(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society"






<n&* 



., V'" * 



/V 









* to f 



••V, 



V ♦ * '-* y 2 ' * 



i* 1 



r <w*.' 



V^**r» 



ftr%«r 















% 






fey <V* 5 4 












j^u * y v* • 



v^ 












&l '•->';■' '..4 »■'#&- 



Journal or the 

Ropal microscopical Societp 

CONTAINING ITS TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 

AND 
A SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

ZOOLOGY -A-HSTID IBOT .A. 3XT Y 

(principally Invertebrata and Cryptogamia) 

MICROSCOPY, <5ca. 

EDITED BY 
R. G. HEBB, M.A. M.D. F.R.C.P. 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF THE PUBLICATION COMMITTEE AND 

J. ARTHUR THOMSON, M.A. F.R.S.E. 

Regius Professor of Natural History in the University of Aberdeen 

A. N. DISNEY, M.A. B.So. CECIL PRICE-JONES, M.B. Lond. 

FELLOWS OF THE SOCIETY 

AND 

A. B. RENDLE, M.A. D.Sc. F.L.S. HAROLD MOORE, B.Sc. 

Assistant in Botany, British Museum Woolwich Arsenal 



Minimis partibus, per totum Naturae campum, certitudo omnis innititur 
quas qui fugit pariter Naturam fugit. — Linnceus. 



FOR THE YEAR 
1908 




TO BE OBTAINED AT THE SOCIETY'S ROOMS, 

20 HANOVER SQUARE, LONDON, W. 

of Messrs. WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14 Henrietta Street, London, W.C. 
and of Messrs. DULAU & CO., 37 Soho Square, London, W. 



Extra and informal Meetings are held on the 1st, 2nd, and 
4th Wednesday evenings of the month. These Meetings are 
devoted to (1) Pond Life ; (2) Microscopical Optics and Micro- 
scope Construction ; (3) Bacteriology and Histology. 



5. *~ 3 



THE 



Jtopl JJticifMOpcal Jlflstyg. 



Established in 1839. Incorporated by Eoyal Charter in 1866. 



The Society was established for the promotion of Microscopical and 
Biological Science by the communication, discussion, and publication of observa- 
tions and discoveries relating to (1) improvements in the construction and 
mode of application of the Microscope, or (2) Biological or other subjects of 
Microscopical Research. 

It consists of Ordinary, Honorary, and Ex-officio Fellows of either sex. 

Ordinary Fellows are elected on a Certificate of Kecommendation 
signed by three Ordinary Fellows, setting forth the names, residence, and 
description of the Candidate, of whom the first proposer must have personal 
knowledge. The certificate is read at two General Meetings, and the Candidate 
balloted for at the second Meeting. 

The Admission Fee is 21. 2s. ; and the Annual Subscription 21. 2s., pay- 
able on election, and subsequently in advance on 1st January annually. The 
Annual Subscriptions may be compounded for at any time for 31/. 10s. Fellows 
elected at a meeting subsequent to that in February are only called upon for 
a proportionate part of the first year's subscription. The annual Subscrip- 
tion of Fellows permanently residing abroad is 1/. lis. 6^. or a reduction of 
one-fourth. 

Honorary Fellows (limited to 50), consisting of persons eminent in 
Microscopical or Biological Science, are elected on the recommendation of five 
Ordinary Fellows and the approval of the Council. 

Ex-officio Fellows (limited to 100), consisting of the Presidents for the 
time being of any Societies having objects in whole or in part similar to those of 
the Society, are elected on the recommendation of ten Ordinary Fellows and the 
approval of the Council. 

The Council, in whom the management of the property and affairs of 
the Society is vested, is elected annually, and is composed of the President, 
four Vice-Presidents, Treasurer, two Secretaries, and twelve other Ordinary 
Fellows. 

The Meetings are held on the third Wednesday in each month, from 
October to June, at 20 Hanover Square, W. (commencing at 8 p.m.). Yisitors 
are admitted by the introduction of Fellows (See preceding page.) 

The Journal, containing the Transactions and Proceedings of the 
Society, and a Summary of Current Researches relating to Zoology and Botany 
(principally Invertebrata and Cryptogamia), Microscopy, &c, is published 
bi-monthly, and is forwarded post-free to all Ordinary and Ex-officio Fellows 
residing in countries within the Postal Union. 

The Library, with the Instruments, Apparatus, and Cabinet of Objects, 
is open for the use of Fellows daily (except Saturdays), from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
It is closed for four weeks during August and September. 

Forms of proposal for Fellowship, and any further information, may be obtained by 
application to the Secretaries, or Assistant-Secretary, at the Library of the Society, 
20 Hanover Square, W. 

a 2 



patron 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 



|last-|.1 residents. 

Elected 

*Sm Richard Owen, K.C.B. D.C.L. M.D. LL.D. F.R.S. 1840-1 

♦John Lindley, Ph.D. F.R.S 1842-3 

♦Thomas Bell, F.R.S 1844-5 

*James Scott Bowerbank, LL.D. F.R.S 1846-7 

♦George Busk, F.R.S 1848-9 

*Arthur Farre, M.D. F.R.S 1850-1 

♦GEORGE Jackson, M.R.O.S 1852-3 

♦William Benjamin Carpenter, C.B. M.D. LL.D. F.R.S. 1854-5 

♦George Shadbolt 1856-7 

♦Edwin Lankester, M.D. LL.D. F.R.S 1858-9 

*John Thomas Quekett, F.R.S 1860 

*Robert James Farrants, F.R.O.S 1861-2 

♦Charles Brooke, M.A. F.R.S 1863-4 

* James Glaisher^ F.R.S 1865-6-7-8 

*Rev. Joseph Bancroft Reade, M.A. F.R.S 1869-70 

♦William Kitchen Parker, F.R.S 1871-2 

♦Charles Brooke, M.A. F.R.S 1873-4 

♦Henry Clifton Sorby, LL.D. F.R.S 1875-6-7 

♦Henry James Slack, F.G.S 1878 

♦Lionel S. Beale, M.B. F.R.C.P. F.R.S 1879-80 

♦Peter Martin Duncan, M.B. F.R.S 1881-2-3 

Rev. William Hy. Dallinger, M.A. LL.D. F.R.S. 1884-5-6-7 
♦Charles Thos. Hudson, M.A. LL.D. (Cantab.), F.R.S. 1888-9-90 

Robert Braithwaite, M.D. M.R.C.S 1891-2 

Albert D. Michael, F.L.S 1893-4-5-6 

Edward Milles Nelson 1897-8-9 

William Carruthers, F.R.S. F.L.S. F.G.S 1900-1 

Henry Woodward, LL.D. F.R.S. F.G.S. F.Z.S 1902-:; 

Dukinfield Hy. Scott, M.A. Ph.D. LL.D. F.R.S. F.L.S. 1904-5-6 



* 



Deceased. 



COUNCIL. 



Elected 15th January, 1908. 



JJresiDcnt. 
The Right Hon. Lord Avebury, P.C. D.C.L. LL.D. F.R.S. etc. 

inre-|]tcsiuen.ts. 
Conrad Beck. 
Rev. W. H. Dallinger, LL.D. D.Sc. D.C.L. F.R.S. 

F.L.S. F.Z.S. 
J. W. H. Eyre, M.D. F.R.S. (Edin.). 
The Right Hon. Sir Ford North, P.C. F.R.S. 

treasurer. 

Wynne E. Baxter, J.P. D.L. F.G.S. F.R.G.S. 

Smtiavies. 

J. W. Gordon. 

R. G. Hebb, M.A. M.D. F.R.C.P. 

#rtmt;in) litcmkrs of Council. 

Rev. Edmund Carr, M.A. F.R.Met.S. 
* Frederic J. Cheshire. 
*A. N. Disney, M.A., B.Sc. 
*George C. Karop, M.R.C.S. 

Henry George Plimmer, M.R.C.S., L.S.A., F.L.S. 

Thomas H. Powell. 

C. Price- Jones M.B. (Loncl.). 
Percy E. Radley. 

*Charles F. Rousselet. 
F. Shillington Scales, B.A. (Cantab.). 

D. J. Scourfield. 

E. J. Spitta, L.R.C.P. (Lond.), M.R.C.S. (Eng\). 

* Members of the Publication Committee. 



librarian. curators. 

Percy E. Radley. Charles F. Rousselet. 

F. Shillington Scales, 
B.A. (Cantab.). 

assistant secretary. 
F. A.. Parsons. 



CONTENTS. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 

PAGE 

I. — A Reply to Professor Porter's and Mr. Everitt's Criticism upon rny Paper 

on the Resolving Power, etc. By Edward M. Nelson 1 

II. — On the Diffraction Rings for a Circular Opening ; and on the Limit of 
Resolving Power. (Being a Rejoinder to Mr. Nelson.) By Alfred 
W. Porter, B.Sc. (Fig. 1) ., 3 

III.— Mercury Globules as Test Objects for the Microscope. By J. W. Gordon. 

(Plate I. figs. 1, 2; and Figs. 2-6) 6 

IV.— Light Filters for Photomicrography. By E. Moffat. (Plate I. figs. 3-6) 20 

V.— Francis Watkins' Microscope. By Edward M. Nelson. (Figs. 26-29) .. 137 

VI. — Eye-pieces for the Microscope. By Edward M. Nelson 146 

VII. — A Correction for a Spectroscope. By Edward M. Nelson. (Fig. 30) .. 150 

VIII. — On Dimorphism in the Recent Foraminifer, Alveolina boscii Defr. sp. 
By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S. F.R.M.S. (Plates II. and III. and 

(Fig. 31) 151 

IX.— Gregory and Wright's Microscope. By Edward M. Nelson (Fig. 32) .. 154 
X. — Biddulphia mobiliensis. By Edward M. Nelson 158 

XI. — The President's Address : On Seeds, with Special Reference to British 
Plants. By the Right Hon. Lord Avebury, P.O., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
(Plate IV. and Figs. 67-85) 273 

XII. — On the Microscope as an Aid to the Study of Biology in Entomology, with 
particular reference to the Food of Insects. By W. Wesche, F.R.M.S. 
(Plates V. to X. and Figs. 114-118) 401 

XIII. — Illuminating Apparatus for the Microscope. By J. W. Gordon. (Figs. 

119-120) 425 

XIV. — Corethron criophilum Cast. By Edward M. Nelson 430 

XV. — On Cycloloculina, a new Generic Type of the Foraminifera. With a 
Preliminary Study of the Foraminif erous Deposits and Shore-sands of 
Selsey Bill. By Edward Heron-Allen, F.L.S. F.R.M.S., and Arthur 
Earland. (Plate XII. ami Fig. 138) 529 

XVI. — On Dendritic Growths of Copper Oxide in Paper. By James Strachan. 

(Plate XIII.) 544 

XVII. — Some African Rotifers. By James Murray. (Plate XV.) 665 

XVIII. — On the Resolution of Periodic Structures. By Edward M. Nelson. 

(Fig. 157.) 671 

XIX.— An Auxiliary Illuminating Lens. By Edward M. Nelson. (Fig. 158.) 673 

XX. — Note on a Remarkable Alcyonarian, Studeria mirabilis g. et sp. n. By 

Professor J. Arthur Thomson. M.A. (Plate XVI.) 675 

XXL— The Present Status of Micrometry. By Marshall D. Ewell, M.D. 

Chicago 682 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

NOTES. 

PAGE 

Brachiomonas submarina Bolilin. By the Rev. Eustace Tozer. (Plate XIV.) .. 551 

On the Optical Properties of Contractile Organs. By Doris L. Mackinnon, B.Sc. 

and Fred Vies 553 

OBITUARY. 

Henry Clifton Sorby. (Plate XI.) 431 

Charles Stewart 435 

Francis H. Wenlmm, C.E. .. 693 

SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES 

Relating to |Zoology and Botany (principally Invertebrata and 
Cryptogamia), Microscopy, &c, inclining Original Communications 
from Fellows and Others.* 23, 160, 305, 437, 559, 698 

ZOOLOGY. 

VERTEBRATA. 

a. Embryology. 

Marshall, F. H. A., & W. A. Jolly — Removal and Transplantation of Ovaries .. 23 

Cuenot, L. — Inheritance of Pigmentation in Mice 23 

Iwanoff, J. J. — Artificial Insemination in Nammals .. 24 

Hatta, S. — Gastrulation in Petromyzon 24 

Wintrebert, P. — Determining Factors in Metamorphosis of Anura 24 

„ „ Experiments with Tadpoles 24 

,, „ Experiments with Axolotls 25 

Meek, A. — Segments of Head and Brain in Gull 25 

Egounoff, Sophie — Development of the Alimentary Canal in the Trout 25 

Carmichael, E. S. — Correlation of Ovarian and Uterine Functions 160 

Duckworth, W. L. H. — Early Placenta in Macacus nemestrinus 160 

Hubrecht, A. A. W. — Formation of Red Blood Corpuscles in Placenta of Galeopi- 

thecus 161 

Disselhorst, R. — Growth of Testes in Birds and Mammals 161 

Raspail, Xavier — Incubation in Doves 161 

Patterson, J. T. — Amitosis in Pigeon's Egg 161 

Schaub, S. — Post-embryonic Development of Ardeidm , 162 

Wintrebert, P. — Complementary Spiracles in Anura 1 62 

Goldfinger, Gizela — Development of Lymph-sacs in Hind 1 'Amb of Frog .. . . 162 

Boeke, J. — Gastrulation in Teleosteans 162 

Browne. F.B.— Early Stages of Fresh-water Fishes 163 

Ernst, Paul — Monstrosities 163 

Dustin, A. P. — Origin of Gonocytes in Amphibians 305 

Rubaschkin, W. — Origin of Germ- cells in Mammalian Embryos 306 

Elliot, Agnes I. M. — Development of the Frog' s Head 306 

Wintrebert, P. — Determining Factors in Metamorphosis of Anura 307 

Broman, Ivar — Portal Circulation in the Embryonic Metanephros of Mammals .. 307 

Mcller, F. — Studies of Placeut at ion 307 

Wilder, H. H. —Bodily Identity of Twins 307 

Thompson, D'aroy W. — Shapes of Eggs 437 

Assheton, Kichard — Development of Gymnarchus niloticus 440 

Kryle, J. — Regeneration in the Pancreas , 441 



* In order to make the Contents complete, the papers printed in the ' Transactions' 
and the Notes printed in the 'Proceedings' are entered here. 



CONTENTS. IX 

I'AGB 

Low, Alexander — Early Human Embryo 441 

Regadd, Cl., & G. Dubreuil — Corpus luteum and Hut in Rabbits 441 

Landman, Otto— Open Cleft in Embryonic Eye of a Chick of Eight Days .. .. 441 

Reese, A. M. — American Alligator 442 

Branca, W. — Embryos in Ichthyosaurs 442 

Landacre, F. L. — Epibranchial Placodes of Ameiurus 44:! 

Nirenstein, E. — Poison Glands of Salamander 443 

Bles. E. J. — Notes on Anuran Development .. .. 44:; 

Assheton, R. — Teleostean Eggs and Larvx from the Gambia 443 

Grochmalickj, Jan — Regeneration of Lens in Fishes 443 

Thilo, O. — Development of Carp' s Swim-bladder 443 

Blaizot, L. — Gestation in Acanthi as vidgaris 444 

Thomson. J. Arthur — Text-book of Heredity .. •• ,•• •• 559 

Kammerer, P. — Transmission of Coercively Acquired Reproductive Adaptations .. 559 

Lecaillon, A. — Parthenogenetic Segmentation in Fowl 561 

Anikiew, Ar., & others — Early Stages in Development of the White Mouse .. .. 561 

Frassi, L. — Very Young Human Ovum 561 

Allen, B. M. — Origin of Sex-cells in Rana pipiens 562 

Molle, Jacques van — Studies on Spermatogenesis 562 

Bambeke, Ch. van — Development of Vertebrate Nerve-cord 562 

Filatoff, D., & others — Development of the Head 562 

Marcus, Harry— Gill-clej 't Region of Gymnophiona .. 562 

Basile, C. — Influence of Lecithin on Determination of Sex 563 

Aime, P .—Interstitial Cells in the Ovary of Mammals 563 

Carmichael, E. S., & F. H. A. Marshall — Compensatory Hypertrophy in the Ovary 563 

Nicloux, Maurice — Passage of Ether Jrom Mother to Faztus 564 

Gentes, L. — Infundibular Gland and Choroid Plexus 564 

Reichenow, E. — Abnormalities in Hind Limbs of Rana esculenta 564 

Schneider, K. C. — Vifalistic Theory of Evolution 564 

Lutz, Frank E. — Inheritance of Manner of Clasping the Hands 564 

Herring, P. T. — Development of Mammalian Pituitary Body : 698 

Rabaud, E. — Orientation of Embryo in Hen s Egg 699 

Cuenot, L. — Apparent Anomalies in Mendelian Proportions 699 

Davenport, Charles B. — Inheritance in Canaries 699 

Mudge, G. P. — Transmission of Coat-characters in Rats 700 

Marshall, F. H.TA., & W. A. Jolt — Transplantation of Ovaries 700 

Wilson, James -Mendelian Characters among Short-horn Cattle 701 

Ries, Julius — New Vieivs concerning Fertilisation and Maturation 701 

Ballowitz, E. — Spermatozoa of Seals 701 

Roule, L., & I. Audige — Development of Kidney in Teleosteans 702 

Roule, Louis — Development of Notochord in Fishes 702 

Wintrebert, P. — Embryonic Circulation in Goldfish 702 

Regan, C. Tate — Hybrid between Bream and Rudd 702 

6. Histology. 

Andrews, E. A. — Intercellular Connections in Fowl's Egg 26 

Dubois, R. — Microbioids of the Purple Gland of Mur ex brandar is 26 

Stvdnicka, F. K. — Matrix Tissue 26 

Hurthle. K. — Striped Muscle 26 

Valle, Paolo della — Tetrads in Somatic Cells 27 

Bertkau, F. — Secretion of Mammary Glands 27 

Cajal, S. R. — Vindication of the Neuron Theory 27 

Suchard. E. — Valves in the Veins of a Frog 27 

Bruntz, L. — Glandular Endothelium of Lymphatic Canals and Renal Capillaries 

in Tadpoles 28 

Kolmer, W. — Minute Structure of the Internal Ear 28 

Schmincke, A. — Regeneration of Cross-striped Muscle in Vertebrata 28 

Harrison, Ross G. — Observations on the Living Developing Nerve-fibre 28 

Sterzi, G. — Central Nervous System of Cyclostomes 29 

Williams, L. W.— Structure of Cilia .. 163 

Retterer, Ed. — Development of Cartilage 163 

Terry, R. J. — Neuroglia syncytium 164 

Dungern, Emil v. & Richard Werner — Theory of Malignant Tumours .. .. 164 



X CONTENTS. 

Mubius, Karl — JEsthetic Aspect of Animals. . .. 164 

I.apicqie, L. — Weight of Brain in Man and Woman 164 

Winkler, C.— Eighth Cerebral Nerve 165 

Leche. W. — Dentition of Mammals 165 

Oldfield, Thomas— New Acanthoglossus 160 

Matthew, W. D. — Relationships of Sparassodonta 166 

Pettit, A. — Kidney of Elephant 1 60 

Leiber, A. — Comparative Anatomy of Tongue of Woodpecker 166 

Kloff, Wilhelmina — Circulatory Mechanism in Teleosteans 166 

Ncssbacm, M. — Mutation-phenomena in Animals 167 

Gill, Theodore — Natural History of the Lumpsucher 167 

Daubishire, A. D. — Respiratory Mechanism in Elasmobranchs 167 

Holt, E. W. L., & L. W. Byrne — New Deep-sen Fishes from South-west of Ireland 168 

Henninger, G. — Labyrinth Organ of Lahyrinthici 168 

Weber. Max — Freshwater Fishes of New Guinea 168 

Cohn, L. — Swim-bladder in Scixnidie 168 

Reed, II. D. — Poison- glands of Catfishes 168 

Borley, J. O., & H. Muir Evans — Poison Apparatus of Weever 161) 

Hooper, Cecil H. — Food of Birds 160 

Pixell, Helen L. M. — Structure and Function of Rectal Gland in Elasmobranchs 31)7 

Meves, Fr., & Achille Russo— Cytological Notes 308 

Wallenberg, A. — Neurological Studies . . 308 

Capparelli, A. — Myelin Bodies in Nervous System 308 

Nemiloff, A. — Nervous Elements in Fishes 444 

Ayers, Howard — Ventricular Fibre of Brain of Myxinoids 444 

Joseph, H. — Epidermal Sensory Cells in Amphioxus 444 

Schilze. Oskar — Histogenesis of Nervous System 444 

Mlodowska, J. — Histogenesis of Muscle 445 

Walker, C. E. — Essentials of Cytology 565 

Stricht, N. Van der, & others — Histological Studies 565 

Schilling, K., & others — Neurological Studies 565 

Vles, Fred — Double Refraction Phenomena in Muscle .. .. 566 

Herring, P. T. — Minute Structure of Mammalian Pituitary Body 702 

Thdlin, Ivar — Spiral Muscle- fibres 704 

c. General. * 

Kidd, W. — Sense of Touch in Mammals and Birds 29 

Fitzwilliams, Duncan C. L. — Hand and Foot in Hylobates agdis 29 

Pocock, R. I. — Patterns of Cubs of Lions and Pumas 30- 

Wroui:hton, R. C. — African Mungooses 30 

Andersen, Knud— Geographical Races of Lesser Horse-shoe Bat 30 

Rothschild, Maurice de, & Henry Neuville — Enigmatical Tooth 30 

Perrier, Remy— Genital Organs of Bradypodidas 31 

Gisi, Julia — Brain of Hatteria punctata 31 

Longstaff, G. B., & E. B. Poulton — Notes on South African Chameleons ., . . 31 

Dogiel, J. — Anatomy of Heart in Frog and Turtle 31 

Tornier, (4. — Production of Albinism and Melanism in Frogs 32: 

Begr, L. S. — Fishes of Lake Baikal 32 

Pelegrin, C. & V. J. — Buccal Incubation in Arius fissus 32 

Johnstone, James— Food of Plaice and Dabs .." 33- 

,, „ Teleostean Abnormalities 33 

Rennie, John — Oesophageal Pouches in Centrolophus niger Gmelin 33 

Mosso, Angei.o — Fish Vertebrae as Prehistoric Amulets 34 

Gentes, L. — Nervous Lobe of the Hypophysis and the Vascular Sac 34 

Sheak, W. H. — Young Red Kangaroo 308 

Smith, G. Elliot — Asymmetry of Caudal Poles of the Cerebral Hemispheres in Man 308 

Vasse, G.— Pleural Cavity of Elephant 309 

Mulon, P. — Pigment of Suprarenal Glands 309 

Arnback-Christie-Linde, Aigusta — Structure of Soricidie 309 

Durbe.ce, VV., & A. Fleischmann — Studies on the Cloaca and Phallus in Amniota 309 

Gerhardt, Ulrich— Penis in Birds 309^ 

Pays-Mellier, G., 4 E. Trouessart — Hybrids of Peacock and Cochin-china Hen 310 

Hugues, Albert — Fasting Powers of the Swift 310= 



CONTENTS. XI 

TAOE 

Mullkr, B. — Air-sacs of Pigeon 310 

Edgeworth, F. H. — Head-muscles in Sauropsiila 310 

Stejneger, Leonhard — Herpetology of Japan 311 

Fortin, E. P. — Peculiarities of Vision in the Chamxleon 311 

Thevenin, Armand — Dinosaurs of Madagascar 311 

Smallwood, W. M. — Phagocytic Action of Kidney-cells in Frog 311 

Nussbaum, A. — Secretion of Thumb-swelling in Rana 311 

Courtis, S. A. — Response of Toads to Sound-stimuli 312 

Chaine, J. — Tongue of Teleosteans 312 

De Drouin de Boiville, R. — Abnormality of Brook Trout 312 

Fowler, H. W. — New Lamprey 312 

Lohmann, H. — Faunistic Results of German South Polar Expedition 313 

Kukenthal, W. — Bipolarity of Marine Animals 313 

Romer, Fritz — Northern Animals 313 

Goodrich, E. S. — Scales of Fishes 445 

Beebe, C. W. — Seasonal Change in Birds 446 

Porta, A. — Muscles of the Tail in Peacock and Turkey 447 

Broom, R. — Mammal-like Reptiles 447 

Mitchell. P. Chalmers. & R. J. Pocock — Feeding Snakes in Captivity .. .. 447 

Nicolle, Ch., & Ch. Comte — Dogs attacked with Kala-azar 447 

Gamble, F. W. — Introduction to Study of Natural History 566 

Shull, A. F. — Habits of the Short-tailed Shrew 566 

Berry, C. 8. — Imitative Tendency of Rats and of Cats 567 

Cole, L. W. — Intelligence of Raccoons 567 

Hamilton, G. van T. — Unusual Type of Reaction in Dog 567 

Szak all, Julius — Ear of Hungarian Blind Mouse 568 

Camerano, L. — Quagga of Turin Museum 568 

Richon, L., & M. Perrin — Tobacco-poisoning in Rabbits 568 

Andrews, C. W. — Prozeuglodon atrox 568 

Peterson, O. A. — Chalicotheres 569 

Garman, Samuel — Reptiles of Eastern Island 569 

Fuchs, Hugo — Independent Bony Epiphyses in Sauropsida 569 

Yung, Emile — Variation in Length of Frogs Intestine 569 

Kerr, J. Graham — Autostylic and Protostylic 569 

„ „ Swim-bladder and Lungs 570 

Blumenthal, R. — Function of Spleen in Fishes 570 

Stares, E. C. — New Sub-order of Fishes 570 

Huber, 0. — Copulatory Appendages of Lseviraia oxyrhynchus 570 

Cligny, A. — Species of Trout .. .. 570 

Patience, Alexander — Occurrence of Gobius orca in Clyde Sea Area 571 

Stock ard, Charles R. — Notes on Polyodon spathula 571 

Parker, G. H. — Sensory Reactions of Amphioxus 571 

M'Intosh, W. C. — Perforations of Marine Animals 572 

Holdhaus, K. — Differentiation of Faunas 572 

Herring, P. T. — Action of Extracts of Saccus Vasculosis and Pituitary Body .. 704 

Yerkes, R. M. — Dancing Mouse 705 

Williston, S. W. — What is a Species ? , 706 

Zangger, H. — Functions of Membranes 706 

Loomis, F. B. — Neio Horse from Lower Miocene 706 

Purdy, R. J. W. — Occasional Luminosity of White Owl 706 

Franz, V. — Pecten in Bird's Eye 707 

Thomas, Oldfield — New Jerboa from China 707 

Pearl, R., & F. M. Surface — Experiment with the Oviduct of the Hen .. .. 707 

Waite, E. R. — Asiatic Red-bellied Newt 707 

Sweet, Georgina — Anatomy of Australian Amphibia 70S 

Robinson, R. — Corpora adiposa in Frog 708 

Ocana, Jose Gomez — Function of Optic Lobes in Fishes 708 

Masterman, A. T. — Mimicry in the Common Sole 708 

Tower, R. W. — Production of Sound in Drum-fishes 709 

Tunicata. 

Fechner, Paul — Gill-slit Formation in Ascidians 31 

Ritter, W. E. — Ascidians of Calif ornian Coast 34: 



Xll CONTENTS. 

PAGB 

Brooks, W. K. — Homologies of the Muscles of Cyclowlpa 34 

Fernandez, Miguel — Structure of Salpa 35 

Kerb, H. — Winter-buds of Clavelina lepadiformis 447 

Aida, T. — Japanese Appendicular ians 572 

Fol, Alice — Regeneration of Test in Tunicates .">7:; 

Daumezon, G. — Musculature of Compound Tunicates 573 

„ „ Development of Dirtoma tridentatum 573 

Roule, Louis — Development of Notochord in Larval Ascidians 573 

Hitter, W. E. — California?! Ascidians 709 

Kert, H. — Winter-buds of Clavellina lepadiformis 709 



INVERTEBRATA. 

Sanzo, Luigi — Nitrogen Metabolism in Marine Invertebrates 35 

Sollas, Igerna B. J. — Identification of Chitin by its Physical Constants .. . . 35 

Mollusca. 

Marohand, Werner — Latent Segmentation in Molluscs 36 

a. Cephalopoda. 

Hotle, W. E. — Hectocotylisation and Luminosity in Cuttlefishes 36 

Cuenot, L. — Liver of Cuttlefishes 37 

Smith, Edgar A. — Octopus with Branching Arms 37 

Massy, A. L. — New Cephalopods from the Irish Coast 37 

M'Intosh, W. C. — Large Cuttlefish at St. Andrews 170 

Marchand, W. — Chromatophores of Cephalopods 313 

Doring, Walter — Female Gonads of Cuttle-fishes 573 

Hoyle, W. E. — Cephalopods from Sudanese Red Sea 574 

/3. Gastropoda. 

Meisenheimer, J. — Reproduction in Snails 37 

Cuenot, L. — Origin of the Nematocysts of Eolidise 39 

Conklin, E. G. — Development of Fulgur 39 

Palmer, Clayton F. — Structure of Californian Haliotidx 40 

McGlone, B. — Development of Lung in Ampullaria depressa 40 

Stantschinsky, W. — Structure and Relationships of Oncidium 40 

Bartsch, Paul — New Parasitic Gastropod 170 

Babbieri, C. — Larval Stages of Cyclostoma. elegans 171 

Gbabau, Amadeus W. — Orthogenesis in Gastropods 171 

Merton, Hugo — Minute Structure of Ganglion-cells of Tethys leporina 171 

Stbebel, H. — Gastropods of the Magellan Province 171 

Bastow, R. A., & J. H. Gatliff — New Australian Chiton 172 

Heath, Harold — Hermaphroditism in a Chiton 314 

Bellion, Mlle. — Sugar-reducing Power in Helix pomatia 314 

Vles, F. — Pedal Waves of Reptant Molluscs 314 

Russell, E. S. — Environmental Studies on the Limpet 448 

Legendre, R. — Experimental Dwarfing of Water-snails 448 

Sterki, V. — Philomycus 448 

Perrier, Remy, & Henri Fischer— Defensive Glands in Tectibranchs 574 

Roaf, Herbert E., & M. Nierenstein — Physiological Action of Extract of Hypo- 
branchial Gland of Dog Whelk 574 

Sykes, E. R.— Chitons from Red Sea and East Africa 574 

Perkier, Remy — Defensive Pallial Glands in Scaphander ■ .. .. 710 

Pieron, Henri — Sense of Taste in Fresh-water Snails 710 

Colton, H. S. — Feeding Habit of Fulgar and Sycotypus 710 

5. Lamellibranchiata. 

Anthony, R. — Supplementary Siphon in Lutraria elliptica 40 

Drew, Gilman A. — Nervous System of Razor-shell Clam 315 

Debski, Bronislaw — Distribution of Petricola pholadiformis .. .. .. .. :. 315 

Kostaneoki, K. — Pathogenetic Development in Mactra 448 



CONTENTS. xiii 

PAGE 

Igel, J. — Structure of Phaseollcama magellanica 448 

Schwarz, R. — Relation between Body and Shell in Bivalves 449 

Pelsekeer, Paul — Concentration of Nervous System in Lamellibranchs 449 

Weber, F. L. — Sense-organs of Cockles 574 

Harms, W. — Post-embryonic Development of Uw'o 575 

Williamson, H. Chas. — Studies on Mussels 575 

Arthropoda. 

Woodward, Henry — Arthropoda of British Coal Measures 41 

a. Insecta. 

Carpenter, George H. — Injurious Insects in Ireland 41 

MacDougall, R.Stewart — Larch Shoot Moth 41 

,, „ Grain Weevils 41 

Matheson, R. — Life-history of A panteles glomeratus 41 

Dubois, R., & others — Alleged Fixation of Carbon by Chry salids 42 

Foot, Katherine, & E. C. Strobell — Chromosomes in Spermatogenesis of Anasa 

tristis .. .. 42 

Pieron, H. — How Ants find their Nest 42 

Wagner, Wladimir — Psychobiology of Humble Bees 42 

Santschi, F. — Tunisian Ants „ 43 

Adlerz, G. — Solitary Wasps 43 

Aurivillius, Ohr. — Forms of the Female of Papilio dardanus 43 

Tragardh, Ivar — Termitophilous Tineid Larva 43 

Chapman, T. A. — Hibernation of Marasmarcha , 43 

Guppy, L„ jun. — Life-history of Cydemon {Urania) leilus 44 

Sergent, Edmond & Etienne — Human Myasis due to CEstrus Ovis 44 

Jost, H. — Migrations of Hypoderma Bovis Larva in Ox 44 

Bernhard, Carl — Viviparity in Ephemeridse 44 

Pieron, H. — Autotomy in Orlhoptera 45 

Philiptschenko, Jur. — Excretion in Apterygota 45 

Silverlock, O. C. — Senses of Ants 172 

Wasmann, E. — Nests of Wanderer Ants 172 

Walter, L. — Clasping Organs on Wings of Hymenoptera 172 

Bugnion, E. — Salivary Glands of Hemiptera 172 

Magalhaes, P. S. de — Insects Injurious to Books 172 

Cockerell, T. D. A. — Scale Insects of Date Palm 173 

Silvestri, F. — Pests of the Olive 173 

Piersol, W. H. — Mating of llivellia boscii 173 

Bezzi, Mario — Blood-sucking Flies 173 

Imms, A. D. — Structure and Behaviour of Larva of Anopheles maculipennis . . .. 174 

Holmgren, Nils — Shell-bearing Mycetophila Larva 174 

Tiraboschi, Carlo — Relation of Flea* to Plague Dissemination 174 

Tillyard, R. J. — Dimorphism in Australian Agrionidse 175 

Silvestri, F. — New Order of Apterygota 175 

Berlese, A. — Treatise on Insects 315 

Janet, Charles — Histolysis of Wing-muscles in Ants after Nuptial Flight .. .. 316 

( erfontaine, P. — Uncommon Dipterous Larva 316 

Perez, Ch. — Fat-bodies of Muscidm in Metamorphosis 316 

Shelford, V. E. — Larval Habits of Tiger-beetles 316 

Donisthorpe, H. St. J. — Life-history and Bionomics of Lomechusa 317 

Scott, H. — Variation of Nycteribiidas from Ceylon 317 

Jackson, C. F. — Semi-aquatic Aphid 317 

Jordan, H. E. — Accessory Chromosome in Aplopus mayeri 318 

Bruntz, L. — Excretion in Tliysanura .. 318 

Wesche, W. — On the Microscope as an Aid to the Study of Biology in Entomology, 

with particular reference to the Food of Insects (Plates V. to X. and Figs. 

114-118) 401 

Jordan, H. E. — Accessory Chromosome in Aplopus mayeri 449 

Marsall, Guy A. K. — Diaposematism . . ..' 450 

Wilson, E. B. — Accessory Chromosome in Anasa tristis 450 

Bordas, L. — Cutaneous Glands of Wasps 450 



XIV CONTENTS. 

PAOE 

Jeannel, R. — Cave Beetles 450 

Dkegener, P. — Development of the Alimentary Canal during Metamorphosis . . . . 4.~>u 

Matsumura, S. — New European and Mediterranean Gicadinx 451 

Hine, James S. — Freezing Insect Larvse 451 

Bordas, L. — Odoriferous Gland of Cockroach , 451 

Wesche, W. — Genitalia of Male Cockroach 451 

Martelli, G. — Insects Injurious to Olives and Figs 451 

Silvestri, F. — Study of Thysanura 452 

Brontz, L. — Cephalic Glands of Machilis maritima .: 452 

„ „ Kidney of Machilis maritima 452 

„ „ Labial Excretory Organ in Thysanura 452 

Hoffmann, R. W. — Structure of Collembola 452 

Kellogg, Vernon L. — Artificial Parthenogenesis in Silk-moth 575 

Demoll, R. — Mouth-parts of Solitary Bees 576 

Strohl, J. — Copulatory Organs of Solitary Bees ■• 570 

Marshall, W. S. — Development of Ovary of Folistes pallipes 570 

„ „ Development of Ovary of Phryganid 577 

Saling. Th. — Development of Gonads of Tenebrio molitor 577 

Meves, F., & J. Dcesbekg — Spermatogenesis of Hornet 577 

Otte, H., & others — Spermatogenesis in Insects 577 

Rotjbaud, E. — Observations on Glossina palpalis 578 

Lubben, H. — Life-history of Thrypticus smaragdinus 578 

Steche, 0. — Luminosity of Tropical Lampyridse 578 

Wheeler, W. M. — Pink Katydids as Mutants 578 

Lefevre, George, & Caroline McGill — Chromosome* of Anasa tridis and Anaz 

Junius 579 

Bugnion, E., & N. Popoff — Wax-glands of Flata {Phromnia) marginella .. .. 579 

Mang an, Joseph — Mouth-parts of Blattidte 579 

Siltala, A. J. — Development of Caddis-worms 580 

Oppenheim, S. — Regeneration of Segments in Ephemerid Larvze 580 

Kellogg, Vernon L. — Mallophaga of the Kea 580 

Tannreuther, (j. W. — Germ-cells and Embryology of Aphids 5S0 

Philtptschenko, Jur. — Head- glands of Thysanura 581 

Evans, William — Collembola and Thysanura of Forth Area 582 

Bruntz, L. — Excretion in Thysanura 582 

Nigmann, M. — Structure and Habits of Acentropus niveus 582 

Hewitt, C. G. — House-fly 710 

Denioll, R. — Protandry in Insects 711 

Cholodkovsky, N. — Gastrophilu* Larva in Human Skin 711 

Kellogg, Vernon L. — Reflexes of Silkworm Moths 712 

„ „ Inheritance in Silkworms 712 

Berlese, A. — Treatise on Insects 713 

Metalnikov, S. — Galleria melonella 713 

Secqdes, F. — Destruction of Book-ioorms 714 

Mecnier, F. — Flies in Amber . . 714 

Hammar, A. G. — Nervous Syxtem of Larva of Corydalis cornuta 715 

Wesche, W. — Genitalia as Indications of Relationship 715 

£. Myriopoda. 

Williams, S. R. — Habits and Structure of Scutigerella immaculata 31 S 

Robinson, Margaret — Segmentation of the Head in Diplopoda 319 

Verhoeff, Carl W. — Studies on Julidx 452 

Silvestri, F. — Cavernicolous Myriopods 453 

y. Onychophora. 

Bouvier, E. L. — Monograph on Onychophora 45 

Sedgwick, Adam — Distribution and, Classification of Onychophora 5S3 

S. Arachuida. 

Police, G. — Eyes of Scorpions 45 

Trouessart, PI L. — Sarcoptids in Wing-bones of Birds 46 

Sergent, E., & E. L. Troiessart — New Type of Sarcoptid 46 



CONTENTS. XV 

PAGE 

Tragardh, Ivar — Myriopodophilons Mites 46 

Castellani, A. — Acarid from Omentum of Negro 46 

Williamson, Wm. — Scottish Hydraehnids 46 

Montgomery, T. H., jtjn.— Maturation and Fertilization in Theridium 17") 

Banks, Nathan — Studies on Mites 175 

Maglio, C, & W. Williamson — Hydraehnids 17.") 

Woodward, Henry — New Species of Eurypterus t 175 

Bordas, L. — So-called Malpighi 'an Tubes in Scorpions 319 

Ellingsen, Edr — Cave Pseudoscorpionidie , 45:; 

Oppenheim, S., & Friedrich, P. — Regeneration and Autotomy in Spiders .. .. 584 

Smith, F. P. — British Spiders . . . . 584 

Ellingsen, Edv. — Notes on Pseudoscorpions 584 

Deeley, G. P. — New Britisli Records of Water-mites 585 

Walter, Charles— Swiss Hydraehnids .. 585 

Heinis, F. — Metamorphosis of Species of Echiniscus 585 

Eichters, F. — Marine Tardigrada 585 

Warburton, C. — Geographical Distribution of Oribatidse 715 

Payerimhoff, P. de — New Species of Ksenenia 715 

Chamberlin, Ralph V. — North American Lycosidse 715 

Trojan, E. — New Mite 716 

e. Crustacea. 

Giaja, J. — Ferments in Crustaceans 47 

Herdman, W. A. — "Granny 1 ' Crabs 47 

Drzewina, Anna — Autotomy in Grapsus 47 

Pieron, H. — Autotomy in Decapods 47 

Caullery, M. — Real Nature of Mieroniscidse 47 

Racovitza, E. G. — New Cave Isopod 48 

Richardson, Harriet — Terrestrial Isopods of the Family Eubelidm 4S 

Racovitza, E. G. — Cave Isopods 48 

Sayoe, O. A. — Primitive Malacostracan 176 

Stimpson, William — Brachyura and Anomura from the North Pacific 176 

Woodward, Henry — Fygocephalus cooper i 176 

Patience, Alexander — Male of D examine thea 176 

Vejdoysky, Fr. — Reduction of the Eye in New Gammarid from Ireland .. .. 177 

Gurney, R. — Crustacea of East Norfolk Rivers 177 

Wilson. C. B. — Notes on Development of Argulidm 177 

Bruntz, L. — Nephrocytes of Caprellids 177 

Grtjvel, A.— A ntarctic Cirripedia 177 

Berndt, W. — Boring Cirripedia 178 

Pilsbry, Henry A. — Barnacles of the United States National Museum 178 

„ ,, Notes on Cirri pedes 178 

Marsh, C. Dwight — North American Species of Diaptomus 178 

Drzewina, Anna — Periodic Change in Phototropism of Hermit Crabs 319 

McIntosh, D. C. — Variations in the Norway Lobster 320 

Patience, Alexander — New British Terrestrial Isopod 320 

Smith, G. — Life-history of Sacculina 320 

Gruvel, A. — New Barnacles 321 

Pesta, Otto — Metamorphosis of Mytilicola intestinalis 321 

Calman, W. T. — Stridulating Organ in Crabs , 453 

Drzewina, Anna — Hydrotropism in Crabs „ . 453 

Police, G. — Visceral Nervous System of Decapods 453 

Fulinski, Benedykt — Development of Crayfish 454 

Andrews, E. A. — Cambarus montezumse 454 

Zuelzer, Margarethe — Regeneration in Asellus 454 

Racovitza, E. G. — Neio Marine Isopod „ 454 

Bagnall, R. S. — New Terrestrial Isopod 455 

Thiele, Jon. — Neio Phyllopods 455 

Bradley, J. C. — Species of Corophium 455 

Briot, A. — Abnormality in a Crayfish 585 

Lloyd, R. E. — Variation of Squilla investigatoris 585 

Gelderd, Charles — Alimentary Canal of Schizopods 585 

Gurney, Robert — New Species of Cirolana from a Spring in the Sahara .. .. 585 



XVI CONTENTS. 

I'AGE 

Giudice, P. Lo — Locomotor Organs of Gygebranchitdis 586 

Rogknhofeu, Alvis — Maxillary Gland in Isopods 586 

Patience, Alexander — Notes on Clyde Crustacea 586 

„ „ British Species of Trichoniscoide* 586 

Bagnall, Richard S. — New Terrestrial Isopod 587 

Coutiere, H. — New Entoniscid 587 

Roi, Otto le — Dendrogaster 587 

Grater, E. — New Cave Copepod 587 

Wilson, Charles Branch — North American Galigidee 587 

Nowikoff, M. — Median Eye of Ostracods 587 

Walcott, C. D. — Cambrian Trilobites 588 

Zdluetta, A. de — Lamippidse 716 

Pilsbry, H. A. — Classification of Scalpelliform Barnacles 716 

Ballowitz, E. — Headless Spermatozoa of Cirripeds 717 

Carpenter, George H., & Isaac Swain — New Devonian Isopod 717 

Axmulata. 

Selensky, W. — Urns of Sipunculids 48 

Martiis, L. Cognetti de — Reproductive Apparatus of Kynotus 49 

Combault, A. — Calciferous Glands of Earthworms 49 

M'Intosh, W. C. — Notes on Poly 'chasts 179 

Lepeschkin, W. D. — Nervous System of Saccocirrus papillocercus 179 

Morguli, Sergius — Regeneration in Podarhe obscura 179 

Konopacki, M. — Respiration in Earthworms 179 

Salenskt, W. — Metamorphosis of Echmr us 321 

Arwidsson, Ivar — Studies on Maldanidm 321 

Andrews, E. A. — Earthworms as Planters of Trees 321 

Gunther, R. T. — Systematic Position of Chsstognatha 322 

Salenskt, W. — (Esophageal Pouches of Spionidse 455 

Jakubski, A. W. — Neuroglia in Leeches , , . . 455 

Dehorne, Armand — Thoracic Nephridia of Her melli das 588 

Reac, L. dd — Epidermis of Travisia forbesii 588 

Malaqdin, A., & A. Dehorne — Polychsets of Amboina 588 

Malaquin, A., & A. Bedot — Brain and Nuchal Organ of Notopygos labiatus .. 588 

Lefevre, G. — Artificial Parthenogenesis in Tlialassema mellita 588 

Ikeda, Iwaji — Remarkable Echiuroids 590 

Stephenson, J. — New Indian Oligochast 590 

Livanow, N. — Studies on Leeches 590 

Benham, W. B. — Neio Zealand Leeches 590 

Fior, Giuseppe Dalla — Growth and Asexual Reproduction in Stylaria lacustris.. 590 

Izuka, Akira — Breeding of Nereis japonica 717 

Goddard, E. J. — Studies 071 Australian Leeches 718 

Nematohelrninth.es. 

Man, J. G. De — Free-living Nematodes 49 

Weinberg, M. — Toxic Effect of Sclerosfomum equinum 49 

„ ., Toxins Secreted by Parasites 180 

Deincka, D. — Nervous System of Ascaris 322 

Porta, A. — Peculiar Nematode 455 

Rauther, Max — Structure of Nematodes 5yl 

Martini, E. — Development of Nematodes 591 

Schepotieff, A. — Chzetosomatidae 5:>1 

„ „ Peculiar Free-living Nematodes 592 

Bancroft, Thos. L. — Note on Filar ia immit is 718 

Platyhelminthes. 

Mola, Pasquale — New Cestode from Eagle 50 

„ Para-uterine Organ of Taenia nigropunctala 50 

Fuhrmann, O. — Classification of Cyclophyllidea 50 



CONTENTS. xvii 

PAGE 

Dubois, Raphael — Action of Heat on Immature Mussel-fluke 50 

Hofsten, Nils von — New Bhabdoccela 50 

Meixner, Adolf — Polycladg from the Somali Coast and a Revision of the Stylo- 

chinm 50 

Plessis, G. Du — Neio Marine Triclad 50 

Oxner, M. — New Nemerteans 51 

Linton, Edwin, & M. Kowalewski — Notes on Cestodes 180 

(tIARD, Alfred — Pearl forming Flukes ISO 

Nicoll, W. — Trematodes from British Birds 180 

Salensky. W. — Structure of Haplodiscus 1S1 

Cohn, Ludwig — Orientation of the Cestoila 323 

Mrazek, Al. — Sterility in Cestodes 323 

Looss, A. — Hemiuridie 323 

Martin, Loeis — Rhythmic Behaviour of Convoluta Roscoffensis 323 

Wilhelmi, J. — Planaria anguluta Mutter 324 

Ude, Joh. — Structure of Fresh-water Triclads 324 

Surface, Frank JM. — Early Development of a Polyclad 324 

Martin, C. H. — Nematocysts of Turbellaria 325 

Mola, 1'asqeale — New Tapeworm in Moorhen 455 

Rosseter, T. B. — Hymenolepis fragilis 456 

Linstow, O. von, & others — Studies on Cestodes 456 

Korotneff, A. — Cytological Study of Triclad Pharynx 456 

Hallez, P. — Parasite of Cockle 456 

„ „ Syncytial Nature of the Gut in Rhabdocoelids 456 

Bendl, W. E. — New Species of Rhynchodemus 457 

Perez, Charles — Stichostemma h'ilhardi 457 

Athias, M. — Trematode in Hibernating Gland of Hedgehog 592 

Lebour, Marie V. — Trematodes in Fishes 502 

Wilhelmi, J. — Uncertain Species of Marine Triclads 592 

Sabussow, H. — Planaria Wytegrensis ■■ ' 592 

Caullery, M. — Peculiar Abnormality in Proboscis of a Nemertean 593 

Young, R. T.— Histogenesis of Cysticercus pisiformis 593 

Leon, N. — Neio Human Tapeworm 718 

Cholodkovsky, N. — New Tapeworm in Dog 71 S 

Fuhrmann, O. — Cestodes of Birds 718 

Keeble, F. — Yellow-brown Cells of Convoluta par adoxa .. 718 

Martin, Louis — Memory in Convoluta 719 

Hallez, Paul — Maturation and Cleavage in Paracortex candii 719 

Yatsu, N. — Cell-division in Cerebratulus 720 

i 

Incertae Sedis. 

Buckman, S. S. — Development of Ribs in Brachiopods 51 

Gregory, J. W. — Rotiform Bryozoa of the Isle of Wight 51 

Bogolepow, M. — Growth of Tendr a zoster icola 51 

Levinsen, G. M. R. — Total Regeneration of Bryozoa 52 

Waters, A. W. — Genus Tubucellaria 52 

McClendon, J. F. — New Species of Mt/zostoma , 181 

Norman, A. M. — Notes on some British Polyzoa 181 

Pavlow, A. P. — Genus Aucella 181 

Rousselet, C. F. — Fresh-water Polyz«a 268 

Schepotieff, A. — Structure of Echinoiieridx 457 

Schmidt, F. — Lower Silurian Brachiopods 457 

Buckman, S. S. — Brachiopod Homoeomorphy 457 

Robertson, Alice — North American lucrustmg Chilostomatous Bryozoa 457 

Czwiklitzer, R. — Larva of PediceUina echinata 593 

Braem, F. — Spermatozoa of Fresh-water Bryozoa 593 

Bonnevie, Kristine — Polyspermy in Membranipora 593 

Annandale, Nelson — Bengal Polyzoa 594 

Assheton, Richard — New Species of Dolichoglossus .. 720 

Greger, D. K. — Colour Markings in <i Devonian Brachiopod 720 

Sollas, Igerna B. J. — Neio Fresh-water Polyzoon from South Africa 721 

Dec. 16th, 1908 b 



wiii CONTENTS. 

Rotifera. fagk 

Zelinka, Carl — New Marine Rotifera 52 

Rousbelet, C. F. — New Rotifera 181 

De Beauchamp, P. — New French Rotifers 32:» 

Murray, Jambs — New Scottish Rotifers 325 

De Beauohamf, P. — Stomachal Excretion in Rotifera 325 

Murray, James — Rotifers from Gough Island 458 

Some African Rotifers (Plate XV.) 665 

Echinoderma. 

Sterzinger, Irene — Luminosity of Amphiura squamata 52 

Fabiana, R. — Abnormality in Test of Echinolampas 53 

MacBride, E. "\V. — Development of Ophiofhrix fragilis - ,: > 

Dendy, Arthur, & E. Hindle — New Zealand Holothurians 53 

Cowles, R. P. — New Species of Cucumaria 54 

Anderson*, A. R. S. — New Echinoid from Indian Ocean 182 

Clark, H. L. — Cidaridse, 182 

Clark, Austin H. — New Crinoids 182 

Fisher, W. K. — New Holothurians 182 

Poso, O. — Regeneration of Spines and Fed icella vix in Sea- urcli ins '■>-<'' 

Reichensperger, & Ernst Mangold — Luminosity of Ophiuroids 326 

MacBride, E. W. — Development of Ophiothrix fragilis 326 

Clark, Herbert Lyman — Monograph on Apodous Holothurians 327 

Trojan, E. — Luminosity of Ophiuroids 458 

Reichensperger, A. — Observations on Ophiopsila 458 

Clark, H. L. — Japanese and East Indian Echinoderms 458 

Bohn, Georges — Habits of Starfish 594 

Delage, Yves — Parthenogenesis of Sea-urchins 594 

Koehler, R„ & C. Vanet — Littoral Holothurians of Indian Ocean 594 

Gadd, G. — Hermaphroditism in a Sea-urchin .. .. 7-! I 

Vaney, Clement — Antarctic Holothurians 721 

Reichensperger, A. — Glands of Crinoids 721 

Bather, F. A. — New Antarctic Crinoid 721 

Ccelentera. 

Bedot, M. — Madreporaria from Amboina 54 

Herdman, W. A. — Rare British Coral 54 

Herouard, E. — Statoblasts in a Scyphistoma 54 

Browne, E. T. — Revision of Medusas belonging to the Family Laodiceidte . . .. 54 

Motz-Kossowska, S, — Gonophores of Plumularia obliqua and Sertularia operculata 55 

Gravely. F. H. — Tubularia indivisa var. obliqua 55 

Ekman, Sven* — Cordylophora lacustris 55 

Oka, Asajiro — New Fresh-water Medusoid from China 183 

Billard, A. — Hydroids of Madagascar and South-east Africa 183 

Brooks, W. K., & S. Rittenhouse — Structure and Development of Turritopsis 

nutricula 183 

Clarke, S. F. — Hydroids of Eastern Tropical Pacific 184 

Browne, E. T. — Hydroids from North, Side of Bay of Biscay 184 

Senna, Angelo — Pelagic Larvse of Actiniaria 184 

Wyragevitch, Th. — Halcampella ostroumoici 184 

Vaughan, T. Wayland — Recent Madreporaria of the Hawaiian Island and Laysan 1S4 

"Walton, Chas. L. — Phellia murocincta 1S4 

Kinoshita, K. — Japanese Primnoidx .. .. 185 

Hickson, S. J. — Alcyonaria, Antipatharia, and Madreporaria from the North Side 

of the Bay of Biscay 185 

Moser, Fanny — Japanese Ctenophora 185 

Roule, Louis — New Types of Alcyonarians .. .. 327 

Gravier, Ch. — Association of Alcyonarian and Alga 327 

Roule, Louis — Spines of Antipatharia 327 

Richter, VV. — Development of Gonophores in Siphonophora 328 



CONTENTS. XIX 

PAGB 

Ritchie, James — Australasian Hydroid in North Sea 328 

Biqelow, H. B. — Nuclear Cycle of Gonionemus murbachii A. G. Mayer :^ s 

Weltnbb, W. — Species of Hydra >~ |S 

Boulenger, Charles L — Cordylophora in Egypt 459 

Billard, A. — New Varieties of Hydroids 459 

Browne, E. T. — Limnocnida tanganicm in the Niger 459 

Kckenthal, W. — New Gorgonids 459 

Walton, Charles L. — British Actinian* 460 

Lloyd, R. E — Hydroid parasitic on Fish 595 

Stiasny, G. — Atlantic Tima at Trieste .. .. 595 

Thomson, J. Arthur — Large Antipatharian from Faero Islands 595 

Kukenthal, W. — L'evision of Nephthyidie 595 

Benham, W. B. — New Zealand Ctenophores 596 

Kirkpatrick, R. — New Dictyonine Sponge 596 

Annandale, Nelson — Siesta of Spongitta in Tropics 596 

,, „ New Indian Fresh-water Sponges 596 

Boulenger, Charles L. — Hydromedusan from Lake Qurun 596 

Thomson, J. A. — Note on a Remarkable Alcyonarian, Studeria mirabilis g. et sp. n. 

(Plate XVI.) 675 

Whitney, D. D. — Green Bodies of Hydra vivid is 721 

Warren, Ernest — Hydroids from Natal 722 

Porifera. 

Kirkpatrick, R. — African Fresh-water Sponges .. ., 5.) 

Weltner, W. — Amcebocytes of Spongilliih 18. > 

Wilson, H. V. — Degeneration and Regeneration in Sponges 186 

Kirkpatrick, R. — Antarctic Mo naxonel lids 186 

Annandale, Nelson — New Fresh-water Sponges from Calcutta . 186 

Haecker, V. — Studies on Radiolarians 186 

Chatton, E. — Affinities of Blastulidium psedophtorum 187 

Bovard, John F. — Structure and Movements of Condylostoma patens 187 

Brodsky, A. — Trichocysls of Frontonia leucas 187 

Dobell, C. Clifford — Trichomastix serpentis 187 

Seltgmann, C. G., & Lours W. Sambon — Leucocytozoon of Red Grouse 188 

King, Helen Dean — New Sporozoon in Toad 188 

Johnstone, James — Sporozoan Parasites of Fishe* 188 

Graham-Smith, G. S. - Sarcosporidian in Parakeets 188 

Negre, L. — Sarcbsporidial Infection in Mice 188 

Levaditi, C, & J. McIntosh — Culture of Treponema pallidum 189 

Leger, L.. & E. Hesse — New Myxosporidiin Family 189 

Castellani, A. — Relation of Spirochseta per tenuis to Yaws .. .. 189 

Wilson, H. V. — Coalescence and Regeneration in Sponges 328 

Sollas, Ingicrna B.J. — Inclusion of Foreign Bodies by Sponges 460 

Minchin, E. A. — Spicules of Leucosolenia 597 

Mackinnon, Doris L. — Encystation of Actinosphasvium at Different Temperatures 597 

Robertson, Muriel —Haplospor idian of Flounder 598 

Protozoa. . 

Millett, F. W. — Foraminifera of Galway ■. .. 56 

Chapman, F. — Tertiary Foraminifera of Victoria 56 

Kanitz, A. — Physiology of Pulsating Vacuole in Infusoria 56 

Faure-Fremiet, E. — New Hypotrichous Infusorian 5{j 

Johnstone, James — Ichthyophthirius multifiliis on British Roach M 

Collins, B. — Notes on Acinetaria 57 

I.averan, A. — Trypanosomes of the Upper Niger 57 

Laveran, A., & Thibodx — Role of the Spleen in Trypanosomiasis 57 

Robertson, Muriel — Trypanosoma of Pontobdella muricata 57 

Franca, Carlos — Trypanosomes of Frog a)id Leech 57 

Nuttall, G. H. F., & G. S. Graham Smith — Development of Piroplasma canis in 

Dog 58 

b 2 



XX CONTEXTS. 

PAGE 

Chapman, F. — On Dimorphism in the Recent Foraminifer, Alveolina boscii 

Defr. «p. (Plates II. and III., and Fig. 31) L51 

Awerinzew, IS. — Mi nute Structure of Amoeba proteus, Pall 329 

Dobei.l, C. 0. — Degeneration in Opalina 329 

Mast, S. O. — Light-reaction* in Volvox 3150 

Franca, C. — Trypanosome of the Eel 330 

Nicolle, C. — New Piroplasma from a Rodent 330 

Dobell, C. C. — Structure and Life-history of Copromonas 330 

Ucke, A. — Trichomonas and Megastoma in Human Intestine 331 

Fantham, H. B. — Biology and Affinities of Spirochsetae 331 

Hoogenraad, H. R. — Rhizopods and Heliozoa of the Netherlands 460 

Murray, James — Rhizopods from Gough Island 460 

Landacre, F. L. — Protozoa of Sandusky Bay 460 

Enriques, P.— Studies on Colpoda 460 

Kofoid, C A. — Regeneration in Ceratium 460 

Favre-Fremiet, E. — Turbilina instdbilis, a variety of Strombilidium gyrans .. 461 

Lesage. J. — Heemogregarine of Leptodactylus ocellalus 461 

Chatton, E., & E. Alilaire — Parasites of Drosophila confusa 461 

Minchin, E. A. — Hsemogregarine in Blood of a Himalayan Lizard 461 

Schellack, C. — Solitary Encystation in Gregarines 461 

Zuelzer, Margarethe — Influence of Salinity on Contractile Vacuole 461 

Laveran, A. — Trypanosoma congolense 4<i'2 

Heron-Allen, Edward, & Arthur Earland — On Cycloloculina, a New Generic 
Type of the Foraminifera. With a Preliminary Study of the Foraminiferous 

Deposits and Shore-sands of Selsey Bill (Plate XII. and Fig. 138) .. .. 529 

Pearcet, F. G.— Botellina 598 

Lankester, E. Ray — Archerina, Golenkinia,and Botryococcus 598 

Brodsky, A. — Remarkable Adaptation in Onychodactylus Acrobcdes 599 

Entz, G. — Patagonian Protozoa 599 

Collin, B. — Tokophyra Cyclopum 599 

Franca, C. — Hsemogregarine of the Eel 599 

„ „ Trypanosomes of the Frog 599 

Mercier, L. — Notes on Myxosporidia 599 

Cepede, C'asimir — Parasite of Male Starfish 599 

Lebailly, C. — Culture of Treponema pallidum in vitro 600 

Chatton, E. — Blastodinium 722 

Zarnick, B. — New Order of Protozoa 722 

Mercier, L. — Schizogony in Amoeba 722 

Bruce, David, & H. R. Bateman — Have Trypanosomes an Ultra-Microscopical 

Stage? 723 

Swarczewsky, B. — Budding in Acineta gelatinosa 723 



CONTENTS. XXI 



BOTANY. 

GENERAL, 

Including the Anatomy and Physiology of Seed Plants. 

Cytology, 

includinsICell-Contents. page 

Farmer, J. B. — Structure of Nucleus in Relation to Organisation of Individual . . 59 

Lubimenko, W. — Cytology of Poll en-mother -cells of Nymphxacex 60 

Gard, M. — Ctjstolith-formation in the Cistacex 60 

Lubimenko, W. — Cytology of the Pollen of the Nymphseacex 190 

Olive, Edgar W. — Cell and Nuclear Division in Basididbolus ranarum .. . . 190 

Guilliermond, A. — Aleurone Grains of Grasses 191 

Escoter, Eud. — Blepharoplast and Cenlrosome of Marchantia polymorpha . . . . 332 

„ „ Nucleus and Karyokinesis in Zygnema 332 

Stevens, F. L. — Nuclear Structures in Synchytrium 332 

BrocqRousseu, & E. Gain — Peroxy diastase in Dry Seeds 332 

Wisselingh, 0. van — Karyokinesis in (Edogonium 463 

Griggs, R. F. — Function of the Centrosome 463 

Oes, A. — Autolysis of Mitosis 601 

Lart, Er. de — Cytology of Pollen-mother-cells of Agave attenuata 601 

Structure and Development. 

"Vegetative. 

Bernard, Ch. — Centripetal Wood in the Coniferse 61 

Knox, A. A. — Stem of Ibervillea Sonorx 61 

Flot, L. — Origin of Leaves and Stem 62 

Tswett, M. — Water-stomata of the Lobeliacex 62 

Gatin, C. L. — Lenticels of Palms 62 

Schwendt, E. — Extra-floral Nectaries 63 

Wieland, G. R. — Historic Fossil Cy cads 463 

,, „ Cone of Pinus 464 

White, J. — Red Wood in Conifers 602 

Gatin, C. L. — Embryology in the Palmacege, Muscacese, and Cannacex 602 

Holm, T. — Hibernation and Vegetative Reproduction of Stellaria 602 

McClendon, J. F. — Xerophytic Adaptations of Leaf-structure 724 

Ono, K. — Extra-floral nectaries 724 

Reproductive. 

Mirande, M. — Polycarpellary Origin of the Pistil of the Lauraceas 63 

Pace, L. — Fertilization in Cypripedium 191 

Jcel, H. O. — Development of Saxifraga granulata 191 

Mucke, M. — Origin and Fruit-development of Acorus Calamus 333 

Nichols, M. L. — Pollen-development of Sarracenia 333 

Schaffner, J. H. — Polar Conjugation in the Angiosperms 464 

Sablon, L. du — Albumen of Capri ficus 464 

Coulter, J. M. — Relations of Megaspores to'^Embryo-sacs 1 . . 725 

Candolle, A. de — Monospermous Capsules 725 

Physiology. 

Nutrition and Growth. 

Fraysse, A. — Parasitic F lowering Plants 64 

Mikande. M. — Parasitic Phanerogams and Nitrates 64 

Schouteden, H. — Course of Molecular Physiology 65 



XXll CONTENTS. 

PAGH 

Jatillieb, Maurice — Biological Chemistry 192 

Guignakd, L. — Grafting of Plants containing Hydrocyanic Aciil 334 

Bottom ley, AV. B. — Seed and Soil Inoculation for Leguminous Crops 334 

BeauterIE, J. — Formation of Aieurone Grains 334 

Lubimenko, W. — Chlorophyll-formation 335 

Hasselbring, H. — Carbon Assimilation of Penicillium 335 

Clapp, G. L.— Transpiration 603 

Irritability. 

Georgevitch, P. M. — Geotropism in the Roots of Lupinus albus 65 

Nordhausen, M. — Epidermic of Foliage-leaves in Relation to Light-perception . . 65 

Pfeffer, W. — Sleep-movements of Leaves 192 

Lowschin, A. — Influence of Light on Respiration of Fungi 335 

Habeklandt, G. — Geotropic Sensibility of the Root 603 

Purvis, J. E., & G. R. Warwick — Influence of Light and Colours on Yeast .. .. 604 

Eaybavd, L. — Influence of Light on the Growth of liliizopus nigricans 725 

Chemical Changes. 

Marchlewski, L., & J. Eobel — Colouring Matter of Chlorophyll 465 

Tswett, M. — Change of Colour and Emptying of Decaying Leaves 465 

Osterhout, W. J. V. — Effects of Poisonous Gases on Plants 604 

„ ,, Value of Sodium to Plants 604 

General. 

Penhallow, D. P. — Pleistocene Flora of Canada 66 

Dufour, L. — Affinities of the Chicoracese 66 

Jancewski, Ed. de — Monograph of the Genus Ribes t)G 

Uexkull-Guldenband, M. Nieuwenhuis von — Harmful Secretion of Sugar in 

Myrmecophilous Plants 66 

Bujrck, W. — Influence of Nectaries on the Opening of Anthers 67 

Bibliography .. ., > 67 

Avebury, Lord — The President's Address : On Seeds, with Special Reference to 

British Plaids (Plate IV. and Figs. 67-85) * .. .. 273 

Bibliography 335 

Lapie, G. — Phytccology of the Eastern Part of Kabylia 466 

Foxworthy, F. W. — Philippine Woods 466 

i-niROTH, H.— Pendidation Theory 467 

White, C. A. — Origin of Parasitic Plants 604 

Molisch, H. — Vltramiscroscopic Organisms 605 

CRYPT OGAMS. 

Pteridophyta. 

Woronin, H., & K. Goebel — ApogamyandApospory 68 

Benedict, R. 0. — Genus Antrophyum 68 

Lachmann, P. — Root-structure in Ceratopter is thalictroides 193 

Christ, H. — Christensen's Index Filicum 194 

Poisson, H.— Abnormal Production of Spores in Plat ycerium 194 

Binford, R. — Development of Lygodium 194 

Hawkins, L. A. — Sporangial Development in Equisetum hyemale 195 

Stokey, A. G. — Inner Roots of Lycopodium pithyoides 195 

Benson, M. — New Palxozoic Lycopod 195 

Lindman, C A. M. — Lycopodium complanainm usbsp. moniliforme 196 

Kidston, R., & D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan — Fossil Osmundacex 196 

Hickling, G. — Anatomy of Palxostachya vera 196 

Coward, K. H. — Structure of Syringodendron 196 

Weiss, F. E. — Parichnos in the Lepidodendracex 196 

Sperlich, A.— Development of Stolons in Nephrolepis 335 

Basecke, P. — Physiological Sheaths in Ferns 336 

Christensen. C. — Revision of the American Species of Dryopteris 336 

C'lvte, W. N.. & others — North American Ferns .. 336 

Rosenstock, E. — Descriptions of New Tropical Ferns 337 



CONTEXTS. XXU1 

FAG2 

Underwood, L. M., & W. K. Maxok — New Species of Lindsxa 337 

Christ, H. — Ferns of Paraguay 337 

Maxon. W. R. — Tropical American Ferns 467 

Copeland, E. B., & others — Philippine Ferns 467 

Campbell, D. H. — Symbiosis in Fern ProthaUia 468 

Dowell, P. — North American Fern-Hybrids of the Genus Dryopteris 468 

Arber. E. A. N., & H H. Thomas— Anatomy of Sigillaria 468 

Life, A. C. — Effect of Light upon Spore-germination 605 

Bower, F. O. — Ophioglossum simplex 605 

Boodle, L. A.— Production of Dwarf Male Prothalli in Sporangia of Todea.. .. 606 

Haushberger, J. W. — Water-storing Tubers of Nephrolepis 606 

Trundy, A. H., & others— North American Pteridophyta 606 

Hieronymus, G. — South American Fern* .. 6U7 

Rosenstock, E. — Descriptions of New Species of Ferns 607 

Druery, C. T. — Deciduous British Ferns 008 

Halle, T. G.— Fossil Pteridophyta 608 

Weiss, F. E. — Stigmaria with Centripetal Wood 608 

Barnhart, J. H., & W. N. Clute — Deceased North American Pteridologists . . .. 608 

Sykes, M. G. — Anatomy and ^Morphology of Tmesipteris 609 

Saxelby, E. M. — Origin of Roots in Lycopodium 609 

Bruchmann, H. — Types of Embryo- development 'in Selaginella 610 

Yamanouchi, S.— Cytology of Reproduction in Nephrodium 726 

Renier, A. — Origin of telodendron Impressions of Bothrodendron 726 

Bertrand, P. — Leaf -trace in Gijropteris and Tubicaulis 726 

Perrin, G. — Conditions affecting Prothalli of Polypodiacese 727 

Clute, W. N., & others — North American Ferns . • • • 727 

Benedict, R. C. — Some Fern Hybrids in North America 728 

„ ,, Ophioglossacese of the United States 728 

Benson, M. — Lycopod with a Seed-like Structure 729 

Sykes, M. G. — Sporangium-bearing Organs of the Lycopodiacese 729 

Pampamni, R. — Lycopodium squarrosum and its Allies 729 

Bryophyta. 

Marchal. El. & Em. — Apospory and Sexuality in Mosses 68 

Brothervs, V. F. — Classification of Families and Genera of Mosses 69 

Muella, K. — European Hepaticse 69 

Dixon, H. N. — Mossflora of Northumberland 69 

Sebille, R. — French Mosses 69 

Britton, E. G., & others — North American Mosses 69 

Luisier, A. — Mosses of Madeira 70 

Pitard & others — Muscinese of the Canary Islands 70 

Bryhn, N., & A. Hesselbo — Arctic Muscinese 70 

Sktchell. W. A. — Sphagna of Alaska 70 

Dusen, P. — Mosses of Antarctic America 71 

Luisier. A. — Portuguese Species of Fissidens 71 

Douin, C. — Genus Ephemerum 71 

„ Two Species of Sphxrocatpu< found in France 71 

Dismier. G. — Variable Peristome of Philonot is 71 

Burrell, W. H. — Peculiar Unattached Mode of Growth of Leucobryitm 72 

Horwood. A. R., & others — British Muscinese 197 

Stiuton, J. — New and Hare Scottish Mosses 197 

McArdle, D., & H. W. Lett — Irish Muscinese 197 

Haynes, C. C, & others — North American Muscinese 19S 

Dismier, G. — Parisian Species of Philonot is 198 

Warnstorf, C. — New Species of Sphagnum 198 

Herzog, Th. — Trichostomum mutabile Br. and its Allies 199 

Nicholson, W. E. — Muscinese of Crete 199 

Elenkin, A. A. — New Greenhouse Fissidens 199 

Gyorffy, I. — Hybrids of Physcomitrella 199 

Loeske, L. — Parallel Forms and Variability of Cell-length in Mosses 200 

Servit, M. — Ramification in Muscinem 200 

Ernst, A — Androgynous Infioresceuces in I Himortieni 201 



XXIV CONTENTS. 

I'AGE 

Bonnier, G. — Comparison between Muscinex and Vascular Cryptogams 201 

Cardot, J. — Sexuality in the Mouses 337 

Lokch. W. — Phenomena of Torsion in Mosses 338 

Been, H., & others — Asexual Multiplication in Blasia and Riella 338 

Evans, A. W. — Leucolejunea, a New Genus of Hepaticx 339 

Sohiffnbb, V. — Bryological Notes 339 

Muller, K. — European Hepaticx 339 

Nicholson, W. E. — Mosses of Sussex 339 

Jackson, A. B. — Mosses of Hampshire and Isle of Wight 340 

Ingham, W. — Notes on the Harpidia 340 

Krieger, W. — European Forms of Catharinea 340 

Sebille, R. — Systematic Position of Mnium riparium 340 

Culmann, P. — Swiss Mosses 340 

Mlller, K. — Hepaticx of Baden 341 

Loeske, L. — Muscinex of the Arlberg Region 341 

Warnstorf, K., & othehs — Bryophyta of Austria and Hungary 341 

Massalongo, C. — Genus Cephalozi a in Italy 341 

Sapehin, A. A. — Xerophytic Mosses of the Limestone around Odessa 342 

Gil, A. Casares — Spanish Species of Marchantia 342 

Cardot, J. — New Madeiran Moss-genus, Tetraslichium 342 

Britton, E. G., & others — North American Muscinex 342 

Evans, A. W. — Hepaticx of Puerto Rico 343 

"Williams, R. S. — Tropical American Mosses 343 

Paris, E. G. — West African Mosses 343 

Stephani, F. — Hepaticx of New Caledonia and Tonkin 343 

Evans, A. W. — Japanese Hepatics 343 

Paris, E.G. — Muscinex of China and Indo-Cliina 344 

Levier, E., & others — Indian Bryophyta 344 

Bibliography 344 

Waddell, C. H., & others — British Mosses 409 

Coppey, A. — Notes on European Bryophytes , 409 

Zodda, G. — Italian Muscinex 469 

Grout, A. J. — North American Mosses 470 

Evans, A. W. — Hepaticx of Puerto Rico 470 

Dixon, H. N. — Mosses of the Canaries 470 

Paris, E. G. — Bryophytes of French Guinea 470 

Cardot, J. — Mosses of the Belgian Congo 471 

Brotherus, V. F. — Mosses of the Philippine Islands 471 

Paris, E. G. — Hepatics of New Caledonia 471 

Campbell, D. H. — Studies of Javanese Anthocerotacex 471 

„ „ Antiquity of the Hepaticx 471 

Meylan, C. — Calypogeia trichomanis and its Allied Forms 472 

Dismier, G. — Monograph of Philonotis 472 

Paris, E. G. — Note upon Hookeria papillata 473 

Luisier, A. — Fruit of Campylopus polytrichoides described 473 

Andrews, F. M. — Abnormal Archegonium in a Hepatic 473 

Wheldon, J. A. — Harpidium Section of Hypnum 610 

Russell, T. H. — Introductory Study of the Muscinex 611 

West, W. — Luminosity of Schistostega 611 

Cockburn, B., & others — British Hepaticx 611 

Bellerby, W. — Sphagnum bavaricum in Yorkshire 612 

Cheetham, C. A. — Yorkshire Mosses 612 

Dalman, A. A. — Muscinex of Flintshire 612 

Stirton, J. — New and Rare Scottish Mosses 612 

Coppey, A. — Muscinex of Greece .. 612 

Haynes, C. C, & others— North American Muscinex 613 

Dixon, H. N. — New South Indian Moss 613 

Monkemeyer, W. — Tundra- forms of Hypnum 613 

Fleischer, M. — Type Species of Stereohypnum 613 

Maheu, J. — Propagula of the Genus Barbula 614 

Gtorffy, I. — G aster ogrimmia in Hungary 614 

Monkemeyer, W. — Bryum zonatum a Philonotis 614 

Schiffner, V. — European Hepatics 614 



CONTENTS. XXV 



Massalongo, C. — Calypogeia in Italy .. .. 615 

Arnell, H. W. & C. Jensen — Cephalozia in Scandinavia 615 

Humphrey, H. B. — Notes on Calif or nian Hepatics 615 

Stephani, F. — Antarctic Hepatic* 615 

Lacouture — Illustrated Key to the Genu* Lejeunea 615 

Schiffner, V. — Morphology and Anatomy of Bucegia romanica 615 

„ ,, Notes on Riccardia and other Hepatics 616 

Trabit, R. — Riella bialata 616 

Roth. G., & J. Roll — Sphagnum and Sphagnology 729 

Schiffner, V. — Grimaldia and Neesiella 730 

Leeuwen-Reijnvaan, W. & J. van — Spermatogenesis in Mosses and Liverworts . . 730 

Rydberg, P. A. — Arctic Mosses 731 

Collins, F. J., & others — North American Mosses 731 

Moss Exchange Club — British Mosses 732 

Meylan, C — Muscinem of the Jura Range 732 

Bottini, A . — Italian Mosses 732 

Cardot, J. — New Mosses of Japan and Corea 732 

Paris, E. G. — Muscinem of French China 732 

Cardot, J. — Bryological Notes 732 

Brotherus, V. F. — Subfamilies of Hypnacex 733 

Meylan, C. — European Species of Oncophorus 733 

Dismier, G. — Pohli 'a annotina and Allied Species 733 

Sebille, R. — Grimmia andrxoides 733 

Lorenz, A. — Jungermannia in Neio England 734 

Stephani, F. — New Descriptions of Hepaticx * 734 

Evans, A. W. — New West Indian' Lejeunex = 731 

Campbell, D. H. — Tlialloid Hepaticse of Java 734 

Dcrand, E. J. — Development of Sexual Organs and Sporogonium of Marchantia .. 735 

Thallophyta. 

Algae. 

Prowazek, S. — Regeneration of Algx 72 

Freund, H. — Influence of External Conditions on the Asexual Reproduction of Algx 72 

Walker, N. — Algal Vegetation of Ponds 73 

Collins, F. S. — New Green Algse 73 

Trondle, A. — Copulation and Germination of Spirogyra 73 

Sauvageau, C. — Sargassum bacciferum 74 

„ „ Sexuality of Halopteris scoparia 74 

„ „ Aglaozonia melanoidea 75 

Reinbold, T. — Algx of the ' Valdivia ' Expedition 75 

Bibliography 76 

Nelson, E. M. — Biddulphia mobiliensis 158 

Brand, F. — Staining of Algx 201 

Lewis, I. F. — Coleochxte nitellarum 202 

Lemmermann, E. — Algx of Mark Brandenburg 202 

Quelle, F. — Contributions to the Algal Ilora of Nordhausen 203 

Bessil, J. — French Algx collected in the English Channel 203 

Batters, E. A. L., the late — Marine Algx of Lambay 203 

Borgesen,T\ — Caulerpas of the Danish West Indies 203 

Lemmermann, E. — Plankton of the Yang-tze-kiang .. .. 204 

„ „ Pliytoplankton of Ceylon 204 

Pascher, A. — Swarm-spores of Fresh-ivater Algx 204 

Woycicki, Z. — Pathological Groicth Phenomenon in Spirogyra and Mougeotia .. 205 

Bergon, P. — Processes of Division, Cell-rejuvenation and Sporulation in Biddtdphia 205 

Pavillard, J. — Species of Ceratiu m in the Gulf of Lyons 205 

Howe, M. A. — Avrainvillea and Halimeda 205 

West. G. S. — Some Critical Green Algx 206 

Mann, A. — Diatoms of the Pacific 207 

Deichmann, H., & L. K. Kosenvinge — Distribution of Fucacex on the Coast of 

Greenland 207 

Heydrich, F. — Sphxranthera lichetioides 208 



XXVI CONTENTS. 

I'AGB 

Sauvageau, C. — Fucu8 Living on Sand and on Mud 208 

Corbiehe, L.. & L. Mangix — Colpomeni a sinuosa 209 

Foslie, M. — 1 Athothamni a of the ' Sea-lark' Expedition 209 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 210 

Heurok, H. van — Marine Algse of the Channel Islands 345 

Lakowitz— Algse of Danzig Bay 315 

Yendo, K. — Fucaceae of Japan 345 

Setchell, W. A. — Nereocyslie and Pelagophycu8 346 

Cotton, A. D. — Colpomenia sinuosa in Britain 316 

Borgesen, F. — Dasycladaceie of the Danish West Indies 317 

Cushman, J. A. — Tetmemorm in New England 347 

Gerneck, R. — Lower Chlorophycese M47 

Peragallo, H. — Diatoms in an Aquarium H47 

Forti, A. — Fossil Diatoms 348 

wSauvageau, C. — L'ose-colour in Species of My xophycese 348 

^yBocAT, L. — Pigment of Oscillatoria Cortiana 318 

Jorgensen. E.— Plankton of Mofjord 319 

Karsten, G. — Indian Ocean Phytoplankton 319 

Bibliography 350 

Nelson, E. M. — Corethron criophilum Cast ., .. .. 430 

Toni, G. B. de — Nomenclature of Algae 173 

Heinze, L>. — Fixation of Nitrogen by Algse 173 

Okamora, K. — Japanese Algse 171 

Migula, W. — Algse of Middle Europe 171 

Mazza, A. — Oceania. Algse 171 

Foslie. M. — Calcareous Algse 171 

Toni, G. B. de — Griffithsia acuta Zanard 171 

Setchell, W. A. — Critical Notes on Laminariacese 471 

Gibson, C M. — Scytothamnus austral is 175 

Hutchinson, C. M. — Algal Blight en Tea 175 

Bally, W. — Structure of Diatoms 175 

Margin, L. — Membrane of Diatoms ' 176 

Cushman, J. A. — Neic England Desmids 176 

Edwards, A. M. — Origin of Calif ornian Petroleum 176 

,, „ Origin of the Bacillarise 177 

Prudent, P. — Diatom* of the Jura Lakes 177 

Bachmann. H. — Phytoplankton of Scotch and Swiss Lakes 177 

Bibliography 177 

Peragallo, H. & M. — Marine Diatomacese of France , .. .. 616 

Philip, R. H. — Yorkshire Diatoms 617 

Heinzerling, O. — Structure of the Diatom Cell 617 

Kofoid, C. A. — North American Fresh-ivater Algse 618 

( asares, F. B. — Spanish Fresh-water Algse 618 

West, VV. & G. S. — Fresh-water Algse of the West Riding 618 

Wollenweber, W. — Genus Hsematococcus 618 

Harier, B. A. — Development of H ydrodictyon 618 

Hagem, O. — Vrospora in Norway 619 

Schiller, J. — Development of the Genus Viva 619 

Brand, F. — Cell-wall Structure in Cladophora 619 

Heidinger, W. — Development of the Sexual Organs of Voucher ia 620 

Davis, B. M. — Spore-formation in Derbesia 620 

Borgesen, F. — West Indian Species of Avrainvillea 620 

Sykes, M. G. — Anatomy and histology of Macrocystis and Laminaria 621 

Cotton, A. D. — New Zealand Species of Rhodophyllis 621 

Foslie, M. — Criticisms on Calcareous Algse 622 

Kylin, H.— Algse of Swedish West Coast 622 

Lemmermann, E. — Algse of Germany 622 

I'.rown, H. B. — Algal Periodicity 622 

Bibliography 623 

Beguinot, A., & L. Formiggini — Italian Characese 735 

Robinson, C. B. — Original Meaning of Chara 735 

Wissenlingh, C. van — Cell-icall Structure and Ring-formation in (Edogonium .. 736 

Sauvageau, C. — Observations on the Germination of some Phseophycese 736 



CONTENTS. XXVII 

PAGE 

Cotton, A, D. — Leathesia crispa 7:;s 

Sauvageau, C. — Some Errors of Nomenclature in Phxophycex !'■'>$ 

Collins, F. S— North American Algas 73S 

Fobti, A. — Italian Diatoms 738 

Cushman, J. A. — Genus Micrasterias in Neio England 739 

Walton, L. B. — Zygospores of Spirogyra in Relation to Theories of Variability .. 739 

Nordstedt, C. F. O.— Index of Desm'idex 739 

Bernabd, C.— Fresh-water Alga of Java 739 

Makgix, L.—Phytoplankton off the Coast of Normandy 740 

Adams, J.— Irish Algas 740 

Setchell, W. A., & F. S. Collins— Algx from Hudson's Bay 740 

Vickeks, A., & M. H. Shaw— Algx of Barbadoes •• 740 

Sluitek, C. P.— Algx of Dutch West Indies 741 

Okamvra. K. — Illustrations of Japanese Algx .. 741 

Mazza, A.— Studies of Oceanic Algx 741 

Moobe, G. T. — Origin of the Plant Kingdom , 741 

Chapman. F. — Fossil Girvanella : a plant .." 741 

Bibliography 742 

Fungi. 

Kusano, S. — Cytology of Synchytrium 77 

Reed, G. M. — Specialisation in Erysiphacex 77 

Spieckerman — Parasitism of Vcdsa 77 

Klebahn, H. — Study of Fungi imperfect/' 78 

Welsford, E. J., & H. C. Fkaser — Sexuality and Development of Ascomycetes . . 78 

Dietel, P. & others — Vredinex 79 

Christman, A. H. —Morphology of the Rusts 80 

Belli, S. — Neio Boletus 80 

Gallaud, I. —Recent Work on Fungi 80 

Setchell, W. A. — New Hymenomycetes 81 

Stevens, F. L., & others — Diseases cf Plants 81 

Mai'Blanc, A. — New or Rare Microfungi S3 

Bainier, G. — Mycology from the Ecole de Pharmacie 83 

Okazaki, K. — Preparation of Enzyme from a Fungus 83 

Studu r-Steinhauslin, B.— Localities of Fungi 83 

Scuorstlin, Josef — Staining of Fungus Spores 84 

Bibliography 84 

Traverso, G. B — Experiments with Sclerospora grumhiicola 210 

Wilson, G. West — Studies in North American Peronosporales. II 210 

Bainier, G. — Mycotheca of the School of Pharmacy of Paris. XXI. 210 

Frabeb, H. C. L. — Cytology of Humaria rutilans 210 

Stager, Rob — Biology of Ergot 211 

Regel, R. — Gooseberry Mildew in Russia 211 

Neger, F. W. — Mycological Notes from 8. America and Spain 211 

Fraser, H. C. L., & H. S. Chambers — Morphology of Aspergillus herbariorum .. 212 

Gceguen. F. — Conidial Development of Xylaria Hypoxylon 212 

Syuow, H. and P., & T. Petch — Remarkable Fungus Forms 212 

Weidemann, Carl — Study of Penicillium 213 

Lindau, G. — Hyphomycete* 213 

MrJLLER, W. — Development of Eiidophyllum Euphorbix-silvaticx 213 

Fischer, Ed.. & others — Vredinex 213 

Bary. De — Sphaceolotheca on Polygonum 214 

Mangin, L. — Growth of Woody Fungi 214 

Falck, Richard — Wood-destroying Fungi 215 

3U-RRILL, W. A. — Polyporacex 215 

Russell, M. W. — New localities for Amanita cxsarea .. 215 

Kern, F. D., & OTHERS — Diseases of Plants 215 

Salmon, E. S. — Economic Mycology 21 G 

Molz. Emil — Pathogenic Spotting of Vine Shoots 216 

KuoiiDERS, S. H. — Parasitic Fungi from Java 217 

Arnold & A. Gokis — Colour Reactions in Russula and Lactarius 217 

Froehlich, Hermann — Assimilation of Free Nitrogen by Fungi 217 



xxvin CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Limmjeb, P. — Chalk Disease of Bread 2)8 

Hitter, G. — Fermentation Fungi 218 

Neger, F. W. — Fungus-culture of Wood-boring Beetles .. .. 218 

Bibliography 218 

Pkmberton, J. D. — New Species of Achlya 350 

Petch, T. — Hydnocystis Thwaitesii 350 

CliAUSSEN, P. — Pyronema confluens 351 

Domaradsky, M. — Fruit-development in Aspergillus Fischeri 351 

Salmon, E. S. — Notes on some Species of Erysiphaceee from India 351 

Viillemin, Paul — Seuratia and Capnodium 351 

Bonnier, G. — Origin of Yeasts 352 

Lasnier, E. — Biological Study of Glceosporium 352 

Lindau, G. — Hyphomycetes 352 

Tkanzschel, \V. — Uredinese 352 

Hecke, Ludwig — Infection by Smut Fungi 353 

Menier, M. — Poisoning due to Amanita Phalloides 353 

Lyman, G. F. — Polymorphism of Hymenomycetes 353 

Lloyd, C. G. — Phalloids 354 

Saunders, J. — Witches' Brooms of the South Midlands 354 

Scuellenberg, H. C. — Action of Fungi on Cellulose 354 

Gallaud, L, & A. Guilliermond — Sexuality in Fungi 355 

Farlow, W. G. — Notes on American Fungi 355 

Lloyd, C. G. — Mycological Notes 355 

Hohnel, Franz von — Mycological Fragments 356 

Hegyi, D. V., & others — Diseases of Plants 35G 

Bibliography 357 

Obituary Notice of W. A. Kellerman 478 

Clausen, P. — Development of Saprolegnia monoica 478 

Chatton, Edouard, & Francois Picard — Parasitic Laboulbenia 478 

Salmon, E. S. — Erysiphaceee of Japan 478 

Edgerton, C. W. — Two little-known Myxosporiums 479 

Klebahn, K. — Research on Fungi imperfecti .. 479 

Lindau, G. — Hyphomycetes 479 

Gueguen, F. — Systematic Position of Anchorion and Oospora 479 

Dandeno, J. B. — Uredinese. 480 

Peltereau, M., & others — Basidiomycetes 480 

Hohnel, Fr. v., & V. Litschauer— Contribution to our Knowledge of Corticex . . 480 

Pennington, L. H. — Fomes pinicola Fr. and its Hosts 481 

Wittmack, L. — Polyporus annosus 481 

Bainier, G. — Mycotheea and the Ecole de Pharmacie 481 

Faber, F. C. von — Diseases and Pests of Coffee 481 

Gussow, H. T., & others — Diseases of Plants 482 

Morse, W. J. — Potato Scab in America 483 

Baccahini, P. — Fungi Parasitic on the Vine Phylloxera 483 

Petch, T. — Fungi Parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis 483 

Trotter, A. — N etc Subterranean Parasite 484 

Torrend, C. — Notes on Portuguese Mycology 484 

Sartory, A. — Peptonificat ion of Milk by Moulds 484 

Bibliography 484 

Lendner, A. — Zygospores of Sporodinia grandis 623 

A'uillemin, Paul — Microsiphonese 623 

Kauffman, C. H. — Study of Saprolegniacese 623 

Hagem, O. — Norwegian Mucorinex 623 

Guilliermond, A. — Sexuality in the Ascomycetes 624 

Tubeuf, (J. von — Taphrina Alni-incanm 624 

M aire, Rene — Haustoria of Meliola and Asterina 6"J4 

Theissen, F., & J. M. Reade — Notes on Ascomycetous Fungi 624 

Kawamvra, S. — Spotting of Bamboos 625 

Kohl, F. G. — Yeast as a Fermentative Agent 625 

Lind. J. — Notes on Glceosporium 625 

Klebahn, H. — Research on Fungi Imperfecti 625 

Lindau — Hyphomycetes 626 

Fischer, E. — Uredineee 626 



CONTENTS. XXIX 

1 A'.K 

Mez, C, & Moller — Merulius lacrymans 626 

Setchell. W. A. — Notes on Lycoperdon sculpt um 027 

Petch, T. — Revision of Ceylon Fungi 627 

Coupin, Henri — Effect of Formic Acid on Fungi 627 

Rumbold, 0. — Biology of Wood-destroying Fungi 627 

Mollisch, Hans — Phosphorescent Fungi (j'27 

Seaver, F. J. — Colour-variation in Fungi .. . . 028 

Crossland, C, & others — Local Records of Fungi 628 

Zellner, J. — Chemistry of the Higher Fungi « 628 

Ducomet — Parasitic Fungi 628 

Munch, E. — Blue Disease of Pine- wood 628 

Salmon, E. S., & others — Diseases of Plants (129 

Edgerton, C. W. — Study of Anthracnoses 631 

Bibliography 631 

Dauphin, J. — Study of Mortierellx , 742 

Mucke, M. — Development of Achlya polyandra 742 

Guili iermond, A. — Sexuality in the Ascomycetes 743 

Schneidek-Orelli, O. — Penicillium as a Fruit Parasite 743 

Matruchot, L. — Vegetation of Morchella 743 

Fraser, H. C. T., & E. Welsford — Cytology of the Ascomycetes 744 

Brooks, F. T. — Notes on the Parasitism of Botrytis 744 

Mangin, L., & N. Patouillard — Mould of Fermenting Grain 744 

Mangin, L. — Conidial Formation in Aspergillus 744 

Olive, Edgar W. — Study of Nuclear Divisions in Rusts 745 

Hasler, Alfred, & others — TJredinese - 745 

Atkinson, G. F. — Identity of Polyporus applanatus of Europe and North America 746 

Bataille, Fr. — Monographs of the Higher Fungi 746 

Magnus, Werner — Form-development of Pileate Fungi 746 

Coutouly G. de — Note on Phallus impudicus 747 

Biers, P. M. — Mushroom Culture 747 

Hohnel, F. von — My cological Notes: IV. 747 

Burmester, Hermann — Fungicides 747 

Crossland, 0. — Yorkshire Fungi 747 

Potter, M. C. — Diseases of Plants 748 

Transactions of the British My cological Society 748 

Jeanmaire, J. — Case of Poisoning by Amanita junquillea 748 

Spegazzini, C. — New Fungi from South America 749 

Bainier, G. — Mycotheca of the School of Pharmacy. XXVIII 749 

Fallada, 0., & others — Diseases of Plants.. , 749 

Bibliography 751 

Lichens. 

Nienburg, W. — Development of Lichen Apothecia 84 

Zahlbruckner, A. — Text-booh- of Lichens 220 

Senft, E. — Noteworthy Lichens 220 

Beckman, P. — Dispersal of Lichens 220 

Hesse, O. — Lichen Constituents 220 

Rosendahl, F. — Brotvn Parmelise 220 

Bibliography 221 

Fink, Bruce — American Lichens 358 

Bibliography 358 

Zopf, W. — Chemical Monograph of the Cladonim 485 

Harmand, J. — French Lichens , 633 

Rechinger, K., & A. Zahlbruckner — Lichens from the Island of Samoa .. .. 633 

Merrill, G. K. — Lichen Notes 0:i3 

Zopf, W. — Lichens Chemically Considered 633 

Rave, P., & Emmanuel Senft— Chemical Constituents of Lichens 634 

Bibliography 634 

Senft, Emanuel — Chemical Examination of Lichens 752 

Bibliography 753 



XXX CONTENTS. 

Mycetozoa. 

PAGE 

Legeb, Louis — New Myxomycete 

PlNOY, Ernest — Cultural Experiments with Acrasiex 

„ „ Influence of Bacteria on the Culture of Myxomycetes 221 

BlfcLIOGRA] ilY 222 

Johnson, T. — Spongospora Solani 486 

Fabeb, E. 0. von- Existence of Myxomona8 Betas 186 

Pinoy, E. — Dimorphism in Myxomycete 486 

Wolff, Th, — Unusual Growth of Spumaria alba 187 

! ister, A. & G. — Notes on Swiss Mycetozoa 631 

Jahn, E. — Myxomycete Studies 'J 1 '-' 

Bibliography 635 

Johnson, T. — Spongospora Solani •• •• 753 

Kranzlin, Helene— Development of the Sporangia in Trichia and Arcyria] .. .. 753 

Schizopliy ta. 

Schizomycetes. 

Peju, G., & H. Rajat — Morphology of Human Tubercle Bacilli in Saline Media 86 

V\ T OOLLEY, P. G. — Subcutaneous Fihro -granuloma! a in Cattle s| j 

Ellis, D. — Three Iron Bacteria S6 

Klein, E. — Susceptibility to Plague of Mats of Diverse Races 87 

Andrewes, E. W., & M. H. Gordon — Staphylococci Pathogenic to Man vT 

Gordon, M. H. — Micrococcus of Epidemic Cerebrospinal Meningitis ^7 

Klein, E. — New Plague Prophylactic 88 

Huss, H. — Micrococcus producing a Yellow-brown Colour on Cheese 88 

Soclima, H. & A. — Etiology of Whooping Cough .. 89 

Larrier, L. N., & P. Boveri — Mammilis produced by Acid-fast Bacilli 89 

Sergent, E. — Tropism of Bacillus Zopfii 89 

Petri, L. — Identity of the Bogna Bacillus (tubercle') of the Olive-tree 90 

Jcngano— Renal Infection by a Microbe originating from the Blood 90 

Gilbert, A., & A. Lippmann — Anaerobic Bacteria and Gall-stones '•" , 

Rosenthal, G. — Sporulation of the Bacillus Rhewmaticus 222 

Gilbert, A., & A. Lippmann — Bacteriology of Tropical Abcess of the Liver .. .. 222 

Book, A. — Coli Group of Bacteria 223 

Klodnitsky, N. N. — Multiplying of Relapsing Spirochetes in the Body of the Bug 223 

Smith, E. F. & (J. O. Townsend — Plant Tumour of Bacterial Origin 223 

Hixterberger, A. — Flagella and Capsule of B. Anthracis 223 

Beck — Micrococcus Ester ificans 224 

Klimenko, W. N. — Bacillus Aterrinus Tschitensis .. .. -24 

Molisch, H. — Purple Bacteria 224 

Klimenko, W. N. — Bacterium Mariense 225 

Lohnis, F. & N. K. Pillar — Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria 225 

Russ, V. K. — Cultural Differentiation of Capsulated Bacilli -!26 

Hess, H. — Bactridiwm lipolyticum : Fat-splitting Bacterium 3r>9 

Tissier, H. — Intestinal Flora of Infants 359 

Prowazek, v. — Comparative Study of Spirochetes , .. 360 

Gckguen, F. — Bacillus Eudothrix 360 

Musgrave, W. E., & M. T. Clegg— Etiology of Mycetoma 361 

Kayser, E., & E. Manceau — " La Graisse" in Wines 361 

Hansen, E. C. — Action of Absolute Alcohol on Bacteria and on Yeasts 362 

Mvller, R. — Blue Pigment produced both by a Diphtheroid Bacillus and by a 

Streptothrix .'. 362 

Stigell, Pi. — Velocity of Progression and the Movement Curves of certain Bacteria 363 

Schnegg, H. — Bacterial Disease of Green Malt 363 

Bowman, F. B. — New Bacillus of Dysentery 363 

Neschczadimenko, M. P. — Streptothrix in Chronic Suppuration 487 

Bruckner, J. — Micrococcus catarrhalis Pfeiffer and Gonococcus 487 

Rothe — Differential Diagnosis of Gonococcus and certain other Micrococci . . .. 487 

Proca, G. — Bacillus fusiforiuis (Vincent) cultivated in Symbiosis 488 

Muller-Thurgau, H. — Bacterium cystine 488 

Sergent, E. — Studies in Mediterranean Fever 488 



CONTENTS. xxxi 

PAG K 

Sartory, A., & Clerc — Intestinal Flora of certain Orthoptera 488 

HoRircHi, T. — Bacillus causing an Exanthematous Fever 189 

Jordansky., V., & N. Kladnitsky— Plague Bacillus in the Bed Bug 489 

Verderau, L. — Toxin of Bacillus virgula 48!) 

Crithari, C. — Syinbiosis of Bacillus vulgaris and Bacillus hutyricus 489 

Doyen, M. — Micrococcus neoformans ana Cancer 489 

Potter, M. C. — Bacteria as Agents in the Oxidation of Amorphous Carbon .. .. 489 

Bibliography 489 

Faroy, G-. — Bacillus intermediate to Bacillus typhosus (Eberth) and to Bacillus 

paratyphosus A (Brion and Kayser) 635 

Goxnermann, M. — Jelly-forming Bacteria 636 

Perotti, R. — Dicyandiamid-hacteria 636 

Beijerinck, M. W. — Lactic Fermentation in Milk 636 

Salomon, E. — Differentiation, of Streptococci by Media containing Carbohydrates .. <137 

Neumann, K. — Coli-bacillosis 637 

Donna, A. Di — Researches in Bacillary Dysentery 637 

Ohlmacher, A. P. — Protective and Curative Artificial Immunity 637 

Fihrmann, F. — Developmental Cycle of Bacteria'. 637 

Klein, E. — Bacillus fcedans and Miscured Ham 638 

Morpcrgo, B. — Micrococcus of Osteomalacia and Rickets 638 

Babes, V., & D. Manolesco — Diphtheroid bacillus found in Cardiac Vegetations 6 iS 

Ferrarini, G-. — Bacillus subtil is in the Blood and Tissues 638 

Marx, E. — Bacillus Pneumonias Tigris 754 

Nieter, A. — Bacillus metatyphosus 754 

Nowak, J. — Bacillus of Bang 754 

Ellis, D. — Five New Species of Iron Bacteria 755 

Beijerinck, M. W. — Lactic Acid Fermentation in Milk 755 

Bartoszewicz, St., & J. Schwarzwasser — Tetradiplococcus filiformans Lodzensis 756 

Eyre, J. W. H. — Melitensis Septicaemia .. .. 756 

Rodella. O. — Lactic-acid Bacilli and Cancer of the Stomach 757 

Tschistowitsch, N., & W. Jurewitsgh — Opsonins and A ntiphagins in Pneumococcic 

Infection 757 

Metchnikoff, E. — Microbes of Intestinal Putrefaction 758 

Bcsila, V. — Bacterium isolated from the Nervous Centres of Rabid Animals .. .. 758 

Babes, V. — Chain-formation by Staphylococcus aureus 758 

Skrzynski, Z. — Bacillus Pathogenic to Cats 758 

Merlin, A. A. C, E., & E. M. Nelson— Micrococcus melitensis 790 



\X\ll CONTENTS. 



MICROSCOPY. 
A. Instruments, Accessories, etc. 

(1) Stands. 

Watson & Sons' Metallurgical Microscope, " Tlie Horizontal " (Fig. 7) .. .. 91 

„ „ " Mint" Metallurgical Microscope (Fig. 8) 93 

„ „ Laboratory Dissecting Microscope (Fig. 9) 93 

Rohr, M. von — Binocular Instruments 93 

Nelson, E. M. — Francis Watkins Microscope (Figs. 26-29) 137 

., „ Gregory and Wright's Microscope (Fig. 32) 154 

Beck's "London" Microscope, Begent Model (Figs. 33. :; 4) 227 

Societe Gexevoise : Mineralogical and Petrographical Microscopes, with Per- 
manent Centring and with Objective Botation (Figs. 35, 36, 37) 229 

Mechanical Stages (Figs. 38, 39) 233 

Micrometer Microscope (Fig. 40) 234 

Dissecting Microscope (Fig. 41) 234 

Frauenhofer's Screw Micrometer (Figs. 42, 43) .. .. 235 

Baxter, Wynne E. — Old Microscope by Shuttleworth '(Fig. 8 >) 305 

Leitz' New Petrological Microscope, Type A (Figs. 87-92) 367 

„ Museum Microscope (Fig. 93) 371 

Bibliography .. 372 

"Waterhouse" Museum Microscope (Fig. 121) 490 

Konkoly's Large Measuring Microscope (Fig. 122) 491 

Vogel-Hale Measuring Microscope (Model C) (Fig. 12H) 492 

Vogel's Measuring Microscope (Model 1.) (Fig. 124) 493 

Vogel-Wanach Large Measuring Microscope (Model II.) (Fig. 125) 494 

Vogel-Campbell's Large Measuring Microscope (Model III.) Fig. 126) .. .. 496 

Vogel's Measuring Microscope (Model IV.) (Fig. 127) 497 

Toepfer's Universal Measuring Apparatus (Fig. 128) 498 

Bibliography 500 

Leitz, E. — Engel's Cross-stage with Automatic Adjustment ( Fig. 139) 639 

Swingle, W. T., & L. T. Briggs — Improvements in the Ultra-violet Microscope 

(Fig. 140) 639 

Reichert's Movable Mechanical Object-stages (Figd. 141-143) 641 

„ New Large Stand B (Fig. 144) 642 

„ New Medium Mineralogical Stand A Hi c (Fig 145) 644 

„ Large Stand A \ 645 

„ New Preparation Microscope (Fig. 146) 645 

Dreck, W. — Photomicroscope for Ultra-violet Bays and its Significance for Histo- 
logical Investigations, especially of Hard Structures 646 

Bibliography 646 

Ross' New Micrometric Mechanical Stage (Fig. 159) 760 

„ No. 2 "Steward" Metallurgical Microscope ''Fig. 160) 761 

Reichert's Traveling Microscope (Fi^s. 161, 162) 762 

New Steinach Stand C (Fig. 163) 763 

„ Neio Stand vi. (Figs 164,165) 765 

Hetjsner's Object-stage with Exchangeable Plates (Fig. 16ii) 766 

(2) Eye-pieces and Objectives. 

Houdaille, M. — Photographic Objective containing a Uranium-glass Lens . .. 93 

Nelson, E. M. — Eye-pieces for the Microscope 146 



CONTENTS. XXXIII 

iw.j: 

Societe Genevoise : Eye-pieces for Mineralogiaal and Petrographical Mii-roscopes 

(Figs. 44-46) .. .. ' 235 

Reichert's Spectral-ocular (Fig. 147) 646 

„ In lex-ocular (Fig. 148) 646 

„ Goniometer-ocular (.Fig. 149) 647 

„ Objective 64*3 



(3) Illuminating- and other Apparatus. 

Watson & Sons' Vertical Illuminator (Figs. 10-12) '.M 

„ „ "Grip" Stage-spring (Figs. 13, 14) 94 

Barnard, J. E. — Electric Mercuri/ Vapour Lamp for Microscopic Illumination 

(Fig. 15) .. ' 95 

Watson & Sons' New Mechanical Condenser Mount (Fig. 16) 97 

„ „ Aplanatic Low-power Condenser (Fig. 17) 97 

„ „ Macro-illuminator (Fiiz. 18) 97 

Bechstein's Photometer, with Proportional Graduation and Decimally-divided 

Scale (Figs. 19, 20) 98 

Bibliography 101 

Pearce's Total Reflexion Refractometer (Fig. 47).. 236 

Beck's New Illuminator for High-power Dark-ground Illumination (Fi<js. 48, 49) .. 238 

Troestek, G. — New Microscope Lamp (Fig. 50) 239 

Foccault's Heliostat (Fig. 51) 240 

Wollaston's Goniometer (Figs. 52, 53) 241 

Gueguen. F. — Reglet for Direct Reading in Microscopic Measurement-' 242 

Grimsehl's L Hi put- projection Lantern -12 

Dowdy, S. E. — A Micro-object Locater 242 

Halle, B. — Polarising Prisms 372 

Bell, L. — Note on some Meteorological Uses of the Polariscope 374 

Heimstadt, (J. — Reichert's Novelties in Mirror Condensers (Figs. 94-101) .. . 374 

Zeiss — Ultramicroscopy and Dark-ground Illumination 378 

Leitz' Kaiserling's Universal Projection Apparatus (Figs. 102-109) 378 

Bibliography 384 

Gordon, J. W. — Illuminating Apparatus for the Microscope (Figs. 119, 120) .. .. 425 

Siedentopf, H. — History of Mirror- Condensers 500 

Reichert's New Large Projection Apparatus (Fig. 129) 500 

Leitz' Dark-ground Illuminator for the Examination of Living Bacteria (Fig. 130) 502 

Gebhardt — New Easily Legible Micrometer Divisions (Figs. 150, 151) 647 

Gouy, M. — Apparatus for Measuring Micrometer Levels 648 

Bibliography tils 

Nelsox, E. M. — An Auxiliary Illuminating Lens (Fig. 158) 673 

Barnard, J. K. — Mercury Vapour Lamp for Microscopical Work Fig. 167).. .. 767 

Ignatowsky's New Reflecting Condenser (Figs. 168, 169) 768 

Reichert's Draioing Apparatus (Fig. 170 ) 770 

„ Marking Apparatus (Fig. 171) .. .. 771 

(4) Photomicrography. 

Moffatt, E. — Light Filters for Photomicrography (Plate I. figs. 3-6) 20 

Turneretscher's Apparatus for Photomicrography (Fig. 21) 1 < » 1 

Soheffer, W. — Scheffer's Microscopical Researches on Plate-grains 24:! 

Bibliography 244 

Lippmann, G. — Reversible Photographic Proofs; Integral Photographs (Fig. Ill)) ., 384 
Chauvead, A. — Perception of Relief and Depth in the Simple Image of Ordinary 

Photographic Proofs: Conditions and Theory of this Perception 385 

Chaiveau, A. — Additional Demonstration of the Mechanism of Monocular Stereo- 

scopy 386 

Bibliography 387 

Haoron, S. D. M., & R. de Bercegol — Colour-screens for Colour-photography .. .">n:'> 

Rothe, M. E. — Interference Fringes produced by Photograph* in Colours .. .. 648 

Photography of very Translucent Diatoms at High Magnifications 649 

Dec. 16th, 1908 



XX XIV CONTENTS. 

(5) Microscopical Optics and Manipulation. 

TAGE 

Nelson, E. M. — A Reply to Professor Porter's and Mr. Everitt's Criticism upon 

my Paper on the Resolving Power, etc 1 

Porter, Alfred W. — On the Diffraction Rings for a Circular Opening ; and on 

the Limit of Resolving Power (Being a Rejoinder to Mr. Nelson). (Fig. 1) 3 

Gordon, J. W. — Mercury Globules as Test Objects for the Microscope (Figs. 2-6) .. 6 

Fahre. C. — Measurement of Resolution in Microscopy 103 

Filon, L. N. G. — New Method of Measuring Directly the Double-refraction in 

Strained Glass ' 103 

Uhler, H. S, & R. W. Wood — Atlas of Absorption Spectra 104 

Bibliography 105 

Nelson, E. M. — A Correction for a Spectroscope (Fig. 30) 150 

Tissot, C, & F. Pellin — Correction of the Astigmatism of Doubly Refracting Prism* 244 

Cantor Lectures— 77/eon/ of the Microscope 245 

Gaidukov. N. — Application of the fUtramicroscope (after Siedentopf) and of the 

Microspectral Photometer (after Engelmann) to the Textile and Dyeing 

Industries 387 

Bibliography 387 

Bibliography 649 

Henri, V. — Influence of the Medium on Brotvnian Movements 649 

Bibliography .. .. .. 650 

Nelson, E. M.— On the Resolution of Periodic Structures (Fig. 157) 671 



(6) Miscellaneous. 

QrKKETT Microscopical Club 105 

Compass Reading to ^^ or ^^ Millimetre (Fig. 54) 245 

Caliper with Micrometer Screw (Fig. 55) 245 

Qiekett M ieroseopical Club 246 

Merlin, A. A. C. E.—Flagellum of the Tubercle Bacillus 388 

Quekett Microscopical Club 3^8 

Bibliography .. .. 388 

Wood. W. J.— Microscopical Matters (Fig. 131) 503 

QrKKETT Microscopical Club 505 

Smith, J Ciceri — Direct re ding Micrometer-gauge for Cuver-glass (Figs. 132,133) 505 

" Brassfoundkr" — Composition of Brass 507 

Strachan. James — On Dendritic Growths of Copper Oxide in Paper (Plate XIII.) 544 

Ewell. Marshall D — The Present Status of Micrometry 682 

Rowntree, C. — Parafftnum liquidum B. P.) as an Immersion Oil 771 

Quekett Microscopical Club 771 



CONTENTS. XXXV 



B. Technique. 

(1) Collecting' Objects, including- Culture Processes. 



PAGE 



Wilson, H. V. — Method by which Sponges may be Artificially Reared 105 

Abbe, Nakao — Cultivation of Gonococci 105 

Bernstein, E. P., & A. A. Epstein— Simple Method of Sterilising Blood for Cul- 
tural Purposes 106 

PlNOY, E. — Cultivation and Preparation of Myxomycetes 1U6 

Danteo, A. le — Culture of Anaerobe^ 107 

Penard, E. — Collecting and Preserving Fresh-water Ehizopods 107 

Cohendy, M.— Intestinal Broth for the Isolation of Essential and Potential Intestinal 

. Anaerobes .. 107 

Rosam, A. — Porous Culture Vessels (Fig. 22) 108 

Reid, C., & Eleanor M. — Collecting Fossil Flora 108 

Klein, E. — Enrichment Method for Detecting Bacillus typhosus 108 

Dunschmann, H. — Simplified Method for Detecting the Presence of Bacillus 

typhosus 108 

Sineff. A. — Simple Thermostat (Fig. 23) .... .. 109 

Pr<>ca, G. — Sterilised Bacterial Media for Cultivation of Anaerobes .. .. 109 

Harrison, R. G. — Observing Living Developing Nerve-fibres .. .. 109 

Levaditi. C, & J. McIntosh — Cultivation of Treponema pallidum .. .. 110 

Lebailly, C — Multiplication in vitro of Treponema pallidum 247 

Kehsteiner, J. — Cultivation of Anaerobic Bad eria (Figs. 56-61) 247 

Harrison, F. 0. & B. Barlow— Isolating the Nodule organism of the Legumiuosse 252 

Marino, F. — Method for Isolating Anaerobes (Fig 62) .. ' .. ..' .. .. 252 

Sauvageau, G. — Cultivation of Algae .. .. 507 

Surface, F. M. — Collecting and Preserving Planocera inquUina 508 

Nicolle, C. — Cultivating the Parasites of Kda-azar an i Aleppo Boil 508 

GuiLLEMARD. A. — Separation of Bacillus typhosus and Bacillus roll, .. .. 509 
Bruckner, J. — Fermentation of Sugars by the Meningococcus and the Micrococcus 

catarrhalis .. 509 

Hata, S — Aerobic Cultivation of Anaerobes.. .. 509 

Yamanouchi, Shigeo — Investigating Apogamy in Nephrodium .. 510 

Caullery, M., & A. Lavellee — ( 'ollectiAg and Examining the Eggs of Rhopalura 

ophiccomse (Fig. 134) .. 510 

Shearer, (!. — Collecting and Examining Lar ml Nephridia of Polygordius . . .. 511 

Davis, B. M. — Collecting and Examining Dolichoglos<u< pusillus 511 

Stevens, F. L., & J. G. Temple — Convenient Mode of Preparing Silicate Jelly .. 512 
Dunschmann, H. — Nutritive value of certain Peptones for different Species of 

Bacteria 513 

Bibliography 513 

Kindborg, E. A. — Colour Reaction for the Recognition of Bacillus typhosus .. .. 650 

Dunschmann, H. — Cultivating Bacillus typhosus and Bacillus coli 650 

Gaga, G. E. — Detection of Bacillus coli in Drinking-water 650 

Miller, E. C. L— Pipette-holder for Opsonic Work (Figs. 152, 153) 651 

„ „ Plates for Growing Germs in Quantity 652 

BlBLICGRAPHY 653 

Brown, C. W. — Influence of the Composition of the Medium on the Solvent Action of 

certain Soil Bacteria .. 772 

Stein, R. — Plate-cultivation of the Streptobacillus of Ducrey 772 

Jurewitsch, W. — Potato Broth for the Culture of Tubercle Bacilli 77:; 

Padlewsky, L. — Malachite-green Agar and the Bacilli of the Typhoid Group .. 773 

Marchoux, E. — Culture in vitro of Avian Plague 773 

Board, G. — Detection of Indol in Microbial Cultures 771 

Artom, C. — Method of Fixing the Eggs of A scar is megalocephala 774 

Bodecker, C. F. — Celloidin Decalcification and Desilication 774 



\xxvi CONTENTS. 

1AGR 

Fior, G-. Dai, i. a — Examining Stylaria lacustris 775 

Nierenstein, A. Examining the Poison-glands of Salamandra maculosa .. .. 775 

Breokner, A. — Combined Imbedding in Celloidin and Paraffin 775 

SoNNiiNBRODT — Examining the ■Oocyte of the Fowl 776 

(2) Preparing- Objects. 

RuDNEW, WL; — New Method of Fixation Ill) 

Andre, E. — Fixation and Preparation of Nematohelminthes 110 

Kappers, 0. U. A. — Apparatus for Rapidly Cooling Paraffin (Pig. 24) Ill 

MTacBride, E. W. — Studying the Development of Ophiothrix fragilis Ill 

Ciaccio, C. — Studying the Adenoid Tissue of the Spleen, etc 112 

Holmgren, E. — Examining the Trophospongia of Striated Muscle 11 2 

Leeuwen, W. D. van — Fixation of Insect Larvat 112 

Aime, P. — Studying the Interstitial Cells of the Ovary 113 

Bibliography 113 

Rubenthale, G. — Fixation Methods a7id Elimination of Artefact* 253 

Fantham, H. I!. — Studying Spiroch seta lialbiani and Spirochasta Anodordx .. .. 253 

Pesker, D. J. — Demonstrating the Histognesis of Nerve-fibrils 254 

Mencl, E. — Demonstrating Aervous Tissue of Hirudinese 513 

Dogiel, V. — Examining Catena ta 513 

Heinkk, P. — Studying the Development of Teeth in Castor Fiber 513 

Friedenthal. H. — Fixation with Trichloracetic Acid and Vranyl Acetate .. .. 514 

Young, R. T. — Studying the Histogenesis of Cysticercus pisifor mis 514 

Stricht, N. van der — Examining the S euro-epithelium of the Auditory Apparatus 514 

Gderin, J. — Examining the Tentacular Apparatus of Cephalopods 514 

Oes, Ad. — Demonstrating the Autolysis of Mitoses , .. .. 515 

Mayer, ?. — Bleaching Technique 515 

Schaposohnikoff, B. — Studying the Eggs of Acanthodoris pilosa 653 

I >i ckworth, W. L. H. — Demonstrating the Syncytial Appendages of Placental villi 053 

Nemiloff, Anton — Examining the Nervous Elements of Osseous Fishes 053 

Wilson, J. T., & J. P. Hill — Examining the Eggs of Ornithorhyncus 653 

Wisselingh, C. van — Studying the Structure of CEdogonium 654 

Mi yes. F., & J. Duesberg— Demonstrating the Spermatogenesis of Hornets .. .. 054 

Boulanger, H. — Micrographic Study of Leather 655 

(3) Cutting-, including- Imbedding- and Microtomes. 

Kolmer, W. — Studying the Structure of Mammalian Ear 113 

Federioi, F.— -Use of Sulphuric Ether in Imbedding 113 

Seitz, A. L. L. — Demonstrating the Microscopic Structure of Fossil and Recent 

Iieptilian Bone .. . 254 

Hennkderg's Microtome Auxiliaries (Figs. 111-112) 388 

Cooper. W. F., & L. E. Robinson — Method of Orientating Small Objects for 

Examination (Fig. 113) 390 

Broer's Simple Microtome for Serial Sections (Fig*. 135-137) .. 516 

Fince, C. — Arrangements for Utilising the Entire Cutting-edge of Microtome Razors 

(Figs. 154-156) ' .." 655 

Nebmayer, L. — Celloidin Imbedding 057 

Dantschakoff, W. — Preparing Celloidin Sections 658 



(4) Staining- and Injecting-. 

Thoma, R. — Picric-acid Carmin 114 

Loeffler, F. — New Method of Staining Micro-organisms 114 

Schkresche-wsky, J. — Giemsa-staining of Spirochseta pallida 115 

Bultino, D., & G. Quarelli — Staining Sudanophil Leucocytes 115 

Pinoy. Fj. — Barrel's Bine 115 

Harris, N. MaoL. — New Method oj Preparing the Romanowshy Stain 115 



CONTENTS. XXXV11 

PAOB 

Loeffler, F. — Gram's Staining Method I 16 

Mighailow, Sergius — Studying the Nerve-endings in the Urinary Bladder of 

Mammals 

Cepede, Casimir — Staining-tank with Movable Grooves 

Weidenreigh, F. — Simple Method of Staining Blood-films 116 

Herman, M. — Staining the Tubercle Bacillus 255 

Bartels, P. — Syringe for the Injection of Lymph-vessels (Vvj;. 63) 255 

Bibliography **91 

Hoffmann, R. — Staining Streptococcus mucosus 518 

Deineka, D. — Demonstrating the Nervous System of Ascari* .. .. •■ ■• 518 

Law, W. J. — Demonstrating Nerve-terminations in Teeth, of Mammalia 51S 

Krzystalowicz, F.. <fe M. Siedlecki— Studying the Morphology of Spirochmta pallida -jl9 

Schridde, H. — Demonstrating Leucocytes in Tissues .• 519 

Widal, F., & others— Staining Granular Red Corpuscles 520 

Rosam, A. — Simple Method of Microbe Staining 520 

Wirtz, R —Simple Method of Spore Staining ■• 520 

Bruckner, J. — Modification of the Romanowshy Stain 520 

Ruhland, W. — Staining the Mycelium of the Dry-rot Fungus 52] 

Brudny, V. — Theory of the Gram Staining Method •• 521 

Trincas, L. — New Method of Staining Spores and Metachromatic Granules : a Sub- 
stitute for Gram's Method 6f>8 

Hamburger, H. J. — New Cold Injection Method •• 658 

Zimmermann, A. — Bielschowky's Method for Demonstrating Connective-tissue Fibres 659 

Cavazza, L. E. — Demonstrating the Presence of Tannin 659 

Betegh, I;, v. — Differential Staining Method for Acid-fast Bacilli 776 

Yamamoto, J.— Silver Method for Differentiating the Bacilli of Leprosy and Tubercle 776 

Balsz, H. H. — Studying the Sexual Organs of Cestoda J_7^ 

Gottberg, M., & others — Staining Spirochmta pallida 777 

Fischel, H. — Alizarin, a Vital and Specific Stain for Nervous Tissue 778 

„ „ Vital Staining of Fresh-water Animals ' ' ° 

Winiwarter, H. V., & G.Sainmont— Flemming's Triple Staining Method . . ■■ 778 

Ciaccio, C. — Localising Burin Bodies in Animal Tissues 779 

Bibliography 780 

(5) Mounting, including Slides, Preservative Fluids, etc. 

