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Full text of "Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society"

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Journal of tDe 

Ropal microscopical Society 

CONTAINING ITS TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 

AND 
A SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

ZOOXjOG-^' -A.3ST3D BOTANY 
(principally Invertebrata and Cryptogamia) 

MICEOSCOPY, Sec 



EDITED BY 

R. G. HEBB, M.A. M.D. F.R.C.P. 

Physician Pathologist to Westminster Hospital 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF THE PUBLICATION COMMITTEE AND 

J. ARTHUR THOMSON, M.A. F.R.S.E. 

Regius Professor of Natural History in the University of Aberdeen 

A. N. DISNEY, M.A. B.So. 

FELLOWS OF THE SOCIETY 

AND 

A B. RENDLE, M.A. D.Sc. F.L.S. J. J. DOUGLAS, M.D. F.R.C.P.E. 

Assistant in Botany, British Museum 



Minimis paribus, per totum Naturae campum, certitudo omnis innititur 
quas qui fugit pariter Naturam fugit. — Linnaus. 



FOR THE YEAR 
1904 




TO BE OBTAINED AT THE SOCIETY'S ROOMS, 

20 HANOVER SQUARE, LONDON, W. 

of Messrs. WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14 Henrietta Street, London, W.C. 
and ok Messrs. DULAU & CO., 37 Soho Square, London, W. 



9 



+ 9 



THE 







togal Jjtiq0swp:al 



Established in 1839. Incorporated by Eoyal Charter in 1866. 



The Society was established for the promotion of Microscopical and 
Biological Science by the communication, discussion, and publication of observa- 
tions and discoveries relating to (1) improvements in the construction and 
mode of application of the Microscope, or (2) Biological or other subjects of 
Microscopical Besearch. 

It consists of Ordinary, Honorary, and Ex-officio Fellows of either sex. 

Ordinary Fellows are elected on a Certificate of Becommendation 
signed by three Ordinary Fellows, setting forth the names, residence, and 
description of the Candidate, of whom the first proposer must have personal 
knowledge. The certificate is read at two General Meetings, and the Candidate 
balloted for at the second Meeting. 

The Admission Fee is 21. 2s., paid at the time of election, and the Annual 
Subscription is 21. 2s., payable on election, and subsequently in advance on 
1st January in each year, but the Annual Subscriptions may be compounded for 
at any time for 31/. 10s. Fellows elected at a meeting subsequent to that in 
February are only called upon for a proportionate part of the first year's 
subscription. The annual Subscription of Fellows permanently residing abroad 
is 1/. lis. 6cL or a reduction of one-fourth. 

Honorary Fellows (limited to 50), consisting of persons eminent in 
Microscopical or Biological Science, are elected on the recommendation of five 
Ordinary Fellows and the approval of the Council. 

Ex-officio Fellows (limited to 100), consisting of the Bresidents for the 
time being of any Societies having objects in whole or in part similar to those of 
the Society, are elected on the recommendation of ten Ordinary Fellows and the 
approval of the Council. 

The Council, in whom the management of the property and affairs of 
the Society is vested, is elected annually, and is composed of the Bresident, 
four Vice-Bresidents, Treasurer, two Secretaries, and twelve other Ordinary 
Fellows. 

The Meetings are held on the third Wednesday in each month, from 
October to June, at 20 Hanover Square, W. (commencing at 8 p.m.). Visitors 
are admitted by the introduction of Fellows. 

The Journal, containing the Transactions and Broceedings of the 
Society, and a Summary of Current Besearches relating to Zoology and Botany 
(principally Invertebrata and Cryptogamia), MicroscojDy, &c, is published 
bi-monthly, and is forwarded post-free to all Ordinary and Ex-officio Fellows 
residing in countries within the Bostal Union. 

The Library, with the Instruments, Apparatus, and Cabinet of Objects, 
is open for the use of Fellows daily (except Saturdays), from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
It is closed for four weeks during August and September. 

Forms of proposal for Felloivship, and any further information, may be obtained by 
application to the Secretaries, or Assistant-Secretary, at the Library of the Society, 
20 Hanover Square, W. 

a 2 



patron 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 



* 



Elected' 

•Sir Eichard Owen, K.C.B. D.C.L. M.D. LL.D. F.R.S. 1840-1 

John Lindley, Ph.D. F.R.S 1842-3 

*Thomas Bell, F.R.S 1844-5 

*James Scott Bowerbank, LL.D. F.R.S 1846-7 

•George Busk, F.R.S 1848-9 

* Arthur Farre, M.D. F.R.S 1850-1 

•George Jackson, M.R.C.S 1852-3 

* William Benjamin Carpenter, C.B. M.D. LL.D. F.R.S. . . 1854-5 

* George Shadbolt 1856-7 

*Edwin Lankester, M.D. LL.D. F.R.S 1858-9 

•John Thomas Quekett, F.R.S 1860 

•Robert James Farrants, F.R.C.S 1861-2 

•Charles Brooke, M.A. F.R.S 1863-4 

•James Glaisher, F.R.S 1865-6-7-8 

*Rev. Joseph Bancroft Reade, M.A. F.R.S 1869-70 

•William Kitchen Parker, F.R.S 1871-2 

•Charles Brooke, M.A. F.R.S 1873-4 

Henry Clifton Sorby, LL.D. F.R.S 1875-6-7 

*Henry James Slack, F.G.S 1878 

Lionel S. Beale, M.B. F.R.C.P. F.R.S 1879-80 

•Peter Martin Duncan, M.B. F.R.S 1881-2-3 

Rev. William Hy. Dallinger, M.A. LL.D. F.R.S... 1884-5-6-7 
•Charles Thos. Hudson, M.A. LL.D. (Cantab.), F.R.S. 1888-9-90 

Robert Braithwaite, M.D. M.R.C.S 1891-2 

Albert D. Michael, F.L.S 1893-4-5-6 

Edward Milles Nelson ,.,,... 1897-8-9 

William Carruthers, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S 1900-1 

Henry Woodward, LL.D. F.R.S. F.G.S. F.Z.S 1902-3- 

* Deceased. 



COUNCIL. 



Elected 20th January, 1904. 



Jgresibent. 

Dijkinfeld Henry Scott, M.A. Ph.D. F.E.S. F.L.S. 

$kc-|]restbents. 

*A. D. Michael, F.L.S. 
*E. M. Nelson. 

Henry George Plimmer, M.R.C.S. L.S.A. F.L.S. 

Henry Woodward, LL.D. F.R.S. F.G.S. F.Z.S. 

treasurer. 

J. J. Vezey. 

Secretaries. 

Eev. W. H. Dallinger, LL.D. D.Sc. D.C.L. F.E.S. 
E. G. Hebb, M.A. M.D. F.E.C.P. 

(Drbmarir numbers of Council. 

Jas. Mason Allen. 

Wynne E. Baxter, J.P. F.G.S. F.E.G.S. 

Conrad Beck. 

Eev. Edmund Carr, M.A., F.E.Met.S. 
*A. N. Disney, M.A. B.Sc 

J. W. H. Eire, M.D. F.E.S. (Edin.) 
*George C. Karop, M.E.C.S. 

The Eight Hon. Sir Ford North, P.C., F.E.S. 

Thomas H. Powell. 

Percy E. Eadley. 
*Charles F. Eousselet. 

* Members of the Publication Committee. 



LIBRARIAN. CURATOR. 

Percy E. Eadley. Charles F. Eousselet. 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 
F. A. Parsons. 



CONTENTS. 



TRANSACTIONS OF TEE SOCIETY. 



PAGH 



I —On the Structure and Affinities of the Genus Porosphaera, Steinmann. 

By George J. Hinde, Ph.D. F.R.S. (Plates' I. and II.) 1 

II.— Microscopic Resolution : Note on a point in Lord Rayleigh's Paper of 

1896. By Professor J. D. Everett, F.R.S. 26 

III. — The Mouth-parts of the Nemocera,and their Relation to the other Families 

inDiptera. By W. Wesche, F.R.M.S. (Plates II1.-VIII.) .. .. 2S 

IV.— The President's Address : The Evolution of Vertebrate Animals in Time. 

By Dr. Henry Woodward, F.R.S 137 

V.— On the Vertical Illuminator. By Edward _M. Nelson 1K5 

VI.— The Influence of the Antipoint in the Microscopic Image shown Graphi- 
cally. By Edward M. Nelson. (Figs. 47 and 48.) 2G9 

VII.— On a Microscope with Geometric Slides. By Keith Lucas. (Figs. 49-53.) 272 

VIII.— On Certain New Methods of Measuring the Magnifying Power of the 
Microscope and of its Separate Elements. By A. E. Wright, M.D. 
(Fig. 54.) 279 

IX.— A Direct Proof of Abbe's Theorems on the Microscopic Resolution of 

Gratings. By Prof. J. D. Everett, F.R.S 38 

X.— Report on the Recent Foraminifera of the Malay Archipelago collected 
by Mr. A. Durrand, F.R.M.S.— Part XVI. By Fortescue William 
Millett, F.R.M.S. (Plate X.) 489 

XL— Report on the Recent Foraminifera of the Malay Archipelago collected 
by Mr. A. Durrand, F.R.M.S.— Part XVII. (Conclusion). By Fortescue 
William Millett, F.R.M.S. (Plate XL) 597 

XII. — Theories of Microscopical Vision : a Vindication of the Abbe Theory. By 

A. E. Conrady, F.R.A.S. F.R.M.S. (Figs. 95-101) 610 



Vlll CONTENTS. 



NOTES. 

PAGE 

On the Influence on Images of Gratings of Phase Difference amongst their Spectra. 

By Julius Rheinberg 088 

An Attachment for Reading the Lines in a Direct-vision Spectroscope. By 

E. B. Stringer, B.A, F.R.M.S. (Fig. G3.) 390 

On a Method of Obtaining Monochromatic Ultra-violet Light. By E. B. 

Stringer, B.A., F.R.M.S 392 

On Grayson's 120,000 Band-Plate. By Edward M. Nelson 393 

On Nelson's New Formula Amplifier. By A. A. C. Eliot Merlin 396 

On the Use of the Esculin Screen in Photomicrography. By Frederic E. Ives 631 

OBITUARY. 

Charles Thomas Hudson, MA. LL.D. F.B.S., Hon. F.R.M.S. 1828-1903. ■ .. 48 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES 

Relating to Zoology and Botany (principally Invertebrata and 
Cryptogamia), Microscopy, &c, including Original Communications 
from Fellows and Others.* 50, 167, 289 398, 507, 635 

ZOOLOGY. 

VERTEBRATA. 

a. Embryology. 

Castlf, W. E. — MendeV s Law of Heredity 50 

Wintrebkkt, P. — Regeneration of Hind Limbs and Tail in Amphibia 53 

Bouin, P., & P. Ancel — Interstitial Cells of the Mammalian Testicle 53 

Browne, F. B. — Ova and Larvse of Fishes 54 

Schultze, Oskar — Determination of Sex 167 

Kouschelt, E., & K. Heideb — General Embryology 167 

Hickson, S. J. — Mechanics of Development 167 

Kkasan, Franz — Conversational JEtiology 168 

Rejsek. J. — Uterine Implantation of the Ovum of Spermophilus citillus 168 

Dubuisson, M. — Normal Degeneration of Egg* not Liberated 168 

Ballowitz, E. — Spermatozoa of DUcoglossus pictus 168 

Phisalix, C. — Correlation between Poison-Gland and Ovary in Toad 168 

Hubrecht, A. A. W. — Development of Tarsius Spectrum 169 

Mencl, M. — Development of Lens 169 

Peter, Karl — Notes on Development of Lizard 169 

Punnett, R. C. — Nutrition and Sex Determination in Man 289 

Copeman, S. M., & F. G. Parsons — Sex of Mice 290 

Cuenot, L. — Heredity of Pigmentation in Mice 290 

Vries, Hugo De — Fertilisation and Hybridisation 290 



* In order to make the Contents complete, the papers printed in the ' Transactions ' 
and the Notes printed in the 'Proceedings' are included here. 



CONTENTS. IX 

PAGE 

"Wilson, E. B. — Maturation of Germ-Cells and Mendel's Law 290 

Ancel, P., & P. Bouin — Interstitial Testicular Gland and Secondary Sex Characters 290 

Bouin, P., & P. Ancel — Interstitial Testicular Gland 291 

Shattock, S. G., & C. G. Seligmann — Relation of Secondary Sexual Characters 

to an Internal Secretion by the Testicle .. 291 

Branca, A. — Testicle and Spermatic Duct* of Lemurs in Captivity 291 

Morse, Max — Transmission of Acquired Characters 292 

Peter, Karl — Gastrulation in Lizards , 292 

Houssay, F. — Carnivorous Foivls and their Fecundity 292 

Sandes, F. P. — Corpus luteum of Ttasyurus viverrinus 292 

Holmes, S. J. — Problem of Form Regulation 293 

Wendelstadt — Regeneration of Bone and Cartilage . 293 

Harrison, K. G. — Development of the Sense Organs of the lateral line in Amphibia 293 

Kling, 0. A. — Development of Lymph Glands in Man 293 

Szily, A. v. — Origin of the Vitreous Humour 294 

Phillips, Everett F. — Occurrence of Parthenogenesis 398 

Bonne, C. — Development of Veins of the Liver in the Rabbit and Sheep 399 

Meyer, R. — Nephridial Canals in Guinea-Pig 399 

Schaper, A. — Lens Development under Abnormal Conditions 399 

Druner, L. — Structure and Development of the Middle Ear in Man and Mouse . . 399 

Wilder, H. H. — Early Development of Desmoguathus fusca 400 

Hartog, Marcus — Some Problems of Reproduction .. .. 507 

Schreiner, A. & K. E. — Maturation Divisions in Vertebrates 508 

Perez, Ch. — Phagocytic Absorption of Ova by Follicle Cells in Fasting Newt .. .. 509 

Bataillon, E. — Parthenogenetic Development of Lamprey's Ova 509 

Bohn, Georges — Experiments on the Developing Ova of the Frog 509 

Eggeling, H. — Development of Human Milk-Glands 509 

Kjellberg, Knut — Development of Mandibular Articulation 509 

Argand, R. — Transition between Internal Iliac and Umbilical Arteries in the 

New-born 510 

Kolliker, A. von — Development of Nerve Fibres 510 

Reinhardt, Ad. — Ey pochor da of Salamandr a Maculosa 510 

Druner, L. — Visceral Arches of Urodela 510 

Hall, R. \V. — Development of Mesonephros and M idler ian Ducts in Amphibia .. 511 
Swaen, A., & A. Brachet — Development of Layers and Organs in the Terminal 

Bud and Tail of Teleost Embryos 511 

Nicolas, A. — Development of Pancreas, Liver and Spleen in the Sturgeon . . .. 511 

Moser, Fanny — Development of the Swim-Bladder 512 

»Schultz, E. — Degeneration in Relation to Regeneration 512 

Fauset, V. — Viviparity and Parasitism 513 

Kerr, J. Graham — Development of Motor Nerve- Trunks and Myotomes in Lepido- 

siren 635 

Morgan, T. H. — Influence of Constant Agitation on the Development of the Toad's 

Egg .. . 635 

.Schaper, A. — Influence of Radium-Rays and Radium-Emanation on Development 

and Regeneration 636 

D'Evant, T. — Rudimentary Amnion in Selachians 636 

Hilton, David C. — Development of Liver in the Pig 636 

Smith, H. M. — Breeding Habits of Yellow- BeHied Terrapin 636 

Wolterstorff, W. — Hybridisation of Triton marmoratus and Triton cristatus . . 636 

Eycleshymer, A. C. — Bilateral Symmetry in Egg of Necturus .. 637 

Rawitz, B. — Inheritance of Mental Qualities in Man 637 

b. Histology. 

Fibich, Richard — Histology of Hyaline Cartilage 54 

Schulthess-Schindler, Von— Xerothermic Localities 54 

Fischer, Otto — Human Locomotion 54 

Elliot-Smith, G. — Transitory Tissues of Human Brain 55 

Osburn, Raymond C — Adaptations to Aquatic Life in Mammals 55 

Jolly, L. — Oxidation of Glucose in Mammalian Blood 55 

Salensky, W. — The Phylogeny of Elephants 55 



X CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Guldberg, Gustav — Migrations of Right WMles 55 

Macoun, John — Canadian Birds 56 

Werner, F. — West Asian Reptiles and Batrachians 56 

Volz, W. — Sumatra Fishes > 56 

„ Sumatra Lizards 56 

Launoy, L. — Secretory Phenomena in Poison-Glands and Digestive Glands .. .. 169 

„ „ Nuclear Changes during Secretion 170 

Bensley, R. R. — Brunner's Glands 170 

„ „ Cardiac Glands of Mammals 170 

Haack, W. — Buccal Gland of Lampreys 170 

Beguin, F. — Oesophageal Glands in Reptiles 171 

Marcelin, R. H. — Histogenesis of the Intestinal Epithelium in the Frog .. .. 171 

Marceau, F. — Cardiac Muscle Fibres 171 

Pondrelli, Margherita — Egg-Tooth in Sauropsida 171 

Baum & Thienel — Minute Structure of Blood-Vessels 171 

Bashford, E. F., & J. A. Murray — Zoological Distribution, Mitoses, and Trans- 

missibility of Cancer 294 

„ „ „ „ Conjugation of Resting Nuclei in an Epithe- 
lioma of the Mouse 295 

Boveri, T. — Behaviour of the Protoplasm in Monocentric Mitoses 295 

Radtmann, H. — The Morphology of the Glands of Bartholin in Mammals .. .. 295 

Glinski, M. — Peptic Glands of the Superior Region of the Oesophagus in Man .. 296 

Bernard, H. M. — Studies in the Retina 296 

Dale, H. H. — Islets of Langerhans of the Pancreas 296 

Schafer, E. A. — Ciliary Movement 400 

Baum & Thienel — Structure of Mammalian Blood-vessels 400 

Dogiel, A. S. — Nerve-endings of Human Shin 400 

Ballowitz, E. — Olfactory Organ of the Lamprey .. 401 

Campbell, A. W. — Histological Studies on Cerebral Localisation 401 

Townsend, A. B. — Histology of the Light Organs of Photinus marginellus .. .. 401 

Pacaut, Maurice — Twin Nuclei in Various Types of Cells in the Guinea-Pig .. 513 

Bates, G. A. — Histology of Digestive Tract of Amblystoma Punctatum 513 

Du Bois, C. C. — Granule Cells in Mucosa of Pig's Intestine 514 

Fuhrmann, F. — Minute Structure of Supra-renal of Guinea- Pig 514 

Bokcea, J. — Kidney of Male Elasmobranchs 514 

Bocin & Ancel — Interstitial Tissue of Testis 514 

Hartog, M. — Models of Cellular Mitoses 637 

Levi, Giuseppe — Comparative Histology of Pancreas 637 

Lewis, F. T. — The Question of Sinusoids 637 

8argent, P. E. — Optic Reflex Apparatus in Cyclostomes and Fishes 638 

Cecchukelli, G. — Sensory Nerve-endings in Human Tongue 638 

Coco, A. M. — The Fuchsinophile Granules of Spinal Ganglia Cells 639 

Grynfeltt, E. — Supra-renal Capsule of Amphibians 639 



c. General. 

Henri, V. — Digestive Ferments in Cephalopods, Echinoderms, and Tunicates .. 56 

Soourfield, D. J. — Lake Survey 56 

Woodward, H. — President's Address: The Evolution of Vertebrate Animals in 

Time 137 

Lydekkar, R. — Zoological Essays 171 

Lancaster, E. Ray — Economic Zoology 172 

Lickley, J. Dunlop — Variations in Human Ribs . . 173 

Sacharoff, N. — Function of Iron in Metabolism and Fermentations ■■ 173 

Cade ac & Maignon — Production of Glucose by Animal Tissues 173 

Batelli, F. — Alleged Alcoholic Fermentation in Animal Tissues 173 

Abelods, J. E., & J. Aloy — Occurrence of an Animal Diastase at once Oxidising 

and Reducing 173 

Olivier, E. — Viviparous Lizard' s Prolific Multiplication . . 173 

Ritter, W. E. — Habits of the Arboreal Urodele Autodax lugubris 174 

Couvreur, E. — Respiration in Torpedo 174 



CONTENTS. XI 

PAGF. 

Tullberg, Ttcho — Labyrinth of Fishes 174 

Ewart, J. Cossar — Wild Horses 174 

Pocock, K. I. — Coloration of the Quaggas 175 

Murray, James — Plankton of Scottish Lakes .. 175 

Tattersall, W. M. — Ceylonese Cephalochorda 175 

Vire, Armand — Influence of Light and Darkness 297 

Chapman, H. C. — Origin of Primates 297 

Mandoul, H. — Tegumentary Colorations 297 

Citelli, J. — Supra-cricoid Cartilage in Man 298 

Smith, G. E. — Occipital Region of Cerebral Hemisphere in Man and Apes .. .. 298 

Chaine, J. — Mandibulo-auricular Muscle 21)9 

Mitchell, W. — Dentition of the Elephant 299 

Beddard, F. E.— The Phyhgeny of the Boidie .. 299 

Audige, J. — Infectious Exophthahnia of Freshwater Fishes 299 

Sabatier, Armand — Limbs of Holocephali and Dipnoi 299 

Hamburger, R. — Paired Fins of Fishes 299 

Chaine, J. — Myology of Chondropterygian Fishes 300 

Bodlenger, G. A. — Sub-Orders and Families of Teleostean Fishes 300 

Haack, W. — Glands of the Mouth- Cavity of Petromyzon 300 

Dean, Bashford — Japanese Myxinoids 300 

Murie, James — Thames Fisheries 300 

Deflandre, C. — Adipo-hepatic Function in Invertebrates 301 

Diblin, L. I. — Arboreal Adaptations .' .. 402 

Miller, Gerrit S., Jun. — Seventy New Malayan Mammals 402 

Lickley, J. D. — Seventh and Eighth Sternal Ribs in Man 402 

Abel, O. — Asymmetry of Skull in Toothed Whales 402 

Boenninghaus, G. — Eir of Toothed Whales 402 

True, F. W. — Photographs of Living Finback Whales from Newfoundland .. .. 403 

Shufeldt, R. W. — Affinities of the Pygopodes 403 

Martin, Rudolf — Comparative Osteology and Phyhgeny of the Columbiformes .. 403 

Osborn, H. F. — Reclassification (f the Reptilia 403 

Paracca, M. G. — New European Lizard 404 

Werner, Franz — Notes on Reptiles 404 

AVandglleck, B. — An Abnormal Tortoise 404 

Hay, O. P. — Existing Genera of Trionychidsz 404 

Regan, C. T. — Phytogeny of the Teleostomi 405 

Mitchell, E. G. — Oral Breathing-Valves of Teleostei 405 

Poppa, C anna M. L. — Gill- Arches of Mursenidm 405 

Meek, S. E. — Fresh-water Fishes of Mexico 405 

Barrett-Hamilton, G. E. H. — Sub-Species of Mustelidse 406 

Hutton, F. W.— Fauna of New Zealand 406 

Steuer, A.— Plankton of Gulf of Trieste 406 

Smith, Walter — Why is the Human Ear Immobile? 515 

Damany, P. Le — Homology of Olecranon and Patella 515 

„ „ Defect of Human Hip-Joint .. 515 

Stordy, R. J. — Domestication of Zebras 515 

Rehn, J. — Revision of the Chiropteran Genus Macrotus 516 

Eigenmann, Carl H., & Clarence Kennedy — Variation Notes 516 

Freund, Ludwig — Osteology of the Dugong Flipper 516 

Gessard, C. — Pigment of Supra-renal Capsules 516 

Arnold, J. — Fat Synthesis by Mucous Membranes . . 516 

Doyon & Jouty — Ablation of Parathyroids in Birds 516 

Raspail, Xavier — Asymmetrical Development of FowVs Skull 516 

Oberholser, H. C. — Monograph of Genus Dendrocincla 517 

Muhse, Effa Funk — Eyes of a Blind Snake 517 

Overton, E. — Osmotic Properties of Amphibian Skin 517 

Kingsley, J. S., & F. W. Thyng — Hypophysis in Ambly stoma 517 

Winslow, G. M. — Abnormalities in Urodela 517 

Gallimabd, J. — Albumin Extracted from Frog's Ova 518 

Borcea, J. — Oviducal Gland of Elasmobranchs 518 

Eastman, C. R. — Descriptions of Bolca Fishes 518 

Linder, Charles — Pelagic Fauna of the Lake of Bret 518 



Xll CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Hudleston, W. H. — Origin of the Marine (Halolimnic) Fauna of Lake Tanganyika 518 

Foisbes, S. A. — Food of Fishes, Birds, and Insects .. .. 510 

Bohn, G. — Phototropism of Convohitu and Nereids 519 

Goodrich, Edwin S. — Dermal Fin-rays of Fishes 519 

.IaiiGer, A. — The Physiology of the Swim- Bladder of Fishes 520 

Fuhrbinger, K. — Notes on Dipnoan Cranium ..' 521 

Garman, Samuel — Chimxroids 521 

Eoule, Louis— Pisciculture 521 

„ „ Evolution of Atherinx in Fresh Water 521 

Zarnik, Boris — Segmental Veins in Amphioxus 522 

Carlsson, A. — Anatomy of Noturyctes typhlops 039 

Borinson, B. — Constrictions and 'Dilatations of the Ureter (J39 

Lyon, M. W., Jun. — Hares and their Allies 640 

Duerst, J. Ulrich— Influence of Unilateral Eorn-Growth on Cranial Characters 640 

Lonnberg, Einar — Compound Ehamphotheca of Birds 640 

Smith, G.— Middle Ear and Columella of Birds 640 

Carlton, F. — Colour Change in Anolis Carolinensis 641 

Phisalix. C. — Natural Immunity of Vipers 641 

Werner, Fr. — Reptiles and Amphibians of Asia Minor 641 

Pee, P. van — Limbs of Am phi wua 641 

Pellegrin, J. — Fishes of Chilian Coast 642 

Jordan, D. S., & J. O. Snyder — Deep- Water Fishes of Japan 642 

Bean, B. A. — Pelican Fish from the Pacific 642 

Gill, Theodore — Umbrids or Mud-Minnows 642 

Gley, E. — Toxic Action of Serum of Torpedo marmorata 642 

Vaillant, Leon — Mitsukurina Owstoni 643 

Scott, A. — Parasites of Fishes 643 

Marsh, C. D. — Plankton of Wisconsin Lakes 643 

Tunicata. 

Pizon, A. — Development of Diplosomidx 57 

Henschkn, F. — Ova of Crustaceans and Gastropods 57 

Graeffe, Ed. — Fauna of the Gulf of Trieste 57 

Julin, Charles — Development of Branchial Apparatus in Tunicata .. .. 301 

Korotneff, A. — Polymorphism of Dolchinia 301 

Gutherz, S. — Self-Fertilisation and Cross-Fertilisation in Solitary Ascidians .. 406 

INVERTEBRATA. 

Stift, A. — Enemies of the Sugar Beet 176 

Mollusca. 

Schweikart, A. — Egg-Envelopes of Cephalopods and. Chitonidse 406 

«• Cephalopoda. 

Hoyle, W. E. — ' Albatross' Cephalopods 522 

Marceau, F. — Structure of the Heart in the Common Octopus 522 

Bergmann, W. — Receptaculum Seminis and Nuptial Combat in Octopus .. .. 522 

y. Gastropoda. 

Yung, Emile — Olfactory Sense in Helix Pomaiia 57 

AVettstein, Ernst — Structure of Cryptoplax larvwformis 58 

Couvreur, E. — Blood of Marine Gastropods 176 

Simroth, Heinkich — New Type of Gastropod 302 

„ ,, Abyssinian Slugs 302 

Kesteven, H. L. — Nepionic Stage in the Gastropods 303 

Conklin, E. G. — Inverse Symmetry in Gastropods 303 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

PAGE 

Nekrassoff, A. — Maturation and Fertilisation in Cymbulia Peronii 303 

Smallwood, W. M. — Natural History of Haminea solitaria Say .. •• . •• •• 407 

Grosvenor, G. H. — Nematocysts of JEolids 407 

Chapman. F. — Valetozoic Pteropoda. 407 

Heath, Harold — Larval Eye of Chitons 408 

Nierstrasz, H. F. — Heart of Solenogastres .. .. 408 

Heath, H. — Habits of Selonogastres 523 

Kunkel, Karl — Habit* of the Cellar-Slug 523 

15onnevie, K. — Spermatogenesis in Enteroxenos Ostergreni 523 

Randles, W. B. — Anatomy and Affinities of the Trochidx 643^ 

Mader. M. — Muscular Fibres in Heart of Nassa reticulata 644 

Gkabau, Amadeus W. — Phytogeny of Fusus and its Allies 644 

Contagne, G. — Mendelian Phenomena in Gastropods 644 

Wissel, Curt vox — Chitons from the Pacific 644 

Fisher, W. K. — Anatomy of Lottia giga idea 644 

Heath, H, & M. H. Spaulding — Anatomy of Corolla (Cymbidiopsis) spectabilis .. 645 

5. Lamellibranchiata. 

Sassi, Moriz — Anatomy of Anomia ephippium 58 

Davenport, C B. — Variations in Pecten opercidaris 176 

Boutan, L. — Origin of Fine Pearls 177 

Dubois, R. — Secretion of Pearls • 303 

„ „ Detection of Pearls by means of X-Rays 303 

Rice, E. L. — Development of the Gill in Mytilus 304 

Anthony — Orientation of Trid.achnids within their Shells 304 

Bhutan, L. — Origin of Fine Pearls 408 

Marceau, F. — Adductor Muscles of Bivalves 523 

Anthony, R. — JEtlieriidx 524 

Herdman, W. A. — The Formation of Pearls .. .. 645 

Davenport, C. B. — Evolution of Pecten 645 

VigIer, P. — Muscular Fibre* of the Moll mean Heart 646 

^Arthropoda. 

Packard, A. 8. — Classification of Arthropoda 177 

Carpenter, G. H. — Relationships between Classes of Arthropoda 178 

Bruntz, L. — Excretion in Arthropods 304 

Lankester, E. Ray — Structure and Classification of Arthropoda 524 

«• Insecta. 

Wesche. W. — The Mouth-parts of ih<> Nemocera, and their Relation to the other 

Families in Diptera. (Plates III.-VIII.) 28 

Fabre, J. H. — Habits and Instincts of Insects .. 58 

Holmgren, N. — Viviparous Insects 59 

Courvoisier, L. G. — Variations in Lycsenidx 59 

Linden, Grafin von M. — Red and Yellow Pigment of Vanessa 59 

8chulz, W. A. — Hymenoptera of West Indian" Islands 60 

Holliday, Margaret — Ergatogynic Ants .. 60 

Gessner, E. Frey. — Males of Andrena 60 

Harris, W. H. — Habits of the Drone- Fly 60 

Taylor, T. H. — Habits of Chironomus 60 

Imms, A. D. — Marine Chironomid New to Britain 61 

Conklin. Edwin G. — Follicular Cells of Cricket 61 

Schulz, W. A. — Pelecinidse 61 

Davenport, C. B. — Collembola of the Beach 61 

Thayer, A. H.. & E. B. Poulton — Protective Coloration 62 

Theobald, F. V. — Economic Entomology 178 

Dickel, Ferd. — Sex- Determination in Bees 179 

Garbowski, Tad — Parthenogenesis in Porthesia 179 



XIV CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Bolle, J., & M. Kichter — Sleeping Sickness of Silkworms 179 

Forel, A. — Ants from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands 179 

Lecaillon, A — Development of Ovary of Polyxenus lagurus De Geer 179 

Embleton, Alice L. — Peculiar Aphid 179 

Stschelkanovzew, J. P. — Maturation in Viviparous Aphides 180 

Silvestki, F. — Neapolitan Myrmecophilons Insects ISO 

Needham, J. (t. — Genealogical Study of Dragon-fly Wing Venation 180 

PiCTBT, A. — Influence of Environment on Caterpillars .. 305 

„ „ Influence of Humidity on Caterpillars 305 

Anglas, Jdles — Metamorphosis or Insects 305 

Porta, A. — Digestive Function in Insects 305 

Ihering, H. v. — Biology of Stingless Honey-Bees of Brazil .. 305 

Fielue, Adele M. — Notes on Ants 306 

Forel, Auguste — Myrmecological Notes 306 

Gal, Jules — Oviposition in Bombyx mori 306 

Tower, TV. L.— Wings of. Beetles 306 

Cantin, G. — Destruction of Wilder Ova of Phylloxera by Lysol 307 

Stebbing, E. P. — New Scale-Insect from India .. .. 307 

Distant, W. L. — Notes on Rhynchota 307 

Bougardt, J. — Luminosity of Lampyridx 307 

Cholodkovsky, N. — Structure of Pediculi due- 307 

Pussig, H. — Gall-Formation 408 

Moiuue, F. D. — Male Terminal Segment* and Armatures in the Hymenopterous 

Genus Colletes 409 

Cowan, T. W. — Natural History, Anatomy, and Physiology of the Hovey-Bee .. 409 

Turner, A. J. — Australian Lepidoptera .. 409 

Schwangart, F. — The Endoderm of Lepidoptera 409 

Lathy. P. I. — Aberrations of Lepidoptera 409 

Goeldi, Emilio A. — Mosquitoes of Para 409 

Holmgren, N. — Reduction of the Head in Dipterous Larvx 409 

Thienemann, A. — Anal Gills in larva of Glossoma boltoni and some Hydropsycliidse 410 

Bemis, Florence E. — Mealy-Winged Flies of California 410 

Peal, H. W. — Oriental Aleurodidm .. '.. ..' • 410 

Mum, F., & D. Sharp — Egg-Cases and Early Stages of some Cassididse .. .. 410 

Williams, C. E. — Life-History of Gongylus gongyloides 410 

Dawydoff, C. — Phagocytic Organs in Gryllidas 410 

Enderlein, Gunther — Neio Copeognatha .. .. 411 

Kellogg, Vernon L. — New Mallophaga 411 

Kellogg, V. L., & B. L. Chapman — Mallophaga from Hawaiian Islands .. .. 411 

Stebbing, E. P. — Thanasimus in the Himalayas 411 

Plotnikow, W. — Moulting Processes in Insects 5"J5 

"Vigier, Pierre — Accommodation-apparatus in Compound Eyes 525 

Dusmet y Alonso, Jose M. — Wasps of Spain 526 

Dickel, Otto — Development of Bees' Eggs 526 

Wasschew, J. W. — Parthenogenesis in Telenomus 526 

Holmgren, N. — Formica exsecta as Hill-builders in Swamps 526 

Packard, A. S. — Metamorphoses of Saturnian Moths 527 

Perez, Ch. — Imaginal Adipose Tissue in Muscidse .. .. 527 

Kxjnstler, J., & J. Chaine — Case of Dimorphism in Cecidomyidse 527 

Longchamps, Maurice de Selys — First Abdominal Appendage in the Meal- Worm 527 

Felt, E. P., & L. J. Joutel — Monograph of Genus Saperda 527 

Carpenter, G. H., & W. Evans — New British Spring-Tails 527 

Silvestri, Filippo — New Machilidse 528 

Binnenthal, Fr. Kichter von — Enemies of Roses 528 

Webster, F. M. — Habits and Development of Neocerata rhodophaga 528 

„ „ Life-History, Habits and Taxonomic Relations of a New Species 

of Oberea 528 

Picard, F. — Habits of Sphex .. 646 

Handlirsch, A. — Insect Evolution in Relation to Plants 646 

„ ,. Convergence Pheiwmena in Insects 6iG 

Bauer, V. — Metamorphosis of Central Nervous System in Insects 647 

Mollinsox, Th. — Nutritive Role of Follicular Epithelium in Melolontha vulgaris .. 617 



CONTENTS. XV 

PAGE 

Breed, R. S. — Muscle-Clianges in Beetle (Thymalua marginicollis) during Meta- 
morphosis 64/ 

Enderlein, G. — Weevils of Crozet Inlands •• •• 648 

Tutt, J. W. — Natural History of British Lepidoptera .. .. 648 

Austen, E. E. — '1 'setse-Flies 64S 

Chevrel, Rene — Neto Genus of Marine Diptera 648 

d'Herculais, J. Kunckel — Dipterous Parasites of Lepidoptera 648 

Schulz, W. A. — Diptera as Ectoparasites on South American Lepidoptera .. 649 

Davydoff, C. — Phagocytic Apparatus of Cleandrus graniger 649 

Matsumira, S. — Cercopidx of Japan .. 649 

Ribaga, Constantino — Parthenogenesis in Copeognathm .. .. 649 

Enderlein, G. — Nymphopsocus destructor : a new Copeognathid .. .. ■■ 649 

J acobi, A.— Homoptera of North-East Africa 649 

Enderlein, Gunther — Louse of Elephant-Seal ■• 649 

Wassilieff, A. — Spermatogenesis of Blatta germanica 650 

Agnus, M. — Palxoblattina Douvillei 650 

Colves, W. D. — The Antennx- of Pulez irritans "725 

l3. Myriopoda. 

Silvestri, F.— Littoral Myriopods ISO 

Hennings, C. — Sense of Smell in Myriopods 411 

Silvestri, F. — New Genera of Scutigeridx 412 

5. Arachnida. 

Pocock, R. I. — Stridulation in Scorpions 62 

Lewis, R. T.—New Chelifer 62 

Michael, Albert D. — British Tyroglyphid;e. 181 

Silvestri, F. — New Species of Kaznenia from Italy 181 

Poljansky, I. — Development of Scorpions 308 

Heim, F., & A. Oudemans — Two new forms of Trombidium parasitic in Man . . 308 

Thor — Comparative Anatomy of Mites 308 

Franz, V. — Structure of Heart and Origin of Blood-Cells in Spiders 412 

Heymons, R. — Wing-like Lateral Organs of Solifugx 412 

Smith, F. P. — Spiders of the Sub-Family Erigoninx .. : 412 

Osborn, H. — Grasping Organs in Pediculidse 529 

Cole, Leon J. — Pycnogonida of West Coast of North America 529 

Wolcott, R. H. — North American Species of Limnesia 650 

Witte, C. J. — Notostigmata : New Sub-order of Acari 650 

Daday, E. von — Hungarian Species of Eylais 650 

Fritsch, Anton— Palxozoic Arachnida 651 



e. 



Crustacea. 



Gurney, Robert — Larval Forms of Crangonidse 63 

Gurney, R. — Cladoceran new to Britain 63 

Steuer, Adolf — New Copepod Genus .. .\ 63 

Graeter, A.— Copepoda of Basel .. 63 

Soourfield, D. J. — British Freshwater Entomostraca 63 

Lehmann, Harriet — Variation in Cyclops 63 

Calman, W. T. — Classification of Malacostraca 181 

Labbe, Alphonse — Spermatozoa of Decapods 181 

Cuenot, L. — Phagocytic Organ of Decapods 181 

Hansen, H. J. — New Family of Amphipods 182 

Small-wood, Mabel E. — Study of the Beach-Flea 182 

Wilson, C. B.—Argulidse 182 

Norman, A. M. — Calanoid Copepoda 182 

Pcnnett, R. C— Proportion of Sexes in Shore-Crab 308 

Holmes, S. J. — Sex Recognition among Amphipods 309 



XVI CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Senna, A. — New Hyperiid Amphipod 309 

Stingelin, Th. — Hotopedidx 309 

Wolf, E. — Winter Eggs in Copepods 30!> 

Lankester, E. Ray — Modification of Eye-Peduncles in Cymonomus 412 

Andrews, E. A. — Breeding Habits of American Crayfish 413 

Bouvier, E. L. — Mutations of Certain Atyids 414 

Scourfield, D. J. — British Fresh-water Eniomostraca 414 

Labbe, A. — Maturation Divisions in Testicle of a Lobster 529- 

Perez, Ch. — Isopod Parasitic in a Sacculina 530 

Berndt, W. — Cryptophialus striatus, sp. n 530 

Gruvel, A. — Fixation of Coronulidse in Skin of Cetaceans 530 

„ „ Organ of Kcehler in Cirripeds 530 

Marsh, C. Dwight — New Canthocamytus from Idaho 530 

Eoster, E. — Free-swimming Copepods of Louisiana 530 

Ekman, Sven — Entomostraca of Northern Swedish Mountains 651 

Miculicich, Miroslav — NewLernxpod 651 

Cussans, M. — Memoir on Gammarus 651 

Samter, M., & W. Weltner — The Origin of Mysis, Pallasiella, and Poutoporeia .. 651 

Calman, W. T. — Cave-dwelling Galatheid from the Canary Islands 652 

Labbe, A. — Polyspermy and the Culture of Spermatozoids 652 

Annulata. 

Tzuka, Akira — Neio Polygordius 64 

Gerould, J. H. — Development of Phascolosoma 61 

Galvagni, Egon — Histology of Ctenodrilus Clap . .. 64 

Schmidt, F. — Musculature of Branchiobdella parasitica 64 

Stummer-Traunfels, R. Ritter v. — Anatomy and Histology of Myzostoma .. .. 64 

Ladkeyt, F. — Leucocytes anil Similar Cells in Sipunculus nudus 183 

Woodworth, W. McM. — Palolo Worm of Samoa 183 

Moore, J. Percy — Some Woods Hole Pelagic Polychseta 184 

Bretscher, K. — Distribution of Oligochseta 184 

Adams, G. P. — Negative and Positive Phototropism of the Earthworm 184 

Iwanow, P. — Regeneration in Lumbriculus variegatis 184 

Stolc, Antonin — Experiments in JEolosoma hemprichii 184 

Malaquin, A.^Cephalisation and Metamerism in Annelids 309 

Schuberg, A., & A. Schroder — Nematode in Smooth Muscle-Cells of Nephelis .. 300 

Iwanow, P. — Regeneration of Trunk and Head Segments in Lumbricus variegatus.. 414 

Brasil, L. — Digestive Apparatus in Polychseta 415 

Soulier, Albert — Revision of Annelid Genera 415 

Ramon y Cajal, Santiago— Minute Structure of Nerve-cells and Epithelial Cells 

in Earthworms 415 

Livanow, N. — Splanchnic Musculature in Oligochseta and Hirudinea 416 

Ditlevsen, Asger — Studies on Oligoilixta 531 

Herubel, M. — Priapulidx of Scandinavia 531 

Spiess, Camille — Digestive System of Hirudinea . . . . 531 

Allen, E. J. — Structure and, Habits of Po3cilochastus 652 

Goodrich, E. S. — Branchial Vessels of Sternaspis .. 652 

Marenzeller, Emil von — Polynoid Symbion of Hydrocorallinse 653 

Izdka, Akira — Neiv Deep-sea Polychsete • 653 

Ashworth, J. H. — Memoir on Areni cola 653 

Fage, L. — Nephridial Cells of Leech 653 

Livanow, N . — Metamerism of Nervous System of Hirudinea 653 

Nematohelminth.es. 

Noe, G. — Filaria immitis 1 85 

Low, G. C. — Filaria perstans in relation to Sleeping Sickness 185 

Runther, Max — Cerebral Ganglion and Body-Cavity of Gordiidat . 416 

Goldsohmidt, R. — Radially Striated Ganglion Cells in Ascaris 416 



CONTENTS. XV11 

PAGK 

Boveri, Th. — Differences in the Chromosomes of Sister- germ-cells 531 

Taniguchi, N. — Filaria Bancroft 'i 65 ( 

Metcalf, Haven — Nematode associated with Decay in Plants • 54 

Loos, A. — Structure of Filaria loa 654 

Sala, L. — Peculiar Structure of Epithelial Cells of Ovarian and Spermatic Tubes 

of A scar ids 654 

Platyhelminthes. 

Chichakoff, G. — New Species of Phagocata Ledy 65 

Bohn, Georges — Oscillatory Movements of Convoluta roscofensis 185 

Laidlaw, F. F. — Pension of Classification of Polyclad 'J urbellarians 185 

Zykoff, W.— Structure of Mesostoma nasonoffii Graff 185 

Ball & Marotel — Cysticercus cellulosse on Dog's Brain 185 

Zschokke, F. — Cestodes of South American Marsupials 185 

Clero, W. — Parasites of Ural Birds 186 

Stevens, N. M. — Development of Planaria simplUsima 310 

Mattieben, E. — Early Development of Freshwater Dendrocoelida 310 

Warren, E. — Structure and Development of Distomum cirrigerum 311 

Bresslau, E. — Development of Turbellarians 416 

Stafford, J. — Trematodes from Canadian Fishes 417 

Fuhrmann, O. — Cestode with Separate Sexes 417 

„ „ Fresh-water Representative of a Marine Genus of Turbellaria . . 417 

Moll, Camillo — Terrestrial Planarians from North-East Africa 532 

Ssinitzin, D. — Sense-Organs in Digenetic Trematodes 532 

MacCallum, W. G. — Echinostomum garzettm 532 

Fischoeder, F. — Three Species of Paramphistomum from Mammals 532 

Janicki, C. von — Cestode* from Mammals 533 

Fuhrmann, O. — A Dioecious Cextode 654 

Hein, W. — Epithelium of Trematodes 655 

Ward, Henry B. — Determination of Human Entozoa 655 

Polyzoa. 

Uousselet, C. F. — Fresh-water Poly zoo'n from Rhodesia ... 417 

Maple8tone, C. M. — Tertiary Polyzoa of Victoria 417 

Incertse Sedis. 

Ikeda, Iwaji — Gonads of Phoronis 65 

ineresheimer, E. — Lohmannia catenata, g. et sp. n 186 

Caullery, Maurice, & Felix Mesnil — Pelmatosphmra 311 

Cowles, R. P. — Body Cavities and Nephridia of Actinotrocha 418 

Schultz, E. — Regeneration in Phoronis Mull eri 418 

Spengel, J. W. — Ptychodera flava funafutica 418 

Cowles, It. P. — Development of Blood- Vessels and Blood-Corpuscles in the Actino- 
trocha Larva ^ 418 

Neresheimer, E. — Lohmanella catenata .. 419 

Spengel, J. W. — Anatomy of Ptychodera erythrsea 533 

(alvet, M. L. — Geographical Distribution of Marine Bryozoa 533 

Lang, W. D. — Jurassic Polyzoa 533 

Fowler, G. H. — Notes on Hhabdopleura Normani 655 

Ulrich, E. 0., & B. S. Bassler— Revision of Palasozoic Bryozoa 655 

Rotatoria. 

Bryce, David— New Species of Philodina 65 

Marks, K. I., & W. Wesche— New Male Rotifers 65 

Lauterborn, Bobert — Variation Cycle of Anurssa cochlear is 65 

Daday, E. von — New Rotifers 66 

Dec. 21st, 1904. b 



XV111 CONTENTS. 

I'AGK 

Hlava, Stan. — Excretory Organs in the Family Melicertidse 18<i 

Voigt, Max — Botatoria and Gastrotricha of Ploen 419 

Jennings, H. S. — A Monograph of the Ratiulid*. 419 

Lord, T. V^.—New Rotifer 533 

Linker, Charles — New Rotifer .. .. 655 

Beauchamp, P. de — Aeio Rotifer of Genus Drilophaga 050 



Echinoderma. 

Delage, Yves — Non-regeneration of Sphxridia in Sea- Urchins 06 

Henki, V., & S. Lalou — Osmotic Action of the Internal Fluids of Echinoderms . . 66 

htuenthek, K.— Study of the Nucleolus in the M attiring Ovum 18' 

Theel, Hjalmar — Development of Echinus miliar is 187 

Lokb, Jacques — Sea-Urchin Ova Fertilised by Starfish Spermatozoa 187 

Krassuskaja, A., & E. Landau — Ova of Sea- Urchins 187 

Delage, Yves — Parthenogenesis induced by Carbon Dioxide 187 

Viguier, C. — Influence of Carbon Dioxide on Ova of Echinoderms 188 

Mortensen, Th. — New Genus of Diadematidm 188 

Mitsukuri, K. — Habits and Life-History of Stichopus japonicus 18S 

McIntosh, D. C. — Variation in Ophiocoma nigra 188 

Schucking, A. — Fertilisation and Parthenogenesis in Echinoderms 311 

Bell, F. Jeffrey — New Genus of Spatangoids 311 

Monks, Sarah P. — Regeneration in Starfish . . 312 

Delage, Yves — Parthenogenetic Larvue of Asterias glacialis 420 

Ludwig, H. — Parental Care in Echinoderms 420 

Schmidt, H. — Larval Development of Echinus microtuberculatus 534 

Herouard, E.— " Pentasomxa " theory 534 

Bather, F. A. — Eocene Echinoids from Sohoto 535 

Polara, G. — New Gonad in Holothunans 656 

Spencer, W. K. — Palxodiscus and Agelacrinus 656 

Ostergren, Hj. — Fu7ictio?i of Tube-Feet in Ophiuroids 656 



Ccelentera. 

Mat, Albert J. — Development of Corymorpha 67 

Russell, E. S. — Depastrum 67 

Gravier, Oh. — Medusa from Victoria Nyanza 189 

MoMurrich, J. Blayfair — Sagartia paguri Verril 189 

Motz-Kossowska, Madame S. — Modification of Hydroid Colonies by Movements in 

the Water 189 

Clarke, S. F. — Alaskan Corymorpha-lihe Hydroid 189 

Hickson, S. J. — New Ceratella 190 

Yakovleff, N. — Septa of Rugosa 190 

Kinkelin, F. — Devonian Medusa 312 

Roule, L. — New Cerianthid 312 

Bigelow, H. B. — Medusas from Maldive Islands 420 

Goette, A. — Development of Hydromedusai 535 

J anower, Martin — Solenocaulon 5155 

Kingsley, J. S. — Anatomy of Cerianthus borealis 535 

Carlgren, O. — Studies in Anthozoa 535 

Nutting, C. C. — American Hydroids 657 

Mayer, A. G. — Medusze of the Bahamas 657 

Torrey, Harry Beal, & Janet Ruth Mery — Regeneration and Non-Sexual Re- 
production in Sagartia davisi 657 

Torrey, H. B. — Habits and Reactions of Sagartia davisi £58 

Davenport, G. C. — Variation in Sagartia lucias 658 

Marenzeller, Emil von — ' Albatross ' Corals 658 

Krempf, Armand — Modification of Tentacular Apparatus in Madrepora .. .. 659 

Roule, Louis — Systematic Relationships of Antipatharia 659 



CONTENTS. XIX 
Porifera. 

PAGE 

Hinde, G. J. — On the Structure and Affinities of the Genus Porosphzera Steinmann. 

(Plates I. and II.) 1 

Sollas, Igerna B. J. — Haddonella 67 

Gorich, W. — Spermatogenesis in Porifera and Ccelentera 312, 421 

Protozoa. 

Mitrophanow, P. — Nuclear Apparatus in Paramoecium 67 

Statkewitsch, P.- — Action of Induction Shocks on Ciliata 68 

Wright, Joseph — Micro-fauna of Boulder Clay 6S 

Crawley, Howard — North American Gregarines (58 

Anderson, J. F. — Tick Fever 68 

West, G. S. — Neio British Freshwater Bhizopods 190 

Stempell, W. — Nosema ano malum Monz 190 

Hanna, W. — Trypanosoma in Birds 190 

Castellani, Aldo — Trypanosoma in Sleeping Sickness 191 

„ „ Developmental Forms of the Trypanosome found in Sleeping 

Sickness 191 

Mossu & Marotel — Coccidia in Sheep 191 

Hartmann, M. — Beproductive Cycle in Protozoa, Volvocinese, and Dicyemidse . . 313 

Awerinzew, S. — New Type of Suctoria 313 

Silve3Tbi. A. — New or Little Known Miocene Foraminifera .. .. 313 

Musgrate, W. E., & M. T. Clegg — Trypanosoma and Trypanosomiasis 313 

Hanna, W. — Trypanosoma in Indian Birds 313 

Leger, L. — Coccidia in Lamellibranchs 314 

Laveran, A., & F. Mesnil — Piroplasma donovani 314 

Jennings, H. S. — Demonstrating Discharge of Contractile Vacuoles.. .. : .. 421 

Leger, Louis — Trypanoplasma of the Minnoio 421 

Millett, F. W. — Beport on the Becent Foraminifera of the Malay Archipelago 

collected by Mr. A. Durrand.— Part XVI. (Plate X.).- •• 489 

Ditto.— Part XVII. {Conclusion). (Plate XI.) 597 

Halben, R. — Significance of Pigment Spots in Protozoa 536 

Woodcock, H. M. — Neogamous gregarines 536 

Smith, J. C. — Protozoa of Louisiana 537 

Laveran, A., & F. Mesnil — Trypanosoma dimorphon in Horses 537 

Perez, Ch. — Peculiar Parasite of the Embryos of Daphnia 537 

Hofer, Brdno — Handbook of Fish-Diseases 659 

Grassi, B., & A. Foa — Mitosis in Flagellata 659 

Mitrophanow, P. — Basal Corpuscles in Connection with Cilia 659 

Hollis, F. S. — CJdamydomonas in Water-supplies 659 

Mitrophanow, P. — Trichocysts of Paramoecium 660 

„ „ Nucleus of Paramoecium 660 

Fatjre, E.— Stalk of Vorticella 660 

Woodcock, H. M. — Notes on Klossiella muris, g. et sp. n 660 

Petrie, G. F. — Trypanosome of Babbit 660 

Galli-Valerio, B. — Piroplasma of Dog 661 

Woodcock, H. M. — Myxosporidia of Flat-fish- 661 



b 2 



XX CONTENTS. 



BOTANY. 



GENERAL, 

Including the Anatomy and Physiology of Seed Plants. 

Cytology, 
including- Cell-Contents. 

PAGE 

JANS8EN8, F. A. — Nucleus of the Yeast-Plant 69 

Janssens & Mertens — Micro-chemistry and Cytology of a Torula 69 

Wisselingh, C. van — Abnormal Nuclear Division 70 

Cannon, W. A. — Spermatogenesis of Hybrid Peas 70 

Lotsy, J. P. — Bivalence of the Chromosomes 315 

Wasielewski, W. v., & B. Nemec — Amitosis in Plants 315 

Gregory, K. P. — Reduction Division in Ferns 315 

Ichimura, T. — Formation of Anthocyan 315 

Bibliography 316 

Meves, Fr. — Occurrence of Mitochrondria and Chondromites in Plant Cells .. .. 538 

Charabot, E., & G. Laloue — Scent of the Orange Flower 538 

Strasburger — Observations on Reduction-division 662 

Koernicke, M. — Recent Work on Cytology 662 

Berghs, J. — Heterotypic Division 662 

Wager, H. — Function of the Nucleolus 662 

Gregoire, V., & A. Wygaerts — Reconstitution of the Nucleus and Formation of 

the Chromosomes ' 663 

Gregoire, V.. & J. Berghs — Formation of the Achromatic Figure in Pellia .. .. 663 

Schulze, E., & N. Castoro — Inorganic Phosphates in Plant Seeds and in Seedlings 663 

Structure and Development. 

Vegetative. 

Tondera, Fr. — Stem of Sicyos angulata 70 

Svedelius, N. — Saprophytic Gentianacex 70 

Daguillon, Aug., & H. Coupjn — Structure of the Extrafloral Nectaries of Hevea 71 

Viguier, R. — Anatomy of Seedlings of Labiatse 192 

Candolle, C. de — Adventitious Endogenous Buds 192 

Delacroix, G. — Degeneration of the Potato 193 

Chauveadd, G. — Persistence of the Alternate Structure in Cotyledons 317 

Dauphine, A. — Lignification of Subterranean Organs in Plants of High Regions .. 317 

Masteks, M. T. — General View of the Genus Pinus 422 

Schaffner, J. H. — Morphological Peculiarities of the Nymphxacese and Helobise .. 423 

Hamilton, A. G. — Byblis gigantea 424 

Goebel, K. — Regeneration in Lentibulariex 424 

Yasuda, Atsashi — Comparative Anatomy of Japanese Cueurbitaceas 538 

Faber, F. C. von — Development of the Bicollaterdl Bundle of Cucurbita 539 

Lippold, E. — Leaf form and Stomata of the Dwarf Plants of the Wiirzburg Lime- 
stone 539 

Daguillon, A., & H. Coupin — Structure of the Petiolar Glands of Hevea brasiliensis 540 
Hemmendorff, E. — Vegetative Propagation in the Floral Region in Epidendrum 

elongatum 540 

Bibliography 540 

Bernard, Ch. — Centripetal Wood in Leaves of Conifers 663 

Arber, E. A. N. — Cupressinoxylon Hooheri 664 

Ward, Lester F. — Cycadeoidea Reichenbachiana 664 

Darbishire, O. V. — Observations on Mamillaria elongata 664 

Gatin, C. L. — Germination and Formation of the Primary Root in Palms . . . . 664 

Bibliography 665 



CONTENTS. XXI 
Reproductive. 

PAGE 

Hemsley, W. B. — Germination of Davidia 71 

Akber, E. A. N. — Synanthy in Lonicera 72 

Daniel, L. — New Graft-Hybrid 73 

Bibliography 73 

Murbeck — Development of Gametophyte and Embryo of Buppia rostellata .. . . 1 93 

Laurent, M. — Embryology of J uncacex 194 

Bibliography 194 

Wylie, R. B. — Morphology of Elodea canadensis 318 

Richer, P. P. — Pollination of Buckwheat 319 

Britton, C. E. — Variation in the Violet Flower 540 

Jancewski, Ed. de — Sexuality in the Genus Ribes 541 

Smith, Isabel S. — Nutrition of the Egg in Zamia 541 

Opperman, Marie — Embryo-sac and Fertilisation in Aster 541 

York, H. H. — Embryo-sac and Embryology of Nelumbo 542 

Schaffner, J.IH. — Jacket Layer in Sassafras 543 

Bibliography 543 

Stopes, Marie C. — Ovule and Seed of Cycadex 665 

Kidston, R. — Fructification of Neuropter is Heterophyll'a 166 

Lawson, A. A. — Gametophyte and Embryology of Cryptomeria Japonica .. .. 666 

Shaw, C. H. — Gametophyte and Development of the Seed-coats in some Papaveracese 667 

Physiology. 
Nutrition and Growth. 

Bokorny, T., & L. Macchiati— Photosynthesis 73 

Laurent, E., & E. Marchal — Synthesis of Proteids 74 

Wilfarth, H., & G. Wimmer — Deficiency of Nitrogen, Phosphoric Acid, and Potas- 
sium in Plant- Growth 74 

Laurent, E. — Influence of Mineral Food on Sex in Dioecious Plants 74 

Molliard, M., & H. Coupin — Influence of Potassium on the Morphology of Sterig- 

matocystis nigra 194 

Tondera, F. — Function of the Starch-sheath 195 

Hebert, A., & E. Charabot — Influence of the Nature of the Soil on the Organic 

Composition of Plants 195 

Reinke, J. — Nitrogen-assimilation of Fresh-water Algee 319 

Kostytschew, S. — Respiration of Filamentous Fungi ,. 425 

Hebert, A., & G. Truffaut— Influence of External Media on Mineral Constituents 

and Organic Composition of Plants 425 

Cordemoy, H. J. de — Mycorhiza of Vanilla 425 

Becquerel, P. — Resistance of Certain Seeds to the Action of Absolute Alcohol .. 426 

,, „ Permeability to Gases of Certain Dried Seeds 426 

Bibliography 426 

Ternetz, Charlotte— Assimilation of Atmospheric Nitrogen 543 

Godlewski, E. — Intramolecular Respiration 544 

Kastle, J. H., & E. Elvove— Sources of Nitrogen to Fungi 667 

Burgerstein, A. — Transpiration 668 

Baccarini, P. — Accumulation of Water in the Leaf-sheath of Musa Ensete .. .. 668 

Irritability. 

Weis, Fr. — Relation between Light Intensity and Energy of Assimilation in Plants 

■belonging to different Biologic Types 195 

Edelstein, W. — Hydathodes in the Leaves of Woody Plants 19(5 

Newcombe, F. C, & A. L. Rhodes— Chemotropism of Roots 319 

Watterson, Ada — Effect of Chemical Irritation on Respiration of Fungi .. .. 544 

Darwin, F.— Perception of the Force of Gravity by Plants 545 

Bennett, Mary E. — Aerotropism in Roots 546 

Kanda Masayasu— Stimulating Action of some Metallic Salts on the Growth of the 

Higher Plants 546 



XX11 CONTENTS. 



Chemical Changes. 

PAGE 

Meisenheimer, J. — Experiments on Yeast Extract 75 

Wosnessensky, E., & E. Elisseef — Co-efficient of Respiration of Yeasts 75 

Gobis, A. — Micro-chemical Researches on some Glucosides and some Vegetable 

Tannins 76 

Dunstan, Wyndham K., & T. A. Henky — Cyanogenesis in Plants 77 

Kastle, J. H., & Mary E. Clark— Occurrence of Invertase in Plants 547 

Maze, P. — Zymase and Alcoholic Fermentation 547 

Niclodx, Maurice — Germination of Oily Seeds 668 



General. 

Etheridge, R. — Australian Fossil Botany 77 

Duggeli, Max — Plant- Life in the SihWial at Einsiedeln 78 

Lindm/bk, G. — Swedish Saxifrages 78 

Clarke, . B. — Chinese Cyperacem 78 

Schilbebsky, K., & O. V. Winnersten — Teratology 78 

Bibliography 79 

Harshberger, J. W. — Ecologic Study of the Flora of Mountainous North Carolina 196 

Wieland, G. R. — Polar Climate in Time the Major Factor in Evolution .. .. 197 

Stone, Witmeb — Racial Variation 198 

Holm, T. — Studies in the Cyperacem : the Grouping of the Carices 200 

Aubebt, S. — Association of Chalk-loving and Chalk-avoiding Species 200 

Aterido, D. L. — American Plants Naturalised in Spain 200 

Turner, F. — Australian Botany 201 

Bibliography 201 

Bernard, Noel — Endophytic Fungus of Orchids 320 

Dandeno, J. B. — Mechanics of Seed-dispersion in Ricinus communis 320 

Holm, T. — Triadenum virginicum, Rafinesque 321 

Barsali, E.— Hairs of Aquatic Plants 321 

Buohenau, F. — Development of Stamens in the Interior of the Ovary of Melandryum 321 

Geisenhayner, L. — Monstrosities in Foliage Leaves 322 

Bibliography 322 

Bell, E. — Pollination of the Primrose 426 

Wildeman, E. de — Randia Lujx: a New Myrmecophyte and Acarophyte .. . . 427 

Buscalioni, L.— Caulifloria 427 

Rendle, A. B. — Classification of Flowering Plants: Vol. I. Gymnosperms and 

Monocotyledons 427 

Renault, B. — Relation between the Cryptogams and Higher Plants 428 

Forbes & others— Chinese Flora 428 

Higgin, A. J. — Ash Analysis of Acacia salicina 428 

Bibliogeaphy 429 

Gadeceau, Emile — Botany of Belle Isle 547 

Merrill, E. D.— Flora of the Philippine Islands 548 

Nathorst, A. G. — Antarctic Fossil Flora 548 

Laurent, L. — Presence of Abronia in the Tertiary Flora of Europe 549 

Bibliography 549 

Gregory, R. P. — Determination of Sex in Plants 669 

Gerbeb, C. — Replacement of Stamens by Carpels in Wallflower 669 

Perez, J. — Attraction of Colours and Scents for Insects 669 

Schimpeb, A. F. W. — Plant-Geography upon a Physiological Basis 670 

Freuler, B. — Forest Vegetation in Southern Switzerland 670 

Rendle, A. B. — Completion of Chinese Flora 670 

Maiden, J. H.— Flora of Norfolk Island 670 

Stefansen, St., & W. G. Soderbaum — Icelandic Fodder Plants 671 

Philippine Rubber Plants 671 

Stone, Herbert — Timbers of Commerce and their Identification 671 

Mattirolo, O. — Carlo Allioni 672 

Gayon, U., & C. Sauvageau — Alexis Millardet 672 



CONTENTS. XX11I 

CRYPTOGAMS. 

Pteridophyta. 

PA OK 

Shull, G. H.— Isoetes 79 

Jakowatz, .A — Investigations on Fern-prothallia 80 

Lindman, C. A. M. — Tropical American Ferns 80 

„ „ Trichomanes (sect. Didymoglossurri) 80 

Christ, V. H. — Asplenium Ruta-muraria 81 

Underwood, L. M. — Li missus's System of Ferns 81 

Bibliography 81 

Tansley, A. G., & E. B. Lclham— Vascular System of the Rhizome and Leaf-trace 

of Pteris Aquilina and P. incisa 201 

Scott, D. H. — Germinating Spores in a Fossil Fern 202 

Lyon, F. M. — Two Megasporangia in Selaginella 202 

Underwood, L. M. — Ferns of the Philippines 202 

Gilbert, B. D. — American Ferns 203 

Bibliography 203 

Chauveaud, G. — Development of Vascular Cryptogams 322 

Campbell, D. H. — Antithetic versus Homologous Alternation 323 

Parish, S. li.— Californium, Ferns 323 

Bibliography 324 

Boodle, L. A. — Structure of Leaves of the Bracken Fern in Relation to Environment 429 

Bibliography 430 

Ott, E. — Anatomical Structure of Hymenophyllacex 549 

Bibliography 550 

Bibliography 672 

Bryophyta. 

Keid, C. — Fossil British Mosses 81 

Best, G. N. — North American Species of Leskea 81 

Begcinot, A. — Bryology of the Tuscan Archipelago 82 

Levier, E. — European Mosses in the Himalayas 82 

Britton, E. G., & others — North American Mosses 82 

Dosen, P. — South American Mosses 83 

Lampa, E. — Germination of Liver-worts 83 

Porsild, M. P. — Development of Riella 83 

Cavers, F. — Riella capensis, sp. n. 84 

„ Petalophyllum Ralfsii S4 

Howe, M. A. — Yukon Hepatics 85 

Bibliography 85 

Fleischer, M. — Mosses of Java 204 

Hansen, A. — Danish Species of Amblystegium 204 

Miller, M. F., & others — American Mosses 204 

Cardot, J. — Leucobryacese of the East African Islands 205 

Garjeanne, A. J. M. — Oil-bodies in the Jung ermanni ales 205 

Cavers, F. — Explosive Discharge of Antherozoids in Hepaticse 205 

Lampa, E. — Exogenous Antheridia in Anthoceros 205 

Lohmann, C E. J. — Chemistry and Biology of Hepatics 206 

Coker, W. C. — Structure of some North American Hepatics 206 

Evans, A. W. — Odontoschisma in North America 206 

„ „ Hepaticse of Puerto Rico 207 

Cavers, Y.— Pallavicinia Flotowiana 207 

„ „ Fegatella conica 207 

Ewing, P. — British Hepaticse 208 

Macvicar, S. M. — Census of Scottish Hepaticse 208 

McArdle, D. — Irish Hepaticse 208 

Bibliography 209 

Holperty, G. M. — Origin of Moss- Archegonium 326 

Schiffner, V. — Critical Notes on Muscinese 326 



XXIV CONTENTS. 

p. 

PAGE 

Dixon, H. N. — Rhynchoitegium litoreum 326 

Torre, K. W. v. Dalla, & Ludwig Graf von Sarnthein — Tyrolean Muscinex .. 326 

Holzinger, J. M. — North American Mosses .. 327 

Dusen, P. — Patagonian and Fuegian Mosses 327 

Levier, E. — Hawaiian Mosses 327 

Garber, J. F. — Morphology and Biology of Iiicciocarpus natans 327 

Garjeanne, Anton J. M., & B. Nemec — Mycorrhiza of Liver-worts 32S 

Evans, A. W. — Patagcnian Hepatics 328 

Bibliography 328 

Cavers, F. — Biology of Hepaticx 431 

Macvicar, S. M. — Hepaticx of Atlantic Type in Scotland 431 

Jones, D. A. — Plagiothecium piliferum 431 

Evans, A. W. — Hepaticx of Puerto Rico 431 

Douin, I. — A New Irish Hepatic 432 

Cardot, J. — Mosses of Korea 432 

Grout, A. J. — North American Mosses 432 

Bibliography 433 

Dixon, H. N— British Mosses 552 

Warnstorp, C. — Mosses of Mark Brandenburg 552 

Salmon, E. S. — Ectropothecium 552 

Boulay, Abbe — French Hepaticx 552 

Bibliography 553 

Johnson, D. S. — Monoclea 674 

Schiffner, V. — Revision of Lophozia 674 

Pfaehler, A. — Dispersal of Moss-spores 674 

Bibliography 675 



Thallophyta. 

Algae. 

Hansgirg, A. — Polymorphism of Algx 86 

Fliche, P., & B. Renault — Fossil Algx 86 

Moore, G. T. — Algx in Public Water-supplies 86 

Fritsch, F. E. — Thames Plankton 87 

West, W., & G. S. West— Scottish Freshwater Plankton 87 

Lemmermann, E. — Phytoplankton from Bradenburg Lakes • .. .. 88 

Keissler, K. von — Plankton of Hallstalter See 88 

Ostenfeld. C. H. — Norwegian Phytoplankton 88 

Iwanoff, L. — Russian Fresh-water Algx 88 

Howe, Marshall A. — " Flowering" of North American Lakes 89 

Cushman, J. A. — New England ' Desmids 89 

Borge, O. — Freshwater Algx from Brazil and Paraguay 89 

Philip, R. H. — Diatoms new, to the Hull District 89 

Oestrup, E., & 0. H. Ostenfeld — Diatoms and Plankton from the Faeroes .. .. 90 

Bibliography 90 

Bolochonzew — Phytoplankton of the Volga 210 

Volk, R— Plankton if the Elbe 211 

Heiden — Atlas of Diatoms 211 

Prudent, P. — Diatoms from the Jura 211 

Miquel, P. — Cultures of Diatoms 211 

Yendo, K. — Caulerpa anceps 211 

,, „ A New Species of Hedophyllum 212 

Liburnau, J. L. von — Halimeda Fuggeri 212 

Wesenberg, C. — Mgagropila Sauteri 213 

Robinson, C. B. — Fucus serratus in America 213 

Sauvageau, C. — Sphacelaria cirrosa 213 

McMillan, C. — Kelps of Juan de Fuca 214 

"Williams. L. — Alternation of Generations in the Dictyotacex 214 

Rosenvinge, L. K. — Hair --like Growths of the Rhodomelacex 215 

Foslie. M. — Lithothamnia from the Indian Ocean 215 



CONTENTS. XXV 

PAoa 

Jonsson, H.— Marine Algse of Iceland 215 

Mazza, A. — Marine Algse from Sicily 215 

Palibin, J. — Arctic Algse .. .. 216 

Reinbold, Th. — Marine Algm from the Red Sea 216 

Barton, E. S. — Indian Ocean Algm 216 

„ „ Marine Algm from the Gulf of Manaar 216 

Yendo, K. — Three Neic Japanese Algm 216 

„ „ Uses of Marine Algze in Japan 217 

„ „ Distribution of Marine Algse in Japan 217 

Collins, F. S. — North American Algm 217 

Tobler, F. — Cell-growth and Plant-form in Marine Algse 217 

Bibliography 218 

Chodat, R. — Points of Algological Nomenclature 332 

Gaidukov, N. — Colour of Algse and of Water 332 

Zederbauer, E. — Sexual Reproduction in Ceratium 332 

Ernst, A. — Siphonem Studies 333 

Ll'TKEMuller, J. — Genus Spirotmnia 334 

Yendo, K. — New Species of Ecballocystis 334 

Mereschkowsky, C. — Transmutation of Various Stages in Diatomacese 334 

Riuhter, O. — Pure Cultures of Diatoms 335 

Sauvageau, C. — Sphacelariacese 335 

Yendo, K. — Corallinem of Japan 336 

Toni, G. B. De — Bangia atropurpurea 336 

„ „ & A. Forti — Byssus purpurea 336 

Bachmann, H. — Phytoplankton of Fresh Water 336 

Beesley, Ti. — A Fountain Alga 336 

Pascher, A. A., & M. Schmidt — German Fresh-water Algse 337 

Preda, A. — Algse of the Gulf of Spezia 337 

Howe, M. A.— Bahaman Algse 337 

Bibliography 338 

Brehm & Lederbauer — Plankton of Certain Alpine Lalies 434 

Mereschkowsky, 0. — Morphology of Diatoms 4H4 

Petit, P. — Diatoms from Madagascar 434 

Lanzi, M. — Uses of Diatoms 435 

Mereschkowsky, C. — Transmutation of Various Stages in Diatomacese 43.5 

Raymond, M. G. — Alga related to Raphidium polymorphum 435 

Rathbone, M. — Myr i act is Areschougii and Coilodesme calif ornica 436 

Sauvageau, C. — Sphacelariacem 436 

Heydrich. F. — New Genus of Cor allinacem 436 

Gepp, E. S. — Chinese Marine Algse 437 

Saunders, A.— Alaskan Algse 437 

Bibliography 437 

Gepp, E. S. — Sporangia of Halimeda 556 

Fritsch, F. E. — Pleodori'na in Ceylon 556 

Hollis, F. S. — Chlamydomonas 556 

Philip, R. H. — Fragilaria Harrisonii 556 

Muller, O. — Diatoms from Nyassaland 557 

Williams, J. Lloyd—' Studies in the Dictyotacese 557 

Bosse, A. Weber van, & M. Foslie— Corallinacem 557 

Mottier, D. M. — Development of the Spermatozoid in Chara 558 

Borgesen, F.— Algal I egetation of the Faeroes 558 

Wesenburg -Lund, C— Plankton of the Danish Lakes .. 559 

Gaidukov, N. — Analysis of the Colour of Algse 559 

Mooke, G. T., & K. F. Kellerman — Growth of Algse in Water Supplies .. .. 559 

Mazza, A.— Sicilian Marine Algse 560 

Bibliography 560 

Migula, W.— Algse of Central Europe 677 

Marquand, E. D.— Algse of Alderney 678 

Schmidle, W. — New Algse from Java and the Philippines 678 

Okamura, K.— Marine Algse of the Caroline Islands, etc 678 

Collins, F. S. — American Algm 678 

Bosse, A. Weber van— Two Algse from the Malay Archipelago 678 



XXVI CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Preda, A. — Floridese of the Gulf of Spezia 679 

Yendo, K. — Genicula of Corallinese 679 

West, G. S. — British Fresh-water Algse 679 

West, W., & G. S. West — British Desmidiacex 680 

West, G. S. — West Indian Fresh-water A'l 'gas 680 

Lakzi, Matteo — Biology of Diatoms .. 681 

Cushman, J. A. — Micrasterias 681 

Turner, C. — Development of Cocconema 681 

Oestrup, E. — Diatoms of Koh Chang 681 

Redeke, H. C. — Dutch Plankton 681 

Redeke, H. C, & P. J. van Breemen — North Sea Planldon 681 

Bibliography 682 

Fungi. 

Fritsch, F. E. — New Chytridinese 90 

Loewenthal, W. — Basidiobolus Lacertse 91 

Petrt, L. — Hesearch on the Genus Streptothrix 91 

Petersen, M. Henning Eiler — Note on Phycomycetes 91 

Rostowzen, S. J. — Contribution to our Knowledge of Peronoxporese .. . .. 91 
Euhland, W. — Studies on the Fertilisation of Albugo Lrpigoni and, some Perono- 

sporese '92 

Osterwalder, A. — Peronospora on Rehum undulatum 98 

Eberhardt, Albert — Biology of Cystopus candidus 93 

Vuillemin, Paul — Notes on Syncephalis 93 

„ „ Zygospore of Mucorini 93 

Maire, R., & P. A. Saccardo — New Genus of Phacidiex 93 

Dangeard, P. A. — Fertilisation in Ascodesmis 93 

Maire, R. — Cytology of Galactinia succosa 94 

Aderhold, Rud. — Infection Experiments with Nectria ditissima 94 

Gueguen, F. — Morphological 'and Biological 'Researches on Stysanus 94 

Eriksson, Jakob — Rhizoctonia violacea 94 

Tranzschel, M. — Experiments with Heteracius Rusts 95 

Eriksson, Jakob — Vegetative Form of Yellow Rust .. 95 

Klebahn, H. — Heteroecious Rusts 95 

Jordi, Ernst — Infection Experiments with Rusts 95 

Bibliography 96 

Matruchot, L., & M. Molliard — Phytophthora infestans 218 

Atkinson, G. F. — The Genus Harpochytrium in the United States 219 

Bessey, C. E. — Structure and Classification of the Phycomycetes 219 

Sadebeck, R. — Critical Notes on Exoascex 219 

Hartmann, M., & others — Mould Yeasts 219 

Hall, C. J. J. van — Disease of Currant and Gooseberry 220 

Ceboni, G., & G. Megliola — Disease of Cultivated Mushrooms 2i?0 

Magnis, P. — New Helminthosporium 220 

Johnson, T. — Phellomyces Sclerotiophorus 221 

Bates, John M.. & W. A. Kellersian — American Uredinese 221 

Blackman, V. H. — On the Fertilisation, Alternation of Generations, and General 

Cytology of the Dredinex 22 1 

Klebahn, H. — Cultures with Rusts 222 

Hennings. P. — Agaricinese on Trees 222 

Merril, W. A. — Polyporacese of North America 222 

Kltjg, A. — Meridius lacrymans as a cawe of Cancer 2*22 

Petri, L. — Spore-formation in Naucoria nana 222 

Schrenk, Hermann von — Polyporus fraxinophilus 223 

Appel — Oidium Tucker i 223 

Morgan, A. P. — American Mycology 223 

Mattirolo, O. — Subterranean Fungi in Italy 223 

Moller, A. — Mycorhiza of Conifers 223 

Petri, L. — Sporangioles of Endotropic Mycorhiza 224 

Schrenk, H. von — Diseases of Yellow Pine 224 

Sorauer — Injury by Frost followed by Fungoid Attacks 224 

Hennings, P. — Wood-destroying Fungi 224 



CONTENTS. XXV11 

PACK 

Hennings, P. — Notes on German Fungi 225 

Freeman, E. M. — Seed-fungus of Lolium temulentnm 225 

Hollrung, M. — Disease of Coco-Palm 225 

Maassen, A. — Biological Test for the Presence of Arsenic 225 

Magnus, W. — Morphological Researches 225 

Istva'nffi, Julius von — Harmful Fungi 225 

Via la, P., & P. Pacoltet — Vegetable Pathology 226 

Potter, M. C. — The Action of Fungi on Woody Cells 226 

Hollrung, M. — Annual Record of Plant Diseases 226 

Holland, L., & others — French Mycology 227 

New British Fungi 227 

Stevens, F. L., & W. A. Kellerman — American Mycological Notes 228 

Potter, M. C. — Brown-rot of Swedes 228 

Bibliography 228 

King, C. A. — Cytology of Araiospora pulchra 339 

Berlese, A. N. — Peronosporeas 339 

Vuillemin, Paul — Spinellus chdlybeus and the Spinellus Group .. .. .. .. 339 

Woyoicki, Z. — Sexual Reproduction of Basidiobolus 339 

Bonnier. Gaston — Conidial Stage of Morchella 340 

Dangeard, P. A.— Development of the Perithelium 340 

Baccarini, P. — Notes on Ceratostoma juniperinum 340 

Salmon, E. S. — Specialisation of Parasitism in the Erysiphacese 340 

„ „ Cultural Experiments with the Barley Mildew, Erysiphe graminis 

D.C. .. 341 

Klocker, Alb. — Forms of Saccharomyces 341 

Schionning, H. — Saccharomycopsis 341 

Klocker, Alb. — Classification of Penicillium 342 

Iwanoff, K. S. — Trichothecinm roseum 342" 

Klebahn, H. — Botrytis Disease of Tulips .. 342 

Istvanfi, Gy de — Wintering of Oidium Tuckeri 342 

Weiss, F. E. — Parasite of Stigmarian Rootlets 343 

Magnus, P. — Vredinopsis 343 

Dietel, P. — Notes 071 Uredinepe 343 

Mangin, L., & P. Viala— Phthiriose of the Vine 343 

Traverso, G. B. — Eriksson's Mycoplasma Hypothesis 343 

Arthur, J. C. — Taxonomic Importance of the Spermogonium 344 

Massee, George— On the Origin of Parasitism in Fungi 344 

Copeland, Edwin Bingham — New and Interesting Calif ornian Fungi 344 

Kohl, F. G.— Coffee Disease 345 

Volkart, A. — Parasitic Fungi 345 

Saito, K. — Occurrence of Fungus Spores in the Atmosphere 345 

Sarauw, G. F. L. — Mycorrhiza 345 

Rea, Carleton, & others — British My cology 346 

Boudier, Em., & others — French Mycology 346 

Morgan, A. P., & others — American Mycology 347 

Bibliography 347 

Vuillemin, Paul — Membrane of Zygospores 439 

Lagerheim, G. — Bulgaria globosa Fr 439 

Aderhold, Rud. — Sclerotinia and Monilia 439 

Buba'k, Fk.— Sclerotinia Alni _. 439 

Guilliermond, A. — Epiplasm in the Ascomycetes 439 

Sadekeck, R. — Critical Notes on Exoascacese 440 

Salmon, E. S. — Specialisation of Parasitism in Erysiphacew. 440 

„ „ Mycological Notes 441 

Dangeard, P. A. — Observations on Gymnoascacex and Aspergillex 441 

Guilliermond, A. — Yeast Nucleus 441 

Coupin, Henri, & others — Sterigmatocystis versicolor 442 

Vast, A. — Culture of Oospora destructor 442 

Molliard, Marin — Conidial Form of Daldinia concentrica 442 

Lindau, G. — Fungi imperfecti 442 

Milesi, M., & G. B. Traverso — Triphragmium 443 



XXV111 CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Constantineau, J. C. — New Species of Vrtdineae 443 

Eriksson, J., & G. Tischler — Vegetative Life of Cereal Busts 448 

Klebahn, H. — Mycoplasma Hypothesis 443 

Remer, W. — Bust of Cereals in Silesia 444 

Hohnel, Franz v. — Myxosporium, Myxolibertella and Sporodiniopsis 444 

Morgan, A. P., & others — American Mycology 444 

BjORKfcNHMM. C. G. — Boot Excrescences of J Inus 445 

Posch-Grin'ad, Karl — Mycopathological Notes from Hungary 445 

McAlpine, D. — Australian Fungi 445 

Farneti, R.. & R. Aderhold — Diseases of Plants 445 

Koning, C. J. — Fungi of the Soil 440 

Bordas, F. — Disease of Cork Trees 440 

Giesenhagen, K. — Sorica g. n.. Parasitic on Ferns 440 

Franzschel, W. — Errors in Determination of Fungi due to Misconception of Host- 
Plants 440 

Weiss, F. E. — Fossil Fungi 447 

Bibliography 447 

Horn, L. — Variations of Growth in Achly a poly andra 501 

Blakeslee, A. F. — Zygospore Formation in Mucoraceas 502 

(Edomyces leproides .. 502 

Viala, P., & P. Pacottet — Vegetable Pathology 503 

Salmon, E. S. — Cultural Experiments with " Biologic Forms" of the Erysiphacex, 

etc 503 

Hennings, P. — Aschersonia 503 

Viala, P., & P. Pacottet — Anthracnose of the Vine 503 

Vanha, J. J. — Disease of Potato 504 

Lindau, G. — Hyphomycetes 564 

Hohnel, V. — Notes on Moulds 504 

Baar, R. — Ustil ago viola cea 504 

Arthur, J. C. — Mcidium of Maize Bust 504 

Smith, Ralph — Water-relation of Puccinia Asparagi 505 

Eriksson, Jakob — Mycoplasma in Urerfinete 505 

Holway, E. W. D. — American TJredinese 565 

Christman, A. H. — Variability of Dictyophora 565 

Merrill, W. A. — The Polyporacese of North America. VII 560 

Peklo, Jaroslav — Mycorhiza of Muscinese 5GG 

Diseases of Economic Plants 500 

C'ruchet, D. — Parasites of Edehveiss 500 

McAlpine, D. — Diseases of Cereals 560 

Cordemoy, H. Jacob de — Mycorhiza of Epiphytic Plants 507 

Thaxter, Roland — Myxobacteriacese 507 

Morgan. A. P. ; & others — American Fungi 507 

Dubourg, E. — Helicomycelium fulignosum 508 

Nikitinsky, Jacob— Growth of Moulds 568 

Molliard, Marin — Conidial Forms of the Higher Fungi 508 

Delacroix, Georges, & A. Pdttemans — Disease of the Coffee Plant 508 

Maublanc & Lasnier — Disease of Cattleya 509 

Hennings, P. — Fairy-Bings 561) 

Hohnel, F. v. — Mycological Contributions 569 

Delacroix, G. — Diseases of Potatoes 569 

Hohnel, Franz v. — Mycological Notes 570 

Trelease, William, & others — Fungi of Alaska 570 

Bibliography 570 

Hecke, Ludwig — Plasmopar a cubensis in Austria 683 

Rothert — Spore-development in Aphanomyces 681 

Blakeslee, A. F. — Sexual Beproduction in the Mucorinex 684 

Dauphin, J. — Development of Mucorini 084 

Molliard, Marin — Conidial Form of Morchella esculenta 684 

Giesenhagen, K. — Copnodium maximum 685 

Guillermond, A. — liaryolcinesis in the Ascomycetes .. 685 

Salmon, E. — Erysiphe Graminis 685 

Kossowicz, A.— Growth of Yeast in Mineral Solutions 686 



CONTENTS. XXIX 

PAGE 

Saito, K. — Saccharomyces Anomalus 686 

Osterwalder, A. — Contributions to the Morphology of Saccharomyces 686 

Bertel, Rud. — Aposphxria violacea, sp. n 686 

Traverso, J. B. — Cercosporella compacta, sp. n 686 

Lindac, G. — Hyphomycetes 687 

Mc Alpine, D., & others — TJredinex 687 

Blackman, V. H. — Fertilisation, Alternation of Generations, and General Cytology 

of the Uredinem 6S7 

Holden, li. J., & P. J. Harper — Nuclear Phenomena in Coleosporium Sonchi- 

arvensis 688 

Magnus, P. — W itches' -Broom caused by Puccinia 688 

Hecke, L. — Infection of Cereals by Smut 689 

Federley, H. — Copulation of Conidia in Ustilago Tragopogi-pratensis 689 

JVIURRILL, W. A. — North American Polyporaceie 689 

Malenkovie, B , & J. Beadveuie — Dry-rot .. .. 689 

Coccont, G. — New Species of Microfungi 690 

Filauszky, Ferdinand — Teratology of Fungi 690 

Maze, P., & A. Perrikr — Production of Citric Acid by Citromyces 690 

Fakneti, R. — Diseases of Ficus 691 

Briosl, G., & R. Farneti — White Mildeio of Citrus Limonum 691 

Rolfs, P. H. — Diseases of Citrous Trees and Fruits 691 

Harshberger, J. W. — Mycodomatia of Myrica cerifera 691 

Tuszon, Johan — Formation of False Heart-wood in the Red Beech 691 

Nikitinsky, Jacob — Influence of Growth Products of Fungi on their Further De- 
velopment 692 

Bessey, Ernst A. — Conditions of Colour Formation in Fusarium 692 

Lindau, G. — Seed -fungus of Lolium temulentum 692 

Bibliography 692 

Lichens. 

Hue, A. — Lecanora subfusca 98 

Steiner, J. — Lichens from Socotra .. 98 

Zwaokh-Holzhausen, W. Ritter von, & Hugo Gluck — Lichen Flora of Heidel- 
berg 230 

Hesse, O., & \V. Zopf — Contributions to our knowledge of the Chemistry of Lichens 230 

Bibliography 231 

Bkitzelmayer, Max — Growth-Forms of Lichens 348 

Metzcer, Otto, & Erwin Baur — Development of Lichen Fruits 348 

Lang, Eugen — Anatomy of Crustaceous Lichens 350 

Bitter, Georg — Studies of Peltigera 449 

Harris, Carolyn W. — Collema and Leptogium 449 

Nilson, B. — Swedish Lichens 449 

Stahl, E. — Protection of Lichens against Animals 450 

Elenkin, A. — Lichens as Fndosap i ophytes 450 

Bibliography 450 

Wainio — Antarctic Lichens .. .. 572 

Bilter, Georg — Formation of Soredia in Lichens 572 

Cummings, Clara E. — Lichens of Alaska ..^ 572 

Bibliography 694 

.Mycetozoa. 

Pinoy, M. — Development of Myxomycetes 98 

Bibliography 98 

Jahn, E. — Studies of Myxomycetes 450 

1'roweizek, J. — Nuclear Changes in the Plasmodium of Myxomycetes 694 

Schizophyta. 
Schizophyceae. 

Wille, N. — Schizophyceae in Marine Plankton 231 

V'ritsch, F. E. — Studies on Cyanophycex 45C 



XXX CONTENTS. 

Schizomycetes. 

PAGE 

Ulpiani, C. — Uric Acid Bacterium 9!) 

Smith, R. Greig — Bacterial Origin of the Forms of the Arabin Group 99 

Trolldekier — Streptothrix in a Dog 99 

Delacroix, G. — Jaundice of the Beet : a Bacterial Disease 100 

Marchoux, E., & A. Salimbeni — Spirillosis of Fowls 100 

Smith, R. Greig — Slime Bacterium from the Peach, etc 231 

Ellis, D. — Presence of Cilia in the Genus Bacterium 232 

Klein, E. — Bacillus Carnis 232 

Plehn, M. — Bacterium Cyprinicidia (n. sp.) 232 

Christensen, H. R. — Two New Fluorescent Denitrifying Bacteria 233 

Bienstock — Anaerobes and Symbiosis « 233 

Mallock, A., & A. M. Davis — Besistance to Heat of Bacillus anthracis .. .. 234 

Krisling, K. J. — Fat of Tubercle Bacilli 234 

Schweinitz, E. A., & M. Dorset — Composition of Tubercle Bacilli derived from 

Various Animals 234 

Itersox, G. van — Decomposition of Cellulose by Aerobic Micro-organisms .. .. 23a 
Desmots, H. — Production of Acetylmethylcarbinol by Bacteria of the Bacillus 

mesentericus Group 3130 

Delden, A. van — Reduction of Sulphates by Bacteria 351 

Danysz, J. — Microbe Pathogenic to Rats (mws decumanus and mus ratus) .. . . 351 
Baudouin, M. — Bacteriology and HUtology of Mud obtained at a depth of 10 m. 

from a Roman Funereal Pit at the Necropolis of Bernard (Vendue) .. .. 351 
Woolley, P. G., & J. W. Jobling — Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Animals .. . . 352 
Woolley, P. G. — Some Pidmonary Lesion* Produced by the Bacillus of Hemor- 
rhagic Septicemia of Caraboas 352 

Smith, R. Greig — Bacterial Origin of the Forms of the Arabin Group : the 

Pararabin form of Sterculia {Bad. pararabinum, sp. n.) 352 

Grttn, A. B. — Action of Radium on Micro-organisms 451 

Itersen, G. van, J un.— Accumidation Experiments with Denitrifying Bacteria .. 452 

Maze, P., & P. Pacottet — Ferments of Diseases of Wines 452 

Dalton, F. J. A., & J. \V. H. Eyre — Resistance of the Micrococcus melitensis to 

Moist Heat 453 

Levaditi, C. — Spirillosis in Fowls 454 

Lewawlowsky, F. — Growth of Bacteria in Scdt Solutions of High Concentration .. 454 
Desmots, Henri — Production of Acetylmethylcarbinol by the Bacteria of the Group 

Bacillus mesentericus 455 

Marpmann, G. — Growth of Bacteria under altered Pressure 455 

Bullock, W., & J. J. R. Macleod — Chemistry of Tubercle Bacillus 455 

Pfeiffer, H. — Bacterial Flora of the Male Urethra 455 

Molisch, H. — Bacterial Light and Photographic Plates 572 

Smith, A. Greig — Gum and By-products of Bacterium Sacchari 573 

Walker, E. W. A., & W. Murray — Effect of certain Dyes upon the Cultural 

Characters of the Bacillus Typhosus and some other Micro-organisms .. . . 573 

Bodin, E. — Role of Bacteria : Saprophytic arid Pathogenic 573 

Jammes, L., & H. Mandoul — Bactericidal Properties of Helminthic Juice .. .. 574 

Stephens, J. W. W. — Non-flagellate Typhoid Bacilli 574 

Klein, E. — Etiology of Rat-Plague and other Infectious Rat Diseases 694 

Schultz-Schultzenstein — Nitrifying Organisms in Sewage Filters 695 

Besredka & Dopter — Role of Streptococci in the Course of Scarlatina 695 

Besredka — Antistreptococcic Serum and its Mode of Action 696 

Herzog, M. — Fatal Infection by a Hitherto Undescribed Chromogenic Bacterium : 

Bacillus aureus faitidus 696 

Maze, P., & A. Perrier — Role of Microbes in Alcoholic Fermentation which 

StoMasa attributes to the Zymase isolated from Vegetable or Animal Tissues 696 

Smith, R. Greig — Loss of Colour in Red Wines 697 

Metcalf, H. — Bacterium teutlium, sp. n 697 

Galli- Valerio, B. — Influence of Shaking on the Development of Cultures . . . . 697 

Bibliography 697 



CONTENTS. XXXI 



MICROSCOPY. 
A. Instruments. Accessories, &c. 
(1) Stands. 

PAI1E 

Swift's Simple Dissecting Microscope (Fig. 1) 101 

„ Newly Designed Microscope for Bacteriological Research (Fig. 2) .. .. 101 

Newly Designed Histological and Physiological Microscope (Fig. 3) .. .. 103 

', Continental Stand (Fig. 4) 105 

Watson & Sons' " Works" Metallurgical Microscope (frig. 5) 105 

J. each's Oxy -hydrogen Lantern Microscope (Fig. 6) 107 

Watson's New "Argus " Substage (Fig. 7) 107 

., Compound Substage (Fig. S) 108 

Stokes, W. B. — Metallurgical Stage 108 

Kabop, G. C— Pocket-Magnifier (Fig. 9) 108 

Ross' Improved No. 2 " Standard " Microscope (Figs. 21-7) 236 

Watson and Sons' New "Argus" Microscope (Fig. 28) 238 

Bibliography 240 

Lucas, K. — On a Microscope with Geometric Slides (Figs. 49-53) 272 

Old Microscope by Bate (Fig. 55) 354 

Old Microscope by Plossl, of Vienna (Fig. 56) 355 

Baker's Diagnostic Microscope No. 1 (Fig. 57) .. 357 

Mineralogical Microscope (Fig. 58) 350 

Travelling Microscope (Figs. 59 and 50a) 350 

Leitz' New Binocular Loup (Fig. 60) 359 

Bibliography 360 

Gelblum, S.— Draw- Tube Stop ( Fig. 64) 457 

Beck's London Penological Microscope (Figs. 65-7) 457 

Zeiss' Rotary Projection Slide Carrier 430 

Bibliography 460 

Ortner's Entomological Microscope (Fig. 78) 575 

Hollick's Naturalist's Microscope (Fig. 79) 576 

Pfeiffer, A. — Notched Fine Adjustment for Optical Instruments (Fig. SO) .. .. 577 
Pulfrich, C. — Application of the Stereo-Komparator to Monocular Use, and a 

Specially Designed Monocular Comparison Microscope (Fig. 81) 578 

Bibliography 578 

Howard, B. J.— Exhibition Microscope (Fig. 102) 698 

Societe Genevoise Second Large Model Microscope (Fig. 103) 600 

Culman's Monocular Image- Erecting Prism-Microscope (Fig. 104) 609 

Ortner's Pocket-Loup (Fig. 105) 701 

„ Loup-Stand (Fig. 106) „ 701 

(2) Eye-pieces and Objectives. 

Merlin, A. A. C. E. — Nelson's Formula Oculars 109 

'• H."— Lens Calculation .. 109 

Zeiss' Compound Lens with Iris Diaphragm (Fig. 68) 460 

Bibliography .. , 578 

(3)' Illuminating and.'other Apparatus. 

Dunning's New Portable Oil-tight Lamp (Figs. 10 and 11) 110 

Swift's Light Modifiers (Figs. 12 and 13) 110 

„ Double-Image Prism for Penological Microscopes (Fig. 14) Ill 

Nelson, E. M. — On the Vertical Illuminator 165 

Heele's Heliostats (Figs. 29-32) 24) 

Bibliography 242 

Wright, A. E. — On Certain New Methods of Measuring the Magnifying Power of 

the Microscope and of its Separate Elements (Fig. 54) 279 

Stringer, E. B. — On a Method of Obtaining Monochromatic Ultra-violet Light .. 392 



XXX11 CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Merlin, A. A. C. E. — On Nelson's New Formula Amplifier .. .. 396 

Watson & Sons' New Objective Changer (Fig. 69) 461 

Bibliography < 461 

Gray, A. W. — An Easily Set-up Heliostat (Fig. 82) 579 

Polariscope and Microscope Lantern 580 

Chamberlain, C. J. — Artificial Light for the Microscope 702 

Zeiss' Apparatus for Examination of Ultra-microscopical Particles (Figs. 107-17) 702 

Bibliography 711 

(4) Photomicrography. 

Bibliography Ill 

Bagshaw, W. — Photographing Microscopic Crystals 24 2 

O'Donohoe, T. A. — lite How and Why of the Lippmann Colour Process (PI. IX., 

Figs. 33-6) 242 

Bibliography 360 

Forgan, W. — Photomicrography of Bocli Sections 461 

Bibliography 462 

Microphotographs 580 

Bibliography .. . 582 

Ives, F. E. — On the Use of the Escidin Screen in Photomicrography 634 

Wallace, R. J. — Grain in Photographic Plates 711 

Spitta. E. J. — On Suiting Contrast Screens for the Photography of Bacteria 

(Pis. XII.-XIV.) 712 

Bibliography 714 

° (5) Microscopical Optics and Manipulation. 

Everett. J. D. — Microscopic Resolution : Note on a Point in Lord Bayleigh's 

Paper of 1896 26 

Bibliography 112 

Nelson, F. M. — The Influence of the Antipoint in the Microscopic Image shown 

Graphically (Figs. 47 and' 48) 269 

Schaudinn, V. — Absorption and Emission of Air and its Ingredients for Light of 

Wave-lengths from 250 p. to 100 w ' 360 

Glazebrook, R. T. — Note on the Diffraction Theory of the Microscope as applied 

to the Case when the Object is in Motion 361 

Michelson, A. A. — Light Wares and their Uses 362 

London, E. S. — Simple Method for the Observation of Ultra-Microscopic Particles 362 
Krl'ss, H. A. — Filtration of Ultra-Violet Bays through a Selection of Jena Optical 

Glasses 363 

Gifford, J. W., & W. A. Shenstone — Optical Properties of Vitreous Silica .. .. 363 

R.T.G. — Theories of the Besolving Power of a Microscope 364 

Everett, J. D. — A Direct Proof of Abbe's Theorems on the Microscopic Besolution 

of Gratings 385 

Rheinberg, J. — On the Influence on Images of Gratings of Phase Differences 

amongst their Spectra 388 

J amin's Circle for Befiexion, Befraction a7id Polarisation (Fig. 70) 463 

Zschimmer, E. — New Kinds of Glass of Increased Ultra-violet Transparency .. 464 

Barus, C. — Direct Micrometric Measurement of Fog Particles 464 

Bibliography 465 

Bibliography 582 

Conrady, A. E. — Tlieories of Microscopical Vision: a Vindication of the Abbe Tlieory 610 
Legros, V.. & M. Stiassnie — Photogrammetric Focimeter for Microscopical Optics: 

an Instrument for Verifying Microscopies (Fig. 118) 714 

Desain's Apparatus (Fig. 119) 715 

Conrady, A. E. — Chromatic Correction of Object-Glasses .. .. 716 

Gordon, J. W. — Note in reply to A. E. Conrady' s Paper on Microscopical Vision.. 729 

Conrady, A. B.—Bf joinder 733 

_^ (6) Miscellaneous. 

Grubb, Sir H. — General Principle of some Novel Forms of Geodetical Instruments 

(Fig. 15) 112 

Czapski, S. — The Collected Treatises of Abbe 113 



CONTENTS. XXX111 

PAGK 

Dowdy, S. E. — Focussing Safeguard (Fig. 16) Hi 

Birch-Hirschfeld, A. — Ultra-Microscopic Investigation of Colour-matters and their 

Physiological Significance 114 

Bibliography 115 

Cotton, A., & H. Mouton— Ultra-Microscopic Objects (Figs. 37 and 38) .. .. 243 

Horder's Clinical Case (Fig. 39) 245 

Heele's Miniature Spectroscopes (Figs. 40 and 41) 246 

Gage's Microscopy . 369 

Stringer, E. B. — An Attachment for Beading the Lines in a Direct-vision Spectro- 
scope (Fig. 63) .. .. 390 

Regaud, Cl., & Fouilliand, R. — Electro-thermic Regulator and Electric Incubators 

(Figs. 71-73) 465 

Beck, R. & J.— Optical Bench (Figs. 84-91) 582 

Bibliography 585 

Biltz, W., & Z. Gatin-Grdzewska — Ultra-microscopic Observations in Solutions of 

Pure Glycogen 716 

Osborn, A. S. — Microscope and Expert Testimony 716 

Bibliography r . 716 

B, Technique. 

CD Collecting- Objects, including- Culture Processes. 

Wright's Collecting Bottle (Fig. 17) 115 

Winslow, C. E. A., & C. P. Nibecker — Bacteriological Methods in Sanitary Water 

Analysis 116 

Rosenbekger, R. C. — Technique of the Bacteriology of the Blood .. ., .. .. 116 

McNeal, W. J., & F. G. Novt — Cultivating Trypanosomes 116 

Fischer, H. — Simple Method for Clearing Nutrient Agar without Filtration .. .. 246 

Warfield, L. M. — Blood Cultures in Typhoid Fever 246 

Sea well, B. L. — Method of Concentrating Plankton without Net or Filter .. .. 247 

Rovere. Della — Neio Culture Medium made with Helix Pomatia 369 

Lipschutz, B. — Bacterial Diagnosis of Typhoid by means of the v. Drigalski- 

Conradi Medium and Agglutination 369 

Gordon, M. H. — Capsule Formation by Diplococcus Pneumonias in Culture . . .. 370 

Laing, A. R. — New Anaerobic Apparatus (Fig. 61) .. .. 371 

Bibliography 371 

Bodin, E., & E. Cartex — Apparatus for the Continuous Agitation of Cultures 

(Fig. 74) 468 

Richter,0. — Pure Cultures of Diatoms 47) 

Hofmann, W. — New Method of Demonstrating Typhoid Bacilli 470 

Ficker, M. — Demonstrating Typhoid Bacilli in Water 470 

Eyre, J. W. H. — Preparation of Nutrose Agar 470 

„ „ Preparing Plates of Nutrose Agar 471 

Richard. J. — Nets for Gathering Plankton 472 

Bordet, J. — Culture of Anaerobic Bacteria (Figs. 92, 93) 585 

Herouard, E. — Pure Cultures of Chlorella vulgaris 586 

Bruce, W. S.— Scotia Closing Plankton Net (Fig. 94) 587 

Rosam, K. — Preparing Agar 58S 

Frank, Th. — Cultivation of Algae .. 588 

Hamilton, D. J. — Cultivation of Anaerobes 5SS 

Schultz-Schultzenstein — Detection of Nitrifying Organisms in Sewage Filters .. 716 

Klein, E., & A. C. Houston — Identification of the Bacillus typhosus in Stools .. 717 

Gordon, M. H. — Bacteriological Test for Estimating Pollution of Air 717 

Rickards, B. R. — Simple Method for Cultivating Anaerobic Bacteria (Figs. 120 

and 121) 718 

Bibliography 718 

(2) Preparing Objects. 

Whetzel, H. H.— New Method of Preparing Superficial Fungi 117 

Hamlyn-Harris, R. — Demonstrating the Statocysts of Cephalopods 117 ■ 

Dec. 21st, 1904 c 



XX XIV CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Dilg, C. — Detection of Tubercle Bacilli in Organised Sediment by means of Centri- 

fugalising or Simple Sedimentation 117 

Dowdy, S. E. — Bleaching Reagents 247 

Pearl, R. — F or mol-sublimate Fixing Fluids 247 

Enderlein, G. — Preparing Small Dried Insects for Microscopical Examination .. 371 

Marshall, F. H. A. — Demonstrating the Structure of Corpus luteum of Sheep . . 372 

Frefman. E. M. — Demonstrating Presence of Seed-Fungus in Darnel 372 

Beauchamp, P. de — Fixation of Infusoria 372 

Oajal, S. Ramon t — Demonstrating the Tubular Reticulum in the Cytoplasm of 

Nervous and Epithelial Cells of the Earthworm 372 

Marpmann, G. — Preparing Planarian Worms 373 

Marceau, F — Demonstrating the Structure of Cardiac Fibres 373 

Dekhuyzen, M. C. — Fixative Solutions Isotonic ivith Sea Water 472 

Guilliermond, A. — Picroformal for Fixation 472 

Diederichs, K. — Preparing, Staining and Mounting Fresh-water Fauna .. . . 472 

Rossig, H. — Fixing and Examining Cyrripida Larvse 473 

Ashworth, J. H. — Preparing and Demonstrating the Structure of Arenicola . . .. 474 

Helly, K.— Modification of Zenker's Fluid 474 

Bibliography 474 

Preserving Insects 589 

Lendenfeld, R. vox — Preparation of Spicules of Silicious Sponges 589 

Regaud, Cl. — Collodionage of Cells 589 

Bibliography .. .. ' 719 

(3) Cutting 1 , including' Imbedding and Microtomes. 

Kaplan — Pleuel Microtome 247 

Krefft, P.— Rotation Microtome (Fig. 42) 248 

Bibliography 248 

Fischel, R. — New Method for Sticking Celloidin Sections to the Slide 373 

Mich ae lis, H. — Method for Sticking Paraffin Sections to the Slide 374 

Katz — Preparation of Frozen Sections by Means of Ansesthol 474 

Bibliography 475 

Lubarsch, O. — Rapid Method of Hardening and Paraffin Imbedding 590 

Stein, A. — Rapid Hardening and Imbedding 590 

Dixon, H. H. — Use of Radium in Section Cutting 590 

Luther, A. — Fixation and Staining of Eumesostamina 591 

Bibliography 591 

York, H. H.— Agar Method for Imbedding Plant Tissues 719 

Howard, B. J. — Sectioning Wheat Kernels 719 

Johnston, J. B.— Imbedding Medium for Brittle Objects 719 

Radais' Microtome with Vertical Slideless Carrier (Figs. 122 and 123) 720 

Bibliography 722 

(4) Staining and Injecting. 

Sieber — Modification of Tichmann's Injection Syringe (Figs. 18-20) 118 

Arnold, J. — Vital and Supravital Granule Staining .". 119 

Meyer, A. — Naphihol-Blue as a Reagent for Bacterial Fat 119 

Pappenheim, A.— Gonococci Staining 120 

Nicolle — Modification of Gram's Method 120 

L aver an — Method of Staining the Protozoal Parasites of the Blood 120 

Berestneff — New Modification of the Romanowsky-Ruge Method for Staining 

Blood-Spores 249 

Ellis, D. — Demonstrating presence of Cilia in Bacteria 249 

Coles, C. A. — Resistance of Tubercle and other Acid-fast Bacilli to Decolorising 

Agents 249 

Paine, A. — Neio Method of Staining with. Iron Hematoxylin 374 

Zieler, K. — Staining of Bacteria difficult to Stain (Glanders and Typhoid Bacilli, 

Gonococci, etc.) in Sections of Skin and other Organs 374 

Krause, R.— Is there a " Vital " Staining ? : J -75 

Musgrave, W. K., & M. T. Clegg— Staining Trypanosoma 375 

Colombo, G. — Method for Intra-vitam Staining of the Protoplasmic Granules of 

the Cornea 375 



CONTENTS. XXXV 

PAGE 

Petit, L. — Triple Staining of Vegetable Tissue 376 

Kolmer, W. — Vitnl Staining of Corethra plumicornis 376 

Dowdy, S. E. — New Form of Section-Lifter 376 

Bibliography 376 

Andre, E. — Concretions in Acetic-methyl-green 475 

Mayer, P. — Hxmatein and Hxmalnm 475 

Hastings, T. W.— Modified Nocht's Stain for Blood Films 476 

Ramon y Cajal, S. — Staining the Myelin in Section* of Nervous Tissue previously 

Treated by Marchi's Method 476 

„ „ Methods for Silver Impregnation of Nervous Tissue .. .. 477 

Christophers, S. R. — Demonstrating a Parasite found in Cases of Enlarged Spleen ¥11 

Bibliography 478 

Pavlow, W. — Hematoxylin Staining of Nerve-fibres of the Central Nervous System 591 

Weigert, K. — Modification of the Van Gieson Method, 592 

Freeman, W.— Method of Staining Sections Quickly with Picrocarmin 592 

Rettereb, E. — Fixing, Staining and Mounting Sections of Skin 593 

Unna, P. G. — New Method of Staining the Epithelial Fibres and the Membrane of 

Prickle Cells ' .. .. _ 593 

Schultze, O. — Staining with Chrom-hxmatoxylin 593 

Stephens, J. W. W. — Modification of van Ermengem's Method of Staining Flagella 593 

Kraus, A. — Staining Hyphomycetes in Horny Tissues 722 

Thesing, E. — Simple Method of Spore Staining 722 

(5) Mounting-, including- Slides, Preservative Fluids, &c. 

Dowdy, S. E. — Improved Mounting Clip (Fig. 21) 120 

Bibliography 121 

Bibliography 250 

Watson & Sons' New Mounting Device (Fig. 75) 478 

Harz, C. O. — Iodine-Paraffin Oil: a New Micro-reagent and Mounting Medium .. 594 

Nei'haus, E. — Method for the Removal of Air-Bubbles from Frozen Sections .. .. 594 

Bibliography 594 

Tellxesinczky, K. v.— Sticking of Celloidin Sections 723 

~(6) Miscellaneous. 

Waterproof Cement for Glass 121 

Dowdy, S. E. — Mounting Medium Bottle 121 

Diederichs, K. — Gelatin Plates as Substitute for Glass Light-filters 121 

Qdilter, H. J. — Method of taking Internal Casts of Foraminif era 121 

Jachtchinsky, S. — Silicate of Soda {Water Glass) as an Lnjection Medium for 

Macroscopic Preparations 122 

Zikes, H. — New Small Shaking Apparatus (Fig. 22) 122 

Houston, D. — Bacteriological Tests for Show Butters 122 

Seeliger, E. L. — Lodine-Calcium Nitrate, a new Beagent for Cellulose 250 

Jaeger, H. — The Agghdinoscope, an Apparatus for facilitating the Macroscopic 

observation of Agglutination in the Test-tube 250 

Gage, J. H, — Prevention of Pedetic or Brownian Movements 250 

Dowdy, S. E. — Cover-glass Cleaner .. .. -4 251 

Powell, J. G. R. — Mounting Diatoms 377 

Beck's Safety Cedar Wood Oil-Bottle (Fig. 62) .'. 378 

Konaschko, P. — New Method for Neutralising Carmin Injection-Masses .. .. 378 

Rothenbach — New Method for Sterilising Vessels 478 

Steyenson, W. C. — Differentiation of B. typhosus and B. coli communis by means 

of the Photographic Plate 478 

Kingsford's Glass Troughs (Figs. 76, 77) 479 

Wood, W. J. — Ebonising Laboratory Tables . . .. , 479 

Cameron, J. — Preparing Lantern Slides of Histological Objects 480 

Bibliography 480 

Lundyall, Halvar — Demonstrating Foetal Cartilage .. .. 594 

Wright, A. E. — Preparation of Slides for Blood Films 595 

Bibliography 595 

Ink for Writing on Glass 723 

Bibliography 723 



XXXVI CONTENTS. 

Metallography, &c. 

PAGE 

Swift & Son — Dichroiscopt (Fig. 23) 123 

Jolt, J. — Penological Examination of Paving Sets 123 

Chesneau, M. G. — Microscopic Study of the Prehistoric Bronzes of the Charente .. 124 

Beilby, G. T. — Surf ace Structure of Solids 124 

Vigouroux & Arrivault — Contributions to the Study of Alloys of Aluminium and 

Silicon 125 

Bonney, T. G., & J. Parkinson — Primary and Secondary Devitrification in Glassy 

Igneous Rocks 125 

Guillet, L. — Metallography of Nickel Steels 125 

Bibliography 125 

Watson & Sons' Metallurgical Auxiliaries (Figs. 43-6) 251 

T. K. R.— Elastic Limit of Metals 253 

Arnold, J. O., & G. P. Waterhouse —Influence of Sulphur and Manganese on Steel 253 
Stead, J. E. — Segregatory and Migratory Habit of Solids in Alloys and in Steel 

below the critical points 254 

Outerbridge, A. E., jun. — Recent Investigations in Cast Iron 255 

Bibliography 255 

Osmond, Floris — Microscopic Analysis of Metals 378 

Job, K. — Influence of Structure upon Strength under Sudden Stresses 379 

Stead, J. E. — Notes on the Structure of an Alloy which on Freezing Separates into 

Solid Solutions and a Eutectic 379 

Boynton, H. C. — Sorbitic Steel 481 

BlBLOGRAPHY 481 

Beilby, G. T. — Bard and Soft States in Metals 595 

Longmuir, P. — Influence of Varying Casting Temperature on the Properties of Steel 

andiron Castings 595 

Ewing, J. A. — Structure of Metals 596 

Bibliography ; 596 

Cartaud, M. G. — Evolution of Structure in Metals 723 

Bibliography , 723 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Meeting, December 16, 1903 126 

Anniversary Meeting, January 20, 1904 129 

Meeting, February 17, 1904 256 

„ March 16, „ 261 

April 20, „ 380 

May 18, „ 382 

„ June 15, „ 482 

„ October 19, „ 724 

„ November 16, „ 727 



General Indkx to Volume 737 



JOURN.R.MICR. S0C.1904. PL I. 




G.M.Woodward del.et hth. West, Newman imp. 

POROSPH.ERA FROM THE ENGLISH CHALK. 



f . ■ 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY. 

FEBRUARY 1904. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 

I. — On the Structure and Affinities of the Genus 
Porospheera, Steinmann. 

By George J. Hinde, Ph.D. F.R.S. 

(.Read December 16th, 1003.) 
Plates I. and IT. 



CONTEXTS. 



I. Introduction 
II. History of the genus 

III. Mode of occurrence and zonal 

distribution 

IV. Mineral character and con- 

dition of preservation . 
Y. Form and manner of growth 



O* 



1 


VI. 


Skeletal mesh 


11 


2 


VII. 


Basal layer 


1.") 




VII I. 


Spicular dermal layer . 


lo 


G 


IX. 


Canal system 


. 17 




X. 


Affinities of the genus 


IS 


10 


XI. 


Description of species 


IS 


11 


XII. 


Summary . 


24 



I. Introduction. 

The genus Porospheera was established in 1878 by Dr. G. Stein- 
mann for certain small rounded fossils widely distributed in the 
Cretaceous rocks of this country and the Continent, which, in 18 2 'J, 
had been named and figured by Prof. John Phillips, Millepora 
gldbularis. Steinmann considered the fossils to be nearly allied 
structurally to Parlceria, and he placed the genus in the family 
Milleporida?, Moseley, thus in approximately the same systematic 
position as that to which they had been assigned by Phillips fifty 
years previous^. Very divergent views respecting the nature of 
these fossils have been held by older authors, and they have been 
referred in turn to Foraminifera, Sponges, and C} T clostomate 
Polyzoa. Latterly, Steinmann's determination of their hydrozoal 
characters has been accepted generally as correct, though some 
Feb. 77th. 1904 b 



2 Transactions of the Society. 

competent authorities have questioned his conclusions. The general 
resemblance of Porosphcera to sponges, which has led several 
authors to place the fossils in this group, induced me for many- 
years past to collect and study all the forms I could meet with ; 
for a long time I failed to discover any decisive evidence respect- 
ing the original characters of their calcareous skeletal fibres, but 
at last, about eight years ago, a small specimen, preserved in flint, 
which was sent to me by Mr. H. Muller of Eltham, clearly showed 
that the fibres were built up of spicules. On further investiga- 
tion this spicular structure was recognised in microscopic sections 
of many other specimens, and it became apparent, as I have already 
mentioned elsewhere,* that Porosphcera belonged to the Lithonine 
division of Calcisponges, and possessed the same structural cha- 
racters as the genus Plcctroninia, Hinde,f from the Eocene Tertiary 
of Victoria, Australia, and the recent Pctrostroma, D6derlein,| from 
the Japanese sea. 

Other work has prevented me from giving till now a detailed 
description of the structure of Porosphcera, but the delay has 
been in one respect an advantage, for in the interval my friend, 
Dr. A. W. Howe, F.G.S., has carried on a series of researches on 
the fossils from the different zones of the Chalk on the east and 
south coasts of England, during which he has met with many 
hundred examples of Porosphcera, all of which he has most 
generously forwarded to me for examination. The study of this 
large series of well-preserved specimens, together with those of 
my own collecting, has enabled me to gain a better knowledge of 
the real characters of these fossils than hitherto, and, further, to 
trace out their distribution in the various zones of the Chalk of 
this country. 

II. History of the Genus. 

The following is a brief history of the fossils which are now 
included under Porosphcera. 

In 1822, Dr. G. A. Mantell figured, in the Geology of Sussex, 
pi. xvi. figs. 17, 18, p. 162, ' Siliceous specimens of a Zoophyte of 
a pyriform shape, the nature of which is unknown,' from the 
Chalk near Brighton. These are examples of Porosphcera nuci- 
formis, von Hag. sp. Eigs. 22-24 of the same plate, referred to 
Lunulites (?), probably belong to P. patettiformis. In 1835, they 
were placed by this author under Orbitolites Icnticulata, Lam., 
Trans. Geol. Soc. s. 2, vol. iii. p. 204. 

In 1829, Prof. J. Phillips, in the Geology of Yorkshire, pt. i. 
p. 186, pi. i., fig. 12, gave a figure of Millepora globularis, and 

• Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, lvi. (1000) p. 57. t Op. cit., p. 51. 

% Zool. Jahrb., x. (1898) pp. 15-32, pis. ii.-vi. 



The Genus Porosphccra, Steimnanu. By George J. Hinde. 3 

another (fig. 11) is named Lunulitcs uvccolata, Lam. Both speci- 
mens are partly imbedded in a slab of hard chalk from Dane's 
Dike, Flamborough, now preserved in the York Museum. Stein- 
mann has taken the first of these as the type of the genus Poro- 
sphccra, whilst the Lunulitcs urccolata is now known as Porosphccra 
pileolus. No description accompanied either of the forms figured 
by Phillips. In the third edition of the Geology of Yorkshire, 
which appeared in 1875, both Millcpora globidaris and Lunulitcs 
urceolata are placed in the genus Coscinopora, Goldfuss, but here 
again no description is given ; the specific name of the latter is, 
however, changed to pileolus. 

In 1833, S. Woodward figured in the Outline of the Geology of 
Norfolk, pi. iv., figs. 10-12, several examples of Millcpora globidaris 
from the Chalk of Norwich and near Holt, which are placed with 
other fossil sponges under the heading Polypi. It is doubtful if 
the Lunulitcs urceolata, pi. iv., fig. 9, belongs to Porosphccra. I 
have not been able to trace the originals of the figures. 

In 1839, F. von Hagenow described and figured in the ' Mono- 
graphic der Rugenschen Kreide Versteinerungen ' {Neues Jahrbuch 
filr Mineralogie), as a new species of Polyzoa, Ceriopora nuciformis, 
the same pear-shaped forms of Porosphccra which had been already 
figured by Mantcll in 1822. He regarded them as a more com- 
plete development of the rounded forms, i.e. of P. globidaris, Phill. 
sp., though he does not mention this species (p. 286, pi. v., fig. 9). 
In the same work (p. 2(30) a description is given of another 
rounded fossil from the Chalk of Eiigen, named Achilleum globoswm, 
which appears to have been partly based on specimens of P. glohu- 
laris, and partly on small round siliceous sponges subsequently 
named by v. Zittel, Plinthosella squamosa. 

In 1844, A. E. Pteuss, in Geognostische Skizzcn aus Bohmcn, 
vol. ii., p. 140, quoted Ceriopora pisum = Millcpora globidaris, Phill., 
from the Pliinerkalk of Kutschlin and near Bilin ; and shortly 
after (1845-6), in Die Versteinerungen der bohmischen Kreide- 
formation, Abth. 2, p. 78, pi. xx., fig. 5, he described and figured 
the same form as a sponge under the name of Tragos globidaris. 

In A. d'Orbigny's Prodrome de Pcdeontologie, vol. ii. (1850) 
p. 284, Tragos globidaris, Reuss ( = P. globidaris, Phill.) is placed 
in the genus Coscinopora, Goldfuss. 

John Morris, in the second edition of the Catalogue of British 
Fossils (1854) pp. 27, 28, follows d'Orbigny in placing P. globidaris 
under Coscinopora, and to the same genus he refers Lunulitcs, 
Mant., L. urccolatus, Phill., and Orbitolitcs lenticulccta, Mant. These 
forms are placed with a query as synonyms of Lamarck's species 
(0.) pileolus. 

In the Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist,, s. 3, vol. vi. (1860) p. 30, 
W. K. Parker and T. E. Jones described P. globidaris, Phill. sp., 
as a Foraminifer, and placed it in the genus Orbitolina, d'Orbigny, 

b 2 



4 Transactions of the Society. 

whilst the allied conical, hemispherical, and depressed forms are 
definitely assigned to 0. concava, Lamk. sp. 

F. A. Roemer, in 'Die Spongitarien des Norddeutsehen Kreide- 
gebirges' (Palceontographica, vol. xiii. (1864) p. 56), placed Tragos 
globularis, Iieuss ( = P. globularis, Phill.), as a synonym of Achilleum 
globosum, v. Hag. 

In the ' Seeschwiimme des mittleren und oberen Quaders ' 
{Palmontographica, vol. xxii. (1872-5) p. 4), H. B. Geinitz pointed 
out that the resemblance in outer form between Ccriopora nuci- 
formis, v. Hag. (= P. nuciformis) and Achilleum globosum ( = Plin- 
thosella squamosa, v. Zitt.) is so close that they may readily be 
mistaken for each other. Geinitz placed this latter sponge with 
the Lithistidce, where it rightly belongs. 

