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Full text of "Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society"

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Journal 



OF THE 



Royal 
Microscopical Society 

CONTAINING ITS TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS, 

AND A SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

(principally Invertebrata and. Cryptogamia), 



Edited by 

FRANK CRISP, LL.B., B.A., 

One of the Secretaries of the Society 
and a Vice-President and Treasurer of the Linnean Society of London ; 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF THE PUBLICATION COMMITTEE AND 

A. W. BENNETT, M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S., F. JEFFREY BELL, M.A., F.Z.S. 

Lecturer on Botany at St. Thomas's Hospital, Professor of Comparative Anatomy in King's College. 

JOHN MAYALL, Jun., F.Z.S., R. G. HEBB, M.A., M.D. (^Cantab.) 

AND 

J. ARTHUR THOMSON, M.A., 

Lecturer on Zoology in the School of Medicine, Edinburgh, 
FELLOWS OF THE SOCIETY. , 



FOR THE YEAR 
1889. 

Part 1. 




PUBLISHED FOR THE SOCIETY BY 

WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 

LONDON AND EDINBURGH. 



.093 5'/ 
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NEW YORK 

THE '^TANfCAL 



(Established in 1839. Incorporated by Eoyal Oliarter in 1866.) 



The Society was established for tlie promotion of Microscopical and 
Biological Science by the communication, discussion and publication of observa- 
tions and dii^coveries relating to (1) improvements in the construction and 
mode of application of the Microscope, or (2) Biological or other subjects of 
Microscopical Eesearch. 

It consists of Ordinary, Honorary, and Ex-officio Fellows, without distinction 
of sex. 

Ordinary Fellows are elected on a Certificate of Eecommendation, 
signed by three Ordinary Fellows, setting forth the names, residence, and 
description of the Candidate, of ivhom the first proposer must have personal 
knowledge. The Certificate is read at two General Meetings, and the Candidate 
balloted for at the second Meeting. 

The Admission Fee is £2 2s., and the Annual Subscription £2 2s., payable 
on election, and subsequently in advance on 1st January annually, but 
future payments may be compounded for at any time for £31 10s. Fe^ows 
elected at a meeting subsequent to that in February are only called upon for a 
proportionate part of the first year's subscription, and Fellows permanently- 
residing abroad, are exempt from one-fourth of the annual subscription. 

Honorary Fellows (limited to 50), consisting of persons eminent in 
Microscopical or Biological Science, are elected on the recommendation of five 
Ordinary Fellows and the approval of the Council. 

Ex-officio Fellows (limited to 100) consisting of the Presidents for the 
time being of any Societies having objects in whole or in part similar to those of 
the Society, are elected on the recommendation of ten Ordinary Fellows, aud the 
approval of the Council. 

The Council, in whom the management of the property and affairs of 
the Society is vested, is elected annually, and is composed of the President, 
four Vice-Presidents, Treasurer, two Secretaries, and twelve other Ordinary 
Fellows. 

The' Meetings are held on the second Wednesday in each month from 
October to June, in the Society's Library at King's College, Strand, W.C. (com- 
mencing at 8 P.M.). Visitors are admitted by the introduction of Fellows. 

In each Session two additional evenings are devoted to the exhibition of 
Instruments, Apparatus, and Objects of novelty or interest relating to the 
Microscope or the subjects of Microscopical Eesearch. 

The Journal, containing the Transactions and Proceedings of the 
Society, and a Summary of Current Eesearches relating to Zoology and Botany 
(principally Invertebrata and Cryptogamia), Microscopy, &c., is published 
bi-monthly, and is forwarded post-free to all Ordinary and Ex-oflScio Fellows 
residing in countries within the Postal Union. 

The Library, with the Instruments, Apparatus, and Cabinet of Objects, 
is open for the use of Fellows daily (except Saturdays) from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., 
and on Wednesdays from 6 to 9 p.m. also. It is closed for four weeks durmg 
August and September. 

Forms of proposal for Fellowship, and aiiy further information, may be obtained by 
application to the Secretaries, or Assistant- Secretary, at the Library of the Society, King's 
College, Strand, W.C. 

a 2 



HIS EOYAL HIGHNESS 

ALBEET EDWAKD, PRINCE OF WALES, 

E.G., G.C.B., F.E.S., &c. 



Elected. 

5iE RicHAED Owen, K.C.B., D.C.L., M.D., LL.D., F.E.S. 1840-1 

^JoHN LiNDLET, Ph.D., F.R.S 1842-3 

*Thomas Bell, F.E.S 1844-5 

*Jambs Scott Boweebank, LL.D,, F.R.S 1846-7 

*Gkoege Busk, F.E.S 1848-9 

*Aethue Faeee, M.D., F.E.S 1850-1 

*Geoege Jackson, M.R.C.S 1852-3 

*WiLLiAM Benjamin Caepentee, C.B., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. . 1854-5 

Geoegb Shadbolt 1856-7 

*Edwin Lankestee, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S 1858-9 

*JoHN Thomas Quekett, F.R.S 1860 

*RoBEET James Faeeants, F.R.C.S 1861-2 

*Chaeles Beooke, M.A., F.R.S 1863-4 

James Glaishee, F.R.S 1865-6-7-8 

*Rev. Joseph Banceoft Reade, M.A., F.R.S 1869-70 

William Kitchen Paekee, F.E.S 1871-2 

*Chaeles Beooke, M.A., F.E.S 1873-4 

Henry Clifton Soebt, LL.D., F.E.S 1875-6-7 

Henet James Slack, F.G.S 1878 

Lionel S. Beale, M.B., F.E.C.P., F.R.S 1879-80 

P. Maktin Duncan, M.B., F.R.S 1881-2-3 

Rev. W. H. Dallingee, LL.D., F.R.S 1884-5-6-7 

* Deceased. 



COUNCIIj. 

Elected 13th February, 1889. 



Charles T, Hudson, Esq., M.A., LL.D. (Cantab,). 

^rcc-|lresvbents. 

Eev. W. H. Dallinger, LL.D., F.E.S. 
James Glaisher, Esq., F.E.S., F.R.A.S. 
Prof. Urban Pritchard, M.D. 
*Prof. Charles Stewart, M.R.C.S., F.L.S. 

Lionel S. Beale, Esq., M.B., F.E.C.P., F.E.S. 

^m'tiuxm, 

*Frank Crisp, Esq., LL.B., B.A., V.P. & Treas. L.S. 
Prof. F. Jeffrey Bell, M.A., F.Z.S. 

#rbmarg gt^mbers oi €axxntxL 

Alfred W. Bennett, Esq., M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S. 
*EoBERT Braithwaite, Esq., M.D., M.E.C.S., F.L.S. 

Eev. Edmund Carr, M.A. 

Prof. Edgar M. Crookshank, M.B. 
*Prof. J. William Groves, F.L.S. 
*Georgb C. Karop, Esq., M.E.C.S, 

John Mayall, Esq., Jun., F.Z.S. 

Albert D. Michael, Esq., F.L.S. 

Thomas H. Powell, Esq. 

William Thomas Suffolk, Esq. 

Charles Tyler, Esq., F.L.S. 

Frederic H. Ward, Esq., M.E.C.S. 

^ibranait aittr Jtssbtant ScaetEi'j), 

Mr. James West. 



* Members of the Publication Committee. 



It is witli the greatest regret that I find myself obliged to re- 
linquish the Editorship of this Journal, after having been associated 
with it for more than eleven years. 

My interest in the Journal and the subjects which it was 
founded to promote, remains as great as it was in 1878, but other 
duties have now absorbed the hours of the night which were formerly 
reserved for the Journal, and have left me no time for even a limited 
amount of supervision. 

Whilst I shall no longer have any official connection with the 

Journal, I shall still, I hope, be able to watch over its interests, and 

I have every confidence that under the care of my former colleagues 

in the Editorship it will maintain the reputation it has obtained, 

and will continue to be recognized as an indispensable guide to the 

ever-increasing mass of periodical literature relating to Biology and 

Microscopy. 

Frank Crisp, 
December 1889. 



CONTENTS. 

Transactions of the Society — 

PAGE 

I. — Observations on the Special Internal Anatomy of Uropoda 
Krameri. By Albert D. Michael, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.E.M.S., 

(Plate I.) Part 1 1 

II. — List of Desmids from Massachusetts, U.S.A. By Wm. West, 
F.L.S., Lecturer on Botany and Materia Medica at tlie 
Bradford Technical College. (Plates IL and III.) .... „ 16 

III. — Reproduction and Multiplication of Diatoms. By the Abbe 

Count F. Oastracane, Hon. F.R.M.S „ 22 

IV.~The President's Address, By C. T. Hudson, M.A., LL.D. 

(Cantab.), F.E.S Part 2 162 

V. — Description of a New Dipterous Insect, Psamathiomya 

pectinata. By Julien Deby, F.R.M.S. (Plate IV.) .... „ 180 
VI. — A Revision of the Trichiacese. By George Massee., F.R.M.S. 

(Plates v., VI., VIL, and VIIL) Part 3 325 

VII. — Notices of New Peritrichous Infusoria from the Fresh Waters 

of the United States. By Dr. Alfred C. Stokes. (Plate X.) Part 4 477 
VIII. — Additional Note on the Foraminifera of the London Clay 
exposed in the Drainage Works, Piccadilly, London, in 1885. 
By C. Davies Sherborn, F.G.S., and Frederick Chapman. 

(Plate XL) „ 483 

IX. — Description of a New Species of Megalotrocha. By Surgeon 

V. Gunson Thorpe, R.N., F.R.M.S. (Plate XII.) .. .. Part 5 613 
X. — Note on Polarizing Apparatus for the Microscope. By 

Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, D.Sc. (Figs. 71-73) .. .. „ 617 
XL — On the Effect of Illumination by means of Wide-angled Cones 

of Light. By Prof. E. Abbe, Hon. F.R.M.S. (Fig. 96) .. Part 6 721 

Summary of Oubkent Researches relating to Zoology and Botany (princi- 
pally Invertebrata and Cryptogamia), Microscopy, &c., including Original 
Communications from Fellows and Others.* 13, 186, 386, 546, 705, 923. 

ZOOLOGY. 

A. — Vebtebrata : — Embryology, Histology, and General. 
a. Embryology. 

PAGE 

Quincke, G. — Movements of Protoplasm . . , . , . . . Part 1 28 

Masius, J. — Placenta of RahUt .. , „ 28 

GiACOMiNi, 0. — Neurenteric Canal in the Rahhit ,, 29 

Eimer, G. H. T. — Markings of Mammals ,, ,30 

Lucas, A. H. S. — Colour of Birds' Eggs „ 30 

Schultze, O. — Development of Germinal Layers and Notochord in Rana 

fusca ,, 30 

Reinhard, W. — Development of Germinal Layers, Notochord, and Mid-gut 

in Cyprinoids „ 31 



* In order to make the classification complete, (1) the papers printed in the 
' Transactions,' (2) the abstracts of the ' Bibliography,' and (3) the notes printed in 
the ' Proceedings ' are included here. 



X CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Emm, G. n. T.— Origin of SiKcies Parti 31 

GuLICK, J. T. — Divergent Evolution through Cumulative Segregation .. „ 33 

NusSBAUM, W.— Heredity » 34 

Amans, p. 0. — Organs of Aquatic Locomotion „ 35 

Sutton, J. Bland — Evolution of the Central Nervous System of Verte- 

hrata Part 2 187 

Oek, H. — Development of Central Nervous System of Amphibians ,. .. „ 188 

Nansen, F. — Protandric Hermaphroditism of My xine „ 188 

BoHM, A. A. — Maturation and Fertilization of Ovum in the Lamprey ,. „ 189 

Nelson, E. M. — Observations on Human Spermatozoa „ 190 

ScHULZE, F. E. — Epithelial Glands in Batrachian Larvse „ 190 

Packard, A. S. — Factors in the Evolution of Cave Animals „ 191 

Gaskell, W. H. — Origin of Nervous System of Vertebrates Part 3 360 

Ebnee, V. V. — Protovertebrm and the Segmentation of the Vertebral Column „ 362 

Phisalix, C — Study of a Human Embryo „ 362 

Hennegoy, F. — Development of Bony Fishes „ 363 

Lankesteb, E. Eay — Structure of Amphioxus lanceolatus „ 363 

Veeson, E. — Spermatogenesis „ 364 

BiONDi, D. — Spermatogenesis in Man , , , . . . „ 365 

Platner, G. — Import of Polar Globules „ 365 

Born, G. — Segmentation in Double Organisms „ 366 

MiNOT, C. S. — Uterus and Embryo Part 4 489 

Tafani, a. — Fecundation and Segmentation of Ova of Rats , 490 

Cunningham, J. T. — Eeproduction and Development of Teleostean Fishes „ 491 

Wallace, A. E. — Darwinism Part 5 619 

Thomson, J. A. — Heredity „ 619 

Curtis, F. — Development of Nail in Human Fcetus „ 620 

Masitjs, J. — Formation of Placenta of Babbit „ 621 

Beddard, F. E. — Structure of Graafian Follicle in Didelphys „ 622 

Beard, J. — Early Development of Lepidosteus osseus .. .. „ 622 

NiESSiNG, G. — Spermatogenesis in Mammals „ 623 

ScHWAEZ, E. — Embryonic Cell-division „ 624 

M'Oluee, C. F. W. — Primitive Segmentation of Vertebrate Brain .. . . Part 6 725 

ZiEGLER, H. E. — Origin of Blood of Vertebrates 725 

Waldeyer, W. — Placenta of Inuus nemestrinus „ 726 

Turner, SiE William — Placentation of the Dugong „ 726 

Heinricius, G. — Development of Placenta in Dog „ 726 

Shore, T. W., & J. W. Pickering — Pro-amnion and Amnion in the 

Chick „ 726 

Morgan, T. H., & E. C. Applegaeth — Fate of Amphibian Blastopore „ 727 

Massaet, J. — Penetration of Spermatozoa into Ova of Frog ,, 727 

Geandis, V. — Spermatogenesis during Inanition „ 728 

|8. Histology. 

Kollet, a.— Structure of Muscle Parti 35 

Ballowitz, E. — Structure of Spermatozoa „ 36 

LuKJANOW, S. M. — Club-shaped Nucleoli „ 36 

EoHDE, E. — Nervous System of Amphioxus „ 36 

ToEOK, L. — Division of Red Blood-corpuscles in Amphibia Part 2 191 

Platner, G. — Structure of the Cell and Phenomena of its Division . . . . Part 3 366 

Deogoul — Process of Ossification ,, 367 

Feommann, C. — Vital Processes in Living Cells Part 4 492 

MoEPUEGO, B. — New Formation of Cells 493 

Tangl, F. — Relation between Cell-body and Nucleus 493 



CONTENTS. XI 

I'AGK 

Falzacappa, E. — Nerve-cells in Birds Part 4 494 

Gage, S. H. — Form and size of Bed Blood-corpuscles of Adult and Larval 

Lampreys „ 494 

Leydig, F. — Structure of Nerve-fibres Part 5 624 

Fdsaei, E. — 'Peripheral Nervous System of Amphioxus „ 625 

Platnee, G. — Bole of the Accessory Nuclear Body in Secretion „ 625 

Baebacci, O. — Phenomena of Lndirect Nuclear Fission in Investing 

Epithelia Parte 728 

Demaebaix, H. — Division and Degeneration of Giant-cells of Medulla of 

Bone , 729 

Haswell, W. a. — Comparative Study of Striated Muscle „ 729 

Felix, W. — Growth of Transversely Striated Muscle .. .. „ 730 

Van dee Steicht, O. — Fundamental Structure of Osseous Tissue .. .. ,, 731 

BtJTSCHLij O. — Structure of Brotoplasm „ 731 

J. General. 

Hartog, M. M. — Adelp)hotaxy Part 2 192 

„ „ Functions and Homologies of Contractile Vacuole in Plants 

and Animals „ 192 

Beard, J. — Annelidan Affinities in Ontogeny of Vertebrate Nervous System „ 192 

M-'Kb^duick, J. Q.— The Modern Cell- Theory „ 193 

Gtjerne, J. DB, & J. EiCHARD — Fresh-water Fauna of Greenland .. ., Part 3 367 

Stuhlmann, F. — Fresh-water Fauna of East Africa Part 4 494 

AiTCHisoN, J. E. T. — Zoology of Afghan Delimitation Commission ., .. Part 5 626 
Clarke, J. — Protoplasmic Movements and their Belation to Oxygen 

Pressure Part 6 732 

LoEB, J. — Orientation of Animals towards Light „ 732 

„ „ Orientation of Animals towards Gravity „ 732 

B. — Inveetebeata. 

McCoy, F. M., & P. H. M'Gillivray— ^oo%y o/ Victoria Parti 35 

KOLLIKEE, A. — Transversely Striated Muscular Fibre Part 2 193 

Weismann, a. — Number of Polar Bodies „ 193 

Haddon, a. 0. — Irish Marine Fauna „ 194 

Heilpein, a. — Marine Invertebrates of Bermuda Islands „ 194 

M'Goy's (¥.) Zoology of Victoria „ 194 

KowALEVSKY, A. — Excretory Organs Part 3 368 

Ctjenot, L. — Lymphatic Glands of Cephalopods and Decapodous Crustacea Part 4 495 

M'CoY — Zoology of Victoria Part 6 732 

Stdhlmann, a. F. — Fresh-water Fauna of East Africa „ 733 

MoUusca. 

Pelsbneee, p. — Anatomy of Deep-sea MoUusca Part 3 369 

Tenison-Woods, J. E. — Anatomy and Life-history of Australian MoUusca Part 5 626 

CareieIrb, J. — Eyes of MoUusca „ 626 

LocARD, A. — French Malacology Part 6 733 

Pelseneer, P. — Innervation of Osphradium of MoUusca ,, 733 

o. Cephalopoda. 

Dewitz, H. — Structure of Silurian Cephalopods Part 3 369 

ViALLETON, L. — Development of Sepia „ 37O 

Brooks, H. — Structure of Siphon and Funnel of Nautilus Pompilius .. . . Part 4 495 

Brock, J. — So-called Organ of Verrill in Cephalopoda.. ., „ 496 

Watase, S. — New Phenomenon of Cleavage in Ovum of Cephalopods . . . . Part 6 734 



Xll CONTENTS. 

B. Pteropoda. 

PAGE 

Grobben, C. — Morphology of Pteropods Part 2 194 

Pelseneeh, p. — Morphology of Spinous Sacs of Gymnosomatous Pteropoda Part 4 496 

Peck, J. I. — Anatomy and Histology of Cymhuliopsis calceola Part 6 734 

Pelseneeb, p. — Systematic Position of Desmopterus papilio „ 734 

y, G-astropoda. 

Kalide, G. — Eyes of Gastropods and of Pecten Parti 38 

Klotz, J. — Generative Apparatus of Lymnieus Part 2 195 

Saint-XiOUP, R. — Anatomy of Aplysia „ 195 

Geenacher, H. — The Heteropod Eye „ 196 

VoiGT, W. — Entocolax Ludwigii, Parasitic in a Holothurian „ 197 

UlicNY, J. — Mouth-parts of Ancylus fluviatilis and Velletia lacustris . . „ 197 

KoEHLEE, R. — Double Forms of Spermatozoa Part 3 371 

Garnault, p. — Fertilization in Helix aspersa and Arion empiricorum . . „ 372 

Brock, J. — Neurology of Prosobranchiata „ 372 

Robert, E. — Hermaphroditism of Aplysise „ 373 

Bbegh, R. — Genera of jEolidiidse „ 374 

Smith, E. A. — New Genus of Parasitic Mollusca „ 374 

BouTON, L. — Ventral Nervous Mass of Fissurella .. .. Part 4 496 

Perez, J. — Descent of Ova in Helix „ 497 

Schalfejepf, p. — Anatomy of Clione limacina „ 497 

Garnault, P. — Eeproduciive Organs of Valvata piscinalis „ 498 

Semon, R. — Secretion of Sulphuric Acid by Marine Gastropods Part 5 627 

Letellier, a. — Purple of Purpura lapillus „ 627 

Herdman, W. a., & J. A. Olubb — Nudibranchiata of Liverpool District „ 627 
Behme, T. — Anatomy and Development of Renal Apparatus of Pulmonate 

Gastropods „ 628 

Mazzarelli, G. F. — Eeproductive Organs of Aplysise „ 628 

Dall, W. H. — Gastropoda and Scaphopoda of the West Indian Seas . . Part 6 735 

BaTESON, W. — Variations of Cardium edule „ 735 

Dubois, R. — Luminous Phenomena in Pholas dactylus „ 736 

Garstang, W. — Nudibranchiate Mollusca of Plymouth Sound „ 737 

FoL, H. — Microscopic Anatomy of Dentalium „ 737 

S. Laxaellibrancliiata. 

Dubois, R. — Influence of Light Part 1 39 

Macalpine, D. — Movements of Detached Gills „ 40 

M'Intosh, W. 0. — Development of My tilus edulis „ 40 

Rawitz, B. — Edge of Mantle of Acephala Part 2 198 

Galeazzi, R. — Nervous Elements of Adductor Muscles of Lamellibranchs ., „ 201 

Mobius, K, — Swelling of Foot of Solen pellucidus „ 201 

Thielb, J. — Abdominal Sensory Organs in Lamellibranchiata Part 3 374 

MeneGAUX, a. — Turgescence in Lamellibranchs 375 

Jackson, R. T. — Development of Oyster and Allied Genera „ 375 

Ryder, J. A. — Byssus of young of common Clain „ 375 

Fischer, K. — Distribution of Unio margaritifer 376 

Menegaux, a. — Morphology of Teredo Part 4 498 

Neumatr. M. — Origin of Unionidse 498 

M'Alpine, D. — Movements of Bivalve Mollusca Part 6 739 

Dall, W. H. & P. Pelseneer.— ^SrancAwfe Lamellibranchiata .. .. 740 



CONTEKTS. Xm 

Molhiscoida. 

a. Tunicata. page 

Maurice, 0. — Monograph of Fragarokles aurantiacum Purt 1 40 

JOLIET, L. — Structure of Pi/rosoma „ 46 

„ „ Alternation of Generations in Salpa and Pyrosoma „ 47 

Heedman, W. a. — Tunicata of the Voyage of the ^ Challenger^ ., .. Part 3 376 

ToDARO, F. — Branchial Homologies of Salpa „ 376 

Lahille, F. — Relation of Tunicata to Vertebrata „ 376 

Davidoff, M. v. — Developmental History of Distaplia magnilarva . . , . Part 4 498 

Seeligeb, O. — Alternation of Generations in Salpse Part 5 629 

Morgan, T. H. — Origin of Test-cells of Ascidians Part 6 740 

j8. Bryozoa. 

Freese, W. — Anatomy and Histology of Memhranipora pilosa Parti 47 

Fewkes, J. Walter — Stalked Bryozoon Part 2 201 

M'Intosh, W. 0. — Phoronis BusMi Part 3 376 

Waters, A. W. — Ovicells of Cyclostomatous Bryozoa „ 377 

„ „ Ovicells of Lichenoporm „ 377 

Braem, F . — Formation of Statohlasts in Plumatella „ 377 

Joyel'x-Lapfuib, J., & E. Ehlers — Delagia Chsetopteri Part 3 377 

Dbnby, a. — Anatomy of an Arenaceous Polyzoon Part 4 499 

Prouho, H. — Structure and Metamorphosis of Larva of Flustrella hispida .. „ 501 

Waters, A. W. — Polyzoa of the Voyage of H.M.8. 'Challenger' Part 5 629 

„ „ Bryozoa of New South Wales ,, 629 

Prouho, H. — Reproduction of Ctenostomatous Bryozoa „ 629 

Benham, W. B. — Anatomy of Phoronos australis Part 6 740 

y. BracMopoda. 

Heath, A. — Modified Ectoderm in Crania and Lingula Part 1 48 

Davidson, T. — Recent Brachiopoda Part 2 202 

Arthropoda. 

Plateau, F. — Vision of Arthropods Part 2 202 

Patten, W. — Segmental Sense- Organs of Arthropods Part 4 501 

Geassi, B. — Ancestors of Myriopods and Insects Part 5 630 

Beddard, F. E. — Origin of Malpighian Tubules in Arthropoda Part 6 742 

Careiere, J. — Eye of JJecapod Crustaceans and Arachnids ,, 742 

a. Insecta. 

Lubbock, Sir John — Observations on Ants, Bees, and Wasps Parti 49 

Grassi, B. — Termites ^ 50 

„ „ Replacement of King and Queen of Termites 50 

Macloskie, G. — Poison-apparatus of Mosquito 51 

Deby, J . — Description of a New Dipterous Insect, Psamathiomya pectinata 

(Pl-iv.) Part 2 180 

Jordan, K. — Anatomy and Biology of Physapoda 203 

Minohin, E. a, — New Organ and Structure of Hypodermis in Periplaneta 

orientalis 204 

Carlet, G. — New Mode of Closing Trachese of Insects „ 205 

„ „ New Organ of Hymenoptera 205 

Radoszkowski — Male Copulatory Apparatus of Pompilidx „ 205 

Fritze, A. — Enteric Canal of Ephemeridx 206 

PouLTON, E. B. — Lepidopterous Larvse 206 

Walsingham, Lord — Nevj Genus of Pyralidee „ 207 

Massa, 0. — Parthenogenesis of Death's-head Moth 208 



Xiv CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Lewis, G. — Mouth-organs of two species of Bhysodidx Part 2 208 

OUDEMANS, J. T. — Tkysanura and Collemhola „ 208 

Cholodkotsky, N. & L. Dreyfus— -E'm6r2/ofos'2/ o/ insec!!s Part 3 377 

Merrifield, F. — Incidental Observations in Pedigree Moth-hreeding .. .. „ 379 
Emerton, J. H. — Changes of Internal Organs in Pupa of Milkweed 

Butterfly „ 379 

Dreyfus, L. — Chermes and Phylloxera „ 379 

Cholodkovsky, N. — Chermes ,, 380 

Henking, H. — Formation and Fate of Polar Globules in Eggs of Insects .. Part 4 502 

Dahl, F., & D. Sharp — Vision of Insects „ 502 

Bertkau, P. — Hermaphroditism in Gastropacha ,, 503 

Wasmann, E. — Myrmecophilous Insects „ 503 

Skertchly, S. B. J. — Butterflies' Enemies „ 504 

DiNGAZziNi, P. — Alimentary Canal of Larval Lamellicorns „ 504 

Kronfeld, M. — Bees and Flowers . . „ 505 

Carlet, G. — Stigmata of Hymenoptera „ 505 

VoELTZKOW, A. — Development in Egg of Musca vomitoria „ 505 

MiK, J. — A Spinning Dipteron „ 506 

Low, F. & L. Dreyfus — Biology of Gall-producing Species of Chermes . . „ 506 

VoELTZKOW, A. — Egg of Melolontha vidgaris „ 506 

Hasse, E. — Anatomy of Blattidse „ 506 

Butler, A. G. — Insects supposed to be distasteful to Birds Part 5 633 

SCHAFFER, 0. — Histology of Insects ,, 633 

Blochmann, F. — Number of Polar Globules in Fertilized and Unfertilized 

Eggs of Bees „ 634 

LuciANi, L., & A. PiUTTi — Respiration of the Ova of Bombyx „ 635 

Grassi, B. — Termites „ 635 

OuDEMANS, J. T. — Abdomincd Appendages of a Lepismid „ 636 

GiARD, A. — Galls produced on Typhlocyba rosse, by a Hymenopterous Larva „ 636 

Wasmann, E. — Function of Palps in Insects Part 6 742 

Hagen, H. a. — Double Plexus of Nervures in Insects^ Wings „ 742 

Graber, V. — Structure and Phylogenetic Significance of Embryonic Abdomi- 
nal Appendages in Insects „ 743 

Fickert, G. — Markings of Lepidoptera in the Genus Ornithoptera .. .. „ 743 

Platner, G. — Spermatogenesis in Lepidoptera „ 743 

Skertchly, S. B. J. — Habits of Certain Borneo Butterflies „ 744 

GiLSON, G. — Odoriferous Glands of Blaps mortisaga „ 744 

Wheeler, W. M. — Glandular Structure on Abdomen of Embryos of 

Hemiptera „ 745 

Cholodkovsky, N. — Life-history of Chermes „ 745 

MiNGAZZiNl, p. — Hypodermis of Periplaneta „ 745 

Griffiths, A. B. — Malpighian Tubules of Libellula depressa „ 745 

j3. Myriopoda. 

Kingsley, C. S. — Classification of Myriopoda Part 2 209 

Chalande, J. — Spinnerets of Myriopoda Part 4 507 

PococK, R. I. — Myriopoda of Mergui Archipelago „ 507 

Heathcote, F. G. — Anatomy of Polyxenus lagurus Part 5 637 

y. Prototraclieata. 

Sheldon, L. — Deuehpment of Peripatus Novx-Zealandix Part 2 210 

„ „ Maturation of Ovum in Cape and New Zealand Species of 

Peripatus Part 4 507 

Saint-Eemy, G. — Brain of Peripatus Part 6 745 



CONTENTS. XV 



S. Araclinida. 



Michael, A, D. — Observations on the Special Internal Anatomy of Uropoda 

Krameri {-pX. i.) Part I 51 

ScHATJB, R. V. — Anatomy of Hydrodroma „ 51 

LoMAN, J. 0. 0. — Coxal Glands of Arachnida Part 2 210 

Saint-Eemt, G. — Brain of Araneida „ 211 

Cronebeeg, A. — Anatomy of Pseudoscorpions „ 211 

Teouessaet, E. L. — Marine Acarina of Wimereux „ 211 

Clarke, J. M. — Structure and Development of the Visual Area in Trilohites „ 212 

Babes, V. — Migrations of Pentastomum denticulatum in Cattle , 212 

Wagnek, W. — Ecdy sis of Spiders Part 3 380 

Michael, A. D. — Life-histories of Glyciphagus domesticus and G. spinipes . . Part 4 508 

Megnin, P. — Ency station of Glyciphagus .. , „ 509 

KoENiKE, F. — New Genus of Hydrachnids „ 509 

Moniez, R. — Accidental Parasitism on Man of Tyroglyphus farinss , 509 

Teouessaet, E. L. — Marine Acarina of the Coasts of France ,, 509 

ScHAUB, E. V. — Marine Hydrachnida „ 509 

Adleez, G. — Morphology and Larvx of Pantopoda „ 509 

Apstein, C. — Structure and Function of Spinning Glands of Araneida .. Part 5 637 

Beetkau, p. — Parasites of Spiders „ 638 

Geassi, B., & G. RoYELLi — New Acarid „ 638 

Geiffiths, a. B., & A. Johnstone — Malpighian Tubes and " Hepatic Cells " 

of Araneina Part 6 746 

GiEOD, P. — Anatomy of Atax ypsilophorus and A. Bonzi „ 746 

LOHMAN, H. — Halacaridx „ 747 

Watase, S. — Structure and Development of Eye of Limulus „ 747 

6. Crustacea. 

Beyendal, D. — Male Copulatory Organs on first Abdominal Appendages of 

some female Crayfishes Part 1 53 

Giles, G. M. — Indian AmpMpoda ,, 53 

Canu, E. — New Family of Commensal Copepods „ 53 

EosOLL, A. — Two New Copepods parasitic on Fchinoderms ,, 54 

Fewkes, J. Waltee — New Parasite of Am} liiura „ 54 

Cattaneo, G. — Amosbocytes of Crustacea ,, 54 

Stamati, G. — Monstrosity in a Crayfish Part 2 213 

Claus, C. — Nebaliidx and Leptostraca „ 213 

„ „ Marine Ostracoda ,, 214 

Dees, E. D. DE — Cladocera of Hungary „ 215 

NOEDQUIST, 0. — Calanida of Finland „ 215 

Haetog, M. M. — Morphology of Cyclops .. -_ „ 215 

Buchanan, F. — Ancestral Development of Respiratory Organs of Deca- 

podous Crustacea ,, Part 3 381 

Heeeick, F. H. — Development of Compound Eye of Alpheus ,, 382 

Hendeeson, J. R. — Anomura of the ' Challenger ' „ 382 

Stebbing, T. R. E. — AmpMpoda of the ' Challenger ' „ 383 

Leydig, F. — Argulus foliaceus „ 383 

Nussbaum, M. — Formation and Number of Polar Globules in Cirripedes ,. „ 385 

EossiiSKAYA, M., & S. Pereyaslawzewa — Development of AmpMpoda .. Part 4 510 

NOEMAN, A. M. — British AmpMpoda „ 511 

Chun, C. — Amphipod Family of Scinidie „ 512 

Beady, G. S., & A. M. Norman — Ostracoda of North Atlantic and North- 
western Europe „ 512 

GlJiED, A,, it J. Bonnier— Pa?-!/s8Jic CV-Msfacca ,, 512 



XVI CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

GiAHD, A., & J. Bonnier — Morphology and Systematic Position of the 

Dajldx Part 4 513 

KoEHLER, R. — Tegumentary Coverings of Anatifer and Pollicipes .. .. „ 513 

Cattaneo, G. — Intestine of Decapoda and its Gland Part 5 639 

ROULE, L. — Early Development of Blastodermic Layers in Tsopoda .. .. „ 639 

Norman — British Amphipoda „ 639 

MuLLER, G. W. — Spermatogenesis in Ostracoda „ 640 

GiESBRECHT, W. — New Pelagic Copepods „ 640 

Leidy, J. — New Parasitic Copepod , „ 641 

Fowler, G. H. — Remarkable Crustaceayi Parasite „ 64 i 

Bateson, S. — Senses and Habits of Crustacea . . . . Part 6 748 

Weldon, W. F. R. — Function of Spines of Crustacean Zoase, „ 748 

„ „ Ccclom and Nephridia of Palsemon serratus „ 749 

GiARD, A. — Phosphorescent Infection of Talitrus and other Crustacea.. .. „ 749 

BonviER, L. — Nervous System of Decapod Crustacea „ 750 

Griffiths, A. B. — " Liver " of Carcinus mxnas ,, 750 

Farnani, J. — Genital Organs of Thelyphonus „ 750 

Brook, G. — Lucifer-like Decapod Larva „ 751 

Brooks, "W. K., & F. H. Heeeick — Life-history of Stenopus „ 752 

Beook, G., & W. E. HOTLE — Metamorphosis of British Enpjhausiidie.. .. „ 752 

Chun, C. — Male of Phronima sedentaria ,, 753 

BouENE, G. C. — Pelagic Copepoda of Plymouth „ 753 

List, J. H. — Female Generative Organs and Oogenesis in Parasitic Copepoda „ 753 

Vermes. 

Matjpas, L. — Agamic Multiplication of Lower Metazoa Part 6 753 

a. Annelidai 

Saint-Joseph, Baeon DE — Polychieta of Dinard Parti 55 

Feiedlandee, B. — Central Nervous System of Lumhricus „ 56 

GoEHLiCH, G. — Genital and Segmental Organs of EaHhworm , 57 

Beddaed, F. E. — Three new Species of Earthworms „ 57 

„ „ Reproductive Organs of Euclrilus „ 58 

Grobben, 0. — Pericardial Glands of Annelids Part 2 215 

Spencee, W. B. — Anatomy of Megascolicles australis 216 

Beudard, F. E. — Structure of Urocheeta and Dichogaster, and Nephridia of 

Earthworms 218 

Garman, H. — New Earthworm 220 

Rosa, D. — New Genus of Eudrilidie 220 

„ „ Indian Perichsetidie ,^ 220 

Meyer, E. — Morphology of Annelids Part 3 385 

Broom, R. — Abnormal Earthworm 387 

RouLE, L. — Development of Ccelom in Enchytroeides Marioni „ 387 

Beddard, F. E. — Structure of Clitellio 387 

RouLE, L. — Influence of Nervous System of Amielids on Symmetry of the 

^ody Part4 514 

Soulier, A. — Epidermis of Serpulidie 515 

Beddaed, F. E. — Marine Oligochseta of Plymouth 515 

Fletcher, J. J. — Australian Earthwonns 515 

Beddaed, F. E. — Green Cells in Integument of Aeolosoma tenebrarum . . , 515 

Whitman, C. O. — Anatomy of Hirudinea 51g 

Andeews, E. A. — Reproductive Organ of Phascolosoma Gouldii 518 

Peuvot, G. — Formations of Stolons in Syllidians Part 5 642 

Vaillant, L. — Natwal History of Annelids . , . . (342 



CONTENTS. XVll 

PAGS 

Shipley, A. E. — Phymosoma varians Part 5 642 

Saint-Loup, R. — Polyodontes maxillosus Part 6 754 

Beddaru, F. E. — Notes on Oligochxta „ 754 

„ „ Oligochxtous Fauna of New Zealand „ 754 

,, ,, Anatomy and myology of Phreoryctes ,, 755 

Platnee, G. — Polar Body Formation in Xulastomum „ 755 

p. Nemathelmiiitlies. 

SoNSiNO, P. — Nematode in Blood of Dog Part 1 58 

BovEBi, Th. — Fertilizotvjn and Segmentation in Ascaris megalocephala . . Part 2 220 
KtiLTSCHiTZKY, N. — Maturation and Fertilization of Ova in Ascaris 

marginata „ 223 

Cobb, N. A. — Anatomy and Ontogeny of Nematodes „ 224 

Michel, A. — Cellular Epidermis of Nematodes „ 225 

Aducco, V. — Red Colouring Matter of Eustrongylus gigas , „ 225 

Camekano, L. — New Species of Gordius „ 225 

ViLLOT, A. — Hypodermis and Peripheral Nervous System of Gordiidx . . Part 3 388 

„ „ Circum-intestinal Cavity of G or dii „ 388 

GoLDi, E. A. — Coffee- Nematode of Brazil Part 4 518 

Stossich, M. — Physahptera „ 518 

Knuppfeb, P. — Female Genital Ducts of Acanthocephala ,, 519 

ViLLOT, A. — Ovary and Oogenesis of Gordius Part 6 755 

MoNiEZ, R. — Life-history of a Free Nematode „ 756 

Raillet, A. — Filaria medinensis in Animals ,, 756 

LiNSTOW, O. V. — Pseudalius alatus „ 756 

ZsCHOKKB, F. — Spiroptera alata, a new Nematode found in Rhea americana „ 756 

GiBlER, P. — Vitality of Trichinse ,, 757 

y. Platyhelmintlies. 

Blanc, H. — Tapeworms with Perforated Joints Part 2 225 

Grassi, B. — Intermediate Host of Tsenia cucumerina • ,. .. „ 226 

LoMAN, J. C. 0. — Structure of Bipalium ,, 226 

Wagner, F. von — Asexual Reproduction of Microstoma Part 3 388 

Grassi, B., & G. RoYELLi — Embryology of Cestodes „ 3S9 

Beneden, P. J. Van — New Ce&todes from Lamna comuhica ,, 390 

Wendt, A. — Gundaulvse. Part 4 519 

BtiEGER, O. — Nervous System of Nemertines 519 

LiNSTOW, YON, G. Beandes, & M. Stossich — Hehninthological Notes ., „ 520 

Stossich, M. — The Species of Distomum in Amphibians , 521 

LiNSTOW, YON — Anatomy of Phylline Hendorfii 521 

MoNTiCELLi, F. S. — Nervous System of Amphiptyches „ 522 

„ „ Cercaria setifera ^^ 522 

Crety, 0. — Structure of Solenophorus , 523 

Plessis, G. DTJ — Otoplana intermedia Part 5 643 

Sekera, E. — Fresh-water Turbellaria Part 6 757 

Bohmtg, L. — MicrostoiTM papillosum .. ,, 757 

Monticelli, F. S. — Notes on Entozoa ^^ 757 

SoNSiNO — Helminthological Notices 758 

Braun, M. — Tristomum elongatum ^^ 753 

S. Incertse Sedis. 

Weber, E. F. — " Notes on some Rotifera from the Neighbourhood of Geneva " Part 1 59 

Zelinka, C. — Parasitic Rotifer — Discopus Synaptee 60 

Hudson, 0. T. — The President's Address .. ,. Part 2 162 

1889. b 



XVni CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

UovsSEhTiT. C— New Eotifer Part 2 227 

Stokes, A. C. — Notices of New Peritrichous Infusoria f rain the Fresh Waters 

of the United States. (Plate X.) Part 4 477 

Milne, W. — Botifers Parasitic in Sphagnum „ 523 

Kellicott, D. S. — American Rotifera „ 523 

BoUKNB, G. 0. — Tornaria in British Seas „ 523 

Thorpe, Sueg. V. Gunson — Description of a New Species of Megahtrocha. 

{Plate XIL) Part 5 613 

KoTJLE, L. — New Species of Phoronis ■.. „ 644 

Fewkes, J. W. — New Marine Larva -. .. „ 644 

Harjiek, S. F. — Anatomy of Dinophilus Part 6 758 

Hudson, C. T.—i^oii/era , 759 

Eehinodermata. 

Fewkes, J, W. — Development of Calcareous Plates of Asterias Part 1 61 

Semon, R. — Development of Synapta digitata „ 62 

LuDWiG, H. — Ophiopteron elegans „ 66 

Brock, J. — Ophiurid Fauna of Indian Archipelago ,, 66 

Ltjdwig, H. — Holothurians of Indian Archipelago ,, 67 

LovEN, S. — New Echinoconid „ 67 

LuDWiG, H. — Ludwig's Eehinodermata Part 2 227 

Carpenter, P. H. — Comatnlids of Kara Sea ,, 227 

Wachsmuth, C, & F. Springer — Ventral Structure of Taxocrinus and 

Haplocrinus ,, 228 

„ „ „ Ct^otalocrinus „ 228 

Bury, H. — Embryology of Echinoderms Part 3 390 

LUDWIG, H. — Rhopalodina lageniformis „ 392 

PoucHET, G., & Chabry — Monstrous Larvm of Echinus „ 392 

Ludwig's (H.) Eehinodermata Part 4 524 

Hamann, O. — Anatomy of Ophiuroids and Crinoids ,, 525 

JiCKELi, 0. F. — Nervous System of Ophiurids „ 527 

Hamann, 0. — Morphology of Crinoids . . . . . . . . . . „ 528 

Bell, F. Jeffrey — La7'ge Stai-fish „ 529 

Ives, J. E. — Variation in Ophiur a panamensis and 0. teres „ 529 

Ludwig's (H.) 1/c/imocfermafa Part 5 644 

KoRSCHELT, B. — Formation of Mesoderm in Echinoderms „ 645 

Sladen, Percy, W. — Asteroidea of the Voyage of the ' Challenger ' . . . . „ 645 

Semon, E. — -Homologies within the Echinoderm-phylum Part 6 759 

Edwards, C. L. — Embryology of Muelleria Agassizii . , . . , „ 760 

John, G. — Boring Sea- Urchins „ 760 

Griffiths, A. B., & A. Johnstone — Saccular Diverticula of Asteroidea .. „ 761 

Ives, J. E. — New Ophiurids „ 761 

Coelenterata. 

Lendenpeld, R. VON — Coelenterata of the Southern Seas Parti 67 

Fowler, G. H. — Two new Types of Actinaria ... . . 79 

M'Intosh, W. C. — Lesueria vitrea 72 

Bale, "W. M. — New or rare Australian Hydroida 7I 

Jungersen, H. F. E. — Structure and Development of Culony of Pennatida 

phosphorea Part 2 229 

Grieg, J. A. — New Comularix 230 

Danielssen, D. C.^iVoriA-J-ZZanijc ^cfmz'c^a ., ,, 230 

Lister, J. J. — Natural History of Fungia 231 

Wilson, H. V. — Development of Manicina areolata 231 



CONTENTS. XIX 

PAGE 

IsHiKAWA, C. — Orijjin of Female Generative Cells in Podocoryne, Sars .. Part 2 231 

KoKOTNEFF, A. — Cunoctantha and Gastrodes „ 232 

ViGUiEB, C. — New Anthozoon Part 3 393 

Fischer, 0. — French PennatuUds „ 393 

Bedot, M. — Agalma Clausi „ 393 

Haeckel, B. — ' Challenger ' Siphonophora „ 394 

Wagnee, J. — Monobrachium parasiticum „ 394 

Greenwood, M. — Digestion in Hydra „ 395 

Marshall, A. Milnes, & G. H. Fowler — Pennatulida of Mergui Archi- 
pelago Part 4 529 

M'MuREiCH, J. P. — Lehrunia neglecta „ 529 

Sluiter, C P. — Remarkable Actinian ,, 530 

KoCH, G. V. — Caryophyllia rugosa „ 530 

Vanhoffen, E. — Semxostomatous and Bhizostomatous Medusse „ 530 

Chun, 0. — Siphonophora of Canary Islands ,, 530 

Fewkes, J. Walter — New A thorybia „ 532 

Schewiakoff, W. — Eyes of Acalephee „ 532 

Haddon, A. C. — Revision of British Actinix Part 5 647 

MciMuRRiOH, J. P. — Actinology of the Bermudas „ 648 

Fewkes, J. W. — Angelopsis . . . . . . „ 648 

Chun's (C.) Cte/e«fora<a Part 6 761 

Wilson, H. V. — Occasional Presence of a Mouth and Anus in Actinozoa .. „ 761 

Fischer, P. — Arrangement of Tentacles in Cerianthus „ 761 

Ortmann, a. — Madrepore Corals in Ceylon „ 762 

DisoN, G. Y., & A. F. — Bunodes and Tealia ,, 763 

McMureich, J. P. — Edwardsia- Stage in Free-swimming Embryos of a 

Hexactinian ,, 763 

Brook, G. — New Type of Dimorphism found in Antipatharia „ 764 

Claus, C. — Organization and Phylogeny of Siphonophora „ 764 

Porifera. 

Dendy, a. — Stelospongus flabelliformis Part 2 233 

MacMunn, C. A. — Chromatology of British Sponges Part 3 396 

Topsent, E. — Notes on Sponges „ 396 

Dendy, A. — Sponges from the Gulf of Manaar „ 396 

Carter, J. H., & K. Hope — New British Species of Microciona „ 396 

Dendy, A. — List of Mr. Carter's Genera and Species of Sponges „ 397 

Leidy, J. — Cliona Part 4 534 

Lendenfeld, R. v. — Structure of Flagellated Chambers in Sponges .. .. Part 5 G4S 

PoLEJAEFF, N. — ICorotnewia desiderata and the Phylogeny of Horny Sponges „ 6i9 

Hanitsch, E. — Neio British Sponge „ 649 

Lendenfeld, R. V. — Monograph of Horny Sponges Part 6 765 

Maas, O. — Metamorphosis of Larva of Spong ilia „ 765 

Protozoa. 

Maggi, L. — Protozoa on Mosses of Plants .. Part 1 72 

Maupas, E. — Multiplication of Ciliated Infusoria „ 72 

Fabrb-Domergue — Reserve Substances in the Protoplasm of Infusoria .. „ 74 

Plate, L. — Aegyria oliva „ 74 

„ „ New Vorticelline „ 74 

Entz, G. — Nyctothe7'us in Blood of Apus cancriformis ,, 75 

Henneguy, F. — Influence of Light on Noctiluca „ 75 

Vallentin, E. — Psorosp)ermium Lucenmrim ,, 75 

Beddard, F. E. — Coccidium infesting Perichceta „ 76 

6 2 



XX CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Henneguy, L. F. — Sarcosporidia in Muscles of Palsemon Part 1 7G 

Peeroncito, E. — Cercomonas iniestinalis „ 76 

BuTSCHLi's (O.')'' Protozoa' Part 2 234 

MoBiDS; K. — Infusorian Fauna of tlie Bay of Kiel ,, 23-1: 

KuNSTLER, J. — New or Little-known Infusoria ., .. , „ 235 

GiAED, A. — New Infusorian „ 235 

Plate, L. — Luminosity of Noctiluca miliar is ,, 236 

MoBius, K. — Bed Organisms of t/ie Bed Sea „ 236 

Geuber, A. — Bhizopods of Gulf of Genoa „ 237 

Zachaeias, O. — Pseudopodia and Cilia „ 237 

Deeyer, F. — Structure of Pylomata of Protista ,, 238 

BvTSOniA'?, {0.) Protozoa Part 3 397 

Balbiani, E. Gr. — Merotomy of Ciliated Infusoria „ 397 

GoTJRRET, P., & M. P. Roeser — Two Infusorians from the Port of Baslia ., „ 398 

Kellicott, D. S. — Fresh-ivater Infusoria „ 398 

Fabre-Domergue — New Ciliate Infusoria from Concarneau „ 398 

Simmons, W. J. — Holotrichous Infusoria parasitic in White Ants .. .. „ 399 

ZoPF, W. — Parasitic Monad „ 399 

Penard, E. — Dino-Flagellata „ 399 

Stedman, J. M. — Development of Actinosphmrium eichhorni „ 400 

Brady, H. B. — New Type of Astrorhizidx „ 400 

Leidy, J. — New Gregarines „ 400 

Merrill, G. P. — Eozoon Canadense „ 401 

Sherborn, C. D., & F. Chapman — Additional Note on the Foraminifera of 
the London Clay exposed in the Drainage Works, Piccadilly, London, in 

1885. (PlateXI.) Part 4 483 

Fabre-Domeegue — Functional Differentiations in Unicellular Beings .. .. „ 534 

G RUBER, A. — Maupas' Researches on Ciliata „ 534 

Fabre Domekgtje — Two New Infusorians „ 535 

Anderson, H. H. — Anoplophrya aeolosomatis „ 535 

Henneguy, F. — Formation of Spores of Gregarine of Earthworm .. .. „ 536 
LuTZ, A. — Cystodiscus immersus — a Myxosporidium found in the gall-bladder 

of Brazilian Batrachia „ 537 

Dangeard, P. A. — Chlorophyll in Animals Part 5 649 

B uTSCHLi's (0.) P''o^o2oa „ 649 

Caeriere, J, — Parasitic Trichodina „ 650 

Deichler, 0. — Parasitic Protozoa in Hooping Cough „ 651 

Certes, A. — Micro-Organism.s in Paunch of Bmninants „ 651 

Celli & GUARNIERI — Intimate Structure of the Plasmodium Malarix . . .. „ 651 

BtJTSCHLi's (0.) Protozoa Part 6 766 

Romanes, G. J. — Psychology of Protozoa ,, 766 

Griffiths, A. B. — Method of Demonstrating Presence of Uric Acid in Con- 
tractile Vacuoles of lower Organisms .. 767 

Fajiintzin, A. — Symbiosis of Algse and Animals 767 

SCHEWIAKOFF, W. — Holotrichous Infusoria 767 

Garcin, A. G. — Pigment of Euijlena sanguinea 768 

KuNSTLER J. — New Proteromonas 768 

Simmons, W. J. — Podophrya from Calcutta , 768 

Dreyer, F. — Structure of Rhizopod Shells 768 

MoBiUS, K. — Rhizo^Md-Fauna of Bay of Kiel 769 

AsTARi, A. — Nuclearia delicatula 7y() 

ScHLUMBEEGER. C. — Beproductiou of Foraminifera 77I 

SCHUBERG, A. — Grassia ranarum nrj-t 



CONTENTS. ' XXi 

BOTANY. 

A.— General, including the Anatomy and Physiology of the Phanerogamia. 

a. Anatomy. 
(1) Cell-structure and Protoplasm. 

PAGE 

ScHNETZLER, J. B. — Movement of Rotation of Vegetable Protoplasm .. .. Part 1 78 

Clark, J. — Protoplasmic Movements 78 

Ambronn, H. — Optical Properties of the Cuticle and of Suberized Membranes „ 78 

Degagnt, C. — Nuclear Origin of Protoplasm Part 2 239 

Sauvageau, C. — Intercellular Protoplasm ,, 239 

ScHNETZLER, J. B. — Rotation of Protoplasm, Part 3 402 

Kohl, F. G. — G rowth of Albuminous Composition of Cell-walls „ 402 

Wakker, J. H — Contents of the Cell ,, 402 

Steinbrinck, 0. — Connection of the Direction of Hygroscopic Tensions with 

the Structure of the Cell-wall „ 403 

Stbasburger, E. — Growth of the Cell-wall Part 4 538 

Mangin, L. — Structure of the Cell-wall „ 538 

Vries, H. DE — Permeability of Protoplasm for Urea „ 539 

Kruticky & BiELKOWSKT — Diosmose through the Cellidose-pelUcle of 

Phragmites communis ,, 539 

Pfeffeb, W. — Reduction of Silver in the living-cell „ 539 

Zacharias, E. — Formation and Growth of the Cell-wall Part 5 653 

Noll, F. — Structure of the Cell Part 6 772 

Koeppen, 0. W. — Nucleus in Dormant Seeds „ 772 

GxJiGNARD, L. — Polkn of the Cycadese, , ,, 772 

(2) Other Cell-contents (including- Secretions). 

Meyer, A. — Structure of Chlorophyll-grains Parti 78 

MoOEB, S. Le M. — Photolysis in Lemna trisulca „ 79 

SCHUNCK, E. — Chemistry of Chlorophyll „ 79 

COTJECHET, L. — Chromoleuoites , „ 79 

Sewell, P. — Colouring-matter of Leaves and Flowers j, 80 

Leitgeb, H.— SjoAieniSes „ 81 

Weehinsk.1, F. — Aleurone-grains „ 81 

Leitgeb, H. — -Asparagin and Tyrosin in Tubers of the Dahlia „ 81 

TiEGHEM, P. Van — ffydroleucites and Grains of Aleurone Part 2 239 

Macchiati, L. — XantkophyUidrine ^, 240 

Tatjeet, C. — New Principle from Ergot of Eye, Ergosterin ,, 240 

Kennie, E. H. — Colouring Matter of Drosera Whittakeri , 240 

Briosi, G. — Mineral Substances in Leaves 240 

MiJLLEE, N. J. C. — Spectruui-analysis of the Colours of Flowers Part 3 403 

MOLISCH, H. — Change in Colour of Leaves containing Anthocyan „ 404 

Kleecker, J. E. F. AF — Tannin-vacuoles 404 

Hkckel, B. — Cystoliths in Exostemma ,, 405 

Baebaglia, G. A. — Oil of Bay-leaves „ 405 

ScHUNCK, E. — Chemistry of Chlorophyll Part 4 539 

MOLISCH, H. — Formation of Chlorophyll by Coniferm in the dark „ 641 

HoE-M, J.— Formation of Starch in the Leaves of Sedum spectabile .. ., „ 541 

Moellee, H. — Mode of occurrence of Tannin in Plants ,, 541 

Hansen, A. — Pure Chlorophyll Part 5 653 

Keatjs, G., & M. Westermaier — Physiology of Tannin „ 654 

Kohl, F. G. — Formation of Calcium oxalate in Plants „ 655 

Monteverde, N. A. — Lrifluence of Light on the formation of Calcium oxalate „ 655 

Almquist, S. — Production of LLoney in Convallaria „ 655 



xxu 



CONTENTS. 



If^ PAGE 

Parte 773 



KvLGKmmA, G:.— Composition of Chlorophyll 

Eeinitzeb, F.— ComposjKon 0/ ra«rem » ' 

-Rom^R, TSi.—Sphero-crystals » 

'iiiAVEi.MAi^N,!!.— Mucilage in the Endosperm of Legummosse „ i '^'i 

PiKOTTA, R. — Starch in the Epiderm "'^ 

JOHANNSEN, ^f .—Gluten in the Grain of Corn »> 773 

j^QQVK,G.& ■^.'PoiA.— Formation of Calcium oxalate in Plants .. .. „ 774 

y(Emim,G.&,V.G(.'Kom.— Calcium oxalate in Plants » 774 

Blondel, R.— Per/Mffie 0/ i/te i^ose " 774 

Crepin, F. — Odour of the Glands in Bosa » 7/0 

(3) Structure of Tissues. 

■BviiG-a, C— Literal Plants P»i'* 1 ^^ 

Maxjky, P. — Comparative Anatomy of Desert Plants ■ „ 82 

Ebeedt, O. — Palisade-parenchyme » ^2 

-EvA-NS,^.!!.— Stem of Ephedra » 82 

K-NOBLA.VGH,'E.— Anatomy of the Wood of Laurinex „ 83 

Gnentzsch, ¥.— Radial Connection of the Vessels and Wood-parenchyme .. „ 83 

Teecul a. Order of Appearance of the first Vessels in the Leaves of 

Humulus Lupulus and H. japonicus » 84 

TiEGHEM, P. Van — Primary Liber-fibres in the Root of Mahacem .... „ 84 

Gkegoey, E. L. — Development of Cork-wings on certain Trees „ 84 

Dangeard, p. a. — Mode of Union of the Stem and the Boot in Angiosperms „ 84 

Jadin, F. — Secretion-reservoirs Part 2 z41 

GxJiGNAED, L., & Colin — Reservoirs of Gum in Rhamnacex „ 241 

Ebeedt, O. — Palisade Par enchy me 5? 241 

PoTONiE, H. — Sclerenchymatous Cells in the Flesh of the Pear „ 242 

Geegoey, E. L. — Development of Cork-wings , . • • . ■,, 242 

Wille — Bordered Pits of Conifers „ 242 

Haetig, R. — Accumulation of Reserve-substances in Trees „ 242 

Lamounette — Fibrovascular Bundles in the Petiole of Nierenbergia rivularia „ 242 

Laux, W.— Vascular Bundles in the Rhizome of Monocotyledons „ 243 

Vuillemin, p. — Bacillar Tumour on Pinus halepensis „ 243 

DiNGLEE, H. — Mechanical Structure of Floating-Organs „ 243 

Faemee, J. B. — Development of the Endocarp in the Elder „ 244 

Lecomte, H. — Development of Sieve-plates in the Phloem of Angiosperms . . Part 3 405 

Gregory, E. L. — Development of Cork-wings „ 405 

DouLiOT, H. — Researches on the Periderm „ 406 

Ross, H. — Assimilating Tissue and Periderm in leafless p)lants Part 4 541 

Pappenheim, K. — Closing of the Bordered Pits in Conifers „ 542 

LiGNiER, M. O. — Structure of Lecythidacese „ 542 

Prunet, a. — Foliar Vascular Bundles Part 5 655 

Labarie — Anatomy of Floral Axes ,, 656 

Andeesson, S. — Development of the Vascular bundles of Monocotyledons . . „ 656 

Laxjteebach, G. — Secretion-receptacles in the Cactacex ,, 656 

Kaelsson, G. A. — Transfusion-tissue of Conifer le „ 657 

RoSELEE, P. — Increase in thickness of the arborescent Liliacex „ 657 

Tedin — Primary Cortex in Dicotyledons „ 658 

Wevre^ A. DE — Pericycle.. ■ „ 659 

Satjvageau, L. — Mechanical System in the Roots of Aquatic Plants .. ,. „ 659 

SOLEEEDEE, H. — Comparative Anatomy of the AristolocMacese „ 660 

Gaecin — Structure of Apocynacese „ 660 

.TuNGNEE, J. R — Anatomy of Dioscoreacex „ 660 

Windle, W. S. — Fibres and Raphides in Monstera ^^ 661 



CONTENTS. XXlll 

PAGE 

Groom, P. — Latioiferous Tvhes Part 6 775 

Rendle, a. B. — Vesicular Vessels of the Onion . . „ 775 

Mattieolo, O., & L. 'BvnGAi.io^i —Intercellular Spaces in the Tegument of 

the Seed of Papilionaceie „ 775 

Thouvenin — Strengthening Apparatus in the Stem of Saxifragacese .. .. „ 770 

Gnentsch, F. — Radial Union of Vessels and Wood-jMrenchyme „ 776 

Kny, L. — Formation of Healing Periderm ,, 776 

WiELBE, A. — Formation and Development of Lihriform Fibres „ 776 

Schmidt, E. — Secondary Medullary Bays „ 777 

Macartili, L. — Foliar Medullai-y Bundles of Ficus „ 777 

(4) Structure of Organs. 

Martelli, U. — Dimorphism of the Flowers of the Horse-chestnut .. .. Part 1 85 

Hieeonymus, G. — Cleistogamous Flowers of Tephrosia heterantha .... „ 85 

Magnin, a. — Hermaphroditism of Lychnis dioica when attacked by Ustilago „ 85 

EOBERTSON, C. — Zygomorphy and its Causes „ 85 

ScHEODT, J. — Opening of the Anthers of Cycadex „ 86 

Treub, M. — Protection of Buds in the Tropics „ 86 

Wettstein, R. v. — Extrafloral Nectaries in Composite „ 87 

VoiGT, A. — Structure and Development of Seeds with ruminated Endosperm ,. „ 87 

ToNi, G. B. DE — Integument of the Seed of Geraniacex „ 88 

Prentiss, A. N. — Hygroscopic Movements in the Cone-scales of Abietinece .. „ 88 
Teitz, p. — Relationship of the Twisting Action of the Vascular Bundles to 

Phyllotaxis .. .. ,, 88 

Karsten, G. — Development of Floating Leates „ 88 

ScHERTFEL, A. — Glauds on the Rliizome of Ldthrsea „ 89 

GiLTAY, E. — Adaptation of Anatomical Structure to Climatal Conditions .. „ 89 

Hanatjsek, T. F. — Epiderm of the Seeds of Capsicum Part 2 244 

Mez, C. — Embryo of Umbelliferse. „ 244 

Eeichb, K. — Winged Stems and Decurrent Leaves „ 244 

Emery, H. — Bud of the Tulip-tree „ 245 

Ridley, H. N. — Foliar Organs of a new species of Utricularia „ 245 

Dagtjillon, a. — Polymorphism of the Leaves of Abietinex . . . . , . . . „ 245 

Haberlandt, G. — Leaves of Begonia „ 245 

8h.attogk,S. G.— Scars on the Ste7n of Dammara robusta „ 246 

Prazmowski, a. — Root-tubercles of Leguminosse „ 246 

VuiLLEMiN, P. — Tubercles of Leguminosse ,, 247 

Dangeard, p. a. — Formation of Subterranean Swellings in Eranthis hyemalis „ 247 

ScHONLAND, S. — Morphology of the Mistletoe „ 248 

JuEL, H. O. — Structure of Marcgraviaceie „ 248 

Stokes, A. C. — Pollen of the Conzolvulacese Part 3 406 

Velenovsky, J. — Fruit-scales of Abietinese „ 407 

Arcangeli, G. — Seeds of Nymphxacex . . .. „ 407 

M-EEiiA-^.T.— Bract in Tilia „ 407 

Daniel, L. — Comparative Anatomy of the Brads of the Involucre in 

Cichoriacese .. „ 408 

Heceel, E. — Pitchers of Sarracenia „ 408 

Petit, L. — Petiole of Dicotyledons „ 408 

Prillieux, E. — Ligneous Tumours in the Vine .. .. ... .... .. „ 410 

Hooker, H. E. — Cuscuta Gronovii „ 410 

HoYELACQTJE. M. — Vegetative Organs of Bignoniacex, Rhinanthacex, do- 

bxnchex, and Utriculariacese . . .. „ 410 

Wevrb, A. DE — Anatomy of Bromeliaceas „ 411 

Dennert, E. — Anatomy and Chem'stry of Petals . , ■;. ■ ,. Part 4 542 



xxiv CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Eathay, E. — Extrafloral Nectaries Part 4 54-3 

CoKEENS, E. C — Extrafloral Nectaries of Dioscorea „ 543 

Meehan, T. — Elastic Stamens of Compositse „ 544 

„ „ Glands on the Stamens of Caryophyllaceie „ 544 

Heimerl, A. — Fruit of Nyctaginese „ 544 

LoEBEL, O. — Anatomy of Leaves „ 544 

Keabbe, G. — Fixed daylight position of Leaves „ 545 

BiJSGEN, M. — Structure and Function of the Bladders of Utricular ia .. .. „ 545 

Schwendenek, S. — Stomates of Gramineie and Cyperacex „ 545 

Steubing, 0. — Stomates of Coniferce „ 546 

TuKNBULL, 11. — Water-pores in Cotyledons „ 546 

Flot, L. — Tig ellum of Trees „ 546 

Prillieux, E. — Bacillar Tumours of the Olive and of Finns halepensis . . „ 546 

Delpino, F. — Tubercles on the Roots of Galeg a officinalis „ 546 

HisiNGEK, E. — Tubercles of Rappia and Zannichellia „ 547 

BoEZi, A. — Lateral Boots of Monocotyledons „ 547 

Schumann, K. — Obdiplostemonous Flowers Part 5 661 

Halsted, B. D. — Pollen-grains „ 661 

TscHEENiCH, F. — Form of Pollen-grains „ 661 

Almqtjist, S. — Nectarial Scales of Ranuncidus „ 662 

Daniel, L. — Structure of the Bracts and Bracteoles in the Tnvolucre of 

Corymbiferse , „ 662 

BoRDZiLOSWKi, J. — Development of Berry-like and Fleshy Fruits .. .. „ 662 

Meyee, A. — Septated Vittie of Umbelliferse „ 662 

JuMELLE, H. — Fruit of Grasses „ 663 

Fkanchet, A. — Primula with Anatropous Seeds „ 663 

Aecangeli, G-. — Seed of Victoria „ 663 

Schumann, K. — Borragoid Inflorescence . . „ 663 

CouLTEE, S. — Leaf of Taxodium „ 664 

Tieghem, P. "Van, & H. DouLiOT — Origin of Rootlets „ 664 

Planta, A. — Composition of the Tubercles of Stachys tuberifera „ 665 

Geanel — Origin of the Haustoria in Parasitic Phanerogams „ 665 

Koch, L. — Haustoria of Rhinanthaceee „ 665 

Devaux — Modifications in the Roots of Grasses growing in Water . . . , „ 666 

Delpino, F. — OvuUferous Scales of Conifene Part 6 777 

Halsted, B. D. — Sensitive Stamens in Compositx , 778 

Daniel, L. — Bracteoles of the Involucre in the Cynarocephalae „ 778 

Meehan, T. — Secund Inflorescence „ 778 

Ceepin, F. — Ovaries and Achenes of the Rose „ 778 

EosE, J. N. — Achenes of Coreopsis 778 

DiNGLEE, H. — Floating-organs , 779 

BowEE, F. O. — Pitcher of Nepenthes „ 779 

Maopaelane, J. M. — Pitchered Insectivorous Plants „ 779 

Meehan, T. — Homology of Stipules „ 779 

GOEBEL, K. — Stem and Leaf of Utricularia „ 780 

Vines, S. H. — Opening and Closing of Stomates „ 780 

Merkee, P. — Colleters and Glands of Gunner a „ 780 

Vochting, H. — Abnormal Formation of Rhizome „ 780 

Wilson, W. P. — Aerating Roots ^^ 780 

p. Physiology. 
(1) Keproduction and Germination. 

Kronfeld, M..— Fertilization of Euphrasia Part 1 89 

t'CHNETZLEB^ J. B. — Case of Germination of Ranuncidus aquatiUs .... „ 89 



CONTENTS. XXV 

PAGE 

Kathay, E. — Distribution of the Sexual Organs in the Vine Part 2 249 

Keonfeld, ilf. — Constancy of Insects in visiting Flou'ers „ 249 

Meehan, T. — Fertilization of Lonioera japonica „ 249 

Heimerl, a. — Fertilization in the Nyctaginex „ 249 

Meehan, T. — Cross-fertilization in Hydrangea „ 250 

,, „ Life-history of Yucca „ 250 

Akcangeli, G. — Flowering of Euryale ferox „ 250 

„ „ Germination of the Seeds of Euryale ferox „ 250 

Winklee, A. — Germination of the Hazel „ 251 

PiBOTTA, E. — Fertilization of Amor phophallus Rivieri Part 3 411 

ScHULZ, A. — Cleistogamic Floa-ers , 412 

GlKKD, A..— Parasitic Castration of Lychnis dioica „ 412 

Tomes, A. — Fly-catching Habit of Wrightia coccinea „ 412 

Vries, H. DE — Intracellular Pangenesis .. .. Part 4 547 

Meehan, T. — Dichogamy „ 548 

LxJDWiG, F. — Fertilization by Snails „ 548 

Dammer, U. — Diclinism and Hermaphroditism Part 5 667 

Eliot, W. G., & W. Teelease — Trhnorphism of Oxalis „ 667 

Mattei, G. E. — Pollination by Lepidoptera „ 667 

Pammel, L. H. — Perforation of Flowers by Insects , . „ 667 

EoBEETSON, C. — Flowers and Insects Part 6 781 

Meehan, T. — Dimorphism of Polygonum „ 781 

HiLDEBBAND, F. — Properties of Hybrids „ 781 

(2) Nutrition and Growth (including Movements of Fluids). 

SCHNETZLEB, J. B. — Resistance of plants to causes which alter the normal 

state of life Part 1 89 

Jentys, S. — Action of Oxygen under high pressure on gi-owth „ 90 

DiETZ, S. — Influence of the Substratum on the Growth of Plants „ 90 

Hartig, E. — Conduction of Plants through the Alburnum „ 90 

Vines, S. H.— Relation between the formation of Tubercles and the presence 

of nitrogen in the soil Part 2 251 

WiELER, A. — Conduction of Water through the Wood „ 251 

Detlefsen, E. — Absorption of Light in assimilating leaves Part 3 412 

Frank, B. — Absorption of Nitrogen by Plants „ 412 

WoBTMANN, J. — Physiology of Growth Part 4 548 

WiESNEE, J. — Descending Current of Water „ 548 

DouLiOT, H. — Influence of Light on the Development of Bark „ 549 

Gulbe, L. A. — Periodical Activity of the Cambium in the Roots of Trees .. „ 549 

Margin, Ij.— Penetration and Escape of Gases in Plants ,, 549 

Frank, B. — Assimilation of Free Nitrogen by the Lower Organisms . . . . „ 550 

JtiMELLE, H. — Development of Annual Plants Part 5 668 

EosENTiNGE, KoLDERTJP — Influence of External Agents on the Polarity and 

Dorsiventral Structure of Plants ,, 668 

KoNONCZtFK, P. — One-sided Hardness of Wood „ 669 

Mer, E. — Influence of Exposure on the Growth of the Bark of Conifers .. ,, 669 

JuMELLE, H. — Chlorophyllous Assimilation and lYanspiration ,, 669 

„ „ Influence of Mineral Substances on the Growth of Plants . , „ 669 

Arcangeli, G. — Trophilegic Function of Leaves „ 670 

Haetig, E. — Movement of Sap in the Wood „ 670 

Devaus, H. — Exchange of Gases in Submerged Plants ,, .. „ 670 

Chmielewskij, W. — Absorption of Water by Leaves „ 671 

EODEWALD, H. — Changes of Substance and Force connected with Respiration „ 671 

Mullee, T. — Influence of ^^ Ringing " on Grovith „ Part 6 781 



XXVI CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Helleiegel, H., & II. WiLLFAKTH — Obtaining of Nitrogen hy Graminem 

and Leguminosx Part 6 781 

Fkank, B. — Power of Plants to ahsorh Nitrogen from the Air „ 782 

Kruticki, p. — Movements of Gases in Plants „ 782 

WOETMANN, J. — Curvature of Growing Organs „ 782 

(3) Irritability- 
Adeehold, R. — Forces which determine the Movements in the Lo'j:er 

Organisms Part 1 90 

VocHTiNG, H. — Photo-position of Leaves „ 91 

WoBTMANN, J. — Phenomena of Curvature „ 92 

Beyee, H. — 8po7itaneous Movements of Stamens and Styles Part 2 251 

Cunningham, D. D. — Irritability of Mimosa ,, 252 

Klebahn, H. — Cause of violent Torsion „ 253 

Noll, F., & J. WonTMAS:^ —Physical Exi^lanation of Irritation-curvatures Part 3 413 

(4) Chemical Ch.ang'es (inclTiding- Bespiration and Fermentation). 

BOKOKNT, T. — Chemical process in Assimilation Part 1 92 

Palladin, "W. — Decomposition of Albumen in the absence of free oxygen .. „ 92 
jj „ Products of the Decomposition of Albuminoids in the absence 

of free oxygen Part 2 253 

Aecangeli, G. — Panic Fermentation „ 253 

Laueent, E. — Formation of Starch from Organic Solutions Part 3 414 

Tacke, B. — Development of Nitrogen in Putrefaction „ 414 

LuMiA, 0. — Respiration of the Fig Part 4 550 

Ppbffee, W. — Process of Oxidation in Living Cells „ 550 

ZoPF, W. — Oxalic Fermentation „ 550 

Palladin, W. — Influence of Oxygen in the Decomposition of Albuminoids . . Part 6 783 

Saposchnikoff, W. — Formation of Starch out of Sugar „ 783 

Maetinaxjd — Alcoholic Fermentation of Milk „ 783 

y. General. 

Tubetjf, 0. T. — Parasites on Trees Part 1 93 

Stahl, E. — Protection of Plants against Snails „ 93 

Mez, C. — New Myrmecophilous Plant Part 2 253 

Keeneb v. Maeilaun, a. — Scent of Flowers „ 253 

SCHIMPEE, A. F. W. — Epiphytic Vegetation of the Tropics Part 3 414 

BoNNiEE, G. — Influence of Alpine Climate on Vegetation „ 415 

Keasan, F. — Parallel Forms ,, 415 

GoEBEL, K. — Young State of Plants Part 4 550 

SOEAUEE, P. — "■ Tan-disease" of Cherries „ 551 

Haetig, R. — Diseases of Trees „ 551 

Petit, E. — Chlorosis Part 5 671 

Vuillemin's (P.) Vegetable Biology „ 671 

JuMELLE, H. — Development of Annual Plants Part 6 784 

Cheistie, J. — Esparto-grass , „ 784 

B. — Ceyptogamia. 

Bennett & Mueeay's Cr^/jjio^'comc iJotojy Part 3 415 

Peop. de Baby's Microscopical Slides Part 6 784 

Cryptogamia Vascularia. 

Habeelandt, G. — Chlorophyll-bodies of Selaginella Part 1 93 

Teeub, M. — Prothallium of Lycopodium „ 94 

Heineichee, E. — Influence of Light on the Origiti of Organs in the Fern- 
embryo ' )» ^4 



CONTENTS. XXYU 

PAGE 

TiEGHEM, P. Van — DouhUng of the Endosperm in Vascular Cryptogams . . Part 2 254 

Campbell, D. H. — Systematic Position of the Rhizocarpese „ 254 

„ „ Germination of Marsilia segyptiaca . . „ 254 

,, ,, Development of Pilularia ,, 254 

Sterns, E. E. — " Bulblets " of Lycopodiam lucidulum „ 255 

Farlow, W. G. — Apospory in Pteris aquilina „ 256 

BoRZi, A. — Xerotropism in Ferns „ 256 

MiJLLEK, 0. — Structure of the Commissure of the Leaf-sheath of Equisetum „ 256 

EozE — Azola filiculoidis Part 3 417 

Church, A. H. — Aluminium in Vascular Cryptogams Part 4 551 

Farmer, J. B. — G ermination of the Megaspores of Isoetes „ 551 

GuiGNARD, L. — Antherozoids of Ferns „ 552 

Sablon, Leclerc DU — Stem of Ferns „ 552 

Lowe, E. J. — Varieties in Ferns „ 552 

Kabenhorst's Cryptogamic Flora of Germany ( Vascular Cryptogams') . . „ 553 

Stenzel, G. — Tubicaulis » .. „ 553 

Haswell, W. a. — Psilotum and Tmesipteris .. Part 5 672 

Stur, D. — Calamariex ,, 673 

Belajefp, W. — Antherozoids of Vascular Cryptogams Part 6 785 

Mednier — Sporocarp of Pilularia ,, 785 

Sablon, Leclerc du — Endoderm of the Stem of Selaginellaceie „ 785 

Teecol, A. — Pioot of the Filicinese „ 785 

y Muscineae. 

Warnstoee, C. — Acutifolium-Section of Sphagnum Parti 94 

Ha^e^korst's Cryptogamic Flora of Germany (Musci) „ 95 

Philibert — Peristome of Mosses Part 2 257 

Noll, F. — Shining of Schistostega osmundacea „ 257 

Stephani, F. — New Hepatiae „ 257 

Amann, J. — Leptotrichic Acid Part 4 553 

Geheeb, a. — Mosses from New Guinea ., 553 

GuiGNARD, L. — Antherozoids of Hepaticx and Mosses „ 554 

Haberlandt, H. — Geotropism of the Rhizoids of Marchantia and Lunularia „ 554 

Philibert — Peristome Part 5 673 

Gronwall, A. L. — Inflorescence of Orthotrichum „ 673 

Gravet, F. — Colouring-matter of Sphagnacex ,j 674 

Cliaracese. 

GuiGNARD, L. — Antherozoids of Characese Part 3 417 

Algae. 

West, W. — List of Desmids from Massachusetts. (Plates II. and III.) .. Part 1 16 

Eeinke, J. — Chromatophores of Phmosporex ^^ 95 

MiGULA, W. — Mode of Distribution of Algse 95 

Anderson, O. F. — Genetic Connection of Draparnaldia glomerata and 

Palmella uveeformis ^^ 95 

Dangeard, P. A. — Inferior Algse .. ,. , 95 

MoBius, M. — New Algie frjm Porto Rico 97 

Nordstedt, O. — Algee of New Zealand and Australia 97 

ScHtJTT, F. — Phycoerythrin Part 2 258 

Johnson, T. — Reproduction of Sphaerococcus 258 

Hansgirg, a. — Entooladia 259 

Wittrock, V. B. — Binuclearia 259 

MoBius, M. — Ghaitopeltis ^^ 259 

Murray, G .,& L. A. Boodle — Struvea 260 



XXVlll CONTENTS. 

' PAGE 

Dangeard, p. a. — Sexuality among the Lower Algse Part 2 260 

MiGULA, W. — Effects of dilute Acids on Algss Part 3 418 

BiGELOW, R. P. — Structure of the Frond of Champia parvula „ 418 

MoBlUS, M. — Askenasya polymorplia „ 418 

Noll, F. — Colouring-matter of Bangia „ 418 

HansgirG, A. — Classification of Confervoidem „ 419 

ToNi, G. B. DE, E. DE Wildeman, & A. Hansgirg — Mycoidea, Hansgirgia, 

and Phyllactidium „ 419 

Eeinke, J. — Tilopteridese „ 419 

Stockmayer, S. — New Genus of Desmidiacex „ 420 

Hansgirg, A. — Crenacantha, Feriplegmatium, and Hansgirgia „ 420 

Wildeman, E. DE — Trentepohlia , 420 

ToNi, G. B. DE — Pilinia and Acrohlaste „ 421 

Noll, F. — Influence of Position on the Morphological Development of some 

Siphonocladacese „ 421 

PiccONE, A. — Connection of the geographical distribution of Algse with the 

chemical nature of the substratum Part 4 555 

AsEENASY, E., and OTHERS — Algsd of the ' Gazelle ' Expedition „ 555 

WiLLB, N. — Development of Tissues in Floridex ,, 555 

Eosenvinge, L. K. — Frond of Polysiphonia „ 556 

WiLLE, N., & J. G. Agardh — Apical Cell of Lomentaria and Champia .. „ 556 

Barber, C. A. — Bulb of Laminana bulbosa , 556 

Vries, H. DE — Contraction of the Chlorophyll-bands of Spirogyra .. .. „ 557 

Wildeman, E. DE — Variation in Desmids ,, 557 

Murray, G., & L. A. Boodle — Spongocladia i . „ 557 

Woltkb, G. — Urospora > .. .. „ 557 

ToNi, G. B. DE — Ohionyphe „ 558 

M-VRUAY, G., & L. A. 'BoOBhE-i-Avrainvillea „ 558 

Noll, F. — Cellulose-fibres of Caulerpa , 558 

Klein, L. — Vohox „ 558 

Dawson, Sir W., & D. P. Penhallow — Nematophyton „ 560 

Went, F. A. F. 0. — Vacuoles in Algse Part 5 674 

GuiGNARD, L. — Antherids and Pollinoids of Floridex , 674 

„ „ Antherozoids of Fucacese „ 675 

BoBNET, E. — Ectocarpus „ 675 

SoDERSTROM, E. — Desmarestia aculeata „ 675 

Hariot, p. — Delamarea, a new genus of Phxosporeie „ 676 

Hansgirg, A. — Phxodennatium „ 676 

Kjelman, F. R. — Frond of Chordariacese „ 676 

BOLDT, R. — Distribution of Desmidiacese „ 676 

Mallory, M. L., G. W. Rafter, & J. B. Line — Volvox globator .. .. „ 677 

ToNi, G. B. — Phyllactidium, Phycopeliis, and Hansgirgia Part 6 786 

Atwell, C. B. — Conjugation of Spirogyra „ 786 

Ryder, J. A. — Vokox minor „ 786 

Fungi. 

Johnson, W. — Sporids of Lichens Part 1 97 

Amthob, 0. — Saccharomyces apiculatus „ 98 

Arcangeli, G. — Kefir „ 99 

ZxjKAL, H. — New Type of Hymenomycetes „ 99 

yoLMS-LAUBACH, Graf zu — Ustilago Treubii „ 99 

Bary, a. DE — Saprolegniese „ 99 

FoEX, G., & L. Ravaz — Structure of White Rot „ 100 

WaeburQ, O. — Cancer of the Cinchona ,, 100 



CONTENTS. t XXIX 

PAGE 

CAYA-nA,F.— New Fungi of the Vine Parti 100 

ViALA, P., & L. Eavaz. — Diseases of the Vine „ 100 

'RxB'Eifl'ao'RST^S Cryptogamic Flora of Germany (^Fungi) „ 101 

Frank, B. — Physiological Significance of My corhiza Part 2 261 

Magnus, P. — Hibernation of I'eronosporese „ 261 

Bkogniart, C. — Entomophthorese, and their use in the destruction of noxious 

Insects „ 261 

LaGERHEIM, G. — Olpidiella, a neiv genus of Chytridiacem ,, 262 

IjINDAU, G. — Origin and Development of the Apotheces of Liche7is .. .. „ 262 

MtJLLER, J. — Graphideee „ 263 

Massalongo, C. — Germination of the Spores of Sphserospidex „ 263 

Nawaschin, S. — Helotium parasitic on Sphagnum „ 263 

VuiLLEMiN, p. — Pezizse causing Cankers in Goniferx „ 263 

WORONIN, M. — Sclerotinix of Vaccinium „ 263 

James, J. F. — Develo^mient of Corynites Gurtissii ,, 264 

Cavara, F. — New Parasitic Fungi „ 264 

Ward, H, M. — Lily Disease „ 265 

SOROKIN, N. — Saccharomyces Allii, sp. n „ 265 

„ ,, Polydesmus pietalicolor, sp. n ,, 265 

,, „ Sorosporella Agrotidis, g. et sp. n „ 266 

Gasperini, G. — Fermentation of Palm-wine „ 266 

DiETEL, P. — New Melampsora „ 266 

IjAGerheim, G. — New Urocystis „ 266 

Harz, C. O. — Fungi of Mines „ 266 

Masseb, G. — Revision of the Trichiacese. (Plates V.-VIII.) Part 3 325 

DuPETiT, G — Toxic Principles of Fungi „ 421 

SCHICHT, A. — New Cases of Mycorhiza „ 422 

CosTANTiN, J. — Simple Mucedine^e „ 422 

Dangeard, P. A. — Biology of Chytridiacew „ 422 

Cunningham, D. D. — Bamphospora, a new genus of Ustilaginex ., .. „ 423 

ZoPF, W. — Fungi parasitic on the lower Animals and Plants „ 423 

Plowright's (C. B.) -B^-iiisA Uredinese and Ustilaginex 424 

Solms-Laubach — Penicilliopsis, a new genus of Ascomycetes „ 424 

Fischer, E. — Gyttaria ^ 424 

BoRZi, A. — Eremothecium, a new genus of Ascomycetes 425 

Baccarini, P. — Coniothyrium diplodella 425 

Mattirolo, O. — Polymorphism of Pleospora herharum 425 

JoNSSON, B. — Presence of a Sulphurous Oil in Penicillium glaucum . . . . 426 

Klebahn, H. — Dissemination of the Spores in Rhytisma acerinum .. .. , 426 

Adametz, L. — Saccharomyces lactis 42q 

Arcangeli, G. — Phospjhorescence of Pleurotus olearius 426 

ZuKAL, H., & V. Fayod — Hymenoconidium 427 

Zopp, W. — Fungus-pigments Part 4 560 

KiTASATO, S. — Musk-fungus , cgQ 

GlARD, A. — New Entomophthoracese \ , Ko-t 

Magnus, P. — Uropldyctis Kriegeana, sp. n r.a-i 

Kirchner, O. — Elxomyces, a new type of Fungi cgj 

Bonnier, G. — Synthesis of Physcia parietina cgi 

Cooke, M. C, & G. Masse — New development of Ephelis " 552 

Eomeguere, 0. — Disease of Chestnut-trees cgr, 

MiYABE, KiNGO — Life-history of Macrosporium parasiticum gg2 

Cavaea, F. — American ^^ Bitter-rot" c/,q 

CoSTANTiN, J. — Cladosporium herharum ego 

LuDWiG, E. — Microscopic twining Fungus ego 



XXX CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

DiETEL, E. — TIeterospory of Gymnosporangium Part 4 563 

SoRAUEE, P. — Mildew of the Apple „ 563 

Klebahn, H. — Uredinese of Pinus Strohns „ 564 

Patouillakd, N. — Coleopuccinia „ 564 

CosTANTiN, J. — Tulasnella, Prototremella, and Pachysterigma „ 564 

Martelli, (J. — Phosphorescence of Agaricus olearius „ 564 

Atkinson, G. F. — Phosphorescent Mushroom „ 565 

Beck, G. Kittee v. — Porop)tyche, a new genus of Polyporex „ 565 

Amann, J. — Mycose on the Sporange of Mosses „ 565 

Chmielewskij, W. — Conjugation of Nuclei in the Impregn'dion of Fungi . . Part 5 677 

BouEQUELOT, E. — Saccharine matters of Fuugi „ 677 

NOACK, F. — Mycorhiza-forming Fangi „ 678 

Haetog, M. M. — Structure of Saprolegniacex „ 678 

DiETEL, P. — Germination of Teleutospores „ 678 

Hesse, R. — Tuheraceai and Elaphomycetes „ 679 

BoNNiEE, G. — Synthesis of Lichens „ 679 

,, ,, Betelopment of Lichens on the Protoneine of Mosses .. ., „ 680 

Fries, T. M.—P«7ojj/iorMs „ 680 

Sadebeck, E. — Fungus-parasites of the Alder „ 680 

EiDAM, E., & E. EosTEUP— Mi^octonw „ 681 

VuiLLEMiN, p., & E. Prilliedx — Parasitic Fungus on the Lomhardy Poplar „ 681 

Balbiani, E. G. — Entophytes in Myriopods „ 681 

Massaet, J. — Heliotropism of Phycomyces „ 681 

DiETEL, P. — Puccinia vexans „ 681 

Meyer, B. — Saprophytic development of parasitic Fungi „ 682 

Eriksson, J, — Haplobasidion, a new genus of Dematiex „ 682 

Chodat, E., & P. Chuit — Lactarius piperatus „ 682 

Costantin, J., & EoLLAND — Blastomyces Part 6 786 

Thomas, F. — Synchytrium alpinum „ 787 

Beefeld, 0. — Ustilaginex „ 787 

LiNDT — Pathogenic Fungus from the ffuman Far „ 787 

Bonnet, H, — Parasitism of the Truffle „ 788 

Tubecp, C. V. — Fungi parasitic on Trees „ 788 

Thumen, F. v. — Fungi parasitic on Rice „ 788 

Costantin, J., & A. N. Beelese, — Echinobotryum and Stysanus .. .. „ 788 

Beelese, A. N. — Prolification in the Hyphomycetes „ 789 

„ „ Lahoulheniacex „ 789 

VuYLSTEKE, J. — Contemporaneous actiou of different Mnds of Saccharoviyces „ 790 

Barclay, A. — Himalayan TJredinex „ 790 

Lageeheim, G. v. — Bostrupia, a new genus of Uredineie „ 790 

BoLLEY, H. L. — Subepidermal Rusts „ 791 

Thaxter, E. — Cultures of Gymnosporangium „ 791 

Cunningham, D. D. — Ravenelia „ 791 

Barclay, A. — Ceeoma smilacinis „ 791 

Shipley, A. E. — Macrosporium parasiticum ,, 791 

Smith, E. F. — Peach Yellow „ 792 

Fayod, V. — Boletopsis, a new Genus of Hymenomycetes „ 792 

Fulton. T. W. — Dispersion of the Spores of Fungi by Insects „ 792 

Mycetozoa, 

Miliakaeis, S. — Tylogonus Agavse '.. Part 3 427 

Eaunkizee, C. — My xomycetes of Denmark ;|,. Part 5 682 

Eaciboeski, M. — New Myxbmycetes „ 683 

ZoPF, W. — Colouring-matters of Mycetozoa Part 6 792 



CONTENTS. XXXI 

Protopliyta. , 

a. Scliizopliyeese. 

PAGE 

Castracane, F. — Reproduction and Multiplication of Diatoms Parti 22 

HiEBONYMUS, G. — Dicranochsete, a new Genus of Protococcacesc „ 101 

Deby, J. — Structure of Dvitom-valves ,, 101 

KiTTON, F. — New Species of Navicula „ 101 

Castkacane, Count F. — Diatoms of Hot Springs „ 102 

„ „ Comp)ositioii of the Marine Tripolis of the Valley 

of Metaurus „ 102 

Hansgirg. a. — Classification of the Cyanophycese „ 102 

BoRNET, E., & C. Flahault — Heterocystous Nostocacex „ 103 

TOMASCHEK, H. — Relationship of Bacillus muralis and Glaucothrix gracillima „ 103 

Castbacane, F. — Antiquity of Diatoms Part 2 266 

WiLDEMAN, E. DE — Scenedesmus Part 3 427 

PeragallO — Mediterranean Diatoms „ 427 

BcamTiT's Atlas der Diatomaceenkunde „ 428 

Hansgirg, A. — Bacillus muralis and Grotto-Schizophyceie „ 428 

Gobi, C. — Peromelia, a New Genus of Schizophycese Part 4 565 

Cunningham, D. D. — Stomatochytrium, a new Genus of Endopyhytic Proto- 

coccacese „ 565 

Hansgirg, A. — Tetraedron ,, 566 

Terry, W. A. — Movements of Diatoms cmd Oscillaria „ 566 

Smith, T. F. — Valve of Pleurosigma ,, 566 

Kain, C. H., & E. A. ScHULTZE — Fossil Marine Diatoms , 566 

Macchiati, L. — Synedra puhhella, Ktz., var. abnormis „ 566 

Hansgirg, A. — Classification of Cyanophycem , 567 

Prantl, K. — Parasitism of Nostoc 567 

Castracane, F. — Cyclophora Part 5 683 

„ „ Diatoms of African Tripoli „ 683 

Correns, C. — Growth of the Cell-wall hy Intussusception in some Schizophyceie Part 6 793 

Imhauseb, L. — Prasiola 793 

BoENET, E. — Heterocystous Nosiocacese, . . ,, 793 

MtJLLEE, O. — Movements of Diatoms 793 

„ ,, Auxospore of Terpsinoe 794. 

Weed, "W. H. — Diatom-beds of the Yellowstone .. ., 794 

13. Schizomycetes. 

Billet, A. — Bacterium Balhianii, a chromogenous marine Bacterium .. .. Parti 104 

Salkowski. E. — Ferment from putrefactive Bacteria „ 104 

Wakkbr, J. H. — Contributions to Vegetable Pathology 105 

Engelmann, T. W. — Purple Bacteria and their relation to Light .. .. „ 105 

Belfanti & Pescaeolo — Pathogenic Bacterium found in Tetanus .. .. „ 105 

SoEOKiN, N. — Algophaga pyriformis ^^ 106 

XilNDNEE, P. — Sarcinie of Fermentation 106 

Feaenkel, C, & E. Pfeipeee — Photomicrographic Atlas of Bacteriology . . „ 107 

Wigand, a., & E. Denneet — Protoplasm considered as a Ferment Organism „ 107 

ScHULZ, H. — Yeast-poisons IQ3 

Bittee, H. — Doctrine of Phagocytes Part 2 267 

HiLTNEE — Bacteria of Fodder and Seeds 268 

Zaslein, T. — Varieties of Eoch' s Comma Bacillus 269 

Ppuhl — Spore-formation in the Bacillus of Typhoid Fever 269 

Heeicouet, J., & Ch. EiCHET — Staphylococcus pyosepticus „ 269 

Kitasata, S. — Resistance of the Cholera Bacteria to Heat and Drying . . „ 270 



XXXll CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Heydeneeich — structure of Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus Part 2 270 

Semmer, E. — Micro-organisms of Pneumonia of Lambs and Calves . . . . „ 270 

ScHOTTELius — Nucleus or nucleoid hodies of ScMzomycetes Part 3 429 

Ltjstig, A. — Micro-organisms of Mytilus edulis „ 429 

Lewin, A.m. — Spo7-e-formation in Bacillus anthracis „ 429 

Beyeeinck, M. W. — Bacteria of the Tubercles of Papilionaceie „ 430 

Gamaleia, N. — Natural mode of infection of Vibrio Metschnikovi . . . . „ 430 
WiNOGEADSKY, T., & A. Hansgirg — Morphology and Physiology of the 

Sulphur Bacteria Part 4 567 

HoLSCHEWNiKOFF — Bacteria vhich pfoduce Sulphuretted Hydrogen .. .. „ 567 

Jackson, C. Q. — Bacillus of Leprosy „ 568 

Chauveaii, a. — Vaccinal Properties of Microbes „ 568 

Hueppe's (F.) Bacteriology „ 569 

Mafl'COI a. — Tuberculous Infection of the Fowl-embryo „ 569 

Kaelinski, J. — Bacillus murisepticus pleomorphus, a new pathogenic Schizo- 

mycete „ 570 

FiETSCH, G. — Variations of the Vibrio Proteus , 570 

Neuhauss, R. — Flagella of the Cholera Bacilli „ 571 

Maleeba, p., & G. Sanna-Salaris — Glischrobacterium „ 571 

Hewz, A.— Mucous Disease of Hyacinths „ 572 

Ianovsky, F. G. — Bacteriology of Snow „ 572 

GlAXA, I>E — Number of Bacteria in the Contents of the Gastro-enteric Tube 

of some Animals Part 5 683 

RiETSCH & DU BouRGUET — New Pyogenetic Bacillus „ 684 

EoWDESWELL, G. F. — New Species of Chromogenous Microbe „ 684 

Griffiths, A. B. — Micro-organisms and their Destruction Part 6 794 

Hansen, E. C. & F. Ludwig. — Micro-organism found in the mucous flux of 

Trees „ 795 

Metsc;hnikoff — Pleomorphism of Bacteria „ 795 

Ali-Cohen, C. H. — Movements of Micrococci „ 795 

Chauveaxj, A. — Variability of Bacilhis anthracis „ 796 

COURMONT, J. — New Bovine Tubercle Bacillus „ 796 

VuiLLEMiN, p. — Relation of the Bacilli of the Aleppo Pine to the living tissues „ 19il 

CcKNiNGHAM, D. D. — Cholera Bacillus „ 797 

E.OXJX, E. — Preventive Inoculations „ 797 

Feeudeneeich, E. de — Antagonism of the Bacillus of Blue Pus and Anthrax „ 798 

MICROSCOPY. 
a. Instruments, Accessories, &c. 

(1) Stands. 

Fasoldt's (C.) " Patent" Microscope (Figs. 1 and 2) Part 1 109 

CzATSKi's (S.) Fa?'- (Tympanum) Microscope (Fig. 3) „ 112 

MoREAv's Monkey Microscope (Fig. i) ,, 113 

Cboxsck's Petrological Microscope „ 1]3 

'ReK'BERt's (G.) Petrological Microscope (Fig. 6} 113 

'H.VGKEs' (W, G.) Patent Oxi/hydrogen Microscope (Fig. G) „ 115 

„ „ Improved Microscopic Attachment — Cheap Form (Fig . 1) „ 116 

,, „ Special Combination Scientist Optical Lantern (Fig. 8) ,. „ 117 

Duo DE Chaulnes' ificroscqpe (i^jgr. 9) „ 118 

'Maker's, (G.) Portable Medical Microscope „ 161 

Pfeffer's (W.) Botanical Microscope (Fig. 38) Part 2 272 

A-SKEfiS' (G.D.') Giant Microscope (Fig. ^Q) „ 273 

^\iiEi''&(k^ou) Mineral Microscope (Fig. 'iO) „ 274 



CONTENTS. XXXIU 

PAGE 

Dyck, F. C. Van — Binocular Dissecting Microscope Part 2 275 

IjEITz's large Dissecting Micfvscope (Fig. il') ,, 275 

Dick and Swift's Patent Petrological Microscope (Fig- 57) Part 3 432 

Konkolt's (N. v.) Microscope for observing the Lines in Photographed 

Spectra (Fig. 5S) „ 436 

,, ,, Microscope for Beading the Knorre-Fuess Declinograph 

(Fig. 59) , 437 

IjmTz's No. 1 Stajid (Fig. 60) „ 438 

Adams's large Projection and Compound Microscope (Plate IX.) „ 438 

Chaeles I. if jcroscqpe (i^«V/s. 61-64) „ 440 

" Due DE Chaulnes' " ilfjcroscope (i^j^'. 65) „ 442 

Thompson, S. P. — Note on Polarizing Apparatus for the Microscope 

(Figs.7l-13) Part 5 617 

Binocular Microscopes (Ahrens, GoUzsch, and Holmes) (Figs. 74-77) .. ,, 685 
Blix's (M.) Microscopes for measuring the radii of the curved surfaces of the 

eye (Figs. 78-81) „ 688 

Ross's (Andrew) Screw and Pinion Coarse- and Fine-Adjustment (Figs. 82 

andSS) „ 691 

M^Ij^TOsn's (h. D.) Microscope-Attachment (Figs. 8i-87) „ 692 

Ol^iy Italian Microscope (Fig. 88) „ 695 

Anderson's (E. J.) " Panoramic Arrangement for the Microscope " (Fig. 97) Part 6 799 

T^E-LSOi^-CvRTElS Microscope (Large Model) (Fig. 98) „ 800 

'EvmBV'RGB. Students' Microscope (Figs. 99 and 100) „ 802 

IjEAcm's (W.) Improved Lantern Microscope (Figs. 101-103) „ 803 

(2) Eye-pieces and Objectives. 

Jackson, H. — Monobromide of Naphthaline as an Immersion Medium.. .. Part 1 119 

1/10 in. Apochromatic Objective of N. A. 1' 63 Part 6 805 

(3) Illuminating: and other Apparatus. 

Thoma's (B,.) Camera Lucida (Figs. 10 and 11) Parti 119 

Pantocsek, J. — Finder (Fig. 12) „ 121 

AvivsTABhE Safety-st'jge (Fig. 13) „ 121 

'E^G'EhM.A'S'N's (T. W.) Microspectrometer (Figs. 14:-16) „ 122 

Powell & Lealand's Apochromatic Condenser (Fig. 17) „ 125 

Koch & Max WoLz's iamp (%. 18) ,, 126 

Bausch & Lome Optical Co.'s Adjustable Hemispherical Illuminator 

(Fig.^9) „ 126 

Aureus' (G. D.) Modification of Delezenne's Polarizer ., ; .. Part 2 276 

Fa-lteu's(G., & Son) Botating Object-holder (Fig. 4:2) ,, 276 

Lattermann, G. — Apparatus for tneasuring very minute Crystals (Fig. 43) „ 277 

Ward, R. H. — Rogers' Eye-piece Micrometer (Fig. 66) Part 3 443 

EwELL, M. D. — Glass versus Metal Micrometers , „ 445 

„ „ Micrometer Measurements .- „ 447 

KhAATSCn's (Bl.) Radial Micrometer (Fig. 67) „ 447 

Krysinski's (S.) Eye-piece Micrometer and its uses in Microscopical Crystal- 
lography .= „ 448 

1ayi.o^& (3.) Oleomargariscope (Figs. 89 and 90) Part 5 696 

Heueck, H. tan — Recent Improvements in Electric Lighting applied to 

Micrography and Photomicrography (Fig. 91) .. .. ., .. .. „ 696 

(4) Photomicrog'rapliy. 

Kibbler's (A.) Photomicrographic Camera (Fig. 20) Parti 127 

M.A'VfSO'N & Swa'n's Photomicrographic Apparatus (Fig. 21) „ 128 

JioBmsoTi's (J. & Sotas) Photomicrographic Cameras (Figs. 22 and 23) ., „ 128 

1889. C 



Xxxiv CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Eoux, E. — Photomicrography with Magnesium Light Parti 129 

Maektanner's (G.) Instantaneous Fhotomicrographic Apparatus (Figs. 

24-26) " 129 

T-RAMBVSTi, A.— Easy Method for ^^ Photographing" Sections „ 133 

Zettnow, E. — Chromo-copper Light-filter „ 133 

Zeiss's large Fhotomicrographic Ap)paratus {Figs. 44-49) Part 2 278 

Moellee's (H.) Fhotomicrographic Apparatus {Fig. 68) Part 3 450 

Bezu, Hausser & Co.'s Fhotomicrographic Apparatus {Fig. 69) „ 452 

Schmidt and Haensch's Apparatus for Fhotographing the Tarnish Colours 

of Iron Surfaces « 453 

SuDDUTH, W. X. — "■ Artistic Fhotomicrography attained" Part 5 698 

Zeltnow, E. — Fhotomicrography and the Chromo-copper Light-filter . . .. „ 700 

(5) Microscopical Optics and Manipulation. 

Maskell, W.-M. — Optical Effect of Focusing up or down too much in the 

Microscope •• •• Parti 134 

Microscopical Optics . . Part 2 283 

McMahon, C. a. — Mode of using the Quartz Wedge for estimating the 

Strength of the Double- Refraction of Minerals in thin Slices of Rook 

{Fig. 50) „ 286 

Meecer, a. 0. — " Method of using with ease Objectives of shortest working 

distance in the clinical study of Bacteria " „ 287 

Nelson, E. M. — " Back of the Objective and Condenser" {Figs. 51-54:) .. „ 288 

Aperture Table . . „ 292 

Aperture Table Part 3 454 

Obeebeck, a. — Simple Apparatus for measuring the Magnification of Optical 

Instruments {Figs. 92-94t) Part 5 700 

Abbe, E. — On the Effect of Illumination by means of Wide-angled Cones of 

Light {Fig. 9Q) Part 6 721 

LowNE, B. T., E. M. Nelson, & L. Wright— -D;;^rachbw Theory {Figs. 

104-107) „ 806 

Smith, T. F. — Ultimate Structure of the Fleurosigma Valve {Figs. 108 and 

109) „ 812 

Lerot, C. J. A. & J. J. Landerer. — Disturbances of Vision consequent on 

Microscopic Observations ,, 817 

Didelot, L. — Amplifying Fower of the Microscope {Figs. 110-112) .. .. ,, 818 

C6) Miscellaneous- 

Death of Dr. Zeiss Part 1 135 

„ Mr. Zentmayer „ 135 

Cox, 0. F. — Letter of Darwin to Owen Part 3 454 

Govi, G. — " The Compound Microscope invented by Galileo " . . . . . . Part 4 574 

The President, Dr. Hudson, F.E.S Part 5 598 

Celebration of the Third Centenary of the Invention of the Microscope . . „ 702 

'RoG:m,s,y^.A.— ThelateChas.Fasoldt Part 6 829 

Sgohtisu Mio'oscopical Society ,, 830 

;3. Technique. 
(1) Collecting' Objects, including Culture Processes. 

Kain, C H. — Collecting Diatoms .. Parti 137 

JODIN, V. — Culture of Unicellular Algge , 137 

Lyon, H. N. — Improved Form of the " Wright " Collecting Bottle {Fig. 55) Part 2 295 

MuNNiCH, A. J. — Culture of Fungus of Famis {Achorion Schonleinii) .. .. „ 296 



CONTENTS. XXXV 

PAGE 

Celli, a. — Ordinary Foodstuff as Media for ^propagating Pathogenic Micro- 
organisms Part 2 296 

PuTEREN, Van. — Solid Media prepared from Milk • • . . „ 297 

Haedt, W. B. — Collecting Salt-water Sponges Part 3 456 

Benoist, L. — Nutritive Media for the Cultivation of Bacteria „ 456 

Moore, N. A. — Method of Preparing Nutritive Gelatin „ 457 

Petri, E. J. — Presence of Nitric Acid in Nutrient Gelatin .. ., .. .. „ 457 

SCHILL — Preserving Plate and Tvhe Cultivations „ 458 

„ Two Modifications of EsmarcKs Roll Cultivation .. „ 458 

„ Flask Cultivations „ 458 

" Wafers for Cultivation Purposes „ 458 

SoTKA & Bandlee — Development of Pathogenic Microbes on Media previously 

exhausted by other Micro-organisms „ 458 

Plaut, H. — Prevention of Cultivations from Drying „ 459 

Baensby, D. — Cultivation of Bacillus tuberculosis on Potato Part 5 598 

Maupas, E. — Culture of Infusoria „ 703 

(2) Preparing' Objects. 

Martinotti, C. — Reaction of Elastic Fibres with Silver Nitrate Parti 137 

Whitman, 0. 0. — Solvent for the Gelatinous Envelope of Amphibian Eggs . . „ 138 

Maurice, C. — Method of Examining Fragaroides „ 138 

VoRWORN, M. — Preparing Fresh-water Bryozoa „ 138 

Lee, A. Bolles — Preparing Tetrasteimna melanocephala ^, 139 

SCHEWIAKOFF — Karyokincsis in Eughjpha alvcolata „ 139 

Klein, L. — Permanent Preparations of Fresh-water Algee, ,, 139 

,, ,. Mounting Fresh-water Algx „ 140 

IsTVANPPi, G. — Preparation of Fungi „ 141 

Morgan, T. H. — Experiments with Chitin Solvents „ 141 

'Bend&.'s {G.) Mardening Method .. .. „ 142 

Jakimovitch, J. — Demonstrating Ttxmsverse Striations in Axis-cylinders and 

Nerve-cells Part 2 297 

Freeborn, G. C. — Macerating Fluid for Nerve-cells ' . . . . , 298 

Heidenhain, R. — Preparing small Intestine , 298 

Galeazzi, E. — Investigation of Nervous Elements of Adductor Muscles of 

Lamellibranchs 299 

Rees, J. TAN — Preparing Musca vomitoria , , 299 

OuDEMANS, J. T. — Examination of Thysanura and CoUembola 299 

Hartog, M. M. — Method of investigating Cyclopts ., 300 

Cobb, N. A. — Examination of Nematodes 3qq 

Ctjccati, J. — Prep ring the Brain of Somomya erythrocephala 301 

Geassi, B., & W. Schewiakoff — Preparing Megastoma entericum .. . . , 301 

Amann, J. — Preparation of MuscinoB .. _ 3Q2 

Weir, P. W. — Clearing recent Diatomaceous Material 302 

Morgan, T. H. — Chitin Solvents 303 

Platnee, G. p. — Investigation of Cell- structure Purt 3 459 

Bellonci, J. — Examining the Central Termination of Optic Nerve in Verte- 

&''«^« „ 460 

Sanders, A, — Preserving Nervous Systems 4gQ 

Vialleton, L. — Investigation of Ova of Sepia 4gy 

Simmons, J. W. — Examining Ants for Intesti?ial Parasitic Infusoria . . .. , 461 

ViZE, J. E. — Mounting Fungi ^qj^ 

Harz, C. 0. — Fixing of the Spores of Hymenomycetes 46j 

Thanhoffer, VON L. — New Methods for Preparing Nerve-cells Part 5 598 

Blochjiann, F. — Simple Method of Freeing Frogs' Ova .. 599 

c 2" 



XXXvi CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Peeeyaslawzewa, S. — Investigation of Ova of CapreUa ferox Part 5 599 

Leckenby — Preparing and Mounting Insects in Balsam „ 600 

Campbell, D. H. — Demonstration of Emhryo-sac „ 600 

Halsted, B. D. — Demonstration of PoUen-mother-cells and Pollen-tubes . . „ 600 

Coulter, J. M. — Continuity of Protoplasm in Plants .. „ 601 

BoHM, A. A. — Preparing Eggs of Petromyzon Part 5 704 

Stabr, T. W. — Preparing and Mounting with Pressure Insects entire, as 

Transparent Objects ,> 705 

Feiedlandee, B. — Preparing Central Nervous System of Lwnbricus .. .. „ 706 

Hyatt, J. D. — Preparing Sections of Spines of Echinus „ 707 

Shimee, H. — Examining a Shell-hark Hickory Bud „ 707 

Smiley, C. W. — White's Botanical Preparations „ 707 

GuNTHER, C. — Bacteriological Technique „ 708 

SoLGEB, B. — Demonstrating Mitosis in Mammalia Part 6 831 

Dubois, F — Mounting Fish-scales r „ 832 

Bedot, M. — Preserving Marine Animals „ 832 

FabRE-Domeegue — Examination of Protozoa „ 832 

Schewiakoff, W. — Investigation of Infusoria „ 833 

Hargitt, C. W. — Mounting Infusoria „ 834 

Brown, A. P. — Medium for mounting Starches and Pollens ,, 834 

Gill, C. Haughton — Preparing Diatoms „ 834 

FayOD, F. — New Application of Photography to Botany „ 835 

Astley, Weight. — Production and Preservation of Saccharine Crystals .. „ 835 

C3) Cutting-, including Imbedding- and Microtomes. 

KiNGSLEY, J. S. — Minofs Automatic Microtome {Figs. 27 and 28) .. .. Part 1 143 
Bobn. G. — Plate Modelling Method or Plastic Reconstruction of the Object 

(Figs.29-32) „ 144 

Kastschenko, N. — Cutting Microscopical Objects for the purpose of Plastic 

Reconstruction (Figs. 33 and 34:') „ 146 

'Lm'T'z'ii'''' Support" Microtome {Fig. 5Q) Part 2 304 

TAyLOn's (^V.) Combination Microtome „ 304 

Feeeboen, G. C. — Substitute for Corks in Imbedding „ 305 

PiERSOL, G. A. — Imbedding in Paraffin Part 3 462 

Freeborn, G. C. — Substitute for Corks in Imbedding „ 462 

Kma's {J. B.) Microtome {Fig. 95) Part 5 709 

Paolbtti's {V.) Imj^roved Microtome „ 710 

Daekschewitsch, L. — Method for keeping Serial Sections in order during 

Manipulation „ 710 

PoLi, A. — Imbedding in Glycerin Soap .. ., Part 6 835 

Webb. T. L. — Dextrin Mucilage for Imbedding ,, 836 

yanjKs' {G.) Improved Microtome „ 836 

Hough, R. B. — Thin Sections of Timber ,, 837 

(4) Staining- and Injecting-. 

ZscHOKKE, E. — New Stains for Microscopical Purposes Parti 147 

Upson, H. S. — Carmine Staining of Nervous Tissue „ 148 

Neuhauss, E. — Staining Microbes black for Photomicrography „ 148 

Leon, N. — Nucina as a Staining Agent ^^ 149 

Lewin, A. — Baumgarten's Triple Staining Method „ 149 

Baeanski, A. — Staining Actinomyces „ 150 

BujWlD, O. — Method for Distinguishing and Isolating Cholera Bacteria .. ,, 150 

Bellaeminow — Shellac Injection for the Vessels of the Eye „ 150 

Letelliee, a. — Black Injection-mass 151 



CONTENTS. XXSVii 

PAGE 

Bellarminow — Technique of the '■'■ Corrosion" of Celloidin Preparations .. Parti 151 

Freeborn, G. C. — Carminic Acid Stai^i Part 2 305 

„ „ Staining Connective Tissue with Nigrosin (^Indulin, Anilin 

Blue-black) 3()g 

Campbell, D. H. — Clearing and Staining of Vegetable Preparations .. .. 306 

Sauvageatj, C — Staining of Vegetable Tissues gQg 

Melle, G. — Staining Bacilli of Pihinoscleroma 3Q7 

Mayer, P. — Injecting and Preparing the Cu'culatory System of Fishes ., 307 
Petri, R. J. — Simple Apparatus for Injecting Fluids for Bacteriological 

Purposes ^^ 308 

GiBBES, H. — Logwood Staining Solution Part 3 462 

Gtjignet, C. E. — Soluble Prussian Blue 4g3 

Joseph, Max — Vital Reaction of Methyl-blue 453 

Kukenthal — Process of Staining Sections simplified by mixing the Staining 

Fluids loith Turpentine 453 

Griesbach, H. — Double, Triple, and Quadruple Staining 464 

Leven — Staining Muscle with Saffron 457 

Mangin, L. — Iodine Feactions of Cellulose 467 

Kuhne, H. — Staining the Bacillus of Glanders 4g8 

PiTTiON & KoTJX — New Rapid Process for Staining Bacillus tuherculi . . „ 468 

Nickel, E. — Staining reagents for Wood Part 5 601 

Kxjhne, H. — Staining of sections to show Micro-organisms in situ .. . . 601 
Gabbi, U. — New and rapid Method of staining the capsule of Bacillus 

pneumonise 601 

ScHiLL — Staining Tubercle Bacilli on Slides 602 

LoEFFLER, F. — New Method of Staining the Flagella and Cilia of Micro- 
organisms Parts 711 

KossiNSKi, A. — Staining differences in resting and active Nuclei in Carcinoma, 

Adenoma, and Sarcoma 712 

Martin, H. — Rapid method of Staining the Tubercle Bacillus in liquids and 

in tissues ^ 712 

ScHUTZ, J., & F. L. James — Staining and Detection of Gonococci .. .. „ 712 
Dinetjr, E. — Simple and rapid Method of staining Bacillus tuberculosis in 

sputum 713 

NoRDERLiNG, K. A. — New Method for staining the Tubercle Bacillus . , ., , 713 
Gage, Simon H., & Mrs. S. P. — Staining and mounting Elements which have 

been treated with Caustic Potash or Nitric Acid 7I3 

Vines, S. H. — Staining the Walls of Teast-plant Cells 714 

Flemming, W. — Solubility of Fat and Myelin in Turpentine Oil after the 

action of Osmic Acid 714 

Sanfelice, F. — Iodized Hxmatoxylin Part 6 837 

Trenkmann — Staining the Flagella of Spirilla and Bacilli 837 

DoGiEL, A. S. — Impregnating Tissues by means of Methylen-blue „ 838 

Flot — Impregnation in Black of Tissues 838 

(5) Mounting, including Slides, Preservative Fluids, «&c. 

Cunningham, K. M. — Preparation of Type-plates and arranged Groups of 

Diatoms ,. Part 1 152 

Martinotti, G. — Xylol-dammar ■.. • ^^ I53 

PoLi, A. — Kaiser'' s Gelatin for arranging microscojjical preparations in series „ 153 

James, F. L. — Limpid Copal Solution ^, I54 

Sadebeck, E. — Preserving Fluids for Fleshy and Succulent Plants .. .. „ 154 
CzAPSSi, S. — Determining the Thickness of Cover-glasses of Mounted Pre- 
parations j.^ J54 



XXXviii CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Sehlen, Von — Fixing Objects to Cover-glasses Part 2 308 

G. H. Q.— Glycerin Mounts ?' ^^9 

Peragallo, M- — Preparing and Mounting Diatoms •• Part 3 469 

Langibaudieee, Bialle de — Mounting Diatoms „ 469 

Shank, S. Q.^Ceinent Varnishes and Cells „ 470 

Davies, W. Z. — Copal Cement » 473 

Booth, M. A. — Finishing Slides v 474 

Bkown, a. p. — New Medium for Mounting Pollens and Starches Part 5 602 

Malassez, L. — Best for Slides and for Cultivation Plates „ 602 

Petki, E. J. — NitiHc Acid in Gelatin » 603 

VoECE, 0. M. — Hints on Mounting Objects in Farrant's Medium Part 5 714 

Walker, C. H. H.—iVeu) Ce« » 716 

QuiNN, E. P. — Mounting in Fluosilicate of Soda „ 716 

'BjJiVi-E.h-h^W.'D.— The Bidwell Cabinet .. ... „ 716 

Gallemaekts — Method for fixing Serial Sections to the Slide Part 6 839 

DiONTSio, I. — Apparatus for fixing down Series of Sections {Fig . WS) . . .. „ 839 

Bondurant, B. D. — Section Fixing „ 840 

Dbwitz, J. — Slide-rest for the Manipulation of Serial Sections (Fig. 114) .. „ 840 

MoRLAND, H. — Mounting " selected " Diatoms ,. 840 

Chapman, F. T. — Carbolic Acid in Mounting „ 841 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

Garbini's (A.) small Steam-generator for Microscopical Technique {Fig. 35) Part 1 155 
Sehrwald, E. — Paraffin Oven with simple arrangement for maintaining a 

constant temperature {Fig. ZQ) „ 156 

Stein's (L. V.) -Sieam -Ftmwe; (-F/f/. 37) „ 157 

TiiSTiTiGVissmG Stains of Human Blood „ 158 

MlQUEL, P. — Methods for ascertaining the number of Atmospheric Germs . . „ 158 

Berger, E. — Method for determining the true Shape of Microscopical Objects „ 158 

Practical Utility of the Microscope to Textile Worke7's Part 2 309 

Renard, a. — Value of the Microscopic Analysis of Rocks , 310 

Sehlen, Von — Microscopical Examination of Urine for Bacteria „ 313 

Whelpley, H. M. — Action of Bleaching Agents on Glass „ 314 

C. W. S. — Micro-organisms of the Bible „ 314 

Tavel — Counting the Colonies in an Esmarch Plate Part 3 471 

'Ujjmo^^Q.T^.— Models of Rotifers „ 473 

Hardy, J. D. — Syrup for keeping Rotifers quiet „ 475 

Hatch, F. H. — RosenbuscW s Petrographical Tables, an aid to the Microscopical 

Determination of Rock-forming Minerals Part 5 603 

Oarnelly, T., & T. Wilson — Neiv Method of Determining the Number of 

Micro-organisms in Air {Fig. 70) „ 603 

Oedmann — Value of Bacteriological Examination for Estimating the Purity 

of Drinking-water „ 604 

Arloing — Apparatus for the Bacteriological Examination of Water .. .. „ 605 
TiEMANN, F., & A. Gartner — Chemical and Bacteriological Examination of 

Water „ 605 

Klein, L. — Diagrams of Microscopical Objects for Class Teaching .. .. „ 605 

Hegler, R. — Thallin, a new Reagent for Lignin ,, 606 

Brabmer, L. — New Micro-chemical Reagent for lannin „ 606 

Moellek, H. — Tests for Tannin „ 606 

Costantin, J. — New Method of recognizing small quantities of Invertin . . „ 607 

Fraenkel, C, & a. Pfeiffer — Microscopical Atlas of Bacteriology ,, ., Part 5 716 

EocKWOOD, G. G. — Detecting Alterations in Manuscript „ 717 

Beiiren«, W. — Apparatus for Isolating Objects {Fig. 115) Part 6 842 



CONTENTS. XXXIX 

PAGE 

FoRSTETTEK, E. — New Method for the Bacteriologiecd Examination of Air 

(Figs. UG and 111) Part 6 843 

HoVENDEN, F. — Examining Thin Films of Water „ 843 

KuRz's (W.) Transparent Microscopical Plates .. .. „ 844- 

Proceedings of the Society — 

December 12, 1888 .. .. Parti 160 

January 9, 1889 „ 165 

February 13, 1889 (Annual Meeting) .. Part 2 315 

Eeporfc of the Council for 1888 .. .. „ 315 

Treasurer's Account for 1888 „ 316 

March 13, 1889 „ 319 

AprillO,lS89 .. Part 3 472 

Mays, 1889 „ 473 

June 1-2, 1889 .. .. .. .. .. Part 5 608 

November 28, 1888 (Conversazione) „ 718 

May 1, 1889 (Conversazione) .. .. .. .. „ 719 

October 9, 1889 Part 6 845 

November 13, 1889 „ 848 

Index , 853 



agal Ulirrnsmpiral Sotut^, 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 



ORDINARY FELLOWS. 



* Fellows who have compounded for their Annual Subscriptions. 



Elected. 

1888 Abel, William Jenkinson, B.A. 

Burford Road, Nottingham. 
1866 |*Abercrombie, John, M.D. (Cantab.), F.E.C.P. 

23, Upper Wimpole-street, W. 

1885 Aberdein, Eobert, M.D. 
Syracuse, N.T., U.S.A. 

1872 Abraham, Phineas, M.A., B.Sc, F.E.C.S.I. 

University Club, Dublin. 
1871 Ackland, William, L.S.A. 

416, Strand, W.G. 

1886 Alabone, Edwin William. 
11, Highbury-quadrant, N. 

1884 Ailing, Charles Edgar. 

6, Bundel ParJc, Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. 

1869 *Ames, George Acland. 
Union Club, Trafalgar-square, W.C. 

1870 Anthony, John, M.D. (Cantab.), F.E.C.P.L. 
6, Greenfield-crescent, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 

1871 Armstrong, Thomas. 
BrooJcfield, Urmston, Manchester. 

1883 Atwood, H. F. 

German Insurance Company, Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. 
1883 Aylward, Henry Prior. 

15, Gotham-street, Strangeways, Manchester. 



1874 
1888 
1887 
1863 
1885 
1882 
1882 



Badcock, John. 

270, Victoria Park-road, E. 
Bage, Edward. 

Cranford, Fulton-street, St. Kilda, Melbourne. 
Bailey, Eev. George. 

The Manse, Finchingfield, Essex. 
Baker, Charles. 

244, High Holborn, W.G. 
Baker, Frederick Henry. 

100, Bridge-road, Richmond, Victoria. 
Bale, William Mountier. 

H.M. Customs, Melbourne, Victoria. 
Balem, Abraham D. 

Plainfield, Neiv Jersey, U.S.A. 



xliv EOYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY: 



Elected. 

1882 
1887 
1888 
1885 
1867 
1867 
1881 
1883 
1874 
1889 

1884 
1852 

1883 
1885 
1859 
1875 
1888 
1879 

1879 

1884 
1876 
1884 
1866 



Ball, Joseph. 

South Hill, Guildford, Surrey. 
Ball, William. 

61, Bourhe-street East, Melbourne, Victoria. 
Ballard, Eev. Frank, M.A., F.C.S. 

Crosby, Liverpool. 
Ballard, John Farrow. 

Somerby Villa, Norfolk Park, Maidenhead. 
Bannister, Eichard. 

Laboratory, Inland Bevenue, Somerset House, W.G. 
*Barker, Samuel, M.D., L.E.C.P. Edin. M.E.C.S., F.E.Met. S., &c. 
24, Eaton-place, Brighton. 
Barrow, John. 

Beechfield, Folly-lane, Swinton, near Manchester. 
Bastin, E. S. 

3830, South-park Avenue, Chicago, III., U.S.A. 
Bate, George Paddock, M.D., F.E.C.S.E. 

2, Northumberland Houses, King Edward' s-rd.. Hackney, E. 
Bateman, Eev. B. Jones. 

Sheldon Bectory, near Birmingham, and Pentre Mawr, 
Abergele, Denbighshire. 
Bates, William Henry, M.D. 

116, Schermerhorn-street, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Beale, Lionel Smith, M.B. (Lond.), F.E.C.P., F.E.S., Professor 
of the Principles and Practice of Medicine in King's College, 
London, and Physician to the Hospital, Tkeastjree. 
61, Grosvenor-street, W. 
Beaumont, Walter Ibbetson. 

10, Burlington-street, Bath. 
*Beck, Conrad. 

68, Cornhill, B.C. 
*Beck, Joseph, F.E.A.S. 
68, Cornhill, B.C. 
Beeby, William Hadden, A.L.S. 
14, Bidinghouse-street, W. 
Bell, Alfred Dillon. * 

Shag Valley Station, Waihemo, Otago, New Zealand. 
*Bell, F. Jeifrey, M.A., F.Z.S., Professor of Comparative 
Anatomy and Zoology in King's College, London, Secretary. 

5, Badnor-place, Gloucester-square, W. 

*Bennett, Alfred William, M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S., Lecturer on 
Botany at St. Thomas's Hospital. 

6, Park Village East, Begent' s-park, N.W. 
Bennett, John. 

58, Tudor-street, Manchester-road, Bradford. 
Bentley, Charles Simpson. 

Hazelville-villa, Sunnyside-road, Hornsey-rise, N. 
Bernays, Augustus Charles, M.A., M.D, 

1102, Chambers-street, St, Louis, Mo., U.S.A. 
* Barney, John. 

61, North-end, Croydon. 



OEDINARY FELLOWS. xlv 

Elected. 

1884 *Bettany, George Thomas, M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S. 

33, Oakhurst-grove, East Dulwich-road, S.E. 
1871 Bevington, William, Alfred. 

Avondale, Coleraine-road, Westcomhe Park, Blacklieatli, 
S.E. 
1862 *Bidlake, John Purdue, B.A., F.C.P., F.C.S. 

339, Essex-rond, Islington, N. 

1881 Blackburn, William. 

The Woodlands, Chorlton-cum-Hardij, near Manchester. 

1879 Blackham, George E., M.D. 

Buffalo-street, DunhirJc, N. Y., U.S.A. 
1887 Blagg, John Ward. 