Reld, C, & Eleanor M. — Preserving Fossil Seeds and L"aves 117 

Fornario, G. — Preserving the Colour of Anatomical Specimens •■ 391 

Gudernatsch, J. F.— Technique of the Water Method of Sticking Paraffin Sections 

on the Slide .. 521 

Ogilvie, H. S. — Farrant's Medium 780 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

Harvey, W. U. — Dust-excluding Histological Reagent Bottle (Fig. 25) 117 

Bather, F. A. — Nathorst's Use of Collodion Imprints in the Study of Fossil Plants 11 i 

Rawitz' Microscopical Technique 1 1 > s 

Traviss, W. R. — Forceps- scisxors (Fitrs. t>4-66) 256 

Harvey, W. H. — Improved Form of Celloidin Capsule 391 

De Jager, L. — Method for Photographing Superficial Bacterial Colonies . .. 392 

Sereni, S. — Red Blood Cells in Malaria 392 

Bibliography 392 

Windsor, F. N. — Examining Seminal Stains 659 

Wolff, M.— I'ipette for Microscope Work (Fig. 172) 781 

Fatten, C. J. — Mesophotography and it* Application to Delicate Unfixed Embryos 781 



XXXVlil CONTENTS. 



Metallography, etc. 

PAGE 

Frikdrich, K. — Melting Point Diagrams of the Binary Systems Galena- Magnetic 

Pyrites and Galena-Silver Sulphide 118 

„ „ Melting Point Diagrams of the Binary Systems, Silver Sulphide- 

Gopper Sulphide and Lead Sulphide-Copper Sulphide . . . . 118 

Walker & C. Hill — Influence of Stress on the Corrosion of Iron 118 

Bbilbt, G. T. - Hard and Soft States in Ductile Metals 119 

Brown, W. — Densities and Specific Heats of Some Alloys of Iron 119 

Lautsch & G. T amman s — Alloys of Iron with Molybdenum 119 

Jeriomin, K., & A. Portevin — Copper-bismuth Alloy <s 120 

Hindrichs, G. — Zinc-cadmium Alloys 1*20 

Gontermann, W. — Ant i many -lead Alloys 120 

Guillet, L. — Special Cast Irons 120 

Pecheux, H. — Thermo-Electricity of Nickel 121 

jMaltitz, E. voN — Blowholes in Steel Ingots 121 

Burgess, G. K. — Melting Points of the Iron Group Elements 121 

Waidner, 0. W. — Melting Points of Palladium and Platinum 121 

Lincoln, A. T. & others — Electrolytic Corrosion of Brasses 121 

Treitschke, VV., & G. Tammann — Alloy* of Iron with Chromium 122 

Smith, D. P. — Alloys of Potassium with other Metals 122 

Heyn, E., & others — Metallography of Cast Iron 122 

Bajkow, A. — Crystallisation and Structure of Steel 122 

Howe, H. M.— Osmondite 122 

Zimmerschied, K. W. — Apparatus for Polishing Metal Sections 123 

Walker, W. H. — Annealing of Sterling Silver 123 

Fay, H. — Tellurium-tin Alloys' 123 

Sears, J. E. — Longitudinal Impart of Metal Bods 123 

Turner, T., & D. .M.Levy — Annealing of Copper 124 

Weiss, P. — Magnetisation of Iron and Nickel 124 

Portevin, A. — Equilibrium of the Nickel-bismuth System 124 

Charpy, G. — Annealing-carbon in Cast-iron 124 

„ „ Solubility of Graphite in Iron 124 

Belloc, G. — Occluded Gases in Steel 124 

Bocdouard, O.— Extraction of Gases contained in Metals " 125 

Freminville, C. de— Vibrations accompanying Shock 125 

Konstantinow, N. — Alloys of Cobalt and Copper 125 

Limbourg, F. — Sorbitic Rails 125 

Portevin, A. — Iron-carbon System 125 

Harkort, H. — Iron-tungsten System 257 

Tafel, V. — Zinc and Nickel 257 

Campbell, W. — Structure of Metals 257 

Wust. W. — Theory of Malleable/sing 258 

Bo i. N em ANN, K. — Melting-point Diagram of Nickel-sulphur Comjiounds 258 

Berwerth, F. — Steel arid Meteoric Iron 258 

Bannister, C. O., & W. J. Lambert — Case-hardening of Mild Steel 259 

Scott, G. S. — Case-hardening .. .. 259 

Longiuuir, P. — Hardened Steels 259 

Demozay, L. — Hardening of Steel 259 

Portevin, A. — Constitution and Treatment of Steel 260 

Sahmen, R. — Binary Alloys of Copper 260 

Voss, G. — Binary Alloys of Nickel 260 

Gwyer, A. G. C. — Binary Alloys of Aluminium 260 

Donski, L. — Binary Alloys of Calcium 261 

Ehrensberger — Impact-testing 071 Notched Test-pieces 261 



CONTENTS. XXXIX 



Guillet, L. — Constitution of Manganese Cast Irons 261 

Benoofgh, G. D. — Heat Treatment of Copper-zinc Alloys 262 

Howe. H. M., & B. Stoughton — Piping and Segregation 262 

Lambert, W. J. — Measurement of Extension of Tensile Test-pieces 262 

Hancock, E. C. — Recovery of Steel from Overstrain 262 

Williams, W. B. — Influence of Stress on the Electrical Conductivity of Metals .. 262 

Bibliography 263 

Guillet. L. — Importance of Centring in Microscopic Metallography 393 

Breuil, P. — Constituents of Quenched, Steels .. .. .. .. :!93 

Smith, S. W. J. — Tliermomagnetic Analysis of Meteoric and Artificial Nickel-iron 

Alloys ' 394 

Rose, T. K.— Alloys of Gold and 'Tellurium 394 

Hackspill. L.— Platinum-thallium Alloy 394 

Maurer, E. — Austenite 394 

Goerens, P — Application of Colour Photography in Metallography 395 

Bibliography .. • 395 

Friedrich, K.— The Metallic Sulphides PbS, Cu 2 S, Ag. 2 S, FeS 522 

Benedicks, C. — Solubility of Graphite in Iron .. .. 522 

Tschernoff, D. C. — Crystals of Diamond and Carborundum in Steel 522 

Portevin, A. — Nickel-bismuth Alloys 522 

Alloys of Silver 522 

Chatalier, H. le, & F.Osmond — Constituents of Steel 523 

Metallography at the National Physical Laboratory 523 

Wust. F. — Influence of Phosphorus on the Iron-carbon System 524 

Goerens, P.. & N. Gitowsky — Solidification and Melting of Cast-iron 524 

Friedrich, K., & A. Leroux — Binary Systems. Platinum-arsenic and Bismuth- 
arsenic 524 

Friedrich, K. — Cohalt-arsenic Alloys 524 

Oberhoffer, P., & A. Medthen — Specific Heat of Iron-carbon Alloys 525 

Portevin, A. — Use of the Differentia! Galvanometer 525 

Grabe, A. — Influence of Nitrogen on Steel 525 

Kyrloff, J de — Phosphoric Steels . .. 525 

Guertler, YV., & E. Rfdolfi — Formula of Metallic Compounds . 660 

Bohler, R. — Selective Colouring .. 660 

Friedrich, K. — Cobalt sulphur Alloys 660 

Kurnakow, N. S., & N. S. Konstantinow — Antimonides of Iron and Cadmium 660 

Sackur, O.. & H. Pick— Copper-tin Alloys 660 

Pelabon, H. — Tellurides of Arsenic and Bismuth 661 

Belloc, G. — Occluded Gases in Special Nickel Steel 661 

Arnold, J. O. — Factors of Safety in Marine Engineering 661 

Huntington, A. K., & C. H. Desch — Planimetric Analysis of Alloys 661 

Stanton, T. E. — Neio Fatigue, Test for Iron and Steel 662 

Rosenhain, W. — Metallurgical and Chemical Laboratories in the National Physical 

Laboratory 662 

Law, E. F. — Application of Colour-photography to Metallography 663 

Hess, E. — Microscopic Features of Hardened Supersaturated Steels 663 

Levy. D. M. — Iron, Carbon, and Sulphur 663 

Saklatwalla, B. — Constitution of Iron and Phosphorus Compounds 663 

Gulliver, G. H..— Cohesion of Steel 782 

Edwards, C. A. — Function of Chromium and Tungsten in High-speed Tool-steel .. 782 

Longridge, M. — Test of Plate* from an Old Boiler 782 

Guillet, L., & others — Copper-aluminium Alloys 782 

Ziegler — Hardness of Constituents of Alloys 782 

Chatelieu, H. le — Troostite 783 

Fremont, C. — Corrosion Tests of Iron and Steel 783 

Kourbatofp — Metallography of Quenched Steels 783 

Maurer, E., & H. le OhateLiER — Quenching and Tempering of Iron and Steel .. 784 

Robin — Alumina for Polishing 784 

Bengoigh. G, D., & O. F. Hddson— Heat-treatment of Muntz Metal 784 

Howe, H. M. — Carbon-iron Diagram 785 

Vogel, R., & G. Tammann — Vanadium-iron Alloys 785 

Fraenkel, W. — Silicon-aluminum, Alloys 785 



xl CONTENTS. 

PAGB 

Lepkowski, W. v. — Composition of Saturated Mix>d Crystals 785 

Lewkonja, K. — Binary Alloys of Cobalt 786 

Stadeler, A. — Manganese and Carbon •• 786 

I \ni.. V. E —Alloys of Zine, Hopper, and Nickel 786 

Fbiedrich. K. Copiirr-urst-nic System 786 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 787 



PROCEEDINGS OF TEE SOCIETY. 

Meeting, December 18, 1907 12<J 

January 15, 1908 130 

„ February 19, „ 265 

March 18, , 268 

„ April 15, „ 390 

May 20, „ 398 

„ June 17, „ 526 

October 21, „ 788 

„ November IS, „ 792 



General Index to Volume 799 



K 



JOURN. R. MICR. SOC 1908. PI. I. 



® 



Fig. 1. 



f\3 



Fig. 3. 



■' , 












Fig. 4. 




Fig. 5. 



Fig. 6. 






JOURNAL 

OF THE 

ft 

ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY. 

FEBRUARY, 1908. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 



I. — A Reply to Professor Porter's mid Mr. Everitt's Criticism 
upon my Paper on the Resolving Power, etc. 

By Edward M. Nelson. 

(Bead November 20, 1907.) 

Duking the recess Messrs. Porter's and Everitt's paper, criticising 
my limits for the resolving power of a telescope, has been published 
in the Journal. In the meantime, I have gone over the experi- 
ments a second time, and results substantially the same as those 
printed in my paper have been obtained. These experiments 
prove that the constant (called c in my paper) is 32 p.c. less than 
the radius of the first dark ring, as calculated by Airy, and as 
measured, formerly by Fraunhofer and Cooke, and now by Pro- 
fessor Porter and Mr. Everitt. 

The measurements published by Professor Porter and Mr. 
Everitt are those relating to the rings, etc., seen in a telescope 
when pointed to a single artificial star ; but the measurements 
published in my paper are those made with artificial double 
stars, when the separation in the telescope was a minimum visible. 
The following quotation from my paper * shows that this is so : — 

"The first dark ring No. 2 was measured by removing an 
artificial double star from a telescope until the dark rings made 
contact ; the distance of the telescope from the star was then 
measured, and the separation of the stars being known, the angle 
was found." 

The " No. 2 " refers to the number opposite the experimental 
result f which Professor Porter and Mr. Everitt have selected 
for criticism. In brief, Professor Porter and Mr. Everitt have 

* See this Journal, 1906, at foot of p. 524. t Toin. cit., table on p. 525. 

Feb. 19th, 1908 b 



Transactions of the Society. 

measured one thing, and I another, and the difference between our 
measurements amounts to 32 p.c. 

Professor Porter and Mr. Everitt say : — " The question is there- 
fore not merely one of disagreement between theory and experi- 
ment, but also one of disagreement between Fraunhofer's and 
Mr. Nelson's experimental values." 

I have never published nor shown my measurements of the 
single artificial star to any one, so it is quite impossible for Pro- 
fessor Porter and Mr. Everitt to know whether they do, or do not, 
agree with those of the truly renowned Fraunhofer. 

I am still of opinion that the radius of the first dark ring of 

a single star is too large a measure for the telescopic resolving 

limit of a double star; in other words, the resolving limit of a 

5". 555 

telescope is less than ■ . 

a 

This month (October 1907) Mr. W. F. A. Ellison has published 

an account of the separation of &> Leonis and £ Bootis by 8^ inches 

3"*315 
of aperture ; these results correspond to a limit of and 

3" -06 ,. , 
respectively. 

These observations are far finer than any I have ever been able 
to accomplish. Mr. Ellison has thus lowered the value of c to 
0-6718, and has increased my percentage of 32 to 45. 

The values of the microscopical experiments (Nos. 4 and 13) 
given in my table may be far from correct. The difficulty of these 
microscopical antipoint measurements is very great indeed ; those 
with a telescope are mere child's play in comparison. 



II. — On the Diffraction Rings for a Circular Opening ; 
and on the Limit of Resolving Power. 

(Being a rejoinder to Mr. Nelson.) 
By Alfred W. Porter, B.Sc. 

(Read November 20, 1907.) 

There are two different though related questions connected with 
Mr. Nelson's reply to the paper by Mr. Everitt and myself. The 
first is, what is the size of the first dark diffraction ring for 
the case calculated by Airy and others ? and the second is, what is 
the ultimate resolving power of a telescope for a close double star ? 
I do not mean to say that these questions are explicitly stated, but 
Mr. Nelson confuses them both in his original paper and in his 
reply to our criticism. 

What I wish to make perfectly clear, first of all, is that our 
short paper referred only to the former of these questions, viz. the 
radius of the first dark diffraction ring. Airy's calculation of this 
radius was for the case of a point source of light : and as a physicist 
I feel somewhat perturbed that a calculation which was free from 
any obvious flaw should be called into question. It was with the 
object of testing the calculation that our measurements were made, 
with the result that we obtained a practically complete experi- 
mental verification of the theoretical value. Hence, whatever may 
be the explanation of Mr. Nelson's data, this explanation is not to 
be found in incorrectness in the theoretical calculation. 

Now this was the only point dealt with in our paper. Mr. 
Nelson in his reply forces upon us a consideration of the second 
question, viz. that of the ultimate resolving power. 

It is very difficult to gather the exact mode in which his 
experiments were made. From his paper we (and others) con- 
cluded that he moved his stars till the first dark rings came 
into contact. From his reply, we gather that his two stars were 
moved to such a distance that they just failed to be seen as two. 
But this latter does not give one a measure of the first dark ring, as 
he seems to claim ! Mr. Nelson does not appear to realise that his 
two star images may be so near as to overlap, and yet show a dark 
line separating them. I believe that this last fact is at the bottom 
of the confusion in his statements. 

When the two stars are a distance apart corresponding to the 

b 2 



4 Transactions of the Society. 

conventional limit of resolution, the intensity curves are as shown 
in fig. 1, the dotted curve being the resultant intensity of the 
overlapping images, each of which has an intensity given by 
the continuous lines. It will be seen that the intensity in the 
middle is less than the adjacent maxima by about one-third. 
Such a proximity of images will give a well-marked band of 
separation of the images, yet in this case the distance between 
the maxima is only equal to the radius of the first dark ring. 
Now a rigorous calculation shows that Mr. Nelson's results cor- 
respond to a closeness for which the depression of intensity in the 
middle will have rather more than disappeared. Hence, putting 




Fig. l. 



aside errors, which may amount to about 5 p.c, we may say that 
Mr. Nelson succeeds in seeing the depression of intensity in the 
middle until it completely disappears. Mr. Nelson is to be con- 
gratulated in this achievement : it denotes quite exceptionally 
keen vision ; but he is totally mistaken in thinking that from the 
distance between his two stars in this case he can calculate the 
radius of the first diffraction ring. 

Now in regard to this extremely successful resolution. The 
usually accepted limit was never intended to be the ultimate 
value ; it was fixed in a purely conventional way, so as to provide 
a standard (in terms of which different openings and instruments 



Diffraction Rings. By Alfred W. Porter. 5 

might be compared) which would have a perfectly definite mean- 
ing, be totally independent of a particular observer's vision, and 
at the same time represent the resolving power which a good 
(though not phenomenally good) observer might be expected to 
read. I have myself taught in my classes for ten years past that 
this standard is purely conventional, and is easily surpassed. 

However, accepting Mr. Nelson's data, we must admit the 
possibility of very considerably exceeding the conventional limit. 
In order to meet such exceptional cases, I desire to propose a 
new standard, which shall possess the merit of the old one of 
being independent of the observer. Let the stars be brought to 
such a closeness that the central depression just disappears ; it is 
obvious that this closeness represents the " ne plus ultra " case of 
resolution for monochromatic light. No one, however keen his 
vision, will cpiiite succeed in seeing the star double at this limit- 
ing distance. I propose, therefore, to take this degree of closeness 
as the ultimate limit of resolving power. It corresponds to the 
closeness for which the curves of intensity of the individual stars 
cross each other at their points of inflexion (that is, at the points 
at which they have no curvature). 

It is true that even for this degree of closeness, the oval shape 
of the disk of light may enable one to infer that it is not a single 
star which one observes. Moreover, if the light is polychromatic, 
as usual, the tint at the centre of the resultant image may be 
expected to be redder than on each side ; this, again, will tend to 
make the limit of resolution lower than we would otherwise expect. 
But the limit I here suggest is certainly so near the attainable 
value, even when auxiliary circumstances such as these intervene, 
that it is confidently put forward as the correct one to employ. 



Transactions of the Society. 



III. — Mercury Globules as Test Objects for the Microscope. 
By J. W. Gordon. 

(Bead Nov. 20, 1907.) 
Plate I. (figs. 1, 2). 

The difficulty of explaining the appearance of certain objects under 
high magnification led me some two or three months ago to under- 
take a comprehensive study of the appearance in the Microscope 
of mercury globules. The hypothesis upon which I worked was 
that the mercury globule being a simple object of known shape 
and optical properties I could not be mistaken as to the appearances 
which it would present, and if in any respect these appearances 
should prove to be unexpected, they would probably be easily 
traced to their origin. This hypothesis has not been falsified, 
although it may be confessed that the appearance of mercury 
globules under the conditions of high magnification has consider- 
ably surprised me. The phenomena observed turn out to be due 
to causes which will, I think, interest the Fellows of the Society. 
I have therefore sought the opportunity of exhibiting some speci- 
mens, and placing a short description before this Meeting. 

The first thing to strike the observer is a phenomenon which 
certainly ought not to have been unexpected, although I may 
confess that it surprised me, when I first observed it. A mercury 
globule occupying the centre of a bright field, and illuminated by 
a large cone of light from the condenser, presents a strong luminous 
band about its edge, which is in fact displayed upon its under 
face. Attention being drawn to the matter, it is quite easy to see 
that an objective of wide angle must see for a considerable distance 
round the under face of a spherical object. The diagram (fig. 2) 
serves to show how this comes about and incidentally to indicate 
the rule by which the inner edge of this luminous band may be 
calculated. Taking the ray from the point A to the point E to be 
an edge ray of the beam which enters the objective, it is easy to 
see that that ray must come from a point C in the beam received 
from the condenser, since the angle B A E must be equal to the 
angle B A C. Moreover, if we draw the perpendicular X X r 
through the point A parallel to the optical axis, we shall have the 
angle E A X equal to the semi-angle of aperture of the objective. 
This, therefore, is a known angle. In like manner the angle C A X' 



Mercury Globules as Test Objects. By J. W. Gordon. 7 

is the semi-angle of aperture of the beam received from the con- 
denser. This is not necessarily a known angle, but if it can be 
ascertained, it is obvious from the diagram that the angle at 0, the 
centre of the globule, subtended by the illuminated band A G, is 
equal to half the sum of the angles E A X and C A X'. For writing 
u and % for these angles respectively, we have 

ZAOE=Z^-ZAEO = ? A±^>-(|-^ = i(^+%) [1] 

This bright belt is clearly seen in the photograph (Plate I. fig. 1) 
of a mercury globule exhibited under these conditions. In addition 
there is seen in the centre of the globule a bright spot of light 
reflected from its upper face. The light which thus reaches the 




Fig.|2. 

upper face of the globule can only come, and does in fact come, 
from the lenses of the Microscope, which reflect back and condense 
upon an object placed in the middle of a field a very strong light 
received by them from the field. In the photograph this spot of 
light is seen unfocused since it occupies a position about midway 
between the vertex of the globule and its equatorial plane, and the 
Microscope for the purpose of taking this photograph was, in fact, 
focused upon the illuminated belt which lies immediately below 
the equatorial plane upon the under face of the globule. But, 
by focusing up to the principal focal plane of the globule, it being 
considered for this purpose as a convex mirror, a detailed view may 
be obtained of the interior of the Microscope. 

If a mercury globule upon the stage of the Microscope is 
illuminated by light from a very small source of illumination, and 
if, further, the condenser is so disposed that the image formed by 
it of the source of light lies a little above the equatorial plane of 



8 



Transactions of the Society. 




Fig. 8. 



the globule, we then have the conditions, illustrated by fig. 3, under 
which .Fresnel rings are formed, by the turning back upon itself of 
a small annular wave-front reflected from a narrow zone lying 
about the equator on the surface of the globule. Here Z is a 
section of the reflecting zone. A is a section of the ring upon 
which an incident annular wave front B C is focused, and A' is a 
section of the ring to which it is reflected. B D is a section of a 
surface all parts of which lie at equal optical dis- 
tances from the ring A'. Under these conditions 
the illumination at A' will be a maximum, if the 

3 v 5 \ 

distance C D = 0, or — — , etc., and will be a 

2 2 

minimum, if it is equal to X, 2 X, 3 X, etc. Thus, 
taking A' in a series of different positions rela- 
tively to A, we get varying illumination, which 
passes from maximum to minimum and back to 
maximum successively, with the result of a 
system of Fresnel rings. 

Under these conditions very magnificent dis- 
plays of Fresnel rings can be produced, especially 
if the field is darkened by means of a top stop, 
and they have, in a way presently to be men- 
tioned, an important application for the purpose 
of testing and perfecting the centring adjustments of the sub- 
stage apparatus. 

Eeturning now to the consideration of the bright spot in the 
middle of the globule, the first thing that strikes the observer is 
that a very large quantity of light is there reflected, and that the 
object on the stage is in fact receiving a very powerful top light from 
the objective. This impression, upon examination, proves to be well 
founded. In Plate I. fig. 2 we have a photograph of a small piece of 
etched tinfoil. This object was illuminated entirely by light thrown 
back from the refracting surfaces of the Microscope. If metallur- 
gists wanted only to examine minute pieces of metal like this 
fragment, which, in fact, measures about y^ inch in diameter, 
they would not have need to have recourse to any other system of 
illumination than that which is furnished by reflection from the 
lenses of the objective. This fact has an important bearing upon 
the appearance of all small objects seen in the Microscope. To 
this cause, for example, are due some of the most striking appear- 
ances presented by diatoms. And it is now apparent to me that to 
this cause must be attributed the high light shown upon the 
specimen of Staphylococcus, a photograph of which I showed to 
the Society in November last. The photograph is reproduced in 
Plate III. of the Journal of the Society for 1907 (facing p. 10). A 
very familiar illustration of this effect of top lighting is presented 
by the well-known appearance of Pleurosigma angulation under a 



Mercury Globules as Test Objects. By J. W. Gordon. 9 

wide-angled lens. The silex of angulation has a deep brownish 
yellow colour, which may be seen when the specimen is viewed by 
transmitted light, as, for example, by means of an objective of low 
angle. The coloration then is seen to be very strong, but if the 
same specimen be viewed while illuminated from the same source 
of light through a wide angled immersion lens, the yellow colour 
will entirely disappear. The silex then appears to be of a brilliant 
white, and detail which by the transmitted light was wholly 
invisible comes strongly into view. This is, I think, undoubtedly 
a case of top lighting, and the distinctive image which a wide- 
angled lens alone can show is to be attributed to the illumination 
of the upper surface by top light from the objective. 

Another very familiar instance of the effect of this top lighting 
is afforded by the much discussed phenomenon known as an 
unoccupied aperture. The top light from an immersion objective is 
given back in very great abundance from its peripheral zones. 
This may seem to be a natural thing if one considers only that the 
peripheral zones comprise a large proportion of the whole surface. 
But there is probably some reason which I have not been able to 
divine, for assigning to the peripheral zones a reflecting power more 
than proportional to their area. For if the flooding of the stage with 
this top light be watched while the observer cautiously opens the 
iris diaphragm, it will be seen that nothing particular happens 
untii a certain point is reached in the expansion of the condenser 
aperture. At that point the top light comes rushing in, and rapidly 
spreads over the field. If any reflecting surface lies between the 
object and the objective, the image is almost instantaneously 
ruined, and all detail is blotted out in a blazing mist of diffused 
illumination. It will now, I think, be evident why the explanation 
of the phenomena connected with the unoccupied aperture has 
given so much trouble to microscopists. They have omitted to 
consider the great abundance in which the peripheral zones 
supply this top light, and they have therefore omitted also to 
consider how all important it is to the use of an immersion 
objective that the space between the specimen and the first 
reflecting surface should be filled by an absolutely non-reflecting 
medium. When the front lens of the objective and the cover 
glass have different refractive indices, or when the oil interposed 
between them has a refracting index differing, it may be only 
slightly, from theirs, there is, of course, a reflecting plane or more 
than one, interposed between the specimen and the first refracting 
surface. The same thing occurs of necessity in the case of all 
specimens which are mounted dry. When from either of these 
causes such a reflecting surface exists it will, when illuminated by 
the top light from the objective, interpose an obstacle through 
which it is quite impossible to see anything except the most 
strongly marked features of an object. It is therefore not 



10 Transactions of the Society. 

surprising that under these conditions the finer details, which high 
power lenses are specially employed to reveal, should be lost to 
view, and it is obvious that the remedy must be to cut off all 
superfluous light from those zones of the system which send it 
back in greatest abundance to the stage. When immersion 
objectives are designed with a view to the separating of the focus 
of reflection from that of refraction ; or when the optical 
homogeneity of front lens, immersion fluid, cover-glass and 
mounting medium are duly considered in setting up the object, we 
shall be able to use cones of condenser light that will fill our 
objectives, but until these matters come to be considered in 
connection with the power of refracting surfaces to reflect light, the 
appearance of any given object under illumination by large 
condenser cones must be a mere matter of chance. 

Another set of phenomena which are largely, though by no 
means wholly, explained by the top lighting comprises those 
connected with oblique illumination. It has been already pointed 
out that the reflected light from an immersion objective appears 
to play a very important part in the lighting of the object. When 
this top light is intended to fall sidelong on the object and to 
illuminate it by cross lights, it must of course be oblique top light. 
And this can be secured by shading half the objective. There 
appear to be a large number of oblique illumination effects 
explainable in this way. 

The foregoing are general observations. It remains to describe 
in detail the various applications which I have so far succeeded 
in making of mercury globules for the purpose of testing the 
Microscope. 

The first of these experiments relates to the Fresnel rings, the 
formation of which is illustrated by fig. 3, already described. It 
may be pointed out that the number of such rings which can be 
seen depends upon the aperture of the objective. In the formation 
of interference bands, as a rule, the outer members of the series 
fade out of view either because of the overlapping of different 
members or because the foreshortening of the aperture as seen 
from the outlying parts of the interference image cuts down its 
light-transmitting power to such an extent that the illumination 
becomes too weak to be seen. In the case of the mercury globule, 
how r ever, a different set of conditions obtains. The reflecting zone 
is most foreshortened, as seen through the innermost rings. Its 
light-giving power therefore increases as the observer views it 
through the outer rings of the series, and it seems to be a fact that 
the limit of the number of rings seen in the Microscope is set by 
the aperture of the objective. 

It follows from this consideration that the appearance of these 
rings can be used as a test for the centring of the globule in the 
optical axis of the objective. It may, I suppose, be taken for 



Mercury Globules as Test Objects. By J. W. Gordon. 11 

granted, at any rate for practical purposes, that the optical axis 
passes through the centre of the aperture of the objective. If there 
be any discrepancy it would, no doubt, be the aperture, and not 
the optical axis, which would determine the formation of the rings. 
If, then, the mercury globule lies even at a very small distance out 
of the optical centre of the objective, the Fresnel rings will be 
visibly deformed. In one of the Microscopes exhibited this 
evening a mercury globule is displaced slightly from the optical 
centre of an objective. The rings, instead of forming a sym- 
metrical concentric system, form a system in which one side is 
very much narrowed and the opposite side expanded to such an 
extent as to be quite unmistakable. 

To start the centring operations, therefore, the first thing to 
be done is to place a mercury globule in the optical centre of the 
objective. For this purpose it is well to swing the condenser clear 
of the stage, and light the object directly from the lamp or mirror. 
It is, moreover, convenient in all these experiments to use a circular 
disc as the source of light, though, of course, the form of the light 
source is of very little importance when the condenser is out of use. 
When the observer is satisfied by the symmetrical formation of the 
rings that the globule lies truly in the optical axis of the objective, 
he will next proceed to rectify the position of his source of light. 
This may be done by inclining the mirror, or if the lamp is viewed 
without a mirror, by adjusting the position of the lamp. This 
adjustment can be roughly made by observing the illumination of 
the rings. If the source of light is considerably out of line with 
the optical axis of the instrument, one part of the rings will appear 
to be more brightly illuminated than another part. The displace- 
ment of the light source does not very sensibly affect the form of 
the rings or their disposition when the light source itself is at a 
considerable distance from the stage. But it does most materially 
affect their illumination. It is possible, therefore, in this way to- 
obtain a collimated source of light. But a still more sensitive 
test will be presently mentioned. 

The source of light having thus been adjusted in line with the 
mercury globule, the condenser may next be swung into position, 
and now the advantage of the circular source of light becomes 
apparent. The luminous disk should be of such dimensions that 
its image has a diameter slightly less than that of the globule. 
When, therefore, the source of light is truly focused in the middle 
of the field, it will be entirely occulted by the globule, and the 
Fresnel rings will be brilliantly seen upon a dark field. If there 
were no top lighting and no diffused illumination by reflection 
from the surfaces of the condenser, the Fresnel rings would, under 
these conditions, be seen on a field absolutely black ; but this 
variously reflected light causes a considerable illumination of the 
stage, and the Fresnel rings, therefore, are only feebly seen unless 



12 Transaction* of the Society. 

the beam from the condenser is narrowed down to a small cone. 
It is, however, quite possible in spite of this diffused illumination, 
to see the Fresnel rings even in the bright Held. By observing 
them under these conditions, with the aperture of the condenser 
opened wide, it is possible to centre the condenser in its turn. Its 
position will, of course, be central, when the rings are again evenly 
illuminated. 

The final centring adjustment remains to be made — that, 
namely, which concerns the centring of the iris diaphragm. 
This is, of course, effected in the same way as the centring of the 
condenser. If when the iris is closed the rings are unevenly 
illuminated, it must be moved into a fresh position until they are 
seen to be of uniform brightness in all parts of the field. When 
this result is reached the centring is completed and well adjusted. 
The mercury globule being now in position, it may be employed 
to examine the interior of the objective. For tins purpose it is 
best to turn the sub-stage condenser aside, and to allow the light 
from the mirror, or, better still, direct light from the lamp to illu- 
minate the stage. It is, probably, best even for this purpose to 
have a circular source of light, but that is not now so important 
as when observing the Fresnel rings. The light being accurately 
centred, if we now focus upon the principal focal plane of the 
globule, which lies about midway between its equator and its 
vertex, we shall see a series of images formed by the various 
reflecting surfaces of the objective. The general form of these 
images is that of a bright field with a circular dark object in its 
centre, but, with a very narrow cone of incident light, such as we 

get without a condenser, the bright field may 
lie reduced to the dimensions of a thin bright 
outline to the dark ima^e of the globule. What 
we actually see is a image of the stage with 
the globule itself at its centre. The diagram 
(fig. 4) shows generally what I take to be the 
optical system producing these images. Here 
one of the concave surfaces is represented by 
the curve F F, the conjugate point to the 
point B, the refracting surface F F being con- 
sidered as a concave mirror, lies at point C. 
It is brought to a shorter focus very approximately in the principal 
plane of the globule by the upper surface of the globule, which 
serves as a convex mirror, and operates as a field lens to shorten 
the working distance of the concave mirror. The image so formed 
is seen through the Microscope in the ordinary way. If the 
point B is at the focus of the condenser, it and its conjugate 
point C will be brilliantly luminous. But even if it be out of 
focus, it is sure to shed light enough to be distinctly visible in the 
dark face of the mercury globule. 




Mercury Globules as Test Objects. By J. W. Gordon. 13 

It will now be obvious that every reflecting surface in the 
instrument must send a certain amount of light back to the stage. 
It is not, however, every such surface which concentrates the light 
sufficiently upon the globule to produce a visible image there. It 
is a selection only of the reflecting surfaces which thus produce 
images such as can be examined in the Microscope. I imagine, 
however, that every separate lens must have at least one surface 
which thus yields a visible image. That, however, is too com- 
plicated a problem for me to be able to discuss it to advantage. 
What is quite clear from a mere inspection of the images so 
formed is that almost, if not entirely, all the lenses contribute to 
the collection of images. The multiplicity of such images and 
their disposition close behind one another — when a very small 
globule is used as the reflecting mirror — are, indeed, the principal 
defects of this system of examination. The images will, many of 
them, be found to come into view simultaneously, and then if, as 
often happens, they overlap but do not coincide with one another, 
a confused image results in which it is not easy to discern the 
outline of the object globule. In the case, however, of a well- 
constructed lens, the light being accurately centred, these images 
are all concentric, and the various pictures can be easily dis- 
criminated even when two or more of them come into focus 
together. This method of examining an objective will be found to 
be a very searching test of its mechanical perfection, for any lens 
not perfectly set will produce an excentric image. Moreover, this 
mechanical accuracy in the placing of the lenses is itself a con- 
dition of high optical quality. A single lens tilted to one side 
may produce but little effect in the ordinary working of an 
objective. But it will effectually prevent the instrument from 
yielding the finest results of which its combination is capable. 
This test, therefore, is of considerable value, and it has the merit 
not only of being a crucial test, but, in addition, of being one which 
indicates the nature of any defect detected. It will therefore, I 
imagine, be found to be a useful addition to the arsenal of the 
instrument maker, as well as an easily available test by which 
the microscopist can examine the mechanical perfection of his 
objectives. 

The lenses of the objective having been in this way examined, 
we may now restore the substage, condenser and iris -diaphragm to 
their places. Then, of course, we shall have to work "with focused 
light, and the appearance presented by the various images in the 
mercury globule will be altered accordingly. It will be found that 
there are two positions of the substage condenser in which definite 
images beside the image of the mercury globule are given. In one 
of them, the image is an image of the source of light ; in the other, 
it is an image of an aperture of the condenser, defined as a rule, 
of course, by the iris diaphragm. The mercury globule and the 



14 Transactions of the Society. 

source of light having been duly centred, it will be found that 
these two images afford an easier method of centring the substage 
mechanism than that already described of observations made upon 
the Fresnel rings. Thus, the iris- diaphragm being opened wide in 
order to expose the full aperture of the condenser, we ought, when 
the source of light is focused in the globule, to see it truly central. 
If that is the case, the optical axis of the substage condenser is 
coincident with the optical axis of the Microscope. Then a very 
minute image of the globule itself will be seen occupying the exact 
centre of the small image of the source of light. The slightest 
displacement of the condenser disturbs this arrangement and 
throws this opaque image of the globule visibly away from the 
centre of the source of light. This, therefore, is an extremely 
critical test of the centring of the condenser. The condenser 
having been centred, you may now alter its focal position so as to 
bring the aperture of the condenser and the image of the iris into 
view in the globule. If now the iris be closed, its image will be 
seen closing either truly upon the image of the globule or upon 
some excentric point according as the iris is in or out of centre. 
Here, again, the necessary adjustments are easily made, since their 
progress can be followed with the eye. 

There is among the exhibits upon the table this evening one 
which very strikingly indicates the great abundance in which light 
comes back from the reflecting surfaces of the optical system. A 
comparatively large globule, actually of diameter of -^ in., is mounted 
under a ^-in. objective. The light is so arranged that a strong image 
is thrown back from the observer's cornea, when his eye is placed 
accurately at the eye-point of the instrument. The flashing of this 
image across the centre of the globule forms a very striking object, 
and it may be observed that in this experiment a very perfect 
image of the globule is in this way formed, and may be momentarily 
seen. But it is, of course, impossible to hold the eye stationary 
enough for anything more than a flash view of this image. Beside 
the corneal image a coloured and imperfectly focused image 
reflected from the interior of the eye may also be seen. I mention 
it not as an object upon which I have any observations to offer, 
but for the purpose of drawing the attention of others to it who 
will be able to study it to better purpose than I can. 

The phenomenon just described may be made the starting point 
of an almost ideal test for resolving power. In place of the eye, 
which is a moving object, we may substitute a mercury globule 
properly mounted at the eye-point of the microscope. It will then 
reflect light precisely as did the observer's cornea in the last 
experiment, and if for this purpose we use a small mercury globule 
(one having a diameter of j^ g of an inch is very suitable), it will 
not impair the observer's view of the stage, when he looks down 
the instrument. In that case he will see, not the image reflected 



Mercury Globules as Test Objects. By J. W. Gordon. 15 

from his ow,n cornea, but an image reflected from the under face of 
this new globule, which I will, when further referring to it, speak 
of as the speculum globule, to distinguish it from the object 
globule on the stage. 

It may be convenient at this point to invite you to consider the 
nature of the optical arrangement thus set up. It is, of course, a 
very common observation that when two mirrors are placed on 
opposite walls facing one another we get a great number of 
successive reflections producing the appearance to the observer 
placed between them of a long vista of mirror frames and many 
repetitions of his own head. The same thing would, of course, 
happen if our mirrors were convex mirrors. But in that case the 
successive images would very rapidly diminish in size. In the case 
of plain mirrors the successive images diminish in apparent size as 
the result of perspective, but in the case of convex mirrors they 
would diminish not only as the result of perspective but also by 
reason of the magnifying power of the mirrors themselves. This 
is what happens in the case of two mercury globules lacing one 
another. The observer looking, as indicated in fig. 5, past the 




Fig. 5. 

speculum globule into the face of the object globule, sees there an 
image of the inner face of the speculum globule and in that image, 
which I will speak of as an image of the first order, he sees an 
image of the second order of the object globule itself as reflected 
in the face of the speculum globule. This second order image is 
of necessity a very small image, for it has undergone reduction 
in size, first by the speculum globule and then by the object globule 
itself. If now we interpose a lens between these two globules 
we do not prevent in any way the interchange of reflections 
between them. The phenomena are, of course, somewhat compli- 
cated by the magnifying power of the lens, but are not otherwise 
affected by it. We are thus led to expect that if the optical 
system of the Microscope were interposed between the two 
globules of fig. 5, we should still have the second order image of 
the object globule seen in its own surface. This is what actually 
happens, and in one of the Microscopes upon the table this evening 
you will find an arrangement of this sort set up and a brilliant 
second order image of the object globule exhibited to view. 



16 Transactions of the Society. 

It will be interesting now to consider why the second order 
image happens to be so conspicuous. If it were simply a question 
of size, one would expect the first order image of the speculum 
globule to be more conspicuous still, but, in fact, that image can- 
not be seen. The reason can easily be assigned. The speculum 
globule lies in a perfectly dark field, and is illuminated only by 
light which it reflects from the stage of the Microscope. Only its 
reflecting surface, therefore, is a visible object at all, and thus the 
image of the speculum globule, theoretically present in the object 
globule, is an invisibly dark object. Under very special conditions 
of illumination it can just be seen. But to bring it into view is a 
difficult experiment, and one which I have not attempted this 
evening to demonstrate. The images of the speculum globule 
being thus excluded, we, nevertheless, have to consider a whole 
series of images of the second, fourth, sixth, etc., orders. These 
may all be dealt with in a word by considering only the case of 
the fourth order image. It will at once be appreciated that this, 
having undergone four reductions in scale by reflections between 
the globules, has become an object almost infinitesimally small. 
In fact it is much too small to be seen, and therefore, of all the 
images which are theoretically possible, only this second order 
image of the object globule is, in fact, a visible image. It, how- 
ever, shines with such effulgence as to constitute it a most striking 
object, very easily identified and observed. Here, then, we have 
the primary conditions of a perfect test object: A circular disk 
which is densely black and of known, that is to say, of calculable 
dimensions, lying in a bright field and capable by a proper selec- 
tion of mercury globules, of being made to any desired size, so that 
we can overpass the resolving power of any imaginable lens. 

The optical system built up in this way of the two mercury 
globules mounted one at each end of the Microscope, has some 
interesting properties. It is to be observed that the two globules 
do not occupy positions which are conjugate to one another. On 
the contrary, each occupies what is an apertural plane in the 
optical system which focuses in the other globule. Consequently, 
the two principal focal planes of the globules are conjugate to one 
another, not their two centres. From this it follows that the 
dimensions of the image seen depend simply on the principal focal 
lengths involved, and are independent of the exact positions which 
the globules occupy. This fact is highly convenient, since it 
enables us to place the speculum globule at whatever distance 
from the eye lens is most convenient for the observation that we 
wish to make. The position of the object globule is, of course, 
definitely determined, since its principal focal plane must coincide 
with the focal plane upon the stage of the Microscope. But it 
may be desirable to vary the position of the speculum globule. A 



Mercury Globules as Test Objects. By J. W. Gordon. 17 

glance at fig. 6, which illustrates the optical system, shows that 
the conditions of illumination are identical over an appreciable 
range of distance along the optical axis in the region occupied by 
the speculum globule (gi). It is also clear from this consideration 
that the light reflected from the surface of the speculum globule 
does not fill the whole aperture of the Microscope, but passes along 
certain zones, these zones being more central when the globule is 
near the eye-lens, and more peripheral when it is remote from the 
eye-lens. A very pretty experiment can be made by moving the 
speculum globule slowly from one of its extreme positions to the 
other. We can then watch the gradual change in the appearance 
of the imaG;e as it is transmitted through different zones of the 
system. The most noticeable change is that the colour varies, the 
image being, as a rule, strongly blue at one end and distinctly red 
at the other, a good achromatic image being obtained at some 
intermediate point. 

The diagram, fig. 6, shows the path of an incident pencil from 



OBJECTIVE. 



OCULAR 




Pig. 6. 



a point on the object globule in full lines — the path of a reflected 
pencil in broken lines. It is obvious that the diameter of the 
black disk seen in the object globule (^/ 2 ) can be very easily 
calculated. Looking down the instrument we have in the field 
the original of the picture pourtrayed in the object globule, and it 
is seen under the full magnifying power of the Microscope. It 
exhibits, of course, a bright field, an illuminated edge of the 
globule, which melts into the field, and a dark centre, the diameter 
of which last depends upon the aperture of the objective and the 
angle at which the light from the condenser strikes the under face 
of the globule. If this latter factor were known it would be an 
easy thing to calculate the diameter of the darkened part of the 
disk by the formula of equation (1), but as the exact angle of the 
condenser cone depends upon the focusing of the condenser, 
and as, moreover, the focusing of the condenser may most 
conveniently be adjusted with reference to the brightness of the 
resulting image, this cannot very well be made the subject of 
calculation. But since it is to be seen in the Microscope and of 
full size it can quite easily be made the subject of measure- 

Feb. 19th, 1908 c 



18 Transactions of the Society. 

ment. We may, therefore, take the following magnitudes to be 
known. 

The optical length of the Microscope ; which may be written L. 

The equivalent focal length of the ocular; — written /^ 

The diameter of the speculum globule; — written g 1 . 

The equivalent focal length of the objective ; — written f 2 . 

The diameter of the object globule ; — written g 2 . 

The diameter of the dark patch upon the object globule ; 
— written D. 

It will be evident on reference to the diagram, fig. 6, that the 
apparent size of the second order image in the object globule of its 
own darkened surface, which may be written d, is, 

— if; f 2 f 2 * * * ^ ' 

It is evident from this equation that the dimensions of the 
test object (d) can be varied in two ways ; that is to say, we may 
alter the size of the object globule or we may alter the size of the 
speculum globule, and thus, by varying these two elements in the 
combination, we can produce a black dot of any required dimensions 
however small. Moreover, the mathematical law is one that works 
out to a very convenient system in practice. If we alter the size 
of the speculum globule the value of (d) alters according to a 
simple proportion, so that we may write the above expression (2) 

d = Gg lm 

C being a constant ; if everything except the speculum globule is 
left unchanged. We have thus the means of very gradually 
altering the dimensions of the test object by substituting speculum 
globules of slightly varying dimensions. 

If, on the other hand, we vary the object globule we, of course, 
alter the value of D at the same time. In fact, D is itself directly 
proportional to g 2 , therefore we may write the product 

g 2 B = Ci^ 2 . 

If we assume everything to remain unchanged except the object 
globule, we may write equation (2) as follows : — 

a = ^>ig 2 . 

It thus appears that by changing the object globule we very rapidly 
alter the size of the test image, and if we alter the size of both the 
globules simultaneously, we get finally a value in the form 

d = 3 g 1 g 2 i . 

Under these conditions the size of the test image varies very 
rapidly indeed. And thus with a comparatively small range of 



Mercury Globules as Test Objects. By J. W. Gordon. 19 

mercury globules it is possible to obtain test objects of all dimen- 
sions down to such as will be invisible in the finest instruments 
that can be made, while at the same time we have the power to 
vary the size of our test object at any point in the series by the 
finest degrees of change of magnitude. 

It will do doubt be understood that in the case of the speculum 
globule it is necessary, and in the case of the object globule con- 
venient, to have it mounted between glasses in Canada balsam. In 
the case of the speculum globule, which reflects the image from its 
lower face, it is necessary to make sure that the lower face is not 
resting in contact with the glass. If the balsam is at all viscous, 
the globule may subside into that position in use, and so present a 
flattened face to the object globule which, of course, entirely alters 
the dimensions of the resulting second order image. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

Fig 1.— Mercury Globule. 
„ 2.— Etched Tinfoil. 



20 Transactions of the Society. 



IV. — Li'/kt Filters for Photomicrography. 
By E. Moffat. 

(Bead November 20, 1907.) 

Plate I. (figs. 3-6). 

For a number of years my attention has been directed to light 
filters in connection with photomicrography, as a means of obtain- 
ing well contrasted photographs of objects whose natural or faintly 
stained appearance has occasioned one the greatest amount of 
trouble, and in many cases had to be abandoned in despair. 
Some fine pathological preparation, highly valued it may be, and 
from which the stain has all but disappeared — to unmount and 
re-stain which might be attended with considerable risk, owing to 
the fineness of the texture — or some very pale-yellow insect dissec- 
tion, or other difficult object, has to be photographed : without a 
filter and orthochromatic plate the attempt would be well nigh 
hopeless, but given a correctly prepared filter to meet the special 
needs of the case, the result will be highly gratifying. 

The spectroscope in such cases is invaluable in the determina- 
tion of colour and depth of tint required. A simple pocket instru- 
ment is sufficiently good, but where greater accuracy is demanded, 
one can easily rig up a table instrument with two cheap tele- 
scopes — one being used as a collimator, using the object-glass 
only, and the other is easily converted into a small astronomical 
telescope ; a dense glass prism and slit completing the arrange- 
ment. A scale can be made on paper of the principal Fraunhofer 
lines, and this can be used for recording by artificial light, where 
the absorption bands appear on the spectrum of the dyes or filters 
we are about to employ. 

If we place in a cell of about 1 cm. deep a weak solution of the 
dye by which the preparation is stained, we shall find that the 
spectrum is modified, and some parts may be missing altogether, 
as where the absorption bands appear. Now, to obtain the greatest 
sontrast, we must photograph in the absorption band region with a 
filter which will always be the complementary colour, and therefore 
produce the greatest darkness upon the resulting print, the shadows 
upon the negative having practically clear glass ; e.g. fuchsin gives 
a band about midway between D and E, and is well met by a screen 
or liquid filter composed of a saturated solution of copper acetate 
and a little potassium bichromate. These may be made up in two 



Light Filters for Photomicrography. By E. Moffat. 21 

separate cells, or mixed together, when a muddy compound will be 
produced, but by adding acetic acid drop by drop this will clear 
up, and a fine permanent filter will be the result, this being excellent 
also for visual work. 

My experience has been that with these liquid filters a far 
superior result is obtained than with gelatin-stained films, as the 
latter when rubbed stop a considerable amount of light. The 
liquid filters pass a maximum of light, and so reduce exposure to 
a minimum, and at the same time act as heat-absorbing troughs, 
enabling the Microscope to keep longer in focus. Monochromatic 
light is hardly practicable unless the arc lamp is used, and, after 
all, a bichromatic light is ample for nearly all purposes, and by 
working with the two chemicals named much good work can be 
done. A saturated solution of copper acetate in a fairly deep cell, 
say 25 mm., will cut out the red end of the spectrum and also the 
orange beyond the D line. A strong solution of potassium 
bichromate will absorb the spectrum from the violet end through 
the blue and beyond the F line. A special case may arise where 
a red sensitive plate and a red filter are required, such as in a 
faintly-stained methylen-blue preparation, where the absorption 
band is principally about the C line ; but in practice a good nega- 
tive can generally be got of this by a deep orange filter and a 
yellow sensitive plate — these plates being exceptionally good for 
photomicrographic work, and generally giving greater contrast than 
the plate sensitised to the whole spectrum. 

As before stated, insect dissections, and similar objects of a 
pale-yellow or straw colour — the chitinous substances assuming 
such tints when mounted in balsam — might be well represented by 
Bismark brown (Yesuvian), which has an absorption band from the 
violet end of the spectrum to the F line. A successful result can 
in most cases be obtained by a filter of gentian-violet, which has an 
absorption band in D towards the yellow, using an ordinary slow 
plate and giving a minimum exposure. 

Excessively rapid dry-plates I have found to be of no advantage, 
as there is a greater danger of chemical and light fog, owing to the 
time usually required in development of photomicrographic nega- 
tives in comparison with field or landscape work, much greater 
contrast being demanded. Personally, I have found that when the 
first appearance of the image is from 2^-3 minutes, and is com- 
pleted in about 15-18 minutes, the best negatives are obtained, 
pyro soda, with a large quantity of potassium bromide, being the 
developer used. 

The accompanying photographs were taken on Barnet ortho- 
chromatic plates and printed on glossy bromide paper, the light 
used being a Nernst lamp, 1 ampere on 100-volt circuit, with the 
addition of an ordinary lantern condenser, the exposure being 
marked on each. 



22 Transactions of the Society. 

In conclusion, unless a good picture is portrayed upon the 
ground-glass screen to the naked eye without the use of a magnifier, 
just as in ordinary photography, the resulting negative will probably 
be a failure, but by the use of the above simple filters, supplemented 
by the spectroscope, much may be accomplished upon subjects 
hitherto considered impossible, and in all cases much useful infor- 
mation may be acquired. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

Fig. 3. — Trypanosoma gambiense. x 1500. Leitz objective ; ^oil-immersion; 
6 x compensating ocular ; Barnet ortho plate ; Nernst lamp. Ex- 
posure, 3 minutes. 

,, 4. — Bacillus pestis. x 1200. Potassium bichromate filter. Exposure, 
3 minutes. 

,, 5. — Poison fang of Spider. Gentian-violet filter. Exposure, 10 seconds. 

,, 6. — Gizzard of Cricket, showing teeth. Gentian-violet filter. Exposure, 
10 seconds. 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES 

RELATING TO 

ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY 

(PRINCIPALLY INVERTEBRATA AND CRYPTOGAMIA), 

MICROSCOPY, Etc.* 



ZOOLOGY. 
VERTEBRATA. 

a. Embryology. t 



Removal and Transplantation of Ovaries.^ — F- H. A. Marshall and 
W. A. Jolly have previously adduced evidence in support of the view 
that heat and menstruation are iuducecl either directly or indirectly 
through the activity of an internal secretion or hormone arising in the 
ovaries, and that the corpus luteum provides a secretion which assists in 
the nourishment of the embryo during the first stages of pregnancy. In 
the present paper the investigators show that the existence of ovarian 
tissue is an essential factor in normal uterine nutrition ; and further, 
that the nature of the ovarian influence upon the uterus is chemical 
rather than nervous, since the transplanted ovaries (in rats), while still 
maintaining their functions (at least, in many cases), had lost their 
normal nervous connections. It is extremely probable, therefore, that 
the uterus is dependent for its proper nutrition upon substances secreted 
by the ovaries, not merely at the heat periods and during pregnancy, 
when they show their greatest activity, but throughout the whole of the 
cestrous cycle. 

Inheritance of Pigmentation in Mice.§ — L. Cuenot continues his 
important investigations on the inheritance of pigmentation in mice, all 
of which go to show the general occurrence of Mendelian phenomena. 
In fact, all the determinants known in mice conform strictly to Mendelian 
rules. " On ne connait chez les souris que des caracteres mendeliens." 

* The Society are not intended to be denoted by the editorial " we," and they 
do not hold themselves responsible for the views of the authors of the papers 
noted, nor for any claim to novelty or otherwise made by them. The object of 
this part of the Journal is to present a summary of the papers as actually pub- 
lished, and to escribe and illustrate Instruments, Apparatus, etc., which are 
either new or ave not been previously described in this country. 

f This section includes not only papers relating to Embryology properly so 
called, but also those dealing with Evolution, Development, Reproduction, and 
allied subjects. 

X Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, xlv. (1907) pp. 589-99 (2 pis.). 

§ Arch. Zool. Exper., vi. (1907) Notes et Revue, No. 1, pp. i-xiii. 



24 sim MARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Artificial Insemination in Mammals.*— J. J. IwanofiE discusses 
the experiments, sometimes successful, which he and others have made 
in the artificial insemination of sheep, cows, and mares. He notes, inter 
alia, that the seminal fluid of hybrids of horse and zebra contains no 
spermatozoa, that the sperm may be kept successfully in weak solutions 
of sodium chloride and carbonate, and that the spermatozoa show great 
resisting power against cold, alcohol, and other untoward conditions. 

By artificial insemination Iwanoff made a hybrid between a female 
white mouse and a male white rat. The hybrid was very large. 

Gastrulation in Petromyzon.f — S. Hatta describes this process in 
considerable detail. Amongst others he emphasizes the following 
peculiarities. Blastulation and gastrulation overlap each other to a 
great extent in the period of their occurrence. The prime cause of this 
belated mode of development is indisputably due to delay of segmenta- 
tion on account of an enormous accumulation of yolk within the ovum. 
" Concrescence " has not been detected at any stage. The macrospheric 
hemisphere has an activity of its own. " This is an important factor in 
bringing about the gastrulation in Petromyzon. That such is the case 
in the Petromyzon ovum, which contains a much larger quantity of yolk 
than the frog's ovum, and that there is no yolk plug in the former, are 
very striking facts." To explain this the author assumes that the frog's 
ovum is secondarily holoblastic, as has already been maintained by 
Mitsukuri. 

Determining Factors in Metamorphosis of Anura.$ — P. Wintrebert 
deals with the bearing of pulmonary respiration on this problem. He 
finds that in tadpoles of Rana temporaria artificially prevented from 
exercising this function, metamorphosis is not prevented, although it is 
delayed. The want of the exercise of the lungs does not prevent their 
development. At the end of transformation larva?, which up till then 
have not breathed by their lungs, when transported into open water do 
not try by taking in surface-air to remedy the asphyxia caused by the 
atrophy of the branchiae. In particular, when their fore-limbs have no 
support they do not try by hind-limb movements to keep their heads 
above water. The absorption of the tail is more complete if the water 
is abundantly renewed. The tadpoles of R. temporaria die in the same 
current in which Alytes obstetricans metamorphoses and survives. In 
this latter form cutaneous respiration in an aquatic medium suffices for 
blood aeration. 

Experiments with Tadpoles. §— P. Wintrebert finds that lame of 
Rana temporaria, transported from water to air, undergo precocious 
metamorphosis. The gills and tail atrophy, being useless. The para- 
lysed tail becomes a mere skeleton, but keeps its form. It seems that 
the abnormal degeneration of the gills and the tail, and the precocious 

* Arch. Sci. Biol., xii. (1907) 135 pp., 6 figs. See also Zool. Zentralbl., xiv. 
(1907) pp. 603-4. 

t Journ. Coll. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, xxi. (1907) Art. 2, pp. 1-44 (3 pis.). 
% C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxii. (1907) pp. 1154-6. 
§ Op. cit., lxiii. (1907) pp. 403-5. 



ZOOLOGY AMU BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, KTC. 25 

reduction of the alimentary canal, furnish a large amount of absorbed 
material, and this perhaps hastens the definitive development of the limbs 
and the formation of the spiracular opening. 

Experiments with Axolotls.* — P. Wintrebert describes his method 
of transforming axolotls into amblystomas in an inclined aquarium with 
an aquatic portion and a relatively dry portion, and with some sponges 
forming an intermediate area. He tried Powers' method of leaving the 
axolotls in the water, and suddenly stopping the food supply after a 
period of super-abundant nutrition. But no transformation was effected 
in this way. A modification of Marie von Chauvin's method, as above 
suggested, is usually effective. The importance of the environmental 
factor has been exaggerated ; the hereditary influence is paramount. 

Segments of Head and Brain in Gull.f — A. Meek has studied 
embryos of the Lesser Blackbacked Gull (Larus fuscus). He dis- 
tinguishes in the prosencephalon three regions or " prosomeres," in the 
mesencephalon two regions or " mesomeres," and in the rhombencephalon 
thirteen " rhombomeres." Seven head somites are clearly represented 
in the gull, but the author finds reasons for concluding that the total 
number of segments -was lbh. The probable relation of these to the 
ganglia is indicated. According to the author, the mixed dorsal nerves 
" were primarily, and are still, largely developed from a series of inter- 
segmental ectodermal ganglia, and the connection with the brain and 
spinal cord is a secondary one. The ganglia became connected together 
by longitudinal commissures forming a chain of ganglia on each side, 
and extending to a common meeting place in front of the brain — at all 
events, in the Cyclostomes. Those in the body lost their connection 
with the spinal cord, but retained their relationship with the ectoderm, 
thus forming the nerve and organs of the lateral line." " In the head 
region the ganglia and the nerves arising from them attained a con- 
spicuous development, establishing the organs of sense, the sensory, and, 
with few exceptions, the motor nervous system of the region, and 
extending in certain cases beyond it.' 1 The author sees reasons for 
concluding that " an early transitory attempt at a lateral line formation 
takes place in the gull, in other birds, reptiles, and mammals." 

Development of the Alimentary Canal in the Trout. i- — Sophie 
Egounoff describes the development of the various regions of the trout's 
alimentary canal. The oesophagus arises from a solid endodermic tract, 
surrounded by a mesodermic sheath ; its anterior and posterior regions 
develop differently. The stomach is also solid to start with. In both 
oesophagus and gullet, the connective tissue, the circular muscles, the 
longitudinal muscles develop in the order in wbich these are named. 
The intestine becomes hollow first, and remains long in the form of a 
cylindrical tube lined by simple cylindrical epithelium. After the 
intestine has assumed its definitive structure, the pyloric appendages arise 
by the evagination of the wall. 

* C.R Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) pp. 521 3. 
+ Anat. Anzeig., xxxi. (1907) pp. 408-15 (5 figs.). 
J Rev. Suisse Zool., xv. (1907) pp. 19-74 (2 pis.). 



26 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

b. Histology. 

Intercellular Connections in Fowl's Egg.* — E. A. Andrews 
describes bridges of clear protoplasm passing from cell to cell across the 
cleavage furrows of a young blastoderm, and between cells in the super- 
ficial layer and deep-lying cells. Whether in the normal living blasto- 
derm of the fowl's egg there are such cell-connections, and whether 
they serve to establish physiological communication, remains to be 
demonstrated, but the supposition that such phenomena are general 
seems increased by this case. 

Microbioids of the Purple Gland of Murex brandaris. f — R. Dubois 
obtained in an alcoholic extract of this gland peculiar doubly refractive 
droplets like Lehmann's " cells " ; they can give rise spontaneously to 
" musculoid " fibres. They go through " une veritable evolution," 
becoming more regularly spheroidal, acquiring a nucleus and a nucleolus, 
and they develop reddish-brown pigment. They give off pseudopodia 
(or should one not say pseudo-pseudopodia ?) with apparent spontaneity. 

Matrix Tissue. J — F. K. Studnicka describes various forms of 
" Grundsubstanzgewebe," or matrix tissue : — The- young dental papilla 
in Selachians, the corium and mucus-cartilage of Ammocoetes, the 
corium and subcutaneous gelatinous layer in the lancelet and Lophius, 
the pericerebral tissue in Lophius and Ophidium, and the gelatinous and 
hyaline tissue in the skeleton of Lophius and Orthagoriscus. 

The matrical substances may arise through the direct modification of 
the protoplasm of a reticulate embryonic tissue, and may be directly 
exoplasmic (tooth-papillae of Selachians). 

The matrical substances may arise not only between individual cells, 
but also between cell-layers of the embryo, as if they had an intercellular 
origin. It is highly probable that they arise from structures which 
resemble the intercellular parts or walls of epithelium, and it is certain 
that in these cases they are exoplasmic (gelatinous tissue of Amphioxus 
and Lophius, supporting lamellae and some gelatinous tissue in 
Ccelentera). 

The " Grundsubstanzgewebe " may remain without cells, growing 
and nourishing itself independently, and forming new tonolibrils in its 
interior (gelatinous tissue of Amphioxus and the vitreous humour). In 
other cases it may include cells (gelatinous tissue of Lophius, sheaths of 
the notochord). Finally, there are cases in which an originally cellular 
matrix-tissue may secondarily lose its cells, and yet remain capable of 
nutrition and formative processes (filling tissue in the bones of Lophius 
and Orthagoriscus). 

Striped MuscleJ — K. Hiirthle describes some interesting observations 
on striped muscle, made with a view of reaching some definite view as 
to the nature of the contractile substance. We can only refer to a few 
points. Kuhne's observation of the movements of a living Nematode 

* Johns Hopkins Univ. Circular, No. 3 (1907) pp. 9-15 (2 pis.). 

+ C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxii. (1907) pp. 435-8. 

j Anat. Anzeig., xxxi. (1907) pp. 497-522 (15 figs.). 

§ Biol. Centralbl., xxvii. (1907) pp. 112-27. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 27 

withiu a muscle-fibre suggests that the fibrils are firm elastic threads, 
which were thrust to the side by the worm's movements. If the 
contractile substance is fluid, it should be affected by gravity, unless the 
capillary forces are sufficient to antagonise this. An ingenious experi- 
ment with a centrifugal machine showed that rotations of 1200-1400 
per minute did not affect the distribution of the contractile substance, 
though the force was some 400 times greater than that of gravity. 
When a fresh fibre is cut with a sharp knife, nothing exudes, and this is 
surely against the assumption of a fluid contractile substance. But the 
view that the fibrils are firm elastic threads also present difficulties, 
especially as to the formation of the transverse disks. Hurthle asks 
consideration for the idea of functional transverse connections, which 
appear in certain functional conditions of the muscle and disappear in 
others. In the process of contraction there may be a strengthening of 
the framework. If the muscle is regarded as an elastic band, its 
modulus of elasticity is much lower than occurs in any inanimate body. 
With Briicke, we must still say " Der Aggregatzustand des lebenden 
Muskels ist ein Geheimnis eigentlimlicher Art." 

Tetrads in Somatic Cells.* — Paolo della Yalle has found distinct 
" tetrads " in various somatic cells of larval salamanders and in the root 
of the pea. In the metaphase of some mitoses, among the other 
chromosomes, there are typical tetrads with granular or elongated 
elements. The author regards the occurrence of tetrads as quite 
accidental. It is seen whenever a chromosome, with a transversal 
splitting, divides at the metaphase and the two halves are not separated 
towards the two poles. It has nothing to do with the re-union of 
homologous chromosomes. 

Secretion of Mammary Glands.f — F. Bertkau maintains that the 
formation of milk is purely a secretory process, and that there is no 
necrobiosis of any kind on the part of the secretory epithelium. Those 
who have described necrobiotic processes have been deceived by imperfect 
technique. The cells, like the muscle-cells of sweat glands, between 
the membrana propria and the epithelium of the glandular alveoli, are 
true smooth muscle-cells. 

Vindication of the Neuron Theory 4 — S. R. Cajal states the case 
for the neuron theory of His and Forel. He brings forward a series of 
facts, based on the study of nerve-regeneration, which support the histo- 
genetic theory of His and Kupffer. He follows that with a statement 
of the arguments based on embryonic neurogenesis. The result is a 
convincing vindication of the neuron theory. The illustrations of the 
paper are remarkably fine. 

Valves in the Veins of a Frog.§ — E. Suchard finds that there are 
numerous sigmoid valves in the veins of Rana escuUnta. They are 
comparable to those of Mammals, and are perfectly developed. They 

* Atti R. Accad. Sci. Napoli, xiii. (1907) 39 pp. (1 pi.). 

+ Anat. Anzeig., xxx. (1907) pp. 161-80 (7 figs.). 

j Tom. cit., pp. 113-44 (24 figs.). 

§ C.R. Soc. Biol. Pans, lxii. (1907) pp. 452-3. 



28 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

usually occur in pairs, sometimes in threes. The femoral valve which 
Grruby described in 1 Mi' occurs in the femoral vein before its anasto- 
mosis with the external iliac. That which Gruby described at the con- 
fluence of the three tributaries of the superior vena cava is really a 
complicated system of sigmoid valves. Valves also occur in the toad. 

Glandular Endothelium of Lymphatic Canals and Renal Capilla- 
ries in Tadpoles.* — L. Bruntz finds that these elements are true nephro- 
cytes, comparable cytologically and physiologically to the nephrocytes of 
Invertebrates, such as the branchial nephrocytes of Crustaceans and the 
pericardial nephrocytes of Insects. 

Minute Structure of the Internal Ear.f — W. Kolmer has investi- 
gated this subject in the pig, calf, goat, and horse, and describes the 
histology of the ductus cochlearis, Corti organ, stria vascularis, Reisner's 
membrane, and membrana tectoria. In general the structure of the 
auditory organ corresponds in these larger mammals, both anatomically 
and histologically, with the descriptions given by other authors for smaller 
mammals. In all the forms examined, Held's support apparatus of the 
Corti organ could be demonstrated with essentially the same structure. 
Stress in particular is laid upon the " Horhaaren " and their relations in 
the cochlea, macula? and crista?, which according to Piper have to do 
with hearing: rather than with static orientation. 



i & 



Regeneration of Cross - striped Muscle in Vertebrata4 — A. 
Schmiucke reviews the literature on this subject and gives an account 
of his own researches on Ichthyopsida. For example, in Triton tceniatus 
and T. cristatus regeneration goes on by means of sarcoplasts, which are 
transformed into long spindle-like elements ; by amitotic nuclear increase 
syncytial bands arise rich in nuclei and give rise to young muscle fibres. 
The greater part of the muscle fibres is formed by superposition and 
confluence of the long spindle elements which have arisen from the sar- 
coplasts. The mode of nuclear divisions in muscle regeneration is 
mitotic and in the isolated sarcoplasts amitotic. In fishes regeneration 
sets in late, in the frog relatively early, in newt, tree-frog and turtle 
after a longer time. In extent it takes place very slightly in fishes, it 
goes further in the frog and tree-frog, but only in newts can it be 
regarded as anything like complete. 

Observations on the Living Developing Nerve-fibre.§ — Ross G. 
Harrison has been able to watch what takes place in the end of a growing 
nerve, and finds that the nerve-fibre develops by the outflowing of 
protoplasm from the central cells. The protoplasm retains its amoeboid 
activity at its distal end, the result being that it is drawn out into a 
long thread, which becomes the axis cylinder. No other cells or living 
structures take part in the process. 

The development of the nerve fibre is thus brought about by means 
of one of the very primitive properties of living protoplasm, amoeboid 

* Arch. Zool. Exper., vii. (1907) Notes et Revue, No. 4, pp. cxi.-xiv. 
t Arch. Mikr. Anat., lxx. (1907) pp. 695-767 (4 pis.). 
% Verh. Phys. Med. Gesell. Wiirzburg, xxxix. (1907) pp. 15-130 (1 pi.). 
§ Amer. Journ. Anat., vii. (1907) pp. 116-18. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 29 

movement, which though probably common to some extent to all the 
cells of the embryo, is especially accentuated in the nerve-cells at this 
period of development. 

One of his devices was to excise a piece of medullary cord about 
4 or 5 segments long from an embryo frog, and to replace this by a 
cylindrical clot of blood or lymph of the proper length and calibre. 
Xo difficulty was experienced in healing the clot into the embryo in 
proper position. After 2 to 4 days the specimens were preserved and 
sectioned. It was found that the funicular fibres from the brain and 
anterior part of the cord, consisting of naked axones without sheath 
cells, had grown for a considerable distance into the clot. 

Central Nervous System of Cyclostomes.* — G. Sterzi has pub- 
lished the first instalment of a treatise on the central nervous system 
of Vertebrates. He deals with Petromyzon, Myxine, and Homea, dis- 
cussing exhaustively not only the nervous system, but the associated 
skeleton, membranes, and vessels. 

c. General. 

Sense of Touch in Mammals and Birds.f — W. Kidd has made a 
careful anatomical study of the palmar and plantar surfaces of a large 
number of mammals and of a few birds, with special reference to the 
presence and the pattern of the papillary ridges. He finds that 
the papillary ridges (which are found chiefly in Primates) are to 
be regarded as primarily tactile in function, and only secondarily 
as adaptations to prevent slipping. Thus they occur in places 
where they cannot possibly help in prehension, e.g. on the extensor 
surface of the terminal phalanges in Lemur brunneus. Further, 
the pattern is in many cases such that the ridges cannot possibly 
tend to prevent slipping, either in walking or prehension. The 
increasing complexity in pattern, which finds its climax in the terminal 
phalanges of the human hand, is to be regarded as an adaptation for 
increasing the delicacy of the touch. Whorls are a further develop- 
ment of loops and arches. The degree of development of the papilla? 
of the corium depends greatly upon the importance to the animal of 
the tactile sense ; thus lemurs have very highly developed papilla, 
and so also have many birds, for whom maintenance of equilibrium is 
a daily necessity. 

Hand and Foot in Hylobates agilis4 —Duncan C. L. Fitzwilliams 
describes these with reference to form and function, indicating the 
differences between them and the hands and feet of man. In Hylobates 
the fingers are capable of flexion and adduction to the middle line, but 
have little tendency to oppose the thumb, and transverse and longi- 
tudinal creases are therefore met with. In man, opposition of the 
thumb to the fingers is one of the most prominent characteristics of 
the hand, and the creases, in consequence, are oblique. There is much 

* II sistema nervoso centrale dei Yertebrati. I. Ciclostomi (Padova, 1907) xiii. 
and 731 pp., 194 figs. 

t The Sense of Touch in Mammals and Birds. London, 1907, 176 pp., 164 figs. 
X Ann. Nat. Hist. cxvi. (1907) pp. 155-61. 



30 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

less resemblance between a man's and a gibbon's foot than there is 
between their hands. In fact, the foot of the gibbon more closely 
resembles the human hand than the human foot. 

Pattern of Cubs of Lions and Pumas.* — R. I. Pocock finds that 
bhe patterns of the cubs of lions and pumas are specific characters. 
These species usually described as uniformly coloured, were formerly 
marked as their cubs are marked, and in no other way. The pattern of 
lion cubs is intermediate between the spotted pattern of leopards or 
jaguars and the striped pattern of tigers. From this it may be inferred 
that leopards (including jaguars), lions, and tigers are nearly related one 
to another. On the assumption that spots preceded transverse stripes in 
evolution, it may also be inferred that the stripes of tigers originated 
from the fusion of rosettes into transverse chains, as Bonavia main- 
tained. The pattern of puma cubs affords no support to the belief that 
pumas are nearly allied either to leopards or lions : it rather suggests that 
pumas may be regarded as large self-coloured representatives of one of 
the groups of smaller species of Felis, in the same way that lions may be 
regarded as large and otherwise modified representatives of a group 
exemplified by leopards. 

African Mungooses4 — R. C. Wroughton supplies notes on the 
various known forms of the section of the Herpestinas— usually known 
as the Herpestes gracilis group— which are small mungooses with a dark 
tail-tip, usually black, rarely brown. They vary in size and colour, and 
occur all over Africa. Four groups of species are recognised, and a 
diagnostic key is given to the sixteen forms which are distinguished. 

Geographical Races of Lesser Horse-shoe Bat.J — Knud Andersen 
adduces evidence to show that there are three distinct races of Rhino- 
lophus hipposiderus. There is a small southern form {Rh. h. minimus) 
distributed, broadly speaking, over the Mediterranean sub-region, south- 
eastwards to Sennaar and Keren ; a large northern form {Rh. hippo- 
siderus) ranging from the extreme north-west Himalayas (Gilgit) through 
north-west Persia and Armenia, over the whole of central Europe, 
north of the Balkans and the Alps ; and a form {Rh. h. mimitus) ap- 
parently confined to England, Wales, and Ireland. Recently, M. Mottaz 
has suggested that the two Continental forms are not distinct races, but 
represent sexual differences only. This view is shown to be incorrect. 
An interesting point is that the author in an earlier contribution on this 
subject predicted the existence of intermediate forms in border districts, 
e.g. south-west Switzerland, and such forms he has now obtained from 
Geneva. 

Enigmatical Tooth. — Maurice de Rothschild and Henry Neuville 
describe in great detail a peculiar tooth from East Africa. It bears 
some resemblance to the abnormal tusk of an elephant, but the authors 
cannot accept this interpretation. They conclude that it belonged to 

* Ann. Nat. Hist., cxix. (1907) pp. 436-45 (2 pis.). 

t Op. cit., cxvi. (1907) pp. 110-21. 

% Op. cit., cxix. (1907) pp. 384-9. 

§ Arch. Zool. Exper., vii. (1907) pp. 271-333 (3 pis. and 34 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 31 

some unknown large African mammal, recently extinct, or still repre- 
sented by living specimens, and that this unknown animal was closely 
related to the Proboscidea. " Semper aliquid novi ex Africa" remains 
true. 

Genital Organs of Bradypodidse.* — Remy Perrier describes these, 
with especial reference to the mode of fixation. In general, he concludes 
that the persistence of the testes in the abdominal cavity is primitive in 
Edentates and not a secondary return to an ancestral condition, and 
that the Edentates are not related to any other order of Placentals, but 
represent an independent stock dating from the early differentiation of 
the Placentals into orders. 

Brain of Hatteria punctata.f — Julia Gisi has made a detailed study 
of the brain of this interesting reptile. In form and structure it closely 
resembles the Lacertilian brain. It is more primitive as regards the 
position and paired differentiation of the cerebellum, in the development 
of the cortical plates of the cerebrum, in the simple structure of the 
velum medullare anticum, and the slight thickening of the medulla. 

The tracts of the nerve-fibres are in general like those in other 
reptiles, but there are some secondary and quantitative deviations from 
the Lacertilian type, e.g. as regards the commissura mollis and the 
stronger posterior commissure. Resemblances to Amphibians are seen 
in the origins of the 5th, 7th and 8th nerves, and in the independent 
course of the glosso-pharyngeal and the separated frontal vagus portion. 
But it must be noted that some of the peculiarities of form and propor- 
tion, which distinguish the brain of Hatteria, are expressions of growth- 
adjustments in correlation with the sense-organs and the like, and do 
not reveal much as to the systematic position of the animal. 

A relatively primitive position is indicated by the rich development 
of the epithelial regions, such as the roof of the third ventricle. A 
median section shows that the thickening of the nervous regions of the 
brain is relatively slight, and the development of the glandular parts is 
highly specialised. 

Notes on South African Chameleons.} — G. B. Longstaff and E. B. 
Poulton make some observations on colour change in several species of 
chamasleons. The suggestion is made that in Ghamcdeon dilqns there 
is a dry season hibernation during which the colours are steadfast. The 
most interesting point recorded is that when Cpumiliis is subjected to 
unilateral illumination, the side in deep shadow assumes a brighter tint 
than that towards the light, which takes on a relatively dark colour. 
This has the effect of neutralising the shadow on the one side and toning 
down the high illumination of the other, so that all appearance of solidity 
is dissipated. 

Anatomy of Heart in Frog and Turtle. § — J. Dogiel gives an 
account of the muscles and nerves of the heart in Rana esculenta and 
Emys caspica. In the frog auricles, ventricle and bulbus, the muscles 

* Ami. Sci. Nat. (Zool.) v. (1907) pp. 1-37 (2 pis. and 6 figs.), 
t Zool. Jahrb., xxv. (1907) pp. 71-236 (1 pi. and 21 figs.). 
X Journ. Linn. Soc, xxx. (1907) pp. 45-8. 
§ Arch. Mikr. inat., lxx. (1907) pp. 780-97 (2 pis. and 11 figs.). 



32 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

consist of reticulate bundles of different thicknesses united together, 
and all apparently consisting of cross-striped elements. The muscles of 
the sinus-forming veins are grouped in bundles running in various 
directions ; these are smooth -muscle elements. Between the auricles 
and the ventricle is an intermediate zone in which neither cross-striped 
nor smooth-muscle fibres are to be found. Nerves and nerve-cells occur 
in the veins constituting the sinus, in the auricles, the ventricle, and 
near the bulbus, and further there is a well developed network on the 
upper surface of the bulbus. In the turtle the distribution is somewhat 
similar, but the majority of the nerve-cells occur in the region of the liga- 
mentum atrio-ventriculare, where this ligament joins on the ventricular 
base and beside its origin in the auricles. The nerve-fibres run parallel 
to the muscle-fibres and sometimes penetrate deeply between bundles. 
The view is thereby suggested that a single nerve-fibre in its course 
innervates several muscle-fibres and excites them to contraction. 

Production of Albinism and Melanism in Frogs.* — G. Tornier 
has experimented with larvae of Pelobates fuscus, and finds that a 
minimum diet of flesh results in albino frogs, that a maximum produces 
melanism, and that reddish and greyish colours can be evoked at will 
by regulating the food-supply. 

Fishes of Lake Baikal.f — L. S. Berg describes the skeleton of 
Procottus jeittehi and other Cottidae from Lake Baikal, and discusses 
the osteology of Cottocornephoridge and Cornephoridre. He gives a 
synopsis of these three families of Baikal Cataphracti and discusses the 
systematic position of the various types. A list is given of all the fishes 
known to occur in the lake, ?>4 in all. Of these there are 17 which are 
general in Siberian fresh waters, and 17 which are endemic. The en- 
demic species may be divided into two sets, (a) those which are nearly 
related to species widely distributed in Siberia (Sal mo alpinus eryfhrinus, 
Coregonus migratorius, Thymallus arcticus bakalensis, Gottus kneri and 
C. kessleri) ; (b) those which are quite unique (the sub-family Abysso- 
cottini, the family Cottocornephoridas, and the family Comephorida?). 
There are no forms in the Siberian waters, nor in the Arctic Ocean, nor in 
the Pacific, which come near to these ; thus the absence of a post-clavicle 
in the Baikal Cataphracti is distinctive. These peculiar forms live at 
greater depths than any other fresh-water fishes, for they descend to 
depths of 1600 metres. They are not, the author maintains, relicts of 
previous geological periods, nor immigrants from the Arctic or the 
Pacific Ocean, they are sui generis, and have arisen as such in Lake 
Baikal during its long geological history. They are very ancient forms, 
very divergent from typical Cottidas, and their resemblances to marine 
forms are due to convergence. 

Buccal Incubation in Arius fissus.J — 0. and V. J. Pellegrin com- 
municate some very interesting facts in connection with the care of the 
young in this species from the coast of French Guiana, which may be 

* Zool. Anzeig., xxxii. (1907) pp. 284-8. 

f Zoolog. Untersuch. am Baikal-See, Lief. iii. (St. Petersburg and Berlin, 1907) 
75 pp. (5 pis. and 15 figs.). 

X Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 350-2. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 33 

briefly summarised. In the female the eggs are to be found in three 
different stages of development ; the number ripening at one time is 
about twenty. The male takes these in his mouth, where they remain 
until after hatching, until, in fact, the yolk sac is absorbed. During 
the whole of this incubation period the male is condemned to fasting. 

Food of Plaice and Dabs.* — James Johnstone, as the result of 
the examination of the stomachs of 114 plaice and 146 dabs caught in 
the same hauls, has made out an interesting contrast in the matter of 
their feeding. The dab is an omnivorous feeder, taking anything on 
the sea bottom from a sprat to a zoophyte, but nevertheless indicating a 
preference for particular food-animals such as Ophiuroids, crabs, and 
Lamellibranchs. In the case of the plaice, by far the commonest food- 
animals appear to be Lamellibranchmolluscs, e.g. Solen. Next in 
importance come the Polychaste worms, which very seldom afford an 
exclusive food for the plaice, but are nearly always associated with 
Lamellibranchs. Both errant and tubicolous forms are eaten. Ophiuroids 
afford a very exceptional food. In the consideration of the commoner 
food-animals eaten by each species there is a probable explanation of the 
ubiquity of the dab as compared with the plaice. Some interesting com- 
ments are made on the relation of the food supplies to the migrations 
of fishes. 

Teleostean Abnormalities.! — James Johnstone describes an herm- 
aphrodite hake from the West of Ireland. Both ovaries are present 
and apparently normal, but at the posterior end of each is a testis, which 
is well developed and larger than the ovary to which it is attached. 
At the place of union the lumina of the ovaries are continuous with 
those of the proximal part of the testes. The probability is that the 
fish was a functional male. The same paper contains an account of a 
Trigla yurnardus with an abnormal lower jaw. The mouth is reduced 
to a small crescentic slit, and both jaws are quite immovable. The 
chief modification of the skull consists in the dwarfing of the bones of 
the lower jaw. There is no apparent angulare, but this is perhaps 
ossified with the articulare. This element is greatly altered in form, 
having its long axis dorsiventral. The lower jaw proper consists of an 
apparently single bone, which is a flat hoop forming the lower margin 
of the gape. It is probably due to the fused and completely ossified 
Meckelian cartilages. 

(Esophageal Pouches in Centrolophus niger Gmelin.J — John 
Rennie in a note on the function of these structures records the fact 
that in a specimen found off the north-east coast of Scotland they were 
" filled with a soft, creamy, pulpy substance, similar to the contents of 
the stomach and pyloric caeca," but in a less advanced stage of digestion. 
He suggests that those fishes possessing such pouches, Stromateidaa and 
Tetragonuridas, may regurgitate their food ; " and as these pouches are 
so very thoroughly supplied with spines, it seems possible that some 
sort of rumination is indulged in." 

* Proc. and Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc, xxi. (1907) pp. 316-27 (2 charts!. 

t Tom. cit., pp. 309-14 (3 figs.). 

% Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., No. 61 (1907) pp. 216-1S. 

Feb. 19th, 1908 u 



34 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Fish Vertebrae as Prehistoric Amulets.* — Angelo Mosso gives an 
account of prehistoric amulets (in the museum of the island Virginia in 
Lake Varese) which consist of the vertebra? of the pike and of a shark. 

Nervous Lobe of the Hypophysis and the Vascular Sac.§--L. 
Gentes points out that the vascular sac or infundibular gland is inde- 
pendent of the nervous lobe of the hypophysis. They are adjacent 
dependencies of the wall of the infundibulum, but they are not homo- 
logous. They co-exist in most Teleosteans, but in Selachians the 
infundibular gland is seen isolated, and in most Vertebrates above fishes 
the nervous lobe is seen isolated. In Cyclostomes both are absent. 

Tunicata. 

Gill-slit Formation in Ascidians.J — Paul Fechner describes this 
in Ecteinascidia, Styelopsis, Polycyclus, and Pyrosoma. There appear 
to be two modes of development in Ascidians. In one the new spiracula 
(Kiemenspalten) arise throughout independently of those already present. 
In the other the definite spiracula descend from a few primary slits, 
from which they arise by division and splitting. After a stage with 
two pairs of stigmata, there occurs a quickly passing stage with three 
pairs (which in the later literature are characterised as primary proto- 
stigmata), and which become very long cross slits, taking up the whole 
breadth of the pharynx. From the division of each of the primary 
protostigmata there arise six transverse slits ■ — the secondary proto- 
stigmata (primary stigmata of van Beneden). By repeated division 
perpendicular to their length the six first transverse rows of slits arise, 
each having 12 to 18 spiracula. 

Ascidians of Californian Coast. § — W. E. Ritter gives an account 
of the off-shore Ascidians of the Californian region. Fourteen species 
are described ; the depths, geographical position, and other data as to 
habitat are given. Of 263 stations occupied by the ' Albatross ' from 
March to June, 1904, only 16 yielded Ascidians. The data obtained 
are rather scanty to admit of generalisations, but indications in two 
directions are rather strong. The off-shore Ascidian fauna is consider- 
ably richer south than north of Point Conception, so far as concerns 
the areas worked over, and the deep water along and just beyond the 
continental shelf is more prolific of this form of animal life than is the 
shallower in-shore water. Twelve of the species described are new. 

Homologies of the Muscles of Cyclosalpa.[| — W. K. Brooks com- 
municates a note on the musculature of this sub-genus of Salpa. While 
there is much specialisation among the muscles of the various species, 
there is a very complete series joining the simplest and least specialised 
form, the solitary S. pinnata, to the most specialised one, the aggregated 

* Atti R. Accad. Sci. Torino, xlii. (1907) pp. 1162-5 (1 pi.). 

t C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxii. (1907) pp. 499-501. 

% Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool., Ixxxvi. (1907) pp. 523-56 (2 pis. and 2 figs.). 

§ Univ. California Publications, iv. No. 1 (1907) pp. 1-52 (3 pis.). 

|| Johns Hopkins Univ. Circular, No. 3 (1907) pp. 173-4. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 35 

S. floridana. The first six muscles are much alike in all the solitary 
and in all the aggregated forms. The rest of the muscles, from muscle 7 
to muscle 16 are no doubt homologous in a general way, but it is 
impossible to follow out the homology in detail. The solitary forms are 
more like each other in respect to these muscles than are the aggregated 
forms. 

Structure of Salpa.* — Miguel Fernandez describes in young chains 
of Salpa africana-maxima a papilla-like organ with a ridged surface, 
which projects from the pharynx into the mantle, on the dorsal surface 
between the ganglion and the anterior attaching disk. It is larger in 
proportion to the youth of the chain, and it disappears in the adult. 
It consists of connective-tissue with inclosed cavities, and is traversed 
by nerves from the ganglion. Its import is quite obscure. A similar 
organ occurs under the anterior end of the endostyle, at a short distance 
from its end, and rather to one side. 

IN VERTEB RATA. 

Nitrogen Metabolism in Marine Invertebrates.* — Luigi Sanzo has 
investigated this subject. He finds in the blood, tissues, and perivisceral 
fluid of marine Invertebrates a substance (yielding nitrogen with sodium 
hypobromite) which serves for the preparation of urea from the blood 
and tissues of Vertebrates. This substance gives all the characteristic 
reactions of urea, so that until the contrary is proved it may be regarded 
as identical. In the Mollusca and Crustacea investigated this substance 
is more abundant in the liver than in the muscles, and in these more so 
than in the nerivisceral fluid ; it is three times more abundant in the 
liver of Sepia than in the same organ of Aplysia. This may be corre- 
lated with the feeding, as Sepia feeds on marine animals and Aplysia on 
alga?. In Echinoderms the percentage content is very slight, and is 
three times as great in the Echinoidea as in the Holothuroidea. 

Identification of Chitin by its Physical Constants.* — Igerna 
B. J. Sollas points out that the chemical identification of chitin by its 
characteristic decomposition product, the amido-derivative of sugar 
known as chitosamin, is often inapplicable because of the small amount 
available. She has therefore tried to find a method of identifying 
chitin by determining its physical constants. The specific gravity of 
chitin from various sources approximates to the value l - 398, a number 
which represents the specific gravity of chitin precipitated from its 
solution in strong acid. The refractive index lies between the limits 
1-550 and 1-557. 

The bristles of Lumbricus, the pupal skin of Pieris and other 
Lepidoptera, the radula of Mollusca, and the shell of Sepia, when freed 
from mineral matter and easily soluble organic substances, have specific 
gravities and refractive indices which lie between the same limits as 
those of chitin from various sources. 

* Zool. Anzeig., xxxii. (1907) pp. 321-8 (6 figs.). 

t Biol. Centralbl., xxvii. (1907) pp. 479-91. 

X Proc. Roy. Soc. Londou, Series B, lxxix. (1907) pp. 474-81. 

D 2 



36 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Mollusca. 

Latent Segmentation in Molluscs.* — Werner Marchand finds hints 
of latent metamerism in the four gills of Nautilus, in the four gonads 
of some bivalves (such as Poromya), in the ccelom pouches, and so on, 
and infers that the ancestral molluscs had at least three segments — a 
head segment and two gonadial segments, with separate ducts. He 
favours Gunther's suggestion that Chgetognatha are related to the 
ancestral stock from which Molluscs arose, and concludes by maintaining 
(what his paper at least can hardly be said to warrant) that " we have 
every reason for speaking of a latent segmentation in molluscs." 

a. Cephalopoda. 

Hectocotylisation and Luminosity in Cuttlefishes. f — W. E. 
Hoyle, in his Presidential Address to the Zoological Section of the 
British Association, discusses some questions suggested by the study of 
Cephalopods. Attention is first directed to hectocotylisation, and a 
useful list of genera is given showing the position of the hectocotylised 
arm or arms, where this peculiar modification occurs. In this connec- 
tion he discusses the systematic value of this character, for in every 
family (with one exception, Sepiolidse) the position of the hectocotylised 
arm is constant within the limits of the family. The position of 
Spirula forms the next subject of inquiry. It is regarded as the repre- 
sentative of a distinct family, and it is not unlikely that it may one day 
become the type of a division co-equal with Myopsida and (Egopsida. 
The genera Idiosepius, Sepiadarium, and Sepioloidea are then discussed. 
It is concluded that the position of the hectocotylised arm is not by 
itself a sufficient guide to the systematic position of doubtful forms. 

After discussing Jaeckel's view that the Orthoceras type was firmly 
attached, and that Belemnites were anchored in the mud, the author 
proceeds to the luminous organs. These have now been observed in 
29 out of about 70 genera of Decapods, and have been found to present 
a most interesting variety in position and structure. A valuable list is 
given of the luminous Cephalopods, with bibliographical references, and 
with notes on the position of the organ, which may occur in nine 
different situations. It may be noted that the luminous organs are 
practically confined to the ventral surface of the animal. Another 
remarkable fact is the existence of organs concealed beneath the mantle 
and beneath the integument covering the eyeball, which can only be 
effective by reason of the transparency of the tissues in the living 
creature. The organs may be glandular or non-glandular, and the latter 
may be simple, without special optical apparatus, or complex, with 
more or fewer of the following structures : pigment layer, reflector, lens, 
and diaphragm. These organs occur in so many and such scattered 
families that their origin must be polyphyletic. Even in the same 
species they are not all on the same plan. It is plausible to suppose 
that they serve as recognition marks, and that they act as searchlights 
playing over the ground. The production of the light is a phenomenon 

* Biol. Centralbl., xxvii. (1907) pp. 721-8. 
f Rep. Brit. Assoc, 1907, 20 pp. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 37 

parallel to the production of heat in a contracting muscle, or of electric 
discharges in the Torpedo. Very noteworthy is the remarkable economy 
of the illuminant ; a perfectly infinitesimal proportion of the energy 
expended is wasted on the production of heat. 

Liver of Cuttlefishes.* — L. Cuenot finds that the liver includes, 
apart from indifferent replacement-cells, two types : — (1) Goblet 
safranophilous cells with fat globules (often inclosing a yellow magma 
with crystals) ; and (2) vacuolar cells. The vacuoles and the magmas 
are periodically ejected. The vacuolar cells are proved by experiment 
to be excretory, and they also arrest pigments added to the food. Thus 
the liver is an absorbing organ — the chief absorbing organ, as in other 
Invertebrates. In the spiral caecum fats are absorbed, but nothing else. 

Octopus with Branching Arms.f — Edgar A. Smith gives a descrip- 
tion of a Cephalopod from Japan, in which five of the eight arms branch 
more than once, and that irregularly. Such forking appears to be of 
rare occurrence. The species is that described as Polypus cephea Gray, 
from a single specimen, now in the British Museum. 

New Cephalopods from the Irish Coast.! — A. L. Massy describes 
Polypus profundkula sp. n., which appears to be very nearly allied to 
Octopus eryasticus Fischer, particularly in the form of the hectocotylised 
arm ; P. normani sp. n., a graceful form taken at 710 fathoms ; and 
HelkocraucMa pfefferi g. et sp. n., a minute form with large, oval, 
pedunculate fins attached to the end of the dorsal surface, and with an 
extremely large siphon. The occurrence of several other forms not 
hitherto recorded for British and Irish waters is noted. 

y. Gastropoda. 

Reproduction in Snails. § — J. Meisenheimer has made an elaborate 
study of the bionomics of pairing in Helix pomatia. To procure 
material he kept snails in a terrarium, and was able to witness the 
process fifty times, and to secure many interesting photographs and pre- 
parations. Pairing takes place in May and June, reaching its maximum 
frequency in the first half of June. Snails in search of mates may be 
seen to creep slowly about, feeling from side to side, with the forepart of 
the body slightly raised, and to remain rigid for short periods in that 
attitude. When two such snails meet, they raise themselves up so that 
almost the whole base of the foot is apposed, only the hinder part of it 
and the shell supporting the animal on the ground. This is the charac- 
teristic attitude, which is maintained throughout the whole process. 
Breathing is rapid, undulatory movements pass through the foot con- 
tinually, mouth-papilas and horns are in a state of constant activity, and 
the whole organism betrays signs of excitement. This preparatory stage 
is short, and both snails sink downwards in apparent exhaustion. After 
a pause of about half-an-hour, excitement again becomes manifest, and 
the movements recommence. One snail usually shows more activity 

* Arch. Zool. Exper., vii. (1907) pp. 227-45 (1 fig.). 

+ Ann. Nat. Hist., cxix., (1907) pp. 407-10. 

J Tom. cit., pp. 377-84. 

§ Zool. Jahrb., xxv. (1907) pp. 461-502 (3 pis., 4 figs.). 



38 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

than the other, the genital region becomes visible as a whitish spot with 
the female opening clearly marked, and, after a series of convulsive 
movements, the spirillum amoris is ejected with a final exhausting effort. 
It was once observed that both snails discharged their darts simul- 
taneously, and this is said to be normal in H. nemoralis. The dart 
usually penetrates the margin of the foot, and the immediate effect of it 
is to cause increased excitement in the other snail, ending usually in the 
expulsion of its dart also. This phase may last for a couple of hours, 
and is followed by a long resting period. In the final stage the position 
and movements are similar, the genital tract is again prominent, and 
both male and female apertures are clearly visible. Many unsuccessful 
attempts may be made before the proper relative position, and the 
simultaneous extrusion of the organs have been attained, and the sper- 
matophore of each snail is safely deposited in the receptaculum of the 
other. Slowly the snails disengage themselves, the genital region is 
retracted, the head slightly drawn in, but the undulatory movements of 
the foot continue, and the snails remain together for tw T o or three hours 
until the terminal threads of the sperrnatophores, which still connect the 
two, are entirely drawn in. During the whole process the snails are 
quite indifferent to external circumstances. Moving them about, or 
turning a strong light upon them did not distract them in the least. It 
occasionally happened that three snails met together and united in the 
most manifold combinations. Which two ultimately succeeded in pairing 
depended simply on the chances of position ; there was no hint of any- 
thing like selection. 

Some time later the snail hollows out a passage leading down to a 
roomy chamber in the ground, and, hanging head downwards through 
this passage, drops the eggs one by one on the floor of the chamber, 
smooths over the top of their hiding-place, and leaves them to develop. 

The second part of the paper deals with the morphology and physi- 
ology of the reproductive organs. The histology of the dart-sac and the 
mucous glands, and their relation to each other are described in detail. 
The extrusion of the dart is preceded by the outpouring of a considerable 
quantity of fluid from the glands. The author differs from v. Ihering 
and others in that he regards this fluid merely as a lubricant which 
facilitates the expulsion of the dart, and possibly also the entrance of the 
penis into the vagina. The spermatophore is an exact cast of the rele- 
vant male organs, due to the solidifying of the secretion of the flagellum, 
which is poured out just before and during the passage of the sperms 
from the vas deferens. The thick head part with its longitudinal ridges 
represents the anterior part of the penis, while the terminal thread corre- 
sponds exactly to the lumen of the flagellum itself. The spermatophore 
is formed just before and during copulation. The observer did not 
succeed in actually tracing the course of the spermatozoa to the upper 
end of the oviduct, where, within a diverticulum — the " fertilisation- 
sac " — the eggs are fertilised. He found numerous spermatozoa within 
the hermaphrodite duct, and these were in no way distinguishable from 
those — presumably from another animal — in the fertilisation-sac itself. 
The question as to their relative immaturity, as suggested by Perez, was 
not investigated. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 39 

In regard to the development of the ovum, an interesting point is 
the growth after fertilisation of little papillae on the surface of the egg, 
to form a complete spiny covering, which degenerates again and is cast 
off within the oviduct. These spiny processes have been described as 
" pseudopod-like," and as being retracted later, but the author regards 
them as a protection against multiple fertilisation, and suggests that the 
fact that it takes this form instead of that of a mere skin-thickening 
may be due to " phylogenetic reminiscence." 

In addition to a beautiful series of photographs showing the succes- 
sive stages in the process of pairing, the paper is illustrated with drawings 
of all the internal parts, in all phases of rest and activity, extrusion and 
retraction. These were obtained by killing and immediately fixing 
snails in process of copulation. 

Origin of the Nematocysts of Eolidiae.* — L. Cuenot gives strong- 
reasons for concluding that the nematocysts of the cnidophore-sacs of 
Eolids do not really belong to these animals. They are not made by the 
cells which contain them. They come from the Ccelentera on which 
the Nudibranchs feed. 

He argues that the nematocysts pass intact through the digestive 
tract and enter the hepatic diverticula of the papilla? ; they reach the 
cnidophore-sacs and enter the " nematophagous " cells, where they are 
arranged so that the end by which discharge is effected is turned towards 
the free surface of the cell. 

Cuenot removed the cnidophore-sacs from some Eolids, fed some 
with a species of sea-anemone, and left the others fasting. In both 
cases the sacs were rapidly regenerated, growing in the same way as in 
normal development. The well-nourished Eolids had their nemato- 
phagous cells equipped with the nematocvsts of the sea-anemone, but the 
fasting Eolids showed no nematocysts. 

Eolids do not seem to profit much by their borrowed nematocysts, 
which are rendered less effective by their position within an internal sac. 
It is true that some fishes seem to regard Eolids as unpalatable, but it 
does not appear that this is because of the nematocysts. 

Development of Fulgur.f — E. G-. Conklin gives an account of the 
development of Fulgur, devoting particular attention to the influence of 
the large mass of yolk. The cleavage of the egg of Fulgur is, cell for 
cell, like that of Crejiidula up to the 56-GO cell stage, the only difference 
being in the relative sizes of the macromeres in these two genera. In 
later cleavages many more ectoderm-cells are formed in Fulgur than in 
Crepidula. The overgrowth of the yolk is very peculiar. By very great 
extension of the anterior half of the blastoderm, while the posterior 
half remains relatively fixed, all the organ bases are carried to the 
posterior margin of the blastoderm, where they form a kind of germ- 
ring. Subsequently the posterior margin also moves over the yolk, so 
that the blastopore is finally formed at the vegetal pole. 

Before the extension of the anterior portion of the blastoderm an 
apical invagination of ectoderm cells is formed, which eventually dis- 

* Arch. Zool. Exper., vi. (1907) pp. 73-102 (1 pi., 4 figs.). 

t Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1907, pp. 320-59 (G pis.). 



40 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

appears. The cerebral ganglia arise on each side of the apical invagina- 
tion. The velar cells arise around the outer margins of the ganglia. 
By the rapid growth of the anterior portion of the blastoderm these 
organ bases are forced far apart and posteriorly until they come to lie in 
the posterior margin of the blastoderm, and by a continuation of the 
movement they are carried around to the ventral side of the embryo, 
where the two halves of the organs approach each other and finally 
unite in front of the mouth. The buccal ganglia have a somewhat 
similar history. 

All other organs arise from the median posterior portion of the 
blastoderm, and chiefly, if not entirely, from two " somatoblasts," 
strikingly like the origin of post-oral organs in Annelids. 

All homologous organs arise from corresponding cleavage-cells in 
Fulgur and Crepidula, and probably all other Gastropods. Great in- 
crease of yolk does not modify the type of germinal localisation, though 
it profoundly affects gastrulation and later stages. 

Structure of Californian Haliotidae.* — Clayton F. Palmer describes 
the structure of Haliotis rufescms and H. cracherodii, devoting especial 
attention to the kidneys, the two reno-pericardial canals, the circulation, 
and the nervous system. 

Development of Lung in Ampullaria depressa.t, — B. McGlone 
finds that the lung is a secondarily derived structure, arising as an 
invagination of what would become a gill filament. The osphradium is 
similarly a modified gill, and may be the homologue of a gill situated 
on the left side. 

Structure and Relationships of Oncidium.:}: — W. Stantschinsky 
gives an account of three new species of Oncidium from Queensland, 
and discusses the systematic relationships of the members of this genus. 
He finds that the sub-genus Oncis includes more primitive types, but 
annectent forms unify the whole genus. The absence of dorsal eyes in 
the species of Oncidium is due to secondary degeneration. Most of the 
Oncidiidas are amphibious, sometimes living in the sea, sometimes on 
the beach ; but some species seem to have left the water altogether, and 
illustrate the influence of isolation in species-forming. 

8. Liamellibranchiata. 

Supplementary Siphon in Lutraria ellipticaj — R. Anthony de- 
scribes a curious abnormality in this common bivalve, namely, the 
occurrence of an extra siphon, arising apparently as a bud from the 
dorsal wall of the expiratory siphon. A section shows an external 
epithelium, a layer of circular muscle-fibres, a layer of longitudinal 
muscle-fibres, a second layer of circular muscle-fibres, a second layer of 
longitudinal muscle-fibres, a third layer of circular muscle-fibres, an 
internal epithelium, and a narrow central cavity. In other words, it 
has the normal structure of a siphon, but it ends blindly. 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1907, pp. 396-407 (1 pi. and 4 figs.). 

t Johns Hopkins Univ. Circular, No. 3 (1907) pp. 176-9 (2 pis.). 

% Zool. Jahrb., xxv. (1907) pp. 353-402 (2 pis. and 3 figs.). 

§ Arch. Zool. Exper, vii. (1907) Notes et Revue, No. 3, pp. lxxxviii.-xcii. (5 figs.) 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 41 

Arthropoda. 

Arthropoda of British Coal Measures.* — Henry Woodward describes 
two king-crabs, Bellinurus daldwinisp. n. and B. longicaudatus sp. n. ; 
a scorpion, Eoscorpius (Mazonia) wardingleyi sp. n. : Geralinura mtcliffei, 
sp. n. ; and discusses a representative of Anthracomartus Karsch. 

a. Insecta. 

Injurious Insects in Ireland.! — George H. Carpenter reports on 
injurious insects observed in 1906 ; such as the sheep-louse (Trichodectes 
sj)//trroce])haltis), in regard to which he recommends a second dipping 
ten days after the first ; the long-horned barley-fly {Elachyptera cornuta) ; 
the root-gall weevil (Ceuthorhynchus plewostigma) ; the cabbage-stem- 
borer {Psylliodes chrysocepJtala) ; the mussel scale-insect (Jlytdasjns 
pomoricm) ; the pine bark-beetle (Hylurgus piniperdd) : the willow-beetle 
{Phgllodecta vulgatissima). 

Larch Shoot Moth 4 — R. Stewart MacDongall notes the occurrence 
in Oxfordshire of Argyrestltia {Tinea) kevigatella, which has not yet 
found a place on British lists. It attacks young larches, and a single 
caterpillar can destroy a whole shoot. An account is given of the larvas, 
pupa?, and adults, and of the life-history in general. The treatment 
suggested is to break off the affected shoots and destroy them before 
the escape of the moths. 

Grain Weevils.§— R. Stewart MacDougall discusses the external 
appearance, life-history, and practical importance of Calandra granaria 
and C. oryzce. The females lay one egg in each grain. The grub on 
hatching feeds on the contents of the grain, and when full fed pupates 
in the eaten-out hnsk. In favourable conditions the whole life-cycle 
can be completed in a month. The Ccdandra weevils feign death on 
being touched or shaken. They lie often for a considerable time 
refusing to show any signs of life, though handled. Movement may be 
induced by breathing on them. As remedial measures, fumigation with 
bisulphide of carbon, sieving or screening the grain, and ventilating are 
suggested. 



"&te v 



Life-history of Apanteles glomeratus.||--B. Matheson gives an 
account of the life-history of Apanteles glomeratus, a parasite on the 
caterpillars of the cabbage butterfly. Mating takes place ten or twelve 
hours after emergence from the cocoon, and the females immediately go 
in search of their hosts. The eggs are deposited just beneath the 
epidermis of the latero-ventral region of the earlier stages of the Pieris 
larvae, so that they are not affected by the moult. The eggs hatch in 
three or four days, and the larvaa feed on the lymph and fatty tissue of 
their hosts, avoiding the vital parts. They become mature during the 
larval life of their hosts and cut their wav out through the skin. In 



"o' 



* Geol. Mag., iv. (1907) pp. 539-49 (5 figs.). 

t Economic Proc. Rov. Dublin Soc, i. (1907) pp. 421-52 (6 pis., 11 figs.). 

X Journ. Board Agric, xiv. (1907) pp. 395-9 (3 figs.). 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 412-15 (1 fig.). 

|| Canadian Entomologist, 1907, pp. 205-7. 



42 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

summer 50 p.c. and in autumn (>o-7.~> p.c. of the Pieris larvae examined 
were infested with this parasite, which has therefore considerable economic 
importance. 

Alleged Fixation of Carbon by Chrysalids.* — R. Dubois and 

E. Couvreur refer to Marie von Linden's conclusion that some chrysalids 
can utilise carbon dioxide, fixing the carbon. The authors have 
repeated the experiment with Pieris brassica, but without any success. 

Marie von Linden f responds that there is no doubt that the 
chrysalids of Pa/pilio podalvrius and of HylopMla prasinana become 
heavier in an atmosphere rich in carbon dioxide, while they become 
lighter in atmospheric air. What is true of these need not be true of 
Pieris brassim, but it may be that Dubois and Couvreur worked with 
too dry an atmosphere. The assimilation of C0 2 requires humidity. 

Chromosomes in Spermatogenesis of Anasa Tristes.^ — Katharine 
Foot and E. C. Strobell find that there are 22 spermatogonia! chromo- 
somes ; that none of these retain their morphological individuality 
throughout the growth period ; that in the early prophase the so-called 
odd (heterotropic) chromosome of Wilson and Montgomery (i.e. the 
eccentric chromosome of the later prophases, or metaphase) resembles in 
no way a nucleolus, and is morphologically wholly unlike the same 
chromosome figured by Wilson at this stage ; that the 11 chromosomes 
of the first spindle are all bivalents, and that the 11 chromosomes of 
the second spindle are all univalents ; that in both the first and second 
spindles one chromosome — which is believed to be the eccentric chromo- 
some of the late first prophase — often lags in division, but that normally 
its final division occurs in both spindles 

How Ants Find their Nest.§ — H. Pieron points out that there is 
considerable variety in different species. In Formica fusca, F. cinerea, 

F. rvfibarbis, Camponotus pubescens, etc., the orientation is predomi- 
nantly visual ; in Aplmnog aster barbara, A. testaceo-pilosa, etc., which 
are very blind, the orientation is mainly muscular ; in Lasius flaws 
and L. fuliginosus it is mainly olfactory. The first method admits of 
orientation from the greatest distance, the muscular method is only for 
short distances. There is most frequently a combination of methods. 
The olfactory method is relatively rare and never exclusively followed. 

Psychobiology of Humble Bees.|| — Wladimir Wagner gives an 
account of the pyschobiology of humble bees, in which he deals with 
the social instincts predominating at different periods of the life-history. 
He concludes that the common life of the so-called " social insects " 
represents neither a family, nor a herd, nor a society, and still less a 
state unity. The study of various forms of biological organisation in 
the animal kingdom shows absolutely no connection between the life of 
social insects and true sociality. It represents a special form of sym- 

* C.R. Soc.^Biol. Paris, lxii. (1907) pp. 219-20. 

t Tom. cit., pp. 428-9. 

% Aruer. Journ. Anat., vii. (1907) pp. 279-316 (3 pis. and 4 figs.). 

§ C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxii. (1907) pp. 216-17. 

| Zoologica, xix. (1907) heft 46, p. 1-239 (86 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 43 

biosis of a clearly indicated parasitic character ; it lies quite apart from 
the evolution of sociality in the animal kingdom, with the various stages 
of which (assemblies, aggregations, herds, etc.) it has nothing in common. 

Tunisian Ants.* — F. Santschi confirms the reality of the aberrant 
genus Leptanilla, of which he has obtained three new species, represented 
by males. They are probably the smallest male ants, yet they are allied 
to the Dorylinse, in which some of the males (Dorylus) are peculiarly 
large. Santschi also reports some new and interesting cases of ergato- 
morphism. 

Solitary Wasps, t — Gr. Adlerz gives an account of a large number 
of solitary wasps belonging to such genera as Bumenes, Hoplomerus, 
Lionotus, Ancistroceros, and Odyn&rus. 

Forms of the Female of Papilio dardanus. % — Chr. Aurivillius 
describes some new forms of the very interesting polymorphic female 
of Papilio dardanus Brown, and takes a survey of previously recorded 
forms. 

Termitophilous Tineid Larva. § — Ivar Tragardh describes a Tineid 
larva from nests of RMnotermes in Zululand. The relations between 
the larvae and the termites are evidently of a friendly nature. When 
disturbed, the larva? were seen to make their way to other parts of the 
nest, coming along one after the other, at regular intervals, as in a 
procession, each larva being escorted by a few soldiers and workers. 
The larvae depend upon the material of the nest for food. It seems 
that the lateral abdominal appendages of the larva function as exuda- 
tion organs, emitting a strong odour which is attractive to the termites. 

As appendages, which appear to be homologous, occur in other 
Lepidopterous larvae, where their function, when known, is stated to be 
defensive, it is not probable that the Tineid larva has acquired them 
independently us an adaptation to its termitophilous life. It is more 
likely that their function has changed from being repulsive to being 
allurino; organs. 



■■st 



Hibernation of Marasmarcha. || — T. A. Chapman finds that in 
this Plume Moth the newly-hatched larvae hibernate without feeding. 
Furthermore, without eating they are able to afford to secrete silk and 
spin a cocoon. The author does not know of any similar case among 
Lepidoptera. After prolonged search he found the cocoons in the sand 
surrounded by minute aggregations of sand particles. The larvae of 
Marasmarcha (plmodactyla, fauna, tuttidactyla), always occur on plants 
that form a considerable mass, and it seems likely that the young larvae 
form their hibernating cocoons amongst the dead leaves and other 
material of the plant close to the ground, and not on the plant itself, 
but have, owing to the density of the plant, little difficulty in finding a 
growing point when they come out in the spring. 

* Rev. Suisse Zool., xv. (1907) p. 305-34 (7 figs.). 

t Arkiv Zool., iii. (1907) No. 17, pp. 1-64. 

% Tom. cit,, No. 23, pp. 1-7 (2 pis.). 

§ Tom. cit., No. 22, pp. 1-7 (1 pi.) 

[|j Trans. Entomol. Soc. London, 1907, pp. 411-14 (1 pi.) 



44 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Life-history of Cydemon (Urania) leilus. * — L. Gruppy, jun., has 
studied the life-history of this moth in Trinidad. The spherical eggs 
with longitudinal ribs are laid on the undersides of leaves, usually 
singly or in pairs; the larvae, with sixteen legs, are particularly active 
and spring madly about when touched ; after the first moult eight long 
black hairs appear on the body, and these increase in number with 
successive moults ; the yellowish-brown glossy pupa lies inside a roomy 
cocoon of yellowish-red silk ; the transformations occupy nearly six 
weeks, of which two are in the pupa stage. The larvae usually feed 
from the underside of a leaf ; when alarmed they drop immediately by 
a silken thread and remain suspended until the alarm is over ; in 
locomotion they often lower themselves in a similar way. The haunts 
of the moth are probably in the forests of Venezuela, whence it 
migrates annually to Trinidad. 

Human Myiasis due to (Estrus Ovis.f — Edmond and Etienne 
Sergent give au account of a human myiasis very common in some 
mountainous parts of Algeria, where there are fewer sheep than men. 
The disease is called " Thim'ni," and it is due to the larva? of the sheep 
bot-fly which live in the facial cavities, producing painful and serious 
inflammation. 

Migrations of Hypoderma Bovis Larva in Ox. J — H. Jost gives a 
remarkable account of the wanderings of the larva of this fly in the 
tissues of the ox in the course of its development. The eggs, laid upon 
the skin, are licked off and enter the alimentary canal. About the 
junction of the gullet and stomach the young larva? are hatched. 
They penetrate into the submucosa of the gullet, wandering here 
in abundance during several months (July to November). They 
then migrate by way of the diaphragm, kidneys, intermuscular 
connective tissue of the lumbar muscles, vessels, and nerve strands 
to the vertebrae, passing into the vertebral canal, where they stay 
usually between December and May. Subsequently the larva? wander 
through between the vertebra? and pass by way of the intermuscular 
connective-tissue of the back muscles to the subcutis, which is to be 
regarded as the last chief place of their assembling. They occur here 
from January up till July. The "bots" are pathological new formations 
of connective tissue, and the lining of the exit channel arises by a 
proliferation of the epidermis cells. 

Viviparity in Ephemerida?.§ — Carl Bernhard has investigated this 
subject, with particular reference to Chloeon dipterum. Amongst other 
results he has arrived at are the following: general conclusions. An 
Ephemerid is oviparous (1) when in each oviduct several eggs are formed 
in succession (polyoistic), which then after each other enter the calyx 
partly during the nymphal and subimaginal life : (2) when the eggs are 
enveloped in a strong chitinous chorion. An Ephemerid is viviparous 

* Trans. Entoraol. Soc, pp. 405-10 (2 pis.). 

t Ann. Inst. Pasteur, xxi. (1907) pp. 392-9. 

X Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool., lxxxvi. (1907) pp. 641-715 (1 pi. and 3 figs.). 

§ Biol. Centralbl., xxvii. (1907) pp. 467-79. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 45 

(1) when in each oviduct only one egg is formed (monoistic), which 
is first observed in the calyx in the imago ; (2) when the eggs are 
surrounded by a thin, soft, and non-chitinous chorion. The author 
shows that these characters are related to the different modes of repro- 
duction. It appears that the larvae of no other Ephemerid are so widely 
distributed nor so numerous as those of Chloeon dipterum, in spite of 
the smaller number of eggs in this species. This would seem to 
indicate that here a smaller number succumb during development than 
in oviparous species. 

Autotomy in Orthoptera.* — H. Pieron describes protective reflex 
autotomy in Mantis religiosa, Empusa egena, GryMus campestris, Nemobius 
silvestris, various Locustidas and Acrididre, and Forfimla auricularia. 

Excretion in Apterygota.f — Jur. Philiptschenko deals with the 
excretory and phagocytary organ of CtenoUpisma lineata F. as a con- 
tribution to the study of this subject. This species possesses three 
kinds of excretory structures, viz., the urinary cells of the fat body, the 
Malpighian vessels and pericardial cells, and a peculiar phagocytary 
organ, the pericardial septum. In this respect this insect approaches 
those Orthoptera which possess a permanent phagocytary organ, but 
between the two types there is nevertheless a whole series of far-reaching 
differences. 

&. Onychophora. 

Monograph on Onychophora.:}: — E. L. Bouvier continues his mono- 
graphic account of the Onychophora, the present instalment beginning 
the description of the family Peripatopsidse, which includes the three 
sub-families Peripatoidinae, Peripatopsinas, and Paraperipatinae. 

8. Arachnida. 

Eyes of Scorpions. § — G. Police has made an elaborate study of 
these, and denies the alleged dimorphism of the lateral and median eyes. 
The former have been compared to simple eyes and the latter to com- 
pound eyes. But they develop in the same way and have the same 
essential structure. They represent a distinct type of eye. As regards 
their development and their single lens they may be compared to ocelli, 
but as regards the structure of the retinal elements (different from that 
of the simple eyes of spiders, crustaceans, and insects) and the arrange- 
ment of these, they approach the compound type. 

In the simple eyes found in most Arachnids, and in many crustaceans 
and insects, the retinal unit is represented by a single cell, of which the 
distal part is unpigmented. 

In the compound eyes of most crustaceans and insects, the retinal 
unit is a group of six cells (retinule) arranged around an axis. In 
these eyes the image, before reaching the retinule, traverses the cuticular 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) pp. 463-5. 
t Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool., lxxxviii. (1907) pp. 99-116 (1 pi.). 
X Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.) v. (1907) pp. 61-80 (8 figs.). 
§ Zool. Jahrb., xxv. (1907) pp. 1-70 (2 pis. and 3 figs.). 



46 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

refractive medium (the crystalline cone), and each unit is impressed by 
an image. 

In the eyes of scorpions, the retinal unit is represented by a group 
of five cells, there is no crystalline cone, the image is refracted only by 
the cuticular crystalline structure, and there is one image for the whole 
of the retinules, each being impressed by a portion of the image re- 
refracted by the crystalline structure. 

Sarcoptids in Wing-bones of Birds.* — E. L. Trouessart has found 
a new species of Tyroglyphus (T. antricola), apparently living as a 
commensal within the cavities of the wing-bones of parrots and other 
birds. It is likely that they entered while the birds were sleeping, by 
way of the nostrils, bronchi, lungs, and air-sacs. They probably feed 
on inhaled spores. Among the Tyroglyphids there were carnivorous 
mites (Cheletes rapax and G. alacer), probably feeding on the former. 

New Type of Sarcoptid.t— E. Sergent and E. L. Trouessart de- 
scribe Mialges anchora g. et sp. n., which lays its eggs on one of the 
Hippoboscidas (Lynchia maura), a parasite of the domestic pigeon in 
Algeria. It is probable that the mite passes most of its life on the bird, 
and only attacks the insect when depositing its eggs. Only the mature 
females and the larva? have been found. The mite uses the insect's 
blood as food. This is the first instance of a really parasitic Sarcoptid 
being found on an insect — indeed, on a cold-blooded animal. The first 
pair of limbs have no ambulacral sucker, but end in a double grappling- 
organ like an anchor. 

Myriopodophilous Mites.J — Ivar Tragardh describes two new forms 
of Antennophorinre, namely, Neomegistus julidicola and Parameyisti/s 
con/rater, found in Natal and Zululand on Julida? belonging to the 
genus Spirostrfiptus. He discusses the question of the various stages in 
the life-history of the mites, and the relationships of his new genera. 
The mites do not occur on the Julidse in the winter months. It seems 
probable that they feed on the offensive fluid which their hosts secrete 
during the summer. Experiments confirmed this remarkable fact. 

Acarid from Omentum of Negro.§ — A. Castellani records the dis- 
covery of two specimens of an Acarid-like parasite, in the fat of the 
omentum of a negro who had died of sleeping sickness. The colour is 
dark yellowish, shape oval, palpi very short, six legs well developed, 
apparently without hairs, each leg composed of five segments. The 
total body length is 0*55 mm. The parasite resembles Cytoleichm 
mrcoptoides Heguin, occurring in various internal organs in fowls. 

Scottish Hydrachnids.||— Wm. "Williamson continues his investiga- 
tion of Scottish hydrachnids, and gives a list of 26 species collected 
during 1906. Seven of these are new Scottish records. 

* Coniptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 598-601. 

t C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxii. (1907) pp. 443-5 (3 figs.). 

% Arkiv Zool., iii. (1907) No. 28, pp. 1-33 (1 pi., 18 figs.). 

§ Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., xliii. (1907) p. 372. 

|l Trans. Edinburgh Field Nat. and Micr. Soc, 1906-7, pp. 393-4. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 47 



e. Crustacea. 

Ferments in Crustaceans.* — J. Giaja found in Astacus leptodactylis 
(as in the snail) a ferment called raffinase. This seems to be absent 
in marine Crustaceans (as also in marine molluscs). Lactase, also present 
in Astacus, was found, among marine forms, only in the lobster. In the 
lobster, however, there was no trace of invertine, which was found in all 
other Crustaceans experimented with. The gastric juice of Paliaurus 
vulgaris, which acts on amygdalin, has no action on salicin. 