H. J. Carter, in the Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., s. 4, vol. xix. 
(1877) p. 64, and s. 5, vol. i. (1878) p. 298, described under the 
names, first of (?) Bradya tergestina, and afterwards of Millepora 
Woodwardi, a new species of Porosphcera, characterised by branched 
canals which radiate from points on the surface. It is regarded 
as a Hydrozobn with a structure similar to that of Parkcria. The 
forms occur in the Grey Chalk near Dover, and the types are now 
in the British Museum (Natural History), South Kensington. 

In his memoir ' Ueber fossile Hydrozoen aus der Familie der 
Coryniden' (Palceontographica, vol. xxv. (1878) p. 120, pi. xiii., 
figs. 8-12), Dr. G. Steinmann referred Millepora globularis to a 
distinct genus, Porosphaira, belonging to the Hydrocorallina?. The 
skeleton is stated to consist of anastomosing calcareous fibres, like 
those of Parkcria, and their microstructure is distinctly radiate. 
The author recognises the close resemblance in outer form of 
Porospltcera to Sponges, but stated that the definite connected cal- 
careous skeleton is quite unknown in existing sponges, though it 
occurs in numerous fossils. The various forms of Porosphcera, 
including P. Woodwardi, Carter, are regarded as belonging to a 
single species, P. globularis, Phillips. 

In the Elcmcntc der Palceontoloejic (1888) p. 77, fig. 73, by the 
same author and Dr. Doderlein, Porosphcera is retained in the 
same systematic position. The Gastroporen are stated to be 
radial and numerous, in other respects like Millepora. 

Dr. F. A. Quenstedt, in the Petrcfaktenkunde Dcutsch lands, 
vol. vi. (1879) p. 262 ; Atlas, pi. 153, figs. 1-12, referred a series 
of the usual forms of P. globidaris to Ccriopora nuciformis, v. Hag., 
and considers them as Bryozoa. Quenstedt farther mentioned that 
amongst a suite of specimens sent to him direct by v. Hagenow 
as examples of his Achilleum globosum, some were genuine forms 
of Ceriojyora nuciformis, whilst others were definite sponges. 

In the Handhuch der Palceontologie, vol. i. (1879) p. 288, 
Prof. v. Zittel accepted Steinmann's determination of Porosphcera, 
and placed the genus in the family Milleporida^ ; in the same 



The Genus Porosphcera, Steinmami. By George J. Hinde. 5 

author's Grunchugc der Palceontologie (1895) p. 102, it is placed 
next to Parker ia iu the Order Tubularia3 ; and in the English 
edition of the work (1900) p. Ill, it is retained in the same 
position. 

Treating of the affinities of the genus Parkeria, Carpenter, 
Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., s. 6, vol. i. (1888) p. 11, the late Prof. 
H. A. Nicholson stated that microscopic sections of Porosphcera 
globidaris show that its minute structure differs from that of any 
Hydrozobn, and that it has no special relationship with Parkeria. 
The author thinks that it will be found to belong to the group of 
the Lithistid sponges, and to be related to the genus Hinclia, 
Duncan. The same opinion is also expressed in the Manual of 
Palccontology, 3rd ed. (1889) vol. i., p. 200. 

Prof. A. Fritsch. gives a description of Amorphospongia globosa, 
v. Hag. sp., in Studien im Gcbicte der bohmische Kreidcformation, 
iv. Die Teplitzer Schichten (1889) p. 108, fig. 52. It is stated 
that the inner skeleton appears to consist of a plait-work of cal- 
careous spicules, and that there is a surface layer which likewise 
seems to be of spicules. Through the kindness of Dr. Fritsch, 
I have examined a microscopic section of the specimen which he 
has described, and can confirm his statement of the spicular 
character of the interior skeleton, which is similar to that of 
Porosphccra globular is ; but I failed to recognise any spicular struc- 
ture in the outer crust. The specimen seems to me to belong to 
P. globidaris, Phill. 

G. J. Hinde stated in the Quart. Joum. Gcol. Soe., vol. lvi., 
Feb. 1900, p. 57, that Porosphccra, Steinmann was a Calcisponge in 
which the spicules of the skeletal mesh were fused together as 
in Plcetroninia and Petrosiroma, and that it belonged to the 
Lithonina. 

Dr. Gr. Steinmann, in the Einfuhrung in die Palaontologie (1903) 
p. 95, places Porosphccra globularis in the Lithonina as a group 
of the Pharetrones. 

The varied opinions respecting the nature of Porosphccra indi- 
cated in the references given above may to some extent be 
accounted for by the minute and delicate structure of the fibrous 
skeletal mesh of the organism, which appears in the majority of 
microscopic sections, even of well-preserved specimens, as a con- 
tinuous network in which scarcely any traces of the constituent 
spicular elements can be recognised. Another source of error 
arises from the fact that certain zones of the Chalk in which 
Porosphccra is plentiful likewise contain specimens of the siliceous 
sponge, Plinthosella squamosa, v. Zitt., which closely resemble 
Porosphccra globidaris in form and size, and the two kinds of 
sponges appear to have been confused together by von Hagenow 
and other authorities. 



Transactions of the Society. 



III. Mode of Occurrence and Zonal Distribution. 

In this country Porosphmra is met with most commonly in 
the Chalk cliffs of the coasts of Yorkshire, Kent, Sussex, Isle of 
Wight, Dorset, and South Devon. It is by no means uniformly 
distributed in the Chalk, for whilst in some beds and horizons 
specimens are very plentiful, in others they are rare or apparently 
absent altogether. They are usually seen slightly projecting from 
the weathered face of the cliff, from which they can readily be 
picked out with a blunt knife or chisel. When naturally weathered 
out of the cliff and fallen to the beach, they are soon worn smooth 
and their surface characters are partly obliterated. As a rule, 
they are seldom found in inland areas, either in Chalk pits or on 
downs and other places where the Chalk outcrops at or close to 
the surface ; but their apparent scarcity in these positions may be 
due to their generally small size and to their close resemblance 
to rolled fragments of Chalk. As an instance of their occurrence 
in such places when carefully searched for, I may mention that 
within the limits of a moderately-sized garden situated on the 
slope of a Chalk clown at Croydon, Surrey, I have during the last 
sixteen years picked from the surface soil 632 specimens of dif- 
ferent forms of Porosphwra which have all been derived by slow 
weathering from the underlying Chalk. 

With the object of tracing the development of Porospliaira at 
various horizons in the Chalk, the collections made by Dr. Eowe 
and by myself from each zone and locality have carefully been kept 
separate, and in the list below details are given of the number and 
range of size of each species from the respective zones, which will 
show approximately the relative proportions of the different forms 
which occur together. About two-thirds of the total number of 
specimens in this list have been obtained by Dr. Eowe. 

It will be seen from this list that the earliest appearance of 
Porosphccra in the Chalk of this country is in the zone of Holastcr 
sulglobosus at Dover and at Durdle Cove, Dorset. There are only 
very few specimens present on this horizon, and they all belong to 
one species, P. Woodwardi, Carter, which, so far, has not been found 
in any higher zone. 

In the next higher zone of PJiynchonclla Cuvieri, the pre- 
dominant species, P. globularis, Phillips, occurs for the first time — 
it is represented by only a few small specimens ; with it are some 
diminutive forms of P. arrecta. P. globularis is more abundant in 
the succeeding zone of Tcrcbratulina gracilis, but the specimens 
are still small generally ; in this zone the limpet-shaped P. patclli- 
formis is first met with. 

At the base of the Upper Chalk, in the zone of Holastcr planus, 
the thimble or inverted cup-shaped P. pilcolus makes its first 
appearance. 



The Genus Porosphcera, Steinniann. By George J. Ilinde. 7 

In the succeeding zones of Micraster cor-tcstudinarium and 
M. cor-anguinum, we find P. glohularis more numerous and of 
larger size ; in the latter zone, the ribbed, pear-shaped P. nuciformis 
has been first noted. P. pileolus and P. patelliformis are more 
common than in the Middle Chalk ; but they form only a small 
percentage in comparison with the numbers of P. glohularis. 

It will be noticed that the forms from South Croydon, which I 
have placed in the zone of Micraster cor-anguinum, differ consider- 
ably in their maximum size from those of the same zone on the 
Thanet coast, and. approach more nearly in this respect to those 
obtained by Dr. Eowe from the Marsupites zone of Margate. This 
fact has led me to question whether the Chalk at South Croydon 
has been correctly referred to the M. cor-anguinum zone ; but I have 
hitherto failed to find in it any remains of Marsupites. I have, 
however, found a single specimen of faster pillula, Lam., associated 
in the same area with the large specimens of P. glohularis ; and as 
this echinoderm, according to Dr. Eowe, also occurs, though rarely, 
in the Marsupites zone of Thanet, there is some probability that the 
Chalk at South Croydon may be correlated to this zone. 

From the zone of Marsupites, at Margate more particularly, and 
also at Flamborough, Porospthcvra is very common, and Dr. Eowe 
has obtained a large series of the different species. The greater 
number were found in the lower part of this zone, the Uintacrinus 
Band of Dr. Eowe. At this horizon, in Kent, the specimens 
generally are notably larger than those from the lower zones of the 
Chalk, some of P. glohularis reaching a maximum diameter of 
34 mm. ; the larger forms also are in part loaf- or cushion-shaped, 
a feature still more strongly pronounced in specimens from the 
higher zone of Bclemnitella mucronata. 

At various places on the Sussex coast, and at Sewerby on the 
Yorkshire coast, Porosphcera is very abundant in the next higher 
zone of Actinocamax quadratics. P. nuciformis is numerous in the 
Sussex cliffs. The specimens are generally smaller than those 
from the Marsupites zone, and approximate in size to those from 
the Micraster cor-anguinum zone on the Thanet coast. 

In the zone of Bclemnitella mucronata, the highest in the English 
Chalk, an interesting series of forms was collected by Dr. Eowe at 
Ballard's Cliff and at Studland Bay, Dorset, and also from the 
Norfolk coast. The Dorset specimens are characterised by their 
fairly large size, the abundance of loaf- and cushion-shaped forms 
of P. glohularis, and the relatively large proportion of P. nuciformis. 

Summing up the zonal distribution of Porosphcera in the Chalk : 
the genus is first noted in the Lower or Grey Chalk, of the zone of 
Holastcr suhglohosus, by a few specimens of the rare P. Woochvardi ; 
the principal species, P. glohularis, appears for the first time in 
the zone of B. Cuvicri, the lowest horizon of the Middle Chalk, 
accompanied by P. arrecta. In the zone of T. gracilis, we first meet 



H Transactions of the Society. 

List showing the Number and Eange of Size of the different forms 



h^O 



»- o 
8 « 



Zone of Hdlaslir subglobosus. 

Dover 

Durdle Cove, Dorset Coast ..... 

Zone of Blnjnclonella Cuvieri. 

Dover 

Bransconrbe and Berry Cliff, S. Devon Coast . 

Zoue of Tercbralulina gracilis. 

Dover, East Cliffs 

Dover, West Cliffs 

Seaton, S. Devon Coast 

Flamborough, Yorkshire Coast 

Zone of Holaster planus. 

Dover, East Cliffs 

S. Devon Coast 

Zone of Micraster cor-testudinarium. 

Chatham 

Dover, East Cliffs . . 

Seafoid Head and Newhaven 

S. Devon Coast 

Zone of Micraster cor-anguinum. 

Gravcsend . . . ! 

Chatham 

Thanet Coast 

Dover, St. Margaret's 

Dorset Coast 

S. Devon Coast 

South Croydon, Avondale Hoad 

Croydon, near 

Flamborough, Yorkshire Coast 

Zone of Marsupiles testudinarius. 
Uintacrinvs Band. 

Thanet Coast 

Margate 

Flam borough . 



Marsupiles Band. 

Sussex Coast 

Dorset Coast 

Sewcrby, Yorkshire Coast 

Zone of Actinocamax quadratus. 

Seaford Head and Newhaven 

Sussex Coast 

Brighton, East of pumping station .... 

Isle of Wight, Bcratchells Bay 

Dorset Coast 

Winchester 

Sewerby 

Zone of Belemnitella mucronata. 

Ballard Cliff and Studland Bay, Dorset Coast 
Sheringham, Weybourne, Overstraud, Norfolk 

rnmmgham, Norfolk Coast 

Norwich, near, Cation Pit 

Zones unknown. 

Surrey and Kent 

Hampshire and Wiltshire 



Borosphxra 
gldbularis. 



8 ('2-4 mm.) 
12 (1 -5-5 mm ) 



34 (2-4 mm.) 

43 (2-7 mm.) 

2 (2 mm.) 

20 (3-7 mm.) 
6 (3-4 mm.) 

18 (2-4 mm.) 

50 (2-9 mm.) 

266 (1-15 mm.) 



3 (6-9 mm.) 
51 (2-14 mm.) 



579 (4-27 mm.) 

33 (1-5-25 mm.) 

77 (3-13 mm.) 



35 (7-23 mm.) 

429 (2-5-34 mm.) 

35 (2-13 mm.) 

7 (13-31 mm.) 

1 (2 mm.) 

53 (2-5-12 mm.) 

72 (3-17 mm.) 

12 (9-23 mm.) 

181 (2-5-13 mm.) 

56 (2-5-9 mm.) 



166 (2-5-15 mm.) 

62 (6-24 mm.) 

6 (7-24 mm.) 

16 (2-12 mm.) 

1 (14 mm.) 



5 (1-12 mm.) 

6 (1- 15 mm.) 



rorosph&ra 
nuciformis. 



3(9-1 



5 (7-9 mm.) 



3 mm.) 



28 (6-20 mm.) 
2 (7-9 mm.) 



36 (4-15 mm.) 
25 (5-20 mm.) 
4 (5-13 mm.) 

1 (12 mm.) 

1 (13 mm.) 

3 (5-10 mm.) 

69 (5-14 mm.) 
14 (7-14 mm.) 
20 (4-9 mm.) 
8 (4-14 mm.) 

5(7-l*2mm0 j 
8 (6-10 mm.) 

23 (5-12 mm.) 
2 (6, 7 mm.) 



The Genus Porosjohcera, Steinmann. By George J. Hindc. 9 
of PorospHjEra obtained from the Zones of the English Chalk. 



Porosphasra 
Woodward/. 



2 (12, 14 mm.) 
1 (9 mm.) 



Porosphasra 
pileolus. 



1 (7 mm.) 



2 (3 mm.) 

10(2-9 mm.) 
2 (4 mm.) 



Porosphasra 
patelliformis. 



2 (7-14 mm.) 

23 (7-17 mm.) 

1 (10 mm.) 

9 (2-11 mm.) 



22 (4-17 mm.) 

10 (5-18 mm.) 
2 (7-13 mm.) 

4 (12-16 mm.) 
2 (7-9 mm.) 
8 (3-8 mm.) 

25 (7-18 mm.) 
8 (7-13 mm.) 

11 (5-13 mm.) 
2 (2-5 mm.) 

1 (7 mm.) 

4 (5-13 mm.) 



1 (13 mm.) 



3 (2-8 mm.) 



1 (10 mm.) 

3 (4-G mm.) 
23 (2-il mm.) 

2 (1(5 mm.) 

2 (8-10 mm.) 
1 (8 mm.) 

2 (14-17 mm.) 
9 (3-15 mm.) 



22 (4-23 mm.) 
3 (11-13 mm.) 
10(7-11 mm.) 

1 (21 mm.) 



2 (10 mm.) 
G (11-22 mm.) 

1 (7 mm.) 

3(2-5-13 mm.) 

3 (6-11 mm.) 

4 (8-12 mm.) 



Porosphasra Porosphxra. 
arrecta. Irregular forms 



7 (3-0 mm.) 



1 (3 mm.) 



3 (6 mm.) 
2 (3-G mm.) 



1 (7 mm.) 



5(1 5 mm.) 



3 (S-10 mm.) 

2 (7-9 'mm.) 
5 (5-12 mm.) 



4 (7-12 mm.) 



1 (14 mm.) 



Totals. 



— 3 

8 
19 

— 27 



34 
43 

2 



82 



31 

G 
— 37 

23 

50 

304 

2 



379 



2 

3 

58 

1 

3 

2 

G32 

34 

98 



118 

4G9 

51 

13 

4 
G4 



83-: 



638 



SI 



172 
40 

214 
72 

1 

5 

181 

88 
6 

22 
1 



GS5 



117 



20 



2902 



10 Transactions of the Society. 

with P. patelliformis, whilst P. pileolus first comes in at the base 
of the Upper Chalk in the zone of Holastcr planus. The well- 
marked P. nuciformis has not been found until reaching the zone 
of Micrastcr cor-wnguinwm. 

In the lower zones of the Chalk the examples of Porosphcera are 
comparatively rare and generally small, the large majority not 
exceeding 6 mm. in diameter, but in the higher zones in the South 
of England the various species are more numerous, and there is 
a gradual increase in size, which reaches its maximum in the zone 
of Marsapitcs, where some forms of P. globularis are 34 mm. in 
diameter. In the next higher zone of Actin. quadratus the speci- 
mens are smaller, but there is a reversion to larger forms in the 
Bel. mucronata zone. 

In the Chalk of the vicinity of Flamborough, Yorkshire, the 
various species of Porospha'ra are uniformly of small dimensions in 
all the zones, in marked contrast to those from the higher zones on 
the South coast. 

IV. Mineral Character and Condition of Preservation. 

The large majority of the specimens of Povospliwra from the 
Upper Chalk of this country consist of calcite, and their radial 
canals and the smaller interspaces of the skeletal mesh are usually 
filled up solid with the same mineral. In thin sections seen under 
the Microscope, the mesh appears as light grey bands by reflected 
light ; whilst in transmitted light the bands or fibres are marked 
off from the calcitic matrix by numerous minute granules of a 
darkish tint, which, unless the sections are very thin, render them 
nearly opaque. This appearance of the mesh is very similar to 
that in many of the Pharetron Calcisponges from the Inferior 
Oolite, the Great Oolite, and the Coral Eag, and also in some of 
the Tertiary Calcisponges from Australia. In no instance have 
I seen a finely radiate fibrous micro-structure in the mesh, like 
that which characterises Millepora and Madreporarian corals 
generally. 

In many specimens of Porosphcera the outer portions are of 
calcite, whilst in the interior, both the skeletal mesh and the 
matrix consist to a varying extent of silica. This has given rise 
to an impression that the fossils were originally of silica which 
has, in part, been replaced by calcite. That a reverse process has 
taken place, and that the silica is of secondary origin, is shown by 
the fact that in the silicified portion of these specimens the mesh 
is usually very indistinct or altogether obliterated, whilst its 
characters are retained in the outer or calcitic portion. We find, 
moreover, that Porosphcera is frequently associated in the same 
beds of Chalk with undoubted siliceous hexactinellid and lithistid 
sponges, in which the skeletal mesh has been either removed, 



The Genus Porosphcera, Steinmann. By George J. Hinde. 11 

leaving an empty mould of silica, or it lias been replaced by 
reddish ferric oxide, thus presenting a marked contrast to the 
usual state of preservation of Porosphcera. Under exceptional 
conditions, as in the Chalk at Flamborough, the matrix of the 
interior of many of the specimens of Porosphcera, also consists of 
powdery ferric oxide, but the exterior of these forms shows the 
calcific mesh which readily distinguishes them from the siliceous 
sponges in the same beds. 

Porosphcera likewise occurs either partially or entirely imbedded 
within the flint nodules of the Chalk, and in this condition the 
skeletal mesh is, in part, siliceous, as well as the matrix. In 
some of these flint-enclosed specimens the structural details are 
more distinctly shown than in the usual forms from the Chalk, 
but in others, and even in parts of the same specimen, they are 
only faintly visible. 

V. Form and Manner of Growth. 

A large proportion of the specimens of P. globular is are 
approximately spherical without any indication of a point of 
attachment. Small individuals of about 1 mm. in diameter show 
that the rounded form prevailed in the early stages of the growth 
of the organism, and there is but little variation in the shape of 
the specimens up to 6 mm. in diameter. In larger specimens the 
growth is less symmetrical, they become oval, loaf-shaped, cushion- 
shaped, rounded or subangular at the bases, which are flattened 
or even slightly concave (pi. I., figs. 1-4, 9, 10). In some instances 
growth does not take place uniformly over all the surface, but in 
layers which only extend over parts of the surface and overlap 
each other (pi. I., fig. 2). Usually the entire outer surface is 
dotted over closely with the minute apertures of the radial canals 
bounded by the skeletal mesh, but in a very few rare examples 
these are covered by small patches of a spicular dermal layer 
(pi. I., figs. 7, 8). 

The specimens of P. nuciformis vary in form from nearly round 
to melon- and pear-shaped ; they appear in all cases to have been 
free. Their surfaces are covered-with simple, slightly raised ridges 
or swellings with correspondingly open, shallow, intermediate 
furrows, which extend longitudinally from the rounded to the 
obtusely pointed summit of the specimens (pi. I., figs. 11-17). 
In a few rare examples there are two or more areas from which 
the ridges extend (pi. I., fig. 18). 

Numerous specimens of P. globularis, both of the spherical 
and of the oval or cushion-shaped forms, and also of P. nuciformis, 
are penetrated by cylindrical tubes, some of which extend quite 
through, so that the specimen becomes a natural bead, whilst 
others reach only to the central portion of the fossil or beyond to 



12 Transactions of the Society. 

near the opposite side, but without passing through it completely 
(pi. I., fig. 1). The tubes generally pass straight through the 
centres of the rounded forms, but they are not definitely oriented 
in the cushion- or pear-shaped fossils, through which they extend 
either longitudinally, transversely or obliquely. In the collections 
examined from the zone of Micr aster cor-tcstudinarmm upwards 
to the Bel. mucronata zone, out of 1799 specimens of P. globidaris 
from different localities, there were 321 or about 18 p.c. per- 
forated ; of this number 147 were completely perforated or natural 
beads, whilst 174 were partially perforated. In 184 specimens of 
P. nuciformis from the same beds, there were tubes in 32, or about 
17 p.c. ; in only 6 instances the tubes extended through ; whilst 
in 26 they only reached to varying depths in the fossils. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

Tlie figures are of natural size except where otherwise indicated. 

Fig. 1. PorospJisera globidaris, Phillips, sp. Large oval specimen, with tubular 
perforation. Zone of Micraster cor-anguinum ; South Croydon, 
Surrey. Collection of G. J. Hinde. 

„ 2. Ditto; showing overlapping layers of growth. Zone of Marmpites; Margate, 
Kent. Collecti >n of Dr. A. W. Eowe, F.G.S. 

„ 3. Ditto ; loaf-shaped. Zone of JJelemnitella mucronata ; Ballard Cliff, Dorset 
coast. Collection of Dr. Eowe. 

„ 4. Ditto; cushion-shaped specimen. Zone of Bel. mucronata; Ballard Cliff. 
Collection of Dr. Piowe. 

., 5. Ditto ; of average s ; ze. Zone of Actinocamax quadratus ; Cliff, east of 
Brighton. Collection of G. J. Iiinde. 

„ (J. Ditto; median section, showing the arrangement of the radial canals. 
Upper Chalk. Collection of G. J. Hinde. 

,, 7. Ditto ; completely enveloped with a spieular dermal layer. Zoae of B. 
mucronata ; Ballard Cliff. Collection of Dr. Eowe. 

„ S. Ditto ; partially covered with an uneven dermal layer. Same zone and 
locality as the preceding. Collection of Dr. Eowe. 

,, !*, 10. Ditto; loaf-shaped specimens, showing faint indications of surface grooves. 
Zone of Marsupites (Uintacrinui Band) ; Thanet coast. Collection 
of Dr. Eowe. 

.. 11. Pwosphasra nuciformis, v. Hagenow, sp. Viewed from above, showing the 
convergence of the grooves at the summit. Zone of Marsupites 
(Uintacrinus Band); Margate. Collection of Dr. Eowe. 

„ 12. Ditto; side view. Zone of A. quadratus; near Newhaven. Collection of 
Dr. Eowe. 

„ 13. Ditto; showing closely- arranged grooves. Zone of A. quadratus; Win- 
chester. Collection of Dr. Kowe. 

„ 14. Ditto; with prominent apex. Zone of A. quadratus ; Sussex coast. Col- 
lection of Dr. Eowe. 

„ 15. Ditto ; with fragments of the dermal layer. Zone of A. quadratus ; near 
Newhaven. Collection of Dr. Eowe. 

„ 10, 16a. Ditto ; viewed from above and in profile. Zone of Marsupites (Uinta- 
crinus Band); Thanet coast, Kent. Collection of Dr. Eowe. 

„ 17. Ditto; viewed from above. Same zone and locality as tho preceding. 
Collection of Dr. Eowe. 

„ 18. Ditto ; with surface grooves and ridges radiating from several centres. 
X 2 diam. From same zone as the preceding; Sussex coast. Col- 
lection of Dr. Eowe. 



The Genus Porosphcera, Steinmann. By George J. Hinde. 13 

These tubes are generally considered to have been occupied 
originally by some organic body, such as the stem of a sea-weed, 
not capable'of preservation as fossil, round which the Porosphcera 
lived and grew. They are now found solidly infilled with the 
soft chalky matrix which can readily be extracted. 

A further interest is attached to these naturally perforated 
examples of Porosphcera from the fact that similar forms have 
been found in association with the remains of the " Kiver-Drift " 
folk, and it has been surmised * with much probability that they 
may have been used by them for personal adornment, such as 
necklaces, etc. 

P. IVoodwardi, Carter, is generally of a rounded form with one 
or more slightly projecting peaks ; the base is small, concave, and 

* Kigollot, Mem. sur des Instruments en Silcx, etc., Amiens, 1854, p. 16 ; Parker 
ami Jones, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, vi. (1860) p. 3D ; James Wyatt, Geologist, 
v. (1862) p. 233 ; T. Bupert Jones, torn, cit., p. 236 ; Sir C. Lyell, Antiquity of 
Man, 1863, p. 110, fig. 15 ; 4th ed., 1873, p. 165; Worthington Smith, The Primitive 
Savage, 1894, p. 272 ; Sir John Evans, Ancient Stone Implements of Great Britain, 
2nded. 1897, p. 657. 



Explanation of Plate I. — continued. '■ 

Fig. 19. Porosplaera Wocdicardi, Carter, sp. Showing the branching surface canals. 
X 2 diam. Zone of Hula ster subglobosus; Dover. Collection of Dr. 
Eowe. 

„ 20, 20a. Porosphrra pileolus. Thimble-shaped specimen, with a fragment .of 
dermal layer on the exterior ; the base (20a) showing concentric 
bands of growth. Zone of A. quadratus ; near Newhaven. Col- 
lection of Dr. Eowe. 

., 21,21a. Ditto. Zone of Marsupites (JJintaerinus Band); Thauet coast. Col- 
lection of Dr. Eowe. 

,. 22,22a. Porosphxra patelliformis, sp. n. Viewed in profile (22); the deeply 
concave base (22a) showing concentric lines of growth and faint 
radial lines. Zone of A. quadratus ; Sussex coast. Collection of 
Dr. Eowe. 

., 23, 23a. Ditto ; a couical specimen, viewed in profile (23) ; the base with faint 
concentric lines of growth (23a). Zone of Marsupites {JJintaerinus 
Band) ; Thanet coast. Collection of Dr. Eowe. 

„ 24,24a. Ditto; a depressed specimen, viewed in profile (24); the base with 
concentric and radial lines (24a). Same zone and locality as the 
preceding. Collection of Dr. Eov. r c. 

., 25. Ditto; view T ed from above, showing some fragments of the spicular dermal 
crust. Same zone and locality as the preceding. Collection of 
Dr. Eowe. 

,. 26. '26a. Ditto; a small specimen, viewed in profile, natural size (26); and the 
concave base, with rod-like spicules radiating from the centre to the 
margins, enlarged 4 diam. (26a). Zone of Terebratulina gracilis ; 
East Cliff, Dover. Collection of Dr. Eowe. 

„ 27, 27a. Forosphxra arrecta, sp. n. Viewed in profile (27), and showing the 
base (27a), enlarged 3 diam. Zone of Rhynchonella Cuvieri ; Brans- 
combe Cliff, South Devon coast. Collection of Dr. Eowe. 

,, 28, 28a. Ditto ; showing the exterior and the basal aspect, enlarged 3 diam. 
Zone of Marsupites (JJintaerinus Band); Thanet coast. Collection 
of Dr. Eowe. 



14 Transactions of the Society. 

wrinkled (pi. I., fig. 10.). The specimens are now free, but the 
wrinkled character of their bases seems to indicate that they may- 
have been attached to some foreign body during life. From the 
surface elevations deeply impressed branching canals radiate down 
their sides. 

Typical examples of Porosphwra pilcolus are thimble- or in- 
verted cup-shaped, with thick walls and deeply concave bases ; 
the basal hollow is lined with a spicular dermal layer and shows 
successive growth-rings or bands. The upper surface of this 
species resembles that of P. globularis (pi. I., figs. 20, 21). In 
P. patelliformis, the outer form resembles that of a limpet, the 
basal cavity is wide, the walls are comparatively thin, and it is 
furnished with a distinct basal dermal layer (pi. I., figs. 22-26«) 
In yet another form which I have named arrccta, the sponge is 
like a small, upright tapering pillar with a concave base (pi. I., 
figs. 27-28«). In some specimens the base may probably have 
been attached originally to some other body. 

VI. Skeletal Mesh. 

The skeleton of Porosphara is of a stony character ; in thin 
sections under the Microscope it appears to be made up of a finely 
porous mesh-work of continuous anastomosing fibres, in which, 
however, little structure can now be distinguished. The nature 
of the mesh-fibres is better shown on the surface of specimens 
obtained directly from the Chalk. These, when carefully cleaned 
from the matrix, exhibit under a strong lens or a Microscope a 
multitude of minute, projecting spines or rays, which also can be 
recognised by a rasping sensation when the finger is rubbed over 
the surface. On close examination, each of these projecting rays 
can be seen to spring from the central junction of three other short, 
generally recurved rays, and they are, in fact, the apical rays of 
four-rayed spicules similar to those in Plectroninia and Petro- 
stroma. The three sub-equal, short facial rays of these spicules have 
truncate ends, which are fused or welded to the surfaces of the 
adjoining spicules, in such a manner as to form the mesh-fibres 
which delimit the radial canals (pi. II., figs. 6, 0). 

The nature of the skeleton of Porosphccra in the early stages of 
growth is admirably shown in a small specimen of P. glolularis, 
about 1*25 mm. in diameter, which has been preserved in a flint from 
the Upper Chalk of Kent (pi. II., fig. 1). The specimen was dis- 
covered by Mr. H. Muller, of Eltham, to whom I am indebted for 
the opportunity of studying it. The apical rays are very prominent, 
and the facial rays are already firmly fused to those of adjacent 
spicules. By further surface growth these prominent apical rays 
would be partially surrounded by and welded to the facial rays of 
the succeeding layer of spicules above them, and would thus be 



The Genus Porosphccra, Steinmann. By George J. Hinde. 15 

incorporated with the mesh-fibres, so that they would be hardly, if 
at all, recognisable in microscopic sections of the interior of the 
organism. In older specimens of Porosphcera the mesh-spicules are 
frequently considerably larger and thicker than in the young 
individual just referred to (pi. II., fig. 9). 

In sections of specimens of P. globularis and of P. pileolus from 
South Croydon, the free apical spicular rays near the surface are 
seen to be furnished with stout lateral prickles, closely resembling 
those in Plcctroninia Haiti (pi. II., figs. 5, 6). 



VII. Basal Layer. 

The hollow inverted cup- or thimble-shaped bases of P. pileolus, 
and the more open saucer-like bases of P. patclliformis, show con- 
centric lines or bands, which mark intervals of growth (pi. I., 
figs. 20a-24a) ; and these are lined by very slender thread-like 
and occasionally wavy spicules, disposed generally parallel with 
each other, in the direction of the margin of the cup. These 
spicules are so fine and closely set that it is difficult to determine 
whether they are simple rods or rays of three-rayed spicules ; but 
in some few specimens there is a thin exterior layer of straight, 
slender spicular rods, extending downwards and outwards like 
thatch on a» roof (pi. I., fig. 26a). 

In P. Woodwardi the base is small, concave and rugose, and its 
spicular characters are obscured. 

VIII. Spicular Dermal Layer. 

With a few rare exceptions, the outer surface of Porosphcera, 
even of well-preserved specimens which have had the chalky 
matrix carefully removed, only shows the skeletal fibres and the 
projecting apical rays of the spicules described above. But in the 
exceptional examples, the usual skeletal mesh is covered in places 
with a layer or crust of so different a character and appearance that 
at first sight it might have been taken for an encrusting sponge 
which had settled and grown on the outside of the Porosphozra. 
This dermal layer appears as a whitish crust, in some instances 
thin and smooth, in others of measurable thickness, uneven, and 
with occasional small projections (pi. I., figs. 7, 8). Examined 
directly under the Microscope, it is seen to consist, in the majority 
of cases, of an agglomeration of minute three- and four-rayed 
spicules, with an admixture of simple rods so intimately and 
irregularly mingled together that it is difficult to distinguish the 
individual forms. These spicules seem to have been originally quite 
free and not connected together organically in any way (pi. II., 
fig. 7). In one or two specimens the outer surface of the dermal 



16 Transactions of the Society. 

layer consists of very slender rod-like spicules, regularly disposed 
side by side or arranged concentrically round a small opening 
(? pore). (PI. II., fig. 10.) 

Out of a total number of about 3000 specimens of Porosphcera 
examined, I have only met with a dermal layer in eighteen indi- 
viduals. In but two of these does it extend over the whole surface ; 
in the others only small patches of the skeletal mesh are now 
covered by it. Where thin, the apical spicular rays can be seen 
to penetrate through it. It occurs in specimens of P. globularis, 
P. nuciformis, P. pileolus and P. patelliformis, from different 
localities and horizons, from the zone of Micrastcr cor-testudinarium 
upwards, with the exception of the zone of M. cor-anguinum. Pro- 
portionately, a larger number of specimens with the dermal layer 
partially preserved are found in the zone of Bel. mucronata than in 
the lower horizons of the English Chalk. 

In its structure and general characters, the dermal layer of 
Porosplmra is very similar to that of the Tertiary Plectroninia and 
the recent Pctrostroma from the Japanese Sea. In both of these 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE II. 

Fig. 1. Porosph.xra globularis, Phill., sp. A small specimen, preserved in flint, 

showing the spicular structure of the exterior. x 50 diam. Upper 

Cbalk ; near Sidcup, Kent. Collection of Mr. H. Muller. 
., 2. Ditto ; portion of the outer surface, showing the arrangement of the skeletal 

spicules bounding the apertures of the radial canals. X 40 diam. Zone 

of Belemnitella mucronata ; Ballard Cliff, Dorset coast. Collection of 

Dr. Rowe. 
„ 3. Ditto; three-rayed spicules of the dermal layer, x 100 diam. Zone of 

Aclinocamax quadratus; Scralchell's Bay, Isle of Wight. Collection of 

G. J. Hinde. 
„ 4. Porosphxra nuciformis, \. Hag., sp. Portion of the surface, showing the 

skeletal spicules and the radial canal apertures, x 40 diam. Zone of 

A. quadratus ; Cliff, east of Brighton. 
., 5. rorosphxra pileolus. A four-rayed mesh spicule, the apical ray armed with 

lateral prickles. From a microscopic section near the margin of the 

specimen, x 200 diam. Zone of Micrader cor-anguinum ; South Croydon. 

Collection of G. J. Hinde. 
,, (I. P. globularis. A portion of the skeletal mesh, showing its structure of fuur- 

rayed spicules, the basal rays of which are now fused together, x 100 diam. 

Zone of M. cor-anguinum ; South Croydon. Collection of G. J. Hinde. 
„ 7. Ditto; a fragment of the dermal layer, showing three- and four-rayed 

spicules irregularly intermingled, x 50 diam. Zone of B. mucronata ; 

Ballard Cliff, Dorset coast. Collection of Dr. Rowe. 
., IS. Ditto; a small specimen preserved in chalk, showing blunted apical rays of 

spicules projecting from the surface, x 40 diam. Upper Cbalk, Graves- 
end, Kent. Collection of Mr. T. H. Powell. 
„ 9. Ditto; the skeletal mesh near the margin of a specimen preserved in flint, 

showing the curved facial and the projecting apical rays of four-rayed 

spicules, x 40 diam. Upper Chalk; Chatham. Jeimyn Street Museum. 
„" 10. Ditto; portion of the outer surface of the dermal layer, showing rod-like 

spicules arranged concentrically round a central pore (?). x 50 diam. 

Zone of Belemnitella mucronata; Ballard CI iff', Dorset coast. Collection 

of Dr. Bowe. 



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POROSPH^RA PROM THE ENGLISH CHALK. 



The Genus Porosphcera, Steinmann. By George J. Hinde. 17 

genera the dermal layer is very fragile and easily removable 
from the connected skeletal mesh of the body of the sponge, and 
Dr. Doderlein* states that in the specimens of the latter genns, 
which had evidently been dead some time before they were hooked 
up from the bottom of the sea, every trace of the dermal layer had 
disappeared. 

It seems to me, therefore, highly probable that in the various 
forms of Poros])hcvra from the Chalk a spicular dermal layer 
covered the surface originally, and its subsecpuent complete dis- 
appearance from the very large majority of these specimens may be 
attributed to the loose intermingling and the absence of organic 
connection of its constituent spicules, whereby the crust became 
liable to disintegration and removal soon after the death of the 
organism. It is only owing to exceptionally favourable conditions 
of preservation that some small fragments of the dermal layer still 
remain on a few of these sponges. 



IX. Canal System. 

All the forms of Porosphmra possess a series of simple, straight 
canals which, in P. globidaris and P. nuciformis, radiate in all 
directions from a central point or area to the surface of the sponge 
(pi. I., fig. 6), whilst in P. pileolus, P. patclliformis, also in P. 
Woodivardi, they radiate upwards and outwards from the centre 
of the concave base. The canals are closely arranged, uniformly 
small, and of the same dimensions throughout their length : as 
the sponge increases in size fresh canals are intercalated. The 
canals are bounded by the spicular mesh-fibres and free intercom- 
munication can take place in the small spaces between the fibres. 

In P. nuciformis, in addition to the radial canals of the interior, 
there are simple, shallow, surface grooves, with intermediate, 
slightly elevated, rounded ridges, which are directed meridionally 
towards the summit of the sponge, where, however, there is no 
special aperture. Generally there is but one pole towards which 
the grooves converge (pi. 1., figs. 11-17), but in some rare speci- 
mens there are two or more elevations which serve as centres (pi. I. 
fig. 18). These grooves are but surface features, and they are fre- 
quently so faintly marked as to be scarcely noticeable, but it 
seems probable that they played some part in the circulation of 
the sponge. 

In P. Woodwardi there are distinct, strongly marked, branch- 
ing canals, which extend from one or more slightly raised peaks 
down the sides of the sponge (pi. I., fig. 19). As in P. nuciformis, 
there is no special aperture at the slightly projecting points where 

* Zool. Jahrb, x. (1893) p. 17. 
Feb. 17th, 1904 c 



18 Transactions of the Society. 

the canals converge. Though now open surface canals, it is likely 
that they were covered by a dermal layer during the life of the 
sponge. 

X. Affinities of the Genus. 

The structure of Porosphcera, described above, shows clearly 
that it is a Calcisponge, belonging to the group of the Lithonina, 
and its nearest ally is Plectroninia, Hinde,* from Tertiary strata, 
near Geelong, Australia. In common with the other members of 
this group, it has a very firm resistant skeletal mesh of fibres 
composed of four-rayed spicules, each with a partially free apical 
ray and three facial rays, which are intimately fused with the rays 
of adjoining spicules. It also possessed a dermal layer of loosely 
interwoven spicules of a readily destructible character. It is dis- 
tinguished from Plectroninia by the well-marked simple radiate 
canals of the interior, by the absence of distinct floors or layers of 
growth consisting of smaller spicules, not definitely fused together, 
and further, by the apparent absence of minute " tuning-fork " 
spicules. From Pctrostroma, D6derlein,f Porosphcera is also dis- 
tinguished by its radial canals, and its skeletal fibres are not fused 
into radial balks, with smaller connecting spicules, as in the former 
genus. Whether the fibres of Porosphcera were invested with a 
common calcareous pellicle like those of Plectroninia is uncertain, 
for their state of preservation does not allow of determination. 



XI. Description of Species. 

Porosphcera globularis, Phill. sp. (pi. I., figs. 1-10; pi. II., 

figs. 1-3, 6-10). 

1829. Millepora globularis, Phill., Geol. Yorks., pt. 1, p. 186, pi. i., fig. 12. 
1833. „ „ S. Woodward, Geol. Norfolk, p. 46, pi. iv., figs. 10-12. 

1814. Ceriopora pisum, Eeuss, Geognostische Skizzen aus Bohmen, vol. ii, 

p. 140. 
1845. Tragus globularis, Eeuss, Versteinerimgen bolmi. Krei deformation, 

Abth. ii. p. 78, pi. xx., fig. 5. 
1850. Coscinopora globularis, A. d'Orbigny, Prodr. dePak'ont., vol. ii., p. 284. 
1854. „ „ Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss., 2nd ed. p. 27. 

1860. Orbitolina globularis, Parker and Jones, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

ser. 3, vol. vi., p. 34. 
1864. Achilleum globosum, F. A. Eoemer, Pateontographica, vol. xiii., p. 56. 
1875. Coscinopora globularis, Etheridge, Geol. Yorks , 3rd ed. p. 322, pi. i., 

fig. 12. 

1878. Porospjhxra globularis, Steinmann, pars. Pakeontog., vol. xxv.,p. 120. 

1879. Ceriopora nuciformis, Qnenstedt, pars. Petrefactenk. Deutsckf, vol. vi., 

p. 262 ; Atlas, pi. 153, figs. 1-7, 9. 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, lvi. (1900) pp. 50-66, pis. iii. and iv. 
t Zool. Jalirb.,x. (1S9S) pp. 15-32, pis. ii.-vi. 



The Genus Porosphcera, Steinmann. By George J. Hinde. 19 

1879. Porosj)hxra globularis, v. Zittel, Handb. der Pal., vol. i., p. 288. 

1888. „ „ H. A. Nicholson, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist , ser. 6, 

vol. i., p. 11. 

1889. „ „ Nicholson, Man. Pal., 3rd ed. vol. i., p. 200. 
1889. Amorphosponyia globosa, A. Fritsch, Stud. Gebiete d. bohm. Kreiilef., 

vol. iv., p. 108, fig. 52. 
1900. Porosphxra globularis, Eowe,Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. xvi., pt. 6, pp. 299, 

344, 361 ; vol. xvii., pt. 1 (1901) pp. 67, 71 ; 

vol. xviii., pt, 3 (1903) pp. 37, 49. 
1903. „ „ Steinmann, Einfiihrung in die Palaontologie, 

p. 95, fig. 125. 

Sponges simple, generally rounded, like peas or marbles, but 
sometimes oval, loaf- or cushion-shaped, without any distinctive 
base ; for the most part free and unattached, but in many cases 
they grew round foreign bodies which have been incapable of 
fossilisation, and these sponges now exhibit cylindrical hollow 
tubes which extend partly or entirely through them (pi. I., fig. 1). 
Generally increase of growth is uniform over the surface, but in 
some instances fresh layers are formed so as to cover but portions 
of the surface at once (pi. I., fig. 2).[ Small specimens are found 
of about 1 mm. in diameter ; the larger forms range to 34 mm. in 
diameter. 

The outer surface is completely covered with the minute 
apertures of straight, simple canals, which radiate outwards from 
a central point or small area, with intercalations as the sponge 
increases in size. The apertures of the canals are rounded or 
somewhat polygonal, from 0'16 to 0-25 mm. in diameter, and 
they are separated from each other by the delicate mesh fibres ; 
the interspaces being sometimes less than, and sometimes exceed- 
ing, the width of the canal apertures. Barely, shallow open grooves 
are faintly shown on parts of the surface of some of the larger 
loaf-shaped forms (pi. I., figs. 9, 10). 

The four-rayed spicules which form the skeletal fibres vary 
somewhat in size in different specimens. The pointed apical ray 
is directed outwards ; those near the exterior project as minute 
spines beyond the general surface of the sponge ; sometimes this 
ray is smooth, sometimes armed with horizontal prickles. The 
apical ray ranges from • 14 to • 35 mm. in length, and from ' 04 
to • 1 mm. in thickness at the base. The three facial rays of the 
spicules are shorter than the apical ray ; they curve downwards, 
tripodal fashion, and are truncate at the ends where fused to 
proximate spicules. They are from 0*1 to 0'2 mm. in length, and 
from - 04 to "075 mm. in thickness. The mesh fibres formed by 
the fusing together of the individual spicules are about O'll mm. 
in thickness. 

The dermal layer, which is very rarely preserved, is a whitish 
crust, uneven, and with small protuberances in places ; it consists 
of three- and four-rayed spicules and apparently simple rod-like 

c 2 



20 Transactions of the Society. 

forms confusedly intermingled (pi. II., figs. 3, 7). The rays of the 
former are from 0*14 to 0*22 mm. in length, and about 0-03 mm. 
in thickness. The exterior surface of the dermal layer appears to 
be composed of very delicate linear spicules, regularly arranged ; 
in one instance they are disposed concentrically round a small 
pore-like aperture (pi. II., fig. 10). 

Distribution. — P. globularis is by far the most numerous species 
of the genus ; out of a total of 2902 specimens from the English 
Chalk which I have examined, 2357, or slightly over 81 p.c, 
belong to it. Its earliest appearance is at the base of the Middle or 
Turonian Chalk in the zone of Rliynclionclla Cuvieri at Dover and 
the South Devon coast. It is distributed generally in all the 
higher zones of the Chalk, and becomes more numerous and larger 
in size till reaching its maximum in the zones of Micraster cor- 
anguinum and Marsupitcs. The loaf- and cushion-shaped forms 
occur chiefly in the Marsiqritcs zone at Margate and the Thanet 
coast, and in the Bel. mueronata zone at Ballard Cliff and Studland 
Bay, on the Dorset coast. It is common in the Chalk of Flam- 
borough Head and Sewerby, on the Yorkshire coast, where the 
specimens are small generally. It is also abundant at and near 
Newhaven and Brighton, and in the Isle of Wight. Inland, it is 
found plentiful at and near Croydon. Surrey, and sparsely in 
Hampshire and Wiltshire. 

According to Steinmann, P. globularis is generally present in 
the Chalk of Middle and Northern Europe. Eeuss and Fritsch 
record it from the Teplitzer beds (Lower Senonian ?) at Ivutschlin 
and near Bilin, in Bohemia, and von Hagenow from the island of 
Biigen. Lately Bavn * has recognised it in the Bryozokalk (Older 
Danian) of Jutland. 

Porosphccra nuciformis, von Hagenow, sp. (pi. I., figs. 11-18; 

pi. II., fig. 4). 

1822. Zoophyte of a pyriform shape, the nature of which is unknown, Mantell, 

Geology of Sussex, p. 162, pi. xvi., figs. 17, 18. 
1839. Ceriopora nuciformis, von Hagenow, Neues Jalirb. fur Mia., p. 286, pi. v., 

fig. 9. 
1872-5. „ „ Geinitz, Palreontographica, vol. xxii., p. 4. 

1879. „ „ Quenstedt, pars. Petrefact. Deutschl., p. 62. 

1900. Porosphasra Woodwardi, Eowe (non Carter), Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. xvi., 

pt. 6, pp. 304, 344, 361 ; vol. xvii., pt. 1 (1901) pp. 67, 72. 

Sponges free, simple, typically pear-shaped, but occasionally 
melon- or loaf-shaped, with longitudinal low swellings or ridges, 
and intermediate shallow grooves which converge to the obtuse 
pole of the sponge. The number of the ridges variable ; in some 
specimens they are set closer and more strongly marked than in 

* Kgl. Datiske Vidensk. Selsk. Skrifter, 6 Eakke, xi. 6 (1903) p. 423. 



The Genus Porosphccra, Steinmaun. By George J. Hinde. 21 

others, sometimes also there are two or more slight elevations to 
which the grooves converge (pi. I., fig. 18). There are no special 
apertures at the point of convergence beyond the openings of the 
minute radial canals, which are present all over the surface, alike 
on the ridges and the grooves. 

As in P. globulavis, a number of these sponges are penetrated 
by cylindrical tubes which extend either longitudinally or trans- 
versely through them; of those which I have examined about 
17 p.c. are traversed by tubes. The sponges range from 4 to 
20 mm. in diameter. 

The spicular structure of the skeletal fibres appears similar 
to that of P. globulavis, and the same may be said of the dermal 
layer, fragments of which, however, were only observed on the 
surface of two specimens. 

From P. globidaris, this species is distinguished by its form 
and the ridges and grooves of its surface ; and from P. Woodwardi, 
Carter, by the absence of a concave base of attachment and by 
the great difference between its shallow simple grooves and the 
branching canals of P. Woodwardi. Specimens of P. nuciformis 
have been generally referred to Carter's species, but this latter is 
rare, and it seems to me a quite distinct form, and, moreover, it 
is restricted to a lower zone than that in which P. nuciformis 
occurs. 

Von Hagenow considered that the pear-shaped specimens of 
nuciformis which he figured were only more perfect examples of 
the spherical forms, that is of P. globularis, Phillips, of which 
he makes no mention, and he evidently intended to include both 
in the species nuciformis. If this w r ere the case, Phillips' name 
would have the priority, but it seems to me that the pear-shaped, 
grooved forms differ specifically from P. globularis, and I propose 
to retain for them Hagenow' s name nuciformis. 

Distribution. — P. nuciformis makes its first appearance in the 
zone of Micraster cor-anguinum at Croydon, coast of Thanet and 
Dorset, and at Flamborough ; it is relatively more numerous in 
the zone of Marsupites at Margate and the Thanet coast, and 
reaches its maximum in numbers, and size in the zone of Act. 
quadratus at and near Newhaven, near Brighton, and the Isle of 
Wight ; it is also numerous in the zone of Bel. mucronata at 
Ballard Cliff and Studland Bay, Dorset, and likewise occurs at 
Trimingham, Norfolk coast. Abroad it is found in the Chalk 
of Riigen. 



o v 



PorospJiaTa Woodwardi, Carter sp. (pi. I., fig. 19). 

1877. (?) Bradya tergestina, Carter (non Staclie), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

ser. 4, vol. xix., p. 64. 

1878. Millepora Woodwardi, Carter, op. cit., ser. 5, vol. i, p. 306, pi. xvii., figs. 6 8 . 



22 Transactions of the /Society. 

1878. Porosphsera globularis, Steinmann, pars. Pal?eontograpliica, toI. xxv., 

p. 120, pi. xiii., figs. 8-10. 
1900. 71071 Po7-o^hx7-a Woodwardi, Kowe, Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. xvi., pt. 6, 
pp. 304, 344, 361 ; vol. xvii., pt. 1 (1901) pp. 67, 72. 

Small oval or rounded sponges, from 12 to 18 mm. in diameter, 
with deeply impressed branching canals which extend from the 
basal portion to the summit, and also to one or more lateral 
centres. There is no special aperture either at the summit or at 
the sides where these canals meet. The base of the sponge is 
concave, elongate and rugose, and it appears to have been fixed ; 
no spicular structure can be recognised in it. 

The surface of the sponge is covered with the apertures of 
radial canals, which are about - 16 mm. wide and from one to 
two diameters apart. The skeletal fibres are about 0*05 mm. in 
thickness ; the spicules in them are now rarely visible, but here 
and there in thin sections the pointed apical rays can be distin- 
guished ; these are about O'll mm. in length by 0*04 mm. in 
width at the base. 

This species, which has been fully described by the late 
Mr. Carter, is distinguished from any of the other Chalk species 
of Porosphcera by the strongly-marked branching canals of the 
surface, which are very distinct from the simple, shallow grooves 
in P. nuciformis. From this latter it differs also in the possession 
of a concave base of attachment. 

Professor Steinmann considered that the branching canals in 
P. Woodwardi, Carter, were of no real signification, and he included 
the species in P. globularis, in which, however, these features are 
not present. 

P. Woodwardi is rare, and in this country has only been met 
with in the Grey Chalk of the zone of Holastcr siibglobosus at 
Dover, and at Durdle Cove, Dorset. The specimens from the 
higher zones of the Chalk, which have been referred by Dr. Eowe 
and others to this species, really belong to P. nuciformis. Stein- 
mann also states that this species occurs in the Upper Chalk 
(Senonian) of Vordorf and Ahlten, North Germany, but it is pro- 
bable that the forms mentioned should be included in P. nuciformis. 



Porosphcera pileolus (pi. I., figs. 20-21a; pi. II., fig. 5). 

1829. Lii7i7ilites urceolata, Phill. (non Lamarck), Geol. Yorks., pt. 1, p. 186, 

pi. i., fig. 11. 
1854. Cosct7iopora (?) pileolus, Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss., 2nd ed. p. 28. 
1860. Orbitolina concara, Parker and Jones (non Lain, sp.) Ann. and Mag. 

Nat. Hist., ser. 3, vol. vi., pp. 35, 39. 
1875. Coscinopora pileolus, Etheridge (Phill.) Geol. Yorks. 3rd ed. p. 322, pi. i., 

fig. 11. 
1900. Po7-osphxi-a pileolus, Eowe, pars. Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol.xvi., pt. 6, pp. 304, 
344, 361 ; vol. xvii., pt. 1 (1901) pp. 67, 72. 



The Genus Porosphcera, Steinmann. By George J. Hindc. 23 

Sponges simple, free, thimble- or inverted cup-shaped, some- 
times hemispherical, with a deeply concave, cup-shaped base. 
Walls thick. The outer surface is even, without grooves or ridges, 
and covered with the apertures of the minute radial canals. The 
concave base shows concentric rings or bands of growth, and a small 
umbo or boss at the bottom. The specimens range from 2 to 18 mm. 
in diameter. 

The skeletal fibres resemble those of P. globularis. The canals 
radiate upwards from the basal layer. The concave base has a 
layer of minute spicular rays, regularly arranged like thatch on a 
roof, and outside of this there appear to have been elongate, slender, 
rod-like spicules. 

In one specimen there is a small fragment remaining of a 
spicular dermal crust of a similar character to that in P. globularis. 

This species is characterised by its form, thick wall, and deeply 
concave base. 

The various specific names by which this species has been 
known, are taken from Lamarck's Animaux sans Vcrtebrcs, torn. ii. 
(1816) pp. 190-197. They were applied originally to Foraminifera 
or Polyzoa, and therefore have no proper connection with this 
sponge. It seems to me desirable, however, that quite inde- 
pendently of Lamarck's use of the term " pileolus" it may be 
suitably retained for this species of Porosphcera. 

Distribution. — P. pileolus is first known from the Holaster planus 
zone at Dover, and from this upwards it occurs in the higher beds 
of the Chalk to the top of the Actinocamax quadratics zone at 
Croydon, Margate, Thanet coast, near Newhaven, near Brighton, 
Isle of Wight, Dorset coast, as well as at Flamborough and 
Sewerby, Yorkshire. 

Porosphcera patelliformis, sp. n. (pi. I., figs. 22-2 6ft). 

1822. Lunulites (?) Mantell, Geology of Sussex, p. 180, pi. xvi., figs. 22-24. 
1835. Orbitolites lenticulata, Mantell (nou Lam.), Trans. Geol. Soc, ser. 2, 
vol. iii,. p. 204. 

Sponges limpet-shaped, with peaked or rounded summits, base 
rounded or oval in outline, usually deeply concave, but occasionally 
flattened, and in some young specimens even slightly convex. 
Wall relatively thin. The specimens range from 2 to 23 mm. in 
diameter. 

The skeletal fibres are of a somewhat coarse character, and the 
radial canals are short ; their apertures range to • 3 mm. in width. 
The concave base shows concentric bands of growth, and its 
spicular structure is similar to that of P. 'pileolus. Usually there is 
no boss at the bottom of the base. A spicular dermal crust covers 
in part the surface of one specimen (pi. I., fig. 25). 

This species is distinguished from P. pileolus by its limpet-like 



24 Transactions of the Society. 

form, thin walls, slight development of the radial canals, and some- 
what coarser skeletal fibres. 

Distribution. — It occurs, rarely, in the zones of Tcreuratulina 
gracilis and Holastcr planus at Dover, and in each succeeding 
higher zone of the Chalk. It is most abundant in the M. cor- 
testudinarium zone near Newhaven, in the Uintacrinus band of the 
Thanet coast, and at Flamborougli. 

Poi'osjrfio'ra arrccta, sp. n. (pi. I., figs. 27-28a). 

Sponges small, simple, conical pillar-shaped, the base concave 
with thin margins ; in some specimens it retains traces of spicules, 
whilst in others it is rugose, as if it had been attached to an un- 
even surface originally. The sponges are about 8 mm. in height, 
and the diameter of the base from 3 to 7 mm. 

The walls are thin and the canals are scarcely noticeable; 
whilst the skeletal fibres are of the usual character. 

This form is rare ; it first appears in the zone of B. Cuvieri at 
Branscombe and Barry Cliff on the South Devon coast ; it occurs 
also in the zone of M. cor-anguinum at Flamborougli, in the 
Marsupitcs zone at Margate, and in the A. quadratics zone near 
Newhaven. 

Porosphccra. Irregular forms. 

There are a few specimens in the collections examined which 
differ from any of the species described above, but do not present 
any features sufficiently well marked to justify placing them as 
distinct forms. Some are merely thin crusts either overlapping 
one another, or attached to other bodies, others are spindle-shaped 
and free, whilst yet others appear to be distorted or monstrous 
growths of P. globularis and P. patelliformis. 



XII. Summary. 

The descriptions of the structure of Porosphccra given in this 
paper are based chiefly on extensive collections from the various 
zones of the English Chalk made by Dr. A. W. Bowe and by the 
author. The fossils have long been well known, but owing to 
their state of preservation, it has been difficult to ascertain their 
minute structure, and hence very divergent opinions have been 
held respecting their nature and systematic position ; latterly, 
however, the view that they were Hydrozoa, structurally allied to 
Millcpora and Parkeria, has been generally accepted. It is now 
definitely shown that the calcareous anastomosing fibres of their 



The Genus Porosphop/ra, Steinmann. By George J. Hindc. 25 

skeleton consist of four-rayed spicules, in which one ray is taper- 
ing and the other three blunted and organically fused to adjoining 
spicules. They also possessed originally a crust or dermal layer 
of smaller spicules than those of the skeletal mesh, which are 
not fused together, and also in some forms a distinct spicular base 
is present. In the form of the skeletal spicules and in their 
arrangement Porosphcera closely resembles the Calcisponge genus 
Plectroninia, Hinde, from the Eocene (?) Tertiary of Australia, and 
the recent Petrostroma, Doderlein, from the Japanese sea, and with 
these genera it finds a place in the Lithonina group of Calcisponges. 
Descriptions are given of the following species : P. globularis, 
Phill., P. nuciformis, von Hag., P. Woodicardi, Carter, P. pileolus, 
P. patelliformis, sp. n., and P. arrecta, sp. n. 



26 Transactions of the Society. 



II. — Microscopic Resolution : Note on a Point in Lord Hay high's 

Paper of 1896.* 

By Peofessoe J. D. Everett, F.E.S. 

(Head November 18th, 1003.) 

In Lord Bayleigh's paper of 1896, which contains the fullest 
investigation ever published of the theory of microscopic resolu- 
tion, there is one paragraph of special difficulty, — that in which 
the transition is made from direct to oblique illumination of a 
grating under the Microscope, the aperture being supposed 
rectangular. 

With direct illumination, the phase of vibration is the same 
all over the grating, and it is shown that the amplitude of vibra- 
tion at any point in the plane of the image is expressed by the 
series 

sin u sin (u -f v) . sin (u — v) , sin (u + 2 v) , /0QN 

- T — r— " T~ - "T - — ; — ~ — T • • • \£&) 

u ii + v u — v u + 2 v 

v denoting the increment of u from line to line of the grating, or 
of its geometrical image. 

The change to oblique illumination introduces a uniform phase- 
difference from line to line ; and it is assumed (for reasons not 
stated) that this has the effect of changing the expression for the 
amplitude to 

sin u sin (u + v) _ imv , sin (w — v) 

+ : C ■+■ : 

U U + V U — V 



pimxi 



+ sin (u + 2 v) e _ 2imv + , 32 v 

u + 2 v 

i denoting s/ — 1, and m a multiplier to be determined. 

It is not easy to see how this series can be equal to a quantity 
which is entirely real ; and apart from this difficulty the process 
of deducing a practical result is rather laborious. I wish to 
indicate a simpler process leading to the same result. 

The grating-interval being denoted by e, and the obliquity of 
illumination by 7, the difference of optical path from line to line 

* See this Journal, August, 1903, pp. 447-73. 



Microscopic Resolution. By Professor J. D. Everett, F.R.S. 27 

is e sin 7, giving a phase-difference -^— e sin 7. This is to be 
added (with its proper sign) to the phase-difference v in (28), 

2 IT 

which is found, on examination, to have the value -^— sin a 
(a denoting the numerical aperture). It is, therefore, simply 

2 7T 

necessary to assign to v in (28) the value -— — (sin a + sin 7), 

and (28) will be the general expression for the amplitude for any 
obliquity of illumination (7 being zero when the illumination is 
direct). This conclusion is in accordance with (45), which is the 
final result deduced from (32). 

The value above assigned to v for direct illumination is 
obtained in the following way. Let a denote the distance from 
line to line in the geometric image of the grating. The magnifi- 
cation a I e is, by the sine-law, equal to sin a j sin 6, the small 
angle 9 being equal (in the notation of the paper) to ^ a 
divided by /. As u stands for the abscissa of a line in the 

geometric image multiplied by — -, its increment v is 

*• / 

it a it a 2 f . 2 7r 

— a = — - e — -i- sm a = e sin a. 

\f \f a \ 

We assume (as usual) that the plane waves of illumination 
intersect the plane of the grating in lines parallel to the grating 
lines. The resolution will be most complete when sin a + sin 7 
is greatest, that is, when the difference of optical path from line 
to line is greatest. To this end, the grating (a small microscopic 
object) should be on one side of the axis of the Microscope, and 
the light should come from the other side ; sin a and sin 7 will 
then have the same sign. 



28 Transactions of the Society. 



III. — The Mouth-parts of the Nemocera and their Relation 
to the other Families in Diptera. 

By W. Wesche, F.E.M.S. 

(JXead November 18th, 1903.) 
Plates III.-VIII. 

The work which I have done on the tropin of Diptera has been 
mostly concerned with the Muscidse. I have endeavoured to 
prove : (1) that the palpi, always regarded as maxillary, are in fact 
labial ; (2) that the whole proboscis homologises with the typical 
insect mouth ; (3) that the palpi in the Empidse and Syrphidse are 
homologous, but not homologous with those of the Muscidse, the two 
former being maxillary, and the latter labial ; (4) I have also formu- 
lated a rule which enables the observer to discriminate between 
the palpi of the two parts. " The maxillary palpi when present in 
Diptera are always in contact with the stipites and cardines of 
the maxilla?." The application of this rule, and the comparison 
of a large number of parts, have enabled me to divide nearly all 
the families of the order into eight groups. 

Several difficulties have been pointed out to me by Mr. A. E. 
Hammond, F.L.S. (who is well acquainted with the anatomy of 
the Nemocera), in the Bibionidse, the Tipulidse, and the Chirono- 
midse ; these I propose to deal with in my remarks on each group. 

In my classification of the families into the different groups, 
a certain amount of generalisation must be allowed for ; the re- 
markable diversity of the tropin in the order making this necessary. 
As it is, genera of the same family, and even the sexes of a species 
have been placed in different divisions, and I have little doubt 
but that exceptions, other than those I have noted, will be found, 
especially among the less known families and rarer species. 

The first group consists of those flies which possess the nearly 
complete mouth-parts, and are without exception either blood- 
sucking or raptorial ; mandibles are present, maxilla? lacking the 
gala?, labium without the palpi, labrum and hypopharynx. As to 
the epipharynx, it is generally indistinguishable in Diptera, and 
therefore best omitted ; but I suspect a curious wrinkled mem- 
brane, lying under the hypopharynx in Simuliwm rcptans L., of 
being this part. 



The Mouth-parfc of the Ncmocera, etc. By W. Wesche. 21) 

Group 1. — All parts distinguishable, except the labial palpi, 
which are aborted. 

Simulidae. (Type S. reptans L.) 
Culicidae, the females only. 
Tabanidae, „ „ „ 

Asilidae. 

Group 2. — The mandibles are fused into the labium, and the 
labial palpi are aborted. 

(a) Raptorial, or bloodsucking. 

Empidae, with exceptions. 

Leptidae. (Type L. scolopacca L.) 

The genus Ceratopogon of the Chironomida3. 

(I) Suctorial. 

Mycetophilidae. 

Psychodidse. 

Culicidae, the males only and the genus Corethra. 

Ehyphidse. (Type R. fencstralis Scop.) 

Bombylidae. 

Syrphidoe. 

Group 3. — The mandibles are fused into the labium, the 
laciniae and galas of the maxillae and the labial palpi are aborted. 

Cecidomyidae. 

Chironomidae, except the genus Ceratopogon. (Type Ch. 

pilumosus L.) 
Tipulidae. 
Stratiomidae. 
Conopodae. 

Group 4. — The mandibles are fused into the labium ; all parts 
of the maxillae except the stipites and cardines are aborted ; the 
palpi present are labial, the trachea? of the paraglossae (labella) are 
only moderately developed. 

Bibionidae. (Type B. hortulanus L.) 

Dolichopidae. 

Phoridae. 

Group 5. — The mandibles and other parts as in Group 4, but 
having the tracheae well developed. 

(a) With remnants of maxillary palpi. 
«• Some Tachinidae. 

Some Muscida?. (Type M. domestica L.) 

Some Anthomyidae. 



30 Transactions of the Society. 

(b) With no remains of maxillary palpi. 
Lonchopteridre. 
Pipunculidce. 

Some Tachinidce ) Particularly highly modified 
Some Muscidse ) genera, as Siphona or Stomoxys. 
Some Anthomyidoe. (Type C. erythrocephala Mg.) 
Cordyluridse. 
OrtalidaB. 
Trypetidse. 
Loncheidse. 
Chloropodee. 
Hippoboscidse. 

Group 6. — The mandibles are fused into the labium ; the car- 
dines, stipites and lacinire of the maxillae are present, the latter 
leaf-shaped and pubescent ; the paraglossoe are without teeth ; the 
palpi are labial. 

Phycodroniidre. (Type C. frigida Mg.) 

Helomyzidse. 

Sciomyzidre. 

Sapromyzidae. 

Group 7. — The mandibles are fused into the labium ; the 
maxilhe are embedded, the palpi being the only part exposed, 
labial palpi also present ; the trachea of the paraglossee are more 
or less well developed. 

Opomyzidoe. 

Sepsidre. 

Ephydridae. 

Drosophilidse. 

Borboridre. (Type B. eauinus Pin.) 

Group 8. — All parts atrophied. 
(Estridse. (Type G. equi F.) 

I propose making remarks on the trophi of these various 
families, each in its group, which will facilitate reference for those 
who wish to consult the paper on some particular family ; but 
before doing so it will be of service to explain a diagram of a 
hypothetical mouth. This has mandibles, complete inaxillce, 
which only differ from those found in Hydrcllia griscola by the 
presence of four joints in the palpi; a labium, also with four- 
jointed palpi, and which has incorporated into its paraglossa? the 
transverse levers which I homologise with the ligulai • a well- 
marked labrum covering the hypopharynx, which is ciliated, with 
levers at the base which represent the submentum. This part is 
also known as the " fulcrum." The mentum is not prominent as 



The Mouth-parts of the Nemoeera, etc. By W. Wesche. 31 

it is on the ventral side of the labium, but it is an important part 
of the trophi. All these parts are found in the various families of 
Diptera (pi. III. fig. 1). 

I do not include the Pulicidre in this classification, as good 
authorities place them in an order by themselves, Siphonaptera . 
But there are so many points of general affinity that I give a 
figure of the mouth-parts, which are however on a first view very 
far removed from the type in Diptera. The absence of any labium 
or paraglossa? at once differentiates them. These insects are pro- 
vided with two sets of palpi, both four-jointed, the maxillary on 
the maxilla and the labial, higher up on the head, and having 
some analogy to the situation of the labial palpi in the Muscidse. 
The labrum is absent or very minute, but the hypopharynx is well 
marked ; the maxilke have undergone a curious transformation, 
and the mandibles are scales on either side of the head (pi. I. 
% 2). 

Group 1. — The Simulidse have four-jointed maxillary palpi, 
and differ from the females of the genus Culex which have 
apparently only two joints, though the males have four. The 
hypopharynx in the Simulidte is ciliated at the extremity, and 
under it is a curious wrinkled membrane which may possibly be 
the epipharynx ; but this part is so minute that it is impossible 
to be certain, and I only note it as a possibility. The mandibles 
are provided with very beautiful serrated edges, and the maxillfe 
are even more complicated, as they are provided with a double 
row of sharp teeth. These insects are keen blood-suckers (pi. IV. 
fig. 7). 

In the Culicida? are curious differences : — (1) The genus Corethra 
though possessing the wing of a biting gnat, has a much less 
modified mouth-part; it is without mandibles, and the maxilla? 
are broad, minutely pubescent and unfitted for piercing purposes. 
(2) The mouth-parts of the sexes are different in the other genera 
(pi. II. fig. 5). 

Since the mosquito has been found to be the host of the 
malaria parasite, this family has been much studied, and a number 
of new species has resulted in several fresh genera. Mr. F. V. 
Theobald has kindly placed many specimens at my disposal, and 
I have examined the following species with a view of finding 
specific or generic characters in the mouth-parts. 

Culex pipiens L. 

C.fatigans Wied. 

C. annulatus Schrk. 

C. concolor Des. 

Stegomyia fasciata F. 

Mizorhynchus barhirostris "Walk. 

Thcobaldia spathijKiIpus Eond. 



32 



Transactions of the Society. 



Grabhamia dorsalis Mg. 
Myzomia rossii Theo. 
Mansonia uniformis Theo. 
M. annulipes Mg. 
Tccniorhynchus conopus Frau. 
Nyssorhynchus jamesii Theo. 
Sabcthes remipes Wied. 
Desvoidia vcntralis Walk. 
Mucidus altcrnans Westw. 
Dinocerites cancer Theo. 
Anopheles cinercus Theo. 
A. maculipennis Mg. 
JEdomyia squamipennis Ami). 
Acartomyia longirostris Theo. 
Verrallia butleri Theo. 
Melanconion a trains Theo. 
TJranotaznia pygmcca Theo. 
Eretmapodites sp., undetermined. 



EXPLANATION OF TLATE III. 



1. Diagram of a hypothetical complete mouth in Diptera. This is seen from the 

dorsal side ; the maxilla? have been separated, and the mandibles removedf rom 
their positions on the dorsal sides of the maxillae. The cardines and the sub- 
mentum are supposed to have been dissected out of the enclosing membrane. 

2. Mouth-parts of Pulex irritant L. Viewed laterally. 

3. Diagram of a hypothetical labium of a common ancestor of the Tabanidse and the 

Muscidie. The labial palpi here are in the position they occupy in Dilophus, 
and the palpigers are representative of those found in Chrysops excutiens L. ; 
they are to be found in most of the Muscida? in a more posterior position, 
reverting to the position of the part in Blatta. Seen as in fig. 1. 

4. Mouth parts of Gastrophilus equi F. In this family the trophi are quite rudimen- 

tary ; in the figure the parts have been cut from the head of a female, and are 
seen from the ventral side. The upper part is the more anterior portion. 

5. Diagram of the mouth-parts of the female Culex pipiens L. The parts are seen 

from the dorsal side. On the labium is marked a depression where the " false 
joint" is occasionally found. This rarely occurs in the females. 

6. Diagram of the usual type of mouth armature in the Empida; ; the trophi in the 

Syrphidse only differ by having a much greater development of the tracheae 
on the paraglossae ; the characters of the mouth parts iu the Empida? are 
variable, constant in the Syrphidaj. The diagram is seen from the dorsal side. 

7. The " false joint " in the labium of Dinocerites cancer Theo. Ventral view. 



Note. — The following letters are used throughout the plates :- 



m Mandible. 

I Laciuia. 

g Galea. 

mp Maxillary palpus. 

pf Palpifer. 

s Stipes. 

c Cardo. 



Maxilla. 



pr 

1 9 

lp 

PG 
mn 
8 m 
Ir 



Paraglossa. 

Ligula. 

Labial palpus. 

Palpiger. 

Mentum. 

Submentum. 

Labrum. 



Labium. 



h Hypopharynx. 
cl Clypeus, 



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JOURN. R.MICR.SOC. 1904. Pi. IV. 




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MOUTH-PARTS OF DIPTHRA. 



The Mouth-parts of the Nemocera, etc. By W. Wesche. 33 

I find some characters exist, but they are of so minute a 
nature, and depend so much for their visibility on the way in 
which they have been mounted, that they are of little or no value 
in differentiating species. Yet there is one character that sharply 
separates Anopheles from the other genera: the mandibles are 
serrated at the tip. This part in the other species seems in an 
atrophying state, and is often exceedingly difficult to make out. 
The rare presence of the mandibles in the males, I shall discuss 
in Group 2, to which section they belong. 

Tor an excellent description and plate of the mouth-parts of 
Anopheles maculipennis, I refer the reader to Dr. G. H. F. Nuttall's 
and Mr. A. E. Shipley's paper on the " Structure and Biology of 
Anopheles." * 

In the Culicidse, omitting Corethra, the parts are specialised 
for blood-sucking, and especially the blood of man. An examina- 
tion of the tropin of another pest, Cimex lectidaria, shows an 
interesting correspondence in the fine serration and delicate struc- 
ture of the maxilla?, enabling the insects to punrture the skin 
without inflicting pain, or attracting the attention of the victim. 

In the female C. pipiens, the maxillary palpi are apparently 
two-jointed, but I can trace the remains of two more on the lower 
joint, making them conform to the Nemocera type of four joints. 

In the Brachycera, are the Tabanidre ; they have been so 
much studied that little need be said about their very beautiful 
tropin. I have figured Chrysops ccvcutiens L. (pi. IV. fig. 2), as 
there are on the dorsal side of the labium two short rows of hairs, 

* Journal of Hygiene, i. No. 4, 1901, p. 461, pi. ix. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV. 

1. Trophi of Pangoniq lonyirostris $. Seen from the dorsal side. 

2. Maxilla and palpus of Chrysops excutiens L. 

3. Mandible of C- excutiens. 

4. Labium of C. excutiens. Dorsal view, showing the palpigers. 

5. Palpigera of C excutiens, enlarged. 

0. Labrum and liypopharynx of C. excutiens. 

7. Maxilla and palpus of Simulium reptans L. 

8. Mandible of S. reptans. 

9. Labium, with two minute teeth, of S. reptans. 

10. Hypopharynx of 8. reptans. 

11. Labium of S reptans. In the centre is seen the wrinkled membraue, which is 

possibly the epipharynx, Dors-U view. 

12. Maxilla and palpus of Asitus crabroniformis L. 
I'd. Mandible of A. crabroniformis. 

14. Labium of A. crabroniformis. Lateral view. 

15. Labrum of A. crabroniformis. Dorsal view. 

16. Ciliated hypophannx of A. crabroniformis. 

17. Trophi of Sciara thomx L. Dorsal view. 

18. „ cf Hybos femoratus Mull. Lateral view. Only one of the maxillae sb< ws. 

19. „ of Leptis scolopacca L. Dorsal view. 

Feb. 17th, 1904 D 



34 Transactions of the Society. 

forming a triangle ; these remind me of Savigny's often quoted 
vestiges of labial palpi on Tabanus italicus, though they are 
differently placed. I regard them as the palpigers, as their situa- 
tion corresponds with the position of the labial palpi in Dilophus 
(pi. IV. fig. 5 ; pi. VI. fig. 6). They then explain the constant 
appearance in the Muscidae, calyptrate and acalyptrate, of rows of 
hairs at the base of the labial palpi, though the position is much 
more posterior. I also find on the labium of T. siideticus Zlr., a 
cluster of fine hairs in the same place as the palpigers are on in 
Chrysops (pi. VII. figs. 6, 8; pi. VIII. figs. 6, 11 ; pi. III. fig. 3). 

In Pangonia is found an extraordinary development in the 
leugth of the labium without the geniculation that usually accom- 
panies this character. This enables these insects to pierce through 
clothing to the skin. The figure gives the mouth-parts of the 
male, and it will be noted that like the normal male Culex, it is 
without mandibles. The female has a full armature, and certainly 
belongs to Group 1 (pi. IV. fig. 1). 

The Asilidae, which prey on other insects, have the labium 
hardened and horny, the hypopharynx ciliated, (showing, as will 
be seen later, its relationship to the Nemocera,) and the maxillae 
very broad and strong; the maxillary palpi have but one joint 
(pi. IV. fig. 12). 

Group 2. — The large family of the Empidae are raptorial, con- 
sequently the maxilhe are well developed ; they carry a single- 
jointed palpus, which is often annulated at the base. In this 
family the paraglossae have but few tracheae, but both the labrum 
and hypopharynx are almost invariably large and strong (pi. III. 
fig. 6). 

In Hybos femoratus Mull. I find a remarkable difference in the 
palpi, which are labial, and placed as in the Muscidae. The 
maxillae seem atrophying, and are slightly ciliated at the tip ; the 
hypopharynx is very strong and channelled with a large tube 
leading down to the pharynx ; this seems the offensive weapon, 
as in Scotophaga. In Ocydromia glabricula Fin. the palpi are 
also labial, and the whole labium somewhat of the Musca type 
(pi. IV. fig. 18). 

In Lcptis scolopacea L. the maxillae are broad and strong, but 
the labrum, and particularly the fine, acute hypopharynx, seem 
better adapted for skin-piercing purposes ; the labium is large, and 
though the tracheae are relatively small, they are fairly numerous. 
This insect has been reported to attack man, but nothing exact has 
been recorded. In June 1903 Mr. F. V. Theobald gave me a female, 
which had bitten him at Wye, in Kent, and from that insect the 
figure in the plate is drawn (pi. IV. fig. 19). 

In the suctorial group, the My cetophilidae have minute maxillae 
at the base of the three-jointed palpi; the hypopharynx is ciliated 



The Mouth-parts of the Nemocera, etc By W. Wesche. 35 

at the extremity, and the paraglossa? of the labium resemble those 
found in the Chironomyda? (pi. IV. fig 17). 

The paraglossa?, in some species of Psychoda, are hardened, and 
furnished with three minute teeth on the extremities ; these are 
not to be confounded with the teeth in the Muscida?, having no 
homology, being modified hairs. P. phalccnoidcs L. and P. sex- 
punctata Curt, are of this type. In Ulomyia and others the para- 
glossa? are as in Chironomus, Bibio, Sciara, and may be considered 
as characteristic of the jSTemocera. The maxilla? are brush-like in 
appearance, carry four-jointed palpi, which are joined on to the 
stipites as in Culex. The hypopharynx is ciliated all down the 
sides (pi. V. fig. 1). 

In this family, when the mouth is used for blood-sucking, the 
offensive weapon seems to be the labium, and the other ciliated 
organs seem adapted to carrying up the fluids by capillary attrac- 
tion. In Britain these insects are not known to bite, and indeed 
it is very doubtful if they feed at all, as in a number of specimens 
examined, no food has been found in the abdomen, and it seems 
difficult to recognise any alimentary canal. 

The males in Culex are peculiar, as their mouth-parts differ 
from those of the females ; the mandibles are mostly aborted, and 
the maxilla? appear to be in an atrophying condition. Occasionally 
a male is found with developed mouth-parts, but these are decidedly 
less perfect than the weapons of the female ; I have lately examined 
a number of males of the species enumerated on a previous page, 
besides many C. pipiens. I only found one Anopheles maculipennis 
with complete mouth-parts, and of these the mandibles and maxilhe 
are in an atrophied state. I have also a record of a male C. pipiens 
in September 1902 with complete tropin (pi. V. figs. 2-5). In 
the males of all the species, is a surprising reversion ; the hypo- 
pharynx, unlike that of the female, is ciliated at the tip ; the palpi 
also are four-jointed, and hinge on to the maxillary stipites and 
cardines. In Dinoccritcs cancer the larva? are parasitic on the crabs 
in the Barbadoes ; the palpi in the males are very short, but the 
remains of the four joints can still be made out. In some species 
the males are thought to sting; in Siegomyia fasciata, the host of 
the yellow-fever germ, he is reported to act in this manner. I have 
dissected the tropin of several males, and I found very short 
atrophying maxilla?, no mandibles, a ciliated hypopharynx, and 
the labrurn and labium well developed. In August, 1903, I had a 
number of males of C. pipiens, C. annulatus, and A. maculipennis, 
and, with the exception mentioned, the trophi were in the same 
state as in Stegomyia. Not one of these males had his abdomen 
distended with food, though many had been in my sleeping chamber 
all night ; and I have little hesitation in saying that normally 
the males do not suck blood, and I even doubt that they feed at all. 
Occasionally an aberrant male appears with fully developed mont'.i- 

D 2 



36 Transactions of the Society. 

parts, and he probably bites, and his individual misconduct is laid 
to his brethren in general. 

Besides the ciliated hypopharynx, another reversion appears 
occasionally in the males, rarely in the females. On the labium is 
sometimes found a false joint, or a swelling which has the appear- 
ance of a false joint. This is relatively on tbe same place as the 
labial palpi are found in Dilophus, or the palpigers in Chrysops. 
It is difficult of explanation, but it seems probable that it bears 
some relation to the aborted labial palpi (pi. III. fig. 7). I have 
preparations of the heads of C. pipiens, male and female, G. con- 
color <J, G. fatigans <J, and Dinoccrites cancer <J, with this joint 
well marked ; and in the cabinet at the British Museum (Natural 
History) is a species, the males all having a hairy bulb at the same 
spot (Limatus durhamii Theo., South America). 

Gorcthra emphasises the relationship between the "plumed" 
and " biting " gnats, as it has a longer labium than most Chiro- 
nomydse, with structures on the base of the paraglossa? similar to 
those found in the same place in the Culicidse, a ciliated hypo- 
pharynx, four jointed palpi, and broad stout maxillae (pi. V. fig. 6). 
Geratopogon pulicaris L., one of the minute biting midges, lias a 
labium very much the same shape as Gorcthra plumicornis F., long 
fine maxilla?, a strong labrum, and a ciliated hypopharynx. The 
structure of the mandibles is evident on the dorsal side of the 
labium (pi. V. fig. 7). 

Rliyphus fenestralis Scop, and R. punctatus F. have typical 
mouth-parts of this group, in character practically the same as 
Psychoda ; the maxilla? are hairy, the palpi are four-jointed, the 
hypopharynx is ciliated, and the trachea? of the paraglossa? fairly 
well developed. The Bhyphidse are said to feed on the juices of 
plants (pi. V. fig. 9). 

In this group, besides the EmpidaB, are two more families of the 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE V 



1. Tropin of Ptychorfa , phaltenoides L. Dorsal view. 

2. Tiophi of male Culex pipiens L. The mandibles are aborted, and the maxillce 

are in an atrophying slate. Dorsal view, 

3. Paraglossse of C. pipiens. Ventral view, showing chitinous processes at base, also 

found in Corethra plumicornis F. 

4. Hypopharynx of C. pipiens 6 , showing the ciliated tip. 

5. Troplii of Anopheles maculipennis Mg. Exceptional male, with complete mouth- 

parts ; the mandibles and maxillso are in an atrophying condition. 
G. Tropin of Corethra plumicornis b\ Dorsal view. 

7. „ of Ceratopoqon pulicaris L. Dorsal view. 

8. „ of an undetermined Cecid. Dorsal view. 

9. ,, of lihyphus fenestralis Scop. 

10. „ of Chironomus plumosus L. Dorsal view. 

11. Dissection of the dorsal apodeme of lipula oleracea L. Showing the palpi 

attached, and the median suture of the fused stipites andcardines. 



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The Mouth-par U of the Nemocera, etc. By W. Wesche. 37 

Brachycera, the Bombylidre and the Syrphida?. In the latter family 
is less variation in the mouth-parts than in any other large family 
in Diptera ; Rhingia campestris Mg. has, however, a very long 
labium, geniculated in a curious manner. 

Group 3. — The minute Cecidornyidre appear to be without 
trachete on the labium, the hypopharynx is ciliated, the labrum well 
marked, and the palpi are four-jointed (pi. V. fig. 8). 

The large family of the Chironomidre has fairly constant cha- 
racters, though Ceratopogon appears to be specialised. The tracheal 
of the paraglossaj are but slightly developed, the palpi are attached 
to the stipites, and the cardines are long, though all the other parts 
of the maxillse are wanting ; the hypopharynx is ciliated for some 
distance down its sides ; the labrum is less modified than in most 
families, being little more than a fold of skin. The palpi are four- 
jointed, though they appear to have only three joints — a careful 
examination shows the lowest joint to be very short, and under- 
neath is the palpifer, which adheres to the stipes (pi. V. fig. 10). 
These insects are said not to take food in the imaginal stage. 

Owing to the imperfection of some of my preparations, I was 
inclined to consider the palpi in this family as labial, regarding 
them as homologous with those found in the Bibionida). Mr. 
A. H. Hammond, F.L.S., pointed out to me that in his, and Prof. 
L. C. Miall's paper,* they had traced the palpi of C. dorsalis Mg., 

* ' The Development of the Head of the Imago of C'hironomus,' Trans. Linn. Soc. 
London, Zool., ser. 2, v., 271-2. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI. 

1. Trophi of Stratiomys chamasleon L. Dorsal view. 

2. Paraglossae of Bibio hortulanus L. Dorsal view, but part of the mernbrano has boeu 

removed to show the fused mandibles on the ventral side. 

3. Labrum of B. hortulanus. 

4. Hypopharynx of B. hortulanus. 

5. Labial palpus of B. hortulanus. 

0. Trophi of Dilophus febrilis L. Dorsal view, showing the position of the labial 
palpi. 

7. Paraglossae of D. febrilis, ventral view, showing the small remains of the mandibles 

on the ventral side of the labium, corresponding with those on the labium of 
B. hortulanus. 

8. Trophi of Conops quadrifaseiata Deg. Lateral view, showing the very rudi- 

mentary state of the maxillary palpi, while the labial are aborted. 

9. Labrum of Jlolichopus griseipennis Stan. Lateral view. 

10. Hypopharynx of J), griseipennis. Lateral view. 

11. Labium and paraglossre of D. griseipennis. Ventral view, showing the fused 

mandibles and the cardines of the maxillae on the dorsal side. 

12. Labium and paraglossae of I), griseipennis. Dorsal view. 

13. One of the tracheae of D. griseipennis, further enlarged. 

14. Labial palpus of D. griseipennis. 

15. Trophi of Lonchoptera flavicauda Mg. Lateral view. 

16. „ of Pipunculus zonatus Ztt. Lateral view. 



38 Transactions of the Society. 

through larval and pupal stages, from tie maxilla?. On making 
some fresh dissections of the head of C. plumosus L., mounted with- 
out pressure, I was able to make out very clearly the cardines of 
the maxillae, and to see the connection with the palpi, thus proving 
Mr. Hammond's point and the reliability of my rale. I have also 
heads of C. dorsaiis, C. viridis Mcq., and G. riparius Mg., which 
agree with C. p>lumosus. 

In many of the Tipulida? a special difficulty is encountered. 
The cardines of the maxilla?, which in the very large majority of 
species are so useful a guide, are replaced by two median apodemes, 
one on the dorsal, and one on the ventral side. That on the dorsal 
side thickens anteriorly and bifurcates, sending out symmetrical 
arms to the sides, to which the four-jointed palpi are attached. 
On examining this apodeme with high powers, a suture can easily 
be made out, running down the centre, and obviously this part is a 
fusion of the maxillary cardines. The ventral apodeme is without 
lateral processes, but a suture is evident, and I homologise this 
part with the mandibles. Tipula olcracea L. has a very imperfect 
labium and hypopharynx, and the whole mouth-parts seem to have 
undergone great changes (pi. V. fig. 11). The Ptychopterida? are 
also of this type, but the cardines are separate. Urioptera tceni- 
onota Mg. has a well-marked labrum of the usual type in Diptera, 
while an insect which Mr. J. H. Verrall places in the same family 
(Limnobida?), the common Trichocera hiemalis Deg. has maxilla', 
a ciliated hypopharynx and well-developed labium, and would be 
placed in Group 2. 

In the Brachycera, the Stratiomida? have the trachea? well de- 
veloped and numerous, but not occupying the whole space of the 
paraglossa?, as in the Muscida? ; the palpi have two joints, and in 
S. chameleon L. the palpifers can be differentiated ; the maxilla? are 
very minute in this species, almost obliterated ; they are more 
visible in Microschrysa polita L., but have quite disappeared in 
Chloromyia formosa Scop. The labrum is rather formless, and I 
have not seen a ciliated hypopharynx in any species (pi. VI. fig. 1). 

The Conopoda? have a specialised type of mouth-part, resembling 
the Syrphida?, but having no maxilla?. In some species the labrum 
is short, and the hypopharynx long ; the latter organ seems to find 
its protection in the fold of the labium. In Conops quctdrifasciata 
Deg. it is remarkable that only the rudiments of the maxillary 
palpi are present, while the labial are wholly aborted. I know of 
no exactly parallel case, but in Sepsis cynipsca L. the palpi are 
exceedingly minute, but are labial, and remnants of the maxilla? 
are present, two or three hairs marking the place of their palpi 
(pi. VI. fig. 8). 

Group 4. — To determine the homologies of the mouth-parts in 
Bibio requires a dissection of the parts, and a comparison with the 



The Mouth-parts of the Nemocera, etc. By W. Wesche. 39 

other genera, Scatopse and Dilophus. From dissection it is seen 
that the palpi do not adhere to the cardines of the maxillae, and are 
quite away from them. This is exceedingly difficult to under- 
stand, because these four-jointed palpi are so much like the palpi 
in Simulium, Psychoda, Chironomus and Ehyphus, which are un- 
doubtedly maxillary. However, similar palpi are found in Dilophus, 
agreeing in all particulars, having the sense-organ in the second 
joint, and these are undoubtedly labial. Scatopse has single- 
jointed labial palpi. The mandibles are found adhering to the 
bases of the paraglossae on the ventral side, and enclosed in the 
membrane of the labium ; the tracheae have a very modest develop- 
ment, but the labrum is strong, is hinged on to the cardines of the 
maxilla?, and the hypopharynx is large, seems to have fused at its 
base with some portion of the submentum or fulcrum, and is much 
ciliated. The labium is exceedingly long in Dilophus, short in 
Bibio, and still shorter in Scatopse. The mouth-parts of these 
three genera are at first sight unlike, yet they will be found to 
have characters in common ; in Dilophus they seem specialised 
for flower-sucking ; and, as in Bibio, though smaller, the vestiges of 
the mandibles can be seen on the ventral side. Scatopse is so 
small that it can readily penetrate with its whole body into the 
nectaries of most flowers ; I have often seen it feeding on the juices 
of the ivy blossom. Bibio also has a suctorial mouth-part, but the 
armature on the fore legs, found in both sexes, inclines me to 
suspect it of occasionally seizing prey (pi. VI. figs. 2-7). 

The mouth-parts of Dolichopus possess one feature which 
separates them from all other families in Diptera : the tracheae on 
the paraglossae are of the most curious description. Under high 
powers, each one of them appears to be made up of a number of 
sub rectangular, semi-transparent cells, which decrease in size as 
the tracheae approaches the edge of the labellum ; at its extremity is 
ii very short blunt hair inserted in a minute cylinder. In Medcr- 
terits truncorum Mg. it has another appearance, rather granular and 
less differentiated. In most genera of this family the cardines of 
the maxilke are very anteriorly placed— the points on which the 
palpi are usually situated, (close to the base of the labrum,) are 
quite at the extremity of the paraglossae, and have feathered pro- 
cesses at the extremities, which are probably the remains of the 
maxillary palpi. The mentum has a central rod, which ends in a 
point between the paraglossae ; this rod has a median suture, and 
is homologous with the paired rods found in Bibio and the ventral 
•apodeme in Tipula, and represents the mandibles. This character 
is found in several families, and marks them off from the Muscidao, 
where the mandibles are on the dorsal side of the labium. The 
labrum is elaborately toothed and haired, and covers a powerful 
hypopharynx, with a deep channel, connected with a suctorial 
trachea, the true pharynx. The palpi are single-jointed, with a few 



40 Transactions of the Society. 

long hairs, but with no central sense-organs, such as are seen in the 
second joint of Bibio and of most Nemocera (pi. VI. figs. 9-14). 

One interesting specialisation is found in Orthochilc nigroccrulu 
Ltr., which has an elongated labium, a totally different arrangement 
of the cardines, and a general similarity to the mouth-parts in the 
Muscicke. This lengthening of the labium probably enables the 
insect to reach the nectaries of flowers ; most of the other species 
are raptorial, haunt marshy spots, and -feed on minute insects and 
Gastropods (pi. VII. fig. 1). 

The mouth in the Phoridse has the cardines in the usual place, 
and working the labrum and hypopharynx ; the latter part has in 
some species a curious double point, which reaches well up to the 
tip. Some species have a toothed labrum, which is a character of 
the Dolichopidoe, and accentuates the affinity which these two 
families have to each other. Though the tracheae on the paraglossa> 
are of a different type from each other, it is remarkable that they 
have also the short blunt hair in the cylinder at the extremity ; 
this is a striking affinity, as I am not aware of this structure being 
found in any other families in this situation. 

I have often seen these insects on plants and on window-panes, 
but I have never seen them attack prey. Their appearance is 
against them, but I have no evidence that thev are of raptorial 
habits (pi. VII. fig. 2). 

Group 5. — As I have dealt with the first section of this group 
in previous papers,* I shall confine myself to giving a list of species 
in which I have found the characteristic rudimentary palpus : — 

Myioccra carinifrons Fin. 

Graphomyia metadata Scop. 

Mesembrina mcridiana L. 

Musca domestica L. 

M. corvina F. 

Cyrtoncura stabidans Fin. 

* ' Undeseribtd Palpi in Diptera,' Jour. Roy. Micr. Soc. 1902 ; ' The Labial and 
Maxillary Palpi in Diptera,' Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Zool., ser. 2, vol. ix. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE ATI. 

1. Tropin of OrthocMle nigrcecerula Ltr. Lateral view. 

2. „ of undetermined species of Phora. Dorsal view. 

3. „ of Ha matdbia irritans L. 

4. Teeth on the labium of //. irritans. 

5. „ of Aorellia ttriolata Mg. (Cordyluridse). 

6. Tropin of Ccelopa .frigid a Mg. (Phycodromida)). Dorsal view 

7. „ of Helomyza rufa I In. Dorsal viev*. 

8. Labial palpus ot Stiomyza cinerella Fin. 

9. Maxilla of £>. cinerella. 

10. Tracheae of Sapromyza prsew ta Fin. Dorsal view. 

11. „ of 8. pneufta. Viewed ventrally. 

12. Maxilla of S. praeueta. 



JOURN. R.MICR.SOG. 1904, PI. VII 



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The Mouth-parts of the Ncmoccra, etc. By W. Wesche. 41 

Morellia hortorum Fin. 
Policies lardaria F. 
Hyetodcsia lucorum Fin. 
H. obscura Mg. 
R. Iceta Fin. 
H. perdita Mg. 
//. bascdis Ztt. 
H. sudetica Sclmbl. 
Mydea impuncta Fin. 
Spilogastcr communis Dsv. 
$. Jlagripcs End. 
$. idiginosa Fin. 
Hydrotca occulta Mg. 
i/! dentipes F. 
if. mcteorica L. 
Ophyra leucostoma W. 
Hylemyia strigosa F. 
iT". cardui Mg. 
iT". pullula Ztt. 
Lasiops stemciema Kov. 
Anthomyia pluvialis L. 
J. radicum L. 
^4. sulciventris Ztt. 
Pegomyia bicolor W. 
Homalomyia canicvlaris L. 
i^T. hamata Mcq. 
Azelia macquartii Stceg. 

All these insects are suctorial. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE Till. 

1. Trophi of Seoptera vibrans L. Showing the supposed ludiinenfs of mandibles. 

Dorsal view. 

2. Trophi of an undetermined species of Cldorops. 

3. Diagram of the head of Melophagus ovinus L. This is drawn as a transparent 

object, and shows the bulb of the labium and the cardiacs of the maxillae 
showing through the chitin of the head. 

4. The teetli on the end of the labium of M. ovinus. 

5. Maxilla of Balioptera combiuala L. 

(5. Trophi of Saltella Scutellaria Flu. Showing the four palpi and the palpigers. 
Dorsal view. 

7. Trophi of Ephydra coarctata Fin. Lateral view, showing the curious trachea;. 

8. Maxilla of Mosillus subsultans F. Showing the palpus, the atrophying lacinia, 

and the alteration in the cardo and stipes. 
'.). Organ in the submentum of Drosophila funebris F. Gizzard (?). 

10. Maxilla of D. funebris. 

11. Trophi of Borborus cquinus Fin. Lateral view, showing the labial palpi, a 

palpiger, and a maxillary palpus. 

12. Tip of the labium of Glossina morsitans Westw. Showing the teeth and tho 

ufhnity to M. ovinus and H. irritants. 



42 Transactions of the Society. 

In the second section of this group the mouth-parts are very 
much the same as in the Muscidae ; the trachere in the Loncho- 
pteridae are numerous, but are "without teeth at the base, the 
palpi are quite the same in appearance as in the Muscidae ; the 
hypopharynx is a relatively strong, sharp, hairless lancet. The 
paraglossae in the flower-haunting Pipunculidae are practically the 
same as in the Lonchopteridae ; the palpi resemble those found in 
the Empidae, but are labial and have a well-marked sense-organ 
(pi. VI. figs. 15, 16). 

The specialised forms in the Tachinidae are adaptations, en- 
abling the insects to explore the deeper cavities of flowers ; in the 
Muscidae, to pierce skin and suck blood. Siphona gcniculata Deg., 
& cristata F., and Prosena syharita F., are flower-suckers. Siphona 
has an elongated labium, somewhat resembling that of JSMngia 
campestris Mg., of the Syrphidae. Prosena is of a type which has 
gained an evil notoriety in Glossina and Stomoxys; but this insect, 
with different habits, has different modifications. The tip of the 
labium, which is hardened, laminated and toothed in Glossina, has 
remains of tracheae, but no vestiges of teeth (pi. VIII. fig. 12). 

Glossina has several interesting developments of palpi in dif- 
ferent species, mostly in the direction of length, resembling in 
this particular our English Hccmatobia ii ritans L. (pi. VII. figs. 3, 4). 

Glossina, Hamatobia, and Stomoxys have lost the tracheae, 
though the paraglossaa are still evident, and they retain, and 
indeed have developed the teeth, as found in the Muscidae. The 
palpi, notwithstanding their extreme length and important func- 
tion, are based on the membrane of the labium ; they are therefore 
labial and not maxillary, as a recent writer with some pretensions 
to experience has named them.* The cardines are connected with 
the labrum. 

The genera Ccenosia and Caricea in the An thorn yidae are char- 
acterised by a very decided increase in the size of the teeth,resembling 
in this respect the Cordyluridae, where they are very marked, and 
probably reach their largest modification (pi. VII. fig. 5). On account 
of the teeth, and of the general character of the mouth-parts, I 
think Mr. Verrall at fault when he transferred the little fly 
Schccnomyza littorclla Fin., to the Agromyzidae. It is a decided 
Anthomyid. The mouth-parts have all the characters found in 
the Anthomyida?, and it shows its relationship to the Ccenosia 
group, by the large teeth on the paraglossae, a character quite 
absent in the smaller acalyptrate Muscidae. 

Though the Cordyluridae are raptorial, the tropin, with the 
exception of the teeth, are but little modified ; the hypopharynx 
is a trifle stouter and longer than in the house flies. 

* Dr. H. J. Hansen, 'Monograph of the Tsetse-flics,' p. 114. E. E. Austen, 
London, 1S03. Dr. Bar sen has also committed himself, in the statement that 
there aie no if mnar.ts of maxillae in the head of Glossina. 



TJi c Mouth-parts of the Nemocera, etc. By W. Wesche. 43 

Scatophaga is a haunter of the ivy blossom, and feeds there 
as well as on fresh cow-dung, besides picking up " unconsidered 
trifles " in the way of flies. 

The Ortalidse, the Trypetida?, and the Lonclueida?, have no 
teeth on the paraglossa?, and have numerous minute trachea? some- 
what like those found in the Pipunculidse. 

Seoptera vibrans L. has curious paired processes on each side of 
the labium, which may be vestiges of the mandibles ; while the 
cardines of the maxilla? take a form which is also met with in the 
Ephydrida? and the Borborida? ; it sends out a limb in the centre, 
at right angles to the rest of the organ. Ulidia dcmandata F. has 
the cardines straight, as in the Anthomyida?, as has also the 
Trypetid Acidia heraclei L. The Lonchseidse have mostly the 
cardines of the same type as Seoptera (pi. VIII. fig. 1). 

The obscure and difficult family of the Chloropoda? has a dif- 
ference in the structure of the trachea?, which would enable an 
observer to separate these insects ; the trachea? are stouter, fewer, 
and more markedly chitinous (pi. VIII. fig. 2). 

In the parasitic Hipposboscida?, there is a venation well re- 
moved from that of other families, a modification of shape, and a 
type of mouth-part, that makes the parentage of this family not 
at all obvious. But in the mouth-parts are two points that 
suggest a strong probability of a descent from one of the blood- 
sucking Muscida?. This is strengthened by a fact in the life- 
history of Glossina, that insect being viviparous. This would be 
a step to the curious condition existing in the Pupipara, in which 
sub-order the young are brought forth as pupa?, having passed the 
egg and larval state in the oviduct. 

The most striking feature of the mouth-parts is a pair of large 
palpi, which act as a sheath for a chitinous tube, which is the 
piercing and blood-sucking apparatus of the insect. This tube 
has some exceedingly minute serration at its extremity ; and a 
very high magnification shows these to be teeth, similar, in cha- 
racter and relationship to their support, to those on the labium 
of Glossina, Stomoxys and Haimatobia. Further, the tube swells 
out at its base into a bulb (pi. VIII. figs. 3, 4, 12 ; pi. VII. figs. 3, 4). 

Taking these facts into consideration, I consider the proboscis 
in Hippobosca as clearly homologous with the same organ in 
Glossina, Stomoxys, Haimatobia, or Prosena, and it is therefore a 
modification of the labium, and the palpi are labial palpi. 

It may be suggested that a Tabanid ancestry was not impro- 
bable, and that a similar serration can be seen on the labrum of 
the Tabanida?. This objection may be disposed of by showing the 
labrum as present in some species of the Hippoboscida? as a 
separate part. The cardines which I have shown to be so constant 
in Diptera are present, but have changed positions, seeming to 
work the labium at an angle to the plane of the head. 



44 Transactions of the Society. 

Group 6. — The Phycodromidae have paraglossae much of the 
same type as the Ortalidae, and, like them, totally devoid of teeth. 
The labial palpi are stiffly haired, and have a long hair on the tip. 
The maxillae end in a leaf-shaped scale, covered with a fine 
pubescence. I have mostly taken these insects on sea-weed, and 
they probably feed on the juices of those plants (pi. VII. fig. 6). 

The mouth-parts of the Heliomyzidae have but little to dis- 
tinguish them from those of the Phycodromidae ; the likeness in 
the paraglossae is very marked, the ends of the maxillae are some- 
times identical in shape, but have a finer pubescence. The labial 
palpi in those examples I have examined have no long hair on the 
lip. I have usually found these insects on damp herbage, and 
there they probably find their food (pi. VII. fig. 7). 

The Sciomyzidae have a great affinity with the Heliomyzidae, 
and we may perhaps consider the ciliated costal vein which dis- 
tinguishes the latter family as almost a generic character, though 
it is undoubtedly a useful one. The tracheae are as numerous as 
in the two preceding families ; the maxillae are of the same shape, 
with perhaps a trifle less pubescence ; and the palpi are haired, 
and with a long hair on the tip as in the Phycodromidae (pi. VII. 
figs. 8, 9). 

The Sapromyzidae have the same type of maxilla?. There 
are no teeth on the paraglossae, but the rings of the tracheae are 
strong and thick, and the part is very different from that found 
in the three preceding families (pi. VII. figs. 10-12). 

Group 7 is wholly confined to the acalyptrate Muscidae. The 
character which distinguishes it from the previous group is the 
presence of four palpi. Sometimes the laciniae may be thought 
to be present, but even then it is so thickly haired as to make 
certainty as to its real nature impossible. 

The Opomyzidae have tracheae like the Phycodromidae. The 
maxillae in Balioptera are characteristic, the cardines rather 
rounded, and tapering to the part that is ordinarily the lacinia, but 
here is thickly haired and distinctly like a palpus. 0. gcrmina- 
tioncs L. differs, in having the maxillae of the same type as the 
Phycodromidae. These insects can be taken anywhere and every- 
where in long grass (pi. VIII. fig. 5). 

I have already referred to the peculiar mouth-parts of Sepsis 
cynipsca L., in my remarks on Group 3. Ncmopoda cylindrica F. 
explains the homologies, as it possesses well-developed labial 
palpi, and distinct maxillary palpi in the usual position on the 
cardines. The tracheae are less marked than in Sapromyza. SaUella, 
scutettaris Fin. is very much the same type as Nemopoda (pi. VIII. 
fig. 6). 

In the Ephydridae the mouth is relatively much developed. 
There is great variability in the character of the tracheae, such sur- 



The Mouth-parts of the Nemocera, etc. By W. Wesche. 45 

prising modifications as the toothed trachea} of Hydrcllia griseola 
Fin. being found. In Ephydra coarctata, or Parhydra coarctata Fin., 
of Mr. Verrall's list, are remarkable trachea?, which may reasonably 
be supposed to be primitive forms. They consist of a number of 
hairs, arranged in double lines, which arch over and form passages, 
capable of drawing up fluid by capillary attraction. This insect 
I have taken in great numbers on marshy spots, and it may be 
that it is a special modification, enabling the insect to feed on 
infusoria ; but as it is in this family that I have found complete 
maxilla? in one species {Hydrcllia griseola)* and remains in several 
others, I am inclined to think them of very archaic type. The 
labrum is a rather shapeless fold of skin, pierced with the sockets 
of hairs, and the hypopharynx is very rudimentary. The larger 
palpi are labial and thin. The cardines of the maxilla? bear palpi, 
which in several species are quite relatively large (pi. VIII. fig. 7). 

In Mosillus subsidtans F. are nearly complete maxilla? ; the 
lacinia? are atrophying, and appear exactly in the same state as in 
H. griseola ; but the palpi are very hairy, though the gala? have 
gone ; the stipites and cardines are much altered (pi. VIII. fig. 8). 

Drosophila funebris F. has trachea? somewhat similar to Sapro- 
myza preusta Fin. ; the maxillary palpi are of the type seen in 
the Opomyzida? ; the fulcrum is curious, and has an organ in the 
interior which seems to be some sort of gizzard, or crushing- 
apparatus. The palpi are relatively not so large as in the 
Opomyzida? (pi. VIII. figs. 9, 10). 

The Borborida? have characteristic tropin with curious large 
tracheae, and the paraglossa? are united and without a median 
division. The maxillary palpi are very marked in some species, 
but almost all the other parts of the maxilla? have disappeared ; 
the cardines, with their characteristic joint or hinge, cannot be 
made out, and only the stipites remain. The large development 
of the mentum, and the character of the maxillary palpi, bring 
this family very close to the Ephydridae. The seta? at the base 
of the labial palpi, which represent the palpigers, are very constant 
in this family (pi. VIII. fig. 11). 

Group 8 contains but one family, the CEstrida? ; these extra- 
ordinary flies are quite devoid of any developed mouth-part, 
two tubercles representing the elaborate structures of the ordinary 
insect mouth. A small buccal orifice is visible, surrounded by a 
chitinous ring, which is in some places shortly but thickly haired ; 
more anteriorly placed are two chitinous arches, which appear to 
cover another cavity. What these parts homologise with, it is 
difficult to say, (1) but the tubercles have structures on their 

* 'The Labial and Maxillary Palpi in Diptera,' Trans. Linn. Soc. Lon Ion, 
Zool., ser. 2, vol. ix., pp. 223-229, figs. 21, 22. 



46 Transactions of the Society. 

surface, (2) are paired organs, and (3) occupy positions, which 
several facts suggest that they represent the labial palpi (pi. III. 
fig. 4). 

Summary. 

(1) On reviewing these eight groups, it is apparent that they 
are artificial, so that families that are closely related to each other 
are occasionally in different sections, though it oftener happens that 
they are in neighbouring, or even in the same group. 

(2) It will also be seen that the Nemocera have characters in 
the tropin, as well as in the antenna;. Examples of species with 
four-jointed palpi and a ciliated hypopharynx will be found in every 
family, and these parts may, when in that condition, be considered 
as distinguishing characters — establishing a relationship with the 
Asilidse and the Empidae, in the sub-order Brachycera. The palpi 
are maxillary in every case, with the exception of the Bibionida?, 
and it is difficult to understand why this family has deviated. 

(3) It seems that Dilophus gives the clue to the original situa- 
tion of the labial palpi, (4) while Chrysops shows the palpigers ; 
these have altered their position in the Muscidre, but are very 
constant, and generally to be found at the base of the labial palpi. 

(5) That as a rule the males of the Culicidse are harmless, 
but their trophi are variable, and may in some instances be fully 
developed. 

(G) The mandibles of Anopheles differ from those of other 
Culicidas. 

(7) In some males of the genus Culex, and related genera, is 
found a false joint on the labium. This possibly marks the spot 
where the labial palpi were articulated. In some genera this is 
constant, in others variable. 

(8) The median apodemes in Tipula are a fusion of the 
mandibles on the ventral, and of the cardines of the maxilla; on 
the dorsal side. 

(9) Species exist in Diptera (apart from (Estridaj) in which 
both palpi are aborted. 

(10) Homologisation of the trophi of the Dolichopida?, and their 
aberration both from the Nemocera and Musca types. 

(11) Affinities exist in the trophi of Dolichopus and Phora. 

(12) The palpi in Glossina are labial. 

(13) The Hippoboscidffi are descended from blood-sucking 
Muscida?. Homology of their trophi. 

(14) Archaic types of trachoe and maxilloe in the Ephydridre. 

(15) Gizzard in the submentum (fulcrum) of Drosophila. 

(16) The trophi in the different species of a family are some- 
times variable, especially in the Brachycera. The Dolichopidee and 
Empida? present the greatest divergences in this respect, and it is- 



The Mouth-parts of the Nemoccra, etc. By W. Wcsche. 47 

only in the Cyclorrhapha that types of mouth-parts seem firmly 
established, and the specialisations easily homologised. 

In the whole order, the mandibles are only present in a few 
families, and even in those families they are often absent in the 
males. The palpi are very variable, and when the maxillary are 
present the labial are absent, though occasionally rudiments of the 
absent part are found, more often of the maxillary than of the labial. 
The paraglossre, which are considered typical of the order, only 
occasionally disappear, as in the specialised Muscidse and the 
Hippoboscidfe. The most constant parts are the stipites and 
cardines of the maxilla3, which are only absent in the (Estridre ; 
and it is very possible that a more comprehensive study of that 
family than I have hitherto had the opportunity of making, may 
show them to be present in some species. 

It follows from this constant variability, that the tropin cannot 
be regarded as unfailing guides in classification, but I think that 
this variability will be of assistance in considering the relations of 
families ; on the other hand, the persistence of types in the 
Cyclorrhapha makes the mouth-parts of great use in studying the 
phylogeny of that sub-order. 



48 



OBITUARY. 

Charles Thomas Hudson, M.A. LL.D. F.R.S. Hon. F.E.M.S. 

1828-1903. 

Charles T. Hudson was the son of John Corrie Hudson, of 
Guildford, and was born at Brompton on March 11, 1828. He was 
educated at the Grange. Sunderland, and at St. John's College, 
Cambridge. In 1852 he took his degree, being bracketed fifteenth 
Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos. 

From 1855 to 1860 he was head master of Bristol Grammar 
School, and from 1861 to 1881 of Manilla Hall, Clifton. Dr. 
Hudson became a Fellow of the Society in 1872, served on the 
Council for some years, and was President from 1888 to 1890. 
In 1889 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1901 
Honorary Fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society. 

Dr. Hudson was always devoted to microscopical studies, and 
liis researches on the Rotifera are of world-wide knowledge and 
repute ; in this branch of science he was the chief authority of hi.s 
time. In 1886 he published, in collaboration with Mr. P. H. 
Gosse, F.R.S., The Rotifera, or Wheel Animalcules. 

He was the discoverer of several new genera and species of 
Rotifera, among which may be mentioned Pedalion minim. The 
results of his researches and observations were communicated to 
various scientific journals, our own being specially favoured. His 
addresses were charming in style, and his lectures on his favourite 
topics were exceedingly interesting both to hear and see, for they 
were elegantly illustrated by a method which he had made 
peculiarly his own. The outlines of the objects were indicated by 
means of dots and lines, cut out of a large brown paper screen, 
the perforations when necessary being covered in Math coloured 
transparencies. When illuminated from behind, a dark-ground 
effect was produced, which was most effective and elegant. 

Mr. Hudson was twice married, first to a daughter of Mr. 
W. B. Tibbits, of Braunston, Northamptonshire, and in 1858 to a 
daughter of Mr. Freelove Hammond. 

He died on October 24, 1903, at Hillside, Shanklin, where he 
had resided for some time. 

List of papers by Dr. C. T. Hudson in the Journal of the Royal 
Microscopical Society : — 

1879. On (Ecistcs umhella and other Rotifers. Note on M. Deby's 

paper (on Pedalion). 
1881. On (Ecistcs janus and Floscularia trifolium, two New Species 

of Rotifers. 



Obituary. 49 

1883. Five New Floscules, with a Note on Prof. Leidy's Genera 
of Acyclus and Dictyophora. 
On Asplanchna Ebbcsbornii nov. sp. 
1885. On Four New Species of the Genus Floscularia, and Five 
other New Species of Rotifera. 

1889. President's Address : On the Distribution of Rotifera. 

1890. President's Address : On some Needless Difficulties in the 

Study of Natural History. 

1891. President's Address : On some Doubtful Points in the 

Natural History of the Rotifera. 



Other Papers by Dr. Hudson. 

On Rhinops vitrea, a new Rotifer. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, iii., 1869. 

On Triarthra longiseta. Monthly Microsc. Journ. i., 1869. 

Notes on Hydatina senta. Monthly Microsc. Journ. ii., 1869. 

On Synchcuta mordax. Monthly Microsc. Journ. iv., 1870. 

On Pterodina valvata sp. n. Monthly Microsc. Journ. v., 1871. 

On a new Rotifer. Monthly Microsc. Journ. v., 1871. 

Note on Pedalion mirum. Monthly Microsc. Journ. vi., 1871. 

On Euchlanis triquctra and E. dilatata. Monthly Microsc. Journ. 

viii., 1872. 
Is Pedalion a Rotifer ? Monthly Microsc. Journ. viii., 1872. 
On Pedalion mirum. Quarterly Journ. Microsc. Sci. xii., 1872. 
Remarks on Mr. Henry Davis's paper ' On the Desiccation of 

Rotifers.' Monthly Microsc. Journ. ix., 1873. 
On some Male Rotifers (1874). Monthly Microsc. Journ. xiii., 

1875. 
On the classification and affinities of the Rotifera. Brit. Assoc. 

Rep., 1875. 
On Cephalosiphon (limnias) and a new Infusorian (Archimeda 

remex). Monthly Microsc. Journ. xiv., 1875. 
On a new Melicerta (M. tyro). Monthly Micros. Journ. xiv., 1875. 



Feb. 17th, 1904 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES 

RELATING TO 

ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY 

(principally invertebrata and cryptogamia), 

MICEOSCOPY, Etc.* 



ZOOLOGY. 

VERTEBRATA. 
a. Embryology.f 



Mendel's Law of Heredity 4 — W. E. Castle gives a lucid account 
of the discovery which Gregor Mendel made in 18GG — the discovery of 
a law of heredity. The law was re-discovered independently in 1900 
by I)e Vries, Correns, and Tschermak, who were engaged in the study 
of plant hybrids. It remained, however, for Bateson, two years later, 
to point out the full importance and the wide applicability of the law. 
To make the matter clear in a summary, we follow the headings of the 
analysis which Castle has given. 

(1) The Law of Dominance. — When mating occurs between two 
animals or plants differing in some character, it often happens that all 
the offspring exhibit the character of one parent only, and that is 
called the " dominant " character ; while the character that is not seen 
in the immediate offspring (though still part of the heritage) is called 
" recessive.''' When white mice are crossed with grey mice, all the off- 
spring are grey ; the grey colour is dominant, the white colour recessive. 
Parents with distinctive characters A and B, yield hybrid offspring with 
the character A (B) or B (A), the parentheses being used to indicate a 
recessive character not visible in the individual. This is the law of 
dominance. 

(2) Peculiar Hybrid Forms. — The law of dominance is not of uni- 
versal applicability. (1) The cross-bred offspring, e.g. of peas differing 

in height, may be intermediate between the parents (Ax B = -~- ). 

(2) The cross-bred offspring, e.g. of brown-seeded and white-seeded 
beans, may exhibit what seems to be an intensification of the character 

* The Society arc not intended to be denoted by the editorial " we," and they 
do not hold themselves responsible for the views of the authors of the papers noted, 
nor for any claim to novelty or otherwise made by them. The object of this part of 
the Journal is to present a summary of the papers at actually published, and to 
describe and illustrate Instruments, Api aratus, etc., which are either new or havo 
not been previously described in this country. 

f This section includes not only papers relating to Embryology properly so called, 
but also those dealing with Evolution, Develo] ment, Reproduction, and allied subjects. 

X Pica Amer. Acad., xxxviii. (190!) pp. 535-48. 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES. 51 

of one parent (A x B = A 2 ). (3) The cross-bred offspring, e.g. of 
spotted, black-and-white mice and albino mice, may have a charactei 
entirely different from either parent, " a character of its own " 
(A X B = C). (4) The cross-bred offspring, e.g. of white and bnff 
pigeons, may resemble an ancestral form, may exhibit " reversion " 
(A X B = R). (5) But, finally, as with grey and white mice, the off- 
spring may show patently the character of one parent only (A X B = 
A (B) or B (A), according to the law of dominance. 

(8) Purity of the Germ-cells. - — The great discovery of Mendel is 
this : The hybrid, whatever its own character, produces ripe germ-cells 
which bear only the pure character of one parent or the other. The 
hybrid A (B) or B (A) will have germ-cells, bearing either the character 
A or the character B, hut not both ; and A's and B's will he produced 
in equal numbers. This is the law of " segregation " or the law of the 
"purity of the germ-cells." " It bids fair," Mr. Castle says, " to prove 
as fundamental to a right understanding of the facts of heredity as is 
the law of definite proportions in chemistry. From it follow many 
important consequences." 

A first consequence is polymorphism of the second and later hybrid 
generations, as may be represented in the following scheme : — 

A x B = A (B) or B (A). 

A (B) x A (B) = (1) A set of pure A's, which if inbred will 

breed true to that character ever 

afterwards. 

(2) A set of similar pure B's approximately 

equal in number to the pure A's. 

(3) A third set of A B's like those of the 

first hybrid generation. 

If this be expressed in terms of the germ-cells, it seems to mem 
this : — A (B) produces germ-cells bearing either the character A or the 
character B. If a male germ-cell A meet a female germ-cell A, the 
result is an offspring pure A ; if a male germ-cell B meet a female 
germ-cell B, the result is an offspring pure B. As these pure A's and 
pure B's occur in approximately equal numbers, the inference is pro- 
bably correct that the original hybrid A (B) produces two equal sets of 
gametes, dominantly A's and B's. There is one chance each for the 
combinations A A and B B, and two chances for the combination A B. 
And the whole progeny tends to occur in the proportions 1 A 4- 2 A B 
+ 1 B. As a mattter of fact this does occur. 

In his experiments with the Chinese primrose (Primula sinensis) 
Bateson produced an unfixable hybrid, " Giant Lavender," by crossing 
a magenta-red with a white flowering variety tinged with pink. This 
hybrid constantly produces plants bearing magenta-red and white 
flowers respectively, as well as other plants bearing lavender flowers in 
the proportion of 1:2:1, the exact numbers being 12 : 23 : 11 and 
9:20:9. 

In cases of complete dominance, only two categories of offspring 
will be recognisable, and these will be in the ratio of 3:1, but the 
larger group on further breeding breaks up into two classes : first, 

E 2 



52 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

dominants ; secondly, hybrids ; i.e. into groups A and A (B) in ratio 
of 1 : 2. 

Mendel found bis results to come very close to tbe theoretical pre- 
supposition, when he crossed yellow with green peas. He found the 
numbers to be 3:1, and the recessive or green seed produced only 
green seed ; while of the yellow or dominant, one in three produced 
only dominants, but two out of three produced hybrids, and this gave 
him A, 2 A (B), B, the theoretical proportions. Mr. G. M. Allen has 
found the same proportions to be true in the case of crossing white 
mice with grey mice. 

The correctness of Mendel's hypothesis of the purity of the germ- 
cells and of their production in equal numbers, is shown by back- 
crossing of a hybrid with one of the parental forms. For example, in 
a case of simple dominance the first generation will all be D (R). Any 
one of them back-crossed with the recessive parent will produce 50 p.c. 
pure recessives and 50 p.c. hybrids. 

For hybrid produces germ-cells . . D + R 

For recessive parent produces germ-cells R + R 

The possible combinations are 2 D (R) + 2 R 

And this has been proved for peas and for mice. 

In dealing with cross-breeding between parents differing in more 
than one character, we find in the second and later hybrid generations, 
individuals possessing new combinations of the characters found in the 
parents, indeed, all possible combinations of these characters will be 
found, and in the proportion demanded by chance. 

Take parents differing in two characters A, B (the recessive phases 
a, b). The immediate offspring resulting from the cross will be all 
alike, A B (a b). The second and later generations of hybrids will 
contain the stable classes A B, A b, a B, a b, also the unstable forms 
A B (a b), A (a) b, and a B (b). One, therefore, of each of the stable 
combinations occurs in every sixteen " second-generation " offspring ; 
and only the individual which possesses both recessive characters can at 
once be set aside as pure. Moreover, nine out of every sixteen 
" second generation " hybrids will possess the two dominant characters, 
but only one will be pure with, regard to those characters, for four will 
be hybrid in one character, and four will be hybrid in both characters. 

