a collection of typical mineral ores from mining districts. 
The sets so far arranged and tabulated are blue grounds and 
matrices from the Kimberley Diamond Mines, presented by Dr. 
Winn, London. A varied and interesting set of minerals from 
the mines of East Germany, the Hartz, and Italy, by Major 
Parkyn, F.G.S., one of the Honorary Secretaries. An extensive 
collection of copper and other ores from the Bolivian Andes, by 
Mr. Eobert Harvey, J. P., of Dundridge. Tin and copper ores 
from Spain, by Mr. Eichard Pearce, F.G.S., H.B.M. Vice-Oonsul 
at Denver, Colorado. A large and valuable set of minerals from 
Rio Tinto Mines, Spain, and another from mines in Portugal, by 
Mr. James Osborne, O.E., F.G.S., Truro. An interesting series 
of specimens also, from the sett of the Uranium mines at 
St. Stephens, by the Company, per Capt. W. E. Thomas, F.G.S. 
The arrangement of mine minerals has been devised by the 
Curator to meet the wishes of practical miners who desire to 
see collective sets of ores from specific mining localities. The 
minerals of the various districts are grouped irrespective of 
kind, so that by the mixing together of country rocks and their 
associated minerals, the miner may more easily recognize the 
appearance of certain mineral ores he may meet with abroad. In 
the Geological department an alteration has been made for the 
better display of the fossils. The specimens are being mounted 
on colored tablets and specifically labelled. The flat shelves on 
which they rested in the upright cases have been taken out, and 
inclined shelves substituted, with narrow strips of wood running 
along in front to keep the tablets in place. The cases also have 
been divided, so that the fossils in the collection will be placed 
in proper geological sequence — a whole case being retained for 
Cornish specimens. An excellent collection of Eocene fossils 
from New Zealand has been presented by Mrs. A. P. Moor, 
St Clements, and arranged in the one of the cases. 

A case has been set apart too in the Geological and Miner- 
alogical room for the display of a set of Cornish Eocks, and to 
this, in addition to the specimens the Institution already 
possessed from various parts of the county, others beautifully 
polished, have been contributed by Mr. Thomas Clark, Truro ; 
whilst Mr. Howard Fox, F.G.S. , Falmouth, has presented types 
of new kinds of rocks from the Lizard district, 



ANNTJAL MEETING. 43 

Considerable progress has been made in the re-arrangement 
of the recently acquired shells, and half our former collection has 
been removed from the Greological room to the Zoological room, 
and there newly mounted on tablets and labelled in accordance 
with the other collections. The shells formerly possessed by the 
Institution, to which Mr. B. W. Tucker, of Trematon Castle, and 
Mr. John H. James, of Truro, so largely added, have been 
supplemented by the more recent gifts of Mrs. Sharp, of 
Kensington Gardens, London, and Mr. Ealph Baron Rogers, of 
Falmouth ; and those gifts are being incorporated in the collection 
as the shells are being laid out. 

Most of the upright cases in the Zoological room have been 
cleaned and re-painted ; in two of them a special series of egg 
cases has been fitted, and doors of an improved make contrived 
to close over them to keep out the light. In the cases are to be 
placed the collections of eggs given by Mr. Eichard Pearce, 
F.G.S., and Mr. A. P. Nix. 

At the western end of the same room in other upright cases, 
protected by similar doors, a set of British Butterflies and a 
few Moths, also recently given by Mr. Hichard Pearce — have 
been arranged, and are much admired by visitors. 

Several additions of an educational character have yet to be 
made to the Butterfly case to make the collection still more useful 
to students. The Curator has compiled a label list for use in 
arranging the Rhopalocera, or Butterflies, a copy of which wiU 
be issued in the Journal, and sold in the Museum for the use 
of students. 

A more extended application has been made of labelling the 
Museum specimens since the last report was issued. Variously 
coloured tablets have been adopted for several departments, and 
their mountings under the heads of Conchology, Greology, 
Mineralogy, Petrology, Mining and Archaeology, are beginning 
to shew in the Museum. 

The past year has seen the issuing of three new guides to 
the Museum, one on the Pozo Inscribed Stone, the cost of which 
has been defrayed by Mr. Robert Harvey, another on Anthony 
Payne, and a third on the British Butterflies ; as these are issued 
as cheaply as the Institution can afford to supply them, it is hoped 
they will meet with a ready sale to such as are interested in the 



44 ANNUAL MEETING. 

Museum, or wish to preserve at home some record of its interest- 
ing contents. The Curator will endeavour to issue from time to 
time other guides to the various departments. 

It is gratifying to learn that the classes formed last winter 
for the study of various scientific subjects were very successful; 
the attendances good, and the grants from the Science and Art 
Department high. By the 17 students who sat in the examina- 
tions no fewer than 27 certificates were obtained. Similar classes 
are again this winter in full operation under the County Council, 
and Mr. Crowther is engaged in giving in these rooms lectures on 
Geology, Mineralogy, Steam, Mechanical Engineering, Botany, 
Hygiene, and Shorthand. The classes are well attended, some 
70 students availing themselves of this opportunity of acquiring 
knowledge. 

It is with pleasure that the Council notice the appointment 
also of their Curator as Lecturer on Mining, and on the Eaising 
and Dressing of Ores at the Mining School, established by the 
County Council at Chacewater. 

The President, Mr. Edwin Dunkin, E.E.S., Past-President 
of the Royal Astronomical Society, having filled the office for 
two years, the Council have much pleasure in proposing Sir John 
Maclean, F.S.A., another Cornishman, as his successor. 

They also propose the following as Vice-Presidents for the 
ensuing year : — 

Dr. Jago, F.E.S. | Ven. Archdeacon Cornish, M. A. 

Eev. Canon Moor, M.A. | Eev. W. lago, B.A. 

Mr. Edwin Dunkin, E.E.S., E.E.A.S. 

Other Members of Council :— 

Mr. E. M. Paul, M.A. 

Mr. Thurstan C. Peter. 
Mr. E. Eundle, F.E.C.S.I. 



Mr. John D. Enys, F.G-.S. 
Mr. Howard Fox, F.G.S. 
Mr. Hamilton James. 
Eev. A. H. Malan, M.A. 
Mr. F. W. Michell, C.E. 



Eev. A. E. Tomlinson, M.A. 
Mr. Eobert Tweedy. 
Mr. A. P. Nix, as Treasurer. 

Mr. H. Michell Whitley, F.G.S., and Major Parkyn, F.G.S., 
as Honorary Secretaries. 

On the motion of Mr. J. Claude Daubuz, seconded by Ool. 
George J. Smith, it was resolved that the Eeport be received, 
adopted, and printed. 



ANNUAL MEETING. 



45 



Mr. Orowther then read tlie list of presents to the Museum 
and Library. 

PRESENTS TO THE MUSEUM. 



Specimen of black Quartz from St. Dennis 

Nest of Longtailed Titmouse, Parus caudatus, L. f 



Capt. Bryant, Truro. 

A. J. Edwards, 
Perranwharf. 



William Harris, 
New York. 



American King Crab, Polyphemus occidentalis . . . > 

Common Mouse, attacked and killed with mouse } Robert Tweedv 
flavus ) ^' 

Box of Eungi, Lachnea coccinea, Jacq i 

Two Micro-slides, Mouse Elavus and Saccharomyces \ 
aceti , f 

Zoophyte, Sea Beard, Antennvlaria antennina, ( 
Turton, from Falmouth, attached to stone ... / 

Specimen of Common Weasel, Mustela vulgaris, L. "j 

Specimen of Stoat, Mustela erminea, L 

White example of Stoat 

Great Black-backed Gull, Larus marinus, L. 

Lizard Minerals, Potstone in mass and in section . 

Fossils from Bedru than Steps 

Specimens of Polished Serpentine 

A very interesting series of Eocene Fossils from^ 

New Zealand, including the following genera 

of MoUusca : — Pleurotoma, Valuta, Murex, 

Cassidaria, Mitra, Buccimim, Conus, Triton, 

Fusus, Pyrula, Ranella, Trochus, Etdima, 

Natica, Dentalium, Scalaria, Terebra, Margin- 

ella, Turitella, Gypraea, Solarium, Emarginula, 

Pecten, Pectuncutus, Area, Limopsis, Leda, 

Ghama 



J. Brown, 
Wadebridge. 

Dr. Rundle. 



Thomas Clark, 
Truro. 



Mrs. A. P. Moor, 
St. Clements. 



Unique specimens of Minerals from S.E. Norway:- 
Scapolite ; Hornblende and Apatite, Sphene and ( 
Horblende, from Monejkjand, Sphene and Sea- 
polite, and Sphene, from Bakken, Rutile crystals, j 
on gossan and quartz, from Vaereland 

Fungus, Dmdalia unicolor, from Penmere 

Minerals from the Lizard : — Picotite in Serpentine, 
Lankidden Cove ; Potsfcone, Polcornick ; 
Porphyritic Hornblende Schist, Bass Point ; 
Porphyritic Diorite, Cavonga ; Aluminous Ser- 
pentine (Pseudophyte), Kynance 

Lancelot, Amphioxus lanceolatus, dredged in Veryan 7 
Bay 3 



Arthur L. Collins, 
London. 



Howard Fox ,F.G.S., 
Falmouth. 



R. Vallentin, 
Falmouth. 



46 



AinSTTTAL MEETING. 



Specimen of Male Brambling, Fringilla montifrin- ) 
gilla, L J 

Specimen of Bewick's Swan, Cygnus Bewickii, \ 
Yarrell ... * 

Framed Portrait of the late Nicholas Whitley, C.E., 
Truro, Honorary Secretary of the Institution, 
1859-79. Vice-President, 1880-84 

Liassic Ammonite 

Tiles found in Luxulyan Church in 1878 ; of Spanish \ 
make, about 1350-1400 



F. H. Davey, 
Ponsanooth. 

F. King, M.R.C.S., 
Truro. 

Mrs. Whitley, 
Penarth, Truro. 

Thurstan C. Peter, 
Redruth. 

Rev. J. Kendall 

Rashleigh, M.A., 

St. Stephens. 



The sum of £5 6s. Od. spent in the acquirement") Rich. Pearce, F.G.S., 
of British Lepidoptera and British Birds' Eggsj Denver, Colorado. 

Two light- colored varieties of the Black Crow, 1 
Corvus coro7ie, J-i J 

Crystallized specimens of White Arsenic | 

Antique Lamp, dug from beneath a statue of ^ 
Rameses II, at Bedrechin, Egypt, by Major I 
Bagnold, R.E } 

Oyster on Pipe Bowl ) 

Specimen of Cassiterite from Godolphin Mine, I 

Breage „ ^ 

Large collection of Minerals from the Bolivian 

Andes : Native Copper, Atacamite, Selenite, 

Gypsum, Galena, Azurite, Malachite, Brochan- 

tite, Calcite, Felspar, Bornite, Calcopyrite, 

Silver Lead, &c 

Minerals from the Rio Tinto Mines,Spain ; Chalcopy- ) t „„ Osborne C E 



Walter Carnsew. 

Stephen H. Davey, 
Ponsanooth. 



John Burton, 
Falmouth. 

Rev. S.Eundle,M.A., 
Godolphin. 



Robert Harvey, J.P., 
London. 



F.G.S., Truro. 



rite. Galena, Blende, and several interesting >■ 

specimens of iridescent Limonites ..I 

An interesting series of Fossils, including : — "] 
Beleminites, Spongilla, Aiimichytes ovatus, I 
Gidaris sceptifera, Terebratula, Bhynchonella, \ 

Spondylus spinosus, Lamna elegans, Otodus )■ Samuel B. Rosevear, 
obliquus, and Carcharodon, from the Lower Fareham, Hants. 
Chalk, Portsdown Hill; Pectunculus and Pinna | 
affinis from the London clay, Fareham J 

Collection of Minerals illustrating the sett of the ] 

Uranium Mine, St. Stephens — Gossans, Diorite, I The Uranium Mine 
Lime and Copper Uranites, Galena, Mispickel, > Co. , per Capt. W. R. 
Hornblende, Magnetite, Cobalt, Nickel, Chal- 1 Thomas, F.G.S. 
copyrite, &c J 

A collection of Minerals, including : — Malachite? 
Cassiterite, Quartz crystals. Pyrites, Aurifer- 
ous Galena, Cuprite, Wolfram, Native Copper, 
Chalcocite, Redruthite, Calcites (fine forms), 
Pseudomorphic Quartz 



R. H. Williams, 

M.R.C.S., 

Lemon Street. 



ANNTTAIi MEETING. 



47 



GIFTS TO THE LIBRARY. 

Transactions of Royal Geological Society of Cornwall ( 
(Vol. 1.) i 

An Index to the Reports of the Meetings of the 
British Association from 1831 to 1860 

Report of the British Association at Leeds, 1890... 

Catalogue of the Tertiary Mollusca and Echino- 
dermata of New Zealand 

Fishes of New Zealand 

Echinodermata of New Zealand 

Studies in Biology 

Geological Explorations of New Zealand, 1870-1 ; 
1871-2; 1877-8; 1878-9 

An Essay on Ornithology, by Walter BuUer 

do. Botany, by William Colenso 

An Address on the Industries of New Zealand ... 

Natural History of New York Zoology (5 vols.) ... 

Botany (2 vols.) ... 

Mineralogy (I vol.) 
Pal8eontology(5 vols.) 

Geology (4 vols.) ... 

Agriculture (5 vols.) 

U.S. Naval Astronomical Expeditions, vols. 3& 6... 

Mineral Resources of the United States 

do. do. West of the Rocky 
Mountains 

Reports of the Mining Industry in New Zealand . . . ' 



The Society. 



do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 



JohnD.Enys,F.G.S., 
Enys. 



On 



the Genesis of Binodal 
Conies 



Quartic Curves for 



Government of 
New Zealand. 

H. M. Jeffery, 
M.A., F.R.S. 



-> 



U.S. Geol. Survey, Ninth Annual Report, 1887-8 ..."^ 

do. 1888 ! 

do. Bulletins, 58-61, 62-4, and 66 

do. Monograph, Lake Bonneville 
Smithsonian Report i 

do. U.S. Natural History Museum J 

Two Account Books of the Coinage Hall, Truro . . . 

Framed Portrait of the late J. Jope Rogers, M.P., I Capt. Rogers, R.A., 



The Government 

of the 

United States of 

America. 



W. J. Clyma, Truro. 



President of the Institution, 1867-69 



Penrose, Helston. 



48 ANNUAL MEETING. 

, ^ ^ „ ) The Curator, 

Report of the Museum of Owens College J Owens College. 

Journal of the Marine Biological Association, 1 The Association, 

Vol. I(N.S.) S Plymouth. 

Official List of Members of the 7th International ( j^^, -j^u^jjie^ 
Congress of Hygiene ) 

Phaon and Sappho, a play, with a selection of ( The Rev S Bundle, 

Poems by J. D. Hosken, Helston S M.A., Godolphm. 

List of Abandoned Mines, corrected to December x 

31st, 1890 ( Prof. C. Le Neve 

Summaries of the Statistical portion of the Reports ( Foster, D.Sc, B.A. 

of H.M. Inspectors of Mines 

Progress of the Art of Mining, Introductory | 

Lecture to the Mining Students of the Royal >• The Author. 

College of Science, by Prof. Foster, D.Sc. .. ) 

•, rr. .- j^i n J. \ Sanford Fleming, 

Time Reckoning for the Twentieth Century ^ LL.D., Washington. 

Collection of Ancient Marbles at Leeds, by E. L. I Leeds Philosophical 

Hicks S & Literary Society. 

Reprints of three Editorials on the Toxic effect of i Laboratory ^ 

matter accompanying the tubercle Bacillus and > ^^^^ ^j Sciences, 

its nidus ) Philadelphia. 

TT 11) A 1 iQQi I Hazell, Watson, and 

Hazell's Annual, 1891 1 Viney, Ltd., London. 

Portrait of the Right Hon. Lord St. Levan, Presi- I rpj^g j^^_ jjon. Lord 

dent of the Institution, 1871-73 I St. Levan. 

Carved Oak, belonging to the former Mayor's chair ) i r. v 

which stood in St. Mary's Church. This oak I J- Claude Daubuz, 

is to be used in the making of a Presidential > High Sheriff of 

chair for the Institution J Cornwall. 

The Wealth and Progress of New South Wales, ) ^^^^^^ General of 

1889-90 > New South Wales. 

Year book of New South Wales * 

Two old Maps, (1) the S.W. Counties of England \ 

and Wales; (2) Cornwall, 1630 ... / Thurstan C. Peter, 

Thesaurus Ecclesiasticus Provincialis, or a Survey I Redruth. 

of the Diocese of Exeter, 1782 ) 

Framed Portrait of Mr. Edwin Dunkin, F.R.S., I mi^ President 

F.R.A.S., President of the Institution, 1889-91 [ ^""^ rveaia^nv. 

" The Midnight Sky," new edition, by Edwin ( g ^^^^ Author. 

Dunkin, F.R.S S ^ 

Archives do Museu Nacional do Rio-de-Janeiro, \ „, ^ 

Vol VII ' ^'^^ Government 

Juseum Nati 

les Sciences Naturelles au Bresil 



Le Museum National de Janeiro et son influence sur 



ANNUAL MEETING. 



49 



BOOKS PURCHASED. 

Nature. 

Zoologist. 

Science Gossip. 

Knowledge. 

Ray Society. 

Paleeontographical Society. 

Meteorological Magazine. 

British Rainfall. 

Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. 

The Western Antiquary. 

The Life of Sir Humphry Davy. 

Agricultural Geology, by Nicholas Whitley, Truro. 

The Eagle, Vol. I. 

Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, Vol. IV. 

EXCHANGES WITH OTHER SOCIETIES. 



Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 

Anthropological Institute of (ireat Britain and 
Ireland 

Bath Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club 

Berwickshire Naturalists' Club 

Birmingham Natural History and Microscopical 
Society 

Birmingham Philosophical Society 

Boston Society of Natural History 

Bristol and Gloucester Archseological Society 

Bristol Naturalists' Society 

British and American Archaeological Society of 
Rome 

Canadian Institute 

Colorado Scientific Society 

Cumberland and Westmoreland Association for the 
Advancement of Literature and Science 

Department of Mines , 

Der K. Leop-Carol Deutschen Academic du Natur- 
forscher 

Devonshire Association 

Eastbourne Natural History Society 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 



Philadelphia. 
London. 

Bath. 
Belfast. 

Cockburnspath . 
Birmingham. 

Birmingham. 
Boston, U.S.A. 
Gloucester. 
Bristol. 
Rome. 

Toronto. 

Denver, Colorado, 
U.S A. 

Carlisle. 



Sydney, New South 
Wales. 

Halle. 



Tiverton. 
Eastbourne. 
Chapel Hill, U.S.A. 



50 



ANNUAL MEETING. 



Essex Field Club 

Geologists' Association 

Geological Society of Edinburgh 

Geological Society of Glasgow 

Geological Society of London 

Greenwich Royal Observatory 

Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society 

Le Museu Nacional do Rio-de- Janeiro 

Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society 

Liverpool Engineering Society 

Liverpool Naturalists' Field Club 

Liverpool Polytechnic Society 

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society 

Manchester Geological Society 

Meriden Scientific Association 

Mining Association and Institute of Cornwall 

Mineralogical Society of Great Britain 

Missouri Botanical Garden 

Natural History Society of Glasgow 

New York Academy of Sciences 

North of England Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Engineers 

Nova Scotian Institute of Natural Science ... 

Patent Office 

Penzance Natural History and Antiquarian Society 

Philosophical Society of Glasgow 

Plymouth Institution 

Powys-land Club 

Quekett Microscopical Club 

Rochester Academy of Science 

Royal Astronomical Society 

Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society 

Royal Dublin Society 

Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 

Royal Geological Society of Ireland 

Royal Historical and Archseological Society of 
Ireland 

Royal Institution of Great Britain 

Royal Irish Academy , 

Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh 



Buckhurst Hill. 

London. 

Edinburgh. 

Glasgow. 

London. 

Greenwich. 

Leeds. 

Rio-de-Janeiro. 

Liverpool. 

Liverpool. 

Liverpool. 

Liverpool. 

London. 

Manchester. 

Meriden, Conn., 

U.S.A. 

Camborne. 

London. 

Missouri, U.S.A. 

Glasgow. 

New York. 

Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. 

Halif aXjNova Scotia. 

London. 

Penzance. 

Glasgow. 

Plymouth. 

Welshpool. 

London. 

Rochester,NewYork. 

London. 

Falmouth. 

Dublin. 

Penzance. 

Dublin. 

Dublin. 

London. 
Dublin. 
Edinburgh. 



ANKTTAL MEETING. 



51 



Edinburgh. 

Yokohama. 

Washington. 

London. 

London. 

Paris. 

Taunton. 



Royal Society of Edinburgh 
Seismological Society of Japan . . . 

Smithsonian Institution 

Society of Antiquaries of London 

Society of Arts 

Societe Mineralogique de France 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History 
Society 

The Colliery Engineer , Scranton, U.S.A. 

The Antiquary , Malton. 

Wagner Free Institute of Science Philadelphia. 

Y Cymmrodorion Society London. 

Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society ... Halifax. 
Zoological Society of London London. 

The following papers were then read : 

"An Ancient Settlement on Trewortha Marsh." — Rev. S. 
Baring Gould, M.A. 

"A Tin Hebrew Image found in Bodwen Moor." — Rev. W. 
lago, B. A. 

" Cornubiana."— Eev. S. Eundle, M.A. 

"Magnetic Eocks of Cornwall."— Mr. T. Clark, 

The Eev. W. lago described the Hammer used formerly 
by the Duchy to mark blocks of tin ; gave a new reading of the 
St. Hilary Stone ; shewed rubbings and casts illustrating the 
inscriptions on other stones in Cornwall : — viz., those at Liskeard 
Castle, South-hill, Boslow, St. Hilary, St. Clements, Cardinham, 
Endellion, Carnsew (Hayle), Sancreed, Minster, &c., several of 
which had not hitherto been deciphered ; and shewed the inter- 
esting Chalice and Paten from Kea, of French workmanship, 
lent by Mr. Daubuz. 

" Colour Changes in Cornish Stoats." — Mr. H. Orowther, 
F.E.M.S. 

" Oyster Spat on a pipe bowl."— Mr. E. Eundle, F.E.C.S.I. 

A very handsome volume, the History of the Hundred of 
Blackheath, Kent, was presented to the Society by Dr. H. H. 
Drake, formerly of St. Austell, but now resident in London. 
It is a large folio volume, richly illustrated, and showing great 
research and much painstaking, — the presentatation was made 
through Mr. Silvanus Trevail. 

The proceedings terminated with votes of thanks to the 
Officers of the Society, the readers and contributors of papers, 
the Chairman, and the Secretary. 



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METEOROLOGY. 



53 



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CO 




W 




■^ 


o 


Gl 


Cd 


lO 


(M 


CD 


in 


7-1 


o 


01 


(M 


^ 


Or 


<1 


•jre jC.ip JO 


02 01 




in 

lO 


CD 


^ 


00 


CO 
lO 


I-H 


iH 


CO 


in 


Ol 


CD 
CD 


^5 


w 


e.tnssa.id ireapj; 


.Soi 


o 


Ol 


Ol 


OS 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 


OS 


Ol 


OS 


3h 


K 




cq 


CO 




oq 


(M 


(M 




(M 


(N 


<M 


(M 


<M 


Cl 


rs ^ 




Ol 


CO 


o 


T-H 


i-H 


cc 


GO 


CO 


^ 


Ol 


<M 


Ol 


-* 


Q-\ 


H 


•jnodBA 




rH 


I-H 






o 


00 


O 


T-l 


in 










•S"^ 


(M 


ca 


(M 




^ 


CO 


^ 


^ 


CO 


(M 


(M 




mr. 


I^H 


JO 80TOJ UBapt 


























O 






























x>r 




cc 


00 


m 


on 


t^ 


00 


in 


^ 


<M 


^ 


<M 


O 


in 


.2, 


•SHBaui jfiq^notn 


.Ol 


I-H 


CX) 


<M 

Ol 


CO 


00 

OS 


in 

Ol 


00 


o 
o 


ig 


<M 

00 


^ 


CD 
OS 


a = 


^ 


JO u'eani anjx 


.ticS 


o 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 


o 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 






CO 




<75 


(M 




(M 


(M 




CO 


c;i 


CM 


CI 


Cl 


■g: 




Tfl 


CO 


t~ 


tP 


CO 


I-H 


<M 


^ 


-^ 


CO 


-^ 


CO 


^ 


■a 




•aSuBj x'Bnanrp 








o 


o 


O 


O 


o 












d 


l>H 


oo 






o 


© 


o 


O 


o 














h) 


aoj noi?09.uoo nBaj^ 




























02p 
































rt 




t^ 


rH 


lO 


(M 


o 


01 


c~ 


00 


CD 


o 


CD 


CO 


Ol 


w 1 


O 


•su'Bani iiq^nora 


tnS 


^ 


00 


Ol 




00 

Ol 


in 

Ol 


(M 
OO 


O 
O 


^ 


00 


Ol 
C3S 


Cf, 
Ol 


.«>■ 


JO UBajf 


•^o 


O 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 


O 


Ol 


OS 


Ol 


Ol 


m 




CO 


CO 


(M 


(M 


(M 


<N 


(M 


CM 


CO 


(M 


CI 


CI 


ca 








■* 


CO 


-# 


CD 


Ol 


r~ 


^ 


in 


r^ 


CO 


CO 


in 


o 


-2 




■^ ^ 






CO 




CO 




CJS 


CO 


<M 






rH 


Ol 


!>• 








"^ o 


CO 

o 


00 

6i 


Ol 
Ol 


Ol 


Ol 
Ol 


Ol 
OS 


00 

Ol 


o 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 

6i 


gi 

OS 


p 




S-s 


05 


CO 


CO 


(M 


(M 


(M 


(M 


cq 














S 




8^: 






00 


m 


O 


00 


CO 


on 


oa 


CD 


(M 


CO 


o 


00 


01 




m.d-' 


a 




CO 




CO 


CO 


00 


in 


CO 


^ 


-* 


CO 




CD 






" =« S 


Id i"i 


-s 


00 


Ol 


t- 


Ol 










Ol 


OS 


^F 




p< 




o 


Ol 


OS 


Ol 


OS 


OS 


Ol 


o 


OS 


Ol 


Ol 


Ol 


r 






CO 


CO 


CO 


oa 


<M 


<M 


<N 


(M 


(M 


CO 




CM 


oq 


Ol 


M 
PI. 








01 


Ol 


CO 


CD 


CO 


I> 


in 


CD 


CO 


CO 






a 










CO 


00 










CO 


Ol 




■<r 




m<M 


tP 


00 


Ol 


c- 


OS 






^— J 




00 


Ol 


Ol 


^ 




£iS 




.So 






Ol 




OS 


OS 


OS 


o 


OS 


OS 


OS 




H. 




a-^ 


Ol 


CO 


CO 


(M 


(M 


Cvl 


CN 


ca 






<M 


CM 


CM 


Cl 


tfl 








1^ 














O) 




s 












t>j 


f- 












.J 




^ 


rO 


.o. 






OS 
00 
rH 


O 




pi 


1 




1 


1 

i-s 


^ 

^ 


1 


0) 

"ft 
m 


-s 
o 


a 

a> 
>• 
o 


a 

o 

cu 


el 

C3 
Ol 





54 



METEOROLOGY. 



TABLE No. 2. 



i-H rH T-l ^ 





— ~" 


•tSn^H 


o 




lo 


CO 


CO 


CO 


OS 


r» 


ea 


^ 


eg 


o 


CO 






-# 


"* 


CO 


CO 


■* 


TH 


CO 


CO 


■^ 


CO 


CO 


CO 


'^va 


OO 


O 


lO 


en 


Ci 


1-1 


CO 


nn 


o 


nn 


in 


in 






s 

o 










1-1 




1-1 


eg 


CO 


iH 


eg 


eg 






lO 


^ 


nn 


i-f 


o 


rn 


o 


r^ 


1-1 


m 


CO 


t- 


^ 






r-H 


(M 


(M 


CO 


CO 


CO 


^ 


CO 


^ 


CO 


eg 


eg 


CO 


■A^a 


00 


no 




t-5 


iM 


1-1 


>o 


CO 


CO 


T-i 


OS 


in 










(M 




CO 


r-^ 


eg 


1-1 


1-1 


rH 




" 












CO 


^ 


CO 


(M 


OJ 


^ 


CO 


CO 


m 


r^ 


SS 








iO 


CO 


CD 


CD 


!>. 


00 


r~ 


L-^ 


00 


CD 


in 


in 


CO 






Ol 


-^ 


(M 


o 


00 


m 


OS 


CO 


o 


-* 


-a 


■<a 


CO 






•eSnuT nBsm it^CE 


Oct 




'^ 


r>- 


00 


r^ 


lO 


CO 


CD 


in 


eg 


iH 


m 








i-H 


i-H 


iH 


1-1 


1-1 


1-1 


^~* 


'-' 


1—1 


rH 




rH 




■dmact 
ni39m pa^dopy 


OS 


iC 


05 


00 


^ 


o 


CO 


CO 


o 


OS 


■^ 


T? 


^ 




Pi 

CO 

s 


005 
CO 


^ 


^ 




lO 


o 

CD 


o 

CO 


CO 
lO 


OS 

«n 


s 


^ 


in 


s 


•q^notn 9^ 


n'-l 


1-1 


IN 


1-1 


00 


CO 


CO 


CO 


eg 


^ 


iH 


eg 


CO 


PS 


joj noTqoaJ.iOQ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


O 


© 


o 


•dmsq. uTjara 


o 


CD 


1-1 


Oi 


05 


CO 


CD 


CO 


eg 


CO 


in 


CD 


1> 


o 




a^'Braixo.iddy 


"^ 


^ 


^ 






o 

CD 


§ 


00 
lO 


OS 

in 


in 


^ 


in 


g 


•■BniiniK: 


CD 


Oi 


o 


■^ 


00 


CD 


!>■ 


o 


eg 


CO 


CO 


OS 


rH 




aqa u^ JO ni38H 


■^ 


^ 


CD 
CO 


05 
CO 


-# 






in 


1-1 
in 


^ 


^ 


OS 
CO 


CO 


"BonxBn 


lO 


CO 


(?T 


'SI 


CO 


rH 


CO 


CO 


eg 


o 


i> 


CO 


^ 


K 
H 




aq'; [1T3 JO nuajf 


CD 




O 


s 


CD 


OS 
CD 


s 


in 

CD 


s 


<5 
in 


3 


rH 

in 


00 

in 




•ttLiaqx ^id 


00 


05 


CO 


-* 


1-1 


(M 


^ 


eg 


o 


o 


OS 


iH 


O 




Moiaq q.uTod Maa 


1-1 


o 


o 


CO 


(M 

1-1 


CO 


o 


rH 
1-1 


OS 


OS 


OS 




?o 


CO 


CO 


r-t 


o 


00 


O) 


o 


in 


o 


OS 


t- 


T-l 




•^njod Map uvsy^ 


CO 


CD 
CO 


CO 


tH 


CO 


<5 


lO 


s? 


£? 


r- 

^ 


^ 


o 


^ 


■^.ip Moiaq 


nt- 


lO 


CO 


Oi 


05 


CD 


CO 


00 


eg 


in 


CO 


in 


OS 


P3 


•ra.iaqi ^3^, 


CO 


lO 


■^ 


"* 


o 


lO 


CO 


^ 


^ 


'tP 


-* 


^ 


'St 


GQ 


SI 
































tl 


•UOiqB.IOd'BAa 


o 


o 


CO 


r-< 


OS 


CD 


CO 


in 


eg 


OS 


CO 


rH 


in 


S 
S 


o 


JO ■dma^ m3ai\[ 


"§ 


^ 


o 




^ 


iii 


CO 
lO 


CO 

in 


in 


^ 


^ 


in 


^ 


•aSnt!.! xBUJutp joj 


o« 


!« 


CO 


CO 


^ 


t- 


oa 


eg 


OS 


CD 


in 


CO 


OS 


^ 




uoi^oawoo UBajn 


o 


o 


o 


1-1 


1-1 


rH 


1—1 


rH 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


M 


•qina ^BAV 


CO 


lO 


03 


'^ 


CO 


CO 


00 


I>. 


1-1 


in 


00 


^ 


^^ 




O 


JO nuajf 


"^ 


(M 


o 


^ 


^ 


^ 


in 


in 


^ 


rH 

in 


^ 


^ 


^ 


•qina ^.la 


J>. 


lO 


CD 


o 


00 


<M 


CI 


CO 


^ 


-jp 


CD 


CO 


'^ 


o 
3 


JO uBam aii.ix 


ujo 


t^ 

^ 




o 


fO 



eg 

CO 


CO 
CD 


CO 


CD 


in 
in 




^ 


CO 

in 


•aSatM iBu.tnip joj 


of 

o 


r^ 


o 


CD 


CO 


OS 


1—1 


o 


t^ 


00 


CO 


eg 


'S* 






tioi^oaixoo treajf 


o 


1-1 


1-1 


cq 


(M 


eg 


eg 


1-1 


o 


o 


o 


7-i 


'qing ^ja 


1-1 


IN 


«) 


CD 


1-1 


rl 


CO 


CO 


rH 


eg 


eg 


00 


00 






JO Treajj 


0-* 


00 


^ 


1—1 


CD 


CD 


in 

CD 


CO 
CO 


CO 
CO 


S 


^ 


^ 


in 






iH 


OQ 


to 


00 


lO 


CD 


o 


OS 


eg 


eg 


CD 


l>. 


in 






■qiTia ^aj^ 


Offl, 


1-i 


(M 


lO 


m 


r- 


r>. 


en 


t^ 


o 


eg 


CO 


00 




S 
ft 












■^ 


lO 


lO 


in 


in 






tP 


'SI 




I> 


lO 


o 


to 


o 


OS 


1-1 


o 


in 


CO 


o 


—1 


i> 




as 


•qing jJ.ia 


0(M 


CD 


^ 


o 


in 


CO 


s 


eg 


eg 


in 


r^ 


00 


CO 








^ 


'^ 


^ 


lO 


lO 


CD 


CD 


CD 


in 


■^ 


^ 


in 






Oi 


lO 


Irt 


OS 


o 


(M 


eg 


1—1 


O 


o 


GO 


eg 


o 






•qina 'jaAV 


OrH 


■^ 


l>T 


r^ 


^ 


O 


OS 


OS 


O 


CO 


in 


j>. 


rH 




a 
ft 




-* 
















CO 


in 


-* 


-* 


in 




O 


,-1 


<Xi 


lO 


OS 


-# 


o 


O 


E^ 


1-1 


eg 


CD 


CD 




CO 


•qina ^a 


o^r- 


o 


r-» 


CO 


r^ 


r^ 


1^ 


lO 


in 


r^ 


o 


,_j 










-# 


o 


Ttl 


lO 


in 


CD 


CD 


CD 


CO 


in 


ii 


in 


in 






CM 


1-1 


CD 


lO 


CO 


1-1 


-* 


CO 


eg 


OV> 


o 


■^ 


CO 






•qina ^ajVi 


= o 


(TJ 


O 


lO 


on 


r>. 


t^ 


r^ 


r^ 


j—t 


CO 


in 






a 




. ^ 


TtH 


xH 


-* 


-* 


lO 


lO 


in 


m 


in 


'^ 


rP 


^ 




CD 


TP 


,_, 


c- 


CO 


OS 


o 


00 


00 


r~ 


in 


00 


eg 




OS 


•qina jf ^a 


oro 


r^ 


lO 


o 


lO 


CO 


IC 


eg 


eg 


CD 


r- 


OS 


•* 








^ 


TtH 


Tt< 


lO 


lO 


CO 


CD 


CD 


CO 


in 


tH 


^ 


in 
























!n 
















































03 
pi 

1 














,j 


rS 


u 


rQ 


,j= 




00 

i-H 




5 

1 






^ 
g 


i-s 




1 


i 
-a 

OO 


1 

o 


1 


a 

O) 

o 

ft 


1 



5d3 

3 >> 






Ma 





Tl 









c3 


















a 








aizi 










fl^ 


H 






S 



METEOEOIOGir. 



55 





TABLE No. 3. 






























m 
P 


o 

o 

H 

o 

<! 


•n'Baw 


CO 

1-1 


o 


05 
rH 


rH 


OS 
rH 


rH 




rH 


CO 
tH 




CO 
rH 


o 
cq 


cq 

rH 


rH 


■ra-d 6 


CO 


o 

rH 


O 


00 


OS 
rH 


to 

rH 






CO 
rH 


UO 


CO 


rH 

cq 


CO 

OS 
1-^ 


m-d 8 




p 


00 


4h 


C5 


rd 


rH 


rH 


p 




■? 


a> 


00 
00 
rH 




•ni'B g 


CO 
r-l 




(35 




P 


P 
rH 


rH 


7? 

rH 


p 
rH 




CO 
rH 


o 
cq 


(M 

OS 

rH 


CO 
rH 




•m-d 6 


■^ 


o 


-* 


7-K 


rH 


rH 


(M 


rH 


rH 


CO 


(jq 


o 


O 

cq 


> oq 


•ui-d g 


IC 


o 


-* 


1— 1 


rH 


rH 


eq 


T^ 


rH 


'i? 


eq 


o 


cq 
cq 


•ran 6 


CO 


o 


^ 


^ 


rH 


oq 


(M 


cq 


ffq 


<jq 


■^ 


o 


CO 

oq 


^ 


■m-d 6 


!>. 


00 


oq 


cq 


oo 


CO 




N 


Utl 


(M 


-* 


T^ 






•in-d g 


<» 


t^ 


cq 


(M 


00 


cq 


rH 


IC 


CO 


rH 


^ 


t-^ 


cq 


■OT-'B 6 


t» 


J> 


T-\ 


CO 


!>• 


rH 




CO 


'^ 


CO 


to 


T^ 




^ 
K 


•tn-d 6 


CO 


I— 1 


■^ 


CO 


OS 


CO 


■^ 


00 


00 


T-i 


CO 


o 


^ 


1^ 


•rad g 


CO 


cq 


-* 


CO 


Oi 


-* 


rH 


!>• 


lO 


CO 


lO 


r^ 




•TH'B 6 


CO 


^ 


'S 


(M 


OJ 


-* 


■r-\ 


CO 


>rt ' 


rH 


(M 


rH 


^ 


^ 


•ra-d 6 


CO 


CO 


w 


r-\ 


rH 


T-\ 


■^ 


lO 


^ 


rH 


CO 


CO 


CO 




■ni-d 8 


tP 


T-l 


r^ 


rH 


CO 


^ 


■^ 


CO 


«q 


rH 


oq 


in 


^ 


•UfB 6 


'^ 


r-( 


l> 


iH 


<M 


(M 


■^ 


^ 


o 


CO 


■r-\ 


i« 


CO 


^, 


•tn'd 6 


00 


(M 


-* 


00 


J>- 


00 


IC 




CO 


00 

T-t 




o 


1 ^-^ 

rH 


f "? 
I rH 


•ni-d 8 


o> 


(M 


-^ 


rH 


« 


00 


CO 


3 


lO 


rH 


O 






•OT-B 6 


J> 


<n 


(M 


05 


00 


00 


CO 


rH 


Oi 


rH 


O 

rH 




Ol 


J. 


•TO-d 6 


-* 


«o 


(M 


CO 


lO 


(M 


o 


^^ 


rH 


O 


O 


rH 


CO 


f * 

i CO 


•ra-d 8 


rH 


t» 


CO 


rH 


■^ 


o 


T-i 


rH 


CO 


(M 


o 


rH 


^ 


■ui-'B 6 


^ 


r» 


^ 


(M 


CO 


o 


rH 


cq 


CO 


T-\ 


o 


-f 


'SI 


pd 


•m-d 6 


o 


00 


tH 


00 


o 


<M 


O 


o 


J>- 


y-\ 


oq 


)lO 


1^ 


f ■? 

> oa 

( CO 


•ra-d 8 


rH 


t» 


© 


«D 


o 


CI 


o 


o 


t^ 


1-1 


rH 


^ 


o; 
on 


•ni-B 6 


cq 


o 
1-1 


T^ 


t» 


o 


CO 


o 


o 


lO 


(?q 


rH 


CO 


|co 


H 


•ra-d 6 


<M 


o 


00 


xP 


o 


o 


lO 


o 


CO 


in 


Tfl 


o 


1 CO 


( cq 

r 


•ra-d g 


(M 


(M 


1> 


IC 


o 


rH 


lO 


o 


■<*l 


•^ 


lO 


o 


i '^ 

1 CO 


•cn-B e 


rH 


o 


00 


lo 


o 


O 


lO 


o 


cq 


lO 


CO 


o 


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VOL. XI. 



PLAN OF ANCIENT SETTLEMENT. TREWORTHA, 

Planned October, 1891 ; Rev. S. BARING GOULD. 




^:J- t. ■. 'i- 




■^M. 



Plate I. 




CAIRN OVER LltnCE 




^°^''^\%<^ HUT CIRCLE (>■) g 









^K^ 




^jib- 



-.J^^ 



MARSH 




Scale— 25 inches to a mile. 



PLAN OF ANCIENT SETTLEMENT, TREWORTHA 

Planned October, 1891 ; Rev. S. BARING GOULD. 




57 



AN ANCIENT SETTLEMENT ON TREWORTHA MARSH. 

By the Rev. S. BARING-GOULD. 



Trewortha marsh, occupies the bed of an ancient lake that 
has been silted up by the granite rubble brought down by 
several streams that flow into the basin. This rubble has 
attracted the attention of tin miners from an early period, 
certainly from prehistoric times, and those who searched for tin 
have left their traces on the margin of the marsh. Indeed, the 
banks that slope into Trewortha bottom are everywhere covered 
with remains, that show that in a former age there must have 
been a considerable population settled on this desolate and lone- 
some spot. 

At Tresillan, where an inlet of the ancient lake formed an 
arm, were ruins that have been recently destroyed, and these 
were of houses of the date of Edward VI and Queen Mary, if 
one may judge from the coins found there during the process of 
demolition. An octagonal cheese-form or press was also there 
discovered, cut in granite, that belongs to about the same date ; 
this, as well as the coins, is now in the possession of Francis E. 
Eodd, Esq., of Trebartha Hall. These houses had " cloam " 
ovens, fire-places, and chimneys. 

Quite other is the settlement further up the valley, to the 
south, at the head of the marsh. Here the whole moor-side is 
cut up with lines of demarcation forming paddocks and fields, 
running down to the water's edge, and with the remains of 
circular huts in most of these paddocks. 

Different again is a settlement that lies between Eushleford 
Gate and this colony of hut- circle-dwellers. Here also the moor 
slope is lined with upright stones that formed the bases of field 
and paddock walls, but these are in connexion with a cluster of 
dwellings that are oblong. 

Through the kindness of Mr, T. E. Bolitho, the owner of 
the land, and of Mr. F. E. Eodd, who placed his workmen at 
my disposal, I have been able, assisted by the Eev. A. H. Malan, 
of Altarnon, to thoroughly explore two of these habitations, and 
to partially excavate two or three more. 



58 ANCIENT SETTLEMENT ON TREWORTHA MARSH. 

The name Trewortha means in Cornisli, tlie upper settle- 
ment, and it may have been given to that cluster of oblong 
habitations now under consideration. Tresillan, the other settle- 
ment, is, perhaps, Tre-sulien, that of one named Sulien. 

The cluster of oblong houses lies on the slope facing east, 
in a tongue of land formed by Smallacombe Down between the 
Withy-brook from the south, and a stream from Goodaver 
Downs that flows into Trewortha Marsh from the west. To the 
east is a dip in the moor, between Trewortha Tor and Eidge, 
through which the distant chain of Dartmoor Tors from Sourton 
to Mistor can be seen. The space occupied by the settlement is 
500 feet by 300 feet, and consists of nine rectangular huts, — 
ten, if we include one on a mound in the marsh, and there are 
some two or three hut-circles as well. 

Of thesa oblong huts all point east and west, and have their 
doors to the south. A peculiar feature is that they have a high 
bank thrown up to the west, above them, to give shelter against 
wind and rain, and in some cases there is a passage between this 
shelter bank and the head of the house. 

Another peculiar feature is the approach to this colony from 
the north by Eushleford-gate. It is along a broad road, sixty 
feet across, enclosed within track lines of upright stones, but 
on approaching the settlement the road is partly blocked by a 
line of upright large stones drawn across it, having in the midst 
a gateway ten feet wide. At the south end of the village, the 
road again contracts to 30 ft., and there are some large stones in 
the middle that may have belonged to a cross-wall. They are 
not earth-fast, and have at one time been upright. 

We will now take each hut by itself ; and begin with one 
that lies apart from the rest, it is marked A on the plan. This 
has not as yet been completely excavated. It consists of two 
chambers that never communicated with each other. That to the 
east is lined throughout with upright slabs of stones, and 
measures 7-ft. 6-in. by 6-ft. 3-in. The doorway, exceptionally, 
faces the east. One of the jambs alone is in situ\ the other lies 
outside, as does also the lintel. The western-most chamber, 9-f t. 
by 7-ft. 6-in., has the walls built for \\^q most part in rude courses, 
but two upright slabs have been utilised. The door is to the 



ANCIENT aETTLEMENT ON TREW.ORTHA MARSH. 59 

south, and is not constructed of uprights. About 8 feet to the 
south, is a large upright stone, 3 feet high. There are traces of 
boundary stones round the mass that represent the walls, but 
"whether originally set on edge as about a cairn, or that they are 
merely stones fallen from the walls, has not been decided as yet 
by the spade. 

Hut B. The interior length of this hut is 50 -ft. It con- 
tains three compartments, all entered from that in the centre, 
which alone has a door for egress. This central chamber has not 
been excavated. It measures 12-ft. 6-in. by 10-ft. 6-in. The 
doorway is not in the middle. Both jambs are standing, they 
are stones 3-ft. high, and the lintel is just without, a slab 
measuring 4-ft. by 2-ft. 3-in. The opening between the jambs 
is 2-ft. 6-in. 

Turning to the right is a door in the party wall leading into 
the largest apartment, measuring 24-ft. long, by about 10-ft. 
wide. The jambs remain in place. This chamber seems to have 
been lined with upright slabs of granite. It has not yet been 
excavated. 

Turning from the vestibule to the left, a doorway of which 
one of the jambs is gone, gives admission to a small chamber,, 
measuring 9-ft. 6-in. by 12-ft. The walls of this house are 3-ft, 
thick, but the western wall is four times the width of the east, 
and the object for this width was to allow of the construction in 
its thickness of both an oven and a locker, each to the depth of 
5-ft. The oven was never of " cloam," but was constructed of 
granite, and precisely like a beehive hut in structure. It was 
3-ft. in diameter, built of granite-stones gathered together so as 
to overlap and form a dome. Fires have turned the stones red, 
and have so injured them that the top of the oven has fallen in. 
The bottom of the oven was but 6 inches above the level of the 
floor. Close to the oven, in the depth of the wall is a locker, the 
opening to which is 1-ft. 4-in. wide, and 1-ft. 7-in. high, running 
five feet into the depth of the wall, and covered over with four 
or five slabs of granite. It was no doubt placed close to the 
oven that its contents might be kept dry ; those in the furthest 
depth could only be extracted by means of a crooked stick. We 
removed the coverers, but found nothing in the locker, and then 



60 ANCIENT SETTLEMENT ON TREWOKTHA MAESH. 

replaced the slabs as found. The south wall of this chamber is 
constructed of upright slabs. The chamber has not yet been 
fully excavated. 

Hut C. This hut is about 60-ft. long internally, and about 
12-ft. wide. It has not yet been examined with the spade. It 
apparently consisted of a long hall and of two small chambers, 
one of which is an excrescence to the side of the oblong dwelling. 
A passage passes between the shelter bank and the west wall of 
this house. 

Hut D, about 28-ft. long by 8-ft. 6-in. wide, consists of a 
single chamber. The door-jambs and lintel remain. This hut 
has not as yet been excavated. 

Hut E. This is the longest of all the habitations, and has 
been pretty thoroughly explored. 

It consists of an oblong building, measuring externally 80-ft. 
by 20-ft. It comprises four chambers, but that to the east is 
much more modern than the rest, and the original length of this 
house was 70-ft. Admission was obtained through a doorway 
3-ft. 3-in. wide, the bottom of which was paved. The lintel was 
fallen, but has been re-placed by us. It was not supported by 
upright jambs, but rested on walls. A screen of granite was 
erected on the west side of the door, probably to keep the rain 
and wind from driving in at so exceptionally large an entrance. 
The height of the lintel from the floor is 3-ft. Although not in 
place, its position and height could be approximately determined 
by the screen within, that stood 3-ft. above the floor. It may 
not have been so high, but it probably was. A doorway so wide 
was also, in all likelihood, unusually high ; and 3-ft. is the height 
of the jambs to Hut B. 

On passing through this door we enter a hall, 44-f t. 
long, by 14-ft. wide, divided into two by a screen of upright 
slabs of granite, standing about 3-ft. above the soil. If we 
turn to the left, we find ourselves in a hall divided again 
into two portions by stone screens, that to the east is one slab 
standing forward 2-ft. 3-in. at right angles with the main wall, 
serving to give those in the chamber some shelter from the 
draught from the door, Seven feet six inches to the west 19 



Vol. XI. 



PLAN OF PRINCIPAL HOUSE, TR 

Planned October, 1891 ; Rev. S. BARING GOL 



SCALE IN FEET 

8 6 4- u. o ip 



A Later addifions. Two of the Cushion-stones from the Hail set up at Q. 

B Main Hall with Stone Benches down the sides. " Judges " seat at H. 

C Du-eHnig Hall divided into two stalls on the South side. Hearth hack at I 

D Ohamher with LocJcer in tlie North wall, 

E Paddock. Stile at «. 

F Main Entrance, paved. Lintel re-placed. 
L Wind-hole, diameter of opening, \-ft. 6-in. 

M Buttress against N. toall. Probably stack of Peat between tlm Buttre.fs 
and the stone screen fj. 

O Entrance to the village, from the West., 

P Shelter Bank. 



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Plate II. 



- - ■'£/2StS> *4ijf//il^ 



VORTHA. 



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55 



fLOOR OF CffAVEL AHO 
SMfiLL STONES 






%. /.//Vt- OA SECTIOH 







oo ,_ii,>».li""\U('^i" ■'.. 






Z//^y. 



''^"%m^- 



Plate II. 



PLAN OF PRINCIPAL HOUSE, TReWORTHA. 

Planned October, 1891 ; Rev. S. BARING GOULD 



-^1 



"inifiiSii#(ii«,-ttifi 







,r,ion, T,m of tk. Mion-.to„eyfrom the Hall .«« «p at Q. 

(IhamhvT wth V'Cler in the North wall. 

Paddock. Stile at K. 

Main Entrance, rawd. Untel re-placed. 

Wind-Me, diamefer of opening, Ut. 6-W. 

Buare.. a>jains, N. .all. MaUy sta.1: of Peat ietween the Buttre.. 

and the stone screen N. 
Entrance to tU milage, from the West., 
Shelter Bank. 



i/A/f OF 



ANCIENT SETTLEMENT ON TEEWORTHA MAESH. 61 

anotlier similar screen of granite, standing out 2-ft. 9-in. from 
the wall and dividing off a portion of the hall that is 12-ft. 9-in. 
long. Not only so, but in the midst of the hall is an upright 
slab of granite, 2-ft. 3-in. high, with a paved hearth to the west 
of it which, as well as this slab, bears tokens of fire. This, then, 
was the fire-hearth andj fire-back for the dwellers in the upper 
compartment of the hall. Those in the lower had also their 
hearth, but it was on the unpaved floor, and it was without a 
fire-back. The soil was burnt brick-red where it had stood. 
Apparently two families had occupied this hall, their sleeping 
portions separated by a stone screen, and each had its own fire. 
This is very much the arrangement of an Esquimo house at the 
present day. The south wall is entirely composed of upright 
slabs of granite. The wall on the opposite side is in a ruinous 
condition, and never had a range of upright stones to constitute 
or to line it. 

Passing through a narrow door, 2-ft. wide, partly of stones 
set upright as jambs, and partly of stones in courses, we reach 
a small chamber measuring 13-ft. 4-in. by 14-ft., the floor 
of which was very hard, and made of granite sand, and pebble, 
beaten down into a sort of compost with clay. In the north wall 
of this apartment is a stone locker, the floor of which is 15 
inches above the floor of the chamber. It is 18 inches high and 
as many deep. It is covered by two slabs of granite, still in 
place. In this easternmost chamber were found some fragments 
of pottery. 

If we return to the dwelling-hall, where were the two flres, 
we find a curious feature in the north wall, opposite the entrance. 
This is a narrow opening, 1-ft. 6-in. in diameter, on the floor- 
level. Of its original height there are no means of Judging^ 
outside this is a granite screen, 3-ft. 3-in., at right angles to the 
wall, and rising to the same height from the ground. This is to 
the east of the opening. The similar screens outside the main 
doorway are to the east and west of that door. The only possible 
explanation of this hole with its screen is, that it was a draught- 
opening in the wall, either for clearing the house of smoke, or 
for helping the fires to draw. Possibly, when the fires would not 
burn with the wind in one quarter, the opening in the wall was 



62 



ANCIENT SETTLEMENT ON TREWOETHA MARSH. 



employed to create a suitable current of air. If now we turn to 
the right at the great entrance, we find ourselves in a hall 20-ft. 
long, with a row of benches of stone down each side, and on 
the north side the uppermost seat has granite arms. The seats 



<jI'tW?R!?i;v!^HTt^TiW'r**'^«*'t*??Wvl 




are formed of upright slabs, eighteen inches high, erected so 
that their faces shall run paralled with the side-walls, 1-ft. 8-in. 



ANCIENT SETTLEMENT ON TEEWORTHA MAB8H 63 

from them. On the north side there is a double such line, one 
being erected against the wall. The space between is filled in 
with small pieces of granite and sand, wedged together very 
compactly, and then a slab of granite with a straight edge was 
placed on this shelf thus constructed. The only seat that is 
different in construction is that with the elbows. It is built up 
of stones and turf, and has no face of stone to support the 
cushion stones. This elbowed-seat is four feet between the 
elbows. The side to the west is formed of two upright slabs, 
that to the east of one alone. The elbows rise 1-ft. 4-in. above 
the seat. There are two cushion-stones to this seat, which would 
very well accommodate two persons. The rest of the bench 
would hold about 8 persons, and ten persons might sit on the 
opposite side. The cushion-stones are very distinct, and seem to 
have had a straight edge put to them. They are not all in place, 
but some dozen are. The seats on the south side are at a slightly 
lower level than those on the north side. No fire seems ever to 
have been kindled in this hall ; we could discover no trace of 
fire on the floor. Close to the entrance was found a granite 
handquern, the internal concave portion polished with friction. 
At the lower end of this hall with benches is a doorway com- 
municating with the easternmost chamber. This doorway did 
not exist originally, and has been knocked through the end 
wall diagonally. It could not be driven straight through owing 
to a large stone that formerly formed part of the foundation of 
the outside wall. Moreover, the junction of more recent structure 
is observable outside, the walls returning at right angles, and 
not being dovetailed into those in the same line of this eastern- 
most apartment. In this room or linney that measures 7 -ft. by 
14-ft., were two of the cushion stones that had been removed 
from the seats in the hall, and set up on their sides in the ground, 
to form what appeared to have been a manger for yearlings, but 
which had no stone to close the end. These slabs were so 
slightly sunk in the floor, that they fell when exposed, and we 
replaced them on the seats in the hall, where they fit exactly. 
The floor of the long hall, between the rows of benches, is 
very much sunk in the middle. Possibly sheep or bullocks may 
have been driven through it to this chamber at the end, and 
have worn the depression. It is, however, difficult to understand 



64 ANCIENT SETTLEMENT ON TREWORTHA MARSH. 

how a bullock could have been got through the door at the east 
end, for it is only 2-ft. wide, and if we may judge from the 
jambs found in place, it cannot have been above 2-ft. 6-in. high. 

The " Council HaU " may, however, have been utilized in 
later times for bullocks, and the cushion-stones removed to make 
mangers for the cattle. If this were so, then perhaps the traces 
of a central hearth were destroyed. 

To return to the hall of seats. The stone-slabs that formed 
a screen between it and the upper hall, where were the hearths 
were five in number. Two formed the elbow to the upper seat 
on the north side. In a line with this, were three more. All 
were lying on their faces down hill, but of their position there 
could be no doubt, as the groove in the soil remained, showing 
where they had been sunk into the floor. The floor of the room 
above is a few inches higher than that of the lower hall. Out- 
side this lower hall, on the north side, is a sort of buttress built 
against the wall, consisting of large stones laid one on the other. I 
think it not improbable that the supply of peat for fuel in the house 
was stacked between this buttress and the stone screen already 
referred to, near the narrow opening in the north waU, into the 
upper hall. It is possible, were this the case, that the fuel was 
thrown in through this hole. The north side would be that least 
exposed to driving rain, and it would have been a convenience 
to thrust the fuel in on the same side as the stack, instead of 
having to carry it all round the house. Outside the opening, 
west of the stone-screen, were slabs of stone, either pavement, 
or lintels of the opening that had been cast down. 

To return to the main entrance on the south side. West of 
the screen that sheltered the door, at the distance of 6-ft. 6-in., 
is a stone stile into the little paddock that adjoins the house on 
the south. It is 3-ft. wide, and the stile slab is 2-ft. 5-in. above 
the ground. It is held in place by a stone jamb, a slab stand- 
ing 3-ft. 6-in. from the ground, and 2-ft. 6-in. wide. On the 
west side of this stile we found the kitchen midden of the 
house, a stratum of peat-ashes and broken crockery lying on the 
virgin soil, about an inch thick. Here we found three broken 
hones, a slate spindle-whorl, two flint chips, and a broken 
polished flint celt-head. I may add that we found two more 
hones in the hall with the benches. 



VOL. XI. 



^^i;:>yhi^i£jid>^^ 




ELEVATION OP LOCHER m CHAMBER D. 



,>.-'' '"■>.„ 




SECTION OF LOCKER, CHAMBER D, 



£LEVATI0NOF DOCUf FIfOM WITHIH 




SECTION OF SEAT, KSIDF.^BELOW ^UOGE'S 
CHifFl- 




ELEVATIOM OF SCREEN AND SECTION OF SEATS 



'if ^? » ^ 9 



X 



1 \ ■ S. 



J 1? 



-*>.^i 



Plate III 







£LBVATION OF EAST WAU^ SHOWING OVEN AND BEO <?> 

,., \V/„ilii-..vto/„, ,/,, 
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f 'Hi: 






kLEVATION OF LOCKER IN N. WALL. 




■-4/mmmMm 



SECTION OF LOCKER, S. SlOE,/N W. WALL. 



' t— x 



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' g^?^T^-?t^'^ '■? SCALE OF F£ET. 



PLAN^ OF HUT E 



Explored a/nd planned Oct., 1891. 
Rev. S. BaringGould. 



ANCIENT SETTLEMENT ON 'XEE"WORTHA MARSH. 65 

Ou the west end of this house is a passage between its wall 
and the shelter-bank. This bank slopes down to the moor sur- 
face rapidly on the west, but was walled towards the east. The 
passage is 3-ft. 3-in. wide, and was provided at the north end 
with granite jambs, to serve as doorway. The lintel, if there 
was one, is gone. 

We come now to Hut F. This has been pretty thoroughly 
explored. It consists of a single chamber, measuring 11 -ft. by 
10-ft. It lies to the east of the other habitations, and has the 
peculiarity of possessing enormously thick walls to the east and 
west, seven and ten feet in diameter. On the south was a paved 
entrance from what may be called the village green, that led to 
a sunken way continued about 250-ft. to the marsh, protected on 
each side by a wall of upright stones. After entering this 
sunken way, a door opens on the left, 10-ft. down ; it is some- 
what askew, and the floor is paved. The jambs are 2-ft. 6-in. 
apart, and rise but 1-ft. 8-in. from the threshold stones. The 
lintel is 4-ft. 6-in. long. It was lying with the jambs, fallen, 
but we have set them up. The door is unusually low, and the 
hut must have been entered not crawling on all fours — that 
would be impossible, but wriggling in side^ways. In the western 
wall which is 7-ft. thick is a locker, the floor of which is but a 
couple or three inches above the floor of the chamber. The 
locker is four feet deep, and is in two stages, rising a step haK 
way in. The height is 2-ft. 3-in. at the mouth. It has two 
granite coverers in situ, never displaced. 

The waU to the north of this locker is very ruinous, as is 
also a portion of that at right angles to it. In the floor were 
two stones set up on their edge, rising about 1-ft. 3-in. above the 
floor, and enclosing a portion of the area, very much in the same 
manner as in the Hebrides to this day, in some of the turf and 
stone hovels, curbstones are set up in the floor to serve as seats 
by day, and to form the bounds of a bed at night. 

The east wall contains an oven built in the same fashion as 
that in Hut B- The floor is level with the floor of the hut. The 
dome has been burnt and has crumbled in. There can be no ques- 
tion as to the purpose of this construction, the stones reveal the 
action of fire. Close to the oven, separated from it by a narrow 
wall, is a singular long hole, running 7-ft. 6-in. into the depth of 



86 



ANCIENT SETTLEMENT ON TREWORTHA MAE8H. 



the wall. It has as its floor a huge earthf ast granite block with 
smooth upper surface, rising 3 inches above the level of the 
chamber-floor, and extending nearly, not quite, to the extremity 
of the locker. This locker differs from the others, in that it is 




^ 



w "S 



S; ^ 



2-ft. 9-in. wide at the entrance, and it apparently widens in the 
middle to 3-ft., but the wall on the south side is in too ruinous 



ANCIENT SETTLEMENT ON TREWOETHA MAESH. 67 

a condition for an exact measure to be taken. Was this a bed 
recess ! or was it a warm store place near the oven ? 

The kitchen midden to this hut was found at the east end, 
where were much peat-ash and many fragments of pottery, at a 
depth of about 3-ft. 6-in. from the present surface. 

Hut G has been but partially explored. On the north side 
is a structure like a goose or goat house, but very small, and in 
this fragments of pottery were found. Large upright slabs of 
stone have been employed in places to form the walls. There 
seems to have been no division into chambers. The door was 
near the west end in the south wall, and has its jambs. Whether 
there was another door further down, or whether a fallen upright 
slab has formed a gap in the wall, can not be determined with- 
out further spade work. 

Hut H consists of a single chamber. It has not as yet been 
searched. Nor has Hut I, that consists of two chambers. A 
remarkable feature of Hut I is that a trench was carried round 
the head and north side to convey away any water that ran down 
the hill-slope towards it. 

There are further structures deserving examination and 
notice. One of these is a circle of stones to the south of Hut B. 
There are, showing, about 1 6 stones, and all seem at one time to 
have been upright. Whether they were ranged in two concen- 
tric rings, and formed the base of a hut-circle is not certain. 
The diameter is 12 feet. 

Another circle is very much more distinctly a habitation. 
The hearth-stones show above the moss. This will have to be 
explored. Near it is what is probably another hut-circle, but so 
defaced and pillaged for stones, that its character has been 
almost destroyed. 

To the south of the settlement is a large circle about 100-ft. 
in diameter, a pound, with a division running down the centre 
from east to west, and adjoining it are the remains of two hut- 
circles. East of the settlement and north-east, are two cairns of 
small stones, apparently burnt. One, the larger, was constructed 
over five huge fallen stones, that I at first supposed to be a ruined 
cromlech. But pick and spade showed that the bases of these 
stones had never been moved by man. Among the stones and 



68 ANCIENT SETTLEMENT ON TEE"WOE.THA MARSH. 

peat that covered them were found fragments of pottery similar 
in kind to that strewn in the kitchen middens of the settlement. 

Numerous barrows or cairns spot the surface of the hill- 
shoulders all round Trewortha. We have explored but one 
systematically. It contained a kistvaen, which was empty. 
Beneath the kistvaen was a slab of stone embedded under a layer 
of clay. Under the slab was the virgin soil, locally called " the 
country," in which a hollow had been scooped, and there some 
ashes were laid. No pottery, no flint, nor bronze were found. 

If we come now to the question as to the date of this settle- 
ment, the question remains unsolved. The presence of hones 
shews that iron was in use. The pottery is wheel-turned. The 
discovery of flint proves nothing. A small fragment of iron, 
apparently of an iron pot, has a much more recent look than 
pre-historic times. 

It would be rash to speculate as to the date of these re- 
mains till some further evidence has turned up for fixing it. So far 
not a particle of glass, not a coin, not a scrap of anything but 
the coarsest local pottery have been found, the latter wheel- 
turned indeed, but badly burnt; and composed of clay with 
granite-sand in it. Of ornament there is very little. If we may 
judge from the fragments of the mouths of the vessels, they 
had very wide mouths, some 14 inches in diameter, and all 
were of bulging shape. No glazing exists on any of them. 
What we do learn from the remains is that they were inhabited 
by people who lived very much the lives of Eskimo. Here is 
Dr. Nansen's account of an Eskimo house : — "In winter they 
live in regular houses built of stone and turf, and with the floor 
generally below the surface of the ground. These houses or huts 
contain but one room, which serves as the abode of the whole 
family, or generally of an aggregation of families, men and 
women, young and old, being more or less promiscuously mixed 
up together. The room is of an oblong shape, and is commonly 
so low that it is all but impossible to stand upright in it. Along 
the whole back wall goes the principal bench, which was 5-ft. to 
6-ft. deep. On this sleep the whole family, or rather the married 
members and the unmarried daughters, lying side by side, with 
their feet towards the back, and their heads pointing into the room 



ANCIENT SETTLEMENT ON TREWOETHA MARSH. 69 

... .If there are several families in occupation of the same house, 
which is the rule, the main bench is divided by low partition- 
boards into separate stalls for each family." " Each of the 
families," he says elsewhere, "had its own partition marked off 
from the common couch, and in each stall so formed, man, wife, 
and children would be closely packed, a four-foot space thus 
having to accommodate husband, two wives, and six or more 
children," (F. Nansen, ''Across Greenland," 1890). 

We have in the largest hut precisely this arrangement, — it 
is divided into two stalls for two families, each with its own 
hearth. 

The houses must have been low, roofed with rafters brought 
together in the middle, and covered with thatching of rushes 
and turf. The smoke escaped through the roof. There is not a 
trace of chimney or of window in any one of the huts. 

The upright slabs of granite pretty well mark the height of 
the walls, they are usually thin and pointed at the top, and could 
hardly support walling laid above them i n courses. Moreover, 
the fact of the locker and ovens being either on the floor-level 
or raised but a very few inches above it show that the inmates 
worked in a crouching position. The doors were generally never 
higher than 3 feet. I do not lay much stress on the low door 
in Hut F, as that was fallen, and we may possibly have made 
some mistake in re-erecting the stones, but other huts have the 
jambs unf alien. 

That the huts were not in continous occupation through a 
long tract of time I think certain, from the condition of the 
kitchen middens. Of these we explored two, and both showed 
no traces of sequence of deposits. Moreover, it was evident 
that the surface of turf and peaty soil had been removed round 
the houses, for the layer of ash and pottery lay on that ; and 
there was growth of peat and turf above it to the height of from 
2-ft. 6-in. to 3-ft. 6.in. 

We found no evidence that the inmates of these huts were 
engaged in tin mining. No moulds, no dross. On the contrary, 
there was every appearance that they had been a pastoral people. 
The hones found were all small, far too small to have served for 
sharpening sickle or scythe. 



70 ANCIENT SETTLEMENT ON TREWORTHA MABSH. 

But what is tlie significance of the hall with its benches and 
its elbow chair at the head ? It has the appearance of having 
been the place of meeting of a Stannary Court. A place of 
gathering of some solemn character it must have been. 

So far the explorations of the ancient settlement on 
Trewortha has yielded nothing that can fix its date even 
approximately. But if the fates do not oppose, it is my inten- 
tion in the spring of 1892 to continue the excavations, in the 
hope that at length some clearer light may fall on these very 
remarkable remains, and enable us to determine to what epoch 
they belong. 

I will reserve, till I am able to report on these further 
researches, what I have to say relative to the tools and pottery 
found at Trewortha. 

With reference to the plan of the settlement, I may add 
that I have omitted the unfinished cutting and embankment of 
an abandoned mineral railway that runs to the west. Kie track 
lines have been cut through or buried, but can be traced where 
they emerge west of the bank or cutting. The visitor to the 
settlement will have no difficulty in finding it. Hut A is just 
below the last archway in the line. 



71 



SKETCH SECTIONS OF TWO SIDES OF A SQUARE PIT NEAR 

THE BEACH, ON THE NORTH-EAST SIDE OF PENDENNIS 

HEAD, FALMOUTH, 

Examined by Mr. HOWARD FOX, F.G.S., and Mr. NICHOLAS WHITLEY, F.Met.S. 
Sept. 18th, 1890. 



Note by Mb. Whitley. 

These deposits, recently exposed in an excavation above the 
base of the cliff, appear to me to call for special examination, as 
being marted on the Ordnance Geological Map as the site of a 
"Eaised-beach," and so described by Sir Henry De-la-Beche in 
his report on the Geology of Devon and Cornwall, as a '' Raised 
Beach," p. 428. A detailed consideration of the beds exposed, 
leads to the conclusion that the mass of the materials have been 
washed down from the hills above, and not washed up by the 
sea. The base of the sections, however, does not reach the level 
of the sea, where it is more than probable that other deposits 
may be found at a lower level. 

The inclined bed of very fine silicious sand is of great interest. 
The particles are so fine as to form an impalpable powder when 
touched by the finger. Under the microscope they are all 
angular and rugged, and of a uniform size, nearly all silicious, 
except a few plates of mica may be seen, and some black grains 
of hornblende or schorl. When tested by muriatic acid there 
is no indication of lime, shells, or coral, so abundant in the 
harbour sand. On the whole, I am of opinion that the whole 
mass exposed in the section must be described as the " Head,'''' 
so named by the late Godwin-Austin, and thus described by Dr. 
James Geike. " The only accumulations in Cornwall which can 
be recognised as pertaining to the Ice Age, are certain raised- 
beaches, and the peculiar earthy and stony debris ("head") 
which caps them. These as we have seen, belong probably 
to the last inter-glacial epoch and the final cold stage of the 
glacial period." — Prehistoric Europe, p. 437. 



72 "raised beach." 

Note by Mr. H. Fox. 

When the Sub-marine Mining Corps were excavating a 
a pit south of the Falmouth Docks property, in which to buUd 
the foundations of their test-house, last autumn, I asked my late 
much valued friend, Mr. Whitley, to inspect it. He did so, and 
subsequently sent me the enclosed sketches and description, 
inviting me to add any further observations. As this was prob- 
ably his last geological excursion, this paper possesses a peculiar 
interest and value, and brings to my family and myself the 
remembrance of a delightful visit, in which his poetical and 
literary lore illumined the drier geological questions under 
discussion. 

In comparing Mr. Whitley's excellent sketch and notes with 
those made by myself, I find that the bands of sand appeared 
to me to have straighter outlines than those given in his drawing, 
and amongst the " Head " of rubble I observed in addition 
to bands of clay a good deal of finely crushed rock, free from 
any admixture of soil. 

A somewhat similar exposure of sand may now be studied 
in the excavation behind No. 1 store at the Falmouth Docks. 



Vol. XI. 



Plate IV. 



SKETCH SECTIONS 

Exposed in a newly-excavated square Pit near the base of 

the cliff on the N.E. side of Pendennis-head, Falmouth 

Harbour. 




No, 1. Section of the North side of the Pit, about 30 feet long at the base. 



SURFACE OF THE GROUND 



BROWN LOAMY SOIL, 



CLAYEV.SUBSO.L„WITH„ANGULAR STONES^... ^ -^ <.^^> . 



■'■&'°-o:i =>"'='-'* *»"■.'' o ■^""■■o 






c5> 



i.i 



6^»»° 



of 



-<t\-^' 



.o>»' 



cu^'< 



C? "hEAC?*' of RUBBLE FROM THE HILL 



^-^-rr^-rrr^.-^^ <P w. ABOVE, WITH ANGULAR STONES 
i^;'^;V-'-\V--;V;?^ PITCHED AT ALL ANGLES,. 
i,__>v-. ■.■.•.,...■ ■- ;-.otOV^~ •' ■• • -.j^jj^^ii:^ ' '■■■ ^^^^^ SOME AT THE BASE VERY 



M^'^"^^ 



o o 









^O^ & ^ 63. ^ <;^ia'" 



,:i, ^n=* ^^ ^^ a" -5 ^^ 



(^ 



No. 2. Section of the- South side of the Pit, being about 39 feet long at the 
base. The pit is square, and the base may be about 12 feet above 
high water mark. 



73 



PRIVATE TRADE ON THE FALMOUTH PACKETS. 

BY ARTHUR HAMILTON NORWAY. 



In tracing tlie history of the Falmouth Packets from 1793 
to 1815, a period which includes two wars, separated by the 
short peace of 1802, it is impossible to avoid the observation 
that the peace divides the story not only chronologically, but 
also in other ways of more importance. The conduct of the 
o£S.cers and crews of the packets was creditable in almost every 
instance in the later war, but in the earlier one it was by no 
means so distinguished. In fact, so far as can be gathered from 
the meagre records which still exist, the Falmouth men were 
far from shewing any readiness to risk their lives between the 
years 1793 and 1802; and by their conduct they gave some 
colour to certain grave charges which were brought against 
them. 

In the year 1793 a very loose discipline prevailed at Falmouth. 
It was not a recent growth. On the contrary, there is reason 
to believe that the officers of the General Post Office, whose 
duty it was to regulate the service in the public interest, had 
long been unfit to exercise control. It was an age of corruption 
in every department of Government, and the Packet Establish- 
ment being located in a distant corner of the country, offered 
opportunities for peculation which were not likely to be over- 
looked, and which it was most difficult to check. Many of the 
packets in those days were owned by officials of the Post Office, 
from messengers and porters up to the Secretary himself, who 
indeed received tolerably large sums as fees from the commanders 
upon their appointment, and whenever fresh commissions were 
issued to them. It is obvious that this practice, which left 
persons who were pecuniarily interested in the movements of the 
packets to direct their voyages, was open to very serious 
objection; and as a matter of fact nobody believed that the 
officers in question performed their public duties without some- 
times modifying them to serve their private interests, 



74 PRIVATE TRADE ON THE FALMOUTH PACKETS. 

When this state of things existed at head quarters, it was 
not to be expected that strict views of duty would be found at 
Falmouth. The captains were subjected to heavy extortions by 
the agents, who moreover dealt in every kind of naval stores, 
and compelled the captains to purchase such articles from them. 
In return for the complaisance of the captains in this respect, 
the agents relaxed discipline in any way which the captains 
might desire. If, for instance, it had occurred to any commander 
that by sailing with a few men short of his muster he could 
make an increased profit by saving their victualling allowance, 
the agent would be careful not to observe what was going on. 
If the captain wished to stay on shore, and send his packet to 
sea under charge of one of his ofiicers, the agent would accept 
and forward to London a certificate that he was ill, without 
asking any questions either as to the nature of the illness or the 
qualifications of the person appointed to command the packet, 
who was not infrequently a common seamen. If the captain 
had received from some Bristol merchant a larger consignment 
of goods to sell on commission than the packet ought to carry, 
the agent would still certify that the vessel was in trim when she 
left Falmouth Harbour, and had nothing on board which could 
impede her sailing. In smuggling, which was a tolerably 
common practice on the packets, the agent could be still more 
useful ; and in fact the opportunities which he had of rendering 
little services to the captains were so numerous, that it can easily 
be believed that the post of agent at Falmouth was very lucrative 
and much coveted. 

It was inevitable that investigation should come at last. In 
the year 1785 a Mr. Bell was agent. Perhaps he extorted from 
the captains more than they could pay, or, which is on the whole 
more probable, a stricter view of duty was beginning to be held 
at the General Post Office. In any case, enquiry was made into 
Mr. Bell's proceedings, and before it was concluded, he shot 
himself dead. 

This tragical event, coupled with the recommendations of a 
Committee of the House of Commons, which was appointed 
shortly afterwards, seems to have led to the establishment of 
many reforms ; and in 1793 entirely new arrangements were 
made at Falmouth. The agent was forbidden to hold shares in 



PRFVATE TRADE ON THE FALMOUTH PACKETS. 75 

any of the packets, or to deal in naval stores, or to have 
pecuniary relations of any sort with the commanders. He was 
forbidden to accept fees from them, and he was made aware that 
his authority over them having now being disentangled from the 
mesh of conflicting interests which had strangled it during past 
years, was to be exerted in future in the public interest alone. 
Similarly the clerks at the head ofiice were compelled to dispose 
of any shares in the packets which they might possess, and the 
healthy principle that no person ought to direct in matters in 
which he has a pecuniary concern, was established once fo^r all as 
the rule of the service. Other reforms were initiated, into which 
it is not now necessary to enter. 

Enough has been said to shew that the Packet service at 
Falmouth had been in a highly unsatisfactory condition for a 
long time previous to 1793. It is therefore not surprising to find 
that a certain amount of demoralisation existed, and that the 
ofiicers as a body had a low standard of duty. The official 
records at this period are full of caustic references to this laxity, 
noted down evidently verbatim from observations made by the 
Postmaster Greneral.* The following, taken at random from 
among several others, will shew the general tendency. "The 
Postmaster General cannot but lament when they look at the 
absentee list of their captains in time of war to see how many 
reasons they are constantly urging to stay at home, and of how 
little use they must consider their own presence at sea. There 
are now twelve packets at sea, and no less than ten of the 
captains of them ashore." This was in August, 1793, and the 
twelve packets referred to were all upon the Falmouth station. 
But sarcastic appeals such as this produced very little effect, for 
in 1798 the captains appear to have been scarcely fonder of 
going to sea than in 1793. By this time, however, a keen 
intelligence was at work in the Greneral Post Office, and in the 
following year the absenteeism of the captains was cured by the 
establishment of the system of mulcts, under which a large 
tax was levied on the profits of the voyage whenever the captain 
did not sail in person, the proceeds of the tax being carried to a 
fund for pensioning the widows of captains and masters in the 
service. 

* At this time the ancient practice was still in force, whereby the office of 
Postmaster General was held jointly by two persons. 



76 PBIVATE TBADE ON THE FALMOUTH PACKETS. 

Irregularities such as these are serious enough when found 
in connection with a service so vital to the interests of the 
country, as was the safe carriage of the foreign mails and 
despatches in time of war. Indolence and want of zeal were 
however to be expected among a body of men who perceived 
that the actions of their superior officers were governed by self 
interest ; and it is not surprising that the Falmouth captains as 
a body did not at once respond to the changed tone at head- 
quarters, and exert themselves to promote the reforms conceived 
in London. One thing might have been expected from them — 
that they should fight when they could not otherwise save the 
mails. Let us now see what actually happened. 

Between the outbreak of war in February, 1793, and the 
peace of 1802, thirty-two Falmouth packets were captured by 
the enemy. I cannot find that any one of them made a good 
fight before she struck her flag. 

I do not of course charge cowardice against the officers of 
all or any of these packets. Some were captured by squadrons 
of frigates, which could have blown them out of the water 
with ease had they dared to resist. Some were lost under 
circumstances which shew clearly that their officers were not to 
blame. By far the larger part of them were captured among 
the West Indian Islands, in seas where French privateers were 
found in almost countless numbers. In many cases, only the 
bare circumstance that the ship was captured is recorded ; but 
after every allowance has been made, the broad fact remains 
that in the nine years mentioned thirty-two packets were lost, 
and that not one of them made a really gallant resistance. 

That there was no serious fighting in any of these cases is 
not an unwarranted assumption. It was usual whenever a 
packet distinguished itself in action to distribute rewards among 
the officers and crew, proportionate to the bravery displayed. 
These rewards were not granted for a running fight, but for an 
action fought close alongside, whether successful or unsuccessful. 
They were granted in only three cases between 1793 and 1802, 
and in each of those cases for a successful action. 

It will perhaps be said that though it was unfortunate that 
so many packets were captured, no ground has been alleged for 



PRIVATE TRABE ON THE FALMOUTH PACKETS. 77 

supposing that there was any want of courage or skill on the 
part of the officers, and that the packets being lightly armed 
were no match for the enemy's privateers. There is force in 
this, yet in the three cases mentioned above these lightly armed 
packets succeeded in beating off privateers of force far superior 
to their own, and quite equal to that by which other packets 
were captured. 

The fairest means of judging the conduct of these captains, 
however, will be to count the number of captures in an equal 
number of years when the war broke out again. Between July, 
1803, and July, 1812, I find that ten packets only were captured, 
and that five of those hauled down their colours after actions 
which may fairly be described as desperate, and which reflect 
the greatest credit on those concerned. Ten captures against 
thirty -two. How is the difference to be explained ? The packets 
were the same, that is they were built in the same place ; the 
officers and crews of manj served in both wars. It cannot be 
supposed that the French privateers were less active in the one 
war than in the other. The periods chosen for comparison are 
long enough to allow for chance circumstances favourable or 
unfavourable to both alike. What then caused the enormous 
preponderance of losses in the former war? and how did it 
happen that the men who fought so well in the later war did 
not fight in the earlier one ? 

There were persons who professed to be able to answer this 
question. In the year 1800, the capture of several West India 
packets in quick succession provoked very strong remonstrances 
from the merchants of London, and rumours began to be 
circulated of large profits made by the oflBcers of the packets 
out of being captured and losing their ships. No specific charge 
seems to have been made against any individual, but it was 
freely asserted that the goods which old custom allowed to be 
carried on the packets, though the law forbade them, were often 
insured for the homeward as well as the outward passage before 
the ship left Falmouth. If then all the goods were sold in the 
West Indies, it would be a possible thing for the crew to remit 
the purchase money by a subsequent packet, or even by an 
armed merchant vessel, and to surrender themselves quietly to 



78 PRIVATE TRADE ON THE FALMOUTH PACKETS. 

the first privateer they met. They ran the risk of spending 
some years in a French prison ; but on the other hand there was 
a good chance that the privateer would put them on shore in 
their own boat rather than accept the burden of keeping them 
on board as prisoners. When they once reached England again 
they were secure from detection. Nobody could contradict them 
when they af&rmed that the privateer had taken away large 
quantities of goods which they had not succeeded in selling. 
Their own assertion was the only evidence of what had occurred 
which it was possible to procure, and^ there was thus no difficulty 
in obtaining the full value of the insurance upon goods of which 
the purchase money was already in their pockets. 

This was the charge against the Falmouth captains, one 
involving so much base dishonesty that it is natural to hesitate 
before accepting it. 

As soon as it reached the ears of the Postmaster General, 
they directed the Inspector of packets to proceed to Falmouth, 
and to make strict enquiry as to whether what they called " so 
black and desperate a fraud" was possible. The Inspector's 
report states somewhat boldly that he believed it was not. He 
gave no other reason for his belief than that no Insurance 
Company would pay the value of its policy in the absence of an 
affidavit declaring precisely the quantity and quality of the 
goods on board the packet at the time of the capture, — overlook- 
ing it would seem, that the very nature of the charge involved 
treachery and lying, and that men who could be supposed guilty 
of those basenesses would not be likely to hesitate at a perfectly 
safe perjury. 

The Postmaster Greneral adopted the Inspector's conclusion, 
yet it would seem that some doubt remained in their minds, for 
they used the occasion to enforce a suggestion which they had 
before propounded, to the effect that Courts of Enquiry, analogous 
to Courts Martial, should be held at Falmouth to investigate the 
circumstances thoroughly, whenever a packet was captured. It 
was the custom at this time to require from the captain of a 
captured packet a sworn declaration of the circumstances, 
attested by himself and one or two of his chief officers. Beyond 
this declaration no enquiry was made. Thus everything 



PBIVATE TRADE OP THE FALMOUTH PACKETS. 79 

depended on tlie bare oath of tlie persons concerned, unsupported 
by any systematic questioning of the crew. 

At the end of 1799, or in the first weeks of 1800, an order 
was issued prohibiting the private trade upon the West Indian 
and American packets. The officers and sailors of those packets 
were forbidden, under pain of dismissal, to carry goods of any 
kind upon their vessel in future ; and an officer was appointed 
at Falmouth for the express purpose of searching every packet 
before she sailed, with full authority to turn out any goods which 
he might find in any part of the ship, to whomsoev-er they might 
belong. The Lisbon packets were allowed to continue the trade, 
on account of the great importance to merchants of free com- 
munication with Lisbon at that time. 

The question naturally arises, what induced the Government 
to take this step ? Some strong motive must have prompted it, 
for the system of private trade upon the packets was so ancient 
that the Secretary of the Post Office admitted that he could not 
trace its origin, and thought it might be ' 'coeval with the service 
itself." That it was extremely profitable to the persons engaged 
in it cannot be doubted. It was sufficient to attract sailors to 
the Post Office service, where they worked contentedly for wages 
far inferior to those paid by the customs or the East India 
Company ; for they knew that by their own small ventures of 
potatoes or any goods for sale at Jamaica or Barbadoes, they 
could regain much more than they lost in pay. It is true that 
the trade was contrary to the law. But the statute condemning 
it was of the reign of Charles II, and had never been enforced. 
Indeed so recently as in 1798 the private trade had been explicitly 
sanctioned in new regulations then drawn up for the guidance 
of the agent at Falmouth ; and it was distinctly stated that his 
only duty in connection with the private trade was to assure 
himself that the quantity of goods carried was not enough to 
throw the vessel out of trim or to impede her sailing. 

Here then was an ancient and very highly valued privilege, 
to attack which was to cause certain disaffection among the 
seamen, and that moreover in time of war, when it was already 
sufficiently difficult to provide for the regular despatch of the 
mails. There had been no long growing dissatisfaction with the 



80 PRIVATE TRADE ON THE FALMOUTH PACKETS. 

system. What was recognized and approved in 1798 was 
abolished hardly more than a year later, and immediately, as 
must have been anticipated, difficulties began at Falmouth. 
The crews of several vessels refused to proceed to sea, many 
captains reported that they could not obtain sailors unless the 
trade was restored; the seamen petitioned the Postmaster 
General for its restoration, pointing out that their wages, if they 
must rely on them solely, were not sufficient for their main- 
tenance. This was perfectly true, and the sanction of the 
Government had to be obtained for increasing the wages. It is 
not possible that these consequences of the abolition of the trade 
were not forseen. What induced the Government to draw these 
difficulties down upon itself in the midst of a dangerous and 
exhausting war? To deprive the Falmouth sailors of their 
profits from trade was to render them more than half mutinous. 
What advantage did the Government anticipate which was to 
compensate them for disaffection spread among the men to whom 
the mails and despatches in war time were entrusted ? 

It is clear that the Government had convinced themselves 
that the retention of the private trade involved more danger 
than abolishing it. The danger they had in view may of course 
have been simply that the presence of goods on board the packets 
rendered them more valuable prizes than if they carried nothing 
more than the mails. This does not seem however to account 
very satisfactorily for the suddenness with which the trade was 
abolished at an inconvenient time. If the Government believed, 
or suspected, that the system of insuring goods was connected 
with the frequent loss of packets, the promptness of their action, 
and the tenacity with which they adhered to it when confronted 
with great difficulties, need no further explanation. 

Some light may be thrown upon the matter by glancing at 
the circumstances connected with the capture of two packets on 
the Lisbon station shortly after this time. 

The *'Earl Gower," Captain Deake, was on her way home 
from Lisbon in June, 1801, when she encountered the 
"Telegraphe" privateer cutter of fourteen guns and seventy 
men, a force considerably superior to his own. Captain Deake 
however, was not daunted, but made good use of his guns while 



PRIVATE TRADE ON THE FALMOUTH PACKETS. 81 

endeavouring to escape, and might possibly liave got clear off 
had not fully half his crew refused either to work the vessel or 
to fight her, and gone below in a body. Their action is scarcely 
comprehensible on any other ground than that they wished to be 
captured. Cowardice would have impelled them to do their 
utmost to escape, but these men refused to work the vessel, 
which was of course captured, through no fault of Capt. Deake 
or of his officers. 

The second case is that of the "Duke of York," captured 
on the 18th September, 1803, while on her homeward voyage 
from Lisbon. The undisputed facts are these. The packet was 
chased throughout the day by a French privateer of scarcely 
more than half her size, though more heavily manned. Towards 
evening the master, who was acting commander at the time, 
consulted with the surgeon as to the course proper for them to 
take in view of the fact that the enemy was gaining on them. 
The surgeon advised surrender, and the master adopted his 
suggestion. They came to this resolution while the enemy's 
vessel was still a mile distant from them, and before she had 
even fired a summoning gun, they hauled their colours down. 
It was then seven o'clock, and the night was falling rapidly. 
This circumstance, however, did not suggest to them the chance 
of escaping under cover of the darkness, it brought to their 
minds only the possibility that the enemy might not have seen 
their fiag pulled down. To avoid any misapprehension on this 
subject they sent a boat on board the privateer, and so, without 
attempting the slightest defence, they gave away their ship. 

A committee of enquiry was held at Falmouth, but the 
captains who composed it put their questions in such a manner 
as to shield the culprits so far as possible, and finally stultified 
themselves by finding that all the officers did everything possible 
to save their ship. This was simply untrue. 

The Inspector of Packets thereupon set himself to work to 
investigate the matter. He traced, so far as possible, the value 
of the goods which each sailor had on board, what insurances 
he had effected on the outward voyage, and what on the home- 
ward, and finally what sum he had gained by the capture. One 
man, he found, admitted that he had made £300 by this event ; 



82 PEIVATE TBADE ON THE FALMOUTH PACKETS. 

the surgeon, wholiad advised the surrender, had certainly gained 
£250, but, by a remarkable lapse of memory, he was quite unable 
to recollect what sum he had received in Lisbon for goods sold 
there, so that it was impossible to arrive at the full amount of 
his profit. The steward's mate was richer by £250, one of the 
seamen by £200, and most of the crew had pocketed substantial 
sums. 

The next step was to ascertain whether any of these men, 
and especially those who had made large profits on this occasion, 
had been captured before. 

The surgeon, who had been foremost in advising surrender, 
and who was also (probably) the largest gainer in the affair, 
had also been captured more frequently than any other of the 
crew, except three men. He had been taken no less than three 
times before. How much money he made on those three 
occasions is not stated. Three of the crew had been equally 
unfortunate. Four other men had been captured twice before, 
most of the rest once, and eight of the crew had been on board 
the " Gower " at the time of the disgraceful circumstance related 
above. 

The captains who composed the court of enquiry are not 
perhaps to be very severely blamed if they did not choose to draw 
the legitimate inference from these facts. The influence of local 
associations was strong upon them, but the Secretary of the 
Post Oifice was controlled by no such ties, and the following 
extracts from his report shew clearly the conclusion which he 
formed, very reluctantly, and after long investigation : — 

"... .These papers prove beyond a doubt that His Majesty's 
packet could not have been captured if the skill and courage of 
her crew had been properly exerted. Their Lordships even 
incline to think that the French privateer might have been 
captured if our vessel had been carried into action with the 
spirit which characterizes British seamen in general. No 
resistance was made. It was not even seen what was the force 
of the privateer. The packet was not even hailed or fired at by 
the enemy, and a boat was sent off to meet the privateer, and to 
accelerate a surrender of which the seamen themselves speak as 
dishonourable and dishonest .... Under these circumstances my 



PKIVATE TEADE ON THE FALMOUTH PACKETS. 83 

Lords the Postmaster G-eneral. .never will consent that Mr 

the commander, or Mr. .... the surgeon, shall again be 
employed in their service. The utmost their Lordships can do 
in regard to the other individuals, after confirming their original 
dismission from the Lisbon station, is to consent, and that they 
do with hesitation, to their being permitted to serve with any of 
the commanders who may choose to employ them on the West 
Indian and American packets." 

The point of this last sentence was plain enough. On the 
West India packets the private trade was already abolished, so 
that fraud was no longer possible. 

The Inspector of Packets stated his opinion in the following 
terms: — "I cannot help being of opinion that if during the 
war officers and seamen are permitted to carry out merchandize 
on commission or otherwise, there is reason to fear that the loss 
of the packets on the Lisbon station may be very considerable, 
unless indeed under disinterested or high-spirited commanders." 

In the light of these facts it is very difficult to avoid the 
conclusion that some at least of the thirty -two packets captured 
between 1793 and 1815 had been given away in the same 
treacherous manner as the " Duke of York." Of the thirty -two 
packets captured, twenty-one were taken on the homeward 
voyage. 

In conclusion, I would seek to guard myself from appearing 
to bring this grave charge against the whole body of Falmouth 
commanders. I know of no evidence in existence which 
implicates any individual except in the case just described. It 
is beyond doubt that there were among the commanders men 
whose reputation was above question, and of whom, if their 
ships were captured, it would at once be said that they had done 
all that courage and seamanship could do to save them. I do 
not think the materials exist for pursuing the enquiry beyond 
the point to which I have carried it. 

I should add, that an officer of the same name as the acting 
commander of the "Duke of York," distinguished himself 
greatly in an action during the American war, in which he was 
severely wounded. 



84 



CORNUBIANA No. 1. 



1. Prehistoric Remains. 

2. Concrete Legends. 

3. Chronogram. 



4. Extracts from Parish Registekb. 

5. Cornish Chough in Heraldry. 

6. St. Thomas a Becket & Cornwall 



By Rev. S. RUNDLE, M.A. 



I. Prehistoric Remains. 

The first article that I describe is a small oblong piece of 
bronze, the edges of which have been greatly worn away. The 
size is f of an inch long by ^ inch wide. At each end is a hole, 
one circular, the other irregular in shape. To the first a pin 
may have been attached, which was fastened through the second. 
An intricate pattern — perhaps best described as Arabesque — has 
been engraved on one side. Below the irregular aperture, a flower 
is clearly visible. This was found in the stream works below 
Q-odolphin Bridge. The next (fig. 3) is a stone semi-oval, so to 
speak, one portion of the circumference being considerably wider 
than the other. There is a hole in the centre. The article is 
roughly and rudely fashioned of a grey moor-stone, and was 
probably used as a sinker in fishing. One field in Pengwedna, 
on which it was found, is still known as the swan-pool, though 
now perfectly dry. In this pool it was most likely used. The two 
following articles (figs. 1 and 2) agree very much in shape, but 
differ considerably in size. They are both broken in half, the 
fracture in each case occurring at the middle of the hole driven 
through each implement. The holes are very artistic in appear- 
ance, seemingly formed by some kind of file. They are wide at 
the mouth and lessen towards the converging point of the hole 
from the other face. The faces on both sides seem water- worn, 
and were probably chosen on this account to save the trouble of 
fashioning. The largest is about 3 inches long, and the other 
side about 2^. They belong to the species known as stone 
hammers, of the neolithic age, and are formed of greenstone. 
These three last were all found at Pengwedna in Q-odolphin. 

Pedestal found at Carminow. 

This was met with in the foundations of the old church at 
Carminow, and is formed of a peculiarly heavy stone, viz : 



Vol. XI. 



Plate v. 



R'qi . i , 




Ha- 2. 




Jt'^^-k r*«^. '^3« 






VOL. XI. 



Plate VI 






''?%-i 



¥k^ ■ 4 








CORNUBIANA. 85 

sulphate of barium. Its construction is as follows. The shaft 
bends away from the top to the bottom, being smaller at the top 
than the bottom. It is perfectly smooth, the obverse being 
convex, and the reverse concave. Two handles, rudely carved, 
connect the upper face of the pedestal, which is 3 inches by 2^, 
forming an irregular triangle with the bottom. The upper 
portion is perfectly plain, with two holes probably intended for 
the retention of an image. The foot is hollowed, and is 3|- in. 
by 2|- in., for here the pedestal expands. It weighs lOf ounces* 
This was probably the pedestal for an image, and has been 
stained with some black material. (Fig. 5). 

Legends which have taken a Concrete Form. 