" Granny " Crabs.j — W. A. Herdman has a note on what the Port 
Erin fishermen call " granny " crabs, though they are not necessarily old 
nor female. They are caught in considerable abundance during July 
and August, and are promptly killed, the impression being that they are 
diseased. A " granny " crab, which may be of any size above 4 inches, 
is generally female, and has a worn and dilapidated appearance, the 
shell being pitted and stained with black, and the great claws corroded 
and frequently broken. The surface is frequently overgrown with 
barnacles and other foreign bodies. The men say that the flesh has a 
strong bitter taste and a powerful purgative effect. There is, however, 
in all probability nothing abnormal about these crabs. They are merely 
individuals which are approaching the time when in every second year 
a crab of this size will cast its shell. The practice of destroying them 
is unwarranted. 

Autotomy in Grapsus. j — Anna Drzewina points out, in answer to 
Pieron, that autotomy of the claw occurs without violent excitation in 
specimens of Grapsus varkis, in which the oesophageal commissures 
have been cut. She does not seek to deny the intervention of the 
cerebral ganglia in autotomy ; they may have an excitatory or an inhibi- 
tory action ; but the point is that their intervention is not indispensable. 

Autotomy in Decapods.§ — H. Pieron distinguishes between "evasive" 
autotomy, which seems to him " voluntary " in the same sense as an 
endeavour to escape is voluntary, and reflex autotomy, which is much 
more general. The muscular contractions which effect autotomy in 
Grapsus are of the same order as the normal locomotor contractions. 
Voluntary or evasive autotomy is particularly well developed in Grapsus, 
but it occurs elsewhere, for instance in hermit crabs. Reflex autotomy 
is not universally distributed even among the Brachyura. 

Real Nature of Microniscidse.|| — M. Caullery has given experimental 
proof of the view held by G. 0. Sars, that Microniscidse are really 
stages in the life-history of Epicaridae, intermediate between the 
Epicaridian and Cryptoniscian larva?. Although Bonnier persists in 
regarding Microniscidas as a distinct family, Caullery thinks that the 
position held by Sars is incontestable. In the case of Portuuion 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxxiii. (1907) pp. 508-9. 

t Liverpool Biol. Committee, 21st Report, 1907, pp. 25-6. 

X C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) pp. 493-5. 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 517-19. 

|| Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 596-8. 



48 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

kossmanni Griard and Bonnier, parasitic, on Platyoniscus latipes, Caullery 

lias seen the production of " microniscid " stages. 

New Cave Isopod.* — E. G. Racovitza describes Spelozoniscus 
debrugei g. et sp. n., from an Algerian cave. The very convex elliptical 
body can be rolled into a ball ; the head is without frontal lobes, 
antennary tubercles, or scutellum, but has a deep antennary grove on 
each side of the median line ; the antennae are of the Cylisticus-type ; 
the antennules have two joints ; some of the other appendages resemble 
those of Cylisticus, others those of ArmadiUidium. Like Eleoniscus, 
this new genus expresses the tendency of Porcellio-like forms to roll 
themselves up, but it represents a failure in the solution of this problem. 
The perfect ball of the widely distributed ArmadiUidium vulgare is a 
complete solution, but in Spelmoniscus the antennas are kept extended 
and exposed to attack. Thus Spelozoniscus has had to take refuge in a 
subterranean habitat, " cet asile que dame nature installa a peu de frais 
pour ses viellards, ses impotents et ses rates." The new type is colourless, 
blind, and covered with tactile setre ; it has no longer any near relatives 
in daylight ; it is an archaic representative of a fauna which has 
disappeared. 

Terrestrial Isopods of the Family Eubelidse.t — Harriet Richardson 
gives an account of a collection of new species of Eubelidas made in 
Liberia by 0. F. Cook. A new genus, Ethelumoris, is established 
near Ethelum ; the flagellum of the second antennas consists of two 
joints, the coxopodites of the first thoracic segment extend along the 
lateral margin, but arise from the underside of the segment. 

Cave Isopods. J — E. G. Racovitza reports on 16 cavernicolous species 
of Isopods, e.g. Trichoniscus dispersus sp. n., Trichouiscoides pyrenmus 
sp. n., T. tuberculatus sp. n., Anaphiloscia simani g. et sp. n., in the 
neighbourhood of some of the forms included in the unnatural genus 
Philoscia, PorceUio manacorisp. n., Cylisticus caver nicola sp. n., Eleoniscus 
heleiue g. et sp. n. (the new genus presenting a mixture of characters 
seen in Cylisticus and ArmadiUidium, but most nearly related to Elwna), 
and ArmadiUidium pruvoti sp. n. 

Annulata. 

Urns of Sipunculids.§ — W. Selensky has studied the structure and 
development of the much-discussed fixed and free-swimming " urns " of 
Sipunculus nudus, comparing them with the free-swimming urns of 
Pltymosoma and the fixed urns of Phymosoma and Aspidosiphon. An 
urn consists of a vesicular cup, a neck, and a ciliated disk. It begins 
as a bud-like outgrowth from the walls of a blood-vessel ; it consists 
of the connective-tissue of the wall of the vessel, and is surrounded by 
endothelial cells, among which there is one at least of the large ciliated 

* Arch. Zool. Exper., vii. (1907) Notes et Revue, No. 3, pp. lxix.-lxxvii. (9 figs.), 

t Smithsonian Misc. Collections, iv. (1907) pp. 219-47 (67 figs.). 

% Arch. Zool. Exper., vii. (1907) pp. 145-225 (11 pis.). 

§ Zool. Anzeig., xxxii. (1807) pp. 329-36 (4 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC 49 

cells tli.it occur in the endothelium of the vessels. The urns arise both 
on the inside and on the outside of the tentacular vessels, and there is 
no real difference between those which remain sedentary and those which 
become free-swimming. There is no doubt that they arise from the 
Sipunculid-tissue. They are not parasites. They are not phagocytic, 
but they help, as Cuenot pointed out, to purify the ccelomic fluid by 
collecting and agglutinating particles. They are, perhaps, comparable 
to the ciliated organs connected with the nephridia of Hirudinea, which 
are also derivatives of peritoneal tissue. 

Reproductive Apparatus of Kynotus.* — L. Cognetti de Martiis 
describes the gonads and associated structures in this peculiar Madagascar 
genus of earthworms, and fills up the gaps in the previous descriptions 
by Rosa, Benham, and Michaelsen. 

Calciferous Glands of Earth worms. t — A. Combault suggests that 
these glands have some respiratory significance. They may fix the CO., 
and thus avoid asphyxiation. The concretions may be the result of 
the fixing of the CO., in the glands. Some specimens of Helodrilus 
caliginosus sub-sp. trapezoides, were placed in very dilute lime-water ; 
after 24 hours the glands were loaded with carbonate of lime. Further 
experiments confirmed this. 

Nematohelminthes. 

Free-living Nematodes. J— J. G. De Man describes 18 species of 
free Nematodes, all of which (except Eurgstoma terricola sp. n., from 
the soil) have been collected on the coasts of Zealand. Thirteen are 
new, e.g., jfflgialoalaimus elegans g. et sp. n., Gobbia trefusiceformis g. et 
sp. n., Parasabatieria vulgaris g. et sp. n., and Metalinhommus tgpicus 
g. et sp. n. A useful list is given of all the free marine Nematodes the 
author has found on the coasts of Zealand. 

Toxic Effect of Sclerostomum equinum.§ — M.Weinberg has ex- 
perimented with extracts of this parasite, and has obtained rather 
important results. He finds that these extracts dissolve the red blood- 
cells of the horse. The toxic substance is secreted especially by the 
cephalic part of the parasite, and also by the digestive tube ; it is 
resistent to a temperature of from 115-120° for 15-20 minutes, and is 
not specific for the horse, since it acts similarly upon the blood-cells of 
guinea-pig, rabbit, ox, and sheep. Sclerostomes also secrete a substance 
with the properties of a precipitin with horse and with rabbit serum. 
Extracts of larvas have a similar but less marked effect. Other hel- 
minths found in the horse {Oxguris equi, Ascaris megalocephala, Tamia 
perfoliata, Tcmia plicata) do not secrete a heematoxin ; it is noteworthy 
that the only parasite capable of doing so is the only one which lives on 
the blood of the horse. 

* Atti R. Accad. Sci. Torino, xlii. (1907) pp. 1138-50 (1 pi.). 
t C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxii. (1907) pp. 440-2. 
% Tijdschr. Nederland. Dierk. Ver., x. (1907) pp. 227-44. 
§ Ann. Inst. Pasteur, xxi. (1907) pp. 798-807. 

Feb. 19th, 1908 e 



50 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



Platyhelmintlies. 

New Cestode from Eagle.* — Pasquale Mola describes a new Cestode, 
Davainea h&rtwigi, found in the intestine of Nisaetus fasciatus. When 
the eagle was caught it had in its beak a wall-lizard, in the peritoneal 
cavity of which cysts were found containing a cysticercus. This, the 
author considers, is the same Cestode found in the eagle, and that 
the life-cycle is completed between the two hosts, L. muralis and 
iV. fasciatus. 

Para-uterine Organ of Tsenia nigropunctata.t — Pasquale Mola 
describes this organ, first noted by Crety in 1890. It is a winding 
tube, running in the middle line over each proglottis. It starts from 
the uterus and runs forward with an undulating course. An account 
of its histological features is given, and it is noted that cells pass 
from this tube to the uterus, forming an abundant parenchyma ex- 
tending to every small uterine pouch and enveloping the eggs. 

Classification of Cyclophyllidea.J — 0. Fuhrmann revises the classifi- 
cation of this order, altering the system proposed by Braun. He re- 
cognises ten families — Tetrabothrida3, Mesocestoididfe, Anoplocephalidae, 
Davaineidre, Dilepinidas, Hynienolepidaa, Tseniidae, Acoleinidse, Amabi- 
linidas, and Fimbriariidse — and nine sub-families, with a total of 66 
genera. 

Action of Heat on Immature Mussel-fluke. § — Raphael Dubois 
finds that Gymnophallus margaritarum Dubois can survive, for at least 
48 hours, temperatures between 35° and 40° C, which are fatal to the 
mussel. The new form, which results from the influence of the in- 
creased temperature on the immature fluke, is probably a stage towards 
the final form. Therefore it seems likely that the final metamorphosis 
occurs in a warm-blooded animal, which is probably a bird. 

New RhabdocQela.|| — Nils von Hofsten describes three new Rhab- 
doccela from moor-lochs in the island of Gotland, namely, Castrada 
instructa, DaJJijeliu pallida, and D. succincta. 

Polyclads from the Somali Coast and a Revision of the Stylo- 
chinse.^T — Adolf Meixner gives an anatomical account of a number of 
polyclads, 13 species, collected by Ch. Gravier off the Somali coast, and 
takes this opportunity of making a revision of the previously described 
members of the family Stylochinse. 

New Marine Triclad.**— G. Du Plessis gives a description of a 
beautiful little Triclad, Cercyra verrucosa sp. n. — so-called because of 

* Biol. Centralbl., xxvii. (1907) pp. 575-8 (5 figs.). 
t Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 87-90 (2 figs.). 
% Zool. Anzeig., xxxii. (1907) pp. 289-97. 
§ C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, xliii. (1907) pp. 502-4. 
II Arkiv Zool., iii. (1907) pp. 1-15 (1 pi.). 

i Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool., lxxxviii. (1907) pp. 385-498 (5 pis. and 2 figs.). 
** Rev. Suisse Zool., xv. (1907) pp. 129-41 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 51 

the great development of papillae in a double or triple series on the 
dorsal surface, which seem to serve as fixing organs. It is only the 
seventh Triclad found on the Mediterranean shores. 

New Nemerteans.*— M. Oxner describes two new species which he 
has found at Roscoff — Amphiporus martyi sp. n., a very transparent 
form which lives along with Linens ruber ; Prosorochmus delayei sp. n., 
which is viviparous and hermaphrodite. 

Incertae Sedis. 

Development of Ribs in Brachiopods.f — S. S. Buckrnan discusses 
the development of the ribbed stage in Gincta and Eudesia, and shows 
that there are various methods by which "similar looking ribbed forms" 
have been evolved from " similar looking smooth forms." ' 

It may be of use to quote the general introduction to his study : 
" The test ornament of Brachiopods is found in three main phases — 
smooth, ribbed, and spinous. (A striate stage is sometimes interposed 
between the smooth and the ribbed, but not always.) These three 
phases are in this anagenetic sequence to one another : in relation to 
its nearest allies, a costate species of a given series is more advanced 
than a smooth one of that series, and a spinose one still further than a 
costate. There are catagenetic developments also in reverse order : 
in certain Productids the costate stage follows on a spinose ; in Aran- 
thothyris there are certain cases of the spinose ontogenetic stage being 
followed by a smooth. If, however, the catagenetic phases be put aside 
for the present, it may be said that the state of external ornament — 
smooth, costate, spinose — indicates the position of a Brachiopod as more 
or less advanced than its fellows." The author gives an interesting table 
showing sequences of developmental phases of test ornament, in the 
one case subsequent to Gincta, in the other case prior to Eudesia. 

Rotiform Bryozoa of the Isle of Wight.} — J. W. Gregory describes 
Bicavea rotaformis sp. n., which occurs at the base of the cretaceous 
Holaster planus zone in the Isle of Wight. It consists of a wheel-shaped 
body borne on a narrow cylindrical stem. Its nearest allies are some 
specimens from the Danian Chalk of Faxoe, described as Radiopora 
urn nl a var. stipitata by Pergens and Meunier in 1887. 

Growth of Tendra zostericola.§ — M. Bogolepow describes the growth 
of colonies of this Bryozoon on the glass sides of an aquarium. The 
original " cell " or oozoid formed a chain of blastozoids ; blastozoid buds 
appeared which formed the beginning of an axis or of axes of the 
second order ; and so on. Gradually a thick crust resulted. The author 
watched the processes of degeneration, the formation of " brown bodies," 
and the process of restoration, and he gives an account of the various 
appearances presented by the living colony. 

* Arch. Zool. Exper., vii. (1907) Notes et Revue, No. 3, pp. lix.-lxix. (6 figs.). 

t Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc, lxiii. (1907) pp. 338-43 (1 pi.). 

\ Geol. Mag., iv. (1907) pp. 442-3. 

§ Zool. Auzeig., xxxii. (1907) pp. 305-16 (7 figs.). 

]•; -1 



52 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Total Regeneration of Bryozoa.* — G. M. It. Levinsen reports tliiit 
in some species of Bowerbanhia and Merribranipora, in Valkeria urn and 
Cribrillina labiata sp. n., and in some other cases, the whole individual is 
regenerated from the endosarcof the stolon. The zoecia reproduce their 
polypide a certain number of times, then the zoecium falls off, and the 
whole individual is replaced from the scar. 

Genus Tubucellaria.f — A. W. Waters gives a brief account of 
the species of this genus, in which a description of a new form, 
T. Zanzibar iensis, is included. Some notes are given upon the ovicells, 
which appear to differ considerably in structure in different Bryozoa. 
It is suggested that in the present genus the shape of the opening of the 
ovicell " seems to be a specific character." The so-called " diminutive 
polypide " in the ovicellular zocecia is shown to be derived from the 
substance of the ordinary form. 

Rotifera. 

New Marine Rotifera. $ — Carl Zelinka, in a work of considerable 
magnitude, describes two new species, Synchceta atlantica and Rattulus 
henseni, as occurring in great abundance in a certain limited area of the 
Atlantic Ocean, and which were collected by the German Plankton 
Expedition of 1889. The area inhabited by these two Rotifers, and 
these two species only, lies in latitude 60° 17' N., and between longitude 
14° and 30° W., or about midway between the northernmost coast of 
Scotland and the southernmost point of Greenland. A few more speci- 
mens of the same two species were obtained near Bermuda, and then, 
with the exception of a single dead lorica of a Colurus (or Monurd) 
obtained in a haul near Ascension, no more Rotifers at all were en- 
countered in any other parts of the Atlantic Ocean, which was crossed 
three times. 

The fine-plankton net was lowered to a depth of 400 m., and the 
richest catch of Synchceta and Rattulus in the above-named area was 
obtained in lat. 29° W., and contained, by Henson's method of counting, 
as many as 364,352 Synchmta and 44,500 Rattulus to every column of 
water having a surface area of • 1 sq. m. (about 1 sq. ft.) and a depth 
of 400 m. A vast number of floating eggs of these Rotifers were 
obtained at the same time. The fact that Rotifers occur at such 
great depth was not known before, and the barrenness, as regards 
Rotifera, of the rest of the Atlantic Ocean is certainly very remarkable; 

The author finally gives an elaborate review and list of all known 
marine and brackish-water Rotifera, 156 in number, and discusses the 
question of the origin of this marine fauna. 

Echinoderma. 

Luminosity of Amphiura squamata.§ — Irene Sterzinger finds that 
the luminous organs of this Ophiuroid are at the tips of the tube-feet. 

* Oversigt k. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Fordhandl., 1907, pp. 151-9 (1 pi.), 
t Journ. Linn. Soc, xxx. (1907) pp. 126-32 (2 pis.). 

% Plankton Expedition der Humboldt-Stiftung, 1889, ii. (Kiel, 1907) pp. 1-79 
(3 pis.). § Zeitschr. wiss. ZooL, lxxxviii. (1907) pp. 358-84 (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, .MICROSCOPY . ETC. 53 

The luminosity is due to mucus, which is secreted by cells of the 
external epithelium at the tip of the tube-foot. It accumulates in the 
intercellular spaces, and passes out by apertures in small papilla? at 
the tip. The luminosity is extra-cellular. 

The animal produces non-luminous as well as luminous mucus ; 
both are soluble in hydrochloric acid. Mucus glands occur also in the 
tube-feet of other Echinoderms, e.g., Astropecten aurantiacus, in the 
sensory buds of Ophiothrix fragilis, and in the tentacles of Antedon 
rosacea. The mucus seems to help adhesion in Amphiura squamata and 
Ophiothrix fragilis, both of which are able to climb up vertical walls. 

Abnormality in Test of Echinolampas.* — R. Fabiani describes in 
the fossil test of this sea-urchin a peculiar abnormality in the ambulacra! 
plates, especially in two of the areas of the trivium. The poriferal 
zones of one series converge rapidly towards those of the other series in 
the same ambulacrum, they almost unite, and then they suddenly 
diverge again and follow their usual course. 

Development of Ophiothrix fragilis. f — E. W. MacBride sum- 
marises the leading points in the development of Ophiothrix fragilis. 
An important discovery made in the course of his investigations is that 
there are two types of development, depending on whether fertilisation 
is effected naturally or artificially. For example, if the former, seg- 
mentation results in the formation of a thick-walled blastula ; if the 
latter, a solid mass of cells or morula results. The abnormal develop- 
ment has a considerable resemblance to the normal development of 
Ophiura brevis, and is of interest as showing how far-reaching in its 
influence on the subsequent development is the condition of the egg at 
the moment of fertilisation, and the idea is suggested that here, perhaps, 
is to be found the origin of variations. The author remarks that " we 
must assume that eggs are capable of fertilisation before they are quite 
ripe, and that the fact that eggs can be fertilised is no proof that they 
are fully ripe, or that the resulting development is normal. This con- 
clusion has, I think, a somewhat important bearing on the experimental 
studies for which the eggs of Echinodermata have furnished the material. 
Notably the statements which some authors have made about obtaining 
ripe eggs from sea-urchins like Strongylocentrotus all the year round 
must be received with great caution." On the disputed question of the 
homology of the right hydroccele, it is noted that in Ophiothrix fragilis 
it is from the beginning on the risrht side of the larva. 



- 



New Zealand Holothurians.J — Arthur Dendy and E. Hindle give 
an account of some Holothurians from Xew Zealand, amongst which 
they find six new species. Of these Rhabdomolgus novw-zealandicB is 
the most remarkable; by its discovery the view is confirmed that 
spicules are really absent in this genus, which has hitherto been dis- 
credited by systematists, and which must now be revived. 

* Atti Accad. Sci. Veneto-Trentino-Istriana, iv. (1907) pp. 75-8 (2 figs.). 
t Proc. Roy. Soc, Series B, lxxix. (1907) pp. 440-5 (4 figs.). 
j Journ. Linn. Soc, xxx. (1907) pp. 95-125 (4 pis.). 



54 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

New Species of Cucumaria.* — R. P. Cowles describes Cucumcnria 
curata sp. n., from the Californian coast. Many individuals are usually 
seen together, in the breeding season at least, forming black patches 
just below low-tide mark. The species is of especial interest on account 
of the care of the eggs and young. As soon as the eggs are laid they 
are transferred, probably by means of the tentacles, to the ventral 
surface of the body, and are kept there until they develop into young 
forms several millimetres in length. The eggs are large, almost 1 mm. 
in diameter. Associated with the Holothurian during the breeding 
season there is a small Nematode which feeds upon the eggs, often de- 
stroying the whole brood. 

Coelentera. 

Madreporaria from Amboina.t — M. Bedot has done good service 
to students of Madreporarian corals by publishing not only full descrip- 
tions, but abundant beautiful illustrations, of a large collection (79 
species) of Madreporaria from Amboina. 

Rare British Coral.| — W. A. Herdman dredged from the Train 
bank, 8 miles off Port Erin, a distinctly rare British coral, Paracyathus 
pteropus. It was described by Gosse from a specimen found attached to 
a shell of Cyprina from the deepest part of the Moray Firth, but as the 
soft parts were unknown to Gosse, a brief description of the Isle of 
Man specimen was drawn up from the living specimen by Chadwick. 
The column is cylindrical, not much higher than the corallum ; the 
disk is flat, or very slightly raised in the centre, without distinct margin ; 
the tentacles are 28 in number, arranged in two alternating circlets, 
the stem is tapering, membranous, studded with numerous wans 
(cnidophores ?), the head is sub-globular and opaque ; the mouth is a 
lengthened and very mobile slit, with crenulate lips ; the colour of the 
column, disk, and tentacles is transparent white, and a broad vandyked 
band of vivid emerald green surrounds the mouth ; the diameter of the 
corallum is 3 mm. 

Statoblasts in a Scyphistoma.§ — E. Herouard has found in a 
Scyphistoma at Roscoff (like Dalzell's " Hydra-tuba "), encysted buds 
"with a latent life and representing veritable statoblasts." They are 
formed on the pedal disk and are inclosed in a chitinous envelope. If 
the envelope be burst, the bud begins to proliferate and forms a polyp. 
The " statoblasts " are formed during a resting period, and the time 
necessary is about 15 days. After a statoblast is formed, the polyp 
moves a short distance on its " pedal sole," leaving the statoblast 
behind. After coming to rest again, the polyp forms a new statoblast. 

Revision of Medusa? Belonging to the Family Laodiceidae. || 
E. T. Browne includes in this re-defined family the following genera : 

* Johns Hopkins Univ. Circular, No. 3 (1907) pp. 8-9 (2 pis.). 

f Rev. Suisse Zool., xv. (1907) pp. 143-292 (46 pis.). 

\ Liverpool Biol. Committee, 21st Rep., 1907, pp. 24-5. 

§ Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 601-3. 

II Ann. Nat. Hist., xx. (1907) pp. 457-80. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 55 

Laodice, Staurophora, Ptychoyena, Staurodiscus, Toxorchis, Melicertissa. 
The character, now selected as distinctive of the family, is the presence 
of cordyli, commonly called sensory clubs, on the margin of the 
umbrella. A cordylus is quite distinct from marginal bulbs and 
tubercles or sprouting tentacles and cirri. Its shape varies slightly in 
different genera, but it always has a clear translucent appearance, with- 
out any coloration, and is free from nematocysts. It is also without 
otoliths and such concretions as are generally found in sense-organs. 

Gonophores of Plumularia obliqua and Sertularia operculata. * — 
S. Motz-Kossowska refers to the general opinion that, among the 
Calyptoblastea, Medusoids occur only in the Campanulariidae and 
related families, such as the CampanulinidaB and some of the Lafceidas. 
In 1902 Torrey found free gonozoids in Haleciidae ; the author has 
found medusiform gonozoids in Plumularia obliqua Saunders (in which 
a male Medusoid was seen to detach itself) and in Sertularia operculata L. 
(in which the liberation of a Medusoid, almost mistakable for that of 
the former species, is probable). 

Tubularia indivisa var. obliqua. f — F. H. Gravely found this 
variety at Port St. Mary, Isle of Man. It is characterised by a single 
large tentacle covering the umbrella-mouth of each female gonophore 
and capable of moving to a slight extent. A similar form has been 
described by Bonnevie and Swenander. The female gonophore shows 
a single radial canal instead of four — a feature correlated with the 
presence of the single large tentacle to the base of which the canal runs. 
The male gonophore shows no radial canals or tentacles, but shows — 
what the normal T. indivisa apparently does not — conspicuous sterile 
cells in the outer layers of sperm, these cells often bearing delicate 
processes that pass inwards towards the spadix. 

Cordylophora lacustris4 — Sven Ekman discusses the distribution 
of Cordylophora lacustris Allman in Swedish waters. 

Porifera. 

African Fresh-water Sponges.§ — R. Kirkpatrick reports on speci- 
mens of a new variety of Ephydatia fluviatilis L., collected by J. 
Stuart Thomson, from a pond near Cape Town. This almost cosmo- 
politan species has been found in Europe, Asia, and America, but is 
now recorded for the first time from Africa. A second species, Spon- 
gillu rerebellata Bowerbank, was obtained from a pond near Cairo by 
Innes Bey. Thus the two commonest European species have to be 
added to the list of African fresh- water sponges, of which 21 species 
are known. The Cape specimen, which is named E. fluviatilis var. 
capensis var. n., is a strongly marked variety, as regards its oxeas, 
amphidisks, and gemmules. 

* Arch. Zool. Exper.,vii. (1907) Notes et Revue, No. 4, pp. cxiv.-xviii. (3 figs.). 

t Liverpool Marine Biol. Station, 21st Ann. Rep., 1907, pp. 15-17. 

J Arkiv. Zool., iii. (1907) pp. 1-4. 

§ Ann. Nat. Hist., xx. (1907) pp. 523-5 (11 figs.). 



56 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Protozoa. 

Foraminifera of Galway.* — F. W. Millett has published some 
notes on Foraminifera collected on the seashore at Galway, by F. P. 
Balkwill, in 1879-80. Along with Balkwill, he reported on this 
collection in the Journal of Microscopy and Natural Science, iii. 
1884, but as the plates came out roughly, he has had the original draw- 
ings reproduced by photogravure. The classification and nomenclature 
have been brought into accordance with modern researches. Among 
the more interesting forms the following may be noted : — Spirilondina 
acutimargo, Milwlina auberiana, Ammodiscus shoneanus, Trochammina 
plimta, Lagena clathrata, L.fimbriata, Pulvinulina patagonica, Lingulina 
carinata (in Silvestri's genus Ellvpsolingulind). 

Tertiary Foraminifera of Victoria.! — F. Chapman gives an account 
of the Foraminifera in the Balcombian deposits of Port Philip. He 
comments on the abundance of Foraminifera in many of the clays and 
limestones of the Victorian Tertiary strata, and on the gigantic size and 
redundant growth of many of the species — an index to the congenial 
life-conditions. 

Physiology of Pulsating Vacuole in Infusoria.} — A. Kanitz dis- 
cusses the relation of temperature to the activity of the pulsating 
vacuole in Infusoria. The reactions to temperature are such as to render 
physical explanations, e.g. osmosis, insufficient. They appear to conform 
to the R.G.T. rule (Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit Temperaturregel), accord- 
ing to Avhich a raising of the temperature 10° increases the reaction speed 
from two to three times. The results obtained with the pulsating 
vacuoles of different Infusoria in accordance with this rule are most 
readily explained in relation to chemical processes. 

New Hypotrichous Infusorian.§ — E. Faure-Fremiet describes a new 
form, which he makes the type for a new genus, Ancystropodium 
maupasi g. et sp. n. This form possesses a contractile pedicle, consist- 
ing of a protoplasmic strand, which carries on its left border seven 
marginal cilia. The species is a highly differentiated one, adapted for 
fixation by means of its tranverse cilia. The author considers the 
question of a possible relationship with the Vorticellida?, but regards such 
a view as untenable. 

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis on British Roach. || — James Johnstone 
records the occurrence of this Ciliate upon the skin and gills of roach 
in Hesketh Lake, Southport. Only the roach were affected, and pike, 
perch, and eels living in the same water showed no signs of disease. 
The epidemic produced considerable mortality among the roach for 
about a month, after which it died out. This appears to be the first 
record of this Ciliate in British waters. An account of its structure and 
mode of multiplication is given. 

* The Recent Foraminifera of Galway. Plymouth, 1908, 8 pp. (4 pis.). 

t Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) xxx. (1907) pp. 10-35 (4 pis.). 

% Biol. Centralbl., xxvii. (1907) pp. 11-25. 

§ C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) pp. 377-8. 

|| Proc. and Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc, xxi. (1907) pp. 292-5 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 57 

Notes on Acinetaria.* — B. Collins describes Ephelota gemmipara 
Herfcwig and Hypocoma acinetarum sp. n. The former has buds at once 
tentaculate and ciliated, as Ishikawa observed in the case of E. biitsch- 
liana. Multiplication occurs by transverse (never longitudinal) fission, 
by multiple ovoid, tentaculate, non-ciliated buds, and by multiple ciliated 
buds, which, as noted, sometimes show tentacles before their separation 
from the parent. A full account of the structure of the animal is given, 
but the results are mainly in agreement with those of R. Hertwig. It is 
noted, however, that there is a horse-shoe of large cilia on the dorsal 
surface of the embryo. The new species of Hypocoma lives on the 
stalk of Ephelota and on Acineta compressa ; it has a secondarily acquired 
asymmetry ; there is a single ventral tentacle and an interesting posterior 
invagination ; the ciliation is in concentric ellipses. It seems that Hypo- 
coma is not a primitive type — a possible starting-point for the Acine- 
taria and derived from Uhilodon. It is rather a highly specialised 
terminal type, morphologically deformed. The affinities between Acine- 
taria and Ciliata should probably be looked for in the direction of 
the Peritricha, 

Trypanosomes of the Upper Niger. f— A. Laveran has sought ex- 
perimentally to clear up the difficult question of the specific nature of 
the agents in the Trypanosome diseases of this region. Two oxen in- 
oculated with the virus of " Mai de la Zousfana " and " El Debab," and 
quite cured, showed themselves completely refractory to Trypanosoma 
soudanmse, whence it may be concluded that the Trypanosome of these 
diseases is really T. soudanense. It is of interest to note that the 
Trypanosome observed in horses and dromedaries in Algeria exists also 
in the Upper Niger. It is possible that the centre of infection is this 
latter region, and that transportation to Algeria is effected by the caravans 
coming from Timbuctoo. 

Role of the Spleen in Trypanosomiasis.! — A. Laveran and 
Thiroux have looked into this important subject. They find that the 
Trypanosomes found in the spleen during life, or even after death, 
have the same structure as those taken from the general circulation. 
Extract of spleen has not, in vitro, trypanolytic properties, nor in animals 
whose spleen is removed is trypanosomiasis sensibly modified. In 
trypanosomiasis, as in malaria, the spleen, without doubt, contributes to 
the freeing of the circulation from the debris of the hsematozoa follow- 
ing trypanolytic crises, but this seems to be all that it can do. 

Trypanosome of Pontobdella inuricata.§— Muriel Robertson re- 
cords her observations on a Trypanosome from the alimentary canal of 
Pontobdella mvricata. She agrees with Brumpt that this is probably the 
Trypanosoma rake of the skate. It is evidently of frequent occurrence 
in Pontobdella, since of 60 specimens examined only one failed to yield 
examples. A series of forms is described, and points in their minute 
structure, e.g. the kinetonucleus, are discussed. The flagellum appears to 

* Arch. Zool. Exper.,vii. (1907) Notes et Revue, No. 4, pp. xciii.-ciii. (3 figs.). 
t Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 293-5. J Tom. cit., pp. 14-18. 

§ Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc, xvii. (1907) pp. 83-108 (4 pis.). 



58 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

be developed from a pair of arrested mitotic figures developed out of the 
distal of the two segments into which the original kinetonucleus divides. 
The process of division is described. 

Trypanosomes of Frog and Leech.* — Carlos France finds that the 
Invertebrate host of Trypanosoma costatum and T. roiatorium of the frog 
is a leech. From the leech he has been able to infect the frog. There 
is a Trypanosome phase in the frog, and a Herpetomonad phase in the 
leech. The author has also some notes on the culture of the frog's 
trypanosomes | and on their intra-vitam staining. $ 

Development of Piroplasma canis in Dog.§ — G. H. F. Nuttall and 
G. S. Graham Smith describe the appearance of this parasite in unstained 
preparations, its mode of multiplication, including an account of the 
nuclear changes, the fate of the various forms as observed in the living 
blood, and the complete cycle of development within the blood. The 
mode of multiplication stated briefly is as follows. A free pyriform 
parasite enters a normal red-blood corpuscle and rapidly assumes a rounded 
form. It then enlarges and passes through an actively amoeboid stage, 
at the end of which it again becomes rounded. After a short period of 
quiescence in this condition, it protrudes two symmetrical processes, 
which rapidly grow and become pear-shaped. The protoplasm of the 
parasite flows into these processes, and its body consequently gradually 
diminishes, until it is represented by a minute rounded mass, to which 
the pyriform processes are attached. Eventually this also disappears, 
and, finally, two mature pyriform parasites are left, which are joined 
together for a time by a thin strand of protoplasm. After a variable 
time these parasites are liberated by the rupture of the corpuscle, and 
swim away, to enter fresh corpuscles and repeat the process. Occasionally 
a single rounded intra-corpuscular parasite gives rise to four or more 
pyriform parasites by the protrusion of a corresponding number of 
processes. The authors never observed any forms which could be re- 
garded as gametes. 

* Bull. Soc. Portugaise Sci. Nat., i. (1907) pp. 27-8 (2 figs.). 
t Tom. cit., pp. 5-8 (3 figs.). % Tom. cit., pp. 9-11. 

§ Journ. Hygiene, vii. (1907) pp. 232-72 (3 pis. and 14 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 59 



BOTANY. 

GENERAL, 

Including the Anatomy and Physiology of Seed Plants. 

Cytology, 
including Cell-Contents. 

Structure of Nucleus in Relation to Organisation of Individual.* 
J. B. Farmer has continued his investigations as to the structural 
constituents of the nucleus and their relation to the organisation of the 
individual. While recognising the great importance of the nucleus, the 
author believes that the properties of the individual may be, at least in 
part, attributed to the interaction of the nucleus with the cytoplasm 
external to it. Such interaction of cytoplasm and nucleus is seen in the 
fact that enucleated eggs of one species of echinoderm, when fertilised, 
give rise to larva? resembling the male parent. It is also seen in the 
effects of polyspermy, and it is probable that the reason that polyspermy 
so seldom occurs in healthy cultures, is that a sudden chemical change 
results from the entrance of the first sperm into the cytoplasm of the 
egg. Tlie author has proved that in several Fucaceas and in some ferns 
the entrance of the first sperm into the egg-cytoplasm is followed by the 
paralysis or disorganisation of other sperms in the neighbourhood. 
Evidence that cytoplasm is the cause of similar disintegration is also 
afforded by the Gymnosperms, and most markedly by the Cycads with 
motile spermatozoids. 

As to the act of fertilisation, the author considers that not only must 
there be union of two, and not more than two nuclei, but these nuclei 
must retain a certain structural basis, and he agrees with Darwin, 
Weismann, and De Vries in regarding the constituents of the nucleus, 
and not the nucleus as a whole, as charged with the control of the 
chemical transformations in the cell, which reveal themselves in the 
characters of the cell. The chromomeres which constitute the chromo- 
somes may be compared to ferments which set up in the extra-nuclear 
cytoplasm, chemical changes which constitute development. The 
present work favours the Mendelian theory, and it appears that fertilisa- 
tion is to be regarded as a mechanical mixture of the nuclear 
constituents rather than the formation of a chemical compound. The 
units in each of the sexual nuclei retain their individuality, and at 
fertilisation these units are sorted out into different combinations. 
Experiments and observations show that the actual number of 
chromosomes is immaterial, but the usual constancy of number is 
evidence of the organising function of the cell as a whole rather 
than of independence of the chromosomes. Chromosome-reduction is 

* Proc. Roy. Soc, lxxix. B (1907) pp. 446-G4. 



<)0 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

both a consequence and a condition of sexuality, and affords convincing 
proof of the existence of persistent structural units, which are directly 
responsible for the characters manifested by the developing organism. 
The significance of reduction is in the sorting out of structural 
entities and in the distribution of entire sets of them in the sexual cells. 
The relatively small number of chromosomes renders it impossible to 
regard them as structural entities, and their real importance lies in 
their structure as similarly organised groups of chromomeres, but not 
necessarily of the same chromomeres. It is possible that the chromo- 
meres themselves may prove to be the structural entities of the cell. 
The constancy in form of the chromosomes is an expression of organisa- 
tion within the cell, not of unchanging aggregation of the same con- 
stituents. Evidence is afforded that given a complete set of chromo- 
somes, whether in single or in duplicate, the complete life-history may 
be covered, and that the duplicate set arising from sexuality is merely a 
means of producing variation. 

The primordia (structural entities), which constitute the hereditary 
mechanism, impose the limits within which development can take place, 
but within those limits other conditions, e.g., specific exciting substances, 
may determine the path actually followed. 

Cytology of Pollen-mother-cells of Nymphfeacese.* — AV.Lubimenko 
and A. Maige have made a morphological and cytological study of 
pollen-development in the Nympkasaceas. 

The authors draw the following conclusions from their investigation:-. 
During the prosynapsis stage, the nuclei of the pollen-mother-clls 
increase in size, until they are 4-5 times larger than the vegetative 
nuclei. The increase in size of the nucleus is accompanied by a 
corresponding, but less marked, increase in the size of the cells them- 
selves. The increase in size of the nuclei may perhaps be considered 
as the result of delay in nuclear division. During the passage from 
prosynapsis to synapsis there is a still greater increase in the size of the 
nucleus in proportion to the size of the cell : this increase in size is the 
result of enlargement of the nuclear-sac and of the nucleolar and lino- 
chromatic masses, and is always followed by a slow enlargement of the 
mother-cell itself. In the spireme stage the volumes of the reproductive 
nuclei undergo a diminution in size, and are then only six times larger 
than the vegetative nuclei. This diminution of volume corresponds to 
a re-establishment of the normal proportions in the nuclear-sac, the 
nucleolar and the lino-chromatic masses, and is accompanied by the 
appearance of a well-differentiated nuclear membrane. 

The chromosomes are formed by concentration of the chromatin at 
certain points of the spireme ; they are of various forms, and seem to be 
composed of a varying number of small bodies. 

During the period which elapses between chromosome-formation and 
the disappearance of the nuclear membrane, the volume of the nucleus 
diminishes by one-half. It is probable that the entire spindle is formed 
exclusively from nuclear substance (linin and nucleolus), and that the 
cytoplasm has no part in its constitution. 

* Rev. Gen. Bot., xix. (1907) pp. 401-25 (5 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 61 

Cystolith-formation in the Cistacese.* — M. Gard has examined 
the silicified thickenings which occur in the leaves of many CistaceEe. 
They are found in epidermal cells, stomata, palisade, and spongy 
parenchyma, and although they have no pedicel, the larger formations 
greatly resemble true cystoliths. They are not usually confined to a 
single cell, but extend through several adjacent cells. They often 
surround a stoma or the base of a hair. They are analogous to similar 
formations which have been noticed in the Oleacete, Santalacese, 
Loranthaceae, and Euphorbiacea3. Although they cannot be utilised in 
the distinction of species, they appear to be constant in individuals 
of very different origin, e.g. in C. monspeliensis they always abound in 
the lower epidermis, while the C. populifolius they surround the stomata ; 
it may thus prove useful to mention them in anatomical descriptions. 

Structure and. Development. 
Vegetative. 

Centripetal Wood in the Conifer ae.-j-— Ch. Bernard has investigated 
various members of the Conifers in order to discover how far centripetal 
wood is developed in the bracts and scale-leaves. The present research 
is a continuation of that published by the author in 1904, and is 
especially intended as a reply to the criticisms of Bertrand. The latter 
w r as of the opinion that the so-called centripetal wood was nothing 
but a diffused mass of cork, developed for physiological reasons. The 
author re-affirms his former statements, and contends that centripetal 
wood still exists, although sometimes in a much modified form, in the 
leaves of conifers, and more particularly in the leaf -tips ; the exist- 
ence of such wood in the bracts and scale-leaves is also clearly demon- 
strated. The plants examined include Agathis borneenxis, Katakidozaniia 
sp., Aru in- aria imbricata, A. Bidwillii, Thuya occidental is, Larix decidaa, 
Gedrus Libani, Picea orientalis, P. excelsa, Abies cephalonka, Pin us 
Montana, P. Oembra ; the author believes that the confirmatory results 
given by these genera tend to show T that all the Coniferas have preserved, 
at least in those organs which have retained their ancestral characters, 
the typical centripetal xylem. 

Stem of Ibervillea Sonorge.J — A. A. Knox has investigated the 
stem-structure of Ibervillea Sonorce. The author describes the exterior 
of the stem as having a tendency to the seven-angled type, but later on 
it is terete. There are five bundles forming an outer ring, while the 
number in the inner ring varies from five to nine. There are endocyclic 
and ectocyclic sieve-tubes, as well as commissural sieve-tubes connecting 
the phloem of adjacent bundles. There is an active inner cambium. 
The sieve-tubes gradually become obliterated and serve as a secretory 
system, and their contents provide wound-gum. There is a periderm 
with phellogen and phellem. There is no true bark nor any deep 
phellogens. There is a large deposition of calcium carbonate which 
gives the surface of the stem a greyish appearance. The meristematic 

* Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 13G-7. 

t Bot. Centralbl., xxii. (1907) pp. 211-44 (50 figs.). 

% Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxxiv. (1907) pp. 329-44 (1 pi. and 2 figs.). 



62 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

parenchyma of the medullary rays gives rise to supernumerary masses of 
phloem in the secondary stem. No interfascicular cambium is present, 
but there is much dilatation of all the parenchyma. 

Origin of Leaves and Stem.* — L. Flot has contributed the last of 
his series of papers dealing with the origin of the leaves and stem. The 
following are the conclusions formed by the author. The first differen- 
tiation of the meristematic apex of Phanerogams consists in the forma- 
tion of foliar outgrowths arising from a layer of cells which ultimately 
gives rise to a vascular meristem. The latter forms cortex and epidermis 
both above and below, and in the centre is differentiated into ordinary 
fibro- vascular tissue. The direction of growth is determined by the 
different pressures on the terminal bud, being greatest where the pressure 
is least. The outgrowth thus formed constitutes a foliar segment and 
ultimately develops into a typical leaf. The stem-structure is first 
determined by the structure and anastomoses of the young leaf -bases, 
and when these are complete, the whole mass of cortical and vascular 
tissue and epidermis constitutes the stem. When once the stem has 
thus been formed, the lower cells of each leaf-base rapidly multiply and 
so form internodes, thus causing the stem to increase in length. 
Increase in thickness may be brought about by increase in the number 
of bundles, and this is in accordance with the number of leaves ; or it 
may be due to the appearance of new meristematic layers, but even then 
it is possible to discover the traces of the primitive leaf -structure. 

Water-stom^ta of the Lobeliacese.f — M. Tswett has made a careful 
study of the hydathodes of Lobelia Dortmanna, Lobelia splendens, and 
Lobelia fulgens. While confirming the descriptions of these structures 
given by Buchenau and Minden, the author claims that the stomata 
found in connection with them represent quite a new type. The 
opening of each stoma is divided into halves by a thickened, cutinised 
partition which stretches from one extremity of the guard-cells to the 
other. In several cases this cutinous membrane is continued right over 
the opening so as to completely close it. Twenty other species of 
Lobeliaceas have also been examined, nineteen of which have similar 
stomata, while the remaining one is doubtful. It is of interest to note 
that the Cainpanulacere, which were also examined, have water-stomata 
of the ordinary type, and are destitute of a cutinised membrane. The 
author is uncertain as to the exact physiological meaning of these new 
stomata, but believes that their early and complex formation points to 
some important function in connection with the early life of the leaf. 

Lenticels of Palms. J — G. L. Gatin has studied the development of 
the lenticels found upon the roots and at the base of the rootlets of 
certain palms. The author finds that these structures are also found on 
the petiole of the cotyledon of several distantly related species. They 
are not confined to plants reared artificially, but may also be found on 
those growing under natural conditions. They develop where the hypo- 

* Rev. Gen. Bot., xix. (1907) pp. 169-92 (5 figs.), 
t Tom. cit., pp. 305-16 (1 pi.). 
% Tom. cit., pp. 193-207 (13 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICllOSCOPY, ETC. 63 

dermal sclerenchyrna is interrupted, owing to the activity of a diffuse 
layer of active cambial cells. Their structure strongly recalls that of the 
" Staubgrubchen " of the Marattiaceae, and in their mode of formation 
they resemble ordinary lenticels. The author objects to the term 
" pneumathodes," proposed by Jost, and proposes to class the lenticular 
structures found on palm-roots with those found in the Marattiaceae 
under the name of "primitive lenticels." It is interesting to note 
the analogy in structure of the respiratory organs of the palms, the 
( Jyathacese and the Marattiaceae. 

Extra-floral Nectaries.* — E. Schwendt has studied a large number 
of genera with special reference to extra-floral nectaries. In the Poly- 
gonaceae the nectaries are simple epidermal formations, and have no 
typical secreting tissue. In Oossypium and Tecoma radicans there is an 
ill-defined secreting tissue. In the Polypodiaceas and in Acacia cornigera, 
glandular tissue is present but no special secretion, while in the Oleaceae 
there is a typical secreting tissue, and also a specially modified secreting 
upper surface. Vascular bundles are specially modified in connection 
with the more complex nectaries. The nectar-secreting upper surface of 
the Polygonaceas, etc., and the disk-like nectaries in Tecoma radicans 
are also trichomes. The secreting hairs of the Polygonaceae begin 
development by radial division of a single epidermal cell, while in the 
Oleaceae and Gossypium, the first divisions are tangential. The radial 
walls of the stalk of the trichomes are suberised just before secretion 
begins. The nectaries of the Polypodiaoese are of a type hitherto 
unknown, in that the gland can simultaneously secrete nectar both on 
the upper and under surface of the lamina. Tannin is so abundant in 
the nectaries that there is reason for supposing that it has some con- 
nection with the formation of sugar ; it first makes its appearance while 
the nectary is still in a meristematic condition. There appears to be 
good reason for the view that nectaries originated as regulators of the 
passage of water through the epidermis, i.e. that in the first place they . 
behaved somewhat like hydathodes. 

Reproductive. 

Polycarpellary Origin of the Pistil of the Lauracese.f — M. 
Mirande has studied the pistil in the Lauraceaa, and concludes that the 
present opinion as to its monocarpellary character is erroneous. The 
investigations in the Cassythaceae clearly show traces of three carpels, 
the posterior of which is prolonged into a style and stigma, while the 
two latero-anterior abort. The ovarian canal which opens at the base of 
the single persistent style, and brings the ovarian cavity into communi- 
cation with the exterior, is nothing but au incomplete stylar canal which 
ends at the level where the two anterior carpels are about to expand. 
Further investigations made upon other groups of the Lauraceaa confirm 
these results, and hence the author concludes that the pistil of the 
Lauraeere is composed of several — usually three — open carpels, one 
posterior, and two latero-anterior. 

* Bot. Centralbl., xxii. (1907) pp. 245-86 (2 pis.). 
t Comptes Kendus. cxlv. (1907; pp. 570-i!. 



64 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Physiology. 
Nutrition and Growth. 

Parasitic Flowering Plants.* — A. Fraysse contributes a summary 
of his recent papers dealing with the biology of parasitic Phanerogams. 
The genera examined include Osyris alba, Gytinus Hypocistis, Odontitis 
rubra, Euphrasia officinalis, Lathrma squamaria, L. clandestine,, and 

Mtiiwtropa Hypopitys. 

The author finds that the plants most readily attacked by such 
parasites as Lathnea, Euphrasia, etc., winch attach themselves by 
suckers, are those with bacteria-nodules, tubercles, mycorhizas, etc. 
The suckers are sometimes pericyclic, sometimes endodermic in origin, 
and probably represent modified roots. The invasion of the parasite 
usually causes the formation in the host of a cambium zone, a layer of 
cork or other similar structures for the purpose of isolating the infected 
region. There may also be much mucilage or gum formed around the 
point of attack. Some of the green parasites absorb both mineral food 
and carbon compounds from their hosts, e.g. Odontites, while others only 
absorb carbon compounds, e.g. Euphrasia. Those without chlorophyll 
absorb the whole of their food from the host. In all cases, the parasite 
has a selective power, and by means of diastases converts the absorbed 
food-materials into compounds suitable for assimilation. Glucose 
appears to be the principal source of carbon, and thei'e is a special 
diastase present for converting the starch of the host-plant into this 
sugar. The latter may be immediately assimilated, or may be absorbed 
and then reconverted into a form of starch until needed. Tannin may 
be used, as in Gytinus, as an agent of nutrition and protection. The 
suckers contain substances which protect the parasite from the toxins 
secreted by the host. Infection is effected by the agency of cellulose- 
diastases, and other ferments of a similar character, which are most 
active when the host offers the greatest resistance. 

Parasitic Phanerogams and Nitrates. f — M. Mirande has con- 
ducted experiments with the view of discovering whether parasitic 
phanerogams absorb nitrates. The method employed was that of quali- 
tative analysis of the plant-sap by microchemical methods, using the 
sensitive sulphuric-diphenylamine reaction, and special attention was 
given to the organs of attachment, roots, suckers, etc. Parasites with 
little or no chlorophyll do not absorb nitrates from the host-plants, 
semi-parasites may or may not absorb nitrates. It appears that the 
reduction of nitrates depends upon the chlorophyll-function, and hence 
those plants which are destitute of chlorophyll, and thus unable to 
reduce nitrates, absorb nitrogen from the host-plants in a state of 
organic combination, thus profiting by the chlorophyll-function of the 
host-plants. Variation in the power of nitrate-absorption fluctuates 
with the amount of chlorophyll present. 

* Rev. Gen. Bot., xix. (1907) pp. 49-69 (13 figs.). 
t Coniptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 507-9. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 65 

Course of Molecular Physiology.*— H. Schoufceden has edited the 
manuscript of a course of lectures by the late Professor Leo Errera on 
the application of physical laws to the phenomena of plant physiology. 



Irritability. 

Geotropism in the Roots of Lupinus albus.f — P. M. G-eorgevitch 
has made a cytological study of the roots of Lupinus albus with special 
reference to geotropism. The root-cap surrounds a columella, which, 
together with the adjacent cells, is rich in starch-granules. Normally 
these granules rest upon the physically lower cell-walls. In the normal 
cells of the root-tip the nucleus behaves as if lighter than the rest of 
the cell-contents, while the starch-corpuscles appear to be heavier, and 
follow the direction of the force of gravity, when the position of the 
root is changed. There is in each cell an accumulation of protoplasm, 
which stains very deeply, and which bears an important relationship to 
the position of the starch-granules, for when the root-tip is bent, so 
that gravity acts at right angles, or parallel to the organic axis, the 
starch-granules cover the physically lower cell-wall, while the proto- 
plasmic layer rests upon the morphological lower cell-wall. The move- 
ment in any direction of the starch-granules is always accompanied by 
movement of the protoplasmic layer. Also, the cell-nucleus is influ- 
enced by the force of gravity, and can be either positively or negatively 
geotropic. The cell-nucleus of geotropically directed roots shows the 
same structure as that of the ordinary cell-nucleus, and exhibits normal, 
mitotic cell-division. The cells of the growing root under the influence 
of gravity behave as if subjected to a one-sided pull or pressure, those 
on the concave side being short and broad, while those on the convex 
side are much elongated. 

Epidermis of Foliage-leaves in Relation to Light-perception. $ — 
M. Nordhausen has experimented with Fittonia, Impatiens, etc., with 
special reference to the connection of the epidermal cells with light- 
perception. Haberlandt's theory that the papillose outer walls of the 
epidermis act like lenses, throwing light upon the opposite sides of the 
cells, the plasmic linings of which are sensitive to light, has not been 
confirmed by the present experiments. Moreover, the reason put forward 
by Haberlandt for the failure of certain experiments, viz. that the light- 
sensitiveness is not inherited but acquired, and may, therefore, vary 
with changed conditions, is criticised by the author, who contends that 
this sensitiveness would then be constantly changing under normal 
conditions. The conclusion appears to be that the papilla? of the epi- 
dermis stand in no direct causal relationship to the perception of light 
by the leaf -blade. 

* Cours de Physiologie Moleculaire fait au doctorat en sciences botauiques en 
1903 par Leo Errera. Extrait du Recueil de l'lnstitut botanique de Bruxelles, 
VII. Brussels: Lamertin, 1907, xii. and 153 pp., 20 figs, in text. 

t Bot. Centralbl., xxii. (1907) pp. 1-20 (1 pi.). 

X Bot. Gesell., xxv. (1907) pp. 398-410. 

Feb. 19th, 1908 f 



66 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



General. 

Pleistocene Flora of Canada.* — D. P. Penhallow has examined 
various leaves from the interglacial deposits of the Don Valley, Toronto. 
The specimens included Acer pleistocenicum, A. torontoniensis, Garya 
alba, Gercis canadensis, Gyperus sp., Gleditschia donensis, Madura auran- 
tiaca, Picea nigra, Ostrija virginica, Platanus occidentalis, Populus 
grandidentata, Primus sp., Quercus alba, Robinia pseudacacia, Tilia 
americana, and Ulmus americana. The present examination confirms 
previous conclusions as to the Don flora, and the existence of a climate 
warmer than the present one. It is now definitely proved that succes- 
sive northerly and southerly movements of the continental ice-sheet 
involved corresponding movements in the vegetation, and brought about 
the elimination of unstable species. The evidence of the Pleistocene 
clays of Toronto agrees with that of similar deposits at Elmira, New 
York, etc. 

Affinities of the Chicoracese.f — L. Dufour has studied the cotyle- 
dons of this group with special reference to its evolution and affinity. 
There are two distinct types of cotyledons ; those of the first group are 
broad, but they rarely exceed 20 mm. in length, while the petiole is 
often ill-defined. This type of cotyledon is characteristic of Gichorium, 
Lactuca, Sonchus, Grepis, Taraxacum, Hieracium, etc. The second type 
is less common, but is found in the genera Scorzonera, Tragopogon, 
Geropogon, and Podospermum ; here the cotyledons often reach a length 
of 50-60 mm., while the breadth does not exceed 3 mm. The author 
regards the present classification of the Chicoraceae as very artificial, 
and suggests that they should be divided into two groups according to 
the characters of their cotyledons. One group should comprise such 
types as Tragopogon, etc., the simplest being Scorzonera and Tragopogon, 
with undivided leaves, while Podospermum, with its much-divided leaves, 
is the most highly evolved type. The other group should comprise 
Gichorium, Lactuca, etc., and here, again, there is a gradual transition 
from the simple to the much-divided leaf. 

Both groups appear to have had a common origin in plants with 
simple leaves, and this character is frequently revealed in the cotyledons 
and first foliage leaves. 

Monograph of the Genus Ribes.} — Ed. de Jancewski has published 
an exhaustive account of this genus, in which he includes as a section, 
as is now usually done, Grossularia, to which belongs the gooseberry. 
The genus contains 133 species, for most of which a figure of the flower 
is given in addition to a very full description of the plant. 

Harmful Secretion of Sugar in Myrmecophilous Plants.§ — M. 
Nieuwenhuis von Uexkull-Giildenband has studied myrmecophilous 
plants, in order to test the opinion of Delpino, Kerner, and others, that 
the secretion of sugar in extra-floral nectaries, is useful in attracting 

* Amer. Nat., xli. (1907) pp. 443-52 (2 figs.), 
t Comptes Rendus. cxlv. (1907) pp. 567-70. 

% Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve, xxxv. (1907) pp. 199-517 (202 figs, in 
text). § Proc. Acad. Amsterdam, ix. pt. 1 (1907) pp. 150-6. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 67 

ants which protect the plants against injurious insects. The results of 
the investigations appear to show that in many plants, the secretion of 
sugar does much harm, by attracting not only ants, but beetles, bugs, 
etc., which eat the sugar and also the nectaries, leaves and flowers. 
This is the case with the orchid Spathoglottis plicata, a shrub-like 
malvaceous plant, and others. In Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and in Hibiscus 
tiUaceus, where extra-floral nectaries occur, no sugar is secreted owing 
to the growth of a fungus in the nectaries, and here the plants are 
healthy and uninjured by insects. There is no confirmation of Burck's 
theory that extra-floral nectaries occur near inflorescences, in order to 
attract ants which serve as a protection against bees and wasps which 
would bore the flowers. The number of bored flowers stands in no 
direct relatioii;to such nectaries, but rather in relation to the position of 
the plants, weather, etc. Moreover, the shapes and positions of the 
nectaries do not appear to be adapted for ants, and young plants, 
where most protection is necessary, have no sugar secretion. The ants 
which are attracted appear to be of a peaceful nature, and unable to 
afford any protection to plants ; the dangerous ants, which might be 
of use in this way, are carnivorous and can only be attracted by animal 
food. The author believes that the real meaning of these nectaries 
has yet to be discovered, and that new investigations must include 
plant-physiology as well as biology. 

Influence of Nectaries on the Opening of Anthers.* — W. Burck 
has conducted investigations with the object of discovering whether the 
nectaries and other glucose-secreting tissues influence the opening of the 
anthers by withdrawing water from them. Experiments conducted upon 
Diervillea rosea, Digitalis purpurea, Oenothera Lamarckiana, etc., show 
that water is withdrawn from the anthers by osmosis set up by the 
glucose-containing tissue found in the stamens and corolla. Other 
flowers, whose anthers behave differently, have similar tissue, but to a 
very much smaller extent. In a second series of experiments con- 
ducted upon SteUaria media, Gerastium semidecandrum, G. erectum, 
Holostewn umbellatum, and many other flowers having a nectary at the 
base of each stamen, the bursting of the anthers appears to be due to 
the osmotic influence of the nectaries, not as in the first group, to simple 
glucose-containing tissue. While in a third series of experiments upon 
such flowers as Ranunculus acris, Brassica oleracea, Geranium molle, etc., 
negative results were obtained, the general conclusions seem to show that 
nectaries and glucose-secreting tissues play an important part in enabhng 
the anthers to open at the right time, independently of the hygroscopic 
condition of the air. 

Baegagli-Petrucci, G. — Descrizione di alcuni tricomi de Palme. (Descrip- 
tion of some trichomes of palms.) Nuovo Giorn. But. Ital., n.s. xiv. (1907) 

pp. 293-5 (1 pi.). 

Colozza, A. — Studio anatomico sulle Goodeniaceae. (An anatomical study of the 
Goodeniacese.) Tom. cit., pp. 304-26* (2 pis.). 



Proc. Acad. Amsterdam, ix. pt. 1 (1907) pp. 390-6. 

F •> 



68 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

CRYPTOGAMS. 

Pteridophyta. 
(By A. Gepp, M.A., F.L.S.) 

Apogamy and Apospory.* — H. "Woronin discusses the question of 
apogamy and apospory in certain ferns. She has discovered apogamy in 
Notochlama EcMoniana, N. sinuata, Pellcm tenera, P.flavens, and has 
followed out the development of the germinating plants in these as well 
as in Trichomanes Kranssii. And in the latter plant she has also 
followed out the development of the antheridia and the formation of the 
prothallium, which usually is a flat expansion arising from a filament. 
In this plant also she produced apospory artificially. Various physio- 
logical experiments made by the author are described, and a full 
summary of her results is given. 

K. Goebel f has succeeded in producing apospory artificially in various 
ferns, obtaining prothallia, sporophytes, and intermediate structures. He 
finds that regeneration is more active in young than in older leaves ; 
that the product of regeneration is not necessarily a sporophytic struc- 
ture ; that there seems to be no great difference between the nuclei of 
prothallia and those of sjwrophytes, and so no sharp distinction between 
the x and 2x generations. 

Genus Antrophyum.J — R. C. Benedict treats of the genus A/itro- 
phyum, giving a synopsis of its sub-genera and of the American species. 
Four sub-genera are distinguished, one of them being new, Antrophy- 
opsis, which comprises five African species, A. Boryanum being the type. 
Nine American species are recognised and re-described. Two of them 
are new, A. Dussianum from the West Indian Islands, and A. Jenmani 
from British and French Guiana. 

Bryophyta. 

(By A. Gepp.) 

Apospory and Sexuality in Mosses.§ — El. and Em. Marchal give 
an account of the methods and results of their experiments undertaken 
to determine the sexuality of the protonemas obtained by cultivation of 
portions of pedicel and theca of the maturing sporogonium, Stahl 
and others having already shown the possibility of obtaining such a 
protonema by regeneration. Results were obtained with fourteen 
species, but only those derived from three dioicous species, Bryum 
caespiticium, Mnium hornum, and B. argenteum, are now published. 
1. The aposporic protonema resulting from the regeneration of the 
sporophyte is morphologically identical with the haploidic protonema ; 
placed in favourable conditions it is apt to produce gonophytes. 2. 
These gonophytes are bisexual, like the sporogonium, from which they 
emanate. 3. This double sexual polarity expresses itself in the 

* Flora, xcviii. (1907) pp. 101-62 (figs.). 

+ SB. k. Akad. Wiss., xxxvii. (1907) pp. 119-38 (figs.). See also Bot. Gazette, 
xliv. (1907) p. 317. X Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxxiv. U907) pp. 445-58. 

§ Bull. CI. Sci. Acad. Koy. Belg., 1907, pp. 765-89. See also pp. 728-30. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 69 

production of synoicous flowers. These latter, however, are always 
accompanied in a predominant proportion by flowers which, by a latent 
influence, manifest only male polarity, or very rarely by flowers of female 
character. 4. The gonophytes which produce these male or female 
flowers are, nevertheless, also virtually bisexual, this bisexuality 
revealing itself immediately in the products of regeneration when 
syncecism reappears. 5. The protonema arising by regeneration of 
the sporogonium consequently gives birth among species, however 
strictly dioicous, to a new form, hermaphrodite, or more exactly, 
androgyno-synoicous, capable of reproducing itself indefinitely in an 
asexual manner. 

Classification of Families and Genera of Mosses.* — V. F. Brotherus 
publishes a further contribution to the section Musci in Engler and 
Prantl's " Die natiiiiichen Pflanzenfamilien." He finishes the family 
Hookeriacege and treats of the Hypopterygiacese (with three genera), 
Helicopkyllaceee (two genera), Rhacopilaceee (one genus), Leskeaceee 
(twenty-three genera arranged in five groups). A large portion of the 
group Thuidieas stands over for completion in the next part of the 
work. 

European Hepaticse.t — K. Mueller, of Freiburg, publishes the fifth 
part of his monograph of the European Hepatic* in Rabenhorst's 
Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz, 
and gives full descriptions of the following genera of Marchantiacese 
with their species : Reboidia, Grimaldia, Neesiella, Firnbriaria, Fegatella, 
Lunularia, Exormotheca. Dumortiera, Bucegia, Freissia, Marcliantia. 
Passing on to the second great division of hepatics — Jungermanniales, 
he begins the consideration of the section Jungermanniaceee Anakro- 
gynas by describing Sphwrocarpus and Riella. 

Mossflora of Northumberland.! — H. N. Dixon publishes a list of 
the mosses he collected in Northumberland in the summer of 1905, and 
of the species recorded by other bryologists, indicating the probable 
inaccuracy of some of these records. 

French Mosses. § — P. Sebille gives a list of some rare or interesting 
species of the bryological flora of Saone-et-Loire. It consists of 139 
species, chiefly authenticated by the late M. Philibert. In subsidiary 
lists are grouped the species of Mediterranean type, those of Alpine 
type, and those of the Atlantic coast type. CI. Dismier || gives a list of 
rare species found in the Vallee de la Voulzie near Provins (Seine-et- 
Marne). 

North American Mosses. — E. CI. Brittonlf publishes some notes on 
the nomenclature of North American mosses, with special reference 
to a recent part of Brotherus' monograph of mosses in Engler and 

* Leipzig : W. Engelrnann, i. abt. 3 (1907) pp. 961-1008 (tigs.). 
t Leipzig : E. Kummer, vi., lief. 5 (1907) pp. 257-320. 
\ Proc. Berwick Nat. Club, xix. (1907) pp. 305-26. 

§ Rev. Bryolog., xxxiv. (1907) pp. 114-22. 

|| C.R. Congres Soc. Sav., 1906, 3 pp. 
H Bryologist, x. (1907) pp. 100-1. 



70 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Prantl's Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien. A description is given of 
Pterygophyllum acuminatum Pur., an East Indian species now stated to 
have Hookeria Sullivantii 0. Muell. as a synonym, having a distribution 
from Ohio to Guadeloupe and in South America. 

A. Lorenz* publishes some further notes upon the bryophytes of 
Waterville in the White Mountain territory of New Hampshire, an 
incompletely explored region. 

C. H. Demetriof gives a list of 100 mosses collected in various parts 
of Missouri. 

E. J. Window! describes the dehiscence of capsules and dispersal of 
spores which he had the good fortune to observe in process of execution 
in Sphagnum growing in a swamp in Vermont on a sunny morning in 
August. 



w 



Mosses of Madeira.§ — A. Luisier publishes a note on some bryo- 
logical additions to the flora of Madeira collected by C. A. de Menezes. 
The two genera Cinclidotus and Brachymenium have never previously 
been recorded for the Atlantic islands. Menezes has discovered 
Cinclidotus fontinaloides var. madeirensis Card, and Brachymenium 
pMlonotula Hpe., which latter, like Philonotis obtusata CM., is a 
Madagascan species. Similarly in the Azores are found species whose 
affinity is with those of the African islands. Menezes has also discovered 
a new variety, Astrodontium TreUasei var. latifolium Card. 

Muscinese of the Canary Islands. || — Pitard, Corbiere and Negri 
publish an account of the principal Canary Islands, a bibliographical 
index and a catalogue of the Muscineaa with their stations, including 
101 mosses, 20 of which are new to the flora, and 62 hepatics, 18 of 
which are new records for the Canaries and 3 new to science. 

Arctic Muscineae.lf — N. Bryhn publishes an enumeration and 
description of the bryophytes collected during the second Norwegian 
Polar expedition. These include 57 hepatics and 233 mosses, several of 
which are new and four are figured. 

A. Hesselbo ** publishes a list of the Andreaaales and Bryales found 
in East Greenland, between 74° 15' and 65° 35' lat. N., in the years 
1898-1902. They were collected during several expeditions by Kruuse 
and Hartz, and amount to 132 species, several of them being new to the 
local flora. 

Sphagna of Alaska.jf — W. A. Setchell gives a summary of the 
cryptogamic work of the University of California Botanical Expedition 
to Alaska in 1899, and adds a list of some previously unreported Alaskan 
Sphagna, determined by C. Warnstorf, including 21 species and forms. 

* Bryologist, x. (1907) pp. 102-3. 

t Tom. cit., pp. 103-6. J Tom. cit., p. 111. 

§ Bull. Soc. Portugaise Sci. Nat. Lisbonne, i. (1907) p. 71. 

|i Mem. Soc. Bot. France, 1907, 44 pp. 

i Vidensk.-selsk. Kristiania, 1906, 260 pp. (1 pi.). 

** Meddelelser om Gronland, xxx. (1907) pp. 315-32. 

ft Univ. of California Publications, Botany, ii. (1907) pp. 309-15. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 71 

Mosses of Antarctic America.* — P. Dusen publishes the fifth part 
of his contributions to the bryology of the Magellan region, West 
Patagonia, and South Chili. It contains records of 34 species, 13 of 
which are described for the first time, some by Dusen and some by 
Brotherus. One change of name is announced, from Grimmia pachy- 
phylla Dus. to G. Dirksouii Dus. Sis plates and two text-figures show 
the points of the new species. 

Portuguese Species of Fissidens.f — A. Luisier publishes a note 
upon some Portuguese species of Fissidens. He describes a new variety 
of F. serrulatus called Henriquesii. F. Wehoitschii he considers to be 
only a variety of F. polypkyllus. According to Bottinithe latter species 
is a variety of F. serrulatus, and F. Welwitschii a mere form of the 
same. F. polypkyllus var. Newtoui, another Portuguese moss, is 
described in Husnot's Muscoloffia Gallica. 



'b J 



Genus Ephemerum.J — C. Douin has made a study of Ephemerum 
stellatum, and is able to correct and complete the published descriptions 
of the plant. He gives numerous figures showing the development of 
the spores, the sterile and fertile plants under different aspects, the 
leaves, capsule, calyptra, etc. He also provides a key to the European 
species of the genus. 

Two Species of Sphaerocarpus found in France.§ — C. Douin dis- 
cusses in detail the species of Splmroearpus found in France. A close 
study of much material has shown him that two species, distinguishable 
only by their spores, occur in France — S. terrestris and S. calif omicus . 
He describes carefully the development of the spores and shows how the 
mature tetrads differ in the two species. The 8. terrestris described by 
Boulay in his Hepatiques, p. 178, is most probably S. califortvicus, 
which appears to be more common in France than the true S. terrestris. 
The spores in both species remain permanently united in tetrads. They 
are larger, yellowish, more loosely reticulated, cristate, not spinose, in 
S. californicus ; whereas in S. terrestris they are smaller, obscure, black, 
of much smaller more numerous meshes, with crests very black and 
bearing numerous sharp black spines. 

Variable Peristome of Philonotis.|| — G. Dismier discusses the 
specific value of the interlamellar thickenings of the peristome-teeth in 
the species of the genus Philonotis. He shows how several recent authors 
have employed these structures as diagnostic characters, and gives the 
results of his own observations, that the presence or absence of these 
structures is unstable and is of no value in the discrimination of species, 
and that their degree of development varies much from one specimen to 
another. P. media Bryhn is but P. Macouni (= P. Ryani) with the 
interlamellar protuberances absent. P. rividaris Warnst. is the same 
as P. marchica, but has the protuberances inconspicuously developed. 

* Arkiv Botanik., vi. (1907) 32 pp. 6 plates, figs, in text. 

t Bull. Soc. Portugaise Sci. Nat. Lisboune, i. (1907) pp. 15-21 (9 figs.>. 

X Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 1907, pp. 242-51, 30G-26 (80 figs.). 

§ Rev. Brvolog., xxxiv. (1907) pp. 105-12 (figs.). 

|| Tom. cit., pp. 112-14. 



72 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Peculiar Unattached Mode of Growth of Leucobryum.* — W. H. 
Burrell describes the common but insufficiently known occurrence of 
Leucobryum glaucum in the form of unattached flattened balls, measuring 
1-2 inches in diameter. They are found with normal attached tufts 
under beech-trees, where they tend to be kicked about by game-birds 
and other animals that feed upon beech-nuts. The thick spongy water- 
retaining nature of the leaves, and the free formation of adventitious 
buds, are other factors that contribute to the production of the cushions, 
as the plants contain a sufficiency of water for prolonged independent 
growth, and the numerous buds swelling out tend to produce a ball of 
branches radiating from near a common centre. The author cites a 
description by H. N. Dixon of unattached balls of Porotrichum 
alopecurum in moist hollows in Weldon Quarries in Northamptonshire. 
These balls measure 2-5 inches in diameter, and consist of profusely 
branched stems. 

Thallophyta. 

Algse. 

By Mbs. E. S. Gepp. 

Regeneration of Algse.f — S. Prowazek has been studying the 
subject of regeneration of algae at intervals for the last six years, and he 
now publishes the most important of his results. His investigations 
were made on the following species : Spirogyra Weberi Kiitz., Mougeotia 
gemtfiexa Ag., Ulva lactuca, Cladophora, Bryopsis plumosa, Vaucheria 
sessilis, Valonia, and Ectocarpus. His results are described under the 
following headings : 1. Phenomena which arise during or immediately 
after infliction of the wound (irritation and wounding phenomena). 

2. Regeneration and reparation phenomena in the narrow sense. 

3. Regeneration phenomena which exceed the original limit of form- 
structure. The paper is illustrated by text figures. 

Influence of External Conditions on the Asexual Reproduction 
of Algas.J — H. Freund describes the experiments which he has made 
on this subject, with the results at which he has arrived. Among some 
of the conditions with which he experimented are temperature, intensity 
of light, increase and removal of nutritive salts, etc. The first plant 
dealt with is (Edogonium pluviale, and after detailing many series of 
experiments, he gives an interesting comparison between (E. pluviale, 
(E. diplandrum, and (E. capillar e. Hccmatococcus pluvialis was also 
treated. A section devoted to general considerations is followed by a 
summary of the results of this work. 

In CE. pluviale and H. pluvialis, the external conditions necessary 
to the formation of zoospores differ according to the previous conditions 
of growth. The significance of inorganic salts for the formation of 
zoospores in both algas depends in the first place upon their chemical 
properties. After treatment with Knop 1 s nutritive solution, (E. pluviale 
forms zoospores, if nitrate and phosphate have been withheld. Diminu- 

* Bryologist, x. (1907) pp. 108-11 (figs.). 

t Biol. Centralbl., xxvii. (1907) pp. 737-47 (11 figs, in text). 

% Flora, xcviii. (1907) pp. 41-100. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 73 

tion of light does not provoke formation of zoospores in plants grown 
in nutritive solution : while on the other hand they are produced 
both by diminution of light and by transference into diluted nutritive 
solution. (Fj. pluviale also produces zoospores when it has been cultivated 
in cane-sugar solution and this is replaced by diluted Knop's solution. 

Resting cysts of H. pluvialis which have lived in old foul water in 
bright light, develop swarm-spores when transferred to distilled water, 
or when provided with suitable nitrates (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium 
salts). Light is not necessary to produce this result, though it enhances 
the effect considerably. Cysts of H. pluvialis, which have been for a 
long time in darkness, form swarm-spores when they are again lighted 
or when they receive cane- or grape-sugar. 

Algal Vegetation of Ponds.* — N. Walker has examined certain 
ponds situated above the Bramhope railway tunnel, near Leeds, occupy- 
ing excavations in clay which were made sixty-seven years ago. He 
mentions three available sites for algre, and gives the species found on 
each. Site 1 : Winter shoots of CEnanthe fistulosa which form a pale 
green zone, from 2-3 yards wide, extending from the edge of the pond 
to a depth of about 9 in. Several factors which probably control the 
succession of algal associations are mentioned, and the species occurring 
in the various months are enumerated. Site 2 : Shoots of Potamogeton 
natans and Sparganium ramosum occurring in the deeper water (1—3 ft.). 
The vertical distribution of the alga? on these shoots is in some cases 
striking, and seems to be affected by surface commotion caused by wind 
and by differences in the illumination. Species of CEdogonium and 
Bulbochcete are followed by Spirpgyra Weberi and other filamentous algae, 
to be displaced in their turn by species of Mougeotia and Desmids. 
Site 3 : Short decaying shoots of the smaller flowering plants, which 
cover the floor of the pond in shallower parts not occupied by CEnanthe. 
The dominant alga is Glceocystis vesiculosa. In one shallow pond with 
deep mud, Spirogyra longata dominates throughout the year. The 
movement of Phormidium inundatum along the filaments of Spirogyra 
from the bottom to the surface is described. 

New Green Algae. f — F. S. Collins describes five new species, some 
of which have already been distributed in the Phycotheca Boreali- 
Americana. They are only in part from New England localities, but so 
general is the distribution of plants of this class that the author states 
they may be found in any temperate locality. The species in question 
are : Pleurococcus marinus, Chcetomorpha chelonum, Cladophora amphibia. 
Vaucheria longipes, and V. Gardneri. The two species of Vaucheria are 
figured. 

Copulation and Germination of Spirogyra.} — A. Trondle is the 
most recent investigator of Spirogyra. Other writers have left doubtful 
certain details in the behaviour of the nuclei with regard to sexual pro- 
cesses, and the present author is able to add fresh facts on these points. 
He describes phenomena which vary from those generally known, 

* Rep. Brit. Assoc. York, 1906, pp. 758-9. 

t Rhodora, ix. (1907) pp. 197-202 (1 pi.). 

X Bot. Zeit., lxv. (1907) pp. 187-217 (1 pi., 13 figs, in text). 



74 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

both in the preparations for copulation and in the topography of the 
copulating cells. The subject is treated under the headings : 1. 
Notes on the morphology of the process of copulation ; (a) Spirogyra 
neglecta ; (b) S. spreeiana. 2. Ripening of the zygotes ; (a) starch and 
oil ; (b) the chromatophores ; (c) the nuclei. 8. Structure of the ripe 
zygotes ; (a) contents ; (b) membrane. 4. Germination of the zygotes. 
5. Law of numbers and reduction of the chromatophores and chromo- 
somes. The results are set forth in a detailed summary, and a list of 
literature is given. The paper is illustrated by a plate and text-figures. 

Sargassum bacciferum.* — ('. Sauvageau combats the statements of 
certain authors that S. bacciferum has been found growing attached any- 
where, and declares definitely that this is not the case. It is to be 
regretted that the error should have been so widely accepted. The 
original home of S. bacciferum has never been found, though the species 
is known in such quantity in the Sargasso Sea, as well as floating in the 
waters round Cape de Verde, the Azores, Bermuda, New Orleans, 
Guadeloupe, Brazil, Chili, Australia, New Zealand, and Ceylon. It is 
rarely thrown up on the shores of Europe. There are two alternative 
theories as to this species : either it grows in a fixed state on the shores 
of some country, whence it is wafted by currents far and wide and 
almost entirely in a sterile condition ; or it has lived and vegetated from 
time immemorial in a floating condition and propagated itself by 
budding. Piccone regards it as indicating a former tract of land now 
submerged, the ancient Atlantis. The present author suggests that 
collectors might do something towards unravelling this mystery by col- 
lecting and examining the plants which are growing among the drifting 
Sargassum, since some of these might be sufficiently characteristic to 
reveal their place of origin. 

Sexuality of Halopteris scoparia.f — C Sauvageau, the first dis- 
coverer of heterogamic sexuality among the Sphacelariaceas, has found 
organs resembling antheridia in dried specimens of Halopteris brachy- 
carpa, H. congesta, and H. hordavea. So far as he could tell, the oogonia 
are unilocular and inclose a single large oogonium. A still more inte- 
resting discovery has been made by this author, namely that of sexual 
organs on the well-known species Halopteris (Stypocaulon) scoparia, so 
widely distributed in Europe, the Atlantic, and the Mediterranean. The 
asexual organs are very common in winter, although the germination of 
the zoospores has never been followed. In December 1903, the author 
collected 2G examples of H. scoparia thrown up on the coast between 
Biarritz and S. Sebastian, and preserved them without any special care. 
On examination he found that while 25 of these had only asexual organs, 
the other one had instead oogonia and antheridia. These organs occupy 
the same position as the sporangia. The oogonia apparently contain 
only one oosphere, which measures about 100/*.. In the hope of obtain- 
ing further material bearing sexual organs, the author collected plants 
from the warmer seas of Teneriffe, and he also examined plants from 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxii. (1907) pp. 1082-4. 
t Tom. cit., pp. 506-7. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 75 

Banyuls in the Mediterranean, but without success. The sexuality 
therefore of H. scoparia rests on the testimony of a single specimen, and 
it may be fairly deduced that the occurrence of antheridia and oogonia 
is extremely rare. 

Aglaozonia melanoidea.* — In two interesting notes, C. Sauvageau 
adds largely to our knowledge of A. melanoidea and its life-history. He 
succeeded in finding it in the Gulf of Gascony, and now he finds it at 
Banyuls in the Mediterranean ; besides which the late Anna Vickers 
dredged it up in the Bay of Naples. After Sauvageau had found it in 
the Gulf of Gascony, he put forth the theory that A. melanoidea might 
be the sporophyte of Cutleria adspersa. One objection to this theory 
was that A. chilosa would then be left without a gametophytic genera- 
tion ; and another was that A. melanoidea was then unknown in the 
Mediterranean. This latter objection has been now done away with. 
The plant found by Anna Vickers is an intermediate state between the 
sterile plants from Guethary and the fertile ones from Banyuls. These 
fertile specimens were collected in December 1905 and January 1906, 
and were found to have sporangia grouped in sori, each of the rows of 
cells of a sorus being surmounted by an elongated sporangium. At the 
end of February and at the end of June, the plants were once more 
sterile, and corresponded with the specimens gathered at Guethary. The 
sporangia contained eight zoospores, similar to those of A. parvula. 
The latter species is less common at Banyuls than is A. melanoidea. 
Cultures of the zoospores of A. melanoidea were made, and the results 
were extremely interesting. Hundreds of plantlets were produced, all 
showing the same character. They consisted of monosiphonous, very 
slender filaments, 2-4 mm. long, having long cells below. The shorter, 
less branched, plantlets were either sterile or nearly so, while the longer 
plantlets, much branched halfway up, were very fertile, bearing anthe- 
ridia and oogonia in all stages of development. None of these plants 
resembled a young Cutleria : indeed, had their life-history not been 
known they would have been regarded as a new genus intermediate 
between Ectocarpus and Cutleria. The author designates this form 
" form Kuckuck," since that author had previously obtained certain 
confervoid filaments from a culture of Aglaozonia parvula. The actual 
position and signification of "form Kuckuck" in the life-cycle of 
Cutleria cannot at present be stated, but various suggestions are made 
by the author. 

Algae of the 'Valdivia' Expedition.! — T. Reinbold publishes his 
report on the marine algae of the German ' Valdivia ' Deep-sea 
Expedition (1X98-9). The areas from which the specimens came are 
the Canary Islands, Cape of Good Hope, Bouvet Island, Kerguelen 
Island, the islands of St. Paul and New Amsterdam, Sumatra, Nicobar 
Islands, Diego Garcia (Chagos Archipelago), Mahe (Seychelles), Dar-es- 
Salaam, Red Sea ; 162 species are enumerated, and -1 of these are new 
to science. The largest collections were made in Kerguelen, Sumatra, 
Diego Garcia, Mahe, and Dar-es-Salaam. In his general remarks on 

* Tom. cit., pp. 139-41 and 271-2. 

t Wiss. Ergebn. Deutsch. Tiefsee-Exped. ' Valdivia,' ii. 2 (1907) 3S pp. (4 pis.). 



76 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the algae of the Indian Ocean, the author gives a list of areas the algae 
of which are well known, insufficiently known, and slightly or not at all 
known, appending the titles of the more important papers, geographi- 
cally arranged. The unknown areas are the Mozambique Coast, 
Delagoa Bay, much of the Indian Coast, Persian Gulf, and many 
small islands. The present paper fills in some of the gaps in treating 
of the islands of Diego Garcia and Mahe. In studying the algal 
distribution in the Indian or any other ocean, it is essential to have an 
accurate knowledge of the various ocean-currents — the most important 
factor in their distribution, carrying not only those species which float by 
means of air- vesicles, but also species parasitic upon them and the spores 
of many other species. The main currents in the Indian Ocean are as 
follows : South of the equator flows the great equatorial current from 
east to west, which upon striking the north point of Madagascar splits 
into two branches — the Agulhas and the Mascarene currents. The 
latter flows south, while the former, passing round west of Madagascar 
and sending out a small branch northwards, flows down the east coast of 
Africa. This warm Agulhas current is met south-east of the Cape of 
Good Hope (in about 40° S. lat.) by cold antarctic currents which 
deflect it to the east where it joins up again with the Mascarene 
current, and these united flow across to Cape Leeuwin, in West 
Australia, accompanied by cold currents on the southward side. At 
Cape Leeuwin a portion of this warm current, turning northward, 
unites again with the equatorial current, thus completing its circuit. 
Another and less important current runs south of the equator, but 
north of the aforesaid equatorial current and in the contrary direction — 
namely, from west to east. By the help of the above currents there is a 
possible means of communication between the marine floras of the 
Malay Archipelago and West Australia and those of the Mascarenes 
and Madagascar, as well as of the east coast of Africa. 

The rest of the paper is devoted to a consideration of the character 
of the algal flora of the Indian Ocean. Taken as a whole it does not 
appear to have any very distinctive flora of its own. In the southern 
parts the character is that of the subantarctic zone. As regards the 
tropical parts the west and north have a fairly uniform character, but 
the east exhibits signs of the influence of West and North Australia 
and of the Pacific Ocean. 

Bocat, L. — Sur la Marennine de la Diatomee bleue; comparaison avec la Phyco- 
cyanine. (On the Marennin of the blue diatom : comparison with Phycocyanin.) 
[A chemical analysis of the blue coloration of Navicula ostrearia, designated 
by E. Ray Lankester as Marennin.] 

C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxii. (1907) pp. 1073-5. 

Duggar, B. M. — The Relation of certain Marine Algae to various Solutions. 
[Plasmolytic experiments with various isosmotic solutions of sodium chloride, 
potassium nitrate, and sugar ; also the poisonous action of certain salts 
of the alkalies and alkaline earths upon marine algae.] 

Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, xvi. (1906) pp. 473-89. 

Edwards, A.M. — The so-oalled "Infusorial Earths," and their Chemical Analyses. 

Chemical News, xcv. (1907) pp. 241-5. 

Mazza, A. — Saggio di Algologia oceanica. (Contributions to marine algology.) 
[A continuation.] Nuov. Notar., xviii. (1907) pp. 177-95. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 77 

Sauvageau, C. — Le verdissement des huitres par la diatomee bleue. (The green 
coloration of oysters by the blue diatom.) 
[A long treatise, dealing exhaustively with all past work on the subject, 
and giving a bibliography of 91 works.] 

Soc. Sci. d'Arcachon, x. (1907) 128 pp. 

Fungi. 

(By A. Lorrain Smith, F.L.S.) 

Cytology of Synchytrium.* — S. Kusano selected for this research a 
still undescribed species, Synchytrium Purerar'm. He devoted his 
attention to the relation between parasite and host, and comparisons 
are drawn between the results obtained and those of other workers in 
the same field. In the species examined no resting spores are formed, 
but sporangia can pass the winter within the tissue of the hosts and 
produce swarm-spores in spring. These spores probably enter by the 
stomata and find their way to non-chlorophyll, sub-epidermal cells. 
The parasite grows within the cells of the host, absorbing the walls and 
those of the neighbouring cells, or compressing them to make room for 
its large size, and thus, from being intracellular, comes to occupy an 
intercellular lysigenetic space. When growth finishes, a hyaline mem- 
brane is formed round it, and the whole contents break up into spores, 
which are ejected by the swelling up of the surrounding host-cells. 
Kusano found that the cytoplasm and nuclei of the host remained 
healthy, and though they eventually disappear, that is due probably to 
self -disorganisation . 



l &^ 



Specialisation in Erysiphacese.-f — G-. M. Reed selected Erysiphe 
Oichoracearum for a series of experiments in this field. He recalls the 
work done on these lines, and gives his own results. The spores of the 
fungus were sown on 23 varieties of Cucurbitaceae belonging to three 
different genera. There was no difficulty in obtaining inoculation in 
any instance ; the fungus spores taken from any species when trans- 
ferred, grew at once on any other species. He contrasts his results 
with those of Salmon, who found some five physiological species in 
Erysiphe graminis. He considers that the species he was dealing with 
probably represents a less primitive form than the one on grass, and 
that it has become adapted to a larger number of hosts. 

Parasitism of Valsa.J — Spieckerman examined a number of pear- 
trees that had died, and found the branches beset with Valsa cincta. 
In cultures he produced pycnidia, but attempts at infection in the open 
gave only negative results. He concludes that the Valsa is a wound 
parasite, that it gains entrance, and then penetrates deeply into the 
sound tissue. The affected trees were all in a moist locality. An 
epidemic among cherry-trees was traced to the action of a Cytospora, 
also a "weak parasite," and the author includes these, and probably 

* Centralbl. Bakt., xix. (1907) pp. 538-43 (1 pi.). 

t Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts and Letters, xv. (1907) p. 527. See also Bot. 
Centralbl., cv. (1907) p. 536. 

X SB. Nat. Ver. Preusz. Rheinl. Westf., 1907, pp. 19-27. See also Ann. Mycol., 
v. (1907) pp. 379-80. 



78 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

many of the Valsece, among the forms that may become parasitic in 
favourable surroundings. 

Study of Fungi imperfecta* — H. Klebahn is continuing his re- 
searches in this branch of mycology. He has succeeded in demonstrating 
the connection between Marssonia juglandis and the ascomycetous form 
Gnomonia leptostyla, both found on walnut leaves. Klebahn sowed the 
spores of Gnomonia on young leaves of the host-plant, and produced 
the Marssonia form. Intermixed with the rather large two-celled 
Marssoyiia spores he found small one-celled spores that have been 
wrongly described as a separate fungus under the name Leptofhyrium 
juglandis. He also made gelatin cultures of the Marssonia spores, 
which he describes. The perithecia of the Gnomonia fruit carry the 
fungus over the winter, and to stamp out the disease it is only necessary 
to destroy the leaves in autumn or before the spring vegetation is 
formed. 

Sexuality and Development of Ascomycetes. — Two papers on this 
subject have appeared recently. The first, by E. J. Welsford,| contains 
an account of the development of Ascobolus furfurascens. In this fungus 
the earliest stages show a scolecite of 6-10 usually similar uninucleate 
cells, which by division rapidly become multinucleate. The fourth cell 
from the end becomes larger than the others, and forms the ascogenous 
cell. The protoplasm and nuclei from the other cells of the scolecite 
pass into the ascogenous cell, where they fuse in pairs and enter the 
ascogenous hyphae, which rise from that cell. These hyphee grow out, 
bend over in the usual characteristic fashion, and form the asci. The 
author considers that the nuclear fusions in the ascogenous cell repre- 
sent a reduced sexual process. 

The second paper, by H. C. Fraser,J describes the sexual process in 
Lachnea stercorea, which the author sums up thus : (1) The archicarp 
of Lachnea stercorea consists of several cells, and terminates in a large, 
multicellular archegonium. (2) From the ascogonium a trichogyne, 
which is at first unicellular, but eventually consists of four, five, or six 
ccenocytic cells, grows out. Its terminal cell is much larger than the 
others, and may become continuous with the antheridium. (3) The 
antheridium, which is not always fully developed, is a unicellular cceno- 
cytic sac ; its origin could not be traced with certainty. (4) The male 
nuclei do not reach the ascogonium, but fertilisation of a reduced type 
occurs, the female nuclei fusing in pairs. (5) Ascogenous hyphs, into 
which the fused nuclei pass, grow out from the ascogonium, and asci 
are formed, by the usual method, at their tips. (6) Lachnea stercorea 
is intermediate, with regard to its sexuality, between Pyronema con- 
fiuens, on the one hand, and Hiimaria granulata on the other, and with 
regard to the organisation of its trichogyne, between Pyronema and 
certain of the Pyrenomycetes. Experiments were also made on spore 
germination in this species. They were treated with digestive fluids or 
with dung extract, and germination took place in about fifty hours 

* Zeitschr. Pflanzenkr., xvii. (1907) pp. 223-37 (1 pi. and 2 figs.), 
t New Phvtologist, vi. (1907) pp. 156-61 (1 pi.). 
I Ann. of Bot., xxi. (1907) pp. 349-60 (2 pis.) . 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY, ETC. 79 

after the beginning of the experiment. It was evidently induced by 
continued warmth and an alkaline medium, the action of which, in part 
at least is to cause softening of the wall of the spore. 

Uredinese.* — P. Dietel has described a series of new species of 
Uredineae from Chili and Brazil, in South America. In most cases he 
is dealing with only one form of the rust. 

J. Ivar Liro| gives an account of experiments with the rusts of 
Finland. For a number of forms he establishes the limits of growth, in 
others he confirms previous findings, and he gives also an account of his 
negative results. He experimented with Melampsora Larici-tremulce, 
P actinia JEcidii-melampyri, P. JEcidii-rumicis, Uromyces Trifolii, Oymno- 
sporangium, and Gronartium. 

J. C. Arthur % treats of the Coleosporiaceas, Uredinaceae, and 
iEcidiaceae in the recent issue of the North American Flora. He 
describes many new species. A number of names have been changed. 
The new genera are Necium, Gionothrix in the Uredinaceee ; Cy sting ophora, 
Dicheirinia, and Discospora in the xEcidiaceae. 

P. Magnus § publishes a note on the nomenclature of some recent 
species of Uromyces on Papilionaceae. They have been wrongly named, 
and Magnus corrects the errors. 

J. C. Arthur || gives an account of his cultures of Uredinege in 1906, 
the seventh series of such reports. Many of the cultures yielded nega- 
tive results, and these are also recorded. One of the most interesting 
discoveries was the autcecious nature of flax rust, Melampsora Lini. 
This gives a good prospect of stamping out the rust by destroying the 
old flax straw on which the fungus lives during the winter. 

A new species of Diorchidium is described by Th. Wurth.1T The 
fungus causes deformations of the host-plant, especially of the leaf- 
stalk. The teleutospores of this fungus are vertically septate, giving two 
cells on one stalk ; occasionally a third cell was formed at the side of the 
others. The new species is D. Koordersii. 

Klebahn** publishes a series of twenty-six culture experiments with 
various Uredineae. Some of these are amplifications or verifications of 
previous work, others deal with new questions of relationships and 
biological species. In his examination of Phragmidium Rubi, he 
remarks that though the many species of Rubus are closely related and 
difficult to separate, yet the fungus is very constantly selective in the 
species on which it grows, infecting some richly and dying out on others. 

Rene Probstft gives a series of results obtained with culture experi- 
ments of Uredineaa on Compositse. He found four specialised forms 
within the species Puccinia Hieracii. He found also that P. Leontodontis 
grew only on Leontodon hispidus ; that P. Hypochocridis was distinct 

* Aim. Mycol., v. (1907) pp. 244-6. 

t Acta Soc. F. & Fl. Fenn., xxix. No. 6 (1900) 25 pp. See also Ann. Glycol., 
v. (1907) p. 301. 

X North American Flora, vii. (1907) pp. 83-100. See also Bot. Centralbl., cv. 
(1907) pp. 136-7. § Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., xxv. (1907) p. 340. 

|| Journ. Mycol., xiii. (1907) pp. 189-205. 
1 Hedwigia, xlvii. (1907) pp. 71-5 (4 rigs.). 
** Zeitschr. Pflanzenkr., xvii. (1907) pp. 129-57. 
+ t Centralbl. Bakt., xix. (1907) pp. 543-4. 



SO SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

from P. Hieracii, and also from P. montevago, a new form that grows 
only on ffgpochceris uniflora. He established also two forms for 
P. carduorum. 

Wilhelm Muller* has made an exhaustive study of the Melampsoree 
on species of Euphorbia. He finds that they can be divided into 
definite classes according to the form of the teleutospore and the thick- 
ness of the wall. He divides them thus into five different types. He 
finds, further, that those with elongate spores and thickened apex belong 
to southern lands, while those with short thin-walled spores are found 
in Middle and North Europe. It is possible also that the length of the 
spores corresponds with the length of the palisade cells. Measurements 
and drawings of the teleutospores of many of the species are given, and 
the size of both teleutospores and uredospores are printed in tabular 
form. 

Morphology of the Rusts.f — A. H. Christman reviews the theories 
held by successive workers on the origin of the different stages in the life- 
cycle of the Uredineag, and then proceeds to give his own interpretations 
which he bases on the examination of certain spore types that do not 
originate in a fusion-cell. He finds one of these types in the secondary 
uredospores of Pkragmidium PotentillcB-canadensis. They arise from 
a large basal cell which contains two nuclei, and is, he considers, 
equivalent to the basidium or basal cell of the JEcidium and teleutospore 
stages. Conjugate division of the basal cell-nuclei takes place, and an 
upper cell is cut off — the first spore initial cell. The division of this 
cell provides the stalk and the uredospore, the stalk corresponding to 
the sterile cell in the jEcidiwn. Meanwhile the basal-cell has budded 
out and formed another uredospore initial cell. The difference between 
this formation and that of the primary uredosorus is, that in the latter 
the underlying mycelium is uninucleate, while the mycelium from which 
the secondary spores arise is binucleate. Christman also examined a 
teleutospore form, Puccinia Podophylli, and found a similar series of 
phenomena to that already described. Occasionally trinucleate cells 
were observed, suggesting possible pathological migrations of nuclei. 

Christman holds with Blackman that the sporophyte stage begins 
with the associated nuclei in the basal cell, and that there is a series 
of asexual reproductive cycles within the sporophyte generation. The 
gametophyte he considers to be the primitive original generation, and 
the autcecious rusts probably older than the hetercecious. 

New Boletus.} — S. Belli describes at some length Boletus sardous 
sp. n., which grows throughout Sardinia. The very bulbous stem, large 
pores, and the colour and form of the spores, differentiate it completely 
from the two species most nearly allied, B. granulatus and B. badius. 
It grows most abundantly under Cistus trees. The fungus is reproduced 
in a coloured plate. 

Recent Work on Fungi. § — I. Gallaud continues his review of the 
different papers that have been published, especially on the cytology of 

* Centralbl. Bakt., xix. (1907) pp. 544-63 (31 figs.). 

t Bot. Gazette, xliv. (1907) pp. 81-100 (1 pi.). 

% Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, xlii. (1907) pp. 1024-30 (1 col. pi.). 

§ Rev. Gen. Bot., xix. (1907) pp. 459-64 and 506-12 (11 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 81 

this large group. In the two contributions cited he confines himself to 
the Basidioinycetes and Uredinere. He finds that in the first group a 
much more extensive research is required before any certainty can be 
reached. He quotes largely from R. Maire, who described the associated 
nuclei of the Basidiomycetes as a synkarion, and who traces their history 
throughout the life of the plant. Gallaud also lays much stress on 
Blackman's research in the Uredineas. 

New Hymenomycetes.* — W. A. Setchell describes at some length 
two hypogaBous Secotiaceaj. They are not entirely subterranean, but 
develop under a covering of dead leaves and other debris. Secotium 
tenuipes looks when uncovered like a Bolbibius or Coprinus, and is about 
2 in. in height. The gleba is formed of anastomosing plates or gills ; 
the spores are yellowish-brown. The second species, Elasmomyces russu- 
loides, looks like a young Russula. A section shows the hymenogastroid 
nature of the pileus. The spores are colourless and reticulate. 

Diseases of Plants. — F. L. Stevens t has investigated the 
Chrysanthemum Ray Blight, by cultivating the fungus on agar media, by 
infecting other plants, and following the development of the parasite. 
He finds it to be one of the Sphreropsideas, Ascochyta Chrysanthemisip. n. 
It attacks the flower often while in the bud, blackening the receptacle, 
peduncle, and stem. No higher fruiting form was distinguished. 

E. Henry | writes on the pine disease in the Jura forests. The 
branches affected by the disease become yellowish at the extremities, 
then red. The voung; branches alone are attacked ; the mycelium 
penetrates to the cambium and kills it all round the branch. The 
pycnidia of the fungus, a species of Phoma, are produced in the cortex 
and pierce the bark. No trees have been killed, and, as the fungus has 
disappeared once, it is hoped that it will again die out. No remedy for 
it has been found. 

A pine disease that has done considerable damage in the Jura has 
been diagnosed as due to the action of Phoma on the leaves. Prillieux 
and Maublanc § give an account of the fungus, and they recommend 
planting of beech-trees among the pines as an almost certain means of 
checking the spread of the disease. 

Ch. Bernard || describes a disease of coco-palms caused by Petfalozzia 
pahnarum. The spores of the fungus were found to germinate very 
easily and quickly in cultures and to infect fresh plants with equal 
rapidity, which accounts for the spread of the disease. Only quite 
young plants suffered. An account is given of methods of killing the 
fungus. 

Several instances of fungoid attacks have been notified to the Board 
of Agriculture. H Helmiathosporium gramineum was found on wheat. 
Celery plants were suffering from the leaf-blight Oercospora Apii. 

* Journ. Mycol. xiii. (1907) pp. 236-41 (1 pi.), 
t Bot. Gazette, xliv. (1907) pp. 241-58 (15 figs.). 
% Comptes Rendus, cxliv. (1907) pp. 725-7. 
§ Tom. cit., pp. 699-701. 

|] Bull. Agric. Indes Neerland, ii. (1906). See also Bot. Centralbl., cv. (1907) 
pp. 433-4. % Journ. Board of Agric, xiv. (1907) pp. 416-17. 

Feb. 19th, 1908 G 



82 SUMMAKY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

These diseases can be checked or cured by suitable spraying. Capno- 
dium Footii and Splmrotheca Mali were found on the same plum-tree, 
both of them leaf-fungi, the latter the more deadly of the two. 

An account is given of gooseberry " cluster-cup disease." * The 
JEcidia going on the leaves and fruit, the uredo- and teleutospores on 
sedges. The disease rarely assumes the proportions of an epidemic. 

L. Petri f has studied and described a malady of olives that has 
been attacking the plants in Tuscany for two years. It appears as pale, 
then reddish, yellow depressed spots on the fruit. He diagnosed the 
fungus causing the spots as CyMndrosporium Olivce- sp. n., one of the 
Melanconiaceae. Petri found that it was not a wound parasite, but that 
the glands of the epicarp offer the points of attack. 

The same writer J describes a disease of pines due to the fungus 
Cytosporella damnosa sp. n. It attacks the twigs, and the leaves above 
the point of attack wither and die. The fruits of the fungus are deeply 
imbedded in the cortex, and do not at first show any disturbance of the 
bark. The cambial zone is destroyed by the mycelium, which also 
invades the tracheides of the wood, and disturbs the transport of water 
and salts to the apical regions. 

In a further paper L. Petri§ describes the galls produced on the 
leaves of Azalea indica by Exobasidium indica. The extent of the 
deformation of the leaves depends on their state of maturity, the later 
the attack the less change takes place in the tissues. He describes the 
infection and the course of the mycelium within the plant. The 
principal change is the multiplication of the vascular elements, and still 
more the great development of the parenchyma, the latter accounting 
for the increase in size. 

H. M. Quanjer |] gives an account of various organisms that are 
harmful to species of Brassica. He deals chiefly with insects, but he 
also describes the mischief done by the fungus Phoma oleracea. In 
the plants attacked, the wood-vessels became hard and filled with brown 
gum. It has been proved that infection is not conveyed with the 
seeds. Insects play a considerable part in carrying the spores. 

J. Behrens % renders a report of plant- diseases in Baden. Plums 
suffered from the attacks of Monilia, the weather in spring having been 
peculiarly favourable for the development of the fungus. The occur- 
rence of rust and smut is also noted, though the harvest was not 
seriously impaired. 

L. Mangin ** gives further information concerning the red disease 
of pines in the Jura. Several of the microfungi found on the trees 
have been satisfactorily proved to be saprophytes. There remain, 
however, some that are parasitic and harmful. Among these Phoma 
abietina and JEcidiiim elatinum are the most noteworthy, but none of 
them are of any serious importance. 

* Journ. Board of Agric, pp. 428-9 (8 figs.). 
+ Ann. Mycol., v. (1907) pp. 320-5 (5 figs.). 

t Tom. cit., pp. 326-32 (1 pi ). § Tom. cit., pp. 341-7 (8 figs.). 

I, Zeitschr. Pflanzenkr., xvii. (1907) pp. 258-67. 

*§ Ber. Groszh. Bad. Landw. Vers. August (Karlsruhe, 1906) 109 pp. See also 
Zeitschr. Pflanzenkr., xvii. (1907) pp. 270-1. 
** Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 934-5. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 83 

Diseases of cereals due to ScUrospora graminicola, one of the Perono- 
sporeae, are described by E. T. Butler.* The fungus causes malforma- 
tion of the host either in the flower or in the stem and leaves ; a full 
description of the fungus is given, and a systematic account of the genus. 

Black disease of peach-trees is due to Gytospora rubescens. F. M. 
Rolfs f has described its growth and action on the host. He concludes 
that it is the pycnidial form of Valsa leucostoma. 

New or Rare Microfungi.J — Under this title, A. Maublanc describes 
a number of new species of Pyrenomycetes and Fungi imperfecti, in some 
cases, following the germination of the spores and the development of 
the mycelium. A new genus, Geratopycnidium, also one of the Fungi 
imperfecti (Excipulaceae), is recorded. It grows on the excreta of insects 
on leaves. It does not enter the tissues nor affect the plant in any 
way. It forms small perithecia, with rather long, tapering beaks, and 
2-celled colourless spores. 

Mycology from the Ecole de Pharmacie. — G. Bainier continues 
his studies of moulds, giving descriptions of a new species, and notes 
on species already known. Two new species of Scopulariopsis are 
described and figured. The conidiophore has the same type of branching 
as Penicillium, but the general habit of the plants is very different. 
Gonatobotrys fuscum ; G. simplex and Arthrobytrys superba are also 
re-described, and their growth and development followed. In a third 
paper he gives an account of Papulaspora aspergilliformis, and of two 
new species of Ascodesmis. In these two genera the carpogonium is 
formed from a single mycelial branch. In the former other hyphaa 
grow out and form a covering ; in Ascodesmis the asci are naked. All 
these fungi are carefully figured. 

Preparation of Enzyme from a Fungus. || — K. Okazaki describes a 
new species, Aspergillus OkazaMi, and its economical value in the pro- 
duction of an enzyme. The fungus is entirely white and easily cultured ; 
spores are mixed with prepared rice, which is then spread on boards and 
suspended in a suitable atmosphere. In a few days the substratum is 
covered with the white growth of the fungus. It is mixed with water, 
allowed to stand for a day, and then precipitated with absolute alcohol. 
The deposit is washed and dried in the usual manner, and placed on the 
market. 

Localities of Fungi. If — B. Studer-Steinhauslin proposes two theories 
as to the occurrence of fungi in woods : — (1) That the mycelium of 
certain species is always associated with the roots of special trees, and 
therefore these fungi and the trees will always be found together. 
(2) That different fungi require different chemical constituents in the 
humus, which they find in the leaves of various trees. Some fungi grow 



* 



Mem. Dept. Agric. India, ii. No. 1 (1907) 19 pp. (5 pis.). See also Bot. 
Centralbl., cv. <1907) pp. 573-4. t Science, xxvi. (1907) p. 87. 

X Bull. Soc. Mycol. France, xxiii. (1907) pp. 141-9 (1 pi. and 7 figs.). 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 125-40. 

|| Centralbl. Bakt., xix. (1907) pp. 481-4 (1 pi.). 

i Mitth. Nat. Ges. Bern, 1906 (1907) xvii. pp. See also Ann. Mycol., v. (1907) 
pp. 381-2. 

2 



S4 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

everywhere ; others prefer certain woodlands, but will also grow on other 
soil ; finally, a third group will only grow in certain special kinds of 
woods. 

Staining of Fungus Spores.* — Josef Schorstein has been experi- 
menting with spores of Morchella esculenta and their reaction to stains. 
The fungus was kept moist for a time, so that a number of spores ger- 
minated, then after some delay they were stained. It was found that 
the germinated spores alone had taken up the stain acid methyl-green, 
the germinating tube turning blue. After 12 hours the tube became 
green, and the remaining spores began to show coloration. Schorstein 
describes the physiological conditions inducing these differences in 
staining capacity. 

Fries, O. Rob. — Anteckningar om svenska Hymenomyceter. (Notes on Swedish 
Hymenomycetes.) 

[Remarks on habitat and development of various Agaracineae, Tremel- 
linese, etc.] Ark. Bot., vi. No. 15 (1907) 31 pp. 

Kern, F. Dunn — New Western Species of Gymnosporangium and Eoestelia. 

[Three new species of GxjmnosiMrangitml are described on juniper, and 
three species of Rocstclia on Cratcegus and Amelanchier.~] 

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxxiv. (1907) pp. 459-63. 

Morgan, A. P. — North American Species of Agaricaceae. 

[A continuation of the description of the Melanosporse.] 

Joum. Mycol., xiii. (1907) pp. 246-55. 

Murrill, W. A. — Some Philippine Polyporaceae. 

[A number of old and new species are described under Murrill' s new nomen- 
clature of the Polyporese.] Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xiii. 

(1907) pp. 465-81. 

Patouillard, N. — Basidiomycetes nouveaux du Bresil recuellis par F. Noack. 
(Basidiomycetes collected in Brazil by F. Noack.) 

[Seven new species are described.] Ann. Mycol., v. (1907) pp. 364-6. 

Rick — Fungi Anstro-Americani, Fasc. vii.-viii. 

[A list of 41 fungi, with notes. One new species is described.] 

Tom. cit., pp. 335-8. 

Saccardo, P. A., & G. B. Traverso — Sulla disposizione e nomenclatura dei 
gruppi micologici da sequirsi nella " Flora italica cryptogamia." 

[The arrangement and nomenclature to be followed in the mycological 
groups of the " Italian Cryptogamic Flora."] Tom. cit., pp. 315-19. 

Sydow, H. & P. — Novae fungorum Species, IV. 

[Ten new species described.] Tom. cit., pp. 338-40. 

„ ,, Verzeichnis der von Herrn Noack in Brasilien gesammelten 

Pilze. (List of fungi collected by F. Noack in Brazil.) 
[Some new species are included.] 

Tom. cit., pp. 348-63 (1 fig.). 

Lichens. 
(By A. Lorrain Smith, F.L.S.) 

Development of Lichen Apothecia.f — W. Nienburg has examined 
the apothecia of several forms of Lichens, and draws various interesting 
conclusions from the results of his research. He finds that in Usnea 
several carpogonia with trichogynes are developed under the cortex, all 

* Ann. Mycol. v. (1907) pp. 323-4 (1 fig.). 

t Flora, xcviii. (1907) pp. 1-40 (7 pis. and 3 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 85 

of them disappearing except one only, which forms the subhymenial 
layer. The hypothecium is entirely vegetative in origin and arises 
from the cortical cells. He contrasts this development with that of 
Parmelia acetabulum, in which the hypothecium is a product of the 
ascogonium, and the ascogenous hyphas rise from the hypothecium 
through the subhymenium giving it a generative character as contrasted 
with its vegetative character in Usnea. The author concludes that 
Parmelia and Usnea are not so closely related as has been supposed, 
though he states that other Parmelia, may not conform to this type. 

A further study was made of Cladonia types with a view to throw 
light on the nature of the fruit in this family — whether the podetium 
is a secondary thallus or a highly developed excipulum. He quotes the 
work and views of various workers, and gives his own results. In Bceo- 
myces he finds the stalk to be an elongate excipulum, in Sphyridium a 
small typical podetium or secondary thallus, and in Icomadophila a stage 
between the two forms. Further, he finds that Bceomyces is apogamous, 
since neither carpogonia nor trichogynes could be discovered. In Icoma- 
phila he found both organs as well as numerous spermogonia, in 
Sphyridium carpogonia were much reduced and spermogonia were rare. 
Nienburg considers that there are not sufficient data to determine the 
nature of the Cladonia podetia. 

Mycetozoa. 

New Myxomycete.* — Louis Leger describes an organism allied to 
the Mycetozoa, or rather perhaps to the Acrasieae. He found it living 
as a parasite in the bodies of Coleoptera from Algeria. The vegetative 
condition is to be found in or between the adipose cells of the insects, 
more particularly in the genital organs. The youngest stages are ovoid 
or spherical in form, with one nucleus ; later the form is amoeboid and 
multinucleate, with from 2 to 8 nuclei. Nuclear division is by mitosis. 
The vegetative bodies increase by division. At the termination of this 
stage the substance breaks up into small uninucleate spores, though some- 
times there are large multinucleate spores also. The Coleoptera do not 
seem to be seriously incommoded by the presence of the parasite. Leger 
names it Sporomyxa scauri g. et sp. u. 

Cultural Experiments with Acrasiese.t; — Ernest Pinoy undertook 
a research to decide the connection, if any, between bacteria and 
mycetozoa. Dictyostelium mucoroides had been described as parasitic 
on bacterial colonies, and Pinoy proved this to be true. He isolated 
a fluorescent bacterium, and found that the spores of D. mucoroides 
would not germinate without the presence of this bacterium. He fonnd 
also that the ruyxaincebre produced from the spores were nourished 
by the digestion of bacteria in their vacuoles, and that a diastase is 
formed which he calls acrasidiastase, by aid of which the bacteria are 
digested. The author examined by similar methods two other members 
of the group, Dictyostelium purpureum and Polysphondylium violacetnu. 

* Cornptes Rendus, cxlv. (l'JOT) pp. 837-8. 

t Ann. Inst. Pasteur, xxi. (PJU7) pp. 622-50 (i pis.). 



86 SUMiMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

He showed, among a series of corresponding results, the necessity for 
the presence of a bacterium in the culture, and the effects of different 
bacteria. He also followed the division of the nuclei and the formation 
of the spore heads. 

Schizophyta. 
Schizomycetes. 

Morphology of Human Tubercle Bacilli in Saline Media.* — 
G. Peju and H. Rajat find that when tubercle bacilli are grown at 38°C. 
in peptone broth, to which has been added up to 4 p.c. of KI in a 
saturated aqueous atmosphere, and if after 15 to 18 days the growth is 
subcultured repeatedly into fresh similar medium, the bacilli of the 
later (5th to 6th) generations have become elongated, some forming 
filaments 50-60 /j. long, some having lateral buddings : these buds appear 
to elongate into filaments which also have lateral buds, a mycelial 
appearance resulting ; but dichotomous division was never observed. 

Subcutaneous Fibro-granulomata in Cattle.f — P. G. Woolley 

describes cases of subcutaneous granulomata occurring in Chinese cows, 
with appearances resembling actinomycosis. The tumours consisted of 
a fibrous envelope inclosing granulomatous tissue and a central cavity 
containing pus, from which on every occasion the author obtained, after 
a week or more, by culture on glycerin-agar, minute fine granular grey 
colonies of non-motile short thin rods ; these stained by the ordinary 
dyes, but not by Gram's method ; they were not acid-fast, but when 
stained with carbol-thionin or with 10 p.c. carbol-fuchsin they showed 
a beaded appearance. Growth was slow, and only obtainable on glycerin- 
agar. The organism was not pathogenic to monkeys. 

Three Iron Bacteria 4 — D. Ellis describes three thread bacteria, that 
are covered with the red hydroxide of iron, and constitute the red deposit 
in the streams of the neighbourhood of Glasgow. 1. Leptothriz 
ochracea consists of a number of straight filaments often with unsym- 
metrical ends, and having a sharply contoured membrane ; they vary in 
width from 1 ■ 5-2 /x, though when covered with ferric oxide the width 
may be 3/* or more, and the length attains 300/* or over. Conidia 
arise by budding, the buds separating by constriction, though this is 
often delayed and the buds elongate to form new threads. The conidia 
are oval, 1 • 5 by 1 /a. Multiplication by cell-division also occurs. 
Motility was never observed. 2. Gallionella ferruginea is usually 
associated with the preceding, and is seldom found alone. In appear- 
ance it resembles a hairpin spirally twisted round itself ; the thickness 
of the threads varies from " 5-1 /*. The author was not able to dis- 
tinguish any definite membrane. Multiplication takes place by the 
cutting off of small portions which elongate into new individuals. 
Conidia formation also occurs. Motility was never observed. 3. 
Spirophyllumfernitjuieum, the body of the cell is elongated and flattened 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) p. 427. 

t Ceutralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., xlv. (1907) p. 214. 

j Op. cit., 2te Abt., xix. (1907) p. 502. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 87 

and spirally twisted, the number of turns varying from a quarter turn 
up to fifteen or more turns ; the width varies from 1-6 p, the length 
reaching 200 /x or more ; the middle portion of the cell has a thickness 
of only about 0*25 fx, whilst the edges are thickened up to 0*5 /x ; there 
is no definite membrane ; the ends are irregular and unsymmetrical ; 
conidia formation takes place as in the two previous organisms ; only 
one doubtful case of vegetative division was observed. Referring to the 
layer of iron on the membrane that surrounds these organisms, the 
author considers it to be an instance of the property possessed by 
vegetable protoplasm of attracting certain non-living substances, and he 
repudiates the idea that the attraction of the iron has any biological 
significance. 

Susceptibility to Plague of Rats of Diverse Races.* — E. Klein 
has found that the common sewer rat is considerably less susceptible to 
plague than the tame or white rat. Experimenting on the brown and 
grey ship rat from South America, the brown and white ship rat from 
Norway, and the black rat from New Zealand, India, and South Africa, 
the author found that cultures of white rat B. pestis are by far the most 
virulent ; next comes B. pestis of the black rat ; but the B. pestis 
obtained through the brown South American ship rat and the Norway 
rat was in each case of lesser virulence. 

Staphylococci Pathogenic to Man.j — F. W. Andrewes and M. H. 
Gordon, for purposes of differentiation and classification, have subjected 
a large number of staphylococci, obtained from various sources, to a 
series of observations, which included besides those dealing with morpho- 
logical, tinctorial, and cultural characters, eight physiological tests, viz. 
(1) the clotting of milk within one week at 37° C. ; (2) the liquefaction 
of gelatin within one week at 22° C. ; (3) the reduction of neutral red 
within 48 hours at 37° C. under anaerobic conditions ; (4) the reduction 
of nitrate to nitrite within three days at 37° C. ; (5) the production of 
acid when cultivated for one week at 37° C. in Lemco-litmus medium 
containing 1 p.c. maltose ; (6) ditto with lactose instead of maltose ; 
(7) ditto with glycerin ; (8) ditto with mannite. 

The authors conclude that staphylococci fall into two groups : 

(1) Gram-negative cocci (M. catarrhalis, meningococcus, gonococcus) ; 

(2) Gram-positive staphylococci, of which 8. pyogenes is the commonest 
example. It exists either as S. aureus, S. citreus, or *S'. albus, according to 
the partial or complete suppression of its chromogenic properties. The 
common saprophytic coccus of the skin, S. epidermidis albus, is perfectly 
distinct biologically, and is identical with the Micrococcus neoformuns of 
Doyen. 

Micrococcus of Epidemic Cerebrospinal Meningitis. | — M.H.Gordon 
reviews the evidence associating the meningococcus of Weichelbaum with 
epidemic meningitis. The organism is found to be present in pure 
culture both in the cerebrospinal exudate and in the cerebral ventricles ; 
the coccus, which is negative to Gram's stain, is in the form of flattened 

* Rep. Med. Officer Local Govt. Board, 1905-6, p. 431. 
t Tom. cit., p. 543. X Tom. cit., p. 435. 



88 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

bean-like diplococci, or as single cocci, chiefly inclosed in the lencocytee 
of the exudate ; it is an obligate aerobe ; it grows best on agar contain- 
ing ascitic fluid ; the author found that nutrose ascitic agar (" nasgar ") 
was specially suitable ; it also grows well in broth to which 10 p.c. fresh 
sterile ascitic fluid has been added, and in this medium it lives longer 
(up to a fortnight) than on solid media ; it is killed by a temperature of 
65° C. for 30 minutes. The colonies formed on nasgar, in strong con- 
trast to colonies of Gram-positive cocci, after 24 hours at 37° C, appear 
as smooth, translucent, regular, circular, or oval disks, resembling young 
colonies of B. coli ; the optimum temperature of growth is 36-87° C. ; 
growth is arrested at 42° C. ; and at 25° C. its pathogenic action is 
exerted by an endotoxin. 

Serum of patients suffering from the disease agglutinated the coccus 
in dilutions of 1 in 10 to 1 in 100, and some cases up to a dilution of 
1 in 400, but the commencement of the agglutination reaction bears no 
definite relation to the onset of the disease. 

The reactions of the meningococcus and other Gram-negative cocci 
to glucose, galactose, maltose, and saccharose, are given in a table, and 
the results show the value of these reactions in differentiating the 
meningococcus from the other Gram-negative cocci liable to occur in the 
upper respiratory passages. 

The organism has also been isolated from the blood, from nasal 
secretion, and saliva, and has been located in the middle ear, in joints, 
and in the eye when inflamed during the disease. 

Its detection in the secretion of the upper respiratory passages is im- 
portant as indicating the route by which infection has been acquired, or 
is imparted to others ; but the identification is difficult owing to the 
presence of other Gram-negative cocci from which the meningococcus 
has to be differentiated by cultivation. 

New Plague Prophylactic* — E. Klein has prepared from the 
necrotic nodules of the bubo or other affected organs, a plague prophy- 
lactic material of uniform value, and which is readily standardised and 
preserved. The author claims that by using bacillary masses from the 
animal direct, a material is secured of greater uniformity and activity 
than that obtained from artificial medium, and that since the specific 
toxin produced by the microbe is presumably stored up in the organs of 
the animal dying of plague, it might be possible by injecting into the 
animals subfatal doses of this tissue toxin, to confer on them an 
immunity against B. pestis. As the result of numerous experiments 
with material obtained from the raw or the heated filtrate of emulsion of 
dried plague organs, it appeared that appropriate doses injected into rats, 
were protective in as short a period as seven days, and persisted for 
many weeks. 

Micrococcus producing a Yellow-brown Colour on Cheese. t — H. 
Huss describes the morphological and cultural characters of a micro- 
coccus isolated from a cheese, the rind of which was stained a yellow- 
brown colour by the organism. The cheese affected had come from a 

* Bep. Med. Officer Local Govt. Board, 1905-6, p. 392. 
t Centralbl. Bakt , 2te Abt., xiv. (1907) p 518. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 89 

factory in Saxony. The organism was isolated from the cheese itself, 
and also from splinters of the wood on which the cheese had stood. It 
appeared together with many other organisms on plates of nutrient 
gelatin and agar inoculated from the washings of the samples in sterile 
water. The author has named the organism Micrococcus chromofiavus ; 
the coccus measured " 9-1 ' 05 /x in diameter ; it was not motile ; it 
stained well with carbol-fuchsin, but not by Gram's method ; an obli- 
gate aerobe, it grew better at 35° C. than at 20° C, and growth was 
less vigorous on acid than on alkaline media ; gelatin was liquefied ; 
superficial colonies are round, having a greenish-yellow colour (becoming 
brown) and a granular appearance ; broth is clouded, and forms an 
abundant thready yellow deposit after four days at 20° C. Portions of 
Tilsit cheese placed on filter paper that had been used in filtering a 
broth culture (24 hours old), showed after a week a yellow-brown 
coloration. 