Mendel generalised these statements as follows : In cases of com- 
plete dominance (parents differing in n ways), the number of different 
classes in the second generation will be 3", of which 2" will be stable ; 
the remainder will be hybrid, though indistinguishable from pure in- 
dividuals, and the smallest number of individuals which, in the second 
hybrid generation, Avill allow of one pure individual to each visibly 
different class will be 4". This gave rise to a new conception of 
" purity " : An animal or plant is pure if it produces gametes of only 
one sort, even though its grandparents may among themselves have 
possessed opposite characters. 

Several exceptions to Mendel's law have been observed, for example : 

(1) Mosaic inheritance, in which a pair of characters usually related 
as dominant and recessive occur in a balanced relationship side by side 



Z30L0GY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 53 

in the hybrid, and frequently in its germ-cells also. This balanced 
condition, once obtained, is stable under close breeding, for the germ- 
cells are not D or R, but |DR, and this breeds true to itself ; but this 
is very easily disturbed by cross-breeding, e.g. if the gamete unites 
with a pure R or a pure D, the result is D (R) ; in some cases it may 
be J D (R) • R, and this latter hypothesis accounts for the reappearance 
of, say, spotted mice after their disappearance for a generation in con- 
sequence of crossing. 

(2) Stable hybrid forms may occur, and this occurrence may be 
explained either by the gametes bearing the balanced relationship | D R, 
or by one of the gametes which unite, bearing the character D and the 
other the character R. 

(3) Coupling (or complete correlation) may exist between two or 
more characters, so that they form a compound unit not separable in 
heredity, e.g. the blue flower and purple-coloured stems of Datura, 
and in animals, white hair and pink eyes. 

(4) Disintegration of characters apparently simple may take place 
in consequence of cross-breeding. Thus the grey coat-colour of the 
house-mouse is always transmitted as a dominant unit in primary crosses 
with its white variety, but in the second generation a number of black 
appear. These black mice belong to the category of dominant in- 
dividuals, but they have only the black constituent of the grey coat ; the 
remaining constituent, a rufous tint, has become separated, and it may 
have become latent (recessive). 

(5) Departures from the ratios of dominants to recessives may be 
explained in some cases as due to inferior vigour, and so greater 
mortality, on the part of dominants or recessives respectively. 

(6) Cases of apparent reversal of dominance may arise from " false 
hybridisation " or induced parthenogenesis, where the one gamete has 
served merely to stimulate the other to development without uniting with 
it. It is possible, however, that one of a pair of characters may be 
sometimes dominant, sometimes recessive. Sex may be a case of this 
sort. 

Mendel's principles strengthen the view that species arise by dis- 
continuous variation. They explain also why new types are especially 
variable, how one variation causes others, and why certain variations 
are so persistent in their occurrence. 

Regeneration of Hind Limbs and Tail in Amphibia.* — P. Wintre- 
bert finds that in the larvse of Anura -regeneration of the tail is rapid 
and regular, and independent of the nervous system. In Siredon, after 
spinal extirpation, it proceeds regularly. His conclusion is that regenera- 
tion and ontogeny proceed in the same fashion ; the various parts are 
formed in the same order in both cases, and apparently independently of 
nervous control in the ordinary sense. 

Interstitial Cells of the Mammalian Testicle.f — P. Bouin and 
P. Ancel have investigated the morphological and functional relations of 
the testis and its interstitial cells, and make out an independent function 
for the latter. They find that interstitial cells exist in the Mammals 

* Comptes Kendus, cxxxvii. (1003) pp. 761-3. 
t Arch. Zool. Exp., 1903, pp. 437-523 (3 pis.). 



04 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

which have been examined ; their abundance varies with the species. Ira 
the first place it is noted that they present all the cytological characters of 
glandular elements, — the structure of the nucleus, the presence in the 
cytoplasm of numerous secretion products (granules and vesicles, fat, pig- 
ment, and crystalloids), and the existence of a cycle of secretion. These 
cells possess a relative independence — ontogenetic, structural and func- 
tional — manifesting itself (1) in young testicles, where they are welL 
developed, while the seminal organ has embryonic characters ; (2) in. 
adults, where numerous interstitial cells occur far from the seminiferous 
tubules, in the albuginea, bodies of Highmore, trabecule, where their 
situation is distinctly perivascular ; (3) in old testicles, where they are 
entire while the sexual elements are degenerate, or have disappeared ; 
(4) in various pathological conditions of the testis, in which the inter- 
stitial tissue persists and presents the usual cytological manifestations. 

The independence of the two tissues, which the foregoing illustrates, 
suggests the- function of an internal secretion. The investigators con- 
sider the interstitial gland an organ which probably elaborates nutritive 
material for the testis proper, and by its internal secretion controls genital 
ardour and the determination of the secondary sexual characters. This 
is an important paper with a bearing on the general question of ductless, 
glands, as well as on the various functions of the testis. 

Ova and Larvse of Fishes.* — F. B. Browne gives a very interesting 
report on the eggs and larva? of Teleostean fishes observed at Plymouth.. 
His paper contains a large number of interesting data with regard to 
( 'allionymus, Zeugoptcrus, Phrgnorhombus, Gadus, and Motella. 

l\ Histology. 

Histology of Hyaline Cartilage.! — Kichard Fibich has examined the 
cartilage of a five-month human embryo, and finds that the cells have 
prolongations at both poles. These prolongations, which sometimes 
branch and connect with those of other cells, are protoplasmic continua- 
tions of the cell, and are most numerous at a distance from the vessels. 
Near the vessels the cells are isolated in a hyaline substance. He con- 
siders that this latter arrangement is possibly related to the transference 
of the nutritive fluid from the vessels to the tissue, since just before 
ossification the stream is stronger. In the neighbourhood of the vessels. 
the passage is through the matrical substance, and presumably rapid ; 
further off it is only from cell to cell. 

Xerothermic Localities.* — Von Schulthess-Schindler discusses the 
occurrence of these " dry-warm " areas, with remains of a steppe-like 
flora, which persist here and there as sunny islands, with a relict fauna not. 
found in the adjacent areas. The area studied was the Domlesehg — a 
valley between the Statzerhorn range and the Heinzerberg. The insect 
fauna is discussed in detail. 

Human LocomotionJ — Otto Fischer discusses the kinematics of the 
swinging movements of the legs in walking. This is the fifth memoir 

* Jouiu. Marine Biol. Assoc, vi. (1903) pp. 59S-G1G. 

t Anat. Anzei;,'., xxiv. (1903) pp. 209-14. 

X MT. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges., xi. (1903) pp. 2G-40. 

§ Abb. K. Siicbs. Gcs. Wiss., No. 5 (1903) pp. 321-418 (4 tabular pU). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 55 

that he has published on human locomotion — of physical rather than 
biological interest. 

Transitory Fissures of Human Brain.*— G. Elliot-Smith points out, 
that Bischoff, Cunningham, Ecker, and Retzius are in error in ascribing 
to human foetuses of the fifth and sixth months a " fissura perpendicularis 
externa." The structure so described he finds is invariably causally 
related to a "ridge formed by the inward-folding of the membrane 
joining the occipital and parietal bones in the lambdoid sutural line." 
It is, in fact, a mechanically produced post-mortem furrow. Another 
type of "transitory fissure," found in foetuses of third and fourth 
months, is accounted for by the " puckering of the partially-collapsed 
and decomposed neopallial bladder." 

Adaptations to Aquatic Life in Mammals. p— Raymond C. Osburn 
contributes an able paper on aquatic adaptations in Mammals. He starts 
from the reasonable supposition that all Mammals were originally terres- 
trial, and for convenience classifies their adaptations to aquatic life under 
three headings : those connected with the general form, including the 
head, trunk and tail regions ; next, those of the limbs ; and lastly, those 
affecting the integument, lie gives a detailed account of the various 
adaptations under each heading. With regard to hyperphalangism he 
agrees with Kiikenthal in saying that it is a result of retarded ossification 
and the formation of double epiphyses. Under the third heading he 
calls attention to the loss of hair and of dermal armature. He also 
discusses the light and spongy nature of the bones in truly aquatic 
forms. 

Oxidation of Glucose in Mammalian Blood. :j — L. Jolly finds that 
in the blood of the ox, there arises as a decomposition product of glucose ■ 
a very small amount of alcohol, a certain part of which by oxidation is 
transformed into acetic acid. 

The Phylogeny of Elephants. § — W. Salensky points out that the 
phenomena of transformation in the feet of the mammoth follow the 
same law, which, generally speaking, determines the transformation in 
the number of toes in Mammals and especially in the change of penta- 
dactyl feet to the tetra-, tri-, bi-, and monodactyl type in Ungulata. 
From this it appears that the mammoth, which represented the latest 
development of the numerous order of prehistoric Elephantidae, was 
undergoing a process of transformation when it became extinct. It is 
not easy to understand how pentadactyl proboscidean types such as 
elephants could have arisen from a type which was undergoing retro- 
gressive development. The two species of elephants have probably 
originated from some order of fossil Elephantidai. They have no 
phylogenetic affinity with the mammoth. 

Migrations of Right Whales. ||— Gustav Guldberg is of opinion that 
the migrations of particular species of whale are" regulated by the 
distribution, the drifting hither and thither, and the season of appearance 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxiv. (1903) pp. 216-20 (2 figs.). 

t Anier. Nat , xxxvii. (1903) pp. 651-65. 

X Comptes Kcndus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 771-2. 

§ Biol. Centralbl., sxiii. (1903) pp.'793-S0.J. U Tom. cit, pp. S03-16. 



5G SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

of the organisms upon which they feed. On this account the ocean 
currents, too, have a secondary influence on the migration and appear- 
ance of the whale in certain regions near the coast. On the other 
hand, the reproductive instinct has a determining influence. Gravid 
females seek calm and shallow waters ; and mating also has been 
observed most frequently during fine quiet weather. The subject is to 
be continued in a second paper. 

Canadian Birds.* — John Macoun has completed Part II. of his 
catalogue of Canadian Birds. It deals with the birds of prey, wood- 
peckers, fly-catchers, crows, jays, and blackbirds. The catalogue includes 
many breeding notes, and will be found of interest to British as well as 
Canadian ornithologists. 

West Asian Reptiles and Batrachians.j — Dr. F. Werner describes a 
list, with in some cases brief descriptions, of Reptiles from Asia Minor, 
chiefly from the Island of Kos, and from N. Persia, collected by Prof. 
Vosseler and J. Bornmiiller. 

Sumatra Fishes.} — Dr. W. Volz, during a stay of two and a half 
years in S.E. Sumatra, collected much zoological material. He describes 
in this paper the fishes, amongst which there is one new genus Trypano- 
cheno})sis, nine hitherto undescribed species, and nineteen new to the 
fauna of Sumatra. 

Sumatra Lizards.§ — Dr. W. Volz enumerates with brief notes, sixteen 
species of lizards from Palembang, a place seldom visited by zoologists. 

c. General. 

Digestive Ferments in Cephalopods, Echinoderme, and Tunicates.|| 
Y. Henri finds that hepatic juice from Octopus and Sepia is rich in 
amylase and proteolytic ferment. It digests albumin of cooked egg, 
fibrin, and gelatin. The product of the salivary glands is not specially 
digestive, but its injection in small quantities into crayfish and crabs 
causes paralysis. There is a little amylase in the blood and much in the 
kidney. 

The caecum upon the intestine of Spatangus has glandular walls and 
contains a yellowish-brown feebly acid liquid, which has a notable 
quantity of amylase and exhibits the same digestive action as the 
hepatic fluid of Cephalopods. The perivascular liquid contains a little 
amylase, but has no proteolytic ferment. 

Macerations of the pyloric gland of Salpa yielded a liquid rich in 
amylase, but it did not digest the substances mentioned above, though it 
had a feeble effect on glycerin. The gland contains many digestive 
ferments. Maceration-fluids from other parts gave no result. 

Lake Survey. H — D. J. Scourfield writes a short paper advocating the 
scientific investigation of lakes, not only because it is desirable to have 

* Geol. Survey cf Canada, Ottawa, 1903, pp. 219-413. 

t Zool. Jahrb., xix. (1903) pp. 329-4G. 

X Tom. cit., pp. 347-420 (2 pis.). § Tom. cit., pp. 421-30. 

|| Comptes Rondus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 7G3-5. 

«[f Proc. South London Entom.and Nat. Hist. Soc, 1902 (published 1903), pp. Gl-C. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 57 

them investigated, but also on account of the fact that their investigation 
will furnish many important details with regard to such problems as the 
origin of lake-basins, the influence of environment and the laws of 
variation. In addition they will furnish many interesting facts with 
regard to the physical conditions of these faunal areas. It has already 
been shown how important the presenci of the " Sprung schicht " is to the 

organisms in the lake. 

Tunicata. 

Development of Diplosomidse.* — A. Pizon has worked out the 
development of Diplosomidae during the three weeks after hatching. 
The facts described are remarkable. From the individual which is 
hatched, there arises by budding a " bithoracic " individual which in 
turn gives origin to an ascidiozooid " bithoracique et biventrique" which is 
described as a " new physiological individual, much more complex than 
the preceding, with two independent branchiae, two oesophagi super- 
imposed, two stomachs communicating with the oesophagi, two hearts, 
whose contractions are rarely synchronous, and two recti superimposed." 
In the main, there are three remarkable phenomena : (1) the regular 
regression of the old thorax in the bithoracic specimens ; (2) the persistence 
of the abdomen from the one ascidiozooid to the other ; (3) the building up 
of the "bithoracique et &wwtfr/^<e " ascidiozooids, and their final division 
into two simple ascidiozooids with transformation of the visceral masses. 

Ova of Crustaceans and Gastropods.! — F. Henschen communicates 
some notes on the structure of the immature eggs of Astacus fluviaiiUs, 
Homarus vulgaris, Helix jJomatia, Linuuca stagnates, etc. In all these 
forms he finds in some of the cells, chiefly those of medium size, 
" pseudo-chromosomes " such as have already been described in various 
ova by other observers. Their commonest position in Astacus is around 
the nucleus forming part of a sphere, and enclosing a zone which is 
sometimes distinguished by a greater granularity and sometimes by small 
alveoli. With hajmatoxylin and eosin, they stain an intense blue. They 
are straight or slightly bent and of a varying thickness ; the coarsest 
consist of two threads lying closely together. He has no suggestion as 
to their significance. 

Fauna of the Gulf of Trieste.}— Dr.Ed. Graeffe gives a list of the 
Molluscoidea (Bryozoa and Brachiopoda) and Tunicata, with notes on 
the time of appearance and spawning of certain species. No new forms 
are enumerated. 

INVERTEBRATA. 

Mollusca. 
y. Gastropoda. 

Olfactory Sen£e in Helix Pomatia.§ — Emile Yung states that there 
are in the snail no groups of tactile, gustatory, or other differentiated 

* Comptcs Rendu?, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 759-61. 

t Anat. Anzeig., xxiv. (1904) pp. 15-29. 

t Arbeit. Zool. Inst. Univ. Wien, xv. (1903) pp. 1-16. 

§ Comptcs Rendus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 720-1. 



58 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

sense-corpuscles, and that there is no part which can be described as a 
group of specialised olfactory cells. In reality, the sensory cells are 
" mixed " and respond to shock, heat, or odour. The whole exposed 
surface of the body is sensory, the long tentacles most so, and next the 
smaller pair, and next the dorsal surface. Snails deprived of both pairs 
of tentacles were able to find food placed in their vicinity ; in one case 
a piece of ripe melon was " tracked " at a distance of 40 centimetres. 

Structure of Cryptoplax larvae formis.*— Ernst "Wettstein describes 
the structure of this representative of the Cryptoplacidae, an interesting 
family of Placophora, which seems likely to throw some light on the 
affinities between Placophora and Solenogastres. 

The form is elongated, almost worm-like ; the strongly developed 
mantle makes the foot inconspicuous ; the mantle cavity is deepest in 
the region of the gills ; localised muscle strands are lost in the general 
body-nmsculature,whieh like the form, means adaptation to boring ; the 
stomach and intestine are spirally coiled ; the pericardium is reduced in 
its most anterior portion to a narrow vesicle ; the aorta is connected by 
looping vessels with the vena pallia! is (peculiar to Cryptoplacidai), and 
the latter with the sinus lateralis. 

The most notable fact in regard to the nervous system is the 
shunting of the origin of the buccal connective to the posterior portion 
of the cerebral semicircle. A peculiarity, which only occurs elsewhere in 
Aplacophora, is the existence of two connections of the pleurovisceral 
strands over the hind-gut. 

The left and right kidney are directly connected by a vesicle. This 
species agrees with C. oculatas in the dorsal position of the main canal 
and of the reno-pericardial duct, and in the nature of the reproductive 
organs. 

5. Lamellibranchiata. 

Anatomy of Anomia ephippium.f — Moriz Sassi, in a detailed 
research on the heart and kidneys of Anomia ephippium, sets himself to 
discover whether a portion of the ccelome exists with which the kidneys 
communicate by a ciliated funnel, and if so, whether it also functions as 
a pericardium. He finds that each kidney has the remains of such a 
funnel communicating with a small sac-shaped remnant of the ccelome, 
which from its position might have been originally situated round the 
heart. 

Arthropoda. 
a. Insecta. 

Habits and Instincts of Insects. J— J. H. Fabre has published the 
eighth series of his delightful " Souvenirs Entomologiques." It deals 
with rose-beetles, bean-beetles, Pentatomas and masked bugs, aphides, 
wild bees, carrion-flies, etc. Special attention has been given to eggs, 

* Jenaische Zeifschr. Naturwiss., xxxviii. (1903) pp. 473-501 (3 pis.). 

t Arbeit. Zool. Inst. Univ. Wien, xv. (1903) p. 1-16,(1 pi-)- 

X 'Souvenirs Entomologiques (Huitieme Serie) : Etudes sur l'Instinct et les 
Mceurs des Insectes.' Svo, Paris, 1903) p. 379. See Ann. Nat. Hist., xii. (1903) 
pp. 637-8. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 59 

cocoons, and nests. Some observations of former writers are ques- 
tioned. Thus he has been " unable to confirm the statement that 
Pentatoma griseum watches over her young like a hen over her chickens 
or that the favourite prey of Reduvkis personatus is the bed-bug " ; nor 
does he regard the superficial resemblance between Volucella and a wasp 
as having anything to do with mimicry. " The relation of Volucella to 
the wasp seems to be that of a simple scavenger." 

In regard to limitation of instinct, it is noted that when the nest of 
the common wasp is covered with a bell glass, "the enclosed wasps 
never dig a passage out, but remain cooped up till they die ; and 
though stragglers left outside will dig their way in, they are equally 
unable to show their companions the way out or even to make their own 
escape." 

Viviparous Insects.* — N. Holmgren has examined a very large 
number of species in which viviparity occurs, and finds that in rela- 
tion to this condition the structure of the female organs is variously 
affected in different cases. In those cases where parthenogenesis occurs 
the development of the egg may take place within the ovary, as in 
the Aphides and Coccidao, or in the body cavity as in Miastor larvae. 
In amphigenetic types the place of storing of the eggs depends upon the 
region in which fertilisation is effected. In the Diptera they are retained 
in the vagina or its differentiations, in Strepsiptera in the body cavity or 
brood canal, and in Orina and Chrysomela in the canals of the ovary. 
In Diptera there is sometimes differentiated on the vagina a diverticulum 
which acts as a brood-sac, in others the vagina is lengthened and 
functions as a brood-sac, while in others only the wider and more 
anterior portion so functions. 

In Diptera the larvae may remain only till partially developed ; 
in pupiparous forms the young are born in a highly advanced state. 

In most viviparous insects there is no special maternal provision 
for the brood. Only in pupipara are there specific organs of nutrition, 
the accessory glands being transformed into nutritive glands, a fact 
which is related to the long life of the brood in the vagina. 

Variations in Lycffinidse.j— L. G. Courvoisier describes variations 
from the normal type of wing-marking in various Lycsenids. especially 
Lycccna and Chrijsopltanus. They are not irregular, but follow 
certain lines, some with too much (" luxuriant " forms), others with too 
little (impoverished forms) of certain normal characters. The author's 
observations were made before he became aquainted with Oberthur's 
great work, 'La Variation chez les Lepidopteres ' (18%). 

Red and Yellow Pigment of Vanessa. \ — Dr. M. Grafin von 
Linden has investigated the chemical nature, function and origin of 
these pigments. The various colours of the butterfly are the result of 
various stages of oxidation of a pigment that is itself attributable to- 
the plant-cells forming the food of the caterpillar. 

* Zool. Jahrb., six. (1903) Heft. iv. pp. 431-68. 

t MT. £ckweiz. Entomol. Ges., xi. (li)03) pp. 1S-25 (1 pi.). 

I Biol. CViitralbl., xxiii. (1903) pp. b21-8. 



CO SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Hymenoptera of West Indian Islands.* — W. A. Schulz describes 
a number of Aculeate Hymenoptera from the "West Indies. About 1300 
Hymenoptera are now known from the Antilles, and it seems probable 
that this is only a small fraction of the existing species. The paper 
gives a good example of the need of caution in making species ; Pepsis 
rubra and P. stellata are the dimorphic sexes of P. rubra. 

Ergatogynic Ants.f — Margaret Holliday ' has made a thorough 
examination of numerous species with a view of determining the relative 
sexual conditions of the queens and workers. She finds that the ovaries 
of ithe workers of most of the species investigated show a reduction 
in the number of tubules, but they are not rudimentary. Morpho- 
logically and histologically they are capable of producing and do 
produce eggs. The presence of the receptaculum seminis is not peculiar 
to the queen ant and cannot be used as a distinguishing feature. There 
is no physiological reason why those workers possessing the receptaculum 
should not have the power of performing the function of the sexual 
female, and it is believed that they do so. The author does not think 
that intermediate conditions of fertility are induced by direct changes in 
social conditions, as has been held, but thinks a phylogenetic explanation 
the better one. 

Males of Andrena.J — E. Frey. Gessner describes the males of 
Andrena ccneiventris Mor., A. incisa Evers., A. parviceps Krchb., and A. 
rogenhoferi, which were not known when Schmiedekneeht published his 
monograph on the Bees of Europe. The author has found the males of 
the four species noted, and Morawitz has also described the male of A. 
incisa. 

Habits of the Drone-Fly.§ — W. H. Harris gives an account of the 
emission of musical notes and of the hovering habit of Eristalis tenax. 
He shows that the musical notes are not due to the rapid vibrations 
of wings or poisers, nor to the rapid motion of the legs, but to the 
expulsion of air from the trachea) through the spiracles. In each 
spiracle there are two chitinous crescent-shaped rods joined together by 
a ligament and thus forming a bow with elongated free arms. The 
rods support very delicate and pliant membranes which are folded or 
plicated in a very complicated manner. When the air is expelled and the 
free edges of the plicated membranes are brought together by the 
thoracic muscles the musical notes are produced. He finds that the 
power of hovering is due to specialised or auxiliary organs. In Eristalis 
tenax it is due to the four alulets and to a newly discovered organ which 
he calls the " plume." These organs are attached near the bases of the 
wings, and consist of a basal part of chitin and a membranous hollow 
expansion with long hairs attached. 

Habits of Chironomus.|| — T. H. Taylor contributes some notes on 
Chironomus sordidellus. He describes the way in which it converts its 

* SB. K. Akad. Wiss. Munchen (1903) Heft. iii. pp. 451-88 (7 figs.), 
t Zool. Jahrb., xix. (1903) pp. 293-328 (16 figs.) 
% MT. Schweiz. Entom. Ges. xi. (1903) pp. 40-5. 
§ Joum. Quekett Micr. Club, viii. (1903) pp. 513-20. 
|| Trans. Eut. Soc. Lond., 1903, part iv. pp. 521-3. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 61 

larval tube into a pupal case, and how it makes a new exit for itself at the 
lower end of the dilated portion. This exit is seldom single ; generally 
two, three, or even four holes are made. When it is ready to emerge, the 
pupa creeps out by using hooks on its body. The larva of a water mite 
is often attached to the pupa, and it succeeds in attaching itself to the fly, 
to which it apparently does no harm. 

Marine Chironomid New to Britain.*— A. D. Imms found Clunio 
ftkolor Kieff skimming on the surface of rock pools near Port Erin. It 
is a new addition to the British fauna. The males appear to be only on 
the wing in fine weather ; even a slight wind is detrimental to their fragile 
constitution. They are only seen at low water, and probably do not 
survive until a second ebb-tide. A single female — not previously known 
— was discovered resting on the surface film. She is likewise very short- 
lived, and is apterous and vermiform. 

Follicular Cells of Cricket.f— Edwin G. Conklin describes the process 
of amitosis in the follicle cells of the ovum of the cricket. He shows the 
stage at which amitosis occurs, and finds that the type found here exactly 
corresponds to the type described by Remak. He finds that the amitotic 
division is, in this case, one of the last functions of the cells, and that it 
is an accompaniment of cellular senescence and decay. 

Pelecinidae.J— W. A. Schulz makes a contribution to our knowledge 
of this small family of Ichneumon-flies, which is represented by two 
genera, Pelecinus and Monomachus. A third genus, OphioneUas = 
Pharsalia, previously referred to the Pelecinidas, belongs to the Ophionidai 
(NototrachinaB). The Pelecinidaj occur in equatorial regions in the New 
World, and one species is Australian. They are remarkable in form and 
show well-marked sexual dimorphism. 

Collembola of the Beach. § — C. B. Davenport deals with Anurida 
maritima Guerin, Xenylla humicola, Tullberg and Isotoma bessellii 
Packard — the common Collembola of the beach, as at Cold Spring on the 
north shore of Long Island. He discusses their distribution and move- 
ments on the beach, their reactions to gravity, contact, moisture, air- 
cnrrents, light, etc., the Collembola as ancestral insects, and the evolution 
of insect intelligence. He also gives, after Macgillivray, a useful key to 
the determination of the genera of boreal Collembola. 

The Podurids of the beach live between tide-marks, go into the sand 
at high tide and rise to the surface to take the air when the tide is out. 
They run up surfaces in face of the wind, and leap when they reach the 
top, being blown back to the starting point. They are exceedingly 
sensitive to gravity, to contact, to moisture, to currents of air, and to 
light, and these elementary reactions are so combined as to bring about 
their normal movements. They are provided with these instincts before 
they reached the beach, else they could never have survived there. The 

* Proc. and Trans. Liverpool Biol. Ass., xvii. (1902-3) pp. 81-5 (3 figs.). 
t Amer. Nat, xxxvii. (1903) pp. 667-75 (8 fiss.). 
% SB. K.B. Akad. Wiss. Miincken, 1903, Heft iii. pp. 435-50 (1 pi). 
§ Cold Spring Hirbjr Monographs, Brooklyn Inst, of Arts and Science3, No. ii. 
(1903) p. 32(1 pi.). 



62 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

instincts have selected the habitat. The behaviour of insects i3 deter- 
mined by their elementary reactions to the chemical and physical condi- 
tions of the environment. 

Protective Coloration.* — A. H. Thayer contributes a memoir on 
protective coloration in ite relation to mimicry, warning colours and 
sexual selection. He begins his paper by a statement of the artist's 
claims to be the only judge of all matters of colour, pattern, visibility, 
and their effect on the mind. He says that the pattern and coloration 
of butterflies are all evolved for the sake of rendering them invisible, as 
a pattern is less conspicuous than a monochrome ; he also holds that the 
mimicking is not of each other, but of some flower or of some organic- 
form, for if they were mimicking each other there would be no necessity 
for the great detail, but if they were mimicking flowers then they would 
derive the greatest benefit from the minutest details. He holds that the 
syncryptic resemblance to flowers gives a full explanation of all the 
patterns and colours. His paper contains many very important sugges- 
tions, e.g., the concealing effect of iridescence, the overflow of individuals 
from a concealing region to one less favourable, and the resemblance of 
butterfly patterns in general to flower-masses and the shadow-depths 
between them. 

E. B. Poulton f criticises Thayer's paper on Protective Coloration. 
He holds that the syncryptic resemblance is a highly improbable interpre- 
tation and that, in spite of Thayer's repeated statement to the contrary, 
zoologists have not entirely misunderstood the principles underlying the 
cryptic pattern. He also holds that the effacive shading of the body and 
the brilliant pattern of the wing help in preserving the life of the butterfly, 
as they misdirect the attack of the enemy. He believes that Thayer's 
suggested interpretation of mimetic resemblance is untenable, but he 
admits having had ideas similar to Thayer's in regard to warning colours. 
He concludes his paper by saying that naturalists owe Thayer a large 
debt for many new points of view and illuminating suggestions. 

5. Arachnida. 

Stridulation in Scorpions. | — R. I. Pocock describes a new stridula- 
ting organ in scorpions discovered by W. J. Burchell. This organ 
consists of the modified pectines and granular areas on the overlying 
sternal plate. These modifications were a puzzle until a reference and 
explanation was found in Burchell's MSS. The author has now given a 
full description and careful drawings of this organ, and he adds that 
it is purely of aposematic significance. 

New Chelifer.§— R. T. Lewis describes a new species of Chelifer. 
His attention was first drawn to it in 1890 by a specimen sent from 
Natal. This, when compared with a number of specimens in the British 
Museum, was found to be new. The Chelifer is bright red in colour, with 
an ovate body much narrowed in front and semicircular behind. On 
account of the beautifully sculptured segments it is proposed to name the 
species Chelifer sculpturatus. 

* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1903, pp. 553-09. f Tom. cit., pp. 570-5. 

% Ann. Nat. Hist., xiii. (1904) pp. 56-62 (1 pi."). 

§ Jonrn. Quckett. Micr. Club, viii. (1903) pp. 497-8 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 63 

e. Crustacea. 

Larval Forms of Crangonidae.* — Robert Gurney gives an account of 
the larva? of two species of Crangonidre — Cheraphilus trispinosus and 
JEgeon fasciatus. He describes the characteristic features of the larvse, 
and gives at the end of his paper a diagnostic table for the distinction of 
all Crangonid larva? at present known. In many cases he has been able 
to confirm the descriptions that Sars has given of the larval forms. 

Cladoceran new to Britain.f — R. Gurney has found Scapholeberis 

aurita S. Fischer in three localities in Norfolk. He compares its swim- 
ming habits and some points in its structure with Scourfi eld's description^: 
of 8c. mucronata 0. F. Muller. The two species swim on their backs 
suspended by the surface film, but the mechanism is different in the two. 

New Copepod Genus. § — Adolf Steuer describes a Copepod which he 
finds in great abundance in the intestine of Mytilus yalloprovincialis. 
It requires a new genus, and he names it Hytilicola intcstinalis n.g. et sp., 
within the family Dichelestiina. From its size, relative transparency, 
frequency of occurrence, and the ease with which it may be kept free 
living in an aquarium, he has found it well suited for thorough observa- 
tion. In his present communication he gives a full account of the 
vascular system, shell glands, reproductive organs, and other parts. 

Copepoda of Basel. || — A. Graeter, in a very full paper, gives an 
account of the Copepods of this region, and discusses, with the help of 
analytical tables, the horizontal and vertical distribution of the species in 
the different areas. The chief interest of the memoir is as regards 
distribution. 

British Freshwater Entomostraca.1T — D. J. Scourfield continues his 
synopsis of the known species of British freshwater Entomostraca. He 
gives a list of the free-swimming and of the parasitic Copepoda, to which 
is added a table of distribution in England and in Scotland. Anions; the 
free-swimming forms, he notes the occurrence of BeJisarius viguicri in 
Regent's Park, London, and Kew Gardens. This form is peculiar in its 
habitat — the cups formed by the leaves of Bromeliaceous plants ; it is 
remarkable in being blind, in having no ovisac, and in having a special 
vibrating organ in the region of the shell-gland. 

Variation in Cyclops.** — Harriet Lehmann undertook the investiga- 
tion of the variations in form and size of Cyclops brevispinosus and 
Cyclops americanus, with special reference to the question of specific 
distinction between these forms in the furca and the armature of the 
fourth swimming foot. She found that the range of variation was very 
great, so much so that the specific differences between the two forms are 
not trustworthy. She advocates a careful study, and thinks the result 
would be a re-classification of the species and varieties. 

* Journ. Mar. Biol. Ass., vi. No. 4 (1903) pp. 595-7. 
+ Ann. Nat. Hist., xii. (1903) pp. 630-3 (2 figs). 
% Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) xxv. (1894) | p. 1-19. 
§ Arbeit, ^ool. Inst. Univ. Wien, xv. (1903) pp. 1-4G (5 pis.). 
II Revue Suisse Zool., ii. fasc. 3 (1903) pp. 419-541. 
^ Journ. Quekett Micr. Club, viii. (1903) pp. 531-44. 
** Trans. Wisconsin Acad. Sci., xiv. (1903) pp. 279-98 (4 pis). 



G4 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Annulata. 

New Polygordius.* — Akira Izuka describes Polygordius Ijimai, a 
new species from Misaki,: Japan. The discovery is noteworthy, since 
all the species hitherto known are from the coasts of Europe. The 
members of this species, both male and female, are of a light pink colour. 
On each side of the head, at about the level of the mouth, an oval-shaped 
vibratile pit is found. The musculature of the body wall is peculiar in 
not having circular muscle fibres, while in the intestinal wall neither 
longitudinal nor circular muscles are to be found. The vascular svstem 
is peculiar in having the dorsal and the ventral vessel connected by a pair 
of lateral loops in each segment. A point worthy of notice is that the 
species is nearly sexually mature as early in the season as the end of March. 

Development of Phascolosoma.f— J. H. Gerould, in a preliminary 
note, summarises the results of his studies on the development of Phas- 
colosoma. They throw light on the hitherto apparently anomalous 
development of Sipunculus. Phascolosoma is in most respects less 
highly modified, and is more like the Annelids. Numerous features, 
e.g. a transitory metamerism of the mesoblastic bands, and of the nerve- 
cord in the trochophore, indicate close relationship between the Sipun- 
culids and Annelids. Sipunculids are to be regarded as forms that have 
recently sprung from the ancestral trochozoon. The adult Sipunculid 
retains the retractor muscles and nephridia of the trochophore. The loss 
of the prototroch, the development of the coelome, and the enormous 
elongation of the trunk, are the only fundamental changes which the 
trochophore undergoes in passing into the adult condition. 

Histology of Ctenodrilus Clap. J — Egon Galvagni has made a de- 
tailed comparative study of the two species of Ctenodrilus, dealing 
principally with details of the vascular system, nephridia, and pharynx 
previously incorrectly described, and with other features, e.g. circular 
muscles, pigment, and mucous cells, etc. He concludes that the cha- 
racters of the nervous system, etc., and in particular the nature of the 
bristles, suggest relationship to the Cirratulids, and decides in favour of 
classing the genus under this family. 

Musculature of Branchiobdell aparasitica.§— F. Schmidt finds the 
musculature of this parasite, in relation to its extremely sluggish and 
leisurely movements, feebly developed. The muscle cells are of the 
primitive nematoid type, i.e. the myoblast is surrounded by a contractile 
tegument, which is interspersed with either widely-gaping or narrow 
slit-like fissures, into which the protoplasm of the myoblast is continued. 
The myoblast consists of plasma and a nucleus. The contractile tegu- 
ment contains radiating layers of fibrils, which consist of colourable and 
uncolourable longitudinally-placed columns. There are notably two 
types of muscular cells, a cylindrical and double cylindrical type. 

Anatomy and Histology of Myzostoma.|| — R. Eitter v. Stummer- 
Traunfels, in view of the fact that descriptions of species of this genus 
contain a series of errors, due to the neglect of internal characters in 

* Annot. Zool. Japon, iv. (1903) pp. 137-9. 

t Arch. Zool. Exp., ii. (1904); Notes ct Revue, No. 2, pp. xvii-xxix. 

% Arbeit. Zool. Inst. Uuiv. Wien, xv. (1903) pp. 1-31 (2 pis.). 

§ Zeitsch. f. Wiss. Zool., Ixxv. (1933) pp. 59G-705 (1 pi., 13 figs.). 

|| Tom. cit., pp. 495-595 (5 pis ). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 65 

species diagnosis, seeks to place the classification upon a firmer basis. 
He gives a revised diagnosis of Myzostoma asterm Marens, a form which, 
on account of its strictly endoparasitic mode of life within the arms of 
certain star-fishes, is of special interest. This is followed by a detailed 
account of its anatomy and minute structure. 

Platyhelminth.es. 

New Species of Phagocata Ledy.* — Gr. Chichakoff has found near 
Mount Vitocha, in company with Planar ia alpina, a Turbellarian which 
appears to differ from this species in one character only, viz. in possess- 
ing a multiple pharynx. This character classes it in the genus Phagocata, 
of which there has hitherto been known a single species, P. gracilis. 
The new species, however, differs from P. gracilis, not only in the 
general form of the body, but also in certain internal characters. 
Reasons are adduced for believing that the genus has had a teratological 
origin from Planar ia alpina. The new species he terms Phagocata 
cornuta. 

Incertee Sedis. 

Gonads of Phoronis.f — Iwaji Ikeda gives a concise account of the 
development of the sexual organs and of their products in Phoronis. 
In young individuals, he says, sexual organs are not found, but in their 
stead there exist csecal capillaries which, by the modification of the peri- 
toneal layer, give rise to the gonads. As sexual maturity approaches, 
the peritoneum becomes thickened and forms a pyramidal layer. This 
layer is called the nutritive layer, because it contains reserve nutriment 
in the form of spheres. Immediately below this layer a few scattered 
peritoneal cells lie which give rise, by proliferation, to the germinal cells. 

In the ovary the oogonia soon differentiate into oocytes and follicular 
cells. These cells absorb the nutritive layer in their growth, and then 
the follicular layer becames a mere membrane when the egg approaches 
maturity. In the testis the same development takes place, but the 
characteristic feature is the pushing out of fibrous bundles, by the con- 
nective tissue layer, round which the spermatogonia arrange themselves. 

Rotifera. 

New Species of Philodina.J — David Bryce figures and describes 
two new species, Philodina nemoralis and Ph. rugosa, with two varieties 
of the latter, found on mosses growing in damp ground, or on sphagnum 
in mossy pools, and also gives some general details about the structure 
of the foot and toes of the animals belonging to this genus. 

New Male Rotifers.§ — To the long list of male Rotifers now 
known, K. I. Marks and W. Wesche add those of Brachionus quadratus, 
Anuroza brevispina, and Pterodina patina, figures and description of 
which are given. 

Variation Cycle of Anursea cochlearis.|| — Three years ago Robert 
Lauterborn published If the first part of his study of the cycle of 

* Arch. Zool. Exp., 1903, pp. 401-9 (1 pi.). 

t Annot. Zool. Japoii, iv. (1903) pp. 141-53 (1 pi.). 

t Journ. Quekett Micr. Club, viii. (1903) pp. 523-30 (I pi.). 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 505-12 (1 pi.). 

I Verh. Naturhist.-Med. Ver. Heidelberg., Bd. vii. 4 (1903) pp. 52»-621. 

t Cf. this Journal, 1901, p. 159. 

Feb. 17th, 1904 f 



66 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

variation of this Rotifer, in which he showed how the variations could 
be traced in three or four definite directions from the type species, so as 
to embrace all the known varieties of this very variable form. The 
second part, now published, is an elaborate account of the conditions 
which appear to produce these variations. These conditions the author 
finds principally in the constitution of the water of the various ponds 
and lakes, and in the changes of temperature due to the seasons. By 
collecting regularly once a month throughout the year in seven different 
localities, examining and measuring twenty-five to fifty specimens each 
time, and tabulating the results, the author has ascertained that Anurcea 
cochlearis goes through a regular cycle of variation, which is repeated 
every year.' During the cold season — December, January, and February 
—this species is represented in the old bed of the Rhine, near Neuhofen, 
by the typical form and by the variety macraccmtha, with long posterior 
spine. In the spring these forms are very gradually replaced by members 
of the irregularis and hispida series, with short spines, including tecta, 
with no spine ; so that by the month of May the long-spined varieties 
have entirely disappeared, to reappear again in the month of October 
or November. The author has observed the same regular cycle of 
variation in the same locality for a period of twelve years. In order to 
account for these regular variations, the author is inclined to adopt 
W. Oswald's suggestion that the reason is to be found mainly in the 
" internal friction " of the water, which varies very considerably with 
the temperature, and which must have an influence on the floating 
capacity of the various organisms living in the water. He thus sets 
aside as insufficient the theory advanced by Wesenberg-Lund, who thinks 
that similar seasonal changes in the size of animals and appendages in 
Cladocera, Rotif era and Infusoria, are due to a tendency to accommodate 
the organisms to changes in the specific gravity of fresh water, which 
decreases, but only slightly, with increasing temperature. 

New Rotifers.* — E. von Daday gives an account of the Plankton 
organisms collected by Franz Werner in some fresh-water lakes in the 
northern parts of Asia Minor, and thereby figures and describes one new 
species and one new variety of Rotifers, Mastigocerca heterostyla (which 
really is Rattulus bicornis of Western) and Brachionus rubens var. 
Wern&ri. The author also gives some new figures of several species 
already known, namely Brachionus budapestinensis and forficula and 
Notops macro urus . 

Echinoderma. 

Non-regeneration of Sphaeridia in Sea-Urchins. f — Yves Delage 
in an interesting note points out that removal of the epidermis, spines, 
pedicellariae, sphaeridia,— everything in fact — from the surface of Para- 
centrotus (Stryonglocentrotus) Hindus, was followed by regeneration of 
all the structures, except the sphaeridia. It does not appear to be the 
case that these bodies are necessary to equilibrium as has been suggested, 
since the urchins can turn over, although these have been removed. 

Osmotic Action of the Internal Fluids of EchinodermsJ — V. Henri 
and S. Lalou find that the membranes connecting the internal cavity of 

* SB. K. Acad. \Vi>s. Wien, Bd. cxii. pp. 139-07(1 pi.). 
t Coiuptes Rendus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 681-2. 
j Tom. cit, pp. 721-3. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 67 

sea-urchins and Holothurians with the external medium are semi- 
permeable, as are also the walls of the water-vascular system, the polian 
vesicles, and the digestive tubes of Holothurians. 

Ccelentera. 

Development of Corymorpha.* — Albert J. May undertook the study 
of Corymorpha pendida with special reference to the development of the 
medusoid, and to the origin of the sex cells. His results may be 
summarised thus : — Corymorpha is a solitary form, developed from a bud 
of the peduncle wall, in which the attaching filaments and papilla? are 
modifications of the same structure. The central axis of the stem is 
filled with parenchyma-like cells in which extensions of the hydranth 
cavity are found as longitudinal canals. Owing to the development of 
gland cells in the hydranth cavity, digestion and circulation have become 
localised. The sex cells are derived from an apical plug of ectodermal 
cells, and in the case of the ova, the development is by absorption of the 
germinal tissue, thus giving rise to a syncytium in which the nuclei of 
the primitive germ cells persist for a time. 

Depastrum.| — E. S. Russell contributes a few notes on the rare 
Lucernarid Depastrum cyathiforme (Gosse). Its peculiarly local distribu- 
tion is difficult to account for, but he has found that it never occurs iii 
muddy localities, nor in spots where there is much decaying sea-weed. 
He shows that instead of there being many rows of tentacles, as Haeckel 
says, there are only two. He found two types, one with a long narrow 
umbrella and the other with the umbrella as broad as long. His paper is 
of interest as a record of the fairly abundant occurrence of a Lucernarid 
around the Cumbraes, etc., which is but little known to the majority of 
British zoologists. 

Porifera. 

Haddonella.J— Igerna B. J. Sollas gives an account of the new genus 
Hadclonella, a ceratose sponge belonging to the Dendroceratina, paying 
special attention to the structure and development of the pithed fibres of 
Haddonella topsenli. She finds that Haddonella and Ianthella are closely 
allied in having cells in the cortex of their pithed fibres. The growing 
points consist of naked pith secreted by a many-layered cap of spongo- 
blasts. Layer after layer of spongoblasts deposit spongin until finally 
the pith is enclosed in many successive sheaths of spongin, between 
which lie the spongoblasts, which have diminished and lost their granular 
contents. These results justify Polejaeff's assertion that the presence of 
cells in the spongin of sponge-fibres is a character of sub-family or 
family value. 

Protozoa. 

Nuclear Apparatus in Paramcecium.§ — P. Mitrophanow has studied 
the functions and accompanying changes of structure in the nuclei of 
Paramecium. The micronucleus plays the principal part in the pheno- 
mena of multiplication and conjugation ; it exhibits the principal 

* Araer. Nat.. 1903, pp. 579-99 (12 figs.). 

t Ann. Nat. Hist. xiii. pp. 62-5 (1 pi.). 

\ Op. cit, xii. (1903) pp. 557-63 (2 pis.). 

§ Arch. Zool. Exp., 1903. pp. 411-35. 

F 2 



68 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

features of the changes in the nuclei of metazoan cells in division. 
The raacronucleus dominates above all the functions of nutrition,, 
assimilation, and movement ; it is very susceptible to changes in the 
conditions of life, and assumes sometimes, among other transformations, 
characters which recall the appearance of chromosomes. On the whole, 
the structure of the nuclei is complicated, and the changes in the macro- 
nucleus varied in relation to the numerous functions of the organism. 

Action of Induction Shocks on Ciliata.* — P. Statkewitsch gives 
a very full account of the behaviour of seventeen different species of 
Ciliata to stimuli of this type. There are two different groups of 
results from single induction shocks, which he relates to both physio- 
logical reaction and to structure, viz. certain movements of the cilia 
(which occur in all), and alteration of the form of the individual in 
consequence of the contraction of the outer layers. These results are 
detailed for each of the species examined. His results contradict 
Pfliiger's law of polar excitation. 

Micro-fauna of Boulder Clay.f — Joseph Wright found Foraminifera 
in three-fourths of 134 samples of boulder clay from widely separate 
localities. With one or two exceptions all the species found in the clay 
occurred recently off our coast. More than half the specimens are 
referable to Nonionina depressula, and Gassidulina crassa, though some- 
what rare, as a recent British species is often plentiful. Porcellanous 
forms are usually very rare, and the only arenaceous form is Haplo- 
phragm htm canariense. 

North American G-regarines.J — Howard Crawley has prepared a list 
of the Polycystid Gregarines of the United States. He has made a care- 
ful examination of the species, and has established twelve new ones, 
which he carefully describes and figures, giving in each case the locality 
and the host. 

In a subsequent paper,§ Crawley continues his list of North American 
Polycystid Gregarines, and gives a description of two new genera and 
several new species. He also adds a note on the time required for a 
Gregarine cyst to mature, and gives a short account of the cysts of 
Acutispora macroc&phala. 

Tick Fever. || — J. F. Anderson confirms the observations of Wilson 
and Chowning, who discovered the presence of an intracorpuscular 
parasite in spotted or tick fever. It is not pigmented ; it shows amoeboid 
movements ; it is arranged in pairs, or occurs as a single pyriform or 
ovoid body. It stains with difficulty ; and is never found in large 
numbers. Cultivations were negative. 



-^ 



* Le Physiologiste Russe, iii. (1903) pp. 1-55. 

t Rep. and Proc. Belfast Nat. Hist, and Phil. Soc, 1902-3, pp. 47-50. 

t Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1903, pp. 41-5S (3 pis.). 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 632-44 (1 pi.). 

|| Bull. No. 14, Hygien. Lab. U.S.A., 1903, 50 pp. (3 pis.). 



■» I< g a I • 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 69 



BOTANY. 

GENERAL, 

Including the Anatomy and Physiology of Seed Plants. 

Cytology, 
including: Cell Contents. 

Nucleus of the Yeast-Plant.* — F. A. Janssens gives a review of 
the various observations made on this subject since the publication of 
his and Leblanc's paper on the cytology of yeast. The majority of 
recent observers are agreed that the yeast-cell possesses a definite cor- 
puscle, with the micro-chemical characteristics and the physiological 
properties of a true nucleus. A few others doubt the existence of a 
definite nucleus, and consider the cell to have the same structure as that 
of the bacteria. Others, again, hold an intermediate view, that the 
nucleus exists in a primitive state as a vacuole, containing granules of 
nuclein. Wager puts forward the view that the cells contain a nuclear 
apparatus rather than a true nucleus, consisting of a nucleolus (the 
nucleus of most authors) which resists peptic digestion and stains 
feebly ; and in young and vigorous cells a vacuole also, which contains 
granules often united in a network and resisting digestion with pepsin. 
It is clear, then, that most authors admit the existence of a nucleus in 
the yeast-cell, but there is considerable disagreement on the existence 
and significance of the vacuole. Janssens believes that the nucleolus 
always lies inside the vacuole when the latter is present ; its appearance 
by the side of the vacuole, as observed by Wager, he considers to be 
due to the process of fixation, which he has followed under the micro- 
scope. The author ranges himself on the side of those who believe 
in the existence of a true nucleus, since there is to be found in the yeast- 
cell, as in the cells of higher forms, an organised body which contains 
nuclein, and plays an important part both in ordinary division and in 
spore-formation. Recent observations also confirm the views put for- 
ward earlier by Janssens and Leblanc as to the importance of this body 
in fertilisation. The role of the nucleus in budding, in sporulation 
and in fertilisation, is discussed with reference to recent work. 

Micro-chemistry and Cytology of a Torula.f — -Janssens and 
Mertens have isolated a rose-coloured Torula from a deposit in beer, 
and investigated its structure and behaviour. Their most important 
observations are, that the colouring matter is carotin, that it is sensitive 
to light, and that its nucleus sometimes increases by a process of unequal 
division. When grown in reverse plate cultures, small masses of gelatin 
are projected on to the cover and form there images of the colonies ; 
this is brought about by a liquefaction of the gelatin and the formation 
of a certain quantity of gas. 

* La Cellule, xx. (1903) pp. 337-49. t Tom. cit., pp. 353-68 (2 pis.). 



70 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Abnormal Nuclear Division.* — C. van Wisselingh has made a 
detailed study of the various methods of abnormal division of the 
nucleus to be found in Spirogyra when subjected to the action of 
various reagents, chiefly dilute chloral-hydrate solution. His general 
conclusion is that the various abnormal processes observed are not of a 
special nature or of the nature of amitosis, but are to be considered as 
processes of karyokinesis, though modified to a greater or less extent. 
The evidence for amitosis in plants is reviewed, and its unsatisfactory 
nature pointed out. Many of the observations are to be explained as 
modifications of karyokinesis. The author has modified somewhat his 
views on normal division ; he no longer believes that two of the six or 
twelve chromosomes are derived from the nucleolus (or nucleoli), but 
that a small portion only of the substance of these two special chromo- 
somes is derived from the nucleolus. 

Spermatogenesis of Hybrid Peas.j — W. A. Cannon, continuing 
his studies in plant hybrids, has investigated the nuclear development in 
pollen-formation in hybrid peas, namely, Fillbasket X Debarbieux and 
Express X Serpette. The hybrids investigated were of those of the 
second generation, and they showed variation after the Mendelian law. 
They matured their spores in exactly the same way as the pure ancestral 
forms ; the first mitosis being heterotypic, the second homotypic. 
The reduced number of chromosomes was seven, both in hybrids and 
pure forms, the somatic number being fourteen. In the anaphase, how- 
ever, of the last sporogenous division of both hybrids and of the pure 
form, Fillbasket, the chromosomes were found associated in pairs ; this 
condition is considered not to be the result of chance. It is clear that 
abnormalities and irregularities of nuclear division (which have been 
observed in some forms, probably in connection with their non-fertile 
nature) do not form the basis for the variation of these hybrids. The 
basis of variation is probably the same as that of variations in the pure 
forms. 

Structure and Development. 

Veg-etative. 

Stem of Sicyos angulata.J — Fr. Tondera gives an account of the 
morphology and the anatomy of the stem of this member of the order 
Cucurbitaceae. The stem is a sympodial structure, and the arrangement 
and course of the vascular bundles is clearly described and figured. 
The five-angled stem contains a mass of collenchymatous tissue in each 
of the angles, the well-developed parenchymatous ground-tissue is 
bounded by a sclerenchymatous ring, and contains an inner and an 
outer series of bicollateral bundles, the course of which through the 
internodes is carefully followed. 

Saprophytic Gentianaceae.§ — -N. Svedelius describes some points 
in the structure of species of Leiphamos and Voyria, from material 

* Bot. Zeit, xxxii. (1903) pp. 201-48 (3 pis.). 
t Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxx. (1903) pp. 519-43. 

% SB. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturwiss. CI. cxi. (1902) pp. 317-26 (2 pis.). 
§ Bihang. K. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl., xxviii. (1902) Afd. iii. No. 4, pp. 1-16 
(11 figs, in text). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 71 

collected by Dr. Landman on the Regnell Expedition to South America. 
His results serve to confirm or supplement those obtained by Karsten, 
Johow, and others. The two species examined were Leiphamos azurea 
and Voyria coerulea. He finds in the former a whorl of disc-like scales 
at the base of the sepals, similar to that already described in other 
species. In the anatomy of the roots, L. azurea approaches most nearly 
L. tenella, which represents the most reduced type of the genus. In 
fiis species, too, as Johow also found in the species which he studied, 
the fungal hyphas which form a well-marked mycorhiza in the root, 
occur also in the tissue of the stem penetrating to directly beneath the 
flower. In contrast with Johow's statement as to the absence of stomata 
from all leaf- and stem-organs in West Indian saprophytes, including 
species of Leiphamos, the author describes and figures these organs on 
the reduced leaves of L. azurea, and also of L. aphylla. 

In the case of Voyria coerulea an account is given of the stem- 
structure. No vascular bundles are present in the much-reduced 
scale-leaves, but stomata occur sparingly on the inner surface. In the 
structure and development of the ovules, this species differs from 
Leiphamos, in which Johow found the ovules erect and with no integu- 
ment. Here also occurs the phenomenon noted by Johow, that many 
ovules remain sterile, forming hair-structures like paraphyses. The 
. ovules in V. coerulea are anatropous and have a single integument, thus 
agreeing with those of other members of the order. 

As Leiphamos and Voyria show but little agreement in their ana- 
tomical structure, and also differences in seed-structure, pollen, etc., it 
is probable that the two genera are not so closely related as has some- 
times been supposed. Leiphamos would seem to be a remarkably 
reduced and isolated type, while Voyria shows more agreement with 
the Gentianacese in general. 

Structure of the Extrafloral Nectaries of Hevea. * — Aug. Da- 
guillon and H. Coupin describe the form and internal structure of 
the glands which occur in different species of this genus of Euphor- 
biaceae, at the top of the petiole on its upper face, near the origin of 
the three large leaflets. These glands, although used by systematists in 
the distinction of species, do not seem to have been studied anatomically. 
In Hevea brasilkiisis the glands, which vary from two to five in number, 
form a little wart, in the centre of which is a more or less circular 
depression, surrounded by a sort of cushion. The authors describe in 
detail the internal structure of the central depressed glandular area, the 
cushion and the rest of the gland, and draw special attention to two 
points : (1) the presence of a ring of sclerosed parenchymatous cells in 
the interior of the cushion ; and (2) the distribution and termination 
of the laticiferous cells in the parenchyma adjacent to the glandular 
surface and right among the cells of the secreting epidermis. 

Reproductive. 

Germination of Davidia.f— W. B. Hemsley describes the structure 
of the fruit and the germination of the seeds in this genus, which is a 

* Comptes Rendus, cxxxvii. (190:?) pp. 767-9. 

t Journ. Linn. Soc. xxxv. Bot. (190;?) pp. 556-9 (1 pi). 



72 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

monotype, and one of the most remarkable of the endemic genera of 
Chinese trees. It was discovered more than thirty years ago by the Abbe 
David near Moupin, in the province of Szechuen, but a recent supply 
of fresh seeds has rendered possible the study of the germination. The 
fruit is drupe-like ; the hard bony endocarp intrudes between the six to 
ten one-seeded cells to the axis with which it unites. After the decay 
of the fleshy coat, the fruit opens by the separation of the upper portion 
(one-half to two-thirds) of the back of each carpel in the form of a 
valve or shutter. Usually only about half the number of the ovules 
are fertilised and develop, sometimes only one. The solitary pendulous 
seeds are not released by the falling away of the dorsal valves, but held 
fast until the seedling has reached a considerable development. The 
straight embryo has a pair of flat leafly cotyledons, and is imbedded in 
endosperm. After the dehiscence of the dorsal valves of the carpels, 
the radicles of as many seeds as are present in the fruit emerge simul- 
taneously, the cotyledons elongate rapidly, the axis of the plantlet is 
•carried out of the testa, and the cotyledons after absorbing the endo- 
sperm free themselves, and form the first green leaves of the plant. An 
•opposite pair of foliage-leaves is developed at right angles to the cotyle- 
dons, while the succeeding leaves are alternate. The writer suggests that 
in a cluster of seedlings, developing thus from one fruit, there is a greater 
chance of partial escape from phytophagous organisms than there is for 
solitary individuals. Another point of interest is the presence of buds 
in the axils of the cotyledons, which may serve to ensure the develop- 
ment of the plant if the plumule is injured or destroyed. 

Davidia is usually placed in the Cornaceae, next to Nyssa, a genus 
of Asiatic and North American trees, which it resembles in some 
particulars, but from which it differs greatly in appearance and floral 
structure. 

Synanthy in Lonicera.* — E. A. N. Arber gives a detailed account 
of the cases of synanthy which occur in the Xylosteum section of this 
genus. This, the largest of the three sections into which the genus has 
been divided, contains more than seventy species, which are mainly erect 
shrubs. It is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, but its 
chief centre is eastern Asia ; several species are alpines in the mountains 
of southern and eastern Europe. Two different types of synanthy are 
represented. One, which is distinguished as true synanthy, is effected 
by the partial or complete fusion of the receptacular walls of the inferior 
ovaries or fruits, and the bracteoles play no part in its formation. 
Lonicera xylosteum, a doubtful British plant, is an example of an in- 
complete union ; L. alpigma may serve as the type of the somewhat 
more numerous cases in which the synanthy is complete, and where the 
resulting fruit is a false berry, the pericarp being formed from the walls 
of the two ovaries. In many species the pistils are enveloped by a 
bracteolar sheath, which as a rule plays no part in the formation of the 
fruit, but in Lonicera crrrulea a false synanthy is effected by the union 
of the two pistils in certain planes with the bracteolar sheath, the pistils 
themselves remaining quite free from one another. The fruit is a 

* Journ. Linn. Soc, xxxvi. Bot. (1903) pp. 463-74 (3 figs, in text). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 73 

pseudocarp, forming a false berry in which the bracfceoles as well as the 
ovary-walls contribute to the formation of the pericarp. 

The author is unable to make a suggestion as to the special biological 
significance of the false berries of L. alpigena and L. cmrulea, beyond 
the possibility that the adaptations have some connection with the 
alpine conditions under which these species thrive. 

New Graft-Hybrid.* — L. Daniel describes a graft-hybrid which 
originated under the following circumstances from a grafted pear in the 
garden of the St. Vincent Institution at Rennes. The pears had been 
badly attacked with chermes, and to prolong their life had been severely 
pruned and cut down to within about 2 metres from the ground. 
M. Daniel followed carefully the results of this severe disturbance of 
the relation between the absorbing and transpiring members of the 
plant. In every case the grafts put out shoots which were for the most 
part more or less drooping. The fruit-buds flowered and bore fruit in 
the same year, yielding monstrous productions, the form and structure 
of which the author has already described {La Theorie des capacites 
fonctionnelles, Rennes, 1902). Hitherto only one of the stocks has 
developed shoots (a Coignassier, on which is grafted a William pear), 
but these are of special interest. Two, which are situated well below 
the cushion, preserve all the characters of the normal plant, but, at the 
level of the cushion, on a protuberance entirely covered by the cortex 
of the stock, are three other shoots, which in their size, direction, 
indumentum, number of lenticels, and leaf -characters are more or less 
intermediate between the stock and the graft. They represent a graft- 
hybrid in the same sense as those obtained by the writer in experimenting 
with herbaceous plants, or those which have since been recorded in 
woody plants. M. Daniel again points out that the absence of observa- 
tions on graft-hybrids in the Rosacese, although members of this order 
have been grafted from time immemorial and in large numbers, is due 
to the constant suppression of shoots on the stock. 

Lindmark, Gunnar — Om Adventiv Lbkbildning pi Stjalken hos Liiium can- 

didum. (On formation of adventitious bulbils on the stem of Liiium candidum.) 

[The author describes and figures a remarkably copious bulbil formation on 

the stem of this lily.] Bihang h. Svensh. Vet.-Ahad. Handl., xxviii. (190o) 

Afd. iii., No. 3, pp. 1-9 (1 pi.). 

Physiology. 
Nutrition and Growth. 

Photosynthesis.! — T. Bokorny, experimenting with Petroselinum 
sativum, shows that assimilation of carbon dioxide is checked in solu- 
tions containing 1 part of formaldehyde in 20,000, and even by 1 in 
50,000. It is therefore impossible for appreciable amounts of formal- 
dehyde to accumulate in plants ; but there is nothing improbable in the 
assumption that this is immediately converted into carbohydrate. As 
regards reduction of carbon monoxide, the author points out that pro- 

* Comptes Eendus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 7G5-7. 

t Chem. Zeit, xxvii. (1903) pp. 525-7. See also Journ. Chem. Soc, lxxxiv. (1903) 
ii. p. 505. 



74 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

duction of hydrogen has hitherto only been observed in connection 
with fermentation processes. He concludes that hydrogen carbonate 
is directly reduced to formaldehyde by the chlorophyll apparatus in 
presence of an adequate amount of light. 

L. Macchiati * claims to have established some new facts in support 
of his contention that photosynthesis takes place in extracts prepared 
from the green parts of plants, owing to the presence of a ferment. 
Having powdered the leaves of five species of plants last autumn, and 
stored the powder in dried sterilised flasks, he mixed these powders 
with distilled water last March and succeeded in obtaining an evolution 
of oxygen gas in varying quantities, when the temperature of the air 
rose to 15° C. A triangular discussion as to the validity of his con- 
tention is carried on between himself, G. Pollacci and A. Fiori in the 
same periodical. 

Synthesis of Proteids.f — E. Laurent and E. Marchal arrive at the 
following conclusions. Nitrogen in the form of ammonia is assimilated 
both by normal and by etiolated chlorophyllous plants, the process 
being more active in the former. Assimilation of nitrogen in the form 
of nitrates by green plants is, with some exceptions, far more intense 
in presence of light than in darkness. When nitrogen is assimilated in 
darkness, the necessary energy is derived from the consumption of carbo- 
hydrates. Whilst the "lower non-green plants can produce proteids in 
absence of light, the synthesis in higher chlorophyllous plants can take 
place only in the light. 

Deficiency of Nitrogen, Phosphoric Acid and Potassium in 
Plant-Growth 4 — H. Wilfarth and G. Wimmer find that when nitrogen 
or phosphoric acid is deficient, growth is more or less restricted, but the 
composition of the dry matter is only affected when the deficiency is 
very great. When the phosphoric acid is present in insufficient quantity, 
the leaves become a dark green or bluish-green according to the amount 
of nitrogen present, or in extreme cases the leaves blacken, beginning 
from the edges. Very small amounts of potassium enable plants to 
grow normally for weeks or months, but when the potassium is used up 
photosynthesis ceases. Sugar-beet when grown with insufficient potas- 
sium readily decays, and the sugar is often changed, partially or entirely, 
into invert sugar. As in the case of the sugar-beet, the proportion of 
leaves in potatoes is much increased when potassium is deficient, but 
the yield and size of the tubers and the percentage of starch are reduced. 
The effect of want of potassium on the appearance of the leaves and 
plants is frequently very difficult to distinguish from that of fungi and 
insects. 

Influence of Mineral Food on Sex in Dioecious Plants.§ — 
E. Laurent has made a series of experiments, extending over seven years, 
on the effect of the nature of the mineral food of a plant on the sex of 

* Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital., 1903, pp. 196-S. 

t Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg , 1903, pp. 55-114. See also Journ. Cliem. Soc, lxxxiv. 
(1903) ii. p. 50G. 

X Journ. Landw., li. (1903) pp. 129-38. See also Journ. Cliera. Soc, lxxxiv. 
(1903) ii. pp. 500-7. § Comptes Rendus. exxxvii. (1903) pp. 689-92. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 75 

its flowers ; the plants used were spinach, hemp, and Mercurialis annua. 
These have been treated with manures in which one of the following 
elements predominated : nitrogen, potash, phosphoric acid, chalk, and 
sodium chloride. In the hemp and Mercurialis no obvious influence 
on the number of male or female plants could be observed ; but in the 
case of spinach, especially the Dutch variety, the effect was a marked 
one. Two distinct effects were noticeable. In the first place, there was 
a direct effect on the sex of the plants observed ; in the second, the 
nutritive elements reacted on the sex of the embryos produced by these 
same plants. As regards direct action, an excess of nitrogenous manure 
or of chalk gives more male plants, while potash and phosphoric acid 
cause an increase in the number of the females. As regards the second 
effect, the seeds of plants cultivated with an excess of nitrogen produced 
fewer male plants, more female, and among the monoecious individuals 
a larger number of female flowers. On the contrary, an excess of 
potash, phosphoric acid, or chalk, predisposes the seeds to yield more 
male plants among the dioecious individuals, and more male flowers 
among the monoecious individuals. In two years the descendants of 
the monoecious plants of the Dutch spinach were tabulated. Seeds 
were taken from a plant, of which the main axis bore female flowers, 
while on the branches the male flowers were more numerous. In the 
first year (1899), 100 large seeds gave 72 plants comprising 46 males, 
13 monoecious and 13 females; 100 small seeds of the same origin 
gave 21 plants, of which 17 were males, 2 monoecious and 2 females. 
In the second year (1900), 200 seeds of medium size gave 98 male 
plants, 23 female and 29 monoecious ; and among the latter there was 
only one in which female flowers preponderated. These results, asso- 
ciated with the general preponderance of male over female flowers in 
Dutch spinach, suggest that the monoecious plants are males, in which 
a certain number of flowers have become female. 

Chemical Changes. 

Experiments on Yeast Extract.* — J. Meisenheimer finds that even 
when yeast extract is considerably diluted (1 in 25) it still has strong 
fermentative properties. With water alone as the diluent, the activity 
is largely destroyed ; dilution with 10 p.c. glycerol solution, or with 
10 p.c. egg-albumin solution, does not destroy the activity. Impure 
zymase may be precipitated from the extract by the addition of large 
amounts of acetone (10 to 1), and the product is similar in all respects 
to that obtained by the use of ether and alcohol. Trommsdorff's state- 
ment that the proteids undergo a change during extraction from the 
yeast is not correct, as the dry residue gives the same reaction with 
Gram's reagent as the yeast itself. Small amounts of acetic and lactic 
acids are formed during the fermentation of sugar solutions with the 
extract freed from yeast cells. 

Co-efficient of Respiration of Yeasts.f — E. Wosnessensky and 
E. Elisseef give the tabulated results of experiments with different 

* Zeit. Physiol. Chem., xxxvii. (1903) pp. 518-26. See also Journ. Chem. Soc., 
lxxxiv. (1903) i. p. 591. t Centralbl. Bakt., x. (1903) pp. 629-36 (1 tig). 



76 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

races of yeasts cultivated on nitrogenous media. Their intention was 
to test whether Pasteur's dictum, that " Fermentation is life without 
oxygen," would hold good for other forms than Saccharomyces cerevisice. 
They experimented with this yeast, and also with 8. Ludwigii and 8. 
Fombe. The authors find that the co-efficient of respiration depends 
on the kind of yeast under culture, and also on the substratum ; they 
find also that fermentation takes place with full aeration, and they have 
no doubt that alcoholic fermentation is a zymase fermentation. They 
got a very small co-efficient from S. Pombe cultivated on ammonium 
phosphate, which indicated the absence of alcoholic fermentation. 

Micro-chemical Researches on some Glucosides and some Vege- 
table Tannins.* — A. Goris gives a resume of previous work, dealing 
with the question of the localisation in the cells of the active principles 
found in plants. He then describes the results of his investigations 
on the a3sculin and tannin in the horse-chestnut and in Pavia rubra. 
iEsculin is characterised by the intense blue fluorescence of its watery 
solution, its solubility in acetic acid and ethyl-acetate, and its intense 
blood-red coloration after passing successively into concentrated nitric 
acid and pure ammonia (Sonnenschein's reaction). After discussing 
the composition, chemical constitution and affinities of resculin, the 
author studies its localisation in the plant-tissues by means of Sonnen- 
schein's reaction. He finds that it is especially localised in the epidermis, 
often also in the sub-epidermal layer, in the endodermis, and in a peri- 
pheral layer of the pith ; but it also occurs abundantly, though in 
varying quantity, in isolated cells of the parenchyma of the cortex and 
pith, in the pericycle and the medullary rays, in the wood and paren- 
chyma, and the old bast parenchyma. It is absent from the meristem 
and from dead tissues, the young bast tissue, the wood-vessels, the root- 
hairs and the embryo. 

Its formation apparently has no direct relation to the action of 
light ; it appears in seedlings from seeds germinating in the dark as 
well as in the light, and bears no relation to the chlorophyll-containing 
cells, but brightly illuminated aerial organs are the richest in the gluco- 
side. It does not seem to be a reserve-substance, since it makes its 
appearance in germination as an early result of the utilisation of the 
reserves in the embryo. However, in the autumn it partly disappears 
from the leaves, and is found in the bast of the branches, as if it were 
being carried towards the persistent parts of the plant. 

The chestnut also contains a tannin (ajsculitannic acid) which 
M. Goris finds in the same organs and in the same cells as tesculin. 
Moreover, since the latter, although insoluble in alcohol, disappears 
from twigs when treated with alcohol, and since the alcohol thus 
obtained yields under proper treatment a quantity of sesculin, the 
author concludes that the glucoside occurs in the cells, in combination 
with the tannin, as a tanno-glucoside. 

By similar or analogous methods the author has studied the fustin 
in Rhus Cotinus, the fraxin in the Ash, the daphnin in Daphne alpina, 

* Goris, Alb. Eecherches miiToehemiqui s sur quelques glucosides et quelques 
tanins ve'getaux. Thesis. Joanin, Paris. 190:!. Bee alio Bot. Centralhl., xeiii. (1903) 
pp. 261-3. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 77 

the salicin in Salix alba, and the cafe in in Thea sinensis and Cola 
acuminata. 

All of these glucosides or special compounds seem analogous to 
sesculin, and, with the exception of daphnin, occur in the cells in com- 
position with a tannic acid ; and M. Goris thinks it probable that many 
of the compounds, both glucosides and alkaloids, occur in the plant 
totally or partially combined with a body having the reactions of 
tannin. It is these tanno-glucosides or tanno-alkaloids, very soluble 
in water and alcohol, but also very unstable, which in the majority of 
cases are the chief active principle in certain medicinal plants. 

Cyanogenesis in Plants.* — Wyndham R. Dunstan and T. A. Henry 
have made a further contribution to this aspect of plant physiology, viz. 
the isolation of Phaseolunatin, the cyanogenetic glucoside of Phaseolus 
lunatus, an annual, widely cultivated in the tropics where the edible 
bean is used as a vegetable. When a few beans are powdered and 
moistened with cold water, the odour of hydrocyanic acid is perceptible 
in a few minutes, but if boiling water is used, and the vessel is imme- 
diately closed and allowed to cool, no prussic acid odour is perceptible, 
and no evidence of its production can be obtained by the usual tests. 
These observations indicate that the production of the acid is connected 
with the action of an enzyme. The glucoside was isolated from an 
alcoholic extract of the powdered beans, as spreading rosettes of colour- 
less needles from \ in. to 1 in. long, which melt at 141° C. Its formula 
was determined as C ]0 H n O 6 N, by combustions of specially purified 
material dried at 100° C, and the correctness of the formula was con- 
firmed by estimations of the dextrose produced on hydrolysis. The 
alkaline hydrolysis proves that phaseolunatin is the dextrose ether of 
acetone cyanhydrin. The hydrolytic enzyme of Phaseolus lunatus was 
isolated as an amorphous white powder, almost completely soluble in 
water ; it readily hydrolyses amygdalin, salicin, and phaseolunatin. As 
the latter is also hydrolysed by the emulsin of sweet almonds, it is 
probable that the enzyme of Phaseolus lunatin is emulsin. The occur- 
rence in the plant, apparently throughout its life, of a cyanogenetic 
glucoside, together with the enzyme appropriate for its hydrolysis, seems 
to strengthen the view, previously expressed by the authors, that these 
glucosides must play some definite part in the metabolism of plants. 

General. 

Australian Fossil Botany.f — R. Etheridge gives a description of 
more complete specimens than have hitherto been obtained from the 
Leigh Creek coal measures, South Australia, of Thinnfeldia odonto- 
pteroides, and points out that the nervation is more complex than in the 
typical form of the species, and that at least three varieties of nervation 
have been included in Thinnfeldia : suggesting those of the three genera, 
Thinnfeldia, Odontopteris and Lescuropteris. 

J. Shirley \ describes several new species, and gives notes on others, 

* Proc. Roy. Soc, Lxxii. (1903) pp. 2S5-94. 

t Contributions to the Palaeontology of South Australia, 1902, No. 12, p. 2(1 pi.). 

% Geolog. Survey, Queensland, Bull. No. 18 (1902) pp. 1-16 (11 pis.). 



78 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

from various Queensland localities. From the Permo-carboniferous of 
Dawson river he records several species of Sphenopteris and Glossopteris, 
and describes a new seed, Cycadospermum Dawsoni. It is suggested 
that Sphenopteris lolifolia, S. alata, S. flexuosa and S. crebra represent 
different parts or growth-stages of the same frond, which a discovery 
of the fertile leaves places in the genus Mertensia. Taxoxylon Philpii 
is a new species from the Ipswich beds, and represents the first taxaceous 
fossil wood from Queensland. 

Plant-Life in the Sihlthal at Einsiedeln.* — Max Duggeli gives 
an account of the geographical position, the geology, climatology and 
flora of this high valley, and the plant-associations which it comprises. 
The district, which has an area of 12 kilometres, is soon to be sub- 
merged to form a reservoir in connection with some electric works. 
Under the heading vegetation, the author gives a list of about 150 
cultivated plants, followed by a list of those growing wild. The latter 
comprise nearly 200 species of fresh-water algge, 50 fungi, 75 lichens, 
130 mosses, 25 vascular cryptogams, and 560 seed-plants. In his 
description of the cacology of the valley the author distinguishes the 
following formations : — (a) forest ; (b) bush-vegetation ; (c) schutt- 
fluren ; (d) meadow-formation (the most important), and the various 
types comprising it ; (e) water-vegetation, both of flowing and stagnant 
water, including the plankton ; and (/) culture-formation. The text 
is accompanied by several sectional diagrams, showing the characteristic 
plants at the different levels in several of the formations. Another 
feature of interest is the tabulation which the author gives of the plant- 
remains found in the peat at various stations in the valley, compiled 
from a study of numerous sections. There is also a good general map 
of the district. 

Swedish Saxifrages.f — G. Lindmark gives a somewhat detailed 
account of the vegetative and floral morphology of the Swedish species 
of Saxijraga. A short general account containing an organographic 
key to the species is followed by a special portion, comprising for each 
species an account of the germination of the seed, the development of 
the seedling, and the vegetative and floral characters of the adult plant. 
The paper is well illustrated by five plates ; four of these are double- 
page. 

Chinese Cyperaceae.J — C. B. Clarke has elaborated this order for 
Messrs. Forbes' and Hemsley's Enumeration of the Plants of China. 
The order is well represented in the Chinese flora. Mr. Clarke's 
enumeration includes a number of new species, especially in the genus 
Carex, which is by far the largest. There are also various critical notes 
of some general interest. 

Teratology.§ — K. Schilberszky describes and figures the following 
examples of teratology : twin-bulbs in an onion (Allium Cepa), the 

* Vierteljahrschrift der Naturforschend. Gescllsch. in Zurich, xlviii. (1903) pp. 
49-270 (with map and tigs, in text). 

t Bihang K. Svensk. Vet -Akad. Handl., xxviii. Afd. iii. No. 2 (1902) pp. 1-84 
(5 pis.). % Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot., xxxvi. (1903) pp. 217-96. 

§ Novenytai Kijzlemenyek, Fachbl. bol. Sekt. kgl. ungar. Naturw. Geeellscli. 
Budapest, ii. (1903) pp. 76-89 (7 fie;s.). See also Bot. Centralbl., xciii. (1903) p. 260. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 79 

formation of foliage-leaves on the tendrils of the vine, and a forked 
flower-spike in Plantago lanceolata var. altissima. 

0. V. Wennersten * describes, with illustrative figures, examples of 
floral and also foliar teratology in specimens of the walnut grown in 
Gothland. 

Abech avaleta, J. — Contribucion al conccimento de la Vegetacion del Uruguay. 
(Contribution to our knowledge of the vegetation of Uruguay.) 

[Includes mainly grasses, with descriptions of new species of Stipa and 
Aristida.'] Anales Mus. Nation. Montevideo, iv. (1903) 

pp. 61-86 (7 pis.). 
„ „ Ncmina Vernacularia. (A list of vernacular names of the 

Uruguay flora.) 

Anales Mus. Nation, Montevideo, iv. (1903) pp. 132-52. 

Goldschmidt-Geisa, M. — Die flora des Rhongebirges III. (The flora of the 
Rhongebirg.) 

[Comprises the grasses, with a few additions to the two previous parts.] 

Verhandl. Phys.-Med. Ges. Wurzburg, N.F. xxxv. (1903) pp. 313-35. 
Johansson, K. — Archieracium-Floraninom Dilarnes Siluromrade I Siljanstrakten. 
[A long paper on Hieracia, with notes on localities, etc., of previously known 
species, and very full descriptions (in Latin) of many new ones.] 

Bihang K. S ensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl., xxviii. (1902) 
Afd. iii. No. 7 (1902) pp. 1-156 (12 double plates). 
Korbhinsky, S. — On the origin of the Peach. (Russian.) 

Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Pe'tersb., 8er. 5, xi v. (1901) pp. 77-83. 

„ On the original form of the Common Almond and allied species. 

Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. i'e*ers6.,ser.5,xiv.(1901)pp. 85-94. 
Nathorst, A. G. — Svenska Vaxtnamn. (Swedish plant-names.) 

Bihang K. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Eandl., xxviii. (1902) 

Afd. iii. No. 9 pp. 1-72. 
Sargent, C. S. — Recently recognised species of Crataegus in Eastern Canada and 
New England, IV. and V. 

[Several new species are described in the two groups Coccinese and Tomentosx.~] 

Rhodora, v. (1903) pp. 159-68, 182-7. 



CRYPTOGAMS. 

Pteridophyta. 

Isoetes.f — G. H. Shull shows in a map the exact distribution of 
Isoetes saccharata along the shores of the tributaries of Chesapeake bay, 
and discusses various problems presented by it. It is confined to Chesa- 
peake bay, and occurs but locally, on tidal beaches, requiring fresh or 
slightly brackish water, and soil firm enough to resist wave-action. It 
does not thrive where competition with other plants is great. Its dis- 
persal is effected probably by water-currents, not by winds or birds. 
A nearly related species, I. riparia, is similarly confined to the neigh- 
bouring Delaware bay. There are grounds for concluding that the 
former species is polymorphic, and for supposing that /. riparia may 
prove to be an extreme form of it, some intermediate varieties being 
untenable. The curious distribution finds an explanation in the geo- 
logical alteration of the coast-line by upheaval and subsidence. 

* Bihang. K. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Hand!., xxviii. (1902) pp. 1-12 (12 figs, in (ext). 
t Bot. Gazette, xxxvi. (1903) pp. 187-202 (with map). 



80 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Investigations on Fern-Prothallia.* — A. Jakowatz has studied the 
development of the prothallium in several members of Polypodiaceae T 
and finds remarkable differences in the early stages of development 
and their conversion into the later flat expanded form. It is, however, 
impossible to say whether these differences are characteristic of the 
various species or genera. In some species the developmental course 
in these stages follows a definite scheme ; in others, different types of 
development are observed apparently without reference to external 
conditions. There is, however, a common law governing the first stages 
of development, which in all the forms investigated begins with a 
thread-like stage ; the growth of this becomes closed, while the flat pro- 
thallial growth originates from an apical cell appearing laterally on the 
filiform rudiment. Often the formation of a branch coincides with the 
formation of this cell, which then comes to stand in the axil of the 
branch. The further development of the pro thallial surface depends 
on the well-known segmentation of the apical cell. The segments, 
always the earliest, show a limited growth and often conclude with a 
papilliform terminal cell. 

In the filiform rudiment, the lateral origin of the later flat structure, 
and the formation of segments with limited growth, the ferns investi- 
gated show a remarkable homology with the development of the mosses. 
We may regard the thread-like rudiment as a protonema stage, and the 
papilla-like ends of the segments as structures homologous with the 
leaf -ends of the Muscineae. 

Tropical American Ferns. f — C. A. M. Lindman gives an account 
of the ferns collected by him during the first Regnell Expedition 
(1892-4) in Brazil and Paraguay, and of those collected by Regnell, 
Mosen and others, thirty to fifty years ago. In all he records 209, sixteen 
of which, with three varieties and nine forms, are new. Having 
examined Swartz's types at Stockholm, he has revived several old 
species which had been misunderstood or quite forgotten. This has 
involved change of nomenclature and synonymy. He has followed the 
general lines of Hooker's Synopsis Filicum. Finding the old descrip- 
tions too elastic and indefinite, he pleads that they be made more exact, 
and hence more helpful to collectors in enabling them to appreciate rare 
species, which run the risk of being disregarded as mere forms of 
common species too loosely defined. 

Trichomanes (sect. Didymoglossum)4 — C. A. M. Lindman publishes 
critical notes on the American species of Didymoglossum Desv., a section 
of the genus Trichomanes. Having studied Swartz's little-known types 
in the Stockholm Museum, he is able to correct the erroneous con- 
ceptions which Hooker, Greville, and others, formed of the species 
T. apodum, muscoides, reptans, quercifolkim, etc., and to amend the con- 
fusion that has consequently arisen. He has carefully re-described the 
original specimens, and, as words are insufficient to give an accurate 
idea of such difficult plants, he has found it indispensable to add a 
number of camera-lucida drawings to prevent future misunderstanding. 

* SB. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturwiss. CI. ex. (1901) pp. 479-505(7 pis.)- 
t Arkiv. for Botanik. Stockholm, i. (1903) pp. 187-275 (8 pis.). 
j Tom. cit., pp. 7-56 (31 rigs, in text). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 81 

He gives descriptions of thirteen species in all, and three of these are 
new species collected in South America. 

Asplenium Ruta-muraria.* — V. H. Christ has studied the varieties 
and allies of this well-marked but most variable species, and publisher 
a systematic account of the various forms grouped in accordance with 
his views, with descriptions and critical notes and figures. He arranges 
them in four sections — rhomboidea, ellipsoidw, lanceolate/,, cuneata — ■ 
according to the ultimate segments of their leaves. Passing on to the 
consideration of the abnormal forms, exotic forms and allies of A. Ruta- 
muraria, he concludes with a synoptic key to the whole group. 

Linnaeus's System of Ferns.f — L. M. Underwood criticises 
Linnaeus's treatment of the ferns, especially those of America, in the 
Species Plantar urn (1753), and shows that he was not the originator of 
binominal nomenclature. His conception of the genera was, with a 
few exceptions, far different from those of the present day. His fern- 
system was crude even for the time at which it was published, as is 
evidenced by the unnatural groupings under Osmunda, Acrostichum, 
and Polypodium. The greater number of his species were compiled 
from books and plates. His herbarium is of comparatively little value 
for the determination of his types. A small part only are represented 
by specimens, often scrappy — mere tips of leaves, often sterile. His 
types must very largely depend on the plates and descriptions of ea lier 
writers quoted by him. 

Bars alt, E. — Nota sul Polypodium vulgare L. (Note on Poh/podiam vulgarelj.) 
[Describes a waxy coating excreted by the exposed rhizoinu to protect itself 
fiom desiccation in hot climates.] 

Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital, 1903, pp. 119-21. 
Lyon, F. M. — Two megasporangia in Selaginella. 

[Occurrence of two normal megasporangia on one sporophyll in Selaginella 
ritpestris.] Bot. Gazette, xxxvi. (1903) p. 30S (fig. in text;. 

Bryophyta. 

Fossil British Mosses.:}: — 0. Reid gives a list of ten mosses ob- 
tained from a glacial fresh-water stratum, reached at a depth of GO feet, 
during the sinking of a well at Mundesley in Norfolk. They were 
identified by H. N. Dixon, who reports that tne bulk of the deposit 
consisted of Hypnum turyesce/is, a boreal moss which was not known 
to grow in the British Isles, but was discovered on Ben Lavvers in 
July 1902. With it were H. capillifolium and H. Richardsoni, neither 
of which are members of the existing British flora. A variety of H. 
polygamum occurred in some quantity. 

North American Species of Leskea.§ — G. N. Best publishes a 
revision of Leskea, a genus now much restricted as compared with its 
earlier dimensions. The name Leskea may have to be transferred if 
the strictest rules of nomenclature are applied to it. Accepting L. poly- 
carpa as the type of the genus, he ranges the species under two sub- 

* Hedwigia, xlii. (1903) pp. 153-77 (4 pis.). 

t Tonvya, id. (19u:s) pp. 145-50. 

% Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc, vii. (1902; pp. 290-S. 

§ Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxx. (1903) pp. 463-82 (2 pis.). 

Feb. 17th, 1904 G 



82 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

genera, EnJesTcea and Hetcroleskea, each containing five species, the 
former with papillose leaves, the latter with smooth. He gives careful 
descriptions of the species and varieties, with critical notes, synonymy 
and good figures. The novelties are two species and four varieties. 

Bryology of the Tuscan Archipelago.* — A. Beguinot in the winter 
of 1897-8 studied the Muscinese of the Tuscan archipelago, and gives 
lists for the islands as follows : Giannutri, 27 mosses, 9 hepatics ; 
Giglio, 108 mosses, 45 hepatics ; Montecristo, 49 mosses, 23 hepatics ; 
Pianosa, 32 mosses, 17 hepatics ; Elba, 182 mosses, 54 hepatics ; Capraia„ 

83 mosses, 33 hepatics ; Gorgona, 59 mosses, 13 hepatics. The total 
for the archipelago is 17G species of mosses and Gl species of hepatics- 
The geographical distribution of the mosses is worked out at con- 
siderable length, and the species are divided into four groups : (1) ten 
species which are cosmopolitan ; (2) eighty-three which are not cosmo- 
politan, but widely distributed in and outside Europe ; (3) fifty-four 
which are widely distributed in southern and middle Europe and in 
other continents ; (4) twenty-eight more or less widely distributed in 
southern (and western) Europe and outside the continent. The actual 
distribution is detailed for each species. The comparative floras of 
various countries and regions, and past and present geological conditions, 
climate, etc., are fully discussed ; also the conditions of growth required 
by the species themselves. An attempt is made to explain the floras, 
of the Tuscan islands in terms of these factors. The geographical dis- 
tribution of the hepatics is not discussed owing to lack of satisfactory 
data for comparison. The paper ends with a tabulated list of the species, 
and varieties that constitute the bryological flora of the archipelago. 

European Mosses in the Himalayas.f — E. Levier calls attention 
to the want of a work of reference giving the geographical distribution 
and zones of altitude of the mosses of the world : and, as a contribu- 
tion towards such a work, he has compiled from his carefully labelled 
herbarium a catalogue of 1G2 European mosses which occur in the 
Himalayas, with their exact localities and altitudes in the latter region. 
These mosses were collected by J. F. Duthie and his assistants, and 
determined by V. F. Brotherus. 

North American Mosses. $ — E. G. Britton publishes some notes on 
Splachnum, especially with reference to the curious umbrella-shaped apo- 
physis of the sporophyte of *S'. rubrum and S. luteum. J.M. Holzinger§ 
reports on some well preserved fossil mosses from Iowa, extracted from 
a deposit five to ten thousand years old — Hypnum fluitans, H. re- 
volvens, and //. Richardsoni. A. J. Grout || gives the results of some 
exhaustive examinations of the colonies of mosses occurring in selected 
areas of a few square feet ; for example, an old pear tree, an old log in 
a deep moist wood, a sandy field, a road cutting, an old stone wall. To 
his surprise, these yielded several species which he had never gathered 
before. R. S. Williams If publishes a list of 382 mosses gathered by 
himself in the State of Montana, between 188G and 1897. Three new 

* Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital., x. (1903) pp. 285-332, 423-530. 

t Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital., 1903, pp. 105-14. 

% Bryolo-ist, vi. (1903) pp. 91-3 (1 pi.). 

§ Tom. oit.. pn. 93-4. ' || Tom. cit , pp. 94-6. 

^ Lull. New Yoik Pot. GarcUn, ii. (1903) pp. 351-80 (6 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 83 

species are described, and these and three other rare species are figured 
in detail. Some critical notes are appended to the more difficult species. 
R. S. Williams * gives a list of 230 mosses collected by him in the 
Yukon territory during a residence of more than a year (1898-9). A 
new genus with one new species, Bryobrittonia pellucida, closely related 
to Tortula and Desmatodon, is established ; and ten other new species 
are described. Numerous critical notes are interspersed. B. M. Britton f 
records the first discovery of the rare Buxbaumia indusiata in New 
England. It occurred in quantity on a rotten log of poplar at Surry, 
New Hampshire. It is usually found as a saprophyte on decayed coni- 
ferous logs. It is known from four other localities in the United 
States. J. F. Collins % publishes some critical and distributional notes 
on Hypnum Richardsoni, Anacamptodon splachnoides, Catoscopium 
nigritum, and other mosses in connection with the New England flora. 

South American Mosses.§ — P. Dusen gives an account of the 
Sphagnacea? and Andrea3acea3 collected by himself and by 0. Norden- 
skjold and F. W. Neger in the neighbourhood of the Straits of Magellan, 
in west Patagonia and south Chili, with descriptions and figures of 
seven new species and two new varieties, and critical notes as to their 
affinities. The Sphagnaceae attain their highest development in the 
regions of the deciduous and evergreen forests ; of the commoner 
forms two varieties of S. medium form bogs, and a variety of & 
fimbriatum occurs in large loose cushions in open country. 

Germination of Liver-worts. || — E. Lampa publishes some well 
illustrated studies on the germination of Preissia, Reboulia, Plagio- 
chasma, FegateUa, Fossombronia and Anthoceros from their spores, and 
considers that the development of the sexual generation can be divided 
into several stages. The germ-tube is a protonema usually of limited 
growth. The rudiment of the stem arises from segmentation of the 
terminal cell, the apical cell arising from the third segment, the plan of 
this process resembling that of moss-gemma3. The embryo is highly 
sensitive to the direction and intensity of the incident light. Leaves 
do not appear in Anthoceros, and are more or less rudimentary in 
Marchantiacese. In FegateUa, though absent in the rudimentary stage,, 
they appear later as under-leaves. Three rows of well-developed leaves 
are produced in the vertically growing Haplomitrium. They are present 
in other Jungermanniaceas. Anthoceros holds a leading position in 
virtue of its highly developed asexual generation, though the sexual 
generation appears very reduced as compared with the Jungermanniaceae, 
the Marchantiacea3 occupying an intermediate position. In the rudi- 
ment of the stem are signs of reduction which approach the typical 
development of the moss-stem. 

Development of Riella.1T— M. P. Porsild gives the results of his 
investigations of this aquatic genus. Starting with a historical and 
geographical survey of the species, he supplies a comparative table of 

* Bull. New York Bot. Garden, ii. (1903) pp. 105-48 (10 pis.), 
f Bhodora, v. (1903) pp. 257-S. \ Tom. cit., pp. 199-201. 

§ Arkiv. lor Botanik. Stockholm, i. (1903) pp. 441-65 (11 pis.). 
I| SB. Akad. Wiss. Wien, cxi. (1902) pp. 477-89 (5 pis). 
If Flora, xcii. (1903) pp. 431-^6 (8 figs, in text). 

G 2 



84 SUMMARY OF CUBKENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the spore-measurements, calling attention to the vitality and floating- 
capacity of the spores, which for germination require good light ; in 
cultivating them he succeeded best by employing their native mud, and 
he noticed that the fronds arranged themselves parallel to the incident 
light. He describes the first stages of development, in which he could 
find no trace of an apical cell. Gemmre he found in the Central Asiatic 
E. Paulsenii ; these rise to the surface, and float until their stores of fat 
are used up in growth. As the result of germination of spores, gemmae, 
etc., a primordial lobe (protonema) is produced, the growth of which 
ceases at the apex, and a meristematic growing-point is formed near 
the base at one or both edges, which as it develops pushes aside the 
primordial lobe and forms on one side the stem and leaves, and on the 
other the dorsal wing and reproductive organs. In species of vertical 
habit, the stem and dorsal wing are from the first vertical. The growing 
point is thus intercalary and meristematic. As a general rule there is 
no apical cell, even up to a late stage ; sometimes, however, in strongly 
developed plants of the larger species, a wedge-shaped apical cell occurs 
at the point of junction of stem and wing, and throws off segments 
upwards to the wing and downwards to the stem, but only the wing- 
segments can be recognised for any length of time. The normal 
absence of an apical cell indicates the primitive character of the genus. 
The oil-bodies situated along the margin of the frond possibly serve to 
protect the plant from being eaten by animals. No fresh details as to 
the reproductive organs were observed, but in the sporogonium some 
of the cells which fail to become spore-mother-cells persist as stores of 
starch. As to the E. Jhelkophylla, the beautiful helicoid growth figured 
in the Flore (V Alger ie is no exaggeration, and may be a result of growth 
in subdued light in deep w 7 ater (Goebel) ; and the tufts of rhizoids 
shown as springing from knots at the base of the stem are germinations 
from spores in semi-decayed sporangia. E. Parisii, a floating species, 
is peculiar in its habit. 

Riella capensis sp. n.* — F. Cavers describes and figures this new 
species, obtained from dried mud, which had been gathered from a pond 
at Port Elizabeth for the sake of the Crustacea contained in it, and 
sent to the Owen's College, Manchester, for cultivation in an aquarium. 
The plant soon made its appearance, and in three months' time was 
found to be in a fruiting state. It is allied to /.'. helieophylla, but 
sufficiently distinct. The author gives full details as to its habit. 

Petalophyllum Ralfsii.| — F. Cavers gives a full description of this 
very rare hepatic, wdiich occurs sparingly in patches of Pallavkinia on 
Coatham Marshes, Yorkshire. It has been gathered only in five British 
and one Italian locality, and always in damp sandy places near the sea. 
It may prove to be identical with the Algerian Fossombronia corbulce- 
formis. The author describes in detail and figures the structure of the 
gametophyte, and calls attention to the marked occurrence of mycorhiza 
in the ventral zone of the thallus, and to the formation of tubers much 
resembling those described in the Californian Geothallus tnberoxus. 



'& 



* Etev. Brvol , xsx. (1903) pp. 81-4 (1 pi.). 

f The Xatuialist, 11)03, pp. 327-34 (li-s. in text). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 85 

The sexual organs and sporogonium agree closely with those of Fos- 
sombronia. 

Yukon Hepatics.* — M. A. Howe gives a list of 24 hepatics, col- 
lected by R. S. Williams in the Yukon territory in 1898-9. It contains 
one new species, Scapania imbrkata, one species new to North America, 
five new to Alaska, and two or three of great rarity. 

A it nell, H. W. — Martinellia calcicola Arnell et Persson sp. nov. 
[Description of a new Swedish hepatic] 

Rev. Bryol. xxx. (1903) pp. 97-8. 
Bagnall, J. E. — The Mosses and Hepaticae of Worcestershire. 

[List of 283 mosses and 65 hepatics, with numerous varieties.] 

Journ. ofBot., xli. (1903) pp. 360-71, 388-97. 

Bar sal i, E. — Una breve escursione al Monte Argentario. (A short trip to Monte 
Aigentnrio.) 

[Contains a list of 29 additions to the local moss-flora, six of which have never 
before been recorded for the Tuscan archipelago.] 

Bull. Soc. Rot. Ilal, 1903, pp. 149-52. 
Bliss, M. C. — The occurrence of two venters in the archegonium of Polytrichum 
juniperinum. 

[The egg-cell occupying the upper venter represents the first neck-canal-cell.] 

But. Gazette, xxxvi. (1903) pp. 141-2 (fig. iu text). 

Bomansson, J. 0.— Brya nova. 

[Descriptions of ten new species of Bryum collected in Finland.] 

Rev. Bryol. xxx. (1903) pp. 85-89, 98-100. 

Culm ann, P. — Notes bryologiques snrlesflores du canton de Zurich etdes environs 
de Paris. (Bryological notes on the floras of Canton Zurich and of the vicinity of 
Pans ) 

[Annotated list of 27 hepatics and 10 mosses from near Zurich, and five from 
a suburb of Paiis.] Rev. Bryol, xxx. (1903) pp. 89-92. 

Jensen, C. — Fire for Norge nye Sphagnum- Arter. (Four species of Sphagnum new 
to Norway.) h'yt. Magazinfor Naturvidenslc, xl. (190:5) pp. 119-21. 

Lett, H. W. — Some Mosses and Hepatics of South Donegal. 

[List of 1 15 mosses and 73 hepatics gathered in two days on Slievo League, a 
rich locality.) Journ. of Bot., xli. (1903) pp. 356-9. 

L ill ie, D.— Anew British Hepatic. 

[Describes Jungermannia Kaurini Liurpr., and its first discovery in Britain, at 
Caithness.] Journ. of Bot., xli. (1903) pp. 363-4. 

Macvicab, Symers M. — Anthoceros dichotomus in Britain. 

[Contains a description of this Mediterranean plant and of its first finding 
in Britain. The species is remarkable for its tubers.] 

Journ. of Bot., xli. (1903) pp 347-8. 

Paris, E. G. — Muscinees de Madagascar (4° article). 

[Eighteen mosses, three described as new, and two new hepatics undescribed. 

_ Rev. Bryol., xxx. (1903) pp. 93-5. 
„ „ Muscinees de l'Afrique occidentale francaise. 

[List of 20 mosses and one hepatic from French West Africa, with descrip- 
tions of aeven new species.] Rev. Bryol., xxx. (1903) pp. 101-4. 
Podpera, J. — Miscellen zur Kenntnis der Europaischen Arten der Gattung Bryum. 
(Additions to our knowledge of the European species of the genus Bryum.) 

[Contains descriptions of three new Sardinian species and three new varieties, 
together with notes on a number of critical forms.] 

Beth. z. Bot. Centralbl. xv. (1903) pp. 4S3-92. 

Roth, G. — Die Europaischen Laubmoose. 

[Gives descriptions and fia;ure-i of all the mosses of Europe.] 

Leipzig, Engelmann, 1903, i. pp. 129-381 ; tabb. viii.-xxvi., xlix. 



* Bull. New York Bot. Garden, ii. (1901) pp. 101-5 (1 pi.). 



8G SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Sebille, E. — Nouvelles observations sur Gastero^rimmia poecilostoma (Cardot et 
Sebille). 

[Description of tlio male plant, and distribution of this moss-species in 
Dauphine.j Rev. Bryol , xxx. (1903) pp. 105-0. 

The riot, J. — Brachythecium populeum (Hedw.) Br. Eur. var Levieri, var. nov. 
[Description of a moss gathered at Uormio.] 

Bull. Soc. But. Ital, 1903, p. 220. 

Thallophyta. 
Algae. 

Polymorphism of Algse.* — A. Hansgirg adds a final note to his 
work on this subject, pointing out the inevitable necessity for a thorough 
reform in the systematic classification of algae, and maintains that the 
study of " pure cultures " of algae, advocated by Klebs as a necessary 
preliminary to such reform, will only lead to error. He gives a list of 
papers bearing on this subject, which have appeared since the publication 
of his paper, ' On the Polymorphism of Alga?,' in 1893. 

Fossil Algae.f — P. Fliche records some additions to the genera of 
fossil algae, which, from their resemblance to modern genera, he names 
Chordites, Lomentarites, and Cystoseirites Sternb. (emend.). Each is 
represented by a single species. Lomentarites was found in the Gres 
Vigarre, at Merviller-Vacqueville, the other in the Muschelk.-superieure, 
at Chauffontaine and Sainte-Anne, near Luneville. They were all very 
abundantly represented. Four other species from the Muschelkalk have 
been named Algae ites, since the author cannot with certainty place them 
near any existing genus, though he has no doubt as to their algal nature. 

B. Renault publishes a note on the algae which form " Boghead," 
in which he states that this formation in the northern hemisphere is 
characterised by the presence of Pila ; Reinsehia occurs everywhere in 
the southern hemisphere ; Thylax britannicus is the principal constituent 
of British Boghead, and Cladiscothallus that of the Moscow beds. Every 
important stratum can be recognised by the algae of which it is formed. 

Algae in Public Water-supplies.:}:— G.T.Moore reports on the con- 
tamination of reservoirs and cress-beds by fresh-water algae. Spirogyra 
uives considerable trouble in a mechanical way by smothering the young 
water-cress plants, and it also forms a thick heavy mat over the surface 
of the water, thus preventing the growth of even the older plants. The 
Schizophyceae are very commonly the cause of pollution in drinking- 
water, especially the genera Olathrocystis, Anabana which produces a 
polluting oil, and Oscillatoria. Diatomaceae, notably the genus Aste- 
rionella, play a prominent part in the pollution of water, as also members 
of the group Syngeneticeae. The author mentions as methods of pre- 
vention of such pollution : the covering over of reservoirs, since light is 
favourable to algal growth ; the keeping of both source of supply and 
reservoir as free as possible from organic matter ; and the aeration of 
water by pumping, fountains, or some sort of spraying apparatus. The 

* Beibl. Bot. Jahrb. xxxii. No. 72 (1903) pp. 1-3. 

t Comptes Rendiis, exxxvi. (1903) pp. 827-9, 1340-3 (6 figs.). 

t Year Book Dept. Agricult. U.S.A. (1902) pp. 175-80. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 87 

last method is, however, beneficial rather than harmful to certain forms 
of polluting algae, and may, therefore, do more harm than good. A 
new remedy is being tried, and has so far proved successful ; but the 
author waits for the result of further trials before detailing the process. 
This pollution by algas renders water extremely unpleasant, though not 
actually poisonous. 

Thames Plankton.* — F. E. Fritsch continues his investigations on 
this subject, and compares his results with those of Schroder and Brunn- 
thaler on the Oder and Danube respectively. In the Thames there is 
a well-marked living plankton all the year round, while in the two 
continental rivers there is an almost entire absence of plankton in the 
winter. A table is given showing the periodicity of Thames plankton, 
which may be summarised thus : mixed plankton — Melosira — Synedra 
— mixed plankton. Aster ionella forms a minor phase during the winter 
months. The periodic distribution of forms is not by any means the 
same as that of the Oder or the Danube, but the author considers that 
the periodicity of the Thames plankton may vary in different portions of 
the river's course. The plankton of four backwaters was also examined, 
namely, Molesey, Sunbury, Walton and Shepperton ; and the results 
are given in the form of tables, together with a comparison with the 
plankton of the main stream. Though there is a considerable difference 
both in quality and quantity, the backwaters have far more of a river 
than a pond-plankton. 

Scottish Fresh-water Plankton.j — W. West and G. S. West give 
the result of their examination of the plankton of some lochs in various 
parts of Scotland. They divide their paper into four sections. The 
first is an Introduction, which deals with previous literature on British 
fresh-water plankton, and contains remarks on the present collection and 
the method of obtaining it. In Section II. the various lochs examined 
are described geographically, and notes are given on the animal plank- 
ton which was collected with the algae. Two tables follow, one of which 
enumerates the species from eleven lochs taken in summer and autumn, 
and the other deals with a few small collections made in the south of 
Scotland during the spring. Section III. consists of a systematic account 
of the most interesting species in the preceding plankton collections. 
This is almost entirely confined to Desmids, of which six new species and 
some new varieties are described. An interesting record is Staurastrwii 
verticillatum Archer, no figure of which has hitherto been published ; since 
the so-called figure of it in Cooke's BritisJi Desmids, 188G, tab. CI, fig. 3, 
does not represent this species. The general conclusions of the authors 
form the contents of Section IV. They find that the Scottish plankton 
differs considerably from that of the western parts of continental 
Europe. It is unique in the abundance of its Desmids, of which the 
most conspicuous are of a type confined almost exclusively to the 
extreme western and north-western shore districts of Europe and North 
America. The commonest and most abundant species are invariably 
those of the genus Staurastrum, principally S. Ophiura, S. Aretiseon, ar.d 

* Ann. Bot., xvii. (1903) pp. 631-47. 

t Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot., xxxv. (1903) pp. 519-50 (5 pis.). 



88 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

S. grande. There are very few free-swimming Protococcoidete. The 
majority of the species of Staufastrum and Arthrodesmus are remarkable 
for their long spines or long processes with spinate apices, and this 
characteristic holds good throughout the entire plankton. The most 
striking diatoms are Asterionella gracillima, Tabellaria fenestrata var. 
asterionelloides, and forms of Surirella robusta. The plankton is richer 
in species in late summer and autumn than in the spring. 

Phytoplankton from Brandenburg Lakes.*— E. Lemmermann con- 
tinues the publication of his investigations into the phytoplankton of 
the Muggelsee and other neighbouring waters. His results are first 
presented in the form of tables or lists for each month from May to Sep- 
tember 1897, and from June 1898 to May 1899, with details concerning 
the temperature of air and water, the wind, the presence or absence of 
sunshine, etc., on the specified days. Then follow deductions from the 
tables as to the development of the plankton flora during these two 
periods of investigation, tracing the maximum of various groups and 
species. Finally, lists are given, arranged systematically, of all the 
species hitherto recorded from the Muggelsee, and eleven other lakes and 
waters. 

Plankton of Hallstatter See.f — K. von Keissler, in a paper on this 
subject, records five species of Chlorophycere and three of Bacillariacese, 
with indications of the seasonal distribution of each species. 

Norwegian Phytoplankton.^— C. H. Ostenfcld publishes a list of 
43 plankton algae found by him in two lakes in the Rendalen district, 
Lomnaessjon and Harsjon. He finds that the algae of the former lake 
are much the same as those recorded from the forest lakes of Lappmark, 
and include Dinobryon (which is predominant), Tabellaria fenestrata, 
T. floeculosa and Aster ionella formosa. Myxophyceae and Peridiniacea? 
are entirely absent, and the Chlorophyceae are rare. The phytoplankton 
of Lake Harsjon is rather rich, and differs entirely from that of Lom- 
naeesjon, but resembles strikingly that of Swiss lakes. The author adds 
critical notes to tAvelve of the species recorded. 

Russian Fresh-water Algae.§— L. Iwanoff gives an account of the 
vegetation growing in and around certain lakes, especially Lake Bologoje. 
The first chapter of his work contains a physical and geographical 
description of that lake, with a list of the diatoms which help to 
compose the thick mud at the bottom. The second chapter deals with 
the distribution of the vegetation in Lake Bologoje, and the subject is 
treated in some detail. The third chapter contains a list of 438 alg&> 
from nine other Russian lakes. In the fourth are given diagnoses of 
new species, and remarks on species already existing which present points 
of special interest. Among these may be mentioned the division of the 
monad of Uroglena volvoz Ehrcnb., which is here described for the first 
time. The fifth chapter is devoted to a study of 'Algae-formations,' 

* Zeitscli. f. Fischerei, xi. (1903) pp. 7.3-123 (figs, in icxi). 
f Yerliandl. k. k. Z< ol. But. Gesell. Wicn, liii. (1903) PP- 33S-4S. 
I Bot. Ti.lssk., xxv. (1903) pp. '235-41. 

§ V.d. biol. Station Uologoju d. Kais St. Pet. Nsifurfv., ii. (1T02) 152 pp. Sco 
also Bot. Centralbl., xciii.(!903) pp. 379 87. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 89 

the Aerophilae, Geophihe, Reophike, or those that inhabit running water, 
Magmaphilre, or tuft-forming alga:, Paludophilse, Phytoplankton, and 
finally, those that live at the bottom of lakes, etc. Tables are given 
showing the Desmids and other alga3 which live in bogs, composed of 
Sphagnum or Hypnum respectively. The paper is written in Russian. 

" Flowering " of North American Lakes.* — Marshall A. Howe 
describes an alga which appears in great quantities at Honnedaga Lake, 
Herkimer County, New York, and appears to be Gloiotrkliia echinidata 
P. Richt. The same plant occurs freely at Chilson Lake, Essex County, 
Avhere it forms small colonies, which are usually spherical. No spores 
were found, but the resemblance between these plants and those from 
the Plon Station, in Germany (No. 587, PhyTcotheka universalis of Hauck 
and Richter), is so great, that there is little doubt as to their identity. 
The Lake Chilson specimens show a greater development of terminal 
hairs than those figured in Hauck and Richter (1. a), but the hairs vary 
with the age of the colony, and in some stages they may be entirely 
wanting. The colonies multiply by means of hormogonia. The author 
makes remarks on the " flowering " of other American lakes and on the 
synonomy of Gloiotrkliia echinulata. 

New England Desmids.j — J. A. Cushman records 30 species of 
Desmids found by him in Steep Brook, Massachusetts, about three miles 
north of Fall river railway station. Staurastrum was well represented 
in the collection. Notes on the measurements and other points of special 
interest follow each species' name, and a bibliography of New England 
Desmids completes the first of a series of papers on this subject. 

The second paper gives two lists of Desmids from New England, one 
locality being in Massachusetts, the other in Maine. The first contains 
20 species, the second 25 species, both lists including records formerly 
doubtful. 

Fresh-water Algae from Brazil and Paraguay.} — 0. Borge has 
worked out the collection of Desmidiacea? brought home by the Regnell 
Expedition, and publishes the results, including descriptions of 28 new 
species and some new varieties. A list of 55 localities is given, of 
which 44 are in Brazil, and the remainder in Paraguay. 

The same author records eleven species of Zygnemaceas and Meso- 
carpaceaa from the same collection, including two new species, Spirogyra 
paraguayensis and Gonatonema splmrospora. 

Diatoms New to the Hull Districts — R. H. Philip adds some 
new records to the diatoms already known from this part. The rock 
pools at Filey, and the flats east of Cleethorpes on the Lincolnshire 
coast, have yielded good material. The most interesting find was 
Surirella medulka Per., from a ditch in the low-lying country between 
the wold i and the Market "Weighton canal, called Hotham Carrs. 
Some of the frustules show an indentation on one side of the valve, 
and a specimen of this form is figured, together with a typical specimen. 
Many other species are figured in a plate. 

• Torreya, iii. (1903) pp. 150-4. f Rhodora, v. (1903) pp. 221-5, 252-5. 

X Arkiv. Bot. Stockholm, i. (1903) pp. 71-138, 277-86 (pis. 1-5, 15). 

§ Trans. Hull tfci. & Field Nat. Club, iii. (1903) pp. 110-14 (pi. xi., rip. in text). 



90 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Diatoms and Plankton from the Faeroes.* — E. Oestrup enumerates 
182 species from these islands. The material at his disposal consisted 
of the collections of Borgesen and Helgi Jonsson, and included 136 
gatherings from different localities. The following genera are the most 
characteristic of the whole : Amphipleura, Cocconeis, Fragilaria, Gom- 
yhonema, Grammatopliora, Licmophora, Navicula, and Synedra. A list 
is given of the species most frecptently found in localities exposed to 
the open sea, and it is pointed out that there exists no slight resemblance 
between the genera characteristic of the Faeroes and of Greenland. 

C. H. Ostenfeld gives a list, accompanied by critical notes, of 54 
diatoms found in the marine plankton round the Faeroes. Tables are 
also drawn up giving for each species the locality, date, temperature C°, 
and salinity pro mille. Notes are given on the geographical distribution 
of the species. An account of the Peridiniaceas is included. 

Foslie, M. — New Species or Forms of Melobesieae. 

[The author describes four new species of these coralline algae, and four new 
forms of already existing species. They all occur on the western coast 
of North America.] K. Norslce Vidensh. Sets. Shrift., 1902, No. 2, 11 pp. 

Karsten, G. — Zur Frage der Auxosporentypen. (On the types of auxospores.) 

[A criticism on Meretckkowsky's views concerning auxospore formation. 
Among other points, the author denies that auxospores are entirely a 
condition of growth, and maintains that the periods of the first auxospore 
formation and those of its growth are quite distinct.] 

Bot. Zeit., ii. (1903) pp. 306-11. 

Pa ji pal on i, L. — Sopra un singolare modo di comportarsi di un' alga, allorche 
venga coltivata in determinate sostanze nutritizie. Nota preliminare. (Pre- 
liminary note on the curious behaviour of an alga when cultivated on certain 
nutritious substances.) 

[Cultivation of Protococcus calda riorum-'] 

Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital, x. (1903) pp. G02-5 (with figs, in text). 

Pekagallo, H.—Diatomees marines de France. (Marine diatoms of France.) 

[A continuation of a former paper, and describes fifteen species and three 
varieties of Campylodiscm.~] 

Le Micrographe Prcparatcur, >.i. (199") pp. 18G-9. 

Tilden, J. E. — Algae collecting in the Hawaiian Islands. 
[An account of the author's experiences.] 

Postehia, 1902, pp. 135-75. 

De Toni, G. B., & Achille Fokti — Pugillo di Diatomee bentoniche del Lago 
Ngebel (Giava). (Small collection of Benthon-Diatoms from Lake Ngebel, in 
Java.) 

[List of 24 diatoms, with notes and bibliography.] 

Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital, 1903, pp. 133-41. 



Fungi. 

New Chytridinea9,t — F. E. Fritsch has found parasitic on a fresh- 
water alga two species of RestkuJaria, one of them already recorded by 
Dangeard, the other new to science, which he names R. Boodlei. The 
fungus occupies the cells of the host from which hyphse pass out into the 
open, branching and forming spores. No zoospores were seen. 

* Bot. of the Faeroes, pt. ii. (1903) pp. 533-611. 
t Ann. Bot., xvii. (1903) pp. 649-G4 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICEOSCOPV, ETC. 91 

Basidiobolus Lacertae.* — W. Loewenthal found the spores of this 
fungus in the intestine of the lizard. Germination was easily induced 
either in distilled or tap water. The spores grew out into a short 
septate filament, or a slight pseudotissue was formed. The vegetative 
cells were all nucleate. Zygospores are formed by the fusion of the 
nuclei of two neighbouring cells. The process is somewhat similar to 
that observed in B. Ranarum. The writer considers that the fungus 
reproduces itself in the lizard, as he found other types of spores smaller 
in size. 

Research on the Genus Streptothrix.j — L. Petri found a form of 
Streptothrix growing on the roots of Fragaria. He isolated it and 
made cultures and reinfected other healthy plants. The Str&ptothrix 
grew very sparingly, and did not impair the healthiness of the host- 
plant. Petri therefore concluded that it was only a saprophyte. The 
cells in which it was found were empty of contents and dark in colour. 
The writer takes occasion to review the affinities of Str&ptothrix. He 
gives a list of known species and records the results of his cultures. 
He calls special attention to the formation of vesicles laterally on the 
filaments. They are not conidial in their nature, and development of 
the filament ceases when they are formed. He compares them with the 
clavate formation of Actinomyces. They are formed of a mucilaginous 
substance the nature of which is not determined, and are presumably 
to be regarded as a degenerative process of the filament. 

Note on Phycomycetes4 — M. Henning Eiler Petersen records the 
fungal flora he found on the chrysalis of caddis-worms. There were a 
number of oomycetes, their presence doubtless being due to the nutritive 
quality of the substratum. The absence of hairs seems to allow the 
development of the sporangia of various Chytridinese. Besides forms 
already known he records three new genera of that order : Rhizo- 
closmetium with branching hair-like mycelium and globose sporangium ; 
Asterophlgctis, with a somewhat hemispherical sporangium studded with 
protuberances, but akin to the previous genus ; and Siphonaria, near 
to the genus Obelidium and distinguished by the thick-walled empty- 
looking rhizoids. 

Contribution to our Knowledge of Peronosporese.§ — A disease of 
cucumbers occurring in the Twer Government was indentified by 
S. J. Rostowzen as similar to that caused by the fungus Plasmopara 
cubensis, and hitherto found only in America. He gives an account 
of the damage done by the disease, and devotes attention to the fungus 
itself. The conidia, which are borne on branched conidiophores, like 
those of Peronospora, are violet-grey in colour, and have at the tip a 
colourless papilla which is characteristic of species of Plasmopara, and 
on germimtion they form zoospores, also a feature of Plasmopara. 
This peculiarity had already been noted by Humphrey, who considered 
the fungus in question a transition form between the two genera. 

* Archiv. f. Protistenkunde, ii. (1903) pp. 364-420. See also Bot. Zeit., lxi. (19C3) 
|'p. 326-7. t Nuovo. Giom. Hot. Ital., x. (1903) pp. 585-601 (2 figs.). 

X Journ. ile Bot. xvii. (1903) pp. 214-22 (17 figs ). 
§ Flora, xoii. (19l 3) pp. 40. r -25 (3 pis.). 



92 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Uostowzen found that in the plant he was examining:, the conidia 
formed zoospores or they germinated by a tube. He places it under 
a new genus, Pseudoperonospora, and, as it differs slightly from the 
species cubensis first described by Berkeley and Curtis, he designates 
it as var. tweriensis. 

Studies on the Fertilisation of Albugo Lepigoni and some 
Peronosporeae.* — W. Ruhland records the results of his research on 
several forms of Oomycetes. Albugo Lepigoni grew on Spergida marina ; 
the oogonia developed rather plentifully towards the end of the vege- 
tative period. In the young oogonium there are some 60 to 90 nuclei 
present. These increase in size and the first mitosis takes place, 
simultaneously in the oogonium and the antheridium. The chromo- 
somes, about four or five in number, were extremely small and evidently 
round in form. At a further stage the nuclei wander towards the 
periphery of the oogonium ; other divisions must take place though 
they were not followed in detail, but the number of nuclei increased to 
o00 or 450. The latter stages of division show a much smaller spindle. 
Meanwhile the ccenocentrum had appeared towards the centre of the 
oogonium. It absorbs the surrounding plasma and increases to a rela- 
tively large size. The female nucleus attaches itself to the ccenocentrum, 
and after division and degeneration of the resulting daughter nucleus 
it is joined by the male nucleus from the antheridium, and both enter 
the ccenocentrum, which gradually disappears as the nuclei increase in 
size. They show a very fine spirem stage, then fusion takes place and 
subsequent division, the dividing nucleus resembling the first karyo- 
kinesis in the oogonium, with the same number of chromosomes. By 
repeated division, some seventy to eighty nuclei are formed, and the 
oogonium becomes surrounded by a thick exospore formed from the 
periplasm. 

In Peronospora Alsinwrum the nuclei of the oogonium divided only 
once, and the " period of zonation," when all the nuclei had travelled 
to the periphery, lasted a considerable time. A ccenocentrum appeared 
here also. Fusion of the two nuclei was delayed for a considerable 
time till after the exospore was formed, 

ficlerospora graminicola provided an immense number of oogonia. 
These contained few nuclei. The spindle formed in mitosis was very 
large, and the chromosomes had a U shape. Xo ccenocentrum was 
present, and probably owing to this the male nucleus remains for some 
time at a distance from the female nucleus. The different stages are 
described in detail. 

In Plasmopara densa the development largely resembles that of 
iSderosjwra. There is no ccenocentrum, and in both forms the periplasm 
is drawn into the oospore, and the exospore is consequently of a slighter 
structure. 

The writer concludes by reviewing the work done on all the forms of 
Albugo. He finds a regular gradation of forms from Albugo Bliti, in 
which a large number of female nuclei fused Avith male nuclei, to 
A. Lepigoni, where only one is present. The receptive papilla is also 

* Jahrb. Wiss. Hot., xxxix. (1903) pp. 135-6G (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 93 

less developed, while the ccenocentrum is larger. He compares, finally, 
the development of the Albuginacefe with the Peronsporacese. 

Peronospora on Rheum undulatum.* — A. Osterwalder found that 
the fungus causes small reddish spots on the leaves. The conidiophores 
emerged from the leaf on the under side through the stomata. Oospores 
were not seen, but the writer considers the species to be the same as 
Peronospora pohjgoni. The conidiophores and conidia are of a slightly 
violet colour. 

Biology of Cystopus candidus.f — Albert Eberhardt describes the 
changes brought about in the host-plant by tbe presence of the parasite. 
There was universal hypertrophy and distortion, alteration of form in 
the floral organs, physiological changes in the cell-contents and in the 
cell-forms, etc. He tested by culture experiments the specialisation of 
the parasite, and found that within a limited range of host species the 
conidia from Cystopus would infect easily. With conidia taken from 
T ragopog on prate nsis it was impossible to infect any of the Cruciferae. 

Notes on Syncephalis.^: — Paul Yuillemin records a new species, 
Syncephalis adunca, and makes an examination of the section Curvatce. 
He insists on the autonomy of S. curvatce, which has been included under 
S. cornu, and gives his reasons for doing so. The new species is yellow 
in colour, and the spores occur in chains of four, the enclosing membrane 
(merisporocyste) remains visible up to maturity. Vuillemin places it 
between S. nigricans and S. curvata. 

Zygospore of Mucorini.§ — Paul Vuillemin has studied the process 
of zygospore formation, especially in Sporodinia, with a view to watching 
the fusion of the wall of the gametes. After the two copulatory branches . 
have joined, the end of each remains for a time distinct, forming a 
median wall, and a new layer is then laid down on each side of it and 
on the external walls of the cells. Vuillemin notes that these two layers 
fuse separately, the primitive central wall disappearing first. The later- 
formed layers coalesce into one, to be in turn absorbed in the pro- 
toplasm of the zygospore. 

New Genus of Phacidieae.j] — R. Maire and P. A. Saccardo found a 
minute Discomycete parasitic on the leaves of Juniperus Oxycedrus, 
half covered by the torn epidermis. The fungus had no excipulum, the 
asci were tetrasporous, and the spores two-celled, brown ; characters which 
are found in no existing genus. The writers have named it Didymascella 
Oxycedri, one of the Phacidiere, and ^near to Didymascas in form and 
structure. 

Fertilisation in Ascodesmis.lf — P. A. Dangeard finds at the origin 
of the perithecium, branches of the hypliEe which fuse in pairs, as they 
do in Gymnoascus. The number varies from six to ten for each fruit. 
The two branches, which wind round each other in a spiral, are at first 

* Centralbl. Bakt , x. (1903) pp. 775-7 (3 figs.). f Tom. cit„ pp. G55-6. 