Legends may be divided into two classes, those that exist 
merely in oral tradition, and those that apply to some existing 
memorial as a proof of their truth. It need hardly be said that 
those of the latter class are quite as devoid of any real basis of 
fact as the first. I subjoin three instances of legends which 
have taken a concrete form (1). The St. Breage Churchyard 
Cross. (2). Dane-wort. (3). The Mill-proo. 1.— St. Breage 
Churchyard Cross is simply the rounded portion of a cross, from 
which the shaft has been removed. It stands outside the south 
porch of the church on a portion of slightly elevated ground. 
Most of the Cornish crosses are formed of granite : this one is of 
a kind of yellow sand-stone, and the legend runs that a great 
battle took place by the barrow of sand near Grreat Work Mine, 
between the Cornu-Celts and Saxons, and that so much blood 
was shed that, when mixed with sand it coagulated into stone, 
whence the cross was carved to commemorate the event. The 
material of which the cross is composed certainly corresponds 
with indurated sand-stone from the above sand-barrow, which is 
locally known as " Sandy-Burrow." (2). The next legend is 
that of Dane-wort, Wall-wort, or, as it is more commonly known, 
dwarf-elder, the scientific name of which is JEhulus Samhicus. 
It seems rare, as but three localities for it are given in Wuther- 
ing's Botany, viz : Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire ; Q-oosegreen, 
near Dalton, and Tamworth Castle Hill. To these a fourth may 
be added, the Griebe, St. Erth, where it flourishes in great luxur- 
iance. Tre^dition relates that close at hand, by the site of the 



86 COENUBIANA. 

present bridge, a deadly battle took place between the Danes 
and the Oornu-Oelts. The wounded Danes were carried on litters 
made of the handles of spears, to the present glebe, and from 
these spear handles the Dane-wort spring. The third legend of 
the kind is that of the Mill-proo, which always seems to me to be 
one of the most extraordinary on record. The Mill-proo (fig. 
4) is a dwarf cylinder of stone, pierced throughout by a circular 
hole, and its origin is said to be this. At certain times of the 
year, an adder may be found asleep in such a position as to form 
a complete circle. If a hazel wand of twelve month's growth be 
placed in the centre of the ring formed by the adder, it is 
unable to extricate itself. By its hissing, it attracts all the adders 
in the neighbourhood, which come to the succour of their dis- 
tressed friend. Slaver is emitted by all of them around the 
bewitching hazel. As soon as a complete circle is made, the 
adder is freed. The slaver congeals into stone, and is known as 
the mill-proo, a fine specimen of which was found some time 
ago in the stream-works below Q-odolphin Bridge. It is 
composed of porcelain stone, is an ounce in weight, an inch in 
diameter on the fiat part, on the cylindrical part -^-^ long in 
inches, 3 inches in circumference, and has three small punctures 
on the fiat surface, nearly equi-distant from one another. 
These, however, may have been the result of accident. In 
connection with this class of legend I may now allude to 
another, though of a different cast. Whence the Cornish 
obtained the legend I know not, unless it be taken as a 
slight evidence in favour of a Jewish settlement here. The 
curlews are said to have assisted the Israelites to escape from 
Pharaoh by going behind them and obliterating their track. 

Cheonogbam. 

A Chronogram consists of a sentence in which a date or 
number is expressed by Roman capitals forming parts of words, 
which, with this exception, are written in ordinarj'- type. Mr. 
Hilton, in his standard work on Chronograms (Yol. 1, pp. 27, 29,) 
quotes two Cornish chronograms, whence they would seem to be 
rare in this county. A third is given in Tregelles' Cornish 
Worthies, p. 361, from the pen of Sydney Grodolphin. A fourth, 
and fifth of a peculiarly interesting type, have recently been 



COBNUBIANA. 87 

found by me. The fifth is on a chalice at St. Euan Major 

church, and indicates that the chalice was a votive offering to 

almighty Grod for mercies received, and runs as follows — 

Yotivum Eucharisticum 

d.d.d. 

in usum Ecclse Euan Majoris E. F. 25 Martis 1674. 

CLa Ma VI. et Icho Vah aYDIVIt me 1676. 

Ergoque Ps cxvi. 

By selecting the letters in Eoman Capitals, viz : M. D. 0. 

L. V. V. V. V. IIII, we arrive at the date indicated in the 

ordinary type, viz : 1676. Nothing can be much more touching 

than the thought of this unknown E. E., more than two hundred 

years ago, in sad distress, making a vow to Almighty Grod in 

1674, and then two years after, 1676, paying his vows to Him. 

The inscription is eloquent with distress chequered by hope, 

which distress at last disappears in the fulfilment of his heart's 

desire. I am much inclined to think this chronogram, occurring 

on old Cornish ecclesiastical plate, is unique. 

Extracts prom Parish Accounts. 
Tne first is an extract from the churchwardens' accounts of 
the parish of St. Martin in Meneage, from Easter, 1776, to 
Easter, 1777, and contain the amounts paid by the parish for 
the marriage of a certain Walter Johns. Apparently this Walter 
Johns had fled to Breage, to escape fulfilling his promise of 
marriage, there he was arrested — it seems a bad augury for the 
happiness of his intended marriage that " arrest" was a neces- 
sary preliminary to it — he was brought back in triumph by two 
horses, and was married by ''licens" under a salvo of gun. 
powder, with a banquet of " meat and drink." 

£ 
To arresting, marreing Walter Johns . . . . i 

To three days under arrest jllOll 

To licians (now £2 s2 d6) 116 

To expenses, and Turnpike, fatching them at 

Breag 2 

To 2 horses 020 

To the Minister for marring them . . . . 10 6 

To the Clerk (now 5 shillings) 1 

To meat; drink and firing to the wedding . . 113 



88 C0RNT7BIANA. 

The following are the expenses of the Easter Meeting, 1792, 
at St. Anthony in Men'eage, as given in the churchwarden's 
accounts. 

1792. 

Expenses at Easter meeting s. d. 

One gallon of spirits (prob. rum) . . . . 8 

Lemon 1 

2 lbs. of sugar, l/lj lb 2 3 

At the House 2 

13 3 

The same accounts bear testimony to the destruction of 
foxes, etc. 

1783-84. To cash for an ould fox 2/6 
1786. To two half-grown foxes 4/- 
1788. To 3 polecats.. .. 1/- 

Various similar entries are found in the registers of the 
Meneage parishes : E. 9. *At Grunwalloe are tbese entries — 

Killing 3 Eoxes 7s. 6d. 

Killing 1 Fox 2s. 6d. 

From the foregoing extracts, it seems that half-a-crown was 
the price fixed on a fox's head. 

The Cornish Chough in Heraldry. 

The Cornish Chough is by no means confined in Heraldry 
to Cornish families, though of course it occurs more frequently 
in their emblazonments than in those of other countries. In 
these latter, the Cornish chough may be used as an indication of 
their Cornish descent ; by way of difference ; or it may be simply 
a "canting" usage, as is plain from the arms of Cornwallis, Co. 
"Worcester, which were "sable, guttee on a fess argent, three 
Cornish choughs argent." Sometimes no reason is now assign- 
able 

Though the emblem is by no means exclusively Cornish, 
yet a glance at the armouries of Cornish families will show how 

* Cumming's Cury and Gunwalloe, pp. 122-130, 



CORNUBIANA. 89 

greatly the bird was held in esteem as a device, for it is, or was^ 
displayed by no less than thirty-five Cornish families. 

The chough is found as a crest, and in the shield, but not 
as a supporter of the shield. The Cornish chough generally 
occurs "proper," i.e., in its natural colours, and as a complete bird, 
though in some cases it occurs with "head erased," i.e. cut off, 
as in the family of Tregonwell. Oftentimes appendages are 
added to the bill, as in the family of Tom of St. Petroc Minor, 
where the crest is a Cornish chough ppr., holding in its bill an 
escallop. The Cornish chough is generally depicted standing? 
though we have an instance to the contrary in the case of St. 
Aubyn of the Mount, where it is represented " rising," or " with 
wings expanded," as was borne by Humphrey of Truro; or, as 
Trewinnard, " 3 Cornish choughs ppr., two in chief pecking and 
one rising." I have said that the choughs were generally borne 
" proper." There are some remarkable instances to the contrary. 
Eashleigh of Menabilly has a Cornish chough argent : i e. white, 
almost a contradiction in terms, though not in Heraldry. It is 
also "legged and beaked gules," which would be "proper." 
The Cornish choughs of Stone are "or" (gold), and "vert" 
(green), and Tolcarne of Tolcarne, uses "3 Cornish choughs 
reguard, Az," (blue). It would be very difficult to give a 
description of the bird in Mayow's arms, which is described 
as " Erm " (Ermine), if it were not for the written account 
which tells us that it is a Cornish chough. 

St. Thomas a Beckett. 

It is now confidently asserted that St. Thomas a Becket was 
a Cornishman. This we distinctly know, that he was not, for he 
was born in London, the offspring of a Londoner, and a Saracenic 
woman, an account of whose romantic union is given by Johannes 
Brompton. Grilbert Beck, as his father was really called, was born 
in London in the reign of Henry I, and his master changed his 
name into Brcket, and the commonality into Beckie. There 
seems to be nothing to connect St. Thomas in his life-time with 
Cornwall ; the fact that a Cornish Becket bore the same arms as 
the Archbishop is not at all, I submit, substantial evidence. 
After his death, however, a child of Minster was raised to life by 
the father interceding to the saint, according to the account 



90 COBNUBIANA. 

given by William of Canterbury in his Miracula S. Tliomse 
(137)," who says " Filium suum nobis Henricus exhibuit, quern 
indubitantes mortuum fuisse perhibuit, Cumque morbi mortesque 
genus exhibuisset, quibus presentibus vita excessisset, quomodo 
per Martyrem vitse restitu eretur, dixi non simplici verbo fidem 
posse fieri " Si" inquit ministra, quae est villa territorii (diocese) 
exoniensis mecum tibi satis facere non protest, testi est mitu 
Veritas quia mortuum credidi, quern vivum exhibeo. Sed et hoc 
subjacio quia per triduum post restitutionem spirituum solo 
spiritu palpitaret, non mamillarn maternam biberet, aut aliud 
aliquid, ut diceretur ad horam vivificatum propter consolationem 
parentiun. 



91 



EXCAVATIONS ON THE SITE OF LAUNCESTON PRIORY, 

{Abstracted by permission from a paper read bejore the Launceston Scientific 

and Historical Society.) 

By OTHO B. PETER. 



The Priory of Launceston was founded by William 
Warlewast, Bishop of Exeter, in 1126. 

After the dissolution in 1536-9, the Priory buildings were 
levelled to the ground, and the site was subsequently used as a 
place for throwing refuse of every description. Thus all vestige 
of the once princely buildings became lost to view, and then to 
memory. Only the musty records of the methodical monks 
remained, and these being translated, fixed the site of the Priory 
again, but doubtfully, until the North Cornwall Railway Engin- 
eers in their excavations in 1886 unearthed the foundations of 
walls, which later excavations proved to have stood on the east 
and south of the Cloister Square. These foundations marked the 
site of the Day Poom, the lavatory, cellarer's crypt, and other 
adjacent rooms. In the Day Poom, which stood east of the 
Cloister, and ran north and south, was found the base of an 
octagonal column in situ ; this column, which is now in St. 
Thomas Churchyard, was one of two, or three, which supported 
the stone groined floor of the Dormitory which was over it. 
Many of the simply chamfered groin stones were within the 
foundations. The Lavatory, and cellarer's crypt, &c., were 
situated under the Refectory, and ran west, at right angles 
to the Day Room ; on their sites were found many more groin 
stones, an ancient candlestick, a silver (?) horse harness buckle, 
the upper portion of a stone hand-cornmill, and under the floor, 
long lengths of lead piping for the water supply ; this pipe had, 
at one point, a very primitive junction where a branch pipe 
united with it. I am of opinion that it was supplied with water 
from an adit (the arch over which has lately been destroyed) 
close to the western entrance to St. Thomas Churchjard. 

The Priory meadow has recently been ofEered for sale, and 
the Launceston G-as Oo. having purchased a portion of it for the 



92 EXCAVATIONS ON THE SITE ON LAUNCESTON PEIOEY. 

erection of a gasometer, they commenced in May, 1888, to build 
a boundary wall around their plot. Unfortunately this plot 
proved, as we shall see, to contain the most sanctified portions 
of the Priory site. On the 29th May it came to my knowledge 
that in making excavations for the foundations of this boundary 
wall, a piece of carved stone had been found. I at once asked 
for, and obtained permission of the directors of the Gas 
Company, to make deeper excavations, and in the course of a 
few days a great number of similarly carved stones, and portions 
of coloured floor tiles were discovered. The carved stones most 
probably formed portions of the Choir Screen, and canopied 
tombs in the Priory Church. 

During the month of June, the Chairman of the Gas Co., 
(Dr. Thompson), caused further excavations to be made, disclos- 
ing the bases of two beautiful Early English trefoil respond 
columns, from which the north and south aisle arcade arches 
sprang (the column on the south has since been erected in the 
St. Thomas Churchyard adjoining, and that on the north remains 
buried) ; and also the foundations of the south Chancel Chapel 
(which I suggest was dedicated to the Virgin) with its altar in 
situ ; and the wall which carried the Choir Screen, two large 
fragments of which Screen were found. 

In July the Q-as Company commenced their deep excavations 
for the gasholder, and uncovered the whole of the foundations 
of the Presbytery, or Chancel, and the north Chancel Chapel, 
which I suggest was dedicated to St. Gabriel. These side Chapels 
had stone groined roofs, a great number of the groin stones 
covered with coloured plastering, being discovered within their 
walls ; but judging from the mass of decayed roofing-slates found 
on the Presbytery site, I think it probable that its roof was of 
timber. 

To the north, outside the Presbytery wall, were numerous 
graves, about 5 feet below the original, or old ground line. 
This was the Sextonshay, or Cemetery of the laity, the monks 
being buried in the Cloister Square A walled tomb and other 
graves, were also found within the walls. The walls of both 
the Chapels and the Presbytery were of great thickness, and 
supported by flat buttresses externally, the quoins and plinths 



EXCAVATIONS ON THE SITE OF LAUNCESTON PRIORY. 93 

being of si][uared. local free-stone. Internally the faces of the 
walls were plastered, the plastering in many places still retaining 
coloured designs in vermilion, yellow, and black. The site being 
a marshy one, the foundations were carried down to a great depth, 
the floor line being 5 feet, and the bottom of foundations from 
10 to 11 feet, below the present ground line. The footings, or 
bottoms of the walls were built with courses of stone set on 
edge, each course sloping in a contrary direction to the one 
above it, just like one sees herring-bone hedging built in the 
moor districts now. These courses of stone were not set in 
mortar, thus the moisture drained through them, and left the 
superstructures dry. I only noticed one instance of wooden 
piles having been used, and that was under the foundation of 
the eastern wall of St. Grabriel's Chapel, where a few blackened 
posts were excavated. 

The floors of the Church throughout the excavations were 
formed as follows : — A layer of stones was set on edge, earth 
thrown over them, and then rammed down level, on this, thin 
slates were laid, and on the slates, encaustic tiles. In addition 
to the great number of loose fragments of these tiles, I happily 
discovered one small portion entire, and also some full sized ones 
bearing capital letters, &c. The entire piece was in St. 
G-abriel's Chapel, close to its eastern wall, and it is singular that 
all the heraldic tiles, and most of those with capital letters on 
them, came from that site. The arms depicted are those of 
Eoyal personages, that of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, being the 
most conspicuous. The tiles found within the walls of the 
Presbytery were almost all of geometrical patterns. Some few 
with capital letters came out of the south Chapel. All the entire 
tiles, and all the fragments that could be saved, are now in the 
Launceston Museum. At Cleeve, Glastonbury, and Wells, are 
ancient tiles very similar to those found at Launceston. 

There were signs of a step from the Nave floor to the 
Chapels, and the Presbytery, and projecting from the north wall 
of the latter, I found the foundation of the stall seats. 

Numerous pieces of beautifully moulded arch stones, small 
circular shafts, window tracery, red ridge tiles, lead dowels 



94 EXCAVATIONS ON THE SITE OF LAITNOESTON PRIORY. 

for securing stonework, and a few scraps of opaque glass, were 
turned out from day to day. 

It was found impossible to save the ruins, but permission to 
remove the relics found was obtained. So the old walls speedily 
vanished under the pickaxe, and the stones which composed them 
were used to build a wall around the gasholder which now stands 
on the site of the Chancel of Launceston Priory. 

Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, granted an indulgence in favour of 
the Chapel of St. Catherine, which was affiliated to the Priory, 
and had probably suffered during the then late riots. Where 
this Chapel stood is a disputed question, some assuming that it 
was built on the site of what we now know as the Alexandra, or 
Tresmarrow Slate Quarry, and others that it stood near the 
western entrance to St. Thomas Churchyard. A lane known as 
St. Catherine's lane ascends directly from the Priory to the 
former site, and the quarry itself has, for centuries, been known 
as "Catherine" or "'Kattern Walls." Sculptured stones have 
been found there, and the shrubs and plants, still growing on 
the spot, indicate its former use. The latter site was occupied by 
the ruins of a building in the form of a Chapel until a few 
years ago, when the old walls were pulled down, the stones from 
them being used in building the adjoining bone mill. Leland 
points to the locality of this Chapel as being "by the west north- 
west, a little without Launstowne," and he adds "It is now 
prophanid." 

During the priorate of Robert Waryn, viz. in 1478, a pay- 
ment was made, to the receiver of the son of the reigning King, 
at the Chapel of St. Gabriel, in the Priory. I think this Chapel 
was that on the north of the Chancel. [See Plan.] 

A Chapel of St. James is mentioned in the Charter of 
Philip and Mary to Dunheved, as occuping a site near the 
present St. Thomas Bridge, on the left hand as we descend from 
the Town. 

I will here say a few words on the human remains recently 
exhumed inside and outside the walls of the Priory Chancel. 
The graves were formed as follows. Within vertical slabs of 
roughly trimmed stone, the bodies were laid horizontally with 



EXCAVATIONS ON THE SITE OP LAUNCESTON PRIORY. 95 

th.e feet towards the east. No coffins were used. This was 
evident in all instances from the fact that the shoulder blades of 
the skeletons were quite close to the stones, leaving no room for 
intervening wood. The head stones were chiefly rough blocks 
of freestone, with places hollowed out to receive the skulls. 
Over the graves, three or four flat stones were laid, and then 
they were covered with earth. One or two of the skeletons were 
perfect, the teeth remaining in the jaws. Some members of the 
British Archaeological Association state the above is the most 
primitive known manner of burying the dead, that the custom 
was derived from Pagan times, and that it was subsequently 
adopted by the Christians. All the human bones were reverently 
collected and, by the kindness of Mr. Oowlard, buried in St. 
Thomas' Churchyard. 

Whilst William Hopkyn was Prior [1483 to 1507] the 
duties and rights of the worshippers in the adjacent Parish 
Church of St. Thomas were defined by Hugh Oldham, Bishop of 
Exeter, who was asked to settle disputes, which had arisen 
between the Prior and the neighbouring laymen. Amongst 
other things the worshippers at St. Thomas Church were to offer 
yearly a wax candle weighing one pound at the High Altar of 
the Priory Church, and give two. shillings yearly to the Priest 
whom the Prior appointed to officiate in St. Thomas Church, and 
and it was also agreed that a Clerk should sleep in a certain 
chamber of the tower of the Convent Church, so that such Clerk 
might arouse the Curate of St. Thomas when it was necessary 
for him to rise to administer the sacraments. This Tower was 
probably at the western end of the nave ; its position can easily 
be discerned by visiting the site and noting the outline of the 
present Churchyard hedge, which is over the site of the northern 
wall of the Priory Church. 

Before I conclude, I should like to say a few words on the 
immediate precincts of the Priory. It was the rule to build 
boundary walls around the gardens, &c., which were attached to 
Monasteries. Traces of such boundary walls around Launceston 
Priory can still be seen. One started from the north-eastern 
corner of the Presbytery, where I found foundations, and a door- 
way leading to the Sextonshay, from that point it probably ran 



96 EXCAVATIONS ON THE SITE OF LAUNCESTON PKIOBY. 

straight to the present St. Thomas Street, and then at right angles 
to the southern side of the newly cut road to Wooda Lane at 
the foot of the Old Hill, where I think a portion of the wall still 
forms the lane boundary as far as Harper's Lake. From this 
point the stream may have formed a sufficient fence around the 
Convent Garden, which garden extended to the new cottages in 
Wooda Lane, and was bounded on the west by the present lane 
leat. I think it probable that the present existing mill pond 
was the site of an ancient fish pond attached to the Priory ; and 
that the Priory barn and stables stood in the orchard on the 
north of the pond, old foundations having been found in this 
orchard in former years. The Priory Mill stood near the site of 
the present Town Mills. The railway cutting through the 
Priory meadow was again extended in 1891, but no further 
discoveries of interest were made. 



97 



ST. PETEOC'S CHURCH, PADSTOW. 



(Notes of an Address delivered in Padstow Church, August 20. 1891, to the Members of 
the Royal Institution of Cornwall, by the Right Reverend Edwaed Teollopb, 
D.D., F.S.A., Lord Bishop, Suffragan, of Nottingham,) 



In Cornwall, four Churclies dedicated to St. Petroo still 
remain, viz. : those of Padstow, Bodmin, Little Petherick, and 
Trevalga ; and there are many others named after him in Devon 
and in Wales. He is said to have proceeded from Wales or 
from Cornwall to Ireland, and thence returned south (on a mill- 
stone across the sea) to Padstow (Petroc's-stow) in Cornwall, 
eventually settling, with three Welsh disciples, in Bodmin (also 
called Petroc's-stow,) where his relics* were long enshrined in 
his conventional church (since destroyed), the patron saints of 
which were St. Mary (the Blessed Virgin) and St. Petroc. 

The site of Padstow Church marks that of a sacred edifice 
of extreme antiquity, and the Chapel of St. Sampson was not 
far from it. There are ancient crosses around. A very large 
base, from which rises part of a massive cross-shaft, is in the 
church-yard ; another cross is in the Vicarage Garden ; and a 
third is in the grounds of Prideaux Place.f 

The Tower of the church does not appear to be Norman. 
It is Early English in style, with 14th century additions, and 
contains 6 bells which, according to the churchwardens' book, 
were rung in honour of Charles, Prince of Wales, afterwards 
King Charles II, when he entered Padstow (as the guest of 
John, son of Sir Nicholas Prideaux, then owner of Prideaux 
Place), on his way from Launceston to Pendennis Castle, after 
the disastrous battle of Naseby, fought June 14th, 1645. The 

* A reliquary, which probably at one time contained them, still exists at 
Bodmin. 

f All these Crosses have been accurately figured and described in the 
Journal of the British Archseol : Association (vol. 47, part 4, 1891) ; and in " The 
Builder," (June 6, 1891, vol. Ix, p. 449), by Mr. Arthur G. Langdon, Architect, 
I7, Craven-street, Strand, London. 



98 ST. PETEOC'S CHURCH, PADSTOW. 

references are to payments made to "Nicholas Hutcliinges for 
ordering the Prince's state, to the Eingers at the Prince's 
cominge, and to the Prince's Highness' s servants." 

The exterior of the church displays fine old roofs, and 
handsome windows, which last are uniformly constructed of Cata- 
cleugh-trap. The only difference being in those of the chantry 
forming the south chancel-aisle, these two being flamboyant, 
whilst between them outside is a figure holding a shield of lions, 
impaling the arms of Nanfan (3 wings), on the central buttress. 
On the buttress at each side, are mutilated quadrupeds, as sup- 
porters ; apparently a lion and a chained unicorn. 

The whole interior of the church is in the style of the 
perpendicular period, so general in Cornwall. 

The Nave consists of five bays, its pillars and arches being 
of Caen stone. It is surmounted by a plaster roof, above which, 
the original timbers remain. 

The Aisles, happily, retain their very pleasing timber roofs 
still open, — that is, free from plaster. 

There is no Chancel Arch, but originally there were 
undoubtedly Screens between the chancel and nave and the 
chancel aisles, and, as certainly, lofts, above those of the 
north aisle and the nave ; from the evidence of the position of the 
rood-loft Stair-case in the northern wall of the church. Perhaps 
the loft extended over the southern aisle screen too, for both 
aisles of the chancel were certainly chantry Chapels. 

In the Sacrarium, on the south side, is a piscina surmounted 
by a canopy terminating in a figure of a saint, clad in gown and 
hood, holding a book in one hand and a staff in the other ; 
according to some writers, erroneously stated to represent St. 
Petroc* 

In the richly carved sofiit over the east window are introduced 
two shields ; one bearing [azure] 3 salmon f ess- ways [or], for 

* Rev. W. lago has identified this figure as that of St. A nthony of Egypt 
Patriarch of Monks. He holds the TATT-cross (St. Anthony's) as a crutch-stick, 
also a book, and below is a hog. These are the usual emblems of St. Anthony, 
who overcame the swinish demon of sensuality and gluttony typified by the 
animal at his feet. (St. Petroc's effigies shew him as an ecclesiastic, holding in 
his left hand the pastoral crook of a Prior, his right hand being raised in 
benediction). 



ST. PETROC's CHURCH, PADSTOW. 99 

Bodmin Priory ; in reference to a grant made to its Priors (by 
Algar) of tlie whole fishery of the Alan or Camel; the other 
shield charged with a sword in pale between two letters P, each 
letter crowned, — a device to signify St. Petroc, probably.''^ 

The Chancel Arcades are of two bays each ; the arches and 
pillars of the northern being of granite, and in this respect 
differing from all the other arcades in the church. The closed 
roof of the chancel is of oak, with a prettily carved little cornice, 
from which rise at intervals figures of angels holding blank 
shields. 

The following shields of arms formerly existed in the windows 
of this church, viz. : those of John, Earl of Cornwall, subse- 
quently King of England; Edward, Earl of Cornwall, son of 
Edward I; Piers Graveston, Earl of Cornwall, 1308; and John 
of Eltham, the last Earl of Cornwall, 1328. Xo old glass, 
however, now remains, except one small piece, in the head of one 
of the south windows, representing the emblem of St. Mark. 

Through the generosity of the late Miss Mary Prideaux- 
Brune, the munificent restorer of the whole church, the windows 
were enlivened by modern painted glass, and a series of scrip- 
tural texts remarkably well chosen. 

The font, composed of Catacleugh-trap, is interesting from 
its general design and its carving. It consists of a square base, 
a circular central pillar, and slender octagonal smaller pillars, 
supporting a circular basin, — on the sides of which are carved 
small figures of the Apostles and four angle angels as capitals 
of the smaller pillars, whilst two rows of pattrasses, on the lower 
portion of the basin, indicate the late or perpendicular character 
of the font. 

The pulpit is for the most part modern, but incorporated in 
it are five panels, of the time of Henry VII, representing the 
instruments of our Lord's Passion, with a modern panel to com- 
plete the series. Commencing behind, on the north side, the 

* A somewhat similar shield, viz. : one charged with a sword erect, crowned, 
and debruised by a bugle horn, between a hound and a hart lodged, occurs in 
the stone carving at Rialton in St. Columb Minor. It is labelled '" S. Petrocus." 
This is shown in Rev. W. lago's plate of Vivian sculptures, in the R.I.C, 
Journal, Vol. 5, p. 345, 



100 ST. PETROC'S CHUECH, PADSTOW. 

subjects are the following, eacli panel having also a shell above ; 
and a shield, of varying form, below. 

1. Two halberts crossed ; the lantern and two torches ; together 

with St. Peter's sword, the ear of Malchus being upon 
its blade. 

2. A helm surmounted by a crown of thorns ; and, on the 

shield below, our Lord's pierced hands and feet, with his 
pierced heart between them. 

3. The spear, with the sponge on hyssop, crossed, above ; on 

the shield below, the pillar of flagellation surmounted by 
the cock ; and scourges. 

4. The cross, the crown of thorns, and the sponge on hyssop 

again. (This panel is the modern addition). 

5. Crossed halberts, above ; on the shield below, the three 

large nails ; Judas' s hand holding the bag of money ; and 
the vessel of vinegar on round dish. (The two last* may, 
however, be otherwise explained). 

6. The spear with the sponge on hyssop ; and, below, a ladder 

between two scourges. 

In the chancel is a seat, with two old bench-ends (15th cen- 
tury), which have been adapted recently to their present use. 
On the outer face of one is carved a fox in a cowled habit, 
preaching from a pulpit to some geese. On its inner side is 
inserted a carving of the cross and the crown of thorns. The 
other bench end has, on the outside, three hands holding as 
many dice ; also the seamless coat ; within, a hand grasping a 
spear. 

The monuments in the church are of various kinds, and 
include the following : — 

A memorial brass consisting of an inscribed plate, f lately 
renovated and inserted in the stone-step of the sanctuary. It 
commemorates Laurence Merther, who was Vicar of Padstow 

* Possibly a hand gripping a torn-out beard ; and the ewer and basin used 
by Pilate for washing his hands. 

f A fragment of the brass effigy of a priest, in alb, with wrist apparels, 
amice, maniple, and chesuble, has more recently been found, and seems to form 
(with the exception of the head, which is lost) the remainder of Merther's brass- 
It so, his monument was semi-effigial with inscription plate. 



ST. PETROC'S CHITRCH, PADSTOW. 101 

from 1400 to 1421, on the presentation of the Prior and Convent 
of Bodmin. He was subsequently licensed to celebrate in the 
Chapels of Holy Trinity, St. Michael, St. Petrock, St. Gorman, 
and St. Wethlege. 

One of the steps of the north doorway is a portion of a 
sepulchral slab. On it, part of the matrix of a brass may be 
detected, representing a female kneeling. 

The fine monument of Sir Nicholas Prideaux, of Soldon, at 
the west end of the south aisle, was originally erected in the 
chancel of West Putford Church, Devon ; and thence brought 
here in 1732. It exhibits painted effigies of Sir Nicholas, with 
his two sons below him, one by his first wife, the other by his 
second ; opposite to him, his third wife, with her two sons below 
her by her former husband, Dr. Evan Morice, Chancellor of 
Exeter, viz. : Sir William Morice, Secretary of State to Charles 
II, and Laurence, who died young. All are shewn reverentially 
kneeling in prayer. There are two long inscriptions, and 
emblems of mortality, constituting adjuncts of this valuable 
memorial which so distinctly portrays the dress of Sir Nicholas 
Prideaux's period. 

On the base is carved, in low relief, a figure of St. 
Christopher bearing the infant Saviour on his shoulders. 

The next principal monument is at the west end of the north 
aisle. This is of marble and commemorates Edmund Prideaux, 
the father of Humphrey Prideaux, the famous Dean of Norwich. 
The latter, though born at Padstow, was buried in Norwich 
Cathedral, consequently there is no monument of him here. 

Outside the church, within a covered recess on the north 
side of the tower, is the greater part of an incised slate sepul- 
chral slab, commemorating Honor, wife of Robert Calwoodley, 
who died April 9th, 152 1 , as set forth on a border legend around 
a cross ; I am therefore happy to be able to state that she was 
not the member of her family who was charged, before the Star 
Chamber Bench, in 1592, with having committed a serious act of 
violence within this church, by the then mayor of Padstow, 
John Prideaux. That lady was Anne Calwoodley, who disputing 
the right of the mayor and others to the new seat they occupied, 
locked herself up in the church, and with a great axe began to 



102 ST. PETROO'S CHURCH, PADSTOW. 

hew the seat down, and would not stop, when the mayor came 
in a hurry and begged her to do so. Subsequently, by might 
and force, she, in the time of divine service, with others, pre- 
vented him from taking his lawful place therein.* 

Another of this family, viz. : John Oalwoodley, mayor of 
Padstow, on the part of himself, the Corporation, and inhabi- 
tants of Padstow, made a series of complaints, in the 26th year 
of Elizabeth, against William Poche, a merchant of the same 
place ; in that he, with other lewd fellows, about the feast of 
Easter last, had partaken of the Holy Communion in a common 
alehouse ; and then entered the church, contemptuously looking 
upon those assembled there ; he had also, it was alleged, during 
the last three years consigned to Spain corn and victuals, con- 
trary to Her Majesty's prohibition ; and about a year before, had 
beaten and wounded Margaret, the wife of Mr. Talbot, which 
was thought to have caused her death ; and also another woman, 
to the danger of her life. It was stated likewise that he had 
defended certain robbers against the constable, had promoted 
certain broils and tumults in the town ; that he had published 
and circulated divers slanderous and contentious " rymes and 
balletts " against divers of the honest people of Padstow ; and 
spoken contemptuously of Her Majesty's Great Seal. Saying 
that he could make as good a one for two-pence ! whence he 
(the Mayor) begged that the said Wm. Eoche might be 
sub-poenaed to answer for these offences before the Court of 
of the Star Chamber. It is further recorded that, after the 
hearing of this case, Wm. Roche so well defended himself and 
rebutted the charges, that the case was dismissed " with no great 
worship to them who bound him."f 

* This account is taken from the Star Chamher proceedings at the Record 
Office, by Charles G. Prideaux-Brune, Esq. 

t Star Chamber proceedings, 26 Eliz., Bundle 5, No. 30, Letter C. 



103 



COLOUR CHANGES IN CORNISH STOATS. 

By henry CROWTHEB. F.R.M.S., Curator of the Truro Museum. 



In the Truro Museum are many types of more or less 
lighter coloured and white vertebrate quadrupeds. I cannot 
ascertain the precise dates of their capture, as the entry in our 
Journal of their gift to the Museum, does not of course include 
facts relating to the field. Most of them were given years 
ago, and several are in a case of Cornish mammals, presented 
by the late Mr. Clem. Jackson, of Port Loe. The animals 
grouped in this case must have taken the best part of a 
life-time to acquire, and include undoubted summer and winter 
forms. It would have been interesting to know, at first hand, 
under what conditions the country lay, when these lighter 
coloured and white mammals were caught. 

I purpose here only to touch on the colour changes in the 
weasel family, of which the examples on the table are members. 
Mr. Jonathan Couch in his " Cornish Fauna " says of the weasel, 
"it is not common for this animal to assume a pied appearance 
in Cornwall, but it has done so in a not very cold season." In 
the second edition of this work published by our society this 
remark is deleted. In Bell's " British Quadrupeds," it is stated 
that Mr. Couch has seen a white form of stoat more than once 
in Cornwall. So far as I can learn from personal enquiries, the 
weasel is rarely seen white in Cornwall, and we have it on the 
authority of Mr. Bell, one of the most eminent writers on 
British Mammals, that " sometimes, though rarely, the weasel 
becomes white in winter."* The Rev. Mr. Jenyns in his 
"Manual of the British Vertebrate Animals" makes of the 
Weasel a " Var. j3. White, with a few black hairs at the extremity 
of the tail," and of the Stoat "(Summer dressy which is the brown 
form, 2in.d^ "{Winter dress) Wholly white, or white with a slight 
tinge of yellow, the extremity of the tail excepted, which 
remains black. Ohs. In spring and autumn these two liveries 
are found intermixed." 

*History of British Quadrupeds, 2nd ed., p. 188. 



104 COLOUR CHANGES IN CORNISH STOATS. 

Mr. Bellamy in his "Natural History of South Devon" 
says of the weasel, " White specimens and others in progress of 
change to the white garb are occasionally found;" and of the 
Stoat, "occasionally found white, or pied, or blotched with white." 
"We may take it I think that whilst colour changes do occur 
amongst the weasels, white forms are only occasionally met with 
in the south-west of England. 

Both red and white types of the Common Weasel, Mustela 
vulgaris, 'h.,Sin.di of the ^tooi, Mustela erminea,'h.,dii:e well represented 
in our Museum, the lighter ones in a larger proportion, as their 
greater rarity made them more curious to their collectors and 
donors. Amongst them we have illustrations of the various 
changes from ruddy red through buff and yellow to white. 
The collection bears out, too, common observation, that colour 
changes in Stoats are more frequent than in the Common Weasels. 
Eecently Mr. Thomas Clark, of Truro, procured for us from one 
of the game-keepers of Mr. Claude Daubuz at Killiow, a stoat 
caught during the blizzard of last March, and from another 
game-keeper at St. Allen, another example of the same species 
caught immediately after the blizzard. The two examples were 
equally fine animals when living, but in colour are very 
dissimilar. The example, caught when Cornwall was under a 
mantle of snow, which fell as winter was almost over, when we 
had passed through a summer-like February, probably one of 
the finest on record, is, except a triangular spreckled patch of 
brown and white between the ears and nose, and the black tip 
at the tail end — which is never changed — beautifully white. 
The second example caught after the blizzard is brown. 

In northern latitudes where the rigour of winter comes round 
with severe regularity, the stoat changes its dress with the season. 
Even in Britain, in the mountainous parts of the north of 
Scotland, this change is well marked, but further south it 
becomes rarer, and in many museums throughout the middle and 
south of England the white stoat is considered a curiosity. 

The photographs which are thrown upon the screen are 
from lantern slides prepared by my friend, Mr. George Parkin, 
of Wakefield, from his collection of Stoats, and illustrate more 
effectively than words the colour changes of these animals in 
the north of England. 



COLOXTR CHANGES IN CORNISH STOATS. 105 

Some suggest this colour change has to do with mimicry. 
In biology this term has a pretty definite meaning, it was first 
used by the late Mr. W. H. Bates, and is the term given to the 
"advantageous resemblance (usually protective) which one species 
of animal or plant often shews to another." Mimicry is rather 
the adoption amongst animals and plants of deceptive resem- 
blances. In the Weasel family the resemblance is not to living 
forms but to the ground, and this is usual with the higher 
animals, their colours generally matching their surroundings. 
Mimicry, though almost unknown amongst mammals, is common 
with birds and insects. An interesting case given by Mr. A. E. 
Wallace will perhaps make this difference clearer. In the Malay 
region he came across an insectivorous mammal ( Cladohates) 
which closely resembled (mimicked) a squirrel in colour and 
bushiness of tail, but fed on young birds and insects, and not on 
fruit. The colour changes in the Stoats are in all probability 
secretive and not protective, as these animals can take care of 
themselves. The ordinary dress of the stoat is bicolored, white 
beneath, which never changes, and is hidden as the animal runs, 
and a visible dorsal brown which, as we have instanced above, 
may alter in tint. 

I have seen several times, in the field, the use of the light 
coloured strip beneath the body of the Weasel family. I 
remember once when walking over Middleham Moor, Yorkshire, 
seeing two of these animals, which were crossing a ridge of 
ground and coming towards me. Suspecting danger they raised 
themselves on their hinder quarters until they stood full height, 
the white ventral strip, now fully visible, blended with the 
sky glare behind them which I was facing, and gave to each 
stoat the appearance of two narrow dark lines, totally unlike 
any living animal. 

The following facts point to the variations in colour depend- 
ing on coldness and snow : in our ordinary Cornish winters these 
vermiform mammals do not change their colour ; the stoat caught 
in the blizzard was white ; the specimen sent soon afterwards, 
when the weather was warmer and no snow upon the ground 
was again brown, as was a small example of a weasel sent a 
little later hj Mr. Richards, the game-keeper at Killiow. 



106 COLOTJE CHANGES IN CORNISH STOATS. 

A few words on the effect of cold and snow on animals in 
boreal regions may not be out of place here, as the stoats are 
generally distributed throughout Arctic Europe, Asia, and 
America. In Arctic areas many animals remain white through- 
out the year, such as the Polar bear, American polar hare ; 
others turn white in winter as the Arctic hare, Arctic fox, and 
Ermine. The permanently white forms live amongst the constant 
snows, the others in summer live in regions which are free from 
snow. Here colour is seen to be secretive. Records are 
plentiful of brown coloured stoats in our Cornish winters, and I 
have seen both weasels and stoats in their summer dress in 
mid-winter in Swaledale and other exposed localities. 

Mr. Wallace in his delightful work on "Darwinism," says 
" whenever we find Arctic animals which, from whatever cause, 
do not require protection by the white colour, then neither the 
cold nor the snow-glare has any effect upon their colouration." 
In spite of odd exceptions snow and coldness have an effect on 
our Cornish stoats. With us, in all probability, the white 
specimens occur only when heavy snows are on the ground, a 
time of snow and coldness. Mr. Elliott Coues in his 'monograph 
on " Fur-bearing Animals," says "if the requisite temperature 
be experienced at the periods of renewal of the coat, the new 
hairs will come out of the opposite colour, that is the change 
may or may not be coincident with shedding." It is clear then 
that in snowy regions, should the cold persist, a prolongation 
of winter seem imminent, the white coat and not the brown is 
renewed. 

A glance at our Museum specimens shews that the alter- 
ations in colour may be due to a change of the hair from brown 
to white, or a renewal of the brown hairs by white ones. 

When we come to think these facts over, we shall see, I feel 
certain, that the colour variations in our Cornish stoats are more 
than commonplace. Remembering that the stoats universally 
and regularly change their coats in Arctic regions, in less colder 
areas only at certain odd times, and in still warmer places never 
changing them at all, it would seem that this odd and uncertain 
colour display points to ancestral characters. The varying 
dress refers us back to a time when the Stoats were more closely 



COLOUR CHANGES IN COBNISH STOATS. 107 

restricted to Arctic tracts, where short summers were followed by 
rigorous winters, in the extended peregrinations of these 
animals they settled in warmer and still warmer areas till they 
overran Europe and found a home in Northern India. In some 
of these regions the colour change is useless, but though 
apparently forgotten, the power to alter the dress is not lost, but 
latent, two conditions — coldness and snow — being requisite to 
induce its display. 

In the blizzard of March, 1891, we had in Cornwall the 
essentials necessary to influence this power, intense cold and an 
Arctic outlook. Hence, probably, in the Stoat before us, dormant 
ancestral characters pointing to the derivation of the animal 
from northern forms, are made visible, in a fur of singular 
whiteness and beauty. 



108 



LITTLE PETHERICK, OTHERWISE St. PETROCK MINOR. 

BT THE 

Reverend the Eight Honorable SAMUEL VISCOUNT MOLESWORTH, M.A., Rector. 



The church of St. Petroc in this Parish was re-opened for 
Divine Service on Wednesday, 6th October, 1858. 

The church has been almost rebuilt. The general character 
of the old building has been preserved, the walls being built 
upon the line of the old foundation with the exception of an 
additional bay at the end of the north aisle to the westward. 

The old church was much after the usual type of Cornish 
churches, consisting, in this instance, of only two long ridges, 
with a south porch and western tower, all unbuttressed and 
built of rubble slate stone with granite quoins. 

The old north aisle was curiously cut out of the native 
schist rock, which was left to form the external wall, with the 
exception of a foot or two of walling work immediately under 
the roof. This primitive feature it was found necessary to 
sacrifice. The trickling in of water, from the wet earth, caused 
constant damp and unwholesomeness even in the summer raonths. 
This has been all now remedied, and the walls are built of slate 
stone and other stone of the neighbourhood in random courses. 

The gables are finished with water-tablings and saddle- 
stones with bold granite finial crosses. The division of the nave 
and chancel is externally marked by a slight break in the roof 
and an ornamental metal cross. 

The east window of the chancel is of stained glass, the 
design of Alfred Bere, of Exeter. The rest of the windows are 
filled with quarry-glass slightly tinted. The new windows in 
their treatment follow the style of the tracery of the old east 
windows, whose date was about the middle of the 14th century. 

The new roofs are framed of Baltic fir, of strong, though 
light, construction. 



lilTTLE PETHERIOK, OTHERWISE ST. PETEOOK MINOB. 109 

Some of the new dressed and cut stone- work is of the deep 
grey close-grained stone called Kattaclugh or carracluse, which 
is always found, more or less, in old Cornish churches. 

The outer doorway of the porch, presented by Mrs. Mary 
Prideaux-Brune, gives a good specimen of this fine stone ; as 
does also the new arch, with its pillar, cap and base, — separating 
the chancel from the north aisle, — presented by Thomas Henry 
Peter, Esq., which once formed part of the now ruined church 
of St. Constantino in St. Merryn Parish. 

Two small semi-detached capitals of the best middle-pointed 
period of architecture were discovered in the old walls of the 
tower. These are apparently of the Pentuan stone, which was 
much used in the best works of that age in Cornwall. 

Amongst other reliques of past ages, a tombstone, thought 
by some,*' who read it "Sire Roger Leinho," to be that of the 
founder, was turned up, and has been laid under a low arch 
purposely constructed for its reception on the north side of the 
Sacrarium. It is a flat stone with a simple floriated cross cut 
upon it in low relief, surmounted by a human head. 

The church is filled with open benches of stained and 
varnished deal arranged on new floors. 

The tower has been rebuilt from the foundations. 

The situation of the church is unusually picturesque, at the 
bottom of a wooded slope rising almost abruptly from the banks 
of a pebbly brook ; and is just such as to suggest to a writer of 
romance what a quiet, peaceful, rural churchyard ought to be ; 
and, to many concerned in the present restoration, it is full of 
early recollections as well as hallowed by old associations. 

*The Rev. W. lago (Hon. Sec. for Cornwall, of the Society of Antiquaries) 
writes: — " By permission of the Eector and with the kind assistance of Mr. J. 
D. Enys, I have examined the slab in its very dark situation, and have taken 
several rubbings of it. The head, in relief above the cross, is that of an 
ecclesiastic, — the tonsure being very apparent. The name in the Norman-French 
legend is not Leinho. The words, as far as they can be traced, are : — + SIRE 
ROGER LEMPRV GIST ICI.^(M and P being conjoined). Sir was a title 
pertaining to many of the clergy. The name Lempru, Lemprew, Lempreurj 
Lempriere, occurs elsewhere. The slab is much like those at St. Breoke, Bodmin, 
St. Merryn, St. Burian, Tintagel, &c." 



110 LITTLE PETHBRICK, OTHEBTVISE ST. PETROOK MINOR. 

On the floor of the nave are the arms of Henry V (1413- 
1422) in modern tiles. 

The chancel has a handsome reredos of tile-work, presented 
by Beatrice Lady Molesworth, widow of the late rector. 

A lancet-window of stained glass is inscribed : — " In mem : 
Hugonis Henrici Molesworth, Bart., Rectoris ; qui banc ecclesiam 
restauravit. Obiit in fest : Epiph : 1862. Hanc fenestram 
posuit Greorgius Grulielmus, Rector, 1867." 

Another chancel-window of stained glass is inscribed : — "In 
mem : Catharine, conjugis carissimse Georg : Grulielm : Manning, 
hujus Eccl. Rectoris. Obiit 13 Octr., 1864. 

On the keystone of the tower arch is the Molesworth crest, 
the coat of arms, is displayed on a shield, supported by an 
angel, on an external bracket in the first stage of the tower. 

St. Petroc is said by some to have been a native of Wales, 
— by others, of Cornwall, — who crossed over to Padstow, A.D. 
518, and afterwards settled at Bodmin, where he died, A.D. 564. 
He had previously spent 20 years in Ireland, chiefly in studying 
the bible. His feast day was 4th June. 



Inscription on a monument under the east window : — 

" Heare under lyeth the body of John Bettye, the sonne of 

Humfrye Bettye, Gierke, who was buried the xxviii day of June, 

Anno Dom. 1634. 



Si Christum discis satis est si cetera nescis. 
Si Christum nescis nihil est si cetera discis." 



[The preceding description of the church of St. Petroc Minor 
was read by Lord Molesworth, the Rector, to the members 
of the Royal Institution of Cornwall on the occasion of their 
visit, August 20th, 1891. An account of St. Petroc, the 
patron saint of Padstow, Little Petherick, Bodmin, &c., 
appears in the 3rd Vol. of this R.I.C. Journal, written by 
the late Rev. J. Adams, M.A., of Stockcross. See also Sir 
J. Maclean's " Trigg Minor Deanery," Vol, 1, p. 121. The 
Mediaeval Bells in Little Petherick Tower are noted by Mr. 
Dunkin in his " Church Bells of Cornwall," pp. 46-51]. 



Ill 



ON THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE DEPOSITS IN 

THE WEST OF ENGLAND. 

By J. H. COLLINS, F.G.S. * 



Chap. III. — Rock Change as concekned in the Foemation 

OP Ore Deposits. 

Sec. 1. — General Gharacters of the Ore-Deposits. 

In presenting the following brief outline of the general 
characters of the West of England ore-deposits, I must assume 
that the main stratigraphical features of the district, and in 
particular the relations of the granite and elvan to the stratified 
rocks, are known to the reader. f 

Ore-deposits are frequently and conveniently classed as 
contemporaneous (ore-beds, &c.), secondary or derivative (lodes, 
i&c.), and detrital (placers, &c.) A more detailed, and at the same 
time more accurate classification is that given below, which is 
substantially the same as that adopted by Mr. J. A. Phillips 
in 1884.+ 

1. Superficial, a. — Deposits formed by the mechanical 
action of water, air, &c., in the denudation of mineral 
regions. 

I. — Deposits of chemical origin formed at the 
earth's surface by precipitation in lakes and back 
waters, by organic agencies, or by the issue of mineral 
springs or metalliferous vapours. 

2. Stratified, c. — Deposits of ore-substance constituting 
the bulk of metalliferous beds, which have been formed 
in situ by precipitation from aqueous solutions, and 
subsequently but little altered. 

d. — Beds in which the ore-substance originally 
deposited from solution has been subsequently altered, 

* Continued from the Journal, No. 36, p. 149. 

t For convenient summaries of this part of the subject see Mr. Henwood's 
"Address" Journ. Roy. Inst. Corn., xiii., 1871, andihe present author's "Sketch 
of the Geology of Central and West Cornwall," Proc. Geol. Assoc, x, 3, 1887. 

I " Ore-deposits," p. 3. 



112 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

variously re-arranged, and sometimes locally concen- 
trated by metamorpliic action. 

e. — Ores disseminated through sedimentary beds, 
in which they have been chemically deposited after the 
consolidation of the beds. 
3. Unstratified. f. — Stockworks. 

g. — Impregnations. 
h. — Segregated veins. 
i. — Pipe veins. 
/. — Pockets. 

h. — Bedded veins or floors. 
I. — Crash veins. 
m. — Contact deposits. 
n. — Pake veins or lodes. 
Of course, it must not be forgotten that in nature there is 
no such hard and fast separation into groups as our classification 
would indicate — such grouping is merely adopted for convenience 
of study. The practical miner, and the observant mining stud- 
ent, will be constantly meeting with phenomena which in some 
respects would be best referred to one class — in others to 

another. 

Of these various kinds of ore-deposits those classed as 
superficial are, in the West of England, for the most part of the 
(«) class. As they are to be separately dealt with in Chap. lY, 
they need not be further alluded to here. 

Stratified deposits in the West of England are rarely, if 
ever, of the (c) class, the rocks being too ancient. Some examples 
of those referred to, classes {d) and {e), will be given in the next 
section of the present chapter. 

Pahlbands may be defined as slightly impregnated or 
mineralized belts of stratified rocks, coincident in strike and 
dip with the general country rock. They are often traversed by 
fissure lodes which extend beyond the limits of the fahlbands. 
While the lodes are in the unimpregnated country they are 
barren and valueless, but where they traverse the fahlbands they 
are notably metalliferous. These phenomena are particularly 
noticeable in the Kongsberg silver district in South Norway 
and in the Gympie gold district in Queensland. They are not 
exactly paralleled by any of the mineral phenomena of the West 



Vol. XI. 



Fig. I. 



liS-Z. 




PLATE VIII. 






■t- V' 






.r, 






Eas^^'^leal lovell. 
i'ZixTL/; scale 300 . 

J%.7. 



The Lovell . 

A.A.Grcaiite; B.B.GjSj 
C.C.ITie Xodfi, 4 to JO feefcwuie . 



J%.6. 



BaLmynlieer. ' " ' ' 
A^ SHAje. ' B . StamrafeTovs Ro ck. ; G . Granjuce . 




Parka. Mines . 
Section, ■ 



South. Weadron , PLoru. 
G./TTcmite; T.5tajTJTi/ercnLS TocT^,dhoux,40 xSOf^atthxs secxzoriy . 



1^.7. 




Paria. Min.es . 



Kg. a. 




D-uctyPeru. lode 



Hat Lode. , "Wlieal Unv 
A.Leader ; B .Zode ; B. Gr^icwk; E . CapeL ; F.HiUiLS ; G. Granite . 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 113 

of England ; yet in a certain sense the belt of killas country near 
the granite junctions may be regarded as analogous. 

Unstratified deposits will be considered in this chapter in a 
slightly different order to that set down above, and, of course, 
omitting those which are not clearly represented in our mining 
region. Thus we have no really characteristic pipe-veins, 
gash-veins, or contact deposits, although some of the ore-masses 
present notable analogies to these. 

True segregated veins of metalliferous mineral are also 
somewhat rare in the West of England, although there are 
numerous examples of segregated non-metalliferous veins, of 
hornblende, axinite, garnet, and especially of quartz. 

Well-marked pipe- veins — such as are common in the North 
of England, are also unrepresented, though some of the pockets 
and carbonas to be hereafter described present close analogies ; 
typical gash-veins, such as those of the Mississipi valley, are 
also rare,* but the tin-deposits at the Parka mines near St. Oolumb 
are in many respects similar. 

Again, I do not know of any typical contact-deposits — 
although it will be seen hereafter that many of the lodes are in 
fact contact-deposits, lying between granite and killas or killas 
and elvan for considerable distances, both in strike and underlie. 
In a certain sense, too, the stoekworks at Oarclaze and Gariggan 
may be looked upon as owing their mineralization to their 
position of contact. 

Of stoekworks, impregnations, chambers or pockets, and 
bedded veins or floors, the West of England presents excellent 
and very instructive examples, and of rake-veins or lodes 
proper, probably some of the best and most characteristic 
examples to be found in the world. Examples of each of these 
will be given in some detail in the following sections. 



Sec. 2.— Examples of Stratified Ore- Deposits. 

Mineral deposits formed in situ (c) and practically unaltered 
since their first formation are, as already stated, not known in 
the West of England — the stratified ore-beds which exist do in 
fact invariably afford evidence of much re-arrangement, or local 

* Phillips' Ore-deposits, p. 93. 



114 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

concentration of the ore-matter (group d), if not of actual 
impregnation from without since their first formation (group e), 
so that they can hardly be described as truly contemporaneous. 
Excluding some of the tin stockworks, which as will be seen 
hereafter have in a certain sense a claim to be considered as 
contemporaneous ore-beds; excluding too the beds of pyritous 
shale which exist in many parts of the district but which, hitherto 
have not been proved to be of economic importance,''^" we have 
only to consider in this place such interbedded ore-deposits as 
the magnetite of Haytor, the cupriferous beds of Belstone Consols 
and its neighbourhood, and the altered dolomite beds of 
Ashburton and Veryan, with their manganese concentrations ; 
together with the manganiferous slates of South Sydenham and 
other places in Devonshire. 

Perhaps the most definite examples of bedded-ores existing 
in the West of England are those situated at the foot of Haytor, 
in Devonshire, and the adjoining deposits at Smallacombe — the 
former described in 1875 by Dr. 0. Le Neve Foster,f and the 
latter some years earlier by myself. J 

At the Haytor mine are four beds of magnetite, varying 
from 3 to 14 feet in thickness, with a total of 26 feet or more. 
These are interstratified with highly silicified slates and sand- 
stones of carboniferous age — the whole series dipping pretty 
steeply to the north-north-east, and abutting against the granite, 
the bounding line of which runs here nearly north and south. 
An intrusive sheet of granite is partly interbedded with and 
breaks across the altered carboniferous strata, but the actual 
"junction" here as in so many other places seems to be a fault 
of a date much subsequent to the intrusion. With the magne- 
tite, and especially near its planes of contact with the enclosing 
slates, there is much hornblende, garnet, and axinite ; and a little 
to the westward, at Smallacombe, the whole series is very much 

* See Boase, Trans. Eoy. Geo. Soc. Corn, iv, p.p. 176 — 191. Mr. Boase says 
"at Tresuck iron pyrites enters so abundantly into the composition of these rocks 
that it is entitled to be considered as a constituent, and not as an adventitious 
mineral." (p. 191). 

f Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 1875, p. 628 (with references to earlier descriptions 
in the Phil. Mag., 1827 to 1831). 

:|: Eeport Miners' Assoc, 1872, p. 71, 



OEIGIJSr AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 115 

decomposed — the slates here forming a kind of clay, and the 
sandstones being largely disintegrated into sand. In these soft 
beds are to be seen irregular layers of nodular limonite, while 
certain less decomposed beds still contain much magnetite and 
hornblende in an almost unaltered condition. Here, and also 
at several points along the outcrop — which may be traced for 
about a mile to the eastward — quantities of ochre and umber are 
met with irregularly disposed in the decomposed mass, and 
evidently themselves decomposition products.* 

As to the origin of these beds, Dr. Foster, in the paper already 
referred to, remarks that " beds of iron-ore deposited contem- 
poraneously with shales and sandstones seem to have been sub- 
jected to a metamorphic action — probably due to the proximity 
of the granite. The iron-ore — perhaps originally in the form of 
beds like the Cleveland ore — has been altered into magnetite, 
whilst the change undergone by the shales and sandstones con- 
sists in an extreme silicification."f I quite believe that this is 
the true explanation after a careful microscopic and partial 
chemical examination of the rocks and associated minerals ; and 
I see no ground for the second supposition put forward by Dr. 
Foster (though hesitatingly) "that the apparently stratified 
magnetite may have been formed by ferruginous emanations 
which accompanied or followed the granitic intrusion, and spread 
out between the planes of bedding. "| There is no evidence 
whatever of the existence of an actual ''fissure" or "junction" 
vein which has served for the channel for ' ' ferruginous solutions 
or emanations." I have little doubt that the original ferruginous 
beds consisted of carbonate of iron, that the heat from the 
proximity of the granite, aided by water circulating through the 
beds, has converted it into magnetite, and has also produced 
and developed the hornblende, axinite, garnet, &c. The general 
silicification of the fine-grained shales and sandstones seems to 
me to have been a subsequent process. It has produced in some 
places a kind of quartzite and in others a fine-grained banded 

* In these beds large masses of gramenite were risible at the time of my visit 
in 1871. See Min. Mag., vol. 1, p. 67. 

t Q. J. G. S., 1875, 629. 

X p. 630. 



116 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OEE-DEPOSITS. 

clierty -looking rock — shewing its origin plainly under the micros- 
cope, and containing in one instance over 95 per cent, of silica.* 

The silica of these rocks has something of a chalcedonic 
character, shewing very few traces of crystallization. The same 
period and mode of silicification is perhaps indicated by the 
occurrence in the neighbourhood of the rare mineral Haytorite 
— which is a chalcedonic pseudomorph after Datholite. 

A somewhat similar association of bedded magnetite with 
hornblende, axinite, and apatite interstratified with "greenstone 
slate" or "hornblendic slate" occurs at the Crown's Mine, Botal- 
lack, and was briefly described and compared with the well-known 
Perseberg deposit in Sweden by Dr. Foster, in 1867.f Similar 
beds of magnetite have been worked to a small extent at Trelus- 
well, near Penryn, and at Brent, in Devon. 

The nodules of argillaceous iron-stone associated with the 
bands of sandstone, shale, and anthracite, of the " carbon series 
near Bideford, reminding us of the intermixture of iron-ore and 
vegetable matter in the bogs and morasses of the present day," 
were referred to by Sir H. Delabeche maoy years since, | but 
they have never, I think, been worked. 

The red hematite of the Permian rocks in the neighbourhood 
of Luckham and Wotton Courtney, in West Somerset, has been 
"in some localities worked in the manner of a quarry for that 
ore, and profitably exported in the state in which it is thus roughly 
obtained .... the hematite constituting as much a part of the beds 
as the sandstone and conglomerates with which it is associated. "§ 

Another series of metalliferous beds, of considerable geolo- 
gical if not economical importance, occurs on the north side of 
Dartmoor, and extends from Sourton to South Zeal — a distance 



* The practical importance of this silicification to the miner was shewn by 
the fact that the adit driven from the Smallacombe side for the purpose of opening 
up the magnetite beds in depth cost in some parts over =£50 per fathom in driving. 
This however was before the use of boring machinery and of dynamite had 
become at all general in the West of England. 

t Report Miners' Association, 1867, p. 46. 

;j; Report on Cornwall, &c., p. 125. At page 143 he says on the same series of 

deposits " The general character of the great carbonaceous deposit of Devon 

...... is that of drifted matter, vegetable remains included in this respect 

it appears unlike the coal deposits of Northumberland and Durham " (p. 143) , 

§ Ibid, p. 197, 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. ] 17 

of seven or eight miles. The beds of ore, locally termed lodes, 
consist of garnet rock, mostly crystalline, containing large quan- 
tities of iron-pyrites and mispickel, with some disseminated 
copper-pyrites. These beds are interstratified with "perfectly 
conformable " dark siliceous slates, and the whole series dips 
pretty regularly away from the granite * The economic import- 
ance of these beds might, I think, be greatly enhanced by a 
system of raw-smelting before export, so producing a matte which 
would better bear the cost of carriage, and which would be more 
readily saleable than such low-grade ores as are usually met 
with in this district. 

The dark slates extending from Launccston to Lew Trench- 
ard are everywhere permeated with manganese, which at many 
points seems to be gathered into lenticular or irregular masses 
having their greatest extensions mainly conforming to the strike 
and dip of the beds, so forming what have been termed "bedded 
veins," but sometimes so regular in form as to appear true beds 
— at others expanding into irregular masses or "pockets." Many 
of these have been worked very extensively and have in former 
times, when manganese was high in price, yielded large profits 
to their owners. 

That the Haytor, Bideford, Luckham, Treluswell, and 
Botallack iron-ores, the copper-ores of Belstone and Sourton, 
and the manganese ores of Launceston, Lifton, and Lew 
Trenchard, are truly contemporaneous in their first origin, 
there is, I think, no reason to doubt ; of mineral infiltration into 
the rock substance since its consolidation, other than in some 
instances an infiltration of silica, there seems to be no evidence 
whatever. It is equally certain however, that the ore-matter in 
them has been re-arranged and concentrated since the beds were 
first formed. This is in fact usually the case with contemporaneous 
ore-beds whenever their age is considerable — as for instance the 
concretionary iron-ores of the English coal measures, and 
notably the well-known bituminous copper-schists of Mansfeld;f 

* The workings on these cupriferous beds at Belstone, which seem to greatly 
resemble many metalliferous deposits in South Norway were described by Sir 
W. W. Smyth, in the year 1868. See Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc, Corn., ix, p. 38. 

f For a clear though condensed account of the deposits, see the admirable 
treatise on " Ore-deposits," by the late Mr. J. A. Phillips, P.B.S. 



118 OEIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. . 

and sometimes this concentration lias been so extreme as to bring 
the deposits into a condition resembling "bedded veins" (k). 

The transference and re-arrangement of pre-existing mineral 
matter is still more marked in the case of the altered dolomites 
at one time largely worked for manganese in the neighbourhood 
of Ashburton, and described by Mr. E. J. Frecheville in 1884* 
as examples of local concentration and re-arrangement of origin- 
ally manganiferous beds. From the analyses presented by Mr. 
Frecheville, it seems that the concentration has been of a chemical 
and residual nature — carbonates of lime and magnesia have been 
carried off in solution, while the carbonates of iron and mangan- 
ese present have been converted into peroxides. f The deposits 
of manganese at Oombemartin, Newton Abbott, and Veryan have 
probably had a similar origin. 

In other mining regions such " contemporaneous ore-beds" 
are extremely common ; reference has already been made to the 
copper schists of Mansf eld — 1 may also refer to the copper slates 
of Wicklow, where the "sulphur course" displays the same 
schistosity with the "country rock," and to the cupriferous shales 
of Hon-peh, in China.]: 

The "segregated veins" of Phillips (Ore Deposits, p. 90) 
seem to have much affinity with the ore-beds above described, 
but they are usually much less regular in thickness. I do not 
know of any well-characterised example in the West of England, 
unless the E.W. "lodes" at the Parka mines near St. Columb, 
hereafter to be described, are such. 

Examples of impregnated stratified deposits (group e) are 
not very numerous in our mining region, but they are not 
altogether wanting. The evidence of cupreous impregnation in 

* Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc, Corn., x, 217. 

f These and some associated derivation berl shave been worked for many years 
for umher, of which 2,766 tons were produced in 1883. 

J These consist of soft argillaceous rock filled with "light-green films and 
specks of malachite and chrysocolla in the cracks of cleavage and stratification" — 
or else siliceous bands " containing specks of cuprite with the green oxidized 
minerals also conformable— and occasional pockets of " pure copper-ore" (impure 
oxides with a little unchanged sulphide permeated by streaks of carbonate, and 
assaying up to 70 per cent) . There are no mineral veins — the primary sources of 
the mineral are sedimentary, and the patches must be ascribed to the redeposition 
of the metal by infiltrations of solutions derived from other sources of unoxidized 
minerals in the adjacent rocks." See Becher, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 168, p. 494. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 119 

the red sandstone conglomerates resting on the lode at West 
Doddington in W. Somerset is perfectly conclusive ; here the lode- 
fissure itself may have been the channel through which the 
cupriferous solutions were introduced subsequent to the consoli- 
dation of the rock. The copper in the sandstones consists of 
impregnations and concretions of blue and green carbonate — 
similar to those of the Alderley Edge sandstones in Cheshire ; 
it was formerly worked on a considerable scale.* 



Sec 3. — Examples of Stochworks. 

In many mining regions, bands or belts of " country-rock " 
are found which are traversed by numerous thin veins — or their 
numerous joints are thinly lined — or they are sprinkled through- 
out with small spots of metalliferous substance ; the whole mass 
being thus rendered of considerable value. An ore-mass of this 
character is called by the Germans — from whom we have derived 
many of our mining terms — a "stock," and a working upon 
such a mass a " stock-werk" or — as the term has been adopted 
in England — a " stock-work." 

Since the individual strings or nests of mineral are usually 
insignificant, it is necessary in stock- work mining to remove the 
whole mass of impregnated rock and to treat at any rate the 
greater portion in order to concentrate and separate its valuable 
contents. As the ores so distributed are often very small in 
quantity compared with the whole mass of the rock, e.g. with 
copper ores 1 per cent, or less and with tin ores from 3 to 10 lbs. 
of tin oxide to the ton, a concurrence of favourable circumstances 
is necessary to enable them to be worked with profit - such as 
cheap labour, land of little agricultural value on which to 
deposit the refuse, a good outlet for the said refuse so as to keep 
the workings clear, a good supply of water for concentration 
purposes, and, if possible, water-power for crushing, a body of 
the impregnated rock so large as to permit of working on a 
considerable scale, a genial climate allowing work to be carried 
on without serious interruption, &c. Even with all these advan- 
tages many are so poor that they remain unworked, and very few 
will pay to work except as open quarries. 

* Delabeche, Report, &c., 609, and Leonard Horner, Trans. Geol. Soc, Lond., 
Ill, pp. 352, 363. 



120 OEIGIN AND DEYELOPMENT OF ORB-DEPOSITS. 

Stockworks in the West of England have I believe only 
been worked for tin and for copper. Tin stockworks have been 
worked in ordinary " killas," and in that modification of it known 
as tourmaline schist ; also in granite and several of its modifica- 
tions, as greisen and schorlyte ; and in several kinds of felspar- 
porphyry (elvan). Copper stockworks have been worked in 
killas and in granite. 

Some of the larger tin stockworks in killas, as for example 
Mulberry and Minear Downs, seem to be very nearly related to 
the contemporary ore-beds already described, since they are often 
entirely unconnected with anything like a definite workable lode, 
and only very rarely with one that will pay of itself for working. 
But the strike of the belt of the impregnated ground is not 
necessarily or usually that of the general country rock, while its 
dip is usually much steeper than that of the beds. The chief 
individual strings are usually still more steeply inclined or even 
vertical, and, as will be shewn hereafter, these strings contain a 
notable proportion of the whole mineral contents of the belt, 
and nearly the whole of that which is extracted or extractable by 
the simple methods in use, and which are nevertheless in most 
cases the only ones economically possible. 

The tin stockworks in altered granite usually conform in 
strike to the direction of the nearest junction with killas, but 
these also seem to be often unconnected with definite lodes. 

Examples illustrating each of these varieties of "stockwork" 
will be described in the following order : — 

1. Tin stockworks in killas apparently unconnected with 
any workable lode. Examples, Mulberry, Wheal Pros- 
per, Minear Downs. 

2. Tin stockworks in killas plainly connected with workable 
lodes. Examples, Great Wheal Fortune, Pednandrea. 

3. Tin stockworks in "granite" unconnected with lodes. 

Examples, Carrigan, Cligga. 

4. Tin stockworks in granite connected with lodes. Exam- 
ples, Beam, Balleswidden. 

5. Tin stockworks in "elvan." ^:i;«w^/(?s, WhealJennings, 

Terras. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 121 

6. Copper stockworks in killas. Example, Wheal Music. 

7. Copper stockworks in granite. Example, Wheal 
Yyvyan. 

1. — TIN STOCKWORKS IN KILLAS UNCONNECTED WITH LODES. 

Mulberry. This is one of the most ancient open tin workings 
in Cornwall. It is situated on an elevated "down" (Mulberry- 
Down) about 2 miles to the N.W. of Lanivet Church. The 
excavation is at the bottom about 400 yards long and 30 wide, 
with a depth varying from 80 to 120 ft., but more tinny ground 
still stands on the east side of the pit. The then condition of the 
workings was described by Dr. C. Le Neve Foster in 1876 as 
follows : — " The killas, which is of an ash-grey colour, dips at an 
angle of about 45° in a direction N. 22° W. {true). It is tra- 
versed by numerous branches or veins running N. 7° W., dipping 
about from 80° W. to 90° (vertical), and varying from mere joints 
to veins 4 or 5 inches in width, rarely more than a foot apart — in 
fact generally only a few inches (fig. 1., plate viii). Many of the 
veins preserve their independence for a considerable distance 
without intersecting other branches ; but at the same time it is 
easy to find junctions both in the dip and in strike ; sometimes 
also two adjacent strings may be connected by a " floor " or vein 
of tin following the stratification. In addition to tin the veins 
contain quartz and a little arsenical pyrites and wolfram."*' 

The average result of the operations is stated at that time 
to have been 7 lbs. of tin-oxide to the ton of stuff, which at the 
then prevailing low price paid expenses and a little more. 

Wheal Prosper and Michell is half-a-mile westward of Lanivet 
Church, and was also described by Dr. Foster in 1876. The 
workings here are also in killas. The pit is 800 yards long, 30 
yards wide at the bottom, and averages 90 ft. deep. The killas 
is soft and light-coloured (white, grey, yellow, brown), and is 
full of little veins running E. 7° N., and containing quartz, 
gilbertite and cassiterite, the impregnated mass being wider and 
the veins somewhat more productive where certain stanniferous 
caunters cross the pit (or rather, as I think, certain non-stannif- 
erous caunter veins become stanniferous in crossing the pit). 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 1876, p. 655. 



122 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

The produce here did not exceed 3 lbs. to the ton in 1876, which 
then paid expenses.* 

At Minear Downs, a little to the N.E. of St. Austell, is another 
of these stanniferous channels of killas, lying between the famous 
Charlestown mines and the granite. The works were visited by 
the Miners' Association in 1870, and a short account was given 
in the report of proceedings of that year.f Dr. Foster described 
it six years later as follows — "The great open quarry.... is 
about 200 yards long at the top and 60 or 70 yards wide, but only 
90 yards long and 20 or 30 yards wide at the bottom. The 

greatest depth can scarcely be less than 120 feet „ The 

tin-ore occurs in a series of more or less parallel veins in the 
killas, striking about E. 7^^ S. and dipping N. at an angle of 
about 70°; the strings are often mere cracks but occasionally 7 to 8 
inches wide, and lie from 2 inches to 12 inches apart.. ..ten 
strings in one place in a width of 6 feet. They generally keep 
their own course without much interlacing in dip and strike. 
The killas itself dips S.S.E. at an angle of 20° to 25°, so that 
the strings intersect it almost at right angles. At the sides of the 
strings the killas is often stained red and yellow, and is occasion- 
ally altered into tourmaline schist. On the S.W. side of the pit 
is a so-called lode which is merely a mass of tourmaline schist 6 
or 8 inches wide between two tin branches. "J 

These works are still being profitably carried on, but the 
pit is very much larger than at the time of Dr. Foster's visit. 
It must now be at least 500 yards long and 150 feet deep. I 
visited it in the present year (1892), and found over sixty heads 
of stamps at work. The stuff is said to yield about 4 lbs. of 
tin to the ton. 

* On this point Dr. Foster remarks as follows : — 

" Some of the reasons why the stuff can be treated so cheaply are : — 

1. The rock is soft and friable and easily stamped. 

2. The tin-ore is in large grains (crystals), consequently the rock need 3iot 
be stamped fine, and the subsequent washing operations are greatly 
facilitated. 

3. The substances mixed with the tin-ore are specifically very much lighter 

and easily separated by washing. There is no pyrites to necessitate cal- 
cination. 

4. There is water power at command, 
tp. 39. 

Jlbid, p. 656. 



i 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 123 

Other large tin stockworks, differing little in essential cliar- 
acter from those just described, exist at Glover, near Burngullow; 
at Tolldish, on Tregoss Moor ; at Patwork,* near St. Columb (in 
well-defined tourmaline schist) ; at Wheal Whisper, inWarleggan; 
and many other places, but never far from the granite, and often 
directly at the contact with it, or with elvan courses. There are 
probably many others which might be worked, but that they do 
not unite a sufficient number of the favourable conditions indi- 
cated above. 

2. — TIN STOCKWORKS IN KILLAS CONNECTED OR ASSOCIATED WITH 
LODES. 

Great Wheal Fortune. This mine is on the eastern border of 
the parish of Breage, a little to the south of Grreat Wheal Vor. 
Two well-known east and west tin and copper lodes traverse the 
sett and dip to the southward at angles near 45*^. One of these 
has been worked to a depth of 80 fathoms or more with consider- 
able advantage, but has been idle for many years. Two series of 
nearly vertical tin veins known as the " Conqueror " and "Eliza- 
beth" branches appear at surface at about a furlong's distance to 
the south of the outcrop of the main lodes, and have been worked 
upon at intervals for many years in an excavation as a stockwork. 
These branches probably are connected with the main lode at 
a depth of 100 fathoms or a little more. The principal 
excavation runs nearly S.W., is about 400 feet long, 50 feet wide, 
and 60 feet deep. It is crossed by an elvan course which plainly 
heaves the branches to the left, and seems to enrich them. 
The average produce of the stuff stamped during the past few 
years has been 12 lbs. of tin to the ton. As the scale of working 
has been small, and steam power has been necessary for pumping 
and for hauling the stuff from below the adit, this has scarcely 
paid expenses, although on a sufficiently large scale it would 
certainly have been profitable, since the tin is of high quality, 
and the ground easy. 

The great open-work on the back of the " south lode " at 
Drakewalls, was a kind of stockwork. The killas stockwork at 
Polberrow in St. Agnes is well-known. Another stockwork in 

*Boase, Trans. Eog. Geol. Soc, Corn., TV., p. 250; Henwood, ibid v., p. 120. 
According to Boase miicli of the rock at Fatwork has a brecciated appearance 
" like a lime-ash floor," yet there is no well-defined lode known there. 



124 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

killas in connexion with a lode exists at Wheal Coates, on the 
hanging-wall side of the Towan-rath lode, and, when worked 
some years since yielded about 25 lbs. of tin to the ton of stuff.* 
Pednandrea. The underground stockwork here was worked 
to a very considerable extent, about a quarter of a century ago. 
It was thus described by Mr. H. C. Salmon, in 1862: — -'This 
great deposit, which in the old working was, I believe, called the 
Great Carbona, is what the Grermans would call a Stockwerk. 
For a length of 25 fathoms at the 68 fathoms level, the tin made 
in branches in the killas " country," by the side of the lode for 
11 fathoms wide, the lode itself being only 4 feet wide."f 

I have been informed that the average produce of this belt 
of tin-ground was about 25 lbs. of tin to the ton, which was 
scarcely enough to cover the expenses of excavation, hauling, 
crushing, and dressing, with the additional cost of pumping and 
timbering at that depth. Had it been at the surface it would 
of course have paid handsomely. 

The aggregate of tin-ground removed and treated in the 
killas stockworks just described cannot be less than 375,000 cubic 
fathoms, or say 6 million tons, and is probably much more. The 
average tin produce has been about 6 lbs. to the ton in those 
works which are unconnected with definite lodes, and 18 lbs. to 
the ton in the others. At least 20,000 tons of black tin must 
have been obtained from them in the aggregate, besides that 
lost in the tailings, to which reference will be made later on. 

3. — TIN STOCKWORKS IN GRANITE UNCONNECTED WITH LODES. 

The granite in which disseminated tin-ore occurs is almost 
invariably altered into greisen, schorlyte, or zwitter. I proceed 
to give examples of each. 

Carrigan. This mine is on the left side of the turnpike road, 
going from Bugle to Lanivet. The open-work here is in a 
mass of greisen (essentially quartz and white mica), and is 100 
yards long, 50 yards wide, and 20 deep. " On the S.E side it is 
bounded by a large clay vein or flucan, and on the north it dis- 
appears under the alluvium of the neighbouring valley. The 

*Foster, Trans. R. G. S. C, ix., p. 212. 

f Mining and Smelting Magazine, 1862, pp. 143-4. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 125 

rock is a mixture of quartz and (white) mica with a good deal of 
schorl, some gilbertite, and a little iron-pyrites, fluor, and 
cassiterite. The mass is traversed by a number of so-called 
leaders, which are quartz veins with tin-ore, schorl, gilbertite, and 
clay, dipping 85° N., and running E. 7° N. Very often they are 
an inch or two inches wide, and from 1 foot to 6 feet apart. 
Occasionally the leader adheres to the enclosing rock by one side 
only, and has a clay vein on the other. On washing the clay 
broken crystals of cassiterite are generally found, proving, I 
think, that since the deposition of tin- ore in the fissures there 
has been a movement of the walls. 27,500 tons of rock were 
stamped {i.e. a few years before 1876), and yielded 64 tons of 
tin-ore, or 5-2 lbs. of tin per ton, say \ per cent. It was expected 
that the wholly virgin ground would produce 8 lbs. of tin-ore 
per ton."* 

Oligga. The interesting tin deposits at Cligga have long 
yielded a little tin to men washing the beach-sands, and picking 
a little here and there on the cliff face, but have never been 
systematically worked on a large scale. The remarkable alter- 
ation of the granite into parallel bands of quartz, stanniferous 
and schorlaceous greisen, and kaolinized granite with unaltered 
or little altered granite between, was well described and illustrated 
by Dr. Foster, in 1876. "The cliff section exhibits a countless 
number of these veins, varying from ^ inch to 6 inches in width, 
and from a few inches to a few feet apart." There are some 
pseudomorphs of chlorite or schorl after orthoclase, and the killas 
a little inland is converted into tourmaline schist at its contact 
with the granite. Dr. Foster suggests that the original fissures 
here were "contraction fissures," and that subsequently these 
were "penetrated and altered by metalliferous solutions arising 
from below, "f and it would seem that the direction of these 
fissures was determined by the foliation previously produced by 
the lateral pressure which has contorted the neighbouring killas. 
The more extensive conversion of the granite into greisen, at 
Carrigan, just referred to, is a change of the same character. 

* Foster, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 1876, p. 657. 

fSee " Tin lodes of the St. Agnes district." Trana. Eoy. Geol. Soc, ix, pp. 
213, 219, 



126 OEIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE- DEPOSITS. 

Carcla%e. This famous open-work is two miles northward 
from St. Austell. It is now worked almost exclusively for china 
clay, but was formerly worked for tin only ; its records, it is said> 
date from the time of Henry YII. The most recent published 
description of Oarclaza is that given by Mr. E. Symons in our 
Journal. Mr. Symons found the area to be, by actual survey, 13 
acres, and the greatest depth 132 feet.* Tbis shows a very great 
increase from the 6 acres surveyed by Mr. Thomas, previous to 
1816, f but the extension has been almost entirely in the "clay- 
beds" to the northward, and scarcely at all on the schorlaceous 
and stanniferous branches. At the time of Mr. Thomas's visit in 
Jan., 1830, there were 8 stamping mills at work, shafts had been 
sunk 10 fathoms deeper than the bottom of the pit, and the mine 
was said to be rich in the bottom. The clay was merely refuse, 
to be washed out through the adit as speedily as possible. He 
calculated that one million tons of stuff had been thus removed. 

The schorlaceous tin branches run nearly E.W. and parallel 
to the junction with the killas (tourmaline schist); they vary from 
a fraction of an inch up to 2 feet in thickness, the thicker ones 
being almost devoid of tin. The greatest length of the workings, 
including the eastern part known as Little Carclaze, is nearly 
half-a-mile, and the total quantity of tin-bearing ground removed 
must be at least one million tons, besides several million tons 
of non- stanniferous clay ground. The pit must now (1892) be 
at least 18 acres in extent at the top. 

Rock Hill. The abundance of schorl in connexion with the 
tin at Carclaze, is still more noticeable at Eock Hill. This hill 
is situated to the left of the turnpike road from St. Austell, and 
about half-a-mile short of the village of Bugle. A number of 
tin lodes formerly worked with considerable advantage in the 
Eocks mine, just under the turnpike road, converge at Eock 
Hill, where they have been worked at intervals for generations 
in an open quarry. Very little has been done there for the past 
few years, so that my description of the place, published with 
sketches, in 1873, needs but little alteration now. It runs as 
follows: — ''The main excavation is of a nearly circular form, 
not much less than 150 feet diameter, and about 40 feet deep. 

* Journ. Eoy. Inst. Corn., ix, p. 140, 1877. 

f Henwood, Trans. Eoy. Geol. Soc, Corn., v, p. 120. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OE ORE-DEPOSITS. 127 

Opening from this on the east side is another excavation, about 
100 feet long, 30 wide, and 20 deep. The hill consists of 
granite, the felspar of which is in parts completely decomposed, 
forming masses of china clay, interspersed with grains of quartz 
and flakes of mica" (carclazyte). The main pit is crossed by a 
large caunter tin lode, or rather a tin-bearing belt of ground 
having no distinct walls. This runs nearly N.E., and dips steeply 
N.W., it consists chiefly of schorl and quartz, but contains on an 
average from 6 to 8 lbs. of tin to the ton of stuff. It is crossed 
by another belt of very similar character, running nearly N.S. ; 
this is known as the cross-course, although it in no way resembles 
the ordinary cross-courses of the West of England ; it appears 
slightly to heave the "lode" however, and itself contains tin 
(especially) near the intersection, sometimes as much as 20 lbs. 
to the ton. 

Besides the " lode " and the " cross-course," a great number 
of smaller lodes and branches traverse the pit in almost every 
direction, many of them coming together about the centre of the 
pit, a little to the east of the point of intersection of the two 
greater masses. At some of the intersections rich bunches occur, 
some yielding 50 or even 60 per cent, of oxide of tin, and from 
one such bunch 17 tons of tin were got out about the year 1870.^ 
From 1872 to 1874 the average produce of the stuff treated was 
about 10 lbs. of tin per ton of stuff crushed, or about 7 lbs. per 
ton of stuff broken. A very careful and economical mode of 
working was adopted, but it was on too small a scale, rarely 
exceeding 150 toQS per week, and as the stuff was extremely hard, 
the stamps were worked by steam, and even the water for dressing 
had to be pumped by steam power, the mine barely " paid cost,'' 
even when black tin was selling at £90 per ton, and when the 
price fell to a little over £60, the works were abandoned. Still, 
taking into account the chances of meeting with occasional rich 
bunches, I think the abandonment was certainly premature, f 

* Eeport, Miners' Assoc, 1872, p. 67, published 1873. See also " The Hens- 
barrow Granite District, pp. 40-47. 

f The interesting occurrence at this mine of porphyritically embedded pseudo- 
morphous crystals of schorl, quartz, oxide of tin, and of mixtures of two or three 
of these together, in the form of felspars, and also the occurrence in cavities of the 
rare mineral achroite was described by the writer in the year 1876, in the Mineral- 
ogical Magazine, Vol. 1, 1876, p. 55, 



128 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OEE-DEPOSITS. 

Other stanniferous masses of scliorl-rock occur at Boscaswell 
Downs in St. Just, while the famous Eoehe Eock itself contains 
small quantities of tin. 

Gonamena. A most remarkable mass of stanniferous granite 
was formerly worked at Gonamena, at the foot of Caradon 
Hill ; the excavation is stated by Mr. Hen wood to be 11 acres 
in extent, and 8 fathoms deep.* He also mentions a similar but 
smaller excavation near the Cheesewring. These have not, I 
think, ever been worked for china clay, but the working of the tin 
has certainly been facilitated by the partial kaolinization of the 
felspar. The same may be said of the rather extensive excava- 
tions at Kit Hill, and at Two Bridges on Dartmoor. f Others 
occur at Eaggy Eowel, on the east side of Tregoning Hill, in 
Breage, and many other places ; want of water alone prevents 
very many of these from being profitably worked. 

The aggregate area of these " granite " stockworks can 
hardly be less than 250,000 cubic fathoms, or, considering the 
abundance of schorl which increases the specific gravity of the 
rock, over 4 million tons — averaging little, if at all, less than 8 
lbs. of tin to the ton, or, say 14,000 tons of black tin. 

4. — TIN STOCKWORKS IN GRANITE CONNECTED WITH DEFINITE LODES. 

These have been very much richer than the deposits just 
described. A very common mode of occurrence is as a pair of 
well-defined lodes, enclosing a belt of highly stanniferous country 
between them. The famous deposits at Balleswidden, Beam, 
Bunny, and Birch Tor, are of this character. 

Balleswidden, Parish of St. Just. At this mine Awboys lode 
and the south lode ran parallel, about 20 fathoms apart, for a 
distance of nearly a mile. There were other lodes crossing these 
obliquely at various points, the situations of all of them being 
clearly explained in the paper of Messrs. Eov/e and Foster, in 
1878.;]: It must not be supposed, however, that these lodes were 
at all like the great master lodes of the Carn Brea district ; they 

*Traiis. Eoy. Geol. Soc, Corn., "Vol. viii, p. 665. 

flbid, V, p. 132. 

JRowe and Foster, "Observations on Balleswidden Mine." Trans. Eoy. Geol. 
Soc, Corn., x, pp. 10 and 17. A very well illustrated and valuable paper through- 
out, 



Plate IX. 




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(fronx, J.A IhUJxps) 



F-uf 3 3 



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SPRAGUE £ CO., LITHO .LONDON 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 129 

were always far more complex. in character. " The dip is S.W., 
varying from 75° at the S E. part, to 60° at the N.W. extremity 
of the workings. The structure of this lode deserves particular 
attention ; the so-called lode consists of four or five small parallel 
tin veins, bounded on each side by a hard rock locally known as 
hardworh, which merges into granite. The total width of the 
lode varied from 10 to 20 feet, and averaged about 12 feet. 
Each little vein or leader, known at Balleswidden as a gry, was 
generally about a half-inch thick and rarely widened out to more 
than 4 inches. The gries rarely united with one another along 
the dip or the strike, but often dwindled away to a mere string 
or joint. The filling up of these little veins consisted of coarsely 
crystallized tin stone, with schorl, quartz, gilbertite and kaolin 
[prian) ; a little wolfram, fluor-spar, bismuthine, and native copper 
were also sometimes met with. The little veins or gries were 
continuaRy varying in productiveness ; as a rule only one of them 
was rich in any given section, and as soon as it began to dwindle 
away one of the neighbouring ones began to improve. There 
was always a sharp and well-defined wall between fkegry and the 
adjoining hard-work, and this was of importance to the miner as 
it enabled him to separate the rich gry from the poorer rock 
adjoining it, and make a little parcel of best work." The greater 
part of the tin was contained in the "gries," but the hard- work 
also contained a little tin. Associated with the so-called lodes 
were certain off-shoots or " pie-lodes," which much resembled 
the carbonas of the St. Ives district, yet to be referred to, but 
differed from them in containing less schorl and more gilbertite 
when really productive. The mine was worked to a depth of 
about 150 fathoms. During the 36 years that the adventure 
lasted, from February, 1837 to April, 1873, more than 12,000 
tons of black tin were sold, of a value of £694,094, besides 
certain small quantities raised and sold before and since.* 

Beam. This mine is about four miles north of St. Austell, 
on the north side of the Hensbarrow granite. It is many years 
since it was worked, and the latest published description is that 
given with plan and sections in my "Hensbarrow granite district," 
in 1878. It is said to have been first worked as an open cutting in 

* Ibid, p. 17, 



130 ORIGIN' AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

the time of Henry VII, for tlie sake of the two chief "lodes" 
and the impregnated "country" between. Early in the 
present century regular mining operations were commenced on 
these two lodes, which were only 5 or 6 fathoms apart, but 
diverged somewhat in depth. The lodes bear from 16°tol8"N. 
of E., and vary from a few inches to 6 feet in width, dipping 
steeply to the northward. They are composed of quartz, schorl, 
and tin-ore, with a little wolfram and black copper-ore, and much 
clay and gilbertite ; they have also yielded small quantities of 
iron ore at certain points. The mine was worked to the 82 
fathom level, by Messrs. Williams of Scorrier, until about 1830, 
when it was abandoned " on account of its poverty," accord- 
ing to Mr. Hawkins,''^ having yielded about £30,000 profit 
to its owners Subsequent workings carried the mine a few 
fathoms deeper, but no large amount of work was ever done 
below the 92 fathom level. 

The lodes were always richer where the country was soft. 
When the lodes were small they often consisted of almost solid 
tin ore, but if large, a central " pith " or "' leader " of tin occurred 
as a double crystallized coating upon crystallized quartz.f 

A very similar association of " lodes " with tin impregnated 
country was also worked on a considerable scale at the Bunny 
Mine, about half-way between Beam and St. Austell, but no 
record of the results is obtainable, and the "lodes " seemed to 
die out at a moderate depth. 

Birch Tor. The deposits of this mine seem to have been 
pretty much of the character just described. Mr. Henwood says 
that the veins united in depth, that the works were very ancient, 
and that specular iron-ore occurred with the tin. J 

Two things have been especially noted in connexion with 
these deposits, first, that the stanniferous belts of the surface 
became more concentrated into definite " lodes " in depth, and 
second, that as a whole the deposits were, as in the corresponding 
cases of killas stockworks, much richer than the stockworks 
properly so-called, which are not connected with definite lodes. 

*Trans. Eoy. Geol. Soc, Corn., iv, p. 477. 

+ "The Henslbarrow granite district." — Truro, Lake and Lake, 1878. 

JTrans. Roy. Geol. See., Corn., v, p. 132. 



OBIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF 0EE-DEP0SIT8. 131 

Thus, we have seen that the average produce of the granite 
stockworks proper has been about 8 lbs. to the ton of stuff 
removed. Only a very rough approximation can be made to the 
mass value of the Balleswidden stuff, but it certainly seems to 
have been much richer than this. If we estimate the ground 
removed at 300 fathoms long, 4 fathoms wide, and 40 fathoms 
deep; and few would be disposed to reckon anything like so 
much, who have seen the workings and studied the plans ; then 
the ground removed, allowing for that left for pillars, could not 
exceed 500,000 tons, and this would require to yield about 50 lbs. 
of tin to the ton to account for the 12,000 tons sold. The current 
statements as to the riches of Beam and Bunny would certainly 
indicate a somewhat similar state of concentration for the tin of 
these mines. 

Of course this greater concentration is to some extent 
apparent only, since the greater expense of working under- 
ground, and at a considerable depth, would compel the miners to 
leave much of the poorer ground below, and untouched, which if 
raised and treated would materially lower the average produce. 
But after making due allowance for this consideration, it yet 
appears that when the main- joints in a stockwork are so well- 
defined as to appear more or less like distinct lodes, an enrichment 
is the result, in other words the riches bear some direct relation, 
speaking generally, to the "strength" of the strings, veins, or 
lodes. 

The total ground excavated for this class of stockworks can 
hardly be less in all than four times that worked out at Balles- 
widden, and the tin thus obtained must have been from 40,000 
to 50,000 tons . 

5 — TIN STOCKWOEKS IN ELVAK. 

Many elvans have been worked as tin stockworks to a small 
extent, as for instance Polgooth, near St. Austell ; Terras, in St. 
Stephens ; Budnick and Wheal Coates, in St. Agnes ; Castle-an- 
dinas and Belowda, near Roche ; Poldory, in Grwennap ; Wheal 
Unity Wood, and Bissoe Bridge.* Very rich tin-ores were also 
obtained by under-ground mining at the Wherry Mine near 
Penzance, in an elvan course 18 feet wide. "On a close inspection 

* Henwood, Trans. Eoy. Geol. Soc, Corn., v, 82, 87. 



132 OEIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

of the mass in which the tin is thus abundantly dispersed (over 

1 per cent, as it appears), the grains appear of a crj'stalline 
transparency, and so equal in size and regularly distributed as 
to form as it were one of the constituent parts of the porphyry,"* 

Wheal Jennings. This mine is situated in the parish of 
Gwinear, and was formerly worked under the name of Parbola. 
Mr. Seymour, who gave a very good illustrated description of the 
mine in the year 1876, f does not regard it as a true stockwork 
*' because the tin-bearing branches follow (mainly) one direction," 
but as we have seen this is the case at Mulberry and many other 
recognized stockworks. The elvan traverses a somewhat soft 
killas, and contains many small veins of tin which mostly pass 
across it from killas to killas, others falling into them in their 
course. Some pass into the killas after traversing the elvan. 
The elvan itself contains disseminated grains of tin, forming 
masses known as " grey-tin," also angular masses of " granite." 
Mr. Seymour regards the tin veins as shrinkage-fissures sub- 
sequently filled by means of stanniferous solutions which arose 
through the fissured mass, " where the mass of rock was in a 
greater degree porous, the emanations penetrated into and 
impregnated the adjacent elvan, thus forming the deposits of 
so-called " grey-tin. ":j: 

Belowda Hill. A large elvan cuts through the granite at 
Belowda Hill, and both rocks are found to be stanniferous in an 
open-cutting which has been worked at intervals on a considerable 
scale. Dr. Foster wrote a short note on the works here, which 
appeared, in the year 1875, in our Journal. He stated that the 
"lode" was 40 feet wide at the time he saw it, and that the stannif- 
erous belt so-called was traversed by numerous tin branches from 

2 inches to 6 inches wide, which carried quartz, schorl and tin — 
some tin being found in the intermediate masses of rock also, 
in some cases as pseudomorphs after felspar. Ho states that 
the general produce of the stuff was one-half per cent.§ In 
1880 I superintended the works here for a short time, during 
which a battery of stamps was set up and several hundred tons 

* John Hawkins, Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc, Corn., Vol. i, p. 140. 

f Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc, Corn., ix, p.p. 185, 195, 

X Ibid. 

§ Journ. R.I.C., V, p. 213. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OP ORE-DEPOSITS. 133 

of stuff were stamped. The " overburden " gave 5 lbs. to the 
ton, the granite about as much, and the elvan 12 lbs. during 
these trials, which just paid expenses but no more, on a scale of 
20 to 30 tons per day. 

The total quantity of elvan removed in this class of stock- 
work may perhaps be reasonably estimated at one million tons, 
and the average produce at one-half per cent., or say 4,500 
tons in all. 

6. — COPPER STOCKWORES IN KILLAS. 

These are rare in Cornwall, but there are the remains of 
several to be seen along the north coast to the west of St. Agnes. 

Wheal Music. This mine is situated about 2 miles to the 
north of Scorrier station, and it has not, I believe, been worked 
for about 60 years. Mr. Henwood states that it was worked on 
well-known lodes for many years, and that at length these were 
up split into minute strings and branches, none of which were 
singly worth pursuit. The whole rock was then removed and the 
copper ores extracted. An excavation of an elliptical form of 
about an acre in area, and 25 fathoms in depth, yet stands open to 
the day. About four millions of cubic feet must have been 
removed. It closely resembles the net- work of the tin veins in 
granite at Carclaze."* The copper it appears was mainly in 
the form of copper-pyrites, but this was often converted 
superficially into malachite ; the country rock was tourmaline- 
schist of a bluish grey tinge. f 

Copper disseminated in an ancient conglomerate occurs in the 
form of copper-pyrites, at Bellurian Cove,;}: and native copper 
was found disseminated in the serpentine at Wheal Trenance, in 
the same parish of Mullion ; a fine mass from this place may 
now be seen in the Museum of Practical Geology in London. 
Writing of this place in 1818, Mr. Ashurst Majendie says "The 
mines of copper have been discontinued. I was informed that 
at low water in spring tides, narrow veins of native copper may 
be observed in the serpentine, where it is covered by the sea. § 

* Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc, Corn., v, 98, note. 

t Ibid, p. 98 and 235. 

X Delabeche, Eeport, &c.. p. 31, note. 

§ Trans. Roy. Geol Soc , Corn., i, p. 33. 



134 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

7. — COPPER STOCKWORKS IN GRANITE. 