Etiology of Whooping Cough.* — H.and A. Soulima have obtained 
from each of a number of cases of whooping cough cultures of a small 
rod-like organism, which appears identical in its morphology and 
biology with the bacillus of Eppendorf, and also with the microbe of 
Bordet and Genou. To isolate the organism with certainty, it was 
necessary to select patients in which the disease had developed without 
rise of temperature. The expectoration was collected during paroxysms 
of cough, repeatedly washed in warm sterile " eau physiologique," and 
used to inoculate freshly prepared blood-agar plates. 

Mammitis produced by Acid-fast Bacilli, t — L. N . Larrier and 
P. Boveri inoculated the mammae of female guinea-pigs with various 
acid-fast bacilli, and compared the resulting mammitis with that pro- 
duced by Koch's tubercle bacillus. The authors found that, whereas 
the tubercle bacillus caused a suppurative and ulcerative mammitis 
accompanied by " adenopathie," which was manifested by the 8th to 10th 
day, the mammitis produced by the other acid-fast bacilli occurred earlier, 
was transitory, having ceased by the 0th day, and was benign and un- 
accompanied by tegumentary ulceration or adenopathy. Tubercle bacilli 
can be demonstrated in the milk from 10 to 15 days after inoculation, 
but in the benign mammitis the milk was free from acid-fast bacilli after 
the 8th day. 

Tropism of Bacillus Zopfii.f — E. Sergent has observed the direc- 
tions assumed by ,the filaments of growth in cultures of B. zopfii on 
gelatin. The author found that this organism is particularly sensitive 
to the elastic property of the gelatin. When the gelatin is stretched 
the filaments take the direction of the force of tension ; when the 
gelatin is compressed, the filaments follow a direction perpendicular to 
the force of compression. Since gravity is the commonest cause 
actuating the elasticity of the gelatin, the tropism of B. zopfii may be 
regarded as geotropic. 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) p. 11. f Tom. cit., p. 15. 

+ Ann. Inst. Pasteur, lxiii. (1907) p. \±1 . 



90 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Identity of the Rogna Bacillus (tubercle) of the Olive-tree.*- 
L. Petri obtained on peptone-glucose agar-plate cultures made from the 
contents of a young olive tubercle an abundant production of yellow 
colonies of Ascobacterium lutewn Babes ; cultures made from other 
tubercles developed chiefly the sporing bacillus of Schiff-Giorgini ; but 
in other cultures, besides these two organisms, were the colourless 
colonies of a third organism, which soon assumed a milk-white colour, 
and consisted of non-sporing rods corresponding to Smith's bacillus. 
The author found that these three organisms are always simultaneously 
present in the olive tubercles in varying proportions, and he compares 
their morphological and cultural characters. From the results of many 
inoculation experiments on healthy plants, the author found that only 
pure cultures of Smith's bacillus caused positive infection, and he 
considers that the positive results obtained by other workers with the 
other two organisms were due to the use of impure cultures. 

Renal Infection by a Microbe originating from the Blood.j — 
Jungano has isolated from a case of cystitis, besides many other 
bacterial forms, a small anaerobic motile bacillus, : J >-4//, long by ■ 5/x, 
with rounded ends, staining badly by aniline dyes, and not by Gram's 
method, and having no capsule, and forming no spores ; in broth it 
clouded the medium, but formed no deposit ; it grew well on agar, 
forming small round yellow-coloured colonies ; it produced no gas ; it 
grew on gelatin without causing liquefaction ; after 18 days at 22° C. it 
formed typical stalactite cultures. It was not pathogenic to rabbits, 
but produced subcutaneous abscesses in guinea-pigs. The author has 
named the organism B. albarran. Owing to the peculiar conditions of 
the case, the author considers that the renal infection originated from 
the blood. 

Anaerobic Bacteria and Gall-stones.! — A. Gilbert and A. Lippmann 

report that by making anaerobic cultivations from the core of gall- 
stones they have obtained evidence in 82 p.c. of the cases examined of 
the presence of anaerobic bacteria, of which Bacillus fundi/liformis was 
the most frequent. Aerobic control cultures only gave B. coli, or were 
sterile. 

* Centralbl. Bakt., 2te Abt., xix. (1907) p. 531. 

t C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) p. 302. J Tom. cit., pp. 405-7. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



91 



MICROSCOPY. 

A. Instruments, Accessories, etc.* 
(1) Stands. 

Watson and Sons' Metallurgical Microscope, " The Horizontal." f 
This instrument (fig. 7) is designed for bench work and for photo- 
graphic purposes. It possesses great conveniences for fine work, and is 
extremely stable. It is attached to a bench or some firm base by means 
of screws. The body is of extra large diameter, and has a sliding draw- 




Fig. 7. 



tube. It is fitted with rack work and pinion for focusing. The stage 
has mechanical movements and rotates concentrically. The vertical and 
horizontal movements are divided and read by verniers to -^ mm. ; the 
stage is focused by means of coarse- and fine-adjustments. A compound 
substage with screws to centre and rackwork to focus, and also double 
mirror, are included for transparent objects. A Hook's joint handle 
with connecting device is provided for operating the fine-adjustment of 

* This subdivision contains (1) Stands ; (2) Eye-pieces and Objectives ; (3) 
Illuminating and other Apparatus ; (4) Photomicrography ; (5) Microscopical 
Optics and Manipulation ; (6) Miscellaneous. 

t Watson and Sons' Supplement to Catalogue No. 2, p. 8. 




Fig. 8. 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES. 



93 



the stage when a photomicrographic camera is in vise, and a bullseye 
condenser is included for illuminating opaque objects. 

Watson and Sons' "Mint" Metallurgical Microscope.* — This 
instrument (fig. 8) is substantially tke same as the " Works " model, 
previously described in the Journal,! but is not so large nor so massively 
constructed. The body is of large size, and fitted with rackwork and 
sliding draw-tubes. The stage is of the raising and lowering type, and 
has mechanical movements, and partial rotation. The instrument is 
made with either the horseshoe or tripod form of foot. 

Watson and Sons' Laboratory Dissecting Microscope.^ — The 
frame of this instrument (fig. 9) is constructed of mahogany ; the sides 
slope at a convenient angle ; the glass stage, 4| in. square, is removable. 
The arm, which carries lenses, has a spiral rack-and-pinion adjustment. 
The mirror is on gimbals. 




Fig. 9. 

Binocular Instruments^ — M. von Rohr's book with the above title 
treats the subject from three points of view — theoretically, historically, 
systematically. Part I. (theoretical) discusses the theory of vision 
(pages 1— ID). Part II. (historical) devotes the following 174 pages to 
the various types of binocular instruments, and describes in detail their 
fluctuations in utility during each of the last five decades of the nine- 
teenth century, the period 1890-1900 being one of marked recovery. 
Part III. is a very interesting and useful chronological bibliography 
under numerous heads and sub-heads. 



(2) Eye-pieces and Objectives. 

Photographic Objective containing a Uranium-glass Lens.|| — In 
connection with the increasing use of colour filters, it has occurred to 

* Watson and Sons' Supplement to Catalogue No. 2, pp. 6-7. 
t See this Journal, 1904, p. 105. 

X Watson and Sons' Catalogue, 19th edition, 1907-8, p. 71. 
§ Die binokularen Instruments Berlin: Julius Springer (1907) 223 pp. 90 rigs. 
|| Bull. Soc. Franc. Photog., xxiii. (1907) p. 212. See also Zeit. lnstrumentenk., 
xxvii. (1907) p. 233. 



94 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



M. Houdaille that it might be of advantage to make the objective itself 
act as a filter. After consultation with the firm of Parra-Mantois, a 
uranium-glass, 10 mm. thick, absorbing 10 p.c. of the visible rays, and 
50 p.c. of those incident on the photographic plate, was selected. From 
this glass a compound objective was cut from a design calculated by the 
author. The results w 7 ere compared with those obtained by a colourless 
objective. With equal exposures the negatives obtained by the uranium- 
glass were clearer and could be longer developed. The tones corre- 
sponding to the yellow rays were deepened, and those corresponding to 
the blue weakened, while the plates were uniformly bright to the very 
circumference. 

(3) Illuminating- and other Apparatus. 

Watson and Sons' Vertical Illuminator.* — This apparatus is 
made in two forms : (1) with a prism ; (2) with a disk of very thin 
glass. In the prism form (fig. 10) light concentrated by a bullseye is 
passed through a small aperture in the side of the illuminator. It is 
then reflected through the objective to the specimen, the objective acting 






Fig. 10. 



Fig. 11. 



Fig. 12. 



as its own condenser. In the glass disk pattern (fig. 11) the light is 
conducted in the same way as in the prism form, but the reflection 
is effected by means of a very thin disk of glass set at an angle of 45° to 
the optic axis. 

Another variety of the disk pattern is seen in fig. 12. It is of 
square form with an iris diaphragm mounted on a plate sliding in a 
groove, allowing the light to fall obliquely or directly upon the reflecting 
glass as desired. This vertical illuminator can only be employed with 
Microscopes having a body of large diameter. If necessary, the iris 
diaphragm may be mounted on an excentric, so that vertical adjustment 
also may be obtained. 

Watson and Sons' " Grip " Stage-spring, f — Four advantages are 
claimed for this pattern (figs. 13, 14) : (1) free rotation of the spring ; 
(2) firmly fixed butt ; (3) removal of spring and butt with perfect ease ; 
(4) non-liability of objectives to catch the spring, which lies quite flat 



* Watson and Sons' Supplement to Catalogue No. 2, p. 17, 3 figs, 
t Watson and Sons' Catalogue, 19th edition, 1907-8, p. 12. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



95 



except at top. As the illustrations show, the fitting socket which is 
inserted in the stage is sprung, and though the middle passes a conical- 
shaped pin, to which at the top a little screw-head is attached. By 




Fig. 13. 



Fig. 14. 



screwing on this head the fitting socket is expanded, and hence the butt 
is held firmly. To release the apparatus the screwing action is reversed. 

Electric Mercury Vapour Lamp for Microscopic Illumination. 
J. E. Barnard gives the following description of the mercury vapour 
lamp (fig. 15) exhibited by him on April 17th, 1907. The type of lamp' 
used for the experiments here described, is that made by the Bastian 
Mercury Lamp Co. Owing to its convenient size and shape, and small 
current consumption, it has been found most suitable for microscopical 
purposes. Owing to the fact that, when 
mercury vapour is in a condition of in- 
candescence, the light emitted by it con- 
sists spectroscopically of bright lines, 
which are evenly distributed over the 
visual spectrum, it has therefore been 
found to have considerable possibilities 
for microscopic work. 

The Bastian lamp is of the arc lamp 
type, the light being produced between 
two bodies of mercury instead of between 
two carbons. Being inclosed within a 
sealed glass tube there is no loss of the 
mercury whatever, and the lamp once set 
up in operation continues to work with- 
out adjustment or renewal of any kind, 
until the " life " of the " burner " por- 
tion of the lamp is exhausted. This 
" life " in the nature of things must have 
some limit, though it is difficult to say 
at present what that limit is. Probably 
3000 hours may be regarded as a fair 
average, though burners have been tested continuously for over 700O 
hours without any sensible diminution in their efficiency, and it is quite 
possible that improved methods of manufacture may render a life of 
6000 hours the rule rather than the exception. 

The lamp as now in use commercially, is, in fact, an arc lamp, that 
is to say, it is in working much the same as a carbon arc. The differ- 
ence, however, is that in the mercury lamp the arc itself is very long, 
and constitutes the source of light. Id the carbon arc this is not the 




Fig. 15. 



'96 SUMMARY QF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

case, the carbon poles themselves, either one or both, being the source 
of light. 

It is. with this lamp, quite easy to obtain monochromatic light, as it 
is obviously only necessary to screen off the bright lines in the spectrum 
which are not required, and the one which remains will then constitute a 
source of light which is not merely monochromatic, but is of one wave- 
length. The brightest lines in its spectrum lie in the region of the 
orange-yellow, green, and blue-violet, and it is these three that are <>f 
use. There are a number of faint lines, but for the purpose now 
described they are not of any importance, and are not sufficiently bright 
to interfere in practice with the result. The necessary colour-screens 
can be made by staining gelatin films with a suitable dye, or a more 
exact and convenient method is to use glass cells in which is placed a 
solution of the dye employed. By means of a direct- vision spectroscope 
it is easy to observe the exact concentration of the solution that is 
required, and no undue absorption of light therefore occurs. 

The following combinations of dyes in aqueous solution have been 
found satisfactory : — Eosin and filter yellow K (Fuerst Bros.) will 
filter out all but the orange-yellow line. The eosin should be 
sufficiently concentrated to exclude the green line, the filter yellow K, 
being used only to subdue the violet and ultra-violet. This screen is 
perhaps the one of most value for either visual or photographic work, as 
the position of the line in the spectrum is that of the greatest visual 
luminosity. In photomicrography its application will be sufficiently 
obvious. Naphthol-green and filter yellow K will give a light that is 
visually a brilliant green, but spectroscopically transmits some yellow 
as well. The green, however, predominates so largely that for visual 
work it is very useful where a considerable quantity of light is required. 

Tartrazine will transmit the yellow and green lines, but in this case 
the yellow predominates, the green being somewhat subdued. To 
obtain the green line only, a solution of acid-green must be used 
together with filter yellow K, and this gives a source of green light for 
microscopic work, either visual or photographic, which it is difficult to 
imagine can be improved upon. The violet line is more easy to isolate, 
as it can be filtered off with a screen of methyl-violet or gentian-violet. 
It lies rather far in the spectrum towards the ultra-violet, so that visually 
it is not of great use, but its possibilities in photography are obvious. 

The illustration herewith shows the form of lamp made by the 
Bastian Co., and suitable for microscopic work. It has an automatic 
tilting device, so that immediately the current is switched on the arc is 
struck and the lamp lights. The process is therefore similar to the 
starting of a carbon arc, in which the two poles have to touch one 
another before any current passes or light is produced. 

When the mercury bridges over the gap between the poles and is 
allowed to flow back again, some mercury is vaporised in the tube and 
the light is at once emitted. 

The length of the glass tube is dependent on the voltage of the 
supply, and the polarity of the current must be arranged so that the 
mercury commences to vaporise at the negative pole, the residual 
mercury being driven back into the bull) at the positive pole. 

For microscopic work it possesses the additional advantage that there 
is practically no radiant heat. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



97 



Watson and Sons' New Mechanical Condenser Mount.* — In this 
mount (fig. 10) a tube of the universal substage size is fixed below the 




;Fig. 16. 

iris-diaphragm, which can be carried by rackwork out of the optical 
axis for obtaining effects when testing objectives for oblique illumination. 
The apparatus includes also a rotating ring to carry dark-ground and 
oblique light stops. 

Watson and- Sons' Aplanatic Low-power Condenser.! — This 
condenser (fig. 17) is suitable for low and medium powers, up to a 
numerical aperture of 0*65. It has a power of § in., and a numerical 




*\j^r 



Fig. 17. 




Fig. 18. 



aperture of 0*5, of which 0'48 is aplanatic. The diameter of the 
back lens is 0*6 in. 

Watson and Sons' Macro-illuminator.^ — This is a single achromatic 
combination of 1*25 in. clear aperture and 2 in. focus (fig. 18). It is 
suitable for illuminating large objects under low powers. The lens is 
mounted to fit into the substage close to the object, so as to focus the 
image of the source of light on the objective. 

Watson and Sons' Catalogue, ISth edition, 1907-8, p. 98. 

t Loc. cit. 



t Loc. cit 
Feb. 19th, 1908 



H 



98 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



Bechstein's Photometer, with Proportional Graduation and 
Decimally-divided Scale.* — This instrument, which is made by 
Schmidt and Haensch of Berlin, is an improved form of certain others 
manufactured by the same firm, and is shown in figs. 19 and 20. The 
following advantages are claimed for it : — (1) Easy portability and small 
weight ; (2) absence of unit-marks ; (3) convenient legibility in the 




Fig. 19. 



graduations ; (4) simple calculation with extreme accuracy of measure- 
ment ; (5) long range of measurement both downwards and upwards ; 
(6) special protection of the parts important for the constant of the 
given medium ; (7) universal application ; (8) moderate price. 

It will be seen from the figures that the instrument consists essentially 

* Zeit. f. Instrumentenk., xxvii. (1907) pp. 178-83 (6 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



99 



(1) of a comparison light-source 0, whose intensity can be weakened 
by a double sector S ; (2) of a Lumrner-Brodhun comparison cube 




P. adjustable both for equality as well as for equality and contrast ; 
(3) of a tube h 3 (fig. 20) for the reception of the light to be measured 

h 2 



100 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

and of the apparatus G' (fig. 1!)) necessary for the decimal enlargement 
of the measuring-scale ; and finally (4) of an inspection contrivance 
V for the purpose of the proper adjustment of the light-source to be 
measured. The weakening of the light emitted from the electric com- 
parison light-source 0, and diffusely refracted through the three plates 
v v v 2 , v 3 , set in the light-and-dust proof revolver D, is effected by the 
fixed sector and rotating light-beam. The sector-measuring apparatus 
consists of two equally large detached sectors operated by a handle g and 
symmetrically arranged about a diameter ; they rotate over another pair 
similarly arranged but of different size. Between the sectors are slits 
forming the four arms of a cross. The opalescent glass plate v x (fig. 20), 
regarded as self-luminous, is focused through the lens-combination L 1? L 2 , 
sharply on to the wedge-shaped lens IK. The plane formed by the sectors 
coincides with the focal plane of IK ; the eye-cap with the aperture A is 
in the focus of the lens L, adjustable in the tube h. Thus at A the 
sector-slits above referred to are sharply defined. For fuller explanation 
the course of the rays must now be considered in a reversed direction, 
i.e., originating from A. A sharp image of the eye-cap would now be 
formed at a (rig. 20), but, on account of the refraction of wedge-lens 
IK this image would be laterally displaced from the principal axis. If 
rotation be imparted to the lenses IK, L 2 , L x , which are all set in a tube 
rotatory about the principal axis, the image at a will describe a circular 
path in a direction opposite to that of rotation. In its subsequent 
course the light falls on the plate v v whose illumination would be in- 
termittent on account of the slits between the sectors ; but this 
illumination could be made uniform to the eye if sufficient velocity of 
rotation were imparted, and the intensity of illumination would be pro- 
portional to the aperture-angle of the sectors. The lenses L 1? L 2 , which 
take part in the rotation, are continuously penetrated at the same 
distance by the rays, and could not affect the proportionality. The 
sector-adjustment can be read off on the circle S by means of the index N. 
The graduation extends to 10, each main graduation being divided into 
tenths. A small electric motor rotates R. 

The comparison-lamp O is electric incandescent, and is secured 
within its chamber by strong clamps. This lamp-chamber is adjust- 
able by push action in the axis of the instrument, the movement 
being read off on the scale T, and the brightness can be regulated 
within the limits of the current-intensity. Some adjustment of light- 
intensity is also attained by passing the light through more than one 
plate v (blue tinted if preferred) of the revolver D. To secure uni- 
formity of diffusion through the revolver plates, the electric lamp, 
approximately a point, should be mounted in an Ulbricht globe ; the 
opal glass plate is then opposite a uniformly illuminated gypsum screen, 
and transmission of the glow-threads is prevented. The position of the 
rotatory upper structure H 2 in the main body H is governed by the 
screw s 3 and the circular scale H. The glass strips k v h 2 , are for 
attaining contrast, and can be applied to the Lummer-Brodhun cube LB 
by small levers externally controlled. The light to be measured falls on 
LB from /x or M through the tube h v fi being intended for measurement 
of illumination and M for measurement of intensity. The lens LC not 
only produces image-formation from (j. or M at the aperture A of the 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 101 

eye-cap under simultaneous use of the cube LB and the lens L, but 
serves also to adjust the tube h Y with regard to the light to be measured. 
When all the upper structure is in adjustment, LC produces on a 
ground-glass disk n provided with a mark an approximately sharp, 
image of the light-source to be measured. A mirror is set at v so that 
the experimenter can conveniently observe the proper orientation of the 
instrument. The screen c rotates on d by means of the external 
handle g 2 . It is moved aside when the adjustment of LC is in process 
but, on release, automatically resumes its first position and effectually 
prevents the interference of any light from the observer's position with 
that diffused through the revolver plates. The equation of observation 
is B = c S, where B = the illumination strength in metre-candles, c = 
the intensity, and S = the sector-opening as given on the graduated 
scale at S. Then, if light of unit metre-candle is passed through //., 
and if equality or equal contrast is obtained when S = 10, it follows 
that c =0*1. If, the instrument remaining in the same adjustment, 
illumination of 10 metre-candles is presented at ft, S would equal 100, 
a number beyond the sector-range (graduated from 1 to 10). A plate 
rotatory about C is now brought into the position m 2 , where it transmits 
only • 1 of the light ; thus c now equals 1*0; in the position m 3 it 
would transmit 0*01 of the light, and c would now equal 10. These 
positions are all known by marks external to the chamber G-, and thus 
by product of the values of r, and S the candle-power of an illuminant 
is known. Further weakening of the light-source can be effected by 
rotation of the tube r, which is fitted with windows of such a size that 
they transmit 10 _1 , 10 ~ 2 , etc., of /x. For the measurement of smaller 
illuminations a mirror of gypsum is placed obliquely before fx. The 
diffuse reflecting power of gypsum is greater than the transmissibility of 
the opal glass plates, and therefore the brightness of the source is 
increased. Diminution of the comparison-light must be effected, if 
necessary, by any of the means provided, and the calculation made as 
before. 

Bell, L. — Physiological Basis of Illumination. 

[The author discusses many familiar difficulties of vision, e.g. the well 
known trouble found at twilight in trying to work by a mixture of 
natural and artificial lights.] 

Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Set., xlviii. (1907)pp. 77-96 (6 figs.) 

Eeprinted as a separate pamphlet. 

(4) Photomicrography. 

Turneretscher's Apparatus for Photomicrography.* — The full title 
of G. M. Turneretscher's treatise is given below. The apparatus is the 
outcome of many years' experience, and is adapted to the photography 
of objects in their natural size, as well as to enlarged or diminished re- 
productions. In all cases the apparatus lends itself to the easy deter- 
mination of the proportion between object and image. The camera is 

* Apparate zur Herstellung von wissenchaftlichen photographischen Auf- 
nahmen und von Mikrophotographien bei schwachen Vergrosserungen unter 
bequemer Einhaltung eines genauen, Grossenverhaltnisses zwischen Objekt und 
Bild. Museumskunde, iii. (Berlin, 1907) pp. 158-70 (4 figs.). Also as a separate 
pamphlet. 



102 



K'MMAHY OF (TL'L'KNT liKSFAIiCHES HELAT1NG TO 



always set in the vertical position, and fig. 21, which omits the bellows, 
shows its adaptation to the more delicate requirements. F is an iron 
horseshoe-shaped foot carrying a vertical board B which acts as the 
pillar of a Microscope. On the lower half of this board two projecting 
bearers T support a mirror S, 15 by 17 cm., rotatory about a hori- 
zontal axis, and removable, if required, by single hand-use. To the 
upper half of this vertical board is attached an arrangement V which 
allows the object-table to rise or fall about 6 cm. by the action of a 
micrometer screw M. By means of a lengthening rod, applied at a ball- 
joint K over the rack of the micrometer screw, the micrometer screw 
itself can be actuated at a greater distance away — a necessity often felt 




Fig. 21. 



with increased bellows extension. Thus the fine-adjustment is attained 
by movement of the object-stage, which has the advantage that for 
a selected objective and a selected bellows length the magnification is a 
known quantity. The arrangement of the upper part of the apparatus 
closely resembles that of a Microscope. A sleeve H fitted to the hori- 
zontal slab A carries a tube C 15 57 mm. wide and 105 mm. long, within 
which, on its under side, a second tube D, cloth covered, is inserted, its 
lower end being threaded for the reception of an ordinary micro- 
objective, or projection-objective, E. For diminutions or for photo- 
graphy in natural size, other tubes C 2 of similar width and thread can 
be inserted. At the upper end of the tube C, a short tube G can be 
used for carrying the narrower tube g of an ocular. This arrangement, 
of course, reproduces a Microscope, but is useful for determining the 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICItOSCOPY, ETC. 103 



most convenient position of the object. When it is required to produce 
photographs by the objective alone, a special tube J is provided, 75 cm. 
long, open at its upper end, but carrying at its lower end a diaphragm 
of 25 mm. diameter. The tube is controlled by push-movement, and 
can be manipulated until a perfect image is obtained. The object-stage 
is 12*5 by 15 cm., and has three grooves at its narrow sides for various 
exchangeable accessories. A blackened metal plate R, with object- 
clamps, inserted into the uppermost groove, forms the object-stage 
proper. The second groove is for an opal disk to secure uniformity of 
illumination. The third groove is for obtaining a dark background, 
the mirror S being removed and the wooden box Q (blackened inside) put 
in its place. In the case of larger objects, dark-ground illumination is 
secured by removal of the box and by placing the object on black card- 
board. For transparent objects on a bright ground, the mirror itself 
serves as an object-stage, and is placed in the uppermost groove. For 
opaque objects on a bright ground, a strong illumination is directed 
from above on to the object, whilst the mirror (now an opal glass plate) 
is illuminated from a weaker source. This method has the advantage 
of almost eliminating the shadow. 

(5) Microscopical Optics and Manipulation. 

Measurement of Resolution in Microscopy.* — C. Fabre discusses 
the theory of microscopical resolution, and emphasises the results of his 
experiments with Grayson's test-plates. He has found plate No. 6, de- 
signed for use with objectives of large aperture, especially satisfactory. 
On this plate the lines of the first group are at intervals of 10,000 to 
the inch ; those of the next group contain double that number ; and in 
the last group there are 120,000 to the inch. A prolonged use con- 
vinced the author that this plate is the best means of measuring the 
resolving power and the defining power of an objective. The length 
and the regularity of the lines give also a very clear notion of the 
curvature of the field of the objective under examination. The author 
also points out that knowledge of the resolving power of a lens may 
prevent false decisions as to the existence, or otherwise, of micro- 
organisms in an object. 

New Method of Measuring Directly the Double-refraction in 

Strained Glass.j — L. N. G. Filon describes his method for the above. 

A horizontal beam of parallel homogeneous light is made to impinge 

normally on a vertical face of a rectangular horizontally-placed glass 

slab, subject to vertical flexure. If C x = stress-optical coefficient for 

the ray polarised in the plane of the cross-section, and for light of the 

given wave-length ; M = bending moment ; I = moment of inertia of 

the cross-section about the " neutral axis " ; and T = thickness of the 

slab, then the points at which the disturbance is in the same phase can 

be shown to lie upon a straight line inclined at 0, to the vertical, where 

O MT 
#i = --y — . Such a slab under flexure will deflect the wave-front like 

* Mem. Acad. Sci. Toulouse, vi. (1906) pp. 142-9. 

t Proc. Roy. Soc, Series A, lxxix. (1907) pp. 440-2 (1 fig.). 



104 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

a prism, and will do the same, but to a different extent, to the wave 
polarised in the perpendicular direction. If the beam of light be 
analysed by means of a grating, the spectrum lines all appear doubled, 
the two components being oppositely polarised. The shift, so produced, 
can be measured, and i therefore obtained ; hence, C\ is known. 
Similarly C 2 can be found. Thus the absolute changes in the two 
indices of refraction can be calculated, and this not only for one kind of 
light, but for as many kinds at once as there are lines visible in the 
spectrum under observation. 

Atlas of Absorption Spectra. — This is a very excellent collection, 
by H. S. Uhler and R. W. Wood, of photographs of absorption spectra. 
For their production a mirror and a concave grating were employed, the 
light from the source passing through a wedge-shaped layer of the 
solution under investigation, after reflection from the mirror. This 
layer is placed horizontally over the slit, which is also horizontal, the 
path of the rays being vertical. Through a tilting arrangement adapted 
to the containing cell its angle is variable. Its edge is at right angles 
and in the same plane as the direction of the slit. 

Three exposures of different but relatively uniform duration were 
usually given to each plate. As source of light a Nernst lamp was used 
for wave-lengths between 0'65/x and 0*326^, and for wave-lengths 
between - 326/x and 0*2 //., and as an index a specially arranged spark 
discharge between electrodes of an alloy of cadmium and zinc on the 
one hand, and of brass on the other was used, the spark spectrum photo- 
graph being superposed on that from the Nernst burner. 

The authors recommend water as a solvent of the substances investi- 
gated as being free from absorption in the ultra-violet. But a recent 
determination of the refractive indices of water has shown that for the 
extreme wave-length 0'185/x. this is not the case.* 

As Professor Wood points out in the introduction, several workers 
have made a series of photographs of absorption spectra previously, but 
with them, the end in view was not a book of reference. Work of this 
kind was undertaken under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical 
Society in 1893, the outcome of which were the F and 6 line screens 
described subsequently in this Journal^ and also a screen for use in 
orthochromatic photography 4 On that occasion the sun alone was used 
as light source, the fine absorption lines of the solar spectrum in no way 
interfering with the observation of the comparatively broad absorption 
bands of the substances under investigation, and showing their position 
at a glance. In this way most of the anilines now described, besides 
others, and the principal salts of copper and chromium were then photo- 
graphed. But the present authors, by employing light from the artificial 
sources described, have extended the range to the ultra-violet, and finally 
have published their work, together with a descriptive table of the 
substances investigated, and of the results obtained. This table gives 
the commercial as well as the chemical name of each, and also that of 



* 



Proc. Roy. Soc, 1906. 
t See this Journal, 1894, pp. 164-7, and 1S95, pp. 145-7. 
% Journ. Roy. Photo. Soc, 1895. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 105 

the maker. The whole forms a very complete and accurate book of 
reference. 

Die neue Spektralmethode der Lippmannsohen Farbenphotographie. 

Centralbl. Zeit. f. Opt. u. Mech., xxviii. (1907) pp. 219-21 (2 figs.). 

Die Pb.otograpb.ie in nattirlichen Farben. Tom. cit., pp. 254-5. 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

Quekett Microscopical Club. — The 443rd Meeting of the Club was 
held on November 15, the President, Dr. E. J. Spitta, F.R.A.S., 
F.R.M.S., etc., in the chair. Mr. James Murray communicated a valu- 
able paper, which was read by Mr. D. J. Scourfield, F.Z.S., F.R.M.S., 
on " PhiJodina macrostyla Ehr., and its Allies." Mr. F. P. Smith made 
some remarks on "British Spiders taken in 1907," and dealt with some 
twenty species, of which one, Tarantula nemoralis, taken at Bexhill High 
Woods on June 21, is for the first time recorded as British. 

At the 444th Ordinary Meeting held on December 20, the President 
in the chair, Mr. J. I. Pigg, F.R.M.S., exhibited lantern photomicro- 
graphs illustrating the development of the prothallus from the spore of 
the maidenhair fern. A paper communicated by Mr. E. M. Nelson, 
F.R.M.S., on " Some Hairs upon the Proboscis of the Blow-fly," was 
read by the Hon. Sec. Four kinds of hairs were described. Mr. E. F. 
Law exhibited a number of lantern slides in colour obtained by the 
Lumiere autochrome process. They were photomicrographs, mostly 
x 1000, of the oxidisation colours obtained by heat-tinting the polished 
surfaces of phosphor-bronze, gunmetal, and various commercial cast- 
irons. 

B. Technique.* 
(1) Collecting Objects, including' Culture Processes. 

Method by which Sponges may be Artificially Reared.j — H. V. 
Wilson gives the following method. Into a tub about GO x 30 cm., 
and covered with glass, a half-dozen sponges, freed from live oysters 
and crabs, are put. They are raised from the bottom on bricks. 
The tub is emptied, filled, and flushed for some minutes, thrice daily. 
Direct rays of the sun should be avoided. In the course of some weeks 
the sponges regenerate, giving rise to small masses of undifferentiated 
tissue. When in this condition, if these masses be attached to wire 
gauze and suspended in a live-box floating at the surface of the open 
water of a harbour, the masses will in a few days grow and re-develop 
spores and oscula, flagellated chambers, and skeletal arrangement of the 
normal sponge. 

Cultivation of Gonococci.J — Nakao Abe uses a meat extract, which 
he prepares as follows : 500 grm. of chopped-up beef are immersed in 
1000 c.cm. of tap-water, and placed in a refrigerator for 18-24 hours. 

* This subdivision contains (1) Collecting Objects, including Culture Pro- 
cesses ;. (2) Preparing Objects ; (3) Cutting, including Imbedding and Microtomes ; 
(4) Staining and Injecting; (5) Mounting, including slides, preserving fluids, etc. ' r 
(6) Miscellaneous. t Science, xxv. (1907) pp. 912-15. 

% Centralbl. Bakt. Orig., lte Abt., xliv. (1907) pp. 705-9. 



106 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

The fluid is then passed through a paper Alter, and afterwards through 
a Chamberland filter. The reddish germ-free filtrate is preserved in 
test-tubes or flasks, and if prevented from drying, the stock will keep 
for weeks. For cultivation purposes it is mixed with solid or liquid 
peptonised media. Thus, with 2 p.c. nutrient agar, the procedure is as 
follows : test-tubes containing some 5 c.cm. of 2 p.c. nutrient agar are 
liquefied and cooled down to 40-50° (."'., and then 1-2 c.cm. of the meat 
extract are added ; in about a minute the medium is ready for use. 

Simple Method of Sterilising Blood for Cultural Purposes.* — 
E. P. Bernstein and A. A. Epstein place 400 c.cm. of fresh ox-blood in 
a sterile Erlenmayer's flask of 500 c.cm. capacity, in which have been 
previously placed 30 c.cm. of 1 p.c. ammonium oxalate solution and 
| c.cm. of 40 p.c. formalin. After shaking, and then allowing to stand 
for i hour, an equal quantity of sterile physiological salt solution is 
added to the blood. After 24 hours the blood may be used for cultural 
purposes. One part of the diluted blood is added to 15 parts agar or 
broth, so that the tubes contain about 1 : 3G000 formalin. 

Cultivation and Preparation of Myxomycetes.f — E. Pinoy culti- 
vated Dictyostelium mucoroides on a medium composed of 20 grm. agar, 
50 grm. linseed, and 1 litre of water. This was heated to 117° C, and 
after having been distributed into glass vessels was sterilised at 115° C. 
for \ hour. As the medium could not be filtered, the impurities were 
got rid of by keeping the medium at 37° C. until the extraneous matters 
had sedimented. When the agar had set, the clear portion was cut off 
and was used. On this medium spores were sown, and cultures asso- 
ciated with bacteria were obtained. The presence of one or more kinds 
of bacteria seems to be indispensable for the nutrition of the fungi, 
and all, with the exception of B. pyocyanms, were Gram-negative. 

For examining the cultures the condensation water was used, and 
preparations made as hanging drops, or in Van Tieghem's cells. For 
examination in vivo, neutral red was found to be the best stain, as it 
■colours not only the partially digested bacteria, but also has the property 
of indicating the reaction of fluids, turning yellow if they be alkaline, 
and red or blue purple if acid. Hence it indicates the acid or alkaline 
reaction of the liquid in the vacuoles. Neutral red does not affect the 
living organisms, but if in excess the myxamcebae are killed, and there- 
fore stain. For fixed preparations Laveran's method was adopted. A 
film is made in the usual way, and when dry is fixed with alcohol for 
ten minutes. It is then stained with the following mixture : 4 c.cm. of 
1 per thousand aqueous eosin, 6 c.cm. distilled water, 1 c.cm. Borrel's blue. 
The stain is allowed to act for 15-20 minutes, and then the film is 
differentiated with a 5 p.c. tannin solution. The results obtained by 
the foregoing method were controlled by two other procedures, viz. 
staining with Heidenhain's iron-hasmatoxylin after fixation in sublimate, 
and by Borrel's method. This consists in fixing with the following 
fluid : water 300 grm., acetic acid 20 grm., osmic acid 20 grm., 
platinum chloride 2 grm., chromic acid 3 grm., then staining with 

^ * Journ. Infect. Diseases, iii. (1906) pp. 772. 
~ t Aim. Inst. Pasteur, xxi. (1907) pp. 622-56 (4 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, .MICROSCOPY. ETC. 107 

magenta red and differentiating with picro-indigo-carmine, followed by 
alcohol and oil of cloves. 

Culture of Anaerobes.* — A. le Dantec describes a method for culti- 
vating anaerobes. It depends on the slow diffusion of gases through 
liquids in capillary tubes. Tbe upper end of a pipette is drawn out into 
a capillary neck ; broth, previously 1 toiled, cooled and inoculated with 
an anaerobic organism, is drawn in as far as the upper cylinder above 
the constricted neck, and the lower end of the pipette is then closed in 
a flame. Satisfactory anaerobic growth occurs in the medium contained 
in the body of the pipette. 

Collecting and Preserving Fresh-water Rhizopods.t — E. Penard, 
in describing his methods, states that the collecting of these creatures is 
as simple as possible. In ponds, streams, and marshes he closes the 
mouth of a small test-tube with the thumb and plunges the whole arm 
in the water, so as to bring the test-tube level with the organic felt which 
usually covers the bottom, then on raising the thumb the water rushes in, 
carrying with it the surface mud, which is alwavs richest in organisms 
of all kinds. For collecting in deep lakes, a very simple dredging 
apparatus is used, which brings up strips of brown organic felt which 
covers the bottom mud, and which alone contains the Rhizopods. 
Details as to finding and isolating the creatures so collected will be 
found in the paper, as well as the various methods of preparing them as 
microscopic objects. It need here only be mentioned that the author 
fixes the Rhizopods with absolute alcohol, stains them with borax- 
carmin, and mounts them in balsam, the whole process being performed 
on the mounting slip. 

Intestinal Broth for the Isolation of Essential and Potential 
Intestinal Anaerobes. J — M. Cohendy prepares this medium as follows : 
1. The stomach, tongue, liver, intestine, and pancreas of the dog, sheep, 
pig, or fowl are washed and defatted. 2. Then the stomach and tongue, 
pounded up together, are mixed with 7 c.cm. HC1, and 500 cent, 
water, and incubated at 40° C. for 18 to 20 hours. 3. To 500 grm. of 
intestine, liver, and pancreas, pounded up together, are added 1100 c.cm. 
of water and macerated for 18 to 20 hours at 24° 0. 4. The two fluids 
are mixed together, and, after boiling for 2 minutes, strained through a 
fine sieve. 5. After alkalinising, the fluid is cooled down to 50° C. and 
the white of one egg to every 250 c.cm. is added. 6. Boil for 2 minutes, 
filter, cool to 50° C. ; add the white of an egg to every 500 c.cm., sterilise 
at 120° C. for 20 minutes. 7. Add ■ 9 grm. anhydrous glucose to every 
100 c.cm., filter through Chardin paper. 8. Distribute into sterilised 
tubes or flasks ; sterilise for 20 minutes at 115° C. 

To make solid media with agar, add between (6) and (7), i.e. before 
the glucose, and with the white of egg 8' 5 grm. agar, but sterilise for 
45 minutes at 120° C. Then proceed as before. 

The foregoing embraces the general principles, but for certain details 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) p. 135. 

t Journ. Quekett Micr. Club, x. (1907) pp. 107-16. 

t C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) pp. 649-51. 



108 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 




Fig. 22. 



the original should be consulted. The author has, from an experience 
of six years, found that essential as well as potential anaerobes form 
colonies in these media within 24 hours at 38°. 

Porous Culture Vessels. * — A. Rosam calls attention to the value 
of a utensil, used for keeping butter cool in hot weather, for cultivating 
micro-organisms which require moisture and darkness. In shape it is 
somewhat like a dish-cover, and is made of porous earthenware. It is 
constructed to hold water between its inner and outer surfaces, and is filled 

or emptied from the top. As shown in the 
illustration (fig. 22) it is placed on a dish 
and is of sufficient size to accommodate 
several Petri's capsules. 

Collecting Fossil Flora .f — C Reid and 
Eleanor M. Reid obtained specimens from 
the brickearth of Tegelen-sur-Meuse bv 
following three or four seams to a place 
where each was overlaid by barren clay. 
Samples from the seam were then cut out 
and placed at once in clean boxes for re- 
moval. Afterwards the clay was taken out 
and allowed to dry thoroughly. When dry, 
about half a pound of clay was placed in a 
sieve and water poured over it. All the floating particles were collected 
with a earners-hair brush and placed aside. The washing was continued 
until the vegetable material was free from mud. The muddy filtrate 
was next passed through four sieves with increasingly finer meshes, the 
residues from each being separately collected and placed in jars with 
clean water. The residues were then examined in water with suitable 
lenses, and everything determinable picked out. The selected seeds 
were then stored in suitable bottles. 

Enrichment Method for Detecting Bacillus typhosus.} — E. Klein 
has devised an enrichment method for detecting Bacillus typhosus in 
polluted material. He used beef broth mixed with bile salt and 
malachite-green adjusted in the following maimer : To 400 c.cm. of 
faintly alkaline beef broth were added 5 c.cm. of 5 p.c. aqueous solution 
of sodium taurocholate and then malachite-green (Xo. 120 Hochst) in the 
proportion of 1 : 1500. The medium was decanted into tubes (10 c.cm. 
each), and then sterilised. Tubes examined 24 hours after inoculation 
with the suspected fluid showed that B. typhosus had grown freely, i.e. 
had become enriched, while the progress of B. coli had been inhibited. 
Subcultures were made on Drigalski plates. 

The use of malachite-green for inhibiting the growth of B. coli was 
discovered by Loeffler.§ 

Simplified Method for Detecting the Presence of Bacillus 
typhosus. ||— H. Dunschmann recommends a medium of the following 

* Centralbl. Bakt., 2te Abt., xx. (1907) p. 154 (1 fig.), 
t Verb. k. Akad. Wetenscb. Amsterdam, xiii. (1907) pp. 1-26 (3 pis.). 
% Lancet, 1907, ii., pp. 1519-21. § See tbis Journal, 1906, p. 612. 

II C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) pp. 483-5. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



109 



composition for isolating B. typhosus from stools, etc. : 3 p.c. agar, 
1 p.c. gelatin, 3 p.c. peptone, 3 p.c. lactose, 0*7-1 p.c. taurocholate. 
The taurocholate is prepared from ox-bile by precipitating with alum, 
and then treating the filtrate with perchloride of iron. The resulting 
fluid is filtered until quite clear. This filtrate, which is strongly acid, 
is neutralised with sodium carbonate, and after addition of some animal 
charcoal, is evaporated on a water-bath. The residue is treated with 
alcohol and filtered, the treatment being repeated twice, and then the 
dry residue dissolved in water to make a 10 p.c. solution, after which it 
is sterilised at 110° C. 

Simple Thermostat.* — A. Sineff describes an effective incubator 
which any person can make. It is made of cardboard or a thin wood 
used for box-making. It has a lid 
through which a thermometer is in- 
inserted (fig. 23), and at its lower 
part, just above the bottom, a 
couple of slits for the insertion of 
an iron plate. Convenient sizes are 
20 x 20 x 20 cm. or 30 x 20 x 20 
cm., the iron plate being 18 x 50 cm. 

As shown in the illustration, the 
iron plate is heated by means of a 
paraffin lamp or other source of 
heat, after the manner of the early 
hot-stage. The apparatus is said to 
be capable of working within ■ 5°. 

Sterilised Bacterial Media for 
Cultivation of Anaerobes. f — GL 
Proca finds that used and sterilised 
cultures of certain bacteria form 

excellent media for cultivating anaerobes in the presence of air. The 
tubes should be sterilised at 65-70° C, and inoculated directly they have 
cooled sufficiently. In broth the growth is scanty, but more abundant 
cultures are obtainable by pouring the inoculated medium over agar or 
serum slopes. Instead of cultures, thick suspensions of bacteria may be 
used, and agar tubes be liquefied, and, after inoculation, be rapidly 
cooled down. Good growth takes place in the depth of the medium 
provided the surface be covered with a broth culture sterilised at from 
65-70° C. The cultures used were those of B. coli, B. typhosus, and 
Vibrio cholera, and the anaerobes cultivated were B. tetani, B. botulinus, 
a club-shaped bacillus isolated from earth, and a bacillus obtained from 
a case of gangrene. 

Observing Living Developing Nerve-fibres. J — The method em- 
ployed by R. G. Harrison was to isolate pieces of embryonic tissue 
known to give rise to nerve-fibres, such as the whole or fragments of 
the medullary tube or ectoderm from the branchial region, and to 
observe their further development. The pieces were taken from frog 

* Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., xlv. (1907) pp. 191-2 (1 fig.). 
t C.B,. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) pp. 620-1. 
% Amer. Journ. Anat., vii. (1907) pp. 116-18. 




Fig. 23. 



101 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

embryos about 3 mm. long, at which stage, i.e., shortly after the closure 
of the medullary folds, there is no visible differentiation of the nerve 
elements. After carefully dissecting it out, the piece of tissue is re- 
moved by a fine pipette to a cover-slip upon which is a drop of lymph 
freshly drawn from one of the lymph-sacs of an adult frog. The lymph 
clots very quickly, holding the tissue in a fixed position. The cover-slip 
is then inverted over a hollow slide, and the rim sealed with paraffin. 
When reasonable aseptic precautions are taken, tissues will live under 
these conditions for a week, and in some cases specimens have been kept 
alive for nearly four weeks. Such specimens may be examined from 
day to day under high powers. 

Cultivation of Treponema pallidum.* — C. Levaditi and J. Mcintosh 
have obtained cultivations of Spirochetes by means of the following 
method. They inserted collodion bags charged with infected material 
into the peritoneal sac of monkeys. The material used was obtained 
from syphilised monkeys. From the cultures thus made were obtained 
organisms morphologically identical with Treponema pallidum, but with- 
out pathogenic power. 

(2) Preparing- Objects. 

New Method of Fixation.! — Wl. Rudnew places pieces of freshly 
killed animals in the ordinary ether-alcohol solution of celloidin, and 
after 3 or 4 weeks removes to thick celloidin solution. The pieces are 
then stuck on wood-blocks and hardened in 70 p.c. alcohol, and sec- 
tioned in the usual way. Unlike most inventors, the author does not 
claim that this method is perfect : indeed he admits that it has defects 
which he hopes to remedy, but in the title of the paper points out that 
it is specially adapted for the study of the nervous system. 

Fixation and Preparation of Nematohelminthes4 — E. Andre 
finds that boiling water gives the best results. When small the animals 
should be placed in a capsule and boiling water poured over them ; this 
should not be allowed to act longer than the fraction of a second, and 
then the animals must be plunged into cold water. Large worms should 
be placed in a glass tube of a diameter a little larger than that of the 
animal. The tube is plunged into boiling water, and after one or two 
seconds transferred to cold water. If these large worms are to be 
sectioned they must be cut up into lengths of several centimetres before 
immersing in the appropriate fluid. For staining in toto an alcohol 
fluid is recommended, for the reason that while hot water is a fixative it 
is in no sense a preservative. 

Small thread-worms, to be mounted whole as microscopical specimens, 
should be transferred after fixation to the following medium : distilled 
water 80, glycerin 10, formol 10, placed in a watch-glass or capsule. 
The vessel should be uncovered but protected from dust. When the 
fluid has evaporated to the extent of several cubic centimetres the 
animals may be mounted in glycerin or glycerin-jelly. This method of 

* Ann. Inst. Pasteur., xxi. (1907) pp. 784-97 (2 pis.) 
f Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxi v. (1907) pp. 243-53. 
% Tom. cit., pp. 278-9. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



Ill 



fixation by means of boiling water and preservation in formol-glycerin 
is also applicable to small Arthropoda. 

Apparatus for Rapidly Cooling Paraffin.*— C. U. A. Kappers 
describes an apparatus (fig. 24) for rapidly cooling paraffin blocks. It 
consists of a metal box A, which has an opening B for connecting 
with the water supply. The table C has two steps, the object being to 
accommodate blocks of different sizes. A piece of one side D is cut 
out so that the level of the water in the tank is just below the upper 
surface of the blocks. When the upper surface of the paraffin has 




become sufficiently hard to bear the water, the aperture D is closed by 
means of a glass plate. The apparatus is supported upon a basin by 
means of four arms. 

Studying the Development of Ophiothrix fragilis.f — E. W. 
MacBride made observations on and also drawings of living larvae. 
Those used for sections were fixed in 1 p.c. osmic acid, followed by 
Muller's fluid. The sections were made by the celloidin-paraffin method 
and the procedure similar to that already described by the author in the 
case of Echinus esculentus. It was found that the celloidin became 
badly cracked if the sections were left drying on the top of the thermo- 
stat for longer than 40 minutes. When it was necessary to supplement 
the information obtained from views of the living larva? by whole 
mounts of preserved ones, these were cleared from osmic acid by immer- 
sion in water or weak alcohol. The vessel containing them was then 
placed (open) inside a larger one, on the bottom of which was a layer of 
chlorate of potash crystals, over which strong hydrochloric acid was 

* Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxiv. (1907) pp. 254-7 (1 fig.). 

t Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., li. (1907) pp. 557-606 (6 pis. and 4 figs, in text). 



112 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

poured. The larger vessel was closed. The euchlorine gas evolved 
soon oxidised the black deposit of metallic osmium on the tissues. 

In the orientation of sections the postero-lateral arms of the larva; 
were of the greatest assistance, for they persist until the metamorphosis 
is quite complete, so that they mark a constant plane amidst the varying 
position of the other organs. This plane is called the frontal plane, and 
most of the sections were cut parallel to it. Sections parallel to the 
median sagittal plane of the larva were also employed, as were transverse 
sections when they became necessary in order to elucidate special points. 

Studying the Adenoid Tissue of the Spleen, etc.* — C. Ciaccio 
adopted Levaditi's Spirochceta method for studying the fine structure of 
the adenoid tissue of the spleen, lymphatic glands, and intestine. He 
fixed in 10-15 p.c. formalin for 24 hours, and, after a short washlin dis- 
tilled water, immersed the tissue in 90° C. alcohol for 24 hours. After re- 
moval of the alcohol in distilled water, the pieces were passed into 1 * 5 p.c. 
silver nitrate for 3 to 4 days at 38 °C. On removal they were again 
washed in distilled water, and then placed in the reducing solution, 
which consisted of 2 p.c. pyrogallic acid plus 15 p.c. formalin. After 
reduction, the pieces were passed successively through water, alcohols, 
and xylol to paraffin. The sections were examined unstained and 
stained : the best staining solution was Pianese's fluid (acid-fuchsin, 
Martin's yellow, and malachite-green). 

Examining the Trophospongia of Striated Muscle.f — E. Holm- 
gren examined the striated muscle of Insecta, Crustacea, Amphibia, fish, 
reptiles, birds, and mammals. At first the author's trichloracetic- 
resorcin-fuchsin method was employed, but was afterwards supplanted 
by Golgi's silver-chromium method. The solution consisted of 4 parts 
of 4 p.c. bichromate of potash and 1 part 1 p.c. osmic acid, the material 
being immersed therein for 6 to 8 days at 30-31° C. This was followed 
by 0*75 p.c. silver nitrate solution for 24 to 48 hours at the same 
temperature. The material was then placed in alcohol, frequently 
changed, for 24 hours, then xylol, xylol-paraffin, and pure paraffin. 
Carnoy's and Flemming's fluids were also used, the sections being 
stained with Heidenhain's iron-hamitoxylin, acid-fuchsin, and picro- 
carbol-fuchsin. 

Fixation of Insect Larvae. $ — W. D. van Leeuwen has devised a 
mixture which he has found very useful for fixing insects, especially 
during metamorphosis. It consists of 1 p.c. picric acid in absolute 
alcohol 6, chloroform 1, formalin 1, acetic acid \ part, or less. The 
mixture should be freshly prepared. The insects, pupaj, larvge, imagos 
are left in the fluid for 24 hours or so, and then transferred to 90 p.c. 
alcohol for 3 days, and afterwards preserved or further treated in any 
desired manner. Good sections can be obtained by the benzol-paraffin 
method. 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxxi. (1907) pp. 594-601 (7 figs.), 
t Arch. Mikr. Anat., lxxi (1907) pp. 165-247 (8 pis.). 
\ Zool. Anzeig., xxxii. (1907) pp. 316-20. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 113 

Studying the Interstitial Cells of the Ovary.* — P. Aime worked 
with the ovaries of several species of mammals. These were at different 
stages of development, ranging from the early foetal state to the adult 
condition. The material was fixed in Bouin's fluid (formol-picro-acetic 
acid), Fleinming's strong fluid, Tellyesnicky's bichromate-acetic acid 
mixture, sublimate, sublimate and platinum chloride, and also by 
Altmann's special method. After a few days' immersion the material 
was washed. The best results were obtained from pieces which were 
washed in running water for 12 to 48 hours. 

The paraffin sections were stained with iron-hasmatoxylin and eosin 
or light-green, Delafield's hgematoxylin, or with iron-hsematoxylin plus 
picric acid-fuchsin, or eosin and light-green. Sections from pieces fixed 
with Flemming were stained with the triple safranin, gentian-violet and 
orange mixture, or with sufranin and light-green. Altmann's method 
was adopted for showing the granules of the interstitial cells. 

Schouten, S. L. — Methode zur Anfertigung der glasernen Isoliernadeln, ge- 
horend zu dem Isolierapparat fur Mikroorganismen. 

[A description of the apparatus and method of making the glass needles for 
the author's isolating apparatus. A full description of the method has 
previously appeared in this Journal, (1905, pp. 758-60).] 

Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxiv. (1907) pp. 258-68 (15 figs.). 

(3) Cutting', including 1 Imbedding "and Microtomes. 

Studying the Structure of Mammalian Ear.f — W. Kolmer gives 
at considerable length the results of his experiences for examining the 
auditory apparatus of certain domestic mammals. The difficulties to be 
overcome are the prevention of distortion of the soft parts and the 
effective removal of the lime salts from the bone. Injection of the 
fixative, after washing out the blood, through the carotid, is tedious but 
gives good results. The best method of decalcification seems to be to 
imbed the fixed material in celloidin, and then immerse in some decal- 
cifying medium, nitric acid for choice. Most of the well-known fixatives 
were tried (Flemming, Hermann, sublimate, sublimate and picric acid, 
formol-bichromate-acetic). Small objects were imbedded in paraffin, 
large ones in celloidin. 

The sections were stained with some hematoxylin solution, and 
contrast-stained with Congo-red or acid-rubin, or by Bielschowski's and 
Cajal's methods. 

Use of Sulphuric Ether in Imbedding.^ — F. Federici describes 
methods for using sulphuric ether for imbedding in paraffin, and also in 
celloidin and paraffin He found that while sulphuric ether at ordinary 
temperature was a poor solvent of paraffin, its solvent power increased 
proportionately to the temperature. Recalling Heidenhain's method of 
paraffin imbedding by the aid of carbon bisulphide, § he removed pieces 
of tissue from absolute alcohol to ether, and after a few hours trans- 

* Arch. Zool. Exper., vii. (1907) pp. 95-143 (3 pis.). 

t Arch. Mikr. Anat. u. Entwickl., lxx. (1907) pp. 697-706 (3 pis.). 

X Anat. Anzeig., xxxi. (1907) pp. 601-3. 

§ See this Journal, 1902, p. 111. 

Feb. 19th, 1908 r 



114 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

fared them to a mixture of ether and paraffin (ether 5 c.cm., paraffin 
m.p. 50° C. = 4 grm.) for 3 or 4 hours, and then for a similar -period to a 
second solution (ether 5 c.cm., paraffin m.p. 50° C. = 4 grm.), The ether 
and paraffin solution is easily made by placing fragments of paraffin 
together with the ether in a well stoppered bottle and incubating at 
from 30-40° C. ; care must be taken not to bring the bottle near an open 
flame. After the second impregnation in the ether-paraffin mixture, the 
pieces may be transferred to pure paraffin m.p. 50° C. 

As ether readily dissolves celloidin, the author saw his way to perfect 
a method for a mixed imbedding. In this method the pieces are re- 
moved from absolute alcohol to ether for 12 to 24 hours, and then to a 
3-4 p.c. solution of celloidin in ether. This is followed by the ether- 
paraffin solutions, and finally by pure paraffin. From blocks made by 
this latter method sections may be obtained which are not only very 
thin, but form ribands quite easily. Such sections may be stuck on the 
slide by the water, albumen or Schallibaum's methods. While section- 
ing, the block does not require moistening with alcohol, though when 
the cutting is finished, it is advisable to cover the surface with paraffin. 

(4) Staining- and Injecting 1 . 

Picric-acid Carmin.* — R. Thoma finds that picric-acid-carmin is of 
great use for double staining, for staining nuclei and for decalcified 
osseous tissue. 1 grm. of picric acid is dissolved in 100 c.cm. warm 
distilled water, and filtered. To the hot filtrate is added ■ 5 grm. red 
carmin. The mixture is warmed until the powder is dissolved, is 
constantly stirred and brought to the boil once. It is allowed to cool 
slowly, and after about 24 hours is filtered. 

Picric-acid-carmin stains sections in about 20 minutes. The sections 
are washed in tap-water and differentiated with 1 p.c. picric acid 
solution. After several washings in water the sections maybe examined 
in glycerin or dehydrated and mounted in balsam. 

New Method of Staining Micro-organisms.t — F. Loeffler describes 
the following methods for staining micro-organisms, especially spiro- 
chastae, gonococci and diphtheria bacilli. The film is fixed with ethyl- 
alcohol, and then treated with 3 drops of ' 5 p.c. solution of sodium 
arsenate and 1 drop of 0*5 p.c. solution of malachite-green-zinc- 
chloride (Hochst). This is warmed for one minute and then the 
preparation is carefully washed. 5-10 drops of Giemsa stain are mixed 
with 5 c.cm. of J p.c. glycerin, and brought to the boil. The film is 
then treated for 4-5 minutes with the hot solution, and afterwards 
washed with a stream of water. 

Another procedure given consists in mixing 4 parts borax (2 • 5 p.c), 
methylen-blue (1 p.c), with 1 part polychrome methylen-blue, and then 
adding an equal quantity of • 05 p.c. brom-eosin B extra or extra A. G. 
(Hochst). The preparations are treated with the warmed solution for 
one minute, and then immersed in a solution consisting of saturated 

* Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxiv. (1907) p. 139. 

t Deutsche Med. Wochenschr., 1907, No. 5. See also Centralbl. Bakt., 
lte Abt. Ref., xl. (1907) pp. 307-8. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 115 

aqueous solution of tropseolin 00 5 parts, acetic acid 0*5, water 100. 
They are then washed with water. In order to decolorise the prepara- 
tions more slowly, the tropasolin solution may be diluted 5-10 times with 
water. 

Giemsa-staining of Spirochseta pallida.* — J. Schereschewsky ex- 
poses the prepared slide, the film being still moist, to osmic acid vapour 
for a few seconds, and after drying in the air fixes in the flame and 
then treats it with Giemsa's stain in the following way : 13 drops of 
Giemsa solution are diluted with 10 com. of 0*5 p.c. glycerin and heated 
to boiling, and if no precipitate occurs the film is treated therewith. 
Aiter 2 or 3 minutes the solution is poured off, and if the preparation 
be not sufficiently stained, the operation is repeated. After a short wash 
the preparation is mopped up with blotting-paper, dried, and examined 
in the usual way. 

Staining Sudanophil Leucocytes.f — D. Bultino and Gr. Quarelli used 
the following solutions for staining the fat globules in leucocytes : 
• 2 p.c. solution of Sudan iii in absolute alcohol, and aO'l p.c. solution 
of brilliant Kresyl-blue in the same medium. The authors found that 
the percentage of sudanophils is much increased in all suppurating 
affections and in pneumonia. 

Borrel's Blue.! — E. Pinoy states that Borrel's blue is conveniently 
made by mixing 100 grm. distilled water, 1 grm. silver oxide, and 1 grm. 
medicinal methylen-blue. The mixture should be kept in a yellow 
glass bottle. After three weeks, during which period the flask should 
be shaken from time to time, it is filtered. The maturation may be 
hastened by keeping the fluid at 37° C. Its staining property depends 
much on the quality of the methylen-blue. 

New Method of Preparing the Romanowsky Stain.§ — N. MacL. 
Harris gives the following procedure. Make up a saturated solution of 
Griibler's aqueous yellow eosin in methyl-alcohol and preserve ; then 
mix 2 grm. medicinal methylen-blue and 9 grm. sodium bicarbonate, 
and triturate in mortar. Remove to beaker of 250 c.cm. capacity and mix 
in 25-30 c.cm. distilled water ; steam sterilise for an hour and a quarter. 
Grind up the black residue, mix with 200-250 c.cm. water and add 10 c.cm. 
of 4 p.c. sodium hydrate. Extract with chloroform and then evaporate 
off the chloroform in a water-bath. The resulting mass is made up 
largely of methylen-violet, variable amounts of methylen-azure, and 
other substances. Dissolve the mass in methyl-alcohol ; this makes the 
stock solution of crude methylen-violet and azure. 

To make the staining fluid, take of the stock solution 60 c.cm.. of 
methyl-alcohol 33 c.cm., of the stock eosin solution 1-1 • 5 c.cm. Bottle 
and add from 0* 05-0 '15 grm. methvlen-blue. 

The staining of blood-films is carried out by Wright's method, the 
film being covered with the solution, which is allowed to act for one 

* Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., xlv. (1907) pp. 91-4 (1 pi.). 
t Rev. Clin. Med. Florence, 1907, pp. 321 and 337. See also Brit. Med. Journ., 
1907, ii., epit. 108. J Ann. Inst. Pasteur, xxi. (1907) pp. 633-4. 

§ Johns Hopkins Hosp., Bull, xviii. (1907) p. 281. 

I 2 



116 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

minute. A similar amount of water is added and allowed to stand for 
five minutes. Wash for 1-2 minutes in running water. 

If dysenteric stools are to be stained, the dye should be allowed to 
act for 2 minutes, while for Treponema pallidum 10 minutes may be 
necessary. 

Gram's Staining- Method. *— F. Loeffler has tested a number of 
methyl-violets and gentian-violets in their relation to Gram's method. 
The best results were obtained with methyl-violet 6 B and B N in 
10 p.c. solution freshly dissolved in 1-2 '5 p.c. aqueous carbolic. 
Sections taken from alcohol were placed in the stain solution for 2 to 10 
minutes, washed in water, transferred to Gram's iodine solution for 2 
minutes, then into 5 p.c. aqueous nitric acid or sulphuric acid for 1 
minute (or for 10 seconds into 3 p.c. alcoholic hydrochloric acid), and 
finally into absolute alcohol until completely decolorised ; cleared in 
xylol, and mounted in balsam. 

Studying the Nerve-endings in the Urinary Bladder of Mammals. 
Sergius Michailowf treated the material by the supravital method. 
Pieces of quite fresh bladder were immersed in the Ringer-Locke fluid, 
to which methylen-blue had been added, and when sufficiently stained 
the tissues were fixed with 7-10 p.c. molybdanate of ammonium. The 
pieces were then washed with water, dehydrated, and mounted in balsam. 
Occasionally the material was stained with Grenadier's alum-carmin. 

Staining-tank with Movable Grooves. % — Casimir Cepede describes 
a staining-tank with movable grooves. These slots or grooves are like 
the tanks made of glass or porcelain, and are of such dimensions that 
the pieces can be easily removed. This device enables the various parts 
of the tank to be easily cleaned. 

Simple Method of Staining Blood-films.§ — F. Weidenreich places 
in a watch-glass or capsule some 5 c.cm. of 1 p.c. osmic acid solution, and 
adds 10 drops of acetic acid. Perfectly clear slides are laid over the 
glass pan and exposed to the action of the paper for 2 minutes ; the 
capsules should be covered during the exposure with a bell-jar. The 
blood obtained in the usual way is then made into a film on the side of 
the slide which has been exposed to the paper. The slide is at once 
returned to the bell-jar for about 1 minute. When the film is quite dry 
the slide is passed thrice through the flame and then is flooded for 
about a minute with a very dilute solution of potassium permanganate 
(pale red hue). The film is then washed with water and mopped up 
with filter paper, after w r hich it is ready for staining, for which purpose 
the following are suitable : Ehrbch's tri-acid mixture, Giemsa, gentian- 
violet, eosin-methylen-blue, haematein. 

* Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Ref.. xi. (1907) p. 78. 
t Arch. Mikr. Anat., lxxi. (1907) pp. 254-83 (2 pis.). 
% C R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) pp. 485-7 (2 figs.). 

§ Folia hamatologica, iii. (190G) 7 pp. See also Zeitschr. Wiss. Mikrosk., xxiv. 
(1907) pp. 301-2. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



117 



(5) Mounting-, including- Slides, Preservative Fluids, etc. 

Preserving Fossil Seeds and Leaves.* — C. Reid and Eleanor M. 
Reid treated the fossil seeds they had collected f in the following way. 
A few seeds were removed from the store-bottles and washed in water to 
remove the formalin or salicylic acid used for their temporary preserva- 
tion. Then a thin film of wax (paraffin filtr., 45° C. G-riibler) was 
melted on a glass plate or Microscope slide. The seeds or leaves were 
placed, still wet, on the film, and the plate immediately heated to a 
temperature just sufficient to melt the wax. By this procedure the seed 
is impregnated with wax and rendered so tough that it could be easily 
handled. The superfluous wax was then removed with blotting-paper, or 
by brushing the surface with benzine. In the case of leaves it was 
found best to place them between two glass plates charged with films of 
wax ; they then become quite flat, and were easily photographed. When 
the wax is hard one plate is warmed and slid off, and the exposed 
surface of the leaf cleaned with benzine. The second glass was then 
warmed until the leaf could be slid to a clean part of the 
plate, and no excess of wax remained. The toughened 
leaf could then be lifted off and mounted on a card like 
an herbarium specimen. 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

Dust-excluding Histological Reagent Bottle.^ — 
The bottle (fig. 25) devised by W. H. Harvey differs 
from the ordinary type in the structure of the neck, 
which ends abruptly without any lip. The pipette 
has a glass cover or dome, through which it passes, 
sufficiently large to receive the neck of the bottle. The 
cover must be at least 1 mm. longer than the neck, 
to prevent fracture at the union of pipette and cover. 
As a further precaution, a thin rubber or felt washer 
may be placed upon the shoulder of the bottle. 

Nathorst's Use of Collodion Imprints in the 
Study of Fossil Plants. — By the term " collodion im- 
print " is meant, says F. A. Bather,§ the impression of 
any surface on a thin film of collodion. An impression 
is obtained by letting a drop or two of collodion, dissolved in ether, fall 
on the surface to be copied. The ether evaporates rapidly, so that the 
film is hard in 2 or ?> minutes. When dry it is removed to a slide, and 
preserved dry under a cover-slip held in position by gummed strips of 
paper or by Canada balsam. When the imprint is very sharp, the film 
may be preserved in glycerin-jelly without its distinctness being much 
impaired. It is advisable to throw away the first made, as it usually 
retains some dust from the surface of the object, the following films being 
free from this. 




Fig. 25. 



* Vevh. k. Akad. Wetenscb. Amsterdam, xiii. (1907) pp. 1-26 (3 pis.). 

t See this Journal, ante, p. 108. 

t Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxiv. (1907) p. 2S0 (1 fig.). 

§ Geol. Mag.,iv. (1907) pp. 437-40 (1 fig.). 



118 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

The film placed on the slide is examined under the Microscope by 
transmitted light ; quite high powers may be used, and photomicrographs 
taken. The illumination should be oblique, the mirror being shifted 
until the best effect is obtained. Though such collodion films have long 
been used in the measurement of microscopic objects, and by botanists f< >r 
copying the cuticular surface of living plants, Nathorst was the first to 
employ the method in the study of fossils. 

Rawitz' Microscopical Technique.* — This manual, by B. Eawitz, 
aims at giving as complete an account as possible of the present con- 
dition of microscopical technique, in a handy form, and suitable for 
reference in the laboratory. The work is divided into two parts, the first 
dealing with the various methods of research, and the second with the 
application of these methods to the different organs and tissues. The 
volume is but little adorned with illustrations, there being but eighteen 
altogether, and all of them old friends. 

Metallography, etc. 

Melting Point Diagrams of the Binary Systems Galena- 
Magnetic Pyrites and Galena-Silver sulphide.f— K. Friedrich has 
employed for this work lead sulphide with «7 " 1 p.c. Pb, magnetic 
pyrites with 62*35 p.c. Fe, and silver sulphide with 99*6 p.c. Ag 2 S. 
Both equilibrium diagrams are simple, consisting of two branches 
meeting at the eutectic point, and the horizontal eutectic line. A lower 
horizontal at 175° C. in the galena-silver sulphide diagram indicates a 
transformation point in AgjS. The melting points are, lead sulphide 
1114° C, magnetic pyrites "l 187° C, eutectic (70 p.c. PbS) *63° C, 
silver sulphide 835° C, eutectic (77 p.c. Ag.,S, 23 p.c. PbS) 630° C. 
Photomicrographs are given. 

Melting Point Diagrams of the Binary Systems, Silver sulphide- 
Copper sulphide and Lead sulphide-Copper sulphide.^ — K. Friedrich 
gives the equilibrium diagrams. Ag. 2 S and Cu 2 S appear to form an 
unbroken series of mixed crystals. A minimum occurs at 70 p.c. AgoS 
(677° C), there is no eutectic. 1121° C. is the melting point of copper 
sulphide. The lead sulphide-copper sulphide diagram has two branches 
meeting at the eutectic point 51 p.c. Cu 2 S, 540° C. No ternary com- 
pounds exist. A dilute solution of iodine in potassium iodide was 
used for etching the sections. 

Influence of Stress on the Corrosion of Iron.§ — Walker and 
C. Hill measured the potential given by pure Swedish iron, stressed in 
tension in a testing machine, against a normal calomel electrode, in 
ferrous sulphate solution. Below the elastic limit the potential change 
is exceedingly small. Somewhere above the elastic limit the potential 
rises suddenly. Out of a considerable number of specimens broken in 

* Leipzig : W. Engelniann (1907) 438 pp. 
+ Metallurgie, iv. (1907) pp. 479-85 (21 figs.). 
X Tom. cit., pp. 671-3 (7 figs.). 
§ Mechanical Engineer, xx. (1907) p. 155. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 119 

tension, the potential of six reached a constant value shortly after 
fracture. The difference between the initial and final potentials varied 
from 0-0019 to 0*0077 volt. The conclusion is drawn that even 
beyond the elastic limit the corrosion of iron is not greatly affected by 
stress. 

Hard and Soft States in Ductile Metals.* — Gt. T. Beilby, in con- 
tinuation of his previous work on this subject, has sought to define 
more accurately the temperature range over which crystallisation takes 
place in metals hardened by cold work. Hard drawn wires of gold, 
silver and copper were heated to various temperatures. Observations 
were made of the microstructure, the mechanical stability (by determining 
the load which would give a permanent extension of 1 p.c), the E.M.F. 
given by a thermocouple consisting of a hard wire and a wire previously 
heated to the given temperature. The change in elasticity was deter- 
mined by taking the pitch of the note given by reed vibrators of different 
metals annealed at various temperatures. The following are among the 
author's conclusions. The most severe mechanical working of a metal 
always produces a mixed structure of the hard and soft phases. It has 
not yet been found possible to produce a homogeneous specimen of 
metal entirely in the hard state. The temperature ranges over which 
(1) re-crystallisation, (2) loss of mechanical stability, (3) development of 
thermal E.M.F. between wires in the hard and soft states, (4) complete 
restoration of elasticity in hardened metal occur, coincide with each other 
closely. The maximum amount of change in gold, silver and copper 
occurs between 200° and 800° C. The change is essentially the develop- 
ment of the crystalline from the non-crystalline condition. 

Densities and Specific Heats of Some Alloys of Iron. J — From 
measurements made on a large number of alloys, quenched in water from 
a bright red heat, W. Brown has determined the effect upon the specific 
volume and specific heat of iron, of additions of carbon, manganese, 
nickel, tungsten, silicon, chromium, copper, cobalt and aluminium. The 
results are expressed as change per 1 p.c. of added element. By applying 
these results to the calculation of dissipation of energy per cycle in 
armature cores, the superiority for this purpose of silicon steel to pure 
iron or other alloys is demonstrated. 

Alloys of Iron with Molybdenum 4— Lautsch and G. Tammann 
have sought to determine the equilibrium diagram. The metals melted 
in magnesia tubes were heated to 1800°-1850° C, and the protected 
thermocouple inserted when the temperature had fallen to 1600° C. 
Alloys with more than 70 p.c. molybdenum could not be made homo- 
geneous in this way, the molybdenum not dissolving completely. Abnor- 
malities apparent in the curve, which theoretically cannot occur in a 
two-component system, have led the authors to put forward the hypo- 
thesis that owing to the slow formation of a compound the system must 
be considered as one of three components — iron, molybdenum and the 

* Proc. Roy. Soc, Series A, Ixxix. (1907) pp. 463-80 (12 figs.). See also 
Nature, lxxvi. (1907) pp. 572-4 (2 figs.). 

t Trans. Roy. Dublin Soc., ix. (1907) pp. 59-84 (6 figs.). 
X Zeitschr. Anorg. Chem., lv. (1907) pp. 386-401 (18 figs.). 



120 SUMMARY OF CUBEENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

compound ;/■. The equilibrium diagram is accordingly shown in the 
three dimensional system. If iron and molybdenum could be mixed at 
1800° C. so quickly that the compound x had not time to form, two 
series of mixed crystals only would be formed. The compound x and 
iron do not form mixed crystals. Alloys prepared by the alumino- 
thermic process, and thus heated to a much higher temperature, contain 
distinctly more of the compound x. The structure of alloys prepared in 
either way is not altered by heating to 1200° C. and quenching, showing 
that the differences are not due to reactions occurring in the solid state. 
It appears that the amount of the compound present slowly increases as 
the temperature rises. A similar case is that of aluminium and antimony. 

Copper-bismuth Alloys. — K. Jeriomin* gives the equilibrium 
diagram, differing considerably from Gautier's. No compound is formed. 
If mixed crystals exist, their concentration is very low — less than ■ 5 p.c. 
copper in bismuth, or bismuth in copper. The eutectic contains not 
more than 0*5 p.c. copper. 

A. Portevin f has also determined the equilibrium diagram, and states 
that neither compounds nor solid solutions are formed. The eutectic 
contains very little copper. Crystals of copper are found in the alloy 
with • 3 p.c. copper. 

Zinc-cadmium Alloys.^ — G. Hindrichs gives the equilibrium 
diagram, showing no compounds or solid solutions. The eutectic com- 
position and temperature are £2*6 p.c. cadmium and 270° C. The 
thermal results were confirmed by microscopic examination. 

Antimony-lead Alloys. § — W. Gontermann has re-determined the 
equilibrium diagram, because of some discrepancies and omissions in 
previous determinations. No compounds or mixed crystals are formed. 
A peculiarity was noted in the cooling curves of the alloys from which 
antimony first crystallises. The eutectic point is apparently double, 
two halts occurring at temperatures about 5° C. apart. After showing 
that this cannot be due to the formation of a compound or to changes 
occurring in the solid state, the author suggests the explanation that 
the double halt is due to the difference in solubility of large and small 
crystals of antimony. 

Special Cast Irons. || — By adding nickel in increasing amounts to 
(1) white iron, (2) grey iron, L. Guillet prepared a series of nickel cast 
irons. Microscopic examination showed that nickel favours the forma- 
tion of graphite. Similar tests were made with manganese. The author 
arrives at the general conclusion that those elements which enter into 
solution in iron (nickel, aluminium, silicon) . promote the formation of 
graphite, while the elements which form a double carbide with cementite 
(manganese, chromium) tend to prevent graphite formation. 

* Zeitschr. Anorg. Chexn., lv. (1907) pp. 412-14 (1 fig.). 
t Rev. de Metallurgie, iv. (1907) pp. 1077-80 (4 figs.). 
% Zeitschr. Anorg. Chern, lv. (1907) pp. 415-18 (1 fig). 
§ Tom. cit., pp. 419-25 (2 figs.). 
|| Comptes Kendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 552-3. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 121 

Thermo-electricity of Nickel.* — H. Pecheux has measured the 
E.M.F. developed by thermocouples prepared from copper and three 
specimens of commercial nickel, varying- somewhat in chemical com- 
position. The notable effect of impurities in the nickel, and of anneal- 
ing, on the E.M.F. developed is shown. 

Blowholes in Steel Ingots.f — E. von Maltitz discusses the forma- 
tion and prevention of blowholes. Though the gas found in them 
consists almost wholly of hydrogen and nitrogen, the gas evolved during 
solidification contains a large proportion of carbon monoxide, and it 
appears that the formation of blowholes is largely due to the evolution 
of carbon monoxide. The solvent power of molten steel for ferrous 
oxide (the source of the carbon monoxide) increases as the temperature 
rises, and at the same time the affinity of iron for oxygen increases more 
rapidly than that of carbon for oxygen. Thus carbon monoxide is 
given off when highly heated molten steel (containing both ferrous 
oxide and carbon in solution) is cooled, as by stirring with a steel rod. 
The liberation of carbon monoxide probably induces the simultaneous 
liberation of hydrogen and nitrogen. 

Melting- Points of the Iron Group Elements.} — G. K. Burgess 
has obtained the following values by a new radiation method : — Iron 
1505° C, cobalt 1464° C, manganese 1207° C, chromium 1489° C, 
nickel 1485° C. Minute quantities of the metal were placed on an 
electrically heated platinum strip within a brass tube through which 
hydrogen was passed. The particles were microscopically observed 
through a mica window, and the temperature of the platinum strip was 
taken by a Holborn-Kurlbaum optical pyrometer at the instant when 
the metal was seen to melt. 

Melting- Points of Palladium and Platinum.§ — G. W. Waidner 
and G. K. Burgess have selected the values, palladium 1546° G. and 
platinum 1753° C., from the results given by radiation and other 
methods. 

Electrolytic Corrosion of Brasses.||— A. T. Lincoln, D. Klein, and 
P. E. Howe have subjected to electrolytic corrosion in normal solutions 
of some sodium and ammonium salts a series of copper-zinc alloys 
representing most of the different solid solutions, annealed at 400° 0. 
for several weeks. For the alloys of 50 p.c. or more copper the 
corrosion product (precipitate resulting from corrosion) has practically 
the same composition as the alloy. For alloys of low copper content 
the corrosion product is nearly pure zinc. While the amount of corro- 
sion in sodium chloride decreases with increase in copper content of the 
brass, in other solutions the reverse was found to be the case. 

* Cornptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 591-3. 

t Bull. Amer. Inst. Mining Eng., xvii. (1907) pp. 691-726. 

t Bull. Bureau of Standards, iii. (1907) pp. 345-55 (1 fig.). 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 163-208. 

|| Journ. Phys. Chem., xi. (1907) pp. 501-36 (12 figs.). 



122 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Alloys of Iron with Chromium.* — W. Treitschke and G. Tammann 
have investigated the equilibrium diagram. Owing to the high viscosity 
of molten chromium at 1(>0<>° C, it was found necessary to heat the 
alloys to 170<> C. in magnesia tubes in order to secure complete mixing 
of the fluid metals. With more than 1(1 p.c. chromium the cooling 
curves no longer indicated the transformation points of iron. The 
peculiarities of the freezing point curve are explained in the same way 
as for the iron-molybdenum alloys, by the existence of a compound x 
with a relatively slow rate of formation. The system thus becomes a 
ternary system. The diagram, and the microstructure of the alloys, 
are discussed in detail. 

Alloys of Potassium with other Metals.j — D. P. Smith has deter- 
mined the equilibrium diagrams of the binary alloys of potassium with 
aluminium, magnesium, zinc, cadmium, bismuth, tin, and lead, and 
gives a table summarising his results. Potassium is not miscible in the 
liquid state with aluminium and magnesium, and only partially miscible 
with zinc, cadmium, and lead. Compounds were found in each series 
except the potassium-aluminium and potassium-magnesium systems. 
Owing to the rapidity with which the alloys oxidised, microscopic 
examination was difficult. Some sections were cut and examined under 
paraffin oil. 

Metallography of Cast Iron.} — E. Heyn and 0. Bauer have sought 
to determine the range of temperature in which graphite is formed, in two 
series of alloys, the first containing about 4 p.c. silicon, 3 p.c. carbon, the 
second about 1"5 p.c. silicon, :-5 # 2 p.c. carbon. The samples were slowly 
cooled from a temperature well above the melting point, and quenched 
at different temperatures. One sample of each series was slowly cooled 
to atmospheric temperature, the cooling curve being taken. Graphite 
was estimated in each sample, and sections were microscopically ex- 
amined ; total carbon and silicon were also determined. The results 
indicate that iron alloys containing 1*2-4 "25 p.c. silicon and 2 • 7— 
3 - 12 p.c. total carbon solidify as white iron, and that nearly the whole 
of the graphite is formed in the temperature interval of 40° C. below 
the end of solidification. E Heyn discusses the literature of the 
subject. P. Goerens§ and E. Heyn || deal with the formation of kish. 

Crystallisation and Structure of Steel.1T — A. Bajkow has made 
analyses and microscopic examination of octahedral crystals found 
in blow-holes in steel castings. In three specimens the carbon was 
• 54-0* 98 p.c, manganese 0' 78-1* 06 p.c. All the crystals contained 
inclusions of slag in crystalline form. 

Osmondite.** — H. M. Howe gives an account of the experimental 
results from which Heyn and Bauer deduced the existence of this new 

* Zeitschr. Anorg. Chem., lv. (1<J07) pp. 402-11 (9 figs.), 
t Op. cit., lvi. (1907) pp. 109-42 (9 figs.). 

% Stahl und Eisen, xxvii. (1907) pp. 1565-71, 1621-5 (33 figs.). 
§ Torn, cit., pp. 1776-7. '|| Tom. cit., p. 1778. 

^f Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind., xxvi. (1907) p. 1139. Abstract from Journ. Russ. 
Phvs.-Chem. Ges., xxxix. (1907) pp. 399-410. 

** Electrochem. and Met. Ind., v. (1907) pp. 347-50 (2 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 123 

iron-carbon phase. When hardened steel is tempered, the change in 
physical properties precedes the change in carbon condition. Thus, 
when a 0*95 p.c. carbon steel quenched in water from 900° C. was re- 
heated to 400° C, 70 p.c. of the loss of hardness had taken place, and 
only 1:5 p.c. of the change from hardening carbon to cementite had 
occurred. Osmondite, the chief constituent when the change has pro- 
ceeded thus far, is defined as a solid solution of iron carbide in a- iron. 
Doubt is thrown on the suggestion that the hardness of osmondite, 
which is still distinctly harder than pearlite, is due to " inequiaxing " 
(distortion of the crystalline grains). 

Apparatus for Polishing Metal Sections.* — K. W. Zimmerschied 
describes a machine designed for the use of a number of students. 
The ten horizontal polishing wheels are driven from two shafts run- 
ning below the bench. The spindle of each polishing wheel carries at its 
lower end a friction disk, which can be raised out of contact with the 
driving wheel on the shaft, thus stopping the polishing wheel. Speed is 
regulated by sliding the driving wheel along the shaft. Each polishing 
wheel is provided with a water-guard, and is continuously supplied 
with distilled water from a glass nozzle. The metal section, after sur- 
facing on a fine carborundum wheel, is polished in turn with (1) very 
fine carborundum powder on a canvas-covered disk ; (2) alumina on 
broadcloth ; (3) if still finer polishing is required, ronge on broadcloth. 

Annealing of Sterling Silver.f — W. H.Walker found that the 
dark "fire-surface " produced on silver containing 7*5. p.c .copper, by 
annealing, was due to the oxidation of the copper. By annealing in a 
non-oxidising atmosphere this surface darkening may be prevented. 
Sterling silver which has been partially oxidised and afterwards annealed 
in a reducing atmosphere, shows blisters on the surface, apparently 
caused by the formation of water vapour within the metal. 

Tellurium-tin Alloys.:}: — H. Fay has determined the freezing-point 
curve, and studied the microstructure. One compound, SnTe, melting 
at 769° C, occurs, and forms a eutectic with tellurium, containing 
85 p.c. of that metal, melting point 399° C, and a eutectic with tin of 
very low concentration in tin. 

Longitudinal Impact of Metal Rods.§ — J. E. Sears has determined 
the velocity of propagation of elastic waves in rods of steel, copper, and 
aluminium, by a dynamical method. Two equal rods of the metal were 
suspended horizontally by cords, with their ends (made slightly convex) 
just touching and their axes in the same straight line. One rod was 
withdrawn a given distance and allowed to swing against the other. 
The duration of longitudinal impact was measured by allowing an 
electrical circuit to be completed by the contact, and measuring the 
total quantity of electricity passing during contact. The results are in 
very close agreement with the velocities calculated from the formula 

v = \/ —, subjected to a small correction to give the true adiabatic 
v p 

* Journ. Amer. Cheni. Sec, xxix. (1907) pp. 855-8 (3 figs.). 

+ Tom. cit., pp. 1198-1201 (3 figs.). J Tom. cit., pp. 1265-8 (1 fig.). 

§ Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc, xiv. (1907) pp. 257-86 (9 figs.). 



124 SUM.MAlIY OF CURRENT KKSKAKCHKS KKLATINC TO 

values. Young's modulus, therefore, tins the same value whether the 
loading is slow or sudden. 

Annealing of Copper.* — T. Turner and I). M. Levy have deter- 
mined the dilatation of copper, both hard-drawn and annealed, between 
0° C. and 600° C. The curves obtained for the two varieties are almost 
identical, and are nearly straight lines ; the change taking place when 
hard worked copper is annealed is not accompanied by any alteration of 
length. Similar determinations were made on wrought iron, steel con- 
taining * 94 p.c. carbon, and several copper alloys. An extensometer 
designed by the author was used for measuring the increase of length. 

Magnetisation of Iron and Nickel.f — P. Weiss found the intensity 
of magnetisation to saturation of pure Swedish iron to be 1731, and that 
of nickel 407, at the ordinary temperature, the error not exceeding 
* 5 p.c. Two different methods w T ere employed. 

Equilibrium of the Nickel-bismuth System. :£ — A. Portevin states 
the results obtained by the application of the method of thermal analysis 
to cooling curves, but does not give the equilibrium diagram. Micro- 
scopic examination indicated that equilibrium was reached only for 
alloys near either end of the series ; complexes of three or four phases 
were obtained in alloys further removed from the pure metals. 

Annealing-carbon in Cast Iron.§ — G. Charpy divided a quantity of 
molten cast iron into two portions. One was cooled slowly, giving its 
carbon as graphite, the other rapidly cooled and subsequently annealed, 
causing the separation of the carbon as annealing- or temper-carbon. 
The author then demonstrated the identity of these two forms of 
carbon : ( ] ) by the chemical reactions of the carbon separated on dis- 
solving the iron in nitric acid ; (2) by the similarity in progress of 
decarburisation of the two samples on heating in a current of hydrogen. 

Solubility of Graphite in Iron.|| — G. Charpy prepared a grey cast 
iron with total carbon :»*75 p.c, graphite 3*34 p.c. and with only traces 
of impurities, by melting cemented Swedish iron with wood charcoal, and 
slowly cooling. Small pieces were heated to different temperatures for 
several hours and quenched. The combined carbon increased steadily 
from 0*31 p.c in the sample heated at 750° C. to i "47 p.c at 1,150° C. 
The results of these determinations and of other experiments described 
by the author lead him to consider that the solubility of graphite in 
iron decreases regularly with temperature. A probable value for the 
solubility at 1000° C. is 1 p.c 

Occluded Gases in Steel.f — G. Belloc summarises the results of his 
extensive investigations, to be fully described later. A steel contain- 
ing - 12 p.c. carbon was used; the work included determination of 
(1) the composition of the gas evolved on heating, and variation of 
composition with temperature ; (2) rate of evolution of gas at different 

* Proc. Roy. Soc, Series A, lxxx. (1907) pp. 1-12 (4 tigs.). 
t Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 1155-7. 
J Tom. cit., pp. 1168-70. § Tom. cit., pp. 1173-4. 

|! Tom. cit., pp. 1277-9. \ Tom. cit., pp. 1280-3. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 125 

temperatures ; (3) influence of position from which the sample is taken, 
on the amount of gas evolved. 

Extraction of Gases contained in Metals.* — 0. Boudouard has 
shown, by successive heatings of samples of iron at 1100° C. in vacuo, 
that gas is still evolved at the third heating. A much larger quantity of 
gas (amounting to 0*22 p.c. by weight) was evolved from filings than 
from the same metal in the form of wire or sheet, and a greater propor- 
tion of the total gas evolved was given off at the first heating in 
the case of filings. Volatilisation of the iron commenced at 1)00° C, 
and was marked at 1100° C. 

Vibrations accompanying Shock.| — C. de Freminville has made an 
extended study of the fractures of glass, sandstone, steel, and other 
materials. It is to be regretted that his deductions as to the character 
of the vibrations accompanying shock are so vaguely expressed as to 
be of little practical value. A comprehensive classification of fractures 
is given. 

Alloys of Cobalt and Copper.:}: — The equilibrium diagram of this 
series, determined by N. Konstantinow, indicates that no compounds are 
formed, and that there are two series of solid solutions with concentra- 
tion limits, 6 • 5 p.c. cobalt and 15 p.c. copper. From :->0 to 70 p.c. cobalt 
the melt splits up into two liquid layers on cooling. Confirmation of 
the diagram was obtained by micro-examination : the separation into 
two layers was not evident in the sections, probably on account of the 
small difference in specific gravity of the two liquids. The etching re- 
agents were hydrochloric acid for the copper-rich alloys, and ferric 
chloride for the alloys of low copper content. 

Sorbitic Rails. §— By experiments carried out on 1*5 m. lengths 
of steel rail, F. Limbourg has shown that the hardness, tensile strength, 
and stiffness (indicated by deflection in a drop test) of rails may be 
considerably raised by treatments of the kind suggested by Stead and 
Richards. The treatment consisted in quenching the rails hot from the 
rolls, in water, and reheating to temperatures ranging from 450-650° C. ; 
or in immersing in water till no longer red, and cooling in air, the in- 
ternal heat of the rail effecting a partial annealing. 

Iron-carbon System. || — A. Portevin considers that the multitudinous 
investigations of this system have led to the final establishment of the 
theory of equilibrium. He gives a clear account of the diagram ex- 
pressing the labile equilibrium between iron and cementite and the 
stable equilibrium between iron and graphite. The numerous references 
in the course of the paper constitute a useful bibliography. 

* Comptes Rendus, cxlv (1907) pp. 1283-4. 

t Rev. de Metallurgie, iv. (1907) pp. 833-84 (38 figs.). 

I Tom. cit., pp. 983-8 (8 figs.). § Tom. cit., pp. 989-92. 

|| Tom. cit., pp. 993-1005 (3 figs.). 



12G 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



MEETING 

Held on the 18th of December, 1907, at 20 Hanover Square, W. 
Mr. Conrad Beck, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Meeting of the 20th of November, 1907, were 
read and confirmed. 



The List of Donations to the Society since the last Meeting, exclu- 
sive of exchanges and reprints, was read, and the thanks of the Society 
were voted to the donors. 

From 
Bernard Rawitz, Lehrbuch der Mikroskopischen Technik.\ rp 7 p , r , 

(8vo, Leipzig, 1907) f ** ^ u0l/isner - 

Eug. Warming, Dansk Plantevsekst. 2 Klitterne, F<prste\ m, A .-, 

Halvbind. (8vo, Copenhagen, 1907) J ine manor - 

^-in. Objective by Andrew Ross, date about 1842 . . . . Mr. J. E. Ingpen. 



Mr. Eustace Large described a number of slides of natural twin- 
crystals of selenite exhibited under Microscopes in the room. The way 
in which the specimens had been prepared and the effects produced by 
the varying angles at which the twin-plane cut the cleavage-plane were 
further illustrated by diagrams and models. Some large reflecting 
polariscopes with horizontal stages were also exhibited, and a description 
of these was appended to the paper. 

Mr. Large said : " I propose to assume a general knowledge of the 
action of polarised light, and will only briefly refer to two points, viz. : 
1. That the thickness of a plate of selenite, or mica, determines the 
particular wave-length that, by interference, will be cancelled ; leaving 
the residue of wave-lengths, of the particular light we may be working 
by to combine and form the actual colour seen, which colour will be com- 
plementary to that cancelled ; and (2) That if an even plate be cut in 
half, and one half placed over the other parallel, the colour will be that 
of a plate double the thickness, but if one be crossed at right angles on 
the other the action in the one will exactly counteract that in the other, 
and darkness will be restored, that is, assuming the nicols to be crossed, 
giving a dark field. Consequently, if two pieces of unequal thickness 
be crossed the colour will be that of a plate equal to their difference in 
thickness. Selenite is the natural crystallised form of gypsum, and con- 
sists of the metal calcium + sulphuric acid + 2 equivalents of water. If 
1 part of the water be driven off by heat plaster of Paris remains. If 
both, the plaster produced will not " set." The crystals occur naturally 
of all sizes. They do not appear to have been produced artificially of 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 127 

any useful size. They belong to the oblique system, and have a plane 
of very easy cleavage parallel to the flat sides of the crystal. There are 
other planes of cleavage, or at least of easy fracture, which are probably 
connected with the formation of the features which are about to be 
described. 

" If a normal twin-plate — showing, say red — is laid on a rotating stage, 
between crossed nicols, there will be four positions in which one area (A) 
will be red and the other (B) black, and at nearly 30° from each posi- 
tion these colours will be reversed. ( ? 28° 16'.) Between the two 
areas A and B there will be merely a boundary. This boundary may 
be quite irregular, perfectly straight, or zigzag with beautiful regular 
angles. Bat, in addition, this boundary, which is called the twin-plane, 
may not be perpendicular to the cleavage-plane. The result then will 
be that the twin-plate is practically made up of two opposed wedges, 
and if the plate is rotated so that one of these is dark the other will 
shine out in bands of colours, showing Newton's orders of thin film 
colours. The angle of this twin-plane may be more or less acute, giving 
the orders in thin lines or spread into broad bands. Instead of an angle 
the junction may be a series of steps, or alternate steps and angles. Also 
these variations may occur lengthwise, and all these in every possible 
combination. The most striking forms may be classified into broad or 
narrow wedges, parallel bands, bands cut up into rhomboids, mitred 
angles, and a very beautiful zigzag form. Specimens of each are shown 
under the Microscopes. Some beautiful effects result from crossing two 
wedge twins on each other. Another interesting feature is that whereas 
the two halves of some twins are at about 30°, all that I have myself 
obtained from the London clay are at about 75°, so within 7|° either 
way of cancelling each other, and therefore when wedged they give a 
nearly dark band with Newton's orders running both ways. Most of 
the features are best seen by from 1-in. to 2-in. objectives, but some 
are large enough to show well on the table polariscopes, or projected 
on the screen. 

" This form of reflecting polariscope, as constructed for me by Messrs. 
Baker, is a most useful appliance for workers in thin films. The 
analysing reflector can be used for general observation of large surfaces 
and for display of finished work, while a Nicol, with low-power lens, is 
easily substituted for actual exact marking and cutting on the large 
horizontal glass stage. Also, a mirror and single glass plate converts it, 
in a moment, into a Norremburg doubler, so useful for gauging the 
thickness of \- and -i-wave films in mica work. A revolving |-wave 
mica plate under the stage gives change of colour (plus and minus), or 
a pair of ^-wave plates would give change by actual rotation of the 
polarised beam. 

" I have also a small appliance, consisting of a fragment of Iceland 
spar, mounted on the nose of objective. This gives a double image, 
and if diagonal cross lines are ruled on a blackened slip on the stage, 
with a selenite plate, two complementary coloured images appear of the 
network superposed, and wherever the lines cross, the coloured lights 
re-combine into white light. 

" Small clear pieces of Iceland spar about ^-in. thick can be selected, 



128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

that only require mounting between two thin glass covers with balsam, 
and the experiment is pretty and instructive." 

The thanks of the Meeting were voted to Mr. Large for his very 
interesting exhibit and description. 



Mr. J. E. Barnard exhibited some specimens of luminous Bacteria 
contained in a number of culture tubes, and also in large quantities in 
a solution in a flask. On the lights in the room being turned off, the 
light given off by these organisms was at once seen. The contents of 
the flask whilst undisturbed remained dark, but became very luminous 
when agitated. It was explained that the light produced was nearly 
monochromatic, and in position was between the lines F and G in the 
spectrum. The whole of the energy of these bacteria seemed to be 
utilised in producing light, as no heat whatever could be detected. 
Mr. Barnard did not propose to give any description of the organisms 
producing the light, nor as to the preparation of the examples before 
the Meeting, but intimated his willingness to do so on a future occasion 
if the matter was of interest to the Fellows of the Society. (A further 
exhibition of the tubes was given in a dark room at the close of the 
Meeting.) 

The Chairman said they must give a very hearty vote of thanks to 
Mr. Barnard for his very interesting exhibit, and expressed a hope that 
he would tell them something more about the subject at some future 
date. He said it seemed almost to suggest that when their coal and gas 
gave out, they might perhaps be growing bacteria to light their rooms ! 



Mr. E. M. Nelson's paper, " Gregory and Wright's Microscope," 
was read by Dr. Hebb, a photograph of the instrument being handed 
round for inspection. 

Mr. Nelson's paper, " A Co^-ection for a Spectroscope," was also read 
by Dr. Hebb, and was illustr. I by a diagram. 

The thanks of the Society ^re unanimously voted to Mr. Nelson 
for these communications. 



A paper by Mr. James Murra) on " Some African Rotifers," was 
read by Mr. Rousselet, and was ill I *ated by drawings of the species 
mentioned as having been collect*. J Cape Colony, Uganda, and 

Madagascar. 

Mr. Rousselet mentioned that at th ent time Mr. Murray was on 

his way to the Antarctic regions on bo;. e Nimrod, sent out by the 

British Antarctic Expedition, 1907, and ntending to spend twelve 

months there. He had daily devoted so of his time during the 
voyage to the Cape in endeavouring to procc e marine rotifera from the 
Atlantic, but had failed to find any. Mr. R> elet further stated that 
this agreed with the experience of the Germ; Mankton Expedition of 
1889, who found no rotifers in the Atlantic .opt in two limited and 
widely separated areas, the one in the North A I lantic midway between 
North Britain and Greenland, where two species -, nchceta 'and Rattuhis) 
were found in enormous numbers, and the oth off Bermuda, where 
the same two species were again encountered. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 129 

The Chairman thought the paper was one of great interest, which they 
would be very pleased to see in the Journal. As regards the occasional 
presence of large numbers of rotifers, he might say he had a similar 
experience some time ago in Westmorland ; on one occasion he found 
the lakes swarming with certain forms of animalculse, while a short 
time afterwards he was unable to find any. 

Mr. Wesche said that one of the forms illustrated showed some 
lateral appendages, which he thought very remarkable, and so far as he 
knew, were absolutely unique amongst the Bdelloids ; it was numbered 
5 on the plate, and described under the name of Gallidina pinniger. The 
appendages, he thought, might be of similar function to the blades 
on the shoulders of the common species Polyarthra platyptera Ehr., 
giving a sudden movement to the animal to enable it to escape the jaws 
of some predacious enemy. In the matter of finding large numbers of 
a species in a particular place at one time, and none whatever at another, 
would be the experience of every collector, as it had often been his. 

Mr. Barnard remarked that Bacterium indicum was phosphorescent 
in the tropics, and sometimes appeared in very large quantities, which 
he thought might possibly be accounted for by the presence of nutri- 
ment. 

The thanks of the Society were unanimously voted to Mr. Murray 
for his paper, and to Mr. Rousselet for reading it. 



The Chairman reminded the Fellows that their next Meeting would 
be their Anniversary, at which they usually had an address from their 
President. He regretted to say, however, that this time they would 
be without this, as Lord Avebury found he would be quite unable to 
be present owing to his having to be elsewhere to receive an additional 
honour conferred upon him, the date of which function could not be 
altered. His Lordship had expressed his great regret at not being 
able to be present at the Annual Meeting, but had intimated that the 
Society should not lose the benefit of his address, which he hoped to 
give them on a future occasion. In substitution for the address, they 
had arranged for a paper to be read, " On the Microscope as an Aid to 
the Study of Biology in Entomology, with special reference to the 
Food of Insects," by Mr. W. Wesche. 

As the next would be their Annual Meeting, it was necessary to 
elect two Auditors of the Society's accounts, and on behalf of the 
Council he nominated Mr. J. M. Allen. 

Mr. C. L. Curties was then proposed by Mr. Marshall, and seconded 
by Mr. Ersser, as Auditor, on behalf of the Fellows. 

The names of these two gentlemen having been submitted to the 
Meeting, they were declared to have been duly elected as Auditors. 

The following list of Fellows, proposed by the Council as the Officers 
and Council of the Society for the ensuing year, was then read by the 
Secretary, and would be submitted for election at the Annual Meeting 
on January 15th, 1908 : — 

President — Lord Avebury. 

Vice-Presidents — Mr. Beck, Dr. Dallinger, Dr. Eyre, and Sir Ford 
North. 

Treasurer — Mr. W. E. Baxter. 

Feb. 19th, 1908 



130 PROCEEDINGS OK THE SOCIETY. 

Secretaries- -Mr. J. W. Gordon and Dr. R. G. Hebb. 

Ordinary Members of Council — Messrs. Carr, Cheshire, Disney, 
Karop, Pliminer, Powell, Price - Jones, Radley, Rousselet, Scales, 
Scourtield, and Spitta. 

Librarian — Mr. P. E. Radley. 

Curator of Instruments — Mr. C. F. Ronsselet. 
„ Slides— Mr. F. S. Scales. 



The thanks of the Society were cordially voted to Messrs. Baker for 
the loan of the Microscopes under which the slides of Selenite were 
exhibited that evening. 

It was announced that the Rooms of the Society would be closed 
from Tuesday, December 24th, to Monday, December 30th. 



New Fellow. — The following was balloted for and duly elected an 
Ordinary Fellow of the Society : — Mr. Chas. R. Scriven. 



The following Instruments, Objects, etc., were exhibited : — 

Mr. J. E. Barnard : — Luminous Bacteria. 

Mr. Eustace Large : — Twin Selenites, two crystals, crossed ; ditto, 
angled ; ditto, zig-zag, narrow ; ditto, ditto, broad ; ditto, mitred angle ; 
ditto, double mitre ; ditto, rhomboid ; ditto, compound rhomboid ; 
ditto, natural and artificial wedge ; Double-image prism on Objective ; 
Reflecting Table Polariscopes, under two of which were selenite designs 
lent by Mr. C. L. Curties. 

Mr. J. Inderwick Pigg : — Microphotograph, front page of ' Daily 
Mail.' 

The Society : — ■ | in. Objective, by Andrew Ross. 



ANNIVERSARY MEETING 



Held on the 15th of January, 1908, at 20 Hanover Square, W., 
E. J. Spitta, Esq., L.R.C.P., etc., in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Meeting of the 18th of December, 1907, were 
read and confirmed, and were signed by the Chairman. 

Messrs. T. D. Aldous and F. Orfeur having been appointed to act as 
Scrutineers, the ballot for the election of Officers and Council for the 
ensuing year was proceeded with. 

An old Microscope, presented to the Society by Mr. Michie, per Sir 
Frank Crisp, was exhibited by Mr. Rousselet, who read a description of 
the instrument and assigned it to Jones, the successor of Adams, as the 
maker, who probably constructed it about 100 years ago. 

The thanks of the Meeting were unanimously voted to Mr. Michie 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 131 

for his donation, to Sir F. Crisp for having forwarded it, and to Mr. 
Rousselet for his description of it. 



Mr. C. Beck exhibited and described a new method of showing 
bacteria by dark-ground illumination, being a modification of the para- 
bolic illuminator, used in conjunction with a Nernst lamp and mono- 
chromatic blue light. The new apparatus was devised by him to obviate 
the inconvenience caused by the oil running down the reflecting surfaces 
of the illuminator and allow a perfect focusing adjustment for the light. 
It was pointed out that when bacteria were shown on a bright ground 
they appeared only like black lines, whilst when seen on a dark ground 
they were rendered far more distinct, although their appearance varied 
somewhat according to what parts reflected light most brilliantly. In 
general the appearance seen was that of a brilliantly illuminated envelope 
and bright nuclei ; if there was a twist in the specimen under observation 
they would get nodes of light at the twists, whilst in other cases an 
extremely brilliant circular patch would be seen in one place. In 
employing this method it was important to have a perfectly clean slide 
only containing the creatures it was desired to examine, since every 
particle in the field would be strongly reflective and a mass of brilliant 
material in the background prevented the examination of objects in 
the foreground. He thought this method of illumination was well 
worth considering, as being much more likely to give a correct idea of 
what was being seen, than if the ordinary method was employed. The 
construction and action of the parabola was explained by means of 
diagrams on the board. 

The Chairman said there could be no question as to the difficulty of 
getting photographs of unstained bacteria seen in the ordinary way, and 
the process described by Mr. Beck certainly seemed to be worth atten- 
tion. The only difficulty which occurred to him in connection with the 
matter was that it was limited to a numerical aperture of 1, but he 
thought their hearty congratulations were due to Mr. Beck for what he 
had accomplished. Everything new was of value, for even if it was not 
apparent at the moment it might be in the future, when it was most 
convenient to find a piece of apparatus, just what you wanted, read) 
to hand. 

Mr. Beck said the angular aperture was limited by the fact that in 
looking at bacteria they were seen in water which had a refractive index 
of 1 • 38. The actual angle of the illuminator was from 1-1 to 1 • 5, but 
this was cut down by the water. If seen in oil the angle would, of 
course, be higher. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. Beck for his com- 
munication. 



Mr. J. W. Ogilvy exhibited and described a new Microscope by Leitz ; 
diagrams showing the mechanism of the fine-adjustment were placed 
upon the table. 



The Annual Report of the Society for 1 907 was then read by Dr. Hebb. 



132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL FOR 1907. 

FELLOWS. 

Ordinary. — During the year 1907, 15 new Fellows have been elected, 
and 2 reinstated, whilst 11 have died, 14 have resigned, and 6 have 
been removed. Among the deaths the Council regrets to notice the 
names of two distinguished Fellows, Dr. Czapski, of whom an obituary 
notice has already appeared in the Journal, and of Professor Charles 
Stewart, who was Secretary from 1878-82. 

The list of Fellows now contains the names of 395 Ordinary, 1 
Corresponding, 42 Honorary, and 81 Ex-Officio Fellows, being a total 
of 519. 

FINANCE. 

Subscriptions have been paid with the usual regularity. 

To avoid a repetition of a debit balance at the end of the year. 
£163 19s. Id. India 3 per Cent. Stock has been sold, realising 
£139 14s. Hd. This is part of £1033 13s. Qd. invested during the 
past 7 years. It is hoped that it will not be necessary to part with 
more of the invested funds, but to prevent this it becomes important to 
maintain the roll of Members at its normal strength by electing Fellows 
in the place of those who cease to be such by death and resignation. 

JOUENAL. 

In the Transactions are recorded 17 important papers, of which 11 
deal with optical and microscopical subjects, the remaining fi being 
biological. 

The valuable summary of current researches relating to Zoology, 
Botany and Microscopy has maintained its accustomed high standard of 
excellence, for which the Society is indebted to the continued care and 
energy of the editorial staff. 

LIBRARY. 

The Library is in good order ; the number of volumes has been 
increased by the donation and purchase of some important works. 

The Shelf Catalogue is in progress, and it is hoped to complete it by 
the end of the current year. 

INSTRUMENTS AND APPARATUS. 

The Instruments and Apparatus in the Society's Collection continue 
to be in good condition. 

During the past year the following additions have been made : — 

Feb. 20, 1907.— A Powell and Lealand Microscope, No. 2, of 1885, 
and Accessories ; a Powell and Lealand Microscope, No. 3, of 1848, and 
Accessories ; a Hugh Powell Tank Microscope and Accessories ; a W. J. 
Salmon Microscope, with Eye-piece ; a W. Mathews Microscope, with 
Eye-piece ; Portion of a Goniometer, by Powell and Lealand ; Five Low- 
power Objectives, by S. Highley ; Miscellaneous Apparatus. All pre- 
sented by Mr. Peyton T. B. Beale. 

March 20. — A Solar Microscope, by Nairne. Presented by Mr. F. R. 
Tindall Lucas. 

May 15. — A Traviss Expanding Stop for Dark-ground Illumination 
Presented by Mr. H. Ausbuttel. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 133 

Oct. 16. — A Warington's Universal Microscope. Presented by 
Mr. J. E. Ingpen. 

Dec. 18. — An old Object Glass, J, in., by Andrew Ross, made in 
1842, and said to be the second made. Presented by Mr. J. E. Ingpen. 

CABINET. 

The slides, many of them unnamed, presented to the Society by 
Dr. J. W. C. (Ilaisher, have been overhauled and classified ; and great 
progress has been made in the examination and classification of the 
extensive collection of Mr. James Hilton. It is proposed to make a 
complete examination of the whole of the Society's Collection of Slides, 
and eventually to supply a classified Catalogue. 

TOOLS. 

The Society's standard sizing gauges for nose-pieces and objectives, 
with the plug and ring gauges, are in good condition, as are the plug 
and ring gauges for eye-pieces and substage fittings. 

There are in stock, for sale, 5 pairs of sizing gauges and 6 pairs of 
hand chasers. 

The Treasurer presented his Cash Statement and duly audited 
Balance Sheet for the year 1!)07. He called attention to the fact that 
there was a considerable falling off in the number of the Ordinary 
Fellows of the Society. Their high- water mark in this respect was 
reached in 1891, when they numbered 663, since which time they had 
been decreasing, until now they had rather less than 400. He hoped 
everyone would do his best to increase the number during the coming 
year. He might mention that though their finances had gone to the 
bad by about £18, they must consider that they had an increase of books 
in the library, as well as an increased stock of Journals for whatever 
these might be worth. 

Mr. J. M. Offord said they had heard the Report and the Treasurer's 
statement, and though they must regret to hear that their numbers 
were falling off, he thought they would agree that in other respects the 
account given was satisfactory. He had much pleasure in moving that 
the Report and Balance Sheet be received and adopted, and that they 
be printed and circulated in the usual way. 

Mr. Imboden having seconded the motion, it was put to the Meeting 
and carried unanimously. 

A vote of thanks to the Honorary Officers of the Society for their 
services during the year was proposed by Mr. D. J. Scourfield and 
seconded by Mi - . Ersser. 

The Chairman said he was quite sure he need say nothing to com- 
mend this vote to the Fellows present, who were all well aware of how 
much they owed to the labours of their officers and especially to their 
Honorary Secretary. Fellows were often quite unconscious of the work 
which every " evening " entailed, and be did not think there were many 
present who would not especially couple with this vote of thanks — and 
with considerable pleasure too — the name of Dr. Hebb, their much 
esteemed Secretary. 

The motion was then put to the Meeting and carried by acclamation. 

Dr. Hebb, in responding, said he was much obliged to those present 



134 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 





•w 


'O © © CN l^ 








O 


oooototoooco 

I— 1 


o 
















© © O © 0-, 






-H ■*O05«5»l^t»H'* 


ICO 














i— rH r-1 — 






I— 1 r— t 




I— I 1—1 


rH 










. 




O CN ?N CI HH 






05 (SMOMCMCNCOHM 


ifO 










M 


<*i 


-NMWO 






© *HtM 


co m 


o 










«y 




i— 1 rH w+ 






ITS 






CN 


























VI 














; ; ; 


C5 




| CD . . 
CD • . 

*H 






















OS ■* Ci 


rP 




















'. : • 


i— I 




H . : 






















i— 1 


IO (M 


so 






















CO CO c 


v 






















1-H 


■* 


*— < . . 




















• • • 


w 




OS • • 














r--' 












£ 














o 






- • ' 




; ; 


5 " ' 














C- 












p3 














1—1 






• t3 : 




■ ', 


o . 




• CO • • * 

> _j_3 > > 










d 






a> 

an 






If 




p 
















. °3 

• a : 

o 

P 




cd 


CD . . 
CO 




: 3 : : : 

CJ 
CO 




"« 


OO^-C 


CJS 


H 






p. . 




CO 


oo ."2 a 




: -^1 ' : 
co a 




x 


o O «0 O o 


lO 


02 








O 


■ CI '-W 




a ^ 










i— 1 




co 

© 






a p 

O e3 

J f 3 P 

§.2 

PPh 




■ Q p • • 




■-+J 


o o r^ o ,- 

O O CO O CN 
-t< -tl CO t^ rH 


X 

r. 


t— 1 
R 




2o|l :1 : 

d „'rH co X) P w 


, «<H 00 
■4-1 »—< -*J 

o ~ S 

s a 

CO r> 2 
-3 T3 ?? 


•so : o « 

§p^^ H§ 

Pr-i O i^r 

^,2^5 : o c 
go tco.^ S s 


) 
> 

) 
i 

) 

) 
1 




cd 




CtJ 


W 


. 


*-g 53 •*-* S. 






SQcg 


S3 


P-S c ft2i 


1 




• p • 

• CD • 








t*- 


« S* O O M 






fl CD 


3 O CD cd S r 






o 






PS 


o 

OS 

rH 


P pd »j P3 -3 W 






Ph W 02 Pn Ph « W 01 PC 


i 


CO 


. tH . 

. CD • 










r*> r. .. - r. •• 














s 

CO 


Ph 
CD 

: cd . 
h co 

■° -p 

— p 

8 h 

• *h CD 


r« 




'C 


el 






XfflOOCCNOtlOOtO 

fiocoooao^'N 


ICO 




CO 
<5J 

1 


CD 

HH> 

PQ 




H 


« 










i—i 


^^ i— i 


rH 






" CC Ph ' T3 

tH 








co 






hn*. owtNwao 


•o 






S CD a 

5 2 - § 

(*»•-< S co £2 




PS 


<A 


CO 






— to oo to 
to CM 




CO 


o 








O 
















i— t 
c+l 




^Hgj 




^H 




CO W S ffl C 


to to 
















^ & s ' J * 








o i-i «5 eo tr 


CN t> 
















tf O-el Sp£ 






i— 1 1— i i— i 

OMWOt 
C+I rH CO ^ 


t— i 

t> o 

1-1 
> 










.... 






-P°^ & P 

.2 p - ® 8 

S gp g-3 

•HH 03 *= >- • H 

« "II H Sh 

-P .2 ^ co g 

3 "1 p2 






























H 






















CO 






























£ :o : 

" CD 








00 






















£ o 










K 






















V. • CD • 

o 2L, 










oo 




















« • 8 ■ 










< 




: 1 : 










CO 

a 

CD 




'fi 


._ . CD , 

hJ p 










o 




CD 












c 

CO 

p 


00 


tj'Sh . 














• .2 ' 

nn ^ 
1. .i-H 

CD J- 

c s : 

otfl 










a • • 

<o 

<» 00 

a S a 

M g * 

: c S a 

o o a> 


P a «» " 
c8 tn .2 

2 2h • 

C CO 

* r^ tO O 










, 




•£ — CO H>l lO CO 


1 


- ao a- 




CP U-« 










1- 




en S3 © © © C 


c 


» © c 




*-— 

o 


a ° 










ft 






i r 


i © a 












— 


H r-H ^ 


i cd a> > 


CD 


; O O t 












C5 "<■< 






■*" ^^ t3 

p cs _5 


A 

111 


P cS 














H 3 






^ «k • 
















H 


» 






















• 









2 ">' 




j= «. 


t. 


*" -2 


\j 


M- - 


>- 


O t3 


s 




y. 


P -e 

o 


u 


■ rH 


.fc. 


CO . — " — . 




CO 


'A 


co ^ w 2 
O £ P S 


< 


+= CD 55 


— 


.s|sa 

c- cdS — 


a 


— ^ 


fc 


3 bO 


* 


5 T3 


r^ 


►? p 


b 


r> tP 




cd t3 




rP P 




*» 03 




-P _h" 




-*-» " 




•H J} 




E* P 




CU.2 




§ a 




5 co 




m a 

CD W 




_P CD 




HH > 




■s^ 




£ * 




Ha 




a » 




C CD 




o--3 








•§'§ 




d S 




-mCQ 




P K 




p -p 




^C -rH 








§"8 




<ca 








-°« 




.2 > 




S)S 




CD r-J 




- oJ 




c 




trn CD 




» 5 




5J 




rQ CD 




. S 




.2 








rt 




p >> 




03 ■& 




x.i 




CD o 




*i 




S3 








"^ 




0) 




£ 



CO 

cS 



3 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 135 

for their vote of sympathy and thanks, but thought he ought to ask 
them to include their Assistant-Secretary, Mr. Parsons, without whose 
help it would be quite impossible for him to carry on the work. 

A vote of thanks to the Auditors and Scrutineers was then proposed 
by Mr. Gardner and seconded by Mr. Pigg. 

The Chairman in putting this to the Meeting remarked that Auditors 
and Scrutineers were very important people and well deserving of their 
thanks. The work they undertook was a labour of love, and he was 
afraid like most labours of love was very likely to be easily forgotten, so 
he hoped the Fellows present would receive the motion with pronounced 
acclamation. 

The motion was unanimously carried. 



The Scrutineers having handed in their report as to the result of 
the Ballot, the Chairman declared the following gentlemen to have been 
duly elected as the Officers and Council of the Society for the ensuing 
year : — 

President— The Right Hon. Lord Avebury, P.C. F.R.S., etc. 

Vice-Presidents— Conrad Beck ; Rev. W. H. Dallinger, LL.D. D.Sc. 
D.C.L. F.R.S. F.L.S. F.Z.S. ; J. W. H. Eyre, M.D. F.R.S. (Edin.) ; 
The Right Hon. Sir Ford North, P.C. F.R.S. 

Treasurer— Wynne E. Baxter, J.P. F.G.S. F.R.G.S. 

Secretaries— J. W. Gordon ; R. G. Hebb, M.A. M.D. F.R.C.P. 

Ordinar// Members of Council — Rev. Edmund Carr, M.A. F.R.Met.S. ; 
Frederic J. Cheshire ; A. N. Disnev, M.A. B.Sc. ; George C. Karop, 
M.R.C.S, ; Henry Geo. Primmer, F.L.S. ; Thomas H. Powell ; C. Price- 
Jones, M.B. (Lond.) ; P. E. Radley ; Charles F. Rousselet ; F. Shil- 
ling-ton Scales ; David J. Scourfield ; E. J. Spitta, L.R.C.P. (Lond. 
M.R.C.S. (Eng.). 

Librarian — -Percy E. Radley. 

Curator of Instruments, etc. — Charles F. Rousselet. 

Curator of Slides — F. Shillington Scales, B.A. (Cantab). 



The Chairman then called attention to what might, he said, be 
termed a novel situation. For some years past the Meeting, instead of 
having two Secretaries present had never had more than one, upon 
whom, they all were aware, had fallen the heat and burden of the day. 
To-night, however, the novel situation to which he had referred would 
take place, for the Fellows were about to see the vacant chair once more 
filled, and filled he was glad to say, by one whom he believed would be 
a very active worker in the interests of the Society. He therefore, 
without further delay, would at once ask Mr. Gordon, whom the Fellows 
had elected to the vacant chair, to come upon the platform and take it. 
He hoped sincerely that Dr. Hebb would start his co-secretary to work 
at once, and give him plenty of it too, so that the numerous details of 
the secretarial office might be shared for the future in a more fitting 
and appropriate manner. 

Mr. Gordon in suitable terms expressed his thanks to the Chairman 
for his kind words and to the Fellows of the Society for his election. 

The Chairman said they were to have had a paper that evening read 
by Mr. AVesche, " On the Microscope as an Aid to the Study of Biology in 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Entomology, with particular reference to the Food of Insects." Unfor- 
tunately — and he knew they would all regret it — Mr. Wesche was unable 
to be with them, having been laid aside by severe illness. He had, however, 
sent in his paper that afternoon, and a number of slides in illustration of 
the subject to be exhibited under Microscopes in the room, whilst five 
lantern slides were ready for the lantern to be shown upon the screen. 

Dr. Hebb having read some portions of the paper which had been 
marked by the Author, 

The Chairman, in moving a vote of thanks to Mr. Wesche for this 
communication, again expressed his regret at the enforced absence of its 
Author, whose work was always so thorough that his papers were neces- 
sarily long and rather difficult to epitomise, so that the one before them 
would have to be read to be properly understood. The thanks of tin- 
Meeting were also voted to Dr. Hebb for reading the extracts and to 
Mr. Imboden for preparing the slides which had been shown on the 
screen, as well as to Messrs. Baker for the loan of the Microscopes under 
which the mounted preparations had been exhibited. 

Mr. J. E. Barnard's paper " On an improved type of Mercury Vapour 
Lamp" was deferred to a future Meeting, as the Author was unable, to 
be present in consequence of a severe cold. 