% Ann. Mycol., i. (1903) pp. 420-7 (1 pi.). 
§ Comptes Reudus, cxxxvii. pp. SCO— 71. 
|| Aim. Mycol., i. (1903) pp. 417-19 (4 figs.). 
*j[ Comptes Rendus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp 528-9 



94 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

identical, but one, the ascogonium, gradually becomes richer in contents. 
Both branches are multinucleate, seven or eight nuclei in the ascogonium, 
three or four in the antheridium. A cell is cut off at the tip of the 
ascogonium analogous to the trichogyne of Monascus ; after the separa- 
tion of the trichogyne only four or five nuclei are to be seen in the 
ascogonium, but they are larger, and they furnish, after division, the 
copulatory nuclei of the asci. Dangeard explains the theory of this 
retarded copulation by comparison with the Siphomycetes. He considers 
it to be sexual fertilisation. 

Cytology of Galactinia succosa.*— It. Maire, with a view to elucidate 
the affinity between nuclear evolution in the Ascomycetes and the 
Basidiomycetes, has studied one of the higher Pezizas, Galactinia succosa. 
This species is of interest in having laticiferous elements which are still 
but little known in the Ascomycetes. The author finds that it shows a 
real relationship with the Basidiomycetes from the point of view of its 
nuclear evolution ; the presence of a group of synkaryons before the 
formation of the ascus, places it above the other Ascomycetes : we find here 
the first suggestion of that phase in the life-history, the synharyophyte, 
which plays so important a part in the development in the Basidiomycetes. 

Infection Experiments with Nectria ditissima.f— Bud. Aderhold 
refuses to accept Brzezinski's theories as to the origin of canker in fruit 
trees. The latter had failed to induce canker by infection with Nectria 
spores, but in all cases had done so by injecting Bacterium Mali into the 
trees. By repeated experiments Aderhold has proved that Nectria causes 
the wounds known as canker, not only in apple and pear trees, where it 
is well known, but in cherry trees and plum trees, where its parasitism 
was unsuspected. The writer has found canker wounds on cherry trees 
not due to artificial infection, in all points resembling those induced 
by the introduction of Nectria, but he was unable to find the fruiting 
form of the fungus. He calls for further proof by Brzenzinski of his 
theory before it can be received. 

Morphological and iBiological Researches on Stysanus.J — F. 
Gueguen has come to the conclusion that Stysanus Mandlii is only a 
form of St. Stemonites. From both he developed a similar perithecial 
form, Melanospora siysanophora. The ascus spores were cultivated in 
turn, and produced a form of Acladium, brown chlamydo-spores and 
new perithecia, but Gueguen failed to reproduce the Stysanus form. He 
cultivated also Echinobotryum atrum, so frequently found on Stysanus^ 
He considers it a sessile form of St. ftmetarius. He has classified some 
other forms with St. Stemonites, and thinks that, though usually sapro- 
phytic, it may grow as a true parasite. 

Rhizoctonia violacea.§ — Jakob Eriksson completes his account of 
experiments with this fungus-disease of roots. He had already recorded 
that the parasite can transfer itself to other roots, and that in succeeding 

* Coniptcs Bendus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 769-71. 

f Cenlraibl. Bakt., x. (1903) pp. 763-6. 

% Bull. Soc Mvcol. France, sir. (1903) pp. 217-44 (3 pis.). 

§ Centralbl. Bakt., x (1903) pp. 766-75 (1 pi. and 1 tig.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 95 

generations this power of adaptation grows stronger. He has proved 
that, m the second generation, such an adapted fungus increased greatly 
in vitality and destructive power. The new fungus race is, however, 
less hardy, and succumbs easily to unfavourable weather conditions. 
Lime has proved useless as a fungicide, but Eriksson thinks that carbolic 
lime and petroleum water may prove effective remedies for the disease. 

Experiments with Heteroecius Rusts.* — M. Tranzschel records the 
successful injection of JEcidium Jeucosptermum, from Anemone nemorosa, 
on Sorbus Aucuparia, the uredospores of Ochrospora sorbi developed. 
He further proved the connection of Puccinia on Polygonum amphibii, 
with JE. sanguinolentum on Geranium ; of a Puccinia, on Carex limosa y 
with JE. Trientalis, and of JE. coruscans, on Picea, with a species of 
Chrysomyxa on Ledum palustre. 

Vegetative Form of Yellow Rust.f— Jakob Eriksson has revised 
his work on Mycoplasma, and finds that the bodies which he termed 
" corpuscles speciaux " are not the first visible form of the fungus, as they 
belong to a later stage in its development. He finds, first of all, in the 
cells of the leaf a granular vacuolated substance, which takes a darker 
violet colour when fixed and stained with Flemming, and is the myco- 
plasma. 

When the first spots of rust begin to appear, a plasmic mass is formed 
occupying the tissue between the different sori. It spreads as mycelial 
filaments between the cells, or it occupies the intercellular spaces ; this 
stage he terms protomyceUum. In the third stage the protomycelium 
becomes septate, and forms a pseudoparenchyma, and this is followed by 
the formation of the sporiferous hymenium. 

Hetercecious Rusts. J — H.Klebahn has collected from many sources 
all that is known about these rusts. He gives a list of the species of 
which the life-cycle has been traced — 150 in all — and discusses the 
different questions touching on their growth. The occurrence of the 
different forms, the conditions that influence their growth, spore dissemi- 
nation, infection, methods of culture, theories as to the spread of the 
rust disease, and theories as to their sexuality, occupy the first part. 
The second half of the book takes up each species in full detail. There 
are complete indices and graphic tables of illustration ; the whole 
forming a valuable summary and book of reference. 

Infection Experiments with Rusts.§ — Ernst Jordi extends still 
further our knowledge as to the specialisation of rust forms. Under 
Uromyces Fake he finds there are four specialised forms on the different- 
hosts, species of Vicia., Lathy r us and Pisum. Uromyces Ervi grew only 
on Vicia hirsuta. U. AnUnjllidis infected only AnthyJUs Vulneraria. 
Experiments were also made with U. Hedysari obscuri and U. Astragali. 
The latter species grows on a number of host-plants. 

* Centralbl. Bakt., xi. (1903) p. 10G. 
t Comptes Rcudns, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. o7S-< c 0. 

% Die Wirtsweehseliulcn Ro^tpilze. (Jebr. Boi ntr'.iger, Berlin, 1903, pp. xxxvii. 
and 447. 

§ Centralis. Bakt. x. (1933) pp. 777-9. 



96 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Iainier, M. G. — Sur quelques especes de Mucorinees nouvelles ou peu connues. 
(Some new or little-known sp cies of Mucorini.) 

[The new genera are I'arasitella, Gloniertila and Pfeudo-absidi'a, each with 
one species. There are ten new species of Mucor, and one new CircineJla. 
The writer describes the zygospores in the latter genus: they had not 
been hitherto known.] 

Bull. Soc. Mycol. France,x\x. (1903) pp. 153-72(2 pis.). 

Baubiek, Ma uk ice — Liste annotee d'Hymenomycetcs des environs de Dijon. 
3me partie. 

[This part includes the Polyporese, Hydneoe, Thelephoreaj, Cyphellea?, 
Corticieaj, Clavariese, Calocerso and Tremellacese, with critical notes on 
many of the species.] 

Bull. Soc Mycol. France, xix. (1903) pp. 273-90. 
Boudi e r, E. — Note sur quelques Ascomycetes nouveaux du Jura. 
[The author describes and figures six new species.] 

Butt. Soc. Mycol. France, xix. (1903) pp. 193-9 (1 pi.). 

Oavaba, F. — Novita Micologiche Siciliane. (New Sicilian fungi) 

[Peziza Ammopkila, found on the leaves of Arunrio Mauritanica and Awers- 
ualdia Cheemerops, parasitic on Chiemerops humilis, in tiie botanical 
garden of Catatonia.] Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital , No. 4 (1903) pp. 114-55. 

Costantin et Lucet — Sur un Rhizopus pathogene. 

[A new pathogenic form, Rhizopus equinus, i- described by the authors.] 

Bull. Soc. Mycol. France, xix. (1903) pp. 200-16(2 pis.). 
D i e t e l, P. — TJeber die Teleutosporenform von Uredo laeviuscula D. & H. und iiber 
Melampsora Fagi D. el Neg. 

[The author finds that the first of these plants is Thekopsora laeviuscula 
D. and H., and that the second is not a Melampsora, but Mikronegeria 
Fagi.] Ann. Mycol., i. (1903) pp. 415-17. 

Eakle, F. S. — Mycological Studies. 

[A synopsis of the North American species of the genus Periconia, and a list 
of other new fungi. The new genera are Hypodermopsis, an Ascomyccte 
l somewhat similar to Hi/poderma, and OKUrieUa, near akin to Older ia.~] 
Bull. New York Bot. Garden, ii. (1902) pp. 331-50. 

Hese y, E. — La lutte contre le champignon des maisons. Experiences recentes. 
(Methods of destroying dry-rot.) 

[A description of the various antiseptic solutions used to impregnate wood 
and render it sterile.] Bull. Mensuel. Soc Sci. Nancy, 1902, 11 pp. 

See also Centralbl. Bald., x. (1903) pp. 809-10. 
lloHNEL, Fkanz V. — Mycologische Fragmente. 

[A large series of new forms and critical notes on species already described. 
The new genera are Heimerlia, amyxomycete, one of the Krhinosteliacere, 
and Siropatella and Agyricllopsis, belonging to Excipulaeese] 

Ann. Mycol. i. (1903) pp. 391-414. 
Hollos, Laszlo — "Descriptions of Fungi. 

[The writer de>cnbes a new genus. Glasteropsis, from South Africa, and two 
species of Lycoperd»n from South Carolina.] 

Bot.Sekt. K. Ungar-Natorius, Ges., ii. (1903) pp. 72-0. 
Kaserer, Hermann — Versuche zur bekampfung von Peronospora und Oidium ini 
Jahre 1902. (Methods of destroying Peronospora and Oidium during the year 
1902.) 

[Solutions cont dning copper were found more effectual than the employment 

ofsulrjbur.] Zeitschr. Landwirtsch. Ver sucks icesen in Oesttrreich. 

1903, 2u5 pp. See also Ceulralbl. Bald., x. (1903) p. 809. 

vellerman, W. A. — Ohio Fungi. Fascicle VIII. 

[The fascicle included 5J0 fungi, all of them parasitic on various hosts. 
Diagnoses of some of the species are given.] 

Journ. of Mycol., ix. (1903) pp. 171 0. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 97 

K jk L'L e r m a n, W. A. — Index to North American Mycology. 

[Alphabetical list of articles, authors, subjects, new species and hosts, new 
names and synonyms.] Joum. of Mycol., ix. (1903) pp. 177-199. 

Konino, C. J. — Bijdrage tot de kennis van het levender humicole fungi en van de 
scheikundige processen welke bij de humificatic plaats hebben. 

[Deals with the microfungi that live on decaying vegetation, and discusses 
their disintegrating action on humus.] 

Verhand. K. Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam, ix. (1903) No. 7, 69 pp. 

Lindau, Gustav — Hilfsbuch fur das Sammeln der Ascomyceten mit Beruck- 
sichtigung der Nahrpflanzen Deutschlands, Osterreich-Ungarns, Belgiens, der 
Schweiz und der Niederlande. 

[Aid to the collection of Ascornycetes, with regard to their host-plants and 
the substances on which they grow ] 

Oebr. Borntrager, Berlin, 1903. 
See Bot. ZeiL, lxi. (1903) pp. 321-2. 

Lindner, P. — Zum nachweis von untergariger Bierhefe in Preszhefe. 

Zeitgchr. Spiritusindustrie, Bd. xxvi. No. 22, p. 229. 
See also Centralbl. Bald., x. (1903) pp. 663-4. 

Macalpine, D. — Australian Fungi. New or unrecorded. Decades IIL-IV. 

[Forty species of microfungi, most of them parasitic on leaves, etc. Fifteen 
are new species.] 

Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, xxviii. (1903) pp. 94-103. 

Maublanc, A. — Sur quelques especes nouvelles de champignons inferieurs. 

[The writer describes 18 new species of microfungi. There is one new genus, 
Nomurxa, a member of the Hyphomycetes.] 

Bull. Soc. Mycol. France, xix. (1903) pp. 291-6 (2 pis.). 

Molliard Marin — Observations sur le Cyphella ampla Lev., obtenu en culture 
pure. (Observations on Cyphella ampla grown in a pure culture.) 
[The fungus was developed from the basidiospores.] 

Bull. Sue. Mycol. France, xix. (1903) pp. 146-9. 

„ „ Sur une condition qui favorise la production des peritheces 

ches les Ascobolus. (On a condition which favours the production of the fruit of 
Ascobolus.) 

[The writer finds the associalion of a bacterium necessary for the formation 
of the fruits of Ascobolus fur/uraceus.'] 

Bull. Soc. Mycol. France, xix. (1903) pp. 150-2. 

Magnin, M. L. — TJn cas d'empoisonnement par l'Amanita muscaria. (A case of 
poisoning due to Amanita muscaria.) 

[Some pathological notes on the effects of the poison.] 

Bull. Soc. Mycol. France, xix. (1903) pp. 173-5. 

Mubbill, W. A. — The Polyporaceae of North America. (V.) The genera Cryptoporus, 
Piptoporus, Scutiger and Porodiscus. 

[The writer is dealing chiefly with the somewhat fleshy terrestrial forms, 
which are exceedingly rare and beautiful in North America. The genus 
Porodiscus is new, and has been created to contain the species knowi? 
as Cyphella pendula.'] 

Bull. TorxeyBot. Club, xxx. (1903) pp. 423-34. 

Patodillabd, N.— Addition an Catalogue des champignons de la Tunisie (suite). 
[A list of fungi, with habitat and locality ; with critical notes on some of the 
species, several of which are new to science.] 

Bidl. Soc. Mycol. France,\ix. (1903) pp. 245-61. 

Pennington, Stcab t — Uredineae from South America. 
[The writer records 30 B[ ecies.J 

Anal. Soc. Cientif. Arg. Ix. (1903) pp. 81-40. 
See also Bot. Centralbl. xciii. p. 273. 

Saocardo, P. A. — Florae mycologicse Lusitanicae. 

[The list enumerates 129 species. A number of the species of Microfungi on 
the leaves and stems of plants are new to science ] 

Bol. da Soc. Bot., 190^, pp. 1-16. 

See also Ann. Mycol, xix. (1903) pp. 458-9. 

Feb. 17th, 1904 H 



98 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Saccardo, P. A., & Traverso. G. B. — Contriburione alia flora micologica della 
Sardegna. 

[The writers take up the work begun by the late A. N. Berlese. They enu- 
merate 167 species of Microfungi, ten of them new to science.] 

Ann. Mycol, i. (1903) pp. 427-44 (1 pi.). 

Sydow, H. & P. — Neue und kritische TJredineae. (Nesv and critical Uredineae.) 

[Many of ihe species from various parts of the world are described for the 
first time.] Ann. Mycol, i. (1903) pp. 324-34. 

Tra verso, G. B. — Primo elenco di Micromiceti di Valtellina. (First catalogue of 
Micromycetes from Valteilina.) 

[The writer records l. r >7 species ; several of them are new to science.] 

Ann. Mywl, i. (1903) pp. 297-323(5 figs.). 

Zahlbruckner, A. — TIeber die systematische Gruppierung der pyrenokarpen 
Flechten. 

[The author has grouped them in six families, accordins to the formation of 
thallus and fruit.] Verhandl. Zool.-botan. Ges. Wien, 1903, pp. 81-2. 

See also Ann. Mycol, i. (1903) p. 474. 

„ „ Die "Parmelia ryssolea " der pennonischen Flora. 

[A description and diagnosis of this plant.] 

Magyar botan. Lapok., ii. (1903) pp. 169-175 (1 pi.). 
See also Ann. Mycol, i. (1903) p. 474. 

Lichens. 

Lecanora subfusca.*— A. Hue has looked through a large amount of 
material, and finds that this very wide-spread Lichen has three distinct 
varieties and a number of forms. They are distinguished by the form 
of the apothecium. 

Lichens from Socotra.f — J. Steiner worked through a small collec- 
tions of Lichens made by O. Simony, and found three new genera and 
eleven new species. The new genera are Simonyella and Roccellographa, 
both belonging to the Koccellacese. The latter has a distinct Graphidean 
fruit, and this confirms Darbishire's view of the position of Roccella 
among the Graphideae. The remaining new genus, Phlc&opeccania, 
belongs to the family of Glceolichenen. 

Mycetozoa. 

Development of Myxomycetes. J — M. Pinoy had already found that 
various species of endosporous myxomycetes would not grow in pure 
cultures until some bacterium was added to the medium. He has carried 
out further researches on Dictyostelium mucoroides. He considers that 
the bacterium associated with the species of Acrasise exercises a consider- 
able influence in determining the colour and the form of the organism, 
and that species described as distinct from each other are merely the same 
species associated with different chromogenic bacteria. 

Fries, Rob. E. — Myxomyceten von Argentinien and Bolivia. 

[Myxomycetes of Argentina and Bolivia collected and determined by the 
author, forty-seven species in all. He notes the comparatively large 
occurrence of species with lime in the sporangia.] 

Arkiv.for Botanik. K. bvens. Vetenskaps-Akad., i. (1903) pp. 57-70. 

* Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 1903, pp. 22-86. See also Ann. Mvcol., i. (1903) p. 472. 
t Deutschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, lxxi. ^1902) 1903, pp. 93-102. See also 
Ann. Mycol., i. (1903) pp. 475. 

X Cumptes Reudus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 580-1. , 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 99 

Schizophyta. 
Schizomycetes. 

Uric Acid Bacterium.* — C. Ulpiani gives the results of his work 
on a micro-organism capable of causing the following change in uric 
acid : 



C 5 H 4 N 4 3 + H 2 + 30 = 2C0<? JJ2+3CO 



'2 



It was isolated from the fresh excrement of the fowl, by means of 
inoculations first in tubes containing a solution of uric acid, then by 
agar plates. Pure cultures are capable of completely fermenting a 
solution of uric acid in three to four days, at 37° C. It is a motile 
coccus furnished with a capsule. Involution forms are common. It is 
positive to Gram aDd stains well with fuchsin. 

Cultivated on plates of agar with uric acid, it develops in three 
days round superficial yellowish white colonies 1-1*5 mm. in diameter. 
In both it causes turbidity and the formation of a surface pellicle. In 
a solution of uric acid and traces of salts it produces opalescence. It 
grows well between 29° C. and 42° C, and best at 39° C. An hour at 
50° C. stops further development. 

Bacterial Origin of the Forms of the Arabin Group. | — R. Greig 
Smith, working at this subject, first investigated the acids produced 
during the growth of Bad. acacia and Bad. mdarabinum in saccharose 
media. He used saccharose with asparagin as a nitrogenous nutrient, 
and found that the action of the two organisms is identical and consists 
in the formation of laevolactic, succinic, lauric, and oxalic acids (non- 
volatile), and of acetic, formic, and carbonic acids (volatile). The 
author found that the gum-flux of the vine is caused by Bad. acacia 
and Bad. metarabinum ; that the gum-flux of the plum is due in part 
at least to the action of Bad. acacia, ; that the gum-flux of the cedar is 
caused by Bad. acacia and Bad. persica ; and that the gam-flux of the 
peach is produced chiefly by Bad. acacia, as is also the gum-flux of the 
almond. He also shows that the gum-flux of a Japanese date-palm is 
dependent on Bad. levaniformans and Bad. acacia. 

Streptothrix in a Dog.| — Trolldenier found, in a dog dead after 
a short illness, caseous and suppurative bronchial lymphadenitis and 
other lesions. In the suppurating bronchial glands were detected a 
great number of longer or shorter threads with distinct bifurcation, 
staining intensely red by the Ziehl-Cabbot method. Glycerin plates 
inoculated with the same material showed after 24 hours numerous 
white grains, which were found microscopically to be formed of a 
Streptothrix species The author concludes that the infection occurred 
by the inhalation of the fungi into the lung alvioli, so to the bronchial 
glands, and thence through the lymph channels into the vascular system. 
He established the virulence of the organism in mice, guinea-pigs, 



* 



Atti R. Accad. Lincei, xii. (1903) pp. 236-40. 
t Proc. Linn. So-. N.S.W., xxviii. (1903) pp. 114-31. 

% Zeitsdir. f. Tissand, vii. p. 81. See also Centralbl. Bakt. 1" Abt. (Ref.) xxxiv. 
(1903) pp. 124-5. 

H 2 



100 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

rabbits, dogs and cats. Liquefaction of gelatin did not occur, and 
growth was strictly aerobic. On horse serum there was no growth, and 
the author was unable to infect the horse. The organism was not 
identical with Streptothrix Eppinger. 

Jaundice of the Beet: a Bacterial Disease.* — G. Delacroix has 
investigated this disease of the beet, a disease characterised by irregular 
spots on the leaves. In these spots, as well as in the roots, petioles 
and seed-vessels, he found numerous motile bacilli ; and his experiments 
indicate that these bacilli are the cause of the disease, which is probably 
propagated by means of the seed-vessels. The micro-organism can be 
cultivated on various media, but not on gelatin, and the author pro- 
poses to call it Bad. calificans. It stains with ordinary dyes, but not 
with Gram. It does not produce spores. Cultivated to the twelfth 
generation it loses its virulence. In the way of treatment, the author 
recommends rotation of crop at least triennially, the avoidance of 
carrying to waste heaps the diseased leaves, and the burying of them 
directly ; the sowing only of four-years-old seeds, and the absolute 
exclusion of seed-vessels from the neighbourhood of fields where beet 
is cultivated. 

Spirillosis of Fowls. f — E. Marchoux and A. Salimbeni have investi- 
gated a disease of fowls common in Rio de Janeiro. The symptoms 
are diarrhoea, pyrexia, malaise, and death usually in a few days. In 
the blood they found a spirillum, and this blood produced the disease 
in other fowls. The authors conclude that the disease is caused by this 
spirillum, and is transmissible by inoculation of infective blood, and 
also by way of the digestive tract when blood charged with spirilla or 
the dejecta of infected fowls is ingested. Outside the organism the 
spirilla lose all virulence in about 48 hours. Protection can be obtained 
by the injection of blood or virulent serum, which has been kept 
48 to 96 hours, or heated to 55° C. for five to ten minutes, and also by 
serum freshly obtained from an infected fowl and passed through a 
Berkefeld filter. Serum of animals which have recovered has pre- 
ventive properties. In vitro the same serum has marked agglutinating 
power. 

* Comptes Rendus, exxxvii. (1903) pp. 871-2. 
t Ann. Inst. Pasteur, xvii. (J 903) pp. 567-80. 



* I < g» I m 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY, ETC. 



101 



MICROSCOPY. 

A. Instruments, Accessories, &c* 
(1) Stands. 

Swift's Simple Dissecting Microscope.f — This is shown in fig. 1, 
and consists of a metal base and sliding pillar for focussing, with 3-in. 
and 2-in. lenses. 




Fig. 1. 



Swift's Newly Designed Microscope for Bacteriological Research.; 
This stand (fig. 2) was constructed from suggestions given by Dele- 
pine of Manchester. It is fitted with Swift's spiral rack-and-pinion 
for coarse adjustment. The fitting carrying the optical tube has the 
same wear-and-tear-preventing device as in the last instalment. The 
fine adjustment is also the same as in the last instrument. The draw- 
tube is divided to millimetres ; when fully extended it is 220 mm., when 
closed 160 mm. The triple nose-piece is perfectly dust-tight. The 
stage is covered with vulcanite, and is specially large to allow of the 
free use of the largest size Petri dish ; its right-hand side is divided 
into squares which answer the purpose of a finder. A full-size im- 
proved Abbe condenser, fitted with iris diaphragm and special focussing 
adjustment for raising or lowering it, is screwed to the under surface of 
the stage. Flat and concave mirrors arc supplied, and a simple ingenious 
device enables the manipulator to determine when they are in the 
vertical axis. Three object-glasses are supplied with the instrument, 
one of them being Swift's T V m - oil immersion N.A. 1'30. The 
makers specially guarantee this particular lens to be of the highest 
possible optical excellence. Another of the objectives is the ^-in., as 
supplied with the last. 



* This subdivision contains (1) Stands; (2) Eye-pieces and Objectives; (3) Illu- 
minating and other Apparatus; (4) Photomicrography; (5) Microscopical Optics 
and Manipulation ; (6) Miscellaneous 

t J. Swift & Son's Catalogue, London, 1901, p. 26. 

X J. Swift & Son's special Catalogue, London. 



102 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 




Fig. 2. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



103 



Swift's Newly Designed Histological and Physiological Micro- 
scope.* — This stand (fig. 3) is fitted with Swift's newly patented 




Fig. 3. 

* J. Swift & Son's special pamphlet, London. 



104 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 




Fig 4. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 105 

isolated micrometer screw, whereby side movement is entirely eliminated. 
The fitting carrying the body or optical tube is new and of a novel 
construction, such that the wear and tear indispensable to all fittings 
can be compensated for by means of a simple adjustment effected by 
three screws fitted to the limb. The coarse adjustment is by means of 
Swift's patented diagonal rack-and-pinion. The stage is larger than 
that usually supplied to students' stands, and allows of the free use of 
a Petri dish. The whole of the instrument, with exception of the tripod 
and stage, is polished bright, and is of the highest possible mechanical 
excellence. The -jUin. objective supplied has an exceptionally long 
working distance for blood examination with the Thoma-Zeiss haema- 
cytometer. 

Swift's Continental Stand.* — The makers have introduced this 
stand (fig. 4) for the convenience of those who prefer this style. A 
special plant of machinery has been put down for the manufacture, and 
the instrument is an absolute replique of a stand manufactured by one 
of the most reputed German makers, and is listed at the Continental 
price. A variation is, however, introduced in the size of the stand, 
which is much larger than in the original, and allows of the free use of 
the largest Petri dishes. 

Watson and Sons' "Works" Metallurgical Microscope. f — The 
form and construction of this instrument are shown in fig. 5, and 
resemble the "Van Heurck" model made by the same firm. The foot 
is of the tripod pattern, and its front is so shaped that access is freely 
obtained to the milled heads, which control the movements of the stage 
and substage. The spread is 9§ in. The instrument can be inclined 
on the foot in any position from the horizontal to the vertical ; a 
clamping screw being provided for fixing it firmly in position. The 
stage is mounted on a very substantial bracket which, at the back, is 
fitted by dove-tailed grooves into a frame in which, by rack-and-pinion, 
it can be raised or lowered to or from the body of the Microscope. 
Special attention has been given to affording a sufficient interval 
between the nose-piece of the Microscope and the surface of the stage, 
for the use of very low-power objectives. The coarse adjustment 
afforded by the rack-and-pinion has, in many instances, been supple- 
mented by a fine adjustment, so that the whole focussing of the speci- 
men can be done from the stage instead of with the Microscope body. 
The stage usually supplied is similar to that of Watson's " Circuit 
Stage Van Heurck " Microscope with mechanical screws, having a range 
of motion of one inch in each direction. Complete rotation is provided, 
so that specimens may be examined under every aspect of illumination. 
In the illustration it will be seen that a sliding bar is fitted to a recess in 
the stage ; this bar may be instantly removed, and a levelling stage or 
metal holder may interchange with it. The body is of extra large 
diameter, and is fitted with two draw-tubes ; one having a rackwork, 
and the Other sliding, so that a wide range of body-length may be 
obtained. There is sufficient range of adjustment for the focussing of 
the lowest-power lenses. The instrument is recommended by the makers 

* J. Swift & Son's special Catalogue, London. 

t W. Watson & Sons' Catalogue of Micro-outfits for Metallurgy, pp. 1, 3, 4. 




Fig. 5. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



107 



as embodying the latest ideas, and maximum of "convenience for metal- 
lurgical work. 

Leach's Oxy-hydrogen Lantern Microscope.*; — This instrument 
(fig. 6), which has been for some time before the public, and has been 
described in earlier numbers of this Journal,t has received some improve- 
ments from its manufacturers, Messrs. Woolley of Manchester, who equip 




Fig. G. 

it with the highest quality lenses and workmanship. It is fitted to any 
oxy-hydrogen lantern by screwing it into the flange, which carries the 
usual lantern objective. In working with this Microscope, all the 
different parts are mechanically connected. There are no loose parts 
to get out of position, or to keep in their place after the instrument is 
set up. Fig. 6 shows the Microscope in its present form. 




i : ; 
v - 



Fig. 7. 



Watson's New " Argus " Substage.f— This substage (fig. 7) can 
be fitted to almost any Microscope. It is intended to replace the spiral 
focussing screw so frequently applied to under-fittings of students' 
Microscopes, and which Messrs. Watson have found so unsatisfactory 

* Woolley, Manchester, Special Circular, 
t 1887, p. 1019; 1890, p. 803; 1892, p. 105. 
% W. Watson & Sons' Special Catalogue, p. 7. 



108 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



to discontinue it. The rackwork in the 
a number of grooves cut on a cylinder, 



that they have determined 
above auxiliary consists of 

against which a pinion engages, as in the ordinary coarse adjustment of 
Microscopes. This can be mounted strongly, and to work accurately 
on almost any Microscope. It is provided with a loose ring, by which 
it is centred precisely to the Microscope, with which it is to be used, 
before leaving Messrs. Watson's works, and the ring is then held by 
screws in position. 

Watson's Compound Substage.* — This substage (fig. 8) has spiral 
rackwork, pinion, coarse adjustment, and centring screws, to enable the 
apparatus that may be contained on it to be set exactly coincident with 
the optical axis of the objective. 




Fig. 8. 



Metallurgical Stage.f — W. B. Stokes has devised an appliance, 
intended to effect a temporary conversion of any Microscope possessing 
a focussing substage into a stand suited to the needs of metallurgists. 
When using the " vertical illuminator," a change of object often in- 
volves a considerable change in the illumination, but by giving the 
stage a focussing movement the lighting arrangements remain undis- 
turbed. The aim of the present accessory is to supply this movement 
to an ordinary Microscope. Taking advantage of the substage move- 
ment, it is evident that there is required only a stage-plate fixed to a 
stem, which fits into a substage adapter in such a way that the stem 
passes through the ordinary stage aperture. 

Pocket-Magnifier.f — G. C. Karop describes a new pocket-lens 
(fig. 9) made by Swift and Son. It is a modified Herschelian doublet, 
made up of a lower inequi-convex 6 : 1 lens, and an upper plano- 
convex of smaller size, just sufficiently spaced to admit a thin polished 

* W. Watson & Sons' Supplemental List, October 1903, p. 7. 
t Journ. Quekett Micr. Club, viii. (1903) pp. 549-50 (1 fig.). 
X Tom. cit. pp. 499-504 (8 tigs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 109 

metal reflector-diaphragm between them. The sizes and focal lengths 
of the lenses are approximately as follows : Inequi-convex, diameter 
1-3; focus 2*1. Plano-convex, diameter "65; focus l - 75. Focus of 
combination, diameter 1*95. Of course, all these can be varied in 




Fig. 9. 

relative proportion if required. The three elements are mounted 
separately, so that, although it is calculated to act as a " system," either 
lens may be used by itself with or without the speculum. 

(2) Eye-pieces and Objectives. 

Nelson's Formula Oculars.* — A. A. C. E. Merlin calls attention to 
the very fine visual results obtained by the employment of E. M. Nelson's 
new formula Huyghenian eye-pieces when fitted to the telescope. One 
of these yields a measured power of 160 diameters on a 3-3-in. clear 
aperture refractor, the object-glass of which was made by Wray. The 
formula of this description of eye-piece was computed by Mr. Nelson 
some years ago, and is published in the last edition of Carpenter, but 
its high qualities when used on an astronomical telescope do not appear 
to be generally known. 

The author is satisfied of the superiority of these oculars for critical 
microscopical work, over the compensated or ordinary Huyghenian eye- 
pieces, when working with apochromatic, semi-apochromatic or achro- 
matic objectives. 

Lens Calculation.! — " H." in a letter to the English Mechanic, 
compiles the following bibliography of works useful for above purpose. 

1. The Perthensis Encyclopaedia, vols. xvi. and xxii. 

2. Encyclopaedia Britannica, third edition. 

3. The Telescope, by Herschel. 

4. Optical Instruments, by Herschel, in vol. ii. of the Library 

of Useful Knowledge. 

5. Rees' Cyclopaedia— very full and complete— vol. xxxv. being 

the most useful one. 

6. Coddington's Optics. 

7. Potter's Optics, part ii. 

8. Hansen's Dioptrische Untersuchungen. 

9. W. Scheibner's Dioptrische Untersuchungen. 

10. Steinheil's Handbuch der Angewandten Optik, containing 
numerous worked out examples and figures. 

* English Mechanic, lxxviii. (1903) p. 425. 
t Tom. cit., (Nov. 13, 1903) p. 316. 



110 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT EESEARCHES RELATING TO 



(3) Illuminating and other Apparatus. 

Dunning's New Portable Oil-tight Lamp.*— This (figs. 10 and 11) 
has been constructed to meet the requirements of microscopists exhibit- 
ing at societies' meetings and conversazioni. The lamp packs in an 
oval tin case, 2| in. by If in. by 8 in., and can be easily carried in the 
coat-pocket without any risk of leakage. When full it will burn for 
four hours, and give sufficient light for a large binocular Microscope. 





Fig. 10. 



Fig. 11. 



Either the flat or edge of the flame may be used by turning theJmetal 
chimney, which takes an ordinary 3-in. by 1-in. slip. The flame can 
be lowered sufficiently for direct illumination. Fig. 10 shows the lamp 
set up for use. Fig. 11, folded for packing in case. 

Swift's Light Modifiers.f — These are light filters, and consist of a 
metal frame made to carry one or more squares of tinted glass, with 
adjustments admitting of any position in front of and close to the 
source of illumination. The modifiers are made in two forms uone 



* J. Swift & Son's Catalogue, London, 1901, p. 45. 
t Tom. cit., p. 47. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



Ill 



(fig. 12) carries two pieces of cobalt glass of different tints in a tele- 
scopic horizontal arm, sliding upon a vertical pillar attached to a heavy 
base ; the other (fig. 13), has a hinged arm and bull's-eye. 




Fig. 12. 



Fig. 13. 



Swift's Double-Image Prism for Petrological Microscopes.*- — 
This accessory is shown in fig. 14, and will be found extremely useful 
for viewing small dichroic crystals. The two images are seen side by 
side in the field, and one rotates round the other when tbe prism is 
turned round the eye lens of the ocular. The images differ according 




Fig. 14. 



to the nature of the crystal mineral and the direction in which the light 
passes through it. A thin plate of brass, with a number of small aper- 
tures, is inserted in the eye-piece for the purpose of reducing the field 
to a size smaller than the crystal under observation. 



I (4)i Photomicrography. 

Rose, L. K.— Photomicrography of Metal?. 
[An historical and practical paper.] 

Photographic Journ., xliii. (July 1903) pp. 195-9. 



* J. Swift & Son's Catalogue, London, 1901, p. 40. 



112 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



(5) Microscopical Optics and Manipulation. 

Lyman, T. — The Prolongation of Spectral Lines. 

[Explains the cause of the streamers observe! in the use of a concave grating.] 
Proc. Amer. Acad, of Arts and Sciences, xxxix. No. 2 (July 1903) 

pp. 33-5(1 pi.). 

„ „ Explanation of False Spectra from Diffraction Gratings. 

[Shows that they seem due to a so-called periodic error in the gnuing ruling.] 
Proc. Amer. Acad, of Arts and Science*, xxxix. No. 3 (July 1903) 

pp. 39-47 (1 pi.). 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

General Principle of some Novel Forms of Geodetical Instru- 
ments.* — Sir H. Grubb describes an important simplification in geo- 




= = ^ 



Fir. 15. 



detical instruments, which may also be found useful in some departments 
of microscopy. The half-silvered, half-plain piece of glass generally 
used in such instruments is replaced by a piece of glass having a thin 
film of lead sulphide deposited on its surface. This film both reflects 
and transmits the incident light, and by varying its thickness the pro- 
portion of transmitted to reflected light may be varied. The effect is 
that the images of two objects may be got actually superposed, instead 
of (as in the prismatic compass) vertically above and below one another. 
The arrangement will be understood from fig. 15, where the distant 
object is seen by direct vision through the film, and the near object 
(after collimation) by reflection. One great advantage is that all the 



* Brit. Opt. Joum., iii. (Oct. 1903) pp. 29-31 (4 figs.). 
(Oct. 30, 1903) pp. 263-4. 



Eng. Mech., lxxviii. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 113 

rays on the observer's eye are parallel, and there is therefore no error due 
to parallax. 

The Collected Treatises of Abbe.* — Dr. S. Czapski has undertaken 
the welcome task of collecting and publishing in a compact form the 
various treatises of Prof. Abbe. This, the first volume, is to be followed, 
in due course, by two or three others, all on mathematical and optical 
subjects ; and a later volume will contain his writings on social and 
economical topics. 

The order adopted is chronological, and treatises originally written 
in other languages have been translated into German. The task of 
editing has been performed by Prof. Ambronn. 

The following is a translation of the titles of the various papers, and 
the reference is given when the original was in English. The year of 
composition is also given. 

1. On a spectrum apparatus for the Microscope (1870). 

2. On the determination of the light-intensity of optical instruments, 

with especial reference to the Microscope, and apparatus for 
light concentration (1871). 

3. Contributions to the Theory of the Microscope and of microscopical 

veracity (1873). 

4. On a new illuminating apparatus for the Microscope (1873). 

5. Description of the apertometer (1877 ).f 

6. The optical auxiliaries of the Microscope (1878). 

7. On micrometric measurement by means of optical images (1878). 

8. On the computation of blood corpuscles (1878). 

0. On Stephenson's system of homogeneous immersion for Microscope 
objectives (1879). 

10. On new methods for improving spherical correction applied to the 

construction of wide-angled object-glasses (1879)4 

11. On the conditions of aplanatism of lens-systems (1879). 

12. Some remarks on the apertometer (1880). § 

13. Description of a new stereoscopic ocular, with general remarks on 

the conditions of micro-stereoscopic observation (1880). 

14. On the limits of geometrical optics, with observations on Altmanu's 

treatise ' On the Theory of Image-formation ' (1880). 

15. On the conditions of orthoscopic and pseudoscopic effects in the 

binocular Microscope (1881). j| 

16. On the estimation of aperture in the Microscope (1881). If 

17. The relation of aperture and power in the Microscope (1882).** 

18. On the mode of vision with objectives of wide aperture (1882).ff 

19. Note on the proper definition of the amplifying power of a lens or 

a lens-system (1884)4$ 

* Gesnrnmelte Abhandlungen,von Ernst Abbe, Erstcr Band, 48G pp., "_' pis , 29 figs. 
Portrait of author. Published by Fischer, Jena, 1904. 

t Journal R.M.S., i. (1S78) pp. 19-22. 

% Op. cit., ii. (1879) pp. S12-24. § Op. cit., iii. (1SS3) pp. 20-31. 

|| < >p. Pit., i. (1881) pp. 203-11. i Op. cit., i. (1881) pp. 38&-12 i. 

** Op. cit., ii. (1882) pp. 300-9, 4G0-73 ; iii. (1883) pp. 790-S12. 
tt Op. cit. iv. (1884) pp. 20-2G. }$ Op. cit, iv. (1881) pp. 348-51. 

Feb. 17th, 1904 i 



114 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING To 



20. On improvements of the Microscope by means of new kinds of 

optical glass (1886). 

21. On the effect of illumination by means of wide-angled cones of 

light (1889).* 

22. On the adaptability of fluorite for optical purposes (1890). 

Focussing Safeguard.! — In showing microscopic objects to those 
unacquainted with the use of a Microscope, there is always the risk of 
accidental injury to either the slides or objectives when the latter are 
of short focal length. To obviate risk of injury S. E. Dowdy has 
devised the following contrivance (fig. 1G). A B is a metal collar, 
velvet lined, with a screw at A for clamping on to the objective. 
D is a fine screw rotating with arm B C, and having a felt-covered 
circular base, E. In use, the objective should first be accurately 




Fig. 16. 



focussed, and then by means of the fine adjustment brought within 
its focal length, with its front lens as near as possible to the cover-glass 
without touching it. 

The screw D is then rotated until the base touches the slide, when it 
will be obvious that it would be impossible to bring the objective into 
contact with the cover, though focussing in a safe direction may be 
effected to any extent. 

Ultra-Microscopic Investigation of Colour-matters and their 
Physiological Significance.! — A. Birch-Hirschfeld describes howBaehl- 
mann used a new Microscope, introduced by Siedentopf and Zsigmondy, 
of Jena, which, by means of a brilliant focal, lateral illumination, renders 
visible the smallest particles (5/a to 10//) in their natural colour. With 
this instrument he examined solutions of colouring matter, such as 
Prussian-blue, carmine, ultramarine, naphthol-yellow, and so forth. The 
resolution of each of the colouring matters into its component colours 

* Journ. E.M.S., ix. (1889) pp.721-4. 

t English Mechanic, lxxviii. (1903) p. 291 (1 fig.). 

X Ophth. Klinik, Aug. 20 and Oct. 5, 1903. See Ophthalmoscope, i. (1903) p. 21 8. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



11; 



yields an unsuspected insight into the physical and physiological nature 
of colour, and is of importance as regards our conception of the mixing 
of colour. The smallest particles of a pure colouring matter are not 
only characterised by their colour, but probably also by distinctive form 
and movements. It therefore follows that colouring matters may be 
analysed by this method. The composite colours examined showed their 
smallest component particles either lying alongside each other (physio- 
logical mixture of colours), or were seen to consist of particles differing 
in shape, movement, and colour from those of the components. This 
condition has been proved by more recent researches — for example, on 
a mixture of Prussian-blue and naphthol-yellow — to rise from the fact 
that the particles of one component cluster around those of another, 
forming, as it were, a kind of sheath. This covering, according to 
Raehlmann, is formed by electro-magnetic action, minute negatively 
charged particles collecting around those positively charged, or vice versa. 
These composite particles may be again separated by the action of electro- 
magnetism. 

Dowdy, S. E. — Amateur Microscopy. 

[A series of four excellent articles upon this subject, describing a stu lent's 
Microscope, its apparatus, and the way to use it. The articles are well 
worth the attention of those intending to purchase a student's Microscope, 
as well as of those taking up the subject for the first time.] 

English Mechanic and World of Science, Ixxviii., Nos. 2003-11 

(.Sept. and Oct. 1908). 



B. Technique.* 
(1) Collecting Objects, including: Culture Processes. 

Wright's Collecting Bottle.f — This 

(fig. 17) contains an improvement by the 

introduction of an extremely rapid siphon, 

which is covered with a cylinder of very 

fine silk, thus preventing the escape of 

the smallest rotifer during the drawing off 

•of the superfluous water. At the same 

time the fabric permits the water to be 

drawn off almost as quickly as it is poured 

into the bottle. This apparatus will be 

found invaluable to those collecting pond 

life, as gallons of water can be rapidly 

drawn off by means of the siphon without 

sacrificing a single insect. A cork bung 

with boxwood top is supplied to the bottle, 

to save the loss of material collected. ^ 

Fig. 17. 

• This subdivision contains (1) Collecting Objects, including Culture Pro- 
cesses; (2, Preparing Objects; (3) Cutting, including Imbedding and Microtomes ; 
(4) Staining and Injecting ; (5) Mounting, including slides, preservative fluids, &c. ; 
(6) Miscellaneous. 

t J- Swift & Son's Catalogue, Loudon, 1901, p. 42. 

I 2 




116 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Bacteriological Methods in Sanitary Water Analysis.* — C. E. 
A. Winslow and C. P. Nibecker in an extensive series of water examina- 
tions employed the following bacteriological methods : (1) The gelatine 
plate at 20° C, the count being made after 48 hours. This count was 
found to roughly correspond to the free ammonia and " oxygen con- 
sumed" of chemical analysis, and indicates the amount of organic 
decomposition in process. A low count is, of course, highly reassuring, 
but a high one may only mean an exceptional multiplication of certain 
water forms. (2) The fermentation test, as determined by the gas 
formula obtained in dextrose-broth tubes after 24 hours, at 37° C. 
This was found to be especially useful as an indicator of B. coli. 
(3) The litmus-lactose-agar plate after 24 hours, at 37° C. This, by 
means of the total count and the count of the red colonies, gave a 
measure of the organisms which thrive at the body temperature, and 
of those which form acids, which latter are coming to be recognised as 
intestinal forms. 

Technique of the Bacteriology of the Blood.f — R. C. Rosenberger 
quotes the following procedure adopted by Coplin, who has elaborated 
and extended Sittmann's method. The middle half of the arm is washed 
with hot soap and water, and then with sterile water and GO p.c. alcohol. 
The arm is then covered with 1 to 1000 sublimate gauze. In 24 hours it 
is cleaned with alcohol and ether, followed by hot 1 to 1000 perchloride, 
and lastly with sterile water or normal salt solution. All the solutions 
should be used hot. The blood is withdrawn from the median vein 
with a syringe or an aspirating needle. 20 c.cm. of blood should be 
obtained. From this, plates maybe made bypassing blood into liquefied 
agar kept at 45° C, in the proportion of 2 to 3 c.cm. of blood to 6 c.cm. 
of medium. After thorough mixing, plates are made and incubated at 
37° C. Bouillon in flasks should be inoculated ; 8 to 10 c.cm. of blood 
should be divided among flasks each containing 150 c.cm., so that the 
dilution is from 1 to 75 to 1 to 150. The flasks are well shaken and in- 
cubated at 37*5. If the bouillon become cloudy it is plated upon agar. 
Agar and serum slopes should be inoculated with 1 to 2 c.cm. of blood. 
Spreads on slides should be made, and animals inoculated with at least 
5 c.cm. of blood. A sample of the blood may be incubated as a control 
or enrichment. Special solid media should be used for certain kinds, 
as urine agar or blood-serum agar for gonococcus, blood-smeared agar 
for Bacillus influenzal. The spreads and films should be stained with 
anilin pigments. The haemoglobin may be removed by immersion in 
5 p.c. acetic acid for ten seconds. The acetic acid is removed by rapid 
aeration and by exposure to ammonia vapour. The film may then be 
stained for bacteria, the removal of the haemoglobin facilitating the 
search for micro-organisms. 

Cultivating Trypanosomes.t— W. J. McNeal and F. G-. Novy have 
cultivated Trypanosoma lewisi in a mixture of defibrinated rabbit's blood 
and agar. Agar, prepared in the usual way, is sterilised and cooled 

* Technology Quarterly, xvi. No. 3 (1903) pp. 227-30. 
t Araer. Juuru. Med. Sci., exxvi. (190b) pp. 234-57. 
% Bull. Inst. Pasteur, i. (1903) p. 602. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 117 

down to 50° C. To this, one-third of its bulk of defibrinated rabbit's 
blood, obtained aseptically, is added, and agar slants made. Loopfuls 
of trypanosomatous rat's blood were sown in the condensation water, 
and the tubes incubated at from 81° to 37° C. 



(2) Preparing: Objects. 

New Method of Preparing Superficial Fungi.* — H. H. Whetzel 
has found the following method very useful for demonstrating the 
presence of mycelium and pycnidia of fungi : (1) Peel or slice off a 
piece of the epidermis on which the fungus is growing. (2) Immerse 
the slice in a 2 to 4 p.c. solution of KHO, and boil in an evaporating 
dish over a low flame for 20 to 30 minutes. Cook long enough to 
remove all colour from the tissue of the host. (3) Pour off the 
potassium hydrate, and wash by letting the material stand for 10 to 20 
minutes in each of two or three changes of water. If all the colour 
be not removed from the host tissue, cook again. Pick away any pieces 
of sub-epidermal tissue that may cling to the epidermis. (1) Dehydrate 
in 95 p.c. alcohol. (5) Clear in a mixture of two parts carbolic acid 
and three parts turpentine. (6) Mount in balsam. 

The gist of the process lies in the fact that the pigment of the host- 
plant is bleached by caustic potash, while that of the parasite is not 
affected. 

Demonstrating the Statocysts of Cephalopods.f — R. Hamlyn- 
Harris fixed and decalcified the material by immersion in sublimate- 
acetic acid, though bichromate of potassium and acetic acid answered 
perfectly well. Heidenham's staining method gave the best results, 
though other stains were satisfactory. If the Statoliths were not 
sufficiently decalcified the Statocysts were imbedded in celloidin, and 
then decalcified with 1 to 2 p.c. hydrochloric acid. The celloidin was 
afterwards dissolved out, and the preparations imbedded in paraffin. 

Detection of Tubercle Bacilli in Organised Sediment by means 
of Centrifugalising or Simple Sedimentation.}: — C. Dilg gives the 
results of a research chiefly on the specific gravity of the sputum in 
relation to the position of tubercle bacilli in the tube of sputum after 
centrifugalising, i.e. as to whether these bacteria are present in the 
upper, middle, or deeper layers, as determined by the use of a capillary 
pipette. In estimating the specific gravity of the sputum, it was first 
rendered as air-free as possible by means of the air-pump, and then a 
modification of the blood method of Hammerschlag employed, an 
acetone-chloroform mixture being used. The specific gravity of the 
tubercle bacilli, if in pure culture, was estimated in the same way. If 
in sputum, it was held that if the bacilli were found copiously in the 
middle layers of the tube of sputum after centrifugalising, then they 
and the sputum were of the same specific gravity. By these means the 
author found that the specific gravity of the sputum varied between 

* Journ. MyooL, ix. (1903) pp. 218-9. 

t Zool. Juhrb., Abt. f. Morph., xviii. (1903) pp. 327-58 (5 pis.). 

% Zeitschr. f. angew. Mikr., ix. (1903; pp. 141-55. 



118 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



0*9290 and 1*224:2, while that of tubercle bacilli varied between 
1*0110 and 1*0760. The sputum is, therefore, sometimes lighter and 
sometimes heavier than the bacilli. The author accordingly proposes 
to ensure its always being heavier by the addition of an equal volume 
of a 25 p.c. salt solution, a drop of ammonia having previously been 
added. By this means the bacilli are always found in the surface layers, 
after centrifugalising, a drop being removed thence by means of a 
capillary pipette, placed on a slide, dried, and stained in the usual way. 
The added salt does not cause any difficulty in staining. The author 
has also devised an instrument which he names a " Sputumdensimeter,"' 
for the ready determining of the specific gravity of sputum. 



(4) Staining and Injecting - . 



Modification of Teichmann's Injection Syringe.*— Sieber describes 
some improvements which he has effected in this syringe (fig. 20). The 




Fig. 18, 



end of the piston-rod is grooved, so that, though fixed to the plunger, 
] otary movement is permitted. The end-cap of the syringe snaps on 
by means of a bayonet-joint, and this is quite independent of the piston- 
l od screw. Handles attached to the syringe afford a firm grip of the 
instrument. A two-way cock (fig. 19) attached to the nozzle allows 
the syringe to he refilled without disturbing the apparatus or unfasten- 

* Aimf. Anzo'g, nv. (1903) pp. 7-10 (7 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY, AND BOTANY MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



HO 



mg the parts. A piece of tubing is slipped over the joins of the cannula 
and nozzle. This pressure-sheath is capable of resisting the pressure of 





Fig. 19. 

two atmospheres, and prevents the cannula 
from becoming detached from the syringe during 
manipulation. The illustrations show the 
syringe (fig. 20), the two-way cock (fig. 19), 
and the working arrangement (fig. 18). 

Vital and Supravital Granule Staining.* 
J. Arnold has studied the grannies in epithelial, 
endothelial and connective-tissue cells, mast- 
zellen, leucocytes, etc. Employing the vital 
method, he either sprinkles the tissue to be 
examined, e.g. the mesentery, with neutral-red 
solution, or dusts it with the same substance 
in powder. If the supravital method is fol- 
lowed, the tissues taken fresh from the animal 
are placed at once in normal saline solution, con- 
taining either *01 to - 1 p.c. neutral-red or 
•0005 p.c. methylen-blue, as the case may be. 
The granules appear in 10 to 20 minutes. In 
the epithelium of the frog's bladder he finds a 
perinuclear arrangement of granules, which he 
thinks might easily be mistaken for karyo- 
kinetic figures. He has compared the effects 
of vital with those of supravital staining in 
the case of the tongue of the frog, and finds 
them identical. The author is of opinion that 
cell-granules are concerned in the elaboration 
of fat, iron and bile pigment. 

Naphthol-Blue as a Reagent for Bacterial 
Fat.f — A. Meyer, in order to demonstrate this 
staining reaction, uses organisms known by 
accurate research to be rich in fat and destitute 
of volutin, e.g. B. megatherium. He mixes a 




Fig. 20. 



* Anat. Anzeig., sxiv. (1903) pp. 1-6. 

t Centralbl. Bakt. 1" Abt. Orig., xxxiv. (1903) pp. 578-9. 



120 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RLSEARCHEiS RELATING TO 



a drop of a filtered 1 p.c. solution of diniethyl-paramethylendiainin 
(base) on a slide with a trace of a colony of the organism, and then 
adds to it a single loopful of a solution of a naphthol in 1 p.c. NaOH. 
If the preparation is examined after a minute the fat granules or drops 
are found to be stained dark blue. They are decolorised, however, with 
1 p.c. H 2 S0 4 . To show that this reaction is not due to volutin, he uses 
B. alvei, an organism rich in this substance and fat-free. In this, the 
reaction did not take place. 

Gonococci Staining.* — A. Pappenheim advocates the use of a 
methyl-green and pyronin mixture for the staining of gonococci and for 
their differentiation from the cell nucleus. The action of this staining 
mixture depends on the aversion of methyl-green to bacteria, and on 
its affinity for the cell nucleus, whilst pyronin being a weak stain only 
affects the nucleus if added in excess. The result is a blue-green 
nucleus and red cocci. If it is desired to stain also the protoplasm of 
the cell, an acid stain, such as eosin, may be added to the mixture. 

Modification of Gram's Method.f — Nicolle has employed instead 
of the ordinary Oram's solution, one containing bromine 1 grm., potas- 
sium bromide 3 grm., water 100 grm. Over the former it has no 
advantage, but the results in each case appear to be identical. 

Method of Staining the Protozoal Parasites 
of the Blood.J — Laveran suggests the following 
modification of Giemsa's staining method § for the 
malaria parasite. Cover-glass preparations are 
stained for ten minutes with eosin (1 : 1000) 2 c.cm., 
distilled water 8 c.cm., azur (1 : 100) 1 c.cm. A 
drop of a 5 p.c. solution of tannin is then placed 
on the film and allowed to act for 2 to 3 minutes. 
The film is then washed and dried. The author 
finds this method useful when dealing with material 
which is not fresh. 

(5) Mounting-, including- Slides, Preservative 
Fluids, &c. 

Improved Mounting Clip.||— S. E. Dowdy has 
devised the following form of clip or press by which 
central pressure, which is completely under control, 
may be readily obtained (fig. 21). 

A B C is a stout piece of wire bent into a circle 

at right angles to the upright A B at C. D is a 

Fig. 21. screw, having at its end a flat circular metal 

button at E, which rotates, independently of the 

sere on the pin F. In use, a freshly prepared Canada balsam slide 

is placed on the circle C, and the screw L) rotated until the button or 




* Monatsbefte f. prakt. Derinat, April, 1903. 
fief., xxxiv. (1903) pp. 20-1. 



See also Centralbl. Bakt. l ,e Abt. 



t C. E Soc. Biol., No. 10, 1903. See also Centralbl. Bakt., xxxiv. (1903) pp. 78-9. 
X Op. cit.., No. 9. 1903. See also Centralbl. Bakt. Ref., xxxiv. (1903) p. 78. 
§ Centralbl. Bakt., xxxii. p. 307. 
|| English Mechanic, lxxviii. (1T03) p. 337 (I fig.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, LTC. 121 

pad E presses on the cover-glass. Direct downward pressure with- 
out displacement of the cover is then attained by further rotation of the 
screw. 

G ribbon, W.— Mounting Clip. 

English Mechanic, lxxviii. (1904) p. 491 (I fig.). 
Vi Li, ag 10. — Modern Mounting Methods. 

Tom. cit., p. 490. 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

Waterproof Cement for Glass.* — The following preparations, which 
are unaffected by water, will be found suitable for cementing glass, 
repairing troughs, etc. : — ■ 

(1) Dissolve 5 to 10 parts gelatin in 100 parts of water ; add 10 p.c. 
of saturated bichromate of potassium solution ; mix thoroughly and keep 
in a dark place. Af ter using the cement the articles are exposed to sun- 
light, by the action of which the medium is rendered unaffected by 
water. (2) Quicklime, 1 parts ; litharge, 6 parts ; linseed-oil varnish, 
1 part. 

Mounting Medium Bottle. f — S. E. Dowdy gives the following 
directions for fitting up a bottle for holding balsam. Obtain a 1 oz. or 
I5 oz. wide-mouthed metal screw-stoppered bottle, and bore a circular 
hole through the lid large enough for a thin glass rod to pass through 
with plenty of room to spare. Thread the rod on a medium sized cork 
several diameters larger than the hole in the metal lid, and the thing is 
finished. Pour the balsam into the bottle, after removing the lid. The 
length of the rod can be easily altered to suit the depth of the medium. 

Gelatin Plates as Substitute for Glass Light-filters. $ — K. Die- 
derichs describes a procedure for making light-filters for microscopical 
and photomicrographical purposes. A solution of the best gelatin, such 
as is used for making dry plates, is made in the usual way, the propor- 
tion to the water being as 1 to 200. To the filtered solution 3 c.cm. of 
1 to 50 aqueous solution of alum are added. 

The films are made by pouring the gelatin on a glass plate placed on 
a levelling stand. When quite dry the gelatin is overlaid with a film of 
collodion stained with some anilin dye. 

Red plates may be made as follows : — Dissolve (1) 2 grm. aurantia 
in 40 c.cm. absolute alcohol, (2) 5 grm. rose Bengal in 20 c.cm. 
methyl alcohol. Then mix 20 c.cm. of (1) with 10 c.cm. of (2), and 
add 90 c.cm. of 4 p.c. collodion. Yellow plates can be made by adding 
20 c.cm. of a saturated alcoholic solution of aurantia to 80 c.cm. 4 p.c. 
collodion. The gelatin plates may be doubled so as to strengthen the 
film, or one may be placed on either side of the coloured layer. 

Method of taking Internal Casts of Foraminifera.§— H. J. Quilter 
obtains perfect specimens by the following method. The shells having 
been cleaned by boiling in caustic potash, in order to remove all traces 

* Scientific American. See Knowledge, xxvi. (1903) p. 285. 

t English Mechanic, lxxviii. (1903) p. 401 (1 fig.). 

t Zeitsch. angew. Mikr., ix. (1903) pp. 197-8. 

§ Journ. Quokett Micr. Club, viii. (1903) pp. 551-2. 



122 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



of sarcode, arc soaked in benzole to extract most of the air and prepare 
the surface of the shell for the was. They are then transferred to 
melted paraffin wax, the wax being cooled and heated several times in 
order to expel the air. After the air-bubbles have disappeared a little 
melted wax is put on the centre of a slide placed on a warm stage. To 
the melted wax the shells are transferred, and arranged so that there is a 
clear space around each. The slide is then allowed to cool. When the 
wax has become hard the wax above and around the shells is removed by 
means of a brush dipped in benzole. After this the preparations are 
brushed with soap and water, and then immersed in a beaker filled with 
water. To this hydrochloric acid is added until effervescence takes 
place. When effervescence ceases the slide is washed, dried and mounted. 

Silicate of Soda (Water Glass) as an Injection Medium for 
Macroscopic Preparations.* — S. Jachtchinsky recommends a saturated 
solution of silicate of soda, to which is added a little powdered chalk 
stained with cinnabar or ultramarine, for injecting the vascular system 
of animals. The advantages claimed are that it is used cold, does not 
set too quickly, does not block the syringe, has no disagreeable odour, and 
when once dry the preparations keep excellently. 

New Small Shaking Apparatus.f— H. Zikes has devised the fol- 
lowing shaking apparatus for use in fermentation work (fig. 22). A 




Fig. 22. 



steel bar a h is supported at each end by a rigid metal stand. From 
this bar hangs the shaking trough c d by two short brass rods. These 
rods can glide on the steel bar and are firmly joined to a pushing rod, 
which by means of a projecting end / is able to move the trough to 
and fro in one direction. This projecting end articulates with a connect- 
ing rod, through which the movement is given by means of a turbine or 
electro-motor. The shaking trough is a half cylinder, closed at the ends, 
open at the top, and having a flap along one of its sides. The fixing of 
the vessel to be shaken is accomplished by means of a steel peg attached 
to the flap on one side, and fitting into one of a series of holes on the 
other, according to the size of the vessel. 

Bacteriological Tests for Show Butters.:}: — D. Houston, in a 
bacteriological examination of butters exhibited at the winter show of 
the Royal Dublin Society, employed the following method : • 1 grm. of 

* Anat. Anzeicr., xxiv. (1903) pp. 204-5. 

t -entralbl. Bakt., 2" Abt., xi. (1903) pp. 107-8 (1 fig.). 

\ Proc. R<>y. Dublin Soc, i. CI 902) pp. 179 88. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 123 

the butter sample was placed in 10 c.crn. sterile water and kept at 25° C. 
This was then thoroughly mixed and allowed to cool. The fat having 
separated, "1 c.crn. was taken and mixed with nutrient gelatin, usually 
2 p.c. lactose gelatin, and plated out in the usual way. The colonies 
were then counted, and subcultures made in different media. For the more 
ready estimation of gas-forming organisms, the solidified inoculated 
gelatin in the Petri dish was covered with a thin layer of sterile gelatin. 
The little gas-bubbles were then easily seen. The author found that 
undesirable flavours and aromas were in most cases due to the action of 
micro-organisms, working either in the ripening cream or in the made-up 
butter. Such organisms may be either bacteria, yeasts or moulds. A 
good-flavoured butter containing undesirable contaminations will soon 
become objectionable. The bacteriological tests were not found to agree 
with the judge's awards. 



Metallography, etc. 

Dichroiscope.*— This instrument (fig. 23), made by Swift & Son, 
is for the accurate comparison of the different colours of dichroic 
minerals. It is extremely useful for distinguishing coloured gems from 
glass imitations. 



Fig. 23. 

Penological Examination of Paving Sets.f — J. Joly gives the 
following method for determining the proportions of hard and soft 
constituents in rock. The thin rock-section is placed in the Microscope, 
and using a low power and low eye-piece the image of the field is pro- 
jected into a ground-glass screen above the eye-piece, any of the usual 
photographic apparatus being used. The ground glass is turned rough 
side up. Upon this is placed a transparent divided scale prepared as 
follows. A piece of logarithmic paper (divided to square millimetres, or 
square tenths of inches) is placed in contact with a sensitive plate in a 
photographic printing frame, and printed off by contact in the usual 
manner. The result is a negative, having the divisions appearing as 
clear lines on a dark background. This negative may be used, or a 
positive printed from it. The transparent divided scale is placed face 
downwards upon the ground-glass. We now have an image of the field 
traversed by the lines upon the scale. On the back of this scale, the 
outline of any particular constituent is traced by an ordinary writing 
pen and ink. This done, the divided plate is lifted off, and holding it 
up to the light the number of square millimetres, or square centimetres, 
are estimated as contained within the ink outlines. The whole circular 

* Swift's Catalogue, 1901, p. 40. 

t Proc. Roy. Dublin Sop., x. (1903) pp. C2-92 (4 pie.). 



124 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

area of the field in square centimetres is — — ; hence the area occupied 

by the mineral can be estimated as a percentage of the area of the field. 
This is done for several fields, and an average taken. In most cases 
this method is quite accurate, but in exceptional instances, e.g. where 
mica plates appear edge-on in the field, certain allowances mnst be made, 
otherwise the quantity of the constituent would b2 underestimated. 

Microscopic Study of the Prehistoric Bronzes of the Charente.* 
M. G. Chesneau has microscopically examined the metal of two pre- 
historic bronze axe-heads. One head was provided with a socket ; the 
other merely heeled. It is admitted that the former is the more recent 
type of weapon. Micrographic analysis reveals that, at any rate in the 
Charente district, axes were used rough from the mould at the beginning 
of the Bronze Age, but that later on the methods of manufacture were 
improved, and the axe, after casting, was submitted to numerous re- 
heatings and hammerings at high temperatures to increase the hardness 
of the material. 

Surface Structure of Solids.f — G. T. Beilby seems to succeed in 
proving the following important propositions by means of his series of 
photomicrographs of metallic films : 

(1) The operations of cutting, filing, grinding or polishing, produce 
on the surface of solids a thin film, which is in many respects essentially 
different to the general body underneath it. 

(2) This surface film results from a certain mobility, which is con- 
ferred on a thin layer of molecules by the tool or polishing agent 
moving over the surface. 

(3) While it is in the mobile condition, the film of solid molecules 
behaves like a liquid, and is subject to the action of surface tension. 

(4) If these propositions are established it will follow that a truly 
polished surface is one in which, for a certain minute depth, the sub- 
stance has been liquefied and then smoothed by the action of surface 
tension. 

(5) Heat and solvents can confer on the molecules of solids sufficient 
mobility to enable their films or other minute portions of the solid to 
behave like a liquid. 

(6) In the aggregation of solids from their molecules there is a 
certain size of the aggregate up to which its form is controlled by 
surface tension, and only after this point is passed can crystallic force 
come into play. 

(7) The metals are the most opaque bodies we know, but their 
substance is nevertheless intrinsically transparent. 

(8) The " spicular " appearance frequently to be seen by the Micro- 
scope on the surface of metals, and other solids under obliquely- 
reflected light is due to a granular texture in the thin translucent film 
with which the surface is covered. 

(9) This granular texture results wholly or in part from the action 
of surface tension on the surface layer of molecules, while it is in the 
mobile condition. 

* Comples Rendus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 930-2 (2 figs.). 

f Third Hunter Memorial Leeturo, G! isj^ow, 1903, 55 pp., 42 pliotomicros. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 125 

Contributions to the Study of Alloys of Aluminium and Silicon.* 
Vigouroux and Arrivault find that |the lack of durability often met 
with in vessels made of commercial aluminium is due to the presence 
of minute crystals of silicon, or of the eutectic silicon alloy. The two 
elements act as the poles of a battery, and set up rapid corrosion. 

Primary and Secondary Devitrification in Glassy Igneous Rocks.f 
T. G. Bonney and J. Parkinson point out analogies between these 
phenomena and those observed in the micro-chemistry of alloys. Just 
as important changes take place after solidification in copper-tin alloys, 
so that the structures and compounds produced at earlier stages of con- 
solidation disappear, to be replaced by later products ; so not improbably 
similar changes would be found to have taken place in many rocks. 

Metallography of Nickel Steels.* — L. Cuillet has made a very com- 
plete set of observations on steels containing nickel varying in amount 
from zero to 90 p.c. The observations included : — 

(1) Microstructure of cast steels. (2) Microstructure of quenched 
steels. (3) Microstructure of reheated steels. (4) Microstructure of 
cold-worked steels. (5) Microstructure of steels cooled below atmo- 
spheric temperature. (6) Cementation and decarbonisation of nickel 
steels. (7) Research on the regeneration of quenched steels. (8) Con- 
elusions. 

His conclusions are that the constituents of nickel steel are : — 

(1) Ferrite, pearlite, and, of course, troostite and sorbite. (2) 
Martensite. (3) Acicular crystals, which appear after etching, some- 
times white, sometimes black, although the reason for this phenomena 
is not known. (4) Polyhedric grains, undoubtedly corresponding to 
Mr. Osmond's iron. 

The acicular crystals are probably hardenite, another form of 
martensite. 

Ashe, A. — Photography of Cavities in Minerals and the Determination of the Con- 
densation Points of the Enclosed Gases. 

Joum. Quekett Micro. Club, viii. (1903) pp. 545-S (1 pi.). 

ISeck, W. T. — Preparation of Samples for Microscopic Analysis, as followed by 
the "Westinghouse Ele trie and Manufacturing Company. 

l'roc. of Engineers' Soc. of Western Pennsylvania, Dec. 1902. 
Metalhgraphist, vi. (Oct. 1903) pp. 320-2. 
Lac, F. C. — Tests on Finishing and Annealing Heats. 

Sparks from the Anvil, Oct. 1902. 
Melallographist, vi. (Oct. 1903) pp. 322-7 (6 figs.)- 

Wood worth, J. V.— Hardening, Tempering^ Annealing, and Forging of Steel. 

[Favourably reviewed by J. O. Arnold in Nature, lxix. No. 1780 (Dec. 10, 
1903) p. 124.] Constable & Co., 2S8 pp. 



* Proces-Verbaux des Seances de la Soc. des Sciences de Bordeaux, 1901-2, 
pp. 20-3, 3 plates f 6 pliotomicos. 

t Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, lix. (Nov. 1903) pp. 428-44, 1 plate of 6 photomieros. 

j Bull, de la Soc. d' Encouragement, May 31. 1903; Metal lograpbist, vi. (Oct. 
1903) pp. 274-302 (40 figs.). 



12C 



PROCEEDINGS OE THE SOCIETY. 



MEETING 

Held on the IGth of December, 1903, at 20 Hanover Square, W. 
Dr. Henry Woodavard, F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Meeting of the 18th of November, 1903, were 
read and confirmed, and were signed by the President. 



Mr. Vezey said that having been one of those Fellows of the Society 
who attended at the Natural History Museum by invitation of the 
President, he should like to take the opportunity of thanking Dr. 
Woodward, on behalf of himself and of the other members of the party, 
for the very interesting explanations which were given to them of the 
Fossil Mammalia on Saturday November 28, and of the Fossil Reptiles 
on the Saturday following. The descriptions of the specimens in each 
case were given in a particularly clear and interesting manner, and he 
thought they ought to express their thanks for the trouble taken by 
Dr. Woodward on these occasions. 

Mr. Wesche said he should like to join Mr. Vezey in thankimr the 
President for his kindness and courtesy. He had greatly enjoyed 
Dr. Woodward's demonstration, and could only say that their President 
had given them, in the short time at his disposal, as much information as 
it would take them a week of hard reading to acquire ; and even then, 
speaking personally, Mr. Wesche doubted if he would have understood 
it as well. 

The President said he was glad to know that these visits had given 
pleasure to those who responded to his invitation, and only regretted that 
more persons had not been able to attend. Unfortunately, on the second 
occasion a pitchy darkness prevailed, so that he feared it was for the 
most part necessary to accept his descriptions of objects which they were 
scarcely able to see. He hoped, however, that as the new year advanced, 
they should be able to arrange for some further meetings — under more 
favourable atmospheric conditions. 



The List of Donations to the Society, exclusive of exchanges and 
reprints, received since the last Meeting, was read, and the thanks of the 
Society were voted to the Donors. 

Abbe, Gesammelte Abbandlun^en. Band I., Abhandlungenl Th n j,r -L 
iiber die Theorie des Mikrosknps. (8vo, Jena, 1904) . . . . / ine l umslier - 

Herdman, W. A., Report on tbe Pearl Oyster Fisheries of tbel „,, r> 7 a • , 
GulfofManakr. (4to, London, 1903) ^ The Royal Society. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 127 

Mr. F. W. Watson Baker said that he had brought for exhibition a 
series of sixteen specimens illustrating the development of an Ascidian. 
A card describing the specific object shown was placed beside each 
Microscope, so that no detailed description would be further necessary ; 
but he miglit mention briefly that the series originated as follows. Two 
simple Ascidians of the same species were under observation in a small 
dish ; one was observed to eject a number of ova, and in about one 
minute the second Ascidian discharged some spermatozoa, and fertilised 
them : then the process of development proceeded, as illustrated in the 
specimens exhibited. The specimens had been seen by well-known 
experts in such matters, and as they had considered them to be an 
exceedingly complete and valuable series, it had been thought worth 
while to bring them for exhibition before the Fellows of the Society. 

The President expressed his sense of the indebtedness of the Society 
to Mr. Watson Baker for his extremely interesting exhibition, and also 
proposed that their thanks should be voted to Messrs. Watson and Sons 
for their kindness in lending the Microscopes under which the objects 
were shown. 

The thanks of the Meeting were unanimously voted to Mr. Watson 
Baker and to Messrs. Watson and Sons. 



Dr. G. J. Hinde, F.R.S., then read his paper ' On the Structure 
and Affinities of the Genus Porosplmra,'' which he illustrated by dia- 
grams, and by the exhibition of numerous specimens, a large number 
of which he had found in his garden at Croydon, where they had no 
doubt been weathered out of the Chalk, and were now commingled in 
the thin layer of surface soil overlying the Chalk. 

The President said it would be unnecessary to ask the Fellows 
present to return their thanks to Dr. Hinde — as they had done so 
already— for his very interesting communication, which was in itself 
an object lesson on the way in which a subject of that kind should be 
approached. He had worked out the structure of Porosphsera from 
materials which, though very abundant, did not appear to have been 
carefully studied by anyone who had hitherto taken it up ; they all 
seemed to have been satisfied with noticing the mere external appearance. 
Long before Mr. Worthington Smith took up the subject of Coscino- 
pora in the Bedford Gravels, Mr. Read brought to Prof. Owen a mass 
of these beads which he had picked out of the gravel in close proximity 
to a number of flint implements ; and Mr. Wyatt also found a large 
number of these specimens, which were still preserved in the geological 
collection. The President also thought that his own father, Mr. Samuel 
Woodward, was one of the earliest to notice Coscinopora, as he had 
figured them in his Geology of Norfolk, as far back as 1833, and might 
possibly even have antedated Phillips. 

Mr. D. J. Scourfield asked whether it was known what was the 
special function of the radial canals, and how was the water supposed 
to circulate in these curious organisms ? 

Dr. Hinde in reply, said that Phillips named these forms in 1829 ; 
and that Mr. S. Woodward in 1833 adopted Phillips' names for the 
sirao fossils. He believed the radial canals were excurrent in function ; 



128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

there were a number of small apertures occurring between the spicules 
of the fibres through which the water may possibly have entered, and 
then found its way out through the radial canals. He desired to express 
his thanks to the Fellows of the Society for the attention which they 
had given to what he feared must have been a very dry subject. 

The thanks of the Society were cordially voted to Dr. Hinde for his 
communication. 

The Secretary reminded the Fellows that their next Meeting, on 
January 20th, would be the Anniversary Meeting of the Society, at 
which the Officers and Council for the ensuing year would have to be 
elected. He therefore read the following list of nominations by the 
Council, to be submitted for election by the Fellows at the Annual 
Meeting;. 

President— Dr. D. H. Scott. 

Vice-Presidents— Messrs. A. D. Michael, E. M. Nelson, H. G. Plimmer, 
and Dr. Hy. Woodward. 

Treasurer — Mr. Yezey. 

Secretaries — Bcv. Dr. Dallinger and Dr. Hebb. 

Council — Messrs. J. M. Allen, Wynne E. Baxter, C. Beck, Bev. E. 
Carr, Mr. A. N. Disney, Dr. J. W. H. Eyre, Messrs. J. W. Gordon, 
G. C. Karop, Bt. Hon. Sir Ford North, Messrs. T. H. Powell, P. E. Badley, 
and C. F. Bousselet. 

Librarian — Mr. Badley. 

Curator — Mr. Bousselet. 

The Secretary also announced that Mr. W. E. Baxter had been 
appointed Auditor on behalf of the Council, and invited the Fellows 
present to elect an Auditor to act on behalf of themselves. 

Mr. J. M. Offord thereupon proposed Mr. Chas. L. dirties as Auditor, 
and this having been seconded by Mr. Ersser, was put to the Meeting 
and unanimously carried. 

It was further announced that the Booms of the Society would be 
closed from December 24th to January 2nd inclusive. 



The President said that he hoped to take as the subject of his 
Address at the next Meeting, " The Vertebrate Forms of Life," — in con- 
tinuation of his subject of the previous year. 



The following Instruments, Objects, etc., were exhibited : — 
Mr. F. W. Watson Baker :— Sixteen slides illustrating the de- 
velopment of an Ascidian : (1) The fertilised ovum ; (2) after 30 
minutes, segmentation ; (3) 1 hour ; (4) 1 hour 35 mins. ; (5) 2 hours ; 
(6) 2 hours 25 mins. ; (7) 3 hours ; (8) 3 hours 40 mins. ; (9) 5 hours 
55 mins. ; (10) 10 hours 25 mins. ; (11) 14 hours 15 mins. ; (12) 20 
hours; (13) 25 hours 15 mins.; (14) 49 hours; (15) 73 hours ; 
(16) 10 days, fixing stage. 

Dr. George J. Hinde : — Specimens of Fossil Calcisponges belonging 
to the genus Porosphaera, from the English Chalk : Porosphaera globu- 
Jaris Phill. sp., Upper Chalk, Gravesend, young specimens ; P.globu- 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 129 

laris, Upper Chalk, South Croydon, section showing skeleton spicules ; 
P. globidaris Phill. sp., Upper Chalk, Sidcup, Kent, young specimen 
preserved in Flint ; P. pileolus, Upper Chalk, zone of Micraster cor- 
anguinvm, South Croydon, vertical section showing skeleton spicule ; 
section of Tertiary Calcisponge, Plecironinia Halli H., Eocene Tertiary, 
Moorabool, Victoria, Australia : for comparison with Porosphaera and 
section of recent Calcisponge, Petrostroma Sclmhei, Doderlein, Sagamai 
Bay, Japan, also for comparison with Porosphsera. 



New Fellows. — The following were elected Ordinary Fellows : — 
Messrs. A. P. W. Heupt, and W. A. Riley. 



ANNIVERSARY MEETING. 

Held on the 20th of January, 1904, at 20 Hanover Square, W. 
Dr. Henry Woodward, F.R.S., Etc., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Ordinary Meeting of the 16th of December, 
1903, were read and confirmed, and were signed by the President. 



The President having appointed Mr. Rheinberg and Mr. Taverner 
to act as Scrutineers, the ballot for Officers and Council for the ensuing 
year was proceeded with. 



The List of Donations received since the last Meeting (exclusive 
of exchanges and reprints), was read, and the thanks of the Society 
were voted to the donors. 

From 
Michelsen, A. A., Light Waves and their Uses. (8vo, London, j The University 

1903) "" / of Chicago Press. 

Abbe, Ernst, Gesammelte Abhandlungen. Erster Bd. Abhand- j^ ggr< q^ ^eiss 
lungen iiber die Theorie deB Mikroskops. (8vo, Jena, 1904) / 



Mr. C. F. Rousselet exhibited an old form of Microscope by Plossl 
of Vienna, which had been sent to the Society on approval, and read 
a full description of the instrument. 

The thanks of the Meeting were unanimously voted to Mr. Rousselet 
for his communication. 



Feb. 17th, 1904 K 



130 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

The Scrutineers having handed in the result of the ballot, the 
President declared the following gentlemen to have been elected as the 
Officers and Council of the Society for the ensuing year. 

President— DuMnfield Henry Scott, M.A. Ph.D. F.R.S. F.L.S. 

Vice-Presidents— A. D. Michael, F.L.S. ; E. M. Nelson ; Henry 
Geo. Plimmer, F.L.S. ; Henry Woodward, LL.D. F.R.S. F.G.S. F.Z.S. 

Treasurer — J. J. Vezey. 

Secretaries— Rev. W. H. Dallinger, LL.D. D.Sc. D.C.L. F.R.S. 
F.L.S. F.Z.S ; R. G. Hebb, M.A. M.D. F.R.C.P. 

Other Members of Council — Jas. Mason Allen ; Wynne E. Baxter, J.P. 
F.G.S. F.R.G.S. ; Conrad Beck ; Rev. Edmund Carr, M.A. F.R.Met.S. ; 
A. N. Disney, M.A. B.Sc. ; J. W. H. Eyre, M.D. F.R.S. (Edin.) ; George 
C. Karop, M.R.C.S. ; The Rt. Hon. Sir Ford North, P.C. F.R.S. ; 
Thomas H. Powell ; Percy E. Radley ; Charles F. Rousselet. 

Librarian — Percy E. Radley. 

Curator — Charles F. Rousselet. 



The Secretary called attention to the fact that although at the last 
Meeting twelve Fellows had been nominated to serve on the Council, 
the names of eleven only appeared on the ballot papers. This was owing 
to one gentleman having found, since the last Meeting, that it would 
be inconvenient for him to attend, and having consequently withdrawn 
his name. They were, however, perfectly within their legal rights in 
electing only eleven on that occasion. 



The Report of the Council for the year 1003 was then read by the 
Secretary, as follows. 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL FOR 1903. 

FELLOWS. 

Ordinary. — During the year 1003, 10 new Fellows have been elected, 
15 have resigned, 9 have died, and have been removed from the list. 
Among those who have died are found the distinguished names of 
James Glaisher, President from 1865 to 1868 ; of Charles Thomas 
Hudson, President from 1888 to 1890 ; and of Rudolf Yirchow ; the 
two last being Honorary Fellows. 

The list of Fellows now contains the names of 422 Ordinary, 
1 Corresponding, 44 Honorary, and 82 Ex-Officio Fellows, being a 
total of 540. 

THE JOURNAL. 

The papers communicated to the Society during the past year have 
fully maintained their previous high standard ; some indeed, notably 
those of Mr. J. W. Gordon, Dr. H. Siedentopf and Lord Rayleigh, being 
of unusual merit and importance. 

The Summary of Current Researches continues to be of the same 
merit as heretofore. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 131 



FINANCE. 



There is not much calling for special notice in reference to Finance 
during the past year. It is satisfactory to note an improvement in the 
amount received for admission fees, and a material increase under the 
head of Annual Subscriptions. This is partly owing to the more prompt 
payment of the Annual dues, and the Treasurer hopes Fellows will see 
the desirability of maintaining this improvement, as it greatly facilitates 
the financial arrangements of the Society. 

The sale of the Journal has somewhat fallen off in the past year, 
but the Council trusts it is only a temporary decline. The Journal for 
11)03 compares most favourably with any of the preceding years, and 
as the editorial and abstracting staff receive very small remuneration 
for their services, the expenses of publication are reduced to the lowest 
possible figure. In spite of this, however, Fellows will observe that 
the cost of the Journal swallows up nearly the whole of the Annual 
Subscriptions. It is therefore imperative that the sale of the Journal 
outside the Society should be well kept up, otherwise its maintenance 
at its present high standard cannot be continued. 

Though some of the issues of the Journal during the past year have 
been of exceptional size, the cost of printing and illustrating has been 
kept within the ordinary limits. 

During the year a further investment in India 3 per cents, was made, 
consisting of the admission and compounding fees received in the 
previous year. 

The Treasurer has been enabled to keep a somewhat larger sum than 
usual on deposit during the year, which is a matter of great importance, 
as it is only by the strictest economy that the finances of the Society 
can be kept in a satisfactory condition. 

Instruments, Apparatus, Etc. 

The Instruments and Apparatus in the Society's Collection continue 
to be in good condition. 

With the consent of the Council two of our old Microscopes, 
Nos. 20a and 31 in the Catalogue, being duplicates, have been ex- 
changed with Messrs. Carl Zeiss of Jena, for two old German Micro 
scopes, types not yet represented in our Collection. 

During the past year, the following "additions have been made : — 

Feb. 18, 1903. — An old Microscope, with Apparatus. Presented 
by Mr. Frank Orfeur. 

April 15. — An Old Microscope by Dollond. Presented by Mr. Wynne 
E. Baxter. 

May 20. — An Early Compound Microscope, and an Old Microscope 
by Cary. Both presented by Mr. E. M. Nelson. 

June 17. — An Old Non-Achromatic Simple Microscope. Presented 
by Mr. E. M. Nelson. 

Oct. 21. — A Microscope by Negretti and Zambra, and Accessories, 
elonging to the late James Glaisher, F.R.S., a former President of the 
ociety. Presented by Dr. Glaisher. 



132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Two Stage-Micrometers, supposed to have been ruled by Hugh. 
Powell. Presented by Mr. E. M. Nelson. 

Some slides belonging to the late Mr. James Glaisher, F.R.S. 
Presented by his son, Dr. Glaisher. 

LIBRARY. 

The Library is in good order, and every item catalogued up to the 
end of the year 1903. The attention of Fellows is called to the rules in 
regard to the length of time books may be kept, as great inconvenience is 
sometimes caused by their non-observance. 

VISITS TO THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

On the initiative and by the invitation of the President, five visits 
have been paid to the Natural History Museum. In three of these a 
party of Fellows was conducted by the President through the Geological 
galleries, where Dr. Woodward described numerous specimens, and 
discoursed on the geological aspects of the Invertebrate,, Mammalia, and 
Reptilia. On the other occasions the parties visited the Botanical 
department under the guidance of Mr. Carruthers, and the Mineralogical 
under that of Mr. Fletcher. 

These visits were highly instructive, and much appreciated by those 
present, and should sufficient interest be evinced it may be anticipated 
that, by the kindness of Dr. Woodward and other gentlemen, further 
visits may be arranged for. 



The Treasurer read the Annual Statement of Account and Balance 
Sheet for l'J03, which had been audited and found correct. 

Mr. Marshall then moved, " That the Report and Balance Sheet now 
read be received and adopted, and that they be printed and circulated in 
the usual way." 

The motion, having been seconded by Mr. Gardner, was put to the 
Meeting by the President, and carried unanimously. 



Dr. E. J. Spitta said he should like to ask the Council if they would 
consider whether it would be possible to issue post-cards, to such Fellows 
who desired to have them, intimating the subjects to be brought before 
the Meetings of the Society a few days before the date of the Meeting. 
He thought, in common with some others, that they lost a great deal in 
consequence of the absence of such information, for everyone had his 
own tastes, and if they knew beforehand what was going to be discussed, 
Fellows interested in that special subject would attend the Meeting, and 
add to their general knowledge. He hoped, therefore, that the Council 
would kindly take the suggestion into consideration, and that they might 
be able to see the advisability of introducing the practice. It had been 
tried at the Royal Astronomical Society, and he believed at other learned 
societies, and found to be of great advantage. The only objection to it 
was the expense, but he thought this would not be a very serious matter, 



TROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



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134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

as only a comparatively few persons outside London, who do not see the 
advertisements in the newspapers or the notices in the opticians' shop- 
windows, would need to be advised in this way. 

The Secretary reminded the speaker that the subjects of the papers 
and demonstrations to come before the next Meeting were duly notified 
in several journals, e.g. Nature, The Athenceum, The Standard, and 
others. 

A Fellow thought that any gentlemen who sent stamped and 
addressed post-cards to the Society for the purpose might have these 
filled in and posted to them, if they so desired. 

The President said that if this motion was offered as a suggestion to the 
Council, they would no doubt be very glad to take it into their considera- 
tion. He was of opinion that it would greatly conduce to the interest of 
the Meetings of the Society if the Fellows knew beforehand the nature 
of the papers to be brought before the Meeting. To send a notice to 
each individual member might, however, be beyond the capacity of the 
clerical staff ; the question of expense would also have to be considered. 
But in any case, he felt sure that the Council would carefully consider it. 

Sir Ford North did not think that they could dispose of the question 
at once, as no formal resolution could be put at this Meeting, but the 
motion might be treated as a request to the Council to take the matter 
into consideration. The expense could not be very much, and he thought 
the suggestion a desirable and useful one. 



The President then gave his Annual Address, taking as his subject 
' The Evolution of Vertebrate Animals in Time,' but intimated that 
instead of giving it in extenso he intended merely to read the first few 
pages, and then to exhibit the slides which he had brought in illustra- 
tion, offering a brief description of each. 

The slides, to the number of about eighty, were then shown upon 
the screen, the special points of interest being pointed out. 

Mr. A. D. Michael said it was almost unnecessary for him — after the 
applause which had just subsided — to do so, but yet he rose with very 
great pleasure to propose a vote of thanks to the President for his 
admirable and most interesting Address, in which he had been carrying 
them through the Vertebrata in the same way as he took them through 
the Invertebrata at the Annual Meeting of the previous year. They 
had also to thank the President for his services to the Society during 
his whole term of office, and for the unfailing interest which he had 
taken in its affairs. He should like, therefore, to propose that their 
heartiest thanks be given to Dr. Woodward for his conduct in the Chair 
during the term for which he had occupied it, and for the great service 
he had rendered to the Society, and the extreme interest he had taken 
in it during his period of office. He w T as sure there was not a Fellow 
present who would not feel that they were losing a President who had 
filled that position admirably during a period which they would all 
remember with the greatest pleasure. 

Sir Ford North, on behalf of Dr. Braithwaite (who had been obliged 
to leave the Meeting earlier) had great pleasure in seconding the motion. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 135 

Mr. A. D. Michael said that as the President would be unable to 
put this motion to the Meeting, he had much pleasure in submitting 
that the best thanks of the Society be given to the President for his 
interesting and instructive Address, and for the great interest he had 
shown in the Society during his period of office. 

Carried unanimously. 

Mr. T. C. White said that a pleasant duty had been delegated to 
him, that of proposing that their best thanks be given to the Officers 
of the Society for their services during the past year. Having himself 
in former years gone all through the drudgery of office, he knew some- 
thing of what time and care were required to make things go smoothly. 
He need not particularise individuals, for they knew that all had worked 
well — indeed, they knew this so well, that it seemed hardly necessary to 
propose this vote of thanks to them. 

Mr. Webster having seconded the motion, it was put to the Meeting 
by the President, and unanimously carried. 

Mr. W. Wesche then moved that the cordial thanks of the Society 
be given to the Auditors and Scrutineers. 

Mr. J. J. Vezey had great pleasure in seconding this proposition, for 
certainly, as far as the auditors were concerned, he knew how much 
trouble had been taken and how carefully their work had been done. 

This also was put to the Meeting by the President, and carried 
unanimously. 

The President said that as they had been so kind as to accord him 
a vote of thanks, he must on his part be allowed to thank them for the 
kindness shown to him during the past two years. It had been a great 
pleasure to him to preside over such an amiable and kindly Society. He 
must further thank them for the honour they had done him in electing 
him as one of their Vice-Presidents. He hoped still to be able to render 
them some service in the future ; and if they should desire again to visit 
the Natural History Museum, he should be only too happy to conduct 
them round, and point out to them the xcellent work which was being 
carried on by the present staff, and he hoped they would be able to avail 
themselves of the offer at no distant date 

Mr. J. J. Vezey said Dr. Hebb had i ked him to respond on behalf 
of the Officers, and to thank the Fellows for the kind way in which they 
had acknowledged their services. It would, of course, be idle to say 
that the work done did not entail any" trouble, but he could say that it 
was work which they had done with a great deal of pleasure. 



The President then said it now only remained for him to ask Dr. 
Dukinfield H. Scott, F.R.S., to take the Chair, and to assure the Fellows 
that they had in their new President or. vho would be certain to do his 
best in the interests of the Society. 

Dr. D. H. Scott having taken the Chair, said it would be a poor 
return for their kindness if at that late hour of the evening he were to 
detain them with any remarks of his own ; but he could not take his 
seat without thanking them for the very great compliment paid to him, 
one which he especially appreciated, I cause this Society was the first 
scientific body he had ever joined ; and though he had not been able 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

very often to come to their meetings, he had been a constant reader of 
their Journal. He could promise them that he would do his best to 
further the interests of the Society, and he felt it a special honour to 
follow such a President as his friend Dr. Woodward. 



The following Objects, Instruments, etc., were exhibited : — 

The President, in illustration of his Address : — Table of strata giving, 
on an approximate scale, the relative thickness of the sedimentary deposits 
from the Archaean upwards, with the appearance in time of all the great 
groups of Vertebrata, Invertebrata, and Plants. 

Illustrations (more than eighty in number) were shown by means of 
the Epidiascope upon the screen. Commencing with Amphioxus, the 
Cyclostomi, and the minute denticles known as Conodonts, from the 
Cambrian and Silurian ; then illustrations of Ostracodermi, Pteraspis, 
Cephalaspis, etc. ; followed by the true fishes : commencing with the 
primitive shark CladoseJache, from the Upper Devonian of Ohio ; the 
Teleostomi, and other groups of early fishes with bony plates, enamelled 
scales, and generally a notochordal skeleton ; giving examples of the 
Crossopterygii and Actinopterygii. 

The Amphibia were represented in the Coal Measures by the 
Labyrinthodontia and other forms, whose remarkable skulls, teeth 
and skeletons were shown ; also the Caudata, illustrated by Crypto- 
branchus, and the Ecaudata by the tail-less modem Batrachians. 

Passing on to Eeptilia, Pariasaurus and other Anomodonts were 
shown, also the Plesiosaurs, Chelonia, and Ichthyosauria ; the flying 
Pterodactyls and terrestrial Dinosauria were likewise illustrated. 

The early Birds (Archjeornithes) Archceopteryx, Hesperornis, 
Ichthyornis, and the more modern Ratite or Struthious birds, and also 
the degenerate (carinate) Dodo, etc. 

Examples of the leading Mammalian types were next illustrated, as 
the Monotremes, Marsupials, Cetacea, Sirenia and Edentata ; and the 
leading examples of Ungulate quadrupeds, the Amblypoda, Proboscidea, 
Toxodontia, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, etc. 

Among special illustrations may be mentioned a carnivorous The- 
riodont Reptile from the Permian of Russia ; restorations of Arsinoi- 
therium Zitteli, a new Amblypod from Egypt ; and three ancestral 
forms of Elephant, viz. Meritherium, Palceomastodon and Tetrabelodon ; 
lastly, a beautiful slide, and an unpublished plate of Okapia Johnsoni 
were exhibited. 

Mr. C. P. Rousselet : — An Old Microscope by Plossl of Vienna. 



New Fellow. — Mr. Thomas John Davis was balloted for and duly 
elected a Fellow of the Society. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY. 

APRIL 1904. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 



IV. — The President's Address: The Evolution of Vertebrate 

Animals in Time. 

By Dr. Henry Woodward, F.R.S. 

(Delivered January 20th, 1904.) 

In my Anniversary Address to you last year, I directed attention 
to what is known of the History of the great groups of the 
Invertebrata in past geological times, and I pointed out to you, 
that although we could not trace back the phylogeny of these to 
a common stem, yet we were able to show that every individual 
group whose appearance is recorded in the various sedimentary 
deposits, and can be traced upwards through successive ages, marks 
also the evolution of its progeny; some, like the giant Oak and 
Plane-tree, putting forth many wide-spreading branches ; others, 
like the Bamboo of the tropics, attaining great length with years, 
but no lateral expansion; some families, like the Trilobites, the 
Graptolites and the Eurypterida, reaching perfection in Palaeozoic 
times, and then disappearing ; whilst others, having put forth great 
vigour in the past, have left, like some ancient tree, but one living 
branch to tell of its past greatness. 

Before proceeding with my address to the Fellows of the Royal 
Microscopical Society, I must apologise to them in that I have for 
a second time diverted their thoughts from the field of the Micro- 
scope to the field of Nature ; but every apologist has his excuses also. 

Last year I spoke of many minute organisms (which I illus- 
trated on the screen), whose whole body would not fill the aperture 
of a Microscope. 

This year I propose to speak of Vertebrate animals, many of 
which are of such large size that one of them would easily fill 

April 20th, 1904. l 



138 Transactions of the Society. 

this entire room to overflowing ; nevertheless their separate struc- 
tures, whether of bones, teeth, hairs, horns, feathers, or scales, as 
well as their blood-corpuscles and various tissues, have doubtless 
often attracted the investigation of our Fellows. I venture to think 
that an introduction to these animals and their ancestors in past 
times may not be so inappropriate as might at first sight appear, 
and that some slight account of them, as a whole, may even 
enhance the interest we may hereafter take in their minute struc- 
tures when brought to our notice under the Microscope. 

From the earliest Archaean rocks up to the Carboniferous, 
through a series of deposits more than fifteen miles in thickness, 
comprising Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian forma- 
tions, all are marine deposits, and in consequence yield scarcely 
any trace of other than marine organic remains. 

The first appearance, then, of Vertebrate life upon our earth 
must necessarily have been marine, or at least aquatic — in fact, in 
the form of fishes only. 

The first fishes were, however, without hardened skeletons, 
having a persistent notochoral, a condition of the spinal column 
characteristic of the embryo of most vertebrate animals, but only 
found to be persistent through life in the adult of a few groups of 
Fishes and Amphibia. 

The First Vertebrates. — The lowliest of these (forming the 
Leptocardii or Pharyngobranchii) is the " Lancelet " or Amphi- 
oxus — a minute animal, flattened in body and pointed at both ends, 
which has no hard parts whatever, only a membrano-cartilaginous 
skeleton without vertebra?, ribs, or jaws. 

The mouth in Amphioxus is furnished with cirri ; respiration 
is performed by gills enclosed in a branchial chamber ; and pul- 
sating vascular trunks serve instead of a heart. 

Having no hard parts to be preserved in a fossil state, we of 
course cannot claim for it great antiquity by reason of its remains 
having been met with in Palaeozoic strata ; nevertheless, its wide 
geographical distribution on the sandy coasts of the North Sea, of 
the Mediterranean, of South America, of the Indian Ocean, and 
other widely separated localities, justify us in considering it to be 
a very ancient and primitive,* as it undoubtedly is a most simple, 
form of vertebrate. 

In the next group (the Cyclostomi or Marsipobraxchii) are 
placed certain cylindrical vermiform fishes, without pectoral or 
pelvic fins, with a simple cartilaginous skeleton and persistent 
notochord. Eespiration is performed by means of a series of six 

* On similar grounds Prof. E. B. Poultou claims for the curious Arthropod 
Peripatus (which has not been found fossil, but has at present a most extensive 
terrestrial geographical range) a geological antiquity greater thau any other form 
of life we are acquainted with, " at least twice as remote as the earliest known 
Cambrian fossil." Presidential Address (Zoology), British Association, Liverpool, 
1896. 



The President's Address. By Dr. H. Woodward. 139 

or seven pairs of pouch-like gills ; the mouth is circular, or semi- 
circular and suctorial, but there are no jaws, and the teeth are 
arranged around the buccal cavity. To this order belong the 
" Lamprey " and the " Hag-fish." 

The " Lamprey " (Petromyzon) is marine, but ascends rivers to 
spawn. 

The " Hag-fish " {Myxiiie) has similar habits. Its teeth are 
numerous, minute and serrated ; it lives attached, parasitic, on 
other fishes, and even in some instances enters their body-cavity. 

The species have a very wide geographical distribution in the 
North Atlantic, the shores of Japan, Straits of Magellan, the North 
Sea, Norwegian fiords, the British shores, and many of our rivers, 
as the Thames, Severn, etc. 

The point of geological interest which they present to us is 
that, although the rest of the animal-structure is soft, or merely 
cartilaginous and incapable of conservation, their minute micro- 
scopic teeth of glistening chitinous consistence may readily have 
been preserved. 

Now certain minute bodies, like conical and serrated teeth, but 
of considerable variety of form, were discovered by Pander in the 
Silurian and Devonian rocks of Eussia, as long ago as 1856, and in 
1875 by Prof. Newberry in North America ; in 1879, they were 
obtained by Dr. G. J. Hinde, P.E.S., in the Cambrian and Silurian 
rocks of Britain, North America, and of Sweden ; and later, both 
Prof. Newberry in America, and Prof. Pander in Eussia, have ex- 
pressed the opinion that these microscopic structures belong to 
Cyclostomatous fishes, like our modern Lamprey and Hag-fish, and 
were not referable to either Annelida or Mollusca. This opinion 
was also shared by the late Prof. Huxley, who examined a series 
submitted to him by Dr. G. J. Hinde. 

In 1894, Dr. E. H. Traquair described a remarkable fossil from 
the Old Eed Sandstone of Scotland, being the nearly complete 
skeleton of a small creature, about an inch in length, having a 
calcified skeleton, the general aspect of the skull resembling that 
of a recent Lamprey, with no evidence of jaws or separate ossifica- 
tions, but with well-calcified ring-vertebrae, and neural and hremal 
spines. 

A single species, named Pcdeeosponchjlus Gunni, has been found 
in the Caithness Flagstones near Thurso. 

Another primitive group, the Ostracodermi, appears in the 
Upper Silurian and Lower Devonian, and exhibits no trace of jaws 
or of a segmented axial skeleton or arches for the support of paired 
Hmbs, but median fins are present ; with no hard internal skeleton, 
and with the notochord persistent. 

The head and trunk are invested with a dermal armour, and 
in addition to the shield covering the head there is usually one 
covering the abdomen, and a ventral plate meeting the dorsal on 

l 2 



1-40 Transactions of the Society. 

each side. The tail seems to have remained flexible. The plates- 
consist of three layers, an inner " nacreous " layer of lamellae, a 
thick middle one of polygonal cancellse, and an outer hard layer of 
vasodentine. 

The Ostracodermi comprise the Cyathaspis, Ptcraspis, Cephal- 
aspis, Pterichthys, Bothriolepis, and some others. The bodies of 
Pteraspis, Cephalaspis and Pterichthys, were covered with dermal 
enamelled scales or plates. 

They mimic in a singular manner the contemporary giant 
Crustaceans, the Eukypterida. 

Quite lately, a number of new forms have been discovered in 
the Upper Silurian of Lanarkshire, and described by Dr. E. H. 
Traquair. They are considered to be primitive Heterostraci, or 
Pteraspidian fishes, covered with a dermal armour of shagreen-like 
granules (LanarJcia spinosa), or an outline of plates with a central 
shield and a series of polygonal plates (Drepanaspis).* 

The Ostracodermi, as a group of early vertebrates, are quite 
extinct ; and their range in past time seems to have been very 
limited, namely, from the Upper Silurian to the Upper Devonian. 

If the Marsipobranchii of to-day (the " Lampreys " and the 
" Hag-fishes ") were really represented by the Cambrian Conodonts 
and the Old Eed Sandstone Palmospondylus, then these lowly 
vertebrates may claim as great a range in time as any of the 
Invertebrata ; but this point is not as yet definitely established. 

Pisces. — We have spoken of the preceding groups as Fishes, 
but they lack the important character of possessing a lower jaw, 
they also have only a notochordal skeleton, and they do not always 
possess paired appendages. 

True Fishes begin with the class Elasmobranchii, the most 
ancient of which are the sharks, which extend as far back in time 
as the Lower Devonian, the entire skeleton is cartilaginous, only 
the teeth and the periphery of the vertebras being calcified ; but 
in many species the primitive notochord is persistent ; the gills are 
not covered by an operculum, but are pouch-like, having distinct 
clefts on each side ; they have both median and paired fins, and 
the tail is heterocercal. 

Examples of Early Sharks have been discovered in a remarkable 
state of preservation in the Upper Devonian of Ohio, showing the 
complete outline of the fish with its fins and tail preserved. 
Although the jaws are cartilaginous the teeth in all are coated 
thickly with enamel and are well preserved. They also possess 
bony and enamelled dorsal spines, and microscopic shagreen 
dermal ossicles in the skin. This type is very persistent, and its 
remains are met with in almost every formation from the Devonian 
to the seas of the present clay. 

* Gcol. Mng, 1902, pp.289-291. 



The President's Address. By Dr. H. Woodward, 141 

Another interesting order are the Dipnoi, or double-breathers, 
in which both the gills and the air-bladder, which serves the 
purpose of a lung, are present, and take part in respiration. 

The modern Lepidosiren of South America, the Protopterus of 
South African rivers, and the Ccratodus (or "Mud-fish") of the 
Australian rivers, are living examples of this type. 

Teeth, like those of the living Ceratodus, occur in the older 
"Secondary formations in both hemispheres, and similar teeth, 
known as Ctenodus, occur in the Carboniferous and Permian rocks. 

The true fishes, with well-developed paired fins and jaws, the 
€rossopterygii and the Actixopterygii, are characterised by the 
presence of external ganoine-coated bony plates, with a more or 
less notochordal skeleton, or only a thin bony tube to the vertebrae 
and a gelatinous centre. 

Others, like Platysomus, Dapedius and Lepidotus, had a com- 
pact dermal covering of thickly enamelled bony scales. 

Similarly-armoured fishes like Aspidorhynchus, from the Solen- 
hofen lithographic limestone, still exist, such as the bony pike of 
the American rivers. 

The great majority of the Fishes in Secondary and, Tertiary 
times, like our modern bony-framed fishes, were Teleostomi. 

Fishes with a complete bony skeleton, and in which the gills 
are but feebly separated, and open into an external cavity covered 
by a bony operculum, are, with few exceptions, homocercal tailed. 

With the exception of the Dipnoi, all the Fishes are purely 
aquatic in their habits, and breathe simply by gills, and cannot 
sustain life for any long period out of the water. 

Amphibia. — The earliest vertebrates which show by the arrange- 
ment of the nares that they breathe by means of lungs (at least in 
the adult state) belong to the Amphibia. This group of animals are 
distinguished from true reptiles by the fact that the young undergo 
certain metamorphoses after leaving the egg. At this early stage of 
their existence they breathe by means of external gills, which are 
occasionally retained along with internal lungs in the adult animal, 
and one or more pairs of limbs may be wanting. When present, 
they have the same bones as in the limbs of higher animals ; they 
are never converted into fins ; the skull has two occipital condyles ; 
the mandible articulates directly with the skull ; teeth are commonly 
present on the premaxilla, the maxilla, the vomer, and the dentary 
bone of the mandible ; they are usually achylosed to the bone, and 
are simple in structure, but more complex in Ldbyrinthodon ; only 
two vertebrae are coalesced to form the sacrum ; sometimes the 
backbone is unossified, forming a mere ring of bone, the interior 
being gelatinous, a form of backbone called notochordal. 

The earliest of these Amphibians are found in the Coal Measures, 
Lsuch as Anthracosaurus, represented by Zoxomma, and Archegosaurus. 



142 Transactions of the Society . 

These forms are represented by Cryptobranclms, in the Miocene 
of Switzerland, and by the gigantic salamander of Cliina and Japan, 
now living. 

The tail-less Batkachia, Frogs and Toads, do not make their 
appearance until Tertiary times. 

All these forms appear to have undergone regular metamorphoses 
in the young state after leaving the egg. Some of those in the 
Coal Period, and especially in the Permian, attained to a very large 
size, and had thick bony plates covering the head. The head varies 
in form from a broadly semicircular shape in Branchiosaurus,, 
to a more elongated form in Loxomma and Archegosaurus ; the 
skull in Mastodonsaurus giganteus, from the Keuper of Wiirtem- 
berg, measured a yard in length and was broad in proportion. 

Like their modern representatives at the present day, the 
Amphibia were all of aquatic habits, although air-breathing in the 
adult ; but they were also capable of progression upon the land — - 
they represent, therefore, the first terrestrial vertebrates. 

Eepresentatives of both the tailed and tail-less forms, the Newts 
and Salamanders, and the Progs and Toads, still survive, although 
greatly reduced in .size. 

The skeleton in the Amphibia presents a combination of cha- 
racters intermediate between the lowest Mammals and certain 
of the Anomodont reptiles. 

EEPTILIA. — Of the extinct forms of Eeptiles, the Anomo- 
dontia are certainly the most remarkable, as they are among the 
most recent discoveries of geological science. They derive their 
name from the varied modification of their dentition, so unusual 
a character among Eeptiles, in which the teeth are, most generally, 
all of one pattern and size. They were all land animals, with 
limbs adapted to habitually support the body ; some were of very 
massive build, others were of much more light and agile form. 

One of the most striking of the former of these is the Paria- 
saurus Bainii, from the Trias formation of Cape Colony : the teeth 
are close set, and fused with the bone ; they resemble those of the 
Iguanodon in being worn down on their summits, as if applied to 
the mastication of vegetable food ; fifteen or sixteen are closely set 
on each side of both the upper and lower jaws ; they are very 
uniform in character, there being no means by which to separate- 
the incisors or canines from the premolars or molars ; the palate 
also bears several rows of small teeth ; the entire animal measures 
fully nine feet in length, and its skull and jaws closely resemble 
those of the short-headed Labyrinthodont Batrachia ; while the 
surface of the skull was completely covered by a bony roof 
sculptured on the surface, like the cranial plates in many 
Labyrinthodonts and Crocodilia. 

One of the most strange Ehynchocephalian reptiles is the 
Dimetrodon incisivus from the Permian of Texas, remarkable for 



The President's Address. By Dr. H. Woodward. 143 

the extraordinary dorsal fin supported upon bony prolongations 
from the dorsal spines oi' the backbone ; the body is Crocodilian in 
aspect; the legs were short, the jaws armed with exceedingly 
sharply pointed teeth, and may have served for the purpose of 
preying upon fish and other aquatic animals. 

Passing over a number of forms, Dicynodontia, etc., with 
variously modified teeth and skulls, we come to the division 
Thekiodontia, remarkable for the resemblance of the skull to that 
of a carnivorous mammal {Galesaurus, JElurosaurus), and the differ- 
entiation of the marginal teeth (so far as shape is concerned) into 
incisors, canines and molars. Only one occipital condyle, how- 
ever, articulates the skull to the vertebral column. So far as we 
are able to judge by a knowledge of recent reptiles, they exhibit an 
advance upon the Amphibia, not only in being provided with a 
foetal envelope, known as the amnion, but also by breathing by 
lungs throughout life, and never possessing branchia at any stage. 
The remarkable form Tritylodon, originally considered by Owen to 
be a mammal, has now been referred to the Theriodontia. In 
nearly all these forms the pineal foramen can be distinctly seen ; 
they have also anterior nares. 

The Saukopterygia {Plesiosauria) form another primitive group 
of reptiles, in which the bones of the skull in the temporal region 
contract into a single broad zygomatic arch. Commencing with 
small amplnbious animals in the Trias, they are represented by 
larger, truly aquatic forms through the whole of the Secondary period. 
Although these larger forms (the Plesiosauria). lived wholly in the 
open sea, they retained their two pairs of pentadactyle limbs, and 
their long-neck and lizard-like form, in contradistinction to the 
Ichthyopterygia, which have an extremely shortened neck, and are 
quite fish-like in external shape. They have a pineal foramen, and 
exhibit two large supra-temporal vacuities on the skull ; the conical 
teeth form a single series on the margin of the jaws, and they have 
distinct sockets. 

In the small Triassic form Lariosaurus, which preceded them, 
and was probably ancestrally connected, the limbs are elongated and 
slender, with five digits, and the normal number of phalanges. In 
the later genera they are modified as paddles, with shortened fore- 
and hind-limb, but still with only five digits present ; but these 
are lengthened by the addition of supernumerary phalanges, and are 
destitute of claws. They have a system of well-developed ventral 
ribs, and the skin appears to have been destitute of armour. 

The Chelonia may possibly have been developed from a highly 
modified form of Plesiosaurian. The earliest known Chelonian is 
met with in the Trias, and differs in no very important degree from 
the later forms. They have a very wide geological and geographical 
range. The genus Testudo, which is represented by many large 
living species, is found fossil in the Siwalik Hills of India and in 



144 Transactions of the Society. 

Madagascar, whilst living examples survive in the Mauritius, 
Bourbon, and many other small islands of the Indian Ocean, and on 
Galapagos Island. 

Gigantic marine turtles with extremely degenerate shells, like 
the modern leathery turtle, occur fossil in the Eocene of Europe 
and of America, and living in the West Indies. One living sub- 
order of Chelonia, the Pleuroclira, is confined to the Southern 
Hemisphere, although its fossil remains have been discovered in 
Europe and North America. The genus Miolania has been found 
in the Pleistocene deposits of Queensland, and has also been obtained 
from Lord Howe Island, 400 miles distant from the Australian 
coast. Quite recently Dr. Moreno has obtained the same genus 
(only specifically distinct) in the Tertiary deposits of Argentina, 
South America. 

The Ichthyopterygia, or fish-limbed reptiles, make their first 
appearance in the Trias, range throughout the Mesozoic, with little 
structural modification, and disappear in the Chalk. In outward 
form they must have closely resembled the Cetacean mammals of 
the present day, such as the dolphin, with its large head, long 
rostrum, numerous and uniform teeth, and no apparent neck. 
Their hind limbs have never (unlike the Cetacea) quite disappeared, 
although sometimes extremely reduced in size ; and the caudal fin 
was expanded in a vertical plane, as in fishes, not in a horizontal 
plane, as in the Cetacea. It is possible that the Ichthyopterygia 
were originally derived from land animals, as the earliest Triassic 
forms show a slightly elongated character in the radius and ulna, 
and the teeth are in less uniform series than those from the Jurassic 
and Cretaceous rocks — but we know nothing of their terrestrial 
ancestors. The vertical folding of the walls of the conical teeth is 
only paralleled by that observed in many Labyrinthodonts ; their 
short biconcave vertebral centra may also best be compared with 
Mastodonsaurus. 

Another remarkable group of Beptiles having its origin in the 
Trias, called the Khynchocephalia (beak-headed), in allusion to the 
typical beak-shaped rostrum of several of the genera, has a single 
representative at the present day in the small lizard-like Sphenodon 
or Hatteria, found on certain small islands off New Zealand. The 
two best known genera in the Permian are Palceohatteria, a long- 
tailed-lizard-like reptile of small size, and Protorosaurus, a large 
reptile from the Upper Permian ; but the British form of Hypcro- 
dapedon Gordoni from the Trias of Elgin, and a larger species 
from the Trias of Central India, with Rhynchosaurus from the 
Trias of Shropshire, and another form from Bavaria, make up a 
most remarkable and all but extinct group. 

The Squamata, or Scaled Animals, represented by the Lizards 
and Snakes, are, comparatively speaking, of recent origin, only 
going back to the Cretaceous period ; one of the earliest of these 



The President's Address. By Dr. H. Woodward. 145 

is a small aquatic animal of snake-like shape, named Doliclio- 
saurus, from the English Chalk. One extinct order must, however, 
be mentioned — the Pythonomokpha. They were truly aquatic 
reptiles with remarkable elongated snake-like bodies ; the skull 
resembled certain Lizards, such as Varanus ; the teeth are large 
and conical and fixed by tumid bases to the supporting bones ; the 
pterygoid bones also bear teeth like those on the jaw. 

We are familiar with the remains of the Great Mosasaurus from 
the Upper Chalk of Maestricht, Holland, and the more complete 
remains of Platecarpus from the Chalk of Kansas. 

Clidastcs is also found in the Chalk of America. 

Snakes occur in the Eocene of Sheppey, and of Bracklesham ; 
they have also been obtained of large size by Dr. Andrews, in beds 
of similar age in Egypt. Large lizards occur in early Tertiary 
times in Europe and in Queensland, Australia, related to Varanus. 

The Dinosauria form a singular group of very large terrestrial 
reptiles now entirely extinct. They all possessed limbs suited to 
progression on the land, and capable of sustaining the body in 
either a quadrupedal position or erect, supported on the hind-limbs 
and tail, like the kangaroo. The tail was of large size, and they 
were probably good swimmers. Some were no doubt amphibious 
in habit, the caudal appendage being expanded vertically and well 
adapted to assist in aquatic progression. The hind-quarters in a 
large number of forms are disproportionately massive as if to 
support the body in an erect position, whilst the fore-limbs were 
often exceedingly small. Some of the Dinosaurs had very massive 
and others very light, strong, and hollow bones ; the teeth in the 
latter were adapted to a carnivorous diet, while the worn surfaces 
of the former show that they were herbivorous in habit ; two or 
more of the sacral vertebra? are fused together to support the 
pelvis. 

The earliest Dinosaurs appear in the Triassic deposits ; a small, 
nearly complete, carnivorous Dinosaur was obtained in 1884 from 
the Trias of Connecticut Kiver Series — the Anchisaurus colurus ; 
these Connecticut Sandstones have long been famous for the re- 
markable foot-prints preserved upon' their slabs formerly ascribed 
to birds ; Marsh has now shown them to have been made by 
this small Dinosaur Anchisaurus. Another little reptile of car- 
nivorous habit, about the size of a rabbit, with greatly elongated 
hind limbs suggesting the generic name of Hallopus or " Leaping- 
foot," from its probable mode of progression, occurs in the Jurassic 
strata of Colorado. A third minute carnivorous form (Compsogna- 
thus) occurs in the Lithographic stone of Solenhofen ; these are 
among the smallest of the class. 

One of the largest predaceous forms was Ceratosaurus (0. nasi- 
■comis Marsh), measuring some 18 ft. in length and standing 
nearly 15 ft. from the ground. It had a horn-core on the nasal 



146 Transactions of the Society. 

bone ; the bones of the pelvis and the metatarsals are all eo-ossified", 
as in existing birds. The premaxillaries each contained three, 
and the maxillaries had each fifteen, large, powerful, and trenchant 
teeth, clearly indicating (as in our own Oolitic Megalosaurus) the 
ferocious character of the animal. 

Of the other carnivorous Dinosaurs of the American Jurassic, 
three forms, Allosaurus, Crcosaurus, and Labrosaurus, are specially 
worthy of notice. They were the natural enemies of the gigantic 
herbivorous forms that were so abundant in the same period. All 
had powerful jaws, sharp, cutting teeth, and a flexible neck. The 
fore-limbs were quite small, and the feet (manus and pes) were 
armed with strong claws for seizing their living prey. The hind- 
limbs were large and strong, and the animals probably used these 
alone either in running or leaping, or for ordinary locomotion. 

The herbivorous Dinosaurs comprising the Sauropoda are the 
most primitive and gigantic forms of the group. Atlantosaurus^ 
is only known from imperfect remains ; but the pelvic bones and 
femur of A. immanis give an idea of its gigantic size. The femur 
is over 6 ft. in length, and this, with the other portions of the 
skeleton, indicate (says Marsh) an animal about 70 or 80 ft. in 
length ! 

Brontosaurus is known from nearly an entire skeleton, which 
measured more than 60 ft. in length. The head is remarkably 
small, probably smaller in proportion to the body than in any 
other known reptile. The neck is long and flexible, the body 
short, the tail much elongated. There are about thirteen cervical 
vertebra?, with a very small neural canal and no neural spines. 
The hatchet-shaped ribs are fused with the anterior cervicals but 
free on those behind. Its skeleton is distinguished among Dino- 
saurs by the peculiar lightness of its vertebral column, the cervical, 
dorsal, and sacral vertebrae, all having very large cavities in their 
centra ; the first three caudals, also, are lightened by excavations 
in their sides. 

An animal fully equal in size to Brontosaurus, named Cetio- 
saurus, has been obtained from the Oxford Clay of Peterborough, 
and, although imperfect, the skeleton shows it to have been as 
large as the American form.* 

The Sauropodous Dinosaurs, of which Cetiosaurus and Diplodo- 
cus are examples, are the largest known four-footed animals. Their 
weight must have been so great that it is difficult to believe they 
were active on the land. Their remains are often found in marine 
deposits, and Prof. E. D. Cope has suggested that, like the extinct 
sea-cow {Bhytina), they may have lived on the sea-shore browsing; 

* This specimen may be seen exhibited in the Reptilian Gallery of the Geo- 
logical Department, British Museum of Natural Hi.-tory, Cromwell Road, haviug- 
been lately set up by the present Keeper. Dr. Arthur Smith Woodward, F.R.S. The= 
specimen was obtained by A. N. Leeds, Esq., F.G.S., Eyebury, mar Peterborough. 



TJtc President's Address. By Dr. H. Woodward. 147 

on the sea-weeds just below low-water mark. This theory would 
afford an explanation of the long, slender neck. The animal, on 
account of its great weight, would be able to walk in tolerably- 
deep water and reach the surface to breathe, by means of its neck 
without the necessity of swimming. 

Another remarkable form met with in America is named 
Diplodocus. 

The orbits are large and placed far back in the cranium ; the 
facial portion is elongated and broadened in front; the nasal 
opening is very large and placed near the apex of the skull. The 
teeth are very weak, slender, and cylindrical in shape, like a row 
of bluntly rounded pins, and are all crowded to the front of the 
jaw, twenty-six above and twenty below, forty-six in all. No- 
restoration of this Dinosaur has been attempted, but it is believed 
to have been from 40 ft. to 50 ft. in length. The teeth indicate a 
herbivorous diet, the animal feeding largely upon succulent vege- 
tation, and the position of the nares seems to indicate an aquatic 
mode of life. Morosaurus is placed near to Diplodocus. The 
limbs suggest a plantigrade progression, as in Brontosaurus. There 
does not appear to be any representative of Diplodocus out of North 
America. 

Some of the Dinosaurs had a remarkable defensive armour : for 
instance, Stcgosaurus had a row of enormous vertical plates forming 
a single series and reaching from the head to the tail, the extremity 
being armed by one or more pairs of large spines ; the head was 
very small, as in Brontosaurus. We have in this country an inter- 
esting example of an armoured Dinosaur in Scelidosaurus Harrisoni 
from the Lias of Dorsetshire ; the back was protected by plates and 
spines ; there were also lateral rows of smaller tubercles ; the head 
was small and furnished with teeth, like those in the Iguanodon. 

Triccratops was a large Cretaceous Dinosaur, the head being 
6 ft. in length and broad in proportion ; it had a huge bony frill 
margined by tubercles, covering the back of the neck and joined 
to the skull. A pair of bony horns were placed, one over each eye, 
covered in life by a horny sheath, and a smaller central one over 
the nasal bones ; the extremity of the beak was provided with a 
horny bill, both in the lower and upper mandible. The cheek 
teeth are very singular among reptiles, having two distinct roots, 
placed transversely in the jaw, with a separate cavity for each 
fang ; this structure in the teeth is truly remarkable, being charac- 
teristic of the Mammalia. 

One of the earliest Dinosaurs known in this country is the 
Iguanodon, originally described by Dr. Mantell and more fully by 
Prof. Owen, but neither of these anatomists had anything but very 
imperfect remains and detached bones to guide them in arriving 
at a correct idea of the form of the entire animal. Mr. Water- 
house Hawkins, in 1857, commenced a series of restorations of 



148 Transactions of the Society. 

extinct animals for the Crystal Palace Company at Sydenham, 
then in its palmy days. Among these restorations may still he 
seen the Iguanodon, represented as a pentaaaetyle four-footed beast, 
the fore and hind limbs being of equal length. From the remark- 
able discoveries made of late years in the Wealden deposits at 
Bernissart in Belgium, we now know the true character of the 
entire skeleton of the Iguanodon, a reproduction of the Brussels 
Museum skeleton being set up in the Natural History Museum in 
Cromwell Eoad. 

The proportion between the fore and hind limbs is truly re- 
markable ; the tail was of very great length ; the hind feet were 
provided with three toes, and closely resemble in their digits the 
foot of ordinary birds ; the fore limbs are very much shorter than 
the hind limbs, and have the full complement of five digits. In an 
erect position, the animal would measure 15 ft. in height, and about 
twice that in length ; the only defensive armour consisted of a 
strong spine on the thumb of each hand, covered in life by a horny 
sheath ; the cheek teeth, which are very numerous in the sides of 
the jaw, were — by the trituration of their food (which was of a 
vegetable nature) — worn fiat on their tops, like the molar teeth in 
horses. Instead of front teeth, there was a horny covering to the 
jaws above and below, resembling the beak in the Tortoise or Turtle, 
by means of which they cropped their food. 