14, Portsea-]jlace, Connaught-square, W. 
1848 Blenkins, George Eliezer, F.R.C.S., F.R.H.S. ; Dep. Lisp.- 
Gen., late Surgeon-Major, Grenadier Guards. 

9, WaricicJc-square, South Belgravia, S. W. 
1889 Booth, Mary Ann (Miss). 

LongmeadoiD, Mass., U.S.A. 

1878 Borland, John, F.L.S. 

Etruria, Kilmarnorh, N.B. 
1862 Borradaile, Charles. 

3, Norfolk-terrace, Brighton. 

1882 Borrer, William, jun., F.G.S. 

PaJcyns Manor, Murstpierpoint, Sussex. 
1858 *Bossey, Francis, M.D. 

Oxford-road, Bedhill. 

1880 Bostock, Edwin, F.L.S. 

The Badfords, Stone, Staffordshire. 
1884 Botterill, Charles. 

52, Fern Grove, Liverpool. 

1865 Bouverie, Right Hon. Edward Pleydell, M.A. (Cantab.), 

F.R.S. 

Manor House, Marhet Lavington, Wilts. 

1886 Bowdler, Arthur Clegg. 

20, Bank-terrace, Blackburn. 
1862 Bowman, Frederick Hungerford, D.Sc, F.L.S., F.R.S. A., \g. 
Halifax, Yorkshire. 

1866 Braidwood, Peter Murray, M.D., L.R.C.S.E. 

Minto House, Shirehampton, Bristol. 
1866 Braithwaite, Robert, M.D., M.R.C.S., F.L.S. 
The Ferns, 303, Clapham-road, S. W. 

1879 *Bramwell, The Right Hon. Lord. 

Edenhridge, Kent. 

1887 Brayley, Edward B. Lyttleton. 

Bockdeane, Hughenden-road, Clifton, Bristol. 
1884 Breeds, Thomas. 

11, Albany-road, St. Leonards-on-Sea. 
1879 Bremner, Alexander Martin. 

3, North King's Bench Walk, Temple, E.G. 
1886 Brevoort, Henry Leffert. 

206, Broadway, New York, U.S.A. 



xlvi ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY: 



Elected. 

1876 

1878 
1887 
1887 
1864 
1863 
1866 
1885 
1882 
1868 
1883 
1884 
1876 
1883 
1881 
1860 

1879 
1870 
1874 
1879 
1881 
1887 
1880 
1883 
1867 



Brindley, William. 

Pergola House, Denmark-hill, S.E, 
*Brook, George, jun., F.L.S. 

University, Edinburgh. 
Brooke, Lieut.-Col. Charles Kennedy, F.R.G.S., F.E.Met.Soc. 

66, EimhoUon-road, Bedford, 
Browne, Edward Thomas. 

141, Uxhridge-road, W. 
^Browne, Eev. Kobert Henry Msbet, M.A. (Oxon), F.E.B.S. 

120, Inverness-terrace, Bayswater, W. 
Browning, John, F.R.A.S., F.E.Met.S. 

63, Strand, W.G. 
Brushfield, Thomas Nadauld, M.D., &c. 

The Cliffe, Budleigh Salterton, Devonshire. 
Budgett, James L. 

StoJce ParJc, Guildford, Surrey. 
Bulloch, Walter Hutchison. 

99, West Monroe-street, Chicago, III., U.S.A. 
*-Burn, William Barnett, M.D. (Lond.) M.E.C.S. 

Beechwood, Balham-road, Ujpper Tooting, S.W, 
Burrill, Thomas Jonathan, A.M., Ph.D. 

Champaign, III., U.S.A. 
Bussell, Joseph William. 

Glenelg, Adelaide, South Australia. 
*Butler, Philip John, F.Z.S. 

Lansdowne Villa, Barnstajple. 
Butterworth, John. 

21, BlaJcelock-street, Shaiv, near Oldham, 
Bygott, Eobert. 

Sandbach, Cheshire. 
By water, W^itham Matthew, 

5, Hanover-square, W. 



Campbell, Francis Maule, F.L.S. 
Mose-hill, Hoddesdon. 
*Capel, Charles Cecil. 

Windham Club, 13, St. James's- square, S.W. 
*Carpenter, Alfred, M.D., J.P. 
High-street, Croydon. 
Carpenter, Henry Sanders. 

Bechington House, Weighton-road, Anerley, S.E. 
Carr, Eev. Edmund, M.A. (Camb.), F.E.Met.S. 

Holbrooke Hall, near Derby. 
Carr, Herbert Wildon. 

34, Craven-street, W.C. 
*Carruthers, William, F.E.S., F.L.S. 

British Museum [Nat. Hist.), South Kensington, S. W. 
Carter, George W., M.A., F.L.S. 

Lime Grove, Knottingley, Yorkshire. 
Cartwright, Samuel, F.E.O.S. 

32, Old Burlington-street, W. 



Elected. 

1888 
1885 
1888 
1861 

1888 
1889 
1879 
1889 
1883 
1881 
1886 
1885 
1863 
1885 
1883 
1880 
1880 
1883 
1867 
1881 

1879 
1886 
1866 
1889 
1881 



ORDINAEY FELLOWS. xlvil 

Case, Henry Williams. 

Oxford-street, Gotham, Bristol. 
Cash, John Theodore, M.D. 

25, Dee-street, Aberdeen, N.B. 
Cash, William, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

38, Elmfield Terrace, Halifax, Yorkshire. 
*Cattley, Edward Abbs. 

Care of Messrs. Ropes & Co., 5, Jeffrey' s-square, St. Mary 
Axe, E.G. 
Cave, Thomas William, M.E.C.V.S. 

Broad-street, Nottingham. 
Chamberlin, Humphrey B. 

Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. 
* Chandler, George. 

24, Moorgate-street, E.G. 
Chapman, Walter Ingram. 

5, Hollywood-villas, Melrose-road, Wandsworth, S.W. 
Cheshire, Frank Eichard, F.L.S. 

Bosemont, Tweedy-road, Bromley, Kent. 
Christian, Walter Thomas. 

Clarence House, Loughton, Essex. 
Christie, John. 

Clevedon Lodge, St. Margaret's, Twickenham. 
Churchill, Lord Edward Spencer. 

Castle Mead, Windsor. 
Ciaccio, Guiseppe. 

Bologna, Italy. 
Clark, Joseph. 

Hind Hayes, Street, Somerset. 
Cleland, William Lennox, M.B. 

Parkside Lunatic Asylum, Adelaide, S.A. 
Close, James Alexander, M.B., L.E.C.P.E. 

P.O. Box 37, Summerfield, St. Glair Co., 111., U.S.A. 
Clowes, William. 

13, Charing Gross, S. W. 
Codling, Eev. William E, 

9, Blenheim- square, Leeds. 
*Codringtoi3, Oliver, M.D., M.E.C.S. {Army Medical Depart.). 

85, Upper Bichmond-road, Putney, S. W. 
Coffin, Walter Harris, F.L.S., P.C.S., &c. 

94, Cornwall Gardens, South Kensington, S.W., and 
Junior Athenseum Club, Piccadilly, W. 
Cole, Arthur Charles. 

29, Thurleigh-road, Wandsworih-common, S.W. 
Collie, Alexander, M.D. 

The Grove, Homerton, E. 
Collins, Charles. 

157, Great Portland-street, W. 
Collins, Walter Hepworth, F.C.S. 

14, Bradford-buildings, Maivdsley-street, Bolton-le-Moors. 
Collins, William P. 

157, Great Portland-street, W, 



xlviii 



ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY: 



Elected. 

1889 
1880 

1887 

1884 
1867 

1888 
1875 
1881 
1881 
1839 
1881 
1884 
1870 



1874 
1875 
1860 
1885 

1871 
1878 
1886 
1866 
1883 



Conway, Frank. 

Home View, Arterherry-road, Wimbledon. 
Cooke, John Henry. 

Winsford, Cheshire. 
Copeman, Sydney Arthur Monckton, M.A., M.B. (Cantab.). 
Demonstrator of Physiology, St. Thomas's Hospital, London. 
134, YorJc-road, Lambeth, S.W. 
Coppin, George. 

14, Selwyn Villas, Munster-road, Fulham, S.W. 
*Coppock, Charles, F.E.A.S., F.E.Met.S. 

86, Davies-street, Berheley-square, W., and 109, Grosvenor- 
road, Highbury New-park, N. 
Corke, Henry Charles. 

178, High-street, Southampton. 
Cowan, Thomas William. 

Compton's Lea, Horsham, Sussex. 
Cox, Charles F. 

100, East Seventeenth-street, New York, U.S.A. 
Cox, Jacob D., M.A., LL.D. 

College Building, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Craig, Thomas. 

259, Water-street, BrooMyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Creese, Edward James Edgell. 
Innellan, Cirencester. 
*Crisp, Catherine (Mrs.). 

5, Lansdoivne-road, Notting-hill, W. 
*Crisp, Frank, LL.B., B.A., V.P. & Treas. L.S., Hon. Member 
of the American Society of Microscopists, of the Manchester 
Microscopical Society, of the New York Microscopical So- 
ciety, of the Troy Scientific Association, Corresponding Member 
of the Chicago Academy of Sciences, &c., iSeoretary. 
5, Lansdowne-road, Notting-hill, W. 
Crisp, John Shalders. 

Ashville, Lewin-road, Streatham, S.W. 
Croft, Lieut. Eichard Benyon, E.N., F.L.S. 
Farnham Hall, Ware, Herts. 
*Crofton, Edward, M.A. (Oxon.). 

45, West Cromwell-road, Earl's Court-road, S.W. 
Crookshank, Edgar March, M.B. (Lond.), M.E.C.S., Professor 
of Bacteriology, King's College, London. 
24, Manchester-square, W. 
Croydon, Charles. 

Pato Point, Wilcove, Torpoint, Cornwall. 
Cunliffe, Peter Gibson. 

Dunedin, Handforth, Manchester. 
Curnock, Eev. Nehemiah. 

Dalkeith, Glengall-road, Woodford Green, Essex. 
Curties, Thomas. 

244, High Holborn, W.C. 
Curtis, Lester, M.D. 

35, University -place, Chicago, III., U.S.A. 



Elected. 

1887 
1887 
1871 

1889 

1884 
1884 
1866 
1862 
1880 
1878 
1865 
1887 

1881 
1887 
1854 
1878 
1886 
1883 
1880 

1885 
1888 

1886 
1879 



ORDINARY FELLOWS. xlix 

Dadswell, Edward. 

21, Montrell-road, Streatham-hill, S.W. 
Dale, Henry Frank. 

2, Savile-row, W. 
Dallinger, Eev. W. H., LL.D., F.E.S., F.L.S., Hoji. Member of 
the American Society of Microseopists, of the Manchester 
Microscopical Society, of the Liverpool Lit. Phil. Soc, &c. 

Inglesicle, Neiostead-road, Lee, S.E. 
Dalzell, Antliony. « 

St. Thomas's Hospital, S. W. 
Damon, William E. 

Care of Tiffany & Co., Union-square, New TorJc, U.S.A. 
Davies, Arthur EUson, Ph.D., F.L.S., F.C.S. 

10, Brunstone-road, Portobello, N.B. 
Davis, Charles. 

29, Gloucester-flace, Portman-square, W. 
*DaviSj George. 

45, Stanley-gardens, Belsize-parh, N.W. 
Davis, George Edward, F.I.C, F.C.S. 

South Cliff House, Higher Broughton, Manchester. 
Davis, John. 

41, Stirling-road, Birmingham. 
Davison, Thomas. 

248, Bath-street, Glasgow. 
Dawson, George Mercer, D.Sc, F.G.S. Assistant Director, 
Geological Survey of Canada. 

Ottaiva, Ontario, Canada. 
Dawson, William. 

24, Abbeygate- street. Bury St. Edmunds. 
Day, George. 

137, Whitechapel-road, E. 
*Dayman, Charles Orchard, M.A. (Cantab.), F.E.A.S. 

Merrie Meade, 3Iillbrook, Soutliampton. 
Deby, Julian, C.E. 

31, Belsize-avenue, Hampstead, N.W. 
Dennis, Samuel William, M.D. 

809, Marliet-street, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. 
Detmers, Henry Johnson, M.D. 

1350, Dennison-avenue, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Devron, Giistavus, M.D. 

P.O., Box 1230, and 631, Boyal-street, Netv Orleans, La., 
U.S.A. 
De Witt, William G. 

88, Nassau-street, New York, U.S.A. 
Dimsdale, John, F.Z.S. 

50, Cornhill, E.C. ; and 4, Palace Gardens Terrace, 
Kensington, W. 
Disney, Alfred Norman, M.A., B.Sc. 

Islington High Schools, Barnshury -street, N. 
Douglas, John Andrew. 

23, Bentley-street, Bradford. 



1889. d 



1 ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY : 

Elected. 

1881 Dowdeswell, George Francis, M.A., F.L.S., F.C.S. 

Windham Club, 13, St. James's-square, S.W. 
1879 Dreyfus, Ludwig. 

44, FranJcfurter-sfrasse, Wiesbaden. 
1874 Drysdale, John James, M.D. 

36a, Bodney-street, Liverpool. 
1879 Duncan, Peter Martin, M.B. (Lond.), F.E.S., F.G.S., Pro- 
fessor of Geology in King's College, London, Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philad. Corr. Mem. 

6, Grosvenor-road, Gunner sbury, W. 

1883 Dunkerley, John Whiteley, L.D.S. 
262, Oxford-road, Manchester. 

1868 Durham, Arthur Edward, F.E.C.S., F.L.8., &c. 
82, Brooh-street, Grosvenor-square, W. 

1884 Durkee, Eichard P. Hart. 
10, Ashland Block, Chicago, III., U.S.A. 

1886 Durrand, Alexander. 

Care of Messrs. Whitelow & Co., Flinders-street East, 
Melbourne, Victoria. 
1853 Dyster, Frederick Daniel, M.D., F.L.S. 

Tenby. 



1886 
1868 
1878 
1853 
1862 
1860 
1888 
1887 
1859 
1886 

1885 
1883 
1882 



Eastman, Lewis M., A.M., M.D. 

349, Lexington-street, Baltimore, Md., U.S.A. 
Eddy, James Eay, F.G.S. 

The Grange, Carleton, near SJcipton. 
Edmunds, James, M.D. 

8, Grafton-street, Piccadilly, W. 
Elliott, William Timbrell. 

113, Adelaide-road, N.W. 
Ellis, Septimus. 

Homeioood, Ulundi-road, Westcombe Parh, S.E. 
'Elphinstone, Howard Warburton, M.A. (Cantab.), F.L.S. 

2, Stone-buildings, Lincoln's hm, W.G. 
EppSj Hahnemann. 

95, Upper Tulse-hill, Brixton, S. W. 
Evans, Griffith, M.D. 

208, Bnrrage-rnad, Plumstead, Kent. 
Eve, Eichard Wafford, M.B., F.E.A.S. 

101, Lewisham High-road, S.E. 
Ewell, Marshall D., LL.D., M.D. 

South Evanston, Gooh Co., III., U.S.A 



Farquharson, Marian S. (Mrs.). 
Haughton, Alford, N.B. 
*Fawcett, John Edward. 

Loiv Boyd, Apperley-bridge, near Leeds. 
Fell, George E., M.D. 

72, Niagara-street, Buffalo, New York, U.S.A. 



Elected. 

1883 
1862 
1860 
1879 

1866 
1866 
1886 
1880 
1884 
1872 
1879 
1886 
1885 
1883 
1884 

1889 
1887 
1863 
1889 
1866 
1862 

1879 

1858 



ORDINAKY FELLOWS. U 

Fellows, Charles Sumner. 

330, Temple-court, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.A. 
*Finzel, Conrad William. 

2he Downs, near Bideford, Devon. 
*Firmin, Philip Smith. 

LadhroJce, MortlaJce-road, Keio. 
Fischer, Carl F., M.D., F.L.S., F.G.S., Soc. Zool.-Bot. Vindob. 
Socius. Sydney, N.S. Wales. Care of GericJi & Co., 7, 
Mincing-lane, E.C. 
Fitcli, Frederick, F.E.G.S. 

Hadleigh-house, Highbury Netv-park, N. 
Fitch, Frederick George. 

" Pines," Windmill-hill, Enfield. 
Fletcher, Charles. 

11, Canfield-gardens, West Hampstead, N.W. 
Forrest, Herbert Edward. 

Abbey ville, Cherry Orchards, Shrewsbury. 
Fournet, Aristide. 

18, Bentinck-street, Manchester-square, W. 
Fowke, Francis. 

8, College-terrace, South Hampstead, N.W. 
"^Frampton, Lieut.-Col. Cjril, E.M. 

Dorchester, Hants. 
Fraser, Francis John, M.A. 

Inverness Lodge, Roehampton. 
Freeman-Underwood, Charles Henry, M.D. 

5, Meadoiv-street, Bombay. 
Fuller, Charles Gordon, M.D. 

38, Central Music Hall, Chicago, III., U.S.A. 
Fuller, Henry Weld. 

P.O., Box 2955, New York, U.S.A. 



Gadd, William, C.E. 

50, Bichmond-grove West, Manchester. 
Gadd, William Lawrence, F.C.S. 

Wath-on-Dearne, via Botherham, 
Garnham, John. 

Hazelwood, Crescent-road, St. Johns, S.E. 
Gaskiiig, Rev. Samuel, B.A., F.G.S. 

8, Hawthorne-terrace, Discard, Cheshire. 
*Gay, Frederick William, 

113, High Holborn, W.C. 
* George, Edward. 

70, Old Broad-street. City, E.C, and Vernon House, 
Westwood Park, Forest-hill, S.E. 
Gibbes, Heneage, M.D., Professor of Pathology, University of 
Michigan, 

Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S. A, 
*Gibbons, William Sydney. 

Messrs. G. Dewis & Son, Melbourne, Australia, care of 
Messrs. Hearon, Squire & Co., 5, Coleman-street, E.C. 

d 2 



lii EOYAL MICEOSCOPICAL SOCIETY 



Electpd. 
1885 

1872 
1885 
1889 
1856 

1885 
1877 
1889 
1874 
1880 
1885 
1884 
1867 
1883 
1866 
1861 
1880 
1870 
1887 
1883 
1855 
1879 

1886 

1872 
1887 



Gibbs, John George, M.E.O.S. 

5, Big gind ale-road, Streatham, S.W. 
Gibson, Joseph F. 

22, Norfollc-road, St. Joins Wood, N. W. 
Giles, George M., M.B. (Loncl.), F.E.C.S. 

Marine Survey of India, Poona. 
Gill, Charles Hanghton, F.C.S. 

BerJceley-lodqe, Staines. 
*-Glaisher, James, ■F.R.S., F.E.A.S., Pres. Phot. Soc, Ord. 
Bras. Bosae Eq, 

1, Dartmouth-place, Blackheath, S.B. 
GocMen, Wilfred, F.L.S. 

Bidgfield, Wimbledon. 
*Go(iman, Frederick Dii Cane, F.L.S. 

10, Chand OS-street, Cavendish-square, W. 
Goodfellow, John. 

9, Laxton-terrace, SedgwicJc-road, Leyton, E. 
Goodinge, James Wallinger. 

119, High Holhorn, W.G. 
Goodwin, Thomas. 

12, Soutlmark-street, Borough, S.E. 
Gordon, Eev. John More, M.A. 

St. Johns, Bedhill, Surrey. 
Gorman, Eev. Thomas Murray, M.A. 

Invermore, Woodstock-road, Oxford. 
Gowland, Peter Yeames, ¥ .R.G.S., Surgeon to St. Marie sHosptal. 

84, Finshury-square, E.G. 
Gravill, Edv^ard Day. 

Marquis-villa, 3Iarquis-road, Stroud-green, N. 
Gray, William John, M.D. 

32, Devonshire-street, Portland-place, W. 
Green, Edward Baker, P.H.H.S. 

Burdett WorJcs, Limehouse, E. 
Greenfield, William 8., M.D., F.E.C.P. 

7, Eeriot-row, Edinburgh. 
Greenish, Thomas. 

20, Neio-street, Dorset-square, W. 
Grenfell, John Granville, B.A., F.G.S. 

55, West Cromivell-road, W. 
Griffith, Ezra H. 

Post-office, Fairport, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Grove, Edmund. 

Norlington, Preston, Brighton. 
Groves, J. William, F.L.S., Profess r of Botany, and Curator 
of Anatomical 3Iuseum at King's Collegn. 

90, Holland-road, Kensington, W. 
Guardia, Julio. 

Helston-house, Bozel-road, Clapham, S.W. 
Guimaraens, A. de Souza. 

52, Lowden-road, Herne-hill, S.E. 
Guuu, W. D. 

Fern Cottage, Maple-road, Ancrley, S.E. 



Elected. 

1877 
1877 
1888 
1888 
1885 
1875 
1882 
1845 
1874 
1882 
1865 
1868 
1867 
1884 
1883 
1880 
1881 
1885 
1867 
1874 
1879 
1853 
1880 
1889 
1881 



ORDINARY FELLOWS. liii 

Habirsbaw, Frederick. 

260, West Fifty-seventh-street, New YorJc, U.S.A. 
Habirshaw, Jobn, M.D. 

260, West Fiftij-seoenth-street, New York, U.S.A. 
Halkyard, Edward. 

The Firs, Knutsford, Cheshire. 
Hall, Rev. Henry Armstrong, 

Spring-grove Vicarage, near Isleivorth. 
Hallam, Samuel Robinson. 

22, Righ-street, Burton-on-Trent. 
Hamilton, Jobn James. 

7, Barkston-gardens, Earl's Court, S. W. 
Hanaman, Charles Edward. 

103, First-street, Troy, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Handford, George Charlton. 

24, West End-lane, Eilburn, N. W. 
fHanks, Henry. 

619, Montgomery-street, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. 
Hardy, James Daniel. 

73, Clarence-road, Clapton, E. 
Harkness, William. 

Laboratory, Inland Bevenue, Somerset House, W.C. 
Harrop, Edward Davy. 

Launceston, Tasmania. 
Hartree, William, Associate Inst. C.E., F.Z.S. 

Havering House, Dartmouth Point, Leivisham, S.E. 
Harwood, Robert. 

Vale Bank, Bolton. 
Haselwood, James Edmund. 

3, Lennox-place, Brighton. 
Havers, Jobn Cory, F.L.S. 

Joyce-grove, Nettlehed, Henley-on-Thames. 
Healey, Gi-eorge H. 

Brantfield, Boivness, Windermere. 
*Hebb, Ricb'ard Grainger, M.A., M.D., M.R.C S., 

9, Suffolk-street, Pall Mall, S.W. 
Helm, Henry James. 

Laboratory, Inland Bevenue, Somerset House, W.C. 
Hembry, Frederick William, 

Sussex Lodge, Station-road, Sidcup, Kent. 
Hepburn, Jobn Fiankland. 

Bannock View, Seven Sisters' -road, Stamford-hill, N. 
Hepburn, Jobn Gotch, LL.B. (Lend.), F.CS. 

Bartford, Kent. 
Hicks, J, Sibley, L.R.C.P., F,L.S. 

2, Er skin-street, Liverpool. 
Higley, Walter Keir, Ph,D. 

40, Dearborn-street, Chicago, III., U.S.A. 
Hill, Joseph Alfred. 

Greystone Lodge, Leamington. 

t Corresponding Fellow. 



liv 



EOYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY 



Elected. 

1852 

1889 
1878 
1885 
1851 
1887 
1881 
1856 
1867 
1889 
1874 
1880 
1882 
1876 
1873 
1887 
1889 
1872 

1864 
1853 



1867 
1887 
1883 



Hilton, James. 

60, Montaijue-square, W. 
Hoagland, Cornelius Nevins, M.D. 

410, Clinton-avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Hobson, Amos Herbert. 

5, Westminster €!■ ambers, Victoria-street, S.W. 
Hodges, Edward F., M.D. 

2, West New York-street, Indianapolis, Ind., U.S.A. 
Hogg, Jabez, M.K.C.S. 

1, Bedford-square, W.C. 
Holland, Charles Barclay. 

St. Stephens Club, 'S. W. 
Hood, John. 

50, Dallfield-ivalk, Dundee. 
Hopgood, James. 

Clapliam-common, S. W. 
*Hopkinson, John, P.L.S., F.G.S. 

95, Neiv Bond-street, W., and The Grange, St. Albans, Herts. 
Horn, Eev. James. 

16, Louis-street, Ghajjeltown-road, Leeds. 
Home, Robert. 

Union-terrace, Cheetham-hill, Manchester. 
Horsley, Charles, C.E. 

174, Highbury New-park, N. 
Houston, David, F.L.S. 

3, Clarence-villas, Clarence-road, Wood Green, N. 
*Hovenden, Charles William. 

93, City-road, E.C. 
*Hovenden, Frederick, F.L.S. 

Glenlea, Thurlow Park-road, Dulwich, S.E. 
Howe, Lucien, M.A., M.D. 

183, Delaivare-avenue, Buffalo, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Huber, Gotthelf Carl, M.D. 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., U.S.A. 
Hudson, Charles Thomas, M.A., LL.D. (Cantab.), F.R.S., 
President. 

6, Boyal York-crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 
Hudson, William. 

15, Stockwell-street, Greenwich, S.E. 
Huggins, William, D.C.L. (Oxon.), LL.D. (Cantab, and Edin.), 
F.E.S., F.E.A.S., Math. D. Ludg. Bat. Ord. Imp. Bras. 
Bosae, Com. Inst. Fr. (^Acad. Sci.) Acad. Lync. Bomae Soc. 
Beg. Sci. Gott. Mem. Corr. et Socc. Beg. Sci. Hafn., Physiogr. 
Lund., Beg. Boie. Marob., Beg. Dubl. et Lit. Phil. Mane. 
Soc. Honor. 

Upper Tulse-Hill, S.W. 
Humphry s, John James Hamilton. 

5, Neio-Square, Lincoln' s-Inn, W.C. 
Hunt, Daniel De Vere, L.R.C.P. Ed., L.R.C.S.L 
Westboiii'ne Crescent, Canton, near Cardiff. 
Hunt, George, F.E.A.S. 

Hopefield, Alleyn-park, West Dulwich, S.E. 



OEUINAEY FELL0W8. Iv 

Elected. 

1885 Ilutton, Rev. Edward Ardron. 

Mottram, Manchester. 
1881 Huzzey, Eeginald Lee. 

136, Spa-road, Bermondsey, S.E. 

1867 Ibbetson, George Augustus, F.R.C.S., F.G.S. 

21, TMcket-road, Norwood, S.E. 
1867 *Ince, Joseph, F.L.S., G.S., C.S., &c. 

11, St. Stephen' s-avenue, Shepherd's Bush, W. 

1867 Ingpen, John Edmund. 

7, The Hill, Putney, S.W, 
1888 Inskipp, Frauk 

6, Laivn-terrace, Blackheath, S.E. 

1875 Jackson, Charles Loxton, F.L.S. 

Hill Fold, Sharpies, Bolton. 
1888 James, Professor George Wharton, F.E.A.S. 

Oleander, Fresno County, California, U.S.A. 

1868 Jayaker, Atmarara Sadashwa, L.R.C.P. (Lond.). 

Muscat, Arabia, care of Messrs. Grindlay & Co. 
55, Parliament-street, S.W. 
1887 Jeaffreson, Christopher Simuel, F.R.C.S.Ed., M.R.C.S.Eug. 

8, Savile Bovj, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1887 Jelly, Eliza Catherine (Miss). 

Hatchlands, Bedhill, Surrey. 

1886 Jerman, James. 

33, Paid-street, Exeter. 
1859 *Jeula, Henry, F.R.G.S., F.A.S.L., .*ec. 

16, Manor Park, Lee, S.E. 
1881 *Jobling, Thomas Edoar. 

Croft Villa, Waterloo, Blyth. 
1881 Jocelyn, Hon. William Nassau. 

The British Legation, Darmstadt, \ 

1872 *Johnson, David. 

52, Fitzjohn's-avenue, South Hampdead, N. W. 
1884 Johnson, Hosmar A., M.D. 

4, Sixteenth-street, Chicago, III., U.S.A. 
1881 Johnson, Michael, L.D.S. 

9, York-villas, Lome-street, N., Chester. 

1888 Johnson. Thomas W., M.D. 

Danville, Indiana, U.S.A. 
1886 Johnson, William. 

188, Tottenham Court Boad, W. ' 
1888 Jolliffe, Charles Henry. 

The Brewery, St. Helens, Lancashire. 
1877 Jones, George Horatio. 

57, Great Bussell-street, Blooinshury, W.C. 
1875 Jones, Henry William, F.C.S. 

17, White-street, Coventry. 
1875 Jones, Joseph Birdsall. 

^S*^. George's Chambers, lO, St, George's-crcsceut, Liverpool. 



Ivi EOYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY 



Elected. 

1863 

1889 



1885 
1885 
1883 
1860 
1873 
1867 
1851 
1867 
1887 
1879 
1888 
1885 
1878 

1851 

1885 
1874 
1861 
1865 

1887 

1887 
1864 



Jordan, John, 

6, Notting Hill-square, W. 
Julien, Alexis Anastay, Ph.D. 

School of Mines, Columbia College, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Karop, George C, M.E.C.S. 

198, Holland Road, Kensington, W. 
Kay, James Alexander, M.D. 

Pretoria, South African Bepuhlic. 
Kellicott, David Simons, B.Sc. 

State University, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Kelly, George. 

9, Sutherland-gardens, Kilburn-road, N.W. 
Kemp, Robert. 

60, Windsor-road, Upper Holloway, N. 
Kerr, Walter. 

31, Fulham Park-gardens, S.W. 
Kershaw, William Wayland, M.D. 

10, Glaremont-crescent, Surbiton, Surrei/. 
King, Edwin Holborow Green, M.R.C.S., L.D.S. 

Netley Court, Soutliampton. 
King, Eev. Thomas S. 

9, Grange-road, Sheffield. 
Kirby, Arthur Eaymond. 

11a, New-square, Lincoln' s-Inn, W.C. 
Kirk, Thomas William. 

Museum, Wellington, Neiv Zealand. 
Kirkby, William, F.L.S. 

51, AcJcers-street, Chorlton-on-MedlocIc, Manchester. 
Kyngdon, Francis Boughton. 

Sydney, N.S. Wales. 

Care of A. B. Cobb, Esq., Margate-bank, Margate. 

Ladds, John. 

4, Craven-terrace, Uxbridge-road, Ealing, W. 
Lambert, Thomas J. 

Inglewood, Oakhill, Sevenoaks. 
Lancaster, William James, F.E.A.S., &c. 

The Hollies, Handsworth Wood, near Birmingham. 
Lang, Major Frederick Henry. 

St. Katherine's, Parkstone, Dorset. 
Lankester, Edwin Eay, M.A. (Oxon.), F.E.S. ; Prof, of Zoology, 
and Comparative Anatomy, in University College, London. 

42, Half Moon-street, W. 
Latham, Vida Annette (Miss). 

Dental Department, Michigan University, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan, U.S.A. 
Law, Frederick Thomas. 

254, Kentish Toion-road, N.W. 
Lawson, Marmaduke Alexander, M.A., F.L.S. ; Director of 

Government Cinchona Plantations, Ootdcamund, Bombay. 



Elected. 

1855 
1886 



1889 
1889 
1880 
1866 
1883 
1885 
1880 
1882 
1888 
1866 
1854 

1881 

1887 
1879 

1888 
1867 
1861 
1888 
1884 
1884 
1848 



OEDINAEY FELLOWS. Ivii 

*Leaf, Charles John, F.L.S., F.S.A., F.E.G.S. 
6, Sussex-place, Begenfs-pai-Jc, N.W. 
Lee, George J times, F.E.Met.Soc. 

Central Jones-street, Kimberley, Griuqaland West, Cape 
Colony, Cape of Good Hope. 
Lee, William Arthur. 

38, Strand, Calcutta. 
Leigh, Abraham, M.D. 

Hiaiaatha, Kansas, U.S.A. 
Letchford, Robert. 

Prospect House, Woodford. 
*Lewis, Richard Thomas. 

28, Mount ParJc-crescent, Ealing, W. 
*Lewis, William Jeranld, M.A., M.D. 

30, Gillett-street, Hartford, Conn., U.S.A. 
Line, J. Edward, D.D.S. 

26, E. Main-street, Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Lingard, Alfred. 

St. Ermin's Mansions, Westminster, S.W. 
Livingston, Clermont. 

22, Great St. Helen's, E.C. 
Loveland, Bradford Churchill, M.D. 

Clifton Springs, Ontario Co., N.Y., U.S.A. 
Lovibond, Joseph William. 

St. Anne-street, Salisbury. 
*LubbGck, Sir John, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., Trust. 
Brit. Mus., &c. 

High Elms, Bromley, Kent. 
Luck, Harry Courtnay, P.R.G.S. 

Brisbane, Queensland, care of Mr. E. LucJc, 70, Stamford- 
street, S.E. 
Lynd, William. 

21, Bloomsbury-street, W.C. 
Lyon, Thomas Glover, M.D. 

39, King-street, E.C. 



Macer, Robert. 

23, Wingmore-road, Loughborough Junction, S.W. 
Mclntire, Samuel John. 

14, Hettley-road, Uxbridge-road, Shepherd's Bush, W. 
Mackrell, John. 

High Trees, Clapham-common, S.W. 
MacMunn, Charles Alexander, M.A., M.D. 

OaMeigh, Wolverhampton. 
McMurrich, J. Playfair, M.A. 

ClarJc University, Worcester, Mass., U.S.A. 
Mainland, George Edward. 

Glenthorpe, Woodside-lane, North Finchley, N. 
Makins, George Hogarth, M.R.C.S., F.C.S. 

Danesfield, Upper Lattimore-road, St. Albans. 



Iviii ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY 



Elected. 

1884 
1886 
1886 
1859 

1889 

1867 
1887 
1885 
1883 
1888 
1873 
1889 
1879 
1886 
1878 
1884 
1889 
1857 
1867 
1888 

1886 
1882 
1856 
1884 

1885 



Malley, Abraham Cowley, B.A., M.B. 

Munsloio, Craven Arms, Salop. 
Mallory, Maitland L., M.D. 

69, N. FitzhugJi-street, Bochesfer, New Yorh, U.S A. 
Manbre, Alexandre. 

15, Alexandra-drive, Liverpool. 
•Manchester, William Drogo, Duke of, F.Z.S. 

1, Great Stanhope-street, Mayfair, W., and Kimholton 
Castle, St. Neots, Hunts. 
Mann, Eev. Albert, jun,, M.A. 

Newark, N.J., U.S.A. 
-Manning, William. 

21, Beddiffe-gardens, South Kensington, S.W. 
Mantle, Alfred, M.D. 

Cromarty House, Stanley, Durham. 
Manton, Walter Porter, M.D. 

83, Lafayette-avenue, Detroit, Mich., U.S.A. 
Marriott, Edward Dean. 

90, St. Ann's Well-road, Nottingham. 
Martin, Charles James, B.Sc. 

Demonstrator of Physiology, King's College, W.C. 
Martin, Nicholas Henry, F.L.S. 

29, Mosley-street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Martin, William Edward Eeseigh 

8, LincoliLS Inn, Birmingham,. 
Maskell, William Miles, J.P. 

Museum, Wellington, New Zealand. 
Mason, Alfred H., F.C.S. 

46, Jewin-street , B.C. 
^Mason, Philip Brookes, F.L.S 

Burton-on- Trent. 
Massee, George. 

41, Gloucester-road, Kew. 
Mather, Enock, M.A., M.D. 

57, Station-road, Mashorough, Botherham, Yorkshire 
May, John William, Consul- General of the Netherlands. 

Arundel House, Percy-cross, Fulham-road, S. W. 
Mayall, John, jun., F.Z.S. 

224, Begent-street, W. 
Mayhew, Edward William Alfred Augustus, F.L.S., F.C.S. 

Ivy Lodge, Fremantle, West Australia ; care of T. Barries, 
Esq., 12, Coleman-street, B.C. 
Mayne, James. 

203, Oxford-street, Sydney, Neio South Wales. 
Mead, Walter Haughton 

65, Wall-street, Neio York, U.S.A. 
Meade, Hon. Kobert Henry, F.R.G.S. 

Foreign Office, and 24, Upper BrooJc-street, W. 
Meek, Benjn. Owen, M.K.C.V.S. Lond., F.L.S., F.E.Met.Soc. 

Post-office, Sydney. 
Meek, Eev. George, B.A. (Cantab.). 

12, Hornhy-sfreet, Ileywood, Lancashire, 



Elected. 
1885 

1879 
1883 
1884 

1877 
1886 
1884 
1880 
1883 
1851 

1888 
1880 

1878 
1876 

1880 
1884 
1888 



1879 
1880 
1887 
1880 
1881 
1884 



ORDINARY FELLOWS. lix 

Memuish, John, L.E.C.P. (Lond.), M.R.C.S., L.S.A. 

5, Crossfield Boad, Belsize Parh, N. W. 
*Mercer, A. Clifford, M.D. 

40, Montgomery-street, Syracuse, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Mercer, Frederick Wentwortb, M.D. 

2600, Calumet-avenue, Chicago, III., U.S.A. 
Mestayer, Richard Liron, A.S.C.E. 

Symington Villa, Parramatta-road, Ashfield, near Sydney, 
N. S. Wales. 
Michael, Albert Davidson. F.L.S. 

Cadogan Mansions, Sloane-square, Chelsea, S. W. 
Miles, Manly, M.D. 

Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A. 
Miller, Eev. Alexander Vincent, B.D. 

St. Charles College, St. Charles-square, Noiting-hill, W. 
Millett, Portescue William. 

The Parsonage, Marazion, Cornwall. 
Moffat, William Tweeddale. 

Pomsey, Victoria. 
Moreland, Richard, jun., M.I.C.E. 

3, Old-street, St. Lulce's, E.C., and 4, The Quadrant, 
Highbury, N. 
Morgan, Joseph B. 

Stand House, Childwall, Liverpool. 
Morris, Galloway C. 

East Tulpohoclien-slreet, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa., 
U.S.A. 
Morris, John, F.Z.S. 

13, ParJc-street, W. 
Morris, William, M.D. 

Care of The Commercial BanJcing Company of Sydney, 
Sydney, New South Wales. 
Morris, William, jun. 

5, Vicarage-gardens, Kensington, W. 
MuUins, George Lane, M.A., M.D. 

209, Macquarie-street, Sydney, New South Wales. 
Mummery, John Howard. 

10, Cavendish-place, W. 



Nachet, Alfred, 

17, Hue St. Seoerin, Paris. 
*Nesbitt, Henry, F.R.G.S. 

12, Victoria-villas, Kilhurn, N.W. 
Nevins, Reginald Theophilus Graham. 

PembroJce Lodge, Hildenborough, Tonbridge. 
Newman, Thomas Pri chard. 

54, Hatton-garden, E.C. 
Newton, Charles Read. 

Kempside, Kursiong, Darjeeling, Lidia. 
Nixon, Philip Charles. 

Oporto fiPortugal. 



Elected. 

1849 



1855 

1882 
1885 

1886 
1889 

1867 
1887 
1883 
1878 
1882 
1879 
1876 
1840 



1865 
1879 

1882 



ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY: 

Noble, Jobn, F.R.H.S. 

50, Westbourne-terrace, Hyde-parJc, W., and Park-place, 
Henley-on- Thames. 
*Noble, Captain William, F.R.A.S. 

Forest Lodge, Maresfield, Sussex. 
Noble, Wilson, 

43, Warrioi-square, St. Leonard' s-on-Sea. 
Norman, George, M.E.C.S.E. 
12, Brock-street, Bath. 
Norris, Albert. 

Fern Acre, Urmston, Manchester. 
Nuttall, George Henry Falkiner, M.D. 

University, Gottingen, Germany, and San Francisco, 
California, U.S.A. 

*Oakley, John Jeffryes. 

24, Sussex-gardens, Ilyde-park, W. 
Ocbsner, A. J., Ph.D., M.D". 

300, S. Wood-street, Chicago, 111, U.S.A. 
Offord, Jobn Milton. 

15, Loudoun-road, St. John's-wood, N.W. 
O'Hara, Lieut.-Col. Richard, 

West Lodge, Galway. 
Ollard, John Alexander, 

Barnesfield, Stone, Greenhithe, Kent. 
Ord, William Miller, M,D,, r.E,C,P., r,L,S. 

37, Upper Brook-street, Grosvenor-square, W. 
Osier, William, M.D. 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.. U.S.A. 
Owen, Sir Richard, K.C.B,, D,C,L,, M,D., LL.D., F.E.S., 
P.L.S,,^ P.G.S., F.Z.S., Coll. Beg. Chir. Eih. et Soc. Beg. Edin. 
Soc. Honor., Ord. Boruss. " Pour le Merite " Eq., List. Fr. 
(^Acad. Sci.) Par. Adsoc. Extr. Acadd. Lnp. Sci. Vindob 
Petrop., et Soc. Lmp. Sc. Nat. Hist. Mosq., Acadd. Beg. 
Sci. Berol., Taurin., Matrit., Holm., Monach, Neapol., 
Bruxell, Bonon., Lnst. Beg. Sc. Amstelod., Socc. Beg. Sc. 
Hafn., Upsal., Acad. Amer. Sc. Bost. Socius, Soc. Philomath, 
Paris, Corresp., Geor., Florent., Soc. Sc. Harlem., Trajectin, 
Phys. et Hist. Nat. Genev. Acadd. Lync. Bomce, Patav., 
Panorm., Gioen. Nat. Scrutat. Berol., Listit. Wetter, Philad., 
Nov.-Ebor., Bost. Acad. Beg. Med. Paris., Soc. Lnp. et Beg. 
Med. Vindob. Adsoc. Extr. 

Sheen Lodge, Bichmond Park, Mortlake, S.W. 
'^Owen, Major Samuel Richard John, F.L S., Assoc, of King's 
Coll. Lond. 

Ventnor, Isle of Wight. 
Oxley, Frederick, 

8, Crosby-square, E.C. 

Palmer, Henry. 

East Ho'wle, Ferry-hill, Durham. 



Elected. 

1881 
1879 

1861 
1884 
1862 
1883 
1882 
1888 
1866 
1884 
1888 
1852 
1853 
1886 
1882 
1866 
1861 
1881 
1855 
1887 
1864 
1883 
1879 
1889 
1879 
1882 



ORDINARY FELLOWS. 1x1 

Parker, Eobert John, 

Launceston, Tasmania. 
*Parker, Thomas Jeffrey, B.Sc. 

University of Otago, New Zealand. 
Parkinson, William Coulson. 

18, Carleton-road, Tufnell-park, Holloioay, N. 
Parsons, Frederick Anthony. 

90, LeadenJiall-street, E.G. 
Paton, George Laucbland. 

40, Wilkinson-street, Glapliam-road, S.W. 
Peach, Eobert. 

North ParJc-road, Harrogate. 
Peal, Charles Nathaniel, F.L.S. 

Fernhurst, Mattock-lane, Ealing, W. 
Pearce, George. 

Brabourne Haigli, Highioood-Tiill, N.W. 
*Peek, Sir Henry William, Bart. 

Wimbledon House, S.W. 
*Peek, Honourable Mrs. 

Mousdon, Lyme Begis. 
Penman, William A., M.I.C.E. 

5, St. Andreiv-square, Edinburgh. 
*Perigal, Henry, F.R.A.S. 

9, North-crescent, Bedford-square, W.O. 
*-Peters, William, F.R.A.S., F.E.B.S., F.Z.S. 

The Bungalow, Horsham, Sussex. 
Phillips, Reginald W., B.A. (Cantab.), B.Sc. (Lond.). 

University College of North Wales, Bangor. 
Pickels, William Edward. 

Box 128, G.P.O., Adelaide, S.A. 
*Pickersgill, William Cunliffe, F.E.H.S. 

77, Marina, St. Leonard' s-on-Sea. 
Pidgeon, Daniel. 

Walsingham House, Piccadilly, W. 
Pilley, John James. 

Old College, Didivich, S.E. 
Pillischer, Moritz. 

88, Neio Bond-street, W. 
Pinkney, Robert. 

Green Park Chambers, 90, Piccadilly, W. 
Pittock, George Mayris, M.B. (Lond.). 

23, Cecil-square, Margate. 
Plimmer, Henry George, M.R.C.S. (Eng.), L.S.A. (Lond.). 

Wunderhau, 1, West-hill, Upper Norwood, S.E. 
Plomer, George Daniel. 

48, Springfield-road, St. John's-ioood, N.W. 
Plyer, Charles Whiting 

_ 22, West GOth-street, New York, U.S.A. 
Pochin, Percival Gerard. 

Care of Messrs. J. Brown and Co., Atlas Works, Sheffield. 
Pocklington, Christopher. 

22, Cunliffe-villas, Manningham, Bradford. 



Ixii ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY 



p:iectPd. 

1875 
1867 
1884 
1880 
1881 
1888 
1885 
1867 
1885 
1887 
1840 

1879 

1879 
1868 

1874 
1886 
1868 
1889 
1888 
1884 
1864 
1886 
1861 
1881 



Pocklington, Henry. 

41, Virginia-road, Mount Preston, Leeds. 
Potter, George. 

66, Grove-road, Upper Holloivay, N. 
Potts, John. 

Thorn Tree House, Macclesfield. 
Powell, Thomas Hugh. 

18, Doughty-street, MecMenhurg-square, W.C. 
Power, E. Strickland, E.N. 

99, Finhorough-road, West JBrompton, S.W. 
Pratt, William Henry. 

27, Begent-street, Nottingham. 
Pray, Thomas, jun. 

P.O. Box, 2728, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
*Prescott, Sir George Eencllesham, Bart., F.Z.S. 

Isenhurst, Hawkhurst. 
Preston, Henry Berthon. 

54, Lexham-gardens, Kensington, W. 
Pringle, Andrew. 

Cromivell House, Bexley Heath, Kent. 
Pritchard, Eev. Charles, M.A. (Cantab.), F.E.S., F.E.A.S., 
F.G.S., F.C.P.S., Savilian Professor of Astronomy, Oxford. 

9, Kehle-terrace, Oxford. 
Pritchard, Urban, M.D., F.E.C.S., Professor of Aural Surgery 
in King's College, London. 

3, George-street, Hanover-square, W. 
*Puleston, Sir Jobn Henry, M.P. 

7a, Dean's-yard, Westminster, S.W. 
Puttick, Alfred James. 

26, King-street, Covent-garden, W.C. 



Eadford, William, M.D. 

Sidmouth. 
Eae, James, M.D. 

Drummond-place, Stirling, N.B. 
*-Eamsden, Hildebrand, M.A. (Cantab.), F.L.S. 

26, Upper Bedford-place, Bussell-square, W.C 
Eatcliife, Joseph. Eiley, M.B. 

High field, Manchester-road, Burnley. 
Eaymond, F. 

Army Veterinary Department, Woolwich, S.E. 
Eedding, Thomas B., M.A., Ph.D. 

Newcastle, Henry Co., Lndiana, U.S.A. 
Eee-ves, Walter Waters. 

32, Geneva-road, Brixton, S.W. 
Eemington, Joseph Price, Ph.G. 

1832, Pine-street, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S. A 
*Eicliards, Edward. 

1, Besshorough-gardens, Southsea. 
Eideout, William. 

Seymoiir-road , Astley Bridge, near Bolton. 



ORDINARY FELLOWS. Ixiii 

Elected- 1 

1881 I Eobinson, Joseph B. 

1 Devonshire House, Mossley, Lancashire. 

1888 I Eobinson, Tom, M.D. 

9, Prince' s-street, Cavendish-square, W. 
1871 Eogers, John. 

4, Tennyson-street, Nottingham. 
1867 *Eogerson, John. 

Post Office Box, 214, Barrie, Ontario, Canada. 

1882 Eookledge, John. 

Union Bank, Easingwold, Yorhshire. 
1852 *Eoper, Freeman Clark Samuel, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. 
Palgrave House, Easth'nirne. 

1880 Eosling, Edward. 

Melbourne, near Chelmsford. 

1886 Eoss, James Alexander, M.D. 

Stangrove, Parh-road, Bromlei/, Kent. 

1883 *Eosseter, Thomas B. 

Fleur-de-lis, Canterbury. 
1888 Eoiisselet, Charles F. 

308, Begent-street, W. 

1881 Eowe, Thomas Smith, M.D. 

1, Cecil-street, Margate. 

1887 Eowlev, Eev. Charles Henry, Ph.D. 

Westford, 3Iass., U.S.A. 
1879 Euffle, George William. 

29, Nelson-square, S.E. 

1887 Eutherford, John, J.P. 

6, Wellington-street, St. John's, Blackburn, Lancashire. 
1862 *Eylands, Thomas Glazebrook, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.E.A.S. 
HigJifields, Thelwall, near Warrington. 

1833 *Sanders, Alfred, M.E.C.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

Care of S. F. Langham, Esq., 10, Bartlett's Buildings, 
Holborn Circus, E.C. 
1883 Saunders, William, F.L.S. 

188, Dundas-street, London, Ontario, Canada. 

1879 Sawyer, George David. 

55, Bucliingham-jplace, Brighton. 
1885 Schultze, Edwin A. 

P.O. Box 56, New Torh, U.S.A. 

1888 Schulze, Adolf, F.E.S.E. 

2, Doune-gardens, Kelvinside, Glasgoic. 

1880 Scott, Dukinfield Henry, F.L.S. 

The Laurels, Bicldey, Kent. 
1845 Shadbolt, George. 

Beechcroft, Camden-parlt, Chislehurst, Kent. 
1857 ' Sharpe, George Young. 

16, Lansdowne-road, Notting-hill, W. 
1885 *Shelley, Lieut., A.D.G., E.E. 

Bockcliffe Hotel, Simla, N.W.P., India. 
1880 Shenstone, James Chapman. 

13, High-street, Colchester. 



Isiv 



EOYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY 



Electerl. 
1867 

1889 



1871 
1881 
1859 
1866 
1885 
1862 
1864 
1881 
1866 
1889 
1874 
1888 
1889 
1866 

1887 
1864 
1877 
1886 
1854 
1882 
1882 
1861 



Shepheard, Thomas. 

Kingsley Lodge, Chester. 
Shore, Thomas William, M.D., B.Sc. (Lend.), L.E.C.P., 
M.E.C.S., F.L.S. 

13, Hill-side, Grouch-hill, W. 
Si gs worth, John Cretney. 

20, Tedicorth-square, Chelsea, 8.W. 
Sillem, Louis Augustus. 

Laurie-park, Sydenham, S.E. 
Silver, Lieut.-Colouel Hugh Adams, Assoc.Inst.C.E. 

Abhey Lodge, Chislehurst, Kent. 
Simpson, Eev. David, M.A. (Cantab.). 

Tour de Bellevue, Antihes, Alps Maritimes, France. 
Skelton, John L. 

376, West Monroe-street, Chicago, 111., U.S.A. 
Slack, Henry James, F.G.S. 

Ashdown-cottage, Forest-row, Sussex. 
*Smith, Basil Wood, F.E.A.S 

Branch-hill Lodge, Hampstead-heath, N.W. 
Smith, George John. 

73, Farringdon-street, E.C. 
*Smith, Joseph Travers, F.E.B.S. 

40, Hertford-street, Mayfair, W. 
Smith, Percy William Bassett, L.E.C.P., M.E.C.S., E.N. 

20, Sisters-avenue, Lavender-hill, S.W. 
Smith, Eowland Dunn, M.E.C.S. (Edin.). 

1, Clapton-square, E. 
Smith, Thomas Field. 

12, Campdale-road, Tufnell-parJc, N. 
Smith, Eev. Thomas Northmore Hart, M.A. 

Epsom College, Surrey. 
*Sorby, Henry Clifton, LL.D., F.E.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. 
Soc. Min. Petrop., Soc. Holland, Harl. Socius. Acad. Sci. Nat. 
Philad. et Lye. Hist. Nat. Nov. Ebor. Corr. Mem. 

Broomfield, Sheffield. 
Southall, Eev. George. 

Osborne House, Dovercourt, Essex. 
*Spawforth, Joseph. 

Sandall-cottage, Hornsey-rise, N. 
Spencer, James. 

121, Lewisham-road, Lewisham, S.E. 
Spiers, Eev. William, M.A., F.G.S. 

16, Harley-street, Hull. 
Spurrell, Flaxniau, L.E.C.P. (Edin.), F.E.C.S., &c. 

Belvedere, S.E. 
Squance, Thomas Coke, M.B. 

4, Beaiiclerc-terrace, Sunderland, Durham. 
Stearn, Charles H. 

Selwood House, Mayoiv-road, Forest-hill, S.E. 
Stephenson, John Ware, F.E.A.S. 

186, Clnpham-road, S.W. 



Elected. 

1882 
1860 
1867 

1884 
1867 
1887 
1871 
1879 
1884 
1863 
1888 
1880 
1889 
1880 

1881 
1884 
1888 
1880 
1870 
1887 
1884 
1880 
1883 
1884 



ORDINAEY FELLOWS. Ixv 

Sternberg, George Miller, M.D. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., U.S.A. 
Steward, James Henry. 

406, Strand, W.G. 
Stewart, Prof. Charles, M.E.C.S., F.L.S. 

Conservator of the Hunterian Museum, Boyal College of 
Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.G. 
Stodder, James Chesterman. 

5, West-hroadway, Bangor, Maine, U.S.A. 
Stoker, George Naylor. 

Laboratory, Inland Bevenue Office, Somerset House, W.C. 
Stratford, William, M.D. 

245, W. Fifty-second-street, New York, U.S.A. 
Stuart, John. 

112, New Bond-street, W. 
Stubbing, John, F.G.S. 

Inglehank, Headingley, Leeds. 
Sudduth, W. Xavier, M.D. 

1725, Arch-street, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
^Suffolk, "William Thomas. 

143, Beulah-hill, Upper Norwood, S.E. 
Sutcliffe, Frederick William. 

226, Bochdale-road, Oldham, Lancashire. 
Swift, James. 

81, Tottenham Court-road, W.C. 
Sykes, Mark Langdale. 

98, New Lane, Winton, Manchester. 
Symons, William Henry, F.C.S. 

130, Fellowes-road, South Hampstead, N. W. 



Tacey, William G., L.E.C.P. 

18, North-parade, Bradford. 
Tarn, William. 

94, Lancaster-gate, Hyde Park, W. 
Tate, Alexander Norman. 

9, Hackin's Hey, Liverpool, 
Teasdale, Washington, F.R.A.S. 

Bosehurst, Headingley, Leeds. 
*Tebbitt, Walter. 

Marlhorough-house, Mount Sion, Tunhridge Wells. 
Tebbs, Henry Virtue. 

1, St. John' s-gar dens, Notting Hill, W. 
Terry, John. 

8, Hopton-road, Streatham, S.W. 
Thacker, John A., M.D. 

121, Seventh-street, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Thomas, Benjamin Walden. 

27, Portland Block, Chicago, III, U.S.A. 
Thomas, Henry, M.D. 

12, Nevill-crescent, Llandudno. 



1889. 



Ixvi EOYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY: 



Elected. 

1886 



1858 
1889 
1880 
1888 
1883 
1888 
1885 
1881 
1889 
1888 

1883 

1871 

1883 

1852 

1877 

1889 

1879 

1884 

1882 

1888 

1863 

1858 

1862 

1868 



Thomas, John Davies, M.D., F.K.O.S. 

North-terrace, Adelaide, South Australia ; care of H. K. 
Lewis, 136, Goioer-street, W.C. 
'"Thompson, Frederick, F.A.S.L. 

South-parade, WaJcefield. 
Thompson, Henrj George, M.D., J.P., F.E.C.S.I. 

86, Lower Addiscombe-road, Croydon. 
Thompson, Isaac Cooke, F.L.S. 

Woodstock, Waverley-road, Liverpool. 
Thompson, John. 

48, Woodside-terrace, Bishton-lane, Bolton, Lancashire. 
Thompson, John Tatham, M.B. 
23, Charles-street, Cardiff. 
Thomson, Frederick Whilley. 

11, Parh-road, Halifax, YorJcsMre. 
*Thomson, J. Arthur, M.A. 

30, Boi/al Circus, Edinburgh. 
Thomson, William. 

Boyal Institution, Manchester. 
Thorpe, Vidal Gunson, M.R.C.S., E.N. 

H.M.S. " Belleisle," Kingstown, Dublin. 
Thurston, Edgar. 

Superintendent, Government Central Museum, Madras, 
India. 
Townend, Walter. 

Lightcliffe, near Halifax, Yorkshire. 
*Townsend, John Sumsion. 

Stamford Lodge, St. John's, Sevenoaks. 
Trinks, C. Henrich. 

40, Ainger-road, N.W. 
Truman, Edwin, M.R.C.S. ; Dentist to Her Majesty's Household. 

23, Old Burlington-street, W. 
Tulk, John Augustus, M.A. (Cantab.), M.R.C.P. (Lond.). 

Coioley House, Chertseij. 
Turner, Clifford Winslow, M.E.C.S., F.L.S. 

4, Coivper-street, New Leeds, Leeds, Yorkshire. 
Turner, William Barwell, F.C.S. 

55, Beginald-terrace, Chapeltown-road, Leeds. 
Turton, George F. 

Claremont-road, Shenoood-rise, Nottingham. 
Tuttle, Albert Henry, M.Sc. 

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., U.S.A. 
Tyas, Walter Henry. 

OakbanJc, Blackley, Manchester. 
Tyer, Edward, C.E., F.R.A.S., F.E.G.S., Assoc.Inst.C.E. 
Ashwin-street, Dalston, E. 
*Tyler, Charles, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

Elberton, New West End, Hampstead, N. W. 
*Tyler, George, F.E.G.S. 

317, Holloway-road, Holloway, N. 
*Tyler, Sir James, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.E.B., and E.H.S. 
Pine House, Holloway, N. 



OEDINAKY FELLOWS ' JXvii 



Elected. 

1862 
1886 



1885 
1887 

1882 
1860 
1840 
1888 
1880 
1879 
1863 
1879 

1881 

1884 
1863 
1885 
1882 
1884 
1867 
1885 
1881 
1869 



*Tyler, Eev. William, D.D. 
247, Hackney-road, E. 
Tyson, Thomas Balinforth. 

21, Montague-street, Worthing. 



Underwood, Artliur Swayne, L.D.S., M.E.C.S. 

11, Bedford-square, W.G. 
Underwood, Edward F., M.D. 

Fort, Bombay, India. 



Van Brunt, Cornelius. 

319, East 57t]i-street, New YorJc, U.S.A. 
*Vanner, William. 

Camden-ivood, Chislehurst, Kent. 
*Van Voorst, John, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
1, Baternoster-row, E.G. 
Veitch, James Herbert. 

Boyal Exotic Nurseries, Eing's-road, Chelsea, S'W. 
Vernon, John. 

16, Park-road, Forest Hill, S.E, 
Vezey, John Jewell. 

55, Leivisham High-road, S.E. 
*Vicary, William, F.G.S., F.R.Met.S. 

The Briery, Golleton-crescent, Exeter. 
Vize, Eev. John Edward, M.A. ; Hon. Mem. Woolhope Natu- 
ralists' Field Club, Hon. Corr. Mem. Cryptogamic Society of 
Scotland. 

Forden Vicarage, Welshpool. 
Vorce, Charles Marvin. 

5, Bouse Block, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. 



Wales, William. 

58, Nassau-street, Neiv York, U.S.A. 
Walker, Frederick. 

Heyivood, Tenby. 
Walker, William C. 

Utica, New York, U.S.A. 
Wall, John L. 

338, Sixth-avenue, New York, U.S.A. 
Walmsley, William H. 

1016, Chestnut-street, Bhiladelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 
Walters, James Hopkins, M.E.C.S, 

43, Castle-street, Beading. 
Walton, Frederic Eobert Brooke. 

1, Claremont Bank, Shrewsbury. 
Ward, Edward. 

249, Oxford-street, Manchester. 
Ward, Frederic Henry, M.E.C.S. 

Springfield, near Tooting, S.W. 

e 2 



Ixviii ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY 



Elected. 

1862 

1881 

1883 

1885 

1882 

1883 

1879 

188L 

1878 

1872 

1889 

1887 

1886 

1887 

1887 

1861 

1886 

1884 

1884 

1852 

1885 

1885 

1861 

1885 

1882 

1868 



"Ward, John Whitely. 

South Boyde, Halifax. 
Ward, E. H., M.D. 

53, Fourth-streef, Troy, N.Y., U.S.A. 
^Warner, Eev. Arthur George, 

1, Sumner-place, South Kensington, S.W. 
Warner, Edmoud. 

Southend, Eltham, S.E. 
Warnock, James. 

93, Beade-street, New Torh, U.S.A. 
Waters, Arthur William, F.L.S. 

Boyal Microscopical Society, 20, Ranover-square, W. 
Watson, Thomas E. 

St. Mary's Lodge, Goldtops, Neivport, Mon. 
Watson, Tliomas P. 

313, High Holhorn, W.G. 
Watts, Eev. G. E., M.A. 

Kensworth Vicarage, Dunstable. 
Webb, Henry Eichard, J.P. 

Merivale, St. Albans, Christchurch, New Zealand. 
Weed, Clarence Moore, M.Sc. 

Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Weigh tman, Alfred Ernest, Surg. E.N. 

H.M.S. " Garnet," care of Postmaster, Aden, 
Weir, Walter, M.B., F.E.C.P. (Ed.). 

Gatestone, Upper Norwood, S.E. 
Weld-Blundell, Herbert. 

Wellington Club, 1, Grosvenor-place, S.W. 
Wellington, Eichard Henslowe. 

38, Felloives-road, South Hampstead, N.W. 
Wells, John Eobinson, M.D., F.E.C.S. 

4 Pierrepoint Boad, Springfield Parle, Acton. 
West, Charles. 

7, Park-row, Blachheaih, S.E. 
West, Charles E., M.D., LL.D. 

138, Montague-street, BrooMyn, N.Y., U.S.A. 
West, James. 

4, Henrietta-villas, Winhfield-road, N. 
West, Tuffen, F.L.S. 

Frensham, near Farnham, Surrey. 
*Western, Edward Young. 

27, Craven-hillrgardens, W. 
Western, George. 

2, Lime-villas, West Hill-road, Wandsivorth, S.W. 
Westwood, William Henry. 

Oatlands-parJc, Weybridge. 
Wethered, Edward, F.G.S. 

5, Berkeley-place, Cheltenham. 
Whaite, Frederick A. 

Fine Art Galleries, Bridge-street, Manchester. 
Wheldon, John. 

58, Great Queen-street, W.C. 



Elected, 

1889 
1850 
1867 
1886 
1886 
1889 
1867 
1866 
1885 
1883 
1879 
1880 
1866 
1886 
1879 
1884 
1879 
1881 
1884 
1857 
1857 
1889 
1861 
1888 
1881 
1842 



ORDINAEY FELLOWS. Ixix 

Whelpley, Henry Milton, 

2647, Olive-street, St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A. 
WMte, Charles Frederick, F.L.S. 

3, Amlierst-road, Ealing, W. 
WMte, Thomas Charters, M.R.C.S., L.D.S. 

26, Belqrave-road, S. W. 
White, Wallace S. 

128, W. Main-street, Kalamazoo, Michigan, U.S.A. 
*Whitehead, Ralph Eadcliffc. 

Borden-ivood, Milland, LipJiooJc, Hants. 
Whitelegge, Thomas. 

Australian Museum, Sydney, New South Wales. 
Whitelock, Eev. Benjamin, M.A. (Cantab.). 

Lealands, Groombridge, Sussex {near Tunhridge Wells). 
*Whitling, Henry Townsend, M.R.C.S. 

53, High-street, Croydon. 
Whitney, James E. 

Bochester, N.Y., U.S.A. 
Whitson, James, M.D. 

13, Somerset-place, Glasgoio. 
Whittell, Horatio Thomas, M.D., M.E.C.S. 

Board of Health, Adelaide, South Australia. 
*Whitworth, Benjamin. 

11, Holland-jparli, W. 
Wight, James Ford. 

Grazeley, Gipsy-hill, Upper Norwood, S.E. 
Wilkins, Thomas Smith. 

Uttoxeter. 
Williams, George. 

135, Goningham-road, Shepherd' s-bush, W. 
Williams, John Michael. 

166, Chalham-street, Liverpool. 
Willmott, Collis. 

Triangle, HacJcney, E. 
Wills, George Sampson Valentine, F.L.S. 

Arundel Lodge, 112, Tulse-hill, S.W. 
Wilson, Anne (Mrs.). 

3, Portland-terrace, Begenfs-parh, N.W. 
Wilson, Eichard, M.E.I. 

69, Gornhill, E.G. 
*Wiltshire, Eev. Thomas, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

25, Granville-parh, Lewisham, S.E. 
Winder, Bartlett Wrangham, F.C.S. 

5, Wharncliffe-road, Sheffield. 
Win stone, Benjamin. 

53, Bussell-square, W.G. 
Wolff, Arthur J., M.D. 

71, Gapitol-avenne, Hartford, Conn., U.S.A. 
Wood, Benjamin William. 

63, Gloucester-street, Sheffield. 
Wood, Frederick, F.E.C.S. 

12, Leiois-crescent, Kemp Town, Brighton, 



Ixx 



EOYAL MICEOSCOPICAL SOCIETY: 



Elected. 

1879 
1850 

1878 
1880 
1880 
1889 
1882 
1888 

1882 
1881 
1885 

1859 

1887 

1889 



Woodall, Eobert. 

6, Copthall-court, E.G. 
*Woodhouse, Alfred James, L.D.S. 
1, Hanover-square, W. 
Woods, George Arthur, L.E.C.P., M.E.C.S., &c. 

57, HougMon-street, Southport. 
*Woodward, Bernard B., F.G.S. 

23, Batoum-gardens, West Kensington-parlc, W. 
Woodward, Henry, LL.D., F.E.S. 

129, Beaufort-street, Chelsea, S.W. 
Wright, Charles Henry. 

Boyal Herbarium, Keiv. 
Wright, John. 

The Lodge, WJiitton, Suffolk. 
Wright, George Henry. 

Care of Messrs. Eyre & Spottiswoode, Great Neio-street, 
E.G. 
Wright, E. Eamsay, M.A., B.Sc. 

The University, Toronto, Canada. 
Wright, Theodore E. 

17, Clifford' s-inn, E.G. 
Wythe, Jose'ph H., M.D. 

965, West-street, OaMand, California, U.S.A. 



Yool, Henry, F.Z.S. 

Oalifield, Weyhridge. 
Young, Walter Plomer. 

Hertford-house, Albert-road, Battersea-parh, S.W. 



Zeiss, Eoderich, M.D. 
Jena, Germany. 



IIONOEARY FELLOWS. Ixxi 

HONORARY FELLOWS. 



Elected. 

1878 


Abbe, E. 




Jena. 


1879 


Agassiz, A. 




Cambridge, Mass., U.S. A 


1888 


AUman, G. J. 




Parkstone. 


1879 


Arcber, W. 




Dublin. 


1879 


Balbiani, E. G. 




Paris. 


1879 


Beneden, P. J. van. 




Louvain. 


1879 


Biitscbli, 0. 




Heidelberg. 


1876 


Castracane, Conte Ab. F. 




Borne. 


1879 


Cienkowski, L. 




KharJcoff. 


1879 


Cleve, P. T. 




JJpsala. 


1879 


Cobn, F. 




Breslau. 


1879 


Cornii, M. 




Paris. 


1882 


Dippel, L. 




Darmstadt. 


1879 


Dodel-Port, A. 




Zimch. 


1879 


Engelmann, T. W. 




Utrecht. 


1885 


Flogel, J. H. L. 




Bramstedt, Holstem. 


1879 


Frey, H. 




Zurich. 


1888 


Govi, G. 




Naples. 


1879 


Grunow, A. 




Berndorff, near Vienna. 


1870 


Hankey, J. 




New YorJc, U.S.A. 


1883 


Heurck, H. van. 




Antwerp. 


1876 


Kitton, F. 




London. 


1879 


Kolliker, A. v. 




Wiirzburg. 


1885 


Lacaze-Dutbiers, H. de. 




Paris. 



kxii EOYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY 



Elected. 




1879 


Leidy, J. 




Philadelphia, U.S.A. 


1888 


Loven, S. 




Stockholm. 


1871 


Maddox, E. L. 




Southamjpton. 


1879 


Metschnikoff, E. 




Odessa. 


1879 


Nageli, C. 




Munich. 


1879 


Nylander, W. 




Paris. 


1879 


Oudemans, C. A. J. A. 




Amsterdam. 


1884: 


Parker, W. K. 




London. 


1879 


Pasteur, L. 




Paris. 


1889 


Ealfs, J. 




Penzance. 


1879 


Eanvier, L. 




Paris. 


1877 


Eenard, A. 




Louvain. 


1886 


Eogers, W. A. 




Cambridge, Mass., U.S. 


1879 


Sars, G. 0. 




Ghristiania. 


1879 


Schultze, F. E. 




Graz. 


1879 


Schwendener, S. 




Berlin. 


1879 


Smith, H. L. 




Geneva, N.Y., U.S.A. 


1879 


Steenstrup, J. J. S. 




Copenhagen. 


1879 


Strasburger, E. 




Jena. 


1879 


Thiimen, E. von. 




Vienna. 


1879 


Tiegliem, Ph. van. 




Paris. 


1888 


Virchow, E. 




Berlin. 


1872 


Wallich, G. C. 




London. 


1879 


Warming, E. 




Copenhagen. 


1879 


Weismann, A. 




Freiburg i. B. 


1879 


Zittel, K. A, 




Munich. 



EX-OFFICIO FELLOWS. Ixxiii 



SOCIETIES WHOSE PRESIDENTS FOR THE TIME BEING ARE 

EX-OFFICIO FELLOWS. 



UNITED KINGDOM. 

London — 

Linnean Society. 

Quekett Microscopical Club. 

Eoyal Society. 

South London Microscopical and Natural History Club. 

Provinces — 

Birmingham Natural History and Microscopical Society. 
Bolton Microscopical Society. 
Brighton and Sussex Natural History Society. 
Bristol Microscopical Society. 
Bristol Naturalists' Society. 
Cardiff Naturalists' Society. 
Carlisle Microscopical Society. 
Croydon Microscopical and Natural History Club. 
Eastbourne Natural History Society. 
East Kent Natural History Society. 
Essex Field Club. 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club. 
Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society. 
Liverpool, Literary and Philosophical Society of 
Liverpool, Microscopical Society of 
Manchester Microscopical Society. 
Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society. 
North of England Microscopical Society. 
Nottingham Naturalists' Society. 

Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwall Natural History 
Society. 

Scotland — 

Edinburgh, Eoyal Society of 
Glasgow, Natural History Society of 

Ireland. 

Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society. 
Dublin Microscopical Club. 
Eoyal Irish Academy. 



Ixxiv EOYAL MICROSOOPICAL SOCIETY : 

COLONIES. 

India^ 

(Calcutta.) Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Australasia — 

New Soutli Wales, Linnean Society of 
New Soutli Wales, Eoyal Society of 
South Australia, Eoyal Society of 
Tasmania, Royal Society of 
Victoria, Eoyal Society of 

Canada — 

(Halifax.) Nova Scotian Institute of Natural Science. 
(Toronto.) Canadian Institute. 

UNITED STATES. 

American Society of Microscopists. 

(Boston.) American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

( „ .) Boston Society of Natural History. 

(Chicago.) State Microscopical Society of Illinois. 

New York Academy of Sciences. 

New York Microscopical Society. 

Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences of 

St. Louis, Academy of Science of 

San Francisco Microscopical Society. 

Troy Scientific Association. 

GERMANY. 

Berlin, K. Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu 
Berlin, Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu 
(Frankfurt a. M.) Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesell- 
schaft. 
Gottingen, K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu 
(Halle a. S.) K. Leopoldinisch-Carolinische Deutsche Akademie 

der Naturforscher. 
Jenaische Gesellschaft fiir Medicin und Naturwissenschaft. 
(Leipzig.) E. Sachsische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. 
(Miinchen.) K. Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

(Budapest.) Societe Eoyale Hongroise des Sciences Naturelles. 
(Prag.) K. Bohmische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. 
(Vienna.) K. Akademie der Wissenschaften. 
( „ ) K- K- Zoologisch-botanische Gesellschaft. 

HOLLAND. 

(Amsterdam.) K. Akademie van Wetenschappen. 
Haarlem, Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen (Societe 
HoUandaise des Sciences a Harlem). 



EX-OFFICIO FELLOWS. Ixxv 

DENMARK. 

(Kjobenhavn.) K. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. 

SWEDEN. 

(Stockholm.) K. Svenska Vetenskaps Akademie. 

RUSSIA. 

Moscou, Societe Imperiale des Nattiralistes de 

(Odessa.) Societe des Naturalistes de la Nouvelle Eussie. 

St. Petersburg, Academic Imperiale des Sciences de 

SWITZERLAND. 

AUgemeine Scbweizerische Gesellscbaft fiir die Gesammten 
Naturwissenscbaften (Societe Helvetique des Sciences 
Naturelles). 
Basel, Naturforscbende Gesellcbaft in 
Geneve, Societe de Pbysique et d'Histoire Naturelle de 
(Lausanne.) Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles. 

FRANCE. 

Bordeaux, Societe des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles de 
Marseille, Academic des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts de 
Montpellier, Academic des Sciences et Lettres de 
(Paris.) Academic des Sciences. 
( „ ) Societe Botanique de France. 

BELGIUM. 

(Bi'iissels.) Academie Eoyale des Sciences, des Lettres et des 

Beaux-Arts de Belgique. 
( „ ) Societe Beige de Microscopic. 
( „ ) Societe Eoyale de Botanique de Belgique. 

ITALY. 

Milano, E. Istituto Lombard© di Scienze e Lettere di 
(Milano.) Societa Crittogamologica Italiana. 
(Pisa.) Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali. 
(Eoma.) E. Accademia dei Liucei. 
Torino, E. Accademia delle Scienze di 

SPAIN. 

(Madrid.) Sociedad Espanola de Historia Natural, 

PORTUGAL. 

Lisboa, Academia Eeal das Sciencias de 



( Ixxvi ) 



LIST OF ORDINARY FELLOWS 

CLASSIFIED GEOGEAPHICALLY, ^ 

exclusive of those residing within the limits of the London Postal 

District. 



I. UNITED KINGDOM. 



ENGLAND. 

Bedfoedshike. 
Bedford — Brooke, Lieut.-Ool. 0. K. | Dunstable — Watts, Rev. G. E. 



Maidenhead — Ballard, J. F. 
Reading — Walters, J. H. 



Chester — JoLnson, M. 

Shepheard, T. 

Eandforth—QuvAifle, P. G. 
Knutiiford — Halkyard, E. 



Marazion—MiWeii, F. W. 
Derby — Carr, Rev. E. 



Bebkshibe. 

I Windsor — Ohurcliill, Lord E. S. 



Cheshire. 

Discard — Gasbing, Rev. S. 
Macclesfield — Potts, J. 
Sandbuch — Bygott, R. 
Winsford — Cooke, J. H. 

Cornwall. 

I Torpoint — Croydon, C. 

Derbyshire. 

I Uttoxeter—Wnkins, T. iS. 



Devonshire. 

I Exeter — Jerman, J. 

Vicary, W. 

Budleigh Salterton — BrusMeld, Dr. ] Sidmouth — Radford, Dr. W. 
T. N. I 



Barnstaple. — Butler, P. J. 
Bideford—Fiuzel, C. W. 



DOESETSHIEB. 

Parkstone—Lang, Major F. H. | Dyme Regis — Peek, Hon. Mrs. 



Ferry Jf«7Z— Palmer, H. 
-S^anZei/— Mantle, A. 



Durham. 

I Sunderland — Squance, T. C. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF FELLOWS. 



Ixxvii 



Chelmsford — Rosling, E, 
Colchester — Shenstone, J. C. 
Dovercourt — Southall, Rev. G-. 
Finchingfield — Bailey, Rev. G. 



Essex. 



Loughton — Cliristian, W. T. 
Woodfo7-d — Curnock, Rev. N. 
Letohford, R. 



Cheltenham — Wethered, B. 
Cirencester — Creese, E. J. £. 



Gloucestershiee. 

I Shirehampton — Braidwood, Dr. P. M. 



Hampshire. 



Isle of Wight— Ovfen, Major S. R. J. 
M?7Za?zcZ— Whitehead, R. R. 
Porchester — Frampton, Col. C. 
Southampton — Corke, H. C. 



Southampton — Dayman, C. O. 

King, E. H. G. 

Southsea — Richards, E. 



Hertfoedshire. 



Hoddesdon — Campbell, F. M. 
St. Albans — Hopkinson, J. 



St. Albans— Makins, G. H. 
Faj-e— Croft, Lieut. R. B. 



Huntingdonshire. 
St. Neots — Manchester, Duke of. 



Kent. 



Belvedere — Spurrell, F. 
Bexley Henth—Vvine^Xe, A. 
JBickley— Scott, D. H. 
Bromley — Cheshire, F. R. 

Lubbock, Sir J, 

Ross, Dr. J, A. 

Canterbury — Rosseter, T. B. 
Chislehurst — Hamilton, J. J. 

Shadbolt, G. 

• Silver, H. A. 

Vanuer, W. 



Dartford — Hepburn, J. G. 
Edenbridge — Bramwell, Rt. Hon. Lord. 
Margate— Pittock, G. M. 

Rowe, Dr. T. S. 

Sevenoaks — Lambert, T. J. 

Townsend, J. S. 

Sidcup — Hembry, F. W. 
Stone — Ollard, J. A. 
Tonbridge — Nevins, R. T. G. 
Tunbridge PFeZfe— Tebbitt, W. 



Lancashire. 



Accrington — Rhodes, J. 
Blackburn — Bowdler, A. C. 

Rutherford, J. 

Bolton — Harwood, R. 
■ Jackson, C. L. 

Rideout, W. 

Thompson, J. 

Bolton-le-Moors-GoWiiiB, W. H. 
Burnley — Ratcliif, J. R. 
Chorlton-cum- Hardy — Blackburn, W. 
Heyvjood — Meek, Rev. G. 
Liverpool — Ballard, Rev. F. 

Botterill, C. 

Drysdale, Dr. J. J. 

Hicks, J. S. 

Jones, J. B. 

Manbre, A. 

Morgan, J. B. 

Tate, A. N. 

Thompson, I. C. 

Williams, J. M. 



Manchester — Aylward, H. P. 

Davies, G. E. 

Dunkerley, J. W. 

■ Gadd, W. 

Home, R. 

Hutton, Rev. E. A. 

Kirkby, W. 

Norris, A. 

Thomson^ W. 

Tyas, W. H. 

Ward, E. 

Whaite, F. A. 

Mossley — Robinson, J. B. 
Oldham — Butterworth, J. 

Sutcliflfe, F. W. 

St. Relens-JolliSe, C. H. 
Southport — Woods, G. A. 
Swinton — Barrow, J. 
TJrmston — Armstrong, T. 
Warrington — Rylands, T. G. 
TFmi^oii— Sykes, M. L. 



Enfield— mtch, F. G. 



Middlesex. 

I Staines- GiW, C. H. 



Ixxviii 



EOYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY 



Monmouthshire. 
New])ort — Watson, T. E. 

NOKTHUMBERLAND. 

Newcastle- on-T^jne — Jeaffreson, 0. S. I Waterloo— SoblYno; T. E. 
Martin, N. H. 



Nottinghamshire. 



Nottingham — Abel, "W". J. 

Cave, T. W. 

Marriott, E. D. 



Nottingham— Fratt, W. H. 

Eogers, J. 

Turton, G. F. 



Oxfordshire. 
Henley-on-Thames— KsiYei-a, J. 0. I Oxford— Gormsin, Kev. T. M. 
Noble, J. I Pritchard, Eev. C. 

Shropshire. 

I Shrewsbury — Walton, F.E.B 



Mmislow-MaWej, Dr. A. C. 
Shrewsbury — Forrest, H. E. 



Bath — Beaumont, W. J. 

Norman, G. 

Bristol — Braidwood, Dr. P. M. 

Case, H. W. 



Somersetshire. 

I Clifton— Braylej, E. B. L. 

I Hudson, Dr. C. T. 

I Street — Clark, J. 



Burton-on- Trent — Hallam, S. E. 
Mason, P. B. 



Staffordshire. 

Stone — Bostock, E. 

Wolverhampton — McMunn, Dr. C. A. 

Suffolk. 
Bury St. Edmunds— 'DsL\'<fson, W. | Whitton— Wright, J. 

Surrey. 

Kew — Firmin, P. S. 



Chertsey-Tnlk, J. A. 
Croydon — Berney, J. 

Carpenter, Dr. A. 

Whitling, H. T. 

^_psom— Smith, Eev. T. N. H. 
Farnham — West, T. 
Guildford — Ball, J. 

Budgett, J. L. 



Brighton — Barker, Dr. S. 

Borradaile, C. 

Grove, E. 

Haselwood, J. E. 

Sawyer, G. D. 

Tyson, T. B. 

Wood, F. 

Eastbourne — Eoper, F. C. S. 
Forest Row — Slack, H. J. 



Massee, G. 

Bedhill — Bossey, Dr. F. 

Gordon, Eev. J. M. 

Jelly, Miss E. C. 

Surbiton — Kershaw, Dr. W. W. 
Weybridge — Westwood, W. H. 

Yool, H. 

Sussex. 

Groombridge — Whitelock, Eev. B. 
Hawhhurst—'Pvescott, Sir G. E. 
Horsham — Cowan, T. W. 

Peters, W. 

Hurstpierpoint — Borrer, W., jun. 
Maresjield — Noble, Captain W. 
St. Leonards-on-Sea — Breeds, T. 

Noble, W. 

Pickersgill, W. C. 

Warwickshire. 



Birmingham — Bateman, Eev. B. J. 

Davis, J. 

Lancaster, W. J 

Martin, W. E. E. 



Coventry — Jones, H. W. 
Edgbaston — Anthony, Dr. J. 
Leamington — Hill, J. A. 



Westmoreland. 
Windermere — Healey, G. H. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF FELLOWS. 



Ixxix 



Marhet Lavington ■ 
Hon. E. P. 



Wiltshire. 
■ Bouverie, Eight I Salisbury — Lovibond, J. W. 



Bradford — Bennett, J. 

Douglas, J. A. 

■ Tacy, W. G. 

Carleton — Eddy, J. R. 
Easingwold — Eookledge, J. 
Halifax — Bowman, Dr. F. H. 

Cash, W. 

Thomson, F. W. 

Ward, J. W. 

Harrogate — Peacli, R. 
HmZZ— Spiers, Rev. W. 
Knottingley — Carter, G. W. 
ieecZs— Codling, Rev. W. E. 

Fawcett, J. E. 

Horn, Rev. J. 



YOEKSHIRE. 



Leeds — Pocklington, H. 

Turner, C. W. 

Turner, W. B. 

(Headingley) — Stubbins, J. 

- — - Teasdale, W. 

Liglitdiffe — Townend, W. 
Mannhigham — Pocklington, C. 
Wlashorough— Mather, Dr. E. 
Sheffteld— King, Rev. T. S. 

Pochin, P. G. 

Sorby, Dr. H. C. 

Winder, B. W. 

Wood, B. W. 

TFafce/seZcZ— Thompson, F. 
Wath-on-Dearne — Gadd, W. L. 



Bangor — Phillips, R. W. 



WALES. 

Carnarvon. 

I Llandudno — Thomas, Dr. H. 
Denbighshire. 
Abergele — Bateman, Rev, B. J. 
Glamorganshire. 
CarcZ/J— Hunt, De Vera. | CarcZzJ— Thompson, J. T. 

Montgomeryshire. 
Welshpool — Vize, Rev. J. E. 
Pembrokeshire. 
Tenhy—D-ystev, F. D. | Tenby— WaWiei; F. 



Aberdeen — Cash, J. T. 



Glasgow— Da^fiaon, T. 
Schulze, A. 



EdinburgTi — Brook, G., I'un. 

Greenfield, Dr. W. S. 

— — Penman, W. 



SCOTLAND. 

Aberdeenshiee. 

I ^Z/or(i— Farquharson, Mrs. M. S. 

Ayrshire. 

Kilmarnock — Borland, J. 

Forfarshire. 

Dundee — Hood, J. 

Lanarkshire. 

I Glasgow — Whitson, Dr. J. 

Midlothian. 

I Edinburgh — Thomson, J. A. 
Portobello — Davies, A. E. 



Stirlingshire. 
Stirling — Rae, J. 



Ixxx 



EOYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY : 



Kingstown — Thorpe, V. G. 



IRELAND. 

I Galway — O'Hara, Lieut.-Colonel If 



II. COLONIES. 



Sydney— Yischer, Dr. 0. F. 

Kyngdon, F. B. 

Mayne, J. 

Meek, B. 0. 



Adelaide — Bussell, J. W. 

Cleland, W. L. 

Pickels, W. B. 



iattncesfon— Harrop, E. D. 



Melbourne — Bage, E. 

Bale, W. M. 

Ball, W. 



AUSTKALIA. 

New South Wales. 

I Sydney — Mestayer, E. L. 

Morris, Dr. W. 

I Mullins, Dr. G. L. 

I Whitelegge, T. 

Queensland. 
Brisbane — Luck, H, C. 

South Austealia. 

Adelaide — Thomas, J. D. 



Whittell, H. T. 



Tasmania. 

I Launceston — Parker, K. J. 

ViCTOEIA. 

Melbourne —Gibhons, W. S. 
Bichmond — Baker, F. H. 
Bomsey—M.o&eit, W. T. 



West Australia. 
Fremantle — Mayhew, E. W. A. 



NEW ZEALAND. 



Christchurch—W ehh, H. K. 
Oiago— Bell, A. D. 
Parker, T.J. 



i?ame— Eogerson, J. 
London — Saunders, W. 
Montreal— Osier, Dr. W. 



WelUngfon—MaakeU, W. M. 
Kirk, J. W. 



CANADA. 

Ottawa — Dawson, G. M, 
Toronto — Wright, Professor E, 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 
Kimberley — Lee, G. J. 



INDIA. 



Bombay — Freeman-Underwood, Dr. 
C. H. 

Underwood, E. F. 

Calcutta — Lee, W. A. 
Kursiong — Newton, C. E. 



Madras — Thurston, E. 
Ootdcamund — Lawson, M. A. 
PooTia— Giles, G. M. 
Simla — Shelley, Lieut. A. D. G. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF FELLOWS. 



Ixxxi 



III. FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



Aden — Weightman, A. E. 
Antihes — Simpson, Kev. D. 



Darmstadt — Jocelyn, Hon. W. N. 
Jena — Zeiss, R. 



ARABIA. 

I Muscat — Jayaker, A. S, 

FRANCE. 

I Part's — Nachet. A. 

GERMANY. 

I Wiesbaden — Dreyfus, L, 



ITALY. 

Bologna — Ciaccio, G. 

PORTUGAL. 

Oporto — Nixon, P. C. 

SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC. 
Pretoria — Kay, Dr. J. A. 



Oafctond— Wythe, Dr. J. H. 
Oleander — James, G. W. 
San Francisco — Dennis, S. W. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 

Calitoenia. 

San Francisco — Hanks, H. 
Nuttall, Dr. G. H. F. 



Hartford — Lewis, W. J. 



Champaign — Burrill, T. J. 
Chicago — Bastin, E. S. 

Bullocb, W. H. 

Curtis, Lester. 

Durkee, R. P. H. 

Fuller, C. G. 

Higley, W. R. 



Colorado. 
Denver — Chamberlin, H. B. 

Connecticut. 

I iTart/orcZ— Woolff, Dr. A. J. 

Illinois. 

Chicago — Johnson, Dr. H. A. 

IMercer, Dr. F. W. 

Ochsner, Dr. A. J. 

Skelton, J. L. 

Thomas, B. W. 

South Evanston—'EyfeU, M. D. 
Summerfield — Close, J. A. 



Danville — Johnson, Dr. T. W. 
Indianopolis — Hodges, Dr. E. F. 



Indiana. 

I Newcastle — Redding, D. B. 



1889. 



Kansas. 
Hiawatha — Leigh, Dr. A. 

Louisiana. 
New Orleans — Devron, Dr. G. 

Maine. 
Bangor — Stodder, J. C. 



/ 



Ixxxii EOYAL MICEOSCOPICAL SOCIETY. 

Baltimore — Eastman, L. M. 



Maryland. 

I Baltimore — Sternberg, Dr. G. M. 



Massachusetts. 



Boston — Pray, T. 

Longmeadow — Booth, Miss M. A. 



Westford—Rowlej, Rev. C. H. 
Worcester — McMurricb, J. P. 



Ann Arbor — Gibbes, H. 

Huber, Dr. G. C. 

Latham, Miss V. A. 



Michigan. 



Detroit— M.eLnton, Dr. W. P. 
Lansing — Miles, M. 
Kalamazoo — White, W. S. 



Minnesota. 
Minneapolis — Fellows, C. S. 



St. Louis — Bernays, Dr. A. C. 



Missouri. 

I St. iota's— Whelpley, H. M. 



JVeiuar/c— Mann, Rev. A. 



New Jersey. 

I Plainfield — Balem, A. D. 



New York. 



Broohlyn — Bates, Dr. W. H. 

Craig, T. 

Hoagland, Dr. C. N. 

West, Dr. C. E. 

Buffalo— Fell, Dr. G. E. 

Howe, Dr. L. 

Clifton Springs — Lovelaud, Dr. B. G. 
DunMrh—Blackham, Dr. G. E. 
Fairpoint — Griffith, E. H. 
New York — Brevoort, H. L. 

Oox, 0. F. 

Damon, W. E. 

De Witt, W. G. 

Fuller, H. W. 

Habirshaw, F. 

Habirshaw, Dr. J. 

Julien A. A. 

Mead, W. H. 



New York— Flyer, C. W. 

Schultze, E. A. 

Stratford, W. 

Van Brunt, 0. 

Wales, W. 

Wall, J. L. 

Warnock, J. 

Bocliester — Ailing, C. E. 

Atwood, H. T. 

Line, J. E. 

Mallorv, M. L. 

Whitney, J. C. 

Syracuse — Aberdein, Dr. R. 

Mercer, Dr. A. C. 

Troy — Hanaman, 0. E. 

Ward, R. H. 

Utica— Walker, W. 0. 



Cincinnati — Cox, Dr. J. D. 

Thacker, Dr. J. A. 

Cleveland — Vorce, 0. M. 



Ohio. 

Columbus — Detmers, H. J. 

Kellicott, D. S. 

Weed, C. M. 



Philadelphia — Morris, G. C. 
Remington, J. P. 



Pennsylvania. 

I Philadelphia — Sudduth, W. X. 
I Walmsley, W. H. 



Virginia. 
Charlottesville — Tuttle, A. H. 



( Isxxiii ) 



LIST OF SOCIETIES, INSTITUTIONS, lc„ 

WHO AKE ENTITLED TO KECEIVE THE SOCIETY'S JOUKNAL, IN 

ADDITION TO THOSE WHOSE PRESIDENTS AEE 

EX-OFPICIO FELLOWS. 



London — 

British Museum. 
Chemical Society. 
Entomological Society. 
Geological Society. 
Hackney Microscopical Society. 
King's College. 
Eoyal Institution. 
University College. 

Manchester — 

Cryptogamic Society. 

Edinburgh — 

Eoyal Physical Society. 

Dublin — 

Eoyal Dublin Society. 

United States — 

American Monthly Microscopical Journal. 

American Naturalist. 

Journal of Morpliology. 

The Microscope and its relation to Medicine and Pharmacy. 

Baltimore. Johns Hopkins University. 

Cambridge. Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Cincinnati. Society of Natural History. 

Connecticut. Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

Nevr York. Torrey Botanical Club. 

Wasliington. Smithsonian Institution. 

Surgeon-General's Office. 

Germany — 

Zeitschrift fiir Wissenschaftliche Mikroskopie. 

Zoologischer Anzeiger. 

Bonn. Naturhistorischer Verein der Preussischen - Rheinlande und 

Westfalens. 
Breslau. Schlesische Gesellschaft fiir Vaterlandische Cultur. 
Freiburg-i-B. Naturforschende Gesellschaft. 
Wiirzburg. Physikalisch-Medicinische Gesellschaft. 



Ixxxiv ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY. 



Austria-Hungary — 

Briinn, Naturforschende Verein. 

Trieste, Societa Adriatica di Scienze Naturali. 



SWEDEN- 



Lund. Universitet. 

Stockholm. Oarolinisches Medico-Ohirurgisches Institut. 

Upsal. E. Societas Scientiarum Upsaliensis. 



SWITZERLAND- 



Eecueil de Zoologie Suisse. 
Bern. Naturforschende Gesellschaft. 
„ Schweizerische Entomologische Gesellschaft. 



France- 



Oherbourg. Societe Nationale des Sciences Naturelles. 
Paris. Societe Zoologique de France. 
Toulouse. Academic des Sciences. 



Italy — 



Acireale. Societa Italiana dei Microscopisti. 

Florence. Societa Bntomologica Italiana. 

Genoa. Museo Civico de Storia Naturale. 

Naples. Zoological Station. 

Padua. Societa Veneto-Trentina de Scienze Naturali. 

Rome. Accademia Pontificia de' Nuovi Lincei. 



The Journal is issued on the second Wednesday of 
February, April, June, August, October, and December. 



■t^ 



w 



1889. Parti. 



FEBRUARY. 



To Non-Fellows/^^ 

Price 6s. 



Journal 



OF THE 



Royal 
Microscopical Society; 

CONTAINING ITS TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS, 

AND A SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

(principally Invertebrata and Oryptogamia), 
Js/LXGTlOSGOF^Sr, Sec 



«« 



Edited by 

PRANK CRISP, LL.B., B.A,, 

One of the Secretaries of the Society 
and a Vice-President and Treasurer of the Linnean Society of London ; 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF THE PUBLICATION COMMITTEE AND 

A. W. BENNETT, M.A., B.Sc, E.L.S., F. JEFFREY BELL, M.A., F.Z.S., 

Lecturer on Botany at Si. Thomas' s Hosj>ital, Professor of Cotnparative Anatotny in King's College, 

JOHN MAYALL, Jun., F.Z.S., E. G. HEBB, M.A., M.D. (,Caniiib.\ 

AND 

J. AETHUR THOMSON, M.A., 

Lecturer on Zoology in the School of Medicine, Edifiburgh, 
FELLOWS OF THE SOCIETY. 




WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 

LONDON AND EDINBURGH. 




."SINTED BY \VM. CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITEE,] 



[STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS, 



CONTENTS. 



Transactions of the SooiET-y — pac» 

I. — Observations on the Special iNTERNAii Anatomy of Uropoda 
Krameri. By Albert D. Michael, F.L.S., P.Z.S., F.K.M.S., 
&c. (Plate I.) 1 

II. — List of Desmids from Massachusetts, U.S.A. By Wm. West, 
F.L.S., Lecturer on Botany and Materia Mediea at the 
Bradford Technical College. (Plates II. and III.) .. .. 16 

III. — Keprodtjotion and Multiplication of Diatoms. By the Abb^ 

Count F. Castracane, Hon. F.K.M.S 22 

SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES. 

ZOOLOGY. 
A. VERTEBRATA :— Embryology, Histology, and General, 
a. Embryology. 

Quincke, G. — Movements of Proto^jlasm .. .. 28 

Masius, J. — Placenta of Babbit 28 

GiACOMiNi, C- — Neurenteric Canal in the Babbit . . . . 29 

EiMEB, G. H. T. — Markings of Mammals 30 

Lucas, A- H. S.— Colour of Birds' Eggs .. .• •• 30 

ScHULTZB, O. — Development of Germinal Layers and Notochord in Bana-fusca . . 30 
Eeinhard, W. — Development of Germinal Layers, Notochord, and Mid-gut in 

Cyprinoids 31 

EiMEB, G. H. T. — Origin of Species 31 

GuLiCK, J. T. — Divergent Evolution through Cumulative Segregation 33 

NussBAUM, M. — Heredity .. .. 34 

Amans, p. C. — Organs of Aquatic Locomotion 35 

M'CoY, F. M. — Zoology of Victoria . . .. .. 35 

p. Histologry. 

EoLLET, A. — Structure of Muscle 35 

Ballowitz, E. — Structure of Spermatozoa .. .. 36 

LuKJANOW, S. M. — Club-shaped Nucleoli .. .. 36 

EoHDE, E. — Nervous System of Amphioxus 86 

B. INVERTEBRATA. 

Mollusca. 

y. Gastropoda. 

^Kalide, G. — Eyes of Gastropods and of Pecten 88 

S. Lamellibranchiata^ 

Dubois, E. — Influence of Light .. .. 89 

Maoalpine, D. — Movements of Detached Gills 40 

M'Intosh, W. C. — Development of Mytilus edulis .. ..^ .. .. 40 

MoUuscoida. 
o. Tunicata. 

IiIaubicb, C. — Monograph of Fragaroides aurantiacum .. .. .. .. .. .. 40 

JoLiET, L. — Structure of Pyrosoma .. .. 46 

Alternation of Generations in Salpa and Pyrosoma .. .. 47 



( 3 ) 

j3. Bryozoa. page 

Freese, W. — Anatomy and Histology of Memhraiiipora pilosa 47 

y, Srachiopoda. 

Heath, A. — Modified Ectoderm in Crania and Lingula 48 

Arth.ropoda. 
a. Insecta. 

Lubbock, Sir John — Observations on Ants, Bees, and Wasps 49 

Grassi, B. — Termites .. 50 

„ „ Replacement of King and Queen of Termites 50 

Macloskie, G. — Poison-apparatus of Mosquito .. .. .. .. 51 

S. Arachnida. 

ScHAUB, R. V. — Anatomy of Eydrodroma 51 

e. Crustacea. 

Beyendal, D. — Male Copulatory Organs on first Abdominal Appendage of some 

female Crayfishes .. 53 

Giles, G. M. — Indian Amphipoda .. .. 53 

Canu, E. — New Family of Commensal Copepods .. .. 53 

EosoLL, A. — Two new Copepods parasitic on Echinoderms ^. 54 

Fewkes, J. Vf ALTER— New Parasite of Amphiura 54 

Cattaneo, G. — Amoeibocytes of Crustacea . . 54 

Vermes. 
a. Annelida. 

Saint- Joseph, Baron de — Polychseta of Dinard 55 

Fkiedlander, B. — Central Nervous System of Lumbricus 56 

GoEHLiCH, G. — Genital and Segmental Organs of Earthworm .. 57 

Beddard, F. E. — Three new Species of Earthworms . . 57 

„ „ Reproductive Organs of Eudrilus .. .. 58 

j8. Nemathelmintlies. 

SoNSiNO, P. — Nematode in Blood of Dog 58 

S. Incertae Sedis. 

Weber, E. F. — " Notes on some Eotifera from the Neighbourhood of Geneva " .. .. 59 

Zelinka, C— Parasitic Rotifer — Discopus Synaptse .. .. 60 

Echinodermata. 

Fewkes, J. W. — Development of Calcareous Plates of Asterias .. .. , 61 

Semon, E. — Development of Synapta digitata ,. 62 

LuDWiG, H. — Ophiopteron elegans 66 

Brock, J. — OpMurid Fauna of Indian Archipelago ,. 66 

LuDwiG, H. — Holothurians of Indian Archipelago .. ., ,. .. .. ., .. 67 

LovEN, S. — New Echinoconid 67 

Coelenterata. 

Lendenfeld, E. ton — Coelenterata of the Southern: Seas .. .. .. .. .. .. 67 

Fowler, G. Herbert — Two new Types of Actiniaria , .. 70 

M'Intosh, W. C — Lesueria vitrea 71 

Bale, W. M. — New or rare Australian Hydroida 71 

Protozoa. 

Maggi, L. — Protozoa on Mosses of Plants .. .. 72 

Maupas, 'E.— Multiplication of Ciliated Infusoria 72 

Fabre-Domergtje — Reserve Substances in the Protoplasm of Infusoria 74 

Plate, l^.—Aegyria oliva 74 

„ „ New Vorticelline 74 

Entz, G. — Nyctotherus in Blood of Apus cancriformis . . .... 75 

Henneguy, F. — Influence of Light on Noctiluca ► .. .. 75 

Vallentin, E. — Psorospermium Luoernarise.. .. 75 

Beddard, F. E, — Coccidium infesting Perichseta .. ,. 76 

Henneguy, L. F.^Sarcosporidia in Muscles of Palxmon 76 

Perron 3IT0, E. — Cercomonas intestinalis .. .. .. 76 

b 



( 4 ) 

BOTANY. 

A. GENERAL, including th.e Anatomy and Physiology 
of the Phanerogamia. 

a. Anatomy. 

(1) Cell-structure and Protoplasra. page 

ScHNETZLEE, J. B. — Movement of Botcition of Vcffetoble Protoplcism 78 

Clark, J. — Protoplasmic Movements . . 78 

Ambbonn, H. — Optical Properties of the Cuticle and of Suherized Membranes .. . . 78 

(2) Other Cell-contents (including Secretions). • 

Metek, a. — Structure of Chlorophyll-grains 78 

Moore, S. Le M. — Photolysis in Lemna irisulca ; 79 

ScHUNCK, E. — Chemistry of Chlorophyll 79 

CoxjEOHET, L. — Chromoleucites .. .. 79 

Sewell, P. — Colouring-matter of Leaves and Flowers 80 

Leitgeb, H. — Sphxrites • •• 81 

■VVeeminski, F.—Aleur one-grains _ •• 81 

Leitgeb, H. — Asparagin and Tyrosin in Tubers of the Dahlia 81 

(3) Structure of Tissues. 

Brick, C. — Litoral Plants . . .... .... .. .... .. 82 

Mavry, P.— Comparative Anatomy of Desert Plants .... 82 

Ebekdt, O. — Palisade-par enchijme .. 82 

Evans, "VV. 'R.— Stem of Ephedra 82 

Knoblauch, E. — Anatomy of the Wood of Lnurinese 83 

Gnentzsch, F. — Radial Connection of the Vessels and Wooi-parenrhyme.. .. .. 83 

Tkecul, a. — Order of Appearance of the first Vessels in the Leaves of Smnulus 

LupulusandS.japonicus .. •• 84 

TiEGHEM, P. y KB— 'Primary Liber-fibres in the Root of Malvacex . . .... . . 84 

Gregory, E. L. — Development of Cork-ioings on certain Trees .. .. 84 

Dangeaed, P. A. — Mode of Union of the Stem and the Root in Angiosperms .. .. 84 

(4) Structure of Organs. 

Ma^t^lia, JJ .—Dimorphism of the Flowers of the Sorse-chestnut 85 

HiERONYMUS, G. — Cleistogamous Flowers of Tephrosia heterantha 85 

Magnin, a. — Hermaphroditism of Lychnis dioica when attached by Ustilago .. .. 85 

EoBERTSON, C. — Zygomorphy and its Cafises .. .... .. .. 85 

ScHEODT, J. — Opening of the Anthers of Cycadese .. 86 

Teettb, M .—Protection of Buds in the Tropics 86 

Wettstein, E. v. — Extrafloral Nectaries in Compositm 87 

VoiGT, A. — Structure and Development of Seeds -with ruminated Endosperm . . . . 87 

ToNi, G. B. DE — Integument of the Seed of Geraniacem 88 

Peentiss, A. N. — Hygroscopic Movements iyi the Cone-scales of Abietinese .. .. 88 
Ieitz, P.— Relationship of the Tivisting Action of the Vaseidar Bundles to Phyllo- 

taxis ■'•■' 88 

Kaesten, G. — Development of Floating Leaves 88 

ScHERTFEL, A. — Glands on the RMzomc of Latlirxa ._ _.. 89 

GiLTAY, 'E.— Adaptation of Anatomical Structure to Climatal Conditions ., , . . . 89 

p. Physiology. 
(1) Keproduction and Germination. 

Keonpeld, M, — Fertilization of Euphrasia .. 89 

ScHNETZLER, J. B. — Case of Germination of Ranunculus aquatiUs 89 

(2) Nutrition and Growth (including Movements of Fluids). 

ScHNETZLEE, J. B. — Resistance of plants to causes tvhich alter the normal state of life 89 

Jentys, S. — Action of Oxygen under high pressure on growth 90 

DiETZ, S. — Influence of the Substratum on the Groivth of Plants 90 

Habtig, R. — Conduction of Fluids through the Albtmmm .. .. , 90 



( 5 ) 

(3) Irritability. ^^"^ 

Aderhold, E. — Forces ivhich determine the Movements in the Lower Onjanii'ms .. 90 

VocHTiNG, H.—Photu-position()f Leaves '^} 

WouTMANN, J .—Phenomena of Curvature .. .. .. .. ^^ 

(4) Chemical Chang-es (including- Respiration and Fermentation). 

BoKORNY, T. — Chemical process in Assimilation . . .. "-' 

Palladin, W. — Decomposition of Albumen in the absence of free oxygen .. .. ^'^ 

y. General- 

Ttjbeuf, 0. V, — Parasites on Trees .. .. 93 

Stahl, E. — Protection of Plants against Snails 93 

B. CRYPTOGAMIA. 

Cryptogamia Vascularia. 

Haberla^bt, G.^Chlorophyll-hodies of Selaginella 93 

Tretjb, M. — Prothallium of Lycopodium -. 9i 

Heustrichee, B.— Influence of Light on the Origin of Organs in the Fern-emhryo . . 94 

Musciuese. - 

Warnstoef, O. — A cufifolium-Section of Sphagnum •• 9'* 

'Rabenhorst's Cryptogkmic Flora of Germany (Musci) .. .. ■• 93 

Algae. 

Eeinke, J. — Ghromatophores of Phreosporess .. •• .. •• ..95 

MiNULA, W. — Mode of Distribution of Algm .. 95 

Andersson, 0. F. — Genetic Connection of Draparnaldia ghmerata and PalmeUa 

uvseformis .. , 95 

Dangeard, p. a. — Inferior Alqm .. .. .. 95 

MoBiTJS, M. — New Algse from Porto Rico .. .. .... .... .. .. .. 97 

Nordstedt, 0.^ — Algai of New Zealand and Australia .... .. 97 

Fungi (including Lichenes). 

Johnson, W. — Sporids of Lichens .. •• •• 97 

Amthoe, C. — Saccharomyces apicidatus 98 

Aecangeli, G.^KeJir .. .. .. •• •• ■■ 99 

Zukal, H.^ — New Type'of ITymenomycetes .. .- .. 99 

SoLMS-LAtJBAGH, Grafzu — UstHogo TreuMi 99 

Bary, a. T)E—Saprolegnie£e .. •■ •• •• 99 

FoEx, G., & Ij. B.AYAZ-r-Struciure of White Rot _ 100 

Warburg, O. — Cancer of the Cinchona 100 

GA\AnA,F.—Neiv Fungi of the Vine .... .. •• •• •• •• «• •■ •• 100 

Viala, p., & L. Eayaz — Diseases of the Vine .... 100 

HABEnnansT's Cryptogamic Flora of Germany {Fungi) .. .. .. .. .. .. 101 

Protopliyta. 

a. Scliizopliycese. 

Hi-ehotxymjjs. G.—Dicranochffte, a new Genus of Profococcaceie .. 101 

Dbby, S.— Structure of Diatom-valves .. 101 

KirTON, F. — Neiv Species of Navicida .. .. 101 

Castracanb, Count F. — Diatoms of Hot Springs .. 102 

„ „ Composition of the Marine Tripolis of the Valley of 

Metaurus .. .. .. .. .. .. 102 

Hansgirg,- A. — Classification of the Gyanophyce^' .. .... 102 

Bornet, E., & C. Flahatxt — Heterocystous Nostocaceie .. .. . .. 103 

ToBiASCHEK, H. — Relationship of Bacillus mur all s and Glaucothrix gracillima .. 103 

0. Scliizomycetes. 

Billet, A. — Bacterium Balbianii, a chromogenous marine Bacterium 104 

Salkowski, E. — -Ferment from putrefactive Bacteria .. .. 104 

Wakkbr, J. H. — Contributions to Vegetable Pathology .. .. 105 



( 6 ) 

PAGE 

Engelmann, Th. W. — Purple Bacteria and their relation to Li gilt ., .... ,. 105 

Belfanti & Pescakolo — Pathogenic Bacterium foundin Tetanu8 ,. 105 

SoROKiN, N. — Alnophaga pyriformia 1 06 

Lindner, P. — Sarcinx of Fermentation 106 

Fbaenkel, C, & R. Peeipfeb — Photomicrographic Atlas of Bacteriology ., .. 107 

Dennert, E., & A. WiGAND — Protoplasm considered as a Ferment Organism . . 107 

ScHULZ, H. — Yeast-poisona , .. .. 108 

MICEOSCOPy. 

«. Instruments, Accessories, &c. 

(1) Stands. 

Fasoldt's (C.) " Paienf" ilfzcTOScope (Figs. 1 and 2 ) 109 

CiKPSKis (_^.) Ear- (Tympanum) Microscope (Fig. ^) .. .. .. 112 

Moke Au's iifoK/ce?/ Microscope (Fig. 4) 113 

GrovgvCs Petrological Microscope .. ., .. .. 113 

Eeichert's (C.) PeirofogfJcaZ Mcroscope (Fig. 5) 113 

'Kvans,?,' (yi . G.) Patent Oxyhydrogen Microscope i¥\g. Q) 115 

„ „ Improved Microscopic Attachment— Cheap Form (F\g. 1) .. .. 116 

„ „ Special Combination Scientist Optical Lantern (Fig. 2>) .. .. 117 

Due DE Chaulnes' iHf /croscoj?e (Fig. 9) .. 118 

(2) Eye-pieces and Objectives. 

Jackson, H. — Mondbromide of Naphthaline as an Immersion Medium .. .. .. 119 

(3) Illuminating- and otlier Apparatus. 

Thoma's (R.) Camera XwctcJa (Figs. 10 and 11) 119 

Pantocsek, J.— Joinder (Fig. 12) ., .. .. ., 121 

AvjvsTA'BhE Safety-stage (Fig. 13) .. .. 121 

Engelmann's (T. W.) Microspectrometer (Figs, li-16) 122 

TovfEiih & TiEAJjA^d's Apochromatic Condenser (Fig. 17) 125 

Koch & Max WoLz's iam^ (Fig. 18) 126 

Bausch & LoMB Optical Co.'s Adjustable Hemispherical Illuminator (Fig. 19).. 126 

(4) Photomicrography. 

KiBBij^ii's Photomicrographic Camera (Fig. 20) 127 

MAVfsoTif & 8vf AT^'s Photomicrographic Apparatus (Fig. 21) 128 

Eobinsdn's P/iotomzcrogfrajjMc Cameras (Figs. 22 and 23) 128 

Eoux, E. — Photomicrography with Magnesium Light 129 

Makktannek's (G.) Instantaneous Photomicrogra2}hic Apparatus (Figs. 2i-26) .. 129 

Teambusti, A. — Easy Method for " Photographing " Sections 133 

Zettnow, E. — Chromo-copper Light-filter .. .. 133 

(5) Microscopical Optics and Manipulation. 

Maskell, W. M. — Optical Effect of Focusing up or down too much in the Microscope 134 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

Death o/ Dr. ^eiss .. •' ^^^ 

„ Mr. Zentmayer .. •• •• 1^5 

;8. Technique. 

(1) Collecting- Objects, including- Culture Processes. 

Kain, 0. H. — Collecting Diatoms 137 

JoDiN, v. — Culture of Unicellular Algm ,, .. ., 137 

C2) Preparing- Objects. 

Martinotti, 0. — Beaction of Elastic Fibres with Silver Nitrate .. ., .. .. 137 

Whitman, 0. O. — Solvent for the Gelatinous Envelope of Amphibian Egga .. .. 138 

Maurice, 0. — Method of Examining Fragaroides .. .. .. .. 138 

VoBWORN, M. — Preparing Fresh- water Br yozoa .. .. .. 138 



( 7 ) 

PAGE 

Lee, A. Bolles — Preparing Tetrastemma melanocejAala 139 

ScHEWiAKOPF — Karyokinesis in Euglypha alveolata 139 

Klein, L. — Permanent Preparations of Fresh-%oater Algne. 139 

„ ,, Mounting Fresh-water Algse .. •• .. 140 

IsTVANFFi, G.— Preparation of Fungi 141 

Morgan, T}. Yi..— Experiments with Chitin Solvents .. .= .. 141 

Boii-DK's (Qt.) Hardening Method 142 

(33 Cutting', ineluding- Imbedding- and Microtomes, 

KiNGSLEY, J. S. — ilinofs Automatic Microtome (Figs. 27 and 28) 143 

BoKN, G. — Plate Modelling Method or Plastic Reconstruction of the Object 

(Figs. 29-32) .. .. .. ,. .. .. .. .. 144 

Kastsohenko, N. — Cutting Microscopical Objects for the purpose of Plastic Becon- 

struction (Figs. 33 and Si) .. .. 146 

(4) Staining- and Injecting-. 

ZscHOKKB, E. — New Stains for Microscopical Purposes , , .. ,. 147 

Upson, H. S. — Carmine Staining of Nervous Tissue ,. 148 

Neuhauss, K. — Staining Microbes Mack for Photomicrography 148 

Leon, N. — Nucina as a Staining Agent .. • 149 

Lewin, a. — Baumgarten's Triple Staining Method .. .... 149 

Baeanski, a..— Staining Actinomyces .. .. .. .... ,. ,. .. .. ., 150 

BuJWiD, 0. — Method for Distinguishing and Isolating Cholera Bacteria .. .. 150 

Bellakminow — Shellac Injection for the Vessels of tJie Eye .. .. .... .. 150 

Letelliee, a.; — Black Injection-mass 151 

Bellaeminow — Technique of the " Corrosion " of Celloidin Preparations .. . . 151 

(5) Mounting-, including Slides, Preservative Pluids, &c. 

Cunningham, K. M. — Preparation of Type-plates and arranged Groups of Diatoms 152 

Maetinotti, M. — Xylol-dammar .. .. 153 

PoLi, A.— Kaiser's Gelatin for arrangi^ig microscopical preparations in series .. 153 

James, Y.Jj.— Limpid Copal Solution .. .. ,. .. ..154 

Sadebeck, K. — Preserving-fluids for Fleshy and Succulent Plants .. 154 

CzAPSKi, S. — Determining the Thickness of Cover-glasses of Mounted Preparations 154 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

Qxsbitsi'b {k.) small Steam-generator for Microscopical Technique (Fig. 3^) .. .. 155 
Sehrwald, E. — Parajin Oven with simple arrangement for maintaining a constant 

temperature (Fig. 36) .. ., .. 156 

STEm's (L. Y.) Steam Funnel (Fig. 37) .. I57, 

DiSTiNGVisumGr Stains of Human Blood 158 

MiQOEL, P. — Methods for ascertaining the Number of Atmospheric Germs .. .. 158 

Beegee, E. — Method for determining the true Shape of Microscopic Objects ., .. 158 



PHOOBBDINGS OP THE SoOIETY .. .. ,. „ .. ., „ .. 100 



APERTURE TABLE. 





Corresponding Angle (2 u) for 


Limit of Resolving Power, in Lines to an Inch. 




p 


?ne- 


Numerical 










Monochromatic 




IIIiimhiatinKl tra 


ting 


Aperture. 

(n sin u = a.) 


Air 
(n = l-CO). 


Water 
(w=l-33). 


Homogeneous 
Immersion 
(« = l-52). 


White Light. 

(A = • 5269 /li, 

Line ii.) 


(Blue) Light. 
(A = 0-4861 11, 

Line F.) 


Photography. 
(A = 0-4000^, 
near Liue 7t.) 


J'nver. Po 
(a2.) / 


wer. 


1-52 






180° 0' 


146,543 


158,845 


193,037 


2 


310 


658 


1-51 








166° 5]' 


145 


579 


157 


800 


191 


,767 


2 


280 


662 


1-50 








161° 23' 


144 


615 


166 


755 


190 


497 


2 


250 


667 


1-49 








157° 12' 


143 


651 


155 


710 


189 


227 


2 


220 


671 


1-48 








153° 39' 


142 


687 


154 


665 


187 


957 


2 


190 


676 


1-47 








150° 32' 


141 


723 


153 


620 


186 


687 


2 


161 


680 


1-46 








147° 42' 


140 


759 


152 


575 


185 


417 


2 


132 


685 


1-45 








145° 6' 


139 


795 


151 


530 


184 


147 


2 


103 


690 


1-44 








142° 39' 


138 


830 


150 


485 


182 


877 


2 


074 


694 


1-43 








140° 22' 


137 


866 


149 


440 


181 


607 


2 


045 


699 


1-42 








138° 12' 


136 


902 


148 


395 


180 


337 


2 


016 


704 


1-41 








136° 8' 


135 


938 


117 


350 


179 


067 




988 


709 


1-40 








134° 10' 


134 


974 


146 


305 


177 


797 




960 


714 


1-39 








182° 16' 


134 


010 


145 


260 


176 


527 




932 


719 


1-38 








130° 26' 


133 


046 


144 


215 


175 


257 




904 


725 


1-37 








128° 40' 


132 


082 


143 


170 


173 


987 




877 


739 


1-36 








126° 58' 


131 


118 


142 


125 


172 


717 




850 


735 


1-35 








125° 18' 


130 


154 


141 


080 


171 


447 




823 


746 


1-34 








123° 40' 


129 


189 


140 


035 


170 


177 




796 


741 


1-33 






180° C 


122° 6' 


128 


225 


138 


989 


168 


907 




769 


752 


1-32 






165° 56' 


120° 33' 


127 


261 


137 


944 


167 


637 




742 


758 


1-31 






160° 6' 


119° 3' 


126 


297 


136 


899 


166 


367 




716 


763 


1-30 






155° 38' 


117° 35' 


125 


333 


135 


854 


165 


097 




690 


769 


1-29 






151° 50' 


116° 8' 


124 


369 


134 


809 


163 


827 




664 


775 


1-28 






• 148° 42' 


114° 44' 


123 


405 


133 


764 


162 


557 




638 


781 


1-27 






145° 27' 


113° 21' 


122 


441 


132 


719 


161 


287 




613 


787 


1-26 






142° 39' 


111° 59' 


121 


477 


131 


674 


160 


017 




588 


794 


1-25 






140° 3' 


110° 39' 


120 


513 


130 


629 


158 


747 




563 


800 


1-24 






137° 36' 


109° 20' 


119 


548 


129 


584 


157 


477 




538 


806 


1-23 






135° 17' 


108° 2' 


lis 


584 


128 


539 


156 


207 




513 


813 


1-22 






133° 4' 


106° 45' 


117 


620 


127 


494 


154 


937 




488 


820 


1-21 






130° 57' 


105° 30' 


116 


656 


126 


449 


153 


668 




464 


826 


1-20 






128° 55' 


104° 15' 


115 


692 


125 


404 


152 


397 




440 


833 


119 






126° 58' 


103° 2' 


114 


728 


124 


359 


151 


128 




416 


840 


1-18 






125° 3' 


101° nO' 


113 


764 


123 


314 


149 


857 




392 


847 


1-17 






123° 13' 
121° 26' 


100° 38' 
99° 29' 


112 
111 


799 
835 


122 
121 


269 


148 
147 


588 
317 




369 
346 


855 


116 


224 


862 


115 






119° 41' 


98° 20' 


110 


872 


120 


179 


146 


048 




323 


870 


1-14 






118° 0' 


97° 11' 


109 


907 


119 


134 


144 


777 




300 


877 


113 






116° 20' 


96° 2' 


108 


943 


118 


089 


143 


508 




277 


885 


112 






114° 44'. 


94° 55' 


107 


979 


117 


044 


142 


237 




254 


893 


111 






113° 9' 


93° 47' 


107 


015 


115 


999 


140 


968 




232 


901 


110 






111° 36' 


92° 43' 


106 


051 


114 


954 


139 


698 




210 


909 


109 






110° 5' 


91° 38' 


105 


087 


113 


909 


138 


428 




188 


917 


1-08 






108° 36' 


90° 34' 


104 


123 


112 


864 


137 


158 




166 


926 


107 






107° 8' 


89° 30' 


103 


159 


111 


819 


135 


888 




145 


935 


106 






105° 42' 


88° 27' 


102 


195 


110 


774 


134 


618 




124 


943 


105 






104° 16' 


87° 24' 


101 


231 


109 


729 


133 


348 




103 


952 


104 






102° 53' 


86° 21' 


100 


266 


108 


684 


132 


078 




082 


962 


1-03 






101° 30' 


85° 19' 


99 


302 


107 


639 


130 


808 




061 


971 


102 






100° 10' 


84° 18' 


98 


338 


106 


593 


129 


538 




040 


980 


101 






98° 50' 


83° 17' 


97 


,374 


105 


548 


128 


268 




020 


990 


100 


180° 0' 


97° 31' 


82° 17' 


96 


410 


104 


503 


126 


998 




000 1 


000 


0-99 


163° 48' 


96° 12' 


81° 17' 


95 


446 


103 


458 


125 


728 




980 1 


010 


0-98 


157° 2' 


94° 56' 


80° 17' 


94 


482 


102 


413 


124 


458 




960 I 


020 


0-97 


151° 52' 


93° 40' 


79° 18' 


93 


518 


101 


368 


123 


188 




941 1 


031 


0-96 


147° 29' 


92° 24' 


78° 20' 


92 


554 


100 


,323 


121 


918 




i'22 1 


012 


0-95 


143° 36' 


91° 10' 


77° 22' 


91 


590 


99 


278 


120 


648 




903 1 


053 


0-94 


140° 6' 


89° 56' 


76° 24' 


90 


625 


98 


233 


119 


378 




884 1 


064 


0-93 


136° 52' 


88° 44' 


75° 27' 


89 


661 


97 


188 


118 


108 




865 1 


075 


0-92 


133° 51' 


87° 32' 


74° 30' 


88 


697 


S6 


143 


116 


838 




846 1 


087 


0-91 


131° 0' 


86° 20' 


73° S3' 


87 


733 


95 


098 


115 


,568. 




828 1 


099 


0-90 


128° 19' 


85° 10' 


72° 36' 


86 


769 


94 


053 


114 


298 




810 1 


111 


0-89 


125° 45' 


84° 0' 


71° 40' - 


85 


805 


93 


008 


113 


028 




792 1 


124 


0-88 


123° 17' 


82° 51' 


70° 44' 


84 


841 


91 


963 


111 


758 


•774 j 1 


136 



APERTURE TABJjB—coniinued. 





1 


CoiTesponding Angle (2 «) for 


Limit of Resolving Power, In Lines to an Inch, j 


linating 


Pene- 


Numerical 










Monochromatic 


lUun 


trating 


Aperture. 

(» sin u = a.) 


Air 
(n = l-0O).. 


Water 
(n = l-33). 


Homogeneous 
Immersion 
(ra = l-52). 


White Light. 
(A. = 0-5269fX, 

Line K.) 


(Blue) Light. 

(A. = 0-4861 /a, 

Line F.) 


Photography, p^^/;;- 

(A = 0-4000^1, , "■" ••^ 
near Line /t.) 


Power. 

31 


0- 


87 


120° 55' 


81° 42' 


69° 49' 


83,877 


90,918 


110,488 


•757 




149 


0- 


86 


11S° 38' 


80° 34' 


68° 54' 


82 


913 


89,873 


109 


218 


740 




163 


0- 


85 


116° 25' 


79° 37' 


68° 0' 


81 


949 


88,828 


107 


948 


723 




176 


0- 


84 


114° 17' 


78° 20' 


67° 6' 


80 


984 


87,783 


106 


678 


•706 




190 


0- 


83 


112° 12' 


77° 14' 


6B° 12' 


80 


0-20 


86,738 


105 


408 


6S9 




•205 


0- 


82 


110° 10' 


76° 8' 


65° 18' 


79 


056 


85,693 


104 


1.38 


672 




220 


0- 


81 


108° 10' 


7.5° 3' 


64° 24' 


78 


092 


84,648 


102 


868 


656 




•235 


0- 


80 


106° 16' 


73° 58' 


03° 31' 


77 


128 


83,603 


101 


598 


•640 




250 


0- 


79 


104° 22' 


72° 53' 


62° 38' 


76 


164 


82,558 


100 


328 


•624 




266 


0- 


78 


102° 31' 


71° 49' 


61° 45' 


75 


200 


81,513 


99 


058 


608 




282 





77 


100° 42' 


70° 45' 


60° 52' 


74 


236 


80,468 


97 


788 


•593 




•299 





76 


98° 56' 


69° 42' 


60° 0' 


73 


272 


79,423 


96 


518 


578 




316 





75 


97° 11' 


68° 40' 


59° 8' 


72 


308 


78,378 


95 


248 


•563 




•333 





74 


95° 28' 


67° 37' 


58° 10' 


71 


343 


77,333 


93 


979 


548 




351 





73 


93° 46' 


66° 34' 


57° 24' 


70 


379 


76,288 


92 


709 


•533 




•370 





72 


92° 6' 


65° 32' 


56° 32' 


69 


415 


75,242 


91 


439 


•518 




•389 





71 


90° 28' 


64° 32' 


55° 41' 


68 


451 


74,197 


90 


169 


•504 




408 





70 


88° 51' 


63° 31' 


54° 50' 


67 


487 


73,152 


88 


899 


490 




429 





69 


87° 16' 


62° 30' 


53° 59' 


66 


523 


72,107 


87 


629 


476 




•449 





68 


85° 41' 


61° 30' 


53° 9' 


65 


559 


71,062 


86 


359 


462 




471 





67 


84° 8' 


60° 30' 


52° 18' 


64 


595 


70,017 


85 


089 


•449 




493 





68 


82° 36' 


59° 30' 


51° 28' 


63 


631 


68,972 


83 


819 


•436 




•515 





65 


81° 6' 


58° 30' 


50° 38' 


62 


667 


67,927 


■ 82 


549 


•423 




538 





64 


79° 36' 


57° 31' 


49° 48' 


61 


702 


66,882 


81 


279 


•410 




•562 





63 


78° 6' 


56° 32' 


48° 58' 


60 


738 


65,837 


80 


009 


•397 




587 





62 


76° 38' 


55° 34' 


48° 9' 


59 


774 


64,792 


78 


739 


•384 




613 





61 


75° 10' 


54° 36' 


47° 19' 


58 


810 


63,747 


77 


469 


•372 




639 





60 


73° 44' 


53° 38' 


46° 30' 


57 


846 


62,702 


76 


199 


•360 




667 





59 


7a° 18' 


52° 40' 


45° 40' 


56 


881 


61 , 657 


74 


929 


•348 




695 





58 


70° 54' 


51° 42' 


44° 51' 


55 


918 


60,612 


73 


659 


336 




■724 





57 


69° 30' 


50° 45' 


44° 2' 


54 


,954 


59,567 


72 


389 


325 




754 





56 


68° 6' 


49° 48' 


43° 14' 


53 


,990 


58,522 


71 


119 


•314 




786 





55 


61^'' 44' 


49° 51' 


42° 25' 


5:-! 