Wheal Vyvyan. This ancient mine is in the Parish of Con- 
stantino. A belt of the granite, some 5 to 10 fathoms in width, 
was found to contain disseminated copper-pyrites, iron-pyrites, a 
little grey-ore, and a little tin. This belt was traversed by 
numerous veins or strings, which consisted of minute crevices 
lined with tin-ore. Certain veins of granite in the " lode " 
heaved or displaced these strings, as did also a series of cross- 
courses.* 

A somewhat similar mass was formerly worked at Trumpet 
Consols, in Wendron. In this instance the copper was argentifer- 
ous, each per cent, of copper carrying from 2 to 4 ounces of silver 
per ton.f 

Sec. 4. — Impregnations, Sfc. 

Tinder this head it will be convenient to refer to certain 
deposits, known as Carbonas, pockets, floors, bedded veins, and 
gash-veins which differ decidedly on the one hand from true 
metalliferous beds, and on the other from true fissure lodes — 
and which are usually much more concentrated and defined 
than stockworks, and also in general much smaller. Like 
stockworks they are often though not invariably connected with 
definite lodes. 

Carbonas. These have so far only been found in West 
Cornwall, and in granite. The great carbona at St. Ives Consols 
was connected with the standard lode at the 78 fathom level by 
a kind of pipe only a few inches in width and height. — (See fig. 
2, Plate III). " It has been traced about 120 fathoms in length, 
and in that distance dips 40 fathoms, but it is nowhere more 
than 10 fathoms either in vertical thickness or in breadth, and 
is generally much smaller. It sends of£ lode-like shoots or 
branches laterally, and terminates in the standard lode."| Very 
similar bodies have been worked at Rosewall Hill Mine, at 
Wheal Speed, Balnoon, and many other places. The chief lodes 

*See Henwood, Trans. Eoy. Geol. Soc, Corn., v, 73. 

fit is worthy of note that most of the copper of this side of the Stithians 
granite mass is argentiferous. Thus some grey-ore found at Trumpet Consols in 
1885, contained at least 3 ounces of silver per ton for each per cent, of copper. 

X Henwood, Trans. Eoy. Geol. Soc. of Corn., V, p. 237. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OBE-DEPOSITS. 135 

at Balnoon were known as the Garth, and the North Vervis 
Veins ; but " besides occasional enlargements of the lodes from a 
few inches to 30 or 40 feet in breadth, there are still larger 
masses of tin ore wholly unconnected with any vein, and 
surrounded on all sides by an extremely hard and very coarse- 
grained granite. These are discovered almost by accident, for 
I have known more than one of them found by extending the 
excavation where there existed no other indication than a mere 
joint in the rocks, which contained no mineral, and was perceptible 
only from the slow oozing of a minute quantity of water between 
its faces."* 

East Wheal LoveU. This mine is in the parish of Wendron, 
and the remarkable tin deposits discovered in 1875 were thus 
described by Dr. Foster. ' ' The lodes are usually very narrow, 
sometimes a mere joint or line of division in the rocks — but 
occasionally a couple of inches thick ; they consist of quartz, a 
little clay, and red oxide of iron, and per se are utterly valueless. 
In some places however you get curious deposits of tin on both 
sides of the vein (fig. 3, Plate iii), occupying very little space but 
extremely rich, consisting of kaolinized granite containing much 
gilbertite and schorl, "f The importance of these deposits is 
indicated by the fact that from very small workings, tin to the 
value of £39,000 was sold in a period of 20 months from 
October, 1869, to May, 1871, yielding a profit of £27,000. At 
one time the end of a drift in one of these bodies was valued at 
£1,000 per fathom. 

The Lovell, Wendron. A very similar deposit, also in 
altered granite, occurs here — the lode itself being somewhat more 
defined (fig. 4, Plate iii) and very productive in certain shoots or 
"pipes." The tin in the "lode" 0.0. was accompanied by 
blende and chalcopyrite, as well as by schorl, gilbertite, 
kaolin and quartz.j The " cab." B.B, was composed of quartz, 
mica, gilbertite, chlorite, pyrites, chalcopyrite, and schorl; and 
like the "lode" was traversed by joints containing nothing but 
a little schorl, gilbertite, and kaolin. In fact if it had contained 

* Henwood, Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. Corn., V, p. 20. 

fTrans. Eoy. Geol. Soc. Corn., ix, p. 167. The paper is well illustrated. 

J Foster, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 1878, p. 649. 



136 OBlGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

a little more cassiterite it would have been reckoned as a part of 
the lode. 

Balmynheer. This is another mine in Wendron where the 
granite is impregnated with tin under but not over a "slide" 
composed of clay, with a little quartz and mica, and about 6" 
thick. " The tin-rock is a mixture of quartz, chlorite, gilbertite, 
iron-pyrites, zinc-blende, tin ore, and a little wolfram." It is 
from 20 to 30 feet thick, and has been worked to a depth of 30 
fathoms from surface.'* (fig. 5, Plate in). 

South Wendron Mine adjoins the Lovell. The tin-ground here 
(fig. 6, Plate in) is a very regular cylindroid of stanniferous rock 
merging gradually on all sides into granite, with its axis dipping 
at an angle of 49° from the horizon in a direction N. 25 W. 
(true). The longer axis of the oval section of the pipe varies 
from 20 to 60 feet, whilst the shorter is about 10 feet. The 
mass consists of quartz, mica, gilbertite, a little iron pyrites, and 
tin stone. The workings extend to a depth of 46 fathoms from 
the surface, and consist of a shaft and a few short levels or 
lateral excavations. " The characteristics of these three 
deposits may be summed up in a very few words, they are 
masses of stanniferous rock passing gradually into the surround- 
ing granite."! 

The deposits just referred to afford illustrations of a regular 
series of impregnations and accompanying alterations of granite 
rocks — commencing with a notable impregnation connected with 
and starting from a master lode of considerable value (St. Ives 
Consols), followed by examples related indeed to veins or joints 
— at first stanniferous (East Wheal Lovell), then altogether 
barren (Balmynheer), and finally reaching an example which 
seems to be altogether unconnected with anything that can be 
called a vein fissure. These modes of occurrence are illustrated 
in plate in, figs. 2 to 6. 

In other districts these irregular tin deposits would be 
spoken of as pockets, although they one and all lack one 
character of a true pocket, since they do not appear to be 
deposits in pre-existing cavities. 

*Ibid p. 648. 
tibid p. 631. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OKB-DEPOSlTS. 137 

Floors. These have relations on the one hand with the 
impregnations just described, and on the other with the " gash- 
veins " and " bedded- veins," which are so characteristic of many 
limestone districts. Tin-floors in granite or other eruptive rock 
seem to be mere local expansions of the lode passing between 
approximately horizontal joint-planes for a certain distance. 

In stratified rocks aggregations of ore lying between bed- 
planes are often known as " bedded-veins " or floors — of course 
such aggregations coincide in position with the beds, lying 
horizontal or standing highly inclined as the case may be, though 
they would only be called floors by the miner when horizontal 
or nearly so. At Botallack tin-floors occurred in the kill as — 
at the junction of the killas and granite — and in the granite. 
In one instance seven successive tin-floors were noticed, separated 
by beds or layers of ferruginous slate and schorl, and they yielded 
according to Mr. Hawkins about 1 per cent, of black tin.* 
Similar floors occurred formerly at Wheal Eeeth and at Wheal 
Vor.f 

The most interesting examples of this kind of formation 
of recent working occurred at the Parka Mines in St. Columb, 
and were described by Dr. Foster in 1874. The lodes here were 
of very little importance, but certain lateral off-shoots from them 
lying between the bedding planes of the killas (fig. 7 and 8, Plate 
III) were extremely rich. If the killas had been here 
approximately horizontal, these interposed off-shoots would have 
been called floors by the miners. :j: The average produce of the 
tin stuff treated was in 1874 more than 5 per cent., and in that 
year the mine yielded 231 tons of black tin — a remarkable yield 
from a mine not more than 43 fathoms deep. 

Sec. 5. — Examples of true fissure Lodes. 

{a) General characters of lodes. Lodes are, as Mr. Henwood has 
very truly observed, "the principal repositories of metals and 

*See description by Hawkins, Trans. Boy. Geol, 8oc. of Corn., vol. 11, p. 31. 
Came ibid pp. 326-331. Henwood, ibid v, p. 13. note. It is much to be 
regretted that neither of these authors has given a sketch section. 

f Henwood, ibid, p. 328. 

X Report Miners Association of Cornwall and Devon, 1875. 



138 ORIGIN AND DEVKLOPMBNT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

ores in the West in England."* Mr. Henwood uses the word 
"lode" in the practical miner's sense, that is, he includes the 
■whole of the workable band of mineralized country by the side 
of the fissure as well as the actual fissure-filling, whatever may 
belts nature, whether ore-leader, flucan, vein-stone, breccia, or 
capel. In this sense a lode may be defined as a metalliferous 
band or deposit occupying or bounding a fissure of inconsiderable 
thickness as compared with its length (rarely more than y^o^th 
and often less than looo o^-^) ^^^ extending to a great or unknown 
depth. Using the term then in this sense, Mr. Henwood gives 
in a number of useful tables the results of his very numerous 
observations on the lodes of Cornwall and Devon as regards 
direction, inclination, width, and principal contents. Referring 
my readers to the original "address" for numerous and 
important details, I merely extract for use in this enquiry the 
following particulars. 

1. The mean directions of the lodes in the different 
" districts " of the West of England are : 



St. Just, 


35° S. of E. 


Redruth, &c. 


22° N. of E. 


St. Ives, 


8° S. of E. 


St. Agnes . . 


22* N. of E. 


Marazion . . 


r N. of E. 


St. Austell . 


13° N. of E. 


Gwinear, &c. 


2° S. of E. 


Caradon 


18° N. of E. 


Helston 


16° N. of E. 


Tavistock . . 


9° N. of E. 



Camborne, &c., 20° N. of E. 

The average bearing throughout being about 5° N. of E., "a 
range not materially different from that of the granite which 
appears at intervals between Dartmoor and the Lands End "f 

*Presideiitial Address, 1871, Journal Royal Institution of Cornwall, xiii. 
In a practical sense this dictum is unquestionable, although the present essay will 
shew that even from this point of view the stockworks, and other "irregular 
deposits" are worthy of somewhat more consideration than was given to them by our 
excellent President, while from the theoretical and scientific side they are of the 
highest possible importance. 

flbid, p. XVI. This generalization is no doubt an important one — yet it may 
probably lead to serious misconceptions, for, Ist as to the mean bearing for the 
whole county, it is manifestly of little use to make up an average from such 
incongruous elements as appear in the table given. 2nd, an equally important 
criticism of Mr. Kenwood's mean directions for individual lodes, from which his 
mean directions for the different "districts" were derived, was made many years 
since by Captain Charles Thomas in the following words—" Mr. W. Jory 
Henwood in his report of the two hundred mines in Cornwall and Devon has 



ORIGIN AMD DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 139 

2. The mean directions of cross-veins (cross-courses, flucans, 
guides, traverses, &c., mostly non-metalliferous) is in the 



St Just district, 


* 26° N, 


. of E. 


Redruth, &c. 


, 35" S. 


of e: 


St. Ives ,, 


38° S. 


of E. 


St. Agnes . . 


51" S. 


of E. 


Marazion , , 


41°S. 


of E. 


St. Austell.. 


21 S. 


of E. 


Grwinear, &c. ,, 


47° S. 


of E. 


Menheniot. . 


3° N. 


ofE. 


Helston 


21° S. 


of E. 


Caradon 


77° S. 


of E. 


Camborne, &c. 


56° S. 


of E. 


Callington . . 


43* S. 


of E. 



Most of these directions correspond to notable joint systems 
in their respective districts, and many are at right angles or 
nearly so to other notable joint or vein-systems. Although they 
rarely contain ores of tin and copper, many have yielded 
considerable quantities of iron ores, and in many more, valuable 
local deposits of silver, cobalt, nickel, bismuth, uranium, and 
other rare ores have occurred. In a few instances — as at N. 
Poltiraore in Devon, Wheal Sparnon near Eedruth, and Woolf's 
cross-course in Breage, spangles of gold have been met with. 

3. All the veins, whether metalliferous or not are apt to 
vary considerably in inclination (underlie), yet it may be stated 
in general terms that the cross-courses whether quartzes e or 
yielding ores of iron or lead are steeper than the copper-veins, 

given tlie bearing of nearly all the lodes which he inspected. He however took 
only the general hearing of the lode from one end of the mine to the other, 
overlooking the variations between the productive and unproductive parts. By 
this omission he not only lost a fine opportunity of accumulating many important 
facts, but the whole subject of bearings by his mode of statement has a direct 
tendency to mislead. Taking his report as a guide, the bearings would be no 
indication whatever of productiveness or otherwise ; his rich lodes as well as poor 
being found under almost every variation of direction. In reference to the 
productive parts of lodes there is no such confusion, — order is all but universal — 
exceptions if any, are rare indeed, and then of limited extent." (Chas. Thomas, 
Remarks on the Geology of Cornwall, &c. Lecture 2, 1859). 

It is I hope needless for me to say that I do not call attention to this 
criticism by a very eminent practical authority with any idea of diminishing 
the lustre of our former President's labours— and after all the mean direction of 
a lode as a whole is a matter of scientific importance ; but I would take this 
opportunity to point out how verj important is this question of the bearing of 
"rich parts" in a lode, and to urge practical men who alone can make the 
numerous necessary observations to do so on all possible occasions. 

*Ibid, XXVIII. 



140 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 



the copper-veins steeper than the tin-veins, and all the 
metalliferous veins steeper than the clayey slides. Perhaps the 
averages may be stated as under : 

Cross-courses, &c., 80° from the horizontal. 
Copper- veins, 70° ,, ,, 

Tin- veins, 60° ,, ,, 

Slides, 45° „ „ 

In the case of the tin-lodes there are, however, many very 
notable exceptions to the average stated above. Thus, the great 
Flat lode to the south of Carn Brea Hill, the lode at Wheal 
Kitty, Wheal Jane pyritous lodes, and many others have 
inclinations of less than 40° from the horizontal. 

4. Of the mean width of the lodes, Mr. Henwood says :* 

Those which yield (or have yielded) the ores of tin 

and copper, average 
Those which yield tin ore only . . 
Those which yield copper ore only 
Lodes generally in granite 

,, in slate . . 

„ at less than 100 fathoms deep. 

,, at more than ,, 

Cross-courses in granite . . 



4-7 feet 



3-0 
2-9 
3-1 
3-7 
3-9 
3-3 
4-9 
3-5 
,, at less than 100 fathoms . . 4-0 

„ at more ,, . . 4.4 

It thus appears (a) that tin lodes are wider than copper 
lodes, which is what we might expect from the common occurrence 
of workable tin capel and the rarity of copper capel. 

[b). Lodes of tin and copper are wider than those of either 
separately, which also we might expect, because it would appear 
in many cases at least that the copper has been deposited in a 
re-opened fissure previously containing tin. 

(c) The lodes are narrower than the cross-courses: a reason 
for this may be suggested hereafter. 

As to the mean width of lodes in depth — as compared with 
their shallower portions — I would observe that the figures which 
might now be obtained would probably differ considerably from 



* Ihid, pp. XV. xxviii. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 141 

those given by Henwood. If we were to limit our measurements 
to what are known as lodes in the old scientific sense, viz., the 
actual fissiire filling, the mean width would probably be much 
less for tin than for copper, since in general fissures are apt to 
become narrower in depth for mechanical reasons, and most of 
our deepest lodes now yield tin only, while nearer the surface 
they yielded copper. On the other hand if we were to include 
the workable portion of a vein whether it be lode-filling or 
impregnated and mineralized wall, the mean width of tin veins 
would come out much greater because, 1st, copper ores are rarely 
so much disseminated as tin ores, and 2nd, if they were so, they 
would not be workable lodes since they would not pay for 
working. 

For other important general characters of lodes given by 
Mr. Henwood, I must refer to his published works, those cited 
above will su£B.ce for my present purpose. 

SPECIAL EXAMPLES OF "LODES." 

I now proceed to describe two of the more notable lodes in 
the West of England, vi%., the great Dolcoath main lode yielding 
ores of copper and tin, and situated in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the junction of granite and killas on the north side of 
Carn Brea, and the still larger, though hitherto far less 
valuable Perran main lode situated at a considerable distance 
from the granite, and yielding chiefly iron and blende with a 
little copper and lead. In these two lodes we shall find 
illustrations of nearly all the phenomena of the lodes of the 
West of England — the "gozzans," "leaders," and "capels;" 
the "combed" and brecciated structures ; concretions; "vughs ;" 
mineral springs and recent chemical deposits. 

(b) Dolcoath Main Lode. I select this lode partly for its great 
importance and partly because its history is better known than 
that of any other important lode in the West of England. It is 
a great copper and tin lode, which has its outcrop in the slate 
on the north side of Carn Brea Hill and passes downwards into 
the granite, which rock is entered at depths varying from 80 to 
120 fathoms from surface. It has been worked on at intervals 
for a total length of 2|- miles, the greatest depth of the workings 
is little short of 3000 feet, and it now yields nearly one-third 
of the total tin raised in the West of England. 



142 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OEE-DEPOSITS. 

The most westerly working's are at Camborne Vean, where 
the lode still proceeding to the westward enters hard ground 
and is lost in a series of strings. Proceeding towards the east 
the next workings are at Stray Park (now part of Dolcoath), 
then the workings of Dolcoath proper, followed successively by 
Cook's Kitchen, Tincroft (where it is known as Highburrow 
lode), and Carn Brea, which is the most easterly mine on the 
lode. 

My sketch of the leading characters of this great lode must 
be merely a summary — the details of which must be filled in by 
those who wish to pursue the subject by reference to the works 
of Pryce,* Henwood,f Delabeche,;]: Capt. Charles Thomas, |j 
Capt. Josiah Thomas.§ E. J. Frecheville^ — and above all by a 
careful study of the reports and plans issued from time to the 
shareholders of the respective mines In what follows reference 
is principally made to that part of the lode which is situated 
within the Dolcoath sett — only specially referring to the other 
mines as occasion may arise. 

The bearing of the lode as a whole is not far from N.E., 
that of the rich parts for copper above the 160 fathom level 
between E.N.E. and East. The dip or underlie is southward, 
in the upper part of the mine about 2 feet and in the lower part 
4 feet in the fathom. At the surface was a fine gozzan from S 
to 6 feet wide, extending down to the adit level, which is 
about 28 fathoms below the surface ; this gozzan in places 
contained a good deal of tin. Erom the adit to the 100 fathom level 
it was moderately, and to the 160 very rich, for copper. Between 
the 160 and 190 copper and tin occurred together. From the 
190 fathom level to the present bottom of the mine, 410 fathoms 
below adit, the mine has yielded tin only — the lower levels in the 
tinny portions being on the whole much richer than those 
yielding ores of copper. The productive portions of the lode 
have been usually from 10 to 20 feet wide in the tinny parts, 
and from 8 to 1 8 feet in the copper}^ parts. 

* Pryce, Mineralogia Gornuhiensis , Bullen Garden, &c. 
fHenwood, Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. Corn.. V. 
JReport on the Geology of Cornwall and Devon. 
||Remarks on the Geology of Cornwall and Devon, 1859. 
§Journ. Roy. Inst, of Corn., 1870. Report Min. Assoc, 1882. 
'^Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. Corn., x, p. 146, 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OBE-DEPOSITS. 143 

The passage of the lode from the kiUas to the granite 
occurred between the 80 and 120 fathom levels, and tlie lode 
became more horizontal and thinner. Its dip lessened successively 
to 68°, 57°, and 50°, and its size was reduced to 24 inches; and 
finally, in the hard granite between the 170 and 190 fathom 
levels to 12 inches.* This poor zone discouraged the owners, 
and, together with the low price of copper occasioned by the 
great discovery of copper ores at Parys Mountain in Anglesea, 
led to the abandonment of the deepest workings, and finally of 
the mine itself, which up to that time had yielded copper ores to 
the value of 2 millions, a large part of which was profit. At 
length, through the energy of Capt. Chas. Thomas, the father 
of the present manager, the mine was re-opened about the year 
1846, a sum of £3,084 being locally subscribed for that purpose. 
The pumps which had been drawn up from the 210 to the 160 
were dropped again, and the mine was drained to the bottom 
by the end of 1849. Sinking was resumed,! the junction of 
Harriett's lode with the main lode at the 180 was exjolored, 
dividends were resumed in 1853, the south lode fell in at the 
364, and that which had been one of the richest copper mines 
became the most productive tin mine in Cornwall, so beginning 
a new era for tin mining in the West of England. 

From the 190 downwards the size of the lode increased, and 
at 220 it was at least 10 feet thick. In 1858 the tin began to 
"make" in the granite, the lode being from 20 to 26 feet wide. 
In January, 1873 they began to drive the 314 fathom level; in 
1874 the lode had " a very fine appearance ;" in 1882 a depth 
of 376 was reached, and the present depth of the sump (March, 
1892) is 422 fathoms. 

The total length of shafts and levels on the lode had in 
1882 reached 138 miles, of which one half were in Dolcoath 
alone. At the present time the total cannot be less than 160 
miles. 

* The corresponding poor zone in Carn Brea Mine extended downwards to 
the 238 fathom level. 

f From 1800 to 1849 only 55 fathoms had been sunk, or but little over one 
fathom a year. From 1849 to 1892 over 200 futhoms have been sunk, or about 
5 fathoms per year. 



144 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

The other mines on this great lode now reached depths as 
follows : — Cook's Kitchen, 400 fathoms ; Tincroft, 300 fathoms ; 
Carn Brea, 312* fathoms. 

The mining cost which includes cost of management, water 
charges (pumping), winding, dead- work, development, supplies, 
new erections and wear and tear, amounts to about 15/6 per 
ton, the dressing cost is about 4/-, or together about 19/6. 
The actual cost of breaking the ore in 1870 was, in Dolcoath 
6/6 per ton, which sum included winding and tramming. The 
cost of driving a level 6 feet wide and 8 feet high was £20 per 
fathom. 

The production of the four mines for the 10 years from 
1872-81 was 32,430 tons of tin ore, 6,692 of copper ore (nearly- 
all of this from Carn Brea Mine), and 1,901 tons of arsenic. This 
production has been largely increased during the succeeding 
decade, Carn Brea having especially improved. In 1890 the 
produce of tin ore was as follows : 

Dolcoath . . . . 2023 tons. 

Cook's Kitchen .. 206 ,, 

Tincroft .. .. 894 ,, 

Carn Brea . . . . 1671 ,, 



Total 4794 „ 
or considerably over y^ths of the total production of the West of 
England, f 

The total value of the produce of Dolcoath Mine alone has 
probably been not less than ten millions sterling, the details of 
the estimates being as follows : 

* The following particulars of the working cost on these four mines as given 
by Mr. E. J. Frecheville {Trans. Boy. Geol. Soc. Corn., x, 146, 1882) will be 
read with interest. There is probably but little difference since the date of the 
paper except that the yield at Carn Brea has greatly improved. 

1872-81. Average yield. Mining cost. Dressing cost. Total cost. 



lbs. per ton. 
Dolcoath ... 59 
Cook's Kitchen 43 
Tincroft ... 53 
Carn Brea ... 35 



per ton. 
16 11 ... 3 101 ... 1 9i 
16 4| ... 4 5i ... 1 10 

13 9 .,. 4 8 ... 18 5 

14 3 ... 3 9 ... 18 
+The " calls " from the three eastern mines — no calls having been made at 

Dolcoath — amounted to ^856,950 during the period 1872-81, the produce of the 
four mines realized about .£1,750,000, and the dividends amounted to ^277,226. 
From 1882 to 1891 the dividends have been nearly ,£400,000 and the calls less 
than .£100,000, Dolcoath having made no call during the entire period . 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 145 

Early workings on the various lodes, ") ^.^nn nnn 
estimated at j i.500,000 

Produce of first great working previous to ) 

letting in the water in 1778, estimated | £2,000,000 
by Capt. Chas. Thomas . . . ) 

Produce from re-opening in 1800 to 1870 » „. 

according to Capt. Josiah Thomas . . J ^^'^""."^^ 

Produce 1870 to 1890, estimated at . . £2,000,000 

£10,000,000 
Of course this 10 millions has not all come from the great 
lode, — a considerable portion was yielded by the caunter lode, 
Harriett's lode, and others ; but if we allow the liberal amount 
of two millions for these there still remain 8 millions as the 
produce of a length of 550 fathoms on the main lode, — with 
perhaps an average depth of 350 fathoms, — or say £40 per square 
fathom of lode (one fathom in height and length and the width 
of the lode). 

The lode however has been worked on more or less for a 
total length of at least 1800 fathoms, and, excluding the 550 
fathoms in Dolcoath, to an average depth of perhaps 250 fathoms • 
we have therefore about 312,500 square fathoms of lode worked 
or explored in the other mines for which we can hardly assume 
the produce in tin and copper at a less value than 5 millions 
sterling, giving for the whole lode to the present average depth 
of less than 300 fathoms, a produce of 13 millions sterling, or 
over £25 per square fathom of lode.* 

The average width of the lode is certainly much greater 
than the average of the lodes of tin and copper in the West of 
England as given by Mr. Henwood. Prom the 66 to the 197 in 
Dolcoath it was about 6 feet, but narrowing in places to 1 foot 
and widening in others to 16 feet. At the present bottom of the 
mine it varies between 2 to 4 fathoms, with perhaps 16 feet for 
an average ; the tinny portions being mostly wider than those 
containing only copper as already stated. In Cook's Kitchen, 
Tincroft, and Cam Brea mines the present average is somewhat 

*0f this large amount perhaps about 4 millions have been yielded by copper 
ores and 9 millions by tin ores, equal to 570,000 tons of copper ores at ^67, and 
170,000 tons of black tin at .£53, which are pretty near the average prices 
realized. 



146 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE DEPOSITS. 

less. On the whole I think we may safely take the mean width 
of the whole lode at 6 feet for the coppery portions and 10 feet 
for those yielding tin (of which the leader or actual fissure 
filling will not average more than one foot) for the whole period 
since the mines have yielded tin, but occasionally running up to 
6 feet as in the great bunch recently worked at the 280 in 
Carn Brea. 

The walls in the great lode are generally fairly distinct, but 
less so in depth than nearer " grass." The hanging wall is 
generally better defined than the footwall — especially in the 
deeper workings. Vughs and cavities were much more common 
in the lode in the shallower than they are in the deeper workings, 
but they are still occasionally met with in all the mines on the 
lode.* 

The contents of the lode have as already stated varied at 
different depths. In the shallower portions above adit there 
was much gozzan, consisting of eai-thy brown iron ore with iron 
pyrites and spongy quartz, and in places earthy black copper ore, 
with various rare crystallized arseniates and phosphates of iron 
and copper, also much chalcopyrite and chalcocite. In the 
eastern part of the mine a good deal of tin was raised from 
the shallower workings. Some of the earthy brown iron ore 
was found as far down as the 197 fathom level. The rich parts 
while yielding copper usually gave it as chalcopyrite with few 
crystals. Soon after reaching the granite most of the copper 
gave out and the mine changed to a tin mine. The richest ores 
of tin are of a bluish colour, not very hard but quite compact, 
and permeated in all directions by strings of rather light-coloured 
oxide of tin. Often this bluish rock passes into a dark red 
ferruginous mass without becoming poorer in tin. Careful micro- 
scopic examination shows that the blue tin-stone, apart from the 
tin, consists of quartz, chlorite, and schorl — the latter mostly in 
minute needles ; and the change from blue to red seems to be a 



*In November, 1814, a cavern was discovered in the main lode at a depth of 
170 fathoms. It was from 18 to 20 fathoms long, 3 fathoms high, and from 4 to 
9 fathoms wide. It contained much loose material which had fallen from the 
sides and communicated by narrow channels with many subsidiary cavities. — See 
Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. Corn., Vol. 1. Similar vughs have been found in nearly 
all the master lodes of the West of England. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 147 

subsequent oxidation change of the chloritic portion of the mass.* 
The poorer parts of the lode are very similar, except that they 
are very much harder and more siliceous, and with a tendency to 
a black colour. 

The country rook changes noticeably with the lode matter. 
The killas is fairly soft near the surface ; it generally becomes 
harder as it approaches the granite, but is always soft near the 
rich parts of the lode ; above it is often yellow or buff in colour, 
below mostly deep blue. While the granite remained very hard 
the lode was not productive either for tin or copper — it is now 
in general fairly soft and moist, the felspar much kaolinized and 
often accompanied with pyrites and red oxide of iron. 

The curious alternations of killas and granite which this 
great lode cuts through have been noticed by many writers. 
In 1882 "a large mass of hard slaty rock was met with in the 
352 fathom level east of the new eastern shaft. , . .included in 
the granite 240 fathoms below the point where that rock was 
first cut into by the workings .... this resembles the ordinary 
killas of the district, and on comparing thin sections of the two 
under the microscope their identity becomes at once apparent."! 

The imagination is struck with the figures expressing the 
extent and the produce of this great lode. But if we look at 
the facts in another way, as suggested by M. Moissenet, we shall 
see how insignificant a feature it forms in the earth's crust. 
Let us suppose a model of the lode made to a scale of one 
thousandth the real size — it could be easily made from a sheet 
of lead 12-feet long and 3-feet wide. In many places the 
thickness would have to be reduced to a mere film, but in some 
it would require to be thickened up to a quarter of an inch or a 
little more. The sheet might be placed on edge — its length in 
a direction nearly N.E., S.W., and with a considerable dip to the 
southward. If now it were bent lengthwise in such a way that 
the thicker portions were more nearly E.W. and the thinner 
more N.E., S.W., and also bent in width so that the thicker 
portions stand more nearly vertical than the thinner, and the 
lower portions more nearly horizontal than the upper ; it would 
very fairly represent the relative proportions of the lode and 

*See Cornish Tin-stones and Tin-Capels, pi. iv, figs, 3-4. 
t Phillips, Ore deposits, pp. 131-2. 



148 OEIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OKE-DEPOSITS. 

also its position in the ground. f Viewed in this manner the 
vast and richly-filled subterranean channels, which by the 
implements of the miner are transformed into caverns of imposing 
extent, appear what they are— as thin veins in the ground. 

(c) The Perran iron lode. This great lode is referred to by 
Borlase, who wrote in 1758, and was briefly noticed by Sir H. 
Delabeche in 1839,* and by Mr. Henwood in 1843. f Later it 
has been described in more or less detail by Smyth, | Bryant, § 
and myself |I 

The Perran lode bears about 35" S. of E., and underlies 
from 3 to 4 feet in a fathom to'' the south-west; and is altogether 
in killas except where it crosses an elvan. Its western exposure 
in the cliff at Gravel Hill, at the northern extremity of Perran 
Bay, is very wide, consisting of two branches divided by 
a horse of killas. It consists here principally of somewhat 
siliceous brown hematite, earthy carbonate of iron with traces 
of lead, and blende associated with garnet ; and was a few years 
ago worked rather extensively above the adit level by a long 
adit and by two shafts from above, besides some extensive surface 
pits. From here it may be traced inland for a distance of four 
miles to Deerpark, where it takes a turn — at first directly east, 
afterwards some degrees N. of East, and so proceeding in a 
curve for several miles more. It is however of little value so 
far as is yet known after the first four miles, and the following 
remarks will relate solely to this portion. 

To the eastward of the Gravel Hill Mine, formerly known 
as Penhale Iron Mine, is the Halwyn Sett, where also a shaft 
has proved the lode a good many fathoms down — 20 or more. 
Next come the rather extensive and irregular open works on the 
brown hematite and carbonate of iron of the Mount Mine, — then 
the great open works at Treamble, — after that the extensive and 

f The actual fissure or leader, apart from its metalliferous capels might be 
represented on the above mentioned scale by a sheet of paper thickly or thinly 
coated with lead on each side in accordance with the dimensions given above. 

* Eeport on Cornwall, &c., p. 618. 

f Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. Corn., V, p. 108. 

I Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. Corn., vii, p. 332 (1858), and x. p. 120 (1882). 
§ Rep. Roy. Corn. Polytech. Soc, 1871, p. 98. 

II Rep. Miners Assoc. 1873. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMEN'T OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 1 19 

irregular works at Great Eetallack — followed by the Duchy 
Peru Mine with its several shafts — and still further east by the 
trial pits at Deerpark and Penhallow Moor. 

Each of the great Treamble excavations is crossed by a 
very promising lode of "silver lead," — the lodes No. 1 and 2 
of the Grreat Eetallack Mine adjoining to the north and east. 
Nothing has been done to develop these lodes for many years, 
but in working the iron ore of the outcrop some 60 or 70 tons of 
lead ore were obtained which contained from 15 to 30 ounces 
of silver per ton as sold without dressing. The iron lode in 
the lower or western quarry was in 1873 proved to a depth of 
17 fathoms by an underlie shaft, and found to improve in quality 
as it went down. In the upper quarry the lode splits into 
several branches, the largest going away to the north of east 
towards the old workings in Great Eetallack, the others pro- 
ceeding south of east to Berriman's shaft, which was also sunk 
to a depth of 17 fathoms. Somewhat later other shafts were 
commenced in each of the quarries, also a vertical shaft at a 
point between the quarries, but about 40 fathoms to the 
southward; but this intended "main shaft" was, I believe, 
abandoned before it reached the lode. 

A little west of the No. 1 lead lode just mentioned is a 
deposit of unctuous black flucan — much resembling graphite — 
which in 1873 I found to contain from 3 to 5 per cent, of free 
carbon. 

At Great Eetallack the lode is several fathoms wide, yielding- 
near the surface brown hematite and blende, the blende 
increasing on the whole in depth ; in some months 500 tons of 
blende have been raised and sold, and the total output must have 
been many thousands of tons. Many concretionary masses of iron 
ore were found, some hollow and full of water. (Some lead ore, 
very rich in silver, has also been raised from this mine at the 
intersection of the Peru lode, and spots of copper have been seen 
at times.* In 1860-61, large quantities of blende were raised 
and sold, but at ver^y low prices, from October to June in the 
latter year the sales where nearlv 5,000 tons. Considerable 
quantities were raised for the next few years, and the shaft was 

*Mining Journal. The Perranzabuloe districts, July 27, 1861. 



150 OEIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OBE-DEPOSITS. 

sunk below the 60 where good yellow copper ore made its 
appearance ; but discouraged by the low prevailing prices, the 
water being "very quick" was let in, and work was for the 
time confined to the adit level, and subsequently to sinking in 
other places where there was not much water to contend with. 
The lode was said to be " 240-feet wide."*' It was undoubtedly 
very wide as I can testify, but this great apparent width was no 
doubt due to its lying very " flat " in that part. 

At Duchy Peru, just east of Great Eetallack, the " old 
workings " have been carried to a depth of 50 fathoms on the 
N.S. lead-copper lode — the " Peru lode," celebrated for the 
richness of the silver specimens it has yielded.f The workings 
on the iron lode before the mines were re-opened:]: about 1871, 
had been carried down between 20 and 30 fathoms, and this 
depth was increased to 40 fathoms b}' March, 1873. 

Roebuck's shaft is vertical, 12-ft. by 7-ft., fitted with ladder- 
ways and containing a column of 18" pumps. § By the year 
1881, it had been carried down to the 70 fathom level; since 
then, I believe, no further sinking has been done, and at the 
present time not only Duchy Peru but practically all the mines 
on the great lode are idle. 

The killas country about the great lode at Duchy Peru 
seems to be much disturbed. South of the lode it is hard and 
appears to dip towards it, but near the lode it is soft and dips 
with it, as shewn in the sketch (fig. 9, Plate viii), just as is common 
in the case of faults in yielding strata. Eastward from Duchy 
Peru is Deerpark mine, from which considerable quantities of iron 

*Ibid. 

fit was only a few incLes wide, but it yielded silver-lead of great ricliness, 
some parcels containing as much as 2000 ounces to the ton of ore, a part of the 
silver being '' native." 

JBy the Cornish Consolidated Iron Mines Corporation. 

§The condition of the mine in the middle of 1873 was described in detail in 
the paper by the present writer already referred to, as also the condition of the 
remarkable hot "end" at the 20 fathom level east of Vallance's shaft. The 
temperature in October, 1873, was 124° F., at surface 64° F. This high temper- 
ature was attributed to the oxidation of pyrites — and the same cause was in 1881 
assigned for the high temperature in the 60 fathom cross-cut north — which 
however was only 82° F. against a surface temperature of 52° on the 26th October, 
1881- 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 151 

ore have been raised. Beyond Deerpark the outcrop is seen in 
Penhallow Moor and apparently much farther, but no important 
openings have been made upon it. 

The general characteristics of the great lode appear to be 
somewhat as follows. It occupies a very distinct and unusually 
wide fissure which cuts through the stratified rocks, and 
also through several intrusive dykes of elvan. The upper 
portion underlies somewhat more — the deeper workings, so far 
as yet seen, somewhat less than 45" to the southward. The 
width of the fis.sure and of its contents varies greatly, occasionally 
a few inches, or even less, very frequently from 3 or 4 up to 20 
feet, occasionally as much as 40 or 50 feet, and perhaps more.* 
The upper portion is essentially a " gozzan " of compact or 
cellular brown hematite, sometimes containing kernels of 
chalybite, — at times there is very little quartz, at others the 
whole mass is highly siliceous. Beneath the brown hematite — 
sometimes only a few fathoms from surface — and always before 
the sea level is reached, the lode appears to be largely composed 
of spathose carbonate of iron (with occasional broad belts of 
dark compact blende, and much more rarely veinlets of yellow 
copper ore) or of galena. On the whole the carbonate of iron 
is most abundant in the foot-wall, the blende in the central 
or upper parts. 

In the wider portions of the lode the filling is a mass of 
breccia, enclosing large masses of carbonate of iron and of blende, 
and Mr. Smyth in 1881 gave sketches of two of the deeper 
workings shewing this mode of occurrence. Thus near the hot 
cross-cut at the 60 referred to in the foregoing note, the lode lies 
very fl.at, and consists of (a) a broad band of white clayey 
carbonate of iron on the foot-wall, this is succeeded by (h) a 
mass of mixed iron pyrites and flucan, (c) a thick mass of the 
breccia referred to, containing especially in its upper portions 
large lumps of dark blende. In other parts bands of red and 
brown or black iron oxides and of quartz vein-stone are frequent, 
— the black oxide containing ziac and manganese with some- 
times copper, — in tact manganese is present almost everywhere. 

*The widths sometimes stated of 100 feet or even mox'e are horizontal sections 
across an inclined lode, and therefore misleading. 



152 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OE ORE-DEPOSITS. 

A marked feature of this lode is the fact that numerous 
quite narrow cross-veins cut across the ore-shoots and heave 
them, or even abruj)tly terminate them, as, in the absence of 
extensive explorations, would seem to be the case. This lode 
has evidently been most imperfectly opened up, partly on account 
of its very size — necessitating large capital to properly work 
it — partly because of the very fluctuating character of the 
demand for iron ore. Mr. Smyth's estimate of the total output 
of iron ore up to 1880 was "something more than 150,000 tons," 
but this is based («) on his estimate of the extent of the workings 
in 1858, and {b) on the quantities recorded in Mr. Hunt's 
Mineral Statistics. As to the first part I can say nothing, but 
as to the second, it must be remembered that Mr. Hunt's figures 
were obtained by voluntary assistance only, and in the case of 
iron ore were always known to be defective. My own estimate* 
was that 200,000 tons had been extracted up to that period. 
Since then the output has been small, probably not more in all 
than 10,000 tons. 

Of blende it is hard to say how much has been raised, 
though the output in the case of Great Betallack has been 
occasionally as much as 500, and in Duchy Peru 900 tons per 
month ; on the whole it is not likely that the lode has yielded 
in all less than 20,000 tons of blende, besides small quantities 
of rich silver-lead and copper. These are small quantities for 
so large a lode, and in fact great as the lode is, most miners 
would rather look upon it as the great gozzan indicator of some 
exceedingly rich copper vein existing at a greater depth than 
as a lode valuable in itself for either iron or blende. 

(d) Special characters of lodes. The Dolcoath main lode and the 
Perran iron lode afford illustrations of most of the characteristic 
phenomena of the West of England fissure-veins, such as fissures 
traversing indiscriminately or passing at times between different 
kinds of rock, with their intersections and heaves by caunters 
or cross-courses ; good and bad directions ; rich and poor parts ; 
contact deposits ; gozzans and pseudomorphs; capels and flucans ; 
breccias and concretionary structures ; combed structures and 

*Made m 1S73, when I was consulting engineer to the company then working, 
^nd so had opportunities of knowing the extent of the excarations, 



ORIGIN AND DEVEL0P3IENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 153 

vughs ; mineral springs ; local chemical action ; extensive local 
alterations of lode-substance and country rock and the like. 
Some of these phenomena have been already referred to with 
sufficient detail, of others which have been developed in a more 
marked manner in other localities, it may be well here to give 
references to some select examples. 

"Oontact deposits," that is rich parts of the lode bounded by 
different rocks on the hanging and foot-walls, though existing 
in places, are not particularly noticeable either in Dolcoath or 
Perran lodes. The great fiat lode however on the other side of 
the Carn Brea range affords notable examples in most of the 
mines (see fig. 10, Plate in), so also many of the copper-lodes in 
the Gwennap district which frequently had their rich parts 
bounded on one side by killas and on the other by elvan. 
Similar contact deposits having slate on the hanging wall and 
granite on the foot-wall are common in the copper lodes of the 
Caradon district.* 

"Intersections" and their remarkable effects on the lode are 
particularly noticeable in the Perran lode, as already mentioned ; 
there are many too of much importance in connexion with the 
Dolcoath lode, while many of them are accompanied by notable 
heaves — as in the case of the great cross-course between Dolcoath 
and Cook's Kitchen, which heaves the lode many fathoms to the 
right. The most remarkable, if not individually the most 
extensive examples of heaves, however, are perhaps those of the 
St. Agnes district, where they have been most carefully and 
accurately described by several observers — and notably by 
Mr. A. T. Davies in 1879. f Further reference to this part of 
the subject will be made in the fifth chapter. 

The "good and bad directions" of the rich and poor parts of 
the copper-bearing parts of Dolcoath have been already referred 
to in quotations from lectures by Capt. Chas. Thomas. Similar 
phenomena were very marked in most of the Grwennap copper 
mines — they are traceable but not so marked in many of the tin 
mines. 

* See Foster, Great Flat Lode, Quart. Journ. Qeol. Hoc, xxxiv, p' 640, 
1878, and Henwood, Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. Corn., viii. 
fOn heaves and faults. Eep. Miners Assoc. 1879. 



154 ORIGIlSr AND DEVELOPMENT OF OEE-DEPOSITS. 

"Gozzans" occur in connexion with a majority of the main 
lodes in the killas, and in some of the lodes in granite. The 
finest examples known have been on the "backs" of copper 
lodes, extending in some instances — as at the United Mines in 
Gwennap, and Wheal Friendship near Tavistock — to a depth of 90 
fathoms or even more, if the permanent water-level of the 
country is so far beneath the surface. Many of the rarer forms 
of phosphate and arseniate of copper, and an immense number 
of other rare minerals, have only been found in the gozzany 
parts of copper lodes. The changes of iron pyrites and of 
carbonate of iron into gozzan are obvious in innumerable 
instances. The manner in which these changes have been 
brought about will be considered hereafter in a future section. 

"Pseudomorphs" of one mineral in the form of another have 
been frequent in both the lodes while shallow. Such pseudo- 
morphs are very rare in the deeper parts of the Dolcoath lode, 
though they have often been found at depths of 200 fathoms and 
upwards in East Pool, the Grwennap mines. South Oaradon, &c. 
Still, speaking generally, it may be said that they are far rarer in 
deep than in shallow mines. 

"Capels" are the silicified walls of the fissures, they occur 
more especially in tin mines and often indeed contain enough 
tin to pay for working, but they are known also in lodes yielding 
copper, lead, zinc, and iron. Besides those characteristic of the 
Dolcoath lode, very fine examples occur at Wheal Uny and 
other mines on the great flat lode.* Their peculiarities will 
be described in some detail hereafter, when the method of their 
formation comes to be discussed. 

The "combed structure" frequently exhibited by the lead, 
copper, zinc, and iron lodes of the West of England, and to a less 
extent by the tin lodes, is a development of successive plates of 
vein-stone, — or in the rich parts of mixed ore and vein-stone, — 
the latter being usually highly crystalline. In its simplest form 
this structure consists of a fissure lined with crystals on each side, 
having their bases on the walls and their apices directed towards 
the centre. In some cases the fissure is thus altogether filled up 
with two sets of crystals meeting in the centre — in others there 

*See Foster. " Great Flat Lode," loc. cit. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 155 

are many sucli layers, some being less distinctly crystalline than 
others — or even apparently compact until examined microscopic- 
ally. Such examples are very common in copper veins in the 
Gwennap district. Many have been cited by Delabeche and 
Henwood, and a very remarkable case was figured by me in 
1873.* 

In lead veins fine examples have occurred at Wheal Rose 
and Wheal Penrose near Helston, and in iron lodes at Eestormel 
near Lostv\"ithiel,f and at Pawton near St. Columb.J The 
evidence afforded by combed structure as to the successive 
re-openings of fissures, and as to changes in the character of the 
underground circulation, will be discussed in a future chapter. 

"Vughs"are incompletely filled spaces in fissure lodes, usually 
lined with well crystallized vein -stones, and commonly associated 
with combed structure in the vein. Both the lodes described 
have afforded fine examples ; in the case of Dolcoath an unusually 
large one was described by Mr. John Eule in 1818.§ 

"Flucan" seems to be partly a result of chemical changes m 
the lode-filling or in the adjacent country rock, partly a 
deposit from circulating water, and partly the result of a 
grinding produced by the motion of the walls of the fissure on 
each other. It is abundant in certain parts of both the Dolcoath 
and Perran lodes. 

"Brecciated structure" is comparatively rare at Dolcoath — 
extremely common at Perran. A fine example of this structure 
in a lead lode is that at Wheal Mary Ann, described by Dr. 0. 
Le Neve Poster. || 

"Concretionary structure" is also very common in the Perran 
lode — notably in the Grreat Retallack portion. Fine examples at 
Belistian and at New liosewarne are described by Mr. Henwood^ 
and Dr. Foster.* 



*Proc. Inst. Mech. Eiig., Cornwall Meeting, 1873, pi. 36. 

fSee Moissenet Lodes of Cornwall, p. 85, note. 

X Report Miners Assoc, 1875, p. 26. 

§ Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. Corn., 1, p. 225. 

II Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. Corn., ix, p. 155. 

'^Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. Corn., v. 

*Bep. Miners Assoc, 1866. 



156 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

"Mineral Springs" have been observed in tbe Dolcoath lode, 
but their characters have not been of any specially interesting 
nature. The remarkable springs in the lode at Wheal 
Seton a little to the north of the Dolcoath lode, and at Wheal 
Clifford a few miles to the east, have been noted and described 
by several writers, and particularly by Mr. J. A. Phillips. 
These will be further referred to in a future chapter. 

"Local Chemical action," as occurring in the Perran lode, 
has been already referred to. Similar action was formerly very 
evident in many parts of Wheal Clifford in Grwennap. Further 
reference will be made to this subject hereafter in connexion 
with the theories of lode formation and of local metamorphism. 

Skc. 6. — The mutual relations of ore deposits and of country rooks. 

Many observations on this subject have been made by 
previous writers on the phenomena of the West of England 
ore-deposits In summarizing them in the present section, I 
shall endeavour to add illustrations as may be necessary by 
reference to specific examples. 

The following generalizations are almost universally 
accepted. 

1. — Junctions of unlike rocks, and especially of eruptive 
with stratified rocks (or proximity to such junctions) are regarded 
as favourable conditions, the reverse as unfavourable.* Notable 
illustrations of this statement are afforded by the Grreat Plat 
Lode and the Caradon lodes, which are frequently bounded on 
one side by graiiite and on the other by killas. A great many 
examples of copper lodes locally enriched by proximity to elvan 
courses are mentioned by Mr Henwood, and also by Messrs. 
Barnett and Argall.f 

2. — Valuable deposits of tin and copper occur in both 
eruptive and stratified rocks, but only in or near eruptive rocks 
of the acidic type ; while valuable ores of lead, antimony, and 
manganese only occur in stratified rocks, though usually in 
proximity to basic eruptive rocks. 

*Mr. Chas. Thomas has recently stated this in axiomatic form for a certain 
class of junctions : — " The junctions of granite and killas invariably {i.e. in the 
West of England) exert a powerful infiaence for good on all metalliferous lodes." 
— (Proc. Mining Assoc, and Inst. Corn.. 1883, p. 394. 

f On the Elvan Courses of Cornwall. — Report Miners Association, 1874, 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 157 

3. — The character of the vein filling varies notably with 
the nature of the country, as may be seen in the case of fissures 
which pass through two or more kinds of rock. At Dolcoath 
the lode was good for copper while in the soft killas of moderate 
depths, but when it got into the harder killas near the granite 
it was much poorer. At the 110 fathom level below the adit it 
struck a trough of granite and began to yield tin, but was not 
rich until Harriett's and the south lode fell in, the granite then 
got softer and the lode wider and richer.* 

The Wheal Yor tin lodes are rich only while in the killas, 
but die away or are entirely barren on entering the granite on 
either side of the killas " trough." On the other hand the tin 
lodes at Great Work, only a couple of miles away, are rich only 
while in the granite and of very little value after entering the 
killas. 

Similar examples in connexion with copper are afforded by 
the Grwennap district. At Tresavean the lodes, and especially 
the great lode, were worthless in the killas and of enormous 
value in the granite. On the other hand the nearly parallel 
lodes of the Consolidated and the United Mines in the same 
parish were rich only in the killas and became worthless in the 
granite. East Pool in the Camborne district was a notable 
example of such change, for the main lode changed from rich 
copper to rich tin in five fathoms, in passing from killas to 
granite. 

Another very striking example is afforded by " Woolf's 
cross-course in the Breage district. In the southern part of its 
course near Pqrthleven, it yields lead at Wheal Rose — going 
northward it is barren, containing only quartz and clay, in 
passing through the Wheal Vor district which consists of a 
different kind of killas — but still farther to the north in the 
Grodolphin mines, where the rock changes again, it yielded very 
large quantities of grey and yellow copper ores. Still another 
example is afforded by the main tin lode of the Charlestown 
mines near St, Austell, which in its western extension in the 
granite and in the much altered " killas " yields only iron, while 
farther east where it enters the fossiliferous Crinnis shales it 
yields copper. 

*Josiah Thomas' Report Miners Association, 1882. 



168 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

This generalization is accepted in other countries, thus in 
Norway the Kongsberg silver lodes are only valuable where they 
traverse the fahlbands, and in Australia the auriferous quartz 
lodes of the Grympie district are only of value while passing 
through the black slate. 

This relation of mineral contents to enclosing rock is even 
observable on a microscopic scale, thus Dr. Wadsworth says 
"It is not uncommon to find minute veins in rocks, which under 
the microscope shew variations in their filling material as they 
pass through different minerals.* The bearing of these observa- 
tions on the theory of lateral secretion will be considered here- 
after. 

4. — Lodes of tin or copper in killas dipping towards or into 
a great mass of granite or elvan are usually richer than similar 
lodes dipping away from such masses. The Dolcoath main lode 
and the lode at Wheal Eliza are good examples of the value of 
this character. 

5. — Lodes, and especially the rich parts of lodes, are usually 
bounded by rocks exhibiting notable alteration phenomena, in 
other words, valuable metalliferous deposits are rarely if ever 
found in highly crystalline rocks, whether stratified or eruptive, 
which present little or no evidence of secondary change. The 
changes are, in some instances, merely alterations of structure, 
but in most cases there are also extensive chemical alterations. 

The most notable structural alteration is the development 
of a tabular or "sheeted" structure in the country rock by 
means of a series of joint-planes parallel to the walls of the 
vein. Similar planes are sometimes also observable in the vein 
substance. This sheeted structure must not be confounded with 
foliation, lamination, quarry cleavage, or slaty cleavage (strain- 
slip-cleavage), all of which aid in the division of rock masses 
into tabular fragments, that is into fragments having two 
dimensions much greater than the third. These are due to 
causes which are essentially independent of the metalliferous 
deposits with which they are associated, although their pre- 
existence may have acted favourably by facilitating the produc- 

*Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. His., May, 1884. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 159 

tion of useful cavities to be subsequRntly filled with metalliferous 
matter.* Sheeted structure iu veins must also be distinguished 
from combed structure, which is altogether a phenomenon of 
deposit. In connexion with true sheeted structure there may be 
traced the following gradation. 

(«). An ordinary fissure vein-filling in a fairly compact 
rock. Of this condition nearly all the lodes afford examples in 
some part of their course. 

(b). The same in a "sheeted" country rock. The following 
examples will serve as illustrations. At Wheal Metal in Breage, 
the principal (metal) lode runs a few degrees north of east (mag.) 
and underlies to the northward about two feet in a fathom. The 
killas is for the most part permeated with tourmaline (tourmaline- 
schist), and in some places highly silicified — and is almost 
horizontal — yet in very many places a kind of jointing exists 
by the side of the lode parallel to it, and therefore directly 
across the bedding, so forming a succession of false walls. Similar 
phenomena are common in a great many other veins traversing 
killas, both of tin and copper. 

At the Ruby Iron Mine near St. Austell, a compact yein of 
red hematite traverses more or less altered granite, which 
frequently exhibits this sheeted structure for many feet on each 
side of the lode. 

(c). A sheeted mineralized belt associated with one or 
more main veins. 

Pednandrea and Grreat Wheal Fortune afitord examples of 
this stage. 

(d). A "sheeted" earthy or clayey vein-filling in a 
"sheeted" country rock. 

Examples of this stage are also common in the tin and 
copper mines. In many instances it is quite impossible to say 
where the "lode" ends and the "country" begins, all being 
sheeted together, although no part of the lode is highly 
crystalline. 

(e). A " sheeted " mineralized belt not associated with any 
main vein. 

* The origin of these four forms of tabular jointing has been dealt with 
sufficiently in Chap. 1, Sec. 2. 



160 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

This last stage is illustrated by the phenomena of Minear 
Downs and Cligga, already described. 

It will be seen hereafter that Mr. Fox's theory of the 
electrical origin of many ore-deposits has a direct bearing upon 
this question of sheeting. 

In most cases, whether the sheeted structure be observable 
or not, there are other notable alteration phenomena of more 
distinct chemical origin — such as discoloration by oxidation or 
hydration ; or bleaching by lixiviation ; or softening by incipient 
decomposition ; or hardening by infiltration of siliceous or 
schorlaceous matter; orgeneral"mineralization"by the infiltration 
of pyrites or other metalliferous substance; so that in some way 
or other the approach to a good mineral deposit is always 
heralded by signs unmistakeable to eyes M'hich are familiar with 
the mineral phenomena of that particular district. Unfortun- 
ately the indications vary to some extent in different districts, 
and often they extend to but very small distances from the 
ore-deposits sought ; frequently they are disguised by more 
general surface decomposition, or buried beneath more recent 
and barren strata, or under surface accumulations of detritus or 
of vegetable soil ; so that it needs in most cases not only great 
knowledge and experience, but also a large expenditure of time 
and money in prospecting and in exploration work before the 
valuable existent deposits are hit upon, unless some lucky 
accident comes to the aid of the miner. 

The chemical changes in granites associated with metalli- 
ferous deposits are so very marked, that Capt. Chas. Thomas 
was in the habit of speaking of the unchanged granite (quarry 
granite as it is often called) as primary granite, while the changed 
rock looked upon as favourable by the miner he spoke of as 
seeondary granite. Again our corresponding member, Mr. E. 
Pearce, writing on the metalliferous granites* of Carn Marth, 
remarked that the whole rock is commonly discoloured with 
peroxide of iron ; and the felspar kaolinized, or else replaced by 
chlorite, fluor, schorl, or oxide of tin; while a tabular structure is 
often set up in the neighbourhood of ore-veins. In 1863 some 

*Eeport Miners Association, 1862. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OP ORE-DEPOSITS. 161 

of his pupils, after a number of excursions to Carn Marth and 
other mining localities, wrote as follows : — 

" The general character of the granite of the hill (Carn 
Marth) was 'primary,' or composed simply of quartz, felspar, 
and mica, but where a vein of quartz or veins of other characters 
were discovered, the felspar for 2 or 3 inches on each side was of 
a pinkish colour, and it sometimes contained chlorite ; where 
the vein was larger the granite was altered for a still greater 
space on each side of it, apparently as if by the influence of the 
vein." 

' ' This alteration of the granite was more plainly shewn at 
West Wheal Damsel. Here we found all the granite near the 
lode to be very much altered, more or less according to its 

proximity the change being greatest near the lode ; the 

felspar was sometimes entirely absent, chlorite occupying its 
place, sometimes only partially ; and that broken at a still greater 
distance from the lode was merely of a flesh colour. In all our 
excursions we have noticed this alteration of the granite by the 
influence of lodes and veins, and in some cases a still further 
change from these influences was observed. At a burrow at old 
Wheal Jewell there are stones of granite to be found where the 
felspar has been replaced by tin and schorl (as at Dolcoath, &c.) 
In a cross-cut at East Wheal Damsel, at a distance of five or 
six fathoms from the lode, the granite contained cuprite." 

A similar change occurred at the junction of the lode and 
elvan at the United Mines.* Mr. Pearce further observes that 
primary and secondary granite were not formed at different times 
or under different circumstances, but that the original granite 
was merely changed " by the influence of the lodes which pass 
through or near it, these various alterations being effected by 
the decomposition of the mineral constituents of the lodes and 
the solvent action of water.f 

6. — It is sometimes said that very hard ground is unfavour- 
able. In one sense this is always so, since it increases the cost of 
the underground operations, but in this sense very soft ground 

*Ibid, Notes of Excursions, read September 8, 1864, 
fibid, Report for 1863, 



162 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

is also unfavourable. The statement is however true apart from 
this consideration, except when the hardness is due to silicification 
and the production of schorl by the actual mineralizing circula- 
tion, as is often the case with tin deposits. 

Since more or less of decomposition is a general phenomenon 
in the rocks adjoining important ore-deposits, while silicification 
or other impregnation-hardening apart from a definite deposit 
of vein-quartz is only occasional, and in fact limited practically 
in the West of England to tin deposits in killas,* it follows that 
lead, copper, manganese, antimony, &c. are raridy found in 
quantity in really hard strata, while even tin is often good where 
the rocks have not been hardened locally. I proceed to give 
some further specific illustrations of these statements. 

Tin in killas stockworks is mostly in a killas which is not 
materially altered except by the production of white mica(G-ilbert- 
ite), which accompanies the tin crystals occupying the joints. 
Occasionally there is a little blackening due to the production of 
schorl, and in a few instances crystals of quartz also occur. Of 
course the stanniferous killas as a whole is a greatly changed 
rock, but the final local change in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the little veins is usually not at all strongly marked. It is 
the stockwork as a whole which must be looked upon as the ore 
body, and the contact metamorphism in connexion with it is 
perhaps less than in any other instance known to the writer. 

At Old Wheal Vor, at Wheal Metal, and generally in the 
Wheal Yor district, " when the rock is hard the lode produces 
well, while soft strata are not congenial for that mineral [i.e. 
tin ore) but often produce copper. "f 

The hardening in this neighbourhood is mostly silicification, 
a great deal of very fine (microscopic) schorl exists in the rocks, 
but not specially in immediate contact with the lodes. 

In granite, tin is usually accompanied by a local softening, 
owing to the kaolinization of the felspar, although there is often 
too a still more local hardening by the production of quartz or 
schorl. 

* Siliceous infiltrations of the Silurian Strata in the Clog-au district of N. 
Wales are always thought to be favourable for gold, while the soft beds are 
unfavourable. See A. Dean, Report Miners Association, 1865. Of course the 
association of gold with quartz is uniyersally recognized. 

fR. Hancock. Report M.A., 1870, p. 39. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OP OEE-DEPOSITS. 163 

At Trevenen Mine in the Carn Marth district, the lode is 
separated from the compact granite by pot granite {i.e. granite 
of which the felspar is changed to kaolin). At Wheal Dream 
in the Helston district, a shaft was put down, throixgh hard 
ground to cut a shoot of tin which dipj)ed away west from the 
old Trumpet Mine. On reaching the " lode " it was found to be 
barren until about the 60 fathom level, when the tin was reached 
" in a softer channel of ground." Erom this point to the 180 
fathom level the mine was productive.* It would be easy to 
multiply instances of this general softening. In elvans the rock 
is often softened from the kaolinization of the felspar but 
hardened by silicification. 

Copper. In slate, softish strata are considered favourable, 
especially if light yellow, brown or red. Hard dark blue slate 
is always regarded as an unfavourable sign, so too is a hard 
siliceous elvan or hard granite. In fact silicification cannot be 
regared as favourable to the production of deposits of copper, 
except very locally and in very special cases. f 

The special relations of gozzans to deposits of copper ore 
will be dealt with hereafter. 

Lead. At West Chiverton the "productive rock " is of a 
light greyish yellow colour near the surface, and of a greyish 
blue a few fathoms down — fine grained and smooth to the touch. 
The unproductive rock on the contrary is dark blue — very hard 
and coarse-grained — passing into a sandstone or conglomerate. 
Similar observations apply to the rocks at East Wheal Rose, 
Wheal Shepherds and South Cargoll ; also to Wheal Eose and 
Wheal Penrose near Helston. | On the whole however it would 
appeal that with lead — as in a less degree with copper — the 
infiltrations which have brought the minerals into the fissures 
have been more modified by the character of the original rock 
than seems to be the case with tin deposits. 

*See Notes of Excursions, Report of the Miners Association, 1864. 

f See Henwood, Trans. V, and M.A Reports of Excursion, 1864, &c. 

J See T. Clark, Report M.A., 1875, in which he gives good sections of these 
two districts. I know of no instance where any of the lead veins passing into 
what I have elsewhere called the Ladock sandstones, have continued to be pro- 
ductive. 



164 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

Manganese is often found in connexion with very dark- 
coloured and somewhat hard slates in East Cornwall and West 
and North Devon. In such cases the slates are commonly found 
to be bleached where they are in contact with the deposits, as at 
Lew Trenchard and many other places. 

Iron deposits in the West of England when non-siliceous 
are commonly associated with killas of very moderate hardness, 
or with greatly softened and kaolinized granite. When the iron 
ore is siliceous, the country rock is also hardened by infiltration 
of silica, and the deposit becomes consequently worthless. 

From what has here been said, it is sufficiently obvious that 
the Cornish miner's dislike of firm highly fissile slate, such as is 
suitable for roofing, of highly crystalline and sound granite or 
elvan such as would be valued for building, of clean and solid 
looking limestone or sandstone — and generally of fresh looking 
rocks containing pure transparent quartz, little altered felspar 
or other unchanged minerals ; or free from cracks, spots, or stains 
is well-founded ; while the opposite signs are rightly looked 
upon with favour. Thus we may say in regard to ore-deposits 
generally that "contact metamorphism" is universal; or at least 
the exceptions, if any, are extremely few. 

7. Ore-shoots occurring in lodes which traverse stratified 
rocks have usually a pretty definite dip, the direction of which 
is determined by the relations existing between the bearing 
and underlie of the lodes, and the strike and dip of the beds, as 
shewn by M. Leon Moissenet.* In cases where the strata are 
horizontal, or where the bearing of the lode coincides with the 
strike of the beds, no such definite dip of the ore-shoots is of 
course to be expected. 

A deep valley, the lower slope of a hill, or at any rate a 
moderately diversified surface contour, is regarded as more 
favourable than a table land or the crest of a hill. It would 
lead us too far to discuss here the reasons for these very obvious 
facts, they however may be readily inferred from what has been 
stated above. 



* See Moissenet's " Observations on the rich parts of the lodes of Cornwall. 
Translated by the present author, 1877. 



ORIGHN AND DEVELOPMENT OP ORE-DEPOSITS. 165 

Many other specific characters in the country rocks have 
been from time to time regarded as unfavourable, such as a 
harsh texture, and an absence of moisture, especially if porous. 

It will be readily seen from what has been stated above 
that all these characters have a sound scientific basis, while 
others not so generally recognized will be noted hereafter. 

Sec. 7. — Subterranean Circulation. 

It is a matter of common observation that, subject to smaU 
changes such as are due to variations of rainfall, evaporation, or 
drainage, the water standing in wells and artificial excavations, 
or flowing from natural springs, maintains a pretty constant 
level, which is known as the natural water level of that particular 
spot ; or less accurately by some writers, the natural water- 
plane. In elevated regions of porous rocks and intermittent rain- 
fall, this water level is often far below the surface of the ground, 
and very important results, economical as well as geological, 
depend upon this fact, as will be seen hereafter. It may be 
locally altered by pumping or tunnelling ; or equalized over 
larger areas by opening subterranean communications; but subject 
to minor or local variations it is practically invariable over 
large areas and for long periods of time. 

For our present purpose we may divide the waters circulat- 
ing within the earth's crust into what may be called surface 
waters, which do not descend beneath the (natural or artificial) 
water-level, and those which, descending below that level, are 
again brought up by ascending currents. The former — the 
phreatic waters of Daubree will in general have temperatures 
differing but little from the mean temperature of the region in 
which they occur,* the latter which may be called crenic or crenitic 
after Sterry Hunt,f are the thermals of Daubree. As by hypo- 
thesis they come from deep-seated regions they will in general 
have higher temperatures than the phreatic-waters ; bearing, too, 
some direct relation in ordinary cases to the depths from which 
they have arisen. As the temperatures are higher, so the solid 

* Unless of course they happen to pass through or over locally heated rocks 
in which case they may be mistaken for true thermals. 

t Mineral Physiography, p. 132 (from Kprjvq Gr. a fountain or spring.) 



166 OBIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OEE-DEPOSITS. 

contents will in general be greater than in the case of the 
phreatic-waters. The incessant transfer of mineral matter from 
below, through the constantly flowing action of deep-seated 
springs is thus accounted for by Hunt. " The cooling of the 
surface of the earth by radiation, and the heating (of waters 
already there) from below, would establish a system of aqueous 
circulation by which the waters penetrating this permeable 
layer (the upper portion of the earth's crust) would be returned 
again to the surface as the usual springs charged with various 
matters there to be deposited."* Hunt applies the crenitic hypo- 
thesis principally to explain the origin of the crystalline rocks — 
including even granite. But as he saw quite well it is equally 
applicable to the origin of ore- deposits, if not more so. But 
the rationale of the process seems here to need some illustration, 
which I will endeavour to supply. 

In the first place, it is evident that the constant flow from each 
particular source needs a constant supply. Considering that such 
outflows have been going on all over the world for ages, we may 
assume that the supply now comes from the surface. It may be 
derived directly from rain; except, indeed, in countries where rains 
are altogether unknown ; or indirectly from bodies of water sup- 
plied by the rains ; or from the sea. There are but two ways in 
which this water can reach the subterranean sources of the ascend- 
ing thermals, (l)by flowing through fissures («c^wfl? divisional 
planes in the rocks which are in direct communication with those 
deep-seated sources, from which currents of water are made to 
ascend by heat — and (2) by percolating through the rock-substance 
(ordinarily though potential divisional planes, but often between 
the separate crystals and particles of which nearly all rocks are 
composed). The first we may call canalicular, the second 
interstitial circulation. At moderate depths the former will 
predominate — at greater depths the latter — because open fissures 
will be far fewer, and those which actually exist much narrower 
in proportion as greater depth is attained : still, it is likely that 
some fissures and actual openings may exist at all depths. The 
question then naturally arises " How can surface water make its 
way down below the natural water-level in any given district?" 

* Op, cit., p 131. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 167 

The force of gravity is plainly insufficient even in the case of 
open fissures, since any of these which may exist are already 
full — and under pressures coresponding with their depths. Still 
less can gravity account for interstitial circulation, which appears 
to be altogether independent of pressure.* It would appear 
that canalicular circulation can only be set up by a local lessening 
of pressure such as would be produced by an ascending con- 
vection current — and the very same hypothesis combined with 
what we know of capillarity and surface tension will account for 
the interstitial circulation. Thus then, given a permeable rock — 
whether the permeability be due to minute capillary fissures, or 
to the cleavage planes of its constitiient minerals, or to the 
boundaries of its separate particles — given on one side a supply 
of fluid, and on the other a withdrawal of the fluid, and there 
must be interstitial circulation.! It is this interstitial water in 
rocks which is called " quarry water " by Daubree. 

Let us now trace a little in detail the progress of this inter- 
stitial circulation on the large scale — and with this object in 
view, we may disregard secondary fissures, anticlines and 
synclines, variations of porosity and permeability in the beds, 
and similar irregularities. These would give rise to local 
irregularities in the rate of the circulation and in the courses of 
particular streams of particles, but would not otherwise affect 
it — so that for the purposes of this enquiry we may regard the 
''country-rock" as a homogeneous and porous mass. Bearing this 
in mind, we will try to picture the course of the water particles 
through the rocks under ordinary conditions. 

* The tendency of water to pass through very narrow channels in all 
directions increases as the channels are narrowed — while the tendency of one wet 
particle of rock to wet another lying next to it is so great as to be practically 
irresistible. M. M. Jamiu and Daubree have shewn that moisture travels — e.g. 
through a block of sandstone in spite of an opposing gaseous pressure equal to 
that of many atmospheres, thus answering Gay Lussac's difficult question " How 
does water find its way to the volcanic focus without being forced back by a 
tension of vapour below that is capable of sustaining columns of thousands of 
feet of lavas ?" See Phil. Mag. 1861, and Daubree's Geologie Experiment ale. 

t Daubree classes rocks as '' permeable " and impermeable but not in a 
strictly accurate sense, since all rocks are to some extent permeable. The rate 
of permeability as well as the capacity to hold and retain water varies enormously. 
Thus, while eurite only holds of " quarry water " 0"07 per cent., the clay of Meu- 
don holds between 24 and 25 per cent. — Daubree, Les eaux actuelles, p. 6. 



168 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

Let a. a. (fig. 11. Plate ix.j be a lode-fissure dipping south, 
and passing through the killas, and down into the granite. 
Now, assuming the rocks to be everywhere pervious as we know 
in fact they are. and assuming that there is no deep-seated 
spring issuing at a, then the waters percolating through the rock 
from the surface down to the water level e.e., which in this case 
is also the sea level, will make their escape at e ; so giving rise 
to a phreatic spring on the sea-shore ; while in any wells sunk 
through the rock, or in the shaft b the water will stand per- 
mantly at that level, all the rock below remaining saturated 
with practically stagnant water. If now, by sinking the shaft d 
and pumping, the water be lowered to c that will be for the time 
the artificial water level, water will circulate through the rock 
above that level, and all below c will in this case be stagnant. 

The same figure 1 1 will serve to illustrate the more ancient 
circulation which has often filled such fissures with ore and 
veinstone. Suppose by the action of subterranean heat a 
constantly issuing deep-seated upward current or spring at a. In 
this case there will be a constant circulation through the mass 
of the rock down as far the deep-seated source, wherever that 
may be. The condition of the water below e.e. or c.c, is no 
longer static but dynamic. The waters " seeping" through the 
mass of the rock will be constantly making their way into the 
fissure at all depths, and joining the outward current at nearly the 
temperature of the rock itself at those various depths. The 
water circulation may be considered as an infinite assemblage of 
molecules moving in files, and their normal courses will be 
indicated hereafter. 

The mean temperature of the issuing water will of course 
be less than if it had all travelled to, and come from the greatest 
depth, so that in the absence of strictly local sources of heat we 
may fairly assume that thermal springs always come from 
greater depths than would be indicated by their temperatures. 
For it will be seen at once that different portions of the 
very same circulating water will reach the ascending stream 
after passing through rocks at different depths. Hence taking 
any particular point in the vein, say x, the water which reaches 
the vein above that point has only percolated through the rocks 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 169 

situated above ; we may speak of it as "infiltration from above," 
and if it deposits anything in the fissure, it can only be material 
derived from the superficial strata, such as could be dissolved 
without any particular elevation of temperature or pressure. 
In the same way waters coming in at deeper points and having 
higher temperatures due to their greater depths of origin may 
be expected to dissolve, and afterwards to deposit in the fissure 
some additional material, and such deposits may fairly be called 
''lateral secretions." Similarly the waters reaching the fissure 
at still greater depths, having traversed greatly heated rocks, 
and having had greater opportunities of meeting with active re- 
agents will be still better solvents, and may therefore be expected 
to deposit in the fissure, as they rise up through it, still other 
and different constituents, affording thus examples of deposit 
by "ascension." This part of the subject will be more fully 
dealt with in Sec. 1 0. 

The solvent powers of water, especially when heated and 
under pressure, are so great and general that it has been called 
with almost literal exactness, the universal solvent. And the 
springs however charged rarely deposit the whole of their 
dissolved contents on the sides of their channels, consequently 
natural springs afford on analysis a great variety of chemical 
substances. It is indeed remarkable how many of the substances 
known to us as components of the air or of the solid earth are 
found to exist in greater or lesser proportions in natural thermal 
waters. Thanks to the labours of Forchhammer, Bischoff, 
Daubree, and a host of other writers, the fifth axiom of my 
introduction* may be regarded as fully established. 

Daubreef gives the following list of substances that have 
been found by analysis in such waters. 

Gases. Oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbonic acid, car- 
buretted hydrogen, sulphuretted hydrogen. 

Metalloids. Sulphur, selenium, phosphorus, carbon. 

* "All rocks and mineral substances are more or less soluble in pure water, 
and still more so in water containing carbonic acid, or other active chemical 
substances in solution ; such waters in fact as are found to circulate in sub- 
terranean channels and fissures." 

t Les eaux souterraines. 



170 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

Acids. Sulphuric, nitric, silicic, hydrochloric. 

Semi-metals. Arsenic, antimony. 

Saloids. Chlorine, bromine, iodine, fluorine. 

Alkaline-metals. Potassium, sodium, lithium (ammonium), 
rubidium, caesium. 

Alkaline Earths (metals of). Calcium, magnesium, barium, 
strontium, aluminium, cerium, beryllium, yttrium, zirconium, 
didymium.] 

Heavy Metals. Iron, cobalt, nickel, chromium, uranium, 
vanadium, copper, lead, zinc, tin,* titanium, tantalum, molybdenum, 
wolframium, bismuth. 

JVohle Metals. Gold, silver, mercury. 

The well-known examples of metallic and other minerals 
formed since the time of the Roman occupation by the thermal 
waters of Bourbonne les Bains, originally studied and reported 
on by Daubree,! are particularly instructive. 

No fewer than 24 species of minerals were formed by the 
issuing waters, among which were such well-known Cornish 
species as iron pyrites, vivianite, anglesite, cerussite, galena, 
chalcocite, covellite, chalcopyrite, erubescite, fahlerz, and cassiter- 
ite, besides phosgenite and a number of zeolites — some deposited 
by the waters itself and others formed by its action on bronzes and 
works of art. The late Sir Warington Smyth, formerly one 
of our Vice-Presidents, referring to this wonderful collection of 
minerals of modern formation, said in his graphic way, 
" Here we have — within a few yards of the surface and under a 
very moderate temperature, the metals and alloys which had 
been produced by human industry ; which had been raised by 
the miner and altered by the hand of the metallurgist, brought 
again to the identical compounds which we are accustomed to see 
side by side in their original repositories, — fathoms and fathoms 
deep underground. § 

* Tin has only been found in a few instances, the proportion heing from 
"0000015 to "00000008 per cent, of the water. In Cornwall however the waters 
flowing through the valley gravels must have contained tin in solution in compar- 
atively recent times, if indeed they do not still ; since deer's antlers have been 
found permeated with that metal. See Trans. E.G.S.C., Vol. x, and "Cornish 
Tinstones," p. 33. 

t The metals in italics are perhaps doubtful. 

XFormation contemporaine de diver ses especes Minerales, Paris, 1876. 

§ Smyth, Presidential Address, Trans. Eoy. Geol. See. Corn., 1876. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 171 

There are few mining regions in wMcli thermal springs are 
not known — although there is some reason to believe that cceteris 
paribus they are less numerous, and their temperatures are lower, 
in proportion to the antiquity of the deposits; — and even when 
they occur in non-mining regions they are rarely devoid of 
metallic constituents. 

It has been well said, that while mineral springs and solfa- 
tara action are the remnants of volcanic disturbances, an ancient 
mining region may be looked upon as exhibiting the roots of 
such a region laid bare by denudation.*' 

Thermal springs are not unknown in the West of England, 
although the denudation has been so great and the mineral 
deposits are so ancient that their action may now be regarded as 
almost extinct. 

Mr. J. A. Phillips, who had made a special study of the 
relations of thermal springs to ore-deposits, stated some of his 
conclusions thereon, in 1871, as follows, — maintaining the same 
position also in his work on ore-deposits, published in 1884. 

1. Metalliferous lodes are more numerous and more pro- 
ductive near igneous rocks than elsewhere. 

2. There have been volcanic eruptions at all periods of the 
earth's history (so far as we can read that history in 
the stratified rocks). 

3. Solfatara action and thermal springs are often the latest 

active evidences of volcanic disturbance. 

4. Crystalline quartz, iron pyrites, and other minerals are 
now being deposited in veins having many of the 
characters of ordinary lodes, by solfatara action (as at 
the Steamboat Springs in Nevada). f 

The connexion between thermal springs and metalliferous 
veins is discussed in considerable detail by Mr. Phillips in 
subsequent papers to that before quoted — and he also refers to 
a recently formed quartz deposit containing silver, which had 
been previously described by my friend Dr. Oxland of Plymouth. J 

*" Mineral veins seem to be the roots of mineral springs " Sollas, discussion 
on Foster's paper on the great flat lode, Q. J. G-. Soc. 

fSee Phil. Mag., Dec. 1871, Origin of Mineral Veins. I 

JSee J. A. PhilUps, Phil. Mag., Nov., 1878. 



172 



ORIGIN AlfD DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 



I must now proceed to shew how the mineral and thermal 
springs of the West of England are connected with its ore- 
deposits, and in doing this I must still largely rely upon the 
work of Mr. Phillips. In the following table, which is based 
upon one which Mr. H. Tilly presented to the Miners Associa- 
tion in 1872, with subsequent additions, I have brought together 
such particulars of the Thermal and Phreatic springs occurring 
in the mines of Cornwall as I have been able to gather. 



■jns mojj 





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ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 173 

In the thermal springs, although the solid contents vary 
very greatly, the lowest amount is 84 grains per gallon, while 
the average is 685 grains. In the phreatic springs the lowest 
amount was 13-59 grains, the highest 46-97 grains or not much 
more than half the lowest of the thermals, while the average was 
only 29-44 grains. 

The following substances were found in greater or less pro- 
portion in the thermals, viz. — the gases oxygen, nitrogen, and 
carbonic acid ; sulphuric, nitric, carbonic and silicic acids, 
chlorine, bromine, and iodine, in combination with the following 
bases, viz. — ammonia, soda, potassa, lithia, csesia, rubidia, lime, 
magnesia, alumina, iron, manganese, copper All the above, 
except bromine, iodine, ceesia and rubidia, were also found in 
the phreatic waters; and in the greatly modified phreatic water 
of Dolcoath arsenic was also found.* 

The analyses of thermal waters by Dr. Miller and Mr. 
Phillips, which are quoted above, shew that the first four of 
those included in Table 1 are essentially diluted sea water, 
somewhat modified in passing through the rocks, f the dilution 
of course being occasioned by access of surface waters. 

Fig. 12, Plate ix, taken from Mr. Phillips's paper already 
quoted, I illustrates one of the many modes by which sea water 
after penetrating to great depths through fissures, can make its 
way into the workings of a mine as a spring. This may be regarded 
as an example of ''canalicular" circulation. Other springs 
have been noticed in North Poskear, North Crofty, and many 

* Further particulars of these springs with full analyses will be found as 
follows. 

W. W. Smyth (for W. A. Miller, M.D.) British Assoc. Bath Meeting, 1864. 

H. Tilly. Particulars of a thermal spring at Wheal Seton. Report M. A. 
for 1872, p. 53. 

J. A. Phillips. Phil. Mag. July, 1873, and March, 1874. 

f The most notable modification seems to be that both at Wheal Seton and 
Wheal Clifford lithia had been taken up from the granite through which the 
water must have made its way (and in the case of Wheal Clifford csesia and 
rubidia also) ; and at Wheal Seton and Botallack the water besides being diluted — 
presumably with fresh water percolating from the surface — has lost its magnesia 
to a great extent, while the rocks passed through are more highly magnesian than 
usual — facts bearing very materially upon the theory of serpentinization. See 
Phillips, Q.J.G. Soc, 123, p. 319, and T. Sterry Hunt, Origin of Serpentine. 

:l:Phil. Mag., July, 1873, 



174 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

other mines in Cornwall as well as in some of the Devonshire 
mines, but have not been analysed ; the last four in Table 1 
seem to be merely surface waters — somewhat raised in temper- 
ature and otherwise modified slightly in passing through the 
veins or through old and abandoned workings — so as to partake 
in some degree of the characters of true thermal waters. All 
were taken from points above the (artificially lowered by 
pumping) drainage level of the country, but below the natural 
drainage level. 

The phenomena of ore-deposits throughout the world are 
only known to us from the surface downwards to at most 5,500 
feet, since our deepest shafts and borelioles have not yet 
exceeded that depth ; in fact we have very few workings at 
present more than 2,500 to 3,000 feet from the surface. But in 
our deepest workings streams issue whose temperature (and 
other indications also to which reference will be made hereafter) 
lead to the conclusion that they arise from greater depths than 
4,000 feet. At that depth it does not seem likely — from the 
most recent observations that the normal temperature of the 
rocks — apart, that is from strictly local causes, would be much 
greter than 100° F., yet in some regions temperatures of 200° or 
more are known. The high temperature of the Wheal Clifford 
spring does indeed seem to be due to some local cause of heating 
which is not very deep seated — the far more gradual increase at 
Dolcoath would seem to come much nearer to normal conditions. 
In any case we may safely say that in the West of England we 
have no present information of subterranean temperature by 
means of springs which have come from a greater depth than 
5,000 feet. 

This universal subterranean circulation, whether canalicular 
or interstitial, cannot fail to produce the most extensive changes 
in the rocks, and especially in a region of ancient fissures such 
as we have in the West of England. It is therefore of great 
importance to the geologist and still more so to the miner. 

Briefly stated, its work will be : — 
1.— -To dissolve what can be dissolved. 

2. — To transfer material from one place to another, so facili- 
tating mutual reactions and leading to the formation of 
new deposits. 



OEIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE- DEPOSITS. 175 

By dissolving away rock-substance from below by waters 
subsequently rising to tbe surface, it has not only brought up 
large quantities of mineral matter, and deposited it more within 
the reach of man ; but is must have produced chambers within 
the earth's crust, some of which have subsequently served as 
depositing chambers to be filled with mineral substances of value; 
while others, by collapse have occasioned many of the minor 
irregularities of the strata, and, subsequently thereby, many of 
the minor surface sculpturings. Such effects are well-known in 
regions where the strata contain beds of rock-salt and gypsum, 
and the same must be the case with beds of limestone and 
dolomite, though the action will of course be much slower.*" 

We have seen that to some extent all strata may be regarded 
as soluble, especially in waters which are heated and already 
charged with active reagents of various kinds ; but, except in 
such cases as those cited above violent deformation is not likely 
to result from the solvent action of the circulating waters — since it 
is so very slow — and when even large masses have been removed 
there has been usually plenty of time for the cavities so 
produced to become refilled with material brought from a 
distance. 

The great local abundance of certain veinstones as will be 
seen hereafter is apparently connected with original differences of 
composition of the parent rocks situated comparatively near the 
earth's surface. But the occasional local abundance alone or in 
combination with metals of such metalloids as arsenic, sulphur, 
and tellurium has probably more connexion with deeper seated 
sources. The same may be said of the locally abundant fluor 
spar of many copper, lead, and zinc mines, and of the still more 
locally abundant boron and fluorine-bearing silicates, schorl, 
topaz, &c., so generally associated with deposits of tin and 
kaolin. 

The waters circulating in canals and open fissures seem also 
in some instances to carry matters which are not dissolved but 
in a finely divided state of suspension ; and the deposition of such 

*The altered coral reef at Newbam, near Truro, now only containing traces 
of lime, must once Lave been mainly carbonate of lime, and was probably as 
many fathoms tbick as it is now inches. See "Eecent Analyses," Journ, E.I.O, 

XXIII. 



176 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

substances, mainly kaolin, owing to its remarkable insolubility 
and to its finely divided physical condition, has given rise to the 
" flucan " and "prian" so characteristic of many metalliferous 
veins. 

Sec. 8. — Subterranean ore-concentration hy heat, pressure, and the 
crystallizing forces. 

The whole course of modern investigation as to the origin 
of valuable metalliferous deposits goes to show (1) that the 
metals sought are very widely distributed through the rocks 
forming the earth's crust, and (2) that only those deposits are 
worth working which represent notable concentrations of the 
said metals. We have now to consider the nature and mode of 
operation of the forces, or forms of force, concerned in this 
natural subterranean concentration. 

Sir Greo. Grroves' study of the correlation of the physical 
forces has been one of the most profitable labours of modern 
times. iSo much, and. so intimately are they related that it is 
impossible properly to appreciate the effects of one without being 
continually led to consider others. " Light runs into heat ; heat 
into electricity, electricity into magnetism, magnetism into 
mechanical force, mechanical force into light and heat ; the pro- 
teus changes, but he is ever the same."* I will, however, 
endeavour to discuss their actions separately in connexion with 
rock-change and the formation of ore-deposits, as far as may be 
possible or convenient. 

1. — Action of heat and pressure. The simple action of heat 
on rocks is observable when a lava-stream flows over their surface. 
Clays are locally converted into porcellanite or ferruginous 
jasper, — as, for instance, at Portrush, where certain beds of 
lias-clay have been converted into a hard brittle splintery rock^ 
when in contact with a large body of trap-rock. f Equally 
marked changes have frequently been noticed in connexion with 
beds of sandstone. 

But heat alone, without accompanying and considerable 
pressure, can only act on rocks at the earth's surface, and with 
little intensity even then, except locally. But the rocks and ore- 

* Tyndall, quoted by Chas. Fox, Address Miners Assoc, 1862. 
t Jukes and Geikie, Manual of Geology, 1872, p. 140. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 177 

deposits with wMch we are particularly concerned were penetrated 
by eruptive rocks while still far below the surface, and conse- 
quently subject to heat and pressure corresponding to many 
thousands of feet of overlying rock. It is not surprising, there- 
fore, that effects have been produced entirely different. For 
example, when chalk is heated by a lava-stream in such a 
way that the carbonic acid can escape, it is merely converted 
into quicklime. But if it be similarly heated in the depths of 
the earth under great pressure, it is converted into granular 
limestone or crystalline marble. | 

In the changes just referred to moisture does not seem to 
have played any important part. But, as we have already seen 
in the preceding section, the solvent powers of the fluids circulat- 
ing through the rocks are greatly increased and extended 
by increase of heat and pressure, so that substances ordinarily 
regarded as insoluble have been brought into solution, transferred 
to other points, and finally re-deposited in suitable gites. Thus 
silicates have been decomposed and dissolved — new silicates have 
been formed — free silica has been deposited — and the separated 
bases have been converted into sulphides, sulphates, and other 
comparatively stable compounds ; while the haloid salts of 
alkalies, derived in all probability from pre-existing complex 
silicates, have gradually accumulated in the waters at the earth's 
surface. 

In the West of England, it is doubtful whether effects of 
heat and pressure can be anywhere seen without the superadded 
effects of other changing agencies yet to be described. It seems 
certain, for instance, that such flinty slates and sandstones as 
those of Haytor, described in Sec. 2, have not only been consol- 
idated by pressure and baked by heat, but also infiltrated with 
silica ; while the crystallizing forces have developed within them 
new minerals, such as magnetite, garnet, and hornblende ; the 
materials of which were in all probability already present in the 
rock. 

t The result of such heating may be seen in many places in the North of 
Ireland, where the chalk, being penetrated by dykes of basalt, is altered into a 
hard grey semi-crystalline limestone, or into a coarsely crystalline white marble. 
The well-known experiment of heating chalk in a closed gunbarrel has a similar 
result. 



178 OEIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OEE-DEPOSITS. 

2. — Action of molecular ajfinity and of the crystallizing forces. 
The tendency, everywhere observable in mineral substances, of 
like particles to approach each other whenever freedom of motion 
is permitted, seems to depend upon an affinity of the molecules 
which is quite distinct from what is known as chemical affinity — 
this latter being strongest between unlike molecules. 

Molecular affinity seems to be the originating agent in the 
production of concretionary structure in colloids, and of sporadic 
crystallization, the devitrification of glassy rocks, and crystalliza- 
tion generally in crystalloids. The subsequent development of 
crystalline structure in colloid aggregations is a related but 
distinct phenomenon which is also frequent. 

To enable this molecular affinity to operate, freedom of 
motion of the particles is, of course, necessary. This exists 
originally in both eruptive and sedimentary rocks to a very 
considerable extent. In eruptive rocks fusion, or the pseudo-fusion 
due to the presence of moisture at a very high temperature, 
facilitates the formation of such concretionary aggregates, 
mostly more or less crystalline, as occur in the granites of the West 
of England,^' and also of the sporadic crystallization generally, 
which results in what is called " porphyritic " structure. This 
may be on a large or small scale — "macro"- or " micro "- 
porphyritic. The separate crystals or crystal-groups are in some 
cases developed in a glass in a cryptocrystalline base, as in the 
case of most of the " elvans ;" or else in a well crystallized granitic 
base, as may be seen in much of the granite in all parts of the 
two western counties. 

In stratified rocks such as clays, mudstones, sandstones and 
limestones, concretions of ferruginous, phosphatic, or siliceous 
(cherty) matter of a colloid character ; cubes of pyrites ; crystals 
and crystal-groups of gypsum and other crystalline minerals 
are often thus formed before complete consolidation. Such are 
good examples of the action of " molecular affinity " in bringing 
together like particles of matter already existing in a diffused 
condition throughout the mass. I proceed to refer to a few 
examples in detail. 

*Phillips, Quart. Juur. Geol. Soc, xxxvi, p. 1 and xxxvii, p. 216. 



ORIGIJSr AND DEVELOPMENT OP ORE-DEPOSITS. 179 

At Lyme Regis the lias-clay, as is well known, contains 
numerous calcareous concretions.'^' Concretionary beds of 
earthy carbonate of iron (clay iron ore) have been met with 
associated with the anthracite beds of North Devon, at Bideford, 
and Chittlehampton, although not, I believe, to a sufficient 
extent to be of economic importance ;f such beds in the 
carboniferous rocks of Staffordshire and Wales are, however, of 
the highest importance. 

The same may be said of the concretionary and nodular 
iron pyrites which has been met with in the "killas" in many 
parts of the West of England. These are of economic impor- 
tance in the chalk of Kent and Sussex, and in the London clay 
at Sheppey and elsewhere. Concretionary patches of peroxide 
of iron occur on a small scale in some of the sandstones of the 
Ladock district, as also in some of the elvans. These also are 
too small to be of economic value. ;|: 

A singular specimen, " resembling a chalk flint," which was 
found in tho lode at Balleswidden, was described in 18^5, by 
Mr. S. Higgs. It occurred in a vugh at the 130 fathom level, 
and was surrounded by decomposed felspar and quartz granules. 
Mr. Higgs thought it had fallen in from the surface, but its 
mode of occurrence and surroundings rather suggest that it was 
a concretion of siliceous matter. § 

Mr. Hen wood mentions some " globular concretions " in the 
lodes at Wheal Duffield, Relistian, Trevaskus, and Wheal 
Herland, containing kernels of slate, granite, elvan, and copper- 
pyrites, and says similar concretions exist in the country rocks. || 
Dr. Le Neve Foster, — who saw similar masses in the lode at 

* In these a lamellar structure is often developed, parallel to the bedding and 
lamination of the containing rock. This is doubtless a subsequent development, 
arising either from pressure, or perhaps from transverse electric currents as will be 
shewn hereafter. 

f Delabeche, Report on Cornwall, &c., p. 125. 

I The concretionary aggregations of peroxide of iron in the sands of Sussex 
were formerly the source of all the iron used in the South of England — and this 
for a long series of years. 

§ Trans. E.G.S.C., ix, 1865, p. 1. 

Trans. E.G.S.C., v, p. 39, 



180 OEIGIN AUD DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

New Eosewarne, on a continuation of tlie Relistian lode — 
considers them — though with some hesitation — to be true pebbles, 
fallen in from above.* 

Many concretions occurred formerly in the lode at Wheal 
Trelawney. One, consisting of a kernel of galena succeeded by 
four layers of quartz, the fourth containing fragments of the 
third, and coated over all with galena, is described and figured 
by Mr Henwood.f The concretions remind one of the well- 
known " ring-erz " of the Hartz. 

The concretionary form of tin-oxide, known as wood-tin, has 
often a concentric, and frequently also a radiate structure, as at 
the Garth Mine near Penzance, Wheal Metal in Breage, Penhalls 
in St. Agnes, Prideaux Wood near Par, &c.J The former is 
probably an original concretionary colloid structure, the latter 
more probably a superinduced crystallization. Many of the 
distinctly crystalline tin-stones have also a somewhat radiate 
structure, § as in the case of the toad's eye tin from Penhalls, this 
therefore is rather to be described as an example of the sporadic 
crystallization to be adverted to presently. 

In all cases of concretions in sedimentary rocks it seems 
likely that the determination of the position of any particular 
concretionary aggregation depends upon the presence of some 
fragment of organic substance which has served as a nucleus. 
We can hardly suppose a similar determining cause in the case 
of concretions in eruptive rocks or in veinstones, although 
Mr. Moore long ago proved the existence of numerous organisms 
in the flucans of the lead veins in the Mendips. || 

Spheroidal structure is really a form of jointing, but it often 
occurs with concretionary structure, and is often confounded with 
it. This structure is most common in eruptive rocks, although 
it also occurs in sedimentary rocks. 

* Eeport M.A., 1866. 

t Trans. E.G.S.C, viii, p. 703. 

X See Plates viii, ix, x, xti, Cornish Tinstones and Tin Capels. 

§ Ibid, Plate v, figs. 1 and 3. 

II C. Moore " On the organic contents of mineral veins." — Brit. Assoc. Rep., 
1869. A list of nodular concretionary bodies surrounding organic bodies 
is given by Mr. M. H. Johnson. Jour. Quekett Microscop. Soc, May, 1875. 



OKIUIW ANl) DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS, 181 

Usually in the granites and elvans of Cornwall the material 
of the spheroids differs but little from the surrounding rock- 
substance. In crystalline rocks the crystals may be a little 
larger, — or occasionally a little smaller — the rock may be, and 
usually is more compact in the spheroid, and there may be, and 
often is, a greater proportion of some one mineral component 
present. These two latter causes are probably the reason of the 
curved" joint " which separates the spheroid from the matrix. 

The structure is so common in the eruptive rocks of the 
West of England that scarcely any quarry or road-cutting can 
be examined which does not afford examples more or less perfect. 
The best examples are afforded by the mica-traps near Falmouth. 
That which is seen near the Penryn saw mills, where the dyke 
is only 3 or 4 ft. wide, is almost entirely composed of spheroids — 
many of which shew, by weathering, three or four concentric 
laminse, although in the fresh state the joints only appear when 
the rock is struck with a hammer.* Some spheroids in the dyke 
of this rock which appears in the cliffs below Mawnan Church, 
are not less than 8 ft. in diameter. 

Spheroidal structure is often visible in the sandstones 
and grits of the neighbourhood of Ladock — this too is accom- 
panied by a concretionary accumulation of phosphate of lime, 
but only to a very small extent- 

The structures known as spherulitie and perlitic are related 
to the spheroidal structure, being curved joint structures — but 
they do not appear to be in any way associated with concretions. 
On the whole we may say that concretions are of little economic 
importance in unstratified mineral deposits, and especially in 
such as are most usually found in the West of England — though 
they are often of vital importance in bedded deposits — as for 
instance in the clay ironstones of the Coal Measures, the phos- 
phatic deposits of the chalk, and the galena of the Mechernich 
sandstones. 