Remains of the carnivorous form of Dinosaur, the Mcgalosaurus, 
are only imperfectly preserved to us, but from its teeth, limbs, and 
vertebra we know that it was predaceous in habit, its teeth being 
adapted for cutting and tearing flesh, not vegetable food ; the feet 
and hands were armed with sharp claws, like those of carnivorous 
mammals of the present day. In this group of reptiles, which 
formerly occupied nearly the whole terrestrial field in the Secondary 
period, we find the same arrangement as among existing mammals, 
that is to say, many and very numerous forms of Herbivora, 
mostly slow-moving, heavy beasts, and a few types of very active 
and formidable Carnivora, whose business it was to keep down the 
excessive number of the Herbivora. 

Pterosauma, the flying Lizards, form a remarkable extinct 
order of Winged Reptiles only met with in the Secondary rocks. 
These animals had the centra of the vertebrae hollow in front ; they 
possessed a broad sternum, or " breast bone," with a median ridge 
or keel, similar to that of birds ; the jaws were usually armed with 
teeth fixed in sockets. The fore limbs had a short humerus, a long 
radius and ulna, and one of the fingers of the hand was enormously 
elongated to give support to the wing-membrane (patagium), which 
was attached to the sides of the body, the arm, the thumb, and the 
long finger, and also to the hind limb and tail. The other fingers 
of the hand were free, and furnished with claws. The wing- 
membrane appears to have resembled that of the Bat, being desti- 



The President's Address. By Dr. H. Woodward. 140 

tute of feathers. The caudal series of vertebra in some genera (as 
in Bhamphorhynchus) was greatly elongated, and stiffened with 
slender ossified fibres. The bones were pneumatic (i.e. filled with 
air-cavities), the walls of the bones being very thin, and their 
substance very hard and compact, thus combining strength with 
lightness. A great American Pterodactyl, Pteranodon, with a head 
4 ft. long, had its jaws armed with a horny bill and no teeth ; the 
expanded wings measured about 18 ft. across. The remains of 
another form, met with in the English Chalk of Kent, had its jaws 
armed with teeth, and possessed wings of equal expanse. The 
Dimorphodon, from the Lias of Lyme Regis, had a rather large head, 
armed with lancet-like teeth, and a long rigid tail, which served 
— like the same organ in Bhamphorhynchus, from the lithographic 
stone of Bavaria — as a rudder to steer by, being provided with 
an expanded membrane near its extremity, like the blade of a 
canoe-paddle. Many forms, varying greatly in size, some no bigger 
than a sparrow, others as large as Pteranodon, existed in the Lias, 
Oolites, Greensand and Chalk, but they have all now disappeared, 
and left no representatives behind among living beings. 

The Crocodilia make their appearance in the Keuper and Lias 
and are well represented by long and broad-headed forms in the 
Secondary and Tertiary periods, but they offer but few points of 
interest, save to the comparative anatomist, by which to separate 
them specially from living forms. The Crocodiles belong to Pro- 
fessor Owen's group the Procoelia, having the vertebrae concave in 
front ; this includes the long-snouted Garials, as well as the short- 
headed Alligators and Crocodiles, and various Tertiary forms. 

The Secondary genera belong to Owen's Amphiccelia, in which 
the vertebra? are concave .at both ends. Belodon, in the Keuper of 
Stuttgart, and Stagonolejris, in the Trias of Elgin, are among the 
oldest forms. 

AVES. — Birds are so similar to reptiles in all the most essen- 
tial features of their organisation, that they may be said to be merely 
extremely modified and aberrant forms of the reptilian type ; still, 
the differences which they present are sufficiently great to justify 
their being placed in a distinct class. Another reason why Birds 
are placed in an intermediate position between the Eeptilia and 
Mammals is because, whilst their bony skeleton most closely 
relates them to the Eeptilia, yet the fact that the chambers of the 
heart in Birds are completely separated, as in Mammals, the blood 
in consequence possesses a high temperature — in spite of all the 
changes of external variations to which they are subjected — the loss 
of heat being provided against by the clothing of down and 
feathers, which preserves them from cold, just as the thick coat of 
hair and wool does in the Mammalia. 

The most ancient type of birds was supposed to be some 
gigantic forms of struthious birds, such as the Ostrich, Bhea, Emu, 



150 Transactions of the Society, 

Cassowary or Apteryx ; but the bird-like footprints in the Trias, 
which gave support to this belief, were not accompanied by any 
osseous remains. When such remains were met with, they proved 
that the supposed footprints of great Eatite birds were really made 
by bird-footed bipedal reptiles. When a feathered fossil was first 
discovered, its bony skeleton, although accompanied by impressions 
of feathers, presented so many points of resemblance with the 
Eeptilia, as to lead the German naturalist Wagner to name it 
Gryphornis. This bird, the Archceopteryx, was obtained from the 
lithographic stone of Solenhofen, Bavaria, and exhibited a tail 
elongated like that of a lizard, comprising some twenty free vertebra?, 
each bearing a pair of feathers. The pelvis was not constructed of 
a large number of anchylosed vertebrae, but had only two or three 
vertebras coalesced with the iliac bones ; the vertebras were either 
amphiccelous or with flat ends ; the sternum is not well known, but 
the furculum resembles that of modern carinate birds. The wing 
was small, with three free digits, each terminated by a claw. It 
is not certain if the metacarpal bones were fused together or not ; 
the hind limb is essentially Avian, but the tibia does not show the 
usual cnemian crest. In addition to the characters of the tail and 
wing-bones, the skull also — which was very imperfectly preserved 
in the first example — is now known (from a second example pre- 
served in the Berlin Museum), to have been furnished with a series 
of conical teeth, both in the upper maxillae and the mandible. The 
foot is that of a true perching bird. 

The next example of a fossil bird met with is from the Upper 
Chalk of Kansas, in America, and makes us acquainted with a 
huge fish-eating ratite bird, resembling in general form the loons 
and grebes. The Bcsperornis, which was apparently destitute of 
wings, possessed a long neck, and elongated skull ; the margins of 
both jaws are provided with very numerous teeth arranged in 
grooves, not in distinct sockets. There are twenty-three pre-sacral 
vertebras united with saddle-shaped articulations, like those of 
modern birds, seventeen being cervical vertebras ; fourteen are 
fused together in the much-extended sacrum, and there are twelve 
caudals, eight or nine of which are free. 

The femur is remarkably short, thick, and flattened ; the tibia- 
tarsus is the largest bone in the skeleton, and very stout and 
powerful, its legs and feet being admirably adapted for swimming 
and diving ; there are four digits in the foot, the fourth or outer 
toe being much the largest. One specimen discovered shows traces 
of feathers, which were soft and plume-like over the whole 
body. 

The Hcspcrornis rcgalis attained a height of 3 ft. 6 in. when 
standing. On account of its ratite breast-bone, and its rudi- 
mentary wings, it has been spoken of by Marsh as " the swimming 
ostrich." 



The President's Address. By Dr. H. Woodward. 151 

Another Cretaceous bird, Ichthyornis victor, also from Kansas, 
appears to have been possessed of powerful flight, with a strongly- 
formed and deeply carinate breast-bone ; the beak being like 
Hesperomis armed with teeth, but implanted in distinct sockets. 
The vertebrce were bi-concave, as is the case with a few recent and 
many extinct reptiles. 

The Odontopteryx toliapicus, from the London Clay of Sheppey, 
also had a powerful serrated bill well adapted for seizing fishy 
prey. An imperfect skull of a large bird, from Sheppey, probably 
allied to the ostrich, is named Dasomis Londinicnsis. 

We have another struthious bird, Gastornis Klaaseni, from 
the lower Eocene of Croydon, as large as an ostrich but more 
robust. 

A similar bird, Gastornis jxirisiensis, was found in the Eocene 
of Meudon, near Paris. 

Fossil bird remains have not unfrequently been met with in 
the Miocene-Tertiary beds of Allier, La Grive-St. Alban, in France, 
the Brown Coal of Bonn, and from Oeningen in Switzerland. 
Another fossil Ostrich comes from the Miocene of the Siwalik 
Hills in India. But the most wonderful assemblage of fossil bird 
remains met with anywhere has been found in the islands of New 
Zealand. Here since first these birds were isolated and left alone 
unmolested to increase and multiply, undisturbed by man the 
destroyer, or by any carnivorous mammal ; with only two possible 
enemies, a large vulturine bird Harpagornis, and the "Kea" 
parrot which, is carnivorous in its habits ; — for untold centuries 
they remained and flourished until the advent of the Maoris, who 
commenced their steady destruction, which must have gone 
on probably for hundreds of years. Mr. Commissioner Mantell 
discovered at Poverty Bay the native ovens where the Maoris 
prepared their repasts, and where the bony remains of hundreds 
of these birds were found associated with the charcoal of the fires 
in which they had been cooked. They were probably living as 
lately as down to the first visits paid to New Zealand by white men 
in 1642 ;* or even when Capt. Cook, the navigator, sailed around 
the islands in 1769-70, and took - possession of them for the 
British Government ; they however remained uncolonised by the 
English until the year 1840. The Maoris, being cannibals, created 
some little trouble, as after exterminating all the wingless birds, 
they proceeded to Chatham Islands, 500 miles distant from New 
Zealand, where they devoured all the natives. 

Some idea may be formed of the enormous length of time 
during which these great Eatite birds, Dinornithidce, must have 
lived undisturbed, from the fact that some twenty species have 
been described, varying in size from animals 12 ft. or more in 

* These Islands were first discovered by Tasman in 1G42. 



152 Transactions of the Society. 

height down to individuals but little bigger than the existing 
Kiwi or Apteryx. It is quite possible that these great wingless 
birds, which must have existed in thousands, judging by their 
remains, once occupied a land area far larger than the existing 
islands of New Zealand. Of wingless birds on these islands the 
Apteryx alone survives. 

In the adjacent continent of Australia two species, the Emu 
and the Cassowary are living, and two other forms named Drom- 
ornis and Genyornis are extinct. On the island continent of 
Madagascar, near the coast of Africa, the JEpyomis was once 
equally abundant, and like the Dinomis in New Zealand was 
represented by several well-marked species, some of which attained 
a size as great as that of the Dinomis ; and the eggs which have 
been very commonly found in the sands of Madagascar, surpass 
in size those of any bird's egg known, living or extinct. On 
the neighbouring continent of Africa, the Ostrich still survives. 
In South America another struthious bird also exists, named the 
Ehea, and a fossil bird of very great size, the Pliororhachos, from 
the Tertiary of Patagonia, which was probably as tall as the 
Dinomis and destitute of the power of flight. 

It is not positively known whether the great series of 
wingless Birds, the Eatitce or Eaft-breasted Birds, originally 
belonged to one family or not ; they are now certainly very widely 
separated on the great Southern land-areas, and if they have 
sprung from a common ancestor in the past, they afford remarkable 
evidence of the high antiquity of Birds on the surface of the earth. 
One wingless bird, the Dodo, found only on the Island of Mauritius, 
was probably exterminated more than 250 years ago by man. 
The Dodo was a great wingless ground pigeon, which had lost 
by disuse the power of flight, and so fell an easy prey to the 
early Dutch navigators, who devoured them all. The Mascarene 
Islands were also the ancient home of the Solitaire (Pezohaps) 
which inhabited the island of Bodiguez, the " weka " or wood-hen 
(Erythromachus), a great species of crake, and several other birds 
now quite extinct. 

The Penguins (Spheniscidcc) have fossil representatives in New 
Zealand and Patagonia. They range at the present day from South 
America to the Falkland Islands, South Africa, Australia, New 
Zealand, and most of the Antarctic lands, but are not met with 
north of the Equator. 

The Great Auk (Alca impennis), though separated from its 
representatives in the Antarctic, is a corresponding type of fish- 
eating, diving, wingless birds, in which the wing no longer functions 
as a wing, but rather as the fore-arm or flipper of an aquatic 
mammal or reptile : it is, in fact, only used in swimming. Once 
common on all the Arctic lands, just as the Penguin is at the 
present day on the Antarctic coasts and islands, it lived around the 



The President's Address. By Dr. H. Woodward. 153 

shores of Scotland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Greenland, and the shores 
of Newfoundland, but since the year 1844 it has been completely 
exterminated by man. 

Mammalia. — In the earlier groups of the Vertebrata which we 
have already considered, the young have, as a rule, been deposited 
by the parent enclosed in an egg, while in a few instances they 
have been found to be hatched before birth, as in the case of the 
Viper among Reptiles, the Blenny among Fishes, the Scorpion in 
the Arachnida, the Flesh-Fly, and the Earthworm. Among Mam- 
malia in general, the foetus is nourished by the parent before birth 
by a vascular membrane called the placenta, in which it is en- 
closed, and when born it has usually attained a certain amount of 
growth ; in fact, the young are born alive, and are suckled by the 
parent until sufficiently advanced to be able to feed themselves. 

Birds, we have seen, are clothed in feathers, but the Mammalia 
have instead a hairy covering, which is seldom entirely absent 
even in huge aquatic forms like the whales ; whilst a few large, 
apparently-naked, terrestrial, tropical species possess hairs on certain 
parts of the body : for instance, the Cetacea have short bristles at 
least on the lip ; animals like the Elephant and the Hippopotamus 
have some hairs, whilst the extinct Mammoth had a complete hairy 
and woolly covering. Mammals, chen, may be described as warm- 
blooded, hairy animals, the head being attached to the vertebral 
■column by a double-occipital condyle. They are viviparous (bring- 
ing forth their young alive), and the young are suckled by a 
secretion, known as milk, furnished by the mammary glands. 

The earliest mammals known belong to the Prototheria. 

Prototheria : Multituberculata. — Two living examples of 
the Monotremata {Ornithorhynchus and Echidna), small, toothless, 
burrowing animals, probably represent the sole survivors of the 
first-known mammals of the Trias, the Stonesfield Slate, and the 
Purbeck Beds. 

There is a remarkable resemblance between the early-shed teeth 
of the immature Ornithorhynchus and the multituberculate molars 
in certain small jaws found in Mesozqic and Eocene strata. 

Some of the forms originally placed by Owen among the earliest 
mammals, as, for instance, Tritylodon, from the Trias of South 
Africa, are now referred to the Anomodont Pteptiles, with Cyno- 
gnathus, etc. Those still considered to represent early mammals are 
placed in the Multituberculata, on account of the number of 
tubercles borne on the molar teeth ; the most interesting of these 
are Amphilestcs, Phascolotherium, and Stereognathus, from the Great 
Oolite Stonesfield, and Plagiaulax, Microlcstcs, Bolodon, Allodon, 
Ctenacodon, from the Purbeck Beds — all these represent extremely 
small animals, not bigger than a rat or a mouse. Polymastodon is 
represented by somewhat larger animals, one being equal in size 
to a kangaroo ; the teeth are on the rodent pattern, with cutting 

April 20th, 1904 M 



154 Transactions of the Society. 

incisors, the molars and premolars being tubercular. Numerous 
remains of these small mammals have been met with in this 
country, in America, and in France, the earliest being the Droma- 
thcrium sylvestre, from the Trias of North Carolina. 

Monotremata. — The lowest type of living mammals (the Mono- 
tremata) are oviparous, the egg being apparently placed by the 
female in the marsupium or pouch of the mother, the young re- 
maining attached to the parent until able to feed themselves. 

Metatheria: Marsupialia. — In the Marsupialia, which com- 
prise the kangaroos and wombats, the young is not enclosed in an 
egg at birth, but is produced as a very minute and immature foetus, 
and placed by the parent in the marsupial pouch, where it becomes 
attached to the mammary gland, and is carried in this receptacle 
until able to run alone. 

The kangaroos and wombats are almost entirely confined at 
the present day to Australia, but one genus, Didelphys, is found 
living in South America, while fossil remains occur in Tertiary 
deposits in Europe. Possibly some of the small extinct mammals, 
whose remains have been found in the Purbeck and Stonesfield 
Slate, may have belonged to the Marsupialia. 

In Tertiary times, animals of very large size, such as the 
Diprotodon, the Nototherium, and Thylacoleo existed in numbers 
upon the Australian continent ; but these are all now extinct, and 
only the existing Kangaroos, the small Wombats, and Opossums, 
survive. 

Eutheria : Placental Mammals. — The origin of the two 
groups of marine placental mammals, the Cetacea and Sircnia, 
still remains uncertain, and Palaeontology does not afford us any 
information thereon. 

Cetacea. — The largest of all living or extinct animals belong to 
the whale tribe, probably the great Eight-whale, measured not short 
of 100 ft. in length and was many tons in weight ; the Cetacea are 
all warm-blooded mammals, and have probably been derived from 
Terrestrial ancestors who at some distant period took up an aquatic 
existence probably within the tropics ; the body in these animals 
is not clothed in fur, but beneath the skin is a thick layer of fat 
("blubber") which as effectually protects the vital organs from the 
cold in its watery home, as does the fur of any arctic animal on the 
land. The remains of Cetacea, particularly of the Toothed Whales, 
the Sperm Whale, the Dolphin, etc., are met with in deposits of 
later Tertiary age, such as the Crag of Suffolk and of Antwerp. 

The earliest known Cetacea (Zevglodon) were provided with 
cheek teeth with double fangs ; whereas the later Cetacea have no 
distinction in the teeth in their jaws, which are all simple one- 
fanged teeth of the same pattern. In the Eight-whales, teeth, 
except in the foetus, are unknown, their place being taken by 
horny plates of whalebone known as baleen, which differs greatly 



The President's Address. By Dr. H. Woodward. 155 

from teeth, being produced from the ephithelium, the cuticular 
covering of the lips. 

Sirenia. — The Sirenia form an entirely distinct group of re- 
markable aquatic vegetable-feeding animals, subsisting entirely on 
the aquatic plants in rivers, and on the great beds of laminaria 
and other sea-weeds, which grow just below low-water and 
especially abound in the North Pacific Ocean. Numerous species 
formerly existed in the Old World whose remains are met with in 
Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene strata in Europe, North Africa, in 
our own Crag formation, as well as in that of Antwerp. One 
huge form, about 20 ft. in length, known as " Steller's sea-cow," 
Rhytina f/igas, was living on the coast of Behring and Copper 
Island, off Kamchatka, between 1740 and 1780, but it was en- 
tirely exterminated by the hand of man. The adult animal was 
apparently edentulous (the young only being furnished with milk- 
teeth) ; instead of teeth there were horny palates on the upper and 
lower surface of the mouth, which, being strongly ribbed trans- 
versely, served in place of teeth. Two other surviving forms : 
one, the Manatee, inhabiting the shores and rivers of both sides of 
the Atlantic, near the line of the equator, and met with in the 
Congo in Africa, and the Amazons and Orinoco in South America ; 
the other species, the Dugong {Halicore), being confined to the 
shores and islands of the Indian Ocean, the Bed Sea, and the 
eastern shores and northern coasts of Australia. Both these forms, 
being restricted to those localities where sea- weeds and other aquatic 
plants abound, on which they feed, are rapidly being exterminated 
by man. Some years ago a company was formed on the east coast 
of Australia for the production of dugong oil ; so that the Halicore 
australis will soon be a thing of the past. 

No doubt these forms were at one time derived from terrestrial 
ancestors. The teeth in the Manatee are tuberculated molars 
resembling those of the pig and the hippopotamus. The teeth in 
the Dugong are of a more simple form and fewer in number. The 
Ehytina, as before stated, had no teeth. The hind limbs in all 
these Sirenians are only indicated by & rudiment within the body 
as is also the case in the Cetacea. The Sirenians retain free move- 
ments of the bones of the fore-arm, with separate motion between 
the humerus and the radius and ulna, which is lost in the Cetaceans, 
the whole fore-arm being rigid, moving only from the shoulder, 
thus forming a true flipper or fin. 

Although owing to their mode of life these two groups are 
purely aquatic in habit, yet they possess all the attributes of the 
mammalian class. They bring forth their young alive ; they are 
nourished by the milk of the parent, and the offspring enjoy the 
same tender care from the mother as do the young of terrestrial 
animals. 

Edentata. — The Edentata are not all toothless animals, as their 

m 2 



156 Transactions of the Society. 

name would imply. Although without teeth in the front of the 
jaws, they yet possess cheek teeth ; the Ant-eaters, however, have 
no teeth. The existing forms are all of moderate size, being repre- 
sented by the Ant-eater Myrmccophaga, of which there are three 
species living in South America, two species of scaly Ant-eaters 
in Africa, and two in the East Indies. Orycteropus, the hairy Ant- 
eater, or " Aard-vark," of the Cape, is lound also in north-eastern 
Africa, and fossil in the island of Samos. The great body of 
Edentate animals are characteristic of South America ; there are, 
beside the Ant-eaters, many species of Armadillos and several forms 
of Tree-Sloths ; this group of animals is interesting also as affording 
illustrations of mammals, in some of which the hairy covering is 
quite subsidiary ; the scaly Ant-eaters having an entire covering of 
horny scales like some reptiles, whilst in the Armadillos the body 
and tail are provided with a coat of mail, having a thin horny 
surface with thick bony plates beneath. 

The modern Armadillos have a banded coat of bony, horny 
scales, arranged in rows, so as to enable the animal to roll itself 
into a ball like a hedgehog. But in Tertiary times the Armadillos 
were represented by many species of Olyptodon and of Hoplophorus 
of giant size, which had no bands to their armour, but were 
covered with a solid cuirass of thick bony plates united together 
into one massive shield, covering the whole body and attached to 
the bony vertebral skeleton within. The modern Sloths are small, 
the largest of them not being bigger than a moderate sized dog ; 
they spend their lives in an arboreal existence, climbing by means 
>f their long claw-like nails among the boughs of lofty trees, on 
the foliage of which they browse ; they sleep in the same manner 
attached by their hooked claws to the branches of trees, and carry 
their young with them. 

The Ancient Sloths were of gigantic size, and being so large 
they dwelt upon the ground, but like their small modern repre- 
sentatives they fed upon the leaves of trees and obtained them 
by uprooting the trees with their powerful feet armed with strong 
claws. The last surviving species of Giant Ground Sloths lived 
contemporary with early man in South America, probably, indeed, 
within a hundred years of the present time. In a cave in South 
America near Last Hope Inlet, in Patagonia, numerous remains of 
these animals, named Ncomylodon, had evidently been kept in 
confinement, and fed upon grass cut by man, as cows are kept 
in a shed at the present day. They were killed off by their 
captors from time to time when needed for food, and their bones, 
with the implements of early man, were found in the cave where 
they had been eaten. No historic record of these South American 
Indians is known ; we cannot, therefore, fix the exact date when 
these great animals were last seen alive. Like the Moa in New 
Zealand, the Jfipyornis in Madagascar, and the great sea-cow 



The President's Address. By Dr. H. Woodward. 157 

(Rhytina) of Behring Island, and many other animals, they have 
all been destroyed by man. 

Ungulata Condylarthra. — This is a small, generalised, early 
group of ungulates approaching the ancestors of the carnivora. 
The feet are pentadactyle and plantigrade ; the brain is diminutive. 
Hyracops and Phenacodus are typical examples. The teeth have a 
low crown, bearing tubercles. They occur in the Eocene formation. 

Hyracoida. — In this order there are two surviving genera, 
Hyrax and Dendrohyrax, of Africa and Syria. They occur fossil 
at Pikermi, in Samos, in Egypt, and Patagonia. 

Amblypoda. — The Amblypoda, or blunt-toed animals, make 
their appearance in the Lower Eocene. Many of these animals 
attained a very large size, nearly equal to that of the Elephant, 
their limbs being adapted to support the weight of very ponderous 
bodies. The brain in these early animals was extremely small ; 
the teeth are brachyodont, the tubercles being fused mostly into 
transverse ridges, the full number of teeth being forty-four. 

Coryphyodon and Dinoceras are from the Lower and Middle 
Eocene formations, and are striking examples of this now extinct 
group. Dinoceras and Tinoceras are provided with horns on the 
skull, and a full series of teeth are present ; the skeleton and limbs 
closely resemble those of the Elephant in their general characters. 
They have no living representatives at the present day. 

Arsinoitherium Zitteli Beadn. — There has lately been obtained 
from the Upper Eocene of the Fayum, Egypt, a most remarkable 
and novel form of large extinct Mammal belonging to the 
Amblypoda, as big as a large rhinoceros in size, and having 
a most bizarre and remarkable skull. The brain was small, and 
placed near the hind part of the cranium ; the whole of the 
top of the skull being occupied by two very small and two 
immense horn-cores, the latter of which measure, from the occipital 
condyle to the tip of horn, 99 cm. ; their points are directed for- 
wards ; the nasal openings are beneath them in front, divided by a 
very narrow septum. The jaws are compressed in front, and pro- 
vided with numerous teeth adapted to vegetable food. The mouth 
had probably a prehensile upper lip, or a proboscidiform snout like 
that of a tapir, to enable it to gather its food, whether leaves or 
grasses. It is probable these animals possessed a horny sheath, 
covering their great bony horns, as the surface of the bone is marked 
by vascular canals. The skeleton in the Amblypoda — save the 
skull — was not unlike that of the elephants, and these great pachy- 
derms probably may have been derived from a common ancestor in 
the far distant past. 

Proboscidea (Elephant, Mastodon, etc.) — Although the exist- 
ing Elephants form a well-known group of hoofed quadrupeds,, 
they have been for a very long time separated from all the other 
herbivorous animals by many peculiarities in their structure and 



158 Transactions of Hue Society. 

dentition, and we were for a very long time unacquainted with any 
older forms showing a more generalised type of structure. Until 
about a year ago the only forms of Elephants with which we were 
acquainted were (1) the African Elephant, (2) the Indian Elephant, 
(3) the Mastodon, (4) the Tetrabelodon, and (5) the Dinothcrium. 
The extinct forms of Elephant approach either the African or the 
Indian type : for instance, the Mammoth agrees most nearly with 
the modern Indian form ; the Mephas mcridionalis of the Norfolk 
Forest Bed and other deposits suggests affinities with the African 
species. Certain small pigmy forms, occurring fossil in Malta, 
Sicily, and Cyprus, may also have had affinities with the African 
species. But it is only in the molar teeth that these Elephants differ 
in any material degree from one another. The Mastodon has the 
character of the molars considerably changed from those of the 
true Elephants. In the Indian Elephant and in the Mammoth, the 
transverse ridges — which are placed closely together, forming the 
massive molar teeth — have sometimes as many as tliirty ridges in 
one tooth ; in some of the American Mastodons the molars had 
only three ridges. Another peculiarity is the occasional presence of 
milk-incisors in the lower jaw of the American Mastodon. Other- 
wise, modern and extinct Elephants and Mastodons agree in having 
only one pair of incisor teeth, and those always being in the upper 
mandible. In Tetrabelodon, which was a Miocene form, two pairs 
of incisors seem always to have been present, the upper pair being 
bent downwards, and the lower pair being directed nearly straight 
in front, or a little curved upwards. On account of the large size 
of the molar teeth in modern Elephants, we usually find not more 
than two molar teeth on each side in use in the jaws at the same 
time ; these are renewed from behind — not from below, as in most- 
other mammals, and in the earlier forms of Proboscidea — and are 
pushed forward and worn away in front by the new molars 
gradually taking their place from behind. In the earlier forms of 
the Elephant and Mastodon, the teeth being smaller, a larger 
number could be in use in the cheek-series at the same time than 
in Eleplias ; in Tetrabelodon this is also the case. 

The gradual increase in the complexity of the proboscidean 
molars is one of their most striking characteristics. We notice also 
the loss of the incisors, only two upper ones remaining ; the canines 
are also lost. In the earliest forms some at least of the cheek-teeth 
are replaced by premolars in the usual manner ; these teeth remain 
in wear simultaneously with the true molars, but in later forms no 
vertical succession takes place, and as the milk-molars are worn 
they are shed, being replaced from behind by the true molars. 

In Palcvomastodon (Upper Eoeene) the molars are trilophodont ; 
in Moerithium the teeth are simple brachyodont bilophodont 
(quadritubercular molars), and molars, premolars and incisors are 
all present. In the earliest forms the skull had not attained the 



The President's Address. By Dr. H. Woodward. 159 

elevation seen in the modern Elephants, but resembled that of an 
ordinary form of mammal such as the Pig or Tapir. With the 
increased length of the proboscis the length of the jaws diminished, 
the teeth were reduced in number, and became deeper and larger, 
and the jaws also correspondingly deeper, also the facial angle 
became more vertical, and the jaw shorter. In the modern Ele- 
phant we may observe that the brain actually is just above the 
palate and over the grinding-surface of the teeth, which no longer 
occupy a position anterior to the brain, as in ordinary mammals. 

In Dinotherium the incisors so characteristic of modern Ele- 
phants are wanting in the upper jaws, but two exist in the lower 
jaw curved downwards, quite unlike that in any other of the Pro- 
boscidea known ; molars and premolars seem to have been present 
in the jaw at the same time. 

The Ancylopoda represent another primitive sub-order of 
ungulates, with a very wide range in Miocene and Pliocene times. 
They resemble the great extinct ground sloths of America, and the 
existing ant-eaters of the old world, and when the limbs alone were 
known they were referred to the Edentates. Homalodontothcrium, 
Macrothcriitm, and Chalicotherium belong to this sub-order, and are 
met with in Patagonia, North America, Europe and Asia. 

Tyfotheria. — These form a group of extinct ungulates from 
South America, found in the Pampas formation, some of them of 
considerable size, comprising Typothcrium, Pyrotherium, and Pachy- 
rucus. The teeth are more or less rodent-like. They appear to be 
little-modified descendants of very primitive mammalia. 

Toxodontia. — Named from the typical genus Toxodon. The 
complete skeleton of Toxodon is known. The animal was shorter- 
limbed, but more bulky than a horse, having rodent-like incisors in 
its jaws. The teeth are deepened, and more or less curved, often 
growing persistently throughout life. The dental series is nearly 
complete, only the canines being reduced or absent. The name 
Toxodon is derived from the bow-like form of these teeth. 

Lytopterna. — This is a South American group of animals 
which in their foot and tooth structure resemble the uneven-toed 
ungulates (the Perissodactyla), though they are not related to them. 
Protcrotherium and Thoatherium belong to this sub-order. A better 
known genus is that of Macraachcnia patagoniea, an animal with 
a long neck and three complete digits. The original fossil remains 
of this animal were obtained by Darwin during the voyage of the 
' Beagle.' 

Perissodactyla (Uneven-toed Ungulates). — Many early forms 
are included in this division, the Perissodactyla, or uneven-toed 
Herbivora. Nearly all the ancestors of these animals had penta- 
<lactyle (five-toed) feet. One of the earliest of these families are the 
Tapirs, the living representatives of which being found as far apart 
from one another as South America and the Malay Peninsula. 



160 Transactions of the Society. 

Many fossil forms of tapirs occur as far back as the Eocene period ; 
others are met with in the Miocene and Pliocene formations of 
North America ; their teeth are found in the Eed Crag of Suffolk, 
in the Antwerp Crag, in the Lower Pliocene of Hesse-Darmstadt, 
Austria-Hungary, France, and Italy ; one species occurring as far 
off as in the Pliocene formation of China ; their geographical range, 
as well as their geological antiquity, being very great. 

Among the ancestors of the horse may be mentioned the Hyra- 
cotherium {Protorohippus venticolum), from Wyoming, in which 
there are four toes present in the fore foot, and five toes in the hind 
foot ; Orohippus is a closely allied genus, also from the Middle 
Eocene of Wyoming. Palosotherium is found only in the Upper 
Eocene of Europe, its remains having been obtained in a very 
perfect state from Montmartre, Paris. 

Anchithcrium closely resembles Palosotherium, but the incisor 
teeth exhibit an apical pit or depression, which characterises the 
front teeth in the existing horse. Mesohippus is anotherearly form 
allied to these, from the Miocene of Dakota. 

The lower Pliocene makes us acquainted with another three- 
toed ancestor of the horse in which the crown of the worn upper 
molar displays a more marked complexity in the folding of the- 
enamel, and a shortening of the second and fourth digits, which 
no longer take any part in supporting the foot on the ground. 

In Pliohippus, the second and fourth digits have lost their 
phalangeal bones ; and only the slender splint-bones seen in the- 
leg of the horse, represent the second and fourth digits, the= 
animal, like the horse, being supported on the third digit alone. 

In the EmNOCEEOTiDiE we have several curious ancestral forms 
preserved to us, of which Titanotherium, from the lower Miocene 
of Dakota, is a remarkable example. In this animal a pair of 
blunt bony horns are placed side by side on the nasal bones. In 
the modern Ehinoceroses there is no bony base to the horn ; the 
whole being composed of a mass of coalesced hair of the same 
nature as the outer investing sheath of the cow's-horn, only the- 
interior is solid and entirely composed of the same epidermic 
material. Numerous fossil species of Khinoceros have been met 
with in America, in this country, throughout Europe, and in India ; 
and its geographical range formerly extended North, even to Arctic- 
Siberia. Species of Rhinoceros still survive in Africa and in India. 
One of these African species, Rhinoceros simus, is probably closely 
related to the Rhinoceros antiquitatis, found fossil in Siberia. 

The tichorine or woolly rhinoceros is found in most English 
bone-caves and river-deposits, and on the Dogger Bank, in the 
North Sea, and other submerged old land-deposits off the Norfolk 
and Suffolk coasts. In Siberia it wandered even within the Arctic- 
Circle, its mummified remains having been discovered in the frozen 



The President's Address. By Dr. H. Woodward. 161 

earth in Northern Siberia, from which it is seen that the animal 
had been thickly clothed with hair and wool. Its huge horns 
have also been found in the same deposits. 

A remarkably specialised fossil form occurs in Southern Russia, 
known as Elasmothcrium, in which the nasal bones are slender, 
but the nasal septum is ossified ; and there is an enormous bony 
prominence on the frontal region of the skull, which must have 
borne a relatively large horn. 

Numerous species of Ehinoceros occur fossil in the Siwalik 
Hills of India ; at Maragha, in Persia ; at Pikermi, in Greece ; 
in Italy, France, and Britain. 

Artiodactyla (even-toed Ungulates). — The even-toed hoofed 
animals are traceable from early Eocene times ; they have the third 
and fourth digits almost equally developed in both fore, and hind 
feet ; the hoof-bones are liattened on their inner or contiguous 
surfaces. They are sub-divided into four groups : (1) pigs, 
peccaries, and hippopotami (Suina); (2) camels and llamas 
(Tylopoda) ; (3) chevrotains (Tragulina) ; (4) deer, sheep and 
cattle (Pecora). 

Such divisions as Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, lose much of 
their significance when we follow them down to their earliest 
ancestral types. One of the most well-known families is that 
of the Hippopotamidse. These large Amphibia, now only met 
with in the rivers and lakes of the interior of tropical Africa, were 
once equally abundant from the Cape to the Delta of the Nile ; 
where they occupied the sea-shores and estuaries, as well as the 
internal rivers and lakes. In late Tertiary times they were most 
abundant in Britain, France and Italy, whilst pigmy species 
occurred in the islands of Malta, Sicily and Cyprus. Numerous 
species have also been found in the Siwalik Hills of India, and 
the fossil remains of a small form occurs abundantly in the Island 
of Madagascar. Large species of fossil pigs occur both in India 
and in America ; at Pikermi, in Greece ; in Tuscany ; and at 
Eppelsheim, Hesse-Darmstadt. Various ancestral forms of these 
animals go back to Eocene times. 

The extinct genera, Elotherium and Cheiropotavius, each possess- 
ing the typical number of forty-four teeth, occur in the lower 
Miocene of France, and in the Hempstead beds of the Isle of 
Wight. Another Eocene form, Anthracotherium, occurs in Pied- 
mont, in France and in Hampshire. Hyopotamus, from the Isle 
of Wight, and Merycopotamus are closely related; the latter is 
from the Siwalik Hills, India. 

Anoplotherium represents another of the early Eocene Mammals, 
once abundant in this country and in France, but it does not 
appear to have left any descendants behind. 

Passing over a large number of small Eocene and Miocene 
Mammals, as Ccenotherium, Xiphodon, Oreodon, and Agriochosrus^ 



162 Transactions of the Society, 

the two former from French localities, and the two latter from the 
American Miocene deposits, we come to an ancestor of the existing 
Camelidre, camels and llamas (Tylopoda, in allusion to their cushion- 
like feet). 

Of these, Macrauchenia occurs in Patagonia, Poibrotherium and 
Procamelus in Colorado and New Mexico. Protoceras is another 
remarkable horned form from the lower Miocene of Dakota, having 
bony prominences, probably supporting horns, on the nose, on the 
frontal bones, and a third pair on the parietal bones of the skull. 

The Cervid.e, true deer, appear for the first time in the middle 
and upper Miocene of North America, and in the Miocene of 
France, etc. The earliest members of the deer-tribe appear to 
have had very prominent bony pedicles on their skulls giving rise 
to small deciduous Antlers, which seem to have attained their 
greatest size in Pleistocene or Quaternary times. 

The gigantic Irish deer, the Reindeer, and the Elk, have all 
been living inhabitants of Britain within the human period. 

The Gikaffid^e are represented by two surviving forms, the 
Giraffe and the Okapi, both confined at present to the interior of 
Africa. 

The extinct forms are JTclladotherium, and Samotherium, from 
Samos, Greece, and Persia ; Palocotragus from Greece ; and 
Sivatherium from the Siwaliks of India. 

The Axtelopid-'E are almost confined to Africa, but they 
formerly ranged, in Tertiary times, into France, Spain, England, 
Austria, Italy, Greece, Samos, Persia, and India. The Saiga 
tartarica once inhabited the Thames Valley, and is still living on 
the Siberian steppes of the Volga. 

Of the ancient stocks from which our domestic cattle have 
arisen, the only ones of geological interest are the musk-ox (Ovibos 
moschatus), the Bison, occurring both in Europe and North America, 
the great Bos primigenius (probably the " Urus " of Csesar), and 
the small Bos longifrons; this last having survived down to 
Romano-British times. 

Rodentia. — The Rodentia are a well-defined group of small 
gnawing mammals, destitute of canine teeth, and with one pah' of 
large chisel-shaped incisor teeth above and below, growing with 
persistent pulps throughout life. The Hare, Babbits, Porcupines, 
Beaver, Bats, Mice, Dormice, Squirrels and Marmots, offer 
examples of existing forms of this group. 

The Marmot, Spher?nophilus, occurs in the Pleistocene deposits 
in this country ; the Beaver was once a common animal with us, 
its remains being abundantly met with in the Pleistocene deposits 
of Essex and Cambridgeshire ; it is still living in the estuaries of 
the Rhone and the Danube, and in some Russian rivers ; it is also 
to be met with in Canada, and Vancouver's Island, British Columbia. 
In the Forest Bed series of the Norfolk coast, in South Russia, in 



The President's Address. By Dr. H. Woodward. 163 

Ohio, New York, Mississippi, etc., several gigantic forms of Beaver 
are known, e.g. Trogontherium Cuvicri, Castoroidcs Ohioensis, twice 
as large as the existing Beaver. An extinct giant Dormouse, Myoxus 
nulitensis, has been found in the newer Tertiary deposits of the 
Island of Malta, associated with the remains of the Pigmy 
Elephant. The Zagomys, or Tail-less Hare, occurs in Brixham 
Cave and Kent's Cave, Torquay, and in the Miocene deposits of 
Oeningen. 

Cakxivoea. — Before the appearance of warm-blooded mammals 
the duties of the Carnivora, or flesh-eating animals, were per- 
formed by the carnivorous Dinosaurs, and in earlier times by the 
carnivorous Theriodonts. AVith the advent of the herbivorous 
mammalia Lions, Tigers, Hyaenas, Bears, Wolves, and lesser 
Carnivora made then appearance ; one of the most striking of 
these early forms was the great Sabre-toothed Tiger, Macharodus, 
whose remains have been discovered in North and South America, 
in England, in France, in Italy, in India, and various localities, 
associated with the early species of Elephants. There is little 
doubt that this formidable extinct Tiger preyed upon these great 
herbivores, and that the huge canine teeth protruding from the 
upper mandible enabled it to fasten upon the flanks of the 
Elephant, whose blood it doubtless sucked. Hyamas and Bears 
were both abundant in this country in late Tertiary times, their 
remains with those of the Machcerodus being found in the cave 
deposits of Britain, France, Germany, etc. 

Pinnipedia {Fin-footed). — The Seals represent in the marine 
deposits the Carnivora of the Land. Gigantic species of the clam- 
eating Walrus have left then remains in the Suffolk Crag and the 
Dogger Bank in the North Sea. Seals were once also abundant 
in these later deposits and upon our coasts. 

Inscctivora. — The small mammals belonging to the Insectivora, 
— the Moles, Shrews, and Hedgehogs — do not go back in time 
beyond the Eocene and Miocene deposits. One form, Necrogym- 
nurus, occurs in the Eocene of Hordwell, and a species of 
Erinaceus in the Miocene of Oeningen ; others occur in the Brick- 
earth of the Thames Valley and the Norfolk Forest Bed. 

Chiroptera. — The Chiroptera or Bats have the fingers of the 
fore-limbs enormously elongated, and united by an expansile 
membrane (patagium) which joins the fore and hind limbs and 
the sides of the body together, enabling the creature to pursue an 
aerial existence somewhat like a bird ; but the " flitter-mouse," 
(the old English name for the Bat), is clothed in fur, not feathers. 
Some of the large tropical Bats are fruit-eaters, while others are 
insectivorous in their diet. Remains of a fossil bat have been 
found in the Upper Eocene of the Gypsum Quarries of Mont- 
martre, Paris. 

Primates {Man). — The remains of man and of the higher 



164 Transactions of the Society. 

Anthropoid Apes are seldom found in a fossil state ; the earliest 
human remains known are met with in Caves, in Peat deposits^ 
or, as represented by their weapons, in river valley gravels. Fossil 
monkeys are extremely rare. A single tooth referred to Macacus 
pliocamus was obtained from the Brick-earth of Grays, Essex. 
Of the Lemurs, Adapts and Nccrolemur occur in the Eocene of 
Hordwell, Hampshire, and the older Tertiaries of France ; other 
remains have been obtained from the Miocene of Dakota, North 
America ; and Megaladapis, a giant Lemur, from the newer 
Tertiaries of Madagascar. 

I would only remark in conclusion, that the geological record, 
so far as preserved to us, gives proof of progressive advance in 
vertebrate life, and we find throughout the rocks undoubted evi- 
dence of development from lower to higher forms. Groups like 
the Sauropterygia, Ichthyopterygia, the Cetacea and Sirenia, are 
so evidently exceptions, and present cases of retrogression so> 
divergent from the rest of the biological series, that they do not 
impugn the general conclusion of a gradual onward progression 
of life to a higher condition of existence. 

A few instances of lowly persistent forms occur in the verte- 
brata as among the invertebrata. Thus the Cyclostomi and the- 
Elasmobranchi have probably lived on but little changed from th& 
Devonian, or even earlier, until recent times ; but the great 
majority of vertebrates give evidence of evolution, not only in 
their orders and families, but in their individual development. 
Nor can it be doubted that the advance of mankind from the rude 
state of primitive savages to the present conditions of culture and 
development in the arts and sciences, attests the same progress in 
the human race towards a higher life to which all nature moves. 

My friend, Dr. H. Dukinfield Scott, who will presently occupy 
this chair, which, by your favour, I have been called upon to fill 
for the past two years, will be able to tell you that in his special 
branch of investigation (Paleobotany), he has found it to be indis- 
pensable not only to know the microscopic structure of living 
plants in order to compare them with those of fossil ones ; but 
also to know both the living and the fossil plants themselves, the 
former as they are met with at the present day, and their ancestors 
as they are found in the rocks. 

I shall thus, I hope, obtain from my successor some countenance- 
for my temerity, in having ventured to detain you so long this 
evening with my sketch of the ancestors of the Vertebrata, which 
follows as Part II. of my Address to you in January 1903. 



165 

V. — On the Vertical Illuminator. 
By Edwakd M. Nelson. 

(Read Feb. 17th, 1904.) 

With reference to the Vertical Illuminator, which, after lying 
more or less in abeyance for some twenty-five years, has lately 
come into notice for the examination of opaque objects, a few 
words may be said both on its construction and use. 

There are four forms of this appliance now catalogued by 
opticians. 

1. That known as Tolles' interior illuminator. This consists of 
a minute prism let into the side of the objective mount, either just 
behind the duplex or triplex front, or the back lens. 

This form may be criticised, because (a) it gives, and can only 
give, oblique illumination ; (/3) it requires a special modification of 
the objective mount ; (7) the objective cannot perform so well as it 
ought to do when it has a portion of its aperture at its periphery 
permanently stopped out. 

(Zeiss' form of Tolles' illuminator blocks out half the objective 
aperture.) 

2. The Beck form : this consists of a nose-piece containing a 
cover-glass for a reflector, mounted so as to be capable of rotation. 

This has the advantage (a) that the objective aperture is left 
quite clear ; (/3) that in the objective itself there is neither the 
modification nor the structural alteration that the Tolles' method 
requires. 

This device may be criticised because (a) only a portion of the 
back lens can be illuminated by a parallel beam when the circular 
cover-glass is rotated to an angle of 45°, and (/3) it has no means of 
regulating the illumination. 

3. Powell's form, like Beck's, consists of a nose-piece, but it 
contains a piece of worked glass fixed permanently at an angle of 45° 
in place of the rotating cover-glass. It has, however, an attached 
wheel of diaphragms for the purpose of regulating the light. The 
criticism relating to this device is that the opening is so small that 
(a) it cuts down the aperture of the objective ; (/3) the whole of 
the back lens cannot be illuminated by a parallel beam. 

4. Iteichert's form is somewhat similar to Powell's, only it is 
mounted in an eye-piece adapter at the upper end of the draw tube, 
and it has no light regulator. The criticism upon this device is 
(a\ the reflector is too far from the back lens of the objective, and 
(/3) there is no means of regulating the illumination. 

By casting one's eye over the criticisms on these forms of 
vertical illuminators, it is quite easy to see what is, and what is 
not wanted. 



166 Transactions of the Society. 

1. The vertical illuminator must not be an oblique, and an 
oblique illuminator only. 

2. It should be capable of illuminating the full aperture of the 
back lens of any obiective with a parallel beam of light. 

3. It must not be a permanent attachment to an objective, so as 
to impair its performance of ordinary work. 

4. The reflector must be placed near the back lens. 

5. There must be some method of regulating the illumination. 
From the above we may gather that a nose-piece form of 

apparatus is the best, and it would seem that the Beck and Powell 
forms more nearly conform to the above named conditions, but the 
reflecting glass must be made much larger than at present, and the 
hole in the side of the nose-piece should be as large, or nearly as 
large as the opening of the Society's gauge. 

How to use a Vertical Illuminator to the best advantage. 

This form of illumination can only be used to the best advantage 
with oil-immersion objectives, and it is the peripheral portions of 
these objectives which play the most important part with this 
method. 

Hence we see it is absolutely necessary that the full opening of 
the Society's gauge should be left perfectly clear, so that the back 
lens of any objective may have none of its aperture cut down. 

Again, in order that the illuminating source may be focussed 
upon the object, it is necessary that the path of the light from its 
.source to the mirror, and from the mirror to the objective, should 
be equal to that from the eye-piece to the objective. To satisfy 
this condition with the Eeichert method, the lamp would have to 
almost touch the body-tube — a quite impossible condition. 

At the hole in the side of the nose-piece there should be a 
carrier for diaphragms of various sizes — this is preferable to either 
a wheel of diaphragms or an iris. There should also be a strip of 
metal with a slit in it, which can be drawn across the hole at the 
side of the nose-piece. The direction of the slit should be in a line 
with the edge of the flame of the Microscope lamp. Good illumi- 
nation can be obtained by carefully attending to the focus of the 
image of the flame on the object, by placing the lamp at a suitable 
distance, and by regulating both the size of aperture and the 
position of the slit. A large cover-glass supplied for compressors 
would form an excellent mirror ; nothing else is required except the 
nose-piece adapter with a hole in its side, the diaphragm-carrier, 
which might with advantage be made capable of rotation, and 
a few loose stops. As the microscopical examination of metals 
is now of so much importance, perhaps the few moments spent on 
the consideration of the vertical illuminator will not have been 
wasted. 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES 

RELATING TO 

ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY 

(principally invertebrata and cryptogamia), 

MICROSCOPY, Etc.* 



ZOOLOGY. 

VERTEBRATA. 
a. Embryology. t 



Determination of Sex.| — Oskar Schultze communicates a full 
account of his experiments on mice designed to test whether alteration 
in nutrition had any effect on the proportions of the sexes in the off- 
spring. His results are decidedly in favour of an answer in the negative. 
He gives a masterly review of the whole subject, and concludes that 
sex is determined in the early stages of oogenesis. 

General Embryology.§ — E. Korschelt and K. Heider give in the 
first instalment of the " general " part of their treatise on the compara- 
tive embryology of invertebrates an account of the structure, matura- 
tion, and fertilisation of the germ-cells, and a review of all the recent 
work on the physiology of development. 

Mechanics of Development. ||— S. J. Hickson gives a lucid account 
of recent work in experimental embryology. " The facts which to-day 
may convince us that there is no preformation of structures in the 
animal egg, that there is no ' mosaic ' arrangement of the particles of 
primordial protoplasm, may, in the course of time, be supplanted by 
others, which will lead us to a reconsideration of our opinion. We 
have at least learned to realise that no simple, physical or mechanical 
explanation will ever solve the problem of the living substance of the 
egg-cell. We may learn the effect of gravity, of temperature, of various 
kinds of intensities of light, or of chemical and electrical stimuli, upon 
protoplasm ; but we have not yet got within measurable distance of an 

* The Society are not intended to be denoted by the editorial " we," and they 
do not hold themselves responsible for the views of the authors of the papers noted, 
nor for any claim to novelty or otherwise made by them. The object of this part of 
the Journal is to present a summary of the papers as actually published, and to 
describe and illustrate Instruments, Apparatus, etc., which are either new or have 
not been previously described in this country. 

t This section includes not only papers relating to Embryology properly so called, 
but also those dealing with Evolution, Development, Reproduction, and allied subjects. 

t Arch. Mikr. Anat., lxiii. (1903) pp. 197-257. 

§ Lehrbuch. d. vergleich. Entwicklungsges. d. wirbellosen Thiere. Allg. Theil. 
Erstc Lief. 8vo, Jena, x. and 750 pp.. 

|| Rep. and Trans. Manchester Micr. Soo, 1902 (published 1903), pp. 28-37. 



168 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

understanding all of the forces that influence the phenomena of pro- 
toplasm." 

Conversational .Etiology.* — Franz Krasan discusses by means of 
imaginary conversations between half a dozen incognitos the pro- 
foundest questions of biology : — How far is organic form a function 
of organic substance ? What is the nature of reaction to environment ? 
Can we distinguish between the original and the accessory characters of 
individuals ? What is the real meaning of metamorphosis and sub- 
stitution of organs ? What is the evolutionary import of variation, 
mutation, and modification ? How are we to define species, variety, 
and breed ? What is the scope of hybridisation and in-breeding, of 
isolation and selection ? The author traverses the whole field of evolu- 
tion-theory, but his peculiar mode of presentation is not attractive. 

Uterine Implantation of the Ovum of Spermophilus citillus.f— 
J. Rejsek shows that the first fixation and preliminary nutrition of the 
ovum in this mammal is quite apart in time and space from the placental 
fixation and nutrition. Fertilisation and cleavage occur in the Fallopian 
tube, and the segmented ovum passes into the uterus. A portion of the 
superficial stratum (Rauber's layer) remains composed of high cells, 
while the rest of the cells of this stratum are flattened. The high cells 
form a thickening at the pole opposite the blastodermic disc, and give 
rise to a syncytial prominence which enters into close connection by 
means of processes with the wall of the uterus. Details of the growth 
of these syncytial processes are given ; they degenerate as the placenta 
develops. 

For a very short time the ovum depends on itself, but there is soon 
need for maternal nutrition. This is provisionally afforded by the pro- 
cesses of the syncytium, which establish a nutritive connection between 
the ovum and a fluid material for the most part derived from the 
maternal uterine cells. 

Normal Degeneration of Eggs not Liberated. £ — M. Dubuisson 
corroborates and extends the observations of C. Perez on the degenera- 
tion of unlaid eggs. His material was found in the eggs of sparrow, 
frog, and newt. He describes the part played by follicular cells and by 
phagocytes. 

Spermatozoa of Discoglossus pictus.§ — E. Ballowitz gives a de- 
tailed description of the unique spermatozoa of this amphibian. They 
are remarkable (1) in their extraordinary length (2|- mm.) ; (2) in the 
elaboration of screw-architecture in all the parts ; and (3) in the fine 
details of their structure. 

Correlation between Poison-Gland and Ovary in Toad.|j — C. 
Phisalix notes that the poison-gland of the female toad is almost empty 
at the spawning time, and in striking contrast to that of the male. He 
finds that the active principles of the poison are present in the eggs, 

* Ansicbten und Gespr'ache iiber die individuelle und specifiache Gestaltung in 
der Natur. 8vo, Leipzig, 1903, vii. and 280 pp. 

t Arch. Mikr. Anat., lxiii. (1903) pp. 259-73 (1 pi.). 
X Comptea Rendus, cxxxvi. (1903) pp. 1690-1. 
§ Arch. Mikr. Anat., lxiii. (1903) pp. 343-64 (1 pi.), 
if Comptea Kendus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 1082-4. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 169 

but that they disappear during early embryonic life. " The re-appear- 
ance of these toxic substances in the organism is correlated with the 
development of the poison-glands. The poisons formed by these glands 
pass into the blood after the manner of internal secretions, and at the 
time when the ovary becomes active, they become associated with the 
germ-cells to contribute to the formation and the development of 
the egg." 

Toxic substances are known in the eggs of certain fishes and sea- 
urchins, and Phisalix thinks that they probably have an important role 
in oogenesis and development. " Perhaps they form a material basis 
of inheritance, and serve to transmit the chemical characteristics of the 
species," — which seems a large conclusion to draw from the premises. 

Development of Tarsius Spectrum.* — A. A. W. Hubrecht notes 
that the placentation of this aberrant type is pronouncedly " deciduate," 
while the arrangement of the foetal membranes, with the diminutive 
yolk-sac, rudimentary allantois, and large extra-embryonic ccelomic 
space, brings Tarsius near the monkeys and man. 

The author describes the maturation, fertilisation, segmentation, etc., 
and pays particular attention to the germinal layers. The material for 
the extra-embryonic coelom springs from the posterior end of the blasto- 
derm ; in continuity with it is formed the primitive streak in the centre 
of which is the rudimentary blastopore or neurenteric canal. The 
mesoderm is formed from an anterior tract of hypoblast (as frequently 
in Amniota), and from a peripheral ring (as described by the author in 
the shrew). 

To solve the problem of the germ-layers, Hubrecht goes back as far 
as a Coelenterate type, and asks us to see in its gastrovascular cavity 
and stomodamm the fore-runners of the blastopore and notochord 
respectively. 

Development of Lens.f — Em. Mencl discusses the difficult case of 
the development of a lens apart from any direct contact between the 
brain and the epidermis. 

Notes on Development of Lizard. — Karl Peter finds that while 
the primitive plate is essentially an ectodermic proliferation, some endo- 
dermic cells are included along with it. He re-affirms his conclusion 
that there are in lizards five pairs of gill-clefts, and that the supraperi- 
cardial body is the homologue of a pair of gill-clefts. 

b. Histology. 

Secretory Phenomena in Poison-Glands and Digestive Glands.§ — 
L. Launoy has made a detailed study of the poison-glands in the viper, 
newt, scorpion, centipede, etc., and of the digestive glands in crab and 
hermit-crab. In the active glands, whether poisonous or digestive, the 
nucleus of an actively secreting cell is the seat of " passive phenomena " 

* Furchung und Keirablattbiklung bei Tarsius spectrum. Amsterdam, 1902, 
115 pj.. and plates. See Nature, lxvii. (1903) pp. 341-2. 
t Auat. Anzeig., xxiv. (1903) pp. 169-73 (15 rigs). 
t Tom. cit.. pp. 156-G4 (4 figs.). 
§ Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.), xviii. (1903) pp. 1-224 (2 pie.). 

April 20th, 1904 n 



170 ' SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

— " nuclear turgor, anteropulsion, and centrifugal projection of granules 
of chromatin ;" and of " active phenomena " — " variations of chroma- 
ticity, emission of fuchsinophilous and cyanophilous granulations into 
the perinuclear cytoplasm, dissolution of the chromatic substance and 
its exosmosis, and phenomena of intra-nuclear pyrenolysis." 

The process of elaboration is two-fold, a nuclear phase giving rise to 
" venogen " and " caryozymogen," and a cytoplasmic phase giving rise 
to poison and prozymase. Cytologically, caryozymogen and venogen are 
comparable, and so are prozymase and poison. 

In the poisons studied the toxic enzyme does not co-exist with any of 
the enzymes, such as amylase or emulsin. In the poison of the cobra 
there is a substance precipitating soluble ferments ; there is no catalysing 
action, either positive or negative, on the soluble ferments, emulsin, 
amylase, and pancreatin, but there is a slight inhibitory action on pepsin. 

Nuclear Changes during Secretion.* — L. Launoy has studied the 
changes in the nuclei of actively-secreting cells. He distinguishes 
passive phenomena, concerning the volume and position of the nucleus, 
and active phenomena, which include profound modifications of struc- 
ture in correlation with the direct participation of the nucleus in the 
secretory process, and especially involving the chromatin and the nu- 
cleolus. 

Brunner's Glands.f — R. R. Bensley has made a detailed study of 
the cytological characters, staining reactions, and functions of the glands 
of B runner in a number of representative mammals. He shows that 
they are distinctively mucous glands, but does not exclude the possibility 
that they also form minute quantities of digestive ferments, which 
escaped detection by available means. It seems to the author probable 
that the glands of Brunner are caenogenetic structures, developed in 
mammals from the hypoblast of the midgut. The occurrence of serous 
tubules in the glands of Brunner in the rabbit is evidence of a new 
functional need in the intestine. Bensley is against Oppel's theory, that 
Brunner's glands are developed as a further downward growth of the 
pyloric glands into the intestine. 

Cardiac Glands of Mammals.^ — R. R. Bensley has studied these in 
man, pig and various rodents. He finds that they are mucin-glands, 
and interprets them as retrogressive derivatives of the fundus glands. 
In support of this interpretation, he discusses the phylogeny of the cardiac 
glands at some length. 

Buccal Gland of Lampreys.§ — "W. Haack describes the paired 
multicellular gland which lies in the mouth of adult lampreys, imbedded 
in the musculus basilaris. He shows that multicellular glands also occur 
in Myxinoids, C'himcera, and Elasmobranchs, and as poisonous organs in 
some Acanthopterygii. Although the skin of aquatic Vertebrates is in 
general devoid of multicellular skin-glands, doubtless a secondary effect 
of the medium, and although integumentary glands are rudimentary and 

* Comptes Rendus, cxxxvi. (1903) pp. 1479-81. 

t Decennial Publications Univ. Chicago, x. (1903) p. 50 (6 pis.). 

% Amer. Journ. Anat., ii. (1903) pp. 105-56. 

S Zeitschr. wiss. Zool , lxxv. (1903) pp. 112-46 (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 171 

salivary glands absent in cetaceans, yet cases like the skin-glands of 
Myxine and Chimcera, and the buccal gland of lampreys, show that it is 
almost impossible to make a phylogenetic series with well-defined steps. 

(Esophageal Glands in Reptiles.* — F. Beguin finds distinct oeso- 
phageal glands in an African lizard, Uromastix acanthmurus, and in 
Testudo grtcca, but not in the alligator. 

Histogenesis of the Intestinal Epithelium in the Frog.f — R. H. 
Marcelin gives an account of the development of the frog's intestine — 
its growth in length, the histogenesis of the epithelium, and the develop- 
ment of the glands. The whole intestine is originally ciliated, and this 
is important before the muscles causing peristalsis have developed. In 
the buccal cavity and oesophagus the ciliated epithelium persists, aiding 
in this region of rapid movement the action of the muscles. In the 
stomach and intestinal regions the cilia disappear as the adult conditions 
are attained. The calyciform cells, which appear first in the oesophagus 
and stomach, and subsequently in the small intestine after the cilia have 
gone, secrete a mucus which is probably both digestive and lubricating. 
They disappear from the stomach as the gastric glands develop, they are 
minute in the small intestine, and they disappear completely from the 
large intestine as the strong musculature develops. 

Cardiac Muscle Fibres. X — F. Marceau discusses the transverse 
scalariform-striated bands in cardiac muscle fibres which occur in adult 
mammals, in young mammals some time after birth, and in certain adult 
birds. He describes their intimate structure, their development, and 
their distribution in the heart ; and then discusses their probable signi- 
ficance in helping to secure rapid and rhythmic contraction. 

Egg-Tooth in Sauropsida.§ — Margherita Pondrelli finds that the 
egg-tooth in Chelonia has the same structure and development as in birds. 
It consists of a mass of epithelial cells, irregularly polygonal in form, 
dovetailed together, with indurated walls, and without intercellular sub- 
stance. It is abetted by an epitrichial thickening, which forms a cap 
with abundant ceratohyaline. 

Minute Structure of Blood- Vessels. || — Drs. Baum and Thienel have 
completed a laborious research on the peculiarities in the detailed struc- 
ture of the walls of the arteries and veins in different parts of the body 
and in different animals. They bring out very clearly the fact that 
various mammals are quite specific as regards the walls of the vessels. 

c. General. 

Zoological Essays.lf — R. Lydekker has re-published in volume form 
a set of his well-known and much appreciated zoological essays — fine 
examples of the possibility of expressing accurate science in vivid 

» Anat. Anzeig., xxiv. (1904) pp. 337-56 (14 figs.), 
t Revue Suisse Zool., xi. (1903) pp. 309-92 (1 pi.). 
X Comptes Rendus, cxxxvi. (1903) pp. 1085-7. 
§ Anat. Anzeig., xxiv. (1903) pp. 165-8 (2 figs.). 
|| Arch. Mikr. Anat., Ixiii. (1903) pp. 10-34 (1 pi.). 

Tf Mostly Mammals. Zoological Essays. 8vo, London, 1903, ix. and 383 pp. 
16 full-page illustrations. 

N 2 



172 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

literary form. The volume includes essays on extermination in the 
nineteenth century, domesticated animals and their history, problems of 
geographical distribution, desert faunas, protective coloration, the 
whiteness of arctic animals, the colours of cowries, the nursing habits of 
amphibians, scorpions and their antiquity, and on many other subjects. 
The book deserves to be widely known and admired. 

Economic Zoology.* — E. Ray Lancaster prefixes to F. V. Theobald's 
First Report on Economic Zoology (see Insecta) a luminous and useful 
survey of the various sub-divisions which it is found convenient to 
recognise in the treatment of this subject. This classification of animals 
in their economic relation to man appears to us so important, that we 
submit it in condensed outline. 

Group A. — Animals captured or slaughtered by man for food, or for 
the use by him in other ways, of their skin, bone, fat, or other 
products. Examples .- — Animals of the chase ; food-fishes ; whales ; 
pearl-mussels. 

Group B. — Animals bred or cultivated by man for food, or for the 
use of their products in industry, or for their services as living things. 
Examples : — Flocks and herds ; horses ; dogs ; poultry ; gold-fish ; bees ; 
silkworms and leeches. 

Group C. — Animals which directly promote man's operations as a 
civilised being without being killed, captured or trained by him. 
Examples : — Scavengers such as vultures ; carrion-feeding insects ; earth- 
worms and flower-fertilising insects. 

Group D. — Animals which concern man as causing bodily injury, 
sometimes death to him, and in other cases disease, often of a deadly 
character. Examples : — Lions ; wolves ; snakes ; stinging and parasitic 
insects ; disease germ-carriers, as flies and mosquitoes ; parasitic worms ; 
parasitic Protozoa. 

Group E. — Animals which concern man as causing bodily injury or 
disease (both possibly of a deadly character) to (a) his stock of domesti- 
cated animals ; or (b) to his vegetable plantations ; or (c) to wild animals 
in the preservation of which he is interested ; or (d) wild plants in the 
preservation of which he is interested. Examples : — Similar to those of 
Group D, but also insects and worms which destroy crops, fruit and forest 
trees, and pests such as frugivorous birds, rabbits and voles. 

Group F. — Animals which concern man as being destructive to his 
worked-up products of art and industry, such as (a) his various works, 
buildings, larger constructions and habitations ; (b) furniture, books, 
drapery and clothing ; (c) his food and his stores. Examples : — White 
ants ; wood-eating larvae ; clothes' moths, weevils, acari, and marine 
borers. 

Group G. — Animals which are known as " beneficials," on account 
of their being destructive to or checking the increase of the injurious 
animals classed under Groups I), E, and F. Examples ; — Certain car- 
nivorous and insectivorous birds, reptiles, and Amphibia ; parasitic and 
predacious insects, acari, myriopods, etc. 

* First Keport on Economic Zoology. By Fred. V.Theobald. British Museum, 
1903, xxxiv. and !92 pp., 18 figs. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 173 

Variations in Human Ribs.* — J. Dnnlop Lickley gives statistics 
as to the relations of the seventh and eighth ribs to the sternum. He 
concludes that the lower end of the thorax is degenerating, as shown 
by the diminution in the number of ribs which unite with the sternum 
in man and the higher Primates as compared with the lower monkeys. 
The eighth rib has undergone so much degeneration that it rarely joins 
the sternum, though when degeneration has been partly arrested it 
reaches the middle line without becoming incorporated in or joining 
with the sternum. Similarly the seventh rib may meet its fellow of the 
opposite side without joining with or being incorporated in the meso- 
sternum. A further change brings the seventh rib in a few cases into 
the same position as the eighth normally occupies, namely, it fails to 
reach the middle line and terminates by a secondary connection with 
the sixth. 

Function of Iron in Metabolism and Fermentations, f — N.Sacharoff 
has elaborated a theory according to which iron plays the essential role 
in vital processes and fermentations, acting as the "enzyme of all 
enzymes," and operative through an iron-containing nucleiu substance, 
" Monuclein," with oxidising and reducing capabilities. 

Production of Glucose by Animal Tissues. J — MM. Cadeac and 
Maignon find that all the organs or tissues of the dog and the horse 
(except the bones) normally include a small quantity of glucose. They 
all produce it when submitted for a suitable time to conditions of 
asphyxia ; when these are prolonged, the sugar present or formed 
entirely disappears. This production of glucose is a phenomenon of 
protoplasmic metabolism, for it is not exhibited when the tissues are 
killed by immersion in boiling water. 

Alleged Alcoholic Fermentation in Animal Tissues. § — F. Batelli 
criticises the view of Stoklasa and others, that extracts of the tissues of 
higher animals contain an enzyme capable of transforming glucose into 
alcohol and carbon dioxide, and the view of Mile. Borrino that this 
fermentation is due to nucleoproteids. Batelli's experiments lead to 
support Cohnheim in the conclusion that the fermentation observed 
in vitro is due to the presence of micro-organisms. 

Occurrence of an Animal Diastase at once Oxidising and Re- 
ducing.! — J- E. Abelous and J. Aloy have satisfied themselves that in 
extract of liver, kidney, lung, etc., there is a ferment which has the 
power of acting both as an oxidising and as a reducing agent. This 
double role leads the author to regard the ferment as the agent in 
respiratory exchanges. 

!■■*- Viviparous Lizard's Prolific Multiplication. If — E. Olivier cap- 
tured on the Cantal mountains (an col des Gardes) a gravid female of 
the melanic variety of Lacerta vivvpara Jacq. It was entirely of a 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxiv. (1904) pp. 32G-32. 

t Das Eisen als das t'atige Prnicip der Enzyme und tier lebendigen Substanz. 
Translated l.y M. Recbt»anier. 8vo, Jena (1902), 83 pp., 2 pis. and 15 rigs. See 
Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., 2" Abt., x. (1903) pp. 578-93. 

X Comptes Rendus, cxxxvi. (1903) pp. 1682— t. 

*j Op. cit., cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 1079-80. || Tom. cit., pp. S85-7. 

Tf Bull. Soe. Zool. France, xxviii. (1903) pp. 1S0-1. 



174 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

deep black colour. After eight days of captivity, it gave birth to 
fifteen black offspring. The normal number is three to five, and twelve 
has been recorded by Fatio as altogether exceptional. 

Habits of the Arboreal Urodele Autodax lugubris.*— W. E. Ritter 
finds that the usual breeding place of this " unsalamander-like sala- 
mander," whose close kinship to the other Plethodons cannot be 
doubted, is in holes in trees (Quercus agri folia). Some were taken from 
holes at a height of thirty feet at least : in some of the largest cavities 
as many as twelve individuals were found ; more commonly a hole con- 
tained two, or occasionally but a single Autodax. Several facts indicate 
pretty clearly that in some cases all the inhabitants of a single chamber 
were close of kin, constituting in fact a family. Most of the cavities 
occupied had very narrow orifices. 

The egg clusters, each containing from twelve to eighteen eggs, each 
egg with its own pedicle about two centimetres in length, were usually 
suspended from an overhanging surface, where the parent was able to 
bring its body into contact with them. Both parents, w r hich are not 
distinguished by secondary sexual characters, may participate in the 
office. The animals seem to exercise more or less of an active defence 
either of themselves, or of the eggs, or of both. The unusually large 
teeth are used viciously in " showing fight." Experimental study on 
the behaviour of this unique Urodele should yield very interesting 
results. 

Respiration in Torpedo.f — E. Couvreur finds that in Torpedo mar- 
morata the water may enter by the gill-clefts, the spiracles, and the 
mouth, but always passes out by the clefts. There is a synchronism 
between the movements of the heart and the respiratory movements, as 
Jorgen Thesen observed in Tcleosts, and as the author previously noticed 
in the lamprey. 

Labyrinth of Fishes. f — Tycho Tullberg has made experiments on 
various fishes which lead him to conclude that the labyrinth of the ear 
is not an equilibrating organ, nor an organ " of static sense " (Breuer), 
nor a " tonus-labyrinth," nor the seat of "a spatial sense" (v. Cyon). 
Tt is perhaps in some degree an auditory organ, but it is primarily and 

rincipally sensitive to the movements — both currents and undulations 
—of the surrounding water, with its nervous centre probably in -the 

erebellum. 

Wild Horses. § — J. Cossar Ewart gave an interesting lecture on 
Przewalsky's horse, which he regards as a true and valid species. He 
compares it with the Kiang and with various hybrids which he has 
reared. " If Przewalsky's horse is neither a Kiang-pony mule nor a 
feral Mongolian pony, and if, moreover, it is fertile (and its fertility 
can hardly be questioned), I fail to see how we can escape from the 
conclusion that it is as deserving as, say, the Kiang, to be regarded as 
a distinct species. Granting Przewalsky's horse is a true wild horse, 
the question arises : In what way, if any, is it related to our domestic 

* Amer. Nat., xxxvii. (1903) pp. 883-G. 

t Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, lxxxix. (1903) pp. 78-9. 

% Bihang. k. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl., xxviii. Afd. 4 (1903) No. 15, p. 25. 

§ Nature, lxviii. (1903) pp. 271-3 (3 figs). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 175 

horses ? It is still too soon to answer this question ; but I venture to 
think that if we should, by and by, arrive at the conclusion that our 
domestic horses have had a multiple origin — -have sprung from at least 
two perfectly distinct sources — we shall probably subsequently come to 
the further conclusion that our big-headed, big-jointed horses, with 
well-marked chestnuts on the hind legs, are more intimately related to 
the wild horse than the small-headed, slender-limbed varieties without 
chestnuts on the hind legs ; that, in fact, the heavy horses, whether 
found in Europe, Asia, or Africa, and Przewalsky's horse have sprung 
from the same ancestors." 

Coloration of the Quaggas* — E. I. Pocock has an interesting 
essay on the coloration of the "quaggas," — i.e. zebras of the type 
commonly known as Burchell's. The coloration of the coat renders a 
zebra invisible under three conditions, namely, at a distance on the 
open plain at mid-day, at close quarters in the dusk and on moonlight 
nights, and in the cover afforded by thickets. Pocock analyses the 
various factors which contribute to this " procryptic " result. The pro- 
tective value is so great that it seems unnecessary to seek for any other 
interpretation. 

Plankton of Scottish Lakes. j — James Murray contributes some 
notes on the plankton of the lakes of the Tay basin, samples of which 
were collected in the course of bathymetrical survey undertaken by 
Sir John Murray and Mr. Laurence Pullar. Of almost constant occur- 
rence at all seasons are DiajJtomus gracilis, Cyclops strenuus, Daphnia 
lacustris, Bosmina obtusirostris • two species of Conochilus, Anurma 
cochleare, Notholca longispina ; and the Diatom, Asterionella gracillima. 
In the summer, Holopedium, Leptodora, Bythrotrephes, and Polyphemus 
are as generally distributed. Only less common are Asplanchna prio- 
dontctj Polyarthra platyptera, Peridinium tubulatum, Ceratium hirundi- 
nelta, Mallomonas. The rotifers, Floscularia pelagka and Notops 
pygmmis, are of frequent occurrence ; a not very dissimilar association 
is found in small ponds, but the species are for the most part different ; 
thus Diaptomus is represented by 1). castor, Daphnia by D. pidex, 
Bosmina by B. cormtta ; Rotifers and Algse will be more abundant and 
varied, and there will probably be some Ostracods. Even the smallest 
lochs surveyed had the plankton distinctly lacustrine, but a few nearly 
or quite stagnant lochans showed a slight approach to the pond type. 
In some forms, e.g. Daphnia lacustris and Bosmina obtusirostris, there 
is great variability. The phenomenon of Wasserblut, usually due to 
Alga?, may also be due to Protozoa and to Rotifers, — on one occasion 
to the rather uncommon Rotifer, Dinocharis collinsii. Many details 
are given as to individual lochs. 

Ceylonese Cephalochorda4 — W. M. Tattersall reports on a collection 
made by Prof. W. A. Herd man. Although no new species are recorded,, 
the fact that seven species (including var. belcheri) occur around Ceylon, 
indicates the great wealth of the Acraniate fauna of these waters. 

* Nature, lxviii. 1903, pp. 356-7 (1 tig.). 

f Scottish Geogr. Magazine, xx. (HiOl) pp. 41-7. 

X Rep. Pearl Oyster Fisheries Ceylon. Sappl. Report vi. pp. 200-26 (1 pL> 



17G SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Four species are recorded from this neighbourhood for the first time. 
The depths at which the specimens were taken range from three to 
fourteen fathoms, in all cases comparatively shallow water. They 
usually live in clean coarse sand and feed largely on diatoms. The 
spawning time in tropical seas appears to be the latter half of March, 
rather earlier in the year than in more temperate seas. It is noted that 
Branchiostomum lanceolatum, now for the first time recorded from the 
Indian Ocean, is cosmopolitan, that the variety B. belcheri is the pre- 
dominant form, that B. pelagic urn is truly pelagic, and that B. cali- 
fornieiise occurs, though showing some slight variation when compared 
with its American relations. Tattersall's tables show how extremely 
variable the species of this group are ; " the more extended our know- 
ledge of this group becomes, the less distinctly do the species appear to 
be separated." 

IN VERTEBR AT A . 

Enemies of the Sugar Beet.* — A. Stift has notes on the injurious 
effects of Eurycreou sticticalis (caterpillars), Bibio hortulans, Anthomgia 
co/iformis, Aphis papaveris, lulus guttulatus, Heterodera schachtii, and 
other forms which prey upon the beet. He also refers to the injuries 
done to winter wheat by Geophilus longicomis. 

Mollusca. 
y. Gastropoda. 

Blood of Marine Gastropods. f — E. Couvreur has studied the blood 
of Murex braiularis, M. trunculus, and Tritonium nodiferum. There is 
a general resemblance with the blood of the snail. The fresh blood is 
almost colourless, but acquires a faint blue tint due to hasmocyanin ; 
there is no spontaneous coagulation, there being no fibrin-forming sub- 
stance ; a little sugar is present. 

5. Lamellibranchiata. 

Variations in Pecten opercularis.J — C. B. Davenport has com- 
pared three lots of individuals from widely separated localities, — Eddy- 
stone, Firth of Forth, and the Irish Sea. He discusses change of 
proportions with age, changes in symmetry, ray frequency, variation of 
the " ears," colour variations, and abnormalities. 

In some studies on Pecten irradians from the American coast, 
Davenport was struck by the gradual change of the shells from place 
to place ; a change of such a nature that one might say that the dif- 
ference in the place modes was a function of the spatial interval between 
the places in question. 

Davenport's study of Pecten opercularis from British coasts yields 
a similar result. The three lots collected from three places are measur- 
ably unlike in size, proportions, and average number of rays. When 

* Zeitsclir. Zucker Industrie und Landwirtsekaft, 1903, p. 3. See Centralbl. 
Bakt. Parasitenk, 2 ,e Abt., x. (1903) pp. 611-5. 

t Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, lxxxix. (1903) pp. 79-81. 

t Proc. Anier. Acad., xxxix. (1889) pp. 123-59, many tables. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



177 



the lots are arranged in the order a, b, c, in which a and c are the geo- 
graphical extremes, they are found to be the biological extremes also. 
iy "Where the environmental conditions of the isolated form units 
are similar, the differences met with are easily accounted for on the 
assumption of mutations which are preserved. Where, on the other 
hand, the environmental conditions are dissimilar, it is obvious that 
they must produce a change either through their " direct and definite " 
action or possibly by selection. To deny that environment may act 
directly to produce profound, eventually specific changes is to deny the 
evidence of some of the best experimental work in evolution, and this 
experimental work has also proved the inheritance of these environ- 
mentally induced changes. The mutation theory errs, then, in stating 
only a half truth. Through mutation, and also through the direct 
action of environment, specific changes may be produced." 

Origin of Fine Pearls.* — L. Boutan maintains that there is no real 
distinction between nacreous pearls formed external to the mantle like 
the shell, and fine pearls, said to be formed within the tissues of the 
mantle. Experiments have convinced him that in all cases the pearl, 
which is provoked by the presence of a parasitic fluke, as has been pre- 
viously shown, has an epithelial origin, and represents a secretion of the 
external epithelium of the mantle. When it becomes possible by artificial 
trepanning of the shell to imitate precisely the penetration of the fluke, 
the production of true pearls will be Avithin human control. 

Arthropoda. 

Classification of Arthropoda.| — A. S. Packard discusses in an in- 
teresting paper the affinities and evolution of the Arthropods, which he 
regards as forming a polyphyletic group. His general conclusions may 

be inferred from the scheme which he suggests. 

Insecta 
Arachnida Sjmjhyla 

Crustacea 

MeroBtomata Diplopoda Chilopoda 



Trilobita 



Pauropoil 



Malacopoda 



Palteopoda 



Protagnostus 
(Protaspis) 



Annelida 



II 
Pancarida 



III 

Merupoda 



IV 

1 'rotracheata 



V 

Entomoptera 



Annelida 

or 

Troehosphaera 



Annelida 



Annelida 



* Cornptes Rendus, oxxxvii. (1908) pp. 1078-5. 

t Proe. Amer. Phil. Soc., xlii. (1903) pp. 142-G1 (1 fig.). 



178 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Relationships between Classes of Arthropoda.* — G. H. Carpenter 
contributes a valuable essay on this difficult siibject, and comes to the 
following principal conclusions : — 

(1) The Arthropoda are a natural, monophyletic assemblage of 
animals. 

(2) There is exact numerical correspondence between the segmenta- 
tion of typical Insects, Crustaceans, and Arachnids (worked out in a 
detailed comparative table). 

(3) Such correspondence in three distinct classes cannot reasonably 
be explained as the result of convergent evolution from ancestors with 
very numerous segments, which independently became diminished to 
exactly the same extent. 

(4) The ancestral Arthropods must, therefore, have possessed a fixed 
and definite segmentation ; and the various forms with very numerous 
segments (Phyllopods, Millipedes, etc.) have undergone abnormal 
elongation. 

(5) The Insecta, Chilopoda and Diplopoda may be derived from 
common Symphylan ancestors, which branched off from the primitive 
Crustacea (proto-Leptostraca) . 

(G) Among the Crustacea, the Leptostraca and the Trilobita show 
the most primitive characters. The proto-Trilobita had the typical 
Arthropodan number of segments. 

(7) The Arachnida, including the Merostomata, Xiphosura and 
Pycnogonida, arose from the proto-Trilobita. 

(8) The Malacopoda must be regarded as Arthropoda of low type. 
They have no close relationship to Chilopoda or Insecta, and their 
Annelidan affinities are doubtful. 

(9) The Arthropoda, as a whole, probably sprang from Naupliform 
ancestors, and not from well-developed Annelid worms. A genealogical 
tree is given expressing these conclusions in graphic form. 

o. Insecta. 

Economic Entomology .f — F. V. Theobald discusses a great variety of 
subjects in his first report on economic zoology, but the majority are 
entomological. They afford a fine illustration of the multitudinous- 
ways in which man comes into practical contact with animal life, and 
the author deserves congratulation on the impressiveness of his " First 
Report." There are discussions on cereal pests, root-crop pests, fruit 
pests, garden pests ; on dipterous larvse in human excreta ; on Anobium 
tesselatum in St. Albans Cathedral ; on the cigar beetle ; on the tsetse 
fly ; on locusts in the Sudan ; and on mosquitos at Blackheath, and 
so on. And inter alia we find information on poison for moles ; tape- 
worm in sheep ; the origin and varieties of domesticated geese ; green 
matter in Lewes public baths ; the screw-worm in St. Lucia ; the Teredo ; 
the Ceylon pearl fisheries, and so on, through a variety of subjects as 
interesting as it is astounding. 

* Proc. K. Irish Acad., xxiv. (190::) pp. :;20-60(l pl.\ 

t First Keport ou Economic Zoology. British Museum. 1D03, xxxiv. and 192 pp., 
18 fies. 



any par- 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 179 

Sex-Determination in Bees.* — Ferd. Dickel has made twelve ex- 
periments which seem to him to support his somewhat heretical views in 
regard to the sex-determination in bees. He believes that " drone-eggs " 
are fertilised ; that drones can be reared from " worker-eggs," and vice 
versa ; that all the eggs laid by a normal queen are fertilised ; that the 
ripe ovum has in itself only the potentiality of masculinity ; that the 
sperms bring in the potentiality of femakmess, whether of workers or 
queens ; and that the workers produce a " sex-determining " and a 
" volume-determining " substance which settles the destiny of a 
ticular egg which they handle. 

Parthenogenesis in Porthesia.f — Tad Garbowski reports the occur- 
rence of indubitable parthenogenesis in Porthesia similis, which was 
reared from a pupa-case and kept in isolation. It laid eggs in three 
batches, and died. All the eggs hatched into active caterpillars. 

Sleeping Sickness of Silkworms.^ — J. Bolle and M. Richter find 
that this disease is in no wise due to the micro-organisms of the mulberry 
leaves. Six species of bacteria and two yeasts were obtained from the 
leaves, but inoculations of cultures failed to induce any Schlafsucht in 
the silkworms. 

Ants from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.§ — A. Forel reports 
on a collection, which shows that the ants of these islands are related to 
those of India and of Indo-China, and include some peculiar forms. 
There has been an invasion from both east and west. Forel analyses 
the collection into 9 local forms, 5 occidental, 7 oriental, 3 shared with 
Hindustan and Burmah, 10 both oriental and occidental, and 4 cosmo- 
politan — 38 in all. 

Development of Ovary of Polyxenus lagurus De Geer.|| — A. 
Lecaillon finds in newly-hatched larvre two distinct ovarian primordia, 
each consisting of a small aggregate of oogonia surrounded by an en- 
velope of flattened cells, and including small cells destined to form the 
follicular elements. In a short time, however, the two oogonial masses 
unite and form a single ovary- — unique among insects. The further 
history is followed, and noteworthy is the appearance in the cytoplasm of 
the young ova of a special eytochromatic substance, which is probably a 
differentiation concerned with the elaboration of assimilable substances. 

Peculiar Aphid.T — Alice L. Embleton describes Ceratajjnis latanim, 
which has been called by more than half-a-dozen names. In Britain the 
species seems now to occur in only one form, the apterous female, 
which reproduces parthenogenetically in an uninterrupted manner. The 
occurrence of the winged female was, however, noted in England for one 
or more seasons a quarter of a century ago. It is suggested that the 

* Arch. Ges. Physiol., xev. (1903) pp. 66-100. See Zool. Centralis, x. (1903) 
pp. 740-1 . 

t Zool. Anzeig., xxvii. (1904) pp. 212-4. 

X Zeiteehr. Landw. Versuchswesen Osterreich, 1903, p. 287. See Centralbl. Bakt. 
Parasitenk. I 19 Abt, xxxiii. (190:!) pp. 73f>-6. 

§ Revue Suisse Zool., xi. (1903) pp. 399-411. 

|| Comptcs Rendus, cxxxvi. (190:'.) pp. 1691-3. 

i Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), xxix. (1903) pp. 90-107 (1 pi.). 



180 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCilES RELATING TO 

conditions of life — in orchid-houses — have brought about the simplifica- 
tion of the life cycle, the permanence of the " aleurodif orm " stage. 
The insect is probably one of the migratory Aphides that has been 
deprived of the series of metamorphoses, owing to an artificial mode of 
life. Experiments should be made on Hormaphis hamamelidis, or on 
some other migratory Aphis, with a view to ascertaining whether — by 
affording successive generations a constant supply of food under equable 
conditions of temperature, etc.- — the creature could be maintained for 
many generations, or permanently, in the aleurodif orm stage. 

Maturation in Viviparous Aphides.* — J. P. Stschelkanovzew has 
studied the phenomena of maturation in the summer ova of Aphis rosrc, 
showing that only one polar body is formed. The changes in the 
chromatin-substance occur very rapidly and in somewhat simplified 
fashion. The old chromatin thread of the germinal vesicle is partly 
dissolved, and probably gives rise to several of the nucleoli, though the 
majority of these arise by new formation. During the formation of 
the nucleoli, changes occur in the plasma of the ovum, apparently 
implying a passage of chromatin-like substance from the plasma into 
the nucleus. The new chromatin thread from which the chromosomes 
of the polar body arise, is formed directly from the peripheral nucleoli, 
and shows no trace of a longitudinal splitting. The chromosomes show 
marked differences in size. 

Neapolitan Myrmecophilous Insects, f — F. Silvestri describes the 
myrmecophilous habits of Tettigometra impressifrons Muls., and T. 
costulata Fieb. (Hemiptera), Hyperaspis reppensis Herbst. (Coleoptera), 
Mprmeeophila acervorum Panz., and M. ochracca Fisch. (Orthoptera). 

Genealogical Study of Dragon-fly Wing Venation. J — J. Gr. 
Needham seeks to translate the records of natural selection as written 
in the venatioual characters of Odonate wintrs. The result is a most 

m o 

interesting essay on " developmental dynamics," showing how in accord- 
ance with mechanical principles, .operating in vein-shifting and vein- 
differentiation, a form of wing is reached, several times independently, 
that is most efficient, — a wing broad at the base and long and pointed at 
the apex, rigid at the front and pliant toward the posterior margin — a 
wing combining the principle of the aeroplane with that of the scull. 
But this is only a hint of the scope of an elaborate and suggestive 



investigation. 



B. Myriopoda. 



Littoral Myriopods.§ — F. Silvestri records from the shore of Portici 
near Naples, six Myriopods, namely, Pachymeriumferrugineum C. Koch, 
Geophilus poseidonis Verb., Henia bicarinata (Mein.) Silv., and Scliendgla 
submarina Grube, among Chilopoda ; and Polyxemis lapidicola Silv. 
and Isobates littoralis Silv., among Diplopoda. It seems that littoral 
Myriopods are much more frequent than is generally supposed, but the 
author distinguishes (a) accidental halophilous forms (three species of 

£■;■ * Biol. Centralbl., xxiv. (1904) pp. 104-12 (7 figs.). 

t Ann. Mns. Zool. Univ. Napoli, new series, i. No. 13 (1903) 5 pp. 
J Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., xxvi. (1903) pp. 702-64 (24 pis. and 44 figs.). 
§ Ann. Mns. Zool. Univ. Napoli, new series, i. (1903) No. 12, 5 pp. 



ZOOLOGY, AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY, ETC. 181 

Lithobius found in Normandy by Gadeau de Kerville) ; {b) indifferent 
halophilous myriopods (eight species) ; and (c) genuine halophilous 
myriopods, namely, ScoliopJanes maritimvs, Geophilus poseidonis, Schen- 
ilijln submarina, Polyxenus lapidwola, and Isolates Jittoralis. 

5. Araclinida. 

British Tyroglyphidse.* — Albert D. Michael is to be congratu- 
lated on the completion of his monograph on this family. We notice 
the new genus Fusacarus, the useful diagnostic tables, the list of foreign 
species, the bibliography, and the beautiful illustrations. The injury 
to horticulture caused by Rhizoijlyphus echinopus is carefully discussed. 

New Species of Koenenia from Italy.f — F. Silvestri describes two 
new Italian species of this interesting genus, — A", berlesei, near K. 
mirabilis Grassi ; and A', subangusta, near A", angtista Hansen. 

€. Crustacea. 

Classification of Malacostraca. X — W. T. Caiman gives his reasons 
for proposing the following new classification : 
Series Leptostraca, Clans., 1880. 

Division Phyllocarida, Packard, 1870. 
Order Nebaliacea, nov. nom. 
Series Eumalacostraca, Grobben, 181*2. 

Division Syncarida, Packard, 1886. 

Order Anaspidacea, nov. 
Division Peracarida, nov. nom. 

Orders Mysidacea, Cnmacea, Tanaidacea, Isopoda, 
Amphipoda. 
Division Eucarida, nov. nom. 

Orders Euphausiacea, Decapoda. 
Division Hoplocarida, nov. nom. 
Order Stomatopoda. 

Spermatozoa of Decapods. § — Alphonse Labbe points out that the 
figures usually given represent a stage which is not the final one. The 
fully ripe spermatozoon is only a portion of the spermatid. A whole 
series of accessory or transitional structures in the spermatid disappear 
before the spermatozoon is ripe. The ripe spermatozoon includes an 
anterior acrosome apparatus enclosing the centrosomes, a nucleus, and 
radiating cytoplasmic prolongations. Labbe describes the remarkable 
final transformations of the spermatids in Homarus vulgaris and Maia 
squinado, the spermatozoa of the latter, those of other Decapods (more 
briefly), and the constitution of the acrosome. 

Phagocytic Organ of Decapods. |j — L. Cuenot describes the special 
phagocytic organ which is found in the mid-gut gland on the terminal 
branches of the hepatic arteries. In Pagurids, where the gland is 

* British Tyroglyplmlaj, ii. Kay Soc. (1903) pp. 1-1S3 (pis. xx-xxxix). 
t Ann. Mus. Zool. Univ. NapoU, new series, i. No. 11, 2 pp. 
% Ann. Nat. Hist., xiii. (1904) pp. 144-58 (2 rigs.). 

§ Arch. Zool. Expe'r.. 4th series, ii. (1904). Notes et Uevuc, No. 1, pp. 1-14 
(27 figs,). 

|| Comptes Rendus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 619-20. 



182 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

abdominal, there are two arteries which correspond in position to the 
hepatic arteries of other Decapods, but do not go to the " liver." They 
remain in the cephalothorax, and their fine branches are covered with 
a mantle of fixed phagocytes. The lymphoid organ in connection with 
the ophthalmic artery, gives rise to the free amoebocytes of the blood, 
but is not phagocytic. 

New Family of Amphipods.* — H. J. Hansen describes Ingolfiella 
abyssi g. et sp. n., from deep water to the south entrance of Davis 
Straits, 1870 fathoms, and /. littoralis sp. n., from one fathom of water 
in the Gulf of Siam. The new type is clearly distinguished from all 
Gammarina and Caprellina by at least four characters. Two of these 
are of very high rank, viz. the complete separation of the eye-lobes 
from the head and the peculiar structure of the pleopods. The other 
two distinctive characters are less important, viz. the elongate styliform 
shape of the molar process of the mandibles, and the structure of the 
first two pairs of prehensile hands, in which the fifth joint is developed 
as a hand, and the two distal joints, together with the real claw, are so 
completely claw-shaped that a similar structure has not been observed 
in any other form. It is necessary at present to maintain the Ingolfiel- 
lidae as a tribe of the same rank as the Caprellina. 

Study of the Beach-Flea.f — Mabel E. Smallwood has made a study 
of Talorchestia Jongicornis, a common amphipod of Cold Spring Harbour. 
She notes that the adult males are very variable in their proportions, 
especially in regard to the relative lengths of the body and the second 
antennas, but this may be due to moulting. The males are larger than 
the females, and differ from them in the shape and size of the second 
gnathopods, and, when fully mature, in the relatively longer second 
antennas. Unlike most amphipods, these beach-fleas are poor swimmers, 
but they run rapidly and jump with great agility. They have become 
secondarily terrestrial, and do not voluntarily enter the water. They 
die, indeed, if the mouth of the furrow be kept under water. They 
are responsive to white light, being photokinetic, but not phototactic. 
They are effective scavengers, and are well protected from birds and 
fishes by their pale colour and nocturnal habits. 

Argulidae.J — C. B. Wilson gives an account of North American 
Argulidse in the U.S. National Museum, describing four new species. 
He gives a welcome systematic review of all the known species (over 
forty), and a bibliography of the family. 

Calanoid Copepoda.§ — A. M. Norman reports on Calanoida, chiefly 
abyssal, from the Faroe Channel and other parts of the North Atlantic. 
The enormous range of these deep-water Copepods is very remarkable. 
In the Faroe Channel there are species at considerable depths whicli 
Nansen found near the surface at the point nearest to the North Pole 
from which any animals have been obtained ; and these are associated 

* Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), xxix. (1903) pp. 117-33 (2 pis). 

f Cold Spring Harbor Monographs (Brooklyn Inst. Arts and Sci.), No. 1 (1903) 
pp. 1-27 (3 pis. and 3 figs.). 

X Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., xxv. (1903) pp. 635-742 (20 pis.). 
§ Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), xxix. (1903) pp. 133-41. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 183 

with other forms which are known to occur, some in the Mediterranean, 
some in the Gulf of Guinea and South Atlantic, one in the Antarctic 
Ocean, and some from the very centre of the Pacific. At the depth at 
which they live the temperature conditions are similar, whether under 
the tropics or under Arctic ice. They are always on the move, and tend 
to be readily transported. We are beginning to learn more and more 
how widely diffused large numbers of abyssal genera and species are, but 
in no group of animals has this fact been more clearly demonstrated than 
in Canon Norman's notes on these Calanoida. 

Annulata. 

Leucocytes and Similar Cells in Sipunculus nudus.* — F. Ladreyt 
finds that there are two very distinct types of leucocytes in this worm. 
There are minute plastids, with very active fine pseudopodia, and central 
or slightly excentric nucleus (amcebocytes or phagocytes), which have 
an important role in excretion and phagocytosis ; and there are large 
elements, including numerous transparent spherules, without pseudo- 
podia, with a lateral nucleus (vesicular leucocytes or " glycoleucytes ") 
which are especially devoted to storing nutritive substances, like glycogen. 
The adult coloured haamatids absorb carmine injected into the ccelom. 
When the small amoebocytes absorb excretory substances, they transport 
these to areas suitable for diapedesis, and the waste is got rid of by 
epidermic exfoliation, or via the nephridia, or with the fasces. A sheath 
is formed by the same elements around infecting Bacteria and Nematodes. 

Palolo Worm of Samoa.f — W. McM. Woodworth has prepared a 
summary report on the well-known form, Eunice viridis Gray. We note 
a few points only. At the end of October (1897) the Samoan reef was 
"literally alive with Palolo," which were discovered by prising off 
pieces of the rock with a crowbar. The operation of freeing unbroken 
specimens of these fragile worms is a delicate one ; three complete 
worms were obtained, and an excellent figure is given. The total length 
averages 400 mm., about one-fourth of which is in the anterior atokal 
part. In two males about 429 and 359 atokal segments were counted, 
in a female about 250. The greatest diameter of the atokal part is 4 mm., 
and that of the epitokal region 1-1 J mm. The colour of the male is 
reddish-brown, that of the female bluish-green. These colours, which 
are very marked in the epitokal portions, are there due to the colours of 
the spermatozoa and ova, after the discharge of which the collapsed 
integument is translucent and colourless. In the atokous parts the 
female is more greenish than the male, and the colours are there in- 
tegumentary. Each epitokal segment bears on its ventral surface a pro- 
minent pigmented spot, the Bauchauge of Ehlers. These " eye-spots " 
can be traced into the atokal part through about twenty segments, 
diminishing in size toward the anterior end ; they are lacking on the 
anal segment, and are usually absent in two to six of the pre-anal 
segments. 

A similar swarming of marine Annelids, and at corresponding seasons, 
is known for other islands of the Pacific, though the worms have not 

* Comptes Rendus, exxxvii. (1903) pp. 865-7. 
f Amer. Nat., xxxvii. (1903) pp. 875-81 (1 fig.). 



184 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

been everywhere identified. The Palolo makes its appearance in Samoa 
in the months of October and November, during the last quarter of the 
moon, the time of the lowest or spring tides. Woodworth is inclined to 
believe in some thermotropic or heliotropic reaction of the " eyes " on 
the epitokal part of the worm. The " Palolo time " in Samoa embraces 
three succesive days. During these days another Annelid — Lysidice 
falax Ehlers, L. viridis Gray — exhibits phenomena similar to those of 
the true Palolo. 

Some Woods Hole Pelagic Polychgeta.* — J. Percy Moore points out 
that the pelagic Annelid fauna of southern New England has received 
but little attention. He describes some forms new to the region— 
Amphinome pallasii Quatrefages, Hvpponoe gaudichaudi Aud. and M.E., 
Drieschia pellucida sp. n., and Tomopteris kelgolandka Greef. 

Distribution of Oligochseta.f— K. Bretscher has made a special 
study of the distribution of earthworms in Switzerland, where there 
are sixteen 'endemic species. A great deal depends on the degree of 
humidity and the atmospheric conditions, as is shown by considering the 
rainfall records. 

Negative and Positive Phototropism of the Earthworm.}— G. P. 
Adams finds that the phototropism of AUolobophora fmtida changes 
according to the intensity of the light. The negative phototaxis, very 
marked with intense illumination, gradually decreases as the intensity is 
lessened. Finally, the earthworm shows itself positively phototactic. 
This agrees obviously with the habits of the animal in nature, for it hides 
from the sunlight, but is drawn to the weak nocturnal light. 

Regeneration in Lumbriculus variegatis.§— P. Iwanow compares in 
detail the regeneration of trunk-segments and head-segments in this 
worm. We can only allude to a few results. The gut is formed 
similarly in both, by the backward or forward growing of the old gut 
until it meets a minute proctodreal or stomodaal invagination. The new 
epidermis differentiates early into a new growing epithelium and into 
large sub-epithelial " germ-cells," which form nervous tissue and external 
musculature. The mesoderm of the trunk-segments arises from special 
indifferent "germ-cells," but in the head-segments the material for 
mesoderm regeneration is afforded entirely by derivatives of the " germ- 
cells " of the trunk, especially from the somatic wall. The muscle 
elements in the head arise wholly from muscle-cells of the old mesoderm ; 
the connective tissue cells come mainly from leucocytes or peritoneal 
cells. Thus the secondary mesoderm in the head-segments does not 
form chloragogen cells or nephridia. 

Experiments in Jlolosoma hemprichii.|| — Antonin Stole notes that 
this naid has normally six double-pairs of bundles of seta?, and that its 
asexually-produced progeny show the same number. Various parts of 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Pci. Philadelphia, 1903, pp. 793-S01 (1 pi.). 

t Biol. Centralbl., xxiii. (1903) pp. 634-9 (1 map). 

X Amer. Jouru. Physiol., ix. ((1903) pp. 26-34 (2 fi<rs.). See Zool. Centralbl. xi. 
(1904) p. 33. 

§ Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., Ixxv. (1903) pp. 327-90 (2 pis.). 

|| Arch. Eutwickmech., xv. (1903) pp. 638-68 (26 figs.). Sec Zool. Centralbl. x. 
(1903) pp. 878-9. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 185 

such chains may be separated off mechanically, and may give rise to 
asexually reproductive individuals. These usually differ from the normal 
individuals in the number of pairs of setose bundles. Their progeny was 
followed with care, but the normal number always re-appeared. 

Nematohelminth.es. 

Filaria immitis.* — G. Noe gives some details in regard to the passage 
of this parasite through the medium of a mosquito (Anopheles) from 
host to host. 

Filaria perstans in relation to Sleeping Sickness. f — G. C. Low, 
after studying the distribution and the pathological conditions of this 
disease, comes to the conclusion that Filaria perstans has nothing to do 
with it, its occasional presence being only a coincidence, as is the presence 
of AnTcylo stoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichocephahis dispar, 
and Bilharzia hmnatobia. The worm probably produces no pathological 
-symptoms whatever. 

Platyhelminth.es. 

Oscillatory Movements of Convoluta roscoffensis.J — Georges Bohn 
describes the behaviour of this Turbellarian. There are two main 
movements. When the tide comes in they bury themselves in the sand ; 
when the tide is out they form green patches on the sand. They avoid 
the two dangers of being swept away and of being dried up. Their 
movements are synchronous with those of the sea, like those of the 
Annelid Hediste diversicolor, and are not referable to the influence of 
light, as they occur as precisely at night as during the day. 

Revision of Classification of Polyclad Turbellarians.§ — F. F. 

Laidlaw suggests a revision based mainly on the characters of the vagina 
and prostate gland. He gives a diagnostic key for the Acotylea and 
Cotylea, and a grouping of the Acotylean genera in eight families. 

Structure of Mesostoma nasonoffii Graff.|| — W. Zykoff gives a 
description of this Russian Turbellarian, allied to M. obtusum, which 
has not been adequately diagnosed hitherto. 

Cysticercus cellulosae on Dog's Brain. f — Ball and Marotel re- 
cord what is a rare occurrence, the presence of numerous (30) bladder- 
worms on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres of a dog. The 
characters of Cysticercus celluloses were unmistakable. The parasitism 
was fatal. 

Cestodes of South American Marsupials.** — F. Zschokke, following 
up H. von Ihering's suggestion, calls attention to the occurrence of 
Oochoristica and Linstowia in these forms. The former never occurs 
except in the old autochthonous forms ; its presence is, as it were, one 

* Atti. (Rend.) R. Aocad. Lincei, xii. (1903) pp. 476-83 (3 figs), 
ft Roy. Soc. Rep. Sleeping Sickness Comm., ii. (1902) pp. 64-9. 

% Comptes Rendus, exxxvii. (1903) pp. 576-8. 

§ Mem. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc, xlviii. (1903) No. 4, p. 16 (5 figs.). 

|| Bull. Sue. Imp. Nat. Moscow (1903) pp. 183-7 (1 pi.). 

Tf Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, lxxxix. (1903) pp. 55-6. 
** Zool. Anzeig., xxvii. (1904) pp. 290-3. 

April mh, 1904 ° 



186 SUMMARY OF CURRENI RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

of their insignia. The genus Litistowia is restricted to Marsupials and 
Monotrernes ; its exclusive occurrence in American and Australian 
Aplacentalia points to a remarkable similarity in the parasitic fauna of 
the autochthonous inhabitants of the two continents. 

Parasites of Ural Birds.* — "W. Clerc collected 408 birds from the 
Ural, and found parasites in 246. In 233 there were Cestodes, repre- 
senting 57 species, of which ten are new. Nine species of Nematodes, 
three of Acanthocephala, and eight of Trematodes were also found. 
The present memoir contains descriptions of the Cestodes. 

Incertee Sedis. 

Lohmannia catenata g. et sp. n.f — E. Neresheimer found in the 
gonadial cavity of FriUllaria, a remarkable mesozoon parasite. It 
consists of an anterior portion with branched pseudopodia, and a chain 
of segments without pseudopodia. There is but one layer of cells, and 
the boundaries are not very clear. The anterior nuclei are larger 
than the rest and otherwise different. To each of them a pseudopodium 
seems to be associated. 

The young form is like a gastrula, and diploblastic. The internal 
layer grows actively, and the external layer is reduced to delicate mem- 
brane except at the anterior end, where the nuclei are associated with 
the pseudopodia. The segments formed by the internal body are 
liberated, bursting the outer membrane, and the anterior region then 
forms new ones. 

Rotifer a. 

Excretory Organs in the Family Melicertidae.J — Stan. Hlava 
has studied these in Lacinularia socialis, Megalotrocha albojlavicans, 
Melicerta ringens, and Limnias ceratophylli, and finds that these organs 
conform essentially to the same plan which has been known in 
Asplanchna. The paired thick-walled lateral canals, forming com- 
plicated knots in the head region, are accompanied on each side of the 
body by a fine thin-walled tubule which alone bears the vibratile tags, 
of which there are five on each side. The two thick-walled canals 
unite posteriorly into a single short tubular piece which corresponds to 
the contractile vesicle of other rotifers, but which has no power of 
contraction. Valentine's statement that this tube opens outward by 
an independent poms in Lacinularia is not confirmed. The narrow 
thin-walled tubules, bearing the tags, open into the thick-walled canals 
in two places — in the twisted knot in the head, and posteriorly just 
before these canals unite. The thin-walled tubules give off small 
branches bearing the flame-cells at their ends. An additional feature 
in Lacinularia and Megalotrocha is a fine connecting tubule between 
the two sides in the corona. In addition to the flame-cells the author 
has observed three fine vibratile cilia within the lumen of the thick- 
walled canals in Lacinularia and Megalotrocha. 

In the same note the author establishes a new genus, Conochiloides, 

* Rev. Suisse Zool., xi. (1903) pp. 241-368 (4 pis), 
t Biol. Centralbl., xxiii. (1903) pp. 757-00 (3 figs. . 
J Zool. Anzeig., xxvii. (1904) pp. 247-53(4 figs. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 187 

for the reception of Seligo's Tubicolaria (Conochilus) natans and Gono- 
chilm dossuarius of Hudson. 

Echinoderma. 

Study of the Nucleolus in the Maturing Ovum.* — K. Guenther 
has made a detailed study of the history of the nucleolus in Holothuria 
tubulosa and Psammechinus microtuberculatus. It arises in the ripening 
ovum as a drop or as several drops excreted from the nuclear frame- 
work. Into this or these the chromatin of the nucleoplasm penetrates 
intimately. After a time the chromatin emerges and is re-distributed 
in the nuclear framework, or it postpones its emergence until the forma- 
tion of the directive spindle where it takes the form of chromosomes. 
In both cases there is a residue (Hacker's " metamicleolus "), which is 
either a product of metabolism or superfluous chromatin. This residue 
may be immediately dissolved, or it may persist for a considerable time. 
In short, " the nucleolus represents a drop excreted from the nuclear 
framework ; into it the chromatin penetrates, and prepares for division. 
There may be an intense metabolism involved between the chromatin 
and the nucleolar fluid." 

Development of Echinus miliaris.t — Hjalmar Th^el gives a pre- 
liminary account of this, dealing in particular with the water-vascular 
system and with Aristotle's lantern, but including many figures relevant 
to other parts of the body. 

Sea-Urchin Ova Fertilised by Starfish Spermatozoa.^ — Jacques 
Loeb finds that in certain solutions, not described, the ova of Strongylo- 
centrotus purpuratus can be fertilised with the sperm of Asterias ochracea, 
though this hybridisation will not occur in ordinary sea water. About 
half of the ova, thus cross-fertilised, developed to some extent, and 
some formed not only blastulae and gastrula?, but lived for more than 
a week, and showed a differentiation of the gut, but at most a rudi- 
mentary larval skeleton. 

Ova of Sea-Urchins.§ — A. Krassuskaja and E. Landau find that 
the space between the vitelline membrane and the surface of the ovum 
is occupied by a delicate gelatinous substance, secreted after fertilisation, 
which absorbs water and swells up so as to remove the vitelline mem- 
brane from the ovum. 

Parthenogenesis induced by Carbon Dioxide. || — Yves Delage has 
shown that the ova of starfishes will develop parthenogenetically if sub- 
mitted to the influence of carbon dioxide during the formation of the 
polar bodies. The ova of sea-urchins (Paracentrotus = Strongylo- 
centrotus) give off their polar bodies in the ovary, and are not sus- 
ceptible normally to the influence of carbon dioxide as a stimulus to 
parthenogenesis. But it is possible to make them so susceptible by 

* Zool. Jahrb., xix. (1903) pp. 1-2S (1 pi."). 

t Bihang. k. Svensk. Vet.-Akad.-Handl., xxviii. (1903) Afd. iv. No. 7, 9 pp. and 
3 pis. 

% Univ. California Publications (Physiology), i. (1903) pp. 1-3. See Zool. Cen- 
tralb)., x. (1903) p. 885. § Biol. Centralbl., xxiii. (1903) pp. 613-8. 

|| Comptea Rendue, oxxxvii. (1903) pp. 473-5. 

O 2 



188 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

shaking them and warming them at the same time. By combining 
these two methods there is induced a " nuclear lability," which renders 
these eggs susceptible to the influence of carbon dioxide as a provocative 
of cleavage. Stages with thirty-two blastomeres were produced. 

Influence of Carbon Dioxide on Ova of Echinoderms.*— C. Viguier 
finds that this influence does not uniformly act, as Delage has asserted, 
as a temporary poison. Like some other re-agents, it has a variable 
influence ; it is sometimes favourable and sometimes injurious ; it acts 
differently on nearly related types and even on eggs of the same species, 
according to their condition at the time. 

New Genus of Diadematidse.f — Th. Mortensen describes Lisso- 
diadema lorioli g. et sp. n. — a small Bchinoid from the Bay of Amboina 
which was previously regarded by de Loriol as a young specimen of 
Asthenosoma varium. Re-examination shows that the form is an in- 
teresting new type of the family Diadematidge, with a near relative in 
Echinotlirix. 

Habits and Life-History of Stichopus japonicus.J— K. Mitsukuri 
notes that the breeding season of this holothurian ends with the latter 
half of July. Then the individuals crawl out into dark places under 
rocks and cease to take food, passing into an inactive state which may be 
called " summer sleep." The alimentary canal becomes reduced to a 
slender, almost thread-like tube. In autumn the animals crawl out 
again, and begin to feed. The branches of the dendritic gonads elongate 
quickly, and are ripe about the middle of May ; the height of the re- 
productive season lasting till the middle of July. 

Mitsukuri thinks that the genital tubes ought to be regarded simply 
as local lateral growths of the strictly germinal area/ which is lodged in 
the median line of the dorsal mesentery. A certain number of tubes are 
produced as each year's crop. Some of the next year's crop may be seen 
as delicate and slender tubes in front of the enlarged and fully-grown 
tubes of a given year. After the genital products are shed, the tubes 
seem to be gradually absorbed. 

It seems that Stichopus japonicus reaches the adult condition in two 
whole years ; and that after reaching this it goes through a regular 
spawning season only at the end of another year, i.e. the third year from 
the beginning. Some probably live for five years. Some hints as to 
protecting, propagating and increasing these holothurians are given, e.g. 
by providing piles or dykes of loose stones for the summer retreat, and 
for the shelter of the larva?. After making this suggestion, the author 
found that the plan had been tried in the somewhat out-of-the-way island 
of Oki for a hundred years or more. 

Variation in Ophiocoma nigra.§ — D. C. Mcintosh has studied in 
this brittle star the most general shape of the disc, the shape and size of 
the coloured patch (if any) on the disc, the correlation between arm- 
length and disc-breadth, the percentage of specimens with an abnormal 

* Comptes Rendus, cxxxvi. (1003) pp. 1687-90. 

t Revue Suisse Zool., xi. (1903) pp. 393-8 (4 figs.). 

j Annot. Zool. Japon., v. (1903) pp. 1-21 (4 figs, and tables). 

§ Bionutrika, ii. (1903) part 4, pp. 463-73 (8 figs, and 5 tables). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 189 

number of rays, and the number of madreporic plates. The shape of 
the disc is in general pentagonal, but tends to become circular in more 
fully developed, individuals. Over ,75 p.c. had a coloured patch, which 
varied in shape with its size — from circular to pentagonal. In the first 
thousand specimens there were five with six rays ; in the second thousand 
there were four with six rays, and one with four rays ; in the third 
thousand there were three with six rays. Out of 3000 specimens, thirty- 
nine had two or'more of the plates so like the madreporite, that one could 
not tell the real madreporic plate — a confirmation of what Prof. Jeffrey 
Bell says, that " in ophiurods the stone-canal ends in one or several 
of the mouth shields." The paper affords a good illustration of the 
variability of a familiar animal. 

Coelentsra. 

Medusa from Victoria Nyanza.* — Ch. Gravier calls attention to 
Ch. Alluaud's discovery of a freshwater medusa in this lake. It seems 
to be identical with Limnocnida tanganyim, discovered in Lake Tangan- 
yika by Bohm in 1883, and studied in 1893 by R. T. Gunther — a relict 
of the fauna of the ancient Jurassic sea which once covered the centre 
of Africa. 

Sagartia paguri Verril.f — J. Play fair McMurrich describes this 
interesting sea-anemone, which adheres to the chela of the pagurid 
Diogenes edwardsii (De Haan). It was previously described briefly by 
Verrill in 18G0, but without any details of structural characters. These 
are now supplied. The habits of this form suggests its reference to the 
genus Adamsia, but the arrangement of the mesenteries clearly indicates 
it as a member of the Sagartiinse, and it is to be assigned to the genus 
Sagartia. 

Modification of Hydroid Colonies by (Movements in the Water.J 
Madame S. Motz-Kossowska has made many observations and some 
experiments which show that Plumularia obliqua, Aglaophenia myrio- 
phyllum, Eudendrium ramosum, etc., are modified by the movements of 
the surrounding water. Changes of thickening in the perisarc, increased 
flexibility or rigidity, may be referred to direct environmental influence. 
The mechanical action of contact with solid bodies is also discussed . 
The perisarc of a, free stolon is much more delicate than that of the fixed 
hydrorhiza, and the growth of the stolon is far more rapid than that of 
the hydrorhiza. 

Alaskan Corymorpha-like Hydroid. § — S. F. Clarke calls attention 
to a large coral-red Alaskan Hydroid, for which he previously created the 
genus Rhizomma, which he now finds, however, to be a species either of 
Lampra or Corymorpha. To settle this it will be necessary to find speci- 
mens with well-preserved gonophores. He notes the unusual thickness 
of the supporting lamella between the ectoderm and the endoderm. 

* Comptes Rendus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 867-9. 

t Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., xxvi. (190;?) pp. 427-8 (2 figs.). 

% Comptes Rendus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 863-5. 

§ Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., xxvi. (1903) pp. 953-8 (7 figs). 



190 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

New Ceratella.* — S. J. Hickson describes from the Zanzibar col- 
lection made by C. Crossland, Ceratella minima, a new, species of the 
remarkable family Ceratelladrc. The colony is probably erect, branch- 
ing irregularly andl not very profusely, 'but strictly in one plane. 
The mains terns and all the branches are invariably cylindrical in 
form. The surface is free from spines and relatively smooth, although 
the hydrophores form very slight ridges. The skeleton consists of 
longitudinal horny fibres united by numerous loops and bands, which in 
the larger branches give a slightly spiral ribbed appearance to the surface. 
The zooids are numerous, bearing usually nine capitate tentacles. They 
are arranged slightly to one side of the plane of branching either 
alternately or in pairs. 

Septa of Rugosa.f — N. Yakovleff gives a stricter and more complete 
definition of the primary counter septum of Rugose corals. It is that in 
relation to which the contiguous septa are arranged in a parallel direction, 
and which has adjoining primary interseptal chambers, containing no 
secondary principal septa. Duerden is not correct in stating that the 
main septum and the counter septum lie respectively on the convex and 
on the concave side of the coral, independently of the arrangement of the 
contiguous septa. 

Protozoa. 

New British Freshwater Rhizopods.J — Gr. S. West records the 
occurrence of numerous forms, especially from the west of Scotland and 
the outer Hebrides. He describes the following new species : Nuclearia 
conspicua, Hyalosplienia platystoma, H. inconspicua and Sphenoderia 
puJcheUa. The two genera Vampyr&lla and Nuclearia should be removed 
from the Proteomyxa and placed in a separate order, Yampyrellida. 

Nosema anomalum Monz.§ — W. Stempell gives a brief account of 
the development of this parasite, which he found encysted in the sub- 
cutaneous connective tissue, body-cavity, alimentary canal, and more 
rarely in the ovarian eggs of Gasterosteus acuhatus. In one case he 
found it in the skin of Gobius minutus. The development turns out to 
be more complicated than Thelohan supposed, but we may wait for 
the detailed account which the author promises. 

Trypanosoma in Birds. || — W. Hanna found two different species of 
Trypanosome in the Indian domestic pigeon and in the Indian crow.. 
He describes these, and gives measurements for future use. A summary 
is given of the occurrence of Trypanosomes in animals other than 
mammals — in frogs, fishes, and oysters. Their occurrence in the blood 
of birds has not been hitherto recorded ; and Eberth's report of a 
Trypanosome in the intestine of birds appears to refer to a totally dif- 
ferent parasite from those found by Hanna. 

* Proc. Zool. Soc, 1903, pp. 113-6 (1 pi.). 
+ Ann. Nat. Hist., xiii. (1904) pp. 114-7 (2 figs.). 
X Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), xxix. (1903) pp. 108-17 (I pi.). 
§ Zool. Anzei«:., xxvii. (1!)04) pp. 293-5 (5 figs.). 
|| Quart. Joum. Micr. Sci., xlvii. (1903) pp. 433-8 (I pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MIOKOSCOPY, ETC. 191 

Trypanosoma in Sleeping Sickness.* — Aldo Castellani describes a 
species of Trypanosoma which he found in the cerebro-spinal fluid of a 
marked case of sleeping sickness. He suggests as a working hypothesis 
that the disease is due to this parasite, aud that at least in the last stages 
there is a concomitant streptococcus infection. 

Developmental Forms of the Trypanosome found in Sleeping Sick- 
ness.f — Aldo Castellani finds a number of forms structurally different — ■ 
typical adult forms, atypical adult forms, forms in different stages of 
longitudinal division, Rabinovitsh-Kempner bodies and Plimmer- 
Bradford amoeboid forms. It seems likely that the multiplication of 
longitudinal division is not the only mode of reproduction. 

Coccidia in Sheep.J — Moussu and Marotel describe a rare occurrence, 
the presence of Coccidia in the wall of the small intestine of the sheep. 
Four cases have been previously reported. The disease is a new one,, 
and the authors propose to call the parasite Coccidium faurei sp. n. 

* Roy. Soc. Rep. Sloeping Sickness Coium., i. (1903) pp. 1-10. 

f Op. cit, ii. (1903) pp. 9-13. 

X Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, lxxxix. (1903) pp. 73-4 (1 pi.). 



-*«^>+-— 



192 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



BOTANY. 

GENERAL, 

Including the Anatomy and Physiology of Seed Plants. 

Structure and Development. 
Vegetative. 

Anatomy of Seedlings of Labiatse.* — R. Yiguier, who has investi- 
gated the structure of the seedlings of Lamium album and other 
members of the order, describes the following general results. The 
stem structure is independent of that of the hypocotyl, and there is 
properly speaking no transition from root to stem. The cotyledons in 
Lamium album and other Labiates such as Leonurus Cardiaca, Nepeta 
Cataria, Hyssopus officinalis, etc., show very plainly an alternate arrange- 
ment of the phloem and sylem bundles. The adventitious roots 
originating below the cotyledons are two in number, and arise in a 
plane perpendicular to that of the primary wood bundles of the 
hypocotyl. 

Adventitious Endogenous Buds.| — C. de Candolle has studied the 
morphology of the adventitious buds arising on the trunk and branches 
of trees and shrubs. These are always endogenous, arising in the tissue 
round about the cambium. The actual layer from which they take 
origin has not been precisely determined except in a few dicotyledons, 
where it is the pericycle, but the origin is probably the same in other 
plants of the same class. The shoots formed by these buds always 
show at first the vegetative characters of the seedling of the same 
species. They are never exactly like the axillary shoots of the same 
tree, and sometimes differ from them in a striking manner. They 
repeat the course of evolution of the leaf on the plant, if we except the 
cotyledons ; that is to say, where the form characteristic of the adult is 
only gradually assumed in the development from the seedling, the 
juvenile stages are reproduced in the development of the adventitious 
shoot. 

The author discusses in detail the various species which he studied ; 
they include Eucalyptus globulus, the Walnut, Oak, Ivy, Hornbeam, 
and Horse-chestnut. In every case the buds are clothed with scales 
on their appearance, and this would seem to be a general character of 
endogenous buds, occurring even in species such as those of Pterocarya, 
where the axillary buds have no scales, and also where, as in the Chestnut, 
the seedling does not bear basilar scales. Phyllomes resembling the 
cotyledons are never found at the base of the adventitious shoot ; these 
seem peculiar to the embryo, and the adventitious shoots reproduce only 
those phases of individual evolution which are subsequent to the coty- 
ledons. In this respect they are intermediate between the embryos 

* Comptes llendus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 804-5. 
t Arch. Sci. Phys. et Nat., xvi. (1902) pp. 50-70. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY, ETC. 193 

— which, like themselves, are of endogenous origin — and the exogenous 
vegetative axes of the plant. 

Degeneration of the Potato.* — G. Delacroix discusses the tendency 
of potatoes to produce long slender shoots in place of the normal de- 
velopment. Such tubers when planted show no distinctive characters, 
and may be softer or harder than usual ; when examined microscopi- 
cally, there may be found, but not necessarily, Bacillus solanincola, 
B. caulivorus, and the saprophytic Fusarium Solani. As these or- 
ganisms may be absent, the abnormal development cannot be caused 
by them. The true cause rests in the inferior vitality to which many 
varieties of potato have been reduced as a result of the continued vege- 
tative and the absence of sexual reproduction. This has reduced to a 
minimum the power of originating variation, which can therefore only 
arise in response to the external medium, soil or atmospheric agencies. 
If the latter are unfavourable, unfavourable characters are induced 
which become hereditary in successive generations, and the injury by 
organisms which in the normal state are without effect, becomes possible. 
Starting the germination of the tuber in the light, will eliminate the 
slender shoots, and this, followed by a rational culture, serves as a pallia- 
tive, but the tendency will reappear at the end of several generations. 
The only certain method of cure is to start from the seed and select 
carefully. The problem is one not of plant pathology, but of agri- 
culture. 