,026 


57,477 


69 


849 


303 




818 





54 


65° 22' 


47° 54' 


41° 37' 


52 


061 


56,432 


68 


579 


292 




852 





53 


64° 0' 


46° 58' 


40° 48' 


51 


097 


55,387 


67 


309, 


281 




887 





52 


62° 40' 


46° 2' 


40° 0' 


50 


133 


54,342 


66 


039 


270 




923 





51 


61° 20' 


45° 6' 


39° 12' 


49 


169 


53,297 


64 


769 


260 




961 





50 


60° 0' 


44° 10' 


38° 24' 


48 


,205 


52,252 


63 


499 


250 


2 


000 





•48 


57° 22' 


42° 18' 


36° 49' 


46 


,277 


50,162 


60 


959 


230 


2 


083 





46 


54° 47' 


40° 28' 


35° 15' 


44 


,349 


48,072 


58 


419 


212 


2 


174 





•45 


53° 30' 


39° 33' 


34° 27' 


43 


385 


47,026 


57 


149 


203 


2 


222 





■44 


52° 13' 


38° 38' 


33° 40' 


42 


,420 


45,981 


55 


879 


194 


2 


273 





42 


49° 40' 


36° 49' 


32° 5' 


40 


492 


43,891 


53 


339 


176 


2 


381 





40 


47° 9' 


35° 0' 


30° 31' 


38 


564 


41,801 


50 


799 


160 


2 


500 





38 


44° 40' 


33° 12' 


28° 57' 


36 


,636 


39,711 


48 


259 


144 


2 


632 





36 


42° 12' 


31° 24' 


27° 24' 


34 


708 


37,621 


45 


719 


130 


2 


778 





•35 


40° 58' 


30° 30' 


26° 38' 


33 


744 


36,576 


44 


449 


123 


2 


857 





34 


39° 44' 


2J° 37' 


25° 51' 


32 


779 


35,531 


43 


179 


116 


2 


9il 





32 


37° 20' 


27° 51' 


24° 18' 


30 


851 


33,441 


40 


639 


102 


3 


125 





39 


34° 56' 


26° 4' 


22° 46' 


28 


923 


31,3.51 


38 


099 


090 


3 


333 





28 


32° 32' 


24° 18' 


21° 14' 


26 


995 


29,261 


35 


559 


078 


3 


571 





•26 


30° 10' 


22° 33' 


19° 42' 


25 


067 


27,171 


33 


019 


068 


3 


846 





25 


28° 58' 


21° 40' 


18° 56' 


24 


103 


26,126 


31 


749 


063 


4 


000 





24 


27° 46' 


20° 48' 


18° 10' 


23 


138 


25,081 


30 


479 


058 


4 


167 





•22 


25° 26' 


19° 2' 


16° 38' 


21 


210 


22,991 


27 


940 


048 


4 


545 





20 


23° 4' 


17° 18' 


15° 7' 


19 


282 


20,901 


25 


400 


010 


5 


000 





•18 


20° 44' 


15° 34' 


13° 36' 


17 


354 


18,811 


22 


860 


032 


5 


555 





16 


18° 24' 


13° 50' 


12° 5' 


15 


426 


16,721 


20 


320 


026 


6 


250 





•15 


17° 14' 


12° 58' 


11° 19' 


14 


462 


15,676 


19 


050 


023 


6 


667 





•14 


16° 5' 


12° 6' 


10° 34' 


13 


498 


14,630 


17 


78) 


020 


7 


143 





•12 


13° 47' 


10° 22' 


9° 4' 


11 


570 


12,540 


15 


240 


014 


8- 


333 





•10 


11° 29' 


8° 38' 


7° 34' 


9 


641 


10.450 


12 


700 


010 


10 


000 





•08 


9° 11' 


6° 54' 


6° 3' 


7 


713 


8,360 


10 


160 


006 


12^ 


500 





•06 


6° 53' 


5° 10' 


4° 32' 


5 


785 


6,270 


7 


620 


004 


16^ 


667 


005 


5° 44' 


4° 18' 


3° 46' 


4 


821 


5,225 


6 


350 


003 


20^000 



( 10 ) 

GREATLY REDUCED PRICES 



OF 



OBJECT-GLASSES MANUFACTURED BY 

H. 8c J. BECK, 

68, CORNHILL, LONDON, E.G. 





PRICES OF BEST ACHROMATIC OBJECT-GLASSES. 








Angle 




Linear magnifying-power, with 


lo-inch 


No. 


Focal length. 


of 
aper- 


Price. 


body-tube and eye-pieces 








ture, 










1 1 








about 






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J0URT<i.R.MICR,SOC1889.P] .1. 




AD;M"iclia.e]adn.a.t del. West,Newman<5;Co lifh. 

Anatomy of Uropoda Ki"a,nieri. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

ROYAL MIOROSCOPIOAL SOCIETY. 

FEBRUARY 1889. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 



I. — Observations on the Special Internal Anatomy of 
Uropoda Krameri. 

By Albert D. Michael, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.R.M.S., &c. 

{Read Qth January, 1889.) 
Plate I. 

The anatomy of the exo-skeleton, and of the trophi, of Uropoda has 
already been studied and figured by M. Megnin,* who selected 
U. vegetans for his purpose ; and in many particulars by Dr. Kramer ; t 
and lately in the undermentioned paper by Herr W. Winkler. 
I therefore confine these observations to the internal anatomy, and 
I shall only mention such parts of the external structure as it may be 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

05, CEsophagus. (»', Enlargement of same before entering the ventriculus. i\ Ventri- 

culus. c, Colon, r, Eectum. a, Anus (seen through the rectum from the 

transparency of the latter), cee, Larger cseca of the ventriculus. c^e', Smaller 

ditto, mv, Malpighian vessels, mv^. Ditto, narrow neck where the vessel arises. 

mv'^. Ditto, enlarged chamber. mv^. Ditto, narrow part between the chamber 

and the lateral enlargement. mv*. Ditto, lateral enlargement. mv^, Ditto, 

anterior narrow portion, mv'^, Ditto, reliesed portion, mv''. Ditto, blind end. 

m. Muscles with tendinous attachments. mS Attachment to the side of the body. 

t^, t"^. Testes, v s. Sack-like organ (vesicula seminalis ?). g, g, Oil-glands, d e. Ductus 

ejaculatorius. 2^> Penis. ar, Protecting armature of same. ov, Central ovary. 

od, Oviducts, e, e, The fully, or nearly fully, developed eggs contained therein. 

t)a, Vagina, res, Vestibule. grj>. Genital plate. 6r, Brain (so called). 

All the figures represent Uropoda Krameri. 

Fig. 1. — Under-side of adult female x 55. The genital plate would fill up the 

genital aperture exactly. The small space necessarily left between the 

two in the figure is to keep the lines distinct. 

„ 2. — Epistome and oral tube of adult, seen from above, X 175. The basal joints 

of the palpus are indicated on the left side only. 
„ 3. — The same, seen from the side ; same amplification. 

„ 4. — Chelate portion of the right mandible of adult male, seen from the right 
(outer) side, x 350. 



* " Memoire sur I'organisation et la distribution zoologique des Acariens de la 
Famille des Gamaside's," Journ. de I'Anat. et de la Physiol. (Kobiu), 1876, pp. 288- 
336. 

+ "Zur Naturgeschichte einiger Gattungen aus der Familie der Gamasiden,' 
Archiv fiir Naturgesch., 1876, pp. 28-105. 

1889. B 



2 Transactions of the Society. 

necessary shortly to refer to, in order to explain the organs connected 
with them. 

The TJropodinse are a suhfamily of the Gamasidse, but are in 
many important respects exceptional : the position of the first pair of 
legs, the coxae whereof are inserted within the oral tube, the position 
of the male genital organ, and the slender mandibles form well- 
marked distinctions. The general appearance also is different from 
that of most of the Gamasidse, so much so indeed that Hermann * 
included the species discovered by him (U. cassideus) in his genus 
Noiaspis ; a genus intended to be entirely composed of what we now 
call Orihatidse (Latreille's earlier name of Oribata having excluded 
Hermann's Notaspis). 

During the summer of 1888, when staying at a farmhouse in 
Derbyshire, I found Uropoda Krameri (Canestrini)t in great abundance 
on the floors and walls of an old barn used for storing hay. This 



Fig. 5. — Claw and caruncle, highly magnified. 

„ 6. — Larva. 

„ 7. — General view to show the arrangement of the principal internal organs of 
the adult female, x 65. The whole of the dorsal chitinous plate has 
been removed, except the striated band round the periphery, and a small 
portion within this, which is shown by its broken outline. The masses 
of fatty matter and almost all the muscles liave also been removed. For 
the sake of clearness, the respiratory system is shown on the left side 
only, and the tendons and commencement of the muscles whereby the 
Malpighian vessels were attached to the dorsum and side, are shown on 
the right side only. 

„ 8. — Alimentary canal and Malpighian vessels seen from above, x 70. The 
drawing is made from a large and apparently well-nourished specimen 
immediately after dissection. The Malpighian vessel is shown on the 
right side only, its commencement being indic-ated on the left. 

„ 9. — The alimentary canal seen from below, x 70. This drawing was made from 
a smaller and possibly less well-nourished specimen, after the dissection 
had been partially prepai-ed for permanent preservation. 

„ 10. — Internal sexual organs of adult male seen from above, x 70. 

„ 11. — The same from below ; same amplification. 

„ 12. — Penis in its ordinary position resting in its armature, X 175. 

„ 13. — Penis withdrawn from its armature, x 175. 

„ 14. — Internal genital organs of adult female seen from below, x 70. 

„ 15. — Vestibule looking straight upwards into the mouth from below, x 160. 

„ 16. — Genital plate seen from within, x 75. 

„ 17. — Point of the same, showing the thin lanceolate termination, x 300. 

„ 18. — Genital plate and vestibule, x 70. General view to show the relative size, 
and the mode in which they would fit agahist each other. The vestibule 
is turned to the right and backward ; the oviduct being thereby twisted. 

„ 19. — Eespiratory system of the left side, highly magnified, seen from within the 
body, ac^, acetabulum for reception of 2nd coxa, ac^, ditto for 3rd 
coxa, dp, depression for reception of 2nd leg. d^, depression for recep- 
tion of 3rd leg. st, stigma, pt, peritreme. tr, main tracheal stem. 
6^, ht, bf, bundles of fine tracheae. 

„ 20. — Brain (so called), and oesophageal ganglionic collar. The hole near the 
centre is where the oesophagus passed through ; it has been removed. 



* ' Memoire apterologique,' Strasbourg, 1804. 

t I believe the species to be U. Krameri; I have not, of course, Professor 
Canestrini's type specimen to compare the anatomy, but the creature appears to agree 
with his description and with Professor Berlese's drawing, which is stated to be 
taken from that specimen. ' Acari Miriapodi e Scorpioni Italiani,' fasc. xi. 



Internal Anatomy of TJropoda Krameri. By A. D. Michael. 3 

seemed to me a favourable opportunity for ascertaining something 
about the internal anatomy. As I investigated the matter I found it 
very interesting ; especially from the numerous resemblances to the 
corresponding organs in the Oribatidse, which I had previously 
studied. The main features of the internal structure turned out, as 
might be expected, to be essentially of the Gamasid type, still there 
were found to be many points in which there was an approach to the 
organization of the Oribatidse ; thus showing that the external resem- 
blance which deceived Hermann was accompanied by certain modifica- 
tions of the internal parts, producing a condition somewhat inter- 
mediate between the types of the two families. 

The investigations were carried on entirely by dissection, in the 
same manner as I had previously conducted those relative to the 
Oribatidse* Preparations of the actual organs therefore remain in 
my possession for reference, and as proofs of the correctness of these 
notes. All dissections have been frequently repeated. 

Upon my return to London, I found that during my absence an 
important and excellent paper upon the anatomy of the Gamasidm 
had been published by Herr Willibald Winkler.j This paper, although 
it principally treats of the anatomy of the genus Gamasus, deals also 
to a lesser extent with that of Uropoda obseura (Koch). Herr Winkler's 
investigations were clearly prior in date to mine, but of course mine 
were conducted, and this paper written, and the drawings made in 
entire ignorance of them. Under these circumstances our observations 
necessarily cover a portion of the same ground ; but on the other 
hand, large parts of the two works do not overlap. Herr Winkler's 
treatise is greatly devoted to the histology of the subject and to the 
mouth-parts, the nerves, &c., which I have not touched upon ; while 
I think a good deal will be found in the following pages that has not 
been included in Herr Winkler's investigations, and, indeed, many of 
the organs may differ, or may not exist, in the species which he has 
selected. I thought at first that it would be better to eliminate from 
this paper snch portions as were covered by the German memoir, but 
I found that doing so would render the remainder obscure, the con- 
nection of subjects being broken. I have therefore thought it best to 
retain them, making this acknowledgment of Herr Winkler's 
priority, but I have usually mentioned where he has described the 
same thing, and of course I have pointed out any differences which 
have struck me, although these are not numerous nor specially 
important. 

General Arrangement of the Organs. Fig. 7. 

When the dorsal shield, and the fatty matter which underlies it 
are removed from Uropoda Krameri, and the muscles of the mandibles, 
&c., so far cut away as to enable the operator to see the other parts 
clearly, the arrangement of the principal organs is found to be that 

* ' British Oribatidse,' Eay Soc, 1884, p. 142. 

t " Anatoraie der Gamasiden," Arbeit. Zool. Inst. Univ. Wien, vii. (1888) pp. 317-45. 

B 2 



4 Transactions of the Society. 

shown in fig. 7, which is a female ; but it must be remembered that 
no two specimens agree exactly in the relative size, shape, and 
arrangement of the various organs ; indeed the two sides rarely 
absolutely correspond. Moreover, in consequence of the highly elastic 
and extensile nature of some of the parts, considerable differences 
occur in the appearance of the same side of the identical specimen 
from time to time ; the general arrangement is, however, naturally 
always similar. The mouth-opening in Uropoda is in the ventral 
plate, some little distance from the point of the rostrum, and conse- 
quently the alimentary canal does not commence at the anterior end 
of the body-cavity, the space in front of it being occupied partly by 
muscles and tracheae, and being partly unoccupied. The ventriculus 
may be seen lying nearly centrally and occupying a large portion of 
the entire space; the oesophagus proceeding from it forward and 
slightly downward. The great supra-cesophageal ganglion is seen in 
the central line near the ventriculus, while the hinder portion of the 
canal is entirely concealed by the central ovary. A very large 
Malpighian vessel on each side may be seen, usually filled with white 
opaque matter. The posterior ends of these tubes are concealed 
beneath the central ovary, while the vessels run at the side of, or 
slightly under, the ventriculus, but extend as far forward as the 
mouth-opening, or even a little beyond its commencement ; and then 
turn sharply backward so as to fall over the anterior edge of the 
ventriculus and lie upon it. The larger eggs in the oviducts may 
commonly be just seen, below all the above-named organs, projecting 
at about the middle of the ventriculus. The tracheae will also be seen, 
arranged at first in three principal bundles, and then separating out, 
as explained below. 

The Alimentary Canal. Figs. 8-9. 

The canal has a great general resemblance to that of the Orihatidw, 
but is composed of finer and more delicate tissues, which renders it 
very diflicult to get the whole canal out perfect without breaking it, 
although there is comparatively little difficulty in dissecting it out in 
pieces. 

There can scarcely be said to be any pharynx in the sense of an 
enlarged chamber, such, for instance, as the pharyngeal sac of Huxley 
in Scorpio ; a hardly perceptible widening of the oesophagus before it 
enters the mouth-cavity being all that exists ; but if the anterior 
portion of the oesophageal tube, i. e. the portion to which the dilator 
muscles for suctorial purposes are attached, although scarcely if at 
all enlarged, is to be regarded as a pharynx ; which appears to be the 
mode in which Herr Winkler uses the term in this instance, then of 
course it would exist, but not be distinctly divided off from the 
cesophagus. This is practically a question of nomenclature : I have 
used the word " oesophagus " for the whole, which appears to agree 
with its use by MacLeod, Henkin, Nalepa, and others, in other families. 

The oesophagus (oe) is long, about half the length of the ven- 



Internal Anatomy of Uropoda Krameri. By A. D. Michael. 5 

triculus, and is quite straight and very thin and small in diameter ; it 
has exceedingly delicate, semitransparent walls, without the conspicu- 
ous circular bands of muscle so commonly found embracing the corre- 
sponding part in the Oribatidae. The oesophagus proceeds upward 
and backward from the mouth to the anterior edge of the ventriculus, 
which it enters on the ventral aspect of that viscus, and a trifle behind 
its anterior margin. There is a slight enlargement of the cesophagus 
before entering the ventriculus, but not anything of the nature of a 
proventriculus, or sucking stomach. During life, slow, regular, peri- 
staltic movements may sometimes be seen passing along the oesophagus 
in a backward direction. 

The ventriculus varies considerably in form ; it is a large organ 
in comparison to the size of the creature, occupying nearly half the 
length, and nearly two-thirds of the width of the body. It is com- 
pressed dorso-ventrally. The principal mass is more or less trapeze- 
shaped, the anterior margin is, however, always somewhat the wider, 
and appears more so than it really is in consequence of the arrange- 
ment of the caeca. The hind-margin is rounded (fig. 8), or pro- 
longed in the central part (fig. 9), so as to extend somewhat 
backward. The whole organ is much stronger and more muscular 
than any other part of the canal. The caeca of the ventriculus, 
particularly during life, are comparatively shallow, and widely open ; 
often almost losing the character of caeca and becoming mere 
lobes or pockets. They are arranged as follows, viz. there are 
four principal lobes (cee), these proceed from the dorsal level, and are 
rounded projections of the corners of the ventriculus, irregular in 
form, and often having the outlines more or less divided into 
secondary very shallow lobes, or wrinkles. Of these four lobes the 
anterior pair project outward, while the posterior pair are directed 
rather backward, and often have a tendency to curl inward. The 
anterior margin of the ventriculus, between the front pair of larger 
lobes, is almost wholly occupied by five smaller lobes ; the three 
central of these are rounded and very shallow, and are indeed little 
more than undulations ; they proceed from the dorsal part of the 
anterior edge. The remaining pair are a Httle longer, although still 
short, and are curious horn-like structures curving toward the median 
hne and pointed (c«i) ; they arise from the ventral part of the 
anterior edge. In addition to the eight above named there are 
usually a pair of small, rounded, mamillary projections from the 
ventral surface (fig. 9). 

In the large size of the ventriculus, and the shortness of the cseca 
which proceed from it, the ordinary Gamasid type seems to me to be 
departed from. In the genus Gamasus, &c., the ventriculus is often 
a comparatively small and narrow organ, which appears as if its chief 
office were to form a point of communication between its own 
enormous caeca and the hind-gut. These cseca often extend quite 
from the anterior to the posterior extremity of the body, and are 
irregularly placed, intertwining with the Malpighian vessels to some 



6 Transactions of the Society. 

extent, and forming the largest and most conspicuous organs of the 
body. The large ventriculus of Uropoda Krameri much more 
resembles that of some of the Oribatid&e. It is true that in the latter 
family also the cseca, although only two, are usually large, and form 
much more important organs than in Uropoda Krameri ; but in the 
typical forms of the genus Damseus [Oribatidse) the cseca are in 
a similar condition, having become mere lobes of the ventriculus, even 
less developed than in the Uropoda here spoken of. The ventriculus 
is the " Mitteldarm " of Winkler. Kramer in 1876 * indicated 
somewhat of this difference between Uropoda and Gamasus. Winkler 
is inclined to deny it, but Winkler's Uropoda, which he speaks of as 
having long caeca to the ventriculus, must be very different from 
U. Krameri, of which species I have dissected large numbers, and 
always found the ventriculus in the condition above described. 

There is not any small intestine in Uropoda Krameri ; the 
colon proceeds direct from the ventriculus, arising from the ventral 
surface of that organ, very near to, but not quite at, the posterior 
margin. The colon is almost globular, but not quite, being slightly 
elongated ; it is directed almost perpendicularly downward ; it is 
sharply constricted, both anteriorly where it arises from the ventri- 
culus, and posteriorly where it communicates with the rectum. 
These constrictions are like gatherings-in of the walls of the canal, 
appearing folded or wrinkled at these points as if a loose sack were 
drawn in by a circular tie. A very short and narrow neck connects 
the colon with the rectum ; it is this neck which receives the 
Malpighian vessels, as mentioned hereafter. The rectum is very 
similar to the colon, usually a trifle smaller and less globular in form ; 
it is also less sharply constricted at the posterior end where it 
surrounds the anus (fig. 8), which is a very small lenticular opening 
in the chitin of the ventral plate. It can be closed by somewhat 
chitinized folds of the inner cuticle, and is protected exteriorly by an 
elliptical chitinous ring in the ventral plate ; this ring touches the 
anal opening at the ends, but not at the sides. 

I have purposely left the above description of the hind-gut as 
I wrote it before seeing Winkler's paper. I have adopted the same 
nomenclature as I formerly employed relatively to the Orihatidse. 
I find, however, that what I call the colon Winkler calls the hind- 
gut (" Enddarm "), and what I call the rectum he also states to be 
the rectum, but he usually calls it the excretionary collecting bladder 
(" Sammelblase der Excretionorgane "), and he considers it to be a 
portion of the excretionary system (Malpighian vessels), not of the 
alimentary canal. 

It would probably be more convenient if words such as " rectum," 
" colon," " oesophagus," &c., which are used in describing the higher 
animals, were excluded from works on the lower creatures, such as the 
Arthropoda, altogether; but if this be not done the question of 

* " Zur Naturgeschichte einiger Gattungen aus der Familie der Gamaeiden," 
Arcliiv fiir Naturgesch., 1876, p. 63. 



Internal Anatomy of TJropoda Krameri. By A. D. Michael. 7 

nomenclature becomes somewhat arbitrary, and is probably of little 
importance so long as it is clearly indicated exactly what the organs 
are like ; but the question of whether the sack-like organ adjoining 
the anus is a portion of the alimentary canal or of the Malpighian 
vessels is possibly more substantial. There cannot be any doubt that 
the organ in question is, so to speak, a cloaca, into which both the 
systems discharge, and which conveys the excremental matter from 
both to the anus. In the Gamasidm the amount of matter discharged 
by the Malpighian vessels is large, and that furnished by the canal 
is small compared to what it is in the Orihatidse and many other 
families ; thus the former is sometimes in excess in the contents of 
the organ in question. Herr Winkler also gives histological reasons 
for considering this viscus to be part of the former system ; but ou 
the other hand, the hind-gut of Uropoda Krameri, as I have so 
frequently seen it, if this organ, which I call the rectum, be included 
as part of it, agrees almost exactly with that of the Orihatidse ; in 
which family the Malpighian vessels do not exist in this situation, and 
do not communicate with this organ nor with the hind-gut at all. 
Moreover, this rectum, as I call it, follows what I call the colon in the 
ordinary manner in the species I am treating of, and constantly, 
indeed usually, contains balls of the rejected portions of the digested 
food, similar to those in the colon, and similar to those found in the 
rectum of the Orihatidse; also it seems to me more consonant with 
one's ordinary ideas to consider the viscus by which the alimentary 
canal discharges to the anus as being the rectum in the usual sense 
of the word. I think, therefore, that this organ should be regarded 
as primarily a portion of the alimentary canal, although functioning 
as a cloaca. I do not gather from Herr Winkler's description at what 
exact point the canal and Malpighian vessels discharge into this organ, 
which 1 call the "rectum," nor how the discharged matter passes 
through it to reach the anus ; but if I understand his drawings 
correctly, there must be some difference in these respects between his 
species and Uropoda Krameri. 

The Excretory System. Fig. 8. 

This is entirely of the Gamasus type, and does not in any way 
resemble that of the Orihatidse ; it consists of two very long sack-like 
organs, which may probably be correctly called Malpighian vessels 
(fig. 7, mv) ; they are arranged bilaterally, one on each side of the 
body, and are usually more or less filled with opaque white excre- 
mental matter from end to end. These vessels arise, one on each 
side, from the narrow neck of the alimentary canal which connects 
the colon with the rectum. Each vessel commences with a short 
tubular portion of small diameter (fig. 8, mv^), which, indeed, is a 
necessity to enable it to spring from the very constricted part of the 
alimentary canal where it is placed. This narrow part leads into an 
elliptical chamber (m v^), which is far the largest portion of the 



8 Transactions of the Society. 

vessel in diameter and capacity ; it is often as large as, or larger than, 
either the colon or rectum. From this chamber a second narrow 
portion {inv^), which is considerably longer than the first, but not so 
sharply defined, leads to a lateral enlargement slightly constricted in 
the middle (w v'^) ; this portion is in shape like two elongated pyri- 
form organs with their larger ends together and fusing ; but, of course, 
the lumen is continuous. From this enlarged lateral portion another 
narrow part (mv^) of the vessel, much longer than the previous 
narrow parts, and more undulated, runs forward nearly to the articu- 
lation of the second leg. Up to this point the Malpighian vessel has 
been placed at the side of, or slightly under, the ventriculus : the 
extent to which it passes under varies in different specimens, and 
probably in the same specimen at different times, depending on the 
relative distension of the canal and the Malpighian vessels respec- 
tively, and on the precise form and position of the latter, which are 
not by any means constant. After attaining the point to which it 
has been described, viz. about the articulation of the second leg, the 
course of the vessel entirely changes ; it turns sharply upward and 
then backward, so that it folds over the anterior edge of the ven- 
triculus, and the remainder of the vessel is a reflexed portion (to v^), 
which lies upon the ventriculus and runs straight backward. It 
gradually enlarges towards its distal end, which is blind and rounded 
{m v^). A powerful fasciculus cf muscles (in) which arise from the 
sides and dorsal cuticle, are inserted by tendinous attachments into 
the wall of the vessel just behind the lateral enlargement, and probably 
assist in the peristaltic movements. The vessel is also attached to 
the side of the body at m}, but in this case apparently merely as a tie, 
not by muscles of any importance. The peristaltic movements and 
the transfer of excretory matter, of course, proceed from the blind end 
of the vessel toward the rectum, and are stronger than those of the 
canal ; this is usual in the Oamasidse, but the movement is not so 
strong as in Dermanyssus, and many other members of the family. 
The Malpighian vessels are generally more or less distinctly seen 
through the dorsal shield in living specimens, and are the most con- 
spicuous organs in the body ; they are equally conspicuous in the 
nymphs and larvae, and may even be clearly seen in the advanced 
embryo while still within the egg, and at that early period they are 
already filled with the white matter. 

The Eeproductive Organs. 

This system is another of those which bears a strong resem- 
blance to that of the Orihatidse, but naturally there are difierences of 
considerable importance, as will be seen in the following description. 

As in most other families of the Aearina, these organs, during the 
period of activity and maturity, are extremely large in proportion to 
the whole size of the creature ; so much so that they often appear to 
push all the other organs out of place ; this, as might be anticipated, 
is more especially the case with the female when the eggs are ripe. 



Internal Anatomy of Urojpoda Krameri. By A.D. Michael. 9 

The annular form of the system, taken as a whole, which is so well 
known in the Arachnida, and which is so conspicuous in that of the 
Orihatidse, is equally clearly shown in the female of Uropoda 
Krameri; but in the male this form is more lost, in consequence 
of the absence of the long vasa deferentia which form an element of 
the ring in the Orihatidm. Probably it is only those who know how 
the ring is formed in the males of the last-named family who 
would recognize some vestige of it in those of the Uropoda. 

The Male. Figs. 10-13. 

The male organs lie almost immediately below the ventriculus ; 
they consist of a central chamber, six more or less sack-like organs, 
and a large single duct leading to the penis. The most conspicuous 
of these is the central chamber (vs), a large heart-shaped organ 
compressed dorso-ventrally, and having the broader end turned 
forward; this organ is the nearest to the ventral level, the other 
parts of the system lying slightly above it. I take it to be partly 
glandular in its office, and also to some extent to function as a vesicula 
seminalis ; in which case it would agree with the corresponding organ 
in the Orihatidm ; and this appears to be Winkler's view with 
regard to the organ in his species, TJ. ohsoura ; in which case, how- 
ever, the organ appears from his description to be more globular. 

Four long, sack-like, glandular organs (t^, t^) take their origin 
immediately above the central chamber, and near its anterior margin. 
They do not appear to communicate directly with the central chamber, 
but all seem to open into a small median antechamber. The sacks 
are pyriform, smallest where they enter the antechamber, and largest 
at the blind, free ends. One pair, which are usually somewhat the 
larger, are nearly straight, and are directed almost backward. The 
corresponding organs in U. ohscura are regarded by Winkler as being 
the true testes. The second pair, the mouths of which are placed 
above those of the first pair, are more curved, or comma-shaped; 
they are directed almost transversely across, and partly under the 
central chamber ; their distal ends curve backward. If these cor- 
respond to the second pair of sacks figm-ed by Herr Winkler in his 
diagram he regards them as accessory glands, not testes ; but as he 
only mentions four sacks in his species, and I find six in mine, it is 
probable that his accessory glands correspond to the smaller sacks 
(oil-glands) mentioned immediately below, and that the pair of organs 
now treated of are rather to be regarded as a second pair of testes ; at 
all events they greatly resemble the first pair. In addition to these 
four there are the two other sacks above referred to (g), they are 
much smaller and almost globular. These organs have thin walls, 
and contain only a highly refractive oily liquid. They are placed one 
on each side of the ductus ejaculatorius, and apparently communicate 
with the small median antechamber. Somewhat similar organs exist 
in a few of the Orihatidw, but not in all. 



10 Transactions of the Society. 

The ductus ejaculatorius, as it may probably be called, is a large, 
straight tube, running forward and downward in the median line ; it 
enlarges a little, gradually, before reaching the external genital 
armature, which it surrounds. The penis (p) is a short, chitinous, 
pyriform or gourd-shaped organ, situated exteriorly on the ventral 
surface in the median line, between the coxae of the third pair of legs. 
It is protected by a chitinous armature (ar) formed of a circular 
ridge, sufficient of the circle being cut away to admit the broad end of 
the penis, and of a thinner, but still stout, lamina within the circle. 
This lamina is also cut away to fit the penis, the distal end and edge 
of which, however, when the organ is not in use, slip under the edge 
of the lamina, the whole organ then presents the appearance of a 
chitinous ring surrounding a thin circular plate with a gourd-shaped 
opening in it ; the chitin of the penis, when seen through from the 
side, being much thinner than that of the lamina. This is represented 
by figs. 10, 12, while fig. 13 shows the intromittent organ withdrawn 
previous to erection. 

The Female Organs. Figs. 14-18. 

The female reproductive organs consist of a central ovary ; two 
long, paired oviducts ; an unpaired vagina ; and the vestibule. The 
organs, as before stated, practically form a ring; and they greatly 
resemble the corresponding parts in the Orihatidse ; but there is one 
very marked diJfference, viz. the entire absence of the long, protrusible, 
and collapsible ovipositor, which forms so conspicuous a feature of 
the system in that family ; and its replacement to some extent by 
the vestibule, which, however, is strictly an internal structure. The 
central ovary (figs. 7-14, ov) is placed in the median line, almost at 
the posterior end of the body ; it naturally varies in size and form, 
but it most commonly has the general appearance of a bunch of 
grapes with the small end the nearer to the posterior margin of the 
body. This ovary looks as though entirely composed of eggs in an 
early stage of development ; the eggs are not by any means all the 
same size, but it seems strange that, in all specimens which I have 
dissected, the smaller eggs have been clustered round the entrance to 
the oviducts, while the larger eggs were chiefly at the hinder end 
and periphery of the ovary ; this would be comprehensible enough if 
the eggs were placed dehisced into a body-cavity, but this does not 
appear to be the case ; one is therefore led to suggest that the eggs 
may possibly work backward along the periphery of the mass, and 
then forward to the mouth of the oviduct through the centre of the 
mass. Even the largest eggs in the ovary show the nucleus clear 
and undivided, not the least sign of yolk-division. The oviducts are 
thin, transparent tubes of moderate length, and considerably curved 
or undulated, but they cannot be called convoluted. They are evi- 
dently very capable of distension and contraction, and when not dis- 
tended by eggs are generally strongly corrugated. They almost 



Internal Anaiomy of Uropoda Krameri. By A. D. Michael. 11 

always contain two eggs {e, e), one on each side. I have not ever seen 
more than one egg in each oviduct at once, sometimes I have found 
the oviduct on one side without any egg in it. These eggs are 
extremely large in proportion to the size of the creature ; the chorion 
is thin and almost transparent, and the embryo within may generally 
be seen, often apparently fully-formed and ready to emerge ; but I 
have not ever noticed any motion of the embryo as a whole, the posi- 
tion with the legs folded closely to the body being always the same. 
Winkler appears only to have found a single, short, unpaired oviduct 
in Gamasus ; he does not say what there was in his species of 
Uropoda. The two oviducts of Uropoda, Krameri terminate in the 
median line, where they enter the short, and rather wide, azygous 
vagina {va). This organ is also much corrugated, and is evidently 
capable of considerable distension, it terminates in the vestibule {ves). 
I have again used the nomenclature which I employed when I 
described the corresponding parts in the Orihatidm. What I call the 
" vagina " Winkler calls the " uterus." I avoided that term because 
it conveyed to my mind the idea of an organ wherein the ovum was 
matured or developed; now this is not the case with the part in 
question ; the development of the egg within the body, after leaving 
the ovary, takes place entirely in the oviduct ; the passage through 
what I call the " vagina " must be very rapid, for I have not ever 
found an egg in it either in Uropoda Krameri or in the Oribatidse, 
although I have dissected very large numbers. As the oviduct of 
Winkler's Gamasus is unpaired it is not easy to say for certain where 
the corresponding part ends, and where the part corresponding to his 
" uterus " begins in Uropoda Krameri; possibly his " uterus " may 
include the homologue of a portion of the oviducts of my species, 
particularly as he says that the egg is to some extent matured in it. 
What Winkler calls the "vagina," apparently corresponds to what 
I call the "vestibule," but the organ in Uropoda Krameri differs 
greatly from anything which Winkler describes in his species ; it is 
singular and somewhat complicated, it may, perhaps, be said to be 
broadly lenticular in the general form of the chitinous bar which 
surrounds its mouth, and which would be called a " ring " if it were 
round ; but it is not truly lenticular, because, although the curved 
sides meet sharply so as to form a point anteriorly, yet they meet 
more vaguely so as to form a curve posteriorly. A little behind the 
centre is a slight chitinous projection from the exterior of the bar on 
each side, and from the inside of the bar, just opposite the projection, 
a much slighter bar runs across the ring. The transverse bar, 
although its direction is straight, as regards its course across the body, 
yet curves upward a little in a direction perpendicular to the ring. 
This transverse bar practically forms the thickened edge of the plate 
hereafter mentioned as forming the roof of the vestibule. An exten- 
sion or continuation of the thin membranous walls of the vagina 
is attached round the outside of the chitinous ring, and a stouter 
convex portion stretches across, and entirely covers the hinder half of 



12 Transactions of the Society. 

space inclosed within the ring ; thus the whole organ looks like an 
old-fashioned watch-pocket. This will be understood most easily from 
figs. 14, 15. It must be remembered that those figures are drawn as 
though the spectator were looking straight upward from below. In 
consequence of this formation only the anterior half of the ring is 
really open for the passage of the egg, but it is, of course, possible 
that at the moment of the egg passing the transverse bar may bend a 
little and the membrane stretch a little ; but even then the opening 
would be very much smaller than the egg that has to pass through it. 
The inside of the parietes of the pocket is provided with several 
transverse rows of long, closely-set teeth or villous processes, not 
probably hard enough to be properly called teeth or spines, but yet 
stronger and firmer than ordinary hairs. The roof of the vestibule 
above the open (anterior) half of the ring is covered by a thin 
chitinous plate, of which the transverse bar before mentioned forms 
the posterior edge. The median portion of this plate is plain, without 
processes, the plain part forms about one-third of the width. The 
outer portion, all along the lateral and anterior regions of the plate, is 
occupied by a series of radiating lines of processes similar in nature 
to those above described, but larger. Sometimes these processes 
spring from slight ridges, and the part of the plate which carries 
them is slightly convex, although the form of the plate taken as 
a whole is concave. The large, but more or less soft, egg must be 
forced through the comparatively small opening of the vestibule and 
between all these processes. I am not able to say with certainty 
what the office of these processes is, as I have not ever succeeded in 
seeing one of the creatures in the act of oviposition. Winkler 
suggests that the office of certain scattered chitinous spines, which he 
found in what he calls the " vagina," is to hold, and prevent the 
escape of, the spermatophores or balls of spermatozoa which he found 
in that organ. I am fully aware that some species of the genus 
Gamasus are fecundated by the introduction of spermatophores into 
the genital opening of the female ; indeed, in the year 1886 I pointed 
out that this was the case in at least one species of the genus, and I 
also described the process by which it was effected, which I had been 
fortunate enough to observe.* I can scarcely think, however, that 
the retention of spermatophores is the sole office of so elaborate an 
organ as the vestibule of Uropoda Krameri ; an organ very different 
apparently from the female genital opening in Winkler's species; 
particularly as I have not noticed spermatophores or balls of sper- 
matozoa in the vestibule of Uropoda Krameri. Three possible further 
uses suggest themselves, viz. firstly, that the processes are simply to 
exclude dust, &c. ; this, however, is not altogether probable, as the 
vestibule is covered exteriorly by the closely fitting genital plate; 
and, moreover, neither this idea nor that of retention of spermato- 
phores, would explain the presence of similar processes on the inside 

* "Observations iipon a Species of Gamasus supposed to be unrecorded,'' 
Journ. Quek. Micr. Club, ii. (1886) pp. 263-4. 



Internal Anatomy of Uropo'la Krameri. By A. D. Michael. 13 

of tlie genital plate (as mentioned below). Secondly, the processes 
may hold the egg in position so as to assist in its being forced out by 
spasmodic contractions of the vagina. Thirdly, it is not impossible 
that Uropoda Krameri may be ovo-viviparous, the young larva 
escaping from the egg at the moment of deposition. If this be so, 
the forcing of the egg through the narrow opening of the vestibule, 
between these numerous processes, would probably serve to break and 
strip off the thin chorion of the egg, allowing the larva to escape. 
This last explanation is rendered more probable by the very advanced 
state of development in which the eggs are found in the oviducts, and 
also by the fact that where I found this TJropoda so plentifully there 
were numerous larvae and nymphs, but 1 was not able to find any 
eggs. I tried keeping a number of the Uropoda in confinement in 
a cell, but I did not get any eggs. The creatures, however, are 
difficult to keep in good condition in confinement, which may possibly 
explain the absence of eggs from my cell. 

The genital plate (fig. 16 ; and figs 1, 18, gjp) is the external door 
in the ventral surface by which the egg, or larva, if the creature be 
ovo-viviparous, emerges from the body of the mother. It is a 
triangular plate with curved sides, and is slightly convex externally 
and concave internally. Its lateral margin is thickened and slightly 
turned in. The posterior edge is almost straight, with very slightly 
rounded corners. At this hinder edge the plate is attached on the 
interior to the ventral plate by the quasi-membranous lining common 
to both ; thus a ginglymus hinge is formed. The genital plate 
exactly fits into the opening in the ventral plate, but the anterior end 
of the genital plate is prolonged so as to form a long chitinous 
point ; this has not any opening or depression in the ventral plate to 
receive it, but lies wholly outside the latter. The lateral edge of this 
genital plate has a thin, chitinous, curved, more or less triangular 
lamina standing on edge slightly within the lateral margin of the 
inner side of the plate (fig. 16) ; the broad part of this lamina is the 
hinder part, and to its upper angle the occlusor muscles of the plate 
are attached by tendons which unite to form one long and very 
substantial tendon, which is inserted at the above-named point of 
attachment, in the manner so frequently found in the Acarina 
especially the Orihafidse. The size of the genital plate is really 
surprising ; it occupies almost the whole space between the legs ; its 
posterior edge is considerably behind the coxae of the fourth pair of 
legs, while its anterior point reaches those of the first pair of legs, 
and almost touches the singular tactile organ found in most Gamasids, 
and which Kramer has called the ventral palpus (" Bauch-Taster "), 
and Winkler considers to be the labium. Of course this plate greatly 
more than covers the opening of the vestibule, indeed that openino- 
only corresponds to about the anterior half of the genital plate. This 
anterior portion of the genital plate is strengthened by a thin interior 
plate about the size and shape of the opening of the vestibule ; and 
all this plate, except a small part at the hind margin, is thickly set 



14 Transactions of the Society. 

with processes similar to those described as arising from the interior 
of the vestibule. In fig. 18 the genital plate and vestibule are 
shown. They have been artificially turned rather away from each 
other on their left sides, the vestibule being somewhat twisted on the 
vagina. The drawing is intended to give an idea of how they would 
fit against one another if the vestibule were allowed to return to its 
natural position facing the genital plate. 

The Respiratory System. Fig. 19. 

So far as is known, in all Gamasidse the breathing-organs are 
trachese ; those from each side communicate with the exterior by a 
single stigma, which is usually placed between the second and third 
pairs of legs. This stigma does not open directly to the exterior, but 
into a long tubular peritreme in the thickness of the chitinous 
cuticle. This peritreme varies in form according to the species, and 
is often much undulated or tortuous ; it most frequently opens to the 
exterior in front of the second pair of legs. 

In the typical species of the genus Uropoda, and indeed in all 
species if Kramer's definition of the genus be adopted, the ventral 
plate has large shallow depressions in it within which the respective 
legs, when folded up, can be laid so as not to project below the body. 
These depressions are wide, and there is one for each leg of the 
second, third, and fourth pairs ; they occupy almost the whole of the 
ventral surface of the body between the coxae of the legs and the 
lateral margin. Being wide, the depressions come close together, and 
are only divided from each other by a ridge formed by the narrow 
strip of the ventral plate which is not depressed. These depressions 
— if that word can be allowed — are bendings-in of the ventral plate ; so 
that although each depression is concave when seen from without, yet 
it is convex when the ventral plate is seen from the dorsal side, i. e. 
from within the body (of course in order to see it thus it must be 
dissected off, or else the dorsal plate and all the principal interior 
organs must be removed). When seen thus, what from the exterior 
appear ridges between the depressions assume the form of narrow 
trenches between convexities. 

The stigma on each side of Uropoda Krameri is situated in a small 
plate-like thickening near the middle of the interior of the depression 
for the third leg. The peritreme (fig. 19) runs diagonally forward 
and outward until it reaches the trench (the ridge externally) which 
divides the depressions for the third and second legs j the peritreme 
runs along the side waU of this trench and turns round the end of it 
in a hook-like manner, terminating by a very fine ending in the 
depression for the second leg. 

From the stigma a short, single tracheal trunk curves backward 
and upward (into the body) ; from the hinder end of the trunk the 
whole of the trachese which supply the body proceed. The tracheae 
are long and excessively fine ; they are entirely unhranched, being 
only simple tubes of extreme tenuity. This unbranched condition of 



Internal Anatomy of Uropoda Krameri. By A. D. Michael. 15 

the tracheae is similar to that of the same organs in the Oribatidse, 
although the number of tracheae is far larger, and each trachea much 
finer, in the Uropoda than in the Orihatidx, but it is not always nor, 
I think, usually, found in the Qamasidte. I have not examined any 
large number of species belonging to this family, for the purpose of 
ascertaining this point, but certainly in Dermanyssus, the tracheae, 
although not branching so frequently as they usually do in insects, 
do branch in a very clear and decided manner, sometimes dichoto- 
mously, sometimes into three branches, and almost always enlarge so as 
to form a slight swelling immediately before branching. Herr 
Winkler expressly notices the branching of the tracheae in the genus 
Gamasus, which agrees with the cases where I have noticed the 
tracheal system in the same species. Herr Winkler does not mention 
the unb ranched condition in Uropoda, probably he did not examine it 
for that purpose, or else his species differs from mine. 

The tracheae of Uropoda Krameri, when they start from the end of 
the tracheal trunk, are in three bundles (ht), one of which is directed 
forward, one backward, and one across the body. Each bundle might 
easily be mistaken for a single trachea, but if a bundle be lifted up 
with a hair and allowed to fall on a minute drop of water then all 
the tracheas will float and spread out, and the whole will present the 
appearance of a skein of floss-silk which has been separated by a puff 
of wind. Of course the bundles finally separate and supply the 
various parts of the body. 

The walls of the tracheae are extremely delicate. I have not 
been able to trace any spiral filament or thickening merely by looking 
at the tracheae, but probably some kind of spiral structure might be 
demonstrated by other methods. 

The Brain, or (Esophageal Ganglia. Fig. 20. 

As is usual in the Aearina, the great ganglia in Uropoda are 
round the oesophagus. A very large supra- oesophageal ganglion (the 
so-called brain in the Aearina) lies immediately above the oesophagus 
near where it enters the ventriculus ; this " brain " is compressed 
dorso-ventrally, and has a somewhat convex anterior margin which is 
considerably wider than the hind margin. From under the edge of the 
supra-oesophageal ganglion a very wide commissure runs perpen- 
dicularly downward on each side of the oesophagus, and joins a sub- 
oesophageal ganglion which is large, but considerably smaller than the 
supra-oesophageal ganglion. These ganglia and commissures are so 
substantial, and so closely joined together, that they form a solid 
collar round the oesophagus, the commissures, if commissures they be, 
not being distinctly difierentiated, and with care the oesophagus may 
be pulled out from the centre of the nervous collar, which then shows 
a distinct and well-defined hole, or tunnel, through which the 
oesophagus passed. 



16 Transactions of the Society. 

II, — List of Desmids from Massachusetts, U.S.A. 

By Wm. West, F.L.S., Lecturer on Botany and Materia Medica 
at the Bradford Technical College. 

(Bead Uth November, 1888.) 
Plates II. and III. 

Me. John M. Tyler, of Amherst College, Massachusetts, has kindly 
sent me a few tubes of Algse from the neighbourhood of Amherst, in 
which I have noted the Desmids detailed in the following list. Other 
interesting Algae were also present, with which I may deal at some 
future time. I also tender my thanks to my son, Mr. G. S. West, 
for much help during the preparation of this paper. Some of the 
Desmids I believe to be quite new, and there are several interesting 
varieties and forms. 

The figures have been drawn from nature to a uniform scale of 
400 diameters except where otherwise stated. 

Ryalotheca dissiliens (Sm.) Breb. Frequent. 

„ „ var. hians Wolle. 

Besmidium Swartzii Ag. Sparingly. 
Penium digitus (Ehrenb.) Breb. 
P. ohlongum de By. 



Fig 


;. 1. 


,) 


2. 




3. 


55 


4. 


y> 


5. 


55 


6. 


55 


7. 


55 


8. 


^, 


9, 


55 


10. 


5) 


11. 


55 


12. 


55 


13. 


55 


14. 


55 


15. 




16. 


55 


17. 




18. 


55 


19. 


55 


20. 


55 


21. 




22. 


5> 


23. 


15 


24. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES II. and III. 
Plate II. 

, — Xanthidium Tylerianum nov. sp. Front view x 400. 

— „ „ „ Side view x 400. 

, — ,, „ „ End and other, views x 400. 

, „ „ „ Dividing fronds x 400. 

, —Zygospores of some desmid to wMcli no semi-cells were attached x 400. 
. — Cosmarium pygmieum Arch. ? X 400. 

, „ Meneghinii Breb. fortxia octangularis Wille, var. ^ simplicissiinum 

Wille X 400, the right-hand fig. X 1000. 
, — Closterium Leihleinii Kiitz., var. curtuin nov. var. X 400. 
, — „ rostratum Ehrfnb. var. brevirostratum nov. var. x 400. 

. — „ svbdirectum nov. sp. X 400. 
, — Docidium Trahecula (Ehrenb.) Naeg. X 400. 
. — Micrasterias radiosa Ralfs, var. punctata nov. var. X 400. 

Plate IIL 

. — Zygospore of some desmid unattached to semi-cells x 400. 

. — Xanthidium Tyler ianum nov. sp. Dividing frond, the young semi-cells of 

which have not yet begun to develope spines, x 400. 
. — Calocylindrus Cucurhita Kirch, x 400. 
. — Closterium subdirectum nov. sp. X 400. 
. — Staurastrum Sehaldi 'R.Qm&ch, three views X 400. 
. — „ eustephanum Ralfs, two views X 400. 

. — Cosmarium Ixve Eaben., var. septentrionale Wille x 400. 
, — Staurastrum angulatum nov. sp. X 400. 
. — ,, spongiosum Breb. X 400. 

, — ,, Meriani Eeiusch x 400. 

. — Cosmarium Cordanum Breb. x 400. 
. — Eutst?'um binale Ralfs, forma minor x 400. 



J0UB,N.R,MICR,S0C.188S.P1, [I. 




G.S.W"est,?cWWest deLsLdnat. West,H'ewmaTi&Co.]i1:1i. 

Desmids of Ma,s sacliu.se cis. 



J0URN,R,M1CR.S0C.188'3.P1.I1I 




G. S Wests W.West aeLa_d nat 



WestNevvma-Ti 5: Co.lith . 



Desmids of MassacKuset! 



Desmidsfrom Massachusetts, U.S.A. By Wm. West. 17 

P. margaritaeeum Breb. Frequent. 

P. polymorphum Perty. 

P. Brebissonii (Meneg.) Ealfs. 

P. crassa de Bary. 

P. rupesfre Kiitz. 

Closterium lanoeolatum Kiitz. 

C. suhdirectum nov. sp. Frond about fifteen times longer than 
broad, gently tapering, the middle portion nearly straight, 
slightly curved towards the ends, which are truncate with 
rounded corners, cytoderm finely striate, with three 
distinct transverse sutures. 

Breadth 26-27 /x, length 390-400 fi. 

This is very like G. directum Arch., but larger and not so 
finely striate. It is also larger than G. intermedium 
Kalfs, and less curved, and difiers from any form of G. 
didymotoeum Corda in being more slender. Figs. 10 and 
16. Very sparingly. 

C. lunida Ehrenb. 

C. Gucumis Ehrenb. 

C. acerosum (Schrank) Ehrenb., var. elongatum nov. var. 
Much narrower than the small examples of usual form, 
and not at all striate. Sparingly. Breadth 15-16 [x, 
length 290-300 ^l. 

G. strigosum Ehrenb. 

G. striolatum Ehrenb. Abundant. 

G. costatum Corda. 

G. acutum Breb. 

G. Dianse Ehrenb. Abundant. 

G. Jenneri Ralfs. Frequent. 

G. Venus Kiitz. Frequent. 

G. parvulum Naeg. 

G. Ehrenbergii Meneg. 

G. LeiUeinii Kiitz. Frequent ; breadth mostly 40-50 fi. 

G. Leihleinii Kiitz., var. eurtum nov. var. This was compared 
with undoubted specimens of G. Leihleinii, and exactly 
agreed with them in the central part of the frond, hut 
differed as shown in the figure hy its shortened ends. It 
looks like a miniature G. Ehrenbergii, many of which were 
present of the usual size. Fig. 8. Breadth 46-48 fju. 

G. rostratum Ehrenb. 

G. rostratum Ehrenb., var. hrevirostratum nov. var. This is 
a variety I have often noticed in other gatherings; it 
differs from the usual form in its short and less attenuated 
heak. Fig. 9. 

Pocidium noduloswn Kalfs. 

D. Areherii Delp. Only one specimen of this was seen. 

D. Trabecula (Ehrenb.) Naeg. This seems to be so variable 
a species that I have figured a semi-cell of one of the 
1889. C 



18 Transactions of the Society. 

forms noticed which differs from any of WoUe's figures in 
not tapering so much towards the ends. Fig. 11. 

Is this species correctly synonymized with D. Ehrenhergii Ralfs ? 
After examining thousands of the latter in my own British gatherings, 
I have never yet seen an example without the minute tubercles at the 
ends, and these are always absent in the American examples, which 
are also generally stouter. 

Calocylindrus CucurUta (Breb.) Kirch. I have given a 
figure of this, as WoUe's figure is so different from the 
examples I saw, which are like our British ones both as to 
form and size. Fig. 15. 

C. curtus (Breb.) Kirch. 

C pseudo-connatns Nord. 

Cosmarium Cordanum Breb. Occasionally seen. As the 
figures published successively by Joshua, Turner, and 
Wolle are not from the U.S., I have appended a drawing, 
fig. 23 ; I believe this is new to the U.S. Flora. 

Cosmarium Cueumis Corda. 

C. granatum Breb. 

G. tinctum Ealfs. 

C. nitidulum De Not. 

C. pseudonitidulum Nord. 

C. Iseve Eaben. 

C. Iseve Eaben., var. septentrionale Wille. This will be a new 
variety to the U.S. Breadth 15 /n, length 20 fj,. 
Fig. 19. 

C. Meneghinii Breb., forma octangularis Wille, yS simpUcissi- 
mum Wille. A form like the figure of the shaded semi- 
cell in ' Bidrag til Kundskaben om Norges Ferskvandsalger,' 
pi. i, fig. 11. Four different examples are shown in 
Fig. 7. 

C. undulatum Corda, var. crenulxtum Wolle. Breadth 22 fi. 

C. Naegelianum Breb. 

C. pyramidatum Breb. 

C galeritum Nord. 

C. triplicatum Wolle. Frequent. 

C punctulatum Breb. Plentiful. 

G. Botrytis Meneg. 

C. octhodes Nord. 

G. orhiculatum Ralfs. 

G. amoenum Breb. 

G. Phaseolus Breb. 

G. pygmeeum Arch. ? This is certainly a different Cosmarium 
from any other in the hst, and to me it seems nearest the 
species to which I have doubtfully referred it, though it 
differs in some respects from the figures which I have seen. 



Desmids from Massachusetts, U.S.A. By Wm. West. 19 

If it be this species it will be new to the United States. 
Fig. 6. 

C. Broomei Thwaites. Abundant. 

G. speciosum Lund. 

Xantliidium Tylerianum nov. sp. Semi-cells oblong-trapezoid, 
sometimes oblong-subquadrate, with two pairs of slightly 
curved short spines on each side of the semi-cell, projecting 
from widened bases at right angles to the longest axis of the 
frond, ends elliptic or subelliptic with the spines projecting 
at the sides. Side view of semi-cells subrotund, no spines 
showing in the periphery, central protuberances obscure. 
Empty cells show that the protuberances are very faintly 
beaded with about eleven granules. Cytoderm faintly 
punctulate or sometimes smooth. Length-70 /a. Breadth 
of broadest part without spines, 65-60 fx. Breadth of 
narrowest part without spines, 42-52 /i. Breadth of 
broadest part with spines, 70-80 /t. Breadth of isthmus, 
20-25 yLt. Fig. 1 front view. Fig. 2 side view. Fig. 3 
end and other views. Figs. 4 and 14 dividing fronds. 

Associated with this were some zygospores; but none of them 
were attached to the semi-cells of any species. I append figures of 
four examples of the one mostly seen, fig. 5. Another solitary 
example was noticed, different from the others, but still not attached 
to empty semi-cells. Fig. 13. 

The Xanthidium was certainly the most abundant species present, 
and there were plenty of empty semi-cells. The next species in point 
of quantity present was Micrasterias truncata Kalfs, Staurastrum 
S]pongiosum Breb. being next ; a few empty semi-cells of the last two 
species were seen. Other species sparingly present in the same 
gathering were Euastrum verrucosum Lund, Cosmarium Cordanum 
Breb., Cosmarium tripUcatum Wolle, Cosmarium Iseve Kaben., and 
Staurastrum Sehaldi Eeinsch. 

Arthrodesmus convergens (Ehren.) Ealfs. 

Euastrum oUongum (Grev.) Ealfs. All specimens seen were 
of different form from British examples. 

E. verrucosum Lund. Abundant. 

E. verrucosum Lund., var. dlatum Wolle. Intermediates 
between this variety and the type were also noticed. 

E. hinale Ealfs, forma minor* I have noticed this form before 
in gatherings from Maine, most examples being about 9 /i 
in breadth, and 11 /i in length ; in this gathering additional 
examples up to 12 /a in breadth were noticed. Three 
examples are shown in fig. 24. 

E. crassicoUe Lund. 

E. elegayis Kiitz. 

* V^e Journ. Bot , Nov. 1888, " The Desmids of Maine." 

2 



20 Transactions of the Society. 

Micrasterias radiosa Ealfs, var. punctata no v. var. This 
differs from the usual forms of M. radiosa in having a dis- 
tinctly punctate cytoderm with the division of the lobes 
more like those of M. papillifera Breb., especially the 
ultimate ones. The general outline is also more angular. 
The deeper incisions of the frond are more in accordance 
with the figures in Cooke's ' British Desmids ' than WoUe's 
figures. This species was compared with typical M. 
papillifera Breb. from the same district, but the latter was 
quite different in showing the rows of dots bordering the 
chief incisions, as well as in its different size, margin, and 
shape. The specimen figured had an eighth part of 
the teeth of the denticulate periphery doubly notched. 
Fig. 12. 

M. papillifera Breb. Frequent. 

M. rotata Ealfs. 

M. fimhriata Ealfs. 

M. Americana Ktitz. 

M. erenata Ealfs. 

M. truncata Ealfs. 

Staurastrum muticum Breb. 

S. angulatum nov. sp. Semi-cells smooth rhomboid, with a 
faint indication of an obscure mucro, end view triangular 
with concave sides. Length 76-78 //.. Breadth 60 fju. 
Breadth of sinus 17-18 yu,. Seen very sparingly. Fig. 20. 

;S^. polymorphum Breb. Both trigonal and tetragonal end 
views were seen ; the processes were narrower than usual. 

8. muricatum Breb. 

S. rugulosum Breb. 

S. punctulatum Breb. 

S. pygmseum Breb. Abundant. 

S. alternans Breb. ^ 

;S^. Meriani Eeinsch. This was the typical form agreeing with 
both Eeinsch's figure and that of Wolle, not like that of 
Cooke in ' British Desmids.' The end view was pentagonal. 
One is shown in Fig. 22. 

S. Sehaldi Eeinsch. This seems to be a variable species, as 
Wolle remarks, so I deemed it worth while to give figures 
representing the only form I saw. This is nearer to 
Wolle's figures than the original ones of Eeinsch, the end 
view has the processes longer than they are shown in the 
figures given by Wolle. I have British examples of this 
species collected by Wills, J. H. Lewis, and my son G. S. 
West, in all of which the arms are very much longer in 
end view, as figured in Cooke's ' British Desmids ' as var. 
ornatum Nord. Fig. 17. 

S. teliferum Ealfs. This was fine and like the form I find in 
Britain as figured in Cooke's ' British Desmids,' not like the 



Desmidsfrom Massachusetts, U.S.A. By Wm. West. 21 

form figured by WoUe ; the front view showed the spines 

almost evenly distributed. 
S. Brehissonii Arch. 
8. echinatum Breb. 
S. hirsutum Breb. 
8. furcigerum Breb. 
8. eustephanum Kalfs. I have given an end view and a front 

view of this from different specimens as it is such a variable 

species. Fig. 18. 
;S'. spongiosum Breb. This was frequent and variable, so I 

have given figures from eight different examples that were 

seen. Fig. 21. The measurements are in microns. 

This list includes 84 species and 5 varieties and forms. 



( 22 ) 



III.- — Beproduetion and MuUipUeation of Diatoms. 
By the Abbe Count F. Castraoane, Hon. F.E.M.S. 

(Bead 9th January, 1889.) 

It is now about thirty years since I first entered upon the study of 
Diatoms ; and from that time down to the most recent discoveries I 
have followed the progress of photography, desirous of making a 
serious use of this marvellous art ; from the conviction of the value of 
its employment for the purpose of faithfully reproducing diatoms 
enlarged under the Microscope. This I at first did only for my 
enjoyment, contenting myself with communicating to my friends the 
results obtained. The encouragement received from my friends and 
from experts, and the desire expressed by such as De Notaris, Cesati, 
Brebisson, and Meneghini, overcame my reluctance to make known 
the modest results of my studies; so that since 1867 I have 
imposed upon myseK the duty of publishing my observations. From 
that time not a year has passed without my contributing notes which 
may be found in the English quarterly and monthly microscopical 
journals, the Proceedings of the Italian Society of Cryptogamists, and 
in various other Italian and foreign pubhcations ; but chiefly in the 
Proceedings of the Accademia Pontificia dei nuovi Lincei, in which 
I have taken part as an ordinary fellow since 1867. 

During these first years I was fortunate in making some remarkable 
observations on the act of reproduction of a Podosphsetiia, which induced 
me to devote special study to the biological laws of the diatoms. As 
the result of this, on being invited to take part, in 1874, in the Inter- 
national Botanical Congress at Florence, I presented on that occasion 
a memoir on the process of reproduction in diatoms, which was pub- 
lished in the Proceedings of that Congress. In the publication of 
this memoir I ought, in the opinion of Dr. Pfitzer, to have made the 
remark that, while my conclusions were founded on positive observa- 
tions in certain cases, I was not in a position to generalize from them. 
After this, enlarging my connections with the most famous micro- 
scopists, I had often the satisfaction of seeing myself spoken of 
in the journals as a specialist in diatomology; and finally, I was 
most unexpectedly invited to report on the diatoms collected in the 
* Challenger ' expedition. 

Nevertheless, I frequently met with works on diatoms more or 
less complete, in which I found a restatement of views on the mode of 
reproduction and multiplication, incorrect on points of some import- 
ance, which I had persuaded myself that I had confuted. Far from 
wishing to impose my ideas merely because I am myself profoundly 
convinced of their truth, that which I have always desired, and have 
expressly proclaimed (though hitherto ineffectually), is that my opinions 
should be discussed in the interests of Science and of Truth, which ought 
to be the sole, or at least the first, aim of our studies. There is nothing 



Beprodudion & Multiplication of Diatoms. By Count Castracane. 23 

I desire more than to be convinced when I am in error ; and if it is 
shown to me that I have not offered sufficient proof of any of my 
opinions, I will endeavour to give more forcible and convincing argu- 
ments for them. Having had the high honour of being elected an 
Honorary Fellow of your Society, I venture to hope that the Society 
will examine and discuss my views on a subject so important and so 
strictly germane to its scope ; and with this object I will endeavour 
to give as clear and concise a resume of them as possible. 

Diatoms, like all vegetable organisms, are reproduced by con- 
jugation or bisexual fecundation, and are multiplied by deduplication 
or autofission. Keproduction is common to all living organisms, but 
multiplication by fission belongs only to some organic types ; thus all 
diatoms are reproduced as a consequence of fecundation, while only 
certain generic types exhibit multiplication by fission. 

Speaking in the first place of multiplication by deduplication ; 
this process, actually observed in many cases, has been claimed to 
be a general one, as if it were common to all diatoms. It is well 
known that this process commences with the subdivision of the 
nucleus and of the cytoblast, followed by the bipartition of the proto- 
plasmic sac by the formation of a double wall which extends to the 
centre from the inner periphery of the connecting ring, constituting 
two new valves, each of which is in front of one of the primitive 
valves. The fact that this ring is double, or rather is composed 
of two zones, each of which proceeds from one of the valves, and 
one of them inclosing the other, constitutes the emboitement of 
diatoms which, if not absolutely common to all types, is evident in 
many genera. It is therefore strange that so acute and careful an 
observer as W. Smith, notwithstanding that, especially in the figures 
of the Naviculacese, he indicates by a double line on the zonal side 
the extreme edge of the two rings, yet has no clear idea of them ; 
since, instead of recognizing, as the consequence of the deduplication, 
the progressive diminution of the frustules, he speaks of the increase 
in size of the young frustule resulting from the fission.* 

The most exact description of the constitution of the diatom-cell, 
that of Dr. E. Pfitzer, in his work, ' Untersuchungen iiber Bau und 
Entwicklung der Bacillarien,' also demonstrates, with the help of 
diagrammatic figures, how the process of autofission leads necessarily 
to a decreasing scale of magnitude in the offspring, until so minute a 
size is reached as to be incompatible with the biological conditions of 
the species. In this I agree altogether with Pfitzer, if, in truth, the 
diatom within its siliceous walls is incapable of increase in size and 
of the widening of its walls so long as they are under the influence of 
life. Although this property has been attacked by some, I am unable 
to understand the disinclination to admit a fact about which there does 
not seem to me the least doubt. 

In 1874 there was held in Florence an International Botanical 

* * Syuopsia of British Diatomaceee,' i. Introduction, p. xxvi. 



24 Transactions of the Society. 

Congress, to which I presented a note with the title, " The Theory of 
the Keproduction of Diatoms," and which appeared in the Proceedings 
of that Congress. In this memoir I adduced many arguments and 
proofs to demonstrate the power of increase and extension of the 
siliceous walls of living diatoms; but I do not think it will be 
necessary to reproduce more than one of the many proofs adduced. 
In vol. ii. of Smith's ' Synopsis,' plate lii. fig. 335, are represented 
several sporangial frustules of Orthosira Dichiei Thw., of which 
the equatorial diameter is increased by one-third, while the polar 
diameter has, in elongating, occupied the cavity of several adjacent 
cells, expanding its base, forcing its surface of contact to become 
folded on itself, and dilating in proportion. No one will accuse 
these figures of inexactness or exaggeration, since they were drawn 
by Tuffen West to illustrate the classical work of W. Smith. 
Having, moreover, the first century of the ' Diatomacearum species 
typicae' of Dr. Th. Eulenstein, I have been able to compare the 
above-named figure with the preparation of the same species, and 
found them to agree perfectly. This observation confirms what was 
long ago established by von Mohl, that the cytoderm of diatoms is 
not a solid wall, but rather an organic membrane impregnated with 
silica, and therefore that, as long as it remains under the influence of 
life, it will be in a condition capable of increase and expansion. Dr. 
Pfitzer, in denying this power to the walls of diatoms, when the 
progeny has reached the minimum size, invokes the intervention of 
the process of conjugation, which is not multiplication, but rather true 
reproduction, and of which we shall speak directly. 

The process of autofission is cherished especially by botanists, 
for it is what usually takes place among unicellular algae, to which 
class diatoms belong, and has been actually observed in a great 
number of cases among them. When fission takes place in a diatom, 
it is the general opinion that, of the two valves formed in the centre of 
the mother- cell, each is the exact counterpart of the valve which faces 
it, on which it is stereotyped, reproducing it in its form and in its 
minutest details. From this, as it seems to me, follows the impos- 
sibility of autofission in (1) those genera in which the valves are not 
exactly alike, as Cocconeis and Achnanthes ; (2) those in which the 
two valves, although alike, yet in uniting, cross the axes of the figure, 
such as Campylodiscus ; (3) those with similar valves, but arranged 
in such a way that the homologous parts alternate, as Asterolampra 
and Asteromphalus. It may be noted that, as far as has at the present 
time been brought under my notice, none of the numerous cases of 
fission that have been observed among diatoms controvert my view. 
Hence I feel myself authorized to say that if the multiplication of 
diatoms takes place actually by autofission, this fission can take place 
only in certain genera, and that therefore it must be regarded rather 
as the exception than as the rule. This is worth making known; 
since not unfrequently naturalists of good repute, when treating of 
organisms imperfectly known or but recently discovered, allow them- 



Reproduction & Multiplieation of Diatoms. By Count Gastraeane. 25 

selves too easily to be drawn on to generalizations without carefully 
examining whether these generalizations will stand criticism, although 
founded on well-ascertained particular facts. 

The same tendency has contributed to retard the progress of our 
knowledge of the reproduction of diatoms, which is the principal 
function of all living beings, but which, in respect to diatoms, has 
been relegated to a secondary position subordinate to autofission, which 
I can never regard as reproduction, but simply as an extension of the 
life of the individual. As Dr. Pfitzer does not admit that the siliceous 
cell of diatoms can increase in size ; and, recognizing at the same time, 
as the consequence of autofission, the successive diminution of the 
young frustules, when they have thus arrived at their minimum 
dimensions, he ingeniously brings in at this point the intervention of 
sexual conjugation, resulting in the production of an auxospore, the 
purpose of which would be the formation of one or two sporanges. 
According to Pfitzer these have the sole purpose of giving birth to 
two sporangial frustules which repeat the typical form, but in larger 
dimensions, with the object of again commencing another descending 
series, until the ofispring are reduced to the minimum size. 

I feel compelled to say that this theory is ingenious, but not true. 
I say that the theory is not true because, supported by the authority 
of Prof. H. L. Smith and of Dr. Wallich, I regard the sporangial 
frustule not as a normal, but rather as a monstrous form, which is 
incapable of multiplying by deduplication, and is only destined for a 
transitory purpose, that of the incubation of the sporules received 
by it. This explains the fact that in the gatherings of Cymhella 
(GoGconema) lanceolata Ehrb. there are a few large specimens of 
uniform size, amongst a very large number of small ones of various 
dimensions, but which cannot constitute a continuous series with 
the former. In the same way, among Stauroneis gracilis Ehrb., 
;S^. Plioenicenteron is to be met with, which being, according to 
Prof. H. L. Smith, nothing but the sporangial frustule of 8. gracilis, 
has always, in the same gathering, a uniform size, larger than that of 
this species, which, on the contrary, varies greatly in size. Similarly, 
another argument against Dr. Pfitzer's theory, at least in the general 
sense in which some apply it, is the fact that the sporanges, as often 
happens with the lower forms of vegetable life, frequently reproduce 
the species by means of gonidial sporules, without having recourse to 
the formation of sporangial frustules or of anything equivalent to 
them. Demonstration of this seems to me to be afforded by the 
memorable observation of Thwaites reported in vol. ii. of Smith's 
' Synopsis,' on Plate A, drawn ad naturain by Tuffen West, where are 
to be seen sporanges of Epithemia turgida Ktz. containing a number 
of round corpuscles, perfectly definite and of uniform size, which it 
seems to me impossible to interpret otherwise than as sporules. In 
such a way it becomes easy to understand the formation of cysts 
inclosing broods of diatoms which would be produced from these 
sporules, while the sporange would increase in size and become the 



26 Transactions of the Society. 

cyst, as may be seen on Plate B in Synedra radians W. Sm., and on 
Plate C in Cymbella (Gocconema) cistula Hemp. 

It has been proved by Eabenhorst's observations on Melosira 
varians Ag. and O'Meara's on Pleurosigma Spencerii W, Sm., as 
well as by similar observations of my own on a Podosphasnia, that 
these round and well-defined corpuscles must be considered as sporules 
or gonidia, whether they are inclosed in the sporange as in the case 
above mentioned, or whether they occupy the whole or a part of the 
cavity of the normal sporangial frustule, as may be seen in some of 
the figures in the plates to which reference has been made. In all 
these cases these corpuscles were seen to escape from the mother-cell, 
as represented by Eabenhorst in fig. 18, pi. x. of his ' Die siisswasser 
Diatomaceen.' I, being unable to draw, have described the whole 
minutely, pointing out that these corpuscles are marked by very 
fine lines, a proof of the presence of an inclosing membrane ; and 
that, turning round at the moment of their escape, they present a 
profile alternately round and linear, which prevents the possibihty 
of their being monads or similar Infusoria. "While preparing a 
monographical work on a very interesting Italian deposit from the 
middle Miocene, I have already met with four specimens of Cos- 
cinodiscus punetulatus Ehrb., which show how death overtook 
them at the moment when they were giving birth to a numerous 
progeny. In fact my frustules with radiating dots are seen to be 
surrounded by numerous round impressions, which cannot be re- 
garded in any other light than as sporules or embryonal forms, 
destined to develope and to grow while reproducing the typical form. 
This has demonstrated to me, in opposition to my previous view, that 
diatoms contain silica even in the embryonal condition — at least that 
this is the case with Coscinodiscus punetulatus, as otherwise these 
impressions could not have been preserved. 

If I am asked what is my view of the process of reproduction in 
diatoms, I reply, without the least hesitation, that the processes may 
be— and in fact are— very different according to the genus, even if not 
also according to the species. I have myself seen several of these 
processes, and I therefore wish to guard myself altogether from being 
drawn on to generalize by starting from any special case, however 
well established, even when such generahzation should agree with 
my preconceived ideas. It is necessary that such a rule be constantly 
observed in undertaking any new researches, for, in the adoption of 
a provisional hypothesis for the purpose of grouping together isolated 
facts, the progress of our knowledge would be at least retarded if the 
provisional hypothesis were regarded as an established fact. 

The extraordinary advance of geology during recent years, in 
consequence of the gigantic works in opening canals, in making 
entrenchments, and in piercing mountains for the establishing of new 
roads of communication, and the frequent marine expeditions for 
scientific purposes, have induced microscopists to occupy themselves 
almost exclusively with the discovery of new types of diatoms. But 
how much more important is the daily observation of the diatoms 



Beprodiietion & MuUipliecUion of Diatoms. By Count Castracane. 27 

which occur in quantities in every spring and in every ditch, noting 
diligently every phenomenon which they present? This is the 
recommendation which I make to those young observers who, when 
commencing the study of diatoms, have come to me for advice. Those 
who accept this advice will very frequently have the opportunity of 
observing that the endochrome presents different aspects in the same 
species, being sometimes scanty, and sometimes so abundant as to 
occupy the whole of the cell-cavity, where it is arranged in imperfect 
plates or in irregular granules, while sometimes the same species has 
its endochrome organized in numerous small masses of uniform shape 
and size. Similar differences are familiar to every one ; but I do not 
know that any one has at present attempted an explanation of them. 
Mr. W. Smith himself has indicated it in one of the coloured figures 
of the frontispiece of the two volumes of the * Synopsis,' more espe- 
cially in that to vol. ii. ; but I do not know that he refers to it in the 
text. As long ago as 1873 I ventured an explanation of the 
phenomenon in the memoir " On the Diatoms of the Coasts of Istria 
and Dalmatia," published in the Proceedings of the Accademia 
Pontificia dei nuovi Lincei, xxvi., sittings 5 and 6, where I argued, 
from the appearance presented by Striatella unipunctata Ag., the 
central mass of which had a stellate form consisting of a group of 
numerous distinct fusiform corpuscles, and reaffirmed the view that 
this condition of the endochrome, as well as the more frequent state 
which occurs in very many diatoms, of a differentiation into round 
masses of uniform size, is the prelude to the formation of sporules or 
gonidia. This view of mine passed unnoticed at the time ; but I am, 
on my part, continually confirmed in the correctness of this opinion. 

In this state of things it is my most ardent desire and my warmest 
wish that the Eoyal Microscopical Society of London, which has done 
so much service to microscopy, both by the impulse it has given 
to the perfecting of the Microscope, and by having pointed out the 
best use to make of it, and the great number of its applications, should 
institute a searching examination of the views I have formulated on 
the more important biological phenomena of diatoms, these views being 
entirely the result of my studies and of my observations. A Society 
so illustrious, and which has among its members naturalists and 
microscopists of the highest eminence, in taking into consideration 
this request of mine, will exercise the most weighty influence on the 
progress of diatomology, which is connected with so many other 
studies, and in which there are still so many points of controversy. 
For my own part, far as I am from believing that, after examination 
and discussion, any of my views will not be proved to be correct, it 
will nevertheless be to me useful, and therefore pleasant, to assist in 
the discovery of truth, and to admit the weak side of my explanations, 
whether in themselves or in the arguments which I have brought 
forward. 



28 SUMMARY OF ODBRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

SUMMAEY 

OF CUBRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

ZOOLOaY AND BOTANY 

(^principally Invertebrata and Cryptogamid), 

MICROSCOPY, &c., 

INCLUDING ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS FEOM FELLOWS AND OTHERS.* 



ZOOLOGY. 
A. VERTEBRATA :— Embryology, Histology, and General. 

a. Embryology.t 

Movements of Protoplasm.t — Herr G. Quincke attempts to explain 
the movements of protoplasm in the cells of plants and in lower 
animals, by comparing them to the movements observed at the contact 
surfaces of various fluids. These are the results of surface tensions 
between the fluids directly or between substances formed in their 
chemical interaction. A drop of oil placed in a weak alkaline solution 
is said to present close resemblance to a living Amoeba in the move- 
ments caused by the formation, solution, diffusion, &c., of soap on its 
surface. A solution of albumen is observed to act like alkaline solution. 
What Quincke calls " albumen soap " is formed — the result amoeboid 
movements. The author ingeniously applies these observations to 
the explanation of the protoplasmic movements in Elodea, Nitella, 
Tradescantia, Trianea, &c. He similarly discusses the form and move- 
ment of certain Protozoa, of food-vacuoles, contractile vacuoles, &c. 
A viscid particle covered with oil and placed in water will exhibit 
amoeboid movements, and smaller particles will be drawn into it as to a 
Protozoon. The streaming of pseudopodia demands only that there be 
a thin coating of oil outside and that the granules be albuminous. A 
mass of albumen covered with oil draws in through the oily covering 
bubbles of water, which collapse in forming some new substance, and 
resemble, in a curiously exact way, the contractile vacuoles of Stentor and 
such like forms. 

Placenta of Rabbit. §—M. J. Masius communicates a preliminary 
account of conclusions reached regarding the modifications of the 

* The Society are not intended to be denoted by the editorial " we," and they do 
not hold themselves responsible for the views of the authors of the papers noted, 
nor for any claim to novelty or otherwise made by them. The object of this part of 
the Journal is to present a summary of the papers as actually published, and to 
describe and illustrate Instruments, Apparatus, &c., which are either new or have 
not been previously described in this country. 

t This section includes not only papers relating to Embryology properly so called, 
but also those dealing with Evolution, Development, and Reproduction, and allied 
subjects. t Biol. Centralbl., viii. (1888) pp. 499-506. 

§ Bull. Acad. R. ScL Belg., xvi. (1888) pp. 317-25. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 29 

uterine mucous membrane during gestation and the constitution of the 
placenta. The conclusions are briefly as follows : — (1) The uterine 
mucous membrane thickens, forms papillae covered with epithelium and 
separated by crypts and glands. (2) Neither glands nor uterine 
epithelium share in formation of the placenta. The ends of the glands 
persist throughout gestation, papillae and epithelium degenerate. 
(3) The vessels of the mucous membrane become surrounded by 
increasing sheaths of cellular elements. (4) The endothelium of such 
vessels degenerates, the nuclei break up, and chromatic granules fill the 
cavity of the vessels. (5) Leucocytes at first present in the mucous 
membrane, pass through certain changes in the middle stages, and are 
lost. (6) Before the attachment of the embryo, two layers in the 
embryonic ectoderm are distinguishable — a deeper of cylindrical cells, 
a superficial of irregular elements and clusters of nuclei. To the basis 
afforded by the uterine mucous membrane this superficial layer becomes 
united. It then developes enormously and forms a multinuclear mass 
into which the deeper layer sends processes including ectoderm and 
somatopleure. 

The maternal capillaries enter this multinuclear layer of foetal 
origin, lose their endothelium, and are continued into a system of 
numerous lacunae without definite walls. The allautois forms a richly 
vascular connecting axis, round which allantoic villi are formed. The 
maternal blood in the lacunae is separated from the vascular villi only by 
the multinucleated protoplasmic layer. 

The rabbit's placenta is thus of foetal origin formed by allantoic 
villi ramifying in a tissue derived as above described. In the same 
tissue the vessels of the uterine mucous membrane, formed into a 
system of lacunae, are also included. A complete memoir, with figures 
and details, is forthcoming. 

Neurenteric Canal in the Rabbit.*— Prof. C. Giacomini has investi- 
gated the neurenteric and the anal canals in the embryo of the rabbit. 

(1) At two different epochs, there are two connections between the ecto- 
dermic and endodermic surfaces — viz. the neurenteric and the anal canals. 

(2) These communications are ephemeral, and speedily disappear in 
consequence of the modifications at the two extremities of the primitive 
line. (3) They are intimately associated with the development of the 
primitive line, or rather of the primitive groove. Hardly has the 
primitive line become apparent and begnn to extend backwards, than 
the anterior connection or neurenteric canal becomes patent. When the 
primitive line has attained its maximum development in length, the 
posterior connection or anal canal developes. These connections are 
both produced by a bending inwards of the ectoderm to meet the 
endoderm. The anterior invagination precedes and evokes the meso- 
derm ; the posterior invagination is formed when the mesoderm has 
already been developed between the primary layers. The former is 
therefore primary and essential, the latter secondary or dependent upon 
the special conditions of development. Prof. Giacomini inclines to the 
hypothesis that the two communications at the ends of the primitive line 
and groove are together homologous to the single blastopore, and that in 
the ideal ancestral vertebrate medullary canal and gut bad a common 
external aperture, the blasto-neuro-pore. 

* Arch. Ital. Biol., x. (1888) pp. 273-94 (1 pi). 



30 SUMMARY OP OUREENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Markings of Mammals.* — Prof. G. H. T. Eimer continues his 
interesting studies on the markings of mammals. In previous papers 
he has dealt with cats, dogs, civets, hysenas, &c. ; the present (6th) 
paper, which is well illustrated, discusses bears, martens and allied 
forms. It is well known that Prof. Eimer regards these markings as 
important indices of the history and relations of the animals. They 
seem in reality like the most external finger-posts of the constitutional 
progress. The individual in this, as in other particulars, recapitulates 
the history of the race. The males usually gain the new qualities first. 
New features appear on definite parts of the body, and spread in a fixed 
and definite path. They may disappear as in an orderly phantasmagoria 
and a new procession begins. The new features generally appear in the 
hind quarters ; on the fore-parts the old features linger longest. This 
Eimer calls the postero-anterior order of succession. Along with this 
an undulatory series from below upwards is also sometimes demonstrable. 
The above observations apply in part to birds, reptiles, butterflies, &c., 
as well as to mammals. In the latter, a longitudinal striping is the 
original state, from a modification of this spots arise, then cross stripes, 
and often uniformity of colouring. 

Colour of Birds' Eggs."]" — Mr. A. H. S. Lucas discusses how the 
colouring of birds' eggs has been acquired, and how it comes to be 
protective or otherwise beneficial. He considers that the efiect of the 
surroundings, during the time of the formation of the shell, upon the 
mental or nervous constitution of the bird, is a very important factor in 
determining the colouring of the eggs. Numerous illustrations of this 
are noted. Any variations of value in rendering the eggs less con- 
spicuous are seized on by natural selection and transmitted by heredity. 
Individuals at the present day are influenced in part by the surroundings, 
but mainly restricted by the tribal habits of generations. Hence there 
is sufficient adherence to type to make an experienced collector tolerably 
sure of the species of a bird to which a particular egg belongs, while, at 
the same time, there are considerable differences even between eggs of 
the same clutch. 

Development of Germinal Layers and Notochord in Rana fusca.J 
■ — Dr. O. Schultze has made an examination of the early developmental 
stages of Bana fusca. He finds that there is no bilaminate gastrula- 
stage, the rudiments of the middle and inner germinal layers arising 
cotemporaneously by invagination. The middle layer, as well as the 
dorsal wall of the archenteron, arises from the ectoblast, and at the 
dorsal lip of the blastopore all the three layers pass into one another ; in 
the lateral and ventral parts of the blastopore the covering layer of the 
outer germinal layer is distinctly continuous with the endoblast, while 
the basement layer of the ectoblast passes uninterruptedly into the meso- 
blast. About the end of the invagination-period the fused portions of 
the outer and median layer which are seen at the dorsal lip grow in the 
direction of the dorsal median line, and so form the primitive stripes of 
the embryo of the frog. Anteriorly to this the earliest rudiment of the 
notochord is formed as a thickening of the mesoblast. The whole length 

* Humboldt, vii. (1888) pp. 1-9 (11 figs, and 1 pi.). 
t Trans. Eoy. Soc. Victoria, xxiv. (1888) pp. 52-60. 
X Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Zool., xlvii. (1888) pp. 325-52 (2 pis). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 31 

of the notochord is derived from the mesoblast ; the spinal ganglia are 
formed from the peripheral parts of the medullary plate. 

In Bana there are no paired rudiments of the mesoblast, and no 
chorda-endoblast as described by 0. Hertwig; the ccelom theory does 
not, therefore, apply to the Anura. 

Development of Germinal Layers, Notochord, and Mid-gut in 
Cyprinoids.* — Prof. W. Eeinhard, in face of the numerous contradictory 
statements as to the early embryological history of Bony Fishes, has 
made an investigation into the development of Leuciscm erythrophthalmus. 
Sections of non-fertilized eggs showed that the yolk was covered by a 
layer of protoplasm which was collected in large quantities on one side. 
In the early phases of segmentation the nuclei are of the character 
described by Kowalevsky in Carassius auratus. The author believes 
that the periblast is formed from the ingrowing cells of the blastodisc ; 
these ingrowing cells are amoeboid, and possess a power of movement ; 
they appear to become arranged in such a way as to give the whole 
periblast the form of an uninterrupted protoplasmic layer with nuclei 
scattered therein ; these may increase by direct division. 

In no well-preserved specimen was anything like a segmentation 
cavity observed, and so far the observations of Kowalevsky are con- 
firmed ; the cavity figured by Wenckebach seems to be an artificial 
product. The outer layer of the blastodisc which forms the covering 
layer does not seem to be invaginated, as List asserts. It and the peri- 
blast completely cover the yolk, and this layer persists for a long time. 

In later stages of development the periblast makes its way between 
the higher-lying cells, and reaches the covering layer ; this can only be 
explained by supposing that the covering layer forms the true ectoblast, 
by the thickening of which the nerve-tube is formed, and that the cells 
which lie above the periblast must be regarded as mesoblast, This last, 
which forms at first a continuous layer, divides later into two lateral 
masses. An aggregation of some of its cells gives rise at one point to 
the notochord, which developes from behind forwards. 

The mid-gut appears to be formed thus ; the boundary between the 
mesoblastic cells and the periblast is, at j5rst, horizontal ; some of the cells 
of the mesoblast from either side make their way into the yolk, and also 
press upon the periblast ; in this manner they give rise to a cavity filled 
by periblast. The cells more to the periphery of this space elongate, 
and take on the form of the epithelium of the developed mid-gut. This 
tract does not arise in the form of a solid cord. It closes from behind 
forwards. The hind-gut is developed earlier. The last signs of the 
periblast disappear when they are taken up by the development of 
blood-vessels. 

Origin of Species-t— Prof. G. H. T. Eimer's recent work on the 
Origin of Species is in part an elaboration and application of results 
previously reached by the author in his observations on the variation of 
the wall lizard. J The full title of the present work, of which only the 
first instalment is yet published, is suggestive as to its contents — " The 

* Zool. Anzeig., xi. (1888) pp. 648-55. 

t ' Die Entstehung der Arten auf Grund von Vererben erworbener Eigenschaften, 
nach den Gesetzen organischen Wachsens. Ein Beitrag zur einheitlichen Auffassung 
der Lebewelt,' i. Th., 8vo, Jena, 1888, 461 pp. (6 figs.). 

t ' Ueber das Varieren der Mauereidechse,' Berlin, 1881, 281 pp. (3 pis.). 



32 . SUMMAKY OF OUERENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

origin of species through the inheritance of acquired characters, according 
to the laws of organic growth." 

It is not possible to summarize the concrete details of Prof. Eimer's 
work ; the chief conclusions may be resumed as follows : — (1) Variations 
are shown to occur along definite, determinate lines of development ; 
not towards all points of the compass in arbitrary fashion, but in a few 
directions, " as if on a determined plan." (2) The conditions of varia- 
tion are found on the one hand in internal or constitutional changes, on 
the other in environmental influences. The interaction of the external 
forces and the physico-chemical changes of the growing organism is the 
basis of variatioD. (3) As organisms progressively develope in accord- 
ance with " the laws of organic growth," literally growing into their 
places, species are but the stations in the progressive march. The same 
laws hold good for the variations of the individual as for the establish- 
ment of varieties and species. (4) " Constitutional impregnation " or 
" conservative adaptation " is the organic result of persistence in a given 
direction under similar conditions. (5) Variations due to environmental 
influence are certainly transmissible, and may modify the organism so as 
to originate new species without the help of Natural Selection. (6) Use 
and disuse may similarly condition new characters, which persist without 
Natural Selection. The latter has only a subordinate role ; growth and 
the environment explain almost all. 

In his introduction, Prof. Eimer criticizes the Darwinian postulate 
of indefinite variations ; emphasizes the deficiencies of an getiology 
which does not discuss the primal conditions of variation, and maintains 
that the utilitarian principle, which dijss not explain the origin of new 
qualities, only partially at most accounts for their increase and domin- 
ance. His observations, detailed in the body of the book, lead him to 
conclude that " variations occur throughout in perfectly definite, and 
only in a few directions, and are due to physico-chemical conditions in 
the interaction between the material composition of the body and external 
influences." 

The first chapter is chiefly occupied with criticisms of Weismann and 
Nageli. In the second chapter the author enters into the heart of the 
subject. The directions of variation are few and definite ; the new 
characters, so to speak, crystallize out from the internal conditions of 
growth, and may be useful, indifferent, or even hurtful. By " internal " 
or better " constitutional " conditions, the author does not mean that 
the causes of modification are to be found in a fundamental " vital force," 
but simply in the physical and chemical processes involved in the very 
composition of the organism. 

In opposition to Weismann and others, it is important to notice such 
conclusions as the following, of which the concrete evidence must again 
be left out: — " In my opinion the physical and chemical changes which 
the organism experiences during its life through the influence of the 
environment, and which it transmits, are the first conditions of modifica- 
tion, and of the origin of species. From the material thus supplied, 
the struggle for existence may select." 

All variations express themselves simply as growth. " Just because 
the organic modification depends upon physico-chemical processes, the 
result, as in the inorganic crystal, is definite," and can only express itself 
in definite directions. " The origin of species follows exactly the same 
laws as ordinary growth ; it is the consequence of unceasing variable 



&>OLOaY AND BOTAKY, MICEOSCOPY, ETC. S3 

growth of the world of organiBms under variable conditions. The 
heterogeneous links of this growing chain of organisms persist as species. 
Varieties and species are essentially nothing but groups of forms which 
have remained at various stages of a progressive development,"^ The 
stoppage of forms at various levels, the author terms Genepistasis — the 
still-standing of the form. 

As to the special means which determine the difference in the direc- 
tions of evolution, and cause division into Species, Prof. Eimer takes the 
following six into account and discusses each in detail: — (1) direct ex- 
ternal influence ; (2) strengthening through function or the reverse ; 
(3) struggle for existence — an indirect influence ; (4) saltatory develop- 
ment or sudden variations arising as the result of correlation in kaleido- 
scopic fashion ; (5) " constitutional impregnation " or " conservative 
adaptation " due to continued persistence under the same conditions ; 
(6) sexual intermingling. 

Space does not permit a review of the succeeding chapters which 
give part of the evidence. They discuss adaptation ; acquired charac- 
ters ; disuse of organs, degeneration and panmixia ; the acquisition and 
inheritance of intellectual characteristics ; the development of organs 
and systems ; the laws of growth. Enough has been said to indicate 
the standpoint of the author and the importance of his endeavour to 
demonstrate more perfectly " the unity of organic nature." A second 
volume of evidence and historical matter is promised. 

Divergent Evolution through Cumulative Segregation.*— In an 
elaborate paper the Eev. J. T. Gulick follows up some previous commu- 
nications, in which he has maintained that " separation without a 
difference of external circumstances is a condition sufficient to insure 
divergence in type." The abundance of technical and unique termino- 
logy, combined with the intrinsic complexity of the inquiry, renders it 
very difficult to present a brief summary without injustice to the patient 
author. 

The importance of separation was suggested by a study of Sandwich 
Island terrestrial molluscs. Under one set of external conditions diver- 
vergence of type was observed to occur in a way which did not appeaif 
to be explicable by Natural Selectioui The explanation seemed to the 
author to lie in " a law rising out of the very nature of organic activities^ 
a law of segregation, bringing together forms similarly endowed, and 
separating them from their neighbours." It is this drawing of like to 
like, in its manifold forms and influences^ which Mr. Gulick has set 
himself to analyse. He does not raise the question of the conditions of 
variation, but simply postulates a "frequency of deviation from an 
average." Nor are the problems of direct environmental action, or of 
hereditary transmission, at all discussed. The whole inquiry is con- 
cerned with the forms and influences of segregation^ Mr. Gulick's 
position differs considerably from Wagner's insistence on isolation, for 
the latter depended solely on migration and geographical barriers, while 
the separation and segregation dealt wdth by the author are much wider^ 
His principle of segregate breeding is allied rather to Spencer's law of 
segregation. The author differs also from Romanes, who has in his 
" Physiological Selection " theory laid emphasis on the separating 

* Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), xx. (1888) pp-. 189-274. Cf. criticism by A. B 
Wallace in ' Nature,' xxxviii. (1888) pp. 490-1. 



34 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

influence of mutual sterility. Gulick's segregation is again a mucli wider 
conception, including many other separating factors ; nor does he restrict 
its operation " within the limits of specific distinctions." 

In preliminary chapters, after historical matter and much-needed 
definitions of terminology, Mr. Gulick endeavours to show that divergent 
evolution is not explained by natural selection, nor by the " advantage 
of divergence of characters," nor by natural selection plus great dif- 
ference in external conditions, nor in fact by selection of any kind 
whatever. 

The fundamental law to which he calls attention is expressed in the 
following formula : — " Cumulative segregation produces accumulated 
divergence ; and accumulated divergence produces permanent segrega- 
tion ; and the segregate subdivision of those permanently segregated 
produces the divisions and subdivisions of organic phyla." Segregation 
may be produced by man [rationaf), or by nature outside of man 
(responsive), and both these may be intensified by other principles of 
independent transformation {intensional). Or again, he classifies segre- 
gation as " environal" (relation to environment), "reflexive" (inter- 
specific relations), and " intensive " (" enhanced by one or more forms of 
intension "). 

The author seeks to show (1) that there is "in nature a law of 
cumulative segregation," and granting this, (2) that " cumulative segre- 
gation will produce accumulated divergence, without any selection in 
the sense that natural selection is selection," in fact "that without 
segregation no divergence of type will arise." (3) He proceeds to 
analyse the conditions of cumulative segregation as A, Environal — 
industrial, chronal, spatial, fertilizational, artificial (with subdivisions) ; 
as B, Beflexive — conjunctional, impregnational, and institutional; and 
as C, Intensive, with eight subdivisions. 

As an analysis of the conditions of association and isolation the 
memoir possesses great interest, not a little spoilt by the elaborate and 
ugly terminology. The author certainly cannot be charged with de- 
preciating the complexity of the inquiry. The reader will naturally 
seek for more information as to the existence of cumulative segregation 
as " a law in nature," and for more evidence and explanation of the con- 
tinued divergence of forms after they have been so separated or segre- 
gated. Still the paper mainly professes to emphasize the importance of 
inquiring into the conditions and effects of segregation, and in so doing 
is valuable. 

Heredity.* — Prof. M. ISTussbaum sums up his views on the problems 
of heredity. The homology of the germinal cells, their early differen- 
tiation and relative isolation, the phenomena of regeneration, the trans- 
mission of acquired characteristics, and the like, are discussed in a 
manner with which the previous work of this author has made us 
familiar. " The constancy of the species depends upon the uninterrupted 
descent (Jaeger's continuity of the germinal plasma) ; the variability 
depends upon the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic forces. Selection 
is a consequence of this interaction, since it always rests with the 
numerical strength of the forces, whether the individuals and their 
germinal material persist, change, or perish." 

* 'Ueber Vererbung,' 8vo, Bonn, 1888, 23 pp. 



ZOOLOaY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 35 

Organs of Aquatic Locomotion.* — Dr. P. C. Amans examines the 
characters of the organs of aquatic locomotion. He finds that there are 
two great groups of them, erectile machines, in which the vascular and 
connective systems play the principal part, and articulated machines 
formed chiefly of solid levers and muscles. The external form is that 
of a more or less elongated ovoid having a bilateral symmetry ; the 
profile, which is the intersection of the surface by the plane of bilateral 
symmetry, is always itself asymmetrical ; there may be an inflexion in 
the upper half as in some fishes, or in the lower half, as in Pterotrachea, 
Dytiscus, &c. The mechanical laws of swimming are discussed at great 
length, and a further essay is promised in which other factors of rapidly- 
moving bodies will be considered. 

Zoology of Victoria f— The sixteenth decade of Prof. F. M. M'Coy's 
Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria contains accounts of Polyzoa by 
Mr. P. H. M'Gillivray, and of Crustaceans by himself. The Polyzoa 
are Lagenipora tuherculata and L. nitens, which, in the author's opinion, 
ought not to be placed in the same genus. Lehythopora liystrix has its 
peristome produced into a long, nearly cylindrical tube. In Pcecilojpora 
anomala the mouth is so reversed that the ooecium appears to be below 
it. Four species of Fasciculipora — F. gracilis, F. hellis, F. fruticosa, 
and F. ramosa, are described and figured, as are also Farciminaria 
aculeata, F. uncinata, F. simplex, and the apparently common Brace- 
hridgia pyriformis. Palinurus Hugeli, the Sydney crawfish or spiny 
lobster, is, for the first time, figured in its natural colours. The Yarra 
spiny crayfish is a variety of Shaw's Astacopsis serratus of the Murray ; 
it is usually less than half the size of the Murray individuals, while the 
whole thorax and abdomen also are of an intense prussian-blue 
colour. 

j8. Histology.J 

structure of Muscle. § — Dr. A. EoUett reports the results of his 
investigation of the fin-muscles of the sea-horse, and discusses striped 
muscle in general. The muscle of the fin of Hippocampus antiquorum 
is first described ; Eanvier's description is rejected as incorrect, 
EoUett's previously published views are confirmed. The sarcolemma is 
widely separated from the fibrils by a granular mass — the "sarco- 
plasma," which is coloured red in gold'staining, and left pale when the 
fibrils are stained with hsematoxylin. The transverse sections, of 
which large figures are given, show numerous arrangements of Cohnheim's 
areas into bands and circles, clearly marked and separated by wide 
spaces of sarcoplasma. In insects and crustaceans the areas were 
variously disposed, and much less sarcoplasma was present* The 
optical longitudinal sections of Hippocampus muscle have the usual 
appearance, except that wide bands of sarcoplasma intervene between 
the fibres and even fibrils. The dots and the transverse striae are 
sections of the walls of sarcoplasma separating both fibres and fibrils. 
The sarcoplasma is to the muscle-elements as the wax honeycomb to the 
honey. Eollett gives full particulars of his various methods, materials, 
and results, and also describes the appearances seen by using the 

* Ann. Sci. Nat., vi. (1888) pp. 1-164 (6 pis.). 

t ' Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,' xvi. (1888). 

j This section is limited to papers relating to Cells and Fibres. 

§ Arch. f. Mikr. Anat,, xxxii. (1888) pp. 232-66 (2 pis.). 

D 2 



36 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

polariscope. The main conclusion is that in all striped muscle the 
strise represent sarcoplasma, a layer of which surrounds every fibril. 

The second part of the paper gives a glance over what Eollett calls 
the " Muskelromantik," whose pages, he says, vie with fiction in their 
strangeness. He deprecates the withholding of criticism, and proceeds 
to a vigorous criticism of the network theory of muscle structure. 
Melland, Marshall, and van Gehuchten occupy a prominent place, and 
Eamon y Cajal, Carnoy, and Macallum have also their share. The 
existence of a network is denied in toto, except in so far as it represents 
the edges of EoUett's walls of sarcoplasma. 

Striicture of Spermatozoa.* — Herr E. Ballowitz communicates the 
results of his investigation of the minute structure of spermatozoa. He 
deals first with the general characters of bird spermatozoa. No less 
than forty-two species were examined. The spermatozoa of Passeres are 
made the subject of special discussion ; — the structure of the lash, the 
development of the spiral fringe from the protoplasm of the spermatide, 
and the structure of the head are described in minute detail. In a 
second chapter the author similarly describes the spermatozoa of Na- 
tatores, Grallatores, Gallinacei, Columbinte, Scansores, Kaptatores, and 
Cajprimulgus europseus. The fibrillar structure of the axial filament is 
especially emphasized. The movements of the sperms are also de- 
scribed. It may be concluded with certainty that the axial filament is 
the essential part of the lash and the definite seat of the contractility. 
The fibrillar structure, demonstrated by the author, is in the closest 
association with this contractility. It will be afterwards shown that 
other portions of the lash acquire a fine fibrillar structure when they 
become contractile. 

Club-shaped Nucleoli.! — Herr S. M. Lukjanow describes peculiar 
club-shaped nucleoli from the mucous membrane of the stomach of the 
salamander. They appear, however, to be of wide occurrence. The 
author's study of these structures led him to regard them as stages pre- 
paratory to an emptying of the contents of the nucleolus. He also 
connects what he observed with phenomena of nucleolar movement. 

Nervous System of Amphioxus.| — Dr. E. Eohde reports the result 
of his histological observations on the nervous system oi Amphioxus. The 
present memoir is in part a continuation of the author's investigation of the 
connection between the ganglion-cells and nerve-fibres in Chaetopods. A 
brief summary of the general morphological facts is first given. The central 
nerve-strand has its largest diameter in the middle of the body ; there 
are no swellings of any kind ; the central canal is usually narrow in its 
larger dorsal portion ; the anterior expansion is histologically distin- 
guishable as a cerebral region. The central canal is surrounded by a 
usually simple layer of epithelial cells ; the nervous elements consist of 
an internal ganglionic layer and a much larger external fibrous layer. 
From the dorsal portion 64 pairs of sensory nerves are given off, en- 
sheathed at their origin by the connective tissue swathing the nerve- 
strand. They pass to the muscle-ligaments and to the skin. Entering 
the ligament the nerve divides into a ventral and a usually weaker 
dorsal branch. From the ventral side of the central system, alternating 

* Arch. f. Mikr. Anat., xxxii. (1888) pp. 401-73 (5 pis.). 

t T. c, pp. 474-8 (1 pi.). 

I Zool. Beitr. (Schneider), ii. (1888) pp. 169-211 (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 37 

with the sensory nerves, arise the motor nerves. The bulk of the 
memoir is devoted to the histological results. 

The central canal and the supporting elements. — The supporting ele- 
ments of the central nervous system consist (a) of the conical epithelial 
cells which line the central canal and (6) of fibres. The apices of the 
conical cells are directed outwards and continued into threads, which 
either penetrate tne central nervous system undivided and are inserted 
in the connective tissue sheath, or else ramify. In varying degrees the 
epithelial cells lose themselves in the fibres. Sometimes only the 
nucleus is left — the " supporting-fibre-nuclei." Along with the strong 
undivided processes of the conical cells, other nuclei, probably nervous, 
occur. Few conical epithelial cells occur in the dorsal portion of the 
central canal-wall; the fibrous upbreaking is less marked from above 
downwards. With these results the observations of other investigators 
are then contrasted. 

The nervous elements of the nerve-cord. — The nerve-fibres, composing 
the greater part of the nerve-cord, and forming a ring round the 
ganglion-cells, are without medulla and of very varied strength. Very 
thin fibres predominate in the dorsal portion ; those in the ventral half 
are thicker and more distant. Giant nerve-fibres among the latter are 
found in the same position all along the cord. The strongest, lying 
ventrally to the central canal, is unpaired ; the others lie in three lateral 
paired groups. The intimate structure seems to consist of fibrils of 
extreme fineness, but of this only a trace was to be seen in the giant 
fibres. The fibres lie imbedded in the fine meshwork formed by the 
supporting elements ; few lateral branches are given off, but a deceptive 
appearance of this is produced by the supporting elements. Bifurcation, 
however, frequently occurs. 

The ganglion-cells vary greatly in size ; small, medium, and giant 
forms occur here also. Among the small cells, unipolar and bipolar 
forms predominate. They lie for the most part beside the epithelial 
cells, and are very like them. The medium cells Include all forms. 
The giant ganglion-cells are exclusively multipolar. They always lie at 
the boundary between the dorsal and median third of the central canal. 
Their processes stretch right and left into either half of the cord. 
They are relatively few in number. The processes of the giant cells 
are of two kinds, one set passing into fine nerve-fibres, the others — one 
from each cell — retain a large size as the giant nerve-fibres already 
noted. The most anterior ganglion cell gives origin to the median 
giant fibre — the largest of all — and to seven diminishing fibres only 
traceable for a short distance. The processes of the other ganglion-cells 
are described at length, and again the results of other investigators are 
brought into contrast with the author's. 

The hrain. — The central canal expands in front of the origin of the 
second pair of sensory nerves. A many-layered sheath of very closely 
packed cells and nuclei surrounds it. Some look like the typical conical 
epithelial cells, in their original position, or displaced outwards. 
Numerous cell-less nuclei (nerve-nuclei) occur ; at the end of the nerve- 
cord they occur not only on the epithelial layer, but among the nerve- 
fibres, especially on the dorsal surface, and extend in part to the sensory 
nerves. In the epithelium of the ventricle, the supporting and the 
nervous fibres are hardly distinguishable from one another. Eound the 
pigment-spot is a thick layer of small dark nuclei, passing posteriorly 



38 SUMMABY OF CUBRENT BESEABCHES BELATING TO 

into the ordinary " nerve-nuclei." At the origin of the second pair of 
sensory nerves, there begins, above the central canal, a group of medium- 
sized multipolar ganglion-cells, which extends to the region of the fifth 
sensory nerve. In front of the posterior end of this dorsal group there 
begins on the ventral side a similar layer of medium-sized, but on an 
average rather smaller, ganglion-cells, which appear to be unipolar or 
bipolar. The two groups are connected by lateral ganglion-cells. 
These groups must be included in the brain. The beginning of the cord 
is marJced with tolerable exactness by the position of the most anterior giant 
ganglion-cell, and the first five pairs of sensory nerves are to be regarded as 
cerebral. Previous investigations are then noted. 

The sensory nerves, which alternate with one another, consist, like the 
dorsal portion of the central system, of delicate fibres. Especially near 
their origin " nerve-nuclei " are imbedded in the nerves. The spinal 
ganglia of higher Vertebrates are here represented by aggregations of 
these nerve-nuclei. They are more abundant on the posterior nerves. 
The 64th or most posterior pair of sensory nerves, behind the last 
muscle-segment, appears to have been overlooked by previous investi- 
gators. 

The motor nerves, alternating with the sensory, and arising from the 
ventral side, consist of fibres somewhat less thick than the medium-sized 
elements which accompany the giant fibres of the ventral region. Two 
or more fibres are often apposed. Forking and lateral branching 
occur. The internal connection with the nerve-elements of the central 
system is still uncertain. Peripherally the motor fibres enter individu- 
ally into connection with the muscle-plates. Details for the different 
regions are noticed. The motor-fibres often exhibit marked transverse 
striation like that of the longitudinal musculature. Most, however, are 
homogeneous. It appears most probable that the motor nerves are really 
the apparatus for the motor stimulus of the longitudinal musculature. 
It is possible that the transverse musculature may be innervated by 
" sensory " nerves. 

B. INVERTEBRATA. 

Mollusca. 
y. Gastropoda. 

Eyes of Gastropods and of Pecten.* — Dr. G. Kalide has a preliminary 
report on his investigations into the minute structure of the eyes of 
Gastropods and of Pecten. In the Prosobranchiata, of which Nassa may 
be taken as the type, the optic vesicle is separated from the surrounding 
connective tissue by a transparent basal membrane, into which the 
neurilemma of the optic nerve passes. The fibres of the optic nerve 
spread out in all directions ; internally to them is the cellular layer of 
the retina, the components of which are arranged radially to the centre 
of the eye. The pigment layer is external to the zone of rods. The 
central cavity of the vesicle is filled by a transparent mass, which forms 
a lens anteriorly and a gelatinous vitreous body posteriorly. 

The innervation of the retina was first made out distinctly in Ptero-' 
trachea coronata, where the retinal cells gradually diminish at their outer 
ends and pass gradually into nerve -fibres, which are lost in the expansion 
of the optic nerve; this arrangement has already been detected by 

* Zool. Auzeig., xi. (1S88) pp. 679-83, 698-703. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 39 

Grenadier in the eyes of Heteropods and Cephalopods. In the Proso- 
branchiata it is the unpigmented flask-shaped cells which present this 
arrangement ; they closely resemble the retinal cells of the Heteropoda, 
and have at their base a large nucleus which colours intensely with 
carmine and hsematoxylin. The homology is not afl*ected by the fact 
that the retinal cells of Heteropods contain pigment, for the cells in 
Prosobranchs, which have been hitherto described as being devoid of 
pigment, are not altogether so. The pigmented club-shaped cells rest on 
the basal membrane by a filamentar stalk ; this is not of a nervous nature, 
and these cells are not innervated and have no direct relation to the 
perception of light. The rods are very difficult to see, as they are 
destroyed by most of the reagents used for fixation ; they are best pre- 
served by placing fresh eyes for from five to ten minutes in strong formic 
acid, isolating pieces and teasing them carefully in a drop of water. 

In Nassa the zone of rods consists of closely packed delicate columns, 
which are rounded off at their inner ends ; they are longest at the 
fundus of the eye, and become shorter and shorter near the distal pole. 
The rods project into spaces of the vitreous body, which are separated, 
from one another by thin partitions. 

The connective framework discovered by Simroth in the vitreous 
body and lens does not consist merely of filaments, but of numerous 
stellate cells ; these have a nucleus which does not always colour in the 
same way with carmine and hsematoxylin ; Patten • seems to think that 
his retinophorje (the rod-cells) have two nuclei, but if so he has mis- 
taken the nucleus of a stellate connective- tissue cell for the second 
nucleus. The fibres from the rod-cells are not, as Hilger thinks, of a 
nervous nature ; they do not end in the expansion of the optic nerve, 
but in the basal membrane. 

The vitreous body is not, as has been generally supposed, com- 
pletely structureless. If the pigment be removed by the action o 
chlorate of potash and hydrochloric acid, sections will show that the 
gelatinous mass has completely disappeared, and a plexus will be left of 
fine fibrils, in which cell-nuclei are scattered; the fibrils are processes 
of the cells to which the scattered nuclei belong. The vitreous body 
consists, therefore, of connective tissue formed of cells with numerous 
processes, and of a gelatinous intermediate substance. The lens has the 
same structure. 

In his account of the eyes of Heteropods, the author confirms in 
many points the description given by Grenacher, to which he makes 
some additions. All the parts of the Gastropod eye are present in that 
of Pecten ; but the retina is developed on the anterior side of the optic 
vesicle in correlation with the position of a lens peculiar to the eye of 
Pecten, which lies in front of the optic vesicle. 

5. Lamellibranchiata. 

Influence of Light.* — M. E. Dubois describes the retraction of the 
siphon of Pholas dactylus under the influence of a beam of light. Even 
detached from the animal the siphon keeps this power for several days. 
The siphon as a whole is impressionable by light ; the sensory struc- 
tures must be diffusely scattered. The author has made numerous 
experiments on the relation between the muscular contraction of the 

* Comptes Kendus Soc. Biol., v. (1888) pp. 714-6. 



40 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

siphon and the nature of the light. The amplitude and the duration of 
the contractions have a definite relation, which is constant with a light 
of the same intensity at different distances. Lights of different colours 
give different results. Further details are promised after the use of 
a new recording apparatus. 

Movements of Detached Gills.* — Mr. D. Macalpine gives an account 
of his observations on the movements of detached gills, mantle-lobes, 
labial palps, and foot in bivalve Molluscs. He asserts that all of these 
organs, when detached from the body, are capable of moving visibly and 
at a measurable rate of speed. The movement may be either rotatory 
or progressive. One labial palp was observed to make twenty-six revo- 
lutions at an average rate of 8 J minutes per round. A palp of the fresh- 
water mussel (TJnio) continued to rotate for eight days. The gills 
travelled forward at the rate of two minutes to the inch. The move- 
ment of the mantle-lobes is rotatory, but a certain amount of forward 
movement occurs in the course of rotation. The foot, laid in sufficient 
water to cover it, exhibited motion of both kinds. The rate of rotation 
was a complete round in 6 hours 47 minutes, the average rate of pro- 
gress 1 in. per hour. It retained its power of movement for at least 
73 hours. " The gliding gill and the rotating palp, the moving 
mantle-lobe and the creeping foot, show what a stock of vital energy 
must be stored up in the soft-bodied mollusc imprisoned within the 
walls of the shell." 

Development of Mytilus edulis.j — Prof. W. C. M'Intosh remarks 
that in one part of the estuary of the Eden the older mussels are covered 
with dense feathery masses of GonotJiyrsea, upon which the young 
mussels settle as soon as they quit pelagic life. The young are then 
from 1/71 to 1/21 in. ; some show three gill-papillse and others thirteen. 
An almost inexhaustible stock of young mussels could thus be obtained 
at an early stage for transporting to any fresh site. Young mussels 
may often be observed fixing themselves on various sites well adapted 
for aeration and food. It is not right to suppose that all the mussels 
found on a ship's bottom have, since the last " cleaning," grown to a 
given considerable size. Mr. Wilson (whose important report to the 
Scotch Fishery Board has been overlooked by some recent writers on 
the subject) has shown that mussels can leave their sites and fix them- 
selves to new ones by a fresh secretion of bygsus. In France, indeed, 
they are often artificia.lly torn off, 

Molluscoida, 
58. Tunicata. 

Monograph of Fragaroides aurantiacum.| — M. C. Maurice has 
attempted to fill a lacuna in our knowledge of the Tunicata by preparing 
a monographic account of a species, a method universally recognized by 
zoologists as of the greatest value in advancing research. The form 
which he has selected lives in abundance at Villefranche-sur-mer, and 
is allied to Giard's genus Fragariiim, of which Fragaroides may be 
regarded as a sub-genus. In discussing the orientation of the form the 
author points out that his terminology corresponds, so far as the right 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Victoria, xxiv. (1888) pp. 139-49. 
t Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ii. (1888) pp. 467-9. 
X Arch, de Biol., viii. (1888) pp. 205-495 (7 pis.), 



SOOLOQY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 41 

and left sides are concerned, with tliat of Milne-Edwards, and is exactly 
the reverse of that of Savignj, Hancock, and Lacazo-Duthiers. The 
dorsal surface looks upwards, the ventral downwards. The body is 
divisible into a thorax, which comprises the branchiae, nervous system, 
and buccal and cloacal orifices ; an abdomen, which contains the 
digestive tube ; and a post-abdomen, in which are the gonads and the 
heart. 

The first chapter deals with the colony. There is only slight 
adhesion between the common or external tunic and the subjacent 
epithelium ; but this adhesion is more marked in some regions than 
elsewhere, as, for example, along the longitudinal lines, of which there 
are generally ten on either side of the body, and in the region of the 
buccal and cloacal orifices, where there is to be found the homologue of 
the reflected tunic of the simple Ascidians, in the form of a fold. The 
cloacal orifices of the various ascidiozooids do not open directly to the 
exterior, but into ramified ducts, which may be called a common cloaca. 
The anal " languettes " are not free, but are so placed as to keep the 
canal widely open. The constitution of the external tunic of Fra- 
garoides is quite similar to that of various simple Ascidians, but there 
are no vacuoles. This tissue of cellulose is not, as most authors have 
hitherto supposed, a product secreted externally by the epidermic layer, 
but a transformed portion of the epidermic epithelium produces the 
cellulose internally. The epidermis is made up of several layers of 
cells, which give rise to cellulose. 

When a member of a colony is about to die its body commences to 
break up in its anterior region; the boundaries of the cells become 
effaced, and the nuclei disappear; these remains of dead animals 
gradually disappear, because, as the author believes, the amoeboid cells 
of the external tunic act as phagocytes. Another phenomenon of the 
same kind is to be seen in the mode of disappearance of the yolk in the 
urodele larva of this species. There is no trace of a colonial vascular 
system. 

The yellow colour of the common tunic is solely due to the presence 
of numerous microscopic algae, belonging, apparently, to the genus 
Protococcus ; the orange-red colour of the Ascidians is the result of the 
combination of the colour of the algae with that of the pigmented cells 
of the animals. 

The second chapter deals with the body-v^all ; this is composed of 
epidermis, a connective-muscular framework, and a peribranchial 
epithelium ; the first of these consists of the external tunic and the sub- 
jacent epidermal epithelium ; the framework is a mass of connective 
tissue in which we may say that all the organs of the body are immersed ; 
it is hollowed out by vast lacunae in which the blood of the Ascidian 
circulates. The peribranchial epithelium has the same structure and 
properties as the epidermal, save that it does not secrete cellulose. 

The buccal siphon is treated of in the third chapter ; the buccal 
orifice is divided externally into lobes of a peculiar form, of which two 
are median and six are lateral in position. The layer of connective 
and muscular tissues is very rich in blood-lacunae, and is traversed in 
all directions by muscular bundles ; of these there are, for the greater 
part of the siphon, three layers, two longitudinal being separated by one 
transverse. The tentacular crown consists of a fold of the internal wall 
of the buccal siphon, which carries fourteen unequal tentacles. Ten of 



42 SUMMARY OP CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

these are so arranged that a long and a small one alternate. A large 
lacuna extends along the anterior or dorsal surface of each tentacle. 
The hypogangl ionic tubercle is only the orifice of the vibratile organ ; 
it is situated in the prebranchial region on the mediodorsal line ; the 
flat epithelium of the buccal siphon becomes ciliated on the vibratile 
organ. A ridge runs round the siphon and separates it from the 
branchia ; it has an uninterrupted groove, which, on the ventral side, is 
in direct relation with the hypobranchial groove, and on the dorsal 
raphe forms a projection into the branchial cavity. The anterior lip of 
this groove has a flat epithelium, while the posterior has a characteristic 
ciliated epithelium similar to that which invests the two external lips of 
the hypobranchial grooves. There are no traces of mucous cells in this 
circumcoronal ridge. 

The fourth chapter is devoted to the branchial cavity, which is first 
considered as an organ of respiration. It is in the form of an ovoid sac 
suspended in the peribranchial cavity, and its wall is pierced by 
thirteen to sixteen rows of stigmata, with about thirty stigmata in each 
row. The wall of the gill is of a very simple structure, and the blood 
passes through it in all directions ; there are no traces of vessels, or even 
of regular lacunse. True plates, which are really folds of the branchial 
wall, hang down into the branchial cavity ; the author calls them 
interserial plates, and describes them as hanging down freely into the 
branchial cavity, which they seem to divide into a series of secondary 
chambers. Attached to them are medio-dorsal " languettes," the free 
ends of which form a small platform which carries vibratile cilia on the 
medio-dorsal line. The transverse bands of fundamental tissue which 
separate the rows of stigmata are not merely connected with the internal 
tunic by vascular trabeculse, as in all other Ascidians, but they are 
directly fused with this tunic on either side of the hypobranchial 
groove for about a third of their extent. The peribranchial cavity 
becomes divided into a series of secondary cavities, all of which are 
open on the cloacal side and end by digitiform culs-de-sac on the side of 
the endostyle, where they penetrate into the tunic. In the interior of 
each of the interserial bands there is a pair of muscles which extend side 
by side through its whole extent. They are connected by numerous 
anastomoses with the longitudinal muscles of the internal tunic, with the 
fibres of which their fibres are continuous. The margin of the branchial 
clefts is invested in a very peculiar epithelium, which is called stigmatic ; 
the cells are greatly elongated in the direction of the long axis of the 
stigmata, and each of them has a projecting crest on its long axis ; this 
crest carries from fifteen to seventeen long vibratile cilia. These 
stigmatic cells are arranged in rows of sis, and the cells of the same 
row are of exactly the same length. 

The branchial cavity may also be considered as an organ of degluti- 
tion. The hypobranchial groove or endostyle extends all along the 
ventral surface of the branchia, forming a cul-de-sac at its anterior end ; 
the vibratile epithelium of its lips is continuous with that of the 
posterior lip of the pericoronal groove. Posteriorly it also ends 
blindly, and here the epithelium is continued as far as the oesophagus. 
The epithelium is succeeded by two glandular regions, the first of 
which contains only one glandular mass, while the second bas two ; 
the cells at the base of the groove carry very long vibratile flagella. 
The mucus secreted by the groove is not voided all along the ventral 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICEOSCOPY, ETC. 43 

raphe into the branchial cavity, but ascends towards the mantle to the 
pericoronal groove, where it forms a curtain which collects the nutrient 
particles and directs them towards the oesophagus. This arrangement 
is a proof of the homology of the endostyle with the thyroid gland of 
Cyclostomata and Selachians. The mediodorsal or interserial " lan- 
guettes " are simple expansions of the interserial plates, and their function 
is to direct towards the entrance of the oesophagus the cord of mucus 
which is formed at the level of the pericoronal circle. They are not 
mobile, and act only by their vibratile cilia. The posterior raphe or 
retropharyngeal band is formed by a projecting crest which lies in the 
prolongation of the right lip of the endostyle, and extends from the 
posterior cul-de-sac of the hypobranchial groove as far as the oesophagus. 
Its left surface only is invested by a vibratile epithelium, which is 
directly continuous with that of the two lips of the endostyle. 

The peribranchial cavity, which is the subject of the fifth chapter, is 
made up of a large undivided region situated in the mediodorsal line of 
the Ascidian, the cloacal cavity, and from thirteen to sixteen caecal 
prolongations, which surround the branchia except in the medioventral 
line, for they do not extend underneath the hypobranchial groove. The 
investing epithelium is flat, and identical with that of the epidermis and 
of the gill. The cloaca receives the blood which comes from the gill as 
well as the excreta and genital products of the organism; the anus opens 
by a wide space in its lower part, and the genital ducts open just 
opposite the anus. The cloacal siphon, which has the same structure 
as the buccal, is placed in the upper part of the cloaca ; it has, like it, 
transverse and longitudinal muscles, but the latter are not found in a 
dorsal appendage of the siphon, where they are represented by fibres 
given off from the transverse muscles. This fact is of some morpho- 
logical importance, for it tends to prove that the muscles which encircle 
the entire body of Doliolum, and which also give off prolongations to 
the anal appendage of these animals, are, in Ascidians, homologous not 
with the circular muscles of the body, but with the transverse muscles 
of the siphon. When ova are produced, the hinder part of the cloaca 
dilates considerably, so as to form an incubating pouch in which the 
eggs are developed. The observations of the author tend to confirm 
the statement of MM. Van Beneden and Julin as to the origin of the 
layers of the peribranchial cavity. In Fragaroides, as in simple 
Ascidians, the parietal layer of the peribranchial cavity has an ecto- 
dermic, and the visceral layer an endodermic origin. 

The digestive tube is described in the next chapter. It is placed 
altogether behind the branchial cavity, and is composed of oesophagus, 
stomach, and intestine; the last may be subdivided into duodenum, 
chylific ventricle, and rectum. The orifice of the oesophagus is elongated 
in such a way as to advance towards the posterior cul-de-sac of the 
endostyle ; the vibratile cilia of its epithelium are prolonged into the 
interior of the cell as far as the deep granular mass, and the protoplasm 
becomes thickened around the base of each cilium. The cilia and their 
prolongations are broken up into small dots, which are set in regular 
lines transversely as well as longitudinally. The stomach is cylindrical 
in form, and is marked by eighteen to twenty grooves, the centre of 
which alone communicates with the cavity of the stomach ; this is 
owing to the fact that both the oesophagus and the intestine project into 
the interior or the gastric cavity and foi'm a kind of valve. These 



44 SUMMAEY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

grooves must be looked upon as the homologues of tlie liver of more 
perfect Ascidians. The chylific ventricle is an ampullaeform dilatation 
of the digestive tube, which communicates with the terminal intestine 
by a cleft. The epithelium of the rectum is ciliated. The intestinal 
gland is composed of a series of ramified tubes, which form a kind of 
reticulum on the surface of the rectum ; they pass into a canal which 
opens into the stomach between the gastric lobes, and the product of their 
secretion aids in digestion. 