Sporadic crystallization and crystal aggregates. Tn an incipient 
state, sporadic crystallization shews itself in the spotted schists 
which are so common on the borders of the various granitic 

* See R. ISr. Worth, Eep. M.A., 1883. See also Geol. Age of Cornwall and 
W, Devon, Journ. RJ.C, 1884, p. 39, 



182 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

masses of the West of England. The study of these belongs to 
contact metamorphism generally, and has no particular relation 
to the phenomena of ore-deposits. The same may be said of the 
crystalline concretionary patches in the granite already referred 
to, which consist of "an abnormal arrangement of the crystalline 
minerals of the granite itself, found by microscopic examination 
to be practically of the same composition, but usually containing 
more mica."* 

The most noticeable sporadic crystallizations on a large scale 
(macro-porphyritic) to be seen in the West of England are, no 
doubt, the "horse-tooth" crystals of orthoclase, and the cross- 
macles of the same mineral in the granite of Tol-Pedn-Penwith, 
and elsewhere. The separately developed crystals of orthoclase 
in the elvans are often very striking. But next to orthoclase, 
black tourmaline or schorl is the most striking mineral thus 
developed, and there is good reason, too, to regard it as a 
secondary mineral in all cases, i.e. it has been formed after the 
original consolidation of the rock. 

Schorl occurs almost invariably in acicular crystals, and 
often with radiate arrangement ; the occurrence of independent 
prisms more than -^ of an inch in thickness being rare, although 
Bovey Tracey, Stenna Gwyn, St. Agnes, and Tremearne may be 
mentioned as localities for such larger prisms. 

As was pointed out long ago by Delabeche, schorl seems to 
be limited to the neighbourhood of the granite junctions, whether 
it occurs in the granite or in the killas. It is abundant under 
the following conditions. 

1. As schorl-rock, which appears to be merely an altered 

granite, and is, I think, always near killas — as at 
Eoche Eock, St. Mewan Beacon, &c. It is sometimes 
notably stanniferous, as at Eock Hill near St. Austell. 
Other modifications of granite containing schorl are the 
varieties known as Luxullyanite and Trowlesworthite. 

2. As tourmaline schist, which is merely an altered killas, 
as at the Gwennap Mines, Wheal Vor, the south side of 
Carclaze pit, &c. 

* Phillips Q.J.G.S., xxxxi, p. 1, and xxxviii, p. 216. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 183 

3. As a constituent of many elvans, as at Seveock and 

Terras. 

4. As distinct veins in kaolinized granite (Petuntzyte and 

Carclazyte) often associated with quartz, and sometimes 
with tin. It is in such veins that the separate and 
well-defined prisms already referred to usually occur. 

5. As globular radiate crystalline masses, in similar situa- 

tions. Some of these are so regular in form as to be 
mistaken for pebbles.* 

6. As an important constituent of tin-capels, both in 

granite and killas — as at Wheal Uny, Dolcoath, and 
other mines.f 

7. As fine green, brown, gray, or silver-white hair-like 

crystals (achroite) as a secondary deposit in schorl-rock;}: 

or imbedded in quartz crystals. § 
The crystals of tin-stone lining minute fissures, joints, and 
cavities ; which are of such importance in the numerous stock- 
works in Cornwall, appear to be examples of local concentration 
of previously existing material widely diffused in minute 
particles throughout the rock-mass, produced by the operation of 
the crystallizing forces. It has already been stated that the tin- 
oxide present in the killas at Mulberry is little over one quarter 
of one per cent. Were this distributed through the rock-mass 
in particles as minute as those of the workable tin capels of the 
Camborne district, it would be quite impossible to work it at a 
profit. It is only because the crystals are comparatively large, 
so allowing of much coarser stamping and much cheaper dressing, 
that such poor deposits can be worked at all. 

* Dr. C. Le Neve Foster describes such masses as occurring, from one to five 
inches diameter, in the decomposed granite of Ding Dong near Penzance. Trans. 
R.G.S.C., IX, p. 9. See also Delabeche, Report, &c., p. 158. 

t See Cornish Tin-stones and Tin Capels. Plate iv and p. 11. 

J See Min. Mag., Vol. i, 1876, on the Achroite of Eock Hill, p. 55. 

§ The secondary development of schorl has been illustrated by Prof. Bonney 
in the cases of LuxuUianite and Trowlesworthite, (Min. Mag. T, p. 15, and Trans. 
E.G.S.C., X, 185), and its origin and general associations with Cassiterite, as well 
as with Topaz and other fluorine bearing minerals, has been fully dealt with in 
connexion with the hypothesis of Von Buch, Daubree, and others, by the writer 
(Tin Stones and Tin Capels, p. 136 et seq.). 



184 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OBE-DEPOSITS. 

In many cases, where original components of the rocks are 
in question, the freedom of motion existing in the rock-masses 
before complete consolidation would be sufficient to allow of the 
formation of crystal aggregates of considerable size. In other 
cases, so evenly balanced are the aggregating and retaining 
forces that the presence or absence of actual cavities is sufficient 
to determine whether there shall be such aggregations or not. 
But we know that mineral growth is possible, and indeed is 
often effected in rock-masses after complete solidification. The 
necessary freedom of motion, and the spaces for the new aggre- 
gations are provided slowly but simultaneously, — the solvent 
powers of the circulating solutions being aided by heat and 
pressure, and the aggregating tendencies by electricity, surface- 
tension, and, sometimes, by direct chemical reactions. So 
continuously, though slowly, do these changes go on, that, in 
some instances, well-formed crystals of large size have been 
formed around suitable nuclei in already solidified rock-masses, 
as shewn by Judd, and others.*" Even the pressures resulting 
from rock-movements may be thus effective, by controlling the 
chemical affinities and crystallizing forces. 

* Q.J .G.S., 1889, p. 175. Mr. Judd found that detrital fragments of quartz, 
felspar, hornblende, and mica had become enlarged under these conditions, and 
that crystals of many kinds had also been enlarged, those of felspar even after 
partial kaolinization. 

[7b he continued.'] 



185 



In looking over the weather chart for January, 1891, the 
coldness of the days and nights and occasional heavy rains are its 
prominent features. During the month the barometer stood very 
high, its mean height being 30"i5-inches ; its highest registration 
being 30'7o-inches, on the 14th; its lowest, 29"57-inches, on the 
24th. 

With the barometer standing close on thirty inches (2987) on 
the 8th, we had over one inch of rain (i"oi). Unlike some places, 
we had not to complain of absence of sunshine during the month, 
for the sun shewed itself on twenty-four days. As our average 
January rainfall is 4"85-iiiches, we must look upon the rainfall of 
the month, 3*4o-inches, as very favourable 5 and as 2"43-inches of 
this rain fell on the 8th, 33rd, 28th, 30th, and 3 tst, the month 
was somewhat dry. 

The Truro rainfall in January 1890, was 5'62-inches, which 
fell on twenty-eight days — a very wet month. 

It is singular that the average rainfall throughout Britain for the 
same month was only 2'o7-inches, which fell on nineteen days. 
The 8th was a phenomenal day. We had nearly one inch of rain 
from 5 p.m. to 8 p.m. — three hours — then a thick mist, which 
cleared, permitting showers of meteorites to be seen falling from the 
N. and N.N.W. direction ; during the same night the thermometer 
registered seventeen degrees of frost. 

Our coldest night was on the nth, when twenty-one degrees 
of frost were registered out of doors, our next coldest was on the 
18th, with twenty degrees of frost. 

Our monthly mean of greatest cold in night taken from ther- 
mometers which are in a louvred weather-house was 2>3'^ degrees. 
We have had, during the last fifty years, only two averages so low — 
January, 185^5, 32*9 degrees, with only •65-inches of rain on eight 
days; and i88r (the year of the great storm), 28-0 degrees; 
probably the coldest January Cornwall has ever known. We had 
snow on the 17th. 

February 16th, 1891. 



186 A tear's weather. 

In my last letter I drew attention to the great height of the 
barometer in January, the occasional heavy showers, and the cold- 
ness of the nights. The old distich says : " February fill dyke, 
either black or white," but February this year was one of the 
most delightful probably on record. Except for the general absence 
of flowers, kept back by an unusually cold season of three months' 
duration, one could not, during the greater part of February, have 
had any idea from casual observation that it was winter. The 
blueness of the sky day after day, relieved by cirrus clouds — frozen 
mistiness, ice crystals — the genial glow of the sun, unchecked from 
earliest morn until it dipped — as I saw it several times during 
the month — in a setting of resplendent purples, greens, and yellows 
right over St. Ives Bay, beyond Cape Cornwall, its glorious disap- 
pearance bringing out the moon which reflected from a sky cf 
continued clearness its silvery rays. Towards midnight, chiefly from 
the region of the Great Bear, brilliant meteors shot out, falling into 
the illuminated arena beneath. The mean height of the barometer, 
30*42, was higher even than January — 30" i ^-inches. Our mean 
of heat in shade during the month was 54*3 degrees, the mean of 
cold in night 34*9 degrees ; we had fourteen nights on which it 
registered frost ; our coldest night was on the loth, with 8 degrees 
of frost. We had hoar frost, a heavy dew, and mist on three 
occasions ; this latter represents, of course, the fog of densely 
populated towns, fog being mist (water) particles, enwrapped in 
smoke (carbon). 

Beyond doubt February, 1891, will be best remembered for its 
dryness. Rain fell here only Ave times during the whole month, 
the total fall being "22 — under one quarter of an inch. February 
last year it rained i •84-inch on 12 days, and we had hail. For easy 
reference I append the mean of 40 years' rainfall, and the rainfalls 
of last year and this, which I hope to continue from month to 

month : — 

40 years' mean. 1890. 1891. 

January 485-ins 5'62-ius 3'40-ins. 

February ... 3-38-ius 1 -Si-ins 0-22-ins. 

Totals... 8-23-ins 7-46-ins 3-62-ins. 

I cannot find any record these last fifty years of so dry a February 
as 1891, the nearest being those of 1887 (•77-inch) and 1888 (■85- 
inch). These were unusually dry, but the driest of them was three 



A year's weather. 187 

times as wet as that of the present year. During the same long period 
I find the following months only were as dry or drier than February 
this year: — April, 1854 and 1870 ; May, 18765 August, 18805 and 
June, 1887. To peep back into Cornish weather phenomena 
through Mr. Francis Gregor's observations, made at Trewarthenick 
over one hundred years ago, which this Institution possesses, is very 
interesting. The varying aspects are made in diagrams. February, 
1 77 1 (120 years ago), snow fell on the morning of the loth, and 
remained on the ground till the evening of the nth, and finally 
disappeared on the afternoon of the r3th. On eight days it was 
frosty. It rained on eleven days, but only heavily during the night 
of the 24th. In February, 1791 (100 years ago), were fifteen 
fine, six cloudy, and seven rainy days ; so we may safely infer that 
our ancestors of that time enjoyed a bright February. 
March 3rd, 1891. 



The exceedingly dry February has been followed by one of the 
most remarkable March months on record here. Instead of drawing 
comparisons of dryness or wetness, one is lost for want of a parallel 
to compare, not rainfalls but snowfalls. It would be hard to 
describe briefly the unique appearance West Cornwall presented in 
the middle of the month. It will be long remembered in this part 
for its damage to trees, its fatality to sheep — one gentleman alone 
lost nearly 200 of these valuable animals ; and its stagnation of 
trade, yet even now, it is hard to realize that snow fell so heavily for 
three days in March, and was so drifted by the wind that for several 
days this city lapsed into more than primitive isolation, for it ceased 
to do business by road or rail 3 did not read a newspaper, nor heard 
the postsman's knock. 

Cornish people remember nothing like it, except the proverbial 
oldest inhabitant, whose memory recalled to me a violent snowstorm 
some fifty years ago, when the snow buried the hedges, hid the 
gates, caused the waggoners to leave their waggons ladened with 
timber for the mines for days by the roadside, and prevented all the 
usual occupations of every-day life being carried on. On referring 
to the earlier journals of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, I find 
this very violent snowstorm recorded as occurring from the evening 
of the 14th February to the morning of the i6th, in the year 1838. 



188 A YEAR S WEATHEU. 

But just as the rainfall in February varied in different parts of 
Britain, so did the downfall of snow. In the North of England, 
they did not venture to name the snowstorm they had, a blizzard. 
Our heaviest fall was on Tuesday, March loth, and on the same 
day of the month, but twenty-eight years ago — on the wedding-day 
of the Prince and Princess of Wales — a snowstorm exactly like 
that we had swept all over the North of England and Scotland. 

The snow fell chiefly on the 9th, loth, and 12th j the heaviest 
and longest fall being from noon on the 9th until nine o'clock on 
the morning of the loth. The snow was so drifted that it was 
hard to measure, but a series of averages gave on the 9th, 1 2-inches 3 
loth, r'5-inches 5 12th, 8-inches ; or a total of 2i"5-inches. Owing 
to the cold wind the snow remained on the ground in many places 
for the rest of the month. 

Taking all downfalls (snow, hail, and rain), as rainfalls, we had 
in March 3.90-inches, which is above our mean average for this 
month as shewn below : — 



40 years' mean. 


1890. 


1891. 


January ... 4-85-ins. 


5-62-ms. 


3-40-ins. 


February ... S'SS-ins. 


I •84-ms. 


0-22-ins. 


March 2-91-ins. 


1 -ST-iiis. 


3-90-ins. 


Total.. lM4-ins. 


9.33-ms. 


7-52-ins. 



The rainfall for March, 1889, was 474, March, 1888. 470, and 
March, 1851, 7"ii-inches. 

It is asserted that if the barometer stands high in the winter it 
will, in all probability, be low in the summer — i.e , a cold winter 
with a high barometer, means a low barometer in the summer, with 
accompanying dulness and coolness. I append the mean baromet- 
rical heights for the last few months at Truro, as such observations 
may be useful to many : — 

1890, October, 30149-ins. 1891, January, 30197-ms. 

1890, November, 29-927-ins. 1891, February, 30-419-ins. 

1890, December, 29-960-ins. 1891, March, 29 855-ins. 

The mean of these means is 30"o84-inches. 
Our mean of greatest cold for the month was 35 degrees. 
In March, 1791, one hundred years ago, there were 23 fair, 5 
cloudy, and 3 rainy days. 
April 8th, 1891. 



A year's weather. 189 

It is many long years since Cornwall so much needed " the 
April showers to bring forth the May flowers." The chief rainfalls 
were, with the exception of a little in the middle of the month, at 
the very entrance and exit of April. The few true April showers 
— mixed rain and sunshine — which fell, were chilled by cold winds, 
which prevented much of the good the warm spring rain does. 
They came easterly with surprising continuance. 

It was interesting at times to notice how floral nature struggled 
to get out of the bondage. Here one saw a little beech under the 
shelter of some bigger tree, shoot forth its whole array of yellow- 
green leaves, whilst a sister tree on the edge of the self-same coppice 
awaited sullenly the advent of the warmer weather. The primroses 
felt this struggle keenly, yet under the meanest protection they 
overran the walls and meadows. This year this pretty plant will 
be at its best in May. In early April I botanised in a sheltered 
nook, where the lesser celandine, primrose, violet, ground-ivy, and 
others were in flower, and the bees were almost as plentiful as 
blossoms ; and the worker bees were savage with the rifled flowers 
they visited. April must have been bad for bees, Apis and Bomhus. 
The barometer stood nearly 30-inches (29-926), but the ther- 
mometers, on some days, indicated great ranges of heat and cold. 
The average greatest heat was 56-4, the average greatest cold 39-4 
degrees, an average difference between hottest and coldest aspects 
of J 7 degrees. It was a dry April, its rainfall of 2'48-inches on 
thirteen days compares favourably with the 4-inches of rain last 
April, and the forty years' average of 2 '61 -inches. We had a little 
hail on the 3rd, frost one night. 

The apple, cherry, and plum trees came into flower in sheltered 
places, the hawthorn, sycamore, and horse-chestnut came into leaf. 
On the 14th the swallow was seen in Ladock valley. The cuckoo 
was heard at Trenowth, Grampound road, on the 21st, at Cuckoo 
Bottom, Besore, Truro, on the 24th (a day late) Evidence here 
too, of the westerly distribution of "the harbinger of spring. ' 
The average rainfalls to date are as below : — 

40 years' mean. 1890. 1891. 

January 485-ms. 562-ins 340-ins. 

February ... 3-38-ins 1-84-ms 0-22-ins. 

March 2-91 -ins r87-ins. 3-90-ins. 

April 2-61-ins 401-ins 2-48-ins. 

Total ... 13-75-ins 13-34-ins 1000-ins. 



i90 A year's weather. 

From the table we learn that the Truro rainfall for the first four 
months of this year is less by 3|-inches than the average mean 
rainfall for forty years, i.e., the land has received this year^ 84,750 
gallons of rain w^ater less per acre than usual. 

May 9th, 1 89 1. 



I have to record a cold and somewhat dry May month, the 
rainfall being nearly a quarter of an inch below a forty years' 
average. As will be seen from the table appended, we are still in 
the enjoyment of much drier weather than last year. The regis- 
tration of the rainfall of this May and last shews that we have had 
less than half the rain this May month than last. The rainfall for 
the first five months in 1890 and 1891 show a difference of nearly 
six inches and a quarter. 

40 years' mean. 1890. 1891. 

January 452-ins 5"62-ins 3 40-ins. 

February .. 3-38-ms 1-84-ins 0-22-ins. 

March 2-91 -ins 1-87-ins 3-90-ins. 

April 2-61-ins 401-ins 2-48-ins. 

May 2-45-ins 5 06-ins 2-26-ins. 

Total ... 16-20-ins 18-40-ins 12-26-ins. 

The rainfall at Truro for May was 2'26-inches, which fell on 
eighteen days. 

Perhaps no month in recent years has been so disappointing 
as May, 1891 ; and yet, judged from a weather chart, it seems hard 
to say why. The mean here of the maximum heat for May, is 
6i"io, we had this year 61 -60 degrees. The mean of the minimum 
is 44 "94, we had 42-50 degrees, or 2^ degrees colder than usual. 
Last year our hottest Mayday registered 77 degrees 3 our hottest 
this year 73 degrees, or 4 degrees colder. Our coldest night in May, 
1890, was 395 this May, 30 degrees, or 9 degrees colder. 

Even natural observations gave no direct clue to the cause of 
this disappointment. Oak should be in leaf on May 13th, was in 
leaf on the 5th. The ash came into leaf on the loth. The horse 
chestnut should be in flower about May 6th, was, with us, on May 
8th ; the lilac on the 5th, was in flower on the 6th j the laburnum on 
the i4thj was in flower on the 9th. The swift and the corncrake 
were a few days late. 



A. tear's weather. 191 

Perhaps the best explanation of the discomfiture so much 
complained of in May, was in the sudden change of the weather. 
We were unusually buoyed up by the fine hot week preceding 
Whitsuntide. The hottest day of the month was then, when the 
heat in the shade was 73 degrees, and the night temperature was 
50 ; a week afterwards (Whitsuntide) the highest day temperature 
was 50 degrees in shade, the minimum temperature of the previous 
week, and the night thermometers registered 2 degrees of frost, a fall 
of 20 degrees of heat, accompanied by northerly winds, heavy rains, 
and a little hail. In many parts there were heavy falls of snow ; 
Rugby 7-inches, in London blinding shov/ers of sleet and snow, 
accompanied by thunder. 

On the 1st of May, ijgi (100 years ago) grass was so luxuriant 
that many people had their cattle out a fortnight earlier than usual. 
A week afterwards, on the 8th, wheat changed colour and appeared 
yellow, and potatoes above ground were nipped by the frost and 
their branches turned black 3 grass was making no progress. About 
the date of our Whitsuntide this year there were cold, raw, gusty 
winds, and eventually a piercing gale. In that year (1791) the 
hawthorn blossomed, and the corncrake was heard on the 25th ; 
this year (1891) we saw and heard the same on the i8th. 

After all, in the matter of weather, we are living under very 
much the same conditions as in the "good old times." 

June 8th, 1891. 

" Leafy June !" Perhaps the ordinary mind cannot recall a 
June so leafy as the last one. The cold weather, prolonged into the 
lap of May, relaxed its severity when plant life could scarcely tolerate 
the bondage longer. And then we saw nature robed in primary 
and secondary growths, untouched by insect or fungoid parasites. 
Throughout Cornwall the heavy foliage, casting a deep shade 
beneath the trees, was marvellously developed and wonderfully free 
from ravage. As the trees clothed some of the valleys, where one 
got an extended sight of them, they presented, perhaps a more 
sombre picture than usual with June leaves, but this sombreness 
disappeared on nearer approach, and the newer growth was seen to 
overtop, to cover up, and to merge into the older tree growth. This- 
new growth was a revelation to the observer ; a holly bush over which 
he may run his hand at will and touch or grasp nothing but soft 
non-pricking leaves, is what June does not always bring to us. 



192 A YEARS WEATHER.' 

Cornish hedgerows ! No words can fully describe them. 
The rank verdure on them defies description. A strip of bordering 
ground carpeted with buttercups, or silver-spread with daisies — 
the common and the dog kinds — helps one better to see them. It 
gives the distance. But who can describe the blending of flower 
colours, or the struggle for existence ? The picture was made by 
most favourable June weather, which intensified a struggle keen 
at all times. How pretty the flowers were ! The blue-buttoned 
sheep's-bitj the deep yellow bird's-footj red campions, white 
umbels, o'erhung with scented honeysuckle, wild rose, and elder. 

It was not an exceptionally dry June. Our average rainfall at 
Truro is 2-39-inches, and this month we had 2-86-inches, which was 
over the average of the last ten years, and below the average of the 
preceding thirty years There was this peculiarity about the month, 
that it iollowed a very cold May month ; it opened with warm rain, 
and then we had nearly three weeks of dry weather, which got 
hotter and hotter until it reached with us, 82 degrees in the shade 
and 1 1 2 in the sun. Plant life received an impetus, rarely equalled, 
in this brief period. Although we had rain — in some cases scarcely 
measurable — on thirteen days, the bulk of the rain fell on four days, 
on the first, I'oj on the third, "545 sixth, ■ ^g ; and 30th, •38-inch, 
or 2 "5 1 -inches out of the total month's rainfall of 2"86-inches. The 
driest June for forty years here is June, 1887, cj-inch 5 the 
wettest June, i86r, when 6"7i-inches of rain fell. 

We can now get our average half-yearly rainfall, and can see 
at a glance how much drier this year has kept than last. The table 
which shows the comparisons clearly, gives about 7i-inches less for 
the first six months of 1891 than the same period in 1890. 
40 years' mean. 1890. 1891. 

January 4'85-ms 5"62-ins 3"40-ins. 

February ... 3 -SB-ins 1-84-ins 0-22-ins. 

March 2-91-ins 1-87-ins 3-90-ins. 

April 2-61-ins 4-Ol-ins 2-48-ins. 

May 2-45-ins 5-06-ins 2-26-ins. 

June 2-39-ins 4-17-ins 2-86-ins. 



Total ... 18'59-ins 22-57-ins 15-12-ins. 

Finding that the observations of the weather, roo years ago, 
excite much interest, I may say df June, 1791- that on the ist the 
grass was at a standstill for want of rain ; a few days afterwards 



A year's weather. 193 

green peas were in the market, and new potatoes were i^d. a pound. 
Clover hay was cut on the 7th, and on the i ith it came in seriously- 
cold, hail storms, ice upon the pools, the grass began to decay in 
the pastures and meadows, apples dropped off the trees ; the straw- 
berries were very poor, as the leaves and stems were shrivelled up 
by the storms. They had 17 days of wet, and one day, the 3rd, 
when it was 1 20 degrees in the sun. 

1 have dwelt at some length on the natural aspects of June, as 
the reader would do well to note and make for himself observa- 
tions which may not be presented so favourably again for years. 

July 8th, 1 89 1. 



Although rain fell here on seventeen days, the amounts were 
so small that the monthly total of i ■62-inches shows the same 
general tendency to dryness which has characterised every month 
except March this year. The mean of the rainfall of July during 
the last ten years is 3'o6-inches, of the previous forty years 2-60 
inches. The rainfall this month is one inch below the most favour- 
able of these averages. During these ten years we have had the 
second driest July for the last fifty years — 1885, o-40-inch3 1869, 
o"3j;-inch3 and the second wettest July for the same period, 1888, 
6-45-inch 5 1867, 6* 71 -inches of rain. In 1888 it rained E-3o-inches 
on the i^thj and in 1880 i"46-inches on the 16th.; these are the 
heaviest day's rainfall in July on our registers. 

Though the month's rainfall was so little the total numberof days 
on which rain fell was quite up to the average of a wet July, and 
even on some of the rainless days nimbus (rain) clouds gathered and 
absorbed in their watery curtain the heat the earth would gladly 
have had, hence the month was not so sunshiny and hot as one 
would have expected, the daily and nightly temperatures being a 
little below the average. The prevailing winds, too, were northerly. 
The highest reading of the thermometer was on the 15th, 79 
degrees ; the lowest, 40 degrees, on the night of the 13th; this differ- 
ence of 39 degrees strikingly shows how the temperature ranged 
during the month. The mean temperature of air for the month, got 
by taking the means of the maximum, minimum, and dry-bulb 
thermometers, was 6^'^ degrees. The range of the barometer was 
a little over half-an-inch {'^6), the highest reading being on the 



194 A yeae's WEATHEB. 

14th, 30-295 the lowest reading on the ist, 29-73-inches. We had 
thunder on the 20th, and thunder and lightning on the 26th, which 
ushered in a week marked by driving showers of sleet-like rain. 

If the average rainfalls are tabulated, we can see how much 
drier the year keeps than 1890 : — 

40 years' mean. 1890. 1891. 

January 4-85-ins 5-62-ins 3-40-ms. 

February ... 3-38-ins 1-84-ins 0-22-ins. 

March 2-91-ins 1-87-ins 3-90-ins. 

April 2-61-ins 4-01-ins 2-48-ins. 

May 2-45-ins 5-06-ins 2-26-ins. 

June 2.39-ins 4-17-ins 2-86-ins. 

July 2-60-ins 3-67-ins 1-62-ins. 

Total ... 21-19-ins 26-24-ins 16 74-ms. 

A total of 9^-inches less of rain for the seven months of this 
year than in the same period of last year, or nearly 4|-inches less 
than the 40 years' average of the same months. 

In July, 1791 (100 years ago), the people complained of wind 
and rain. There was a general want of grass at the beginning of 
the month, but this improved, and when about the 28th the hay 
harvest finished, the crops, though not heavy, were superior in 
quality to the long coarse grass of the previous year, and well got. 
Gooseberries were ripe on the 13th, and on the i6th the blackberries 
were in bloom, and the wheat, too. The monthly rainfall was 2"5o- 
inches, and on the 25th thunder was heard, and in some places hail 
fell. 

August nth, 1 89 1. 



It is extremely gratifying to receive the expressions of great 
pleasure the perusal of this course of weather letters has given rise 
to, and to learn, that not only is their appearance looked forward to 
with interest, but many trust they will be continued beyond the year. 

August, 1 89 1, will be long remembered as one of the wettest 
Augusts on record. There have been many attempts during those 
of the past forty years to be wet, but none so successful as the last. 
We read of meadows being submerged, of ripened wheat and barley 
being uncut, of good crops of cereals in which the grains had begun 
at once their new growth. It was a month of feeble sunshine, 
struggling between filmy mists or extinguished by down-pouring 



A year's weather. 195 

rain. Recollections of weather changes touch the general mind but 
lightly, unless, like this month, they are struck deeply by some 
phenomenal display. What was seemingly going to be so dry a 
year, broke its bondage when one of the most bountiful harvests for 
twenty years touched with golden gladness hill and dale. The 
abnormally swollen little streams and rivers about us, told a tale of 
soddened land, and the heart felt grieved on reflecting at the sad 
havoc wrought by the untoward rain. 

August is not the driest of months, nor is it the least free from 
heavy downfalls of rain, an average of many years shews it to be 
little drier than February, and wetter than March, April, May, June, 
and July, The average August rainfall here is about 3 -inches, this 
month it rained at Truro 6*48-inches, over twice as much as the 
average, and my friend, Mr, F. H. Davey, of Ponsanooth, who has 
taken charge of a rain-guage for us for nearly two years, recorded 7 '3 1- 
inches. During the month it rained on 2 /j days, on one day nearly 
i^-inches, on another over f of an inch, on three ^ an inch, and on 
six over ^ of an inch. This heaviest day's rainfall in August was on 
the day set apart for the excursion of the Royal Institution of 
Cornwall. The representatives of the press of the two counties, 
who were in the waggonette in which we rode, will bear me out in 
saying that a merrier party never rode together than ourselves ; while 
that i"48-inches of August rain poured on us. We rode through 
miles of it, the roads had all the appearance of shallow muddy 
rivers, the wheels of the vehicle cleaved the water just as they do in 
running across some shallow ford. We were merry about the rain, 
but a word of sympathy ever ran in the conversation for the suffering 
farmer. It is beyond my province here to calculate the miles we 
went, but every acre we saw of ripening grain had not one ounce less 
than 150 tons of water poured upon it that day. 

There have been some inquiries as to whether we have had 
any very heavy daily rainfalls in August. We have ! It is a month 
noted for what the meteorologist calls "remarkable rains" The 
one quoted is an example. I add a few other daily August rainfalls 
for reference : — 1891, aoth, i"48-inchesj 1890, 9th, pa-inch 3 1885, 
5th, 106-inchesj 1875, lith, i'36-inchesj 1874, 31st, i"o6-inches5 
1866, 28th, i'o5-inches. The following are a few monthly August 
rainfalls: — 1891, 6-483 1890,379; 1885, 3'i6 3 1881,3-553 1879, 
S'33; 1878,4-493 1877,5-843 1876,4-373 1873,4-813 1866,4-693 



196 A yeae's weather. 

1865, 5-33 3 ^^^3^ 4'o^ ; i860, 578 ; i8_59, 4-35 ; 1857, 3-02 : and 
1852, 4*57-inches. The frequency of the wet August months shews 
the farmer has good cause to grumble, and probably within recent 
times he had never greater justification than this month. 

A glance at the tabulated average rainfalls for 1890 and 1891 
shews that we had about y^-inches less of rain for the first half of 
this year than we had during the same period last year. The table 
shews, too, that though July, of 1891, was drier than that of 1890, 
yet the excess of rainfall for August this year, 2'69-inches over 
August last year, was so great that the second half of 1 89 1 is, so far, 
wetter than 1890. During July and August, 1890, we received 
7-46-inchesj the same two months of 1891, 8'io-inches of rain. 
We learn, too, that the crops hereabouts have had poured upon them 
6o"79 gallons of rain per acre more this August than in August, 
1890. We cease to wonder at swollen streams, flooded meadows, 
soddened fields, and sprouted corn with excess of rain. Below is 
appended table of average rainfalls : — 

40 years' mean. 1890 1891. 

January ... 4'85-ins 5-62-ins 3'40-ins. 

February ... 3-38-ins 1-84-ins 0-22-ins. 

March 29 1 -ins 1-87-ins 3-90-ins. 

April 2-61-ins 401-ins 248-ins. 

May 2-45-ins 506-ins 2-26-ins. 

June 2-39-ins 417-ins 2-86-ins. 

July 2-60-ins. 3-67-ins 1-62-ins. 

August 3-01-ins 3-79-ins 6-48-ins. 

Total ... 24'20-ins 30-03-ins 23'22-ins. 

The monthly mean height of the barometer was 29'83-inches ; 
the mean of the greatest heat in shade during the day, 6^-3 degrees ; 
mean of night temperatures, 52*0 degrees. The warmest 
day was on the 15th, 74 degrees, the coldest night 37 degrees, on 
the 28th. It is singular that the district, in which the cuckoo is first 
heard recorded the first frost on the morning of the 30th, when the 
dahlias and other plants were frost-bitten. 

In August, 1 79 1 — a hundred years ago — the register bristles 
with this remark, "good harvest day." Would that I could have 
truthfully written the same this year. On the 8th early oats were 
reaped, 15th wheat cut, 22nd corn housed. Pastures were bare, no 
after grass this season, and the want of grass general. Mushrooms 



A year's -weather. 197 

were very numerous, i 761, 1778, and 1 791, were remarkable mush- 
room years, on the 31st it rained 2"o-inches, and during the whole 
month 5'3-inches. 

September 4th, 1 89 1 , 

The marked increase of wet which set in during the month of 
August has been partly maintained this month. True, there were 
some very hot days, but so soaked were the corn crops that during 
the cessation of rain they did not dry in some cases sufficiently in 
the judgment of the farmer to warrant his safely stacking them. 
And so the harvest time came and went, and even the festivals 
celebrating the ingathering were held. Yet over many acres, as I 
saw at the end of the month, the cereals were in arish mows, black 
and grim, useless, one feared, for food. Oats suffered most, but 
root crops gained at the expense of the grain crops ; yet wheat, 
taking the country through, thanks to the hot sunshine, yielded fairly, 
but of inferior quality. It is pitiful that the splendid promises of 
June and July should have been turned into the comparatively 
disappointing realizations of August and September. The few fine 
days of September which wrought such a salvation in the prospects 
of the agriculturist deserve recording, as meteorological changes 
soon fade in the memory. The first five days of the month were 
dry, on the 6th and 7th over half-an-inch of rain fell, followed by 
a dull day, on which we had a little rain. Then came a real touch 
of summer ! It lasted five days, and closed with a heavy mist on 
the evening of the 13th, from which it never recovered, though the 
struggle to be fine continued to the 16th, when it fell away, and 
soaking rains came on for a week, again followed by another period 
of five dry days, which were much colder. With a repetition of 
rain the month went out 3 1 6 days of rain, during which the fall 
was 3"o5-inches; less than an average September rainfall by half- 
an-inch, but nearly half-an-inch heavier than the rainfall for the same 
month last year. 

Hence the month had three periods of five dry days. The 
average maximum temperature — greatest heat in shade — -was for the 
1st period 66 degrees; 2nd, 79 degrees 3 and 3rd, 66 degrees. 
That short summer of deep blue sky, 79 degrees in the shade, on 
one day loi degrees, and on another 103 degrees in the mid-day 
sunshine, disturbed by cirrus clouds only in the earlier part of the 



198 A YEAR S WEATHER. 

day, leave a pleasant recollection, as I spent part of it at sea, when 
even the porpoises sprang out of the ocean blue enjoying its good- 
ness. 

The average monthly maximum heat in shade was 67-2, and 
the average minimum heat was 51 "2 degrees. The mean height of 
the barometer was 30"o-inches. An exposed minimum thermo- 
meter on the 23rd registered 39 degrees. The nights of the i8th, 
19th, and 20th, were very stormy and wild. The heaviest daily 
rainfall was •49-inch on the 20th. The following are a few heavy 
September rainfalls : — 1885,6-58; 1883,5735 1882,4-52; 1876, 
5'57 ; '^75' 5'j3 J ^^74^ 5'9° '; ^^^71, 8-50 ; and 1866, 7-88-inche.s. 
The rainfall of September, 1891, 3-o3-inches, is the heaviest for the 
same month since 1887, when the rainfall was 3-87-inches. 
For reference I append average rainfalls : — 

40 years' mean. 1890. 1891. 

January .. 4-85-ins 5-62-ins 3-40-ins. 

February ... 3-38-ins 1-84-ins 0-22-in3. 

March 2-91-ms 1-87-ins 3-90-ins. 

April 2-61-ins 4-01 -ins 2-48-ins. 

May 2-45-ins 5-06-ins 2-26-ins. 

June 2-39-ins 417-ins 2-86-ins. 

July 2-60-ins 3-67-ins 1-62-ins. 

August 3 01-ins. 3-79-ins 6-48-ins. 

September... 3-49-ins 2-63-ins. 303-ins. 

Total ... 27-69-ins 32-66-ins 26-25-ins. 

We are gradually gaining on the wet year of 1890. 

The weather and prospects of 1791 — 100 years ago — show 
several coincidences, i Jth, thermometer 108 degrees in sun; nuts 
very scarce. 12th, most of wheat got in in high condition ; crops 
good; barley but slight ; oats tolerable. 13 th, red after sunset: a 
mist arises. Not a cloud has appeared upon the sky from the i oth 
to the 15th. Apples few but fine. 22nd, harvest finished ; weather 
delightfull)' pleasant to end of the month. A Michaelmas summer. 
Rainfall for month, 2"4o-inches. 

October 12th, 1891. 



I 



There has been a general desire to know how much rain we have 
had this month. As I had to lecture at several of the large towns in 
the North of England during the end of October and first ten days 
of November, I must ask my readers to forgive the delay of this 
communication on the subject. 



A year's "WEATHER. 199 

If comparisons were a relief we have had during the last 
half-century three Octobers on which the rainfall was heavier than 
October this year — 1891, 8-55 : 1885, 8-82 ; 1880, 9'23 3 1865, 9-09- 
inches. But the fact of this month's downfall being classed as one 
of these exceptionally heavy rainfalls gives it a distinction worth 
noticing. Perhaps the greatest peculiarity in the rainfall was its 
cyclonic character — a rush of wind terrific in force accompanied by 
blinding rain, which descended in parallel sheets. This was the 
experience in several of the south-westerly counties, and caused an 
overflowing of streams, flooding of fields, and isolation of houses. 
In going north I saw several isolations of . this character, and, in 
addition, great inland lakes with timber trees standing in the watery 
waste. I'hese' heavy falls of rain gave a registration in the gauges 
which is happily not often experienced. On the morning of the 5th 
we registered i^-inches of rain in one hour 5 but Mr. F. H. 
Davey, in a rain guage at Ponsanooth, registered 2*4i-inches 
during the same time. His rainfall for October is io'26- 

inches, nearly if-inches more than at Truro, due probably to the 
better wooded grounds about, and in some measure to the soil. On 
October 6th we had nearly two inches, and on the i8th over an inch 
of rain 5 from the loth to the i8th the average daily rainfall was 
nearly half-an-inch. But none of these records show so high a 
daily fall of rain as in 1880, when on October the i6th the 
rainfall in Truro was 3'o-inches. 

During the month the rain fell on 25 days, and for 23 of these 
days it rained consecutively ; it was a month, however, of many 
peeps of sunshine, and the high registration of rain was due rather 
to intensity of fall than continuous wet. During the month the 
winds were terrific at times, gales were common, and loss of life 
saddening. In the last week of the month the barometer had a 
range of nearly i^-inches. 

The following summary shews our average and that of last 
year and this : — 

40 years' mean. 1890. 1891. 

January ... 4'85-ins 5 62-ins 3-40-ins. 

February ... 3-38-ins 1-84-ins 0-22-ms. 

March 2-91-ins 1-87-ins 3 90-ina. 

April 2-61-ins 4-01-ins 2-48-ins. 

May 2-45-ins. 5-06-ins 2-26-ins 

June 2-39-ins 417-ins 2-86-ins. 



200 A yeae's weather. 

July 2-60-ins 3-67-iiis r62-ms. 

August 3'01-ins 3-79-ins 6-48-ins. 

September... 3-49-ins 2-63-ms 303-ins. 

October 4-81-ins 3-02-ins 8-55-ins. 



Total ... 32-50-m 35-68-ins 34-80-ms. 

Five and a half inches more rain this October than last ; 
three and three-quarters inches more than the average, and a gradual 
overtaking of the wet year 1890. The gales were in many cases 
accompanied by storms of hail, and thunder was not uncommon. 
On one such night, October 5th, I went down Malpas Road, Truro, 
when we had a high tide in the river, and the whole of the water 
was overspread with a phosphorescent light. As the gusty wind 
caught the water and blew it on as an ever-increasing wave, a fire 
roll started where the first puff caught the surface, and registered 
the growing wave in fire. It was a magnificent sight, for the waves 
broke on the shore in fi.re flashes, and the spray, seized at times by 
the fiercer gusts, was blown into the adjoining fields as fire dust. 
This phosphorescence was due to animal organisms, Noctiluca, and 
other lowly forms of life, and was emitted from the outer layer of the 
protoplasmic contents of the body j and as we witnessed the vital 
energy of the organisms transformed into a radiant form, we seemed 
to be in touch with the latest ideas in hght studies, that light is an 
electric phenomenon, and that vibrations of light are electric vibra- 
tions. Probably each of those countless millions of organisms was a 
battery evolving light, and not chemically working in oxidising tissue. 

There has been a general complaint that the wet weather has 
robbed us of our autumnal glow. My experience has been a 
generally noticeable greenness on the leaves to the end of the month, 
and a magnificent display in our southern Cornish woods of soft 
greens, yellows, and ruddy tints. In travelling one noticed this as 
particularly intense about Truro, Liskeard, and in the coombes 
eastward, in South Devon a loss of this effectiveness, and then a 
re-growth in beauty in North Devon and Somerset, especially in the 
Vale of Avon. Of course, where frost catches the wet leaves there 
is little chance of that persistency necessary for the plant contents 
to change in the leaves, as the frost sheds them in showers of gold. 
In one short stroll of about two miles out of Truro, I noticed in the 
last week in October over forty kinds of plants in flower, and we 
had in our hedgerows many more blooms than we had in 



A year's weather. 201 

October last year. The starlings, too^ were commoner, and on the 
26th I saw several swallows. Mr. Matthias Dunn tells me he has 
never seen so many Northern forms of birds, especially skuas, 
seeking shelter at Mevagissey as this year. 

November 13th, 1891. 



The rainfall during the month was a little over half an inch 
more than the average, the total fall being 503 ; average, Truro, 
November rainfall, 4-37-inches. We have not to go far back to 
find wetter Novemheis than this one, in 1888 the monthly rainfall 
was 8-89; in 1883, 6-15; 1882, 5-57; 1881, 5-39 (three years in 
succession); 1878, 5-78; 1877, 7-09; 1876, 5-47; 1875, 5-80 
(four years in succession); 1852, 10-51-inches. A.lthough we 
have been, sensibly overtaking the rainfall of last year during 
the last three or four months, yet our total registration of wet 
still leaves 1891 somewhat drier than 1890, though this 
month has witnessed a rainfall exceeding that of November last 
year by nearly three-quarters of an inch. Mr. F. H. Davey, in 
a rain guage at Ponsanooth, has registered 61 5 for 
the month, as against 5'54-incheslastyear; this shews a difference 
this November of 0-61 -inch of rain, and nearly agrees with our 
excess at Truro. The rain fell on twenty days, the heaviest 
day's fall being on the 10th, 1'19-inches, the barometer being a 
little over 29-inches, and falling to 28*75 the next morning, when 
it began again to recover itself. During this fall and rise, three 
days, we had nearly two inches of rain, heavy hailstorms, and 
strong winds. 

The following is a summary of the rainfall of the last eleven 
months and those of last year, and an. average 40 years' mean 
for comparison : — 

40 years' mean. 1890. 1891. 

January 4'85-ins 5'62-ins 3"40-ins. 

February ... 3-38-ms 1-84-ins 0-22-ins. 

March 2-9I-ins 1-87-ins 3 90-ins. 

April 2-61-ins 401-ins 2-48-ins. 

May 2-45-ins 506-ins 2-26-ins. 

June 2-39-ms 4-17-ins 2-86-ins. 

July 2-60-ins 3-67-ins 1-62-ins. 

August 301-ins 3-79-ins 6-48-ins. 



202 A YEAR S WEATHER. 

September... 3-49-ms 2-63-ins 303-ins. 

October 4-81-ins 3-02-ins 8-55-ins. 

November... 4-37-ins 4'35-ms 5'03-ins. 



Total ... 36-87-ins 40-03-ins 39.83-ins. 

The mean of the maxima — greatest heat in shade in day-time 
— was 51*7 ; of the minima — greatest cold under cover at night 
— 39-3 degrees ; we had frost on six nights ; an exposed thermo- 
meter registered 12 degrees of frost on the 25th, and there was 
hoar frost on the same date ; we had mist on three days ; on the 
22nd a slight, and on the 30th a heavy, fog. How little this was 
in comparison with other places I have had several opportunities 
of learning. 

There is one aspect of the month, I think, rightly follows 
the above paragraph — the floral aspect. Mr. Davey says on the 
24th of November, in a walk through Kennal Vale, he saw 44 
plants in bloom ; in a short walk near Truro, and not in the most 
sheltered situation, I saw, at the very end of the month, nearly 
40 flowers in bloom. They were surrounded in many cases with 
spring-like grass, so favourable had the weather apparently been. 
Some of the peltate or shield-like leaves of the common penny- 
wort were two and a half inches across. Three kinds of coloured 
flowers were common ; I trust to be forgiven for calling white a 
colour, but it expresses here a distinction. White starworts, 
pepperworts, wild strawberries, and others ; yellow dandelions, 
potentillas, hawkweeds, etc., and blue and purple blossoms. 
Now the latter colours are the highest and brightest attractions 
plants can offer to their insect friends, and hence a ramble which 
presented red deadnettle, red campion, heather, dove's-foot ger- 
anium, herb-Eobert, sheep's bit, knapweed, ivy -leaved toadflax, 
and blue veronica, seemed a time of sunshine and heat rather 
than, as the calendar says, November, fog common. 

A peep backwards; November, 1791, 100 years ago. 2nd 
— Many flocks of thrushes seen. 6th — Frost powerful. A great 
many hips and haws. Daisies, and many flowers in bloom. 
The season mild in general until end of month, when stormy. 
Fall of rain, 4-2-inches. 

December 14th, 1891. 



A year's weather. 203 

The rainfall at Truro for the year 1891 was less than 1890 ! 
Its registration during the month was most exciting, as one felt 
that every shower might carry over the balance, and stamp a year 
which had nad a February of the very driest kind as wetter than 
the wet year of 1890. How closely the registration ran may 
be seen in the total rainfall for 1890, being 45-10 ; of 1891, 4505 
— a remarkable closeness. Generally, too, 1891 was drier than 
the previous year : the nearness of the total rainfall was caused 
by the excessive rains of August and October, which were over 
8-inches in excess of the same months of 1890. 

In 1890 the rain fell on 226 days, in 1891 on 208 days. 
With the exception of February we have had a wet day on the 
8th of erery month, and only four times wet on the 5th. The 
heaviest day's rainfall during the year was on October 5th, 1'93- 
inches ; 1^-inches of this fell in one hour. The rainfall for the 
month was 5'22-inches, which fell on 25 days; of December, 
1890, 5-07; 1886, 7-02; and 1876, 10-59-inches. We have no 
record heavier than the latter for Truro. Our average December 
rainfall is 4-65-inches on 20 days. 

The warmest day was the 5th, 57 ; the coldest night was on 
the 23rd, 11 degrees of frost; on Christmas- eve 10 degrees of 
frost were registered. The two latter readings were taken from 
an exposed thermometer. The mean of the monthly maxima, 
greatest heat in shade, was 51'3 ; of the minima, the greatest 
cold in shade, was 39 9 -degrees. We had frost on 8 nights. 
Whilst so many places were in a most lamentable state from the 
blackest of fog, which hung for days, during which persons 
walked blindly into rivers and canals and were drowned, and the 
congested traj0B.c of the railways and streets caused countless 
accidents, we had a singular freedom, as our only experiences 
were two slight touches on the 22nd and 25th, which caused but 
little inconvenience to any one. 

We had sunshine on 24 days, gleam — i.e., the sun's disc being 
visible behind a film of cloud — on 3 other days, sunless days 4. 

From the 6th to the 14th the barometer fell and rose nearly 
one inch, the greatest depression being on the 10th ; the weather 
became wild, thunder, lightning, hail, and heavy rains were 
experienced, then strong winds and a cloudless sky. We had 
hoar frost on 3 days. 



204 A YEAR S WEATHER. 

We notice that the London Correspondent of the Manchester 
Courier asserts that Truro was the wettest place in England in 
1890. His idea, apparently, is that wetness is reckoned by the 
number of days on which rain falls, whilst to meteorologists the 
quantity measured is the guide, as it is to every civil engineer and 
farmer. To him Truro was the wettest place in 1890, because 
rain fell on 226 days. We agree in number, but taking this 
elementary way of calculating wetness, the following places were 
surely wetter in 1890. It is not a complete list, but is somewhat 
distributive : — 

Cornwall — Penzance (St. Clare), 263 days ; Eedruth, 236. 
Devonshire — Trusham, 256; Chagford, 233; Princetown, 245. 
Stafford — Uttoxeter, 236. Somerset— Exford Eectory, 263. 
Lancashire — Bolton, 259. Yorks — Bradford (Stubden), 270 ; 
(Doe Park), 269; Settle, 238. Cumberland— Keswick, 251. 
Westmoreland (Shap), 258; Grrasmere, 243. Derbyshire — Wood- 
head Station, 232. Sussex — Mares Eield, 232. Wetter places 
reckoned by measurement of rain, taking Truro at 45-10-inches ; 
Altarnon, 56-17; Princetown, Devon, 102-()7; Duddon Valley, 
Lancashire, 85 65; Little Langdale, Westmoreland, 115 10; and 
The Stye, Cumberland, 202-05-inches. The latter is the wettest 
place in England of which we have any record, and is four and a 
half times as wet as Truro ! The following is a summary of the 
year's rainfall, of that of 1 890, and 40 years' mean for comparison. 

40 years' mean. 1890. 1891. 

January ... 4'85-ins 5"62-ms 3'40-ins. 

February ... 3-38-ins r84-ins 0'22-ins. 

March 2-91-ins 1-87-ms 3-90-ins. 

April 2-61-ins 4-01-ins 2-48-ins. 

May 2-45-ins 5 06-ins. ...... 2-26-ins. 

June 2-39-ins 4-17-ins 286-ms. 

July 2-60-ins 3-67-ins 1-62-ins. 

August 301-ms 3-79-ins 6-48-ins. 

September... 3-49-ms 2-63-ms 303-ins. 

October 4-81-ins 3-02-ins 8-55-ins. 

November ... 4-37-ins 4-35-ins 5-03-ms. 

December ... 4-65-ins 507-ins 5-22-ins. 



Total ... 4l-52-ms 45'10-ins 4505-ins. 

For 1891 we are three and a half inches above the average. 



A tear's weather. 205 

The rainfalls of 1890 and 1891, taken in Kennal Yale by 
Mr. Fk. H. Davey, of Ponsanooth, and of St. Agnes for 1891, 
taken by Mr. Opie, are appended : — 





Kennal Vale. 


St. Agnes. 




1890. 


1891. 


1891. 


January 


. 7-37-ins. .. 


.... 3-23-ins. ., 


2-37-ins. 


February . . 


. 1-67-ins. ... 


•10-ins. .. 


. .. "H-ins. 


March 


. 1 -go-ins. .. 


. .. 3-25-ins. .. 


2-47-ins. 


April 


. 3-23-ins. .. 


.... 2-35-ins. .. 


.... 2-22-ins. 


May 


5"12-ins. 


.... 3-37-ins. .. 


.... 2-15-ins. 


June 


. 4-02-ins. .. 


.... 2-98-ins. ., 


,. . . 2-58-ins. 


July - 


. 4-46-ins. .. 


.... 1-89-ins. ., 


1-95-ins. 


August ... . 


. 4-72-ins. .. 


.... 7-34-ins. .. 


..... 6-04-ins. 


September .. 


. 2-70-ins. .. 


.... 3-22-ins. . 


3-95-ins. 


October 


.. 1-93-ins. .. 


.... 10-26-ins. ., 


8-41-ins. 


November .. 


. 5-54-ins. .. 


615-ins. 


4-51-ins. 


December . 


.. 4-87-ins. ., 


670-ins. . 


4-74-ins. 


Total .. 


. 47-53-ins. .. 


.... 50-84-ins. .. 


41-53-ins. 



The three chief points of retrospective interest about 1891 
are a February summer, a March blizzard, and a drenching wet 
harvest. 

December, 1791 — one hundred years ago — 7th, violent 
storms and lightning ; 9th, snow, three inches deep, ; 12th, snow, 
eight inches deep ; 22nd, surface of ground a continued piece of 
ice, wind very high ; 24th, thunder and lightning. Rainfall for 
month 4"20-inches. 

Our ancestors had an old-fashioned winter. We had in 
December warmth, sunshine, and many flowers brightening the 
hedgerows, even the primroses anticipating Spring. 

January 4th, 1892. 



206 



Otituavg Notices. 



Nicholas Whitley was born at Tregony, on March lOth, 
1810, and was the eldest son of Mr. Daniel Whitley. 

About 1830 he removed to Truro, where he practised as a 
Civil Engineer, Land Agent, and Surveyor for many years, and 
in these capacities was well known throughout the West of 
England. 

In 1845 he was appointed Surveyor to the Cornwall Railway, 
and purchased the whole of the land required for the construc- 
tion of the main line, as well as that for the St. Ives branch. 

He was land agent to Sir William Williams, Bart., for his 
North Devon Estates, and constructed for him the Heanton 
Embankments, which enclosed a large quantity of rich marsh 
lands in the estuary of the river Taw. 

He was also land agent for the Hope estates in Cornwall, 
and land agent and surveyor for the Gilbert estates in Cornwall 
and Sussex. In the latter capacity he designed and laid out for 
building purposes a large portion of the town of Eastbourne, 
and also constructed the necessary roads and sewers. 

He was employed by Lord Clinton with regard to Trefusis 
and other property ; Kimberley Park, at Ealmouth, was laid out 
from Mr. Whitley's designs, as also were Arwenack Manor at 
Falmouth, and Alverton at Penzance. As engineer, he carried 
out the improvement of the river Camel from Wadebridge to 
Padstow, and other works in the West of England. 

In all matters of business Mr. Whitley was trusted alike for 
his soundness of judgment, and his strict integrity. 

In scientific matters, more particularly geology and meteor- 
ology, Mr. Whitley took a deep interest, and by his death the 
Royal Institution of Cornwall has lost a most useful and valued 
member, who for more than half a century contributed papers 
to its transactions, which are comprised in the following list : — 

1840. The Cromlech near Pawton. 

,, Note on an El van Course near Malpas. 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 207 

1841. Notes on the Geology of part of the Parish of 

Very an, Cornwall. 

1 842. The Agricultural Character of the soils of the Lizard. 

1843. Notes on the Geology of the neighbourhood of 

Perranporth. 

1848. On the Eemains of ancient Yolcanoes on the North 
Coast of Cornwall. 

1850. On some Polished and Grooved Pocks found in 

Cornwall. 

1851. On the Temperature of Rivers. 

1855. On the Distribution of Rain in the S.W. of England. 

1856. An Inscribed Stone at Nanscowe, St. Breock. 
1858. Note on the Braunton Fossils presented to the 

Museum. 
,, The Undeveloped Natural Resources of Cornwall. 
1862. Flint Flakes in the drift beds near Baggy Point, 

Devon. 
1864. Flint Implements from Drift. 

1866. Recent Flint Finds in the S.W. of England. 

1867. Twin Storms of January. 
1869. Glacial Action in Cornwall. 
1875. Roman Occupation of Cornwall. 

1885. Traces of a Great Post-glacial Flood in Cornwall. 
1889. The Cliff Boulders of Falmouth Bay, and the Drift 

Beds on Plymouth Hoe. 
1891. Note on the Raised Beach at Pendennis. 

He was elected a Secretary in 1859, and served the Institu. 
tion in that capacity for twenty years ; and, after his resignation 
he was elected a Vice-President. Mr. Whitley was an Honorary 
Member of the Geological Society of Cornwall, of the Edinburgh 
Geological Society, and a Fellow of the Royal Meteorological 
Society, contributing papers to their Transactions. 

In 1843 he published a work on the Application of Geology 
to Agriculture, and in 1850 his paper on the Climate of the 
British Islands and its effects on Cultivation, won the prize of 
£50 offered by the Royal Agricultural Society of England. Of 



208 OBITUARY NOTICES. 

this paper Professor Pusey remarked in a note appended to it : 
" This paper appears to me one of the most valuable contribu- 
tions yet made by science to practical agriculture." 

The pages of the Bath and West of England Agricultural 
Journal contain several papers from his pen, amongst them, is one 
'' On the Temperature of the Sea and its Influence on the Climate 
and the Agriculture of the British Islands," and another on 
the "Development of the Agricultural Resources of Cornwall." 

In his later years Mr. Whitley turned his attention to the 
Antiquity of Man and the Palgeolithic Age, and wrote several 
papers on this subject, in which he criticised modern views with 
much independence of thought and vigour of language. 

He died suddenly at his residence, Penarth, Truro, on his 
eighty-first birthday, March 10th, 1891. 



By the unexpected and lamented death of Mr. Henry 
Martyn Jefpery, M.A., F.E.S., abstract mathematical science 
has lost one of its ablest exponents, whose long devotion to the 
special study of the higher branches of pure mathematics has 
been fully appreciated and honoured by his fellow mathema- 
ticians. The loss to local science will, I am convinced, be 
specially felt by the members of the Royal Institution of 
Cornwall, who will naturally regret the death of an esteemed 
Yice-President, whose regular attendance at our annual meetings 
could generally be relied upon ; for in all Mr. Jeffery's intimate 
relations with the affairs of the Institution, he was ever ready to 
devote his time, attention, and abilities to its service. He will 
be sadly missed by us all, especially by those who were attached 
to him by private friendship. 

Mr. Jeffery was the only son of Mr. John Jeffery, of 
Gwennap. He was born on January 5th, 1826, at the house of 
his grandfather, the Rev. W. Curgenven, rector of Lamorran, 
who married the sister of the distinguished mathematician, 
orientalist, and missionary, the Rev Henry Martyn, B.D., of 
Truro, the senior wrangler at Cambridge, in 1801. He was also 
related to the family of the Rev. Malachy Hitchins, Vicar of 
St. Hilary, who for more than forty years was the able coadjutor 
with Dr. Nevil Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal, in the compilation 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 209 

of the "Nautical Almanac," and one of the observers of the 
transit of Yenus in 1769 at the Eoyal Observatory. Mr. JefEery 
always referred with enthusiastic respect to these well-known 
mathematical members of his family. 

The early years of Mr. Jeffery were, for the most part, 
passed at his father's home at Grwennap. At the age of seven 
he was sent to the Falmouth grammar school, where he remained 
as a pupil during the following seven years. On leaving this 
school at the age of fourteen, young Jeffery exhibited signs of 
considerable mathematical and classical ability ; so much so, that 
he considered himself qualified to offer himself as a tutor in 
elementary mathematics and classics. There is no doubt that he 
was, at this time, a most intelligent youth of more than usual 
precocity. By the advice of some friends, it was, however, 
resolved to continue his education, and he was sent in 1841 to 
the Grammar School at Sedbergh, Yorkshire, then under the 
control of the Eev. J. H. Evans, a Fellow of St. John's College, 
Cambridge ; here he remained till 1845. In October of that 
year he became an undergraduate at St. John's College, 
Cambridge ; but he migrated in the following year to St. 
Catherine's College. In 1849, he graduated asB.A, in the high 
position of sixth wrangler in the mathematical tripos, and in the 
second class of the classical tripos. His private tutor, the late 
Dr. Harvey Groodwin, Bishop of Carlisle, thought highly of his 
mathematical ability. He remarked that Jeffery was one of the 
hardest headed mathematicians with whom he had any dealings 
in Cambridge, and it has been recently stated to the writer by 
one who is acquainted with his university career, that his position 
in the tripos, high as it was, scarcely represented his great 
original mathematical attainments. In 1852, he proceeded to the 
degree of M.A., and in the same year was adjudged the dis- 
tinction of first Tyrwhitt Hebrew scholar, which ' ' he gained 
mainly by his skill in composition, to which his previous classical 
training (entirely abandoned after his first year of residence) 
had adapted him." 

Soon after taking his degree, Mr. JefEery accepted in 1850 
the post of lecturer at the College of Civil Engineers, Putney, 
of which the present Dean of Exeter, Dr. B. M. Cowie, was the 
Principal. In October, 1851, he received the appointment of 



210 OBITtTARY NOTICES. 

second master in Salisbury House School, Edinburgh, under Dr. 
E. E. Humphreys. Here he remained only a few months, in 
order that he might have sufficient leisure to prepare for the 
Tyrwhitt Scholarship examination. Dr. Humphreys, who in 
1852 became Head Master of Pate's Grammar School at 
Cheltenham, was so favourably impressed by the scholarly ability 
of Mr. Jeff ery, that, on his recommendation, his former colleague 
was selected by the President and Pellows of Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford, to be the second master in the school. Sixteen 
years afterwards, on the resignation of the Rev. Dr. Hayman in 
1868, Mr. Jeff ery was appointed to succeed to the vacant Head 
Mastership, a position he retained with success until his retire- 
ment on a pension in 1882. On leaving Cheltenham he took up 
his residence at Falmouth, so that he might be able to have the 
personal management of a considerable freehold property in that 
town and neighbourhood, which he had inherited from his father. 
Many of his pupils educated at Cheltenham, have expressed 
their indebtedness to his careful teaching for their after success 
in life, some of them having obtained high distinction at the 
Universities, and in various competitive examinations for 
admissions into the public service. 

It is, however, as a pure mathematician that Mr. JefPery's 
name will be remembered in English science. At the meeting 
of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, held 
at Cheltenham in 1856, Mr. Jeff ery acted as one of the local 
secretaries, and it has been truly said that the public discussions 
on this occasion first developed his latent energies, and created 
in his mind a strong inclination to enter into original mathema- 
tical research. At this meeting he contributed two important 
papers " On a Theorem in Combinations,'' and "On a Particular 
Class of Congruences." With these papers he commenced the 
long and continuous series of investigations in pure mathematics, 
which have enriched the pages of the principal mathematical 
journals from that year to the present time. His most important 
memoirs have been on pure analysis and analytical geometry, 
especially the classification of class-cubics, both in plane and 
spherical geometry. A similar classification for class-quartics 
have also occupied his attention. The following titles of a few 
of his researches wiU give some idea of the general character of 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 211 

the abstruse investigations in which, he took so much interest: — 
"The Spherical Ellipse referred to Trilinear Co-ordinates;" 
" Cubics of the Third Class with Triple Foci, both Plane and 
Spherical;" "Spherical Class Cubics with Double Foci and 
Double Cyclic Arcs;" "On Sphero-Cyclides ;" "On the 
Greneralised Problem of Contacts;" "On the Converse of 
Stereographic Projection, and on Contangential and Coaxal 
Spherical Circles;" and "On the Genesis of Binodal Quartic 
Curves from Conies." To the investigation of class-cubics, both 
plane and spherical, Mr. Jeffery devoted his intervals of leisure 
for four years (1876-1880), and published the instalments, as 
they were completed, in the "Quarterly Journal of Mathem.atics." 
Mr. Jeffery had a strong desire to prepare a text-book on his 
favourite subjects, and he had made some progress in the work ; 
but alas ! the copy is far too incomplete to be of use, excepting 
as a record of the studious activity of his life to the end, and 
of his great mathematical talents. As a proof that his mental 
powers were as active as ever, I have been informed that only a 
few weeks before his illness, he forwarded to the London 
Mathematical Society an important paper on the classification of 
binodal quartics, which was read at the monthly meeting of that 
Society, on November 12th, nine days after his death. This 
communication closes the long line of Mr. Jeffery's papers, most 
of which have appeared in the " Quarterly Journal of Pure and 
Applied Mathematics," the " Proceedings of the London Math- 
ematical Society," the "Reports of the British Association," 
the " Proceedings of the Royal Society," and other Scientific 
Journals. 

In addition to the non-mathematical writings of Mr. Jeffery 
contained in the "Journal" of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, 
he contributed to three classical works of Dr. Humphreys ; 

(1) sixty short introductory exercises to " Exercitationes 
lambicse, or progressive exercises in Greek Iambic verse ; and 

(2) Appendixes to "Lyra Hellenica, or translations in Greek," 
and "Manual of Greek and Latin prose composition." At the 
Social Science Congress held at Cheltenham in 1878, Mr. Jeffery 
read a paper "On the best means of connecting Primary and 
Intermediate Education ;" and in 1890 he privately printed 
"Extracts from the Religious Diary of Miss Lydia Grenfell," in 



212 OBITUARY NOTICES. 

wliicli he has extracted all the references in the diary relating to 
the Rev. Henry Martyn, and also those giving indications of 
Miss Grenfell's life and conversation. A verbatim copy of the 
complete diary was presented by Mr. Jejffiery to the Library of 
the Royal Institution of Cornwall. 

Since Mr. Jeffery has been residing at Falmouth, he has 
taken a great interest in the management of the Royal Institu- 
tion of Cornwall, and of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic 
Society, in both of which he has served as an honoured Vice- 
President. He was also a valued contributor to their Journals 
It is somewhat remarkable that so abstruse a mathematician 
should take so much interest in archeeological and topographical 
history, but we have only to refer to his printed contributions in 
the Journal of the Institution to prove that his mathematical 
mind could be brought advantageously to bear on the elucidation 
of local history, as well as on abstract science. Mr. Jeffery was 
one of the Secretaries of the Meteorological Committee of the 
Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, and of the Palmouth 
Observatory, in the success of which he has taken a great 
interest since its erection in its present position. He was always 
ready to give most valuable assistance to the superintendent in 
the initial difficulties of the magnetograph work, a department 
of the Observatory to which he paid a constant personal attention. 
Mr. Jeffery also took a considerable interest in the management 
of the Palmouth Grrammar School. 

Mr. Jeffery was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on 
June 3rd, 1880. He was also a member of the British Associa- 
tion, and of the London Mathematical Society. It was a great 
delight to him to spend a few weeks in London each year, and 
he usually chose the months of May or June, so that he might 
enjoy the pleasure of meeting with his scientific friends at one 
of the two annual soirees of the Royal Society. 

During the last three or four years, Mr. Jeffery has occasion- 
ally complained to me, as his intimate private friend, of being 
subject to much uneasiness, caused by some internal complica- 
tion, from the effects of which he was frequently troubled with 
insomnia. But still he remained active and apparently well to 
the last, often walking from Falmouth to Truro, and even greater 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 213 

distances, without much fatigue. When I was his guest in June 
last, he appeared to be in a better state of health than usual, but 
a few weeks before his death his complaint became much 
exaggerated, necessitating one or more surgical operations. He 
thoroughly broke down on October 20, when he had to take to 
his bed, and after much suffering he sank gradually. On the 
day preceding his death he became unconscious, and in this con- 
dition passed away peaceably at 9.30 a.m., on Tuesday, Nov, 
3rd, 1891, in the sixty-sixth year of his age. Three days after- 
wards, his remains were interred in the family vault, with his 
father and mother, at Grwennap. 

It is very gratifying to the friends of Mr. Jeffery that his 
well-known features will be preserved to us in a fine enlarged 
photograph, which has been kindly presented to the Institution 
by his aunt, Miss Curgenven, of Falmouth. This portrait, by 
Maull and Co., of London, is a beautiful work of art, and will 
be an interesting addition to the valuable collection of portraits 
of the Presidents and other officers and friends of the Institution, 
which now adorn the walls of the library and museum. Miss 
Curgenven has also presented to the library of the Institution 
an important series of scientific works, formerly belonging to 
Mr. Jeffery, including a number of volumes of the " Philosoph- 
ical Transactions" and "Proceedings" of the Eoyal Society, 
"Reports of the British Association," "Proceedings of the 
London Mathematical Society," the "Collected Mathematical 
Papers of Professor Cayley," and many other valuable works, 
a list of which will be given in a future number of the Journal. 
Such an important collection of standard works cannot fail to 
add greatly to the scientific value and general usefulness of the 
library of the Eoyal Institution of Cornwall, and this handsome 
present from Miss Curgenven will doubtless be highly appreciated 
by the members. 

Edwin Dunkin, P.E.S. 



214 

NOTES AND QUERIES. 



The Editor will he glad to receive short Notes on Discoveries, and 
occurrences of interest, relating to the Antiquities, Geology, and 
Natural History, Sfc, of the Count g, for insertion in this portion of 
the Journal. 



Cornish Crosses. 

From time to time some of these monuments disappear, and 
the task of tracing them is very often a difficult one. It is also 
equally difficult at times, to find out from whence a cross came, 
which one sees displayed in a private garden. Having been 
unable to ascertain particulars about some of them, I should be 
grateful to the readers of this Journal if they could give me 
any information respecting the crosses given below. 

Is it known what has become of the following crosses ? 

Camhorne. Formerly on the top of a wall at Treslothan. 
It has the figure on the front and a cross on the back. 

Cardinham. Blight, p. 84. "A cross about 6-ft. long, 
forms part of the bridge over a small stream between the well 
and the present church." 

Cury. I was once shewn a sketch of a short round headed 
cross set in a circular base and was told, "it was three miles 
from Cury." 

Laneast. Formerly in the churchyard, but removed within 
the last few years. 

S. Keverne. Blight, p. 58. "A mutilated cross at S. 
Keverne church town, &c." 

S. Columl. Blight, p. 66. "A cross by the road side 
between Higher and Lower St. Columb." Would this road be 
Treskey's Hill ? The stone is also mentioned in the Parochial 
History of Cornwall. 

S. Cleer. Blight, p. 67. "A cross between Eedgate and 
S. Cleer (see Eeport of Eoy. Inst. Cornwall, 1851)." Blight 
illustrates the Longstone near the Hurlers, so these cannot be 
the same crosses, though they are similar in type. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 215 

Southill. Blight, p, 66. "In the grounds of the Eectory, 
Southill, (a cross) similar to that at Higher Drift. This stone is 
illustrated by Kingston. 

Broadoak. Britton mentions a cross at " Broadoak or 
Bradock, near the Church called Killboy Cross." It is illustrated 
in Gentlemens' Magazine, 1805, and Catholic Miscellany, 1827. 

Lanivet. A note and illustration in the last named Journals 
says, " Called Ee Perry cross, stands by the road side between 
Lanhydrock and Lanhivet, {sic) height 3-ft. 11-in. 

Is it known where these crosses came from ? 

8. Bay. Two crosses in the grounds at TreguUow. Also 
one at Scorrier, which has the figure upon it. 

Mawgan in Meneage. A round headed cross over a gateway 

at Trelowarren. 

A. G-. LANGDON, 

Craven Street, London, E.C. 



St. Rumon's Cross. 

Not far from the ancient site of St. Grrade church, is the 
old-fashioned village of St. Eumon. Here, early in the sixth 
century, dwelt St. Eumon, one of the many Irish Saints who 
came into Cornwall, having a cell for his habitation, and a 
chapel for his devotions. 

Of the hermitage and the oratory, no remains can now be 
traced, but the site of the latter can be identified. There is on 
St. Eumon estate, a field still called Chapel Field. Through it 
the old church path from Kuggar to St. Grade church formerly 
passed ; and in the south-western corner close to a little trickling 
stream, the chapel of fet. Eumon undoubtedly stood. Not 
marking the site of the chapel — yet in the same field, is the 
ancient Cross of St. Eumon — a rude pillar of serpentine, on 
which a simple cross is still faintly visible. Its southern 
face is 2-ft. 10-in. high; the shaft is 10-in. wide at the base, 
and 11^-in. at its junction with the disk, the latter being 
1-ft. 4-in. in diameter. The cross is evidently of the Latin type, 
the limbs being raised from the surface and extending in each 



216 NOTES AND QTJEEIES. 

direction about 4-inches. Its outline has been so much, altered 
by exposure to the atmosphere, as to be barely discernable, 
but its situation, coupled with the tradition of the villagers and 
the statement of an old man who remembered that it was known 
as St. Eumon's Cross more than sixty years ago, gives it an im- 
portance that it would not otherwise claim. Search was made 
for its base quite recently, but without success. 



Dedication of Cury Church. 

iSTo record which refers to the dedication of the parish 
church of Cury has been found. It is true that the Parochial 
History of Cornwall, LaMs guide to Helston and the Lizard 
District, and the Churches of Cury and, Gunwalloe, alike men- 
tion as a fact that Walter Bronescombe, Bishop of Exeter, 
dedicated the church to St. Corantyn, on Sept. 1st, 1261. But 
this is obviously a mistake, for on referring to Bronescombe's 
Episcopal Register, edited by Prebendary Hingeston-Randolph, 
it will be seen that the Devonshire church of Coryton was dedi- 
cated on that date. Moreover on the following day, Sept. 2nd, 
1261, the Bishop dedicated the church of Bradestone, which 
would have been impossible, had he been as far west as Cury 
on the previous day. The mistake must be attributed to the 
late Dr. Oliver, who was not unfrequently inexact in his reading 
of the contracted engrossing hand in which the earlier Episco- 
pal Registers are written. 



The Wendron "Nine Maidens^ 

The Schedule of Prehistoric Monuments, prepared in 1879 for 
the Society of Antiquaries, is not quite accurate, in reference 
to the Wendron Circles. The Plan drawn to scale, shews 
five stones standing erect, and a displaced stone at the edge, 
whereas there are six erect stones still in situ. The monolith 
not included in the plan, is partially enclosed within a hedge. It 
is 8-ft. 6-in. east of the displaced stone, and 20-ft. north-west of 
the upright stone nearest the hedge as shewn in the plan. Like 
the other stones, it is a single block of unhewn granite ; it 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 217 

measures 4. ft. 4-iii. in height, and 11-in. in width at the top. 
The enclosure, in which the Circle now stands, formed a part of 
the well-known Nine Maiden Downs till about the year 1865, 
when the hedge which now partially hides from view the stone 
which has escaped the notice of Mr. Lukis, was erected. Hals 
speaks of nine stones as "still to be seen" in his time; Dr. 
Borlase mentions eight stones as "still standing," eirca 1760; 
and the Eev. C. Lukis tells us that in 1879 there were "five 
standing stones and a displaced stone," i.e. six altogether. It 
will be interesting, however, to know that only one stone has 
actually disappeared; the remaining eight being " still extant." 

J. WILLS. 



Mr. Haverfield, of Oxford University, who during a visit 
to the Museum last summer was much struck with the inscription 
on the Pozo Stone being in full marked figures, writes me saying 
that he " saw lately in the Eotunda in Vienna, some rock mark- 
ings brought by Dr. Holub -from Central Africa, which were 
similarly inscribed. The whole surface of each animal or figure 
being picked out with small chippings ; the places are so far 
apart that there is probably no connexion, but the coincidence 
of method is very curious." 



Last March, Mr. F. H. Davey, of Ponsanooth, sent to the 
Museum a beautiful specimen of a Male Brambling, Fringilla 
montifringilla, L. We have in Cornwall good reason to remem- 
ber that month and its blizzard, and this little record bears on 
the latter. This bird and others in hundreds, came round Mankey 
Farm, Ponsanooth, with the commencement of the storm, they 
swarmed in the farm buildings, tearing the straw abroad in 
search after grain, and were so tame as to be knocked over with 
sticks. As the snow disappeared, most of them went away, but 
scores were content to stay a week or two longer. 



Recently, when remounting in the Museum a mummy 
Vcns.—lhu religiosa, Cuv. — given in 1870 by Mr. Q-. F. Eemfry, 
the head of a young Crocodile dropped from inside the bird. The 



218 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

specimen illustrates a time when the Ibis was held in the great- 
est veneration, when a pyramid, Sakkara, was dedicated to it, and 
when these birds were embalmed in the same spices as the 
Egyptian kings ; a period over two thousand years ago. The 
incident is of interest, since it shews amidst the sacred regard 
which enshrouded it, that the food of these birds was the same 
as it still sometimes procures in the upper reaches of the Nile. 
It is now very rarely seen in Egypt. 

H. CEOWTHEE. 



%dm\ Jii.^tifutian of Qlormtiall 



FOUNDED 1818. 



Ipatron. 

The Queen. 

lD(ce=lpatron. 
H.R.H. THE Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, &c , &c. 

Urustees. 

Lord Robartes. 

Sir C. B. Graves-Sawle, Bart. 

Mr. F. G. Ents. 

Col. Trematne. 

eOUNeiL FOR THE YEAR 1891-92. 

Ipresibent. 
Sir John Maclean, F.S.A. 

lI»ice=Iprcsi^ent3. 

Dr. Jago, F.R.S. | Ven. Archdeacon Cornish, M.A. 

Rev.CanonMoor,>M.A., M.E.A.S. | Rev. W. Iago, B.A. 
Me.iEdwin Dunkin, F.B.S., F.R.A.S. 

Ureasuver. 
Mr. a. p. nix, Truro. 

, Sccvetaries. 

Mr. H. Michell Whitley, F.G.S., Trevella, Eastbourne. 
Major Parkyn, F.G.S., Truro. 

®tber Members of (Council. 

Mr. John D. Ents, F.G.S. | Mr. R. M. Paul, M.A., 

Mr. Howard Fox, F.G.S. j Mr. Thurstan C. Peter. 

Mr. Hamilton James. | Mr. Edmund Rundle, F.R.C.S.I. 

Rev. a. H. Malan, M.A. I Rev. A. R. Tomlinson, M.A. 

Mr. F. W. Michell, C.E. | .vl r. Robert Tweedy. 

dovresponSina Secretary for JEaat Covnwall. 
Rev. W. Iago, B.A., Westheath, Bodmin. 

]£&itoi- of tbe Sournat. 
Mk. H. Michell Whitley, F.G.S. 

librarian an& Ciuator of /IDuseuni. 
Mr. Henry Crowther, F.R.M.S.. Royal Institution, Truro. 



THE FOLLOWING WORKS AEE 



PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY. 



THEY MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE CURATOR, 
Mk. H. CROWTHER, at THE MUSEUM. 



THE CORNISH FAUNA : A Compendium of the Natural History of 
the County. 

PART I. — Containing the Vertebrate Animals and Crustaceans, 
by JONATHAN COUCH, J. BROOKING ROWE, THOMAS 
CORNISH, E. H. RODD, and C. SPENCE BATE, P.R.S. 
Price 3s. 

PART II. — Containing the Testaceous Mollnsks. by 
JONATHAN COUCH, F.L.S., &c. Price 3s. 

PART III. — Containing the Zoophytes and Calcareous Corallines, 
by RICHARD Q. COUCH, M.R.C.S., &c. Price 3s. 



T 



HE SERIES OF REPORTS of the Proceedings of the Society, with 
numerous Illustrations. (Some only in print). 



L 



1ST OF ANTIQUITIES in the West of Cornwall, with References and 
Illustrations. By J. T. BLIGHT, F.S.A. 



ADDITIONS TO BORLASE'S NATURAL HISTORY OF CORlN- 
WALL. From MS. Annotations by the Author. Price 2s. 6d. 



JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL INSTITUTION OP CORNWALL 
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» ' " 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



\/\ ^ . (jjr />■ 

j;jpj|al |ustittttiou of || oiiiitcall 




VOLUME XI. 



^an M—May, iSg3. 



TRURO: 

PRINTED BY LAKE AND LAKE, PRINCES STREET 

1893. 



OTontrnts. 



Spring Meeting ( 1 892) 219 

President's Address . . . , . . . . . . . . 220 

Annual Meeting (1892) .. .. 235 

^Report of the Council . . . . . . , . , . 235 

Balance Sheet . . . . . . , . . . .... 244 

Meteorological Tables, , .. .. .. .. .,245 

Notes on Further Excavations on the Site of Lau.neeston 

Priory, by Otho B. Peter .. . .• .. ..249 

Historical Notes on the Parish, Manor, and Advowson of 
Otterham, Cornwall, by Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., 
&c.. President (illustrated) . . . . . . . . 251 

Magnetic Eocks of Corn-wall, with Sketch Alap, bv T. 

Clark 280 

Ogam Stone at Lewannick, (illustrated), by A. Q. Langdon 285 

Ancient Settlement at Trewortha (illustrated), by the Eev. 
S. Barinfi:-Gould 



Cornish Landowners, 1256, by the late Wm. Sincock 

Pelagic Life in and near Falmouth Harbour, by Rupert 
Vallentin 

Origin and Development of Ore-Deposits in tlie West of 
England, by J. H. Collins, F.O.S 

The Diamond Prospecting Core Drill, by Stephen Rogers, 
F.G.S 



A Year's Weather (1892), a series of 
Newspapers, by H. Crowther 
of the Museum 

Obituary Notice ... ;. . 



monthly letters to the 
F.R.M.S., Curator 



289 
291 

304 

327 

378 

381 
407 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



l^ogal JinstitHtion of Miinttiall 




VOLUME XI. 



^art M.—May, 1S93. 



TRURO: 
PRINTED BY LAKE AND LAKE, PRINCES STREET. 



The Council of the Royal Institution of Cornwall desire 
that it should be distinctly understood that the Institution as a 
body is not responsible for any statements or opinions expressed in 
the Journal ; the Authors of the several communications being alone 
answerable for the same. 



219 



Mogal Jnjstitution of OTornUjaU. 



SPEING MEETING. 



The Spring Meeting was held on Tuesday, May 31st, at the 
rooms of the Institution. 

The chair was taken by the President, Sir John Maclean, 
F.S.A., who delivered his address. 

Archdeacon Cornish proposed a vote of thanks to the 
President, and also moved a resolution "That it is desirable, in 
the opinion of this meeting, that a Eecord Society for Cornwall 
be formed for the printing of historical documents relating to 
the county, and that the Council of the Institution be desired to 
consider what steps should be taken to establish and maintain 
it." 

This was seconded by Mr. J. C. Daubuz, and carried. 

A paper was then read on "Cornish landowners, temp. 
Edward I," by the late W. Sincock. 

On the motion of Canon Donaldson, seconded by Mr. MicheU, 
a hearty vote of thanks was passed to the authors of papers, and 
donors to the museum and library. 



220 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, 

SiE JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., F.R.S.A. (Irl.) 
V.P. Royal ArcJueological Inst. Great Britain and Ireland, &c. 



The subject I have selected upon which to address you this 
afternoon as President, will not, I fear, afford scope for such 
scientific and brilliant effusions as you have been accustomed to 
hear delivered from this chair by my predecessors ; nevertheless, 
the subject, though modest in its character, is one of very great 
importance. It is "The sources from which materials may be 
drawn, and evidence obtained, for writing a New History of 
Cornwall upon a wider and more accurate basis than that which 
is afforded by what are now considered the standard histories of 
the county." This Isew History is a work greatly needed. My 
address will be a sort of sequel to one I delivered, close upon 
20 years ago, at Exeter, from the Presidential chair of the 
" Historical Section of the Eoyal Archaeological Institute." But, 
as D'Israeli once said, " many things have happened since then," 
and in nothing, surely, have greater changes appeared than in 
the opening out of archives, both jDublic and private, for the 
study of history both general and local. 

The writer of history should approach the subject with an 
open mind, repressing all temptation to prejudice. An author 
who writes to support preconceived notions does not write history. 
This was the case with Macauley. His style was beautiful, clear, 
charming, and carried the reader aloug with him, but, unfortu- 
nately, his works cannot be relied upon as history. Such, also, 
was the case with an eminent friend of my own, now alas I 
departed. There is also one other caution I would venture to 
mention. We should not, either in reading or writing, look at 
circumstances, or the feelings and actions of persons in the 
12th or 13th centuries through our spectacles of the 19th, but 
endeavour to place ourselves in their positions as regards their 
feelings, religions — prejudices, if you like, and degree of culture. 
Unless we do this we can scarcely be impartial. 



peesident's addeess. 221 

A writer of history should quote, very specifically, his 
authority for every statement of fact he makes, and verify every 
quotation of others before he uses it. This will enable him to 
avoid many pitfalls which a too careless following of others 
might lead him into. Many, so-called, authorities which you 
see cited in foot notes often fail to support the statement in the 
text. If this be the case unhesitatingly reject the statement. 
"Writers of history, so-called, are very prone to follow each 
other like a flock of geese. This is the way in which many 
egregious historical errors are perpetuated. 

We have adverted above to the great advantages which, of 
late years, have been afforded to historical students. It must not, 
however, be supposed that this lightens their labours. On the 
contrary, it has greatly increased the responsibility of a con- 
scientious writer. It gives him a wider field for research — 
History is a coy damsel, and to be won must be wooed patiently 
and persistently. 

With your permission, I will now proceed to offer a few 
observations as to the sources from which a student of the 
history of Cornwall should seek accurate material for his 
purpose, and I shall not lead you back to pre-historic times. 
Much has been said for antiquities of those times by my friend 
Mr. lago. Domesday book is early enough for local modern 
history. And in offering these remarks I must beg it to be 
understood that I by no means put myself forward as a teacher. 
There are many among you, I doubt not, better acquainted with 
the subject than myself. I am but a humble student like your- 
selves seeking after truth. 

The sources of local history are innumerable, but for the 
present purpose they may be roughly divided into two classes ; 
Local and External. — By Local, of course, is meant documents, 
both in print and in manuscript, existing in the county ; and 
by External similar documents to be found elsewhere. 

As to the former class I should, of course, first mention the 
County Histories, and what can we say of these except that they 
are woefully deficient in exact historical knowledge, and that 
steps should be immediately taken to prepare a history worthy 



222 president's address. 

of the county ; and the first step should be the preparation of 
a scheme, and the collection of materials for carrying it out. 

For me to comment in detail upon the various Histories of 
Cornwall would be presumptuous and unnecessary. It has been 
done by a gentleman far better qualified than I am for the task. 
The late Mr. Davies-Grilbert, in the preface to his ' ' Parochial 
History of Cornwall," published in 1837 in 4 vols. 8vo, gives a 
brief bibliographical description of each of the then existing 
Histories of the County. I must, however, crave permission to 
call attention to an incident in illustration of the admonition, 
which I ventured to give above, as to the necessity for an author 
before using extracts made by a preceding writer, however 
illustrious he may have been, to verify them. I conclude that 
all here are acquainted, more or less, with that quaint, interest- 
ing and most charming work, Carew's "Survey of Cornwall," 
and they will probably recollect that the author has printed 
pp. 39-53 (Ed. 1769) from the well-known " Eed Book of the 
Exchequer," and other documents of the same character but of 
later dates, the Returns of Knights' Fees in Cornwall down to 
the 3rd Henry lY. Many years ago, however, when engaged 
in a work on Cornwall, I referred to these Returns in Carew's 
Survey ; I found them unintelligible, and on collating my copy 
of Carew of 1769 with the originals in the Record Ofiice, I found 
the printed book grossly inaccurate. The question then arose 
as to the accuracy of the first edition of the Survey of 1602, and 
upon examination I found that it agreed literally with that of 
1769, and, moreover, that the last edition by Lord DeDunstanvill, 
1811, possessed the same faults. I do not presume to say from 
what cause this accident occurred. We all know that Carew 
was an accomplished scholar, and I can only suppose that he 
entrusted someone to make the transcripts for him who was 
unable to read the documents, for it is inconceivable that they are 
undetected printer's errors. But the still more remarkable fact is 
that, in the various editions through which the work has passed 
during close upon 300 years, the errors have been printed 
literally as they stood in the Survey of 1602. We can only 
conclude that Mr. Carew, being known to be a well qualified 
author, subsequent writers trusted him and followed him into 
the mire. This is a caution which all authors, if they regard 
their own credit, would do well to observe, 



:pbesident'8 address. 223 

A new History of Cornwall by an anonymous author has 
been published, since Mr. Davies-Gilbert wrote in 1837, entitled 
"The Complete Parochial History of the County of Cornwall." 
It is known as Lake's History, from Mr. Lake, of Truro, the 
publisher. It is stated on the title page to have been compiled 
from the best authorities, and Lysons and other authors, with 
all their errors, have been faithfully followed. No attempt has 
been made, so far as appears, at independent research. Never- 
theless it is a useful work, as the compiler has printed the 
monumental inscriptions existing in the various churches, but, 
like every other record, they, of course, require verification. 

I must not forget to mention the excellent work done by 
this Institution from the date of its foundation in 1818, as well 
in Science as in Local History. It is equalled by few and 
surpassed by none. Its Annual Keports for the first 40 years of 
its labours, and its Journal since 1864, contain matter of the 
highest value to historical students — but its usefulness is greatly 
marred through the want of a good general index, which ought 
to be supplied without delay. This, I think, is one of the first 
works to be taken in hand. 

Cornwall, fortunately for her, through the labours of two 
of her gifted sons, Messrs. Boase and Courtney, possesses in 
the " Bibliotheca Cornubiensis " an admirable guide to all the 
printed historical literature of the county, and by reference to 
this valuable work, a fellow to which I believe is not to be 
found in any other county, together with the ' ' Collectanea 
Cornubiensia " of Mr. G. C. Boase, will suffice I think for all 
practical purposes, as far as printed books are concerned. I 
will, therefore, turn to the consideration of some of the manu- 
script materials to be found in the county. 

First in importance among those manuscript records we 
must place the Parish Registers of baptisms, weddings and 
burials. These registers are of the highest value to all classes 
of the community, especially to the middle and lower classes, 
though the succession to many peerages have been proved by 
them, yet have these records from the day of their institution in 
1538 to almost our own time, been treated with the greatest 
carelessness and neglect. 



224 president's address. 

The first official order for the institution of Parish Eegisters 
was in the injunctions of Thomas Lord Cromwell, dated 29th 
Sept. 1538. This person had been appointed by the king in 
July, 1535, his vice-gerent in all affairs ecclesiastical, and created 
Baron Cromwell 9th July, 1536. He was further advanced to 
the Earldom of Essex, 10th April, 1540, and attainted and 
executed the same year. There must, however, have been some 
rumour, suggestion, or intimation of what was intended in the 
earlier part of Cromwell's authority, for great apprehension and 
discontent prevailed throughout the country from Yorkshire to 
Devon and Cornwall, prior to the issue of the formal order. 
This was manifested by the fact that the leaders of the northern 
rebellion, called the "Pilgrims of Grace," in 1536 placed in the 
forefront of their grievances that some new tax was intended in 
addition to those by which they were already oppressed : " that 
infants should not receive the blessed sacrament of baptism 
onlesse an trybitte be payd to the kyng." Cromwell was too 
cautious and prudent a man to increase the king's difficulties by 
an act which would strengthen the hands of the rebels, then 
numbering 40,000 well-armed men in the field, which already 
alarmed the stout heart of the king. Consequently the injunc- 
tions issued in 1536 did not contain any order on the subject 
of the Parish Pegisters. That was shelved for the moment. 

The excited condition of the people of Devon and Cornwall 
is shewn by the following holograph letter of Sir Piers 
Eggecombe addressed to Cromwell, to whom Sir Piers says it was 
specially sent by his own trusty servant : Sir Piers was sheriff 
of Cornwall in 1535. 

" Plesse it your goode Lordeshyp to be advertyssd that the 
kynggs majesty hath commandyd me, at my beynge in hys 
gracius presens, that in casse I parceyvyd any grugge, or mys- 
contentacyon a mooge hys sojectes, I shulde ther off advertysse 
your Lordeshyp by my wrytynge. Hyt ys now comme to my 
knolegge, this 20 daye of Apryll, by a ryght trew honest man, 
a servant off myn ; that ther ys muche secrett, and severall 
communycacyous amongges the kynge's sujettes ; and that off 
them, in sundry places with in the scheres off Cornwall and 
Devonsher, be in great feer and mystrust, what the kyngges 



pbesident's address. 225 

hyglines and hys conseyll schulde meane, to geve in eommaunde- 
ment to the parsons and vycars off every parisse, that they 
schulde make a booke and surely to be kept, and wher in to be 
specyffyyd the namys of as many as bee weddyd, and the namys 
of them that be buryyd, and of all those that be crystynyd. 
Now ye maye perceyve the myndes of many, what ys to be don 
to avoyde ther uncerteyn conjecturys, and to contynue and 
stablysse ther hartes in trew naturell loff, accordynge ther dewties, 
I referre to your wyssdom. Ther mystrust ys, that somme 
charges, more than hath byn in tymys past, schall growe to 
theym by this occasyon of regestrynge off thes thyngges ; wher 
in yff hyt schall please the Kyngg's Majeste to put them yowte 
off dowte in my poar mynde schall encresse moche harty loff. 
And I besseche our Lord preserve you ever, to hys pleasser, 20th, 
day of Apryll. Scrybelyd in hast." 

"To my Lorde Privy Sealeys Lordesshyp, be this gevyn." 

(Signed) P. EGGECOMB. 
(Cromwell's Correspondence in Chapter House, Bundle E). 

The letter wholly in Sir Pier's handwriting. 

Irrespective of this open expression of discontent, a passive 
resistance was offered to the acceptance of Cromwell's injunction. 
The order was only very partially obeyed, and it had fco be 
repeated from time to time for many years; e.g., in 1547, in 1557, 
and again in 1559, in more stx-ingent terms. Probably this last 
was more effective, for we find that a great many registers 
commence about the date of the accession of Queen Elizabeth. 
In Cornwall the registers of one parish commence as early as 
1516. This was St. Michael Penkivell, and it may be accounted 
for by supposing that the great family of Carminow, which 
then dominated the parish, possessed some notes of baptisms, 
marriages, or burials, which, when the new registers were 
introduced, were transferred to them. Twelve other registers in 
the County commence between 1538 and 1541 ; 32 others begin 
between 1542 and 1560, of which 16 were introduced in the first 
three years of Elizabeth's reign. Of the remaining forty years 
of her reign an addition of 33 more was made ; but it must be 
borne in mind that we are dealing with the existing registers 
only. Some of them probably are imperfect. There may have 



226 PBESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

been an earlier volume in some of tlie sets wliicli may have been 
lost, but it is unlikely that many have been lost earlier than the 
time of Queen Elizabeth. 

Nothing further of any consequence took place with reference 
to parish registers until 1597. On the 25th Oct. in that year 
the clergy in convocation made a new ordinance respecting the 
registers, which was formally approved by the Queen under the 
great Seal. This was afterwards embodied in the 70th canon of 
1603, which canon has not been repealed, and is still in force. 
This ordinance directed that every minister at his institution 
should subscribe this declaration: — " I shall keep the register 
books according to the Queen's Majesty's injunctions;" and 
further it was ordained that every parish should provide itself 
with a parchment book, in which the entries from the old Paper 
Books should be fairly and legibly transcribed, each page being 
authenticated by the signatures of the minister and church- 
wardens. Moreover, very particular directions were given for the 
safe custody of the Register Books, and for further security 
against loss it was ordered that a transcript should be made of all 
the entries in each year, and be transmitted to the Bishop within 
a month after Easter, to be preserved in the Episcopal Archives ; 
and for still further security the Canon provided that if the minister 
or the churchwardens shall be negligent in the performance of 
any thing herein, it shall be lawful for the Bishop, or his 
chancellor, to convent them as contemners of this constitution. 
Alas ! where are transcripts now. "Whether this Canon may be 
binding or otherwise on the laity, I say not, but that it is binding 
on the bishops and clergy is unquestionable. These transcripts, 
if carefuUy preserved, would be of inestimable value. They 
have proved so in many instances. They have prevented the 
most glaring attempts at fraud, and have turned the scale in 
many peerage cases. May I be permitted to mention two or 
three examples? In the claim of Charlotte Grertrude M'Carthy, 
in 1825, to the Stafford Peerage, an attempt at fraud was 
suspected, the Bishop's transcripts were called for, and a forgery 
n the original discovered. In the Angell case, where an agri- 
cultural labourer established a claim to property valued at a 
million sterling, the Attorney General obtained a rule nisi for a 
new trial on the ground that the registers produced in court had 



tRESIDENT^S ADDRESS. 227 

been tampered with, as was proved to be the case by comparing 
them with the transcripts. The original entry of the burial of 
'' Margaret Ange " had been altered to " Marriott Angell." In 
the Leigh Peerage case, the agent opposing the claim had 
searched the original registers at Wigan for a certain baptism, 
without success, there being a general chasm at the period, 1658. 
When the House of Lords had nearly concluded the hearing, 
the agent wrote to the Bishop's Registrar at Chester. The letter 
arrived at a little after eight o'clock in the evening of the 4th 
June, 1829. The search was made, the baptism found and 
communicated, and the case concluded against the claimant. 

The regulation made in 1597 and 1603, was as far as human 
foresight could devise, all that was needed for the safety of these 
invaluable records, and to supply, as far as practicable, a substi- 
tute for the original registers in the event of their loss by fire or 
any other unavoidable accident. But what was the result of 
this excellent ordinance ? Did the ministers and churchwardens 
contemn the Canon? I think not. In answer to my own 
question, I must ask your permission to say a few words based 
on my own experience of this deplorable matter. Some 25 years 
ago I was desirous of completing, as far as practicable, my 
extracts from Cornish Parish Eegisters, and went to Exeter for 
that purpose. I found then, from Mr. Burch, the Deputy 
Registrar, and the gentlemen serving under him, the greatest 
courtesy and assistance, for which I shall always feel most 
grateful, but the result of my visit will be best shewn by an 
extract from my note book made on the spot on 12th Sept., 1868. 