Reproductive. 

Development of Gametophyte and Embryo of Ruppia rostellata.f 
Murbeck has investigated the development of the pollen, the embryo- 
sac, and the embryo in this form. He finds that in the anther the 
initials arise as a sub-epidermal layer, and from this layer on the inside 
the primary archesporial cells are cut off. The pollen-mother-cells show 
a well-marked synapsis and dolichonema stage in their nucleus, which 
exhibits eight chromosomes, the vegetative number being sixteen. The 
cells of the tetrad become separated from one another, and before they 
are fully developed, each cuts off from one end a small generative cell. 
By further growth of the pollen-grain the generative cell comes to lie 
about the middle of the grain near the vegetative cell. Like Potamo- 

i * i 

geton, and the other genera of the Helobieas and Spadicifloraj which 
have been investigated, the generative- cell divides while the pollen- 
grains are still in the anther. 

In the ovule a sub-epidermal initial cell appears and cuts off a 
tapetal cell above which divides to form a single layer of four to six 
tapetal cells. The lower part becomes the embryo-sac-mother-cell, the 
nucleus of which soon shows a heterotypic division with synapsis, doli- 
chonema stage and e^ght chromosomes. The daughter-cells thus formed 
soon divide again, but the planes of division are not parallel to one 
another ; the two lower cells of the four being placed under each other, 
the two upper obliquely side by side. This lends support to the view 
that the division of the embryo-sac-mother-cell is a tetrad division 

* Comptes Rcndus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 1006-7. 

t Bihang. K. Svensk. Vet-Akad. Hand!., xixvi. (1903) pp. 1-21 (3 pi.). 



194 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

exactly comparable with that of the pollen-mother-cell. The lowest of 
the four cells becomes the embryo-sac, which develops in the typical way, 
the two polar nuclei fusing together before pollination. From the 
author's study of embryo development the views of Wille, as against 
those of Ascherson, are supported. 

Embryology of Juncaceae.* — M. Laurent gives the following account 
of the development of the embryo. The fertilised egg divides trans- 
versely into two unequal cells, the upper and larger of which constitutes 
the greater part of the embryo ; the lower or suspensor cell divides 
transversely. The upper of the two daughter-cells again divides in 
the same sense, and from the uppermost of the three suspensor cells 
is formed by vertical walls a plate, which separates the developing 
embryo-cell proper from the two lower suspensor cells, which increase 
considerably in size. Further development consists in the formation of 
a large cotyledon from the embryo-cell, a radicle from the upper portion 
of the suspensor, while the two large suspensor cells completely dis- 
appear. The plumule appears at the base of the cotyledon above the 
radicular meristem. The hypocotyl is suppressed. 

Goebel and other authors have referred to the embryo of Juncus as 
undifferentiated. M. Laurent, however, has studied the development 
here described in several species of Juncus and also in Luzula. The 
suspensor plays an important part : reduced at first to a few cells, it 
develops tardily, but subsequently becomes the chief centre of cell 
activity and forms the radicle. The cap does not develop till after the 
exfoliation of the two or three lower elements of the suspensor. 

Poindexter, C. 0. — The Development of the Spikelet and Grain of Corn. 

[As a preliminary to the study of xenia in maize, the author describes the 
development of the pistil and fruit.] 

Ohio Naturalist, iv. (1903) pp. 3-9 (2 pis.). 



Physiology. 
Nutrition and Growth. 

Influence of Potassium on the Morphology of Sterigmatocystis 
nigra.f — M. Molliard and H. Coupin are of opinion that data as to the- 
influence of culture media on the growth of fungi have not been accu- 
rate enough to be of scientific value. They have therefore selected 
potassium, one of the ingredients in an artificial solution, and tested 
the effect of its presence or absence on the morphological development 
of Sterigmatocystis. The absence of the salt, potassium carbonate, had 
an immediate effect, especially on the fertile hyphrc. The sterigmata 
instead of bearing conidia grew out into mycelial filaments, and on 
these were formed secondary smaller conidia-bearing heads. Forms 
resembling Aspergillus and Penicillium were also developed, and the 
conidia when formed in the absence of the potassium Avere invariably 
small and the wall less cutinised. Also the conidia germinated readily 
in situ and produced chlamydospores. 

* Comptes Eendus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 532-3. 
t Rev. Gen. Bot., xv. (1903) pp. 401-5 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 195 

Function of the Starch-Sheath.* — F. Tondera concludes from his 
investigations of internodes of various members of the order Cucurbi- 
taceag that the function of the starch-sheath is not statolithic. The 
position of the starch-grains on the cell-wall is not a constant one, nor 
is their distribution in the layer and on the cell-wall such as we should 
expect on Haberlandt's Statolithic theory of Geotropism. Nor is the 
starch-sheath to be regarded as the path for plastic material, but as a 
store-house for nutrient matter required in the immediate neighbour- 
hood ; observation shows that the starch-grains are used up in the 
thickening of the cellulose walls of the sclerenchymatous ring. No- 
starch-sheath was found in the following three species, Bryonia dioica, 
Luffa acutangula, and Trichosanthes colubrina. This is explained by 
the large size of the vascular bundles, the sieve-tube area of which, 
comes to lie close to the thickening ring, which is thus fed directly from 
the bundle, and obviates the;necessity of a temporary storage of starch 
in a starch-sheath. 

Influence of the Nature of the Soil on the Organic Composition of 
Plants.j — A. Hebert and E. Charabot find, as the result of experiments 
with peppermint, that in mature plants the proportions of ash, of organic 
substance and of the elements which compose the latter — carbon, 
hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen — show very little variation when different 
salts are added to the soil. This fact is very evident when the per- 
centage composition of dried plants is examined. Thus in the aerial 
organs the ash varies from 8 - 6 to 11, organic matter from 81 to 91 '4 • 
while of the component elements of the latter carbon varies from 44 • 6 to 
46 • 5, hydrogen from 5 ' 6 to 5*8, nitrogen from 1 • 2 to 1 • 6, and oxygen- 
from 86 to 40. Calculated in numbers of atoms, the variation is — 

C H N C H N 
4-1 6-1 "09 2-5 to 4 6'6 "08 S3 

for aerial organs, and 

C H N C H NO 
8-7 G -05 2*8 to 4 6*6 '08 3 

for roots. 

Irritability. 

Relation between Light Intensity and Energy of Assimilation 
in Plants belonging to different Biologic Types.! — Fr. Weis has ex- 
perimented with plants of Marchantia polymorpha, Polypodium vulgare y . 
and Oenothera biennis, exposing them to light of different degrees of 
intensity under conditions in which the amount of oxygen evolved and 
carbon dioxide absorbed could be determined. In experiments in direct 
sunlight the tubes containing the plants were placed under bell-jars 
with double walls, between which passed a continuous current of cold 
water to absorb the heat rays of the sunlight. The plants were exposed 
to direct sunlight and light ^ and ^ the intensity of direct sunlight. 
The intensity was estimated by the time taken by photographic paper 

* Bull. Internat. Acad. Sci. Cracov. CI. Sci. Math, et Nat., 1903, pp. 512-6 (1 pi.), 
t Comptes Eendus, cxxxvii. (190:!) pp. 799-801. 
% Tom. cit., pp. 801-4. 



196 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

to assume a predetermined tint. From the experiments, M. "Weis con- 
cludes that Oenothera biennis is a well-marked sun-plant, which in direct 
solar light and at a temperature favourable to assimilation, assimilates 
about three times as much carbon dioxide as in diffused light. On the 
other hand, Polypodium vulgare assimilates with slightly more energy 
in diffused light, and notably more than does Oenothera. Marchantia 
•occupies an intermediate position between the other two plants. The 
author points out that it would be interesting to conduct such a series 
of experiments with the plants which fight for the light in our fields 
and woods. 

Hydathodes in the Leaves of Woody Plants* — W. Edelstein has 
investigated about seventy species of woody plants, and finds that 
only in fourteen are hydathodes absent ; among the latter are Quercus 
pedunculate, Q. Ilex, Rhamnus Frangula and cathartica, Spindle tree, 
Ash, Acer platanoides, Beech, and Horse-chestnut. The structure of 
the hydathode is as described by Haberlandt and others in herbaceous 
plants. The physiological investigations were made with well-rooted 
pot-plants, or cut branches with use of artificial pressure on the lines 
employed by Moll. 

The author finds that cut branches, in the absence of any pressure, 
retain the capacity of absorbing and excreting water for three to four 
days without loss of intensity. In a series of experiments undertaken 
to show how far the hydathodes shared in this process, the author 
covered either all the leaves or only the hydathodes with vaselin, 
albumin, or Cacao-butter. In neither case was any influence shown on 
the absorption of water. The hydathodes were now removed by cutting 
off the leaf-edges ; water-absorption went on as before, while great 
drops of water appeared on the cut edges of the nerves. On the other 
hand, absorption was almost completely stopped by etherising the 
branch, and by removal of all the leaves. The author is unable to 
explain the relation between absorption and excretion of water ; his 
■experiments show at any rate that absorption is not influenced by the 
presence of the hydathodes. 

General. 

Ecologic Study of the Flora of Mountainous North Carolina.! — 
J. W. Harshberger gives a detailed account of the factors determining the 
character and the nature of affinities of the flora of this region. The 
area embraces several mountain ridges with the associated valleys, the 
former often attaining heights between 4000 ft. and 5000 ft. The effect 
of the physiographic changes which have occurred in the history of the 
geologic formation of the area on the distribution of the plants is dis- 
cussed. Four kinds of plants, with reference to their phenologic distri- 
bution, may be distinguished in the vegetation of the forests of eastern 
North America, viz. — plants of boreal genera (Arctic, Hudson ian and 
•Canadian species) ; plants of temperate genera (Alleghanian and Caro- 
linian) ; plants of warmer temperate climate ; and neotropic genera. 

* Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Pt-tersb., xvii. (1902) pp. 59-64. 
t Bot. Gazette, xxxvi. (1903) pp. 241-58. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 197 

Upon the retreat of the ice-sheet, that portion of the continent north 
of the terminal moraine was tenanted again by plants migrating north- 
wards which were adapted to a cold temperate climate. Many of these 
came from the southern Appalachians, where they had remained un- 
disturbed during the long Ice Age ; these mountains served as a centre of 
distribution from which a considerable area in the south-eastern states 
was populated. A study of the principles underlying the distribution of 
plants in eastern America, shows the great antiquity of the flora of the 
mountains of western North Carolina. The presence of so many peculiar 
types of plants not found elsewhere in America, and having their closest 
relations in eastern Asia, makes it more certain that groups now broken 
up and detached were once continuous, and that fragmentary groups and 
isolated forms are but the relics of widespread types, which have been 
preserved in a few localities where the physical conditions were especially 
favourable, or where organic competition was less severe. Evidence of 
this antiquity is found in western North Carolina in the large size of the 
trees, the close commingling in a dense forest of a great variety of 
species, the graded-down appearance of the land surface, and the rounded 
contour of the mountains, all suggesting that the country has been sub- 
jected through long ages to the continued action of climatic forces. 
The deep soil in the North Carolina mountains, rich in organic detritus, 
points to the long occupation of the territory by dense forests, the most 
magnificent (excepting those of the Pacific slope) to be found anywhere in 
the Western Hemisphere. 

The characteristic features of the vegetation are found in the broad- 
leaved species of which it is largely composed, associated with deciduous- 
and evergreen shrubs, while lianes stretch from tree to tree, and herbs 
grow beneath the dominant forest species, or clothe the natural meadows 
of the higher mountain summits and the alluvial bottoms of the prin- 
cipal mountain streams. The association of these plants in the forest is 
due largely to their relation to light, soil and moisture. Ecologically, the 
following formations may be distinguished : 

1. Mixed deciduous forest formation, 2000-5000 ft. 

2. Coniferous forest formation, 5000-G700 ft. 

3. Sub-alpine dwarf tree-shrub formation, about G000 ft. 

4. Sub-alpine treeless formation, above 6000 ft. 

Polar Climate in Time the Major, Factor in Evolution.* — Gr. R„ 
Wieland, as a result of the study of the facts of distribution, concludes 
that climatic changes of a character affecting life must in the course of 
time be of minimum amount at the equator, and increase towards the 
poles, where the maximum amount of such change occurs. Hence the 
nearer a given locality to either pole, the greater the seasonal vicissitudes 
to which its life is subjected. The origin of life probably took place at 
the north, or both the poles, though the possibility of a supplementary 
or extra-terrestrial origin requires consideration. The Palaeozoic period, 
from climatic and other reasons — such as freer circulation of oceanic 
waters, and the greater number of aquatic animals, and lowly organised 
or spore-bearing plants — must have been one mainly of generalised 

* Amer. Journ. Sci., xvi.|(1903) pp. 401-30. 



198 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES DELATING TO 

origin. Hence there can be slight stratigraphic record of the distributory 
movements of faunas and floras in the Palaeozoic, though even then 
polar climates were probably the most important of evolutionary factors. 
From the origin of life down to the Mesozoic the north and south polar 
areas may have played a nearly equal part in creating a certain south- 
ward and northward stress, together with a sort of breaking up of species 
in the tropics. But from the Mesozoic to the Glacial period, evidence 
points to the polar origin, and continuous outward dispersion from the 
north polar area of most of the great plant and vertebrate groups. The 
similarity in successive unrelated and diverse faunas synchronously 
appearing on both sides of the Atlantic cannot be accounted for through- 
out long periods of time on the basis of lateral interchange. The record 
of the post-Palaeozoic flora is in all essentials the complement of the 
vertebrate record, and far more complete. Moreover, the outward move- 
ment, especially of Conifers and Dicotyledons, from the Arctic area for 
long periods of time, has frequently been recognised. Some traces of 
this movement are still evident in the present strikingly homogenous 
circumboreal flora, although its main development was obscured and 
partially checked by the appearance of glacial conditions. It seems con- 
clusive that all the factors of climate — and, therefore, the main alterna- 
tive potentialities producing organic evolution — have been in the highest 
degree variant in the polar areas. This being true, the grouping of the 
continents about the north polar area would render it probable, were 
there not abundant direct evidence pointing to the fact, that the northern 
circumpolar area has probably been, ever since the older Palaeozoic at 
least, the main evolutionary centre from which animal and plant life 
has radiated. This view is supported by overwhelming proof that it is 
from the Arctic area that the greatest waves of change have swept out 
to lessen and disintegrate in the more static conditions of the tropics. 

Racial Variation.* — Witmer Stone, who has for a number of years 
studied racial variation amongst terrestrial vertebrates, and its relation 
to environment and climatic conditions, has recently investigated the 
genus Viola in the neighbourhood of Philadelphia on the same lines. 
His studies, while throwing little light on the relation of variation to 
conditions of environment, have enabled him to give a fairly complete 
account of the variations shown by the locali violets, which may be a help 
to those interested in the genus. The author emphasises his view of 
the advantage of the trinominal for denoting races. Among terrestrial 
vertebrates racial variation corresponds closely to geographic environ- 
ment, and in many groups it is easy to recognise the effect of the 
environment on several different life-areas in producing recognisably 
distinct races from the same type. As is well known, trees and shrubs, 
as well as other plants in a less degree, conform with more or less exact- 
ness to the same general laws of geographic distribution that pertain to 
animals ; and the ranges of many species are limited by the life-zones 
established originally from a study of birds and mammals. When, how- 
ever, a genus is represented by different forms in several life-zones, they 
are usually very distinct species, and not closely related variants which 

• Proe. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelph., 1903, pp. 65C-99 (9 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 199 

have obviously been differentiated from a common parent-type by pre- 
vailing environmental conditions in the several life-areas in question, 
such as is so often seen among vertebrates. At the same time, many 
closely related variants do exist among plants, differentiated to the same 
varying extent as in the geographic races of birds and mammals, but all 
occurring in the same life-zone, and often side by side. They are, more- 
over, quite constant in their racial characters, and are not cases of 
individual variation. The agency responsible for this differentiation is 
in many cases to be found in the varying soil conditions and other local 
peculiarities not strong enough to affect higher animal life. Owing to 
the fixed nature of plant life, such conditions may have a very marked 
effect in producing local forms ; to these the author would apply the 
trinominal nomenclature, to distinguish them from the clearly defined 
species. The author points out at the same time that nomenclature 
becomes absurd when applied to variants which can only be recognised 
by one or two specialists, who have devoted years to the study of the 
group, as has happened in the genus Gratagus. 

The species of Viola fall into two groups, the caulescent and the 
acaulescent ; those of the former show but little of the tendency to 
racial variation which characterises the latter group. Three types of 
colour — blue, yellow and white — occur in each group; parti-coloured forms 
also occur in the caulescent. The blue-flowered acaulescent species 
show by far the greatest racial and individual variation, and it is upon 
these that the author bases his general statements. Leaf -form supplies 
the most striking character. There is often a marked similarity in the 
general shape of the early leaf in a number of species, which is more 
or less entire, passing later into a lobing characteristic of the species. 
Starting from the most primitive type, the cordate leaf, the author 
indicates various racial variations, tending in the one direction towards 
extreme lobing or leaf-division, in the other towards the triangular and 
narrow sagittate-leaved forms. There seems to be a tendency towards 
narrow leaves in many wet-ground species. Variation also occurs in the 
degree of pubescence of the leaf. In using the relative length of petiole 
and scape comparison should explicity be made with either the first or 
second set of leaves, as the flowering period often covers the growth 
of the second leaves, so that early flowers are longer than the leaves, 
while later ones are shorter. The length and character of the peduncle 
of the later cleistogamic flowers is an important specific character ; 
except that in all wet-meadow species it is erect, no correlation is 
possible between this character and the nature of the habitat. In floral 
characters there is a great amount of individual variation. The extent 
of pubescence on the petals is an important specific character. 

As regards geographic distribution of the forms found, both acaule- 
scent and caulescent, in eastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey, 
six are characteristic boreal species ; three others also occur in the 
higher Alleghanies. Another group seems to be decidedly southern. 
The other forms range indiscriminately over the intervening country. 

The author gives a clavis of the species (thirty in number) and 
forms, based on the above-mentioned characters ; this is followed by 
descriptions, including the range and habitat of the individual species 
and forms. 



200 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Studies in the Cyperacese : the Grouping of the Carices.* — 
T. Holm criticises the various sub-divisions of the genus Carex, which 
have been proposed from the time of Linnasus onwards. He attempts a 
classification of the two groups, Vignece (with two stigmas), and Carices 
genuince (with three stigmas), which he considers must be maintained, 
in accordance with the principles suggested by Drejer. The author 
considers the two to be parallel groups evidently sprung from certain 
monostachyous types, and branching out in several more or less re- 
stricted "greges." He gives a synopsis of the characters of these 
" greges " and the species assigned to them, placing first the simplest 
species (when such are represented in the shape of monostachyous 
species) as Hebetated, then the supposed central types, and thirdly as 
JDesciscentes, certain species which cannot be placed in direct sequence 
with the centrales, and which to some extent show transition to other 
"greges." Thirty-nine greges are maintained, fifteen under Vignece, 
and twenty-five under Carices genuince ; many of these are established 
for the first time by the author. 

Association of Chalk-loving and Chalk-avoiding Species.f — 
S. Aubert describes a remarkable association of Calluna vulgaris and 
Vaccinium uliginosum, two well-marked calcifuge species with an other- 
wise typical chalk-loving flora, in a dry chalky grassland on the high 
Jura. The predominating species in the area, which formed a rectangle 
of about 200 by 30 metres, sloping to the south-east at an elevation of 
1090 metres, was Calluna vulgaris. The other dominant plants were 
Alchemilla vulgaris, Potentilla Tormentilla, Phyteuma orbiculare, San- 
guisorba dictyocarpa, Carex glauca, and Hypericum quadra nguhwi. In 
a turf-pit, several hundreds of metres to the east, Calluna vulgaris 
grew in abundance, and this may have been the source of the Calluna 
found on the chalk-soil. It is affirmed that the latter had been 
dominant on the area in question for fifty years. The author gives the 
result of a chemical analysis of the soil, and discusses at length the 
question of calcicolous and calcifuge species, but is fain to admit that 
he can find no explanation for the fact which he describes in the present 
case. "It is simply a fact of observation which shows how little 
general theories are verified by local facts, and how little is the advance 
we have made in the knowledge of the intimate relations between the 
different elements of the soil and the vegetation which it supports." 

American Plants Naturalised in Spain.J — D. L. Aterido describes 
the extensive growth near Santander of Stenotaphrum americanum, an 
American grass which occurs also in West Tropical Africa and at the 
Cape. Associated with it are other American plants, such as Agave 
americana, Nothoscordum fragrans, Cyperus vegetus, and another grass 
Digitaria piaspcdoides. The author also gives a list of nearly sixty plants 
of American origin which have become established in the peninsula, 
among which we note Lepidium virginicum, five species of Oenothera, 
including (E. biennis, seven species of Opuniia, Solidago canadensis, 
four species of Datura, and eight of Amarantus. 

* Amer. Journ. Sci., xvi. (1903) pp. 445-64. 
f f Bull. Soc. Vaudois Sci. Nat., xxxix. (1903) pp. 3139-84. 
X Bolet. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., iii. (1903) pp 326-9. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 201 

Australian Botany.*— F. Turner gives an account of the Botany 
of two districts in New South Wales, namely, New England and the 
Darling river country. Besides a systematic list of the plants (flower- 
ing plants and ferns), the author gives notes on the climate and soil 
of the districts, and also a general descriptive account of the vegetation, 
and a statistical comparison with the flora of New South Wales as a 
whole. In the New England districts several genera of orchids are 
well represented (including Dendrobium, Pterostylis and Caladenia) and 
also the ferns and fern-allies ; while in the Darling river country only 
one orchid is recorded — an epiphyte, Cymbidiwn canal iculatum, and five 
Acotyledons, including two species of Azolla and Marsilea Drummondii. 
Apropos of the orchid, the author remarks that " it was of some slight 
food value to the aborigines, who used to eat its pseudo-bulbs, which 
contain a small amount of starch." 

Arechavaleta, J. — Flora Uruguaya. (Tom. ii.) 

[Contains a synopsis of the series, cohorts and natural orders of polypetalous 
dicotyledons, according to the arrangement of the Genera Plantarum of 
Bentham and Hooker, an historical introduction, and an elaboration of the 
orders from Saxifragaceae to Begoniaeeae inclusive.] 

Anal. Mus. Nation. Montevideo, v. (1903). 
Fl. Uruguaya, ii., xlviii. and 160 pp. 
Oramas, D. P. — Algunosdatos massobre el tancelebre Drago de Orotava. (Some 
facts about the celebrated Dragon-tree of Orotava.) 

[A few points of historical interest on the growth of this famous tree.] 

Bol. Soc. Esp. Nat. Hid., iii. (1903) pp. 324-6. 

Schappner, J. H. — Poisonous and other injurious plants of Ohio. 

[Contains notes of some interest on the nature of the poison and its effects 
on man and other animals in a large number of plants found in Ohio, 
including fungi and seed-plants.] 

Ohio Naturalist, iv. (1904) pp. 16-19, 69-73. 

CRYPTOGAMS. 

Pteridophyta. 

Vascular System of the Rhizome and Leaf-trace of Pteris Aqui- 
lina and P. incisa.f — A. G. Tansley and R. B. Lulham give a detailed 
account, illustrated by numerous diagrammatic figures, of the course of 
the bundles in these two ferns. In Pteris incisa the stele of the inter- 
node is a solenostele, rather flattened in the horizontal plane, and wavy 
on the ventral side, from which roots are- given off ; but as the node is 
approached complications arise, which are explained by comparison with 
the vascular structure previously described by Gwynne-Vaughan in 
Hypolepis as referable to a false dichotomy of the stem. The vascular 
structure of the rhizome of Pteris Aquilina is well known, but the con- 
nexion of the petiolar strands of the base of the petiole with those of 
the rhizome, has never been previously accurately described. This is 
now done in detail, and the authors conclude that the vascular system of 
this fern is a dorsiventral dictyostele of the Polypodiwn type, with an 
internal system of accessory strands developed in connexion with lateral 
elaboration of the leaf -trace. 

* Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, xxviii. (1903) pp. 276-31 1,406-42. 
t New Phytolog., iii. (1904) pp. 1-17 (59 small figs.). 

April 20th, 1904 p 



202 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

The authors point out in conclusion, that the probability of the 
modification of vascular structure at the node of the plant — in relation to 
an alteration of the leaf -trace — and the effect of leaf -traces in modifying 
stem-structures generally, has been noted in one form or another by 
nearly all recent writers on vascular morphology. The principle of the 
decurrency of such a new structure from the node into the internode 
below, and its eventual establishment throughout the internode, to join 
a similar structure at the next node below, is evidently one of very wide 
application in the Filicinean series. The particular instance of it 
described in the present paper is of special interest, since it brings before 
us a mode of origin of an internal system of rhizomic vascular strands, 
differing from that described by Gwynne-Vaughan in a number of types. 
Whereas the internal ridges and strands in Dicksonia, Ct/athea and Pteris 
elata arise at the node as a local thickening of the leaf-gap, those of the 
plants here described arise as lateral elaborations of the leaf -trace itself. 

Germinating Spores in a Fossil Fern.*— D. H. Scott figures 
a section of a fern-sporangium cut from a nodule obtained from the 
Halifax Hard Bed. In the multiseriate structure of its wall, the 
sporangium resembles those of the Eusporangiate Ferns ; there is also 
evidence of the existence of an area of enlarged cells, comparable to the 
group which discharges the functions of an annulus in the Osmundaceae. 
This accords with the close agreement pointed out by Bower between 
certain carboniferous sporangia and those of this recent family. 

The sporangium contains a considerable number of spores, approxi- 
mately spherical in shape, many of which had begun to germinate 
within the sporangium. Several of the latter are figured, and show a 
close agreement with the stages of germination in recent fern-spores. 
The author refers to germination of spores as being not uncommon in 
recent Ferns when effectual dehiscence has been hindered, and remarks 
on the interest of his observations — as showing that some at least of the 
Carboniferous Ferns followed the same course of development as their 
recent allies. The agreement with corresponding stages in the develop- 
ment of fern-prothalli at the present day, leaves little doubt that in this 
Carboniferous Fern also the spores produced the sexual generation in the 
way familiar to us. It is uncertain to what Fern the sporangium be- 
longed ; a frond of the Sphenopteris type occurred in the same prepara- 
tion, but there is no evidence to connect it with the sporangium. 

Two Megasporangia in Selaginella.j — F. M. Lyon figures a longi- 
tudinal section of a megasporophyll of SelagineUa rupestris, showing two 
sporangia in nearly median longitudinal section. They are not placed 
side by side, as in the Lycopodium described by Bower, but as if the 
additional sporangium was developed in the line connecting the normal 
megasporangium with the ligule. The figure also shows the normal 
reduction of the megaspores to one or two, so common in SelagineUa 
rupestris. 

Ferns of the Philippines.^ — L. M. Underwood publishes a summary 
of our present knowledge of the ferns of the Philippines, giving an 

* New Phytolog., iii. (1904) pp. 18-23 (2 figs.). 

t Bot. Gazette, xxxyi. (1903) p. 308 (1 fig.). 

j Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxx. (1903) pp. 665-683. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 203 

historical account of travellers, collections and literature. In all, 105 
genera and 633 species have been recorded from the islands ; the 
Isoctales and the Matoniacese are at present unrepresented. To facilitate 
research, a series of simple synopses of the genera is given. The 
arrangement adopted approximates to that employed by Diels in Dk 
Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Suggestions are added as to the parts oi 
the plants that should be collected, and as to the points that should be 
noted in the field. 

American Ferns. — B. D. Gilbert* gives a list of 53 species and 
12 varieties of ferns, and 23 species and 7 varieties of fern allies, that 
occur in the State of New York ; and adds notes upon their distri- 
bution and the geographical characteristics of the region. The flora i? 
a large one, owing to the mingling of northern and southern types 
W. N. Clute f publishes some Fernwort Notes. Nephrodvum molle being 
reported as growing in Florida, he inquires whether it is really native, 
and points out the characters by which it is distinguished from J\ r . patens. 
He quotes four instances of exotic ferns which have become naturalised 
in the States, and adds another record in Lygodium japonicum, which 
seems to have escaped from a greenhouse in Georgia. He gives reasons 
for regarding Nephrodvum spimdosum var. intermedium as a mere form 
of a variable species. He quotes J. B. Flett's opinion that Lycopodium 
Selago may be regarded as an alpine or arctic form of L. lucidulum, but 
by no means as a xerophytic form. A. A. Eaton,! in publishing his 
fifteenth paper on Equisetum, treats of the varieties of E. hiemale. He 
describes in detail eleven varieties, three of which are new, and gives 
their distribution. "W. N. Clute,§ having studied carefully the ternate 
forms of Botrychium, gives his views about the classification of these 
difficult and variable plants. 

Doca mp, L. — Note sur l'acclimatation de l'Azolla filiculoides Lam. dans le Nord de 
la France. (Note on the acclimatisation of Azolla filiculoides Lam. in the north of 
France.) Bull. Acad. Internat. Geogr. Bot., xii. (1903) p. 488. 

Eaton, A. A.— Additional notes on Botrychium tenebrosum. 

[Description of this common but little known North American species, with 
critical notes upon the characters that distinguish it from B. simplex and 
B. matricarixfolium.] Bhodora, v. (1906) pp. 274— (i (1 pi.). 

„ „ Three new varieties of Isoetes. 

[Descriptions of three Massachusetts plants, with critical notes.] 

Op. cit., pp. 277-80. 

Freeman, G. F. — Lycopodium Selago on Mount Holyoke, Massachusetts. 
[Second record of this species in Massachusetts.] 

Bhodora, v. (1903) p. 290. 

Luisiek, A. — Apontamentos sobre a Flora da Regiao de Setubal. (Notes on the 
flora of the district of Setubal.) 

[List of 16 Portuguese ferns in a total of 1004 plants.] 

Bolet. Soc. Broter., xix. (1903) pp. 172-274. 

M a x on, W. E. — A Fern new to the United States. 

[Asplenium auritum Sw., a central American species, which has been found 
in Florida.] Torreya, iii. (1903) pp. 184-5. 

Straw, C. E. — Ferns of Smugglers' and Nebraska Notches. 

[Field notes.] Plant World, vi. (1903) pp. 180-1 (1 pi.). 

* Fern. Bulletin., xi. (1903) pp. 97-105. t Tom. cit, pp. 105-107. 

X Tom. cit., pp. 108-114. § Tom. cit., pp. 115-117. 

P 2 



204 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Waters, C. E. — Asplenium ebeneum proliferum. 

[A. note on the conditions that cause proliferation in this species.] 

Bhodora, v. (1903) pp. 272-3 (tig. in text). 

Wells, W. E. — Adaptability in Ferns. 

[A list of 28 ferns from very varied habitats successfully acclimatised in a 
simple fernery.] Ohio Naturalist, iii. (1903) pp. 358-9. 

Wooton, E. O. — The Terns of the Organ Mountains. 

[List of 20 species and a variety gathered in New Mexico.]' 

Torreya, iii. (1903) pp. 101-4. 

Bryophyta. 

Mosses of Java.* — M. Fleischer publishes the first volume of the 
mosses of the Flora of Buitenzorg, including all the mosses of Java, 
with many of the species of the Malay Archipelago, Polynesia, Australia, 
Ceylon and India, which are included for the sake of critical comparison. 
Every species is fully described, many novelties are inserted, and keys to 
the genera and species are supplied. The author is so convinced of the 
systematic importance of the characters of the capsule and especially 
of its peristome, that he makes these the foundation of his classification, 
and attaches far less value to such vegetative characters as the acro- 
carpic-or pleurocarpic position of the inflorescence, the distichous or 
spiral arrangement of the foliage, the areolation of the leaves, etc. His 
long residence of five years at Buitenzorg enabled him to make a 
thorough study of the peristome, as well as of the development and 
anatomy of the mosses, and to investigate biological and phylogenetic 
details, e.g. the curious dicecism of Maeromitrium, the water-sacs of 
Cyatkophorum taitense, the formation of gemmaj in an inflorescence or 
at the foot of a sporogonium, the emission of rhizoids from a seta ; 
and he discovered the sporogonium of the protonematoid Ephemeropsis. 
The beautifully illustrated " Bryologia Javanica " (1855-70) of Dozy 
and Molkenboer has now fallen behind the times, and subsequent papers 
on the subject are very scattered. Fleischer's work adds much to what 
was previously known, and is on quite modern lines. The first volume 
contains the Sphagnales and the Haplolepideas, with descriptions of 
194 species. It is entirely in German. 

Danish Species of Amblystegium.t — A. Hansen publishes a re- 
vision of this genus, redescribing the species, fourteen of which occur 
in Denmark. Three of these are new to science : A. paludosum, A. 
saxicola and A. atrovirens, and their descriptions are given both in 
Danish and English. A key to the species is supplied, based chiefly 
upon the presence or absence of a leaf-nerve, the transverse section, and 
the breadth and the length of the nerve, the shape of the leaf -apex, and 
the character of the leaf-cells and basal cells. The author describes 
also another new species, A. littorale, from the Faroes, previously 
regarded as a variety of A. serpens. 

American Mosses.— M. F. Miller | publishes a note on Pogonatum 
urnigerum, describing how the calyptra gradually is turned inside out 

* Die Musei der Flora von Buitenzorg, i., Leiden, 1904, xxxi. and 386 pp., 71 figs, 
in text. t Bot. Tidsskrift., xxv. (1903) pp. 387-408 (11 fias. in text). 

\ Bryologist, vii. (1904) pp. 4-5 (with figA 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 205 

and stands straight up from the point of the operculum before it is 
cast off by the mature capsule. A. J. Grout * gives a list of twenty-one 
additions to the Vermont moss flora, including a new variety, or perhaps 
species, of Grimmia. J. M. Holzinger f discusses the genus Hymeno- 
stomum, 'and claims that H. rostellatum occurs in the States and is 
practically identical with Systegium (Astomum) ludovicianum Sulliv., 
the differences in the size of the spores and the length of the operculum 
being but slight. E. G. Britton \ discusses PapiUaria nigrescens, and 
shows how it is to be distinguished from Leptodon tricltomitrion, which 
has been confounded with it. The former is a tropical American species 
and its record from Lake Huron is suspicious. She believes that the 
Floridan var. Donnellii, when compared with the type, will prove to be 
specifically distinct. 

LeucobryaceaB of the East African Islands.§ — J. Cardot publishes 
a monograph of the Leucobryacea? of Madagascar, and the other African 
islands of the Indian Ocean. Five genera are concerned. Ochrobryum 
contains one species, Leucobryum twelve, Leucophanes six, Cardotia one, 
Octoblepharum one. Seven species and some varieties are described for 
the first time, and most of the rest are redescribed, and critical notes 
are added. 

Oil-bodies in the Jungermanniales.|| — A. J. M. Garjeanne gives 
an account of the observations previously published on this subject, 
and describes his own researches. His conclusions are that the oil- 
bodies arise from vacuoles ; the oil-drops lie probably in a seini-liquid 
medium ; the oil-bodies possess a proper envelope — the original tono- 
plast ; they multiply in the young stages by division, and when mature 
remain unaltered ; their envelope is an artificial product, and consists 
probably of tanned albumen ; the possibility of movement of the drops 
within the oil-body is a proof of the semi-liquidity of the contents ; in 
secondary meristem several oil-bodies always arise. 

Explosive Discharge of Antherozoids in Hepaticae.l — F. Cavers 
has made a series of experiments with thalloid hepatics to ascertain the 
force with which the antherozoids are ejected, the mechanism by which 
the process is effected, and the conditions which influence it. The 
phenomenon is a mechanical and not a vital one ; for explosive dis- 
charges were obtained when plants, which had been dehydrated in 
absolute alcohol, were moistened with warm water. With living plants 
the discharges were quite as active in darkness as in full sunlight. 
When the plants were well sprayed with water, the jets of antherozoids. 
reached a height of 10 or 12 cm. in many cases. 

Exogenous Antheridia in Anthoceros.** — E. Lampa made a 
laboratory culture of Anthoceros dicJiotomus, and observed that, while 
the majority of the plants produced normal endogenous antheridia, a 

* Bryologist, vii. (1904) pp. 5-7. t Tom. cit., pp. 8-10. 
X Tom. cit., pp. 14-15 (fig. in text). 

§ Bull. Herb. Boissier, iv. (1904) pp. 97-118. 
I! Flora, xcii. (190.3) pp. 457-82 (18 figs, in text). 
\ Torreya, iii. (1903) pp. 179-83. 

* Oesterr. Bot. Zeitsehr.. liii. (1903) pp. 436-8 (figs, in text). 



** 



206 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

few etiolated thalli bore exogenous antheridia which were otherwise quite 
normal in structure and development. While a differentiated parietal 
layer is necessary to an exogenous antheridium, its presence in the 
endogenous antheridia which are peculiar to Anthoceros has been a 
matter of speculation ; and Waldner's theory, that the antheridia of the 
ancestral Anthoceros may have been exogenous formations, receives 
support from this discovery. The laboratory culture appears to have 
produced some reversions to an original type. 

Chemistry and Biology of Hepatics.* — C. E. J. Lohmann dis- 
cusses the question of what are the protective substances that render 
hepatics distasteful to slugs and other animals, giving a resume of the 
work done by Stahl and others. Several hepatics have a strong aromatic 
smell, or a sharp or bitter flavour, which are capable of being extracted 
by alcohol ; and, until this has been done, these plants are avoided by 
slugs. The author describes his attempts to determine the chemical 
nature of these protective substances ; how he analysed the ashes and 
found that silica affords no mechanical protection ; and how he deter- 
mined that the immunity is not due to indigestible proteids nor to alka- 
loids, but mainly to the ethereal oils as previously indicated by Stahl. 
He details his analysis of these volatile oils, and describes the composi- 
tion of the oil-bodies, etc. Ethereal oils are present in hepatics, absent in 
mosses ; they appear in the early stages of growth, and have an aplastic 
nature ; they are absent from spores and rhizoids (which are not easily 
attacked), and tend to abound in peripheral positions. These are facts 
that point to the protective function of ethereal oils, as also does their 
absence from Anthoceros and Stasia, in which occur colonies of Nostoc 
— an alga distasteful to slugs. 

Structure of some North American Hepatics.t — W. C. Coker 
publishes some notes on the structure of Dumortiera, Blasia and Sp/uero- 
carpus. Dumortiera hirsuta is of semi-aquatic habit, and if sufficiently 
inundated has no air-chambers in its thallus ; but if less irrigated it 
produces air-chambers which mostly disappear with age, and in snbdned 
light its upper surface may produce a number of unicellular papilla?. 
No trace of mycorhiza was found in the thallus. In Blasia pasilla it 
was found that the No stoc -colonies are pervaded by a remarkable tree- 
like out-growth of the thallus, which serves to abstract nourishment 
from the alga. This ramifying hair appears to arise from the sub- 
sequent growth of the original slime-secreting cell of the air-cavity. 
This is explained by figures. In the sporangium of Splmrocarpus 
terrestris occur peculiar sterile cells conspicuous for their bright green 
chlorophyll-granules, which persist until the spores are ripe. They pro- 
bably are the homologues of elaters, but are strikingly different. Their 
function is photosynthetic. 

Odontoschisma in North America. $ — A. W. Evans gives the history 
of the genus Odontoschisma. It contains about fourteen species, and 

* Beih. z. Bot. Centralbl. xv. (1903) pp. 215-56. 

t Bot. Gazette, xxxvi. (1903) pp. 225-30 (figs, in text). 

X Tom. oit , pp 321-48 (3 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 207 

five of these occur in North America. One of the generic characters is 
the postical origin of the branches ; but some of the American species 
vary markedly in this respect, and deviate also with regard to the mouth 
of the perianth and the development of the under-leaves. The author 
considers that the genus is distinct from both Anomodada and Cepha- 
lozia, and regards the position of the branches as liable to be influenced 
by the environment of the plant. The trigones and the thickenings of 
the cell-walls are characters of generic and specific importance. The 
under-leaves present peculiarities which have been much overlooked 
hitherto, especially the slime-secreting papilla? on the margins. Under- 
leaves occur in all the American species. The apical thickening of the 
female branch after fertilisation is another character that deserves more 
attention. The gemmiparous branches are of use in specific discrimi- 
nation. The author gives the distribution and synonomy of the five 
North American species, with full descriptions of 0. Macounii, 0. 
Gibbsice (sp. n.) and 0. prostratum, also of 0. portoricense, an exotic 
species which resembles Anomodada mucosa. 

Hepaticse of Puerto Rico.* — A. W. Evans also gives a critical ac- 
count of the four genera Harpahjunea, Cyrtolcjeanea, Eiwsmolejeanea, and 
Tradiyhjeunea, based upon material gathered by himself and by Heller 
in Puerto Rico. He restricts HarpaUjeunea to Spruce's well-marked 
section Cardiostipa, and describes two new species (//". subacute and 
H. heterodonta). Cyrtolejeunea is a new genus established for the recep- 
tion of C. holostipa, a species about whose systematic position great 
diversity of opinion has been expressed hitherto. In all, the paper treats 
of eight species, with full descriptions and figures, and comparative notes 
on allied species and genera. 

Pallavicinia Flotowiana.f— F. Cavers gives a detailed morpho- 
logical description of this plant which grows in Coatham Marshes, Yorks. 
It belongs to the subgenus Mordcia, and is synonymous with P. hibernka 
var. Wilsoniana. The most interesting feature in its structure is the 
presence of two lateral strands of water-conducting tissue ; their func- 
tion was easily demonstrated in living plants ; but these strands were 
not differentiated in plants which had been cultivated in moist covered 
dishes — a modification which the writer has observed in laboratory 
cultures of other thalloid hepatics. The sexual organs and the de- 
velopment of the sporogonium are described. 

Fegatella conica.J — F. Cavers also describes in detail the structure 
and biology of FegaUtta conka under the following headings : Apical 
growing-point and branching ; Air-chambers ; Ventral tissue ; Ventral 
scales ; Rhizoids ; Mycorhiza ; Asexual reproduction ; Sexual organs ; 
Sporogonium ; Germination of the spore. The high degree of differen- 
tiation attained by the thallus is indicated by the evaporation-tissue in 
the air-chambers and the mucilage-organs in the mid-rib. The presence 
of the symbiotic mycorhiza is indispensable for the normal development 

* Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, nx. (1903) pp. 544-G3 (3 pis.). 
t Naturalist, 1903, pp. 441-4, 451-5 (1 pi. and 5 figs, in text). 
% Ann. Bot., xviii. (1904) pp. 87-120 (2 pis. and 5 figs, in text). 



208 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

of the thallus, and supplies a semi-sapro phytic mode of nutrition. The 
antheridia! receptacle is sessile, and, with its four to eight growing- 
points, each producing acropetal rows of antheridia, represents a branch- 
system. The antheridia are usually solitary in each cavity, but sometimes 
occur closely joined in pairs. The antherozoids are larger than in other 
Marchantiaceaj, and are ejected explosively. The archegonial receptacle 
also represents a branch-system ; each of the five to nine growing- 
points produces a single archegonium. The stalk of the receptacle 
suddenly lengthens out when the sporogonia are mature. The cover- 
cell of the young archegonium splits into four and takes no part in the 
growth in length of the archegonium. The young sporogonium usually 
shows an octant-stage, and does not grow by means of an apical cell. 
The large, green, thin-walled spores begin to germinate within the 
capsule. The elaters are short and often branched. The capsule 
dehisces by the separation of an apical disc, followed by longitudinal 
splitting into four to eight valves. Fegatella occupies an intermediate 
position between the two highest series of the Marchantiaceaa. The 
process of fertilisation can be readily followed in Fegatella owing to the 
large size of the antherozoids. A bibliography is supplied. 

British Hepaticae.* — P. Ewing gives a list of the hepaticae of the 
Breadalbane mountains, 133 species. The determinations have been 
made or checked by S. M. Macvicar. Fourteen are additions to the 
British Flora, and twenty-two are new to the district. W. H. Pearson f 
gives some field-notes upon eighteen hepatics gathered at Aysgill Force 
and Hardraw Scour in Yorkshire. W. Ingham $ records the gathering 
in 1897 of the recently described Martinellia calcicola Am. and Pers.,§ 
intermixed with Ditriehum flexicaule and Trichostomum tortuosum, on 
magnesian limestone at Tadcaster, Yorks. He translates the original 
description of the plant. 

Census of Scottish Hepaticae. || — S. M. Macvicar is collecting 
materials for a definitely localised hepatic flora of Scotland, and pub- 
lishes a list of 205 species with their distribution according to counties, 
so far as he has been able to ascertain it hitherto from a personal 
examination of the specimens preserved in public and private herbaria. 
He adds a few critical notes upon Eiccia, llarsiqiella, etc. 

Irish Hepaticae. IT — D. McArdle publishes a list of the Irish hepaticae, 
containing 172 species and 63 varieties, with full records of their geo- 
graphical distribution so far as it is known. The last previous trust- 
worthy list was D. Moore's report published in 1876 ; it contained 
137 species. The author gives a short account of the earlier Irish col- 
lectors, of the physical features of the country, of the peculiarities of 
the Irish hepatic flora, and a bibliography of the principal papers on 
the subject. 

* Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist, 1903. pp. 235-43. 

t The Naturalist. 1903, pp. 403-4. 

j Kev. Bryol., 1904, pp. 11-12. § Op. cit., 1903, p. 97. 

|| Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., 1904, pp. 43-52. 

i Proc. Hoy. Irish Acad., xxiv. E. (1904) pp. 387-502. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 200 

Bloom field, E. N. — Hepaticae of Norfolk. 
[A list of 47 species, with localities.] 

Trans. Nor/, and Noriv. Natur. So>-.. vii. (1903) pp. 552-7. 

Bijotherus, V. F. — Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien von Engler und Prantl, i. 3 V 
Lief. 219, Musci, Leipzig, 1904, pp. 577-624, figs. 434-72. 

Camus. F. — Catalogue des Sphaignes de la Flore Parisienne. 

[Beginning with an historical sketch of publications on the subject, he gives 
a detailed key to the species, with descriptions, and then sets forth the 
full distribution and synonymy of each species, adding critical notes.] 

\Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 1. (1903) pp. 239-52, 272-89. 

„ „ Notice sur M. Em. Bescherelle. 

[An account of his bryologieol work, and a detailed list of his publications.] 

Tom. cit, pp. 227-39 (portrait). 

Cakdot, J. — Le genre Cryphaeadelphus. 

[A new North American species, C. robustus.] 

Rev. Bryol, xxxi. (1904) pp. 6-8. 

Cardot & Thekiot — The Mosses of Alaska. „ , .. . /1AnoN 00 „ 

Bryologist, vi. (1903) pp. 83-G. 

Cakdot & Renauld — New Mosses of North America. Tom. cit., pp. 86-9. 

Claasen, E. — On Discelium nudum Bridel. 

[This inconspicuous mosn, regarded as very rare in tlie United States, occurs 
abundantly in Cuyahoga County, Ohio.] 

Ohio Naturalist, iii. (1903) p. 361. 
,. ., On the occurrence of Fossombronia cristula in Ohio. 

[Measurements of plant.] Op. cit., iv. (1904) p. 58. 

Corbiere, L. — Sur quelques Muscinees de Maine-et-Loire. 
[Notes on two mosses and two hepatics.] 

Bev. Bryol, xxxi. (1904) pp. 8-13. 

Dismier, G. — Le Lejeunea Rossettiana Mass. dans le Dauphine. (Lejeunea Bosset- 
tiana in DaupbiDe'.) 

[An account of a successful search for this rare species at the Grande- 
Chartreuse, and of other Muscinese found in the neighbourhood.] 

Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 1. (1903) pp. 2S9-90. 
Dixon, H. N.— Supplementary list of Norfolk Mosses. 

[Twenty-one species are added to the county list, bringing the total number 
hitherto recorded to about 190.] 

Trans. Norf. and Noriv. Natur. Soc, vii. (1903) pp. 558-65. 

Douin, I. — Jungermannia alicularia De Not. et Calypogeia ericetorum Raddi. 

[Notes on these species, which ore indistinguishable in the sterile state, save 
by the odour and by the soil; the former plant is calcicolous. the latter 
silioicolous.] Bev. Bryol. xxxi. (1904) pp. 1-4. 

„ „ Nardia silvrettse (Gottsche) en Auvergne. 

[Occurrence of this species and other hepatics at Mont-Dore. in Auvergne.] 

Tom. cit., pp. 4-5. 
Gozzaldi, H. T. J — Thomas Potts James. 

[Obituary of the American bryologist, part author of the Manual of North 
American Mosses.} Bryologist, vi. (1903) pp. 71-4 (portrait). 

Herzog. T. — Die Laubmoose Badens ; eine bryogeographische Skizze. (Bryogeo- 
graphical sketch of the mosses of Baden.) 

Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, iv. (1904) pp. 137-52. 

H i l l, E. J. — Branched Paraphyses of Bryum roseum. 

[Protonemic character of these paraphyses.] Tom. cit.. pp. S0-1 (fig. in text). 

Holzinger, J. M.— Fabroleskea Austini in Europe. 

[Identity of this North American species with the Caucasian Leskea grandi- 
retis Lindb.) Bryologist, vi. (1903) pp. 74-5. 



210 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Kindbekg, N. C. — Note snr les especes scandinaves du genre Bryum. (Noteonthe 
Scandinavian species of the genus Bryum.) 

[List of more than 100 species, most of which occur in the Dovrefjeld.] 

Uev. Bryol., xxxi. (1904) pp. 13-14. 

Lengtel, B. — Uber das Vorkommen eines seltenen Lebermooses in TJngarn. (Upon 
the occurrence of a rare Liverwort in Hungary.) 

[Fertile specimens of Hypenantron fragrant, an addition to the Hungarian 

flora, have been discovered in limestone clefts on the Turulberg near 

Banhida.] Mag. Bot. Lapolc, ii. (1903) pp. 182-3. 

Limpricht, K. G.,j & W. — Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Dentscbland, 

Osterreich und der Schweiz. IV. iii. Leipzig, 1904. Die Laubmoose (Mosses), 

Lief. 41, pp. 33-79. 

[End of the work: index of synonyms, bibliography, title-pages, and preface.] 

Lindbebg,H. — Stereodon plicatulus Lindb. 

[Characters which distinguish it from S. revolutus Mitt.] 

Bryologist, vi. (1903) pp. 82-3 (1 pi.), 

Migula, W. — Thome's Flora von Deutschland, Osterreich und der Schweiz. 

v. (Gera, 1903) Lief. 15, Cryptogamen, pp. 385-400 (5 pis.). 

Boll, J. — Beitrage zur Moosflora der Transsilvanischen Alpen. (Contributions to 
the moss-flora of the Transsylvanian Alps.) 

[An annotated list of mosses gathered in July 1900, with descriptions of one 
new species and sixteen new varieties.]' 

Hedwigia, xlii. (1903) Beiblatt, pp. 297-305. 

Both, G. — Bedentnng der Moose fur den Waldbau. (Significance of mosses in 
forestry.) 

[Value of the information afforded by mosses as to moisture, climate, soil, etc., 
in connection with the planting of trees suitable to a given district.] 

Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr., 1903, pp. 122-3. 

Stephani, F. — Species Hepaticarum. 
[Monograph of Plagiochila.'] 

Bull. Herb. Boiss.,ser. 2, iv. (1904) pp. 18-32. 153-08. 

Stow, S. C. — Mosses at Grantham. The Naturalist, 1903, p. 265. 

Torka, V. — Bryologische Beitrage. (Bryological notes.) 

[Field notes on Cinclidium stygium and its spore-ripening, and on Bacomi- 
trium patens var. crassifolium, a new variety found in the German plain.] 

Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr., 1903, pp. 145-G. 

Thallophyta. 

Algae. 

Phytoplankton of the Volga.* — Bolochonzew details the results of 
his investigations into the plankton of this river. He divides his paper 
into three chapters. The first contains a list of organisms found by 
him, arranged under special headings : — (1) True plankton, which is 
principally adapted for existing in a condition of suspended life ; (2) 
Oround plankton, which occurs most frequently in the flora of the 
bottom or on the shore ; (3) Casual plankton, i.e. those organisms 
which really belong to the bottom or littoral flora, and occur only by 
chance among true plankton, when brought by waves or currents, 
sooner or later sinking to the bottom ; (4) Passive plankton organisms, 
which fasten on to other plankton. The author also takes into account 
a portion of the Volga which is almost entirely cut off from the main 
stream, and he points out the gradual change in the plankton species. 

* Jahrb. Biolog. Wolga-Station, Ssaratow, 1903 (1 pi). See also Bot. Central!)!, 
xcv. (1904) pp. 83-0. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 211 

In the open river AsterioneJla was most abundant, and, speaking 
generally, the plankton of the Volga consisted mainly of diatoms. The 
second chapter is devoted to a systematic account and geographical 
distribution, together with descriptions of new species. The third 
chapter contains a tabulated comparison of the plankton of the main 
river, and that of ponds and other waters cut off from it. 

Plankton of the Elbe.* — E. Volk publishes his report on the 
biological conditions of the Elbe and its tributaries in the neighbour- 
hood of Hamburg. The paper deals with the animal life of the river 
plankton, as well as the phytoplankton, which includes 159 species of 
Chlorophyceas and of Rhodophyceaj, 267 of Diatornacete, and 45 of 
Schizophycea3. The chemical composition of the water is discussed, and 
the methods of work are described. An analysis of the phytoplankton 
is presented in the form of a table showing the occurrence of each 
species according to season and locality. 

Atlas of Diatoms.f — Heiden, of Rostock, has brought out the 
61st fascicle of A. Schmidt's Atlas, comprising plates 241—4. Many 
species of Stauroneis and Navicula are figured, belonging to the sections 
humeroscc and granulate. Eleven new species are figured, as well as 
some new varieties. 

Diatoms from the Jura.J — P. Prudent gives a list of diatoms collected 
in two lakes of the Jura, Nantua and Silans. The flora of both are 
very similar, and the total number of species amounts to 152. The 
most interesting records are : — Gymbella Loczyi Pantocs., C. affinis 
Kiitz., with an undulated dorsal margin, Galoneis rupestris var. inflate 
Pantocs., Fragilaria muiabilis var. trinodis n.v., and Nitschia angustata 
var. producta Pantocs. 

Cultures of Diatoms.§ — P. Miquel continues his researches into the 
physiology, morphology and pathology of diatoms, and describes his 
cultivation of Nitzschia linearis. After a successive series of ten cultures, 
each new one being made from the last one, he found that the size of 
the frustule diminished 17 /*, namely, from 115*2 /* to 98*1 /a. The 
greater number of frustules contained in the ten cultures were of 
medium size ; those showing either extreme in size were excessively 
rare. The author notes that in Melosira and Gyclotella those individuals 
which formed auxospores were far from being of the smallest size. 

Caulerpa anceps.|| — K. Yendo adds some interesting facts to our 
knowledge of this alga. A plant was collected in Japan by Prof. Okamura, 
and at first identified by him as G. brachypus Harv., but subsequently 
corrected to G. anceps. K. Yendo found a plant on a small reef at 
Misaki, in October, 1888, and identified it as G. br achy pus, but on the 
same reef he found in summer G. anceps. Feeling doubtful whether 

* Julirb. Hamburg. Wissensch. Aristalt., xix. Beih. 2 (1903) pp. 65-154. 

f Atlas der Diatomaceenkunde, Leipzig, 1903J Heft. 61. See also Nuov. Xotar. 
xt. (1904) p. 47. 

\ Contrib. a la flore diatomique des lacs de Jura, Lyon, 1903. See Nuov. Notar. 
xv. (1904) p. 38. 

§ MicrograpbePre'parateur, xi. (1903) pp. 174-9 (figs, in text). 

|1 Bnt. Mag. Tokyo, xvii. (1903) pp. 153-7 (6 figs, in text). 



212 SUMMARY OF CURRi'Ni' RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

two species of Caiderpa grew on this one small reef, he made collections- 
himself by diving in January, April, July, August, October, and 
December. He has no longer any doubt that his plants are of the same 
species, which assumes different appearances according to the season. 
Both forms are described in this paper, and it is suggested that C. Stahlii 
Web. v. B. may be synonymous with the Japanese species. A great 
characteristic of Yendo's plant is the inflation of the short pedicels. 
If this character occurs in C. Stahlii and also in the types of 0. anceps 
Harv. and G. brachypus Harv. (to which types the author has unfor- 
tunately not had access), the three species would lose any character 
which could distinguish them from one another. 

A New Species of Hedophyllum.* — K. Yendo also describes and 
figures a new species of this genus, under the name of H. spirale, col- 
lected by him at the island of Shimushu, Kurile Islands. A form, Tcamts- 
chatlcensis, is also described from the shorts of Yavina, Kamtschatka. 
The plant is common on the reefs at Shimushu. It differs from H. sub- 
sessile Setch. in having a spiral rolling of the margins of the lamina at 
the transition region. The author has also studied the development of 
Thalassiophyttum and Arthrothammis, and finds he can add nothing to 
the description of the former as given in Setchell and Gardner's " Alga? 
of N.W. America." But of the development of Arthrothammis bifidus, 
nothing has hitherto been published, and the author therefore describes 
it here. He states also that in A. kurilensis the entire plant is erect, 
and, consequently, the dorsiventrality of the stems is not clearly 
manifested. The primary stem and holdfast are persistent, and the 
successive holdfasts or rhizomes are not normally found. Otherwise, 
the development is the same as that of A. bifidus. Comparisons are 
drawn between Hedophyllum, Thalassiophylhim, and Arthrothanmus, 
which greatly resemble each other in their mode of branching. As 
regards the systematic position of Hedophyllum, the author places it 
near to these two genera on account of the erosion of the primary 
lamina, the spiral rolling and the differentiation of the dorsiventrality 
in H. spirale; and if the first of these characters be omitted there is 
also a likeness to Agarum. As regards the genus Eisenia the author 
suggests that it should be detached from the subtribe Ecklonia? and 
placed near Arthrothanmus and Hedophyllum, if it be granted that 
erosion of the primary lamina is a character of importance. 

Halimeda Fuggeri.t, — This fossil alga was described by J. L. von 
Liburnau in 18D7, and the same author now adds further details as the 
result of an examination of several fresh specimens which have been 
found in the same locality, Muntigl near Salzburg. They are preserved 
in the Salzburg museum. Careful comparisons are made between these 
fossil plants and recent specimens of Halimeda, and the points of dis- 
similarity are fully dealt with. They are small in themselves, consisting 
of an apparent scaliness of the surface in the fossil alga, a want of 
incrustation, the breadth of the mid-rib, the length of the internodes, 
the much-lengthened, rod-like, unjointcd end to one of the specimens, 

* Bot. Mag. Tokyo, xvii. (1933) pp. 167-"1 (1 pi A 

+ SB. k. Akad. Wiss. Wien., cxi. (190 i) p,>. (585-712 (2 pis. 9 Sgs. in text). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY. ETC. 2L3 

and the lack of all branching of the thallus. Taken singly, none 
of these variations from existing types of Halimeda would separate 
H. Fuggeri from that outwardly variable genus, but taken together 
they constitute in the author's opinion a sufficient reason for placing 
H. Fuggeri in a new genus Halimedides. 

JUgagropila Sauteri.* — C. "Wesenberg has made a special study of 
this alga as it appears in the Lake of Soro in Denmark, where the form 
of the balls is absolutely regular and the size that of a fist or a child's 
head. The author reviews shortly some of the literature on the subject, 
and declares himself almost entirely in accord with F. Brand. A de- 
scription is given of Lake Soro, with details concerning the geological 
composition of its beds, the temperature of the water, the plankton, etc. 
Then follows an account of the different forms of the thallus of ~E. 
Sauteri, which appear in the lake : (1) individual separate plants ; 
(2) adherent thallus ; (3) globulous thajlus, (a) balls resting on the 
bottom of the lake, (b) floating balls ; (4) felty masses. The author 
then deals with the origin and mutual dependence of the different 
forms of thallus of jE. Sauteri, treating each form separately. He 
discusses the question of the rising and falling of the floating balls, 
and the possibility of a connection between this phenomenon and the 
presence of a rich plankton and much detritus. He believes, with 
Brand, that much light is prejudicial to JE. Sauteri. The formation 
of the balls is, in his opinion, caused by the incessant destruction of the 
terminal filaments which are directed outwards, this destruction causing 
the formation of new adventitious filaments. The beating of the 
waves and the friction against the bottom cause the globular shape, 
which becomes more pronounced in proportion to the hardness of the 
earth. 

Fucus serratus in America.f — C. B. Robinson has studied the 
distribution of this species in America, and finds that it grows plenti- 
fully in the district lying between Pugwash in Nova Scotia and Eastern 
Harbour on the west side of Cape Breton. It also occurs at the 
extreme south-east of Prince Edward Island, in the neighbourhood of 
Murray Harbour and Cape Bear. On the coast of Pictou Island it is 
nowhere wanting. 

Sphacelaria cirrosa.J — C. Sauvageau gives a resume of part of his 
long paper on the different genera of Sphacelariaceas, which is appearing 
in the Journal de Botanique. This resume deals with Sphacelaria 
cirrosa, and the species which have from time to time been regarded as 
synonyms and forms of it. S. Hystrix is regarded by the author as 
quite distinct from the cirrosa group, and the life-history of this para- 
site of Cystoseira ericoides is described. The early stages of the plant 
bear well-developed sexual organs in plurilocular sporangia, and these 
disappear in May to make room for long and numerous filaments which 
bear the propagula. It is in this latter stage that the plant has been 
mistaken for S. cirrosa. During the winter no trace of it is to be 
found, and in what form it passes through this period of rest is not yet 

* Overs, k. dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Forh. ii. (1903) pp. I6S-203. 

t Torreva, iii. (19(18) pp. J 32-4. 

% Mem.'Soc. Sci. Phys. et Nat. Bordeaux, iii. (1905) 11 pp. 



214 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

known. S. Harveyana Sauv. is regarded as the southern homologue 
of S. Hystrix. The author re-establishes S. bipinnata Kiitz., a parasite 
of Halidrys siliquosa and Gystoseira fibrosa. This species bears numerous 
unilocular sporangia, but the propagula are very rare. Plurilocular 
sporangia of one size only occur. S. fusca is also revived as an inde- 
pendent species. The only reproductive organs hitherto known for this 
plant are trif urcated propagula bearing cylindrical or gradually attenuated 
rays. The real S. cirrosa is very variable as regards its propagula, and 
as a result of prolonged study the author divides the forms into septen- 
trionalis, meridionalis, and mediterranean Between these forms are, of 
course, many intermediate ones, but the extremes are markedly cha- 
racteristic. The author describes the chief points, and gives the general 
distribution of each of the three forms. The paper closes with some 
interesting remarks concerning the modes of reproduction in the specie3 
mentioned. Those species which are parasitic show much more per- 
fectly developed organs of , reproduction than those which are inde- 
pendent and free. For example, S. Hystrix and S. furciyera, two 
parasitic species, possess well-developed plurilocular sporangia of two 
kinds, probably oogonia and antheridia ; and S. bipinnata, also a para- 
site, has plurilocular sporangia of one kind pointing to the possibility 
of isogamy, while its propagula are very rare. On the other hand, 
S. cirrosa, a free plant, appears to have lost its sexual reproduction and 
multiplies by means of propagula, and so far as is known of S. fusca 
the same facts hold good. The difference between the effect of para- 
sitism on Sphacelaria and on the higher plants is remarkable : in the 
former case it acts as a stimulant, in the latter it leads to degeneration. 

Kelps of Juan de Fuca.* — C. McMillan gives a general account of 
the LaminariaceEe of this region. Seventeen out of the twenty-five 
genera of this order are represented in the Straits of Fuca, and of 
many of them the author has made a special study. His results are 
presented here in a more or less generalised form, and the paper closes 
with a description of the external characteristics of each genus. 

Alternation of Generations in the Dictyotacese.f — L.Williams 
gives a short abstract of a paper which is to appear in full in the 
Annals of Botany. In this group the asexual cells are borne on plants 
distinct from those that bear the sexual cells. Cytological evidence 
has been obtained showing that the cells of the tetraspore-bearing 
plants contain twice as many chromosomes as those of the sexual plants. 
The mother-cell of the four tetraspores shows synapsis, has all the 
characters of a heterotype division and shows sixteen chromosomes. 
In the male plant of Dictyota the reduced number is present in all the 
divisions of the antheridium, and in the female plant the division 
which cuts off the stalk-cell of the oogonium also shows the reduced 
number. The fertilised egg-cells show, naturally, the double number. 
There is thus complete cytological evidence for the alternation of 
gametophyte and sporophyte, though experimental cultivation from 
spore to spore has hitherto been unsuccessful. 

* Postelsia, 1902, pp. 195-220 (5 pis.). 
t New Phytologist, ii. (1903) pp. 184-6. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 215 



Hair-like Growths of the Rhodomelaceae.* — L. K. RosenvLnge 
has made a special study of these organs, which he calls trichoblasts, 
on the thallus of Rhodomelacere, and describes his results under seven 
different headings : — (1) branching of the trichoblasts ; (2) tricho- 
blasts of aberrant structure ; (3) function of the trichoblasts ; (4) are 
there any species of Polysiphonia without trichoblasts ? (5) forms 
intermediate between stems and trichoblast ; (6) position of the sexual 
organs in Rhodomela ; (7) communication between the basal cell of the 
branch with the trichoblast, in Polysiphonioe with axillary shoots. The 
mode of ramification is essentially the same throughout the order, but 
the degree of branching varies considerably, sometimes even in the 
same species. Several functions have been assigned to these trichoblasts 
by various authors, but Rosenvinge is inclined to believe they serve for 
absorption or respiration. Although it has been stated that certain 
species of Poly siphon ia are without trichoblasts, it is here shown that 
every species possesses at least fertile trichoblasts. Sterile trichoblasts 
are capable of being transformed into stems. The sexual organs of 
Rhodoinelacese are more generally attached to the trichoblasts than has 
been admitted by Falkenberg. The paper closes with some interesting 
remarks on the pores between contiguous cells. 

Lithothamnia from the Indian Ocean.f — M. Foslie publishes a 
report on the species of Lithothamnia collected by J. Stanley Gardiner 
during his Expedition to the Maldive and Laccadive islands in 1899- 
1900. The species are nine in number, and constitute the first authentic 
record of these algae between the Red Sea and the East Indies. General 
observations are made on the distribution of Lithothamnia and on the 
conditions of their growth. The author finds that Lithophyllum 
craspedhim plays a prominent part in reef -building in general, and is 
therefore well represented in certain atolls of the Maldives, at Funafuti, 
and at Onoatoa, Gilbert islands. Goniolithon frutescens is the next 
most abundant species in the Maldives, and LitlwphyUum oncodes 
appears to act as a kind of cement. Three new forms are described 
of species already existing, and critical remarks are appended to each 
species' name. Two large plates give reproductions of most of the 
species in natural size. 

Marine Algae of Iceland. $— H. Jonsson publishes Parts III. and IV. 
of this Flora, consisting of Chlorophyceae and Cyanophycese respectively. 
Critical and interesting notes are appended to the species-names, and 
there are nineteen figures in the text, to show various details of structure 
described. Acrosiphonia flabelliformis is described as a doubtful new 
species. The Cyanophycese, six in number, were determined by 
J. Schmidt. 

Marine Algae from Sicily.§— A. Mazza publishes the first part of 
a list of marine algae from this island, with critical notes on many of 
the species. The plants recorded were either gathered by himself or 

* Overs, k. DaDsk. Vidensk. Selsk. Forh., 1903, pp. 439-71 (16 figs, in text), 
t Fauna and Geogr. Maldive and Laccadive Arckip., ed. J. S. Gardiner, i. (1903) 
pp. 460-71 (2 pis.). % Bot. Tidsskrft., xxv. (1903) pp. 337-81 (19 rigs.). 

§ Nuov. Notar., xv. (1904) pp. 5-30. 



216 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

were sent to him by other botanists. All sides of the island are repre- 
sented, and the locality of each species follows the record of its occur- 
rence. The present paper includes fifty-seven algas, belonging to 
Florideas. Many of the notes deal with questions of nomenclature. 

Arctic Algae.* — J. Palibin reports on the botany of the south-east 
portion of the northern island of Nova Zembla, and gives a short list 
of marine algae, all of them characteristic of the Arctic region. The 
collection was made during the Expedition of the Ermak, during the 
summer of the year 1901. A few fresh-water species were found above 
Cape Flora on Franz Josef Land. The report is in Russian. 
F. R. Kjellmanf gives a list of 22 alga? from the coasts of this 
island, among which are several new records for the locality, including 
Halosaccion pubesems, hitherto only known on the Norwegian coasts. 

Marine Algae from the Red Sea.| — Th. Reinbold publishes a list 
of 82 species, collected at Tor on the Sinai Peninsula, of which four 
species have not hitherto been recorded from the Red Sea. In the 
case of the more interesting specimens, critical notes are added. The 
material was collected on coral reefs at a depth of about 1-3 metres. 

Indian Ocean Algae. § — E. S. Barton publishes a list of 27 species 
of marine algas from the Maldive and Laccadive islands. They were 
collected by J. Stanley Gardiner, and form the first published record 
from these islands. Among the species is Ralfsia ceyJanica Harv., till 
now a nomen nudum, though authentic specimens exist in herbaria. 
Ectocarpus spongiosum Dickie is recorded in fruit, and the original 
description of the plant is here supplemented by an account of the 
plurilocular sporangia. It is interesting to note that the fruits occur 
on the original specimens of E. spongiosus in the British Museum and 
Kew herbaria, but they were overlooked by the author. A new species, 
Liebmannia Laccaclivarum, is described. 

Marine Algae from the Gulf of Manaar.|| — E. S. Barton also gives 
a list of 25 species collected in this region by Herdman when ex- 
amining the Pearl Oyster Fisheries in 1902. The most interesting 
record is that of Halimeda gracilis in fruit, which has not been 
described up to the present. Sporangia are borne in a kind of loose 
raceme on sporangiophores, and these arise from the filaments of the 
central strand which have branched to form lateral strands. The tufts 
of sporangiophores are limited to those points of the margin of a joint 
at which the lateral strands issue, and in this manner differ from the 
fruits of H. Tuna, in which the sporangiophores are said to form a 
fringe round the upper margin of a joint. 

Three New Japanese Algae. f — K. Yendo describes a new Caulerpa, 
C. Tateyamensis, which resembles C. sedoides, but is distinguished from 
it by the stipitated cylindrical ramules and the character of the branch- 

* Bull. Jard. Imp. Bot. St. Petersb., iii.(1903) pp. 29-48, 135-67. 
t Arkiv. Bot. Stockholm, i. (1903) pp. 1-6. 
% Hedwigia, Beibl.. xlii. (1903) pp. 227-32. 
\% Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot., xxxv. (1903) pp. 475-82 (1 pi.). 
|] Beport to Govt. Ceylon on Tearl Oyster Fisheries, Royal Soc, 1903, pp. 163-7 
(3 figs, in text). J Bot. Mag. Tokyo, xvii. (1903) pp. 99-104 (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 217 

lets. Hirome undarioides represents a new genus closely allied to 
Undaria, from which it differs in having no ligule at the transition- 
point, and by the shortness of the stipe. The principal characteristic 
of the plant lies in the position of the sori on the costal area of the 
lamina, the sporophyll being often absent. In Undaria pinnatifida, on 
the other hand, the sporophyll is the principal soriferous area, though 
in certain forms this area is continued into the lamina. Hirome 
undarioides is collected in large quantities and sold in the market. 
Champia expansa differs externally from the other species of the genus. 
It approaches most nearly to C. bifida Okam., but is distinguished from 
it by the regular dichotomous branching, and the broad, much com- 
pressed segments. 

Uses of Marine Algae in Japan.* — K. Yendo also gives an account of 
the preparation of various algaj for food and decoration, as well as for 
laundry and other purposes. Species belonging to 23 genera are enu- 
merated, with the special method employed for each. A table of statistics 
shows that the export of Laminaria for commercial purposes is large, and 
it is stated that not less than 11,232,900 sheets of Porphyra, each sheet 
being the final edible production from the alga, were manufactured in 
one year. This paper is illustrated by three Japanese prints. 

Distribution of Marine Algae in Japan.f — The same author divides 
the algal region of Japan into the following sections : (a) Pacific side : — 
1. From Kurile islands to Kinkwa-san island. 2. From Kinkwa-san 
island to the southern end of Kin-shu island. 3. From the southern 
end of Kin-shu island to Formosa, (b) Japan Sea side : — 1. From Iki 
Island to Ojika Peninsula. 2. From Ojika Peninsula to the north. In 
these various sections of the coast area the character of the algas varies 
from subarctic to tropical, according to whether the section in question 
is washed by the cold currents originating at Kamschatka or by the 
main north equatorial stream. The principal species characterising each 
section are enumerated. 

North American Alg33.| — F. S. Collins continues his notes on 
North American algee. He definitely adds Gracilaria confervoides to 
the list of species found in that country, having collected it himself at 
Mattapoisett, Mass. Actinococcus peltaeformis Schmitz has been found 
on the coast of Maine, growing on its host-plant Gymnogongrus nor- 
vegicus. Codiolum pusillwm Foslie occurs at Cutler, Maine, in all stages 
of variation, from the typical European form to that known as forma 
americanum. A new variety, triplicata, is described for Spirogyra 
decimina ; Plectonema Battersii Gom. is now recorded from three locali- 
ties in Massachusetts, Microcoleus tenerrimus Gom. from Maine, and 
Xenococcus Kerneri Hansg. from Cohasset, Mass. 

Cell-growth and Plant-form in Marine Algae. § — F. Tobler pub- 
lishes further details of his researches in this connection, dividing his 
paper into the following sections : (1) The material and its treatment ; 

* Postelsia, Yearbook Minn. Seaside Stat.. 1902, pp. 1-18 (3 pis. 3 prints). 
t Tom. cit... pp. 17U-02 (3 pis.). % Rhodora, v. (1903) pp. 231-4. 

§ Jahrb. wiss. Bot., 1903, pp. 527-80 (I pi.). 

April 20th, 1004 Q 



218 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

(2) Habit and characteristics of the forms ; (?>) Unequal growth (Epi- 
nasty and Hyponasty) ; (-4) Manifestations resembling etiolation ; 
(5) Adventitious formations and deformities ; (6) Decay ; (7) Repro- 
duction and general remarks. A bibliography is appended. 

Brunnthaler, J. — Phytoplankton aus Kleinasien. (Phytoplankton from Asia 
Minor.) SB. Alcad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. KL, cxii. Abt. i. 

(1903) pp. 289-93. 

Chalon. J. — Quelques Algues de mer recoltees a RoscofF (Finisterre) en 1903. 
(Some marine algfe collected at lloscoif (Finisterre) in 1903.) 

[A list of 42 species.] La Nuov. Kotar., xv. (1904) pp. 1-4. 

Cleve, P. T.— Report on Plankton collected by Thorild Wulff during a voyage to 
and from Bombay. 

[Forty- two species of Diatomacese are recorded, and 64 species of Peridiniales, 
among which are the new species Goniodoma (?) bipes and Steiniella (?) 
complanota. The latter is figured.] 

Arhiv.fur Zool. K. Svenska Vetensk., i. (1903) pp. 329-81. 

G aidukov, N. — Ueber den braunen Algenfarbstoff. Phycophae'in und Phycoxanthin. 
[Concerning the brown colouring matter of alga?.] 

Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., xxi. (1904) pp. 535-9. 

Gabparis, A. de — Le algue delle argille pleistoceniche di Taranto. (The alga? of 
the pleistocene clays of Taranto.) 

llendic. Accad. Sc.fis. et Matem. Napoli, 1903, p. 228. 

Lagerheim, G. — TJntersuchungen iiber fossile Algen, I., II. (Investigations of 
fossil algae.) Geol. Foren. Fork. Stockholm, xxi v. (1903) pp. 475-500. 

Lohmann, H. — Neue TJntersuchungen fiber den Reichtum des Meeres an Plankton. 
(New investigations of the riches of the sea in plankton.) 

Wiss. Meeresuntersuch. Abt. Kiel, N.F. vii. 

„ „ TTntersuchungen fiber die Tier-und Pflanzenwelt, sowie fiber die 

Bodensedimente des Nordatlant Oceans zwischen 38° und 50° N. Br. (Investiga- 
tions into the animal and plant world, as well as into the sedimentary deposits of 
the North Atlantic Ocean between 38° and 50° north latitude.) 

SB. Kgl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., 1903, pp. 560-83. 

Magnin, A. — Les microphytes des lacs du Jura, notamment les Diatomees du Lac 
de Chalin d'apres Prudent et Roescb. (The microphyta of the Jura lakes, 
notably the Diatomacese of the lake of Chalin after Messrs. Prudent and Roesob.) 

Arch. Flore Jurats, 1903, pp. 108-10. 

Pro tic, G. — Peti prilog poznavanje flore okoline Varesa n Bosni. (Fifth contribu- 
tion to the knowledge of the flora of the surroundings of Vares in Bosnia.) 
[A list of diatoms is included among the other cryptograms.] 

Glasnik. Zernalj muz za Borne i Herceg., xv. (1903) pp. 273-318. 
See also Bot. Centralbl., xcv. (1904) p. 71. 

Fungi. 

Phytophthora infestans.* — L. Matruchot and M. Molliard have 
made a series of cultures of this fungus. They found that on a slice 
of living potato it grew freely, also on cucumber and Spanish melon. 
On the two latter it grew after they had been cooked, but not on the 
potato. Probably the starch of the potato had swelled to an extent 
that prevented the mycelium from penetrating the tissues. Spores 
were produced normally only on living material, and in no case were 
©ogonia or chlamydospores formed. The writers conclude that the 
fungus persists by means of the mycelium. They find also that the 

* Ann. Mycol., i. (19D3) pp. 540-3. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY. ETC. 219 

rotting of tubers attacked is not directly due to the fungus, but to 
accompanying Bacteria. They note also in this fungus the absence of 
differentiated haustoria, a peculiarity confined to this one member of 
the Peronosporeas, it being also the only one that can live as a 
saprophyte. 

The Genus Harpochytrium in the United States.* — G. F. Atkinson 
describes in detail the plant that forms the basis of his paper, which he 
found growing on Spirogyra. The organism is composed of a long 
slender more or less fusoid and usually curved sporangium. It is 
pointed at the base where it pierces the wall of the host-cell. Zoospores 
are formed in the parasite which escape at the tip, and after swarming 
attach themselves to the host. After the zoospores have escaped, a new 
sporangium grows out within the old one from the sterile basal part. 
Atkinson found that the plant belonged to the genus Harpochytrium 
Lagerh. He considers also that the genus Fulminaria Gobi is syno- 
nymous, and that the plant RhaMium acatum of Dangeard is also a 
member of the same genus. He gives his reasons at length for this 
grouping. There are three species known, two of them found also in 
Europe. They are all parasitic on some green alga. 

Structure and Classification of the Phycomycetes.f — C. E. Bessey 
holds that the Phycomycetes do not form a natural group, that they are 
derived though fungal modification from different algal types, and that 
in any scheme of classification the algae must be considered first. He 
claims that they come from three different groups of algae : the Synchy- 
triacea? from the Protococcoideaa ; the Chytridiacese from or near the 
Botrydiaceaa, in the order Siphonese ; and the Saprolegniaceaa from or 
near the Vaucheriaceae, also in the order Siphoneas. The other members 
ef the Phycomycetes are derived from the Saprolegniaceaa, with the 
exception of Monoblepharis, which suggests the (Edogoniaceae. In all 
these classes the fungi or " hysterophytes " are parasitic or saprophytic, 
and show more or less morphological degradation. Bessey follows the 
order laid down ; he gives the key to the combined families of algas and 
fungi, and gives a descriptive account of each of the fungal genera. 

Critical Notes on Exoasceae.J — P. Sadebeck reviews the species of 
Taphriaa and Exoascus, noting the points in which they differ and the 
variations within the different species. Points to be noted are the per- 
sistence of the mycelium in the host from year to year, the formation 
of a hymenial layer, the depth to which the hyphae penetrate the leaf, 
and the different forms of the asci and of the basal cells. He makes 
a comparison between these genera and Endomyces. 

Mould Yeasts.§ — M. Hartmann experimented with a species of 
Torula which he isolated from colonies of Mucor amylomyces, where it 
formed slight elevations on the surface of the Mucor growth, and which 
he named T. colliculosa. Young cultures could not ferment maltose, 

* Ann. Myco 1 ., i. (1903) pp. 479-502 (1 pi.). 
t Trans. Amer. Micr. Soc, xxiv. (1903) pp. 27-54 (1 pi.). 
X Ber. Deutscli. Bot. Ges., x. (1903) pp. 5S9-46. 

§ Wochenschr. f. Braueri, xx. (1903) pp. 113-14 (5 figs.). See al6o Ann. Mycol., 
i. (1903) p. 567. 

Q 2 



220 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

but at a later stage not only maltose, but cane, grape and fruit sugars 
and raffinose, were quickly fermented. 

W. Henneberg* isolated two moulds from brewers' yeast, which he 
terms Mycoderma («) and {IS). He made a series of experiments to test 
if these yeasts would have an injurious influence on the fermentation 
process. He proved that they did no harm. 

0. Hinsberg and E. Ross f examined the yeast of beer to determine 
some of the chemical constituents of the yeast cells. Among other 
substances, acids, etc., they detected an ethereal oil with a hyacinth 
odour. 

Disease of Currant and Gooseberry 4 — 0. J. J. Van Hall describes 
a disease that has wrought great havoc on currant and gooseberry 
bushes in Holland. The first evidence of attack is the wilting of the 
leaves, and examination shows that the stem is affected close to and 
under the ground. The tissues were found to be full of a delicate 
mycelium. Cultures were made to induce fruit formation, which were 
unsuccessful, until accidentally they were subjected to a severe frost. 
With a higher temperature the fungus revived and perithecia were 
formed, which have been determined to be Cytosporina Ribis n. sp. 
The fungus forms a black stroma, which contains a labyrinth of spore 
chambers. The spores are thread-like and bent, and escape by one or 
more openings in a yellowish mass. The author gives his reasons for 
placing the fungus in the genus Cytosporina, and discusses other fungi 
that attack species of Ribes. This fungus, like other subterranean forms, 
is difficult to eradicate. Some hints are given as to the best means of 
prevention or cure. 

Disease of Cultivated Mushrooms.§ — G. Cuboni and G. Megliola 
have determined this disease to be due to the ravages of a Hyphomycete 
already described as Monilia fimicola. In July, when the first fruiting 
forms of the mushroom should appear, a number of little white points 
are visible on the surface of the bed, which increase, and look like a 
covering of chalk powder. After the invading fungus has exhausted 
itself towards the end of September, a few diminutive mushrooms make 
their appearance. The authors are of opinion that the fungus belongs 
to the genus Oospora rather than to Monilia, on account of the small 
development of hyphas and the minute dimensions of the spores. It 
is not parasitic on the mycelium of the Agaric, but does harm by with- 
drawing the nourishment intended for the higher fungus. They do not 
recommend any cure except the careful destruction of damaged spawn. 

New Helminthosporium.|| — P. Magnus names the new species H. 
Diedickei. It was found growing as a parasite on the leaves of 
Ophioglossum vulgatum, forming dark-brown spots. The conidia are 
3-septate and bent. The mycelium spreads between the cuticle of the 

* Wochenschr. f. Braueri, xx. (1903) pp. 137-9, 178-80. See also Ann. Mycol. i. 
(1903) pp. 567-8. 

t Zeitschr. Physiol. Cbemie., xxxviii. (1903) pp. 1-16. See also Ann. Mycol. i. 
(1903) p. 569. % Ann. Mycol., i. (1903) pp. 503-12(1 pi.). 

§ Atti. RealeAccad. Lincei, ccc. (19u3), pp. 440-3. 

|| Hedwigia, xlii. (1903) pp. 222-5 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 221 

leaf, and the epidermal cells and hyphal branches pass down between the 
cells and permeate the intercellular spaces. 

Phellomyces Sclerotiophorus.* — T. Johnson records an attack of 
this fungus on potatoes. It forms minute sclerotia on the skin of the 
tuber ; the mycelium penetrates the cortical cells, giving the skin a 
scabbed appearance ; in a more advanced stage it causes dry potato-rot. 
The cells of the potato are killed, but the starch-grains remain essen- 
tially unaltered, and a white dry powdery substance appears in the 
tuber. The author recommends the soaking of seed tubers in a weak 
solution of formalin or other fungicide before planting. This treatment 
was found by experiment to have destroyed the fungus without injuring 
the potato. 

American Uredinese.t — John M. Bates notes the finding of the 
tecidia of Puccinia Phragmitis in Nebraska on four different hosts, 
three species of Rumex and one of Rheum. 

W. A. KellermanJ summarizes the infection experiments and their 
results, conducted by him during the past year. He worked with the 
teleutospore, and in nine cases he records the successful growth of the 
tecidia on a separate host-plant. In some cases there was more than 
one host discovered for the recidial stage. He records also the failures 
to induce infection, a long and equally instructive list. 

The same author commences an index to Uredinous culture experi- 
ments, with list of species and hosts for N. America. In a preliminary 
note he gives an account of work done on the life histories of rusts. He 
carries the host list alphabetically down to Euphorbia. 

On the Fertilisation, Alternation of Generations, and General 
Cytology of the Uredinese.|| — V. H. Blackman publishes a preliminary 
statement as to the result of his research on Uredineje. He reviews the 
opinions held on the sexuality of the Uredineae and proceeds to record 
the results of his own observations. After careful examination he finds 
that the spermatia, though now functionless, have all the characteristics 
of male cells. He verifies the bi-nucleate condition of the cells, both of 
hyphas and spores, from the gecidium stage onwards to the teleutospore, 
which is also bi-nucleate in the young stage, and uni-nucleate when 
mature. He does not accept this fusion as sexual, but rather considers 
it a reduction-process as in the spore-mother cells of the higher plants, 
and followed in both cases by the tetrad division — in the teleutospore 
the production of the four sporidia. These are uni-nucleate, as are 
also the cells in the early stage of the gecidium. The bi-nucleate con- 
dition is reached by the passage of a nucleus from a vegetative cell into 
the spore-mother cell of the gecidium. Blackman considers this cell to 
be the female fertile cell, and looks on this association of two nuclei as 
an act of fertilisation. They do not fuse until the teleutospore is 
formed. His view is that formerly the ascidia were fertilised by the 

* Econ. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc, i. (1903) pp. 1G1-5. 

-I- Journ. Mycol., ix. (1903) pp. 219-20. ' % Tom. oil,., pp. 225-38. 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 244-57. U New Phytologist, iii. (1904) pp. 23-7. 



222 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

spermatia, and that there is now only a reduced process of fertilisation, 
which is mid-way between the normal process and that discovered in 
the case of apogamy in ferns, where the acting male and female cells 
are ordinary vegetative cells. He gives some notes on nuclear division 
as observed by him in the Uredineae. A fuller account is promised at 
an early date. 

Cultures with Rusts.* — H. Klebahn gives the results of his various 
cultures, and notes the points of interest in connection with the infec- 
tions. He found that Nemesia versicolor was extremely susceptible to 
Cronartium asclqriadum, and he concludes that a fungus may suddenly 
choose a new host. Specialisation may proceed from many hosts to 
one (plurivore fungus), or from living on a single host (univore) the 
rust may develop a capacity to infect several. He finds, also, that in 
the course of several generations the power of infecting hosts other than 
the one on which the fungus has been cultivated, gradually declines. 

Ag-aricinese on Trees.f — P. Hennings has gone carefully over the 
species found in Germany on stumps, roots, stems and branches. He 
notes those that are parasitic. The largest number is recorded on the 
Alder. He does not give many that grow on Conifers, as trees of that 
order were rare in the district examined. He found none on Ash trees. 
Armillaria mellea causes much damage in the woodlands, and attacks a 
large number of trees, Conifers as well as deciduous trees. 

Polyporaceae of North America.^ — "W. A. Murril continues his 
studies of this great group, and deals in the present paper with the 
genus Polyporus. He confines the name mostly to species of " small 
dark-coloured plants attached to fallen branches and other decaying 
wood on or near the ground." They are all furnished with a stipe 
centrally or variously attached. There is the usual shifting of names 
to establish priority. Polyporus brumaUs becomes P. polyporus Murril, 
as it was described as Boletus Polyporus by Retz in 1760. The author 
records twenty-three species of the genus as understood by him for 
North America. 

Merulius lacrymans as a cause of Cancer.§ — A. Klug has given 
much attention to this subject. He claims to have found in the secre- 
tions from cancer a form of yeast-spores identical with some stages in 
the development of dry-rot. He calls these cells " Meruliocyten." The 
fungus would thus be a dangerous parasite to men and animals. 

Spore-formation in Naucoria nana.|| — L. Petri reviews the work 
done on the basidiospore by Maire, Wager and other writers. He finds, 
the two nuclei (the synkarion) present in the hyphae of the trama, as 
described for other hymenomycetes ; they are of extremely minute 
dimensions. Fusion takes place in the basidium in the spirem stage,. 

* Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst., 1902, 3 Beiheft., 56 pp. Hamburg, 1903. See 
also Bot. Zeit., lxi.(1903) pp. 322-4. 

t Hedwigia Beibl., xlii. (1903) pp. 233-40. 

t Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxxi. (1904) pp. 29-44. 

§ Freih. Johannisbad, Sebbstverlag, 139 pp. (42 figs, and 1 pi.). See also Ann. 
Mjcol., i. (1903) pp. 4i;G-7. 

|| Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. x. (1903) pp. 357-71 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 223 

true fusion occurring between the nucleoli. The secondary nucleus thus 
formed surrounds itself with a membrane. At the same time the cyto- 
plasm of the basidium shows a longitudinal fibrillar structure in the 
upper part. Petri gives a detailed account of the different phenomena 
noted in the cell and the nucleus, which divides in two, corresponding to 
the two sterigmata of Naucoria nana. In conclusion, he examines the 
theory of sexuality. He does not think that the synkarion has the value 
of a fecundation, but rather that it represents the origin of a sexual 
difference limited to the nuclei. 

Polyporus fraxinophilus.*— Hermann von Schrenk describes the 
mischief wrought by this fungus on the white ash in North America. 
The mycelium penetrates to the heart wood of stem and branches, so 
destroying the tissue that the tree falls to the ground. The fruiting 
form makes its appearance not far from the place of infection. The 
author gives a careful description of it and of its occurrence on dead 
wood, and suggests methods of curing the disease in the early stages. 

Oidium Tuckeri.| — Appel found that the fungus passed the winter 
as mycelium in the tissue ;of the new wood of the vine. Numerous 
haustoria were formed, and in the early part of the year a normal 
mycelium was developed with conidia that again infected the growing 
vines. 

American Mycology.! — A. P. Morgan records some interesting 
fungi for British Columbia. He writes also a note on Corticium leuco- 
thrix. J. B. Ellis and B. M. Everhart describe a series of new species 
from various localities in the United States, and W. A. Kellerman 
begins a series of mycological notes — new observations on forms already 
recorded. 

Subterranean Fungi in Italy. § — 0. Mattirolo writes a short treatise 
on the growing importance of these fungi in view of their connection 
with the mycorhiza of the higher plants, and then proceeds to give a 
detailed account of many of the forms. The whole forms part of a 
complete monograph of these fungi now in progress. His survey 
includes Tuberaceae, Hymenogastrea?, an unusual type of Lycoperdacete, 
Gastrosjjorium gen. nov., which grew among the roots of grasses, and 
some other forms, such as Onygena equina found on the decaying hoof 
of an ox, which he includes in his underground series. 

Mycorhiza of Conifers. || — A. Moller has attacked the problem of 
mycorhiza, and the results of his researches contradict the conclusions 
come to by Frank and other workers. The pines of one and two years 
growth developed well in sandy soil, more especially under a top cover- 
ing of leaves ; but this was due to the protection against drought and 
not to mycorhiza. He found no fungus developed on the tips of the 

* U.S.Dept. of Agric. Bureau of riant Industry, Bull. No. 32 (1903) 20 pp. 5 pis 
See also Centralbl. Bakt., x. (1903) pp. 799-801. 

t Centralbl. Bakt., xi. (1903) pp. 143-5. 

% Joum. of Mycol., ix. (1903) pp. 161-2, 104-8, 169-70 (1 pi.). 

§ Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. de Torino, liii. (1903) pp. 331-66 (1 pi.). 

II Zeitschr. Forst. u. Jagduesen, litft 5 (1903). fee also But. Zeit., lxi. (1903) 
pp. 329-30. 



224 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

main roots ; and on the other rootlets, its growth was more luxuriant 
in soil free from humus. He made a series of experiments to deter- 
mine the species of the fungus ; he does not find that it is identical 
with any form of Mucor. 

Sporangioles of Endotropic Mycorhiza.* — L.Petri criticises the 
term sporangiole as applied by Janse to small protuberances on the 
hyphae of endotropic mycorhiza. They have no connection with the 
production of spores, and Petri proposes to call them " prosporoidi " 
for morphological reasons. He examined them in the roots of a number 
of plants, and was able to produce them on various moulds in artificial 
cultures, when grown deep down in the substratum. They arise, he 
holds, on the hyphas, where, in normal conditions, the spores would 
originate. The contents break up into granules, which in the roots 
escape into the surrounding protoplasm ; the cells of an old tubercle are 
full of them ; in cultures they showed no sign of germination. They 
are formed from the contents of the prosporoid by the agency of a 
proteolitic enzyme. The writer gives a long account of his observations 
on endophytic mycorhiza. He has identified the fungus inhabiting the 
tubercles of Podocarpus as a hyphomycete, Thielaviopsis Podocarpi sp. n., 
and has cultivated it successfully. It forms two kinds of fructification, 
macrogonidia— dark-brown gonidia in chains something like a Torula, — 
and microgonidia, which are produced endogenously in upright hyphge. 

Diseases of Yellow Pine.f — H. von Schrenk describes two forms 
of fungus disease both following on the attack of a beetle, Dendroclonus 
ponderosce. The first, causing a bluing of the wood tissue, is due to a 
Pyrenomycete, Ceratostomella pilifera. Much greater damage is done 
by the attack of a Polyporus, which causes the wood to turn red. 
Schrenk considers it a new species, P. ponderosus. 

Injury by Frost followed by Fungoid Attacks.:}: — Sorauer de- 
scribes the cases in which plants have succumbed to frost and the fungi 
that are to be found on such plants. Very often they are merely after- 
growths and have nothing to do with the death of the plant. He gives 
an account of forms of Alter naria, Ascochyta, Septoria and Cladosporium, 
which occur in every field of cereals. Fusarium he considers can grow 
either as a parasite or a saprophyte, and attacks plants under snow. 
He further discusses the conditions that tend to make frost a danger to 
the crops. 

Wood-destroying Fungi.§ — P. Hennings writes an account of all 
the forms that have been found to attack the wood-work of our dwell- 
ings. Merulius lacrymans is the most frequent and the most harmful, 
but Polyporus vaporarius is, he says, almost as destructive and as 
wide-spread. He describes a considerable number that do more or less 
damage ; nearly all of them Hymenomycetes. There are one or two 
Ascomycetes in his black list, notably Xylaria polymorpha, and a small 

* App. al Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., x. (1903) pp. 541-62 (5 figs.), and pp. 582-4 
;2 figs.). 

t U.S. Dept. of Agric, Bureau of Plant Industry, Bull. No. 36 (1903) 40 pp. and 
14 pis.). See also Ann. Mycol., i. (1903) pp. 464-5. 

1 Landw. Jalnb., xxxii. pp. 1-titS (4 pis.). See also Centralbl. Bakt., x. (1903) 
j p. 806-8. § Hedwigia, xlii. (1903) pp. 178-91. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 225 

Pyrenomycete, CeratostomeUa pilif&ra. He records a new species of 
Coniothyrium, which he found on damp boards, and describes it as 
C. domesticum. Many kinds of fungi make their appearance in damp 
cellars, etc. ; but he has only taken into account those that have wood- 
destroying properties. 

Notes on German Fungi.* — P. Hennings describes a variety of 
Boletus granulatus, the pores of which were covered with small crystal- 
like cushions, white, then brown. These were composed of small tufts 
•of clavate paraphyses. A specimen of Colhjbia platyphylla was collected 
with a very long rooting rhizomorph. The young tips of the mycelium 
were faintly phosphorescent. He describes also an abnormal form of 
Tricholoma conglobatum and a peculiar species of Corlinarius. 

Seed-fungus of Lolium temulentum.f — E. M. Freeman has ex- 
amined this fungus. He finds that it spreads outside the aleurone 
sheath — through the scutellmn up to the vegetative apex of the embryo. 
It develops anew with the seed and is found in the stalk, at the base of 
the leaf, and in the flower. No spore-formation could be detected. 
Probably there is a condition of symbiosis between the parasite and the 
host, as the seed is not injured by the fungus. 

Disease of Coco-Palm.f— M. Hollrung examined diseased material 
from New Guinea, where great damage had been done to the Palms. 
Much of the injury was found by him to be due to insects, but there 
were present the pycnidia of a fungus which could not be determined. 
He found also Pestalozzia palmarum, but the author is rather of the 
opinion that these fungi were saprophytes, and had not caused the 
•disease. 

Biological Test for the Presence of ArsenicJ— A. Maassen has 
worked over Gosio's results on this important subject. He found that 
not only Penicillium brevicaule but other moulds and also bacteria 
•absorb soluble arsenic, selenium, tellurium, etc., giving out at the same 
time a characteristic odour. The author explains the chemical reaction 
that takes place. He discusses also the reducing and other properties 
of the cell. He entirely confirms the value of Gosio's discovery of the 
biological test for the detection of arsenic. 

Morphological Researches.! — W. Magnus has directed his attention 
to the capability of fungi to recover from injury. Renewal of tissue is 
always more or less retarded by the reproductive activity of the plant, 
•but there is a strong tendency to renew the original form, though in 
many cases hymenial gills may be replaced by teeth, pores, or a reticu- 
late form. This is due to mechanical conditions of growth. 

Harmful Fungi.^T — Julius von Istvanfh* describes the damage done 
'by Ithyphallus impudicus to the vines in Hungary on a loose sandy soil. 

• Hedwigia, xlii. (1903) pp. 2H-17 (1 pi. and 2 figs.). 

t Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, ser. B, cxcvi. (1903) pp. 1-27 (3 pi.). 

J Zeitsehr. f. trop. Landwirtsch., vii. (1903) p 136. See also Ann. Mycol., i. 
K'1903) p. 559. 

§ Arbeit. Kaiserl. Gesundheits., xviii. (1902) pp. 475-S9. See aleo Ann. Mycol., 
i. (ia03) pp. 569-70. 

II Ber. Deut-ch. Bot. Ges.,xxi. (1903) pp. 129-31. See also Ann. Mycol., i. (1903) 
P- 665. ^ Zeitsehr. Magyar, bot. Lapok., ii. (.1903) pp. 133-4. 



226 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

The pale-red mycelium of the fungus had penetrated the tissue of the- 
root and caused the death of the vine. The fungus fructification* 
appeared in the vineyard in May and August. 

The same writer* has studied the best methods of destroying 
Botrytis and MoniUa. A solution of calcium bisulphide was found to* 
be most effectual. He tested the influence of cold and heat on the 
spores, and other conditions that would influence their vitality. 

Vegetable Pathology.f — Under this heading P. Yiala and P. 
Pacoltet give the results of their culture of the fungus, Guignardia- 
Bidicellei, which causes black rot of the vine. After isolating the- 
fungus they tested its growth on various media. They found as a result 
of these experiments- that its vitality depended on the amount of acid 
and of sugar in the culture, and also in the host plant at the time of 
attack. It flourishes most luxuriantly after a fall of temperature, and 
at the stage before the fruit ripens. This also explains why some fruits 
are more susceptible than others to the attack of this fungus. 

The Action of Fungi on Woody Cells.! — It has been stated by- 
various workers that the action of parasitic fungi on trees is to delignify 
the vessels and fibres of the wood. M. C. Potter found that boiling, or 
prolonged immersion in water, had the effect of destroying the lignin 
and leaving a layer of cellulose. He found the cellulose layer present 
in the wood vessels of a number of living trees that were unattacked by 
any fungus. He comes to the conclusion that the extraction of the- 
lignin and consequent exposure of the cellulose is due in many 
instances to the method employed for sterilizing the wood used in 
experiments, and that where the cellulose layer is present in the living 
tree, it probably represents a stage of arrested development. 

Annual Record of Plant Diseases.§— In the yearly volume for 1902,. 
which has just been issued, M. Hollrung, the editor, has introduced 
several new features. He gives more attention to the manifestation of 
disease, and he has associated with him a number of coadjutors in hi& 
work. In the different sections he gives abstracts of the more im- 
portant papers bearing on the subject under discussion, and also a 
bibliography of all recent papers connected with it. The subjects 
treated in order are general Phytopathology and Pathological Anatomy ;. 
the cause of disease, whether the parasite be plant or animal, discussedi 
generally, and then with reference to definite hosts ; plant hygiene,, 
including considerations of climate, soil, immunity, etc. ; and, finally, 
the various methods of combating disease, organic and inorganic. 
Organic methods may be illustrated by the attempt to infect locusts 
with the fungus Empusa Grylli, which is fatal to the grasshopper tribe. 
Inorganic includes all the chemical and mechanical appliances that have- 
been found useful in this warfare. A copious subject index adds to the 
value of the book. 

* Zeitschr. Magyar, bot. Lapok., ii. (1903) pp. 132-3. See also Ann. Mycol., L 
(1903) p. 559. 

t Comptes Eendns, cxxxviii. (1904) pp 306-S. 

I Annalsof Botany, xviii. (1901) pp. 121-40 (1 pi.). 

§ Jahrcsb. Pflauzenkrank., v., Berlin, 1904, viii. and 408 pp. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 227 

French Mycology.* — L. Rolland describes Inocybe re-panda, which 
had been placed in Entoloma by Berkeley on account of the reddish 
tinge of the spores. Rolland has found that the colour varies between 
red, green and brown. He discusses several other forms of Inocybe, 
and notes the change of colour that may be looked for, and also the 
change in odour at different stages of development. 

N. Patouillard f publishes a note on the genus Paurocotylis Berk., 
which has been classed among the Gasteromycetes. Careful re-examina- 
tion shows that the spores of P. pila, the typical species, are arranged 
as if in asci, and that, with other characters, places it among the Ascomy- 
cetes, near to Hydnocystis. The other species P.fulva belongs to the 
genus Endoyone. 

G. Delacroix % has studied a disease affecting the mulberry trees in 
Madagascar. The under sides of the leaves were covered with a white 
coating of mycelial filaments. Conidia are produced singly at the apex 
of the conidiophores. Delacroix considers it to be a new species, 
Ovulariopsis moricola. With it is associated a species of Phoma, which 
he considers also belongs to the life cycle of the fungus. 

Delacroix § has also published notes on Stromatinia Linhartiana, of 
which the conidial form Monilia Linhartiana grows on the leaves and 
twigs of Primus Padus, and which he finds to be identical with Ovularia 
necans. The Peziza form grows on the mummified fruits in the 
spring of the year, and is intermediate between Sclerotinia Padi and 
S. Aucuparw. A fungus |j that grows on the bark, leaves and fruit of 
the pear, apricot, etc., has been described in America as Sphccropsis 
malorum. Delacroix finds that it is identical with Diplodia pseudo- 
Diplodia. Macrophoma malorum he considers is another stage of the 
life-cycle of the fungus. Dothichiza IT populea has been described as a 
saprophyte on dead poplar branches. The w r riter has proved it to be 
a wound parasite which kills the tree or branch when it has completely 
circled it. He also discusses* the rottenness of potatoes caused by 
Phytophthora infestans. He contrasts the mycelium and especially the 
haustoria with those found in the fruits of a tomato attacked by the 
same disease. He describes the effect produced by other diseases, such 
as scab and gangrene caused by Bacillus caidivorus. Fusarium Solani 
he considers to be a saprophyte, attacking tubers already invaded 
by the mycelium of Phytophthora. Finally, he examines the cases of 
immunity from disease and the influence of the soil on the growth of the 
potato-disease. 

New British Fungi.f — The mycological members of the Yorkshire 
Naturalist Union have been successful in adding no less than seventeen 
species of fungi to the British Flora, and of these nine are new to 
science. Diagnoses and notes of all the species have been published, 
and a special account given of an interesting form, Symphosira parasitica 
Mass. and Crossl. It somewhat resembles a very large species of Stilbum, 

* Bull. Soc. My col. France, xix. (1903) pp. 333-8. 
t Tom. cit., pp. 339-41. t Tom. cit., pp. 342-6 (4 figs.). 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 347-9. || Tom. cit., pp. 350-2. 

If Tom. cit, pp. 353-5 (3 figs.). *• Tom. cit., pp. 356-76 (2 figs). 

ft The Naturalist, 1004, pp. 1-S (1 col. pi.). 



228 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the head being formed of conidia in chains. It was found on the 
fallen mericarps of Conium maculatum, and in one instance on Heradeum 
Sphondylium. Healthy plants of Conium were successfully inoculated 
with the fungus by depositing conidia on the stigma of the host-plant. 
The diseased mericarp was found to be filled with a dense mass of 
colourless hyphos. It fell to the ground when fully developed, and 
produced conidiophores in about ten days. Only one other species of 
Symphosira has hitherto been recorded. It occurs in Germany, and is 
not a parasite. 

American Mycological Notes.* — F. L. Stevens records his personal 
experience after eating a small portion of uncooked L&piota Morgani Pk. 
The poisoning was very severe. 

AV. A. Kellerman f supplies notes on the different species of Calostoma 
found in America. He also records the finding of large cniantities of 
Darluca filum on carnation rust. 

Brown-rot of Swedes.^ — M. C. Potter notes the outbreak of this 
-disease within recent years in the North of England. It is well-known 
and has been fully described in America, where the injury has been 
traced to the presence of a bacterium, Pseudomonas campestris. It 
attacks the plant by the leaves or by the roots and spreads through the 
tissues by way of the vascular bundles. The disease has been already 
recorded in this country on cabbage ; it seems to attack any cruciferous 
plant. Methods of avoiding infection are recommended. 

Arthur, J. C. — New Species of TTredineae, III. 

[An account of 16 new species of unrelated forms from the States or from 
Porto Rico.] Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxxi. (1904) pp. 1-8. 

Beck, Gunther vo n — Ueber das Verkommen des auf der Stubenfliege lebenden 
Stegmatomyces Baerii Peyr. in Bbhmen. (On the occurrence of Stegmatomycet 
Baerii Peyr. on house-flies in Bohemia.) 

[The author finds that it is restricted to a limited area round Vienna and 
Graz, and that it is not to be found in either neighbourhood except in the 
vicinity of the railway.] 

SB. Deuttch. Nat. Med. Ver. Bohmen, xxiii. (1903) pp. 101-2. 

See also Ann. Mycol., i. (1903) p. 550. 

Constantineau, J. C. — Contribution a l'etude de la flore mycologique de la 
Roumanie, II. 

[This paper deals entirely with Uredinese.] 

Ann. Sci. Univ. de Jamj, ii. (1903) pp. 212-30. 
See also Ann. Mycol., i. (1903) p. 550. 

Diet el, P. — Eine neue Puccinia auf Senecio. 

[The new Puccinia was found in Tasmania. JEcidia were developed on the 
same host as the teleutospores.] Ann. Mycol., i. (1903) p. 535. 

Ellis, J. B., & Everhart, B. M.— New Species of Fungi. 

[Microfungi found on various leaves and branches throughout North America.] 

Journ. Mycol, ix. (1903) pp. 222-5. 

Hennings, P. — Biatorellina P. Henn, n. g. Patellariacearum. 

[A new genus found growing on wood, described at length.] 

Uedwigia, xlii. (1903) Beibl., p. 307 (5 figs.). 



* Journ. Mycol., Ix. (1903) pp. 220-2. + Tom. cit., pp. 238-9. 

% Journ. Board Agric, x. (1903) } p. 314-1S (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 229> 

II en kings, P.— Squamotubera P. Henn. n. g. Xylariaceamm. 

[A subterranean fungus from New Caledonia, in form of a tuber with a white 
coating of conidia, bearing hyphae and fusiform, simple spores.] 

Hedioigia, xlii. (1903) Beibl., pp. 308-9. 

„ „ Ein stark phosphoreszierender javanischer Agaricus, Mycene illu- 

minans P. Henn. 
[A new example of phosphorescent fungi from the tropics. 1 he writer also- 
draws atteution to other fungi with the same property.] 

Tom. cit., pp. 809-10.. 

„ „ Ein Sklerotien-Blatterpllz, Naucoria tuberosa P. Henn, n. sp. ad. 

inter. 

[An addition trom Russia to the small number of Hymenomycetes that arise 

from Sclerotia.] Tom. cit., pp. 310-12 (4 rigs.). 

„ „ Eine neue deutsche Clathracee. 

[An account of this fungus was published some time ago. It now appears 
that it was recorded in 1S06, also from the same district in Germany.] 

Naturioissensch. Wochensehr., xix. n.l. pp. 10-12 (8 tigs.).. 
See also Hedioigia, xlii. (1903) Beibl., p. 3 IS. 

„ „ Einige im Berliner Botanischen Garten 1903 gesammelte neue Pilze. 

[A number of new microfungi found on the leaves, etc., of plants in the Berlin. 
Botanical Garden.] Hedioigia, xlii. (1903) pp. 218-21.. 

Hohnel, Franz v. — Mycologische Fragmente (Fortsetzung). 

[Notes on various fungi, with diagnoses of new forms. The new genera- 
recorded are BresadolcIIa, Myxolibertella, Sporodiniopsis, Cirrhomyces, 
and jEgeritopsis.'] Ann. Mycol, i. (1903) pp. 522-34. 

Hollos, L. — Glasteropsis n. g. (Hungarian). 

[The habit of this plant recalls that of Welwitsehia mirabilis.'] 

Bot. Sec. Kgl. Ungar. Naturwiss. Gesellsch., ii. (Budapest, 1903> 
pp. 72-5 (5' figs.). See also Ann. Mycol., i. (1903) p. 551. 

„ „ Two new species of Lycoperdon (Hungarian). 

Tom. cit., pp. 75-G (1 fig.), See also Ann. Mycol, i. (1903) p. 557. 
Magnis, r.— Bemerkungen zur Benennung einiger Uredineen in P. und H. Sydow's. 
' Monographia Uredinearum.' 

[Magnus criticises the nomenclature of some of the species in the 
monograph.] Hedioigia, xlii. (1903) Beibl., pp. 305-6. 

„ ,. Ein von F. W. Oliver nechgeweisener fosiler parasitischer Pilz. 

[Oliver detected the fungus on Alethopteris aquilina. Magnus considers it 
to be near Uropldyctis, and has named it Urophlyctites Oliverianus. The- 
genus Urophhjctis thus dates back to the Carboniferous era.] 

Ber. Deutsch, Bot. Ges., xxi. (1903) pp. 24S-50. 

Malencovik, B.— Zur Hausschwammfrage. (Study of dry-rot.) 

[The writer discusses the best means of sterilising the wood, and rendering 
the development of the fungus impossible.] 

Centralbl. lies. Fordwes., xxix. (190::) pp. 281-95. 
.See also Ann. Mycol, i. (1903) p. 566.. 
Morgan. A. P.— A new species of Berlesiella. 

[The genus is characterised by the setulose perithecia. B. hispida sp. n 
was found growing on bark.] Joitrn. Mycol, ix. (1903) p. 217. 

Neger, F. \V.— Uber die geographische Verbreitung der Meliola nidulans Cooke. 
(On the geographical distribution of Meliola nidulans.) 

[The writer found the fungus on Yaccinium Vitis Llaea, as far north a& 
Sweden.] Ann. Mycol, i. (1903) p. 513. 

Oudemans, C. A. J. A., & Koning, C. J.— Sclerotinia Nicotianae Oud and Kon. 

[A new Sclerotinia injurious to the cultivation of tobacco. The sclerotia,. 
about 10 X 5 fx in size, grow on the stems and leaves of the plant.] 

Kon. Akad. Wetemch. Am*t., 1903, pp. 48-58, 85-6 (2 pis.,. 
See also Hedivigia, xlii. (1903) Beibl., p. 320. 
Patouillaro, N. et Hariot, P.— Une algue parasitee par une Spheriacee. (A 
fungus parasitic on an alga.) 

[The Alga Stypocaulon tcoparium was attacked by Zignoella enormis sp. n.] 
Juarn. de Bot. xvii. (1903) p. 228. See also Ann. Mycol, i. (1903) p. 552 



230 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Popovici, Al. P. — Contribution a l'etnde de la flore mycologique du Mont Ciahlan. 
[The list includes a large number of species ; the larger forms are more par- 
ticularly dealt with.] 

Jassy, Imprimerie 'Daci'a,' P. Iliescu and D. Grossu, 1903, 06 pp. 

See also Ann. Mycol., i. (1903) p. 553. 

Rehn, R. — Die Discomyceten-Gattnng Alenrina Sacc. (The genus Aleurina.) 

[The writer thinks that the brown colour of the spores is not distinctive 
enough as a generic character. He has drawn up a synopsis of the genus.] 

Ann. Mycol, i. (1903) pp. 514-6. 

Rostrup, E. — Islands Swampe. 

[A list of 513 species of fungi from Iceland, with diagnoses of a number of 
new species.] Botan. Tuhskr., xxv. (1903) pp. 281-335. 

See also Hedioigia, xlii. Beibl. p. 320. 

Rostrup, E,& Masse e, G.— Fungi in Schmidt: I. Flora of Koh Chang. 

[Contributions to the knowledge of the vegetation in the Gulf of Siara. A 
number of new species are recurded by the authors.] 

Botan. Ti.hshr., xxiv. (1902) pp. 205-17. 

Spegazzini, C. — Notes synonymiques. 

[The author revises the nomenclature of a number of species, and finds 
several identical forms described under different names.] 

Ann. Mus. Nation. Buenos Ayres, ser. 3a, ix. (1903) pp. 7-9. 
See also Hedtcigia, xlii. (1903) Beibl., p. 321. 

Sydow, H. & P. — Ein Beitrag znr Pilzflora Portugals. 

[The authors record 84 fungi, of which three specie3 are new to science.] 

Broteria, ii. (1903) pp. 149-55. See also Ann. Mycol, i. (1903) p. 554. 

„ „ TTrophlyctis hemisphaerica (Speg.) Syd. 

[The species was describedias, Uromyces hemisphstricaby Spegazzini, and since 
then has been redescribed under various other names. It causes galls on 
the stems. Bowletiatenera in South America and in Europe is found on 
Carum Carvi and Pimpinella magna.] Ann. Mycol., i. (1903) pp. 517-S. 

Sydow — Mycotheca germanica, Fasc. I. (Nos. 1-50.) 

[Diagnoses ot the six new species are given.] Tom. cit., 519-21. 

„ Mycotheca germanica, Fasc. II. (Nos. 51-100). 

[The second fascicle contains also six new species.] Tom. cit., pp. 536-9. 

Lichens. 

Lichen Flora of Heidelberg.*— W. Ritter von Zwackh-Holzhausen 
published in 1883 a Flora of this region. Since that date he had added 
largely to his collection, and was arranging for the publication of the 
new list, when he died. Hugo Gluck has taken up the task, and pub- 
lishes the revised and enlarged list compiled from von Zwackh's 
notes. The species number 559. Nylander's classification is followed 
throughout. 

Contributions to our knowledge of the Chemistry of Lichens.t 
O. Hesse has studied the constituents of Lichens, and gives an account 
of the various substances he has found in the different forms. A 
number of these are new discoveries : Pannarol, Areolatin, Areolin, 
Poronin and Talebraracid, etc. He gives the chemical formula? of 
these and of some of the other substances. In Evernia furfuracea he 
found a new constituent Furevernacid, but he failed to find Everniol 
or Olivetoracid. 

* Hedwigia, xlii. (1903) pp. 192-213. 

t Journ. prakt. Cliemie, Neue Eolge, lxviii. (1903) pp. 1-72. See also Ann. 
Mycol., i. (1903) p. 571. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 231 

« W. Zopf * also contributes a paper on the same subject, and gives 
the substances found in a series of Lichens. He records several new 
bodies. Strepsilin, which becomes bright olive-green on addition of 
•chloride of lime, is the cause of the colour reaction of Gladenia strepsilis. 
Destrictinacid, a colourless substance, was found in Cladonia destricta, 
and Leiphamacid in Hcematomma leiphamum ; and in Usnea hirta, a 
substance which is termed Hirtellacid. 

Hasse, H. E.— Contributions to the Lichen-flora of the Californian Coast Islands. 

Bull. South Calif. Acad. Sci., ii. (1903) pp. 33-5. 

„ Additions to the Lichen-flora of Southern California. 

Tom. cit., pp. 52-4, 58-60, 71-3. 

„ „ The Lichen-flora of San Clemente Island. 

Tom. cit., pp. 54-5. See also Ami. Mycol, i. (1903) pp. 573-4. 

[In these three publications the author gives contributions to a Lichen-flora 
of California. There are several new species determined by Nylander.] 

Sen ft, E. — Beitragzum Vorkommen von Flechten auf offizinellen Rinden. ii. Cortex 
Cascarillae. 

[The author gives an account of the most characteristic Lichens found grow- 
on medicinal bark. He has discovered one new species, Arthonia Voglii.] 

Apoth.-Ver., 1903, No. 32, pp. 891-9 (S figs.). 
See also Ann. Mycol, i. (1903) p, 575. 

Zahlbruckneb, A. — Vorarbeiten zu einer Flechten flora Dalmatiens, II. 

[The author has worked on Lichen material collected by several botanists. 
A number of new species are described.] 

Osterreich. Bot. Zeitschr.,\iii. (1903) pp. 147-9, 177-85. 

239-46, 285-9, 332-6. 

Schizophyta. 
Schizophyceae. 

Schizophyceae in Marine Plankton.f — N. Wille publishes a resume 
of the forms of Schizophycere hitherto met with among marine plankton, 
as an introduction to Brandt's Nordisches Plankton. Among other 
novelties in the systematic treatment of the Myxophyceaj, he places the 
genus Chroothece Hansg. in Glaucophycere (Bangiales) ; Heliotrichium 
radians Wille is identified with Trichodesmium Thieoautii Gomont, and 
a more complete and accurate description of Xanthothricum contortum 
Wille is given under the name of Trichodesmium contortum Wille. All 
the genera are illustrated by figures taken from the works of Kiitzing, 
Bornet and Thuret, Gomont, Mobius, Schiitt, J. Schmidt, and others. 

Schizomycetes. 

Slime Bacterium from the Peach, etc4 — R. Greig Smith has 
separated from the peach, the almond, and the cedar, races of an 
organism, Bacterium fKrsica. This is an aerobic, spore-bearing non- 
motile rod, measuring 1 ■ 2-3 ■ 6//., or even 7 • 5/z in hanging drop pre- 
parations, and decolorised in parts by Gram. It produces a slime when 
grown upon solid media or in fluid media containing saccharose. When 
grown upon solid media the saccharose can be replaced by many other 

* Ann. Chem. cccxxvii. (1903) pp. 317-54. See also Ann. Mycol., i. (1903) 
pp. 576-7. 

t Nordisches Plankton. K. Brandt, Leipzig, 1903. See Nuov. Not., xv. (1904) 
p. 45. % Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxviii. (1903) pp. 338-48. 



232 SUMMARY OF OURKENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

carbohydrates and by glycerin. The essential carbohydrate of the 
slirne is soluble in water, but upon drying it becomes readily altered to- 
an insoluble modification. The carbohydrate hydrolyses to arabinose 
and galactose, the latter predominating. Besides forming galactan- 
arabinian gum, the organism inverts the saccharose, producing ethyl- 
alcohol, carbon dioxide, lactic, butyric, and traces of succinic, formic 
and acetic acids. 

Presence of Cilia in the Genus Bacterium.* — D. Ellis, having 
formerly demonstrated the presence of cilia in the Family Coccacecc,i has 
set himself to show that the members of the genus Bacterium also- 
possess cilia, although Migula classifies them as being destitute of these 
organs. The author made his investigations with Bad. hirtum (Henrici), 
Bad. tomentosum (Henrici), Bad. filamentosum (Klein), Bad. rugosum 
(Henrici), and Bad. cervinum (Henrici). The author suggests that 
in classification the genus Bacterium be omitted, and only the two 
genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas retained, as follows : — 

Family Baderiacp.ee. 

Cylindrical forms. Organs of motion in the form of cilia. 

Endospore formation common. 

Genus Bacillus. Forms with peritrich cilia. 

Genus Pseudomonas. Forms with polar cilia. 

Bacillus carnis.* — E. Klein has obtained from a putrid meat infu- 
sion a very virulent essential anaerobe, and has grown it under strictly 
anaerobic conditions. It is a slender motile bacillus, 1 ■ 5-2 * 5/a by • 6/x, 
with rounded ends. It stains with the usual dyes and is positive to Gram. 
Its motility is marked in young cultures, and in the exudate in animals 
after subcutaneous injection, and is due to the presence of peritrich 
flagellar The microbe forms large oval spores. Spore formation can 
be well observed by sucking into capillary tubes the exudate above 
mentioned, sealing the ends and incubating at 37° C. B. camis grows 
well in all media. It is gas-forming. It does not liquefy gelatin. 
Guinea-pigs and mice succumb after subcutaneous injection in about 
10 hours, one drop being a lethal dose for the former. Intra- 
peritoneally it is much less virulent, and doses of 0*25-0 "5 c.cm. have 
very little effect. 

Bacterium cyprinicida (n. sp.).§ — M. Plelm describes a bacterium 
obtained from carp and tench suffering from red disease (Rotseuche). 
1 c.cm. of a 10 times diluted bouillon culture, introduced into the stomach 
by the mouth, or 0*2-0 ' 3 c.cm., injected intra-peritoneally, produced the 
disease in healthy carp and tench. The bacterium was pathogenic also 
to the Salmonidse. It is a capsule-forming, slime-producing organism, 
about 1(jl by 0*8/x, neither spore-forming nor motile, but positive to 
Gram. It stains best with carbol-thionin, which dyes the capsule red- 
dish, and the bacterium itself blue-violet. It is aerobic. It grows on 



* 



Centralbl. Bakt. 2" Abt., xi. (1903) pp. 241-5. 
t See this Journal, 190o, p. 109. 
% Centralbl. Bakt., 1" Abt., xxxv. (1904) pp. 459-61. 
§ Tom. cit., pp. 461-7. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 233 

the ordinary media, and best at 10" C.-20° C. Its growth is stopped 
at 87° C. 