The seventh chapter is divided into two parts, the first of which deals 
with the nervous system properly so called, and the second with the 
hypoganglionic gland and the vibratile organ. The true nervous system 
consists of an interoscular ganglion, a ganglionated end which goes to the 
viscera, and of nerves. The first of these, or brain, is situated on the 
mediodorsal line, is ovoid in form, and gives rise, anteriorly, to a pair 
of nerves which go to the buccal siphon, then to two or three pairs of 
lateral nerves, and lastly, to a large posterior nerve which runs for some 
distance above the ganglionated cord, and which innervates the cloacal 
siphon. Histologically speaking, the brain is made up of a peripheral 
zone, which is formed solely by uni- or bipolar ganglionic cells arranged 
in two or three irregular concentric layers, and of a central fibrillar 
mass in which a few nuclei are scattered. The visceral or dorsal 
ganglionic cord arises from the posterior and inferior part of the 
cerebral ganglion, and is continued along the mediodorsal line between 
the epithelium of the gill and that of the cloaca, and between the rectum 
and the oesophagus as far as the region of the stomach. It is formed of 
ganglionic cells and some nervous fibrils ; there are never more than three 
or four ganglionic cells visible in one transverse section. This cord is 
surrounded by vast vascular spaces, and is accompanied along its whole 
length by two longitudinal muscles. The nerves are altogether fibrillar, 
and their fibres are continuous with the fibrillar substance of the brain. 
The posterior median is single owing to the fusion along part of their 
length of the two nerves which, in most other Ascidians, arise from the 
posterior region of the brain. 

The hypoganglionic gland is almost as large as the brain and lies 
beneath it ; it is provided with an excretory canal, which is connected 
with that of the enigmatic structure which is known as the vibratile 
organ. It is ovoid in form, and is composed of a number of cells with 
irregular contours ; these are most regular near the periphery of the 
gland. In its upper part there is an elongated cavity, the roof of which 
is formed by an epithelium of cubical cells ; this epithelium is that of the 
e:scretory canal of the gland. There are intermediate conditions between 
this gland reduced to a single cavity, and the compound tubular gland 
which is found in simple Ascidians. The excretory canal may be 
divided into three distinct regions ; in the anterior part it is complete, 
but this is very short ; in the median part it is reduced to a simple 
groove, while in the posterior region it is at first circular, but its cells 
are soon arranged without order, and we have at last nothing more than 
a mass of cells lying beneath the brain, and altogether similar to the 
ganglionic cells of the visceral cord. 

The vibratile organ forms a funnel which acts as the continuation of 
the excretory canal, and it opens by an oval orifice on the mediodorsal 
line of the animal, in the centre of a projecting tubercle, which extends 
as far as the base of the large mediodorsal tentacle. Its cells carry long 



lOOLOaY AND BOTANTj MICROSOOPYj ETC. 45 

flagella. The hypoganglionic gland is neither mucous nor renal in func- 
tion, and its true significance still remains to be discovered. As to the 
morphological character of the gland and of the vibratile organ, the 
author is inclined to think, with Eoule, that Julin is right in regarding 
them as homologous with the hypophysis of Vertebrates. Before com- 
mitting himself to this he would, however, like to see the organ in 
Amphioxus which is homologous with the hypophysis. 

The eighth chapter deals with the muscular system, which is exceed- 
ingly well developed in Fragaroides. The longitudinal muscles are all 
lateral, and are inserted into an epidermal projection, the cells of which 
are specially modified. There are twenty longitudinal muscles on either 
side of the body. The transverse muscles of the gill have a number of 
anastomoses with the longitudinal. Around the buccal and cloacal 
orifices there are circular muscles, and the anus is provided with a 
sphincter. Each muscular bundle is made up of homogeneous fibres, 
which bear no traces of transverse striation. The fibrils are separated 
from one another by a protoplasmic mass in which are nuclei, and the 
whole is invested by a sarcolemma. They are of a mesenchymatous 
nature, although the Ascidians are enterocoelic. 

The circulatory system or epicardiac organs form the subject of the 
ninth chapter. The epicardium is in the form of a w^ide median tube, 
and dorsally or ventrally to it there is a tubular prolongation of the 
pericardiac cavity. The heart, which is placed at the extremity of the 
post-abdomen, is curved and one of its horns is prolonged into the dorsal 
and the other into the ventral half of the post-abdomen. The membranes 
of the heart and of the investing pericardium are continuous with one 
another along a longitudinal cleft which lies on the convex surface of 
the heart. This cleft remains open and the cavity of the heart is in 
relation to the blood-lacunge, not only at either extremity of the organ, 
but along the whole length of the cardiac raphe. The epicardium bi- 
furcates posteriorly, and then ends blindly. Anteriorly it divides, at the 
plane of the stomach, into two tubes, the anterior ends of which are 
applied to the base of the branchial cavity. In the adult no orifices can 
be detected, but in young larvae there are distinct communications 
between these tubes and the branchial cavity. The wall of the heart is 
formed by a simple layer of epithelio-muscular cells, and there is no 
trace of an endocardium. The circulation of the blood is not effected by 
the aid of vessels, but through simple lacunte hollowed out in the con- 
nective tissue ; the blood is transparent and carries a large number of 
free mesodermic cells which retaia their primitive characters. The epi- 
cardiac plate plays a very important part in the circulation ; the sac is 
connected with the wall of the body, and forms a partition which divides 
the post-abdomen into a dorsal and a ventral half. The two blood- 
currents are thus completely separated from one another, and the! 
alternation of the beatings of the heart is of real use in distributing the 
oxygenated blood to the organs of the body. 

The final chapter contains an account of the reproductive organs^ 
Fragaroides is hermaphrodite, and the organs, ducts included, are closely 
connected with one another. The testis is made up of a very large 
number of lobes, each of which has an excretory ductule which opens 
into the vas deferens. In each lobe there is an epithelial layer of 
flattened cells, and an interior mass of rounded cells which become 
converted into spermatozoa. The ovary appears to begin to function 



46 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

at its hinder end, for there the largest ovules are found. The egg-cells 
are developed along two bands, so that there really seem to be two 
ovaries; this ^ is a somewhat, though not altogether, similar arrange- 
ment to that described in Clavelina rissoana by MM. Van Beneden and 
Julin. The ova are provided with follicular cells ; the author was not 
able to follow out the development of the cells of the testa, but he in- 
clines to Kowalevsky's opinion that they owe their origin to the folli- 
cular cells. 

Structure of Pyrosoma.* — M. L. Joliet, in a posthumous memoir on 
the structure and development of Pyrosoma giganteum, begins with a 
partial bibliographical account of previous researches, from that of Peron 
onwards. Then follows a diagnosis of the species :- — I. Pyrosomata 
verticillata — P. elegans ; II. Pyrosomata paniculata — P. giganteum and 
P. atlanticum. 

The anatomical portion is unfortunately incomplete ; the general 
features are described, and then the external structure and disposition of 
the component individuals, but after a brief note on the branchial sac 
this section comes to an end. 

The blastogenesis is then discussed. As to the origin of the bud, the 
author concludes as follows : — Between the extremity of the endostyle 
and the epidermis there is a mesodermic layer which is continuous 
beneath with the reproductive tissue ; the endostyle being prolonged 
approximates this layer to the epidermis ; at this point the layer acquires 
fresh cellular activity, and forms a continuous stratum of cells. In the 
area of activity thickenings are produced which become the neural canal 
and the peribranchial canals. As the bud grows, however, and rises 
from its base, it loses thickness and cellular structure, and gradually 
acquires the form of a delicate sac, including the scattered nuclei 
which are seen almost throughout the adult. The organs which it 
has produced — genital glands, neural and peribranchial canals, appear 
isolated from one another. 

The next section is devoted to a description of the stolon. The fact 
which rules the development of the bud is that its axis is not that of the 
stolon, but is perpendicular to it. The transformations are described, 
but must be followed on the plates. From the branchio-intestinal tube 
there are developed — the digestive canal, the branchial sac, and the 
inhalent orifice. Some details are added to the results of Huxley and 
Kowalewsky on this point. The "hyaline organ", the branchial sac, 
the " canal diapharyngien " which divides the latter into two chambers, 
the peribranchial pouches, the formation of the cloaca, are then described. 
An account of the heart and the respiratory apparatus completes the 
whole of the paper which the editor could regard as finally approved by 
the author. 

A final chapter, less finished but still valuable, describes the nervous 
system. The ciliated sac is described, and its homology with the 
"hypophysis" of Ascidians accepted and corroborated. It is main- 
tained that in Pyrosoma " gland and canal develope at the expense of the 
primitive vesicle, and the structure has thus quite a different origin from 
the hypophysis of Vertebrates which is produced by an invagination of 

* ' Etudes anatomiques et embryogeniques sur le Pyrosoma giganteum, suivies 
de recherches sur la faune de Bryozoaires de Koscoff et de MentoD,' Paris, 1888, 
112 pp. (5 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICEOSOOPY, ETC. 47 

the primitive buccal cavity." The author would extend this conclusion 
to other Tunicates, and criticizes the arguments of E. van Beneden and 
Julin. The ciliated sac is most probably an olfactory organ, as many 
authorities believe. Finally, the author has described the ganglion and 
the distribution of the nerves. Transverse sections of the ganglion 
exhibit two distinct layers : the outer composed of small rounded cells 
pressed together, the inner consisting of finely granular and amorphous 
substance. The nerves which spring from the ganglion are described in 
three groups — superior or anterior, lateral, and inferior or posterior. 

Alternation of Generations in Salpa and Pyrosoma.* — Dr. L, Joliet 
left among his xmpublished papers another contribution of interest. It 
discusses the alternation of generations in species of Salpa and Pyrosoma. 
The lamented author corroborated the observations of Kowalewsky and 
defended the old theory of Chamisso — of a true alternation of generations 
— against the objections of Brooks and Todaro. 

(1) The budding of Salpa is true budding, though complicated by 
the fact that the already differentiated organs take part in it, each on its 
own account. (2) The solitary form hitherto considered as asexual is 
rightly so called. It does not contain an ovary nor a hermaphrodite 
gland, but only the incipient rudiments of such a gland. (3) In the 
alternation of generations, proceeding by blastogenesis, the asexual form 
is produced sexually, and possesses a reproductive tissue, which may be 
only potential and undifferentiated, or quite recognizable and already 
differentiated. It is, however, unable to carry this on to complete 
development, and entrusts it for this purpose to another form, or to 
several successive forms produced by blastogenesis. Of these, the last 
at least is sexual. This formula may be applied to Salpa, Pyrosoma, 
other compound Ascidians, and to several hydroids. 

B. Bryozoa. 

Anatomy and Histology of Membranipora pilosa-f— Herr W. Freese 
commences his account of this Polyzoon with a description of its 
ectocyst, external appearances, and varieties, three of which are to be 
distinguished. The endocyst of adult animals merely forms a thin 
meshwork of protoplasmic filaments in which no cell-boundaries can be 
distinguished ; in stained pieces the small masses of protoplasm are 
seen to be almost completely formed by large, round, or smaller oval 
nuclei with distinct nucleoli ; the surrounded protoplasm is very small 
in quantity. The endocyst only exhibits a truly epithelial structure 
at the point where it extends over the rosette-plates ; as in Flustra 
memhranacea, there is an epithelium formed of cylindrical cells ; this 
is unilaminate, and forms a lens-like stopper. 

The so-called perigastric cavity or space between the ecto- and 
endocyst corresponds to the body-cavity of other animals ; the parietal 
muscles, which are found in it, consist of from three to ten fibres in each 
bundle ; the fibres are somewhat more delicate than those of the other 
free muscles, and stain less deeply. The author agrees with most of 
the recent histologists in refusing to ascribe, with F. Miiller, a nervous 
nature to the funiculi laterales and funicular plate ; and he agrees rather 
with Nitsche in thinking that the plate is an organ which serves to keep 

* Op. cit., pp. 97-102. t Arch. f. Naturgesch., xlv. (1888) pp. 1-72 (2 pis.). 



48 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES EELATIHG TO 

tlie enteric canal in a definite position relative to the zooecium, and 
that the cords serve to convey stimuli from one animal to another, as 
the walls of the zooecium are particularly thin at their points of 
insertion into the rosette-plates. In Memhranipora, as in Flustrd 
memhranacea, the funicular plate consists -of a plexus of spindle-shaped 
cells, of the same size as those of the cords. 

The tentacular sheath is, histologically, a lamella, in which no cell- 
boundaries can be made out, although distinct cell-nuclei are deposited 
in it. Although the fibrous cords on the sheath do not appear to 
contain any nuclei, there can be no doubt that they are muscular. The 
vaginal sphincter has a more complicated structure in Membranipora than 
in the forms described by Nitsche or Vigelius. It is half as long 
as the invaginated part of the ectocyst ; internally to the chitinous tube 
there is a layer of large cylindrical cells provided with distinct nuclei ; 
in the lower and inner side of the diaphragm formed by the cylindrical 
epithelium there is a layer of circular muscular fibres, and the author 
thinks that there are also a few longitudinal fibres. Nitsche was 
incorrect in supposing that the tentacular sheath passes directly into 
the substance of the sphincter. The tentacles and the circular canal 
consist of three layers of tissue — the outer epithelium, the homogeneous 
cylinder which corresponds to the muscular tunic of phylactolsematous 
Polyzoa, and the internal very loose investment of cells. The cylinder 
is the support of the whole tentacle ; on the side turned away from the 
mouth it is drawn into two ridge-like processes, which pass at their base 
into the homogeneous lamella of the circular canal ; from this canal a 
homogeneous membrane is continued to the enteric canal, of which it 
forms the outer, firm support. No distinct cells can be made out in the 
inner loose tissue, but scattered nuclei, surrounded by protoplasm, may 
be observed. Here Freese agrees with Salensky in thinking that the 
cavities of the tentacles and their circular canal represent a vascular 
system, although he has not been able to prove a connection between 
the circular canal and the body-cavity. 

In a number of points the structure of the enteric canal agrees with 
that of the Flustreeidse. 

Membranipora, like F. membranac^a, has an organ which appears to 
be the homologue of what is undoubtedly the nerve-centre in the 
Phylactolaemata ; it lies on the anal side of the circular canal, and has 
the form of a triaxial ellipsoid ; the outer membrane does not appear to 
consist of cells, as described by Yigelius in F. membranaceo-truncata, 
but is a cuticular secretion of the internal substance. On the whole the 
author's account agrees very closely with the anatomical descriptions of 
the chief writers on the structure of the Polyzoa. The paper concludes 
with an account of the species found in the Baltics 

y. Braohiopoda. 

Modified Ectoderm in Crania and Lingula.* — Miss A. Heath ha^ 
some observations on a tract of modified ectoderm in Crania anomala and 
Lingula anatina. This tract is found on the arms of Crania, over the 
whole of the sides of the tentacles and the fold which lie nest each 
other, and at the outer base of the fold. When specially modified the 
portion lies in a groove in the subepithelial tissue, and the epithelial 

* Proc. Biol. Soc. Liverpool, ii. (1888) pp. 95-lOi (3 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY^ MICROSCOPY, ETC. 49 

cells may be seen frequently to end below in long colourless tails or 
threads which are in connection with a mass of tissue lying below them, 
and on the outside of the epithelial tissue. This mass consists of stellate 
cells, the points of the stars being produced into long colourless threads, 
which are in some cases connected with the threads from the outer 
columnar cells. Owing to the greater size of Lingula the modified 
epithelium is there larger and easier of detection ; there are three regions 
of especially modified tissue on the arms. All these tracts probably 
correspond to the tracts of specialized tissue described as occurring in 
some articulate Brachiopods, and regarded as sense-organs. Their 
intimate connection with nerve-fibres and cells supports this view of 
their sensory nature. 

Arthropoda. 
o, Insecta, 

Observations on Ants, Bees, and Wasps.* — Sir John Lubbock has 
published the eleventh part of his observations. He is of opinion that, 
though there may be nests of Formica sanguinea without slaves, an 
experiment which he has made seems to indicate that the slaves perform 
some important functions in the economy of the nest, though it is not 
yet determined what that function exactly is. 

With regard to Ant-guests, he points out that Dr. Wasman has 
confirmed his observations, in opposition to Lespes, that, while ants are 
deadly enemies to those of other nests, even of the same species, the 
domestic animals may be transferred from one nest to another, and are 
not attacked. Attention is next drawn to Prof. Emery's observations on 
mimicry among ants. 

With regard to the colour- sense, Prof. Graber has confirmed Sir 
John's observations on Ants and Daphnias, by which he showed that they 
are sensitive to the ultra-violet rays, by similar observations on earth- 
worms, newts, &c. Light was found to act on decapitated earthworms, 
though the diiferences were not so marked ; the same held good for newts, 
when their eyes were covered over, and Graber hence concludes that the 
general surface of the skin is sensitive to light. Forel has made some 
observations on ants, the eyes of which were carefully covered by 
opaque varnish, so that they were rendered temporarily blind. 

From experiments made with Platyartlirus, which have no eyes, the 
author found that they made their way into the shaded portion of a 
partly covered nest, and he remarks that it is " easy to imagine that in 
unpigmented animals, whose skins are more or less semitransparent, 
the light might act directly on the nervous system, even though it 
could not produce anything which could be called vision." 

Sir John's experiments lead him to differ from M. Forel, who believes 
that bees have a certain sense of direction. The power of recognizing 
friends is discussed at some length, but the explanation of the fact still 
remains obscure. The most aged insect on record is a queen of Formica 
fusca which lived for fifteen years ; what is much more extraordinary is 
that she continued to lay fertile eggs ; fertilization took place in 1874 at 
the latest, and there has been no male in the nest since then, so that the 
spermatozoa of 1874 must have retained their life and energy for thirteen 
years. 

=f Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xx. (1888) pp. 118-36. 
1889. E 



50 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

The seeds of Melampyrum pratense are, as Liindstrom has recently 
pointed out, closely similar to the pupae of ants, and he has suggested 
that this may be an advantage to the plant by deceiving the ants, and 
thus inducing them to carry oflf and so disseminate the seeds. The 
author's own observations show that Formica fusca appears to take no 
notice of these seeds, but that, under certain circumstances, they are 
carried off by Lasius niger. 

The observations of Mr. and Mrs. Peckham on the special senses of 
wasps is referred to as containing conclusions which concur closely with 
those of Sir J. Lubbock. 

A connected account of the author's observations is given in a recent 
work, ' On the Senses, Instincts, and Intelligence of Animals, with special 
reference to Insects,'* which will be found useful as a handbook of the 
subject with which it deals. 

Termites.f — Prof. B. Grassi resumes the principal results of his 
observations on termites. (1) The nests of Calotermes contain indi- 
viduals perfectly winged from the middle of July to the middle of 
November. The winged members are scarce in July, more so in 
November, but abundant in August and September. It seems evident 
that they do not leave the nest all at once. (2) About the middle of 
March, he found a nest of two individuals, male and female, without 
wings, and along with a number of eggs. (3) King, queen, and eggs of 
Calotermites, are usually found, with nymphs and soldiers, in the middle 
of June, in a dilatation of a gallery. (4) In care for the eggs and in 
other ways, Termes lucifugus appears to occupy a higher level than 
Calotermes. Both are inferior to bees in recognition of strangers. 
(5) The galleries of the Calotermites afford indication of the length of 
life of the colony inhabiting them. (6) Grassi has not been able to 
distinguish among Calotermites, either the nymphs of the second kind, 
or Fritz Miiller's substitution queens. The characters of the in- 
dividuals observed are discussed in detail. (7) From November to the 
end of June, the nests of Termes lucifugus appear to be without king or 
queen, and without eggs. (8) Various cases of termite habitations are 
discussed. (9) Facts are given to show that the termites swarm after 
the manner of bees, and that they make great preparations for swarming. 
Other interesting notes are communicated, proving the patient zeal of 
the observer. 

Replacement of King and ftueen of Termites.f — Prof. B. Grassi 
has made some further observations on Termes lucifugus. He finds that 
a colony which has been deserted provides itself with a fresh royal pair 
by accelerating the maturation of the generative organs of a certain 
number of individuals which are capable of becoming winged imagines ; 
this is probably effected by means of special food ; the generative organs 
mature while the other important characteristics of the imago (espe- 
cially the wings) develope much more slowly or do not appear at all. In 
this way individuals with ripe generative organs, but wanting the other 
marks of the adult, are raised to the royal throne. The individuals 
selected are probably those which, at the time of desertion, have their 
generative organs beet developed. While the honey-bees have the 

* 8vo, London, 1888, 292 pp. (118 figs.). 

t Bull. Soc. Entom. Ital., xix. (1887) pp. 75-80. 

X Zool. Anzeig., xi. (1888) pp. 615-8. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 51 

power of stopping the development of these organs, the Termites are 
able to hasten their maturation. 

Poison - apparatus of Mosquito.* — Prof. G. Macloskie gives an 
account of the poison-apparatus of the Mosquito. There are two sets of 
glands, one on each side in the antero-inferior region of the prothorax ; 
each consists of three glands, two of which are of the usual aspect of 
salivary glands, and resemble in structure, though they are not propor- 
tionately as long as the single salivary glands of the house-fly. The 
third or central gland of each set is evenly granular and stains more 
deeply than the others ; it is this which, no doubt, has the function of 
secreting the poison. Each gland is traversed throughout by a fine 
ductule, and the three unite at the base to form a common duct, which 
is one of the branches of the veneno-salivary duct. The secretion of 
the lateral glands dilutes the poison. The single main duct passes to 
the reservoir at the base of the hypopharynx. The pressure on the sur- 
rounding parts is sufficient, when the mosquito inserts its piercing 
apparatus, to propel the poison through the tubular axis of the hypo- 
pharynx into the wound. The distal orifice of the hypopharynx is sub- 
apical and not exactly terminal ; the tip is flattened and sharp so as to 
enter easily and enlarge the wound made by the adjoining organs. 

S, Arachnlda. 

Anatomy of Hydrodroma.t— Dr. E. v. Schaub gives a detailed 
account of the anatomy of this Hydrachnid, one of the characters of 
which is the possession of a small highly chitinized dorsal shield under 
the skin between the eyes. 

The matrix of the chitin of the integument is a thin layer of homo- 
geneous tissue, which is broken by irregular lacunae; this matrix is 
also the seat of the pigment which is collected at nodal points, and 
contains distinct nuclei. The dorsal shield not only serves as the point 
of origin for a number of muscles, and especially those of the oral cone, 
but also as a protection for the subjacent sensory organs. The dermal 
glands, peculiar to the Hydrachnida, are, in Hydrodroma dispar, arranged 
in four longitudinal rows over the back ; their tunica propria is extremely 
thin, and is supported by a network of thin chitinized ridges ; the secre- 
tory cells are divided into two hemispherical groups ; they open by a 
cleft, which is surrounded by a strong chitinous wall. On the legs 
there are a number of very variously formed chitinous set^e, all of which 
have an internal canalicular cavity, which, with the exception of the 
swimming hairs, is indicated by a thin layer of red pigment. The 
author does not agree with Haller in his division of the hairs into 
tactile and olfactory organs, though he has no doubt of their general 
tactile sensibility. 

Like all other Hydrachnids, Hydrodroma has the basal joints of the 
pedipalpi fused to form a suctorial proboscis, which corresponds to the 
maxillae, and incloses the mandibles ; this apparatus is briefly described. 
Above it are a pair of oval orifices, which were first recognized by 
Kramer as the stigmata of the tracheal system ; they lead directly into 
a tube which is • 008 mm. thick, formed of colourless and homogeneous, 
but hard, chitin. The two tubes pass into air-reservoirs formed by tho 

* Amer. Natural., xxii. (1888) pp. 884-8. 

t SB. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, xcvii. (1888) pp. 98-154 (6 pis.). 

E 2 



52 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

basal joints of the manrlibles ; these'"''are strong /-shaped capsules, 
0'2 mm. long and 0-04 mm. broad, and widened out in saccular form in 
their middle. Some of the tracheae which pass into the body from the 
air-chamber pass out directly, while others are derived from a chief 
tracheal trunk which breaks up. No trace of spiral marking could be 
detected on the tracheae ; they are thin tubes (0-0015 mm.), and traverse 
the body without further division ; as they often form a close plexus 
around the organs, they may be considered to aid in keeping them in 
their place. It is probable that the setae at the ends of the appendages 
have some share in respiration. There is no heart, and there are no 
blood-vessels. In transparent species of Atax it is very easy to observe 
how the muscular activity in the movements of the legs has an influence 
on the circulation of the blood in them. 

The pharynx is a spindle-shaped tube, the wall of which is 
strengthened by chitin ; this forms discs which are set at right angles 
to the long axis, and continued into the interior, so that the whole 
internal cavity is broken up into nine divisions, each of which is filled 
by a bundle of strong circular muscles. A very thin canal traverses the 
axis of the whole tube ; and it is clear that it is by the alternate con- 
traction of the circular muscles in each division that the tube is narrowed 
and widened ; by these means the food is pumped into the oesophagus. 
The stomach appears to be very much like that of other Hydrachnids ; 
with regard to the rectum, however, the author is in opposition to 
Croneberg. 

The excretory organ is placed dorsally to the central cavity of the 
stomach, and, as it is partly covered by blind sacs, it lies in a complete 
groove. It is formed by a simple sac, the extent of which varies in 
different individuals. It passes into a cylindrical tube, which, like the 
rectum, is formed of longitudinal muscles, which are attached to the 
anal ring. The secreting cells are surrounded by a transparent homo- 
geneous tunica propria, and have the form of spherical vesicles of 
different sizes ; the secretion, which is always present in large quan- 
tities, appears to consist of a number of elongated or rounded corpuscles 
with concentric, highly refractive, bluish rings. 

The nerve-centre of Hydrodroma is like that of other Hydrachnida ; 
the few differences that obtain are carefully noted. The eyes appeared 
to deserve special study, and with them there were compared those of 
Atax, Diplodontus, and Eylais. In addition to the known two pairs of 
eyes, the author has found in Hydrodroma a fifth, unpaired, eye, which 
is very small, and is placed in the median depression of the dorsal 
shield. The minute structure of the eye is always on the same funda- 
mental type, and the differences are confined to the chitinized tegu- 
mentary part which is converted into the lens, and to the relative 
positions of the eyes. Those of either side are always unequal in size, 
and the larger is always more anterior and nearer the middle line. A 
single optic nerve is given off from the brain, and this divides into two, 
at a varying distance from its point of origin. The end of each optic 
nerve passes into a number of club-like structures, tyhich are united 
into a more or less conical cup, and correspond to the rod-cells. The 
chitinous lens is greatly thickened internally, and projects into the 
lumen of this cup. Each of the rods is invested in an extremely deli- 
cate envelope of connective tissue, below which are dark-violet pigment- 
corpuscles closely packed. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY. ETC. 53 

In connection with the eyes there is a specific dense organ in the 
form of a vesicle filled with rounded cells, containing a highly refractive 
nucleus of irregular form ; the nerve which supplies this organ does not 
arise directly from the brain, but from the optic nerve about midway 
between the eye and the nerve-centre. Hydrodroma dispar has four of 
these organs, which lie in the depressions at the four angles of the dorsal 
shield. The direct connection of this organ with the optic nerve leads 
to the supposition that we have here to do with the vestiges of eyes. 

After a short notice of the musculature, the author passes to the 
generative organs, as to which he has nothing essentially new to add 
to the descriptions given by Croneberg ; a somewhat detailed description 
is, however, given. 

€. Crustacea. 5 

Male Copulatory Organs on first Abdominal Appendage of some 
female Crayfishes.* — Herr D. Beyendal directs attention to some abnor- 
malities in the appendages of the first abdominal segment of female 
crayfishes. He has observed that these appendages vary much in form ; 
sometimes they were quite absent, some were spoon-shaped, and in a few 
they presented the characters of the male ; the last were otherwise quite 
normally constituted females. The male appearance does not, therefore, 
seem to be any indication of hermaphroditism, nor is it a sign of a return 
to an earlier hermaphrodite stage. We have, in fine, to do rather with 
a well-marked case of the variations which are exhibited by useless 
vestigial organs. The cause of the possession of male organs is to be 
sought for in the influence of inheritance from its male j)arent by the 
female. 

Indian AmpMpoda.f — Mr. G. M. Giles, continuing his notes on the 
voyage of H.M.S. ' Investigator,' calls attention to the fact that he has 
as yet found only two species of Amphipods previously known. Since 
his last publication Mr. Giles has found eleven new species. A blind 
Anonyx which appears to feed on drift, an Ampelisca, a Microdeutopus, 
and a Monoculodes are described. An interesting form, which the dis- 
coverer calls Goncholestes dentaUi g. et sp. n., was found forming a distinct 
tube within Dentalium shells. Next comes a careful description, with 
seven figures, of AmpMthoe indica Milne-Edwards. New species of 
Atylus, Urothoe, Caprella are recorded, diagnosed, and beautifully illus- 
trated. Another form, which belongs to the family Platyscelidae, will fit 
into no existing genus, and is named Elsia indica g. et sp. n. 

New Family of Commensal Copepods4 — M. E. Canu gives a note 
on the Hersiliidae, a new family of commensal Copepods, which must be 
regarded as distinct from the Siphonostomata and the Peltidiidfe. The 
body is completely segmented, and the first thoracic somite is united 
with the cephalic ring; the anterior antennae have seven joints, and are 
similar in the two sexes ; the posterior antennae are simple and have four 
joints. The mandibles have no palps nor any masticatory teeth ; at their 
distal extremity they are provided with mobile accessory seizing pieces, 
and flattened plates, the edge of which may be denticulated or carry 

* Bihang Handl. K. Svensk. Vet. Akad., xiv. (1888) iv. No. 3, 35 pp (1 pi ) 
and Oefvers. af Forhandl. K. Svensk. Vet. Akad., 1888, No. 5, pp. 343-6. 
t Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bang., Ivii. (1888) pp. 220-55 (7 pis.). 
X Comptes Eendus, evil. (1888) pp. 792-3. 



54 SUMMARY OF CURREKT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

setae. Tlie rudimentary maxillfe are divided into an internal masticatory 
lobe, and an external palpiform lobe. The paragnatbs are well developed 
and cover the mandibles. The maxillipeds are well developed, and the 
internal furnish important sexual differences. The thoracic appendages 
are biramose. 

The new genera are Giardella (G. calUanassse), which is very 
abundant in the galleries of Callianassa suhterranea, and Hersiliodes 
with three species ; H. Pelseneeri was found in the tube of a Clymenid, 
H. Thomsoni, on the abdominal appendages of Callianassa, and the 
Cyclops Piiffini of J. C. Thomson, found at Puffin Island. 

Two new Copepods parasitic on Echinoderms.* — Dr. A. EosoU 

gives descriptions of two new Copepods living parasitically on Antedon 
(or, as he calls it, Comatula mediterranea), and on Asterias glacialis ; 
both appear to be rare, as each has only been seen once. The parasite 
of the former is called Ascomyzon Comatulse ; the female was 1 mm. 
long and 1/2 mm. broad. For the second a new genus Astericola is 
established, and the species is called A. Clausii ; the inner branch of the 
fourth pair of feet is three-jointed and not two-jointed, as in Doridicola 
and Stellicola, and the bead and thorax are fused, whereas in the allied 
LicTiomolgus they are separate. The anterior antenna has, moreover, 
eight instead of six or seven joints. 

New Parasite of Amphiura.t — Under this title Mr. J. Walter Fewkes 
gives a brief account of a Copepod, which he does not name ; it makes 
its way into the brood-sacs of Amphiura, which it spays, the ovary being 
rendered amorphous ; the Copepod leaves packets of ova, the develop- 
ment of which is assured when the possibility of offspring in Amphiura 
Las been destroyed ; well-formed Nauplii were observed in the sac. 

Amcebocytes of Crustacea.| — Dr. G. Cattaneo describes the amoeboid 
cells in the blood of Astacus fluviatilis. (1) There are two principal 
forms — granular and hyaline. These are two stages of the same 
elements. (2) The granular cells are the more perfect and are 
functional ; the hyaline cells are retrogressive. (3) The protoplasmic 
spherules within the heart and pericardium are simply the debris of the 
vascular elements. They do not pass again into the general circulation, 
but are found in the hepatic arteries, and in the tissue of the yellow 
glands undergoing adipose degeneration. (4) The function of the 
amcBboid cells has no relation to hsematosis, which is effected by the 
hsemocyanin and tetronerythrin dissolved in the blood-plasma. They 
serve rather, by means of the ferment represented by the refractive 
granules, to convert into albumin capable of assimilation, the peptones 
and a portion of the detritus. Their action as phagocytes was also 
observed. (5) The variations of the amoeboid cells in diverse media and 
under reagents are described. An excess of water in the blood favours 
deformation and expansion of pseudopodia. Lowered temperature to 0° 
brings about plasmodia. Heightened temperature to 70° makes the cells 
diffluent. 

* SB. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, scvii. (1888) pp. 181-202 (2 pis.), ■ 

t Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xxiv. (1888) pp. 31-3. 

X Arch. Ital. Biol., x. (1888) pp. 266-72. Cf. this Journal, 1888, p. 949. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MIOEOSOOPY. ETC. 55 

Vermes. 
a. Annelida. 

Polychseta of Dinard.* — The Baron de Saint- Joseph continues his 
account of the j)olychaetous Annelids found off Dinard. The Aphro- 
ditinge often carry ectoparasites, thus Pedicellina belgica may be found 
under the elytra and on the back of Hermadion pelluddum, and Trichodina 
Auerhachii has been found on the elytron of Halosydna gelatinosa ; 
numerous other cases are cited. These same worms may also live an 
epizoic life, thus Mahigrenia castanea lives near the mouth of Spatangus 
purpureus, Hermadion assimile lives round that of Echinus esculentus, and 
Acholoe astericola lives in the ambulacra of various species of Astropecten. 
The Polynoids appear to be specially commensal on other annelids. 

The author's account of the various species differs considerably in 
length ; among those most fully treated are Halosydna gelatinosa, 
Harmothoe cceliaca sp. n. ; H. maxillospinosa sp. n., H. picta sp. n., and 
H. arenicolse sp. n., the last of these was found on an Arenicola marina. 

The EuniceidsB are next dealt with ; the members of this family are 
interesting from the differences between the young and old forms, due to 
successive modifications in the setse, jaws, number of eyes and cephalic 
appendages ; in consequence of this, great care must be taken in the 
definition and delimitation of species. Lumbriconereis labrofimhriata and 
L. paradoxa are new. The name of Labrorostratus is given to a new 
genus in which the head has no appendages and the uj^per jaw is rudi- 
mentary, and which is allied to Arabella. From its habit the species is 
called L. parasiticus ; it was found living in the body-cavity of Syllidians ; 
it is not known how it reaches this situation. It is remarkable for its 
comparatively large size, being as much as 8 mm. long. A somewhat 
similar case of endoparasitism is the Lumbriconereis found in MarpJiysa. 
The characters of Claparede's genus Drilonereis are modified, and a 
new species, D. macrocepliala, is described. The characters of Arabella 
are also emended, and Maclovia is regarded as a sub-genus. The 
same happens to Paractius. A remarkable new form, P. mutabilis, is 
described. 

Among the Lycoridinse Leptonereis Vaillanti sp. n. and its heteronereid 
forms are first described. The author does not agree with Claparede's 
view that only some of the species of Nereids have heteronereid forms ; 
of the thirty-eight of the latter, twenty are known to have nereid forms, 
and he does not think it unlikely that others will be discovered. 

The PhyllodocinsB are next discussed ; the genus PJiyllodoce is 
divided into the four sub-genera, Gensetyllis, PJiyllodoce (s. str.), Anaitis, 
and Carobia. 

PJiyllodoce (Carobia) splendens sp. n. is perhaps the most beautiful 
annelid found at Dinard. It has a yellowish brown head, the appendages 
of the head are yellow, and the cirri of a beautiful green, edged with 
yellow; the dorsal surface of the segments has a yellow background 
covered with a metallic azure with beautiful iridescence ; the lower 
surface is deep brown with thin longitudinal rays of blue. Another new 
species is P. (Carobia) rubiginosa. JEulalia Claparedii, E. splendens, E. 
ornata, E. trilineata, E. rubiginosa, E. fuscescens, E. venusta, and E. parva 
are new. Other new species are Etione incisa, and Mystides (^Meso- 
mystides) limbata. The last group treated of is that of the Hesioninte. 

* Aun. Sci. Nat., v. (1888) pp. 141-338 (8 pis.). 



56 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Central Nervous System of Lumbricus.* — Herr B. Friedlander Las 
investigated the minute structure of the central nervous system of the 
earthworm. As Faivre correctly stated, though he has been contradicted 
by Vignal, the short connectives between the closely applied ganglia of 
the ventral cord lie in front of the points of origin of the single nerves. 
In each ganglion there are a limited number of large, multipolar ganglion 
cells which are constant in position and have a peculiar chemical con- 
stitution ; they are probably comparable to the median cells described 
by Hermann in Hirudo and by Kiikenthal in Travisia. In each ganglion 
there are fibrous transverse bridges at the level of the point of origin of 
the nerves. With the exception of the first root of the double nerves, 
the lateral nerves have their fibres partly related to these transverse 
bridges; the first root of the double nerves has a more ventral, the 
second a more dorsal origin. There is in Lumhricus a median nerve 
running between the two chief cords of fibres. In each of these latter 
there are three groups of closely approximated, well-developed nerves ; 
in the ventral group there is a specially thick nerve-tube. Near this 
last there is a differentiated tissue similar to the fibrils of the brain. 

The sub-oesophageal ganglion is probably the product of the fusion 
of two ventral medullary ganglia. The investments of the neural canals 
are purely of the nature of connective tissue and are not to be compared 
to the myelin of the nerves of Vertebrates. They probably have, as a 
subsidiary function, the duty of preventing lesions of the ventral cord, 
on the contraction of the worm. The contents of the neural canals 
consist of processes of ganglionic cells which are probably fused with 
one another into a homogeneous mass. Tlie two lateral neural canals 
begin at the hinder end of the ventral cord in the form of processes of 
two ventrally placed ganglionic cells of special character, but not of 
unusual size ; in their further course they take up the processes of other 
ganglionic cells of similar character. Before their entrance into the 
neural canals the processes form complicated anastomoses with one 
another, as well as with the median canal. The nervous central sub- 
stance of the brain differs essentially from that of the ventral cord. The 
proximal ends of the anteriorly directed nerves have a deposit of 
numerous small ganglionic cells which form the lobes of the brain. In 
more posterior transverse sections a fine fibrillar dotted substance placed 
centrally and ventrally and ganglionic cells may be seen. In sections 
stained with carmine, scattered nuclei of connective tissue which indicate 
the presence of a neuroglia-like supporting substance, may also be made 
out. 

The ganglionic cells may be divided into several sets; the whole 
dorsal part of the brain consists of a cortical layer chiefly made up of 
ganglion-cells ; these are remarkable for the difficulty with which they 
can be preserved, and it was quite impossible to make out the number of 
their processes. Most of them are very small, but some are larger, pyri- 
form, and unipolar. There are, further, groups of large pyriform cells, 
and cells with extremely sharp contours, and very broad processes ; the 
latter form a dorsal and a ventral fibrous cord, which only unite into 
one a short distance in front of their entrance into the oesophageal com- 
missures. There appears to be here a complete crossing of the fibres. 

The nervous central substance or dotted substances of Leydig 

* Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Zool., xlvii. (1888) pp. 47-84 (2.pls.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY, ETC. 57 

consists of coiled fibrils which appear to take tlieir origin from the 
small ganglionic cells of the cortex of the brain ; the constituents of 
this differ in their chemical characters, for while the chief mass becomes 
a bright brown with osmic acid, there is a part which stains more 
deeply. 

Genital and Seg-mental Organs of Earthworm.* — Dr. G. Goehlich 
has reinvestigated the much studied genital and segmental organs of 
Lumhricus terrestris. The ovary is first described, and Claparede's 
account of oogenesis confirmed. The condition of the organ, and the 
absence of egg-laying in winter are noticed. The tube and the egg- 
receptacle are then discussed in detail ; when eggs are to pass into the 
oviduct the author believes that the muscles of the receptacle contract, 
the ciliary activity of the funnel stops, that in the oviduct begins, and 
the eggs are laid. The oviduct and the cocoon are then described without 
new result of importance. In regard to the spermatheca, the author 
notes that in the cold season, blood-corpuscles enter the reservoirs, as in 
Aulastomum, and devour the spermatozoa. In discussing the copulation, 
it is noted that the spermatophores never contain sperms belonging to 
either of the copulators, but belonging to a third worm which has 
formerly united with one of them. 

The testes, seminal vesicles, seminal funnels, and vasa deferentia 
are next described, but again the results are almost wholly corroboratory. 
The author believes that the expulsion of the spermatozoa is in part due 
to the ciliary action of the vas deferens. A careful account, with 
beautiful figures, is given of the various parts of the segmental organs. 
Some new histological details are communicated in regard to the ciliated 
funnels. 

Three new Species of Earthworms.f — Mr. F. E. Beddard describes 
three new species of earthworms, and takes the opportunity of discussing 
certain points in the morphology of the 01igocha3ta. 

Acanthodrilus annedens is a new species from New Zealand, which 
combines to a certain degree the characters of A. multiporus and A. 
novse-zealandise ; its vasa deferentia are remarkable for running deep 
within the longitudinal muscular layer, and unite just before their 
external orifice ; the atria open separately upon the seventeenth and 
nineteenth segments. 

Deinodrilus Benhami g. et sp. u., also from New Zealand, is remark- 
able for having, in each segment, six pairs of setse ; this arrangement is 
intermediate between that seen in Lumhricus, where there are four pairs, 
and the continuous row of numerous set^ found in Perichseta. It is 
interesting that there are other characters in which Deinodrilus is inter- 
mediate between Acanthodrilus and Perichseta. The atria have two 
pairs of apertures as in the former, and the clitellum is, as in Perichseta, 
found on segments 14-16. 

The dorsal vessel is a completely double tube ; there are six pairs 
of lateral hearts. The nephridial system is like that of Acanthodrilus 
multiporus. A. special coelomic sac incloses the dorsal blood-vessel. 

The third new species, Typhosus Gammii, is from Darjeeling ; as in 
T. orientalis there is no prostomium, and the mouth is, therefore, 

* Zool. BL4tr. (Schneider), ii. (1888) pp. 133-67 (2 pls.)^ 
t Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., xxix. (1888) pp. 101-31 (2 pis.). 



58 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

terminal ; the penial setse differ from tliose of T. orientalis by having 
wavy ridges round the distal portion, and there are only two genital 
papillae. 

The author discusses the structure and homologies of the so-called 
prostate glands in the Oligochfeta, and comes to the conclusion that the 
so-called prostates of Pericliaeta are equivalent to the atria of Acantho- 
drilus, Pontodrilus, and others; in Monoligaster BarwelU the atrium 
consists of a thick glandular covering of peritoneum, of a layer of 
muscular fibres, and of a single layer of columnar epithelium. 

Reproductive Organs of Eudrilus.* — Mr, F. E, Beddard has a 
further communication on this subject. He finds that a pair of 
problematic bodies in the thirteenth segment have their duct com- 
municating with the duct of the spermatheca. These bodies were 
regarded as being probably ovaries, and this view is supported by 
Eosa's description of a pair of similar structures which are placed 
in an identical situation in Teleiidrilus, and contain nearly mature 
ova, and by the author's discovery of numerous mature ova in these 
bodies in Eudrilus. But, while the tube by which the ovary in the 
thirteenth segment in Eudrilus communicates with the exterior is a 
real duct, lined by a single layer of columnar cells, the tube which 
leads from the ovary to the receptaculum in Teleudrilus is simply a 
ccslomic sac. Eudrilus appears to have another pair of ovaries in the 
fourteenth segment, and its oviduct, on either side, opens opposite to 
that of the thirteenth into the spermathecal duct. Each ovary is 
enveloped in a muscular sheath which is continuous with the oviduct, 
and this investing sheath is probably equivalent to the receptaculum 
ovorum of other earthworms. 

j3. Nemathelminthes, 

' Nematode in Blood of Dog-.f — Br, P. Sonsino has made a study of 
the life-history of Filaria hsematica (Gruby and Delafond) or F. immitis 
(Leidy), which is found in the blood of the dog. It occurs in the heart, 
pulmonary artery, subcutaneous tissue, intermuscular connective, &c. 
The young stages are passed in one of the epizoic parasites, whence the 
adolescent form returns to the dog. In this the history of Teenia 
cucumerina is paralleled. It is hardly just to regard Spiroptera or 
Filaria sanguinolenta as a true hsematozoic parasite. Besides F. immitis 
there may be in the dog other haematozoic nematodes, which like it 
propagate their embryos in the blood and have similar external inter- 
mediate hosts. The parasites may be acquired, according to Galeb and 
Pourquier, during foetal life from the mother. From the young dog 
thus infected from the first, the nematode embryos may pass secondarily 
to the epizoic parasites. 

The author then describes the rare nematode Bictularia plagiostoma, 
obtained from a new host, the fox. Like its previously known hosts, the 
bat and hedgehog, the fox was probably infected by eating insects. 
Both sexes are described. Embryos were seen within the eggs contained 
in the oviduct — the worm is " ovoviviparous." The peculiar chitinous 
appendages are carefully described, those of the male are more uniform 
than those of the female. Other species of Bictularia are discussed, 

* Zool. Auzeig., xi. (1888) pp. 643-6. f Arch. Ital. Biol., x. (1888) pp. 190-6. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY3 MICEOSCOPY, ETC. 59 

S. Incertse Sedis. 

"Notes on some Rotifera from the neighbourhood of Geneva."* — 
M. E. F. Weber describes four new species of Eotifers, viz. Limnias 
granulosus, CEcistes socialis, Rotifer trisecatus, aud Rotifer elongatus ; 
and discusses, also, several points in the structure of such well-known 
animals as Floscularia campanulata, Hydatina senta, &c., &c., which he 
thinks have been incorrectly described. There is also a full account, 
accompanied by several drawings, of Microcodon clavus. Both the de- 
scription and the figures of this rare Eotiferon will well repay study, 
though the latter (pi. xxxix. figs. 5 and 6) greatly exaggerate the slight 
curvature which the trochal disc has in the living animal, and the 
former is disfigured by faults that pervade the whole memoir; for 
these " Notes " are written throughout with an assumption of authority 
which is by no means warranted by M. Weber's observations, figures, or 
descriptions. 

Let us take, for example, M. Weber's new species CEcistes socialis. 
The head of this Eotiferon is said to consist of a large open funnel, 
bearing on its upper rim one circular ring of cilia, and having the 
animal's buccal orifice deep down at the bottom of the funnel. We have 
here, then, a Eotiferon whose corona is not only utterly unlike that of 
any known CEcistes, but is such as is not to be found in any genus of 
the Melicertidse. For every Melicertan has its ciliary wreath frincinof 
a solid, imperforate, and nearly flat fleshy disc — not a perforate funnel. 
It has, too, a double ciliary wreath — not a single one ; and its buccal 
orifice is asymmetrically situated, on the ventral surface, at the back of 
a flat trochal disc — not symmetrically situated at the bottom of a funnel- 
shaped one. 

But this is not all ; the trophi are said to consist of two rami with 
three teeth crossing each — that is to say, that CE. socialis has the mastax 
of a Philodine ; and, moreover, there is said to be only one ventral 
antenna, instead of the usual pair. From all this it is clear either that 
this new animal is not a Melicertan at all, or that it has been very 
imperfectly observed and described by M. Weber. 

Another new species, Limnias granulosus, presents us with almost 
as many perplexing characters. First, the side view of the head 
(pi. xxvii. fig. 1) is ludicrously incomprehensible, and must be seen to 
be appreciated. Next, fig. 2 in the same plate professes to be a dorsal 
view, but shows the two ventral antennae on the same side as the solitary 
dorsal one ; and the text distinctly states that the three antennae are all 
on the dorsal surface. But such an arrangement is not to be found in 
any other Melicertan : throughout the family the paired antennfe lie on 
the ventral surface, one on either side of the buccal orifice ; and the 
solitary antenna lies on the dorsal surface. Still, such is the endless 
variety of Nature, that we should have hesitated to have challenged a 
positive statement, like the above, were it not that in fig. 4 in the same 
plate the same three antenna are all placed side by side on a surface, 
which the drawing of the trochal disc shows to be the ventral one. A 
glance at figs. 2 and 4 will satisfy any one, familiar with Limnias, of 
the correctness of our statement. 

Again, in the figures (pi. xxx. figs. 1, 2) of the new species Rotifer 
trisecatus, we meet with a similar anomaly. In fig. 1 the spurs are 

* Arch, de Biol., viii. (1888) pp. 647-722 (11 pis.). 



60 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

rightly placed on the dorsal surface of the foot, but in fig. 2 they are 
palpably attached to the ventral surface. 

A similar confusion is to be seen in the drawing of the last new 
species, Botifer elongatus ; for in pi. xxxi. fig. 2 the dorsal antenna and 
the proboscis ("trompe") are actually drawn on opposing surfaces; the 
proboscis being placed on the ventral surface, beneath the buccal orifice. 

Space would fail us to point out the numerous errors contained in 
M. Weber's off-hand corrections of the observations of others; but two 
of these deserve notice. First, M. Weber states that the male Rotifera 
have no contractile vesicle (" cette vessie n'existe pas chez le male";) and 
that the lateral canals open directly outwards on each side of the penis. 
Now, nothing can excuse so gross an error. If M. Weber had ever 
examined a male Asplanchna (a common animal enough), he would have 
seen in it a contractile vesicle that no beginner could miss. He would 
have seen it contract, and he might have counted, even, the muscular 
threads to which the contraction is due. The very memoirs he quotes 
from, and of which he gives a list, ought to have preserved him from 
such a blunder ; were it not that M. Weber appears to have no doubt 
that, when an observer differs from him, the person in error cannot be 
himself. 

The following is an amusing instance of this curious belief in his 
own infallibility. M. Weber fails to find the contractile vesicle in the 
male of Hydatina senta, so he dismisses all the observers who have seen 
it by saying, " Cohn, Leydig, Daday, and Hudson have seen it with the 
eye of faith I " 

Again, when describing the trophi of BracMonus urceolaris, he chal- 
lenges the accuracy of Gosse's beautiful figure in his famous memoir 
" On the manducatory organs," and offers one of his own as more correct. 
It is well worth while to place these figures side by side ; and at the 
same time to look at M. Weber's figure of the trophi of Hydatina senta. 
The comparison will give a very fair measure both of M. Weber's 
capacity and of his own opinion of it. 

We have only space to notice one more extraordinary statement. 
M. Weber, when describing the rotatory organ of the Eotifera, says that 
it consists generally of two ciliary wreaths : one (for locomotion) which 
is always in movement ; and the other (for bringing nourishment to the 
mouth), which moves or not, according to the animal's pleasure. He 
further says that in the Ehizota this latter wreath "is usually very 
reduced, and forms a semicircle round the mouth." Can M. Weber ever 
have seen Melicerta ringens 9 and if he has, can he have failed to see 
that the secondary wreath, which brings food to the buccal orifice, is 
not a mere semicircle round the mouth ; but that it runs almost entirely 
round the trochal disc, parallel to the greater wreath, and of length 
quite equal to it ? Of course, these remarks apply equally well to a 
Limnias, CEcistes, Conochilus, Lacinularia or Megalotrocha ; yet M. Weber 
studies a new species both of CEcistes and Limnias, and misses altogether 
the real structure of their Ehizotic coronae. 

Parasitic Rotifer — Discopus Synaptse.* — Dr. C. Zelinka gives a 
detailed account of this parasitic rotifer, to the preliminary notice on 
which we have already called attention.f The following notes may be 

* Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Zool., xlvii. (1888) pp. 333-458 (5 pis.). 
t This Journal, 1888, p. 52. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 61 

added : — It lives on Synaptse in the English Channel and in the Adriatic. 

The animal, when extended, is from 0*25 to 0"15 mm. long. The 

2 
ciliated oral funnel has a circular fold ; the formula for the jaws is -^, and 

the teeth diverge. The wall of the mid-gut is thick and of an intense 
yellow colour, and the lumen of the gut makes therein a complicated 
loop ; the mid-gut is attached to the dorsal wall by two bands. At the 
anterior end there are two dorsal and one ventral gland (pancreas). 
The hind-gut is formed of a pyriform vesicular portion, and a rectum. 
Ciliated infundibula have been noticed in the neighbourhood of the 
pharynx and brain. The gonads are germ-yolk-glands, which lie close 
to the enteron ; a straight process passes backwards and downwards from 
their investing membrane. The foot is three-jointed, and the penulti- 
mate joint forms a sucker. A firm capsule is developed around the 
isolated glandular ducts. The author believes that Echinoderes stands 
nearer to the Kotatoria than to the Archiannelides. 

Echinodermata. 

Development of Calcareous Plates of Asterias.* — Mr. J. W. 
Fewkes has investigated the development of the skeleton of some 
American species of Asterias. He finds that the first plates to appear 
are the terminals ; these are simple, and form a protecting cap which 
shields the ambulacrals, interambulacrals and, possibly, marginals. The 
genital plates arise after the terminals ; the one which lies nearest to the 
madreporic opening does not always antedate in time or exceed in size 
the other genitals ; the madreporite is not formed till after the rudiments 
of the stone-canal. After the terminals and genitals there appears the 
dorso-ventral, which arises before any plates are developed on the 
actinal hemisome. The first set of body-plates are arranged in a circle, 
and radially, inside the genitals ; the second is also radial and lies inside 
the first or somatic radials. A third and inner circle appears before the 
interradial somatic plate. The first plate in the circle outside that of 
the genitals is the first dorsal of the arms ; this plate is the radial of 
Sladen ; when the arm of the young star-fish is broken from the body it 
always remains on the arm. The dorsals, or median row of plates on 
the dorsal surface of the arm, originate peripherally to the first dorsal, 
and are at first relatively very large. As the oldest dorso-laterals may 
not be the nearest to the body, it is clear that they do not appear in the 
same sequence as the dorsals. Marginal plates appear after the ambu- 
lacrals (adambulacrals). 

The first plates to be developed on the actinal hemisome are the oral 
ambulacrals ; at their first appearance there are already on the abactinal 
hemisome five terminals, five genitals, one dorso-central, and thirty 
spines on the terminals. The oral ambulacrals are at first set parallel 
to the radial culs-de-sao of the water-system, but subsequently become 
placed at right angles ; they are at first ten in number. The inter- 
brachial ends of the oral ambulacrals of adjacent radii (arms) grow 
towards each other, forming two parallel ends in each interradius, each 
of which bears two spines. The median end of each oral ambulacral 
bifurcates into a dorsal and a ventral part. All the other ambulacrals 
arise with their axes at right angles to the line of the radii ; they are 

* Bull. Mus. Oomp. Zool, Cambridge, U.S.A., svii. (1888) pp. 1-56 (5 pis.). 



62 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

formed near the middle line of the under side of the ray, and grow 
towards the peripheral end ; the first formed are the adoral, and these 
bifurcate in the neighbourhood of the median line. 

The first interbrachials, which are regarded by Mr. Fewlies as the 
odontophores, originate as heart-shaped, interradially placed calcifica- 
tions, five in number ; each is placed abactinally to the interbrachial 
ends of the oral ambulacrals. 

No ventral embryonic row of spines was observed in any species of 
Asterias which was studied. 

The author regards the genitals of Asterias as homologous with the 
" basals " of AmpMura ; the first interbrachial is homologous with the 
orals of Amphiura ; the madreporic opening is placed on homologically 
diiferent plates in Asterias and Amphiura. The interambulacrals of 
Asterias are the homologues of the laterals of Amphiura. The oral 
ambulacrals of the former are represented by the " spoon-shaped " plates 
of the latter. The first and second adambulacrals have no homologues 
in the mouth-parts of Asterias. The dorsolaterals and the connectives 
of the arms of Asterias were not recognized in Amphiura. There is some 
doubt as to the homologies of the marginals. 

Development of Synapta digitata.* — Dr. E. Semon has made a 
careful examination of the development of this Holothurian. Segmen- 
tation is remarkably equal. While in Echinids and Ophiurids the forma- 
tion of mesenchym precedes the invagination of the archenteron, in the 
Holothurians it succeeds it ; it is not possible to decide which of these 
two is the more archaic arrangement. The ciliated bands of the 
Auricularia-lavya are local thickenings of the ectoderm ; the other 
ectodermal cells simultaneously lose their flagellaj^and become flattened. 
The somewhat remarkable fact that the larvae of Asterids have two, and 
not, like other classes of Echinoderms, only one ciliated band, is ex- 
plained by the discovery of an adoral band, from which the second 
circlet is developed. It may be concluded that all bilateral echinoderm- 
larvse have two separate ciliated bands, one adoral and one postoral ; and 
there is no essential difference between the larvae of Asterids and those 
of other classes; the characters of the larvae are discussed at some 
length. 

Flattened mesenchym-cells form a simple and not completely con- 
tinuous layer beneath the epidermal investment, and form a half-groove- 
like sheath to the ciliated bands and the stripes of the lateral surfaces, 
as well as an investment for the stomach and rectum. These cells are 
very much flattened, and are thereby distinguished from the other mesen- 
chym-cells. The larva has, at an early stage, an extremely thin 
epidermis, which is formed by the ectodermal cells which were at first 
ciliated, and a unilaminate cutis which is formed of mesenchym-cells. 
There is no doubt that the two bands discovered by Metschnikoff are the 
nervous system of the larva ; this is shown, not only by the whole struc- 
ture of the organ, but by the fact that, later on, the bands pass into the 
permanent nervous system of Synapta. 

When the larva enters the Auricularia-stage the rudiment of the 
hydroenterocoel is a simple elongated vesicle, which opens to the exterior 
by the dorsal pore. At first it lies in about the median plane of the 
larva, and later on it passes to the left side. Jt next divides into two 

* Jenaisch. Zeitschr., f. Naturwiss., xxii. (1888) pp. 175-S09 (7 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 63 

vesicles ; the superior of these is the hydrocoel, the inferior the entero- 
coel. The latter becomes a band-like body, which gives rise to the two 
sacs of the ccelom. The fine canal which puts the interior of the 
hydrocoel-vesicle into connection with the outer world by means of the 
dorsal pore is the primary stone-canal of Holothurians ; this canal lies 
interradially to the five primary tentacles ; while these primary tentacles 
are, in all Echinoderms, radial in position, the secondary outgrowths of 
Holothurians are interradial. 

The elements of the mesenchym do not only form a subcuticular 
layer, but they give rise to unilaminate investments for the enteron, 
ciliated bands, and nerve-bands, to stellate cells in the gelatinous sub- 
stance, to the muscular elements, and, lastly, are the seat of origin of 
the calcareous deposits. Physiologically the calcareous concretions 
appear to be of importance for the larva, as they make the lower part of 
the body heavier than the upper, so that the animal always moves in 
water with the lower end more or less directed downwards. The 
rudiments of the calcareous ring appear while the rosette-like rudiment 
of the water-vascular system lies freely in the gelatinous substance to 
the left of the fore-gut. These are, at first, merely fine delicate rods, 
which occupy an interradial position. 

In the passage of the Auricularia to the tun-shaped form the most 
remarkable phenomenon is the hitherto unnoticed diminution in the 
length of the various axes ; while a fully developed Auricularia has a 
long diameter of 1 • 4:-to 1 • 7 mm., the larva in the pupal stage and the 
quite young Synapta (^Pentadula) is only from • 4 to 0*5 mm. long. 

With this diminution in size there is a loss of transparency, owing 
to the closer approximation of the mesenchym-cells. 

The tun-shaped larva with ciliated bands, its conversion into the 
young Synapta, the young and adult Synapta, are described at a length 
greater than that which we can follow. 

In the second half of his memoir Dr. Semon deals with the phylogeny 
of the Echinodermata. He commences by raising the question of the 
position of the Synaptidse among the Holothurioidea ; as to this, he 
concludes that there are no facts of structure and development which 
justify us in supposing that the simple organization of the Synaptidae is 
due to reduction from the more complicated organization of the pedate 
Holothurians. Secondly, as to the relation of the Holothurians to 
other classes of the Echinodermata. The former are all distinguished 
by the fundamental peculiarity that their body water-vessels lie ad- 
radially and not radially, for these vessels arise from the secondary 
interradial evaginations of the water-tube. In all other Echinoderms 
the madreporic plate lies interradially to the rays of the primary 
tentacles ; it is perradial in Holothurians, on the supposition that the 
secondary evaginations are the homologues of the primary tentacles of 
other Echinoderms. But this is a viev we can hardly accept, and we 
must rather suppose that the primary tentacles of Holothurians are 
comparable to the primary tentacles of other Echinoderms, and that the 
secondary evaginations are special formations, Goette alone has per- 
ceived that the body ambulacra of Holothurians correspond to the 
interradii of the star-fish. If this view of homologous parts be true, it 
follows that it is quite impossible to suppose that the Holothurians were 
developed from echinoid-like forms, and we must rather suppose that 
the two groups separated before a water-vascular system was developed, 



64 SUMMARY or OUKRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

or, in other words, at a time when the hydrocoel consisted only of a 
circular canal and five primary tentacles. All difficulties are evaded if 
we suppose that divergence arose from an earlier and simpler stage of 
development, and one which is retained in the young Echinus and, with 
slight modifications, in the young Synapta ; this will be again found in 
the ontogeny of other classes of Echinoderms. The primitive form 
may be called the Pentactula. 

This phase of development is characterized by the fact that the 
dipleural larva has begun to confuse bilateral with radial symmetry by 
the development of the five primary tentacles. At first the radial 
symmetry afi'ects only one system of organs — the water-vascular 
— but the nervous system is soon likewise afiected; the bilaterally 
symmetrical larva may be called the Bipleurula. It may be said that 
all Echinoderms, save where their development has been cenogenetically 
shortened, pass through two larval stages, one bilaterally symmetrical 
and one bilateral and radial. It is especially during the latter that the 
internal and external resemblance between the larvae of different classes 
is considerable. 

The Pentactula may be regarded as a creature whose anterior pole is 
marked by the mouth-opening. Around the mouth are five tentacles, 
formed as outgrowths of the water-vascular ring which surrounds the 
pharynx. Over these outgrowths the outer skin forms a thickened 
sensory epithelium. From the ring a canal leads to the surface of the 
body, and this canal, the primary stone-canal, opens by the dorsal pore 
freely to the exterior ; as this pore is always found on the dorsal side in 
the bilateral early stages of Echinoderm-larvge, it is called the dorsal 
pore. In front of the water-vascular ring there is a nervous ring which 
surrounds the pharynx ; it gives off five nerves to the primary tentacles, 
on the inner side of which the nerves lie. The nerves as well as the 
nerve-ring, whose derivates they are, lie superficially in the ectoderm, 
from which they are derived. The enteric canal consists of oesophagus, 
mid-gut, and hind-gut ; the anus lies on the ventral side, and may 
approximate to or remove itself aw^ay from the mouth, so that, in 
extreme cases, it comes to lie within the circlet of primary tentacles or 
at the hinder end of the body. Between the gut and the body-wall 
there is a wide body-cavity, formed from symmetrical enteric sacs ; there 
is a dorsal mesentery which gives a distinct sign of the bilaterally 
symmetrical origin of the coelom. The primary stone-canal arises from 
the circular canal between the points of insertion of two primary 
tentacles ; this character gives a plane of symmetry for the Pentactula, 
and passes through the dorsal mesentery, dividing the gut in the median 
line and that tentacle which may be called the ventral tentacle. 

This larval form exhibits no characters which can be regarded as 
cenogenetic, and if we suppose that the stem-form of the Echinodermata 
was a creature which, in external form and internal organization, had 
great resemblance to it, we may derive all the classes of the Echino- 
dermata from a form which may be called Pentactsea. Dr. Semon 
thinks that a derivation of this kind agrees with the facts of comparative 
Anatomy, and offers the key to some unsolved problems. 

When we come to consider the divergencies which obtain among the 
various classes, we see that one group — the Holothurians — have retained 
essentially the relation of the body to the primary tentacles which we 
saw in the stem-form ; as this tentacular system has remained as essentially 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. MICROSCOPY. ETC. 



65 



an outgrowth of the water-vascular ring with a tegumentary investment, 
the group may be called that of the Angiochirota. In the second group — 
that of the Echinoids — the region distinguished by the possession of 
the primary tentacles has disappeared altogether, and it may, therefore, 
be called that of the Achirota. In the third type, which is represented 
by Asteroids, Ophiuroids, and Crinoids, we see important systems of 
organs drawn into the tentacular region, which thereby gradually 
acquires greater significance and independence ; this group it is proposed 
to call that ol the Coelomachirota. 

The relations of these forms may be indicated by the following 
diagram : — 



Ophiurqidea 



Aster oidea 



Crinoidea 



Echinoidea 

Holothurioidea 




Pent actffia 

I (Stem-form) 



The true homologies of the organs of different classes can only be 
established by reference to the organization of the stem-form. Many of 
what have been hitherto regarded as homologies are clearly analogies, 
due to the fact that most of the structures compared are arranged in 
fives, and to the inheritance from the stem-form of certain peculiarities, 
such as the structure of the skeletal elements, and the tendency of the 
mesenchym to form clefts. 

It cannot be doubted that the Echinoderms are derived from bilateral 
creatures with an enteroccel ; it cannot be yet decided whether the 
hydroccel is a derivate of a primitive excretory system of the bilateral 
ancestors. There are good reasons for supposing that the conversion of 
the bilateral into the radial structure was due to a fixed habit of 
life. With regard to the corm-theory of the organization of certain 
Asterids, it is urged that such colonies could not have arisen by budding, 
but by certain organs (tentacles) acquiring greater independence. This 
independence, which is to be regarded as a consequence of continued 

1889. r 



66 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

decentralization, leads in the most extreme cases to an obliteration of the 
sharp limits between organ and person. 

As to the relations of the Echinodermata to other divisions of the 
Animal Kingdom, it is certain that in some points they have distinct 
relations to other Enterocoelia, and especially to Balanoglossus and the 
Chordata, but as to these so little is yet certainly known that it is better 
to refrain from any further speculation. 

OpMopteron elegans.* — Prof. H. Ludwig gives an account of a 
remarkable new genus of Ophiurids, the type of which appears to be 
natatory. A single example was found at Amboina by Dr. Brock. It 
is most remarkable for having on each arm-joint a pair of large fins. 

The disc has a transverse diameter of 6 mm., and each arm is about 
36 mm. long ; the latter with the fins are at their base 5 • 5 mm. broad, 
and without the fins hardly 1 ■ 5 mm. The lateral Aields form a high 
ridge or plate on either side of the arm. The arm-spines are transparent, 
and form hooks, thorned spines, or supports for the fi.ns ; in the com- 
position of these last two spines enter. They are articulated by a 
thickened base, and suddenly taper to a thin rod, which gradually 
becomes thinner ; they do not, as a rule, end in a simple tip, but fork 
in such a way that the two branches of the fork lie close to one another. 
The fins are formed by a thin transparent membrane, in which we may 
distinguish an inner margin attached to the ridge of the lateral shield, 
a free anterior edge directed towards the tip of the arm, a free outer 
edge, and a free hinder edge directed towards the base of the arm. 
The direction taken by the line of insertion of the fin is such that the 
anterior edge arises on the ventral and the hinder edge on the dorsal 
side of the arm. The successive fins lie over one another like the tiles 
of a roof ; the anterior and posterior margins are not directly supported 
by the rod, but by a delicate fringe of the fin-membrane which extends 
along the spines. 

No less remarkable than the fins are the peculiar structures formed 
by the dorsal spines of the disc. These give rise to a number of fine 
and ordinarily six-sided funnels ; each of these consists of a short, thick 
spine, which, at its outer edge, is continuous with six fine spines, so con- 
nected with one another as to form a funnel, the delicate membranous 
wall of which is supported by the six fine spines. The funnels are 
wanting on the soft, thin, transparent ventral membrane of the disc. 
The peristome has the general characteristics of OjoMothrix and Ophio- 
gymna, and with the former of these the new genus seems to be most 
closely allied. The structure of the fins may remind us of the mem- 
brane which connects the adambulacral spines in the Pterasterid^. 

Ophiurid Fauna of Indian Archipelago. f — Herr J. Brock collected 
sixty species of Ophiurids during a year's voyage in the Indian Archi- 
pelago, a number of which, in addition to the OpMopteron described by 
Prof. Ludwig, are new. The new genera are OpMoeethiops and Ophio- 
sphsera, and a new genus Liltkenia is instituted for a species from 
Cape York, and Ophiothela HoldswortM E. A. Smith forms the type of 
Gymnolophus : all these are regarded as allied to OpMothrix, and the 
distinguishing characters are pointed out. A table is given showing the 
points of all the Ophiothrix-like genera. 

* Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Zool., xlvii. (1888) pp. 459-64 (1 pi.). 
t T. c, pp. 465-539. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 67 

It is pointed out that the Indo-Pacific littoral fauna is essentially a 
fauna of coral reefs, and that the southern extremity of Africa does not 
belong to it, A list is given of the species of Ophiurids known to 
inhabit this region, which contains 132 names, or about 40 per cent, of 
the known littoral fauna of Ophiurids. 

Holothurians of Indian Archipelago.*— Prof. H. Ludwig has a 
report on the forty-one species of Holothurians collected by Dr. Brock 
in the Indian Archipelago ; of these five, Holothuria sluiteri, H. pijxoides, 
H. oUvacea, Phyllophorus brocM, Ghirodota amboinensis, are new. 

New EcMnoconid.t — Prof. S. Loven gives a full account of the form 
which, some years ago, he called Pygaster relictus. The single dried 
specimen is very small, being only 3-5 mm. long and 3-41 mm. broad ; 
the calycinal system is, unfortunately, lost. It agrees with Pygaster, 
Pileus, and Holectypus in having the auricles of each ambulacrum 
directed longitudinally in relation to the ambulacrum, and separate. 
There is, as the author shows, a somewhat different arrangement in 
Discoidea and Gahrites. Prof. Loven does not think that the specimen, 
though small, is young, for the test is rather thick, and the tubercles, 
the epistromal protuberances, and the depressed ambulacra are adult 
rather than young characters. It may be called Pygastrides relictus, 
and be defined thus : the periproct is dorsal and posterior, the ambu- 
lacral plates are all simple, the first wide with single pores, the auricles 
longitudinal and separate ; the zones of pores are simple and straight. 
Sphseridia single. Interradial plates of peristome single, wide. The 
tubercles perforated, crenulate, the primary rather large. Epistrome 
luxuriant. It was taken near the Virgin Islands, at a depth of from 
200 to 300 fathoms. 

Coelenterata. 

Coelenterata of the Southern Seas.J — In his seventh communication 
under this title. Dr. E, von Lendenfeld deals with the Ehizostomata. 
He regards these jelly-fish as representing a suborder of the Scypho- 
medusae, distinguished by the absence of tentacles, and the peculiar 
development of the mouth-arms ; he attaches less importance than do 
most authors to the absence of an oral orifice, for not only have young 
Ehizostomata a mouth, but in his genus PseudorMza the mouth is 
retained throughout life. To the eight families recognized by Claus he 
adds a ninth, that of the Chaunostomid^e, and he somewhat modifies the 
characters of the Lychnorhizidse with which he places Phyllorhka. 
The distribution of the twelve species found in Australian wat rs is, 
curiously enough, very restricted. The cause of the separation of the 
species is to be found in the currents, of which an account is given. Of 
the seventy-one known species of the suborder, forty-two are found in 
the southern hemisphere. 

PseudorMza aurosa, which is found in Port Phillip, is 500 mm. in 
height, and the disc is 350 mm. in transverse diameter. The arms are 
S-shaped, and have attached to their sides pinnate cylindrical branches 
about 50 mm. long. The whole arm has the appearance of a much 
branched groove open below, with a serriform contour to its edges. On 

* Zool. Jabrb., iii. (1888) pp. 805-20 (1 pL). 

t Bihang. Kongl. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Handl., xiii. (1888) No. 10, 16 pp. (2 pis.") 

t Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Zool., xlii. (1888) pp. 200-324 (10 pis.). 

F 2 



68 SUMMARY OF CUERENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the thin margin of the disc there are eight marginal bodies ; the surface 
of the disc has a network of rather deep grooves. The arm grooves unite 
by pairs into four short perradial grooves which lead to the four-sided 
mouth, which is 12 mm. broad. Thence a short oesophagus extends 
through the arm disc, and divides into four branches which enter the 
four divisions of the arm, where they are very small and oval in trans- 
verse section. They open into a large central gastric cavity, which is 
only from 3-5 mm. high. Sixteen vessels arise from the central stomach, 
and all open into the circular canal which is distant 135 mm. from the 
central point of the Medusa. From this canal blind canals pass towards 
the centre. The zone outside the circular canal is occupied by a close 
vascular plexus, which is traversed by continuations of the perradial and 
interradial canals. 

The subumbrella is provided with circular folds which act as brood- 
spaces and are generally filled with embryos. 

The mesogloea is colourless ; on the outer surface of the disc there 
are numerous round papillae, separated from one another by deep grooves 
which are invested by violet epithelium. These grooves form a network 
which extends over the surface of the disc, and gives it its violet colour. 

The author is inclined to think that Haacke's Monorhiza is synony- 
mous with his genus ; he forms for it the new family Chaunostomidae 
which he places between the Cassiopeidse and the Cepheidse. 

A full account is given of Phyllorhiza punctata from Port Jackson ; 
it appears to be most nearly allied to Toxoclytus and Lychnorliiza, but it 
differs in the possession of a continuous subgenital space, a character to 
which Dr. von Lendenfeld attaches less systematic importance then does 
Haeckel. Some additions are made to our knowledge of Cramhessa mosaica, 
corrections of several of Haeckel's characters being made. This species 
is remarkable for having two varieties, one blue, one brown ; the former 
is found in Port Phillip, and the latter in Port Jackson. Numerous as 
individuals are in both these localities, the author never found a brown 
example at Port Phillip, or a blue one in Port Jackson. 

In an account of the structure of the three just mentioned species, 
and of the Rhizostomata in general, the disc and locomotor apparatus was 
first considered. The disc differs in structure from that of other Medusae 
only by always wanting tentacles, and generally having no mouth on the 
under surface. All the species have large discs, and these are often 
brightly coloured. In the epithelium of the exumbrella we find several 
layers of high cells ; in the region of the marginal bodies, and especially 
in the dorsal sensory pits, there is a specially differentiated sensory 
epithelium. The epithelium consists of an outer layer, composed of 
supporting cells, goblet, sensory, and stinging cells, and of a subepithe- 
lium, which is best developed in the projecting parts, and consists of 
young cnidoblasts, ganglion-cells, indifferent (?) cells, and, in Gassiopea 
polypoides, of muscle-cells. These are all separately described ; the 
sensory cells are delicate spindle-shaped elements from the upper free 
end of which a rather long conical tactile seta projects ; at the base is a 
multiramified stalk. Osmic acid gives rise to the appearance of granules 
similar to those seen by Jickeli in the sensory cells of Hydroids. The 
subepithelium of the exumbrella contains fibrils which have a tangential 
course, and which may possibly be nerves. 

The mesogloea is solid, and consists of a structureless ground-mass in 
which fibres and cells of various kinds are found. There can be no 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC, 69 

doubt tliat the gelatinous material of the medusa-disc cons'sts of a net- 
work of organized substance, in the meshes of which sea- water is retained 
by adhesion ; the fibres which traverse it are either smooth or granular. 
Of the cells, the most common are rounded bodies which, with Hamann, 
the author calls colloblasts, as they appear to form the mesogloea which 
they excrete in concentric layers on their surface. As Glaus and 
Hertwig have shown, these cells arise from the endoderm of the upper 
surface of the stomach, whence they wander into the mesogloea ; they 
increase by division, and appear to take in nourishment which is diffused 
through the substance of the jelly. Of other cells there are bi-, tri-, or 
multipolar bodies which are distributed more irregularly than the collo- 
blasts, and they all appear to be in connection with one another. There 
are also amoeboid wandering cells, and quite irregular cells, which the 
author is inclined to regard as being poison-glands ; the latter have only 
been observed in Phyllorhiza punctata. 

In the marginal sensory organs we may distinguish the marginal 
body itself; the ephyral lobe on either side of this body; the covering 
plate ; the pads on the surface of the lobes which is turned towards the 
marginal body ; the projecting end of the radial canal below the marginal 
body ; the sensory pit behind and above the body, and the gelatinous 
vpall which separates the sensory pit from the pouch of the marginal 
body. All these are dealt with by the author in considerable detail. 

The subumbrella carries the reproductive organs; the female, and 
generally also the male organs are found in the mouth-arms ; the 
greater part of the subumbrella is occupied by the muscle of the disc, 
which, by its rhythmical contractions, effects the locomotion of the 
Medusa. Smooth and transversely striped muscle-cells may be dis- 
tinguished, the latter being best and most numerously developed. The 
marginal bodies and their surroundings form a complex of sensory 
organs, which perceive the waves of sound and light, and such changes 
as take place in the chemical quality of the water. The stimuli are 
conveyed to the ganglion-cells, which lie behind the marginal body and 
in front of the seusory pit. From this central organ locomotor stimuli 
start, which pass to the nerves which lie in the subepithelium. These 
extend centripetally along the radial canals, and from the radial nerve 
numerous circular nerves are given off which follow the margins of the 
primary folds of the muscle-plate, and innervate the ganglionic cells 
which lie above the true muscle-plate. Thence other fine nerves pass 
off which spread out in the muscle-plate and are directly connected with 
the muscle-corpuscles. The nerves anastomose frequently, and so form 
a plexus which invests the whole of the lower side of the disc. The 
muscle has a flexor function, while the hard and very elastic supports of 
the muscles have an antagonizing action, and serve as extensors. 

The gastro-vascular system and the mouth-arms are next described. 
There can be no doubt that, in the Ehizostomata, digestion is principally 
effected in the distal parts of the whole gastro-vascuiar apparatus ; 
thence the prepared food passes by the arm-canals into the central 
stomach, whence it makes its way by the vessels of the disc into the 
important organs on the edge of the disc and in the subumbrella. The 
author considers that the vascular system of the disc is chiefly an 
apparatus for transport and assimilation, which is, perhaps, comparable 
to the blood-vdscular system of the Ccelomata, from a physiological 
point of view. There are, apparently, no special renal cells, and the 



70 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

excretion of nitrogenous excreta seems to be effected by certain cells of 
the vascular plexus. 

In conclusion, the genital organs are described ; in all the three 
forms examined by the author, their structure was the same. In each 
interradius there is a very large broad zone, concave outwards, in which 
the subumbrellar gastric wall is particularly thin. These thin parts 
grow so rapidly that they give rise to a large number of folds. On this 
folded membrane there is a broad band in which the egg-cells are 
formed and matured ; this band consists of three layers — a rather high 
endodermal cylinder-epithelium, mesoglcea, and a low endodermal 
pavement-epithelium. The young cells have neither membrane nor 
follicle, though both appear later on. The male organs of Cramhessa 
mosaica and Phyllorhiza punctata only differ from the female in that 
sperm-sacs are developed in the place of eggs. 

Two new Types of Actiniaria.* — Dr. G. Herbert Fowler describes 
two new Actiniarians found by the ' Challenger ' at Papeete. One, 
which is called Thaumactis medusoides, is flattened and almost medusi- 
form in shape, and is, perhaps, a free-swimming form ; as it is biconvex 
it has no true body-wall, but the animal is divisible into oral and aboral 
surfaces ; the former is beset by what the author calls pseudotentacles, 
since they cannot be regarded as homologous with true tentacles in 
number, position, or structure. In an expanded specimen fourteen true 
tentacles surround the stomodseum. The pseudotentacles each arise as 
a simple hollow outgrowth from the coelenteron ; the bud extends 
laterally over the surface into three or four " roots," and is continued 
upwards as a free, finger-like process ; the ectoderm on the apices of the 
roots is generally well supplied with nematocysts, but no nematocysts 
are found on the finger-like process ; these false tentacles have no rela- 
tion to the mesenterial chambers, either in number or position. No 
siphonoglyph could be recognized in the stomodseum. The musculature 
of the general wall of the body is slightly developed, and consists of an 
endodermal circular and an ectodermal longitudinal layer. Of the 
twenty-one pairs of mesenteries found in the largest polyp, only one 
pair are directive ; six are primary, and six secondary ; for the most 
part the free edge bears the normal form of filament. 

The non-fixation and persistent biconvex shape of the polyp appears 
to indicate a condition more or less ancestral, while, in the opinion of 
Prof. E. Hertwig, the longitudinal muscle leads to a belief in a close 
relation with the Hydrozoa. Its peculiarities may justify us in regard- 
ing it as the type of a new tribe, the Thaumactinse. 

The other new form, which is called Phialactis neglecta, is chiefly 
interesting from the fact that it affords another example of the retro- 
gression of the tentacles; from the four genera already described by 
Hertwig it differs in that the tentacles are not replaced by stomidia — 
slight elevations of the oral disc, surrounding a large opening which is 
homologous with the pore at the tip of some normal Actiniarian ten- 
tacles — but by what Dr. Fowler terms sphseridia,"j" i. e. ampuUate diver- 
ticula of the inter- or intramesenterial chambers, devoid of an opening 
to the exterior, and homologous, therefore, with the imperforate tentacles 
of many genera. 

* Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci,, xxix. (1888) pp. 143-52 (1 pi.). 

t It may be noted that Prof. Love'n has used the term " sphseridia " in a very 
different sense. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 71 

The animal is goblet-shaped, and the sphseridia are borne on the 
inside of the cnp only, where they are especially numerous round the 
oral cone. The general structure agrees with that of an ordinary 
Actinian, the abnormal shape being produced merely by a considerable 
upward growth at the point where the body-wall passes into the oral 
disc. The mesogloea is thick. No arrangement into cycles could be 
detected in the sphseridia. The stomodseum is marked internally by a 
series of tongue-like ridges produced by the inward growth of the 
mesogloea and ectoderm ; the most perfect specimen had twenty-three 
pairs of mesenteries, of which twelve were complete. As in some other 
genera, new mesenteries take their origin just under the oral disc, and 
not in the angle between the body-wall and pedal disc. The muscle of 
the body-wall is endodermal and circular, and is not differentiated into 
a sphincter at any point. 

The systematic position of this genus is very doubtful ; Dr. Fowler 
is inclined to regard it as the type of a new family, the Phialactidse, to 
be placed beside the Liponemidas ; Prof. E. Hertwig thinks it should be 
associated with the Corallimorphidae. 

Lesueria vitrea.* — Prof. W. C. M'Intosh puts on record the appear- 
ance of this Ctenophore in British seas. It was found in May 1888 in 
St. Andrews Bay, where it was present in large numbers till the suc- 
ceeding September. There is but little to add to the definition given 
by Milne-Edwards of specimens found at Nice. The contractile filaments 
are, however, much more distinct than he figures them, while the con- 
cretions in the ctenocyst are perfectly colourless, and not reddish as in 
the Mediterranean specimens. In July and August some examples 
showed a much larger development of the principal lobes at the sides of 
the mouth than had been observed earlier in the season. As they pro- 
jected like two large flaps at the sides of the aperture they resembled 
the EurawpTisea of Gegenbaur. Like the American species described by 
A. Agassiz, the St. Andrews form was beautifully phosphorescent, the 
light being intense and almost white. It is readily produced by merely 
blowing on the water, and glances brightly along the ctenophores. 

New or rare Australian Hydroida.t— Mr. W. M. Bale has notes 
on the new or rare species of Hydroida in the Australian Museum. 

He finds it necessary to form a new family for Ceratella fusca Gray ; 
the Ceratellidse may be defined as having the hydranths naked, sessile 
on processes of a chitinoas reticulated polypary, tentacles all capitate, 
scattered irregularly over the body ; gonosome unknown ; it is allied to 
the Corynidse by the structure of the hydranth, and to the Hydractinidse, 
with which Ceratella was placed by Carter, by the sessile condition of 
the hydranth and the character of the polypary. 

Among the new forms are Ohelia angulosa, Campanularia (?) spinulosa, 
Lafoea scandens, which overruns Sertularella divaricata, Halecium gracile, 
which is slender and monosiphonic, H. parvulum ; Sertularella longitheca 
is remarkable for the proportionate length of the hydrothecga ; S. varia- 
hilis comprises a series of forms allied to and partly intermediate between 
S. indivisa and S. soUdula. Azygoplon is a new genus for Plumiilaria 
producta, which is mainly characterized by the absence of supracalycine 

* Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ii. (1888) pp. 464-6. 

t Proc. Liim. Soc. N. S. Wale?, Hi. (1888) pp. 745-99 (10 pis.). 



72 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

sarcothecse; Plumularia turgida, P. caliculata, P. alata and P. aurita 
are also new. 

Aglaophenia sinuosa has remarkable hydrothecas, in that they have 
both the anterior and posterior intrathecal ridges fully developed and 
forming two partitions which project in opposite directions ; A. macro- 
carpa, A. phyllocarpa, and A. (?) whiteleggei are new. 

Additional notes and corrections are made to the descriptions of 
Australian Hydroids which have been published by Dr. v. Lendenfeld. 

Protozoa. 

Protozoa on Mosses of Plants.* — Prof. L. Maggi has studied the 
Protozoa which occur on the mosses growing on plants. He found no 
less than twenty-one forms : — Amoeba hracMata, A. diffluens, A. radiosa, 
A. polypodia, A. anthyllion n. sp., A. velifera, A. sp. (?), Coryeia dujardinii, 
AmpMzonella violacea, JSyalodiscus hyalinus n. sp., Arcella vulgaris, 
A. aureola n. sp., Difflugia sp. (?), Eughjpha tuhereulata, E. alveolata, 
E. zonata n. sp., Cryptomonas (lagenella) inflata, Cyclidium glaucoma, 
Amphileptus sp. (?), Chilodon cucullulus, Oxytricha sp. (?). 

The same forms are very widely distributed. Protective encystation 
was very frequently observed. The author speaks of some cases of 
apparent " mimetism," e. g. the " mimetisme homochrome " of the green 
endoplasm of Amoeha velifera. It is probable that some forms, as Buck 
reports of Lecythium hyalinum, are parasitic on infusorians, or rotifers, 
or other organisms sheltering in the moss. Diatoms, bacteria, monads, 
pollen, spores, &c., may form part of the food-supply. What looked 
like internal gemmation in Arcella aureola is described. The author 
claims no priority in thus calling attention to the moss fauna, but only 
aims at extending the observations of Dujardin and others. 

Multiplication of Ciliated Infusoria.f — M. E. Maupas has published 
a detailed account of his observations on the multiplication of Ciliated 
Infusoria, a brief description of which appeared some time since.J 

They present great differences in the faculty of reproduction ; if we 
look at the matter in a comparative way and represent Glaucoma 
scintillans, which is the most fertile of the forms examined, as 1 to 1, 
Paramsecium aurelia has the formula 1 to 5, P. hursaria 1 to 8, and 
Spirostomum teres 1 to 10. The three causes previously assigned — 
quality and quantity of food, temperature, and alimentary adaptation — 
do not appear to be sufficient. We must recognize further the special 
temperament of each species ; their differences depend on minute dif- 
ferences of molecular constitution which are at present beyond our 
means of investigation. Light appears to have no influence on the 
growth and multiplication of these infusorians. 

The belief that the fissiparous faculty of these organisms is modified 
by conjugation, and that this act strengthens and accelerates it, does not 
seem to M. Maupas to be justified by the facts observed. He has made 
daily observations on five species, and has not been able to discover the 
least differences in the successive generations of divided forms ; indi- 
viduals behave in just the same way, whether or no there has recently 
been a conjugation. 

* Arch. Ital. Biol., x. (1888) pp. 184-9. 

t Arch. Zool. Expe'r. et Gen., v:. (1888) pp. 165-277 (4 pis.). 

X See this Journal, 1887, p. 414. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 73 

The j)lienomena of senile degeneration are very interesting ; tbe first 
external sign is a reduction in size ; StylomjcMa pustulata, for example, 
being in the normal state 160 /x, gradually descends to 45 and 
even 40 fx. In addition to this diminution in size there is, later on, a 
loss of various organs, until, at last, we get formless abortions incapable 
of living and reproducing themselves. 

The degradation of the nuclear apparatus has a somewhat different 
history, according to the species; in StylonycMa jpustulata and Onycho- 
dromus grandis it is manifested early by the partial and then complete 
atrophy of the micronucleus ; later on, the nucleus itself becomes 
affected, the chromatin gradually disappearing altogether. While these 
are the morphological phenomena, the physiological are no less im- 
portant, for the organism gradually becomes weaker, and there is a 
" surexcitation sexuelle." Owing to the loss of the micronuclei conju- 
gation is fatally sterile, and the conjugated forms die. From these 
observations it may be concluded that the micronucleus is the essential 
organ of sexuality in the Microzoa, and that it plays no active part in 
phenomena which are purely vegetative. 

The forms undergoing senile degeneration may be said to have an 
inevitable death before them ; they still live an individual life, but they 
are dead to the life of the species. Notwithstanding this the sexual 
element is not yet completely destroyed, but, in place of contributing to 
the regeneration and preservation of the species, it accelerates the de- 
struction and disappearance of these atrophied generations. With this 
sexual atrophy there is also degeneration of other parts. The nucleus, 
the regulator of the vegetative functions, becomes little by little dis- 
organized, nutrient changes get gradually feebler, tlie general energy of 
the organism diminishes, and the size becomes reduced. This senile 
decay ends in death. 

It is clear that these considerations are by no means in accord with 
the views of Weismann, which the author next proceeds to consider, 
remarking by the way that the theory of the potential immortality of 
Protozoa was first broached by Ehrenberg. M. Maupas regards Weis- 
mann's theory as resting on the two axioms, that the Monoplastids know 
nothing of physiological waste, and that their development by fissiparous 
division is, consequently, the absolute equivalent of all the generations 
which have arisen from a single progenitor. The first is regarded as 
being completely false, the second as partly false and partly true. 
Weismann does not appear to have sufficiently distinguished between 
the superficial lesions from which all living beings may suffer, and the 
more deeply seated retrogressive changes which are caused by senescence. 
Like multicellular animals, the unicellular do suffer loss, and that 
loss becomes intensified with successive generations The whole theory 
of Weismann is an a priori one, and has no base in fact, while M. Maupas 
thinks that the facts which he has observed contradict it. 

M. Minot appears to be right in discriminating between the various 
kinds of individuality, and if the German naturalist had reflected on 
them he would have immediately comprehended " toute I'inanite de sa 
theorie de I'immortalite des Protozoaires," or, at least, he would have 
seen its difficulties and would have hesitated to publish it. 

Believing that all organisms are fated to suffer senile decay, M. 
Maupas refuses to accept Weismann's further hypothesis that death is 
peculiar to the Metazoa, and has been brought about by some selective 
action. 



74 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Reserve Substances in the Protoplasm of Infusoria.* — Dr. Fabre- 
Domergue in discussing tbe nature of the reserve spherules found in 
Infusoria remarks that one of tbe most prominent facts is tbe way in 
wbicb tbey become diffluent after tbe action of ammonia, or from com- 
pression. He seems disposed to regard tbese bodies as composed of 
paraplasm cbarged witb a coloured liquid material wbicb is capable of 
being absorbed by tbe paraplasm itself. This view be says is supported 
by tbe manner in wbicb tbe spherules behave at tbe moment of their 
disappearance by absorption. The granules do not disappear little by 
little as they decrease in size, but tbey gradually grow pale, their out- 
lines become less clear, while their volume remains the same, and little 
by little tbe infusorian recovers its normal homogeneity. 

If when the infusorian has lost its spherules it be killed with 
osmic acid, examination shows that its constitution is quite different. 
Tbe paraplasm does not consist of isolated spherules surrounded by thin 
layers of paraplasm, but seems as if it were contained in tbe hyaloplasmic 
reticulum ; from which the author is inclined to believe that when the 
paraplasm charged with colouring matter is separating from the hyalo- 
plasm, it forms within its substance spherules, after the manner of the 
food-boluses, which are always present in the Ciliata. 

Aegyria oliva.t — Dr. L. Plate calls attention to the unusual structure 
of the nucleus of this Infusorian. It is composed of two halves which 
behave differently with staining materials, in the same way as is known 
to be the case with SpirocJiona gemmipara, Leptodisciis medusoides, and 
some Ehizopoda. After the animal has been killed with osmic acid one 
half of the nucleus has a darkly granular appearance, while tbe other 
looks nearly homogeneous and clear, having a very slight granulation at 
its foremost pole. The two divisions lie close together, but are sepa- 
rated by a distinct line. On the application of carmine solution the clear 
half of the nucleus becomes intensely, and the dark one very faintly 
coloured. The nucleus of Aegyria oliva behaves, therefore, witb staining 
materials, in a way just opposite to that of S. gemmipara, in which tbe 
darkly granular part is the chromatic and the clear part the achromatic 
portion. Dr. Plate considers that it would be interesting to ascertain 
whether in the one form the nuclear division is of as complicated a 
nature as in the other ; if it be so we should be justified in regarding 
the separate arrangement of the chromatic and achromatic nuclear 
elements as the cause of such a mitosis. 

New Vorticelline4 — Dr. L. Plate describes, under the name of 
Heliochona sessilis, a new Vorticelline which he found on the branchial 
plates of a Gammarus from the North Sea. As in Stylochona the anterior 
end of the body is widened into the form of a funnel, and beset internally 
with numerous cilia which whirl in the food. The head-funnel is 
characterized by a sun-like border of thin rigid bacilli, which issue 
from its margin. 

Two narrow and two broad sides can be distinguished in the flask- 
shaped body ; the animal attaches itself to the branchial plate of its host 

* Ann. de Micrograplde, i. (1888) pp. 24-30. 

t Zool. Jahrb., iii. (1888) p. 173, translated in Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ii. 
(1888) p. 431. 

X Zool. Jahrb., iii. (1888) p. 172. translated in Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ii. 
1888) pp. 431-2. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 75 

by the lower, transversely truncated, pole of the body. One of the 
broad sides of the funnel is produced into two symmetrically placed 
lobes which are bent over inwards and partially cover up the cavity of 
the funnel. The bacilli form a lattice-work, through which only the 
smaller food-particles can pass to reach the short CESophagus which is 
situated at the bottom of the funnel. The nucleus is rounded and finely 
granular, but no paranucleus could be detected. As in Spirochona 
gemmijpara, reproduction is effected by buds which are constricted off at 
a spot on the ventral surface at the base of the neck. 

Nyctotherus in Blood of Apus cancriformis.* — Prof. G. Entz has 
found a large number of examples of a parasitic ciliated infusorian in 
the blood of the gills of Apus cancriformis ; they gave the appearance of 
the gills having been injected by a hardened mass. The species may be 
called Nyctotherus hsematohius ; the body is of a compressed oviform 
shape, sometimes sharper at the anterior or both ends ; the left lateral 
margin is strongly, and the right slightly convex ; the body-bands on the 
dorsal surface run parallel to the left lateral margin; the peristome 
appears to correspond exactly to that of other species of the same genus ; 
the anus is placed a little to the left of the hinder pole of the body, and 
the characteristic anal tube is directed forwards and to the right. The 
resemblance to N. cordiformis, from the intestine of the frog, is so close 
that were it not for the differences in the form and position of the 
nucleus it would be impossible to separate them ; that of the new species 
is somewhat compressed and circular, with a laterally placed paranucleus 
in the middle or, as more often happens, in the hinder half of the 
body. 

The bodies of different specimens vary considerably in size, from 
O'OSmm. to 0*12 mm. in length. Though various stages of division 
were observed, cysts were never seen. 

Influence of Light on Noctiluca.f— M. F. Henneguy gives an 
account of experiments on the influence of light on the phosphorescence 
of Noctiluca. He finds that it is not luminous during the day, and that 
it only becomes so after being half an hour in a darkened room. After 
an hour's darkness the phosphorescence acquires the intensity observable 
during night. In the evening phosphorescence is not complete till two 
hours after sunset. 

Psorosperminm Lucernarise.l — Mr. E. Vallentin describes a sporo- 
zoon which he first observed in the tissues of Lucernaria auricula ; in 
the rare L. cyathiformis as many as thirty distinct psorosperm masses 
were observed in a single individual, and they appear to affect the well- 
being of the host, for when a stimulus — in the shape of a needle-point- 
was applied to the margin of the umbrella the "latent period" was 
decidedly longer than in a specimen of L. auricula. No definite 
membrane separates the spores from the " structureless layer " of its 
host ; in their youngest stage they consist of a spherical mass of proto- 
plasm which forms the wall; larger cells, irregularly scattered, are 
found interiorly; they are inclosed by a hyaline envelope of varying 
size and possess one or two nuclei. The centre is occupied by several, 
and at times by numerous chitin-like capsules — the debris of those which 

* Zool. Anzeig., xi. (1888) pp. 618-20. 

+ Comptes Kendus Soc. Biol., v. (1888) pp. 707-8. 

t Zool. Auzeig., xi. (1888) pp. 622-3. 



76 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

have lost their protoplasmic contents. A fully matured psorosperm has 
a fine hyaline envelope, with one or two nuclei, inclosing a thick 
chitinous capsule, within which is a spherical mass of protoplasm. The 
best preparations obtained were those which were treated with osmic 
acid or stained with picrocarmine. 

Coccidium infesting Perichseta.* — Mr. F. E. Beddard gives the first 
account of a Coccidium living in an earthworm. The forms in which 
they have been found are Perichseta novse-zealandise and P. armata ; the 
perivisceral cavity was the part infested ; some individuals were, in form, 
hardly distinguishable from G. oviforme, but the " micropyle " is very 
different. This so-called micropyle does not seem to be a perforation of 
the cyst at all, but merely a bulging-in of the cuticle, due possibly to a 
separation of part of the internal cuticular lamella caused by reagents. 
Sometimes two of these structures are present. The outer cyst-membrane 
does not, as in C. oviforme, disappear, but increases greatly in import- 
ance, until it finally comes to project beyond the two poles of the cyst 
for a very considerable distance; it still, however, remains very 
transparent. 

The contained protoplasm breaks up into a large number of sporo- 
blasts, just as happens in the Gregarinidse, and this fact, added to others, 
shows that there is a closer affinity than is generally supposed between 
the Coccidiidae and the Monocystidae. G. pericJisetse also resembles 
certain of the latter, e. g. Gamocystis, in the great development of the 
outer cyst-membrane. 

Sarcosporidia in Muscles of Palsemon.t — M. L. F. Henneguy de- 
scribes from the muscles of Palsemon redirostris a parasite which seems 
unquestionably allied to the Sarcosporidia hitherto only known in 
mammals. The muscles weve white and opaque instead of being trans- 
parent ; the fibres were full of clusters of granule-like bodies. Each 
granule usually contained eight small corpuscles, presumably spores. 
The parasite was only distinguishable from the Sarcosporidia of mammals 
in the envelope which surrounded the several clusters of granules. All 
the specimens of Palsemon examined had the parasite in the same stage ; 
infection was tried but failed. The life-history remains, therefore, in 
Palsemon, as elsewhere, obscure. The disease appeared to limit the 
muscular power. The diseased forms were usually in sheltered and 
warm water. Other species were observed to be similarly affected 
— P. squilla, P. serratus, and Palsemoneies varians. M. Henneguy dis- 
tinguishes the Sarcosporidia from Psorospermium haecJcelii, from parasites 
of some Daphnids, and from some strikingly similar granules found in 
Gohius. The present form seems to come in between Microsporidia and 
Myxosporidia, but the author refrains from a verdict till the life-history 
of this and similar forms has been made out. 

Cercomonas intestinalis.l — Prof. E. Perroncito finds that guinea- 
pigs are infested by numerous varieties of Gercomonas of which there 
are three principal species, (1) G. ovalis, (2) G. pisiformis, (3) G. glohosus. 
The last two kinds are so numerous in a certain disease of these rodents 
as to become the cause of a great mortality among these animals. 

* Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ii. (1888) pp. 433-9. 

t Mem. Centenaire Soc. Philom., 1888, pp. 163-71 (1 fig.). 

J Centralbl. f. Baktcriol. u. Parasitenk., iv. (1888) pp. 220-1. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY. ETC. 77 

The Indian variety being very liable to this disorder is specially 
suitable for studying the evolution forms of Cercomonas. Numerous 
observations sbowed that the flagellated Cercomonas changes to a body 
which repeats the form of the parasitic protozoon. The protoplasm is 
transparent, but shows a peripheral darkening indicating the presence of 
a protecting membrane. In this stage, which may be called the 
encysted or resting stage, no flagella are observable, and it would 
appear that these are lost during encapsulation. Although all involu- 
tion forms do not present well marked investing membranes, their 
protoplasm is always transparent, and the transformation of the 
protozoon is easily observable. 



* > « -5 & i •■ 



78 SUMMARY OP CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



BOTANY. 

A. GENERAL, including the Anatomy and Physiology 
of the Phanerogamia. 

o. Anatomy.* 
Q) Cell-structure and Protoplasm. 

Movement of Rotation of Vegetable Protoplasm.! — M. J. B. 
Sclmetzler has recently studied the rotation of the protoplasm in aa 
elongated protonemal cell of Chara fragilis. The grains of chlorophyll 
develope first in the upper part of the cell, while the lower part is 
filled with colourless protoplasm. On the interior of the cell- wall a thin 
motionless layer of protoplasm is differentiated ; the chlorophyll-grains 
being fixed on the inner face of this layer. In the interior of this inert 
protoplasm will be found a comparatively thick layer of protoplasm 
which executes the movement of rotation. 

Protoplasmic Movements.:]: — Dr. J. Clark has investigated the 
influence of the lowered oxygen pressure on protoplasmic movements. 
A great number of vegetable organisms with streaming protoplasmic 
movements were experimented with. The removal of oxygen brings the 
movement to a standstill ; the return of the natural conditions immedi- 
ately brings back the circulating phenomena. A pressure of 1 • 2 mm. of 
oxygen restored the movement in Triania hogotensis ; a pressure of 
2 • 8 mm. was required for the hairs of Urtica americana ; the other 
cases lie between these two extremes. The experiments with ciliary 
action have been already referred to.§ 

Optical Properties of the Cuticle and of Suberized Membranes. || — 
Hcrr H. Ambronn shows that while suberized membranes, as observed 
by Dippel, exhibited a change in their optical axes on treatment with 
potash, they can be made optically neutral by simply warming in water 
or in dilute glycerin. From this fact he infers the presence in the 
cell-walls of a substance which melts at the temperature of boiling water 
and again crystallizes on cooling. This must obviously be either a 
waxy or a fatty substance. 

(2) Otlier Cell-contents (including Secretions). 

Structure of Chlorophyll-grains.H — Herr A. Meyer replies to 
Schwarz's criticisms ** on his views as to the structure and development 
of chlorophyll-grains. After repeating his observations with the 
greatest care, he asserts that Schwarz's account of the structure of 
chloroplasts, that they consist of green " fibrillas " lying side by side, 
united together by an intermediate substance " metaxin," is founded 
on error. By continuous and careful observation of the action of water 
on a single chloroplast, he was never able to detect anything approaching 
to fibrillar structure. 

* This subdivision contains (1) Cell-structure and Protoplasm; (2) Otlier Cell- 
contents (including Stcretions) ; (3) Structure of Tissues ; and (4) Structure of 
Organs. t Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sci. Nat., xxiv. (1888) pp. 83-8. 

% Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., vi. (1888) pp. 273-80. 

§ See this Journal, 1888, p. 971. 

il Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., vi. (1888) pp. 226-30. Cf. this Journal, 1888, p. 602. 

i Bot. Ztg., xlvi. (1888) pp. 636-40. ** See this Journal, 1887, p. 979. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY, ETC. 79 

Photolysis in Lemna trisulca.* — Mr. S. Le M. Moore refers to the 
figures published by Stahl to illustrate the variations in position under- 
gone by the chlorophyll of Lemna trisulca in consequence of the alterna- 
tion of day and night (photolysis), but is unable to acquiesce in them as 
representing the facts according to his impression of them. Stahl's 
figure shows the chlorophyll of the thin part of the frond ranged upon 
the side walls during the night, while in the cells of the thick part the 
inner wall is also studded with chlorophyll, the superficial wall being 
bare. According to Schimper, however, while all the grains upon the 
wall abutting upon the epiderm are apostrophized during the night, a 
few of those ranged during the day upon the inner wall still remain in 
epistrophe. After giving the details of a number of experiments, the 
author's conclusions are that, in marginal cells, the eflect of night 
is to transfer to the side walls only 22 out of the 34 grains in a cell, 
leaving 12 of them still in epistrophe ; and that in cells from the thick 
part rather more than 50 per cent, move during the night on to the side- 
walls, the remainder being fairly equally distributed upon both upper 
and lower walls. 

Chemistry of Chlorophyll.t — Mr. E. Schunck has continued his 
contributions to the chemistry of chlorophyll. As one of the products 
obtained by the action of alkalies on phyllocyanin, the author obtained a 
substance which he proposes to call phijllotaonin. On spontaneous 
evaporation of an ethereal solution of phyllotaonin it is obtained in 
regular flattened crystals or crystalline scales, which by reflected light 
appear of a fine peacock or steel-blue colour ; the crystals are mostly 
opaque, but when very thin they are transparent, and then appear brown 
by transmitted light. The author concludes by describing the various 
properties of phyllotaonin, and also the compounds it is capable of 
forming. 

Ch.roinoleucites.| — M. L. Courchet gives details of a great number 
of observations on the structure and origin of chromoleucites, chiefly in 
a variety of coloured fruits. 

Among the more important of the general results arrived at, he 
states that chromoleucites are always formed at the expense of chloro- 
leucites or leucoleucites. The leucites may also give birth to crystals 
of colouring matters or to crystalloid substances which originate at the 
periphery of the stroma or generating layer. The primitive leucites are 
mostly formed out of starch, but this is usually resorbed before the 
leucite is mature. The development of the pigment in the leucite may 
take place in various ways. Blue, violet, red, and rose tints are usually 
due to coloured fluids, though the blue pigment is sometimes in the form 
cf crystals or granules. Orange and brick-red tints may be caused 
either by coloured fluids, or by chromoleucites with either amorphous 
or crystalline pigment, or by true crystalline or crystalloid formations. 
The same is true also of yellow tints. 

Chromoleucites are always formed in a proteinaceous substratum or 
stroma with which are united one or more pigments. Both may be 
either in an amorphous or in a crystalline condition. The crystals and 
crystalline formations always consist of pure pigment. Although 

* Joura. of Bot., xxvi. (1888) pp. 353-7. 

t Proc. Roy. Soc, xliv. (1888) pp. 448-54. Cf. this Journal, 1887, p. 606. 

X Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bot.), vii. (1888) pp. 263-374 (6 pis.). 



80 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

hitherto recognized only in the fruit of the tomato and the root of the 
carrot, they occur in a large number of fruits, seeds, and even flowers. 
All the coloured substances arise in the peripheral zone of chloroleucites 
or of uncoloured leucites. 

Yellow pigments are always amorphous, and incapable of artificial 
crystallization ; they are but slightly soluble in chloroform, ether, or 
benzin, much more so in alcohol, insoluble in water. The residue left 
on evaporating an alcoholic solution, when treated with concentrated 
sulphuric acid, is coloured, like the solution itself, at first green, after- 
wards blue. It may be called xanthin. Orange-red and orange-yellow 
pigments are insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, but more so in ether, 
chloroform, and benzin. They are either amorphous or crystalline, or 
intermediate between the two conditions. Treated with concentrated 
sulphuric acid, they are all coloured violet or violet-red, afterwards 
indigo-blue. The gooseberry-red pigment is peculiar to the flowers of 
the aloe. All these pigments are distinguished essentially from those 
of chromoleucites by the fact that they do not turn blue with concen- 
trated sulphuric acid. 

M. Courchet's observations confirm as a whole those of Schimper * 
as to the structure and development of chromoleucites, though difiering 
in some minor points. The crystals, whether natural or artificial, 
furnished by orange pigments are all derived from the oblique rhom- 
boidal prismatic form. Their orange-yellow, orange-red, or carmine- 
red colour, and the corresponding tints which they communicate to the 
organs, depend on the greater or less thickness of these formations or 
on the molecular state of the pigment. This is shown by the facts that 
solutions of these colouring substances in absolutely neutral solvents 
have a constant orange-yellow colour, and that the variable tints pre- 
sented by crystalline formations, whether natural or artificial, depend 
on their thickness. 

Colouring-matter of Leaves and Flowers.f — Under this title Mr. 
P. Sewell gives a summary of the state of knowledge in regard to vege- 
table pigments, and communicates some suggestions as to their 
physiological import. The first part of the paper discusses the physical 
and chemical properties of the pigments. The second part deals with 
colour- changes, which are grouped as follows: — (1) those induced 
artificially by reagents, or naturally by the presence of substances of a 
like nature; (2) those associated with particular environments ; (3) those 
characteristic of definite conditions of growth. Of each of these 
interesting illustrations are given. The third part of the paper reviews 
the various hypotheses suggested to explain colours and colour-changes. 
The observations of Buchan, Darwin, Grant Allen, J. E. Taylor, and 
others, are discussed. What Spencer pointed out as to the co-existence 
of colour and of flowers is emphasized and elaborated. The author 
agrees with Vines that colouring matters are physiologically waste 
products, and maintains that in contrast to the green of chlorophyll, 
"colour'' is to be regarded "essentially as a product of a destructive 
metabolism (katabolism) in the cells in which it occurs." The autumn 
tints, the colour of the young shoots of spring, the pigments of the 
reproductive organs or flowers are expressions of relative katabolic 

* See this Journal, 1886, p, 640. 

t Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., xvii. (1887-8) pp. 276-308. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MrCROSCOPYj ETOo 81 

preponderance. Parts furthest from nutrition, the sunny sides where 
metabolism is quickened, parts growing at the expense of stores, plants 
growing under disadvantageous conditions, dying organs, &c., are 
adduced in support of the author's thesis. Mr. Sewell recognizes the 
" immense power of selection " in relation to the colours of plants, but also 
the sstiological limits of this explanation. His general conclusion, 
though somewhat guarded, is that colours other than the green of 
chlorophyll are associated with katabolic preponderance. A copious 
bibliography is appended. 

Sphaerites.* — By this term Herr H. Leitgeb designates the various 
spheroidal deposits in tissues, whether composed of needle-shaped par- 
ticles, and hitherto known as spherocrystals, or of fine granules arranged 
in radial or tangential rows. The former kind are commonly deposited 
on treatment of sections of the tissue with alcohol; the examples 
specially treated of here are Acetahularia mediterranea, Galtonia (Sya- 
cinthus) radicans, the cactus-like species of Euphorbiacese and Ascle- 
piadese, and the well-known spherocrystals of inulin in the root-tubers 
of the dahlia. They consist uniformly of organic substance and 
calcium phosphate. These were further compared with sphserites 
produced artificially. 

The sphserites of inulin consist of alternate porous and compact 
layers, the porous layers alone possessing a crystalline structure, while 
the compact layers are altogether amorphous. In other cases the crys- 
talline portion forms an external layer, or it may occupy the central 
portion and be surrounded by an amorphous envelope. Pigments are 
sometimes abundantly taken up, both by the crystalline and by the 
amorphous portion. They are sometimes formed, already of their full size, 
hj the solidifying of drops ; when they do grow, it is always by apposition. 

Aleurone-grains.t — -Herr F. Werminski agrees in general with the 
conclusions of Wakker.J From the examination of preparations in citron- 
oil of the endosperm of Bicinus, and of the seeds of some Leguminosse, 
he concludes that the aleurone-grains are formed in vacuoles containing 
abundance of protoplasm by the abstraction of water ; and that, on 
germination, they are again transformed into vacuoles by taking up water, 

Asparagin and Tyrosin in Tubers of the Dahlia.^ — Herr H. Leitgeb 
finds that organs of plants may contain a very large amount of asparagin 
and tyrosin, even when alcohol does not precipitate them in a crystalline 
form in sections, if crystallization is prevented by some mucilaginous 
substance. Inulin has this effect in the tubers of the dahlia, whence the 
fact that the very large amount of these substances which they contain 
has been so long overlooked, Asparagin was found by Leitgeb to be a 
constant constituent of dahlia-tubers, although the quantity is less than 
in many seedlings. Tyrosin was found only in very small quantities in 
the individual cells, the test employed being Millon's reagent. 

As the aerial stem of the dahlia developes, the author found a very 
rapid decrease, in the tubers, of both asparagin and tyrosin, but at the 
same time he was entirely unable to determine their presence in the 
green aerial organs of the plant. 

* MT. Bot. Inst. Graz, i. (1888) pp. 255-360 (2 pis.), 
t Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., vi. (1888) pp. 199-204 (1 pi,), 
J See this Journal, 1888, p. 443. 
§ MT. Bot. Inst. Graz, i. (1888) pp. 213-36 (1 pi.), 
1889, Q 



82 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



(3) Structure of Tissues. 

Literal Plants.* — Herr C. Bricl? finds tlie general characteristics of 
literal halophilous plants to be a succulent tissue in the form of a strongly 
developed cortical parenchyma ; the invariable presence of a vascular 
bundle-sheath, which serves as a starch-sheath ; and the rarity of starch 
in the chlorophyll- grains. The strong turgidity of thG cells may be due 
to the formation of salts of an organic acid with the soda with which 
they are so abundantly supplied, 

Herr Brick proposes the following types of halophilous plants : — 
(1) The cortical parenchyma is composed, of roxmd cells, between which 
are small triangular or polygonal intercellular spaces ; the chlorophyll 
is either distributed through the parenchyma, or is limited to a special 
outer zone of the cortex {Honckenya peploides, CaMle maritima). (2) The 
cortical parenchyma consists of round cells, between which are large 
nearly regular air-passages (^Aster Tripolium, Glaux maritima). (3) The 
cortical parenchyma has a structure similar to that of a leaf ; the chloro- 
phyll is usually confined to the palisade-cells (Salsola Kali, Salicornia 
herhacea). 

Comparative Anatomy of Desert Plants.f — M. P. Maury has 
examined the structure of a large number of species of flowering plants 
from the Algerian Sahara, and finds them characterized in common by 
the following features : — But slight thictening of the epidermal walls ; 
the epidermis similar on the two faces of the leaf ; the hypoderm con- 
sisting of a single layer of cells ; the cortical parenchyma partly of a 
palisade nature, or simply assimilating ; the pericycle with sclerotized 
elements ; the vessels of the root with a larger diameter than those of the 
stem ; a palisade-parenchyma on both faces of the leaf ; the median 
parenchyma uncoloured, with gummy cells ; ramifications of the vessels 
in the horizontal plane of the leaf not provided with sclerotized 
strengthening elements. In no case do these features conceal the special 
characters of the genus or family, but serve to adapt the species to its 
peculiar conditions of life. 

Palisade-parenchyme.f — From observations made on both water and 
land plants, Herr 0. Eberdt concludes that the chief factor in determin- 
ing the formation of palisade-parenchyme in leaves is not light, but 
strong transpiration and the rapid transport of formative substances. 
Diminished transpiration, even when there is strong assimilation, causes 
directly a disruption of the palisade-parenchyme ; its cells become much 
less closely fitted together, intercellular spaces appearing between them. 

Stem of Ephedra.§ — Mr. W. H. Evans points out that, according to 
Bentham and Hooker, Ephedra occupies an intermediate position between 
WelwitscJiia and Gnetum in the order Gnetacese. Holding thus a low 
rank among Gymnosperms, we would expect interesting anatomical 
structure. In all there are about thirty species, most of which are 

* Schrift. Naturf. Gesell. Danzig, vii. (1888) pp. 108-15. See Naturforscher, xxi. 
(1888) p. 214. 

t Assoc. Fran9. pour Tavance. d. sci., Cougres de Toulouse, 1887. See Morot's 
Journ. de Bot., ii. (1888) Kev. Bibl., p. 101. 

X ' Beitr. zu d. Unters. ub. d. Entstehungsweise des Pallisaden-parenchyms,' 
Freiburg-i.-B., 1887, 52 pp. See Bot. Centralbl., xxxv. (1888) p. 362. 

§ Bot. Gazette, xiii. (1888) pp. 265-8. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY, ETC. 83 

tropical. The author has made a special study of E. nevadensis, com- 
paring it with several of the other species. 

The stem bears no leaves, but at the nodes of the young shoots are 
two or three scale-like bracts one to six lines long. These scales are in 
all probability rudimentary leaves, yet they do no leaf work, having 
no fibrovascular connection with the stem. The epiderm of the stem is 
rather tough, and is composed of irregularly shaped cells. The cortex 
is for the most part made up of palisade-parenchyme, containing chloro- 
phyll. Scattered singly or in groups of from two to ten within the 
cortex, and also in the pith, are found very long sclerenchymatous fibres. 
They are thick-walled and shining. Next within the cortex is found the 
bundle-sheath of very thin-walled cells, and vrithin this the phloem. 
The xylem-area resembles that of Pinus, having rectangular-shaped 
cells with heavy lignified walls. The medullary rays are not very 
prominent, and the pith consists of large irregular cells. 

Anatomy of the Wood of Laurinese.* — Herr E. Knoblauch has 
examined the wood of a large number of species of Laurinese, in order to 
determine whether characters can be obtained from it for the determina- 
tion of the genus or the order. As far as generic characters are con- 
cerned, the results were negative, and for the order no single character 
can be relied on, but only the concurrence of a number of characters, 
each of which may belong also to other natural orders. These are as 
follows : — Vessels in the annual rings of about uniform width (only in 
Sassafras are they very broad in the S]3ring, very narrow in the autumn 
wood) ; in some species they are broader in the autumn-wood, quite 
visible to the naked eye, usually solitary; and in regular radial rows, 
less often in irregular groups. The transverse walls usually perforated 
by roundish or elliptical orifices, sometimes also scalariform, rarely the 
latter only. In the walls which separate them from one another the 
vessels have close roundish clearly bordered pits, and in those which 
separate them from the wood-parenchyme and the medullary rays nume- 
rous large pits of variable form, usually round or elliptical and slightly 
or evidently bordered, often passing into one another. The wood- 
parenchyme-cells are always present, but vary in number and arrange- 
ment and in the thickness of their walls. The medullary rays are of 
one kind only, the cells usually in from one to five rows ; those in the 
centre and at the angles high and short. The rays are very close 
together, so that in the breadth of the medullary rays there are usually 
from 1 to 20 wood-parenchyme-cells and from 1 to 3 vessels. In many 
species a larger or smaller number of the wood-parenchyme-cells and 
those of the medullary rays are transformed into large thin-walled oil- 
cells without pits. 

Radial Connection of the Vessels and Wood-parenchyme.f — Herr 
F. Gnentzsch states that radial connections are much more common 
than is usually supposed between the vessels and the wood-parenchyme 
of successive annual rings in dicotyledonous trees. The observations 
were made on a large number of trees and shrubs belonging to many 
different natural orders. The annual rings are not by any means always 
completely isolated : the xylem-vessels at the boundary line of two suc- 
cessive rings are, in fact, usually in connection with one another, either 
directly, or by tracheides, which must then be considered as equivalent 

* Flora, Ixxi. (1888) pp. 339-400 (1 pi). f Ibid., pp. 309-35 (1 pL). 

G 2 



84 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

to vessels. Through this connection there is an active interchange 
of formative material between the annual rings, which plays the greatest 
part when, as in spring, the medullary rays cannot serve this purpose in 
consequence of the accumulation of reserve-material. With regard to 
the cells of the wood-parenchyme, it must be assumed that they serve, as 
a rule, only for conduction in the tangential, and only exceptionally in 
the radial direction. 

Order of Appearance of the first Vessels in the Leaves of Humulus 
Lupnlus and H. japonicus.* — M. A. Trecul states that the leaves of 
Humulus Lupulus and H. japonicus are palmatisect, with a stipule on 
either side. In H. japonicus the stipules arise before the lower leaves, 
and in some cases even before the upper ones ; and in the case of the hop 
the leaves appear in the form of a little eminence only when the stipular 
lamellae are already bilobed. The first vessel appears in the median vein 
of the stipules before that in the median vein of the corresponding 
leaf. The author then describes in detail the appearance of the vessels 
first in the stipules and then in the leaves. 

Primary Liber-fibres in the Eoot of Malvacese.t— M. P. Van 
Tieghem finds fibres in the primary vascular bundles in the root of 
many genera of Malvaceae, also in some of Sterculiaceee and Tiliacese. 
They have at present been met with almost solely in Leguminosae 
among Dicotyledons, and are unknown in Monocotyledons or Vascular 
Cryptogams. 

Development of Cork-wings on certain Trees.J— Miss E. L. Gregory 
applies the term cork-wing to ridges of corky substance extending 
lengthwise along the young stems of certain trees and shrubs. The 
species examined may be considered as represented by three types : 
viz. Quercus macrocarpa, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Euonymus alata. 
The last genus is extremely interesting from a systematic standpoint. 
No two species agree in the manner of cork development, while a 
variety differs from its typical form only by a slight and unimportant 
variation. The author describes in detail the anatomy of the superficial 
periderm of Quercus microcarpa. 

Two kinds of Acer were further examined, one, A. campestre, con- 
spicuously winged till the stem is three or four years old ; the other, 
A. monspessulanum, much less so. The development difiers in both 
cases from that of Quercus. Instead of five, as in Quercus, there are six 
longitudinal bands growing faster than the remaining six ; this con- 
tinues till a furrow is formed along the top of each wing, making a shell- 
shaped appearance on cross section. In Liquidambar styracijiua the 
cork-wings have one striking peculiarity which renders them an 
exception to all other cases examined — this is their eccentric or one- 
sided origin and growth. In this respect this species seems to stand 
quite alone. The wings of the lateral branches appear always on the 
upper side, and generally stand at such an angle as to form troughs 
along the entire length of the branches. 

Mode of Union of the Stem and tlie Root in Angiosperms § — M. 
P. K. Dangeard gives the following as his conclusions on this subject : 

* Comptes Eenduff, cvii. (1888; pp. 577-83. 
t Ann. Soi. Nat. (Bot.), vii. (1888) p. 176. 
X Bot. Gazette, xiii. (1888) pp. 249-58, 281-7. 
§ Comptes Eendus, cvii. (1888) pp. 635-7. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MIOROSCOPYj ETO. 85 

— (1) The median vertical plane of the cotyledons always corresponds with 
a vascular bundle in the root. (2) The bundles of the root never pass 
the cotyledons. (3) The insertion of the cotyledonary bundles on the 
bundles of the root follows a general principle. (4) There is no 
absolute limit between the stem and the root. (5) The number of 
bundles in the root corresponds in a certain measure with those of the 
cotyledons. 

(4) Structure of Orgrans. 

' Dimorphism of the Flowers of the Horse-chestnut.* — Sig. U. 
Martelli has observed two kinds of dimorphism in the flowers of 
JEsculus Hippocastanum. One kind relates to the arrangement of the 
patches of colour at the base of the petals, and appears to be related to 
the visits of insects. In addition to this, the greater number of the 
flowers in a spike are abortive, only a few being perfect. These fertile 
floweBS are found only in the lower part of the inflorescence, and appear 
there to be arranged in regular order. Similar observations were made 
on some other species of the genus. 

Cleistogamous Flowers of Tephrosia heterantha.f— Herr G. Hiero- 
nymus describes the structure and mode of fertilization of this plant 
from the Argentine Republic. The cleistogamous flowers contain only 
five stamens and two or three instead of the fifteen ovules in the open 
flowers. The pollen-grains are few in number, and their pollen-tubes 
pierce the wall of the anther in order to reach the stigma. 

Hermaphroditism of Lychnis dioica when attacked by ITstilago.l — 
M. A. Magnin points out that the flowers of Lychnis dioica L. (L. ves- 
pertina Sibthrp.) are ordinarily unisexual ; Linnaeus, however, determined 
the possibility of hermaphroditism, and M. Crie has called attention to 
the floral polymorphism of this plant. The author states that Lychnis 
dioica is often attacked by Ustilago antherarum, and that the effects pro- 
duced are different according to the sex that is attacked. In the male 
it only causes a slight malformation of the anthers, and the replace- 
ment of the pollen by the spores of the Ustilago, while in the female it 
causes the appearance of stamens ; the female organs undergo partial 
atrophy, while the plant retains otherwise altogether the characters of 
the female plant in habit, mode of branching, &c. 

Zygomorphy and its Causes.§ — Mr. C. Eobertson discusses the 
causes of zygomorphy in flowers, especially in relation to the mode of 
pollination by insects, whether the flower is nototribal, sternotribal, or 
pleurotribal, in Delpino's use of these terms, i. e. whether the pollen 
from the open anthers is deposited on the back, the abdomen and leos 
or the side of the visiting insect. Mr. Eobertson holds that the first 
change towards zygomorphy is for the stamens and styles to turn 
down at the bases and up at the tips, so as to strike the under side of 
the insect more effectually ; the lower nectaries, being thus rendered 
less accessible, will tend to abort. Irregular polypetalous flowers are, 
as a rule, sternotribal ; some, however, are nototribal, as most orchids, 

* Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital., xx. (1888) pp. 401-4. 

t JB. Schles. Gesell. Vaterl. Cultur, 1887, pp. 235-8. See Bot. Centralbl., xxxvi. 
(1888) p. 170. X Comptes Rendus, cvii. (1888) pp. 663-5, 876-8 

§ Bot. Gazette, xiii. (1888) pp. 146-51, 203-8, 224-30 (2 figs.). Cf. this Journal, 
1887, p. 779. 