" These transcripts extend from the year 1597, but I found 
them in the worst possible condition. The greater portion prior 
to the year 1700 are completely lost. They were, apparently, 
returned in Deaneries and filed on common cord, by which they 
were suspended on pegs. The cords became rotten in the damp 
tower in which they were placed, and the transcripts fell down 
on the floor and got mixed together ; many, as stated above, 
were entirely lost, and of those that remain many are so rotten 
that the writing is illegible, and they will scarcely bear a touch. 
Of a large number the head is rotted off so that the name of the 
parish and date are gone, and the only means of identifying the 



228 president's address. 

parish, to which they belong is by ascertaining of what parish 
the subscribing clergyman was incumbent ; and moreover they 
are all mixed together for all parishes in the diocese. They 
appeared to me to have fallen down promiscuously on the stone 
floor, and had lain there for a considerable time, and been 
walked over by persons whose business took them into the room, 
until some one, of a somewhat greater spirit of tidyness than his 
predecessors, gathered up and tied them in crumpled bundles, 
like bundles of hay. I spent several days in smoothing them 
out and tying them up in bundles in some measure flattened, but 
not having a press I was not very successful. I did not make 
any attempt at a classification, except that during the last few 
days I endeavoured to separate them under the two counties of 
of Devon and Cornwall." 

I am very sorry to add that this is not an isolated case. 
The transcripts in the other Episcopal Registries in the West of 
England, e.g., Hereford, Worcestor, and Gloucester, are com- 
paratively few. Bristol has escaped the shame, because all her 
Episcopal Archives were burnt, together with the Bishop's 
Palace, in the riots in 1832. What has been the cause of this 
neglect of the Registers ? Did the ministers and churchwardens 
contemn the Canon. I do not think so, for I have noticed in the 
churchwarden's accounts from time to time, trifling charges for 
writing the transcripts. I am afraid we must come to the 
conclusion that the blame must rest upon the carelessness and 
neglect of the Bishops and their chief officers. 

I afterwards discovered that a great many of the transcripts 
relating to the Cornish parishes exist in the Archdeaconry Court 
at Bodmin, which, in some measure accounts, for the paucity of 
the returns in the Bishop's registry, where, under the Act of 
Parliament, they ought all to have been deposited. They had 
probably been delivered in at the Archdeacon's Visitation, and 
had not reached any further. These also, I am sorry to say, are 
in a very bad condition, though they have not been treated with 
such gross neglect as have those in the Episcopal registry. As 
regards the records in the Archdeaconry Court, I would refer to 
the excellent description of them by the Eev. W. lago, printed 
in the Truro Diocesan Kalendar for 1882, p. 69. From this 
description all necessary information may be readily obtained. 



president's address. 229 

I would next refer to the Parish. Accounts, both of the 
churchwardens and the overseers of the poor, and likewise to 
the Vestry Books. The accounts here mentioned have been 
treated even worse than the parish registers, for, in many 
instances, they have been regarded simply as waste paper. 
Where they exist, however, of early date, they contain much 
valuable and interesting information upon parochial polity, and 
are illustrative of the social condition, manners and customs of 
our forefathers in not very distant times. 

Then as concerning Wills. You are aware that consider- 
able alterations have been made, as in many other things, with 
regard to the Probate of Wills within the last 60 years. All 
jurisdiction respecting wills before that time was vested in the 
church, and in addition to the Provincial Court of Canterbury 
and the Diocesan Court of Exeter (I shall confine my remarks 
to Cornwall), there were divers other local jurisdictions in this 
matter. In Cornwall there were 206 Old Parishes which fell 
into the following jurisdictions respectively, viz : 176^ belonging 
to the Archdeacon, 26^ (Padstow was the divided parish. The 
urban portion of the parish belonged to the Archdeacon, and the 
rural to the Bishop) Peculiars vested in the personal jurisdiction 
of the Bishop and in certain Deans and Chapters, and three 
parishes in the Deanery of St. Burian, viz : St. Burian, St. Levan, 
and Sennan, which were under the jurisdiction of the Dean of 
that collegiate church which had existed from a period prior to 
the conquest, and that jurisdiction, as regards the proof of wills, 
continued until quite recently. The Wills proved in this 
Deanery are now deposited with the Archdeaconry Wills at 
Bodmin. It should be observed, however, that in all cases ia 
which the testator bequeaths money or goods of the value of £5 
or over in another diocese, the Will must be proved in the court 
of the Province, and that during the Bishop's Visitation the 
Wills of all persons dying within the Archdeacon's jurisdiction 
must be proved in the Diocesan Court ; and the Wills of all 
beneficed clergymen, not having bona notalilia, must be proved 
in the same court. The Pev. John Wallis, Vicar of Bodmin, 
whose father was registrar of the Archdeacon's Court, writing 
in 1838, states that there were then 70,000 Wills carefully 
preserved in the Pegistry. 



230 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

Among the records of the Archdeaconry Court there exists 
documents reaching down, I think, to the present century, shew- 
ing that the church still exercised discipline for the correction of 
morals by public penance and absolution. 

Before I leave spiritual questions, there is one other matter 
of a spiritual nature about which I must not omit to say a few 
words. I allude to the collation and institution of Clerks to 
benefices. When I commenced the study of local history in this 
county, some 30 years ago, the succession of the Incumbents of 
Parishes was one of the first matters that attracted my attention. 
I found there were few advowsons of Parish Churches that were 
held in what is called in gross, that is independent of the manors 
in which they were situated, but that, generally, the advowson 
was appurtenant to the manor, so that the lord of the manor 
possessed also the patronage, and presented to the church. This 
gave me a clue to the devolution of the manor also. But the 
task of obtaining information upon this subject at that time was 
a work of great drudgery. The Bishop's Registers, in which 
admissions to benefices were recorded, consist of many great 
Leger Books, of considerable weight, extending from 1257 down 
to the time of Henry viij. Besides the institutions, &c., of Clerks, 
there are many other things recorded in these volumes, e.g., 
many original charters, some of them pre-Norman, copies of Bulls, 
Inquisitions, Interdictions, Sequestrations, Licenses for Chapels 
or Oratories in manor houses, Marriage Licenses, Dispensations 
of various kinds, &c., &c., and not a few ancient Wills. But after 
the time of Henry viij these registers were limited to admissions 
to benefices. The drudgery of wading through these enormous 
volumes, page by page, some parts written in a small cursive 
hand, much and variously contracted, some badly indexed and 
some not indexed at aU, may be conceived. A flood of light, 
however, within a few years past, has been thrown upon this 
apparent chaos by my learned and esteemed friend the Eev. 
Prebendary Hingeston-Pandolph. He has commenced the 
gigantic task of making an analytical index to each of these 
stupendous volumes, and has completed the registers of Bishop 
Bronescombe, from 1257, and Bishops Britton, Quivil, and 
Stapledon, and also of Bishoj) Stafford, so that all the information 
contained in those bulky volumes is ready at the student's hand, 



president's address. 231 

without lifting a cover. All students owe a debt of gratitude to 
Mr. Eandolph greater than I can express. No such work has 
been undertaken, so far as I know, or is likely to be undertaken 
in any other diocese in the kingdom. 

In 1558, another series of registers was established called 
"Act Books," containing a variety of information excluded from 
the registers proper. They contain licenses to marry, to practice 
medicine and surgery, to keep school, and a variety of other 
matter of more or less interest. 

There are also deposited in this office Perambulations, and 
Terriers of ecclesiastical lands, and Inventories of church goods, 
&c. Among the archives of some of the ancient Cornish boroughs 
may be found many mediseval documents of considerable interest 
and historic value. 

There is another class of records, of vast importance as regards 
the devolution of lands and manors, and the descent of families, 
which I have omitted to notice. I allude to Charters, Deeds, 
Manor rolls, and other classes of records connected with matters 
territorial : I do not know what repositories there may be of 
such archives in the county of Cornwall, nor do I know if any 
agent of the Historical Commission has visited and reported 
upon private collections in the county. But I chance to know 
that there is a large and very valuable collection of ancient 
Charters at Tregothnan, and doubtless in other similar houses in 
the county, to which a gentleman writing a history of the county 
on a large scale it is hoped would not be refused access, for in 
such houses much valuable material, unknown to the owners, 
might bo found by an expert. Manor rolls, also, are most 
invaluable as aids to a local knowledge of the social and econ- 
omical condition of the rural population in mediaeval times. 
They throw great light on the tenure of land, the customs of 
manors, which were very various, the systems of agriculture 
practised, and the gradual abolition of servile tenures. By the 
enfranchisement of copy-holds, manors are rapidly becoming 
extinguished, for without copy -holders to form the " homage " 
the memorial system cannot be carried out. 

The great and valuable works of the late Dr. Oliver are 
doubtless familiar to most persons here, but perhaps some may 



232 president's address. 

not be so well acquainted with his letters under the pseudonyms 
of " Curiosis " and " Historicus," addressed, from time to time, 
some years ago, to the "Exeter Flying Post," some of which 
were afterwards collected and published in three thin 8vo 
volumes under the title of "Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Devon, 
and some Memoranda of the History of Cornwall." There is, 
however, not much in these volumes relating to Cornwall, and 
the work has become very scarce. Dr. Oliver's papers after his 
his death passed to Colonel Harding, then of Exeter, afterwards 
of Upcott near Barnstaple, who, jointly with Mr. Grould, of the 
Probate Court at Exeter, issued a prospectus for publishing a 
new and enlarged edition of the Antiquities of Devon in two 
vols. 8vo. This new work was commenced, and 208 pages were 
worked off, when the issue ceased, for what reason I have not 
heard satisfactorily explained. 

Colonel Harding, on his death at Upcott in 1886, aged 93, 
bequeathed the whole of this valuable collection and a vast 
number of MS. drawings, and other documents, &c., of great 
interest and value, many of them collected by himself with a 
view to a new " History of Cornwall and its Churches," which^ 
at one time, he contemplated, to the "North Devon Athenaeum 
and Barnstaple Free Library." It is only natural to expect 
that these newspaper letters would fall into many hands, and 
would be preserved by gentlemen of antiquai'ian tastes. The 
late Mr. Pobert Dymond, of Exeter, had a good many, which are 
now in the possession of his family. Mr. James Dallas, (one of 
the Editors of that useful little monthly periodical, published 
by Pollard, of Exeter, called " Notes and Cleanings, ") has many, 
which are being printed from time to time in that publication. 
Doubtless, not only the Harding-Oliver collection, but other 
dispersed slips would be accessible to any antiquary engaged in 
compiling a new History of Cornwall. 

In conclusion, I must say a few words with respect to the 
great Repository of Historical evidence, The Record Office, in 
Fetter Lane (London). It is too vast, and its contents too 
manifold, to admit of my attempting any description of them. 
I could scarcely touch the fringe of the subject. Here is collected 
the chief of the treasures which England possesses as the 



peesident's address. 233 

vouchers of her great history — A collection which, notwithstand- 
ing our culpable losses, no nation in Europe can equal. For the 
purposes of local history, genealogy, &c., important evidence 
may be found in every class of its documents. But, as regards 
devolution of manors and lands, and the descent of families, I 
may mention as the most generally useful the " Plea Eolls of 
the various courts ; The Testa de Nevil ; Kirby's Quest ; The 
Returns of Aids and Subsidies ; The Inquisitions post Mortem ; 
the Patent, Close and Fine Rolls ; The Feet of Fines, Proceedings 
in Chancery, &c. But I may observe there is no royal road. 
One document leads to another, and as a student gains experience 
the more will he become interested in his work, and the greater 
the pleasure he will take in it. 

I had almost forgotten to mention one other depository in 
which is a vast accumulation of papers of greater or less value, 
with which literary men generally are not very well acquainted. 
I allude to the vaults and garrets of the House of Lords. These 
documents are very various in character. Amongst them is a 
large number of Private Acts of Parliament authorising various 
objects — diverting roads and constructing new ones, enclosing 
commons — the partition of estates among coheirs — dissolving 
marriages, peerage claims, and other historical materials too 
numerous to mention, but invaluable to the general and local 
historian and genealogist. I am glad to be able to add that the 
Historical Commission is getting these documents calendared as 
fast as possible, two or three volumes have been already issued, 
and what is more they are well indexed. 

Since writing the above I have received Part I of Vol. XI of 
the Journal of the Institution, and am very glad to see that the 
Institution is in a very flourishing condition, both in respect of 
increase of numbers' and literary matter. There are some 
excellent papers. It would perhaps be invidious to mention 
names, though it would seem unfair to pass by that of Mr. J. H. 
Collins, F.G.S., On the origin and development of ore deposits in the 
West of J^^ngland. This paper is continued from the last volume, 
and is announced to be further continued. It is a very interest- 
ing and valuable paper, though I fear it will be found somewhat 
over the heads of ordinary lay members of the Institute. As 



234 peesident's addeess. 

regards historical and typographical matters, the Journal is not 
so rich as I should like to see it. 

Now ladies and gentlemen, if you agree with me in thinking 
that a new, enlarged, and authentic "History of Cornwall" 
commensurate with the importance of the county be desirable, 
let us consider what practical steps can be taken towards the 
attainment of that object. You know it cannot be done at once, 
for there is much preliminary labour to be undergone, and being 
conscious of this it will be of no use to sit down and contemplate 
the difficulties. It may be difficult, probably it will, but my 
maxim has always been that difficulties are made to be overcome. 
The more you contemplate difficulties the bigger they grow. 
" Put the shoulder to the wheel." Resolution and perseverance 
will overcome all difficulties. But we must take a first step. 
We must make a beginning. If I may venture, as your President 
to offer a suggestion, I would say form a "Record Society" to 
collect and print historical materials of record relating to the 
County. In offering this suggestion I do not intend that a single 
shilling should be withdrawn from the invested capital of the 
Institution. A separate subscription should be entered into for 
this purpose. This has been done, with success, in Somersetshire 
and in other counties, and I am glad to say that a preliminary 
step has been taken, within the present month, in the county 
in which I now reside (Grloucestershire\ and I am glad to hear 
that a suggestion has already been made in Cornwall in the 
same direction. Good ! Let us be courageous and follow it up. 
Let us, remembering the old Cornish motto : One and All, 
which has done so much for the County, come to a resolution 
here, and now, to do so. I shall be pleased myself to become a 
subscriber to such a scheme. 



235 



ixoxjai fnstitution of Cornwall. 



ANNUAL GENEEAL MEETING. 

The Annual meeting was held on November 29th, at the 
rooms of the Institution, when the chair was taken by the Eev. 
Canon A. P. Moor, V.P., in the absence of the President, Sir 
John Maclean. Major Parkyn, Hon. Sec, read the report of 
the Council as follows : — 

" The Council can look back upon a year of great prosperity. 
There has been a steady advance in the arrangements of the 
museum, which has been enriched by many interesting gifts, 
some from the most distant parts. The library also has had 
many valuable additions, and on its shelves are important works 
for the student and scholar. The Council are pleased to find 
that the number of subscribers shews no signs of falling off, and 
the numerical losses have been more than compensated by the 
accession of new members. Still, in order to carry out further 
desirable changes in the arrangement of the museum, the 
subscribers are asked to use their influence to induce their 
friends to join. Happily, our obituary notices are on this 
occasion few. We have had to record the death of the Lord 
Bishop of Frederickton, better known to Truro people as 
Bishop Medley, a former incumbent of St. John's in this city, 
whose connection with the Institution embraces a period of 50 
years, during the whole of which he was a diligent reader of the 
journal of this society. In Mr. T. A. Cragoe, the society has 
lost one who for many years took a great interest in its work, 
and in many of our journals will be found contributions of 
value, especially those illustrating local scenery and horticulture. 

We cannot close these notices without referring to the recent 
death of Miss Curgenven, of Falmouth, who, though not actually 
a member, yet as the representative of the late Mr. H. M. 
Jeffery, F.R.S., was continually shewing her interest in the 



236 ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

welfare of the society. The very valuable collection of books, 
including the publications of the Royal Society, the Mathematical 
Society, and other costly works, were presented by her from the 
late Mr. Jeffery's library. She has further shewn her interest 
in this association by a legacy of £50, the knowledge of which 
has been communicated to us by her solicitor, Mr. Nalder. 

The interest in the museum is well sustained, the number 
of visitors to all departments shewing an increase during the 
past year over previous years : — 

Admitted free . . . . , . 3955 

By ticket 247 

By payment . . . . . . 356 



Total number . . 4,558 
Considerable progress has been made in structural improve- 
ments in the rooms of the institution. In the library two large 
bookcases have been provided for the reception of the many new 
books received. In each room of the museum two upright cases 
have been erected to receive specimens. Another structural 
imj)rovement of considerable cost has been made on the spacious 
roof of the Institution ; two of the gutters have been entirely 
relaid with lead. 

The chief attention of the Curator this year has been given 
to the classification of the mollusca, and the blending together 
of the various magnificent gifts of shells from the late Admiral 
Tucker, Trematon Castle, Mrs. Sharp, Kensington, and Mr. R. 
Baron Rogers, of Falmouth. These occupy seventeen half cases 
in the zoological room. Each species is mounted on a millboard 
tablet labelled with its name and that of the donor, pink tablets 
being used for Cornish specimens, and white for those from 
beyond the county. The collection is arranged under two 
headings made according to Woodward's Mollusca, the other, 
excluding all foreign molluscs, deals with British shells only. 
An attempt has been made in the British collection to represent 
every possible British type by a Cornish specimen if possible. 
The substitution of sloping shelves in the place of flat ones in 
the upright cases in the geological and mineralogical room in 
the museum has effected a great improvement in the display of 
the objects therein. On walking through the various rooms of 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 237 

the museum one is struck with their greatly improved appearance, 
and also with the cases, and the objects in them, added since 
the last annual meeting. The whole of this reflects the greatest 
credit upon the Curator, Mr. H. Crowther, who notwithstanding 
the teaching of the many classes which has necessarily occupied 
a great deal of his time, shews that one of the chief interests 
of the Society has not been neglected, and that much care and 
many long hours of labour have been devoted to this work. 

It was very gratifying to the Council to find that on a recent 
visit to the museum, the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, a former 
valued president, expressed his pleasure at the great improve- 
ment in all the arrangements. The weather letters have been 
continued, and contributed to the newspapers, and have aroused 
the same keen interest as before. It is noticeable that most of 
the comments in response to those letters are sent on natural 
phenomena connected with animal life. The letters received on 
the disappearance of the swallow and martin and the distribution 
of the clouded yellow butterfly colias edusa — have been numerous 
and interesting. The usual observations have been sent to the 
Eegistrar-Greneral, and replies and help given to many corres- 
pondents. The minimum wet and dry bulb thermometers, used 
for many years in the weather screen on the roof of the Institution, 
which were mounted on brass, have been replaced by the highest 
class instruments made by Negretti and Zambra, with corrections 
made at Kew Observatory. 

The journal of the Institution was issued in May. It was 
full of most interesting matter relating to the archaeology, 
mediaeval history, and mineralogy of the county, and bears 
favourable comparison with many of the issues of former years. 

The Annual Excursion took place in August, when Dolcoath 
Mine and Tehidy were the chief places visited. On the mine all 
the various operations of tin dressing were explained by Captain 
Josiah Thomas to a large company of ladies and gentlemen, 
for whom he had also kindly provided a most excellent luncheon. 
On the party leaving Dolcoath, cheers were given for the worthy 
manager and Mrs. Thomas for the hospitable manner in which 
they had entertained their guests. Owing to the heavy showers, 
the full programme of the day could not be carried out. Tehidy 



238 ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

was the next place visited, where Mrs. Basset and her son, Mr. 
Arthur Francis Basset, most cordially received the company. 
A sumptuous tea was served in the handsome dining hall, and 
after this the artistic beauties were viewed. Notwithstanding the 
inclemency of the weather, the excursion was one of the most 
enjoyable the Institution has ever had, due largely to the courtesy 
and hospitality of Captain and Mrs. Josiah Thomas, Mrs. Basset 
and her son. 

The disused Theatre, formerly used for lectures in the 
Institution, has been placed at the disposal of the County 
Council ; a Chemical Laboratory has been erected in it, partly at 
the cost of the County Council, partly from grants earned in the 
Science Classes in the rooms last winter, a substantial donation 
of ten guineas from an old friend of the Institution, and other 
local help. Accommodation is provided for 24 students to work in 
at one time, and all the available spaces were applied for before 
the Laboratory was opened. The formal opening of the 
Laboratory was made by Major Parkyu on October 31st, and 
short addresses were delivered to the students by Messrs. J. 
Thomas, C. Barrett, and Hamilton James, on the practical 
advantages of the study of chemistry. Classes were held last 
winter, but were not so well attended as might be desired ; 19 
certificates under the Science and Art Department were earned, 
for which Government grants were made. The grants and fees 
amounted to £28 7s. 6d. Classes are again being held under 
the County Council, Mr. Crowther being the teacher. 

The President (Sir John Maclean) having been elected for 
two years, has still one year to serve. The following are nomi- 
nated as Vice-Presidents : — the Eev. Canon A, P. Moor, the Ven. 
Archdeacon Cornish, Dr. Jago, P.E.S.,Eev. W. lago, Mr. John 
Tremayne, and Mr. Edwin Dunkin, F.E.S. Other members of 
the Council— Messrs. J. D. Enys, P.G.S., Howard Fox, F.Gr.S., 
Hamilton James, F. W. Michell, C.E., Chancellor Paul, Thurstan 
C. Peter, E. Tweedy, and Eevs. A. E. Tomlinson, and A. H. 
Malan ; Mr. A.P. Nix, treasurer, Mr. H. Michell Whitley, F.Gr.S., 
and Major Parkyn, F.G.S., hon secretaries. 

Since the last annual meeting efforts have been made to 
draw the various scientific and literary societies in the county 
more closely together, and a meeting for this purpose was held 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 239 

on September 30th, when it was resolved that another should 
take place after the holding of the annual gatherings of the 
societies interested in the federation. Such a meeting is fixed 
for Friday, December 2nd, when the whole question will be 
reviewed, and it is hoped that some satisfactory arrangement 
will be arrived at. The Council regret the absence of the Eev. 
W. lago from its annual meeting, and deeply sympathise with 
him in the cause of that absence. They always look forward 
to some paper on local objects, or history of the antiquities of 
the county from his versatile mind (and are never disappointed). 
Mr. lago is now one of the oldest members of the society, and 
one of the most prolific contributors of papers to its journal." 

It was resolved that the report be received, adopted and 
printed. 

The following papers were read : — 

"Roads and Eoad Making," Rev. C. F. Rogers. 

" The Rapid Traverser," — Capt. Henderson. 

" The Diamond Prospecting Core Drill," — S. Rogers, F.Gr.S. 

The Rev. A. R. Tomlinson, rector of St. Michael Penkivel, 
produced the old register of his parish. It was in a good state 
of preservation, and the writing remarkably clear. The first 
entry bears date in the thirty-eighth year of King Henry VIII, 
three years after his order for the keeping of parochial registers, 
Mr. Tomlinson also exhibited a curious silver paten used in 
Lamorran church. The Truro district is very rich in Elizabethan 
associations, particularly in the form of church plate, and the 
paten in question bears the date 1579. 

The following list of presents to the museum and library 

was announced. 

PRESENTS TO THE MUSEUM. 

A large quantity of Physical and Electrical Appa- ~^ 
ratus, including Cylindrical Electric Machines, | 
Leyden Jars, Electroscopes, Luminous Globes, | 
Discharging Rods, Insulating Stands, Electric I , . ti i 
Cannon, Chimes, &c I. Mrs. Hyde 



Air Pump and (xlobes, Orrery, and other Pneumatic 
Instruments 

Skull of a Tiger 



Ruanlanyhorne. 



J 



240 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 



All exceedingly fine specimen of a Peacock, Pavo I 
cristatus I 

A set of Fossils, Coals, &c., illustrating a Coal- "^ 
seam formation ; Baggs, Top-softs, Clay- 
seam, Best Hards, Bottom Softs, and Iron Stone 
from Barnsley Bed 



■Rev. Canon Moor, 
St. Clements. 



House Coal and Ferns, from Meltom Field Seam, \, 
Darfield Main Colliery, Barnsley, Wakefield . . 

Fish Remains, Lepidodendian, Calamites, Anthra 
cosia, Encrinital, Limestones, &c., from York 
shire Coalfield and Derbyshire Limestone j 

Specimen in spirit of Alligator, Nereis, Barnacles, 

A A^ery fine selection of Copper Ores from the Burra ~^ 
Burra Mine, Australia, including native copper. 
Cuprite, Chessylite, Malachite, specimens of 
Sanidine and Nepheline rock from Dunedin, 
New Zealand .. 

Flints from the Isles of Scilly 

A large Monocular Microscope, with mechauical 
stage, eye-piece, one-iuch and quarter-inch 
objectives, spot lense, diaphragm, polariscope, 
bull's-eye condenser on stand, frog-plate, live 
box, and stage forceps 

Specimens of Orthoclase from the summit of Corco- 
vada Mountain, Rio de Janeiro 

Some Bones of the foot of the Moa (Dinornis 
crassus) an extinct gigantic bird, once common 
in New Zealand 

Collection of Stone Implements, from Chatham 
Island and a sample from New Zealand 

Specimen of the Sheep Plant 

Specimen of Black Coral, from the Sandwich 
Islands 

"War Clubs from Fiji, & a Boomerang from Australia. 

Cast of the Foot-print of a Moa, found in North 
Island, New Zealand 

Specimen of Iridescent Galena from the Isle of Man 

Pliocene Shells from St. Erth 



j H. C Townsend, 
Womb well. 



Rev. A. M. Cazalet, 
Truro. 



J^JohnD Enys, F.G.S. 
I Enys. 



Rev. S. Rundle. 



Specimens of Tin-stone from Dolcoath, and a Fine | Capt. W. Provis, 
Crystalline mass of quartz from Dolcoath ... f Camborne. 

Bronze Tokens J. Knuckey, Truro. 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 241 

r m ■ 1 r. u X ) F. 0. Whitaker, 

Quern, from Trevornick, Cubert t Truro. 

Oyster Shells, one on Pipe-bowl, from Truro River Mark Ball, Truro. 

Large Centipede, from Trincomalee, Ceylon ... A. Coode, Truro. 

Spirit specimens of Lizards, Fish, Chameleons, and } Miss Holland, 

Skeleton of Head of Dolphin , ... j Truro. 

Horned Toad, from Texas S. Crowle, Devoran. 

Token of Exeter Wooden Mill Thos. Worth, Truro. 

Kadiolarian Chert, from Mullion Howard Fox, F.G.S. 

8 Roman Coins (3rd Brass), found about 50 years f ^Meadow House?' 
ago near Lanhydrock, Cornwall j Fareham, Hants. 

Specimens of the rarer British land and fresh- water "^ 
Shells I 

Copper Ore from New Red Sandstone, Alderley I Henry Crowther, 
Edge, Cheshire { F.R.M.S. 

Cast of Pterodactylvs crassirostris, a flying Reptile I 
of the Oolitic period J 

Cast of Trilobites, including homolonotus, delphino- "^ 
cepahalus, Dudley I 

Paradoxides Boltoni, New York U G. M. Campbell 

Isotelus gigas, Ohio | Wakefield. ' 

Tooth of Ctenodus, United States J 

Collection of British Birds' Eggs A. P. Nix. 

Collection of Roman Coins J. C. Daubuz. 

Ancient Cannon found in Padstow Harbour C.CPrideaux-Brune 

Scrolls of the Law formerly used in the Jews' Jot it -, 
Synagogue, Falmouth ... \ S. Jacob, London. 

Specimens of Cinnabar, Sulphide of Mercury, from > Luke Aver, 

the Guadaloupe Mines, California S Chacewater. 

Specimens of Cores, or Mineral Samples [ F C S ogers, 

GIFTS TO THE LIBRARY. 

A Legacy of £50 free of «y T"" m°Sth. 

Report of Mines in North Wales, and the Isle of 7 Dr. Le Neve Foster, 



Man 3 F.R.S. 

Appeal to the Canadian Institute on the Justifi- t Sandford Flen 
cation of Parliament \ C.M.G. 



242 



ANNTTAL GENEEAL MEETING. 



Notes relating to the family surnames Eandall, ) W. W. Rundell, 
Rendell, and Rundall S Dulwich. 

The Lost Laremic Beds of Middle Park, Colorado Wailman Cross. 

On the presence of Magnetite in certain Minerals ~^ 

and Rocks, and on Iron Rust possessing Mag- i Prof. Leversidge 
netic properties ^ F.R.S. 

Notes on some Bismuth Minerals, Molybolanite, and | ^ ^^^' 

Enhydros J 

T -1. , ., » .1 , T XT I Miss Emily Malone, 

Indices to the Aeneidea, by J araes Henry ( Glasmevin. 

Seven Centuries of Tin Production in the West of) t tr ^^l n- -c r^ a 
England J J. H. Collms, F.G.S. 

The Succession of the Plymouth Devonian Strata . . . ^ 

Fourteenth Report of the Barrow Committee 

Notes on Roman Devon 



Materials for a Census of Devonian Granites, and 
Felspars 

The Batten Skull in the Plymouth Museum 

Suggested Identification of the Domesday Manors 
of Devon , 



^R. N.Worth, F.G.S. 
Plymouth. 



Technical Education from a Polytechnic Standpoint 

The Stone Rows of Dartmoor .. J 

Episcopal Registers, Diocese of Exeter, A.D. 1307 1 Rev. Prebendary F, 
to 1326 - - 

Memorials of Lostwithiel and Restormel 



Victorian Year Books, 1880—1890, ten vols. 



. j Hingeston-Randolph 

\ Miss Hext, 
■" j Lostwithiel. 

( Agent General for 



Portrait of the late Henry M. Jeflfery, F.R.S 

Transactions of the Royal Society 

Proceedings of the Royal Society 

Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society 

Penny Cyclopsedia, and other Volumes -^ 

Picture of Glasney College [ 

On the Modification of Organisms 

Portrait of Mr. John Tremayne (Past President) 



Victoria, London. 



^ Miss Curgenven, 

Falmouth. 



John Burton, 

Falmouth. 



David Lyme. 

■espouse 1 
request. 



) In response to 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 



243 



^ 



^ J. D. Enys, F.G.S , 
Enys. 



British Association Report, 1891 & 1892 

Portrait of Mr. J. S. Enys, F.G.S 

North American Birds by Capt. Bendire, U. S. Army 

Report of the Mississipi River 

Geology of Iowa, Vols. 1&2 

Survey of Winconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota, U.S. 

Astronomical Expedition, Vol. 2 

Commerce and Navigation U.S., 1854 & 1855 

Mineral Resources of the U.S., 1868 J 

United States Commission of Fish & Fisheries, 30 I t ^ ttt-it m -n 

y^jjg ' > J. C. Williams, M.P. 

The Mathematical Library, comprising some 200 ) ^ n i 

Vols, of valuable and costly works, of the late } George Fooiey, 
H. M. Jeffery, F.R.S ) Falmouth. 



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CO 


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CO 


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CO 


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g 


CO 


in 

CO 


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CO 

in 


1— 1 TO 






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CO 


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CO 


CO 


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05 


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CO 


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CO 




in 


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CO 


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CO 


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CO 


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o;n 


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CO 


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OS 


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CO 


cq 


2 


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CO 


rH 


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CO 


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CO 


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r-l 


no 


CO 


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t^ 




s 

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CO 


Ti< 


CO 


Th 


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50 


lO 


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CO 


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no 


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CO 


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r-i 


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CO 


CO 


H ju 








Tf! 


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lO 


in 


CO 


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CO 


in 


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tH 


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b 


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3 


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TABLE No. 3. 



co«5t^®-^^oooo-*;D^oo9^ 



•ui-cJ 6 



■*5O001O-^0r. t»CO<M<X>5DO0 



eo«5co«>io-*oooo-*050oo 



•ms 6 



C0OO(Xl-^O COOOiOCOtOt-l'^'F' 



•rail 6 



rHNOO^rHOeOOieoSSSS 



'Wd g 


. 


05 


i^O 


I> 


T-H 


lO 


00 


I> 


!M 


I-l 


rH 


00 


K f 


•oiii 6 


CO 


CO 


CO 


lO 


^ 


-# 


lO 


00 


lO 


Ci 


i-H 


l-H 


s) 



•ra-d 6 


! ^ 


00 


'e 


05 


lO 


(M 


00 


(M 


l-H 


^ 


i-l 


o 


00 


•inrt g 


00 


00 


lO 


Oi 


00 


o 


c~ 


lO 


00 


IM 


eq 


<M 


05 


•ra-B 6 


t^ 


I> 


CO 


00 


lO 


05 


-? 


00 


o 


-* 


o 


l-H 


00 

-* 



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» 


00 


o 


l-H 


^ 


I> 


'SI 


05 


r^ 


o 


<M 


U5 


^) 


•ind 8 


•<# 


t^ 


o 


05 


00 


5D 


00 


C<1 


o 


o 


iM 


'^ 


^ H 


•m-B 6 


CS 


00 


o 


00 


lO 


05 


05 


05 


lO 


^ 


T-l 


tP 


^) 



•ui-d 6 



<M001005-*-^rHCq<MOi-l 



05 1— I O O 0.1 IC 05 T-H 



O l-H O Pi 



■in"B 6 



O O O O i-H OJ 



O CI O (M O I 00 





■itid 


6 


50 


oc 


(M 


O 


CO 


05 


t~ 


1—1 


CO 


IC 


iH 


3 


05 




•m-d 


8 


X> 


t» 


05 


(M 


■^ 


00 


r~ 


lO 


T-H 


t^ 


i-H 
i-H 


S 


OS 




■mv 


6 


CC 


CO 


ca 


oq 


HO 


oo 


t» 


'^ 


l-H 


IC 


rH 


Ci 


05 




•rad 


6 




© 


i-H 


CQ 


- 


oq 


o 


o 


1-H 


o 


05 


o 


1-H 


CO 


•tu d 


8 

6 


1-f 
O 


l-H 
l-H 


rH 


01 


CO 


T-H 


-** 


o 


rH 


o 


-H 


o 


00 

I-H 




<M 


-* 


CO 


T-{ 


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I-H 


rH 


rH 


1-H 


-H 


§5 



m ^ 



(^ 





•ra-d 6 


1-H 


T-l 


oo 


05 


CO 


- 


I> 


- 


O 


1-H 


o 


^ 


05 ] 


ed 


•urd g 


1-H 


O 


CO 


Oi 


CO 


rH 


05 


rH 


O 


T-l 


ri 


lO 


" ( 




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1-H 


o 


I> 


tp 


lO 


IH 


-* 


O 


O 


O 


1-H 


CQ 


lO 1 



•ra-d 6 



■*<M00O-^OOOOr-'Oo2 



f-^ 00 © 1-1 



1-H © © © o © I 



rH(MC35^© — 05i-H©rH©©(M 



5 -« 






2 a 

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2 a 



a ^ fi H 



TABLE 4. 






••33 



»s 






;ii a ^a 



^ s .— 



rH (M tH (M (M IM 



•^ja 



CO CO 00 00 



05 CS CO 



■pnoio 


eo 




I-H 








r^ 


eq 


-<jt 


"5 


•niBaif) 


OS 


I-H 
l-H 


00 


Oi 


«> 


?o 


eci 


■* 


•giijqg 


g 


s 


'SI 


5! 




10 


^ 


CO 



OS CO Cq i-H 
CO CO CO <M 



•aiB JO 
(}ooj oiqtib B JO jfoji 



2 lis 



CO t» I-H CO <M 



10 10 UOIO 



O l-H ©J CO r~ 

.^ CO 05 to I> 

r-l T-l rH (M (M 

jO 10 10 10 lO 



•jnorlBA JO 
90J0J oi^SBia aBapi 



C^ 00 10 05 CO 
(M .-• 5<1 <M CO 



CD CO 00 CO 00 I 'a 
CO C^ CO O ->] I 00 
^ CO (M CO (M .• (M 



•ajaqdsoui^'B 
JO jf iipiranq uBBj^ 



00 CO 01 05 10 
I> 1> lO lO CO 



Mre rfqi JO no!5'Ban:}i!s 






CO 10 00 CO i-H 



rH l-H iH <M 



i-H O O I-H 



•.UP- JO iQf'joiqno u iii 
inorlBAjoiqSia.w niia[\; 



!M (M cq 01 CO -^ -* 





Is 


si 

1^ 


■3va 


CO 


00 

I-H 


10 

l-H 


00 


CO 


I-H 


10 

I-H 


i> 

OJ 


05 

(M 


CO 


00 

r-i 


7-1 






2s 
C6 a 


•maaa 




eo 


CO 

10 


CD 


^ 




00 


CO 
CO 



95 


CO 
CO 


OS 


CO 


co t^ 

! 


.9 • 

9 9 
"S'" 
P3 


uiu.i q.jiq.w ni 
SiCup jo-o^ 


■M 


00 

I-H 


05 


I-H 





l-H 


1-1 


CO 
r-l 


CO 


§^ 


2 


03 
r-l 


00 


■0.U1.TX 




^ 
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rH 


CO 
CO 

I^ 


1^ 


S3 

rH 


CO 
r-t 






Oi 
rH 



in 


rH 

CO 


f?^ CO 


CO 

pa 5^ 


■nviaiAi 




CO 


CO 








00 


CO 




lb 




10 

lb 


CO 


00 

lb 


05 

lb 


lb 


•tnd 6 


CD 


00 

CO 


10 


CO 


io 


CO 


CO 

lb 


^ 
■^ 


lb 


-eft 
CO 




CD 


CO 
CD 


10 

lb 


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l-H 

CO 


CO 


00 

CO 





•^ 
■^ 




CO 


"0 


CO 


ib 


CO 


lb 


CO 

lb 


OS 







■ra-u 6 


-* 
W 


00 

lb 


-* 
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■^ 


05 


00 

eo 



lb 


ip 
lb 


to 


0: 
lb 


CO 

lb 


CO 1 cq 
lb 1 lb 



Ph S <^ S 



O ^ Q 






1^ 
33 -tf 



23 



11 



249 



NOTE OF FURTHER EXCAVATIONS ON THE SITE OF 
LAUNCESTON PRIORY. 

By OTHO B. peter. 



Since the discoveries on the site of this Priory, of which a 
description appeared in the number of the Journal for April, 
1892, I have further explored the land. The opportunity thus 
arose: Mr. Trood, a local merchant, having purchased the 
portion of the Priory meadow which is on the north of the 
Railway cutting for the purpose of building stores thereon with 
railway access by a siding, I, on behalf of the Launeeston 
Scientific and Historical Society, asked his permission to sink 
some trial pits within his purchase. He kindly consented, and 
the result so far as we have gone entirely confirms the suggested 
outline of the Priory Buildings indicated by my conjectural plan 
published with the earlier paper. 

I have uncovered walls at several points. On the first day 
I struck the base of a trefoil respoud-column on my supposed 
line of the North Arcade. All the remains discovered are of the 
purest 12th century moulded tj'pe of architecture. Enough of 
the foundations of the walls exist to indiciite the princely 
proportions of the original structure. Instead of columns 
forming the arcade walls, which walls are 3 ft. 6 ins. thick, I 
found semi-columns and then a stretch of wall ; indicating 
arched openings at irregular distances. The semi-columns of 
the first opening were trefoil shaped, those of the second were a 
flowing combination of mouldings, and those of the third bowtell 
moulded. Attached to the Arcade wall foundations in the spaces 
between the semi-columns are delicate shafts of trefoil form, 
from whose summits the stone groined roofs once sprang. 
North of the N. Arcade wall I have laid open the foundations 
of the outer wall of the north aisle and another wall indicating 
a north Transept. These walls still retain patches of plaster on 
them, on the sides which were within the building I have traced 
the foundations of the north arcade itself up to 200 ft. from 
east to west, but the wall is almost totally destroyed beyond 
the third opening. A finely carved arch key-stone was dug out 



250 LAUNCESTON PEIORY. 

lying upside down on the foundation of this wall, about half 
way between the east and west ends. Some pieces of coloured 
glass still in the groove of a window mullion were unearthed on 
the north of the arcade, and several moulded stones. T have 
also opened upon the line of the South Arcade. This appears to 
have been similarly constructed to the north arcade, with 
openings in the wall at intervals to the South Aisle, but 
unfortunately very little of this arcade apparently remains. In 
the centre of the Nave at its eastern end evidently stood an altar 
(probably the High Altar) whose base is about 3 ft. 6 ins. above 
the floor of the Nave. It was approached by tiled steps from 
the west. I have found tiles m situ at two step levels. On the 
landing in front of the altar is a grave below the floor line, the 
sides of which grave are formed with upright slabs of slate. 
There are probably many more graves near it. Numerous 
fragments of beautifully carved Bere stone have been discovered 
around the site of the altar. These may have formed a portion 
of a screen behind it. 

The railway contractor has just commenced cutting the 
railway siding into the field. The navvies have uncovered the 
foundations of thick walls, and a portion of a tiled floor 5 ft. 
below the present surface. This find is on the site which I 
mark on my plan as that of the Cellarers buildings. The tiles 
were quite plain and 10 ins. square. The ground around this 
site is stained as if much good old red wine had been wasted. 
Foundations have also been struck of the return block of 
buildings on the West of the cloister, which I mark as the 
Prior's Lodge, &c. The outer wall of this block is 243 feet 
from the Eastern wall of the Presbytery. 



251 



HISTORICAL NOTES ON THE PARISH, MANOR, AND 
ADVOWSON OF OTTER HAM, CORNWALL. 

By SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., F.R.S.A., Etc., President. 



This does not pretend to be an exhaustive history of the 
Parish of Otterham. When we commenced the collection of 
materials for the history of the Deanery of Trigg Minor, which 
has now for some years been before the public, it seemed to be 
uncertain whether the Parish of Otterham were really in that 
deanery or in the Deanery of Trigg Major. In the Taxatio 
Ecclesiastica of 1291, it is entered in the latter, but in the Valor 
Ecclesiasticus it is taxed under Trigg Minor. At all events it was 
considered to be in Trigg Major when we wrote, and the memoir 
is based thereon. In the recent alterations of the limits of the 
Deanerigs in Cornwall it is placed in Trigg Minor. 

The Parish of Otterham is situated in the Hundred of 
Lesnewth, and contains 3,263 acres. It is bounded on the west 
by the Parishes of Lesnewth and St. Juliet ; on the north by 
Jacobstow ; on the east hy Warbstow ; and on the south by 
Davidstow, and lies at a considerable elevation. *' Cross roads," 
on Otterham Down, about a mile west of the church, is 758 
feet above the sea level. 

Industrial Pursuits, Wages, &c. 

The geology of the parish differs considerably from that of 
the parishes contiguous to it. It consists of a sort of schist, 
and the soil is very stony, barren, and unprofitable, and becomes 
quickly overgrown with furze. Laborers' wages vary from 12s. 
a week to 15s. (with or without a cottage and garden, the value of 
which is estimated at Is. a week). Occasional labourers receive 
half-a-crown a day. Laborers are very well off except for the 
miserable cottages in which they live. Land being very cheap, 
most of them have a few acres and keep a cow or two. They 
are industrious, frugal, temperate, and thrifty. It is very usual 
for them to become small farmers themselves. Most of them 
have money in the bank. In some cases they have enclosed land 
worth 2/6 an acre a year, which in a few years they make worth 
20/- an acre. There are no paupers. 



252 



pakish of otterham. 
Population. 



The following table will shew the population of the parish 
and the number of houses therein according to the census 
returns at the several decennia within the present century. 





1801 
141 


]811 
176 


1821 
212 


1831 

227* 


1841 
234 


1851 
198 


1861 1871 


1881 
163 


1891 


Population 


160 156 


154 


r Inhabited 


27 


27 


37 


38 


42 


31 


80. 25 


27 


27 


Houses ■< Uninhabited 


1 


— 


— 


2 


2 


8 


^1- 


— 


— 


C Building 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 



Tithes. 

The tithes were commuted on the 8th September, 1841, at 
£174. The total area of the parish consisted of the glebe lands, 
68a. Or. 9p. statute measure. The estimated quantity in statute 
measure of all the lands in the parish, exclusive of the glebe, 
is 3124a. dr. 2p., which are cultivated as follows : 

As arable land 

As meadow 

As coarse pasture . . 

As Orchards 

As roads and waters 

As church and churchyard 

Values and Assessments. 

Annual value of real property as assess- 
ed upon the parish in 1815 
Gross estimated rental in 1866 . . 
Rateable value in 1866 . . 
Gross estimated rental, 1884 
Eatable value in 1884 



312 


1 18 


75 


1 33 


680 


2 9 


6 


1 22 


40 





1 


32 



1186 



1204 


9 


5 


1088 








1210 


4 


5 


1093 


15 






*0f the 43 families composing this population, 34 were chiefly employed in 
agriculture, 5 in trades and handicrafts, and 4 not comprised in these classes. 

According to the Poll-tax levied in 1377 (51 Edward III) the popiilation of 
Otterham at that date was 60 (see Jowrnal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, 
1871, p. 37), 



PARISH OF OTTERHAM. 253 



iliial assessment in 


1884— 




Sanitary rate . . 


..7 





Highway rate . . 


..44 





County rate j 






Police rate > . . 


. . 94 





Poor rate ) 







, J Eedeemed 
^^""l Payable .. 


.. 4 17 


6i 


.. 42 17 


If 



145 



47 14 8 



Assessed taxes, 1884 — 

Inhabited house duty assessed ) -kt.-, 

upon the annual value ) 
Property and Income tax") r,c,r) in a 
assessed upon Schedule A j 

„ B 15 

}} n >i C ) 

„ D Nil. 

E 1 

It will be observed that there was very little difference in 
the value of real property in 1815 and in 1884. 

Pbe-historio Remains. 
There are no pre-historic remains in this parish except a few 
small circular tumuli which abound on this and the neighbouring 
hills. They vary from ten to fifteen feet high, and from ten to 
twenty-five yards in diameter. They all have a small depression 
in the centre. One in the adjoining parish of Lesnewith was 
opened some twenty years ago by the late Mr. Cook of the 
Saturday Review. In the centre was discovered a rude cist built 
of stone, in which was found human remains, but no weapon 
or ornament of any kind. A large heap of stones covered the cist. 
There are not now any ancient christian monuments in the parish. 

Ancient Eoads and Tracks. 
The great road leading from Stratton and the north to the 
south through Camelford, enters this parish from Poundstock at 
Sandhill Barrow, and traverses it to within a mile of Titchbarrow 
when it enters the parish of Davidstow. At " Cross Eoads," 
this road is intersected by a road leading from Warbstow Beacon 
to the road on Tresparret Down leading from Stratton coastwise 
through Boscastle and Trevaiga to Tintagel, always a place of 
vast importance. There are various other roads and tracks of 
minor importance which cross the parish in various directions. 



254 



PARISH OF OTTERUAM. 

TABLE SHEWING THE DEVOLUTION OF THE 
William Caebokbll^ 



William Carbon ell= 



Galpide de Albemarle=Mabill Carbonell 



Reginald de Albemarle^ 



Geofiry Daumarle^ 



Nicholas= 
Bonville 



Sir Rich. 
Hiwis 



Hawis, dau. 
of Thomas 
Pyne. 



Henry 
Champernon 



: Johanna 
Eodrigan 



William 
Dau marie, 

s. & h. 



:Alice, d. &h. 
of Sir Ralph 
Blanchmin- 
ster. 



Nicholas^ Joh anna, 



Bonville 



d. &h. 



William : 
Daumarle, 
son & h., 
b. Easter, 
1323. 



zMatilda 



=Ellen 



Sir Robert : 
Tresillian, C.J. 
King's Bench, 
ob. 13b8. 



lEmiline, d. & h. of 
Sir Rich. Hiwis. 



John Hawley,^Emily, dau. and 
of Dartmouth, h. of Sir Robert 
died 8th May, Tresillian. 
1436, Inq. p.m. 
Hen. vj. No. 25 



Sir Wm. Bonville,= 
had livei-y of 
seizin, 1265, died 
14th Feb., 1407-8, 
Inq. 9 & 10 Hen. 
IV, No. 1 Exch. 
Pro. of Will, 24 
Mar., 1408-9. 



I'Margaret 
Daumarle, dau. & 
heir, and heir of 
her great grand- 
father, Geoffry 
Daumarle, Inq. 
p. m. 47, Ed. Ill, 
No. 66. 



John Bonville ^Elizabeth, d. and 
Inq. p.m., 20, I heir of John Eitz 
Rich. II, No. 11. Roger. 



Johanna, d. and^ Thos. Bonville, = Leva Gorges, =John Wibbery 
co-h of Hugh de 
St John, s. & h. 
of Thos. Poynings 
Lord St John of 
Basing, by Eliza- 
beth, dau. & h. of 
Martin Ferrers 



presented to 
Otterham, 1454- 
1463, aged 5 yrs., 
on his father's 
death. 



d. & h., married 
Sunday next after 
Invention Holy 
Cross, 1425, Inq. 
p.m., 18 Hen. vi, 
No. 15. 



presented to 
Otterham, 1422, 
died Sunday next 
after the feast of 
the Purification 
B.V.M., 1482-3, 
Inq p. m., 1 Hen. 
vj. No. 42. 



John Bonville, of Shute, d. August,=Johanna Wibbery da. & heir, born on 
1494, Inq. p. m., 9 & 10 Hen. vii. I the feast of St. Laurance, 1424, Prob. 

I Etat 18, Hen. vi, No. 15. 
B 



PAEISH OF OTTERHAM. 

MANOR AND ADVOWSON OF OTTERHAM. 



255 
= Johanna Bloyou. 



=Margery. 



Sir Simon Berkeley=;Margery, daughter 
of Sir Oliver 
Carminow. 



Roger Fleming==Hester Berkeley. 
1 dau. & heir. 
Ivo DE C40KaES= I 

6th in descent 
from Sir Ralph 
de Gorges from 
Normandy. 



John Berkeley 
ob. s.p. 



Robert ^Jane Fleming, 
Fitzwater dau. & heir. 



Ellen, d. & h. of=Sir Ralph de=Eleanor de 



Robert Foliot, of 
Tamei'ton Foliot. 



Gorges. 



Morville. 



Sir Thomas^= 
Gorges I 



From whom the Russels 
descend. 



Sir William =Joan, daughter of 



John GorgeS:= Elizabeth, d. and 
co-h. of John de 
Doddiscombe. 



Fitzwater, ob. 
21Rich.II,Inq 
p.m. Exch. 



Ralph Gorges=Elizabeth. 



Oliver Wibbery= 



Nicholas Burden. 



John Gorges: 
of Nearlegh. 



Gilbert Wibbery=: Margaret Thomas=Margery 

I Fitzwater, s. & h. 

h. of her ob. 1393 
I nephew. 

I Nicholas, 
^1 b. Jan., 1389. 



266 

Richard 
copleston 



PARISH OF OTTERHAM. 

A B 



Adam =Alice. 
Coplestone I 



John Coplestone^Catherine, dau. and h. of 
I John Graas, of Tingraas. 



John =:Eliz. Hawley, sis. & heir of Nich. 



Coplestone 



Hawley, aged 30 years, on her 
brother's death, 1442 



Mch. Hawley, died 7th 
Sept., 1442, Inq. p. m. 
21 Hen. vi, No. 



John 
Copleston, Copleston, 
of Exeter, of Bowden 



Walter = Elizabeth, 
da. & sole 
h.ofThos. 



Stone. 



Philip Coplestone,=Ann Bonville, 
s. & heir, died 16th da. and heir. 
Oct., 1472, Inq. p. 
m. 13 Edw. IV, 
No. 



Thomas =Katlierine, d. 



Copleston, of 
Bowden in 
Yanton. 



ofWm.Fowell 
of Fowels- 
combe. 



Edward 

purchased 

Instow and 

settled 

there. 



Ralph :=Ellen, dau. 



Coplestone, 
presented to 

Otterham 

1487, aged 17 

on his father's 

death, 66. 



of Sir John 
Arundell of 
Lanherne. 



John =Isabell, da. of 

Copleston Hy.Fortescue 

of Prateston. 



Nicholas of Nash 
His grandson, 
John, sold it to 
Sir W. Pole.— 
Pole's Devon, p. 
137. 



John 
Coplestone, 
ob. 29 Aug. 
1550, Inq. 
p. m. 4, Ed. 
VI. 



- Catherine, 
dau. of Ralph 
Bridges, gent, 
living 1549. 



I I 

George. Richard =Thomasme, 
of Woodland, da. ofThos 
3rd son. 



I 
Mary, da.^Christopher= Jone, d. of 



rioyer, 

Floyers, 

Hayes. 



of 



of SirWm. 
Courteiiay 
of Powder- 
ham, 1st 
wife s.p. 



Coplestone, 
of Copleston 
son & heir of 
John, ob. 
1589. 



Sir Hugh 
Pawlet, of 
Henton, S. 
George, c. 
Somerset, 
2 wife. 



Ill I 

Christopher. Mark. Robert. Hugh Copleston, son 

and heir, ob. s.p. 



PARISH OF OTTERHAM. 257 

Adam de Bosco=Alice, dau. of David Servington. 



Richard, at Wood=Jone, d. Engelina, dau. of Sir Richard 
I Champernon, of Modbury. 

1 
John Wood=Alice, daughter and co-heir of Matt. 
I Newland. 

I 
Richard Wood=Jane, daughter and co-heir of Oliver 

I Carminow. 

i 
William Wood=Emma, dau. and co-heir of William 
I White of Holcombe, Peramdre. 



John Wood;=Margery, dau. of Oliver Huish. 



John Wood=Anne or Agnes da. of Wm. Pollard of 
I Horwood. 

John Wood=Thomasin, d. and heir of Wm. Crase, 
of Launceston. 



Richard Wood=Grace, d. of John Bere, of Huntsham. 



Alex. Wood, presented to Otterham^Anne, da. & heir of Barth. St. Leger, 
in 1524 I 4th son of John of Holcomb, co. Kent. 



Richard Copleston, of Otterham,= 
presented to Otterham, 1549. 



Isolda, daughter & heir=Richard Wood, of North Tawton, 
I Devon, presented to Otterham, in 1557 
and 1558. 



I I I 
John Copleston=Susan, dau. of John Christopher= dau. of Sir 



of Copleston, h. 
to his brother. 



Lewis Pollard of Wood, Wood. John Windham, 

Kimp ton Bishop. 2 son. of Orchard. 



Amyas Copleston, of Copleston,=Gertrude, da. of Sir John Chichester, 
aged 39, in 1620. I son of Sir Robert Chichester. 



John Copleston, Oct. 12th, 1620, of Copleston, son and heir, sold Chagford 
to Sir John Whidden, Justice of the King's Bench. 



258 parish of otteeham. 

The Fee. 

It appears that at the time of the Great Domesday Inquest, 
the Manor of Otterham was one of the numerous (288) Manors in 
Cornwall which William the Conqueror bestowed upon his half 
brother Eobert, whom he created Earl of Cornwall. It is 
recorded "The Earl has one mansion (manor) which is called 
Otterham, which was held by Edwi on the day on which King 
Edward was alive and dead. In the same is one hide of land 
and it paid gild for half a hide. There are six ploughs. This 
is held by Richard of the Earl. There Eichard has in demesne 
one virgate and one plough, and the villans have the rest of the 
land and three ploughs. There are six villans and four bordars, 
and six bondmen and five animals and forty sheep. There is 
pasture a league long and league broad, and the value per 
annum is 20 shillings, and when the Earl received it it was thirty 
shillings."* 

Lysonsf states that the manor appears to have belonged in 
the reign of Edward III to the Champernouns, and in this he 
has been followed, without investigation, by all subsequent 
writers on the county. The statement can only be received as 
partially accurate for it must be limited to the Fee in chief. The 
manor itself, with the advowson of the church annexed thereto, 
was held by others in sub-infeudation, as we shall presently see. 
Moreover, the record upon which Lysons' statement is based 
carried the possession of the fee up some 60 years higher. 

In the 18th year of King Edward I (1289), when an Aid 
was levied for the marriage of the King's eldest daughter, 
William de Campo Arnulphi (Champernon) was returned as 
holding, inter alia, one knight's fee in Oterham, and in 20th 
Edward III (1346), William de Campo Arnulphi paid the aid on 
the same fee which his grandfather William formerly held on 
the King's eldest son (the famous Black Prince) being made a 
knight.J We do not know precisely the date of the death of 
William Champernon the younger, but many circumstances 
lead to the conclusion that he was already dead in 1346, and had 

*Domesday Survey, Exeter. 

fMagna Britannia, Vol. Til, p. 251. 

I Book of Aids. Excheq., Queen's Remembrancer's Office, Vol. III. 



PARISH OF OTTERHAM. 259 

died probably several years previously. He left two daughters 
coheirs,* Elizabeth and Katherine, both minors in 1354, though 
they were probably then both married. Elizabeth married 
WiUiam Polglas on 23rd March 1552-3, as her first husband, by 
whom she had issue two children, Richard, an idiot, and 
Margaret, who became the wife of John Hearle. Secondly she 
married John Sergeaux of Colquite, by whom she had no issue. 
She survived both her husbands. John died 1387-8, and she 
in 1395. Katherine also was twice married, first, to Sir Walter 
Woodehouse, secondly, to Ralph Carminow of Boconnoc, but 
had no issue. 

On the 10th February, 1354-5 a mandate was issuedf by the 
Duke of Cornwall to John Dabernoun, his sheriff and steward 
for Cornwall, to restore the said manors to Elizabeth and 
Katherine, daughters of William de Champernon on their 
attaining full age. 

This statement is supported by the following petition of 
Ralph Oarmenowe, Ohr., and William Oarmenowe his brother, 
addressed to the King in Council (C. 1562, 1563). Writ dated 
10th December, P*RichardII(] 377). They complain that whereas 
William Chambernon was seized of certain manors and 
tenements in Devon and Cornwall, and had issue two daughters, 
which William died, after whose death the two daughters 
entered into the said manors, &c. as the said William's daughters 
and heirs, and that they made partition betweem them. One 
daughter was married to the said Ralph and the other to John 
Siregeux, which John, covetous to have the entire inheritance, 
sent divers persons to the manor of the said Ralph of Bockonnoc, 
and there beat and illtreated the said Ralph and his wife, and 
took and carried away their goods and chattels to the value of 
£200, and left the said Ralph for dead ; then Ralph gave this 
manor, which had been allotted to his wife, to divers persons for 
the term of his life at a certain rent, who left their estate to the 
said William Carminow, who let the same to Ralph for a term 
of years yet unexpired. Whereupon the said John Sergeaux, 
being Sheriff of Cornwall, J with a great number of persons, 

*Hist. Trigg Minor, Vol. 1, p. 554. 

t Council Book of the Black Prince, Duchy Office. 

jWe do not trace that he was ever Sheriff of Cornwall. 



260 PARISH OE OTTERHAM. 

armed, under the colour of his office, entered into the manors of 
the said William which he had of the portion of Ralph's wife 
as above said, and other lands and tenements of Ralph and took 
goods and chattels of the value of £1,000, and they pray for a 
remedy. 

John Sergeaux died 16th January, 1387-8.* His wife 
survived him several years. In 1393 she brought a suit against 
Sir John Rodeney, knight, and Alice, his wife, for the recovery of 
a certain chest with writings and muniments therein contained.! 
Sir John died in 1400, and his relict became the second wife of 
Sir William Bonville, whom she survived many years. 

Elizabeth Sergeaux died at the Priory of Halewell, 
Islington, London, 11th May, 1398, | and was there buried. 

There would seem to have been much confusion regarding 
the fee of the manor of Otterham during the 14th century. As 
early as 1331, the fees of Penrose Burden and Otterham were 
vested in John de Dinan or Dynham, who died seized in that 
year, leaving by his wife Margaret, daughter of Guy de Brian, 
a sou of his own name. He was the eldest son of Joceus de 
Dinan or Dinham, and he had a younger brother named Oliver. 
On the inquisition taken at Lostwithiel after his death it was 
found that he died seized of the Manor of Bodardel, and divers 
other lands and manors, fees and advowsons in Cornwall. 
Among the knight's fees he held as many in the county as 27|-, 
one of which was the fee in Oterham, which was held of him by 
Elias Cotel, and the heir or heirs of Hugh Peverel, and it was 
worth, as in service, 12'^- per annum, and John de Dynham, his 
son and heir, was found to be of the age of 14 years and more.§ 

On the 20th September in the same year, an assignment of 
dower was made to Margaret, his relict. She received the 
Manors of Harpfield in Devon, Bocland in Somerset, and 
Bodardel, with diver's lands and 10 knight's fees in Cornwall, 
one of which was Oterham. || 

*His writ diem Clausit Extremiim was dated 10th May, 11 Eich. II (1388). 
t De Banco Rolls, 17 Rich. II, Michs. m. 240. 
JInq. p.m., 21 Edw. II, No. 135. 
§Inq. p.m. 6 Edw. Ill, 1st No., No. 59. 
II Escheats, 6 Edw. Ill, 1st No., No. 82. 



PARISH OF OTTERHAM. 261 

Margaret survived until 15 May. 1357, and on the 
Inquisition taken at Exeter on the 8th June following, it was 
found that she held on the day of her death the Manor of 
Hemyock in Devon together with the Hundred, for the term of 
her life of the heirs of Oliver de Dynham, knight, who were in 
the king's wardship by reason of one messuage and 12 acres of 
land in Iryshland, which the said Olyver held of the king in 
capite. She also held of the same heirs the Manor of Hydon, 
and also the Manor of Morlegh in Devon. The heirs were the 
daughters of the said Oliver, viz. : Margaret, aged 9, Ellene, 
aged 7, and Mabel, aged 6 years. They were the children of 
Oliver Dynham, the nephew of the aforesaid John, the husband 
of Margaret. He died 25 Edw. Ill (1551). She also held a 
third part of the Manor of Hartland in dower of the inheritance 
of her son and heir, John Dynham, then aged 30 years. 

Margaret de Brian, on her marriage with John de Dynham, 
appears to have been the relict of Sir Gilbert de Knovill, and 
had dower in Batesthorn, Lyddeford, of the Manor of Lodeswille, 
of the inheritance of the heirs of the aforesaid Sir Gilbert, viz. : 
John Dun, aged 24 years, Thomas Archard, aged 21 years, and 
Mabel, daughter of William Luscote, aged 6 years. It may be 
remarked that in this Inquisition, Margaret is described as 
Margaret Donnedale.* Polo tells us (Devon Collections, p. 302) 
that in the 24 Edw. I, Sir Gilbert de Knovill, knight, in the 24 
Edward I, held Lodeswell of Lady Milisent de Monte Alto 
(Montalt) by the payment of 40s. yearly rent. The heirs were 
his grandchildren. 

In 29th Edward I, Sir Gilbert founded a chantry in the 
Church of Bukynton, Devon, for his own soul and the soul of 
Hawisia, his wife. Inq. ad quod, damnum, No. 134, Idem. 

Margaret, the elder daughter and co-heir of Oliver de 
Dynham by Margaret, daughter of Eichard Hydon, married Sir 
William de Asthorp.f but we do not find that she carried to him 
the fee of Oterham or any other of the Champernon possessions. 

* Inq. p.m., 31 Edw. Ill, 1st No., No. 43. 

fin 1379, Sir William de Asthorp, knight, and Margaret, his wife, enfeoffed 
John Copleston and others in the manor and advowson of Sampford Peverell and 
Allere Peverell, Devon. Escheats 3 Eic. II, No. 105. 



262 PARISH OF OTTEBHAM. 

Her two younger sisters became Nuns, one at Bocland, and the 
other at Walton.* 

This would seem to exhaust all the heirs of John Sergeaux, 
and probably the fee of Oterham again reverted to the family 
of Champernon, for in the 3rd Henry IV, (1402) when the 
king levied a similar aid, now called a subsidy, for the marriage 
of Blanche, his eldest daughter, William de Campo Arnulphi 
was returned as holding, inter alia, one knight's fee in 
Oterham. f In 6th Henry VI, this fee had become much sub- 
divided as indeed had most other fees. Thomas Bonvyle 
and Leva his wife held a quarter part, whereon they paid a 
subsidy of 20'*- Thomas Carwytham, Thomas Oterham, William 
Chambernon, John Mayow,| John Walke, Robert Trecarell, 
Roger Langdon, Richard Dunecombe, Robert Chamberleyne, 
Stephen Doyngnell, John Pereu, John Boson, William Wilhouse, 
Thomas Pruwet, and Robert Calwe, held separately between 
them three parts of the fee, but because no one of them held a 
quarter part it was not assessed to the subsidy. § 

We next find that upon the Inquisition taken after the 
death of Leva Bonvill, that Oterham was held by her husband 
and herself of the heirs of Sir William Bonvill, but how he 
acquired the fee we know not. See post p. 265. 

And the Prior of Tywardreath is returned as holding this 
fee, and that of Penrose Burden, (see post, p. 266), but we know 
not how these fees were thus acquired by the Prior. 

So much for the fee. We must now advert to 

The Manor and the Advowson. 

The latter has been annexed to the former so far back as 
history reaches, but being held by sub-infeudation it is difficult 
to bridge over the chasm between the time of the Domesday 

* Banks's Baronage. 

fSubsidy Eolls, 3 Henry IV. We have seen that William Champernon was 
dead long before this date. It was not unusal for the names of tenants being 
retained on the Exchequer Book long after their death, nevertheless this may 
have been another William Champernon. 

;j;,Tohn Mayo we of Smallhill is returned in the same document as holding 
with several others, the third part of a knight's fee in Treworgye in the Hundred 
of Lesnewth. Treworgye is, we believe, in the parish of St. Grennis. 

§ Subsidy Eolls. 



PARISH OF OTTERHAM. 263 

Survey and the date at wliicli our public records commence. 
The earliest holder of the manor of which we have any note is 
described as " Matilda, the Lady of Oterham," but what her 
estate in it was, whether in fee of her own right or in dower, 
does not appear, nor is her family name stated. She presented 
to the benefice in 1278, and was probably the ancestress, perhaps 
the mother of Robert the son of William who presented Robert 
de St. Genesio (St. Gennis) in 1309,* (see post, p. 269) and 
Simon, the son of John de Genesio in 1311. It is, we think, 
not unlikely from the fact of two clerks of the name of St. 
Gennis having been presented in succession, that the patron was 
also of that family. 

The Manor of Otterham, however, not long after the date 
mentioned above, had became vested in the family of Burdon, 
by whom it was held together with the Manor of Penros-Burdon, 
in the parish of St. Breward, which had been granted to Robert 
Burdon by Reginald, Earl of Cornwall, who died in 1175, hence 
the grant must have been made before that year, and this grant 
was confirmed to Peter Burdon, son and heir of the said Robert, 
by King John, on 5th January, 12U0-1, for which confirmation 
the said Peter gave the king 60 marks and a palfrey. The Manor 
of Otterham, however, is not mentioned in this confirmation, and 
we conclude the Burdons must have acquired it by marriage, and 
by marriage it was carried by Johanna, daughter and heir of 
Nicholas Burdon, to William Tremblethou, alias William Fitz 
Wauter or Fitz Walter, who died on the 10th May, 1385, 
seized, inter alia, of the two said manors, the former being 
held of the King in capite by the 8th part of one knight's fee 
of the Castle of Launceston, and the latter of John Serjeaux 
by knight's service, and the jurors add that it is of the value 
per annum of five marks. They also found that the nearest 
heir of the said Sir William was his son Thomas, then aged 
11 years and more, and they add that John Sergeaux had 
occupied the Manor of Oterham with the custody and marriage 
of the heir from the time of the death of the said William to 

* Robert, son of William, was one of those returned as liolding lands or rents 
in Cornwall of the value of <£20 a year or upwards. 24 May, 24 Edw. I (1296), 
Harl MS.,1192, fo. 50, 



264 PARISH OF OTTEHHAM. 

the taking of the inquisition, which was on Saturdaj' next after 
the feast of St. Gregory (12th March) 9th Eichard 11 (1385-6).* 

John Sergeaux acquired the fee in chief of this manor by 
his marriage with Elizabeth, one of the daughters and coheirs 
of William Champernon. 

A further inquisition was taken at Merwen Church (Marham 
Church) some dozen years later, viz. : on the Monday next before 
the Feast of the Conversion of St. Paul, 1397-8, more especially 
with reference to the Manor of Penrose Burdon, which, there 
being now no Duke of Cornwall, was held of the King in 
capite. There is not anything in it concerning the Manor of 
Otterham, but inasmuch as it gives us some information relative 
to the issue of Sir William Fitz Wauter, it will be well to cite a 
few passages. The jurors find that the said Sir William died 
seized of the Manor of Penrose Burden as of right, which upon 
his death was seized into the hands of the king, who held it for 
two years, when he, by Letters Patent, granted to one William 
Corby all the lands of the said Sir William within the County 
of Cornwall, together with the marriage of Thomas, son and 
heir of the said Sir William, to receive annually to the use 
of the said William Corby £20, and to account for the surplus 
into the Exchequer. And they jurors say further that in the 
12th year of the said king, Edward Eurl of Devon entered into 
the said manor and expelled all who claimed right of the king, 
and occupied the said manor for five years foUoM'ing and received 
the profits, and that afterwards the said Earl for the following 
four years received two parts of the profits and no more, 
because Margery, who was wife of Thomas Fitz Wauter, 
received the third part as her dower, and the jurors say that the 
two parts of the said manor of right pertained to the king until 
the full age of Nicholas, son and heir of Thomas Fitz Wauter, 
who was then of the age of four years and more, and was under 
the guardianship of William Drayton, knight, his uncle, by 
grant of the king f 

From this we learn that Thomas, son and heir of Sir 
William Fitz Wauter, married Margery, sister of Sir William 
Drayton, and died circa 1 392-3, leaving Nicholas, his son and heir, 

*Inq. p.m. 8 Eich. IT, No. 16. 
flnq, p.m., 21 Rich. II, Exclj. 



PABISH OF OTTEEHAM. 265 

an infant, for four years later, we find he was only four years 
of age. Of this Nicholas we have no further information. He 
must have died s.p. and Margaret Fitz Wauter, his aunt, who 
married John "Wibbery, became his heir, and John Wibbery, 
her grandson, as Lord of the Manor, presented to the church of 
Otterham in 1422. He married Leva, daughter and heir of 
John Gorges, who married first John Wibberj'- of Dartmouth, 
and died on Sunday next after the feast of the Purification of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary (2 Feb.), 1422-3, leaving his wife great 
with child. She was afterwards, viz. : on the feast of St. 
Lawrence, 1424, delivered of a daughter named Johanna. 
Previously to his death, John Wibbery had conveyed the Manors 
of Northlegh, Oterham, Penros Burden, Cranysworth, Crock- 
major, and Forty llegres to certain trustees. Leva, his relict, on 
monday next after the feast of the Invention of Holy Cross, 
1425, married Thomas Bonville, son and heir of John Bonville 
by Elizabeth, daughter and heir of John Fitz Roger, and by 
charter dated 37 Henry VI, granted all the said manors to the 
said Thomas Bonville, and Leva, his wife, to hold jointly for the 
term of their lives, and after their deaths remainder to Philip 
Copleston and Ann, his wife, which Ann was the grand daughter 
of the said Leva, and the heirs of their bodies, and in default of 
such issue remainder to the right heirs of the aforesaid John 
"Wibbery. The said Thomas Bonville and Leva were thereupon 
seized of the said manors for the term of their lives, and the 
said Leva on the 16th December following died, and the said 
Thomas Bonville survived and held the said manors solely, and 
the jurors say that the Manor of Oterham with its appurtenances 
is held of the heirs of Sir William Bonville, knight, and that its 
value per annum, beyond reprises, is £10, and they say further 
that the aforesaid Ann, daughter of Johanna Bonville, deC' ased, 
late wife of John Bonville, Esq., and daughter of the said Leva 
is the nearest heir of the said Leva, and is aged 23 years and 
more.* 

As we have seen above, Anne, daughter and heir of John 
Bonville by his wife Johanna, daughter and heir of John 
AVibbery, married Philip Copleston of Copleston, and conveyed 



*Inq. p.m., 1 Edward IV, No. 24. 



266 PARISH OF OTTERHAM. 

to him the Manors of Penrose Burden and Otterham, of which, 
inter alia, he died seized 16 October, 1472, and upon the 
inquisition taten thereupon Ralph Copleston, his son, was found 
to be his nearest heir, and to be aged 17 years and more.*' 

Ealph Copleston presented to the church of Otterham on 20 
August, 1487, an intermediate presentation having been made 
in 1474 by G-eorge, Duke of Clarence and Earl of Warwick, 
during the minority of the said Ralph, to whom probably the 
wardship of the minor had been granted. Ralph married Ellen, 
daughter of Sir John Arundell of Lanherne, and being seized, 
inter alia, of the Manors of Penrose Burden and Otterham, he 
demised the same to Sir William Courtenay and others in trust 
to the use of himself and his wife for the term of their lives 
respectively with remainder over to his sons Nicholas, Thomas, 
Richard, and John the younger in successive tail male. He 
died on 3rd September, 8 Henry vij (1492), and John Copleston, 
his son, was found to be his nearest heir and to be of the age 
of 16 years and more. The jurors found that the manor of 
Penrose Burden was held by knight's service of the Castle of 
Launceston, and that the Manor of Oterham was held of the 
Prior of Tywardreath by fealty, and was worth per annum four 
marks, f 

We have not succeeded in finding the inquisition post 
mortem of John Copleston, and we do not know the date of his 
death, but he would appear to have settled the Manor of 
Otterham upon his younger son Richard, who, as the true patron, 
presented to the church in 1549, and in the Herald's Visitation 
of 1564, he is described as of "Otterham." As early as 23 
Henry viij (1531), he suffered a fine, inter alia, in this and 
several other Manors to Humphry Colly s, Esq., Humphry 
Keynes, Esq, Humphry Prideaux, Esq., Thomas GifPord of 
Halsbury, Esq., John Kelly of Kelly, Esq., and John Pers of 
Launceston for the nominal sum of 500 marks. J This was of 
course for purposes of settlement probably upon the marriage 
of his daughter and heir Isota or Isolda with Richard Wood, 
son of Alexander Wood, who, probably as a trustee, presented 

*Inq. p.m., 13 Edw. IV, No. m 
f Inq. p.m., 8 Henry, vij., No. 7. 
:j:Ped. Fin. 23 Hen. viij., Mich. 



PARISH OF OTTERHAM. 267 

to the churcli in 1524. Eichard Wood and Isotta his wife of 
course under settlements were joint lords of the manor, and as 
joint patrons of the benefice presented to the church in 1557. 
In 1568, hy fine they quit-claimed the manor with appurtenances 
to one Francis Whyddon, who by the same fine re-conveyed it 
lo the said Richard and Isotta for the term of their lives, and 
after their decease, remainder to John Wood and the heirs males 
of his body, and in default of such issue remainder to the heirs 
males of the body of the said Hichard, and in default remainder 
to his right heirs.* Two years afterwards the advowson of the 
church was vested in the aforesaid John Wood, who suffered a fine 
thereinto one John Oarswell, gent., f who thereupon re-granted 
the same to the said John for the term of one week with 
remainder after the expiration of that term to the aforesaid 
Richard and Isotta, his wife, and the heirs males of their bodies 
for ever, and after their deaths, in default of such issue, remainder 
to the right heirs of the said Eichard. In 1588, Thomas Torway 
Yeoman presented to the church for that town by reason of a 
grant of Eichard Wood and Isotta his wife. 

Eichard Wood and Isotta, his wife, died not long afterwards, 
and John Wood, their son before mentioned, also died s.p., and 
the manor and Advowson devolved upon Christopher Wood of 
North Tawton, who granted the next presentation to Walter 
Harte and Charles Harte, sons of Edward Harte, of the City of 
Exeter, who presented in 1603. In 1615, John Wood, supposed 
to have been the son and successor of Christopher, presented to 
the benefice, and in 1619, Charles Harte, son of Edward 
aforesaid, again presented for that turn one William Sheeres, 
and upon his eviction in 1621, John Wood of North Tawton, in 
his own right, presented one John Braddon, Clerk, In 1626, 
John Wood, Esq. and Christopher Wood, his son, suffered a 
fine in the Manor of Otterham to John Saltren, gent., in which 
it is described as containing twelve messuages, three cottages, 
one mill, fifteen gardens, two hundred acres of pasture, two acres 
of wood, four hundred acres of furze and heath, and thirty-nine 
shillings rent with appurtenances in Otterham and Jacobstow, 

* Ped. Fin. 10 Elizabeth, Hil. 
fPed. Fin. 12 Elizabeth, Hil, 



268 PAEISH OF OTTERHAM. 

and also the advowson of the church of Otterham, for which 
remise, quitclaim, and warrant the said John Saltren gave the 
said John and Christopher Wood the sum of £500. 

John Braddon held the Rectory fifty-four years, and dying 
in 1675, the vacancy was filled upon the presentation of John 
Saltren, as were all subsequent institutions upon the presentation 
of members of this family down to the year 1737 inclusive, but 
the next presentation in the following year was made by William 
Betenson of Grylls, in the parish of Lesnewth, gent., and the 
following one in 1779 by John Betenson of Tiverton, in the 
County of Devon, gent. From this it would appear that as 
early as 1737 the advowson of the church had been alienated 
from the manor to which it had always pertained, and was at 
this time held by the Betenson family in gross. The manor 
itself still continued vested in the Saltren faraily down to 1757,* 
when John Saltren and Mary, his wife, suffered a fine therein to 
Richard Welch, Joshua Thomas, and John Teage, in which it is 
described as containing fifteen messuages, ten tofts, one mill, 
thirty gardens, two hundred acres of land, one hundred acres of 
meadow, twenty acres of pasture, five hundred acres of furze 
and heath, two hundred acres of moor, and an annual rent 
of 30/- ; and also seven-twelvths parts of one messuage, two 
acres of land, and two acres of furze and heath, and moreover, 
of common of pasture for all manner of cattle, with app"^^ in 
Otterham, and divers messuages in that parish and in the 
parishes of Egloskerry, Alternun, Laneast, Davidstow, and St. 
Ive, from wtiich it would appear that divers tenements in those 
parishes, in which the Saltern family had property, had by them 
been annexed to this manor. This fine remise and quitclaim 
was made by the said John Saltren and Mary, his wife, to the 
aforesaid Richard Welch, Joshua Thomas, and John Teage to 
hold to the use of the said Richard and his heirs for ever, and 
for this remise and quit-claim, the said Richard Welch and the 
others gave the same John Saltren and Mary the sum of £700. f 

The manor thus vested in Richard Welch still continues in 
his descendants. 

* King's Silver Book, 31 Geo. II, Mich. 
-*-Ped. Fin. 31 Geo. II, Michs, 



parish of otterham. 269 

The Advowson. 

A reference to the Table of Institutions will shew that the 
advowson of the church since it was severed from the manor has 
passed through the hands of several parties. The right of 
presentation continued vested in the Betenson family from 1738 
to 1779. In 18 10, William Chilcott, of Tiverton, gent., presented 
as true patron. The following institution in 1850 was made 
upon the presentation of Charles Henry Daw, of Tavistock, 
gentleman, and the institution upon the last vacancy in 1887 
was made upon the presentation of the Eev. H. T. W. Daw, 
clerk. 

Institutions. 

1278. September 27. Master Nicholas Leghe,* Deacon, was 
instituted to the church of Otterham upon the present- 
ation of Matilda, Lady of Otterham. 

1309. April 11. Eobert de St. Gennisf (Genesio), Sub-deacon, 
was instituted to the church of Otterham vacant by the 
resignation of Simon de St. Gennisj' (Genesio) who 
resigned in 1309 upon tiae presentation of Robert, the 
son of William (Fitz William ?) 

1311. January 16. Sir Simon, the son of John de St. Gennis,§ 
Deacon, was instituted to the church of Otterham 
vacant upon the presentation of Robert the son of 
William. 

1362. April 26. Richard Kerwytha, Clerk, || was collated to 
the church of Otterham vacant and in the collation of 
the Bishop by lapse of time. 

Unknown. John Mayow resigned for Lesnewth, 6th January, 
1421. 

*Bp. Bronescomb's Eeg., fo. 89. 

fBp. Stapeldon's Eeg., fo. 55. 

X The Institution of Simon de St. Gennis is doubtless recorded in the 
Eegister from 1293-1307, which is missing. His name occurs as Eector, 21st 
Dec, 1308. Robert de St. Gennis, Rector, had dispensation for non residence for 
a year from Michaelmas, 1309, renewed lOth Sept., 1310 (Reg. 55^ ), 

§Bp, Stapeldon's Reg., fo. 67. 

II Bp. Grandisson's Reg., fol. 142, 



270 PARISH OF OTTEEHAM. 

1422. November 10. Eichard Walys,* Chaplain, was admitted 
to the parish church of Otterham, vacant by the 
resignation of John Mayow, last rector, at the present- 
ation of John Wybbury, Esq. 

An Inquisition having been taken the same day as to the vacancy 
and right of presentation, it was found that the church was vacant by 
reason of the resignation of Richard Walys, and that Thomas Bonvill was 
the true patron, and that he was entitled to present for that turn in right 
of Leva, his wife, who had been previously the wife of John Wybbury, who 
was the owner of the manor to which the advowson and right of patronage 
was appendant. 

1454. January 14. John Gunne,f Chaplain, was instituted to 
the church of Otterham, vacant by the resignation of 
Richard Walys upon the presentation of Thomas 
Bonville, Esq., for this turn the true patron. 

1463. May 25. John Hoper,J Chaplain, was instituted to the 
church of Otterham, vacant by the resignation of John 
Cfune, last rector, upon the presentation of Thomas 
Bonville, the true patron. 

1474. January 20. John Ewen,|| Vicar of the Parish of 
Colbrook, exchanged his benefice with John Hoper, 
Rector of the Parish of Otterham. 

Unknown. Louis Pollard. 

1487, August 20. John Perie,§ Chaplain, instituted to the 
church of Otterham, upon the presentation of Ralph 
CojDleston, Esq., vacant by the resignation of Louis 
Pollard, the last rector. 

1506. Octobers. John Trowte. 

1524. March 24. John Trehane,^ Chaplain, was instituted to 
the parish church of Otterham, vacant by the resignation 
of John Trowte, last rector, upon the presentation of 
Alexander Woode, Esq. 

* Bp. Lacy's 'Reg., fo. 41. 
tBp. Lacy's Reg., fo. 286. 
JBp. Nevill's Reg., fo. 19. 
II Bp. Booth's Reg., fo. 34. 
§Bp. Courtenayor Tor's Reg., fo. 99. 
T[ Bp. Vesey's Reg., fo. 24, 



PARISH OF OTTEE.HAM. 271 

1549. Junes. John Stone, Priest,* was instituted to the church 
of Otterham, vacant by the death of John Trehane, the 
last rector, upon the presentation of Richard Copleston, 
the true patron. 

1557. April 30. Henry Torway,f Clerk, was instituted to the 
Rectory of Otterham, vacant by the resignation of the 
last Rector, upon the presentation of Richard Woode, 
gent., and Isotte, his wife, the true patrons. 

1588. May 8. Robert Torway,:|: Clerk, was instituted to the 
parish church of Otterham, vacant by the death of 
Henry Torway, last incumbent, upon the presentation 
of Thomas Torway, Yeoman, by the grant of Richard 
Wood and Isolda, his wife, for this turn the true patron. 

1 603. October 6. Thomas Bettenson, Clerk, B. A.; || was instituted 
to the Rectory of Otterham, vacant by the death of 
Robert Torwaye, upon the presentation of Walter Harte 
and Charles Harte, sons ot Edward Harte, of the City 
of Exeter, gent., the true patron by the grant of 
Christopher Wood of North Tawton, Esq., the original 
true patron. 

1615. October 27. Robert Langeston,§ Clerk, was admitted to 
the Rectory of Otterham, vacant by the resignation of 
Thomas Betty son, last Rector, upon the presentation of 
John Wood of North Tawton, Esq., the true patron, 

1619. January 15. William Sheeres,^ Clerk, was admitted to 
the Rectory of Otterham, vacant by the death of the 
last incumbent upon the presentation of Charles Herte, 
son of Edward Herte, of the City of Exeter, the true 
patron. 

*Bp. Veysey's Reg., fo. 132. 
fBp. Turbervillc's Reg,, fo. 19. 

I Hp. Woolton's Reg., fo. 37. 

II Bp. Cotton's Reg., fol. 78. Thomas Bettenson matriculated as from Exeter 
College, Oxford, 5tli May, 1598. His father is described as " Pleb." 

§Id. fo. 105. Benefice sequestrated on the death of Robert Langeston, 
24 Sept., Itil9. Act Book A, 
^Id. fo. 112. 



272 PARISH OF OTTERHAM. 

1621. August 11. John Braddon, Clerk, was admitted to the 
Eectory of Otterham, vacant by the death of Eobert 
Langeston, Clerk, late incumbent of the same,* and by 
the eviction of William Sheeres last incumbent, upon 
the presentation of John Wood of North Tawton, the 
true patron. 

1675. May 11. George Wakeham,t Clerk, B.A., was admitted 
to the Eectory of Otterham, vacant by the death of 
John Braddon, Clerk, last incumbent, upon the present- 
ation of John Saltren, gent., the true patron. 

1681. March 1. Hugh Warren, j' Clerk, was instituted to the 
Rectory of Otterham, vacant by the resignation of 
George Wakeham, last Eector, upon the presentation 
of John Saltren of Slade, in the parish of St. Ive, Co. 
Cornwall, the true patron. 

1684. August 7. Samuel Northcote,|| Clerk, was admitted to 
the Eectory of Otterham, vacant by the death of Hugh 
Warren, last Rector, upon the presentation of John 
Saltren, gent., the true patron. 

1706. October 3. Thomas Sargeant§ was admitted to the 

Rectory of Otterham, vacant by the death of Samuel 
Northcote, last Rector, upon the presentation of 
William Saltren, Esq., the true patron. 

1707. August 1. John Vivian was instituted to the Rectory of 

Otterham, upon the presentation of William Saltren, 

Esq. 
John Vivian, B.A., was admitted to the Rectory of Otterham 1st 
August, 1707, by Dr. Tenison, Archbishop of Canterbury, sede vacante, 
(Reg. II, 2383), in the interval between the translation of Bishop Sir Jonathan 
Trelawny, Bart., to the See of Winchester, 14 June, 1707, and the conse- 
cration of Bishop Blackball, 8 February following. Bp. Blackball died 
from a fall from his horse 29th November, 1716, aged 66 

*Bur. at Otterham, 24 Feb., 1674-5. 

fBp's. Eeg. New Series, Vol. II, fo. 37. 

t Id. vol. Ill, fo. 20. 

II Id. fo. 47. Samuel Northcott, Clerk, Eector, bur. 24 Aug., 1706. 

§Id. Vol. IV, fo.l49. 



PARISH OF OTTERHAM. 273 

1708. July 3. James Avent, B.A.* was instituted to the 
Eeetory of Otterham, vacant by the resignation of John 
Vivian, upon the presentation of William Saltren, 
gent. 

1724. May 25. William Cruwys, B.A.f was instituted to the 
Rectory of Otterham, vacant by the death of James 
Avent, last Rector, upon the presentation of John 
Saltren of Treludick, Esq. 

1737. April 30. Joseph Silly^ was instituted to the Eectory of 

Otterham, vacant by the death of William Cruwys, 
last Eector, upon the presentation of William Saltren, 
Esq. 

1738. September 6. William Snawdon, B.A.,|| was instituted 

to the Eectory of Otterham, vacant by the resignation 
of Joseph Silly, § last Sector, upon the presentation of 
William Betenson of Grrylls, gent. 

1779. August 12. Digory Joce, Clerk, was^ instituted to the 
Rectory of Otterham, vacant by the death of William 
Snawdon, upon the presentation of John Betenson of 
Tiverton, Devon, gent. 

1810. August 10. Samuel Chilcott, B.D.,** was instituted to 
the Rectory of Otterham, vacant by the death of Digory 
Jose, last Rector, upon the presentation of William 
Chilcott of Tiverton, gent., true patron. 

*Id. Vol. V, fo. 5. 1724, James Avent, Clerk, Eector, bur. 9 Mar. 1724. 

tid. Vol. VI, fo. 16. 

J Id. Vol. VII, fo. 8. 

II Eeg. New Series, Vol. VII, fo. 26. 
1741. Easter, dau. of William Snawdon, Eector, and Mary his wife, bap. 24 May. 
1743. John, son of Do. Do. Do. bap. 6 Dec. 

1745. William Do. Do. Do. bap. 22 ,, 

1747. Elizabeth, dau. of Do. Do. Do. bap. 21 Feb. 

§ He was son of John Silly of Kernick, in the parish of Helland, was 
instituted to the Eectory of Lanivet, 1738, and was buried there 16 April, 1739. 
s.p. see. Hist, of Trigg Minor, Vol. II, p. 521. 

Tfld. Vol. IX, fo. 159. Son of John Joce, and Anne his wife, bap. at 
Lesnewth, 12 April, 1732. Eev. William Snawdon bur. at Otterham, 2 March, 
1779. 

** Id. Vol. XI, fo. 33. 



274 PARISH OF OTTERHAM. 

1850. July 30. Grlanville Martin, B.A.,* was instituted to the 
Kectory of Otterham, vacant by the death, of Samuel 
Chilcott, last Rector, upon the presentation of Charles 
Henry Daw of Tavistock, Devon, merchant. 

1861. Septembers. Charles Hemy Thomas Wyse Daw, M. A. f 
was instituted to the Eectory of Otterham, vacant by 
the resignation of Glanville Martin, last Rector, upon 
the presentation of Charles Henry Daw of Tavistock, 
merchant. 

1873. March 4. John GiUard, B.A4 was instituted to the 
Rectory of Otterham, vacant by the resignation of 
Charles Henry Wyse Daw, M.A., last Eectoi, upon the 
presentation of the crown for this turn by reason of 
the lunacy of the true patron. 

1875. October 5. Robert Martin Smith, B.A.|| was instituted 
to the Rectory of Otterham, vacant by the death of 
John Grillard, last Rector, upon the presentation of the 
crown as before. 

1883. May 29. William Dunstan Rundle, M.A.§ was instituted 
to the Rectory of Otterham, vacant by the death of 
Robert Martin Smith, last Rector, upon the presentation 
of the crown as before. 

1887. Edward Henry Archer Shepherd was instituted 

to the Rectory of Otterham, vacant by the resignation 
of William Dunstan Rundle, upon the presentation of 
the Rev. C. H. T. Wyse Daw, Clerk. 

The Parish Chttrch. 

The Parish Church of Otterham is dedicated to St. Denys, 
and consists of chancel, nave, and south aisle, west tower and 
south porch. Formerly it had a transept on the north side, but 
some forty years ago this was removed and the arch walled up. 
The arcade between the nave and south aisle is of four bays, the 

*Id. Vol. Xm, fo. 71. 

fid. fo. 161. 

t Id. Vol. XIV, fo. 80. 

II Id. fo. 105. 

§ Tniro Eegister, Vol. 1, fo. 49. 



Vol. XI. 



Plate X. 




Vol. XI. 



Plate XI. 



ST. DENIS, OTTERHAM, 

As Existing in 1884. 





Ground Plan. 



South Elevation. 



FEET to 5 O 

" ),j J .1 .1 ,1 I M t I 



SCALE: — 16 FEET TO I INCH. 



10 



20 



S6 F£ET 



PARISH OF OTTERHAM. 275 

arclies being supported by rDonolith. granite columns. The tower 
is of two stages with, a crenellated parapet and four small 
pinacles. The doorway of the south porch is square-headed 
with four-centered arch, and the western or tower door is the 
same and of good granite work. The east window in the 
chancel is of three lights with tracery in the head. There is a 
somewhat similar window without tracery at the east end of the 
aisle and three others of a like character in the south wall, and 
one in the north wall of the nave, all of the same type. The 
tower was built in 1702, and is about 45 feet in height, the 
tower arch being round and not centrally placed. In the tower 
are three bells, all mediaeval. The first and third have legends 
on them, but the second is quite plain. The legends are : 

I. ti* "fcJocc mea Dina ic pello cuntanocina. Diameter at the 
mouth, 27|^-ins. 

II. This bell has no legend. Diameter at the mouth, 29f 
inches. 

III. »J< ©fit micl)i coUatttin t|)c iatati nomcn amatam. Diameter 
at the mouth, 32f -ins. 

Both the legends are in Old English characters. 

The interior of the church is in a very dilapidated and bad 
condition. The old oak seats remain in the church, but they are 
not carved nor have they ever been, but they appear to have 
been planed, though they shew some traces of colouring. The 
tie-beams of the roof and the wall plates are carved, but were 
very thickly coated with lime-wash, which has been removed by 
the rector, the Eev. W. Dunstan Bundle. Parts of the base of 
the screen remain in situ and shew traces of colouring. The 
font is octagonal and of granite. 

The only piece of altar plate now remaining is an Elizabethan 
Communion Cup with a paten cover, of the usual type, and a 
pewter paten. 

The Monuments in the Church, etc. 

There are few monuments, the earliest is of the date 1652. 
It consists of a ledger stone circumscribed with the following 
words : Mary y'^ wife of Abel French, gent., and daughter of 
George Hele, of Whitstone, Esq., who departed this life on y^ 
vj of Octobei', Anno Domini, 1652, set suae, 35. 



276 



PARISH OF OTTERHAM. 



In the centre at the head, is a shield with elaborate 
mantling, helmet, and wreath, but without a crest. The arms 
are a bend, or bendlet, between two dolphins naiant. impaling, 
five lozenges in bend, each charged with an ermine spot (see 
below). 




Underneath the shield are the following lines : 

Faith, virtue, patience, love, and all in all, 

This Godly Matron had ever at her call, 

Whose lyfe, whose death, whose charitie, whose fame, 

Lyeth still recorded in the book of fame, 

And though this wall doth parte her love and shee 

Their souls are coheirs of felicitie. 



See here shee lyes 
who did alwaies 
walk by y^ lyffe 
of this good wife. 



Feare God her neighbour love 
And thou shalt live above. 



PARISH OF OTTERHAM. 277 

A large stone was found under a seat circumscribed as 
under : 

Here lyett ye body of Alice, y^ wife of William Grigg, deceased, who was 
buried the 24th of January, 1684. 

In the middle of the stone the following : 

Here Alice Grigg doth intombed lie. 
Whose spirit mounteth to the starrye skie, 
Unto the poor she had a good regarde. 
Which daily cry heaven be thy rewarde. 



On a stone affixed to the wall is the following inscription : 

In Memory of Johan, the wife of William Moyse, and daughter of Johan 
Avery of Kernick, gent., who was buried here uaderneath, March 14th, in y© 
year of our Lord 1720-1. Etatis suae, 48. 

Then below the burials of : 

Henry the son of William Moyse and Johanna his wife, Feb. 9, in the y'" 1700. 
Another Henry do. do. June 18, do. 1702. 

Thomazine, dau. do. do. Mar. 26, do. ' 1709. 

Behold the husband and the wife, 
Three children also here do lie. 
Soon young as old depart this life, 
Lord make us all prepare to die. 

In the Churchyard. 

Just outside the church and now clamped against the wall 
is the following : 

Abel French, of Smallhill, gent., who departed this mortal life on the fourth 
day of May, in the year of our Lord God, 1660. etatis (?)* 

On the middle of the stone is the following : 

To truth, to prince, to rich, to poor, to all, 

Steadfast, faithfull, kindly, good, and liberal; 

Hee always was, and tho his bones here lye. 

His works shall prayse him still his fame ne'er dye, 

Happy the dead tha' live and happy they 

Whome death will not have live, Life not have dye, [sic but query]. 

Lett my posteryty forbear to take 

My bed of rest their sepulchere to make. 

* This stone is much mutilated, in fact broken into two pieces, it is gratifying 
however to know that it has received every care from the Architect, under whose 
direction the church was rebuilt. 



278 parish of otterham. 

Family History. 

So far as we know, the only family of gentry ever 
permanently resident in the parish, was that of French, which was 
settled at Smallhill as early as the beginning of the 17th 
century. Unfortunately the Parish Eegisters only commence in 
1687, and they do not aid us much in the compiling a pedigree 
of that family. We find, however, that in the 14th of Elizabeth, 
William ffrench paid the lay subsidy, on goods in Otterham on 
£9, being the highest lay subsidy in the parish. In the 22 
James John ffrench paid on goods £11, Eoll -^-q. John ffrench 
22 James -^, and in 17 Charles, William ffrench, gent., paid £2 
on lands Id. -^^. There are numerous entries of the name. 
Among them the prevailing christian name is Abel, which 
renders the descent very confusing without the aid of deeds and 
wills, which are not at present accessible to us. 