Two new Fluorescent Denitrifying Bacteria.* — H. R. Christensen, 
in the course of studies on earth bacteria, has come across two new 
denitrifying bacteria which differ from Bac. pyocyaneus and Bac. 
fliiorescens liquifaciens in not liquefying gelatin. As culture media he 
used the following : — (1) Nitrate and nitrite bouillon : 5 gr. Liebig's 
extract ; 5 gr. peptone (Merck, Darmstadt) ; 2 gr. KN0 3 or KN0 2 ; 
1000 cc. tap water. (2) Meat peptone bouillon : 5 gr. Liebig's extract ; 
5 gr. peptone ; 1000 cc. tap water. (3) Meat peptone-gelatin or agar : 
5 gr. Liebig's extract ; 5 gr. peptone ; 120 gr. gelatin or 10 gr. agar ; 
1000 cc. tap water. All the media were made slightly alkaline with 
Iv 2 C0 3 . The first form, named by the author Bac. denitrificans 
fliiorescens a, when grown on agar or gelatin, measures 0*5-1 "25/4 
by • 5-0 * 75/*. It is larger, however, when grown in bouillon, and in 
anaerobic cultures takes the form of a large ovoid with polar staining. 
It is enveloped in a mucus capsule. There is very slight or doubtful 
movement. The organism stains well with carbol-fuchsin, but not with 
Gram. It does not liquefy gelatin, but imparts to it a bright green 
tinge. Anaerobically the growth is very slow. 

The second form, Bac. denitrificans fliiorescens f3, measures 0" 5-1* 5ft 
by • 5-1//. from agar, more from bouillon. Many are spherical. It has a 
zig-zag or twisting movement. It stains readily with carbol-fuchsin, 
but not with Gram. It does not liquefy gelatin, but imparts to it a 
brown tint. It also grows anaerobically, but slowly. 

Both decompose the nitrate or nitrite with the evolution of free 
nitrogen. 

Anaerobes and Symbiosis. f — Bienstock has carried out numerous 
experiments on the question of a natural symbiosis of putrefactive 
anaerobes with aerobic bacteria. Using as a representative of the former, 
chiefly B. putrifict/s (Bienstock), he cultivated it with a large number of 
different aerobes, in the following manner : Shreds of fibrin, well washed 
and sterilised in Uschinsky's fluid, were inoculated with the aerobe, and 
after some days B. pidrificus was added. It was observed that amongst 
aerobes there were some which favoured the development of the anaerobe 
and also the putrefaction of the fibrin ; on the other hand others, while 
not preventing the development of the organism, retarded putrefaction. 
Several other anaerobes were used with similar results. Search was also 
made in cultures of many aerobes for the ferment suggested by 
Kedrowsky as the essential for the aerobic growth of anaerobes. The 
cultures were filtered, and killed in various ways ; but the results with 
over thirty species were, except in the case of B. pyocyaneus, uniformly 
negative. B. pidrificus neither grew nor caused putrefaction, as with 
living aerobes. If, however, fibrin, in Uschinsky-Fraenkel fluid con- 
taining 1*2 p.c. sugar, is inoculated with B. pyocyaneus, it shows after 
some days change in texture, it loses its white colour, and from being 
firm becomes flabby ; if now the culture be killed by heat to 100° C, 

* Centralbl. Bakt. 2" Abt.. si. (1903) pp. 190-4. 
t Ann. Instit. Past., xvii. (1903) pp. 850-G. 

April 20th, 1004 R 



234 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

and then inoculated with B. putrificus, growth of the latter and putre- 
faction is produced in two or three days, and this under non-anaerobic 
conditions. Sterile ascitic fluid gave the same results. The presence 
of coagulated albumen, however, seemed essential in both cases, for when 
this was removed the results were negative. All experiments were 
checked by many controls. 

Resistance to Heat of Bacillus anthracis.* — A. Mallock and 
A.M. Davis from the results of 113 experiments are of opinion that the 
heat-resisting power of B. anthracis and its spores is much less than is 
generally supposed : indeed, they rarely found any survival of living 
matter in fluid which had been raised to a temperature of 100° C, 
even for as short a time as 20 to 30 seconds. Their method was to 
inoculate sterilised tubes of distilled water from a broth or agar culture 
of the bacillus. Within 2 to 3 hours the tubes were sealed at the top 
with heat, and submitted to different degrees and durations of heat in 
a special apparatus furnished with a steam boiler. This done, the tops of 
the tubes were filed off and the contents sown into broth with the least 
possible delay. The authors relied on the following appearances as 
indicating growth of B. anthracis. 

Nutrient broth at 37° C. — After 24 to 48 hours, whitish deposit and 
presence of small flocculent masses in upper part of tube, which fall 
down on shaking ; the broth itself remains clear : absence of any 
pellicle. 

Agar stroke at 37° C. — Whitish, thin defined growth along the stroke, 
with irregular edges, not spreading widely. 

Microscopic appearances. — Rods, threads and felted masses, with 
spores either free or lying within the rods. Rods non-motile. 

Fat of Tubercle Bacilli.f — K. J. Krisling has found that the dry 
substance obtained from tubercle bacilli in the preparation of tuberculin 
contained 3 '94 p.c. water, 8 '57 p.c. N, 38 '95 p.c. fat, and 0'97 p.c. of 
other organic substances not containing nitrogen. The fatty substances 
extracted by chloroform melt at 46° C., have an acid number 23*08, 
Reichert-Meissl number 2*01, Hehner number 74*23, saponification 
number 60*70, ester number 37*62, and Hiibl iodine number 9*92. 
They contain 14*38 p.c. of free fatty acids, 77*25 p.c. of neutral fats 
or esters, 39*10 p.c. of alcohols extracted from the esters and melting 
at 43*5° C. to 44° C, 0*16 p.c. of lecithin, and 7*3 p.c. of substances 
soluble in water. 25 * 76 p.c. of substances soluble in water are extracted 
after the complete hydrolysis of the fats. 

Composition of Tubercle Bacilli derived from Various Animals. { 
E. A. Schweinitz and M. Dorset found the following amounts of ether, 
alcohol and chloroform extracts in (1) bovine, (2) swine, (3) horse, 
(4) avian, (5 and 6) attenuated and virulent human tubercle bacilli, 

* Proc. Eoy. Soc, lxxii. (1903) pp. 493-9. 

t Chem. Oentr., i. (1903) p. 1153. See also Journ. Chem. Soc.,cccclxxxix. (1903) 
p. 504. 

X Journ. Chem. Soc.,xxv. (1903) pp. 354-8. See alsoJourn. Chem. Soc.,cccclxxxix. 
(1903) p. 504. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 235 

after washing out any adherent culture-media and most of the con- 
stituents soluble in water. 





(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


00 


(5) 


(6) 


Ether extract . 


17-70 


12-56 


23-38 


17-36 


28-27 


20-31 


Alcohol extract 


8-13 


7-83 


8-18 


13-27 


7-36 


7-22 


•Chloroform extract . 


0-49 


0-20 


0-20 


0-02 


1-33 


0-48 



The acid values of the ether and alcoholic extracts, the total ash and 
the phosphoric acid, were also determined. 

It is suggested that the virulent human, bovine, horse, and swine 
tubercle bacilli, which contain less harmless matter than the attenuated 
human tubercle bacilli, produce greater amounts of poisonous proteids. 

It was previously shown* that cultivations of human tubercle 
bacilli contain a very virulent acid-like necrotic substance. This, being 
readily soluble in water, would not be included in the above extracts. 

Decomposition of Cellulose by Aerobic Micro-organisms.t — G. van 

Iterson has studied the decomposition of cellulose by denitrifying 
bacteria. He experimented with Swedish filter paper and found that 
the cellulose is broken down by the action of denitrifying, non-spore- 
forming, aerobic bacteria, provided that there is a limited supply of air. 
If nitrates be present in the nutritive medium, only nitrogen and 
carbon dioxide are evolved. 

Amongst the aerobic, non-spore-forming bacteria which attack cellu- 
lose, the brown pigment bacterium, Bact. ferrugineus, is predominant. 
A chief cause of the brown colour in humus is a pigment formed by 
the action of bacteria or moulds on cellulose. The aerobic destruction 
of cellulose accounts for the fact that wood or rope partly imm ersed in 
water become weak at the place of contact of water and air. 

* Centralbl.Bakt., l te Abt., Orig., xxii. (1903) pp. i., 209. 

t Proc. K. Akad. Witensch. Amsterdam, v. (1903) pp. 685-703. See also Journ. 
Ohem. Soc, cceclxxxix. (1903) p. 50o. 



R 2 



230 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



MICROSCOPY. 

A. Instruments, Accessories, &c* 
- (l);Stands. 

rrrRoss' Improved No. 2 "Standard" Microscope. f — This instru- 
ment (fig. 24) is constructed upon the basis of the original Oberhauser- 
Hartnack model, and claims to have important improvements not 




Fig. 24. 

embodied in any other instrument. The very best workmanship has 
been introduced throughout, and special care has been bestowed upon 

* This subdivision contains (1) Stands; (2) Eye-pieces and Objectives; (3) Illu- 
minating and other Apparatus; (4) Photomicrography; (5) Microscopical Optica 
and Manipulation ; (6) Miscellaneous. 

f Ross' Catalogue of Latest Improvements in Microscope Construction, 190:>. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY. ETC. 



237 



the exact fitting and working of the wearing parts, so as to secure per- 
fection of alignment in the optical parts. When the Microscope is 
used vertically, the stage is extremely rigid under manipulation even 
with the highest objectives, and in this position the stage rests upon 
the step-like supports of the pillars. The mirrors are mounted with 
a swinging bar on an exceptionally strong focussed slide-bearing, the 
swinging bar being provided with a " clock " for indicating central illumi- 




Fig. 25. , 

nation. For facilitating rapid work of a variable nature, such as occurs 
in general medical work, a special and unique substage fitting (fig. 25) 
can be supplied, the condenser being hinged to the mounting of the 
upper dome-shaped iris diaphragm, so that it can be instantly swung 
downwards, leaving this iris in situ, the distance of this diaphragm 
from the stage being readily varied by the substage screw. The con- 
denser can be immediately reinserted by a single movement without 
disturbing the position of the instrument, and thus altering the lighting. 
The mechanical stage can be attached or removed in a few 
seconds, and is so constructed that it will always register to the 
exact position it previously occupied, in order that an object can be 



238 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



readily found by means of the vernier. Both rectangular movements 
are attained by smoothly-working diagonal racks-and-pinions of superior 
workmanship. The pinion-boxes are automatically self-adjusting to 




Fig. 26. 



take up wear. The range is sufficient to allow the systematic search 
of a very large slide, and the fixed stage itself is of corresponding 
dimensions. The milled heads are extra large, to secure perfect control 




Fig. 27. 



over the movements with high-power objectives. Fig. 26 shows the 
general view of the mechanical stage, and fig. 27 gives a side view. 

Watson and Sons' New " Argus " Microscope.* — This instrument 
has a tripod foot with a spread of C| in. The coarse adjustment is. 

* W. Watson & Sons' Supplemental Catalogue, (M 190:^. 



ZOOLOGY xVND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY, ETC. 



2:59 




Fig 28. 



240 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



effected by means of a helical rackwork and pinion of a new design, 

and the fine adjustment by the rotation of a direct-acting screw. The 

stage and body are of brass, and the height of the instrument when 

placed vertically is lOf in. All the fittings are of the universal size, 

and compensating screws enabling the working parts to be adjusted are 

provided (fig. 28). 

Hitchcock, R. — The ideal projecting Microscope. 

Joum. New York Micr. Soc. Annual, 1902 (1904) pp. 19-23. 



(3) Illuminating' and other Apparatus. 

•?v-Heele's Heliostats.* — These are shown in the accompanying illus- 
trations. Fig. 29 is of Silbermann's construction with accurate clock- 




Fig. 29. 
* Catalogue, pp. 21-3, Nos. 83-6. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



241 




Fig. 30. 




Fig. 31. 



Fro. 32. 



242 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

work, escapement and compensation balance. The size of the mirror is 
2\ by 4 in. Fig. 30 is an instrument with Heele's modifications. The 
size of the mirror is 3 by 5 in. Fig. 31 is of simpler form. The clock- 
work is contained in a mahogany case. The instrument is fitted with 
spirit-level and levelling screws. Fig. 32 is of still simpler construction. 

D owdt, S. E. — Microscope condenser fitting. 

[Describes how an effective condenser can be cheaply improvised.] 

English Mechanic, Ixxix. (1904) p. 50. 



(4) Photomicrography. 

Photographing Microscopic Crystals.* — W. Bagshaw shows that 
a combination of transmitted and reflected light is necessary to throw 
objects like microscopic crystals into relief and impart a pleasing and 
faithful representation. The transmitted light, subdued so as not to 
dominate the reflected light, ensures the outlines in their finest rami- 
fications, whilst the reflected light casts the shadows. 

The How and Why of the Lippmann Colour Process.! — T. A. 
O'Donohoe reminds his readers that the Lippmann film is usually a 
very thin transparent film of gelatin containing a very small proportion 
of perfectly emulsified silver bromide. The glass support must be 
between the film and the lens, and the film must be backed by mercury 
to form the reflecting surface. Suppose fig. 33 to represent a section 
of the film ; A B the glass surface in • contact with the film, and C D 
the mercury, also in contact with the film. Let R be a ray of mono- 
chromatic light passing through the film in a sinuous unbroken line, 
and impinging at right angles on the surface of the mercury. At the 
moment of reflection it loses half a wave-length, and according to 
Young its phase is reversed, so that it returns in the form of the dotted 
sinuous line, interfering more or less in its course with the entering 
wave. The two systems of waves are now, as it were, locked np in the 
film, and are called " stationary waves," because they have lost their 
forward motion and can only move up and down within the film. 
They rise and fall with incredible rapidity and act chemically, all the 
time producing the greatest effect where their motion is greatest, and 
the least or no effect in the nodal planes where the two waves intersect. 
In the figure the planes of highest chemical activity are represented by 
lines max, and from these to the shorter lines min, where there is no 
chemical effect, there is a gradual waning of actinic power. There are 
thus alternate planes parallel to the mercury, showing the maxima and 
minima of chemical action, and should the theory be correct, a trans- 
verse section of such a film should, after development and fixation, show 
these maxima and minima by alternate bands of black, where the deposit 
of silver bromide is greatest, and of white bands, where the deposit 
of silver bromide is little or none. Other colours of the spectrum will, 

* Amateur Photographer, xxxix. (1904) p. 69 (4 figs.). 
t Photogram, x. (Sept. 1903; pp. 271-4 (6 figs.). 



Journ. R. Micro. Soc. 1904. 



PI. VIII. 



A 
-> 



\ 
















~N 


,''" 




/"" 


, * 

" 






'»„ 










1 - 


.3 


ir. 


*". 




Fig. 33. 








Figs. 34, 35. x 1000. 




Fig. 36. x 1000. 



[To face p. 242. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



242- 



of course, be acting similarly. The action, moreover, is continuous 
during exposure, the red waves impressing their forms in the film at 
the rate of 38,000 to the inch, and the blue at 52,000 to the inch. 
Prof. Lippmann did not advance beyond the theory, but last year 
E. Senior photographed a spectrum, and by the aid of collodion stripped 
the film from the glass support. W. B. Randies imbedded this film in 
paraffin and after cutting sections mounted them in Canada balsam. 
Figs. 34 and 35 show the results under high-power magnification, 
and are photo-micrograms of the red part of the spectrum in which 
the alternate bands are distinctly visible through the entire thick- 
ness of the film. Fig. 36 is a photo-microgram of the blue part of 
the spectrum under the same magnification. The portion of the film 
acted on by the blue light was not quite so thick as that of the red 
owing to the difficulty of making a perfectly plane film. The strata of 
the blue are, as they should be according to theory, much closer together 
than the strata in the red. Thus it will be understood that, after 
development and fixation, each part of the film will reflect only the 
light whose wave-lengths exactly coincide with the impressions already 
made in the film. 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

Ultra-microscopic Objects.* — A. Cotton and H. Mouton, in repeat- 
ing the experiments of Siedentopf and Zsigmondy on the visibilty of 
finely-divided particles in certain media, have found the following 
arrangements very convenient for studying liquids. A very oblique 
beam of light, diagrammatically represented in fig. 37, is projected on 




Fig. 37. 



to one of the sides of an oblique parallelopiped A B C D with rectangular 
top and bottom faces, and reflected upwards from the base through the 
object-slide and cover-slip. A thin layer of the liquid to be examined 

* Revue Ge'neralc des Science.*, xxiii. (Dec. 15, 19D3) pp. 1184-91 (G figs.)- 



244 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



is placed between the slide and cover-slip, and the under surface of the 
slide is moistened with a drop of liquid of same refraction-index as the 
glass. If the angle of incidence of the beam is suitably chosen, the 
interior beam meets the cover-slip at the angle of total reflexion, and 
throws no light on to the objective. Any ultra-microscopic particles 
present in the liquid become, however, diffractive, and therefore self- 
luminous. The effect on the objective is to render these bodies visible 
on a dark ground. In the figure the angle of the parallelopiped was 
about 51°. 

The authors consider that their method has the great advantage of 
using a large percentage of the light emitted from the source. The 
experiments must be conducted in a darkened room. A view of the 
actual apparatus is given in fig. 38, where it will be noticed that the 
light issuing from the condenser of a small inclined lantern is con- 




Fig. 38. 



-centrated by a lens on to the parallelopiped. The lamp on the left is 
used when it is desired to view the liquid as a transparent object. 

The examination of Lippmann's films liquefied showed that the 
ultra-microscopic particles of silver bromide are in a state of Brownian 
movement. The authors suggest that this fact may have a bearing on 
photography in colours. A thin solution of Chinese ink behaved 
similarly. A preparation of ferrocyanide of copper was examined as a 
specimen of a colloid, and highly exhibited the Brownian movement ; 
but, when a minute quantity of alum solution was added, the motile 
particles instantaneously disappeared, and granular masses of ordinary 
precipitated ferrocyanide of copper were produced. The property 
possessed by colloids of diffusing light is probably due to the presence 
of very minute particles, and the authors think that their experiments 
are very suggestive to biologists who wish to study the action of saline 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



24S 



solutions and diastases on the numerous colloids found in living- 
organisms. It would seem that the minuteness of many bacteria is an 
insufficient test of their identification, and that more difficult characters, 
such as peculiar motility, tactism, agglutination, must be looked for : 
possibly sensitiveness to different kinds of coloured illumination may 
be found. In the examination of a living culture in bouillon of the 
microbe of a bovine peripneumonia totally reflected light revealed 
numerous brilliant corpuscles animated by a movement indistinguishable 
from Brownian. Great care was taken to ensure that the observations 
were not tainted by any accidental inequalities or defects in the glass 
used. 

Horder's Clinical Case. — Fig. 39 shows an improved form of the 
clinical case exhibited at the November meeting.* The modification 
consists in an alteration in the size of the case, which now measures 




Fig. 39 



141 mm. by 100 mm. by 31 mm. The increased capacity of the case 
allows the inclusion of additional requisites such as pipettes, haiina- 
cytometer counting chamber, rack for drying cover-glasses, and some 
other additional articles. 



* See this Journal, 1903, p. 7S2. 



.246 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



Heele's Miniature Spectroscopes.* — One form of these instruments, 
•catalogued as No. 32, is shown in fig. 40. It has a symmetrical adjust- 




Fig.40. 




Fig. 41. 



able slit, comparison prism, achromatic lens and photographic micro- 
meter scale for determining the position of the lines. The same 
instrument, in a simpler form, with adjustable slit and achromatic lens, 
is shown in fig. 41. 

B. Tech.nique.+ 
(1) Collecting' Objects, including- Culture Processes. 

Simple Method for Clearing Nutrient Agar without Filtration.^ 
H. Fischer recommends the following plan : A glass funnel of suitable 
size is plugged with a cork just where the cone joins the tube, and 
placed in an iron ring. Into this the boiling hot agar solution is 
poured. It is then covered and placed in the cool. After some hours 
the mass is found to be hardened, and all the turbidity is quite at the 
bottom of the glass. The funnel is then inverted, and the agar with a 
little help falls out. It is caught in the hand or a dish, and the turbid 
part at the apex of the cone removed with a knife. The rest is then 
remelted and poured into culture tubes. The method is not suitable 
!for gelatin. 

Blood Cultures in Typhoid Fever.§— L. M. Warfield takes 10 to 
15 c.cm. of blood in the usual manner from the arm, and distributes 
it among four or five flasks containing 250 c.cm. of bouillon each, and 
two or three containing the same quantity of litmus milk. The flasks 

* Catalogue (pp. 8-9), Peter Heele, London. 

t This subdivision contains (1) Collecting Objects, including Culture Pro- 
«esses; (2) Preparing Objects; (3) Cutting, including Imbedding and Microtomes : 
(4) Staining and Injecting ; (5) Mounting, including slides, preservative fluids, &c. ; 
(6) Miscellaneous. 

% Centralbl. Bakt., l te Abt., xxxv. (1904) p. 527. 

§ Bull. Ayer. Clin, l^ib. Pa. Hosp., 1903, No. l,pp. 77-80. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 247 

are incubated at 37 • 5° C. If organisms be present, a clouding of the 
bouillon and blackish discoloration of the blood at the bottom of the 
flask gives evidence of their growth within 24 to 48 hours. Occasionally 
the signs of growth do not appear for four or five days. The bacilli are 
afterwards identified on the ordinary media and by the agglutination 
test. Cultures made early in the disease give a much higher percentage 
of positive results than those made during the third or fourth week. 

Method of Concentrating Plankton without Net or Filter.* — . 
B. L. Seawell describes the following procedure for concentrating 
plankton. The samples are collected by dipping or by the use of a 
plankton pump without the filter. A measured quantity, say 500 c.cin., 
is placed in a conical flask of, say 750 c.cm. capacity, 5 c.cm. of 40 p.c. 
formaldehyde added, and the two well mixed at once. The planktonts 
soon die and settle at the bottom. After about a week the supernatant 
fluid is siphoned off till only 150 c.cm. remain. The residue is poured 
into a conical flask of about 150 c.cm. capacity, and allowed to settle 
for another week. The siphoning is repeated and the residue poured 
into a 75 c.cm. flask. This flask has a base so small in diameter that 
all but about 20 c.cm. can be safely siphoned off, and this last sediment 
filled into two 10 c.cm. phials. If kept for future study it may be 
advisable to add a small quantity of glycerin. 

(2) Preparing Objects. 

Bleaching Reagents.f — S. E. Dowdy remarks that hydrogen per- 
oxide when used as a bleaching agent should be employed fresh and of 
full strength. Chlorinated lime in freshly prepared solution, to which 
a drop or two of dilute acid is added, makes a much more satisfactory 
bleacher. 

Formol-sublimate Fixing Fluids.:}:— R. Pearl recommends the fluids 
devised by D. C. Worcester for fixing and killing. One of these is a 
saturated solution of sublimate in 10 p.c. formalin. The other consists 
of nine parts of the foregoing and one part of glacial acetic acid. 
The first fluid is especially adapted for fixing and killing Protozoa ; the 
second for fixing teleost eggs, and embryological material in general. 

(3) Cutting:, including- Imbedding- and Microtomes. 

Pleuel Microtome. § — In this instrument which has been improved 
by Kaplan, the movement is given to the knife-carrier through the 
continuous turning of a handle, to the crank of which a connecting- 
rod is attached in the desired degree of eccentricity. This rod is at its 
other end connected with a sliding block, to which it gives a to-and-fro 
movement. The sliding block is joined to a metal band, which in its 
turn is loosely connected to the knife-carrier by means of a double- 
hinge joint. The extent of the to-and-fro movement of the knife- 

* Trans. Amer. Micr. Soc, xxiv. (1903) pp. 17-19. 
+ English Mechanic, lxxix. (1904) p. 63). 
% Journ. Applied Micr., vi. (1903) pp. 2451. 
§ P. Thate's Catalogue, Berlin, 1903. 



248 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 




carrier thus varies directly with the degree of eccentricity of the 
attachment of the connecting rod. The working of the micrometer- 
screw is automatic and can be adjusted by means of a peg on the 
knife-carrrier. The advantages claimed are : 

1. Mechanically ensured movement of the knife-carrier exclusively 
in the course of the sliding track. 

2. Simplicity of construction without cogged wheels. 

3. Variability in the extent of the movement of the knife-carrier. 

4. Automatic working of the micrometer-screw. 

5. Adaptability of the apparatus to other sliding microtomes. 

Rotation Microtome.*- — P. Krefft has devised a microtome, named 
by him " Herzberge," of which the knife (fig. 42) is the special feature. 
This is semicircular in form with an outer cutting edge, and it rotates 

eccentrically round a selected point 
lying somewhere in its diameter. 
During such an eccentric rotation 
the distance becomes constantly and 
gradually increased between the ro- 
tation point and the cutting point 
of the advancing edge, which ad- 
vances to just double the extent of 
the eccentricity. The knife is fixed 
to a holder on the top of a vertical 
axis, on the head of which is a milli- 
FlG - 42 - meter scale for the setting of the 

knife to the required eccentricity, 
which should be equal to half the broadest diameter of the prepara- 
tion to be cut through. The knife-holder grasps the whole back of the 
knife, and so any elastic spring is avoided. Across this axis passes a 
rod which can become fixed in the required position and serves for the 
regulation of the automatic block-raising apparatus : during the half 
of the revolution, in which the semicircular knife runs free, i.e. does 
not cut, a lever fixed to the chief axis pushes the rod to one side, and 
at the same time by means of a catch takes hold of and moves the 
toothed micrometer-screw, and so causes the block to be raised. During 
the second half of the revolution, in which the knife cuts, the lever is 
out of reach of the rod. The whole is worked by a handle, which by 
means of a cogged wheel acts on the chief axis. 

For the cutting of paraffin ribbons a straight-edged knife can be 
substituted for the semicircular one. The advantages claimed for this 
microtome are : 

1. The absence of elastic spring. 

2. The course of the knife is uniform and sure. 

3. The manipulation is easy. 

4. The sections are uniformly regular. 

Stebbins, J. H. — New and cheap Haematoxylin Stain. 

Journ. Kew York Micr. Soc. Annual, 1902, pp. 1-6. 
„ „ Goldhorne's Double One-dip Bloodstain. Tom. cit., pp. 6-7. 



Zeitscb. wiss. Mikr., xx. (1903) pp. 7-11 (2 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 249 

(4) Staining and Injecting:. 

New Modification of the Romanowsky-Ruge Method for Staining 1 
Blood-Spores.* Berestneff recommends the following. Stain No. 1 : 
• 5 p.c. watery solution methylen-blue (med. puriss.). Stain No. 2 : 1 p.c. 
watery solution methylen-blue and ■ 3 p.c. crystalline soda, heated for 
three hours in a water bath and then filtered. Stain No. 3:0*5 p.c. 
watery solution eosin (extra B.A.). Four parts of No. 1 are mixed with 
one part of No. 2, and to 5 c.cm. of this 2 "25 c.cm. of No. 3 are added. 
The preparation is fixed in absolute alcohol, and then stained for 10 to 
30 minutes (crescents require at least 35 minutes). The preparation is 
then dried with filter-paper, or quickly washed with water, differentiated 
in a mixture of 100 parts alcohol and 2 parts 5 p.c. acetic acid for a 
few seconds, washed quickly in water and dried. 

Demonstrating Presence of Cilia in Bacteria.f — D. Ellis used 
ordinary agar, " spirillum agar," and peptone-beef broth, and his method 
was to keep on continually transferring the organism to a fresh medium 
as soon as growth was perceptible. He was successful in demonstrating 
cilia in all these species. The following staining method was employed : — ■ 
Three small drops of water were placed on an absolutely clean slide. A 
portion of the material was then, with a platinum loop, mixed with the 
first drop. A loopful of this drop was then mixed with the second, and, 
lastly, a loopful of the second with the third. From the third drop the 
cover-glass preparations were made. The smears were then fixed by 
being kept at 37° C. for 4 minutes, then mordanted for 3^-7 minutes 
with — 

10 c.cm. of a 20 p.c. sol. of Tannin, 
8 c.cm. of a cold sat. sol. FeS0 4 , 
1 c.cm. of a sat. sol. of Fuchsin in Abs. Ale. ; 

and, lastly, stained for 5 minutes with — 

1 grm. Saure violett (Griibler & Co. 6 B), 
75 c.cm. Absolute Alcohol, 
75 c.cm. water. 

Resistance of Tubercle and other Acid-fast Bacilli to Decolorising 
Agents.* — C. A. Coles submitted the bacilli of tubercle, smegma, 
Timothy grass, grass bacillus ii. and mist bacillus to various decolorising 
agents, after staining with Ziehl-Nielsen for seven minutes. The most 
important results are that tubercle bacilli can resist 25 p.c. sulphuric 
acid for 72 hours, while pseudo-tubercle bacilli are decolorised in 
16 hours or less. Tubercle bacilli resist Pappenheim's solution [1 part 
corallin (rosolic acid) in 100 parts of absolute alcohol, to which methylen- 
blue is added to saturation ; this mixture is further treated with 20 parts 
of glycerin] for 52 hours, while pseudo-tubercle bacilli are decolorised 
at the end of four hours. 

The author suggests a modification of Pappenheim's solution, finding 

* Centralbl. Bakt, V Abt. Ref., xxxiv. (1904) p. 296. 

t See ante, p. 232. 

X Repr. from Journ. State Med., Feb. and March, 1904, 20jpp. 

April 20th, 1 90 4 3 



250 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

that the omission of methylen-blue gives better pictures. The films 
are afterwards contrast stained for a minute or so in weak aqueous 
solution of methylen-blue. 

For differential diagnosis it is advised to immerse the stained slide in 
the decoloriser for not less than four and not longer than twelve hours. 
If 25 p.c. sulphuric acid be used, the slides should be left in the acid 
for at least sixteen and not more than twenty-four hours, and after 
thoroughly washing with water they are contrast stained with aqueous 
methylen-blue, dried and mounted. 

•C5) Mounting, including Slides, Preservative Fluids, etc. 

V ill agio — Modern Mounting Methods, continued. 

English Mechanic, Ixxix. (1904) pp. 13, 14, 83-4. 

x ' (6)1 Miscellaneous. 

Iodine-Calcium Nitrate, a new reagent for Cellulose.* — E. L. 
Seeliger recommends the following for the recognition of woody ma- 
terial in paper : Iodine • 1 ; potassium iodide 0*5; calcium nitrate 
(Ca(N0 3 ) 2 +4H 2 0) 30 '0, and. water 50 -0. By this, cellulose in its 
purity is stained light to dark blue, linen dark red, and Avoody material 
and woody fibres (as jute) yellow brown. By this reagent, also, can be 
distinguished the cellulose of conifers from that of other trees — the 
former staining reddish, and the latter blue. The cellulose of conifers, 
if bleached, takes on a violet tinge, and if unbleached, a yellowish one. 

The Agglutinoscope, an Apparatus for facilitating the Macro- 
scopic observation of Agglutination in the Test-tube.f — H. Jaeger has 
devised the following apparatus. Three boards of wood are taken, and 
two of them are joined to the ends of the third by hinges. These two 
meet in the form of a roof-edge, but one of them is made to overtop the 
other by a hand's breadth, the latter resting on a ledge on the former. 
This arrangement screens the daylight from the observer, as he works 
desk-wise at the lower board. Extending transversely across this, is a 
slit 3 mm. wide, and about the length of a test-tube. Underneath the 
slit-opening is fixed an elliptical electric lamp, the long axis of which is 
parallel with the slit, and through which it sends a very bright beam of 
light. The test-tube containing the solution to be studied is held by a 
clamp almost horizontally above the slit, being thereby brightly illumi- 
ned, and the observer, by means of lens fixed to the board, can readily 
see even the smallest clumps. 

Prevention of Pedetic or Brownian Movements.! — For the purpose 
of photography, or for measurement and counting, it is very objection- 
able to have minute particles in constant motion. For preventing this 
movement, J. H. Gage uses a 10 p.c. solution of gelatin, filtered through 

* Zeitsch. angew. Mikrosk., ix. (190:0 pp. 249-50. 

t Ceutralbl. Bakt. V Abt. Orig., xxxv. (1904) pp. 521-3. 

X Trnns. Amer. Micr. So?., xxiv. (1903) p. 21. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



251 



filter-paper. A drop of the solution and a drop of milk are placed on a 
slide and thoroughly mixed. A cover-glass is put on and squeezed down, 
and then the gelatin is set by putting the slide on ice. This method, 
which is quite suitable for other liquids containing particles in suspension, 
gives very satisfactory results. 

Cover-glass Cleaner.* — S. E. Dowdy describes an appliance for 
cleaning cover-glasses as follows. Procure a 1 oz. wooden pill-box, a 
small piece of thick felt and a strip of chamois leather. Cut or punch 
out a sufficient number of circular discs of the felt to fill up the bottom 
part of the box, which should be first smeared inside with seccotine to 
hold the discs in position. Xow line the inner part of the box-lid with 
a piece of chamois leather in the same way, taking care to get it tightly 
stretched across, free from creases. The thickness of felt and leather 
must be so arranged that when the lid is fitted on the box their surfaces 
just touch. In use, place the cover-glass flat on the felt surface, put 
on the box-lid, and, holding the box sidewise, rotate its two portions in 
opposite directions. In this way the thinnest cover-glass may be cleaned 
without risk of breaking. As a rule, fresh cover-glasses are easily freed 
from the thin film of adherent grease by soaking them in a little dilute 
ammonia, afterwards rinsing in distilled water, and either drying at 
once on a piece of silk or placing them in absolute alcohol, which 
removes the water and is itself got rid of by evaporation. 



Metallography, etc. 

Watson and Sons' Metallurgical Auxiliaries.! — 1. Universal 
Metal-holder (fig. 43). — This combines in itself a metal-holder with the 
means of levelling the specimen. Two clamps with rotating jaws grip 





Fig. 43. 



Fig. 44., 



the specimen C, and if its plane is not at right angles to the objective, 
it can be tilted exactly to the desired position by means of the adjusting 
screws A and B, B'. This fitting is usually made to interchange with 
the levelling stage plate on the main stage of the Microscope, and for 
rapid and precise work is of great importance and convenience. 

* English Mechanic. Ixxix. (1904) p. 14. 

t W. Watson & Sons' Catalogue of Micro-Outfits for Metallurgy, pp. 8, 9, 11. 



252 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



2. Levelling Super stage (fig. 44). — It has hitherto been usual for 
this superstage to be made with levelling screws working from the 
upper surface, but it will be seen that this new and improved form 
works from the sides by means of screws operating on wedge-shaped 
pieces of brass, which, slowly tilting, cause the upper part to tilt, and 
reaction is obtained by springs attached to the lower plate and grasping 
the lower one on its upper surface. 

3. Scop Bullseye Stand Condenser (fig. 45). — This is fitted with 
centring adjustments and iris diaphragm. The lens is 2\ in. diameter,. 




Fig. 45. 



and is of a suitable power for work with a vertical illuminator. With it 
a very small point of light of intense brilliance can be secured. 

4. Scop Bullseye with Mechanical Adjustments (fig. 46). ■ — When 
examining metal specimens, constant necessity arises for the minutest 
possible alteration of the position of the bullseye lens, sometimes laterally, 
sometimes vertically. Messrs. Watson have specially constructed this 
bullseye, which optically is the same as the preceding, to meet this 
inconvenience. It is mounted upon a pillar, on which is a rackwork, 
with which adjustments can be made to the finest point by turning the 
pinion milled head. Laterally, similar slight movements can be effected 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



2 53 



T)y means of a spiral screw. The foot is an exceedingly substantial flat 
tripod. 

Elastic Limit of Metals.*— T. K. E., in an abstract of M. Fremont's 
carefully-reasoned article, contributed to the Bulletin de la Societe 
d" 1 Encouragement pour I Industrie Nationale,\ describes the author's 
chief experiments and results as obtained by microscopic methods. He 
states that M. Fremont has proved : — ■ 

1. That the theoretical elastic limit is the mean charge per unit of 
section on which the real elastic limit is locally attained at a point of the 
piece tried. It is not the elastic limit of the metal, but of the particular 
piece of metal under the special conditions employed. 




2. That the proportional elastic limit is still more fortuitous. Owing 
to compensating error, the line showing the relation between stress and 
strain may continue to be fairly straight even above the theoretical limit. 

3. That the apparent limit is the mean charge per unit of section 
when the real elastic limit is reached in all regions where it had not 
previously been reached. 

4. Finally, that there is only one elastic limit of a metal, the " real 
elastic limit," as determined by the method he indicates. The real limit 
alone has the characters of a physical constant. The other so-called 
limits depend upon the appearance of discontinuous deformations, the 



* Nature, No. 1786[(Jan. 21, 1904) pp. 276- 



f September, 190:! 



254 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

presence of which is almost inevitable in practice, although their cause 
is purely accidental. 

Influence of Sulphur and Manganese on Steel.* — J. 0. Arnold 
and G. P. Waterhouse conclude : — 

(1) That sulphide of iron is deadly in its effect upon steel, whilst 
sulphide of manganese is comparatively harmless. 

(2) That the above facts are due to the fusibility, the high contrac- 
tion coefficient, and the tendency of sulphide of iron to form cell-walls 
or enveloping membranes surrounding cells of ferrite, whilst sulphide of 
manganese is much less fusible, segregates whilst the iron is at a high 
temperature, and so collects into rough globules and very seldom into 
meshes. 

(3) That manganese retards the segregation of iron and hardenite,. 
and that what is called pearlite in a normally cooled manganese steel is 
really a mixture of granular pearlite and unsegregated ferrite. 

(4) That the complete segregation of the ferrite in a manganiferous- 
steel can be brought about by very slow cooling, but that such annealing 
injures the mechanical properties of the steel by lowering the maximum 
stress, and the reduction of area per cent, registered by the unannealed 
steel. 

Segregatory and Migratory Habit of Solids in Alloys and in Steel 
below the critical points. f — J. -E. Stead concludes : — 

1. That at certain temperatures near to, but below the eutectic point 
of the iron-phosphorus eutectic, the two constituents when quite solid 
are capable of migrating from one part to another. 

2. That there is evidence that the large crystalline masses in solids; 
have an attractive force for the smaller particles of the same kind, and 
under suitable conditions draw them to themselves (" crystallic attrac- 
tion "). 

3. That in the ordinary or primary eutectic referred to, if the whole 
mass is of eutectic composition — the constituents being equally distri- 
buted and in juxtaposition — the attractions are balanced, and as long as 
the condition of equilibrium is maintained there is no segregation, at 
least not during heating for 48 hours to a point just below the eutectic 
melting point. 

4. That active secondary segregation occurs when the eutectic exists 
in isolated areas, and is surrounded by masses of substance of the same 
kind as one of its constituents. As there is no equilibrium or balance of 
the crystallic attractions between the particles of a like kind, both con- 
stituents draw together or segregate, and cease to be eutectic in character. 

5. That in the secondary eutectic pearlite, at temperatures below the 
eutectic point, there is the same tendency for the constituents to migrate 
and segregate. 

6. That in annealing steel the main softening effect takes place in the 
zone G90° C. to 670° C. It is, however, in this zone that the elastic 
limit of the steel is most rapidly reduced. 



* 



Journ. Iron and Steel Inst., ii. (1901) p. 234 et seq. ; Metallographist, vi. (Oct. 
1903) pp. 302-13(9 figs.). 

t Iron and Steel Metallurgist, vii. (Feb. 1904) pp. 139-59 (10 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 255 

Recent Investigations in Cast Iron.* — A. E. Outerbridge, jim., ha* 
investigated the changes in volume produced by the repeated heating and 
cooling of cast iron. In some cases the expansion amounted to as much 
as 40 ' 98 of the original volume. He thinks that these changes must be 
connected with the mobility of the molecules of the cast iron. 

Hall, J. L. — The Microscope in Engineering: its widening use in studying th3 
Structure of Metals. 

[An interestinn", historical and practical paper.] 

Iron and Steel Metallurgist, vii. (Jan. 1D04), pp. 45-55(7 rigs.). 



* Journ. Franklin. Inst., clvii. (Feb. 1904) pp. 121-40 (3 pis. of six figs.). 



!50 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



MEETING 

Held on the 17th of February, 1904, at 20 Hanover Square, "W. 
Dr. Henry Woodward, F.R.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

g|The Minutes of the Anniversary Meeting of the 20th of January, 
1904, were read and confirmed, and were signed by the Chairman. 



The Chairman said he regretted to have to announce the indis- 
position of the President, who had written to the Council to explain the 
cause of his absence, and asked the Fellows present at the Meeting to 
accept his expression of the great regret he felt at being unable to be 
with them. Dr. Scott had also written to ask him to act as his substitute 
on that occasion, and he had much pleasure in complying with this 
request, although he, of course, greatly regretted the necessity for so 
doing under the circumstances. 



The List of Donations to the Society, exclusive of exchanges and 
reprints, received since the last Meeting, was read, and the thanks of the 
Society were voted to the Donors. 



From 



Thirty-first Annual Report of the Local Government Board, , \ 

1901-2. Supplement in continuation of the Report of the 

Medical Officer for 1901-2. On Lead Poisoning and Water 

Supplies. Vol. ii. (8vo. London, 1903) 

Kitton, F. G., Frederic Kitton, a Memoir. (8vo, London, 1895) ' The Author. 

An Old Microscope by Bate Mr. E. B. Stringer. 



The Local 

Government 

Board. 



The Secretary read a description of an old Microscope by Bate, which 
had been presented to the Society by Mr. Stringer. He then called 
attention to two direct-vision Spectroscopes exhibited in the room, 
and read a description of these instruments by Mr. Peter Heele to the 
Meeting. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to the authors of these com- 
munications. 

Mr. C. L. Curties exhibited and described a portable Microscope, 
which was a modification of one shown some time since, being made with 
a folding stage of larger dimensions than before, and adapted to carry a 
full-size 1 J-in. condenser, and removable mechanical stage. The leather 
•case into which the instrument was packed also contained space for two 
eye-pieces, three objectives, one of Dr. Horder's storage boxes, thin 
glass squares for specimens of blood or sputum collected in making in- 
vestigations whilst travelling, and his aluminium frame for carrying 
the same on the Microscope stage. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 257 

Mr. Stringer's paper, i' On a new method of reading the lines in the 
Spectroscope,' was read by the Secretary, and an instrument fitted as 
described was exhibited. 



The Chairman called the attention of the Fellows present to a number 
of specimens of marine objects mounted by Mr. Waddington, which were 
exhibited in the room under microscopes by Mr. C. L. Curties, to whom 
the thanks of the Society were unanimously voted. 



Mr. E. M. Nelson's papers, 'On the Vertical Illuminator,' and 
' On the influence of the Antipoint on the Microscopic image shown 
graphically,' were, in the absence of the author, read by the Secretary. 

Mr. J. "W. Gordon did not suppose he coidd add anything of interest 
to Mr. Nelson's paper, because it seemed to him to be completely self- 
explanatory. The only thing which could possibly add to its clearness 
would be the figures sent in illustration. (He then drew upon the board 
the hair in question, as seen upon a black and upon a bright ground, and 
pointed out the difference in the apparent breadth as seen under these 
two kinds of illumination.) The peculiar interest in the matter was in 
the fact that the measurements as given in Mr. Nelson's correction table 
and those made by observation practically agreed. He did not like to 
suggest that he could draw these figures accurately enough to serve as 
the basis for the very refined measurements referred to in Mr. Nelson's 
paper. It should be understood that Mr. Nelson had himself compared 
the drawings with the object as seen in the Microscope, and had come to 
the conclusion that they were accurate enough for the purpose. Mr. 
Gordon pointed out the interesting circumstance, that in the middle of 
the dark object they had a bright line, due to the overlapping of the 
antipoints from either side. 

Mr. Eheinberg said he should like to ask Mr. Gordon if he considered 
that the relative results (i.e. the comparative width of the bright image 
on the dark ground to that of the dark image on the bright ground) 
were for practical purposes always the same under different intensities of 
illumination, and whether this had been experimentally tested. It was 
well known that a bright edge always appeared to encroach more or less 
■on neighbouring dark parts, as exemplified by the experiment of holding 
a card between the eye and a small bright source of light, when, accord- 
ing to the brightness of the source, the card appears more or less indented 
at the portion of it just opposite. Having regard to the important 
results established by the paper which had been read, it would be of con- 
siderable interest to know whether the ratio in width between the bright 
and the dark images held good for every intensity of illumination. 

Mr. Beck presumed that this particular hair was of comparatively 
small size ; but he should like to know whether the objective was used 
with its full aperture, or if it was stopped down to increase the size of 
the antipoint, so as to get an exaggerated effect. 

Mr. Gordon said, with regard to Mr. Rheinberg's point, this was one 
of extreme interest and of very great importance, and he thought there 
■could be no doubt that the apparent size of the antipoint was very 



258 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

materially affected by the degree of illumination, varying according as it 
was high or low. (He then by means of diagrams on the board further 
discussed the point, and explained that in Mr. Nelson's table, already 
referred to, the visible antipoint was taken to be rather less than one-fifth 
of the breadth of the theoretical diameter of the false disc, and that this 
result had been experimentally reached with illumination of the intensity 
ordinarily used in high-power microscopy. As regarded the size of the 
aperture, concerning which Mr. Beck had asked a question, he did not 
himself inquire of Mr. Nelson what the adjustment was, but he thought 
that probably Mr. Nelson's paper accompanying the table in the Journal 
of the R.M.S. contained the data asked for. The two drawings appeared 
to be made to the same scale, but the black object appeared to be just 
a little longer than the bright one. This might probably be due to. 
faulty draughtmanship, but, on the other hand, it would naturally happen 
that intruding antipoints from the bright field would, to a small extent, 
affect the visible length as well as the visible breadth of a narrow dark 
object, and so cut it down in one direction as well as in the other. 

The thanks of the Meeting were voted to Mr. Nelson for his commu- 
nications, and to Mr. Gordon for his remarks. 



Mr. Keith Lucas read a paper ' On a Microscope with Geometric- 
Slides,' which he illustrated by a wooden model and by numerous photo- 
graphs shown upon the screen. 

The Chairman, in expressing the thanks of the Society to the author 
of this paper, said that he would no doubt be very glad to hear remarks, 
upon it from any persons present who were so good as to offer any 



suggestions or criticisms. 



Mr. Beck said he should not like to express any opinion as to the- 
merits of this instrument, without first having had an opportunity of 
carefully examining it. He thought, however, that the writer was pro- 
bably in error in supposing that the expense of making dovetailed bars 
was much greater than that of parallel tubes, because with the machinery 
used for the purpose dovetails could be made absolutely accurate, and at 
a cost which was not as great as that of parallel tubes, the latter being 
difficult to make perfectly true. He failed, however, to understand why 
this arrangement should be called "geometric slides," as mechanical 
equivalents of the geometric slides were in use in all directions. 

Mr. J. E. Barnard thought the subject of this paper opened up a 
question Of great interest, for he felt sure that unless anyone had tried 
an instrument made on the geometric slide principle, it would be im- 
possible for him to appreciate the great advantage which it offered. He 
had not himself applied this to the Microscope, but he had done so to a 
table spectroscope, and he felt sure that if any maker would take up this 
method of construction for the Microscope, it would be found of very 
great advantage. 

Mr. Gordon said he could understand that Fellows of the Society 
who were competent to do so would feel a little delicacy in making any 
critical remarks upon a paper of this kind. There were, however, one or 
two points which struck him, and upon which he should be glad to have 
some further information. In the first place, he did not understand how 
the coarse adjustment was held clamped in the place in which it was put. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 259 1 

The propelling power was obtained by a steel wire passing round a shaft, 
but he did not know what was the strain upon this, as it appeared to 
depend upon a spring which kept it taut. If so, he thought it could not 
sustain any considerable weight of accessory apparatus — such, for ex- 
ample, as polarising and analysing prisms. Another point was as to the 
arrangement made for the focussing screw of the substagc. Mr. Lucas 
said this was in a very convenient position, and, if regard was had to the 
substage motion only, that was no doubt so ; but it seemed to him that 
if they wanted to mount either a mechanical stage or a revolving stage 
upon the fixed stage, the substage screw would be inconveniently in the 
way. He should like to add his personal tribute to the ingenuity of the 
design, and to say how much interest he had himself felt in the applica- 
tion of this idea. He thought the supporting pillar looked rather weak, 
for although the instrument was a very heavy one, the pillar was of a 
somewhat narrow " scantling," and the rigidity of a Microscope stand 
was not so much a question of strength against heavy strains, but of 
strength against vibration, and, judging by the construction, he should 
think this instrument was likely to prove a little sensitive to such dis- 
turbances. 

The Chairman was sure that it would be felt by all that Mr. Lucas 
was a very bold man to have brought a Microscope of his own construc- 
tion to a meeting at which so many experts were present, and it spoke 
well for his courage that he was not afraid to submit it for criticism. 
He begged to thank the author for coming that evening to exhibit this 
new instrument and to explain its merits so fully, and he felt sure that 
the remarks made upon it Avould not be without value, either for the 
writer of the paper or those who had heard it read. 

In reply to the questions which had been raised, Mr. Lucas pointed 
out that the form of slide adopted in lathes was no guide to the best 
form for the Microscope, the geometric principle being necessarily 
sacrificed in the former owing to the need for large surfaces to meet the 
heavy stresses involved. With regard to the friction between the wire 
and barrel of the coarse adjustment, the tension on the latter was, in the 
case of the instrument before them, between 5 lb. and G lb., whilst the 
breaking strain of the wire was ~1'1 lb. It would not, therefore, be 
possible to further increase the tension of the wire Avithout using one 
which was thicker, and a thicker wire would pass its elastic limit owing 
to the small size of the barrel. It was, however, amply sufficient to 
support any weight which the tube might have to carry. The coarse- 
adjustment tube was extremely light, so that with any ordinary apparatus 
attached to it the weight would not be great. He had tested it by 
setting it up upon a table at which he was working, and had focussed it 
carefully with an immersion objective of 1 • 4 N. A, and after leaving it 
for five hours under these conditions, he found that the focus had re- 
mained perfectly unaltered. He might also point out, that as regarded 
the position of the focussing screw of the substage, this was such that no 
part of it which came down to the level of the stage projected further 
forward than the front of the limb. The screw could not, therefore, 
interfere with anything which might be placed on the stage. As to the 
strength of the pillar, it was made of solid brass, \\ in. by % in., which, 
he thought should be sufficient to prevent vibration. 



260 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

The Chairman said that the Council had given their consideration to 
the suggestion made at the last Meeting with regard to giving early 
notice to the Fellows as to what would take place at the succeeding 
Meeting, and had decided to accede to the proposal, by arranging that if 
those Fellows who were desirous of receiving the information monthly 
would send stamped envelopes to the Assistant Secretary, addressed to 
themselves, he would send them as much information as he possessed at 
the time of posting. It was not always possible to say beforehand all 
that would come before the Meeting, as it often happened that interest- 
ing exhibits' or short notes were- only sent in at the last moment. It 
was assumed that only a small number of the Fellows would need to have 
this information sent to them, but in any case the experiment would be 
tried. 

i Mr.- Vezey said it might be well to remind the Fellows that announce- 
ments of the subjects for the Meetings, as far as known, were made in 
several of the daily and weekly papers. 



The following Objects, Instruments, etc., were exhibited : — 

Messrs. C. Baker : — A New Portable Microscope. 

Mr. C. L. Curties, for Mr. H. J. Waddington : — Protozoa : Acinetas,]). 
.(Marine), Xoctiluca miliar is. Ccelenterata : Cladonema radiatum, Oono- 
thyrcm sp., Tar r is sp. Polyzoa : \Bowerban1cia sp., Pedicellina sp., 
Lopltopus erystallinus. Crustacea : Gaprella erethizon, Mysis sp., show- 
ing otocysts and pigment. Tunicata : Perophera Listen'. 

Dr. R. G. Hebb : — Two woodcuts in illustration of Mr. Nelson's 
paper ' On the Influence of the Antipoint on the Microscopic Image 
shown Graphically.' 

Mr. Peter Heele : — A Direct- Vision Spectroscope incase, and a larger 
form on stand. 

Mr. Keith Lucas : — Nine Lantern Slides, in illustration of his paper 
4 On a Microscope with Geometric Slides ' ; a model illustrating the 
principle of the geometric slide ; and a Microscope as described in his 
paper. 

Mr. C. F. Rousselet : — Statoblasts of Freshwater Polyzoon, Pectina- 
. tell a magnified, (Leidy). 

Mr. E. B. Stringer : — A Direct-vision Spectroscope with an attach- 
ment for reading the lines of the Spectrum. 



New Fellows. — The following were elected Ordinary Fellows : — 
Messrs W. Griffiths and F. A. Mason. 



Prof. J. D. Everett writes us as follows : — 

I regret to find that the letter e has been omitted in lines ?> and 5 
of page 27 of the February Number, in which my paper appeared. 
The omission is so obvious that I cannot think how I overlooked it in 
correcting the proof. The correct formulas are : 

2 77 • , 2 7T . ■ , • s 

€ sin a and — — e (sin a -J- sin y) 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 261 



MEETING 

Held on the 16th of March, 1004, at 20 Hanover Square, W. 
Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., etc., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Meeting of February 17, 11)04, were read and 
confirmed, and were signed by the President. 



The following Donation to the Society was announced, and the 
thanks of the Society voted to the donors. 

From 
Hutton, F. W., Index Faunae Novae Zealandice. (8vo, London, 1904) TJte Puhlisherg. 



Prof. A. E. Wright communicated the purport of his paper, ' On 
some new methods of measuring the magnifying powers of the Micro- 
scope, and of its separate elements,' illustrating his remarks with a 
lantern diagram of a new piece of apparatus termed the Eikonometer, 
and by numerous drawings on the board. 

Mr. J. W. Gordon said this paper had no doubt conveyed to most of 
the Fellows present a very comprehensive view of the available methods 
of ascertaining the magnifying power of the Microscope, and they would! 
certainly have appreciated the extreme simplicity of some of these. But 
with regard to the point which Prof. Wright had touched upon in dis- 
cussing the second method described — he adverted to the question as to 
at what point it was proper to divide up the Microscope into sections for 
obtaining the separate values of each — Prof. Wright's view seemed to be 
that there was no need to pay any attention to the view plane of the 
image itself, and it seemed perfectly clear that for the purpose of arriving 
at the magnifying power it is unimportant at what stages they made the 
rests in dividing up the instrument into parts. Prof. Wright said it was 
convenient to consider the objective by itself, and then the eye-lens and 
the field-lens, and to estimate their magnifying powers and to put these 
together. It seemed to him it was convenient also for another reason, 
that they knew very approximately what was the power of the objective, 
and they were usually much more at home with this than with the 
ocular, which was a much stranger portion of the instrument than the 
objective which they had more frequently to make choice of. On the 
other hand, it occurred to him that there were certain conveniences in 
being able to determine the magnifying power in the view plane of the 
instrument. The reason was, that for some purposes, especially for the 
purposes of photography, they had to get rid of the magnifying power of 
the eye-lens altogether, and in that case it was a manifest advantage to 
be able to tell the magnifying power of the real image formed in the 
instrument itself. 

With regard to the new instrument which had been shown to them 



262 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

that evening, he had been afforded an opportunity of making a rough 
experiment with it, and so far as he had tried it the results appeared 
to be strictly exact. One did not always realise the exactness with 
which lenses were made, and he had been surprised to find with what 
precision the result was obtained. He should like to ask with what 
degree of precision it was capable to obtain results by different methods 
which Prof. Wright had described to them — how in this respect the 
various methods compared with one another. He had listened with 
very great interest to this communication, and was very much obliged to 
Prof. Wright for bringing it before the Society. 

Mr. Beck said he wished to join Mr. Gordon in thanking Prof. 
Wright for bringing the subject before the Society, and he had no doubt 
there were many points in it which were entirely new to those present. 
'There was one suggestion he should like to make, and that was that 
for the most accurate measurement the micrometer might have a 
ground-glass surface, because a lens of this kind would be found to have 
a considerable depth of focus. In a somewhat similar apparatus used 
for another purpose, the micrometer is engraved on a mother-of-pearl 
surface. They would, of course, naturally appreciate the anatomical 
simile which had been applied to the Microscope. He dissented, how- 
ever, from the conclusion drawn, because microscopists had a way of 
beheading a Microscope, and of putting the head of one on the body of 
another, and also of extending the trunk ; it was, therefore, essential that 
they should obtain the magnifying power of the portions into which they 
divided it, that is to say, the magnifying power of the complete eye- 
piece and the magnifying power of the object-glass, because if too much 
power were put into the eye-piece, and too little into the objective, they 
would get inferior resolution. The greater part of the work should be 
done by the objective and not by the eye-piece to obtain the best results, 
and they must have the means of knowing not only the magnifying 
powers of the two ends of a system, but also the length of the body. 
There was no difficulty in giving the standard power to the eye-piece, 
which always gave the same power under all circumstances, but with 
regard to the object-glass this was not so easy, because it was giving 
different magnifying powers according to the length of the body. Any 
method that tried to give fixed magnifying power for an object-glass 
led one into a hopeless quagmire when different forms of eye-pieces 
and tube-lengths were employed. With regard to the instrument which 
had been described, he could not of course judge fairly of its merits 
without having used it, but it appeared to l)e most excellent for taking 
the magnifying power of the complete instrument, though there was 
likely to be an error in taking the magnifying power of the object-glass 
separately. It also appeared to have the great merit of being a very 
rapid and easy means of measuring the actual size of a microscopic 
object. He felt sure the Fellows present must also have been extremely 
interested in the diffraction method which had been brought before them 
by Prof. Wright. 

Prof. Wright expressed his thanks to the Society for the very 
cordial manner in which his remarks had been received. In reply to 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 263 

Mr. Gordon's question as to what degree of accuracy was obtainable by 
his arrangement, he was unable to say exactly, not having given special 
attention to the point. The question was obviously one as to whether 
;any practical difficulty presented itself in connection with the construction 
of the apparatus proposed, or in connection with the making of the 
necessary observations. With regard to the latter point, it would, he 
thought, be clear to everyone who tried the apparatus that there was 
no difficulty in making the readings with exactness. With regard to 
the former point, he would only say that, working as he had been doing 
with diffraction gratings constructed by Messrs. Sanger Shepherd, and 
with an eikonometer constructed by Messrs. Beck, he had found the 
error in the measurements he had made was one which might be 
altogether neglected. He had no doubt that the ground-glass screen 
which had been suggested by Mr. Conrad Beck would get over any 
difficulty in the matter of depth of focus, but he had not had practical 
experience of such a difficulty. He still, after hearing Mr. Beck, was of 
opinion that the balance of practical convenience was in favour of the 
method of ascribing a fixed magnifying power to the objective, and a 
variable magnifying power to the ocular in the case where the tube-length 
was subject to modification. 

The President then proposed a hearty vote of thanks to Prof. 
Wright for his extremely important and interesting communication, 
which being put to the Meeting was carried unanimously. 



A Note by Mr. E. B. Stringer, ' On the Separation of Ultra-Violet 
Light,' was read by Dr. Hebb. 

On the motion of the President, the thanks of the Society were voted 
to the author. 

Mr. A. Platters exhibited upon the screen a series of about sixty 
hand-painted lantern slides illustrating botanical histology. These slides 
were photomicrographs taken from the actual sections under the Micro- 
scope, and coloured to represent the results of staining ; the great beauty 
of many of the sections shown, and the fidelity and accuracy of the 
colouring, were greatly admired and appreciated by the Meeting. 

The President said that anyone who, like himself, had spent a good 
deal of time over the anatomy of plants, could not fail to be greatly 
pleased with this extremely interesting exhibition. A number of points 
of great botanical interest had been brought before them. The sections 
from which the slides were taken must have been exceedingly good ones, 
and the manner of showing the effect of double staining was most 
successful. The accurate colouring of the photographs must require not 
only great skill, but also considerable botanical knowledge. He noticed 
one section in which the cambium appeared to have taken up a different 
stain from the phloem, and he should like to know how this result was 
obtained ; he should also like to ask under what circumstances the false 
annual rings shown in a slide of pines were produced. The most 
beautiful of the whole series was certainly the one showing the pollen- 



264 PROCEEDINGS OF THE -SOCIETY. 

tube of the wheat on the stigma — he did not think this had been' 
demonstrated before on the screen, so as to show the double staining. 

Mr. Flatters thought the reason for the difference in staining was 
because the phloem was vascular tissue, which took up the malachite 
green very readily, whilst the cambium was cellulose. It stained much' 
deeper in some plants than in others, and also in the same plant in 
different stages of growth. Specimens collected during the next few 
weeks, when the new tissue was forming, would be found to take up the- 
stain more rapidly than those collected in December, so that to stain 
properly it was necessary to know the age of a section and the time of 
year it was taken. Then they could not stain these just what they liked, 
each would select its own stain and take up what it required, and then 
the colour had to be reduced in strength until the required tint was 
obtained. Tissue took up stain much more readily than celloidin. 

The thanks of the Society were, on the motion of the President, 
cordially voted to Mr. Flatters for his exceedingly interesting and' 
beautiful exhibition. 



The following Objects, Instruments, etc., were exhibited : — 

Mr. Abraham Flatters — 

1. Entire plant of Duckweed, Lemna minor. Showing root-caps and 
developing roots from the secondary platelets. 

2. Transverse section of root, Pinus sylvestris. Cut ^vim Stain,. 
hasmatoxylin and safranin. 

3. Transverse section of root of Buttercup, Ranunculus acris. Cut 
r l 6 Stain, hematoxylin and gossypimine (cotton red). The starch 
grains having taken up the gossimine. 

4. Transverse section of root of Yellow Iris, Iris pseudo-acdrus* 
Cut tItj Stain, hamiatoxylin and safranin. Secondary rootlet is 
being developed from three xylem bundles. 

5. Transverse section of root of Zea mays (Indian Corn). Cut - (i l T} 
Stain, carmine and malachite green. Throwing off several secondary 
rootlets. 

G. Transverse section through radical end of a grain of Barley.. 
Showing the development of primary and four secondary rootlets, 
surrounded by nucleated tissue of the endosperm. 

7. The primary of tap-root from the last preparation. Enlarged tc* 
show the disposition of cells to form vascular system of root. 

8. Longitudinal section through apex of aerial root of Monstera 
deliciosa. Cut 7 oVo by the cold paraffin method. Stained with brazilin, 
to show nucleated tissue and elongated or needle raphide cells. 

9. Enlargement of No. 8 to show the raphides (in situ). 

10. Transverse section of hypocotyl of Bean, Faba vulgaris. Cut 
7^, immediately below cotyledons. Stain, carmine and malachite 
green. 

11. Transverse section of stem of Clover, Trifolium repens. Cut 



7TOT5" 



Stain, carmine and malachite green. 



12. Transverse section of stem of Bog Bean, Menyanthes trifoliate.. 
Aquatic type. Cut ? £tj Stain, carmine and malachite green. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 265 

13. Transverse section of stem of "Wound-wort, Stachys sylvatica. 
Cut Tt ^ Stain, carmine and malachite green. 

14. Transverse section of stem of Birthwort, Aristolochia clematilis. 
Cut irro- Development of primary and secondary bundles. Stain, 
carmine and malachite green. 

15. Transverse section of stem of Dracsena, Cordyline rubra. Cut 
t^o To illustrate the formation of bundles from Cambium zone. 
Stain, carmine and malachite green. 

16. Portion of a transverse section of stem of Lime-tree, Tilia 
europcea. Cut t^W Stain, carmine and malachite green. 

17. Longitudinal tangential section passing through bast area of 
last slide. Showing bast fibres and connective tissues. Cut -j-^ 
Stain, hematoxylin and safranin. 

18. Longitudinal tangential section passing through xylem elements 
of same. Cut ^V Stained as last slide. 

19. Transverse section of stem of Sunflower, Helianthus annum. 
Cut 4^5- Showing primary and secondary bundles. Stain, carmine 
and green. 

20. Longitudinal tangential section of last slide, passing through the 
inner margin of a primary bundle. Cut T ^V<r Stained as above. 

21. Longitudinal median section through apex of developing pine- 
stem. Showing meristem tissue in active state of division. Cut TrgVo 
Stain, brazilin. 

22. Transverse section of stem of Pinits, one inch below growing 
point. Cut ToVir Stain, aniline blue and gossypimine. Showing 
formation of xylem plates to primary bark. 

23. Transverse section of same stem four inches below growing point. 
Showing commencement of secondary thickening, and development of a 
lateral branch. Stained as above. 

24. Longitudinal (radial) section of same, throwing off a lateral 
branch. 

25. Transverse section of a resin passage of same. Showing the 
thickened strengthening band of sclerenchymatous tissue. 

26. Transverse section of Old Pine Wood (timber), after completion 
of secondary thickening. 

27. Radial longitudinal section of same. 

28. Tangential longitudinal section of same. 

29. Transverse section of stem of Indian Corn, Zea mays. Cut ■$%■$ 
Stain, carmine and green. 

30. Longitudinal section of same. Cut -^^ Stained as above. 
Passing through the annular vessel. 

31. Transverse section of a bundle rhizome of Fern, Pteris aauilina. 
Cut 4^ Stain, carmine and green. 

32. Longitudinal section of same. 

33. Transverse section of stem near apex, Horsetail, Eyuisetum 
telmatia. Cut yi^ Stain, carmine and green. 

34. The same. Enlarged bundle. 

35. Transverse section of vegetative bud of same. Showing develop- 
ment of leaves from the axis. 

April 20th, 1904. t 



266 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

36. Longitudinal section of apex of stem passing through apical cell. 

37. Transverse section of stem of Wheat. Hollow type. Cut T l- T 
Stain, carmine and green. 

38. Transverse section of stem of Wheat. Solid type. Cut ^J^ 
Stain, carmine and green. 

39. Entire flower of Wheat. Stain, carmine, x 10 diam. 

40. One shaft of stigma of Wheat, covered with pollen-grains. One 
pollen-tube penetrating stigma. 

41. The same pollen-tube more highly magnified. 

42. Longitudinal section of a grain of Wheat (unstained). Cut ^J^ 

43. Transverse section of portion of above, more highly magnified. 

44. Longitudinal section of embryo of Wheat. Cut T2 V^ Stain, 
brazilin. 

45. Plumule of last slide, more highly magnified. 

46. Radicle of same, ditto. 

47. Embryo-sac, with suspensor cells, of Wheat, before fertilisation. 

48. The same, after fertilisation. Showing disposition of cells to 
form new grain. 

49. Transverse section of leaf of Orchis, Cypripedium sp. Cut -j^ 
Stain, carmine and green. 

50. Transverse section of leaf of Pine, Pinus sp. Cut ^^ Sto- 
mata, resin passages, etc. 

51. Cuticle of leaf of Araucaria imbricata. Stained with brazilin. 

52. Sting from midrib of young Nettle. Stain, carmine and green. 

53. Transverse section of phylodium of Acacia decurrens (Wattle 
Bark). Cut 7 oW Stain, aniline-picrate and gossypimine. 

54. Transverse section of leaf-bud of Beech-tree (celloidinised). 
Cut -t-jtj- Showing arrangement of leaves in embryo. 

55. Transverse section of leaf-bud of Ash-tree (celloidinised). Cut 
r; J-tf. Showing arrangement of young leaves, leaf -scales, etc. 

56. Transverse section of leaf-bud of Sycamore (celloidinised). Cut 
T £ 7 . Showing arrangement of leaves in embryo. 

57. Longitudinal section of stem, leaf -stalk, and leaf -bud of Syca- 
more. Cut ^--J-jj Stain, carmine and green. Showing the "absciss 
layer " of cork-cells, cutting of the leaf -stalk. 

58. Transverse section of flower-bud of Poppy, Papavcr rhaas (cel- 
loidinised). Cut ^o Passing through base of stigmatic cap and apex 
of ovary. 

59. Flower of Dandelion. Showing bud in dotted outline, — the 
stage from which sections are prepared. 

60. Transverse section of flower-bud of Dandelion (prepared by the 
celloidinising method). Cut T ^ Stain, carmine. The fine un- 
stained elements surrounding the florets is the pappus. Note the 
unlocking of the surrounding bracts, by the expansion of the bud x on 
slide. 

Prof. A. E. Wright. — Diagram : Construction of the Eikonometer. 

Exhibit 1. — Arrangement for measuring the magnifying power of 
the Microscope by means of the eikonometer. A Microscope focussed 
upon a stage micrometer, and, placed in position on the top of the 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 267 

ocular, an eikonometer furnishing an image of the stage micrometer 
focussed upon a measuring scale. 

Exhibit 2. — Arrangement for measuring the magnifying power of 
the ocular. A Microscope with dismounted objective, with a measuring 
rule placed athwart the open extremity of the barrel ; and another 
measuring rule disposed in the plane of the Ramsden disk of the eye- 
lens. 

Exhibit 3. — Arrangement for measuring the magnifying power of a 
pocket-lens by the aid of the eikonometer. A Zeiss pocket-lens magni- 
fying 6 diameters is disposed so as to give, at its full focal distance, an 
image of a millimetre scale disposed upon the table. Arranged above 
•the pocket-lens an eikonometer showing the. image of the millimetre 
scale covering G (millimetre) divisions of the measuring scale. 

Exhibit 4. — Arrangement for measuring the magnifying power of a 
lens by means of a median intercostal line developed by the aid of a 
diffraction grating. 

A. A diffraction grating ruled 400 lines to the inch is taken before 
the eye, and is held with its rulings parallel to the lines inscribed upon 
■a sheet of paper placed at 10 in. from the eye. The lines on the paper 
being in each case ruled in pairs placed at different distances apart, 
there is furnished by each of the lines (except in the case presently to 
be considered) a series of six lines, viz. two principal or dioptric images 
each flanked on either side by two diffraction images. In the case where 
the object lines are placed at an appropriate distance apart, the centrally 
disposed diffraction images are shown to coincide in position, giving 
■origin to a single conspicuous median intercostal line, instead of, as in 
the case where the lines are placed too near together, or too 'far apart, 
two separate and less conspicuous median lines. The distance between 
the object lines which furnish the conspicuous single median intercostal 
line is measured off by means of a millimetre rule. 

B. Everything is maintained in position except in the following 
respects, (a) A system of more closely interspaced paired lines is sub- 
stituted for that previously employed, {b) The lens whose magnifying 
power is to be measured is taken in hand, and is so disposed as to yield 
the largest possible erect image of the object lines. A search is then 
instituted among these paired lines until a pair is found which yields 
a single conspicuous median intercostal line. 

By the aid of a millimetre scale the interval between the pair of 
lines which yields the intercostal line in question is now measured. 

The quotient obtained by dividing the linear distance measured in 
A into the linear distance measured in B corresponds to the magnifying 
power of the lens. In the case of the Zeiss pocket-lens ( x C diameters) 
employed, the quotient is found to be 6. 

Exhibit 5. — Arrangement for measuring the magnifying power of 
the Microscope by means of the median intercostal line. 

A Microscope is focussed upon an Abbe diffraction grating, the 
wider interspaced lines of the central ruling appearing in the field of 
"view. 

A diffraction grating ruled 400 lines to the inch is interposed 
between the eye and the eye-lens of the Microscope, and the grating 
is rotated until the diffraction images of the object lines fuse together 



268 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

to make in each case a central intercostal line. The orientation of the 
grating being maintained unchanged, a series of paired lines is now 
viewed with the unaided eye, the search being continued until a pair of 
lines is found which again vields a median intercostal line. 

The linear interval between the paired lines in question is measured 
and is divided by the linear interspace between the lines on the Abbe 
diffraction grating. The quotient gives the magnifying power of the 
Microscope. 

New Fellows. — The following were elected Ordinary Fellows : — 
Messrs. Frederic John Cheshire, Kenneth Weldon Coadby, Cyril Francis 
Hill, Dr. John Eennie, and Rev. Carlos Zimmermann. 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY. 

JUNE 1904. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 



VI. — The Influence, of the Antipoint on the Microscopic Image 

shoivn Graphically. 

By Edward M. Nelson. 

CRead February 17th, 1904.) 

It was stated in the Journal* that if one of the minute spinous hairs 
on the delicate membrane of a blow-fly's tongue were examined 
on a bright ground, the image would present an unreal tenuity and 
sharpness, whereas if the same hair were viewed with dark-ground 
illumination, it would have a swollen 
or thick appearance; also, that the 
difference between the two images of 
the same object was caused by anti- 
points, and that the true image lay 
between these two pictures ; a table 
was also given showing the amount 
to be added to the micrometric mea- 
surement of an image on a bright 
ground to bring it up to its true 
value. 

Mr. Gordon has made a most 
excellent drawing of these two 
images (figs. 47 and 48); a careful 
examination of them will bring the 
importance of the antipoint effect 
home to those microscopists who do 
not care to wade through physical optics and dry mathematical 
tormu se. These drawings have been most carefully compared 
with the original, as seen in the Microscope, and were found to be 





Fig. 11 



Fig. 48. 



June 15th, 190J+ 



* Journal R.M.S., 1903, p. 579. 



U 



270 Transactions of the Society. 

sufficiently exact to be made a basis for measurement (see calcula- 
tion below *). 

It is interesting to note that the breadth of the hairs in these 
drawings is in the ratio of 65 to 45, and that by equating this 
ratio to the value given in the table, the true size of the hair agrees 
with the actual measurement of the apparent size of the hair, viz. 
•000033 in., by an oil immersion -fa, with a W.A. of *9 + the 
correction given in the table. 

Thus : -000033 + -000004 = -000037 = ^j^i in -> tllis bein § 
12 p.c. greater than its apparent size. 

A difference in the apparent size of objects, when viewed on a 
bright or a dark ground, was recognised many years ago, but neither 
the absorption nor the diffraction images of the Abbe theory afforded 
the least clue to an explanation of the phenomenon. But at last 
the riddle has been unlocked by Mr. Gordon's admirable antipoint 
theorem, which clears up this, as well as other hitherto unanswered 
questions, in the interpretation of microscopical images. 

Since this paper was read Mr. Merlin has most kindly measured, 
with his own apparatus, a hair upon another blow-fly's tongue, 
both on dark and bright grounds, with the following results : — 

Dark ground, W.A. -858= -0000418 m. 
Bright „ „ -570 = -0000287 in. 

Equating from these data the size of the antipoint and applying 
the correction, we find the thickness of the hair to be -0000366 in. 

* Data : — (1) From Mr. Gordon's drawings on bright and dark grounds, with 
^-in. objective : W.A. = "45. The measurements are 4i and 6J respectively, by a 
certain scale which need not be specified. 

(2) Measurement of apparent size of hair, dark on bright ground, with oil immer- 
sion T \j (W.A. = -9)= -000033 in. 

Let a = actual size of hair. 

6 = apparent size at -45 W.A.J Mcasuml Jaik on bright gromul . 

x = visible antipoint at ■ 9 W.A. 
2x = „ „ -45 W.A. 

Then a = b + 2x \ 

a = B+ x f 
x = B- b = -000033 -6 . . . . (i) 

As the drawings measure G£ and 4J, the size of the antipoint is half the difference 
between them, and therefore on this scale 

and x — J, 

but b = 4£, therefore b = 9a;. 

Putting this value in (i) x — • 000033 - Ox 

x = -0000033, 
and « = B + x = -000033 + "0000033 = -0000363. 

By table on p. 581 Journal E.M.S. 1903, 

a= -000033+ -000004 = -000037. 
T he difference being -0000007. 



Hie Influence of the Antijpoint, By E. M. Nelson. 271 

With my own apparatus the identical hair drawn by Mr. 
Gordon (figs. 47 and 48) gives these results : — 

Dark ground, W.A. '97 = -0000394 in. 
Bright „ „ '47= '0000275 m. 

The thicknessof this hair obtained from these data is * 0000356in. 

The antipoint value for W.A. 1*0 derived from Mr. Merlin's 

measurement of the hair is '000004486, that from my own 

measurement is * 000003776, and that published in my " Table " 

Journ. E.M.S., 1903, p. 581) is -00000404— this last being obtained 

from data given by the extinction of a " black dot." 

The mean of these three values, viz. ■ 00000410, may be accepted 
as being very near a true value for practical use, and the accompany- 
ing Table is calculated upon this assumption. 

It is remarkable that there should be so close an agreement in 
the values of antipoints calculated from data obtained from such 
different sources. 

The amplifier described by Mr. Merlin was used in the measure- 
ment of the hair. 



Table showing the Amount of Correction to be applied to the 
Apparent Measurement of Minute Microscopic Objects. 

The correction for objects measured on a bright ground is + 

dark „ — 



W.A. 


White Light, 
45,300.* 


Screen, 
50,000.* J 


Photography, 
63,500.* 




inches. 


M 


inches. 


M 


inches. 


M 


•1 


•0000410 


1-041 


•0000371 


•942 


• 0000292 


0-741 


•2 


» 205 


0-521 


„ 185 


•470 


„ 146 


•371 


•3 


„ 137 


•34S 


„ 124 


•315 


•00000973 


•247 


•4 


„ 103 


•262 


•00000928 


•236 


„ 730 


•185 


•5 


•00000820 


•208 


„ 742 


188 


„ 584 


•148 


•6 


„ 683 


•173 


„ 618 > 


157 


„ 487 


•124 


•7 


„ 586 


•149 


,, 530 


135 


„ 417 


•106 


•8 


„ 513 


•130 


„ 464 


118 


„ 365 


•0927 


•o 


„ 456 


•116 


„ 412 


105 


„ 324 


•0823 


1-0 


„ 410 


•104 


., 371 


0942 


„ 292 


•0741 


1-1 


,, 373 


•0947 


„ 337 


0856 


„ 265 


•0673 


1-2 


„ 342 


•0868 


„ 309 


0785 


„ 243 


•0617 


1-3 


„ 315 


•0800 


„ 285 


0724 


„ 225 


•0571 


1-4 


„ 293 


•0744 


„ 265 


0673 


„ 209 


•0531 


1-5 


„ 273 


•0693 


„ 247 


0627 


„ 195 


•0495 



* Number of waves to the inch. 



U 2 



272 



VII. — On a Microscope ivith Geometric Slides. 
Bv Keith Lucas. 

[(Read February Yith, 1904.) 

The instrument with which this paper deals represents an attempt 
to replace the usual planed slides of the Microscope by geometric 
slides. The application can hardly be considered new, since geo- 
metric slides are commonly used on measuring Microscopes, yet I 
am not aware of the existence of any other Microscope suitable 
for biological work in which such slides are used. 

The arrangement of geometric slide which has been found most 
suitable for the focussing movements is a tube, concentric with the 
optic axis of objective and eye-piece, sliding in two V-guides placed 
near its extreme ends. This arrangement has the advantage of 
ensuring that rotation of the tube within its V-guides shall not 
displace the optic axis ; consequently the means adopted for pre- 
venting this rotation may be of the roughest nature, may, in fact, 
be only sufficient to prevent such a degree of rotation as would 
damage the focussing mechanism. Unfortunately the necessity of 
conforming to the proportions of Microscopes commonly in use 
has rendered such an arrangement impossible in the case of the 
slide which carries the condensing lenses. In this case the axis of 
rotation of the guide-tube has been considerably displaced from the 
optic axis. 

The photograph reproduced in fig. 49 will serve to indicate the 
general arrangement of the instrument. 

The main casting, or limb (A, figs. 49-53), is carried further 
forward than is usual, so as to partially embrace the large body- 
tube (B, figs. 49, 50, 51), and carries four projections, two at its 
upper, and two at its lower end, which form the V-guides, in which 
that tube slides. This slide forms the coarse adjustment. The 
means adopted to hold the tube against its four guides, and to 
prevent it from rotating about the optic axis, will be considered later. 
The large body-tube carries two rings, one (C, figs. 50, 51) inside 
its upper, and one (C, fig. 51) inside its lower end. Each of these 
rings has two projections upon it, against which the long narrow 
inner tube (D, figs. 49, 50, 51) is held. Thus are formed the 
V-guides of the coarse adjustment. 

The two upper guides of the fine adjustment, and of the coarse 
adjustment, and the two concentric tubes which slide in these guides, 
are shown in fig. 50. The substage is carried by a long stout tube 



Oil a Microscope with Geometric Slides. By Keith Lucas, 273 

(E, figs. 49, 52), which passes up inside the limb, and has two 
guides at the level of the stage, and two, consisting of adjustable 
screws (F, figs. 49, 52, 53), at a higher level. 

The detailed arrangement of the body tubes and focussing 
mechanism is shown in fig. 51, which is a vertical section passing 
through the limb and tubes. The long coarse-adjustment tube (D) 
passes right through the shorter and wider fine-adjustment tube (B). 
At each end of the latter there is a ring (C, C), which carries the 
guides of the coarse-adjustment tube. Between the two tubes 
there lies a long leaf-spring (G), whose middle point presses back- 




Fig. 49. — Side Elevation of Microscope. 

A, limb; B, rine-adjustnieut tube; D, coarse-adjustment tube; E, guide- 
tube of substage ; F, aligning screws of substage ; L, ring carrying bear- 
ings of coarse-adjustment barrel ; O, nut retaining fine-adjustment 
tube against guides ; S, substage bracket ; T, focussing screw of sub- 
stage ; W, spring retaining substage ring against centring screws. 



wards upon the coarse-adjustment tube, holding it firmly against 
its four guides. A piece of smaller tube (H), fixed parallel to the 
back of the coarse-adjustment tube, and passing through a slot in 
the upper bearing-ring, prevents the tube from rotating about its 



long a 



The next point for consideration is the means adopted for 
moving the coarse-adjustment tube to obtain focus. This is effected 
by means of a wire and barrel (J and K, fig. 51). The two ends of 
the wire are anchored to the extreme ends of the coarse-adjustment 



274 Transactions of the Society. 

tube, and lie inside the two small tubes which are attached to the 
back of that tube. The upper one of these small tubes has already 
been mentioned as the guide which prevents rotation of the coarse- 
adjustment tube. The lower end of the wire is fixed rigidly, the 
upper through a spring held in tension. At about its middle point 
the wire takes one turn round the cylindrical barrel. The barrel 
has its bearings in a ring (L, fig. 51), which embraces the large fine- 
adjustment tube. To the outer ends of the barrel are screwed the 
milled heads of the coarse adjustment. The friction of the wire 
upon the barrel is sufficient to cause the coarse-adjustment tube to 
move up or down when the barrel is rotated. The reasons for 
adopting this device in preference to the usual rack-and-pinion are 
two : first, the relatively small cost of manufacture, and, secondly, 
the fact that its action upon the tube is only a direct pull in the 
direction of the desired movement. It exerts no side thrust, such 
as is caused by a rack-and-pinion. The absence of teeth causes the 
motion to be extremely smooth and regular. The wire is made of 
hardened steel, silver-plated, and is protected, when the instrument 
is put together, by the small tubes in which it lies. 

The four guides in the limb, in which the fine-adjustment tube 
slides, have been already described. It remains only to deal with 
the means by which the tube is held against those guides, and 
prevented from rotating about its long axis. Both these ends are 
secured by means of a rod (M, fig. 51), hinged to the ring which 
surrounds the fine-adjustment tube, and passing backwards through 
a hole in the back part of the limb. A spring (N, fig. 51), held in 
compression between the limb and a nut (0, figs. 51, 53) screwed 
on to the end of the rod, pulls the fine-adjustment tube against its 
four guides. The hinged joint, whose axis is horizontal, allows the 
fine-adjustment tube to move up and down through a small distance, 
moving the rod in or out of the hole in the limb as it moves ; at 
the same time it does not allow rotation of the tube against its 
long axis. 




Fig. 50. — Section through Upper Part of Limb and Body Tubes. 

C, ring carrying guides of coarse-adjustment tube. 
Other letters as in fisr. 49. 



There is a spring (P, fig. 51) in tension between the upper part 
of the fine-adjustment tube and the more remote end of the rod. 
This spring performs two functions. In the first place, it ensures 



On a Microscope with Geometric Slides. By Keith Lucas. 275 

that the upper part of the tube shall be firmly held against its 
guides, and, secondly, it pulls the whole tube downwards against 
the end of the lever by which it is moved. 




Fig. 51.— Section through Limb and Body Tubes. 

C C, rings carrying guides of coarse-adjustment tubes ; G, leaf spring retain- 
ing coarse-adjustment tube against guides; H, small tube which pre- 
vents tube D from rotating ; J, wire of coarse-adjustment ; K, barrel ; 
L, ring carrying bearings of K ; M, rod, and N, spring retaining lube B 
against its guides ; P, spring forcing tube B downwards against tbe 
fine-adjustment lever; Q, fine-adjustment lever. Other letters as in 
figs. 49, 50. 

This lever (Q, figs. 51, 52), which transmits the motion of the 
fine-adjustment screw to the body-tube, is of the bell-crank type, 
with its axis of rotation running from back to front of the limb. 
It is moved by a fine-threaded screw (E, figs. 52, 53), which passes 
through the left-hand side of the limb, a short distance above 
the stage. The arrangement of the lever is partially seen in fig. 51 
and partially in fig. 52, which is a section passing through the back 
part of the limb, viewed from the front. 

The essential parts of the substage are : a long tube (E, fig. 52), 
sliding in geometric guides inside the limb, and a bracket (S, fig. 52) 
attached to this tube, extended laterally to encounter the focussing- 
screw (T, figs. 52, 53), and forwards to carry the centring ring, into 
which the condenser is fitted. The lateral extension also carries 
a rod (U, fig. 52), mounted parallel to the tube, and preventing 
rotation about the long axis of the latter. The whole substage is 
forced upwards, against its focussing screw, by a long spiral spring 
(V, fig. 52), anchored to the limb at its upper end, and passing down 



276 



Transactions of the Society. 



inside the tube (E, fig. 52), to which it is attached at its lower end. 
Since the upward pull of the spring and the downward pressure of 
the focussing screw are not in the same line, there results a couple, 
tending to rotate the whole substage and tube in a vertical plane 




Fig. 52. — Part Section through Lower Part of Lime, showing 
Substage, viewed from Front. 

11, fine-adjustment screw; S, bracket of substage; T, focussing screw of 
substage ; U, rod which prevents rotation of E ; V, spring of substage. 
Other letters as in figs. 49, 50, 51. 

about the lower end of the focussing screw. Advantage is taken of 
this couple to hold the tube against its geometric guides, the upper 
and lower pairs of guides being placed on opposite sides of the tube. 
The upper pair of guides is formed by two adjustable screws (one 
shown at F, figs. 52, 53), which serve to procure perfect alignment of 
the substage slide with the slides of the body-tube. By this device 
it is possible to secure the alignment of the body-tube optically 
instead of mechanically, so that far greater accuracy is obtainable. 

As has already been pointed out, rotation of the guide-tube of 
the substage about its long axis is prevented by means of a rod, 
which passes through a hole in the stage. This rod makes no 
attempt to fit in the hole through which it passes, but presses on 
one side of it only. The rod is prevented from leaving this side of 
the hole by the device of winding up the long spring (V, fig. 52), 
which lies inside the guide-tube. This spring has, consequently, a 
tendency to rotate the substage about the long axis of the tube, in 
such a direction as to hold the rod against the side of the hole. 

The long spiral spring, enclosed within the guide-tube, is thus 
seen to be the key to the whole substage mechanism. It causes the 
substage to follow its focussing screw without backlash, holds the 
tube against its four guides, prevents rotation of the tube about its 
long axis, and allows of the alignment of the substage slide with 
the body-tubes. 



On a Microscope with Geometric Slides. By Keith Lucas. 277 

A few other points about the substage demand attention. The 
position of the focussing screw (T, fig. 53), above the stage on the 
right-hand side, is a very convenient one. Moreover, since the nut 
in which the screw works is fixed to the stage, and the connection 
between the screw and substage is flexible — being effected by a long 
pointed pin which passes up inside the screw — alterations of focus 
can be obtained without fear of any other derangement of the 
illumination. 

The substage bracket is not a complete ring, as is the usual 
practice, but a fork (S, fig. 52), open at the front. This enables the 
centring ring to be readily removed. When in place, this ring is 
held against its two centring screws by a spiral spring (W, fig. 49), 
stretched between the two prongs of the fork. 

The range of the substage movement is amply sufficient to 
enable it to take condensers of either the substage or understage 
pattern. The absence of milled heads and slides below the stage 
renders the condenser accessible from every side. 




Fig. 53. — Elevation : Microscope in Vertical Position. 
Lettering as in figs. 49, 50, 51, 52. 



The advantages claimed for the instrument are the following : — 
(1) Cheapness of manufacture, the turning of the tubes, and the 
filing of the guides being less expensive work than the planing of 
dovetailed slides. The alignment of the various slides also involves 
very little expense, being obtained without careful workmanship. 



278 Transactions of the Society. 

(2) It is impossible for the movements to become shaky from wear, 
since every movement is held up by a spring. (3) The alignment 
of the several slides is obtained optically. 

These are the essential advantages. There are also some in- 
cidental points, namely, easy removal of the fine-adjustment tube 
for cleaning ; possibility of replacement of any part without the 
need of special fitting — for example, it would be possible to replace 
a fine-adjustment tube, whiclrcarried a sliding coarse adjustment, 
by one carrying a mechanical movement, without skilled work ; 
convenient position of the substage focussing screw ; accessibility 
of the condenser ; and the shape of the limb, which enables it to 
be finished entirely by machinery. 

Of all these points, those which make for cheapness appear to 
me to be of the greatest importance. This was the primary object 
with which the instrument was designed. 

The particular instrument from which the photographs re- 
produced with this paper were taken, was made throughout with 
the roughest of workmanship. In spite of this, i the movements all 
worked smoothly, and without shake, a result which could certainly 
not have been obtained with similar workmanship in a Microscope 
of the usual pattern. This fact affords the strongest proof of the 
£ uperiority of the geometric slide. 



279 



VIII. — On certain New Methods of Measuring the Magnifying 
Power of the Microscope and of its Separate Elements. 

By A. E. Weight, M.D. 

(late processor of pathology, army medical school, netley ; 
pathologist to st. mary's hospital, paddington, w.) 

(Bead March 16th, 1904.) 

The methods of measuring the magnification of the image which 
are ordinarily in use in connection with the Microscope are the 
following two. 

1. A micrometric scale placed upon the stage of the Micro- 
scope is viewed with one eye through the Microscope ; an ordinary 
scale placed at the standard distance of 10 in. is viewed with the 
other eye ; and by an intellectual effort the images in the two eyes 
are combined into a composite image. 

2. By a suitable arrangement of reflectors the system of rays 
proceeding from a scale placed at 10 in. from the observer is 
brought across in such a manner as to form an unmagnified image 
in the eye, which is viewing the magnified image of a micrometric 
scale furnished by the Microscope. 

Both these methods involve the simultaneous observation of 
two scales, and as a pre-condition of such simultaneous observation 
a careful balancing of the light which falls into the eye from the 
two sources. 

I do not propose to concern myself with either of these methods 
to-night. I propose with your permission to consider four other 
methods of measuring the magnification of the microscopic image. 
The first and last of these are, so far as I know, novel in principle ; 
and all four have, I think, certain advantages over the methods 
commonly in use in connection with, the Microscope. Before pro- 
ceeding to the discussion of these methods I may enumerate them. 

Method 1. — A lens functioning as the counterpart of the re- 
tracting system of the eye is placed above the eye-lens of the 
Microscope, in such a manner as to bring the image of a micro- 
metrical ruling to focus upon a measuring scale, which occupies 
a position corresponding to that normally occupied by the retina 
of the observing e} T e. The dimensions of the image which is 
furnished by the Microscope (working in- conjunction with the 
focussing lens) are read off upon this measuring scale by means of 
an eye-piece. 

Method 2. — The magnifying power of the objective and ocular 
are separately measured, and the magnifying power of the Micro- 



280 Transactions of the Society. 

scope is arrived at by multiplying together the magnifying powers 
of these separate components. 

Method 3. — The angular aperture of the transmitted beam is 
measured (a) as it enters the aperture of the objective and (b) as it 
leaves the aperture of the eye-lens. The magnification is arrived 
at by dividing the first measurement by the second. 

Method 4. — By the exploitation of a fiduciary phenomenon, 
which is obtained by the aid of a diffraction grating, an observa- 
tion is made which furnishes the distance between the lines of a 
micrometrical ruling as imaged upon the retina by the aid of the 
Microscope or other magnifying system. This observation made, 
a series of paired lines is viewed through the grating by the 
unaided eye from a distance of 10 in. The observer — taking to 
aid the fiduciary phenomenon before referred to — now seeks out 
that pair of rulings which furnishes upon his retina an image 
exactly similar to that obtained with the assistance of the magni- 
fying system employed in the first observation. 

The magnification is now obtained by measuring the interval 
between the pair of object lines which complies with this condition, 
and by dividing this measurement by the interval between the 
lines of the micrometrical scale. 



Measurement of the Magnification by bringing the Pencils 
of Parallel Pays which emerge from the Microscope to 
focus ufon a Measuring Scale, and reading off the 
Dimensions of the Image thus formed by means of an 
Eye-piece. 

The image I now throw on the screen (reproduced in Fig. 54) 
exhibits the construction of the simple piece of optical apparatus 
— we may denote it the eikonometer — which allows of the dimen- 
sions of the microscopic image being read off at a glance. 

At A is disposed a plano-convex lens, which, like the refractive 
system of the eye, brings to focus the pencils of parallel rays 
which emerge from the eye-lens of the Microscope. 

In the case of the instrument which I have placed upon the 
table, a focal length of 1 in. has been given to the focussing lens. 

Such a lens furnishes upon its principal focal plane an image, 
whose dimensions are ten-fold smaller than those of the imao;e 
which is projected outwards from the retina to the conventional 
distance of 10 in. 

In the principal focal plane, just spoken of, is placed a micro- 
metrical scale ruled in tenths of millimetres. These have, for the 
purpose of the measurement of the image furnished by the focussing 
lens, the same value as millimetre divisions, applied to the image 
projected outwards from the eye to a distance of 10 in. 



The Measuring Power of the Mi&roscojpe. By A. E. Wright. 281 

At the back of the micro-metrical scale there is mounted a 
Eamsden eye-piece. This eye-piece serves for reading off the 
dimensions of the image. It is manifestly open to us to employ 
in this situation any magnifying power which may happen to be 
convenient. In the instrument upon the table the eye-piece has 
a magnifying power of 10 — that is to say, a magnifying power 
which exactly balances the ten-fold minification before spoken of. 
We obtain by this means, on placing the eye at the eye-lens of the 
eikonometer, placed in position over the eyepiece of the Microscope, 
an image of precisely the same dimensions as that obtained on look- 
ing into the microscope in the ordinary way. On looking through 
the eikonometer at a distant object we obtain in like manner 
an image of the same dimensions as in ordinary unassisted vision. 

To complete the description, it may be pointed out that, in 
addition to the focussing arrangement for the eye-piece, provision 




B 



Fig. 54. 

A, focussing lens, 1 in. focal length ; B, micronxetric scale (divided 
into tenths of a millimetre) ; C, Ramsden eye-piece, magnifying 
10 diameters ; D, stud working in spiral groove in E, outer sleeve" 



is 



made for bringing the focussing lens into the plane of 
the Eamsden disc of the eye-lens. When this is done we obtain 
in the eikonometer as extensive a field of view as in the Micro- 
scope when the Eamsden disc of the eye-lens is, as is normally the 
case, disposed in the pupil of the observing eye. 

In the arrangement adopted, the tube of the eikonometer moves 
up and down in an outer sleeve — the movement being regulated 
by a stud fitting into a spiral slot. 

In addition to measuring the magnifying power of the Micro- 
scope the eikonometer will render services — 

(a) In the case where we desire directly to measure the magni- 
fying power of the objective, or any other lens or combination of 
lenses, which furnishes a system of pencils of parallel rays. 

(b) In the case where we desire to arrive at the magnifying 
power of an optical element by subtracting from the cumulative 



282 Transactions of the Society. 

magnifying power of the system the magnifying power of a com- 
ponent optical element. 

Example I. — Where we desire to measure the magnifying power of a 
pocket lens, we view through the lens in question a millimetre scale, dis- 
posing this last at such distance from the lens as to give the largest possible 
erect image. Holding the lens in position, we now place the eikonometer 
between the eye and the lens and read off the number of divisions of its scale, 
which are covered by one millimetre division on the object scale. The munber 
of divisions covered corresponds to the magnifying power. 

Example 2. — Where we desire to measure the magnification of an objective, 
we place a micrometrical ruling upon the stage, remove the ocular from the 
Microscope tube, and focus down with the objective until we obtain the 
largest possible erect image of the ruling. We now place a slip of glass over 
the upper open end of the Microscope tube, and place upon the top of this 
the eikonometer, and then read off the value of the divisions of the stage 
micrometer upon the measuring scale. 

Example 3. — Where, knowing the magnifying power of the ocular, we 
desire to measure that of the objective by the indirect method, we measure 
by means of the eikonometer the total magnifying power of the Microscope, 
and arrive at the magnifying power of the objective, taken separately, by 
dividing the total magnification by the magnification which is referable to 
the eye-piece component. 

Measurement of the Magnification of the Microscope by 
the separate determination of the magnifying power 
of the Objective and the Ocular. 

The possibility of arriving at the magnifying power of the 
Microscope by the measurement of that of the optical components 
of the Microscope taken separately, has already been adverted to in 
the introductory section. In exploiting this principle of measure- 
ment, we may leave altogether out of account what I shall venture 
to call the " optical anatomy " of the Microscope. We may, in 
other words, ignore the fact that the objective works in com- 
bination with the field-lens of the ocular, and that the eye-lens of 
the ocular works in combination with the optical system of the 
eye ; and we may assume instead that the objective works in con- 
junction with the optical system of the eye, and that the field lens 
works in conjunction with the eye-lens. This will, if I may, for 
the purpose of exposition, resort to a rough analogy from human 
anatomy, be equivalent to taking together for purposes of measure- 
ment, (a) the legs and the head and neck, and (b) the chest and 
abdomen, instead of taking together, in the proper anatomical 
order, (a) the legs and lower half of the trunk, and (b) the upper 
half of the trunk and head and neck. 

We have in the previous section illustrated the method of 
measuring the magnifying power of the objective working as a 
doublet with the optical system of the eye. Here we may deal 
with the method of measuring the magnifying power of the ocular 
working as an independent optical element. 



The Magnifying Power of the Microscope. By A. E.Wright. 283 



Measurement of the Magnifying Power of the Ocular. 

The total magnifying power of the Microscope corresponds to 
the total angle through which the most obliquely incident ray is 
refracted in its passage from the object plane on the stage of the 
Microscope to the retina of the observer's eye. The magnifying 
power of the ocular which we are here concerned to measure cor- 
responds, as reflection will show, to the angle through which the 
ray in question is refracted while in passage between the aperture 
of the objective and the aperture of the eye-lens. 

In order to obtain our measurement we must be clear, on the 
one hand, as to the situation of the apertures which are in question, 
and, further, we must have some means of locating in the respec- 
tive apertures the points of origin and arrival of the rays from 
which we have to take off in making our measurements. 

Position of the Apertures which come into consideration: — The 
true aperture of a lens is positioned where the beams which are 
transmitted through it mutually interfuse and overlap. This 
interfusion disc (variously denoted the " Lagrange disc," the 
Eamsden disc, and the " pupil of entrance," or, as the case may be, 
" pupil of exit ") is positioned, in the case of the objective, in 
close proximity to the posterior surface of the back lens of the 
combination, and in the case of the eye-lens, at a little distance 
superficial to the upper surface of the eye-lens. 

Method by which the Points of Origin and Arrived of the Rays 
which arc transmitted from Aperture to Aperture can be located. — 
It is manifestly impracticable to identify an isolated ray, or to 
recognise the point of origin or arrival of such an isolated ray. 
What is impracticable in the case of the isolated ray is, however, 
eminently practicable in the case of any beam. We can readily, 
in case of a beam, identify its point of origin and its point of focal 
impact. By this means we can, in the case where a particular ray 
passes through the radiant point (pole of origin) of a beam and 
again passes through the focal point (terminal pole), identify its 
position at two points of its course. 

Taking this principle as our guide, and bearing in mind that the 
aperture of the objective is everywhere traversed by rays which 
intersect with each other to form radiant points ; and bearing in 
mind, further, that the rays diverging from these radiant points will 
in each case re-intersect in the aperture of the eye-lens, consti- 
tuting as they do so focal points ; we can manifestly re-identify in 
the image of the objective-aperture, which is formed in the Eamsden 
(Use of the eye-lens, the position of any ray which has emerged 
from a radiant point in the aperture of the objective. 

The position of the rays which pass through the extreme margin 
of the aperture of the objective can manifestly most readily be 



284 Transactions of the Society. 

identified for the purposes of measuring the interval which separates 
them. 

Procedure. — Take a low-power lens, preferably one whose back 
lens is flush with the back of the mount,* measure the diameter of 
its back lens, and fit it to the Microscope tube. Focussing the 
objective upon the focal plane of the condenser, and opening up to 
its fullest extent the iris diaphragm in the substage, project a beam 
of light upwards through the Microscope. Take in hand now a 
pocket lens and a millimetre rule. Bringing the former up quite 
close to the eye, and disposing the latter in the neighbourhood of 
the bright Ramsden disc, seen on looking down from a distance 
upon the upper surface of the ocular, bend down over the Micro- 
scope, until an image of the illuminated back surface of the objective 
comes clearly into view. Now readjust the position of the milli- 
metre scale in such a manner as to bring it accurately into the focal 
plane occupied by the image of the objective aperture. Eead off 
the diameter of the image, and divide this measurement into the 
measurement previously obtained by the direct application of the 
rule to the back lens of the objective. The quotient represents the 
magnifying power of the ocular. 



Measurement of the Magnifying Power of the Microscope 
by the Determination of the Restriction undergone by 
the Beam in passing through the Microscope. 

The magnifying power of an optical system can, as is well 
known, be determined by measuring the total angle through which 
the most obliquely incident ray is refracted in its passage through 
the system. Put otherwise, the magnifying power corresponds to 
the diminution in the numerical aperture of the beam which is 
effected in its transmission through the system. A word or two 
may be in place in connection with the application of this system 
of procedure to the Microscope. 

Determination of the Numerical Aperture of the Beam which 
enters the Objective. — The determination of the numerical aperture 
of the beam which enters the objective involves (a) the measure- 
ment of the linear diameter of the aperture of the objective, or, in 
the case where the objective is not fully filled, of the linear diameter 
of the illuminated area of the back surface of the objective, (b) the 
measurement of the focal length of the objective, and (c) a know- 

* Where a lens of this kind is not available, we may, in conformity with a sug- 
gestion made to me by Mr. Gordon, drop upon the back lens of the objective a square or 
a triangle of paper, whose sides measure, say, exactly 1 mm. By the procedure de- 
scribed above, we now apply our measurements to the image of this triangle or 
square. An even simpler method of procedure is to dispense with the objective, and 
to take as our object the vacant lower aperture of the barrel of the Microscope tube, 
and to apply our measurements to the image of this aperture. 



The Magnifying Power of the Microscope. By A. E. Wright. 285 

ledge of the refractive index of the medium which bathes the front 
surface of the objective. 

The former measurement (a) may be obtained, where the back 
lens of the objective is fully filled, and where it is directly accessible 
to measurement by the application of a millimetre scale to the 
objective. In the case where the back lens is sunk, or where it is 
only partially filled by the transmitted beam, we obtain the measure- 
ment required by measuring, by the procedure explained in the last 
section, the Eamsden disc of the eye-lens, and multiplying by the 
magnifying power of the ocular. 

The focal length of the objective is arrived at most simply by 
measuring its magnifying power by means of the eikonometer, and 
dividing this magnifying power into 250 mm. or 10 in. 

From these measurements and a knowledge of the refractive 
index of the medium which bathes the front face of the objective, 
we obtain the numerical aperture of the beam which enters the 
objective in accordance with the formula 

» » _ semi-diameter of beam x refractive index of the immersion medium 

focal length of the objective 

Determination of the Numerical Aperture of the Beam, which 
is furnished to the Eye by the Eye-lens of the Microscope. — The 
numerical aperture of the beam, which is furnished to the eye by 
the eye-lens of the Microscope, is obtained by dividing the semi- 
diameter of the Eamsden disc of the eye-lens, measured as 
explained in the last section, into 250 mm. or 10 in. 

The magnifying power of the Microscope is obtained from the 
numerical apertures of the opening and closing beams in accordance 
with the formula 

Mao-nifvins 1 Dower — numer * ca l aperture of beam which enters the objective 

numerical aperture of the beam furnished to the 
eye by the eye-lens. 

Measurement of the Magnifying Power of the Microscope 
by the Exploitation of a Fiduciary Phenomenon obtained 
by the Aid of a Diffraction Grating. 

The method of measuring the magnifying power of the Micro- 
scope, which I am about to suggest to you, is a direct outcome of 
Mr. Gordon's critical study of the Abbe theory of microscopic 
vision, which was laid before this Society some time ago. You 
will remember that Mr. Gordon's paper dealt with the phenomena 
of diffraction which come into view when lines and rulings are 
viewed with the Microscope, or as the case may be, with the 
unaided eye, through restricted apertures, and in particular through 
slit apertures and diffraction gratings. Let me recall to your 
memory the following: — 

Jane 15th, 1904 x 



286 Transactions of the Society. 

1. A radiant point is never brought to focus in the image as a 
point, but always as a diffraction figure — conveniently styled by 
Mr. Gordon an " antipoint." 

2. Where a radiant point is viewed through a circular aperture 
that antipoint consists of a central false disc, surrounded by a 
system of alternately dark and bright rings. 

We may for our particular purposes leave out of consideration 
all but the innermost of these rings. 

3. When a point is viewed through a slit opening the anti- 
point obtained corresponds to an optical section of the antipoint 
referred to in (2). It consists, in other words, of a dash — the 
optical section of the false disc— flanked on either side by a faintly 
luminous point, corresponding in each case to the optical section 
of the first bright ring. 

4. Where a diffraction grating takes the place of the simple 
slit aperture, the outlying elements of the antipoint are emphasized 
at the expense of the central elements. We obtain, in other words, 
as the antipoint of a point, a less conspicuous central dash flanked 
on either side by a brighter point. 

5. When a line, or file of points, is viewed through a diffraction 
grating we obtain a composite antipoint pattern, consisting of a 
central or principal line furnished on either side by a flanking 
line. 

6. The elongation — meaning thereby the distance between the 
principal line and flanking line — is determined (a) by the periodical 
interval of the diffraction grating, and (b) by the distance between 
the aperture of the lens and the screen upon which the image is 
brought to focus. 

Having recalled to mind these preliminary points, I am 'in a 
position to make my suggestion intelligible. This suggestion is 
that we should use the elongation of the flanking line as a mea- 
suring staff for the determination of the distance at which the 
principal images of the two lines lie apart in the retinal image. 
We can use this measuring staff to advantage, in particular, in the 
case where the elongation of the flanking line corresponds exactly 
to half the distance between the principal lines. When this con- 
dition is fulfilled, the flanking lines which fall into the interspace 
between the principal lines merge and furnish a single well-marked 
intercostal line. 

Having called your attention to the fiduciary phenomenon 
which is furnished under these conditions, it will be manifest to 
you upon consideration that we can exploit this phenomenon in 
the following manner. 

We can place before us at a distance of 10 in. a series of 
paired lines ruled at progressively increasing intervals, and view- 
ing them through a diffraction grating held, let us say, with its 
rulings parallel to the object lines, select that particular pair of 



The Magnifying Power of the Microscope. By A. E. Wright. 287 

lines which furnishes to us a median intercostal line. We can 
then by the application of a scale measure the linear distance 
between this pair of lines. 

We can now place before us another series of paired lines, 
lying at distances apart smaller than the paired lines previously 
considered in the ratio which will, we estimate, correspond to the 
magnification achieved by the use of lens. We can again select from 
among this series of paired lines that pair of lines which furnishes 
as viewed through the diffraction grating, held at the same angle 
as before, a median intercostal line. 

Inasmuch as the pair of lines which is seen by the unaided 
eye from a distance of 10 in., and the pair of lines which is seen 
through the magnifying system yield in each case retinal images of 
precisely the same dimensions, it will be obvious that the magni- 
fying power of the optical system will be arrived at by dividing 
the interval between the object lines, which have been viewed 
through the magnifying system, into the interval between the lines 
which have been viewed by the unaided eye. 

While the procedure as described above is admirably adapted 
to the measurement of the magnifying power of pocket-lenses and 
such like, it would, if applied without modification to the measure- 
ment of the magnifying power of the Microscope, involve the 
employment of a special stage micrometer with lines ruled at 
progressively increasing intervals. 

The difficulty which has just been adverted to can be evaded. 
As an alternative to varying the linear distance between the rulings 
to conform to the elongation of the flanking line, we can accom- 
modate the elongation of the flanking lines to the periodical 
interval of the rulings of the stage micrometer, and to the 
magnifying power of the optical system through which we view 
those rulings. 

The required accommodation of the elongation of the flanking 
lines can be effected by employing, as the case may be, a more finely 
or more coarsely ruled diffraction grating, or, more simply, by rota- 
ting the grating in such a way as to bring — according as we desire to 
increase or diminish the elongation — the long axis of the slit aper- 
tures of the grating into parallelism with the rulings, or, as the case 
may be, with the normal to the rulings. Having regulated in this 
way the elongation of the flanking lines until we have achieved the 
doubling of the ruling by the intercalation of an intercostal line 
between every two principal lines, we proceed in all essential 
points as before. In other words — maintaining the orientation 
of the diffraction grating, which gives a central intercostal line 
between the ruling of the stage micrometer — we view through this 
with the unaided eye a series of paired lines placed at a distance of 
10 in., and we arrive at the magnifying power of our optical system 
by dividing the linear distance between the rulings on the stage 

x 2 



288 Transactions of the Society. 

micrometer* into the linear distance between the lines which give, 
as viewed by the unaided eye, a retinal image of similar dimensions. 
In conclusion, I desire to express my thanks to Messrs. 
R. and J. Beck, to Messrs. Swift and Sons, and to Messrs. Sanger 
Shepherd, for the eikonometers and the diffraction gratings (ruled 
400 lines to an inch) which have served for the illustration of the 
methods I have brought before you. 

* The more widely interspaced lines of the central ruling of an Abhe diffraction 
grating furnish a very convenient stage-micrometer for the procedure here described. 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES 

RELATING TO 

ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY 

(principally invertebrata and cryptogamia), 

MICKOSCOPY, Etc.* 



ZOOLOGY. 

VERTEBRATA. 

«« Embryology, f 

Nutrition and Sex Determination in Man. J— R. C. Punnett finds 
that if the population of London be divided into three portions exhibit- 
ing graduated poverty, the proportion of male to female infants is 
lowest in the poorest portion, highest in the wealthiest portion, inter- 
mediate in the intermediate portion. The proportion of male infants 
is highest of all in a number of births taken from Burke's Peerage. 

Alternative conclusions may be drawn : that more favourable con- 
ditions of nutrition (1) result in a large proportion of male births, or 
(2) have no effect on the proportion of the sexes, or (3) may even 
result in a relative preponderance of female births ; but that in the 
last two cases the effect is masked by other factors which affect different 
strata unequally. Such factors are shown to exist in a differential 
infant mortality, a differential birth-rate, and probably also in a dif- 
ferential marriage-age. These factors all tend to diminish the propor- 
tion of males in the poorer portions of the population, and thus render 
the first of the alternative conclusions improbable. Whether the second 
or third is to be accepted cannot be decided until we are in a position 
to estimate the quantitative effect of the factors noted above. Punnett's 
opinion is that their combined effect would not be sufficiently great to 
mask a preponderance of female births due to better nutrition, and 
consequently he is inclined to believe that in man at any rate the deter- 
mination of sex is independent of parental nutrition. In any case its 
influence can be but small. 

* The Society are not intended to be denoted by the editorial " we," and tliey 
do not hold themselves responsible for the views of the authors of the papers noted, 
nor for any claim to novelty or otherwise made by them. The object of this part of 
the Journal is to present a summary of the papers as actually published, and to 
describe and illustrate Instruments, Apparatus, etc., which are either new or havo 
not been previously described in this country. 

t This section includes not only papers relating to Embryology properly so called, 
but also those dealing with Evolution, Development, Reproduction, and allied subjects. 

X Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc, xii. (1904) pp. 262-76. 



290 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Sex of Mice.* — S. M. Copeman and F. G. Parsons publish a record 
of fifteen months' experimental work, undertaken with a view to deter- 
mining the extent, if any, to which the relative proportion of the sexes 
is capable of being influenced by varying conditions of age, nutrition, 
interbreeding, etc. The work is still in progress, but the results for 
this period arc published with a view to inviting criticism on method 
and suggestions for the future, and also to indicate to other breeders 
clues which may appear worth following up. Some interesting conclu- 
sions are that there is a hereditary tendency in certain males to beget 
a markedly large proportion of males, and in others of females. The 
evidence for a similar tendency in does is not so conclusive. Inbreed- 
ing between a male and his offspring is borne for five generations, 
without loss of fertility or any apparent bodily degeneracy. In large 
litters the proportion of females is greater tban in small ones ; more 
males are produced by does over six months than by does under that age. 

Heredity of Pigmentation in Mice.j — L. Cuenot concludes as the 
result of crossing grey, black, yellow, albino, and other mice, that 
Mendel's law holds both as regards dominance and disjunction in 
gametes. In the germ-plasma there must be four sorts of non-corre- 
lative determinants completely independent, because they can be inherited 
separately. 

Fertilisation and Hybridisation 4— Hugo De Vries gives a lucid 
account of his views as to the material basis of inheritance. He accepts 
Boveri's conclusions as to the individuality of the chromosomes and 
Hacker's hypothesis of the " Doppelkern." It is characteristic of his 
position that he regards the mingling of parental contributions as of 
subordinate importance as regards the children, but of fundamental 
importance as regards the grandchildren. The actual mingling takes 
place immediately before the formation of the sex-cells of the individual 
in question. 

Maturation of Germ-Cells and Mendel's Law.§ — E. B. Wilson 
reports that in his laboratory two independent investigations, one 
botanical (by Cannon), and another zoological (on spermatogenesis in 
Brachystola, by Sutton), led to the same general conclusion, that in the 
maturation of the germ-cells there is a segregate transference of paternal 
and maternal contributions to different cells, which would make Mendel's 
law more intelligible. To this, Cook objects,)! on the ground that the 
small number of chromosomes in the above cases implies that there is 
not a separation of individual hereditary qualities, but of whole groups 
of qualities. 

Interstitial Testicular Gland and Secondary Sex Characters.^ — 
P. Ancel and P. Bouin infer from a study of a unilateral cryptorchid 
pig, in which the testis remained embryonic, while the interstitial gland 

* Proc. Roy. Soc, lxxiii. (1904) pp. 32-48. 

f Arch, de Zool. Exp., ii. (1904) Notes et Revue, pp. xlv-lv. 

% See Zool. Centralbl., xi. (1904) p. 161. 

§ Science, xvi. (1903) pp. 991-3. 

|| Popular Science Monthly, 1903, p. 88. See Zool. Centralbl., xi. (1904) p. 16& 

II Comptes Rendus, cxxxviii. (1904) pp. 168-70. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 291 

was hypertrophied, and all the external characters of an entire animal 
were exhibited, that the development of the secondary sex characters 
is dependent on the condition of the interstitial testicular gland. 

Interstitial Testicular Gland.* — P. Bourn and P. Ancel cut the 
vas deferens between two ligatures in young guinea-pigs and rabbits. 
In the former the testes developed normally ; in the latter, in some 
cases, the characters of castrated animals were exhibited. This last 
result was probably due to the destruction of the plexus, whose ramifi- 
cations accompany the vas deferens. Noteworthy in these rabbits was 
the degeneration of the interstitial testicular gland, and the authors 
believe that the inhibition of masculine characters and the production 
of testicular infantilism is due to the absence or degeneracy of this 
gland. 

Relation of Secondary Sexual Characters to an Internal Secre- 
tion by the Testicle.j— S. G. Shattock and C. G. Seligmann record the 
results of some experiments on Herdwick sheep and common fowls, 
which were designed to test the suggestion previously made by one of 
them, that the interstitial cells of the testis yielded an internal secretion, 
and to discover whether this secretion, absorbed into the circulation, 
induces the metabolic changes that reveal themselves as secondary 
sexual characters. The experiments consisted in ligaturing the vasa 
deferentia in the young, the expectation (not confirmed) being that 
atrophy due to the pressure of the products would result in the tubuli, 
while the interstitial cells of the stroma might remain intact. The 
conclusions arrived at are that occlusion of the vasa does not inhibit 
the full acquirement of secondary male characters, nor is the discharge 
of the sperm necessary. It seems clear also that they are not due to 
metabolic changes set up by a nervous reflex arising out of the mere 
physical function of the sexual mechanism, for the characters developed 
in males, partially castrated, whose sole representative of testis consisted 
of grafts entirely disconnected from their proper nervous relations. 
The suggestion of an internal secretion of the testis is confirmed, 
although the authors cannot as yet state what particular cell elements 
are concerned in its production. 

- Testicle and Spermatic Ducts of Lemurs in Captivity 4 — A. 
Branca states that amongst animals in captivity it is not rare to find 
a stoppage of spermatogenesis in full-sized testicles. As a result of his 
investigations on captive lemurs he has found that the seminiferous 
canaliculi are as wide as usual, the wall shows none of the alterations 
observed in ectopia, the connective tissue is not hypertrophied, and there 
are no vascular lesions. The excurrent ducts are normal, but the gland 
cannot make spermatozoa. He finds four conditions : (1) with epi- 
thelial covering represented by cells of Sertoli only ; (2) with Sertoli 
cells and spermatogonia ; (3) the elements represented in second type- 
plus spermatocytes of first and second generation ; and (4) with the 
elements present in third type plus spermatids, and with spermatic cord 

* Comptes Rendus, exxxviii. (1904) pp. 231-2. 

t Proc. Roy. Soc, lxxiii. (1904) pp. 49-58. 

t Journ. Anat. Physiol., xL (1904) pp. 35-72 (2 pis.,. 



292 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

complete. The testicle degenerates without the ejaculatory apparatus 
apparently exhibiting any appreciable modification ; its atrophy seems 
determined by the time the animal has been in captivity. The elements 
break down in inverse order of their genesis. 

Transmission of Acquired Characters.* — Max Morse discusses 
afresh this much discussed question, and gives an answer in the negative. 
He defines an acquired character as a modification of an organism in 
its ontogeny produced by reactions to external stimuli. Without adding 
anything new to the discussion he considers the pro's and con's in a 
fair way, and concludes that it is difficult to imagine how some specific 
change in a remote part of the body can be registered on the germ-cell, 
with "the result that the offspring has reproduced in it the same specific 
modification. 

Gastrulation in Lizards.j — Karl Peter communicates a sixth paper 
on the embryology of lizards. 

The structure known as the " embryonic shield " is of different 
morphological value at different times. To begin with, it consists of 
the two germinal layers, — both uniformly thickened. Afterwards, be- 
sides the uniform area, there is a zone in which only the inner layer is 
thickened. After the retrogression of the endodermic cushion, the 
ectoderm-plate alone appears on surface view. The mesoderm never 
coalesces with the endodermic substratum. The notochord is wholly 
mesodermic in origin, and owes its origin to the mesodermic head- 
process which proliferates in front of the primitive plate. _ 

It is not easy to summarise an intricate embryological paper like 
this, but we would give prominence to the author's conclusion that the 
primordium of the notochord is mesodermic. 

Carnivorous Fowls and their Fecundity.! — F. Houssay submits 
the following table of fecundity for the first year of four sets of fowls. 

Number of Weight of Average W T eight 

Generation. Eggs Hen of Egg. 

Graminivorous . . 97 5*360 kgm. 55 grm. 

1st carnivorous . . 148 8'674kgni. 58 grm. 

2nd carnivorous . . 167 10-270 kgm. 61 grm. 

3rd carnivorous . . 145 8 '426 kgm. 58 grm. 

In attempting to rear a fourth generation, Houssay obtained from 
eighty eggs in six sets, fourteen developments, and only seven chicks. 

°f Alimentary intoxication influences the gonads, and tends to sterility 
and arrested development and premature death of offspring. It is 
cumulative in its effect and tends to a preponderance of males. 

Corpus luteum of Dasyurus viverrinus.§ — F. P. Sandes communi- 
cates the results of researches on the corpus luteum, with observations 
on the growth and atrophy of the graafian follicle. His results show 

* Ohio Naturalist, iv. (1903) pp. 25-30. 

t Arch. Mikr. Anat., lxiii. (1904) pp. 659-700 (2 pis. and 2 figs.). 

t Comptcs Rendus, cxxxvii. (1908) pp. 934-6. 

§ Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxviii. (1903) pp. 364-405 (15 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY, ETC. 29 



Q 



that the cliaracteristic cells of the corpus luteum are formed by hyper- 
trophy of the cells of the membrana granulosa. The theca interna 
folliculi is rudimentary, and forms only the vascular connective tissue of 
the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum is probably a gland with an 
internal secretion of use in the organism. It has the function of stopping 
ovulation during pregnancy, and at the cestral periods. 

Problem of Form Regulation.*— S. J. Holmes propounds a theory 
according to which the process of form regulation does not necessarily 
involve the preservation of favourable variations among the vital units, 
although it may involve one factor of that process, viz. the tendency of 
parts to increase as fast as circumstances permit. He conceives that the 
checking process by which regulation is effected, is brought about not by 
the selection of certain vital units, but through the symbiotic relation in 
which the parts of the organism stand. The whole process of develop- 
ment may occur without the elimination of vital units of any kind, 
whether they be biophors, determinants, or individualities of a higher 
order, such as cells or organs. The parts of an organism are engaged in 
a struggle for existence, but as the parts are mutually dependent, the 
struggle leads to an adjustment to a norm instead of the elimination of 
some parts and the survival of others. 

Regeneration of Bone and Cartilage.! — Wendelstadt has made 
numerous experiments on newts and axolotls. When there is regenera- 
tion of bony tissue, there must be a return to the primitive cell-forms. 
The bony tissue itself cannot form new bone nor cartilage. There must 
be a re-habilitation of those elements which were active in embryonic 
life, and these are retained in the periosteum. They form, first, cartilage 
cells, and then these are transformed into osseous elements. 