86 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Viola, and Impatiens. Orchids must have developed as sternotribal, and 
become nototribal by the twisting of the ovary. The following is a 
summary of the general conclusions at which Mr. Eobertson has 
arrived. 

When shallow flowers become horizontal, insects light on the stamens 
and styles, and prefer the upper nectary. The stamens and styles bead 
to the lower side, and the lower nectaries abort, Zygomorphic flowers 
of shallow origin are sternotribal, and have a single nectary, or a central 
nectary more strongly developed or more accessible on the upper side. 
Nototribal flowers of shallow origin are inverted. When regular 
tubular flowers with included stamens and styles become horizontal, 
insects land on the lower border and prefer the lower nectary. The 
stamens and styles bend to the upper side, and the upper nectaries abort. 
Zygomorphic flowers of deep gamopetalous origin are nototribal, and 
have a single nectary, or a central nectary more strongly developed or 
only accessible on the lower side. Sternotribal flowers of deep gamo- 
petalous origin have originally exserted stamens and styles, or have 
become shallow. Irregular flowers were modified with reference to a 
landing-place, and were modified through the influence of insects light- 
ing uj)on them. Irregular flowers adupted to insects which do not light 
have changed visitors. Small closely-crowded flowers do not tend to 
become zygomorphic. Small closely- crowded irregular flowers are 
liable to lose their zygomorphic characters, unless the stamens and 
styles are protected by galeas, carinse, &c. 

Opening of the Anthers of Cycadese.* — Of the different modes in 
which, according to Herr J. Schrodt, anthers and sporanges open in 
order to allow of the escape of the pollen and spores respectively, the 
anthers of Cycadeee belong to the class in which there is no " fibrous 
layer " in the wall, the mechanism of the rupture being due to other 
causes. From the examination of a number of species of Zamia, Gerato- 
zamia, Stangeria, Oycas, Encejphalartus, &c., Herr Schrodt arrives at 
the conclusion that the epidermal cells of the anther-wall contain, in 
their membrane, a substance which varies according to the species, and 
which, when in contact with water, swells up more strongly than the 
cell-wall which incloses it, so that the latter is placed in a state of 
tension. Of the three layers of cells of which the anther-wall of Cycadese 
is composed, it is only the epiderm which takes any part in the opening 
and closing of the valves. The epiderm consists of cells elongated 
in a direction parallel to the longitudinal axis, which contain within 
their walls masses of cellulose capable of great expansion and contraction, 
and whose thick lignified inner membrane offers greater resistance to the 
contraction which results from desiccation than the thinner cuticularized 
outer membrane. 

Protection of Buds in the Tropics.f — Herr M. Treub describes the 
contrivances by which, in many cases, leaf-buds and flower-buds are 
protected against excessive insolation in the Tropics, Among the most 
interesting is that of Spaihodea campanulata (BignoniacesB), a tree of 
Tropical Africa, in which the inflorescence is umbrella-shaped, and the 
flowers completely exposed to the rays of the sun. The buds have the 

* Flora, Ixxi. (1S88) pp. 440-50 (1 pL). Cf. this Journal, 1886, p. 828, 
t Handel. Nederl. Nat. en Geneesk. Congres, Sept. 30, 1887, p. 130. See Bot. 
Centralbl., xxxv. (1888) p. 328. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 87 

appearance of elastic pear-shaped bladders ending in a sickle-shaped 
point. This is the calyx, within which the corolla is formed at a much 
later period enveloped in a watery fluid. When mature the calyx splits 
open, and the petals are exposed, copiously moistened by the fluid. 

Extrafloral Nectaries in Compositse.* — Dr. E. v. Wettstein points 
out the existence of nectariferous scales in the following species of 
Compositge : — Jurinsea mollis, Serratula lycopifolia, S. centauroides, and 
Centaurea aljpina. The nectary is in all cases of very simple structure ; 
the excretion of the saccharine fluid takes place through orifices which 
are usually distributed uniformly over the surface of the scales, but in 
Serratula are collected together below the apex. The nectar attracts 
ants, which appear to keep off" noxious insects. 

Structure and Development of Seeds with ruminated Endosperm.t 
— In continuation of previous observations on the seeds of the nutmeg, 
Herr A. Voigt now extends his investigations to other seeds with rumi- 
nated endosperm, belonging chiefly to Javanese Palmse and Anonaceae. 
In the palms he distinguishes two types. 

The first type is illustrated by species of Calamus and by Adinorhytis 
Calapparia. The appendages to the integuments which project inwards, 
and which have no connection with the vascular bundles of the testa, 
form nearly cylindrical cones at nearly equal distances from one another, 
varying in number and length in diflerent species. After fertilization 
the embryo-sac elongates considerably at the expense of the nucellar 
tissue, and, when the ovary has attained about one-third of its ultimate 
size, the appendages to the testa make their first appearance. While 
the nucellar tissues gradually disappear, these project further into the 
embryo-sac, especially on the side opposite to the raphe. They consist 
of comparatively large thin-walled cells containing tannin, and are 
covered by a small-celled ej)iderm. In the ripe seed the nucellus has 
entirely disappeared ; the space inclosed by the integument is com- 
pletely filled up by the embryo and the endosperm. 

In the second type among palms the appendages to the testa have 
quite a different form, and their arrangement is closely connected with 
the vascular bundles of the testa. They consist of plates, cushions, 
and ridges, the lines of insertion of which correspond to the vascular 
bundles; they vary greatly in breadth. To this type belong Actino- 
phloeus amhiguus, PtycJiococcus paradoxus, Chamserops humilis, Ptycho- 
sperma elegans, Caryota furfuracea, Nenga Wendlandiana, Archontophoenix 
AlexandrsB, Areclia Catechu, and Pinanga KuMii. In the last-named 
species the appendages also gradually consume the nucellus, and the 
endosperm is not formed until the ridges are fully developed. In both 
types the rumination probably begins a little before impregnation. In 
all the species of palm examined the seed has only a single integument. 

In the seed of Myristica fragrans the structure of the endosperm is 
very different. The ovule has two integuments, but the inner one covers 
only the upper half of the nucellus. Almost the entire tissue of the inner 
integument and of the upper portion of the nucellus passes over, soon 
after the opening of the flower, into permanent tissue. The inner portion 

* SB. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, July 12, 1888. See Bot. Centralbl., xxxv. (1888) 
p. 398. 

t Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, vii. (1888) pp. 151-90 (3 pis.). See Bot. 
Centralbl., xxxvi. (1888) p. 134. 



88 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEA.IICHES RELATING TO 

of this tissue serves for the nutrition of the embryo-sac, and is ultimately 
resorbed ; the outer portion takes part in the formation of the testa. In 
the permanent tissue there is developed a much-branched system of 
vascular bundles, and as these develope the rumination of the endosperm 
makes its appearance. The testa of the ripe seed has a very complicated 
structure. 

In other Anonaceae with ruminated endosperm the ovule has two 
integuments, and the appendages spring from the inner of these ; they 
have a very regular arrangement. The primary nucellus is ultimately 
resorbed entirely. The first endosperm-cells are formed in the embryo- 
sac, not by free-cell-formation, but by ordinary cell-division. 

Integument of the Seed of Geraniacese.* — Dr. G. B. de Toni de- 
scribes the peculiarities of the Italian species of Geranium as respects 
the seminal integument. He finds that they can be classed under three 
heads, viz. : — (1) Seeds with areoles not exceeding 12 ya in diameter; 
(2) seeds with areoles from 20 to 35 [x in diameter, nearly or quite regular, 
having therefore a finely reticulated appearance ; and (3) seeds with 
large areoles, at least 40 /a in one direction, hence reticulated, or with 
minute pits. The genus belongs to the class characterized by having 
hard seeds, with one or two protective strata of cells, and nearly or quite 
destitute of endosperm. 

Hygroscopic Movements in the Cone-scales of Abietinese-t — Mr. 
A. N. Prentiss calls attention to the fact that in most of the Abietinese, 
soon after the ripening of the cones, the persistent scales fold backward 
or outward from the axis to permit the ripe seeds to escape. The scales 
are very sensitive to moisture, and in many species exhibit very rapid 
movements when wet. Tliis is strikingly the case with Tsuga canadensis. 
This property is very efficient, first, in loosening the winged seeds from 
the scale which bears them, and, secondly, in securing their wide dis- 
persion in different directions by the wind. 

Relationship of the Twisting Action of the Vascular Bundles to 
Phyllotaxis.| — Dr. P. Teitz confirms Schwendener's view § as to the 
mechanical origin of the special mode of phyllotaxis in any particular 
species. It is the result of the action, during the formation of the 
leaves, of the concurrence of definite forces of pressure and traction, 
resulting in a regular law as to the arrangement of the leaves. 

Development of Floating-Leaves.||— Herr G. Karsten has investi- 
gated the cause of the phenomenon that when aquatic or amphibious 
plants whose leaves ordinarily float on the surface of the water grow 
entirely in the air, their petioles elongate greatly. The observations 
were mostly made on Hydrocliaris morsus-ranse, Itanunculus sceleratus, 
and Marsilea quadrifoUa. The conclusion arrived at was that it is the 
oxygen of the atmosphere which causes the arrest of growth of the 
petiole of floating-leaves as soon as the lamina reaches the surface. 
The same is the case also with the water-lilies ; while, on the other 
hand, in Trapa natans and the batrachian Ranunculi, belonging to the 
section B,. aquatilis, the elevation of the floating-leaves to the surface 

* ' Ricerche sul istologia del tegumento seminale del Geranii Italiani,' Venezia, 
1888, 43 pp. (5 pis.). t Bot. Gazette, xiii. (1888) pp. 236-7. 

I Flora, Ixxi. (1888) pp. 419-39 (1 pi.). § See this Jom-nal, 1887, p. 475. 

II Bot. Ztg., xlvi. (1888) pp. 565-78, 581-9. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 89 

depends not so much on the growth of their petiole as on the greater 
or less development of the upper internodes of the floating stem. 

Glands on the Rhizome of Lathraea.* — Herr A. Schertfel has care- 
fully examined the glands in the hollows of the scales on the rhizome 
of Lathrsea squamaria, and has come to a conclusion adverse to the 
function, ascribed to them by some, of assisting in the capture of 
animals. The rod-like bodies found generally, but not invariably, 
attached to the summit of these glands, are not, as some have supposed, 
protoplasmic outgrowths from the gland ; the author believes, on the 
other hand, that he has determined them to be bacteria, the exact 
nature of which requires, however, further investigation. 

In the corresponding glands in Bartsia alpina, the author was quite 
unable to find any similar structures; still less, therefore, than in the 
case of Lathrsea can insectivorous habits be assigned to this plant. 

Adaptation of Anatomical Structure to Climatal Conditions.! — 
Herr E. Giltay classifies under the following heads the contrivances 
for preventing excessive transpiration, viz. : — (1) Eeduction of the 
surface of the leaf (^Statice elongata. Aster Tripolium, Convolvulus Sol- 
danella, Plantago maritima, Schoberia maritima, Halianthus peploides, 
Salicornia herhacea) ; (2) Number, size, structure, and position of the 
stomates ; they are depressed in Eryngium maritimum, Euphorhia Para- 
lias, and in many maritime grasses ; (3) Eeduction of the inter- 
cellular passages (Festuca rubra, Triticum acutum) ; (4) Cuticularizing 
of the epiderm and its extension into the stomates and intercellular 
passages {Eryngium maritimum, Halianthus peploides, Plantago maritima) ; 
(5) Halophytic plants, with large quantities of salts in the cell-sap 
[Salsola Kali). 

p. Pliysiolog'y.J 

(.1) Reproduction and G-ermination. 

Fertilization of Euplirasia.§ —Dr. M. Kronfeld refers to Kerner's 
observations on the mode of fertilization of the various species of 
Euphrasia, and points out that, although they are all distinctly protero- 
gynous, yet, by secondary growth of various parts of the flower, the 
anthers are eventually brought into immediate contact with the stigma, 
which may lead to autogamy. 

Case of Germination of Ranunculus aquatilis.l — M. J, B. Schnetzler 
has determined the presence of leucine, which is formed in considerable 
quantity during the germination of the seeds of Banunculus aquatilis. 
This amide had not before been noticed in the higher plants. 

(2) Nutrition and G-rowth, (including- Movements of Fluids). 

Resistance of plants to causes which alter the normal state of life.^' 
— According to M. J. B. Schnetzler, the substratum of life, the proto- 

» MT. Bot. Inst. Graz, i. (1888) pp. 105-212 (1 pi.)- Cf. this Journal, 1887 
p. 111. 

t Mederl. Kruidk. Archief, iv. (1887) pp. 413-40 (1 pL). See Bot. Centralbl 
xxxvi. (1888) p. 42. 

J This subdivision contains (1) Reproduction and Germination; (2) Nutrition 
and Growth (including Movements of Fluids) ; (3) Irritability ; and (4) Chemical 
Changes (including Respiration and Fermentation). 

§ Biol. Centralbl., viii. (1888) pp. 518-9. 

II Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sci. Nat., xsiv. (1888) pp. 28-9. ^ T. c, pp. 23-7. 



90 SUMMARY OF CUERENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

plasm, in which the resultant of the chemical and physical forces pro- 
duces a state which we call life, offers a remarkable resistance to all the 
actions which would interfere with the harmony of these forces. The 
degree of this resistance varies with the individual, but the end is always 
the maintenance of the integrity of the organism. This result is more 
easily obtained when the organism is of simple constitution ; and the 
equilibrium which exists between the forces is more stable than when 
the organism is more highly constituted and the equilibrium is more 
easily disturbed. 

Action of Oxygen under high pressure on growth.* — From the 
result of experiments on various flowering plants and on Phycomyces 
nitens, Herr S. Jentys finds that an increase of the partial pressure of 
oxygen up to one atmosphere does not, in most cases, exercise any per- 
ceptible influence on the rapidity of growth. Only in a few cases is 
there a distinct acceleration. Beyond one atmosphere an increase in 
the pressure of oxygen retards growth in proportion to the increase. 
The result is the same if the increased pressure is due to nitrogen. 
The author believes compressed oxygen to have a directly injurious 
effect upon the growth of the plant. 

Influence of the Substratum on the Growth of Plants.f — Herr S. 
Dietz finds that the influence said to be exerted by the substratum on 
the direction of the growth of the hypocotyledonary portion of plants 
is due entirely to heliotropism, since it is not exercised in the dark. 
Heliotropism and haptotropism both exercise an influence on the 
sporangiophores of Phycomyces nitens; the contact of fine wires and 
tinfoil affects the direction of growth even at an early stage before the 
complete formation of the sporanges. 

Conduction of Fluids through the Alburnum. | — From observations 
made mainly on the birch, Herr E. Hartig confirms his previous con- 
clusions that the younger or outer alburnum of a trunk is the part 
through which the conduction of water chiefly takes place, the inner 
alburnum and duramen taking but a subordinate part in it. He takes 
the opportunity also of expressing his general concurrence with the 
conclusions of Wieler.§ 

(3) Irritability. 

Porces which determine the Movements in the Lower Organisms. [| — 
Dr. E. Aderhold has attempted to ascertain the causes which determine 
the movements of swarm-spores and of some of the lower algae. In the 
first place with regard to rheotropism and aerotropism, he is of opinion 
that the former does not exist, while Euglena is certainly positively 
aerotropic. The geotropic sensitiveness of Euglena can be demonstrated 
when the aerotropic movement is prevented. Similar phenomena to 
those of Euglena are presented also by the mega- and microzoospores of 
Ghlamydomonas pulvisculus, by JSsematococcus lacustris, and by the swarm- 

* Unters. Bot. Inst. Tiibingen, ii. (1888) pp. 419-64. Sec Bot. Centralbl., xxxvi. 
(1888) p. 105. 

t Unters. Bot. lust. Tubingen, ii. (1888) pp. 478-88. See Bot. Centralbl., xxxvi. 
(1888) p. 106. X Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell,, vi. (1888) pp. 222-5. 

§ See this Journul, 1888, p. 768. 

II Jenaisch. Zeitsch. f. Naturw., xxii. (1888) pp. 310-42. See Bot. Ztg., xlvi. 
(1888) p. 621. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY. ETO. 91 

spores of Ulotlirix tenuis, the latter with a slight difference. Swarm- 
spores of PolypJiagus Euglense and a Bodo (?) appeared to be quite 
indifferent to gravitation ; and diatoms and Oscillariaceae appear to 
be neither geotropic nor aerotropic. 

The most complete series of experiments made were those with 
regard to the heliotropic movements of desmids. He found, in all the 
species examined, that when subjected to diffused light on all sides, the 
longer axis placed itself in such a direction that one end of the cell 
rested on the substratum, while the other placed itself in such a position 
that the angle of elevation was between 30° and 50°. The free end of 
the cell moves about with a motion which the author believes to depend 
on nutation ; but in diffused daylight there is no definite direction of the 
axis nor of the movement. In Pleurotaenium nodulosum and carinatum he 
found a nutating movement of the free end of the cell, the direction 
of the axis changing with the direction of the incident rays of light. 
Gosmariuni Meneghinii and Closterium striolatum exhibit also a definite 
direction of the axis with very weak light ; but this was not the case 
with the other species examined. The direction of the movement in 
Pleurotsenium is towards the light. Desmids are, therefore, positively 
heliotropic. 

When swarm-spores move forwards with the portion which bears the 
cilia in front, this, the author believes, is another illustration of the same 
law. When light is allowed to fall on them on one side, the swarm- 
spores place themselves with their longer axis in the direction of the 
incident light, and with the cilia turned either towards or away from 
the source of light, and then either positive or negative heliotropic 
movement takes place ; the author finds in these phenomena an exact 
analogue of the heliotropic or geotropic curvatures of the higher 
organisms. 

The angle which the alga makes with the substratum varies with the 
species ; and this he terms the " special angle " (Eigenwinkel) of the 
species, and asserts that it is not affected by the nature of the sub- 
stratum. He is able to reconcile with the above theory the statement 
of Stahl that, when moving away from the light, the axis of the alga is 
nearly or quite at rightangles to that of the rays of light, and he 
confirms Stahl's statement that when the illumination is strong, PleurO' 
tsenium exhibits striking negative heliotropism. 

The author has at present been unable to determine whether desmids 
are also geotropic. 

Photo-position of Leaves.* — Herr H. Vochting calls attention to 
some old observations of Eatchinsky that, in Malva rotundifolia and 
in some allied species, at night the leaf-stalk makes a more acute angle 
with the leaf than in the day ; and that in the daytime the leaves 
follow the course of the sun in such a way that the surface of 
the lamina is always at right angles to the incident rays of light, 
whether the radiation be more or less intense. Soon after sunset 
they take up their nocturnal position. These changes in position 
Vochting states to be determined entirely by light, causing the morpho- 
logical upper side only to be illuminated ; the geotropism of the lamina 
and its weight have no influence on these movements. While the 
lamina of the leaf shows neither epinasty nor hyponasty, the lower 

* Bot. Ztg., xlvi. (1888) pp. 505-14, 517-27, 533-41, 549-60 (1 pi.). 



92 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

portion of the petiole is, on the other hand, epinastic. The actual 
movements of the leaf-stalk by which the different positions of the 
lamina are brought about, consist either of curvature or of torsion, or of 
a combination of the two, the movement being always in the direction of 
least resistance. 

Phenomena of Curvature.* — Herr J. Wortmann replies to the 
objections of Elfving to the explanation of the phenomena of geotropic 
curvature advanced by him,! and reaffirms his previous conclusions. 
The vertical elevation from a horizontal organ must be due, as de Vries's 
plasmolytic experiments have shown, to unequal growth of the upper 
and under side of the organ, and this must be the consequence of one of 
two forces, or of a combination of the two — viz. unequal turgidity of the 
two sides, and the unequal stretching of the membrane on the two sides. 
De Vries supports the former theory, viz. that the geotropic curvature 
is due to an accumulation of osmotic substances in the under side of the 
organ. From experiments both on multicellular and on imicellular 
organs like the sporangiophore of Phycomyces, Wortmann has come to 
the opposite conclusion, that there is no evidence of any change in 
turgidity, and therefore in osmotic force ; and that the geotropic curva- 
tures both of unicellular and of multicellular growing organs are caused 
by changes in the extensibility of the membranes, that of the under side 
becoming greater when the geotropism is negative. This is, however, 
not necessarily a mechanical stretching, but may be due to accumula- 
tions of cellulose on the under side, and this again can be the result 
only of movements in the protoplasm which cannot take place except in 
living cells. 

(4) Chemical Chang-es (including' Respiration and Fermentation). 

Chemical process in Assimilation.^ — Di". T. Bokorny has made a 
fresh series of experiments, the results of which he considers further 
confirm the probability of Baeyer's hypothesis that the first product of 
assimilation in plants is formic aldehyde. They were made in the light, 
chiefly on cells of Sjpirogyra. He finds that, when carbon dioxide is 
excluded, but mineral food-material supplied, green cells are able to 
form starch out of methyl-alcohol and out of glycol, as well as out of 
glycerin. 

Decomposition of Albumen in the absence of free oxygen.§ — From 
a series of experiments made chiefly on Triticum vulgare and Vicia Faha, 
Herr W. Palladin draws the following conclusions : — (1) If green plants 
containing non-nitrogenous substances are j)laced in an atmosphere 
destitute of oxygen for not longer than 20 hours, no loss of albumen 
takes place. (2) If, however, the plants have been previously deprived 
of their non-nitrogenous substance, they will, in these circumstances, lose 
a portion of their albumen in the first 20 hours. (3) The decomposition 
of albumen can maintain the life of a plant for a time in an atmosphere 
containing no oxygen ; (4) this decomposition is independent of the 
atmospheric oxygen ; (5) the decomposition of albumen which takes 
place in a non-oxygenous atmosphere during the fourth and fifth days is 

* But. Ztg., xlvi. (1888) pp. 469-78, 485-92. t See this Journal, 1888, p. 259. 

X ' Stud. u. Exper. iib. d. Chera. Vorgang d. Assimilation,' Erlungen, 1888, 36 pp. 
§ Ber. Deutsch. Bot. GeselL, vi. (1888) pp. 205-12. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICEOSCOPY, ETC. 93 

a phenomenon which continues after the death of the plant ; (6) active 
decomposition of albumen takes place in the ordinary atmosphere in the 
dark, beginning even during the first 24 hours. 

•y. General. 

Parasites on Trees.* — Freiherr C. v, Tubeuf describes the diseases 
produced in a number of trees by parasites, both phanerogamic and 
cryptogamic. These include Botrytis Douglasii on Pseudotsuga Dou- 
glasii ; Arceuihobium Douglasii and americanum on Pseudotsuga IJouglasii 
and Pinus Murrayana ; the Japanese Loranthacese ; a new parasitic fungus 
Trichosphseria parasitica on several conifers ; the witch-broom of Alnus 
incana caused by Taphrina horealis ; Pestalozzia conorum Picese n. sp. ; 
and the mycorhiza of Pinus Cenibra. 

Protection of Plants against Snails.j — Herr E. Stahl goes in great 
detail into the means of protection exhibited by many plants against the 
attacks of snails, whether land or fresh-water species. These may be 
classed under two categories — substances contained within the cells, and 
external morphological protection. 

Among the former may be named tannin, an acid cell-sap, especially 
if due to calcium binoxalate, volatile oils, bitter substances, as in 
Gentiana, Polygala, &c., and the oil-receptacles of some Hepaticee, &c. 

Among external protections are stiff hairs, impregnation of the 
epiderm with lime or silica, and the formation of mucilage or jelly (this 
applies especially to water-plants). Eaphides also protect plants, both 
by their poisonous properties, and by the injury inflicted by the sharp 
crystals on the internal organs of animals ; some animals, however, such 
as the caterpillars of Deilephila, consume greedily plants which contain 
raphides. 

B. CBYPTOGAMIA. 

Cryptogamia Vascularia. 

Chlorophyll-bodies of Selaginella.J — Herr G. Haberlandt describes 
the structure of the chlorophyll-bodies in several species of Selaginella. 

In the cells which are specially connected with assimilation in many 
species of Selaginella, there is only a single chlorophyll-body, resembling 
the similar arrangement in Anthoceros, and this has frequently somewhat 
of a cup-form ; but in its finer structure it agrees completely with the 
chloroplasts of the higher plants, showing distinct granulation. In the 
cells of the base of the leaf there is usually either one irregularly lobed 
chlorophyll-body, or several of different forms. In the parenchymatous 
cells of the cortex of the stem are a number of chloroplasts, usually more 
or less of a spindle-form. They are united together by delicate colour- 
less strings of protoplasm forming a continuous branched or unbranched 
chain in each cell. The substance of these chains does not belong to 
the cytoplasm, but to the chlorophyll-bodies. Some of the chloroplasts 
in these chains are usually transformed into leucoplasts. The stai'ch in 
them occurs in the form of either minute grains or rods. 

As regards their history of development, Haberlandt finds even in 

* ' Beitr. z. Kenntniss d. Baumkrankheiten,' Berlin, 1888, 58 pp. See Bot Zto-., 
xlvi. (188S) p. 659. 

t Jenaische Zeitschr. f. Naturw., xxii. (1888) 126 pp. See Bot. Centralbl , 
xxxvi. (1888) p. 164. J Flora, Ixxi. (1888) pp. 221-308 (1 pL). 



94 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the meristem of the growing-point small pale chloroplasts ; the chloro- 
phyll-chains in the young cortical cells being formed from them by suc- 
cessive bipartitions ; a minute portion of the colourless protoplasm 
remains over in the form of the connecting strings. From the mode 
of formation and position of the starch-grains, the author believes that 
the nucleus plays an important part in their production. 

Prothallium of Lycopodium.* — Dr. M. Treub describes the pro- 
thallium of a new species of Lycopodium, L. Sala'kense, found by him in 
one spot only in Java, and allied to L. cernuum. Of the three types of 
Lycopodium-TpTothaWinm, it belongs to that of L. cernuum, being inter- 
mediate between that species and L. inundatum. 

Some days after the spores were sown in the laboratory they de- 
veloped a number of small tubers or primary tubercles, and growth then 
ceased for a time. After a lengthened period of rest, apparently inde- 
pendent of external circumstances, a further development of the pro- 
thallium took place into at first a single, and afterwards several filaments 
consisting of several rows of cells lying side by side. The prothallium 
of L. Sala'kense does not bear the small outgrowths found on that of 
L. inundatum which perform the function of leaves, but in their place 
small elevations. On the cylindrical portion near the apex are produced 
first the antherids and later the archegones ; but the development of 
these organs presents no special features. Ehizoids are almost or 
entirely wanting; but the prothallium is green, and not saprophytic. 

The prothallia of L. carinatum, L. nummular if olium, and L. Hippuris 
belong to the type of L. Phlegmaria, and the last contains also the 
same endophyte. The prothallium of L. nummularifolium consists of 
filaments which are not more than three cells in thickness. 

Influence of Light on the Origin of Organs in the Fern-embryo.t 

. Herr B. Heinricher confirms Leitgeb's statement that the origin of 

organs in the embryo of the Polypodiacese is influenced only by 
its position in the prothallium, and is quite independent of gravity ; 
and his observations lead also to the additional conclusion that 
it is quite independent of light. The experiments were made on the 
prothallium of Geratopteris thalictroides, but the author has no doubt 
the results apply equally to the whole of the Polypodiacese. The first 
root originates in all cases from the octant in the embryo which faces 
the neck of the archegone. This first root exhibits extraordinarily 
vigorous negative heliotropism ; when the light falls on the embryo 
from below, the root rises vertically erect from the nutrient fluid, 
unaffected by gravity. Temperature has also a very powerful influence 
on the development of the embryo. The position of the archegones on 
the underside of the prothallium, which is determined by light, insures 
that the root shall be formed on the shaded, the first shoot on the 
illuminated side. 

Muscineae. 

Acutifolium-Section of Sphagnum. J — Herr C. Warnstorf gives a 
critical review of this group of European bog-mosses, which he further 

♦ Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, -vii. (1888) pp. 141-50. See Bot. Contralbl., xxxvi. 
(1888) p. 101. Cf. this Journal, 1888, p. 262. 

t MT. Bot. Inst. Graz, i. (1888) pp. 237-53 (3 figs.). 

X Verhandl. Bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenburg, 1888, pp. 79-127 (2 pis.). See Bot. 
Ceutralbl., xxxvi. (1888) p. 69. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSOOPY, ETC. 95 

classifies as follows :— A. Stem-leaves with completely resorbed cell- 
membranes in their upper portion (*S^. fimhriatum Wils., Girgensohiii 
Euss.) ; B. Stem-leaves never with completely resorbed cell-membranes, 
usually toothed at the apex (^S. Russowii Warnst., fuscum Klinggr., 
tenellum Klinggr., Warnstorfii Russ., qu'mquefarium Warnst., acutifolium 
Ehrh. ex p., suhnitens E. & W., molle Sulliv.). 

Rabenhorst's Cryptogamic Flora of Germany (Musci). — The two 
most recently issued parts of this work (Nos. 9 and 10) are almost 
entirely occupied by the family Pottiacese, which is divided into the 
two sub-families Pottiese and Trichostomese, distinguished by the 
structure of the mid-rib. The former comprises the genera Pterygo- 
neurum, Aloina, Crossidium, Pottia, Desmatodon, Tortula, Dialytrichia, 
and SyntricMa, the latter Timmiella, Hydrogonium, Leptodontium, Tricho- 
stomum, Oxystegus, Leptobarhula, PleurocJisete, Tortella, Didymodon, and 
Barbala. Each genus is illustrated by at least one beautifully executed 
woodcut. 

Algae. 

Chromatophores of Phseosporese.* — Herr J. Eeinke has examined 
the form and appearance of the chromatophores in a number of Phseo- 
sporese, for the purpose of determining whether any character can 
be derived from them that will be of use in classification. He finds 
that, while in some instances a special form of chromatophore is 
characteristic of all the members of a group, in other cases nearly 
related species will differ widely in this respect. Thus both the genera 
of ScytosiphoneaB, Phyllitis, and Scytosiphon, are characterized by the 
presence of a single large oval or sometimes nearly rectangular chro- 
matophore in the parietal protoplasmic layer of each cell. In the 
Sphacelariacese and Laminariacese there are also general characters to be 
derived from the chromatophores. In the Ectocarpacese, on the other 
hand, the form and arrangement of the chromatophores are constant 
within the species only, varying greatly in nearly related species ; and 
the same is the case in Balfsia and Myrionema. 

Mode of Distribution of Algae.f — Herr W. Migula gives a list of 
AlgsB and Schizophycese found attached to water-beetles, especially 
Gyrinus natator, in a tarn at a height of 1050 metres. He believes that 
these insects play an important part in their distribution. 

Genetic Connection of Draparnaldia g-lomerata and Palmella 
uvseformis.l — Herr 0. F. Andersson has found a mass of Draparnaldia 
glomerata in the spring, partly in the ordinary vegetative condition, 
partly with resting-spores. These last consisted of round cells inclosed 
in a membrane, identical in size, form, colour, and nature of the cell- 
walls, with Palmella uvseformis Ktz. Every intermediate state between 
the two occurred on the same plant, and it was evident that the two 
were stages in the cycle of development of the same species. 

Inferior Alg8e.§ — In continuation of his previous researches on the 
lower forms of vegetable life, M. P. A. Dangeard reviews the position 

* Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., vi. (1888) pp. 213-7 (1 pi.). 

t Biol. Centralbl., viii. (188S) pp. 514-7. 

t Naturvet. Studentsallsk. Upsala, Nov. 5, 1887. See Bot. Centralbl., xxxv 
(1888) p. 3.51. 

§ Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bot.), vii. (1888) pp. 105-75 (2 pis.). Cf. this Journal, 1888, 
p. 754. 



96 SUMMARY OF QUERENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

and structure of the Cklamydomonadmese, whicli lie regards as a sub- 
diviflion of tlie Volvocinese, and to be separated from the Chrysomona- 
dineaj, which belong properly to the animal kingdom. The points of 
departure of the Volvocinese from the Chrysomonadineae is Polytoma 
uvella Ehr., which does not possess the power of absorbing solid aliment 
into its interior, but which has no chlorophyll. 

Very nearly related to Polytoma is Chlorogonium euclilorum Ehr., 
under which name two species have hitherto been confounded, and the 
conjugating form of which has been described by Ehrenberg as Dyas 
viridis. A new genus and species Cercidium elongatum is described, 
differing from Chlorogonium in having only two amyliferous corpuscles 
stained a light blue by iodine, instead of five or six ; it is reproduced 
sexually by gametes formed six in a cell ; the germination has not been 
observed. In the same circle of affinity come also Phacotus angulosus 
Stein (Cryptoglena angulosa Cart.) and Phacotus viridis Pert. 

The author's previous researches on Chlamydomonas and Chlamydo- 
coccus * are then given more in detail ; and a new genus and species 
described, Pithiscus Klebsii, nearly related to them, found among Gonium 
and Pandorina. The body is barrel-shaped, enveloped in a thick mem- 
brane ; at the base of a small conical anterior papilla are four cilia ; the 
protoplasm is coloured an intense green ; there is a nucleolated nucleus, a 
posterior amyliferous corpuscle, and a pigment-spot ; reproduction takes 
place by two, four, or eight zoospores. To the same family belong also 
Tetraselmis cordiformis Stein, Coccomonas Stein, and Chlorangium Stein. 

In the general review of the characters of the Chlamydomonadineaa 
it is stated that they are distinguished by the presence of special bodies, 
charged with the production of starch, the amyliferous corpuscles ; these 
are usually one or two in number, occasionally five or six. There are 
always two or three contractile vacuoles. Eeproduction takes place by 
zoospores or by conjugation of zoogametes ; in the latter case the en- 
velope of the gametes may contribute or not to the formation of the 
zygote (zygosperm). In some genera the sexual mode of reproduction 
is replaced by encystment. 

The author then proposes the establishment of a new family, the 
PoLTBLEPHARiDE^, founded on a single new genus and species, Poly- 
hlepharides singularis. Its internal structure agrees with that of the 
Chlamydomonadinese, but it differs in its mode of multiplication, viz. by 
longitudinal division of the body into two individuals ; cysts are also 
formed. 

Under Volvocineae proper the author includes the genera Gonium, 
Pandorina, Eudorina, Stephanosphaera, and Volvox ; the HydrodictyesB 
(Hydrodictyon, Pediastrum, Sorastrum, and Coelastrum) forming quite a 
distinct group. 

The provisional group Teteaspore.^ comprises the genera Gloeocystis, 
Apiocystis, Schizochlamys, and Tetraspora, characterized by the property 
of surrounding themselves by a mass of gelatin. They are reproduced 
by biciliated zoospores ; conjugation of gametes takes place in Tetra- 
spora, and the formation of cysts in Gloeocystis; they are chiefly 
distinguished from the Chlamydomonadineee by the immobility of the 
cell during the vegetative period. 

The Pleurococcaoe^, comprising the genera Pleurococcus, Dactylo- 
coccus, BapMdium, Scenedesmus, and Nephrocytium,-\ are distinguished 
* See this Journal, 1888, p. 1004. t Ibid., p. 1013. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY^ MICROSCOPY, ETC. 97 

from the Tetrasporesa by the absence of the power to form zoospores ; the 
production of new cells takes place by repeated bipartitions of the pro- 
toplasm; each cell is capable of becoming encysted. Cosmocladium, 
sometimes incorrectly included here, belongs to the Desmidieas. Klebs's 
family of Endosph^race^ is made up of the genera Chlorochytrium, 
Endosphsera, Phyllohium, Siud Scotinosphsera ; the cells produce zoospores, 
which may be sexual or not. The zygote (zygosperm) resulting from 
the conjugation of the zoogametes gives birth, in Phyllohium, to a thallus, 
which may hibernate in the encysted condition. In the Charaoie^, 
consisting of the genus Characium alone, there are mega- and micro- 
zoospores, both apparently non-sexual. 

The author concludes by stating that the Chlamydomonadineae, 
detaching themselves from the Flagellata, constitute the base of the 
great group of Algae, and that there is a clear distinction between the 
lower members of the animal and vegetable kingdoms in the mode of 
nutrition, animal digestion taking place in the interior of the protoplasm, 
vegetable digestion in contact with the cell-wall ; while assimilation is 
subject to the same laws in both kingdoms. 

New Algae from Porto Rico.*— Dr. M. Mobius describes a new 
species and genus of epiphytic algae, PJiyllactidium tropicum, from Porto 
Kico. It occurs as small discs resembling Goleochsete on the leaves of 
various orchids, but without appearing to have any organic connection 
with them. The nearly circular thallus consists of repeatedly bifur- 
cating rows of cells, each containing a nucleus ; growth takes place in 
the same way as in Mycoidea, by the division of the peripheral cells. 
The thallus also puts out ascending filaments from certain cells, which 
are not hyaline bristles, as in Goleochsete, but are divided transversely 
into a number of cells. It is propagated by swarmspores, between which 
no conjugation was observed, but which develope directly into a new 
thallus. They are formed in zoosporanges which are transformations of 
the ends of ordinary filaments of the thallus ; the number formed in a 
sporange varies between 8 and 32. A Ghroolepus-iovm of the alga is 
also described ; and, as in the case of Mycoidea, the author believes that 
it unites in a symbiotic manner with a fungus to form an epiphytic 
lichen. Dr. Mobius placed Phyllactidium near Mycoidea, and considers 
it to belong probably to the Chroolepideae. 

Several other algae from Porto Kico are also described, and among 
them the little-known Gompsopogon chalyheus Ktz., a fresh-water Floridea 
found growing on leaves of a Potamogeton. 

Algae of New Zealand and Australia.! — Prof. 0. Nordstedt describes 
the fresh-water algae collected by Dr. S. Berggren in New Zealand and 
Australia in 1874 and 1875. Among them are a number of new species 
belonging to the genera Aphanochsete, Bhizoclonium, Hyalotheca, Euas- 
trum, Staurastrum, Gosmarium, &c. 

Fungi (including' liiclienes). 

Sporids of Lichens.J — Eev. W. Johnson claims for lichens a charac- 
ter quite distinct from fungi, as seen in the nature of their tissues, as 
well as in the circumstances of their growth. Lichens never putrefy 

* Hedwigia, xxvii. (1888) pp. 221-49 (3 pis.). 
t K. Sveusk. Vetens. Akad. HiiudL, xxii. (1888) 98 pp. (7 pis.). 
X North of England Micr. Soc, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Dec. 11, 1888. 
1889. H 



98 SUMMAEY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

like fungi, and they endure for ages unaffected by frost or snow, whereas 
fungi are short-lived and disappear on the first approach of frost. 
Lichens have many chemical elements in their composition unknown to 
fungi, such as colouring matters, various acids, and lichenin. The 
hyphaa and paraphyses of the latter are thin-walled, non-elastic, non- 
amylaceous, and dissolve in hydrate of potash ; while those of lichens 
are thicker-walled, more flexible, and do not dissolve in hydrate of 
potash. A difference is also manifested in the spores of lichens ; they 
are smoother, capable of greater endurance, their walls are thicker, more 
mucose and pellucid than those of fungi. 

The development of sporids in the asci is traced and illustrated, 
but Stahl's theory of the origin of the apothece in a fertilized ascogone 
was doubted. The apothece may begin in an act of fertilization by the 
" spermatia " (pollinoids), while much mystery still hangs about the 
process of lichen-fertilization, yet present knowledge, as far as it goes, 
favours the idea that such fertilization takes place in the substance out 
of which the spores are formed rather than by direct contact between 
the " spermatia " and the spores themselves, and the impregnated mass 
could only take place at the origin of the apothece, or at some initiatory 
stage, as the spores and asci are developed within it ; but that the 
apothece springs from a fertilized ascogone is not proved. It seems 
rather to begin in the fruitful centre, by the hypha becoming denser, and 
then differentiating into the cellular hypothece or bed, from which arise 
the whole contents of the hypothece. 

Lichen spores originate in the hyaline protoplasmic contents of the 
ascus or theca, which become more grumous as the parent-cell advances. 
Through the pellucid walls of the theca denser spots begin to show, 
casting a slight shadow, as may be seen in the young asci of Pertusaria 
fallax, PJiyscia ciliaris, &c. These denser spots are the spores taking 
shape, and they gradually show a thin coating and distinct form. The 
spore is a double-walled cell of varying size and shape, simple or 
septate. 

How the colour of lichen-spores is taken up, or whence it is 
secreted, is a mystery ; but there is the fact, in many lichens, of a hyaline 
or colourless closed theca or spore-sac, full of blackish-brown or reddish- 
brown spores. The coloured pigment of the spores is lodged, not in the 
contents, but in the epispore or outer wall. When spores of PJiyscia 
pulverulenta are broken up, every separate particle retains the same dark 
colour as when the spore is entire. 

Saccharomyces apiculatus.* — Herr C. Amthor concludes, from the 
different composition of the same wine fermented by different cells of 
this ferment, that there must be distinct varieties of the yeast. The 
total amount oi acid formed during fermentation is about three times 
greater than that found by Pasteur with ordinary yeast. In beer-wort, 
S. apiculatus caused, in 30 days, the formation of only 0'93 per cent, of 
alcohol. The author believes that this species does not ferment maltose, 
and that this property furnishes us with a means, not only of detecting 
small quantities of dextrose in the presence of maltose, but of estimating 
the quantity present by the amount of alcohol formed. 

* Zeitschr. Phys. Chem.. xii. (1888) pp. 558-64. See Journ, Oliem. Soc, 1888 
(Abstr.), p. 1218. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 99 

Kefir.* — Sig. G. Arcangeli has investigated the source of this intoxi- 
cating drink prepared in the Caucasus by the fermentation of cows' milk. 
The ferment is sold in the form of tubercle-like bodies from 1 mm. to 
1 cm. in diam.j of a yellow colour and horny consistency. These pre- 
serve their activity for a long period, and induce fermentation in milk 
in twenty-four hours at the ordinary temperature. Arcangeli agrees 
with Kern "f that the ferment is a cultural form of Saccharomyces cerevisise, 
closely resembling S. minor. He was unable to detect with certainty 
the presence oi Bacillus acidi-lactici. The organism described by Fliigge 
and others as Dispora caucasica, he believes to be a form of Bacillus 
suhtilis, which, coming in contact with the grains of kefir, has the power 
of peptonizing the albuminoids and determining the partial solution of 
the casein. 

New Type of Hymenomycetes.l — Under the name Hymenoconidium 
petasatum, Herr H. Zukal describes a new fungus found on rotting 
leaves and fruits of the olive under a glass bell. Eesembling somewhat 
a minute Marasmius, it yet differs in some respects from all hitherto 
known hymenomycetous fungi. The hymenium clothes the upper 
convex side of the pileus in the form of a smooth layer. The densely 
packed club-shaped basids (?) bear each a single brownish spore with 
spinous thickenings. The spore is not formed by budding nor from 
a sterigma, but by the cutting off of the upper swollen portion of the 
basid (?) by a septum ; the lower portion becoming the sporophore, the 
upper portion the spore. All attempts to cause the spores to germinate 
were unsuccessful. The author believes Hymenoconidium to present a 
type of very simply organized Hymenomycetes, in which the conidio- 
phore has not become specialized into basids. 

TJstilago Treubii.§ — Graf zu Solms-Laubach describes this new 
species, which forms small wart-like excrescences on Polygonium chinense 
in Java, with a curved stalk and dark violet ustilago-spores. It causes 
the production of abnormal wood in the cambium. The spores are 
separated from one another by vertical rows of parenchymatous cells 
which are connected above and below with the closed tissue. When the 
spores are ripe they burst through the outermost layer of the tissue, 
and these columns project in the form of a capillitium-like structure 
which promotes the dissemination of the spores by protecting them from 
moisture, and thus preventing their germination before they are scattered. 
The spores are about 4 /* in diameter, and germinate in the ordinary 
way, producing a promycele which is usually short and unicellular, on 
which are borne terminal or lateral sporids which conjugate before the 
germination of the filament. The pathological structures produced by 
this parasite bear a strong resemblance to galls. 

SaprolegniesB.ll — A posthumous fragment on this subject by Prof. 
A. de Bary is published by Graf zu Solms-Laubach. Four new genera 
are briefly described, viz. : —(1) Leptolegnia ; resembling Saprolegnia, 

* Nuov. Gioru. Bot. Ital., xx. (1888) pp. 381-7. 
t Cf. this Journal, 1882, p. 383. 

I Verhandl. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien, xxxviii. (1888). See Biol. 
Centralbl., viii. (1888) p. 513. 

§ Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, vi. (18S8) pp. 79-92 (1 pi.). See Bot. Centralbl., 
xxxvi. (1888) p. 67. 

II Bot. Ztg,, xlvi. (1S88) pp. 597-610, 613-21, 629-36, 615-53 (2 pis.). 

H 2 



100 SUMMARY OF COREENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

but with only a single oosperm whicli entirely fills up the oogone. 
(2) Pythiopsis ; gonids with two terpoiinal cilia, escaping separately from 
the mouth of the sporange, and moving about with a swarming motion, 
then coming to rest and germinating without becoming invested with 
cellulose or a second period of swarming ; zoosporanges terminal on the 
branches of the primary filaments, in rows, or with a cymose arrangement, 
never proliferous after emptying; oogones and oosperms as in Sapro- 
legnia. (3) Aplanes, resembling Achlya, but the gonids not swarming. 
(4) Leptomitus {Apodya Corn.) ; thallus divided into compartments by 
strictures without any actual septum, each containing a single nucleus ; 
zoosporanges terminal, often several, one behind another, not proliferous ; 
zoospores with terminal cilia, germinating directly, without a second 
period of swarming ; sexual organs unknown. The following new 
species are also described : — Saprolegnia monilifera, Leptolegnia caudata, 
Pythiopsis cymosa, Achlya apiculata, A. oligacantha. 

Structure of White Rot.*— MM. G. Foex and L. Eavaz state that 
a transverse section of the portion of a plant attacked by " white rot " 
reveals the presence of the mycele of Coniothyrium diplodiella. The 
filaments which compose it have a uniform structure. The spores arise 
on the stigmata, to the summit of which they remain fixed until they 
have finished growing, when they detach themselves from their support. 
They are generally ovoid in form ; and if they are placed in a drop of 
water they germinate in a few hours at a temperature of 18° to 20°. 
As for the remedies to apply for " white rot," it has been found that 
the salts of copper are the most efficacious. 

Cancer of the Cinchona, j — Herr 0. Warburg describes two kinds of 
cancer which attack the cinchona-plantations of Java : one on the root, 
the other on the stem. The former closely corresponds to the disease 
produced by Agaricus melleus, and appears to be due to a fungus pro- 
pagated by an underground rhizomorph rather than by spores. The 
latter is caused by a different fungus, propagated by its spores, and is 

not unlike the cancer of the larch. 

• 

New Fungi of the Vine. J — Dr. F. Cavara enumerates the following 
new species of fungus as attacking the vine : — Physalospora haccse, Glceo- 
sporium Physalospora, Pestalozzia viticola, Napicladium pusillum, Alter- 
naria vitis, and Tuhercularia acinorum. The author gives the following 
diagnosis of the new genus Briosia : — Stroma verticale, cylindraceum, 
stipitatum, hyphis fasciculatis compositum, apice capitulum compactum 
efformans; conidia globosa, tipice catenulata, fusca, acrogena. 

Diseases of the Vine.§ — MM. P. Viala and L. Eavaz state that the 
disease known as melanose, which is caused by the parasite Septoria 
ampelina B. & C, originally came from America. Melanose appears 
only to attack the leaves of the vine, and has not as yet been observed 
either on the branches or on the fruit. Small circular brown spots, 
which are equally apparent on both surfaces of the leaf, are the first 
indications of this disease ; these grow rapidly and change in colour to a 
deep brown or sometimes even black. The mycele of this fungus, which 

* Kev. Mycol., x. (1888) pp. 201-3. 

t SB. Gesell. Bot. Hamburg, iii. (1887) pp. 62-72. See Bot. Centralbl., xxxvi. 
(1888) p. 145. 

X Rev. Mycol., x. (1888) pp. 207-8. § Ibid., pp. 193-9. 



ZOOLOGY AND EOT AN Y, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 101 

grows in the tissue of the leaf, is wavy, thin, and hyaline, and the 
pyonids are ovoid and nearly entirely buried in the palisade-tissue of 
the leaf. The cells of the envelope of the pyenid are small, irregular, 
and with a rather thick membrane ; the innermost layer gives rise to the 
spores. 

Rabenhorst's Cryptogamic Flora of Germany (Fungi). — The two 

last-published parts (29 and 30) of this work are still devoted to the 
Discomycetes. The first sub-order is completed by the families Pseudo- 
phacidiese (Pseudophacidium, Coccophacidium, PseudograpMs, Clithris, 
Cryptomyces, and Dothiora). The second sub-order, or Stictidege, is made 
up of the following families : — Eustictese (TrocMla, Ocellaria, Neevia, 
Xylographa, Briardia, Stegia, Propolis, Phragmonsevia, Cryptodiscus, 
Propolidium, Xylogramma, Mellitiosporium, Nsemacyclus, l^Stictis, and 
ScMzoxylori) ; Ostropeee (Laquearia, Ostropa, and Itohergea), The third 
sub-order or Tryblidiese commences with the families Tryblidiacese 
(Tryhlidiopsis and Tryhlidium), and Heterosphaeriese (HeterospTiseria^ 
Odontotrema, and Scleroderris). 

Protophyta. 
a. Schizopliyceee. 

' Dieranochsete a new genus of Protococcacese.* — Under the name 
Dicranochsete reniformis, Herr G. Hieronymus describes a new genus and 
species of Protococcaceas, growing as an epiphyte on Mosses and Hepaticae, 
and on decaying grass-leaves. It is hemispherical or reniform, with the 
indentation facing the substratum ; at the base of this indentation is a fine 
hyaline dichotomously branched bristle, composed, like the cell-wall, of 
gelatin. In the summer swarm-spores are formed by continued bi- 
partition of the protoplasmic cell-contents and of its nucleus. They 
are naked, and have apparently four cilia and a red pigment-spot. They 
germinate directly without conjugation. 

The author claims also to have established that CMamydomyxa 
lahyrinthoides belongs to the same cycle of development as Protococcus 
macrococcus, P. aureus, Urococcus insignis, and Peridinium cinctum. 

Structure of Diatom- valves.f — Mr. J. Deby has made a minute 
examination of the structure of diatom-valves, by imbedding in a 
mixture of zinc chloride and zinc oxide, or of magnesium chloride with 
magnesia, and then making excessively fine sections of the dried mass. 
His conclusion is that the valve consists of several layers, but is not 
everywhere perforated in the fashion of a sieve, the result differing 
therefore from that of Van Ermengem, and from Prinz's observations, in 
which the membranes which close the pores had completely dis- 
appeared. 

New Species of Navicula. — Mr. F. Kitton describes the following 
new species : — Navicula venustissima. Valve elliptical, apices more or 
less produced, marginal striae close, slightly radiant, moniliform, space 
between the stride and median line irregularly punctate, puncta some- 
times confluent, length 0-008 in. to O'Ol in. In dredgings from 
Samarang, Java, and Aberdeen Bay, Hong Kong, made by Mr. A. 
Durrand. The dredgings in which the above species was found also 

* JB. Schles. Gesell. Vaterl. Cultur, 1887, pp. 293-7. See Bot. Centralbl., xxxv. 
(1888) p. 321. t Jouru. Quekett Micr. Club, ii. (1888) pp. 308-16. 



102 SUMMARY or CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

contained JV". Durrandii, not so fine as those occurring in tlie gathering 
from the island of Rea ; many of the valves are buUate on each side 
of the median line ; the presence or absence of these markings is, 
however, of no specific value. 

Diatoms of Hot Springs.* — Count F. Castracane enumerates the 
diatoms found among the " muffe " in the hot springs of Valdieri, at a 
height of 1336 metres, the temperature of the water varying between 
28° and 69° C. in different springs. He finds the prevalent forms not 
to be those usually found at high elevations, from which he draws the 
conclusion that the distribution of diatoms is dependent rather on 
temperature than on altitude. 

Composition of the Marine Tripolis of the Valley of Metaurus.f — 
According to Count F. Castracane, the community of types of 
diatoms in all the marine tripolis of Italy indicates that they are a 
portion of one and the same deposit. In the tripolis examined by him 
from the valley of the Metaurus between Fano and Fossombrone, the 
diatoms are nearly all of familiar species. But the following new 
genera are described : — Thalassiotrix. — Frustulis linearibus radiatis per 
pulvillum gelineum armilliforme unitis, bino erectiorum punctulorum 
ordine instructis ; post frustulorum deduplicatione armilla disrumpitur, 
et frustula in seriem alternam per isthmum triangularem coalescunt. 
Etmodiscus. — Frustula solitaria discoidalia ; valvis tenuissime et in- 
conspicue striolatis; forma plus minus convexa, quandoque diversi- 
mode denticulata ; zona connectiva punctulata. 

Classification of the Cyanophycese.^ — Dr. A. Hansgirg gives a 
synopsis of all the known genera and subgenera of Cyanophycese, or, as 
he prefers to call them, Myxophyceje. He arranges them under three 
orders, viz. : — (1) Glceosiphb^ (suborders HeterocysteaB and Iso- 
cystese) ; genera, Stigonema, Eapaloaiphon, Mastigocoleus, Capsosira, Nosto- 
chopsis, Scytonema, Tolypothrix, Plectonema, Desmonema, Hydrocoryne, 
Diplocaulon, IsacHs, B,ivularia, Gloeotrichia, Brachytrichia, Calothrix, 
Sacconema, LeptocJisete, AmpMthrix, MicrocJisete, Nostoc, Anahsena, Nodu- 
laria, Microcoleus, Inactis, Symploca, Lynghya, Isocystis, Aphanizomenon, 
arranged under various subfamilies and tribes. (2) Chamjesiphonace^ ; 
genera, Chamsesiphon, Clastidium, GodlewsMa, Hyella, Cyanocystis, 
Dermocarpa, Cyanoderma, Pleurocapsa. (3) Cheoococcoide^ ; genera, 
Allogonium, Oncobyrsa, Xenococcus, Entophysalis, Homalococcus, Placoma, 
Gloeochsete, Chroothece, Gloeothece, Aphanothece, SynecJiococcus, Dactylo- 
coccopsis, Glaucocystis, Coccochloris, Merismopedium, Tetrapedia, Coelo- 
sphserium, Gomphosphseria, Clathrocystis, Polycystis, Gloeocapsa, Aphano- 
capsa, Chroococcus, Cryptoglena, Chroomonas. Oscillaria is reduced to a 
subgenus of Lynghya. 

Dactylococcopsis is a new genus, with the following characters : — 
Cellulae graciles, solitari«e vel 2-8 in familias fasciculatim consociatse, 
fusiformes, subovatae-lanceolatse, modice vel falcato-curvatse, utroque 
polls angustatis, subacutis vel longe cuspidatis. Cytioplasma pallide 
serugineum vel olivaceo subcseruleum, granula oleose nitentia, bina raro 
pluria vel singula includens. Membrana tenuis, homogenea, lasvis. 
Propagatio fit cellularum divisione ad unam directionem. The only 
species, D. rhapMdioides, was found on wet rocks. 

* Notarisia, iii. (1888) pp. 384-6. Cf. this Journal, 1888, p. 633. 

t Boll. Soc. Geol. Ital., v. (1886) 7 pp. $ Notarisia, iii. (18SS) pp. 584-90. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 103 

Heterocystous Nostocaceae.* — MM. E. Bornet and C. Flahault 
complete their monograph of the Heterocystous Nostocaceee contained 
in the principal herbaria of France. The fourth and last tribe, the 
NostocesB, constitute the simplest group, and are divided into the two 
subtribes Anabeeneae and Aulosirea3. 

The AnabaeneEe are distinguished by the sheath being inconspicuous 
or dissolving into jelly, or firmer, thick and gelatinous, and are made 
up of the six genera, Nostoc, Wollea, n. gen., Anahsena, Aphanizomenon, 
Nodularia, and Cylindrospermum. Under Nostoc are described twenty-nine 
species, arranged in nine sections; among them is one new species 
N. maculiforme, found on Enteromorpha intestinalis. The new genus 
Wollea, belonging to the United States, is founded on Sphserozyga saccata, 
and is thus described: — Thallus tubulosus, cylindricus, mollis; fila 
suberecta, paralleliter agglutinata vel leniter curvato-implicata, vaginis 
confluentibus ; heterocystae intercalares ; sporas catenatas, heterocystis 
contigusB vel ab eis remotae. Anahsena includes eleven species, divided 
among the three sections, Trichormus, Dolichospermum, and SpJiserozyga. 
Two new species, A. sphserica and laxa, are described. Aphanizomenon 
includes only two species, and Nodularia four, one of the latter, N. 
sphserocarpa, being new. Under Cylindrospermum are enumerated five 
species. 

The subtribe Aulosireae is characterized by the filaments having 
a thin membranaceous sheath, and being free or agglutinated into 
parallel bundles. It is made up of the genera Aulosira with two 
species, and Hormothamnion Griin. also with two, one of them, H. 
solutum, being new. 

As an appendix is added the subtribe Isocysteae of Borzi, made up 
of the single species Isocystis Messanensis Borz. The subtribe differs 
from the typical Nostocege by the absence of heterocysts, and is thus 
characterized : — Trichomata cellulis perdurantibus (heterocystis) desti- 
tuta, muco parcissimo involuta, in thallum irregulariter diffusum 
densissime aggregata, raro subsolitaria. 

Relationship of Bacillus muralis and Glaucothrix gracillima.t — 
Prof. H. Tomaschek adduces further arguments ''against the view of 
Hansgirg | that there is a genetic connection between these two organ- 
isms, and that' of Zukal § that the Schizomycetes are descended from 
the Schizophyceae. 

He regards Bacillus muralis as an endosporous and not an arthro- 
sporous bacterium (in de Bary's sense), and therefore characterized by 
the production of aplanospores, while in the Phycochromaceae only 
akinetes are formed. The objection that B. muralis is not a true 
bacterium, founded on its immotility, is also not conclusive, since the 
same objection would apply to B. anthracis. Equally inconclusive is 
the objection that B. muralis is invested with a gelatinous envelope, 
since this also holds good of some undoubted bacteria, such as Bacterium 
cyanogenum, and of Beggiatoa. 

Prof. Tomaschek has found intermixed with Bacillus muralis^ true 
zoogloea-colonies of Glaucothrix gracillima or Aphanothece caldariorum, 

* Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bot.), vii. (1888) pp. 177-26. Cf. this Journal, 1888, p. 472. 
t Bot. Centralbl., xxxvi. (1888) pp. 180 (figs. 2-6). Cf. this Journal, 1888, 
p. 786. 

t See this Journal, 1888, p. 787. § Ibid., 1884, p. 601. 



104 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

and finds very important points of difference between them. In A. 
caldariorum the rods or cocci have a distinct bluish or verdigris colour ; 
the gelatinons envelopes of the separate cells have a circular or oval 
form ; and not more than from two to four rods or cocci are inclosed in 
the same envelope. In Bacillus rnuralis, on the other hand, the cells are 
colourless ; the number of rods inclosed in the same envelope is con- 
siderably greater, up to eight ; and of the spore-like micrococci a very 
large number go to make up the secondary micro-zooglcea, the envelope 
being usually considerably longer in one direction ; and the rods and 
cocci have a tendency, like those of Nostoc, to arrange themselves in 
rows. 

8. Scliizomycetes. 

Bacterinm Balbiardi, a chromog-enous marine Bacterium.*— M. A. 
Billet describes a new micro-organism. Bacterium Balbianii, which 
makes its appearance in macerations of marine alg£e after a period of 
several weeks, either on the surface of the liquid or on the sides of the 
cultivation vessels. In colour it varies between a pale and an orange 
yellow. In its zoogloea condition it appears as a number of spheroidal 
bodies inclosed in a thin gelatinous capsule. Within the capsule are 
thin straight rodlets,' 1 to 2 /x long, usually in pairs. The capsule 
rapidly increases in size, and by agglomeration a mass is formed with a 
bran-like appearance. Pure cultivations were made in solid and liquid 
media. The former was 1 • 5 per cent, agar-agar ; the latter an infusion 
of Laminaria made by boiling these algee in sea-water for an hour, and 
after filtration sterilizing at 120^. The density of the liquid is 1 • 029. By 
growing the bacterium in the foregoing media, the author found that 
this bacterium passed through certain stages of development, or an 
evolution cycle, which comprised four distinct states. The stages were 
the filamentous, i. e. numerous motionless elements joined end to 
end; when the filaments got matted together a felt-like pad was pro- 
duced. This constituted the second stage. The third stage, or that of 
dissociation, was distinguished by the mobility of the elements, which 
were either isolated or formed chains of not more than two or three 
individuals. The fourth stage was the zoogloea condition, already 
described. 

Ferment from putrefactive Bacteria.j — Herr E. Salkowski placed 
fibrin which had been well washed and exposed for a few days to a 
temperature of 7°-10° C. for many months under chloroform-water 
(5 ccm. chloroform to a litre of water), by which putrefaction was 
entirely prevented. The fibrin, however, dissolved slowly ; the proteids 
in solution were at first globulin and albumin, later albumoses, and 
finally peptones. The cause of these changes must certainly have been 
an unorganized ferment, since bacteria were excluded during the experi- 
ment. The author determined that this ferment must have been derived 
from the bacteria which contaminated the fibrin after the process of 
washing. Such a ferment was discovered in the undissolved residue; it 
was active in an alkaline solution, and was therefore of the nature of a 
trypsin. 

* Comptes Eendus, cvii. (1888) pp. 423-5. 

t Zeit. Biol., xxv. (188SJ pp. 92-101. &iee Journ. Chem. Soc, 1888 (Abstr.), 
p. 1326. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 105 

Contributions to Vegetable Pathology.* — M. J. H, Wakker dis- 
cusses the malady caused by Bacterium Eijacintlii. The bacteria which 
may be regarded as the cause of this disease are more or less cylindrical 
and colourless, and may be found by myriads in the yellow mucilage of 
the bulbs that are attacked. The spores of B. HyacintJii are slightly 
longer than they are broad, and are bluish in colour. 

Another disease of hyacinths and allied plants, caused by Peziza 
huTborum, is also described. The spores of this fungus are ovoid and 
colourless, and are contained in asci ; they show two bright bluish spots, 
each situated at the same distance from the extremities. 

Purple Bacteria and their relation to Light.f — Prof. Th. "W. 
Engelmann, who has long interested himself in the behaviour of bacteria 
towards light, has continued his observations in the same field, taking 
for his subjects those forms which are well known, and have been 
thoroughly described, such as Bacterium pTiotometricum, roseo-persicinum, 
ruhescens, sulfuratum, Beggiatoa roseo-persicina, and several others. In 
these, most of which belong to the sulphur bacteria, a purplish pigment, 
bacterio-purpurin, is diifused throughout their plasma. The behaviour 
of these organisms towards light was found by the author to depend not 
on the sulphur, but on the bacterio-purpurin. 

With regard to the direct influence of light, it was found that the 
rapidity of the movements was increased by illumination, and, per contra, 
ceased in the dark ; and that purple bacteria were diiferently affected 
by light of different wave-lengths. 

With regard to the spectrometric investigation of the colour of 
purple bacteria and the measurement of the absorption of the dark heat- 
rays, the original must be consulted. 

The author also discusses the excretion of oxygen by these purple 
bacteria while they are in the light, and the dependence of their growth 
on light. 

With regard to bacterio-purpurin, he comes to the conclusion that it 
is a true chromophyll, in so far as the absorbed actual energy of light 
is changed by it into potential chemical energy. 

Pathogenic Bacterium found in Tetanus, i — Drs. Belfanti and 
Pescarolo describe a bacillus which they have obtained from the dis- 
charges of a person who died presumably of tetanus. Injection of this 
material into mice produced tetanic symptoms in from 10 hours to 10 
days. From this material the authors isolated a bacterium which, injected 
into rabbits, mice, sparrows, &g., caused death preceded by paralytic or 
convulsive phenomena. Cultivated on the usual media, the development 
of this bacillus was examined in hanging drops, wherein it appeared as 
a rodlet, rather longer than broad, and resembling the bacillus of fowl- 
cholera. The ends are rounded. It is mobile even at a temperature of 
23^-25° C, and it multiplies by fission. It was stained well by the 
usual methods, and was decolorized in 2 minutes when Gram's method 
was used. The colonies are white or whitish yellow, and do not liquefy 
gelatin. 

* Arch. Xeerland.. xxiii. (1888) pp. 1-71. 

t Bot. Ztg.. xlvi. (1S8S) pp. 661-9, 677-S9 (2 figs.). 693-701 (1 fig.), 709-20. 
Cf. this Journal. 1888, p. 473. 

j Centralbl. f. Bakteriol, u. Paiasiteuk., iv. (1SS8) pp. 513-9. - 



106 SUMMARY OP OURBENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Algophag^a pyriformis.* — Prof, N. Sorokin describes an organism 
which he first discovered in 1886 in its monad form. Since then he 
has observed the various phases of its development. In the free- 
swimming stage it occurs as small colourless monad-like bodies, which 
move slowly forward by the aid of cilia. These corpuscles consist of 
two parts — a head and long processes. The head is oval or pyriform, 
and is from 2 to 4 /x. long. These bodies are termed small swimmers, 
in contradistinction to larger bodies of similar appearance, which are 
developed from a combination or melting together of two or more small 
ones. Both kinds seem, from the illustration, to be very much alike, and 
to nourish themselves by sucking at unicellular algae. After sucking at 
the alga the swimmer loses the pseudopodia, and forms a microcyst, 
which is apparently a quiescent condition, during which the absorbed 
chlorophyll is digested. 

Another condition in which this organism appears is as a macrocyst. 
In this state the pseudopodia are withdrawn, and a transparent mem- 
brane envelopes the whole body, just as has happened with the microcyst. 
The only difference appears to be in the size, the macrocysts being 
four or five times larger than the microcysts. When the membrane 
has been formed, vacuoles, oil-drops, and nuclei appear within the 
macrocysts. Next the vacuoles disappear, the oil-globules crowd 
together, and the bottom of the cell is filled with a green mass. As 
time goes on — a question of a few hours — further changes occur within 
the cell-contents, spherules appear, the cell bulges at one end, and then 
having burst owing to the pressure, gives exit to a number of small free 
swimmers with pear-shaped heads and long pseudopodia usually three 
in number. 

The author was fortunate enough to observe a resting form of this 
organism, which was not distinguishable from the zygosperms of fungi. 
From the text and illustration it would seem that two separate organisms 
were concerned in this phase. 

SarcinsB of Fermentationf. — Dr. P.Lindner describes eight varieties 
of Sarcina which he has found in beer, mash, and in the air and water 
of breweries. 

Pediococcus cerevisise Baleke is a bacterium which occurs as a mono-, 
diplo- or tetracoccus. It was first described by Pasteur, and has been 
found to be one of the principal causes of the clouding of beer. It grows 
well on the usual media, and its most marked characteristic is that it 
will not bear being transferred from alkaline to acid media, but does 
from acid to alkaline. It will not grow in sterilized beer. Cultivated 
on potato it produces involution forms like Bacterium aceti and B. termo. 
It is killed in eight minutes by a temperature of 60° C. 

Pediococcus acidi lactici. As its name implies it produces an acidity 
of the media on which it is cultivated (neutral malt extract solution at 
41° C.) The acid solution replies to tests for lactic acid. The sarcina 
is found to be identical with the organism which plays an important 
part in fermentation, and which is known by the name of " Kugelbac- 
terium." It developes best at a temperature of 41° C. ; is killed in five 
minutes at 62° C, and in 20 minutes at 56° C. It appears to thrive 
better in the absence of air. 

* Centralbl. f. Bakteriol. u. Paiasitenk., iv. (1888) pp. 419-27 (1 pi.). 

t Inaug. Diss., 1888, 58 pp. (1 pi.). Cf. Bot. Centralbl., xxxvi. (1888) pp. 97-100, 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 107 

Pediococcus alhus was founcl in a water-spring supplying a brewery, 
and in white beer. It liquefies gelatin rapidly, and forms a white crust 
on the surface. 

Sarcina Candida, found in brewery water as spherical or irregular 
zoogloeae about the size of a pin's head. These consist of diplococci, the 
sarcina form only appearing in hay decoction. Gelatin is rapidly 
liquefied by this organism. Diameter of the individual cells 1*5 to 
1-7 /x. 

Sarcina rosea, found in the fermenting room of breweries. On agar 
it forms little colonies, which consist of small spherical elements, among 
which very large cells often appear. In liquid media it throws down a 
red sediment that becomes green on addition of sulphuric acid and 
reverts to red on neutralizing with caustic soda. 

Nitric and hydrochloric acids, caustic soda and ammonia, do not alter 
the pigment, which is soluble in alcohol but not in chloroform, petro- 
leum-ether, benzol, or bisulphide of carbon. 

Sarcina aurantiaca from orange-coloured sarcinae or hay decoction. 
It is also found in Berlin white beer. 

The pigment is turned a dark blue-green by sulphuric acid, and on 
addition of caustic soda becomes red. 

Sarcina flava was isolated from beer which contained Pediococcus 
cerevisise. This sarcina should not be confounded with the yellow 
Sarcina lutea Schroter. The size of the individual cells amounts to 
2-25 IX, and the cube-masses often measure along the side 38 /a. 

Tlae pigment is changed to a dirty green with sulphuric acid ; soda 
restores the yellow colour. 

Sarcina maxima found in mash. It closely resembles Sarcina 
ventricuU, but is distinguished therefrom by the absence of the cellulose 
reaction. Grown at 40°-45° C. the cells often attain a diameter of 
3-4 IX. Mash at other temperatures did not develope this Sarcina. 
In none of these Sarcinse were involution forms observed. 

Photomicrographic Atlas of Bacteriology. — Dr. 0. Fraenkel and 
Dr. E. Pfeiffer are bringing out an Atlas of Bacteriology which is to be 
illustrated by photographs of the various micro-organisms, showing them 
in their different phases, and as they appear in cultivations, in sections, 
&c. The illustrations will be accompanied by an explanatory text. 

The atlas will be completed in from 12 to 15 parts, each of which 
will contain about ten photographs. 

Protoplasm considered as a Ferment Organism.* — This comprehen- 
sive work is a posthumous expansion of a brochure of the author, Prof. 
A. Wigand. The book has been put through the press by Dr. E. 
Dennert, who co-operated with the writer during his lifetime. It is 
essentially a series of essays on Bacteria and their work, putrescence, 
fermentation, and the production of diastase, and contains also lucubra- 
tions on molecular physiology. The volume is divided into three parts, 
the first of which discusses the fermentative action of Bacteria, the second 
part treats of the theory of fermentation, while the third in entitled the 
Anamorphosis of Protoplasm. In the first part the author discusses the 
relations between putrescence and Bacteria, lactic fermentation, and 
the ferment-organisms which produce diastase ; the second part treats 

* Botanische Hefte (Wigaad), Heft 3, x. and 294 pp., 8vo, Marburg, 1888. 



108 SUMMABY OF CUREENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

of Wigand's peculiar theory of fermentation, and the third of the 
anamorphosis of protoplasm. 

Yeast-poisons.* — Herr H. Schulz has experimented on the effects on 
ferments of very dilute solutions of well-known yeast-poisons, such as 
corrosive sublimate, iodine, potassium iodide, bromine, arsenious acid, 
chromic acid, sodium salicylate, and formic acid, and finds that in all 
cases it promotes the activity of the fermentation. The mode of experi- 
ment was as follows. In each of .a number of glass cylinders of 200 ccm. 
capacity were placed 50 ccm. of a 10 per cent, solution of grape-sugar, 
and to each was added 1 ccm. of fresh baker's yeast and distilled water. 
The cylinders were closed by a metal lid, which was screwed in, and in 
this were placed a long divided glass tube and a short one, furnished 
with a cock for ventilation. The lower end of a long tube dips into a 
vessel filled with mercury, the upper edge of which projects above the 
level of the nutrient solution in the cylinder. The carbon dioxide pro- 
duced during fermentation presses up the mercury in the divided tube, 
and the course of the process of fermentation was concluded from that 
of the column of mercury. All the cylinders were placed in a water- 
bath heated to 21° C, and were submerged, so that any defect in the 
closing of the cylinder would be shown by the ascent of bubbles of gas. 

* Arch. f. d. Gesammt. Physiol. (Pfluger), xlii. (1888). See Bot. Ztg., xlvi. 
(1888) p. 610. 



* I t^aH- 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 109 

MICROSCOPY. 

o. Instruinents, Accessories, &c.* 

(1) Stands. 

Fasoldt's *' Patent Microscope." — Mr. C. Fasoldt, the well-known 
ruler of fine lines, has devised the Microscope shown in fig. 1. 

The peculiarities of the construction are (1) the combination of the 
coarse- and fine-adjustments in one mechanism, which is shown in 
fig. 2, "intended to prevent the breaking of objects and injury of 
objectives through the accidental moving of the tube " ; (2) the vertical 
illuminator, in which by a pair of plates opening angularly by the 
rotation of a cam and a single diaphragm plate, pivoting together or 
separately in front of a fixed quadrangular aperture, the light can be 
variously regulated. The glass disc reflector is attached to a bar, which 
can be withdrawn for cleaning or replacing by turning the milled-head 
cap in front. It can also be inclined as well as moved out of the field 
of view by pulling the bar through the milled-head cap, when the disc 
lies in the piece of tubing on which the cap fits ; (3) the changing 
nose-piece applied below the vertical illuminator, by which the objective 
can be attached or released by the action of a trigger-piece on a sliding 
tooth, the inner edge of which has the Society screw-thread, and presses 
the screw of the objective against two similar but fixed teeth opposite ; 
and (4) the fixed stage-ring has a deep groove round the outer edge, in 
which the upper plate rotates by means of two short pins on the inner 
edge of an overlapping flange, two diametral slots in the fixed ring 
enabling the upper plate to be removed. 

The combined coarse- and fine-adjustments are shown in fig. 2. At 
the back of the body-tube slide is fixed a short screw-socket, through 
which a long coarse-threaded screw passes, the rotation of the screw 
causing the socket, and with it the body-tube, to move up or down. 
Near the lower end of the screw is fixed a small pinion with spiral teeth, 
in which a similar but much larger pinion engages for the coarse- 
adjustment, raising or lowering the body-tube somewhat slowly, after 
the manner of worm-wheel and tangent-screw mechanism. The screw 
has a plain cylindrical fitting at each end, by which the small pinion is 
kept in close contact with the larger one. 

Mr. Fasoldt claims for this system of coarse-adjustment the impossi- 
bility of any running down occurring by the accidental concussion of 
the body-tube, as the mechanism remains locked unless set in motion by 
the milled heads. 

For the fine-adjustment a long bent lever is applied to the lower end 
of the coarse-adjustment screw, so as to raise it through a space of about 
1/8 in. against the downward pressure of a short spiral spring encircling 
the upper end, the great difference in the size of the pinions permitting 
this range of motion without disengaging the teeth. The lever is acted 
upon at the back by a milled-head micrometer-screw. 

Mr. Fasoldt writes that he uses the illuminator in the following 
way : — 

" When the Microscope is in position and the object on it, first find 

* This Bubdivi8ion contains (1) Stands; (2) Eye-pieces and Objectives; (3) Illu- 
iiiiuating and other Apparatus ; (4) Photomicrography ; (5) Microscopical Optics 
and Manipulation ; (6) Miscellaneous. 



110 



SUMMAEY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



the object with any objective from 2-3/4 in., using either trans- 
mitted light or dark field with light through condenser, the latter 




standing at an angle of about 45° from the stage, and throwing the light 
directly on the lines, when the latter will give a spectrum. After 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



Ill 



having them in focus the objective can be changed for a higher homo- 
geneous-immersion lens. Set the lamp about 20 in. distant from illu- 
minator (at which distance I get the best resolution), using the sharp 
edge of the flame, and in horizontal line with opening of illuminator. I 
use an achromatic lens 2 in. focus as condenser (1 in. in diameter), and 
put it further away from illuminator opening than focal distance, the 
opening being open about the thickness of a penny and the light appears 
on shutters like a ' cat's-eye.' After having light in place and the pin 
in front of illuminator, to which the reflecting glass is attached, standing 



Fig. 2. 




in an angle of about 45°, you will see only a partially illuminated field, 
with dark spot in centre ; when you have it so you are ready for work. 

The illuminator can be used only on dry mounts. If you do not 
vpant to use the illuminator the reflector can be drawn out by the bar in 
which the pin is. Then it forms only a single patent nose-piece. 

Before putting the light through the illuminator the object should 
first be brought in focus, using either oblique or central illumination, 
for lenses of short working distance. The reflector can be set at any 
angle by turning the milled cap through which the bar passes to which 
the reflector is fastened. The milled cap is held down by two pins in 
the cylinder and a groove in the cap into which the pins pass. There 
are two notches in the cap, which enter into the round groove directly 
opposite each other. When they are brought in perpendicular position 



112 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



FiG. 3. 



with the illuminator and to where the pins stand, the whole cap can be 
taken off for the purpose of putting glass in should one be broken. 

For dry lenses I place the flame lower than the opening and use no 
condenser, but open the shutters to their fullest extent. You will obtain 
different results by using the light at longer and shorter distances. For 
examining blood-corpuscles, latter should be mounted on cover-glass, 
and you can get the best results by using less light." 

Czapski's Ear- (Tjrmpanum) Microscope.* — At the instigation of 
Prof. Kessel, the representative of aural surgery in the Jena University, 

Dr. S. Czapski undertook the construction of 
a Microscope which, provided with its own 
means of illumination, should by its handy 
form permit of observation of the ear under 
a magnification of about six to eight times. 
The following arrangement was given to the 
instrument (fig. 3) which repeated trials 
proved to be the most suitable. 

An objective of about 10 mm. opening and 
20 mm. focal length is connected by a tube 
60 mm. long with an eye-piece magnifying 
ten times. The objective alone contributes 
nothing to the magnification ; it simply 
throws the image in approximately un- 
changed magnitude in front of the eye-piece, 
so that the whole magnification is about that 
of the latter. Above the eye-piece is screwed 
a tube 25 mm. long, which carries a dia- 
phragm for directing the line of sight, here 
so widely divergent, but this is not absolutely 
necessary. The length of the whole Micro- 
scope is about 100 mm. 

Above the objective is a reflecting prism 
(silvered on the hypothenuse surface) which 
covers half the objective, and for the avoid- 
ance of all external reflections is completely 
inclosed with a tin cover. TLe position of 
the prism is adjustable, so as to direct the 
light exactly in the middle of the field of 
view. The light from a small electric in- 
candescent lamp, after passing through a 
lens, is thrown upon the prism through an 
opening in the tube opposite the prism. 
Lamp and illuminating lens are contained 
in a side tube, the former being indepen- 
dently movable and easily replaceable. Instead of the glow-lamp a gas 
or petroleum lamp can be used, placed at the side. A socket in which 
the Microscope slides smoothly is attached by means of a bayonet catch 
to the ordinary ear-funnel ; for the passage of the side tube the socket 
is slit along three-quarters of its length. The above mode of con- 
nection of funnel and tube was preferred to a solid join, partly in order 




* Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr., v. (1888) pp. 325-7 (1 fig.)- 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



113 



Fig. 4. 



to leave the funnel unchanged for its ordinary use with the reflector, 
and also to enable it to be easily cleaned. 

To use the instrument the funnel, with or without the additional 
tube, is placed in the ear and its position arranged by means of an 
ordinary reflector for viewing the interior of the ear. The Microscope 
is then carefully pushed down into the socket until the image is sharply 
defined. By moving the instrument to and fro it is possible to obtain a 
view of every part of the external meatus which can be seen by the naked 
eye, and its use presents no difiiculty even to the novice. 

The field of view is not contracted by the prism over the objective, 
but the light is halved in intensity. The lens-openings are, however, 
made so large that the brightness of the image is quite sufiicient. The 
illumination is of course most intense over 
the whole field of view when the lamp is 
as near as possible to the prism, but regard 
for the ear and cheek of the patient places 
a certain limit to the approach of a hot 
source of light. The lamp and illumi- 
nating lens must be so arranged that only 
the part of the object appearing in the 
field of view is illuminated, but this as 
uniformly as possible. The proper arrange- 
ment is easily obtained by trial. 

Moreau's Monkey Microscope. — This 
Microscope (fig. 4), by M. Moreau of 
Paris, was exhibited at the December meet- 
ing of tlie Society. In its design Art as 
well as Science has been drawn on, for in- 
stead of an ordinary base and pillar a figure 
of a monkey is introduced which holds in 
its hands the stage and mirror, while the 
cross-arm carrying the body-tube and socket 
is screwed to the top of its head ! 

Crouch's Petrological Microscope. — Messrs. Henry Crouch, Limited, 
have constructed an instrument on the model of that of MM. Nachet, in 
which the stage and objective rotate together with the upper part of the 
body-tube, while the eye-piece remains stationary. It is not, therefore, 
necessary to centre afresh with every change of objective. 

Among other points is the device for the convenient focusing of the 
substage condenser when convergent polarized light is employed. The 
lenses are placed in the tube of the polarizer and are then thrown in 
and out of the line of light at the same time as the polarizer, by merely 
moving the bar on which both are mounted. A milled ring above the 
polarizer focuses the condensers by a single rotating movement, similar 
to that by which the polarizer itself is rotated. Two analysers are pro- 
vided, one in the eye-piece and the other in a draw-box above the 
objective.* 

Reichert's Petrological Microscope. — Herr C. Eeichert's Petro- 
logical Microscope (fig. 5), constructed for the Vienna Mineralogical 
Institute, has two specialities. 

* Cf. MiiAvcr's 'Primer of Micro-petrology,' Svo, LouJou, 18S8, pp. 64-6 (1 fig.). 
1889. I 




114 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



The first is the introduction into the body-tube of a second analyser c, 
which is sujiported on a hinged arm so that it can be rapidly inserted 



Fig. 5. 




and removed. This arrangement was adopted by M. Nachet for the 
Microscope which we described in 1881.* 

* See this Journal, 1881, p. 934. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



115 



The second is thus described (in English) by the designer : — " The 
tube has three ouvertures o, o', and a ; a serves to place there a quartz 
wedge ; o to place there a quartz plate, and o for the reception of a lens s, 
which magnifies the axial image sketched by the objective, and which 
conducts the rays of the objective, so that if we will pass from the ob- 
servation in parallel light to that in convergent light, it is but necessary 
to place the corresponding objective and the lens s without changing the 
eye-piece, which can be exactly adjusted on the object by the aid of a 
rackwork of the draw-tube h." 

The Microscope has the usual rotating stage, centering movements 
to the body-tube h and h', diaphragm holder e, polarizer cZ, and eye-piece 
analyser. 

Hughes' Patent Oxyhydrogen Microscope. — This instrument (fig. 6) 
has been designed and constructed by Mr. W. C. Hughes " with a view 
to enable scientists, teachers, and lanternists to display on the screen in 
a clear and well-defined manner the minutiae of anatomical and geo- 
logical sections, preparations of insects and vegetable tissues, and 
general microscopic objects either by ordinary or polarized light. 

Fig. 6. 




" After a careful and protracted series of experiments, an arrangement 
has been adopted by which the rays of light converging from a new form 
of triplet condensers are concentrated into a narrow parallel beam which 
will pass through the small apertures of the ordinary microscopic 
objectives, and so be transmitted to the screen, without that loss which 
is so disappointing in the ordinary lantern Microscope. 

" To obtain this maximum of illumination Mr. Hughes has designed 
a special chamber jet, with which sufficient light can be obtained to 
magnify transparent subjects to 1900 diameters, which has hitherto been 
unattainable ; thus a flea, which is about 1/10 in. total length, will be 

I 2 



116 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



thrown on the screen 16 feet long, and every hair distinctly defined, and 
nearly as brilliantly as a picture shown by the Pamphengos lantern. 
The proboscis of the blow-fly can, with various powers, be projected 
from 8 to 16 feet long, and all the details of an insect's eye in section 
can be shown most perfectly ; the circulation of the blood in the foot of 
a frog is easily displayed, and the wonders of pond life made manifest 
without the slightest difficulty or trouble. With the electric light no 
limit can be put on the magnifying power of the instrument, although, 
for all ordinary purposes, the lime light is all that is needed to obtain 
the results above mentioned. Every precaution has been taken to arrest 
the passage of heat to the objects by means of non-conductors, and the 
results obtained have met with the approval of all those who have seen 
its perfect performances. 

" This Microscope can be fitted to any good optical lantern, but it is 
preferable to purchase the instrument in its entirety, as above illustrated. 
The lantern and Microscope are firmly attached to a solid base-board, 
rendering any interference with the adjustment unnecessary, an arrange- 
ment which will be found invaluable for perfect manipulation. Any 
ordinary microscopic objective may be used, but it is advisable to adopt 
those . . . which are specially corrected to insure the largest amount 
of light, and give a very flat and sharply defined image on the screen." 

Hughes' Improved Iflicroscopic Attachment— Cheap Form. — Mr. W. 

C. Hughes has devised this form of Microscope (fig. 7) for use with the 
ordinary magic lantern in place of the front lens, and claims that it will 

Fjg. 7. 




show ordinary microscopical slides on the screen for class or demonstrat- 
ing purposes far more brilliantly and better defined than the old form of 
cheap lantern microscopic attachment. It will show chemical, anatomical, 
and other objects on a disc 8 to 10 feet when limelight is used, and with 
the "Pamphengos" lantern very excellent results can be obtained. 
*' With a 1/2-in. the spiral formation of a blow-fly's tongue can be 
shown, the sheep tick, 6 ft. long, exceedingly sharp and well defined, 
sections of wood, spiders, flies, scorpions, and each hair on a flea or other 
small insect is brought out with great distinctness. Pond life is easily 
demonstrated, Volvox glohator, showing young inside, and Hydra, 6 ft. to 
7 ft. long. It has a movable substage condenser which enables it to be 
used with different object-glasses, new form of spring on the stage, by 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICBOSCOPY, ETC. 



117 



means of which the thinnest objects can be held as firmly as the glass 
zoophyte troughs, The bar with rack motion is constructed on the best 
principle by which wear and tear can be compensated for, by simple 
adjustment of the screws, thus insuring absolute absence of all shake. 

" If desired, the image, by a special contrivance superior to the usual 
right angle reflecting prism, can be thrown direct on the paper for 
drawing. It has a new form of diaphragm arrangement, by which the 
aperture can be changed with great facility. 

" The Microscope can be adapted, say to the centre lantern of a 
triple, while the other two can be utilized for showing ordinary photo- 
graphs and photomicrographs to consecutively illustrate a given object 
under different phases without leaving the screen blank." 

Hughes' Special Combination Scientist Optical Lantern. — Mr. W. 
C. Hughes has patented the new form of lantern shown in fig. 8, in 



Fi<? 8. 




virhich he " lays claim to having supplied a want long felt by the profes- 
sional lecturer, both in the class-room and in the theatre, namely, that 
of rapidly throwing upon the screen (a) the general view of an object 



118 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

(&) the microscopic portion of the same enlarged, and (c) in the matter 
of chemistry and physics, the experiment in actual operation." 

The mahogany body is hexagonal, and each of the three front sides 
is provided with condensers and projecting arrangements. The back 
opens to give access to the radiant, which in this case is a Brockie-Pell 
arc-lamp ; but, if necessary, a lime-light can be readily substituted. The 
lamp is fixed to the base-board, 3 ft. square, and the body can be rotated 
through 60° on either side of the central position, thus allowing any of 
the three nozzles to be directed towards the screen. The three sets of 
condensers are placed so that their axes intersect at a point about which 
the radiant is placed. The centre nozzle is fitted as a lantern Micro- 
scope, with the Microscope-attachment described in the preceding note, 
with alum cell and various sets of condensing lenses and objectives, and a 
space in front of the main condensers is provided for polarizing ap- 
paratus. The focusing arrangement consists of a skew rack and pinion 
and a fine screw adjustment ; and the whole Microscope can be easily 
removed and a table-polari scope substituted. The right-hand nozzle is 
arranged for the projection of ordinary lantern-slides, and the left-hand 
one is provided with an adjustable slit for spectrum work. A small 
table sliding on rails serves to carry the prisms, and the same rails 
support projecting lenses. 

Due de Chaulnes' Microscope. — In the Museo di Fisica, Florence, 
we recently saw the Microscope shown in fig. 9, and by the courtesy 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 119 

of the Curator, Prof. Meucci, we were enabled to secure a photograph of 
it. Nothing was known as to the origin of the instrument, but from its 
resemblance to the Microscope figured in plate i. of a folio work 
entitled ' Description d'un Microscope et de differents micrometres, &c.,' 
published in Paris, in 1768, by the Due de Chaulnes, we are able to 
assign the design to him. 

The principal aim in the construction seems to have been to facilitate 
the verification of micrometric measurements^, especially of micrometer- 
divisions, for the production of which the Due de Chaulnes devised an 
elaborate dividing engine in which he claimed to have embodied some 
original methods of obtaining accuracy in dividing scales. 

The design of the Microscope proj)er, and of the eye-piece micrometer, 
seems to have been copied to a considerable extent from instruments 
made in England by John Cuif. The novelties were (1) in the applica- 
tion of a stage of an unusually substantial character, supported by four 
shaped legs on a framed base, the stage being arranged specially to carry 
screw-micrometers acting on the object in rectangular directions ; 
(2) the body-tube is supported both at tlie nose-piece and near the eye- 
piece in centering sockets, by which the optic axis can be exactly 
collimated. In the original figure the body-tube is not mounted with 
these centering arrangements, and levelling screws are shown at each 
corner of the base, while a rack-work is applied for the coarse-adjustment. 
The Florence instrument is constructed more solidly than the one shown 
in the Due de Chaulnes's figure, the extreme importance of solidity 
being probably discovered more and more during the progress of the 
construction. 

DipPEL, L. — Aus dem optischen Institute von Carl Eeichert in Wien. (From the 
Optical Institute of Carl Eeichert in Vienna.) 
[I. The new large stand, No. 1a. II. Tlie apochromatics and compensation 
eye-pieces.] Zdtsch'-. f. Wiss. Mikr., v. (1888) pp. 145-50 (1 fig.). 

(2) Eye-pieces and Objectives- 

Monobromide of Naphthaline as an Immersion Medium. — Mr. H. 
Jackson, of the Cliemical Laboratory, King's College, recommends this 
substance, not only as a solvent for balsam in mounting, but more par- 
ticularly as a medium for immersion objectives. The refractive index 
is too high to use it alone, but diluted with castor-oil it gives excellent 
results. The relation of its dispersive power to the refractive index 
shows it to be both theoretically and practically superior to cedar-oil. 
The smell of it after remaining on the fingers for a little time is 
unpleasant. 

C ZAP SKI, 8. — Compensationsocular 6 mit 1/1 Mikron-Theilung zum Gebrauch 
mit den apochromatischen Objektiven von Carl Zeiss in Jena. (Compensation- 
ocular 6 with 1/1 micron graduation for ute with Zeiss's apochromalic ob- 
jectives.) 

[Cf. this Journal, 1888, p. 797.] Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr., v. (1888) pp. 150-5. 

(3) Illuminating' and other Apparatus. 

Thoma's Camera Lucida.*— Prof. Dr. E. Thoma considers that the 
ordinary form of camera lucida is unsatisfactory for low magnifications 
(1-6). Moreover no account is taken of the refractive condition of the 

* Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr., v. (18S8) pp. 297-301 (4 figs.). 



120 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



observer's eye, to suit which, changes have to be made in the distance of 
the paper which give rise to distortions. 

His new camera (fig. 10) has two mirrors, one C silvered, and the other 
a of clear glass, and both set at 45°. The observer looks at the object 
through the unsilvered mirror, and at the same time by reflection from 
the two mirrors sees the drawing paper z. There are two convex lenses, 
one & in a vertical plane between the two mirrors, and the other d in 
a horizontal plane between the object and the unsilvered mirror. The 
camera and stage slide on a graduated vertical rod (fig. 11), the feet of 
which rest on the drawing paper, and the positions of the camera and 
stage are so arranged that the object and the paper are at the foci of the 
two lenses. Consequently an eye accommodated to infinity sees both 



Fig. 10. 



Fig. 11. 




object and drawing clearly. To regulate the illumination of the two 
images, smoked glasses are used. A spectacle glass /can, if necessary, 
be placed in the eye-piece to correct to infinity the eye of the observer. 
To avoid parallactic displacement of the images a diopter g is fitted in 
the eye-piece above the spectacle glass. The author gives tables of the 
necessary lenses and distances of object and drawing plane for different 
magnifications. For diminutions, the positions of object and drawing 
plane are reversed. 

Besides the capability of accommodation to the state of the observer's 
eye, the apparatus possesses the advantage that for weak magnifications 
a large field of view is obtained. 

Finally the author points out how the use of weaker convex lenses 
may enable the observer to dispense with the concave glass used for 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



121 



correcting to infinity a myopic eye. The stronger the myopia, the 
weaker may be the lenses used to produce a considerable magnification. 
Thus for a myopic eye of — 8 D, to produce a magnification of ten times, 
the object-lens need only be one of -f- 13*5 D, and the drawing lens 
one of — 9 D. To bring any eye then to this state of myopia, a suitable 
convex lens is placed in (he eye-piece. By this means high magnification 
up to ten times can be obtained without distortion of the images. 

Finder.* — Dr. J. Pantocsek describes the finder shown in fig. 12, 
which he considers to be more serviceable than Maltwood's finder, which 
he considers " time-wasting " and " minute." 

Four lines are drawn on the stage at right angles, intersecting in 
the optic axis ; these are marked 0. Lines a millimetre apart are 
drawn parallel to those on the upper half and the left half of the 
finder, thus giving horizontal lines in the right upper quadrant, vertical 



Fio. 12. 





[^^^ 






1 


Ih 


1 






UHMM^kMHH 



lines in the left lower quadrant, and squares in the left upper one. 
Each ten of the lines are marked as shown in the fig. When the 
object is in the field, note is taken of the two lines on which the left and 
upper sides of the slide rest, thus : 42/11. 

Ficx. 13. 




Adjustable Safety-stage.— In this form of safety-stage the additional 
refinement has been introduced of two clamp screws at either end of the 

* Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr., v. (1888) pp. 39-42 (3 figs.). 



122 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

plates, by which the upper plate can be brought nearer to or further 
from the lower plate. The result of this is to make the stage more or 
less sensitive. If, for instance, the plates are widely apart so that the 
pair of springs between them are relaxed, the upper plate yields to the 
slightest touch ; when, however, the plates are brought closer together, 
so that the springs are compressed, the upper plate is much more rigid. 

Engelmann's Microspectrometer.* — Prof. T. W. Engelmann points 
out that both the microscopic anatomist and physiologist are com- 
pelled to use peculiar methods of research, and that this is especially the 
case when it is necessary to examine properties and appearances quanti- 
tatively as well as qualitatively. A review of the ordinary methods of 
microscopical investigation shows that they are almost solely qualitative. 
As a contribution therefore to quantitative methods of microphysio- 
logical research, the author describes a microspectrometer for the analysis 
of the colour of microscopically small objects. 

Originally devised for the quantitative determination of the absorp- 
tion of different colours through living plant-cells, the apparatus is 
serviceable for quantitative microspectral analysis generally, and can be 
used with advantage for most microspectrometrical researches in place 
of the ordinary larger apparatus. The principle of the instrument is 
practically that of Vierordt's spectrophotometer. The spectrum of the 
object is compared with a standard spectrum, and quantitative measure- 
ments are obtained by altering the width of the slit until the brightness 
of corresponding parts of the two spectra is the same. The apparatus, 
which in use takes the place of the eye-piece in the body- tube, is repre- 
sented in figs. 14, 15, and 16. The lower part contains the two slits and 
the arrangement for obtaining a comparison spectrum. The upper part 
is the spectroscope proper. 

The under part consists of a rectangular box A, provided above and 
below with wide circular openings, into which are screwed the tubes h 
and c. The tube h fits in the place of the ordinary eye-piece, and is 
fastened by the screw b', while into the tube c fits the eye-piece oc 
during the setting up of the object, replaced later by the cylindrical 
underpiece a' of the spectroscope. The latter rests with the ring r 
in the circular groove s, and is here fixed in a constant position with 
respect to the slits. The insertion and removal of the upper piece can 
thus take place without any shaking, so that there is much less danger 
of displacement of the images than in the micro-spectral ocular of Abbe 
and Zeiss, in which the two pieces are movable one within the other. 

In the right of the box A is fixed the small tube d, through which, 
by means of a mirror S or lens, the light from a source at the side is 
directed upon the totally reflecting prism pr. By means of the handle 
h projecting from the box A at h', this prism can be brought at will 
beneath or out of reach of the right slit which gives the standard 
spectrum. 

The tube d carries at its end a frame n for the reception of diaphragms 
and ground or coloured glasses. In order in all cases to obtain a uniform, 
and, from the position of the observer's eye, as far as possible indepen- 
dent illumination of the standard slit, at the recommendation of Prof. 
Abbe a lens is fitted into the inner opening of the tube d ; this throws a 

* Zeitsclir. f. Wiss. Mikr., v. (1888) pp. 289-9o (1 fig. and 1 pi.); and Arch. 
NeeiluncL, xxiii. (1888) pp. 82-92 (I fig. and 1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



123 



virtual image of the outer opening of the tuhe on the spot where is the 
opening of the objective. 

The most important part of the lower piece is the mechanism of the 
two slits, which are independent of each other and lie in the same hori- 
zontal plane. The symmetrical movement of the edges is effecteol, as in 
the author's micmspectral objective and in the spectral apparatus of 

Fig. 14. 




Bonders, by a single screw which carries two oppositely wound threads. 
The mechanism of one of the two slits is shown in vertical section in 
fig. 15. The edges p and p' are screwed on the blocks e and e', which 
carry companion screws for the screw-threads on the common axis a. 
The screw on e is right-handed, that on e' left-handed. To avoid back- 
lash e and e' are kept apart by a spring not visible in the figure. The 
axis a is firmly fixed on the strong metal frame m, so as not to be mov- 
able in the direction of its length. Consequently, by rotation of a, the 



124 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



edges of the slit separate equally from the unchanged middle of the 
slit. 

The movement of the screw is read off on a divided scale T fixed to 
the axis, of which 50 divisions, about 1 • 57 mm. apart, correspond to 100th 
of a millimetre. The scale readings were controlled by placing the slit 
apparatus on the stage of the Microscope and measuring the width of the 
slit with the eye-piece micrometer under a magnification of 500. 



Fig. 16. 




On loosening the screw M which fixes the scale to the axis, the former 
can be turned about a so as to bring the zero point into position. 

The piece of white card p seen in fig. 16 is used for the better 
illumination of the scale. 

The mechanism of the second slit, of which only the scale T' and 
screw-head M' are seen in the fig., is exactly similar. In order, in 
case of accidental displacement of the edges, to bring the middle of the 
one slit exactly in the line of prolongation of the other, and so insure 
accurate superposition of corresponding parts of the two spectra, the 
two edges are fastened by means of two adjusting screws on the plates 
/ and /' carried by the blocks e and e'. 

The upper piece, the details of which are shown in vertical section 
in fig. 14, consists of the box A' containing the prism system P, which is 
composed of two prisms of crown glass (refractive index for the yellow 
rays 1-611, refractive angle 40° 20') and one of flint (index 1-691, 
angle llO'^ 42'). Beneath the box A' is screwed the collimator-tube a', 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



125 



of which the lens I throws the rays coming from the slits parallel upon 
the prism system. The long axis of the box is at an angle of 30° with 
both collimator and telescope B. By the objective I' of the lattter a real 
spectrum of the two slits is thrown in the plane i, which is observed 
under a magnification of 20 times by the lens L contained in the tube B'. 
The apparent magnitude of the spectra thus exceeds by about 4 times 
that of the spectrum in the microspectral-ocular of Abbe-Zeiss, and by 
8 times that of the Sorby-Browning ocular. Projected to a distance of 
250 mm., the distance of the Fraunhofer lines a and g amounts to 185 mm. 
Except for observations on the extreme red and violet, the intensity 
when using gaslight is sufficient to allow of the use of the strongest 
immersion system. With a slit of less than 0'025 mm. the spectrum 
of the sun's light after passage through two ground glasses showed the 
D line doubled, with one line clearly broader and darker than the other. 

Fitted into a third opening in the prism-box is a seccmd collimator- 
tube C carrying at sc an Angstrom's scale of wave-lengths (bright lines 
on a dark ground) which is illuminated by means of a mirror S'. When 
not in use, a movable screen d' is pushed over the opening of C. The 
light rays from the scale rendered parallel by the lenses I" and I'" are 
reflected into the telescope from the end face of the prism system, and 
an image of the scale is formed by the lens V in the plane ^. 

To obtain the proper position of this image with respect to the 
spectra, the tube C is movable to a limited extent in the box A', so that 
the direction of its axis to the end-face of P can be altered. For this 
purpose, C is fastened to the metallic arm m', which is pressed by means 
of a spring v against the screw w. By turning the latter the correct 
position of C is easily obtained. 

Finally, the tube B is provided with two pairs of diaphragms movable 
in the plane i at right angles to each other. One pair is used in order 
to limit the spectra to the particular group of wave-lengths under 
examination. The edges, which run 

parallel to the Fraunhofer lines, are Fig. 17. 

adjusted by the screws t and t'. 
The other pair, movable by the 
screws u and u' (seen in fig. 16) 
serve to make the two spectra of 
the same breadth, for experience 
shows that, in order to compare 
two spectra, tliey should be of the 
same form and size. 



Powell and Lealand's Apochro- 
matic Condenser. — Following upon 
the extension of the apertures of ob- 
jectives due to what Prof. Abbe has 
termed " Stephenson's homogeneous- 
immersion system," Messrs. Powell 
and Lealand have brought out the 
Apochromatic Condenser of 1 • 4 N.A., 
shown in fig. 17. This extended aperture involves the employment of a 
combination of lenses of such large diameter, that it was not found prac- 
ticable to utilize the usual revolving disc of diaphragms, stops, &c. ; 
hence the application of a pivoting diaphragm-carrier that can be slid 
up in close contact with the posterior lens of the condenser, the pivoting 




126 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



Fig. 18. 



facilitating the changing of the diaphragms. The carrier is arranged 
to hold either a series of graduated apertures alone or in combination 

with a series of central 
stops, and a few dia- 
phragms are supplied of 
special forms, such as 
single or double slots, 
and single or double 
circles cut more or less 
eccentrically, so that a 
great variety of dif- 
ferent kinds of illumi- 
nation can be obtained. 
We understand that 
the sliding arrangement 
of the tube supporting 
the diaphragm-carrier, 
as shown in the figure, 
was suggested by Dr. 
Dallinger as being more 
convenient in use than 
the system first em- 
ployed by Messrs. 
Powell and Lealand, in 
which the tube was 
wholly removed for 
every change in the dia- 
phragms. 

Koch and Max Wolz's Lamp. — Fig. 18 shows this lamp in position, 
when the solid glass rod is used to illuminate a transparent object. The 
principles of its construction were described at 
p. 1025 of the last volume of this Journal. 

L is the source of light — a mineral oil lamp. 
Outside the glass chimney is a black one, on the 
inside of which is a reflector E. At O is an opening 
fitted with a short tube, in which is fixed the curved 
glass rod G. The end of this rod is squared off, and 
lies underneath the stage. The quality of the light 
may be modified by putting coloured glasses upon 
the smooth end of the rod. 

Although the source of light shown in the illus- 
tration is derived from mineral oil, gaslight or 
other sources can be used.* 

Adjustable Hemispherical Illuminator. — The 
Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. now fit this illuminator 
as shown in fig. 19. The glass hemisphere is 
attached to an adjustable rod which slides in an 
adapter screwing on a suhstage adapter. It is a 
very convenient accessory in instruments having 
separate mirror and suhstage bars, as any number 





* Cf. Zeitsclir. f. Wiss. Mikr., v. 
p. 1025. 



(1888) p. 478 (1 fig.); and this Journal, 1888, 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



127 



of slides may be used, and any degree of obliquity obtained without dis- 
turbing the illuminator. 



Whelpley, H. M. — [Illumination.] 



The Microscope, VIII. (1888) p. 351. 



(4) Photomicrography. 

Kibbler's Photomicrographic Camera. — This (fig. 20) was devised 
by Dr. A. Kibbler and carried out in detail by Mr. W. Bailey. It is 
thus described by the designer. 

" The stand consists of a base and an upright, the latter being pierced 
for the object-glass. At the back of the upright is a shutter for making 
the exposure and a hood to connect this part of the apparatus with a 
camera. The connection can ba made to any size camera by a simple 
tube made either of wood or metal and of a length to please the 
operator. From the lower part of the upright is a rod (firmly supported 
at the further end by the base) upon which travels the stage with its 
clamp and screw. The sliding movement of the stago upon the rod 
serves for a rough adjustment. The fine-adjustment is at the end of the 
rod and is controlled by a long arm working at the side and connected 

Fig. 20. 




by a cord. In order that the tension of the cord may be constantly 
maintained one end of the long arm is made to travel outwards by a 
tangent screw, the other end working in a ball-and-socket joint to com- 
pensate for this lateral movement. At the upper part of the upright is 
a V-shaped rod upon which the stage also runs. The upper rod tends 
materially to steady the movements of the stage and is also furnished 
with a screw which can be used for clamping the position of the stage, 
after the focusing is accomplished by the fine-adjustment, so that no 
movement can occur during the process of changing the sensitized plates 
or exposing. The lower rod which supports the stage and the upper 



128 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

clamping rod are placed as far away from the optical centre as possible 
in order to prevent any disturbance of the focus from expansion when 
subjected to a strong heat-producing light. 

" The substage consists of a tube about 3 inches long with a short- 
focus condenser at the proximal end and the diaphragm plate at the 
distal end. It can be moved either backwards or forwards or can be 
accurately centered by screws which are shown in the woodcut. This 
particular form of substage possesses. Dr. Kibbler considers, manifold 
advantages. In the first place the diaphragm plate, being removed to 
some little distance from the stage and having the short-focus condenser 
in front of it, is thrown quite out of focus with the object-glass and 
consequently does not tend in any way to diminish the area of the field, 
but, on the contrary, produces a general and uniform diminution of light. 
But what is of still more importance the diaphragm-plate is found in 
this combination to have developed new functions and acts somewhat 
similarly to the " stop " iised by photographers in the photographic 
lens. That is, it increases both the area of definition and the depth of 
focus. Without the condenser the diaphragm-plate, to produce a 
similar efiect, would have to be removed to a distance that would 
l»ecome inconvenient in practice. The condenser obviates this by 
projecting the diaphragm-plate optically further away by making it 
still more out of focus and so lessens the distance at which it is 
necessary to be placed. The condenser also has the effect of converting 
what otherwise would be a straight pencil of light, into a cone before it 
reaches the object and transforms it into a more suitable form of illumi- 
nation for showing the defining powers of an object-glass to the best 
advantage." 

The instrument is made entirely of brass and possesses great 
stability. 

Mawson and Swan's Photomicrographic Apparatus.— This ap- 
paratus (fig. 21) is of an extremely simple character and enables an 
ordinary camera to be used for photomicrography. 

It consists of a light metal disc, which can be screwed on the camera 

front in place of the ordinary 
^^^' ^■^' -.,==^ lens, the opening in the centre 

being furnished with the Society 
screw, so that ordinary micro- 
scopic objectives can be readily 
attached. Upon three horizontal 
rods projecting from this disc 
slides another similar disc, also 
with an opening in the centre, 
and having a pair of small spring 
clips for the slide which it is 
desired to photograph. The 
third rod is encircled, behind 
the stage, by a spiral spring, and focusing is effected by turning the 
screw-nut on the rod, which forces the stage towards the objective, the 
spring moving it back again when the screw is released. 

Robinson's Photomicrographic Cameras. — Messrs. J. Eobinsou 
& Sons make two forms of cameras which are of an extremely simj)]e 
character. 




ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETO. 



129 



The " Student's Micro-Camera " is shown in fig. 22, and is intended 
for plates 2^ in. x If in. It is made of mahogany, and is fitted to the 
Microscope by cutting a hole in front and lining it with velvet, the eye- 



FiG. 22. 



Fot. 23. 




N 



< 




piece being removed. After focusing, the camera must be removed from 
the Microscope to the dark room, where the ground glass is replaced by 
the plate. 

The " Superior Micro-Camera " (fig. 23) has a double dark slide which 
avoids the necessity of removing the camera from the Microscope during 
the operation, and the inside shutter (shown by dotted lines in the fig.) 
enables the exposure to be made more easily without any danger of 
shaking the apparatus. 

Photomicrography with Magnesium Light.* — Dr. E. Eoux recom- 
mends a magnesium oxyhydrogen light for photomicrography. 

Common powered magnesia is mixed up with water to a stiff paste, 
then stuffed into glass tubes of 4-5 mm. internal diameter. From this 
it is squeezed out and then cut up into pieces 5 mm, long. These 
pieces are rolled into balls and stuck on the end of a piece of platinum 
wire. They are then exposed for three or four hours to a temperature 
of 100°. They are then first exposed to the hydrogen flame of an oxy- 
hydrogen burner, and afterwards to that of the oxygen. After this 
treatment they are hard and unalterable in the air. 

One of these small pieces of magnesia will last for fifteen hours 
straight off. The light is uncommonly effectual for photography, and 
offers the advantage that it illuminates regularly, is not diffusive, and 
remains fixed to the same point. 

Marktanner's Instantaneous Photomicrographic Apparatus. — 
Dr. G. Marktanner points out that when single individuals out of a 
great number of moving objects (e. g. fresh blood-corpuscles) are to be 
photographed, the observer must be in a position, with apparatus ready 
for the exposure, to wait for the instant when the moving object appears 
in the field of view. Two conditions are to be noted : that the object 
during the observation must be only moderately illuminated ; and, 
further, that the observation must be made through a second tube 
while the body-tube is connected in the usual way with the camera. 
Tlie latter condition is fulfilled in the Nachet apparatus: it was the 
consideration of the former which led the author to construct the new 

* Photogr. Wochenbl. Berlin, 1888, No. 5. Cf. Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr, v 0888) 
pp. 497-8. 

1889. K 



130 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATINd TO 



arrangement, which can be fitted to any photomicrographic apparatus in 
which Microscope and camera are not rigidly connected. 




The apparatus (fig. 24) consists of two instantaneous shutters A 
and B. The double function of A is to shut out the sunlight during the 



ZOOLO&Y AND BOTANY, MIOROSOOPY, ETC. 131 

observation, and during the taking of the picture to allow a momentary 
entrance of direct snnlight; while that of B is to throw, during the 
observation, the light from the object by means of a totally reflecting 
prism into a second tube through which the image can be observed ; at 
the moment of exposure the prism moves to one side, and permits light 
from the object to enter the camera. 

The shutter A, fig. 25, consists of a slide, 5J-6 cm. broad and about 
15 cm, long, working between grooves in a wooden or metal frame, and 
movable by a spiral spring s, the tension of which is regulated by the 
screw m. At one side of the slide is a circular or square aperture, over 
which a smoked or opalescent glass can be placed. Beyond the aperture 
is an open space of variable breadth of 1-2 cm. Before the slide is 
released the aperture is in front of a corresponding circular opening of 
4-5 cm. diameter in the frame. The release of the slide takes place pneu- 
matically by the knob of the cylinder c raising the spring with the catch r. 
This slide is placed behind the diaphragm opening of the Microscope in 
such a way that the middle-point of the opening in the frame is on the 
optic axis. The shutter B, fig. 26, provided with brass tubes for con- 
necting it with camera and Microscope, consists of a metal box containing 
a totally reflecting prism which, during the observation, directs the ligit 
from the object into the side tube t, and at the same time closes the 
opening behind leading to the camera. The prism is fixed to a movable 
slide which is under the tension of the spring s, with screw m; on 
releasing it pneumatically, the slide carrying the prism moves to one 
side and allows light to pass from the tube to the camera. 

In order to allow of observation with the eye-piece for diflferent 
positions of the camera, the author makes the two lenses composing the 
eye-piece movable, so that the distance between them can be varied 
within certain limits ; the images thus obtained are not quite plane, and 
have coloured edges, but are otherwise sufficiently well defined. 

The two shutters are released together by means of two tubes joined 
by a three-way piece to a caoutchouc ball. Care must be taken, how- 
ever, that the shutter B works somewhat quicker or is released sooner 
than A, so that the light-path to the camera is open during the illu- 
mination of the object as the open space / in A passes in front of the 
opening in the frame. This is easily effected for equal tension of the 
two springs by using a three-way cock instead of merely a three-way 
piece, and placing the cock in a definite position. 

To avoid shaking the whole apparatus, the two shutters are mounted, 
as seen in fig. 24, on a single separate stand. The shutter B is 
connected with the camera by Zeiss's method. Somewhat large moving 
objects (e. g. Daphnida) are placed in cells which just leave room for 
movement between the two sides. 

Sunlight rendered monochromatic by ammonio-copper oxide or 
Fehling's solution is the light employed for the adjustment. When 
the objects move too fast for successful adjustment, observation is made 
of an air-bubble in the cell. 

To increase the illumination during the exposure, a condensing 
lens L of large opening (10 cm.) is inserted in such a position 
that the object is at its focus, or, if the field of view of the objective is 
greater than the surface thus illuminated, so that the object is in the 
converging part of the beam. If, however, the object surface to be 
illuminated is smaller (by use of a stronger objective), a condenser can 

K 2 



132 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



be used with the lens, which in this case should not be of too short focal 
length (at least 30 cm.). 

The whole disposition of the instrument is seen from the figure (24), 
in which d is the three-way piece, P the plate mirror, L the condensing 
lens, Bl the diaphragms, C the cell, K the front part of the camera, 
Ti and T3 tables on which rests the base-board carrying the camera and 

Fig. 25. 




optical bank, Tg the table on which stands the small table G carrying 
the shutters A and B, and k the screw for regulating the tension of 
the adjustment-cord, which, in this apparatus as in that of Prof. Strieker, 
works not on the micrometer- screw of the Microscope, but on a second 
micrometer-screw connected with the stage. 

For the adjustment the condensing lens is removed, and the path of 
the beam of light reflected from the mirror is centered by means of the 

Fig. 26. 




two diaphragms of equal opening. In the figure is represented the 
moment when the adjustment is just finished and the lens inserted, but 
the diaphragm turned towards the mirror not yet replaced by one of 
wider opening. The latter is chosen of such a size that it cuts off only 
the zonal edge of the beam, and is situated at such a distance (at least 
15 cm.) from the second diaphragm, that the light cone exactly passes 
through the latter. With a condensing lens of 10 cm. opening and 
focal length of 33 cm., diaphragm I. (with 70 mm. opening) is distant 
62 mm., and diaphragm II. (with 28 mm. opening) 222 mm. from 
the lens. 

As regards the time of exposure, for small Crustacea with a magnifi- 



ZOOLOaY AND BOTANY, MI0RO80OPY, ETC. 133 

cation of 100 and condensing lens as above of 10 cm. opening, 1/20 of a 
second is sufficient. 

A construction similar to that used in Marey's photographic pistol 
may be employed to take several successive pictures of moving objects. 
The same result may, however, be more simply attained by using 
Janssen's principle, viz. that by quick working of the shutter sharply- 
defined pictures can be taken on a moving plate, which need not come 
to rest (as in Marey's apparatus) during each exposure. To this end 
the photographic plate is pneumatically put in motion (rotation, sliding 
or free fall) at the same time as the shutters, and the shutter A acts so 
as to give quick successive illuminations of the object. This is effected 
by means of a rotating slide, carrying on its periphery 10-12 sector- 
shaped openings: one opening, viz. that behind the object before the 
release of the slide is circular, and provided, as above described, with an 
opalescent glass. 

Easy Method for " Photographing " Sections.* — Dr. A. Trambusti 
says that he has obtained very excellent results from photographing 
mounted sections in the following simple manner, which is directly 
derived from De Giaxa's method of reproducing by coarse photography 
cultivation- plates."]" 

A small piece of albumenized paper sensitized with silver nitrate is 
placed on a piece of wood covered with black. To this is clipped on, 
cover-glass downwards, the slide to be photographed, and this simple 
apparatus is then exposed to direct or diffuse sunlight until the paper 
outside the section has become sufficiently black. The paper is then 
removed to a water-bath in order to remove any excess of silver nitrate 
and after a little time placed in a bath of chloride of gold. It is next 
fixed with hyposulphite of soda in the usual way. 

Instead of paper sensitized with silver nitrate the author has also 
tried paper prepared with ferrocyanide. The apparatus arranged as 
before is exposed until the olive colour is no longer perceived. It is 
then washed in water. This completes the process. The picture ob- 
tained by this method, which is certainly quicker than the other, is of a 
sky-blue colour. 

A score or more of these reproductions may be made in less than an 
hour. 

The author used preparations stained red, and expresses the opinion 
that the results therefrom are better than with other colours. 

Chromo-copper Light-filter. $ — Prof. E. Zettnow says that the 
copper-chromium filter is very useful for bacteriological purposes, as 
bacilli stained red, blue, or violet come out quite black on the focusing 
glass, and therefore a preparation (cover-glass or section) stained with 
methylen-blue can be photographed with great brilliancy. If sunlight 
is used and a very concentrated fluid be desired, then the following 
mixture, diluted afterwards if required, is made : — 160 grm. copper nitrate 
and 14 grm. chromic acid mixed with 250 ccm. of water. For general 
purposes the following solution in a layer 1-2 ccm. thick is more con- 
venient :~175 grm. copper sulphate and 17 grm. bichromate of potash 
mixed with 1 litre of water. 

* Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr., v. (1888) pp. 335-6 (1 pi.). 

t See this Journal, 1888, p. 827. 

i Centralbl. f. Bakteriol. u. Parasitenk., iv. (1888) pp. 51-2. 



134 SUMMAKY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Over other yellow or green fluids the copper-chrominm filter pos- 
sesses the advantage of only letting through a very small part of the 
spectrum ; if concentrated, only yellow-green rays from A 580— X 560 ; 
if diluted, A 690— X 545 ; with great dilution orange rays appear ; for 
these the erythrosin plate possesses very slight sensitiveness. 

A filter roughly resembling the foregoing may be made by adding 
ammonia in excess to a mixture of copper salts and chromate of potash. 
This, however, only lets through such green rays as the erythrosin 
plate is but little sensitive to. The maximum and minimum of sensi- 
tiveness in the plate lie close together. 

It was found that by using the copper-chromium filter combined 
with mineral-oil light and long exposure the sharpness left nothing to> 
be desired with ordinary objectives up to a magnification of 400. After 
this difficulties arise which are only overcome by the use of apochro- 
matics, a condenser, and the light-filter. 

(5) Microscopical Optics and Manipulation.. 

Optical Effect of Focusing up or down too much in the Microscope.* 
—Mr. W. M. Maskell writes that, if when observing Goniiim, the objec- 
tive be lowered a very little, so as to throw the alga out of focus, and to 
see, as it were, beyond its surface, not only do the outlines become 
blurred and indistinct, but a somewhat curious change of colour is notice- 
able. The whole plant assumes a green ground colour, the spaces 
formerly visible between the cells being obliterated, and at the samo 
time an elegant geometrical pattern is produced, with various tints. 
Four crimson specks appear at about the middles of the four inner cells, 
and with these as centres four delicate circles of bright yellow interlace 
each other, the radius of each circle being the distance between two 
orimson spots. The spots are also connected by narrow bands of lighter 
red colour. The outer ring of cells appears as composed of pyriform 
bodies, the points inwards and overlapping, producing thus the semblance 
of green spokes in the four circles. In each of these cells, on the cir- 
cumference of the circles, is a crimson spot formed of concentric curves 
open towards the middle of the plant. By focusing downwards a little 
more or less the crimson spots or the golden circles may be made more 
or less conspicuous on the green ground. 

If, again, the object-glass be screwed up, past the true focus, an 
entirely different effect is produced. Instead of the whole plant appear- 
ing solid, the spaces between the cells are amplified, and the whole 
colony seems larger and more scattered ; and the cells, quite disconnected, 
are now not green, but yellowish-brown, with a broad darker band 
encircling each. These effects of colour are noticeable not only with 
a 1/4 in. objective, but also with the 1/8 in., and they may even be 
made out with the 1 in., though, of course, not well, as the plant then 
appears so small. 

The author adds, " Of course, I presume that the effects here spoken 
of are easily explicable : the passage of the light through the semi- 
transparent green cells, the translucent envelopes, and the empty spaces, 
producing complementary colours. And in itself the thing is doubtless 
not of any importance. Yet indirectly it may possess some value, as in 
p, certain kind of way a warning. From the measurements which I have 

* Sci.-Gossip, 1888, pp. 248-9 (3 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 135 

been able to make I imagine (my fine-adjustment not being graduated 
there is no attempt at complete accuracy) that the distance through 
which the 1/4 in. objective passes from the true focus to the lower 
position is not more than the 1/150 in. ; and from the true focus to the 
higher position about the same, or rather less. This is accomplished by 
a very slight tnrn indeed of the milled head of the fine-adjustment. 
In the case of Gonium pectorale it is usually pretty clear when one has 
the plant properly in focus, especially as the view of the flagella comes 
as a guide. But there are many objects as to which it may be supposed 
that so small a difference as 1/150 in. may not seem to throw them out 
of focus, whilst in reality they are so to an extent which might cause 
error. Query : might the striee of diatoms come under such a category? 
It is a common thing to hear and read that the appearances of things 
under the Microscope are not always to be taken as strictly true ; and 
doubtless the microscopists of old days owed some of the queer figures 
they drew to this cause. The changing colours and form of Gonium 
pectorale as above noticed may perhaps serve a useful purpose, if they 
warn some young microscopists to be very particular in the observations 
they make ; possibly also some older hands might take a hint." 

Penny, K. G. — Microscope Objectives — Angular Aperture. 

Engl. Mech., XLVIII. (1888) p. 316. 

C6) Miscellaneous. 

Death of Dr. Zeiss. — We deeply regret to have to record the death 
of Dr. Carl Zeiss, the eminent Jena optician, who in conjunction with 
Prof. Abbe has done so much to advance the practical construction of 
objectives. His name will for many generations be associated with the 
most important epoch of Microscopy ; the epoch in which the famous 
ditiraction theory of Prof. Abbe was promulgated which revolutionized 
microscopical optics, to be succeeded by the important suggestion of 
our late Treasurer, Mr. J. W. Stephenson, which resulted in the homo- 
geneous-immersion objectives first made in 1878, and later followed by 
the still further advance shown by the construction of apochromatic 
objectives. In the practical construction of these and the homogeneous- 
immersion objectives the deceased played a leading part, and whilst it is 
impossible to exaggerate the services which Prof. Abbe has rendered to 
microscopy in these matters, he would, we are sure, be the first to admit 
the invaluable assistance he received from Dr. Zeiss. 

The remarks of the President and others on Dr. Zeiss's death will 
be found at p. 162. 

Death of Mr. Zentmayer. — The following is the report of the Com- 
mittee of the New York Microscopical Society, which was appointed, 
more Americano, to draft resolutions relative to the death of Mr. Joseph 
Zentmayer : — 

" Whereas this Society has received with sorrow the announcement 
of the death of Mr, Joseph Zentmayer, which occurred at Philadelphia 
Pa., on March 28th, 1888, it is hereby * 

" Eesolved : — 

" 1. That in the death of Mr. Joseph Zentmayer the labourers in the 
various branches of science employing optical instruments have lost the 
inspiriting presence and helpful co-operation of an eminently intelligent 
and successful author, inventor, and mechanician, whose knowledge of 



136 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

optical principles has been attested by his brilliant publications ; whose 
attainments have been recognized by his election to membership in 
various organizations, and whose mechanical skill and conscientious 
carefulness are still shown in the large variety of instruments issued 
from his establishment. 

" 2. That a record of this action be forwarded to the family of Mr. 
Zentmayer as a token of our heartfelt sympathy with them in this 
bereavement."* 

American Society of Microscopists. — Meeting of, in 1888. 

Amer. Mon. Micr. Journ., IX. (1888) pp. 96-7, 133-4, 153-4, 187-95. 

The Microscope, VIII. (1888) pp. 242-3, 275, 377-80. 

Queen's Micr. Bulletin, V. (1888) p. 16. 

St. Louis Med. and Surg. Journ., LV. (1888) pp. 163-4. 

Fabre-Domergue. — Premiers principes du Microscope et de la Technique micro- 

scopique. (First principles of the Microscope and of microscopical technique.) 

viii. and 280 pp., 32 figs., 8vo, Paris, 1889. 
Internationalen Ausstellung zu Briissel, Die wissenschaftlichen Instrumente auf der. 
(The scientific instruments at the International Exhibition at Brussels.) 
[Microscopy only sparingly represented.] 