It was announced that at the Meeting of the Society on March 18 
the President would give the Annual Address, entitled " On Seeds. 
with special Reference to British Plants." 



The following Instruments, Objects, etc., were exhibited : — 

The Society : — An old Microscope, Jones' most improved type, 
presented by Mr. A. S. Michie. 

. Messrs. R. & J. Beck : — Living Bacteria under ordinary illumina- 
tion ; Living Bacteria under dark-ground illumination. 

Mr. J. W. Ogilvy : — Five Microscopes by Messrs. E. Leitz, stands 
AB C D F fitted with their new fine-adjustment. 

Mr. W. Wesche : — The following slides under Microscopes in illus- 
tration of his paper. Portion of abdomen of a dragon-fly, Archibasis ? 
from Borneo, snowing fragments of an Anthomyid ; Portion of abdomen 
of earwig, Forficula auricularia, showing fragments of Aphides ; Portion 
of abdomen of dragon-fly, EnalJagma civilis, from Indiana, U.S.A., 
showing fragments of lepidopterous larva ; Abdomen of Oncodes gib- 
bosus, showing intestine — these insects are without mouth-parts and 
this food was taken while in the larval stage, and is only found in the 
female insect ; Portion of thorax of Rhantus ? water beetle, showing 
the eye of a fly, Chironomus ; Extremity of abdomen of fly, Syrphus 
balteatus, showing pollen granules ; Portion of abdomen of fly, Enipis 
livida, showing hairs and scales of gnat, C'tdex ; Portion of abdomen of 
fly, Norrellia spinimana, showing hairs and scales of gnat, C'ulex ; Por- 
tion of abdomen of bee, Apis melifica, Ligurian variety, showing pollen 
of several flowers ; Abdomen of fly, Nycteribia hermanii, parasitic on 
bats, showing blood ; Portion of abdomen of fly, Scataphila despecta, 
showing diatoms ; Portion of abdomen of fly, Hylemyia strigosa, showing 
spores of fungus. Also the following lantern slides : Broken-up Aphides 
in the stomach of earwig ; Remains of fly in dragon-fly, Enailagma 
civilis ; Remains of caterpillar in same ; ditto, ditto, another place ; 
Pollen in abdomen of fly, Syrphus balteatus. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY. 

APRIL, 1908. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 

V. — Francis Watkins' Microscope. 
By Edward M. Nelson. 

(Read November 20, 1907.) 

Mr. J. Scott Underwood has kindly sent for inspection an old 
Microscope signed " Fra. Watkins, Charing Cross, London." One 
point of interest in this instrument is its sumptuous construction ; 
the limb, body, foot, and all the fittings, down to the handle of its 
box, are of solid silver. 

Silver Microscopes are not unknown, I have myself seen three 
besides this one. Watkins appears to have been an Anglo-French- 
man; he published a book in French entitled " L'Exercice du Micro- 
scope," 12mo, London. A copy of this work is in the Society's 
library, and the date of the hall mark upon the Microscope is the 
same as that of the publication of the book, viz. 1754-5. 

A reference to fig. 26 shows the general construction of this 
Microscope. It has a folding tripod foot, from which rises a 
vertical pillar ; * to the top of this pillar an inclinable limb is 
attached by a compass joint ; this limb carries the body, the stage, 
and the mirror. To discover how much is original in this Micro- 
scope it is necessary to examine some of those which pre-date it. 
In the " New Universal Double " Microscope, by George Adams, in 
1746 f (fig. 27), we find a folding tripod foot with a vertical pillar : 
the body is attached to this pillar and the mirror to the foot. For 
focusing the " Universal Double " Microscope the coarse -adjust- 

* The folding tripod foot with vertical pillar was first used by Edmund 
Culpeper (at y e Crossed Swords in Moore fields), as a stand for Wilson's "screw 
barrel " Microscope, circa 1730. 

t Micrographia Illustrata. Adams, 1746. Plate iii. It is stated that the 
Microscope is made either of brass or of silver. 

April 15th, 1908 L 



i:;x 



Transactions of the Society. 



ment is effected, as in John Marshall's Microscope, by sliding the 
body up or down the pillar to a line numbered with the same 
number as that of the power used, and for a fine- adjustment thu 
stage is actuated by a screw at the foot of the pillar. Adams' 
Microscope had a rotating wheel of six powers. * This wheel was 




Fig. 26. 



very large ; it had six spokes ; the powers were set at the end of the 
spokes, the upright pillar being the axis upon which this wheel 
rotated. 

Now, if we return to Watkins' Microscope, some improvements 
of first importance will be found, the principal one of which is the 
introduction of an inclinable limb to carry the body, stage, and 

*"The first rotating T nosepiece was designed by Le pere Cherubin d'Orleans, 
capucin, (Francois Laserre), 1681. 



Francis Watkins' Microscope. By E. M. Nelson. 139 

mirror. This is, so far as I know, the earliest example wherein this 
design is to be seen ; and it should be borne in mind that this 
design is the basis upon which the modern Microscope is built. 
This plan was afterwards adopted by Adams in his " Variable " 
Microscope,* 1771 (fig. 28), which he tells us was designed by a 
nobleman, who did not wish his name to be published. I was of 
opinion, until I had seen the Watkins Microscope, that the 
" Variable " of the anonymous nobleman was the prototype of the 
modern Microscope, but it is clear that the " Variable " is nearly 
a quarter of a century later than this signed and dated example 
of Watkins' Microscope. The coarse-adjustment focusing arrange- 




Pig. 27. 

ment of Watkins' Microscope differed from those of its day, 
inasmuch as the stage, which slides up and down the limb, is placed 
to a number similar to that of the power used (in fact, there are 
two sets of numbers, marked S and D : S indicating the set of 
numbers to be used with the simple, and D those with the " double," 
or compound, Microscope), whereas in earlier instruments it was 
the body, and not the stage, that was moved in this way. Watkins' 
Microscope has a neat form of spring-clamp to fix the stage in 
a definite position. The fine-adjustment, which in Watkins' 
Microscope is worked by a screw at the end of the limb, moves 



Micrograpkia Illustrata, ed. 4, plate ii. 



L 2 



140 



Transactions of the Society. 



the body, but in Adams' " Universal Double " Microscope the 
screw, at the bottom of the pillar, moves the stage. 

Watkins in this design has therefore reversed the motions of 
Adams' earlier Microscopes by changing a stage tine into a coarse- 
adjustment, and a body coarse into a fine-adjustment. 

The principal fault in Watkins' design is that the instrument 
is too much like a split-cane fishing rod. It is all on springs ; it 
cannot be touched without its shaking like an aspen. The folding 
tripod is a spring ; the compass joint on the limb is in a totally 
wrong position, viz. at the end where it manifestly is devoid of any 




Fig. 28. 



balance ; the difficulty, therefore, of bringing this Microscope, on 
account of its instability, to a correct focus can be imagined. 
The arm which holds the body, and which is at right angles to 
the limb, is a thin plate of silver, far too weak for its work. 
It is important thus to trace the faults of this old Microscope, 
for by doing so we are enabled to find out what influence the 
design had in Microscope construction ; for if we examine the 
Microscope that next followed it, viz. Adams' " Variable " (fig. 28), 
we shall see what points in Watkins' design were retained, and 
what rejected as faulty. We find, then, that the folding tripod, 
vertical pillar, and the inclinable limb are retained, but the limb 



Francis Watkins' Microscope. By E. M. Nelson. 141 

has now a much stouter form of joint,* and the point of its attach- 
ment is in the best position for stability. The plate by which the 
body is attached to the limb has a strengthening bracket below it. 
One cannot help thinking that the noble designer of the " Variable " 
Microscope must have been acquainted not only with this design of 
Watkins', but also with its faults, which he specially corrects while 
following the Watkins' design in the main. 

Eeturning again to Watkins' Microscope, we find the wheel of 
powers much improved. The seven | powers are mounted between 
two disks of silver 1 ■ 15 in. in diameter. This form of the wheel 
of powers lasted until the early part of the nineteenth century, for 
it was afterwards adopted by Adams, Benjamin Martin,! and still 
retained in the " Most Improved Compound " Microscope of Jones 
in 1798. 

If a digression is allowed, it may be explained that the 
nobleman's " Variable " was optically of a very advanced type. 
The Huyghenian eye-piece had, in addition to the field-lens, a 
double eye-lens ; there was, besides, another lens lower down the 
tube, to act as a back lens for the various powers — this was probably 
copied from Benjamin Martin. § The " Variable " had a very im- 
portant novelty, for the powers were not placed in a wheel, but 
were mounted in separate " buttons," so that they could be com- 
bined, which was of course a great advance, for by this means the 
spherical aberration was reduced, and so a larger aperture could be 
used. The nobleman's " Variable " was therefore the first Micro- 
scope to possess an objective which was a " combination." If any 
one takes the trouble to examine a good specimen of an old non- 
achromatic Microscope, they will find that the image, field, etc., are 
not at all bad, so far as they go : the one drawback is lack of aperture. 
The spherical and chromatic aberrations were so great that the 
apertures of the object-glasses had to be reduced to a pin's point. 
The fault, therefore, with all of them is too much empty magnifica- 
tion. 

The best form ever attained in pre-achromatic days was either 
Wollaston's doublets (1829) or Coddington's Microscope (1830). 
These instruments will show the watered-silk appearance upon a 
strongly marked Podura scale just breaking up into small exclama- 
tion marks. 

* Joints of this form were in common use for Gregorian and other telescopes 
at that time. 

t Lindsay's Microscope, patented 1743, had seven powers mounted in two 
strips, four in one, and three in the other. 

X At the sign of Hadley's Quadrant and Visual Glasses, near Crown Court, 
Fleet Street. 

§ I have made exhaustive experiments with Martin's back lens, and find that 
it is an advantage because it increases the N.A., and still more the Optical Index, 
as it lowers the power. The focal length of the lens is 5| in. See this Journal, 
1898, p. 474, fig. 81. 



142 Transactions of the Society. 

The measured foci of Watkins' seven powers* are as follows 



No. 7 . 


. 0-95 in. 


No. 3 . 


. 0-28 in. 


„ 6 . 


. 0-55 „ 


„ 2 . 


. o-ii „ 


„ 5 


. 0-78 „ 


„ 1 • 


. 0-086 „ 


„ 4 . 


. 0-46 „ 







The powers with the compound body attached would, therefore, 
range from about 30 to 430 diameters. Nos. 5 and 6 obviously 
have been transposed. There are three lieberkuhns, diameters — 
1 • 3 in., focus ' 6 in. ; 1*1 in., focus • 4 in. ; 0*8 in., focus • 3 in. 

This is an improvement upon Lindsay's plan of a single conical 
speculum, which had to do duty for all the powers. Dr. Lieber- 
kiihn's compass Microscope, made by Cuff (1743) had a separate 
spherical mirror adjusted to each of its four powers, thus pre-dating 
Watkins'. The body of Watkins' Microscope is 6 in. long, 1^ in. 
diameter at its widest part, and elegantly tapered. Adams' " New 
Universal " (fig. 27) is probably the earliest Microscope to possess 
a body with this kind of taper. This taper survived a long time, 
for it is found in Coddington's Microscope of 1830, t and in 1843 a 
remnant of it is left by Hugh Powell at the bottom of the tube ; J 
Beck and Eoss never tapered the body, but the Lister-Tulley, made 
by Smith in 1826, was tapered at the bottom ; so tapered bodies 
lasted about 100 years. 

The eye-piece is Huyghenian, and a very good one ; the eye- 
lens is a plano-convex of 1 in. focus, and the field-lens an equi- 
convex of 2 in. focus, the distance between them being If in. 
Calculation shows that to obtain the best results the eye-lens 
ought to have a focal length of 0*865 in., and the distance between 
the lenses ought to have been 1 • 785 in., so the old eye-piece is not 
so far wrong after all. 

The fine-adjustment screw, which is placed at the bottom of 
the limb, has 30 threads to the inch. This position for the fine- 
adjustment screw is derived from Adams' " New Universal 
Double " (fig. 27) ; the difference between them should be noted, 
Adams' at the bottom of the pillar, Watkins' at the bottom of the 
limb. There is an old Microscope in the Society's cabinet with the 

* Culpeper and Scarlet's Microscope had five powers ; Wilson's screw barrel 
si*x powers, foci 0" 5, 3, 0-16,0-08, 0-05,0-02. Lieberkiihn's compass Micro- 
scope, made by Cuff (1743) had four powers, foci 1-0, 0-6, 0*3, 0-08. A Benjamin 
Martin (circa 1760) has six powers ; their measured foci are as follows : 1 • 25, - 96, 
- 46, 0-37, 0'31, - 13. The highest power was always numbered 1. It is curious 
to note that the screw-thread of the " pipe " in Benjamin Martin's Microscope is 
almost identical with that of the Society's standard thread — it readily screws on 
the nose-piece of any modern Microscope ! 

t Coddington's Optics, pt. ii., pi. 13, fig. 190. See this Journal, 1898, p. 474, 
fig. 82. This is Gould's Pocket Microscope {1828), made by Cary, 181 Strand. It 
is very similar to Coddington's, the foci and lens distances are the same, but the 
lenses, for cheapness (it may be presumed), are all equi-convex. 

t See this Journal, 1900, p. 289, fig. 79. 



Francis Watkins Microscope. By E. M. Nelson. 143 

same construction.* Varley's f (1831) and Pritchard's % (1838) 
Microscopes, made by Hugh Powell, were the last of this form. 

The arm is only attached to the limb by three small knitting- 
needles — these can be seen in fig. 26, the centre one, upon which 
the fine-adjustment screw-thread is cut, is the thickest, viz. 
12 B.W.G., the other two, which are 17 B.W.G., act as guides. 

The mirror, 1| in. in diameter, is both plane and concave ; 
this is a very early, if not the earliest known example of a plane 
and concave mirror. 

The limb is a dovetailed prism ; this is probably the earliest 
instance of its use in Microscope construction. 

The stage is 1 ' 4 in. wide and 2 in. deep, the distance of the 
optic axis from the limb being 1^ in. The stage is unlike those of 
other makers : on its upper side it has a spring-clip for " sliders," 
and on the lower one to hold a tube. Attention has already been 
called to the well designed spring-clip to hold the stage at any 
place on the limb. 

The pillar is 4£ in. long, and it, like the stage, is of artistic 
form. A single Microscope in form just like this one was presented 
to the Society by Colonel Tupman in 1905 ; it was thought to have 
been made by Lindsay,§ but now it is clear that it is by Watkins. 

This Microscope is packed in a very handsome box (6f by 
5f by 2 in.) made of oak, covered with shagreen, the hinges and 
clips being of silver. This ends the description of the Microscope 
itself, but in the same cabinet there is packed, besides the shagreen 
box, a solar projection apparatus, also made of silver. The projec- 
tion Microscope was invented by Dr. Lieberklihn, and in 1740 
exhibited by him in London. The Microscope passed through the 
axis of a ball, which fitted in a socket in a window shutter ; the 
Microscope was pointed directly to the sun, the projection being 
effected by means of a single lens, i.e. the simple Microscope. 
Le pere Cherubin d'Orleans had, iu 1671, placed a telescope in the 
axis of a similar ball-and-socket in a window shutter for the purpose 
of projecting the solar disk ; this may have suggested the idea of 
the solar projecting Microscope to Dr. Lieberklihn. 

John Cuff,|| in 1743, greatly improved the solar projection 
Microscope by fitting a mirror to it, and by arranging matters so 
that the position of this mirror could be adjusted from the inside of 
the room, so that it was capable of rotation by cat-gut passing 
round a pulley, and its inclination could be varied by means of a 
rod. It was, in brief, a simple form of heliostat, which could be 
worked by hand. 

* See this Journal, 1903, p. 587, fig. 143. 

t Op. cit., 1900, p. 283, figs. 70-73. 

X Microscopic Illustrations, Goring and Pritchard, figs. 12, 17, 21. 

§ At y<? Dial near Catherine Street in y<* Strand. 

II Against Serjeant's Inn Gate in Fleet Street. 



144 



Transactions of the Society. 



There are several of these solar projection Microscopes, by 
various makers, in the Society's cabinet. Fig. 29 illustrates 
Watkins' projection apparatus, which is very similar to that of 
Cuff's ; the cat-gut and pulley are replaced by a rack-and-pinion. 
The instrument is shown fixed to the pillar and tripod ; it has been 
so placed for the purpose of being photographed for illustration, but 
in actual use the square silver plate would be fixed to a window 
shutter, the mirror being outside the window. The pillar and 
tripod-foot would be removed from the limb, the screw-pin having 
a butterfly-nut for this purpose ; the limb is held by a clamp on 
the tube, which screws into the square plate. This tube has three 




Fig. 29. 

draws — they are not fully extended in the figure ; at the square 
plate end of the tube there is an equi-convex lens, 11 in. in focus, 
to condense the sunlight upon the object. The two butterfly-nuts, 
on the front of the square plate, are for the purpose of attaching it 
to the window shutter, and the milled head actuates rack-work for 
rotating the mirror. It seems a wonder that, in the absence of any 
heat absorber, the specimen upon the stage was not burnt up by 
the condenser: it is probable that the sun's image had to be 
placed considerably out of focus. 

To sum up the important points in this beautiful Microscope of 
Watkins, we find that they are three in number; the first, and 



Francis Watkins' Microscope. By E. M. Nelson, 145 

most important, is the hinged limb which supports the Micro- 
scope, the object, and illuminating apparatus ; the second, almost 
as important, is the prism bar and V-grooves ; the third is the plane 
and concave mirror. To this list may be added one of quite 
secondary importance, viz. it is an early example of the improved 
form of the wheel of powers. Permit me to express my thanks to 
Mr. Underwood for so kindly sending his Microscope for examina- 
tion.* 

Appendix. 

As regards the performance of old non-achromatic Microscopes, 
it may be pointed out that empty magnification had its use in pre- 
achromatic days, for it was by this means that aperture in a 
dioptric Microscope was obtained. The method of making these 
objectives was probably to open out the diaphragm until the image 
just begun to show signs of becoming foggy ; it will be found under 
these circumstances that a ^ in. will have a N.A. of about 0* 1, and 
a -jJq one of about 0*2. 

Benjamin Martin's No. 6 measures - 0425 N.A. and 5*3 O.I. 

„ 1 „ 198 „ 2-5 „ 

It was mentioned above that when Martin's back lens was 
inserted, the apertures would be slightly increased ; used thus, the 
No. 1 will just resolve 15,000 lines, Grayson. When a compound 
body is placed over a lens, the focus is lengthened and the aperture 
reduced ; it was very probably on this account that many of the 
old observers, without knowing the reason, preferred a " single " to a 
" double " Microscope. 

* This Microscope was sold by J. C. Stevens, of King Street, Covent Garden, 
Feb. 18, 1908, for 52 guineas. The price obtained was due less to the scientific 
or intrinsic value of the instrument than to the hallmark, date 1754. — [Ed.] 



146 



VI. — Eye-pieces for the Microscope. 
By Edward M. Nelson. 

{Bead February 19, 1908.) 

Having been informed by Messrs. Zeiss that the glass 0*82 had 
been taken out of Messrs. Schott and Co.'s list, I selected another 
glass, viz. that used for the prisms in the best quality of binoculars, 
and have recomputed the table of eye-pieces for that glass. This 
glass is of a permanent nature, clear, and of low dispersion, so it is 
in every way suitable for eye-pieces. 

To repeat the explanation of terms, s is the radius of the surface 
of the eye-lens next the eye, and r the radius of that towards the 
object glass, b being the diameter of the eye-lens ; S, R, and B 
have a similar meaning with reference to the field-lens ; d' is the 
distance between the surfaces of the lenses, h the diameter of the 
hole in the diaphragm, t is the distance the incident surface R is to 
be below the top of the tube of the Microscope, and F is the 
equivalent focus of the eye-piece. 

For the formulas upon which these eye-pieces have been calcu- 
lated, the reader is referred to the original paper in this Journal, 
1900, p. 165. The following are additional formulas to those given 
in that paper : — 

b = 0-575/'; B=-i* ; q= f *J . ; 

i _ / / -r-/ - d 

10 

t = q-(l- I)F-0-3in. 

These formulae give the theoretical values of b and B ; in 
practice either b must be a little reduced, or B increased. In 
Table I., for the short tube, alternative values of b, h, B, and d' are 
given for R.M.S. standard gauge No. 1, and in Table II. values are 
given for R.M.S. gauge No. 4. 

Instead of designating the eye-pieces by letters, or by numbers, 
such as I., II., III., etc., other numbers are placed at the head of 
the columns. These numbers represent the magnifying power of 
the eye-piece when a certain tube-length is employed. As every 
object requires a different tube-length, the magnifying power of 
the entire Microscope is a variable quantity ; consequently, when 
accuracy is required, the magnifying power must be determined for 
each separate case, but for rough estimations the number at the 
head of each column will be useful as a multiplier. 





a 7 1 


CM 

to 


fr- 
rH 


to 


to 


CS 
CM 


00 


t- 
to 


CM 
O 


to 
03 


S fr- 


CS 


CO 


CM 


co 


CS 


to 


OS 


rH 


. CS 

a cm 


to 

fr- 

eo 


to 

CM 


OS 

OS 
O 


CO 

cm 
t- 


CO 

CO 
CO 


o 

CO 
CM 


rH 
00 
CO 


o 




o 


o 


o 


o 


rH 


o 


o 


o 


o 




p -.o 


CM 


rH 

Ir- 


CO 
OS 


CM 


C3 

fr- 


o 

00 


CD 
rH 


lO 


O 

CO 


S co 


rH 

iH 


CO 


CM 


00 


o 

rH 


CD 


rH 
rH 


o? 


. CO 

a co 


CO 
CO 


CD 
1—1 


CD 

rH 


o 
o 

CS 


CM 
CO 


00 
CD 
CM 


O 
■HH 
•<* 


o 

rH 




o 


o 


O 


O 


rH 


o 


o 


O 


O 




s cm 


CO 
CO 


^H 
-# 


<M 
to 


CM 

00 


o 
t- 


o 


CO 
CM 


CM 
CO 


to 


s s 


CO 


^H 


CO 


CO 

to 


CM 

rH 


00 


CO 
rH 


T« 


. o 

3 T* 


to 
CI 

to 


to 
fr- 

t-H 


OS 
CO 
rH 


o 

CM 

rH 


O 

o 
to 


oo 

rH 

CO 


rH 
CM 


t- 

rH 




o 


o 


O 


o 


CM 


o 


o 


o 


O 




s t- 


CO 


CO 

to 


00 
CO 


O 
fr- 


t- 

CD 


CO 

o 


CS 
CM 


1-i 


o 


T-H 


CO 
rH 


to 


^H 


o 

CD 


JO 

rH 


o 

rH 


CD 

rH 


t~ 


. o 
c to 


to 

CO 


00 
CM 


CO 
t- 

rH 


rH 

OS 
CO 


fe- 
rn 

CD 


CS 
CO 


CM 

CD 


00 
CM 




o 


o 


o 


o 


CM 


O 


o 


O 


O 




S ? 


o 

OS 


CO 


o 

CO 


-c 

rH 


O 

CO 


CM 


CO 


CD 


to 


g CD 


CM 


fr- 


to 


O 
fr- 


o 

CM 


CO 

rH 


rH 
■M 


rH 
rH 


. fr- 


CC 
CD 
GO 


CS 
CO 
CM 


OS 
CM 
CM 


CM 
CO 
t- 


rH 
CO 


CM 
CM 


OS 
CO 
00 


CD 
•<* 




o 


o 


o 


o 


<M 


o 


O 


o 


o 




ri« 


t- 

CM 


OS 

o 


OS 


00 
CS 


OS 
to 


o 

lO 


CO 
O) 


o 

lO 


iH 


S rH 
CM 


t- 

CM 


OS 


t- 


CO 

fr- 


to 
CM 


CD 

rH 


CD 
CM 


CO 
rH 


. CO 

3 CO 


t- 

o 


00 
to 
CO 


co 

00 
CM 


<M 

CO 

o 


oo 
o 
o 


O 
lO 
CD 


CO 

CO 

o 


CO 




o 


T— 1 


o 


o 


CO 


rH 


O 


rH 


o 




fl'* 


CM 


CM 

00 


CO 
to 


o 

rH 


cm 

to 


CO 

t- 


lO 

o 


00 


2 


a >o 

CM 


CM 

CO 


o 


00 


<M 

00 


o 

CO 


Cs 

rH 


rH 
CO 


rH 
CM 


. o 

= o 


t- 

t- 

CM 


CD 
CM 


t- 

co 

CO 


CO 
CM 


CM 

o 

CM 


t- 
t- 
t- 


CO 
CM 


CD 
00 




1—1 


rH 


o 


o 


CO 


rH 


o 


i-l 


O 




a' » 


co 

OS 


CO 


to 

to 


00 

o 


CD 
r-l 


JO 


o 


O 
t- 


CO 


CO 


OS 
CO 


CO 
r-l 


o 

rH 


00 
00 


00 


CM 


CO 
CO 


Cs 
CM 


. to 


tr- 
io 


to 
CM 

to 


to 


CS 

CD 


CO 

o 

to 


t- 
CD 
CS 


o 

lO 


t- 

rH 




rH 


rH 


o 


o 


CO 


rH 


o 


rH 


rH 




rj CO 


o 


CC 


tr- 


CC 

rH 


rH 
-rJH 


lO 
CO 


CO 

CO 


•HH 

CD 


CD 


a oi 
•<* 


CM 

to 


fe- 
rn 


CO 

rH 


CO 

OS 


i-{ 

to 


CM 

CO 


CS 

H-. 


CM 


. CD 

C CD 


o 

to 

o 


CO 

00 

CD 


rH 
to 


o 

t- 

CD 


to 
CM 
O 


CD 

00 


OS 


00 
CO 




iH 


(M 


o 


o 


CO 


CM 


rH 


rH 


i-\ 




flCO 


O 
CO 




to 

OS 


CM 

CD 


CO 


rH 

o 


CS 


r. 


>n 


£ s 


rH 

CD 


o 

CM 


CM 

rH 


rH 

CS 


CD 


CO 
CO 


t- 

iO 


lO 


= 8 


rH 
-* 


to 

o 

00 


o 

rH 

to 


00 

o 

CO 


CO 
to 


o 
o 

CO 


CO 
00 
CM 


1-1 




CM 


CM 


o 


o 


CO 


CM 


T-i 


CM 


CM 


o 


■Jl 

O 

o 

ft 


CO 


-?- 


3 


CC 


Cm 


po- 


^ 


■«» 



M 

H 

O 

W 

GO 





p^ 


00 
00 


CS 


<M 

00 


t- 
t- 


CO 
CO 


rH 

to 


fr- 


o 






lO 
CO 


a w 


to 


CM 


rH 


CO 
CO 


t- 


^* 


fr- 


o 






. rH 
g CM 


rH 
t- 

CM 


o 

CS 

o 


CM 
t- 

o 


o 

CO 
CO 


CS 
00 
CM 


00 

t- 

rH 


OS 
(M 


o 








o 


O 


o 


o 


1-i 


o 


o 


o 


o 








a ccs 


to 
O 


r. 
CO 


CO 

rH 


t- 

00 


t- 

co 


00 
rH 


CD 

to 


rH 

to 






o 

CO 


a to 


00 


CM 


CM 


CD 
CO 


00 


to 


oo 


O 






a cm 


t- 

rH 
CO 


CO 

O 

rH 


CO 
O 


CM 

to 


o 

CO 
CO 


o 

CM 


fr- 
ee 

CO 


CM 

O 








o 


O 


o 


o 


rH 


o 


o 


o 


o 








a >o 


CO 


CM 
CM 


to 
to 


o 

00 


oo 


71 
rH 


o 


to 

CO 






in 


a» 


OS 


CO 


CM 


o 


CS 


CD 


o 

rH 


rH 






. o 

a co 


rH 
00 

CO 


t- 

CM 
rH 


rH 

o 

rH 


tr- 

o 

CD 


tr- 

00 
CO 


rH 
CM 


fe- 
es 

CO 


t- 

o 








o 


o 


o 


o 


i-l 


o 


o 


o 


o 








a' "* 


OS 

o 


o 


CS 

rH 


CS 
t- 


CO 

o 


CM 

to 


CO 


rH 

oo 






o 

04 


a cs 


CM 

i-t 


^n 


CO 


to 

-T 


CM 


t- 


CM 

rH 


CO 






. t- 

a co 


CO 

t- 


CS 
to 

rH 


CD 
CM 

rH 


O 
00 


t- 


CS 
CM 


CO 

CO 


to 

rH 








O 


o 


o 


o 


rH 


o 


O 


o 


o 








R» 


to 

o 


CO 
CO 


CM 


to 

CO 


CS 

CD 


to 
00 


CO 

o 


CO 

1-1 






to 


a cm 

rH 


CO 
rH 


to 


-* 


CM 

to 


to 

rH 


CS 


CD 

rH 


fr- 






. CS 

a -* 


CM 

CO 

CO 


rH 
rH 
CM 


fr- 
ee 

rH 


CM 

CD 
O 


00 

rH 
CO 


oo 

00 
CO 


rH 
CO 

CD 


ee 

CM 








o 


o 


o 


o 


CM 


o 


o 


O 


O 








A CD 


CO 
CS 


to 
CO 


CD 
CM 


t- 

i-H 


00 
CO 


00 

rH 


CD 
CD 


CM 

fe- 






iH 


a »C 

rH 


OS 
rH 


CD 


to 


t- 

to 


OS 
rH 


CM 

rH 


C7S 

rH 


es 

rH 







. CM 

3 CD 


to 

00 

t- 


CM 

CO 
CM 


t- 
o 

CM 


CM 

to 

CM 


CO 

CO 

fr- 


o 

00 


t- 
t- 


CM 






O 


o 


O 


o 


CM 


o 


o 


o 


o 








a °° 


t- 


CM 

OS 


o 

CM 


CO 

oo 


o 
l-{ 


00 


rH 

CM 


CM 

rH 






o 

1-H 


a oo 

rH 


CO 
CM 


t- 


CD 


o 

CC 


CO 
CM 


rH 


CO 
<M 


rH 






a t- 


to 

CO 
CS 


CM 

i-t 
CO 


t- 

CM 


CC 

CS 
CO 


3 

rH 
OS 


O 
t- 

to 


rH 
OS 


CD 
to 








o 


o 


o 


o 


CM 


o 


O 


O 


O 








a' ■* 


o 

CO 


fe- 
c- 


CO 

t- 


1- 

co 


o 

fr- 


rH 
OS 


CS 

CO 


o 

00 






CO 


a co 

CM 


CS 
CM 


es 


t- 


CM 


ee 

CM 


fr- 
i-H 


00 
CM 


rH 
CM 






. CM 

a cs 


to 

rH 


to 

00 
CO 


to 

o 

CO 


t- 

to 


CM 

to 
O 


CO 

o 
fe- 


00 
rH 
i-< 


CO 
CO 








o 


rH 


o 


o 


CM 


rH 


es 


rH 


o 








. »o 

- CN 


rH 
CM 


to 
t- 


CO 

o 


CT 

to 


O 

CS 


t- 

to 


to 


o 

CM 


00 
CO 


O CM 

o o 


CO 


2 7Z\ 

CO 


00 

CO 


CM 

rH 


o 

rH 


tr- 
CD 


00 

X 

CM 

CO 

to 


CO 
CM 

oo 

CM 

CS 


CO 
CO 

CS 
CO 


OS 
CM 


00 


O fe- 

CM CO 


. CO 

a oi 


to 

O 

to 


O 
to 


t- 

CS 
CO 


CM 

CD 
CD 


to 

rH 


o 

CO 
CO 


00 00 

oo to 
fr- ■* 




rH 


rH 


O 


o 


CM 


i-{ 


o 


rH 


i-i 


o 


O rH 




a" c* 


r. 
t- 


to 


CO 
CO 


o 
fr- 


to 

00 


1-t 

o 


to 

rH 


CO 
CD 


CM 

CO 


Q CM 

O ^r 


-tf 


a co 


•** 

to 


oo 

rH 


CO 

rH 


ee 

CO 


CO 

CD 


CO 

CO 


CM 
to 


OS 


fe- 


O CO 
CM to 


. to 

a co 


oo 

to 

rH 


CS 

rH 
t- 


to 

CM 

to 


L- 

CM 

CO 


to 

l-t 

to 


8 

CO 


-rH 

to 
O 


CD 
CS 


es 

o 

CO 


00 ■>* 
00 o 

t- rH 




rH 


CM 


o 


o 


CM 


CM 


rH 


CM 


rH 


o 


O CM 


a 


03 

o 
o 


M 


s- 


C 


CO 


Ph 


rQ 


^ 


•*^ 


a 

03 


PS ^£ 



CO 




H 




-3 


o 





■* 


H 


© 




II 


H 


& 


PC! 




o • 


CO 


a 


© 

iH 


CO 


>o 




rH 


P 


|| 


fc 


r-i 


<1 




ci 


W 


£h 


N 


O 


cm 

CO 


h-l 

I 


00 
CO 


1 


o 


t— i 


CO 


f— i 


CO 






w 


© 


►J 




« 




■"4 




H 





8 
II 

02 

id 









on 


T-< 


r~ 


-H 


-* 


CM 








r- 


c 


CO 


CO 


uo 


CD 


CO 


■* 


o 








CO 
(M 


- 


t- 


CM 


CM 


L~ 


lO 


o> 


rH 














-<* 


© 


CM 


o 


CM 










CO 




© 


© 


© 


o 


CO 


r~ 


s 










CM 


o 


o 


CO 


CM 


CO 












o 


o 


o 


o 


© 


© 


© 








SI 


. 


»o 


CO 


CO 


c- 


o 


01 


-r* 








a 


S 


t- 


© 


t- 


00 


00 


»o 








a 


b 


co 


CM 


CM 


00 


CO 


© 

-H 


CM 














© 


CD 


UO 


CD 


Ol 










o 

CO 




CO 


© 


rH 


-* 


CD 


CM 


© 








.~ 


CO 


rH 


rH 


CO 


CM 


-* 


T-i 












o 


o 


o 


o 


O 


© 


o 














CO 


CM 


r— 


h- 


h- 


CM 








00 

l-l 


s 


CM 

o 

rH 


CO 
CO 


UO 
CO 


CM 

o 


O 
00 


oo 

CM 

7-t 


CO 














rH 


© 


tH 


on 


t~- 










o 




O 


CO 


CO 


o 


rH 


o 


L— 








<M 


d 


tH 


rH 


rH 


T* 


CO 


»o 


^-< 












O 


o 


O 


o 


O 


o 


o 














IQ 


on 


uo 


CO 


i^ 


7-{ 








lO 




t- 


rH 


CO 


-* 


o 


00 


7-1 








rH 




cm 


■* 


th 


CM 


o 


>o 


t~ 












rH 






rH 


rH 


rH 
















-* 


CO 


^ 


U0 


>o 










o 




O 


CD 


h- 


© 


© 


CM 


co 










U0 


rH 


r-t 


tH 


CO 


CO 


CM 












o 


O 


O 


o 


o 


© 


© 














O 


o 


CO 


in 


t* 


00 








r* 

iH 
rH 


S 

a 


© 
© 


"0 
U0 


00 

uo 


© 
uo 


CM 

CO 


© 
© 


© 

rH 












rH 






rH 


rH 


CM 


rH 














r~ 


~ 


r~ 


CM 


CO 










10 

rH 




t^ 


rH 


CM 


CN 


CM 


rH 


© 










© 


CM 


CM 


O 


lO 


00 


T* 












O 


o 


O 


o 


o 


© 


© 














1-t 


C72 


rH 


o 


T-i 


O 










b 


CM 


00 


rH 


CM 


U0 


CM 


lO 








© 


g 
























g 


rH 


CD 


r~ 


© 


CO 


»o 


© 












CI 






rH 


rH 


CM 


rH 














00 


CO 


CO 


o 


CO 










rH 




CO 


CD 


or) 


UO 


m 


o> 


UO 








,s 


00 


CM 


CM 


t- 


CO 


© 


© 












O 


o 


O 


o 


o 


© 


© 












<* 


rH 


o 


■-- 


cc 


on 


T*H 








rS 


E 


rH 


uo 


CM 


t- 


00 


oo 








l> 


g 


uo 

CM 


00 


oo 


CM 


01 


OS 


rH 
















CM 


rH 


CM 


:m 














© 


t^ 


l> 


h- 


t- 










o 




8 


rH 


CO 


r~ 


r^ 


t^ 


© 








r~t 


,~j 


CO 


CO 


00 


t- 


rH 


oo 












rH 


o 


o 


o 


© 


T-< 


© 












t- 


- 


h- 


— 


o 


~1 


o 


© 


UO 


© 


CO 


£ 


© 


00 


CO 


© 


>c 


t- 


rH 


U0 


U0 




£ 


rH 
CO 


© 


t^ 


CO 


© 


t- 


© 


© 


-rH 


t- 










CM 


CM 


Cli 


CM 


rH 


CM 


co 








-rH 


© 


© 


on 


on 




© 


^ 


t- 






U0 


© 


rH 


rH 


Of) 


r~ 


t- 


© 


© 


t- 


CO 


,g 


CM 


CO 


CO 


o 


t- 


-* 


rH 


"* 


© 


-* 






7—t 


o 


o 


i-{ 


© 


T-t 


r-{ 


© 


© 


T-t 








T-H 


<M 


CO 


8 


© 


•rH 


o 


U0 


CM 


if! 


a 


CO 


o 


CD 


rH 


© 


© 


CM 


© 


CO 


■* 


P 


CM 


CO 


1^ 


CO 


© 


© 


CM 


CO 


CM 


oo 






^ 


rH 




CO 


■M 


T* 


-* 


rH 


CO 


-* 








CO 


8 


lO 


00 


■rH 




o 


© 


CO 






CD 


rH 


o 


co 


»o 


00 


CM 


00 


© 


CD 




CD 


uo 


CO 


CO 


t~ 


© 


© 


U0 


CM 


© 






rH 


o 


o 


rH 


© 


rH 


rH 


© 


rH 


rH 








CO 


CM 


OS 


© 


-M 


© 


O 


rH 


00 


V* 


_t 


on 


CO 


CO 


r^ 


o 


r- 


U0 


CM 


o 


UO 




£ 






















CO 


£ 


o 


>o 


fc- 


t— 


o 


<T> 


-* 


CO 


CO 


c- 






uo 


rH 




CO 


CM 


UO 


U0 


rH 


CO 


uo 


1 






-rH 


s 


© 


on 


CO 




o 


8 


00 






o 


o 


en 


00 


rH 


UO 


CM 


© 


tf> 


,s 


o 


CD 


CO 


TH 


c- 


CO 


- 1 


U0 


CO 


CM 






CM 


O 


o 


rH 


© 


CM 


CM 


© 


rH 


CM 


u 




CO 




r) 

r*» 










f*» 















Tt 










T3 






| 




O 

o 

rH 


r* 






cq 


'e 


s^. 1 


a 


PQ 


% 



Eye-pieces for the Microscope. By E. M. Nelson. L49 

In Table II., the figure over the inches column relates to the 
long tube, and that over the millimetre column to the short tube. 
Eings are to be placed over the eye-piece tubes to maintain the 
value of t ; the eye-pieces are therefore " parfocal." As stated 
previously, " parfocal " eye-pieces were, in 1839, made by Powell, 
who has continued to make them ever since. It was probably 
Cornelius Varley who suggested this idea to Powell. 

A correction is needed with regard to the statement in my 
previous paper that Varley was the first to fit a draw-tube adjust- 
ment between the eye-lens and the field-lens of the Huyghenian eye- 
piece, for subsequently, while cleaning a signed Benj. Martin Micro- 
scope, I discovered a similar draw-tube which clearly pre-dates 
Varley's design. 

My acknowledgments are due to Mr. W. B. Stokes for correc- 
tions and useful suggestions. 



150 



VII. — A Correction for a Spectroscope. 
By Edward M. Nelson. 

(Read December 18, 1907.) 

It is the common experience of everyone who has worked with a 
spectroscope that the image of the slit is represented by curved 
lines, especially when high up in the spectrum. Now curved 
images are due to the spherical aberration of an oblique pencil. 
Therefore we know by the curved image upon the plate that we 
are dealing with an oblique pencil ; and although rays which have 
been parallelized by the collimator and passed through the prism 
are supposed to fall upon the telescope in a direct manner, a little 
consideration will show that the prism has, by its refraction, never- 
theless rendered their incidence oblique. The correction for this 
«rror is obvious. The telescope objective should be mounted upon 




Fig. 30. 

a pivot so as to be capable of rotation about a vertical axis ; an 
indicator pointing to an arc, graduated in wave-lengths, would be 
convenient for setting the objective at any required position. It 
would be desirable and very simple to make this adjustment 
automatic (see fig. 30), by fixing an arm B to the pivot A, carrying 
the object-glass of the telescope, and by means of a spring making 
this arm bear upon a horizontal excentric, C, fixed to the axis of 
the pillar D. 

Then, as the telescope was rotated round the axis D of the 
pillar, the arm B would be moved by the excentric C, and the 
object-glass turned upon its pivot A. 

By this means, the lines in a spectrum would be rendered 
perfectly straight, because the incidence would be always direct, 
and what is more important, the lines would be made critically 
sharp. 

It is difficult to understand why spectroscopists have for so 
long been content with a curved image of a straight object, and 
fuzzy images. 



151 



VIII. — Or Dimorphism in the Recent Foraminifer, Alveolina 

boscii Defr. sp. 

By Fkedekick Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.S., 
Palaeontologist to the National Museum, Melbourne. 

(Bead February 19, 1908.) 

Plates II. and III. 

Preliminary Remarks. — The spindle-shaped tests of Alveolina 
boscii will be familiar to all who have examined dredgings from 
moderately shallow water in tropical regions. In the fossil state, 
species of the same genus are found in Cretaceous, Eocene, and 
Miocene limestones in various parts of the world. 

With regard to the occurrence of dimorphism in this genus — 
the phenomenon of the two stages in the life-history of the organism, 
in which the shell commences either with a large central chamber 
(form A), or a small one (form B) — our knowledge is limited to one 
instance, for the form B seems only to have been noticed, by 
Munier Chalmas, in a fossil species.* In that example the micro- 
spheric form was distinguished by a very small central chamber, 
surrounded by five simple chambers, which were not subdivided. 

Occurrence and Description. — The usual form of the test in 
Alveolina boscii, as found in our coral beach sands and shallow 
water dredgings, is that having a comparatively short fusiform 
shell with a large central chamber. 

It has lately been my good fortune to meet with the form B of 
this species in some material kindly handed to me by Messrs. 
Charles Hedley, F.L.S., and C. J. Gabriel, who dredged it from the 
Great Barrier Eeef, at Cairns Keef, near the Hope Islands, Queens- 
land. These dredgings consisted mainly of large foraminiferal 
tests beloDging to the genera Orbitolites (0. eomplanata, Lam.), 
Alveolina (A. boscii, Defr. sp.), Polystomella (P. craticulata, F. and 
M. sp.), and Polytrema (P. miniaceum, L. sp.). The Alveolinm 
were nearly all of the usual type (form A), but a few exceptions 
occurred in which the test was of extraordinary length. Since the 
microspheric shell is generally larger than the megalospheric, it 
seemed highly probable that at last we had met with examples 

* Schlumberger, Ch., " Sur le Biloculina depressa d'Orb., au point de vue du 
dimorphisme des Foraminiferes." Assoc. Franc, pour l'Avan. des Sciences, 
Congres de Rouen, 1883, p. 526. See also Lister, in Ray Lankester's Treatise of 
Zoology, pt. i. 1903, p. 111. 

[I am indebted to my friend, Mr. F. W. Millett, for a copy of this paper, which 
does not appear to be in any of the Melbourne Libraries.] 



152 Transactions of the Society. 

of the microspheric form. Some careful preparations of these tests 
confirmed that opinion, and photographs of the sections are now 
reproduced. 

In form A the central chamber, or megalosphere, is ovoid or 
kidney-shape, and in the present example has a longer diameter 
of 250 //,. The succeeding chamber is nearly spherical in optical 
section, and is immediately followed by a series of shallow cham- 
bers lengthened along the principal axial line, and secondarily sub- 
divided into chamberlets, at first in a single row, and afterwards 
increasing to two or three superposed series with intermediate 
floors. The increasing complexity of the serial arrangement of 
chamberlets with the growth of the shell is seen on the apertural 
face of the test, which has a generally cribrate appearance. 

In form B the central chamber, or microsphere, has a diameter 
of 33 fi, succeeded by two fairly short and shallow crescentic 




Pig. 31. — Triloculine series of the central disk in 
Alveolina boscii (form B). 

chambers, and three larger, all of which are simple, as previously 
stated of Munier Chalmas' fossil example. These chambers of 
the central disk are arranged on the triloculine plan (see fig. 31), 
and not on the peneropline, as Lister * infers from Schlumberger's 
note on the fossil occurrence. Following upon these are the 
normal chambers of the test, which extend the whole length of 
the shell, and are subdivided into several rows of chamberlets, 
as in form A, and showing successional increase in the number of 
floors or horizontal partitions, as in the megalospheric type. In 
form A, however, the segments of the convolutions are compara- 

* Loc. supra cit. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES II. and III. 

Fig. 1. — The two forms of Alveolina boscii Defr. sp. From the Great Barrier Reef, 

(Cairns Reef), Queensland, x 1^- 
,, 2. — A longitudinal, median section through a megalospheric test of A. boscii. 

Great Barrier Reef, x 16. 
„ 3. — A longitudinal, median section through a microspheric test of A. boscii. 

Great Barrier Reef, x 16. 
„ 4. — Central area of the megalospheric form (A) of A boscii. x 184. 
,, 5. — Central area of the microspheric form (B) of A. boscii. x 184. 



JOURN. R. MICR. SOC., 1908. PI. II. 




x U 




x 16 



£:*•** 



Form A 



'W«H 







x 16 



Form B 



F.C. photomicr. 



DIMORPHISM IN ALVEOLINA BOSCH, Defr. sp. 



JOURN. R. M1CR. SOC, 1908. PI. III. 




Form A 
5 




Form B 



F.C. photomicr. 

DIMORPHISM IN ALVEOLINA BOSCH, Defr. sp. 
The megalosphere and microsphere. X 184. 



On Dimorphism in Alveolina boscii Defr. sp. By F. Chapman. 153 

tively higher and shorter, and consequently the chamberlets are 
elongated in a vertical direction, or coincident with the minor axis 
of the test. This peculiarity of its internal structure is seen ex- 
ternally in the general shape, which is constant throughout the 
growth of the foraminifer ; as will be readily recognised from an 
inspection of the two photographs (Plate II. figs. 2, 3). The 
lengths of the tests in forms A and B, of which slightly enlarged 
photographs are now given, measure 7*5 mm. and 18*25 mm. 
respectively. 

Concluding Observations. — It is already well recognised that, 
whilst almost every type of rhizopod shell can be readily referred to 
the asexual stage A, the alternating sexual stage, characterised by 
the microsphere, is undoubtedly rare, and often extremely so. 
Schaudinn, Lister, and others, who have contributed so much to 
our knowledge of the life-history of this group, conclusively show 
that the megalospheric form is the stage fitted for a quiescent- 
conditioned reproduction of the species, and that the megalospheric 
form can repeatedly give rise to other asexual, megalospheric 
individuals. When, however, non-related individuals of the same 
species are introduced, the zoospores of different parentage can 
conjugate, and result in the production of microspheric examples. 

In the case of Alveolina the same rule holds good, and in a 
very marked degree, for individuals of the melagospheric form 
occur out of all ordinary proportion to the microspheric form, 
which, as has already been shown, is known for certain only in 
two solitary instances, one as a fossil, the other as a recent form ; 
although it is probable that in some instances the long slender 
tests of the microspheric shell of the living species may have been 
passed over unnoticed as merely abnormally elongate examples. 
Apropos of the last remark, it is of interest to note that W. B. 
Carpenter, in his " Introduction,"* says : " The length of the longest 
complete specimen in my possession is • 35 of an inch, but I 
have a specimen whose shape is nearly cylindrical (the A. quoyii 
of d'Orbigny), which, though incomplete at one end, measures 
0'50 of an inch." The A. quoyii\ referred to by Carpenter is, in 
all probability, another instance of form B, as may have been 
Carpenter's own imperfect specimen. 

* Introduction to the Study of the Poraminifera, 1862, p. 99. 
t Ann. Sci. Nat., vii. (1826) p. 307. 



April 15th, 1908 M 



154 



IX. — Gregory and Wright'* Microscope. 
By Edward M. Nelson. 

(Read December 18, 1907.) 

An old and rare book has just turned up which bears upon the 
evolution of the Microscope at an important period of its history, 
viz. when it was just beginning to crystallise into its present form. 
If you will refer to this Journal for 1899, p. 325, a description will 
be found of an interesting Microscope presented by Dr. Dallinger. 
This Microscope, not signed, was thought to be of Benjamin Martin's 
workmanship; now, however, it is possible to read its history more 
accurately. 

The book from which this new information is derived, pub- 
lished in 1786 by Messrs. Gregory and Wright, opticians, No. 148 
Leadenhall Street, describes a " New Universal Microscope, 
which has all the uses of the Single, Compound, Opaque, and 
Aquatic Microscopes." The plate in the book from which fig. 32 
is copied shows that this Microscope is almost identical with 
that in the Society's cabinet. It has the same folding tripod- 
foot with the compass joint at the bottom of the limb, it has 
the same shaped body with a coned end, and the movement of the 
body, backwards and forwards and also in arc, is the same, even 
to details of ornament. There is the same holder for either the 
substage condenser or for the lieberkiihn, and the same Benjamin 
Martin pivoted super-stage. The difference between the instru- 
ments is that Gregory's is a stage, and the other a body focuser. 
It is evident that in Gregory's Microscope we see a Benjamin 
Martin's latest type of instrument — in brief, a small edition, 
without accessories, of the magnificent instrument he made for 
George III., which is in the Society's cabinet. The limb, which is 
pivoted by a compass joint to the top of the tripod foot, is an equi- 
lateral prism ;* the rack is cut into the base of this prism at the 
back, and the pinion, which protrudes at right angles from the base 
of this triangle, moves up and down with the stage. If we now 
examine the limb of the Microscope presented by Dr. Dallinger, 
we shall find that it is a tube of circular section, with an inner 
tube actuated by rack-and-pinion, and a third, a push-tube, inside 
this one to hold the body. The push-tube is the coarse-adjustment, 
and the rack-and-pinion the fine-adjustment. It is evident, there- 
fore, that Dr. Dallinger' s is a later and improved form of 

* See this Journal, 1903, p. 589, fig. 144. 



Gregory and Wright 1 s Microscope. By E. M. Nelson. 155 

Gregory's. Now we know from the book that the date of 
Gregory's is 1786, and therefore we can say with certainty 
that Dr. Dallinger's was not made by Benjamin Martin, as he 
died in 1782. It is more than probable that Gregory and Wright 
became Benjamin Martin's successors, and were the makers of the 
Microscope presented by Dr. Dallinger. It is interesting to 
notice the name of Gregory's Microscope " Single, Compound, 
Opaque, and Aquatic." In early days Microscopes were termed 
" single " and " double," because they consisted of one or two 




Fig. 32. 



lenses, but after the " body lens " (field glass) was added by 
Monconys, in 1660, the word " double" became inappropriate, and 
it appears that " compound " was substituted for it by Dr. Smith 
in 1738 (Compleat System of Optics) ; in this he was followed 
by Benjamin Martin (Optical Essays), 1770. " Double " was 
last used by Wood (Master of St. John's College, Cambridge), in 
his Optics, 1818, but "single" lasted for nearly a century longer, 
until it was displaced by Wollaston's invention of the doublet in 
1829, and so, in 1830, we find the word " simple " in Coddington 

m 2 



156 Transactions of the Society. 

(Optics, Part II.).* " Single " is found for the last time in Potter's 
Optics, Part 1., 1847. 

" Opaque " is meant to convey the information that lieber- 
kuhns (invented 1738), are supplied for the illumination of opaque 
objects. The term "Aquatic " requires a longer explanation. In 
1755 Cuff made Ellis's Aquatic Microscope, or what would now 
be called a dissecting stand. The lens-holder was so mounted that 
the lens could be moved backwards and forwards, as well as in 
arc, over an object upon the stage. This movement of the lens 
over the object, instead of the object under the lens, was at that 
time thought a great deal of because it was said that aquatic 
animals were disturbed by the movement of the stage. These 
movements were still in use in 1852, for they are seen in a dis- 
secting stand by And w . Eoss. f All Microscopes having these 
movements were said to be " aquatic." 

Martin's super-stage, found in numerous models of that time, 
consists of a plate of brass with three holes in it, the centre one 
1\ in., and those on either side "7 in. in diameter. There was a 
pivot on the lower side which fitted into a hole in the stage, 
permitting the plate to be moved in arc. A watch-glass for 
holding living animals in water was placed in the large central 
aperture, and a piece of plain glass in one of the side holes for 
holding objects suitable for examination by transmitted light ; in 
the other hole was fitted a piece of ivory, black upon one side and 
white upon the other, for holding objects which were to be 
illuminated by a lieberkuhn ; a white object would be placed upon 
the black side of the disk, and a black object upon the white side. 
So Martin's super-stage was an ingenious and useful adjunct to 
Microscopes of that date. 

The total height of this Microscope was 14 in., the body 
being 6 in. when the draw-tube was closed. These are the same 
dimensions of Benjamin Martin's " No. 1," which is illustrated on 
page 474, fig. 81, of this Journal, 1898. 

From Watkins' and Gregory's Microscopes was evolved, in 
1798, Jones's % " Most Improved," which is, in essential particulars, 
the form of the modern Microscope. Jones's " Most Improved " 
has a foot with an upright pillar, to the top of which is hinged, by 
a compass joint, a limb which carries the magnifying portion, the 
object and the illuminating apparatus, and this is the form of every 
Microscope at present in use, for if we examine the most aberrant 
form, viz. Powell's No. 1, we find a gipsy tripod foot, which is 
merely a foot and pillar in one piece ; the bent claw obviously falls 
under the same category. 

* Barlow, Ency. Metrop., art. Optics. " Simple is found in the index, but the 
word in the text is " single." (Accompanying plate is dated 1822.) 

f Quekett on the Microscope, 2nd ed., p. 59, fig. 37; copied in this Journal, 
1900, p. 428, fig. 109. J W. and S. Jones, 135 next Furnival's Inn, Holborn. 



Gregory and Wright's Microscope. By E. M. Nelson. 1 57 

It has been said that the modern Microscope was evolved from 
Straus Durckheim's drum Microscope, made by Oberhaeuser in 
1835, but between that and the hinged limb Microscope of the 
present day there is nothing in common, and no continuity. 

Before closing, allow me to correct a mis-statement in a former 
paper (see this Journal, 1901, p. 729), where in a description of a 
Powell Microscope of 1840, presented to the Society by Messrs. 
Watson, I stated, upon the authority of Hannover,* that Fraunhofer 
was the designer of the screw-stage micrometer. A similar state- 
ment is made in the 9th ed. Ency. Brit., art. Fraunhofer. The 
screw-stage micrometer and webbed eye-piece are described by 
Benjamin Martin in his Optical Essays (1770),f page 48, and 
were fitted to his large instrument in our cabinet. Fraunhofer 
was not born until five years after Martin's death. 

A correction is also needed in a paper on the rackwork coarse- 
adjustment (see this Journal, 1899, p. 262, Synopsis), where I 
stated that the Microscope " Body-focuser," one inch of rack in 
slot in tube (telescope form) ; example in Society's cabinet," was 
made by Benjamin Martin, circa 1776 ; for this, read made by 
Gregory and Wright, circa 1795. 

* English Translation, 1853, p. 67, pi. 1, fig. 12. 

t Martin's Optical Essays are not dated, but we learn from Adams on the 
Microscope, 1798, p. 21, that they were published in 1770. 



If.x 



X. — Biddulphia Mobiliensis. 
By Edward M. Nelson. 

(Read February 19, 1908.) 

This diatom may be popularly described as being of the well- 
known Isthmia type, and consequently much like a pocket cigar- 
case. Probably a diatomist would say that the Isthmia was a 
Biddulphia, but as this note is written for microscopists in general, 
and not for diatomists only, it will be better to describe this 
Biddulphia as being like an Isthmia, a common microscopical 
object. 

Upon the side of this diatom strise, which count 41,000 and 
32,000 per inch (1,610 and 1,260 per mm.), can be seen with a 
low power, but with any lens of moderate aperture the diatom 
can easily be dotted. 

When the object is examined under the most critical condi- 
tions, with a very large axial solid cone of illumination, a suitable 
blue-green screen, and a power of not less than 2,000 diameters, 
the primary areolations will be found to contain a very minute 
secondary structure. 

This structure is so delicate that it is not possible to hold the 
image for long at a time. In general, four small dots will be 
perceived in each primary, and if this had been all, it would have 
been better not to mention the fact, because the image might 
merely be a diffraction phenomenon ; but the investigation was 
continued until some primaries which had five, and even six, 
secondary dots in them had been found, thus proving that this 
secondary structure is an entity. 

The diatom was sent to Mr. Merlin, who has kindly examined 
it, and has confirmed the observation that all the primaries do not 
have the same number of secondary dots. 

It is to be regretted that this note is not accompanied by even 
a rough drawing of these secondaries. The image is excessively 
difficult, and cannot be held long enough to draw ; the eye has 
repeatedly to be rested in order to get even a momentary glimpse 
of this tenuous structure. 

This is, so far as I know, the smallest primary in which any 
secondary structure has been seen. There can be no doubt that 
secondary structures which have been found to be present in so 
many species of diatoms are of great importance to the organism, 



Biddulphia Mobiliensis. By E. M. Nelson. 159 

and it may be suggested that they are placed there to guard the 
internal plasma from bacterial attacks. 

The subject is of some interest to microscopy, as these 
secondaries have only been seen with long-tube Microscopes, and 
it is very probable that this resolution will never be reached by a 
short-tube Microscope. 

It has often been asked, Which is the better instrument of the 
two ? A decisive answer can at once be given to this question. 
If the instrument is required for the examination of the most 
minute structures, the long-tube is the better ; but if it is required 
for other things, such as portability or cheapness, then a short-tube 
may be preferable. But so long as a Microscope is employed for 
the highest purpose, such as the revelation of the minute unknown, 
then a long-tube has no rival. 

The ultimate appeal concerning any very minute structure must 
go to a long-tube Microscope. 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES 

RELATING TO 

ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY 

(PRINCIPALLY INVERTEBRATA AND CRYPTOGAMIA), 

MICROSCOPY, Etc.* 



ZOOLOGY. 

VERTEBRATA. 

a. Embryologry.t 



Correlation of Ovarian and Uterine Functions.} — E. S. Carrnichael 
and F. H. A. Marshall find that the removal of the ovaries of young 
animals (rodents) prevents the development of the uterus and Fallopian 
tubes, which remain in an infantile condition. The subsequent growth 
and general nutrition of the animals seem to be unaffected. The removal 
of the ovaries in adult rodents leads to fibrous degeneration of the uterus 
and Fallopian tubes (most marked in the mucous membrane). Tbe 
animals' subsequent health and nutrition remain good. These observa- 
tions for the most part support the evidence obtained clinically in the 
human subject after surgical operation. 

The removal of the uterus in a young animal has no influence in 
preventing the further development of the ovaries, which are capable of 
ovulating and forming corpora lutea after adult life has been reached. 
The removal of the uterus in an adult animal does not give rise to any 
degenerative change in the ovaries, if the vascular connections of the 
latter remain intact. These latter observations do not support the con- 
tentions of those surgeons who advocate sub-total hysterectomy, believing 
that the functional activity of the ovary is in some way dependent on 
the presence of the uterus. 

Early Placenta in Macacus nemestrinus.§ — W. L. H. Duckworth 
finds that the decidual formation in this case is that known as decidua 

* The Society are not intended to be denoted by the editorial " we," and they 
do not hold themselves responsible for the views of the authors of the papers 
noted, nor for any claim to novelty or otherwise made by them. The object of 
this part of the Journal is to present a summary of the papers as actually pub- 
lished, and to describe and illustrate Instruments, Apparatus, etc., which are 
either new or have not been previously described in this country. 

f This section includes not only papers relating to Embryology properly so 
called, but also those dealing with Evolution, Development, Reproduction, and 
allied subjects. 

\ Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Series B, lxxix. (1907) pp. 387-94. 

§ Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc, xiv. (1907) pp. 299-312 (8 pis.). 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES. 161 

•compacta basalis, no decidua reflexa being present. The " wall " or cir- 
cumvallation described by Selenka in Semnopithecidse is not present. 
The uterine tissues immediately beneath the area of attachment of the 
blastocyst, and also for some distance on either side of this, are oedema- 
tous. Immediately beneath the blastocyst there is even an accumulation 
of a fibrinous exudation, by which the apparently degenerating cells of 
the uterine epithelium are thrust off. There is no evidence of the 
transformation of cells either of the uterine epithelium or of the glan- 
dular lining into syncytial masses. The evidence of the sections leads 
to the conclusion that the intervillous spaces are not lined by any deri- 
vatives of maternal cells, but by embryonic ectodermal cells. The 
epithelial lining cells of the uterine glands seem to play no permanent 
part in the formation of placental tissues. The embryonic tissue which 
has permanent relations in the placenta as ultimately constituted is 
identified with Voigt's Grundschicht of the villous processes (Pcytotro- 
phoblast of other authors). In the stage described there was no meso- 
derm in the embryonic villi. 

Formation of Red Blood Corpuscles in Placenta of G-aleopithecus.* 
A. A. W. Hubrecht finds clear evidence of haematopoiesis, not only in 
the maternal mucosa, but also in the embryonic trophoblast. He finds 
that the blood corpuscles thus formed circulate in the maternal blood- 
vessels only. Incidentally he adds evidence in favour of the view that 
the red blood corpuscles in mammals are not equivalent with cells, but 
must be regarded as nuclear derivatives. 



j &"- 



Growth of Testes in Birds and Mammals.f — R. Disselhorst calls 
attention to various facts which show that the growth of the testes in 
birds and mammals is for a long time relatively independent of that of 
the body generally. While other organs are showing their maximum 
rate of growth, the testes remain in a latent state. This condition is 
paralleled by that of the testes in hibernating animals, and in birds out- 
side of the breeding season. The author refers to a paper which he 
published in 189s, J in which he discussed the changes of weight in the 
gonads at different periods of life. 

Incubation in Doves.§ — Xavier Raspail notes that a turtle-dove 
(Turtur auritus) twice in succession left its eggs on the eighteenth day, 
the eggs not developing. A carrier pigeon did the same four times on 
the eighteenth day, the eggs not developing. He concludes that the 
birds become aware of the futility of brooding any longer. The turtle- 
dove is very sensitive, knowing when " a profane hand " has, in its 
absence, touched the eggs or the young, and leaving them in conse- 
quence ; it is surprising that it does not become sooner aware that the 
eggs are not developing. 

Amitosis in Pig-eon's Egg.|| — J. T. Patterson finds that amito.sis 
plays an important role in the development of the pigeon's blastoderm. 

* Proc. Acad. Amsterdam, Section of Sciences, ix. (1907) pp. 873-8. 

t Anat. Anzeig., xxxii. (1908) pp. 113-17. 

J Arch. wiss. Tierheilkunde, xxiv. (1898) heft 6. 

§ Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xxxii. (1907) pp. 89-90. 

|| Anat. Anzeig., xxxii. (1908). pp. 117-25 (24 figs.). 



1(32 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

A study of the regional occurrence of mitosis and amitosis reveals the 
fact that the former is found mainly in slowly and the latter in rapidly 
growing parts of the blastoderm. The idea that the cells which divide 
by amitosis are on the road to degeneration receives no support from 
the facts here recorded. Amitosis is probably the result of special 
physiological conditions which create a stimulus to cell-division, but 
what these conditions are we are unable to say. 

Post-embryonic Development of Ardeidse.* — S. Schaub has studied 
Ardea purpurea, A. cinerea and Nyctieorax griseus, with special reference 
to the changes in the proportions of the body during post-embryonic 
development, the changes in the scales of the feet, and the distribution 
of the feathers. He discusses the pterylography in its developmental 
and phyletic aspects. Emphasis is laid on the primary geometrically 
precise disposition of the feathers, which is interpreted in con-elation 
with the strains on the skin. There may have been a primitive diffuse- 
ness of distribution from which the geometrically orderly arrangements 
have evolved, but a secondary diffuseness may arise in the definite 
plumage. Powder-down feathers are peculiarly specialised down-feathers 
forming a dust whose function seems to be analogous to that of the 
preen gland. There is no fat about the powder : the greasy feeling is 
due to the mechanical nature of very flexible minute horny plates. The 
powder is formed by the degeneration of a cellular sheath around the 
barbs. But the powder-down feathers of different birds are very diverse, 
and are rather analogous than homologous structures. 

Complementary Spiracles in Anura.f — P. Wintrebert has corrobo- 
rated in Alytes obstetricans and Rana temporaria the observation of 
H. Brauss (on Bombinator) that the opening from the branchial chamber 
at the beginning of the metamorphosis occurs even in the absence of 
the anterior limbs. He does not regard this as an " ontogenetic remi- 
niscence," but gives an ingenious interpretation of the growth-conditions 
which lead to the perforation. 

Development of Lymph-sacs in Hind Limb of Frog.J— Gizela 
Goldfinger has studied this on the developing and regenerating limb, 
and finds that lymph-capillaries ramify, form a network, and coalesce 
with obliteration of their walls, so that sacs result — a confirmation of 
Kanvier's view. 

Gastrulation in Teleosteans.§ — J. Boeke maintains that in Teleos- 
teans (muraenoids) the process of gastrulation is ended as soon as the 
prostomial thickening has been formed, viz. at the beginning of the 
covering of the yolk. At that moment the " Anlage " of the entoderm 
is clearly differentiated, and the ectodermal cells begin to invaginate to 
form the chorda and mesodermic plates ; the concentration of the cells 
towards the median line begins ; the long and slender embryo is formed 
out of the broad and short embryonic shield. The blastula cavity, in 

* Zool. Jahrb., xxv. (1907) pp. 305-404 (2 pis. and 18 figs.). 

t C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) pp. 439-41. 

% Bull. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, No. 4 (1907) pp. 259-76 (1 pi.). 

§ Proc. Acad. Amsterdam, Section of Sciences, ix. (1907) pp. 800-8 (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. L63 

the cases in which it is developed, has disappeared as such ; all the 
following processes, the longitudinal growth of the embryo, the covering 
of the yolk by the blastoderm ring, the closure of the yolk blastopore, 
belong to the notogenesis, and we are no more entitled to reckon these 
processes to gastrulation proper than we are to do that of the covering 
of the yolk by the entoderm in Sauropsids. 

Early Stages of Fresh-water Fishes.* — F. B. Browne gives a brief 
account of the early stages in the life-history of the pike, the perch, the 
bream, the roach, and the stickleback. 

Monstrosities. t — Paul Ernst discusses numerous human monstrosities 
in the light of experimental embryology and phylogeny. He shows in 
an instructive way how recent researches on the influence of abnormal 
conditions on ova and embryos throw light on familiar teratological 
phenomena in man. There is less light to be got from phylogenetic 
considerations, but illustrations of arrested development are common. 
The paper is illustrated by a grim series of plates showing monstrosities. 

b. Histolog-y. 

Structure of Cilia.J — L. W. "Williams has studied the action of cilia,, 
especially on Gastropoda larva, and has been led to a modification of 
the theory of their structure. All protoplasmic processes, cilia, flagella, 
pseudopodia, and Acinetarian tentacles, are of essentially the same 
structure, and consist of a contractile protoplasmic sheath enclosing 
a solid or fluid non-contractile core. Primitively the sheath is con- 
tractile throughout, and is not marked off structurally or functionally 
from the rest of the ectoplasm. Secondarily the sheath becomes 
differentiated into contractile and non-contractile portions. 

The contractile protoplasm of velar cilia and ctenophore plates is 
practically confined to the base of the cilium. Parker has shown that 
in reversible cilia, e.g. in Metridium, the contractile substance must 
occur in two bands on opposite sides, and that irreversible cilia have 
probably only one band. Ballowitz has shown that spermatozoan flagella 
have a fibrillar axial structure surrounded by a sheath of uneven thick- 
ness ; others have shown that the axial rod supports an irregular con- 
tractile protoplasmic sheath. 

The core of the pseudopodium, which is to be regarded as the 
simplest cilium, is fluid. In higher stages of ciliary development a solid, 
which is elastic in cilia and flagella and inelastic in pendulous pseudo- 
podia, replaces the fluid core. 

Development of Cartilage. § — Ed. Retterer finds that in embryonic 
development the first trabecular of fundamental substance are elaborated 
by the chromophilous protoplasm of the cellular syncytium which repre- 
sents the primordium of the cartilage. From their first appearance they 
show zones or lamellae, alternately light and dark. To begin with, the 

* Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc, viii. (1907) pp. 478-88 (2 pis.). 
t Verh. Schw. Nat. Ges., 89th Jahres. in St. Gallen, 1907, pp. 129-G9 (19 figs., 
mostly plates). J Amer. Nat., xli. (1907) pp. 545-61 (2 figs.). 

§ C.K. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiv. (1908) pp. 3-6. 



164 SUMMARY OK CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

trabecule run from cell to cell-forming an alveolar system. Later on, 
the cells begin to elaborate concentric layers around each cell, and the 
cartilage takes on the features of the adult cartilage. 

Neuroglia Syncytium.* — R. J. Terry finds that the neuroglia of the 
brain of Batrachus (opsanus) In a is a syncytium comparable in form and 
structure with that of human and pig embryos. 

Theory of Malignant Tumours.j — Emil v. Dungern and Richard 
AVerner discuss the influence of external stimuli on the growth and 
multiplication of cells, and expound the following thesis. All cells have 
in themselves several regulation-mechanisms which inhibit a persistent 
increase of the growth and multiplication. By diverse stimuli these 
inhibitory arrangements may be temporarily weakened or put out of 
gear, so that exaggerated assimilation and proliferation set in. The 
inhibitory arrangements may be regenerated, but it is not possible 
experimentally to render them permanently futile without destroying 
the rest of the cellular organisation. Thus it is not possible to induce 
experimentally an unlimited proliferation of cells, such as occurs in 
malignant tumours. 



'■to* 



./Esthetic Aspect of Animals.}— Karl Mobius discusses the aesthetic 
value of the various forms of animal life. A pleasant aesthetic emotion 
at the sight of a beautiful animal has an objective and a subjective basis, 
both very complex. On the one hand, there are definable qualities of 
symmetry, proportion, balance, coloration, which please us ; on the other 
hand, we read into the animal the qualities of a human artist, and we 
praise the freedom and individuality, the unity and harmony, and fre- 
quently the effectiveness and significance which its beauty expresses. 
In estimating an animal's aesthetic value, it is very important to see it in 
its natural setting and to see it alive. Beauty of form pleases us more 
than beauty of colour — it goes deeper, it has more meaning. A large 
part of Mobius's beautifully illustrated book is devoted to a consideration 
of what might be called the canons of animal architecture. All styles 
are not equally pleasing, and there are reasons for this. Thus the 
human eye does not like to look, we are told, at animals which are un- 
symmetrical, whose bodies lack unity, whose parts are monotonously 
repeated, which lack a centre for the eye to rest on, which are so un- 
conventional, like crabs, as to be broader than they are long. Whether 
one agrees or not with the illustrious author, who has been for so long 
familiar with beautiful animals, and with the display of them in the 
museum at Berlin, one cannot but be interested in his discussion of a 
fascinating subject. 

Weight of Brain in Man and Woman. § — L. Lapicque notes that 
the average weights of the brains in adult Europeans are 1360 grm. for 
men and 1220 for women. But the average weights of the body are 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxxi. (1907) pp. 27-30 (2 figs.). 

f Das Weseti der bdsartigen Geschwiilste, erne biologische Studie. Leipzig : 
1907, 159 pp. See Biol. Centralbl., xxvii. (1907) pp. 767-8. 

\ Astbetik der Tierwelt. By Prof. Karl Mobius. Jena : Fiscber (1908) 128 pp., 
(3 pis., 195 figs.). § C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) pp. 432-5. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 165 

66 und 54 kilogrm. "When this is taken into account, the result is- 
practically equality between the sexes. 

Eighth Cerebral Nerve.* — C. Winkler discusses the central course of 
the nervus octavus, and its influence on motility. Previous researches 
have shown tbat the distribution of the eighth nerve is much more 
complicated than was surmised before, and Ewald has shown that dis- 
turbances of locomotion in pigeons follow the removal of the labyrinth 
on one side or on both sides. "Winkler finds that the course of the 
octavus fibres- and their distribution towards different centres in the 
medulla oblongata, pons, and mesencephalon is different in detail in 
pigeon, rabbit, dog, cat, mouse, and man, and that the functional 
troubles, consequent on section of the octavus in pigeon, rabbit, dog, 
and cat are also different in detail. The mode of the central distribu- 
tion of the eighth nerve does not warrant a sharp distinction between 
that of the N. cochlearis and that of the N. vestibularis. It is necessary 
to ask whether the cochlear, whose end-organ is endowed with the 
function of hearing, does not exert a certain influence upon the muscular 
system, and whether the vestibular, endowed with important significance 
for motor functions, does not contribute also to the function of hearing. 
"Winkler thinks that by the octavus-fibres, centres are innervated, whence 
originate long tracts towards the lateral and anterior columns of the 
medulla providing the motor centres with fibres, and that even primary 
octavus fibres, though in a slight degree, follow the same path. We 
cannot do more than indicate the general nature of this memoir, in 
which the author seeks to establish a correlation between the distribu- 
tion of the octavus fibres and the physiological role of the nerve. 

Dentition of Mammals.! — W. Leche continues his important in- 
vestigations on the ontogeny and phylogeny of mammalian dentitions. 
In the present instalment he deals with the families Centetidge, Soleno- 
dontidse, and Chrysochloridas, which he discusses not only as regards 
their teeth, but in respect to the entirety of their characters. 

His most general result is that the Insectivora should be classified as 
follows :• — 



I. Sub-order Centetoidea - 

II. Sub-order Brinacoidea 
III. Sub-order Soricoidea 



[ Family 1. Chrysochloridai. 

„ 2. Centetidas. 

„ 3. Solenodontidse. 

„ 4. Leptictidae. 

„ 5. Erinaceidas. 

| „ 6. Soricidas. 

i „ 7. Talpidae. 



Leche gives some interesting illustrations of convergence, e.g. between 
Erinacevs and Ericulus, Notoryctes and Chrysochloris ; in the special 
sesamoid associated with the flexor digitorum profundus in Chrysochloris, 
compared with Notoryctes and Necrolestes, he finds an illustration of 
progressive evolution ; in Chrysochloris, again, he sees an example of the 
preservation of a primitive type by specialisation ; Hemicentetes may be 

* Verb. k. Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam, xiv. (1907) pp. 1-202 (24 pis.). 
t Zoologica, xx. Heft 49 (1907) pp. 1-157 (4 pis. and 108 figs.). 



L66 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

described as a persistent young stage of Centetes ; in the history of the 
Itli deciduous premolar of Hemicentetes nigriceps, there is a good instance 
of " function-change," and among other interesting points emphasized is 
the evolution of similar forms of teeth along different paths and the 
I insistence of a hypobasal chorda dorsalis in the skull of /'e/itetes and 
Ericulus. 

New Acanthoglossus.*— Oldfield Thomas describes a new long- 
nosed Echidna (Acttntlioglossus goodfplloivi sp. n.) obtained by 
Walter Goodfellow in the island of Salawatti. The genus has not 
hitherto been recorded out of New Guinea itself, and there mainly or 
entirely at high altitudes, for which the thick coat of A. bruignii 
is admirably suited. The island of Salawatti is throughout comparatively 
low, and it is not surprising that the species of Acanthoglossus occurring 
there should have a coat much more spinous and less hairy than in any 
of the forms of A. brnignii. 

Relationships of Sparassodonta.* — W. D. Matthew discusses this 
interesting group of extinct mammals found in the Tertiary formations 
of Patagonia. They appear to have taken the place of true Carnivora in 
South America during most of the Tertiary period, as the carnivorous 
Marsupials do in the modern fauna of Australia. The Sparassodonts 
appear to be related to Marsupials, such as Thylacinus, rather than to 
Placentals, such as the Creodonts and modern Carnivora. 

Kidney of Elephant.} — A. Pettit describes the kidney of Elephas 
(Loxodon) africanus, which consists of a variable number of lobes sur- 
rounded by a sort of muscular sacking. In some other mammals smooth 
muscle-fibres have been found associated with the capsule and calices of 
the kidney, and even in the renal parenchyma. It is possible that the 
marked development in the African elephant may have to do with the 
evacuation of the urine from the immense organ, but there are 
no facts to prove this. The kidney of the elephant has,' as usual, a 
" pluri-reniculate " stage, but the peculiarity is that this persists, though 
with a tendency to a reduction of the number of lobes, in the adult. It 
is intermediate between the " conglobate " and " pluri-reniculate " types, 
and is remarkable for the system of contractile partitions. 

Comparative Anatomy of Tongue of Woodpecker.§ — A. Leiber pub- 
lishes a monograph dealing with the structure, comparative anatomy, 
mechanism and phylogeny of the woodpecker's tongue. He deduces the 
somewhat complicated anatomy of this organ from the simpler relations 
observed in the genera C'itta and Certhia, where the development is less 
extreme but in the same direction. 

Circulatory Mechanism in Teleosteans.|| — Wilhelmina Kolff finds 
that the propulsion of the blood is due not merely to the action of the 
heart, but to numerous subsidiary factors — the negative pericardial pres- 

* Ann. Nat. Hist., xx. (1907) pp. 498-9. 

t Geol. Mag., iv. (1907) pp. 531-5. 

% Arch. Zool. Exper., vii. (1907) Notes et Revue, No. 4, pp. ciii.-xi. (2 rigs.). 

§ Zoologica, xx. Heft 51 (Stuttgart, 1907) pp. 1-79 (6 pis. and 13 figs.). 

|j Atti R. Accad. Lincei Roma, xxi. (1907) pp. 479-90 (5 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 167 

sure, the respiratory movements, and the muscular contractions in 
swimming. In the eel the normal frequency of beats is greater than 
that of the respiratory movements, in Bar bus fluviatilis and Telestes 
mutkdlus it is less. Stimulation of the vagus nerve produces diastolic 
arrest ; cutting it results in acceleration. Warming the water results in 
increasing the rapidity of the cardiac rhythm up to a maximum which is 
not exceeded ; when the temperature is lowered, the frequency diminishes. 

Mutation-phenomena in Animals.* — M. Nussbaum calls attention 
to cases such as the differences in the optic chiasma in nearly related 
species of fishes. In one the right is uppermost, in another the left is 
uppermost ; and there are many similar instances in regard to which an 
apparent abruptness of change must be postulated. In other words, 
there is a certain discontinuity in the adult results, though these results 
are reached by continuous ontogenetic development. But it is hardly 
to details of this sort that de Vries 1 concept of mutation refers. 

Natural History of the Lumpsucker.f — Theodore Gill gives an 
interesting account of the peculiarities, habits, and relationships of the 
lumpsucker. The skeleton is very remarkable because of the extreme 
reduction of the bones and the inverse development of cartilage. All 
the bones, however, are there, but existent in a reduced state or as thin 
membrane-like pieces fastened to the cartilaginous mass. The relation- 
ships of Cyclopterids are with the Sculping or Cottidse, which have the 
bones firm and well ossified, and very little persistent cartilage. A 
review is taken of the different genera. 

The lumpsucker is widely distributed in the North Atlantic, both 
horizontally and vertically. It frequents cold waters : it is a " bottom 
fish," though it may be found swimming freely ; it is rather lethargic, 
but very active and fierce in the breeding season ; it feeds on crustaceans, 
medusae, worms, and shell-less molluscs. 

The spawning season lasts from February to June. The male keeps 
a watchful guard over the eggs, not merely defending them from 
intruders, but aerating them by waving his pectoral fins and spouting 
water from his mouth, as Fulton has shown. An account of the larva? 
is given, and the vivid paper ends with a discussion of the lumpsucker's 
dubious palatability. 

Respiratory Mechanism in Elasmobranchs.J — A. D. Darbishire 
has elucidated several interesting facts in connection with the breathing 
in various types. In the dogfish, water is drawn into the mouth and 
spiracle by the expansion of the whole phargyngeal region ; water is pre- 
vented from entering the gill slits by their automatic closure, the gill 
covers being in part passive agents in determining the respiratory cur- 
rent. The differences between the dogfish and ray in their respiratory 
mechanism all relate to the flat shape and ground habitat of the ray. 
In the former the greater part of the inhaled water enters through 
the mouth, in the latter through the spiracle — solely through it when 
the fish is at rest. In the dogfish water never enters solely through the 

* Mutationserscheinuugen bei Tieren. (Bonn, 1906) 24 pp. 
t Smithsonian Misc. Coll., iv. (1907) pp. 175-94 (16 figs.). 
\ Journ. Linn. Soc, xxx. (1907) pp. 86-94 (3 figs.). 



168 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

spiracle : it is occasionally ejected from it ; in the ray the current can he 
definitely reversed for a considerable number of respiratory acts. In 
Ilh inn the water is drawn into the mouth by the undulation of the gill 
covers, which are thus active agents in determining the respiratory 
current. The spiracle in Rhina is only capable of slow and imperceptible 
opening and closing ; it does not open and shut rhythmically as in the 
case of the ray and dogfish. 

New Deep-sea Fishes from South-west of Ireland.* — E. W. L. 
Holt and L. W. Byrne describe the following new species collected by 
the ' Helga ' — Lremonema latifrons, from 720 fathoms ; Cyttosoma JielgcB, 
from 540-660 fathoms ; Oneirodes megaceros, from 775-795 fathoms. 

Labyrinth Organ of Labyrinthici.f — G. Henninger describes the 
structure and position of this accessory respiratory organ in Anabas 
scandens, Macropodus viridi-auratus, and Trichogaster fasciatus, and 
relates experiments which show that atmospheric air is used by these 
fishes. He discusses the afferent and efferent blood-vessels and the 
rete mirabile in the organ, as also the fact that the heart contains 
" mixed blood." 

Freshwater Fishes of New Guinea. J — Max Weber points out 
that the river fishes of New Guinea belong to two groups :— (1) afluvio- 
marine group, which is Indo- Australian, or Indo- Pacific, and which may 
be met with, also, for instance, in Ambon or Celebes, and (2) a charac- 
teristic Australian contingent. Of the latter, 24 in number, none is 
known from the sea. Of the 12 species of Melanotseniidaj known from 
New Guinea, and of the 12 species from tropical or sub-tropical 
Australia, not one is common to the two regions, although the differences 
between some of the species are very small. The author concludes that 
the connection between Australia and New Guinea must have been not 
earlier than in the Pliocene, and the breaking up of it in the Pleistocene. 

Swim-bladder in Scisenidae.§ — L. Cohn describes the complications 
of the swim-bladder in Collichthys lucida, Otolithus argmteus, and other 
Scisenids. In some genera, e.g. Corvina, there are species with swim- 
bladders without diverticula, with simple cornua, with dichotomously 
forked cornua, and with dendriform outgrowths. In Otolithus gracilis 
the first pair of diverticula form 3 to 4 branches, and extend for- 
wards to the auditory capsule, with which the branches are closely 
connected ; the second pair grow dorsallv, and surround with their 
branches the under side of the first and second vertebrae ; then follow 
numerous outgrowths, extending downwards to right and left ; each 
outgrowth divides into a dorsal branch and a ventral branch, the former 
branching much more than the latter. 



*& 



Poison-glands of Catfishes.||— H. D. Reed describes the poison- 
glands of the " stone cats " and " mad toms," species of Nbturus and 

* Ann. Nat. Hist., ser. 8, i. (1908) pp. 86-95 (1 pi. and 1 fig.). 

t Zool. Jahrb., xxv. (1907) pp. 251-304 (4 pis. and 3 figs.). 

% Proc. Acad. Amsterdam, Section of Sciences, ix. (1907) pp. 462-5. 

§ Zool. Anzeig., xxxii. (1907) pp. 433-40 (4 figs.). 

|| Amer. Nat., xli. (1907) pp. 533-66 (5 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 169 

SchUbeodes found in North American streams. These catnshes have an 
axillary pore, which is the opening of a gland. Experiments with 
S. gyrinus indicate that the secretion of the gland is poisonous. In 
addition to the axillary glands, S. gyrinus and S. noctunrus have similar 
glands developed about the pectoral and dorsal spines, with ends pro- 
jecting slightly through a slit in the epidermis. Spine-glands are not 
found in those species which possess well developed seme upon the 
spines. 

The glands are invaginations of the epidermis ; the gland -sheath 
is modified corium ; the clavate cells of the skin become the secretory 
cells ; the ordinary epidermal cells form a supporting network ; there 
are no muscles for forcing out the secretion ; the cell-walls are evidently 
ruptured by the pressure of their contents, and in this way the spines are 
constantly anointed with the poisonous secretion. 

Poison Apparatus of Weever.* — J. 0. Borley describes the poison- 
glands of Trachinus draco and T. vipera, which are lodged in five or 
six rays of the dorsal fin and in a spinous outgrowth of the opercular 
bone. The opercular gland consists of a capsule of connective-tissue, 
a rich network of capillaries, and very large secretory cells in radiating 
columns. The secretion appears in two states : masses of finely granular 
material, and highly refringent colloidal substance, either two secretions 
or two stages of one secretion. It is highly probable that there is a 
perpetual waste of secretion into the sea, though this is minimised by 
the closeness with which the sheath fits the spine. Where the spine 
issues from the substance of the operculum it is still at the bottom of 
a tube sunk in the operculum, this tube being the sheath. This tube 
wrinkles down about the spine as the latter enters a victim until about 
one-third of the spine is uncovered. 

H. Muir Evans f has made some experiments on the action of the 
weever's poison. He refers to the previous investigations of BottardJ 
and Briot,§ but his own work was independent of these. An injection 
of the poison into gold-fish, frog, mouse, and guinea-pig, produced local 
paralysis. Marked haemolysis was seen in the blood of pigeons and 
various mammals. The poison is probably an "amboceptor," which 
unites with the endocomplements of the blood-cells. 

Food of Birds. || — Cecil H. Hooper has gathered together a number 
of facts in regard to the food of birds, especially of those that are 
important practically. A few examples may be given. The amount of 
insect-food eaten by sparrows is comparatively small. Bullfinches do 
much harm to fruit-buds, especially gooseberries. Blackbirds destroy 
much fruit, but are harmless or useful at other times, eating worms, 
grubs, etc. Starlings devour leather- jackets and wireworms, but destroy 
much fruit. Missel-thrushes eat many fruits, but outside the fruit 
season they do no harm. The song-thrush devours fruits, but also 
insects, snails, and worms. Greenfinches are a terrible pest among hops ; 

* Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc, viii. (1907) pp. 369-73 (1 fig.). 
t Tom. cit., pp. 355-68 (1 fig.). $ Les Poissons Venirneux, 1889. 

§ C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, 1902-4. 
|| Journ. Board of Agriculture, xiv. (1907) pp. 402-12. 

April loth, 1908 n 



170 SUMMABY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

they eat newly sown and sprouting seeds, and fruit-buds : they eat very 
few insects, but many weeds. Chaffinches eat various kinds of larvge, 
green-fly, etc., but destroy fruit-buds, freshly sown and sprouting crops. 
Rooks destroy leather- jackets, chafer larvae, wireworms, caterpillars, slugs, 
young voles, but also eggs and young of fowls and partridge, certain 
fruits, and freshly sown seeds. The jackdaw eats cockchafer grubs, wire- 
worms, and leather- jackets ; like the rook, it will strip trees of walnuts, 
and where numerous, is destructive to peas and grain crops. It is a 
very destructive bird to the eggs and young of game-birds and poultry, 
and will completely clear the nests of small birds of their eggs and young. 
The wood-pigeon seems to have no redeeming feature from the farmer's 
point of view. Blue-tits are great insect-eaters ; they collect caterpillars 
from fruit trees, but they also spoil apples, pears, and other fruits. The 
blackcap, whitethroat, and robin are insect-eaters, but levy some toll on 
fruits. The wren, willow-wren, goldcrest, hedge-sparrow, tree-creeper, 
spotted flycatcher, pied wagtail, goatsucker, martin, swallow, swift, etc., 
are all useful and above reproach. The goldfinch is very useful as a 
weed seed-eater, as it splits the seeds before eating them. Larks seem 
to do considerable damage to growing crops, strawberries, peas, cabbage, 
and green crops. Of course the author points out that in many cases 
the verdict is still indecisive ; the facts require to be more numerous 
and precise. Particular attention is given to the black-headed gull, 
which eats earthworms, wireworms, leather- jackets, slugs, and much vege- 
table and animal matter considered " neutral " from a practical point of 
view. If it gets plenty of insects and worms, it does not take to fish or 
cereals. 

INVERTEBRATA. 

Mollusca. 
o- Cephalopoda. 

Large Cuttlefish at St. Andrews.* — W. C. M'Intosh, in his recent 
contribution of notes from the Gratty Marine Laboratory, records the 
occurrence of a large specimen of Ommastrephes sagittatus, d'Orb., 
stranded on the rocks near St. Andrews. The length of the mantle 
from the tip of the tail to the collar was 25 in., the pen measured 23 in., 
the eight arms had an average length of IZ\ in. ; the tentacles were 
unfortunately absent. A description of the suckers is given. 

#. Gastropoda. 

New Parasitic Gastropod. f — Paul Bartsch describes Eulima ptilo- 
crinicola sp. n. found on Ptilocrinus pinnatus, dredged by the ' Albatross ' 
in 1588 fathoms off British Columbia. The three specimens had the 
proboscis deeply inserted in the side of the body of the Crinoid, and 
it was necessary to sever it in order to release the shell. The parasitic 
habit, the texture, and weak malleations of the surface, recall certain 
forms of Stylifer, but the absence of the mucronate apex and the 
presence of the operculum make it necessary to refer the new form to 
Eulima. 

* Ann. Nat. Hist., xx. (1907) pp. 172-5 (3 figs.). 

t Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., xxxii. (1907) pp. 555-6 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 171 

Larval Stages of Cyclostoma elegans.* ■ — C. Barbieri gives an 
account of the larvae of this common terrestrial Prosobranch. There is 
a well developed velar region, without cilia, covered by a layer of 
vacuolated epithelial cells. There are two vitelline sacs, right and left, 
the latter the larger. Both are composed of vacuolated cells. The 
liver develops in the right vitelline sac and in the proximal portion of 
the left. The more differentiated part of the left vitelline sac atrophies. 
A considerable tract of the oesophagus consists solely of vacuolated cells. 
The kidney and the pericardium develop from a common rudiment, 
and the heart arises as an introflexion of the pericardial wall. At an 
early stage the pedal gland is formed, and has two distinct ducts and 
openings, but the proximal parts of the ducts afterwards coalesce. The 
supra-pedal gland is formed much later and independently of the pedal 
srland. There are folds on the dorsal surface of the mantle which mav 
be regarded as a rudimentary branchia. 

Orthogenesis in Gastropods.! — Amadeus W. Grabau discusses the 
occurrence of orthogenetic variation, i.e. progressive variation along 
definite and determinate lines, in various Gastropod types, such as 
Fulgur and Melania. The Melanias, to which he refers in most detail, 
form a group of highly " accelerated " Gastropods in which the spines, 
a specialised feature, appearing late in the phylogeny of most Gastropods, 
have become a dominant character, appearing before the ribs have 
disappeared. Many " phylogerontic " members of this group, forming 
terminals of genetic series, retain their ornamentation only in the young, 
the adults becoming smooth. In several lines extreme accentuation of 
certain characters at the expense of others has resulted in grotesque 
forms. All the characters, however, appear and disappear in a regular 
progressive manner both in ontogeny and in phylogeny. The Melanias 
therefore constitute an excellent group from which illustrations of ortho- 
ontogenesis and ortho-phylogenesis may be obtained. 

Minute Structure of Ganglion-cells of Tethys leporina.ij:— Hugo 
Merton describes the canalicular system within the ganglion-cells 
of Tethys. There is a genuine network which penetrates the entire 
endoplasm, and forms a meshwork around the nucleus. The close 
relations between the chromophilous substance and the network point to 
a reciprocal interaction between the two, which is probably of import- 
ance in the metabolism of the ganglion-cell. 

Gastropods of the Magellan Province^ — H. Strebel completes his 
survey which includes 236 species and varieties, of which 209 are marine. 
In the present instalment he deals with Acmcea, Fissurella, Patinella, 
Siphonaria, Stephanoda, etc. The characteristic species are Trophon 
geversianus, laciniatus and decolor, Voluta ancilla, Photinula violacea, 
Patinella mar/ellanica, Nacella cymbularia, Fissurella alba, Euthria 
plumbea and magellanica. 

* Zool. Anzeig., xxxii. (1907) pp. 257-84 (21 figs.). 

+ Amer. Naturalist, xli. (1907) pp. 607-46 (3 pis.). 

% Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool., lxxxviii. (1907) pp. 327-57 (2 pis.). 

§ Zool. Jahrb., xxv. (1907) pp. 79-196 (8 pis. and 6 figs.). 

S 2 



172 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

New Australian Chiton.* — R. A. Bastow and J. H. Gatliff describe 
Enoplockiton torri sp. n. from the coast of Queensland. If the reference 
to Enoplockiton is correct the species is very interesting geographically, 
for the other species of the rare genus, E. niger Barnes, occurs oe the 
coast of Peru. " The head-valve is studded with numerous bright, clear, 
amber eyes, not ocelli, but real and very human-looking eyes ; these also 
occur on the lateral areas and on the posterior valve. . . . The girdle, 
with its radially striated scales, is ■ unmistakably well secured to the very 
numerous and deeply-cleft teeth in the insertion plates. . . . The whole 
of the dorsal sculpture is granulate." 

Arthropoda. 
a. Insecta. 

Senses of Ants.f — 0. C. Silverlock has made a number of interesting 
-experiments on the reactions of ants to heat and light. He shows that 
some ants at least feel a rise in temperature of not more than - 3° C. 
He confirms Lord Avebury's conclusion that the ultra-violet rays affect 
the ants as true light rays. The ants change their position by reason 
of their dislike to the colour of the ultra-violet rays, and also by reason 
of the smaller amount of heat transmitted through the violet end of 
the spectrum. 

Nests of Wanderer Ants.| — E. Wasmann has been able to obtain 
some information from E. Luja in the Congo regarding the hitherto 
unknown nest of Dorylus (Anommd) wilverthi. It was found at the foot 
of a tree in the forest ; it included in its upper portions numerous myr- 
mecophilous beetles quite different from those which accompany the 
armies on the march ; the latter were found in the deeper parts of the 
nest. A number of interesting details are given, and the author refers 
to some other records of the nests of wanderer ants. 

Clasping Organs on Wings of Hymenoptera.§ — L. Walter gives a 
thorough description of the interlocking of the fore and hind wings in 
ants, bees, wasps, and other Hymenoptera. The hind wing bears clasping 
hooks (distal and sub-basal) and marginal bristles. The hooks are in- 
serted into a groove formed by a recurving and folding in of the posterior 
margin of the fore-wing. But the details of the arrangement are in- 
tricate. The development has been worked out, and the precise function 
in flight is analysed. 

Salivary Glands of Hemiptera.|| — E. Bugnion describes the principal 
and the accessory salivary glands of Pentatoma grisea, Graphosoma linea- 
tum, Syrbmastes marginatus and Pyrrhocoris apterus, besides giving an 
account of the salivary pump and the excretory ducts. 

Insects Injurious to Books. — P. S. de Magalhaeslf makes some notes 
on a species of Lepisma, a small beetle somewhat like Anobium biblio- 

* Proc. R. Soc. Victoria, xx. (1907) pp. 27-30 (2 pis.). 

t Nature Notes, xviii. (1907) pp. 165-9. 

% Atti Pontif. Acad. Rom., lx. (1907) pp. 224-9. 

§ Smithsonian Misc. Coll., iv. (1907) pp. 65-87 (4 pis.). 

I| Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat., xxiv. (1907) pp. 639-42. 

<|f Bull. Zool. Soc. France, xxxii. (1907) pp. 95-100. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 173 

tkecarmn, and a small species of Tinea. The small beetle is described as 
Dorcatoma bibliophagum. It sometimes bores through a row of several 
volumes. Carbon sulphide is the best remedy, but as the fumes injure 
the colour of the books and are not without danger, F. Secques * suggests 
placing the infected books for two or three days in an air-tight receptacle, 
containing vapour of formol at a temperature of 50° or 60°. To remove 
the insects from inaccessible nooks in the library, small vessels with 
formol may be placed in the vicinity, or even powder of trioxymethylene. 
It is noted, however, that the vapour does not kill the cocoons. 

. Scale Insects of Date Palm.f — T. D. A. Cockerell describes Parla- 
toria bhinchardi, found on date-palms transported from Africa to Arizona. 
The female is dormant through the winter ; the male seems to be very 
short-lived, dying after impregnating the female. The larvae, which 
crawl about restlessly for some time, are probably carried from tree to 
tree by insects and birds. Attention is also directed to the marlatt 
scale (Phmucococcus marlatti), discovered many years ago by C. L. 
Marlatt on date-palms imported from Algeria. E. H. Forbes J discusses 
methods of exterminating these date-palm scales, recommending especially 
good pruning and firing infected trees with gasoline. 

Pests of the 01ive.§ — F. Silvestri continues his account of the inju- 
rious insects which infest the olive. He deals in detail with the important 
Prays oleellus, one of the Hyponoineutidae, and more briefly with numerous 
other pests. 

Mating of Rivellia boscii.|| — W. H. Piersol describes the curious 
mating habit of this fly, which he studied near Toronto. The female 
runs about on the leaves in small circles or spirals, varied by an occa- 
sional straight course. The wings are moved slowly up and down, with 
occasional pauses for a second or two. The much smaller male follows 
closely, and when the pace admits touches the female on the abdomen 
with his proboscis, or with an anterior leg. Sooner or later he mounts, 
the penis is extended and taps the abdomen of the female two or three 
times, when the latter also becomes extended (automatically, for it 
happens even when the male's attentions are not acceptable), and copu- 
lation begins. The wings keep in constant motion, great excitement is 
exhibited, and a droplet of colourless fluid from the male's proboscis is 
transferred to the female, who eats it. This transference of a globule is 
repeated many times before the pair separate. There are many curious 
details in this connection. There is some evidence of choice on the 
female's part. The author refers to the passage of some secretion from 
the mouth of the male pigeon to his mate as a possibly analogous case. 

Blood-sucking Flies.1T — Mario Bezzi takes a survey of the species in 
the genera Stomoxys, Glossina, Glossinella, Siphona (Hcematobia) ami 
Lyperosia, and describes a few new forms. 

* Bull. Zool. Soc. France, xxxii. (1907) pp. 100-1. 

t Bull. Agric. Exper. Station Univ. Arizona, No. 5G (1907) pp. 185-92 (5 pis. ). 
X Tom, cit., pp. 193-207 (5 figs.). 

§ Boll. Lab. Zool. Scuola Agric. Portici, ii. (1907) pp. 83-184 (68 figs.). 
|] Amer. Nat., xli. (1907) pp. 465-7. 
If Rend. R. 1st. Lombardo, xl. (1907) pp. 433-60. 



174 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Structure and Behaviour of Larva of Anopheles maculipennis.* 
A. 1). I nuns gives a preliminary account of the larvae of this mosquito, 
collected in the neighbourhood of Cambridge. The various systems in 
the body are described. The large oenocytes are segmentally arranged 
in clusters ; the small oenocytes, which are very numerous, have no 
definite arrangement. The imaginal buds are well developed and easy 
to discover. They are superficial in position, being situated just below 
the hypodermis, and the primitive invaginations of the buds remain 
permanently open. 

In another paper f he describes the external features, digestive and 
respiratory systems. Perhaps the most interesting structure in the 
digestive system is the peritrophic membrane, a thin, probably chitinous 
tube which completely incloses the food as it passes through the mesen- 
teron. It appears to protect the mesenteric epithelium from abrasion 
by hard and resisting particles of food. Like other chitinous mid-gut 
linings, it is shed at ecdysis. On the respiratory system certain tracheal 
branches are described which are very thin-walled, and which by envelop- 
ing the terminal chamber of the heart probably enable the blood to come 
into close contact with their contained oxygen, and in this way form a 
kind of " lung." Tracheal anal gills are also present, which are well 
supplied with blood, and probably function as accessory respiratory 
organs. 

Shell-bearing Mycetophila Larva.J — Nils Holmgren describes 
the anatomy of the larva of Mycetophila ancyUformans sp. n. which 
carries a black shell, and which was at first mistaken for an Ancylus. 
It occurs on the leaves of a species of Barnbus in the primeval forests of 
Bolivia and Peru. A diagnostic description of the imago is also given. 

Relation of Fleas to Plague Dissemination. § — Carlo Tiraboschi 
gives a very full discussion of this subject, bringing together all the 
known facts regarding the role of rats and mice, their distribution, and 
the morphology of their fleas. The paper also contains a systematic 
account of the families Pulicidse and Sarcopsyllidge, together with 
notes on the Pediculi and Acarid parasites of the rat. Rats and mice 
play an important part in disseminating plague ; it is quite established 
that fleas are disseminated from rat to rat, from rat to man, and from 
man to man. The fleas concerned in plague dissemination are Pulex 
cheopis Roth., Ceratophyllus fasciatus Bosc, Ctenopsylla musculi Duges, 
Ctenocephalus felis Bouche, and Ctenocephalus canis Curtis ; the most 
probable species in transference from rat to man are P. cheopis, 
P. irritans, Ctenocephalus felis, C. canis, and, perhaps, Ceratophyllus 
fasciata, but chiefly P. cheopis. This last-named species is widely dis- 
tributed on rats in the plague-infested regions of India and Australia. 
The facility with which it is transported naturally by man in the absence 
of rats renders it very important. Neither the Sarcopsyllidaa, lice, nor 
Acarids are of significance in this connection, and bugs ordinarily do 
not play an important role in the dissemination of plague. 

* Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc, xiv. (1907) pp. 292-5. 

t Journ. Hygiene, vii. (1907) pp. 291-318 (2 pis. and 1 fig.). 

t Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool., lxixviii. (1907) pp. 1-77 (5 pis. and 2 figs.). 

§ Arch, de Parasitol., xi. (1907) pp. 545-620 (15 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 175 

Dimorphism in Australian Agrionidae.* — R. J. Tillyard records 
•dimorphism of the females in two Australian genera. These two con- 
tain the smallest and weakest species of the dragon-flies known in 
Australia, a point which the author regards as strengthening the 
contention that the existence of dimorphic females is in some manner or 
other connected with the preservation of the species. The forms 
exhibiting dimorphism are Ischnura delicata Selys 9 and Ar/riocnemis 
splendida Martin ? . The two genera referred to, though differing 
widely in their wing-structure, have many points of similarity. 

New Order of Apterygota.f — F. Silvestri describes Acermtomon 
g.n., represented by A. doderoi sp. n. It was found in humus at Genoa 
and other localities in Italy. Antennae and cerci are absent ; the oral 
apparatus is suctorial ; there are eleveu abdominal segments and a very 
primitive anal segment ; the genital aperture is unpaired on the eleventh 
urosternite ; there is a supra-anal and a sub-anal lamina ; there are no 
eyes, but there are two ocelli (?). It is the most primitive insect as yet 
discovered, and requires a special order — Protura. 

5. Arachnida. 

Maturation and Fertilisation in Theridium.J — T. H. Montgomery, 
jun., has studied the eggs of a common spider, Theridium tepidariorum, 
and describes the ovarian ova, the stage of the first maturation spindle, 
the stage of the second polar spindle, the pronuclei and cleavage nuclei, 
and the frequent occurrence of polyspermy. 

Studies on Mites.§ — Nathan Banks has made a catalogue, with 
bibliographical references, of the mites of the United States, which will 
be of great service to those working at this group. A preliminary list 
by Osborn and Underwood, published in 1886, included 99 species in 28 
genera. The present list gives 450 species in 133 genera, " yet this is 
probably less than a third of the entire Acarid fauna of the United 
States." It may be noted that a synopsis of genera || was published in 
1904. 

Hydrachnids. — C. Maglio ^f gives a list, revised and criticised, of 
Italian Hydrachnids. He has made a number of new records, and the 
total number of species amounts to 86. 

W. Williamson** records 18 species (in 12 genera) from Scottish 
Lakes ; Lebertia porosa Sig Thor, and Oxus ovalis Muller are additions 
to the two previous lists for Scotland, and Huitfeldtia rectipes Sig Thor 
is a new British record, the genus having been hitherto recorded from 
Norway only. 

New Species of Eurypterus.ft — Henry Woodward describes, from the 
Coal-measures to the north-west of Ilkeston, Ewrypterus moyseyi sp. n. 
and E. derbiensis sp. n. 

* Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1907, pt. 2, pp. 382-90. 

t Boll. Labor. Zool. Scuola Agric. Portici, i. (1907) pp. 296-311 (18 figs.). 

J Zool. Jahrb., xxv. (1907) pp. 237-50 (2 pis.). 

§ Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus , xxxii. (1907) pp. 595-625. 

|| Op. cit., xxviii. (1904) pp. 1-114. 

i Rend. R. 1st. Lombardo, xl. (1907) pp. 953-74. 
** Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh, xxvii. (1907) pp. 302-7 (7 figs.). 
-tt Geol. Mag., iv. (1907) pp. 277-82 (1 pi.). 



176 SUMMARY Off CURRKNT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



«• Crustacea. 

Primitive Malacostracan.* — 0. A . Sayce describes Koonunga cursor 
g. et sp. n., a remarkable Crustacean from fresb-water reedy pools near 
Melbourne. He regards it as the most primitive sessile-eyed Malacos- 
tracan hitherto known. Its nearest ally is the stalk-eyed Anaspiih* 
tasmanue G. M. Thomson, which it resembles in general appearance, 
but it requires the definition of a new family (Koonungidae). The 
thorax has its anterior segment fused with the head, leaving seven 
distinct subequal segments. The eyes are sessile, there is no antennarv 
scale, the mandibles have a single dentate cutting-edge and molar ex- 
pansion without any " spine-row " or its equivalent. The maxillipeds 
are like those of Anaspis, but without any trace of gnatho-basic lobes. 
The branchiae and the swimming branches of the legs are like those 
of Anaspida?. The last pair of legs is flexed in the opposite direction 
to the preceding ones. The pleopods are uniramous, except the first 
two pairs in the male. 

As is well known, Anaspides differs from other Schizopods in having 
no vestige of a carapace, and in having eight distinct thoracic somites. 
This new form differs markedly in having sessile eyes, in having no 
antennary scale, and in the coalescence of the first thoracic segment 
with the head. The loss of stalked eyes, carapace, and scale-like exo- 
podite on the antenna, marks Koonungia as the most primitive sessile- 
eyed Malacostracan at present known, and it is no doubt a very ancient 
type. It is remarkably active — running, swimming, and springing 
forcibly forwards. It shuns strong light. 

Brachyura and Anomura from the North Pacific. f — William 
Stimpson, who died in 1872, made an important report on the crabs 
and hermit-crabs collected by the North Pacific Exploration, 1853-6. 
This report was at first supposed to have been destroyed by a fire in 
1871, in which much valuable material was lost, but it was afterwards 
found at the Navy Department, and has lain for many years unpublished 
at the Smithsonian Institution. It is now published as an historical 
document, under the able editorship of M. J. Rath bun, who has given 
the current or accepted names where these differ from Stimpson's. The 
illustrations are from pencil drawings, made, it is supposed, by Stimpson 
himself. 

Pyocephalus cooperi.J — Henry Woodward discusses this primitive 
Schizopod crustacean from the Coal-measures, devoting particular atten- 
tion to the marsupial plates of the adult female. There are six or seven 
broad, scale-like, imbricated plates or oostegites forming the marsupium 
in which the eggs and the immature young were carried. 

Male of Dexamine thea.§ — Alexander Patience describes this form, 
which has hitherto escaped observation. The reason is probably due 

* Victorian Naturalist, xxiv. (1907) pp. 117-20. 

t Smithsonian Misc. Coll., xlix. (1907) 240 pp. (26 pis.). 

% Geol. Mag., iv. (1907) pp. 400-7 (1 pi. and 2 figs.). 

§ Ann. Nat. Hist., series 8, i. (1908) pp. 117-22 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 1 i i 

to the fact that the male being apparently always smaller than the 
female might be passed over as a younger specimen, and to the fact 
that the distinctive first gnathopod (with a somewhat deep sinus on the 
upper margin) seems to be habitually tucked away among the mouth- 
organs when it is not in use. 

The author gives a synoptic table for the discrimination of Tritceta 
gibbosa, Dexamine then, and D. spinosa, and notes that the first two are 
widely distributed in the Clyde sea-area in depths up to 35 fathoms. It 
is also shown that D. dolichonyx is the male of Tritwta gibbosa. 

Reduction of the Eye in New G-ammarid from Ireland.* — Fr. 
Yejdovsky describes Bathyonyx de Vimesi g. et sp. n., discovered by 
W. F. de Vismes Kane, from 130-150 ft. deep, in Lough Mask. It is 
intermediate between Grangonyx and Gammarus, and is peculiarly in- 
teresting in showing what may be regarded as the first stage in the 
degeneration of the eye. 

Crustacea of East Norfolk Rivers.f — R. Gurney gives an interest- 
ing account of the Crustaceans in the tidal regions of these rivers, 
and shows that a number of marine forms have become habituated to 
a considerable proportion of fresh-water. The brackish-water species, 
Heterotanais gurneyi Norman, was found in abundance in fresh-water. 
Good figures are given of Gyathura carinata Kroyer, a new record for 
Britain. 

Notes on Development of Argulidse.ij: — C. B. Wilson gives for the 
first time an account of the newly-hatched larvse of two of the common 
American Avgulids, Argulus ftmduli, a salt-water form, and A. maculosus, 
a fresh-water form. He also gives a description and figure of the male 
of A . catostomi. In each case the form described is the only one needed 
to complete a full account of the species. 

Nephrocytes of CaprellidsJ— L. Bruntz describes in Protella pkasma 
three pairs of cephalic and six pairs of thoracic nephrocytes. There are 
also nephro-phagocytes all along the thorax and above the heart. They 
eliminate carminate of ammonia when that is injected into the general 
cavity of the body, and they are able to capture particles of Chinese ink. 
These cells and the blood-corpuscles are the only phagocytic elements in 
Caprellids. There is no phagocytic organ analogous to that in 
Gammarids. 

Antarctic Cirripedia.|| — A. Gruvel makes a preliminary report on 
the operculate Cirripeds collected by the ' Gauss.' He notes Pachylasma 
giganteum, from near the Cape of Good Hope, hitherto recorded only 
from the Mediterranean, various species of Balanus, TubicincV a tracheal is, 
Tetraclita porosa, and a single new species, EJminius crista} linns, so named 
because of the transparent walls and opercular pieces. 

* Ann. Nat. Hist., xx. (1907) pp. 227-45 (2 pis.). 

t Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat Soo., viii. (1907) pp. 410-38 (1 pi. and 1 fig.).. 

J Proc. U.S. Nat. Museum, xxxii. (1907) pp. 411-24 (4 pis.). 

§ Arch. Zool. Exper., vi. (1907) Notes et Revue, No. 3, pp. lvi.-ix. 

|| Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xxxii. (1907) pp. 104-6. 



178 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Boring Cirripedia.* — W. Berndt proposes a revised classification of 
the Acrothoracica, or boring Cirripedia. The sub-order Pygophora in- 
cludes the family Cryptophialidae (Cryptophialus) and the family Koch- 
lorinidse (Kochlorine, Lithoglyptus, and Weltneria). The sub-order 
Apygophora includes the family Alcippidas (Alcippe). 

Barnacles of the United States National Museum, f — Henry A. 
Pilsbry gives an account of the pedunculate Cirripedes and the sessile 
family Verrucidae in the United States National Museum. He deals 
with the following- genera : — Mitella, Lithotrya, Scalpellum, Oxynaspis, 
Dpus, Pacilasma, Megalasma, Octolasmis, Gonchoderma, Heteralepas, 
Alepas, and Verruca. The Pedunculata from North American coasts 
number 56 species, and the Verrucidse 5 species. The pelagic forms, 
with one exception, are widely distributed forms, already known from 
many Atlantic and Pacific localities. One pelagic species, Alepas 
pacifica, is an interesting form commensal on large medusa?. The deep- 
water forms, both of Lepadida? and Verrucidse, support the opinion 
advanced by Hoek, Annandale, and others, that deep-sea Cirripedes have 
■a very wide distribution. 

Notes on Cirripedes. — Henry A. Pilsbry % describes some new 
Japanese and North-Western Pacific Cirripedes — Scalpellum g 'onion otum, 
S. weltnerianum, and Balanus orcutti. 

In another paper, Pilsbry § discusses the genus Megalasma, which is 
distinguished from Paicilasma by the structure of the carina, which has 
wide sides near the base, and a well-developed oblique plate or septum 
within the base, bridging across the cavity of the carina, and terminating 
above in two projections or teeth. The species of Pacilasma occur 
chiefly on the carapaces of crabs, while Megalasma has been found 
mainly on sea-urchin spines and on other Cirripedes. A key to the 
various species is given. 

North American Species of Diaptomus. || — C. Dwight Mason has 
made a useful revision of the North American species of this cosmopolitan 
genus, which is so prominently represented in fresh-water plankton. 
All the North American species (34) are peculiar to the country, and 
some have a relatively restricted habitat. Isolation has probably had 
an important role in the evolution of the species, and it seems likely 
that Diaptomus is very susceptible to environmental stimuli. Peculiar 
bizarre characters are more apt to appear in species living in shallow 
waters, and with a narrow range of habitat. There is a marked 
distinction between deep-water and shallow-water species. There is no 
reason to think that, under ordinary circumstances, the species are 
distributed in any way except by water carriage. Various groups of 
species — oreyonensis, teni/icaudatus, leptopus, signicauda, and albuqi'er- 
quensis — are distinguished, and a systematic description is given of 
all the species. 

* Arch. Natur., lxxiii. (1907) pp. 287-9. 

t U.S. Nat. Museum, Bull. No. 60 (1907) x. and 122 pp. 11 pis. and 36 figs.). 

J Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1907, pp. 360-2. 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 408-16 (1 pi. and 7 figs.). 

|| Trans. Wisconsin Acad. Sci., xv. (1907) pp. 381-516 (14 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY. ETC. 179 



Annulata. 

Notes on Polychaets.* — W. C. M'Intosh describes GenetylUs citrina, 
a new Phylloclocid, which approaches G. lutea Malmgren. The setigerous 
region is supported by a black spine and carries shorter bristles with 
shorter terminal processes than in G. lutea. 

The author also discusses in some detail the reproduction of Nereis 
diversicolor, and finds that, so far as observed at St. Andrews, there is 
no foundation for the statement that the Scotch representatives are 
hermaphrodite, and still less that they are viviparous, as mentioned by 
Max Schultze, by the " Cambridge Natural History," and by Gravier. 

Nervous System of Saccocirrus papillocercus.f — W. D. Lepeschkin 
finds that each metamere has two pairs of ganglia, with a cross-shaped 
commissure between each pair ; that each metamere has six pairs of 
nerves, of which i. ii. and iv. are motor, while iii. v. and vi. are 
sensory ; that the 6th nerve has associated with it a strongly refractive 
body, probably a sense-organ ; that the lateral sense-organs in each 
segment are well developed ; that there is a setose glandular sensory 
region along the back ; and that the ventral cord includes colossal 
nerve-fibres and giant ganglion -cells. The complexity of the nervous 
system is against the view that Saccocirrus is a primitive type. 

Regeneration in Podarke obscura.J — Sergius Morguli notes that 
when this Polychast regrows a posterior half, the regrown part is for 
a time transparent and without chitinous cuticle. Gradually the old 
tissue has its chitinous layer thinned off, and the new part becomes 
chitinised. Finally, the old and new parts are covered by a continuous 
layer of uniform thickness. The author finds in this " a case of trans- 
mission of materials from all parts of the old tissue to provide for 
the building up of the new tissue," but his facts are not convincing. 
He concludes that it is the organism as a whole, and not the exposed cut 
surface, that is concerned with the regeneration of the lost tissue. 

By interesting experiments in Lumbriculus, the author § has con- 
vinced himself that little worms grown from parts which have a high 
regenerative capacity have a similar capacity. The ratio between the 
rates of posterior regeneration in the mother-pieces is very nearly like 
that between the rates of regeneration in their regenerated offspring. 
" The property of regeneration passes over to the new tissue, together 
with the protoplasmic material it is built of." 

Respiration in Earthworms. || — M. Konopacki has made an elabo- 
rate physiological study of the respiratory processes in various species 
of Lumbrkus, in normal and in peculiar conditions. The intensity of 
the respiration differs in different species ; it is directly proportional 
to the temperature. Earthworms can live for 6 to 30 hours without 

* Ann. Nat. Hist., xx. (1907) pp. 175-85 (1 pi.). 

t MT. Ges. Freund. Naturw. Moskau, xcviii. (1907). Tagebucb Zool. Abtb... iii. 
pp. 1-9 (2 pis.). See also Zool. Zentralbl., xiv. (1907) p. 435. 

%• Obio Nat., viii. (1907) pp. 217-19. § Tom. cit., pp. 219-21. 

|| Bull. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, No. 5 (1907) pp. 357-431 (15 figs.). 



180 SUMMARY OF CUKRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

oxygen, but go on excreting carbon dioxide during that time almost at 
the normal rate. The intramolecular respiration is very important, 
and there is evidence of enzymatic processes in the respiration, and of 
a certain regulative power in abnormal conditions. But most of the 
results are of a technical physiological character, and not readily 
summarised here. 

Nematohelminthes. 

Toxins Secreted by Parasites.* — M. Weinberg has already main- 
tained that the species of Sclerostomum infesting the horse secretes toxic 
substances which dissolve the red-blood corpuscles, hinder coagulation, 
and produce a precipitate in the serum. He seeks to extend this to 
cesophagostomiasis," of which he has studied thirty cases in monkeys, 
and to ankylostomiasis. 

Platyhelminthes. 

Notes on Cestodes. — Edwin Linton f describes Calyptrobothrium 
minus sp. n., from the Torpedo. The bothria are in pairs, prominent,, 
very flexible in life, with the relatively large suckers characteristic of 
the genus. The general plan of a mature segment is like that of 
C. occidentale. Figures are given of two free segments in coitu, and 
of the everted cirrus with spermatozoa issuing from the apex. It is 
noted that free segments are capable of making progressive movements^ 
during which the anterior end is elongated so as to resemble the neck 
of certain distomes. The resemblance is heightened by the almost con- 
stant presence of a rounded knob at the anterior end. The surface of 
the joint is slightly roughened by very minute serrations which project 
posteriorly, so that the spasmodic contractions, aided by a kind of flowing 
peristalsis, constantly propel the segment forward. 

M. Kowalewski % briefly discusses two avian Cestodes, Aploparaxis 
penetrans Clerc, from the intestine of Limnocryptes gallinula, and Hyme- 
nolepis compressa Linton. 

Pearl-forming Flukes. § — Alfred Giard discusses Gymnophalh/s 
somaterm Levinseu, the young form of which he has found in Donax 
and Tellinaceas at Boulogne, the adult probably occurring in Oedemia 
or some other sea-bird. He also deals with G. bursicola from mussels 
and Saxicava rugosa, the adult form of which occurs in the eider-duck. 

Trematodes from British Birds.|| — W. Nicoll describes a large 
number of forms — Spelotrema excellem sp. n., from the herring-gull ; 
S.feriatum sp. n., from Pel idna alpina, Totanus calidris and JEgialites 
hiaticula : Tocotrema jejunum sp. n., from Totanus calidris ; Gymno- 
phallus dapsilis sp. n., from Oedemia fusca and 0. nigra, Maritrema 
gratiosum, and two other new species of this new genus. 

* Ann. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiv. (1908) pp. 25-7. 

t Proc. U.S. Nat. Museum, xxxii. (1907) pp. 275-84 (7 figs.). 

% Bull. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, No. 7 (1907) pp. 774-6 (1 pi.). 

§ C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) pp. 416-20. 

|| Ann. Nat. Hist., xx. (1907) pp. 245-71. 



/OOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY. ETC. 18 1 

Structure of Haplodiscus.* — W. Salensky describes certain parts of 
this interesting and very primitive representative of the Turbellaria 
Acoela. The subject of his study was H. ussoivii from Messina and 
Naples. The parenchyma is discussed in detail. The central paren- 
chyma consists of two epithelial layers, a dorsal and a ventral, which 
meet in the horizontal plasma ; these two layers correspond to the 
dorsal and ventral walls of the alimentary canal of other Turbellaria ; 
the oral or digestive parenchyma is a part of the central parenchyma 
and presumably of endodermic origin. The frontal organ is an aggre- 
gate of skin-glands opening at the anterior tip of the body ; the secretion 
is probably offensive and defensive. Delage's suggestion that the organ 
is sensory is not, however, dismissed, for a strong nerve passes to the 
organ from the brain. The post-cerebral cell-mass is very like an 
aggregate of ovarian cells, but it seems to have no connection with the 
gonads, and is probably glandular. The vas deferens and the seminal 
vesicle are described. 