Over the principal entrance to the house there is an 
escutcheon of arms, but it is so thickly covered with lime-wash 
that the charges cannot be very clearly defined, but see post 
page 276. 

In the early part of the present century, the heiress of the 

family of French married Chichester, and in 1841, when 

the tithes were commuted, Robert Chichester, Esq., is stated to 
be the owner of Smallhill, and it still remains vested in that 
family. 

At the end of the 17th century and beginning of the 18th, 
another family of some local repute resided at Kernick in this 
parish. Peter Prest was buried in 1710, and the name continued 
on the registers until close upon the end of the century. 

At the time the foregoing notes were taken, an effort was 
being made by the Eector to raise funds for the purpose of 
putting the ancient church into thorough repair for divine 
worship, for which plans and estimate had been obtained from 
the well-known architect, Mr. J. P. St. Aubyn, of London, for 
the purpose of executing the work. To Mr. St. Aubyn's courtesy 
we are much indebted, as we have been on many former occasions 
in like circumstances, for the plan and elevation of the then church 
prepared for this work. At this juncture, however, Mr. Eundle 



PARISH OF OTTEEHAM. 279 

received preferment in Devonshire, and his connection with 
Otterhani consequently ceased. Mr. Shepherd, however, his 
successor, entered with great zeal upon the work of rendering 
the parish church suitable for divine service. This has caused 
many inevitable changes, but we are informed that the church 
has been rebuilt upon the old foundations, and that much of the 
old granite work has been re-used in the new building. 

School. 
There is no school in the Parish of Otterham. The children, 
together with those of the Parish of Lesnewth, attend the 
National School at St. Juliet, and representatives from Otterham 
and Lesnewth are on the Board of Management, the Rector of 
St. Juliet being the chairman. 

The Paksonage House. 

The present parsonage house was built about 40 years ago, 
during the incumbency of the Pev. Grlanvill Martin now (1893), 
Vicar of Halwell, near Totnes. It is within a few yards of the 
site of the old parsonage, which was then taken down. It is a 
well-built and convenient residence, surrounded by trees with a 
pretty lawn sloping down to a large sheet of water, ornamented 
by some of the finest beeches in the neighbourhood, and by a 
pair of swans and other water fowl, and stocked with gold fish 
and carp. The house is within two minutes walk of the church. 

We must not conclude these remarks without tendering ou.r 
warm thanks to the Pev. W. Dunstan Pundle, the late, and to 
the Pev. E. H. A. Shepherd, the present, Pector, for much 
assistance very kindly given in their preparation. 



280 



PAPER AND SKETCH MAP OF CORNWALL, SHEWING THE 

LOCALITY OF VARIOUS ROCKS POSSESSING POWER 

TO DEFLECT THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE. 

By THOMAS CLARK, Teuko. 



During the past summer I have devoted my spare time to 
testing and mapping the basic rocks of Cornwall, believing this 
subject to be worthy the attention of the miner, surveyor, and 
mariner. 

I am not aware that anyone, up to the present time, has 
ever attempted to ascertain the percentage of affinity or power 
of such rocks over the bar magnet or needle, by scales and 
weights. 

The short notes I made for a former Journal respecting the 
magnetic power of the Lizard rocks, has called for a far more 
extensive research of our coast line, which is about 180 miles in 
extent, and jutting far out into the great marine highway of 
nations. This work I commenced in earnest, and obtained 
materials from almost every available point, not being desirous 
of pursuing the course of the mistletoe for either matter or 
shelter, but with a full intent to record faithfully my own work 
on the subject. 

I am indebted to Mr. Howard Fox, of Falmouth, for the 
sample of Canna basalt, the high power of which I have used as a 
standard for other rocks. This sample was a portion of the 
rock known as Compass rock, situated on the apex of the Island 
of Canna in the Hebrides. It acquired its name from the fact 
that when a mariner's compass was taken round it, the end of 
the needle mark N. would point to the rock, whether the observer 
placed the compass E., W., N., or S., of it. This extreme power 
of the rock over the needle only extended a short distance, for 
at 80 yards the needle is recorded to nearly assume its normal 
position, only deflecting 1 deg. -^ ; but I have found for this 
hitherto basic champion of the British Isles, rivals in Cornwall, 



VOL. XI 



Plate XII. 




MAGNETIC EOCKS OF CORNWALL. 



281 



both from St. Just in the west, and Polyphant in the east, 
whose magnetic powers far surpass that of the Oanna stone, as 
will be seen by the following table: — 

Percentage 
of Affinity 
for Magnet. 

13-4 

11-4 

7-6 

6-7 

5-9 



Full weight 


Reduced by 


Affinity for 


iH grains. 

289-7 


Magnet. 


Magnet. 


250-9 


38-8 


241-5 


218 9 


27-6 


278 8 


257-5 


21-3 


201-7 


216-0 


15-7 


236-9 


222-6 


14-3 



Botallack 

Polyphant 

Oanna 

Cataeleus 

Blackhead, Lizard . . 

I selected from my collection of Cornish rocks 4 samples 
(from which I cut 4 slices of each) and tested their various 
affinities, the results of which is appended. 

The St. Just sample I obtained from Capt. James Bryant ; 
it is from the celebrated Botallack mine, and was raised from 112 
fathoms below the sea. This class of rock passes down obliquely 
from the lichen-covered ridges of the hillside, far out beneath 
the sea, and its magnetic power has hitherto baffled all attempts 
of the engineer to work out his explorations by the aid of the 
compass only.* 

The sample of Polyphant stone was obtained from one of 
the quarries, near Launceston, about 20 ft. from the surface. The 
magnetic affinity of the rock has, I believe, been hitherto 
unknown, the quarries being situated several miles inland, far 
away from the mariner's course, and in a part where mining 
operations are very rarely conducted. In connection with this 
rock, I found that in the shallower parts of the quarry much of the 
magnetites, through atmospheric influence, were changed into 
amatite, therefore in many cases it had lost much of its influence 
on the magnet. 

Fresh samples of the Cataeleus stone (from the neighbour- 
hood of Padstow) are very difficult to obtain, it being a long 
time since any of it has been quarried for building purposes (that 
used for road-metalling is a different material) ; I was therefore 
compelled to fall back for my test sample on fragments of the 

* A sad catastrophe has recently occurred at Wheal Owles Mine, St. Just, by 
the tapping, at a great depth, of an old mine adjoining, thereby flooding Wheal 
O-wles and drowning 20 of the miners. I have but little doubt that this sad mishap 
will some day be traced to the miner having been misled in his explorations by 
the deflection of the Magnetic Needle, 



282 



MAGNETIC EOCKS OF CORNWALL. 



rock that liad been in the walls of Colan church since the year 
1336, and it yet retains noteworthy affinity for the magnet, which 
the humid atmosphere of Cornwall has failed to destroy. 

The next sample was obtained from the Blackhead, Lizard. 
The rocks of this district I very briefly referred to in a former 
Journal, but since then I have gleaned much fresJi information 
respecting them and the district in general. I find that the 
Porthallow banded gneisses and serpentines N. of the Manacles 
Point are more highly impregnated with magnetic fluid than I 
had evidence of 12 months since, a condition I find also in 
the dark serpentines and steatites a little west of the Black- 
head ; and fresh samples from the Manacles Point have also 
revealed a higher percentage of power than the former ones. 

In preparing my slices of rocks for the magnet, a difficulty 
presented itself which had not previously occurred to such an 
extent, viz. : the great rise in the percentage of power caused 
by the friction of the saw; in some cases it raised to 25 per 
cent, above its normal strength, and after a repose of a day or 
two, tbe power would be found to have considerably relapsed, 
but would again, after a more extended period, regain their 
normal strength ; this is undoubtedly throwing a new light on 
the subject. The slices of Polyphant stone were cut off with a 
tooth-saw, which did not produce such an amount of friction as 
would occur in a harder stone cut with a toothless saw and emerj', 
therefore I did not test for a rise or fall as in the other samples. 

The following table shows the rise and fall in the Magnetic 
affinity, by friction in sawing, of the St. Just Hypersthene rock. 



AFTER 8 HOURS REPOSE. 


FRESH CUT AND AFTER 28 DATS 
REPOSE. 




Full 
weight 

in 
grains- 


Under 

the 
Mag. 


Affin- 
ity 
for 

Mag. 


Percen 
tage 

of affin 
ity. 


No. 1 
No. 2 
No. 3 
No. 4 
Totals 


Full 
weight 

in 
grains. 


Under 
the 
Mag 

49-0 
75-0 
64-5 
62-4 


Affinity 

for 

Mag. 


Percen- 
tage 

of affin- 
ity. 


No. 1 
No. 2 
No. 3 
No. 4 


62-7 

98-6 

124-5 

68-5 


50-0 

92-5 

111-0 

65-0 


12-7 
61 

13-5 
3-5 


20-2 
6-3 

10-8 
51 


62-6 
86-3 
72-3 
68-5 


13-6 

11-3 

7-8 

6 1 


21-7 

13-0 

10-7 

8-9 


Totals 


354-3 


318-5 


35-8 


10-1 


289-7 


250-9 


38 6 


13-4 



After a further repose of 12 months the average affinities 
■\7ere the same. 



MAGNETIC ROCKS OF CORNWALL. 



283 



No. 2 slice, immediately after being sawed, acquired the 
intense affinity for the magnet of 45-6 per cent, of its weight, 
and 48 hours later it relapsed to 6-3 pe]* cent. ; in 28 days after, 
being reduced in size, it acquired the power of 13 per cent., 
which I take to be its normal affinity. 

These figures show how much the magnetic powers of such 
rocks may be intensified by friction ; such being the case in a small 
portion, I consider in the ease of miles of basic beach and cliffs, 
with its thousands of tons of boulders and shingles of the same 
nature brought into motion by such storms as oftentimes visit our 
coast, that the magnetic power would be increased to an almost 
incalculable degree, to which water would be no barrier, for we 
all know its conducting properties for magnetism. This power 
it is dangerous to despise, as it may greatly imperil any misguided 
ship that unfortunately drift within its influence. 

From the observations of Messrs. Eiiker and Thorp, the 
influence on the magnet of the Canna basalt cap scarcely reaches 
down to the sea, but such is not the case with some of the 
Cornish rocks, for they extend far beneath the sea, viz. : at 
Botallack, St. Just, and in the Lizard district. 



POLTPHANT STONE, NEAR 
LAUMCESTON, AFTER REPOSE. 


CANNA BASALT AFTER REPOSE. 




Full 
weight 

in 
grains. 


Re- 
duced 

by 
affinity 

46-0 


Affinity 


Percen- 
tage 
of affin 
ity. 


No. 


1 


Full 
weight 

in 
grains, 

7^3 


Re- 
duced 
by 
affinity. 


Affinity 


Percen- 
tage 
of affin- 
ity. 


No. 1 


52-2 


6-2 


11.8 


73-5 


4-8 


6-1 


No. 2 


65-1 


57-5 


7-6 


11-6 


No. 


2 


68-9 


64-5 


4-4 


6-5 


No. 3 


62-3 


55-0 


7-3 


11-7 


No. 


3 


49-5 


45-5 


4-0 


8-0 


No. 4 


61 9 


55-4 


6-6 


10-4 


No. 


4 


82-1 


74-0 


8-1 


9-8 


Totals 


241-5 


213-9 


27-6 


11-4 


Totals 


278-8 


257-5 


21-3 


7.6 



CAT ACL BITS STON b: AFTER 
REPOSE. 


LONG 


BLACK HEAD SKRPENTINE, AFTER 
REPOSE. 


No. I 


21-5 


19-5 


2-0 


9-3 


No. 1 


57-1 


53-2 


3-9 


7-0 


No. 2 


70-5 


65-1 


5-4 


7-6 


No. 2 


52-8 


49-5 


3-3 


6-2 


No. 3 


70-4 


66-8 


3-6 


5-1 


No. 3 


53-2 


49-9 


3-3 


6-2 


No. 4 


69-3 
231-7 


64-6 
216-0 


47 


6-7 


No. 4 
Totals. 


73-8 
236-9 


700 


3-8 
14-3 


5-1 


Totals 


15-7 


6-7 


222-6 


5-9 



284 MAGNETIC ROCKS OF CORNWALL. 

The average affinity of each sample of rock after 12 mouths 
repose was very similar. 

The bar magnet employed was 1 foot long, IJ inch wide, 
and i inch thick. 

A slice of rock with an affinity of 5^ grs.. was sufficient to 
hold this bar magnet at right angles, either east or west of the 
magnetic poles of the earth. 



285 



AN OGAM STONE AT LEWANNICK, CORNWALL. 

BY ARTHUR G. LANGDON. 
(Reprinted by permission from the Journal of the British Archceological 



Association. Vol. 48, 1892). 



It has always been a matter of some surprise that no 
monument bearing an Ogam inscription has hitherto been found 
in Cornwall, as in the adjoining county of Devon two have been 
discovered: viz., one from Fardel, now in the British Museum; 
and another from Buckland Monachorura, now at Tavistock.* 
I am, therefore, extremely glad to be able to report the discovery 
of such a stone on 7th June last in the churchyard of Lewannick. 
This place is situated about five miles south-west of Launceston. 
The stone stands on the south side of the churchyard, near 8 
large tree. No doabt the readers of this Journal will recollect 
that the church was destroyed by fire on 11th January, 1890, 
and although, since its rebuilding, it has been visited by 
numbers of people, it is remarkable that no person has observed 
the characters on this stone. Even the old sexton informed me 
that he had never heard that it had attracted the notice of any 
one. 

The stone is a rectangular block of granite, apparently 
deeply buried. The front is curved slightly inwards from top 
to bottom, and a portion of the back is split oif in a similar 
manner to the " Other Half Stone" at St. Cleer.f There is also 
a vertical fracture at the top. 

With the assistance of the sexton and a friend who 
accompanied me, I dug out the earth to a depth of 1 8 in. (a 
matter of some difiiculty, owing to the roots of the tree), but 
no further traces of Ogams were found lower than about 9 in. 
beneath the surface. The height of the stone above the ground 
is 4 ft. ; the width varies from 1 ft. 3 in to 1 ft. 5 in., the 
greatest width being in the middle. Where the size of the 
upper portion of the stone is reduced by the piece being broken 
off, it is 5^ in. thick ; the remainder is 9 in thick. 

* Hub ler's Inscripiiones Britannice Christianoe, Nos. 24 and 25. 
f Jouvn. Brit. Arch. Assoc, vol. xlvi, p. 325. 




286 



OGAM STONE AT LEWANNlCK. 



In addition to the Ogams there is an inscription in Latin 
capitals, which is quite distinct. It is cut in four horizontal 
lines, and reads thus : 




OGAM STONE AT LEWANNIOK. 287 

The Ogams are cut on the right hand angle of the stone, 
and read from the bottom upwards, as follows : 

I I I I I //ll I I I I I I I !/ I I I I / I I ///// 

M M I // I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I / I I I I / I I ///// 

I G E N A V I M E MO R 

This is merely a repetition of the Latin legend.*' There is 
no difficulty about the reading as far as avi, but after this it 
becomes somewhat obscure. The unusual position of the first 
two strokes of the final R may be explained by the necessity of 
avoiding cutting the initial i of the Latin inscription. The 
remaining strokes slope the right way after this difficulty had 
been got over. It is to be hoped that Prof. Ehys will give 
some notes on the inscriptions at an early opportunity. 

The foregoins: report appeared this year in the July 
number of the Archceologia Cambrensis, accompanied by this 
plate, for permission to use which I am indebted to the courtesy 
of the Committee of the Cambrian Archaeological Association. 
Since the account was written I have again visited the stone, 
and have discovered that a slight error has been made in my 
reproduction of the Ogam inscription. In the last name the 
upright letter on the narrow face of the stone, on the right side 
of the Latin inscription, should have been drawn as a notch on 
the angle only ; thus making four notches in all, equivalent to 
the letter e, as shewn in the diagram given in the letterpress. 
I also omitted to point out that Mr. J. Eomilly Allen, F.S.A. 
Scot., to whom I sent the rubbings immediately after discovering 
the stone, must be credited for deciphering the inscription, and 
for observing the remarkable form of the r at the end of it, 
wherein the first two strokes of the letter slope the wrong way, 
for the reason already given. 

The word memoria in the Latin inscription is curious, and 
there is a great temptation to read the legend as to the memory 
oi INCENVVS. If this translation were correct, the Latin to 
correspond should be incenvi memoriae ; but as there have 
obviously never been any letters beyond the side of the stone, 
such a reading as suggested is, therefore, quite inadaiissible. 

* The only differences beiny; that the Ogaui inscription begins IG instead 
of iNG, the A of AVi is missing in the Latin version, and the final ia in the 
Ogams. 



288 OGAM STONE AT LEWANNICK. 

Prof. Rhys, to whom T afterwards sent the rubbings, very 
kindly wrote to me on the subject, and as his opinion is of so 
much value, I have taken the liberty of inserting some of his 
remarks in connection with the word memoria, especially that 
portion regarding the absence of the e. 

It is in my opinion far better not to read a word at all, than 
to read it incorrectly, simply for the sake of making a translation 
of the whole legend, for which there is no justification. For 
the present, then, I at least must be content to let memoria 
remain memoria, without offering any solution as to the meaning 
of the word. 



289 



ANCIENT SETTLEMENT AT TREWORTHA. 

By the Rev. S. BARING-GOULD. 



In the Journal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall for 
April, 1892, were published a notice and plans of some excavations 
made in 1891 on the site of an ancient settlement at the edge of 
Trewortha Marsh, on the Bodmin Moors. 

A couple of days were spent in making further researches, 
in the spring of 1892, and one additional hut was in part cleared 
out. This is the hut marked B on the plan. It consists 
of a long chamber, measuring 29-ft. by 12-ft. 6-in., the walls 
composed partly of upright blocks, partly of stones laid in rude 
courses. It has its entrance on the west from a sort of vestibule 
to which admittance was obtained from the south. To the north 
this vestibule was probably closed by a wall, but no traces of its 
foundations could be discovered. On the west of this vestibule 
is a bakehouse, something like that already explored and 
described. Hut E, It consists of a chamber measuring 9-ft. 
10-in. by 12-ft. 6-in. Entrance was obtained from the east by 
a doorway, of which one of the uprights alone remains. The 
disappearance of this upright and of the wall of the vestibule 
adjoining may point to removal at a later period for the con- 
struction of a hedge or shed. 

In the west wall of this chamber is a domed oven, the floor 
composed of a slab of granite. It was of bee-hive shape and 
constructed by the gradual contraction of the courses of stone. 
The top has fallen in. Adjoining it is a curious locker 
constructed in a curve, so that it might derive some of the 
heat from the oven. It is roofed over with four granite blocks. 

A second hut, A, was but partially explored. It consists of 
two chambers that do not communicate with each other, that to 
the east has its walls lined with upright blocks, and has its door 
to the east, the western chamber has the door to the south, and 
its walls are in part laid in courses. 



290 ANCIENT SETTLEMENT AT TREWOETHA. 

With, regard to the relics found in this settlement, it is not 
possible from them to determine its age, further than that it 
dates from after the Roman Conquest. The pottery is rude, all 
of one type, and bears no trace of glaze. The fragments 
discovered point to wide-mouthed vessels, some of them with 
handles, but no spouts, so badly baked that some of the clay can 
be washed away as though it had never been subjected to the 
fire. Of ornament there is very little, what little there is was 
made with the finger or a bit of stick. 

The discovery of several small hones shows that there were 
in use at the time iron tools ; three or four flint flakes, and a 
scraper were found, also a circular button of slate, and a small 
granite quern. 

A large quantity of the pottery, and the flakes and scraper 
of flint have been given by Mr. Robins Bolitho, the proprietor 
of the land, to the Penzance Museum. 

In the Journal of the Institution for 1868-70, is published 
a " Notice of enclosures at Smallacombe, near the Cheesewring," 
by Mr. J. T. Blight. These enclosures are situated about a mile 
further up the valley of the Withy Brook. They are of precisely 
the same character as those at Trewortha, and Mr. Bolitho is 
desirous that I should explore these, so as to arrive at some more 
definite conclusions as to the date of these perplexing remains. 

On the hill slopes and tops around Trewortha are numerous 
cairns. Of these we have explored three. One was sliced 
through by the railway cutting, we found it contained a kiscvaen, 
and under this a cup-like depression in clay containing ashes. 
A second, explored on a spur of hill dividing Tresillern Marsh 
from Trewortha, yielded nothing. A third, on the slope above 
Rushelford Gate, contained a granite cist enclosing ashes and 
burnt bone, but nothing further. 



Vol XI 



Plate XIII. 













j^j^.>Ji:-* •■■''<i 



/^ — —777 
LOCKER AND OVEN IN HUT B LOOKING W. 

SCALE OF FEET. 



^.,^:^l 



'mi.r 



■'^^'"'''ll(ll(lllll&*ll/il//li 



^ .1^' Ifk- 9-6 -^J ilf^ 



snsMM 

^ l^-l- ---26.0. 













PLAN OF HUT G. 



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PLAN OF HUT B. 



VDoor Cover 



SCALE OF FEET. 



Vou. XI 



Plate XI v. 



9-in — 



QUERN, TREWORTHA. 




SAMPLES OF ORNAMENT ON THE POTTERY- 



1. Border, rnadehy twisted rope. 2. Border, ornament made with fingers and nail. 
3. Handle fragment. 4. Section of fragment of lip of Pitcher. 

5. Conjectural restoration of the pitchers, of which numerous fragments found, 

diatneters of mouths usually 1-ft. l-«». to 6%-in. 

6. Fragment, uncertain to what sort of vessel it belonged. 



291 



CORNISH LANDOWNERS WHO HELP 15 LIBRATES OF LAND 

OR MORE BY MILITARY SERVICE, AND WERE NOT KNIGHTS, 

HENRY III, 1256. 

By the Late WILLIAM SINCOOK. 



Introduction. 

Lysons, in his account of the principal Cornish landowners, 
says of this record (1255): ''It includes all those who were 
possessed of fifteen librates of land, or more, and held by knight 
service." This is clearly erroneous, for the list of 13 names, is 
only of those qualified to take up knighthood, who had neglected 
to do so. Nor can they be rightly described illustrious men, as 
Sir John Maclean designates them in his history of the Manor of 
Hamatethy. Witti films Roherti is supposed by him to be William 
Peverel, who gave the church of St. Brewerd to the Priory of 
Tywardreath. Apart from other considerations, showing the im- 
probability of such being the case, it is notorious that the Peverel 
family were proud of their surname, and always used it. 

The record is addressed to the king — " Illustria viro, Domino 
Henrico, Sfc.,''^ {vide Oarew's Survey of Cornwall,) and was a 
return made by the Sheriff of those who held in Cornwall fifteen 
librates of land or more by military service, and were not 
knights. 

The possession of a stated income from land at this time 
entitled to knighthood, and freeholders so qualified were com- 
pelled to become knights under penalty of a fine. A proclamation 
was issued that whoever had £15 and above in land, "should 
be dight in his armes " and endowed with knighthood, or be 
fined, " to the end that England, as well as Italie, might be 
strengthened with chivalry." Those knights in virtue of pro- 
perty, simply called milites, held a very different position from the 
milites glaiio cinesi or knights whom the king had created by 
cincture of sword and belt. 

Although only 13 names of the gentry of the county appear 
in this record, it is of great interest, as most of them can be 
distinctly traced to their respective families ; and their descendants, 
in some cases, are still to be found among us. 



292 CORNISH LANDOWNERS, 1256. 

1 . Thomas de Tracy heads tlie list, whose lands in Cornwall 
are set down as worth 40 librates and more. The ancient family 
of Tracy can boast of descent from Saxon ancestors, being 
descended from the blood-royal of the Sazon kings of England, 
and possessing at the present day the same property as their 
Saxon ancestors did before the Conquest, viz. : Toddington, in 
the county of Grloucester, — a rare instance of William the 
Conqueror's forbearance. 

Lineage of Tracy. 

King Edgar, by his second wife, Elfrida, dau. of Ordgar, 
Earl of Devonshire, was father of 

Ethelred II, surnamed The Un-ready, who, by his first wife, 
Elgifa, dau. of the Ealdorman Thored, had six sons and four 
daughters. The youngest daughter, Goda, married Dreux, 
Count of the Vexin, a nobleman descended from Charlemagne, 
by his mother, Alice or Adele, daughter of Herbert, Comte de 
Senlis. By this marriage with Goda, the Count became Lord of 
Sudeley and Toddington, county of Gloucester, and left issue 

Ralph, created Earl of Hereford, whose son, 

Harold, possessed at the General Survey, numerous lordships 
in England, amongst which were Sudeley and Toddington, with 
the Castle of Ewyas and other lands in Herefordshire, secured, 
doubtless, by his intermarriage with Maud, daughter of Hugh 
Lupus, Earl of Chester. This Harold had two sons, John, his 
heir, and Eobert, who had the castle of Ewyas, and assumed 
therefrom the surname of Ewyas. The elder son, assuming his 
surname from Sudeley, the chief seat which he inherited, 
became 

John de Sudeley, and Lord of Sudeley and Toddington, A.D. 
1140. He married Grace, daughter and heir of Henry de Traci, 
feudal lord of Barnstaple, and had issue 

Ralph de Sudeley, founder of the priory of Erdburie. 

William, who adopted his mother's name of De Traci. This 
William is (almost beyond doubt) the same Sir William Tracy 
who was concerned in the assassination of Thomas d Becket. He 
died circa 1224. By Hawise de Born, his wife, he left a son and 
successor. 



COBNISH LANDOWNERS, 1256. 293 

Henry de Traai, of Toddington, who died about the year 
1246, leaving a daughter, Margery, wife of Maurice de Stanlich, 
and two sons, Henry, his heir, and Thomas, who became '■'jure 
uxorus Isoldce de Vardmau^^^ of Eestorm el Castle, Cornwall. 

This Thomas de Tracy is the one named in our record. He 
married Isolda the heiress of the ancient baronial family of 
Cardinan. In r256. certain proceedings were taken in the king's 
court respecting the dower of Ela, relict of Andrew de Cardinan, 
when Thomas de Piidias (Prideaux) was appointed attorney for 
Isolda, wife of Thomas de Tracy Andrew de Cardinan, the 
father of Isolda, was the son and heir of Eobert de Cardinan, 
who held the baronies of Cardinan and Botardel, consisting of 
71 knight's fees. In 1264, Thomas de Tracy surrendered the 
castle of Eestormel, and the barony of Cardinan, to Ealph 
Arundell, to be held on behalf of Simon de Monf ort, as a security 
against his enemies who had threatened him with destruction. 
In 1266, Thomas de Tracy witnessed a grant of Lanesley, in 
Grulval, by Simon de Als to the Prior of S. Germans. He died 
before 1269, for in that year, Isolda de Cardinan, as she styled 
herself, who had been the wife of Thomas de Tracy, conveyed the 
manors of Cardinan and Botardel to Oliver de Dinaunt ; and 
also in the 54th Henry III (1269) Hugo de Treverbyn, quit- 
claimed the said manors to Oliver de Dmaunt for one sore hawk 
— unum austurcum sorum : a hawk of the first year. It is evident 
that Thomas de Tracy left no descendants. Lysons gives an 
ancient seal, appendant to a grant, without date, from Isolda de 
Cardinan to Henry de campo Arnulphi (Champernowne) of her 
manors of Tywardreath and Ludwon. On the seal is a coat of 
arms, three bendlets, with this inscription " S. Isonte de 
Cardinan." It is probable that the coat of arms on this seal was 
that of Tracy, the husband of Isolda de Cardinan, one of the 
coats commonly ascribed to the family of Tracy, being 2 bendlets. 

2. Roger de Mesy — 16 librates. 

De Mesy is a name not known in Cornish history. The 
nearest approach to it is De Meules or Moels. Roger de Meules 
was returned, in 1297, as holding lands in Cornwall of £20 a 
year and upwards, but as he is stated to have died in 1294, his 
name must have been still retained in the king's books. This 



294 CORNISH LANDOWNERS, 1256. 

Eo^er de Moels served in the Welsh wars, and in the beginning 
of Edward I's reign had the honour and castle of L;impadervaur, 
in Cardiganshire, committed to his custody. He married Alice, 
dau. and heir of William de Preux, and dying in 1294, was 
succeeded by his son, John de Moels, who, doing his homage in 
the same year, had livery of his lands. This feudal lord having 
distinguished himself in the Scottish wars of Edward I, was 
summoned to Parliament as a Baron, from 6th February, 1299. 
to 16th June, 1311. His lordship married a daughter of the 
noble family of Grrey, and dying in 1311, was succeeded by his 
son, Nicholas de Moels, second baron. This nobleman also dis- 
tinguished himself in arms. He married Margaret, daughter of 
Sir Hugh Courtenay, Knight, and sister of Hugh, Earl of Devon. 
His lordship died in 1316, and was succeeded by his brother, 
Roger de Moels, third baron, who died s.p., and was succeeded by 
his brother, John de Jloels, fourth baron, whose daughter Muriel 
married Sir Thomas Courtenay, Knight, and Isabella, his 
sister and co-heir, married William (VII) de Botreaux, Lord 
Botreaux. 

3. Stephanus de Bellocampo, 15 librates. 

The Beauchams of Cornwall are considered to be of the same 
stock as those of Hache, in the county of Somerset ; they bore 
the same arms — " Vaire az. and arg." 

The first of this Somersetshire family of whom mention is 
made by Dugdale, is Robert de Beauchamp, who in 1162 9th of 
Henry II, was sheriff of the counties of Somerset and Dorset. 
This feudal lord, died in 1228, leaving in minority his scm and 
heir, Robert de Beauchamp, who died before 120 1, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Robert de Beauchamp. Of this feudal baron 
nothing is known beyond his being engaged against the Welsh 
with Henry III, and his founding the priory of Frithelstoke, in 
the county of Devon. He was yet living in 1257, and was 
ancestor of the Barons Beauchamp. 

In Devonshire, we find in the 12th of John, that Gruy de 
Beauchamp was sheriff. In Cornwall, the earliest known of this 
family is IStephen de Bellocampo (Beauchamp.) 

In 47th Henry III ( 126 i) a fine was levied in which John le 
Petit and Alice his wife were plaintiffs, and Stephen de Bello- 
campo, defendant, wherein Stephen granted to John and Alice, 



CORNISH LANDOWNERS, 1256. 295 

Benherton (Biiinerton in Orowan and lands held of Robert 
Carminow. Alice, wife of Le Petit, with her sister, Emma, were 
coheirs of Mirabell {nee Beauchamp ?) once wife of Roger 
Durhull. Fed. fin. 33 Henry III. (1249). 

The manor of Binnerton, the Bennartone of Domesday, 
belonged in the reign of Richard II to the Beauohamps ; after- 
wards to the De Spencers. There was formerly a chapel at 
Binnerton dedicated to S. Augustine. One of the enclosures on 
the estate still bears the name of the chapel field. 

(4.) Henry, son of Henry de la Pomhre — 30 librates. 

We find the name of Henry de Pomerai or Pomeroy, in the 
records of 1165, and ] 213-20, of which we have given an account. 
This is an instance of the transmission of the same christian 
name through several generations of the same family ; — a com- 
mon practice in many Norman families, notably in that of the 
Grenvilles, all the heirs-male of which, until 1295, bore the 
christian name of Richard. 

It was to the Henry de Pomeroy, mentioned above, that Henry 
III, in 1266, granted a fair at Tregony on the festival of St. 
Leonard, (Nov. 6) which is still held. 

According to tradition, Tregony Castle, of which there are 
now no remains, is said to have been built by Henry de Pomeroy 
(father or grandfather of Henry, of this record,) on behalf of 
John, Earl of Cornwall, at the time that king Richard I was in 
the Holy Land ; it was standing, and was the seat of the 
Pomeroys, in 1478, when William of Worcester thus describes 
it — " Castellum Tregheny stat, pertinet Pomereys, in Tregeny lurgagio 
super le south P 

(5.) Rohert de Carmeneu — 16 librates. 

This Robert was, possibly, a son of that Roger de Carminow, 
who, about 1220, was witness to an undated charter relating to 
Trenant, and another charter, dated 1235, was witnessed by 
Rohert de Carminow himself. 

There is also in the muniment room at Coker Court, county 
Somerset, an undated deed, which, from internal evidence, would 
seem to have been made between the 20th and 30th Henry III, 
(1235 to 1245.) By this deed, Robert de Kayrminou gives 
and grants all his lands of Trewynian and of Bodanan which he 



296 CORNISH LANDOWNERS, 1256. 

had of the gift of Lulce de Ka'irminou, to Thomas Peticru and his 
heirs, to be held of the said Robert and his heirs for homage 
and service. 

According to " Testa de Nevil," in 1235, Roger de Kayrminou 
held one acre of land in Dobelboys, containing one carucate 
Cornish. He also was witness to an undated charter relating to 
Trenant, circa 1220, which is still in the muniment room at 
Tregothnan. Robert de Carmeneu, who held the 16 librates, was, 
perhaps, the father of Sir Roger de Oarminow, who married 
Sara, daughter and co-heir of Grervas de Hornicote alias Tintaioel, 
and heir of her niece, Margery. 

In 1263, Stephen Beauchamp assigns to Jno. Le Petit and 
Alice his wife, inter alia all the services of Robert Carmiinow ( Vide 
No. 3 De Bellocampo ) 

'' The Carminows, whose property, as well as the family, 
spread far and wide, both continuing to be esteemed among the 
first in the county, till the reign of Queen Elizabeth, appear on 
record here for the first time." — Lysons. 

(6.) Willi, filius Roberti — 15 librates. 

In the Scutage-Roll, No. 2, nobert Fitz-Walter held 11 
knights' fees of the fee of Richard de Lucy, his maternal grand- 
father, who died 1179, and it is owing to his marriage with 
Maud, eldest daughter of the Justician, that Walter Fitz-Robert, 
father of Robert, acquired his Cornish property. Walter died 
in 1198, and Robert, his son and successor, died at tlie siege of 
Damietta, in 1234. 

We now, in 1256, find William Fitz-Eodert holding 15 librates 
of land; and in 1261, Robert Fitz-Robert, probably a younger 
brother, was admitted, by Bishop Bronescombe, to the rectorv of 
Gwinear, on the presentation of the Lady Jane Champernown, 
daughter of Thomas Champernown. 

It was not until the reign of Richard II that the name of 
Fitzwalter appears among the Sheriffs of Cornwall, and then, in 
1384, Sir William Fitzwalter, Knt., fills that office, and dies in 
the following year. His father, Robert Fitzwalter, murried 
Jane, daughter and heir of Robert Fleming, by Hester, daughter 
and heir of John Berkeley, son of Sir Simon Berkeley, Sheriff 
of Cornwall 1287 and 1288. 



CORNISH LANDOWNERS, 1256. 297 

Eobert Fitz- Walter, in SOth Edward I, (1302) brought his 
Writ of Ael against Margery, " que fut la feme de Richard le 
Flemeng,^^ at Launceston. The tenements were formerly in the 
seisin of one Eobert de Hokyssahm (Hokisham) who died seised 
of the said tenements, after whose death, the said tenements 
with others descended to this Margery and one Maud as daughters 
and one heir ; from Maud descended the right of her purparty 
to one Gilda as daughter ; and from Gilda to one William as 
son, who is under age ; and we pray aid of him. (Year Book 
30 and 31 Edward I, p. 230.) 

From the above we learn that Robert de Hokisham had two 
daughters— Margery, who married Richard le Flemeng, and 
Maud, who married •-' * * ** and had a daughter Gilda, who 
married * ^' * * and had a son, William, then under age, on 
whose behalf Robert Fitz- Walter brought his writ. 

In 1338, when an account was taken of the knights' fees 
belonging to the Honour of the Castle of Launceston in the 
hands of the Duke, — " Johanna, who was the wife of William, 
son of Robert, holds half of one fee in Penros." This entry 
refers to Johanna, wife of William Fitz- Walter, son of Robert 
Fitz- Walter, holding half a fee in Penrose-Burdon. By 
Margaret, daughter and eventual heir of William Fitz- Walter, 
the manor of Penrose-Burdon was conveyed in marriage to the 
family of Wibbery, from whom it passed through the Bonvilles 
to the Ooplestones ; by the latter it was alienated, in 1592, to 
Billing, alias Trelawder, of Hengar. It remained in the name 
of Billing until the death of John Billing of Hengar, in 1688. 
His daughter and heir carried it in marriage to the family of 
Lower, from which family through the Michells, it passed to the 
Onslows, the present possessors. 

Early notices of Fitz-Robert occur in the time of Henry II, 
John, and Henry III, in charters undated and dated, relating to 
Cornwall. (1) In the grant by William Peverel of the church of 
St. Breward to the church of St. Andrew, Tywardreath, and the 
monks there serving God, five sons of Robert are among the 
witnesses — William, Walter, John, Stephen, and Richard. In 
the same charter, Andrew, the Prior, concedes to William 
Peverel and his heirs to have divine service performed three tinies 



298 CORNISH landown?:rs, 1256. 

a Aveek in his chapel at Hamatethy by the mother church, when- 
ever William or his wife should be present. This is also 
witnessed by William and Walter, filiis Roherti. Probable date, 
1170. 

(2) The next charter is a confirmation of the church of Minster 
by WiUiam de Botreaux, of the gift of his ancestors — witnessed 
by William and Walter, sons of Eobert, undated, probably circa 
1205. (3) In the charter of Henry III, dated May 6th, 1234, 
ratifying the grant of Eobert de Cardinham to Tywardreath 
Priory, the parish of Lelant, with the villages of Lelant town 
and Tredreath, and half-an-acre of land, is included. This grant 
is recognized by Geofey Fitz-Eobert of Trembethow, in Lelant — 
" Gaufriclus filius Roherti de Trembedhov.''^ 

This throws light upon an entry in the Book of Aids, 20th 
Edward III, when the aid was levied for knighting the king's 
eldest son, in which Johanna, wife of William Tremhlethou is 
mentioned, which William, in right of his wife, held a half fee 
in Penrosburden. We know the husband of Johanna was 
William Fit%- Robert, and consider that Trembethow, in Lelant, 
was their seat, giving name to the Fitz-Eoberts at this early 
period. 

(7.) Marc le Flamanc — 16 librates. 

In 1165, Erhenbald fil. S — (Stephani) is mentioned in the 
Public Eecords relating to Cornwall. In 1196, Stephanus 
Flandrensis : and in 1213, Archemaund Flandrensis are in the 
Scutage-Eolls. Archenbald le Fleming is also recorded in Testa 
de Nevil, p. 201, as holding, in 12.55, several small fees 
in Bray, county of Cornwall, with appurtenances in Devon. 
In 1256, Archenbald was probably dead, and was succeeded 
by Marc le Flamanc. This Marc was perhaps the immediate 
predecessor of Sir Eobert (? Eoger) le Flamanc, Knt., who 
was Lord of Nantalan in 1294. This manor has recently been 
called Nanstallen, and has, for six centuries, been vested in the 
Flamank family. There are several ancient court rolls of this 
manor in the possession of the family. In the reign of Edward 
II, Mark Flamank, son of Sir Eoger, was seized of a tenement 
in Boscarne bighan. Little Boscarne, near Bodmin, as appears 
from the Assize Eolls of 40th Edw. Ill (1367). 



COBNISH LANDOWNERS, 1256. 299 

Lysons says, in his remarks on this record, that " the name 
of the Flamanks still contin^ies, although most of the landed 
property has passed to the heiresses of elder branches." The 
manor of Bray, in Morval, is said to have been sold before 1564, 
by Christopher Coplestone, who was Sheriff of Devon in 1560. 
He was descended, through females, by 10 generations from 
Eobert Fleming, who married Hester, daughter and heir of Jno. 
Berkeley. Their daughter and heir, Jane, married Eobert Fitz- 
Water, father of William Fitz-Water, Sheriff of Cornwall, 7th 
Richard II. 

(8.) Willi. Wise— 16 librates. 

Grreaston or Greston, in Lezant, was the ancient seat of the 
Wysea or Wise family, afterwards of Sydenham, in Marystow, 
Devon. 

William Wysa was one of the witnesses to a deed made by 
Eichard de Landu, of Lezant, without date, but evidently of the 
period of this record, as the custom of affixing dates to deeds 
was not become general in the reign of Henry III. Another 
deed, without date, but somewhat later, as Thomas, son of 
Eichard de Landu, is named, was executed by Sir William Wysa, 
of Greyston, probably circa 1270. In it he granted to William, 
son of Warine de Landu, " all my right that I had, or could have, 
to one pair of white gloves, with homage & service, which 
Thomas, son of Eichd. de Landu, & his heirs or assigns, were 
wont to pay & to do yearly, unto me & my heirs & assigns at the 
Feast of St. Michael, for that half acre of land which Willm. 
Fridey formerly held in the vill of Landu." 

Constance, daughter of William Wise, of Grrayston, married 
William Godolphin (Visitation of Cornwall, 1620, Godolphin 
Fed.). 

After leaving Greston, the Wise family removed to Syden- 
ham, near Tavistock, where they resided until the reign of James 
I, at whose coronation, in 1603, Sir Thomas Wise received the 
honour of knighthood. His only son, Edward, dying unmarried, 
"his grand-daughter in the female line, Mrs. Bridget Hather- 
leigh," by her marriage with the gallant royalist. Col. Arthur 
Tremayne, carried the house and lands of Sydenham to the 
family of Tremayne. 



300 CORNISH LANDOWNERS 1256. 

(9.) Jordanus de Hacuml — 14 librates. 

Haccombe is two miles east of Newton Abbot, in Devon, and 
gave name to a family which, at a very early period, possessed 
this property. It is a question whether the original name of the 
family was Fitz- Stephen, or Be Haccombe. In 35th Edw. I (1306) 
at the Assizes then held at Launceston, William (VI) de 
Botereus (Botreaux) recovered from Gecelia de Haccomle, Stephen 
de Haccomle, and others, one water-mill, &c., in Castelboterel, 
which Cecilia claimed as a part of Worthefala (Worthevale), 
which she held in dower of the inheritance of the said William 
de Botereus, and by his assignment. John Lerchedekne, 2nd 
baron Archdekne, who was born in 1306, married Cecilia, daugh- 
ter of Jordan Fit%-Stephen de Haccombe. This Cecilia, it is evident, 
could not have been the claimant of dower in 1306, mentioned 
above. By this lady, his lordship had nine sons, of whom 
Warine succeeded him as 3rd baron. Dying in 1400-1, his 
second daughter and coheir, Philippa, born 1386, in 1407 was 
second wife of Sir Hugh, second son of Edward Courtenay, of 
Godlington, who was second son of Hugh Courtenay, second 
Earl of Devon. By Philippa, Sir Hugh Courtnay had an only 
daughter, Joane, whose first husband was Nicholas, Lord Carew, 
of Mohuns Ofctery, and thus Haccombe became the property of 
the Carews, resident there for the last 450 years. Sir Nicholas 
Carew, Knight, commonly called Lord Carew, died in 1449. 

Returning to Sir John Lercedekne, Knight, husband of 
Cecilia de Haccombe, we learn that in 1341, he endowed the 
chantry of Haccombe with the great tithes of S. Hugh de 
Quedyoch, in conformity to the wishes of Sir Stephen de Haccombe, 
Knight, who had applied to Bishop Grandison (cons. 1327, ob. 
1368.) to erect the parish church of St. Blaize at Haccombe, the 
burial place of his ancestors, into an Archpresbytery, but, before 
his request could be complied with, the good knight died. In 
Oliver's Historic Collections is printed the foundation deed of 
this college. The community, besides the Archpriest, consisted 
of 5 clergymen, called Socii. They were bound to sing the 
canonical office, and to celebrate obits. All dwelt under the same 
roof, and lived in common. The archpriest had to pay annually 
six marks to the treasurer of the cathedral of Exeter. The 
living of Quethiock is a vicarage ; the tithes were commuted 



CORNISH LANDOWNERS, 1256. 301 

in 1842, at £686 Is.— viz. to the Yicar, £342 9s., and to the 
rector or chantor of Haccombe, £343 12s. The church at 
Haccombe, dedicated to S. Blaise, contains, in fine preservation, 
many interesting monuments of the Haccombes and Carews. 

(10.) Robertus de Draenas — 15 librates. 

No family of this name is to be found in any Cornish record, 
and bearing in mind the fact that the spelling of names in these 
ancient records is very erroneous, we must have recourse to 
probabilities, and find some family of importance, at this period, 
with the christian name of Robert. De Draenas we take to be 
I)e Pridias. Draenas has the same number of letters as Pridias : 
the initial letter D may be a mistake for P, the second, sixth., 
and seventh letters are identical. 

Robert de Pridias was the son of Sir Thomas de Pridias, 
Knt., who, in 3rd Henry III (1218) was placed in remainder in 
default of issue of John Bevill and Agnes his wife, inter alia, in 
the manor of Wolfyston, county Cornwall. His mother was 
Jane, daughter of Philip Brodrygan (Bodrigan). This Philip 
had a brother Eeginald, who was attorney for him in 1253. 

Eobert de Pridias granted to the monastery of Tywardreth 
certain lands in Frank Almoigne. 

The family of Be Pridias (Prideaux) held the manor of 
Predeaux of the Priory of Tywardreth. Baldwin de Pridias, 
who died 1165, had a grant in fee of the manor of Prideaux from 
Osbert, Prior of Tywardreth. The last heir-male of the elder 
branch of this ancient family died 1 1th Eichard II (1388) ; his 
daughter and heir, Jane, married Philip Arvas, whose grand- 
daughter, Johanna, brought the manor of Prideaux to the 
Hearles of West Hearle, in Northumberland, a branch of which 
family resided in Cornwall. At the death of Northmore Herle, 
Esq., of Landew, in 1737, he bequeathed this manor with other 
property to his six half-sisters. Eventually Prideaux was sold 
in 1806, to the Eashleigh family, who are the present pro- 
prietors. 

(11.) Philippus de Valletorta — 40 librates. 
This ancient baronial family became extinct in 1289, when 
Eoger de Valletort died, bequeathing his large landed property 
to his two sisters. One, Isabel, married first Alan de Dunstan- 



302 CORNISH LANDOWNERS, 1256. 

ville, second Thomas Corbet, Sheriff of Shropshire, in 1249 ; the 
other sister married Pomeroy of Berry-Pomeroy, county Devon, 
and Tregony Castle. Eoger had, 14 years before his death, 
resigned his right and interest in the manor and castle of 
Trematon to Eichard, Earl of Cornwall, after Corbet and 
Pomeroy, descendants of the two sisters, had petitioned for the 
recovery of the manor and honor of Trematon, alleging 
that Eoger when he made the deed of gift in favour of the Earl, 
was not compos mentis; their suit was without success in 1315, 
and renewed in 1327 with like result. Finally, in 1339, Henry 
de Pomeroy, in consideration of an annuity of £40, released to 
Edward the Black Prince, all right and title as heir of Eoger de 
Yalletort to the honor and castle of Trematon. 

(12.) Richard de Grenuile — 50 librates. 

The largest landowner named in this record, which, it must 
be remembered, is only a list of 13 persons of full age who were 
required to take up knighthood, is Richard de Grenville. His 
mother, it is reasonably supposed, was the heiress of Thomas 
Filz-Nicholas de Middleton. Although long settled in Devon, 
this is the first time that the name of Grenville appears in Cornish 
records. Until 1295, all the heirs male of the Grenville family 
bore the christian name of Eichard. The owner of 50 librates, 
STXCceeded his father, circa 1217, and is supposed to have married 
Jane, daughter of William Trewynt. In consideration of a fine, 
levied 22 Henry III, 1237, he conveyed the advowson of the 
church of Kilkhampton, and the advowson of the church of 
Bideford, in Devon, to Ealph, abbot of Tewkesbury. Notwith- 
standing, he, on A.pril 26, 1261, presented Henry de Bratton to 
the rectory of Bideford. At his death he left two sons, both in 
their minority, Eichard and Bartholomew. 

(13.) Henricus de Bones — 15 librates. 

Tonkin takes this Henry de Dones "to be the same with 
Dawney." We are disposed to consider le Daneys the family 
named, and that Bones should be Banes. 

The manor of Lesnewith, together with the advowson of the 
church thereto annexed, was, in the 13th century, in the 
possession of the family of Denys, then styled Le Baneys, who 
held of the family of Pomeroy as of their manor of Tregony. 



CORNISH LANDOWNERS, 1256. 303 

In the 22nd Henry III (1294) Fulco, Abbot of Valle, suffered 
a fine for himself and his church of Yalle, to Renry U Daneys, in 
the advowson of the church of Lysnewyth, reserving to himself 
and his successors, and the church of Valle, the ancient pension 
by custom payable out of the same, and from that time the 
rectory has been appurtenant to the manor of Lesnewith. Henry 
le Deneys was rector in 1297, and was one of those clergy who, in 
that year, in obedience to the Pope, Boniface VIII, refused to 
pay the subsidy levied by the king. Benedict Eeynward, a 
large dealer in tin about this time, became surety for the pay- 
ment of the fine which the rector was compelled to pay for 
obeying the Pope's bull. This important manor continued 
vested in the family of Denys until the death of Anthony Denys 
of Orleigh in 1641, leaving by Gertrude, his wife, daughter of 
Sir Bernard Grrenville, three daughters. 



304 



SOME REMAEKS ON THE PELAGIC LIFE OCCUREING IN AND 

NEAR FALMOUTH HAEBOUE, WITH ADDITIONS TO THE 

FAUNA OF THE DISTRICT. 

From August, 1891, to December, 1892. 
By RUPERT VALLBNTIN. 



1. Pelagic Life. 

Since my last report (10)* my attention has been mainly 
directed to the study of the pelagic life occurring in and near 
Falmouth harbour. 

When commencing my investigations in 1890, 1 saw that the 
direction of the wind and strength of the tide played most impor- 
tant parts in my surface collections ; and that in order to make 
the best surface-net gatherings, information relating to the tidal 
currents in the harbour and on the coast outside would have to 
be obtained. Since that time I have consulted pilots, fishermen, 
and others on the tidal currents both in the bay and harbour, 
but have experienced the greatest difficulty in sifting the 
evidence ; for in the majority of instances my informants flatly 
contradicted each other. I am in hopes however that within 
another year, I shall be in possession of sufficient reliable 
information to enable me to construct a series of charts, shewing 
the principal changes of the currents in and near Falmouth 
harbour. Speaking generally, given a south-westerly wind and 
a rising tide, a strong current from the Lizard sweeps into 
Falmouth bay round the Manacle rocks, and from thence into 
the harbour ; the main body of water flowing into the latter 
between the Black rock and St. Anthony point. On the other 
hand during an ebb tide, pilots when sailing a vessel into the 
harbour, particularly if the wind is at all light, never allow the 
vessel to occupy a position south of the Zoze point ; as the tide 
at this stage would sweep the ship into Gerrans bay. This 
statement receives confirmation from personal observation. 
During the summer, when the wind is blowing from the north to 

* See references at the close of paper. 



PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 305 

north-west, I have frequently seen Grerrans hay swarming with 
specimens of Aurelia aurita. On these occasions one may hunt 
in vain in Falmouth harbour for specimens of this species. 

Up to the spring of the current year my only craft for 
collecting purposes was a small open eleven-foot sail and rowing 
boat, in which it was not prudent to venture more than a few 
miles from shore. On discussing this matter with my friend, 
Mr. A. Ingram, last winter, he strongly advised me to obtain a 
double centre-board canoe, and on his return to London kindly 
sent me designs and full instructions for building a canoe 
according to his ideas. During the early part of the present 
summer the boat was launched. I think it would be difficult to 
find her equal, not only for sea-going qualities, but also for 
sailing capabilities ; and I gladly take the present opportunity 
of thanking him for the trouble he has taken. 

I also have to thank my friends Mr. J. T. Cunningham and 
Mr. Walter Oarstang, both on the staff of the Marine Biological 
Association of the United Kingdom, for their valuable assistance 
to me on occasions too numerous to mention. 

As I have already published a list of the various species of 
copepods and other forms usually to be found in the sea near 
Falmouth, I propose in my present communication to make some 
extracts from my note-book ; recording the variations in the 
temperatures of the sea, and forms of interest captured from time 
to time in my tow-net. 

August, 1891. During this month the surface temperature 
of the sea was very low, and ranged from 58'^F on the first of 
the month to 57 6° F on the 29th. 

On the first of the month after a considerable interval, a few 
specimens of Corycoeus anglieus occurred in the surface-net 
gathering made on that day. Actinotrocha, the beautiful larva 
of Phoronis, was fairly abundant in surface-gatherings through- 
out the month. Noctiluca miliaris had been fairly abundant in 
the sea since the beginning of the year up to the present time. 
On the 6th of the month northerly winds set in, which swept 
these surface forms out to sea, and by the 17th, this species 
vanished from the neighbourhood for a considerable time. On 



306 PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 

the 8tli, a few specimens of Sarsia prolifera were captured. So 
far as I am able to discover, this species lias hitherto escaped 
the notice of local naturalists. On the loth, a few Tornaria in 
an advanced stage of development were captured in the surface- 
net. On the 26th, a single specimen of the iateresting Pteropod, 
noticed in my previous report, was secured, the wind on that 
occasion being from the westward. 

September. There was not much variation in the surface 
temperature of the sea during this month. On the first, the 
surface temperature was 56-9°F, and on the 30th, 57-6*^ F. On 
the 2nd, a single male specimen of Oentropages typicus, and 
one small specimen of Monstrilla rigida were secured. The most 
interesting specimen obtained on that occasion was one Campontia 
eruciformis figured and described by Dr. Johnston {!). Since 
then I have caught not only in my surface-net, but also during 
shore collecting, four more specimens of this interesting animal. 
The reason it is found in surface-net gatherings is, I imagine, 
that during gales of wind it is dislodged by the force of the 
waves from its usual habitat at the roots of sea-weeds ; and on 
finding itself at the mercy of the currents, clings to the nearest 
fragment of weed till left stranded again by the tide. JDr. 
Johnston, loc. cit, is of the opinion that this animal is not the 
larva of a dipterous insect. Mr. Gosse (6) in his excellent manual 

writes concerning it as follows : — " There is, however the 

larva of some two-winged fly, which is marine. I have 
repeatedly taken it on our southern shores, quite out of the 
influence of fresh water. That my specimens are those of a 
Dipterous larva, I have the high authority of Mr. Francis 
Walker, who has examined one." After careful examination of 
the few specimens I have captured of this species, I have no 
hesitation in stating that Mr. Grosse's remarks are correct. I 
have invariably seen in my specimens a distinctly paired longi- 
tudinal tracheal vessel, which is placed in the lateral body wall, 
and which appears to open to the exterior by a paired opening 
on either side of the anus. The attempts I have made by 
means of serial sections to determine this point, have so far 
been failures, owing to the thickness of the cuticle of the 
animal ; but I am in hopes at some future date of making some 
further study of this animal. 



PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 307 

Duriug the calm summer evenings this year, I have 
frequently observed two species of dipterous insects flying just 
on the surface of the sea, and also hovering on the rocks forming 
the Black rock, when left exposed by the tide. After some 
considerable difficulty I captured a few specimens of both 
species, but so far I have been unable to identify either. 

Mr. Julien Deby (3) has recorded the capture of a marine 
dipterous insect at Biarritz, and has named it Psamathiomya 
peetinata. 

On the 4th of this month one female Monstrilla rigida with 
ova attached was secured in the tow-net ; and in the same gather- 
ing specimens of Evadne nordmanii and Podon intermedins 
occurred in abundance. On the 9th there was a light easterly 
wind blowing, the surface temperature being 57-9°F, and the 
tide one hour on ebb. On that morning I worked the surface- 
net in two places with a view to study what effect the wind had 
on surface forms. The net on the first occasion was worked 
across the tide from half way between the Black rock to St. 
Anthony's point. There was in this gathering a fair quantity 
of the following forms : — Larvse of Decapod Crustacea, Oypho- 
nautes, medusiform stage of Obelia gelatinosa, and some common 
species of various copepods. The net was then worked along 
the southern edge of the Eastern breakwater, amid the debris 
blown thither by the wind. In this locality, in addition to the 
forms above mentioned, I noticed in the gathering a single 
specimen of Monstrilla and several specimens of the Pteropod. 
On the 11th, the only interesting specimen noticed in the 
gathering was a single larval form of Eucratea chela ta. From 
the 12th to the 17th, the species of Peridinium, recorded in my 
last report, literally swarmed in the upper portions of Penryn 
creek. About the 20th, a very interesting species of Infusorian, 
new to me, was very abundant in the sea in the neighbourhood 
of Flushing. After a careful examination of several specimens, 
I have identified it as Prorocentrum micans figured and des- 
cribed by S. Kent (8.) At this time I had occasion to examine 
the crystalline style of several specimens of Ostrea edulis from 
that locality. I was astonished to find imbedded in the 
crystalline style quantities of Prorocentrum micans ; but I 
hunted in vain to find a single specimen of Peridinium in that 



308 PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 

structure. On tlie 25th, the only form of interest taken was a 
single male of Pontellia wollastonii. On the 26th, after strong 
winds from the west south-west, the tide being three-quarters 
flood, and surface temperature 57°9 F, I collected a fair quantity 
of a species of Siphonophore quite new to me. On the 17th of 
October following, my friend Mr. Cunningham wrote to me as 
follows: — " Do you know I have been taking immense numbers 
of Siphonophores in the tow-net for the last month or so ? 
They have only one swimming bell or nectocalyx, and belong to 
the genus Muggiacea." Later, Mr. Cunningham published (2) 
a short paper with two figures of this Siphonophore, and named 
it Muggioea atlantica. On comparing my sketches with his 
illustrations, I have no hesitation in stating that our specimens 
are identical. 

October. The surface temperature of the sea on the 2nd 
was 57°6F, and on the 21st SS^F. On the 8th numerous speci- 
mens of the Pteropod were again secured in the surface-net, and 
with them a fair quantity of Tintinnus ampulla occurred. On 
the 20th, the wind was fresh from the south-west, and tide one 
hour on ebb, when the surface-net was worked, the temperature 
being on that occasion 55°F. I found in the collection, in 
addition to the usual forms, a number of Ceratium tripos, and 
with them a single specimen of a species of Radiolarian. I have 
tried to name this single specimen, but my attempts have so far 
been unsuccessful. This is the only occasion I have ever 
secured a specimen of Eadiolarian in my tow-net during my 
residence in Cornwall. 

November. During the early part of this month we had 
gales of wind from the south-east and east, and it was not until 
the 5th that I was able to venture out in my boat surface- 
netting. The surface temperature on that day was 50° F. The 
only forms of interest captured on that occasion were quantities 
of Sagitta and Corycceus anglicus. From the 6th to nearly the 
end of the month, I was unable to do any surface-netting, owing 
to an attack of Influenza. On the 30th, when I resumed my 
investigations, I found the surface temperature had fallen to 
46°F. An examination of the gathering made on that day, 
shewed that Evadne and Podon had vanished from the surface 
for a time. On the other hand, Sagitta occurred in profusion. 



PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 309 

Beoemher. On the 4tli of the month, surface-temperature was 
51°6F. I took this temperature twice, for it occurred to me at the 
time, what a great rise there was in the surface temperature, but 
with the same results in both cases. On the 16th, the wind was 
from the south-east, surface temperature at 11 a.m. being 51°F. 
The tide was three-quarters ebb when the surface-net was worked 
off the Zoze point. The most interesting forms secured were two 
specimens of Calanus finmarchius, and what I at first imagined to 
be a single specimen of Mysis. On returning to my hut, a close 
examination of this specimen shewed me that I had caught a 
species of shrimp with luminous organs, called Nyctiphanes 
couchii. This solitary specimen measured 11 m.m. in length, 
and seemed to be in the same stage as those captured in 
abundance off St. Abbs Head by Mr. Cunningham and myself 
in a tow-net during June, 1887. On the 21st, the only form of 
interest obtained was one specimen of Anomalocera patersonii. 
The surface temperature on that occasion was 46°F. 

January, 1892. The wind during the greater part of this 
month was from the north, and as a natural consequence, the 
surface-net gatherings were neither rich nor varied. The surface 
temperature on the 1st was 49°3F. On the 18th, surface tem- 
perature being 47° F, a fair quantity of the free swimming larvse 
of Chiton were captured in my tow-net. A few days later, when 
collecting at low water under the Eastern breakwater, I found 
attached to the balks of timber innumerable quantities of 
capsules deposited by these mollusks. Towards the end of the 
month Oithonia spinifrons occurred in profusion in tow- net 
gatherings. 

February. Surface temperature on the 1st veas 46 °F. On 
the 5th, I noticed in my tow-net gathering made on that morning 
the first trace of the gelatinous alga recorded in my previous 
report. On the 15th, the surface temperature had risen to 48°F. 
During this month specimens of the ephyra stage of Aurelia 
occurred very sparingly in tow-net gatherings, and as a natural 
consequence, Aurelia aurita, the adult animal, has been quite 
scarce in the harbour this summer. On the 23rd, I noticed 
that several females of Oithonia spinifrons had ova attached. 
Towards the end of the month the surface temperature of the 
sea had fallen to 44''6 F, the weather at that time being very 
cold and stormy. 



310 PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 

March. Cold, wild weather prevented my getting afloat till 
the 8th. The surface temperature on that day was 40°'6 F. The 
only forms of interest secured on that occasion were large 
quantities of Sagitta, averaging three-quarters of an inch in 
length. 

Since the 1 5th of last month the gelatinous alga had been 
slowly increasing in quantity in the sea up to this time. On the 
17th, however, a rapid increase set in, and by the 21st, the 
gelatinous alga was plainly visible in the sea, even to the most 
casual observer. On that day a rise took place in the surface 
temperature, 45 °F being the temperature recorded. During 
this time the zoaea stage of various species of decapod Crustacea 
was very abundant in the sea. On several occasions I have 
purchased from men catching smelts near my hut a few of their 
fish in a living condition. In addition to the fragments of 
potato, by means of which the men capture them, I have been 
able to recognize partially digested specimens of Sagitta, and 
zoaea stage of decapod larvae in their stomachs. 

On the 21st, I secured a single specimen of Arachnactis 
albida. The surface temperature on that day being 45''F. On 
the 24th the larvae of Balanus abounded in the tow-net. From 
that day till the beginning of June surface-netting was impossible, 
owing to the abundance of the gelatinous alga in the sea The 
surface temperature varying during this time from 50°F to 53°F. 

In my previous report, I directed attention to the fact that, 
so far as my experience had gone, when these gelatinous bodies 
were most abundant in the sea, Noctiluca miliaris also 
abounded. My observations this year showed that this state- 
ment is not correct. This year, during the time the alga was so 
very abundant, specimens of Noctiluca were never seen. Indeed, 
it was not till the 15th of November that any specimens of this 
species of Infusoria were seen in tow-net gatherings ; and even 
then they were but sparingly present. 

June. It was not till the 2nd of this month that I was able 
to resume my surface-net investigations. The surface tempera- 
ture of the sea on that day was SS^F. On examining the 
contents of my surface-net gathering made on that morning, I 
found that Evadne nordmanii and Podon intermedins were fairly 



PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 311 

abundant, and with them specimens of various common species 
of copepods, the only interesting form among them being one 
Monstrilla rigida. On the 7th, a few specimens of Cyphonautes 
were noticed. On the 13th, while sailing in my canoe to St. 
Mawes on a shore hunting expedition, I noticed in the sea some 
beautiful specimens of a species of Ctenophore new to me. 
swimming just beneath the surface of the water. I managed 
with a hand-net to capture some specimens of this species, as all 
those collected with a surface-net were invariably damaged. A 
short time later, as I was unable to identify this Ctenophore, I 
sent some rough sketches to Mr. Grarstang, who kindly replied to 

my queries as follows : — "I was much interested in your 

queries after my paper read at the Devon Association, because 
your " Fig. 1 " is certainly one of those which I described to them 
— a Ctenophore of the Lobate Order, Genus Bolina. The species 
is not quite certain, but it is probably hydatina of Chun, and 

also probably alata of L. Agassiz They appeared in the 

Sound in great numbers on May the 28th, and a few were seen 
on the 27th and 29th." 

Although I was not using the surface-net on the dates 
mentioned by Mr. Garstang, owing to the presence of the gela- 
tinous bodies in the sea, I feel fairly confident that these 
Ctenophores did not then occur in Falmouth harbour in any 
quantity. All that time I was industriously engaged shore- 
hunting in various parts of the harbour, and I feel confident that 
so prominent an object as this Ctenophore would not have escaped 
my notice. Be that as it may, after the 15th of this month I 
was unable to secure any more specimens of this beautiful 
species. 

On the 16th and two following days, I captured in the 
surface-net a few specimens of the free larval form of a species 
of Synapta. The only description I have been able to discover 
relating to the later stages of this species is by Mr. W. Thomson 
(9). I made some drawings of my specimens, and also placed 
about a dozen of these larval forms in a jar with a slow current 
of water always passing through it. In spite of all my care, in 
a few days all these specimens died. During this month 
specimens of Thaumentias pilosella, already recorded by Dr. 
Cocks, were very abundant in tow-net gatherings, made not only 



312 PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 

in the harbour but also in the open sea. Owing to the fragile 
nature of this species, it is difficult to collect perfect specimens 
in the harbour. On several occasions I was able during this 
time to capture perfect specimens of this species about three 
miles south of the Zoze point. On the 27th, a few Auricularia 
larvae were obtained. On the 30th the surface temperature was 
56-3°F. On that day, specimens of Appendicularia were 
exceedingly abundant in the tow-net. 

July. On the 4th the surface temperature was 56-3° F. 
During this month Appendicularia continued to be very 
abundant in my tow-net gatherings. On the 7th, the following 
species of naked-eyed medusse were to be found in large 
quantities : Sarsa tubulosa and Thaumentias hemispherica, both 
recorded by Dr. Cocks ; Lizzia octopunctata, which at times was 
swarming in the sea, appears to be new to the district. In the 
same gathering occurred two specimens of Monstrilla rigidia, to 
one of which ova were attached. On the 11th I took several 
Lizzia blondina. In the same gathering a single specimen of 
Campontia eruciformis was observed. On the 13th the surface 
temperature was 59-9°F. On that day I got several specimens 
of a species of medusa, quite new to me. I made some careful 
drawings of one or two, and finally sent some of the sketches to 
Mr. Garstang; but he was unable to identify the specimens. 
Examples of this species continued to be fairly numerous in 
surface-net gatherings from that date till the close of the month, 
when they suddenly vanished. On the 1 6th several larvae of 
Eucratea chelata were again secured. On the 21st a few Sagittse 
were captured in the tow-net, the gonads of all the specimens 
examined being empty. On the 28th we had easterly winds in 
the morning, surface temperature being 60° F. The gathering 
made with the surface-net across the rising tide on that morning 
was very rich in results. Zosea and megalope stages of species of 
Crustacea, Centropages typicus, males only, various species of 
Plutei, Oithonia spinifrons, Evadne, Podon, Cyphonautes, and 
various species of spinid larvae were all abundant. In this 
gathering I observed a single specimen of Tornaria in a very 
early stage of development. On the 30th, Pilidium began to 
appear in tow-net gatherings, surface temperature on that day 
being 61-9°F, 



PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 313 

Auffust. During this month the surface temperature of the 
sea varied but little. On the 6th, surface temperature heing 
6r9°r, Pilidium and Auricularia larvse were very abundant in 
the tow-net. In the same gathering I secured a single specimen 
of what I imagine to be an advanced larval form of a species of 
Holothurian. I made two drawings, and later cut some serial 
sections of this specimen, but in spite of all my efforts I was 
unable to identify the animal. On the 8th, the wind blowing 
fresh from the south-south-east, surface temperature 61^ F, and 
tide three-quarters ebb, two specimens of Muggioea atlantica 
were found for the first time this year in the tow-net gathering. 
I also noticed that Oithonia spinifrons was very abundant. 
During this time some very large specimens of Chrysaora 
mediterranea were seen just under the surface of the sea in 
various parts of the harbour, and also in the bay. I have 
several years ago seen this species very abundant in the sea near 
Newquay. On the 11th the surface temperature was 60-9° F. 
A single specimen of Corycseus anglicus and one very early 
stage of Actinotrocha were the only interesting forms captured 
on that day. During the rising tide on the 15th, the wind 
being fresh from the south-west, and surface temperature 61-3° 
F, a very rich gathering was made with the tow-net. Muggioea 
atlantica occurred in profusion, and continued very plentiful in 
surface-net gatherings for some time later. During this time 
cypris stage of Balanus, Lizzia octopunctata, Sarsia tubulosa, 
and S. prolifera were very abundant in the tow-net. The latter 
portion of this month was very wild and quantities of rain fell. 

September. On the 1st, the wind being from the south- 
west and blowing fresh, a considerable fall in the surface 
temperature was noticed, 57"3° F being surface temperature on 
that morning. On this occasion Corycseus anglicus occurred in 
abundance ; a single female of the same species with ova 
attached being noticed. In the same gathering large numbers 
of Sarsia gemmifera occurred. On the 5th the wind was light 
and variable, surface temperature being 57° F. In the gathering 
made on this morning, only one specimen of Corycaeus anglicus 
was seen. I also noticed in that gathering a few specimens of 
a species of Lizzia which I have been unable so far to identify. 



314 PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 

On the 10th the wind had changed to the north-west, and as a 
natural consequence the surface-net gathering was not very rich 
in species. A few specimens of Oithonia spinifrons and Sagitta 
were the only forms whose presence called for any notice, surface 
temperature on that morning being 56° F. On the 15th a 
favorable opportunity occurred for a surface net trip seven miles 
from land. Hitherto three or four miles from shore was the 
greatest distance I deemed it priident to venture in my canoe. 
During the two or three previous days the wind had been 
blowing steadily from the south to south-west, and it seemed to 
me most probable that if the surface-net were worked in 
localities removed from shore currents, some interesting, and 
perhaps new forms might be secured. My trip was a failure. 
At the point most distant from land, specimens of Sagitta 
occurred in abundance. On all the other occasions this form 
was absent from the tow-net gatherings. All the other forms 
captured were familiar to me, and in reality were not so varied 
as those caught nearer the shore. Surface temperature was 
57 "^ F. On the morning of the 19th the surface temperature 
was 57'9°F. In my tow-net gathering made on that morning a 
quantity of Tornaria and Pilidium were secured. In the same 
gathering two specimens of Actinotrocha were noticed. Oithonia 
spinifrons and Centropages typicus were also fairly numerous. 
On the 22nd the wind was easterly and surface temperature 
57-6°F. Evadne, Podon, Sagitta, and Auricularia were all 
abundant in the tow-net gathering. About this time I secured 
several specimens of the larval form of a species of Nemertine, 
which I have been unable to identify so far. I have some of 
these specimens preserved, and have also studied their internal 
anatomy by means of serial sections. 

The interesting Siphonophore Muggicea atlantica continued 
to be very abundant in surface-net gatherings during the month. 

October. On the 1st, surface temperature at 11.30 a.m. was 
57-9'^F. The following forms were noticed in the gathering 
made at that time: Sagitta, Evadne, Podon, Muggicea, females of 
Corycseus anglicus with ova attached, and Calanus finmarchius. 
A few small Monstrilla rigida were also detected. From that 
date till the 8th the tides were very strong, and my attention 



PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOITTH. 315 

was directed to shore hunting in various parts of the harbour. 
On the 10th the surface temperature was 54"6°F. The most 
interesting forms observed in the gathering were Muggioea 
atlantica and various species of spinid larvee. At this time 
when Coryceeus anglicus began to abound in the surface net, I 
noticed that in numerous instances these individuals were 
covered with the frustules of a species of diatom. These 
diatoms did not appear to hinder in any way the progress of the 
individuals through the water. On the 15th the surface 
temperature was 52-6 F. The only forms in the tow-net on this 
occasion were some very large examples of Calanus finmarchius 
and Sagitta> During the remaining portion of this month the 
tides were again strong, but the wind being nearly all that time 
from the north, made surface gatherings very poor. 

November. On the 2nd of this month the wind was from the 
south-west, and surface temperature in the morning 52-3°r. 
Euterpe gracilis occurred in the gathering in great profusion. In 
several instances the females of this species had ova attached. 
On the 10th the surface temperature of the sea was 52*^ F. A few 
specimens of Podon were observed, and Corycseus anglicus 
occurred in profusion in the gathering. All the females of the 
last named species were carrying ova. 

During this month. the interesting Siphonophore Muggioea 
atlantica steadily decreased in numbers in the surface net. On 
the 15th the surface temperature was 52-9 F at 2'20 p.m. when 
the net was worked, the wind for the two previous days having 
been from the south to south-west. In this gathering I noticed 
several specimens of Ceratium tripos and a small number of 
Noctiluca miliaris. It will be noticed that this last named 
species of Infusorian, for some reason which I am unable to 
explain, has been very scarce this year in the sea near Falmouth. 

On the 2]st, surface temjaerature being 51-9° F, the only 
specimens of interest on that day were a fair quantity of 
Tintinnus ampulla in the surface net. 

On the 23rd, the wind being south-east and surface 
temperature 51-3°F, a very few specimens of Muggiaea atlantica 
were secured in the tow-net. On the 26th only two specimens of 



316 PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 

this Siplionophore were secured. Since that date this interesting 
species has disappeared from surface-net gatherings. It is 
worthy of note that Muggioea atlantica has always been present 
in greater or less abundance in surface-net gatherings from 
August 8th to November 26th in the sea near Falmouth. I 
may here also direct attention to the fact that Evadne and Podon 
also vanished from surface-net gatherings after the 23rd of that 
month. On the 30th the surface temperature of the sea was 
52" F. 

December. Gales of wind from various quarters prevented 
my getting afloat till the 6th of this month. On that day the 
surface temperature of the sea was 50° F. In my surface-net 
gathering I found Coryceeus anglicus fairly abundant, six 
females of that species having ova attached. In the same 
gathering a few small specimens of Oithonia spinifrons were 
noticed, and also six small Sagitta. On the 10th the surface 
temperature was 49° F, and the tide high- water when the net 
was n'orked. In this gathering Eurtepe gracilis were noticed 
in abundance. In the same gathering were large numbers of 
Corycaeus anglicus with quantities of a species of diatom 
attached to various parts of the cuticle. At this time I also 
noticed numerous specimens of Clausia elongata covered with 
diatoms. 

On the 16th of this month, last year, I captured while 
working my tow-net in the harbour a single specimen of 
Nyctiphanes couchii. Since that date up to the present time 
I have not captured another of that species. 

On the 14th of the current month it was high water at 
noon, the wind having been blowing steadily from the westward 
for some days previously. On that morning I made a surface- 
net trip, and worked my net across the tide about two miles 
south-east of the Manacle rocks. The surface temperature at 
this point at 12-. 50 being 51-9° F. On making a hurried 
examination in the boat of the contents of the tow-net, I was 
pleased to observe several specimens of Nyctiphanes couchii. 
The wind had been steadily increasing in force ever since I had 
left Falmouth, and when the first gathering had been made the 
tide had begun to ebb. As a natural consequence there was a 



PELAGIC LIFE, EALMOtTlS. 31 7 

good sea running, and we had to abandon our position for a 
more sheltered locality inside the Manacle rocks. Had the 
weather been more favourable, I would gladly have remained in 
this locality for some hours, and have worked the net at various 
depths, with a view to discover whether or not this species of 
crustacean abounded in the locality. After working the 
surface-net in several places in the bay, I returned with my 
captures to my hut. In the collection made at the greatest 
distance from land I found the following specimens : Sagitta, 
Coryceeus anglicus, Oalanus finmarchius, all very abundant ; a 
few specimens of each of the following : Cyphonantes, 
Centropages typicus, and Oithonia spinifrons ; six specimens of 
Nyctiphanes couchii, 7 to 9 m.m. in length ; and two specimens 
of a species of Hyperia, which so far I have failed to identify. 
In the remaining gatherings I did not find any specimens of 
interest. 

On the 27th, after easterly gales, Oithonia spinifrons was 
very abundant in the tow-net gatherings, and although the 
weather was very cold at the time, surface temperature being 
46-3''F, I found in the gathering a few Thaumentias hemispherica. 
These specimens varied considerably in size, measuring from 5-2 
m.m. in diameter. 

On the morning of the 28th the surface temperature was 
46-9°F. The most interesting form secured was a single Solen 
measuring 1 m.m. in length. I have made some drawings of 
this moUusk, and have it living in a healthy condition in my hut 
in a small pan of sea water. In this gathering I also observed 
several specimens of Corycseus anglicus with quantities of 
diatoms attached to various parts of the cuticle. 

From that day to the end of the year the weather was very 
unsettled, and I was unable to venture out surface netting. 

It is my custom to arrive at the locality where I intend to 
work my surface-net at 10 a.m. At this hour the surface 
temperature of the sea is taken, and the tow-net worked just 
under the surface of the sea, and kept in that position for twenty 
minutes, when it is hauled on board, and the contents carefully 
emptied into a large collecting bottle, and examined on my 
return to my hut. 



318 PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 

II. Additions to the Fauna. 
Before recording the interesting marine forms captured 
since my last report, I should like to direct attention to a fact 
which, so far as I know, has not been recorded. 

Before the memorable blizzard of March, 1891, the main 
channel of Falmouth harbour was throughout its course almost 
lined with Ascidians ; the majority of the specimens being 
Ascidia mentula and A. tuberculata. On the 6th of February of 
that year, I spent the day dredging in the main channel of the 
harbour. It is recorded in my note book that these Ascidians 
occurred in such abundance that the dredge had to be hauled 
more frequently than usual, and when it reached the surface, the 
bag was found almost filled with these animals. . Naturally 
these Ascidians afforded a fine hold for Comatula and various 
species of Hydroids and Polyzoa. 

On the 5th of May following I spent the day dredging in 
the same locality, and, curious to relate, the Ascidians and 
Comatula had vanished from the ground, and for a full year few 
specimens were found. Since then, to the close of my report, I 
have spent many days dredging in various parts of the harbour, 
and have never secured more than a few isolated specimens of 
Ascidia mentula and A. tuberculata. — Vermes. 

Although fresh-water rotifers were the earliest, or one of 
the first living forms to Avliich the microscope was directed 
shortly after its invention, it is curious to notice that in the 
various reports published by previous Cornish naturalists, I have 
been unable to discover a single record of either a fresh or salt 
water rotifer. 

There is an exceedingly interesting species of parasitic 
rotifer, Seizon annulatus, to be found in small numbers attached 
to various parts of the cuticle of Nebalia bipes. This Phyllopod 
occurs in abundance in certain localities in Falmouth harbour. 

During the past autumn I have found in the reservoir near 
Penryn, Melicerta ringens in large quantities, and small numbers 
of Limnias ceratophylli. 

In a marsh pool this autumn near Chyoon granite quarry, 
I secured a single colony of that interesting social rotifer 
Conochilus volvox. 



PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 319 

MoLLUSCA. 

During the morning- of the 10th of August, 1891, the 
steam dredger "Briton" which for some time previously had 
been moored over a large bed of Zostera, was beached at 
high water to have her sides scraped and cleaned. As soon as 
the tide had left her dry, I went and examined her sides for 
interesting specimens. Without any difficulty I found eight 
specimens of Dendronotus arborescens, the largest measuring 
28 m.m. in length when crawling. This moUusk appears to be 
very rare in the south-west portion of England, since Dr. Cocks 
does not record its capture in any of his lists, and my friend 
Mr. Grarstang (5) has only captured two specimens of this 
nudibranch during his residence in Plymouth. 

On the 23rd of September of the same year, on hauling in 
my dredge off St. Mawes castle from the deep water, I found 
therein a large stone covered with various species of Hydroids 
and Polyzoa. When I returned to my hut, I placed this stone 
in a large glass vessel of sea water, and shortly after was 
pleased to see several specimens ^olis landsburgii swimming in 
an inverted position just under the surface of the water. This 
species also appears new to the district. I had intended 
measuring and making additional observations on these 
mollusks, but as the day was drawing to a close, I had to 
postpone my investigations till the following day. Before 
closing my hut, I placed the jar containing these nudibranchs in 
large tray, from whence an overflow pipe conveys the waste 
water from my aquaria into the sea. These mollusks must be 
very active, for on the following morning they were all gone, 
having escaped I imagine by the waste pipe into the sea. Since 
that date I have not seen any more specimens of this nudibranch. 

On further examination of the material brought to my hut 
on that day, I found on an old oyster valve, a single specimen 
of Polycera quadrilineata, measuring only 3 m.m. in length. 
On the 3rd of October following, I secured under the Eastern 
breakwater another specimen of the same species, measuring 16 
m.m. in length, and on the 18th of January of the current year, 
I secured another under a stone at low water in St. Just creek. 
Dr. Cocks records the capture of two specimens of this species 
by Dr. Yigurs in Gerrans bay. In connection with this 



320 PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 

nudibranch, 1 think it will be necessary to introduce here the 
following facts. There are usually moored about 100 yards 
north of the Foundry seven coal hulks. The sea-bottom 
in this region is composed mostly of mud, from which a 
fine growth of Zostera springs. Indeed the growth is so 
luxuriant, that one experiences the greatest difficulty in dredging 
anything from this locality. During extreme low water at 
spring tides, the keels of the vessels are within a few feet of 
the sea bottom, but never actually rest thereon. About every 
twelve months or so, the owners find it necessary to beach, 
scrape, and finally tar these hulks, in order to keep them in 
good order. It is my custom to watch when these hulks are 
beached, for one finds various species of Ascidians, Hydroids, 
and Polyzoa on their sides, and often interesting and at times 
rare specimens are secured by these means. In addition to 
examining these hulks when beached, on calm mornings once a 
fortnight or more frequently, I make an examination of the 
sides of these vessels when at their moorings, to see if any new 
forms have appeared since I last examined them. 

On the 9th of October of the present year, I found on one 
coal hulk while at her moorings, quantities of Polycera 
quadrilineata. Indeed, these mollusks were so numerous on the 
sides of this vessel, about three inches below the water-line, that 
without shifting my boat, I collected two dozen specimens. On 
the 12th of December, 1891, I found near Trefusis point a single 
specimen of Polycera ocellata 6 m.m. in length. On the 25th of 
January, near the same place, I found one Doris coccinea, and 
on the 28th of March following, another specimen of that 
species near the same locality. 

On the 31st of the same month, during a ramble round 
Helford at low water, I found ^olis papillosa literally swarming 
on the bar. In places these mollusks were so numerous that I 
had to pick my way in order to avoid crushing them. Groniodoris 
nodosa was also abundant under the clumps of Fuci left 
exposed by the tide. Some large specimens of Doris tuberculata 
were also noticed in the same locality. 

On the 12th of February I captured while dredging, one 
JEgirus punctillucens 1 c.m. in length. 



PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 321 

On ihe 28th of March, during spring tide, I found under 
some stones exposed at extreme low water at Trefusis point, four 
beautiful specimens of Aucula cristata. On the following day 
I secured several more specimens of the same species close to 
the same place. Four of these mollusks when crawling in a 
glass dish, measured respectively 11, 10, 9, and 11 m.m. in 
length. 

Mr. Garstang found a single specimen of -^olis picta on a 
floating raft belonging to the Dock company on the 27th of May. 
Just as I was closing this report, I found another specimen of 
this moUusk on a moored coal hulk. This nudibranch is new to 
the district and is rare. 

On the 24th of June I dredged a single individual of 
Trioper claviger, 21 m.m. in length. 

The beautiful nudibranch Antiopa cristata has hitherto been 
considered a rare specimen in Cornwall. Dr. Cocks in his 
various reports has recorded from time to time the capture of 
single specimens of this moUusk. Mr. Garstang (5) in his 
report records the capture of four specimens only of this species. 
On the morning of the 6th of October I made one of my 
periodical examinations of the sides of the coal hulks. As there 
was but little wind, I was able to view from my boat the sides 
of these vessels for a considerable depth. I was delighted to 
find that in several instances there were several specimens of 
A. cristata crawling on the sides of the hulks. I got a dozen at 
once, and in a few days later, I had no difiiculty in securing 
three dozen and sending them to Mr. Garstang. A short time 
later, this species literally swarmed on the sides of the hulks, 
and presented during calm weather a beautiful sight to the 
observer. Three specimens of this mollusk taken at random 
measured 49, 32, and 34 m.m. respectively in length. On one 
occasion while collecting specimens of A. cristata to send to 
Plymouth, I noticed a good number of what I imagined to be 
Thecacera pennigera a few feet under water, crawling up the 
side of one of the hulks. As these were too far down for me 
to fish up with a landing net, I took no further trouble in the 
matter, and naturally imagined that in a few days they would 
crawl higher up, and then I could easily secure some. Unfor- 
tunately the next few days were very stormy and cold, and the 



322 PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 

coal hulk on which I observed these specimens was taken into 
the roadstead to supply a steamer with coal. When the weather 
moderated and I was again able to visit this hulk in my boat, I 
was sorry to find that all the supposed specimens of Theeacera 
had vanished, and only a few iintiopa remained in places where 
they had been so very abundant. On the 16th of October I 
secured from the hulks the following nudibranchs : large 
quantities of vEolis coronata, several ^. alba, one specimen of 
^olis olivacea, and one ^. farrani. 

On the next calm day I went and examined all the moored 
buoys in the harbour to see if I could find any nudibranchs on 
them. From the Yilt buoy I secured a single ^olis coronata, 
the rest of the buoys not having any nudibranchs on them. 

On the 5th of December, while collecting at low water 
spring tides on the southern shore of Pendennis point, I found 
under a stone one Groniodoris castanea. Dr. Cocks records this 
species as not uncommon. A few days later I went and 
examined the sides of the coal hulks, and was pleased to find 
on them immense quantities of this moUusk. In the majority 
of instances the nudibranchs had congregated amid- ships, and 
being mostly of a rich dark red colour, were hardly distinguish- 
able from that Tunicate on which they were feeding. I sent a 
large number of the mollusks to Mr. Grarstang, and with them 
some specimens of the Tunicate for identification. A few days 
later Mr. Garstang informed me that the Tunicate was probably 
Leptoclinum gelatinosum. These mollusks had in many cases 
'taken up their abode on the vessels sides about three inches 
under water-line, and had deposited numerous coils of spawn in 
this region. On the 12th of that mouth a quantity of coal was 
removed from one of the hulks to supply a steamer, which was 
taken along side. This had the effect of raising the hulk about 
twelve inches out of the water, and as a natural consequence the 
mollusks were in numerous instances left some distance from the 
water. I naturally imagined that the mollusks would possess 
sufficient intelligence to find their way lower down, but this did 
not seem to be so, for I marked some specimens, and in two days 
they were all dead, having died I imagine for want of sea water. 
Mr. Garstang, loe. cit. records the capture of several specimens 
of this nudibranch at Plymouth. 



PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 323 

On the 17th, one of the men employed by the Dock company, 
brought me two large specimens of Pleurobranchus mem- 
branaceus, the largest measuring two and three quarter inches 
in length. These mollusks were found exposed at low water on 
some stones which form a ground work for the Western 
breakwater. Curiously enough, Mr. J. B. Tilly while standing 
at the extremity of the Eastern breakwater two days previously, 
observed a single individual of this moUusk being swept past by 
the flowing tide. Many years ago he informs me, ho captured a 
single specimen of this mollusk, and submitted it to the 
inspection of the late Miss Vigurs, who immediately identified 
it. Dr. Cocks records this mollusk as rare at Q-ylling-Yase, 
Helford river, not uncommon. Just as I was closing my last 
report I dredged a single Pleurobranchus near the Vilt buoy. 
The following morning I throughly hunted over the tidal docks 
below high water mark for individuals of this species. 
Fortunately there was a fair tide, and almost a complete calm, 
and so I was able to see for a considerable distance beyond low 
water limit. Along the inner edge of the Eastern breakwater on 
the balks of timber forming that structure, were quantities of 
these mollusks left by the tide. At low water in this locality, 
the sea bottom was fairly sprinkled with specimens of that 
species, most of which were industriously engaged in depositing 
their ova. On returning later to my moorings, I noticed this 
mollusk almost as abundant in that locality as elsewhere ; in fact, 
I observed some coils of their spawn close to the ladder in front 
of my' hut. On the following morning I made an examination 
of the shore along Trefusis point to see if individuals of this 
mollusk were also there, but I was unable to find a single 
specimen there or elsewhere in the outer harbour. 

On the 24th of July of the current year, Mr. C. Phillips, of 
Penryn, very kindly gave me some capsules, each of which 
contained several young Cephalopods in a living condition. 
These capsules were obtained from some fishermen, and were 
doubtless dragged from their position in the sand by the rope 
attached to the outer edge of the pilchard nets. An individual 
capsule measured 3 cm. in length and 1 cm. in greater 
diameter. On dissecting a specimen from the gelatinous 
envelope, and freeing it from its chorion, circulation was plainly 



324 PELAGIC LIFE, PALMOUTH. 

visible in every instance when viewed under the microscope. The 
weather at the time was very hot, and the temperature inside 
m.y hut, in spite of all my efforts, frequently registered 80° F. As 
a natural consequence quantities of the specimens in my aquaria, 
died, and with them these Oephalopods. So far as I am able to 
determine these capsules were deposited by Sepiola atlantica. 

On several occasions since my last report, I have found 
specimens of this mollusk left on the shore by the retreating 
tide. At Plymouth this Cephalopod is secured in abundance. 
Curiously enough, Sepiola atlantica is not mentioned by Dr. 
Cocks in any of his reports, although S. rondeletii is recorded. 
That last named species I have never yet met with. Sepiola 
atlantica is abundant in the summer time at Helford, Mullion 
cove, and also in Watergate bay near Newquay. 

Hydroids. 

On the 9th of August of this year, the weather not 
appearing very favorable for a long collecting trip, I spent 
the morning collecting in the tidal harbour. While drifting in 
my praam that morning, over some shallow ground close to No. 
1 dry dock, waiting for the tide to fall, I noticed swimming in 
the water a most beautiful gonozooid. On placing it in a 
collecting bottle and studying its movements for a short time, 1 
at once saw that the specimen had come from no great distance, 
and when the tide had sufficiently receeded, I carefully examined 
the under surfaces of the stones in that locality. Without much 
difficulty I secured a dozen specimens. On the 7th of September 
following, the tide being sufficiently low, I collected on the 
same ground upwards of thirty more individuals, and sent some 
of them to Mr. Garstang at Plymouth. These specimens seem 
to be confined to a small patch of ground about four yards in 
diameter, and only exposed during good spring tides. As there 
is a full historical account of this gonozooid in Hinks' British 
Hydroid Zoophites it is needless for me to repeat what is 
already published in that monograph. After having made some 
camera drawings of these individuals, I placed them in a glass 
jar with a current of sea water continually passing through. 
Within a few days a great number of them died, for I was at a 
loss to discover what to feed these animals on. I then emptied 



PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 325 

the contents of a jar containing a tow-net gathering in the 
vessel containing the gonozooids, and soon observed that they 
eagerly seized the copepods. By these means I managed to keep 
them in a healthy condition, and under constant observation till 
the 15th of October following. During this long time the only 
important changes observed was a shrinking of the walls of the 
nectocalyx, and a thickening of the manubrium. Cold weather 
setting in at this time killed my specimens and stopped my 
observations. It is curious to note that in spite of all my 
attempts, I was unable to find attached to the stones where the 
gonozooids occurred a single specimen of Oladonema radiatum 
the adult animal of this larval form, which 1 feel sure must have 
occurred in some abundance near that locality. 

Mammalia. 

On Sunday afternoon the 11th of October, 1891, a fine 
specimen of Delphinus delphis, about six feet long, was 
washed ashore in a dying condition near the Falmouth hotel. 
The unfortunate quadruped as it lay stranded on the shore soon 
attracted attention, and in a short time was surrounded by a 
small crowd, who attacking it with knives and sticks soon 
reduced an interesting specimen to a nearly shapless mass. My 
friend, Mr. J. B. Tilly, who happened to pass the spot shortly 
after the occurrence, picked up a single foetus, which he kindly 
gave to me on the following morning. On measuring this foetus 
I found it 13-8 cm. in length and 3 cm. in great diameter. On 
further examination I found it had been subjected to the 
roughest treatment. The brain was completely gone, the 
hyoid and sternum considerably damaged. In spite however of 
these drawbacks, I was able to make a fair dissection of this 
foetus, and to make out some points of extreme interest to me. 



REFERENCES. 



1. Cocks, W. P. Contributions to the Fauna of Falmouth. Report of 

the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, 1849. 

2. Cunningham, J. T. On a species of Siphouophore observed at Plymouth. 

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the 
United Kingdom, Vol. II, No. 3, 1892, 



326 



PELAGIC LIFE, FALMOUTH. 



3. Debt, J. ■ Description of a New Diptherous Insect, Psamath- 

iomya pectinata. Journal of the Royal 

Microscopical Society. Part II, 1889. 

4. G-ARSTANG, W. Eeport on the Nudibranchiate Mollusca of Plymouth 

Sound. Journal of the Marine Biological Assoc- 
iation of the United Kingdom. New series, Vol. 
1, No. 2. 

5. ,, ,, A complete list of the Opisthobranchiate Mollusca 

found at Plymouth, with further observations on 
their morphology, colours, and natural history. 
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of 
United Kingdom. New series. Vol. 1, No. 4. 

6. GrOSSE, P. H. A Manual of Marine Zoology for the British Islands. 

Part 1, 1855. 

7. Johnston, G. A Catalogue of the British Nonparasitical Worms in 

the collection of the British Museum, 1865. 

8. Kent, S. A Manual of the Infusoria, 1880-1881. 

9. Thomson, W. On the Development of Synapta Inhasrens. Quarterly 

Journal of Microscopical Science. New series, 
1862. 

10. Vallentin, E. Additions to the Fauna of Falmouth. Repoi't of the 

Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, 1891. 



327 



ON THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE DEPOSITS IN 
THE WEST OF ENGLAND. 

Bt J. H. COLLINS, F.G.S. 



Chap. III. — Eock Change as concerned in the Formation 
OF Ore Deposits.* 
Sec. 9. — Surface tension and electricity. 

The effects of surface tension in assisting the underground 
circulation, and, aided by outwardly impelled currents, in making 
it universal, have already been considered. Its influence as a 
depositing agent has also been touched upon — we have now to 
consider it a little more in detail. 

That the actual circulation through fissures will be greatly 
affected by the size of such fissures is obvious, for very narrow 
openings will be liable to speedy closure from the deposition of 
suspended matters, and very wide ones will favour deposition 
owing to the check of the current, while those of intermediate 
size wiU often be kept open by its fiow. But in very narrow 
openings the chemical precipitation will often be very different, 
owing to the existence of what is known as capillarity, due to 
surface tension. Mr. E. Hunt, while not doubting the existence 
and potency of electric currents in veins, yet considered that 
surface tension was often the immediately effective agent in the 
formation of ore deposits ; and M. Becquerel was of the same 
opinion.! 

The mechanical effects of surface tension under ordinary 
circumstances are marked when considerable masses of matter 
are concerned. But as the masses are reduced, the acting 
surfaces are not reduced in equal proportion, so that finally 
phenomena which are apparently inconsistent with the action 
of gravity, and which are really independent of it, become 
evident. Thus a very small quantity of water when poured out 
on a fiat surface forms itself into a sphere under the infiuence of 

* Continued from the Journal B.I.C., No. 38, p. 184, 

t See " a contribution to the history of Mineral Veins," Trans. Bo]/. Geol. 
Soc. Corn., ix, 23. 



328 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OBE-DEPOSITS. 

this surface tension, while a larger quantity spreads itself out 
under the influence of gravity until it appears to be a perfect 
plane. The gravity is acting all the time, but in the case of the 
small mass with the comparatively large surface the surface 
tension to all appearance overcomes the action of gravity. 

A closely related case is that of liquids in communicating 
vessels, or in two fissures connected by a transverse fissure, 
when under ordinary circumstances the water will stand at the 
same level in both. If, however, one of the vessels or fissures 
is very narrow, say x^o^l^ ^^ ^^ inch or less, the liquid wiU stand 
very notably higher in this than in the wider one, thus apparently 
setting the force of gravity at defiance ; so that, given sufiiciently 
small or narrow apertures, the tension becomes so great that 
solutions have power to penetrate porous substances against 
strong positive steam or air pressures, equal to many pounds on 
the square inch, as shown by Daubree and others. 