Zeitschr.f. Instrumentenk., VIII. (1888) pp. 394-8. 
James, F. L.— W. J. Lewis, A.M., M.D., F.E.M.S., President American Society of 
Microscopists. 

[Biographical sketch.] The Microscope, IX. (1889) pp. 7-10 (portrait). 

[Ma NT ON, W. P., and others. — Lantern Illustrations of Microscopical Subjects.] 
[" We notice that physicians are beginning to avail themselves of the lantern 
to illustrate their papers on microscopical subjects. At the recent meeting 
of the American Medical Society, some excellent views of diseased tissues 
were shown, and we notice that Dr. A. G. Field, of Des Moines, recently 
entertained the Iowa State Medical Society by a stereopticon exhibition of 
the microbes mentioned in his paper before that body. This is an excellent 
method of impressing an audience with the idea that the author of an article 
knows what he is talking about. We expect to see the lantern commonly 
used for such purposes in the near future."] 

The Microscope, VIII. (1888) p. 207. 

Microscope and Adulteration. Tit-Bits, XIV. (1888) p. 305. 

KoYSTON-PiGOTT, G. W. — Microscopical Advances. XLL, XLIL, XLIII. 

[Attenuated dots and lines. Size of fine threads or of organic particles. 
Delicate attenuations and anti-diffraction micrometer. Attenuations. Mr. 
Boys' infinitesimal glass gossamers. The use of a new micrometer gauge 
(consisting of parallel fibres of spun glass cemented on to a brass plate pro- 
jecting freely in the field of the eye-piece).] 

£ngl. Mech., XL VIII. (1888) pp. 325, 389 (1 fig.), 431-2 (7 figs.). 
Schott & Gen. in Jena, Neue optische Glaser des glastechnischen Laboratoriums von. 
(New optical glass from the glass laboratory of Schott & Co., of Jena.) 
[Note as to further kinds of glass, principally for photography.] 

Zeitschr. f. Instrumentenk., VIII. (1888) pp. 392-3. 
Stokes, A. C. — Microscopical Work for Amateurs. 

[Description of Leeuwenhoek's Microscopes and his work.] 

Amer. Mon. Micr. Journ., IX. (1888) pp. 219-23 (5 figs, and 1 pi.). 



* Journ. New York Micr. Soc, iv. (1888) pp. 178--4. Queen's Micr. Bulletin, v. 
(1888) p. 24 (portrait). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 137 

p. Technique.* 
(1) Collecting Objects, including Culture Processes. 

Collecting Diatoms.t — Mr. C. H. Kain, speaking of the bright- 
brown patches of diatoms frequently seen covering the surface of mud, 
recommends that they be collected in the following manner. 

Half fill a bottle with water. Touch one of the brown patches 
lightly with the tip of the finger, and the diatoms will adhere ; then 
place the finger over the mouth of the bottle and shake it. The diatoms 
are, of course, washed off and remain. By repeating this process again 
and again the water finally becomes quite brown. By the time the 
collector reaches home the diatoms will have settled to the bottom, and 
the water may be poured off and the diatoms cleaned. It is worth while 
to examine under the collecting lens every promising patch of brown 
mud, for very pure gatherings of quite different species may often be 
collected within a few feet of each other. 

Culture of Unicellular Algse.| — Herr V. Jodin has made cultivations 
of various species of Protococcus, Zygnema, &c., in artificial media, coDsist- 
ing of solutions of the requisite minerals in distilled water. The most 
suitable solution is the same as that used by Eaulin in his experiments 
on Aspergillus niger. The solution is placed in flasks which are exposed 
to the light and the carbonic anhydride is renewed in the air of the 
flasks by an automatic generator. This simply consists of a flask filled 
with a solution of ferric oxalate, connected with the culture-flask by a 
bent glass tube passing through the caoutchouc stopper of the latter. 
The ferric oxalate evolves carbonic anhydride on exposure to light. 
Under favourable circumstances the crop obtained in several weeks' 
exposure amounts to 10 grams of fresh algae or 1 to 2 grams of 
dried product per litre. These cultivations are well adapted to throw 
light on the chemical processes taking place in the green cell, since the 
crops obtained are uniform and homogeneous, and are free from the 
disturbing influences arising from the differentiation of organs and the 
migration of proximate principles in the higher plants. The author 
concludes by stating that the proportion of nitrogen in Protococcus 
varies from 1 • 43 to 6 • 67 per cent, of the crop. The conditions of 
assimilation of this element are still under experiment. 

S Y K A, J. — Ueber Milchreis, einen neuen festen Nahrboden. (On rice-milk, a new 
solid culture medium.) 

Deutsch. Med. Wochenschr., 1888, p. 833. 

(2) Preparing Objects. 

Reaction of Elastic Fibres with Silver Nitrate. § — Prof. C. Mar- 
tinotti describes a new method for demonstrating elastic fibres in the 
various tissues and organs. 

Fresh tissue in pieces of 2 to 3 ccm. are placed in a 2 per cent, solu- 
tion of arsenic acid for 21 hours, but if parts attached to bone are to be 

* This subdivision contains (1) Collecting Objects, including Culture Pro- 
cesses; (2) Preparing Objects; (3) Cutting, including Imbedding and Microtomes; 
(4) Staining and Injecting ; (5) Mounting, including slides, preservative fluids, &c. ; 
(6) Miscellaneous. t Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 1888, pp. 128-31. 

% Ann. Agronom., xiv. pp. 241-5. See Journ. Chem. Soc, 1888 fAbstr."). 
p. 1124. ^' 

§ Comm. alia R. Accad. di Med. di Torino, 1888, pp. 5-15, Cf. Zeitschr f. 
Wiss. Mikr., v. (1888) pp. 521-2. 



138 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

examined (periosteum, tendon, &c.) a 4 per cent, solution warmed to 
50° C is preferable. In this the bones are decalcified. The pieces are 
next placed for 5-15 minutes in Miiller's fluid, and then in the following 
silver-glycerin solution : — 2 grm. of silver nitrate are dissolved in 3 ccm. 
of distilled water; to this are added 15-20 ccm. pure glycerin. Herein 
they remain for 24-48 hours. On removal they are quickly washed 
in distilled water and then transferred to alcohol ; therein the excess 
of silver nitrate is removed. The preparations may be kept in spirit 
for any length of time. Sections are made under alcohol. In order to 
prevent any harm from the action of light the sections are immersed for 
a short time in a 3/4 per cent, solution of salt, and from this at once 
transferred to absolute alcohol for dehydration. They are cleared up in 
creosote and mounted in balsam. 

Solvent for the Gelatinous Envelope of Amphibian Eggs.*— Dr. 
C. 0. Whitman has found hypochlorite of sodium an excellent solvent for 
the gelatinous envelope of the amphibian egg. He obtained a 10 per 
cent, solution, and diluted it with five or six times its volume of water. 
The eggs are first hardened by heating or by immersion in some pre- 
servative fluid, then placed in the Labarraque solution until the 
gelatinous envelopes are so far dissolved that the eggs may be easily 
shaken free. They are then washed and preserved in alcohol. This 
method works perfectly with the eggs of Neciurus, and has given equally 
good results with the eggs of the frog. The time required for dissolving 
the envelope in the case of Neciurus is about five minutes. Care should 
of course be taken not to leave the eggs exposed to the solvent longer 
than is necessary in order to destroy the envelope. 

Method of Examining Fragaroides.j — M. C. Maurice gives the 
following account of the methods adopted in his study of this Ascidian. 
He found that, owing to the presence of transverse muscles in the gill, 
the creature contracted too suddenly when treated with picrosulphuric 
acid, and he used, therefore, the acetic acid method of MM. Van Beneden 
and Julin. Pure glacial acetic acid (crystallizable) must be used. The 
colonies were plunged into it entire, and remained there for from 2 to 5 
minutes, according to their size. They were then placed in 70 per cent., 
90 per cent., or even absolute alcohol at once. By this means the 
natural appearance was completely preserved. Specimens of which 
sections were to be made were placed in borax-carmine for from 15 to 
18 hours, for it was necessary that the red coloration of the nuclei 
should be very intense. They were next cleared with hydrochloric acid 
and washed with 70 per cent, alcohol till the acid had all disappeared. 
They were then placed in an exceedingly weak solution of Lyons blue 
made with 70 per cent, alcohol. After remaining in this for from 15 to 
20 hours, and being shaken two or three times, they were fixed in 
paraffin in the ordinary way. 

Preparing Fresh-water Bryozoa.J — Although it is not easy to pre- 
serve Bryozoa in the extended condition, Herr M. Yorworn claims to 
have obtained excellent results with Cristatella by means of a 10 per 
cent, solution of chlorai hydrate. The colonies were placed direct 
in this solution, and though at first they became contracted, they 

* Amer. Natural., xxii. (1888) p. 857. t Arch, de Biol., viii. (1888) pp. 220-3. 
% Zeitschr. f. Wiss, Zoo]., xlvi. (1887) p. 99 ( 2 pis. and 9 figs.). Cf. this Journal, 
1888, p. 27. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSOOPY, ETC. 139 

slowly relaxed again, and after a few minutes were so benumbed that 
they could be placed without harm for 10 minutes in a watery solution 
of sublimate. The author does not recommend that sublimate should be 
replaced by alcohol or osmic acid. Borax-carmine was used for staining 
the animals. 

Preparing Tetrastemma melanocephala.* — Mr, A. Bolles Lee used 
Tetrastemma melanocephala for studying spermatogenesis in Nemertines. 
The best fixative for these preparations was found to be concentrated 
sublimate solution with the addition of 1 per cent, acetic acid. This 
reagent showed itself to be superior to osmic acid, chromic acid, and 
iron chloride, all which kill less quickly, and frequently excite such 
violent muscular contraction that the contents of the seminal vesicles 
are greatly altered. 

The best staining solution for the sections was an alcoholic hydro- 
chloric acid carmine (100 ccm. of 80 per cent, spirit are boiled with two 
drops of strong hydrochloric acid and excess of carmine). From this 
fluid the preparations are transferred to pure spirit, wherein they remain 
until no more colouring matter is extracted. A good nuclear and double 
stain is effected by adding a little picric acid to the spirit, the picture 
thus obtained being sharper than that produced by borax-carmine. As a 
preliminary to deposition in paraf&n, the author recommends cedar oil 
in place of chloroform. Preparations are best teased out in a 4 per cent, 
chloral hydrate solution and stained afterwards with Delafield's hsemato- 
xylin and methyl-green. 

Karyokinesis in Euglypha alveolata.f — Dr. Schewiakoff found that 
the best fixative was Flemming's chrom-osmium-acetic acid, but it must 
not be allowed to act long, and the animal must be thoroughly washed 
afterwards. Grenacher's alum-carmine and picrocarmine were the best 
stains, but picrocarmine must be used with care, as it easily overstains. 
The animals are then thoroughly washed, and having been passed 
through spirit of increasing strength and oil of cloves, mounted in 
balsam or dammar. The foregoing manipulations were carried out in 
a watch-glass, in which the selected animal was placed. The selection 
was made by means of a lens magnifying 30 times and a capillary tube. 

The nucleus was isolated by Biitschli's method. The animal was 
fixed to a certain spot by pressure on the cover-glass; this pressure 
was kept up carefully until the siliceous envelope was broken. A few 
more taps and a to-and-fro movement of the cover-glass broke up the 
protoplasm and isolated the nucleus. This procedure was assisted by 
means of a stream of water added at one side in such quantity that it 
was at once absorbed by bibulous paper at the other. 

Permanent Preparations of Fresh-water Algae.J — Dr. L. Klein re- 
commends, for marking the position of any individual example, Schieffer- 
decker's apparatus.§ This is in appearance and size somewhat like an 
objective, and can be screwed on to the nose-piece. At its lower end it 
carries a diamond point, which by aid of a screw can be moved excen- 
trically. When used, the object is first placed in the centre of the field. 
The nose-piece is then turned round and the tube lowered until the 

* Recueil Zool. Suisse, iv. (1888) pp. 409-30 (1 pi.). 

t Morphol. Jahrb., xiii. (1887) pp. 193-258 (2 pis. and 4 figs.). Cf. this Journal, 
1888, p. 66. X Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr., v. (1888) pp. 456-64. 

§ Described in this Journal, 1887, p. 468. 



140 SUMMARY OP CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

diamond point just touches ] the cover-glass. By moving the point out 
eccentrically, a circle may be scratched on the cover-glass with com- 
parative ease. This device can be employed with advantage for alg39 
mounted in glycerin jelly, but is not to be adopted for wet mounts, 
because small objects are easily moved out of position. 

If several specimens are to be mounted together, the author advises 
the use of a capillary tube bent at an angle of 120° about 2 cm. from 
the end of the tube. Then under a magnification of about 100 the 
desired specimens are sucked up by capillary action, and the process 
repeated until a sufficient quantity have been obtained. 

For collecting DesmidiacesB the author uses a syringe of the following 
construction : — A thick glass tube about 2 cm. wide and 30-40 cm. long 
is closed in front with a cork, through which passes a short fine tube of 
glass terminating in an opening of 1-2 mm. in diameter. It is advised 
to have several of these points, and that some should be bent at an angle 
of 90°, as this angularity is often convenient. The piston is plugged 
with tow and thread. 

Owing to the influence of light on DesmidiacesB and on Yolvociniee, 
these objects may be successfully separated if the vessels containing 
them be exposed to sunlight in such a way that they are protected from 
the direct rays. In a day or two it will be found that many forms will 
crawl out of the mud towards the light side, where they may be collected. 
A pure sample of Volvox may be frequently obtained by placing a small 
quantity of the material in a pipette, and then placing the pipette point 
end upwards against the window. In a few minutes the Volvocinise will 
be found at the top, from whence an almost pure collection can be expelled. 

For ringing round preparations mounted in glycerin-gelatin the 
author advises the employment of amber-lac dissolved in linseed oil. 
Put on in thin layers it is quite transparent, and allows the use of 
immersion lenses. 

Heydenreich's cement, although it has excellent points, has the 
disadvantage of requiring to be stained, and the dyes used for this 
purpose gradually work into the preparation. For completing the 
fastening down, the author formerly used equal parts of colophonium 
and yellow wax. To this he now adds to every 10 parts 1-2 parts 
linseed oil and 1 part of Canada balsam. This is put on warm. 

Mounting Fresh-water Algse.* — Dr. L. Klein mounts fresh-water 
algse in glycerin or glycerin-gelatin. The author uses the former for 
very small objects, and adopts for this purpose the technique proposed 
by Migula. A drop of 1 per cent, osmic acid is run under the cover- 
glass, and in ten to twenty minutes afterwards the glycerin. In order 
not to blacken the oil-drops, &c., the osmic acid is added in as small 
quantities as possible, and this is best done by blowing it under the 
cover-glass through a capillary tube. In all other cases the author uses 
glycerin-gelatin, which, with the proper precautions, is an excellent 
imbedding material. The object is first hardened by exposing it as a 
hanging-drop to the fumes of the acid for a few minutes. It is then 
placed in one or two drops of dilute glycerin, and the surplus having 
been drained off or the water evaporated, a drop of glycerin-gelatin pre- 
viously heated in a test-tube is dropped on by means of a fine glass tube. 
By this device air-bubbles are avoided. 

» Heclwigia, 1888, pp. 121-6. 



ZOOLOGY AND EOT AN Y^ MICROSCOPY, ETC. 141 

Some objects may be fixed by heating them on the slide up to near 
boiling-point, instead of using osmic acid. 

Preparation of Fungi.* — Dr. G. Istvanf& describes the various 
modes of preparing fungi for microscopical examination. Preservation 
in alcohol of 60 per cent, serves for smaller dry fungi, Gasteromycetes 
(except such as can be preserved dry), most Ascomycetes, the colourless 
Agaricini and Polyporese (but not the Boleti), and the Hydnei, Clavariei, 
Thelephorei, and Tremellini. For the softer Hymenomycetes, alcohol 
cannot be used. A solution of salt answers better for these ; but, with 
many, only preserves them for a comparatively short time. Pure sodium 
chloride should be dissolved in freshly boiled water till saturated, then 
filtered and used at once. The fungus should be completely immersed 
in it. This answers for many Hymenomycetes and Pezizse. Other 
preserving fluids are corrosive sublimate of ' 1 per cent., boracic acid of 
2 per cent,, and a mixture of acetic acid and glycerin. Fungi which are 
preserved dry should always be washed with a • 5-1 • per cent, solu- 
tion of corrosive sublimate, to destroy bacteria, larvae, &c. 

A convenient mode of making sections is also described, which should 
be set, in the case of dark-spored species, by an alcoholic solution of 
mastic or Canada-balsam ; in that of white-spored species with gelatin. 

Experiments with CMtin Solvents.! — The first experiments of Mr. 
T. H. Morgan were made upon the eggs of the common cockroach, 
and the selection turned out to be a most fortunate one. A great many 
eggs are laid at one time, the whole number being surrounded by a stiff 
chitinous coat, forming the so-called raft. The solvents used were the 
hypochlorites of sodium and potassium, recommended by Dr. Looss in 
1885. 

The most successful experiments on the cockroach's eggs were as 
follows : — 

(1) The rafts were placed, in a fresh condition, in a weak solution of 
eau de Labarraque (commercial fluid diluted with five or six times its 
volume of water), and left until the chitinous envelope became soft and 
transparent. The time varies ; if slightly warmed the time is less for 
the warm solution, perhaps thirty minutes to one hour ; but one must go 
more by the appearance of the chitin than by any definite time. If the 
embryos are far advanced, they may now be removed from the envelope 
one by one ; if still young, they had better be hardened and cut all 
together. In both cases the eggs or embryos were next washed for a few 
minutes in water, and then transferred for an hour to picro-sulphuric 
acid, then as usual they are passed through the grades of alcohol, 70 per 
cent., 80 per cent., 95 per cent. 

(2) To specimens which have been already hardened and preserved 
the solvent may also be applied ; but in all cases where fresh material 
is easily obtainable, it should immediately have its chitin softened and 
then afterwards be preserved. Here the method is somewhat shorter, 
since the substance has been previously hardened. From alcohol — 
weak solution — they are put into the Labarraque and softened as 
above, then passed through water and the alcohols, &c. 

* Bot. Centralbl., xxxv. (1888) pp. 343-5, 381-3, 394-5. 

t Stud. Biol. Lab. Johns Hopkins Univ., iv. (1888) p. 217, and Dr. 0. O. Whitman 
in Amer. Natural., xxii. (1888) pp. 857-8. 



142 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

In most cases in which an animal egg or embryo is encased in chitin, 
the best results have been obtained by straining the sections after they 
have been cut and fixed to the slide. If the specimen is small, staining 
in toto — after having the chitin softened, or if before this has taken 
place, after having made an entrance through the chitin with the point of 
a needle — is equally good. The greatest difficulty, and practically the 
only one which is met with, is that the Labarraque solution not only 
attacks the chitin itself, but after a time the soft tissues of the animal — 
apparently the connective tissue. Where the chitin surrounds the 
object completely, as is the case with the cockroach's raft, the object 
can be removed from the solution as soon as the chitin is softened, and 
before the underlying parts have been attacked. In cases like this the 
solvent is at its best. 

Very often, however, the soft tissues of the animal are exposed in 
places between the chitin covering. This is well illustrated by the joints 
of insects' legs, &c., and very frequently these exposed places are attacked 
before the chitin is completely softened, thus causing the joints, if much 
handled, to fall apart. By judiciously diluting the solution and taking 
the parts to be softened from it before the joints are attacked, its appli- 
cation will be found practicable even here. 

The greatest difficulty of all is when the chitin is internal, completely 
surrounded by soft tissue. Better results are obtained here with very 
dilute solutions — diluted from eight to ten times, or even more. It must 
be admitted that in this last case the application of the solvent is more 
doubtful, and of not nearly so much service as in the first and second 
supposed cases. 

Strong solutions, then, had better be used only when the chitin 
completely surrounds the soft animal parts, and dilute solutions must be 
used in all cases where these latter substances are exposed. The solu- 
tion not only softens the chitin, but removes all pigment either in the 
chitin or in the tissue beneath, and this is at times advantageous. 

Bonda's Hardening Method.* — Dr. C. Bonda describes a new harden- 
ing process especially adapted to the central nerve-system. It is briefly 
as follows : — 

The material in mass (as for instance the brain of a large dog) is 
placed for from twenty-four to forty-eight hours in a 10 per cent, 
aqueous solution of pure nitric acid, whence it is removed without 
rinsing into a solution of potassium bichromate, made by dissolving one 
volume of a cold saturated solution of the salt in two volumes of water. 
The bichromate solution must be replaced in the course of a few hours 
with a solution consisting of equal volumes of the saturated solution and 
water. In this the material is left until sufficiently liardened. It is 
recommended that brain and spinal cord be kept at least eight days in 
the fluid, and that the temperature be maintained at about that of incuba- 
tion, or say from 100° to 110° F. The author highly eulogizes the 
manner in which material thus hardened shows up after staining with 
heematoxylin. 

* St. Louis Med. and Surg. Journ., Iv. (1888) p. 230, from Centralbl. Med. 
Wise. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICBOSGOPY, ETO. 



143 



C3) Cutting, including- Imbedding- and Microtomes. 

Minot's Automatic Microtome.* — The microtome of Dr. Minot is, 
in the opinion of Mr. J. S. Kingsley, the best of the automatic forms. 
Equipped with it and a Thoma or Schanze instrument for celloidin 
sections, any laboratory may be considered as well prepared for any 
ordinary section work. 

In the Minot microtome, the general features of which can be seen 
from fig. 27, the knife is stationary, while the object is moved. Motion 

Fig. 27. 




is communicated either by a crank or by a belt to the balance-wheel from 
a water-motor. Each revolution of the shaft raises and lowers the 
object-carrier, the section being cut on the downward stroke. The 
object-carrier is advanced towards the knife when at its extreme height, 
by means of a micrometer screw placed between the ways on which it 
runs. This screw has threads • 5 mm. apart, and the large wheel Z 
which turns the screw bears 300 teeth upon its margin. This wheel is 
turned by means of a pall which strikes the upright lever H, seen in 
the fig., while a set-screw E allows the pall to engage from one to twelve 
teeth at a revolution. Thus the instrument has a capacity of cutting 
sections from 0*04 mm. to 0"0033 mm. as desired. The object P im- 
bedded in paraf&n is soldered with the same material to one of the 
section-holders, and this is then placed in its proper socket and clamped. 

* The Microscope, viii. (1888) pp. 241-2 (1 fig.) ; and Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr., 
V. (1888) p. 474 (1 fig.). 



144 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



Fig. 28. 




This part of the apparatus is provided with proper clamps and set-screws, 
so that motion is possible in the three dimensions of space, allowing 

perfect orientation of the 
specimen. 

Mr. Kingsley has used 
this machine for about three 
months almost daily, and it 
has proved itself all that 
could be expected. It is 
well-made and simple, and 
it is an easy matter to cut 
with it ribbons three feet 
or more in length, without 
a break and without losing 
a single section, 

A second view of the 
instrument is shown in 
fig. 28. 

Plate Modelling Method 
or Plastic Reconstruction 
of the Object.*— Prof. G. 
Born once again attacks 
this subject in an article of 
twenty-three pages. At the 
end he apologizes for the 
length of his article, but 
bids his readers be of good courage, for the actual manipulation is not 
nearly so long as the description. 

The method, which has been several times noticed in this Journal, 
essentially consists in making an enlarged model of the object, from 
which the sections are taken. The first principles are that no section 
should be lost, that they should be of the same thickness, and that they 
should be so marked that when laid together no difficulty should be ex- 
perienced in applying them one to the other, or in cutting off or out the 
superfluous parts. 

The object is as a rule imbedded in paraffin, and a block thereof made 
so that the sides are parallel and the angles right angles. Certain 
marks are intercalated on the block so that their correct position is easily 
noted. When the sections are cut, the next thing is to draw a magnified 
image of the object. This is done on sheets of wax, or rather a layer of 
wax on a sheet of paper. The magnified image is then cut out of the 
wax-paper, and all the sections having been laid together, an enlarged 
model of the original object is produced correct in all its details. 

This of course sounds very simple, but the difficulty of manipulation 
is great but not insurmountable. After having imbedded the object very 
carefully in paraffin, it is laid in its rough state on the orthostat, an 
instrument shown in fig. 29, O, F. The adjacent part of the apparatus 
a 6 is then applied, and the outer space filled up with paraffin, so that a 
roughly rectangular block is produced. But in order to make the sides 
perfectly flat and level and at right angles, another instrument is 
reqiaired. This is shown in fig. 30, the uplifted arm being a knife and 



Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr., v. (1888) pp. 433-55 (4 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



145 



the cut-out oblong the space into whicli the paraf&n block is fitted. 

When the sides have been accurately pared down they are marked by 

means of the apparatus shown in fig. 31, which makes a series of holes in 

one of the planed-down sides. The holes and sides are then stained 

with soot or any other suitable medium, 

after which the block is dipped again Ftg. RO. 

in paraffin. 

For the purpose of plastic recon- 
struction the author advises that ribbon 
sections should not be cut, and in order 
to unroll sections he advocates the use 
of the apparatus shown in fig. 3,?. 
This is essentially an iron table pro- 

FiG. 29. 





vided with a flap coming off at a right angle. Beneath the flap is placed 
a spirit-lamp, and on the table the section. The position on the table 
given to the section must of course vary with the heat. It should be so 
placed that it gently unrolls itself. 

With regard to the modelling process it is only necessary to state 
that the chief difficulty lies in making the wax-paper plates. For this 



Fig. 31. 



Fm. S2. 





purpose are required a lithographer's stone, strips of metal which vary 

m thickness but not in length and breadth (50 cm. by 1-5 cm.), and an 

iron roller. The thicknesses given are 0-4, 0-6, 0-8 0-9 1 l'-2 1-5 

1889. ' 'l ' 



146 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



1*8, and 2 mm. With such thicknesses if the sections be made 0"015, 
• 02, • 03, • 04 in thickness, a suitable multiple will always be found. 
The principle of making the plates consists in rolling out a layer of 
wax on a sheet of paper, the thickness varying with the size of the model 
required. Upon the paper has already been drawn the magnified image 
of the object. Along the sides of the stone are laid two strips of metal ; 
the surface is then brushed over with turpentine, the paper is placed on, 
and then the wax having been poured over the paper, the roller is used 
to make a flat and even layer. 

"When these wax-paper plates are finished, the superfluous parts are 
cut out, and then they are stuck together so as to produce the magnified 
model desired. In this last part of course a good deal of manipulative 
skill is required so that no parts are damaged and that the surface is 
quite regular. 

Cutting Microscopical Objects for the purpose of Plastic Recon- 
struction.* — Dr. N. Kastschenko has devised two more modifications of 
his apparatus intended for being adjusted to the object-holder of micro- 
tomes, the first of which was described in this Journal, 1887, p. 511. 

The oi'iginal apparatus had for its object to pare down the sides of 
a paraffin block in such a way that some geometrical pattern might 
surround the object. This pattern or " definition line " was intended 
to facilitate the reproduction of the object in a magnified model (plastic 
reconstruction) from the sections made. 

From the author's point of view of course it is important that the 
definition or boundary surfaces (which on section of the object are seen 

Fig. 34. 





as definition or boundary lines) should be perfectly parallel, or at any 
rate have a fixed and determined position. The apparatus which he advo- 
cates is intended to effect this. The first or original model was intended 
for the Schanze microtome. The two models given above were constructed 



Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr., v. (1888) pp. 173-81 (2 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. MICROSCOPY, ETC. 147 

for the Thoma- Jung, and for the Spengel-Becker microtomes. They are 
shown in figs. 33 and 34, their natural size. 

In fig. 33 is shown the " cutter " or parer, as constructed for the 
Thoma-Jung object-holder. It may, however, be fitted to any micro- 
tome with a cylindrical object-holder. Its construction is extremely 
simple. It consists of a stout ring h, the internal diameter of which is 
exactly equal to that of the object-holder. The ring is immovably united 
to the piece a, which in its turn is exactly like the paraffin cylinder 
which fits into the object-holder. In the ring is seen the binding-screw c. 
The paraf&n-holder d, which fits inside the ring, may be either solid or 
hollow. 

The holes in d and a are for the purpose of turning round the 
apparatus. While the object is being pared down the part a is fixed 
firmly in the object-holder, and when the block has had its definition- 
surfaces thus prepared, it is removed from the cutter and fixed on the 
object-holder in such a way that it is cut in a direction perpendicular to 
the surfaces. 

The second model, fig. 34, differs very little from the author's 
original apparatus. In this newer model the stem a is straight, instead 
of being bent at a right angle. This apparatus is intended to be used in 
any ordinary object-holder, and is of such dimensions that movement in 
any direction when it is fixed in the clamp is possible. This " parer " 
fits into the apparatus e, which consists of two blocks of wood loosely 
united by short metal wires. The wooden holder of course fits into the 
clamp while the block is being shaved down. When the boundary sur- 
faces have been satisfactorily adjusted to the paraffin block, the latter is 
removed from the " cutter " or parer, and inserted into the wooden 
holder wherein it is sectioned. 

CoLMAN, W. S. — Section Cutting and Staining. A practical guide to the prepara- 
tion of normal and morbid histological specimens. 

viii. and 107 pp., 6 figs. 8vo, London (Lewis & Co., 
136, Gower Street, W.O.), 1888. 

(4) Staining and Injectingr. 

New Stains for Microscopical Purposes.! — Prof. E. Zschokke gives 
the results of his examination of the following six pigments, which he 
has used for staining animal and vegetable tissues : — 

(1) Benzopurpurin B. An amorphous brown powder, soluble in 
water, and giving a cinnabar red solution and corresponding stain. It 
acts very much like acid fuchsin and is much superior to eosin, being 
unacted on by alcohol, anilin oil, oil of cloves, &c. It makes a good 
contrast stain to hsematoxylin, and can be used after Gram's method. 

(2) Benzopurpurin 4 B. An orange-red dye, soluble in spirit. The 
sections should be transferred from spirit to the alcoholic solution of the 
dye. It stains connective tissue orange. It is little altered by acids or 
alkalies. It may be used sometimes as a double stain with logwood. 

(3) Deltapurpurin. A brownish-red powder, easily soluble in water. 
Preparations are stained in two minutes a diflEuse purple-red. The dye 
is very stable and not easily extracted. Like the preceding two, it may 
be used as a contrast stain to hsematoxylin. 

(4) Benzoazurin. A brown powder, easily soluble in water, the 

♦ Zeitachr. f. Wisa. Mikr., v. (1888) pp. 465-70. 

L 2 



148 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

solution having a blue-violet colour. Strong solutions stain rapidly, and 
the nuclei are darker than the protoplasm. Alkaline solutions change 
the blue hue to red, and eventually decolorize the section. Acids, 
alcohol, and clarifying media do not at all affect the dye. It appears to 
be a good substitute for hsematoxylin. 

(5) Chrysophenin. A sulphur-yellow pigment, but little soluble in 
water, easily soluble in alcohol. Preparations stained in an alcoholic 
solution assume a diffuse yellow colour. It is unaffected by acids and 
alkalies. 

(6) Ehodanin-red and rhodanin-violet. Both are basic dyes, soluble 
in water and spirit. The stains imparted by their solution are carmine- 
red and reddish-violet. The pigment is rapidly extracted both by spirit 
and water. They stain bacteria, but no mordant has been found to fix 
them. 

Of the foregoing six pigments, it will be seen that two are very suit- 
able for histological purposes, viz. benzopurpurin B and benzoazurin. 

Carmine Staining of Nervous Tissue.* — Dr. H. S. Upson gives the 
three following methods for staining nervous tissue after Miiller's fluid 
or alcohol. 

(1) The following alum-carmine solution is first made. 1 gram car- 
mine is boiled with 100 ccm. of a 5 per cent, alum solution (rubidium alum 
is the best). To 5 ccm. of this solution are added 10-20 drops of acetic 
acid and 1 to 3 drops of molybdo-phosphoric acid, and then filtered. 
The sections are placed in this mixture for 2 to 10 minutes, or longer, 
and then carefully washed, dehydrated, cleared up, and imbedded. The 
axis-cylinders, ganglion-cells, and connective tissues are stained, and 
the nuclei very clearly. 

(2) 5 ccm. of the foregoing alum-carmine solution are saturated with 
zinc sulphate and filtered. Sections are placed in this solution for 
1/2 to 12 hours, and then treated as above. This method gives very 
good results, especially with peripheral nerves and spinal cord. 

(3) • 06 grm. carminic acid are dissolved in a mixture of 4 ccm. water 
and 1 ccm. spirit. The sections remain in the mixture for 8 to 10 minutes, 
are then washed for a short time in water, and are then placed in one of 
the following mordants for a few minutes. They are then washed in 
water and treated as before. The action of the mordants produces the 
following staining : — Dilute acetic acid, a yellowish-red ; saturated so- 
lution of lead acetate, blue ; iron sulphate, black ; manganese sulphate, 
red ; nickel sulphate or barium- chloride, violet. The longer th(? tissue 
has remained in Miiller's fluid or spirit the more lasting the stain will be. 

Staining" Microbes black for Photomicrography.f — Dr. E. Neuhauss 
stains bacteria black in the following way. Campeachy wood extract is 
dissolved in boiling water and the solution filtered as hot as possible. 
After this has stood for at least eight days it is warmed up every time it 
is to be used. The cover-glass to be stained is boiled in the solution 
for ten minutes. It is next washed in hot water and afterwards im- 
mersed for a long time in a weak solution of neutral chromate of soda. 
This solution is made by adding, drop by drop, a 5 per cent, soda 
solution to a weak boiling solution of chromic, and until the liquid 
gives a neutral reaction. 

* Neurol. Centralbl., vii. (1888) pp. 319-21. Cf. Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr., v. 
(1888) pp. 525-6. f Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr., v. (1888) pp. 484-6. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MIOROSOOPY, ETC. 149 

In order to obtain a deep black tbe whole process must be repeated 
three or four times. 

The advantages of this black stain are that the negatives of bacteria 
are extraordinarily sharp and vs^ell defined both with sun and artificial 
light. The details in the bacteria, spores, &c., appear with the greatest 
clearness. The flagella, too, unstainable with anilin dyes, are stained 
quite black. 

Lastly the preparations do not lose colour. 

Nucina as a Staining Agent.* — Prof. N. Leon calls attention to the 
value of the black substance of " nuts " (Nucina) as a staining agent. 
Though chemists are, as it seems, still ignorant of its chemical formula, 
solutions are easily obtained. Nucina has the property of actively dif- 
ferentiating the parts of which cells are composed; it blackens nuclei, 
bacteria, and the leucites of vegetable cells and easily differentiates the 
constituent parts of spermatozoa. The aqueous solution is obtained by 
putting nuts into alcohol ; as soon as the spirit becomes green, owing to 
the solution of chlorophyll, the nuts are carefully washed with water 
so as to extract the alcohol. 25 nuts were then placed in a 
porcelain vessel with 500 grams of distilled water, which was 
boiled till half the water had evaporated. The liquid, after being 
filtered several times, was boiled afresh with 10 per cent, of alum ; the 
solution has a blood-red colour with direct light. The alcoholic solu- 
tion is made by boiling nuts in water, removing them, and allowing the 
water to deposit the black nucina ; 100 grams of alcohol at 80° 
were added for every three grams of nucina. This solution has a black 
colour ; after its use a few drops of hydrochloric acid should be applied 
to the section. 

Baumgarten's Triple Staining Method.f — This method as given by 
M. A. Lewin consists in the following series of operations : — 

(1) After having washed the sections in absolute alcohol, they are 
placed for 5 minutes in borax-picrocarmine ; excess of stain is then 
removed with blotting-paper. (Borax-picrocarmine is prepared by 
adding powdered picric acid to a solution of Grenacher's borax-carmine 
until the fluid assumes a blood-red colour.) 

(2) The sections are then plunged for 2 minutes into absolute alcohol 
to which crystals of picric acid have been added until the spirit re- 
sembles hock. This operation is to be performed twice. 

(3) The sections are next immersed for 1 minute in Ehrlich's gentian- 
violet solution. This solution should be freshly made. Excess of stain 
should be removed with filter-paper. (The gentian-violet solution is 
prepared by adding 11 volumes of a saturated alcoholic solution of the 
pigment to 100 volumes of a 5 per cent, solution of anilin oil in water 
and then filtering. 

(4) The sections are next immersed for one minute in a solution of 
iodine (iodine, 1 ; iodide of potassium, 2 ; water, 300) ; from this they 
are transferred to absolute alcohol, wherein they remain for 30 seconds. 

(5) Excess of gentian-violet is then removed with hydrochloric acid 
and alcohol (HCl 3 ; CaHgO 97). In performing this step it is neces- 
sary to watch the decoloration carefully, as the reaction is very delicate. 

* Zool. Anzeig., xi. (1888) pp. 624-5. 

t Journ. de Microgr., xii. (1888) pp. 415-6. Cf. Bull. Soc. Belg. Micr., 1887, 

No. 7. 



150 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

(6) The preparations are next immersed for 5 minutes in absolute 
alcohol which has been rendered yellowish by means of a few crystals 
of picric acid. 

(7) The preparations are then cleared up in oil of cloves and mounted 
in xylol balsam. 

By this procedure a triple staining is obtained. 

Staining Actinomyces.* — Dr. A. Baranski recommends picrocarmine 
for staining Actinomyces. A small quantity of the yellow granules or 
of the pus is spread out on a cover-glass, and having been dried in the 
air is drawn several times through the flame of a spirit-lamp. The 
cover-glass is then placed in the picrocarmine solution for 2 or 3 
minutes, then washed in water or spirit and examined in water or 
glycerin. If for a permanent specimen the cover-glass is dried after 
having been washed and then mounted in balsam. Sections require to 
stay in the picrocarmine solution 2-3 minutes or longer. In other 
respects the manipulation is the same. The Actinomyces are stained in 
various shades of yellow, the surrounding tissue being dyed red. 

Method for Disting-uishing and Isolating Cholera Bacteria. f — 
Cholera bacilli, says Dr. 0. Bujwid, form a scum on the surface of 
nutrient media, and this scum consists of a pure cultivation of cholera 
bacilli. This skin or scum when grown for 2i hours at 37° C. in an 
alkaline solution containing 1-2 per cent, peptone and • 5 per cent, of 
salt resembles very much that formed by Bacillus suhtilis. Now cholera 
bacilli give with certain mineral and organic acids, but specially with 
hydrochloric, a reaction which has been shown to be due to the forma- 
tion of indol, and of a trace of nitrite. Impure cultivations and also 
bacteria resembling cholera bacilli also give this reaction, but it is 
much less intense, and only takes place after a longer time. For 
example, impure cultivations of cholera in a slightly alkaline 2 per cent, 
peptone solution, and kept for 24 hours at a temperature of 37° C, do 
not give any noticeable reaction, while pure cholera bacteria bred under 
similar conditions give a beautiful purple-red colour with hydrochloric 
acid. Hence it is possible to ascertain merely by the aid of hydrochloric 
acid if we are dealing with pure or impure cultivations of cholera spirilla. 

It is of importance for the success of this reaction that the peptone 
should be very good and that the time and temperature limits should be 
carefully observed, because if cultivated at ordinary temperatures and 
for longer periods (3 or 4 days) the same result will be obtained with 
the acid from other bacilli, for example, Finkler's and Miller's. Hence 
the reaction is not only qualitative but quantitative. 

Shellac Injection for the Vessels of the Eye.J — Dr. Bellarminow 
has used shellac injection for the vessels of the eye with good results. 
Yellow shellac is used in a thick spirituous solution. About 1 part 
of shellac to 1^ parts alcohol are placed in a flask for 24 hours and fre- 
quently shaken. The mixture is then heated at 45°-50° for 2-5 hours, 
and then filtered through two or three thicknesses of gauze. The 
syrupy filtrate is then stained with cinnabar or Berlin blue, and used 
for injecting arteries or veins. It will not penetrate the capillaries, 
and if required for this purpose should not be thicker than cream. 

* Deutsch. Med. Wocheuschr., 1887, p. 1065. 

t Central bl. f. Bakteriol. u. Parasitenk., iv. (1888) pp. 494-6. 

X Anat. Anzeig., iii. (1888) pp. 618-50. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MIOROSOOPY, ETC. 151 

The pigments are first rubbed up with spirit, and having been 
filtered through gauze, added in the desired proportion to the shellac 
solution. In 10-12 minutes the injected mass is hard. Syringe and 
canula must be immersed in spirit previously and carefully washed 
therewith after injection. After injection the eyes are placed for 
24- hours in 0*2-0 '3 per cent, chromic acid, and then having been 
cleaned up with a brush, are washed in running water for 24 hours. 
The thicker parts and those which retain the pigment are then macerated 
in eau de Javelle for a longer or shorter time. If allowed to work too 
long the macerating fluid destroys the walls of the vessels and renders 
the preparation useless. It is then washed again in running water for 
12 to 24 hours, and afterwards, having been mopped up with blotting- 
paper, it is stretched between two slides and allowed to dry. 

Permanent preparations may be mounted dry and ringed round with 
paraffin or some quick-drying varnish, or may be cleared up in turpen- 
tine and mounted in balsam. 

Double injection gives very good results, the arteries with cinnabar 
from the carotid, the veins with Berlin blue from the vense verticosge. 

Black Injection-mass.* — Prof. A. Letellier advocates the use of a 
mixture of vanadate of ammonia and tannin as an injection-mass. The 
advantages of this mixture are that it is black in itself, and does not 
depend for its colour on solid particles in suspension ; that it has no 
tendency to diffuse outside the vessels into the tissues ; that the mass 
will pass through the finest canula and not block the point ; that the 
walls of the vessels, even when not entirely filled, are stained black ; 
and that when pieces of the injected tissue are placed in spirit the 
colouring matter is not withdrawn, as vanadate of ammonia is insoluble 
in alcohol. 

The preparation of this injection-mass is extremely simple. Vana- 
date of ammonia is soluble in warm, and tannin in hot water. The two 
solutions are kept apart until required for use, when they are mixed in 
proportion to the tint required. 

For the tannin, pyrogallic acid or a solution of nut-galls, made by 
macerating the bruised galls in cold water, may be substituted. 

Teclmique of the "Corrosion" of Celloidin Preparations.f— Dr. 

Bellarminow recommends that celloidin sections of the eye injected with 
Berlin blue should be treated with eau de Javelle in order to destroy the 
pigment which interferes with the examination. Thick sections are 
placed for ten to thirty minutes in a solution of sodium carb., calcar. 
chlor., 12 '5 each, water, 100 parts. Thinner sections in a weaker 
solution. They are then washed in running water for twenty-four 
hours. Then dehydration, clearing up, and Canada balsam. The 
celloidin imbedding increases the resistance of the sections to the action 
of eau de Javelle, consequently this reagent is very suitable for the 
purpose. 

* Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, i. (1888) pp. 171-i. 
t Anat. Anzeig., iii. (1888) pp. 650-1. 



152 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

C5) Mounting-, including Slides, Preservative FluidSj &c. 

Preparation of Type-plates and arranged Groups of Diatoms.* — Mr. 

K. M, Cunningham says that Mr. E. Getschmann prepares his slides of 
arranged diatoms after the following method : — 

A table is placed before a well-lighted window, and on this are 
the requisite appliances for work, the chief requisite being a small 
dissecting Microscope, fitted with simple achromatic lenses, varying 
in their focal length as the case might require, but a lens of about 
1/4 in. focus answering for actual work. Preparatory to begin- 
ning a selection of diatoms for the design to be arranged, a quantity 
of cleaned diatom material is evenly spread over an ordinary slide, 
this is carefully examined, and from it are selected all the perfect 
forms likely to be used in a design, and transferred to a cover-glass ; all 
forms of the same shape being grouped together, or arranged in lines for 
convenience afterwards. If necessary, several cover-glasses can be thus 
filled with perfect forms, free from cracks or other blemishes, and placed 
aside, protected from dust, until required. The diatoms are picked out 
from the spread layer of material by the aid of hair bristles of varying 
degrees of fineness mounted in a slender wooden handle, and projecting 
therefrom about a half-inch ; the bristle should be straight and, if 
possible, have a fine taper to a sharp point ; this is used with a free and 
steady hand, and, to facilitate steadiness in jjicking out, the two arms are 
rested upon two cushioned blocks of wood, tapering from the level of the 
stage of the Microscope to their bases on the table. A further indispens- 
able piece is a glass slide, having an area at its centre of about a quarter 
of an inch, or somewhat less, ruled into minute squares at the rate of 
about forty lines to the quarter-inch ; on this slide, and properly centered, 
must be placed the cover-glass upon which it is desired to produce the 
group. The cover-glass is prepared by spreading at its centre a minute 
drop of liquid gelatin, by means of a little brass spatula, and allowing it 
to dry. A number of cover-glasses, after having been carefully chosen 
and thoroughly cleaned, might be prepared, and also set aside for use 
later. The clear and transparent gelatin should be filtered before use by 
passing it through suitable filter-paper, so as to prevent all chance dirt 
from marring the mount. Wh^n ready to begin a group, fix the cover- 
glass centrally over the area of squares by means of three little touches 
of wax, and then also adjust, close to the same cover-glass, one of the 
cover-glasses containing the diatoms previously selected for the grouping ; 
or, if necessary, two or more, according to the complexity of the proposed 
design. With the selecting bristle in the right hand, and the eye 
adjusted to the lens, bring the glass containing the selected diatoms into 
the field of view, then carefully select as a centre a perfect disc, say, a 
Coscinodiscus ; now shift the gelatined cover-glass into view and deposit 
the disc at its centre, and carefully adjust it so that its centre shall seem 
to cover the intersection of a group of the small squares ; around the disc, 
as a centre, adjust a series of small circular forms, spacing them at 
equal distances from each other. Should it next be desired to introduce 
a series of slender forms they may be adjusted into position by lining 
them over the guide lines radiating from the centre of the disc, or through 
the diagonals of the squares ; in this manner proceed until the design is 
completed. 

* The Microscope, viii. (1888) pp. 237-41 (2 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 153 

Wlien tlie grouping is finally inspected, it is permanently fixed to the 
gelatin layer by holding the slide on a level, under the mouth, and 
breathing on it very carefully a few times. This is perfectly reliable and 
more expeditious than breathing through rubber or glass tubes for the 
same purpose. 

For the purpose of mounting, it is well to have a quantity of cells 
finished on slides and kept on hand. The slides are centered on the 
turntable, and shallow cells of black shellac are built up to suit the 
diameter of the cover-glass to be mounted thereon. This cell is filled 
with a drop of Canada balsam pressed out of a metal tube. The cover- 
glass containing the arranged diatoms is now freely immersed in filtered 
spirits of turpentine, and also flushed with it, so as to expel all air from 
the diatoms and to clean off all motes or particles that may have lodged 
upon it during or after preparation of the same. The cover-glass is then 
set upon its edge to drain off superfluous turijentine, and while it drains 
gently soften the shellac cell over a spirit-lamp, pick up the cover-glass 
and gently lay it centrally over the cell, and press firmly into contact 
with the cell ; the slide is then set aside with the cell-side down, and 
supported on a level, to obviate as much as possible the floating out of 
place of any of the forms, which are sometimes displaced while drying. 

The procedure described above is essentially that followed by the 
leading preparers, with more or less slight variations as to finish of cells 
and media used in mounting. 

For the arrangement of type-plates of diatoms, the guide-lines and 
squares ruled on the cover-glass carrier serve to allow the forms to 
be adjusted in lines and properly spaced with the same ease as in 
symmetrical grouping. When such beautiful results are produced by 
simple and inexpensive means, it does not seem to be worth while to 
attempt this class of work with compound Microscopes, with mechanical 
fingers and ruled guides set in the eye-piece. 

Xylol-dammar.* — M. Martinotti advocates the use of dammar dis- 
solved in xylol as a mounting medium to be preferred to balsam in 
certain cases. He prepares his solution in the following way : — 

Forty grm. of dammar and 40 grm. of xylol are mixed together 
in a stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand for three or four days at the 
ordinary temperature. The solution is then filtered. The filtrate, 
which will amount to about 70 grm., is then evaporated in a water- 
bath down to about 45 grm. 

The object of this concentration is to obtain a solution of the resin 
in the smallest quantity of xylol possible, just enough in fact to merely 
dissolve the resin. This concentrated solution becomes yellow, but 
retains its limpidity. The next step is to dilute this solution with oil 
of turpentine, by which means the yellowish colour is made to almost 
disappear. 

Kaiser's Gelatin for arranging microscopical preparations in 
series.j — Dr. A. Poll arranges objects on the slide with Kaiser's gelatin 
in the following manner : — With a fine brush, just as many daubs are 
made with the melted gelatin as there are preparations to be mounted, 
the preparations are then transferred on the brush to the places where 
the thin layers of gelatin are, slight pressure being used in order to 
make them stick. Should the preparations not lie in the desired 

* Malpighia, ii. (1888) p. 270. f Ibid., pp. 107-9. 



154 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

position, the slide may be heated a little, up to 45°, and when rearranged, 
allowed to cool. Glycerin is then added to the preparation, the cover- 
glass imposed, and the preparation fixed up in the usual way. 

Limpid Copal Solution.* — A limpid and colourless solution of gum 
copal has long been a desideratum to microscopists, and Dr. F. L. 
James has spent many hours in trying to obtain one. The follow- 
ing process he found originally in a German journal, ' Der Techniker,' 
and having given it a fair trial, can say that if a high grade of bright 
copal is chosen, the product will be perfectly limpid and almost colour- 
less. By sorting the copal, a solution as limpid as water may be obtained. 

Dissolve 4 parts of camphor in 48 parts of sulphuric ether and add 
16 parts of pulverized gum copal thereto. Cork the flask carefully, and 
Btand aside with occasional agitations until the copal is partly dissolved 
and partly swollen to its fullest extent. Then add 16 parts of alcohol 
of 96° and 1 part rectified oil of turpentine, and agitate thoroughly. 
Let stand with occasional agitations for several days, and at the expira- 
tion of a week or so, the contents of the flask will be found to have 
separated into two layers, of which the lower is rather dark, thick, and 
possibly dirty, according to the quality of the copal, but above this a 
layer will be found rich in copal and as clear as crystal itself. The 
lower layer may be further treated with camphor and sulphuric ether, 
and afterwards with alcohol, and made to give a still further yield of 
the crystalline fluid. The only objection to this solution of copal is 
that it is somewhat brittle when dry. This may be obviated by adding 
a few drops of purified nut or poppy oil thereto. 

Preserving-fluids for Fleshy and Succulent Plants, f — Herr E. 
Sadebeck recommends for this purpose a 4-5 per cent., i. e. a nearly 
saturated solution of barium-lead-nitrate, the object retaining its colour 
in it for one or two months, while the solution itself remains clear. 
Another good preserving-fluid for similar objects is a solution of cor- 
rosive sublimate of a • 1 per cent, concentration, to which a few drops of 
hydrochloric acid have been added. Boracic acid does not prevent decay, 
even in a saturated solution. For Fungi which contain but little soluble 
matter, a 20 per cent, solution of alcohol may be recommended. 

Determining the Thickness of Cover-glasses of Mounted Prepara- 
tions.J — Dr. S. Czapski gives the following method for ascertaining the 
thickness of cover-glasses where the preparation is already mounted. 
This is very desirable for high powers. The procedure presupposes the 
possession of some cover-glasses, the thickness of which is known, and 
that the head of the fine-adjustment screw is divided by radial lines. 

The upper and under surface are focused with an objective of • 6 to 
• 9 aperture and central illumination, and the amount of turn given 
to the fine-adjustment screw noted for each cover-glass ; of course it is 
unimportant whether the exact value of the screw turn is known or not. 
If the surfaces of the cover-glass do not present any obvious marks to 
focus on, an artificial one, such as dust or scratches, must be supplied. 
If the numbers thus obtained be compared with the known real thickness 
of the covers, a reduction factor is obtained from their quotients, which 
is available for determining measurements of a similar kind, that is to say 
for measurements of other cover-glasses with the same objective, ocular, 

• St. Louis Med. and Surg. Journ.. Iv. (1888) p. 231. 

t SB. Gesell. Bot. Hamburg, iii. (1887) p. 61. See Bot. Centralbl., xxxvi. (1888) 
p 128. I Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr , v. (1888) pp. 482-4. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANr, MICROSCOPY, ETC, 



155 



diaphragm, and tube-length. The focusing differences are always to be 
multiplied with this factor in order to obtain the true depth (thickness) 
of the layer. 

As an example : — Objective DD Zeiss, diaphragm 8 mm. diameter, 
tube-length 155 mm., and four cover-glasses, the thicknesses of which, 
already ascertained, are 0'146, 0*168, 0*187, 0*22. The focusing 
ditferences marked by the head of the fine-adjustment screw were 35, 
40, 45, 52 divisions. Then the reduction factors in 1/1000 [x are 



1^-4*17 1^^ = 4.20 1^-4*16 
35 ' 40 ' 45 ' 



220 

■52 



= 4*23, 



or on the average 4*19, say 4*2. If the thickness of these cover- 
glasses had not been known, but the focusing differences had been 
obtained and multiplied by 4*2, the results would have been • 147, 
0-168, 0*189, 0*218, instead of 0*146, 0*168, 0*187, 0*22. Differ- 
ences of -f- * 001, 0*0, -}- * 002, - • 002 ; a result more than 
sufficiently accurate for the purpose. 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

Garbini's small Steam-generator for Microscopical Technique.* — 
Dr. A. Garbini describes a small steam-producing apparatus which he 



Fig. 35. 




uses in microscopical technique, especially where paraffin [and gelatin 
are required. 

* Zeitschr. f. Wiss, Mikr., v. (1888) pp. 168-71 (1 fig.)- 



156 



SUMMARY OF OUllRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



The apparatus (fig. 35) consists of a spherical copper boiler A, sup- 
ported on three legs, and having a water-gauge a, a steam exit pipe 6, 
which is fitted with a stop-cock, opening two ways, and a pipe c, into 
which fits a funnel with a very long stem. This serves both for pouring 
water into the boiler, and also as a safety-valve. The funnel is connected 
with the boiler by means of a caoutchouc tube. The funnel B is fitted 
with three tubes, one through which the steam enters, and another 
through which it passes out. The diameter of the latter is less than 
half that of the former. The third tube is for a thermometer which is 
fixed by means of a cork bung. 

It is necessary to plug the aperture between the rims of the copper 
and glass funnels with a piece of flannel in order to prevent the steam 
from escaping. 

Paraffin Oven with simple arrangement for maintaining a constant 
temperature.* — Dr. E. Sehrwald describes a simple apparatus for heating 
paraffin, which is easily made and keeps a constant temperature. 



Fig. 36. 




It consists of a copper box (fig. 36), from the top of which ascends 
a tube for filling with water, and a second smaller one descends for the 
reception of a thermometer. When the box is filled with water the 

* Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr., v. (1888) pp. 331-4 (1 fig.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



157 



Fig. 37. 



larger tube is closed with a cork bung, through which pass two tubes. 
One of these is Y-shaped, and has at its lower extremity a small bag 
made of vegetable parchment. The arms of the Y are connected by 
means of a cross tube having a narrow lumen, and the ends of the arms 
are joined on to a caoutchouc tube through which the gas passes. The 
effect of this arrangement is that when the water gets hot, the mercury 
with which the leg and bag of the Y-shaped tube are filled, rises into 
the Yj and thus shuts off the gas. The stream of gas, however, is still 
kept up through the narrow connecting tube, and this prevents the light 
from going out altogether. The second glass tube has a funnel con- 
nected by means of a short piece of rubber tubing and forms the arrange- 
ment whereby the apparatus is regulated for a given temperature. For 
when the water begins to get j_warm it rises up the tube and so into the 
funnel, the mercury remaining stationary. Directly the desired tem- 
perature is reached, a strong clamp is put on the short piece of rubber 
tubing, and then the mercury begins to regulate the supply of gas for 
this temperature. If a higher temperature be desired, it is only 
necessary to remove the clamp and allow the water to ascend until the 
proper point is reached, and 
then re-clamp. If a lower 
one be necessary the clamp 
is undone, and the gas-jet 
removed until the tem- 
perature has fallen. 

Stein's Steam Funnel.* 
— Dr. L. V. Stein has con- 
structed a funnel for facili- 
tating the filtration of 
gelatin and agar solutions. 

The outer funnel A, 
fig. 37, is made of copper, 
and has the following di- 
mensions : — Diameter, 14 
cm. ; height 10 cm, ; sides 
A B, 6-7 cm. The tube 
for heating it C, is seen at 
one side. The internal 
filter D has sides 3 cm. 
high, its diameter is 9 cm., 
and its height 10 cm. It 
is covered with the lid B, 
into which are soldered the 

two tubes E and F, both being closed with corks. The filter is filled 
with water through E, and through F passes the solution to be filtered. 
In the middle is seen the section of the glass funnel G, the stem of 
which is fixed tight by the cork bung H. 

When required for use, the copper funnel is filled with water as far 
as A, and a filter-paper placed within the glass funnel. As the steam 
developes it exerts some pressure on the fluid, since it can only escape 
through the stem of the glass funnel. In one hour 100 cm. of a thick 




Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr., v. (1888) pp. 329-30 (1 fig.). 



158 SUMMARY OP CURRENT RB8BAR0HES RELATING TO 

agar solution can be filtered ; while gelatin runs through with the 
rapidity of water, and the apparatus has the further advantage of 
sterilizing the solution at the same time that it filters it. 

Distinguisliing Stains of Human Blood. — We observe that in a 
recent criminal trial an analyst deposed that human blood-corpuscles 
could be distinguished from those of some other animals. This opinion 
was based on the size of the corpuscles. 

It has been established by irrefragable evidence, both here and in the 
United States, that this view is an entire mistake, and it is to be hoped 
that the person charged in the case referred to will not be convicted 
and hanged before the error is corrected. 

Methods for ascertaining the Number of Atmospheric Germs.* — 
M. P. Miquel, who has done much for the analysis of germ-laden air, 
has given up the insoluble " filter " for a plug consisting of a soluble 
material. This device was suggested twenty-five years ago by Pasteur, 
and dried Glauber's salt or dried sea salt have been recommended for 
the purpose. Indeed, any soluble substance, when dry and sterilized, 
and which does not act antiseptically, is suitable for the purpose ; and in 
solving the problem required, i. e. of ascertaining how many germs were 
imprisoned in the plugs, it would appear that oscillations of temperature 
between 0^ and 30° made little difierence to the plugs. 

For the development of germs the necessary conditions are threefold, 
viz. a suitable medium, a temperature of about 30°, and sufficiently long 
period of observation (30-40 days). From numerous experiments it 
was found that peptonized meat broth was far superior to peptonized 
gelatin as a nutrient medium, only about one-half the germs really 
existing in the air being developed on gelatin plates. 

The author concludes by maintaining that the gelatin-plate method 
is inapplicable to air analysis in all those cases where the air contains 
more fungi than bacteria germs. 

Method for determining the true Shape of Microscopic Objects.f 
— ^Dr. E. Berger uses the following method for determining the shape of 
the posterior chamber of the eye : — 

The objects are imbedded in celloidin on threads placed vertically 
and set at a distance of 1 mm. The sections are made serially and are 
marked numerically. The outlines of each section and of the transverse 
sections of the rows are then drawn with the camera in such a way that 
the last overlap. Then, if the thickness of the sections be known, the 
projections, to adopt the phraseology of architects, &c., of the object 
examined can be ascertained. 

The enlargement is found by calculating the distances of the images 
of two sections, next each other in a row, by means of their true distance, 
1 mm. For each enlargement it is easy to construct a scale so that the 
real size of the object can be read off. 

Besbet, C. E. — Vacation Notes upon some Botanical Laboratories. 

[Strassburg, Leipzig, and Berlin.] The Microscope, IX. (1889) pp. 5-7. 

Beown, F. W. — A Course in Animal Histology. V., VI., VII. 

2he Microscope, VIII. (1888) pp. 336-7, 375-7, IX. (1889) pp. 12-14. 



* Ann. Instit. Pasteur, 1888, p. 346, 

t Comptes Rendus Soc. Biol., v. (1888) pp. 215-6. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 159 

FoBMAD, H. F. — [Liquids for Be-moistening Blood.] 

The Microscope, VIII. (1888) pp. 339-40, 
from Journ, of Comp. Med. and Surg. 
Feeeboen, G. C. — Notes on Histological Technicitie. 

[Selective stain for connective tissue. Carminic acid. Macerating fluid for 
nerve-cells. Substitute for cork in imbedding. Application of methyl- 
green for demonstrating the chemical reaction and death of cells. Making 
sections of teeth and bone with the preservation of the delicate parts. 
Easy method of reproducing photographically histological sections.] 

Amer. Man. Micr. Journ., IX. (1888) pp. 231-2, X. (1889) pp. 9-10. 
Latham, V. A. — Notes on Practical Examination of Muscle-fibres. 

The Microscope, YIII. (1888) pp. 330-3. 
[Man TON, "W. P., and others.] — Reagents in Microscopy. 

[Reagents should be " as mild and innocuous as can be obtained, and their 
effects carefully studied before we draw conclusions as to the structure of the 
objects examined.] The Microscope, VIII. (1888) pp. 246-8. 

„ „ Rudiments of Practical Embryology. 

[Celloidine method. Embryos as transparent objects. Labelling. Slide 
Cabinet.] 

The Microscope, VIII. (1888) pp. 334-5, 374-5. 
S., D.— A Microscopist's Table. Engl. MecL, XLVIII. (1888) p. 333 (1 fig.). 

Whelpley, H. M. — Microscopy of the United States Pharmacopoeia. 

The Microscope, VIII. (1888) pp. 317-8. 
Wothtschall, E. — Ueber die mikrochemischen Reactionen des Solanin. (On 
the microchemical reactions of solanin.) II. 

Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Mikr., V. (1888) pp. 182-95. 



( 160 ) 
PEOCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



Meeting of 12th Decbmbek, 1888, at King's College, Strand, W.C, 
Dr. C. T. Hudson, M.A., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the meeting of 14th November last were read and 
confirmed, and were signed by the President. 



The List of Donations (exclusive of exchanges and reprints) received 
since the last meeting was submitted, and the thanks of the Society given 
to the donors. 

From 
Colman, W. S., Section Cutting and Staining, vi. and 107 pp., 

6 figs. (8vo, London, 1888) The Author. 

Griffith's Patent Turntable Mr. E. H. Griffith. 

Lubbock, Sir J., On the Senses, Instincts, and Intelligence of 

Animals, with special reference to Insects, xxix. and 292 pp., 

118 figs. (8vo, London, 1888) The Author. 

Whelpley, H. M., Chemical Lecture Notes. 2nd ed., iv. and 

211 pp., 102 figs. (8vo, St. Louis, Mo., 1888) „ 

Zeiss, C, Special-Catalog iiber Apparate fiir Mikiophotographie. 

52 pp., 16 pis., and 9 figs. (4 to, Jena, 1888) „ 



Mr. T. Christy exhibited and described a new device as an attach- 
ment to a lamp for use with the Microscope. He met with it in the first 
instance whilst attending the Medical Congress at Cologne, where it 
attracted a great deal of attention, and was in such demand by the many 
German visitors that he found it was quite uncertain how long he might 
have to wait to get one made. He therefore endeavoured to make one 
for himself, and had done this by inclosing the chimney of an ordinary 
lamp in a tin tube, into one side of which, on a level with the flame, a 
short nozzle was inserted. A piece of solid glass rod, about 5/8 in. in 
diameter, and bent to the required shape, was fitted into this nozzle by 
passing it through a perforated cork, the other end of the rod curving 
upwards under the stage of the Microscope. The light from the lamp 
entering the end of the glass, and being prevented from emerging by 
the limiting angle, was totally reflected throughout its entire length, and 
finally escaping at the extremity below the stage, illuminated the object 
in a very satisfactory manner ; by simply turning the tube the beam of 
light could be directed upon or through the object in any required 
direction. He had some difficulty in the first instance in getting any 
one to undertake its manufacture, from a belief that it was already the 
subject of an English patent. He foimd, however, on inquiry at the 
Patent Office, that although a similar lamp had been made about four 
years ago, and steps had been taken at that time to secure patent rights, 
the matter had not been taken up within the time allowed, so that it had 
now lapsed. The intending patentee had wanted it for the purpose of 
passing light down the throat and elsewhere for medical purposes, but 
had given it up in favour of the more convenient electric lamp. He was 
told that in making it there was a good deal to be worked out, because a 
special sort of glass was needed to secure the best results. It was found 
that no advantage arose from covering the outside of the glass with tin- 
foil or black varnish. The German professors found they could work 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 161 

much more easily with light conveyed in this way, because no stray 
light from the lamp could enter the eyes, and they had thus the great 
advantage of working in the dark with a good light on the object. They 
also found it very convenient to be able, from the same lamp, to furnish 
light separately to the Microscopes of four or five students sitting round 
a table. 

Prof. Pritchard said he had worked with a lamp of this kind three 
or four years ago, using it successfully as a light whilst operating in 
the ear. It looked at first very extraordinary to get light to come 
through a rod in that manner ; but there was no difficulty in explaining 
how it occurred ; because the light once getting into the rod was pre- 
vented from getting out again at the sides by internal reflection. There 
seemed some little difficulty in getting a good light, because of the 
amount of heat from the lamp, and the necessity for a particular kind 
of flame. The one he used was lent to him by Messrs. Ash, the dentists' 
instrument-makers. 

Mr. Crisp said the German form of it was described and figured in 
the Journal just published, at p. 1025. 

Mr. Karop said that on looking through the Microscope the illumi- 
nation of the object was fairly good, but there was too little light for 
use with any but low powers, and the arrangement entirely precluded 
the use of the condenser. 

The President thought this was a fatal objection to it, because prac- 
tically for all delicate work one required the condenser constantly going 
in some form or other. 



Mr. C. L. Curties exhibited and described a new form of portable 
Microscope, intended for the use of medical men. It consisted chiefly 
in the folding tripod foot adapted to one of Baker's histological Micro- 
scopes. The body-tube was of the Continental length, 9 in. closing to 
6 in., and there was a centering substage. 



Mr. Ahrens' new erecting Microscope was exhibited. In this two 
right-angled prisms are made use of over the objective, Mr. Ahrens 
claiming that by this method there was less distortion than when lenses 
were used for erecting the image (see this Journal, 1888, p. 1020). 



Mr. Crisp handed round for inspection a curious little Microscope, 
in which he remarked that both Science and Art were combined, A 
seated figure of a monkey held the stage and mirror in its extended 
hands, a small brass arm screwed to the head of the figure serving to 
carry the tube (sujpra, p. 113). 



Mr. Griffith's description of a new form of camera for microphoto- 
graphy, consisting of a conical wire spiral covered with black cloth, was 
laid before the meeting (see this Journal, 1888, p. 1031). 

Mr. C. L. Curties said he had tried this plan, but found the spiral 
troublesome to close, as it had a tendency to shoot out sideways. It did 
not offer much advantage in point of space over the portable bellows 
camera, which, though extending to 3 ft., could be shut up to 5 in, by 
4 in,, inclusive of the back, 

1889. M 



162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Mr. H. Jackson's note was read, recommending monobromide of 
naphthaline as a medium for homogeneous immersion {swpra, p. 119). 



The President said that the Society would regret to hear of the 
death of Dr. Zeiss, of Jena, which had taken place since the date of 
their last meeting. He had lived to the good old age of seventy-three 
years, and was known to many amongst them, though not to himself. 
But he knew a great deal about his lenses, because it had come to this, 
that practically he had been obliged to put aside all large-angled English 
lenses in favour of those of Zeiss's manufacture. For delicate and flat 
work nothing could be better than the lenses produced by our best 
English makers ; but when they had to deal with an active animal not 
more than 1/250 in. in length, it was of immense advantage to get that 
additional focal distance which these foreign lenses afforded. Then 
another thing in which Dr. Zeiss had departed from the English plan 
was in not attempting to make screw collars to his high-power objec- 
tives, but fixed the combination once for all at a given thickness which 
his experience found to be the best average working distance. The 
benefit of this was found at once when a delicate animal of about 
1/300 in. was being held in such a way that the slightest pressure would 
crush it, and perhaps it was also the only one of its kind yet seen. At 
such a time it was best to have a lens that was fixed, and did not require 
a troublesome adjustment to be made at the time. Then he found also a 
further advantage in the fact that this kind of lens admitted of the use of 
dark-field illumination to a greater extent than our own. Even with 
the very highest powers some kind of dark field could be obtained, and 
would show what could not otherwise be made out so well. Some people 
said that this was only a matter of display ; but this was not all, for 
with many of the Kotifera it was necessary to use this method of 
illumination in order to obtain a true idea of their structure. 

Mr. Crisp said he must add some tribute to the memory of Dr. Zeiss, 
on account of the great courtesy he had always extended to them as a 
Society. There was nothing they had ever asked for but they had got 
it immediately. 

Mr. J. Mayall, jun., said he should like to add his testimony also as 
to the value of the services rendered to microscopy by the late Dr. Zeiss. 
When he was at Jena some time ago, in discussing with Prof. Abbe the 
progress that had been made in the Microscope since the introduction of 
achromatic objectives, his attention was called to the fact that Dr. Zeiss 
had devoted himself specially in his early days to perfecting the simple 
or dissecting Microscope, and that he had succeeded in obtaining such 
large apertures with his doublets and triplets that, in resolving power, 
they were nearly on a par with the best contemporaneous German 
compound Microscopes. Prof. Abbe thought the technical skill shown 
by Dr. Zeiss in the production of these doublets and triplets had led 
him to neglect for many years the compound Microscope, and hence, 
probably, to retard the development of the compound Microscope in 
Germany. Simple Microscopes had been much more in vogue on the 
Continent than in England until about thirty years ago, and the favour 
they had met with was largely due, without doubt, to the enormous 
apertures obtained by certain skilled opticians, notably the late Dr. 
Zeiss. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 163 

Mr. John Rattray gave a resume of his paper " On a Revision of the 
Genus Auliscus Ehrb. and of some of the Allied Genera" (see this 
Journal, 1888, p. 861). 

The President vras sure that all would feel greatly obliged to Mr. 
Rattray for this communication, for nothing could be more useful than 
to have these revisions from time to time, embodying as they did all 
that was known of the particular group dealt with. He thought it was 
very fortunate that the Society possessed a Secretary and staff who did 
so much in the way of collecting together and classifying facts in 
microscopy as was the case. Those who recollected the old ' Monthly 
Microscopical Journal,' and compared it with the Journal of the Society 
at the present time, would fully understand the great difference between 
them and the great advance made. 



The President called attention to M. Weber's paper " On Rotifera 
from the Neighbourhood of Geneva," which he criticized in detail, 
showing the ridiculous mistakes into which the author had fallen. 
Amongst other points, M. Weber declared that a structure which the 
President and others had recorded as having been seen by them (but 
which M. Weber could not see) had been seen by the eye of faith only ! 
It might, perhaps, be said that more consideration shoiild be shown to 
the author. He thought, however, that it would be well sometimes to 
express a little more freely than usual a strong sense of the grievous 
mischief done by the kind of papers which they sometimes met with 
upon these and other subjects, in which the want of knowledge and care 
on the part of the writers led them into a statement of errors of the 
most remarkable kind, calculated not only to mislead, but to bring dis- 
credit upon the investigations of others with whose work they were 
unacquainted, and upon the branch of science to which the subjects 
belonged. 

Mr. Crisp said that the same mischief which the President had 
referred to in connection with zoological matters had recently been 
manifested in a similarly aggravated form in the branch of microscopical 
optics. 

Mr. J. May all, jun., said it would be remembered that at the previous 
meeting a paper by Prof. Govi had been read, in which it was sought to 
prove that the compound Microscope was invented by Galileo in 1610. 
Apart from the question as to whether Prof. Govi was justified in 
regarding the Galilean combination of a convex object-glass and a 
concave eye-lens as strictly a compound Microscope, he thought the 
magnifying power obtained by Galileo was probably much exaggerated 
by the testimony of witnesses who were thus describing their first 
experience in viewing magnified objects. He did not think it possible 
to obtain a magnification of 36 diameters by the Galilean Microscope, as 
stated in one of Govi's quotations. That any one looking through a 
Microscope for the first time should exclaim that a flea appeared as big 
as an elephant was matter of common experience; but such random 
observations were of no value, for in the great majority of cases the 
actual magnification amounted to 10 or 15 diameters only, such as 
might be obtained with an ordinary pocket-lens. He questioned 
the possibility of obtaining a useful magnification of 36 diameters 
with any Galilean combination, and certainly not with the so-called 



164 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Galileo Microscopes in Florence. Prof. Govi's paper had brouglit to a 
focus Ms own desire to examine thoroughly the so-called Janssen 
Microscope at Middelburg, which he had not been able to do to his 
satisfaction when it was exhibited at the South Kensington Loan Col- 
lection in 1876. Since the previous meeting he had therefore been to 
Middelburg, and by the courtesy of the curator of the museum (Mr. 
Fredericks) he had had every facility to enable him to examine and 
photograph the Microscope, and also the telescope with which it was 
traditionally associated. Mr. Mayall said the question of the authen- 
ticity of these instruments — the possibility of referring their construction 
to the hands of " Janse " — one of the two or three alleged Dutch inventors 
of the Microscope and telescope, and whose house is commemorated as 
having existed against the church wall in 1590 by a tablet on the spot — 
was a difficult matter on which he could only touch with diffidence. 
The facts seem to be that in 1866 a member of a well-known family in 
Middelburg named Sniders presented to the museum two instruments 
which he designated telescopes, saying they had been in the possession 
of his family for a long time, and that they had always been considered 
as made by Janssen. The authorities of the museum requested the late 
Prof. Harting, of Utrecht University, to examine and report upon the 
instruments, which he did, explaining, of course, that the smaller one 
was evidently a Microscope. He (Mr. Mayall) had no difficulty in 
admitting the possibility of the instruments being of great age. View- 
ing them with a somewhat experienced eye in the examination of old 
optical instruments in the various collections in Europe, he thought their 
design and construction clearly indicated very early forms. It should 
also be noted that in a quiet, stay-at-home town like Middelburg, where 
generations of families have occupied the same houses in many cases for 
two or three centuries, the mere traditional association of the instruments 
with the name of Janssen would be far more likely to be transmitted 
truthfully than would obtain, for instance, in London, where the rule 
was incessant change of people and their surroundings. On the sup- 
position that the instruments were genuine productions representing the 
types in vogue when they were made, he should unhesitatingly affirm 
the Microscope to be older than the so-called Galileo Microscopes ; 
while as to the telescope, the built-up iron fixed tube of 14 feet in length, 
with the funnel-like eye-piece having a few inches range of motion, in 
which there was probably inserted an eye-lens consisting of a large disc 
of glass having a small concave ground and polished in the centre of one 
side, he thought the arrangement all pointed to an extremely primitive 
type of instrument. 

The President thought they were much indebted to Mr. Mayall for 
his very interesting account of these old instruments. He thought he 
understood him to say he had seen an eye-lens made of a plate of glass 
with a concavity in the centre. Was that so ? 

Mr. Mayall said he had one of that construction in his possession. 
The telescope had a focus of 30 in. to 40 in., and bore the name iacob 
CVNIGHAM, and the date 1661. 

The President said nothing was more curious than the dijBferent 
estimates which a number of people or children unaccustomed to make 
comparisons would make as to the apparent size of any given object — 
for instance, the moon ; one would say as big as a saucer ; another, a 
yard ; and so on. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 165 

The following Instruments, Objects, &c., were exhibited:— 

Mr. Bolton : — Melicerta tuhicolaria. 

Mr. T. Christy : — New Microscope Lamp. 

Mr, Crisp: — Ahrens' New Erecting Microscope; Griffith's Photo- 
micrographic Camera ; " Monkey " Microscope. 

Mr, dirties : — Portable Medical Microscope. 

Mr. J. Mayall, jun. : — Photographs and reproductions of Janssen 
Microscope. 

Mr. Rousselet : — Asplanchna Brightwellii. 

New Fellows : — The following were elected Ordinary Fellows : — 
Messrs. B, D, Loveland, M.D., Thomas F. Smith, F. W, Sutcliffe, 
Walter H. Tyas, and James H, Veitch ; the President of the Nottingham 
Naturalist's Society was also elected an Ex-officio Fellow. 



Meeting of 9th January, 1889, at King's College, Strand, W.C, 
Dr. C. T. Hudson, M.A,, LL.D,, President, in the Chair, 

The Minutes of the meeting of 12th December, 1888, were read and 
confirmed, and were signed by the President. 



The List of Nominations for the Council was read. 



Mr. Parsons and Mr. Guimaraens were elected Auditors. 



Mr, Karop said he had brought to the meeting and exhibited under 
a Microscope in the room, a slide showing something, the nature of 
which he was unable to determine, and should therefore be very glad if 
any of the Fellows of the Society could help him in the matter. Some 
years ago he collected a large number of samples of sea-sand, from 
amongst which he selected and mounted numerous specimens, the chief 
interest of which was due to the fact that many of the calcareous 
particles were found to be marked in a peculiar way by the action of 
fungi or algae or some other cause. A short time ago he was going 
through these slides so as to select from them those most worth keeping, 
when he came across one which was of a very peculiar character. In 
this the marking showed numerous slender rays which appeared to 
branch out in all directions, and one which seemed to have touched the 
cover-glass was turned on one side as if by the contact. Further 
examination showed that there were several other particles identical with 
this one, and the questions arose, were they endolithic crystals or were 
tbey produced by fungi ? If crystals, what of, and how produced, seeing 
that the particles were mounted in Canada balsam ? 

Mr. Crisp said the appearance was so exactly like those of a 
Eadiolarian, that one could hardly believe it to be a specimen of 
crystallization. 

The President, after inspecting the specimen, agreed that it looked 
exactly like a living Eadiolarian. 

Mr. J. G, Waller said that on examining this specimen he felt quite 
sure that it did not belong to the same class as any of those of which he 



166 PROCEEDINGS OP THE SOCIETY, 

had made a collection. His series were all excavations made by fungi 
in calcareous particles; the one before them differed entirely from 
these. 

Mr. H. Epps exhibited a Culpeper Microscope with wooden base. 

Mr. Mayall said this Microscope was an interesting model, but it 
was not a very uncommon form. By removing the body-tube they had 
what was known as the old Wilson form of Microscope, which afterwards 
became so very popular in connection with the heliostat. This was the 
same form as several examples in the cabinet of the Society. The 
maker was Edmund Culpeper, a very careful vrorkman, accustomed to 
ornament his apparatus with engraved patterns. The general style and 
finish of the instrument were evidently due to his training as a mathe- 
matical instrument-maker. 



Mr. T. F. Smith said that about three months ago he brought before 
the notice of the Society his ideas of what he conceived to be the 
structure of Pleurosigma formosum ; since that time he had made some 
further researches upon this diatom and also upon P. angulatum. He 
then stated that he thought P. formosum might, on closer investigation, 
prove to consist of more than three layers of structure, but he had come 
to the conclusion that there were not more than three. By means of 
drawings on the board, Mr. Smith further explained his views, and 
illustrated the subject by the exhibition of numerous photomicrographs 
as well as by specimens under the Microscope of P. angulatum, showing 
a fine grating hitherto undescribed. 

Mr. E. M. Nelson said, though he could add nothing to what Mr. 
Smith had told them, he thought it was most difficult work to carry out, 
indeed the difficulty might be understood from the fact that although 
this diatom had been of all others the most persistently examined, yet 
the structure described by Mr. Smith had hitherto escaped notice. 

The President said no doubt it would be extremely desirable to get 
at what was the real structure of the diatom valve, but he often thought 
that, considering the conditions, it might be impossible after all to get 
at it. He did not profess to be competent to judge on a matter of this 
kind, but he often met with illustrations in the Eotifera which led him 
towards that conclusion. He was once greatly struck by the apparent 
alteration in]the striations in the muscle of one of the Eotifera, which 
he had been very carefully observing and measuring. In watching 
Triarthra he distinctly saw the size of the strite alter in fineness whilst 
under observation. Owing to there being parallel layers through which 
he was looking, the movement of the muscle caused an alteration in their 
relative positions, and so entirely changed the appearance, as to render 
all his previous measurements useless. 



Mr. Crisp exhibited the Bausch and Lomb Optical Co.'s spirit-lamp, 
the reservoir of which was facetted instead of globular, so that it might 
be used in various positions — vertical, inclined, or horizontal. Also 
Mawson and Swan's photomicrographic arrangement for fixing on the 
front of an ordinary camera. Also the fitting for the binocular prism 
of Messrs. Bausch and Lomb, by which the prism instead of sliding was 
rotated out of the field. Also Falk's rotating object disc for bringing a 
number of objects in succession under the objective. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 167 

Mr. A, D. Michael gave a resume of his paper " On the Special 
Internal Anatomy of Uropoda Krameri" the subject being illustrated 
by drawings on the board, as well as by coloured diagrams and prepara- 
tions exhibited under Microscopes in the room (supra, p. 1). 

Prof. Bell said he had listened with great pleasure to the most 
interesting jJaper of Mr. Michael, and in so doing he noted that attention 
was called to a very curious anomaly in the nomenclature of anatomists 
with regard to the terminal portion of the intestinal canal. It was the 
usual practice to call this terminal tube the rectum, although it might, 
as in the case mentioned by Mr. Michael, receive the Malpighian tubes 
giving off renal products. But it was also a fact that those very 
anatomists who were in the habit of teaching students of these subjects 
in various places, did adopt the nomenclature advocated by Mr. Michael 
when they came to deal with certain of the Vertebrata. By drawings 
upon the blackboard it was then pointed out that in the bird, by 
universal agreement, one portion was called the rectum and the other 
the cloaca. He regarded the question of name as being in this case of 
small importance, the really important consideration being that in both 
cases they had the primitive intestine form. Whether, however, it was 
called the rectum or the cloaca, he thought it would be well to get the 
terms into agreement. He noticed that in the diagram there was no 
body-cavity shown, and inquired if it had been found to exist? 

Mr. Michael said that he had not found that there was any special 
lining of the body-cavity. 

Prof. Bell said that was of course very interesting in relation to what 
was found elsewhere, because there was in the crayfish what was known 
as coelom, which was analogous to the body-cavity. If they were to 
define it in usual terms then they would say there was none either in 
the crayfish or in the lobster, although what was found seemed to him 
to be much the same thing only reduced to a minimum. 



Mr. Bowman's paper " On the Frustule of Surirella gemma " was 
read. 



Count F. Castracane's paper " On the Keproduction and Multiplica- 
tion of Diatoms " (supra, p. 22) was read. 



Mr. Crisp explained the changes intended to be introduced, in the 
current year, in the botanical section of the Journal by Mr. Bennett, in 
order to bring it into harmony with the most recent views of the classifi- 
cation and terminology of Cryptogams, as embodied in Bennett and 
Murray's ' Handbook of Cryptogamic Botany.' The Lichenes will be 
discontinued as a separate group, and included under the head of Fungi ; 
while, on the other hand, the Mycetozoa will be separated from the 
Fungi, and form an independent group of the first rank. The Protophyta 
will be divided into two sub-groups : (a) Schizophycese, and (^S) Schizo- 
mycetes. Under the former will be included the Diatomacese, hitherto 
ranked as Alg£e ; the latter will comprise the Bacteria only, the Saccharo- 
mycetes being regarded as a degraded group of Ascomycetes. In 
terminology, the most extensive change will be the anglicizing of the 
termination of a large number of terms, such as sporange, antherid, 
archegone, plasmode, coenobe, epiderm, &c. For macrosporangium , 



168 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

macrospore, and macrozoospore, the more correct terms megasporange, 
megaspore, and megazoospore will be substituted. The term spore, and 
its derivatives zoospore, tetraspore, &c., &c., will be limited to propaga- 
tive cells of nonsexual origin ; while for those reproductive cells which 
are the result of a process of sexual union, terms will be used compounded 
of the termination sperm, e. g. oosperm, zygosperm, carposperm, &c. 



The following Instruments, Objects, &c., were exhibited: — 

Mr. Crisp : — (1 and 2) Bausch and Lomb Optical Co.'s Spirit-lamp 
and fitting for Wenham Binocular Prism ; (3) Mawson and Swan's 
Photomicrographic Attachment ; (4) Falk's Eotating Object-disc. 

Mr. Karop : — Particle of Quartz (?) sand with radiating lines 
(crystals ?). 

Mr. Michael: — TJropoda Krameri. Alimentary canal and female 
reproductive organs in situ. 

Mr. T. F. Smith : — Pleurosigma angulatum showing fine grating. 



New Fellows: — The following were elected Ordinary Fellows: — 
Messrs. W. I. Chapman, Thomas Craig, Eev. James Horn, Alexis A. 
Julien, Ph.D., Eev, Albert Mann, jun., F. S. Newcomer, M.D., 
C. W. Plyer, and Henry M. Whelpley. 



The Journal is issued on tlie second Wednesday of 
February, April, June, August, October, and December. 



/ 



w 

* 1889. Parts. APEIL. { ''"prTcf 6s°.'"'~ 



^ 



Journal 



OF THE 



Royal 
Microscopical Society; 

CONTAINING ITS TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEJEDINGS, 

AND A SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

ZOOIiOG-^ST -A-ISTDD B O T -A. 3Sr ^ST 

(principally Invertebrata and Orsrptogamia), 



Edited by 

PRANK CRISP, LL.B., B.A., 

One of the Secretaries of the Society 
and a Vice-President and Treasurer of the Linnean Society of London ; 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF THE PUBLICATION COMMITTEE AND 

A. W. BENNETT, M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S., F. JEFFEEY BELL, M.A., F.Z.S., 

Lecturer on Botany at St. Thomas's Hosj>ital, Professorof Comparative Anatomy in Kin^s College, 

JOHN MAYALL, Jun., F.Z.S., E. G. HEBB, M.A., M.D. {Caniab.\ 

AND 

J. AETHUR THOMSON, M.A., 

Lecturer on Zoology in the School of Medicine, Edinburgh, 
FELLOWS OF THE SOCIETY. 





WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 

LONDON AND EDINBURGH. 




A 



f 



PRINTED BV WM. CLOWBS AND SOMS, LIMITED,] [STAMFORD STREET AKD CHARIKS CR06C. 



CONTENTS. 



Tbansaotions of the Society— paob 

IV. — The Pkesident's Address. By C. T. Hudson, M.A., LL.D. 

(Cantab.) .. .. .. .. .. .. 162 

V. — Desceiption of a New Dipterous Insect, Psamathiomta 

PECTiNATA. By Julien Deby, F.E.M.S. (Plate IV.) ., .. 180 

SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES. 

ZOOLOGY. 
A, VERTEBRATA : — Smbryolog-y, Histology, and General, 
o. Embryolog-y. 
Sutton, J. Bland — Evolution of the Central Nervous System of Vertehrata .. ,. 187 

Oeb, H. — Development of Central Nervous Sijstem of Amphibians 188 

NanseN, F. — Protandric Hermaphroditism of Myxine 188 

BoHM, A. A. — Maturation and Fertilization of Ovum in the Lamprey 189 

Nelson, E. M. — Ohservalions on Human Spermatozoa 190 

ScHULZB, F. E. — Epithelial Glands in Batrachian Larvse . . .. .. 190 

Paokabd, a. S. — Factors in the Evolution of Cave Animals 191 

j3. Histology. 

ToBOK, L, — Division of Bed Blood-corpuscles in Amphibia 191 

y. General. 

Habtoq, M. — Adelphotaxy _ .. .. .. 192 

„ „ Functions and Homologies of Contractile Vacuole in Plants and 

Animals 192 

Beard, J. — Annelidan Affinities in Ontogeny of Vertebrate Nervous System .. .. 192 

WEMmmw-K, 3. Gr.— The Modern Cell-Theory 193 

B. INVERTEBRATA. 

KoLLiKEE, A. — Transversely Striated Muscular Fibre 193 

"Weismann, a. — Number of Polar Bodies 193 

Haddon, a. 0. — Irish Marine Fauna . . . . 194 

Heilpbin, a. — Marine Invertebrates of Bermuda Islands ,. .. .. 194 

WCoy's (F.) Zoology of Victoria 194 

MoUusca. 
j3. Pteropoda. 

Gbobben, 0. — Morphology of Pteropods .. ., 194 

.y. Gastropoda. 

Klotz, J. — Generative Apparatus of Lymnseus 195 

Saint-Loup, R. — Anatomy of Aplysia 195 

Geenachee, H. — The Heteropod Eye .... ., 196 

Voiqt, W. — Entocolax Ludwigii, Parasitic in a Holothurian .. .. 197 

Uliont, J. — Mouth-parts of Aneylus fluviatilis and Velletia lacustris .. .. .. 197 

5. Liamellibrauchiata. 

Eawitz, B. — Edge of Mantle of Acephala .. 198 

Galeazzi, R. — Nervous Elements of Adductor Muscles of Lamellibranchs .. .. 201 
MoBiTJS, K. — Swelling of Foot of Solen pellucidus 201 

Mollusc oida. 
j8. Bryozoa. 
Fewkes, J. Walteb — Stalked Bryozoon .. .. .. 201 



( 3 ) 

■y. Brachiopoda. page 

Davidson, T. — Recent BracMopoda . . .... .... 202 

Arthropoda. 

Plate ATT, F. — Vision of Arthropods 202 

a. Insecta. 

Jordan, K. — Anatomy and Biology of Fhysapoda _ .• •• 203 

MiNCHiN, E. A.— New Organ and Structure of Hypodermis in Periplaneta 

orientalis . . . . 204 

Cablet, G. — New Mode of Closing Trachese of Insects 20.5 

,, „ New Organ of Hymenoptera . .. .. •. .• ■• 205 

Kadoszkowski — Male Gopiulatory Apparatus of Pompilidx .. .... .. .. 205 

Feitze, a. — Enteric Canal of Ephemeridie ...... . . 206 

PouLTON, E. B. — -Lepidopterous Larvx 200 

Walsjnuham, Lord — New Genus of Pyralidm r .. .. 207 

Massa, 0. — Parthenogenesis of Death's-head Moth . . . . 208 

Lewis, G.— Mouth-organs of two species of Bhysodidse, .. ., ■■ .. .. .. 208 

Oudemans, J. T.—Thyianura and Collemhola .. .. .. •■ .. 208 

j3. Myriopoda. 

KiNGSLEY, CT. S. — Classification of Myriopoda .. .., 209 

y. Prototraclieata. 

Sheldon, L. — Development of Peripatus No vx-Zealandiee .. .. .. 210 

S. Araclmida. 

LoMAN, J. C. C. — Coxal Glands of Arachnida .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 210 

Saint-Remy, G. — Brain of Araneida .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 211 

Croneberg, a.— Anatomy of Pseudoscorpions 211 

Trouessart, E. L. — -Marine Acarina of Wimerewx 211 

Clarke, J. M. — Structure and Development of the Visual Area in Trilohites .. .. 212 

Babes, V. — Migrations of Pentastomum denticulatum in Cattle . .. .. .. .. 212 

6. Crustacea. 

Stamati, G. — Monstrosity in a Crayfish .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 213 

ChAVS, G.—Nehaliidce and Leptostraca .. .. .. .. .. 213 

,, „ Marine Ostracoda 214 

Dees, E. D. 'DE—Cladocer a of Hungary 215 

NoRDQUiST, O. — Calani da of Finland .. .. .. .. ., 215 

Hartog, M..— Morphology of Cyclops . . . . . . 2 15 

Vermes. 
a. Annelida. 

Grobbbn, 0. — Pericardial Glands of Annelids .. .. .. .. .... ,, ,. 215 

Spen:;ee, "W. B. — Anatomy of Megascolides australis .. .. .. .. 216 

Beddard, F. E. — Structure of Vrochieta and Dichogaster, and Nephridia of Earth- 
worms.. .. .. .. 218 

Gakman, H.-^New Earthworm .. ., .. .. 220 

Rosa, D. — New. Genus of Eudrilidai .. . . 220 

„ „ Indian Perichietidie ...... . . .... 220 

j3. Nemathelmintlies. 

BovERi, Th. — Fertilization and Segmentation in Ascaris megaloeephala .. . . . . 220 

KuLTSCHiT^KY, N. — Maturation and Fertilization of Ova in Ascaris marginata . . 223 

Cobb, N. A.— Anatomy and Ontogeny of Nematodes .. 224 

Michel, A'. — Cellular Epidermis of Nematodes 225 

Aducco, V. — Red Colouring Matter of Eustrongylus gigas .. .. 225 

Camerano, L. — New Species of Gordius ., .. 225 

y. Platylielxainthes. 

Blanc, H. — Tapeworms with Perforated Joints , .. ,. 225 

Grassi, ^.^—Intermediate Host of Tmnia cucumerina 226 

LoMAN, J. C. C. — Structure of Bipalium .* .. .. . .. ., 22(5 

h 



( 4 ) 

5. Incertse Sedis. page 

RoussELET, 0. — New Rotifer. . • 227 

Echinodermata. 

LuDWiG, Jl.—Ludivig's Echinodermata ,, 227 

Carpentee, p. H. — Comatulids of Kara Sea . .. 227 

Wachsmuth, 0., & F. Speustger — Ventral Structure of Taxocrinus and Eaplo- 

crinug .. . . , . . , 228 

„ „ „ Crofcdoerinus 228 

Coelenterata. 

Jungeesen, H. F. E. — Structure and Development of Colony of Pennatula 

phosphorea 229 

GrEEiG, J. A. — New Cornularim . . 230 

'DKSiEhs?,^^^, D. C— North-Atlantic Actinida 230 

LiSTEE, J. J. — Natural History of Fungia .. 231 

Wilson, H. V. — Development of Manicina areolata ..- 2H1 

IsHiKAWA, C. — Origin of Female Generative Cells in Podoeoryne Sars 231 

KoEOTNEFF, A.^Cunoctantha and Gastrodes 232 

Porifera. 

Dendy, A.—Stelospongus fldbelliformis 233 

Protozoa. 

BiJTSCuhi's ' Protozoa' 234 

MoBius, K. — Infusorian Fauna of the Bay of Kiel 234 

KuNSTLEE, J.— New or Little-known Infusoria 235 

GiAED, A. — New Infusorian .. 235 

Plate, L. — Luminosity of Noctiluca miliaris .. .. .. 23(i 

MoBius, K. — Red Organisms of the Bed Sea .. .. .. 236 

Geuber, a. — Bhizopods of Gulf of Genoa 237 

Zachaeias, O. — Pseudopodia and Cilia 237 

Debtee, F. — Structure of Pylomata of Protista 238 

BOTANY. 

A. GENEHAL, including the Anatomy and Physiology 
of the Phanerogamia. 

a. Anatomy. 

(1) Cell-structure and Protoplasm. 

Degagny, 0. — Nuclear Origin of Protoplasm .. 239 

Sauvageau, 0. — Intercellular Prot< plasm ., . . 239 

C2) Other Cell-contents (including' Secretions). 

TiEGHEM, P. Van — Hydroleucites and Grains of Aleurone . . . . 239 

Macchiati, L. — Xanthophyllidrine _ 240 

TaurilT, 0. — New Principle from Ergot of Bye, Ergosterin 240 

Eennie, E. H. — Colouring Matter of Drosera Whittaheri 240 

Briosi, G. — Mineral Substances in Leaves .. .. .. 240 

(3) Structtire of Tissues. 

Jaein, F. — Secretion-reservoirs 241 

Gtjignaed, L., & Colin — Reservoirs of Gum in Rhamnacese 241 

Ebeedt, O. — Palisade Par enchy me 241 

PoTONjE, H. — Sclerenchymatous Cells in the Flesh of the Pear 242 

Geegoet, E. L- — Development of Corh-wings '• •• 242 

WiLLB — Bordered Pits of Conifers 242 

Haetig, R. — Accumidation of Eeserve-suhstances in Trees . 242 

JjAKOVSETTE—Fibrovascular Bundles in the Petiole of Nierenhergia rivulari% ■■ 242 

Laux, W. — Vascular Bundles in tlie Bhizome of Monocotyledons 243 

VxJiLLEMiN, P. — Bacillar Tumour on Pinus halepensis 243 

DiNGLEE, H. — Mechanical Structure of Floating-Organs 243 

Faemee, J. B. — Development of the Endocarp in the Elder •■ ■• 244 



( 6 ) 

(4) Structure of Organs. pack 

Hanausek, T. F. — Epiderm of the Seeds of Capsicum •• •• 244 

Mez, 0. — Embryo of UmbelUferge 244 

Keiohe, K. — Winged Stems and Decurrent Leaves • .. •• 244 

Emebt, H. — Bud of the Tulip-tree 245 

Ridley, H. N. — Foliar Organs of a new species of Utricularia 245 

Daguillon, a. — Polymorphism of the Leaves of Ahietinese 245 

Haberlandt, G. — Leaves of Begonia 245 

Shattock, S. G. — Scars on the Stem of Dammara rohusta •• 246 

Prazmowski, K.— Root-tubercles of Leguminosm 246 

VuiLLEMiN, p. — Tubercles of Leguminosm -^ •• 247 

Dangeakd, p. a. — Formation of Subterranean Swellings in Eranthis hyemalis .. 247 

SoHONLAND, S — Morphology of the Mistletoe 248 

JuEL, H. O. — Structure of Marcgraviacew « 248 

(3. Physiology. 

(1) Eeproduction and G-ermination. 

Rathay, E. — Distribution of the Sexual Organs in the Vine 249 

Keonfeld, M. — Constancy of Insects in visiting Flowers 249 

Meehan, T. — Fertilization of Lonicera japonica 249 

Heimeel, a. — Fertilization in the Nyctaginese .. .. 249 

Meehan, T. — Cross-fertilization in Hydrangea 250 

„ „ Life-history of Yucca 250 

Arcangeli, G. — Floivering of Euryale ferox ., 250 

„ „ Germination of the Seeds of Euryale ferox 250 

Winkler, A. — Germination of the Hazel ■• •• •• 251 

(2) Nutrition and Growtli (including- Movements of Fluids). 

Vines, S. H. — Relation betueen the formation of Tubercles and the presence of 

nitrogen in the soil .. .. .> 2ol 

WiELEE, A. — Canduction of Water through the Wood .. - 251 

(3) Irritability. 

Beyer, H. — Spontaneous Movements of Stamens and Styles 251 

Cunningham, D. D. — Irritability of Mimosa 252 

Klebahn, H. — Cause of violent Torsion . . . . 253 

(4) Cliemical Changes (including- Respiration and Fermentation). 

Palladin, W. — Products of tlie Decomposition of Albuminoids in the absence of 

free oxygen 253 

Arcangeli, G. — Panic Fermentation 253 

y. General. 

Mez, 0. — New Myrmecophilous Plant .. 253 

Marilaxjn, a. Keener v. — Scent of Flowers 253 

B. CRYPTOQAMIA. 

Cryptogamia Vascularia. 

Tieghem, P. Van — Doubling of the Endosperm, in Vascular Cryptogams .. .. 254 

Campbell, D. H. — Systematic Position of the Rhizocarpex 254 

„ „ Germination of Mar silia segyptiaca 254 

„ „ Development of Pilularia 254 

Steens, E. E. — " Bulblets " of Lycopodium lucidulum 255 

Farlow, W. G. — Apospory in Pteris aquilina 256 

BoEz'i, A. — Xerotropism in Ferns 256 

MiJLLEE, C. — Structure of the Commissure of the Leaf-sheath of Equisetum .. .. 256 

MuscinesB. 

Philibebt. — Peristome of Mosses , 257 

Noll, F. — Shining of Schistostega osmundacea 257 

Stephani, F. — New Hepaticse 257 



( 6 ) 

Algae. PACK 

ScHtiTT, F.-^Fkycoerythrm ., .. 258 

Johnson, T. — Reproduction of Sphserococcus 258 

Hansgieg, a. — Entocladia 259 

WiTTKOOK, V. B. — Binuclearia 259 

MoBivs, M.—Chn:topeUi8 259 

MuEKAY, G., & L. A. Boodle— S'^wyea 260 

Dangeaed, P. A. — Sexuality among the Lower Algse 260 

Pungi (including Lichenes), 

Frank, B. — Fliysiological Significance of MycorMza .. .: .. 261 

Magnus, P. — Hibernation of Peronosporem 261 

Beongniaet, C- — Untomophthorece and their use in the destruction of noxious 

Insects .. 261 

Lagebheim, Gr. — Olpidiella, a new genus of Chtjtridiaeex 262 

LiNDAU, G. — Origin and Development of the Apotheces of Lichens 262 

MtJLLEE, J. — Graphidex .. ,263 

Massalongo, 0. — Germination of the Spores of Sphxropsidem 263 

Nawaschin, S. — Helotium parasitic on Sphagnum 263 

VmLLBMrN, P. — Pezizie. causing Canlters in Coniferse 263 

WoRONiN, M. — Sclerotinix of Vaccinium 263 

James, J. F. — Development of Corynites Curtissii 264 

Cavara, v.— New Parasitic Fungi 264 

Waed, H. M.—L% Disease 265 

SoHOKiN, !>( .—Saccharomyoes AlUi, sp. n .. 265 

„ „ Polydesmus petalicolor, sp. n 265 

„ „ Sorosporella Agrotidis, g. et sp. n ■ 266 

Gasfenni, G.—Ferme7itation of Pulm-wine 266 

DiETEL, P. — New Melampsora 266 

Lageeheim, G. — New Uronystis 266 

Haez, C. O. — Fungi of Mines .. 266 

Protophyta. 

a, Schizophycese. 

Casteacane, F. — Antiquity of Diatoms 266 

B. ScMzomycetes. 

Bitter, H. — Doctrine of Phagocytes 267 

M.ih'FSEn— Bacteria of Fodder and Seeds .. -.. .. 268 

Zaslein, T. — Varieties of Koch's Comma Bacillus 269 

Pfuhl — Spore-formation in the Bacillus of Typhoid Fever 269 

Hericovet, J., & Ch. Kichet- — Staphylococcus pyosepticus 269 

KiTASATA, S.—Eesistance of the Cholera Bacteria to Heat and Drying 270 

HEyvESHmcH— Structure of Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus .. 270 

Sejumee, E. — Micro-organisms (rf Pneumonia of Lambs and Calves .. .. .. .. 270 

MICEOSCOPY. 
a. Instruments, Accessories, &c. 

(1) stands. 

FFEFEEJi'sCW.) Botanical Microscope (Fig. S8) .. 272 

Auress' (G. D.) Giant Microscope {Fig. 3^)) .. .. 273 

Swift's (& Son) Mnera? Microscope (Fig. 40) .. ,. 274 

Dyck, F. 0. Van — Binocular Dissecting Microscope 275 

LiEiTz's large Dissecting Microscope (Fig. il) .. .. 275 

(2) Eye-pieces and Objectives. 
(3) Illuminating^ and other Apparatus. 

Aheens' (C. D.) Modification of Delezenne's Polarizer 276 

F AhTEB's (G., & Son) Rotating Object-holder (Fig. 'i2) .. .. 276 

Lattbrmann, G. — Apparatus for measuring very minute Crystals (Fig. 4tS) .. .. 277 

(4) Photomicrog'rapliy. 

Zeiss's large Photomicrographic Apparatus (Figs. 44-49) 278 



( 7 ) 

(5) Microscopical Optics and Manipulation. page 

MicEOSCOPiCAL Optics 283 

McMahon, 0. A. — Mode of using the Quartz Wedge for estimating the Strength, of 

the Double-Refraction of Minerals in thin slices of Boch (Fig. 50) .. .. .. 286 

Mercer, A. C. — " Method of using with ease Objectives of shortest working distance 

in the clinical study of Bacteria" .. .. .. 287 

'Hwl&o^,Ym M.—'' Bach of the Objective and Condenser''' (Figs. bl-M).. .. .. 288 

Apeetuee Table .. 292 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

^.Technique. 

(1) Collecting- Objects, including- Culture Processes. 

Lyon, H. 'N .—rimproved Form of the " Wright " Collecting Bottle (Fig. 55) .. .. 295 

MuNNiCH, A. J. — Culture of Fungus of Favus (Achorion Schonleinii') ^ 296 

Celli, a. — Ordinary Foodstuff as Media for propagating Pathogenic Micro- 
organisms .... 296 

Puteeen, Van — Solid Media prepared from Milk 297 

CS) Preparing Objects. 
Jakimovitch, J. — Demonstrating Transverse Striations in Axis-cylinders and 

Nerve-cells .. .... .. .... .. .... 297 

Freeborn, G. -C. — Macerating Fluid for Nerve-cells .. 298 

Heidenhain, E. — Preparing small Intestine 298 

Galeazzi, R. — Investigation of Nervous Elements of Adductor Muscles of Lamelli- 

branehs ., .. .. 299 

Eees, J. Y&TH— Preparing Musca vomitoria 299 

OuDEMANS, J. T. — Examination of Thysanura and Collembola 299 

Haetog, M. M. — Method of investigating Cyclops .. .. . . ., 300 

Cobb, N. A. — Examination of Nematodes .. .... 300 

OuccATi, J. — Preparing the Brain of Somomya erythrocephala 301 

Grassi, B., & W. ScHEWiAKOFF — Preparing Megasloma entericum .... . . 301 

Amann — Preparation of BTusclnex 301 

Weir, F. W. — Clearing recent Diatomaceous Material 302 

Morgan, T. H.—Chitin Solvents 303 

C3) Cutting-, including Imbedding and Microtomes. 

IjEITz's '^ Support" Microtome (Fig. 56) .. .. 304 

Taylor's (T.) Combination Microtome .. 304 

Feeeboen, G. 0. — Substitute for Corks in Imbedding . . . , , . 305 

(4) Staining and Injecting. 

Feeeboen, G. 0. — Carminio Acid Stain 305 

„ „ Staining Connectice Tissue with Nigrosin (Jndulin, Anilin 

Blue-black) •• •■ .. .. 305 

Campbell, D. H. — Clearing and Staining of Vegetable Preparations 306 

Sauvageau, C— Staining of Vegetable Tissues .. .. 306 

James, F. L. — Bed Stain for Vegetable Sections ., .. 307 

Melle, G. — Staining Bacilli of Bhinoscleroma .. 307 

Mayer, P. — Injecting and Preparing the Circulatory System of Fishes 307 

Petei, E. J. ^—Simple Apparatus for Injecting Fluids for Bacteriological 

Purposes .. .. 308 

(5) Mounting, including Slides, Preservative Fluids, &c. 

Smn^ma, Yo^— Fixing Objects to Cover-glasses ,. 308 

G. H. C.— Glycerin Mounts ,. 309 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

Practical Utility of the Microscope to Textile Workers .. .. '.. .. .. .. 309 

Eenaed, A. — Value of the Microscopic Analysis of Bocks . . 310 

Sehlen, Von — Microscopical Examination of Urine for Bacteria ,. 313 

Whelpley, H. M. — Action of Bleaching Agents on Glass 314 

C. W, 8. —Micro-organisms of the Bible 814 

Peooeedings of the Sooiett .. .. .. 316 



APEaTUHE TABLE. 





Corresponding Angle (2 u) for 


Limit of Resolving Power, in Lines to an Inch. 


Illuminating 

Power. 

(a2.) 


P 


ene- 


Numerical 
Aperture. 

(n sin u = a.) 


Air 
(w= 1-00). 


Water 
(m=:l-33). 


JTomogeneous 
Immersion 
(n = l-52). 


White Light. 

(A = 0-5269^1, 

Line E.) 


Monochromatic 

(Blue) Light. 

(A = 0-4861 /u, 

Line F.) 


Photography. 
(A = 0-40C0m, 
near Line h.) 


tratmg 
Power. 




1-52 






180° 0' 


146,543 


158,845 


193,037 


2-310 




•658 


1-51 






166° 51' 


145,579 


157 


,800 


191,767 


2-280 




•662 


1-50 






161° 23' 


144,615 


156 


,755 


190,497 


2-250 




•667 


1-49 






157° 12' 


143,651 


155 


,710 


189,227 


2-220 




•671 


1-48 






153° 39' 


142,687 


154 


,665 


187,957 


2-190 




•676 


1-47 






150° 32' 


141,723 


153 


,620 


186,687 


2-161 




•680 


1-46 






147° 42' 


140,759 


152 


575 


185,417 


2-132 




•685 


1-45 






145° 6' 


139,795 


151 


,530 


184,147 


2-103 




•690 


1-44 






142° 39' 


138,830 


150 


485 


182,877 


2-074 




•694 


1-43 






140° 22' 


137,866 


149 


440 


181,607 


2-045 




-699 


1-42 


,, 




138° 12' 


136,902 


148 


395 


180,337 


2-016 




•704 


1-41 






136° 8' 


135,938 


147 


350 


179,067 


1-988 




•709 


1-40 






134° 10' 


134,974 


146 


305 


177,797 


1-960 




•714 


1-38 






130° 26' 


133,046 


144 


215 


175,257 


1-904 




•725 


1-36 






126° 58' 


131,118 


142 


125 


172,717 


1-850 




735 


1-34 






123° 40' 


129, ]89 


140 


035 


170,177 


1-796 




741 


1-33 




180° ' 0' 


122° 6' 


128,225 


138 


989 


168,907 


1-769 




752 


1-32 




165° 56' 


120° 33' 


127,261 


137 


944 


167,637 


1-742 




758 


1-30 




155° 38' 


117° 35' 


125,333 


135 


854 


165,097 


1-690 




769 


1-28 




148° 42' 


114° 44' 


123,405 


133 


764 


162,557 


1-638 




781 


1-26 




142° 39' 


111° 59' 


121,477 


131 


674 


160,017 


1-588 




794 


1-24 




137° 36' 


109° 20' 


119,548 


129 


584 


157,477 


1-538 




806 


1-22 




133° 4' 


106° 45' 


117,620 


127 


494 


154,937 


1-488 




820 


1-20 




128° 55' 


104° 15' 


115,692 


125 


404 


152,397 


1-440 




833 


118 




125° 3' 


101° 50' 


113,764 


123 


314 


149,857 


1-392 




847 


116 




121° 26' 


99° 29' 


111,835 


121 


224 


147,317 


1-346 




862 


114 




118° 0' 


97° 11' 


109,907 


119 


134 


144,777 


1-300 




877 


112 




114° 44' 


94° 55' 


107,979 


117, 


044 


142,237 


1-254 




893 


110 




111° 36' 


92° 43' 


106,051 


114, 


954 


139,698 


1-210 




909 


108 




108° 37 


90° 34' 


104,123 


112, 


864 


137,158 


1-166 




926 


106 




105° 42' 


88° 27' 


102,195 


110, 


774 


134,618 


1-124 




943 


104 




102° 53' 


86° 21' 


100,266 


108, 


684 


132,078 


1-082 




962 


102 




100° 10' 


84° 18' 


98,338 


106, 


593 


129,538 


1-040 




980 


100 


180°' 0' 


97° 31' 


82° 17' 


96,410 


104, 


503 


126,998 


1-000 




000 


0-98 


157° 2' 


94° 56' 


80° 17' 


94,482 


102, 


413 


124,458 


-960 




020 


0-96 


147° 29' 


92° 24' 


78° 20' 


92,554 


100, 


323 


121,918 


-922 




042 


0-94 


140° 6' 


89° 56' 


76° 24' 


90,625 


98 


233 


119,378 


•884 




064 


0-92 


133° 51' 


87° 32' 


74° 30' 


88,697 


96, 


143 


116,838 


-846 




087 


0-90 


128° 19' 


85° 10' 


72° 36' 


86,769 


94, 


053 


114,298 


•810 




111 


0-88 


128° 17' 


82° 51' 


70° 44' 


84,841 


91, 


963 


111,758 


•774 




136 


0-86 


118° 38' 


80° 34' 


68° 54' 


82,913 


89, 


873 


109,218 


•740 




163 


084 


114° 17' 


78° 20' 


67° 6' 


80,984 


87 


783 


106,678 


•706 




190 


0-82 


110° 10' 


76° 8' 


65° 18' 


79,056 


85 


693 


104,138 


•672 




220 


0-80 


106° 16' 


73° 58' 


63'' 31' 


77,128 


83 


603 


101,598 


•640 




250 


0-78 


102° 31' 


71° 49' 


61° 45' 


75,200 


81, 


513 


99,058 


•608 




282 


0-76 


98° 56' 


69° 42' 


60° 0' 


73,272 


79, 


423 


96,518 


•578 




316 


0-74 


95° 28' 


67° 37' 


58° 16' 


71,343 


77, 


333 


93,979 


•548 




351 


0-72 


92° 6' 


65° 32' 


56° 32' 


69,415 


75, 


242 


91,439 


•518 




389 


0-70 


88° 51' 


63° 31' 


54° 50' 


67,487 


73, 


152 


88,899 


•490 




429 


0-68 


85° 41' 


61° 30' 


53° 9' 


65,559 


71 


062 


86,359 


•462 




471 


0-66 


82° 36' 


, 59° 30' 


51° 28' 


63,631 


68 


972 


83,819 


•436 




515 


0-64 


79° 36' 


57° 31' 


49° 48' 


61,702 


66 


882 


81,279 


•410 




562 


0-62 


76° 38' 


55° 34' 


48° 9' 


59,774 


64, 


792 


78,739 


•384 




613 


0-60 


73° 44' 


53° 38' 


46° 30' 


57,846 


62 


702 


76,199 


•360 




667 


0-58 


70° 54' 


51° 42' 


44° 51' 


55,918 


60 


612 


73,659 


•336 




724 


0-56 


68° 6' 


49° 48' 


43° 14' 


53,990 


58 


522 


71,119 


•314 




786 


0-54 


65° 22' 


47° 54' 


41° 37' 


52,061 


56 


432 


68,579 


•292 




852 


0-62 


62° 40' 


46° 2' 


40° 0' 


50,133 


54 


342 


66,039 


•270 




923 


0-50 


1 60° 0' 


44° 10' 


38° 24' 


48,205 


52, 


252 


63,499 


•250 


2 


000 


0-45 


! 53° 30' 


39° 33' 


34° 27' 


43,385 


47, 


026 


57,149 


•203 


2 


222 


0-40 


1 470 9. 


35° 0' 


30° 31' 


38,564 


41, 


801 


50,799 


•160 


2 


500 


35 


! 40° 58' 


30° 30' 


26° 38' 


33,744 


36, 


576 


44,449 


■123 


2- 


857 


0-30 


: 34° 56' 


26° 4' 


22° 46' 


28,923 


31, 


351 


38,099 


•090 


3 


333 


0-25 


I 28° 58' 


21° 40' 


18° 56' 


24,103 


26, 


126 


31,749 


•063 


4- 


000 


0-20 


23° 4' 


17° 18' 


15° 7' 


19,282 


, 20, 


901 


25,400 


-040 


5 


000 


015 


1 17° 14' 


12° 58' 


11° 19' 


14,462 


15, 


676 


19,050 


•023 


6- 


667 


010 


11° 29' 


8° 38' 


70 34- 


9,641 


10, 


450 


12,700 


•010 


10- 


000 


005 


5° 44' 


4° 18' 


3° 46' 


4,821 


5, 


225 


6,350 


•003 


20-000 



Table showing the Oorrespoading' Degrees of the Fahrenheit and Centigrade 

Thermometers. 



Fahr. 


Centlgr. 


Fahr. 


Gentigr. 


Fahr. 


Gentigr. 


Fahr. 


Gentigr. 


Fahr. 


Gentigr, 














o 


o 














212 


100 


158 


70 


104 


40 


50 


10 


- 4 


-20 


210-2 


99 


156-2 


69 


102-2 


39 


48-2 


9 


- 5-8 


- 21 


210 


98-89 


156 


68-89 


102 


38-89 


48 


8-89 


- 6 


- 21-11 


208-4 


98 


1.54-4 


68 


100-4 


38 


46-4 


8 


- 7-6 


- 22 


208 


97-78 


154 


67-78 


100 


37-78 


46 


7-78 


- 8 


- 22-22 


206-6 


97 


152-6 


67 


98-6 


37 


44-6 


7 


- 9-4 


- 23 


206 


96-7 


152 


66-67 


98 


36-67 


44 


6-67 


- 10 


- 23-33 


204-8 


96 


150-8 


66 


96-8 


36 


42-8 


6 


- 11-2 


- 24 


204 


95-56 


150 


65-56 


96 


35-56 


42 


5-56 


- 12 


- 24-44 


203 


95 


149 


65 


95 


35 


41 


5 


-13 


-25 


202 


94-44 


148 


64-44 


94 


34-44 


40 


4-44 


- 14 


- 25-56 


201-2 


94 


147-2 


64 


93-2 


34 


39-2 


4 


- 14-8 


- 26 


200 


93-33 


146 


63-33 


92 


33-33 


38 


3-33 


- 16 


- 26-67 


199-4 


93 


145-4 


63 


91-4 


33 


37-4 


3 


- 16-6 


- 27 


198 


92-22 


144 


62-22 


90 


32-22 


36 


2-22 


- 18 


- 27-78 


197-6 


92 


143-6 


62 


89-6 


32 


35-6 


2 


- 18-4 


- 28 


196 


91-11 


142 


61-11 


88 


31-11 


34 


1-11 


-20 


- 28-89 


195-8 


91 


141-8 


61 


87-8 


31 


33-8 
32 


1 



- 20-2 


-29 


194 


90 


140 


60 


86 


30 


30-2 


- 1 


-22 


-30 


192-2 


89 


138-2 


59 


84-2 


29 


30 


- 1-11 


- 23-8 


-31 


192 


88-89 


138 


58-89 


84 


28-89 


28-4 


- 2 


- 24 


- 31-11 


190-4 


88 


136-4 


58 


82-4 


28 


28 


- 2-22 


- 25-6 


-32 


190 


87-78 


136 


57-78 


82 


27-78 


26-6 


- 3 


-26 


- 32-22 


188-6 


87 


1.34-6 


57 


80-6 


27 


26 


- 3-33 


- 27-4 


- 33 


188 


86-67 


134 


56-67 


80 


26-67 


24-8 


- 4 


-28 


- 33-33 


186-8 


86 


132-8 


56 


78-8 


26 


24 


- 4-44 


- 29-2 


- 34 


186 


85-56 


132 


55-56 


78 


25-56 






-30 


- 34-44 


185 


85 


131 


55 


77 


25 


23 


- 5 


-31 


-35 


184 


84-44 


130 


54-44 


76 


24-44 


22 


- 5-56 


- 32 


- 35-56 


183-2 


84 


129-2 


54 


75-2 


24 


21-2 


- 6 


- 32-8 


- 36 


182 


83-33 


128 


53-33 


74 


23-33 


20 


- 6-67 


- 34 


- 36-67 


181-4 


83 


127-4 


53 


73-4 


23 


19-4 


- 7 


- 34-6 


-37 


180 


82-22 


126 


52 - 22 


72 


22-22 


18 


- 7-78 


-36 


- 37-78 


179-6 


82 


125-6 


52 


71-6 


22 


17-6 


- 8 


- 36-4 


- 38 


178 


81-11 


124 


51-11 


70 


21-11 


16 


- 8-89 


-38 


- 38-89 


177-8 


81 


123-8 


51 


69-8 


21 


15-8 


- 9 


- 38-2 
-40 


- 39 
-40 


176 


80 


122 


50 


68 


20 


14 


- 10 






174-2 


79 


120-2 


49 


66-2 


19 


12-2 
12 


- 11 






174 


78-89 


120 


48-89 


66 


18-89 


- 11-11 






172-4 


78 


118-4 


48 


64-4 


18 


10-4 


- 12 






172 


77-78 


118 


47-78 


64 


17-78 


10 


- 12-22 






170-6 


77 


116-6 


47 


62-6 


17 


8-6 


- 13 






170 


76-67 


116 


46-67 


62 


16-67 


8 


- 13-33 






168-8 


76 


114-8 


46 


60-8 


16 


6-8 


- 14 






168 


75-56 


114 


45-56 


60 


15-.56 


6 


- 14-44 






167 


75 


113 


45 


59 


15 


5 


- 15 






166 


74-44 


112 


44-44 


58 


14-44 


^ 


- 15*56 






165-2 


74 


111-2 


44 


57-2 


14 


3-2 


- 16 






164 


73-33 


110 


43-33 


56 


13-33 


2 


- 16-67 






163-4 


73 


109-4 


43 


55-4 


13 


1-4 


- 17 






162 


72-22 


108 


42-22 


54 


12-22 


1 


- 17-22 






161-6 


72 ' 


107-6 


42 


53-6 


12 





- 17-78 






160 


71-11 


106 


41-11 


52 


11-11 


- 0-4 


- 18 






159-8 


71 


105-8 


41 


51-8 


11 


- 1 

-2 

- 2-2 


- 18-33 

- 18-89 

- 19 







/■yUHflfWHE/T 

40 50 ^0 IQ 10 ^0 50 40 50 60 70 8 90100 1101201 50 MO 15Q 160170 ISO BO 200 21 2 

"~~~ ™ miiiliiiiiiiijmiiiiiiiiiiiiTinlM iiiiiiiiiiiiiiTiiin iiiiiiiiiiii^ 



40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 60 60 70 80 90 100 

Centigkade 



( 10 ) 

eHEATLT REDTTCED FSICES 



OF 



OBJECT-GLASSES MANUFACTURED BY 

R- & J. BECK, 

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PRICES OF BEST ACHEOMATIC OBJECT-GLASSES. 



No. 



Focal length. 



Angle 

of 
aper- 
ture, 
about 



Price. 



Linear magnifying-power, with lo-inch 
body-tube and eye^pieces. 



So. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 


10 


16 


30 


40 


15 


24 


45 


60 


22 


36 


67 


90 


30 


48 


90 


120 


70 


112 


210 


280 


100 


160 


300 


400 


125 


ioo 


375 


500 


150 


240 


450 


600 


200 


320 


5oo 


800 


250 


400 


750 


1000 


400 


640 


1200 


1600 


500 


800 


1500 


2000 


7S0 


1200 


2250 


3000 


1000 


1600 


3000 


4000 


2000 


3200 


6000 


8000 



100 
101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 



4 inches 
3 inches 
3 inches 
2 inches 
2 inches 
1| inch . 
I inch . 
f inch . 
I inch . 
-TO iiich . 
To iiich . 
I inch . 
i inch . 
i inch , 
-jij inam. 
yL imm. 
^ imm. 
-i, inch , 



9 

7 
12 
10 
17 
23 
25 
32 

45 
65 

95 

75 
120 
130 
180 



160 



£ s. 
1 10 

1 10 

2 10 

1 10 

2 10 
2 10 
2 
2 10 

2 10 

4 

5 

3 10 

4 10 

5 



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112 

150 

350 

500 
625 
750 

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Applicable to all Instbumekts made with the Univeesal Scretp 



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150 
151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 



Focal length. 



3 inches 
2 inches 
1 inch . 
J inch . 
J inch . 
i inch . 
•t inch . 



Angle 

of 
aper- 
ture, 
about 



18 

38 

80 

no 

no 

180 



Price. 







5 

5 

5 

5 

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6 



Magnifying-powee, 

with 6-inch body and 

eye-pieces. 



No. 1. No. 2. 1 No. 3, 



12 

18 

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170 

250 

350 
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JOUENAL 

OF THE 

EOTAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY. 

APEIL 1889. 



TEANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 

ly. — The President's Address. 
By C. T. Hudson, M.A., LL.D. (Cantab.). 

{Annual Meeting, 13i7i February, 1889.) 

It is no longer possible, I think, for your President to give, as the 
substance of his Address, a summary of the most important improve- 
ments of the Microscope, and of the most remarkable results of 
microscopical research, which have been recorded in the preceding 
twelve months. 

All this is now so fully and so admirably done in your own 
Journal, by your energetic Secretary and his able colleagues, that 
your Presidents will most probably, in future years, have to follow the 
excellent precedent set by Dr. Dallinger, and choose for the subject 
of their Addresses some topic directly springing from their own special 
studies. For, on an occasion like this, each President would wish to 
give the Society the best he can, and it is clear that this best must be 
sought for among matters of which he has a special knowledge. 

Unfortunately, an accident, which befell me early last year, not 
only robbed me of the pleasure of being present at several of your 
monthly meetings, but also produced consequences that compelled me 
to put my Microscope aside ; and, as I had not long before finished 
my share of the ' Piotifera,' I feared at first that I had lost the power 
of pursuing any new investigation, just at the very time when I had 
published the results of all my old ones. 

There is, however, still a portion of my subject with which I am 
familiar, and which, I believe, has not as yet been touched upon by 
any one ; and I venture to hope I may make it interesting to you. It 
relates to what may be called the foreign Eotifera ; that is to say, to 
those Eotifera which have not as yet been found in our islands. One 
would naturally like to know what proportion these foreign species 
bear to the British ; whether there are any families or genera entirely 
absent from the British fauna ; whether there appears to be any law 
of distribution among the Eotifera; and how far it is possible to 
account for the existence of the same species in places which are 
thousands of miles apart. But many of the numerous memoirs, from 
which information on these points is to be derived, are only to be 
1889. N 



170 Transactions of the Society . 

found scattered widely in various European periodicals, and so are 
difficult to be procured ; while, of those that have been published 
separately, the best are rare. 

Under these circumstances I thought it not improbable, that the 
members of our Society might be glad to know that the task of 
studying and condensing these memoirs had been in the main accom- 
plished, and that I am able now to present them with some of the 
results. 