Incertae Sedis. 

New Species of Myzostoma.t — J. F. McClendon describes three new 
species — M. cubanum, M. evermanni, and M. cerriferoideum, found on 
Crinoids and Ophiuroids in the Smithsonian Institution. Previously J 
he gave an account of those collected on the ' Albatross ' expedition to 
Japan. 

Notes on some British Polyzoa.§ — A. M. Norman discusses Micro- 
pora impressa (Moll.) from Guernsey, Terebripora ditrupm sp. n. from 
the calcareous shell of the Annelid genus Ditrupa from Shetland, Schizo- 
porella alderi (Busk) which show considerable variation in its mode of 
growth, Eschariaa dutertrei (Audouin), Phylactella pygmc&a (Norman) 
from Shetland, of which a figure is given for the first time, and Gellepora 
surcularis (Packard). 

Genus Aucella.|| — A. P. Pavlow gives a monographic account of 
this Brachiopod genus, discussing the relationship and distribution of 
the numerous species, and taking account of Aucellina and other related 
types. 

Rotifera. 

New Rotifera.^f — C. F. Rousselet gives a description and figures of 
Brachiotius sericus, a new species characterised by the structure of the 
lorica, which is covered all over with fine longitudinal wavy lines giving 
the appearance of watered silk, and also by a posterior overhanging, 
more or less pointed, projection of the carapace. The author further 
describes Brachiomis quadratus var. rotundas, a new variety, and gives 
accurate figures of Brachiomis rubens Ehrenbg., which appears to have 
been wrongly figured and described in Hudson and Gosse's monograph. 

* Bull. Acad. Soi. St. Petersbourg, No. 18 (1907) pp. 819-42 (8 figs.). 
+ Proc. U.S. Nat. Museum, xxxii. (1907) pp. 63-5 (2 figs.). 
% Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., xxiii. (1906) pp. 119-30 (3 pis.). 
§ Ann. Nat. Hist., xx. (1907) pp. 207-12 (1 pi. and 1 fig.). 
|| Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, xvii. (1907) pp. 1-84 (6 pis.). 
^ Journ. Quekett Micr. Club, (1907) pp. 147-54 (2 pis.). 



182 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Echinoderma. 

New Echinoid from Indian Ocean.* — A. R. S. Anderson describes 
Breynia vredmburgi sp. n. from the Andamans. It agrees in some 
respects very closely with B. carinata and B. multituberculata from the 
Indian Oligocene. It is distinguishable in many respects from B. aus- 
tralasue, and is remarkable for the large number of ambulacra! plates 
traversed by the sub-anal fasciole, which includes no less than eight 
modified pairs of pores, a larger number than is known in any other 
Spatangoid. 

Cidaridse.f — H. L. Clark has revised this family, giving diagnoses 
of the genera and the recent species, with the usual artificial keys and 
bibliographic references. It seems that Gidaris is nearest to the ancestral 
form and the centre from which the different genera have come. Whether 
Tylocidaris represents a more primitive type, because of its imperforate 
tubercles, is an open question. The other genera (21 are recognised) 
fall into three groups, but the lines between these groups are not clear 
enough to warrant any recognition of subfamilies. 

New Crinoids. — Austin H. Clarkf describes Ptilocrinus pinnatus 
g. et sp. n. from the North Pacific, near Moresby Island, 1588 fathoms. 
It is remarkable in being the only stalked Crinoid known from the 
Eastern Pacific (see infra), with the exception of the closely related 
Galamocrinus diomedce. from the Galapagos Islands. The basals are 
completely anchylosed into a funnel-shaped cup as in Bathycrinus ; the 
arms are five and unbranched, with about sixty joints ; the stem is com- 
posed of 360 joints, smooth and very slender, and unusually flexible. 
The author also discusses the species of Bathycrinus, and makes a new 
name, B. australis, for one of them. 

Clark also describes § Phrynocrinus nudus g. et sp. n. from the south 
coast of Nipon, Japan. The calyx is acorn-like, and quite different 
from that in any known Crinoid ; there is a broad naked space between 
the small radials ; no interradial plates could be made out ; and in many 
features this new form is so peculiar that it requires a special family, 
Phrynocrinidae. Another new form is Bathyrinus pacificus, from near 
the same locality, a representative of a genus hitherto known only from 
the Atlantic. 

In a third paper || the author describes Eudiocrinus tuberculatus sp. n., 
and records two other species of this Comatulid genus, all from Japanese 
waters. 

New Holothurians.1T — W. K. Fisher describes 18 new species of 
Holothurians from the Hawaiian Islands, and a new genus Opheodeso?na, 
represented by 0. spectabilis and by three species included in (Ester- 
gren's Euapta. In this new type there are numerous madreporic canals, 
distributed around the ring canal. A cartilaginous ring is sometimes 

* Journ. and Proc. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, iii. (1907) pp. 145-8. 

t Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, li. (1907) pp. 165-230 (11 pis.). 

X Proc. U.S. Nat. Museum, xxxii. (1907) pp. 551-4 (3 figs.). 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 507-12 (4 figs.). || Tom. cit., pp. 569-74. 

if Tom. cit., pp. 637-744 (17 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 183 

present, when perforations are along the anterior border, not along the 
posterior border as in Synaptula. The two large lateral holes in the 
handle of the anchor plate are absent ; the central hole is larger than 
Euapta, and rounded, not acute, on the outer edge. The plates are 
otherwise as in Euapta. The calcareous ring has conspicuous anterior 
projections. Tentacles and anchors are as in Euapta, and retractors are 
present. 

Coelentera. 

New Fresh-water Medusoid from China.* — Asajiro Oka describes 
Limnocodium kaivaii sp. n. from the Yang-tze-kiang, about 1000 nautical 
miles from its mouth. The umbrella is hemispherical ; the velum 
projects inwards for about a quarter of the breadth of the sub-urnbrellar 
diameter ; there are over 256 tentacles of seven different sizes ; the 
diameter was about 20 mm. The author compares this new form with 
L. sowerbyi (whose native habitat remains unknown), and with 
Limnocn ida from Tanganyika, Victoria Nyanza and the Niger. Systemati- 
cally the affinities of Limnocodium (the generic diagnosis of which is 
enlarged), are with the Olindias group, and the author is inclined to 
place it nearer to the Leptomedusae than to the Trachomedusas. 

Hydroids of Madagascar and South-east Africa. t — A. Billard 
reports on a collection of 38 species, of which six are new, and the chief 
interest of his report is probably that at least eight of the species are 
characteristically Australian, while 18 are common to Australia and 
these South-east African regions. 



-"&* 



Structure and Development of Turritopsis nutricula.J — W. K. 
Brooks and S. Rittenhouse describe the structure of this Medusoid. It 
is compared with Gallitiara, and with a new genus (Modeeria in part), for 
which the name Mccradia is proposed. The ova of Turritopsis arise in 
the ectoderm of the manubrium ; they grow by the absorption of the 
primitive ovarian cells, and when mature are densely crowded with large 
yolk granules. Dehiscence takes place at a definite time, from 5 to 6 
o'clock in the morning. The egg is spherical and membraneless. Matu- 
ration and fertilisation occur in the water after the eggs are deposited. 

Cleavage is total and nearly equal, at first regular, afterwards very 
erratic. A solid morula results, whose cells form a syncytium. Parts 
of eggs divided during cleavage continue to develop normally in every 
respect except size. Cell- walls re-appear peripherally and establish the 
ectoderm, the mesoglcea appears, and the endoderm is late of being 
differentiated in the internal syncytium. There is some evidence of 
amitotic division in the late segmentation. 

The planula becomes attached by nearly its entire side, and is trans- 
formed into a root. The first hydranth develops from a bud from about 
the middle of the root. The tentacles develop in indefinite whorls, each 
whorl with four tentacles. 

Annot. Zool. Japon, vi. (1907) pp. 219-27 (1 pi.), 
t Arch. Zool. Exper., vii. (1907) pp. 335-96 (2 pis.). 
% Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xxxiii. (1907) pp. 129-60 (6 pis.). 



184 SUMMARY OF OUBEBNT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Hydroids of Eastern Tropical Pacific* — S. P. Clarke reports on 
the Eydroids collected by the ' Albatross' (1904-5). The collection is 
surprisingly small, including only 12 species. At 112 stations no 
Eydroids were obtained. The following - are new — Pennaria pacifica, 
Gampanula/ria obliqua, Obelia striata, Campanulina denticulata, and 
< 'ladoearpus (//stomas. It is interesting to find that two of the species, 
Thiuaria tubal if or mis and Zygophylax chazalei, were hitherto known 
only from the Atlantic side of the isthmus of Panama. The label in 
the bottle with Campanulina denticulata records a depth of 2*45 
fathoms, something unusual, but not unequalled for Hydroids. Alhnan 
records Stylactis vermicola and 31onocaulis imperator from 2900 fathoms. 

Hydroids from North Side of Bay of Biscay/]-— E. T. Browne 
reports ou a collection of 37 species, including two new species Bimeria 
arborea and B. biscayana, and several rare deep-sea forms. 

Pelagic Larvae of Actiniaria.J — Angelo Senna reports on those 
collected on the voyage of the ' Liguria ' in 1903-5, under command of 
the Duke of Abruzzi. In the family Cerianthidae he describes four new 
forms of Dactylactis ; in the Zoanthidae, three larvae of Zoanthella and 
several of Zoanthina. The structure of these forms is fully discussed. 

In the same connection we may note the account given by 0. Carl- 
gren § of northern forms : Arachnactis and other larvae of Cerianthidae ; 
the larva? of Peachia hastata parasitic on Medusae ; and various pelagic 
forms, e.g. of Sagartia viduata, Zoanthina and Zoanthella. 

Halcampella ostroumowi.|| — Th. Wyragevitch describes this new 
Actinian from the Black Sea. It is cylindrical, vermiform, delicate, 
semi-transparent, with 12 longitudinal stria 1 , with 24 tentacles. It 
changes its shape incessantly and rapidly. Eight mesenteries reach the 
oesophagus, but only four of these are fertile. The author found no 
acontia, no sphincter, and no septostomes. It seems likely, though not 
certain, that the young stages occur within the gastro-vascular system 
of Aurelia aurita, and some facts bearing on this question are recorded. 

Recent Madreporaria of the Hawaiian Island and Laysan.^f — T. 
Way land Vaughan deserves to be congratulated on his magnificent mono- 
graph of these Madreporarians. He discusses the classification, the species 
problem, the distribution and the factors determining it, the faunal 
affinities of the Hawaiian forms, and then proceeds to a systematic 
account with special attention to the morphology of the hard parts. 
The photographic plates are of great excellence. 

Phellia murocincta.** — Chas. L. Walton found this beautiful little 
sea-anemone near St. Ives, under stones in a small dark cave, along with 

* Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, xxxv. (1907) pp. 1-18 (15 pis.). 

f Jouru. Mar. Biol. Assoc, viii. (1907) pp. 15-36 (2 pis. and 1 fig.). 

X Raccolte Planctoniche (R. 1st. Stud. Sup. Firenze), iii. (1907) pp. 81-198 
(4 pis., 37 figs.). 

§ Nordisches Plankton (Brandt and Apstein) lief v. (1906) pp. 65-89 (10 figs.). 

|| Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, xxii. (1905, received 1907) pp. 85-98 
(14 figs.). U Bull. U.S. Museum, No. 59 (1907) pp. 1-222 (96 pis.). 

** Journ. Mar. Biol. Assoc, viii. (1907) pp. 47-8. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 185 

young specimens of Actinia equina, Germs pedunculatus, and a number 
of Depastrtim cyat/iiforme. It was J in. in diameter when expanded ; the 
"epidermis" was not dense (as in Gosse's description), but free and 
easily removed ; the column was usually much flattened during the day, 
pillar-like at night ; no acontia were emitted ; there were 36 tentacles. 
much more active at night than during the daytime ; the colouring 
harmonised very exactly with the surroundings. 

Japanese Primnoidse.* — K. Kinoshita gives a preliminary account 
of a number of interesting new species of Primnoidae from Sagami and 
Kagoshima : — Plumarella spinosa, Thouaretta typica, Dicholaphis deli- 
cata (g. n.), Galigorgia granulosa, Primnoa pacifica, Stachyodes irregu- 
laris, S. trannulata, and Calyptrophora ijimai. It will be very interest- 
ing to see the full descriptions of some of these, e.g. of Primnoa pacifica, 
for P. lepadifera or reseda has been hitherto the only known representa- 
tive of the genus. 

Alcyonaria, Antipatharia, and Madreporaria from the North Side 
of the Bay of Biscay.f — S. J. Hickson reports the occurrence of 
Alcyonium coralloides (= Sympodium coralloides), Gorallium maderense 
(= Pleurocorall ium maderense), Isidella elongata, Acanella arbuscula, 
Acanthogorgia ridleyi ; Stichopathes spiralis, Parantipathes larix, Schizo- 
pathes crassa ; Garyophyllia clavus, Demophyllum cristagalli, and Loplio- 
helia prolifera. Of these records the most interesting is that of 
Gorallium maderense. Only one other specimen of this species has 
hitherto been obtained, and no specimen of the family has hitherto been 
recorded from the Bay of Biscay. 

Japanese Ctenophora.| — Fanny Moser reports on a collection 
made by Doflein off the east coast of Japan, which included Ocyroe 
maadata, Beroe cucumis, B. forsJcdli, B. hyalina sp. n., Hormiphora 
japonica sp. n., Pandora mitrata sp. n., Bolina mikado sp. n. The dis- 
tinctions of the genera Neis, Pandora, and Beroe are discussed. It is 
pointed out that in B. cucumis the gastral vessels are unbranched, and 
that the ramifications of the meridional vessels on the stomach-wall end 
blindly, whereas in B. ovata the gastral vessels are branched, and the 
ramifications of the meridional and gastral vessels on the stomach-wall 
form an anastomosing network. Agassiz's Idya roseola is identical with 
B. cucumis. 

Porifera. 

Amcebocytes of Spongillids.§ — W. Weltner gives an account of the 
seasonal changes in Ephydatia fluviatilis, and devotes special attention to 
the amcebocytes. He maintains that in the growing sponge these 
elements form the mesogloea, the skeleton, and the gemmules ; that 
they are the agents in the new growth in spring and in the reparation 
of injuries. They are the most important elements in the sponge body, 
for they can replace all the others. 

* Annot. Zool. Japon, vi. (1907) pp. 229-34. 

t Journ. Mar. Biol. Assoc, viii., (1907) pp. 6-14. 

X Zool. Anzeig., xxxii. (1907) pp. 449-54. 

§ Archiv Natur., lxxiii. (1907) pp. 273-86(2 figs.). 

April 15th, 1908 o 



186 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Degeneration and Regeneration in Sponges.* — H. V. Wilson notes 
that siliceous sponges in confinement give rise to small masses of un- 
differentiated tissue, which in their turn are able to grow and differen- 
fciate into perfect sponges. In a species of Stylotella the process as a 
whole has been worked out. The oscula and pores close, the canal 
system is in some degree suppressed, the sponge shrinks and becomes 
like Spongilla in its winter state. It may subdivide into numerous 
masses, which recover their differentiation in open water. In other cases 
a large part of the sponge dies, but living fragments remain, which can 
recover. Minute masses may occur over the general surface, or they 
may be scattered throughout the body. These small remnants behave 
like plasmodia ; they are aggregations of syncytial protoplasm studded 
with nuclei. Wilson has showm that when suitably exposed in open water 
they can form perfect sponges. This production of regenerative tissue 
has been seen in Mkrociona, but only in Stylotella has the author directly 
proved the regenerative power. Maas has described in degenerating 
Sycons the formation of compact cords of cells showing amoeboid pheno- 
mena. It may also be noted that in 1886 J. Arthur Thomson described 
and figured what he called "regenerative capsules" in Spongelia pallescens, 
without, however, following up their history. 

Antarctic Monaxonellids.f — R. ] Kirkpatrick reports on the 
Monaxonellida brought home by the ' Discovery ' — a collection of 43 
species, of which 24 are new. The following new genera are established 
— Sigmaxinyssa, Cercidochela, and Hoplahithara. 

New Fresh-water Sponges from Calcutta.:}: — Nelson Annandale 
describes the following new species — Spongilla proliferens, S. crassissinw, 
Fphydatia indica, Trochospongilla latouchiana, and T. phillottiana. 

Protozoa. 

Studies on Radiolarians. — V. Haecker § gives a detailed account 
of the structure and development of the skeleton in Ccelographidge, 
with special reference to the highly differentiated condition seen in 
Cozlogr •aphis antarctica. Thus the central capsule is inclosed in an 
internal shell, which consists of two halves and is beset with small teeth 
on the aboral margin on both sides. Each of the shell-halves bears a 
high helmet-like galea elongated towards the oral side, and at the base 
of the galea is drawn out into a tube or rhinocanna extending towards 
the oral shell-margin. The Coelographidre are not separable from the 
Ccelodendridas, and the sub-order Phseodendria is proposed. Within 
this there are five sub-families, characterised by their skeletons. The 
author deals with eight genera and seventeen species. 

W. Mielck || deals with Acanthometridse from New Pomerania, and 
works out a notable simplification of the systematic relations. 

* Science, xxv. (1907) pp. 912-15. 
t Ann. Nat. Hist., xx. (1907) pp. 271-91. 

X Journ. and Proc. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, iii. (1907) pp. 15-26 (7 figs.). 
§ Arch. Protistenk., ix. (1907) pp. 139-69 (20 figs.). 

|| Wiss. Meer. Abt. Kiel, No. 10 (1907) pp. 41-105 (5 pis. and 20 figs.). See also 
Zool. Zentralbl., xiv. (1907) pp. 621-8. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 187 

Affinities of Blastulidium pgedophtorum.* — E. Chatton has studied 
this parasite which Ch. Perez found in the eggs and young partheno- 
genetic embryos of Daphnia obtmct. It was found on species of 
Simocephalus, < 'hydorus, and Lynceus, and Chatton has seen enough of 
it to enable him to say that it must be removed from among the 
Haplosporidia and placed among the Chytridinese. 

Structure and Movements of Condylostoma patens.f — John F. 
Bovard has studied this large Ciliate. He describes the thin, transparent, 
homogeneous, very elastic pellicula ; the hyaline threads or myonemes 
which form the primary ridges marking the surface ; the cilia which 
arise from furrows along the sides of the myonemes ; the membranellae 
which seem to arise from a fusion of rows of cilia ; the broad, thin, trans- 
parent, undulating membrane which lies in the buccal groove and is 
attached at the base of the right oral lip : and so on. 

The movements of the animal are directly dependent on the shape 
of the body. Normally the animal moves in a circle to the left when 
gliding. This is caused by the bend of the posterior end of the body 
towards the left. The spiral swimming is the result of the curvature of 
the body, and not wholly dependent on the oblique position of the cilia. 
The motor reaction is the same as for other Protozoa. It consists of a 
backward movement, a turning toward a structurally defined side, and 
then a movement forward. It is of the same type in cut pieces as in 
whole individuals, but is modified by the form of the pieces. 

Trichocysts of Frontonia leucas.J — A. Brodsky finds relatively large 
trichocysts in this Infusorian. Each shows three parts— head, neck, and 
body. After expulsion from the ectoplasm they increase ten or twelve 
times in length. They appear to arise in the deeper parts of the endo- 
plasm near the nucleus. In contact with water the trichocyst becomes 
like a flattened sphere, and is the subject of violent agitation. A spiral 
line is seen in its interior, which uncoils with extreme rapidity into a 
long thread with the debris of the envelope as a minute body at one end. 

Trichomastix serpentis.§ — C. Clifford Dobell describes this new 
species of flagellate Infusorian from the rectum of a boa-constrictor. 
It is perhaps the same as Grassi's 3fonocercomonas coronellce, Hammer- 
schmidt's Cercomonas colubrorum, Monocercomonas colubrorum, and Bodo 
colubrorum. It is usually oval or pyriform in shape ; it has three 
flagella at the anterior end directed forwards, and another longer flagellum 
directed backwards ; there is a basal granule (like a Trypanosome's 
blepharoplast) at the origin of the flagellum ; a flexible axial rod runs 
through the animal ; there is a well-marked cytostome. 

The creatures are very active. They divide longitudinally, and the 
details of the division are described. In the degenerative processes, 
leading on to death, giant forms twice the normal size were sometimes 
observed, and these divided abnormally, commonly giving rise to three 
or four daughter-cells. 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiv. (1908) pp. 34-6. 

t California Univ. Publications, Zool., iii. (1907) pp. 343-G8 (1 pi. and 21 figs.). 

j Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. (xxiv.) (1907) pp. 644-5. 

§ Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., li. (1907) pp. 449-58 (1 pi. and 2 figs.). 

2 



188 .SUMMARY OF CI'KKKNT KKSKAKi IIKS RELATING TO 

Leucocytozoon of Red Grouse.* — C. G. Seligmanrj and Louis W. 
Sambon publish a preliminary note on Leucocytozoon lovati sp. n. from 
the blood of Lagopus scoticm. Only the fully grown sexually differen- 
tiated sporonts have been observed, and these are briefly described. 
They are contained in oval or spindle-shaped elements, with the ex- 
tremities usually drawn out into fine long threads not unlike flagella. 
These elements appear to be blood-cells greatly altered by the parasites 
they inclose. The infected bird was not considered to have suffered 
from " grouse disease." 

New Sporozoon in Toad.f — Helen Dean King describes Bertramin 
oufonis sp. n. from Bidder's organ in the common American toad Bufo 
lentiginosiis, and points out that the bodies Knappe described in 1880 
as spermatozoa in this organ are probably stages in the life-cycle of 
Bertramia. Bidder's organ is undoubtedly a rudimentary ovary, and in 
the light of our present knowledge regarding the origin and develop- 
ment of germ-cells, it is inconceivable that functional spermatozoa could 
be formed in and from the cytoplasm of rudimentary ova that are 
destined to undergo degeneration. 

Sporozoan Parasites of Fishes. J — James Johnstone records a heavy 
infection of the skin of the sole with Lymphocystis johnstoni. The 
cysts are colourless, very opaque, and easily discernible to the naked eye. 
and of average diameter 0'32 mm. An account is also given of a 
Myxosporidian invasion of the cartilaginous layer of the sclerotic in 
Gadus esmarlrii, H. M. Woodock has examined preparations of the 
cysts, and describes the spores ; he concludes that there is here a new 
species of Myxobolus, distinguished by the size of the spores. It is 
the first Myxosporidian recorded for the Gadidas. He proposes the 
name Myxobolus esmarhii sp. n. 

Sarcosporidian in Parakeets. §— G. S. Graham-Smith describes the 
cysts and spores of a presumed Protozoon parasite from the heart, 
gizzard, and other muscles of young parakeets (Psittacus undulatus). 
Injection of cyst material into the abdominal cavity, and feeding 
experiments failed to infect adults, although naturally infected young 
forms died. The parasite, though differing in many respects, more 
closely resembles Bhinosporidium kinecdyi than any other cyst-producing 
protozoon. 

Sarcosporidial Infection in Mice.|| — L. Negre has experimented 
on this subject. He finds that young mice are more easily infected 
than old ; 45 days elapse between ingestion of spores and the appear- 
ance of the parasites in the muscles ; 80 to 90 days elapse from the time 
of infection until the spores possess maximum infecting power. At the 
beginning of infection the parasites in the abdominal muscles are more 
developed than those elsewhere ; when the infection is slight they are 
most numerous in the abdominal muscles. Inoculation by skin or 

* Lancet, 1907, ii. pp. 829-30 (3 figs.) 
t Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1907, pp. 273-8. 

% Proc. and Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc, xxi. (1907) pp. 295-8, 304-8 (1 pi. and 
1 fig.). § Journ. Hygiene, vii. (1907) pp. 552-7 (2 pis.). 

|l O.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) pp. 374-5. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 189 

peritoneum cannot be effected, and if the spores are preserved in water 
for 3 or 4 days they become inert. Amongst mice living together 
the proportion infected is greater than amongst a similar number living 
apart. There is an intestinal stage of the parasite which is discharged 
with the excrement, and infection occurs by ingestion of such material, 
but this stage has not been isolated. 

Culture of Treponema pallidum.* — C. Levaditi and J. Mcintosh, 
by means of collodion sacs containing material from syphilitic lesions 
placed in the peritoneal cavity of the rabbit, successfully obtained 
cultures of this organism. As many as twelve passages were effected, 
and the organisms were more numerous at the end than at the beginning. 
It was proved that an exchange between the contents of the sac and the 
fluid of the peritoneal cavity is indispensable, and that the presence of 
anaerobic microbes favoured the culture. The Treponema of the cultures 
possesses a filiform prolongation at the extremity resembling the analo- 
gous formations described by Borrel in Schaudinn's T. pallidum. It 
multiplied by transverse fission. The cultures not being pure, the 
authors cannot affirm that all their forms are T. pallidum, but on 
morphological, biological, and staining reaction grounds, they consider 
that the two types are to be associated. A loss of pathogenic activity 
resulted, which is attributed to the new conditions of life of the organism 
and to the impurity of the cultures. 

New Myxosporidian Family, f — L. Leger and E. Hesse describe a 
new Myxosporidian, a parasite of the gall-bladder of the sardine. It is 
extremely rare, and has always been found associated with Ceratomyxa 
truncata Thelohan. It possesses only one polar capsule, and is dis- 
tinguished from Myxoholus piriformis by the form of the valves, the 
direction of the valve suture, the absence of vacuoles in the sporoplasm, 
monosporic pansporoblasts, and its free life in the biliary fluid. For this 
form, Coccomyxa morovi, the authors propose a new family Coccomyxidas, 
intermediate between the Phamocystes and Cryptocystes. 

Relation of Spirochaeta pertenuis to Yaws.J — A. Castellani has 
made out some definite points in connection with the relation of this 
Spirochmta to yaws. It is always present in eruption material obtained 
from persons suffering from the disease. When filtered off, the material 
is inert. Monkeys are infected by inoculation with such material, and 
may be also with blood from the general circulation and from the spleen. 
Sjiirochceta pertenuis is frequently present in the spleen and lymphatic 
glands. Yaws is generally conveyed by actual contact, but experiments 
have proved that it may be conveyed by flies, and possibly by other 
insects. 

* Ann. Inst. Pasteur, xxi. (1907) pp. 784-95. 
t Comptes Renclus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 85-7. 
I Journ. Hygiene, vii. (1907) pp. 558-69. 



H)0 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



BOTANY. 

GENERAL, 

Including- the Anatomy and Physiology of Seed Plants. 

Cytology, 
including' Cell-Contents. 

Cytology of the Pollen of the Nymphseaceae. * — W. Lubimenko 
and A. Maige have completed their researches upon the pollen-mother- 
cells of the Nyrnphseacese, with the following results. In the 
prosynapsis stage there is a simple nuclear network with chromatin 
granules ; during synapsis the nuclear membrane bursts, while the 
network forms a spongy mass round the nucleolus, and the chromatin 
granules fuse to form corpuscles. During the spireme stage the chro- 
matic thread fills the nuclear cavity, but there is no longitudinal 
splitting at this stage. 

The chromosomes are formed by condensation of the chromatin at 
different points of the spireme. The first and second mitoses are 
normal, but in the telophase of both, a transitory granular plate appears 
at the equator of the spindle, which probably represents a remnant of 
one of the ancestral divisions of the pollen-mother-cells. Also in the 
telophase the mother-cell is simultaneously divided into four daughter- 
cells. In this respect, the two species studied resemble the Dicotyledons, 
while the simple nature of the prosynapsis and the early dissociation of 
the pollen-mother-cells brings them near the Dicotyledons. There 
appears to be a certain ratio between the masses of the nucleus and of 
the cell, both in the vegetative and reproductive tissues, and this ratio 
varies in a very definite way in the different cycles of development. 
The three pollen mitoses differ from a vegetative mitosis by bringing a 
larger mass of chromatin into play, and by the larger quantity of 
nuclear contents, which are very rich in chromatin. The third mitosis 
results in the formation of two nuclei, a large vegetative nucleus and a 
small generative one ; this difference in volume may be attributed to 
an unequal division of the chromatin in this mitosis, which would thus 
play an important function in chromatic reduction. 

Cell and Nuclear Division in Basidiobolus ranarum.f — Edgar W. 
Olive studied this fungus on material cultivated from the intestine of a 
frog. He found that the processes of division were the same in both 
beak and vegetative cells with some minor differences. Cell-division 
takes place by the gradual growth of a cell-plate from the wall inwards 
like the narrowing of an iris diaphragm. The mitotic figure consists of 
a broad barrel-shaped spindle ; the chromatin plate in the centre 
consists of a mass of numerous minute chromosomes, and at each pole 

* Rev. Gen. Bot., xix. (1907) pp. 474-501. See also this Journal, 1908, p. 60. 
f Ann. Mycol., v. (1907) pp. 404-18. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 191 

there is a disk- or crescent-shaped mass — the pole-plate. Beyond each 
pole-plate there is a granular aggregation of archoplasm, from which 
towards the close of the karyokinetic process there extend radiations 
into the surrounding cytoplasm. In the late stages the daughter-nuclei 
move further and further apart as the fibres disappear. 

Aleurone Grains of Grasses.* — A. Guilliermond contributes some 
remarks upon the aleurone grains of grasses. The grain is a spherical 
spongy mass, one of the interstices of which contains a very large 
globoid. During the earlier hours of germination, the proteid is 
partially dissolved, and the aleurone grain is transformed into a little 
vacuole occupied by one or two large granules which represent the 
insoluble part of the proteid, while near or upon the edge of this vacuole 
are numerous globoids. Subsequently the proteid entirely dissolves and 
nothing remains but the globoids, which also dissolve by the tenth day. 
The aleurone grains of grasses are analogous to those of the lupin, but 
have less proteid, which is nothing but a thin layer around the globoids, 
while the globoids themselves are of smaller size, also the proteid is in- 
soluble in potash after fixation in alcohol. This type of aleurone grain 
is found in wheat, rye, oats, and barley ; maize is similar, but the 
globoids are larger and there is rarely more than one in each grain. 

Structure and Development. 
Reproductive. 

Fertilization in Cypripedium.t — L. Pace has investigated the 
phenomenon of fertilization in Cypripedium spectabile and parviflorum. 
and less fully in pubescens and candidum. It appears that two cells are 
formed by the mother-cell, but no wall is formed in the second 
division, even when the nuclei of both " daughter-cells " divide, as may 
rarely occur. Two megaspore nuclei are used in the formation of the 
embryo-sac, and may be related to double fertilization. The completed 
embryo-sac has only four nuclei. Double fertilization is probably 
constant, and the primary endosperm nucleus results from the fusion of 
the polar nucleus, one synergid and one male nucleus. 

Endosperm of four nuclei has been found. The presynaptic nucleus 
gives evidence of the pairing of threads, probably of paternal and 
maternal origin. The gametophyte has 11 chromosomes, the sporo- 
phyte has 22, while the" endosperm probably has 33. An interesting 
comparison is made of the successive stages of development of the 
animal egg and of the eggs of Lilium and Cypripedium respectively. 
These two genera show only one more division from the mother-cell to 
the egg than in the maturation of the animal egg, and thus have the 
fewest divisions reported in the angiosperms. 

Development of Saxifraga granulata.^ — H. 0. Juel has investigated 
the development of Saxifraga granulate, with the following results. The 
nucleus of the embryo-sac-mother-cell contains a single homogeneous 
chromatin -thread during the synapsis and spireme stages, in the next 

* Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 768-770. 

t Bot/Gazette, xliv. (1907) pp. 353-74 (4 pis., 1 fig.). 

I Nov. Act. Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsala, i. (1907) pp. 1-39 (4 pis.). 



192 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

stage this thread is drawn round so as to form a double thread, the two 
parts of which intertwine during the succeeding stage and give rise to a 
double chromosome. The reduced number of chromosomes is about 
thirty. The stigma and upper part of the style has an endotrophic 
conducting tissue, while the rest of the pistil has an ectotrophic con- 
ducting tissue, which is distributed over the placenta, but only forms a 
narrow band on the side near each carpel. The upper surface of the 
placenta is swollen between the points of insertion of the seeds ; this 
arrangement, together with the conducting tissues, serves to direct the 
right course of the pollen-tube. While the nuclei are in the pollen-tube 
no special sheath could be seen surrounding them, but when they reach 
the embryo-sac a bladder-like sheath is visible, which soon disappears. 
The pollen-tube discharges its contents into the single synergid. After 
the division of the central nucleus the embryo-sac divides up into smaller 
cells round the antipodals, and these small cells fill up the remaining 
space. Two kinds of endosperm are formed : a basal portion which 
develops quickly, and a central portion which develops later at the 
expense of the basal portion. The nucellus-tissue is rich in starch and 
forms a perisperm during the development of the endosperm ; it has quite 
disappeared, however, in the ripe seed. Fats and proteids are found in 
small quantities in the basal endosperm and in the embryo, but in larger 
quantities in the central endosperm. Starch is found in the embryo. 
While the seed is ripening, tubercles grow out from the bases of the 
funicles, which serve for seed-dispersal. 

Physiology. 
Nutrition and Growth. 

Biological Chemistry.* — When Raulin published his study of the 
growth of a mould in an artificial solution he remarked on the advan- 
tage that seemed to accrue to the fungus from the admixture of certain 
chemical elements. Maurice Javillier has taken up the subject, and has 
again proved the favourable influence of infinitesimal quantities of zinc 
on the growth of Sterigmatocystis nigra. It acts as an antiseptic and 
prevents the development of foreign organisms that would damage 
the culture. 

Irritability. 

Sleep-movements of Leaves.f — W. Pfeffer has investigated the 
sleep-movements of plants, and finds that they are the result of light 
and heat reactions set up by daily changes in illumination and tempera- 
ture. The sleep-movements disappear when the temperature and illu- 
mination are uniform, and never appear in plants raised under such 
conditions, although by establishing a daily change of light and tem- 
perature movements reappear in the one case and are induced in the 
other. Such movements can only be brought about by gradual and not 
by sudden change, and are the result of internal activities tending to 
the establishment of a position of equilibrium corresponding to the new 

* Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 1212-15. 

t Abhandl. Math. Phys. Kl.k. Sachs. Ges. Wiss., xxxiii. (1907) pp. 259-472 (36 
figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 1 ( J3 

conditions. As a rule the light-stimulus increases as the amount of 
light decreases. In uniform light and temperature the movements do 
not cease at once, but gradually, the rhythm being similar, but the 
amplitude decreasing. Some plants, e.g. Mimosa and Albizzia, have a 
very rapid time reaction, while others, e.g. Phaseolus, only respond 
after a considerable period. The two former genera are affected both 
by increase and decrease of light, while the latter is only affected by 
the increase of light in the morning. In plants like Phaseolus, which 
have a long reaction time, the process of stimulation continues for some 
time after the cause of the stimulus has ceased. Flowers which exhibit 
sleep-movements behave in the same way as foliage-leaves, e.g. the tulip 
and crocus behave like Mimosa, and flowers with slow time reactions 
behave like Phaseolus. In general, plants which respond to changes in 
temperature will also respond to changes in light, the same movements 
being produced by change in either condition. 

CRYPTOGAMS. 

Pteridophyta. 
(By A. Gepp, M.A., F.L.S.) 

Root-structure in Ceratopteris thalictroides.* — A posthumous 
paper by P. Lachmann has been published, on the origin and develop- 
ment of the roots and rootlets of Ceratopteris thalictroides. The subject 
is treated of fully under three heads : (1) Origin of the roots ; (2) 
Development of the root ; (3) Origin and Development of the rootlets ; 
and a resume is given at the conclusion of each part. The author finds 
that the first ten or twelve roots of Ceratopteris emanate from the stem, 
while the later ones proceed from the leaves, where they occupy the 
basal region of the petiole. As regards the development of the root, the 
mother-cell produces groups of elements, usually composed of one 
rootcap-segment and of three series of cortico-stelic segments. These 
are all described in detail. The centre of the stele is occupied by large 
cells or potential vessels which, in most ferns having a binary root, are 
differentiated into large scalariform vessels and consequently do not form 
a pith. The formation of the tissues composing the central cylinder is 
clearly centrifugal, while their differentiation is centripetal. 

A study of the rootlets of Ceratopteris shows that they are disposed 
in two rows diametrically opposite and produced by two series of sextants, 
predestinated for their formation and for that of the ligneous bundles. 
The division of each of these sextants is described. The apex of the 
rootlet frees itself by piercing the piliferous layer of the root-mother. 
The author has never seen the intra-lacunary rootlets described by 
Poirault. From the very base the rootlet possesses its piliferous layer 
and two quite distinct cortical zones ; consequently, there is no epistele. 
The connection of its conducting tissue with that of the root is 
established across the pericycle of the latter, without the production of a 
" pedicule pericyclique " analogous to that described by Van Tieghem 
and Douliot for other species. The paper is illustrated by thirty-seven 



figures. 



* Rev. Gen. Bot., xix. (1907) pp. 523-56 (figs, in text). 



194 SUMMARY OK CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Christensen's Index Filicum.* — H. Christ publishes some remarks 
upon the " Index Filicum " of Carl Christeusen, which has beeh'-in the 
hands of the public for a little more than a year. The " Index " is a great 
advance in systematic pteridology, achieving its emancipation from the 
two cardinal errors of the old Hookerian school, viz. a blind insistence 
upon the importance of the indusium and sorus as characters for the 
formation of genera; and secondly, the forcible inclusion of the less 
well-marked species as varieties and forms under arbitrarily created 
species-types. Christensen has revived many genera and species created 
by Presl, Fee and Mettenius, which for years have been treated with 
suspicion or neglect in the " Species Filicum " and " Synopsis Filicum," 
Christensen being able to recognise the validity of a genus or species 
without prejudice to the particular part of the plant in which the 
proper character is situated. Hence Christensen's system of classification 
is a natural and not an artificial one. Christ's criticisms embrace ques- 
tions of geographical distribution, nomenclature, synonymy, the genera 
of Diel's system, and so on. 

Abnormal Production of Spores in Platycerium.t — H. Poisson 
describes and figures a plant of Platycerium biforme which in the warm 
fern-house of the Paris Museum produced spores on the upper surface of 
one of its sterile fronds. He endeavours to account for this abnormal 
occurrence. 

Development of Lygodium. J — R. Binford has studied the develop- 
ment of Lygodium circinnatum with a view to testing its value as an 
intermediate type in the line of evolution from Marattiacere to Poly- 
podiacese. Lygodium is chosen as representing Schizaaacege. The author 
describes his results under the headings : Arrangement and order of 
sporangia ; the stalk : the tapetum ; the wall ; the sporogenous mass ; 
sterile sporangia ; relationships. He finds that the family to which 
Lygodium belongs has some characteristics which cannot be considered 
as intermediate in the line of evolution mentioned above, but belong to 
this family only. The sporangium has a marginal initial cell w 7 ith 
early divisions of the dolabrate (zwei-schneidig) type, and this is not 
reported for any other ferns. The single sporangium in each sorus, the 
large sporangium and spores, and the indusium, which in cross-section 
shows the tissue regions of the foliage leaf, are characteristics which in 
nature or degree of development belong only to this special group of 
ferns. Notwithstanding the fact that the Schizagaceaa form a clear link 
in the chain of evolution of the annulus,-the author considers that the 
peculiarities mentioned above are so striking and apparently so well 
established, and the relations of Lygodium are so ancient, that we can 
hardly consider it to be very close to the evolutionary line that leads to 
the Polypodiaceae. It seems rather to have appeared very early in the 
evolution of leptosporangiate ferns and to have progressed in a line 
somewhat divergent from the main line leading to the Polypodiaceae. 

* Hedwigia, xlvii. (1908) pp. 145-55. 

+ Bull. Soc. Bot. France, liv. (1907) pp. 108-10 (figs.). 

X Bot. Gazette, xliv. (1907) pp. 214-24 (37 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ■ ETC. 195 

Sporangial Development in Equisetum hyemale.* — L. A. Hawkins 
gives an account of the development of the sporangium of Equisetum 
hyemale, and claims that the plant " is of the eusporangiate type ; the 
sporogenous tissue comes from a single cell ; the first wall is peridural, 
the inner cell being sterile, while the sporogenous tissue comes entirely 
from the outer cell ; the tapetum comes from the cells surrounding the 
sporogenous mass ; there are two types of sporangia differing in develop- 
ment and governed by the direction of the second division ; many of 
the sporocytes are disintegrated during the formation of tetrads." 

Inner Roots of Lycopodium pithyoides. t — A. G. Stokey describes 
the structure and development of the roots of Lycopodium pithyoides, an 
epiphytic Pteridophyte transplanted from Mexico to Chicago. It 
resembles a young Pinas sylvestris ; and practically every leaf is a sporo- 
phyll. But more striking than the general habit is the appearance of 
the stem in transverse section. The stele is small, and not remarkable, 
but is conspicuously surrounded by numerous smaller heavily sheathed 
steles. These are the " inner roots " described by Strasburger as existing 
in certain species of Lycopodium. They arise in acropetal succession at 
any point of the stele, and, instead of penetrating the cortex at once, 
and emerging as aerial roots, they turn downwards, and, boring through 
the cortex, emerge finally at or near the base. This habit is associated 
with erect forms of Lycopodium, both terrestrial and epiphytic. Stokey 
describes the development and structure of these roots in L. pithyoides, 
giving some comparative notes on other species. 

New Palaeozoic Lycopod. J — M. Benson describes shortly a new 
palaeozoic Lycopod with a seed-like structure. The vegetative organs of 
this plant, Miadesmia membranacea, were discovered by Bertrand in 
1894, in sections of a calcite nodule from the Gannister beds of Hough 
Hill. From an examination of much new material, further details are 
known as to the vegetative organs, as well as a fairly complete account 
of the reproductive organs. Miadesmia was very minute, with a slender 
stem and without any trace of skeletal tissue. It is the first palaeozoic 
Lycopod of herbaceous character known structurally. The megasporo- 
phylls were identified by D. H. Scott in 1001, and they show a more 
advanced type of seed habit than has hitherto been met with in 
Cryptogams. The megasporangium gives rise to but one thin-walled 
spore, which in development and structure resembles an embryo-sac 
and germinates in situ. An integument surrounds the sporangium, 
leaving but a small orifice as micropyle. This is surrounded by numerous 
long processes of the integument, which formed a collecting and 
incubating apparatus for the microspores. There is no trace of an 
envelope about the microsporangium. The carpellary leaf was shed at 
maturity, and resembles a winged seed. Apart from structural modi- 
fications of the megasporophyll, Miadesmia is most closely allied to 

* Ohio Naturalist, vii. (1907) pp. 122-8 (2 pis.). See also Bot. Gazette, xliv. 
(1907) p. 78. t Bot. Gazette, xliv. (1907) pp. 57-63 (2 pis.). 

X Proc. Roy. Soc, Series B, lxxix. (1907) No. B 534, p. 473. 



196 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

in m-specialised species of Selaginella, such as S. selaginoides, but the 
foliage leaves show the archaic leaf base comparable with that of Lepido- 
dendrese. 

Lycopodium complanatum subsp. moniliforme.* — C. A. M. Lind 
man describes and figures a new subspecies of L. complanatum found in 
Sodermanland, Sweden, in great quantities in 1895, at a station which 
the author has failed to rediscover. 

Fossil Osmundaceae.t — iR. Kidston and D. T. Gwynne-Vaughan 
describe and figure two new species of Osmwidites, 0. Dunlopi, and 
0. Gibbiana, both obtained from Jurassic rocks near Gore, Otago 
district, New Zealand. They give a detailed account of the minute 
structure of the stem, leaf base, and roots ; and compare the structure of 
0. Dowkeri Carr. and 0. sJcidegatensis Penhallow, adding a chapter on 
theoretical considerations and the ancestry of the Osmundaceae. 

Anatomy of Palseostachya vera.} — Gr. Hickling has made a careful 
re-investigation of the anatomy of Paheostachya, and describes the 
general features of the fossil cone, the structure of its axis, its cortex and 
medulla, the vascular system, vascular supply of the appendages, 
sporangiophore bundles, bracts, sporangiophores, sporangia, spores. He 
thereby brings to light certain new features and corrects some errors of 
observation made by Williamson. He discusses the affinities of the cone, 
and holds that Palceostachya vera is a Calamarian fructification 
•characterised by axillary sporangiophores. 

Structure of Syringodendron.§ — K. H. Coward describes the 
structure of a portion of a fossil plant from the Lower Coal Measures of 
Shore sent to the Manchester Museum by Lomax of Bolton. They 
were tangential sections of bark, and at A. C. Seward's suggestion were 
compared with Syringodendron, and found to agree. Syriagodendroii is 
the bark of Sigillaria. The pairs of scars in rows exhibited by the speci- 
mens are interpreted as having been caused by the parichnos strands which 
have nndergone subsequent growth. There is evidence that the 
parichnos strands acted as respiratory organs. 

Parichnos in the Lepidodendracese.jl — F. E. Weiss gives a resume 
of all that has been published upon the parichnos in these fossil plants, 
the structure of the organ and the nature of its function. He gives the 
results of his own study of a series of slides in the Manchester Museum, 
figures a re-construction of the leaf-cushion Lepidoden droit, and shows 
bow the aerenchyma of the parichnos of the leaf, communicating with 
that of the middle cortex of the stem and with that of the roots, 
constituted a respiratory system for those parts of Lepidodendron and 
Sigillaria which were imbedded in a water-logged soil. 

* Hedwigia, xlvii. (1908) pp. 131-2 (figs.). 
f Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, xlv. (1907) pp. 759-80 (6 pis.). 
t Ann. of Bot., xxi. (1907) pp. 369-86 (2 pis.). 

§ Mem. Proc. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc, li. part 2 (1907) No. 7, 6 pp., 
1 pi. and figs. || Tom cit., No. 8, 22 pp., 1 pi. and figs. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 197 

Bryophyta. 
(By A. Gepp.) 

British Muscinese. — A. R. Horwood * treats of the extinction of 
numerous species of lichens, hepatics and mosses in Charnwood Forest 
during the past 70 years, as a consequence of the disafforestation, drainage, 
increasing smoke and gases from collieries and brick and pipe works, and 
dust from quarries and cement works. The same thing is going on to 
a less extent in many parts of England, and the author urges that a 
competent investigation of the local cryptogamic floras should be made 
before it is too late. A. Ley f gives a list of 62 mosses in his additions 
to the flora of Herefordshire. They are rarer species and varieties, 
and are either new to the county or recorded from new stations. 
H. Whitehead^ records the luxuriant occurrence of Ricciella fluitans in 
a pond on Golding's Hill during the autumn of 1906. The author 
adds a few general remarks upon the habit and structure of the members 
of Ricciaceae. 

New and Rare Scottish Mosses. §— J. Stirton gives an account of 
some new and some rare mosses collected mostly at or near Arisaig in 
the West of Scotland. The following 11 species and a variety are 
described as new to science : — Dicranum leiophyllum, Trichostomum 
episemum, Barbida Umosella, Schistidium nodulosum, Grimmia polita, 
Rhacomitrium consocians, R. divergens, Bartramia subvirella, Pohlia 
tenerrima, OUgotrichum exiguum, 0. hercynicum va,r. fastig latum, Hypnum 
teichophyllum. All but the Hypnum and Dicranum are barren plants. 
Among the rarities mentioned are fruiting specimens of Ulota phyllantha 
and U. scotica ; of the former probably not more than a dozen capsules 
had been previously found. It is remarkable that capsules of U. phyl- 
lantha have never been found save when the plant grows intermingled 
with U. Bruchii in a fertile state. Other rare species are Barbida 
Umosa, B. exiguella, B. icmadophila, Hypnum corrugatulum, H. cana- 
riense. 

Irish Muscineae.— D. McArdle|| publishes lists of 71 species and 
varieties of mosses and 20 hepatics, collected on the island of Lambay, 
which lies off Howth in Co. Dublin. These records are part of the 
results obtained during 1905-6 from an organised attempt to determine 
the natural history of the island. The rocky coast yielded an abundance 
of material of a few genera ; the caves of the north shore were found to 
be monopolised by a few appropriate species ; in the inland and marshes 
were several species of Hypnum. A new variety of H. splendens is 
plentiful in a rocky pasture. A great difference is revealed between the 
hepatic flora of the island and that of the Hill of Howth. The same 
author IT gives a list of 68 mosses and 4?> hepatics of Co. Mayo, collected 
in a remote mountain district near Lough Corrib, the Finny River, etc. 

* Journ. of Bot., xlv. (1907) pp. 334-9. t Tom. cit., pp. 317-29. 

X Essex Naturalist, xiv. (1907) p. 276. 

§ Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., No. 63 (1907) pp. 171-80. 

|| Irish Naturalist, xvi. (1907) pp. 99-104. % Tom. cit., pp. 332-7. 



198 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

In the limestone of Cong is the Pigeon Hole cave ; here Lejeunea MacTcaii 
grows plentifully; here also are found Wurhynchium pumilum, E. Tees- 
dalei and E. tenellum. At Curranamona a small quantity of Andrecea 
crassinervia was collected. The moss flora is often poorly developed in 
the district. H. W. Lett* points out that Polytrkhum attenuatum \< 
not rare in Ireland, as 1). McArdle has stated, but is abundant in Co. 
Down, and has been found in eleven other Irish counties. 

North American Muscinese. — C. C. Haynesf concludes her account 
of the species of Lophozia of the United States, selected from the 
writings of A. W. Evans, but illustrated by herself. G. E.Nichols J 
gives a list with synonymy of the five species of Amblystegiella found 
in the United States, and supplies an account of the history of the genus. 
J. M. Holzinger§ explains the series of errors which have been made 
by authors over the moss now designated Homalotheciella subcapillata 
Card., and shows why the name Burnettia has to be dropped. A. Lorenz || 
publishes some illustrated notes on Radula tenax Lindb., which has 
never previously been figured. It occurs in New Hampshire, Massa- 
chusetts, and Connecticut. 

Parisian Species of Philonotis.^f — G. Dismier has revised the 
species of Philonotis found in the environs of Paris, and shows that, 
whereas three species only of this difficult genus, P. fontana, P. calcarea, 
and P. marchica, have been recorded as occurring there, in reality two 
other species, P. ccespitosa and P. capillaris, also occur. Further, 
P. marchica really does grow in the district, though all previous records 
of it are shown to be false. This species has often been confounded 
with others, especially with P. fontana and P. cmspitosa. It differs in 
having its leaves shaped like an elongated isosceles triangle with curvi- 
linear sides, concave at base, not plicate, carinate, with margins flat, and 
bearing sharp teeth along the whole length, with cells always papillate 
•on their upper angles, with tissue translucent, and nerve thin throughout. 
He says that P. cozspitosa does not seem to have become sufficiently well 
known hitherto ; its principal distinguishing characters are that the 
tufts are but little radicelliferous, the stems are slender, the leaves 
relatively large, homotropous (a rarely absent character), falcate, flat 
(not plicate), with tissue translucent, and often composed of square or 
rather long rectangular cells. The lower leaves of sterile plants should 
always be examined, since the upper leaves and those of male stems are 
nearly always misleading ; hence the bad naming of many specimens. 

New Species of Sphagnum.** — C. Warnstorf begins a paper on new 
European and extra European Sphagna, in which he gives descriptions 
of 27 species of Sphagnum, belonging to the cymuifolium, subsecundum, 
mucronatum, acutifolium, and cuspidatum groups. The descriptions are 
detailed and are in some species supplemented by figures. 

* Irish Naturalist, xvi. (1907) p. 348. 

t Bryologist, xi. (1908) pp. 1-3 (1 pi.). % Tom. cit., pp. 4-5. 

§ Tom. cit., p. 7. || Tom. cit., p. 9. 

i Bull. Soc. Bot. France, liv. (1907) pp. 196-200. 

** Hedwigia, xlvii. (1907-8) pp. 76-124. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 199 

Trichostomum mutabile Br. and its Allies.* — Th. Herzog has made 
a thorough study of the variable species T. mutabile and all the supposed 
allied species and varieties. He has had more than 250 specimens 
through his hands, and he is therefore able to form a broad and just 
view of the mutability of the species. As a result, he sinks T. Morale 
Mitt., T. cuspidatum ttchimp., and T. lutescens (Lindb.), and disposes of 
many varieties, taking as the name for this collective species T. mutabile 
Br. Unfortunately, the forms are so numerous that the author finds it 
impossible to point out a really fixed type to serve as a true variety of 
T. mutabile, in the ordinary sense ; and he has, therefore, set up what 
he calls " ideal types " as indicating the main lines of divergence. These 
are founded on forms more or less easily diagnosed and distinct from 
each other : densum, Morale, mutabile, and cuspidatum. The inter- 
mediate forms are designated by a special system of nomenclature, 
explained by the author. He then treats of difference in growth, the 
foliage-characters, leaf-form, and anatomy, form of the capsule, size and 
variety of structure of the peristome. Finally, the author describes 
fully the types and sub-types, giving full geographical distribution of 
each, followed by a chapter on phylogenetic conclusions and a diagram 
of form-affinities. 

Muscinese of Crete.f — W. E. Nicholson publishes a list of 91 mosses 
and 13 hepaticas collected by him during a fortnight's stay in the island 
of Crete. The sun was already beginning to dry up the vegetation, 
which added to the difficulty of the collector. The region examined was 
in the neighbourhood of Kandia, in which the most productive locality 
was the bed of the Kairatos and the adjacent ravines close to the recent 
excavations of Knossos. The author also crossed the island, and was 
thus enabled to gain a fairly good general idea of the moss flora. He 
finds the mosses of the subalpine zone, which are so rich in Central 
Europe, to be poorly represented in Crete. There was no species of 
Dicranum, Rhacomitrium or Hylocomium, and the genus Hypnum was 
represented by H. mpressiforme only. A cave on Mount Ida, at a height 
of 5000 ft., was thickly hung with mosses, among which Neckera turgida 
predominated. The author points out that many localities remain 
unexplored, which offer an interesting field for work. 

New Greenhouse Fissidens.J — A. A. Elenkin describes and figures 
Fissidens Waldheimii, a new species of moss which grows abundantly on 
the trunks of Dicksonia antarctica in the glasshouses of the Imperial 
Botanic Garden of St. Petersburg. It was associated with Pt&rygophyllum 
hepaticcefolium and Rhacopilum convolutaceum. This Fissidens fruits in 
winter, and much resembles F. adiantoides, but the leaves lack the 
hyaline margin of that species, the spores are verruculose, and the stems 
are rufescent below with radicles almost to the apex. 

Hybrids of Physcomitrella.§ — I. Gyorffy has investigated the com- 
parative anatomy of Physcomitrella patens, P. Hampei, Physcomitrium 

* Nova Acta Acad. Cses. Leop. -Carol., lxxiii. (1907) pp. 451-81 (7 pis.). 
t Rev. Bryolog., xxxiv. (1907) pp. 81-6. 

\ Bull. Jard. Imp. Bot. St. Petersbourg, vii. (1907) pp. 1-8 (2 pis.). 
§ Hedwigia, xlvii. (1907) pp. 1-59 (figs.). 



200 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

pyriforme, and P. splicer icam, and gives a detailed account of his results. 
He states that just as Funaria hybrida, Ditrichum Breidleri, D. 
astomoides are hybrid mosses of known parentage, so also is Physcomi- 
trella Hampei, the mother of which is always P. patens, but the father 
may be either PJvyscomitrium sphcp/ricum or P. pyriforme or P. eurysto- 
mum. The author very carefully describes the structure of the respective 
parents and of the resulting hybrids. He finds that the hybrids in their 
vegetative parts (oophyte) correspond with the mother species, P. patens ; 
but in the asexual generation (sporophyte) they inherit the characters of 
the father species. 

Parallel Forms and Variability of Cell-length in Mosses.* — 
L. Loeske has been studying the parallelism of forms in various species 
under the influence of similar external conditions. In this sort of 
work the study of herbarium specimens is of very little help ; the plants 
must be observed in their natural habitats. He discovered a new variety, 
Hygrohypnum subsplmricarpum var. cataractarmn, in a cascade in Algau, 
a form remarkable for the long and even excurrent costa in its leaves 
(the costa of the type being but three-quarters of the length of the leaf). 
He thereupon turned his attention to Amblystegium fallax and its var. 
spinifolium, which Roth and others claim to be a distinct species ; and 
he has come to the conclusion that A. fallax is a flowing- water form of 
A. filicinum, that A. fallax var. spinifolium is a parallel form of 
A. irriguum, and A. noterophiloides a parallel form of A. fluviatile. 
Warnstorf indeed combined the two latter into one species. Gratoneuron 
irrigatum is, Loeske thinks, a mixture of parallel forms of G. commuta- 
tum and G.falcatum growing in mountain streams. The rest of Loeske's 
paper treats of the increase in length of the prosenchymatous cells of 
the leaf in species of Gratoneuron and Hygroamblystegwm, this lengthening- 
being proportional to the increased length of the leaf under the influence 
of running water ; this is associated with a strengthening of the midrib. 
Loeske recounts some observations made by him of change of form in 
mosses under change of environment. 

Ramification in Muscineae.t — M. Servit has been incited by the 
researches of Yelenovskv to examine the mode of branching in Muscineae. 
On the whole he confirms the results of that author, but he also publishes 
fresh observations and adds to those already made. In liverworts two 
modes of ramification are recognised : (1) the terminal branching in 
which the branches arise exogenously ; (2) the intercalary endogenous 
formation of shoots. Leitgeb distinguishes two modifications of the 
former method. This division is based on the behaviour of the shoot 
in an early stage, but the present author shows that the fully developed 
plant does not always correspond with the young stages. Velenovsky 
describes certain so-called angular leaves (angular blatter) for the vas- 
cular cryptogams only, but Servit here describes and figures similar 
growths for liverworts, notably Mastigobryum trilobatum, where this 
axillary bract is inserted on two branches. He discusses monopodial 
and dichotomous branching as it occurs in the hepatics, in which group 
the former mode of branching characterises the erect growing species, 

* Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr., xiii. (1907) pp. 119-22. 

t Beih. Bot. Centralbl., xxii., Abt. 1 (1907) pp. 287-93 (figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 201 

and the dichotomous the closely creeping species. The mosses branch 
monopodially. The sphagna are so peculiar in their ramifications as to 
confirm the view that they form an isolated moss type. 

Androgynous Inflorescences in Dumortiera.* — A. Ernst has made 
a special study of two Javan species of Dumortiera, D. trichocephala 
N. ab E., and D. velutina Schiffn., and compares hi$ results with the 
work done in other species of the genus by Leitgeb and Goebel. He 
describes the habit and place of growth of the two species under con- 
sideration, and then gives a short description of their male and female 
receptacles. Besides these, he finds in D. trichocephala frequently, and 
more rarely in D. velutina, inflorescences of mixed sex, that is, shoots 
which have come to bear sexual organs, the rays of which do not all bear 
organs of similar sex. These are by no means exceptional growths, as 
in Preissia commutata, but quite common in D. trichocephala on plants 
collected from many localities in Java. This species differs, therefore, 
from the generality of Marchantioideae Cornpositae in being monoecious, 
not dioecious, inasmuch as it possesses male, female, and mixed in- 
florescences, on different branches of the same plant. Statistics are 
given as to the occurrence of mixed inflorescences in both D. tricho- 
cephala and D. velutina. 

Comparison between Muscinese and Vascular Cryptogams.! — 
G. Bonnier reviews the theories put forward from time to time by various 
authors as to an analogy between the respective parts of plants in these 
two groups, but he condemns them all as being untenable, and pronounces 
the Muscineae to be a group by itself, occupying a special position in the 
vegetable kingdom. He then proceeds to examine possible intermediates 
between Muscineae and Vascular Cryptogams on the one hand and 
Muscineae and Thallophytes on the other, the former of these considera- 
tions being the subject of the present paper. This he does, after a few 
preliminary remarks, under the following headings : (1) Comparison of 
the Gametophyte in Muscineae and Vascular Cryptogams ; (2) Com- 
parison of the Sporophyte ; and (3) Comparison of the mode of 
multiplication. In conclusion, he points out that notwithstanding 
comparisons and homologies, the Muscineae present great differences from 
other plants. Though Anthoceros resembles Vascular Cryptogams in its 
gametophyte, it differs profoundly in its sporophyte ; and though an 
alga of the Florid eae in protonema, sporogonium and thallus may have a 
general development very comparable with that of a moss, it differs 
profoundly in the origin of the spore mother-cells, the archegonium and 
antheridium. 

Thallophyta. 

Algse. 

(By Mrs. E. S. Gepp.) 

Staining of Algae.} — F. Brand has made interesting experiments, 
proving that the use of various reagents is not only a convenient means 

* Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., xxv. (1907) pp. 455-64 (1 pi.), 
t Rev. Gen. Bot., xix. (1907) pp. 513-21 (figs, in text). 
t Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., xxv. (1907) pp. 497-506. 

April 15th, 1908 p 



202 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

of determining their identity, but that it also leads to certain scientific 
deductions. He finds that a given reagent has the same effect on all 
parts of the same species, be they vegetative or rhizoidal, zoospores, or 
germinating plantlets. This fact is of great importance in the dis- 
crimination of forms belonging to polymorphic species, and would, for 
instance, prevent confusion between the young stages of Cladophora, 
which resemble Gongrosira, and the true Gongrosira which reacts to a 
different stain. Instances are given of the effect of various stains on 
certain genera of algee, which have been soaked for 24 hours in water 
containing a percentage of acetic acid ; all the material employed, except 
where specially stated, was from dried plants. 

The author then describes a new species of Gongrosira, G. lacustris, 
which he discovered during his staining experiments. A new form of 
Coleochcete scutata, f. lobata, is also described, which the author con- 
siders as representing merely a biological form of typical C. scutata. 
There is no sign on it of reproductive organs, and it has not reappeared 
in the year of writing. 

Coleochsete nitellarum.* — I. F. Lewis remarks on the structure of 
G. nitellarum, and compared specimens collected at Long Island with 
the original German plants described by Jost in 1895. | Lewis notes 
two peculiarities of structure — the thin, delicate cell-walls, and the 
broad, flat shape of the cells, and explains both these phenomena 
by the endophytic habit of the species. He points out that his 
Long Island plants are strictly monoecious, the antheridia being 
usually produced in the immediate vicinity of the oogonia. The 
mode of origin of antheridia and oogonia is described, and an 
account given of fertilisation as observed in stained preparations. 
The nucleus of the oogonium is central in the cell, and some- 
what larger than the vegetative nuclei. The nucleus from the 
spermatozoid, at first small, increases in size as it approaches the 
oogonial nucleus, until two nuclei of approximately the same size lie 
side by side in the centre of the oogonium. The nuclei fuse while the 
chromatin is in the resting condition. Immediately after fusion, 
neighbouring vegetative cells send up branches over the oogonium to 
form the characteristic cortex of the oospore. Formation of the 
zoospores is described, and the author shows that there is here an 
indication of the formation of a multilocular sporangium similar to 
that in certain Phaeophyceae. Division of the nucleus is indirect, and 
does not take place until the single pyrenoid and chromatophore have 
first divided. The only exception to this rule is in the case of the 
antheridia, where the chromatophore and pyrenoid remain undivided 
in the mother-cell. 

Algae of Mark Brandenburg-.} — E. Lemmermann publishes the 
second part of his work on the algae of Brandenburg. He completes 
the systematic treatment from Phormidium to Rivularia and the genera 
of Camptotrichiaceas ; and then proceeds to deal with the class Flagel- 
latae from a general point of view. His remarks cover the structure of 

* Johns Hopkins Univ. Calendar, Notes Biol. Lab., March 1907, pp. 29-30. 

t Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell. xiii. 

X Kryptogamen-Flora Mark Brandenburg, iii. part 2 (1907) pp. 129-304. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 203 

the cell, movement, nutrition, multiplication, formation of colonics, 
phenomena of attraction, occurrence, seasonal dimorphism, parasites, and 
symbiosis. A list of literature on the subject is given, and the opening 
lines of the systematic treatment of the group are included in this part. 

Contributions to the Algal Flora of Nordhausen.* - - F. Quelle 
gives a list of 31 species new to the district collected by himself. 
Among these is Surirella anceps Lewis, which up to the present time 
has only been recorded once, and that was from the Notch Valley in 
the White Mountains, United States, in 1S60. The conditions in which 
this species is found living in the Hartz Mountains are much the same 
as those of the original habitat. The author describes some of the 
characteristic features of the species. Names are given of certain 
Cyanophycere which constitute "water-bloom " at two localities. 

French Algae collected in the English Channel.! — J. Bessil gives 
an account of an algological excursion lasting three days to the environs 
of Saint- Vaast-la-Hougue, and of Barfleur in the English Channel, the 
objects being to observe marine algae in situ, to study them alive in 
their habitats, to obtain an idea of the marine flora in its diverse facies, 
to learn how to collect, determine, and study algae, to become familiar 
with their forms and names. He recounts what was done each day, and 
gives lists of the algae found. 

Marine Algae of Lambay4 — The late E. A. L. Batters made a list 
of about 200 species of algaa collected at Lambay, an island off the 
coast of Co. Dublin, during a week in April 1906, during the combined 
attempt of zoologists, botanists, etc., to investigate the natural history 
of the island. Twenty of the species have never previously been 
recorded from the coasts of the island, and only one species has been 
recorded previously from Lambay. Many of the common species were 
absent at the time of the investigation. The algal flora of the island 
on the whole resembles most nearly that of the Isle of Man and the 
Clyde sea area. 

Caulerpas of the Danish West Indies.§ — F. Borgesen writes an 
ecological and systematic account of the Caulerpas of the Danish West 
Indies, and divides his remarks into two sections, a General and a 
Systematic part. In the General part he deals first with the external 
conditions under which the Caulerpas live in the Danish West Indies, 
describing the three localities as " somewhat exposed," " sheltered," and 
in " deeper water." On much exposed shores he has never found any 
of these plants. Under " the rhizome and root of the Caulerpas and 
their variations under different external conditions," the author 
describes (1) epiphytic or mud-collecting Caulerpas ; (2) sand and 
mud Caulerpas ; and (3) rock and coral-reef Caulerpas. In the sand- 
Caulerpas the roots " first grow vigorously without division some cms. 
down into the bottom, and then suddenly become divided into numerous 

* Mitth. Thiiriug. Bot. Ver., 1907, pp. 36-9. 
t Bull. Soc. Bot. France, liv. (1907) pp. 269-80. 
X Irish Naturalist, xvi. (1907) pp. 107-10. 

§ Mem. Acad. Roy. Sci. Lett. Danemark, ser. 7, iv. (1907) pp. 339-92 (figs, in 
text). 

p 2 



204 SUMMAKY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

rhizoids, whereas the roots of the rock and coral Caulerpa, on the 
contrary, are commonly directly divided into several branches, which by 
degrees are divided into a great multitude of thin rhizoids." The form 
of the rhizoids may vary in the same species according to the substratum 
on which it grows. Under the heading of " The different types of 
assimilation-shoots in Caulerpa, and their ecological adaptation to the 
surrounding external conditions," the author criticises the published 
views of Reinke as to their uniformity of external conditions, and 
maintains that among Caulerpas there is sufficient variation in this 
respect to account for much of the variety of form in the genus being 
caused by adaptation. He divides the genus into species which have 
(1) leaf-like, bilateral assimilation-shoots, and (2) radial species, and he 
finds that Caulerpas must be regarded, to a great extent, as ecologisms 
which are highly variable and adapted to particular growing places. 
There are, of course, certain variations which are not ecological, but 
the whole subject must be treated by means of experiments, and more 
knowledge is required before the variability of the species can be 
satisfactorily explained. Nine species are recorded from the Danish 
West Indies, on each of which the author gives critical notes and adds 
illustrations. 

Plankton of the Yang-tze-kiang.* — E. Lemmermann publishes the 
first records of the plankton of Chinese rivers. He took six samples 
between Chingkiang and Kiukiang, and he enumerates the species f ouud 
therein, which included 10 Schizophycese, 8 Chlorophycege, 5 Conjugates, 
1 Flagellate, 54 Bacillarige ; he makes remarks on some of the species 
and describes several novelties. Finally, he states that the plankton of 
the Yang-tze differs from that of previously examined rivers by the 
predominance of Lysigonium varians De Toni, Synedra ulna Ehrenb., 
S. longissima var. subcapitata Lemm., Surirella calcarata Pfitz., and 
Diaptomus, the presence of Pediastrum clathratum Lemm. and Surirella 
elongata Lemm., and the absence of certain typical forms. 

Phytoplankton of Ceylon.f — E. Lemmermann publishes the first 
records of phytoplankton from Ceylon. The material was collected by 
Borgert and Willey, partly in Gregory Lake near Nuwara Eliya, 
and partly in Colombo Lake. From Gregory Lake are recorded 4 Schizo- 
phyceas, 6 Chlorophyceas, 4 Conjugatae, 2 Flagellatae, 1 Peridiniale and 
10 Bacillariales. Remarks are made on the species of Melosira and 
Pediastrum, which occur there ; a new species, Lyngbya Borgerti, is 
described, as well as a new variety, ceylanica, of Dinobryon cylindricum. 
In Colombo Lake were found 6 Schizophyceae, 9 Chlorophyceae, 3 Con- 
jugate, 1 Flagellate, 3 Bacillariales. The phytoplankton of this lake 
is poor, and the species, with three exceptions, are not well represented. 
All except two are found in European waters. 

Swarm-spores of Fresh-water AlgaB.J — A. Pascher publishes an 
account of his experiments, extending over four years, on certain Chloro- 

* Archiv Hydrobiol. u. Planktonkunde, ii. (1907) pp. 534-44 (1 pi.), 
t Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Systematik. xxv. (1907) pp. 263-8. See also Hedwigia, 
xlvii. (1908) Beibl., p. 69. 

+ Stuttgart : Luerssen, Bibliotbeca Botanica, xiv. heft 67 (1907) 116 pp. (8 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 205 

phyceae, arranged under the following headings : — 1. Variation of zoo- 
spores of certain Chlorophyceee, notably Ulothrix zonata, Stigeoclonium 
(4 species), Draparnaudia glomerata, Tribonema and Oedogonium. 
2. Development of zoospores, witli special regard to intermediate forms 
of swarm-spores. 3. Systematic treatment of Ulotrichales, divided into 
Tetrakontre and Dikontse. The paper is illustrated with 8 plates, repre- 
senting the variations by mathematical curves. 

Pathological Growth-phenomenon in Spirogyra and Mougeotia.* 
Z. Woycicki has investigated further the effect of coal-gas on plants, and 
adds to our knowledge on the subject. He finds that the quantity of 
this gas which is present in laboratories exercises a strong influence on 
the cells of Spirogyra when kept there. Various experiments were carried 
out on species of Spirogyra and Mougeotia, short accounts of which are 
given in the present preliminary note, and further details are promised 
shortly. The results are a further confirmation of the views of Richter. 

Processes of Division, Cell-rejuvenation and Sporulation in 
Biddulphia.f — P. Bergon gives the results of five years of careful study 
of the biology of Biddulphia mobiliensis Bailey. Despite prolonged 
observation he has failed to determine the fate of the motile microspores 
after their escape from the sporangium. He describes in detail the 
process of cell-division, the disposition of the nucleus and endochrome 
in the resting state, the orientation and symmetry of the cell. As regards 
the formation of auxospores, he finds that in B. mobiliensis they do not 
arise from the most diminutive cells, but from cells only slightly less 
than medium size. He therefore prefers to regard this phenomenon as 
a rejuvenation of the cell, rather than as a method of re-establishing its 
size. He gives a long and minute description of the details of sporula- 
tion, which he finds to occur at a fairly constant season in the year, 
depending, however, rather on the weather. At Arcachon sporulation 
occurs between the extreme end of December and the end of February ; 
that is, in the time of greatest vegetative intensity. Fine cold weather 
is particularly favourable to the process. He thinks that there is a 
correlation between rejuvenation and sporulation, since he has found 
the two processes going on side by side in great abundance. He gives 
a series of measurements of the cell in repose, in rejuvenation, and in 
sporulation. 

Species of Ceratium in the Gulf of Lyons.J — J. Pavillard publishes 
notes upon all the species of Ceratium found in the Gulf of Lyons. 
These are 27 in number, and one of them is new to science. His system 
is to regard as a species every form that is sharply defined by constant 
characters, rather than to group them as varieties of a specific type, or as 
forms of the same variety. In this he follows Schrceder. For some of 
the species he gives dimensions, which as a rule are invariable. 

Avrainvillea and HalimedaJ — M. A. Howe publishes the third part 
of his Phycological Studies, and in it he deals almost entirely with the 

* Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., xxv. (1907) pp. 527-9. 

t Bull. Soc. Bot. France, liv. (1907) pp. 327-58 (4 pis.). 

X Torn, cit., pp. 148-54, 225-31 (1 fig.). 

§ Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxxiv. (1907) pp. 491-51G. 



206 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

two genera above mentioned. His first section is devoted to remarks 
on the sporangia of Halimeda tridens (under which name he refers to 
what we commonly call H. incrassata) and of H. Tuna. The sporangia 
of H. tridms have not been hitherto recorded, and they are here com- 
pared with those of H. Tuna. They are uniformly yellowish-brown or 
burnt-umber colour, and the sporangiophores are most densely clustered 
along the upper margins of the segments, especially at the apices of the 
lobes ; they may, however, emerge from any part of the segment and 
sometimes completely cover its surface. The author then presents his 
views on the American species of the H. Tuna group, in which he 
recognises three distinct species — E. Tuna, H. discoidea, and H. scabra. 
He attributes a certain amount of importance to the degree of calcifica- 
tion, as well as to the size and shape of the peripheral and subperipheral 
utricles. The next section is devoted to a treatment of the American 
species of the H. tridms group, in which the author describes a new 
species H. simulans, and recognises three other species. One of these is 
the H. monile Lam., generally regarded as being a form of PL. incrassata. 
A key of the four species of this group is given. An important fact 
is recorded in this paper, namely, the finding for the first time of the 
sporangia of Avrainvillea, which the author has discovered in the species 
A. nigricans Decne. They consist of clavate and fusiform to pyriform 
and subglobose bodies, borne on filaments raised above the surface of the 
thallus. Sometimes the sporangium only contains a single spore, but 
the usual number is three, four or five, rarely six, seven or eight. The 
author regards them as aplanospores. The final section of the paper 
deals with the American species of AvrainviUea, of which the author 
describes four with synonymy and key. He adds finally a note on 
U. tomentosa Murray and U. luteofusca Murray. 

Some Critical Green Algae.* — G. S. "West publishes notes on six 
members of the Chlorophyceas, about which nothing or little is known. 
Three of these are new species, and one is transferred to another genus. 
The first alga dealt with is Polgclmtophora simplex, the discovery of 
which adds a second species to that genus. The author describes it in 
detail, and points out the differences between it and Glceochcete Witt- 
rockiana Lagerh. P. simplex is a member of the Chlorophyceas, and its 
cells, which are not enveloped in mucilage, are each furnished with two 
to four simple bristles. G. Wittrockiana, on the other hand, is one of the 
Myxophyceae, with its cells enveloped in a copious mucilage, and its 
bristles frequently possess short spuivlike branches. Brachiomonas sub- 
marina Bohlin is next described, belonging to a genus only observed 
hitherto from Norway and Sweden. Phyllobiuni sphagnicola is another 
new species, and constitutes the first recorded instance of a Phyllobium 
occurring on the leaves of a Sphagnum. Kirchneriella subsolitaria, the 
third new species, differs from the three previously known members of 
that genus in the subsolitary habit and the entire absence of mucus. 
Tetraedron platyisthmum has been known as Cosmarium pi at y isthmian 
Archer, who recorded it from Ireland. West now finds it in collec- 
tions of algas from the boggy hollows in the Lewisian gneiss of West 

* Journ. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) xxxviii. (1908) pp. 279-89 (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 207 

Sutherland, and is able to give a fuller description of the plant, showing 
that it is not a Desinid. Finally, the author records Chodatella quadriseta 
Leuimermann, from Studley Park, Warwickshire. 

Diatoms of the Pacific* — A. Mann reports on the Diatoms collected 
by the 'Albatross' in the Pacific Ocean during the years 1888-1904. 
He first describes the methods employed for examining the samples to 
see if they contained diatoms, as well as the way of mounting the speci- 
mens. Many of the samples were destitute of diatoms, but some, even 
as deep as 987 and 1744 fathoms, were particularly rich in them. The 
importance of the study of diatoms is pointed out as an aid in deter- 
mining the extent and direction of ocean currents and the origin of the 
materials composing the sea bottoms. This is partly owing to the inde- 
structibility of their siliceous remains, those which were formed centuries 
ago being as well preserved as those of this year's product ; and partly 
to their extreme minuteness, which allows them to be readily transported 
by even quite slow ocean currents or surface drifts from their places of 
origin to remote points and finally sifted down upon the sea bottom. 
Another point is the enormous number of known species, over 4000, 
some of which are peculiar to certain localities, there being a tropical, 
temperate, and frigid flora. The author then goes on to show that 
certain species were found in certain areas, one instance being that of 
Biddulphia favus, which forms a practically unbroken chain from Cali- 
fornia to the Hawaiian Islands. Other important facts concerning the 
geographical distribution of diatoms are given. The main part of this 
report consists of an annotated catalogue of genera and species, in which 
a certain number of new species are described. Synonymy, references 
to literature, and critical notes follow each record. A list of data of the 
stations at which diatoms were collected by the ' Albatross,' and a full 
bibliography complete the work, which is illustrated by 11 plates. 

Distribution of Fucacese on the Coast of Greenland.!— H. Deich- 
mann and L. K. Rosenvinge write a criticism of a publication by K. J. V. 
Steenstrup on the question whether the upper limit of the Fucaceae zone 
can be regarded as indicating variations of sea-level. A short resume 
is given of the views of this author, and then the views of the present 
writers are set forth. They deal principally with the " Isf od " or coating 
of ice which is formed during the winter on the rocks at the edge of the 
sea, and stretches from a point above high-water mark to a point more 
or less below it. Deichmann has made a careful study of this Isfod and 
describes the manner and time of its growth and the effect it has on the 
algae. He maintains that it is not harmful to the littoral flora as has 
been supposed, but that the bare zone lying between high-water mark 
and the lowest limit of terrestrial vegetation is the result of other causes. 
The zone is too much splashed by sea-water to allow of the successful 
growth of land plants, while marine algae cannot easily exist where there 
is an insufficient supply of water. 

The distribution of the Isfod varies in different parts of the region 

* Contrib. U.S. National Herbarium, x. (1907) pp. 215-422 (11 pis.), 
t Bot. Tiddsk., xxviii. (1907) pp. 171-84 (photos.). (French resume.) 



208 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

examined, but the authors show that its presence is not destructive to 
marine algae. 

Sphaeranthera lichenoides.*— F. Heydrich discusses this plant, which 
was figured so long ago as 17*6 by Ellis and Solanderf; indeed, their 
figures are pronounced to be far the best existing to this day. He 
criticises adversely the views held by Foslie on the limits of the species 
and its forms, which views have been incorporated in De Toni's Sylloge 
Algarum. Heydrich considers that of the material he has examined, two 
large groups can be made; the first, consisting exclusively of plants 
which grow on Corallina, and are found more often on the North- 
European coasts ; the second, all those which do not occur on Gorallina, 
but on stones, large algaB and rhizomes of Posidonia, and inhabit the 
Mediterranean. The first form he calls pusilla, the second depressa. 
The figure of Ellis and Solander \ represents Heydrich's f . pusilla, but 
f . depressa has never been figured. A third form, growing on Rytiphlaza 
pinastroides in Jersey is called f . densa and forms a link between S. lichen- 
oides and 8. Philippi. The manner of attachment to the substratum is 
discussed and the differences are considered by the author to be of value 
in the determination of the species. The structure of the procarp is 
considered in detail, and both antheridia and tetrasporangia are 
described. 

Fucus Living on Sand and on Mud.§— C. Sauvageau has found 
two species of Fucus — F. spiralis and F. vesiculosus — growing at Arcachon 
on clayey sand. The plants of F. spiralis measure only a few centimetres, 
rarely a decimetre. The older plants throw out at their base new fronds 
on a very short perennial stipe, but these shoots never become trans- 
formed into stolons. Propagation takes place exclusively by the germi- 
nation of oogonia. The plants are attached to the sand by means of 
rhizoids, which are the prolongation of the intertwined hypha? or fibres 
of the stipe ; these become generally welded together to form the disk 
of attachment in plants of Fucus which have passed their first youth. 
Thus it is seen that F. spiralis adapts itself to a life on sand by preserv- 
ing the characters of its early stages. Living side by side with F. spiralis 
is found F. vesiculosus, similarly affixed to the sand by a bouquet of 
rhizoids. It attains, however, a greater height, namely, 10-15 cm., and 
it grows more rapidly. The large fronds are usually without vesicles, 
and the few vesiculiferous individuals observed were not fertile ; indeed, 
the fructification, almost constant in F. spiralis, is on the contrary rare 
in F. vesiculosus growing on sand, while large plants of this species fixed 
on a solid base are abundantly fertile. 

The author records also F. lutarius, growing on stretches of mud at 
a tide level intermediate between that of F. vesiculosus and F. platycar- 
pus var. spiralis (F. spiralis), forming scattered tufts which are weighed 
down at low water. Their base, more and more enveloped in mud, is 
never fixed to any solid substratum, and new fronds arise from the 
midrib of the enveloped portion. Thus the plants multiply by vegetative 

* Beih. Bot. Centralbl., xxii. Abt. 2 (1907) pp. 222-30 (1 pi.). 

t Zoophytes (London, 1786) p. 131, tab. xxiii. (figs. 10-12). 

j Loc. cit. § C.R. Soc. Biol. Bordeaux, lxii. (1907) pp. 699-703. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 209 

means, which accounts for the absence of reproductive organs. By its 
habitat, its sterility, and its mode of multiplication, F. lutarius appears 
to the author sufficiently distinct from F. veskulosus and F. axillaris. 
He considers it is probably an adaptation of one of these two species to a 
particular habit of life. This opinion is strengthened by the variation 
in the distribution of the cryptostomata, which is not yet of a definite 
character. 

Colpomenia sinuosa.* — L. Corbiere publishes a note upon Colpomenia 
sinuosa, recording its presence at numerous stations on the coast of 
Cherbourg as well as 20 kilometres to the west. He has no doubt that 
millions of plants of it exist in the English Channel to the north of 
Cotentin, though at the time of writing it had not been observed on 
the oyster beds of St. Vaast. Specimens were collected at Les Flamands, 
near Cherbourg, so long ago as March 1906. 

L. Mangin shortly discusses points of interest in connection with 
this alga, and states that he has found it at St. Vaast among rocks to 
the north and east of the Isle of Tatihou. It has also been found in 
water of varying degrees of salinity, and the author hopes to give shortly 
more information on the degrees of salinity and of brackish water in 
which the plant can live. He points out that in certain states C. sinuosa 
may be confused with Leathesia difformis ; but the former has a dense 
cortex, composed of polyhedral cells closely adpressed, while L. difformis 
has a filamentous external cortex, composed of cells easily separated. 
The confusion can only take place in autumn, since Colpomenia appears 
in autumn and winter, while Leathesia is a summer plant, appearing 
in June. 

Lithothamnia of the ' Sealark ' Expedition.! — M. Foslie has worked 
out the collection of Lithothamnia made by J. Stanley Gardiner in 
the Chagos Archipelago, Saya de Malha Banks, Seychelles, and other of 
the surrounding reefs and islands. He opens his paper with remarks 
on the different species which occur in the different localities, and makes 
interesting comparisons with the coral-reef building flora of other parts 
of the world. He finds a close correspondence between the area in 
question and the Maldives, the only region of the Indian Ocean which 
has been well worked hitherto. It appears that three or four species 
are the important reef -builders in the littoral region and in the upper- 
most part of the sublittoral region. These are Lithophyllum onkodes, 
L. craspedium and Goniolithon frutescens ; while L. Kaiseri (pallescens) 
also contributes to the formation of reefs, and in depths of about 
60 fathoms Lithothamnion indicum and L. australe play their part. The 
author finds also that where Lithothamnia occur in great abundance, 
covering entire atolls, the number of species is small, but the number of 
individuals is enormous. This is the case at Chagos, Coetivy, certain 
places in the Maldives, at the Ellice Islands (Funafuti), and at the 
Gilbert Islands in the Pacific. In places where Lithothamnia do not 
appear in such large quantities the number of species is much larger. 
There seems to be a considerable correspondence between the Litho- 
thamnia in the Indian Ocean and those in large areas of the Pacific 



l & v 



* Bull. Soc. Bot. France, liv. (1907) pp. 280-4. 

t Trans. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) ser. 2, vii. (1907) pp. 93-108 (2 pis.). 



210 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Ocean within the tropics ; and this concerns several of the species them- 
selves as well as their mode of occurrence, particularly such as determine 
the general aspect of the vegetation. The author describes 13 species 
collected on the ' Sealark ' Expedition, one of which is new. 

Ok am uk a, K. — Icones of Japanese Algae. Tokyo : (1907) i. Nos. 1-3. 



Fungi. 

(By A. Lorrain Smith, F.L.S.) 

Experiments with Sclerospora graminicola.* — G. B. Traverso pub- 
lished some time ago an account of a Sclerospora found on plants of 
Setaria italica, which varied somewhat from the typical form Scl. grami- 
nicola. Further gatherings of the fungus have enabled him to examine 
it more carefully. He finds that the conidial forms of the two are iden- 
tical, but all attempts to infect plants other than S. italica have failed, 
and he has also found the fungus richly infesting S. italica in a field, 
and leaving untouched the plants of S. viridis that grew there also in 
abundance. Traverso considers that he is dealing with a new biological 
form, var. Setarim-italicce.. 

Studies in North American Peronosporales. Il.f — G. West Wilson 
discusses in this paper the two tribes Phytophthorese and Rysotheceae, 
which normally germinate by means of zoospores. The latter includes 
the genera Basidiophora, Sclerospora, Rhysotheca, and Pseudoperonospora. 
Rhysotheca, a new genus, includes the greater number of species 
usually referred to Plasmopara, the type species being Plasmopara 
viticola. Two species are assigned to Pseudoperonospora : P. cubensis 
and P. Geltidis. The former causes a somewhat widespread and serious 
disease on Cucurbitacege. P. Celtidis is the only member of the order 
which affects a tree — it grows on Celtis occidentalis,andi& somewhat rare. 

Mycotheca of the School of Pharmacy of Paris. XXI. £ - 
O. Bainier gives a further series of interesting studies of various 
fungi. Two additional species of Syncephalastrnm were cultivated and 
are now described and figured ; they differ from the previously known 
species in having stolons. Piptocephalis Freseniana was also grown and 
the development watched ; zygospores were produced on the mycelium 
cultivated with Mucor fragilis on a crust of bread moistened with water. 

A new species of Trichurus is described ; it resembles somewhat a 
Stysanus, but the fructification is beset with long bristles. A new 
genus and species of Hyphomycetes (Dematicese) Chlamydomyces diffusus 
is described and compared with Trichocladium asperum and Acremoniella 
utra. All three are closely related. 

Cytology of Humaria rutilans.§ — H. C. L. Fraser has made a 
careful study of this Discomycete with a view to ascertaining the 

* Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., xiv. (1907) pp. 575-8. 

+ Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxxiv. (1907) pp. 387-416. 

\ Bull. Soc. Mycol. France, xxiii. (1907) pp. 218-41 (4 pis.). 

§ Ann. of Bot., xxii. (1908) pp. 35-53 (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 211 

development of the ascogoniuin, spores, etc. She finds that the ascocarp 
originates as a tangle of septate hyplne, each cell containing one or 
a few nuclei of two sizes, the smaller fusing in pairs and so producing 
the larger, thus constituting a process of reduced fertilisation or 
apogamy. The cells containing these nuclei form ascogenous hyphae ; 
as they develop, their nuclei increase in size ; the two terminal nuclei 
undergo simultaneous karyokinetic division, showing sixteen chromo- 
somes. The further formation of the ascus and the various phases of 
nuclear division are followed in detail. The spores are outlined by 
radiations passing from the centrosome ; near the base of the spore 
vacuoles may take part in the process. 

Biology of Ergot.* — Rob. Stager publishes a continuation of his 
studies on Clavkeps purpurea. He finds that, though the sclerotia lie 
4 to 6 months in the soil without germination, growth can be hastened 
by more favourable conditions of moisture and warmth. From theasco- 
spores produced on sclerotia collected from Festuca arundinacea, he in- 
fected Anthoxanthum odoratum and Melica nutans successfully, the latter 
especially so. Later the infection experiments were extended to Poa 
alpina and Bromus erectus, in both these cases unsuccessfully. Other 
grasses were also infected, and Stager finally established that he was 
dealing with typical Clavkeps purpurea. He next experimented with 
Clavkeps taken from Poa annua, and as a result proved that he was 
dealing with a biological species of C. purpurea. Further experiments 
are to be undertaken. 

Gooseberry Mildew in Russia.f — R. Regel communicates the history 
of the first appearance of the American mildew in central Russia. It 
was seen first at Winnitzy, in Podolia, in 1895, in the garden of a man 
who was keenly interested in American fruit trees, which he had im- 
ported in considerable numbers. Along with the fruit trees he had 
also brought over the disease. 

Mycological Notes from South America and Spain.J — F. W. Neger 
records two species of Chytridiaceas found by him in Chili : Synchytrium 
Taraxaci, in which the sporangia are rather larger than in the European 
forms, and Syn. aureum, on a species of Plantayo. From Patagonia 
he records Urophlyctis major, on Rumex mar it im us, hitherto found only 
sparsely in Germany. Two species of Erysiphaceaj, also from Pata- 
gonia, were diagnosed, one, Sphce,rothera spiralis, new to science. 
Notes are added on several fungi from southern Spain, notably Ant mi- 
liaria erkophila, which, at a slight elevation, forms little pustules on the 
leaf, which, as a rule, contain perithecia as well as the conidial form. 
At a higher elevation, the vegetative mycelium grows so luxuriantly 
that balls are formed the size of a hen's egg or larger. These are either 
formed of sterile mycelium or with conidiophores only. Perithecia never 
occur at the higher altitude. Changed conditions of temperature and 
humidity account for the wide differences in the development of the 

* Centralbl. Bakt., xx. (1908) pp. 272-9. 
t Gartenflora, lvi. (1907) pp. 357-8. 
J Centralbl. Bakt. xx. (1907) pp. 92-5. 



212 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

fungus. It is always superficial, but damages tbe host-plant by ex- 
cluding air and light. 

Morphology of Aspergillus herbariorum.* — H. C. L. Fraser and 
H. S. Chambers have made a cytological study of the development of 
this fungus. All the cells are multinucleate as well as the ascospores 
and conidia ; the latter contain about four nuclei at maturity. The 
archicarp arises as a narrow branch from the mycelium ; it is at first 
aseptate, but cell-walls soon appear and cut off a septate stalk, a 
unicellular trichogyne and a unicellular ascogonium. The antheridium 
arises separately, and consists of a long stalk, at the apex of which is a 
small antheridial cell. It either fuses with the tip of the trichogyne or 
degenerates before reaching this stage. It seems probable that such 
fusion sometimes takes place ; at other times it is replaced by the fusion 
of ascogonial nuclei in pairs. The ascogonium then becomes septate, 
and each cell produces ascogenous hyphffi, from which arise the asci in 
which eight spores are formed. The authors suggest several new terms 
to explain the different forms of nuclear fusion other than the normal 
syngamy : viz. homoiogamy — a fusion of two sexual nuclei of the same 
kind ; hylogamy — fusion of one sexual with one vegetative nucleus ; 
and pseudogamy — fusion of two vegetative nuclei. In Aspergillus either 
normal syngamy or homoiogamy takes place. A comparison is made 
between Aspergillus and other Ascomycetes, and the relationship 
of the group to the Uredineae and the red algae is indicated. 
Aspergillus is regarded as a primitive ascomycetous type, from which 
most others can be derived. 

Conidial Development of Xylaria Hypoxylon.f — F. Gueguen kept 
this fungus in a moist chamber, and made observations on the forma- 
tion of conidia, etc. He found that the stromata were positively 
phototropic ; the elongation of the clubs and the production of conidia 
took place only under the influence of light. The basidia produce at 
their tips a large number of conidia, which do not germinate until they 
have attained complete maturity. 

The region of growth of the " club " is subterminal a few milli- 
metres below the tip ; the basidia that bear the conidia rise from 
medullary hyphae. 

Remarkable Fungus Forms. — H. and P. SydowJ describe anew 
species, Xylaria obesa, 15 cm. high and 10 cm. thick, which grew on 
wood in Eastern Africa. The stroma is at first smooth and with a yellow 
covering, the fruiting portion being distinguished by wrinkles and folds. 

T. Petch § publishes an account of a Sclerotium found in termite 
nests, which had already been seen and described by Berkley as Sclero- 
tium stipitatum. Petch was able to develop from these the ascus form 
of Xglaria nigripes. When a comb from the nests is kept under a 
bell-jar, it produces a conidial Xylaria. T. Petch concludes that this 
fungus was continually kept in check by the ants as a weed. When 
the nest is deserted in wet weather, Xylaria grows from the comb ; if 

* AnD Mycol., v. (1907) pp. 419-31 (2 pis.). 

t Bull. Soc. Mycol. France, xxiii. (1907) pp. 186-217 (2 pis.). 

% Ann. Mycol., v. (1907) p. 400. § Tom. cit., pp. 401-3. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 213 

in dry weather, a Sclerotium is formed, Sc. stipitatum. Large sclerotia give 
rise to a perithecial Xylaria ; the smaller sclerotia produce only conklhil 
forms. 

Study of Penicillium.* — Carl Weidemann sums up the work of various 
writers on this genus, and gives a sketch of the species examined and 
established by them. He lays special stress on the necessity of always 
recording the substratum on which the fungus has been growing, and 
also in culture experiments he considers it advisable to test the develop- 
ment on a variety of substances. He has followed this plan in his 
examination of seven species, P. olivaceum, P. italicum, P. camemberti, 
P. roqueforti, P. Juglandis, P. Muses, and P. Jciliense. The last three 
are new species discovered by him on various substances ; several of 
the others, as the names indicate, grew on cheese. He gives in each 
case a microscopic description of the species and adds the observations 
made on the cultures on gelatin, rice, sugar, milk, tannin, etc. The 
species are all illustrated. No ascomycetous fruit was found for any of 
the species. 

Hyphomycetes.t — The fascicle just issued by G. Lindau deals with 
some of the largest genera of Hyphomycetes, Helminthosporium, Brachy- 
sporium, and Cercospora. The latter is parasitic on leaves, stalks, etc., 
and is often the cause of considerable damage to cultivated plants. A 
large number of species are described, and the genera are illustrated, 
sometimes by drawings of several species. 

Development of Endophyllum Euphorbiae-silvaticse.l — W. Midler 
describes this fungus, which lives in the stems and leaves of Euphorbia 
amygdaloides, and which takes two years for its full development. The 
rhizome buds become infected by the spores, the fungus remains dormant 
during the winter and grows in spring with the growth of the host-plant. 
In April and May pyenidia and sometimes aecidia are formed. After a 
second winter the mycelium attacks the meristem of the plant and causes 
the characteristic deformations. Pyenidia are again formed and teleuto- 
spores in cup-like sori on the under side of the leaves. The growth of 
the plant is seriously retarded, and flowering is hindered or entirely 
prevented. 

Uredineas. — Ed. Fischer § reports on Gymnosporangium in Switzer- 
land. He distinguishes two classes ; those in which the teleutospores 
grow on Juniperus Sabina, and those with teleutospores on J. communis. 
Five species have been distinguished, but Fischer thinks there are pro- 
bably more than that number included in the group. His inoculation 
experiments proved this in more than one instance. 

F. Urech || reported a case of Puccinia Garicis having been found 
growing on a nettle stalk, forming a sorus, about 10 cm. in length, and 
causing a bending of the stalk. Though diligent search was made, no 
second instance of its occurrence was found. 

* Centralbl. Bakt., xix. (1907) pp. 675-90, 755-69 (8 figs.). 

t Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen Flora, i. abt. 9, lief 106 (Leipzig, 1907) pp. 49-112. 

% Centralbl. Bakt., xx. (1908) pp. 333-41. 

§ Arcb. Sci. Phys. Nat., xxiv. (1897) pp. 494-6. 

|| Tom. cit., pp. 497-8. 



214 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Eriksson * writes on the significance of the Barberry in the propaga- 
tion of wheat rust. There are seven different biological forms of Puccinia 
graminis in which the aacidium is to be found on the Barberry, but the 
gecidiospores will only reinfect the grass from which it originated in the 
first instance— all other crops are safe from that particular rust. Eriks- 
son notes also that aecidiospores from the Barberry do not germinate 
easily, and he concludes from his study of the subject that it is quite 
safe to cultivate the Barberry, as it plays a comparatively small part in 
rust propagation. 

J. 0. Arthur f publishes the results of his series of culture experiments 
for 1907. In the first 17 recorded, no results were obtained. A second 
list of 22 includes those species which had been already experimented 
with, but in which additional knowledge was gained as to germination, 
etc. He records further H species of Uredinese that were successfully 
cultivated for the first time. 

W. Miiller % has undertaken an exhaustive study of Melampsora on 
Euphorbiacefe. He has established 7 biological species in M. helioscopice. 
There is one that grows on Euphorbia helioscopia alone, the other forms 
are confined to different species of Euphorbia. The author has also 
made observations on the time of teleutospore germination, the duration 
of the period of incubation, etc. 

Walther Krieg § publishes the results of an extended series of similar- 
experiments with the Uromyces that form their aecidia on species of 
Ranunculus. He has established some new biological species, and fixed 
the limits of growth of the many forms dealt with. 

Sphaceolotheca on Polygonum. |] — De Bary separated this genus 
from Ustilayo because the hyphaj were not entirely converted into spores 
as in the latter genus. Four species are now known : Sph. Hydropipieris 
on Polygonum Hydropiper ; Sph. borealis on P. Bistortm ; and Sph. 
Polygoni-vivipari, which were included by De Bary under the first- 
mentioned. H. C. Schellenberg in the paper before us describes the 
appearance and development of all of these, and gives the reasons for 
separating them. The fourth species, Sph. alpina sp. n., on P. alpinum, 
is also carefully described ; in it, the spore layer is found between the 
leaf-sheaths and the flower-stalks, and infection 7 probably takes place 
during the development of the flower. The so-called columella of this 
fungus is composed of sterile hyphse that surround the vascular bundle 
of the host ; similar hyphae clothe the wall of the attached capsules. 

Growth of Woody Fungi. H — L. Mangin has made observations on 
the growth of some of the larger Polyporeae. He calculated that a large 
fructification of Unyulina fomentaria measuring 3*50 m. in circum- 
ference and 20 cm. thick, had grown entirely in not more than 11 
months. Similar observations had been made on U. betulina, of which 
the growth is similarly rapid ; a few months only are necessary for the 
growth of woody fungi 40 cm. and more in width. 

* Illustr. Landw. Zeit., No. 41 (1907). See also Centralbl. Bakt., xx. (1907) 
pp. 188-9. t Jouru. Mycol. xiv. (1908) pp. 7-26. 

J Centralbl. Bakt., xix. (1907) pp. 441-60. 
§ Tom. cit., pp. 697-714 and 771-88. 
|| Ann. Mycol., v. (1907) pp. 385-95 (1 pi.). 
1 Bull. Soc. Mycol. France, xxiii. (1907) pp. 155-6 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 215 

Wood-destroying Fungi.* — Richard Falck has made a biological 
study of those fungi that are destructive to living trees, to felled tree?, 
or to worked wood. He enumerates the different fungi of these groups, 
each showing a different type of mycelium. In all of these, there is an 
internal mycelium. In a fourth series, which embraces Merulius (dry 
rot), some Polyporege, etc., a surface mycelium is formed. These are 
compared and the rate of growth of the different hyphaa noted and 
tabulated. It is constant for each species, and depends on the dimen- 
sions of the mycelium, a purely physical consideration. 

Polyporaceae.t — The North American flora is gradually being 
published, and W. A. Murrill has charge of the Polyporaceae. He treats 
these according to his own rearrangements of genera and species. He 
recognises 4 tribes : Porieas, with 8 genera ; Polyporeae, with 47 genera ; 
Fomiteaa, with 10 genera ; and Daedaleae with 5 genera. The new genera 
are Fuscoporia, Fuscoporella, Fomitiporia, Fomitiporella, Tinctoporia, 
Melanoporella, and Melanoporia. A very large number of the species 
described are new to science. 

New Localities for Amanita caesarea.J — This edible agaric is very 
common in Italy and southern France, but less frequently met with further 
north. M. W. Russell publishes a list of places where it has been 
gathered : Fontainebleau, Versailles, etc., with some new localities also 
in the north. The fungus is usually found on sandy soils. 

Diseases of Plants. § — F. D. Kern gives an account of the occur- 
rence of ScUrotinia in the State of Indiana. The fungus in the conidial 
stage is known as Monilia fructiyena, and causes rotting of certain stone 
fruits. Peaches or plums finally shrivel up and become mummified 
— on these dried fruits the ascospore-form Sclerotinia fructiyena is pro- 
duced. It is rarely found, as it takes two years to develop, and occurs 
on fruits that have been covered over by humus for some time. 

The same author || gives a list of diseases that have been identified in 
the State of Indiana for some years past. These are classified under root- 
diseases, affecting absorption of food materials ; stem-diseases, affecting 
ascent of sap and transpiration ; those on wood, interfering with 
absorption and transfer of water ; those on bark, affecting transpiration 
only ; and on leaf, affecting transpiration and assimilation. 

T. Petch ^[ describes a disease of the tea-plants in Ceylon, caused by 
the fungus Massaria thekola sp. n. It attacks the stem. 

E. J. Butler ** also describes diseases from the East Indies. On 
Areca Catechu, a species of Phytophthora attacks and destroys the upper 
parts of the tree. Another fungus, probably a Basidiomycete, destroys 
the roots ; and on other palms he found a Pythium, which lived on and 
destroyed the sheathing leaves of the crown. 

* Hausschwammforschungen, Jena (1907) pp. 53-154. See also CentralbL 
Bakt., xx. (1908) pp. 348-51. 

t North American Flora, ix. pt. 1 (1907) 72 pp. New York Bot. Gard. 

X Bull. Soc. Bot. France, liv. (1907) pp. 25-6. 

§ Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. (1906) pp. 134-6. 

II Tom. cit., pp. 129-33 (1 fig.). 

Tf Circ. and Agric. Journ. Roy. Bot. Gard. Ceylon, iv. (1907) pp. 21-30 (1 fig.). 
See also Ann. Mycol. v. (1907) p. 445. 

** Agric. Journ. India, i. (1906) 12 pp. (2 pis.). See also Ann. Mycol., v. (1907) 
pp. 450-1. 



21G SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

The same writer, along with II. M. Lefroy, * undertook experiments 

with Mncor exitiosus on insects of the locust tribe, to see if the fungus 
would attack these and so aid in reducing their numbers. Tin- 
experiments all proved the futility of the attempt. The fungus did no 
harm even when introduced as a wound-parasite into the bodies of tin- 
locusts. 

W. Harris f has published a paper on vine culture, and adds an 
account of the fungoid diseases which attack it. These are Sphacelous 
ampelinum, Lee-stadia Bidwelli, Peronospora viticola, Uncinula spiralis, 
Oidium Tucker i, and Glozosporium. fructigenum. Various remedies are 
suggested for these diseases. 

P. HariotJ describes an Oidium of the genus Microsphcera that 
infested an oak. Its development coincided with a prolonged time of 
wind from the north-east. 

A. Maublanc § gives a study of the fungi that infest Conifers, with 
a more detailed description of Fusicoccum abietinum, which attacks the 
branches and kills the tips, or sometimes fastens on branches several 
years old with equally serious results. The diseased portion is easily 
recognised by the coloration of the affected part, which becomes a 
blackish-brown. 

Economic Mycology. || — An account of various fungous diseases of 
fruit trees which have done serious damage in the Kent orchards has 
been published by B. S. Salmon. These are chiefly cherry leaf scorch 
(Gnomonia ery thro stoma) and apple scab or black-spot (Fusicladium 
dendriticum). Both of these have done great harm. Salmon recom- 
mends spraying with Bordeaux mixture as an effective and proved remedy. 
He notes also the first appearance in England of Urophlyctis Alfalfa on 
lucerne plants. It forms galls on the crown of the plant, and completely 
destroys it. He also redescribes the American gooseberry mildew 
(Sphmrotheca mors-uvce), confined so far to a few localities in the Mid- 
lands, but quite certain to spread rapidly if measures are not adopted to 
stamp it out. In a second paper 1f he describes a serious disease of 
potatoes that has appeared in England within the last ten years, and 
forms black scabs on the tubers. It is due to a chytridiaceous fungus, 
Oh/rysophlyctis endobiotka, which, as Salmon points out, has erroneously 
been described by several writers as CEdomyces leproides, a totally different 
fungus. Growers are specially warned against diseased seed. The fungus 
has appeared so far chiefly in Scotland and the north of England, where 
whole crops have been rendered useless. 

Pathogenic Spotting of Vine-shoots.** — Emil Molz has examined 
the spots on the young stems of the vine, and finds they are due to a 

* Agric. Res. Inst. Pusa, Bull. No. 5 (1907) 5 pp. See also Ann. Mycol., v. 
(1907) p. 451. 

t Bull. Jamaica Dept. Agric, v. (1907) pp. 1-26. See' also Bot. Centralbl., cv. 
(1907) pp. 670-1. 

% Bull. Soc. Mycol. France, xxiii. (1907) pp. 157-9. 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 160-73 (6 rigs.). 

|| Report S.E. Agric. Coll. Wye., 1907, 58 pp. (26 pis.). 

•([ Leaflet, Black-scab or Warty Disease of Potatoes, S.E. Agric. Coll. Wye., Opp. 
(6 pis.). 

** Centralbl. Bakt., xx. (1908) pp. 261-72 (2 pis. and 13 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 217 

variety of causes. Often they resemble lenticels, but in section they 
may be distinguished by the absence of the loose cells that fill the cavity 
of the lenticel. Instead of these there is a massing of dead brown 
cells cut off by a cork-layer, which mark the position of old lenticels 
that have lost their function. Other spots mark the place of glands 
that have now become brown and withered. The fungus, Uncinula 
necator, causes spots to form round the place where its haustoria have 
pierced the epidermis. Fungicides, such as Bordeaux mixture, and hail, 
also cause damage to the young shoots, and the fungus Sphaceloma 
ampelinum gives rise to extended black patches. 

Parasitic Fungi from Java.* — S. H. Koorders gives the results of 
prolonged and careful culture experiments with Qlwosporium elasticce, 
Colletotrichum Ficus, and their ascomycetous form, Neozimm&rmannia 
elasticce sp. n. They all grow on Ficus elastica, causing sometimes con- 
siderable damage, though never entirely destroying the host. In addition 
to these two forms of fungi imperfecti, various other growth-forms were 
identified belonging to the same life-cycle, mostly conidial forms that 
were produced in the cultures, or that grew saprophytically on decaying 
vegetation. All the different stages are described and figured. The 
author has studied another series of fungi on the same host, a number 
of them being new species, and the following genera also new : Neohen- 
ningsia (Aspergillacese), Wetitiomyces (Perisporiacese), Lindauomyces 
(Stilbacere), Wiesneriomyces, and Acrotheciella (Tuberculariacese). 

Colour Reactions in Russula and Lactarius.f — I. Arnould and 
A. Goris, following the example of lichenologists and of Boudier for 
the Ascomycetes, have employed a chemical solution as a means of 
distinguishing between different species. The substance sulfovaniliaue 
(water 2 parts, sulphuric acid 2 parts, vanilin % gramme) had been used 
by Ronceray to test certain lichens for the presence of orcin. On the 
application of the reagent the tissues of most of the larger fungi tinge 
rose of varying shades. In certain species of Lactarius and Russula, 
the tissue turns rose, and the cystidia and laticiferous cells blue. 
Russulce that are very acrid turn rose and blue. Russula rosea becomes 
entirely rose-coloured, and R. vesca and R. lilacea give the same reaction ; 
in R. lepida the hymenial layer becomes rose-violet. R. delica has 
numerous cystidia and laticiferous cells, which colour blue, while in 
R. cyanoxantha only the tips of the cystidia take the blue colour. Simi- 
lar variations of colour are noted in Lactarii. Further tests will be 
made in a future season. 

Assimilation of Free Nitrogen by Fungi.| — Hermann Froehlich 
selected four Hyphomycetes for experiment, Macrosporium commune, 
Alternaria tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, and Hormodendron clado- 
sporioides. Incidentally, he established the autonomy of the last two 
species. All of these are saprophytes, and live on plant remains. They 

* Verh. k. Akad. Wet. Amsterdam, xiii. No. 4 (1907) iv. and 264 pp. (12 pis. and 
61 figs.) 

t Bull. Soc. Mycol. France, xxiii. (1907) pp. 174-8. See also Comptes Rendus, 
cxlv. (1907) pp. 1199-1200. 

X Jahrb. Wiss. Bot., xlv. (1907) pp. 256-302 (3 figs.). 

April 15th, 1908 Q 



218 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

are all aerobic and require oxygen for their devolopment ; no fermenta- 
tion was produced in any of the cultures. Froehlich established the 
assimilation of free nitrogeu in all of these fungi : it was highest in 
Macrosporium commune, lowest in Hormodendron. The combined 
nitrogen is thus made available for the use of chlorophyll plants. He 
also proved in a series of cultures what has been long surmised, that 
Penieillium glaucum and Aspergillus niger also assimilate free nitrogen 
from the atmosphere. 

Chalk-disease of Bread.* — A sample of bread that had been left 
wrapped in parchment for some time was found to have developed a 
growth of a white chalky fungus. P. Lindner examined it and found it 
to be a new species, Endomgces fibuliger. It has the power of forming 
hat-shaped spores and can ferment various sugars, thus resembling Willia 
yeasts ; but it does not give a yeast generation free from mycelia in 
fermenting liquids. 

Fermentation Fungi. f — CI. Putter has proved that a spherical yeast 
may be imitated by cultivating Mucor racemosus in a nutrient solution ; 
if the yeast-cells are placed in solution that contains no acid, mycelia are 
again formed. 



■.- 



Fungus-culture of Wood-boring Beetles.! — F. W. Neger has 
carried on an investigation, begun by H. G. Hubbard, as to the fungus- 
food and fungus-culture of certain ambrosia beetles. In the passages 
formed in the wood by the beetles the fungus growth called ambrosia is 
constantly found. Neger tried to grow these fungoid bodies, but they 
invariably died off without further development. He established, how- 
ever, that the fungus was brought into the passages by the beetles, and 
that the ambrosia fungus is one that infects pine-needles, probably a 
Ceratostomella. He found, further, that very frequently Graphium — the 
conidial form of Ceratostomella— grew abundantly in the passages. The 
beetles do not purposely carry in fungus spores, as do the ants, but 
the conidia cling to their bodies and are carried with them to any new 
wood that is attacked by them. 

Bebgamesco, G. — Clitocybe Pelletieri. 

[A new species of Agaric from Italy.] 

Nuovo. Giorn. Bot. Ital., xiv. (1907) pp. 527-8. 

Bubak, Fh. — Adatok Magyarorszag gombaflorajahoz. (Contribution to the fungus 
flora of Hungary.) 

[A number of new species have been found and described, especially among 
the Sphasropsidese.] Novenytani Kbzlemimiek (1907) 42 pp. 

See also Ann. MycoL, v. (1907) pp. 439-40. 

Hennebebg, W. — Ein Beitrag zur Bedeutung von Gips, Kohlensaurem Kalk und 
Soda fur die Hefe. (The significance of gypsum, carbonate of lime and soda, 
in the culture of yeast.) 

[Yeast-cells die off where there is a lack of alkali.] 

Centralbl. Bakt.,xx. (1908) pp. 225-9. 

* Wochensch. Brau., xxiv. (1907) pp. 469-74. See also Journ. Inst. Brewing, 
xiii. (1907) pp. 735-6. 

t Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., xxv. (1907) p. 25. See also Journ. Inst. Brewing, 
vii. (1907) p. 733. J Centralbl. Bakt., xx. (1908) pp. 279-82. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 219 

Hohnel, Fr. von — Mykologisches. 

[Notes on various species of fungi, Leptosphmriamodesta and Cladosterigma 
ficsisporiim, the latter one of the Dacryomycetinese.] 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr., lvii. (1907) pp. 321-4. 
See also Ann. Mycol, v. (1907) p. 440-1. 

Jaap, O. — Weitere Beitrage zur Pilzflora der nordfriesischen Inseln. (Further 
contributions to the fungus flora of the North Friesian Islands.) 
[Several new species are described, and a large number listed.] 

Schrift. Nat. Ver. Schlesiv. -Hoist, xiv. (1907) pp. 15-33. 
See also Ann. Mycol., v. (1907) p. 44. 

Kellebmah, W. A. — Behm's First Beport on Guatemalan Ascomycetae. 
[A few species are new, the others are determined.] 

Joum. Mycol., xiv. (1908) pp. 3-7. 

Kusano, S. — A New Species of Taphrina on Acer. 

[Four species are already known : the author describes a fifth, T. nikkoensis.'] 

Bot. Mag. Tokio, xxi. (1907) pp. 65-7 (1 fig.). 
See also Ann. Mycol., v. (1907) p. 441. 

Miehe, H. — Thermoidium sulfureum g. et. sp. n. 

[A new heat-fungus, isolated from self-heating plant remains ; sulphur 
coloured ; spores produced from cells of the hyphse.] 

Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell, xxv. (1907) pp. 510-15 (6 figs.). 

Morgan, A. P. — North American Species of Agaricaceae, the Melanospora. 

[Seventeen species are described.] Joum. Mycol., xiv. (1908) pp. 27-32. 

Oeetel, G. — Phoma Kuhniana sp. n. 

[The fungus was found on runners of cultivated Viola odorata; it has 
minute perithecia and minute spores.] Ann. Mycol., v. (1907) p. 431. 

Peck, C. H.— New Species of Fungi 

[Six species of Basidiomycetes.] Joum. Mycol., xiv. (1908) pp. 1-3. 

Petch, T.— Note on Ustilago Treubii Solms. 

[The writer notes the frequent occurrence of this gall-forming Ustilago in 
Ceylon. He adds measurements to the original diagnosis.] 

Ann. Mycol, v. (1907) p. 403. 

Rttz, W. — Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Pilzflora des Kienthales. (Contributions 
to the fungus flora of the Kien Valley (Bernese Oberland). 

[A special study was made of Chytridiacese and Uredinese, and a number of 
new forms were determined.] Mitth. Nat, Ges. Bern (1907) p. 168. 

See also Bot. Centralbl,,cv. (1907) p. 602 

Sartory & Demanche — Etude d'une levure (Cryptococcus Bogerii sp. n.). 
[Study of a pathogenic yeast.] 

Bull. Soc. Mycol. France, xxiii. (1907) pp. 179-85. 

Straszer, P. Pius — Vierter Nachtrag zur Pilzflora des Sonntagberges. (Fourth 
contribution to the fungus flora of the Sonntagberg, N. Austria.) 
[This completes the list of 1348 species.] 

Verh. k.k. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, lvii. (1907) pp. 299-340. 

Sydow — Mycotheca Germanica, Fasc. xii-xiii. (Nos. 551-650). 

[Several new species are included in the list, and diagnoses are given of these 
and of several others, with explanatory notes.] 

Ann. Mycol, v. (1907) pp. 395-99. 

Vill, A. — Fungi bavarici exsiccati. (Bavarian fungi, 8th cent.) 

[This is a continuation of Allescher and Schnabl's Exsiccati. chieflv micro- 
forms.] Gerolshofen (1904). 

See also Bot, Centralbl., cv. (1907) pp. 664-5. 



Q 2 



'220 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Lichens. 
(By A. Lorrain Smith, F.L.S.) 

Text-book of Lichens.* —A. Zahlbriickner has just issued the last 
fascicle dealing with lichens in the Pficmzmfamilien. It concludes the 
Ascolichenes, and gives an account of the Hynienolichenes. The latter 
include only the three genera Cora, Gorella and Dictyonema, all of 
these containing only tropical or subtropical species in which the 
symbiont is a cyanophyceous alga, and the fructification that of a 
Basidiomycete. An index of the genera completes the volume. 

Noteworthy Lichens.! — E. Senft has examined a peculiar growth 
found by A. Zahlbriickner on the thallus of Physma dalmaticum. It 
arose either intercalary on hyphae of the thallus or terminal on these 
hyphae. There was no cellulose reaction, and the author considered it 
to be probably a change in the hyphae due to an enzyme, whereby they 
were rendered mucilaginous. 

Dispersal of Lichens.} — P. Beckman has considered the case of 
those crustaceous rock lichens that have neither soredia nor hymenial 
gonidia, such as Gasparrinia murorum, Lecanora sordida, Hmnatomma 
ventosum, etc. The spores must be chief agents in the spread of these 
forms, but the mode of growth of the thallus must also play a part ; 
the areolae into which they are divided tend to become further apart, 
and in time, by weather-action, to become loosened from the substratum 
and carried about by the wind. All these scattered areolae represent 
one individual plant. In the case of several species of Rhizocarpon 
with a creeping and spreading hypothallus, the spores start new 
individuals at different centres which tend to meet each other, thus 
presenting a decussated thallus. The thallus of these forms is also 
often cracked, but the cracking serves probably only for aeration and 
not for dispersal. 

Lichen Constituents. § — 0. Hesse has examined the chemical con- 
stituents of a large series of lichens, a continuation of previous work 
in the same field. He found a new acid in Usnea articulata, which he 
designates articulat-acid, and two in Ramalina armorka, armorica-acid 
and armor-acid. He found also new substances in the brightly -coloured 
Tornabenia (Physcia) chrysophthalma and T. flavicans. Other lichens 
yielded various acids already known. 

Brown ParmeliaB.|| — F. Rosendahl has brought his anatomical study 
of the group to bear on their systematic position, and at the end of his 

* Engler and Prantl's Nat. Pflanzenfamilien, Leipzig: W. Engelmann, i. 
Abt. 1, lief. 230 (1907) pp. 193-249 (24 figs.). 

t SB. k. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-Nat. Kl., cxvi., Abt. 1 (1907) pp. 429-38 
(1 pi.). See also Bot. Centralbl., cv. (1907) p. 630. 

\ Engler, Bot. Jabrb., xxxviii. (1907) Beibl., pp. 1-72 (10 figs.). See also Ann. 
MycoL.v. (1907) pp. 459-60. 

§ Journ. prakt. Cbemie, Neue Folge, lxxvi. (1907) pp. 1-57. See also Bot. 
Centralbl., cv. (1907) pp. 628-9. 

|| Nova Acta Abh. k. Leop.-Car. Deutscb. Akad. Nat., lxxxvii. (1907) pp. 403-59 
(4 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 221 

paper he draws up three different tables of arrangement, each embodying 
the results of his observations and discoveries. He divides the series of 
the lichens broadly into two classes : those with a many-layered cortex, 
and those with a narrow cortex of about two cells. In the many-layered 
cortex he distinguishes an inner layer of living cells and an outer of 
crushed and dead cells. In each species he has given details of the 
structure, the presence or absence of isidia, soredia, trichomes, fat-cells, 
and rhizoids, and he describes the developments of the ascogonia and 
spermogonia. Calcium hypochlorite has been found useful in differen- 
tiating species ; some tinge red when it is applied, others show no change 
of colour": The red coloration is usually due to the presence of 
lecanor-acid. The paper is illustrated by microscopic drawings and by 
photographic reproductions of nearly all the species discussed. 

Hue, A. — Trois Lichens Nouveaux. (Three new lichens.) 

[Two species of Stereocaulon and one Solorina from the East 
(Japan and Java).] 

Bull. Soc. Bot. France, liv. (1907) pp. 414-21 (2 figs.). 

,, Heppiearum ultima e familia Collemacearum tribubus nonnullas speoies 
morphologice et anatomice elaboravit. (Morphological and ana- 
tomical study of some species of Heppia, a " tribe " of Collemacese.) 
[A description of the genus Heppia, with which the author unites 
several other genera.] 

Mem. Sc. Nation. Sci. Nat. Math., xxxvi. (1907), 44 pp. 
See also Ann. My col. v. (1907) pp. 460-1. 

Jatta, Antonio. — I Licheni dell' Erbario Tornabene. (The lichens of the 
Tornabene herbarium.) 

[A list of 86 species or varieties collected in Sicily.] 

Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. xiv. (1907) pp. 529-38. 

Lesdain, Bouly de. — Notes Lichenologiques. (Lichenological notes.) 

[A number of new varieties are diagnosed, and notes published on various 
species.] Bull. Soc. Bot. France, liv. (1907) pp. 442-6. 

Nils on, Berger. — Die Flechten vegetation des Sarekgebirges. (Lichen flora 
of the Sarek Mountains.) 

[288 species were determined, 5 of them new to science. The author 
makes a new genus Parmularia for the section Placodiuni of the genus 
Lecanora.~\ Nat.-Wiss. Unters-Sarekgebirg. in Schivedisch-Lappland 

iii. Botanik (1907) pp. 1-70. 
See also Ann. Mycol., v. (1907) p. 461. 