Development of the Sense Organs of the lateral line in Am- 
phibia.}: — R. G-. Harrison finds experimentally that the path of the 
lateral line organs may be varied, and that the path characteristic of a 
particular species is merely to be considered as the line of least resist- 
ance to growth. The stage of development used in the experiments was 
that when the tail bud just appears, and at this stage the causes con- 
ditioning that certain cells belong to the lateral line appear to have been 
active at an earlier period of development. 

Development of Lymph Glands in Man.§ — C. A. Kling, in a series 
of studies of human embryos, has made out, amongst others, the follow- 
ing points. The axillary lymph vessels have developed an abundant 
plexus before the gland proper arises. In the third foetal month, in the 
meshes of the lymph-vessel plexus cellular and vascular tissue is differ- 
entiated, showing an irregular trabecular arrangement. Such an area 
corresponds to each of the gland groups in the axilla, and may be termed 
lymph-gland centres of origin. Through division of these are formed 
the single glands. The division appears to be caused by the ingrowth 
and dilatation of the neighbouring lymph vessels. Lymph sinuses in the 

* Arch. F.ntwickelurigsmecl]., xvii. (1903) pp. 265-305. 
t Arch. Mikr. Anat., Ixiii. (1004) pp. 766-95 (6 pis.). 
X Turn, cit., pp. 35-119 (3 pk.). 
§ Op. cit., Ixiii. (1903) pp. 575-G10 (2 pis). 



294 SUMMAEY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATIKG TO 

gland are in the beginning usually lymph vessels. The reticulum cells 
in their lumen appear only secondarily, and are descendants of the lymph 
vessel endothelium. The special lymph-gland buds are from the be- 
ginning onwards of different size. Some reach during intra-uterine life 
their definite structure, others remain in a low stage of development. 
The small, often microscopic glands which one finds in the adult are 
rudimentary forms, which under special circumstances may develop 
further, even in the adult. Owing to incomplete separation of the gland 
centres, twin or other malformations of lymph glands arise. 

Origin of the Vitreous Humour.* — A. v. Szily finds in the early 
stages of development thread-like fibrils, which are extensions of the 
intercellular bridges of the cells of the adjacent epithelial layers. They 
are connected with the protoplasm of the cells by means of a " skittle- 
shaped" structure (Jcegelformigen), which resembles the "basal-skittles" 
of the lens cells discovered by v. Lenhossek. If the fibres arise near 
where mesenchyme cells are abundant, they unite secondarily with these, 
the mesenchyme dominating the form ; in cell-free areas the fibres pre- 
ponderate during the whole of life. Whether they belong genetically 
to the retina or to the lens is an unimportant factor. Owing to the 
independent development and subsequent union of these elements of the 
vitreous humour, the products of the different germ layers cannot be 
distinguished, so that no decision as to what is ectoderm and what 
mesoderm can be arrived at. 

b. Histology. 

Zoological Distribution, Mitoses, and Transmissibility of Cancer.f 
E. F. Bashford and J. A. Murray adduce evidence tending to show that 
the wide zoological distribution, the character of the mitoses, and the 
transmissibility of cancer, are nearly related phenomena with a common 
basis. 

Malignant new growths have been found in a large and varied series 
of animals, not only in domestic animals, but also in animals living in a 
state of nature : wild mouse, codfish and gurnard. 

A complicated sequence of cell-changes has been found to be charac- 
teristic of carcinoma and sarcoma alike. This sequence is the same as 
that which initiates the origin of the sexual generation in plants from the 
asexual, and is terminal in the history of the sexual cells in animals. It 
must be noted, also, that all the cells of the malignant new growths do 
not undergo the reducing division ; a certain number^ differentiate in 
the direction of the tissue among which they have arisen, and in the 
secondary growths when present ; somatic mitoses occur in the growing 
margin, which is also a feature in the growth of cancer when transferred 
to a new host. Cancer is an irregular and localised manifestation of a 
process otherwise natural to the life-cycle of all organisms. Successful 
transplantation experiments have been made, e.g. with mice, in which 
malignant new growths were transferred from one animal to another of 
the same species. 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxiv. (1903) pp. 417-28. 

f Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ixxiii. (1904) pp. 66-76 (1 pi. and 8 figs). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 295 

Conjugation of Resting Nuclei in an Epithelioma of the Mouse.* 
E. F. Bashford and J. A. Murray draw attention to the fact that the 
power of cell proliferation, which has been proved to occur in an epi- 
thelioma of the mouse (Jensen), is a phenomenon unparalleled in the 
mammalia. A mass of tumour, 16 lbs. in weight, has been produced by 
artificially transplanting portions of the original growth and its descen- 
dants. When portions of the tissue are transplanted to new sites, the 
tumours which arise are the genealogical descendants of the cells intro- 
duced, and the growth was studied at successive stages of 24 hours. In 
a tumour removed on the eighth day, and less than half a split pea in 
size, conjugation of resting nuclei has been observed. To take a specific 
case, the nuclei of two adjacent cells are continuous through the cell- 
wall by a tube-like bridge, in the middle of which a strand of nucleolar 
substance, with fusiform swellings, in either cell is visible. The cells of 
this particular case are adjacent to the stroma, and close to the outer 
surface of the young tumour. 

Behaviour of the Protoplasm in Monocentric Mitoses.f — T. Boveri 
describes certain peculiarities in the behaviour of the protoplasm of the 
eggs of sea-urchins which have been shaken after fertilisation. In many 
cases the effect of this treatment is to inhibit the division of the sperm 
centrosome, so that the egg contains not an amphiaster with equatorial 
plate, but a large monaster, to which the chromosomes are joined in a ball- 
like form. The succeeding behaviour varies, but in the majority he 
finds that the surface of the egg furthest removed from the sphere shows 
a very distinct amoeboid movement, which is more marked in proportion 
to the eccentricity of the latter. All the rest of the surface is com- 
pletely smooth. In the case of eggs deprived of their yolk-membrane, 
elongation takes place in the direction of the spindle axis, and, without, 
a narrowing at the equator division occurs with amoeboid processes be- 
tween the blastomeres similar to those of monaster eggs. From a con- 
sideration of these and related phenomena, he inclines to the view that 
the appearance of the equatorial plates in normal cell division is due to 
the slight influence of the centrosomes in this region — a negative and not 
a positive effect. 

The Morphology of the Glands of Bartholin in Mammals.! — 
H. Rautmann has investigated the occurrence and nature of the glands 
of Bartholin in ox, sheep, horse, cat and dog, as well as the human 
subject. He failed to find these in both sexes of the Canidas, a fact not 
to be explained as due to disappearance during development, for they f are 
absent in the embryo. In the human female, as in the cow, sheep and 
cat, they occur in pairs, and relatively strongly developed. In the sheep 
they are poorly developed, and may be absent on one side or altogether. 
In the mare, ass, mule and sow they are present in all individuals, in 
numbers subject to great variation, and arranged in rows in a longi- 
tudinal direction. The author cannot as yet, owing to the too limited 

* Proc. Roy. Soc. London, lxxiii. (1904) p. 77- 

t S.B. Phys. med.-Ges. Wurzburg, 1903, pp. 12-21. 

X Arch. Mikr. Anai, lxiii. (1903) pp. 461-511 (1 pi.). 



296 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

field of observations, pronounce definitely on their use or exact signifi- 
cance in copulation. 

Peptic Glands of the Superior Region of the (Esophagus in 
Man.* — M. Gliriski has studied the occurrence and nature of these 
glands in man. He asserts that, though existing at least in every 
second person, they are not present in all cases. In from 3 to G p.c. of 
cases they are macroscopic masses, perfectly visible ; in the rest their 
presence can only be demonstrated microscopically. They are equally 
frequent at all ages, and are commoner in males than females. They 
are usually placed between the level of the cricoid cartilage and the 
fifth tracheal ring, but occur exceptionally on other parts of the gullet. 
The large groups may appear lens-like surrounded by a wall, and lying 
deeply in the gullet, or in round or irregular masses, which may be 
merged to form larger aggregates, and are slightly raised above the 
mucous membrane of the gullet. They are usually in two symmetric 
groups, lying in the side folds ; rarely, in the right side fold a single 
group occurs. Lying usually on the mucous membrane, they yet some- 
times penetrate the muscularis mucosa, never the submucosa. Their 
stroma is a loose lymphoid tissue, which here and there forms lymph 
nodules. He discusses their significance from a pathological point of 
view, and suggests that their lymphoid tissue may form the place of 
entrance of tubercle bacilli. 

Studies in the Retina.f — H. M. Bernard continues these studies, 
adducing evidence for the continuity of the nerves through the verte- 
brate retina, through the medium of internuclear connecting filaments 
between the nuclei of the different retinal layers. This " protomitomic " 
system has been demonstrated to be continuous with the primitive 
nerve-fibrillae of the retinal nerve strands. The outermost fringe of 
the retinal protomitomic system runs down the rods, which are the end 
organs of the retina as an organ of vision, while the proximal fringe of 
the same system is continuous with the nerve fibrils. The paper is a 
very full one, in which the characters of this system are described, as 
also its relations to the other retinal constituents and to the chromatin 
of the nuclei. 

Islets of Langerhans of the Pancreas.} — H. H. Dale has studied 
the pancreas of dog, cat, rabbit, and toad, with reference to the "islets 
of Langerhans." Laguesse has described a perpetual change of secretory 
tissue into " islets " and vice versa, the islets being, in his view, pan- 
creatic tissue in an internally secreting stage, and representing also the 
stage during which growth takes place. From this view of the normal 
transformation of the tissues, however, he has resiled, though Dale seems 
unaware of this. Dale's experiments leave the question of the function 
of the islets undecided, but the results of occlusion of the duct are in 
favour of Laguesse's view that they represent an internally secreting 
stage in the life of pancreatic tissue. 

* Bull. Acad. Sci. de Cracovie, 1003, pp. 740-57. 

t Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci.. xlvii. (190b) pp. 302-62 (3 pis.). 

I Proc. Roy. Soc, Ixxiii. (11)04) pp. 84-5. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY, ETC. 



297 



c General. 

Influence of Light and Darkness.* — Armand Vire has continued 
his experiments in the subterranean laboratory in the " catacombs " of 
Paris, under the Jardin des Plantes. In the darkness, Gammarm 
fluviatilis exhibited some marked modifications, e.g. gradual disappear- 
ance of pigment and hypertrophy of olfactory and tactile setae. In an 
eel, kept in darkness for five years, the eye was almost doubled in 
volume, though " the optic nervous system " was reduced. Six gold- 
fish assumed a pale whitish rose colour, and were in two years smaller 
by a half than a similar number, equally fed, but living in the light. 

Some subterranean animals were kept in the light, e.g. Niphargus 
plateaui, Vireia burgunda, V. berica, and Proteus anguinus. All showed 
by their behaviour that the illumination was disagreeable to them, pro- 
bably through its influence on the pigment-forming cells. After some 
months, Proteus showed much pigmentation, except beneath the head 
and belly. The Crustaceans have not as yet shown more than slight 
black patches on the integument. 

Origin of Primates.f — H. C. Chapman has been led from an 
anatomical study of Tupaia, in which no caecum was found either in 
T.ferruginea or in T.pictum, to a speculative essay on the origin of the 
Primates. His views may be inferred from the following scheme. 



Gorilla Chimpanze 



Homo 

Pithecanthropus - 
Catarrhinse 



-Gibbon Orang 



Aretopitheca 



Kodentia 

I 

OhiromjB 



Chiroptera 
Galeopithecus 



Platyrrhiiite 



Lor is 



Insectivora 

I 

Tarsius 



Lemuravidse 
AdapidsB " 
Hyopsodinae 

Tegumentary Colorations.} — H. Mandoul has made a very ex- 
haustive analysis of the types of tegumentary coloration in animals. 
He distinguishes three, kinds dne to structure : (1) simple reflection, 
(2) interference, (3) diffraction ; and of pigmentary, intrinsic elaborated 
within the organism, and extrinsic which are of various origins. Re- 
flection may give a white colour, or a satin or velvety aspect, and may 
be due to air, uncoloured liquids or solid pulverulent matter. For 
interference effects a very thin lamellar structure is necessary, and they 

* Comptes Rendus, cxxxviii. (1904) pp. 706-8. 

t Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1904, pp. 148-56. 

\ Ann. Sci. Nat., xviii. (1903) pp. 225-468 (2 pis.). 



298 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

are favoured by the presence of a subjacent pigmentary layer. The 
blue of most vertebrate animals is produced by phenomena identical 
with those manifested by disturbed media. The physical constitution 
is the same in both cases. The pigments are bodies varying in pro- 
perties and composition. Changes of colour are most frequently due 
to impressions on the retina. The pigmentary granules of the chromo- 
blasts are set in motion by the chromato-motor nerves. The chromatic 
apparatus shows graded degrees of development in the various forms 
showing rapid changes of colour. Among the vertebrates having this 
apparatus in perfection (Batrachians and Reptiles), the blue colour 
seems connected with the state of dilatation of the black chromoblasts 
(temporary structural coloration). Bodies showing phenomena of color- 
ation are in final analysis excretory products manifested under different 
forms (pigment, cuticle, etc.). According to their optical properties, 
it is determined whether it is to be the play of light (structural colour) 
or phenomena of absorption (pigment) by which they appear. Thus 
the aspect of coloration is the direct consequence of the state in which 
the excretory products present themselves. 

Supra-cricoid Cartilage in Man.* — J. Citelli has found in certain 
subjects a small cartilage above the cricoid, and between the two inter- 
arytenoid muscles. This, he states, is not simply an anatomical varia- 
tion, it is the homologue of the " procricoid " of Dubois, which is 
present in Amphibians, Reptiles, Monotremes, Marsupials, all Carnivora, 
except hyaena, some Ungulates, etc. It is rare in higher orders. 

Occipital Region of Cerebral Hemisphere in Man and Apes.f — 
(I. E. Smith calls attention to a means not only of checking the evidence 
of mere surface anatomy, but also of absolutely demonstrating the 
homology of the sulcus lunatus of the human brain with the Affen- 
spalte. This new criterion is afforded by the study of the distribution 
of the stria Gennari in the occipital cortex. This white line is so 
sharply defined in part of the occipital cortex in man and the apes, that 
the stria-bearing region can be mapped out in sections of the fresh 
brain with absolute exactness. The homology of this area can be 
assumed in all Primates. The author further emphasises the presence 
of a definite sulcus prrestriatus in most human brains (as well as in all 
Prosimiae, Carnivora, Ungulata, and many other mammals) ; the absence 
or subsidiary importance of this sulcus praestriatus (vel calcarinus pro- 
prius) in all apes — Hapalidae, Cebidae, Cercopithecidas, and Simiidaa ; 
the definite limbic relation of the margins of the occipital operculum 
(overhanging the sulcus lunatus) and of the inferior occipital operculum 
(overhanging the sulcus infrastriatus) to the lateral area striata ; the 
presence in most human brains (and occasionally in those of the apes) 
of superior and inferior limiting sulci of the mesial part of the area 
striata ; and the series of intrastriate sulci, which extend along the 
axis of the area striata both in its mesial and its lateral parts. The 
author adopts a new nomenclature in order to emphasise the distinctive 
relations of the various occipital sulci to the cortical area containing the 
stria Gennari ; and to call attention to the bewildering misuse of terms 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxiv. (1903) pp. 289-96. f Tom. cit., pp. 436-51. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 299 

in reference to the occipital region of the brain. Certain misleading 
suggestions of homologies are also treated in the paper. 

"- Mandibulo-auricular Muscle.* — J. Chaine finds in the parotid 
region in the Badger a small vestige of this muscle, which he regards as 
homologous with the depressor mandibuli of lower vertebrates. He con- 
siders that various muscles described in this region inserted upon the 
articular bone are nothing but separate fascia of the same muscular for- 
mation, and that the mandibulo-auricular is only a representative of 
some of the fascia of this depressor. 

Dentition of the Elephant.f — W. Mitchell has had published a 
number of fine photographs illustrating the normal dentition of the 
elephant, injuries resulting in encysted bullets, pathological develop- 
ments due to injuries to the pulp, and sometimes expressed in fantastic 
external shapes. He also figures a case believed to be a true necrosis, 
which is rare. 

The Phylogeny of the Boidae.J— F. E. Beddard discusses a number 
of points in the circulatory system of Python, Eryx and Boa, which 
support the view based upon other evidence that the Boidae occupy 
phylogenetically a place at or near the base of the Ophidian series. 

Infectious Exophthalmia of Freshwater Fishes.§ — J. Audige de- 
scribes the course of a peculiar disease observed at the piscicultural 
station of the University of Toulouse— a unilateral exophthalmia affect- 
ing the Californian salmon (Oncorhynchus quinnat), and also Idus 
or/us Cuv. and Squalius cephalus L., both young and old. The disease 
is contagious and progresses rapidly, but in darkness no fatal effects 
result. The eye becomes opaque, but a spontaneous cure is effected. 
In the warm months the disease was at its height, in autumn it gradually 
dwindled. We may call attention in passing to the frequent occurrence 
of a condition approaching exophthalmia in carp kept in slightly 
abnormal conditions. 

Limbs of Holocephali and Dipnoi.]] — Armand Sabatier continues 
his study of the paired fins of fishes, developing his theory of the dis- 
tinctness and independence of what he calls mains des ceintures, and 
mains terminates des membres. 

Other contributions by the same author f elaborate his own some- 
what surprising conclusions as to the comparative morphology of the 
paired limbs of fishes. We defer further notice until we see an illus- 
trated exposition of Sabatier's interpretations. 

Paired Fins of Fishes.** — R. Hamburger gives a detailed anatomical 
account of the skeleton and musculature of the pectoral and pelvic fins 
of Squalus, Trigla, PeriopMhalmus and Lophins. 

* Proc.-Verb. Soc. Sci. Bordeaux, 1902, pp. 54-5. 
t Brit. Dental Journ., xxv. (1904) pp. 284-9G (34 figs.). 
J Ann. Nat. Hist, xiii. (1904) pp. 233-G. 
§ Comptes Rendus, cxxxvii.(1903) pp. 936-8. 
|| Op. cit.cxxxviii. (1904) pp. 249-52. 
t Op. cit., exxxvii. (1903) pp. 893-G. 
** Revue Suisse Zool.. xii. (1904) pp. 71-148 (2 pla.). 



300 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Myology of Chondropterygian Pishes.* — J. Chaine calls attention 
to a muscular layer on the ventral surface of the cephalic and branchial 
regions, which is remarkable for its many points of insertion in different 
parts of the skeleton, and for its different arrangements in the various 
species. He homologises it with the " transverse jugular " of the other 
vertebrate Classes. 

Sub-Orders and Families of Teleostean Fishes.f — G. A. Boulenger 
gives a very welcome synopsis of these groups, in which his aim has been 
to build on phylogenetic lines. The most important character dis- 
tinguishing the Teleostei from the Holostean Ganoids appears to be the 
presence of an ossified supraoccipital bone. Remnants of primitive 
characters, such as Ganoid scales, fulcra, rudiments of a splenial bone, 
spiral valve to the intestine, multivalvular bulbus arteriosus, are still 
found in some lower Teleosteans, but no longer in that combination which 
characterises the preceding order. Although Albula is exceptional 
among all Teleosteans in having two transverse series of valves to the 
bulbus arteriosus instead of one, no Ganoid has fewer than three. The 
order Teleostei, thus defined, is divided into thirteen sub-orders, whose 
characters are fully indicated. Brief definitions of the several families 
are given under their respective sub-orders. 

Glands of the Mouth-Cavity of Petromyzon.J— W. Haack describes 
the musculature, development, and histological structure of these glands. 
They are a pair of minute multicellular glands, about 3 mm. long and 
0*5 mm. in diameter, having the form of an oval sac, constricted in its 
hinder third in a dumb-bell like form. They are imbedded in the 
ventral surface of the basilaris muscle. There is a long slender efferent 
duct opening in the mouth-cavity. The gland shows a structure quite 
different from a salivary gland, its secretion has a weakly acid reaction, 
and no diastatic ferment can be found in its contents. 

Japanese Myxinoids.§ — Bashford Dean describes Homea ( = Bdello- 
stoma) burger i, H. olcinoseana sp. n., the largest known Myxinoid, and 
Paramyxine atami g. et sp. n. He throws doubt on the conclusion of 
Nansen and Cunningham, that Myxine exhibits protandric hermaphro- 
ditism. It is necessary to collect large numbers throughout the year 
to reach a well-established conclusion on this point. 

Japan seems to be the most favourable region for the study of 
Myxinoids. " In an especially conservative locality, as at Misaki, we can 
still catch a glimpse, so to speak, of the better days of the Myxinoids, for 
here there are living side by side three distinct genera represented by at 
feast four species." The author directs attention to the wide range in 
the variational characters of species. 

Thames Fisheries.! — James Murie reports on the physical forma- 
tion, fauna, and fisheries of the Thames estuary, incorporating a wealth 

* Proa-Verb. Soc. Sci. Bordeaux, 1902, pp. 18-19. 
f Ann. Nat. Hist., xiii.(1904) pp. 161-90. 
% Zeitsch. wiss. Zool., lxxv. (1903), pp. 112-46 (2 pis.). 
§ Journ. Coll. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, xix. (1904) art. 2, pp. 1-23 (1 pi. and 4 figs.). 
|| Report on Sea Fisheries and Fishing Industries of the Thames Estuary. Kent 
and Essex Sea Fisheries Committee, 1903. See Ann. Nat. Hist., 1904, pp. 325-6. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 301 

of material largely based on original observation. We select two items : 
Whitebait, believed to consist mainly of young herrings, is a very mixed 
collection of small fishes, and Dr. Murie adds 20 to the 11 species which 
were listed by Frank Buckland in 1879 ; the White Gaby, Aphia pellu- 
cida, supposed to be rare in the district, is very abundant in March and 
April, and Dr. Murie throws doubt on Collett's conclusion that it is an 
annual fish, which dies after breeding. 

Adipo-hepatic Function in Invertebrates.* — C. Deflandre gives 
the results of investigations on a series of types. The leading points 
seem to be as follow. In Worms the existence of fat-droplets in the 
cells of the " stomach intestine " indicate the existence of this func- 
tion in a simple state. In Echinoderms the function is correlated with 
that of the genital organs. In the Starfish, near the reproductive 
period, the hepatic cseca diminish iu volume and liberate their reserve 
products, which probably aid in the development of the genital ele- 
ments. The fat abundance corresponds to these variations. When the 
genital organs have atrophied, the hepatic tubes are hypertrophied, 
and occupy the whole of the arm. In Urchins there is a thickening 
of the walls of the middle intestine, and the cells of this part in con- 
taining fat-droplets show an adipo-hepatic function. In Molluscs the 
hepatic gland appears to possess secretory and digestive functions like 
that of the pancreas. It stores all the materials of which the organism 
has need — iron, lime, glycogen, and fat. In this it is like the liver. 
It also shows seasonal variations in quantity of fat, e.g. Mytilus, In 
the Oyster, from November to March (the reproductive period) there 
is no fat, while from March to November fat is abundant. In Crus- 
tacea the gland possesses digestive, excretory, absorbent, arrestive, and 
anti-coagulative functions. There is a large supply of fat, of which 
there is a seasonal variation, which is constant in a species. 

Tunicata. 

Development of Branchial Apparatus in Tunicata.f — Charles 
Julin has studied this in numerous types, and has reached a number of 
important conclusions bearing upon the phylogeny of Tunicates. He 
finds that Distaplia is a Tunicate provided with two pairs of branchial 
clefts, subdivided secondarily into several (four) transverse rows of 
branchial stigmata. As in Appendiculariae, the branchial apparatus of 
Salpa exhibits only one pair of branchial clefts, which remain un- 
divided throughout the whole of life. In Pyrosoma we have also to 
deal with a Tunicate with one pair of clefts subdivided, and the same 
is probably true of the Doliolidaj. As in Distaplia, so in Clavelina and 
Perophora there are two pairs of branchial clefts, subsequently sub- 
divided into several rows of branchial stigmata. In all the simple 
Ascidians whose development has been studied there are three pairs 
of branchial clefts. 

Polymorphism of Dolchinia.|— A. Korotneff describes a colony of 

* Joum. Anat. Physiol., xl. (1904) pp. 73-110. \ 

t Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., lxxvi. (1904) pp. 544-611 (42 figs.). 
\ Biol. Centralbl., xxiv. (1904) pp. 61-5. 

June 15th, 1904- y 



302 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Dolchinia which he has found in cylindrical pieces up to 40 cm. in length. 
On each piece there is a groove in which buds arise, which passing 
round the cylinder appear on the dorsal side as fully-developed organisms. 
These represent a second sexless generation, and bear secondary buds 
of different sizes. There are three generations in the life cycle : (1) 
a solitary nurse form, with stolon and tail, (2) nurse generation, fixed 
to the tail, and (8) a free sexual generation. The main difference 
from Doliolum consists in the presence of lateral buds on the cylinder, 
which the author considers are respiratory animals without nutritive 
function. 



IN VERTEBR AT A . 

Mollusca. 
y. Gastropoda. 

New Type of Gastropod.* — Heinrich Simroth describes a peculiar 
form — Ostracolethe fruhstorferi g. et sp. n. — from Tongkin. There is a 
rudimentary shell with a calcareous plate pressed into the intestinal 
sac, a large thin conchin membrane, and an apex visible through a cleft 
in the mantle. The jaw-plate is delicate, the radula has an extraordi- 
narily large number of uniform teeth, with two points and a coiled 
papilla at each side ; the oral disc is circular. The seminal filter is 
segmented into a number of muscular discs, and there are many other 
peculiarities. 

Simroth discusses the affinities between Ostracolethe and the Janellida?, 
and the Hedylidre. Subsequent sections are devoted to the origin of 
the iEolidiEe, the probable pedigree of the Holohepatica?, the origin 
of the Prosobranchs, hermaphroditism in Molluscs, geographical con- 
siderations, and a survey of Gastropods from an evolutionist point of 
view. 

Abyssinian Slugs.f — H. Simroth gives a descriptive account of a 
collection of twenty-one slugs from Abyssinia, including a new genus 
Varania. The slug fauna of this region is extraordinarily rich and 
peculiar ; it includes the phyletic root of Umax arborum, — the transi- 
tion between Agriolimax and Lehmannia ; the Urocyclid fauna of 
Abyssinia has nothing in common with that of Cameroon : it is rather 
linked (by Spirotoxon) to that of German East Africa. The peculiarities 
of the Abyssinian slugs, as to coloration, gut-coils, penis, etc., are dis- 
cussed, and are interpreted in terms of the author's " Pendulations- 
tlieorie." Interesting notes are made on the coloration. There is a 
close connection between the pigments and the uric concretions — both 
nitrogenous excretions of the hamiolymph, which may in diverse ways 
replace one another both internally and in the skin. The excretion of 
concretions instead of pigments seems to be prompted by the warm 
climate, and is predominant in Africa, both on the skin and in _the 
blood-vessels. 

* Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., lxxvi. (1904) pp. 612-72 (1 pi.). 
f Zool. Jahrb., xix. (1904) pp. 673-726 (4 pis. and 4 figs). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. .'303 

Nepionic Stage in the Gastropods.* — H. L. Kesteven discusses 
different types of transition from embryonic to neanic shell structure, 
as seen in Melo in dims, Lotorium abbotti, and Triphora. He arrives at 
the following definition of the nepionic stage, "That stage during 
which the velum undergoes degeneration and disappears," and main- 
tains that " where no varix is thrown up at the conclusion of the 
embryonic shell, no conchylaceous record of the nepionic stage has 
been left by the mollusc." He admits that the pseudoprotoconch may 
be the homologue of the embryonic varix, and that it is likely that 
some pseudoprotoconchs are nepionic. 

Inverse Symmetry in G-astropods.f — E. Gr. Conklin finds that 
inverse symmetry may be traced from the first cleavage of the egg, 
which in such cases is found to be inverse, and he considers that this 
must be preceded by an inverse organisation of the unsegmented egg. 
No inverse organisation can be detected in the ovarian eggs of sinistral 
snails, and it is, therefore, probable that it arises about the time of the 
maturation or fertilisation of the egg. 

Maturation and Fertilisation in Cymbulia Peronii.J — A.Nekrassoff 
describes the phenomena observed by him in the maturation and fertili- 
sation of this species. In particular his results do not support Boveri's 
view of the origin of the " segmentation centrosomes." His conclusion 
is that they arise de novo. There is no connection, he thinks, between 
them and the egg centrosome which has disappeared much earlier, nor 
can they owe their origin to the sperm. " They originate through the 
mutual relations of the nucleus and the plasma." 

5. Lamellibranchiata. 

Secretion of Pearls.§ — R. Dubois has made for years a study of 
pearl-formation in Margaritana, Unio, Anodonta, Pinna, 3/gtilus, and 
Morgaritifera, and formulates four conclusions. The formation of the 
pearl and of the nacre cannot be compared to an ordinary simple 
secretion. The organic basis and the carbonate of lime cannot be 
secreted by the same element. The apparently diverse structures of 
pearls are readily explicable as due to the passage of migratory calci- 
ferons elements through a fenestrated epithelium secreting the con- 
chyolin. The nacre, though the result Qf rougher work than the fine 
pearl, is produced by essentially the same mechanism. Some details of 
the complex secretory process are given. 

Detection of Pearls by means of X-Rays.|| — Raphael Dubois has 
been successful in detecting the presence of pearls, even of small size, 
by means of the X-rays. If this method is readily practicable — and 
it has been used in Ceylon — it will save much useless destruction of 
pearl-oysters, etc., and will also economise time. 

* Proc. Linu. Soc, N.S.Wales, xxviii. (1903) pp. 443-52. 

t Proc Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1903, p. 753. 

X Anat. Anzeig., xxiv. (1904) pp. 119-27. 

§ Comptes Rendus, cxxxviii. (1904) pp. 710-2. 

|| Tom. cit. pp., 301-2. 

Y i 



304 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Development of the Gill in Mytilus.* — E. L. Rice gives a pre- 
liminary abstract of inquiries on this subject. He notes specially an 
interesting parallel in the development of the inter lamellar connections. 
This connection in its finished form is a simple bar containing a blood 
channel, and connecting the two branches of one and the same filament. 
In an early stage the two branches are connected by a continuous plate 
of tissue extending from the bend of the filament upwards for a short 
distance. This is the adult condition in Area, and Modiola. Later a 
perforation appears in the plate, and the portion above the perforation 
is transformed into the characteristic bar-like connection. 

Orientation of Tridachnids within their Shells.f — Anthony 
corroborates the observations of Lacaze-Duthiers which showed that 
there is not, as is often asserted, any torsion of Tridacna and Hippopus 
within their shells. There has been a remarkable shortening of the 
antero-posterior axis and an elongation of the dorso-ventral and trans- 
verse axes, in adaptation, probably, to the mode of life and the massive- 
ness of the shells. 

Arthropoda. 

Excretion in Arthropods.} — L. Bruntz gives an account of the 
excretory apparatus in Arthropoda, of which he has examined a very 
representative series. Of kidneys opening directly to the exterior there 
exist antennary, maxillary, labial, podal, and coxal forms. These are 
organs consisting of two essential parts, a sacculus or terminal vesicle 
with epithelium, whose cells have the property of eliminating ammo- 
nium carminate injected into the coelome, and a labyrinth bringing 
the sacculus into communication with the exterior. In the majority 
the labyrinth was proved functional by its elimination of injected 
indigo-carmine. Excretory organs opening by the intermediary of the 
digestive tubes are Malphigian tubes, cseca of mid-gut and liver. The 
liver tubes of all higher Crustacea were found to eliminate aniline 
colours. A third type is the closed organ which accumulates or trans- 
forms the waste products. This is represented (1) by the nephrocytes. 
These are variable in form, groups of cells consisting of fibrillar or 
vacuolar cytoplasm containing masses of excretory products, upon which 
carminate may be deposited, or it may appear as granules in the cyto- 
plasm. 

Generally in one species, there is one kind of nephrocyte, which 
may be isolated, or grouped into a dense tissue. They are always on 
the track of the blood currents, they may be ventral or dorsal, in the 
head (Amphipods), cephalothorax (Arachnids), thorax (Copepods), or 
on various situations on the appendages. The third type of excretory 
organ — the closed organ — is also represented (2) by the uric cells of 
the fatty bodies. These eliminate vesuvin around the granules of 
sodium urate. 

* Ohio Naturalist, iv. (1904) p. 51. 

+ Comptes Kendus, exxxviii. (1904) pp. 296-8 (2 figs.). 

% Arch, de Biol., xx. (1903) pp. 217-422 (3 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 305 

a. Insecta. 

Influence of Environment on Caterpillars.*— A. Pictct has made 
many experiments showing that changes in the environment (diet and 
humidity) of caterpillars may result in changes in the adults. An 
aberrant form of Abraxas grossidariata, known in nature, was evoked 
after two generations of dieting on Euonymits ; the variety urticoides 
of Vanessa urticce, was obtained by feeding the caterpillars on the flowers 
instead of on the leaves of the nettle. The influence of humidity on 
coloration seems very marked, especially during the transition period 
between larval and pupal life. 

Influence of Humidity on Caterpillars. f — Arnold Pictet finds that 
humidity has a marked influence on coloration. When the caterpillars 
of Vanessa urticce and Pohjchloros are fed for ten days with moist leaves, 
the resulting butterflies have characteristic black markings on the wings. 
The same kind of result is obtained when the caterpillars are kept in an 
atmosphere saturated with moisture : then the nervures in V. urticce, are 
strongly marked in black and the margin of the blue spots is densely 
black and has invaded the normal area of these spots, which are, there- 
fore, very small, though extraordinarily brilliant. In short, humidity 
is a factor in inducing partial melanism, and modifications in this direc- 
tion are common in nature after rainy periods. It should be noted that 
when the larvas of V. urticce, are exposed to humid conditions during the 
transition moult between the caterpillar and pupa state, there result 
light coloured butterflies with a broad yellow band, crossing the anterior 
wing and continued in a triangle on to the posterior wing. 

Metamorphosis of Insects.! — Jules Anglas points out the close 
relations that obtain between the development of the trachea} and the 
phenomena of metamorphosis (histolysis and histogenesis). Active 
centripetal growth on the part of the trachea? leads to an insinuation 
of their terminal cells into the muscle-fibres, for instance, where these 
tracheal cells play an important role in histolysis, — a role partly me- 
chanical, probably also chemical, but unaccompanied by phagocytosis. 

Digestive Function in Insects.§ — A. Porta has examined a 
number of species of various orders, and concludes that the most im- 
portant agents in the digestion of insects are the glandular folliculi of 
the gastric cells, of the villous region, and of the mid-gut folds. These 
possess both a pancreatic and an hepatic function, and are consequently 
hepato-pancreatic glands. Their secretion acts by the transformation 
of albumen into true peptones, by the breaking up of neutral fats into 
glycerin and fatty acids, by the solution of fatty acids directly broken 
up by bile, forming an acid liquid capable of emulsifying. 

Biology of Stingless Honey-Bees of Brazil. || — H. v. Ihering com 

* Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat., xvi. (1903) pp. 585-8. 

t Op. cit., xvii. (1904) pp. 110-2. 

X Comptes Eendus, cxxxviii. (1904) pp. 300-1. 

§ Anat. Anzeig., xxiv. (1904) pp. 97-111. 

|| Zool. Jahrb., xix. (1904) pp. 180-287 (13 pis.). 



306 SUMMARY OF CUKRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

municates many interesting facts concerning the habits and structure of 
these bees. A comparison of representatives of the genera Melipona 
and Trigona with Apis m&llifka shows, r iin addition to the characters 
common to all Apidse, such as the existence of drones, queens and 
workers, swarming, collection of honey and pollen, and the use of wax 
for building, two important structural differences, viz. the rudimentary 
nature of the sting, and the formation of the wax-plates on the dorsal 
side of the abdomen. These differences have led the author to con- 
stitute the genera in question a separate family from the Apiche. These 
bees build their nests mostly in the stems or branches of trees ; they 
choose trees that rot easiest ; but some build in the earth, as deep as 
four metres, with a perpendicular, slanting or spirally twisted tube to 
the surface. The nests and the structural peculiarities are well illus- 
trated in the plates. 

Notes on Ants.* — Adele M. Fielde gives supplementary notes of 
experiments designed to ascertain whether any of the rays of light to 
which the ants are exposed in seeking food, so affect their metabolism 
as to produce that difference of odour, which, as a result of previous 
experiments, she believes is the cause of hostility between colonies of the 
same species and variety, and which is co-incident with difference of 
age in the individuals composing the colony. Incidentally it was found 
that while at first they instinctively sought shelter from the ultra-violet 
rays, after ten months' exposure to these, while still sensitive to them, 
the ants appeared to have learned that they were innocuous and adjusted 
their behaviour accordingly. On the main quest, however, the results 
were negative. 

Myrmecological Notes. t — Auguste Forel contributes a miscellaneous 
series of notes on ants. He submits facts which point to a hitherto 
unheard-of occurrence, — a spontaneous slave-capturing, pillaging ex- 
pedition undertaken by Strong ylognathus christophi v. rehbinderi. He 
Teports on ants from Kairouan in Tunisia, from Biskra, from Jerusalem, 
Cashmir, Brazil, and elsewhere, and on Gamponotas universitatis sp. n., 
from near Geneva. 

Oviposition in Bombyx mori.ij: — Jules Gal points out that the 
silk- moth lays eggs whether inseminated or not. But while females 
which have had complete copulation lay their eggs quickly, those 
which are virgin or which have had their copulation interrupted retain 
their ova longer. Moreover, while the inseminated females live on 
an average 1) • 3 days after oviposition, the ' virgins ' live for 11 • :> days 
thereafter. 

Wings of Beetles.§ — W. L. Tower has made a careful investigation 
of the origin and development of the wings of Coleoptera. He de- 
scribes the wing primordium, the formation of the larval wings and the 
tracheal system of the wings. The chief conclusion arrived at is, that 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, lv. (1903) pp. 491-5. 

t Revue Suisse Zool., xii. (1904) pp. 1-52 (1 fig.). 

t Couiptes Rendus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 932-4. 

§ Zoo/. Jahrb., xvii. (1903) pp. 517-72 (7 pis. and 8 figs.). 



911- 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 307 

the whole of the evidence points to Yerson's view that the wings of 
Coleoptera are derived from the spiracular rudiments of the meso- and 
meta-thorax. He then states the objections to the Midler-Packard 
theory of lateral or dorsal prolongations of the tergum, and gives, as 
two strong objections to the tracheal-gill theory of Gegenbaur, that 
the ancestry of Pterygota points to a terrestrial, not to an aqtiatic form ; 
and that tracheal gills are secondary adaptive structures, and so of no 
phylogenetic significance. 

Destruction of Winter Ova of Phylloxera by Lysol.* — G. Cantin 
gives an account of very successful experiments in which, by using 
lysol, he destroyed the winter ova of the Phylloxera without in any 
way hurting the vine. 

New Scale-Insect from India.j — E. P. Stebbing describes the life- 
history of Mtjiwpldebus stebtingi Green, abundant on the valuable Sal 
trees. There are many interesting facts concerning this pest : their 
sugary exudations can be heard dropping from the tall trees like rain- 
drops after a smart shower ; the female has the power of dropping from 
great heights without harming itself ; the female lays between 400 and 
500 eggs, and after the egg-laying, which seems to last from a fortnight 
to three weeks, both the male and female insects disappear from the 
forest. The author also discusses the life-history of a Coccinellid. 
Vedalia guerinu, predaceous on M. stebbingi, and contributes some 
general remarks on the Monophlebinse of the Indian region. 

Notes on Rhynchota.f — W. L. Distant gives, in a concluding paper, 
summaries of the generic characters of the Capsidge contained in the 
British Museum. 

Luminosity of Lampyridae.§ — J. Bougardt has investigated the 
structure and relation to the tracheal and nervous systems of the 
luminous organs in this family of beetles. Their physiology he has 
studied experimentally by subjecting the insects to a variety of abnormal 
chemical and physical conditions, such as immersion in carbon monoxide, 
hydrogen, oxygen, etc., warming, drying, placing in vacuo. It appears 
that luminosity persists some time after death, although it ceases tem- 
porarily under the foregoing conditions. It is not certain whether 
oxygen is used in the production of light. 

Structure of Pediculidse.y — N. Cholodkovsky gives some notes 
on the development of Pedkulas. In particular he describes at the 
blunt end of the egg, a spherical body of large cells with a cavity within 
and surrounded by an amnion-like envelope. It appears to be con- 
stricted off from the posterior end of the germ streak. Eventually it 
is surrounded by yolk and gradually comes to lie on the ventral side of 
the embryo under the posterior end of the central nervous system. 
Later, by differential growth, it lies in a hollow on the lower side of 

* Comptes Rendns, exxxviii. (1904) pp. 178-9. 

t Jourii. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), xxix. (1904) pp. 142-61 (3 pis.). 

I Ann. Nat. Hist., xiii. (1904) pp. 194-206. 

§ Zeitschr. viss. Zool., Ixxv. (1903) pp. 1-45(3 pis.). 

|| Zool. Anzeig., xxvii. (1904) pp. 120-5. 



308 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the alimentary canal. It is the organ described by other authors in 
adult Pediculi, and peculiar to them, as an abdominal gland of unknown 
function. 

5. Arachnida. 

Development of Scorpions.* — I. Poljansky gives some notes on 
the yolk and embryonal envelopes, including the relation to the mother 
during intra-uterine life, in Scorpio indicus. At first, while in the uterus, 
the embryos are semi-transparent, and do not appear to have so much 
yolk as other scorpions. The embryo after a certain time becomes 
detached from the mother through the gradual separation of the inner 
layer of the uterus from its attachment. The passage of the nutritive 
material continues by osmosis, a process which is aided by the presence 
of folds upon the dorsal and lateral regions of the body, which increase 
the absorptive surface. 

Two new forms of Trombidium parasitic in Man.f — F. Heim and 
A. Oudemans have found in several consecutive summers three specifi- 
cally distinct larval forms of Trombidium parasitic in man. One of 
these larval forms is referable to T. gymnopterorum ; the others to new 
species, T. poriceps and T. striaticpps. Their salient characters are de- 
scribed. The new species have been found also in various mammals, 
birds and insects. The three species may occur together in the human 
skin. All the observations relate to the same locality in France (Bure- 
la-Forge, Meurthe-et-Morelle) . 

Comparative Anatomy of Mites.| — Thor completes an elaborate 
account of the comparative anatomy of prostigmatic Acarina, in which 
he deals with the skin, the endosternite, the connective tissue, the 
leucocytes, the respiration, the digestive apparatus, the cutaneous and 
salivary glands, the excretory organs, the nervous system, the sensory 
organs, and the gonads. 

e. Crustacea. 

Proportion of Sexes in Shore-Crab.§ — R. C. Punnett has studied 
in reference to Mendel's law the proportion of the sexes in Carcinus 
manias. From his data, which relate to 3583 crabs — 80 '6 males to 100 
females — Punnett thinks it may be fairly concluded that (1) during the 
early stages of growth the proportion of the sexes is equal, and that 
(2) the approach of sexual activity is accompanied by changes of habit 
and disposition which, by exposing the males to greater risks, lead to 
an increased mortality during later stages of growth in this sex, as 
compared with the females. 

If we assume that the death rate in the larval and early post-larval 
stages is equal for the two sexes, then the former of the above two 
conclusions is in accordance with the view that Mendel's law applies to 
sex heredity in the crab. The second conclusion suggests the danger 
of drawing any conclusion as to the relative numbers in which the 

* Zool. Anzeig., xxvii. (1904) No. 2, pp. 49-58. 

t Comptes Rendus, cxxxviii. (1904) pp. 704-G (9 figs.). 

X Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.), xix. (1904) pp. 1-190 (9 pis. and 59 figs.). 

§ Proo. Cambridge Phil. Soc, xii. (1904) pp. 293-0. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY, ETC. 309 

sexes are produced from the proportion of the sexes at later stages of 
growth. It further points at a possible connection between sexual 
dimorphism and a different sexual mortality rate. But until more cases 
of a similar nature have been investigated, it would be unprofitable to 
dwell on this point. 

Sex Recognition among Amphipods.* — S. J. Holmes has deter- 
mined experimentally that neither sight nor smell are probable factors 
in enabling the males of HyaMla to recognise the females. It appears 
that accidental contact in their random movements is the initial factor 
which effects the union of the sexes. The male has a strong instinct 
to seize and carry other individuals of the same species, while the female 
tends to lie passive when touched, and especially so if she is seized. 
Mutilated males, which could not resist, were carried about for hours 
by other males, but dead specimens of either sex were not so carried. 

New Hyperiid Amphipod.f— A. Senna describes a remarkable new 
genus, Thaumonectes, from the Caraibic Sea, which must be placed near 
Thaumatops, among the Hyperiid Amphipods. 

Holopedidae.J — Th. Stingelin discusses this divergent family of 
Cladocera, in which the second antenna} are uniramose. In addition to 
Holopedium gibberum Zaddach, which occurs in North Europe and North 
America, he describes H. amazonicum sp. n., from the mouth of the 
Amazon. He gives a revised diagnosis of the genus and the family. 

Winter Eggs in Copepods.§— E. Wolf has proved the existence of 
winter eggs in two species of Diaptomus, viz. D. cceruleus and D. castor. 
He found, e.g. D. cceruleus in muddy holes containing stagnant water in 
August, which remained dry through the winter. In April of the fol- 
lowing year he moistened a small part of the mud, and in two days 
nauplii were to be seen, whose development was followed till their 
Diaptumus nature was quite clear. Subsequently, he found the eggs in 
the mud, enclosed within a double envelope. 

Annulata. 

Cephalisation and Metamerism in Annelids. || — ■ A. Malaquin has 
studied this problem with especial reference to Tomopteris, and comes 
to the following conclusions. The cephalic segment of Annelids had 
primitively a locomotor function, like the trunk segments, but this has 
given place to more specialised sensorial functions. The cephalic seg- 
ment may bear true setigerous outgrowths, homologous with parapodia. 
Cephalisation has been effected in Annelids by the transformation of a 
single metamere bearing the buccal orifice. 

Nematode in Smooth Muscle-Cells of Nephelis.f— A. Schuberg 

* Biol. Bull., v. (1903) pp. 288-92. 

t Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital., xxxv. (1903) pp. 93-o (1 fig.). 

j Revue Suisse Zool.. xii. (1904) pp. 53-64 (1 pi.). 

§ Zool. Anzeig., xxvii. (1904) pp. 98-108. 

|| Comptes Rendus, cxxxviii. (1904) pp. 821-4. 

•j Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., lxxvi. (1904) pp. 509-21 (1 pi.). 



310 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING 

and A. Schroder describe Myenchus bothryophorus g. et sp. n., which 
occurs in Nephelis vulgaris, especially within the smooth muscle-cells. 
It was also found in the connective tissue and in the cocoon of the same 
leech. There is only one previous record of a Nematode parasitic in 
leeches (in the body-cavity of Glossiphonia stagnalis or Clepsine oculata), 
and the occurrence inside smooth muscle-cells is also remarkable. The 
new form, which is marked by the possession of a ventral groove, comes 
nearest to Tylenchiis and ApMlenchus, but neither of these genera has 
any representative parasitic in animals. 



Platyhelminthes . 

Development of Planaria simplissima.* — N. M. Stevens finds that 
in Planaria simplissima the division of the chromosomes in both 
maturation divisions is longitudinal ; that the number of chromosomes 
in the maturation divisions varies from three to six, but is usually three ; 
that there is nothing corresponding to a typical blastula or gastrula ; 
that after several segmentations the blastomeres form an irregular group, 
embedded in a syncytial yolk-mass which forms a part of the embryo. 

Some of the blastomeres form the embryonic pharynx ; others 
wander through the syncytium. The embryonic layer which covers the 
secondary yolk taken in by the embryonic pharynx, in no way cor- 
responds to the ordinary gastrula-stage. The solid embryo has, by 
sucking in yolk through its pharynx, become a hollow ball filled with 
secondary yolk-cells. It consists of a single layer of syncytial yolk- 
material, containing scattered blastomeres which feed on the primary 
yolk-material and multiply until they occupy the whole space previously 
filled by the primary yolk. Then the inner embryonic cells begin to 
serve as endoderm-cells to absorb the secondary yolk. 

The axial gut and its principal branches are formed as ingrowths 
from the embryonic layer, dividing up the central space which is filled 
with secondary yolk. Ectoderm, endoderm, permanent pharynx, eyes, 
nervous system, gonads, glandular cells and muscle-cells, are all formed 
by direct differentiation of the embryonic cells of the one embryonic or 
germ-layer. There is no formation of two or three distinct germ-layers, 
nor are any of the organs formed by folding, as in most other forms. 
Altogether it is a remarkable story. 

Early Development of Fresh-water Dendroccelida.f — E. Mattiesen 
confirms the results of earlier observers who held that the syncytium 
.surrounding the blastomeres arises by the fusion of the yolk-cells. He 
observed the process in Planaria torva. He further notes that the 
embryonic mesenchyme contains elements of all the three germ layers, 
which explains the origin of diverse organs from it. The development 
has hardly anything in common with that of marine polyclads, which 
retain primitive characters. The various modifications in the fresh- 
water forms are mainly due to the development in the centre of a yolk- 
cell mass. 

* Troc. Acad. Sci. Philadelphia, 1904, pp. 2C8-20 (4 pis. and 5 figs.), 
t Zool. Anzeig., xxvii. (1904) pp. 81-87. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 311 

Structure and Development of Distomum cirrigerum.* — E. Warren 
gives an account of this parasite, which appears to have a secondarily 
acquired monogenetic life-history. The sexual form can develop from 
the egg within the crayfish host, and a cercaria-cyst stage occurs, 
generally before any cell differentiation has taken place in the embryo. 
After the blastomeres have divided into quite small cells it seems to be 
a matter of indifference how many of them are enclosed in the thick 
cercaria-cyst ; the excluded cells perish, the enclosed mass will develop 
into the embryo. Hence up to this period there is no sorting out of 
hereditary tendencies (except that sometimes the primordium of the 
cirrus-sac appears quite early) into separate cells, but they reside in the 
mass as a whole. The author is inclined to minimise the importance of 
the cell as a unit. There are points, too, in the development which 
tend to weaken the morphological significance of the usual conception 
of germ layers. 

Incertse Sedis. 

Pelmatosphaera.f — Maurice Caullery and Felix Mesnil describe a 
new organism — which they call Pchnato splicer a polycirri — found as a 
parasite in the body-cavity of an Annelid, Polycirrus Jmmatodcs Clap. 
It is a spherical, abundantly ciliated organism, apparently allied to 
Orthonectids, giving rise by endogenous multiplication to asexual 
progeny. 

Echinodernia. 

Fertilisation and Parthenogenesis in Echinoderms.f — A. Sehuek- 
ing has made many experiments bearing on the physiology of fertilisa- 
tion and development in Asterias glacialis, Stromjijlocentrotus lividus, 
Arbacia pustidosa. The mass of ova, with an acid reaction (due to 
phosphates of potassium and sodium), exerts a fatal, or a paralysing, or 
an agglutinating, or an exciting and attractive effect on the spermatozoa, 
according to its amount and duration of influence. The head of the 
spermatozoon serves for attachment to the ovum, not for boring into it. 
The spermatozoon is drawn in by a hyaline protuberance of the ovum- 
protoplasm. The essential event is the union of the two cytoplasms, 
which seems to be abetted by the centrosomes at the apex of the sperm. 
In fertilisation an interlamellar splitting of the vitelline membrane 
allows water to enter, and development then begins. 

Schucking was able to induce parthenogenetic development to an 
abnormal (delaminate) gastrula stage by the most diverse stimuli,— 
chemical, thermal, electrical, and luminous. The paper is full of 
interesting experimental data. 

New Genus of Spatangoids.§ — F. Jeffrey Bell describes a new 
genus, Eobrissus, of Prymnodesmid 8patangoids, with apex almost 
central and the anterior ambulacrum flush with the test ; the antero- 

* Quart. Journ. Micr. Soc, xlvii. (1903) pp. 273-301 (3 pis.), 
t Comptes Retidus, exxxviii. (1904) pp. 217-9. 

•J Piiiigers Archiv. Ges. Physiol., xcvii. (1903) pp. 58-97 (1 pi.). See Zool. Cen- 
tralbl., xi. (1904) pp. 161-2. 

§ Ann. Nat. Hist., xiii. (1904) pp. 230-7. 



312 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

lateral ambulacra are directed forwards, and not at right angles to the 
long axis of the test ; there is an open circumanal fasciole as in Metalia. 
This last feature has generally been regarded as a recent acquisition ; 
its co-existence with the archaic position of the apex is of interest. 

Regeneration in Starfish.* — Sarah P. Monks, in studying regenera- 
tion of Phataria (LincJcia) fascialis, cut arms at different distances from 
the disc, and a number of the single rays produced new bodies, while 
the rest of the star-fish produced a new ray. There was little difference 
i m the rate of growth of each. The cut edges heal and draw clown 
towards the oral side of the starfish, then small knobs appear at the 
end, which grow into rays in which the ambulacra! furrow soon appears, 
with the small mouth in the centre of the rays. 

Coelentera. 

Devonian Medusa.f — F. Kinkelin gives a description of Broohsella 

rhcnana sp. n., closely allied to Walcott's Broohsella alternata from the 
middle Cambrian. Kinkelin's discovery is of special interest because 
it is the first Medusa found in the Devonian. It was found near 
Laurenburg on the Lahn, by Ludwig Petry. 

New Cerianthid.J — L. Roule describes Pachycerianthus benedeni. 
The mesenteries are short, only two reaching the base ; the directive 
mesenteries are thick, giving the directive chamber the form of a 
cvlindrical tube ; there is an alternation of fertile mesenteries with 
acontia and sterile mesenteries without acontia, but with mesenteric 
filaments ; the endodermic musculature is scarcely developed ; the wall 
of the column is thick and substantial owing to the development of the 
longitudinal musculature and the mesogloea. Apart from the size of 
the single specimen (British Museum) and the number of mesenteries, 
there is a suggestion of the characters of the acontiferous larval forms 
of Cerianthids. It seems, therefore, that there are non-tubicolous 
Cerianthids, free-living for at least a large part of their life, which 
retain some of the larval characters of the ordinary tubicolous types. 
Roule also notes that there is a marked resemblance between Pachy- 
c&riantlms and some Antipatharia, especially Stichojmthes. 

Porifera. 

Spermatogenesis in Porifera and Ccelentera.§ — W. Gorich finds 
that there is a close correspondence in the spermatogenesis of Spongilla 
fluviatilis and Amelia aurita. In both, the central corpuscles give rise 
to the intra- and extra-cellular axial filament and to the middle-piece of 
the ripe spermatozoon. In both, there is a typical apical portion, and 
the long tail is formed from the protoplasm of the spermatid. The 
general result is to show that the processes of spermatogenesis in the 
lowest Metazoa are closely parallel to those in higher forms. Some 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, It. (1903) p. 351 (1 fig.). 

t Ber. Senckenberg. Nat. Ges., 1003, pp. 89-96 (1 pi.). 

t Comptes Rendus, cxxxviii. (1904) pp. 708-10. 

§ Zeitschr. -wise. Zool., Ixxvi. (1904) pp. 522-43 (1 pi. and 4 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 313 

notes on oogenesis in Sycandra raphanus, etc., confirm the results of 
F. E. Schulze. The ova arise from small amoeboid cells, and, as in 
Tubularia and Pennaria, there is an absorption of adjacent amoeboid 
cells by the growing ova. 

Protozoa. 

Reproductive Cycle in Protozoa, Volvocineae, and Dicyemidse.* 
M. Hartmann gives a very full comparative account of the life-cycle in 
these groups, with special reference to the elucidation of the Mesozoa. 
He concludes that both Dicyemids and Orthonectids can come under 
the plan of primary metagenesis, such as we are acquainted with in the 
Protozoa and Volvocineas. The paper is accompanied by a tabulated 
comparative statement of the different stages in the life-history of 
Coccidiwn, Volvox, and Dicyema. 

New Type of Suctoria.f — S. Awerinzew describes Astropl/rya 
armaria g. et sp. n., a suctorial Infusorian from the plankton of the 
Volga. It is enclosed in a massive shell of fine sandy particles and 
plant-remains agglutinated with a clear brown substance. There is an 
irregular central chamber (145-188 /*), with eight lateral processes 
(86-190 /x), from the ends of which the suckers emerge. Its position 
is probably near the family Dendrosomina. 

New or Little Known Miocene Foraminifera.1: — A. Silvestri de- 
scribes from the Miocene of Piedmont a number of new or imperfectly 
described forms, e.g. EUipsopleurostomella schlichti sp. n., E. rostrata 
sp. n., E. pleiirostomrfla sp. n., Lagena ventricosa sp. n., Ellijisobulimiaa 
segmmai sp. n. 

Trypanosoma and Trypanosomiasis. § — W. E. Musgrave and M. 
T. Clegg report exhaustively on an inquiry conducted with special re- 
ference "to Surra in the Philippines. The work discusses fully the 
geographical distribution, classification, modes of transmission of the 
parasite, modes of infection, animals infected, treatment, etc. Only a 
brief indication of some of the points brought out in this important 
paper can be given. Trypanosoma is distributed over large areas of 
the tropical and subtropical world, corresponding closely to the malarial 
zones. Its life-cycle is as yet unknown, but is believed to be completed 
within living animals. Infection with the parasite is through wounded 
surfaces, in which biting insects, particularly flies and fleas, serve as the 
principal agents. Statements concerning the infection of pastures and 
water, and transmission through sound mucous membranes, have nothing 
to support them. All methods tried for treatment of the disease have 
been without results of practical importance or significance. 

Trypanosoma in Indian Birds. || — W. Hanna gives notes of the 
occurrence of this parasite in the blood of the domestic pigeon and 

* Biol. Centralbl., xxiv. (1904) pp. 18-61. 

t Zool. Anzeig., xxvii. (1904) pp. 425-6 (1 fig.). 

% Atti. K. Acad. Sci. Torino, xxxix. (1904) pp. 4-15 (7 figs.). 

§ Report Dept. of the Interior U.S.A., 1903, pp. 1-248. 

|| Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., xlvii. (1903) pp. 433-8 (1 pi.). 



314 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Indian crow. They appear to differ from the only Trypanosoma hitherto 
described as occurring in birds, and from each other. 

Coccidia in Lamellibranchs.jl — L. Leger describes a monozoic 
parasite which is extremely common in renal epithelium, branchiae, etc. 
of mussels at Calvados. It occurs also in Mactra, Donax, Tapes, and 
Tellina. The oyster is not infected by it. The branchiae may be riddled 
by the ripe sporocysts, yet apparently without fatal effect. The parasite 
belongs to the genus Nematopsis, and appears to be closely related to 
the form inhabiting the mantle of Solen. 

Piroplasma donovani.f — A. Laveran and F. Mesnil give some 
details in regard to this parasite, found by Leishman and Donovan in 
the blood of the spleen of individuals from India, suffering from 
irregular remittent fever. 

* Comptea Rendus, cxxxvii. (1903) pp. 1003-6. 
t Tom. cit., pp. 187-9. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ET< . 315 



BOTANY. 

GENERAL, 

Including the Anatomy and Physiology of Seed Plants. 

Cytology, 
including: Cell-Contents. 

Bivalence of the Chromosomes.* — J. P. Lotsy discusses, with the 
aid of diagrams, the question of the behaviour of the chromosomes in 
the reducing divisions of animals and plants. He concludes that there 
is a true qualitative reducing division, since while the somatic cells have 
bivalent, the sexual cells have only univalent chromosomes. 

Amitosis in Plants. — W. v. Wasielewskif and B. Nemec| have 
investigated the effects of chloral hydrate in dilute solution upon the 
division of the nucleus, especially in the roots of seedlings. Both find 
that treatment with this reagent causes very abnormal nuclear divisions 
and even multinucleate cells, but that if the treatment is not prolonged, 
the nuclei and cells return later to their normal state and divide in a 
typical way. Wasielewski believes, however, that the abnormal divisions 
are real direct divisions (amitoses), while Nemec is of the opinion that 
they are merely abnormal mitoses in which, however, the processes of 
chromosome formation and splitting still occur. Nemec found that by 
fusion of the abnormally produced nuclei, there were produced nuclei 
with a double number of chromosomes ; presumably a reduction-process 
occurs later, for such double numbers soon ceased to be seen. 

Reduction Division in Ferns.§ — R. P. Gregory has examined the 
early stages in spore-formation in various members of the Polypodiaceaj, 
and finds that the essential features of the reduction-phenomena recently 
described by Farmer and Moore are present in ferns. The author de- 
scribes the details of the reduction division in the spore-mother-cells. 
The result is a transverse true reduction division of the bivalent chromo- 
somes which characterise the heterotype division. He then proceeds to 
a discussion of the significance of the reduction division in connection 
with Mendelian segregation. Viewed from this standpoint the occur- 
rence of a qualitative reduction in plants, as well as in animals, is 
extremely important as affording a possible provision for that purity of 
the gametes, in respect of allelomorphic characters, which is demanded 
by Mendel's hypothesis. 

Formation of Anthocyan.|j — T. Ichimura has studied the formation 
of this pigment to which are due the different shades of red and blue 
found in plant organs, for instance, in the skin of many ripe fruits, in 
some young shoots, and in various flowers. The object studied was the 

* Flora, xciii. (1904) pp. 65-86 (19 figs.). 

t Jahrb. wiss. Bot., xxxix. (1904) pp. 581-606 (figs, in text). 

j Tom. nit., pp. 645-730 (figs, in text). 

§ Proc. Roy. Soc, lxxiii. (1904) pp. 86-92. 

|| Journ. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, xviii. (1903) art. 3, pp. 1-18 I pi.). 



o 



16 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



petaloid calyx of Hydrangea Hortensia var. japonica, which was especially 
suitable because of the slowness with which anthocyan passes through 
its different phases of development in this plant, and also because of 
the long duration of its blossoming period. The different phases are as 
follows : 

Colourless protanthocyan 

Yellow anthocyan 

/ \ 

Reddish anthocyan Bluish anthocyan 
Deep red anthocyan Deep blue anthocyan 

\ / 

\ iolet anthocyan in crystals 

When the flowers open the petaloid calyx is yellowish or slightly 
greenish, the colour being due not to chlorophyll but to the cell-sap. 
At this stage protanthocyan is already formed, and at a later stage passes 
into yellow anthocyan which colours the sap of the epidermal cells. 
Chemical reactions indicate that protanthocyan and yellow anthocyan 
are allied compounds of tannin or modified phenol compounds. In the 
second phase (July 1-20) the sepals of the open flowers became coloured 
red, when exposed to sunlight, by development of red anthocyan, the 
colour spreading from the apex towards the base. Acids do not produce 
any marked change in the colour of red anthocyan, but alkalis turn it 
green. In the third phase (July 20 to August 1) most of the flowers 
tend to nutate, each sepal becoming turned upside down, when the 
lower side turns red from the base towards the periphery. The colour 
is less bright than on the upper face. Microscopical examination shows 
an increasing number of red epidermal cells on the upper face, while 
some bluish cells are often met with in the hypodermal layer. On the 
lower face the red cells occur mainly as irregular idioblasts in the hypo- 
derm. Chlorophyll grains begin to appear at first in the hypodermal 
cells on both aspects of the leaf, extending later to the middle of the 
mesophyll. In the last phase (August 1 to September 1) erect flowers 
can no longer be found. The red colour of the lower face of the sepals 
becomes darker, chiefly clue to the mixing of the epidermal deep red and 
the hypodermal blue anthocyan. In this phase microscopic examination 
reveals violet or bluish crystals in the outer layers of the leaf on both 
faces. Their chemical reactions agree with those of the blue or violet 
cell-sap, and they must, therefore, be regarded as anthocyan crystals. 
They dissolve in acids to form a red solution, in potash to form a pale 
green solution, and in chloral hydrate without any special change of 
colour. They are doubtless identical with Zimmermann's "pigment 
secretion " and Kroemer's violet chromatophore. A refractive globule 
is found in each epidermal cell in this last phase, which closely resembles 
those described by Kroemer in the coffee-berry ; it is probably a proteid 
combined with fatty bodies. 

Farmer, J. B. — On the interpretation of the Quadripolar Spindle in the Hepaticae. 

Bot. Gazette, xxxvii. (1904) pp. 63-5. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 317 

Strvicture and Development. 

Vegetative. 

Persistence of the Alternate Structure in Cotyledons.* — G. 
Chauveaud refers to an interpretation of the relation between collateral 
and radial bundles, which formed the subject of a previous note in the 
Comptes Bendus, 1901. The collateral structure characteristic of the 
leaf is not primary to the same degree as the alternate arrangement 
which characterises the root. It represents the last phase of evolution 
of the conducting apparatus, the alternate arrangement representing the 
first phase, and the two being connected by an intermediate phase. In 
all the roots of the higher plants where the conducting apparatus under- 
goes a complete evolution, there appear (1) the alternate phase, (2) the 
intermediate, (3) the superposed pbase. If instead of following the 
development in the root w T e ascend the plant axis, we find a greater or 
less acceleration of the development, which at a certain level finds ex- 
pression in the suppression of the two first phases. When development 
is greatly accelerated, as in the haricot, the suppression occurs suddenly 
in the neighbourhood of the neck. When on the contrary it is less 
rapid, as in onion and Pinus maritima, the earlier phases persist not 
only in the tigellum but also in the cotyledons. That is to say there 
appear in a leaf the same phases already indicated in the root : 
(1) alternate, (2) intermediate, (3) superposed, a proof that the super- 
posed arrangement in the leaf represents only the last phase of evolution 
of the conducting apparatus. In a recent note,f the presence of the 
alternate arrangement has been described in the cotyledons of several 
Labiatre. In Lamium album and other members of. the order, the two 
primary wood bundles of the radicle pass into the cotyledons, remaining 
in the same plane, that is, the plane of symmetry of the cotyledons. 
The bundles' do not divide, and no rotation occurs. At a later stage, 
the first formed elements disappear and only superposed elements are 
found. 

Lignification of Subterranean Organs in Plants of High Re- 
gions. J — A. Dauphine describes some peculiarities in the structure of 
the wood of the roots and rhizomes of some herbaceous plants, which 
when adapted to an alpine climate show a considerable development, 
living for many years and forming organs of reserve during the period 
when aerial growth is suspended ; successive layers of wood are formed 
each year. In many families, Ranunculacese, Caryophyllaceae, Rosacea, 
Compositge, G-entianaceae and others, the lignification of the secondary 
wood is irregular. Thus in Cherleria sedoides the wood forms a con- 
tinuous ring surrounding a very reduced pith ; the vessels, which are 
very numerous and of small calibre, are scattered in a cellulose paren- 
chyma, and have but slightly thickened membranes which show no 
trace of lignification ; the medullary rays and the annual layers are not 
evident. A similar arrangement occurs in the rhizome and root of 

* Comptes R'-n lus, cxxxviii. (1904) pp. 768-72. 

t Op. cit., cxxxvii. (1903) p. 804. 

t Op. cit., cxxxviii. (1904) pp. 592-3. 

June 15th, 1904 z 



318 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Silene acaulis and Gentiana acaulis, in the root of dandelion, and in 
numerous rhizomes. Sometimes the pith is more developed, and the 
vessels do not form a continuous ring. In Phyteuma hemisphericum 
the pith is obsolete, but the medullary rays are very well developed, and 
the vessels, which alone are lignified, form, in transverse section, narrow 
radial lines accompanied by a parenchyma with thin cellulose walls. 
Trifolium alpinum, Lotus corniculatus and others, show a structure 
which may be regarded as intermediate between the preceding case and 
a normal lignification of the secondary wood. The vessels are arranged 
in radial threads, while the accompanying cellulose parenchyma includes 
also supporting elements, consisting of elongated fibres of very small 
diameter and considerably thickened walls, the middle lamella of which 
shows the lignin reaction, while the internal thickening consists of 
cellulose, showing sometimes a slight tendency to lignification. 

Reproductive. 

Morphology of Elodea canadensis.* — R. B. Wylie has studied the 
morphology of this plant, which is one of the most specialised members 
of the Helobiales. He describes in detail the development of the pistil- 
late flower ; the long floral tube between the ovary and sepals is directed 
towards the surface of the water by virtue of its low specific gravity 
brought about by three rows of air spaces. In the male flower, which 
is much simpler, the receptacle instead of pushing up into a floral tube, 
becomes merely conical, and gives rise in turn to sepals, outer stamens,, 
inner stamens, and very much later the corolla, which is not prominent 
and may be quite rudimentary. Four megaspores are usually formed, 
but in one instance six were observed ; the embryo-sac early develops 
a pouch, in which the antipodal group of nuclei is formed ; the polar 
nuclei approach one another at an early stage, and may remain for a 
long time side by side ; their fusion was not observed before fertilisation. 
The stamens produce two microsporangia each ; the pollen-grains adhere 
in tetrads, and have a greater specific gravity than that of water. It 
is of interest that the microspores, though borne by one of the most 
specialised of submerged aquatics, entirely devoid of cutinised walls in 
all its vegetative parts, have a strongly cutinised extine and a well- 
developed intine. In Najas and Zannichellia on the contrary no extine 
is developed. The extine in Elodea possesses spines which hold back 
the surface film and imprison sufficient air to keep the spores afloat. 
The microspore nucleus divides long before the grain has reached its 
full size ; the generative cell is at first crescentic in outline ; after its 
passage into the cytoplasm of the tube-cell it is for a time spherical, 
but subsequently becomes much elongated, and just before its division 
into the male cells is curved and may extend nearly across the spore. 
The tube nucleus shows considerable irregularities in outline during its 
existence. The formation of male cells occurs long before the pollen- 
grains are shed ; they remain joined together by their elongated ends, 
while in the pollen-grain they show marked cell-structure ; about the 
nucleus is an extensive mass of cytoplasm differing considerably from 
the contents of the spore and closely invested by a limiting membrane. 

"When the staminate flower is mature a bubble of oxygen forms at 

* Bot. Gazette, xxxvii. (1904) pp. 1-22 (4 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY, ETC. 319 

the tip, becoming nearly as large as the flower ; the buoyancy of the 
enclosed gas, aided by the low specific gravity of the flower, overcomes 
the weakened attachment, and the flower darts to the surface. The 
bubble then disappears, and the sepals snap back quickly, forming three 
floats, which support the sporangia above the water ; the pollen how- 
ever is nearly all discharged at the moment the flower comes to the 
surface, the snow-white tetrads being quite conspicuous floating on the 
water. The pistillate flower is impervious to water and so produces a 
depression in the surface film. Pollen-grains floating near are brought 
into contact with the stigmas by means of gravity operating through 
the declined surface film. The large pollen-tubes penetrate the long 
floral tube and pass directly through the ovarian cavity to the upturned 
micropyles. Tubes which have failed to enter ovules often swell up 
into cyst-like enlargements in the ovary, in which the distinct male cells 
can be seen. Fertilisation takes place in the usual manner, and the 
second male cell unites with the endosperm nucleus. The primary 
endosperm nucleus does not divide until a two-celled embryo has been 
formed ; the pollen-tubes persist until the embryos are well developed. 
The suspensor cell of the embryo becomes enormously enlarged, and 
the synergid often increases in size. The primary root is probably 
functionless, and secondary roots are developed in the seed from the 
lower parts of the stem. 

Pollination of Buckwheat.* — P. P. Richer finds as a result of 
experiment with Polygonum Fagopyrum, a heterostyled dimorphic plant, 
that the flowers are always quite sterile when self -pollinated, or with 
pollen from flowers of the same form on the same plant. They are 
very slightly fertile after illegitimate cross-pollination between flowers 
of the same form on distinct plants. They are, on the contrary, highly 
fertile after legitimate cross-pollination between flowers of different 
form on distinct plants. It seems evident, therefore, that the two forms 
of flower owe their fertility solely to reciprocal crossing, and conse- 
quently that almost all the seeds produced naturally are the result of 
legitimate union. 

Physiology. 

Nutrition and Growth. 

Nitrogen-assimilation of Fresh-water Algae. t — J. Reinke de 
scribes a symbiosis between Volvox and Azotobacter, associated with an 
increase in the amount of combined nitrogen in the solution. He 
suggests the importance of the latter as a means for obtaining nitrogen 
from the atmosphere in the case of fresh water as well as of marine 
organisms. The author adduces in support of his hypothesis the 
observation of Gerlach and Vogel, that 10 to 12 p.c. of the dry weight 
of Azotobacter consists of nitrogen ; it is therefore eminently qualified 
to act in symbiosis as a nitrogen-assimilator for other plants. 

Irritability. 

Chemotropism of Roots.J — F. C. Newcombe and A. L. Rhodes find 
that the roots of Lupinus alius are positively chemotropic towards solu- 

* Coroptes Eendus, cxxxviii. (1904) pp. 302-4. 

t Ber. Deutsch. But. Gesell., xxi. (1903) pp. 481-3. 

j Bot. Gazette, xxxvii. (1904) pp. -23-35. 

Z 2 



320 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

tions of disodic phosphate, and that no concentration of the solution 
will produce a negative curve. Stronger solutions (1*5 p.c.) cause first 
a curving toward the salt and then death. The death of the roots may 
he due to the osmotic strength of the surrounding medium. The 
particular attractive component of the salt was not determined ; it may 
be either the sodium or the phosphoric acid ion ; the work of Stange 
and Buller suggests that the P0 4 ion is the active one. Roots of 
Cucurbita Pepo are indifferent towards chemicals, a fact which suggests 
that sensitiveness to chemicals may vary in the same way as sensitive- 
ness to light ; that is to say, roots may be either chemotropic or non- 
chemotropic. None of the roots tested gave any indication of osmo- 
tropism ; the experiments suggested that osmotropism and hydrotropism 
are not identical. 

General. 

Endophytic Fungus of Orchids.* — Noel Bernard, continuing his 
investigations on this subject, has endeavoured to cultivate the endo- 
phytic organisms of different Orchids. He finds in the case of a hybrid 
Cyprlpedium, that the fungus, a hyphomycete morphologically identical 
with that previously isolated from seedlings of Cattleya, penetrates the 
embryo always at the pole turned towards the micropyle. The large 
fleshy roots of Spiranthes autumnalis yielded a hyphomycete indistin- 
guishable from the preceding. The results of experiment suggest that 
the same endophyte can impregnate different Orchids ; that is to say, 
we are dealing, as in the case of the Rhizobium of the Leguminosge, 
with a parasite characteristic of the family. 

Mechanics of Seed-dispersion in Ricinus communis.! — J. B. 
Dandeno finds that as the carpels begin to separate in the ripe fruit, 
one of the three is so placed that the angle of projection of the seed is 
that which gives theoretically the greatest range ; the other two carpels 
are in a less favourable position. The fruit splits septicidally from the 
base till a point is reached about 3 mm. from the apex, and meanwhile 
the carpels also separate from the central column, which bears three 
projecting processes upon which they are finally suspended. The carpel 
with its dorsal side uppermost has the most sun exposure and dries 
most quickly ; this is also the one which has the best position for pro- 
jection. After the carpels are entirely free from the central column, 
the contraction of the dorsal wall continues until the carpel gives way 
at its weakest point. This is at the apical end, where are three pairs 
of tooth-shaped arrangements meeting at a line about 3 or 4 mm. long. 
Each carpel splits apart at this line with some violence ; this acts as a 
spring suddenly relaxed, and the carpel is projected ; the seed, though 
projected with the carpel, is at this time or soon after, released. 

As the result of a calculation the writer finds that the ground 
covered by the seedlings from a single plant would be approximately 
105 acres in 100 years. This calculation is based upon the considera- 
tion of the fruit as a projectile alone, and takes no account of other 

* Compti'S Rendus, cxxxviii. (1904) pp. 828-30. 
f Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxxi. (1904) pp. 89-92. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 321 

means for distributing the seed, such as washing away by water or 
transportation by wind or animals. 

Triadenum virginicum, Rafinesque.* — T. Holm adduces evidence 
based on morphological and anatomical characters in support of Ra- 
finesq ue's view of the generic distinction of Linnasus's Hypericum 
virginicum. Rafinesque separated his genus from Hypericum solely on 
the floral glands and reddish flowers, but a study of the plant from the 
seedling and of the subterranean organs in connection with an ana- 
tomical investigation of the vegetative organs compared with those of 
other species of Hypericum, has convinced the writer that Triadenum 
shows sufficient morphological and anatomical characters to entitle it to 
generic distinction. Its more or less tuberous stolons with scale-like 
leaves, are not met with among the species of Hypericum proper ; and 
the subterranean organs offer several points of interest in which the 
proposed genus shows a marked deviation from Hypericum. The vena- 
tion of the leaves is also peculiar and characteristic ; the veins are very 
prominent on the lower face of the blade, and the secondaries are more 
numerous but shorter, and proceeding from the mid-rib under an angle 
that is much broader than is observable in the leaves of Hypericum. 
In the latter the secondaries proceed, as a rule, from below the middle 
of the mid-rib, while in Triadenum they are noticeable almost to the 
apex of the blade. 

The author gives a somewhat detailed account of the anatomy of 
the vegetative organs, and points out certain differencies as compared 
with species of Hypericum. The disposition of the ducts seems cha- 
racteristic of the genus Triadenum as compared with the other 
Hypericaceas. 

Hairs of Aquatic Plants, f — E. Barsali discusses the significance 
of the hairs of aquatic plants. He cites on the one hand the opinions 
of Stahl and Schrenk, that muciparous hairs protect the young organs 
from the attacks of animals, and of colonies of alga3 and bacteria ; 
and on the other hand the opinions of Goebel and Schilling, that these 
hairs remove the young leaves from immediate contact with water. 
From his own researches, he comes to the conclusion that the sole 
object of the hairs, whether muciparous or not, is to protect and defend 
the young organs from external influences. 

Development of Stamens in the Interior of the Ovary of Melan- 
dryum.J — F. Buchenau describes some abnormal flowers of Melandryum 
rubrum found near Marburg, which at first sight appeared to be 
apetalous female flowers. Examination showed them to consist of a 
single whorl of rive leaves, which showed in a manner varying con- 
siderably in different specimens the character partly of sepals and partly 
of carpels. The members were united to form a chamber more or less 
open at the top ; from the lower part of the chamber sprang a whorl 
of stamens of normal form, generally six to nine in number, sometimes 
ten. On one occasion a row of ovules was found on the united edges 

* Anicr. Journ. Sci., xvi. (1903) pp. 369-7G (figs, in text). 

t Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital., 1903, pp. 301-7. 

X Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell. xxi. (1903) pp. 417-24 (1 pi.). 



322 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

of two adjacent carpel-like members of the outer series. There was 
never any trace of a central placenta, and the author regards the 
appearance of the ovules in the unique case as a proof of the origin of 
the central placenta in normal flowers from the united edges of the 
carpels. 

Monstrosities in Foliage Leaves.* — L. Geisenheyner describes and 
figures some abnormal leaf-forms. On shoots of Deutzia crenata bearing 
leaves of normal form, other leaves were found showing various stages 
of union ; the author figures a shoot showing a terminal " compound " 
leaf derived from the union of four displaced simple leaves. He also 
describes pitcher-formations, involving the whole or part of the leaf 
in Magnolia Yulan, and cases of forking of the mid-rib in leaves of 
the common Ivy, accompanied with a greater or less indentation or 
lobing of the central leaf -segment. 

Mobius, M. — History and description of the Botanic Garden at Frankfort-on-the 
Main. Ber. Senckenb. Naturf. Ges. in Frankf.-a.-M., 1903, 

pp. 117-51 (2 pis. and 2 figs, in text). 

CRYPTOGAMS. 

Pteridophyta. 

Development of Vascular Cryptogams.! — G. Chauveaud, as a result 
of his researches into their embryology, states that the stem of vascular 
cryptogams is a complex structure. The first divisions in the quadrants 
of the egg of a fern form a primary meristem, which by differentiation 
yields a foot, a primary root, a primary leaf, and an undifferentiated 
portion. The primary root and the primary leaf constitute a primary 
plantlet, connected with the prothallus by the foot. Between the foot 
and the primary leaf is the undifferentiated portion, forming a tiny 
growing point which, when the first leaf has almost reached its complete 
development, divides actively and forms a second meristem which, on 
differentiation, gives a continuation of the foot, a second root, a second 
leaf, and an undifferentiated portion. The second root and leaf form a 
second plantlet similar to the first, and also connected with the preceding 
structures by the continuation of the foot. When the second plantlet 
has reached a certain development, the undifferentiated growing point 
between the leaf and the foot again divides, and a third plantlet is pro- 
duced — in short, the fern is built up by a succession of elementary 
plantlets, consisting of root and leaf, connected by the foot. This 
mode of formation becomes gradually less evident, owing to rapidity 
of development resulting in the greater or less fusion of the successive 
plantlets. The number of cells is also increased in each new generation, 
and hence these generations, arising at levels less and less distinct, 
cause a very rapid transverse growth of the structure formed by the 
fusion of their parts. This body is what we know as the stem, the 
structure of which becomes increasingly complex with the increasing 
age of the plant. Thus the stem of ferns represents a fusion of dif- 
ferent parts, the number varying according to the level of the section. 

* Ber. Daufscb. Bot. Gesell., xxi. (1903) pp. 440-51 (1 pi.). 
f Comptes Itendus, cxxxviii. (1904) pp. 511-13. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 323 

Antithetic versus Homologous Alternation.* — D. H. Campbell 
discusses the main arguments put forward in favour of the two rival 
theories as to the origin of the Bryophyta and Pteridophyta, Accord- 
ing to the Antithetic theory, the ferns originated from forms very 
similar to the simpler existing liverworts, the leafy sporophyte being 
an elaboration of the non-sexual sporophyte. The Homologous theory 
maintains that the Bryophytes and Pteridophytes arose quite indepen- 
dently of one another from Algal ancestors — a hypothesis first suggested 
by the alga-like protonema of the mosses, and the somewhat similar 
prothallia of certain ferns, especially Trichomanes. These filamentous 
structures the author, a supporter of the Antithetic theory, regards as 
merely secondary developments. He insists upon the obvious resem- 
blances in the gametophyte of ferns and hepatics, especially the structure 
and development of the archegonium, and the early stages of the sporo- 
phyte and the extraordinarily uniform method of spore-production. 
The sporophyte of Anthoceros in many ways offers the nearest approach 
to the Pteridophytes, as the author shows. Apogamy is the strongest 
argument in favour of homologous alternation, but, as it has only been 
observed in the leptosporangiate ferns (i.e. the most recently evolved and 
most specialised members of their class), and only in their cultivated 
forms, apogamy appears to be a pathological phenomenon and not a 
primitive function. Hence it is difficult to accept the homologous 
theory that the sporophyte probably arose from the gametophyte as a 
vegetative outgrowth. The author proceeds to reject this view for other 
reasons. He gives reasons also for rejecting the view that the sporo- 
phyte arose asexually from the gametophyte in response to a call for 
increased chlorophyll activity. Purely vegetative shoots are of course 
so produced ; but that these gave rise to the leafy sporophyte requires 
evidence which is not forthcoming. Apospory and apogamy may be 
compared to adventitious budding. The real explanation of the pecu- 
liarities of the leafy sporophyte must be sought in the conditions of 
water-supply. The bryophytes have never succeeded in emancipating 
themselves from the aquatic habit. Their rhizoids are inadequate to 
supply a plant-body of large size. The sporophyte, aerial in habit, by 
means of its foot draws its water from the gametophyte ; and it was not 
till a root of unlimited growth was evolved, that the sporophyte was 
enabled to lead an independent existence and attain large dimensions. 

Californian Ferns.t — S. B. Parish gives an account of the pterido- 
phyta of California, a State which, stretching 600 miles from north to 
south, presents great diversity of climatic conditions in latitude, altitude, 
temperature and rainfall. The latter varies from 60 inches annually in 
the north to 5 inches or less in the southern deserts. Yet the flora 
amounts to no more than 76 species. There is a lack of the moist 
equable warmth which the ferns require for their best development. 
In the north there is an abundance of a few species, mainly bracken ; 
in the arid south the xerophytic genera — Pellim, Notholana and Chei- 
lanthes — exhibit the greatest development. There is a mingling of 
ferns of a northern and southern type, and it is the latter which are the 

* Amer. Naturalist, xxxvii. (1903), pp. 153-69. 
t Fern Bulletin, xii. (1904) pp. 1-15. 



324 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

more interesting and characteristic. The present list is partly a com- 
pilation, but is probably correct. Its special interest lies in the records 
of the distribution of the species within the State. 

Baesecke, P. — Bsitrage zur Pteridopliytenflora des Rhein und Nahethales. (Con- 
tributions to the Fern-flora of the Rhine and Nahe Valley.) 
[Variations of Scolopendrium an>i Ceterach~\ 

Deutsch. Bot. Monatsschr., xx. (1902) pp. 65-69; 
xxi. (1003) pp. 54-6, 76-80. 
Bolcs, H., & A. H. Wolley-Dod — Ferns of the Cape Peninsula. 

Trans. South African Phil. Soc, xiv. (1903) pp. 363-5. 

Borbas, V. — Aspidium Thelipteris var. brachytomum Borb. var. nov. 

Mag. Bot. lapok., ii. (1903) p. 256. 

Chacveai'd, G. — Recherches sur la mode de formation des tubes cribles dans la 
racine des Cryptogames Vasculaires et des Gymnospermes. (Researches on the 
mode of formation of sieve tubes in the root of the Vascular Cryptograms and 
Gymnosperms.) Ann. Sci. Nat., xviii. (1903) se'r. 8, pp. 165-279 (9 pis.). 

Chiovenda, E. — Sul nome di alcune felci nostrali. (On Ihe rames of some native 
Italian ferns.) 

\_Phyllitis is a prior' name to Scolopendrium, as also is Polystichum Roth to 
Aspidium Sw. ; and Cystopteris fragdis should be corrected to C. Jilix- 
fragilis, Linnseus having called the plant Polypodium Filix-fragile~\ 

Ann. di Bot. Pirotta, i. (1903) pp. 208-10. 

Christ, H.— Can Scolopendrium Lindeni Hook, be separated from S. vulgare Sm. ? 

Fern Bull. xi. (1903) pp. S6-7. 
„ ., Filices Cavalerianae. 

[List of 48 pteridophyta from Kouy-Tehoou or Kwei-Chou province, in South 
China, collected by L. Cavalerie, with 13 new species.] 

Bull. Acad. Interned. Gtfogr.Bot, xiii. (1904) pp. 105-20 

(9 figs, and 1 pi ). 

„ ., Les fougeres de la Galicia Espagnole. (The Ferns of Spanish Galicia.) 

[Annotated list of ferns collected by Rev. J. B. Merino, including some new 

varieties.] Tom. <it., pp. 76-81. 

Clos, D. — Sur une nouvelle localite francaise de rHymenophyllum tunbridgeuse, 
(On a new French station for H. tunbridgeuse.) 

Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 1. (1903) pp. 592-4. 

Clcte, W. N. — A new species of Equisetum. 

[fi 1 . Fcrrissi, resembling E. hyemale, but differing in measurements of sttm and 

internodes and number of grooves.] Fern Bulletin, xii. (1904) pp. 20-3. 

„ „ The measurement of variation in Equisetum. 

[Comparative measurements of a large number of mature specimens of B. 

robustum and E. hyemale, leading to the conclusion that the former is only 

a stout form of the latter.] Tom. cit., pp. 15-8. 

Coker, W. C. — Equisetum arvense L. 

[Illustrated note on the young prothallia.] 

Bot. Gazelle, xxxvii. (1904) pp. 69-1 (figs, in text). 
Eaton, A. A. — The genus Equisetum in North America. XVI. E. variegatum. 

Ftrn Bulletin, xii. (1904) pp. 23-5. 

Field, H. C. — Note on Hybrid Ferns. Trans. Proc. Neio Zealand Inst., 

xxxv. (1903) pp. 372-3. 

Geze, J. B. — Note sur la piesence de l'Asplenium viride Huds. dans les environs de 
Toulouse. (Note on the presence of A. viride in the neighbourhood of Toulouse. 

Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 1. (1903) pp. 481-2. 

Gilbert, B. D. — A new Fern from Bermuda. 

Amer. Botanist, iv. (1903) pp. 86-7- 
Gwynn-Vaughan, D. T.— Observations on the Anatomy of Solenostelic Ferns. 

Ann. Bot, xvii.(1903) pp. 689-748(3 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 325 

W. H— Kcw Notes. Rare Ferns. Gard. Chron., 1901, p. 140 (fig ). 

Hey, W. C. — Asplenium adiantum-nigrum in East Yorkshire. 

Naturalist, 1904, p. 32. 
Hill, E. J. — Remarks on some Fern- worts of Western New York. 

Fern Bulletin, xii. (1901) pp. 18-20. 
Hiekonymus, G. — Selaginellae novae. 

[Descriptions of three new West Indian species.] 

Urban's Symbolse Antillanse,\\\. (1903) pp. 524-7. 
„ „ Selaginellarum species novae vel non satis cognitae. II. Selagi- 

nellae e subgenere (vel sectione; Heterophyllo. (Species of Selagindla which sire 
new or insufficiently km.wn. Part II. Species of the sub-genus or s-ection 
Beterophyllum.) 

[A continuation, giving full descriptions of 44 species, with ciitic.,1 notes. 

Hedwigia, xliii. (1904) pp. 1-65. 
Johnson, T. — Tyloses in the Bracken Fern (Pteris aqnilina L.). 

Froc. R. Soc. Dublin, x. (1903) pp. 101-3 (1 pi). 
Krieger, W. — Die Formen nnd Monstrositaten von Polypodium vulgare L. in der 
Umgebung von Konigstein (Konigreich Sachsen). (The forms and monstrosities 
of P. vulgare in the environs of Konigstein, Saxony.) 

Iledwigia, xliii. (1904) pp. 74-7. 
Kuhn, M., & others— Flora portoricensis. Pteridophyta. 

[Systematic enumeration of the pteridophytes of Poito Rico, 254 specks.] 

Urban's Symbolse Antillanse, iv. (1903) pp. 1-70. 

Leveille, H. — Quelques fougeres anormales du Maine. (Some abnoimal ferns of 

Maine.) Bull. Soc. Agric. Set. Art. Sarthe., ser. 2, xxxi. (1903) p. 176. 

Ltjerssen, C. — Botanische Ausbeute einer Reise durch die Sinaihalbinsel von 

A. Kneucker. Pteridophyta. (Botanical results of A. Kneucker's journey through 

the Sinai peninsula. Pteridophytes.) 

[Contains a description of a new form of Equisetum.'] 

Allg. Bot. Zeitschr., 1903, pp. 184-5. 
Macloskie, G. — Pteridophyta (collected in Fuego and Fatagonia by J. B. Hatcher). 
[Forty-three species determined by L. M. Underwood.] 

Princeton Unicers'ty Exped. to Patagonia, viii. (1903) pp. 127-38. 
M axon, W. R. — A study of certain Mexican and Guatemalan species of Polypodium 

Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb., viii. (1903) pp. 271-89 (2 pis.). 
Poole, H. S. — On a polished section of Stigmaria, showing an axial cellular struc- 
ture. Troc. Trans. Nov. Scot. Inst. Sci., x. (Halifax, 1903) pp. 345-7 (2 pis ). 

R[ouy], G. — Sur l'habitat des Hymenophyllum tunbridgense Smith et unilaterale 
Bory. 

[The geographical distribution of these two species.] 

Rev. But. Syst. Geogr. Bot, i. (1904) pp. 186-9. 
Stopes, M. C— The Epidermoidal layer of Calamite Roots. 

Ann. Bot., xvii. (1903) pp. 792-4 (fig.). 
Traislt, L. — Sur la presence de l'lsoetes setacea Bosc. en Portugal. (On the 
presence of /. setacea in Portugal.) Bull. Soc. Bot. France, li. (1904) p. 28. 

Underavood, L. M. — Four recently described Ferns from Jamaica. 

Jamaica Bull. Dept. Agric, 1903, pp. 136-8. 
Waters, C. E. — Ferns: a Manual for the North-eastern States. 

[A popular work, containing keys based on the fibrovascular bundles of the 
stipes ] 

New York, Holt, 1903, xi. and 302 pp., with over 200 process figs. 
Weber, E. A. — Der Duwock (Equisetum palustre L). 

Arb. Deutsch. Landw. Get., Heft. 72 (1933) 71 pp. (3 pi.). 
Wittmack, L. — Geschichte und Beschreibung des Adiantum Farleyense Thomas 
Moore. (History and description of A. Farleyense.) 

Gartenflora, lii. (1903) pp. 631-4, 643-4. 
Zeiller, K. — Hymenophyllum tunbridgense dans la region de Cambo. 

Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 1. (1903) pp. 590-2. 



32G SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



Bryophyta. 

Origin of Moss-Archegonium.* — Gr. M. Holferty discusses the de- 
velopment of the archegonium of mosses, and especially of the axial 
cells, basing his views upon a study of Mnium cuspidatmn. After a 
short historical account of previous researches, he describes the early 
stages of the archegonium, the behaviour of the terminal cell and the 
canal cells, the division of the central cell, the peripheral cells. He 
attempts to establish the homology of archegonia and antheridia by 
showing the homology (1) of the early stages ; (2) of the cells of the 
axial row ; and (3) of the axial row series and sperm mother-cells. He 
thinks that both archegonia and antheridia may have had a common 
origin in the asexual multilocular terminal zoosporangium of some 
primitive extinct genus of Chlorophycese. 

Critical Notes on Muscinese.f — V. Schiffner begins a series of critical 
notes on new or little known mosses and hepatics, with remarks on their 
distribution, morphology and biology. He gives a detailed description 
of Scapania n&palensis Nees, and discusses its affinity. He has examined 
the original specimen of Gymnoscyphus repens Corda, and finds it to be 
parocious and identical in structure with Aplozia pumila. Hence the 
genus Gymnoscyphus, a long-standing puzzle, must be suppressed. He 
discusses Lepidozia reptans forma laxa Jaap, an interesting plant which 
must be regarded either as linking L. reptans with L. Pearsoni, or as 
a new species, L. intermedia. He describes Cephaloziella Jaclcii var. 
Jaapiana, an interesting instance of modifications caused by change of 
environment. He gives the chief characteristics of C. byssacea var. 
verrucosa Jens., and is inclined to regard the plant as a mere form. 

Rhynchostegium litoreum.J — H. N. Dixon discusses the systematic 
position of this moss, which occurs along the Mediterranean coast and 
also in the south of England. He has received specimens from Algiers, 
the first record for Africa. Its affinity he considers to be with R. temllum 
rather than with R. curvisetum, for reasons which he states in detail. As 
an alternative, he raises the question whether R. litoreum may not be a 
hybrid of the other two species. 

Tyrolean MuscineseJ — K. W. v. Dalla Torre and Ludwig Graf von 
Sarnthein have issued the fifth volume of their flora of Tyrol, Vorarlberg 
and Liechtenstein, containing a list of 182 hepatics and 731 mosses, 
with numerous varieties. A complete account of the distribution in the 
several botanical provinces is given, with the collector's name, substratum, 
altitude, and references to the literature where the record is to be found. 
Limpricht's classification has been employed for the mosses, and assistance 
has been obtained from Matouschek, Schiffner and Stephani. A chapter 
on the history of bryological research in Tyrol and a copious index are 
added. 

* Bot. Gazette, xxxvii. (1904) pp. 106-12G (2 pis.). 
t Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr., liv. (1904) pp. 52-8, 102-4. 
% Rev. Bryol., xxxi. (1904) pp. 21-3. 

§ Flora von Tyrol, Vorarlberg, Liechtenstein. V. Die Moose. Innsbruck, 1904, 
liv. and 671 pp. (1 portrait). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 327 

North American Mosses.* — J. M. Holzinger discusses the external 
structure of Anacolia, and amends Scbimper's description of the genus 
by the admission of a rudimentary peristome in certain cases, thus 
bringing within the generic limits two North American species pre- 
viously placed in Bartramia and Giyphocarpus. J. Cardot f publishes 
notes on eight North American mosses. J. F. Collins % corrects some 
erroneous citations made by Limpricht, Schimper and others, from Nees 
and Hornschuch's Bryologia Germanica, concerning Weisia and Hymeno- 
stomum. P. M. Towle and A. E. Gilbert § give some notes on the 
fertilisation of Polytrichum at Vermont. The antheridia and arche- 
gonia reach maturity in April ; and fifteen months later the spores in 
the sporophyte are ripe for dispersal. 

Patagonian and Fuegian Mosses. |] — P. Dusen gives an account of 
the 71 mosses collected by J. B. Hatcher in 1896-7, near Rio Chico, 
etc., including 24 new species. The latter are fully described and 
figured. Two long lists follow : consisting of (1) described species ; 
(2) species named, but not yet described in print. The same writer 
also gives an account of the leading features of the vegetation of 
western Patagonia from his own experience, and conveys therein much 
information about the habitats and distribution of the Muscinea?. 

Hawaiian Mosses. IT — E. Levier gives an historical account of the 
collections of mosses which have been made in the Sandwich Islands, 
and of papers published upon them. Having submitted to V. F. 
Brotherus a set of specimens gathered by D. D. Baldwin, he gives a 
list of the determinations, comprising 163, of which 74 are new species. 
14 are new to the archipelago, and 75 had been previously recorded. 
The total number of species recorded for the islands is now 254, and 
that of the genera is 86. The island of Maui yields the richest moss- 
flora. 

Morphology and Biology of Ricciocarpus natans.** — J. F. Garber 
describes the life-history of Ricciocarpus natans under the headings : 
material and methods ; the thallus ; the sex-organs ; fertilisation ; the 
sporophyte ; biology. When fruiting (in spring) the plant floats on 
the surface. The plant is monoecious and bears the sex-organs in 
definite groups, the antheridia preceding the archegonia. The earliest 
division of the sporophyte is transverse or oblique ; and the early sub- 
sequent divisions are irregular. Much nutritive material is excreted 
into the capsule. There is no indication of elaters or of a sporophyte 
foot ; but a structure, which is the physiological equivalent of a foot, 
is developed from the basal cell of the archegonium. The gametophyte 
number of chromosomes is four ; that of the sporophyte is eight. 
Plants stranded on wet soil take root and lose their ventral plates, but 
if inundated again are unable to resume the floating; condition unless 



* 



Bryolosist, v ii. (1904) pp. 23-9. t Tom. cit , pp. 30-1. 

% Tom. cit., pp. 32-3. ' § Tom. cit. pp. 35-6. 

j| Princeton Univ. Exped. Patagonia, viii. (1903) pp. 1-33; 63-125 (7 pis.; figs, 
in text). 

1 Bull. Soc. Dot. Ital., 1901. pp. 7-25. 
** Bwt. Gazette, xxxvii. (1901) pp. 161-77 (2 pis. and figs.). 



328 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the young apices manage to break away to the surface of the water. 
The apices have great plastic capacity. The sporophyte is liable to 
attack by an Ustilagineous fungus. 

Mycorrhiza of Liver-worts. — Anton J. M. Garjeanne* has examined 
the mycorrhiza found in the rhizoids of a great many hepatics, and 
concludes that they are more of the nature of parasites than of symbionts. 
The fungus penetrates the rhizoid from the soil, and the invaded cells 
become more or less disorganised. Many examples were found to be 
entirely free from hyphae and yet growing vigorously. The author thinks 
that in these lower plants mycorrhiza is of less importance than in the 
higher forms. 

B. Nemecf discusses the relation of the mycorrhiza to its host in 
Calypogeia trichomanis. He points out that it is found only in the short- 
lived rhizoids, that it enters them from the outside and never from the 
hepatic thallus, that it forms pscudoparenchymatous swellings in the 
rhizoid initials, and may throw out haustoria into neighbouring cells but 
spreads no further, being kept at bay by the vitality of the host. Its 
presence in, or absence from, the hepatic appears to depend upon the 
habitat of the latter. While the mycorrhiza benefits by the symbiosis,, 
the hepatic appears neither to benefit nor to suffer by its presence, so far 
as the author can determine. 

Patagonian Hepatics.!— A. W. Evans gives an account of the 
53 hepatics gathered by J. B. Hatcher on the south coast of Tierra del 
Fuego, and in Patagonia by J. B. Hatcher in 1896-7. Two new species 
and some rare and incompletely known forms are described and com- 
mented upon. A supplementary list of all known hepatics from the 
region of the Magellan Straits is added. 

Barker, T. — Note on Tortula rigida Schrad. and Tortula brevirostris Hook, and 
Grev. 

[A doubt as to whether these are really distinct species.] 

Bev. Bryol., xxxi. (1904) p. 23. 

Bauer, E.— Musci Europaei exsiccati, series I. Prague, 1903, 16 pp. 

Ben a, M.— Die Laubmoosfiora des Ostrawitzatbales. (Moss-flora of the Ostra- 
witzathal.) 

[An annotated list of 240 species, 10 of which are new to Moravia and Silesia.] 

Verh. naturf. Ver. Briin>\ xli. (1903) pp. 3-27. 

Blind, C. — Note complementaire sur les Sphaignes de la region jurassienne. 
(Supplementary note on the spbagna of the Jura.) 

Bull. Soc. Nat. Ain, 1903, pp. 16-18. 

Bottini, A. — I primi Muschi delle isole Eolie. (The first Mosses of the ^Eolian 
islands ) 

[Filty-eigU species.] Bull Soc. Bot. Ital,, 1903, pp. 294-9. 

Brotherus, V. F.— Musci Hawaiici, quos legit D. D. Baldwin. (Mosses of the 
Sandwich I.-lands, collected by D. D. BaldwiD.) 

[List of 163 species, of which 74 species and 5 varieties are new.] 

Op. cit., 1904, pp. 14-25. 



* Beih. Bot. Centralbl., xv. (1903) pp. 471-82 (10 figs.). 

t Op. cit., xvi. (1904) pp. 253-68 (.1 pi.). 

X Princeton Univ. Exped. Patagonia, viii. (1903) pp. 35-62 (3 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 329 

Brotherus, V. F. — Musci novi Dassiani. (New mosses collected by Duss.) 
[Descriptions of 20 new species from Martinique and Guadeloupe.] 

Urbaris Symbolx Antillange, iii. (1903) pp. 421-9 

Brown, R. — On the Musci of the Calcareous Districts of New Zealand, with 
descriptions of 35 new species. 

Trans. I'roc. N. Zeal. Inst., xxxv. (1903) pp. 323-42 (6 pis.) 

Bruckner, Familler, and others — Flora exsiccata Bavarica. Bryophyta. 
Lf. 9-12, Nos. 201-300. 

Mitt. Bayer. Bot. Ges. Erf. Heim. Flor., 1904, pp. 348-9. 

Brunnthaler, J. — Ueber die Wachsausscheidung von Ditrichum glaucescens. 
(On the secretion of wax in D. glaucescens.) 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitsclir., liv. (1904) pp. 94-6. 

"Camus, F. — Muscinees recueillies en Corse en maiet juinl901. (Muscinese gathered 
in Corsica in May and June 1901.) 

Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 1. (1903) pp. cli-clxxv. 

Cardot, J., et I. Theriot — Mousses de Kouy-Tcheou (Chine). (Mosses of the 
Chinese province Kwei-Chau.) 

[Contains 16 species, collected by E. Bodinier, two of which are new.] 

Bull. Acad. Internat. Geogr. Bot., xiii. (1904) pp. 81-4 (1 pi.). 

Corbiere, L.— Contribution a la flore bryologique de l'Algerie. (Contribution to 
the mo.-s-flora of Algeria.) 

[A list of 104 mosses and 34 hepatics, of which 11 mosses and 24 hepatics are 
additions to the flora.] Rev. Bryol., xxxi. (1904) pp. 31-42. 

Cufisi, L. — Contributo alia Flora Briologica del Canada. (Contribution to the 
moss-flora of Canada.) 

[List of 33 British Columbian mosses] 

Bull. Soc. Bot. Hal., 1903, pp. 287-90. 

Culm an, P.,. und J. Weber — Verzeichnis der Laubmoose des Kantons Zurich. 
(List of the mosses of Canton Zurich.) 

Milt. Nat. Ges. Winterthur, 1903, pp. 3-SO. 

Da vies, J. H. — Moss notes from North Ireland. 

[List of 47 speck's, 6 new to Ireland.] Irish Naturalist, 1904, pp. 15-21. 

Dieckhoff, H. — Beitrage zu einer Mossflora von Geestenuinde. (Contributions 
towards a moss flora of Geesti-miinde.) 

Aus. d. Heimatf. d. Heimat, 1903, pp. 3-16. 

Dixon, H. N — Discelium nudum Brid. in Northants. 

[A new, and the southernmost British record for the species.] 

Journ. Bot, xlii. (1901) p. 55. 
j, „ Pottia Heimii Fiirnr. inland. 

[Records the occurrence of this distinctly maritime moss in Northamptonshire. 
It has also been recorded from other inland districts in Kent, Yorkshire, 
Somerset, and Hereford.] __ Turn, cit., pp. 55, 89. 

„ „ & W. E. Nicholson — Bryological notes on a trip in Norway. 

Nyt Mag. Naturv., xlii. (1904) pp. 91-6. 

Geheeb. A. — Botanische Ausbeute einer Eeiser durch die Sinaihalbinsel von 
A. Kneucker. Bryophyta. (Botanical results of A. Kneucker's journey through 
the Sinai peninsula. Bryophytes.) 

[Includes 20 species, 14 of which are new to Sinai, among them being two new 
to science, two hitherto known only from Kurdistan, and one recorded only 
from New Zealand ] Allg. Bot. Zeitschr. 1903, pp. 185-9, 203-4 ; 

1904, pp. 4-5. 

Hagen, J. — A propos de l'inflorescence du Bryum pallescens. (The inflorescence of 
Bryum pallescens.) Rev. Bryol., xxxi. (1904) p. 30. 

„ „ Sur la position systematique du Dicranum molle. 

[A claim that this moss should be put into the Scopnria group, and not into 
Arctoa.~\ Tom. cit., pp. 28-9. 



330 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Handel-Mazzetti, H. ton — Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Moesfloravon Tirol. (Con- 
tribution to our knowledge of the moss-flora of the Tyrol.) 

Verh. K. K. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 1904, pp. 58-77. 

Herzog, T. — Die Laubmoose Badens. Eine bryogeographische Skizze. (The mosses 
of Baden. A bryogeographical sketch.) 

[Continuation. Distribution and main characteristics of 51 species.] 

Bull. Herb. Boissier, iv. (1904) pp. 241-56. 
Jensen, C. — Cephalozia striatula, nova sp. 

[Description of a new Danish hepatic] 

Rev. Bryol., xxxi. (1904) pp. 25-7 (figs.). 
„ ., Hypnum (Brachythecium) validum, nova sp. 

[Description of a new Danish moss.] Tom. cit., p. 24 (fig.). 

Langeron — Les Mousses sociales du Palatinat. (Moss associations of the Palati- 
nate.) 

[A study of the Harpidia and other social groups of mosses.] 

Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 1. (1903) pp. 430-58. 
Laubinger, C— Laubmoose von Niederhessen (Cassel) und Miinden. (Mosses of 
Lower Hesse (Cassel) and Miinden.) 

Abh. Ver.f. Nat. Cassel, xlviii. (1903) pp. 1-80. 

,, „ Lebermoose in nSrdlichen Reg.-Bezirke Kassel und Miinden. (Liver- 

worts in the northern parts of the Kassel and Mtinden district.) 

Abh. Ber. Ver. Naturk. Kassel, 1903, pp. 88-96. 

Litschaeer, V. — Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Moosflora Algiers. (Contribution to 
a knowledge of the moss-flora of Algiers.) 

[A re'sume of previous publications on the subject, together with the beginning 
of a revised list of the species.] 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeilschr., liv. (1904) pp. 104-12. 

„ „ Beitrag zur Kentnis der Moosflora Tirols. (Contribution to our 

knowledge of the moss-flora of Tyrol.) Op. cit., liii. (1903) pp. 370-6. 

Macvicar, S. M. — New British Hepaticae. 

[Records the occurrence of Lophozia guttulata and Odontoschisma Macounii in 
the Highlands, and adds some brief notes.] 

Journ. Bot., xlii. (1904) p. 88. 

Matotjschek, F. — Additamenta ad Floram bryologicam Hungariae. (Additions to 

the Hungarian moss flora.) Mag. Bot. Lapok., ii. (1903) pp. 205-8. 

„ „ Aeltere und neuere Mcosfunde aus Niederosterreich. (Old and 

new records of Muscinese in Lower Austria.) 

Deutsch. Bot. Monatsschr., xx. (1902) pp. 110-14. 
„ „ Beitrage zur bryologischen Floristik von Rajnochowitz und 

dessen weiterer Umgebung. (Contributions to the bryological flora of Rajno- 
chowitz and its more extended environs.) 

Zeilschr. Mdhr. Landesmus, iii. (1903) pp. 113-22. 

„ „ Beitrage zur Moosflora von Karnthen. II. (Contributions to 

the moss-flora of Carinthia. Part II.) Carinthia, 1903, pp. 93-100. 

„ „ Bryologische-floristische Mittheilungen aus Bohmen. (Commu- 

nications regarding the bryological flora of Bohemia.) 

Mitt. Ver. Naturfreunde, Beicheribach, 1902, pp. 44-8; 

1903, pp. 60-74. 
„ „ Das Bryologische Nachlassherbar des Friedrich Stolz. Ein 

Beitrag z. bryolog. Floristik von Tirol und dem angrenz, Italien, v. Bayern, 
Krain u. d. Kustenlandern. (The moss-herbarium of the late F. Stolz. A con- 
tribution to the moss-flora of Tyrol and the adjoining parts of Italy, Bavaria, 
Carniola, and the maritime provinces.) 

Ber. Naturic. Med. Ver. Innsbruck, 1903, 184 pp. 
Migula, W. — Thome's Flora von Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz. 

[Finishes the mosses, 916 of which have been described, and begins the 
hepatics.] Bd. v. Lief. 1G (Gera, 1904) pp. 401-48 (6 pi.) 

Paris, E.G. — Index Bryologicus. Ed. II. Fasc. 1-5. 

Paris: Hermann, 19D3-4, pp. 1-320. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 331 

Pa his. E. G. — Muscinees de l'Afrique Occidentale francaise. (Muscineaeof French 
West Africa.) 

[A list of 32 mosses and 2 heputics ; 19 of the mosses are new, and are de- 
scribed.! Bev. Bryol, xxxi. (1904) pp. 42-9. 
Peklo, J. — Einiges iiber die Mycorrhiza bei den Muscineen. (Concerning the 
occurrence of Mycorrhiza in Mnscineae.) 

Bozpranz Abh. d. Bbhm. Ahad., xii. (1903) No. 58, 22 pp., 1 tab. 

Peterfi, M.— A Catherinea nndulata rokonsaga. (Catberinea undulata and its 
relationship.) Magyar But. Lap., ii. (1903) pp. 46-55. 

„ Az erdelyi Fissedensekrbl. (On the species of Fissidens of Sieben- 
biirge.) Tom. cit., pp. 64-S9. 

„ „ Adatok Erdely lombos Mohflesajaboz. (Contributions to the moss- 

flora of Siebenbiirge [Transsylvania].) Tom. cit., pp. 288-98. 

,, „ Bryologiai Kbzlemenyek. (Bryological communications.) 
[Contains two mosses and a variety new to Hungary.] 

Nuvenytani Kbzlemenyek, ii. (1903) pp. 173-6. 

„ „ TJeber die ungarischen Weissia-Arten. (On the Hungarian spe.-ies 
of Weissia.) Nov. KbzL, 1903, pp. 24-5. 

Quelle, F. — Gottingens Moosvegetation. (Moss-vegetation of Gottingen.) 

Inaug. Diss., 1902, 163 pp. 

Koll, J. — Beitrage zur Laubmoss- und Torfmoos-Flora der Hohen Tatra. (Contri- 
butions to the moss- and sphagnum-flora of the Tatra Mountains.) 
[A list of 114 mosses and of 45 varieties of Sphagnum.] 

Hedwigia, xliii. (1904) pp. 132-9. 

IIoth, G. — Die europaischen Laubmoose. (The mosses of Europe.) 
[Completion of first vol. of the flora.] 

Bi. i. Lief. 5 (Leipzig, 1904) pp. i-xiii., 513-98 (14 pis.). 

Schiffnek, V. — Kritische Bemerkungen iiber die Europaischen Lebennoose mit 
Bezug auf die Exemplare des Exsiccatenwerkes Hepaticae europaeae exsiccatae. 
Series III. (Critical remarks on the European liverworts, with reference to the 
specimens of the author's Hepaticx europx.se exsiccatse). 

Sitz. ber. Deutsch. Naturw. Med. Yer. " Lotos." Prag. y 

xxiii. (1903) pp. 215-77. 

„ „ TJeber Riccia Baumgartneri n. sp. und die mit dieser Nachstver- 

wandten Formen. (On a new species, Ii. Baumgartneri ', and its nearest allies.) 

Oesterr. But. Zeitschr. liv. (1904) pp. 88-94 (S figs.). 

Stephani, F. — Marsupella olivacea. Op. cit.,\iii. (1903) pp. 340, 311. 

Theriot, I. — Mousses de la Nouvelle-Caledonie. (Mosses of New Caledonia.) 
[Contains nine species, collected by Dr. De la Combe; three are new.] 

Bull. Ahad. Internat. Geogr. Bot., xiii. (1904) pp. 85-6 (1 pi.). 

Valenovski, J. — Iatrovky ceske. (Hepaticae of Bohemia.) 

Bozpr. Akad. Prague, 1902, 24 pp. 4 pis. 

Waddell, C. H. — Jungermannia capitata Hook, in Co. Down. 

Irish Naturalist, xii. (1903) p. 219. 

„ ,, Thuidium delicatulum in Co. Down. Loc. cit. 

Warnstorf, C. — Neue europaische und exotische Moose. (New European and 
exotic mosses.) 
[Descriptions of 12 mosses and 5 exotic sphagna.] 

Beth. Bot. Centrulbl., xvi.(1904) pp. 237-52 (2 pis.). 

Winkles! ann, J. — Ein Beitrag zurMoosflora Ober-Baierns und Tirols. (Contribu- 
tion to the moss-flora of Upper Bavaria and Tyrol.) 
[List of 35 hepatics and 58 mosses of Alpine type.] 

Deutsch. Bot. Monatsschr., xxi. (1903) pp. 10G-10. 
Wollnt, E. — Eine fur Deutschland neues Lebermoos. (A new German liverwort.) 

Mitt. Bayer. Bot. Ges. Erf. Heim. Flor., 1904, pp. 341-2. 
Zschacke, W. — Weitere neue Miosfunde aus Anhalt. (Further new moss-records 
for Anhalt.) 

[Contains three corrections of records in a former paper, with several 
additions.] Deutsch. But. Monatsschr., xxii. (1904) pp. 3-6. 



332 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Thallophyta. 

Alg-ae. 

Points of Algological Nomenclature.* — R. Chodat publishes notes 
on the nomenclature of certain genera, as to which he differs from other 
authors. He first deals with the question as to whether Wille is right 
in considering Sphccrocystis Chod. a synonym of Glwococcus A. Braun. 
The author considers there is no justification for this course, since 
Glfxococcus is a palmelloid condition of some alga unknown, while 
Sphcerocystis is characterised by its colonies of microscopical, free- 
swimming cells, which are quite spherical. The latter plant has been 
often found, while no one but "Wille has ever been able to recognise 
Glaococcus. In the second note, the author discusses SphcereUa and 
Ghlamydomonas, and shows that though SphcereUa nivalis scarcely 
differs from a Chlamydomonas, still the name SphcereUa should be 
maintained. S. lacustris should be S. Wranyelii Sommerfelt. In the 
next note, the differences between Pteromonas nivalis Chod. and Astasia 
nivalis Shuttlew. are pointed out. Finally, the new genus Ghionaster 
Wille is stated to be a synonym of the fungus Gerasterias nivalis Bohlin, 
which is the same as Tetracladium De Wildeniann. 

Colour of Algae and of Water.f — N. Gaidukov summarises the 
work of former writers on the relation between the colour of algse and 
the rays of light which reach them at their various depths. Hehas 
himself experimented on Oscillatoria sancta and 0. caldariorum, and 
finds that the colour of these species alters under the influence of dif- 
ferently coloured lights, and he compares his results and conclusions 
with those of other writers on the subject. The depth of the water 
through which the sun's rays have to pass affects the quality of the light 
which reaches the plants, and the colour of the alga accommodates itself 
.accordingly. Water, however, varies in colour according to the season, 
the condition of the sky, etc. ; and irrespective of these variations there 
are many other influences which affect the distribution in depth, and the 
colour of the alga?. But, speaking generally, the most important 
factor in the distribution in depth, and the colour of alga?, is the 
quality of the sunlight — the source of energy. In fact, the author 
sums up the whole question as follows : In the process of photosyn- 
thesis, therelitions between certain rays and the work performed by 
them can only be quantitative. The view concerning the harmful 
or beneficial effect of this or that ray of light on the processes of photo- 
synthesis is without justification, as is also the view that chlorophyll is 
the only assimilative colouring matter in those chromophyll-containing 
algee growing in deep water ; and both these views are contrary to the 
great natural law — the conservation of energy. 

Sexual Reproduction in Ceratium.J — E. Zederbauer has observed 
for the first time sexual reproduction in the Peridineee. In Ceratium 
hirundinella, a fresh-water form, two individuals become fixed together 
by a mass of slime ; from each there then grows out of the longitudinal 

* Bull. Herb. Boiss., iv. (1934) pp. 233-40. 

t Hedwigi;i. xliii. (1904) pp. 96-118. 

J Bcr. Deutsch. But. Ges., xxii. (1904) pp. 1-8 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 333 

furrow a conjugation-tube. The two tubes unite and the cell-contents 
pass into the tubes and there become fused and form a zygospore. 
Such a method of sexual reproduction strongly supports the view of 
the relationship of the Peridineas with the Conjugates and Diatoms. 

Siphonese Studies. * — A. Ernst publishes a continuation of these 
studies, of which No. II. is entitled " Contributions to a knowledge of 
Codiaceas." He begins by describing a plant from Posilipo as a new 
species of Udotea, and calls it U. minima, comparing it with U. Des- 
fontainii, the well-known Mediterranean species. It is characterised by 
the absence of the peripheral filaments, which occur as a rule in U. 
Desfontainii. A section of this paper is devoted to a consideration of 
this latter species, and another to its regenerative power in connection 
with external injury. This power it possesses to a considerable degree. 
The " Phylogeny and System of Codiaceaa " forms the next subject, 
and is followed by remarks on the genus Godium, which is placed by 
the author with Pseudocodium in sub-family Codieas, as distinct from 
sub-family Udoteae, in the family Codiaceas. The nine families of 
Siphoneaa are enumerated, as also the four of Siphonocladeaj, and the 
question of reproduction in this group is discussed. The author is 
strongly of opinion that the so-called zoosporangia of Udotea, figured 
in certain works, are merely foreign bodies, and have no connection 
with the plant. He has often searched for sporangia on specimens of 
Udotea, and has tried to grow plants of his new species with a view to 
the development of fruit, but without success. He thinks it, however, 
premature to assume that although in the past many of the genera of 
Siphoneag may have had sexual reproductive organs, they are now 
reduced to methods of vegetative propagation only. This conclusion 
can only be reached after years of growth under inspection in native 
habitats. The paper is illustrated by three plates. 

The third of the Siphoneaa studies is devoted to the morphology 
and physiology of the reproductive cells of the genus Vaucheria. The 
author begins by a chapter on the formation of sporangia and aplano- 
spores in Vaucheria piloboloides Thur., in which he gives a short resumi 
of work done on the zoospores of Vaucheria, and then goes on to 
describe the asexual spores of V. piloboloides, which he considers occupy 
an intermediate position between the zoospore of V. sessilis and the 
aplanospore of V. geminata. The formation of both sporangium and 
spore in V. piloboloides occupies only a few hours, and the process is 
described in detail, as well as the subsequent escape of the spores. The 
free spores of V. piloboloides are distinguished from those of any other 
species of Vaucheria by their elongated club-shaped form, which is pre- 
served even after germination. This process is also described. The 
conditions of spore-formation in V. piloboloides are then discussed. In 
contrast to the fresh- water species of Vaucheria, V. piloboloides develops 
under conditions more or less stable, and the period of its vegetation 
lasts at Naples about two months. Successful attempts were made to 
grow it under observation, and the best methods are given for arousing 
the formation of zoospores. Various experiments were tried in con- 

* Beih. Bot. CentralbL, xvi. (1904) pp. 199-236 (3 pte.); pp. 367-82 (1 pi.). 
June 15th, 1904 2 A 



334 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

nection with the formation of aplanospores, and the details with the 
respective results are here set forth. 

Genus Spirotsenia.* — J. Lutkemiiller continues his studies on Spiro- 
tamia, begun in 1895, describing new species and giving observations 
on others already known. For the limitation of species he considers 
that the form of the cells and the form and arrangement of the chloro- 
phores are of importance. The chlorophores are either parietal or 
axile ; in the latter case the pyrenoids are always found lying along the 
longitudinal axis of the cells. In parietal chlorophores the breadth of 
the band, the number and narrowness of its windings, and the angle 
of the spiral curve are to be noted. The author gives indications as 
to what constitutes a broad or a narrow band, as well as a gentle or 
sharp angle in the spiral curve ; and alludes to further details of im- 
portance in species having axile chlorophores. Diagnoses and notes 
are given of thirteen species, of which three are new. 

New Species of Ecballocystis.t — K. Yendo describes three new 
marine species of this genus, which has till now only been recorded 
from fresh water. Two of the new species are from the coasts of 
Japan and one from Port Renfrew, B.C. Zoosporangia have been 
observed in two of the new species. All three are minutely described, 
and their relationship with EugUnopsis, Prasinocladus, Chlorangium, 
and Collins ietta is discussed. 

Transmutation of various Stages in Diatomaceae.:}: — C. Meresch- 
kowsky formulates a law to explain the variation in diatoms and their 
genealogy. In a previous paper § he enunciates what he calls the Law 
of the endochrome, the principle of which is that the endochrome of 
immobile diatoms has a tendency to cover the surface of the frustule in 
such a way as to leave uncovered so far as possible the raphe and other 
openings in the walls, in order that the protoplasm may come into 
contact with exterior objects, and thus aid the movement of the diatom. 
This law does not, however, provide an explanation for many of the 
phenomena connected with the endochrome, and the author, therefore, 
bases a second law on the results of his wide study of the subject. This 
he terms the law of transmuta