Jn the first place, I made a list of all the known species, and 
marked against each the various localities in which it has been found. 
It was curious to see, as the table grew, how certain well-known Eoti- 
fera were picked out by their rapidly advancing scores, till at last 
about fifty typical Eotifera were separated from the rest, while of 
these a smaller group enjoyed the further distinction of having a very 
wide range, not only in latitude and longitude, but also in altitude. 

The same table showed, at a glance, that Great Britain decidedly 
outstripped all other countries in the number of its recorded species, 
having quite two-thirds of the whole. Nor was this all; for the 
Eotifera seemed, like trade, to follow the flag, and to haunt the 
British colonies, just as if they were British ships. 

The reason for this curious pre-eminence of British Eotifera is 
clearly seen, when we notice how those species are distributed, which 
have as yet been found in one country only. There are about 240 
such species ; and of these no fewer than 173 (that is to say, more 
than two-thirds) are peculiar to Grreat Britain. It is of course obvious 
that this apparent selection of Great Britain as the fatherland of the 
Eotifera is simply due to the greater energy, industry, and skill with 
which the search for new species has been pursued in this country. 
It is, however, very remarkable that the naturalists of Great Britain 
should in late years have added to the Eotiferous fauna two-and-a- 
half times as many species, as the naturalists of all other countries put 
together have done ; and this highly honourable result is mainly due 
to members of your own Society, and especially to my deeply lamented 
colleague and dear friend, the late Mr. Philip Henry Gosse, F.E.S. 

After I had seen how greatly the value of the recorded distribu- 
tion of the Eotifera was affected by what I may term the " personal 
equation," I at first feared that I should obtain little else from my 
tables than a well-merited tribute to the energy of British naturalists. 
Further inspection, however, showed other points that are well worth 
your notice. 

In the first place, my lists showed that Germany, Switzerland, and 
Hungary come next in order to Great Britain in the total number of 
species that each records, and I have only to mention the names of 
Ehrenberg, Ley dig, Cohn, Grenacher, Zacharias, Eckstein, Plate, 
Imhof, Perty, Bartsch, Vejdovsky, Zelinka, not to say many others, to 
make it obvious that the result is due, not to the real distribution of 
the species in these countries, but to the comparative skill and 
industry of their naturalists. 



The President's Address. By Dr. C. T. Hudson. 171 



Next, my table shows clearly that in all cases a considerable 
number, and in some the great majority, of the above-named fifty 
typical Eotifera, range throughout Britain, France, North and South 
Germany, Denmark, Switzerland, Hungary, and Kussia, so that we 
may reasonably conclude that a considerable proportion, of the 450 
known species, would probably be found in almost any part of Europe, 
if they were diligently searched for. Here, for instance, is a list of 
thirty well-known Eotifera, all of different genera, and all recorded in 
at least five of the above eight European countries : — 



Floscularia ornata. 
Stephanoceros Eichornii. 
Melicerta ringens. 
Limnias ceratophylli. 
Lncinularia socialis. 
Philodina roseola. 
Motif er vulgaris. 
Actiniirus Neptunins. 
Asplanchna Helvetica. 
Trinrthra mystacina. 
Hydatina senta. 
Notommata aurita. 
Proales decipiens. 
Furcularia forficula. 
Eosphora aurita. 



Diglena catelUna. 
Mastigocerca carinata, 
Rattulus lunaris. 
Dinocharis pocillum. 
Scaridium longicaudum. 
Salpina mucronata. 
Euchlanis dilatata. 
Cathypna luna. 
Monodyla cornuta. 
Colurus uncinatus. 
Metopidia lepadella. 
Fterodina patitia. 
Brachionus urceolaris. 
Armrma aculeata. 
Notholca striata. 



Besides, many of the Eotifera are very tolerant of climate, and 
appear to be able to live anywhere that they can get food. For 
instance. Rotifer vtdgaris is to be found all over Europe, and at all 
heights, thriving under moss near the top of the Sidelhorn, and on 
the Tibia, at an altitude of 90U0 feet above the sea. It has been met 
with also in Nubia, on the slopes of the Altai Mountains in Siberia, 
in Ceylon at the top of Adam's Peak, in Jamaica, and in the Pampas 
of La Plata. Brachionus pala has nearly as great a range, for it has 
been found in many parts of Europe, in Egypt, at the Cape of Good 
Hope, in Siberia, Ceylon, Jamaica, and New Zealand. Besides these, 
Diglena catellina, Hydatina senta, Actinurus Neptunius, and a few 
others, have all been met with in different quarters of the globe. 

But the distribution of the Eotifera presents us with other facts 
quite as curious as these. For not only are European species to be 
found ranging over Asia and Africa ; but America, and even Australia 
and New Zealand, in spite of their ocean belts, possess the same 
familiar creatures ; and, moreover, seem to have hardly any peculiar 
to themselves. Here, for example, is a list of Eotifera that have 
been found in Sydney by Mr. Whitelegge, and in Queensland by 
Mr. Gunson Thorpe, M.E.C.S., of H.M.S. ' Paluma' :— 



Floscularia ornata. 

„ campanulata. 

,, chimxra (n. sp.) T. 

„ cornuta. 

„ Millsii. 

,, coronetta (var.) W. 

Melicerta ringens. 

,f conifera. 



GEcistes crystallinus. 

„ Janus 
Limnias ceratophylli. 
„ annulatus. 
„ cornuella. 
Lacinularia socialis. 

„ pedunculata (n. sp.) W. 

Cephalosiphon limnias. 

N 2 



172 



Transactions of tlie Society. 



Trochosphsera sequatorialis ; & male, T. 
Megalotrocha hullata (n. sp.) T. 
Gonochilus vohox. 
Philodina citrina. 
Eotifer vulgaris. 

„ tardus. 
Actinurus Neptunius. 
Asplanchna Brightu:ellu. 

„ Ehheshornii. 

Polyarthra platyptera. 
Triarthra longiseta. 
Notops clamdatns. 
Nutommata centrura. 
Copeus pachyurus. 
Furcularia longiseta. 
Diglena hiraphis. 
Mastigocerca stylata. 
Rattulus lunaris. 



Coeloprts tenuior. 
Dmocharis pocillum. 

„ triremis (n. sp.) "W. 

Scaridium longicaudum. 

„ eudactylotum. 

Diplois Damesise. 
Euchlanis triquetra (var.). 
Cathypna luna. 
Monostyla lunaris. 
Colurus amhlytelus. ^ 
Metopidia solidns. 
Pterodina patina. 
Brachionus Baker i. 
Orthurus militaris. 

„ apertus (n. sp.) T. 

Anurs&a aculeata. 

„ cochlearis. 

Pedalion mirum. 



Who would ever have imagined that in a sea-girt continent, at 
•the opposite side of the globe, in a land whose fauna and flora are so 
strange as those of Australia, we should find that forty-five out of 
fifty-two recorded species were British, and that, of the remaining 
seven, one (Floscularia Millsii) had a habitat in the United States ? 

The United States, too, Jamaica, and Ceylon, all reproduce the 
same phenomenon, though on a reduced scale, so that the question at 
once arises, how could these minute creatures, who are inhabitants of 
lakes, ponds, ditches, and sea-shore pools, contrive to spread them- 
selves so widely over the earth ? Take, for instance, the case of 
Asjolanchna Ebhesbornii, which till quite lately had but one known 
habitat, viz. a small duck-pond in a vicarage garden in Wiltshire. 
The very same animal has been found by Mr. Whitelegge in the 
Botanical Gardens at Sydney, New South Wales. No doubt in time 
it will be found elsewhere also ; but how, or when, did it pass from 
the one spot to the other ? 

That extraordinary spherical Eotiferon, too, TroehospJisera sequa- 
torialis, discovered by Dr. C. Semper in the Philippine Islands, had, 
for the last thirty years, no other known habitat ; yet both sexes have 
been found, quite lately, by Mr. Gunson Thorpe, in the Fern-island 
pond of the Botanical Gardens of Brisbane. 

Again, there is the strange Floscule F. Millsii, a Eotiferon appa- 
rently linking together the genera Floscularia and Stephanoceros, 
and which has been found almost simultaneously by Mr. Whitelegge 
at Sydney and Dr. Kellicott at Ontario; the possibility of its 
journeying between two such points seems quite as hopeless as that 
of Asplanchna Ebheshornii's passing from New South Wales to 
Wiltshire. 

And such cases are numerous. How did Hydatina senta and 
Brachionus pala get to New Zealand? or Notops brachionus, and 
Rotifer vulgaris to the top of Adam's Peak and the Pampas of La 
Plata ? Again, there is Pedalio7i mirum ; since I first found it in a 
pond at the top of Nightingale Valley at Clifton, it has been met 
with in four or five other places in England, including a warm-water 



The President's Address. By Dr. G. T. Hudson. 173 

lily-tank at Eaton Hall, but till quite lately in no other country. 
Now I have just received a letter from Mr. Gunson Thorpe, telling 
me that he has found it swarming in a pool on a rocky headland in 
Queensland. 

You have no doubt, long ere this, anticipated the solution of the 
puzzle ; and see clearly enough that living creatures, to whom a yard 
of sea-water is as impassable a barrier as a thousand miles of ocean, 
could only have reached or left Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, 
Ceylon, &c., in the egg ; not the soft, delicately shelled, quickly 
hatching, summer egg, but the ephippial egg, which is protected by 
a much harder and thicker covering, which is constructed so as to 
bear without injury a long absence from the water, and which 
hatches, so far as is known, some months after it has been laid. 

But this explanation still requires to be explained. The case of 
the free-swimming Eotifera is simple enough. They are most of 
them to be found, at some time or another, in small shallow pools ; and 
their eggs either fall to the bottom of the water, or are attached to 
the small confervoid growth on the stones in it. Such pools fre- 
quently dry up, leaving the ephippial eggs to wait for the rainy warm 
weather of next year. Then comes boisterous weather, and the dusty 
surface of the exposed bottom of the pool is swept by a wind which 
raises the dust high into the air, ephippial eggs and all. For these 
latter are minute things, few exceeding 1/300 in. in length, and many 
even half that size. Once raised in the air, I see no reason why they 
should not be driven by aerial currents, unharmed, half round the 
globe, falling occasionally in places where water, temperature, and 
food are alike suitable. The dust of the eruption at Krakatoa, which 
gave us such wonderful sunsets and green moons in 1883, travelled 
&om the Sunda Isles to England in three months, and so the ephip- 
pial eggs of Asplancima Ehbeshornii and other Eotifera may have 
traversed the distance from England to Australia, and yet have been 
capable of hatching at the end of the journey. 

It may perhaps seem a fanciful notion to account for the stocking 
of the ponds at Sydney by eggs carried thousands of miles in the air, 
but several well-known facts warrant the hypothesis. The tops of our 
houses, the heights of the Alps, the slopes of the Siberian mountain- 
ranges, are the haunts of the Philodines ; which, being an exception- 
ally hardy race, have accommodated themselves to living in damp 
mosses at the edge of a glacier ; or in a gutter, which now holds a 
mere handful of stagnant water, now is a racing current, and now a 
dusty leaden basin, glowing under a blazing sun. No doubt eggs of 
all sorts of species fall on the same spots, but only to perish under 
trials that none but a Philodine could survive. 

How various are the species, whose eggs are thus wafted up by the 
air, has been well shown by Mr. J. E. Lord ; who has given a list of 
no fewer than forty-five species (contained in twenty-nine genera) 
that he found in the course of twelve months in the same garden- 
pond. It was, however, admirably situated for catching whatever 



174 Transactions of the Society. 

there was to be caught ; for it lay in a flat plot of ground, where there 
was an entire absence of trees and shade, so that its surface was fully 
exposed to every wind that blew. 

The eggs, of course, must often fall on unsuitable places, and be 
carried past suitable ones ; and this accounts for the capricious appear- 
ances of Eotifera in some well-watched pond, and for the frequent 
disappointments of the naturalists who visit it. To this aerial carriage 
of the eggs is also due the otherwise perplexing fact, that when any rare 
Eotiferon is found in one spot, it is frequently found at the same time 
in closely neighbouring ponds and ditches, even in such^ an unlikely 
hole as the print of a cow's foot filled with rain, but not at all in 
more promising places at some distance off. 

Admitting then this fitful shower of eggs as proven, we at once 
see another way in which they may readily travel to distant lands. 
For it is quite possible that now and then they may fall on the cargo 
of an outgoing ship. Here they would lie safely in cracks and creases 
till, the journey being over, the knocking apart of packing-cases and 
the shaking of wrappers would set them afloat again, to drop down, 
it may be, into the Botanical Gardens of Sydney, the shore-pools of 
Ceylon, or the ponds of Jamaica. In fact these Kotifera would have 
really done what I have already pointed out that they seemed to do, 
they would have followed the flag. 

The eggs of the tube-makers, however, and of such Eotifera as 
live only in the clear waters of lakes and deep ponds, present a greater 
difficulty ; for their eggs either lie within their tubes, or are attached 
to growing weeds, or fall down to a bottom which lies covered all the 
year round with several feet of water. The wind and sun here cannot 
be the only means of dispersion. Aquatic birds and insects are pro- 
bably assisting agents. These, as they swim among the water-plants, 
must frequently set free the eggs from the tubes of the Ehizota, as 
well as those which adhere to confervse, potomogetons, and water- 
lilies, and so get them attached to their bodies. Then away they 
fly, carrying the eggs to some far distant lake, or shaking them off 
into the air with the beating of their wings. 

In confirmation of this idea I may mention that the well-known 
naturalist Mr. John Hood of Dundee, who has added so many re- 
markable species of Ehizota to our rotiferous fauna, informs me that 
the Scotch lakes most prolific in new and rare species are those which 
are visited annually by wild-fowl from the north. Prof. Leidy also 
informs me that his collector, Mr. Seal, noticed sandpipers haunting 
the duck-pond where he found an Asplanchna very similar to Ebhes- 
hornii, and that he thought that " these birds were especially instru- 
mental in distributing the lower forms of aquatic life." I may add 
also that, on one occasion, I found in a temporary rain-puddle, barely 
a yard across, a living ciliated ovum of Plumatella rejpens. Of course 
the puddle itself contained no adult forms, and the ovum must have 
been brought by some bird the distance of at least half a mile. The 
twin polypes were already partially developed inside the ovum, and it 



The President'' s Address. By Br. 0. T. Hudson. 175 

is curious that so delicate a thing should have borne the transport 
safely. 

Dogs probably play only a humble part in the dispersion of the 
Eotifera, but they cannot help taking some part in it ; by intercepting, 
as they swim, eggs that are slowly sinking to the bottom ; or by 
brushing off, on to their coats, eggs which have been already caught 
by the weeds. For the ephippial eggs are frequently armed with 
hooks or spines, which make them adhere easily to a pond-weed or to 
a hairy coat, and yet would not prevent a dog's vigorous shake, after 
his bathj from sending them flying into the air, or on to the dust, 
where sun and wind would do the rest. 

Perhaps one of the most curious illustrations, of this aerial con- 
veyance of Eotiferous eggs, is the account of Callidina symbiotica, 
which we owe to Dr. Carl Zelinka. It was in the depth of last winter 
that I read his interesting memoir concerning a new Callidina, that 
he had discovered inhabiting the little green cups on the under 
surfaces of the leaves of a scale-moss (FruUania dilatata). As 
I knew that this plant grew on the elms of our Clifton promenade, I 
started off at once on the rather forlorn hope of finding some living 
specimens of the new Eotiferon. When I arrived at the promenade 
I passed patch after patch of the scale-moss, hoping in vain to find 
something more promising than the withered, liver-coloured stuff, which 
alone was to be seen on the tree-trunks. At last I gave up further 
search, and pulling off a scrap of what looked like old ragged carpet, 
I carried it home. There I put a bit of it into a watch-glass, covered 
it with water, and gently teased it out with needles, till I found an 
under-frond that had some pretension to being green. This I trans- 
ferred to a glass cell, and placed it under the Microscope with the 
cups turned towards me ; and it was with no little pleasure that, in 
about a quarter of an hour, I saw first one Callidina and then another 
stretch its proboscis out of a cup, unfurl its wheels, and begin to feed. 

No wonder that these Philodinidm are to be found everywhere 
when they can bear to be frozen alive in the cell of a plant, or roasted 
by a midsummer sun in a leaden gutter. 

Some chance breeze must have first wafted a Callidina s egg on 
to the scale-moss, just after a shower, when the whole plant was wet, 
and the little green cups were filled with water. The young Calli- 
dina, when hatched, could not have desired a better home. The 
rainfall, on an elm, flows down its furrowed bark in tracks as constant 
as those of a river and its tributaries ; and the growth of the Junger- 
man follows these tracks. Every shower fills the spaces between its 
flat layers of overlapping leaves with water ; and the lower layers, 
sheltered by the upper, retain for a long time water enough for the 
Callidina to creep about or swim in. And when at last the sun and 
air have dried up the water, the creature retreats into its green cup, 
which presents so small an aperture to the air, and is so fenced round 
with thick juicy cells, that the contained water is almost certain to 
hold out till the next shower. If it does not, the Callidina is still 



176 Transactions of the Society. 

content ; it becomes conscious of the coming crisis, draws in its head 
and foot, rounds its trunk into a ball, secretes round itself a gelatinous 
covering, and waits for better times. 

But the Rotifera owe their wide dispersion not only to the ease 
with which their eggs are blown from one place to another, but also 
to their powers of endurance, and to their marvellous capacity for 
adapting themselves to new surroundings. A Philodine may say 
with Howell, " I came tumbling out into the world a true cosmo- 
polite." I have already noticed how the Philodinidse will endure such 
extremities of heat, cold, and dryness as Nature inflicts on them ; but 
she does not put their full powers to the test ; for, when time is given 
to them to don their protective coats, they can bear a heat gradually 
advancing to 200° Fahr., or a 50 days' exposure to a dryness produced 
over sulphuric acid in the receiver of a good air-pump. Ehrenberg 
tells us that whereas he killed Volvox glohator with one electric shock, 
it took two of the same intensity to kill Hydatina senta ; and that 
'Rotifer vulgaris will swallow laudanum and " yet be lively ;" adding 
that a solution of Cantharides seemed " to give it new life." The 
same irrepressible creature will flourish in water containing a percep- 
tible quantity of sulphuric acid ; while Asplanehna priodonta will 
swim about actively for twenty-four hours in a weak solution of 
salicylic acid ; and Synchseta jpectinata will do the same in chromic 
acid. The great majority of the fresh-water species die when 
dropped into sea water, but some will bear sudden immersion in a 
mixture of one part sea water to two fresh. We should not be 
surprised, therefore, to find not only that there are thirty-four known 
marine species of Eotifera, but that seventeen of these species are to 
be met with alike in salt water and in fresh. 

The following is the list of Eotifera found in salt or brackish 
water; those marked with a star are also the inhabitants of fresh 
water. 



Floscularia campanulata.* 
Melicerta tuhicolaria.* 
Rotifer citrinus* 
Synchs&ta Baltica. 

„ tremula (?).* 

Pleurotrocha leptura (?).* 
Notommata Naias* 
Proales decipiens* 
Furcularia forficula* 

„ gracilis.* 

„ Reinhardti. 
Diglena catellina* 

„ grandis.* 
Distemma raptor. 

,, marinum, 
Rattulus calyptus. 
Monostyla quadridentata. 



Colurus amhlytelus. 
„ caudatus,* 
„ dactylotus. 



„ uncinatus.* 
Mytilia Tavina. 
Pterodina clypeata. 
Brachionus Bakeri.* 
„ Miilleri. 

Notholca striata * 

„ spinifera. 

„ inermis. 

„ scapha.* 

„ thalassia. 
Anurssa valga.* 
„ hiremis. 
Hexarthra polyptera. 



Although this is, doubtless, a very imperfect list, still it is sufficient 
to show how these fresh-water animals are slowly spreading into the 
tide pools on the sea-shore. Some may have commenced their change 
of habitat in the field drains, which are periodically invaded by the 



The President's Address. By Dr. C. T. Hudson. Ill 

brackish waters of a tidal river. It was precisely in such a locality 
that I first found Brachionus MiJlleri, in water only faintly salt, and 
at a height of 30 feet above the Severn. Ditches of this kind are 
to be found all down the Avon, from the highest point that the tide 
reaches to its mouth. As they approach the Severn, their water 
becomes more and more brackish, and the preponderance of marine 
species in them more pronounced ; so that it is easy to see how the 
descendants of a fresh-water Eotiferon, passing slowly down the 
river-side from ditch to ditch, may, in course of many generations, 
come to endure the sea itself. 

In other cases the air-borne eggs may have dropped into the 
pools, of every degree of brackishness, which usually skirt the shores 
of our river estuaries. It is in such places, on the Scottish shore, 
that Mr. John Hood has found so many new marine species ; and 
where no doubt so many more are yet to be found. 

But the most noteworthy point about the above list is that the 
number of distinct genera is so great. One would rather have 
expected to find but four or five genera hardy enough to endure salt 
water ; and yet here are no fewer than nineteen genera for the thirty- 
four known marine species ; and, of these latter, seventeen species are 
yet in the transitional state, inhabiting alike salt waters and fresh. 
Still more curious is it to find that all the four orders are represented 
and that Bliizota, Bdelloida, and Seirtopoda have each furnished a 
contingent to the marine forms, as well as the more frequent Plo'ima. 
It is, of course, rather startling to hear that Melicerta and Floscu- 
laria are to be found inhabiting sea water ; but I know of no reason 
why any doubt should be thrown on Dr. Weisse's record of having so 
found them on the sea-shore at Hapsal. 

The capacity of the Eotifera, for adapting themselves to new 
surroundings, is shown by a mere enumeration of the strange places 
in which they are found. For these fresh-water creatures, the 
common inhabitants of lakes and ponds, are to be found in brackish 
ditches, sea-pools, the mud of ponds, the dust of gutters, in tufts of 
moss, on the blades of wet grass, in the rolled-up leaves and in the 
cups of liverworts, in the cells of Volvox, the stems and sporangia 
of VaucJieria ; in vegetable infusions ; on the backs of Eniomostraca, 
on their abdominal plates, on their branchial feet ; on fresh-water 
fleas, wood-lice, shrimps, and worms ; in the viscera of slugs, earth- 
worms, and Naiades ; and in the body-cavities of 8ynaptse. 

But the great variability of every part of the external and internal 
structure of the Eotifera, points to their fitness for playing the 
parts of cosmopolites. See how, in Floscularia and Stephanoeeros, the 
head and its appendages are so developed that they dwarf all the rest; 
how in Apsilus the trunk predominates ; while in Actinurus both 
head and trunk become appendages of a huge foot. The corona dimi- 
nishes continually from the large complex organs of Melicerta, 
Hydatina, and Brachionus, down to the furred face of Adineta and the 
tuft of Seison ; and vanishes altogether in Acyclus. The antennae 
can be traced from long infolding or telescopic tubes, furnished with 



178 Transactions of the Society. 

setiferous pistons, special muscles and nerves, throngli a succession of 
shorter and simpler structures till they become mere pimples, or 
even setiferous pits in the body-surface. The skin is hardened into 
a perfect lorica in Braehionus ; is partially hardened in Dapidia ; is 
merely tough in Mastigocerca ; and is soft and quite unarmed in 
Notommata. The appendages of the body in Pedalion rise almost 
to the dignity of crustaceous limbs, for they have joints, and are worked 
by opposing pairs of muscles, passing across their cavities from point 
to point. In Asplanchna these appendages become stumpy pro- 
jections ; and the muscles, though still passing freely across the body- 
cavity, are reduced to threads. In Triarthra the appendages become 
chitinous spines ; and at last, when we reach Adineta, Taphrocamjoa, 
and Alhertia, we find that we have passed from a Eotiferon closely 
resembling a Nauplius larva, to one that is a simple worm. 

The internal structure is just as plastic. The characteristic trophi 
exhibit a series of striking changes as we pass from one genus to 
another. In one direction the change is due to the degradation of 
the mallei ; in the other to that of the incus ; and in both this degra- 
dation is pushed so far that the changing parts may be said almost to 
disappear. For in Braehionus and Euchlanis the mallei are well 
developed ; in Furcularia mere needle-shaped curved rods ; in 
Asplanchna so evanescent that it is hardly possible to find them in an 
animal killed by pressure. 

By another set of changes the rami are, in their turn, reduced 
almost to evanescence, becoming feeble loops in Stephanoceros, and in 
Floscularia two membranes attached to the unci. 

Changes, great in degree, if not in variety, occur also in the 
excreto-respiratory system. For the contractile vesicle, which fills 
quite half the body-cavity in some Asplanchnee, dwindles down in 
various species till it seems to vanish in Pterodina and Pedalion; 
while in one abnormal form, Trochosphsera, the connection between 
the lateral canals and the contractile vesicle is snapped, and the latter 
becomes an appendage of the cloaca only. 

The nervous system, wherever it has been made out, is indeed 
always on the same plan ; but its central organ, the nervous ganglion, 
is in Copeus and Euchlanis a great cylindrical sac, stretching from 
the head below the mastax ; while in Floscularia it shrinks into a 
email star-shaped body between the eyes and the organ of taste. 

The alimentary and reproductive systems are those which 
vary the least ; but even here the difference in proportionate size is 
very great between the stomachs of Sacculus and Synchseta ; and 
also between the ovaries of Asplanchnopus myrmeleo and Asplanchna 
priodonta. 

But not only do most of the external parts and internal organs 
vary in turn almost to vanishing, but these variations are not in any 
way simultaneous. The result is, that we find an organ, of a form 
characteristic of one family or genus, occurring in a species that belongs 
to another. 



The President's Address. By Dr. C. T. Hudson. 179 

Thus, for instance, the trophi of the Melicertidse appear in Pom- 
pholyx, one of the Triarthridm. Nay, more, it is easy to point out 
Kotifera that hear some striking characteristics of two or three other 
genera, or even of two or three other famihes. Microcodon clavus, 
for example, has the central mouth and double ciliary wreaths of the 
Fhsculariidse, the eye of a Notommata, the trophi of a Diglena, and 
the foot of a Monostyla. Again, Pterodina patina has the corona 
of Philodina, the lorica and transversely-wrinkled retractile foot of 
Brachionus, the foot-ending of a young Khizotan, and the mastax of 
the Melicertidse. Then there is Mr. Thorpe's new Australian Floscule, 
which swims freely like one of the Ploima, has the buccal cup and 
wreath of Floscularia, the dorsal eye of Notommata, and the body 
and forked foot of Proales. 

To sum up, we may say that in the female Eotiferon, the 
corona, head, foot, toes, appendages of the trunk, antennae, eyes, and 
contractile vesicle vary down to almost absolute extinction ; while, if 
we include the male in our survey, we must add that even the 
whole of the alimentary tract may disappear also. Moreover, the 
characteristics of the various groups interlace in so many ways, that 
no organ — nor indeed any combination of two or three organs — can 
be relied upon to determine with certainty an animal's true position. 

Two conclusions are, in consequence, irresistibly forced on us : 
the first, that the Rotifera, from Pedalion to Alhertia, are related by 
descent; the second, that their curious habitats, wide dispersion, and 
great variations in their structure are due to causes that have been at 
work for a very long period of time. 

One other fact has also been made clear in this review : namely, 
that the British Eotifera give a very fair idea of the whole class. 
No doubt there are many foreign species, and some of these are very 
remarkable, and of great interest ; but the greater number fall readily 
enough into the divisions that contain our own species. 

And, indeed, it is a fortunate thing that we can here, at our own 
doors, study so many typical forms from life. For what books or 
drawings can give us the delight which we derive from observing 
the animals themselves ? 

To gaze into that wonderful world which lies in a drop of water, 
crossed by some atoms of green weed ; to see transparent living 
mechanism at work, and to gain some idea of its modes of action ; 
to watch a tiny speck that can sail through the prick of a needle's 
point; to see its crystal armour flashing with ever- varying tint, its 
head glorious with the halo of its quivering cilia ; to see it gliding 
through the emerald stems, hunting for its food, snatching at its 
prey, fleeing from its enemy, chasing its mate (the fiercest of our 
passions blazing in an invisible speck) ; to see it whirling in a mad 
dance to the sound of its own music, the music of its happiness, the 
exquisite happiness of living — can any one, who has once enjoyed this 
sight, ever turn from it to mere books and drawings, without the 
sense that he has left all fairyland behind him ? 



180 Transactions of the Society. 

V. — Description of a New Dipterous Insect, Psamathiomya pectinata. 

By JuLiEN Deby, F.E.M.S. 

{Read 13th March, 1889.) 
Plate IV. 

At the meeting of the Society held on the 9th of May last, I 
exhibited slides of an interesting dipteron found by myself in abun- 
dance during the latter days of last April, at Biarritz, in the South 
of France. At the time I was not prepared to name or to describe 
it, but having since come to the conclusion that it belongs to a new 
genus and species, I now describe it in detail. 

Psamathiomya pectinata is a marine insect, living below water 
during its early existence, the larvse feeding on Enteromorpha. The 
adult escapes from the pupa case while the descending tide has laid 
bare the algse-covered rocks; these small insects swarm at such 
times, being especially active when the sun shines on them. The 
males are more numerous than the females, and are also much more 
rapid in their motions. I have often seen several males surrounding 
one female, but I never caught any of these insects actually in copula, 
though I frequently saw the males seize the heavy pregnant females 
by the back of the head or neck by means of their formidable anal 
forceps, and drag them forcibly along after them, stopping occa- 
sionally, as if to rest, when the female would bend down her ovi- 
positor and probing right and left with it, would, I believe, deposit 
each time an egg among the green weeds or in some cranny of the 
rocks below them. 

Both sexes have very rudimentary wings, quite useless as organs 
of flight, so that these insects cannot possibly escape from the 
rising tide, which on this coast is accompanied by heavy surf and 
breakers. I presume therefore that the life of the imago does not 
exceed the few hours during which the tide has receded. Several 
specimens which I immersed in a phial of sea water were immediately 
drowned. The insects being small have to be looked for with atten- 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV. 



Eig. 1. — Psamathiomya pectinata Deby, male 12/1. 

2. — Head seeu from above. 

3. — „ below. 

4. — Anal forceps of male. 

5. — Ovipositor seen laterally. 

6. — „ from above. The internal blades are figured too long. 

7. — Head and thorax from above. 

8. — Leg of male. 

9. — Terminal tarsal joint of male with its appendages 300/1. 
10. — Wing and haltere of male, 60/1. 
11. — „ „ female. 

Note. — The arrangement of the setse in some of the above figures, which were 
executed during my absence from England, is not quite true to nature, so that 
references to the text only must be relied upon in case of apparent discrepancies. 



JouR]sr.R.MrcR.soc.i888.pi.rv: 




P s amatliiomy a p e e tinata . 



West.Newman 3t Colitli. 



Description of a New Dipterous Insect. By J. Dehy. 181 

tion, but once discovered they are easily recognized ; tte black, very 
long-legged males looking like minute spiders, while the dingy brown 
louse-like females which they drag after them, have the appearance, 
from a distance, of the cocoons some spiders carry behind them. 

As was kindly pointed out to me by Mr. C. Waterhouse of the 
British Museum, this insect is exceedingly similar in its habits to 
Halirytus amphihiuSjdiscoYeved by the Kev. A. E. Eaton, in Kerguelen's 
Land, and which was fully described in vol. clxviii. of the Phil. Trans, 
of the Eoyal Society (special volume on the Zoology of Kerguelen 
and of Kodriguez), p. 24, pi. xiv. fig. 6. It is, however, generically 
distinct from its antipodal representative, although belonging to the 
same group of aberrant Chironomidfe, in which the antennae are 
only six-jointed and unfeathered. 

Dr. A. S. Packard has described another marine dipterous insect 
under the name of Chironomus oceanicus, the larvae of which he 
found on floating " eel-grass " and in green sea- weed at low-water 
mark in Salem Harbour, U.S.A. Besides the two-winged insects 
above named, several more have been noticed, and among these : — • 
Ephydra calif ornicus, Ephydra gracilis, Ep)hydra halophila, as well 
as the larvae of a species of Tanypus and of a Stratiomys, all of 
which were inhabitants of salt water. Nothing further is known of 
their respective life-histories. 

I have some remembrance of having myself seen, very many years 
ago, a very similar insect, running over sea-weed and mussels, upon 
the Ostend breakwater at low tide. If looked for in this site, I should 
advise that this be done during the first days of spring, as it no doubt 
is a precocious insect. 

As Psamathiomya pectinata will probably be found to live on 
other shores besides those of Biarritz, I have, in order to facilitate 
identification or comparison, prepared the following description of the 
insect which forms the subject of this communication. 

Genus.— PSAMATHIOMYA. 

Characters. — Antennae six-jointed in both sexes, three middle 
joints submoniliform, neither feathered nor plumed, much shorter than 
the head and thorax ; mesonotum cucullate, projecting over the 
head ; legs very long and slender, especially in the males, the terminal 
joint of the tarsus being furnished (along with the usual claws), with 
a special finger-like projection, extending over and between the claws, 
while a doubly curved curious comb-like appendage faces it from 
below. 

Wings rudimentary; much smaller in the females than in the 
males ; without nervures. Halteres distinct. The convex eyes are 
distant in both sexes, but farthest apart in the females. Both 
the ordinary claws on the end joint of the tarsi in the male are 
deeply cleft or bifid ; those in the female being simple. The comb- 
like appendages are similar in both sexes. 



182 Transactions of the Society. 

The external genitalia of the male consist of a powerful two- 
jointed pair of forceps, the lower joints of which are large, massive, 
subglobular, while the terminal joints are small and linear, and so 
articulated to the first as to curve inwardly between them when not 
in use. These terminal joints of the forceps carry at their tips an 
armature of short, sharp, scattered, horny spines. The ovipositor of 
the female is conical, narrowing towards the acute apex ; it is con- 
stituted of two lateral plates or valves which cover and protect two 
very delicate, parallel, acute, membraneous spiculse. 

Speeijie Description of P8AMATHI0MYA PECTIN AT A. 

I. Head. — The head in both the male and female is of average 
size and of the full width of the mesonotum, which projects conically 
over it. The eyes are prominent and convex. The facets are large 
and project hemispherically. Twelve facets occupy the whole antero- 
posterior convexity of the compound eye, as seen from above. Ocelli 
absent. The truncate vertex projects bluntly beyond and between 
the eyes. The cheeks are prominent and rounded behind. The 
anterior termination of the mesonotum reaches as far as the middle 
of the eyes. Eyes protected by a group of 10 or 12 stout and long 
setae or bristles, which are inserted above them as eyebrows. The 
clypeus carries two parallel rows of distant, stiff bristles. Each 
eye carries at its posterior lateral edge a black chitinous appendage 
of an oblong shape and of unknown use. 

The troplii. — I have not been able to make these out to my satis- 
faction. They are very short and consist apparently of a geniculate 
haustellum, and of conspicuous, two-jointed palpi, the terminal joints 
of which are rich in sensory bristles. 

The antennm in both sexes are six-jointed and much shorter than 
the head and thorax together. 

The basal joint is the stoutest, it is broadly truncate at its apex 
and is four times wider at this point than the base of the following 
joint inserted into it. The apical joint is oval or somewhat pyriform ; 
its extreme tip is slightly produced and narrowed to an obtuse point. 
The second joint of the antennas is the longest ; then follow about 
equal in length the first and the last joints, while the remain- 
ing three joints are small, subglobular, and nearly equal in size. 
The second joint, near its basal third, is constricted and slightly 
contorted, while an indentation is also noticeable near the anterior 
third, on the opposite side. The basal joint of the antennae is liberally 
furnished with stout and stiff bristles, which are of the same length 
as the joint which carries them. One or two much smaller bristles 
show themselves frequently on the sides of the sixth joint, but all the 
intermediate joints, namely the second, third, fourth and fifth, are 
always without any setae, and carry nothing but a rough, short 
inconspicuous pubescence, visible only under the Microscope. 



Description of a Netv Dipterous Insect. By J. Dehtj. 183 
Dimensions of the Head and its Parts. 







Mikrons 


Head . . 


Antero-posterior length 


240 




Lateral (extra-ocular) width 


440 


Eyes .. 


Diameter in (J 


160 




? 


128 




Inter-ocular space $ 


240 




>5 !' . . * 


280 




Diameter of individual facets 


16 


Antennae 


Average total length 


352 




1st or basal joint, length 


80 




2nd „ „ .. .. 


.. 80-96 




3rd „ „ .. .. 


40 




4th „ „ .. .. 


32 




5th „ „ .. .. 


24 




6th or apical „ „ .... 


88 




Inter-antennal space $ 


80 




■t-O 


186 


Trophi. 


Haustellum 


80 




Palpi 


160 



Thorax. — The scutum of the mesothorax or mesonotum for a 
length of 0"15 mm. from its anterior apex is bluntly conical. Its 
lateral sides are after this nearly parallel, with a very slight 
rounded constriction in the middle. The dorsum carries on each side 
two irregular longitudinal rows of spare stout bristles, with a few 
scattered ones in the middle between the two internal rows. Lateral 
appendages, or calli humerales, project from either side of the 
anterior portion of the mesonotum just above the insertion of the 
anterior coxse. 

The scutellum is narrow, transverse, with acute lateral angles, 
near to each of which six to eight bristles are planted, while the 
dorsal portion is glabrous. The metathoracic scutum is well 
developed, transverse, and shows by transparency a dorsal transverse 
trachea. 

Dimensions of the Mesonotum and Scutellum. 

Mikrons. 

Mesonotum .. Length 540 

.. Breadth 420 

Scutellum .. Length (antero-posterior) .. .. 90 

„ .. Breadth (transverse) 240 

Thoracic Appendages. 

A. Legs. — The legs in both sexes are long and slender in all 
their parts, especially in the ^ , the coxae being the stoutest portion. 
These latter carry a few stiff curved bristles near their extremities, 
on their lower surface. The linear, middle, and hind femurs and 
tibias are very slightly arched. The trochanters are small and 



/ 



184 



Transactions of the Society/. 



insignificant. Both the femurs, the tibias, and the first two joints 
of the tarsi carry several longitudinal rows of stifi^, sparse bristles. 
The three terminal joints of the tarsi have bristles only on their 
upper surface. 

The legs increase in length from the first to the last pair. The 
tarsi of the third pair of legs are much the longest, while those of 
the second pair are the shortest. The hinder coxae are one-third 
longer than the coxse of the middle and front legs. The insertion of 
the legs into the sternum is as follows : : ; , the front pair being 
distant from the approximating posterior limbs and also further 
apart laterally from each other. 

The female differs from the male only as regards the legs, by 
these being but half as long. This is readily seen by the simple 
inspection of the femurs, tibias, and first joints of the tarsi, in both 
sexes. 

The ungual, or terminal joint of the tarsus is furnished with 
two claws, which in the male are deeply cleft or bifid, while in the 
female they are simple. In both sexes a prominent finger-like fleshy 
projection of the tarsal joint projects above and between the claws 
for nearly their length. 

In opposition to this interungual appendage and starting from 
the opposite angle of the truncate extremity or heel of the tarsal 
joint, a very remarkable S-shaped comb exists. This singular 
apparatus ends beyond the apex of the claws. Its outer edge is 
deeply fringed by a series of lengthened simple as well as forked or 
bifid teeth, while its inner edge is quite smooth. This tarsal comb 
is similar in both the male and the female, which proves its use to be 
ambulatory or adhesive and not sexual. This appendage is hyaline, 
of glassy aspect. 

Dimensions of the Legs of the Male. 





First Leg. 


Second Leg. 


Third Leg. 


Coxa 

Trochanter 

Femur 

Tibia 

Tarsus (total) 

„ 1st joint 

„ 2ud „ .. .. 

» 3rd , 

,. 4th , 

„ 5th „ .. .. 
(claws included) 


mm. 
0-42 
0-15 
1-26 
1-20 
1-275 
0-63 
0-21 
0-135 
0-12 
0-18 


mm. 
0-42 
0-15 
1-65 
1-56 
1-14 
0-57 
0-18 
0-12 
0-09 
0-18 


mm. 

0-60 

0-15 

1-65 

1-8S 

1-755 

0-90 

0-405 

0-15 

0-12 

0-18 


Total leagth of legs 


4-305 


4-920 


6-015 



B. Wings and Halteres. — The rudimentary wings are opaque, 
linear, and show a constriction at a distance equal to 1/4 of their length, 
measured from their apex. They are fringed with long hairs on their 



Description of a New Dipterous Insect. By J. Deby. 185 

lower margin, the breadth of which fringe is equal to the diameter 
of the wing. The halteres are distinct and spatulate. No traces of 
nervures are discernible on the surface of the wings. 

The total length of the wings in the males is l* 20-1 •26 mm., 
in the female • 51 mm. only. The maximum width is only * 15 mm. 
The halteres measure in the male 0'12 mm. in length. These 
abortive wings seem to be useless to the insects. 

Abdomen. — The tergites in both sexes number eight. A few 
scattered bristles occupy the dorsum of each of them and a trans- 
verse trachea, seen by transparency, runs near and parallel to their 
anterior border, curving down along each side. This is best seen by 
means of the paraboloid. The tergites of the male measure in length 
• 36 mm. each ; equal to 2 • 88 mm. for the whole length of the 
abdomen ; those of the female measure ° 45 mm ■. each in length ; 
equal to 3 • 60 mm. for the whole length of the abdomen. The 
maximum breadth of the tergites is 0*57 mm. in the male and 
• 75 mm. in the pregnant female. 

Abdominal Appendages. — $. Each branch of the powerful 
anal forceps of the male is bi-articulate ; the basal joint being 
massive and carrying long scattered bristles. The terminal joint is 
less than half as long and half as broad as the preceding one which 
supports it. The apex of this small joint is provided with a number 
of short, hard, acute teeth intermixed with which are some fine 
bristles. The apical joints articulate into the basal joints, so as to 
permit their folding back between these last, when not in use, so 
that their points are turned inwards. 

The ovipositor in the female is formed of two plates or valves 
which cover two internal styles. These protecting plates, viewed 
laterally, are somewhat lunate and rounded below, obliquely truncate 
at the apices and clothed with a very short or obsolete pubescence. 
The inclosed stylets are delicate, membraneous, and end very acutely 
at some short distance from the tip of the outer sheaths of the 
ovipositor. The length of the ovipositor is • 33 mm. 

The total length of the imago averages for the males 3 ■ 99 mm. ; 
for the females, 4-50 mm. 

The colour of the males is dark cinereous, nearly black, the feet 
and antennsB being somewhat lighter ; the females have a lurid hue, 
the abdomen when distended with eggs having a dirty yellowish or 
greenish tinge. 

The Larva. — The larva of Psamathiomya is linear, vermiform, 
and of a yellow colour. 

The apparent number of segments of the body, including the head, 
is twelve, one for the head, three for the thorax, and eight for the 
abdomen. 

The thoracic segments are shorter than the following ; the apical 
one, into which the head is retractile, being the smallest. The 
thoracic anterior inferior angles of the somites carry inconspicuous 
minute bristly tubercules, while the abdominal segments, with the 

1889. 



186 Transactions of the Society, 

exception of the first and of the anal segment, are supplied in the 
same place with prominent rounded elevations or cushions which 
infringe on the anterior edge of the preceding segment. These 
appendages carry nine to ten parallel rows of very minute dark- 
coloured teeth, giving them a resemblance to microscopical convex 
curry-combs. In front of each row of these teeth, and standing at 
some distance, one much stouter spine is visible. 

The anal segment terminates in five conical and somewhat in- 
curved fleshy appendages, one of which is ventral and much larger 
and broader than the others. This appendage carries near its apex a 
large bunch of short curved bristles, while those opposed to it bear 
several tufts of similar bristles, and the intermediate appendages are 
quite glabrous. 

The total length of this larva is 5*10 mm. The length of the 
anal segment including its appendages is • 66 mm. ; that of the three 
thoracic segments 0'66 mm., while the middle segments of the 
abdomen measure 0*45 mm. in length, by 0*90 mm. in width. 

The chinitous mandibles are distinctly visible ; they appear, as far 
as I can make them out, to be widely three-lobed or toothed, and to be 
in communication with two long internal chitinous rods, with slightly 
swollen heads, which terminate as far back as the last thoracic 
segment. 

Pupa of Male. — The pupa-case, after the imago has escaped 
through a dorsal slit in the mesonotum, shows distinctly the three 
sternal divisions of the thorax, as well as the various segments of the 
abdomen. These are eight in number, unless the anal terminal 
process is considered as a segment, in which case the abdomen has 
nine segments. 

The sheaths of the legs are quite free, bag-shaped, distinctly 
jointed, rounded at the ends. The hinder ones are convolute. Tbe 
mesonotum shows a median transverse depression. The total length 
of the pupa is 4 • 50 mm. 

As during my flying visit to Biarritz I found only one larva, and 
a single pupa, from which the perfect insect, a male, was escaping, 
my material has proved too scanty for a completely satisfactory study 
of the external metamorphoses of this insect, the further elucidation 
of which I must leave to some more successful collector, who should 
be on the hunting ground as early as March or the beginning of April, 
in order to secure the younger states of our insect. 



( 187 ) 
SUMMARY 

OF CURKENT EESEAECHES RELATING TO 

ZOOLOaY AND BOTANY 

(^principally Invertehrata and Cryptogamia), 

MICROSCOPY, &c., 

INCLUDING ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS FROM FELLOWS AND OTHERS.' 



ZOOLOGY. 

A. VERTEBRATA :— Embryolog-y, Histology, and General. 

a. Embryology, t 

Evolution of the Central Nervous System of Vertebrata.f — Prof. 
J. Bland Sutton, who has published the suggestion that the central 
canal of the nervous system may be regarded as a modified portion of 
bowel, finds support in the opinions of Dr. Gaskell. Prof. Sutton urges 
that the approximation of the edges of the archenteron of the gastrula of 
Echinus at one point would produce a thickening and divide the cavity 
into a dorsal and a ventral portion, the part below corresponding to the 
bowel or coelom, while the parts on the dorsal aspect would represent 
the medullary folds of Vertebrata. By occluding the blastopore we 
should get an arrangement of parts which would correspond in transverse 
section to what obtains in the early vertebrate embryo, and in longi- 
tudinal section with the U-shaped tube with which his hypothesis starts. 

This view tends to show that the upgrowths known as the medullary 
laminae, and the downgrowths forming somatopleure and splanchnopleure 
represent a modification or an abridgment of the invagination process so 
universal among Invertehrata. This view of the origin of the central 
canal absolutely removes the objection that its epithelium is epiblastic, 
whereas that which lines the gut is hypoblastic. In its simplest form, 
the hypoblast is that portion of the epiblast which, after invagination, 
lines the archenteron. According to this view the epithelium of the 
central canal of the nervous system from the infundibulum of the third 
ventricle to the extremity of the cord, that lining the neurenteric passage, 
as well as others, are of hypoblastic origin. 

The discovery of His that the cells which make up the medullary 
folds are not, as is usually taught, metamorphosed into nerve-cells, but 
form the sustentaculum of the nervous axis, is an important fact in 
support of the intestinal origin of the spinal cord. 

* The Society are not intended to be denoted by the editorial " we," and they do 
not hold themselves responsible for the views of the authors of the papers noted, 
nor for any claim to novelty or otherwise made by them. The object of this part of 
the Journal is to present a summary of the papers as actually published, and to 
describe and illustrate Instruments, Apparatus, &c., which are either new or have 
not been previously described in this country. 

t This section includes not only papers relating to Embryology properly so called, 
but also those dealing with Evolution, Development, and Reproduction, and allied 
subjects. X Brain, xi. (1888) pp. 336-42. 

O 2 



188 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Development of Central Nervous System of Amphibians.* — Dr. H. 
Orr finds that the central nervous system of Amphibians first appears 
as a transverse epiblastic thickening dorsal to the mouth-fusion, and con- 
tinues with paired elongated epiblastic thickenings lying dorsally on 
either side of the median line. The primary cranial flexure is due to 
the presence of this transverse epiblastic thickening or anterior medullary 
plate. When the brain is inclosed this thickening forms that part of 
the brain-wall which lies between the infundibulum and the optic 
groove. The first nerve- fibres which develope in the brain appear on 
what was originally the internal surface of the primitive epiblastic 
thickenings which run longitudinally in the dorsal region and unite 
continuously in the region of the primitive transverse thickening. A 
subsequent development of nerve-fibres gives rise to a continuous ventral 
commissure which extends through the floor of the mid- and hind- 
brain and of the spinal cord, as well as to the anterior and posterior 
commissures of the brain. The fibres of the optic nerves are intimately 
connected with and are developed in the same manner as the main bundle 
of fibres in the region of the primitive transverse epiblastic thickening. 
The mode of development of the hypophysis of Amblystoma has been 
studied, and it has been found to be intermediate between that of the 
lizard and that of the frog. 

The structure of the larval rod-like organs which Clarke called 
" balancers " in Amblystoma has been investigated, and they have been 
found to be homologous with external gills, so that we have the case of 
a homologue of the external gills being metamorphosed into an organ 
for the support of the body. It is possible that further research will 
show that the suckers on the tadpole of the frog are similar organs. 

Protandric Hermaphroditism of Myxine.t— Mr. F. Nansen finds 
that Myxine glutinosa is, ordinarily, a protandric hermaphrodite. Till 
its body is about 32 cm. long it is a male, and after that it produces ova. 
The proportions of the male and female portions of the gonad are not 
constant, but the male is generally one- third of the whole length of the 
organ. In a few cases what are called " true " males were observed, but 
they are probably transformed hermaphrodites. This strange irregularity 
in the occurrence and extent of the male and female organs seems to 
show that Myxine is an animal which, in sexual respects, is just at 
present in a transition stage ; it seems still to be seeking, without yet 
reaching, that mode of reproduction which is most profitable for it in 
the struggle for existence. 

The young testicular follicles are similar in structure to the young 
ovarian ; they contain a large sexual cell, spermatogon, which is enveloped 
by an epithelium, follicular epithelium, and a connective-tissue envelope. 
This spermatogon undergoes subdivision and becomes converted into 
spermatides which are separated from one another and swim in a fluid 
contained in the testicular capsules. The nucleus and whole cell 
gradually elongate, and, on the bursting of the testicular capsules, ripe 
spermatozoa pass into the body-cavity. Mr. Nansen does not agree with 
Mr. J. T. Cunningham's account of the form of the spermatozoa, and 
thinks that observer's specimens must have been in some way altered. 
Nearly ripe spermatozoa may be found in specimens of Myxine at all 

* Quart. Journ Micr. Sci., ssix. (1888) pp. 295-324 (3 pis.). 

t ^ereren's Museum Aaraberetning for 1887 (1888) No. 7, 34 np. (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 189 

seasons of the year; little is known as to the characters of freshly- 
deposited ova, but, from the evidence which he has been able to collect, 
the author is of opinion that ova are deposited throughout the year, and 
that there is no special breeding season. 

Maturation and Fertilization of Ovum in the Lamprey.* — Herr 
A. A. Bohm gives a more detailed account than that previously published 
of his investigations on the maturation and fertilization of the ovum of 
Petromyzon planeri. 

A. Maturation. — An account of previous observations is as usual 
prefixed. The author then follows Rathke in a description of the ovary. 
In young Ammoccetes, 5 cm. in length, the ovary is a single median sac. 
An apical portion, bent sideways, v^as the seat of formation of new ova ; 
in the main median portion all the ova were of the same stage. The 
evolution of the ovarian folds is then traced. In the last months before 
metamorphosis it was seen that all the ova were arranged in the same 
way, with the vegetative pole towards the body-cavity, and the animal 
pole (with the approximated nucleus) towards the axial blood-vessels. 

In Ammoccetes 5 cm. in length the ova exhibited a central germinal 
vesicle ; they grow continuously to the time of metamorphosis ; the yolk 
appears while the nucleus is still central. At the time of metamor- 
phosis, the ova are inclosed in a double membrane, and this by a layer 
of granulosa. The substance exhibits crystal-like yolk-granules and 
numerous " vacuoles," perhaps of connective material like that which 
sparsely unites the granules. A two-layered cortical zone and a pellucid 
central area are conspicuous. The nucleus becomes eccentric in position. 
Between it and the surface lies a peculiar disc-like mass, the lid of 
A. Miiller. This is only a transitory structure, not seen in the ovarian 
ova of mature lampreys, in which the germinal vesicle is quite superficial 
and polar. The granulosa undergoes mucous degeneration, more marked 
at the vegetative pole. In the freed ovum within the body-cavity the 
karyoplasma of the germinal vesicle expands like a cup, and forms the 
" pole-plasma." 

B. Fertilization. — The author gives a report of the results reached by 
A. Miiller, Calberla, Kupffer, and Benecke. He then proceeds to detail 
his own observations at successive periods, first of minutes, and then of 
hours after fertilization. The fresh laid egg exhibits a mucous envelope, 
and at the animal pole a hyaline cupola. This is situated on a watch- 
glass-like arch of the egg-shell, which here as elsewhere consists of an 
internal radially porous, and an external homogeneous layer. On such 
unfertilized eggs no micropyle is to be seen. Several spermatozoa enter 
at the cupola ; elsewhere the ovum is impenetrable. Within the cupola 
the spermatozoa are to be seen, which steer towai'ds the centre of the 
ovum. Only one, however, penetrates. But, before the spermatozoa have 
touched the egg-membrane, a constriction is formed at the margin of the 
watch-glass-like elevation, the pole-plasma separates from the membrane, 
and forms in so doing a space traversed by numerous thin threads. Even 
this several spermatozoa may reach, but get no further. 

During the further retraction of the ovum, in the region of the pole- 
plasma, the above-mentioned threads and a thicker axial strand are 
withdrawn into the main mass, which has meanwhile assumed a spherical 
form. At the same time the first polar body is extruded. The yolk- 

* Aicb. f. Mikr. Anat.. xxxii. (1888). pp. 613-70 (2 pis.)- 



190 SUMMAEY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

membrane is formed round tLe entire egg, and the main mass of the 
pole-plasma surrounds itself internally with an undulating membrane 
at the contact surface with the yolk. Within the pole-plasma one then 
finds the spermatozoon and the provisional female pronucleus. Their 
position is not fixed, for the plasma is very mobile. Some time after the 
retraction of the axial strand the apical knob is raised towards the watch- 
glass-like arch, comes in contact with its inner surface, receives particles 
from the already-mentioned imprisoned or impeded spermatozoa, and is 
retracted into the main mass. The second polar body is formed ; the 
fi.nal female pronucleus remains ; and the sperm takes up a definite 
position in relation to it. 

A quarter of an hour after fertilization both elements begin to change. 
The female pronucleus becomes pale, diffuse, and rather larger. The 
sperm-head breaks up into spherical, connected, linearly disposed ele- 
ments. The formation of an associated " sun-figure " is described. The 
" spermatomerites " come into contact with the female nucleus, which 
takes or has taken the form of a group of spherical " ovomerites." The 
two sets of elements come into intimate contact, undergo binary division 
into smaller and smaller portions, but do not fuse. Each merite consists 
of a body and one or two granules or microsomata. At the end of the 
third hour the bodies of the merites fuse, the segmentation nucleus is 
formed, and the undulating membrane of the pole-plasma dissolves. 

The microsomata, which become free when the merites fuse, arrange 
themselves in short chains. They become grouped in an axial plate. 
The central mass of the sun probably falls into two masses with two 
suns, disposed at opposite poles in relation to the plate. Spindle strands 
appear, the short chains of the plate curve into loops, and a metaphasis 
sets in. After the formation of daughter-nuclei the pole-plasma begins 
to constrict in the axis of ovum. The author concludes his memoir with 
a comparison between his results and those of other investigators of 
fertilization. 

Observations on Human Spermatozoa.* — Mr. E. M. Nelson gives 
an account of some observations on the human spermatozoon. He thinks 
that the head or spore, as he calls it, has not been correctly figured 
hitherto. Its outline is oviform, the part towards the tail being the 
small end, but in all drawings which he has met with, the reverse of this 
is represented. The spore fits into a cup, and the edge of this can be 
distinctly seen both in front and side views, though the outline of the 
head has always been represented as unbroken. At the bottom of the 
cup there is what Mr. Nelson calls the calyx ; this is exceedingly 
variable. Between the cup and the tail proper there is the stem, which 
varies in thickness ; then there is the break which the author calls the 
joint ; the tail is fairly constant in thickness and length. On the spore 
there is a process which it is proposed to call the filament, and not the 
flagellum (though it is like one), inasmuch as it is regarded as a director, 
or kind of antenna for the purpose of guiding the spore into an aperture 
in the ovum. As many as four nuclei have been observed in the spore 
of a human spermatozoon, but, though Mr. Nelson does not say so, this 
must be a very abnormal case. 

Epithelial Glands in Batrachian Larvse.f — Prof. F. E. Schulze 
reports an interesting histological discovery made by him, while ex- 

* Journ. Quek. Mikr. Olub, iii. (1889) pp. 310-4 (1 pi.). 

t Biol. Centralbl., viii. (18S8) pp. 580-2 ; Abh. K. Preuss. Akad. Berlin, 1888, 
pp. 46-9. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MIOROSCOPY, ETC. 191 

amining the larvae of Pelohates fuscus. He found in the posterior region 
of the roof of the pharyngeal Civity (from ceratohyal to cesophagus), a 
highly developed system of multicellular glands differing from all other 
known multicellular glands of vertebrate animals in that they are not 
imbedded in the connective-tissue layer, but are entirely limited to the 
epithelium, which at that point is fourfold. Each gland is in shape like 
a more or less broad, round pumpkin flattened in the main axis. The 
flattened basal surface is seated on the connective-tissue layer, while the 
upper surface reaches to the surface of the epithelium. The cells which 
form the glands consist of longitudinally extended prisms closely 
pressed together. The glands form a belt of about 2 mm. in breadth. 
At the edges of this belt they are comparatively far apart, but in the 
middle they stand so close together that their edges touch. 

Factors in the Evolution of Cave Animals.* — Prof. A. S. Packard, 
in the advance sheets of an essay on the cave animals of North America, 
contends that the phrase " Natural Selection " expresses rather the 
result of a series of causes than a vei-a causa in itself; and that the 
constant use of such a phrase tends to obscure vision, and to prevent the 
discovery, by observation and experiment, of the tangible, genuine, 
efficient factors of organic evolution. He enumerates the following as 
the most important and potent factors in the evolution of cave animals : — 
(1) Change in environment from light, even partial, to twilight or total 
darkness, involving diminution of food, and compensating for the loss of 
certain organs by the hypertrophy of others. (2) Disuse of certain 
organs. (3) Adaptation, enabling the more plastic forms to survive and 
perpetuate their stock. (4) Isolation, preventing intercrossing with out- 
of-door forms, thus insuring the permanence of the new varieties, species, 
or genera. (5) Heredity, operating to secure the permanence of the 
newly originated forms, as long as the physical conditions remain the 
same. Prof. Packard gives illustrations of the action of these factors, 
citing facts both new and old, and argues on behalf of what he calls 
" Neo-Lamarckism." 

/3. Histoloffy-t 

Division of Red Blood-corpuscles in Amphibia.^ — Dr. L. Torok has 
investigated the phenomena of cell-division in the red blood-corpuscles 
of Amphibians {Salamandra maculata), in regard to which Flemming and 
others had previously noticed certain deviations from the normal type. 
In the resting stage the chromatin is present in relatively greater 
abundance and denser disposition than in the resting nuclei of other 
kinds of cells. The large size of the subsequent nuclear figures is inter- 
preted as due partly to the dissolution of the filaments and strands from 
their previously close arrangement, partly to a change of the chromatin 
into a less dense state. The processes of division are described in detail 
— the formation of the close coil, of the loose coil, of the loops and the 
aster ; the longitudinal division of the filaments in the loose coil and 
star-figure, or even in the first stage ; the disappearance of the nuclear 
membrane in the loose coil and the consequent mingling of cell-proto- 

* Amer. Natural.. 1888, pp. 808-21, 

t TLis section is limited to papers relating to Cells and Fibres. 

i Arch. f. Mikr. Anal., xxxii. (1888) pp. 603-13 (1 pi.). 



192 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

plasm and enlarged nucleus. The metakinesis is very brief, and few 
observations of this phase were made ; except that the loops extend 
almost over the entire cell, the process seems typical enough. The 
regular barrel form of the separate nuclei, the daughter- asters and coils, 
and the like, are followed out. 

7- General. 

Adelphotaxy.* — Prof. M. M. Hartog has a note on an undescribed form 
of irritability, which he calls adelphotaxy. It may be defined as con- 
sisting in the tendency of spontaneously mobile cells to assume definite 
positions with regard to their fellows. In AcMya the zoospores lie in 
the sporange before liberation closely appressed together, with their long 
axes parallel ; on liberation, they do not separate and swim off each on 
its own account, but remain near the mouth of the sporange. They there 
form a hollow sphere, each zoospore rotating round its long axis before 
encysting in its place. The only explanation of these phenomena is 
that the zoospores are endowed with a peculiar irritability, in virtue of 
which they tend to place themselves close together side by side, with 
their long axes parallel. 

Though rare in the Vegetable Kingdom, two good instances occur in 
the Chlorophytes, in Pediastrum and Hydrodictyon ; possibly the forma- 
tion of Plasmodia is a mode of adelphotaxy. The principle appears to 
afford a ready explanation of many cases of cellular aggregations in the 
animal embryo, and the formation of the spermatophores of many 
animals. 

Functions and Homologies of Contractile Vacuole in Plants and 
Animals.f — Prof. M. M. Hartog has a preliminary note on the contractile 
vacuole. He finds that all naked protoplasmic bodies living in fresh 
water have at least one contractile vacuole ; the possession of this is 
quite independent of the systematic position of the organism, and of the 
presence of chlorophyll, The vacuole loses its contractility on the 
formation of a strong cell-wall or cyst, and may even disappeai'. It is 
absent from Opalina, Gregarinida, and the Eadiolaria which inhabit 
saline liquids. "When, owing to morbid conditions, the efficiency of the 
contractile vacuole is impaired, excessive vacuolation and diflfluence 
ensue. Conversely, as soon as contractile vacuoles appear, the tendency 
to excessive vacuolation and diffluence is arrested. Prof. Hartog 
suggests that the perforation of the nephridial cells in Vermes and 
embryonic Molluscs, and of the ej)iblastic gland-cells of Vermes and 
Arthropods are due to persistence of the contractile vacuole, the opening 
of which has become permanent. 

Annelidan Affinities in Ontogeny of Vertebrate Nervous System.:]: 
— Dr. J. Beard gives an account of some observations on the develop- 
ment of the central nervous system of a lizard. He points out that the 
cranial and spinal ganglia do not arise as outgrowths of the central 
nervous system, but from epiblasts outside and beyond its limits ; this 
is just what happens with the parapodial ganglia of Annelids. Dr. Beard 
thinks he has discovered evidence of the bilateral origin of the central 
nervous system, for the two bands of neuro-epithelium are separated 

* Ann. and Jlag. Nat. Hist., iii. (1889) pp. 66-7. t Ibid., pp. 64-6, 

% Nature, xxxix, (1889) pp. 259-61. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 193 

from one another by a ciliated groove, and this, too, is found in Anne- 
lids ; it is this ciliated groove which by the growth and increase of its 
elements forms most, if not all, of the ciliated epithelium of the 
permanent central canal. 

Other points which favour the annelidan affinities of the Vertebrates 
are the formation of the notochord and swimming bladder, the lateral 
sense-organs, the characters of the nephridial system, and the agreement 
between the development of the hypophysis cerebri of Vertebrates and the 
development of the permanent oesophagus and its special nervous system 
in Annelids. 

The Modern Cell-Theory.*— Prof. J. G. M'Kendrick traces the de- 
velopment of the modern cell-theory through a long series of classical 
investigations. The constitution and role of the nucleus and the phe- 
nomena of division are discussed, while notice is taken of recent progress 
concerning oogenesis, spermatogenesis, and fertilization. The bearing of 
recent researches on the problems of heredity is then emphasized, and 
several formidable objections are urged against Weismann's position 
relative to acquired characters. 

B. INVERTEBRATA. 

Transversely Striated Muscular Fibre.t — Prof. A. Kolliker, in view 
of the, as he thinks, erroneous teaching lately promulgated by A. v. 
Gehuchten and Eamon y Cajal, gives an account of his own long con- 
tinued observations on the structure of transversely striated muscular 
fibre. The chief object of his investigations have been the fibrillar 
wing-muscles of Insects : these are not found in all flying insects ; they 
all consist essentially of two constituents, muscular fibrils and an inter- 
mediate substance — sarcoplasm ; the fibrils are from 1-4 /jl broad, are 
contractile along their whole length, and in a state of contraction, all 
the parts are doubly refractive. When the fibres are at work there is an 
active chemical action, and the rapidity of contraction in insects' fibres 
may be ascribed to the large supply of tracheae. The chief seat of this 
activity is the sarcoplasm, as the large quantity present and the fat- 
molecules which are found in it are sufficient to show ; it is not to be 
supposed, however, that the substance of the fibrils is not also ener- 
getically changed. There is no coagulation of an albuminoid body 
during contraction. If these views are correct it may further be 
supposed that the fibrils consist of typically formed particles (the dis- 
diaklasts of Briicke), the arrangement of which is the cause of isotropy 
or of anisotropy, and which, during contraction, undergo changes of 
position and form, the causes of which are to be found in electrical or as 
yet unknown chemical processes. 

Number of Polar Bodies.! — Prof. A. Weismann replies at length to 
an attack made upon him by Prof. Blochmann, in reference to the dis- 
covery of the fact that only one polar body is formed in parthenogenetic 
ova. The question is one both of priority and of accuracy of statement, 
in regard to both of which Weismann more than vindicates himself. 

* Proc. Phil. Soc. Glasgow, xix. (1888) pp. 71-125. 

+ Zeitsohr. f. AViss. Zool., xlvii. (1888) pp. G89-710 (2 pis,). 

X Morpliol. Jahrb., siv. (1888) pp. 490-506. 



194 SUMMARY OF GURliENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Irish Marine Fauna.* — In the second report of the Dredging Com- 
mittee of the Eoyal Irish Academy, Prof. A. C. Haddon gives a general 
account of the forms observed. The erect variety of Epizoanthus 
papillosus with a Pagurus was taken ; this form has the remarkable 
power of dissolving away the hard molluscan shell, and replacing it with 
its own sand-impregnated tissues ; in this way the shelter of the Pagurid 
is formed entirely by the Actinian, and as it grows with the growth of 
the hermit-crab, Paguri associated with EpizoantJius have not to seek a 
fresh home after each moult. Strongylocentrotus lividus was found in 
Lough Hyne merely resting on the rock ; it is probably on account of 
their sheltered position that these specimens had not made " nests " for 
themselves, as do specimens found on the exposed coasts of Clare and 
Kerry. Ninety-two specimens of Pontaster tenuispinus and ten of 
Brisinga endacnemos were obtained. Holothuria tremula was dredged not 
far from the coast. A fine addition to our fanna is Chitonactis richardi, 
of Marion, first found in deep water in the Bay of Biscay. This is a 
very useful report to those who are interested in the fauna of our seas. 

Marine Invertebrates of Bermuda Islands.j — Prof. A. Heilprin 
gives a list of species collected within a depth of 16 fathoms in the 
lagoons of the Bermuda Islands. Although the Actinozoa were numerous 
the common genus Madrepora appears to be absent ; the largest specimen 
of " brain-coral " obtained had a diameter of 28 in. ; one was seen which 
was four feet in diameter, but efforts to dislodge it were unsuccessful. 
Of the Echinodermata four novelties were found among the Holothurians, 
viz. Holothuria ahhreviata, SticJiopus diaboli, S. xanthomela, and Sempieria 
Bermudensis. Pacific and old-world types were recognized both among 
the Crustacea and the Mollusca ; of the former no new species are 
recorded, though the list of species now given is much longer than any 
of its predecessors ; more than one hundred species of Mollusca were 
obtained, and among these Octopus chromatus, Aplysia sequorea, Chromo- 
doris zebra, and Onchidium (^Onchidiella) transatlanticum appear to be 
new. 

Zoology of Victoria. J — The seventeenth decade of Prof. F. M'Coy's 
Prodromus contains further descriptions and figures of Polyzoa by Mr. 
M'Gillivray; thirteen species of Cellepora are now described. The 
author considers that the holostomatous and schizostomatous divisions of 
Cellepora are of generic value, and he retains the name of Cellepora for 
the former, and proposes that of Schismopora for the latter ; nine of the 
species appear to be new. A new genus of Squid — Ommastrephes 
Gouldi — is described by Prof. M'Coy; it appears to be most closely 
allied to 0. equipeda Kuppell, 

Mollusca. 
/3. Pteropoda- 

Morphology of Pteropods.§ — Prof. C. Grobben writes in regard to a 
passage from one of his papers, which has been misunderstood by Boas 
and Pelseneer. By " Riickdrehung " he meant the movement of the 
visceral sac on the dorso-ventral axis, not an " AufroUung " or untwist- 

* Proc. E. Irish Acad., i. (1888) pp. 29-56. 

t Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1888, pp. 302-28. 

X ' Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria,' xvii. (1888). 

§ Arbeit. Zool. Inst. Uiiiv. Wien (Glaus), viii. (1888) pp. 155-7. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MIOBOSCOPY, ETC. 195 

ing. The Pteropods are now regarded as Gastropods; in this Fol, 
Spengel, and Grobben, who refer them to the Euthyneura, as well as 
Boas and Pelseneer, who rank them with Opisthobranchiata, agree with 
the older views of Souleyet and de Blainville, who placed the Pteropods 
beside Bulla, Gastropteron, and Aplysia. They are Gastropods modified 
for pelagic life, and on such an understanding their peculiarities are to be 
interpreted. The protopodium of Pteropods is the sole of the Gastropod 
foot, not only morphologically, but also in function, as Souleyet pointed 
out for Pneumodermon. The epipodia are paired derivatives of the 
protopodium, as Grobben has previously mentioned in regard to the 
pterygopodium of Heteropods. In a certain sense they may be termed 
new structures. 

y. Gastropoda. 

Generative Apparatus of Lymnseus.*— Dr. J. Klotz supports 
Brock and Eouzaud in the statement that the generative apparatus of 
the Pulmonata begins to be developed before the escape of the embryo. 
The penis is developed independently at the hinder margin of the 
tentacle, and is an ectodermal invagination which is hollow, and not 
solid, as stated by Eisig. There is no " migration ontogenique " of the 
penis, as supposed by Eouzaud, in Lymnaeus ; further investigations 
must show whether, in other Basommatophora, the penis is to be regarded 
as a diverticulum of the female efferent duct. Both uterus and prostate 
are at first hollow, and, apparently, mesodermal in origin. The 
cylindrical portion of the vas deferens forms a secondary connection 
between the penis and the uterine prostatic portions ; there is no rudi- 
mentary male duct in the sense of Brock. The hermaphrodite gland has 
an independent mesodermal origin, as Eisig and Brock have correctly 
stated ; Eouzaud was wrong in affirming it to be ectodermal. The 
general statement of previous writers that the uterus and prostate are 
separated only by the ingrowth of a fold into the common duct is 
correct ; a further dorsal fold in the prostate is the cause of the forma- 
tion of the pyriform body. The receptaculum seminis is formed by a 
further fission of the uterus. By a fold similar to that of the prostate 
the small tube at the proximal part of the rudiment of the penis is 
formed. The albumen-gland is an evagination of the oviduct. The 
folds in the uterus appear very early, and the glandular cells in it are, 
in the Basommatophora, only epithelial cells, but those of the prostate 
are not so, and they are difibrently arranged to those in the uterus. The 
glandular cells of the albumen-gland are likewise epithelial, but they 
do not, as Semper supposed, lie freely in the follicles, for they are 
connected with an efferent duct. Folds similar to those of the uterus 
are found in the receptaculum, but are not so numerous. The small 
tube is separated peripherally from the copulatory organ, and can be 
completely invaginated. In a large number of points the author agrees 
with Brock and Eouzaud, and in an almost larger number he contra- 
dicts Eisig. 

Anatomy of Aplysia.!— M. E- Saint-Loup has some anatomical 
notes on a form of Aplysia fasciata, which is smaller, more active, and 
more highly coloured than ordinary examples. He finds that its 

* Jenaische Zeitschr. f. Naturwiss., xxiii. (1888) pp. 1-40 (2 pis.). 
t Comptea Eendus, evil. (1888) pp. 1010-12, 



196 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

" hermaphrodite gland " contained only spermatozoa, but the author is 
not certain whether this is a case of protandry or of separate sexes. 
Herr KoUmann has erroneously stated that the arterial system of 
Aplysia is completely closed, for the capillaries were found to communi- 
cate with intermuscular lacunae or with the general cavity. The purple- 
gland plays a very active part in the depuration of the blood and in the 
elimination of substances which are hurtful to the animal ; if methylen- 
blue be injected into a living specimen the glandular capsules of the 
gland will be found gorged with this substance. 

The Heteropod Eye.* — In the second of a series of papers on the 
comparative anatomy of visual organs, Prof. H. Grenacher describes the 
eye of Heteropoda, and specially that of Pterotrachea coronata Forsk. 
He sums up his conclusions as follows : — 

(1) The retina of the Heteropoda, like that of the Cephalopoda, is 
not to be considered as made up of histologically distinct layers. It 
consists of a single layer of cells, whose individual elements are made 
up of nucleus-bearing portions, rod-sockets, and rods. The first named 
lie outside, both the others inside a thin limiting membrane. 

(2) The striated or fibrillated contents of the nucleus-bearing 
portions of the retina cell cannot be referred, with any sufficient ground, 
to a disruption into nerve-fibres ; rather are the striations related to 
the formation of the so-called radiculae, which, as root-like processes, 
seem destined to fix the retina cells to the cuticle. 

(3) The rod-sockets, also finely striated, are segaents of varying 
length, which is determined by the height of their point of insertion 
in the rods above the bounding-membrane. 

(4) The rods must be considered as compound structures, since a 
number of socket-parts are in connection with each of them, and indeed 
because each rod owes its origin to a number of retinal cells. This 
is also the case in the rhabdoms of the Arthropoda and Cephalopoda ; 
but while the components of a rhabdom are placed side by side, they are 
here in rows over one another, one end free, the other uniting with the 
corresponding socket-parts. Their transverse striation, contrary to 
M. Schultze's statement, is due to a relatively simple lamellar texture. 

(5) The rods are arranged in longitudinal rows (of which there are 
six in Pterotrachea) which extend over the retina in nearly parallel 
courses. 

(6) The retina is traversed by a cleft to the whole depth of the 
rows of rods, running parallel to them, and separating them into dorsal 
and ventral halves. In the dorsal half are two, in the ventral four 
rows. The dorsal rows have their free side ventral, the ventral rows 
are free dorsally. 

(7) The retina is innervated from a layer of nerve-fibres which run 
between or under the basal ends of the retinal cells. They run to that 
part of the retinal cells where these split up into radiculae, and there 
unite with them. There is no ground for supposing that the nerve-fibres 
pass into the retinal cells on the analogy of the Cephalopoda. Besides 
the nerve-fibres, in the dorsal half, there are small ganglionic cells. 

(8) The structureless limiting membrane which extends between 
the free ends of the rods and the vitreous body gives off", on the side 
next the rods, rows of fine fibres which insinuate themselves between the 

* Abh. Nat. GeBell. Halle, xvii. (188S) pp. 1-64 (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 197 

rods. They are most probably united with the cellular elements which 
lie between the nucleus-bearing portions of the retina cells, and whose 
distribution, in the ventral half at least of the retina, exactly resembles 
that of the fibres. These cells are probably, as in the Cephalopoda, 
the material for the formation of the fibres, and also for the limiting- 
membrane itself. A further net of circular fibres arises apparently from 
cellular elements which lie in the retinal cleft. 

(9) The nervous layer of the retina extends over this, out into the 
pigmented epithelium of the so-called costal region, where it can be 
followed with gradual diminutions to certain areas marked by epithelial 
projections. On the ventral side of the eye, the fibres can he traced to 
large cells surrounded by the pigment-epithelium. This points to an 
analogous condition on the dorsal side, where the said cells are smaller, 
but there the point cannot be settled. Whether it can be shown that 
these cells are of secretory function, it is impossible to determine. 
The relations of the Heteropod eye to the visual organs of the other 
Gephalophora, and the general morphology of the latter are then 
discussed. 

Entocolax Ludwigii, Parasitic in a Holothurian.* — Dr. W. Voigt 
gives an account of a remarkable Mollusc found by Prof. Ludwig living 
parasitically on Myriotrochus Rinkii ; the specimen which carried the 
parasite was collected in Behring's Sea. It belongs, in the author's 
opinion, to the group of Prosobranchiate MoUusca, of which it must form 
the representative of a special suborder to be called Cochhsyringia, 
These may be defined as endoparasitic Gastropods which, when adult, 
have the form of an acephalous naked tube, which by means of its knoblike 
anterior end, penetrates into the body-wall of its host. At the tip of 
the anterior end there is an orifice which leads into the oral invagina- 
tion. This has neither jaws nor radula. There are no circulatory or 
respiratory organs. The female gonads have a rudimentary efferent 
duct, and a well-developed receptaculum seminis ; the ova are evacuated 
by tearing the wall of the ovary. The female of Entocolax is as yet 
alone known ; its body is 1 cm. long, tubular, narrower behind than in 
front ; for a short distance behind its anterior end it forms a large sphere 
3 mm. thick, which contains the ova. 

Moutk-parts of Ancylus fluviatilis and Velletia lacustris.f — Herr 
J. Ulicny describes the jaw and radula of the above forms. The jaw of 
Ancylus is a deep arch formed of about 100 plates, which are somewhat 
rectangular, and have their long axis directed towards the mouth of the 
arch. Their surface is granular, and they are fringed at the lower end. 
The centre of the arch and its extremities have only one row of plates, 
but in the middle of each side they are six or seven irregular rows 
thick. 

In the jaw of Velletia, there are about 60 plates pointed at each end, 
i. e. somewhat lancet-shaped, and finely striated. They form a single 
row still more deeply arched than in Ancylus. No one plate can be 
said to have a central position. At the sides they lie pointing down- 
wards and outwards, thus touching one another laterally only. 

The radula in Ancylus is composed of some 140 transverse rows of 
teeth, curved so as to be convex backwards. The central tooth is 

* Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Zool., xlvii. (1888) pp. 658-88 (3 pis.), 
t Verb. Nat. Ver. Brunn, xxvi. (1888) pp. 120-4. 



198 SUMMAEY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

symmetrical about itself, and on each side of it are from 25 to 32 teeth, 
so that there are in all 51 to 65 longitudinal rows. 

In Velletia the radula has some 84 transverse rows of teeth. The 
well -developed central tooth is smaller than in Ancylus; 11 to 13 teeth 
lie on each side of it, and outside these come 4 to 7 little plates, the row 
thus containing 35 to 37 pieces. Comparing these with the mouth- 
organs of other members of the family, Herr Ulicny concludes that a 
natural classification demands the breaking up of the family Limnseidae 
into several independent families. 

8. Lamellibrancliiata. 

Edge of Mantle of Acephala.* — Dr. B. Rawitz deals, in his first 
account of the mantle of acephalous Lamellibranchs, with the Ostreacea. 
In Anomia epJiippium the margin forms a thickening of the mantle which 
is best developed in the middle, and gradually passes to a simple ridge 
at the edges. The left margin of the mantle is feebler than the right ; 
its inner surface is generally flat, and has only rarely an elongated 
brownish swelling which is always at some distance from the edge ; the 
inner surface of the right half has a rounded swelling of the tissue 
which, though varying with the age of the animal, is always better 
developed than that of the left. Both edges are beset with several rows 
of conical papillse or tentacles, of which the innermost are the longest 
and the outermost the shortest. This arrangement obtains also in Ostrea, 
Lima, Spondylus, and Peden. 

The edge of the mantle of Ostrea edulis is pigmented at the centre of 
its curve, but is free of pigment on the dorsal and ventral sides of the 
animal. As in Anomia the two halves of the mantle are separate along 
their whole extent ; macroscopically, these two halves are exactly 
similar. 

In Lima the tentacles are all marginal in position ; the mantle- valve 
is extraordinarily long, as is, in the Spondylidas and Pectinidse, the 
valve which hangs down inwardly ; in the latter, however, its free 
margin may carry several rows of short tentacles. 

The nerves which supply the mantle and its edge, arise from the 
cerebral and visceral ganglia. Each of the former gives off one nerve, 
the nervus pallialis anterior ; it divides dichotomously into two branches 
which fork and end in very fine branches in the substance of the margin ; 
it is principally supplied to the anterior fourth. The median pallial 
nerve arises as a strong trunk from the visceral ganglion, and has at first 
a direction perpendicular to the long axis of the animal ; at the margin 
it divides into two equal branches which diverge and supply a large part 
of the edge with finer branches. The hinder pallial nerve is relatively 
delicate, and divides into three fine branches which supply the greater 
part of the hinder fourth of the margin. The finest branches of this 
nerve supply pass into a nervus pallialis circularis. 

The differences in the minute structure of the mantle and its margin 
in the five families of Ostreacea which were examined are so great that 
the author describes each separately ; this he does in greater detail than 
we are able to follow him. But some points of interest may be noted. 

In the Anomiidse the epithelia which cover the marginal tentacles 
in several rows are sensory or indifferent ; the latter may or may not be 

* Jenaische Zeitschr. f. Naturwiss., sxli. (1888) pp. 415-556 (6 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY. ETC. 199 

pigmented ; there are noticeable differences between the epithelia of the 
right and left margins. The sensory cells are very delicate, and there 
are two kinds of them. Some are like the typical forms described by 
Flemming, and have a capitulum which is only very rarely distinctly 
marked off, and which is covered by stiff hairs ; the long neck has a 
basal spindle-shaped swelling which contains the nucleus ; the nerve- 
fibre which enters the cell is not in direct contact with the nucleus. 
The second kind of sensory cell is represented by delicate structures 
having nearly the form of an equilateral triangle ; the base carries the 
cilia, while the tip is continued into a varicose terminal nerve-fibre. 

The left mantle margin is beset with five rows of tentacles ; those of 
all but the fourth row are simple, and those of the fourth are branched ; 
they are all pigmented, but the pigment is distributed irregularly; each 
of these rows are separately considered, as are those of the right side. 
While the musculature of the true mantle is exclusively longitudinal, 
the tentacles have longitudinal, transverse, and circular muscles ; all 
these kinds have numerous small nuclei, which stain intensely. 

The connective substance of the two halves of mantle which contain 
the already mentioned swellings has a peculiar structure. In its meshes 
there is a mass which, like that seen in the tentacles, does not appear to 
be connected with definite histological elements. It is in some parts so 
well developed as to completely obscure the other constituents of the 
mantle-substance ; mucous cells are found in the amorphous mass. It 
is possible that we have here to do with mucous cells, the substance of 
which has passed into an amorphous mass. 

In the Ostreidae the circular nerve of the mantle lies closer to the 
outer than the inner surface, and has a ganglionic cortex and nerve- 
fibres ; it is surrounded by a delicate covering, which accompanies the 
branches that pass into and occupy the axis of the tentacles. There 
are two kinds of goblet-cells in the connective substance, and they are 
present in large numbers. Their secretion appears to be protective. 
The author is of opinion that Eyder's observations quoted by Sharp do 
not serve to prove that Oysters are sensitive to light ; they are quite 
blind, and their pigment-cells are indifferent structures. 

In the EadulidsB, of which Lima Mans and L. infiata are taken as the 
types, Dr. Eawitz has already reported the presence of two forms of 
marginal tentacles, which may be distinguished as sensory and glandular 
filaments ; the differences in the microscopic structure of these are fully 
described. There are three kinds of unicellular glands, all of which 
agree in wanting a true cell-membrane. The secretion of the glandu- 
lar filaments is, no doubt, of use in forming the nest of Lima, which 
consists of various inorganic particles and remains of organic structures 
held together by very delicate filaments. The great quantity of secre- 
tion suggests that it has also some other function, and it may be that it 
is a kind of defensive apparatus. 

In the Pectinidse and Spondylidse the edge of the mantle has 
an extraordinary number of tentacles which are arranged in several 
rows ; these vary in various species ; the innermost tentacles are the 
longest. Pigment is found associated with indifferent epithelial cells, 
and is so intensely developed in Spondylus as to render the investi- 
gation of the minute structure exceedingly difficult. The several species 
examined are discussed in great detail. 

In conclusion, the author gives an account of his examination of the 



200 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

eyes of the Pectinida, which he prefaces by a critical and historical 
notice of the works of his predecessors. The smaller species have more 
eyes on the mantle than have the large. These eyes are placed on 
stalks, the substance of which is a direct continuation of that of the 
edge of the mantle, and is covered by epithelial cells which vary in form 
in different regions. The stalk, which varies in length, is generally 
cylindrical in form ; the fibrils, of which its connective substance is 
formed, are less numerous, and the meshes are larger than in the tactile 
filaments on the edge of tlae mantle, and the whole tissue has a more 
homogeneous appearance. Patten was right in asserting the presence of 
vascular lumina ; there are also muscles, but these are not formed, as 
Patten declares, of elongated spindle-shaped cells, but they form long 
multinuclear cords, the cellular components of which are closely packed 
against one another ; the whole forms a contractile subepithelial tube. 
The ciliaris of Patten does not appear to exist, that observer having 
mistaken connective-tissue fibrils for muscular fibres. 

The epithelium of the optic stalk is flat or low, but becomes higher 
at about the equator of the organ ; here the cells contain pigment which 
varies in colour in various species. Hensen was quite right in objecting 
to the term choroid being applied to the pigment-mantle, for it is the 
vascularization and not the pigmentation which is the characteristic of 
the choroid. The pellucida of Hensen or cornea of most authors has an 
outer layer which is formed on one of three types; it is succeeded by 
an inner layer which is a direct continuation of the connective substance 
of the stalk. 

The true optic organ consists of two parts which differ from one 
another in structure and formation ; the distal portion is the dioptric, 
the proximal that which perceives the light. Biitschli was wrong in 
doubting the existence of the septum which Krohn discovered to separate 
these two regions. The dioptric apparatus is formed by the lens ; this 
is biconvex in form, and its greater diameter is along the lateral axis of 
the eyeballs. It consists of numerous cells, which are generally poly- 
hedral in form ; the plasma of these is thick and granular and stains 
very intensely, especially with eosin ; the nucleus is generally present, 
and small ; these cells have no investing membrane, but present a 
distinct contour after treatment with corrosive sublimate. The author 
cannot agree with Patten in the latter's statement that the lens is 
invested by a membrane. 

The proximal part of the eye consists of three layers — retina, 
tapetum, and pigment-membrane. In the retina there are again three 
layers, which can be seen in longitudinal sections, which lie in the 
following order proximally to the septum : layer of ganglion-cells, layer 
of rod-cells, and layer of rods ; these are described in detail, and the 
differences between the author's results and those of preceding writers 
carefully pointed out. The innervation of the eye is also discussed. 

An explanation of the morphological difficulty that the rods of the 
eye of Pecten are turned away from the light, has been attempted by 
Biitschli, who ascribes the difference from the eye of other Molluscs to 
the different mode of development of the lens ; in Vertebrates and in 
Pecten it is formed outside the optic vesicle, but in other Molluscs 
within the eye. If, however, the eyes of Pecten are not, as Patten says, 
homologous but only analogous with those of other Molluscs, the eye of 
Pecten will remain a histological and morphological unique. 



zoOLoar and botany, microscopy, etc. 201 

Another problem is offered by tbe multiplicatiou of tbe eyes in the 
Pectinidte. Patten's explanation is altogether rejected, and a kind of 
mosaic theory is suggested. The aberrant structure is due to the special 
conditions of life of these Lamellibranchs, for the only free surface on 
which eyes can be developed is the edge of the mantle, 

Nervous Elements of Adductor Muscles of Lamellibranchs.* — 
Signer E. Galeazzi has investigated the nervous element of the adductor 
muscles of Mytilus edulis and of Ostrea. He finds that these muscles 
are very rich in nerve-fibres and ganglion-cells. The former give rise 
to a very fine reticulum in the muscle ; the terminal nerve-fibrils are 
united to the nucleus of the fibre-cell, or rather with its protoplasmic 
nuclear prolongations. He is of opinion that all the muscular fibres may 
have a nerve-fibre, and he cannot agree with those who think that it is 
absolutely impossible for every muscular fibre to have a nerve. The 
large number of ganglionic cells in the connective tissue between the 
muscular bundles leads us to admit the presence of certain automatic 
nervous centres in the muscle itself; the presence of these would 
explain the considerable power possessed by the adductor muscles. 

Swelling of Foot of Solenpellucidus-t — Herr K. Mobius states that 
if young (1-2 cm. long) examples of Solen pellucidus be magnified from 
twenty to thirty times they may be seen to suddenly protrude their foot 
and to swell it out. "While this is being done fluid may be seen to pass 
from the basal parts to the free end, and this can be nothing but blood 
which comes from the pallial reservoirs. 

MoUuscoida. 
j3. Bryozoa. 

Stalked Bryozoon.| — Mr. J. Walter Fewkes gives the name of 
Ascorhiza occidentalis to a new Bryozoon found at Sauta Barbara. It is 
remarkable for having the zoarium massed into a spherical or oval 
capitulum, which is mounted on a jointed stem ; the latter is flexible 
and highly sensitive to the touch. It is about an inch in height, and is 
of a uniform brownish red, the colour closely approximating to that of 
the giant kelp (Macrocystis), with which it was found associating. It 
has a carnose body which recalls that of Alcyonidium ; it differs from the 
entoproetous genera in its colonial form, though its stem closely 
resembles that of Urnatella, with which it is probably homologous. It 
also has some likeness to Busk's genus Ascopodaria, in which there is a 
barrel-shaped body at the base of the peduncle. The structure of this 
form is possibly to be explained by regarding it as a Ctenostomatous 
form allied to Alcyonidium, but with a stem. If this be so, the new 
genus presents characters of both the great divisions of the Byozoa, but 
a new family will have to be formed for it. Sufficient knowledge of the 
polypide has not yet been obtained for us to say whether it is cteno- 
stomatous or cheilostomatous. 

* Arch. Iti>L Biol. x. (1888) pp. 388-93 (1 pi.). 

t SB. Gesell. Naturf. Freunde, 1888, p. 34. 

X Anu. and Mug. Nat. Hist., iii. (ISSit) pp. 1-6 (1 pi.). 



1889. 



202 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

7. Brachiopoda. 

Recent Brachiopoda.* — The late Dr. T. Davidson's monograph of 
recent Brachiopoda is now completed. The two groups Arthropomata 
and Lyopomata each contain three families ; the former, which has the 
greater number of species, is divided into the Terehratulidse, in wliich a 
number of subfamilies are recognized, the Thecidiidse, and the Ebyn- 
chonellidse ; and there are in all seventeen genera or subgenera. The 
Lyopomata embrace the CraniidaB, Discinidse, and Lingulidse, the only 
subgenera being Discinisca and Glottidia. Some additional notes are 
added by Miss A. Crane, who has had the editorial charge of the 

work. 

Arthropoda. 

Vision of Arthropods.f — Prof. F. Plateau gives a short summary of 
the results of his long continued experiments on the phenomena of vision 
in Arthropods. Those that have no eye, such as certain Myriopods, 
distinguish light from darkness. These dermatoptic perceptions very 
probably exist in most Arthropods whether or no they have visual 
organs, and they explain most of the special facts presented by in- 
dividuals who have been artificially blinded. In Arthropods with simple 
eyes only, vision is, as a rule, very bad. Some, like Myriopods, Spinning 
Spiders, and Phalangida, do not seem to perceive the form of a body at 
any distance at all ; others, like Hunting Spiders, Scorpions, and larvae, 
seem to see the contours of objects more or less confusedly ; but the 
distance seen is always small. A large number of Arthropods perceive 
the displacements of mobile bodies; all aid their insufficient visual 
organs by a skilful use of the organs of touch. Notwithstanding the 
absence of a power of really distinct vision, in the sense understood of 
Vertebrates, there are three chief factors which cause Arthropods with 
simple eyes to move about with sufficient adroitness to provide food, and 
to sometimes present such a bearing as to lead a superficial observer to 
believe that they are endowed with good sight. When an Arthropod 
has both compound and simple eyes the latter are of hardly any use. 

An Insect with compound eyes has no sharp perception of form ; from 
the functional point of view facetted eyes are inferior to the eyes of 
Vertebrates. Though they have no complete perception of form some 
perceive movements which are not too rapid, as do the Lepidoptera, 
Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Odonata ; at distances which vary between 
58 cm. and 2 metres these animals see displacements of objects of a 
certain size much better than they see the objects themselves. What, in 
a general way, happens with a flying insect is this — the animal moving 
in air with a very lively perception of light and shadow is able to avoid 
masses, such as trunks of trees, rocks, or walls, and passes them at a 
suitable distance. If by chance he should be in the midst of underwood 
or any other group of plants, he profits by the solutions of continuity 
through which light is filtered, or which offer him the largest surface. 
If the wind agitates the leaves the openings oscillate, but, thanks to his 
power of perceiving movement, he sees them all the better ; he describes, 
in flying, undulations so as to follow the direction of the displacements, 
and to get out without injuring himself. When his mode of feeding 

* Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., iv. pp. 1-74, pis. i.-xiii. (1886) ; pp. 75-182, pis. 
xiv.-xxv. (1887) ; pp. 183-248, pis. xxvi.-xxs. (1888). 

t Bull. Acad. R. Sci. Belg., Iviii. (1888) pp. 395-457 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 208 

requires him to visit certain flowers lie comes to them witli certainty, if 
his sense of smell is well developed, or by chance, if it is not. Incapable 
of distinguishing different flowers by their forms, he hastens towards 
coloured spots, hesitates, and only decides when he is close enough to 
know by their odour whether he has found what he was seeking. The 
same is true of living prey ; if it is ordinarily immobile it is known by 
its odour, if it is agile it is recognized by its movements. Smell or 
smell with sight bring about the congress of the sexes. The perception 
of movements warns the insect of the approach of an enemy. Prof. 
Plateau feels that in thus insisting on the imperfect visual power of 
Insects he is taking up a position which is opposed to deeply seated 
beliefs, but he bases himself on his experiments, and demands that he be 
answered by experiments alone. 

a. Insecta. 

Anatomy and Biology of Physapoda.* — Dr. K. Jordan gives an 
account of the group of Insects to which the term Thysanoptera is often 
applied, and which Prof. Glaus — for examj)le — more correctly calls 
Physopoda. The author would separate these insects from the Ortho- 
ptera, and establish a special order for them. He is of opinion that 
the difference between Insecta metabola and ametabola is only apparent ; 
the mode of development of the latter is not opposed to that of the 
former; in the one case there is continuous, in the other interrupted 
change, and between the two extreme types there are intermediate stages. 
It is not true that all Orthoptera or Ehynchota are now ametabolous. 
The Orthoptera amphibiotica have larvae which are unlike their imagines, 
and may be called hemimetabola. Change goes still further in the 
Coccidse among the Ehynchota, and the metamorphosis of the Physopoda 
is quite similar to that of the Coccid^e. 

The palaeozoic insects are allied to Orthoptera, Thysanura, Homoptera 
or Neuroptera, and the other orders of Insects only appear in mesozoic 
or cainozoic periods ; palfeontology tells us nothing as to the point of 
origin of recent insects. The Hemiptera appear to be derived from the 
Homoptera, while all the rest are further developments of orthopteroid 
or neuropteroid forms. The carboniferous Homoptera and Neuroptera 
were probably derived from orthopteroid forms. And there appear, 
therefore, to have been two series of developments arising from the 
broad base of the Orthoptera — one to the Insecta holometabola, the other 
through the Homoptera to the Heteroptera. The latter group have the 
germinal stripes internal, and includes those insects whose larval stages 
are anatomically similar to the imaginal ; among these the Physopoda 
must be placed. 

When we come to inquire more closely as to their position we must 
consider their special anatomy and biology. They, especially in their 
larval state, resemble the small Cicadellinae ; the hypognathism of the 
vesicular feet is so strongly marked that the oral cone comes to lie under 
the prothorax ; the number and position of the ocelli calls to mind the 
Orthoptera rather than the Hemiptera, while the position of the 
antennaj is as much orthopteroid as aphidoid. In the development of 
the mandibular organs the Physopoda do not differ as much as do the 
Ehynchota ; the physopod proboscis is intermediate in type between 

* Zeitschr. f. WL-s. Zool., xlvii. (1888) pp. 541-620 (3 pis.). 

p 2 



204 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

that of the biting Orthoptera and the sucking Ehynchota. With both 
they agree in having a free prothoras ; with regard to other parts of 
their exoskeleton they agree sometimes with one and sometimes with the 
other group. The wing is of the pterophorine type. In the possession 
of a concentrated nervous system the Physopoda come very near to the 
Ehynchota, and are widely separated from the Orthoptera, the aberrant 
Mallophaga, however, having also a concentrated nervous system. The 
tracheal system has only three or four pairs of stigmata, but such a 
reduction is often seen among holometabolous insects. The digestive 
apparatus is characterized by having only four Malpighian vessels, as is 
the case in most Ehynchota, except the Aphides which have none, and 
the CoccidsB which have only two tubes. Most Orthoptera have a 
number, but the Termites and the Psocidse have only six, and the 
Mallophaga four. 

The male generative apparatus with its simple, often pyriform testi- 
cular tubes, is somewhat like that of both the Mallophaga and the 
Phytophthira ; the female organ, by the rosette-like arrangement of the 
few ovarian tubes, resembles the tubes of the Ehynchota. On the whole, 
then, the Physopoda appear to have a closer anatomical resemblance to 
the Homoptera than to the Orthoptera, and there are certain biological 
facts which sustain this conclusion ; and there can be no doubt that the 
Physopoda should be separated from the Orthoptera. 

It depends upon the view which we take as to the general classifi- 
cation of Insects as to what we shall next do ; if we hold to the old 
views, we must place the Physopoda with the Ehynchota, and divide 
that order into Heteroptera, Homoptera, and Physopoda. If, however, 
we break up the " conglomerate " of Orthoptera into several orders equal 
in value to such as the Coleoptera or Diptera, we should destroy the 
true rhynchote type by inserting the Physopoda under it, and we must, 
in that case, make a special order for them. Such an order would stand 
between the Ehynchota and the Conodontia (or Mallophaga, Psocidas, 
and Termites). It might be defined as having, among others, these 
characters : a very small body ; a hypognathous head ; unsymmetrical, 
sucking mouth-parts ; antennae with seven to nine joints ; facetted eyes, 
large ; generally three ocelli. Thoracic rings pretty long ; prothorax 
free ; metanotum longer than mesonotum ; mesophragm free, mctaphragm 
absent ; abdomen with ten segments, anal segment often tubular. Legs 
short ; tarsus with one or two joints. Two pairs of very small wings, 
with nervures reduced. Three or four pairs of stigmata. Four Mal- 
pighian vessels ; two pairs of salivary glands. Nervous system concen- 
trated. Heart small. With or without an ovipositor, female orifice 
between eighth and ninth or ninth and tenth abdominal segments ; male 
orifice between ninth and tenth. Eeproduction sexual or parthenogenetic. 
Germinal stripe completely internal. Larva like imago, nymph does not 
feed, but larva and imago phytophagous. 

New Organ and Structure of Hypodermis in Periplaneta orientalis.* 
— Mr. E. A. Minchin gives an account of an undescribed organ in the 
Cockroach. Two pouch-like invaginations of the cuticle lie close on 
each side of the middle line, between the fifth and sixth terga of the 
abdomen. They are lined by a continuation of the chitinous cuticle, 
which forms, within the pouches, numerous stiff, branched, finely pointed 

* Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., xxix. (1SS8) pp. 229-31 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY^ MICROSCOPY, ETC. 205 

hairs, beneath which are a number of glandular epithelial cells. They 
have no special muscles. The function of these bodies is probably that 
of a stink-organ. 

Mr. Minchin gives a somewhat different account of the structure of 
the hypodermis than that which is found in Miall and Denny's work 
on the Cockroach. He finds that the hypodermis does not consist of a 
single, but of two layers of cells, except where the cuticle is folded to 
form an articulation, when the upper alone remains. In certain parts 
the cells of the lower layer become giant-cells, and are undoubtedly gan- 
glionic ; they are extremely abundant in the fore-part of each tergum. 
The nerve-end cells are probably connected with a seta where the terga 
are exposed, but where these are overlapped they seem to be merely 
connected with small papillae. 

New Mode of Closing Trachese of Insects.* — M. G. Carlet describes 
a mode of closing the trachese of insects which has been hitherto unde- 
scribed. He calls it " fermeture operculaire." In the Hymenoptera 
there is between the genital armature and the integument a piece which 
he calls the fenestrated scale, as it is pierced by a large stigma. Within 
this stigma the trachea resembles one of the baskets with an oblique 
cover which are carried by fishermen. A tracheal muscle is spread on 
this cover (operculum) ; when the latter is raised, the trachea is closed 
and its contents isolated from the outer air. 

New Organ of Hymenoptera.t — M. G. Carlet has found it difficult 
to understand how the sting of Hymenoptera, or even the movements of 
respiration, can fail to affect injuriously the delicate tracheal apparatus 
described in the preceding note. He has now, however, found a new 
organ, which he calls the coussinet ; this has a plano-convex form and is 
fixed by its plane surface against the anal scale, while its convex side 
answers to the portion of the fenestrated side not occupied by the tracheal 
apparatus. By its means this last is kept free from the anal scale ; the 
operculum is in contact with no other piece of the poison apparatus, and 
may be raised or depressed freely by the contraction or relaxation of the 
tracheal muscle. This new organ is composed of spheroidal cells with 
granular protoplasm, which are connected with one another by a fine 
and transparent chitinous substance ; this last connects the mass of cells 
with the anal scale. It may be said to form a pivot for the poison 
apparatus, the movements of which it facilitates. 

Male Copulatory Apparatus of Pompilidae.J— General Eadoszkowski 
finds that the structure of the copulatory apparatus of the genera of this 
family of Hymenoptera is of a common type. He considers it under 
the five heads of preparatory apparatus, forceps, basilar piece, genital 
operculum, and genital palpi. 

The preparatory apparatus is composed of two bodies united by a 
membrane which it is very difficult to detach ; the hooks are more or 
less elongated, and their terminations may be rounded, or cut sharply 
off, or forked. The forceps is composed of a long and wide arm, which 
is always provided with hairs, of a basal piece of varying form, and of 
a " volvella," at the base of which are two or three teeth. The basilar 
piece is always more or less large. The genital operculum is composed 

* Comptes Rendus, cvii. (1888) pp. 755-7. f T.c, pp 955-6 

X Bull. Soc. Imp. Moscou, 1888, pp. 462-93 (4 pis.). 



206 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

of two parts, which vary in form, while the genital palps are elongated 
or round, and are always provided with hairs. The several genera 
examined are described in detail, and some new forms are to be found 
among the species. 

Enteric Canal of Ephemeridee.* — Herr A. Fritze finds that the 
digestive tract of the Ephemeridse consists, in all stages of development, 
of fore-, mid-, and hind-gut. The oesophagus of the larva is spacious, 
but in the imago it is very narrow, so as to hinder the exit of the air 
contained in the tract. The mid-gut of the larva has the form of a 
cylindrical tube which extends from the beginning of the thorax as far 
as the seventh segment of the thorax ; it consists, histologically, of a 
strong layer of circular muscles and a high palisade-like epithelium, the 
cells of which are filled with granular matter. In the imago the muscular 
layer has disappeared, and the epithelium has become flattened. The hind- 
gut, which in the larva serves for the passage of the fseces and the secretion 
of the Malpighian tubes, and in the imago for that of the latter only, 
is divisible into small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. The first 
of these portions is, in the imago, converted into a very complicated 
sphincter, the function of which is to hinder the escape of the air con- 
tained in the mid-gut. The large intestine has a very peculiar lining 
epithelium, the function of which is, probably, excretory ; its cells are 
constantly being destroyed and renewed. 

The enteric canal of the Ephemeridfe is in no stage rudimentary, but 
is everywhere completely formed histologically ; in the various stages of 
the development of the animal it alters its function, for while in the 
larva it serves for purposes of digestion, in the imago it contains air, 
&c., and serves as a parachute on the one hand, and aids, on the other, 
the functions of the reproductive organs. This change of function 
affects its external form and its histological structure ; the metamorphosis 
occurs in the nymph and subimago stages. Among the species examined 
were Ephemera vulgata (imago), Bsetis fluminum (larva, nymph, sub- 
imago, and imago), Cloe diptera (all four stages), and Csenis lactea 
(imago). 

Lepidopterous Larvee.f — Mr. E. B. Poulton gives, in detail, an 
account of his observations on Lepidopterous larvae in 1887. He com- 
mences with complete accounts of the life-history of Sphinx convoluti 
and Aglia tau. The ovum of the former is remarkable for its extremely 
small size ; its development is at about the same rate as that of S. 
ligustri, namely, from eight to ten days. Tn the ontogeny of the latter 
there are a number of important characters by which it shows itself 
related to the Sphingidse, and especially to Smerinthus ; these have led 
the author to consider the natural position of the Sphingidse, and he 
concludes that there is a large body of evidence in favour of the view 
that they are a specialization of Saturnian Bombyces. From a con- 
sideration of the larvae Mr. Poulton concludes that the characteristic 
Sphinx attitude is to be explained as the combined effect of gravity and 
of muscular reaction upon the anterior unsupported parts of the body. 
An account is given of the use of the graphic method of representing 
the growth of lepidopterous larvae. The means of defence adopted by 
the larva of Stauropus fagi are next considered ; the irritated larva 

* Ber. Naturf. Gesell. Freiburg, iv. (1888) pp. 59-82 (2 pis.), 
t Trans. Eutomol. Soc. Loud., 1888, pp. 515-606 (3 pis.). 



ZOOLOaY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 207 

assumes a spider-like attitude for the purpose of alarming its enemies. 
He discusses the matter at some length, and finds that " the larva of 
Stauropus fagi bristles with defensive structures and methods. When at 
rest it is concealed by a combination of the most beautiful protective 
I'esemblances to the commonest objects which are characteristic of its 
food-plant. Attacked, it defends itself by a terrifying posture, which is 
made up of many distinct and highly elaborate features, all contributing 
to this one end. Further attacked by an insect-enemy it reveals marks 
which suggest that it is of no interest to its enemy, for another parasite is 
already in possession. 

The black colour of the eggs of Paniscus cephalotes appears to serve 
as a warning to the other insect parasites belonging to the same and other 
species that the larva of Cerura vinula is already occupied. The 
defensive value of " tussocks " and the associated black intersegmental 
markings are next considered. A " tussock " may be defined as a tuft 
of fine hairs, very closely placed, and of approximately equal length, so 
that the structure is flat-topped ; the constituent hairs bristle with 
minute lateral branches ; if seized the fine hairs come out in immense 
numbers in the mouth of the enemy, and produce such an effect that the 
larva escapes unhurt. When the larva is irritated the tussocks are held in 
an especially conspicuous manner, while the black markings are revealed, 
and assist by rendering the tussocks more obvious and giving an appear- 
ance of increased projection. 

The larvae of the Cochliopodidae gain protection by assuming a form 
which is quite unlike that of a caterpillar, and does not suggest the 
appearance of the food of any insect-eating vertebrate. Other points on 
which, in this interesting paper, Mr. Poulton has notes are the protective 
resemblances of the larvae of Geometra papilionaria, a proof of the pro- 
tective value of dimorphism in larvae, the protective resemblance of the 
pupa of Apatura iris, the defensive secretion of the larva of Croesus varus, 
the geometriform structure and attitudes of Euclidia mi, and the 
determination of sex in certain living lepidopterous larvae. As to the 
last point, use has been made of the distinctness of the testes which lie 
beneath the skin of the fifth abdominal segment, and which can be easily 
seen beneath the skin of all fairly transparent larv^, and by careful 
examination in moderately transparent forms. 

New Genus of Pyralidse.* — Lord Walsingham describes a remark- 
able Indian Pyralid, which he calls Coenodomus hockingii. The larvae 
are gregarious, and live in strong tubes of white silk, of the consistency 
of stout cardboard ; these are open at both ends, and from three to 
fifteen are agglomerated together, the heads of the larvae projecting from 
one or other end, according to the position of the leaves of their food, to 
which the whole mass of tubes is attached by stout silken threads con- 
sisting of many strands. The walls of these tubes are double, and of 
very curious construction ; the inner lining of white silk is smooth and 
rather shining, while the outer layer is much stouter and has an uneven 
surface ; this last is due to the interposition of larval excrement 
between the two walls. A more perfect arrangement for keeping off 
heat from the body of the larvae cannot be imagined. The silk at the 
ends of the tube is frayed out, and has apparently been used for attaching 
them to the leaves and twigs, or for changing the position of the 

* Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., v. (1888) pp. ■17-52 (1 pi.). 



208 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

common dwelling, according to the feeding requirements of its various 
inmates. 

Parthenogenesis of Death's-head Moth.* — Sig. C. Massa describes 
a case of parthenogenetic birth in the Death's-head moth (Spliinx 
atropos). The insects were isolated in the larval stage, only one survived, 
a female which laid eggs, a few of which hatched, though none survived. 
If this is the first time the fact has been noticed in Sphinx atropos an 
addition must be made to the already long list of occasionally partheno- 
genetic moths. 

Mouth-organs of two species of Rhysodidse.f — Mr. G. Lewis gives 
an account of the mouth-organs of Bhysodes niponensis and Clinidium 
veneficum, which have been dissected out by the Eev. A. Matthews. The 
gnathites of the latter are exceedingly fragile, while the surrounding 
integument is almost as hard as iron, and cannot be penetrated without 
more or less danger to the finer parts. These organs are the most 
extraordinary that Mr. Matthews has ever seen ; the labrum is very 
large, the clypeus and mentum very large and of the hardest and most 
impenetrable horn ; the maxillary palpi are very long, the maxillae, 
labium, and lingua exceedingly fragile and minute. The labium appears 
to be extensile, like that of Stenus ; the lingua is very large and broad, 
and so thin as to be perfectly transparent. The mandibles are abnormal, 
being inclosed in a horny envelope open on the inside. 

Thysanura and Collembola.| — Dr. J. T. Oudemans has a contribu- 
tion to our knowledge of these Insects, He finds that the Thysanura 
present many points of agreement with one another ; all have ten 
abdominal segments, the last of which carries cerci, and several of those 
in front have actively moving, laterally placed legs. In the Collembola 
the number of abdominal segments varies, but is always less than ten ; 
there are no appendages on the last segment, for the anal hooks cannot 
be considered as such ; there is a springing apparatus on the median 
line of the ventral surface. Eyes may or may not be present ; in the 
former case the Thysanura have compound, but the Collembola merely 
simple eyes. The body may or may not be covered with scales. The 
eversible vesicles on the hind-body of MacMlis, Nicoletia, and Campodea 
have a very similar structure to the eversible parts of the ventral tube 
of the Collembola. 

The abdominal nervous system of the Thysanura has eight ganglia ; 
in Campodea there appear to be only seven; the fusion of ganglia 
seems to be less marked in elongate forms (e.g. Templetoniinse and 
Lipurinse) than in the compressed Sminthurinte. The eyeless forms 
appear to have lost their eyes in consequence of their mode of life under 
stones, in earth, bark of trees, and so on. 

The form of the mouth-parts in the two groups is very similar ; the 
labium is always deeply cleft, as in the Orthoptera, In the Thysanura 
the mandibles and maxillae are open internally, and by this orifice the 
muscles pass which are attached to the outer wall ; it is probable, 
though not certain, that the same is true of the Collembola. The 
enteric canal is always straight and never longer than the body ; a mas- 
ticatory stomach is found in Lepisma only. The epithelium of the 

* Bull. Soc. Entom. Ital., xx. (1888) pp. 64-5. 

t Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ii. (1888) pp. 483-4. 

J bijdrageu tot de Dierkunde, xvi. (1888) pp. 146-226 (3 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 209 

stomach varies in character ; in Machilis (and Lepisma ?) there are 
depressed spots which are centres of regeneration. In Campodea and 
Macrotoma plumbea [wm] these spots are wanting. The Thysanura 
have salivary glands, but it is not yet certain that these organs are 
generally present in the Collembola. Malpighian vessels are found in 
Machilis, Lepisma, and Nicoletia, but wanting in Japyx and the Collem- 
bola ; Campodea is in this respect an intermediate form, for it has 
diverticula. So far as is known the Thysanura have nine pairs of 
ostia in the dorsal vessel ; such representatives of the Collembola as 
were examined have only five pairs ; the blood is always coloured 
yellow, and contains blood-corpuscles. In both groups tracheaB are 
found, but they may be wanting in the Collembola, and, where present, 
are always feebly developed. In some of the Thysanura the tracheae 
do not form anastomoses ; the stigmata of these forms are thoracic and 
abdominal in position ; in the Collembola they are found on the head. 

The generative organs of the two groups show some differences. 
The female gonads of Machilis, Lepisma, and Nicoletia agree in most 
points ; there are two oviducts, and with each a varying number of 
ovarian tubes are connected ; they have an ovipositor which always 
belongs to the eighth and ninth segments of the abdomen. Both male 
and female gonads in Campodea exhibit considerable resemblance to 
those of the Collembola ; in the latter these organs are always two 
simple tubes. 

The author thinks that neither group can be placed in any of the 
orders of Insects, for the complete absence of wings and of any sign of 
metamorphosis forbid it. He agrees with P. Mayer and F. Brauer in 
speaking of them as Apterygogenea as opposed to the other Insects, 
which are Pterygogenea. He regards the Thysanura as a distinct 
family from the Collembola ; the former are divided into the Lepismidse 
and the Campodeid^, and for the latter he accepts Tullberg's divisions 
of Sminthurinse, Templetoniinae, and Lipurinse. He concludes with a 
tabular statement of the various points of difference. 

j3. Myriopoda. 

Classification of Myriopoda.* — Mr. C. S. Kingsley doubts the 
homogeneity of the group of Myriopoda, and considers that the features 
common to the Chilopoda and Chilognatha are possessed by all other 
air-breathing Arthropods. The best definition for the wbole group will 
probably run as follows : — The Myriopods are air-breathing Arthropods 
with elongate bodies and more than three pairs of legs. 

The Chilognatha or Millipedes have a head which bears, besides 
antennae, only two pairs of appendages; all but the more anterior 
segments of the body carry two pairs of appendages ; and the bases of 
these legs are placed close to one another. The Chilopoda have three 
pairs of gnathites, each segment has but a single pair of legs, and these 
are widely separated at their base. The stigmata of Chiloj)ods are 
placed at the sides of the body, above and outside the line of the legs ; 
in the Chilognaths they are placed beneath or even in the coxal joints 
of the legs. The most marked points of difference are to be found in 
the generative organs, Chilopods are very closely allied to Insects ; 
the Chilognaths seem to stand alone, Peripatus being nearer the annelid 
than the hexapod stock. 

* Amer. Natural., xxii. (1888) pp. 1119-21. 



210 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

■y. Prototracheata. 

Development of Peripatus Novse-Zealandise.* — Miss L. Sheldon 
has a further account "j" of her observations on the development of Peripatus 
Novse-Zealandiae. The central nuclei of the segments of the yolk which 
lie just beneath the periphery multiply much more rapidly than those 
over the rest of the ovum. They thus come to form a special area, 
which finally extends along about the middle third of the ovum, and 
consists of a loosely reticulate mass of protoplasm which contains a large 
number of nuclei. This area is triangular in form, and becomes more 
compact, and flattens itself out to form the blastoderm. It grows round 
the ovum till it covers about one-half of its surface, and the epibolic 
growth continues until the blastoderm covers all but a very small space 
in the middle of the ventral face of the ovum. Behind the uncovered 
area, and in the middle line, there is a proliferation of nuclei, which, 
in transverse section, gives rise to a keel-shaped mass of nuclei which 
extends along the posterior half of the ovum ; round this space the 
protoplasm becomes inflected, or forms a blastopore. This last increases 
in length considerably, and becomes more open. The primitive streak 
also becomes wider and deeper, and the primitive groove appears along 
its centre. A small cavity, apparently homologous with the polar area 
of P. capensis, appears and then disappears. Up to this stage there are 
no signs of any cell-outlines, but the protoplasm forms a syncytium in 
which nuclei are irregularly scattered. Want of material causes a large 
gap in the observations at this point. After the appendages are formed, 
the history of development is very similar to that of P. capensis, but it 
is interesting to note that the duct of the first somite opens to the 
exterior. 

The study of this new set of specimens has made the difference 
between the developmental history of this species and that of P. capensis 
less marked than it had previously been supposed to be. In fact, it is 
rather strange that the almost total loss of yolk by the Cape species 
should have apparently been accompanied by so few modifications in its 
development. The material in hand does not allow of any statement 
as to the mode or time of origin of the ectodermal yolk in P. Novse- 
Zealandise, but as it appears in both species after the gastrula stage, it is 
probably an ancestral feature in the development. 

The ova probably pass from the ovary into the uterus in December, 
and the young are born in July ; to this, however, there are some 
exceptions, as some January specimens contained embryos ready for 
birth, and the embryos in one female vary somewhat in age. 

S. Araclinicla. 

Coxal Glands of Araclmida.| — Dr. J. C. C. Loman has examined the 
coxal glands of six Arachnids, among which are Scorpio, Epeira, and 
Phalangium ; on the whole he corroborates the results of those who have 
preceded him in these investigations ; the organ in Phalangium is 
described at somewhat greater length than those of the other types. He 
cannot think there is any doubt about our having here the homologue 
of a segmental organ, but he is not so certain that the coxal gland is the 

* Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., xxix. (1888) pp. 283-93 (2 pis.). 

t See this Journal, 1888, p. 33. 

i Bijdragcn tot de Dieikuiide, xiv, (1887) pp. 89-96 (4 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 211 

homologue of the sliell-glaud of the Entomostraca. The poison-gland 
of Galeodes is an allied and perhaps a homodynamous organ. 

Brain of Araneida.* — M. G. Saiut-Eemy has been investigating the 
brain of dipneumonous Araneida. It is on the same plan as that of 
the Phalangida and Scorpionida ; it is most complicated in the Citigrada, 
the appearances in Lycosa narhonensis and Cardosa sacrata being de- 
scribed. The greatest modifications are seen in the inferior lobule; 
this portion undergoes considerable reduction in the Orbitelaria, and 
more so in Epeira diadema than in E. sericea. In the Tubitelaria the 
inferior medullary masses have disappeared, and the fibrillar layers are 
directly attached to the lateral lobes. In Tegenaria the medullary layer 
is formed of three layers of nerve-tubes ; in Drassus it is formed of a 
compact mass of tubes ; in Segestria it is less distinct, and the commissure 
of the masses is a mere thread. In the Eetitelaria [Pholcus) the inferior 
and superior lobules are separated, and the medullary layers are simple 
dotted masses, with a reticular structure. In the Saltigrada (Eresus) the 
inferior lobules are large and separate. 

Anatomy of Pseudoscorpions.f — Herr A. Croneberg gives an account 
of his investigations into the structure of the so-called Pseudoscorpions. 
The characters of Chernes and Chelifer show that they have no close 
relationship to the Scorpions. The respiration by means of tracheae, 
the concentration of the nervous system, and the position of the generative 
orifices remove the Chernetidae from the Scorpions ; the peculiarities 
of their development point to the great age of this group, some of the 
characters of which, such as the complete segmentation of the body, 
the relative development of the rostrum, and the transverse musculature 
of the abdomen, may have been retained to the present day. The 
Pseudoscorpions may be more nearly allied to the simpler forms of 
Opilionida, such as the Sironoids, but are separated from them by the 
important relation of the first two pairs of legs to the mouth. Gihhocellum, 
as Thorell has rightly insisted, must be separated from the Sironoids and 
placed with the Pseudoscorpions ; for it has only a superficial resem- 
blance to the former. Much remains to be done before the affinities of 
the various groups of Arachnids can be satisfactorily determined. 

Marine Acarina of Wimereux.J — M. E. L. Trouessart gives an 
account of a small collection of marine Acarina made at Wimereux by 
Prof. Giard. He has found a number of the species described from the 
English coast by Gosse and Hodge and Brady, as well as several new 
forms. There is a perfectly typical Gamasus which he calls G. Giardi ; 
Eupalus sanguineus sp. n. was found with E. Giardi on Balaniis bala- 
noides, on which also lives Ehyncolophus rubipes sp. n. Six sijecies of 
Halacaridee were found, and of these there are two new genera. Copido- 
gnathus (G. glyptoderma) has the chelicerse swollen and free from their 
base, and there is no trace of the unpaired eye ; Leptosalis longipes 
g. et sp. n. was found in Mussels ; its palpi have the last joint bifid, and 
so form a small cheliform forceps, the lower lip is prolonged into the 
form of a spatula, and so gives rise to a groove, in which the mandibles 
move ; these last are intermediate in form between those of Copidognathus 
and those of Halacarus. 

* Comptes Rendus, cvii. (1888) pp. 926-9. 

t Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 1888, pp. 416-61 (3 pis.). 

j Comptes Eendus, cvii. (1888) pp. 75^-5. 



212 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Structure and Development of the Visual Area in the Trilobites.* 
— Mr. J. M. Clarke has made an interesting addition to our knowledge 
of the eyes of Arthropoda by an account of those of the common fossil 
JPTiacops rana. In many cases both cornea and seleron are normally pre- 
served ; in others one alone is retained ; in others both may be removed, 
leaving pillars of the matrix with cup-shaped surfaces, each bearing a 
little ball at the centre ; an external film may be removed from the 
entire visual area, destroying the cornea, or, lastly, silica may be 
deposited as a thin film upon or replace a thin film of the external 
and internal surfaces of the test, and all the rest of the substance of the 
test and matrix may be removed. 

Mr. Clarke thinks that the schizochroal eyes of the Trilobites are 
aggregated, and not properly compound eyes. The visual organs of 
Harpes may prove to be of similar character. The scleral portion of 
the visual surface is of the same structure as the test, and is a direct 
continuation of it. There is no evidence of any continuous corneal layer 
covering the entire surface. The corneal lenses are wholly discrete 
from the epidermis, but are of epidermal origin. In the addition of new 
lenses to the visual surface, they appear to arise from a thinning of both 
surfaces of the integument. The corneal lenses were hollow or were 
filled with some matter not homogeneous with the cornea itself. The 
corneal lenses, and, therefore, the ommatidia were added to the visual 
surface with advancing age until the mature growth of the individual 
was attained; thereafter they diminished in number with increasing 
senility. The addition of corneal lenses occurred regularly at the 
extremities of the diagonal rows. No evidence is preserved of crystalline 
cones in the ommatidial cavities, but they may have been removed in 
the decomposition of the soft parts of the ej'e. 

With regard to the suggestion of Dr. J. S. Kingsley, in his paper on 
the eye of Crangon, that the mere fact of invagination indicates an 
ancestral condition, Mr. Clarke states that in Mesothyra oceani, one of 
the largest known representatives of the Phyllocarida, the eye consists of 
a simple deep pit at the summit of the optic node. There is no evidence 
that this pit contained a series of lenses, but it may serve as the ancestral 
condition of the Decapod eye. 

Migrations of Pentastomum denticulatum in Cattle-t — Dr. V. 
Babes had in the summer of 1888 the opportunity of examining some 
thirty-five cattle which had died of epidemic hsemoglobinuria. In all 
but one instance he was able to verify the existence of the Pentastomum 
denticulatum. He found numerous specimens of the parasite in the 
mesenteric glands and between the two peritoneal layers of the me- 
sentery; while in the convexity of the intestinal coils he met with 
roundish nodules about 5 mm. broad, and often arranged at regular 
distances. These nodules contained a living Pentastomum larva. As 
the parasite advances in development, so it proceeds towards the lumen 
of the intestine, the perforation of the mucosa being accompanied by 
haemorrhage. In one case hundreds of parasites were found free in the 
intestinal canal. 

It sometimes happened that living examples were not discovered 
either in the glands or in the intestinal walls, but the glands were found 

* Journal of Morphology, ii. (1888) pp. 253-70 (1 pi.). 
+ Centralbl. f. Bakteriol. u. Parasitenk., v. (1889) pp. 1-5. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 213 

in various stages of degeneration, and scar-like points were seen in the 
intestinal coats. 

The author is of opinion that the migration path of these parasites 
is outwards, that is, towards the lumen of the gut, but he does not 
neglect to notice that the animals may burrow back into the mucosa 
for a short distance. 

The connection between this parasite and the hsemoglobinuria, said 
to be endemic in Eoumania, is very interesting. 

€. Crustacea. 

Monstrosity in a Crayfish.* — M. G. Stamati remarks that accessory 
pieces have not yet been noticed except on the legs of Crustacea. He 
describes a specimen in which the exopodite or squama of the left 
antenna had a bifurcated appendage so placed that the free point of the 
scale appeared to be trifurcate. This supernumerary growth appears to 
arise from the left half of the scale, and there is no reason to suppose 
that it is, as Eosel von Eosenhof would have suggested, the result of any 
lesion, nor with Herklots, to regard it as a simple excrescence. It seems 
to the author more reasonable to regard the appendage as a dependent 
of the external half of the scale which is regularly developed ; it is only 
because of the growth of its two halves that the two points have been 
directed forwards. The investigation of the development of super- 
numerary growths on the appendages of Crustacea can only be investigated 
on young specimens and after ecdysis. 