Such are what may be called the mechanical effects of surface 
tension ; there are equally remarkable chemical effects. Many 
decompositions are effected, and many precipitations are induced 
by it, as was long ago demonstrated by Becquerel, Hunt, and 
others.'^' Among natural examples of the operations of this force, 
I may refer to the thin plates of native copper found in the 
joints of el van and killas at the Grwennap Mines and many other 
places, and the arboreal markings of manganese which are so 
common in the finer joints of rocks almost everywhere. f 

One of the effects of this penetration of solutions through 
narrow fissures, and of the deposition of foreign matter within 
them must be to widen them, so that there is a constant tendency 
for potential structural planes to be converted into actual, and 
for actual divisional planes to become wider. Of course this 

* See experimeuts of Becquerel quoted by Hunt, and also his own, in his 
"Contribution, &c.," Trans. R.G.S.O., ix, 23. 

f It has been shown by the experiments of Dr. Hofmann and Mr. Witt that 
a certain portion of the salts dissolved in water are separated by passing through 
the filter-beds of the London Water Companies. Mr. E. Hunt, in his Economic 
Geology of Devon and Cornwall (Bath and West of England Agric. Journ., xvi, 
1868) quotes this, and also refers to certain experiments of Spencer, Normanby, 
and Graham ; and adds "The papers referred to clearly indicate the operation of 
a force which is most active in all the works of nature." 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 329 

widening of fissures and successive deposition can only go on 
{a) when the rock is shrinking, or (b) where there is room for 
the. rock's expansion in some other direction, or (c) when some 
constituent is progressively dissolved and carried off by the 
circulating fluid,- or {d) where colloid is being transformed into 
crystallized matter. As a matter of fact, evidences of all these 
modes of action are exceedingly common in all ancient rock 
masses. 

It will be seen, therefore, that the very same portions of 
fluid may at one time circulate through open fissures of consider- 
able dimensions (canalicular circulation), at another through very 
narrow or capillary channels ("capillary circulation), at still another 
through the potential divisional planes, or between the separate 
rock constituents (interstitiary circulation) ; the results being 
different in each case, although there may be no absolute line of 
demarcation between one form of this circulation and the others. 

The important changes in rocks, known as kaolinization, 
uralization, serpentinization, schillerization, alunation, &c., and 
mineralization generally, seem to be due directly and mainly to 
the interstitiary circulation — all the modifications of force just 
referred to taking part in the action in turn or together ; some 
of the combined results of these complex operations must be 
dealt with in the next section. 

Electricity. The phenomena of the earth's magnetism were 
referred to the action of electric currents circulating around it 
by Ampere more than 60 years ago. In 1832 Mr. Robert Were 
Fox, who had been experimenting for several years in the copper 
and lead mines of Cornwall, Devon, and Derbyshire, wrote 
that this hypothesis seemed to him ' ' to derive strong confirma- 
tion from the stratification of rocks, the arrangement of metallic 
and other veins, the high temperature which, in a greater or less 
degree prevails under the surface of the earth, and its rotation 
on its axis .... I was consequently led to suspect the existence of 
free electricity in metallic veins, and I was not disajppointed."* 
The experiments he had undertaken in 1829 at Wheal Jewel and 
other mines, and reported in a paper read to the Royal Society 

* Proc. Roy. Soc, iir, 1832, pp. 123-125. Phil. Mag., i, 1832, pp. 311-314. 



330 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OKE-DEPOSITS. 

in 1830, were continued at intervals by himself and his assistants* 
until the year 1842, in the following mines among others, Wheal 
Eose (lead), Wheal Friendship (copper), Wheal Betsy (copper), 
Pennance (lead), Lagylass (lead), Frongoch (lead), South Mold 
(lead). Miller (lead), — the last our in Flintshire, — Coldberry 
and Skeers (lead), Durham, &c. At Pennance Mine, near 
Falmouth, in 1842, he found the natural currents were sufS- 
ciently strong to magnetise iron, decompose iodide of potassium, 
force sulphate of copper through clay in a U tube, change 
yellow copper ore to gray ore and oxide of iron, and deposit 
copper on an electrotype plate. In these experiments the 
deflection of the needles were observed to continue steadily 
in the same direction for eight months, from the south vein 
towards the north, even when the mine was full of water. f 

By the continous action of a weak voltaic current, Mr. Fox 
produced a little later a well-defined lamination structure in a 
mass of well-kneaded clay placed between two metallic plates, 
one of copper, the other of zinc, the plates being connected by 
a wire, and electrically excited by a solution of common salt.| 

He also produced in the clay by this method a veritable series 
of mineral veins, containing veinlets and pockets of red oxide 
and green carbonate of copper, and brown oxide of iron, 
and also a distinct vein of oxide of zinc. Some of these 
metalliferous deposits were "so hard and firm as to admit 
of being taken out of the clay in plates the size of a shilling. 

*One of these was Mr.W. Jory Henwood,F.R.S. ,the President of this Institution 
in the year 1871. Mr. Heuwood in subsequent independent experiments came to 
conclusions differing considerably from those of Mr. Fox, but his experiments 
were vitiated by a disregard of some essential precautions, as Mr. Fox did not 
fail to point out. 

fThese experiments on the electric currents in metalliferous veins were 
afterwards repeated by Prof. Eeich of Freiberg, at the famous Himmelfahrt 
Mine, and confirmed in all essentials, although his interpretation of the results 
led him to attribute the phenomena altogether to the hydrothermal action within 
the veins, and not at ail to the general earth-currents, which were considered as 
largely effective by Mr. Fox. 

JThese experiments on the production of schistosity by electrical means were 
afterwards repeated by Mr. Eobert Hunt, with pretty similar results (See Mem. 
Geol. Survey, i, 433, 1846.) Mr. Henwood remarks (Trans. Boy. Geol. Soc, 
Corn , v) that he and Mr. Sturgeon had failed in the experiment and suggests that 
the clay was not well-kneaded. But Mr. Fox was far too careful an experimenter 
to be so misled. 



OEIGm AND DEVELOPMENT OF OEE-DEPOSITS. 331 

Mr. Fox's observations and experiments were fully described 
in the scientific journals of the day, and attracted a great 
deal of attention among all students of mineral phenomena, 
since they assisted greatly in upsetting the Huttonian hypothesis 
that such veins were igneous injections.'* 

As the part played by electric currents in the formation of 
ore deposits has not received very much attention now for many 
years, it may be well to give here a short recapitulation of a very 
important paper which Mr. Fox prepared in 1836.f 

1. That admitting the origin of mineral veins to have been 
derived from fissures in the earth, there is reason to believe that 
the latter may have been produced by different causes, and at 
various intervals ; also that many of them have been enlarged 
from time to time. 

2. That the accumulation of mineral deposits in such 
fissures has been likewise progressive ; and that the evidences 
afforded by the resemblance of the vein stones to the several 
enclosing rocks, and the arrangements and subdivisions of the 
contents of the veins, are decidedly in favour of both these 
conclusions ; independently of other arguments, based on 
mechanical principles. 

3. That the phenomena of veins seem to indicate that many 
ot the fissures penetrated to a great depth, and into regions of 
a very high temperature ; and that, consequently, the water which 
they contained must have circulated upwards and downwards 
with greater or less rapidity. 

4. That since the solvent power of water seems to increase 
in some ratio to the augmention of its temperature, it is obvious 
that it would tend to dissolve some substances at a great depth, 
which it would deposit, more or less, in the course of its ascent 
through cooler portions of water ; and also in consequence of its 
partial evaporation on reaching the surface. 

* For a fairly complete account of Mr. Fox's scientific work with references 
to his published papers, see " A Catalogue of the Works of fiobert Were Fox, 
F.E.S., with Notes and Extracts" by J. H. Collins, F.G.S., Truro, Lake & Lake, 
1878, where will be found plates illustrating' the above-described experiment with 
others bearing on the origin of metalliferous veins. 

fit appeared in the Report Roy. Corn. Pol. Soc. for that year, and was sub- 
sequently reprinted in a separate form, but is now very scarce. 



332 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OE ORE-DEPOSITS. 

5. That a part of the earthy contents of veins, and more 
especially silica or qnartz, was apparently accumulated in this 
manner, and usually combined, more or less, with matter other- 
wise deposited. 

6. That rocks, clay, &c., containing different saline solutions 
and metalliferous substances, in contact with water charged in 
many instances with other salts, were calculated to produce 
electrical action ; and this action was probably much increased by 
the circulation of the water, and differences of temperature ; but 
more particularly by the existence of compressed and heated 
water, metallic bodies, &c., at or near the bottom of the fissures. 

7. That since the water in the fissures containing metallic 
or earthy salts was a conductor of electricity, especially when 
heated, and in a very superior degree to the rocks themselves, it 
is evident that in conformity with the laws of electro-magnetism, 
the currents of (positive) electricity would, if not otherwise 
controlled, pass towards the west, through such fissures as were 
most nearly at right angles to the magnetic meridian at the time. 

8. That the more soluble metallic and earthy salts may 
have been decomposed by the agency of such electric currents, 
and the bases been thereby determined in most instances towards 
the electro-negative pole or rock ; that tin, however, under these 
circumstances, is only partly deposited at the electro-negative 
and partly at the electric-positive pole, in the state of a peroxide ; 
and that these properties of this metal seem to bear on its 
positions in the lodes with regard to copper, being sometimes 
found with it and sometimes distinctly separated from it. 

9. That the position of one rock with respect to another or 
to a series of other rocks may, as well as their relative saline or 
metallic contents, temperature, &c., have had a decided influence 
on the deposition of minerals on them by electrical agency, so 
that a given rock may have been electro-positive iia. one situation, 
and electro-negative in another, in regard to other neighbouring 
rocks, as this is quite consistent with voltaic phenomena. 

10. That the evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen, and the 
tendency of some metals, when in solution, to absorb oxygen and 
become insoluble, may in some instances have interfered with 
the regular arrangement of the metals, such as electricity would 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 333 

have effected ; and that hence, many anomalies may have arisen, 
especially in relation to tin. 

1 1. That the electrical re-action of the different metalliferous 
bodies, and of masses of ore on each other after their deposition 
in the fissures, may have corrected such anomalies in some 
instances, and that they may have given rise to them in others, 
by changing the direction of the electric currents and modifying 
the relative positions of the deposits ; and that the pseudo- 
morphous crystals of various descriptions, as well as other 
phenomena observable in mines, fully prove that some such 
secondary action must have taken place. 

12. That cross-veins may have been filled mechanically, or 
by the deposition of silica from a state of solution, or by both 
these means ; and that the striated and radiated structure 
of the quartz, may be owing to the tendency of electricity, under 
ordinary circumstances to pass transversely rather than longi- 
tudinally through north and south veins. 

13. That assuming the proofs of the progressive opening 
and filling of lodes and cross-veins to be admitted, it seems to 
follow that many intersections may have been caused by the more 
ready accumulation of clay and other mechanical matter, and 
even of silica from its solution, than of the more slowly-formed 
metalliferous or crystalline deposits. 

14. That the frequent occurrence of a mass of ore in that 
part of a lode which is intersected by a cross-vein ; and also of 
small branches of ore, from a dislocated part of a lode on one 
side of a cross-vein without there being corresponding veins near 
the other part of the lode on the opposite side of the cross- vein, 
afford strong evidence of the deposition of the ore in such cases 
after the intersection took place, and that it was accumulated in 
the E.W. vein, rather than the N.S. one, by the influence of 
electro-magnetism. 

15. That the small veins of copper and tin ore which are 
often found in cross-veins between the dislocated parts of lodes, 
and the frequent occurrence of more considerable, and yet for the 
most part very limited, quantities of these ores in the former 
in the immediate vicinity of intersections, are additional argu- 
ments in favour of the operations of the same definite agency. 



.3 34 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OEE-DEPOSITS. 

16. That the secondary fissures resulting from the cracking 
off of larger or smaller masses of the hanging sides of veins 
may have been partly filled, in many instances, by the electric 
action of different portions of ore on each other ; and that 
secondary lodes may have been formed at right angles to parallel 
E. W. lodes, in consequence of the reciprocal action of the latter. 

17. That many other phenomena of mineral veins, includ- 
ing those of a mechanical character, such as the occurrence of 
"horses," "heaves," &c., appear to be capable of satisfactory 
explanation on the principles which have been (here) laid down."-^' 

Mr. Hen wood, who at first did not agree with Mr. Fox's 
conclusions, and who, to the last day of his life, declined to 
theorise on his facts, remarks that Mr. Fox had only detected 
electric currents in connection with copper and lead lodes, and 
not in tin lodes, veinstones, or rocks. Von Strombech, too, 
failed to get current indication at St. Goar on the Rhine, 1833. 
In 1838, Mr. Pattison reported certain somewhat doubtful results 
which he had obtained in the sandstones and limestones of Alston 
Moor,f and in 1839 Reich got good results between veinstones 
and ores, while Henwood got distinct evidence of current by 
connecting oxide of tin and iron pyrites at the 106 fathom level 
in Eosewall Hill Mine, and in all cases, when he used a delicate 
galvanometer (Watkins and Hill's) he got results even with 
rocks. 

These various experiments and results point perhaps to a 
more general cause than the local electrical currents passing along 
the veins, from rich part to rich part, or from one ore to another, 
which was the only cause admitted by Reich, though they do not 
seem to be very closely connected with Ampere's general earth 
currents occasioned by the rotation of the globe, as held by Fox. 
The local currents are, indeed, effective in distributing, or in 
concentrating the ores in the rich parts, but there is certainly 
more than this to be seen. It is hardly possible to conceive that 
that two rocks, of dissimilar nature, or even only under dis- 
similar conditions, can exist side by side, both subject to chemical 

* Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. Cornivall, v, 1843. 
t Brit. Assoc. Report for 1838. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 335 

changes, without being in somewhat different electrical states. 
This being so, there must be constantly in action direct currents 
from one to the other, across the run of their junctions. Some 
of the effects of such transverse continuous currents are illus- 
trated by Mr. Fox's experiment with the clay enclosed between 
metal plates already alluded to. Does not this mode of viewing 
the subject explain in some degree the frequent occurrence of rich 
parts in or near contact zones, and the reasonableness of the miner's 
universal belief in the beneficial effect of a juxtaposition of dis- 
similar rocks in a mining district ? It is in fact the great constantly 
acting deposition battery. Of course it cannot make metallifer- 
ous deposits if the region contains no soluble metal, any more 
than the battery of the electro-plates can go on depositing after 
its solutions are exhausted ; but given suitable solutions, and 
every mineralized region supplies such ; suitable places for 
deposit, and these we get in disturbed and fissured country ; and 
a sufficient battery, which is supplied by the juxtaposition of 
dissimilar rocks ; and we have all the favourable elements for the 
formation of rich parts. It seems to me that, from the electrical 
point of view more than any other, it may be possible to study 
the mutual relations of ore deposits and country rock with 
advantage. 

An interesting illustration of what is apparently the directive 
force of electricity is afforded by another phenomenon. It is a 
matter of the commonest observation that certain minerals are 
often deposited in joints of definite direction, and not in others 
having different directions, or on certain planes of a crystal in a 
vein, and not on other planes differently oriented. Thus, at the 
Treskerby Quarry, in so-called "primary granite," schorl and 
chlorite are deposited in E.W. joints, but not in those running 
N.S.*' Similarly at Carn Marth, joints running 25°S of W. have 
amethyst, fluor, and chlorite, while those running 10° W. of N. 
carry schorl and oxide of iron ; and in the Trelubbus Quarry 
joints 20° S. of W. have chlorite, chalcopyrite, mispickel, and 
blende, while the approximate N.S. joints contain schorl and oxide 
of iron as at Carn Marth. f The parallelism of such phenomena 

* Notes of Excursions, Rev. M.it.,1864. 
t Ibid. 



336 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

on a small scale with, tlie larger observed association of tin with 
E.W. veins, and of iron and the rarer metals, such as uranium, 
cobalt, nickel, &c. with N.S. veins, is obvious, and the causes are 
probably similar if not identical in character. These electrical 
experiments of Fox and others, though arising from Mr. Fox's 
acquaintance with Ampere's hypothesis, have not shown any 
particular connexion of the veins and rocks and their local 
currents with Ampere's general currents ;* and Mr. Fox's first 
idea, that the stratification of rocks, &c., were connected with or 
due to such general currents was soon given up by him, as well 
as by others. Although he was able to produce schistosity in 
well-kneaded clay by electrical means, yet except perhaps for 
such local phenomena as the sheeting already mentioned and the 
local laminations of clays, we must look to mechanical causes for 
large scale stratification, lamination, and schistosity. And further, 
although given such longitudinal structure, and its accompanying 
longitudinal jointing, electricity might convert some of these 
joints into lodes, yet the proof of an absolute fissure in a great 
majority of cases was soon admitted by him. 

Another of Mr. Fox's anticipations has also not been realized 
up to the present. He hoped to discover great bodies of 
ore by means of their electrical indications ; but although the 
existence of masses of magnetic iron-ore has been ascertained in 
Sweden, Canada, and the United States, by the somewhat 
analagous use of his dipping needle, I believe no such practical 
applications have hitherto been made of the galvanometer, 
and bearing in mind the difficulties of the problem, it is hard to 
have hope of ultimate success in this direction. 

* It may, however, be remarked that Mr. Henwood's experiments, and his 
conclusions recorded in 1843 {Trans. R.G.S.O.,v.) in no way negative the existence 
of such general currents, it is merely that the far stronger currents were not 
eliminated To detect general currents in the neighbourhood of metalliferous 
deposits must be as difficult as to ascertain the directive effect of the earth on a 
magnet in the immediate neighbourhood of masses of magnetite. It may 
perhaps be granted that the influence of general currents in forming valuable 
metalliferous deposits is small, perhaps even insignificant except as a start, and 
this, I believe, was pretty much Mr. Fox's final conclusion. A similar difficulty 
exists in determining the normal increase of subterranean temperature, since 
hitherto all observations have been made in places where abnormal conditions 
exist ; yet few will doubt that there is such a normal increase. 



OEIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OKE-DEtOSITS. 337 

The essential difficulty in all such cases is the same, viz. : 
that small, and even insignificant bodies, if very near, act as 
energetically on the dipping needle or the galvanometer as large 
and valuable bodies at a greater distance, and also that, owing 
to the action being inversely as the square of the distance, it is 
too feeble in most cases to make itself evident at all, even at 
very moderate distances. 

Mr. Fox's experiments on the influence of electricity on 
sulphide ores as bearing on the origin of gozzans will be referred 
to in the next section. 

Sec. 10. — Some specific effects of the underground circulation. 

The physical forces referred to in See. 8, acting by means 
of the circulating waters (Sec. 7) produce certain remarkable 
and wide-spread changes in the country rocks, as well as on 
already existing metalliferous deposits. Some of the most 
important of these will be here dealt with. 

Hydration. This is seen in the occasional conversion of 
masses of hematite into limonite, and of anhydrite into gypsum, 
the original structure and texture being often perfectly preserved. 
Micaceous rocks are often found with the mica more or less 
changed by hydration : in this way Damourite, Margarodite, and 
some other minerals appear to have been formed. Pure water is 
able to effect many such changes, but water charged with 
carbonic acid, as is the case with all natural waters falling 
through the atmosphere, acts much more thoroughly and 
rapidly.* 

The hydrated micaceous mineral Sericite seems to have been 
formed by circulating waters ; not however by the hydration of 
pre-existing micas, but as a decomposition and re-composition 
product of other non-micaceous silicates. 

Formation of Go%%an. This is essentially a process of oxida- 
tion, accompanied in most instances by hydration. In the West 
of England, gozzan consists mainly of hydrated peroxide of iron, 

* A. Johnstone in experimenting on Muscovite found that pui'e water had the 
same effect as water charged with carbonic acid, viz., the mica was simply 
hydrated ; hut with biotite, iron and some other components were carried off when 
carbonated water was used, while it was simply hydrated by pure water. All, 
however, increased in balk. Q. J. G. /Soc.,No. 173, p. 363. 



338 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

mingled in most cases with, more or less of siliceous substance, 
this latter being frequently in the brittle form of quartz, known 
as "sugary-spar," or of the highly cavernous form known as 
" floatstone." Sometimes there is also a whitish or reddish clay 
present (prian), also partially oxidised masses of pyrites, marca- 
site, and other sulphides, with in many cases crystals of oxide of 
tin. 

Grozzan is peculiarly characteristic of copper-lodes, as was 
long ago observed by Pryce, often extending to great depths, 
and even below the sea-level, as at the United Mines in Grwennap, 
North Grrambler near Redruth (85 fathoms), Fowey Consols (100 
fathoms below adit), the Phoenix Mines, Devon Great Consols, 
and Wheal Friendship. Many of these gozzans contained 
occasional sprigs of native copper ; more frequently considerable 
quantities of the black and red oxides and blue and green 
carbonates of copper, together with smaller quantities of the 
various phosphates, arseniates, uranates, and other rare mineral 
compounds. 

A good gozzan even in Cornwall does not of course neces- 
sarily imply the existence of a valuable copper deposit beneath, 
since it may be merely the result of an oxidation and hydration 
of ordinary iron pyrites of little or no commercial value ; yet so 
generally is it the case that rich deposits are thus indicated, that 
no miner would hesitate to follow a really good gozzan, especially 
if it contained mere traces of copper ; on the other hand, no 
miner would be disposed to place much confidence in any copper 
lode, unless it had a " good gozzan" in some part of its course. 

Iron ore has been obtained, not only from iron lodes proper 
such as those of Eestormel, Pawton, and Brixham, but also from 
the "backs " of very many copper, lead, and tin lodes: indeed 
the great Perran lode itself is thought by many to be merely the 
upper portion of an immense copper lode 

Some lode-gozzans have for many years yielded quantities 
of ochre, either by simple stamping and washing, or, in some 
instances by merely settling the outflowing waters. It is worthy 
of note that the ochre thus obtained usually contains some notable 
proportion of sub-sulphate of iron, indicating clearly its origin 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 339 

from an alteration of pyritous substance. At Wheal Jane and 
Virtuous Lady such, gozzans may be traced directly down to 
unaltered pyrites. 

The gozzans at Levant, Carn Brea, Dolcoath, and many 
other mines, have yielded considerable quantities of tin, which 
occurred for the most part in brilliant dark-coloured and greatly 
modified crystals. At North Grambler the gozzan was so rich 
for tin at the 85 fathom level that it was worked for this metal 
at a tribute of six shilliugs in the pound. 

Blende has been obtained in large quantities at Great 
Eetallack, Duchy Peru, Burrow and Butson, Wheal Busy, and 
many other mines. 

Many gozzans have yielded notable quantities of chloride 
and other silver ores, as for instance those of North Dolcoath 
and Herland ; while gold has been found in minute particles in 
a great many instances, though nowhere in paying quantities. 
Nevertheless it must be admitted that in the west of England 
gozzans are to be looked upon rather as indicators of underlying 
deposits of value than as being themselves of economic value. 

Although the gozzan occasionally extends far below the per- 
manent water-level of the country, yet in general this is not the 
case. Ordinarily as soon as this water-level is reached, or very 
soon after, the ores present (except in the case of tin, which is 
not known as a true sulphide) are found to be almost exclusively 
" pyritoids " (sulphides, arsenides, and the like) ; and this fact, 
taken in conjunction with the occurrence of partially altered 
sulphides present in the gozzan, leaves no room for doubt that 
originally all the oxides of the gozzan — tin and some iron and 
manganese excepted — have been derived from pre-existing 
sulphides. 

The change of carbonate of iron into peroxide was very 
plainly observable in the bottom of the Pawton mine near St. 
Columb in 1874. In this case as in many others, the anhydrous 
peroxide was formed from the carbonate notwithstanding the 
enormous quantities of moisture present. I saw the same thing 
in the Brendon Hills Mine, in Somersetshire, about the same time. 
In each of these cases, too, it was plainly seen how cellular 
quartz had been formed by the oxidation and removal of crys- 



340 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OP OBE-DEPOSITS. 

talline aggregates of chalybite, which had been subsequently 
permeated by siliceous solutions, and so coated with quartz. A 
similar oxidation of sulphides and removal or alteration of 
carbonates has been observed in all mining countries, and to 
this is due the greater part of the difference between "free- 
milling " and " refractory " gold and silver ores in the Eocky 
Mountains. 

The production of gozzan seems in most eases to be due to 
the action of surface-waters percolating through the fissures or 
their mineral contents. Hence it is, that when once the water- 
level is reached, or where the lode is so solid as not to admit of 
any considerable circulation, there is little or no oxidation- 
"When, however, the gozzan extends below the water-level, it is 
more likely to have been produced by thermal springs since 
exhausted, and the large quantities of gozzan material spread 
over the surface in some situations supports this view, and 
evidences the recent character of the extinction. 

The experiments of Fox, Becquerel, and Hunt, show that 
electrically-excited salt water acts powerfully on chalcopyrite, 
converting it into erubescite and setting free peroxide of 
iron. Supposing this process to take place in the depths of the 
earth in connexion with an upward current, the iron oxide would 
be deposited at or near the surface as gozzan. In this case, the 
gozzan would be an indication not of bodies of iron-ore but of 
chalcopyrite and erubescite, and traces of copper would be more 
or less abundant in it.* Some fiirther characters of gozzans 
and of their relations in their underlying mineral deposits, as 
well as to the surface contours of the regions in which they 
occur, will be dealt with in the fourth chapter.f 

* In this connexion some recent experiments of Mr. W. N. Steernwitz are of 
interest. He placed crystals of ferrous sulphate in a cold solution of an alkaline 
silicate. After a time, thin nearly colourless threads began to rise from the 
crystal through the solution to the surface, where they became oxidised, spread 
about, and finally were deposited as a brown ferruginous silicate " resembling 
that of the ii'on outcrops which indicate ore-veins." When salts of other metals 
were present, traces of them were found in the ferruginous deposit. (See School 
Mines Quarterly, U.S.A., 12, 181-186.) 

fFor interesting particulars relating to gozzans, see Henwood, Trans. 
B.O.S.C., v. ; Argall, Rep. M.A., 1864and 1872 ; Phipson, Mining Journ., 1864 ; 
ColHns, Joiim. E.7.C., 1888. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 341 

Kaolini%ation is a peculiar change to which, many aluminous- 
alkaline silicates are liable, and especially the various forms of 
felspar. It seems to be effected by the underground circulation, 
which, decomposing the original silicates, carries off the alkalies, 
leaving a hydrated silicate of alumina behind, free quartz being 
at the same time deposited whenever there are cavities. This 
change is effected gradually, so that in many instances the form 
of the original felspar is perfectly retained. Few felsjDars are 
altogether without indications of, at least, incipient kaolinization ; 
and the china-stone (Petuntzyte) and china-clay rock (Carclazyte) 
so abundant in the West of England are important results of 
this change operating on an extensive scale. 

It seems likely that, generally speaking, f elspathic rocks may 
have been kaolinized by the action of percolating atmospheric 
waters charged with carbonic acid, and at ordinary temperatures 
and pressure ; but it is very unlikely that any kaolin of economic 
importance has been thus produced. Rather, in such instances, 
the change seems to have been effected by the action of solutions 
containing fluorine (with sometimes at least chlorine and boron) 
arising from considerable depths through fissures, as was long 
ago suggested by Von Buch, Daubree, and others. All forms of 
circulation could aid effectively in this ; the canalicular to bring 
up the active solvent from below, as well as to carry off the 
dissolved alkalies, and the capillary and interstitial to permeate 
add change the interior of the rock-substance. 

The enormous economic importance of this form of change 
in the felspathic rocks of the West of England is indicated by 
the fact that the yearly exports of china-clay and china-stone 
from the two counties now amount to over 400,000 tons, necessi- 
tating the removal of probably 6 million tons of rock and 
overburden. The softening of aluminous killas near many lodes 
and the production of prian are direct results of this kaoliniza- 
tion process ; while the production of schorl-rock, gilbertite 
quartz, and capel, are intimately connected with it.* 

*For a fuller discussion of this subject, see the following works by the present 
author : — 1, "The Hensbarrow Granite District," Truro, 1878. 2, "On Cornish 
Tin Stones and Tin Capels," Truro, 1883. 3, "On the Nature and Origin of 
Clays," Min. Mag., 1888. 



342 ORIGIN AND DEiNELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

Serpentinization. This is a change somewhat analagous to 
the last, to which olivine, and in a less degree most forms of 
pyroxene and amphibole, as well as some other minerals, are 
subject. Full and free circulation of the solvent seems to be 
necessary, and probably also both heat and pressure. I endea- 
voured to show some years since that " serpentinous change is 
scarcely less common, though of course much less extensive in 
the West of England, than kaolinization, and that in some 
instances the same rock-mass affords evidence of both kinds of 
change," and after quoting from Dr. Sterry Hunt, I went on to 
say " The change has probably required a circulation of waters 
containing magnesian chloride in solution, and aided by heat and 
pressure ; submergence in the waters of the sea to a considerable 
depth would suffice to give all these conditions."* 

Uralization and amphiholization. The changes of augite into 
uralite, and of uralite and diallage into hornblende are so-called. 
They are almost as universal in the West of England as kaolini- 
zation, although their field of operation is far less extensive. 
The changes, too, are very analagous, except that there is no 
evidence of the presence of fluorine, while considerable heat and 
pressure were probably essential in addition to the circulating 
solutions. Most of the intrusive " greenstones " and " gabbros" 
afford evidence of this kind of change. f 

Schillerization or the alteration of augite, enstatite, &c., into 
diallage and bronzite, consists (according to Prof. Judd, who has 
made a special study of the subject), in the development of 
minute enclosures in the form of thin plates or delicate rods 
along one or more sets of parallel planes in the minerals so 
altered. This development, which is very common in the Lizard 
district, always seems to take place along definite cleavage planes, 
but the largest development is not always in the freest cleavages. 
These plates, rods, &c., are considered by Prof. Judd to be 
" negative crystals filled with products of decomposition." The 
development seems to be proportionate to the depth of the rock 
from surface at the time of the change, and consequently may 

^Geological Magazine, July, 1885, August, 1886, and May, 1887. " The Geo- 
logical History of the Oornish Serpentinous Eocks." 

t See Allport, " Rocks of Land's End District," Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc. 1876, 
pp. 15-29. Phillips, Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc, May, 1876. 



OKIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 343 

be regarded as the result of what I have called capillary circu- 
lation, aided by heat and pressure. It is probable that some 
special solvent is necessary, since schillerization is local and not 
general, and also because the secondary deposits in the negative 
crystals seem to be in some instances derived from without. This 
schillerization is common in many of the Lizard rocks, but I am 
not aware it has been observed in the mining districts of the 
West of England. The conversion of orthoclase into murchi- 
sonite, as observed near Dawlish, seems to be a combination of 
kaolinization and schillerization, and the Y^eculiav chafoi/ant lustre 
of labradorite is, according to Judd, due to a similar development 
of ?</i!rffl-microscopic plates.*' 

Alunation. This consists in a decomposition of alkaline 
aluminous silicates by the aid of sulphuric acid. The acid usually 
results from the atmospheric oxidation of iron pyrites, as may be 
seen in the shallower parts of many of our mines, and in some 
places on the coast, in which case it may be regarded as a form 
of weathering,! or it may be supplied by volcanic fumeroles, or 
by thermal springs. Alunation may be seen in operation on 
many mine-burrows where pyrites occurs associated with 
aluminous veinstones. ;]; 

Calcification. Where calcareous matter is contained in the 
rocks, the waters flowing over or issuing from them are always 
''hard," that is, they contain carbonate of lime in solution. 
When such waters flow over loose sands or porous strata as met 
with along the north coast of Cornwall, the interstices become 
filled with carbonate of lime in a more or less crystalline condition. 
This may be seen in the calcareous amygdaloids near Port Isaac, 
on the north coast ; in the slates underlying limestones in many 

* For a full discussion of schillerization, see Judd, Quart. Journ. Geol. 8oc. 
163, pp. 377, 383, 387, 408 ; and 165, p. 82. 

t See the account of the hot chamber in the author's description of the 
Perran Iron Lode already referred to. 

X An interesting example of alunation on a large scale is afforded by the 
Yorkshire cliffs near Whitby, and by the cliffs of London Clay at Sheppey. 
Daubree, in his Les eaux anciennes, also refers to an instructive example at 
Tokay, in Hungary, where certain trachytic tuffs have been converted by the 
agency of thermal springs containing sulphuric acid into alunite. This material 
forms extensive fossiliferous beds at the foot of the eruptive masses, while the 
silica set free has super-silicated the tuffs in question so that they become suitable 
for millstones. 



344 OBIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

parts of Devonsliire ; a similar phenomenon is observable in the 
Perran and Mithian sands, and especially in the sands near 
Crantock and St. Enodoek. The extensive dunes of blown sand 
along the north coast contain a large proportion of carbonate of 
lime in the form of comminuted shells. The rain-water in 
sinking through the upper layers of the sand dissolves out part 
of the carbonate of lime, and in favourable circumstances, where 
there is an underlying stratum of comparatively impermeable 
ground, this is re-deposited in such a way as to convert the 
lower layers of the sand into a fairly compact and durable sand- 
stone of great value for (local) building purposes. 

On the other hand, the withdrawal of carbonate of lime in 
solution has frequently altogether removed or extensively 
changed beds of calcareous rock, as in the case of the coral- 
bearing shale at Newham alluded to. Here the forms of the 
corals and even their minute structure are still perfectly distinct, 
yet the rock now contains a mere trace of lime.* There is no 
means of knowing where the lime has gone in this instance, but 
in general the lime must have been removed before the principal 
lodes of the West of Cornwall were formed for it is an undoubted 
fact that with a few local exceptions the lodes in this part of 
the county, where limestones are almost unknown, contain very 
little calcite as a veinstone. 

Silicification, I am not aware of any notable siliceous 
springs in Cornwall or Devon, but the mine waters analysed 
have contained on an average nearly two grains of silica per 
gallon, whether thermal or phreatic. Water containing this 
comparatively small quantity of silica would still be capable of 
silicifying shales and sandstones (as at the Haytor Mines), of 
depositing cross-course spar (asin the numerous cross- courses), of 
filling cracks in the rock (as seen in the killas of so many places), 
of indurating sandstones and conglomerates (as at Ladock and 
the Nare Point), or of forming siliceous bands in the granite or 
siliceous capels in the killas. The process of kaolinization 
liberates a considerable proportion of uncombined silica, and 
this we constantly see in bands traversing the carclazyte, accom- 
panied in some instances by schorl and cassiterite. 



^Recent Mineralogical Analyses, by J. H. Collins, Jour. B.I.C., xxiii. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 345 

The economic importance of silicification to the miner is in 
two directions, — the one favourable, the other unfavourable. By 
its influence in strengthening the walls of fissures, otherwise 
much weakened by kaolinization and other changes, it is 
favourable ; but when, as in many instances, the ore present is, so 
to speak, buried in large quantities of hard siliceous capel, the 
cost of excavation and of subsequent treatment is largely 
increased, and its effect is decidedly unfavourable. 

The cross-courses of the mining regions of the West of 
England are to a large extent composed of a peculiarly crystall- 
ized quartz known as cross-course spar, the silica of which has 
been derived from some unknown source, and when these cross- 
courses contain oxide of iron this also is often highly siliceous. 
Mr. Fox has suggested that the different character of the 
crystallized quartz veinstones in cross-courses as compared with 
that in lodes has some relation to the different action of local 
electrical currents in latitudinal and longitudinal fissures. This 
is certainly so in the West of England, but the same can hardly 
be said of mining regions generally. 

The thick beds of sandstone which are so frequent and so 
characteristic of that part of Cornwall which lies immediately to 
the north and east of Truro, are often little consolidated, and 
consequently weathered into loose and incoherent sands to a 
considerable depth. So also the mica traps, which run from 
Eoscreage beacon to Watergate Bay. But where these sand- 
stones and traps are crossed by cross-courses, they are mostly 
found to be indurated and infiltrated with silica, not only in 
cracks, but throughout their mass. Thus they are able to resist 
denudation, and the sandstones in such cases stand up above the 
general level of the country, almost like dykes. This kind of 
local silicification is common, not only in connexion with rich 
mineral deposits, but also in situations where valuable minerals 
are not known or believed to exist. 

The great cairns of quartz found at intervals from the 
Dodman to Mawgan-in-Meneage seem to be local supersilicifica- 
tions of fossiliferous sandstones of Lower Silurian Age. 

On the north coast, between Padstow and St. Ives, and also 
at Wheal Friendship, near Tavistock, in Devon, certain soft and 
and fine-grained sandstones and mudstones are found to be 



346 OKIGIN- AND DEVELOPMENT OP ORE-DEPOSITS. 

locally silicified so as to furnish very fair oil-stones, hone- 
stones, scythe-stones.* 

The siliceous alteration of limestones is a not uncommon 
occurrence in East Cornwall and West Devon, but in these cases 
the cherty bands and the silicified fossils have more of a 
non-crystalline or flinty character than is observable in the quartz 
veins and siliceous capels of the West of Cornwall. It should 
be remarked, however, that the quartz in the north and south 
lead-bearing lodes of Menheniot and St. Pinnoek (Wheal Tre- 
lawney, Wheal Mary, Wheal Ludcott) is largely of a chalcedonic 
character, and so also is that of certain north and south veins 
near Withiel. This infiltration, with chalcedonic rather than 
crystalline quartz, is also met with in some of the fine-grained 
elvans such as those of Trelaver Downs in St. Dennis and 
Foxhole in St. Stephens. f 

Chalcedonic quartz is not, however, limited to Devon and 
East Cornwall, since much chalcedony has been found in the lodes 
at Trevascus, Pednandrea, and many other mines between 
Pedruth and Marazion, and also at Wheal Pose and Wheal 
Penrose, near Helston. 

At St. Just opaline silica has occurred in many different 
forms and in considerable abundance at Botallack, Wheal Cock, 
and other mines. 

The silicified sandstones of the greensand beds at Blackdown 
are often more or less concretionary and chalcedonic, while at 
Lyme Regis beds of sand have been extensively infiltrated with 
chalcedonic quartz. 

Thus then, in the West of England, we have silica existing 
in secondary deposits in at least three distinct forms ; each 
exhibiting marked modifications, as follows : — 

(a.) Crystalline, as clear or tinted rock-crystal, as variously 
coloured and ordinary vein-quartz, as "fibrous" cross-course 
spar, as "sugary spar," " floatstone," &c., all practically 
anhydrous, and with specific gravity of 2 "6 and upwards. 



* The famous Water of Ayr Stone is a silicified rock of this character. 

t The super silication of felsites and felspar porphyry s is very general in the 
Eio Tinto District (Q. J.G.8., 1885), and also in the rocks of Seville (Macpher-: 
son, Bol. de la. Com. del Mapa. Geol., Tomo VI.) 



OKiaiN AKi) DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-BEPOSITS. 347 

(h.) Chalcedonic, in concretionary or stalactitic forms, as 
red or brown jasper, as an opaque milk-white mass, as chert, 
&c., all anhydrous, and with specific gravity over 2-6. 

[p.) Opaline, as pure opal, semi-opal, mangan-opal, ferrugi- 
nous opal, &c., all hydrous, and with specific gravities varying 
from 2*2 upwards. 

As to the origin of the different modifications of the first 
group, it would appear that they have been formed almost 
everywhere in the West of England and at all periods, from the 
very earliest down to or near to the present time. Except 
perhaps in the case of the cross-course spar, it is likely that 
these forms of quartz have been produced very slowly. The 
second group is much more local, but it occurs in many situations 
under conditions which suggest a rather rapid deposition. Prob- 
ably its origin is directly connected with thermal springs. 

The third group or opaline variety was also no doubt 
deposited by thermal springs and probably at a very high tem- 
perature. It is scarcely too much to say that in the whole of the 
West of England mining • region, a rock which has not been 
infiltrated with some form of silica, since its first consolidation, or 
a fissure in which silica has not been deposited at more than one 
epoch, is a very rare exception. This being the case, we can 
hardly expect any direct connexion of origin to be traceable 
between the silica and the associated ore. There is quartz with 
the tin veins in the granite, but there is precisely similar quartz 
without tin ; siliceous tin and copper capels abound, but there are 
very similar capels without tin or copper. Iron is found with the 
silica in some cross-courses, but in others it is absolutely free 
from iron. 

Even the frequently observed connexion of silica with gold''* 
is little noticeable in Cornwall, although that metal has been 
found in cross-courses in Breage, near Eedruth, and at Poltimore 
in Devon. 

* Interesting examples of recently-formed siliceous deposits containing gold, 
silver, cinnabar, and other metallic minerals, are described by Dr. Robert 
Oxlandand Mr. J. A. Phillips {Phil. Mag., Nov. 1868). 

Mr. Dean remarks, " The silurian beds traversed by the gold lodes (in the 
Clogau district, where some very profitable mines were formerly worked) when 
hard and sharp and well silicified are the best for gold, the soft beds are imfavour- 
able (" Notes on Gold Mining in Wales," JSep. M.A., 1865.) 



348 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OKE-DEPOSITS. 

It is often supposed that silica has been deposited from acid 
solutions. It is probable, however, that this is not the case in 
general. The waters 6.o^^ ing from kaolin are always a little alka- 
lien, while quartz-crystals are often found deposited on crystals of 
calcite or chalybite, whose form and even whose lustre has not 
been affected in any way.* 

Minerali%ation. This is a term used by miners in a some- 
what arbitrary sense, to denote an impregnation of a rock with 
iron-pyrites, copper-pyrites, blende, galena, or other sulphide 
ore — or by the oxidized or decomposed indications of such. It 
often happens that such mineralization, especially with the first- 
named substance, exists over large areas, in regions where no 
valuable deposits have been discovered. But the converse is 
scarcely the case, since there are very few mineral deposits of 
value known other than detrital deposits, which are not associ- 
ated with rocks more or less mineralized. As in the cases of 
calcification and silicificatiou there may be, and often is, evidence 
of the direct introduction of the mineralizating substance from 
without, while at other times there seems to have been a mere 
re-arrangement of an original or pre-existing constituent. 

Pseudomorphism. In a large sense all such changes as 
kaolinization, serpentinization, and the like are examples of 
pseudomorphism. Technically, however, the term is limited to 
chemical changes in minerals of definite form, either distinctly 
crystalline, or at least exhibiting definite and recognizable 
" imitative " forms. For instance, when crystals of pyrites are 
found converted into limonite, calcite into cerussite, pyromorph- 
i^e into galena, or felspar into kaolin, these would be at once 
recognized as pseud omorphic. It is evident, however, that the 
process is similar when extensive amorphous masses or dissemi- 
nated grains are similarly changed. 

The gozzans and the china-clay and china-stone " deposits " 
already mentioned are such examples, as much so as the altered 
veins of iron carbonate at Pawton, the altered beds of iron 

* For some interesting experiments and instructive remarks on the decom- 
position and re-construction of rocks by siliceous infiltrations, see a paper by 
Alptonse Gages, read at the Geol. Soc. of Dublin, Nov. 18, 1858. {Bub. Nat. 
Hist. Bev., Vol. vi.; 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OP ORE-DEPOSITS. 349 

carbonate in Northamptonshire, or those of the north of Spain 
near Bilbao. 

Pseudomorphic changes, using the term in its more limited 
sense, may be conveniently classed as follows : — 

A. Gain of components. 

1. Simple hydration, as when anhydrite is converted 
into gypsum, or muscovite into damourite. 

2. Simple oxidation, as when magnetite is converted 
into hematite, or native copper into cuprite. 

3. Addition of a compound radule, as when cuprite is 

converted into malachite. 

B. Loss of components. 

4. Simple loss of a constituent, volatile or soluble, as 
when cuprite occurs as metallic copper, or argentite 
as metallic silver. 

c. Substitution. As when galena is converted into cerussite, 
or pyromorphite into galena, or chalybite into hematite. 
The next three are pseudomorphs in quite a different sense. 

D. Infiltration into a cavity formerly occupied by another 

substance. In this case, the form but not the structure 
will be preserved, as in the ease of the Wheal Coates 
pseudomorphs of tin after orthoclase.* 

E. Infiltration of organic forms, as the cassiterite in form of 

cancellated horn structure of the chalcedonic " Beekites " 

of Torquay. 
E. Pseudomorphism ef dimorphous substances. This is merely 

a molecular re-arrangement, as when calcite with its 

characteristic cleavage appears in form of aragonite or of 

stalactites. 
All or nearly all of these modes of pseudomorphism are met 
with in the mining region of the West of England, f 

* See the author's " Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon " 
article Pseudomorphs, Truro, 1876. 

f At Wheal Coates, in St. Agnes, fine crystals of oxide of tin replacing 
felspar were found many years since in great quantities, in all stages from nearly 
pure felspar to nearly pure peroxide of tin. They were not, therefore, casts of tin 
in shape of felspar, but true replacements. See Tweedy, R.I.C. Similar 
occurrences, abundant, but owing to conditions of main mass of elvan not 
isolated, were found at Terras, Belowda, Castle-an-Dinas, &c. 



350 ORIGIN AND DKVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

Sec. 11. — Theories af Mineral Deposition with reference to Lode 

phenomena. 

The formation of our fissure-lodes (vein deposits, fissure 
fillings and capels) throws very much light on the origin of 
ore-deposits generally, and — thanks to the labours of a host of 
careful observers, among whom our former colleagues, W. Jory 
Henwood, Warington Smyth, and C. Le Neve Foster, deserve 
special mention — the leading phenomena of our lodes are very 
well known. It is generally admitted that the lodes themselves 
have originated either in actual fissures or in enlarged joints ; 
that the lode-fillings are sometimes mechanical, but more usually 
chemical ; that the mechanical filling was mainly derived from 
the sides (though perhaps in rare instances partly from the 
surface) ; that the chemical filling has always been effected by 
infiltrating and circulating solutions ; and that it has taken place 
at various times, yet usually with a definite order of succession. 
Having already given (Sec. 4) specific examples of several 
lodes, and of the characteristic phenomena of lodes in general 
in the West of England, we may now proceed to consider the 
more important theories of mineral deposits which have been 
adopted by various writers and at different times. 

Confining the enquiry for the present to fissure-lodes, and 
to the metalliferous minerals, capels, and vein-stones occurring 
therein with which we are familiar in the west, we have to 
consider the following theories :* 

a. — That the fissures have been filled hy injection. So far as 
lodes proper are concerned, this theory may be at once 
dismissed, though it was formerly held as an axiom by 
many followers of Hutton, (not I think by Hutton 
himself) who were impressed by the phenomena of 
injected dikes, but who had little or no acquaintance 
with lode-phenomona. There are very few now who 
believe that metallic ores and veinstones have been 
injected into open fissures,! yet in another and more 

* The history of opinion on this subject of the genesis of mineral veins has 
been very well dealt with by Mr. J. A. Phillips in his work on Ore-deposits, pub. 
in 1884, p.p. 73-100. 

f There are still some geological writers, however, who still maintain the 
igneous origin even of masses of vein quartz. See Sterry Hunt, Mineral 
Physiography, p. 94 et seq. 



OEIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OEE-DEPOSITS. 351 

limited sense the injection theory has a very important 
hearing upon the origin of ore-deposits, since the 
injections of elvan and other eruptive rocks appear to 
have been of vital effect in innumerable instances, 
especially as regards ores of copper and tin. ■ 

h. — That the fissures have been filled by vapours arising 
from below. 

There are cases in which this process has undoubtedly been 
effective — as for instance in the deposition of sulphur, 
chlorides of iron and copper, specular-iron, and many 
other minerals in vtjlcanic districts. These deposits, 
however, are not of the nature of true lodes. Indeed 
it is hard to see how fissures could remain open for the 
passage of vapours below the permanent water-level of 
a county, except very locally and under very exceptional 
circumstances. If there are in the depths of the earth 
open spaces in which vapours exist, these could not fail 
to be absorbed by the waters occupying the fissflres 
nearer to the earth's surface, thus forming solutions 
which would come under the next head. 

c. — That the matters in question have been brought into 
the fissures in a state of solution. 

There are three modifications of this theory, one or more of 
which are now held, I believe, by almost all who have 
studied the phenomena of lode-fissures. They may be 
defined as 

(1). —Infiltration from above (descension theory). 

(2). — Infiltration from the sides (lateral secretion theory). 

(3). — Solutions coming from below (ascension theory). 

All of these modes seem to have been effective, and neither 
of them in any way excludes either of the others, while the 
subterranean circulation already discussed and illustrated would 
supply the necessary active agency for all. Let us examine the 
question a little more closely by the aid of the following 
propositions. 

1. All the branches of the " solution and circulation 
theory," as it may be called, assume the pre-existence somewhere 
in the path of the circulating waters, of the veinstones and ores 
now found in the lode-fissures. 



352 ORIGIISr AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

2. The veinstones and ores of the West of England may be 
conveniently considered as to their origin under five heads, of 
which examples are given in the following groups : 

Group 1. — "Soluble" veinstones, as calcite. 
,, 2. — "Insoluble" veinstones, as quartz. 
„ 3. — "Soluble" oxidized metallic salts, as cuprite, 

malachite and chalybite. 
,, 4. — "Insoluble" metallic sulphides, as pyrites, 

chalcopyrite, galena, and blende. 
,, 5. — Schorl and other fluorine-bearing minerals with 

oxide of tin.* 

3. All the elements contained in the substances mentioned 
above are known to occur as rock constituents, either as oxides, 
carbonates, sulphides, or silicates, and at such considerable 
distances from the lode-fissures as to lead to the conclusion that 
they existed there before the nearest lode-fissures were formed. f 

4. Forchhammer, Bischoff, Dieulefait, and others have 
shown that the waters of the sea, in which most stratified rocks 
have been laid down, also contain notable proportions of many 
of the metallic and other constituents found in lodes,:]: and as 
already stated, Bischoff, Daubree, and others have shewn the 
existence in nautical waters of every one of the substances in 
question, 

5. The original sources of the circulating solutions cannot 
perhaps be determined, but as they must be constantly replenished 
by rain water falling on the earth's surface, which is practically 
pure (except for the presence of carbonic acid) and free from 
all the substances referred to, we may consider the cycle of 
changes to begin with the action of pure water on rocks 
containing all the said substances. 

*The expressions "soluble" and "insoluble" here refer to the actions of 
ordinary surface waters which are slightly acid. But they must not be understood 
too literally, since even silica is found in many natural " acid " waters, though it 
is more readily soluble in those which are alkaline. 

t This has been particularly shewn by the investigations of Sandberger, and 
confirmed by Credner, Frick and others, although Sandberger's contention that nil 
the metalliferous contents of the veins have been derived from pre-existing 
silicates is by no means generally admitted. 

t Revue XJniverselle des Mines, 1880, p. 425. 



OEIGnsr AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 353 

Deposition of such substances as calcite in lode-fissures and 
cavities is easy to understand, since waters charged with carbonic 
acid will readily dissolve them out from rock masses when 
present, and a slight lowering of temperature or pressure wiH 
cause them to be re-deposited wherever a suitable cavity exists. 
The solution and redeposition of quartz and of many silicates 
can be and no doubt often is effected in a precisely similar 
manner, and the same may be said of such substances as cuprite, 
malachite, and chalybite, except that the solution will be 
sometimes preceded by the oxidation of pre-existing sulphides. 
These solutions and re-depositions will no doubt be more rapidly 
effected in proportion as the differences of temperature and 
pressure are greater, but ordinary temperatures and pressures 
will suffice, given sufficient time. 

The relative depths to which the waters will penetrate before 
finding their way into fissures, and the particular parts of the 
fissures in which deposit takes place, will determine whether 
such deposits should be regarded as the results of infiltration 
from above or of lateral secretion, but it is quite evident that 
the transference of substances of groups 1 to 3 may take place 
without the solutions making their way to any great depths, and 
consequently -without any notable elevation of temperature or 
considerable pressure. 

More than 20 years ago Mr. Robert Hunt wrote as follows with 
regard to infiltration from above. " The view supposes waters to 
have penetrated from above, and that, in passing through the 
rock-fissures which were the natural channels of aqueous circu- 
lation these waters deposited, under the influence of what Sir 
Henry De la Beche called 'rock conditions,' and which Mr. Robert 
Were Fox and M. Becquerel referred to electrical action, their 

metallic and earthy salts forming the lodes as we find them 

my leaning is towards this hypothesis."* In expressing this 
opinion, Mr. Hunt does not specially indicate the sources of the 
"metallic and earthy salts" which are conveyed by the circulating 
waters, but as he speaks of water " penetrating from above," we 
may fairly assume that they would be free from metallic salts, at 
least at the start, and that they would acquire their solid contents 

* Trans. Boy. Oeol. 8oc. Corn., ix, p 22. 



354 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OE OEE-DEPOSITS. 

from the rocks in percolating through them. Mr. Hunt appears 
to have been considering particularly the veins of copper, but 
not at all to the exclusion of other veins. 

Professor Ramsay suggested a similar origin for certain 
lead- veins in the following terms. " It had long been shewn that 
in Derbyshire fissures in anticlinals were unproductive, but 
those in synclinals productive of lead-ore, and this was explained 
by the lead (of the rocks) being dissolved by the water falling 
at the surface, which, travelling along the planes of stratification 
conveyed it from the convexities and towards the hollow folds of 
the beds."* Mr. De Eance said the same explanation applied to 
the lead veins of Alston Moor, which Mr. Wallace had described 
in 1861, and at the same time had suggested a similar leaching- 
out process.! 

Each of these writers, it will be observed, assumes the 
previous existence of the copper and lead in the rocks at or 
above the level of the deposits referred to, and in such a state as 
to be leached out by percolating waters. This assumption may be 
readily admitted in the case of carbonate of lime and other 
veinstones of group 1, also perhaps in the case of the quartz 
and other veinstones of group 2. There is also no difficulty in 
applying it to the vein and joint segregations of oxidized 
metallic salts, chiefly carbonates, which are seen in the cupriferous 
sandstones of Alderley Edge, or to the carbonate of lead 
"pockets" so abundantly found at Leadville in Colorado. 
Doubtless, the wide-spread existence of such oxidized substances 
indicates an antecedent probability for the views expressed by 
Hunt and Wallace. If we could account for the sulphur of the 
metallic sulphides (group 4), the descension hypothesis would 
be still more widely applicable, but for this, and perhaps for the 
metals in combination with it, more deep seated sources or 
agencies would seem to be necessary. Metallic sulphides as 
such could hardly be transferred from the parent rock to the lode- 
fissure by circulating waters under ordinary temperature and 
pressure, and especially if the waters were neutral or acid, since 
sulphides under such conditions are either insoluble or are 

* Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 135, p. 659. 
flbid. 



ORIGIN A]ND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-REPOSITS. 355 

subject to decomposition, with the production of sulphuretted 
hydrogen. It may indeed happen in rare cases that the 
sulphuretted hydrogen thus produced will subsequently by a 
reverse process give rise to sulphides in the upper parts of 
fissures, but this can hardly account for the immense deposits of 
sulphides met with in some lodes ; as for instance the great 
copper deposits of Clifford Amalgamated and Devon Great 
Consols, and the large pyrites lodes at Wheal Jane. 

The well-known mutual relations of ore-deposits and 
country rocks referred to in a previous section, certain rocks 
being "congenial" and others "uncongenial," lend great 
support to the hypothesis of lateral secretion, which is so closely 
connected with the descension hypothesis as to be hardly 
distinguishable from it. 

If however the percolating solutions were alkaline, as from 
the kaolinization of felspathic rocks, and especially if these 
waters had been circulating through deep-seated rocks where 
the temperature was high and the pressure great, sulphides 
might no doubt be dissolved, transferred, and re-deposited 
without change, thus forming an example of ascension deposits. 
And in fact, deep-seated sources do seem to be required for the 
vein substances of group 4 in very many cases, and for groups 
5 and 6 in all cases, either to give sufficient dissolving power to 
the solutions, or to supply the characteristic non-metallic 
components, or in some cases probably to supply the metallic 
components. 

Let us consider these three cases separately. Suppose the 
surface waters to reach far down into the interior of the earth 
before making their way into a fissure and upward current. 
They will become hot, they will be subject to great pressure, 
and we may fairly suppose that they will in most cases become 
alkaline from the decomposition of silicates. If as Sandberger 
supposes, many of the silicates thus decomposed contain such 
metals as tin and copper, the solution will be charged with these 
metals. If sulphides are present in the rock, these will probably 
be dissolved unchanged and without decomposition ; if chlorine or 
fluorine is present, and also oxide of tin (as a rock-component) 
fluoride or chloride of tin will be formed in the solution, and 
when it makes its way into the fissures or cavities, metallic 



356 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

siilpliides, cassiterite, and such fluor-b earing silicates as topaz 
will be deposited. Furthermore, if boron and oxide of iron are 
also present, as is almost universally the case, we shall have 
schorl in addition.*' 

It may, however, be remarked here that neither high 
temperatures nor great pressure seem to be absolutely necessary 
in all cases for the solution, transference, and re-deposition of 
tin oxide, for there is reason to believe that slightly alkaline 
waters under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure 
are capable of slowly dissolving oxide of tin. In this way in 
recent times deer's horns appear to have been impregnated 
by circulating stanniferous solutions with oxide of tin.f 
Again, admitting the necessary dissolving power in the 
circulating solutions, we are still confronted with a difficulty in 
the existence of immense masses of sulphide ores, so characteristic 
of several of our mining districts, as was recently pointed out 
by Sir Warington Smyth. The solutions would by hypothesis 
dissolve such sulphides as actually existed in the country rock 
at the sides of the deposits. Bu.t this does not meet all the 
conditions. Sandberger urges that the ores are derived from 
original silicates contained in the country rocks, |' and especially 
in granite, gneiss, and eruptive rocks generally. § Granting all 
that he says for this wide-spread source of the metallic 
components, the question very naturally arises "whence comes 
the sulphur if not from deep-seated sources or (deep-seated) 
thermal waters ?" Von Sandberger appears to admit, at least 
tacitly, a deep-seated source for sulphur, arsenic, &c , and if 
so, there seems no reason to deny a similar possible origin for 
much of the metallic substance found in the veins, even 
though portions of similar substance may have been derived 
from the country rocks. Our former Vice-president goes 

* The part played by fluorine in kaolinization and in the formation of tin 
deposits have been particularly studied by Von Buch {Min. Tasch., 1824), Daubree 
{Ann. des Mines, 181-1), Collins {Cornish Tinstones, S(c, Min. Ma§., 1878). 

fSee Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. Corn., x, p. 98, Cornish Tin-stones and Tin 
Ca'pels, PI. xii, fig. 4. 

JStelzner's contention that the silver, &c. found by Sandberger did not really 
exist in the silicates, but in disseminated pyrites, has been met by Sandberger in 
his later essays. But this does not affect our present discussion. 

§ In Cornwall, generally, only in acidic rocks of the granite type, scarcely at 
fill in the basic eruptive rocks. 



OBIGIlSr AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 357 

on to speak of "the over-powering contrast between the 
vast masses of mineral stored in the lodes and the puny 
sources of the theoretical suppty. See a lode like that of 
Clifford Amalgamated, sixteen or eighteen feet wide, of cindery 
copper pyrites from wall to wall, or the thirty or forty feet of 
dredgy copper ore in the best parts of Devon Consols, or the 
massive dimensions of the lode at Dolcoath now, at four hundred 
fathoms deep, larger than ever ; or again the courses of solid 
crystalline galena which have occurred in several of our more 
notable lead mines, yielding from five to ten tons to the running 
fathom, and. such occurrences seem to be inexplicable by the 
process alleged." * 

Certainly there is no indication that the country rocks ever 
contained these large quantities of sulphide ores : and for the 
sulphur at least we seem driven to suppose a deep-seated origin. 
Sir Warington goes on to our third case, and thus urges the 
necessity for a similar source for the metallic components. 
''Again, look at a rich part of one mining field, at a belt of killas 
rock extending over eight miles from Cligga Head to the south of 
G-wennap parish. In that space there are about a hundred 
parallel lodes, at one time a hundred more or less gaping fissures. f 
and if these are to be filled up by lateral segregation from the 
silicate minerals in the country rock, it will go very hard with 
the long narrow slices of the rock between the successive east 
and west veins to make up a sufficient quantity." | He then goes 
on to consider the different contents of the parallel lodes 
underlying north and those underlying south, which traverse the 
very same rocks in the St. Agnes and Perran districts, and also 
to the different contents of right-running and of cross-veins in 
general, and observes "we should expect that if the sources were 
the same (viz. : the country rocks immediately contiguous to the 
deposits) the minerals would be of the same character, and 
could never exhibit so decided a contrast." He then refers to 

* Smyth's Presidential Address, 1889, Trans. Ro%j. Geol. Soc. Corn., Vol. xi, 
Part IV. 

f This expression should not be misunderstood, for in the first place the 
hundred fissures referred to are obviously of three or four widely different ages, 
and in each " age " it is likely that only a very few of the fissures were even in 
any sense "gaping" simultaneously. 

X lUd, 



358 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

the alternate "zones" of tin and copper ores in the mines of 
Cornwall, and concludes his remarks on this subject by saying 
" it seems to me that no leaching out of metallic mineral from 
the country walls will elucidate the problem."* 

If a deep-seated origin is thus indicated for sulphur and 
for most of the metals occurring as sulphides, still more is it 
called for in the case of tin which is so very local in its occurrence 
yet so locally abundant ; so rare as a component of true stratified 
rocks, so generally associated with eruptive rocks of the acidic 
type, which have evidently been formed in the depths, and so 
frequently an essential and in some cases apparently an original 
component of such rocks. There are indeed cases where tin- 
oxide exists disseminated in undoubtedly stratified rocks and in 
large quantities, and not associated with any fissure-lode which 
could be supposed to have been the channel of transmission 
from the depth below, as for instance the tin stockwork at 
Mulberry Hill already described. In these cases, however, it is 
certain that the rock has been very far below the earth's surface 
since its first formation and consolidation, and it seems probable 
that the tin in such cases was an original constituent, deposited 
from the waters with the rock material itself, and subsequently 
concentrated for the most part, though not entirely, into the minor 
fissures and shrinkage cracks as we see it. Had there been at 
the proper time a fissure in this rock, i.e. while it was still 

* Ibid. It should perhaps be remarked here that though the succession of 
zones of different minerals at difi'erent depth is notable enough, so that "the 
richest copper lode (Dolcoath) in the county in 1840 is now the richest tin lode,'' 
yet this alternation is often far too broadly stated, and in fact it cannot be said 
to be established anywhere in the West of England except in the neighbourhood 
of Carn Brea, and perhaps at the Phoenix Mines near Liskeard. In these 
localities it is true to this extent. (1) The upper portions of the lodes were 
worked for tin, little or no copper being present. But the gozzany chai-acter of 
these portions plainly indicates the former existence of sulphides now removed, 
and there is great reason to su^jpose that these sulphides were cupreous. (2) 
Several of these lodes subsequently proved to be rich in copper and ceased to be 
worked for tin. But there is reason to believe that notable quantities of tin were 
still present, though lost in the abundance of sulphuretted minerals. An 
examination of the burrows at Clifford Amalgamated shows that even there tin 
occui-red with the copper. (3) It is certain that in the notable instances referred 
to above the (probably) once mixed tin and copper ores have given place to tin 
alone, the copper having altogether disappeared and the tin greatly increased in 
quantity. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OE ORE-DEPOSITS. 359 

deep-seated and while a circulating solution of sufficient 
temperature and pressure was still making its way through 
it, we might have had here a lode far richer than Dolcoath 
resulting strictly from lateral (though deep-seated) secretion. 
It may be that some of our lodes have been thus formed, 
and even some of the rich Camborne lodes; given then a 
sufficient cavity, a sufficiently powerful and abundant solvent 
and '' rock-conditions," capable of causing deposit, and in a belt 
of country rock charged as that at Mulberry is, and the size of 
the largest "rich part" in a lode presents no difficulty that 
cannot be readily met. For we must remember that the most 
rigid application of the theory of lateral segregation does not 
forbid us to suppose that the large courses of ore referred to 
were the results of a local concentration of ore in the fissure 
itself, while the exhaustion of the country rock would only be 
proportionate to the average contents of rich and poor parts 
together. 

The average width of the workable ore of the Great 
Dolcoath lode would probably not exceed 4 feet for the coppery 
and 8 feet for the tinny portions, with a general average of 
perhaps 6 feet. We have not the means of knowing with any 
degree of accuracy the yield per cubic fathom of the coppery 
portion of the lode, but we shall probably not be far wrong in 
taking it at 4 per cent, of copper, while the tinny portions may 
be taken at 2 per cent, with an equal degree of probability. 
The values, taking into account differences in the cost of 
(dressing) preparing for market, would be much the same, so that 
we may follow out our comparison on the tinny portion alone. 

The 30 fathom belt of tin ground at Mulberry will thus be 
seen to have yielded, per linear fathom, nearly twice as much tin 
as the Dolcoath lode, or in other words, if concentrated into a 
suitable fissure it would have made a lode either twice as large 
or twice as rich. The similar belt at Great Wheal Fortune in 
Breage would have supplied a lode four times more productive 
than that at Dolcoath. The great value of the Dolcoath lode 
(and equally of the other instances cited by Smyth) consists 
therefore not so much in the absolute quantity of its metallic 
contents as in the natural concentration which has brought it into, 
or into the immediate neighbourhood of, a narrow fissure. 



360 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

Origin of metallic deposits apart from metallic silicate roch 
crumllings. 
Still another argument for the efficacy of thermal waters in 
bringing up lead and silver from the depths, in regions where 
there are no eruptive rocks, is thus stated by Prof. Smyth. 
"Finally, how are we to cope with those districts in which we 
find little or no mica, no augites or hornblendes, the large areas 
for instance of clay slates in central Wales, where we have no 
granite contacts and no intrusions of igneous dykes, and yet 
scores of well-developed lodes, many of them exceedingly 
productive of lead ores and often rich in silver ? .... It seems to 
me that no leaching out of metallic mineral from the country 
walls will elucidate the problem, but that we are nearer its 
solution by invoking the aid of thermal waters."* 

The absolute necessity of such chemically charged thermal 
waters seems to be admitted by all who have made a special 
study of the lodes in the West of England, and by most of 
those who have recently studied lodes in other countries.! 

We thus reach the conclusion that in most cases sulphur, 
part at least of the metallic bases of such sulphides as pyrites, 
chalcopyrite, galena, and blende, oxide of tin, and the various 
fluo-silicates and fluo-boro-silicates have a "deep-seated" origin, 
and that they have for the most part been brought into their 
present positions either directly by the agency of ascending 
thermals, or indirectly by the elevation and intrusion of eruptive 

* Smyth, Pres. Address, op cit. p. 195. 

f Lindgren, in referring to the silver deposits of the Carlico district in 
California, says : "on the whole it seems to me most probable that ascending 
thermals have extracted ore and gangue from the eruptive rocks at a certain 
although not exceedingly great depth, and that for chemical and physical reasons 

the principal precipitation took place (in complex fissures) near the surface... 

Most of the ore-deposits occur in liparite or in its tufas, as veins along fractures 
and dislocations of a more or less regular character ; as simple, once open and 
subsequently filled fissure-veins ; as impregnations along complex fissure-systems 
(gangziige) or filling and cementing more or less extensively fractured zones 
(Trummerziige). The gangue is predominantly barite with jasper ; the present 
ores are haloid salts of sUver, hydrosiUcate and carbonate of copper resulting 
from primary rich silver sulphides and copper pyrites." Trans. Am. Inst. M. 
Eng. Except for small differences in the character of the ores and rocks this 
description would apply well to the Torreon Mine in Chihuahua. See Journ. 
R.I.C. 



OBIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OE OKE-DEPOSITS. 361 

rocks such, as granite, felsite, and diabase, containing (a) 
metalliferous silicates or (b) metalliferous sulphides, which 
subsequently are carried off by percolating waters and deposited 
where we find them.f It seems to me this hypothesis will 
meet all the facts as we know them. 

Thus the phenomena of "congenial" and "uncongenial" 
strata as observed by the miners in the West of England, and 
the different enrichment of the lead veins in the North of 
England as they cut through successive and alternating strata of 
limestone grit and shale, as set forth by Wallace in 1861, 
agreeing as they do with the most literal interpretation of the 
lateral secretion hypothesis, agree equally well with the idea that 
the fissures are fed by ascending metalliferous thermals. For, 
we may readily and fairly suppose that, the circulating solution 
being the same and complex, certain rocks have greater, or at 
least different, precipitating capacities than others, or that some 
supply better cavities than others. 

The following conclusions seem fairly deducible from what 
has been here put forward. 

1. That as a rational "lateral segregation" hypothesis 
accepts and includes " descension," so a rational "ascension 
hypothesis " must accept and include both lateral segregation 
and descension, and that all three have operated powerfully and 
and extensively in the production of the ore-deposits of the 
West of England. 

2. That sublimation has acted effectively in ore-deposition, 
and especially as regards the elements sulphur and arsenic. 

3. That injection has also been powerfully effective, but 
chiefly by bringing up ore-charged rocks from what may be 
called the zone of vapour to the zone of subterranean circulation. 

f It is of course admitted that many comparatively modern stratified rocks 
contain metallic compounds, and there is great reason to believe these in many 
instances to have been present in some form when the strata were first laid 
down, the substances in question having been present in the waters. But these 
waters must have received such components in the first instance from mineral 
springs rising from the earth, except such portions as, it may be argued, were 
originally condensed into the first waters from the first atmosphere. 



362 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OE ORE-DEPOSITS. 

4. That tlie subterranean circulation which. I have 
endeavoured to illustrate, aided and supplemented by electrical 
transference and re-arrangement, by chemical re-actions going 
on within the deposits and by the forces of crystallization and 
its allies, will account for all the phenomena of lode filling. 

Sec. 12. — Theories of Impregnation. 

In the Presidential address of Prof. Smyth quoted in the 
last section, reference is made to the "feeders" observed in 
connection with many lodes, and to the frequently associated 
mineralized "country" rocks, in the following terms: — "When 
in the neighbourhood of a vein you find strings and specks of 
some of the ores which it contains in bulk, some miners will not 
hesitate to look upon them as " feeders " or contributories to the 
vein which come in from the "country." Others will rather 
look upon them as impregnations from the lode."* 

It might seem at first a mere problem of chemical analysis 
to settle this point, but a little consideration will show that this 
is not the case. I cannot do better than quote here the words 
of Dr. Henry Wadsworth of Massachusetts, who observes 
" since ore-deposits are generally associated with altered or 
metamorphosed rocks, and occur in regions in which thermal 
waters have been active, the country rock would naturally be 
more or less charged, and sometimes completely decomposed. 
In the process of the formation of the ore-deposit it may 
happen that the ore-material will be entirely removed from the 
adjacent rocks {i.e. to form the deposit in question), or this rock 
may have deposited in it ores which never existed there before, 
or, again, the ore-material may have been brought from a 
distance by the percolating waters. Prom the above it follows 
that chemical analyses alone, either of the country rock or of 
its enclosed minerals, lead to unreliable conclusions as to the 
source of the ores, and hence it is unphilosophical to build any 
general theory upon such analyses."! 

Clearly then it is not always easy — or even possible — to 
decide even in the simplest case whether the country rock 

*0p. cii.,p. 90. 

t Wadsworth. " Theories of Ore Deposit." Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist.,, 
May, 1884, p. 201. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OBE-DEPOSITS. 363 

has been impregnated from the fissure or the fissure filled from 
the country. The opposing views may be illustrated as follows : — 
Let fig. 13, pi. IX, represent a portion of a rock mass containing 
stanniferous silicates regularly disseminated through it. The 
rock is permeable to a solution which is capable of decomposing 
the silicates in question. Now we may suppose that the solution 
circulates through the mass of the rock, and (1) merely changes 
the silicate into oxide of tin, in situ, carrying off the silica, or 
perhaps depositing it in the vicinity of the oxide particles. But 
(2) if the rocks be fissured, as in fig. 14, and the circulating 
solution is flowing towards the fissure from each side, it may 
decompose the silicates as before into oxides, but at the same 
time transfer some of the particles towards the fissure, so forming 
an accumulation of tin oxide near its walls at the expense of 
the general mass of the rock. And in proportion to the length 
of the process, and to the extent of the mass of rock thus 
subject to the transferring solution, may we expect will be the 
width and richness of the enriched bands. As in the former 
case the silica may either be deposited with the tin oxide or 
carried farther by the issuing solution. A further development 
of the very same process may lead to a deposition of tin oxide, 
or of quartz, or both, with varying mutual relations, in the 
fissure itself as a "leader." Let us speak of this hypothesis, 
which assumes a'flow and transference from the mass of the rock 
towards the fissure, as (x). The same phenomena of leader and 
of enriched band may be equally well explained by another and 
opposite hypothesis (y), which supposes a stanniferous solution 
flowing along the fissure, which may or may not deposit ore 
material or veinstone in the fissure itself, but which permeates 
the rock to a certain distance on either side of the fissure, 
depositing ore material or veinstone in that bordering belt • 
any stanniferous particles already in the rock being thus 
practically unaltered. I doubt not that hypothesis (y) applies 
in some cases — where definite lodes exist — even though the 
whole mass of country rock may have been originally impregnated 
with ore material, but it appears to me that the former hypothesis 
is far more able to account for such phenomena as are seen at 
Mulberry and other similar stock-works (fig. 1 PI. viii) ; in fact 
that the fissure when very small forms rather the exit for the 
spent liquors, and not the entrance for the charged solutions. 



364 OEIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

Let us take another illustration. In fig. 15, PI. ix, whieli 
represents the case of many small and rich tin-lodes in granite, 
the tin might be supposed to have come up or along the fissure 
until it was quite full, the stanniferous solutions meanwhile 
acting upon the solid granite, converting it into kaolin, depositing 
quartz and carrying off alkali, at the same time. But we may 
equally well suppose, in accordance with the circulating theory, 
that the solvent percolating through the mass of the granite 
dissolves out the tin from the original stanniferous silicates, or 
from any other combination in which it may exist, and on 
reaching the fissure deposits it there ; only kaolinizing the granite 
in the neighbourhood of the fissure and not throughout the mass 
of the rock, because there only was it possible for the alkalies 
to be freely carried off and for the liberated silica to be deposited. 
It seems to me that this view is strongly supported by the 
phenomena of the carbonas, stock-works, and capels, and by 
what are called impregnations generally. 

The great carbona in St. Ives Consols (fig. 2, pi. viii) was 
720 feet long, and though very variable in width and height, 
averaged perhaps 30 feet. At a moderate computation 60,000 
tons of tin-impregnated granite must have been extracted from 
this carbona, yet its only communication with the standard lode 
was but a few inches in width and height, and those with other 
lodes much smaller still. Such small channels might very well 
serve for the continuous discharge of what may be called spent 
liquors coming from all sides, but could hardly serve for the 
entry of enriching solutions from the lode fissures to what was 
really a kind of blind alley. 

The argument is still still stronger in the case of impregnation 
at the South Wendron Mine, (fig. 6, -gl. viii) for here the 
traversing fissure is a mere crack which rarely contains tin at all. 
The wide, even, and sparing distribution of the tin in the killas 
stockworks, which are not associated with definite lodes, seems 
to afford strong reasons for regarding them as originally 
stanniferous beds, as already indicated. This hypothesis helps 
us to understand how it is that so large a quantity of tin could 
be localized without the aid of any lode sufficiently large or 
continuous to serve as a channel from considerable depths. It 



OEIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 365 

also agrees with the fact that, however numerous the individual 
tin " strings " may be, and they are sometimes a score or more 
to the yard (fig. 1, pi. viii), yet that the killas between always 
contains traces at least of tin, and sometimes actually more than 
the aggregrate of the " strings," which alone it is possible to 
save by economic treatment of the whole mass owing to the 
extreme fineness of the tin in the rock between the strings. 

These strings appear to be no more than filled shrinkage 
cracks, those which are now more than capillary in size having 
been enlarged by the crystallizing forces. It does not seem 
likely that any of them were ever really open fissures in the 
ordinary sense of the term. 

The minerals associated with the tin in these stock-works 
are precisely what they are in so many other situations, viz. : 
gilbertite, schorl and quartz ; with, rarely, topaz and wolfram. 
Fluor and apatite are either very rare, or altogether absent. 
Usually in these little " strings " the cassiterite is more abundant 
than all the rest of the components taken together, so that as 
the term is usually applied there is no veinstone. It seems 
impossible to believe that a band of rock 20 or 30 fathoms wide 
can have been impregnated with so large a quantity of tin, 
brought from so far by solutions flowing through these compara- 
tively trivial channels. Can we imagine that such a solution 
passing through a veinlet, often less than one sixteenth of an 
inch in thickness and only extending a few yards in length or 
depth, has impregnated the country rock for a foot or more in 
some instances on either side ? Eather it would appear that a 
sufiicient solvent power had existed in the interstitial fluid 
soaking through rocks already saturated with tin particles ; in 
fact that in these instances at least the old sediments which now 
form the bulk of Cornwall were, in their deeper portions (which 
are now uplifted on the flanks of the granite), already stanniferous 
before the granite began to be uplifted. Thus as regards these 
stockworks in killas which are unconnected with distinct fissure 
veins, it seems that we must look to what has been called lateral 
segregation for the concentration in the strings ; and as to the 
tin itself, although it may originally have been brought to the 
surface and poured into the ancient seas or lakes by means of 
thermal springs, yet that the springs were not less ancient than 



366 ORIGIlSr AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

the beds iu question. We can therefore easily understand why 
these tin-bearing rocks have yielded no fossils, since no higher 
forms of life at any rate could exist in a sea charged with 
highly poisonous soluble compounds of tin-fluorides, fluo- 
chlorides, fluo-borates, and fluo-silicates.*' 

As for the tin stoclvworks in killas which are associated with 
definite lodes, such as Great Wheal Fortune and Pednandrea, 
Von Ootta's hypothesis as applied by H. C. Salmon to the great 
"underground stockwork " at the latter mine in 1862 is as 
follows: "I consider this great deposit as eminently characteristic 
of a class of stanniferous formations common enough in Cornwall, 

but which are usually classed as lodes The real fact is that 

there was a fissure, but often only a very small one, fromi which 
a metamorphosing and replacing action appears to have 
emanated, extending to a greater or less distance, metamorphos- 
ing the neighbouring rock into a capel and impregnating it by 
replacement with oxide of tin. When this is confined to a 
moderate width, and where the tin does not extend away in veins 
at right angles to the lode, the miner classes it all as a " lode," 
and properly so. As to "walls" which some appear to consider 
the criterion of a true lode, they may in these highly dislocated 
districts be frequently met with ad infinitum ; and in such deposits 
as those referred to it is not unusual to find that half-a-dozen 
" walls " have been adopted in succession as the true wall of the 

lode and abandoned I do not of course mean to imply by 

this that there are not many lodes wholly confined within the 
walls of an original fissure — lodes in the popular geological sense. 
I only wish to point out that there are many lodes of a different 
character, and this Pednandrea deposit is characteristic and 
worthy of study as forming a link between lodes of this class 
and those still more irregular deposits called carbonas in the 
extreme western districts of Cornwall."! 

*0n this subject the following' suggestion was made by my son H. F. 
Collins and myself in the year 1884. " The waters were so strongly impregnated 
with chemical solutions — from mineral springs preceding the granite irruptions — 
th&t nothing could live. If this were the case the sediments would also be highly 
charged with chemical substances, and the subsequent segregation of these 
substances into fissures formed at a later date has given us the lodes of Cornwall." 
Journ. R.I.C., Vol. viii, part 2, p. 166. 

■f Mining and Smelting Magazine, Sept., 1862, pp. 143-4. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OKE-DEPOSITS. 367 

With all that is here said I entirely agree, but it seems to 
me that several of the phenomena of such stockwork deposits 
become clearer and easier to understand, if we suppose that the 
rocks in which the fissure has been opened was already charged 
with tin in some form, disseminated through the mass, and 
perhaps even concentrated into shrinkage cracks before the 
opening of the fissure. 

If there is reason to believe that the killas stock works 
represent rock masses permeated with tin, and that at Wheal 
Music with copper, before fissuring, much more is this the case 
with such granite stockworks as those at Oarrigan and Eock 
Hill, and with such stanniferous elvans as that at Wheal 
Jennings. The same may be said of the copper stockworks at 
Wheal Yyvyan. But these of course are known to be of much 
more recent origin. 

Capels. The substances known in Cornwall and Devon as 
capels may be described as highly altered and usually silicified 
bands of country rock, bordering a more or less distinct fissure 
or fissure-filling. The term is sometimes applied to a silicified 
or mineralized band at the side of a fissure traversing granite 
or even elvan, but most well-marked capels occur in killas.* 
Fig. 16, plate ix, illustrates one form of capel in killas. 

Tin capels contain particles of tin-oxide in notable propor- 
tions, though not always in quantities suffioient to pay for 
working. The contents of the actual fissures (the leaders) in 
these cases are often quite unimportant from the miner's point of 
view, as in the case of the greater portions of the tin lodes on 
each side of Carn Brea Hill. In all the mines of this district 
the chief part of the tin is obtained from the capel, which 
extends sometimes for several fathoms on each side of the 
fissure or lode proper, which is sometimes a mere joint in the 
rock. 

* The word capel (at Penhalls) is applied to a rock which appears to me to be 
simply an altered killas, a killas which has been greatly acted on by mineral 
solutions and changed from a soft slaty rock into a hard dark-coloured compact 
mass of quartz and schorl : these minerals being arranged in streaks following 
the original lines of stratification of the killas. In addition the capel is generally 
full of short lenticular veins of quartz, and is intersected by numerous little 
strings of cassiterite and chlorite. Foster, Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc. Corn., ix, 
207. 



368 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

The mineralized bands are worked away as far as they are 
found to yield mineral enough to pay the cost of working. 
Consequently, as the price of tin varies within wide limits, the 
estimated or stated width of the paying ground known as 'Hhe 
lode," may also vary at different times, hut in the Camborne and 
lUogan districts the average width may be taken at from 4 to 8 
feet.* 

Since in all cases it is the workable part of the eapel 
(including the "leader" when present) which is described as 
the lode by the miners, many wrong impressions have resulted 
as to the width of the ore-bearing fissures in the West of 
England. Thus the table of lode-widths already given from 
Mr. Henwood's "Address," though fairly accurate as regards 
copper lodes, where workable capels have always been either 
very rare or altogether absent, is to a considerable extent 
misleading as regards tin lodes or lodes containing both tin and 
copper, unless the distinction pointed out be borne in mind. 

The most noteworthy point in connection with these capels 
is the enormous amount of silica present. Doubtless we might 
suppose the interior of the earth — whatever that phrase may be 
taken to mean — quite capable of yielding this silica, but the 
circulating waters of these fissures could hardly bring up so 
much. The first effort would probably be to coat the wall with 
an almost impermeable layer, after which the silicia would make 
its way outwards still in s<jlution. If we suppose the silica 
to be derived from the county rock, our difficulty is lessened 
if not altogether vanishing. 

There is much reason to believe that the quartz of capels 
and of quartz veins is, as already indicated, the result of solution 
in and deposition from alkaline solutions.! 

*In this width, however, the tin is still disseminated somewhat irregularly, 
so that it is often necessary to break a great deal of ground that will not pay for 
subsequent treatment, and even to raise such " deads " to surface. Of the whole 
bulk of the lode-stuff broken in the Camborne district, probably not more than 
one half is actually treated in the stamps, and the average produce of this 
portion in "black tin," as finally "cleaned" and sold to the smelter, does not 
exceed 2 per cent. 

f At New Rosewarne and other mines in Cornwall quartz has been frequently 
found deposited on chalybite, dolomite, and even on calcite crystals, the surfaces 
of which are entirely uninjured from corrosion. This could hardly be the case if 
the quartz were deposited from acid solutions. 



OlllGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 369 

The Great Flat Lode described by Dr. Poster in 1878, is a 
fine example of a capel tin lode.* The microscopical structure 
of certain tin capels was fully described and illustrated in the 
author's papers published in 1 880-82. f 

The constant association of schorl and tin has been already 
referred to. Indeed tin is scarcely ever present without schorl, 
although schorl very often occurs where there is no tin. 

Tourmaline schist is rarely quite free from tin, but many of 
the thin films of schorl between the beds at the Parka mines 
appear to be absolutely devoid of tin. Here the schorl occurs 
in thin knife-blade films, absolutely black, but fading gradually 
away to red yellow or white at a short distance from the fissure. 
In other places quite near "floors" of tin occur in great 
abundance. 

Sec. 13. — On the localisation of Mineral Substances in the West of 
England Mining District. 

The contrast between the vast quantities of alkalies present 
in the constituent minerals of the crystalline rocks, (and in the 
eruptive rocks which appear to have been derived from the 
crystallines by more or less complete fusion), and the small 
proportions existing in the rocks of the sedimentary series, is one 
of the most noteworthy in the whole range of chemical geology. . 
A similar rarity of alkaline constituents characterizes the great 
bulk of our mineral deposits, whether stratified beds, segrega- 
tions or fissure-veins. 

The alkaline constituents now so abundant in the seas and 
in vegetation have probably been derived in great part from the 
crystalline and eruptive rocks by the agency of ascending 
thermal currents (springs), as suggested by Dr. T. Sterry Hunt 
in his crenitic hypothesis, J and there is great reason to believe 
that the mineral deposits themselves have been derived from the 
same primary source, as we have endeavoured to show in the 
foregoing sections. 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. 8oc. 

fOn Cornish Tin Stones and Tin Capels, Min. Mag., Vol. 4 and 5. 

X Mineral Physiology, &c., 1886, p. 132, et. seq. 



370 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

If this primary origin of mineral substances be admitted, it 
might at first seem that the elements referred to would be found 
everywhere, though differing somewhat in the proportions 
present. In the strictest sense this may be so, but it is not so in 
any practical sense. There are indeed certain elements, such as 
silica and alumina, which are scarcely ever absent, even in 
notable proportions, over any considerable area.* Similar 
proportions of oxides of iron also are not often absent, although 
the same cannot be said of the definite compounds of iron with 
gulphur and arsenic. Gold and silver too seem to be very widely 
distributed, but these are so valuable that even minute 
proportions, such as would be overlooked in the case of less 
valuable substances, are noted. But there are other elements and 
combinations which, common enough in some localities, are 
present not at all or only in very minute proportions in others, 
and this not only in the case of large areas, but even in the 
different parts of such a small area as our West of England 
district. 

The elements and mineral substances whose distribution is 
to be here discussed will be dealt with in groups as follows : 

Group 1.— Fluorine, boron, tin, and tungsten. 

,, 2. — Sulphur, arsenic, copper, zinc, lead, antimony. 
,, 3. — Iron, manganese, nickel, cobalt, bismuth, 

uranium, titanium, chromium. 
,, 4. — Phosphates. 
,, 5. — Carbonates ores and veinstones. 
,, 6. — Barium, strontian, cerium. 
,, 7. — Gold, silver. 
,, 8. — Carbon and hydro-carbons. 

Group 1. — Fluorine^ Boron, Tin, Tungsten. 

These are perhaps the most notable of the irregularly 
distributed elements in our district, and it will be shown that 
they are very specially associated with each other. 

Fluorine occurs in tourmaline (schorl) and in fluor spar, 
also in much smaller quantities in such minerals as gilbertite, 

* Some remarks on the local occurrences of special forms of silica were made 
in a previous section of ttis chapter. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 371 

topaz, and apatite, the most abundant source being the first- 
mentioned.* 

Tourmaline is an important constituent of very large areas 
within our district; in granite and its various modifications 
(schorlyte, luxullyanyite, &c.); in tourmaline schist and in tin 
capel. Probably at least one-tenth of the entire district, in 
round numbers some 200 square miles, is thus permeated with 
tourmaline, and to the average extent of one-tenth of the entire 
mass. Now the rocks of this district weigh very closely upon 
two tons per cubic yard, so that each yard in depth of this large 
area will weigh near 1,240 millions of tons, and by our estimate 
one tenth of this, or 124 millons of tons, consist of tourmaline. 
Tourmaline, by analysis, yields from 1'49 up to 2-70 per cent. 
of its weight of fluorine. If we assume an average of 2 per 
cent., our 124 millions of tons contain no less than 2,480,000 
tons of fluorine. This be it remembered for each yard in depth. 

Fluor spar is another, though far less important, source of 
fluorine. It has been found in many of the copper lodes and 
lead lodes of the district, as well as, sparingly, in a few of the 
tin lodes. Also it has been met with occasionally as a constituent 
of the granite (as at Wheal Daniel) and of the modified and 
kaolinized granite rock known as China Stone or Petuntzyte, 
notably in the parishes of St Stephens and St. Dennis. The 
absolute quantity of this fluor spar must be very difficult to 
estimate. It may however be worth while to make the attempt, 
however roughly. If we assume the existence of 500 veins, 
averaging one yard wide and continuous for an average of 500 
yards in length, we have a total area of 250,000 square yards, 
or a little less than one-twelfth of a square mile. If in this 
area we assume further that the fluor spar forms one-twentieth 
of the whole vein contents, probably a reasonable estimate, then 
as fluor spar contains about 47 per cent, of fluorine, there will 
be thus indicated 11,750 tons per yard of depth. 

It is probable that fluor spar as a rock-constituent occurs 
over a much larger area than as a veinstone, perhaps even over 
a square mile in all. But it exists there in much less proportions, 
probably not over one per cent., and this would give us a further 
quantity of fluorine of something like 29,000 tons per yard of 
depth. 

* The chief localites for this and other mineral substances mentioned arp 
given in the Author's " Hand-book to The Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon," 
Truro, 1876. 



372 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

If we double these last last figures for the fluorine existing 
in gilbertite, topaz, apatite, and other rare or widely scattered 
minerals, whether occurring as rock-constituents, or in the veins, 
we reach in round numbers a total of two millions five hundred 
and fifty thousand tons of fiuorine per yard of depth. Thus it 
is evident : 

(a). — That fluorine is an important constituent of the 
Cornwall mining region. 

(h). — That it is localized as regards tourmaline in one-tenth, 
and as regards fluor spar and other minerals in about 
two-thousandths of the entire area. 

There are indeed traces of fluorine to be found by careful 
analyses in many other parts of the mining district, but the 
element for all practical and most theoretical purposes may be 
regarded as absent. 

Boron. This element is with us confined to the tourmaline, 
of which, like the fluorine, it constitutes about 2 per cent. 
Consequently we may estimate the boron present at about two 
and a half millions of tons per yard of depth. This element 
hardly occurs in the West of England excepting in tourmaline, 
and it is probably entirely absent from the rocks outside the 
tourmaline area. 

Tin has hardly been found in the district, or indeed in any 
district except as cassiterite.* It is far less abundant than 
either fluorine or boron. The actually impregnated area may 
be roughly estimated to contain, or to have contained, tin as 
follows ; of course not counting the stream tin, which represents 
the results of a very large denudation : 

One thousand lodes (with their branches, carbonas, or other 
adjuncts) averaging 1,000 yards long and one yard 
wide is equal to one million yards of surface area. 
And this reckoning one per cent, of (metallic) tin 
would give 20,000 tons per yard of depth. 

* The tin occurring in stannite (tin pyrites) may be finely divided cassiterite, 
at any rate it is not, as was once supposed, a true sulphide. 



OKI GIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 373 

Fifty stockworks, averaging 250 yards long and 20 yards 

wide, and yielding an average of a quarter per cent. 

of metallic tin, 1,250 tons per yard. Together 21,250 

tons of metallic tin per yard of depth. 

The whole area thus indicated would be a little less than 

half a square mile ; outside of this area tin can hardly be said 

to exist at all as a rock or vein constituent. 

Tungsten. This element is far less widely distributed than 
tin. From all the lead veins, most of the copper-veins, and 
even many of the tin- veins it is altogether absent ; while it 
hardly exists at all as a rock constituent outside the veins. Yet 
in the form of wolfram, which contains about 60 per cent, of 
tungsten, it is locally abundant, as for instance at East Pool, 
Great Beam, and Drakewalls Mines. Small quantities of 
tungsten also occur as scheelite and as zippseite. Still it is 
probable that on the whole tungsten is not more than one-tenth, 
perhaps not more than one-twentieth as abundant in Cornwall 
as tin. 

Here then we ha-ve four elements, each occurring in 
considerable abundance, though limited to very small actual 
areas in a not very large mining district, and all four are 
peculiarly and intimately associated with each other. For if we 
take the area which contains the whole of the tourmaline, in 
other words that which contains all the boron and nearly all the 
fluorine, we shall find that it includes also both the tin and the 
tungsten. But as the tourmaline area is much larger than the 
tin area, we may have tourmaline without tin, but not tin without 
tourmaline. Similarly there may be tin without tungsten, but 
not tungsten without tin. 

These mutual associations have been fully discussed 
elsewhere,* and the conclusion seems irresiistible that fluorine in 
solution has been the tin-carrier, bringing tin up from consider- 
able depths to what may be called workable depth, and even to 
the actual present surface in some instances. 

Whether boron aided in this or not is perhaps doubtful, 
since the direct combinations of boron with tin are little if at 
all known. It would seem, however, that when once locked up 

* Cornish Tin-stones and Tin-capels, p. 38, et. seq. 



374 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OKE-DEPOSITS. 

with silica and iron in the very stable mineral tourmaline, that 
neither fluorine nor boron have any tin-carrying power. 
Certainly the great bulk of tourmaline bearing rock everywhere 
seems to be devoid of tin.f 

GrRouj? 2. — Sulphur, Arsenic, Copper, Zinc, Lead, Antimony. 

The first portion of this second group of elements is often 
rather closely associated with the compounds of the first group, 
but the second portion is somewhat widely diverse in its modes 
of occurrence ; and all except perhaps arsenic occur at times in 
considerable abundance away from the elements of the first 
group. 

Sulphur seems to be the constant and characteristic associate 
of the group — as much so as fluorine and boron in the first 
group — indeed more so, for the combinations with sulphur are 
more direct. Still it must be admitted that in our district sulphur 
minerals are less widely distributed than are tourmaline and 
fluor spar. 

The most extensive vein deposits of sulphides are or have 
been the great copper veins of St. Just, Breage, Camborne, 
Redruth, Grwennap, St. Austell, Liskeard, and the Tamar valley; 
the great lodes of iron pyrites at Wheal Jane and Nangiles ; and 
the large mispickel lodes of the Tamar valley. All these 
are very closely connected with what may be called the fluorine 
aud tin area. Sulphur is also largely associated with zinc (as 
blende) not only in some of the districts just mentioned, but also 
in many of the veins of galena, and in some of those yielding 
lead and antimony. Probably, however, the greatest actual 
amount of sulphur occurs in the large quantities of disseminated 
iron pyrites found in the rocks of the fossiliferous sedimentary 
series, and often far away from the tourmaline bearing rocks. 

Arsenic. The only important source of this element in 
Cornwall is the mineral mispickel, though it also occurs to a 
small extent in connection with nickel, cobalt, copper, and other 
substances. The veins containing the arsenic compounds are 

f The immense deposits of boracic acid, free, or in combination with lime or 
with alkalies, as seen in Italy and more markedly in California anrl Nevada^ 
probably indicates the absence of the fluorine or iron necessary to fix it in the 
mineral tourmaline, which is very rare in each of these regions. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OP OBE-DEPOSITS. 375 

mostly situated in the slaty rocks (killas) near to the granite, 
hut occasionally in the granite itself. In the former situations, 
as in the great siliceous lodes of Devon Grreat Consols and 
Grawton in the Tamar valley, it is in the whole more closely 
associated with copper than with tin, although both metals are 
generally present. In the Camborne district it is perhaps more 
closely associated with tin than with copper, and sometimes 
copper is altogether absent. On the whole it is probable that 
arsenic in the veins of the West of England is less abundant than 
tin, though much more abundant than wolfram. As a rock- 
constituent it is like wolfram, very rare. 

Mispickel contains about 46 per cent, of arsenic combined 
with nearly 35 per cent of iron, and about 19 percent of sulphur. 

Copper. The number of minerals containing copper is very 
great, but practically they are all confined to the veins and rock- 
joints ilear veins. The rich gray ores of the St. Just mines, of 
the Godolphin mine in Breage, of the Camborne and Eedruth 
mines (whence the richest is sometimes called Eedruthite), 
and of some of the mines near St. Austell; the rich red and 
black oxides and blue and green carbonates of the Caradon 
district ; as well as the rarer arseniates, phosphates, and uranates, 
and the native copper of many of the coppery gozzans ; all seem 
to have been derived by chemical and electrical agencies from 
the double sulphide of iron and copper known as chalcopyrite, 
which contains when purest nearly equal proportions of copper, 
iron, and sulphur. 