Steiner, J. — Lichenes Austro-africani. (Lichens of Southern Africa.) 

[Lichens collected by H. A. Junod and Dultre. Several 
new species are determined and diagnosed.] 

Bull. Herb. Boiss., ser. 2, vii. (1907), pp, 637-46. 
See also Ann. Mijcol., v. (1907) p. 462. 

„ ,, Ueber Buellia saxorum und verwandte Flechtenarten. (On Buellia 

saxorum and allied lichen species.) 

Verh. k.k. Zool. Bot. Oes. Wien., lvii. (1907) pp. 340-71. 

Mycetozoa. 
(By A. Lorrain Smith, F.L.S.) 

Influence of Bacteria on the Culture of Myxomycetes.*— Ernest 
Pinoy concludes his paper on this subject. The action of bacteria on 

* Ann. Inst. Pasteur, xxi. (1907) pp. 686-700. 



222 SUiM-MAUY OK CURRENT KKSKAHCHES RELATING TO 

the Acrasieae has been already recorded. He now studies them in con- 
nection with the development of true Mycetozoa, Didymium difforme 
and Didymium diffusion. In nature the sporangia of these Myxomy- 
cetes always contain numerous impurities, including a large series of 
Bacteria. He proved by his cultures that the spores would not develop 
without the accompanying bacterium, Bacillus luteus Fliigge. The 
author draws attention to the formation of cysts in the sporangium ; 
they are larger than the spores and without ornamentation on the 
surface. These can persist for several years ; a sclerotium is but an 
assemblage of cysts. He verified the observation that from the spores 
of D. effusum and Spumaria alba zoospores are only formed in liquid 
media ; on a solid substratum the spores give rise to myxamcebee. 

Further experiments were made with Plasmodiophora Brassicce,. Pinoy 
describes his methods of preparing and obtaining pure cultures. He finds 
that bacteria always accompany the spores. Their role in the host-plant 
seems to be to destroy the tissue and secure the escape of the Plasmo- 
diophora, but they exercise also some extracellular influence, as cultures 
that contained no bacteria showed no signs of growth. It is evident 
that the bacteria are introduced into the roots by the Plasmodiophora, 
and then follows a true symbiosis between the two organisms. 

Stdegis, W. C. — The Myxomycetes of Colorado. 

[About 100 species have been published, with descriptive notes ; one new 
species and two varieties are included.] 

Colorado Coll. Publ. Gen. Ser. 30, Sci. Ser. xii. (1907) No. 1, pp. 1-43. 

See also Ann. MycoL, v. (1907) p. 445. 

Schizophyta. 
Schizomycetes. 

Sporulation of the Bacillus Rheumaticus.*— G. Rosenthal, from 
observations on two varieties of the bacillus of Achalme, viz. B. per- 
fringens and B. rheumaticus, finds that when subcultures of these two 
organisms in albumen water are plunged into boiling water for two 
minutes they all give a positive growth on incubation, but if exposed 
for four minutes the cultures of B. rheumaticus are apparently killed, 
whereas those of B. perfringens give a late but abundant growth with 
irregular forms ; the same results were obtained when the cultures were 
boiled for half a minute, showing that the two varieties have unequal 
resistance to heat. Cover-slip preparations showed, in the case of the 
perfringens cultures, typical sporulation ; but with B. rheumaticus, besides 
some bacilli, there were a number of bodies about the size of Staphylo- 
coccus aureus, that stained by Gram's method, resisted badly the decolora- 
tion by acids when stained by Ziehl's method, and when unstained were 
slightly refringent. 

Bacteriology of Tropical Abscess of the Liver.f — A. Gilbert and 
A. Lipmann have examined pus from two cases of tropical abscess of 
the liver. In the first case the pus was slightly odorous and of a brown 
colour, and cover-slip preparations showed a number of cocci and rods 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) p. 577. f Tom. cit., p. 565. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 223 

that stained, and a few bacilli that did not stain by Gram's method ; 
aerobic cultures gave only Staphylococcus aureus having no pathogenic 
action on rabbits, but from cultures in the depth of agar were isolated 
B. perfringens, Enterococcus, B. ramosus and B.fragilis. In the second 
case the pus was also slightly odorous and brown in colour, and cover- 
slip preparations showed a few cocci and a number of bacillary forms, 
none of which were stained by Gram's method. Ordinary broth and 
agar cultures gave no growth, but anaerobic cultures showed a small 
growth of Enterococcus and a large development of B. funduliformis, 
which probably masked the development of other germs. The authors 
consider that with more complete bacteriological examinations the number 
of non-microbial cases of hepatic abscess would be diminished. # 

Coli Group of Bacteria.* — A. Buck concludes from the results of 
his researches on this group of organisms that in the same bowel there 
may occur at the same time many varieties of B. coli. About 25 p.c. of all 
these bacteria were agglutinated by the serum of the same individual, or 
by other sera, in dilutions of 1 in 30. Strains of B. coli that are cultur- 
ally alike may be separated by their serum reactions. A readily agglu- 
tinating strain will agglutinate at a higher dilution with a strange serum 
than with that of its own host. The agglutination of B. coli is not 
interfered with if the strange serum is from a typhoid patient. 

Multiplying of Relapsing Spirochetes in the Body of the Bug.f 
N. N. Klodnitzky has observed the development of Spirockastes of 
relapsing fever in the tissues of the bug. Using Giemsa's stain the 
author examined the morphology of the contents of normal and of 
infected insects. During the first 3 to 5 days after infection the pre- 
parations showed individuals with well marked spirals, but in later 
specimens there was an unusual development of threads felted together 
or arranged in skeins, or like twisted hair. These threads were usually 
stretched, and rarely wavy ; they were also observed in hanging drops. 
Later specimens obtained about the 30th day after infection showed that 
these threads had broken up into rods of various forms and lengths. 

Plant Tumour of Bacterial Origin.! — E. F. Smith and C. 0. 
Townsend have isolated a motile bacillus from a tumour or gall found 
on a cultivated daisy. The organism is aerobic, and grows on ordinary 
nutrient agar and potato, and also in broth, which becomes slightly 
clouded, and has a tenacious fibrous pellicle ; it produces no gas within 
12 days on sugar or alcoholic media ; casein is separated from litmus 
milk, with the production of an alkaline reaction ; it does not licpiefy 
gelatin ; a temperature of 25° C. is most favourable to the growth on 
agar or in broth ; the bacillus has 1-3 polar flagella. Inoculation of 
roots, and young shoots and stems of healthy daisies, tobacco plants, 
tomatoes, potato, sugar beet, and peach trees, caused the formation of 
galls. 

Flagella and Capsule of B. Anthracis.§ — A. Hinterberger was 
never able to observe that B. anthracis possessed true flagella, but, by 

* Ceutralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., xiv. (1907) p. 577. 

t Op. cit., xlv. (1907) p. 126. % Op. cit., 2te Abt., xx. (1907) p. 89. 

§ Op. cit., lte Abt. Orig., xlv. (1907) p. 108. 



224 SUMMARY OV CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

treating with ammonia and staining with silver colloid, the author 
appears to have established the areas surrounding the bacilli as true 
capsules. 

Micrococcus Esterificans.* — Beck describes this organism as resem- 
bling Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus, and producing a characteristic fruity 
aroma. The aromatic substance is insoluble in alcohol, but dissolves in 
ether, chloroform, and sulphide of carbon. Butter treated with broth 
cultures of the coccus, keeps fresh for about five days longer than 
ordinary butter made from the same cream. It is suggested that this 
organism might be useful in the manufacture of butter, by improving 
its taste and keeping property. 

Bacillus Aterrinus Tschitensis.f — W. N. Klimenko has isolated 
from the air of his clinical laboratory, at Tschita, a bacillus that pro- 
duces a brown pigment ; it is an actively motile rod with rounded ends, 
resembling B. mesentericus vulgaris ; it occurs most often singly, rarely 
in pairs, and sometimes forms threads ; it has a single centrally-placed 
oval spore ; it stains by ordinary analin dyes and by Gram's method, 
but is not acid-fast : it is a potential aerobe : the optimum tempera- 
ture is 36°-40° 0. 

On agar the colonies appear after 16 to 20 hours, and by reflected 
light both superficial and deep colonies have a white colour with a 
lustreless wrinkled surface ; but after 48 hours the deep colonies by 
transmitted light, and the superficial colonies by reflected light, have a 
dark brown colour ; after the fourth day a production of brown pig- 
ment commences to diffuse into the medium around the superficial 
colonies. Pigment is also formed by colonies grown on gelatin, and the 
medium commences to liquefy after the third day, and on the surface 
of the liquefied gelatin there floats a pellicle which develops a brown- 
black pigment ; growth on agar containing sugar or glycerin shows no 
formation of gas ; pepton-broth is clouded, a pellicle being formed 
which develops a brown-black pigment ; on potato the growth is at 
first dry and wrinkled, but later is thick and greasy, having the colour 
of cafe-au-lait, the colour of the potato itself being unaltered ; milk is 
clotted, the coagulum being subsequently dissolved. The organism is 
not pathogenic. It closely resembles B. mesentericus niger and B. lactis 
Gorini. 

Purple Bacteria. J— H. Molisch has classified these organisms into two 
groups, viz. those that deposit sulphur granules in their bodies and those 
that do not. Each of these is again subdivided into two sub-groups or 
families, according as the cells are free or are associated, and these 
families comprise separate sub-families, depending on the form of the 
cell division, the property of swarming, and on the morphology of the 
cells. The author finds that the susceptibility of those bacteria to light 
extends to all the visible and invisible ultra red rays. On examining 
the giving off of oxygen under the influence of light, it was found that 
carbonic acid was not assimilated, so that the colouring matter of these 
organisms is not analogous to chlorophyll. 

* Centralbl. Bakt., 2te Abt., xix. (1907) p. 594. 

f Op. cit., 2te Abt., xx. (1907) p. 1. J Op. cit., 2te Abt., xx. (1908) p. 289. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ^ETC. 225 

By extracting cultures with alcohol the author obtained a green 
colouring matter, " bacteriochlorin," which was quite distinct from 
chlorophyll, and gave an entirely different spectrum. By extracting 
the bacteria thus freed from bacteriochlorin with carbon disulphide, 
" bacteriopurpurin " was obtained. The combined spectra of these two 
colouring matters corresponded with the spectrum of the living bacteria. 

Bacterium Mariense.* — W.N. Klimenkohas isolated this bacillus from 
the spleen and blood of an apparently healthy guinea-pig. The round- 
ended rods, which are actively motile, and possess 8 to 12 peritrichal 
flagella, are usually single, sometimes in pairs, rarely forming threads ; 
they stain by the ordinary dyes, but not by Gram's method, and are not 
acid-fast ; metachromatic granules may occasionally be demonstrated. 
The organism is a potential anaerobe, but the best growth is obtained 
under aerobic conditions at 'M° G. The colonies on gelatin resembles 
those of B. coli and B. typhosus, and the medium is not liquefied ; on 
Conradi-Drigalski and on Endo's media, development resembles that of 
B. typhosus. In milk no change is apparent for the first six days, but it 
then becomes transparent and of a yellow-brown colour, with a deposit 
at the bottom of the tube, the reaction becoming more and more 
alkaline. Growth on potato is similar, but less vigorous than that of 
B. coli. This bacillus has no denitrifying properties, it produces no 
indol, and its growth on all media containing carbohydrates causes an 
alkaline reaction. It is pathogenic for white rats, white mice, rabbits, 
guinea pigs, and pigeons. 

Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria, f — F. Lohnis and N. K. Pillar have 
examined the soil from rice fields on the Malabar coasts, near Trawankur, 
for the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. 

Tubes of soil extract +0*5 p.c. K.,HP0 4 received respectively 
1 p.c. mannite, 1 p.c. glucose, 1 p.c. tartaric acid, and were neutrabsed 
with soda ; to one set of these tubes was added 1-2 p.c. of C a C0 3 , a 
controle set being free from chalk. All the tubes were then inoculated 
with the soil. The amount of nitrogen being measured before and 
twenty days after inoculation. In the mannite tubes with chalk the 
increase of nitrogen was 4 - l mg. per 100 cm., which was 0*86 mg.more 
than in the mannite tube without chalk. In the glucose tubes the 
nitrogen increase was 3 ' 38 mg. and 0*56 mg. more than in the tubes con- 
taining chalk. In the tartaric solution tubes the increase of nitrogen 
was only 1*7 mg., and this was 0*14 mg. less than in the chalk contain- 
ing tubes. 

Microscopically Azotobacter was not observed, but besides several 
strains of B. pneumonice, B. radiobacler, B. subtilis, B. oxalaticus, 
Micrococcus sulphurous, B. turcosum, B. chrisoglcea, B. lipsiense, the 
author isolated two new species, B. malabarensis and B. tartaricum. 
B. malabarensis is a strong nitrogen fixer, especially in mannite solu- 
tions ; it occurs as large, stout rods, with numerous flagella ; it is 

* Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., xlv. (1907) p. 481. 
t Op. cit., 2te Abt., xix. (1907) p. 87. 



226 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

slightly motile, stains by Gram's method, and forms spores; when 
grown on gelatin it liquefies the medium. 

B. tartaricum is not a marked nitrogen fixer ; it occurs as short rods, 
which are not motile, do not stain by Gram's method, do not form 
spores, and do not liquefy gelatin. 

Cultural Differentiation of Capsulated Bacilli.* — V. K. Russ 
•examined a number of capsulated bacilli belonging to the four groups 
of (1) B. lactis aerogenes, (2) B. pneumonia, (3) B. mucosus ozcence, 
(4) B. scleromatis, in respect to their production of acid and alkaline 
with carbohydrate media, and their reactions to coloured media of 
Endo's fuchsin, and Loeffier's green solution. 

The carbohydrates used were dextrose, galactose, lsevulose, lactose, 
maltose, saccharose, starch, arabinose, dextrin, mannite, dulcite, and 
erythrite. The tests showed that only B. scleromatis produced alkali, 
or had no action with lactose ; only B. ozarnce produced acid with 
erythrite ; that B. aerogenes and B. ozcence both formed acid, whilst 
B. friedldnderi and B. scleromatis both gave alkaline reaction, or had no 
effect with dulcite. 

On Endo's lactose fuchsin agar, the aerogenes group behaved as the 
coli group, producing a deep red colour ; the B. friedldnderi and 
B. scleromatis behaved as B. typhosus, or had no effect, and with 
B. ozamce the medium was coloured pink. 

The author gives a table of the results obtained with four solutions 
of Loeffier's green, and finds that though B. lactis aerogenes has very 
marked characters with these solutions, the test is not of practical use in 
differentiating the other three groups. The author also refers to other 
capsulated organisms not included in the above four groups, and shows 
in what way they are allied biologically according to the above tests. 
It appears that B. capsulatus of Pfeiffer, and B. mucosus capsulatus 
of Fasching, are both indentical with B. lactis aerogenes. 

* Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., xliv. (1907) p. 289. 



• le^al • 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 227 



MICROSCOPY. 

A. Instruments, Accessories, etc.* 
(1) Stands. 

Beck's "London " Microscope, Regent Model. | — This instrument is 
shown in fig. 33, and is designed for the most exacting research. The 
stage is square, 4 in. by 4 in., surfaced with ebonite, and provided with a 
mechanical stage, with racks and pinions, giving traversing motions of 
2 in. in the horizontal direction and 1 in. in the vertical direction, each 
motion being provided with graduations by which the positions of ob- 
jects can be registered and refound. The mechanical stage is removable, 
leaving the stage free for large dishes, and four spring-clip holes are 
provided. An iris diaphragm is set in the thickness of the stage, and is 
actuated by means of a lever extending to the stage edge. This 
diaphragm has a slightly curved form, so that when closed to a small 
aperture it is within one or two hundredths of an inch of the stage level. 
By this construction the iris may be closed even when an Abbe con- 
denser in the substage is at its highest position, and when the light from 
the condenser is in focus upon the object. There is, therefore, no risk 
of damage being done to the stage iris diaphragm when focusing the 
condenser, as it does not come in contact with it at any position. The 
substage is focused by means of a spiral rack-and-pinion adjustment, 
and is carried on a massive bracket which swings to one side on a strong 
centre. The condenser (fig. 34) can, therefore, be instantly swung out 
of the optic axis to one side by means of the same milled head which 
actuates the focusing adjustment. As soon as the condenser has been 
racked down to its lowest limit, it swings clear of the stage. The sub- 
stage is provided with centring screws. The limb of the instrument is 
made with a large aperture forming a handle, through which the entire 
hand can be passed for lifting and manipulating the instrument ; no 
strain is put on any working parts of the Microscope when it is lifted in 
this manner. The fine adjustment is of a more sensitive pattern than 
that of the " London " model, being about four times as delicate, each 
division on the drum representing T ooWo m - This fitting is placed 
almost directly behind the Microscope body, so that the weight does not 
overhang the fitting to any great extent, and thus a fine adjustment can 
be made which, in spite of its extreme delicacy, is equally sensitive to the 

* This subdivision contains (1) Stands ; (2) Eye-pieces and Objectives ; (3) 
Illuminating and other Apparatus ; (4) Photomicrography ; (5) Microscopical 
Optics and Manipulation ; (6) Miscellaneous. 

t R. and J. Beck, London, Special Catalogue, 1908. 



228 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES DELATING TO 




Fig. H3. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



229 



large and a small 



smaller motion. The milled head is made with a 
diameter, so that for moderate powers the small milled head can be 
rapidly revolved, thus giving a quick motion ; the larger milling enables 
full advantage to be taken of the delicate adjustment with high powers. 




Fig. 34. 



Societe G-enevoise : Mineralogical and Petrographical Microscopes, 
with Permanent Centring and with Objective Rotation. — A section 
of this instrument, numbered 2426 in the maker's catalogue, is shown in 
fig. 35. The system has the advantage of remaining always centred. 
The stage carries a column on which slides the objective-holder, and to 
this latter the objective is applied by means of a spring clamp, which 
facilitates rapid change of objective. The Microscope tube is mounted 
on a strong column and moves independently of the objective. There is 
an opening in the tube above the objective for inserting optical lamellae 
or for a revolver of plates of mica and quartz. 

Fig. 36 shows model No. 2429 of the same firm. The purpose of 
the instrument is the same as with the last, and similar advantages are 

* Catalogue of the Societe Genevoise pour la construction d'instruments de 
physique et de mecanique, 1907. 



230 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 




Fig. 35. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



231 




Fig. 36. 



232 



SIWIMAKY nv r['|;|;i,\T I; KSK A R| 'I I Ks RELATING TO 



claimed. The difference is in the limb which supports the tube; the 
limb being solidly attached to the base and carrying the rackwork at its 





Fig. 37. 



upper end. The tube movement is independent of that of the objective. 

Fig. 37 shows model No. 2481 in section. Here the nicols rotate 

while the stage is fixed, and this arrangement gives a means of suppress- 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



233 



ing all decentring of the microscopic stage in relation to the optical axis 
of the Microscope. The rotation of the nicol is obtained by means of a 
pillar, parallel to the Microscope, and bearing two pinions engaging in 
two small stages supporting the polarisers and analysers. The polariser 
is fitted with a quick-movement screw tor raising or lowering. The 
object-stage can be rotated, as desired, independently of the nicol ; it 
carries a pivoting condenser.* 

Mechanical Stages.f — Fig. 38 represents a mechanical stage 
designed for use with the above mineralogical and petrographical 




Fig 38. 



Microscopes. The apparatus is constructed with crossed carriers for 
centring ; it has a coarse-adjustment by raekwork, and a fine-adjustment 
byJa micrometer screw with divided head. 




Fig. 39. 



Fig. 39 shows Fedorow's stage.! It is made in two forms : a small 
model, with two movements of rotation ; and a large model, with four 

* There is a great resemblance to Swift's patent, which has, however, perhaps 
run out. — Ed. 

f Catalogue of the Societe genevoise pour la construction d'instruments de 
physique et de mecanique, 1907, No. 2421 (fig. 2121a). 

% Op. cit., Catalogue No. 2192. 

April 15th, 1908 R 



234 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



such movements. The illustration refers to the latter model, and is 
considered by the makers to be self-explanatory. 

Micrometer Microscope.* — This instrument, mounted on a stand 
(fig. 40), has a movable thread at the focus of the ocular for sub- 




Fig. 40. 



dividing the spaces on a graduated bar. The ocular field is about 9 mm. 
Magnification from 30 to 40. 




Fig. 41. 



Dissecting Microscope.f— This instrument (fig. 41) has the arm 
and dissecting stage, and is independent of the Microscope stand. The 
objective, which has a rack-and-pinion adjustment, is composed of three 
doubles. 

* List Phvs. and Mech. Instr. Soc. genevoise, 1907, p. 37 (1 fig.), 
t Tom. oit., pp. 97-8. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



235 



Frauenhofer's Screw Micrometer.*— This instrument is fitted to a 
telescope or Microscope of low power, and is mounted on a brass column. 
It is provided with turning movements so that it can be used vertically 




Fig. 42. 



Fig. 43. 



(fig. 42) and horizontally (fig. 43), and measurements taken in all 
directions. The micrometer can change places with the shelf, so that 
the instrument may serve as Microscope with micrometric shelf. The 
tripod folds up. 



(2) Eye-pieces and Objectives. 



Societe Genevoise : Eye-pieces for Mineralogical and Petrog-ra- 
phical Microscopes.! — Fig. 44, numbered 2442 in the maker's cata- 
logue, represents an auxiliary nicol, with divided circle for use above the 
ocular. Figs. 45, 46, numbered 2485 by the makers, show Babinet's 



* List Phys. and Meek. Instr. Soc. genevoise, 1907, pp. 36-7 (2 figs.), 
t Catalogue (1907) of the Soc. genevoise pour la construction d'iustrumentsde 
physique et de niecanique, p. 12. 

R 2 



236 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



compensator in genera] view and in sect inn. Xo description is furnished 
with the illustration. 




• 



Fig. 44. 




Fig. 45. 




Fig. 46. 



C3) Illuminating- and other Apparatus. 

Pearce's Total Reflexion Refractometer.* — This instrument (fig. 
•47), numbered 2190 in the catalogue of the Genevan firm, has been 
made after the designs of F. Pearce. The general view recalls that of 
Abbe's refractometer, but Pearce's optical arrangements are suitable for 
measurements upon large as well as upon small fragments. In case of 
large fragments, an objective 0' and an ocular A' replace the objective 

* Soc. genevoise pour la construction d'instruments de physique et de rne- 
canique, Special circular, 1907. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOI'V, ETC. 



237 



and the ocular shown in the figure. The magnification of this com- 
bination is from 3-4 diameters, and the separating power is sufficient to 
insure under good conditions evaluation to the fourth decimal. This 







illiliinlliJ!'"' 

minium 



HWIIIjjiliiiiillp 






. i !l!!lll!IU!l!l;i 



Fig. 47. 



objective 0' is formed of an achromatic lens combined with a plano- 
concave lens of the same glass as the hemisphere. This latter lens, 
whose concave surface has a radius of curvature equal to that of 



238 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the hemisphere, is intended to nullify the influence which the 
spherical surface of the hemisphere exerts on the paths of the rays. 
The objective 0' can also be provided with a correction lens, when 
using the combination for the vision of very distant objects by re- 
flexion on the plane surface of the hemisphere ; this property is use- 
ful for the adjustment of the hemisphere. For small fragments the 
combination used consists of an objective 0, composed of an achro- 
matic lens of about 40 mm. focal length, with a correction lens and a 
special ocular. This ocular fits with gentle friction into the tube u 
of the instrument, and bears at its anterior end a network in the focus 
of the objective ; the anterior lens (divergent) giving, in combination 
with the objective, an enlarged image (4-5 diameters) of the object 
placed on the hemisphere. This image is formed in the plane of an 
iris diaphragm i, which, for more convenience, can be laterally displaced 
by the aid of the screws r. The image is viewed by the'loup /. When 
the loup I is replaced by another of a focus giving vision of the net, 
this optical combination, which is a real Microscope, is converted into 
a telescope directed on infinity, and by it the phenomenon of total 
reflexion can be observed. A nicol prism N fitted w T ith a graduated 
circle can be easily adapted to either of the two combinations without 
derangiug the observations. Perfect centring of the objective is 
obtained by the action of three screws not shown in the figure, and 
that of the hemisphere by the three screws 1, 2, 3. The makers supply 
full instructions for the use of the instrument. 

Beck's New Illuminator for High-power Dark-ground Illumination.* 
This apparatus permits of dark -ground illumination, with object-glasses 



Fig. 48. 

as high as a T V in. oil-immersion. The principle is that of a reflecting 
paraboloid, specially designed to obviate the difficulty arising from the 
immersion fluid running down the side of the paraboloid and the 
consequent impossibility of adjusting the focus. The new illuminator 
is made of two parts, which may be more or less separated, and tin's 
enables the light to be focused, according to the thickness of the slip on 
which the object is mounted, and the oil is kept away from the reflecting 
surface. The lower portion consists of a reflecting paraboloid B 
(fig. 48), reflecting parallel light to a focus at C, with a concave upper 
surface. The upper portion of the apparatus is in the form of a lens A, 
with focus at C, the upper surface of which is placed in immersion 
contact with the under surface of the slip ; the curved side is concentric 

* R. and J. Beck, London, Special Catalogue, 1908. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICEOSCOPY, ETC. 



239 



with the focus C, and truncated to such an extent as to stop all light 
of less obliquity than 1*0 N.A. from reaching the object. Therefore 
when dry lenses, or oil-immersion lenses, with no greater angle than 
1*0 N.A. are used, no direct light enters the Microscope, but the 
objects are illuminated by an annular ring of very oblique light, and 
are seen due to the light which they reflect. By moving the paraboloid 
B up or down by means of the lower milled ring which rotates the 
sleeve in which it is held, the lens A being retained in contact with the 
slide, the light is accurately focused and the maximum brilliancy 
obtained. Various forms of bacteria, viewed by this method, show 
different structure, and it would appear to be a hopeful method of 
obtaining an increased power of examining living micro-organisms. A 
powerful light is essential. An incandescent gas lamp, with a bullseye 




Fig. 49. 



to project a parallel beam upon the mirror of the Microscope, gives good 
results. The Nernst electric lamp forms an excellent light for this 
purpose. But whatever light is used it should be parallelised by means 
of a bullseye or aplanatic condenser. Fig. 49 shows the Nernst lamp 
on stand complete with an aplanatic Herschel condenser. 

New Microscope Lamp.* — C. Troester has devised a lamp by which 
light is transmitted from its source to the Microscope through a straight, 
internally-polished tube (fig. 50). The source of light is an incandescent 
burner, with a metal chimney having an opening in front. The tube is 
so fitted that it can revolve in a vertical plane, and about a point in the 
centre of the incandescent body. The Microscope mirror is placed close 
to the end of the tube and arranged to catch the central beams. A 
convex lens is inserted at the lamp end, and a blue glass disk at the 
Microscope end. The light obtained is said to be more powerful than 

* Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., xlv. (1907) pp. 574-5 (1 fig.). 



240 



SUMMAUV OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



the best daylight. The apparatus, which takes up little space and is 
easily arranged, is made by E. Leitz. 




Fig. 50. 



Foucault's Heliostat.* — In this instrument (fig. 51), which can be 
adapted to different latitudes, the mirror has a diameter of 30 cm. 




Fig. 51. 

* Catalogue (1907) of the Soc. genevoise pour la construction d' instruments de 
physique et de rnecanique, pp. 87-8. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



241 



Wollaston's Goniometer.* — This instrument (fig. 52), the circle of 
which is 140 millimetres in diameter, is provided with regulating screw 
apparatus for centring crystals, and vernier reading to 30 seconds. 




""WliiiiiaiiiiiiiiH 



F.g. 52. 




Fig. 53. 



The same instrument, as improved by Mallard (fig. 53), has, in addition, 
a collimator with slit of various forms and an adjustable support for the 
black mirror. 

* List Pkys. and Mech. Instr. Soc. Genevoise (1907) pp. 4S-9. 



242 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Reglet for Direct Reading in Microscopic Measurements. * — To 
facilitate quick measurement with camera-lucida drawings, F. Guegueii 
has contrived a simple apparatus such as every microscopist would he 
able to make to suit his instrument. The Microscope having been first 
slanted at a suitable inclination to the vertical, a rectangle is cut out of 
& piece of celluloid, the longest side of this rectangle being equal to the 
vertical distance separating the base of the micrometric screw from the 
table on which the Microscope is placed. This transparent rectangle, 
being placed upright on its narrow side in a plane parallel to the 
plane of symmetry of the Microscope, is cut obliquely across the corner 
by a line parallel to the axis of the instrument. The reglet thus 
formed gives a means of always insuring the same slope of tube. 
When the instrument has been thus inclined and provided with a 
micrometer objective and a camera lucida at a variable angle, the 
micrometric scale seen under the various magnifications employed, is 
drawn successively on the table. For strong optical combinations a 
tenth, or perhaps a fifth of a millimetre would be drawn : for weak 
enlargements the entire scale would be drawn. Each of these traces 
having been afterwards geometrically sub-divided into fractions, whose 
smallest division would equal 1 //., it will only remain to counter-draw side 
by side on the sheet of celluloid the various graduated scales (this can 
be done by the aid of a graver or scalpel), and record their values. The 
appropriate part of the celluloid sheet, when used for measurement, 
would be superposed on the drawing obtained by the camera-lucida. 

Grimsehl's Liliput-projection Lantern.t — This instrument is made 
by A. Kriiss, of Hamburg, to the design of Professor Grimsehl. Its 
optical peculiarity is a short-focus illuminating lens. The light-source 
is an electric arc lamp requiring a current of 1 • 5 amperes. The whole 
arrangement is extremely compact, and being mounted on a pillar-stand 
-can be raised or depressed at pleasure. 

A Micro-object Locater.J — S. E. Dowdy writes : "When showing 
a mixed slide of objects under a low power to friends or to a class, the 
necessity often crops up for locating a particular specimen which has 
been picked out by the observer. There is an eye-piece on the market, 
fitted with an index-needle, specially devised to overcome this difficulty ; 
but it is expensive, and is very little, if any, more effective than the 
contrivance which any working microscopist can make for himself. All 
that is wanted is a circular piece of glass capable of fitting between the 
eye-piece lenses, resting on the diaphragm usually to be found in the 
eye-piece tube. This glass must be ruled off into small squares. If 
one possesses a glazier's diamond, the glass can be cut and ruled at 
home ; but any optician could get it done for a small sum. If, how- 
ever, it is preferred to make it at home, and no diamond or glass-cutter 
is available, here is an alternative method of manufacture. Get a cir- 
cular glass, such as is used in phonograph reproducers, just the right 

* C.R. Soc. Biol, de Paris, lxiii. (1.07) pp. 117-18. 

t Central. Ztg. f. Opt. u. Mech., xxviii. (1907) pp. 307-8 (2 figs.). 

j English Mechanic, lxxxvi. (1908) pp. 5G4-5. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 243 

size. Now dip it in a solution of gelatin, draining off the superfluous 
liquid, and allowing it to dry. The squares can then be scratched on 
the film side with a pin. In whichever way the glass is prepared, it 
must have the squares numbered consecutively in small figures. When 
this glass is inserted in the eye-piece, each square covers a small portion 
of the field, and the squares being numbered, the location of any par- 
ticular object can easily be signified to any number of observers. 1 ' 

(4) Photomicrography. 

Scheffer's Microscopical Researches on Plate-grains. — W. Scbeffer 
has devoted much attention to the above subject, and his results are 
herewith summarised under the titles of his respective articles. 

Microscopical Researches on the Effect of the Persulphate and Ferri- 
cyanide Reducers, as also on the Re-developing of Bleached Negatives with 
Alcoholic Developers* — The author's object was to investigate the reason 
for the difference in action of Lumiere's ammonium persulphate reducer 
(soft result) and Farmer's ferricyanide of potash reducer (harsh result). 
Suitable preparations were made, and the gelatin films sectionised by 
the microtome, and examined microscopically. It was found that the 
effect of the ferricyanide was limited to the upper part of the surface, 
all grains then being dissolved, while in the lower part they were not 
touched. The persulphate, on the other hand, penetrated the whole 
film, and thus reduced all grains in an equal proportion. The author 
quotes Werkner's redevelopment formula, which is especially suited for 
changing harsh negatives into soft ones without loss of image in the 
transparent part. 

Note on the Reversed of Solarised Negatives with Farmer's Reducer. ,| 
If a bromide negative is exposed under a photometer in such a way 
that the more transparent area of the field appears already as a positive 
by solarisation, and the negative obtained by this is reduced afterwards 
with Farmer's reducer, then a part of the reversed (by solarisation) 
regions is changed again into a negative. This is best to be seen in 
those places where the solarisation has not gone too far. Microscopic 
examination showed that in the solarised parts the grains were equal in 
size and evenly distributed over the whole thickness of the film. In 
the less exposed parts the size and quantity of grains in the upper parts 
were both greater. Under certain circumstances, reduction with ferri- 
cyanide of potassium would invert the relative portions of transparency 
of these two parts, e.g. if the reducer had penetrated down to the half 
of the two films equally. In one case the greater quantity of the grains 
would have dissolved, and only a very slight opacity remain ; in the 
other, comparatively more of the grain would remain unattacked, and 
consequently the parts, formerly more opaque, would be relatively more 
transparent after reduction. 

Microscopical Researches* on 'the Size and Distribution of the Plate- 
grains. % — The author illustrates his researches by a series of nineteen 

* British Journ. Photog.. liii. (1900) pp. 964-5 (9 tigs.). 

+ Tom. cit.. p. 1027 (2 figs.). 

i Op. cit., liv. (1907) pp. 116-20 (19 figs.). 



24-4 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

photographs, showing various stages and results in the development of 
a plate The first stage of development always seemed to originate in 
the protrusion of small rod-like processes, usually knob-terminated, from 
the grains. These processes, or filaments, seemed to be more numerous 
on the smaller grains than on the large ones. The impression suggested 
to the observer was that the results were in the nature of an explosion, 
which took place during the exposure, small bodies being apparently 
shot away from the grains and making their way through the gelatin 
either in straight or in irregularly curved lines. Both the terminal 
knobs and the filaments acted as germs, at which development com- 
mences. Sometimes the filament is hardly visible even with the highest 
power oil-immersions. Thus the germs at which the formation of the 
developed grain commences are situated outside the original grains, and 
also the further stages of development are outside the original grains. 
The developed grains are always clumsily-aggregated masses. 

It would seem that in an exposed film the grains may be divided 
into three classes : — (1) Original grains, i.e. grains which have germs 
round themselves, which germs are the points where development 
commences. These original grains are not dissolved by development. 
(2) Dissolving grains — grains which show no germs, and which are 
dissolved either partly or entirely by chemical development. (3) 
Developed black grains. 

Jficroscopic Researches on the Plate-grain* — In this article the 
author examines the relations of " dissolving " and " original " grains 
under different conditions of development and exposure. He infers 
that the solubility of the dissolving grains in chemical developers is 
governed by the exposure, and that the solubility increases at the com- 
mencement corresponding with the exposure up to a maximum, after 
which it decreases with the increasing exposure. He also found that 
the solubility of the dissolving grains, as* well as the size of the developed 
grains, corresponded with the concentration of the developing solution. 
The size of the developed grains also depended on the number of grains 
in unit volume of the gelatin. 



& v 



Mees, C. E. K. — Screen-plate Colour Photography. 

[The author describes some twelve processes, and discusses the scientific 
principles which underlie them.] 

Journ. Soc. Arts, lvi. (1908) No. 2878, pp. 195-204 (6 figs.). 

(5) Microscopical Optics and Manipulation. 

Correction of the Astigmatism of Doubly Refracting Prisms.t — 
C. Tissot and F. Pellin refer to the deformation of image produced in 
various degrees by all doubly refracting prisms. In the case of a nicol, 
it is only the extraordinary rays which contribute to the image, i.e. rays 
which do not, in general, remain in the plain of incidence. The result is 
a dyssymmetry which can be proved by an easily shown astigmatism. 
Thus, if a homocentric beam, limited by a narrow circular diaphragm, be 

* British Journ. Photog., liv. (1907) pp. 271-3 (7 figs.). 
t Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 866-7 (3 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC 



245 



received on a nicol provided with a convergent lens, two real perfectly 
distinct foci will appear capable of reception on a screen. The astigma- 
tism is still more clearly seen with a polarising Microscope. The authors 
show, however, that an image as sharp as when there is no interposition 
of a nicol can be always obtained by superposing on the ocular a cylin- 
drical lens of suitable power, orientated so that the axial section coincides 
with the plane of symmetry of the prism. 

Cantor Lectures : Theory of the Microscope.* — A series of Cantor 
Lectures in December and January last were given by C. Beck on the 
theory of the Microscope. The author did not treat the subject on the 
usual lines, but devoted his attention mainly to the instrument as at 
present in actual use, with especial reference to practical considerations. 
Although he fully recognises indebtedness to others, e.g. E. M. Nelson 
and J. W. Gordon, his lectures contain much novelty and originality, 
and will be found to include many points which have recently occupied 
the attention of microscopists. The first two lectures discuss lenses, and 
the author gives it as his opinion that the limits of constructive excellence 
have been practically attained. The third lecture deals with diffraction, 
and the fourth with practical applications of theory. 



(6) Miscellaneous. 



Compass Reading to gfo or ^Vo Millimetre.!— This instrument 
(fig. 54) measures objects 3 millimetres thick. The amplification is ob- 
tained by a lever and a Microscope having at its focus a glass micrometer. 




Fig. 54. 



Caliper with Micrometer Screw.} — This instrument (rig. 55) is 
mounted on a cast-iron foot, has a ratchet head, and exerts a uniform 

* Journ. Soc. Arts, lvi. Nos. 2875-8 ; and as a reprint. 

t List Phys. and Mech. Instr. Soc. Genevoise, 1907, p. 44. 

% Tom. cit., p. 41. 



246 



SUMMAItY of cuim;knt ukska KGHES 1,'KLATING to 



pressure on the object measured. The larger size measures to approxi- 
mately 5^j of a millimetre. 




Fig. 55. 



Quekett Microscopical Club. — The 445th Ordinary Meeting of 
the Club was held on January 17, the President, Dr. E. J. Spitta, 
F.R.A.S. F.R.M.S., in the Chair. Owing to the unfortunate absence 
through illness of the authors, neither of the two papers announced 
were read. Messrs. Baker exhibited with the lantern a number of 
slides, mostly of pond life. Mr. E. Large, using the projection 
polariscope, exhibited some very interesting and beautiful sections of 
selenite crystals, also some photomicrographs of twinned crystals. 

At the 446th Ordinary Meeting, which was also the 42nd Annual 
General Meeting, Professor E. A. Minchin, M.A. (Oxon.), was elected 
President. The usual reports, which were very satisfactory, were 
presented by the Committee, Treasurer, Librarian, and Curator. 
Dr. E. J. Spitta, F.R.A.S. F.R.M.S., the retiring President, delivered 
the Annual Presidential Address, taking for his subject " The Photo- 
graphy of Very Translucent Diatoms at High Magnifications." Refer- 
ence was made to the difficulty of obtaining contrast between the 
object and the background, and this being due to the nearness of the 
index of refraction of the mounting medium to that of the silex of the 
diatom (l - 43) (Canada balsam is 1'52), it was advised that, if possible, 
diatoms to be photographed under high powers should be mounted in 
realgar, the "index of visibility " of which is 121, that of Canada balsam 
being only 9. The "fog" seen round dot markings was stated to be 
caused by the fact that no lens, or combination of lenses, can represent 
the image of a point as another point, but such must be shown as a disk 
of more or less sensible diameter. This " fog " is got rid of in the 
following manner : — A negative is made on a fast plate, and is developed 
preferably with hydrokinone to obtain maximum contrast. A positive 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 247 

is made from the negative, by contact, on a second fast plate. From 
this positive a second negative is made, and subsequently from this a 
second positive, both by contact, on slow " process " or "lantern " plates. 
Lantern slides showed the great improvement and practical absence 
from the " fotr " thus obtained. 



B. Technique.* 
(1) Collecting- Objects, including- Culture Processes. 

Multiplication in vitro of Treponema Pallidum.! — C. Lebailly 
finds that liver and spleen infected with Treponema pallidum are 
excellent cultivation media for these organisms. Pieces of liver and 
spleen were cut out, with the usual precautions, from the body of a foetus 
and incubated for 45 days. Examination at the end of 15 days showed 
a great increase in the number of Treponemata : at the end of 45 days 
there was no apparent increase in the number, and many were much 
degenerated. 

Cultivation of Anaerobic Bacteria.! — J. Kursteiner finds that two 
chief methods have been employed for the cultivation of anaerobic 
organisms : (1) in which oxygen is apparently not excluded, as with 
media containing reduced substances, or portions of organic tissue, or 
as in mixed cultures with aerobes ; (2) in which oxygen is excluded, 
either by covering the lower or upper layers of the medium with glass, 
mica, or paraffin, by boiling the medium, by vacuating, by substituting 
another gas for the oxygen, by absorption of the oxygen, or by a 
combination of these principles. 

The author describes the most practical methods of R. Bum and of 
J. H. Wright. 1. Burri employs a glass tube the size of an ordinary 
test-tube, closed at either end by wool plugs and sterilised for two 
hours at 160° to 180° C. ; a number of rubber corks kept under 
sterilised water ; a sterile Petri dish, a scalpel, and a sheet of clean white 
filter -paper ; 2 p.c. glucose-agar is prepared and sterilised, and when 
cooled to 42° C. is inoculated and poured into one of the glass tubes, 
which is then plugged with wool and a rubber cork, stood in cold water 
to solidify the medium, and incubated at 30° C. or 37° C, and finally 
on the top of the solid medium a few c.cm. of fresh sterilised agar are 
poured and quickly solidified. After the colonies have appeared the 
rubber cork is removed, and the cylinder of agar is allowed to slide out 
of the tube on to the filter-paper, where it is dried ; sections of the 
medium 1-2 mm. in thickness are then made with the sterilised knife, 
and transferred directly to a Petri dish, placed on a dark ground ; by 
carefully made cuts a colony is then removed from one of the sections 

* This subdivision contains (1) Collecting Objects, including Culture Pro- 
cesses; (2) Preparing Objects ; (3) Cutting, including Imbedding and Microtomes ; 
(4) Staining and Injecting ;(5) Mounting, including slides, preservative fluids, etc. ; 
(6) Miscellaneous. 

t Comptes Rendus, cxlvi. (1908) pp. 312-14. 

X Centialbl. Bakt., 2te Abt. xix. (1907) pp. 1-26,97-115, 202-20, 385-88 (6 figs.). 



248 



SUMMARY OK OUJUliENT RESEARCHES DELATING TO 



mid examined microscopically and subcultured to determine whether the 
organism is obligate anaerobe or not (fig. 56). 

2. By the method of J. H. Wright, an ordinary test-tube containing 
8-10 c.cm. of some fluid medium is inoculated, and a sterile plug of 
wool is pushed down in such a way as to touch the medium ; on to this 







Growth 
free 
zone 



«§§r* 



Growth 
free 
zone 




Rubber stopper 

Fin. 56. 



plug sodium pyrogallate solution is dropped, and the tube is at once 
closed with a rubber cork. A refinement of this method was devised 
by Burri, who flamed the wool plug lief ore it was pushed into the tube, 
and after it had been pushed down a second wool plug was introduced, 
and this was soaked with the pyrogallate solution, the tube being then 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSOOPV, KTC. 



249 



closed with a rubber cork, thus avoiding much risk of contaminating 
the medium (fig. 57). 

This modified method is also applied to plate cultivations ; a small 








— Rubber stopper 



Hygroscopic 
cotton wool 
stopper saturated 
with alkalin 
pyrogallol 



Fig. 57. 



Sterile dry plug of 

non-hygroscopic 

wool 



Inoculated 
medium 




3 cm.. 



Fig. 58. 



Rubber stopper 



Hygroscopic 
cotton wool 
stopper saturated 
with alkalin 
pyrogallol 



Sterile dry plugof 

non-hygroscopic 

wool 



A Anaerobe plate 



glass dish 80 by 80 by 7 mm. being used to hold the medium, and 
which, after inoculation, is passed into the tube, which is plugged and 
corked as before (fig. 58). 

The author also describes a method for cultivations under conditions 
completely free from oxygen. The apparatus is shown in tig. 59 ; it 
consists of a long tube holding sterile broth, and communicating at the 
middle with a short tube, in which is the inoculating material, and both 
tubes are corked, like the modified Wright's tube (fig. 57) ; after stand- 
ing at 37° C. for five days, the long tube is inoculated, and after 18 hours 
the broth is clouded. The absence of oxygen is demonstrated by control 
tubes, the long arm containing a clear solution of pyrogallic acid, the 

April 15th, 1908 s 



250 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



shorter tube a solution of caustic potash, the tube being corked as before ; 
after 10 days at 37° C. the contents of the tubes are mixed, and no sign 
of brown coloration occurs. 

Light bacteria may be used as oxygen indicators. The author refers 
to the absolute anaerobic cultivation of Stiller, and to the extreme diffi- 




Inoculation 
material 




ifS 



Rubber stopper 



Hygroscopic 
cotton wool 
stopper saturated 
witb alkalin 
pyrogallol 



Sterile dry plug of 

nou-hygroscopic 

wool 



:^r£ r ) Sterile broth 



Fig. 59. 

culty of attaining it, on account of the air adhering to the surface of the 
glass culture tube and contained also in the medium ; these traces of 
oxygen may be readily removed by employing an obligate aerobic micro- 
organism, but the amount of oxygen may be too minute to enable the 
light bacteria to emit light. By means of B. mesentericus the author 
was able to free his medium from oxygen as quickly as with a light 
bacterium. 

The author next considers the method of effecting a number of sub- 
cultures in continuous oxygen-free condition. The apparatus (fig. 60) 
is a development of the double culture tube (fig. 59), and consists 
of 4 to 16 tubes, joined at the middle, the level of communication be- 
tween succeeding tubes being higher than between those immediately 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



251 



preceding ; the series of tubes contains fluid medium ; the right amount 
of liquid necessary to allow succeeding tubes to be filled from the pre- 
ceding by tilting the whole apparatus, is previously tested and the levels 
marked. The tubes are sterilised and inoculated with B. mesenteric us. 




^> ^ 



I 



/ 



Sterile cotton 
•} wool plug before 
sealing off 



Hygroscopic 
wool plug 
saturated with 
alkalin pyrogallol 



Sterile, dry, 
non-hygroscopic 
wool plug 



Nutrient fluid 



Fig. 60. 



and after 10 hours the broths are clouded ; the first tube is then inocu- 
lated with a loopf ul of B. pvtrificus broth, and all the tubes are closed 
anaerobically as before ; subcultures were made from tube to tube every 
two days, and after the appearance of growth in the last tube this was 
opened, and on microscopical examination was found to be typical B. 
putrificus, with no evidence of involution forms. Similar results were 
obtained, in a long series, by using light bacteria in place of B. mesen- 
tericus, and subculturing other anaerobic organisms. 

The author further modified the tubes by drawing out the upper 
portions into narrow necks, which, after receiving the two plugs of wool 
as before, were sealed in the flame instead of being corked (fig. 61). 

s 2 



252 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Referring to the use of paraffin in excluding oxygen, the author 
demonstrated by several experiments, employing light bacteria, that 
paraffin is useless, since it not only allows the passage of oxygen, but can 
store it up. 

The author concludes from his observations, that both obligate and 
falcultative anaerobes can live for a number of generations, without any 
functional alteration, in complete exclusion from free oxygen. The 
similar behaviour of these two classes of organisms expresses the fact 
that potential anaerobes are just as good representatives of anaerobic life 
as the essential anaerobes, over which they have the advantage of bein<„ r 
able to grow normally also in air. 

Isolating the Nodule Organism of the Leguminosse.* — F. C. 
Harrison and B. Barlow have examined upwards of thirty species of 
Papilionaceas, and with two exceptions, found nodules developed on the 
roots. To isolate the nodule organism the authors employed a medium 
consisting of wood ashes, which contains phosphate, sulphide and 
chloride of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron, but no 
nitrogen, to which was added some form of sugar. Fresh ashes were 
shaken up in water, boiled and filtered, and to various strengths of the 
aqueous filtrate 2 to 5 p.c. of maltose were added. Ash maltose agar 
was also used. 

To isolate the Pseudomonas radicicola, the root of the plant is washed 
under a tap, and a nodule is removed with forceps and immersed in an 
aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and mercuric chloride crystals for 
two to three minutes ; it is then placed on a filLer-paper moistened with 
the same solution, and cut open by a specially made knife needle, 
previously flamed, and portions of bacteroidal tissue are removed into 
sterile water in a Petri dish. From the resulting emulsion cover-slips 
were prepared and stained, and ash agar plate cultivations were made 
and incubated at 20° C. No other organisms were detected in the 
nodules besides the Pseudomonas radicicola. On ash maltose agar, in 
two to three days it forms a raised, transparent, wet, shining, spreading 
growth, which draws out into a fine thread when touched with a needle. 
Cultures on this medium remain alive for over a year. The organisms 
are small rods, often swollen at one end, and rarely branched ; they are 
actively motile, and a single polar flagellum may be developed ; the cell- 
contents are not uniform, often concentrated in bands, and varying with 
the species of the legume, the condition of infection and growth, the age 
and size of the nodule, and the portion of the nodule examined. They 
stain well with ordinary dyes, but are decolorised by Gram's method. 
The authors give some reports showing the benefit obtained by the 
distribution of pure cultures of Pseudomonas radicicola in Canada. 

Method for Isolating Anaerobes.f — F.Marino describes the following 
simple method for isolating anaerobic bacteria. ; > >0-:'>. r > c.cm. of a mixture 
of ordinary agar and 3-5 p.c. glucose are distributed into large test- 
tubes. When required for use such a tube is melted, and on attaining 
a temperature of 42°, 1 c.cm. of rabbit or horse serum is passed in ; the 

* Centralis. Bakt., 2te Abt. xix. (1907) p. 264. 

t Ann. Inst. Pasteur, xxi. (1907) pp. 1005-8 (2 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 253 

serum has been previously heated to 55° for 20 minutes. It is then 
inoculated with the material to be examined ; from this first tube, a 
second is inoculated, from the second a third, and often a fourth from 
the third. After the inoculations, the contents are poured into the 
larger half of a Petri's capsule, and covered with the small part turned 
upside down ; the pair is then covered With a still larger half (fig. 62). 



[^j^^^^^^^^^ 




Cultivation 
media 

Fig. 62. 

After ;> or 4 days' incubation, one of the halves is removed and any 
colonies descried are fished out by means of a glass pipette. 

When dealing with very slowly growing anaerobes, especially in 
intestinal contents, it is advisable to add 3 p.c. lactose as well as the 
foregoing constituents. 

When the microbes are isolated it is quite easy to cultivate them in 
a liquid medium. 

(2) Preparing- Objects. 

Fixation Methods and Elimination of Artefacts.* — G. Rubenthale 
has obtained satisfactorv results towards the eliminating of artefacts 
produced by existing fixation methods, by endeavouring to minimise the 
shock produced on the living tissue by the reagent, and, besides in- 
sisting on the principles of isotony and isothermy, the author advocates 
diminishing the sensibility of the tissne by ansesthesia, and a slow appli- 
cation of the fixation reagent, commencing with weak solutions and 
gradually increasing them until the desired result is obtained. Isotony 
is attained by placing the specimen in the medium to which it natu- 
rally belongs — muscle into blood-serum, nerve into cerebrospinal fluid, 
embryonic tissue into amniotic fluid, etc. Anaesthesia is conferred by 
immersing the tissues in solutions of hydrochlorate of cocaine or chloral 
hydrate. These methods, however, increase the duration of the fixation 
process, and to somewhat obviate this effect the author reduces the size 
of the specimen. A detailed account is given of the technique employed. 

Studying Spirochseta Balbiani and Spirochasta Anodontse.f — 
H. B. Fantham examined these two Spirochetal in their natural 
environment as far as possible. When a style was present, the freshly 
extracted structure was mounted in a drop of sea-water or fresh-water 
in the cases of Ostrea and Anodonta respectively, and placed in a moist 
chamber. The organisms were thus kept alive from 3 to G hours 
while the style was examined in sections in the laboratory at a tempera- 
ture above that normal to the animals. The fluid contents of the stylo 
were pressed out and the still wet smear fixed with osmic acid vapour, 
or hanging drops of the parasites in their natural medium were made 

* Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxiv. (1907) p. 133. 

t Quart. Joum. Micr. Sci., lii. (1908) pp. 1-73 (: J . pis, and 11 figs, in text). 



254 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

and thus examined. Methylen-blue in \ p.c. solution effectively 
stained the parasites. 

For examining the parasites in the fixed condition, osmic acid vapour 
was found to give the best results. The wet film obtained from the 
style was in the vapour of 2-4 p.c. osmic acid for 1-4 minutes. Dried 
films, after fixed in ethyl or methyl-alcohol, also gave good results. 
The most successful stains were gentian-violet (Ohlmacher's formula, 
which contains formalin), hematoxylin (Delafield's, Ehrlich's, and 
Heidenhain's formulas), Giemsa, Leishman, alcoholic safranin, and 
Loeffler's methylen-blue. For revealing structural details in the mem- 
brane, gentian-violet and iron-hsematoxylin were most useful. The 
various modifications of Eomanowski were much less successful than the 
hematoxylin stains. Sections were made of the style of Anodin which 
had been fixed in Flemming's fluid : these were stained with hema- 
toxylin solutions, Giemsa and methylen-blue. 

Demonstrating the Histogenesis of Nerve-fibrils. * — D. J. Pesker 
opened the abdominal cavities of gravid white mice killed with chloro- 
form, and removed the embryos separately or together with the 
membranes and the uterus. 

The material was fixed in the following fluid : alcohol (96 p.c.) 
96-97 c.cm. ; ammonia (10 p.c.) 4-3 c.cm. In this fluid, changed after 
24 hours, the embryos were left for 2 days. The larger embryos were 
cut in several pieces after 24 hours. On removal from the fixative, the 
pieces were washed in water and then transferred to 1| p.c. silver- 
nitrate and kept for 3 or 4 days at 37° C. When withdrawn from the 
silver solution, the objects were mopped up with blotting-paper and 
placed in the following solution for 24 hours in diffuse daylight : 
pyrogallic acid, 2 ; formalin, 5 ; distilled water, 100. Paraffin sections 
were then prepared in the usual way, and these were treated for 5 to 15 
minutes with 1 p.c. gold-chloride solution, from which they were directly 
transferred to 5 p.c. hyposulphite of sodium for 10 to 12 minutes. The 
sections were then submitted to prolonged washing in water, and after- 
wards mounted in the usual way. 

(3) Cutting-, including: Imbedding- and Microtomes. 

Demonstrating the Microscopic Structure of Fossil and Recent 
Reptilian Bone.f — A. L. L. Seitz remarks that one of the greatest 
difficulties in obtaining microscopical preparations of fossil bones is 
their fragility, and tendency to crumble in manipulation. His method 
was to surround the pieces with a mixture of resin and wax (9-1), and 
then to remove slices with fine fret-saws, or with circular saws and emery. 
The slices thus obtained were stuck on stout slides with a mixture of 
resin, wax, and hard balsam (9-1-1), and then ground down with emery 
on rough glass, and afterwards, if necessary, polished with smooth glass. 
The flattened surface was then fixed with the resinous mixture to 
another slide, and the first one removed by careful heating and manipu- 
lation. The other surface of the slice is then ground down on an 
emery wheel with water until it is about 1 mm. thick, when it is 

* Archiv Mikrosk. Anat. u. Entwickl., lxxi. (1908) pp. 333-49 (1 pi.). 
t Nova Acta Leopold-Carol. Acad., lxxxvii. (1907) pp. 229-400 (14 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



255 



further thinned down by means of the first-mentioned method, and 
when of suitable thickness may be mounted straight away or first stained 
with a 1-3 p.c. eosin solution for the purpose of detecting traces of 
organic matter. Several pages full of precautions to be taken during the 
different stages are given, but for these details the original should be 
consulted. 



(4) Staining: and Injecting-. 

Staining the Tubercle Bacillus.* — M. Herman recommends the 
following method as being superior to the Ziehl-Nielsen procedure. 
He uses a 1 p.c. solution of ammonium carbonate in distilled water as 
a mordant, and a 3 p.c. solution of crystal-violet (methyl-violet 6 B) 
in 95 p.c. ethyl-alcohol. The solutions are mixed when required for 
use in the proportion of 3 of mordant to 1 of stain. The sections or 
smears are hot-stained in the usual way and then decolorised with 10 p.c. 
nitric acid and 95 p.c. alcohol. The author claims that by this method 
many more tubercle bacilli are to be demonstrated than by any other. 

Syringe for the Injection of Lymph-vessels, f — P. Bartels gives 
the following description of a syringe (fig. 63) used by him for anatomical 




Fig. 63. 



purposes, and especially for the injection of lymph-vessels : A. The 
syringe barrel (1) consisting of a graduated glass tube, having at one 
end (2) a metal nozzle, and at the other end (3) a metal ring, both 
being provided with a knob for a bayonet lock. B. A metal club con- 
sisting of a rod (4) and a piston (5) in the middle of which a ring is 
cut out for a washer. C. A metal junction piece (9) fitted to the 

* Ann. Inst. Pasteur, xxii. (1908) pp. 92-6 (1 fig.), 
t Anat. Anzeig., xxx. (1907) p. 613 (1 fig.). 



256 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



bayonet lock of the nozzle (2), and holding a glass canule (7) fixed by 
a strip of leather (8). D. A metal cover to fit into the metal ring (3) 
of the syringe, and to which are attached rings to take the index and 
middle fingers and thumb. 



(6) Miscellaneous. 



Forceps-scissors. — W. R. Traviss exhibited at the October 1907 
Meeting * an instrument which is at once a pair of scissors and a folding 



nxmn 





1 



<Gdb 



W 






£& 



Fig. 64. Fig. 65 




Fig. 66. 



forceps. It is intended for cutting off particular pieces of weed, etc.. and 
for retaining them until released. In fig. 64 are seen the general features 
of the instrument. The blade B is ground away so as to allow space for 
the wire spring C, which is fixed to the blade A. The extremity of C 

* See this Journal, 1907, pp. 760-1. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ' ETC. 257 

projects beyond the cutting edge of A when the scissors are open, but 
when these are closed the spring is forced past the cutting edge. In 
fig. 65 is shown a section through D, with an object X which is to be 
cut. Inspection of this proves that when B and C meet, the object is first 
held and then cut. 

Fig. 66 shows another weed-cutter, in the form of a guillotine, useful 
for cutting and holding specimens in deep jars, etc. A is a square brass 
tube, cut away at its lower end, as shown in the figure, with a slot in the 
remaining side, leaving a cutting edge C ; beyond C is fitted a small 
block D. A square plunger B fits this tube, having its lower end bevelled 
to a square edge. This plunger is actuated by a rod sliding in the tube F, 
and is kept raised by a spiral spring E (in a spring box H) against the 
under side of the milled-head O. The instrument is plunged into the 
jar of water containing the weed or other like object, which is caught in 
the slot above mentioned. On pressing the milled head the plunger 
descends, cuts the object as it passes the edge of the slot, and holds it 
against the block D. On withdrawing the instrument and releasing the 
spring the plunger rises, and the fragment which has been cut is released. 

Metallography, etc. 

Iron-tungsten System.* — H. Harkort gives a lengthy account of 
the preparation of a large number of carbonless iron-tungsten alloys, 
the determination of their solidification temperatures and critical ranges, 
and their microstructure. A section of the paper deals with the theory 
and construction of granular carbon resistance furnaces, one type of 
which was used for the melting of the alloys. The Saladin double 
galvanometer was used for the heating and cooling curves. Many of 
the alloys obtained were inhomogeneous, and marked discrepancies 
exist between the tungsten added and that found by analysis. The 
freezing-point temperatures, though too irregular [to admit of the con- 
struction of a reliable equilibrium diagram, point to the existence of a 
compound. Ar2 and Ac 2 appear to be little affected by addition of 
tungsten, while Ar 3 and Ac 3 are raised. 

Zinc and Nickel.f — V. Tafel has determined the equilibrium 
diagram in the range 0-50 p.c. nickel. At about 60 p.c. nickel the 
boiling-point and melting-point coincide. One compound, NiZn 3 
occurs, melting at 876° C, distinctly brittle and giving a characteristic 
blue coloration with dilute nitric acid. One of the series of mixed 
crystals passes through a transformation point in the solid state. The 
microsections were etched either with dilute nitric acid, or first 
electrolytically, suspended as positive pole in water containing a little 
sulphuric acid, this process being followed by staining with iodine 
solution. 

Structure of Metals.J — W. Campbell has accumulated much 
evidence in support of the universally accepted theory of the crystal - 

* Metallurgie, iv. (1907) pp. 617-31, 639-47, 673-82 (44 figs. |. 

t Tom. cit., pp. 781-5(14 figs.). 

t Tom. cit., pp. 801-9, 825-34 (85 photomicrographs). 



258 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

line structure of metals, and illustrates the paper- with an instructive series 
of photomicrographs. A molten metal, on cooling to its freezing-point, 
starts to crystallise from centres which are more numerous as the speed 
of cooling is greater. Thus rapid freezing produces a small grain. In 
impure metals the greater purity of the first forming dendrites produces 
irregularity in composition in the solid metal ; this may be rendered 
visible in etched sections. In pure metals the orientation within each 
grain may be revealed by deep etching, developing etching-pits and 
secondary crystals. The influence of mechanical distortion and of 
annealing was investigated. The author describes the crystalline 
structure of aluminium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, gold, lead, 
nickel, platinum, silver, tin, and zinc. 

Theory of Malleableising.* — F. Wrist found that in cast iron 
containing 4 p.c. total carbon, 1 p.c. silicon, with very small amounts of 
other impurities, 3' 4 p.c. temper carbon was formed by heating in 
vacuo for two hours at 950° C. Weighed quantities of the cast iron 
and of dried iron oxide, contained in separate porcelain boats, were 
heated in a previously evacuated tube in a Heraeus furnace. Samples 
of gas formed could be drawn off and analysed. The author gives the 
results obtained, from which he concludes that malleableising proceeds 
through the combination of oxygen with temper carbon (formed by 
annealing) giving CO.,, which then penetrates the iron and forms CO 
with more temper carbon. The CO then takes oxygen from the ore, 
which is reduced, and C0 2 is again formed. If the supply of oxygen 
from the ore fails, C0 2 ceases to be re-formed, and the iron may even 
be re-carburised by the decomposition of CO into C0 2 and C. Photo- 
micrographs and diagrams illustrate the paper. 

Melting Point Diagram of Nickel - sulphur Compounds.! — 
K. Bornemann gives the equilibrium diagram of the nickel-sulphur 
system from 0-31 p.c. sulphur. A homogeneous melt is obtained in 
this range. The only compound stable in the molten state is Ni 3 S 2 , 
melting-point 787° C. Others exist at lower temperatures. Ni 3 S 2 and 
nickel form two series of mixed crystals ; the eutectic of the two 
saturated solid solutions melts at 644° C. The thermal results were 
microscopically confirmed. 

Steel and Meteoric Iron.f—F. Berwerth describes the structure of 
meteorites, with special reference to the Vienna collection, and points 
out that meteoric iron may be regarded as a variety of steel. Kamacite, 
taenite, and plessite are the three chief constituents, all containing 
nickel. A plate of Toluca meteoric iron was kept at 950° C. for seven 
hours and slowly cooled. The kamacite was then found to have changed 
into a finely-granular aggregate. The author proposes to distinguish 
meteoric irons, whose structure has been changed by heating within 
terrestrial space, as metabolites. Such meteorites have a finely- 
granular fracture, differing greatly from the usual coarsely crystalline 

* Metallurgie, v. (1908) pp. 7-12 (16 figs.). 

f Tom. cit., pp. 13-19 (20 figs.). 

X Journ. Iron and Steel Inst.,lxxv. (1907, 3) pp. 37-51 (5 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY. ETC. 259 

fracture. The surface furrows (piezoglyps) found on meteorites are 
ascribed to erosive action of gases on originally rough and irregular 
fractured surfaces in their passage through the atmosphere. J. E. Stead, 
and others, contributed to the discussion. 

Case-hardening of Mild Steel.* — C. 0. Bannister and W. J. 
Lambert have heated mild steel bars in a cementing material at 
871° C. and at 1)82° C. for varying lengths of time. The structure 
and hardness were investigated both after slow cooling and after 
re-heating to 843° C. and quenching in water. At 871° C. the carbon 
content of the outer layer did not increase beyond ■ '.> p.c, while at 
982° C. the bars became supersaturated on the outside. 

Case-hardening. f — G. S. Scott, in the course of experiments on the 
influence of time, temperature, and composition of cementing material, 
has found that the materials which give the most rapid case-hardening 
effect either contain nitrogen or have the power of utilising atmo- 
spheric nitrogen. Gaiillet's mixture (60 p.c. wood charcoal, 40 p.c. 
BaC0 3 ), is very effective. Samples of mild steel, cemented in a non- 
nitrogenous material (sugar carbon), were found to absorb less carbon 
than samples (1) cemented in the same way, but previously heated in 
an atmosphere of ammonia-gas at 550° C, or (2) cemented in the same 
material through which passed a stream of ammonia-gas. Heating in 
ammonia-gas was found to produce twinning ; the author suggests that 
nitrogen induces the formation of y-iron, and that this is the explana- 
tion of its effect in accelerating; carburisation. 



*& 



Hardened Steels.J — P- Longmuir examined the microstructure of a 
large number of commercially hardened tools, carbon ' 5 to 2*0 p.c. 
The good tools were found to consist of hardenite, alone or with 
cementite or ferrite, and had a characteristic absence of definite 
structural pattern. The tools spoilt in hardening frequently showed 
marked patterns, and martensitic, austenitic, and troostitic appearances 
were noted. The effect of different heating and quenching temperatures 
on a 1*15 p.c. carbon steel was determined. Uniformity of structure 
in tool steel is only obtained by quenching in a certain range of 
temperature. 

Hardening of Steel.§ — L. Demozay states at some length the 
conclusions, many of which are of an obvious character, drawn from 
extensive series of experiments, in which the rates of heating and of 
cooling of steel, under widely varying conditions, were determined. 
The heating curves given are of value. The transformation point on 
heating varies between two temperatures, the maximum value being the 
transition temperature at the centre of a very small sample rapidly 
heated, the minimum that of the surface of a large sample slowly 
heated. For a given temperature of heating-bath the maximum rate of 
heating diminishes from outside to centre of the sample. 

* Journ. Iron and Steel Inst., lxxv. (1907, 3) pp. 114-19 (22 photomicrographs). 

t Tom. cit., pp. 120-36 (12 figs.). 

X Tom. cit., pp. 137-43 (lb photomicrographs). 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 144-78 (49 figs.). 



260 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Constitution and Treatment of Steel.* — A. Portevin applies the 
equilibrium diagram of the iron-carbon system to the constitution and 
thermal treatment of steels and cast irons. The constituents, micro- 
scopically distinguished in a polished section, may correspond (1) to 
the phases in stable or labile equilibrium at the ordinary temperature ; 
(2) to the phases in equilibrium at a higher temperature, preserved 
unchanged by quenching ; (3) to states of transition between the 
phases as in (2) and as in (1). The author briefly describes the mode 
of production of the known constituents, including osmondite, but 
purposely leaving out of account Benedicks' ferronite and Kourbatoff's 
troosto-sorbite because so little is known regarding- them. 



■'&"- 



Binary Alloys of Copper, t — R. Sahmen has determined the 
equilibrium diagrams of the systems cobalt-copper, iron-copper, man- 
ganese-copper, and magnesium-copper. The component metals of each 
system are miscible in all proportions in the molten state. In the 
cobalt-copper and iron-copper systems, mixed crystals occur at both 
ends of the diagram. Temperatures of magnetic and thermal trans- 
formations were determined in these series. Manganese and copper 
form a continuous series of mixed crystals with a minimum freezing-point 
at 866° C. and about 65 p.c. copper. Magnesium and copper form two 
compounds, Cu 2 Mg and CuMg 2 , melting-points 797° C. and 570° C. 
Etching reagents used were ammoniacal solution of hydrogen peroxide, 
and dilute sulphuric acid, used electrolytically. 

Binary Alloys of Nickel. J — G. Voss gives the results of his 
determinations of equilibrium diagrams for the binary alloys of nickel 
with tin, lead, thallium, bismuth, chromium, magnesium, zinc, and 
cadmium. Tests were made of magnetic permeability, temperatures 
of magnetic transformation were determined, and the alloys were micro- 
scopically examined. Owing to the low boiling-points of zinc and 
cadmium, the diagrams for the systems containing these metals only 
cover the range, 0-27 p.c. nickel and 0-15 p.c. nickel, respectively. The 
compounds found were Ni 3 Sn 2 , Ni 3 Sn, Ni 4 Sn. NiBi, NiBi 3 , Ni 2 Mg, 
NiMg 2 , NiZu 3 , NiCd 4 . With tin, lead, and thallium, nickel is not 
completely miscible in the liquid state. 

Binary Alloys of Aluminium. §— A. G. C. Gwyer has determined 
the equilibrium diagrams for the alloys of aluminium with copper, iron, 
nickel, and cobalt, with which metals aluminium is completely misci I »le in 
the molten state. Aluminium does not mix in any proportion with lead i >r 
cadmium : no alloys are formed therefore, and the diagrams for these 
two binarv systems are the simplest possible. The compounds are 
CuAl 2 , CuAl, Cu 3 Al, FeAl 3 , NiAl 3 , NiAl,, NiAl. Co 3 Al 13 , Co 2 Al-„ CoAl. 
Thermal results were confirmed by microscopical examination. The 
author considers that Carpenter and Edwards assumed the existence of 
Cu 4 Al on insufficient evidence, and points out that they did not mention 
'CuAl, though its existence was indicated by their thermal results. A 

* Rev. de Mitallurgie, v. (1908) pp. 24-33 (10 figs.). 
+ Zeitsehr. Anorg. Cbem., lvii. (1908) pp. 1-33 (27 figs.). 
% Tom. cit., pp. 34-71 (42 figs.). 
§ Tom. cit.,pp. 113-53 (30 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 261 

comparison is made between the three metals of the iron group in their 
behaviour with aluminium. 

Binary Alloys of Calcium.* — The electrolytic production of pare 
metallic calcium in large quantities has rendered the study of its alloys 
possible. L. Doriski has investigated its alloys with zinc, cadmium, 
aluminium, thallium, lead, tin, bismuth, antimony, and copper, and 
gives incomplete equilibrium diagrams. Owing to the powerful 
affinity of calcium for oxygen, the great amount of heat evolved 
when calcium is dissolved in molten metals (causing an explosive 
reaction in some cases), and the destructive action of high calcium 
alloys on the Jena glass and porcelain tubes used, the alloys were pre- 
pared only with great difficulty. Some of the high calcium alloys 
were melted in vacuo. Most of those of low calcium content were 
prepared by dropping calcium in small amounts into the metal heated 
considerably above its melting-point. Calcium is remarkable for its 
readiness to form compounds. The following were found : — CaZn u „ 
CaZn 4 , Ca 2 Zn 3 , CaZn (?), Ca 4 Zn, CaCd 3 , CaCd, Ca 3 Cd, (?), CaAl 3 , CaTl 3 , 
CaTl (?), CaPb 3 , CaSn 3 . Compounds with antimony and bismuth pro- 
bably exist. Microscopic examination confirmed the diagrams deduced 
from thermal analysis. 

Impact-testing on Notched Test-pieces. f — Ehrensberger considers 
this to be a useful addition to testing methods, affording additional 
information on mechanical properties, and makes the following re- 
commendations as the result of an investigation of the test. The 
machine to be a Charpy pendulum, one of three types giving respectively 
250, 75, and 10 kilogram-metres striking energy. In the test-piece 
160 x 30 x 30 mm. a hole 4 mm. diam. is drilled in the centre of the 
length, parallel to one face and 15 mm. distant from it ; a cut is made 
from the hole to the opposite side. A rounded notch is thus produced. 
The width of test-pieces cut from plates and similar material may be less 
than 30 mm. The test-pieces are machined cold, and must not after- 
wards be heated. The results to be expressed as energy absorbed per 
square centimetre (" spezifische Schlagarbeit "). The test-piece to be 
completely broken. The numerous diagrams and tables of tests on 
different steels with variously shaped notches show the necessity for 
standardisation of methods. 

Constitution of Manganese Cast Irons. J — L. Guillet retracts his 
former statement that cast irons of high manganese content do not 
contain y-iron. What appeared to be pearlite was, in fact, the eutectic 
mixed crystals-cementite. The addition of nickel or manganese to cast 
iron in sufficient quantity produces y-iron. In the case of a grey iron 
the addition of manganese produces y-iron before the graphite has dis- 
ppeared. Increase in manganese is accompanied by an increase in 
amount of carbide. 



■> 



Zeitschr. Anorg. Ghem., lvii. (1908) pp. 185-219 (8 figs.). 

t Stahl und Eisen, xxvii. (1907) pp. 1797-1809, 1833-9 (19 figs.). (Report of 
committee appointed by the German Association for Testing Materials to inves- 
tigate this method of testing.) 

\ Gomptes Rendus, cxlvi. (1908) pp. 74-5. 



262 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Heat Treatment of Copper-zinc Alloys.* — G. 1). Bengough and 
0. F. Hudson have investigated the effect upon niicrostructure and 
mechanical properties of Muntz metal of annealing at different tem- 
peratures. The brass contained 60'43 p.c. copper, 39*21 p.c zinc, 
0*33 p.c. lead, and was rolled hot to round bars, which were finally 
reduced slightly by cold rolling. In this state the metal had a 
considerably higher tensile strength and elongation than in the cast 
condition. Brass of this composition is normally constituted of a and 
/3 solid solutions. On heating, a dissolves progressively in (3 with rise 
of temperature ; at 720° C. /? is the sole constituent. By quenching at 
different temperatures, alloys containing the two phases in different 
proportions may be obtained. Test bars quenched after heating to a 
temperature high enough to produce a notable increase in the proportion 
of /3 give a slightly increased maximum tensile stress and a greatly 
diminished elongation. /3 appears to be brittle. Dilute ammonia 
solution was used for etching ; a etched light, ft dark. By varying the 
strength of the solution a completely reversed effect may be produced. 

Piping and Segregation.! — H. M. Howe and B. Stoughton have 
studied these phenomena in ingots cast from wax containing green 
copper oleate (1'5 p.c). The wax was coloured by the addition of a 
little red cerasine, which does not segregate. The predictions made by 
Howe concerning the influence of casting conditions upon piping and 
segregation were verified. £ 

Measurement of Extension of Tensile Test-pieces. § — W. J. Lambert 
claims great accuracy, combined with simplicity, for a method of measuring 
small extensions, which consists in projecting a magnified image of the 
gap between knife edges attached to the ends of the test-piece, on the 
focusing screen of a photomicrographic apparatus. The extension is 
readily calculated from the increase in width of the image of the gap, 
given the magnification. 

Recovery of Steel from Overstrain. || — E. C. Hancock has show n 
that a carbon steel and a steel containing 3 " 5 p.c. nickel, when over- 
strained in either tension or compression, lose their elasticity for stresses, 
both of the same and of the opposite kind. Recovery takes place 
through rest and more rapidly on warming. 

Influence of Stress on the Electrical Conductivity of Metals.1T 
W. E. Williams has determined the effect of hydrostatic pressure upon 
the resistance of wires of lead, aluminium, bismuth, and manganin. 
The resistance of lead and aluminium is diminished by pressure, that of 
bismuth and manganese increased, the change in each case being 
proportional to the pressure. 

* Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind., xxvii. (1908) pp. 43-52 (30 figs.). 

t Bull. Amer Inst. Mining Engineers, xvi. (1907) pp. 561-73 (17 figs.). 

X See this Journal, 1907, p. 382. 

§ Proc. Inst. Civil Eng., clxix. (1907) pp. 349-51 (2 figs.). 

|| Phil. Mag., xiii. (1907) pp. 688-93 (8 figs.). 

1 Tom. cit., pp. 635-43 (3 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY, BOTANY AND MICROSCOPY, ETC. 263 

Bach, C. — Investigation of a Copper Tube split in use. 

Zeitschr. Vet: Deutsch. lug., li. (1907) pp. 1667-9 (12 figs.). 

Campbell, W. — Heat Treatment of Medium-Carbon Steels ^Influence of Speed 
of Cooling on Physical Properties and Structure. 

Metallwgie, iv. (1907) pp. 772-8 (50 figs.). 

D i eg el, C. — Age-cracks in Copper Alloys. 

Rev. de Metallurgie, iv. (1907) Extraits, p. 67S. 

Giolotti, F. — Practical Value of Metallography. 

Rassegna Mineraria (1907) pp. 277-82. 

Guillet, L. — A New Chromium Tool Steel. 

[The properties and micro-structure of an accidentally made 
" steel," containing 2*18 p.c. carbon, 14-88 p.c. chromium, 
are described.] 

Rev. de Metallurgie, iv. (1907) pp. 1025-6 (2 figs.). 
,, ,, Industrial Application of Metal Microscopy. 

Le Genie Civil (1907) pp. 111-13. 

Harbord, F. W. — Action of Toothless Circular Saws. 

[Microscopic observations of disk and cut metal lead to the explanation 
that the action proceeds through fusion of the metal cut.] 

Engineer, cv. (1908) p. 187 (8 figs.). 
See also Nature, lxxvii. (1908) p. 419. 
Janecke, E. — The Ternary System, Lead-cadmium-mercury. 

Zeitschr. Phys. Chem., lx. (1907) pp. 399-412 (7 figs.). 

Juptner, H. von — Application of the Laws of Physical Chemistry in the 

Metallurgy of Iron. 

Journ. Iron, and Steel. Inst., lxxv. (1907) 

pp. 59-85 (7 figs.). 

,, ,, Microstructure of Steel. 

Oesterr. Zeitschr. fur Berg-und Uilttenwesen, 
(1907) pp. 161-4, 177-80. 
Kerdyk, F. — Microstructure of a Broken Shaft. 

[The failure of a propeller shaft is ascribed to faulty heat treat- 
ment.] Dingler's Polytech. Journ. (1907) pp. 683-5. 

,, „ Metallographic Practice. Stahl und Eisen, xxvii. (1907) pp. 1892. 

Moissan, H. — Vaporisation of Metals. 

Proc. Roy. Inst., xviii. (1907) part 2, pp. 377-91 (1 fig.). 
Moldenke, R. — Production of Malleable Castings. 

Foundry, xxxi. (1907) pp. 257-9. 

M o stow its c h, W. — Lead-oxide and Silica. 

Metallurgie, iv. (1907) pp. 647-55 (2 figs.). 

Puschin, N. — Potential and Constitution of Metallic Alloys. 

Zeitschr. Anorg. Chem., lvi. (1907). pp. 1-45 (17 figs.). 

See also Journ. Soc. Chem. lnd., xxvi. (1907) pp. 1141-2 ; 

xxvii. (1908) pp. 77 and 126. Journ. Russ. Phys.- 

Chem. Ges., xxxix. (1907) pp. 353-99, 528-66. 

FvUER, R.— Form of Melting-point Curves in Binary Systems. 

Zeitschr. Phys. Chem., lix. (1907) pp. 1-16 (7 figs.). 

Saposhnikow, A., & J. Kaniewski — Hardness and Microstructure of Lead- 
antimony Alloys. Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind., xxvii. (1908) pp. 126-7 (abstract). 

Saposhnikow, A., & M. Sacharow — Hardness and Microstructure of 
Cadmium-zinc Alloys. Tom. cit., p. 127 (abstract). 

Shemtschushny, S., & N. Jepremow — Phosphorus Compounds of Man- 
ganese. Tom. cit., p. 77 (abstract). 

Shemtschushny, S., G. Urasow, & A. Rykowskow — Alloys of Man- 
ganese with Copper and Nickel. Tom. cit., p. 77 (abstract). 

[The four papers, references to which are given above, appeared in Journ. 
Rtcss. Phys. -Chem. Ges., xxxix. (1907). 



264 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES. 

Sauvecr, A. — Graphic Representation of the Solidification of Eutectic Alloys. 

Electrochcm. and Met. hid., vi. (1908) p. 18 (1 fig.). 
Sahmen, R., & A. v. Vegesack — Application of Thermal Analysis to Three- 
component Systems. 

Zeitschr. Phys. Client., lix. (1907) pp. 257-83 (12 figs.) pp. 697-702(3 figs.) ; 

lx. (1907; pp. 507-9 (1 fig.). 

Sieverts, A. — Occlusion and Diffusion of Gases through Metals. 

Zeitschr. Phys. Cliem., lx. (1907) pp. 129-201 (8 figs.). 
Stribeck, R. — Spherical Test-pieces of Hardened Steel. 

Zeitschr. Ver. Deutsch. Ing., li. (1907) pp. 1444-51, 

1500-6, 1542-7 (23 figs.). 
Shuddem agen,~C. L. B. — Demagnetising Factors for Cylindrical Iron Rods. 

Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts, and Sci., xliii. (1907) pp. 185-256 (25 figs.). 

Stromeyer, C. E. — Further Experiments on the Ageing of Mild Steel. 

[The author considers that the existence of an ageing effect is confirmed by 
the results of the further mechanical tests given. See this Journal, 
1907, p. 640.] Journ. Iron and Steel Inst., lxxv. (1907) pp. 86-113 

(29 figs.). 
Wawrzinirk — Elastic Properties of Steel. Mctallurgie, iv. (1907) pp. 810-15 

(3 figs.). 
,, ,, Metal Microscopy. Stahl und Eisen, xxvii. (1907) p. 1892. 

Explosion of Thermal Storage Drum at Greenwich. 

[A report on the microstructure of the faulty plate is included.] 

Engineering, lxxxv. (1908) pp. 113-17 (17 figs.). 
See also Engineer, cv. (1908) pp. 57, 82-4, 91-2, 96-7. 

Mitteilungen aus dem Koniglichen Materialprufungsamt, xxv. (1907) pp. 157-231. 
[Contains a section describing the year's work in metallography.] 



2 1);". 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



MEETING 

Held on the 19th of February, 1908, at 20 Hanover Square, W. 
A. N. Disney, Esq., M.A., B.Sc, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Meeting of the 15th of January, 1908— being the 
Anniversary Meeting of the Society — were read and confirmed, and were 
signed by the Chairman. 



The List of Donations to the Society (exclusive of exchanges and 
reprints) received since the last Meeting, was read, and the thanks of the 
Society were voted to the donors. 

From 
J. M. Hulth, Bibliographia Linnaeana. Partie I., Livraison 1.1 Kungl. Vetenskaps 

(8vo, Upsala, 1907) J Societeten i Upsala 

Conrad Beck, Cantor Lectures on The Theory of the Micro- 1 

scope. Delivered at the Society of Arts, Nov. and Dec. > The Author. 

1907. (8vo, London, 1908) ) 

Slide, A Iveolina boscii .. .. Mr. F. Chapman. 



Mr. J. E. Barnard exhibited and described an improved type of 
mercury vapour lamp. The lamp exhibited on a former occasion had 
been improved on, and the one now shown was made with a thicker and 
shorter tube. This gave a sufficiently large source of light to enable 
critical illumination to be obtained with a well filled field, when using 
medium powers. The effect of using this new form of lamp was 
shown under two Microscopes in the room, one with a screen, giving 
absolutely monochromatic green light, the other without a screen, the 
soft blueish light in which was very pleasant to work with, and, owing 
to the entire absence of red rays, constituted an excellent illuminant 
for visual microscopic work. 

Mr. J. W. Gordon inquired if Mr. Barnard had satisfied himself as 
to the absence of any short-length waves of light, which might prove 
injurious to the user. The danger which lurked in that sort of thing 
had been brought home to them lately by the fact that Dr. Hall 
Edwards had lost his arm through incautious operating with X-rays, 
at a time when the risks of damage from that source were unknown and 
unsuspected. 

Mr. Barnard said this risk was really nil, owing to the incan- 
descent mercury vapour being inclosed in a glass tube, which of course 
absorbed practically all the ultra-violet rays. A further safeguard in 

April loth, 1908 I 



266 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

the case of glass tubes which were transparent to ultra-violet rays, was to 
use a screen of a solution of sulphate of quinine between the light and 
the Microscope, which completely absorbed all these rays. 



Mr. C. L. Curties exhibited a number of slides under Microscopes in 
the room, illustrative of the stages in the life-history of the Culicidaj ; 
the labels attached to each were, he thought, sufficiently explicit to render 
it unnecessary for him to further describe them. 

Votes of thanks to Mr. Barnard and to Mr. Curties for their exhibits 
were unanimously passed. 



Attention was called to some excellent stereo-photographs sent for 
exhibition by Mr. Dollman, and placed upon the table, with stereoscopes, 
for the inspection of the Fellows present. 



Mr. E. M. Nelson's paper on " Eye-pieces for the Microscope " was 
taken as read, the greater part of it consisting of numerical tables which, 
though of considerable value, it was thought would prove uninteresting 
reading. The paper would, however, be printed in the Journal. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. Nelson for his paper. 



The Rev. Eustace Tozer read a paper on " The Life-history of a new 
Protophyte," which he illustrated by six lantern slides, and by living and 
mounted specimens under Microscopes, showing the various methods of 
reproduction. He also exhibited micro-slides of Rotifers, stained and 
mounted in Canada balsam by a new process. 

The thanks of the Meeting were voted to the author. 



Mr. F. Chapman's paper, " On Dimorphism in the Recent Forami- 
nifer, Alveolina boscii" was read by Dr. Hebb, specimens in illustration 
being exhibited under the Microscope. 

Mr. Earland said that he had examined Mr. Chapman's specimens, and 
was under the impression that he had observed similar ones on several 
occasions, when examining dredgings in which Alveolina boscii was 
plentiful. It had never occurred to him, however, that the variation 
might be due to dimorphism, he had always regarded it as an abnormal 
variation. Such questions could only be answered, in the majority of 
species, by the cutting of thin sections through the median line, a process 
requiring the greatest skill and delicacy of touch. He had often tried, 
but very rarely succeeded in the operation. Mr. Chapman was well 
known for his skill in these matters, and he was to be congratulated 
on the interesting discovery resulting from his work. 

A vote of thanks to Mr. Chapman for his paper was unanimously 
passed. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 267 

Mr. Nelson's paper, on " Biddulphia Mobiliensis," was read by Dr. 
Hebb — the concluding portion dealing with the comparative values of 
long and short-tube Microscopes in the examination of minute structures. 



Mr. C. L. Curties exhibited on the screen a number of lantern slides 
of various microscopic objects, for which the thanks of the Meeting were 
unanimously voted. 

A description of a micro-object locater, devised by Mr. S. E. Dowdy, 
and exhibited applied to a Microscope in the room, was read by Dr. Hebb. 



It was announced that at the next Meeting of the Society the 
President hoped to be able to give his address, " On Seeds, with Special 
Reference to those of British Plants." 



New Fellow. — The following was balloted for and duly elected an 
Ordinary Fellow of the Society : — Mr. Eric Graham Saunders. 



The following Objects, Instruments, etc., were exhibited : — 

The Society : — The following Stereo-photomicrographs, by Mr. 
Dollman : Blow-fly's tongue x 300 ; Medusa of Opercular ella x 20 ; 
Medusa of Schyzohydra tergemma x 80 ; Plumatella x 16 ; Tubular ia 
crocea x 8 ; Volvox globator x 50; an Object-locater, sent for ex- 
hibition by Mr. S. E. Dowdy ; Slide of Alveolina boscii, in illustration of 
Mr. Chapman's paper. 

Mr. J. E. Barnard : —An Improved Mercury Vapour Lamp. 

Mr. C. L. Curties : — Eight Slides, illustrating the life-history of some 
Diptera : Culex, pupa, larva, male, female ; Tanypus, pupa, larva, male, 
female ; and Lantern Slides of various microscopic objects. 

Mr. J. I. Pigg :— Scale of Dogfish, stained with hematoxylin. 

Rev. Eustace Tozer :— Drawings, and six Lantern Slides, and the 
following Slides under Microscopes in illustration of his paper, A New 
Protophyte : (1) Living forms ; (2) Direct reproduction of parent-form, 
small ; (3) Canada balsam mount, showing flagella ; (4 and 5) Bud- 
cysts ; (6) Zoospores from bud-cysts ; Micro-slides of Rotifers, stained, 
and mounted in Canada balsam by a new process. 



T '1 



268 l'KOCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



MEETING 

Held on the 18th of March, 1908, at 20 Hanover Square, W. 
The Right Hon. Lord Avebury, F.R.S., etc., President, 

in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Meeting of the 19th of February, 1908, were 
read and confirmed. 

The following Donation to the Society was announced, and the 
thanks of the Meeting were voted to the donor. 

From 
Woodward, Horace B., History of the Geological Society of ( afrf^aTRnkptv 
London (8vo, London, 1907) {^f London V 



Mr. J. Ciceri Smith read a description of a direct-reading micro- 
meter gauge, which he exhibited in the room ; the mechanism of the 
instrument being further illustrated by diagrams. 

Mr. Smith said this micrometer would be found very convenient for 
rnicroscopists. It was an improved cover-glass gauge, with an auto- 
matic calculating index, upon which the thickness of the glass in decimal 
fractions of an inch was seen at a glance, and upon the divided-thimble 
half divisions ( = iroV o m could be read off. A full description of the 
instrument, with illustrations, will be published in next issue. 

The thanks of the Society were unanimously voted to Mr. Smith for 
his exhibition and explanation. 



Mr. C. F. Rousselet gave the following account of a series of mounted 
specimens of the rarer species of fresh-water Polyzoa, which were ex- 
hibited under Microscopes in the room. 

The fresh-water Polyzoa received a good deal of attention from 
zoologists about the middle of last century, but Professor xAJlman, by 
the publication in 1856 of his monograph of this group, appears to have 
almost exhausted the subject as far as Great Britain is concerned, for 
during fifty years afterwards no new species were discovered in England, 
with the single exception of the remarkable Victorella pavida, found by 
Saville Kent in 1868. 

Naturalists abroad, in America, Germany, India, Japan, etc., have 
been more active, and have brought to light about a dozen new species 
of great interest, and it is these rarer and mostly foreign forms which 
my exhibit this evening is intended to illustrate. 

The well-known and common species, such as Lophopus, Cristatella, 
Plumatella, Fredericella sultana, and Paludicella, have often been ex- 
hibited, and are not here this evening. The forms represented are the 
following : — 

1. Victorella pavida Saville Kent was first found at one of the earliest 
excursions of the Quekett Microscopical Club, on September 12. 1868, in 
the Victoria Docks. Some years afterwards, in 1885, it was found 
again by Dr. Bousfield, in the Surrey Canal, and in March 1906, guided 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 269 

by this gentleman, I obtained it once more at the same spot, after an 
interval of 21 years. Lastly, I found it in the Surrey Commercial Docks, 
at a Quekett Club excursion on October 5 of last year. 

This species is also known from Germany. It is always found 
attached to the stems of the hydroid Gordylopliora lacustris, with which 
it seems to have entered into a symbiotic arrangement for mutual support 
and food supply. 

I cannot enter into any description, beyond saying that it is a 
very small species of a marine type, with a circular lophophore of only 
eight tentacles. The specimen under the Microscope is the first ever 
prepared with tentacles fully extended. 

2. Victorella symbiotica. Last year* I described a second species of 
this genus, which was brought by 'Dr. Cunnington from Lake Tan- 
ganyika. It was found completely imbedded in a sponge, the long 
narrow tubes penetrating through its substance, to enable the creature to 
expand its tentacles above the surface of the sponge. 

This species also seems to possess sufficient intelligence to see the 
advantage of entering into a similar symbiotic arrangement with a sponge 
for protection and food supply. 

3. Pott siella erecta. — In 1884 Mr. Edw. Potts, of America, published 
a very short account, without figure, of a new Polyzoan under the name 
of Paludicella erecta, which he had found attached to submerged stones 
in the Pennsylvania Canal in his neighbourhood. In 1887 Professor 
Kraepelin, of Hamburg, having obtained some specimens from Mr. Potts, 
changed the generic name into Pottsiella in his monograph of the 
German Fresh-water Bryozoa, having recognised that its affinities are 
quite different from those of Paludicella. 

Last August, at my request, Mr. Potts was good enough to send me 
some living specimens to Boston, where I was able to prepare a few 
fully expanded, and the specimen under the Microscope is the first one 
so obtained. Later in the year, after the cold weather had set in, Mr. 
Potts sent me some stones with the died-down tubes of this species, and 
from the creeping stolons of some of these, new tubes have been formed 
in my aquarium, and for the first time in England I have seen the 
living Pottsiella expand its circular lophophore of about twenty-two 
tentacles. 

4. Urnatella gracilis is another rare American species which was 
discovered and described by Leidy in 1851, in the Schuylkill River. 

The same stones lately received from America to which Pottsiella is 
attached, have also a number of Urnatella, and here again I revived in 
my aquarium the first living specimens ever seen in this country. 

Urnatella is a fresh-water representative of another marine type — 
Pedicellina. 

5. Arachnoidia Ray-Lankesteri. — In 1903 Mr. Moore brought this 
remarkable Polyzoan from Lake Tanganyika, where it was subsequently 
found again by Dr. Cunnington, and the slide exhibited here is from 
this expedition of 1905. It is also of a marine type with rounded flat 
cells, closely adhering to shells and stones, with a tall erect tube at one 
end, from which the animal protrudes its circular lophophore of sixteen 
tentacles. 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1907) pp. 250-257 (2 pis.). 



270 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

6. Hislopia lacustris is a peculiar species found by Carter in 185<s in 
Central India. Lately it has again been found by Dr. Annandale, of 
the Calcutta Museum, and also by Captain Walton, who sent me the 
specimen exhibited here from Bulandshahr, Northern India. 

7. Membranipora mono star hi/s var. fossaria Hincks, is a brackish- 
water species which has evidently wandered from the sea, and occurs in 
tide pools, which, after heavy rains, contain very little salt water. The 
present specimen was sent to me by Mr. Hurrell, who found it near 
Great Yarmouth in a pool about a mile from the sea, encrusting the 
submerged stems of an herbaceous plant. 

8. Pectinatella magnified is a remarkable American species made 
known in 1851 by Leidy. It has also been found in the Elbe at Ham- 
burg, the statoblasts having no doubt been introduced from America, 
and in the Havel, near Berlin. The colonies form solid, rounded, 
gelatinous masses of the size of a child's head, and the animals are 
arranged in rosette-shaped groups on the surface. I saw a number of 
these colonies at the Government Biological Station at Wood's Hole, in 
America, and Mr. Potts, having procured a living specimen when staying 
at Philadelphia, I prepared the group under the Microscope with the 
horseshoe-shaped lophophore of every individual fully expanded. The 
statoblasts are very large, rounded, and have 12-17 long, anchor-shaped 
hooks round the periphery. I brought back some living statoblasts, 
which are now hatching in my aquarium, and have also introduced some 
in various canals and ponds, so I hope it will be possible in future to 
study this interesting species in this country. 

!). Pectinatella gelatinosa. — This species comes from Japan, and was 
discovered in LS90 at Tokio by Dr. Oka, who was good enough to send 
me the specimens here exhibited. The large statoblasts have the shape 
of a cardinal's hat, and have very minute booklets round the edge. 

10. Lophopodella Thomasi. — This species I described in 1904 * from a 
specimen received from Mr. Thomas, who had found it four years earlier 
in a pool formed by the Hunyani River in Rhodesia. The specimen was 
killed and preserved in a fully contracted state, so only the peculiar and 
characteristic statoblasts can be shown. 

1 1 . Plumatella tanganyikce, is another African species brought back 
by Dr. Cunnington, who found it in Lake Tanganyika, encrusting shells, 
stones, and submerged plants. 

12. Fredericella Gunningtoni is yet another new species from the same 
Tanganyika Expedition ; the tubes of this Fredericella are formed of 
coarse sand-grains, creeping, closely adherent, interlacing on shells and 
stones. The circular lophophore has sixteen tentacles. 

The President said that Professor Allman's work on the Polyzoa, to 
which reference had been made, was one of the most excellent mono- 
graphs produced in this country, and it was a remarkable thing that so 
long a period should have elapsed before any additions were made to the 
species which he described. The Society was much indebted to Mr. 
Rousselet for his interesting communication and for the exhibition of 
the specimens described. 

The thanks of the Meeting were unanimously voted to Mr. Rousselet 
for his exhibit. 

* Journ. Quekett Micr. Club., ser. 2, ic. (1904) pp. 45-56 (1 pi.) 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 271 

The President, on rising to give his animal address to the Society, 
said that when the Society did him the honour of asking him to accept 
the office of President, he had some hesitation as to acceding to their 
request ; in the first place because he was not now so much in London 
as formerly, and in the second place because the state of his eyes did not 
permit him to do much microscopic work. Hence he felt rather doubtful 
if he ought to occupy such a position. However, the Council persisted 
in their request that he would do so, and he had given way to their 
appeal, as he so highly appreciated the honour which they proposed to 
confer upon him that he felt he could not decline. The responsibility 
of the position was, however, borne upon him again when he had to 
consider the subject for the annual address. His distinguished prede- 
cessor in that chair had taken the subject of the Seeds of Fossil Plants. 
and following this precedent, he decided to address them on the subject 
of the seeds and fruits of modern British Plants (confining his attention 
on the present occasion to those of the Dicotyledons), and, if the subject 
proved acceptable, to take the seeds and fruits of the Conifers and 
Monocotyledons as the topic of his address of next year. He then 
proceeded to read an extremely interesting paper on the seeds of the 
various orders of flowering plants and trees, with special reference to 
the methods by which they were distributed — remarking at the close 
that he feared the subject might have been wearisome to some persons, 
although if he had failed to interest them he was sure it was not the 
fault of the seeds themselves. 

Mr. Disney said he had very great pleasure in proposing a very 
hearty vote of thanks to the President for the interesting and suggestive 
address to which they had just had the pleasure of listening. The 
subject was somewhat novel as regarded that Society, but he felt sure 
that it had been none the less welcome on that account, and that all 
would look forward with expectation to the continuation which the 
President had promised. He also wished — in addition to showing their 
appreciation of the address — to express their indebtedness to Lord 
Avebury for accepting the office of President of their Society. 

Mr. Wynne E. Baxter, in seconding the vote of thanks, reminded the 
Fellows of the Society that this was not the first time they had been 
indebted to the President for an address, for when in 1877 the Council 
decided to establish a " Quekett Lecture," the first one was delivered by 
their present President, "On the Anatomy of the Ant." They were not 
only under great obligation to him for the address given to them that 
evening, but also for having consented to become their President for 
another year. 

Mr. Disney then put the proposal to the Meeting, when it was carried 
unanimously by acclamation. 

The President said he felt greatly indebted to the mover and seconder 
of the vote of thanks for the kind way in which they had spoken, and 
to the Fellows present for the way in which it had been received. He 
desired also to thank them for the constant support which he had 
received during the year of his Presidency, and which he felt sure would 
be further extended to him during the year on which they had entered. 



272 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

The Secretary said they had received a letter from Mr. Stephi oaon, 
intimating his wish to dispose of a number of the Journals of the Society, 
which he offered for 4/. 10s. 



The next Meeting of the Society will take place on April 15, when 
Mr. F. Enock will give one of his illustrated lectures. 



New Fellows. — The following were elected Ordinary Fellows : — 
Messrs. Thos. Stewart Baird, Arthur Forshaw, David Gordon, Edward 
Geo. Howard. 



The following Instruments, Objects, etc., were exhibited : — 
Mr. J. Ciceri Smith : — Examples of Direct-reading Micrometer 
<niuges. 

Mr. C. F. Rousselet : — Mounted specimens of the following Fresh- 
water Polyzoa : — Victorella pavida, V. symbiotica, Pottsiella erecta, 
Urnatella gracilis, Arachnoidia Ray-LanTcesteri, Hislopia lacustris, Mem- 
branipora monostachys var. fossaria, Pectinatella magnified, P. gelatinosa, 
Lophodella Thomasi, Statoblasts, Fredericella Gutiningtoni, Plumatella 
tanganyikcB. 



JOURN.R.MICR.S0C.1908.P1.IV. 





^10a. 




10b. 




lOd. 




-JR. 



11a. 





&- 




12b. 

West, Newman Iith. 



JOUBNALi 

OF THE 

ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY. 

JUNE, 1908. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 



XI. — The President's Address : On Seeds, with Special Reference 

to British Plants. 

By The Right Hon. Lokd Avebury, P.C., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

(Bead March 18, 1908.) 

Plate IV. 

When the Council did me the honour of inviting me to accept 
their nomination for the Presidency, I placed before them two reasons 
which, while fully appreciating the honour, made me feel very 
doubtful whether I ought to consent. In the first place, I am not 
now so much in London as formerly, and, secondly, my eyes no 
longer permit, or are fit for, much microscopic work. The Council, 
however, pressed me to accept, and, perhaps too readily, I allowed 
myself to be over-persuaded. This came home to me still more 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV. 

Fig. 1. — Delphinium peregrinum. x 12. Longitudinal section of seed. L, some 

of the uppermost tunics or laminse ; LS,LS, longitudinal sections 

of laminse ; r, embryo. 
„ 2. — Pinguecula vulgaris Linn, x 16. F, funiculus. 
„ 3. — Veronica hedercefolia Linn, x 8. Ventral face of seed, showing the 

funiculus or seed-stalk F in the centre of a nearly circular and deep 

cavity. 
,, 4. — Melampyrum pratense. 
„ 5a. — Galeopsis versicolor Curt, x 16. Dorsal aspect of nutlet. B, bald, 

or uniformly pale brown patch ; B S, B S, black spots on a blackish 

brown surface, speckled with grey. 
„ 5b. — Ditto. Ventral aspect of nutlet. S, scar of attachment to receptacle 

and to one another ; I A, inner angle ; B. bald patch ; C T, convex 

top. 

June 17th, 1908 u 



274 Transactions of the Society. 

forcibly when I came to consider the question of my Presidential 
Address. 

It occurred to me, however, that as my distinguished predecessor 
chose for the subject of his Address " The Flowering Plants of the 
Mesozoic Age," and dwelt mainly on their organs of reproduction, 
I might take Fruits and Seeds for my subject, with special reference 
to British Plants. 

I propose this year to deal with the Dicotyledons, and, if it 
meets with your approval, next year with the Conifers and Mono- 
cotyledons, ending with some general observations. 

I have elsewhere* divided fruits and seeds from the point of 
view of their dispersal into — 

Seeds or fruits with wings, which are carried by wind. 

Seeds or fruits with feathery appendages, carried by wind, and 
sometimes, as in Willow, floated by water. 

Seeds in capsules which open at the top, the seeds being 
jerked out by the wind. 

Seeds or fruits with hooks, which are carried by animals. 

Those which are eaten, and the seeds thus carried by animals. 

Those which are thrown by the plants ; and, lastly, 

Those which are sown by the plants themselves. 

In the whole of Botany there is perhaps no more fascinating 
department than that which relates to Fruits and Seeds — their 
development and morphology, their forms and structure, size and 
colour — which, however, can best be dealt with when we have 

* British Flowering Plants, p. 15. 



EXPLANATION OP PLATE IN .—continued. 

Fig. 6a. — Ajuga reptans Linn, x 16. Inner or ventral face of the nutlet, show- 
ing the wall of the carpel N and the partly exposed seed S. 

,, 66. — Ditto. The dorsal aspect of the nutlet. 

,, la. — Ajuga Chamc&pitys Schrieb. x 16. Showing the dorsal aspect. 

,, 76. — Ditto. The ventral aspect of the nutlet. N, ruptured wall of nutlet : 
S, seed partly exposed. 

,, 8a. — Teucrium Botrys hinn. x 16. Dorsal aspect of a nutlet, showing wide- 
meshed netting of broad, blunt ridges, with pits between. 

,, 86. — Ditto. Face by which the nutlets are attached to the receptacle and to 
one another. N, shell of nutlet ; S, seed partly exposed. 

,, 9. — Verbena teucroides. x 4. Pyrene of the fruit, containing one seed 
inclosed in one-fourth part of the reticulated ovary walls. The 
species is a native of Brazil, etc. 

,, 10a. — Polygonum Persicaria Linn, x 8. Triquetrous nutlet. 

,, 106. — Ditto. Transverse section of 10a. 

„ 10c. — Ditto. Biconvex nutlet. 

,, 10a\ — Ditto. Transverse section of 10c. 

„ 11a. — Etq)horbia amygdaloidcs Linn, x 8. Ventral aspect of seed. Ch, 
chalaza ; R, raphe ; C, caruncle. 

,, 116. — Ditto. Dorsal aspect of seed. 

,, 12a. — Euphorbia Helioscopia Linn, x 8. Dorsal aspect. 

,, 126. — Ditto. Ventral aspect. R, Raphe ; C, caruncle. 



The President's Address. By Lord Avcbury. 275 

the facts fully before us. The diversity is astonishing, not 
only in each large family, but even between nearly allied 
species. 

Eanunculace^. — In the very first family, the Ranunculacere, 
we find an example of these remarkable differences. There 
are three main types. Some fruits are baccate, and adapted for 
dispersal by animals, especially birds. Others are dry ; some are 
several-, some one-seeded. The latter form achenes, the seed being 
inclosed in the carpel. 

The many-seeded fruits or follicles burst at the ventral suture, 
so that the seeds can fall, or be thrown out. 
Our only baccate species is Actcea spicata. 

Two of our British Eanunculacea? — namely, Clematis Vitalba 
and Anemone Pulsatilla — have long feathery persistent styles, 
and are dispersed by the wind. It is remarkable that in the 
genus Anemone some species have an elongated and persistent style, 
while others have not. 

Species much exposed to the wind, those, for instance, living 
in mountainous and open places, generally have feathery awns, 
while in those preferring woods and meadows the awns are more 
or less hooked. We find a somewhat similar division in the 
Bosacere, Dryas having feathery, Geum rather hooked awns. 

The achenes are often wrinkled, netted or pitted, which would 
make them lighter and more easily carried by wind. Others are 
hairy, which would tend to the same result. Lastly, some are 
hooked, as, for instance, several Ranunculi, especially a Continental 
species, R. falcatus. 

When the fruit consists of a many-seeded follicle, the seeds are 
liberated at maturity by the carpel opening at the top. The 
stalk at the same time hardens, and, being elastic, the seeds are 
jerked out by the wind, or sometimes by a passing animal. Such 
seeds are generally smooth, and very often black. This arrange- 
ment occurs in Caltha, Trollius, Aquilegia, Paionia, and other 
genera. 

The seeds of Delphinium are curiously wrinkled, and in D. 
Ajacis these form plaits of considerable depth, while in D. pere- 
grinum they might be described as laminae, imbricated one over 
another. The advantage of this arrangement is not clear to me. 
Perhaps the reason is to make the seed lighter (plate IV. fig. 1). 

Berberide^e. — We have only one indigenous species, the com- 
mon Barberry. The fruit is a berry ; the ovary is 1 -celled, and 
contains a few basal, erect ovules, only one or two of which develop 
into seeds. When there are two, they become plano-convex by 
mutual pressure. They are thickest at the chalazal end, next the 
apex of the fruit. 

As is usual in species where the fruits are intended to be eaten 
by birds, the testa is crustaceous, and the surface almost smooth. 

D 2 



276 Transactions of the Society. 

The endosperm also is hard. The seeds are generally thrown up 
uninjured. 

The fruits are generally dark blue, purple, or red, though in 
some species white (B. pruinosa). It may be suggested that in 
species where the leaves are deciduous, or remain green, the red 
fruits would be very conspicuous ; while in those where the leaves 
put on autumn tints, a blue-black colour would show up better. 
B. vulgaris, with red berries, is deciduous. B. Aquifolium, B. 
Dancinii, and B. empetrifolia, with persistent leaves, sometimes 
turning to orange or bright red, have purple berries. 

Nympil-eaceje. — Of this order we have two genera, Nymphcea, 
or Caslalia, and Nwphar, the yellow Water-lily. 

The fruit is a berry. The ovary consists of many carpels, 
united to form as many cells. The ovules are numerous, and 
scattered over the walls of the cells. They are pendulous and 
anatropous, and develop into seeds about as large as grains of 
wheat. The testa is very thick, crustaceous, polished, and shining. 
The perisperm is white, mealy or floury, and the embryo is minute, 
lying near the micropyle. In Nymphwa the fruit ripens under water. 

When the fruit is picked to pieces by birds, many of the 
slippery seeds, no doubt, would escape and float away, or in some 
cases adhere to the plumage and be carried away. The seeds 
themselves are heavy, but in Nymphcca the seed is enveloped in 
an outer coat, or arillus, and between the two is a layer of air, 
which enables them to float. 

In Nuphar there is no arillus, but the walls of the carpel 
separate into two layers, of which the inner one, being spongy 
and charged with air, causes the seeds to float. 

The flowers of the white Water-lily float on the surface of the 
water among the foliage, and when the stigmas have been pollinated 
by the visits of various Libellulidpe and other insects, the vase-like 
ovary is drawn down to the bottom of the water, and in about a 
month or six weeks bursts, and the seeds, which are contained in 
a bladder-like vesicle containing air, rise to the surface and are 
distributed by the action of currents and the wind. The filmy air- 
vesicles soon decay, the seeds sink to the bottom and are sown in 
the soft mud and ooze. 

Papavekace^e. — In this family the carpels are, as a rule, con- 
nate into an ovoid or oblong capsule, or a pod opening either from 
below upwards (Chclidonium), or from above downwards (Glaucium). 
In exceptional species, however, the fruit is fleshy, and in Platy- 
stemon the carpels are distinct. 

In the Poppies the capsules are upright, divided by vertical 
incomplete septa ; the stigmas are arranged on the summit in rays, 
and the capsules open by a series of valves beneath these rays 
(fig. 67). 

The result of this arrangement is that, when the wind blows, 



The Presidents Address. By Lord Avebury. 



277 



globular 



and the poppy-heads are swung backwards and forwards, the seeds 
are jerked out of the capsules. As usual in such cases they are 
small, and deep brown or nearly black, and thus less conspicuous 
to birds. They are also more or less pitted. In form they are 
more or less reniform. 

As regards our four indigenous Poppies, they may be distin- 
guished as regards the capsules as follows : — 

Capsule, club-shaped \ £ ff^one, hairy. 
r (P. dubium, smooth. 

( P. hybridum, hairy. 

( P. Rhmas, smooth. 

In P. Argemone the plant is altogether hairy, perhaps as the 
result of its living in dry regions, and the 
hairiness of the capsule probably has reference 
not so much to the capsule itself as to the 
general habit of the plant. 

In Glaucium (the Horned Poppy) and Che- 
lidonium the fruit is a pod, and dehisces like 
that of the Leguminosa?, but while in Glau- 
cium it opens from the apex downwards, those 
of Chelidonium do so from the base upwards. 

In Chelidonium the base of the capsule 
matures, and naturally opens, first. In Glau- 
cium, however, the pod is much longer, reach- 
ing from 10 inches to a foot. If the valves 
separated at the base, the placentas would have 
to support the whole weight, and would pro- 
bably give way, in which case the pod would 
collapse, and the seeds would not be properly 
scattered. 

The seeds of our Poppies, and of Glaucium, 
as of so many species where they are jerked 
out of capsules, are deeply pitted ; those of 
Meconopsis, Roemeria, and Corydalis are reticu- 
late ; those of Chelidonium smooth and black. 

CrucifeR/E. — This great family is generally 
divided for purposes of convenience by the 
relative length of the pod, and the arrangement of the radicle 
with reference to the cotyledons, which in some cases have their 
edges to the radicle (accumbent), while others have the radicle 
folded over one face (incumbent). The fruit is generally a pod, 
divided into two cells by a thin partition. It is generally con- 
sidered that the pod originally consisted of four carpels, but this 
is now the case in one genus only, Tetrapoma. The valves of 
the pod generally separate at maturity, but in a few genera the 
pod is indehiscent. The surface of the seed is generally smooth ; 
but there are a few interesting exceptions. Some are very much 




Fig. 67.— Capsule of 
a Poppy, a, indi- 
cates level of aper- 
ture. 



278 Transactions of the Society. 

flattened, which would obviously favour dispersal by the wind. 
Where the pods are narrow, as in Nasturtium sylvestre and Brassica 
Sinapistrum (Charlock), there is only one row of seeds; where the 
pod is broader, as in Nasturtium amphibium and Brassica (Dip/o- 
taxis) tenuifolia, there are two. 

In many species the seeds are carried away as food by animals, 
and being no doubt often dropped, are thus dispersed. In others 
the seeds are much flattened, and no doubt carried by wind. 

In some species of Cardaminc and Dentaria the valves of the 
pod open elastically at maturity and scatter the seeds. 

In some species of Brassica the pods terminate in a kind of 
beak which often contains one or two seeds. It seems possible 
that they may thus escape being eaten by birds. 

Lepidium sativum, the common Cress, is remarkable for its tri- 
partite cotyledons. This character is perhaps due to a longitu- 
dinal folding in ages long gone by, so as to enable the embryo to 
fill the seed. 

A Brazilian species of Cardamine, C. chenopodifolia, produces 
underground pods as well as others of the common aerial type. 
These underground pods differ in being shorter and containing 
fewer seeds. We shall find one or two similar cases in other 
orders, and the reason I think is that if there were a number of 
seeds they would interfere with one another, and all but one or 
two would perish. 

Eesedace^e. — In the genus Reseda the seeds are contained in a 
capsule as in some preceding genera, but it is unique in the fact 
that the cup is open long before maturity. It contains numerous 
seeds arranged along a number of placentas ecpual to that of the 
styles. 

The seeds are rugose, but so finely that they appear smooth to 
the naked eye, and are black with a lustrous sparkle. 

Those of R. lutea are much larger than those of R. luteola. 

Violarie^e. — In the Violariese, again, the fruit may be an 
indehiscent berry, or a capsule opening elastically by as many 
valves (3) as there are placentas. This is the case with our only 
indigenous genus, Viola. The species, however, fall into two 
groups. In one (V. hirta, V. odorata, etc.), fig. 68, the capsules 
nestle on the ground, and are even said (as, for instance, by 
Vaucher) to bury themselves. They are, at any rate, pushed among 
moss, decaying leaves, etc., close to the ground. In other species 
(V. canina, fig. 69) the capsules when open resemble an inverted 
tripod. Each valve contains a row of from three to five brown, 
shining, pear-shaped seeds, slightly flattened at the upper (free) end. 
As the capsule dries the sides approach one another (figs. 70, 71), 
and grip the smooth seeds more and more tightly, till at length 
the attachment is ruptured and the seeds are thrown several feet. 
I have suggested elsewhere that we get a clue to the existence of 



The President's Address. By Lord Avebury. 



279 



the two plans if we remember the different modes of growth. The 
first series of species have, in ordinary parlance, no stem, and the 




Fig. 68. — Viola hirta. a, flower-bud ; b, full-sized capsule. 

capsules are therefore close to the ground. In V. canina, on the 
other hand, there is a short stem, and the seeds being thus raised 





Fig. 69. — Viola canina. Capsule 
with seed. 



Fig. 70. — Viola canina. Capsule 
after ejecting the seeds. 



some little distance above the ground, can be thrown to greater 
advantage. 

The ejection of the seeds follows a regular order. The outer 



280 



Transactions of the Society. 



seed goes first, and then the others in regular sequence. The 
second carpel does not begin until the first has discharged all its 
seeds. 

It is remarkable that among the violets the sweet, coloured 
flowers rarely develop seed, most of which are produced by the 
" cleistogamous " apetalous flowers. 




Fig. 71. — Viola comma, a, bud of cleistogamous flower ; 
b, older bud ; c, capsule open. 



Caryophylle^e (the Pink Family). — The capsules are mem- 
branous or crustaceous; rarely berried (Cucubalus). The capsules 
open with a number of teeth equal to or double that of the styles. 
The seeds are numerous, or reduced by abortion. The seeds are 
always more or less flattened, but in some cases this takes place 
dorsally (Dianthus, Tunica), in others laterally. In Dianthus the 
hilum is situated about the middle of the ventral face, so that the 
seed is peltate. In this genus and in Tunica the embryo is straight ; 
in the other genera it is curved, though sometimes only slightly. 
The surface is generally finely rugose, but sometimes papillose or 
smooth. In Silenc edpestris and S. quadrifida they are quite long, 
and the colour is either black or brown. Some few (Spergida 
arvensis, Spergularia marina) are described in English specimens 
as winged. This, however, is not the case in all localities. On 
the Continent the variety S. heterosperma is described as having 
some seeds winged and others not. 

At maturity the capsules open at the top, and when the stem 



The President's Address. By Lord Avebury. 281 

is jerked by the wind, or perhaps by some passing animal, the 
seeds are jerked out. 

In other cases they are, no doubt, carried by birds. The 
pointed tubercles of Lychnis Flos-cuculi perhaps serve for this 
purpose. The largest seeds of any British species are those of 
Lychnis Githago. It is an annual species. On the other hand, 
Stcllaria Holostea and Arenaria peploides, in which the seeds are 
nearly as large, are both perennials. 

Cistine.e. — The Cistinere also are represented in our flora by a 
single genus — Helianthemum, the Bock-rose. The fruit is a capsule, 
1-celled, or incompletely divided into several, and opening by 
3, 5, or 10 valves. The seeds are smooth. 

PoRTULACEiE. — Of this order we have only one really native 
species, Montia fontanel, and one naturalised, Clay tonia per foliata. 
Of the latter I will only observe that it is another case in which 
seeds in capsules are black and glossy. The seeds of Montia are 
probably carried about by aquatic birds. 

Hypericine^e. — The fruit is a capsule, or in some foreign 
species a berry. Hypericum Androscemum forms a connecting 
link between the two, as the capsule is succulent and as a rule 
does not open. In the other species, or most of them, the capsule 
opens at the summit, and the seeds are scattered by the wind. 

In H.perforatum, H. hirsutum and some others, in fact in our 
British species generally, the seeds are sausage-shaped and pointed 
at each end. The seeds appear to be often sterile. Some of the 
exotic genera have winged seeds. 

Malvaceae. — The fruit in the Mallows is formed on a very 

different plan from any of those which 

we have hitherto been considering. It 

is indeed in rare cases a berry, but 

generally, and in all our British species, 

it consists of many carpels arranged in 

a circle round a central axis. The seeds 

are sometimes several, but in British 

species one, in each carpel, to which it 

conforms. The surface is often rugose, 

but so finely as to be practically smooth, 

brown or black. -c ,- n , f , r , 

mi . . , Fig. 72 . — Carpel of Malva 

Ine carpels are in some species gla- moschata. 

brous : this is the case in M. sylvestris, 

which, however, has a variety, var. lasiocarpa, with hairy carpels. 
In M. rotundifolia they are downy, and in M. moschata hairy. 

The hairs of course render the capsules lighter, and would thus 
promote dispersal by the wind. In Althcea the carpels are flattened 
and winged, which would promote the same object. It is im- 
possible, however, not to be struck by the singular resemblance 
the capsules present to small green or brown caterpillars, curled up 




282 Transactions of the Society. 

in the attitude so common to them. Many small caterpillars also 
are covered with long hairs, and would thus be mimicked by the 
hairy capsules (fig. 72). The resemblance is so striking that it can 
hardly be accidental, and I have suggested elsewhere that birds 
pick up the carpels taking them for insects, and carry them, with 
the seeds in them, some little distance before finding out their 
mistake. 

Celastrine^e. — Of this order we have only a single species, 
Euonymus europosus, the Spindle. As in so many other small trees, 
the fruit is arranged to attract birds. It is a 4-celled and lobed 
capsular fruit, more or less tinged with red. Each cell contains 
1-2 seeds, which are rather large and completely covered by a 
brilliant orange or red " arillode." When the carpels burst open, 
which occurs on the dorsal suture, the seeds drop, and hang sus- 
pended by a long stalk. It is one of the comparatively few plants 
in which the embryo early assumes a green colour. 

Tiliace^e. — In this family the fruit consists of 2-10 cells, or 
it is 1 -celled by suppression or many-celled by false septa, or 
a drupe, or (rarely) a berry. The construction is therefore very 
various. 

In our only species, the Lime, it is a small globular nut con- 
taining one or two seeds. In many trees (Sycamore, Maple, Elm, 
Hornbeam, Pine, Eir, etc.) the seeds are disseminated by means of 
wings, which, though they serve the same purpose, are of very 
different origin. In the Lime the peduncle of the fruit is 
bordered or winged halfway up by a long narrow leaf-like bract. 

The seedling is very unusual. It is palmate, consisting of five 
lobes, the central one being the longest. This peculiar form 
enables it to lie in the hollow of the seed, just occupying the con- 
cavity of the cup. 

LinetE. — The fruit is a septicidal capsule, consisting of five 
carpels. The seeds are much compressed laterally, and the main 
point which 1 would notice in connection with the present Address 
is that if the seeds are moistened, as, for instance, by coming in 
contact with damp ground, they develop a copious mucilage which 
attaches them to the soil, and thus perhaps facilitates the exit 
of the young plant. This property is well known to us through 
the familiar linseed poultice. 