NebaliidsB and Leptostraca.f — Prof. C. Claus publishes a mono- 
graphic account of the Nebaliidse, on the structure of which he gave a 
preliminary report more than ten years ago. The present memoir dis- 
cusses the history, general morphology, general physiology, reproduction, 
and distribution of the family. The systematic portion includes diagnoses 
of Nehalia, Paranehalia, Nehaliopsis, and discusses the general relations 
of the Leptostraca. 

The following forms have to be distinguished : — (a) Mature males, 
characterized by the lank body, long furcal joints, bushy set^ on the 
anterior antennte, and much elongated setje on second pair of antennae ; 
(&) pregnant females with fans of bristles on the terminal joint of 
each thoracic appendage ; (c) mature females and younger females of 
variable size with a short equipment of bristles on the terminal joint 
of the thoracic limbs ; {d) young males of variable size, characterized 
by the short-ringed setose joints of the second antennse ; (e) larvee with 
three-jointed antennary setse, and a still simple fourth pair of pleopods. 

The northern N. hipes O. Fabr. is a large variety of the Adriatic, 
Mediterranean, and Atlantic N. geoffroyi. The form found on the east 
coast of North America, those from Chili and Japan, and probably the 
N. longicornis of New Zealand, are to be regarded as mere varieties of 
the same species. 

The so-called rostral plate represents a third portion of the shell, 
which forms a movable head-valve. It covers two rostral processes of 
the head, and is so connected with them that raising the head elevates 
the head-valve. The two last segments of the abdomen with the 

* Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xiii. (1888) pp. 199-201. 

t Arbeit. Zool. Inst. Wien (Claus), viii. (1888) pp. l-liS (11 pis.). 



214 SUJIJIARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

branchipodiform furca rejiresent the telson of Malacostraca. The anus 
is also ventral. 

The brain is much more highly differentiated than that of Phyllopods, 
and approaches that of Malacostracans. The mid-brain with the olfac- 
tory centres agrees in the presence of " olfactory glomeruli " with the 
olfactory lobes of Isopoda and Podophthalmata. The hind-brain (ganglia 
of the second antennse) lies on the a'sophageal commissure, and has a 
slightly developed sub-oesophageal transverse commissure in front of 
that of the mandibular ganglia. The mandibular and maxillary ganglia 
are quite distinct, as in Ajpseudes and Sphaeroma. So too are the thoracic 
ganglia. Behind the six abdominal ganglia, there is in embryo and 
larva the rudiment of a seventh (as in Spfiaeroma). This degenerates. 
On the median surface of the stalked eye, between two protuberances, 
there is a special sense-organ of unknown import (frontal organ ?). The 
histological characters of eye and optic ganglion most closely resemble 
those of the Mysidse. 

The masticatory apparatus in the stomach is complex, as in Mala- 
costraca. Two cardiac teeth, a bristle-bearing ridge on the right side, 
two pairs of pyloric sieves, and a funnel-groove extending far into the 
intestine, are demonstrable. 

The liver consists of two anterior sacs entering the head, and three 
pairs extending posteriorly to the last abdominal segments. Mid-gut 
and posterior liver-sacs are inclosed in a perivisceral connective-tissue 
which also surrounds the reproductive glands. The cells thereof are 
filled with fat-spherules of nutritive import in the fasting period. 
Pregnant females and mature males gradually use this material, and as 
it disappears the perienteric cellular strand shrivels, and the vascular 
space enlarges in proportion. At the end of the mid-gut there opens a 
csecum, which lies above the rectum. The high cylindrical cells of this 
structure are continued far forward on the dorsal wall of the gut. 

Besides the antennary gland there is a much reduced shell-gland, 
and eight pairs of limb-glands. 

The heart extends from the maxillary region to the fourth abdominal 
segment ; it has seven pairs of ostia, of which four to six are small and 
dorsal, the others lateral. Besides an anterior and posterior aorta, 
there are branched arteries in both pairs of antennae and in the 
abdomen. 

The reproductive ducts are as in Malacostraca. The females carry 
eggs and young in a sort of basket formed between the lamellar 
thoracic limbs and their bristle-fans. Even the hatched and moulting 
larvse are sheltered therein. 

The Leptostraca form the first main division of the Malacostraca. 
The fossil ArcliEeostraca (Ceratiocaridse, &c.) belong to the same series 
as the Leptostraca, as the mobile head-valve shows. They cannot, how- 
ever, be included in the same order. The general structure, the form of 
the mouth-parts and appendages, the numbers of the segments, may have 
been very different. The memoir is copiously and beautifully illustrated. 

Marine Ostracoda.* — Prof. C. Claus makes a brief communication 
in reference to a recent work by G. O. Sars on Mediterranean Ostracods. 
In this work Sars has entirely overlooked three important memoirs by 
Prof. Claus on Cypridinae, Halocyprinidse, and the general genealogy of 

* Arbeit. Zool. Inst. Wien (Claus), viii. (1888) pp. 149-54. 



ZOOLOaY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 215 

Crustacea, as well as some contributions by other investigators. The 
author refers to some of the results of his papers which it would have 
been well that Sars had known of. 

Cladocera of Hungary.* — Dr. E. D. de Dees has produced a mono- 
graph of the Crustacea Cladocera of Hungary, of which, unfortunately, 
the diagnoses of the genera and species are alone in Latin. About a 
hundred species are described, a few of which are new, but there are no 
new genera ; the comparative tables of distribution will be the part of 
the work most accessible to the majoi-ity of English readers. 

Calanida of Finlaiid.| — Herr O. Nordquist, who has been working 
at the Copepoda of Finland, has published a monograph on the Calanida. 
Nearly all the forms are represented in the North Sea, and the Baltic 
specimens are more or less reduced in size somewhat in proportion to 
the diminution of the amount of salt in the water. Twelve species in 
all are described, among which Temosella affinis has two new varieties — • 
Jiirundoides and Msjoida. The only Finland species not found in the 
North Sea is Linnocalanus macrurus ; this must be assumed to have 
been produced in the Baltic or in the lakes, or to be a remnant of an 
Arctic fauna. The former view is negatived by the fact that this species 
is also found in the lakes of North America. The ova of this species 
are not carried about by the female, but sink to the bottom after 
extrusion, and we may, therefore, safely regard it as a relic. 

Morphology of Cyclops J — Prof. M. M. Hartog gives a full ana- 
tomical description of Cyclops. The Copepoda may be regarded as 
very primitive forms among the Crustacea on account of (1) the plasticity 
of the eye, derivable from the triune inverted eye of the Nauplius, and 
of the absence of eyes of the paired compound type which may 
be termed the phyllopod eye ; (2) the condition of the appendages, the 
antennules being always uniramous or retaining the primitive larval 
condition, the mandibles being sometimes biramous, and the first pair of 
maxillsB being most plastic ; (3) the pleura are feebly developed, and 
never encircle the body ; (4) the absence of gills, and the respiratory 
function of the anus ; (5) the plasticity of the forepart of the alimentary 
canal ; (6) the circulation and (7) the general form of the body. After 
making some critical and general remarks on these characters, the author 
gives a phylogenetic table in which the Copepoda Natantia occupy 
the lowest place. If in any Crustacean we are to seek a common 
relative to the Tracheata, and especially to the Arachnida, it must be 
among the Copepoda that we have to look. 

Vermes. 
a, Annelida. 

Pericardial Gland of Annelids.§ — Prof. C. Grobben gives a more 
detailed account of his views on the pericardial gland of Chsetopods, 
along with some notes on the perienteric fluid. The general tenor of 
his conclusions has already been reported. |j The pericardial gland 

* ' Crustacea Cladocera Faunse Hungaricse,' 4to, Budapest, 1888, 128 pp. (4 pis.), 
t 'Die Calauiden Finlands,' 8vo [2 plates stated to be 4to] 1888. See Ann. and 
Mag. Nat. Hist., iii. (1889) pp. 62-4. 

X Trans. I.inn. Soc. Lond., v. (1888) pp. 1-46 (4 pis.). 
§ SB. Akad. Wiss. Wien, xcvii. (1888) pp. 250-63. 
II See this Journal, 1887, p. 939. 



216 SUMMARY OF CUBRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

arises on the epithelium of the secondary body-cavity, and thus the 
author associates the branchial heart appendage of Cephalopods, the 
pericardial glands in Lamellibranchs, Prosobranchs, and Opistho- 
branchs, the appendages of the dorsal vessel in Lumbriculidse, and 
other structures in Cbsetopods. The body-cavity fluid is for the most 
part and perhaps originally of excretory import, but also takes on the 
respiratory and nutritive functions of lymph or hsemolymph — an example 
of great adaptability. 

Anatomy of Megascolides australis.* — Prof. W. B. Spencer has a 
memoir on the anatomy of the giant earthworm of Gippsland, where it 
appears to be not uncommon, though its area of distribution is limited. 
The best sign of the worm's presence is a very distinct gurgling sound 
made by the animal retreating in its burrow when the ground is stamped 
upon by the foot. It has a curious odour, resembling somewhat that of 
creosote. When held in the hand the worm, on contracting its body, 
throws out jets of a milky fluid ; an important, if not primary, function 
of this fluid is that of making the burrow walls smooth, moist, and 
slippery, and thus of enabling the animal to glide along with ease and 
speed. Its setae appear to be of but little use to it in locomotion. Its 
cocoons are 1^ to 2 inches in length, vary in colour according to age, 
and contain only one embryo each. 

The largest living specimen found was 6 feet long, and the average 
length is from 44 to 48 in., with a breadth of 3/4 in.; there are 
from 300 to 500, or perhaps even more, segments in a sexually mature 
worm. The setee project only slightly beyond the surface of the body, 
and none are specially modified in connection with the male genital 
aperture. The dorsal pores are very evident oval openings in the mid- 
dorsal line. No nephriodiopores are visible. 

The anterior septa are enormously developed, the first fourteen 
forming deep cups, with their concavities facing forward ; their septa 
are connected with each other and with the body- wall by strong 
muscular slips. It is curious to note that the insertions of the septa do 
not correspond with the grooves separating the segments. The structure 
of the body-wall in the non-clitellar region is that which is characteristic 
of most earthworms, though in minor points it shows variations from 
that of Lumhricus. In the clitellar region the skin is, as usual, much 
modified, but differs in structure from that of Lumbricus or Microchseta. 
The narrow elongated cells containing granules similar to those of the 
goblet cells are absent, but there is a great development of glandular 
cells with long ducts leading towards the exterior ; some have branched 
bases. The glandular portion is very rich in blood-vessels, which 
usually form distinct coils. 

Salivary glands, which are obviously modified nephridia, are described, 
but there is no trace whatever of oesophageal glands, or of a typhlosole ; 
the only modification of the intestine occurs in segments 12-18, where 
the walls are highly vascular and devoid of strong muscles. 

The vascular system is comparatively simply develojped, consisting 
of a dorsal and a ventral trunk, and transverse and dorsal vessels ; there 
is no subneural trunk. The blood is red, owing to the presence of 
haemoglobin, and contains very numerous nucleated corpuscles oval or 
rounded in shape, with a diameter of about 0-0016 mm., and few more 

* Trans. E. Soc. Victoria, i. (1888) pp. 1-60 (6 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 217 

irregularly shaped nucleated corpuscles, from wliicli few or many stiff 
pseudopodia-liko processes may be extended. The coelomic fluid is of a 
milky white colour and opaque, and its numerous corpuscles resemble 
the latter of the two forms found in the blood. 

The nervous system has, in the main, the form usual in earthworms, 
and its minute structure is very similar. The giant-fibres, which can in 
no way be called neural canals, are remarkable for the very definite central 
rod of homogeneous gelatinous material, and for the equally definite 
inclosing sheath of connective tissue. Prof. Spencer thinks that the 
most appropriate name for these organs is Vejdovsky's term neurochord. 

The characters of the nephridia are dealt with at some length ; the 
main features of the system are the presence of numerous nephridia in 
each segment, the modification of the nephridia in various parts of the 
body, and the connection of the ducts of the various nephridia. Two 
distinct kinds are present ; there are numerous small nephridia, which 
lie so close to one another that the shape of each separate one cannot be 
distinguished ; each of these consists of a small, somewhat straight tube, 
and a larger coiled part ; these are present in every segment after the 
fourth, and are most largely developed in the clitellar region, where 
they form an almost complete investment for the body-wall, and where 
each segment has certainly more than one hundred. The second kind 
of nephridia are much larger, are only present in the posterior region of 
the body, and occur in the same segments with the smaller kind ; these 
latter have internal openings, and there is only one pair of them in each 
segment. The series of gradations which Prof. Spencer was able to 
make out lead him to the generalization that the specialization of 
nephridia appears to commence at the posterior end, and to pass gradually 
forward, the anterior being in a much more primitive condition than the 
posterior end of the body. The structure of the nephridia is described 
in detail, and it is especially pointed out that in no part of the body is 
there any relationship between the nephridiopores and the setee, even 
when the nephridia become more localized. 

The general characters of the nej^hridia of Chsetopods are discussed 
at some length, and many interesting questions considered. In dealing 
with their homologues. Prof. Spencer thinks that it is important to 
remember that in Chaetopods there is a very clear distinction of the 
nephridial ducts into two parts — one intracellular, and one intercellular ; 
the latter leads to the exterior, and has the vesicular part connected with 
it. It is possible that the former is always mesoblastic in origin, and 
the latter epiblastic. It is suggested that the various stages in the de- 
velopment of the nephridia of Chsetopods may be somewhat as follows : — 

(1) A stage (in some Platyhelminth-like ancestor) in which in an 
unsegmented body a continuous network of nephridial tubules, with 
flame- or internally ciliated cells, the former uniting to form longitudinal 
canals leading to the exterior. 

(2) A modification (as seen in DinopMlus gyrociliatus) in which the 
excretory organs are still in the form of a network with flame cells, but 
with secondary external openings in each segment, irregularly arranged 
as in some Planarians, or regularly arranged, as in DinopMlus. 

(3) A further modification, resulting in the formation of numerous 
irregularly arranged outgrowths from the nephridial network, having 
the nature of coiled tubules which are directly continuous, and identical 
in structure with the network. These form the nephridia of the more 

1889. O 



2 18 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

highly developed worms, and their development is to be regarded as 
intimately associated with that of the segmentally arranged coelomic 
cliambers, such as are at any rate but feebly represented in the 
Hirudinea. 

(4) In connection with these numerous nephridial tubes many 
external openings leading into the still persisting network are formed 
(e. g. Perichseta aspergillum). 

(5) The small nephridia become aggregated into groups, the aggrega- 
tion commencing in the posterior region of the body (as in Acanihoporus 
multiporus and MegascoUdes aiistralis). As the aggregation proceeds the 
external openings diminish in number, and the network lessens in 
extent. 

(6) The formation of large nephridia, either out of an aggregate of 
small nephridia, or by the special growth of one of an aggregation of 
small nephridia. Each large nephridium acquires secondarily an 
internal opening into the coelom. These openings, which have a very 
definite relationship to the coelomic chambers, must be supposed to be 
new formations within the group. 

(7) The final disappearance of all trace of the small nephridia, and 
with them of the network and longitudinal duct. Then there remains 
in each segment, as in most adult earthworms, a limited number — usually 
one pair — of large nephridia, with internal and external openings. 

When it is considered that the character of a nephridium is that in 
some part of the funnel-shaped structure the duct is not intercellular, but 
the funnel bends back into an intracellular duct, always of considerable 
length and complication, and never absent, while the whole of the genital 
duct is intercellular, we see that there is little reason for supposing that 
the latter is a modified nephridium. The testes can, apparently, be 
found at any time of the year, and closely resemble the ovaries — of 
which there is one pair — externally. Spermatozoa undergo their develop- 
ment in the vesiculse seminales, which are broken up into a great series 
of capsular chambers. 

Structure of Urochaeta and Dichogaster, and Nephridia of Earth- 
worms.* — Mr. F, E. Beddard has some notes on the structure of Uro- 
chseta in supplement to and criticism of Prof. Perrier's memoir on this 
earthworm. Mr. Beddard cannot believe that there are in it any pores 
which put the haemal system into communication with the surrounding 
medium. The mucous glands described by Perrier may be shown to be 
nephridial in character by the presence of coelomic funnels which agree 
in their structure with the funnels of the nephridia in the other seg- 
ments of the body ; from the typical nephridium the gland differs by its 
branched character and the presence of several coelomic funnels ; the 
author concludes that the mucous gland is a branched nephridium, of 
which the greater number of branches end blindly, while a few open 
into the coelom by ciliated funnels. In Dichogaster g. n. (D. Damonis 
sp. n. from Fiji) the mucous gland has no coelomic funnel, and the duct 
opens, not on the exterior of the body, as in Urochseta, but into the 
buccal cavity, and, lastly, it appears to be formed by a simple much 
coiled tube. Mr. Beddard thinks there is evidence that the specializa- 
tion of this part of the nephridial system ultimately led to the concen- 
tration of the numerous excretory pores into one long duct ; in other 

* Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., xxix. (1888; pp. 235-82 (2 pis.;. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY^ MICROSCOPY, ETC. 219 

words, the branched mucous gland of Urochseta is traceable to the 
specialized uephridial mass of the auterior segments of Perichseta, the 
numerous external pores of the latter being replaced by the single 
aperture of Urochseta. The ova are of larger size, and, like those of 
Allurus, differ from those of most earthworms and agree with those of 
the " Limicolfe " in this point. 

The alimentary canal of Dichogaster Damonis has two gizzards, each 
of which occui^ies two segments, and in the characters of its nephridia 
it approaches the " Limicolas." 

The latter part of the present memoir is taken up with further 
remarks on the nephridia of earthworms. It seems possible to separate 
into two groups the genera in which there is a greater or less develop- 
ment of a network with numerous external pores in each segment, and of 
these there appears to be a parallel series of differentiations. 

A. Nephridia forming a network, B. Nephridia forming a network 

consisting of excessively fine consisting of wider canals, 

canals, continuous from seg- discontinuous at the septa, 
ment to segment. 

(1) ? (1) No further specialization. — 

Deinodrilus. 

(2) Nephridial network of pos- (2) Nephridial network partly 
terior segments partly com- composed of tubes of greater 
posed of tubules of greater calibre. Numerous coelomic 
calibre. Numerous coelomic funnels. — Acanihodrilus multi- 
funnels — Perichseta asjpergil- porus. 

lum. 

(3) Larger nephridial tubules in- (3) Nephridial network of pos- 

creased in size and forming a terior segments chiefly com- 
nephridium nearly indepen- posed of larger tubules open- 
dent of the finer tubes, and ing by a simple coelomic 
opening by a single coelomic funnel. — Dichogaster. 
funnel. — Perichseta armata, 
Megascolides. 

In treating of the evolution of the nej)hridia the author states that, 
in his opinion, the nearest approach to the primitive condition in the 
Oligochfeta is to be seen in Perichseta aspergillum ; in the anterior 
segments the resemblance to tlie Platyhelminth excretory system is 
closest, for there is a continuous network of tubules with numerous 
external pores. The network is not interrupted by the septa, and the 
external pores are not in any way related to the segmentation of the 
body. In the posterior segments the network of tubules are beginning 
to break up into more or less isolated tufts, but this has no discernible 
relation to the segmentation. From this point the modification of the 
excretory system appears to have gone along one of two paths, but in 
both cases the same goal — -the reduction of the nephridial system to a 
pair of isolated nephridia in each segment — has been reached. Mr. 
Beddard agrees with Prof. W^ B. Spencer that the single j)airs of 
nephridia of certain earthworms (e. g. Perichseta Novse-Zealandise and 
Perionyx) have arisen by a gradual increase in calibre of a part of the 
nephridial network in each segment to form a pair of nephridia, and by 
tlie gradual reduction of the rest. In certain other forms (e. g. AcantJio- 
drilus Novse-Zealandise) tlie nephridia have been dei'ived through the 

Q 2 



220 SUMMAEY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

gradual increase in calibre of the tubules forming tbe primitive network 
and have become isolated into metamerically disposed tufts of tubules, 
corresponding more or less to the setge ; these separate nephridia have 
become ultimately reduced to a pair in each segment. 

"New Earthworm.* — Mr. H. Garman describes a new American earth- 
worm under the name of Diplocardta communis. It belongs to the family 
of the Acanthodrilidse, but is distinguished by the absence of a subneural 
vessel, and the existence of a double dorsal vessel, the two halves of 
which are separate throughout their length, except where they pass 
through the septa between the somites. Sixteen species of American 
earthworms have been named, and there is an undetermined species of 
PericJiseta, 

New Genus of Eudrilidse.t — Dr. D. Eosa describes a new genus of 
the family Eudrilidee — Teleudrilus ragazzii, from Africa (Scioa), which 
he regards as throwing some light on tbe characters of Eudrilus. The 
new genus is certainly very nearly allied to it, and from its examination 
the author concludes that it is probable that some of the more divergent 
characters ascribed to Eudrilus cannot be really sustained. It is certain 
that all these aberrant characters are not demonstrable in Teleudrilus. 
He discusses the aberrant features noted by Beddard, and would not 
separate either Eudrilus or Teleudrilus from the other members of the 
family, for which he gives a somewhat modified diagnosis. He also 
describes a new species of Acanthodrilus {A. scioanus). 

Indian Perichsetidse.l — Dr. D. Eosa describes certain Indian Peri- 
chgetidsB found by Sig. L. Fea, viz. Perionyx excavatus Perr. from 
Irawaddy and Tenasserim ; Megascolex armatus Bedd. from Mandalay ; 
Perichseta fese sp. n., from Tenasserim ; and Perichseta hirmanica sp. n., 
from Irawaddy. He divides the Perichsetidse into two sets : (a) with 
the orifices of the male ducts and of the spermathecas contiguous — 
gen. Perionyx; (&) with the orifices of the male ducts and of the 
spermathecse distant — gen. Megascolex and Perichseta. The last two 
genera are thus distinguished : in the former the setse are in interrupted 
rings, and there are no intestinal cseca ; in the latter the setae are in 
continuous rings, and intestinal caeca are present. The characters of all 
the four species are given at length. 

j3. Nemathelminthes. 

Fertilization and Segmentation in Ascaris megaloeephala.§ — Dr. 
Th. Boveri, continuing his " Cell-Studies," describes in great detail the 
phenomena of fertilization and segmentation in the ovum of Ascaris 
megalocephala. On this subject at least eight important investigations 
have been made since Schneider's memoir in 1883, and, in spite of mani- 
fold contradictions, it would be vain to assert that there has not been 
great progress towards certainty and clearness. To this end the present 
memoir contributes much. Dr. Boveri discusses the various stages and 
aspects in eight chapters, extending over nearly 200 pages, and illus- 
trates them in five most beautifully executed plates which well deserve 
to be ranked among the masterpieces of microscopic draughtsmanship. 

* Amer. Natural., xix. (1888) pp. 1030-1. 

t Ann. Mus. Nat. Geneva, vi. (1888) pp. 571-92 (1 pi.). 

J Ibid., pp. 155-66 (1 pi.). 

§ Jenaische Zeitscbr. f. Naturwiss., xxii. (1888) pp. 685-882 (5 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 221 

(1) Method. — No patliological condition occurs, as the result of any 
mode of preservation, in ova whicli have passed beyond the stage with 
vesicular pronuclei. Boveri's principal methods of fixing vs^ere (a) by 
alcohol of various degrees of concentration, with 1 per cent, acetic acid, 
or (h) by picro-acetic acid. 

(2) The spermatozoon from its entrance to the extrusion of the second 
polar globule. — There is no special " bouchon d'impregnation " nor 
micropyle of Meissner. Polyspermy is exceedingly rare, and due to a 
weakness in the ovum, which prevents it excluding other spermatozoa 
after one has been received. It is in the highest degree probable that 
the nucleus of the sperm in all stages consists of two independent 
chromatin elements (Carnoy's type), except in those males which cor- 
respond to the females with eggs including only one chromatin element 
(van Beneden's type). These two varieties have to be distinguished. 
Carnoy's type of ovum (with two elements) is always fertilized by a 
sperm with two elements, and so with the other variety. 

(3) Nuclei of ovum and sperm till the formation of the first spindle of 
division. — After the extrusion of the second polar body, the male and 
female nuclei present very close resemblance. From the second polar 
figure the female pronucleus receives the two chromatin elements 
(Carnoy's type is followed) of the internal daughter-platOo These 
become surrounded by homogeneous nuclear sap, from which the proto- 
plasm is separated by a delicate membrane. Into these vacuoles, towards 
the membrane, the chromatin-rods give off processes, which grow, and 
grow together, till a framework is formed, in which the rod is lost. For 
a while the results of the modification of each rod are separable, later 
on this cannot be demonstrated. Minute nuclear bodies appear and are 
distributed throughout the nucleus. The movements associated with 
the making of the above reticulum are extremely Rhizopod-like. The 
differences between the above account of the difierentiation of the 
nucleus and that given by van Beneden depend upon the preservation of 
the ova. 

In the sperm-nucleus also, a growing vacuole forms round the 
chromatin elements, into this the elements give off anastomosing pro- 
cesses, nucleolus-like bodies appear, the solid chromatin masses are gra- 
dually transformed into framework, which is gradually drawn towards 
the nuclear membrane. The chromatin elements, however, which form 
the female pronucleus are very simple and regular, both in form and 
disposition ; the opposite is true of the elements of the sperm ; and this 
causes certain differences. 

The position of the nuclei within the ovum is then discussed ; van 
Beneden's results as to the protoplasmic mantle of the sperm-nucleus 
are corroborated and extended ; the " germ-dualism " theory of Zacharias, 
involving the conclusion that the pronuclei of van Beneden are not 
pronuclei, but already conjugated nuclei, is unfavourably criticized. 
Boveri maintains the generally accepted view, which van Beneden now 
also allows, that the two vesicular pronuclei really fuse into a uniform 
segmentation nucleus. Details of this are given. Against van Beneden 
and Zacharias the author contends that the nuclear filaments are not 
necklace-like, but parallel in contour, homogeneous, and uniformly 
chromatic. Nor has he ever seen the continuous coil they describe. 

(4) The changes in the cell-substance during this period. — Beyond 
their four essential chromatin loops, the two nuclei furnish nothing for 



222 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the karyokinetic figure. The entire achromatic division figure is due to 
the cell-substance. Parallel with the phases of the nuclei there are 
phases of the protoplasm, which finally lead to the well-known appear- 
ance of the achromatic nuclear spindle with the two polar suns. It was 
Boveri's merit in 1887 to point this out for the first time; van Beneden 
and Neyt have since followed him. The cell-substance, according to 
Boveri, consists of a homogeneous matrix and a fine network, between 
the meshes of which lie yolk-corpuscles, irregular granules, and a specific 
granular or filamentar substance. This last alone has an active role in 
the process of division. For it, Boveri proposes the new title of archo- 
plasma. It is demonstrable by a certain action of picro-acetic acid, of 
which the author does not give the details, but which leaves the nucleus 
and the archoplasma alone distinct. It is unfortunately difiicult, within 
the limits of a report, to relate how Boveri has followed the modifications 
of the archoplasma in relation, for instance, to the " central corpuscle " 
or " centrosoma " of van Beneden and Neyt, or other phenomena of 
division. " The centrosoma exercises upon the archoplasma contained 
in the cell an attraction of this sort, that round itself as centre it con- 
tracts the above substance into a dense granular sphere." The division 
of the originally single mass of archoplasma into two spheres fs the 
result of the presence and opposition of two equally strong centrosomata. 
It is probable that the sperm brings with it a centrosoma which divides. 
When the two are adjacent, their attractions only modify the archo- 
plasma slightly from the spherical form. As they go apart, the more 
marked does the constriction of the archoplasma become. Dr. Boveri 
draws a sharp contrast between the polar and the segmentation spindles, 
which turn out to be extremely different so far as their achromatin 
constituents are concerned. 

(5) The origin and division of the first segmentation spindle. — In the 
first part of this chapter the relations between the archoplasmic spheres 
and the nuclear elements are followed from their beginning to their 
perfected result. 

The spindle-formation begins with the radiate metamorphosis of the 
two archoplasmic spheres. Radiating fibrils, growing at the expense 
of the central granular portion, meet and attach themselves to the 
chromatin elements. Is this by chance or by attraction, is a question 
hard to answer, but probabilities are in favour of the former. All the 
threads which connect one sphere with a chromatin element attach 
themselves exclusively to the one narrow surface; all those from the 
other sphere likewise attach themselves to the other narrow surface. 
Each daughter-element within a mother-element admits of the attach- 
ment of the threads from one pole only. The fibrils thus attached to a 
chromatic loop seek to contract, and this contraction may go so far that 
the length of the threads aj^proaches the radius of the original sphere. 
The contraction brings about a corresponding approximation between 
the centrosoma and the point of the loop with which the fibrils are 
associated. These archoplasmic threads are genuinely like muscle- 
fibrils. " The movement of the elements is solely and wholly the result 
of the contraction of the attached fibrils, and the final arrangement of 
the above into an ' equatorial plate ' is the result of the equal action 
of the two archoplasmic spheres exerted through the said fibrils." 

In a later portion of the chapter the author enters into detail in 
regard to the stage with the equatorial plate. The stage has very definite 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 223 

limits. It is a condition of rest par excellence in the life of the cell. 
It is interrupted by the action of a new factor — the longitudinal splitting 
of the chromatin elements. The author seeks to justify his regarding 
this as "an independent expression of life, a reproductive act in the 
chromatin elements." 

(6) The nuclei of the two first segmentation spheres are discussed in 
the next chapter. The reconstructive processes and the individuality of 
the nuclear elements are especially treated. " The general agreement 
in the number and disposition of the chromatin elements before and 
after the resting stage of the nucleus, makes it probable that each 
element of the daughter-plate is identical with an element again pro- 
duced from the nuclear framework. This is confirmed by the demon- 
stration that (1) each new end of a chromatin loop is identical with an 
end of the loops forming the nucleus, and (2) each two ends, united 
before the reconstruction in one element, are after the retraction of 
the framework again united in one loop." The only question is about 
the middle portion uniting the two ends. If the hypothesis is correct, 
then of the four chromatin loops, observed in the division figure of a 
segmentation cell, two are derived from the male and two from the 
female. The importance of this in regard to heredity, is emphasized 
by the author. 

(7) Archoplasma and Centrosomata in the two primary segmentation 
spheres are discussed in the next chapter. The presence of the centrosoma 
(in itself an important fact), its division, the modification and disposition 
of the archoplasma, are discussed. The last chapter (8) on abnormal and 
pathological phenomena is rich in suggestions as to the physiology of 
the cell-division. An appendix unfavourably criticizing Kultschitzky's 
results concludes this valuable memoir. 

Maturation and Fertilization of Ova in Ascaris marginata.*— Dr. 
N. Kultschitzky follows up his recent investigation of the phenomena of 
maturation and fertilization in Ascaris megalocephala by a similar study 
of Ascaris marginata. His general results are thus summed up : — 

(1) In the first stages of development, he shows that the chromatin 
of the germinal vesicle, and the (paler on staining) substance of the 
nucleolus arise from the same source. This confirms an opinion long 
since expressed by Flemming. 

(2) The mature ovum has the following characteristics : — (a) the 
chromatin of the germinal vesicle becomes a group of rods, variable in 
size and number ; (h) the other constituents entirely disappear ; (c) an 
egg-envelope may be developed, but only fully after fertilization, never 
perfectly in unfertilized ova. 

(3) The achromatin substance forming the spindles in polar globule 
extrusion arises from the protoplasm of the ovum, as in every other 
division of the egg-cell. 

(4) The extrusion of polar globules is a genuine typical process of 
indirect (" karyomitotic ") division, and the extruded elements are to be 
regarded as cells. 

(5) The structure of the pronuclei deviates considerably from the 
general type of nucleus. Its framework is formed of achromatin sub- 
stance, which with the membrane determines the form. In other nuclei 

* Arch. f. Mikr. Anat., xxxii. (1888) pp. 671-82 (2 pis.). 



224 SUMMABY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the framework is supposed to consist of chromatin. Whether this is a 
real difference or not remains to be seen. 

(6) " The study of the origin of the pronuclei has an extraordinary 
importance in this way, that it, as it appears to me, presents the only 
possibility of following the developmental history of the nucleus. " 

" In regard to the formation of the pronuclei, apart from all the 
incompleteness of my observations, I consider it possible to demonstrate 
that the pronuclei arise quite independently of one another, and that the 
female pronucleus contains only the chromatin of the ovum, and the male 
pronucleus only that of the spermatozoon." 

Anatomy and Ontogeny of Nematodes.* — Herr N. A. Cobb com- 
mences with an account of Ascai'is Kukenthalii sp. n., from the stomach 
of Beluga leucas. The male is from 7-9, and the female 8-10 cm. long ; 
there are about one hundred caudal papilla, arranged in two irregular 
rows. Behind the oesophagus there are two delicate organs which con- 
sist of several hundred tubular elements, connected with one another by 
fine fibres of connective tissue. The walls of the separate tubes are 
formed by a layer of epithelial cells, and the tubes contain one to five 
large vesicular cells, and have an efferent duct ; the several ducts are, 
at various points, collected into common tubes. Nematodes that live in 
the stomach of their hosts rarely want these glands, which are absent in 
such forms as live in the small intestine and the body-cavity ; they may, 
therefore, be regarded as digestive glands. The ova make their first 
appearance as nuclei, but soon become surrounded with protoplasm, and 
finally with a cell-membrane. There are generally three to six masses 
of chromatin. At a distance of 3 mm. from the blind end of the 
ovarian tube the ova group themselves round the rachis, and then 
gradually increase in size. Fertilization and maturation are effected in 
the seminal pouches, and the upper end of the uterus. Segmentation of 
the ova, as far as the progastrula stage, is eflected in the uterus. As in 
all Nematodes yet examined, the first change is equatorial, but in the 
worm under consideration the two products of division were unequal, the 
first ectoblastomere being very much smaller than the first endoblasto- 
mere. The author's results agree pretty closely with those of Gotte and 
Hallez. 

Seven distinct layers could be made out in the integument ; the 
cuticle is distinguished by the large quantity of hsematoxylin which it 
can take up ; the subcuticula is very like the cuticle ; then follow three 
so-called fibrous layers, each of which appears to consist of parallel 
fibres united by a connecting membrane. There is a very thin limiting 
membrane which separates them from the so-called subcutaneous layer, 
with which the muscle-cells are directly connected. Two kinds of 
ganglion-cells are distinguished in the central nervous system ; some 
are large, have a large vesicular nucleus, and give off two or three pro- 
cesses; others are much smaller and spindle-shaped, and have two 
processes ; the ganglia formed by them are set close to the nerve-ring, 
and are connected therewith by nerve-fibres. 

The other new species are Ascaris hulhosa from the stomach of Phoca 
harbata, Strongylus arcticus from the auditory organ of Beluga leucas ; the 
anatomy of these new forms is described in some detail. In Oxyuris 

* Jeuaische Zeitschr. f. Naturwiss., xxiii. (1888) pp. 21-76 (3 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 225 

vermiculans tbe author has found a structure which he takes to be a 
salivary gland. 

Of the free worms on which there are notes Borylamius Langii is a 
new species, found at Jena, of which the male is alone known. 
Tijlenchus gracilis is a new^ species from Jena, whence, also, comes 
Spilophora impatiens sp. n. ; this last is closely allied to Chromadora 
Leuckarti, but differs from it in the structure of the cuticle, the rings of 
the skin consisting of elongated corpuscles, the nature of which it is 
hard to explain. 

Cellular Epidermis of Nematodes.* — M. A. Michel, doubting the 
truth of the statement that the hypodermis of Nematodes is formed of a 
continuous protoplasm with scattered nuclei, has made an examination of 
the integument of Gordius. In the greater part of the body the sub- 
cuticular layer has a single layer of flat cells, with sinuous contours, 
which are arranged like the endothelial elements of the lymphatic 
cajDillaries of Vertebrates. Near the extremities of the animal 
the cells become cylindrical. The cuticle of Nematodes does not, 
then, consist of an epidermis and dermis, but of a membrane external 
to the elements of the cellular layer, and this membrane is of more 
than ordinary thickness. The subcuticular cellular layer is not a 
hypodermis, but an epidermis, and the dermis, as in most Invertebrates, 
becomes part of the muscular layer. There is no reason to suppose that 
there is any peripheral nervous system in this epidermis. 

Red Colouring Matter of Eustrongylus gigas.f — Dr. V. Aduceo 
has made an elaborate physiological study of the nature of the red 
colouring substance in the hgemolymph and body-wall of Eustrongylus 
gigas. Specific, gravity, coagulability, result of boiling, effects of 
reagents, pressure, &c., spectroscopic characters and the like were 
studied in great detail. 

The general conclusion of the author is as follows : — The animal 
" has in its hsemolymph and in its cuticle a red colouring substance, 
which is very similar to the oxyhsemoglobin of the blood of verte- 
brates, but differs from it in the temperature at which it coagulates, and 
in its greater resistance to reagents and in a special way to pressure, 
acetic acid, and reducing agents." 

New Species of Gordius4 — Di"- L- Camerano describes a new species 
of Gordius {G. feae), found in Irawaddy by Sig. L. Fea. The species is 
easily distinguished by the structure of the cuticle which presents 
irregularly scattered areolge, and by the co-existence of a post-cloacal 
lamina and the areolae. 

y. Platyhelminthes. 

Tapeworms with Perforated Joiiits.§ — Dr. H. Blanc has investi- 
gated the nature and origin of the perforated joints which are occasionally 
exhibited by Tasnia and Bothriocephalus. His cases are of T, saginata and 
B. latus, the latter from a set of ninety which were voided at one time ! 
The anomaly ajffects isolated proglottides, or a group, or a long series ; 
the form of the perforation is bi'oad in Tsenia, long in Bothriocephalus ; 

* Comptes Eendus, cvii. (1888) pp. 1175-7. 

t Atti E. Accad. Lincei— (Eend.), iv. (1888) pp. 187-94, 213-20. 
X Ann. Mils. Nat. Geneva, vi. (2) (1888) pp. 168-70 (2 figs.). 
§ Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sci. Nat., xxiv. (1888) pp. 9-16 (1 pJ.). 



226 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the perforations are usually central, but not always. The histological 
features are described, and the "various opinions on the subject are noted. 
The author regards the anomaly as primarily an integumentary 
variation, — "an irregular, abnormal development of the cuticle of some 
of the rings, resulting in a kind of pathological condition, completed 
by an external digestive action." 

Intermediate Host of Taenia cucumerina.* — Professor B. Grassi 
communicates a preliminary note in regard to the intermediate host of 
Tsenia cucumerina. This is usually supposed to be the louse Trichodectes 
latus, as has indeed been demonstrated, but Grassi was led to doubt this 
on account of the rarity of the " louse " compared with the abundance 
of the tapeworm. His experiments inclined him in fact to suppose that 
the development might be direct as in T. murina. Now, however, he 
has been led to regard it as more probable that the ordinary intermediate 
host is no other than the flea (Pulex serraticeps). 

Structure of Bipalium.f — Dr. J. C C. Loman has a memoir on the 
genus Bipalium, twenty-one species of which have already been more or 
less completely described. Kuhl and v. Hasselt examined forms which 
are now to be called B. vittatum and B. marginatum, and the author 
describes as new B. moseleyi from Borneo, B. sumatrense from Sumatra, 
and B. javanum from Java. 

In dealing with the integument the author raises objections to 
Moseley's explanation of the disappearance of cilia in certain parts being 
due to the expulsion of large numbers of i-od-like bodies, and contends 
that these are tegumentary cells which are not ciliated ; in fact he declares 
that the cilia of the surface are confined to what he calls the ambulacral 
bands. The rod-cells are regarded as mesenchymatous structures which 
wander through the surrounding connective tissue, while their contents 
become converted into filamentar rods. Mucous glands are especially 
numerous, and are found over the whole body ; their efferent ducts do 
not appear to have special walls, and the granulated mucous filament is 
found lying in simple lacunsB of the connective tissue. 

The number of layers in the dermomuscular tube appears to vary 
somewhat in Planarians ; in Bipalium dorsovcntral and transverse 
fibres are present in addition to oblique (with a few circular), external 
and internal longitudinal fibres. There is really a kind of muscular 
foot such as is not known even in other Land Planarians. The majority 
of the muscles are homogeneous, and do not even exhibit a differentiation 
into cortex and medulla. B. javanum is strongly pigmented, and the 
colour is due to small black granules which are collected in the connective 
tissue cells and their fine processes ; the pigment is not confined to the 
surface of the body, whereas it is in B. sumatrense very rare in any other 
than the superficial parts. 

The investigation of the nervous system is a matter of some difficulty, 
as the cells and fibres are not easy to distinguish from the larger 
mesenchym cells, but the nuclei of the connective tissue are always 
smaller than those of the ganglion cells, and are always much more 
intensely coloured by hsematoxylin and borax-carmine. Professor Mose- 
ley's account of the histology of the eyes is stated to be correct. The 

* Bull. Soc. Entom. Ital., xx. (18SS) pp. 66. 

t Bijdragen tot de Dierkimdc, xiv. (1887) pp. 63-88 (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 227 

author thinks there is evidence, though of a negative character, that 
the nervous system has a mesodermal origin. 

The species examined were found to be protandric ; in B. javanum 
there are on either side a number of testes lying behind one another, 
and a vas deferens which lies internally to them ; after forming a seminal 
vesicle it opens into a penis, which consists of a sheath, an antrum, and 
an external genital orifice. The ovaries lie just behind the head, the 
oviduct is long, and passes into the so-called uterus ; from the uterus 
the ova pass into the same antrum as that in which the male duct opens. 
Numerous yolk-glands are scattered in the mesenchym. The antrum is 
a spacious cavity, and its epithelium consists of low cells carrying short 
cilia. The ova of B. javanum are said to be laid in a cocoon, which is 
probably formed in the antrum ; the shell appears to be a secretion of 
the penial sheath, and the high glandular epithelium of that organ 
supports this supj)osition. 

5. Incertse Sedis. 

New Rotifer.* — Mr. C. Eousselet describes, under the name of 
Limnias cornuella, a new Rotifer which he found attached to the rootlets 
of a plant (" Triance Bogotensis ") in one of the hot-house tanks in the 
gardens of the Botanical Society in Regent's Park. Its tube looks very 
much like a little horn, and is only about half the size of that of the two 
other species of the genus ; it is not ringed quite as distinctly as that 
of L. annulatus. Its most striking character is the possession of two 
long ventral antennae, which are surmounted by tufts of long setsB. 

Echinodermata. 

Ludwig's Echinodermata-t — Prof. H. Ludwig has commenced a 
second edition of the Echinodermata of Bronn's ' Klassen,' &c. The 
author commences, without any preface, with the Holothurians, of which 
there is a bibliography and a short introductory account. The descrip- 
tion of the skin is begun, but the account of the spicules is not yet 
completed. 

Comatulids of Kara Sea.:|: — In his report on the few species of 
Comatulidee collected in the Kara Sea, Dr. P. H. Carpenter makes some 
remarks on pentacrinoid larvas collected during the expedition, but, 
brought up, unfortunately without any adult specimens accompanying 
them. With the exception of the Pentacrinoids dredged by the ' Chal- 
lenger ' near Ascension, those now under discussion are the largest and 
most robust that the author has seen, and they are much more developed 
than the ' Challenger ' specimens. It is possible, though not probable, 
that we have here the larval forms of Antedon dentata, but Dr. Carpenter 
is inclined to think that they are the young of A. eschrichti. The larger 
larva had a length of 35 mm., which was about equally divided between 
the head and stem ; the latter, which is singularly like that of BMzo- 
crinus, has twenty-nine joints. Its centrodorsal bears fifteen cirri, the 
longest of which has a length of 5 mm. The adult specimens were 
examples of Antedon eschrichti, A. quadrata, and A. prolixa. 

* Joiirn. Quek. Micr. Club, iii. (1888) pp. 337-8 (1 pi.). 

t Bronn's Klassen u. Ordnungeu, ii. 3, bearbeitet von Dr. II. Ludwig, 1. Liof., 
8vo, Leipzig and Heidelberg, 1889, pp, 1-48. 

% Bijdrageu tot de Dierkuude, xiv. (1887) pp. 41-9 (1 pi.). 



228 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Ventral Structure of Taxocrinus and Haplocrinus.* — Messrs. C. 
Wachsmuth and F. Springer bave made certain discoveries in the ventral 
structure of Taxocrinus and Haplocrinus which lead to modifications in 
the classification of the Crinoidea. They have found that the whole 
ventral surface of Haplocrinus is covered by five large plates which meet 
in the centre as in Allagecrinus, and that the " central plate " is a myth ; 
what had been taken for it was a more or less tongue-like prolongation 
of the posterior plate, and a fracture in their original specimen had been 
taken for a suture on the posterior side. They give reasons for now 
thinking that the apparently central plate of many Platycrinidse and 
Actinocrinidte is the posterior oral, pushed inward to a central position by 
anal structures. It would then appear that the five orals of Neocrinoids 
were represented in the Palseocrinoids by the central plate and four 
large proxima]s ; and this view does much to reconcile the conflicting 
views of our authors and of Dr. H. Carpenter ; " the orals being found 
at last to consist of a portion of the proximals which he has claimed, 
with the addition of the central plate which we have contended for. 
This rational result, as often happens in such cases, adopts what was 
sound, and rejects the errors in the views of both parties." 

A well-preserved specimen of Taxocrinus intermedius has demon- 
strated that it had an external mouth, surrounded by five parted oral 
plates, with the ambulacra converging to it and passing in between the 
orals. The authors have now very little doubt that the structure here 
discovered is substantially that of the Ichthyocrinidse in general, and 
that the ventral side of the calyx in this family is morphologically in 
the condition of Thaumafocrinus, and similar to that of Hyocrinus and 
Mhizocrinus. After discussing this matter in some detail and considering 
the alleged points of difference between the Palseocrinoidea and Neo- 
crinoidea^ Messrs. Wachsmuth and Sjjringer come to the conclusion that 
this division is not natural. They now think that four well-defined 
groups can be distinguished as independent primary divisions of the 
Crinoidea : — 1. Camarata ; 2. Inadunata ; 3. Articulata, including the 
Ichthyocrinidae ; and 4. Canaliculata ; the last includes most of the 
mesozoic and recent Crinoids. They are inclined to put Holopus, 
Bathycrinus, and Hyocrinus under the group Larviforma of the Inadunata, 
for they are all monocyclic, and retain throughout life large oral plates. 
Thaumatocrinus may be referred to the Articulata. With these altera- 
tions the Canaliculata would form a well-defined group, containing only 
dicyclic Crinoids, in which the underbasals are anchylosed to the top- 
stem-joint, with which they form the centrodorsal. A revised diagnosis 
of the IcthyocrinidsB is given. 

Crotalocrinus.t — Messrs. C. Wachsmuth and F. Springer give a 
detailed account of the structure of this remarkable palaeozoic Crinoid. 
Its net-formed radial appendages, resembling rather the fronds of a 
Bryozoan than the arms of a Crinoid, have long made it a puzzle to 
naturalists. It is only lately that they have had the opportunity of 
observing actual specimens, and they find that the views as to its struc- 
ture and relationships which they published in their revision of the 
Palaeocrinoids were completely erroneous. They now come to the con- 
clusion that a family of the suborder to be called Crotalocrinidte must be 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. PhilacL, 1888, pp. 337-63 (1 pi.), 
t Ibid., pp. 364-90 (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY. ETC. 229 

made for Crotalocrinus and its ally Enallocrinus, and suitable diagnoses 
are given ; this family is allied to the other Oamarata through Marsu- 
piociHnus. 

Ccelenterata. 

Structure and Development of Colony of Pennatula phosphorea.* — 
Herr H. F. E. Jungersen has had the opportunity of examining a series 
of young stages of Pennatula pJiosphorea, of which he gives an account.. 
To this he prefixes some notes on the anatomy of the adult form, dealing 
with neglected or unobserved points in its structure. Attention is drawn 
to the fact that a transverse section through one of the leaves shows that 
all the polyps of one leaf are arranged in the same direction. Below the 
pharynx the eight septa are continued into the axis through the gastric 
cavity ; the two dorsal septa are lower than the rest and are of ecto- 
dermal origin, while the other six, which are much thicker, more coiled 
and shorter, are of endodermal origin. Gonads are never developed on 
the two dorsal septa ; their filaments take no part in the work of digestion, 
but are of use, thanks to their rich supply of cilia, in the circulation of 
water. In the opinion of the author the dorsal and ventral primary 
canals of the axis have a different morphological value to the two lateral ; 
the latter do not appear to be in direct connection with the animals, but 
communicate by small orifices with the median can -i Is. So little is 
known regarding the developmental history of the Pennatulidse that 
Herr Jungersen's observations, though incomplete, are of considerable 
interest. The youngest specimen, which was 7 mm. long, consisted of a 
single well-developed individual, the stem-polyp or the first individual 
formed from the larva ; it may be called the axial individual or terminal 
polyp. Above, it forms an open cup, at the edge of which are eight 
processes formed by long calcareous needles ; this cup contains a re- 
tracted animal with seizing arms. Below the cup the body is j)rolonged 
in the form of a stalk, and below the lowest bud passes into a somewhat 
enlarged peduncle, which appears to be colourless and was clearly fixed 
in the bottom of the sea ; an internal calcareous axis is already developed. 
There are five buds, four of which are lateral, while one lies in the 
median plane of the axial individual ; the last has no tentacles, under- 
goes no further development, and may be called the axial or terminal 
zooid. It can be easily traced in later stages, and it was found that the 
surface of the axis on wh^ch it is placed is that which is generally known 
as the ventral surface. What has been called the ventral surface of the 
whole colony must be called the dorsal, and the dorsal the ventral. The 
uppermost leaf is always found on the right side of the terminal polyps. 
"When four or five well-developed leaves have been developed on either 
side of the axis the first lateral zooids begin to be formed ; these increase 
in number as development goes on, but no regular arrangement could be 
detected in them. In all cases it happens that there is no terminal 
polyp in the adult colonies of Pennahda phosjjJiorea, though the young 
stages always have one. This terminal polyp remains a purely vegetative 
individual, the individualized part of which either disappears or becomes 
converted into a zooid, while the rest of its body persists as the axis of 
the colony. 

A comparison of the young stages of Benilla and Pennatula points 

* Vi<lenskab. Meddelelser, Copenhagen, 1888, p. 154: translated in Zeitschr. f. 
Wisd. Zool., xlvii. (1S8S) pp. G20-49 (1 pi.). 



230 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

to the conclusion that in the still unknown larva of the latter there is, 
as in the former, developed a transverse wall — the septum of the stalk ; 
in this two longitudinal spaces and a supporting hard structure are later 
developed. It follows that the dorsal and ventral canals are parts of the 
primitive gastric cavity of the axial polyp, while the lateral canals are 
cavities in the walls that separate them, and are probably enlarged 
nutrient canals. This generalization may, perhaps, be safely extended 
■to all other genera of Pannatulidas. 

New Cornularise.* — Mr. J. A. Grieg describes two new species of 
Cornularise from the coast of Norway. Khizoxenia alba has a creeping 
stolon which is adherent to submarine objects ; from this lateral branches 
are given off at right angles to the parent stem, which they connect with 
those adjacent ; the polyp is elongated and smooth, the septa are non- 
calcareous, and the attenuated points of the tentacles are furnished with 
pinnules. The stolon, cell, and polyp are closely covered with spicules. 
Sympodium margaritaceum has a creeping basal part which adheres to 
shells and other marine objects ; the polyps, which are ordinarily 
solitary, are small and project but little ; the cell is firm, very finely 
granulated, and of the same Havannah-brown colour as the lower part; 
it has eight costse. The polyp-body is of a fine pale rose-red colour, 
cylindrical, and with eight tentacles. The oral disc is smooth ; the 
mouth oblong and slightly protuberant ; the pinnules and gullet are non- 
calcareous ; the spicules of the polyp and tentacles are colourless ; they 
extend as far as the points of the latter. 

North- Atlantic Actinida-f — Dr. D. C. Danielssen describes two very 
remarkable genera, the exact systematic position of which is very hard 
to define ; he places them provisionally with the Actinida, but makes for 
them a new tribe, that of the -^girese, which he describes thus :— Actinida 
with a perfect body-cavity (ccBlom) and a developed digestive apparatus, 
consisting of oesophagus, intestine, and anus. The family ^giridse 
contains ^girese, whose body is cylindrical and vermiform ; there are 
twelve single septa, and the ccelom is divided into twelve longitudinal 
chambers. The genus Fenja has an elongate body, furnished with twelve 
longitudinal grooves, between which are twelve longitudinal areas covered 
with suckers. There is a series of a few retractile tentacles.. Twelve 
longitudinal muscles have prominent transverse muscles between them. 
There are twelve genital pores round the anus, outside the rectum. The 
circular muscles are mesodermal, and the sexes are united. The species 
is called F. mirahilis. The genus ^gir (2E. frigidus) has a mucous 
sheath, and small suckers are scattered between the twelve longitudinal 
ribs. There is one cycle of a few tentacles. Immediately above the 
anus there are twelve slender fissures which communicate directly with 
the intestinal passage. The other characters are very similar to those 
of Fenja. 

The anatomy of these interesting forms is described with great care 
and in some detail. As observed alive Fenja was regarded as a Halcampa^ 
and j3Sgir as one of the Cerianthidse. The integument with its epi^ 
thelium, nematocysts, mucous glands, and connective tissue ; the form of 
the tentacles, septa, gonads, and nervous system are all of the Ccelenterate 
type ; but the chief characteristic of the Coelenterata — the gastrovaseular 

* Bergen's Museum Aarsberetning for 1887 (1888), No. 2, 18 pp. (2 pis.), 
t T.c, No. 1, 24 pp. (3 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY^ MICROSCOPY, ETC. 231 

cavity — is transformed into a fully developed intestinal canal which, in 
Fenja, does not communicate directly with the body-cavity. The fissures 
found in ^gir do remind us somewhat of the anatomy of the Ctenophora. 
If the coelom is to be regarded as the decisive feature these two 
genera must be removed from the Coelenterata ; further research may 
show that too much stress has been laid on this character, or we may 
have here only the final stage of a process of development already begun 
in other Actinida. 

Natural History of Fungia.* — Mr. J. J. Lister has a preliminary 
notice of his observations on the life-history of Fungia. The young 
stock has vertical thecal walls ; after a time the upper part begins to 
widen out, and, after forming a shallow cup, gives rise to a disc, de- 
pressed in the centre, with the thecal walls facing directly downwards. 
After the disc is distinctly formed absorption of the calcareous skeleton 
takes place in a plane at right angles to the axis of the attaching stalk. 
When the disc becomes free it has a round scar in the middle of the 
under surface which corresponds to a similar scar at the summit of the 
stalk. This scar ultimately disappears. The free end of the stalk 
throws up delicate fluted laininaa which project above the level of the 
other structures of the scar ; a mouth is formed in the centre, a thecal 
wall becomes developed round the thecal laminge, and a new cup is 
formed; this is not a bud, but a product of the gi'owth of the structures 
already existing in the base of its predecessors. A new disc having been 
formed its stalk undergoes absorption ; in due course a third disc is 
formed, the stalk growing in height as the process is repeated. 

Development of Manicina areolata.f— Dr. H. V. Wilson gives a full 
account of his observations on the development of Manicina areolata, 
the preliminary notice of which was referred to at the time of its aj)pear- 
ance.J With regard to the origin of the Anthozoa the author considers 
that Gotte's objection to the hydroid polyp ancestry of the group is no 
longer valid. The question whether or no the Anthozoa are descended 
from hydroid polyps must be argued out on the ground of some more 
primitive anthozoan development, such as that of Manicina. Here it 
is at once seen that, contrary to Gotte's idea, the invagination of the 
oesophagus does not necessitate the formation of endodermal sacs. The 
surface ectoderm and the oesophagus become apposed along the lines of 
the first and second mesenteries ; this process, though seen in the 
Scyphomedusre as well as the Zoantharia, was probably acquired 
secondarily, and was not a peculiarity of the primitive Anthozoa ; this 
belief is supported by the entire absence of the process in the Alcyonaria. 
The explanation of the process is probably connected with the early 
development of the first pair of filaments. 

Origin of Female Generative Cells in Podoeoryne Sars.§— Mr. C. 
Ishikawa has studied the history of the development of the female 
generative cells of Podoeoryne carnea. Weisniann was unable to observe 
the wandering of the ectodermal cells into the endoderm, but his pupil 
now brings forward evidence to show that the primordial female germ- 
cells arise in the ectoderm of the young medusa-bud, and thence wander 

♦ Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., xxix. (1888) pp. 359-63. 

t Journal of Morphology, ii. (1888) pp. 191-252 (7 pis.). 

X See this Journal, 1888, p. 434. 

§ Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Zool., xlvii. (1888) pp. 621-5. 



232 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

very early into the endoderm, where they become differentiated into 
germ-cells as Weismann had supposed. 

Cunoctantha and Gastrodes.* — Prof. A. Korotneff has notes on these 
two difficult forms ; Gastrodes is new ; of Cunoctantha he has studied 
two quite young stages which he found in the stomach of very young 
Geryonise, where they appeared as small white dots. A transverse section 
through the gastric wall of a young Geryonia revealed an elongated oval 
larva completely imbedded in an endoderm formed of large cells. Its 
ectoderm consists of long delicate cells, which only form one row, and 
contain a considerable number of nematocysts. These ectodermal 
elements are, obviously, in a state of active division, at the free pole of 
the body, and the appearance was that of a somewhat coarsely granular 
Plasmodium, in which separate nuclei were imbedded. At the free pole 
the ectoderm and entoderm pass into one another ; the larva under 
observation was just forming its endoderm, and only two nuclei were 
apparent in that layer. In a later stage the ectoderm was found to 
contain a considerably larger number of nematocysts, and the endoderm, 
though still plasmodial in character, had many more nuclei, which were 
much smaller than those of the ectoderm. One nucleus of the ingrowing 
ectoderm has become very large, and is placed at the upper, oral end of 
the larva ; this is, no doubt, the peculiar colossal nucleus of tlie larva. 
The nematocysts, which are wanting in the adult Cunoctanthse, are 
present in numbers in free-swimming larvae. The loss of these organs 
may be due to the acquirement of a parasitic habit. 

The name of Gastrodes parasiticum is given to a form which appears 
to have some affinities to Cunoctantha ; it was found in the gelatinous coat 
of Salpa fusiformis in the winter of 1886; in 1887 the author failed to 
find it. When slightly magnified it has the form of a round cake with 
a flat base and a curved upper surface. From the base a process projects 
into the interior ; looked at from above this invagination is seen to carry 
a central oral opening. It is a scarcely altered gastrula, for it is a 
saccular organism in which only two layers can be made out, which 
has no true coelom, and takes in nourishment by means of a primitive 
mouth. This mouth is not at the end of the body, but at the tip of a 
proboscis-like prolongation which is invaginated into the interior. It 
calls to mind the stomach of an Actinian, and leads into a cavity which 
has, however, no septa. The ectoderm and endoderm are separated by 
a supporting lamella. The ectoderm is of the simplest construction 
on its curved surface, for there is there a single layer formed of low cells, 
and only in places multilaminate ; this layer owes the simplicity of its 
structure to the parasitic habit of Gastrodes ; there are no nematocysts 
or muscular fibres. On the lower surface and on the oral tube there are 
large distinct ovarian cells, in which may be seen a large germinal vesicle 
and a fine reticulum ; they form an unbroken series round the margin of 
the animal ; the complete development of these eggs may be studied in 
one and the same individual. The gelatinous layer is a thin lamella 
which is only well developed at the margin, where it forms a ring. The 
endoderm consists of two sets of elements ; some are low, cubical cells 
like those of the ectoderm, others, which are large, form the lateral walls 
of the gastric cavity ; the latter also form a plasmatic network. There 
are no special gland-cells in the endoderm of Gastrodes. 

* Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Zool., xlvli. (1888) pp. (J50-7 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 233 

In a younger stage the gelatinous ring was found to be wanting ; in 
its place tliere was a large cell which appears to be quite identical with 
an endodermal cell, as it has a plasmatic plexus, and a large network ; 
as to the fate of this cell nothing is yet known. This younger form 
had only a single row of large endodermal cells, and these form a 
circular lining to the gastric cavity ; each of the large cells assimilates 
the neighbouring small cells. The resemblance between Cunoctantha 
and Gastrodes is unmistakable; the endodermal dimorphism of 
Gastrodes differs only from that of Cunoctantha in that the small cells of 
the latter are at first completely covered by the giant cells. Morpho- 
logical differentiation is more markedly exhibited in Gastrodes than in 
Cunoctantha ; instead of one large cell there is a complete generation of 
such cells, which have, however, lost their power of movement (formation 
of pseudopodia) and only function as gastric digestive cells. 

Porifera. 

Stelospong^us flabelliformis.* — Mr. A. Dendy gives an account of the 
anatomy and histology of this South Australian sponge, the characteristics 
of which were briefly diagnosed by Mr. H. J. Carter in 1885. A specimen 
was fortunately found containing a large number of enormous spherical 
embryos, each as large as a small pea. The entire surface of the sponge 
is thickly incrusted with sand-particles, which give a very hard, im- 
penetrable character to the sponge, and must form an admirable protec- 
tion against the attacks of the numerous parasites to which sponges are 
very subject, and it functionally replaces the special dermal skeleton of 
spicules which is found in very many siliceous sponges. 

The skeleton is thoroughly typical in structure and arrangement, 
and is essentially the same as that of the bath-sponge, only much 
coarser. A reticulate skeleton may be regarded as derived from the 
radiate by a development of secondary fibres connecting the primaries ; 
the majority, at any rate, of the so-called horny sponges are descended, 
probably along several lines, from the Haiichondrina, by the gradual loss 
of the spicules and the greater development of spongin in a reticulate 
skeleton. In the species under discussion the skeleton fibres may some- 
times be seen projecting freely from the surface of the sponge ; this'^s a 
character often observed in siliceous forms. 

The canal system, which is carefully described, is seen to differ 
little from the ordinary lacunar type so characteristic of the Haiichon- 
drina. The outermost portion of the ectosome is formed by an extremely 
thin and delicate epidermis ; cystenchyme cells are present, and the 
stellate mesodermal cells appear to be thoroughly typical. The struc- 
ture of the choanosome is considered under the heads of (1) the walls of 
the inhalant and exhalant canals, (2) the walls of the embryo-containing 
cavities, (3) the walls of the flagellated chambers, (4) the general mass 
of mesoderm in which the chambers and canals are imbedded, and (5) the 
spongoblasts and other mesodermal cells surrounding the skeleton 
fibres. 

The ovum of S. flabelliformis lies in a fibrous capsule, and has a 
longer diameter of 0*076 mm., while that of the nucleus, which lies at 
one pole, is • 024 mm. All the embryos, except one or two of the 
smaller ones, w^ere solid. The surface, under a pocket-lens, exhibits a 

* Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., xxix. (1888) pp. 325-58 (4 pis.)- 
1889. R 



234 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

minutely punctate appearance, due to the presence of an immense 
number of shallow pits ; each of these is the imprint of one of the large 
epithelial cells of the embryo-capsule. The outer layer of the embryo 
consists of rather large, closely-packed cells, inclosing a mass of clear, 
transparent, jelly-like substance, in which immense numbers of amceboid 
wandering cells are imbedded. The ectoderm consists of a single layer 
of large sac- or flask -shaped cells, the neck of which is on the outer side 
of the embrjo; the swollen portion projects inwards into the gelatinous 
intercellular substance, and from its inner extremity frequently sends 
out a few very short, slender, pseudopodial processes. 

The unusual length of time during which the embryo remains within 
the mother sponge, and the great size to which it attains, necessitate 
some special arrangement whereby it may be nourished; Mr. Dendy 
believes that the investing epithelium has the function of nourishing the 
embryo, absorption of nutriment being effected through the elongated 
necks of some of the ectodermal cells. 

Within the ectodermal layer the embryo consists of a clear, jelly-like 
matrix, in which there are numerous large amoeboid cells. These appear 
to be simply ectodermal cells which have wandered into the central 
jelly ; many of them become rounded, and so arranged as to give rise to 
hollow chambers, lined by small spherical cells ; these cavities the 
author regards as young flagellated chambers. Coincidently with the 
formation of these a slit-like invagination appears on the surface of 
the sponge, and it is around this that the chambers are formed. The 
invagination is probably the commencement of a communication between 
the chambers and the exterior ; but, unfortunately, it has not yet been 
possible to trace the development further. 

It is not yet known how the embryos of Stelospongus escape from 
the parent ; they may, as they increase in size, rupture the walls of the 
oscular tubes near which they lie, when they would be forcibly ejected 
with the outgoing stream of water ; or the sponge may die down in the 
winter, and the embryos be released by the decay of the maternal 
tissues. 

Protozoa. 

Biitschli's ' Protozoa.'* — Prof. Biitschli continues his general ac- 
count of the organization of the ciliate Infusoria, and devotes a large 
portion of the lately published parts to a history of the nuclei ; the 
membranous investments are also described, and the processes of repro- 
duction are begun, though not disposed of. 

Infusorial! Fauna of the Bay of KieLj — Prof. K. Mobius com- 
mences his account of the Infusoria of the Bay of Kiel with a description 
of Euplotes harpa ; various corrections are made in Stein's account of 
this species. In addition to reproduction by transverse fission, a special 
mode of gemmation after encystation was observed. In the latter mode 
the creature rolls itself up, the cilia cease to beat, and the body becomes 
surrounded by a delicate cyst ; granules appear in the ectoplasm which 
refract the light strongly. The contractile vacuole grows considerably 
and divides into smaller vacuoles ; these continually alter in form and 
size and make their way into the protoplasm. Opposite the pectinellae 

* Bronn's Klassen u. Ordnungen, i. Protozoa (1888) pp. 1489-1584 (pis. 
Ixxii.-v.). t Arch. f. Naturgesch., liv, (1888) pp. 81-116 (7 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MIOBOSOOPY, ETC. 235 

there appears a wart-like elevation whicli contains vacuoles ; this 
increases in size, becomes constricted off from the mother-body, pushes 
out delicate cilia, elongates and takes on the form of its parent. While 
these changes have been going on the nucleus undergoes considerable 
changes ; it elongates, becomes bowed, then constricted, and finally 
breaks up into several pieces. The difference between the behaviour of 
the nucleus in fission and gemmation is explained thus : in fission all the 
developed external organula take part ; but they merely distribute 
themselves into the two halves, and in each there is a kind of regeneration 
vehich affects the nucleus ; in gemmation, on the other hand, the whole 
body of the bud is newly formed from the substance of the parent, and 
a closer relative connection between the nuclear substance and the body- 
plasma becomes necessary. 

A more accurate account and figures than any yet published are 
given of the red spots of Oxytricha rubra ; they are not sharply bounded 
spheres, but merely consist of spherical aggregations of yellowish-red 
granules. Three new species of Stichotricha, S. gracilis, S. saginata, 
and S. horrida, are described. 

Of the Heterotricha Porpostoma (P. notatum) is a new genus which 
is distinguished from Spirostoma by the lip-like thickenings near the 
mouth. In dealing with the Peritricha a somewhat detailed account is 
given of Zoothamnium CienJwwsJcii ; among the Holotricha Uronema 
marinum is fully described, as is Soplitophrya fastigata sp. n. Tricho- 
nema gracile is a new cilio-flagellate ; Salpingoeca procera and Monosiga 
sinuosa new choanoflagellates ; while Urceolus ovatus, Anisonema multi- 
costatum, and Diplomastix Dalilii are new flagellates. 

New or Little-known Infusoria.* — M. J. Kunstler has found an 
infusorian about 60 /* long in the terminal part of the intestine of 
Limulus. Its general appearance recalls that of Lophomonas hlat- 
tarum, but the present species, which is not named, is not identical with 
it. In the intestine of a Tipulid larva a number of Flagellata allied to 
Bodo were found ; some of the creatures are from 8 to 10 /a long, and 
the anterior flagella are remarkable for their length; others, which 
appear to belong to a different species, have an elongated body and 
execute spiral movements. The intestine of JffydropJiilus contains a 
small Monocercomonas ; its form changes, and while some of these 
changes do not alter the general configuration of the body, others are 
true amoeboid movements which are localized at the hinder part of the 
body ; at the anterior extremity there are four equal flagella, three of 
which are connected at their base. Encystation has been observed. 
The same insect has a small Amceha as a guest. The vagina of the cow 
contains a Trichomonas, as does the intestine of the pig, and the mouth 
of a man in ill-health. A very remarkable new ciliated infusorian has 
been observed in the intestine of Periplaneta orientalis. 

New Infusorian. t— Prof. A. Giard gives the name of Pebrilla 
(P. paguri) to a new genus of Infusorians found living on the hermit- 
crab. It forms small colonies which are placed either in the vicinity 
of the foot or at the posterior extremity of the abdomen, and which are 
visible to the naked eye as black patches which retain their colour, 

* Comptes Eendus, cvii. (1888) pp. 953-5. 

t Bull. Sci. de la France et de la Belg., 1888, p. 316 (2 figs.). Ann. and Mas:. 
Nat. Hist., iii. (1889) p. 69. t- v & / o 

R 2 



236 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

even after having been long preserved in spirit. Its capsnle is of an 
oblong-ovate form with a projecting tubercle at the hinder extremity, 
within which the actual body of the infusorian is attached ; it is strongly 
constricted in the middle, and the aperture is surrounded by a nearly 
erect or slightly everted collar. It forms an interesting addition to the 
long list of commensals found on Eupagurus BernJiardus. 

Luminosity of Noctiluca miliaris.* — Dr. L. Plate has lately made 
a thorough investigation of Noctiluca miliaris. He describes the 
nucleus as a vesicle bounded by a distinct membrane, the limpid 
contents of which are sometimes perfectly homogeneous, but which, as a 
rule, have several nucleoli which are true globules and not threads, as 
described by Cienkowski. He accepts Biitschli's explanation of the 
so-called bacillar organ, according to which its ridges are produced 
merely by a particularly close attachment of the plasma to the body 
membrane. The formation of swarmers is more frequent than repro- 
duction by simple division. 

All observers are agreed that the luminosity of Noctiluca may be 
called forth by any strong irritation, so long as air is not excluded ; as 
the light is extinguished in nitrogen it seems to follow that the lumin- 
osity is an oxidation process. Further observations may be adduced in 
favour of this proposition ; the luminosity occurs only in the peripheral 
plasma of the body, and regenerating forms, which accumulate at the 
bottom of a vessel of water, are made to phosphorize^with much more 
difficulty than normal individuals swimming at the surface, and under 
the influence of the atmospheric air. When pure oxygen was passed 
over specimens for some minutes a dull light was produced which was 
visible for about ten minutes after the evolution of the gas. 

If Noctilucse be laid upon moist blotting-paper and examined under a 
high power, the light may be found to belong to one of four categories : — 

(1) Lightning-like; intense luminosity of the whole outer layer, 
immediately followed by darkness. 

(2) The same, but with a faint after-luminosity persisting for one or 
two minutes. 

(3) Dull luminosity of the outer zones of plasma, or of some consider- 
able portions of it, with simultaneous strong sparkling of small points. 

(4) A large portion of the surface is entirely or partially luminous, 
the luminosity being composed of numerous small points. 

This luminosity appears to be involuntary, and induced by external 
irritation. As to the lighting-up of the sea, it would appear that the 
wind and the strength of the waves alone exert any appreciable influ- 
ence ; the light is not so fine when the waves break strongly, as then the 
Noctilucse are drawn down too far beneath the surface of the water. 

Red Organisms of the Red Sea.-j"— Herr K. Mobius criticizes the 
theory of Krukenberg that the red colour of the Eed Sea is due to 
specimens of Noctiluca miliaris; this red colour (hsematochrome) is 
stated to disappear rapidly in alcohol. As the Noctilucse of the North 
Sea are always colourless, Mobius suggests that the colour was due to 
the infusoria having recently eaten Trichodesmium erythreeum, or that 
specimens of that Oscillarian had got into the bottle with the Noctilucse. 
We still require to know what substances, if any, of the animal are 

* Zool. Jahrb., iii. (1888) pp. 174-80. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., iii. (1889) 
PP- 22-8. t SB. Gesell. Naturf. Frennde, 1888, pp. 3-4, 17-18. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY^ MICROSCOPY, ETC. 237 

reddish, or whether it was food, or other red organisms that produced 
the colour, 

RMzopods of Gulf of Genoa.* — Prof. A. Gruber, who described in 
1884 some Protozoa from Genoa, gives here some notes on new and 
little-known Ehizopods. 

Protomyxa pallida sp. n. is seen at once to dififer from Haeckel's 
P. aurantiaca by its colourless protoplasm. It never takes on a 
Heliozoon stage, but tends to extend itself; the streaming in the pro- 
cesses is very lively, and the pseudopodia form such wide branches as 
to sometimes extend over a space of 4-8 mm. The nuclear substance is 
scattered in numerous small constituents through the protoplasm ; the 
granules are so small that, with high powers, they are merely fine dots 
coloured dark-red by picrocarmine ; in life they cannot be distinguished 
from the other granulations in the protoplasm. It will be remembered 
that Haeckel's species was said to have no nucleus, but that is only to 
be expected when the condition of microscopical technique at the time of 
its discovery is considered. 

Under the head of various Amoehse Prof. Gruber remarks that, on 
several occasions, he has attempted to show that definite specific diagnoses 
can be drawn up of these variable forms; the amount of difficulty in 
doing so varies, and with regard to the marine species, he has not yet 
been very successful. He has, however, recognized the species which he 
has called Ameeha fluida. Another one, which always contains yellow 
drops or spheres, he now calls A. glohifera, and a third, on account of 
its yellowish colour, is called A. Jiavescens, In the last no nucleus can 
be made out during life, but after staining, several vesicular nuclei may 
be seen ; it is the first true multinuclear Amoeba which the author has 
found in the sea. 

The name of Schultzia diffluens is now applied to the species which 
the author first called Lieherkuhnia diffluens ; its whole sarcode is filled 
with extremely small nucleoli, which become evident on treatment with 
picrocarmine. A real member of the genus LieberJcuhnia is a new species 
which is called L. Butschlii ; it agrees in many points with L. Wagneri, 
as described by Maupas, but differs by its much larger size, and by the 
characters of its nuclei. 

The protoplasm of Polymastix sol sends out processes which, though 
they look like pseudopodial rays, are capable of flagellar movements, 
and the question arises whether we have here a Heliozoon with flagellate 
pseudopodia, or a Fagellate with radiate flagella ; the organism named 
by Cienkowski Multicilia marina appears to be identical with this 
Polymastix. 

Pseudopodia and Cilia.t — Prof. O. Zacharias refers to a statement 
by Prof. A. Gruber in regard to Polymastix sol, in which he says, " of 
pseudopodia which behave like cilia, nothing is hitherto known." 
Zacharias recalls his experiments J with the spermatozoa of Polyphemus 
pediculus which, in 3 per cent, salt solution, developed very active 
pseudopodia. Eeference might also be made to the facts noted by 
Geddes in his ' Eestatement of the Cell-Theory.' § 

* Ber. Naturf. Gesell. Freiburg, ii. (1888) pp. 33-44 (1 pi.), 
t Biolog. Centialbl., viii. (1888) pp. 548-9. 
t Zeitschr. f. Wiss. Zoo]., xli. (1884) pp. 252-8 (1 pi.). 
§ Proc. Roy. Soc. Ediu., xlii. (1883-4) pp. 266-92 (1 pL). 



238 SUMMARY OP CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Structure of Pylomata of Protista.* — ^Herr F. Dreyer gives us a 
comparative and developmental history of the structure of the pylomata 
of the Radiolarians and of the Protista in general, to which he adds a 
system and description of new and known pylomatic Spumellaria. The 
■work is mainly based on ' Challenger ' material, and may be considered 
as a continuation of that done by Haeckel on the Eadiolaria. The 
term " pylom " is used instead of " osculum," which was the name used 
by Haeckel for the oral orifice of some Spumellaria; the change of 
designation recommends itself as preventing any misunderstanding 
which might arise from the central capsule having an " osculum." 

In the chapter on the system and special description of the pylomatic 
Spumellaria a number of new forms are described, which we must be 
content to enumerate. The Sphseropylida is a new family of the 
Sphseroidea ; it has two subfamilies, the Monostomida, with the genus 
Sphseropyle, in which there are seven new species, and Prunopyle, in 
which there are eleven ; and the Amphistomida has a single new genus 
Stomatosphsera, with two species. Of the Phacodiscida, the Phacopylida, 
with PJiacopyle stomatopora g. et sp. n., is a new family; of the 
Porodiscida there are eight new species; the Spongopylida is a new 
family of the Spongodiscida, with a single genus Spongopyle and eight 
species. The Larcopylida is a new family of the Larcoidea for Larco- 
pyle Butschlii g. et sp. n. 

The third chapter deals with the comparative anatomy and develop- 
ment of the pylomata of Radiolarians in general. These structures may 
be primary or secondary ; the former are pylomata which were already 
present when a connected skeleton began to be formed, the latter have 
appeared after the skeleton was complete, and, in many cases, when it 
was already highly developed. The characters of these are considered 
in detail. 

The influence of the pyloma on the form of the whole shell in the 
Protista in general is next discussed ; it appears to have a tendency to 
draw out the shell in the direction of its primary axis. In this direction 
the radial skeletal parts become disposed. The various modifications 
which obtain are dealt with in considerable detail. 

The fifth chapter treats of the constancy of the pylom in species and 
its ontogenetic development in the Eadiolaria. It would appear that the 
pylom is not constant, being sometimes present and sometimes absent, 
whence we may conclude that the process of pylom formation is still in 
a fluid condition. It does not, of course, follow that all pylomata are 
inconstant, and in many cases it is not so. 

The author gives ample evidence of the extraordinary " labyrinth of 
forms " which is to be seen among Ehizopods, and hopes that this and 
succeeding memoirs will do something to make us understand the 
complex morphological relations of the Ehizopoda and the causes that 
have brought them about. 

* Jenaische Zeitschr. f. Naturwiss., xxiii. (1888) pp. 77-214 (6 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 239 

BOTANY. 

A. GENEBAIi, including the Anatomy and Physiolog-y 

of the Phanerogamia. 

a. Anatomy.* 

Q) Cell-structure and Protoplasm. 

Nuclear Origin of Protoplasm.t — M. C. Degagny discusses further 
some points whicii were only briefly treated in his former communication 
on this subject. The history of the cell-nucleus is by no means finished. 
New facts are continually being added which at first appear contradictory 
to those already known. Observers who have studied the cell-nucleus 
have noticed the peculiar phenomena which accompany the different 
movements and evolutions of the chromatic bodies. These movements 
are in part the result of intermittent contractions and dilatations, of which 
these bodies are the seat. From observing the nucleus of the mother- 
cell of the embryo-sac of the fritillary, the author shows that there 
exists an immediate antagonism between the freshly formed protoplasm 
which condenses at the base of the nucleus and the chromatic bodies. 

The hyaloplasm is secreted in quantity by the hypertrophied nucleus 
of the mother-cell of the sac ; but hyaloplasm is not only produced in 
the nucleus, but is expelled by incompatibility with the chromatic 
bodies. Among the processes which belong especially to matters derived 
from nuclear activity is one by means of which these bodies are able to 
take upon themselves well-determined geometrical forms. 

Intercellular Protoplasm.^ — M. 0. Sauvageau describes an instance 
of this structure in the roots which proceed from the nodes of the stem 
of Naias major and minor. These have a very small central vascular 
cylinder and a large cortex ; the cortical parenchyme consists of several 
rows of cells with intercellular passages, which increase in size from the 
tip to the older part of the root ; in the adult region these become 
aeriferous canals, with cuticular coatings.§ Towards the tip of the root 
there is no intercellular protoplasm ; it begins to be observed, however, 
in the aeriferous canals 1-2 cm. from the tip. 

The origin of this intercellular protoplasm is from hernioid pro- 
tuberances which project from the adjacent cells into the canals ; some- 
times a cell will put out protuberances into two contiguous canals. 
They can become so large as to fill up the whole of the canal ; they 
frequently contain starch-grains, and very rarely the cell-nucleus is to 
be found in them. The protrusion may be either closed or ruptured at 
the extremity. They are especially well shown on longitudinal section, 
and are then seen usually to proceed from the lower extremity of a cell. 
Their formation takes place at a very early period. 

C2) Other Cell-contents (including- Secretions). 

Hydrolencites and. Grains of Aleurone. jl — M. P. Van Tieghem calls 
attention to the researches of Wakker and Went ^ by which the so-called 

* This subdivision contains (1) Cell-structure and Protoplasm; (2) Other Cell- 
contents (including Secretions); (3) Structure of Tissues; and (4) Structure of 
Organs. 

t Bull. See. Bot. France, xxxv. (1888) pp. 348-57. Cf. this Journal, 1888, p. 440. 

t Morot's Journ. de Bot., ii. (1888) pp. 396-403 (4 figs.). 

§ Cf. this Journal, 1886, p. 471. |1 Morot's Journ. de Bot., ii. (1888) pp. 429-32. 

i Cf. this Journal, 1888, pp. 443 and 981. 



240 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

aleurone-grains liave been proved to be vacuoles containing albuminoid 
substances whicb have undergone desiccation. He proposes to limit in 
future the use of the term vacuole to actual cavities in the protoplasm, 
and to call the structures hitherto termed vacuoles which make up the 
cell-sap Jiydroleucites, corresponding to amyloleucites, chromoleucites, 
chloroleucites, elaioleucites, oxalileucites, &c. These hydroleucites may 
be tanniferous, oxaliferous, coloured, albuminiferous, &c., the last cor- 
responding to the structures ordinarily known as aleurone-grains. They 
have been rendered for the time passive and inert by desiccation, and 
pass again into the active state during the germination of the seed. 
They may be distinguished as passive or reserve-leucites in contra- 
distinction to the active leucites. 

Xanthophyllidrine.* — Prof. L. Macchiati gives a short note on this 
substance, which he believes to be entirely new and quite distinct 
from xanthophyll, or from the yellow colouring matter of petals, being 
especially distinguished by its property of crystallizing, and by its 
insolubility in ether and alcohol. It is an invariable accompaniment 
of chlorophyll, at least in all flowering plants examined, and probably 
exercises an important function in connection with it, which will be 
the subjects of future investigation. 

New Principle from Ergot of Rye, Ergosterin.f — M. C. Tauret 
describes the preparation, composition, and chemical and physical 
properties of ergosterin, a new crystallizable substance obtained from 
ergot of rye. Ergosterin gives the same colour reactions as chole- 
sterin, except in the case of sulphuric acid and chloroform. 

Colouring Matter of Drosera "WMttakeri.J— Prof. E. H. Eennie 
has examined the tubers which grow at the end of the underground 
stem of this species, found in the neighbourhood of Adelaide, and 
finds them to contain a red colouring matter with the formula 
CjiHgOi, probably a methyl-trihydroxy-napthaquinone. 

Mineral Substances in Leaves.§ — Sig. G. Briosi has examined the 
amount of ash in the leaves of a large number of trees and shrubs, 
both evergreen and deciduous, belonging to a great variety of natural 
orders, and gives the following as his general conclusions. 

Except in a few cases, the amount of mineral substances in ever- 
green leaves increases vfith age, while the proportion of organic sub-, 
stances not only does not increase, but even tends to diminish. The 
proportion of mineral substance is less in the petiole than in the 
lamina ; and in the petiole the amount both of mineral and of organic 
substances increases with age. In Eucalyptus globulus the horizontal 
are richer in mineral matter than the vertical leaves. 

In trees with deciduous leaves the quantity of inorganic substances 
increases, during the first months of life, from spring to autumn (except 
in Cerasus avium); in the annual leaves of herbaceous plants the 
quantity of ash does not increase with age, but decreases regularly from 
spring to autumn. In the wood and bark the proportion of inorganic 

* Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital., xx. (1888) pp. 474-6. 
t Comptes Eendus, cviii. (1889) pp. 98-100. 
t Trans. Koy. Soc. S. Australia, x. (1888) pp. 72-3. 

§ 1st. Bot. R. Univ. Pavia, 1888, 63 pp. See Bull, Soc. Bot. France, xxxv. 
(18S8), Rev. Bibl., p. 177. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 241 

substances is much less than in the leaves. Generally speaking, the 
leaves of evergreen trees one year old contain a greater quantity of 
ash than those of herbaceous plants. 

C3) Structure of Tissues. 

Secretion-reservoirs.* — M. F. Jadin has examined the location 
of the reservoirs of secretions in plants belonging to a large number of 
different families. The AroidesB have canals, pockets, and cells, all 
of which play the part of secreting organs. The arrangement in Dico- 
tyledons may be grouped under the following heads, viz. : — (1) 
Cortical canals in the root and the stem (some Clusiacese) ; (2) endo- 
dermal canals in the root and the stem (Compositaa) ; (3) pericyclic 
canals in the root and the stem (UmbellifersB, Araliacese, Pittosporese, 
Hypericaceas) ; (4) liber-canals in the root and the stem (Terebin- 
thacese); (5) liber-canals in the root only (Liquidambaraceee) ; (6) 
ligneous canals in the root and the stem (Dipterocarpese) ; (7) ligneous 
canals in the stem only (some Simarubese and Liquidambaracese); (8) 
medullary canals in the stem only (Bixaceae). The part of the plant 
in which secreting organs are least often found is the root. 

Reservoirs of Gum in Rhamnacese.t — MM. L. Guignard and Colin 
have observed in certain Ehamnaceae reservoirs of gum or mucilage, 
analogous to those found in Malvaceae and Tiliaceae. They are to be 
met with in Bhamnus, Hovenia, Ceanothus, Palinurus, Zizyphus, Gouania, 
&c., while they have not been observed in Berchemia, Sarcomphalus, 
Alphitonia, Colubrina, &c. In every case the reservoirs, whatever their 
size, can be easily studied with the aid of alcoholic hsematoxylin, which 
colours the contents. The reservoirs are to be met with either in the 
stem, leaf, or petiole, or in the pericarp of the fruit ; they, however, 
appear to be absent from the primary and secondary roots. 

Palisade-parenchyme.l — Herr O. Eberdt has investigated the struc- 
ture and origin of the palisade-parenchyme in the leaves of a number of 
species of plants. He dissents from the view of Stahl that this particular 
form of cell can be called into existence directly by the action of light, 
regarding it, on the contrary, as in general a hereditary property. Most 
plants, or especially their leaves, display from the first a disposition to 
form at least one layer of palisade-cells without the influence of any 
external agency. This is shown by the existence of this one layer even 
in leaves found in the deepest shade or in the dark. The lengthening 
of the palisade-cells and the increase in the number of layers are 
brought about by the concurrent action of assimilation and transpiration, 
the length of the cells or the number of layers being in proportion to 
the extent to which these two forces co-operate. If the amount of 
transpiration be very small, then, notwithstanding active assimilation, a 
dissolution of the palisade-parenchyme may take place by the formation 
of intercellular spaces, and the consequent loosening of the tissue. 

* ' Les organes secreteurs des vegetaux et la matiere me'dicale,' 83 pp. and 3 pis., 
Montpellier, 1888. See Bull. Bot. Soc. France, xxxvi. (1888) Kev. Bibl., p. 178. 

t Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xxxv. (1888) pp. 325-7. 

X Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Resell., vi. (1888) pp. 360-74. Cf. this Journal, ante, 
p. 82. 



242 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Sclerenchymatous Cells in the Flesh of the Pear.* — According to 
Herr H. Potonie, the sclerenchymatous cells which, in the cultivated 
pear, are scattered through the flesh, lie, in the wild forms, in a closed 
very hard zone surrounding the core; and he regards them as the 
remains of a shell which, in the ancestors of the present species, 
inclosed the seeds, as is now the case with the medlar and with many 
species of Crataegus. The same applies also to the quince and to some 
Oleaceaa. 

Development of Cork- wings. f — Miss E. L. Gregory now describes 
the development of cork-wings in certain species of the genus Euonymus. 
The first important consideration on taking up the study of the wing in 
this genus is, that we have no longer to do with large trees, but with 
small trees and shrubs. Of the thirteen species of Euonymus examined, 
five may be said to be winged, and of these E. alatus, formerly described 
as Celastrus alatus Thb., presents the most marked and striking example. 
In this species there are four sharp thin wings extending along the 
internodes, not at the corners, but as nearly as may be exactly between 
them. The formation of the wing takes place ordinarily after the 
internode has reached its full length. The first indication of it externally 
is a little line of brown flecks at equal distances from the ridges at the 
corners. The author concludes by stating that the periderm does not 
originate from the epidermal cells, if by periderm is meant the corky 
growth covering older stems, but from certain layers of cells at a greater 
or less distance below the epiderm. The cells which are cut off from 
the epidermal layer form an additional support to the outer collen- 
chymatous cylinder which at first is only two layers in thickness. By 
means of these additional cells from the epiderm the number of layers 
is often increased to six or seven. 

Bordered Pits of Conifers.^ — Dr. Wille gives particulars of the size 
and distribution of the bordered pits in Conifers, especially in Pinus 
sylvestris, P. Larix, and P. Abies. He finds that in each section (zone) 
of the stem the outer and the inner border of the pits do not attain 
their full size for about ten years, the size remaining after this nearly 
constant. The border of the pits in the autumn-cells is nearly of the 
same size in all the annual rings. No rule can be laid down with 
regard to the relative size of the pits at different heights in the stem. 

Accumulation of Reserve-substances in Trees.§ — Dr. E. Hartig 
has determined, as the result of a number of experiments, that the 
purpose of the accumulation of reserve-materials in the trunks of trees 
is to supply tlie material for the production of seeds ; and that the 
periodicity in the occurrence of good fruit-years depends on the gradual 
collection of food-supplies, which are then used up in the abundant pro- 
duction of seeds. 

Fibrovascular Bundles in the Petiole of Nierenbergia rivularia.|| 
— M. Lamounette states that the petiole of Nierenhergia rivularia is 
slightly winged on the two sides. If a transverse section be made of an 

* Naturwiss. Wochenschr., iii. (1888) pp. 19-21 (1 pi.). See Bot. Oentralbl., 
xxxvi. (1888) p. 266. 

t Bot. Gazette, xiii. (1888) pp. 3] 2-6. Cf. this Journal, ante, p. 84. 

t Ber. Naturf. Gesell. Halle, (1887) 1888, pp. 1-39. 

§ Bot. Ztg., xlvi. (1888) pp. 837-42. 

II Bull. Soc. d'Hist. Nat. Toulouse, xxiv, (1888) pp. xviii.~xxi. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICEOSCOPY, ETC. 243 

adult petiole, a central fibrovascular arc will be found, and between the 
extremities of this arc and the wing, both to right and to left, will be 
seen three or four fibrovascular bundles. By a most cursory observa- 
tion it will be seen that these lateral fibrovascular bundles are exactly 
parallel to the foliar bundle, and longitudinal sections will show that 
there is no communication between the different bundles of the petiole. 
Finally it will be seen that each of these lateral bundles possesses a 
simple and complete pericyclic layer. The author then traces the 
formation of these lateral bundles which he states are formed at the 
expense of the parenchyme of the wings of the petiole. 

Vascular Bundles in the Rhizome of Monocotyledons.* — Herr 

W. Laux gives the following as the general results of his investigations 
on this subject. The concentric or perixylematic bundles of the rhizome 
are not distinguished from the collateral bundles of the leaf and stem 
by the nature of their elementary constituents, but only by the relative 
position of the xylem and phloem. The passage from a collateral to a 
concentric bundle usually takes place by the xylem enveloping the 
phloem in one and the same bundle ; and the transition from one to the 
other is usually very gradual. One and the same collateral bundle may 
be first transformed into the concentric and then back into the collateral 
type ; this has been observed in the nodes of Juncacese. In one and the 
same transverse section all stages of transition may be seen from the 
collateral to the concentric type ; the collateral bundles belonging to 
older, the concentric to the younger leaves. 

As regards the arrangement of the bundles in the rhizome, this is 
nearly uniform in the genus Juncus, while in Carex it displays the 
greatest variation, arranged under as many as nine different types, if the 
structure of the cortex is taken into account. A connection in general 
terms was observed between the arrangement under these different types 
and the nature of the habitat of the species. Those species which 
exhibit large lacunas in the fundamental tissue, especially in the cortical 
parenchyme, inhabit moist localities ; whilst those which grow in dry 
situations, as on grass-plots, have their fundamental tissue more solid. 
Both collateral and concentric bundles occur in the same genus. 

Bacillar Tumour on Pinus halepensis.f — M. P. Vuillemin describes 
the structure of a bacterian gall found on Pinus halepensis. In the 
cavity which was found on making a section was an accumulation of 
immotile bacilli which were feebly stained by anilin. In the hyper- 
trophied parenchyme were woody irregular nuclei having circular or 
sinuous outlines. A more complete dissection, combined with the 
examination of young material, showed that these hard corpuscles were 
connected with each other, and that they were expansions of a ligneous 
mass dependent on the normal wood of the stem. 

Mechanical Structure of Floating-Organs. | — Dr. H. Dingier de- 
scribes the various mechanical contrivances by means of which fruits and 
seeds are enabled to float in the air, classifying them under twelve heads. 
Excessively slow deposition in the air is secured in some cases by the 

* Verhandl. Bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenburg, xxix. (1888) pp. 65-111 (2 pla. and 
1 fig.)- 

t Comptes Reudus, cvii. (1888) pp. 874-6. 

t SB. Bot. Vereins Munchen, April 23, 1888. See Bot. Centralbl., xxxvi. (1888) 
p. 386. 



244 SUMMARY OF CURBENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

organs being enveloped in a vesicle of air. The torsion which a large 
number of fruits exhibit in falling to the ground is due to the centre of 
gravity not corresponding to the mechanical centre. 

Development of the Endocarp in the Elder.* — Mr. J. B. Farmer 
states that if sections of the ovary of Samhucus nigra be made while the 
bud is still very young, it will be readily seen that the two innermost 
cell-layers which surround the 2-4 cavities containing the ovules are 
perfectly distinct both from each other and from those cells which lie 
immediately outside them ; subsequently, however, a third layer is 
formed immediately outside these two layers. The cells which compose 
this third layer are much larger in transverse section than those lying 
internally to it. The first change which takes place consists in a slight 
radial extension of the cells, and at the same time the nucleus becomes 
spindle-shaped. Very soon after flowering, thickening of the cell-walls 
of each of the three layers commences. Transverse sections taken at 
a later period show the endocarp, which is very liard and lignified, to be 
apparently inclosed in a sheath of tangentially flattened cells. 

(4) Structure of Organs. 

Epiderm of the Seeds of Capsicum.t — Herr T. F. Hanausek states 
that the ordinary description of the seeds of Capsicum is incorrect in one 
point. Instead of a thick colourless cuticularized outer membrane, he 
finds, in three species examined, that the outer wall is not cuticularized, 
but consists of pure cellulose, a true cuticle being wanting or very feebly 
developed. All the other spots of the membrane of the epidermal cells 
are very strongly lignified, and the passage from these lignified portions 
to the lamella of cellulose is a very abrupt one. 

Embryo of Umbelliferse.J -Herr C. Mez describes the specialities 
in the structure of the embryo in a very large number of genera and 
species of Umbelliferse. Its position is perfectly uniform throughout 
the family. Where the form of the seed allows of it, the plane of 
symmetry of the entire fruit, vertical to the commissure-surface of the 
mericarp, cuts the plane of the surfaces of contact of the cotyledons at a 
more or less acute angle. The root-cap of the primary root is always 
well developed ; the plumule is never formed before germination. The 
size of the embryo varies very greatly in relation to that of the seed. 
The two cotyledons are usually of the same length, but in Scandix one 
is normally longer than the other. 

Winged Stems and Decurrent Leaves. § — Herr K. Eeiche distin- 
guishes from true wings — on morphological, not on anatomical grounds 
—the elevated lines and ridges on opposite sides of stems with decussate 
leaves, which can be compared with the lines of hairs on such stems as 
those of Veronica Chamsedrys and Stellaria media. Of true wings he 
distinguishes three kinds, viz. : — (1) where the leaves are continued 
from their base into two descending wings in immediate contact with 
the edge of the leaf {Onopordon, Cirs'mm, Gay-duus, Symphytum officinale, 
&c.) ; (2) where the leaves are distinctly detached from the wings 

* Ann. of Bot., ii. (1888) pp. 389-92 (3 figs.). 

t Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., vi. (1888) pp. 329-32 (1 pL). 

X Verliandl. Bot. Ver. Piov. Brandenburg, xxix. (1888) pp. 31-6. 

§ Ber. Deutscli. Bot. Gesell., vi. (1888) pp. 323-9. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 245 

(Genista sagittalis^ ; (3) where the leaves are suppressed (Acacia alata). 
The object of ridges and wings on the stems is to assist in assimilation, 
that of those on fruits and seeds to aid in dissemination. 

Bud of the Tulip-tree.* — M. H. Emery criticizes Sir J. Lubbock's 
explanation | of the singular truncation presented by the extremities of 
certain leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera, viz. that the extremities of the 
leaves are hindered in their development by the formation of stipules, 
and cannot elongate as is usually the case. This the author doubts on 
two grounds ; firstly, because the obstacle does not exist in the bud, and 
secondly, if it did exist, only the growth of the lamina would be affected. 
The author then traces the development of the bud, which he states 
grows for three years. 

Foliar Organs of a new species of Utricnlaria.ij: — Mr. H, N. Eidley 
describes certain spathulate leaf-like bodies belonging to a small epi- 
phytic species of TJtricularia, from St. Thomas's Island, West Africa. 
They were narrow and filiform at the base, broadening into a lamina 
about 1/16 in, in diameter, and apparently had been green in colour, 
with three veins. Further examination showed that every stage occurred 
between the filiform process, frequently branched and bearing numerous 
utricles, and the flattened leaf-like lamina. A similar modification was 
figured by Oliver in TJtricularia Jamesoniana, a small epiphytic species 
from the Andes, and apparently allied to the one described here. The 
author concludes by giving a technical description of this new species, to 
which he has given the name of U. bryophila, and by stating that in the 
epiphytic species of TJtricularia, at least, these leaf-like bodies are 
dilated phylloclades. 

Polymorphism of the Leaves of Abietine8e.§ — M. A. Daguillon 
points out that in many species of pines two forms of leaves occur : the 
primordial form, succeeded by a more defined form. The primordial 
form of leaf immediately succeeds the cotyledons, and remains for the 
first year or two, while the adult leaves are fascicled, and occur in 
bundles of two, three, or five, according to the species. The author's 
conclusions are that in the Abietinefe the existence of primordial leaves 
is tolerably constant. The passage from the primordial leaves to those 
of the adult is made either suddenly, in the genus Pinus, or by insen- 
sible gradations, in Abies, This passage is characterized by the pro- 
gressive development of hypoderin and sclerenchyme next to the fibro- 
vascular system, and in certain genera by the formation of the central 
vein in two bundles, with a common endoderra. 

Leaves of Begonia. [j — Herr G. Haberlandt describes the peculiar 
emergences on the leaves of Begonia smaragdina [B. imperialis Lem. 
P smaragdina). On the upper side of the lamina are a number of 
hollow conical projections, each of which is prolonged at the apex into a 
curved hair ; and corresponding to each of these there is on the under 
side a funnel-shaped depression. The veins and leaf-stalk are furnished 
with similar hairs. The epiderm of the leaf is continuous with that of 
the elevation and of the hair, the extremity of which is frequently 
occupied by strongly refringent cells containing tannin. These hairs 

* Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xxxv. (1888) pp. 327-9. 

t Cf. this Journal, 1887, p. 112. % Ann. of Bot., li. (1888) pp. .305-7 (1 pi.). 

§ Comptes Rendus, cviii. (1889) pp. 108-10. 

11 MT. Nat. Verein. Steiermark, (1887) 1888, pp. 117-26 (1 pi.) 



246 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

are distinguished from those of other species of Begonia by almost 
invariably containing a mechanical element in the form of one or more 
rows of sclerotized bast-cells running through their whole length. A 
few of the weakest of the hairs are destitute of this mechanical element. 
They are true emergences, being of hypodermal origin, and always 
springing from a single meristem- or periblem-cell. The peculiarity of 
these structures lies in their being emergences in which the sclerotized 
element is not the epiderm but an internal skeleton. 

The leaves of the same species of Begonia contain also mechanical 
elements imbedded in the assimilating-tissue in the form of sclerotized 
branched bast-cells, resembling those of other thick-leaved plants such 
as Camellia and Olea. Similar stereides also accompany the vascular 
bundles of the veins and leaf-stalk. 

The author believes these peculiarities of structure to be connected 
with the habit of the species, which is probably a native of dry sunny 
localities. 

Scars on the Stem of Dammara robusta.*— Mr. S. G. Shattock 
states that in Dammara robusta C. Moore, the base of the branch presents 
a marked enlargement due almost solely to an increase of the cortical 
parenchyme ; this excess serves to aid the wood in this situation 
in supporting the branch ; the cortical parenchyme generally and the 
medulla as well contain a considerable proportion of branching scler- 
enchymatous idioblasts. In Dammara robusta the process of disarticula- 
tion is like that by which a leaf or other organ is shed ; that is, the 
parenchymatous cells across the whole zone of articulation multiply by 
transverse division, a layer of cork resulting from the formation of this 
secondary meristem, and through the distal limits of this the solution 
of continuity occurs. It thus happens that the whole of the paren- 
chymatous system of the stem is closed by cork before the branch is 
actually shed. The branch-scar, when examined immediately after 
disarticulation, is ovoid, concave, and has a finely granular surface; 
the narrow circular zone of the fractured wood projects slightly at 
the bottom of the cicatrical fossa, and in the cortical parenchyme are 
imbedded the ruptured ends of the bast-fibres. 

Root-tubercles of Leguminosse.t — Dr. A. Prazmowski reviews the 
various theories with regard to the nature of these structures and of 
the organisms contained in them, and appends the results of observa- 
tions and experiments of his own. 

In order to test whether the tubercles are normal or pathological 
productions, he grew plants of Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris 
in sterilized soil watered with distilled water and protected from all 
possible access of microbes, side by side with others grown in normal 
conditions or in sterilized soil and watered with ordinary water in 
which soil had been soaked. In all of a large number of experiments 
abundance of tubercles were found on the root in the latter cases, 
while not a single one could be seen on those from which the possi- 
bility of infection had been excluded. Under normal conditions the 
tubercles appear to be formed about the time of the appearance of the 
root-hairs. 

* Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond., xxiv. (1888) pp. 441-50 (1 pi.). 

t Bot. Centralbl., xxxvi. (1888) pp. 215-9, 248-55, 280-5. Cf. this Journal, 
1888, p. 608. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MI0KO8COPY. ETC. 247 

The filiform bodies found in the tubercles are, according to Praz- 
mowski, true hyphae-filaments, as Ward has already proved ; * he does 
not, however, think w^ith Ward that they enter the root only through 
the root-hairs, but also through the young epiderm. The tubercles he 
finds invariably to be formed only vphere the fungus-hyphas penetrate 
the tissue of the root. They branch copiously in the epidermal cells. 
As soon as the hyphae reach the lower layers of the bark, the trans- 
ference of formative materials into them commences. The first 
substance produced in them is starch ; subsequently in the inner part 
of the tuber is formed the so-called " bacteroid-tissue," in which are 
found the peculiar bodies regarded by some observers as of the nature 
of bacteria, or detached portions of the fungus-hyphge, by others as 
simply unorganized food-materials. The author does not agree altogether 
with either of these views ; he regards them as internal protoplasmic 
structures found within the fungus-hyphsB before the development of 
the " bacteroid-tissue." Their form varies in different species ; in 
Phaseolus and Liipinus they maintain during their whole existence the 
form of bacterium-like rods ; in Pisum, Medicago, and Vicia they 
branch ; in TrifoUum they are usually pear-shaped. 

With regard to the nature of the fungus, the author regards it as 
belonging properly neither to the Hyphomycetes nor to the Myxomy- 
cetes, but presenting in some respects the closest analogy to Plasmo- 
diophora Brassicse, differing from this chiefly in having, in an early 
stage of its existence, a filiform state, and in the peculiar " bacteroids " 
contained within its hyphse. It is possible that these, although not 
true spores, may have a reproductive function, and may possibly, 
under certain conditions, develope into plasmodes. With respect to 
the function of these tubercles, the author is disposed on the whole to 
agree most with Hellriegel's view that the connection between the 
plant and the fungus is a symbiotic one, and that the fungus enables 
the host in some way to avail itself, in its nutrition, of the free nitrogen 
of the atmosphere. 

The observations were made chiefly on the species above-mentioned, 
but the following agree also in the general facts : — Vicia sativa, 
V. Faha, Lupinus angustif alius, L. luteus, L. perennis, TrifoUum pratense, 
T. hybridum, Medicago sativa, and M. lupulina ; the phenomena differing 
only in unimportant points in the difterent species. 

Tubercles of Leguminosse.f — M. P. Vuillemin describes, in the root- 
tubers of Medicago disciformis and Galega officinalis, the occurrence of a 
CladocJiytrium, which produces its sporanges and uniciliated zoospores 
at the end of the winter when the tubercles are quite mature. The 
" bacterioids " he regards, with Brunchorst, as simply fragments of the 
protoplasmic network. The anatomical structure of the tubercles 
themselves he compares to that of the aggregated buds of Petasites, 
resulting from the isolation of the fibrovascular bundles. 

Formation of Subterranean Swellings in Eranthis hyenialis.|— 
M. P. A. Dangeard states that the first subterranean swelling of the 
winter aconite includes the upper part of the principal root, the hypo- 
cotyledonary axis, and the region of insertion of the cotyledonary 

* Cf. this Jourual, 1887, p. 788. 

t Ann. Sci. Agron., i. (1888) 96 pp. and 2 pis. See Morot's Journ. de Bot., ii. 
(1888) Rev. BibL, p. 153. % Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xxxv. (1888) pp. 366-S. 



248 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

bundles; it is produced by a division of the internal layers of the 
cortex and cells of the pericycle and the pith ; it forms immediately a 
meristematic zone outside the primary formations, and new swellings 
are formed by a lateral extension of this zone with production of a new 
bud. In the case studied by the author the structure of the cotyledons 
was peculiar ; the axis was arrested at the summit of the tubercle, the 
cylinder which supported the cotyledons with its two bundles only 
represented a sort of sheath, the axis being replaced by a central 
lacuna. 

Morphology of the Mistletoe.* — Dr. S. Schonland has observed a 
large number of abnormalities in the structure and arrangement of the 
organs of the mistletoe, many of which have been noticed before, while 
others are apparently new. The present paper deals with the mor- 
phology of the flowering shoots, including both the arrangement and 
general structure of the flowers. The mistletoe is dioecious. The plants 
of the two sexes have on the whole the same structure. The inflo- 
rescences are usually found between the two foliage-leaves, and nor- 
mally consist of two lateral flowers at right angles to these leaves, and 
a terminal flower. The terminal flower of the male inflorescence is, as 
a rule, not preceded by scale-leaves. But Hofmeister has stated that 
they are present here, as in the female. This is really often the case, 
although not observed by-Eichler; but still the structure of the inflo- 
rescences in which it occurs is not the same as that of the female 
inflorescences, and this apparent abnormality can be observed in inflo- 
rescences developed from dormant buds. In the female flowers the 
perianth usually consists of two dimerous alternating whorls of scale- 
leaves, which cohere more or less at the base. An increase in the 
number of parts composing the male terminal flowers is not rare. 
Eichler only knew of pentamerous and hexamerous flowers besides the 
normal ones ; the author, however, has observed one heptamerous and 
one decamerous flower. 

Structure of Marcgraviaeese.t — Herr H. 0. Juel gives details of 
various points of structure in the plants belonging to this tropical 
natural order, especially oi Marcgravia polyantha and Norantea brasiliensis, 
both from Brazil. 

The outer bark contains a close tissue, supported by stereides ; in 
the inner bark there are no mechanical elements. There are no tracheides 
in the wood ; the wood-fibres are septate, and have narrow fissure-like 
slightly bordered or larger elliptical pits. In the nectaries the secreting 
tissue is formed from the fundamental tissue, and is covered by a thin 
epiderm without stomates. The gamopetalous corolla is composed of 
four leaves alternating with the sepals. The outer integument of the 
ovule is shorter than the inner one, and the embryo-sac is near to the 
micropyle. When the seed is ripe the end of the inner integument 
projects beyond the testa, the outer integument forming the single hard 
layer of the testa. The embryo is surrounded by a layer of cells, the 
outermost endosperm-layer ; and in Norantea there are also the remains 
of a starchy endosperm, In Marcgravia some of the seeds are sterile, 
without embryo. 

* Ann. of Bot., ii. (1888) pp. 283-90 (1 pi.). 

t Bih. K. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl., xii. (18S7) No. 5, 28 pp. and 3 pis. Cf. 
this Jotu-nal, 1888, p. 449. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY', ETC, 249 

y3. Physiology." 
CD Reproduction and G-ermination. 

Distribution of the Sexual Organs in the Vine-t — Prof. E. Eatbay 
records a number of observations which support his statement that there 
is a certain amount of ditferentiation of the sexes in the cultivated vine. 
Many of the flowers are functionally female ; they contain stamens, but 
the pollen-grains have no power of putting out pollen-tubes ; and these 
female flowers differ somewhat in form and appearance from the her- 
maphrodite flowers. He finds, moreover, that those individuals which 
bear female never bear hermaphrodite or male flowers. The male 
individuals also never bear female, but not unfreqnently hermaphrodite 
flowers. The hermaphrodite individuals may bear male but never 
female flowers. Dr. Rathay suggests that the wild ancestor of the 
cultivated grape-vine must have been dioecious. 

Constancy of Insects in visiting Flower s4 — Observations made hy 
Dr. M. Kronfeld on Apis melliftca and Bomhus Jiortorum tend to show 
that these insects will, on the same flight, confine their visits to the 
same species of flower, even when a number of others are equally acces- 
sible which would just as well afford them a supply of nectar and pollen. 

Fertilization of Lonicera japonica.§ — Mr. T. Meehan describes, in 
relation to their mode of fertilization, three ditierent forms of this 
species grown in American gardens. He states that, notwithstanding 
the length of the corolla-tube, it is, after the dehiscence of Ihe anthers, 
so completely tilled with nectar that bees and other short-tougued. 
insects have no difficulty whatever in obtaining it. These visit the 
honeysuckle in large numbers, and, from the position of the stamens 
and stigmas, can in no possible way aid in fertilization. Mr. Meehan 
sees in this evidence of design for the benefit of the insect rather than of 
natural selection for the benefit of the flower alone. 

Fertilization in the Nyctagines. 1| — Dr. A. Heimerl describes tlie 
mode of pollination in several species belonging to this order. In 
Oxyhaphus viscosus, the styles and filaments undergo several changes in 
direction, from nearly straight to strongly curved, ultimately bringing 
the stigma and anthers in close proximity to one another. The showy 
scented perianth appears to point to the visits of insects, and cross- 
pollination is not excluded ; but, on the other hand, the structure seems 
contrived to ensure the possibility of self-pollination. The main facts 
are the same in Mirahilis Jalappa, and in the night-flowering M. longi- 
flora. In other genera of the order, Boerhavia, Acleisantlies, PentacojpJirys, 
and Selhiocarpus, there is a gradual transition from the ordinary open to 
cleistogamous flowers which are, of course, exclusively self-fertilized. 
In the suborder Pisoniefe, on the other hand, consisting of tropical and 
subtropical trees and shrubs, cross-pollination is insured by diclinism, 
or the suppression of the pistil and the stamens respectively in the male 
and female flowers. 

* This subdivision contains (1) Eepioduction and Germination; (2) Nutrition 
and Growth (including Movements of Fluids) ; (3) Irritability ; and G) Chemical 
Changes (including Eespiration and Fermentation). 

t SB. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Gesell., xxxviii. (1888) pp. 87-92. 

X Abh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. GeselL, xxxviii. (1888) pp. 785-6. 

§ Froc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1888, pp. 279-83. 

11 Abh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Gesell., xxxviii. (1888) pp. 7G9-74. 
1889. S 



250 SUMMARY OP CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Cross-fertilization in Hydrangea.* — Mr. T. Meehan shows, by some 
studies in Hydrangea, that the variations in the species are of the most 
contradictory character taken from the standpoint of benefits in the 
struggle for life; while they are entirely consistent with the author's 
view of variation for variety's sake. Hydrangea liortensis from Japan 
has the ray-florets sterile, or rather it is the lateral florets of the com- 
pound cyme that give the enlarged sepals and fail to perfect the gynoe- 
ceum. The terminal florets are fertile. In H. qiiercifoUa all the lateral 
florets are fertile, and it is only the terminal one that has petaloid sepals 
and is barren. Will any one assert that these exactly opposite condi- 
tions can have any bearing whatever as aids in a struggle for life ? It 
is broadly asserted that we owe to the existence of insects the various 
forms and colours of flowers. In the genus Hydrangea, however, we 
have illustrations of the most dissimilar and contradictory variations. 
The facts are absolutely inexplicable on any theory of the survival of 
the fittest in the struggle for life ; but on the author's view of tiie 
absolute necessity of variation for its own sake, the explanation seems to 
him simple enough. 

Life-history of Yucea.f — Mr. T. Meehan continues his contribu- 
tions to the life-histories of plants. This year (1888) Yucca filamentosa 
commenced to bloom about the end of June. During the first week or 
ten days of the flowering period, an enormous amount of moisture exudes 
from every part of the flower. The moths become very active just after 
sunset, travelling rapidly up and down over the moistened stigma, 
apparently feeding on the moisture. When, however, half the blossoms 
on the panicle have matured, the production of moisture ceases, and on 
the evening of the 8th of July no trace of exudation of moisture could 
be found, nor was there any during the whole remainder of the flowering 
period. 

Flowering of Euryale ferox.| — Further examination of the mode 
of flowering of this plant leads Prof. G. Arcangeli to the conclusion 
that it possesses both chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers, and that 
the former exhibit all the peculiarities of flowers which depend on the 
visits of insects for their fertilization ; their number is small compared 
to that of the cleistogamous flowers. The author, however, agrees now 
with Darwin's view that this plant is abundantly fertile when self- 
pollinated. 

Germination of the Seeds of Euryale ferox.§ — Prof. G. Arcangeli 
describes the structure of the seed of this water-lily, which is covered 
by a large thick aril, the bubbles of air in the cells of which assist in 
the floating and consequent dissemination of the seeds. The aril is 
composed of two parts, an outer larger pulpy, and an inner smaller 
corrugated cartilaginous portion. Within the aril the seed is inclosed 
in a double integument. The nucleus is composed, as in Nymphsea, 
Nuphar, and Victoria, of three portions — embryo, albumen (endosperm), 
and perisperm. The endosperm consists of a single layer of cells, while 
the perisperm, derived from the tissue of the nucellus, occupies the 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1888, pp. 277-9. 

t T. c, pp. 274-7. Cf. this Journal, 1887, p. 116. 

: Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., ix. (18S8) pp. 369-83. Cf. Ihis Journal, 1858, p. 88. 

§ Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital., xx. (1888) pp. 467-73. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICEOSCOPY, ETC. 251 

larger portion of the seed. The embryo is small, and is situated near 
the micropylar region. 

The process of germination itself is characterized by the small de- 
velopment of the radicle, of the hypocotyledonary axis, and of the 
cotyledons. The absorption into the growing embryo of the nutrient 
substances contained in the perisperm appears to be assisted by a ring 
of small protuberances in the neighbourhood of the collar, corresponding 
apparently to the appendages described by Briosi in the seeds of 
Eucalyptus. 

Germination of the Hazel.* — Herr A. Winkler describes the rarely 
observed germination of the hazel-nut. The seed appears to retain its 
germinating power only for about a year ; it is very liable to destruction 
by frost and by animals. The oily fleshy cotyledons never emerge from 
the shell, and in the first autumn after germination in the spring have 
scarcely changed their appearance, but have lost their oil. The two 
cotyledons resemble those of ^sculus in being closely adpressed to one 
another, but are not actually united, as in Castanea. In the second 
spring the growing point emerges from the shell, and a strong tap-root 
is developed, but the root is never pushed above the surface of the soil. 
During the first year four leaves are formed with almost perfect regu- 
larity, and the subsequent development is very slow. 

C2) Nutrition and Growth (including- Movements of Fluids). 

Relation between the formation of Tubercles and the presence of 
nitrogen in the soil.t — Dr. S. H. Vines gives the details of a series of 
experiments which tend to confirm his previous conclusion that the 
development of tubercles on the root of Vicia Faha and of other Legu- 
rainosge is directly related to the absence of assimilable nitrogen in the 
surrounding medium. The experiments do not conclusively prove that 
the tubercular disease is not infectious, but they do prove the influence 
of nitrate in the soil in diminishing the development of tubercles. 

Conduction of Water through Wood.| — Herr A, Wieler replies to 
the criticisms of Hartig § on his previous communications on this 
subject, and maintains his assertion that any considerable occupation of 
the transpiring surfaces with water is only possible in the newest of the 
annual rings. He further states that the formation of alburnum can have 
no connection with the conduction of water, since this proceeds more 
rapidly in the higher than in the lo wer regions of the tree. 

(3) Irritability. 

Spontaneous Movements of Stamens and Styles.)) — Herr H. Beyer 
gives a resume of all that is known respecting these interesting phenomena 
and their connection with fertilization. 

He first deals with those actinomorphic flowers which are adapted for 
" under-pollination " by insects. He regards flowers with a single whorl 
of stamens as a later derivation from polyandrous flowers, and commences 
with those of the latter in which the stamens are arranged spirally. 

* VerhancU. Bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenburg, xxix. (18S8) pp. 41-3 (1 pi.), 
t Ann. of Bot., ii. (1888) pp. 386-9. Cf. this Journal, 1887, p. 788. 
J Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., vi. (1888) pp. 406-35. § Cf. this Journal, mite, p. 90. 
II ' Die spontanen Bewegungen d. Staubgefasse u. Stempel,' 1888, 56 pp. See Bot. 
Centralbl., xxxvi. (1888) p. 262. 

S 2 



252 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Of tliese he describes mainly the phenomena in question in Eanuncn- 
lacesB (^Ranunculus auricomus, BatracMum aquatile, Clematis recta, Thalic- 
trum aquilegifolium, Adonis vernalis, and Aquilegia), Malvaceae (^Alcea 
rosea, Malva sylvestris), and Eosaceae (^Sorbiis, Rosa, ChimonantJius, 
Spiraea, Prunus, Potentilla). In the Eanunculacese the stamens bend 
from a joint-like zone at the foot of the filament ; in the Malvaceae 
this zone lies in the middle of the filament ; while in the Rosacese there 
is a nearly uniform bending of the entire filament. This spontaneous 
movement is a frequent phenomenon in polyandrous actinomorphic 
flowers ; its purpose being either to place the anthers with their fissures 
round the nectary, or, at the end of the period of flowering, in contact 
with the stigma. 

Next follows a discussion of actinomorphic flowers with two rows 
of stamens, including Allium (especially A. ursinmii), Caryophyllaceas 
{Stellaria and its allies, Diantlius deltoides, Silene), Geranium [sylvaticum, 
pyrenaicum, molle, pusillum), Erodium, Sedum, Semperviuum, Saxifragacese, 
Rutacese (JRuta graveolens), Epilobium, PMlotheca australis, and Asarum 
europseum ; and then those with a single row: — Lilium, Eremurus 
spectabilis, MetJiomia superba, Trientalis europsea, Cobsea penduliflora, 
0. scandens, Sabattia angularis, Valeriana officinalis, Linum, Boronia 
pinnata, Puliurus aculeatus, Umbellifer^, Parnassia palustris, Teesdalia 
nudicaulis, Faramea, Polygonum, Fagopyrum, Geratophyllum demersum, 
and Eschscholtzia. 

The few cases in which actinomorphic flowers show contrivances for 
"over-pollination" by iusects are also described, viz. : — Nigella, Passi- 
Jlora, and Veratrum album ; and for lateral pollination : — Jasione montana, 
Picris hieracioides, Leontodon auiumnalis, and Solanum rostratum. 

Of zygomorphic flowers those only are referred to which display 
spontaneous motions and which are adapted for under-pollination : — 
Delphinium, Aconitum, Beseda, Tropaeolum, Dictamnus, Polemonium, 
^scidus. 

These spontaneous movements are a very constant character of 
families, and, being usually derived from the earliest periods, do not 
disappear with the most complete changes in the parts of the flower. 

Irritability of Mimosa.* — Mr. D. D. Cunningham records the 
result of a series of experiments on the phenomena of propagation of 
movement in Mimosa pudica. He favoi;rs the view that it is due to 
mechanical causes connected with the transference of water, together 
with peculiarities in the structure of different masses of tissue, rather 
than to the contractility of the protoplasm. The following are some 
of the results on which this conclusion is founded. 

The intensity in the propagation of the movement is proportional 
to the ease with which variations in the tensions of the tissues spread 
themselves. The direction in which the movement advances is, in many 
cases, that in which variations in the tensions of the tissues can be 
determined ; while they cannot be explained as a result of protoplasmic 
conduction. The order of succession of the excitations in cases of 
advancing irritation is often inexplicable on the theory of a continuous 
conduction of protoplasmic irritation, while it can easily be explained 
as the result of variations of pressure in masses of tissue differing in 
their anatomical structure. 

* Scient. Mem. by medical officers of the army of India, iii. (1888) pp. 83-138. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 253 

Cause of violent Torsion.* — From observation of an extreme case of 
violent torsion (Zwangsdrehung) in the case of Galium Mollugo, Herr H. 
Klebabn has come to the conclusion that the cause is to be found in an 
alteration in the growing points, which shows itself in a change from 
the decussate arrangement of the leaves to a 2/5 phyllotaxis, and in a 
coalescence of the bases of the successive leaves, resulting in a union of 
the vascular bundle of each leaf with that of the next. 

(4) Clieniical Changes (including- Respiration and Fermentation). 

Products of the Decomposition of Albuminoids in the absence of 
free oxygen.j — In continuation of previous researches, \ Herr W. 
Palladin gives the following as the most important results of a fresh 
series of observations. 

When albuminoids decompose in the absence of free oxygen, nitro- 
genous substances are formed in different proportions to what occurs in 
the open air. Asparagin is, under these circumstances, formed in very 
small quantities, while the principal products are tyrosin and leucin. 
Asparagin is formed during the first day when there is no free oxygen 
present, but disappears on the death of the plant, passing over into 
ammonium succinate. In wheat, when albuminoids decompose in the 
presence of atmospheric oxygen, asparagin is almost the only nitrogenous 
product. The formation of a large quantity of asparagin as the result 
of the decomposition of albuminoids in plants, can only take place when 
atmospheric oxygen is being assimilated, and is therefore, a consequence 
of the oxidation of the albuminoids, not of their dissociation. 

Panic Fermentation. § — Prof. G. Arcangeli maintains, in opposition 
to the assertion of Chiaudard, that alcohol is one of the products of the 
fermentation of bread. This can be proved, both by the slight alcoholic 
odour and by the production of iodoform on the addition, with proper 
precautions, of potassium carbonate and iodine to the distilled liquid. 
This alcoholic fermentation is due, he believes, not to the bacilli which 
may always be found in the paste, but to the presence of small quantities 
of Saccharomyces minor. These microbes assist also in the transforma- 
tion which does take place of a j)ortion of the albuminoids of the gluten 
into soluble albuminoids, and then into peptones. 

y. G-eneral. 

New MyrmecopMlous Plant. || — Herr C. Mez points out an instance 
of myrmecophily in Pleurothyrium, a South American genus of Lauracefe. 
The habitation of the ants is in hollows excavated in the pith of tho 
woody portion of the branches. 

Scent of Flowers.^ — Prof. A. Kerner v. Marilaun discusses the 
various odours of flowers, which may be either for the purpose of at- 
tracting or of keeping off insects. The mutual adaj)tations of the scented 
flower and of the olfactory faculty of animals are described at length. 

* Ber. Deutscli. Bot. GeselL, vi. (1888) pp. 346-53 (1 pL). 
t Ibid., pp. 296-304. % See this Journal, 1887, p. 437. 

§ Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., ix (1888; pp. 140-211. Cf. this Journal, 1888, p. 633. 
II Verliandl. Bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenburg, xsix. (1888) p. xxiv. 
t SB. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Gesell., xxxviii. (1888) p. 87. 



251 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

From the point of view of their chemical composition, the author 
classifies the odours of flowers under the following four heads, viz, : — 
(1) indoloids (Stapelia, Bafflesia, AristolocMa, Aroidese) ; (2) aminoids 
(Cratsegus, Pyrus, PacJiysandra, Sanguinaria, Ailanthus, Castanea) ; 
(3) terpenoids {Lavandula, Dictamnus) ; (4) benzoids (Caryophyllus, 
Dianihus, Hyacinthus, Asperula, Syfinga, Bohinia, Viola, Orchidese). 

B. CRYPTOGAMIA. 

Cryptogamia Vascularia. 

Doubling of the Endosperm i