The great cindery courses of ore at the Gwennap mines, and 
the still larger siliceous ore-masses at Devon Great Consols, some- 
times formerly as much as 40 feet wide, strike the imagination 
with their brilliant appearance, but unlike the best tin-veins 
they have for the most part become impoverished in depth, so 
that copper mining, which began in comparatively recent times, 
has now sunk to very small dimensions ; and has been for the 
greater part of its history far inferior in importance to tin 
mining. 

The best copper deposits have always been in veins near to 
but not actually in the granite. Some copper has also been 
found in veins at considerable distances from the granite, quite 



376 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 

away too from tin and from tourmaline. Even when it is 
directly associated with these substances it seems to have had 
quite a different origin. 

Copper as a rock-constituent, apart from definite veins, is 
almost non-existent, and the absolute quantity of copper in the 
West of England must be far less than that of tin. 

Zinc in Cornwall scarcely occurs at all except as the sulphide 
(blende), and it is almost exclusively confined to the veins in 
which iron, copper, or lead ores are found. Occasionally it is 
met with in the tin-veins as at Wheal Metal in Breage, but only 
in small quantities, unless notable quantities of copper are also 
present. In such eases it is of course near the granite junctions ; 
but when it occurs in lead veins, like copper ores under similar 
conditions, it is found far away from such junctions. 

Some of the zinc veins have been very large, as for instance 
at Great Eetallack and Duchy Peru in the parish of Perran. 
Yery much blende was thrown away in the old burrows, or left 
behind in the u.pper levels of many of the mines, and especially 
in those between Truro and St. Agnes ; there having been 
formerly no sale for blende. Many of these old mines and 
burrows have been re-worked in comparatively recent times. 
Still the product of zinc ore in our district has never been really 
large even as compared with cojDper. 

As a rock-constituent zinc is very rare, and the absolute 
quantity of zinc in Cornwall has probably not much exceeded 
the absolute quantity of tungsten. 

Lead. This element also occurs almost exclusively in veins, 
and as a sulphide (galena), and almost always at considerable 
distances from the granite. The best deposits, as at East Wheal 
Rose and the Menheniot mines, have mostly been associated 
with sedimentary rocks of a fossiliferous series. As already 
mentioned ores of zinc and copper are often found with lead 
ores in the veins. Tin however occurs near lead only very 
rarely,* and even then is not intimately associated with it. 

* The most notable exception is at Budnick in Perranzabuloe, described by 
W, J. Henwood. Trans. Boy. Geol, Soc. Corn., V. 



ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORE-DEPOSITS. 377 

The galena of the district is almost always notably 
argentiferous, ores running from 30 up to 100 ounces of silver 
per ton being common. At times the production has been 
considerable, yet it cannot be said that lead mining has ever 
been a really important industry here compared with the mining 
of copper, and still less as compared with tin. It has now 
(1891) almost absolutely ceased to exist. 

A considerable number of rare minerals resulting from the 
decomposition of galena have beea found in the gozzany 
portions of the lodes, but rarely in workable quantities. As a 
rock constituent lead ores have scarcely ever been seen in the 
district, and on the whole it would perhaps not be far wrong to 
reckon lead as about equal in quantity and in area of distribution 
with zinc, though the areas are not quite coincident. 

Antimony. This element has usually occurred with lead, 
and under like conditions ; mostly as a sulphide, and confined to 
veins in stratified rocks of a fossiliferous series, at a distance 
from the granite. It has always been far less abundant than 
lead. 

In group 2 we have a number of elements very intimately 
associated with each other, more particularly through the non- 
metallic sulphur, which may have come in part from "deep 
seated" sources, as is almost certainly the case with fluorine and 
its associates of the first group. But there is a notable 
association of some at least of the sulphuretted metals (lead, 
and antimony) with the stratified rocks of a fossiliferous series. 
It seems probable that at any rate galena and antimonite, and 
possibly too part of the blende and chalcopyrite, may have been 
derived directly from these rocks, or from others formerly 
over-lying them and now denuded away ; though primarily 
coming from deep-seated sources by means of ancient springs, 
which mineralized the waters in which the rocks in question 
were laid down. 



378 



THE DIAMOND PROSPECTING CORE DRILL. 
Bt STEPHEN ROGERS, F.G.S. 



One of the most important considerations in the development 
of mineral property is the preliminary " prospecting," by which 
the exact position, extent, thickness, and value of the mineral 
deposits are determined. For this purpose the " Diamond Rock 
Drill " is now being extensively used, both at home and abroad, 
and the superiority of this method over that of the ordinary shaft 
sinking is very striking. It bores a perfectly straight, smooth 
hole to any depth, or in any given direction from the vertical to 
the horizontal, bringing to the surface in order a solid section or 
"core" of every stratum passed through, shewing its exact 
depth, thickness, and the character of the rock. The " core " is 
large enough to be thoroughly tested, and can therefore be 
subjected to physical and chemical tests. Another advantage of 
great value is, that, in the event of the mineral sought for being 
absent, this important fact is conclusively proved. It also gives 
positive information of the nature of the strata, thus making it 
possible to estimate the cost of the shaft closely. Any machine 
for accomplishing such work must have many requirements. It 
must be strong, simple, and durable, economical in the use of 
steam, and in the wear and tear of the diamond or " carbon " 
points, rapid in operation, and, above all, its work must be 
accurate and reliable. 

Many excellent diamond rock borers are manufactured, but 
the " Sullivan " machine is the one I more particularly advocate, 
as it combines all these important and essential features. As 
regards its construction, with the exception of the smaller sizes, it 
consists of the engines, the hoisting, and the feed apparatus. Each 
part is distinct, and can be operated independently of the others. 
They are mounted on a cast-iron base plate, which rests on a 
bolted and braced hard-wood frame. The base plate slides 
backvrards and forwards on ways on the frame, moved by a hand 
lever working in a rack on the frame. The engines are designed 



THE DIAMOND PROSPECTING CORE DRILL. 379 

especially for these inacliines, with, a view to completeness and 
economy. They are vertical, two in number, set quartering, and 
can be driven by steam or compressed air. The hoisting appa- 
ratus in the larger machines consists of an iron drum, wound 
with wire-rope, and with suitable combinations of gearing for 
hoisting the full weight of rods from any ordinary depth with- 
out the necessity of using double blocks. For the advance or 
" feed" of the drilling bit the single cylinder hydraulic piston 
feed is used, except in the case of the " M " and " B " drills. 

In purchasing one of these machines it will be well to select 
one a little larger than that just equal to the work contemplated, 
in case the drilling should be carried deeper than was expected. 
The location of the prospect hole should be determined by the 
extent and general features of the land to be developed. The 
ground should be reasonably good for hauling, and, where the 
available supply of water is limited, it might be used over and 
over, allowing the water as it comes from the hole to run back 
into the tank or well from which it was pumped. The bit, when 
it first penetrates the rock, is first set on its lowest face and 
inner and outer edges with the small pieces of black diamond or 
carbon. As the bit is rotated and fed forward, the diamonds chip 
and grind away the rock in an annular hole, leaving untouched 
in the centre a cylindrical " core." The bit passes down over 
this " core," followed by the core shell and the core barrel. 
The latter is a smooth-bored tube, in which the core is enclosed. 
After drilling as many runs as will fill the core-barrel, the rods 
are pulled up, until the top joint reaches the surface, discon- 
nected at the joint, and the drill moves back on the frame out of 
the way. Casing pipe is used to keep the hole clean, and to 
prevent caving. When its use is found necessary, the hole is 
enlarged to a suitable diameter by means of a reamer. No core 
is made in reaming, the object simply being to enlarge the hole. 
All the indications of the machine and gauges should be closely 
watched, as well as the cuttings as they come to the surface, as 
the indications shew before the rock is pulled up the thickness of 
the strata, and the character of the rock, and they act as checks 
which establish the accuracy of the work beyond question. 

It is undoubtedly well known that Cornwall does not enjoy 
at the present moment that mining prosperity which so eminently 



380 THE DIAMOND PKOStECTING CORE DRILL. 

distinguished her years ago. To the dark cloud, however, there 
is a silver lining, for we are assured by the highest mining 
authorities of the day that there is every probability of this 
highly valued ore of tin, which forms such a valuable and 
indispensable article of commerce, being found below the work- 
ings of the long- since abandoned copper mines of the county. 
Cornwall is essentially a mining county, and if she is to 
maintain her position as a tin producer, the mining industry must 
be fostered in every conceivable way. The Diamond Drill has 
amply justified its existence in many parts of the globe, rapidly 
growing in popularity as a means of expeditiously testing for 
minerals, and I firmly believe that if adopted in Cornwall, and 
deep boi'ings are made in the abandoned mining districts and 
in the virgin ground, highly important discoveries of tin will 
result, and that very many years will roll by ere Cornwall will 
be pronounced to be tinless 



381 



By henry CROWTHER, F.R.M.S., Curator of the Truro Museum. 



JANUARY. 

We have made a good start for a dry year. Our monthly 
rairij hail, and snow falls^ when all calculated, equalled a total 
downfall of 2*27 inches, the driest January for thirteen years. In 
my letter on " Weather for December" I showed how the year 
closed, a little drier than 1890 3 and, singularly, the Board of 
Agriculture give the wheat crop of Great Britain at 31*26 bushels 
an acre, as compared with 30*74 bushels for 1890, which is in near 
accord with the meteorological observations of that letter. The 
month was cold, our average maxima of heat for January being 48*27 
degrees, last month it was 46* i o ; our average minima, greatest 
cold in night, 38*10 ; last month, 34*00 degrees, or a monthly mean 
of temperature, two-and-a-quarter degrees colder in the day, and 
over four degrees colder in the night. The sun shone on 19 days, 
and we had a peep of the sun behind the clouds on nine other 
days ; yet snow fell on six days, hail on six, and fog was in 
evidence on four days. Our most prevalent winds were northerly, 
the next north-westerly. On one day we had the wind in the 
south 5 it followed a south-westerly wind, and brought with it the 
heaviest day's rainfall (•74 inch) of the month. We had rain on 
22 days, and frost on 17 days. The highest reading of the 
barometer was on the 26th, 30*^2 3 the lowest 29*03 inches, on 
the 1 6th — a range of 1*49 inches. We often complain of the 
heaviness of certain days, but few of us fully realize the meaning 
of the cheerful or depressing effects of the alternating column of 
air which rests upon us, and is measured by our barometers. 
Every square inch of this column weighs, when the glass stands at 
30 inches, about ijlbs. 3 over 2,ooolbs. to the square foot, and over 
30,000,000 tons to the square mile. The range of the barometer 
between the i6th and 26th of January was 1*49 inches, one-and-a- 
half inches, and the oscillation of the mercury through such a space 
means a difference of about 1,500,000 tons per square mile. Such 



382 A TEAR S WEATHEE. 

varying pressures cannot take place without causing effects on our 
seas, often disastrous ones. 

We had several delightful days in January, and on three days 
towards its end, the temperature out of doors was 52 degrees. 
Our coldest night was on the i ith, when under cover we registered 
19 degrees, or 13 degrees of frost, in the open 15 degrees, or 17 
degrees of frost; the wind blew over a carpet of snow which 
overspread the country, from two to six or seven inches deep. 

On the 22nd, Mr. John Burton, of the Old Curiosity Shop, 
Falmouth, sent me some male flowers of the willow, which he had 
gathered on the Castle Drive, and which for many years he had 
noticed as coming out in the tirst week of February, their early 
appearance on the dry ground there is interesting. Primroses were 
to be found in the sheltered valleys about Truro. 

I regret to say that Mr. F. H. Davey, who so kindly takes the 
charge of a rain-guage for me at Ponsanooth, is laid up ; hence for 
the time being, and, I hope sincerely, for the briefest period, his 
interesting records of Kennal Vale are suspended. 

I purpose, as last year, to tabulate the rainfalls from month to 
month, as I learn that this method has given great satisfaction to 
many of my readers. 

40 years' mean. 1891. 1892. 

January 4-85-ius 3-40-ins 2-27-ins. 

A peep backwards, January 1792 : — 8th, ice one inch thick 
in the course of one night. 1 2th, snowdrop stem above ground, 
ice in general two and a half inches thick. 14th, thermometer at 
10 a.m. registered 26 degrees. 30th, snowdrops in bloom. 
Rainfall 2*30 inches. 

February 9th, 1892. 

FEBRUARY. 
There are many who believe that bad seasons repeat them- 
selves, and yet would never expect a repetition of the February 
weather of last year. That month was the driest February we 
have on record, this year it was the wettest since 188^. The 
rainfall for this month was 4*43 inches, which fell on 18 days. 
Our heaviest day's rainfall was on the i8th, '93, nearly an inch. 
The month commenced wet, half an inch of rain on the first day, 
with hail, yet a general feeling of warmth. Next we had a 



A year's ■weather. 383 

fortnight of dry weather, and then followed for nine days 
all sorts of weather changes, snow, sleet, hail, heavy rains, 
lightning and thunder, the thermometer registering 12 degrees 
of frost outside, the snow falling six inches deep. Except 
on one day the sun was seen in gleam or clearness every 
day in the month. On five nights the thermometers in shade 
registered frost. Our greatest heat in day showed a monthly mean 
of 50*4 degrees, one degree warmer than our 40 years' average. 

A peculiarity of the month was the general fixity of the wind. 
It began with a week or more of north-westerly winds, followed 
by similar periods of northerly, southwesterly, and easterly winds, 
with which it closed. 

The following are the rainfalls of the month and those of last 
year and a forty years' mean. 

40 years' mean. 1891. 1892. 

January 4-85-ins 3-40-ins 2-27-ins. 

February ... 3-38-ins 0-22-ins 4-43-ins. 

Totals ... 8-23-in3 3-62-ins 6-70-ins. 

The rainfall for January and February, 1890, was 7*46 inches. 

The cold and sometimes biting winds did not wholly keep 
in check the growth of the larger trees ; their blossoms depending on 
the wind for fertilization were conspicuous during the greater part 
of the month, and gave a pleasant relief to the general wintry 
aspect of many trees. But many of our valleys, especially noticable 
from the railway in those about Lostwithiel, were all of a grey-green 
tint, due to humble plants which grew on the barer ground, the 
trunks of the trees, or hung in tufts from nearly every twig. 

Whether the lichens be useless, or even harmful, they gave a 
special charm to our Cornish valleys in February. Some lichens 
are very useful, as the litmus lichen, Iceland and reindeer moss, 
for dyes and foods. 

The lichens in interest take the first rank, though generally so 
despised. They are slave makers, who have cultivated a taste 
for vegetable food which they cannot make themselves. A cross- 
section of a leafy stem shews within small green bodies, these are 
green algae which the lichen creeps upon and captures, and wraps 
up in threadlike tissue, between which light and air can pass. 
The^ are not parasitic in any sense of the word, the algse cells 



384 A YEAR S WEATHEK. 

cannot escape, they are prisoners, but they thrive under their new- 
conditions ; it is a case of mutual interdependence, the algae receive 
mineral salts, iron, lime, potash, magnesia, and phosphorus, and 
give to the lichens carbo-hydrates. This relationship is known as 
symbiosis, and is a phase in plant life particularly interesting at 
this season of the year when every exposed stone almost, and 
every tree attests its success. 

The weather in February, 1 792. — one hundred years ago — was a 
little colder than with us this year, there were more frosty nights, 
but not so much snow. By the 8th, the thrushes were in song 
and the primroses in flower, on the 12th the honeysuckle leaf was 
out, and that of the gooseberry just ready to expand. The wind 
went out on east as it has done this year. The rainfall was 2'20 
inches. 

March 17th, 1892. 

MARCH. 
The driest March for fifty years. The meteorological 
aspect shows three distinct periods of dryness from the ist — 8th, 
nth — 13th, 17th — 31st, leaving few days on which rain fell. On 
one of these, the 15th, we had a gale and a downpour of over 
half-an-inch of rain following a wet day, yet the whole rainfall for 
the month was little over one inch — i'o7 inches. The last March 
which was nearly as dry was in 1854, the rainfall being i"o8 inches- 
Our average March rainfall at Truro is close upon 3 inches ; some 
years we have twice that amount, but records of only one-third 
the usual supply are very rare. We had wet on two mornings 
only during the month and on three afternoons ; most of the rain 
fell in the night. The sun was fully visible on 2^ days and seen 
in gleam on 4 others, leaving 2 sunless days. The winds had a 
tendency for north and north-east, giving a chilly feeling to the 
air. On the 15th the wind veered westerly, and gained such force 
that great damage was done to property and trees. We had frost 
on 17 nights, the coldest in shade being 22 degrees — 10 degrees 
of frost — an exposed thermometer registered on the nights of the 
12th and 14th 16 degrees, or 16 degrees of frost. On one of these 
nights we had hoar frost. We had hail on four days and snow 
and sleet on two. 

The average coldness of nights for the month was ^^'^ degrees 
the mean warmth in shade during the day for the month 47*4 



A teak's weatheb. 3H5 

degrees, or an average of 4 degrees colder in the day and 5 degrees 

colder in the night than our usual March temperature. The 

following are the average rainfalls for comparison j I include those 

of Kennal Valley, kindly taken by Mr. F. H. Davey, of 

Ponsanooth : — 

Keunal Vale 

Average of 40 1891. 1892. 1892. 

yrs. rainfall. 

January 4-85-ms 3-40-ins 2-27-ins 2-89-ins. 

February ... 3-38-ins 0-22-ins 4-43-ins 5-11-ins. 

March 2-91-ms 3.90-ms 1-07-ins 1-45-ins. 



Totals ... 11-14-ins 7-52-ins 7'77-ins 9-45-ms. 

During February and March were witnessed the singular 
reversal of the meteorological phases of the previous year, although 
the cold and bitter weather of about the same time of the month as 
the blizzard visited us last year frightened many people into 
prognosticating another blizzard with a certainty which was truly 
alarming. Instead, therefore, of registering a dry February and 
a wet March, our record runs a wet February and a dry March. 
I saw the March fly {Bibio) on the ist. It was most delightful to 
see the growth of flowers at one period of the month ; they 
sprang into sight as if they had been hiding beneath the dry and 
brown grasses for warmth ; in places the primrose, daisy, buttercup, 
ground ivy, violet, and stitchwort asserted themselves, and the 
golden gorse filled the lanes with the odour of honey. The bees 
worked as if wishful to make up for lost time, and the rooks fought, 
stole each other's nests, gambolled, and filled the air with that 
melodious cawing which registered Spring. March, 1792 — one 
hundred years ago — -loth, ice one inch thick, plenty of flowers in 
bloom. 30th, wheat looked well, not much sun during the month, 
wind generally got up towards evening 3 rainfall, 2 inches. 

April nth, 1892. 

APRIL. 

The rainfall for April was 1-36 inches, which fell on 
eleven days 3 on two only of these days were good showers 
experienced — on the 20th, when a quarter of an inch, and the 28th, 
when nearly half -an- inch of rain fell. On the remaining days the 
rain was so slight as only to bring disappointment to the farmer, 
who was sadly in want of moisture for his parched land. The 



386 A year's weather. 

rainfall for the month was an inch and a quarter less than our 
average April rainfall, the driest April since 1887, when only '^6 inch 
of rain fell. In 1881 the April rainfall was exactly the same as that 
of this year, i'^6 inches. In April, 1870, the monthly rainfall was 
•18, in 1882 5-98 inches. 

The end of the month was very cold : this, perhaps, its 
most distressing feature. The mean of all the daily maxima was 
59"9, six degrees below the average 3 mean of all the nightly 
minima 38*2, or nearly thirteen degrees below our April average. 
This coldness followed a period of great heat. Our highest heat 
in the sunshine was 9 1 degrees on the i ] th, our warmest in shade 
72 degrees on the 7th 3 our coldest in shade on the 15th, (Good 
Friday), 24 degrees: our greatest cold in the open, 20 or 12 
degrees of frost, on the same night. We had frost on nine nights 
in the shade, and frost during half the month in the open. 

The twelve cloudless days with which April opened, and the 
summer warmth then experienced, unique for such a period of the 
year, will always give to April, 1 892, a meteorological distinction, 
even in spite of its later coldness, which did so much damage. It 
seems singular that the weather should play the same freak with 
the Easter holidays of this year as it did with those of Whitsuntide 
last year ; then, as at Easter, it held aloft the allurements of beautiful 
weather to break into storm, rain, and snow when the holidays 
came. It is only on a weather chart that one can really picture the 
change, and even then it is hard to grasp that so glorious a fortnight 
of April summer had a following for nearly a week of wet, frost, 
snow, hail, and sleet. Yet in this came the birds of spring. What 
a hard time they must have had ! We had a range of about 50 
degrees of temperature during the month. The wind was chiefly 
N. and N.E. Of S.W., the common wind with us. We had very 
little. 

The following are the rainfalls for comparison : — 

40 years' mean. 1891. 1892. 

January 4-85-ins 3'40-ins 2'27-ins. 

February ... 3-38-ms 0-22.ins 4-43-ins. 

March 2-91-ins 3-90-ins 1-07-ins. 

April 2-61-ins 2-48-ms I'36-ms. 

Totals ... 13-75-ms lOOO-in 9-13-ini5. 



A year's "WEATHER. 387 

We are drier than last year, although February this year was 
so wet. 

Weather 1 792, one hundred years ago : — 9th, Keen frost in 
the morning. loth. Sycamore, elm, and many forest trees foliating. 
Bees busily employed, and return heavily loaded. Clear sky. 
Chimney boards put up and fires extinguished, nth. Swallows 
observed by a gentlemen who notices they seldom appear before 
the 17th, and from that to the 27th April, 14th, Vegetation 
made wonderful progress. 1 8th, Cuckoo heard ; a continued 
heavy rain for 48 hours, 3 inches of rain falling. 20th, Keen frost, 
chimney boards taken down, and fires lighted up. 23rd, Strawberries 
in bloom and trees in bloom, much injured by frost. 28th, New 
potatoes in market, 2s. 6d. and is. 6d. per lb. 3 green gooseberries, 
lod. per quart. Rainfall for month, 4*8 inches. 

The warm days in early April brought out many flowers and 
many birds, so that our records are early this year. Mr. Earthy 
heard the chiff-chaff on the 2ndj I saw it on the 3rd, the 
sandmartin on the 7th. I saw the cuckoo on the i6thj it was 
heard in song in Cuckoo Bottom, Besore, on the i8th. Mr. Morris 
gave me the 22nd for the swallow which he saw at Shortlanes-end ; 
they were common at Chacewater a day or two after this. The 
tortoiseshell butterfly I saw on the third. The lilac was in flower 
on the 22nd, and the horse-chestnut in leaf on the 26th. 

Cuckoos are plentiful this year, and will afford to those who 
have opportunities better scope for learning the habits of these 
birds than usual. Briefly, for in a letter of this kind one cannot 
write the history of such a bird, I will state a few facts which 
are known about the cuckoo. The birds do not mate ; only the 
male birds sing, usually from a tree. Mr. Chirgwin gives me an 
instance where he heard near Allet Chapel, on the Perranporth- 
road, three singing at one time, on one tree. When the female 
birds pass the male birds make a rapid descent and chase them, 
returning to the same tree usually, and again calling out. The 
female cuckoo does not make a nest of its own ; it lays its egg on 
the ground — it only lays an egg now and then — and, taking the egg 
in its mouth, places it in the nest of another bird. Many birds are 
chosen to rear the young cuckoo, but it has a preference for the 
hedge sparrow and the meadow pipit. The cuckoo does not sue]? 



388 A year's weather. 

other birds' eggs to make its voice clear, but lives on caterpillars, 
usually the hairy ones, and insects. Another peculiarity worth 
mentioning is that as soon as the cuckoo is born it begins to lift 
out of the nest all that is foreign to itself — eggs, foster brothers, 
and foster sisters. As it gets older this propensity passes off, but 
then, alas ! it has got rid of all who were in the nest with it. 
May 1 2th, 1892. 

MAY. 

The driest May since 1887 ; the whole of the rainfall for the 
month was little over i^ inches, i'55 inches, but fortunately the 
winds have been light ; the wind in many cases dries the land 
more than sunshine. Our average May rainfall here is 2 "45 inches, 
hence the fall of rain this May was nearly one inch below the 
monthly average. Taking the rainfalls for over forty years the 
wettest May was in 1869 with 5"42 inches, and the driest in 1876 
with 0*13 inch of rain. 

The greatest heat in shade during the month was 75 on the 
1 3th ; the lowest 29 on the 8th, or a difference of 46 degrees. 
The barometer stood 3o'39 inches on the 12th, and 29*69 inches 
on the 3rd, a difference of "70, or nearly three-quarters of an inch. 

A glance at the comparative rainfalls shows how favourable 

the year has been as regards wetness : — 

40 years' mean. 1891. 1892. 

January 4"85-ins 3'40-ins 2-27-ms. 

February ... 3-38-ins 0-22-ins 4-43-ins. 

March 291-ins 3-90-ins 1-07-ms. 

April 2-61-ins 2-48-ins 1-36-ins. 

May 2-45-ins 2-26-ins r55-ms. 

Totals ... 16-20-ins 12-26-has 10-68-ins. 

We have had i J inches less rain these last five months than 

the same period last year, and five inches and a half less than a 40 

years' mean. This is the period when the rhyme runs in our 

heads — 

" If the ash before the oak. 

Then you may expect a soak ; 

If the oak before the ash. 

Then 'twill only be a splash." 



A year's weatheb. 389 

So far as I can judge, the oak and the ash simultaneously- 
broke into leaf here at the beginning of May. A comparison of 
hundreds of the trees, at dozens of places, gave the best foliage 
first to the oak and then to the ash. Perhaps observers in other 
localities may decide for me. 

On May i yth we had slight evidence of the earthquake which 
visited Cornwall ; its rumbling was heard by Dr. Sharp, at Truro, 
at 1.30 a.m., and he gave me another case where it was heard 
near the city about the same hour. My only personal evidence is 
the knocking down of a series of Cornish birds from their stands 
in the museum. The line of fallen birds ran north and south, and 
on naming this fact, the doctor tells me, the report was heard to 
die out in a similar direction in the Helston district, where the 
shock was most intense. 

I am told that not only have three cuckoos been seen on trees 
hereabouts, each calling, as mentioned in my last letter, at the 
same time, but that at Cuckoo Bottom, near Truro, it is no unusual 
thing to hear three of these birds calling at once from the telegraph 
wires. Mr. Blenkinsop gives me the 26th, as the earliest date 
for hearing the landrail in this district, which is late. I saw the 
swift at Truro on the 3rd. 1 have had several communications 
respecting observations in my last weather letter, which, I think 
should be mentioned here,and as these weather letters are intended 
to be familiar and chatty monthly records, observations from other 
sources embodied in them make them doubly valuable. 

The Rev. C. F. Rogers, Sithney Vicarage, Helston, says, 
" I observed several swallows on the sea coast between Porthleven 
and the Loe Bar on Thursday April 14th." Our first arrival at 
Truro was the 22nd. Mr. Wilkinson, Riviere, Hayle, says, "My 
experience of the weather at the beginning of April was very 
different from yours at Truro. Of the first twelve days nine of 
them were accompanied by cold winds, and only three were 
comfortably warm." I have had a similar experience myself on 
the north and south coasts this month. Mr. Wilkinson also gives 
the swallow's first appearance as March 22nd, one month earlier 
then ours. On March 23 rd he again saw, in the presence of two 
of his neighbours, three more of these birds. This record is 
exceptionally early. 



390 ^ year's weather. 

The Rev. Fred. E. Gutteres, Nymet Rowland Rectory, 
Lapford, North Devon, gives me the sandmartin's first appearance 
as March 19th ; mine was April 7th. The latter date agrees with 
its first appearance in the North of England. Mr. Gutteres, in 
the presence of a friend, saw three of them above the Taw, later 
in the afternoon they saw four, and then did not see the bird again 
for three weeks. From the 14th to the 20th of April is the usual 
time to notice their earliest arrival in North Devon, but this 
gentleman tells me that he saw his first martin in 1 886 at the same 
spot as this year on March 26th. This early appearance and 
disappearance of these birds have led many to think that they 
hybernate. Such a thing is impossible j and, in addition, birds 
feeding on insects require an almost constant supply of food ; to 
meet this demand, when insects are scarce they try new localities, 
disappearing for a time from where first seen. 

One word about the plants. The hawthorn this year is 
unusually prolific in flower, not only with us but in many other 
places where I have seen it, from the Lizard up to Newquay. 
In some cases not a trace of leaf [scarcely to be seen. May I call 
this the hawthorn year, and does it mean a dry hot summer ? 

Weather for May 1792 (100 years ago), — 2nd, ground 
strewed with leaves and bloom by the hail-storms ; 4th and ^th, 
keen morning frosts 3 12th, ice in the morning, early potatoes 
injured i i6th, hawthorn in bloom} 19th, laburnum and honey- 
suckle in bloom 5 2ist, landrail heard. The air of the month is 
generally raw and cold. A show of fruit, but much injured by 
weather. Cattle that lie out seemed starved, some have been sick, 
occasioned as supposed by cold. Milch cows fail in milk. Fall 
of rain 3 '40 inches. 

Tune 25th, 1892. 

JUNE. 

With a rainfall of 183 inches, June was comparatively 
dry • last year we had one inch more rain during the month than 
this. The rain fell on eleven days, but except on three of these, 
the rainfall was very slight. The heaviest day's rain was on the 
ist, with eight- tenths of an inchj and, singularly, last year, on the 
1st of June, we had one inch of rain. It was a month of sunshine. 
The sura was visible on every day except one. Day after day 



A year's weather. 391 

we registered in the sunshine temperatures from 96 to 104 degrees. 
Whitsuntide fell this year amidst this display of heat. A wet 
Saturday was followed by a beautiful Whit- Sunday and a scorching 
hot Whit-Monday. I spent the day in company with friends 
dredging in Helford River, and we enjoyed the warmth very much. 
June this year was not exceptionally dry for Truro — we have 
had many drier. Of those of the last 40 years 15 have had a less 
rainfall, the driest being that of June 1887, with only "o^ inch 3 
next, June 1859, 0*26, about a quarter of an inch, whilst the June 
of 1870 was almost as dry with "32 inch; the wettest June we 
have any record of during the above period was June i860, 7 '3 8 
inches of rain. 

The comparative rainfalls are : — 

40 year's mean. 1891. 1892. 

January 4"85-ins 3"40-ins 2-27-ins. 

February ... 3'38-ins 0-22-ins 4*43-ins. 

March ... 2-91-ins 3-90-ins 1-07-ins. 

April 2-61-ins 2-48-ins 1-36-ins. 

May 2-45-ins 2-26-ins. ... .. 1'55-ms. 

June 2-39-ins 2-86-ins 1-83-ms. 



Total ... 18-59-ins l5-12-ins 12-51-ins. 

The rainfall of the last six months in Kennal Vale, taken by 
Mr. Davey, is nearly three inches heavier than ours : — 

January ... 2-89 inches. 



February 

March 

April 

May 

June 



511 
1-46 
1-32 
1-72 

2-85 



15-35 

A glance shows we have had a very dry six months ; we are 
six inches under our mean rainfall, and nearly 2^ inches drier than 
the first six months of last year. 

The glass kept very high, close on 30 inches, during the 
whole month ; the winds were chiefly south-easterly. The average 
heat in shade was 67*5 degrees, the average coldness of nights 
48*9 degrees ; we had no registration of frost ; our highest 
temperature in shade during the day was 78 degrees on the 
28th, the thermometer in the sun registering 104 degrees. 



392 A YEAR S WEATHER. 

Our coldest night, under cover, i.e. the glass was not^ exposed, 
was 39 degrees, on the i8th, so that during the month the 
temperature in shade ranged 39 degrees. June is the month 
when nature looks its brightest, and this year it has been no 
exception to the rule. The foxglove showed up well this season, 
and the growth on the younger trees was very distinct, the cereals 
wheat, barley, and oats looked very healthy. I was very much 
struck with the butterfly life ; I never saw so much of it, 
my observations extending from the Lizard up to Newquay. 
The meadow browns, blues, and coppers were very common, and 
the bigger and brighter ones, such as the Peacock, Tortoiseshell, 
Red Admiral, and even the Painted Lady were not rare. On two 
occasions I saw the Clouded Yellow, GoUas edusa, Fabr. and as much 
discussion arises on the distribution of this form, which only 
appears to turn up in certain years, I make the record here, as 
verified by another witness, who is a naturalist 5 St. Clement's, 
Truro, June 2nd; and at Cadgwith, the Lizard, on the 3rd, next 
day ; I saw it both times on our lovely Cornish hedgerows. 

Weather in June, 1792 — 100 years ago. — 5th, bees swarm; 
a field of grass mown for hay. r 7th, thunder and lightning. i8th. 
Fox-glove in bloom. 20th, very little sun ; hay harvest protracted 3 
none spoiled 3 the crops heavy upon the high and rich lands 3 
pastures in general abundant, but the grass sour 3 spring corn 
appears starved 3 wheat and early oats in the ear. Fall of rain this 
month, one inch. 

July 20th, 1892. 

JULY. 

The month was dry. Rain fell on 14 days, but on only six 
of these had we proper showers. I'otal fall 176 inches. Though 
so dry, July last year was drier, with a rainfall of ['62 inches. 
This July was a hot month, with plenty of sunshine. There was 
not a single day on which the sun was not visible. We had 
thunderstorms on the nth and 13th. 

The following are the seven monthly rainfalls : — 

40 years' mean. 1891. 1892. 

January 4.85-ins 3'40-ms. 2-27-ins. 

February ... 3-38-ins 0-22-ins 4-43-ins. 

March 2-91-ins 3-90-ins 1.07-ins. 



A year's weather. 393 

April 261-ins 2-48-ins 1-36-ins. 

May 2'45-ins 2-26-ms 1-55-ms. 

June 2-.S9-ins 2'86-ius 1-83-ins. 

July 2-50-ins 1'62-ms l-76-in3. 



Total ... 21-19-ins 16-74-ms 14-27-ins. 

A glance shews how it is that we are enjoying the distinction 
this year of being one of the most favoured counties as regards 
weather. I receive many letters from correspondents asking if 
Cornwall is under sunshine and suitable to visit, and this year my 
replies have invariably been "Weather glorious ! " A rainfall for 
the seven months seven inches below the mean rainfall, and only 
two-thirds the usual downpour, must give dryness. 

This dryness has been favourable to the potato and to the corn, 
as these crops have not felt so much the ill-effects of moulds, smuts, 
and rusts as they do in warm, wet weather. How little is popularly 
known about these enemies, and yet how interesting their history 
to the scientific mind. When one thinks that the smallest wrinkle 
in a potato leaf holding a drop of rain or dew is a lake, comparatively, 
for the development of any potato-disease spores which may fall 
into it, one feels glad to record a July free from mugginess, i.e., 
warm, steamy wetness. A potato-disease spore falling into such 
a drop of warm rain, small though the spore be, breaks up into a 
score or two of minute swimming spores, each bent on boring, by 
means of little rootlets, into the potato leaf, and stealing the starch 
ready in the leaf to be passed into the tuber. Once in possession, 
leaf, stem and tuber fall before their poisonous attack. 

Generally the barometer stood high during the greater part of 
the month, yet it had a range of over eight-tenths of an inch. 

The highest heat in shade was on the 30th, temperature 80 
degrees; the lowest 42 degrees, on the night of the 23rd; a range 
of 38 degrees. 

The wind had about as many records from the north and 
east, as from the south and west, the latter bringing us the rain 
mentioned. 

From correspondents I find that my observation about the 
appearance of the Clouded Yellow butterfly Colzas edusa, Fabr. , in the 
last month's weather letter is confirmed. Records of its occurrence 
in addition to my own at Truro and The Lizard, are to hand 
from Perran, Lostwithiel, Par, Worcester, and Essex. 



394 A year's weather. 

Just another nature note : Robins are plentiful this year. 
Watch them. A sudden dart from the meadow into the hedge ; 
on reaching a twig they suddenly turn, presenting to the observer 
their red breasts, and then remain perfectly still — as if stuffed — often 
ten minutes or so. We are just on the turn of the year, the black 
fungus is on the sycamore already, leaves are turning reddish, and 
the robins are becoming hard to distinguish in their surroundings. 

A peep backwards, about which many of my readers like 
to read, July, 1792 — 100 years ago — 17th. A hail storm, 
preceded by continued thunder for more than half an hour, 
as if it came from different points 3 sometime before and 
during the storm, which did not continue a couple of minutes, 
pitchy darkness 3 and during the fall of hail a violent gust of 
wind. Hail stones about two inches long, angular and pointed, 
as if encircled with ice ; the storm was followed by long and heavy- 
rain. Vegetables injured. Some fields of wheat so much injured 
that they were mown for fodder for cattle. Chiefly gloomy 
weather the whole month, very little sun, many days without the 
least appearance, hay harvest far from being finished. Rainfall 
2*3 inches. 

What a contrast between July 1792, and July 1892 ! 

August 22nd, 1892. 

AUGUST. 

For over three-fourths of the month we had splendid harvest 
weather, with every prospect of registering a very dry August. 
Up to the 23rd only 0*67 of an inch of rain had fallen, the days 
followed one another beautifully fine, plenty of hot sunshine, 
though cold on some nights. On the 1 7th we had a magnificent 
day, 102 degrees in the sun; then a little dulness and yet a 
tendency to be fair. The first serious break was about 4.30 p.m. 
on the 24th, when we had a heavy sudden shower ; yet next day, 
which 1 spent on the Gwithian and Godrevy Towans and along 
the North cliffs, was delightfully fine. On the Friday, the day 
still kept fair with plenty of sunshine, but after midnight the rain 
came down in torrents, next morning we registered nearly half an 
inch ; the downpour continued all Saturday, the rain gauge giving 
next morning ) '90 inches, nearly two inches of rain for the 24 hours. 



A year's weather. 395 

S ome observers got more than this, as did Mr. Daubuz at Killiow, 
and further west of the same district, but equally well wooded, 
Mr. Davey, in Kennal Vale, registered 2'26 inches. The wet 
continued till the month was out, registering ^.^^ inches in six 
days at Truro, and 4' 84 inches of rain in Kennal Vale. Our total 
downpour for the month was 4*40 inches, which, though making 
this August a wet month, is much less than last year, when the 
rainfall was 6-^S, or over two inches more rain. August last year 
was one of the wettest on record. It is singular that the next 
heaviest records of rain occur in four consecutive years — 1876, 4'37 ; 
1877, 5*84; 1878, 4"49 j and 1879, r^'^^ inches. Since then, till 
last year, the Augusts have been comparatively dry. Our average 
August rainfall is 3 •ox inches. 

The following are comparative rainfalls : — 

40 years' mean. 1891. 1892. 

January 4 85-ins 3'40-ins 2"27-ms. 

February ... 3-38-ins 0-22-ms 4-43-ins. 

March 2-91-ins 3-90-ms 1-07-ins. 

April 2-61-ins 2-48-ins 1-36-ins. 

May 2-45-ins 2-26-ins 1-55-ins. 

June 2-39-ins 2-86-ms 1-83-ins. 

July 2-60-ms 1-62-ms 1-76-ins. 

August 3"01-ins 6-48-ms 4'40-ins. 

Total ... 24-20-ins 23'22-ins 18-67-ms. 

These show over four and-a-half inches less rain in this 
district from January to August than last year, during the same 
period. To the visitor Cornwall never, perhaps, appeared more 
charming than during this month, but the bright sunshine and 
continued blue skies brought on droughts in many villages, and 
many were at their wits' end for water when the welcome rain 
came. The contour of the county allows of plenty of rainfall 
without much injury. 

The usual height of the barometer was not quite reached, the 
mean pressure in August with us is 29*989 inches, this month 
29*936 inches. The temperature of the month was favourable 3 
the average mean of our highest temperature in shade is 69*70 
degrees, this August it was 69*80 degrees. Our average greatest 
coldness of nights in August is 54*2 x degrees, this month it was 



396 A year's weatheh. 

53 'So degrees, or a little warmer in the days and a little colder in the 
nights than usual in August month. 

On three days during the month the sun was not visible, the 
winds were moderate except on the 14th and at the close of the 
month. 

The excursion of the Royal Institution of Cornwall to Dolcoath 
and Tehidy was made amidst this wind and rain ; few will forget 
how they met those who were journeying over the hill near to 
Redruth. Our rainfall during the excursion this year was not 
continuous, the total rainfall being 0*30 inch, or under one-third of 
an inch ; last year, when the excursion was to Padstow and Prideaux 
Place, the downpour was 1*48 inches, nearly one and a-half inches 
of rain, about five times as heavy as on this year's outing. 

Just after midnight on the morning of the i8th, earthquake 
shocks were felt throughout Cornwall. Perhaps an epitome, 
without any explanation of the causes of earthquakes, would be read 
with interest. Direction : south to north. Duration of shock : 
probably from three to thirty seconds. Effects : a general 
awakening of people, rattling of windows, doors, and crockery, 
shaking of houses, and earth tremors. The following are a few 
Cornish impressions : — " Sharp shock " (Penzance) 3 "Perceptible 
shake of the earth " (Redruth) ; " Perceptible motion of the earth, 
bed seemed to be lifted from the floor, watch was thrown down 
and glass smashed" (Truro) j "Furniture was in a state of 
perturbation " (St. (Blazey) ; " Noise resembled that of a rumbling 
waggon" (Lostwithiel) ; "Noise of falling bricks, a low 
rumbling sound ' (Helland) ; " Curious trembling of houses without 
any noise ' (Callington) ; "Walls vibrated, and china and other 
articles distinctly rattled" (St. Cleer) 5 "Loud noise somewhat 
resembling the sound of thunder " (Liskeard) ; " Slates on the roof 
rattled" (Tregeare, near f.aunceston) 5 many in Truro say they 
felt the shock, personally, I was totally oblivious. 

Further records of the occurence of the Clouded Yellow butterfly 
Colias edusa., Fabr., in many localities have been sent me, and 
Mr. Davey saw in Kennal Vale as pecimicn of the Pale Clouded 
Yellow, Cvlias hyale, L. Although we have had so exceptional a 
summer for butterflies — and these insects have been very common, 
too — yet the dense flights of the Clouded Yellow, so frequent in 
1877, have not been observed. 



A year's weather. 397 

Councillor Buck noticed at Perran a remarkable swarm of one 
of the cockchafers, Rhizotrogus solstitialis, L., which almost covered 
the outsides of some of the houses. The farmer should see that 
all cockchafers are destroyed, as the beetle both in the grub and 
perfect state is harmful to vegetation. 

Weather in August, 1792 — one hundred years ago — 3rd, fall 
of rain in the night, "20 of an inch 3 corn lodged much in consequence 
of the rain, nth, wheat and barley have changed wonderfully in 
colour in a few days. 1 7th, butterflies busy amongst the cabbages 
depositing their spawn. i8th, pears ripe and abundant. 23rd, 
oats cut. 26th, fall of rain yesterday, and the present i'8o inches ; 
grain of all kinds laid quite flat by the last fall of rain. 30th, wheat 
cut 3 harvest becoming general 5 fall of rain this month, 5*20 inches. 

The rainfall of August one hundred years ago was heavy, and 
its greatest showers were on the 2 /jth and 26th : ours, on the 
26th and 27th. On the 26th of August, 1792, it rained all 
day, but ceased at 7 p.m., on the 27th of August, 189a, it rained 
all day. 

September 20th, 1892. 

SEPTEMBER. 

We have had only about eight Septembers during the 
last 43 years so dry as the last one. Our average rainfall for the 
month is three and a half inches, but last month under two inches 
fell during that period. We had wet on 16 days, which singularly 
is the average number of days on which rain falls in September 
here, but half of them only registered one-hundredth of an inch 
each, or under one-tenth of an inch for the eight days. We had a 
dribbling rain about the 7th and 8th, a heavy shower on the 20th, 
rain which fell somewhat heavily on the 27th, a little lighter, but 
continuous on the 28th, which finished in very heavy rains on the 
29th, with these exceptions we had practicallj'- a dry month. Mr. 
Davey gives me the September rainfall in Kennal Vale at 2*88 inches, 
an inch heavier than at Truro. 

September, 1891, was a sad month to the farmer, but September 
this year was more favourable as regards rain, as the downpour was 
less by 1.13 inches. We saw the sun on 28 days. The month 
suffered from coldness. We did register on one day 70 degress in 
shade, but registrations of 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, and 82 degrees 



398 A year's weather. 

are not uncommon here during this month, and our average 
September heat in day runs 3 or 4 degrees warmer. We were 
colder by i degree at nights, so that on one or two nights frost was 
felt. On the evening of the 18th we had 2 degrees of frost in 
shade and 5 degrees in the open^ the range of temperature on that 
day being 38 degrees. 

The following are the comparative rainfalls : — 

40 years' mean. 1891. 1892. 

January 4-S5-ins 3-40-ins 2'27-ins. 

February ... 3'38-ins 0-22-ins 4.43-ins. 

March 2'91-ins 3-90-ins 1-07 -ins. 

April 2-61-ins 2 48-ins 1-36-ins. 

May 2-45-ins 2-26-ins r55-ins. 

June 2-39-ins 2-86-ins 1-83-ins. 

July 2-60-ins 1'62-ins l-76-ins. 

August 3-01 -ins 6 •48-ins 4-40-ins. 

September.. 3-49-ins 3 03-ins 1-90-ins. 

Total ... 27-69-ins 26-25-ins 20 57-ins. 

A glance shows how favourable we are as regards rain this 
year, our year's rain so far being slightly over five inches and five- 
eights less than last year during the same period. 

The cold weather has stopped the flight of butterflies, but 
their great number and variety this year will be long remembered 
by many observers. It will be recollected, too, as a year when the 
Clouded Yellow was plentiful, though not so numerous as in 1877, 
many correspondents have seen it so common as to be particularly 
attracted by it. The foliage of the trees, except the sycamore, and 
plane, is still holding on, and does not show any abnormal 
appearances. The ruddy glow of the hawthorn berries is one of 
the prettiest sights this autumn in our lanes, and later on when the 
leaves have gone they will be more noticed. We have many 
flowers still in the hedgerows. 

In September, 1792 — one hundred years ago — the price of 
wheat in Cornwall was 5s. 8d. per bushel. 

Weather: — 4th, people very busy at harvest work. 7th, 
cutting second crop of clover. loth, a strong gale of wind, 
attended with violent storms of rain and hail 3 corn considerably 
damaged. 12th, fall of rain, nearly one inch. 14th, swallows 
sporting on the wind in flocks. i8th, furze in autumnal bloom. 



A tear's "WEATHER. 399 

2oth, a loud and long clap of thunder about lo o'clock at night. 
2ist, two claps of thunder about half-past two p.m. 23rd, 
Rain-gauge quite full, 5^ inches deep. 26th, the sun of this day, 
which was brilliant, a welcome guest, and so great a stranger that 
every countenance seemed cheered by his friendly and benign 
aspect. 29th, the rain of yesterday, accompanied by close and 
sultry air, has contributed more to injure the grain than any of the 
preceding weather. Wall fruit has little flavour. Apples fall off 
and are insipid. The greatest part of the grain remains in the 
field. Summer fallows in sad plight. The leaves of the turnip 
turn yellow. Fall of rain 7-8 inches. Only four days during the 
month on which it did not rain. 

Surely we have need to rejoice in comparison to our ancestors 
of one hundred years ago with a September rainfall nearly six 
inches in excess of our experience for the same month this year. 

October 26th, 1892. 

OCTOBER. 

A glance down the weather sheet shews a repetition 
of cloud character of a somewhat ominous nature, for the word 
nimbus — rain cloud — occurs with much frequency, for three weeks 
out of the four we had constant records of this class of cloud, and 
rain fell on 22 days. The month came in very wet, "85 of an inch 
of rain, the second day being also wet, the two days giving one 
hundred and twenty tons of rain to the acre ; on the 6th and 7th, 
we had nearly one hundred tons, and between the 24th and 27th 
nearly two hundred tons of rain over a similar area. Our total 
downpour for the month was yjo inches, which is in excess of 
Mr. Davey's record for Kennal Vale (4*34) by i'^6 inches, about 
one inch and one third. 

Heavy as the rain seemed, it was only about two-thirds of the 
rainfall of October last year. We often have heavy October rainfalls 
of 6 or 7 inches, and in 1865 we had one with over 9 inches of rain. 
Our average rainfall for the month is 4"8o inches. 

In addition October was cold. We had frost on eleven nights 
under cover, and on some of these nights it registered on the 
exposed thermometers 7 degrees of frost. As a rule at such times 
there is apt to be great ranges of daily temperature, which do great 



400 A year's weather. 

damage to vegetation. On one day (30th), we had such a range, 
when the maximum and minimum thermometers in the same 
screen stood 26 degrees apart^ and on the 13th and 19th, 25 degrees. 

The mean temperature of the air for the month was 49*4 
degrees, and the average height of the barometer was 29*69 1 
inches. The range of the barometer during the month was i"o^ 
inches. Our warmest day in shade was the 6th, 61 degrees ; our 
coldest night in shade was the 19th, 27 degrees, the difference of 
34 degrees being the range of temperature for the month. The 
winds were for two-thirds of the month from north-east, and for 
one-fifth south-west. We had hail on the ist, 2nd, 15th, and 21st. 

There are two nature phenomena of interest at this season, 
the changing foliage and the falling leaves. As one looks down 
some winding coombe the tinted leaves seem the most striking of 
the two ; they touch more our love of the beautiful. How few of 
us feel any compassion for the plane or the sycamore which has 
shed in a single night nearly the whole of its foliage before a biting 
wind. The leaves have every appearance of being burned, and rustle 
before the wind on the hardened road, as if they were fresh from a 
fire. Yet the tree forsaw all this and prepared for it, the leaves could 
not have fallen otherwise in that great mass beneath the branches 
of the tree. When once we realize that, as a rule, every leaf is cut 
off by the parent, and that, too, very soon after the leaf has attained 
its full growth preparation is being made for its separation by the 
ingrowth of a thin layer of cork-like tissue at the base of the leaf 
stalk, the fall of the leaf becomes an intensely interesting study, 
surpassing, to many, even the study of the tinting of the autumn 
leaves. Of course, some trees, as the oak, beech, and others do 
not shake off their leaves so readily, and some, as the evergreens, 
are out of season, yet so many trees obey the common law that the 
bareness of winter is understood to apply to this phenomenon. 
Add to this, and it clearly belongs to it, the action of gravitation, 
and watch its effects on the falling leaf ; those effects give the 
flutter to the leaf. But this is a study beyond a weather letter, yet 
ever interesting to the observer. 

Below are the rainfalls for comparison : — 

40 years' mean. 1891. 1892, 

January 4"85.ins 3'40-ms 2*27-ins. 

February ... 3-3S-ins. ...... 0-22-ins 4-43-ina. 



A tear's weather. 401 

March 2-91 -ins 3-90-ms l-07-ins. 

April 2-61-ins 2-48-ins 1-36-iiis. 

May 2-45-ins. ... 2-26-iiis ]-55-ins. 

June 2-39-ins 2-86-ins 1 83-ins. 

July 2-60-ins r62-ins l'76-ins. 

August 3'01-ins 6'48-ins 4-40-ins. 

September.. 3 49-ins 3 03-ins l*90-ins. 

October .... 4-8l-ins 8'55-ins 5'70-ins. 



Total ... 32-50-ins 34-80-ins 26-27-ins. 

We are 8|- inches drier than last year for the same months, 
and 6^ inches below the average. 

Weather for October, i79^ — '^^^ hundred years ago: — I2th, 
gathered the orange pippin apple, whilst on the eastern aspect of 
the tree was a considerable quantity of bloom ; the fruit has very 
little flavour. 14th, severe lightning. 15th, thunder and lightning. 
24th, hoar frost and some little ice ; many potatoes yet remain in 
the ground, which have received no inconsiderable damage, numbers 
being quite rotted ; very little wheat yet sown 3 carrots of a large 
size in general, the following are the dimensions of a particular one 
on common ground: — Length, 19 inches 5 circumference, 16 
inches 5 weight, 4I- lbs. avoirdupois. Springs have never failed, 
but kept continually running ; the trees begin to be despoiled of 
their foliage j leaves of the hawthorn quite gone. Fall of rain this 
month, 5^ inches. 

November 22nd, 1892, 

NOVEMBER. 

Our average November rainfall for forty years is 4'37 
inches : the average of the last ten years, 4 '83 inches ; this 
month it has only reached 3-11, about 1^ inches less than usual. 
It is the driest November since 1884, and is one of the six driest 
Novembers for over forty years. During the same month in 
1852 it rained 10-51, and in 1888, 8-89 inches. 

The chief winds have been N.E. and S.W. Taking the 
cloud, and considering 10 to represent a sky entirely covered 
with cloud, and to shew a cloudless sky, the average cloudiness 
of the month was 5-6. 

It was a warm November ; certainly we had frost on four 
nights under cover, and on one of these nights an exposed 



402 A year's weather. 

tliormometer registered seven degrees of frost, yet tlie mean 
temperature was somewhat high. The thermometers read 60 
degrees on two or three days ir the shade ; so that taking 
the mean of the daily monthly heat and the nightly 
monthly cold the mean temperature for the month was 48-5 
degrees. The range of temperature was 14-7 degrees. The 
barometer stood its highest on the 28th, 30-50 and its 
lowest on the 6th, 29-50 inches, a monthly range of one inch. 
We had fog on the 10th and 24th. The rain fell on 19 days, 
the chief downpours being on the 4th, 18th, and 25th, when 1-84 
of the month's rainfall of 3-11 inches was registered. Mr. 
Davey gives me the rainfall at Ponsanooth as 4-17 inches, so 
that in Kennal Vale the month has been somewhat dry. 
The following are the comparative rainfalls : — 

40 years' mean. 1892. 1892. 

January 4-85-in8 3-40-iDS '2-27-ins. 

February ... 3-38-ins 0-22-ins 4-43-ins, 

March 2-91-ins 3-90-ins 107-ins. 

April 2-61-ms 2-48-ins 1-36-ins. 

May 2-45-ins 2-26-ins l-55-ins. 

June 2-39-ins 2-86-ins 1-83-ms. 

July 2'60-ins 1-62-ms 1-76-ins. 

Augast 3-01-ins 6-18-ins 4-40-ins. 

September.. 3-49-ins 3-03-ins 1-90-ins. 

October 4-81-ins 8-55-ins 5-70-ins. 

November... 4-37-ins 5-03-ins S'll-ins. 



Total ... 36-87-ins 39-53-ms 29-38-ins. 

We are over 10 inches drier for the eleven months of 
this year than for the same period of last year, and 7^ below 
the mean rainfall of forty years. 

Mr. Morris, of Truro, gave me a record of a Garden White 
butterfly late in November. It was a sign of the mild season. 
The appearance, often in noticeable numbers, of certain of our 
common butterflies in late autumn is worth a passing word. 
The geologist regards such a form of butterfly as a living type, 
speaking to him, like an erratic or an ice-scratched boulder, of 
the Ice Age, when nearly the whole of Europe lay under glacial 
ice. A Garden White butterfly hatched in autumn — not a 
hybernating summer specimen — differs in colour from what it 



A year's weathek. 403 

would do if born in spring. The effect of varying temperatures 
on clusters of eggs of butterflies may produce two distinct forms, 
one with the white wings blackened at the base, the other 
blackened at the tips ; one of these is the type form, the other 
a distinct variety. During the glacial period the short cold 
summers allowed of only single-brooded butterflies, but the 
increased heat and longer days have permitted in some cases 
of another brood — and in other cases of two more broods — 
arising from the same insects during the year, giving rise to the 
dimorphic and trimorphic insects of the biologist. 

Weather for November, 1792,— one hundred years ago: — 
3rd, primroses in bloom. 12th, flocks of fieldfares pasturing on 
the land; late crops of barley housed to-day. 15th, a violent 
storm of wind and hail. 16th, Seagulls in abundance inland. 
This month was gloomy ; colds under the fashionable term of 
influenza have prevailed very generally both the last and present 
month. Fall of rain, 1-20 inches. 

A hundred years ago November was even drier than our 
somewhat dry November this year. 

December 22nd, 1892. 

DECEMBER. 

The rain fell on 19 days, reaching a total of 2-52 inches, 
the driest December since 1885, when the fall of rain was 2*17 
inches. Our avei'age rain in the last month of the year is 4*65 
inches, so that we were more than two inches below our average, 
which is a mean of over 40 December rainfalls. Taking the 
same month during this long period, the wettest December was 
in 1876 with 10*59 inches, and the driest one in 1873 with 1*23 
inches of rain. 

The month was cold. Just after Christmas we had intensely 
severe weather, hoar frosts came day after day and the 
thermometers sank very low before them. Taking outside 
temperatures from the 26th to the 30th, we registered 18, 11, 
13, 23, and 28 degi-ees respectively; the registration of 11 
degrees on the 27th, marked the coldest night of the year, with 
21 degrees of frost; the second coldest was the next night with 



404 A yeae's weather. 

19 degrees of frost, and the third coldest nights were on January 
10th and 11th, (1892), with 17 degrees of frost. Many may 
remember those nights ; we had several days of frost and heavy 
hail, then snow fell heavily, covering the ground some five or 
six inches, the north winds blew over this carpet giving a 
chilliness, before which the exposed thermometers sank 15 
degress. The intensity of the December frosts may, perhaps, 
be better realized when we observe that their registration was 4 
degrees below the keenest of the January colds, even with the 
help of a covering of snow to blow over. 

Yet there were some delightful days in December, two were 
simply glorious, the rooks sported and tumbled in its brightness 
as if it were spring, and the bright sunshine and intense blue 
sky were most enjoyable. 

We had hoar frost on eight days, hail on four, and a flake 
or two of snow on one night. The winds were chiefly S.W. 
and N.E., the one bringing us rain, the other frost. The mean 
amount of cloud was 5-6, taking 10 as a maximum. The range 
of temperature of the thermometers in shade, 39 degrees. The 
mean temperature of month 43 7 degrees. Mean height of 
barometer 29-945 inches, being its highest on the 17th, 30'47, 
and lowest on the 5th, 29-45, or a range for the month of 1-02 
inches. 

The following are the summaries of rainfalls for comparison : 

Greatest Fall in 





40 years' 






24 


hours. 




mean. 


1891. 


1892. 





^ 




Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. Inches. 


Date 


January . . 


. 4-85 ... 


.. 3-40 ... 


... 2-27 


•74 


. .. 16 


February . 


. 3-38 ... 


.. 0-22 ... 


... 4-43 


-93 . 


.... 18 


March .... 


. 2-91 ... 


... 3-90 ... 


1-07 


-53 


.... 15 


April . . . 


. 2-61 


.. 2-48 ... 


.. 1-36 


•43 


.... 28 


May .... 


. 2-45 ... 


.. 2-26 ... 


1-55 


•54 . 


.... 26 


June 


. 2-39 ... 


.. 2-86 ... 


... 1-83 


-80 . 


.... 1 


July 


. 2-60 ... 


.. 1-62 ... 


.. 1-76 


•66 .. 


... 15 


August .... 


. 3-01 


6-48 


4-40 1 


•90 . 


... 27 


September. 


. 3-49 ... 


.. 3-03 ... 


... 1-90 


-63 .. 


.... 26 


October .. 


. 4-81 


.. 8-55 .. 


.. 5'70 


94 .. 


.... 26 


November . 


. 4-.37 ... 


.. 5-03 ... 


.. 311 


•76 .. 


.... 18 


December.. 


. 4-65 ... 


.. 5-22 ... 


.. 2-52 


•37 .. 


.... 1 



Total ... 4l-h% 45-05 31-90 



A YEAR S "WEATHER. 



405 



A glance shews how dry the weather has been, we are 1 3 
inches or a little over 1,300 tons of rain to the acre less than 
last year, and over 9^ less than our mean yearly rainfall. Mr. 
Opie, of St. Agnes, whose measurements of the rain are given 
below, says the rainfall of 1892 is 7-81 inches below an average 
of 25 years, in his district. The records from Kennal Vale, 
taken by Mr. P. H. Davey, of Ponsanooth, shew a decrease of 
nearly 13|^ inches on last year's fall. The deficiency of rainfall 
in the South- West district of England for 1892 amounts to 10-8 
inches, or more than 25 per cent, below the average of the 25 
years, 1866-90. 

The rainfalls of Kennal Vale and St. Agnes, taken by 
Messrs. Davey and Opie, I append: — 

Kennal Vale. St. Agnes. 





1891. 


1892. 


1891. 


1892. 




Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches 


January .... 


.. 3-23 


... 289 


.. 2-37 


.. 2-83 


February... 


.. -10 


... 511 


.. 14 . 


.. 3-95 


March .. . 


. 3-25 


.. 1-46 


.. 3-47 . 


.. -85 


April 


.. 2-35 


. 1-32 . 


.. 2-22 . 


.. 1-50 


May 


.. 3-37 


.. 1-72 


.. 2-15 . 


.. 200 


June 


.. 2-93 


.. 1-85 . 


.. 2-58 


. 1-66 


July 


.. 1-89 


... 2-57 


.. 195 


. 1-63 


August . . . , 


.. 7-34 


.. 5-53 . 


.. 604 . 


.. 4-17 


September . 


.. 3-22 


.. 2-83 . 


.. 3-95 . 


.. 3-27 


October .... 


. 10-26 


.. 4-34 


.. 8-41 . 


.. 4-78 


November . 


. 615 


.. 4-17 . 


.. 4-51 . 


. 3-85 


December . 


.. 6-70 


.. 3-29 . 


.. 4-74 . 


.. 2-58 



Total ... 50-79 ...3708 .. 42-53 ...33-07 
The wettest day of the year and the amount of rain which 
fell in the three districts may be interesting to many : — Truro, 
August 27th, 1-90; St. Agnes, August 27th, 1-43; and Kennal 
Vale, August 27th, 2-26 inches. 

Weather for December, 1792 — 100 years ago. 4th, storm 
in the evening. 5th, great quantities of seagulls inland ; three 
different rainbows in the space of one hour ; a hurricane from 
N.W. began soon after one, accompanied by rain, and continued 
for twelve hours ; during the storm the barometer sank over 
one inch. 8th, a fiery horizon, with stripes of black ; the sea 
roars in the evening. 12th, the wind still blowing a hurricane ; 



406 A year's weathek. 

this and several evenings since the 8th, with some intermission 
during daylight. 21st, a large circle, or as is vulgarly termed, 
wheel round the moon ; rain generally succeeds. 22nd, a violent 
storm of wind, accompanied with rain, began about three p.m., 
and continued almost the whole night ; fall of rain 6-6 inches. 

Rather a rough and wet December in 1792 ; as the rainfall 
for the year was 43'80 inches, they had a wet year, too, our 
ancestors of 100 years ago. 

January 18th, 1893. 



407 



©tituarg ^otitt. 



The name of our late Vice-President, Dr. Jago, has been so 
intimately associated with the history and progress of the Royal 
Institution of Cornwall during the last forty years or more, that 
it becomes naturally our duty to place on record in the Journal 
of the Institution, a few brief notes on his personal and scientific 
career. It has fallen to the lot of few scientific men to be able 
to give, for so long a period, so much active assistance in the 
management of a Society as he did, for it is well-known that Dr. 
Jago has never failed in taking a more than common interest in 
everything that had for its object the prosperity of our Institu- 
tion. Next to his venerated friend. Dr. Barham, perhaps, no one 
was more devoted than he in promoting its scientific and general 
welfare, whether at the Council table, the Annual Meetings, or at 
the more social summer excursions. He had filled with distinction 
the ofiices of Secretary and President, and at the time of his 
death he was our oldest Vice-President. The Institution has 
sustained a great loss by the removal of so old a supporter of its 
interests, while his many friends most deeply deplore that they 
have been deprived of a faithful colleague, although during tho 
last few years his physical weakness quite incapacitated him from 
attending the ordinary meetings. 

James Jago, B.A. (Cantab), and M.D. (Oxon), P.E.S., was 
the second son of Mr. John Jago, of Falmouth, who married 
Jane, daughter of Mr. John Smith, of Tregearn, St. Keverne. 
He was born on December 18, 1815, at the Barton of Kigilliack, 
Budock, once a seat of the Bishops of Exeter. This branch of 
the family formerly resided in the parish of St. Erme, where 
they were settled before the year 1588. In 1646, a Mr. John 
Jago, of Truthan, from whom Dr. Jago was lineally descended, 
petitioned the House of Lords respecting some land held by him 
under Col. Nicholas Burlace. In his petition he complains "that 
the said Nicholas Burlace had turned him out of certain lands 
which he held under him, and he prays that he may be permitted 



408 OBITUAB.Y NOTICE. 

to repurchase the land, etc., on which his ancestors lived for 300 
years." {Calendar of MS S., House of Lords). Dr. Jago always 
referred to this John Jago with a considerable family interest, as 
he was considered to have been of some note in his day as a 
strict Parliamentarian. He was appointed a Commissioner of 
Sequestration by Oliver Cromwell, and died at Truthan in 1652. 

When young Jago was in his eighth year, his father went 
to reside at Falmouth, which gave him many advantages. 
Though of such tender years, the youth was sent to the Falmouth 
classical and mathematical school, where he received his pre- 
paratory education. He remained a pupil in this school until 
about 1833, but as it was the intention of his father to send him 
to Cambridge, he had afterwards the advantage of receiving 
some advanced lessons in classics and mathematics from private 
tutors. Dr. Jago retained an interest in the Falmouth school to 
the end of his life. 

In 1835, Dr. Jago entered St. John's College, Cambridge, 
as a pensioner, from which he graduated B.A. in the mathe- 
matical tripos of 1839 as 32nd wrangler. Soon after he 
completed his course at Cambridge, he resolved to adopt the 
medical profession as his future occupation of life. For this 
purpose, and to obtain the necessary qualifications, he studied 
at various hospitals in London, Dublin, and Paris. But anxious 
to have a good medical degree, he resolved to go through a 
second special course of training in the University of Oxford, 
where he accordingly entered his name as a student, both in arts 
and medicine, on the books of Wadham College, from which he 
graduated B.A. and M.B. in 1843, and finally M.D. in 1859. 

During the early years of his professional career. Dr. Jago 
was a most voluminous writer on various medical subjects, the 
most important of which are undoubtedly those connected with 
certain special diseases of the eye. One of his first contributions 
on this subject is on " Points in the physiology and diseases of 
the eye," published in 1845. In this paper he develops certain 
entoptical methods of exploring the eye by means of divergent 
beams of light, which, in his opinion, is a theory which preceded 
all like solutions of the problem. In 1854, he communicated a 
paper to the Eoyal Society on "Ocular Spectres and structures 



OBITUARY NOTICE. 409 

as mutual exponents," which was followed by another on the 
same subject in 1856. In 1857, a paper "On the functions of 
the tympanum" was also read before the Royal Society. These 
three papers are published in the "Proceedings of the Royal 
Society." Among his other medical papers which are mostly 
inserted in medical journals and proceedings of kindred societies, 
the following will give a good example of the Author's 
investigations: — "The Eustachian Tube, why opened in deglu- 
tion", 1856; " Entacoustics," 1868; "The Eustachian Tube, 
when and how it is opened," 1869; "Pains in the abdominal 
and thoracic walls," 1861 ; " Ophthalmoscopic muscse volitantos 
in a very myopic eye," 1861 ; " Medicine as influenced by 
scientific tendencies," 1861; and "On Entoptics," 1859. So 
much interest was taken by physicians in Dr. Jago's paper on 
Entoptics, that he was encouraged to continue his investigations 
on this subject, which resulted in the publication of a separate 
treatise in 1864, entitled, "Entoptics, with its uses in physiology 
and medicine." While engaged on this important work, Dr. 
Jago exerted himself to produce a real treatise, in which, while 
giving his own views in some detail, he does not fail to make 
the reader acquainted with the views of other writers. The 
work is a masterly exposition of a difficult subject, especially as 
the Author has ventured on untrodden ground, while investigat- 
ing and suggesting explanations of phenomena relating to the 
subject, which had not hitherto been sufficiently accounted for. 
Dr. Jago evidently brought many original thoughts to bear on this 
difficult question. These attracted the notice of some of the 
leading scientific members of the profession, as tending to 
physiological conclusions which would probably lead to a correct 
solution. Among those who were specially interested in Dr. 
Jago's investigations, was Dr. William Sharpey, F.E.S., then 
one of the Secretaries of the Eoyal Society, through whose 
influence principally, Dr. Jago was elected on June 2nd, 1870, 
a Eellow of the Eoyal Society. One of his proposers was Sir 
Charles Lemon, Bart., whose signature appeared first on the 
original certificate of candidature, which had been suspended in 
the rooms of the Society a few years before his election. 

Dr. Jago was also an occasional contributor to the "Reports" 
and "Journal of the Eoyal Institution of Cornwall." Of these 



410 OBITUARY NOTICE. 

papers the titles of a few may be sufficient here : — "The 
opening of the Eustachian Tube, limited to the act of deglutition, 
now first rightly explained," 1853. This appears to be the 
original of a second paper on this subject alluded to above; 
" Observations of the Solar phenomena of April 5, 1871," 1872; 
" Nangitha Cross, with illustration," 1874; "Ancient Cross at 
Trelanvean, St. Keverne," 1881 ; and his Presidential Addresses 
delivered at the Annual Meetings of the Institution in 1873- 
1875. 

Besides enjoying a large private practice, Dr. Jago 
generously gave his services and experience to most of the 
local medical institutions. In 1852, he was elected Physician 
to the Truro Dispensary, and its consulting Physician in 1856 ; 
and Physician to the Poyal Cornwall Infirmary in 1856, and 
consulting Physician in 1885. Filling so prominent a position 
as Dr. Jago did in the management of the Royal Institution of 
Cornwall, it was only natural that he should be called upon to 
undertake the active duty of one of the Honorary Secretaries, 
and in due time afterwards that of President. To the latter 
important office, which has usually been held by a distinguished 
Cornishman, he was elected on November 18, 1873, for two 
years. His Presidential Addresses delivered to the members at 
the annual meetings, have all been marked by their devoted 
interest in notifying the general progress of the Institution, and 
even at the present time the information contained in them may 
be read with profit. As a Vice-President, Dr. Jago continued 
as long as he was able, to take his personal share of work, and 
his presence at the annual meetings was always looked upon as 
certain. Lately, however, owing to his feeble health, he was 
compelled to forego what to him was a great deprivation, but 
though absent from the meetings his interest in the proceedings 
never abated. It has been stated that our Institution was the 
only one in the city in which he, after his retirement from 
practice in 1885, retained an intimate interest. This was very 
evident to anyone who had had the pleasure of conversing with 
him during the later years of his life. In connection with this 
it is pleasing to note that though he was physically unable to 
attend the annual meetings, he made it a point, if possible, to 



OBITUARY NOTICE. 411 

leave his card while on hife accustomed afternoon drive. Even 
at the last annual meeting ia November, 1892, he sent a note to 
the Chairman apologising for his absence. 

Dr. .Tago was married on November 24, 1864, to Maria 
Jones, daughter of Mr. Richard Pearce, several times Mayor of 
Penzance, by whom he leaves two daughters. He enjoyed 
generally good health until 1885, when he was slightly attacked 
with paralysis. From that year his weakness yearly increased, 
though his intellect remained as clear as ever. If possible, he 
always endeavoured to have his afternoon airing in an open 
carriage, accompanied by Mrs. Jago, or his daughters. Even 
on the Friday preceding his death, he went for his usual drive,, 
but he had been ailing rather more than usual during the week. 
On Saturday he had a fresh though slight seizure, but he 
apparently soon again rallied. On Tuesday he became uncon- 
scious. On Wednesday, January 18, 1893, at 4.35 p.m. he 
passed away peacefully, aged seventy-seven. On the Saturday 
following his remains were laid to rest in the churchyard at 
Kenwyn. 

Edwin Dunkin, F.R S. 



HEN WOOD MEDAL. 



^Pn^e for Scientific Eiterature in (ttorntuaU. 




GOLD MEDAL intrinsically worth more than Ten 
Guineas, is offered for competition every three years 
by the Royal Institution of Cornwall, which 
has its head -quarters and Museum at Truro. 

The first Medal M'as awarded to the Rev. W. Iago, on ajth 
November, 1890. 

Members and Non-Members may alike compete for it. 

The written competition which is to win the Prize must relate 
to one or other of Eight given subjects. It may be illustrated if 
necessary, and must be forwarded to the Council of the Institution 
in time for publication in some number of the Society's Journal to 
be issued within the 3 years next following the last award. 

The terms of the Award are fully set forth in the Will of the 
donor, William Jory Henwood, F.R.S., the eminent miner- 
alogist and writer on Metallurgical deposits, who for two years was 
President of the Institution, and died in 1875 leaving certain 
bequests to its funds. The following is an abstract from his will :- 

"To the President, Vice-presidents, Treasurer, Secretaries, 

and Council of the Royal Institution of Cornwall and to their 
successors for the time being, I give the sum of [&c.], the interest 
thereon to accumulate to provide Dies, and in the third year next 
after the purchase of the said Dies, and in every successive third 
year, to purchase one Gold Medal of the value of Ten Guineas at 
the least to be struck from the said Dies. And I further direct 



l^ 



F CORNWALL. 



that the said Triennial Gold Medal shall be awarded to the person 
who shall, in the opinion of the said Officers and Council, for the 
time being, or of the majority of them present at a Meeting 
convened for the purpose, have contributed the best treatise or 
paper on the 

GEOLOGY, "I 

MINERALOGY, 

MINING OPERATIONS, | 

BOTANY, 

ORNITHOLOGY, 

ICHTHYOLOGY, 

CONCHOLOGY, or 

ANTIQUITIES, , 

(but on no other subject whatsoever) published in any Journal, 
Proceedings or Transactions of the said Institution during the three 
years next preceding the date of such award. 

And I further direct that no award shall be made except at a 
Meeting regularly convened by a notice in writing issued by the 
Secretaries, stating the object of such Meeting, and to be delivered 
to the President, Vice-Presidents, Treasurer, and other members of 
the Council, for the time being, and to every of them, at least 
seven days previous to the holding of such Meeting ; and unless 
seven at least of the Officers and Members of the Council shall 
be present at such Meeting." Provision is then made for a casting 
vote in cases of equality, and for further Meetings if any should 
prove abortive. 

Writers at a distance, who are interested in matters relating to 
Cornwall, should not overlook this opportunity, as any well- written 
paper on one of the subjects specified (if accepted for publication 
by the Council) may secure the Medal for its author. 



agd b$titttti0ti 4 Cornwall 



-^^-o^yo- 



LABEL LIST 



OF 



British Lepidoptera 



BY 



HENRY CROWTHER, F.R.M.S., 



Curator of the Truro Museum, 













4 1 i -^ ^ /'• 










EEFERENOE LIST OF LETTEES IN PLATE. 



a. Costal nervure. 

h. Sub-costal nervure. 

i\ W, ¥, ¥, ¥. Sub-costal nervules, 

c^, c^. Discoidal nervules. 

d. Median nervure. 

d}, d?', d^. Median nervules. 

e. Sub-median nervure. 
/. Internal nervure. 

^^ .9'^ 9^- Disco-cellular nervules. 

h. Interno-median nervule. 

k. Precostal nervure. 

o 

The letters correspond in each figure. 



INTRODUCTION. 



A few remarks are perhaps necessary, on some of the names 
appearing in this list, which have probably no greater right in it, than 
many, which, although appearing in the lists of Doubleday and 
others, have been omitted here. 

The names of some butterflies have been expunged from 
certain British lists because the types are said to be extinct, or the 
records of their occurrence extremely doubtful, yet these recording 
lepidopterists so disagree, that no two retain the same specific 
names throughout their descriptions, in consequence an unqualified 
list of British Lepidoptera cannot be drawn up. Under such 
circumstances it is better to retain the names of some doubtful 
species, rather than circumscribe the usefulness of the list by delet- 
ing every capture, which has not been re-verified. 

From some attention I have given to the distribution of shore 
insects, I have charity sufficient to believe, in the possibility of 
occasional European forms being found on the east and south coasts 
of Britain. One swallow does not make a summer, neither does 
an occasional captured butterfly make a new British insect, but as 
the records of such captures are highly prized by those who study 
animal distribution, they ought to be encouraged. We allow the 
ornithologist to interleave his Yarrell with doubtful records without 
demur, but somehow, the humbler lepidopterist gets but scant 
Justice, if he proclaims the discovery of a widely distributed 
European form in Britain. 

I have followed in the arrangement, Mr. W. F. Kirby's 
" European Butterflies and Moths," as the book is easily accessible, 
or already in the hands of many collectors, and contains descriptions 
of types near akin to our own, which the student probably buys 
in many cases as British. I see no harm in having a collection in 
which doubtful or extinct British species are replaced by Continental 
ones, if the replacement leads the student to wider reading and 
comparison. 



Introduction. 



The plate illustrating the characters of the wings has been 
drawn for me by my friend Mr. C. H. Collinge, of London, from 
the Swallow-tail butterfly, Papilio Machaon, L., which is the only 
English butterfly that posesses typical neuration. The drawing is 
twice the size of the original, so that the costal nervures and sub- 
costal nervules may be easier made out ; and of the under side of 
the wing, because on the upper aspect the precostal nervure {k) on 
the hind wing in not visible; and for identification, the under side is 
clearer. As every character has been verified under the microscope, 
I feel this addition to the label list will be valued by the student. 

I have to thank Mr. Charles G. Clark, F.E.S., of London, and 
Mr. S. L. Mosley, F.E.S., of Huddersfield, for their general criticisms 
on the doubtful types. From these, and personal and other observa- 
tions the few remarks below on the distribution, have been drawn 
up ; they are of necessity very brief, but I think essential to the list. 

Papilio Fodalirius, L. Not British, no certainty it ever was. 
Continental form, 

Parnassius Apollo, L. Probably introduced, no specimens taken 
in Great Britain. Alps and Pyrenees. 

Pieris Napi, var. Sabellicce, Steph. A variety with black nervures, 
and rare. Var. Napetz, Steph., a slightly larger form, no 
characteristic value. 

Pieris Papcs, L. Commonest English butterfly. Vars. Metra, Steph. 
and Mera, Steph. as variety names are worthless. Var. 
NovanglicB, Scudd., kindly shewn me at the Natural History 
Museum, South Kensington, by Mr. A. G. Butler, F.L.S., is 
the yellow variety, which, though somewhat rare in Europe, 
is very common in America. 

P. BrassiccB, var. Charidea, Steph. Is a small form, not separable 
from type. 

Aporia Cratctgi, L. Now believed to be extinct. 
Colias Hyale, L. In some years very rare. 

C. Edusa, Fabr. Common in 1877, rare since. Var. Helice, Hiibn. 
is a white form of the female. 



Introduction. 



Vanessa Antiopa, L. Periodically common; 1878 is the Antiopa 
year of lepidopterists. 

V. Cardui, L. Periodically common. Var. Elytni, Robson, not 
British. 

Melitcea Anrinia, Rott. Local, and becoming rare owing to habi- 
tats being destroyed by drainage. 

M. Athalia, Rsp. Locally abundant, confined to south of England 
and Ireland. 

Argynnis Aglaia, L. Becoming rather rare. 

A. Lathonia, L. Very rare and uncertain. 

A. Faphia, var. Valesina, Esp. Dark variety of female, now almost 
confined to New Forest, Hampshire. 

A. Niobe, L. By some lepidopterists thought to be a form of 
Adippe, probably not British, the Kentish captures were false, 
and those of the New Forest are doubtful. 

A. Dia, L. Not known as British, except on two doubtful records. 

Erebia Ligea, L. No authenticated British specimens exist. 

Melanargia Galanthea, L. The variations of forms so common, from 
suffusion of black, is melanism only. 

Satyrus yEgeria, L. The form found in the south of Europe. 

Epinephile Janira, L. The second commonest British butterfly. 

Folyommatus Semiargus, Rott. Local and almost extinct in 
England. 

F. Minima, Fuessly. The smallest English butterfly. 

F. Boeticus, L. One or two specimens have been collected, it is 
said, on the south coast, but no real claim to be considered 
British. 

Lycana Dispar, Haw. Extinct in Britain, since 1848 ; was a true 
British insect; the Continental form is L. Rutilus, Werneb., 
the Dark Under-winged Copper. 



Introduction. 



L. Virgaurece, L. Said to have existed in the Fens, but no locaUty 
known, nor any authenticated specimens. A specimen, it is 
said, was taken at Cromer a year or two ago. 

Thecla Friini, L. Local insect, probably confined to about five 
counties, Huntingdonshire, Suffolk, Hampshire, Monmouth- 
shire, and Derbyshire. 

Pamphila Lineola, Ochs. Eastern counties of England, local, until 
recently overlooked. 

The extensions, of the abbreviated names of the authorities used 
in the list, are given on page xviii. On the same page will be 
found the signs which the student may need to distinguish the 
male ( c^) and female ( $ ) forms. 

The rules between the lines are scissor guides for cutting up 
the list. 

This label Hst was drawn up for use in the Museum of the 
Royal Institution of Cornwall, and by request extra copies were 
struck off for the use of students. 



Class Insecta-Hexapoda. 



ORDER Lepidoptera [Scale-winged Insects]; 



BUTTERFLIES & MOTHS. 

Insects with suctorial mouth-parts, which form a spirally rolled 
proboscis, with four similar wings which are completely covered with 
scales. The prothorax is fused. Metamorphosis complete, i.e. these 
insects pass through three stages after leaving egg; (i) caterpillar or 
larva; (2) chrysaHs or pupa; (3) perfect butterfly or moth. They grow 
in stage i only, not in stages 2 and 3. 

TRIBE RHOPALOCERA \Club-horns or Butterflies~\ 

Lepidoptera of slender build, usually with brightly coloured wings 
and clubbed or knobbed antennae. All European butterflies fly in day- 
light, usually hold their wings upright and applied together when at rest. 
Caterpillars which may be naked or clothed with hairs or spines have 
sixteen feet, six of which are horny, the rest (claspers) fleshy. For the 
most part the caterpillars develop without cocoons into pups or 
chrysalides occasionally of a metallic lustre, which attach themselves to 
leaves, twigs, stones, &c. 

\l"he Habitat and Time of Appear ajice of each species are given after 
the specific name\. 



IV. 



FAMILY 1. Papilionid^. 

Both sexes with six perfect legs ; inner margin of the hind wings 
concave ; larvge long, cylindrical, not spiny ; pupae attached by the tail, 
and a belt of silk round the body. 

Genus 1. Papilio, Z. 

p. Podalirius, L. Scarce Swallow-tail. 

Open places near Woods, — June and July. 

P. Machaon, Z. Swallow-tail. 

Cambridge and Norfolk Fens, — May to July. 

Genus 2. Parnassius, Lair. 



p. Apollo, L. Crimson Ringed. 

Mountains, — June and July. 

FAMILY 2. PlERlD^. 

Characters in common with Papilionida, but the inner margin of 
the hind wings is not concave. 



Genus 1. Leucophasia, SfepA. 




L. Sinapis, L. Wood White. 

Woods, — May and August. 


^ 


L. Sinapis, var. Erysimi, Borkh. 


L. Sinapi-s, var. Diniensis, Bdv- ^^h 



Genus 2. Euchloe, Hubn, 

[Anthocharis of some Authors]. 


E. 


Cardamines, L. Orange Tip. 

Fields and Lanes, — May. 


Genus 3. Pieris, Schrk. 


p. 


Daplidice, L. Bath White. 

South coast, — -August. 


p. 


Napi, L. Green-veined White. 

Fields and Lanes, — May and August. 


p. 


Napi, var. Sabellicae, Steph. 


p. 


Napi, var. Napeae, Steph. 


p. 


Rapae, L. Small Cabbage White. 
Gardens, — May and August. 


p. 


Rapae, var. Metra, Steph. 


p. 


Rapae, var. Mora, Steph. 


p. 


Rapae, var. Novangliae, Scudd. 


p. 


Brassicae, L. Large Cabbage White. 
Gardens, — May and August. 


p. 


Brassicae, var. Chariclea, Steph. 



Genus 4. 


Aporia, 


Hubn. 


A. 


Crataegi, L. Black-veined White. 
Meadows, South of England, — June and July. 


Genus 5. 


Colias, 


Fabr. 


c. 


Hyale, 


L. Pale Clouded Yellow. 
Lucerne fields, — July. 


c. 


Hyale, 


van. Pallic 


a, RobsoYi. 


c. 


Edusa. Fahr. Clouded Yellow. 

Clover fields, South of England, — Aug. — Nov. 


c. 


Edusa 


var. Helice, Huhn. 


Genus 6. 


Gonept( 


sryx, Leach. 


G. 


Rhamni, L. 

Lanes and Woods,— 


Brimstone. 

-July and August. 



FAMILY 3. NYMPHALlDiE. 

Moderately large brightly coloured butterflies. Fore -legs of male 
{ $) quite rudimentary (apparently two jointed), female (?) separate 
portions are present, but small. Larvge spiny, or with fleshy warts 
covered with hair, or horns on the head. Pupae suspended by the tail. 

Genus 1. Vanessa, Fabr. 

V. Atalanta, L. Red Admiral. 

Waste places, — August to October. 



Vll. 



V. 


Antiopa, L. Camberwell Beauty. 

Willow beds, — Spring and Autumn. 


V. 


Antiopa, var. Hygiaea, Hdrch. 


V. 


lo, L. Peacock. 

Waste places, — August to October. 


V. 


Urticae, L. Small Tortoiseshell. 
Waste places, — April to October. 


V. 


Polychloros, L. Large Tortoiseshell. 
Open Woods, — Summer. 


V. 


C-album, L. Comma. 

Hop gardens, — Summer and Autumn. 


V. 


C-Album,var. Hutchinsoni, Rohson. 


V. 


Cardui, L. Painted Lady. 

Waste places, — August to June. 


V. 


Cardui, var. Elymi, Rohson. 



Genus 2. Melitaea, Fabr. 

These Fritillaries are not spotted nor streaked with silver. Larvae 
feed on plantain, &c. 

M. Aurinia, Rott. Greasy Fritillary. 

M. Artemis, Steph. 

Marshy Meadows, — May. 



M. Aurinia, var. Hibernica, Birch. 
M. Aurinia, var Scotia, White. 

M. Cinxia, L. Glanville Fritillary. 

Sea Cliffs, Isle of Wight, — May and June. 

M. Athalia, Esp. Heath Fritillary. 

Heaths, — Midsummer. 

M, Atiialia, var. Eos, Steph- 



Genus 3. Argynnis, Fabr. 

The under-side of the hind wings of these Fritillaries is always 
spotted or streaked with silvery white. Larvae feed chiefly on violets. 

A. Selene, Schiff. Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary. 
Woods, — June. 

A. Euphrosyne, L. Pearl-bordered Fritillary. 
Woods, — May and June. 

A. Adippe, L. High-brown Fritillary. 

Woods, — July. 



A. Adippe \/ar. Cleodoxa, Ochs. 

A. Aglaia, L. Dark-green Fritillary. 

Downs and Wastes near Sea, Mountain Heaths, — July. 



IX. 



A. Aglaia, van. Charlotta, Sowhy. 



A. Lathonia, L. Queenof Spain Fritillary. 

South coast, — September. 

A. Paphia, L. Silver-washed Fritillary. 

Woods, — July. 



A. Paphia, var. Valesina, Esp. 



A. Niobe, L. Niobe. 

New Forest, — June and July. 



A. Dia, L. Weaver's Fritillary. 

Woods, — Spring and Autumn. 

Genus 4. Limenitis, Fabr. 

L. Sibylla, L. White Admiral. 

Woods, South of England, — July. 



Genus B. Apatura, Fabr. 



u Iris, L. Purple Emperor. 

Oak woods, — July. 



^ 



A. Iris, var. lole, Schiff. 



FAMILY 4. Satyrid^. 

Large or small, dull coloured, butterflies. Front pair of legs 
rudimentary. Wings rounded, hind margins either entire or scalloped, 
and nearly always with ocellated spots. Larvae clothed with fine, short 
hair, tail ends in a fork, head is round. Pupae suspended by tail, or 
formed in, or on, the ground. 

Genus 1. Hipparchia, Fabr. 

[Satyrus of some Authors]. 
H. Semele, L. Grayling. 

Rocky and Sandy places, — July and August. 

Genus 2. ^i€m.,Bdv. 



E. Epiphron, KnorJi. Small Ringlet. 

Mountains in the North,— June and July. 

E. Epiphron, var. Cassiope, Fahr. 

E. >Ethiops, Esp. Scotch Argus. 

E. Medea, Hubn\ E. Blandina, Fabi'-. 
Mountain Flats, — July and August. 

E. Ligea, L. Arran Brown. 

Mountain Districts, — June and July. 

Genus 3. Melanargia, Meig. 

[Arge of some Authors]. 
M. Galathea, L. Marbled White. 

Open Woods, — July. 



Genus 4. Satyrus, Latr. 

[Pararge of some Authors]. 
S. Megaera, L. Wall Brown, 

Lanes, — May and August. 

S. /tgeria, L. Speckled Wood. 

Woods, — May, 

S. yCgeria, var. Egerides, Staud- 

Genus 5. Epinephile, Hitbn. 

[Satyrus of some Authors]. 
E. Hyperanthus, L. Ringlet. 

Woods and Lanes, — July. 



E. Hyperanthus, var. Arete, Mull. 
E. J an Ira, L. Meadow Brown. 

Pastures, — Summer. 



E. Janira, var, Hispulla, Esj). 



E. Tithonus, L. Large Heath. 

Lanes, — July. 



X.U. 



Genus 6. Coenonympha, Hubn. 

[Satyrus and Chortobius of some Authors]. 
C. Pamphilus, L. Small Heath. 

Dry Heaths, — May to October. 

C. Pamphilus, van. Lyilus, Esp. 

C. Typhon, Haw. Marsh Ringlet. 

C. Davus, Fabr. 

Damp Heaths, — June and July. 

C. Typhon, var. Rothliebi, Stand. 

FAMILY 5. Erycinid^. 

Only one species in Europe, moderately large, and brown in color, 
Male ( (^ ) front legs rudimentary; female (?) legs perfect. Palpi of 
moderate length. Antennse long. Hind wings slightly grooved, sub- 
costal nervure with four branches. Larvae wood-louse shape. Pupae 
attached by tail, and girth around body. 

Genus 1. Nemeobius, Steph. 

N. Lucina, L. Duke of Burgundy. 

Damp Woods, — June. 

FAMILY 6. Lyc^nid^. 

Small blue, copper-red, and brown butterflies. Club of antennae 
rather long. Palpi hairy, last joint naked. Front legs perfect in female 
( $ ). Larvae wood-louse shape, clothed with fine short hairs, head 
small and retractile. Pupse attached like Erycinidce. 



Genus 1. Polyommatus, Latr. 

[Lycaena of some Authors]. 

In Polyommati or Blues the antennae are slender. Upper side of 
wings of male {$) blue, seldom brown; of female ( $ ) brown, dusted 
with blue. Palpi long. Eyes sometimes hairy, sometimes naked. 
Larvae feed on leguminous plants. 

P. Arion, L. Large Blue. 

Cotswolds, &c., — June and July. 

P. Semiargus, Rott. Mazarine Blue. 

P. Acis, Fabr. 

South Wales, — June and July. 

P. Minima, Fuessly. Bedford Blue. 

P. Alsus, M^.V. 

Waste places, — June. 

P. Argiolus, L. Azure Blue. 

Holly hedges, — May and August. 

P. Corydon, Poda- Chalk-hill Blue. 

Chalk Downs, — May to July. 

P. Bellargus, Rott. Clifden Blue. 

P. Adonis, Hiibn. 

Chalk Downs, — May. 



XIV. 



p. Icarus, Rott. Common Blue. 

P. Alexis, W.V. 

Waste places, — Summer. 

P. Icarus, var. Icarinus, Scriha. 
P. Icarus, var. Thersitis, Bdv. 

P. Astrarche, Bergstr. Brown Argus. 

P. Medon, Esp. P. Agestis, Hubn. 

Waste places, — May and August. 

P. Astrarche, var. Artaxerxes, Fabr. 
P. Astrarche, var. Salmacis, Steph. 
P. Astrarche, var. Allous, Hubn. 

P. >Cgon, W.V. Silver-studded Blue. 

Heathy places, — July. 

P. Boeticus, L. Pea-pod Argus. 

Channel Islands, — September and October. 

Genus 2. Lycaena, Fabr. 

[Chrysophanus & Polyommatus of some Authors]. 

In the Lyccence. or Coppers, the antennae are long. Upper side 
of wings of male {$) copper red; of female (?) copper to brown. 
Palpi long. Eyes naked. Larvae feed on dock and sorrel. 



XV. 



L. Ch r y se'is, Ochs. Purple-edged Copper. 
L. Eurydice, /?^//. L. Hippothoe, Z. 

L. Dispar, Haw. Large Copper. 

Fens, Cambridge, — June to August. 

L. Virgaureae, L. Scarce Copper. 

No known locality. 

L. PhlaeaSj L. Common Copper. 

Waste places, — April to September. 

Genus 3. Zephyrus, Dalm. 

[Thecla of some Authors]. 

Differ from Theclce in the gradually formed club. In fore-wings 
having eleven nervures, sub-costal nervure emitting two branches before 
the extremity of the discoidal cell, and a third beyond, which is bifur- 
cated. 

Z. Betulae, L. Brown Hairstreak. 

Blackthorn Woods, — July to October. 

Z. Quercus, L. Purple Hairstreak. 

Oak Woods, — July to August. 

Genus 4. Thecla, Fabr, 

Differ from Zephyri in suddenly formed club on antennae. In 
fore-wings having ten nervures ; sub-costal nervure emitting three 
unforked branches before extremity of discoidal cell, and none after- 
wards. 



XVI. 



T. Rubi, -L. Green Hairstreak. 

About Brambles, — May and June. 

T. Pruni, L. Dark Hairstreak. 

Monk's Wood, — June and July. 

T. W-album, Knock. White Letter Hairstreak. 
Elm Woods, — July. 

FAMILY 7. HESPERIID.E. 

Small thick-bodied butterflies, with short wings and jerky flight. 
Antennae inserted widely apart and often hooked at the tips. Legs 
perfect in both sexes ; hind tibiae with four spurs. Larvae with promi- 
nent head, body tapering at both ends and clothed with fine thin hair, 
live usually between leaves spun together^ and undergo changes there in 
a slight cocoon. 

Genus 1. Hesperia, Fabr. 

[Syrichthus of some Authors]. 

H. Malvae, L. Grizzled Skipper. 

H. Alveolus, HUbn. 

Damp Woods, — May. 

H. Malvae, var. Taras, Bergstr, 




xvu. 



Genus 2. Nisoniades, Hubn. 

[Thanaos of some Authors]. 
N. Tages, L. Dingy Skipper. 

Waste places, — May. 

Genus S. Cyclopides, Hubn, 

[Steropes & Hesperia of some Authors], 

C. Palaemon, Fall. Chequered Skipper. 

C. Paniscus, Fabr. 

Grassy openings in Woods, — May and June. 

Genus 4. Pamphila, Fabr. 

[Hesperia of some Authors]. 



P. Comma, L. Silver-spotted Skipper. 

Rough fields, vSouth of England, — July — August, 



P. Sylvanus, Esp Large Skipper. 

Open Woods, — May and August. 



P. Actaeon, Esj). Lulworth Skipper. 

Dorset coast, — July and August. 

P. Thau mas, Hufn. Small Skipper. 

P, Linea, W.V. 

Waste places, — July. 

P. Llneola, Ochs. Narrow-lined Skipper. 
Meadows and Cornfields, — July and August. 



Extension of Abbreviated Names of Authorities. 



Bdv. (Boisduval). 

Bergstr. (Bergstraesser). 

Birch. 

Borkh. (Borkhausen). 

Dalm. (Dalman). 

Esp. (Esper). 

Fabr. (Fabricius). 

Fuessly. 

Haw. (Haworth). 

Hdrch. (Heydenreich). 

Hiibn. (Hiibner). 

Hufn. (Hufnagel). 

Knoch. 

L. (Liiine). 

Latr. (Latreille). 

Leach. 



Meig. (Meigen). 

Miill. (MiiUer). 

Ochs. (Ochsenheimer). 

Pall. (Pallas). 

Poda. 

Robson. 

Rott. (Rottenburg). 

Schifif. 

Schrk. (Schranck). 

Scriba. 

Scudd. (Scudder). 

Sowby. (Sowerby). 

Staud. (Staudinger), 

Steph. (Stephens). 

W. V. (Wiener Verzeichniss). 

White. 



Characters to Distinguish Male and Female Forms. 



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