Geraniace.e. — In this order also the fruit presents very curious 
and diverse structures. Our four British genera have each totally 
different plans for the dissemination of the seed : 

Capsule separating into five 1-seeded carpels, each with a 
long awn ; awn elastic, not twisted (Geranium) ; awn twisted 
(Brodium). Capsule with four angles opening with as many 
valves (Oxalis), Capsule bursting elastically in five valves which 
roll inwards (Impatiens). 

In the Geraniums the five 1-seeded carpels are arranged round 



The President's Address. By Lord Avebury. 283 

a long central receptacle, and curl upwards, with a long elastic awn, 
which at maturity detaches itself from the beak elastically and 
throws the seed (sometimes with, sometimes without the carpel) to 
a distance of several feet. 

Even in Geranium itself the differences are considerable. 
After the flower has faded the central axis gradually elongates. 
The seeds, five in number, are situated at the base of the column, 
each being inclosed in a capsule, which terminates upwards in a 
rod-like portion, which at first forms part of the central axis, but 
gradually detaches itself. When the seeds are ripe the ovary 
raises itself into an upright position ; the outer layers of the rod- 
like termination of the seed-capsule come to be in a state of great 
tension, and eventually detach the rod with a jerk, and thus throw 
the seed some little distance. 

In some species (G. Robertianum, G. lucidum, G. molle, 
G. pusillum, G. 2?yrenaicum) the carpels detach themselves and 
are thrown with the seeds. In others {G. sanguineum, G.pratense, 
G. sylvaticum, G. columbinum, G. dissectum) the capsules remain 
attached to the awn. The seeds are retained temporarily in place 
by a tuft of hair. 

In this genus we get a clue to the meaning of the difference of 
the texture of the surface of seeds. In the first group, where the 
valves are thrown with the seeds, the surface of the seeds is smooth. 
In the second they are more or less reticulated, which would make 
them lighter and more easily carried by wind. It might also serve 
to hold the seeds to the ground, and thus facilitate the exit of the 
cotyledons. 

In Erodium the structure is somewhat similar, but the modus 
operandi is very different. The capsules remain attached to the 
awns, and closely envelop the seeds. The awns are twisted, and 
more or less hygroscopic. Consequently, like those of some 
grasses — the so-called " live oats " for instance, they elongate and 
contract with differences in humidity. This tends to press them 
into loose sand or earth, and as the seeds are more or less covered 
with backward-pointing hairs, they can practically only move in 
one direction, so that they are forced more and more deeply into 
the ground. 

The seeds remain in the carpel, and, as in the Geranium, where 
this is the case, they are smooth. 

In Oxalis also the seeds are thrown, but the mechanism is quite 
different. The force resides in the seed itself. The capsule, as in 
the preceding genera, is 5-chambered, but the walls are fleshy, 
except opposite the middle of each chamber, where they are com- 
paratively thin. The outer coat of each seed is a transparent 
covering, within which is a smooth, hard black testa. The outer 
coat contains four to five layers of parenchymatous cells. The cells 
of the inner layer are smaller than those of the outer, closely com- 



284 



Transactions of the Society. 



pressed, and gradually becoming very turgescent. This is not the 
case with the outer layer. Finally, the coat splits down one side, 
the inner cells expand at once, thus turning the coat inside out, 
the inner and now larger layer coming to the outside, while the 
originally outer layer is turned inwards. The result of this is that 
the seed is jerked out to a considerable distance. Owing to the 
elevation of the capsule, the seeds fly clear of the leaves. 

Lastly, in the Balsam {Impatiens), the dividing walls of the 
5-chambered capsule are thin, and eventually separate themselves 
from the centre, which thus becomes a pillar standing in the middle 
of the fruit. As the fruit dries, the cells immediately below the 
epidermis are in a state of gradually increasing tension, more so 
than the layers below. Moreover, while the carpels of Geranium 




straight, and thus 



position like that of a watch-spring, 
those of Impatiens turn slightly to 
one side (the right), the result of 
which is that in contracting they 
resemble a corkscrew. Finally, 
the fruit bursts, the valves roll up 
suddenly like a watch-spring, and 
fly off, carrying the seeds with 
them. In this case, therefore, the 
elastic tissue is part of the ovary 
— not, as in the preceding genus, 
the outer coating of the seed 
itself.* 

Acerace.e. — The Maples (Acer- 
aceae) are trees, and have winged 
fruits, which are often carried by 
the wind to a considerable distance. 
PcHAMNACE.e. — Our British spe- 
cies of this family (the Buckthorns) 
are also shrubs or small trees, and 
the fruit, as is so often the case 
with small trees, is a berry. The colour is black or dark purple. 

Lkguminos.e. — The ovary of the Peaflower is single 1-celled, 
with one or more seeds arranged along the inner or upper angle. 
The fruit is a pod. The seeds as a rule are smooth. 

With this uniformity, however, is combined much variety. In 
some ( Vicia hirsuta, Genista anglica, G. tinctoria, TJlex, Ononis, 
Lotus, Lathyrus Nissolia, L. pratensis, L. maritimus) the pod bursts 
open elastically and scatters the seeds. Each valve of the pod 



Fig. 73.— 1, Pod of Common Vetch. 
The line ab shows the direction 
of the woody fibres. 2, Pod of 
Common Vetch after bursting 
open. 



* Zimmerman explained the dehiscence by the tension of the woody layer ; 
Steinbrinck, by the difference between the tension of the woody layer and of the 
outer epidermis, which is also Eichholz' view. (Pringsheim's Jahr. Wiss. Bot. 
xvii., 1886.) 



The President's Address. By Lord Avebury, 



•jsr, 



contains a layer of woody cells, which however do not pass straight 
up the pod, but are more or less inclined to the axis. When the 
pod bursts it does not, as already described in Gardamine, roll up 
like a watch-spring, but twists itself more or less like a corkscrew 
(fig. 73). 

In a thicket of Furze in dry bright weather a continuous 
crackling may be heard. In many genera the pods do not open. 




Fig. 74. — Trifolium subterraneum. Shoot showing huds at end, 
and three older flower-heads, which are turned down and 
beginning to bury themselves. 

Some are provided (Medicayo) with hooks and spines and are 
carried away by animals ; in other species of Medicayo the pods are 
curled in several close spires, thus forming balls or wheels, which 
are rolled along the ground, especially in hot dry countries, by the 
wind. 

Several foreign species of Leguminosa? (Arachis hypoycea, Vicia 
amphicarpa, Lathyrvs amphicarpa, etc.) have a similar habit. In 
Astrayalus the dorsal suture is inflected, 
while in the allied genus Oxytropis the 
ventral suture is inflected. 

Ornithopus and Hippocrepis have many- 
seeded pods, and between each two seeds is 
a constriction which acts like a hook. In 
Trifolium dubium and T. filiforme the style 
is persistent and hooked. In T. frayi- 
ferum and T. rcsupinatum the calyx is 
inflated, and persistent, thus probably assist- 
ing in dispersal by wind. T. subterraneum, 
a low white-flowered species which is be- 
coming common on golf-courses, buries 
its seeds, which, as in other similar cases, 
(figs. 74, 75). 

EosacE/E. — From our present point of view the Eose family 
may be divided into those with a succulent, and those with a dry 
fruit. To the former belong Primus, Bubus, Frayaria, Bosa, 
Cratccyus, and Cotoneaster; to the latter, Spiraea, Dry as, Geum. 
Potentilla, Alchemilla, Ayrimonia, and Poterium. 




Fig. 75.— Trifolium sub- 
terraneum. Flower- 
head, slightly mag- 
nified. 

are few in number 



286 Transactions of the Society. 

In the first group the fruits are adapted for dissemination 
by animals, and especially by birds. The seeds have very generally 
a hard or bony covering, so that when the fruit is eaten they 
pass away uninjured. 

In strictness it is not, however, quite correct to say, as regards 
the whole of the first division, that the " fruit " is pulpy. In the 
Strawberry, for instance, what we call the fruit is rather the enlarged 
receptacle. The true fruits are what we generally regard as the 
seeds. The hips of the Eose, again, are an enlarged and deeply 
concave receptacle, on the inner face of which the true fruits, or 
achenes, are inserted. The seeds are protected both by the outer 
woody structure of the achenes, and by the stiff hairs with which 
they are covered. The haws of the Thorns differ from the hips of 
Eoses in being more or less adherent to the bony mass in the 
centre. 

In the Pear and Apple the cartilaginous carpels are completely 
inclosed in a firm and fleshy receptacle. In all these cases the true 
seeds are practically smooth. 

The fruit of the Easpberry and Blackberry is quite different 
from that of the Strawberry. The outer coat of the acheue is 
sweet and juicy, and is the part for the sake of which the fruit 
is eaten. The receptacle, which is the delight in the Strawberry, 
is in the Easpberry the white, fleshy, but not sweet, central cone, 
which we leave behind. 

In the dry-fruited Eosaceee the achenes of Dryas terminate in 
a persistent, feathery style, and are adapted for dispersal by wind. 

Geum montanum has a similar feather. In our common Geum 
urbanum the carpels are hairy and terminate in a style, which 
is hairy in the middle and smooth at each end. Immediately below 
the hairy tract a projection develops (fig. 76), which gradually 
elongates and curves. Finally, when the seed is ripe, the upper 
part of the style detaches itself (figs. 77, 78, 79), so that the fruit 
terminates in a hook, which entangles itself in the hair of any 
passing animal. It will be seen, however, from the arrangement 
that the fruit cannot be torn away until it is ripe. Any one 
who has walked through a field where this species flourishes can 
testify to the effective manner in which the achenes attach them- 
selves to a passing animal. 

Potentilla Fragariastrum remarkably resembles the Strawberry, 
and differs mainly in the absence of the fleshy receptacle. 

Some of the foreign species have winged seeds, and are evidently 
adapted for dispersal by the wind. 

OxAGRARiEiE. — In this family we have six British genera, which 
differ materially in the structure of the fruits and the mode of 
dispersal of the seeds. 

The fruit of Epilobium is a pod, which opens from above 
downwards. The seeds are numerous, and at the upper end have 



The President's Address. By Lord Avebury. 



287 



a tuft of long, silky, white hairs. They are therefore adapted to be 
driven by the wind. 

In Cirecea, the Enchanter's Nightshade, the fruit is obovoid, 
1-2-celled, with one seed in each cell, conforming to the interior 
of the cell. The fruit is covered with bristly, spreading, hooked 
hairs. They would thus, with the seed in them, be carried away 
by passing animals. When the fruit is ripe the pedicel turns 
downwards. It is thickened and articulated at the base. 

The other three genera are aquatic plants, with small seeds. 
They are probably carried with mud by birds from one pond to 
another. 



t> 



(&S 



Fig. 76. 



Fig. 77. 



Fig. 78. 




Fig. 79. 



Figs. 76-79. — Geum urbanum. Fig. 76, young style; Fig. 77, older; 
Fig. 78, still older ; Fig. 79, ripe fruit. 



Cucurbit a CEiE. — Our only British species of this family is the 
Common Bryony. The fruit is a berry, red or orange in colour, and 
the leaves are deciduous. This accords with the suggestion made 
already. 

The seeds are flat and nearly orbicular. 

Crassulace^e. — The seeds are generally small, and therefore 
easily carried by the wind. They adhere also to almost any 
surface. 

KiBESiACEiE. — The fruits are berries with more or less sweet 
juice. The seeds are suspended on long stalks. 

SaxifragacE;E. — The fruit is a capsule, which, as in so many 
cases, opens at the top, so that the seeds are jerked out by the 
wind. As a rule they are very small. Those of S. o]jpositifolia are 
decidedly papillous, which would tend to make them adhere the 
more closely to the fur of animals. 

In Parnassia and Drosera, as in some other plants of a similar 
habit (Narthecium, etc.), the testa is spongy and loose in texture. 



288 Transactions of the Society. 

This would make it lighter and enable it to float, or perhaps 
prevent it from sinking too deeply into the herbage of the Sphagnum 
in which it so often lives. 

Each of our species of Drosera differs somewhat from the others 
in the texture of the surface of the seeds. There must, I suppose, 
be some reasons for these differences, but they are not very 
apparent. 

In D. intermedia the seeds are densely covered with small 
elevated points, as in some species of Arenaria, Silene, and other 
Caryophylleae. These would, no doubt, lighten the seeds. 

Umbellifeile. — There are two carpels, coherent into a 2-celled 
ovary, each cell containing one ovule, suspended from the top. 
The fruit is 2-celled, dividing into two portions (mericarps) often 
suspended at the top of single or double axis. The surface has 
ten ridges, sometimes produced into wings. The furrows between 
the main elevations are sometimes occupied by subordinate ridges. 
The seed is pendulous. The fruit is often compressed ; sometimes 
laterally, in which case a slice cut through the seed has an oval 
form, the division being across the narrow diameter. When the 
compression is from back to front, the division is across the 
broadest diameter. In this order the seeds are comparatively 
uniform, and the main differences occur in the fruits. 

The fruits are dry and in some cases eaten by birds, but the 
principal modes of dispersal are by hooks or wings. 

It might have been expected that these different methods of 
dispersal would have prevailed in different groups of the order. 
As, however, we have seen in other cases, this is not the case. 
Hooks, for instance, occur in several genera (Sanicula, Anthriscus, 
JDaucus, Caucalis) by no means nearly allied. Anthriscus vulgaris, 
for instance, in which the carpels are armed with hooked bristles, 
is so nearly allied to Chcerophyllum temulum and G. sylvestre that 
Bentham in the " Handbook of the British Flora " places it in the 
same genus as C. Anthriscus. 

In Eryngium the carpels are covered with chaffy scales, which 
are longest on the primary ridges. These would serve to lighten 
the fruit, but they would also help to entangle them in the fur of 
animals. 

In other cases the persistent styles are recurved, forming 
hooks which would serve for the same purpose [uEgoptodium, Slum, 
Pimpinclla). 

Winged fruits occur in Angelica, Smyrnium, Crithmum, 
Myrrhis, Sium, etc. These, as we should expect, are glabrous. 

In Scandix Pecten-veneris the fruit is developed into a long 
beak, and when the bases of the carpels split away, they diverge 
widely. Perhaps this facilitates their being torn off by any passing 
animals. 

The aquatic species, as usual, are glabrous. In some Umbellifers, 



The President's Address. By Lord Avebury. 289 

especially those of dry regions, the seeds are extraordinarily 
light. 

Araliace.^e. — Of this order we have only one species, the Ivy, 
Hedera Helix. It is as a rule the last of our English species to 
flower. The fruit is a black, 5-celled berry, with one seed in each 
cell. These are somewhat irregular in form, convex on the back, 
and wedge-shaped from being arranged round a centre, so that the 
five together form a sphere. 

LokanthacE/E. — The fruit of this interesting plant is also a 
berry, the Mistletoe (Viscum), and no doubt is intended for dis- 
persal by birds. It is white, and contains a single seed imbedded 
in a peculiarly glutinous pulp, which serves to make it adhere to 
the bark of any branch on which it is deposited. For seeds which 
rest on the ground such a provision would be unnecessary. 

CoRXACEyE. — The fruit of the Cornels is, in ordinary language, 
a berry, but technically it is a drupe, i.e. a berry in which the 
" pericarp " consists of two distinct layers, the outer one fleshy or 
pulpy, the inner one dry and cartilaginous or woody. This layer 
is, in Comus, very hard, and no doubt effectually protects the seeds 
when the fruit is eaten. It is 2-celled, with one seed in each cell. 

The fruit of C. sanguinea is black, and thus conspicuous against 
the leaves, which are a bright red in autumn. C. suecica has red 
fruit. 

Caprifoliace^e. — The fruit is a berry, generally 1 -seeded, green 
in Adoxa, but generally either red or black. The fruits are evi- 
dently intended for dissemination by birds, and the actual seeds 
are protected as usual in such cases by the hardness of the inner 
coat or " endocarp." 

In the Honeysuckle the divisions of the cells soften or dis- 
appear. 

Stellat.e. — Of this family, or sub-family, we have four genera. 

In Bubia the fruit is a small, black, 2-lobed berry. 

In the large genus Galium, G. Crucictta has almost succulent 
fruits. In others, for instance G. boreale and G. Aparine (Cleavers), 
the fruits are hooked. With the exception of G. boreale, which has 
hooked bristles on the fruit, the perennial species are smooth, 
while the annual species have reversed spines or hooks, if not on 
the fruit, at any rate on the stems. I am inclined to suggest that 
parts of the plant are torn off and carried away, the fruits, of course, 
going with them. In G. tricomc the pedicels are turned back, and 
thus form a hook. 

The rough fruits of Sherardiu are surmounted by the enlarged 
calyx, which has spreading teeth. 

SolanacEtE. — The Solanacepe have two carpels, cohering into a 
two-celled ovary. The fruit is technically a capsule, a berry either 
dry or pulpy, or a " pyxidium," i.e. a box with transverse dehiscence, 
as in the Pimpernel. 

June 17th, 1908 x 



290 Transactions of the Society. 

In two of our four English genera, Solanum and Atropa, the 
fruit is a many-seeded berry. 

In Solanum the fruits are deeply, but finely pitted and rugose, 
and are no doubt scattered by birds when eating the pulpy fruit. 
In S. nigrum the fruit is black. In S. Dulcamara, which has a 
climbing or straggling habit, they are red and very conspicuous in 
autumn after the fall of the leaf. On the Continent they are some- 
times black, sometimes red, sometimes yellow or yellowish-green, 
and are said to come true from seed. Atropa Belladonna has a 
rather large, black berry. 

In Datura Stramonium the fruit is a large, globular, prickly 
capsule, which opens at the top. The seeds are large, numerous, 
and wrinkled, flattened by mutual pressure, and black. 

In our fourth genus, the Henbane {Hyoscyamus niger) the 
fruit is also a capsule. It is crowned by the persistent and en- 
larged calyx, which forms a cup, from which the seeds are gradually 
scattered by the wind, when the cap of the capsule has been 
thrown off. The seeds are numerous, laterally much compressed, 
reniform, and approximately orbicular, but varying a good deal in 
shape and size. They are somewhat deeply pitted. 

Valeriane;e. — The fruit is small, dry, and seed-like, 3-celled, 
each with one ovule, two of winch, however, come to nothing. The 
empty cells, no doubt, serve to lighten the seed. In Centranthu 
and Valeriana the border of the calyx develops into a beautiful 
feathery pappus. In Valerianella. there is no pappus. The fertile 
cell is larger than the others. The fruits present curious little 
differences in the different species. 

DiPSACEiE. — In this order, which is very nearly allied to the 
Valerianese, though in appearance more nearly resembling Com- 
posites, we have two genera, Dipsacus and Scabiosa. In Dipsacus 
the bracts surrounding the flower-head form a sort of cup surround- 
ing the seeds, and from which they are ejected. In the Fuller's 
Teasel, which is generally regarded as a mere variety of D. sylvcstris, 
but the origin of which is not known, the scales are hooked. 

In Scabiosa the calyx terminates in fine bristles, which must 
often get entangled in the hairs and wool of passing animals. 

Composite. — Of this great family we have nearly fifty British 
genera. As to the number of species, there are great differences 
of opinion. This is due in great measure to the difficulty of 
determining the number of species in the very complex and 
variable genus Hieracium. The ovary is inferior, 1-celled, 
1-ovuled. The fruit is always dry ; it is an " achene," generally 
sessile, sometimes provided with a long beak. 

The modes of dispersal of the seeds, or, to speak more techni- 
cally, the achenes, are very various. When they are small, as in 
the Daisy, they probably adhere to the feet of animals, especially 
in wet weather. In many cases, no doubt, they are carried by 



s 



The President's Address. By Lord Avebtiry. 291 

birds. In Bidens the achenes terminate in barbed bristles. In the 
Burdocks {Arctium) the bracts surrounding the flower-head are 
strongly hooked at the apex, and evidently arranged so that the 
whole head should be carried away by some passing animal. 

In a large proportion of the species the achenes are distributed 
by the wind in consequence of the presence of a pappus. In some 
cases it is but slightly developed. In Arctium it has possibly 
degraded, being replaced by the hooked barbs. 

Other genera possibly represent cases in which it is even now 
being evolved. In Centaurea, for instance, it is short, and cannot 
be very efficient. 

In many genera, however, it is highly and beautifully developed. 
The hairs of the pappus are in some species simple, and in others, 
which seem to represent the highest development, plumose. 

The life-history of the plant seems often arranged with refer- 
ence to them. In the common Dandelion the bud lies prostrate on 
the ground ; when the florets are ready to open, the flower-stalk 
raises itself so as to get all the sun, and be as conspicuous as 
possible to insects. Every evening and in wet weather it closes, so 
as to preserve its precious charge from too much wet. I once kept 
one awake, however, all night by keeping it in the light of an 
Argand lamp. When the flower is fertilised, the stalk once more 
becomes horizontal, or nearly so, thus endeavouring to avoid the 
dangers which might befall it if it remained upright while the seeds 
were maturing. This takes about a fortnight, and when the seeds 
are ripe the flower-stalk again rises perpendicularly, thus assum- 
ing the position most favourable to assist in the dispersal of the 
achenes by the wind. Where the grass is short, as for instance on 
lawns, the intelligent plant keeps its flower-stalk also short ! 

In the Dandelion {Taraxacum), the Lettuce {Lactuca), and 
some others, the achenes terminate in a long beak. The object of 
this, perhaps, may be to carry the upper end further from the 
disk of the flower-head, and thus give more space for the expansion 
of the pappus. 

In the species hitherto mentioned, the seeds are all alike. 

In Leontodon hirtus, however, most of the fruits have a well- 
developed pappus ; but those of the outer row have none. 

In Hypochceris glabra the pappus of the outer florets is sessile, 
while the inner ones are on a long beak. 

The common Calendula. (Marigold) (fig. 80) of our gardens is 
an even more interesting case. Three devices for dispersal are 
united in each head. The outer achenes (fig. 81) are narrow, and 
bent into a curve forming three parts of a circle, and well adapted 
to hang on to the fur of any passing animal. Then follow a 
certain number which are puffed out with wide wings (fig. 82), and 
are evidently intended for dispersal by wind. Towards the centre 
the achenes are smaller, and much resemble small green or brown 

X 2 



292 



Transactions of the Society. 



caterpillars (fig. 82). These, it has been suggested, are picked up 
by birds, and then dropped when they discover their mistake. 
Between the extreme types there are many intermediate forms. 



Side view. 






Front view. 





Section. 

Hooked form. Winged form. Grub-like form. 

Fig. 80. Fig. 81. Fig. 82. 

Figs. 80-82. — Seeds of Calendula officinalis, showing various forms. 

Ericaceae. — The fruit is a capsule, a berry, or a drupe. The 
ovary has generally as many cells as the lobes of the corolla, with 
one to many seeds in each. 

The genera with berries are Vaccinium, Aroutus, and Arcto- 
staphylus. Vaccinium, Vitis-idaza, V. Oxycoccus, and Aroutus Unedo 
have red berries and evergreen leaves. Vaccinium Myrtillus, 
V. uliginosum, and Arctostaphylus alpina, have black berries and 
deciduous leaves, in accordance with the general rule. 

In the remaining genera, Andromeda, Loiseleuria (Azalea), 
Mcnziesia, Calluna, Erica, Pyrola, and Monotropa, the fruit is a 
capsule. The seeds are small. In Monotropa, as in so many 
parasites, the seeds are very small. They are nearly cylindrical, 
and covered with a loose testa, produced at both ends. 

In Andromeda Polifolia the seeds are black and glossy, as is so 
often the case in species where this arrangement prevails. Those 
of Calluna are reticulated and light. 

CAMPANULACEiE. — The fruit is a capsule, with many-seeded 
cells. The seeds are numerous and minute, and, as in other cases, 
are jerked out by the wind or by passing animals. In the latter 



The President's Address. By Lord Avebury. 293 

case they would readily adhere to the fur, and so be carried away. 
In some species of the genus Campanula the capsule opens as 
usual at the top or near the top (C Bapunculus, C.patula, C.persici- 
folia, C. cenisia, C. hybrida, etc.) In others, on the contrary, the 
openings are at or near the base (C. rapunculoides, C. rotundifolia, 
C. Trachelium, C. latifolia, C. Medium, etc. I have suggested as 
the explanation of the difference that in the former species, how- 
ever, the capsules are upright, in the latter group they hang down. 
In both cases, therefore, the openings are at the upper end, so that 
the seeds cannot drop, but must be shaken out. 

Pklmulace^;. — The fruit is a one-celled capsule, containing 
more or less numerous seeds. 

In Primida, Lysimachia, Cyclamen, and Samolus, it opens at 
the top ; in Anagallis and Centunculus transversely, the upper half 
becoming detached, leaving the seeds in a sort of cup. Along 




sztSt 




Fig. 83. — Anagallis arvensis. Wall of the capsule, 
c c, elongated cells along the line of dehiscence. 

the line of dehiscence (fig. 83) the cells are elongated transversely, 
and are but slightly attached to one another, while above and 
below they present irregular outlines, which tend to keep them 
together. 

The seeds are attached to the receptacle by their ventral face, 
while the outer one is rounded or flattened by the walls of the 
capsule. They are more or less pitted. 

Aquifoliace^e. — The holly is a typical berry-bearing tree. If we 
speak of a berry, the holly is one of the first we think of. Botanic- 
ally, however, the fruit is a drupe rather than a berry. The ovary 
is 3-5, generally 4-celled, with one seed in each cell. 

The fruit is red, as usual with evergreens, and we all know 
how they show up against the green leaves. 

Lentibulariace^e. — Fruit, a capsule. "We have two genera, 



294 Transactions of the Society. 

Pinguicula and Utricularia (plate IV. fig. 2). The seeds of Pin- 
guicula are relatively large, oblong, terete or nearly so, with a 
furrow on one side corresponding to the raphe, netted, with the 
meshes in longitudinal lines, light brown and shining. They are 
slightly prolonged at the base and the funiculus is partly persistent. 

They are very light and adhere readily to the fingers, so that 
they could often be carried away by any animal treading on them. 

The British Utricularias are all water-plants, celebrated for 
their curious " eel traps," which serve to capture minute water- 
animals. The seeds are small, oblong and striated. 

Jasmixace^e. — The structure of the fruit presents again, in this 
family, great differences. In some genera it is a capsule, in others 
a berry. 

We have two genera, Fraxinus, the Ash, with dry capsules, 
commonly called keys, which, including the wing, are about an 
inch and a half in length, thin and light, so that they are easily 
carried by the wind. They have a slight twist, as in other similar 
fruits, and this probably tends to carry them further. 

Such winged fruits are very typical of high trees. On the other 
hand, our second genus of the family, Ligustrum (the Privet), like 
so many other bushes and low trees, has a berry fruit. In the 
early stages there are two ovules in each cell, but, as in so many 
other cases, only one comes to maturity. 

The fruit is black, and the leaves nearly evergreen. It is 
evidently intended to be eaten by birds, and the embryo is pro- 
bably protected by the hard endosperm. 

Apocynaceje. — The fruit consists of two oblong or elongated 
capsules or follicles, each of a single cell, diverging as they ripen. 

Vinca minor, the lesser Periwinkle, is the only truly British 
species. It has oblong-cylindrical seeds, terminated abruptly at 
each end. They are probably disseminated by birds and small 
quadrupeds. 

Geistianace^e. — Fruit a capsule, dehiscing along the margins 
of the carpels ; many-seeded. The fruit is generally a capsule, but 
sometimes, though not in British genera, a berry. The capsules of 
Limnanthemum, as in some other water-plants, sink below the 
surface while the seeds are ripening. As in so many seeds which 
are intended to be scattered from capsules, those of Gentiana 
Amarella are pitted and glossy. 

Polemoniace;E. — The fruit is a 3-celled capsule, opening by 
three valves opposite the middle of the cells. The seeds have a 
narrow wing, but are probably more effectively dispersed by being 
jerked from the capsule. 

CoNVOLVULACEyE. — The fruit is either a capsule, with valves 
detaching from the septum, or a berry. In most of our species 
there are four seeds, each forming a quarter of a sphere, so as to 
fill up the capsule. 



The President's Address. By Lord Avehcry. 295 

We have two genera — very different in habit and appearance. 
Convolvulus has an indehiscent capsule. In C. sepium the seeds 
are rather large and heavy. In the smaller species we have a 
somewhat rare case, the form of the capsule depending on the 
number of seeds which are fertilised. If the capsule has its full 
complement of four seeds, it is 4-angled. 

In Cuscuta europcea (the dodder) the capsule bursts transversely 
at the base. It seems probable that the long, filiform, twisted and 
curling stems often get torn away by passing animals, carrying the 
seeds with them. 

Boragine^e. — The ovary as a rule is deeply 4-lobed, with a 
simple style inserted in the centre. The fruit consists of four 
small nuts, resembling seeds, and inclosed in, or surrounded by, 
the calyx. 

In Symphytum the seeds are hard, smooth, and polished, resem- 
bling small pebbles. They are probably distributed partly by 
water and partly by birds. Those of Lithospenmini are similar, and 
in L. officinale bright blue, which makes them very conspicuous. 
Birds are fond of them, and, as they are so slippery, must often drop 
them about. 

In Myosotis, the Forget-me-not, the calyx tube contracts more or 
less over the nutlets, so that they generally remain for some time 
together. The species may be divided into three groups. In M. 
ccespitosa, M. palustris, and M. repens, the hairs on the calyx are 
straight and depressed. The nutlets readily adhere to the fingers, 
and may probably thus be carried about by animals. 

In M. versicolor, M. arvensis, and M. collina, this is evidently 
the case. The calyx is covered with bristly hairs, many of which 
are hooked. They cling tenaciously to any woolly or rough surface. 
In M. sylvatica there are three kinds of hairs, adpressed and short, 
long and arching, while some are hooked and of intermediate 
length. 

The most highly modified fruits in this direction are those of 
the Hound's-tongue, Cynoglossum. The nutlets separate from the 
receptacle, and only remain attached to the central axis by the 
produced upper ends, which makes them more liable to be carried 
away by animals. Tins is still further promoted by the fact that 
the nutlets are densely covered with conical, " glochidiate," or 
many-barbed warts, which readily catch in, and hold tight to any 
woolly or rough surface. 

OROBANCHACEiE. — The Orobanchacese are all parasitic, and, as 
is usual in such cases, the seeds are small, in some species so small 
as to resemble dust. The fruit is a capsule. Green leaves are 
entirely wanting. 

ScrophulariaceyE. — The fruit is generally a capsule, sometimes, 
however, though rarely, and not in any of our British species, a 
berry. The seeds are generally more or less sculptured, though 



296 Tin a suctions of the Society. 

some are smooth. These are generally quite small. Those of some 
species of Linaria (L. vulgaris, L. Pelisseriana) and Rhinantft/us 
Grista-galli are winged. In Linaria Cylribalaria, which lives 
habitually on walls, the flowers face outwards, but after they are 
fertilised the flower-stalks turn towards the wall, thus tending to 
protect the seeds and often to sow them in some cranny. They 
are ridged and very light, so as to be easily carried about by the 
wind. In other species of Linaria the capsules open at the top, 
and the seeds are jerked out by the wind, as is also the case with 
those of the Foxglove {Digitalis 'purpurea). 

The seeds of Veronica are peltate, being attached to the placenta 
by the middle. In some species they are deeply cup-shaped, owing 
to the curvature of the edges, so as to occupy all the space available 
in the cells of the capsule. This makes them very light, and thus 
esily carried by wind (plate IV. fig. 3). The species differ much 
in the size of the seed, those of the aquatic species being very 
small. 

In the Snapdragon the seeds are covered with high longitudinal 
ridges. These would serve to lighten them, and perhaps tend to 
protect them from being eaten, as well as against great cold. A 
similar arrangement occurs in some foreign species, notably, for 
instance, in Maurandia Barclayana. 

Those of Euphrasia are of an unusual type. They are large, 
oblong, narrowed to both ends, flattened on one side and ribbed 
longitudinally. The ribs are greyish. 

Mclampyrvm offers a very interesting case. The seeds mimic 
the cocoons of ants. They are of the same form, size, and colour, 
white with a black spot at one end. I have observed that they are, 
as a matter of fact, carried away by ants, being, I think, taken for 
cocoons (plate IV. fig. 4). 

Labiate. — Ovary of two carpels, each with two cells, free 
or in pairs. Fruit consisting of four achene-like lobes or 
nutlets. 

The fruit of the Labiatse recalls that of the Boraginere. As in 
that order, it consists of four nutlets, which, however, in the 
Labiatse are as a rule smaller, and do not present so many differ- 
ences. They closely resemble, and are often taken for seeds. The 
calyx in the Labiate is either small or tubular, and the base is 
always narrow. When the nutlets are small they are more or less 
spherical ; when they are larger they are often more or less 
trigonous by mutual pressure (plate IV. figs. 5a, 5b). 

The nutlets having assumed the character and functions of 
seeds, have also developed a style of sculpture which is generally 
confined to true seeds. They are often netted or covered with 
small warts. 

Some of the larger forms are remarkable in being variegated or 
spotted (Galeopsis angustifolia, G. versicolor, G. Tetrahit, Lamium 



The President's Address. By Lord Avebury. 297 

amplexicaule, L. hybridum, etc.)- No explanation of this has yet 
been suggested. 

Many species have a ring of hairs in the throat. This would 
tend to protect the nutlets when young and delicate, but its 
principal use perhaps may be to prevent them from falling out, 
unless thrown out by a high wind, which of course would increase 
the distance to which they would be jerked. It is remarkable that 
in the genus Calamintha, the ring of hairs is present in C. arvensis 
and C. officinalis, but does not occur in C. Clinopodium. 

It would almost seem as if in some species — for instance, in 
Mentha rotundifolia (Mint), Nepeta Cataria, and in Marjoram, 
Origanum vulgare — the nutlets are intended to be dispersed in the 
calyx, and in the latter species the bracts also appear to aid in the 
dispersal. In Marrubium vulgare the calyx has ten spinous teeth, 
one for each rib, recurved and strongly hooked at the tip. 
Stachys sylvatica also has recurved teeth. In some species the 
calyx teeth are covered with long, bristly hairs, which, besides their 
usual function, may serve to assist the dispersal of the seeds. In 
the Mint (Mentha sylvestris) the surface is covered with little 
points and depressions, and in water absorb moisture, and swell up 
into globular, transparent sacs. 

In Salvia Verbenaca, and other species of the genus, the nutlets 
become mucilaginous when wetted. This perhaps may be useful 
in causing them to adhere to damp ground. In S. pratensis the 
nutlets when placed in water emit long colourless filaments, which 
are more or less spirally coiled. In & Horminum the mucilaginous 
tissue in places extends to half the depth of the whole, and as soon 
as it comes in contact with water it swells out with great rapidity, 
increasing to many times its original thickness. It develops into 
thick threads, which move and, so to say, wriggle about like so 
many worms. 

The Skull-cap (Scutellaria) is so called because the calyx bears 
a curious resemblance to an ancient helmet, with the visor down. 
The upper lip is closely pressed down on the lower one, thus pro- 
tecting the nutlets. When ripe the top of the helmet flies off 
at a touch, and the nutlets are at the same time jerked away. 

In Galeopsis versicolor the calyx has stiff glandular hairs, which 
would cause it to be torn off if brushed against by animals. 
The seeds are large and peculiar. It is now a weed of cultiva- 
tion, but no doubt its peculiarities go back to a period before the 
cultivation of corn (plate IV. fig. 5a). The nutlets are large, 
oblong, bluntly trigonous in the lower half, strongly rounded or 
convex on the upper half of the inner face, which slopes away to the 
ridge forming the two lateral edges, convex on the dorsal aspect. 
The surface is granular and dark brown, more or less densely 
marked with grey specks. 

The nutlets of Ajvga are also peculiar. Those of Ajvga reptans 



298 Transactions of the Society. 

(plate IV. figs. 6a, 6b) are large and strongly netted, the meshes 
beins: arranged in longitudinal lines. The base of the inner 
face is angled, with a Hat crescent-shaped area on either side of 
of the angle where they come in contact with one another. Those 
of A. Chamcepitys (plate IV. figs. 7a, 7a) are more elongated, united 
for more than half their length, and prominently netted with 
strong, obtuse ridges, the meshes being arranged in longitudinal 
lines. 

In Teucrium Botrys (plate IV. figs. 8a, 8b) the nutlets are 
globular, relatively large, united over a considerable area at the 
base, netted with broad ridges, and a deep pit in each mesh, 
more or less covered with sessile mealy glands. 

Verbenace^e. — This family differs from the preceding princi- 
pally in having the ovary entire. The fruit is four-celled, with one 
seed in each cell, and at maturity separates into four nutlets, each 
of which is oblong, truncate at the apex, four- to six-ribbed on the 
dorsal aspect. The seed, which is entirely filled by the embryo, 
closely conforms to the interior of the nutlet. 

That of V. teucroides (plate IV. fig. 9), a native of Brazil, has 
a somewhat peculiar form. 

Plantagixe^e. — The fruit is a capsule, opening transversely, or 
indehiscent. The seeds are sometimes few and comparatively 
large, in other species more numerous and smaller. Wind is 
probably the principal agent in distribution, but birds feed on 
them, and no doubt sometimes drop them. In some species 
they are mucilaginous. 

Chexopodiace^e. — The ovary is 1 -celled. The fruit a utricle, 
that is to say the outer covering formed of the ovary, loosely 
surrounds the single seed, or in some rare cases the fruit is a berry. 
The flower is often persistent, and incloses the fruit. This pro- 
bably facilitates dispersal by wind. 

The seeds may be either vertical or horizontal, both forms 
occurring in the same genus, and even in the same species (Cheno- 
podium Bonus- Hcnricus, C. ruhrum). In this family also we meet 
cases where, as in Chenopodium fcetidum, the testa is mucilaginous. 

In Atriplcx hortensis there are two kinds of seeds. They differ 
in size and colour. The larger seeds are the more numerous. 
Larger seeds suborbicular, laterally compressed and concave on 
the sides', entirely encircled by the embryo, which is annular and 
peripheral, thickest round that edge containing the cotyledons of 
the embryo. Testa pale yellowish-brown, or testaceous, thin but 
tough, very shallowly rugulose on the surface. The concavities at 
the sides are due to the shrinking of the central endosperm or to 
the fact of there not being sufficient to fill the seed properly. 

The smaller seeds are reniform-orbicular or simply orbicular, 
laterally compressed, but biconvex. Testa black, shining and show- 
ing itself through the membranous utriculus, finely but distinctly 



The President's Address. By Lord Avebury. 299 

rugose, very dark reddish -brown by transmitted light, crustaceous 
and brittle. 

They are mixed indiscriminately on the panicle. The large 
brown ones germinate much more quickly than the small black 
ones, which would seem, under natural conditions, to be more 
adapted to remain in a resting condition in the ground during the 
winter and germinate in spring. If such is the case they would 
enable the plant to exist in a colder climate than the large ones 
would. The plant occurs in Britain as a garden escape. 

Some fruits inclosed in the dry wing-like perianth were 
dropped in a tumbler of water, and all of them floated for seven 
days. At that time, contrary to what might have been expected, 
the larger fruits containing the larger-sized seeds with the thin 
grey testa and covered by the broad perianth segments had sunk, 
and the seeds had commenced to germinate. At the end of 
twenty-one days many of the seedlings had risen above the water, 
and the cotyledons, already green, had commenced to expand. 
The small black seeds with the crustaceous testa, covered by a 
small perianth, were still floating after twenty-one days, and on 
examination proved to be quite fresh and sound. 

A. hastata also has two forms of fruit. 

POLYGONACE.E. — Fruit a berry, utricle, or nut. In our English 
species the fruit is a small, seed-like nut, inclosed in the persistent 
flower, and containing one seed. The prevailing form is trigonous. 
There are three styles, indicating the presence of three carpels. 

The persistent perianth leaves evidently serve as wings. 

The sepals of the Docks {Ilumex) have one or more, often red, 
glands. These perhaps induce birds to carry them off, thinking 
they may be sweet and good to eat. The persistent sepals no doubt 
lighten the fruits, and in some species are deeply toothed or 
laciniate, which would help to entangle them in the fur of animals. 

In Polygonum Hydropiper the nutlets are of two forms, 
triquetrous or biconvex. The latter are much the more numerous. 
In P. Persicaria also there are two forms (plate IV. figs. 10a, 10b, 
10c, lOd). 

In P. viviparum, a high Alpine form, more than one-half of the 
flowers on the lower part of the stem are replaced by small bulbils 
or enlarged buds that fall away and reproduce the plant. At high 
elevations the growing season is often so short and the conditions 
so adverse that the plant is unable to produce and mature seeds 
before the return of winter. The flowers on the upper portion 
of the stem seldom ripen seeds, but fall away some time after 
flowering. 

This Polygonum may be compared with Sasrifraga ccrnua, which 
produces numerous clusters of bulbils along the stem, and usually 
only one flower on the top. S. stellaris and S. nivalis sometimes 
behave in the same way. Akin to the above are the viviparous 
forms of Poa alpina and Pestuca ovina. 



300 Transactions of the Society. 

Thymele^e. — The fruit is a nut, drupe, or berry. We have 
only one genus, Daphne, with two species, which are small shrubs. 
The fruit is a berry, with one large seed. D. Mezereum flowers 
early, and the red 1 terries show up well against the green leaves. 

D. Laureola has black berries. The leaves are persistent. The fruits 
are poisonous, but not apparently to birds. 

El^eagnace.e. — The order is a small one, and we have only one 
British species, the Sea Buckthorn, Hippophae rhamnoides. The 
fruit bears a close superficial resemblance to that of Daphne, but 
the structure is very different. The base of the calyx, or at least 
of the perianth, is in this genus persistent, and assumes the 
character of a pulpy berry, inclosing a nutlet, also of uncommon 
construction. The ovary wall is thin and membranous, enveloping 
a large oblong-obovoid seed, with a crustaceous, smooth, and 
shining black testa. 

In this country Hippophae is confined to the sea-coast, but on 
the Continent and in Asia it extends far inland, especially on river 
banks, and ascends to a considerable height. 

Though it belongs rather to the domain of entomology, I may 
mention that the full-grown caterpillar of the Hawkmoth 
(S. hip2)opha;s), which feeds on this species, bears (and is the only 
one which does so) large yellow spots closely resembling the fruit, 
both in size and colour. 

Santalace^e. — Of this family we have only one species, 
Thesium linophyllum, an inconspicuous shrubby plant nestling 
amongst the dwarf herbage of chalky downs, and of parasitic 
habit. The fruit is a small green nutlet, marked with several 
longitudinal ribs. There are three ovules, but as a rule only one 
comes to maturity. 

ARiSTOLOCHiACEyE. — Fruit an indehiscent, ovoid globular cap- 
sule, crowned by the persistent perianth. 

EuphorbiacE/E. - The fruit is dry or fleshy, naked or some- 
times adnate to the perianth. The seed is pendulous. Of the three 
genera, Euphorbia has three carpels, each containing a single seed, 
Mercurialis, Dog's Mercury, has a 2-celled capsule, with two seeds, 
or rarely 3 cells with three seeds ; while Buxus, the Box, has 
a 3-celled capsule with one or two seeds in each cell. 

The seeds of our western European Euphorbiacere are as a 
rule smooth, but in E. Lathyris they are rugose and reticulated ; 
in E. Helioscopia, E. pterococca, E. Taurinensis, E. segetalis, and E. 
Peplus, they are alveolated or pitted ; in E. jmbescens ridged ; in 

E. Myrsinxtes and E. pithyusa rugose ; in E. cxigva tuberculated ; in 
E. portlanclica irregularly pitted ; in E. sulcata longitudinally, and 
in E. falcate transversely, furrowed (plate IV. figs. 11a, lib). 

The capsules are in some species rough, verrucose (E. spinosa, 
E. hyberna), or even hairy (E. i^ubesccns). In some species it is 
possible that the capsules are disseminated with the seeds in them. 



The President's Address. By Lord Avebury. 301 

The seeds in some species resemble small beetles, such as Lady- 
birds, and may perhaps be carried by birds (plate IV. figs. 12a, 126). 

In Mercurialis perennis the capsule is hairy and may easily be 
carried away with the seed by rabbits and other animals. 

The Box lives on chalk hills, and the seeds are also probably 
transported in the same way. 

EmpetracE/E. — Empetrum, the Crowberry, is a low heath-like 
shrub. The fruit is a drupe ; it is 6- to 9-celled with a seed 
in each cell. The walls are in two layers : the inner (endocarp) 
is thick and bony ; the outer one fleshy. When ripe the fruit is 
black, globular, and about the size of a pea. 

CALLlTRiCHlNEiE. — Callitriche is an aquatic floating herb. 
There is no perianth. The fruit is entire, with a single seed. 

Urticace.e. — The fruit is small, dry, rarely succulent (the 
Mulberry), 1- seeded. We have three genera ; the Nettle, the 
Pellitory, and the Hop. 

In the Nettles ( Urtica), the fruit consists of a minute nutlet, 
inclosed in the persistent calyx, which bristles with short stiff 
hairs, and thus probably adheres to the feet and fur of animals. 
The fruit of the Pellitory (Parietaria) is formed on the same plan. 

In the Hop {Humulus Lwpulus), the achene is broadly ovoid 
subcompressed, smooth, and somewhat glossy. The seed con- 
forms to the interior of the achene, and the embryo is coiled up 
so as to fit itself in. Each fruit is inclosed by the incurved base 
of a large membranous bract, more or less densely covered by 
yellow glands. The large and light catkin is readily blown about 
by the wind, which is evidently the principal agent in the dis- 
semination of the seeds. 

UlmacEvE. — Ovary, 1- to 2-celled. Fruit, a samara or a 
nut; 1-seeded; seed inverted. In the Elm {Ulmus montana), 
the ovary is 2-celled with one ovule in each cell, only one of 
which, however, develops into a seed. The fruit is a samara, flat, 
thin, and leaf-like, slightly thickened at the centre, broadly ovate 
or orbicular, six to nine lines long, with a notch at the top. The 
seed is suspended in a small cavity near the centre of the fruit. 
The trees flower in February and March, before the leaves appear. 
The fruit ripens, detaches itself, and is carried away by the wind 
in June. The wing develops on both sides, from the base of the 
calyx, along the stalk of the fruit, and the fruit itself, to the style, 
beyond which it extends on both sides. 

AMENTACEyE. — The ovary may be 1- or several celled, but the 
fruit is always 1 -celled, and is either a nut or a several-seeded 
capsule, opening with two valves. The catkin scales sometimes 
form an involucre, around or below the fruit. 

The wide distribution of the order over the world indicates 
great antiquity. The anemophilous character of the flowers and 
their independence of insects tend to corroborate this view, while 



302 Transactions of the Society. 

the willows suggest to us how plants may have originally passed 
from anemophilous to entomophilous fertilisation. 

In the species with large edible fruits (hazel, oak, Spanish 
chestnut, etc.), as in some other similar cases, the cotyledons are 
thick and fleshy, and remain in the seed. In the two former they 
are piano convex, and each occupies one-half of the interior of the 
nut, to which it conforms. Those of the Spanish Chestnut are 
more or less wavy, and ruminate, or unequally folded. 

The fruits are more or less inclosed in a cupule or involucre. 
In the Birch it takes the form of a scale consisting of a bract and 
two bracteoles, connate into one piece, trifid at the apex, and falling 
with the nutlet. They closely overlap one another, forming a 
cylindrical spike. In the Alder they form an oval spike, and the 
scales when mature spread out, and let the nutlets drop away. 
In the Hornbeam to the right and left of the bract there is a three- 
lobed bracteole, partly enveloping the nut, enlarged and leafy 
upwards, especially the one in the middle. 

In the Hazel there are two greatly enlarged bracteoles, more or 
less toothed or fringed at the margins. There are originally two 
ovules in each cell, but only one comes to maturity. 

The cupule of the Oak consists of many bracteoles, united 
into one piece but carried with the free imbricated points of the 
bracteoles. It forms the well known cup in which the acorn sits. 
There are two ovules in each cell, but only one matures. 

The fruits of the Spanish Chestnut are inclosed, two or three 
together, in a cupule of four pieces, which are densely covered 
with long prickles. These open when the fruit is ripe, but serve 
to protect it when young, and also, no doubt, assist in its dis- 
semination. In this species also there are two ovules, but only 
one seed. 

The cupule of the Beech consists of four lobes or valves, 
covered on the back with numerous loose, pointed scales, perhaps 
representing the original bracteoles. It incloses two or three 
fruits, which are more or less winged at the edges. The coty- 
ledons are folded up like a fan, so as to occupy the interior of the 
nutlet. 

The seeds of the Willow (Salix), as already mentioned, are 
minute, furnished with long silky hairs, and further lightened by 
a hollow, not being quite filled by the embryo. 

In the Poplar also the seeds are minute, and have a parachute 
of silky hairs. The fruits are very varied in form and structure. 

In some (Willows and Poplars) the fruits are minute, and 
provided with, and carried about by long silky hairs ; in the Birch 
and Hornbeam they are winged, and transported by the wind ; in 
others (Oak, Beech, Hazel, Spanish Chestnut, etc.) they are large 
and carried about by animals as food. The fruit of the Alder, 



The President's Address. By Lord Avebury. 303 

which grows near streams and lakes, is light, and probably carried 
mainly by water. 

The arrangement of the seeds is also very interesting. Fig. 84 
is a diagram of a nut with the parts somewhat separated from one 
another, so as to show the relations more clearly. The micropyle 
m is at the apex of the seed. The ovule, however, is not straight 
and orthotropous, which would be, or at any rate seem to be, the 
simplest arrangement. Quite the contrary, for we find a long 
placental axis pi, which extends to the apex of the nut, from which 
starts a raphe r, which returns about half-way back again to the place 
where the true attachment or chalaza ch is situated. I am not pre- 
pared to suggest any circumstances which would render this 
complex arrangement specially adapted to present conditions. It 
would seem as if it would be simpler, and give Nature less trouble, 
if the ovule sat directly with its base on the stalk, thus doing away 
with both the placental axis pi and the raphe r. This view is 
strengthened by the fact that such an arrangement has actually 



m. 





Fig. 84. 

been nearly attained by the Oak. The ovule in this genus is theo- 
retically anatropous, but the placental axis and the raphe are both 
greatly shortened, so that the distance which the nourishment has 
to traverse is much less, though the actual place of attachment 
remains the same. The Oak, in fact, seems to have appreciated the 
difficulties of the situation, and to have in great measure neutralised 
them. Is it fanciful to imagine that some ages hence the Oak may 
be practically orthotropous ? (fig. 85). 

But why should these species be anatropous if it is an 
advantage to be orthotropous I On this question some light is 
thrown by the fact that while one seed only comes to maturity, 
the ovary contains originally several cells, each with one or two 
ovules, though none of the others comes to anything. They can, 
however, easily be seen, either at the apex of the seed, as in the 
Nut and Beech {Fagus), or, as in the Oak, near the base. Their 
presence appears to indicate that these species are descended from 
ancestors, the fruit of which was composed of several cells, each 
with more than one seed — a state of things, therefore, very unlike 
the present, and in which the anatropous condition would be an 



304 Transaction* of the, Society. 



advantage. It' this view be correct, the structure of the fruit in 
the Nut, Beech, aud others becomes peculiarly interesting, because 
it represents a case in which the present arrangements are not 
those, in all respects, most convenient to the plant, and renders it 
probable that the same explanation may apply to other cases of 
difficulty. 

The seeds of the Willow closely resemble those of 
Epilobium ; like them are inclosed in a capsule, and are wafted 
about by means of a tuft of long hairs. In Epildbium, however, 
these are situated at the summit, in Salix at the base of the seed. 
In Epilobium the hairs can easily grow upwards and overlap 
several seeds above them. When the capsule opens, moreover, 
they are thus more readily dried by the outer air. In Salix, on the 
other hand, the capsules are short. The hairs, therefore, grow 
along the seeds. If they started from above, they would have to 
turn round and downwards, which would be a disadvantage ; but 
starting as they do from the base of the seed, they are able to 
accommodate an additional length, equal to that of the seed, and 
when the capsule begins to open the free ends escape into the 
open air. 

The Amentaceee complete the Dicotyledons. If the Society 
approve, I shall hope to deal with the Conifers and Monocotyledons 
next year, and then terminate with some general remarks. It only 
remains for me, in conclusion, to thank the Society for their kind 
and constant support, and for the honour they have conferred on 
me in electing me to the Presidency for another term of office 

Note. — For permission to reproduce figs. 67 to 85, from " Notes on British 
Flowering Plants," by Lord Avebury, we are indebted to the courtesy of Messrs. 
Macmillan and Co., Limited. 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES' 

RELATING TO 

ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY 

(PRINCIPALLY INVERTEBRATA AND CRYPTOGAMIA), 

MICEOSCOPY, Etc.* 



ZOOLOGY. 

VERTEBRATA. 

a. Embryology. t 



Origin of Gonocytes in Amphibians.^ — A. P. Dustin has made a 
study of the origin of the sex-cells in Amphibians, with a view to deter- 
mining (1) what part of the embryo gives rise to the first rudiment of 
the sexual organ, and (2) whether the cells of which the primary rudiment 
is composed go to form, in whole or in part, and with or without the 
assistance of other elements, the later definite sex-cells. After reviewing 
the literature on the subject, the investigator describes his researches on 
Triton alpestris, Ranafusca, and Bufo vulgaris, the larvae of Rana being 
studied up till the final metamorphosis. He found that the course of 
development was fundamentally the same in Triton and Rana, but that 
some stages which were successive in Triton were simultaneous in 
Rana. His general conclusions are as follows. The first rudiments of 
the reproductive organs of Amphibians are paired, symmetrical, and of 
purely mesoblastic origin. These rudiments represent morphologically 
a part of the primitive ccelom (gonocoele). They do not exhibit rneta- 
meric arrangement except in the Urodela, where traces of such arrange- 
ment may be discerned. The unpaired genital rudiment of Amphibians 
results from the union along the median line of the paired bilateral 
primordia. The rudiments of the definitive bilateral glands result from 
the emigration of the cells of the primary rudiment into a peritoneal 
crest projecting into the ccelom, and ultimately from the localised pro- 
liferation of the cells of the peritoneal epithelium, forming the crest 
and investing the primary gonocytes. A certain number of the cells of 

* The Society are not intended to be denoted by the editorial " we," and they 
do not hold themselves responsible for the views of the authors of the papers 
noted, nor for any claim to novelty or otherwise made by them. The object of 
this part of the Journal is to present a summary of the papers as actually pub- 
lished, and to describe and illustrate Instruments, Apparatus, etc., which are 
either new or have not been previously described in this country. 

t This section includes not only papers relating to Embryology properly so 
called, but also those dealing with Evolution, Development, Reproduction, and 
allied subjects. X Arch. Biol., xxiii. (1907) pp. 411-522 (2 pis.). 

June 17 th, 1908 Y 



306 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the primary bilateral rudiment become actual sex-cells ; the rest degene- 
rate at ontogenetic stages varying according to the species. A second 
lineage of gonocytes arises by modification of the germinative cells due 
to the proliferation of the peritoneal epithelium. These invest the 
surface of the reproductive organs and form a germinative epithelium. 
The number of gonocytes is subject to considerable fluctuations. The 
gonocytes of both first and second lineage may become capable of fer- 
tilisation. They never fuse together, and never become follicular cells. 
If from any cause sexual development is arrested, these cells undergo 
degeneration. 

The last part of the paper discusses the bearing of these results on 
the general theory of the evolution of genital organs. The author con- 
siders that they bring the organogenesis of the reproductive organs 
entirely into line with what is known in regard to other Vertebrates, 
differing in this opinion from Bouin, whose investigations on Rana led 
him to regard Weismann's theory as inapplicable, and even to deny that 
there is any cellular specificity. 

Origin of Germ-cells in Mammalian Embryos.* — W. Paibaschkin 
finds that in the rabbit on the thirteenth day the ccelomic epithelium of 
the median part of the Wolffian body attains the character of a germinal 
epithelium. At this stage there are found also single germ-cells outside 
the germinal ridge, lying mainly under the aorta in the mesenchyme 
tissue. On the eleventh day the germinal epithelium (in the old sense) 
is not formed, only single germ-cells are to be found in the epithelium of 
the median part of the "Wolffian body. On the tenth day no germ-cells 
are to be found here, although single germ-cells are found in the dorsal 
parts of the mesentery, and in larger numbers in the ventral mesentery 
and surrounding the hind gut. These last exhibit amoeboid movement. 
The youngest stage at which germ-cells were traced was in ninth-day 
embryos, in which they lie close to the epithelium on the hind gut and 
mainly in its ventral section. Thus it appears that the place of origin 
of the germ-cells lies at some distauce from the germ-gland region, and 
that the germ-cells occur much earlier than has hitherto been assumed. 



&* 



Development of the Frog's Head.f — Agnes I. M. Elliot deals with 
the development of the segments of the occipital region of the skull. 
In front of the myotome associated with the first spinal nerve and its 
ganglion there are in the 9 mm. tadpole two myotomes. Cartilaginous 
arches appear in connection with these and fuse with the parachordals 
from which they are still distinct in a 20 mm. tadpole. Both these 
myotomes and a rudimentary ganglion associated with one of them 
disappear, while the cartilaginous arches corresponding to them form 
the occipital region of the skull. The vagus arises by numerous roots. 
It is suggested that the hinder roots may represent ventral roots of 
the nerves of the missing post-otic segments and also of the segment in 
which the first myotome is developed. The segmentation of the post- 
otic region of the skull agrees in Rana with that in Necturus. 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxxii. (1908) pp. 222-4. 

t Quart. Jouru. Micr. Sci., li. (1907) pp. 647-57 (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 307 

Determining Factors in Metamorphosis of Anura.* — P. Wintrebert 
has experimented with tadpoles of Rana temporaria, and finds that tad- 
poles of about 43 mm. long removed quite abruptly from the water to 
moist air are not injuriously affected, and that in fact metamorphosis is 
sharply accelerated. 

Portal Circulation in the Embryonic Metanephros of Mammals. t 
Ivar Broman finds in the embryos of man, pig, and mole blood-vessels 
in the rudiments of the metanephros. In a human embryo of 16 mm. 
these were very distinct, as also in an 8 mm. mole and in pigs of 14-22 
mm. It was suspected but not confirmed that the vessels branched off 
from the arterial vasa efferentia of the primitive kidney. On the other 
hand the author has traced some of these to the posterior cardinal veins, 
and others to the venae revehentes of the pronephros. Hence it is 
assumed that the kidney vessels found are all veins, and that the one 
group is afferent and the other efferent. In other words, the meta- 
nephros of the mammals examined very probably possesses at this stage 
(before the kidney arteries have developed) a so-called portal circulation. 

Studies of Placentation.— F. MullerJ describes the pre-placentary 
and placentary stages in the squirrel, and compares them with those in 
other rodents. Hans Strahl§ gives an account of the uterus puerperalis 
of the hedgehog, which is very distinctive, differing in many ways from 
that of rodents. 

Bodily Identity of Twins. || — H. H. Wilder has made a study of 
the ridge patterns of the hands and feet of twins. As the patterns are 
ordinarily very variable he thought that they might illustrate the organic 
agreement of the twin individuals more exactly than bodily form, physical 
measurements, features, etc. He found a remarkable agreement, and 
gives an illustration of the right hand of each of a pair of twins which 
shows this in a striking way. While he admits that caution is necessary 
in drawing conclusions, he suggests that in the case of twins resulting 
from the bipartition of a siugle egg the agreement of the ridge figures 
is due to the dominance of a determining substance within the egg, 
which even here fixes the form they are to assume. The agreement is 
only in the larger features and does not extend to individual lines, so 
that the theory involves the notion that the details are determined by 
forces acting later on in development. 

b. Histology. 

Structure and Function of Rectal Gland in Elasmobranchs.f — 
Helen L. M. Pixell has studied the rectal gland, which Sanfelice and 
Howes called the appendix digitiformis, in Scijlliam eanicula and Raja 
punctata. It has a compound tubular structure, the walls of the tubules 
consisting of low cylindrical cells interspersed with numerous goblet-cells. 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) pp. 257-9. 
f Anat. Anzeig., xxxi. (1907) pp. 94-7. 

X Proc. Acad. Amsterdam, Section of Sciences, ix. (190G) pp. 380-9. 
§ Op. cit., xiii. (1907) pp. 1-22 (3 pis.). 
|| Anat. Anzeig., xxxii. (1908) pp. 193-200 (2 figs.), 
t Tom. cit., pp. 174-8. 

Y 2 



308 SUMMARY OF CUBBEN1 RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Testing for area, which has been said to be abundant in the gland, gave 
no result. An extract of the gland confirmed Blanehard's statement 
as to the presence of ferments similar to amylopsin and lipase. 

Cytological Notes. — Fr. Meves * describes the mitochondria, or 
" chondriokonts " (chains, or rods or granules), in embryonic cells, and 
supports Benda's view that they must be regarded as definite and in- 
dividualised components of the cells. 

Achille Russot discusses the origin of the mitochondria and the 
formation of the deutoplasm in the oocytes of mammals. 

Neurological Studies. — A. Wallenberg! gives an account of his 
researches on the brain and cranial nerves, with especial reference to the 
sensory tracts, in Teleosteans and Selachians. F. Livini § describes the 
cerebrum and thalamencephalon of a marsupial, Mypsi/primnus rufescens, 
with especial reference to the nerve-tracts. 

Myelin-bodies in Nervous System. || — A. Capparelli describes cor- 
puscles containing myelin in the central nervous system of higher 
animals, and discusses their relations to the protoplasmic prolongations 
of the nerve-cells. They occur chiefly in the grey matter of the brain 
and spinal cord, as egg-shaped or spherical bodies, with an envelope of 
a nervous network, the meshes of which are sometimes so close as to 
suggest a homogeneous membrane. This network surrounds true myelin 
masses. These myelin-bodies are in contact with the protoplasmic end- 
ings of the nerve-cells and with the surface of the cell. They pro- 
bably supply nutritive and functioning material for the nerve-cells and 
nets. 

[c. General- 
Young-^ R, ec i Kangaroo.1T — W. H. Sheak describes a young red 
kangaroo (Ifacropus rufus Desru.) which was born in the Barnum and 
Bailey menagerie. He first saw it when it was beginning to put its 
head out of the pouch, and was apparently about two months old. A 
month later it began to come out of the pouch, but would run back 
when alarmed, going in head first and turning round, but leaving the 
tail and hind legs protruding 18-20 in. The mother was very solicitous 
for his safety, and at first tried to prevent his coming out by hold- 
ing him with her paws. The father shared the cage, but took no 
notice of the young one. The young one showed the brick-red colour 
of the father from the first. It was seen to protrude its head from the 
pouch and nibble at the grass while the mother was feeding. 

Asymmetry of Caudal Poles of the Cerebral Hemispheres in Man,** 
G. Elliot Smith deals with this subject and with its influence on the 
occipital bone. The area striata is described, and its relations to the 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxxi. (1907) pp. 399-407. 
t Atti (Rend.) R. Accad. Lincei Roma, xvi. (1907) pp. 292-6. 
X Anat. Anzeig., xxxi. (1907) pp. 369-99 (46 figs.). 
§ Tom. cit., pp. 1-11. || Op. cit., xxx. (1907) pp. 580-8 (10 figs.), 

f Amer. Nat., xli. (1907) pp. 724-5. 
** Anat. Anzeig., xxx. (1907) pp. 574-8 (3 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 309 

squama occipitalis and the direction of the Yenous sinuses. A sym- 
metrical form of brain is commoner in negroes than in Egyptians or 
Europeans. In this respect the negro is distinctly more Simian than 
the non-negroid races. In the white races there seems to have been 
a greater specialisation of the two cerebral hemispheres than in the 
case of the negro, and in the former the resulting dissimilarity of 
shape in the cerebral hemispheres produces a cranial asymmetry. The 
symmetry of the negro cranium is thus a sign of inferiority. 

Pleural Cavity of Elephant.* — G. Vasse has had an opportunity 
of examining the lungs of a fully grown female elephant in the Portu- 
guese colony of Gorongoza. He publishes a note establishing the fact 
that the lungs are quite free in the pleural cavity. " They detached 
with the greatest facility — just as easy as the respiratory apparatus of a 
ruminant — and at no point did any adherence exist." 

Pigment of Suprarenal Glands. f — P. Mulon establishes a rela- 
tion between the amount of pigment and the functional actiYity in 
the gland. He finds that in guinea-pigs, when the suprarenale have 
functioned loug, or much, or one has taken up the work of two, there is an 
increase of pigment and a reduction of fat. 

Structure of Soricidse.f — Augusta Arnback-Christie-Linde, with a 
view of clearing up questions of relationship amongst the Insectivora, 
has planned a memoir upon the structure of the Soricidas. In the 
present instalment she deals with the integument, musculature (except 
that of the pelvis), brain, sexual apparatus, digestive organs, spleen, 
respiratory system, heart and vessels, as illustrated in several species of 
Crocidura and of Sorex. General phyletic conclusions are deferred until 
the skeleton and teeth have been dealt with. 

Studies on the Cloaca and Phallus in Amniota.§— W. Diirbeck 
and A. Fleischmann conclude these studies. The present memoir deals 
with the external genitals of the adult pig, and the development and 
transformations of the phallus in the pig embryo, and the external 
genitals of the house-cat. A tabular review of the genital development 
in Mammalia is given by Diirbeck, and Fleischmann reviews the facts 
and offers some general theoretical considerations. 



t3^ 



Penis in Birds. ||— Ulrich Gerhardt refers to the usual statement 
that a true penis is confined to RatitaB and Lamellirostres. A rudi- 
mentary one is said to occur in Grax, Grypturus, and a few other 
Carinataa. Gadow quotes Tschudi's report as to a penis H in. long 
in Penelope abourri. Gerhardt has found a similar organ in Grax alector. 
In its structure it resembles that of some Anatidse, like Dendrocygnus 
and Mergus. The author also found a well-developed penis in Tinamus 
rufescens, quite different from that of Grax, but resembling that of 
Apteryx. 

* Comptes Reudus, cxliv. (1907) p. 1230.; 

t C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxii. (1907) pp. 905-6. 

X Morphol. Jahrb., xxxvi. (1907) pp. 463-514 (35 fi*s.) 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 515-69 (4 pis. and 29 figs.). 

|| Zool. Anzeig., xxxii. (1908) pp. 649-51. 



310 SUMMARY 01' CURKENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Hybrids of Peacock and Cochin-china Hen.* — G. Pays-Mellier and 
E. Trouessart record the successful hybridisation of Pavo cristatus var. 
nigripennis £ and Gallus gallus var. sinensis ?. The male parent was 
the more prepotent. 

The authors remark that the hybrid of Pavo cristatus and NumMa 
meleagris has been known for long, and they refer to Gallus x Nurunl" 
and to the crossing of Phasianus with the nearly allied genera Chryso- 
lophus, Genweus, and Catreus, and with the more distant genera Gallus, 
Acomus, Lophwa, and Tragopan. The alleged crossing of Crax alberti 
and the fowl seems doubtful. 

Fasting Powers of the Swift.j — Albert Hugues refers to Brehm's 
statement that a swift can fast for six weeks, and relates some of his own 
observations, the most striking case being that of a fast of 21 days less 
3 hours, during which the weight decreased from 57 to 21 grm. 

Air-sacs of Pigeon.^: — B. M tiller has made a study of the morphology 
of the air-sac system of the pigeon, with a view to throwing more light 
on the problem of its function. After giving a description of the 
methods by which he succeeded in hardening the air-sacs in a rela- 
tively distended condition, and in obtaining an idea of the relative degrees 
of expansion during the various phases of breathing, the author gives a 
general account of the air-sac system, its distribution, and its relation to 
the diaphragmatic membranes. The pulmonary and abdominal dia- 
phragm, the lungs, the ostia, and the different air-sacs with their diver- 
ticula, are then described in detail, followed by a critical consideration of 
the most important hypotheses as to the function of the air-sacs. The 
author concludes that their importance as respiratory organs has been 
over-rated, and believes that their effect is mainly mechanical. He 
regards them as structures selectively developed for the purpose of in- 
creasing the size of the thorax without increasing its weight, and for 
facilitating the movements of the organs in it, especially the heart. The 
air-spaces are not organs with a positive function, but rather empty 
spaces whose value lies in their emptiness, and their shape is of no im- 
portance, their asymmetry being simply due to the asymmetry of the spaces 
they have to occupy between the viscera. The connection with the lungs 
is a consequence of their phylogenetic development, and has no physio- 
logical significance other than that they assist in renewing the air in 
the trachea. A copious bibliography is appended. 

Head-muscles in Sauropsida.§ — F. H. Edgeworth has investigated 
the head musculature in Gallus and other Sauropsida. The distinctive 
features of birds as compared with living reptiles are set forth in detail. 
Birds resemble the Rhynchocephalia in possessing an upper portion of 
the mandibular myotome inserted into the pterygoid process, but the 
adult condition in the latter group is clearly a secondary modification 
correlated with a fixation of the ptery go-quadrate. These are features 

* Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 1203-5. 

t Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xxxii. (1907) pp. 106-8. 

t Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 1. (1907) pp. 365-414 (5 pis.). 

§ Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., li. (1907) pp. 511-56 (39 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 311 

of resemblance which at first sight suggest a very distant Chelonian rela- 
tionship for birds, but which are in reality only ancestral traits, which 
are also present in embryonic stages of other Sauropsidan groups. The 
Rhyncocephalia have preserved two features more archaic than are found 
in any other Sauropsidan group— the continuity of the ceratohyal and 
the condition of the branchio-hyoid muscle — but in the upgrowth of 
the external pterygoid muscle and in the condition of the lingual muscles 
they are less primitive than the Chelonia. Like the Chelonia and 
Crocodilia they have preserved a fixed pterygoid bone. These are but a 
few of the many points of an instructive and important memoir. 

Herpetology of Japan.* — Leonhard Stejneger gives a valuable 
systematic account of the amphibians and reptiles of Japan and adjacent 
territory, with analytical keys, notes on variation and distribution, and 
abundant illustrations. 

Peculiarities of Vision in the Chamgeleon.t — E. P. Fortin refers 
to the acuteness of the chamseleon's vision for near objects. The pre- 
cision with which it picks up a very small insect at a distance of 15 cm. 
is remarkable. This acuteness of vision is mainly due to peculiarities 
in the fovea, which has a remarkable resemblance to that of man. The 
visual field of the chania3leon is small compared with man's, but the eyes 
are raised up, have highly developed muscles and great freedom of move- 
ment. This makes up for the small visual field. From an opthalmo- 
logical point of view there is much interest in the way the chameleon 
can alter the shape of its pupil. The independence of movement 
possessed by each of the eyes is seen also, according to Huot, in sea- 
horses and pipe-fishes. 

Dinosaurs of Madagascar.^ — Armand Thevenin finds that most of 
the Dinosaur bones found in Madagascar are of Jurassic or Cretaceous 
age. _ All the Jurassic bones belong to Bothriospondylus madagascariensis, 
a Dinosaur 3*5 m. high and 15 m. long. It resembles Morosaurus, a 
North American form, and Cetiosaurus oxoniensis, and appears to have 
lived about the same time as these two. 

Phagocytic Action of Kidney-cells in Frog.§— W. M. Smallwood 
gives an account of a case of Ram pipiens, in which one of the fatty 
bodies was found in a haemorrhagic condition. Examination of sections 
revealed the fact that within the fatty body the blood-cells were under- 
going degeneration, and that this was even more the case in the kidney. 
It was rare to find in the kidney any red cells with a nucleus, and the 
cells of the tubules as well as the tubules themselves were filled with 
disintegrating blood-cells in all stages of degeneration. The tubule-cells 
were evidently behaving in a phagocytic manner. It was found on 
examination that the ilium had been broken, and it seems likely that 
this breakage was the cause of the haemorrhage. 

Secretion of Thumb-swelling in Rana.||— A. Nussbaum finds that 
by stimulating the Ramus cutaneus antebrachii et manus lateralis of the 

* Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., No. 58 (1907) pp. i.-577 (35 pis. and 409 l/gs.). 
t C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, hdv. (1908) pp. 316-7. 
% Cornptes Rendus, cxliv. (1907) pp. 1302-4. 
§ Anat. Anzeig., xxxii. (1908) pp. 201-5 (8 figs.). 
|| Op. cit., xxx. (1907) pp. 578-9 (2 fig*.) 



312 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

N. brachialis longus inferior (ulnaris), lie obtained a widening of the 
exit duct of the thumb-gland, which he regards as a sign of increased 
secretion. The experiment was performed upon a copulating male of 
Ranafusca. 

Response of Toads to Sound-stimuli.* — S. A. Courtis has made a 
study of the response of toads to sound-stimuli during the breeding 
season. He removed a female which had been seized by two males and 
placed her about 10 feet away. One of the males uttered a shrill trilling 
note sustained for 15-20 seconds. The female immediately swam to- 
wards him and mating took place. This experiment was repeated with 
many pairs, and the distance between males and females w T as increased 
to 30 feet, but in every case the females responded to the call of the 
males. Only a few of the males uttered the call, and other males moved 
in the direction of it. The observer's general conclusions are that both 
male and female toads can hear and locate in space the call of the male ; 
that the response is unintelligent and mechanical ; that to the sound of 
the mating call a motor response is given which serves to bring the 
sexes to the same place ; that motion is the stimulus which starts the 
clasping reflex ; that neither sex is able to recognise the other without 
actual contact ; and that toads do not profit quickly by experience. 

Tongue of Teleosteans.t— J. Chaine has examined this organ in a 
series of types. He finds that it is completely devoid of muscle, but 
possesses resisting ligaments. The commonest relation observed is that 
of two lateral ligaments separated throughout their entire length. A 
second type is that exhibited in Callionymus hjra, which possesses only 
one aponeurotic formation extending from the extremity of the ento- 
glossa to the hyoidean apparatus covering the whole breadth of the 
ventral face of the tongue. A third type — the most complex — is exem- 
plified in the pike, which has two very powerful ligaments, an external 
and an internal. The latter is inserted on the entoglossa behind the 
former. Both are in the form of a small flat band. 

Abnormality of Brook Trout.| — R. de Drouin de Bouville describes 
a peculiar condition which seems not very uncommon in Salvelinus 
fontinalis. The joint between the lingual and the basihyal is enormously 
stretched, its resistance becoming inadequate to maintain the curvature 
of the cornua of the hyoid and the branchial arches. These pieces 
straighten out, affecting in their movement the operculum and the 
branchiostegal rays. The fishes look as if they had a projecting collar. 
According to the author all this is due to adeno-carcinoma of the thyroid 
gland, which brings about the displacement of the branchial and oper- 
cular skeletal pieces. 

New Lamprey.§ — H. W. Fowler establishes a new genus, Oceano- 
myzon, with 0. wilsoni as the type. The supra-oral lamina is not 
especially contracted, its two converging teeth are well separated and 
distinct. The infra-oral lamina is crescentiform and spout-like at the 
middle, with denticles obsolete. The innermost teeth of the disk, or 

* Amer. Nat., xli. (1907) pp. 677-82. 

fCR. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxii. (1907) p. 924. 

j Op. cit., lxiv. (1908) pp. 229-31.J 

§ Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1907, pp. 461-66 (2 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. Ml.:! 

those along each side of the orifice, are bicuspid, large, and similar to 
those on the supra-oral lamina. In this combination of characters, the 
new type, which was found in the open Atlantic, differs from Bathymyzon 
and Petromyzon. A small black fresh-water lamprey, Abbott's Ammo- 
codes cepytera, also known as Lampetra wilderi Gage, is re-named Lam- 
pet ra (epytera (Abbott). 

Faunistic Results of German South Polar Expedition.* — 
H. Lohmann summarises the distributional data. The distribution of 
01igocha3ta and Isopoda does not support the idea of the previous 
existence of an Antarctic Continent uniting the three Southern Con- 
tinents. Regarding plankton — Pteropods, Salpa, Appendicular ia, Tin- 
timiEB — the Antarctic region is throughout richer in species than the 
Arctic. The majority of the polar forms deviate widely, yet bipolar 
varieties and species groups have been proved. Of sea mites, only 
Halicaridas were found in the Antarctic region. Of these a small species 
group of Polymela proves to be bipolar. This family also predominates 
in the Kerguelen Islands. On St. Paul and at the Cape the Antarctic 
species and most of the Kerguelen forms are absent. A brief description 
of the sea mites found is given. 



&* 



Bipolarity of Marine Animals.t — W. Kukentkal discusses this 
subject, treating of littoral, abyssal, and pelagic forms. A number of 
littoral animals show marked bipolarity. With regard to abyssal forms 
no very valuable results appear to have been attained, yet the author 
regards the existence of bipolar animals as possible. It is most strongly 
indicated amongst plankton. The author considers that migrations of 
different kinds have been the cause of bipolarity, e.g. in the case of 
pelagic forms from the warm water areas. The floor of the sea has 
probably been the former connecting path for many littoral forms ; in 
others the west coasts of the continents may have made an exchange 
possible. 

Northern Animals.} — Fritz Romer has published an interesting 
lecture on the northern animals in their relation to the fauna of tem- 
perate zones, and in their special adaptations to boreal conditions. 

INVERTEBRATA. 

Mollusca. 
a. Cephalopoda. 

Chromatophores of Cephalopods.§ — W. Marchand reviews the 
literature— more particularly the works of Rabl, Steinach, Chun, and 
Hertel — on the subject of the structure and function of these bodies. 
The play of colour in the skin of Cephalopoda is conditioned by the 
iridocytes and by the chromatophores. The latter possess a distinctive 

* Schrift. Natur. Vereiu. Schleswig-Holstein, xiv. (1906) pp. 1-14. See also 
Zool. Zentralbl., xiv. (1907) pp. 392-3. 

t Veroffentl. Institut. f. Meereskunde, heft 11 (1906) 28 pp. See also Zool. 
Zentralbl., xiv. (1907) p. 392. 

% SB. Senckenberg. Nat. Ges., 1907, pp. 63-112. 

§ Zool. Zentralbl., xiv. (1907) pp. 289-301. 



314 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

motor apparatus. On every chromatophore may be distinguished a 
peculiar pigment-body and a number of radial fibres issuing from it. 
There is a diversity of opinion as to whether the pigment-body is 
unicellular or multicellular. Both Chun and Steinach found that the 
radial fibres, often anastomosing, occasionally pass directly over into the 
skin musculature. Chun found in Bolitama that there is a connection 
between one (and of ten several) of the radial fibres and fine side-branches 
of the skin-nerves. Numerous observations on the physiology of the 
chroinatophores are quoted, but at present unification of the results 
seems difficult. 

3. Gastropoda. 

Hermaphroditism in a Chiton.* — Harold Heath has found that 
Trachydermon raymondi is normally hermaphrodite. In the early stages 
ova appear in typical fashion ; when the animal becomes half-grown 
(4-5 mm. long) some of the primitive sex-cells form clusters of sper- 
matozoa. In 1851 Middendorf reported hermaphroditism in Amicula 
pallasi, but Plate, in 1899, failed to confirm this, and thought that 
Middendorf has misinterpreted sperm mother-cells as immature ova. 
With this single and doubtful exception, all known Chitons have been 
reported as dioecious, but Heath has shown that Trachydermon raymondi 
is an indubitable exception. 

The number of spermatozoa is always comparatively small, and they 
are seemingly shed almost continuously during tlie winter and spring. 
A number occur grouped together during the breeding season, so that 
a large number of spermatozoa is not so essential as with the majority 
of species. The young are brooded over by the parent as in Chiton 
poli, Ischnochiton imitator, and a few other species. 

The gonad seems to arise as two proliferations of cells of the 
anterior pericardial wall, and each gonoduct seems to be almost wholly 
an outgrowth of the wall of the gonad, and not in large measure an 
ectodermal product. 

Sugar-reducing Power in Helix pomatia.f — Mile. Bellion finds 
that the liver, albumen-gland, and muscles of Helix jjomatia contain 
substances which have a sugar-reducing property, and that in the period 
of activity following hibernation these substances are considerably 
diminished. This diminution is particularly marked in the liver. 

Pedal Waves of Reptant Molluscs.! — F. Vies finds that there are 
several interesting varieties in the type of wave-motion to be seen on 
the foot of creeping Molluscs. These are classified, first, as direct, i.e. 
those in which the waves are propagated in the same direction as that in 
which the animal is moving ; and retrograde, where the waves move in 
an opposite direction, i.e. from front to back. The direct forms are 
further sub-divided as follows : — monotaxic, with one or more waves 
visible traversing the whole width of the foot, e.g. Helix, Li max, Arion ; 
ditaxic, having two systems of waves, each occupying one-half of the 

* Zool. Anzeig., xxxii. (1907) pp. 10-12. 

+ C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) pp. 238-40. 

X Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 276-8. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 315 

foot with the median line unaffected by the waves, e.g. Haliotis, Trochus 
(these forms move rapidly) ; tetrataxic, with four systems, two sets of 
lateral alternating waves, seen in small species of Littorina. Amongst 
the retrograde forms, both monotaxic (e.g. Chiton), and ditaxic (e.g. 
Littorina littorea and L. rudis) occur. It is noteworthy that the retro- 
grade forms correspond with the locomotor waves in various other 
Invertebrate types, e.g. Oligochajtes, Nemerteans, Gephyreans, insect 
larvas, etc. 

8. Lamellibranchiata. 

Nervous System of Razor-shell Clam.* — Gilman A. Drew has made 
experiments with Ensis directus, which is well suited for the physio- 
logical study of the nervous system. Continued stimulation of any 
portion of the body has in time an effect on all the ganglia. The siphons, 
collar, and foot may be so gently stimulated as to cause them to be with- 
drawn without disturbing organs that receive their nerves from other 
ganglia. The relation of the ganglia of a pair is intimate. Stimulating 
nerves connected with one, causes organs connected with both to 
respond promptly. Association fibres, by which ganglia communicate 
with each other, are found only in commissures and connectives. 
Although the anterior pallia! nerves are united, so that a connection is 
formed between the cerebral ganglia, and the circum-pallial nerves con- 
nect the cerebral and visceral ganglia of corresponding sides, there is no 
evidence that the ganglia are able to communicate through them. Both 
cerebral and visceral ganglia are provided with sensory and motor cells. 
The pedal ganglia are apparently dependent upon the cerebral for 
initiative. When the pedal ganglia are isolated from the others, stimu- 
lation of the surface of the foot causes only local responses, due to the 
direct stimulation of muscle-fibres. It would seem that the sensory 
neurons have neither endings nor collaterals in the pedal ganglia, but are 
continued to the cerebral ganglia. Impulses may pass in both directions 
through any of the commissures and connectives. Stimulation may 
cause impulses to be sent by roundabout connections when the usual 
connections are destroyed, but the stimulation must be of considerable 
duration, and the result is often considerably delayed. 

Distribution of Petricola pholadiformis.t — Bronishnv Debski points 
out that C. Boettger's record of this mollusc in the German " Watten- 
See " recpiires to be supplemented by other records of its occurrence in 
England in 1896 and subsequently, and in Belgium in 1903. 

Arthropoda. 
a. Insecta. 

Treatise on Insects.!— A. Berlese's treatise on insects continues to 
appear, the latest part dealing mainly with the alimentary system, in- 
cluding the Malpighian tubules. The first volume is nut yet completed, 
but the 800th page lias been reached and the 1000th figure. 

* Journ. Exp6r. Zool., v. (1908) pp. 311-26 (1 pi.). 

t Zool. Anzeig., xxxii. (1907) p. 1. 

X Gli Insetti, Milano, 1908, pp. 713-800 (1 pi. aud figs. 892-1000). 



316 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Histolysis of Wing-muscles in Ants after Nuptial Flight.* — 
Charles Janet lias previously described the histolysis of the vibratory 
muscles of the wings of ants after the wings are lost. He now inquires 
into the fate of the ordinary non-vibratory muscles associated with the 
wings. Here, too, there is necrobiosis, a sort of premature senescence. 
Finally the remains of the muscle undergo digestion. There is no 
phagocytosis. 

Uncommon Dipterous Larva.f — P. Cerfontaine describes a rare 
dipterous larva of the genus Mkrodon, of which a few specimens were 
found in the stumps of hornbeam and oak trees near Liege. The general 
aspect, form and movements of this larva are so peculiar and Gastropod- 
like, that it is not surprising that it should have been classed as a 
mollusc before its metamorphosis was observed. The investigator gives 
an account of the general structure of the larva, and describes and figures 
in minute detail the various chitinous structures on the surface of the 
body. The results agree in the main with those of Hecht, but he finds 
that the buccal armature is much more complex than Hecht described, 
and that the so-called chitinous stylets are simply the extremities of 
the antenna?. He also finds on the dorsal surface a series of sensitive 
organs which have not hitherto been described. These organs are of 
the same type as those on the ventral surface, but have a much more 
elongated cone ; they are metamerically arranged. 

Just before metamorphosis not only the larval respiratory mechanism 
but the respiratory horns of the nymph, and the outline of the stigmata 
of the perfect insect, can be seen. As metamorphosis was not observed 
it was impossible to determine to which of the two species, 31. mutabilis 
or 31. devius, the specimens in question belong. 

Fat-bodies of Muscidae in Metamorphosis.! — Ch. Perez states that 
for a time during metamorphosis the fat-body functions as a storing 
kidney (rein d'accumulation). As the imaginal organs develop they 
digest within their protoplasm some of the inclusions. Whenever the 
Malpighian tubes are differentiated they commence to function even 
before the emergence of the imago ; the urates provisionally heaped up 
in the fat-cells are dissolved and circulated. They reach the cells of the 
Malpighian tubes, and finally pass from their lumina to the intestine as 
an abundant meconium. 

Larval Habits of Tiger-beetles.§ — V. E. Shelf ord gives a preliminary 
account of the habits of the larvae of some American tiger-beetles, which 
he reared from the egg in a glass-covered vivarium. The species chiefly 
described is Ckindela purpurea, but other eleven races were studied at 
the same time. Adults were caught in April and mating took place in 
a few days, there being no " courting " on the part of the male. Some 
days later the female bored vertical holes, 7-9 mm. in depth, and 
deposited a single elongated egg of a clear translucent cream-colour in 
each hole. About fifty eggs were laid by one female. Small larvae 
appeared in two weeks. The first larval stage lasts about a month. 

* Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 1205-8 (1 fig.). 
t Arch. Biol., xxiii. (1907) pp. 368-410 (2 pis.). 
% C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, Ixii. (1907) pp. 909-11. 
§ Jouru. Linn. Soc, xxx. (1908) pp. 157-88 (4 pis.). 



ZOOLOGV AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 317 

The larvae hibernate in the third stage, emerging in April and feeding 
till June, when pupation takes place. The perfect insect hibernates 
again and does not become sexually mature until the first warm days of 
the third spring, when it lays its eggs and dies. In other species the 
eggs are not laid till midsummer, and the imagos emerge the following 
July and mature quickly, so that adult life lasts only two months. Tem- 
perature, moisture, and' food influence the length of the stages. Pig- 
mentation and final hardening of the cuticle takes place in the pupa 
in those parts which are employed in the final ecdysis, and the bristles 
of the imago assist in the removal of the exuvium. 

Life-history and Bionomics of Lomechusa.* — H. St. J. Donisthorpe 
communicates some interesting facts regarding this beetle, which is a 
dweller in the nests of the robber-ant, Formica sanguined, and whose 
life-history has been worked out by Father Wasmann. Lomechusa 
possesses short aborted labial palpi and patches of golden hairs upon 
the abdomen, whence the ants obtain a sweet secretion. The secretion 
exudes from orifices under the hair. The beetles ask to be fed by the 
ants by tapping them with their antenna?. They may, however, feed them- 
themselves, sucking the honey given to the ants, and biting at dead 
ants and larvae. In courtship the male and female Lomechusa face each 
other, bringing their antennae and mouths together, and tapping each 
other quickly. In copulation the male turns his tail over his head, 
meeting the upturned female abdomen which is in front. The male in 
these circumstances is carried hanging back in the air or walking on the 
tips of his front pair of legs. They separate, and after caressing each 
other the process is repeated and copulation resumed. Lomechusa defends 
itself successfully against the attacks of foreign ants, F. rufa, F. exsecta, 
etc., introduced into the nest. They emit an odour when seized, which 
comes from glands in the posterior part of the abdomen. The larva 
mimics the ant larva ; it is valued and protected by the ants themselves ; 
they feed it and place it even upon their own larvae, many of which it 
devours. Some interesting facts are stated regarding the relation of 
Lomechusa to the production of " pseudogynes " in the ants' nests. 
Eecently this beetle has been found to be not uncommon in England. 

Variation of Nycteribiidae from Ceylon. | — H. Scott has examined 
a hundred specimens of Cyclopodia sylcesi Westwood, a parasite upon 
Pteropus medius in Ceylon, with a view to ascertaining to what extent 
variation occurs. He records that in 57 males there is no appreciable 
variation in size, structure, and colour. In the 43 females only one 
striking variation was noted, viz. in the numbered arrangement of the 
large tubercles on the dorsal surface of the abdomen. These are so 
variable that they cannot be relied on as a specific character. 

Semi-aquatic Aphid. :£ — 0. F. Jackson describes Aphis aquaticus 
sp. n., which was found infesting Phihtria canadensis and other aquatic 
plants. Three pairs of lateral wax-glands on the thorax make a secretion 
which keeps the insect from getting wet, and other adaptations to the 
semi-aquatic life are noted. 

* Trans. Entorn. Soc. London, 1907, pp. 415-20. t Tom. cit., pp. 421-8. 

t Ohio Naturalist, viii. (1908) pp. 243-9 (1 pi.). 



318 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Accessory Chromosome in Aplopus mayeri.* — H. E. Jordan traces 
the history of the accessory chromosome in the Phasmid, Aplopus mayeri, 

from its first origin in the secondary spermatogonia, through its various 
changes during the growth and maturation processes, to its final disappear- 
ance in thr head of the ripening spermatozoa. He reserves theoretical 
considerations for future discussion, and summarises the results of his 
investigation as follows. The accessory chromosome appears in the 
resting stage of the secondary spermatogonia as a chromatin nucleus 
characteristically close to the nuclear wall. At the last spermatogonia] 
division it passes over into the resting stage of the primary spermatocyte 
without entering a reticular stage, as do the ordinary chromosomes. 
Both the primary and secondary spermatogonia have a metaphase group 
of thirty-five chromosomes. Metaphase groups of the follicle cells of 
the ovary contain thirty-six chromosomes. Synapsis occurs in the early 
stages of the growth period by an end-to-end union of pairs of univalent 
elements. Equatorial plates of primary spermatocytes contain eighteen 
chromosomes. The accessory chromosome passes undivided to one pole 
of the first maturation spindle, and thus produces a dimorphism of the 
daughter-cells and the resulting spermatozoa. The first maturation 
division is reductional, the second is equational. Equatorial plates of 
secondary spermatocytes show a disparity in the number of chromosomes ; 
one group contains a large U-shaped element peripherally and numbers 
eighteen ; those groups which lack a body of such form contain only 
seventeen chromosomes. The accessory chromosome can be traced as a 
specific structure from the resting stage of the last order of spermato- 
gonia through all the various phases of synapsis and maturation, until 
it disintegrates in the head of the ripening spermatozoon. 

Excretion in Thysanura.f — L. Bruntz finds labial renal organs 
opening to the exterior in MacMlis and Lepisma. There are also nephro- 
cytes like fat^cells in the connective-tissue which bounds the pericardial 
sinus in MacMlis. Similar elements in Lepisma, but quite unlike fat- 
cells, occur in connection with the pericardial sinus. Phagocytosis is 
exhibited by blood-corpuscles and by the pericardial septum in some 
species {Lepisma saccharin a and Ctenolepisma lineata). 

P, Myriopoda. 

Habits and Structure of Scutigerella immaculata.J — S. R. 
Williams has studied this member of the Symphyla, that interesting 
group of Arthropods that seems to partake to a certain extent of the 
characters of the millipedes, the centipedes, and the Thysanuran order 
of insects. It lays eggs and hatches its young (in the latitude of 
southern Ohio) during late May and early June. The time of laying is 
influenced by the temperature. In the laboratory at least the adult is 
needed to keep off destructive fungi from the eggs. The egg is covered 
by a vitelline membrane and a much-ridged chorion. 

The larva has seven pairs of legs and ten dorsal scutes, and is 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxxii. (1908) pp. 284-95 (35 figs.). 
t C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiv. (190S) pp. 231-3. 



Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xxxiii. (1907) pp. 461-85 (3 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 319 

hatched more nearly like the adult than in Diplopods. It is more like 
the adult than the newly-hatched IMhobius among Chilopods. " It is, 
therefore, a highly specialised young rather than a generalised ancestral 
form such as the hexapod larva of other Diplopoda is considered to be." 
• It seems probable that Scutigerella is carnivorous, and it seems to 
secrete a peritrophic membrane about the contents of its mid-gut, as do 
some of the lower insects. 

The first joint of a typical walking leg is moved by five slender 
muscles, which originate on the dorsal scutes. In its mode of loco- 
motion, though not in its rate, S. immcmdata resembles the Diplopods. 
Ecdysis seems to occur shortly before oviposition. The most common 
method of escape from the cast skin is by freeing the head and then 
creeping forward out of the old husk ; but this is not the only method. 

Segmentation of the Head in Diplopoda.* — Margaret Robinson 
has examined embryos and larvae of Archispirostreptus from South 
Africa, from which she draws certain conclusions as to the head seg- 
ments. The embryo has two additional head -segments, the possession 
of which would seem to give the Diplopoda a place in the Arthropod 
system nearer to the Chilopoda and Hexapoda than that recently 
assigned to them. These additional segments are (1) a tritocerebral 
segment representing the tritocerebral rudiments found in Hexapoda 
and Scolopeinlra, and also the tritocerebral segment in Crustacea ; (2) a 
pair of rudimentary roaxillas lying in front of the pair which forms 
the gnathochilarium in the adult. These are probably homologous 
with the first maxillae in Chilopoda and Crustacea, and with the super- 
linguae (Folsom) of Hexapoda. The gnathochilarium is probably a 
part of the head, and the post-maxillary segment of Heymons and 
Silvestri is purely a body segment. 

8. Arachnida. 

So-called Malpighian Tubes in Scorpions.f— L. Bordas has studied 
these structures in Buthus europceus, and finds that they are inextricably 
associated with the liver, being, in fact, excretory ducts of that organ, 
differing in detail from the large ducts which open into the gastric 
region. 

«. Crustacea. 

Periodic Change in Phototropism of Hermit Crabs.f — Anna 
Drzewina finds that specimens of C'libaiiarius misanthropus Risso in an 
aquarium show periodic changes from positive to negative phototropism, 
which approximately synchronise with the changes of the tide. During 
the period corresponding to neap tides the Pagurids show marked and 
very constant negative phototropism, but as the tides become higher 
towards the spring-tides, positive phototropism sets in. The possible 
meaning of the parallelism is discussed, but, as the observer points out, 
there is need for extended observations. 

* Quart. Joum. Micr. Sci., li. (1907) pp. 607-24 (1 pi., G figs.), 
f Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xxxii. (1907) pp. 167-9. 
X Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 1208-9. 



320 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Variations in the Norway Lobster.* - - D. C. Mcintosh has 
examined a large number of specimens of the Norway lobster {Nephrops 
norvegicus), procured from Newhaven fishmarket or trawled in the 
Firth of Forth and the Moray Firth. In regard to the relative size of 
males and females, it was found that less than 1 per cent, of the females 
and 30 per cent, of the males examined were over 16 cm. in length ; 
while 20 per cent, of the males, as against 80 per cent, of the females, 
were under 12 "5 cm.; so that in general the female adult is shorter 
than the male. Of 5894 specimens only 703, or scarcely 12 per cent., 
were females. It was found, however, that the proportion of females 
was much greater in hauls taken with a smaller meshed net, and it is 
suggested that the well-known scarcity of females in boxes procured for 
laboratory purposes may be partly accounted for by the method of 
capture. It was found that variation in the number and arrangement 
of the male genital apertures was not uncommon. The normal aper- 
tures were present in every case, but in 6 • 5 per cent, there were addi- 
tional openings, the variation ranging from the normal two up to six. 
These extra openings occur without any regard to bilateral symmetry. 
The number of individuals showing abnormality decreases as the extent 
of the abnormality increases. Particulars as to the material examined, 
the number and extent of variations, etc., are clearly arranged in tables. 

New British Terrestrial Isopod.f — Alexander Patience describes 
Trichoniscus linearis sp. n., from Kew Gardens, where it was found 
under flower-pots along with Haplophthalmus danicus Budde Lund. 
Another species, T. stebbingi, was found in the flower-pots, and six other 
Trichoniscidas were taken at Kew on the same day. The new species is 
at once distinguished from all the other British species of Trichoniscus 
by its conspicuously linear form, approaching nearer to T. pygmceus, 
G-. O. Sars, in this respect than any other member of the genus. 

Life-history of Sacculina.J — G-. Smith has experimentally infected 
Carcinas mamas with this parasite and followed out the life-history. It 
is briefly as follows. The eggs undergo maturation in the brood-pouch 
and are self -fertilised. Development up to the nauplius stage proceeds 
here ; the nauplii are expelled to the exterior and lead a free-swimming 
existence for four days, undergoing four moults. The cypris stage is 
reached on the fifth day, and after two or three days of free existence 
the cypris larvae attach themselves by their antennules to a hair upon 
any portion of a young crab, preferably upon the appendages. The 
cypris casts off its thoracic appendages, the ectoderm draws away from 
the shell and comes to surround a mass of mesodermal cells ; it secretes 
a chitinous coat, and in this manner the Kentrogon larva is formed. 
The cypris shell, including all the larval organs, is thrown off. The 
embryonic cells of the Kentrogon, consisting of ectoderm and mesoderm, 
pass through an ectodermal hollow dart into the haemoccele of the 
crab, and are carried in the blood-stream till they reach the intestine. 
They are inclosed in a thin chitinous cuticle. The Saccidina interna 

* Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinburgh, xvii. (1908) |pp. 129-42. 

t Ann. Nat. Hist., i. ser. 8„ pp. 280-2 (1 pi.). 

X Quart. Journ. Micr. Soc, li. (1907) pp. 625-32 (6 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 32 L 

migrans now proceeds to grow rapidly, to throw out roots in all direc- 
tions, while the central tumour grows down the intestine toward the 
junction of thorax and abdomen of the crab. At this time the adult 
organs are differentiating in the most posterior portion of the central 
tumour, which soon arrives at the position of evagination of the adult 
Sacculina. Here differentiation proceeds, and the pressure of the growing 
tumour upon the epithelium of the crab causes it to degenerate, and 
thus when the crab next moults a hole is left in the new chitin, through 
which the Sacculina protrudes and so gains the exterior. 

New Barnacles.* — A. Grovel makes a preliminary note on the 
collection of stalked Cirripeds made by the German Antarctic Expedition. 
It includes four new species of Scalpellum. 

Metamorphosis of Mytilicola intestinalis.f — Otto Pesta gives an 
interesting account of this Copepod parasite of MyUlus gallpprovincialis, 
in whose life-cycle are included extremes of feeding habits, from those 
of a free life to that of parasitism. At the change of habit, swimming 
legs are transformed into crawling ones, their now useless or even in- 
jurious bristles becoming either rudimentary or thorny. Thorny bristles 
may secure fixation. Similar transformations occur in the thoracic limbs. 
A reduction of the number of segments sets in when the gut lumen of 
the host is nearly filled up by the further growth of the parasite, and a 
long worm-like creature results, which moves by alternate extension and 
contraction of certain body segments. For definitive onward move- 
ments the legs, now greatly modified, serve as struts pressing rhythmically 
upon the gut-wall. 

Annulata. 

Metamorphosis of Echiurus.J — W. Salensky returns to a study of 
the development of Echiurus, and gives an account of the assumption 
of the definitive form, the differentiation of the skin, and the establish- 
ment of the larval and adult nervous system. 

Studies on Maldanidae.§ — Ivar Arwidsson has studied a large number 
of Scandinavian and Arctic Maldanidae, and gives an account of the whole 
family, in which he recognises five sub-families — Luinbriclymeniaj, 
Rhodininae, Nicomachinae, Euclynieninas, and Maldaninae. The elabo- 
rate memoir contains descriptions of numerous new forms. 

Earthworms as Planters of Trees.|| — E. A. Andrews gives an account 
of some observations showing that earthworms may aid in the germina- 
tion of the seeds of at least one important kind of tree, by their habit of 
plugging up the mouth of their burrows. On May 3 it was noticed that 
the ground under a group of silver maple trees was covered with the 
little key-fruits or samaras that had fallen from the trees, and in many 
places these were collected into little heaps a foot or more apart. Each 

* Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xxxii. (1907) pp. 157-62. 

t Zeitschr. Wiss.Zool., lxxxviii. (1907) pp. 78-98 (1 pi.). 

% Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Petersbourg (1908) No. 3, pp. 307-28 (16 figs.). 

§ Zool. Jahrb., xxvi. (1907) pp. 1-308 (12 pis.). 

|| Amer. Nat., xli. (1907) pp. 711-14. 

June 17 th, 1908 z 



322 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

heap contained from twelve to fifty fruits, some lying loose, some partly 
buried, and bound together with earth and a few fibres, probably grass. 
The ground for a radius of several inches round each heap was markedly 
free from seeds and clean, so that it seemed as if the earthworms had 
reached out as far as possible and dragged back all the seeds they could 
find to the mouths of their burrows. In every collection, three, four, 
or more seeds had sprouted, while outside the heaps not a single sprouting 
seed was found. Several weeks later some dozens of young trees, three 
or four inches in height and with two or three pairs of leaves, were found 
under the parent trees, standing, with the remains of the heaps still 
visible about them, apparently on the site of the earthworms' burrows. 

Systematic Position of Chsetognatha.* — R. T. Gunther concludes 
that this class approaches in its structure and development nearer 
to the Mollusca than to any other group. He points to the following 
resemblances : — the worm-shaped body, which recalls the Amphineura 
Aplacophora ; the bilateral symmetry in general, and particularly of the 
body-cavity ; the presence of an abdominal sac behind the anus ; the 
absence of undoubted segmentation ; the jaw armature in Sagiita and 
Proneomenia ; buccal and visceral commissures in the nervous system ; 
the pre-oral ciliary wreath or velum ; the endoskeleton in the head of 
Nautilus and Spadella ; the lateral and tail fins in Sagitta and the 
Dibranchiate Cephalopods ; the two paired openings from the cavity 
of the gonads ; the hood and the circumoral propodium of Cepha- 
lopods ; the development of the eggs within a follicular epithelium 
and their growth upon stalks ; the tendency in pelagic molluscs for 
shell, mantle, gills and foot to disappear, e.g. PhylJirho'e. On the 
ground of these and other observations, Chajtognatha are regarded as 
the living representatives of that phyletic stage which is represented 
by veliger larva?, and from such a free-swimming ancestor the creep- 
ing Polyplacophora, worm-shaped Aplacophora, and the swimming 
Cephalopods may have arisen independently. A systematic scheme of 
the Mollusca is put forward in which Chastognatha and Cephalopoda are 
grouped together as Nectomalacia, and all other Molluscs as Herpeto- 
malacia. The characters of these groups are defined. 

Nematohelminth.es. 

Nervous System of Ascaris.t — D. Deincka describes the sensory 
and motor nerve-cells. He recognises two types of sensory cell. Those 
of the first type are connected with each other by means of their short 
processes, along which the neurofibrils of one cell pass over into the body 
of another, and also by means of central processes which, branching greatly 
as they meet, form an intimate network. The cells of the second kind 
are connected by means of short, greatly branched dendrites. The two 
kinds of cell are closely intermingled in the sensory end apparatus ; they 
share by means of their fibrils in the formation of the thin nerve-tufts 
of the papillae, and also form the network of delicate nerve-branches 
which constitutes the main mass of the papillae The motor-cells are 

* Zool. Anzeig., xxxii. (1907) pp. 71-2. 

t Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool., lxxxix. (190S) pp. 242-307 (9 pis. and 7 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 323 

only connected more or less closely with one another when they possess 
strongly branched dendrites which form networks. There are four types 
of motor-cell. 

Platyhelminthes. 

Orientation of the Cestoda.* — Ludwig Cohn makes some striking 
suggestions on this subject. He holds that the key to the morpho- 
logical significance of the Cestode body is to be found in the oncosphere. 
Its front end is the hook-bearing end, which in movement is directed 
anteriorly. In all taded Cysticercoids the embryonal booklets of the 
oncosphere are found on the caudal appendage, which is thus to be 
regarded as the anterior end of the Cysticercoid. There is a stage in all 
Cestodes when the whole anterior body is lost, and in the proliferating 
scolices we have animals which without possessing a real anterior end, 
i.e. a head, fix themselves by the hinder end to the gut wall, and hang 
with their relatively most anterior end freely suspended in the gut. 
This thesis thus assumes (1) that in Cestodes the anterior and the posterior 
body arise separately from a middle piece ; (2) that the hinder part 
detaches itself aud alone enters into the composition of the sexual animal ; 
(3) that the zone of growth of Cestodes occurs not on the front end 
close behind the head, but, on the contrary, away from it. These 
points are fully discussed in the paper. 

Sterility in Cestodes.f — Al. Mrazek found an example of Tatria 
acanthorhyneha which possessed only male organs and a receptaculum 
seminis. Another individual possessed in the youngest (anterior) pro- 
glottids distinct rudiments of single parts of the sex-organs, e.g. cirrus 
sac, etc., but in the oldest proglottids had not the slightest trace of these 
organs or their rudiments. It is regarded as probable that the develop- 
ment had proceeded so far and stopped, and that the rudiments then 
disappeared. It is possible that these phenomena have some relation to 
the rare cases of Cestoda in which the sexes occur separate. 

Hemiuridse.l — A. Looss deals with the anatomy and classification of 
the members of the Distomid family Hemiuridas, giving a detailed 
account of its sub-families, genera, and species. The members of this 
family are inhabitants of the alimentary canal of marine bony fishes. 
They are entirely or nearly cylindrical, and in some, though not in all, 
the body consists of two regions, trunk and abdomen (Schwanzanhang). 
The skin is always unarmed, and the suckers, which are muscular and 
powerful, are set close together. The eggs are extremely numerous, 
thin-shelled, and relatively small, usually about " 02 mm., exceptionally 
' 03 mm. in length. 



*&' 



Rhythmic Behaviour of Convoluta Roscoffensis.§— Louis Martin 
has made some new and interesting observations on this subject. He 
finds that darkness inhibits the movements, which synchronise with the 
tides. Convoluta does not rise in darkness, or if it have done so, it 

* Zool. Anzeig., xxxii. (1907) pp. 51-66. 

+ Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., xlv. (1907) p. 234-5. 

X Zool. Jahrb., xxvi. (1907) pp. 63-180 (9 pis.). 

§ Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 555-7. 



324 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RKSF.ARCHES RELATING TO 

descends. An interesting exception is the fact that on moonlight 
nights, and ('specially at full moon, the rhythm is maintained, and that 
even although the sky is dark. It is also found that various physical. 
chemical, or physiological influences are capable of disturbing this 
rhythm. 

Planaria angulata Muller.* — J. AVilhelmi clears up the confusion 
in connection with the terminology of Planaria angulata Muller. The 
name has been given to a Nemertine, a marine Triclad, and a larva 
whose development has been regarded by several embryologists as in 
the category of Polyclads. P. angulata Muller must be classed as 
a Nemertine. The form named by Agassiz as P. angulata has no claim 
to the title, and further, in consequence of his brief description, is difficult 
to identify again, although many circumstances point to its being the 
Bdellurid which lives upon Limulus. Owing to Agassiz' uncertain de- 
termination there is great doubt as to the value of the observations made 
by Balfour and by Korscheldt and Heider on the development of 
P. angulata. 

Structure of Fresh-water Triclads.f — Job. Ude has published a 
memoir dealing with the anatomy and histology of Planaria gonocephala 
Dug., Dendrocodum angarense, and D. punctatum. An examination of 
the characters of Planaria tvgtegrensis, as stated by Sabussows, shows 
it to be much more probably a variety merely of P. gonocephala. 

Early Development of a Polyclad.J — Frank M. Surface has studied 
the early stages in the development of Planocera inquilina Wh. The 
cleavage is strictly spiral in the dextral sequence until a late stage 
(forty-four cells). Three quartets of ectomeres are given off in alter- 
nating dexiotropic and Inotropic directions. At the next division a 
fourth quartet is formed, the cells of which are of very large size and 
contain most of the yolk. The " macromeres " are very minute cells, 
which remain at the vegetative pole until the closure of the blastopore. 
The markedly degenerative character of their nuclei and the small 
amount of cytoplasm indicate that they degenerate without giving rise 
to any structure. 

At the stage with forty cells there are formed at the animal pole 
four small " apical " cells, like those in Annelids and Molluscs. At the 
forty-four-cell stage the posterior cell of the fourth quartet, ±d, buds a 
single large cell into the interior of the embryo. Both of these cells, 
4 d and 4 d 2 , next divide bilaterally. Of these four cells the two upper 
and inner give rise to a portion of the mesoderm, and possibly a small 
part of the endoderm. The lower pair of cells, lying on the surface of 
the embryo, give rise to practically all of the endodermal part of the 
alimentary canal. Thus the history of this cell, 4 d, shows a remarkable 
resemblance to its homologue in Molluscs and Annelids. 

The three anterior cells of the fourth quartet, 4«, 4&, and 4^, seem 
to function only as the bearers of food-yolk, and apparently give rise to 

* Zool. Jabrb., xxvi. (1907) pp. 1-10. 

t Zeitscbr. Wiss. Zool., lxxxix. (1908) pp. 308-70 (3 pis. and 3 figs.). 

X Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1907, pp. 514-59 (G pis.), 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 325 

no morphological structure. The very large nuclei of these cells can be 
followed until the beginning of the pharyngeal invagination. The yolk 
in these cells breaks up into spherules, probably through the action of 
enzymes from the large nuclei. This liquefied yolk is afterwards absorbed 
by the endoderm cells. 

A large portion of the ectoderm is formed by the successive budding 
or delimination of small cells from larger, deeper-lying cells. A portion 
of the mesoderm, chiefly that part lying around the pharynx, is de- 
rived from cells of the second quartet, and thus corresponds to 
the ' ; secondary " mesoblast or " larval " mesenchyme of Annelids and 
Molluscs. 

In the spiral cleavage, the segregation of the ectoblast in three 
quartets, the formation of a large part of the mesoderm from 4 d, the 
formation of the apical cells, and in many other details, the development 
corresponds to that of Annelids and Molluscs. On the other hand, in 
the development of the entire alimentary canal from a portion of the 
mesentoblast, 4 d, and in the consequent degeneration of the " macro- 
meres " and of the remaining cells of the fourth quartet, this Polyclad 
is unique. 

Nematocysts of Turbellaria.*— C. H. Martin has experimentally 
proved in a series of Turbellaria that their nematocysts are derived from 
their food. For example, if Microstoma lineare is fed upon Gordylo- 
pltora, the nematocysts of this polyp are found under its skin. Ordi- 
narily its nematocysts are derived from Hydra, upon which it feeds. 
The same process probably occurs in the other Turbellaria, with the 
possible exception of Anonymus virilis, and therefore there is no ground 
for the generally accepted homology between nematocysts and rhabdites. 

Rotifera. 

New French Rotifers.f — P. de Beauchamp describes Proalides 
te/itaculatas g. et sp. n., a remarkable footless Notommatid adapted for 
free-swimming. It has affinities with Proales, Taphrocampa, and possibly 
Adadyla. The author also describes Proales similis sp. n. and Rattulus 
cylindricus Imhof, var. chattoni var. n. 

New Scottish Rotifers.} — James Murray, in a supplementary note 
on Scottish Rotifers collected by the Lake Survey, gives lists of species 
found, mostly in moss, in various parts of North Scotland, Orkney and 
Shetland. Amongst these are the following new species : Philodina 
convertjens, CaUidina minuta, C. circinata, C. plicata var. hirundella, 
which are described and figured. 



'&■ 



Stomachal Excretion in Rotifera.§ — P. de Beauchamp describes a 
process observed in the stomach of Rotifera in which a selective action 
is exercised whereby from amongst the substances swallowed, e.g. 

* Quart. Joum. Micr. Sci., lii. (1908) pp. 261-77 (1 pi.). 

t Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xxxii. (1907) pp. 148-57 (3 figs.). 

I Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, xlvi. (1908) pp. 189-201 (2 pis.). 

§ Comptes Rendus, cxliv. (1907) pp. 1293-5. 



326 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

chlorophyll, some parts are digested and retained in the form of baso- 
phil globules and fat, while others are excreted from the cells into the 
gut in the form of strongly acidophile grains. 

Echinoderma. 

Regeneration of Spines and Pedicellarise in Sea-urchins.* — 0. Poso 
has experimented with Sphatrechinus granulans, Echinus microtuber- 
culatus, and Strongylocmtrotus lividus, and finds that there is regeneration 
of spines and pedicellariae. He was led to this research by the state of 
some of the sea-urchins collected at Naples some time after the eruption 
of Vesuvius in 1906, which showed delicate spines, disproportionately 
young looking. On a sudden change from a large reservoir to a small 
glass vessel a specimen of Sphavrechinus shed most of its spines and 
seemed about to die. It recovered, however, and began to regenerate 
what it had lost. 

Luminosity of Ophiuroids. — Reichensperger f has studied Ophiop- 
sila annulosa (Sars), 0. aranea Forbes, Amphiura flliformis Midler, and 
A. squamata Sars. In the first there are peculiar glandular structures 
in the lateral spines ; in A. flliformis there are similar structures in all 
the spines. In A . chiqjei, which is not luminous, there are no glandular 
structures of this sort, but they occur again in A. squamata. In 
0. aranea, however, they are not to be found. Reichensperger thinks 
that in the three species above noted the glandular structures associated 
with the spines are the luminous organs. He does not agree with 
Irene Sterzinger's conclusion that in A. squamata the tube-feet produce 
luminous mucus. 

Ernst Mangold % has studied the same four species, and he also has 
concluded that the luminosity is associated with skeletal plates and spines, 
not with tube-feet. He criticises Irene Sterzinger's argument. He also 
discusses the climbing powers of Ophiuroids, and concludes that the 
attachment of the tube-feet is not mainly due to a secreted glutinous 
substance. The theory that the fixation is due to glutinous secretion 
is not convincing. There is more to be said for the theory that the 
tube-feet may act as muscular suckers. 

Development of Ophiothrix fragilis.§ — E. W. MacBride communi- 
cates the results of his investigation of this subject. The early develop- 
ment varies with the condition of the egg at the moment of fertilisation, 
and the development of the unripe egg resembles in certain features that 
of Ophiura brevis. The ccelome originates as a single vesicle from the 
apex of the archenteron, and this appears to be true for all classes of 
Echinoderms. This segments into three somites on each side. The 
middle somite on the right occasionally assumes a five-lobed form, 
proving beyond doubt that it is a right antimere of the water-vascular 
system. Metamorphosis is initiated by a preponderant growth of the 
organs of the left side, which affects the larval arms and the sides of 
the oesophagus, and which not only carries the hydroccele round the 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxxii. (1907) pp. 14-16. 

t Biol. Centralbl. xxviii. (1908) pp. 166-8. J Tom. cit., pp. 169-76. 

§ Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., li. (1907) pp. 557-606 (6 pis, 4 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 327 

oesophagus, but also the rnadreporic pore and the left anterior coelorne, 
so that these come to be near the right hydrocoele. The origin of the 
perihsernal canals is described. From their walls originate the motor 
ganglion cells and in all probability the ventral intervertebral muscles. 
The primitive germ-cells originate from the left posterior coelome 
covering the stone canal, 

Monograph on Apodous Holothurians.* — Herbert Lyman Clark has 
completed a valuable monograph on the Synaptidse and Molpadiidse. 
It has been based on the collection of over two thousand specimens in 
the United States National Museum, and is intended as a complete 
account of all the apodous Holothurians known to science. The author 
deals with structure, functions, habits, inter-relations, development, and 
classification. Of Synaptidae there are 21 genera and 88 species ; there 
is every reason to believe that the common ancestor was a small 10- 
tentacled apodous form, probably with wheel-shaped calcareous particles ; 
Rhdbdomolgus seems to be the nearest living representative of the 
ancestral stock, though it is not necessarily close to it ; Polyplectana, 
Protankyra, Polycheira, and Acanthotrochus are the most highly special- 
ised forms on the four different branches on which the Synaptid genera 
may be arranged. Of Molpadiidse there are 8 genera and 46 species ; 
the ancestor of the group was probably a 15-tentacled pedate Cucu- 
marian ; to this it may be that Himasthleplbora is nearest, while 
Gephyrothuria is also primitive. The author is to be congratulated on 
the completion of a very fine piece of work. 

Coelentera. 

New Types of Alcyonarians.f — Louis Eoule refers briefly to two 
new types which he found in a collection from Amboina. The first is 
Pachyclavularia erecta g. et sp. n., in which the mesoglcea of the basilar 
membrane is so thick that the encrusting mode of growth characteristic 
of Clavularids is replaced by one more or less erect. The second is a 
Virgalarid — Svavopsis elegans g. et sp. n., which has no pinnules or 
calices. 

Association of Alcyonarian and Alga. J — Ch. Gravier describes a 
case of association in very large numbers of a unicellular alga with an 
Alcyonarian, Sarcophytum mycetoides Grav. In the first stages the alga? 
are regarded as parasitic, but once established and its nutrition assured, 
the relationship becomes symbiotic. The case is regarded as parallel 
with that of Convoluta and its green cells. 



O' 



Spines of Antipatharia.§ — Louis Roule has investigated the ques- 
tion of the morphological significance of these structures. His con- 
clusion is that they are abortive branches, and correspond to branches 
of the axis. Antipatharians with undivided colonies have only these 
abortive structures, while those that branch exhibit a normal develop- 
ment. These conclusions have been arrived at by a comparison of 
Antipatharians with a complete colony of a new Gorgonid genus 
Rhopalonella, from the Antarctic seas. 

* Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, xxxv. (1907) 231 pp., 13 pis. 

t Comptes Rendus, cxlv. (1907) pp. 946-7. 

X Op. cit., cxliv. (1907) pp. 1462-4. § Tom. cit., pp. 1453-4. 



328 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Development of Gonophores in Siphonophora.* — W. Richter lias 
studied this in Rhizophysa, Physalia, and Hvppopodius. Only some of 
the more general facts elucidated in the paper can be quoted here. 
In all the gonophores — male and female — examined, the origin of the 
radial canals from stomach-grooves, independently of the bell-nucleus, 
is established. The germ-cells arise in the endoderm ; only in Physalia 
could the ectodermal origin of the spermatoblasts be proved with any 
probability. In none of the forms does a wandering of the germ-cells 
to the ectoderm take place. The development of the gonophores into 
the medusoid structure goes on in the usual way in the female gono- 
phores and in the male of Hippopodius. The male of Rhizophysa shows 
a simplification in so far as that a typical bell-cavity is not developed ; 
further development is by a downwardly directed growth, accompanied 
by a progressive blending of the tamiolas edges. The most important 
result is the demonstration that the old A^assiz-AVeismann theorv of the 
origin of the Medusa cannot be held for the Siphonophora, as Goette has 
already shown for the Hydromedusae. A new light is here thrown upon 
the question of the origin of the Siphonophora from the Hydromedusae. 

Australasian Hydroid in North Sea.f — James Ritchie gives an inter- 
esting account of a colony of S&rtularia elonyata picked up in the North 
Sea. The colony was complete, with naturally terminated stems and 
perfect pinnae, upon practically every one of which in the more mature 
colonies are perched exceedingly delicate, loosely attached gonangia. 
The preservation of these delicate structures is regarded as evidence 
that the colony was not artificially transported, e.g. in ballast on board 
some ship loading at an Australasian port, but was borne on ocean 
currents. 

Nuclear Cycle of Gonionemus murbachii A. G. Mayer.} — H. B. 
Bigelow gives an account of the mitosis in the somatic cells of adult 
tissues of this Ccelenterate, of its entire course of spermatogenesis, the 
early nuclear development of the oocyte, and the nuclear phenomena 
connected with fertilisation. An interesting point is that in fertilisation 
nuclear union may take place either by fusion or by apposition ; the 
determining factor is believed to be the relative sizes of the nuclei at 
the time of their union. In the first cleavage spindle there are the full 
number of somatic chromosomes. In the second cleavage there is a 
reduced number, each of which is a bivalent structure resulting from 
the pairing of univalent chromosomes. The number of chromosomes 
in the third cleavage has not been observed, but in the fourth and 
subsequent cleavages all nuclei have the full somatic number of 
chromosomes. 

Porifera. 

Coalescence and Regeneration in Sponges.§ — H. Y. Wilson de- 
scribes the formation of plasmodial masses in moribund specimens of 
Mkrociona prolifera. When fragments are squeezed through a cloth so 

* Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool., lxxxvi. (1907) pp. 557-618 (3 pis. and 13 figs.). 
t Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinburgh, xvii. (1907) pp. 80-3 (1 pi.). 
X Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, xlvii. (1907) pp. 287-399 (8 pis.). 
§ Journ. Exper. Zool., v. (1907) pp. 245-58 (4 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 329 

that the cells pass out, the same kind of phenomenon is seen. The cells 
aggregate into true syncytial masses with pseudopodia. The syncytia 
fuse into an incrustation, and regeneration occurs. Flagellate chambers 
appear in great abundance, canals arise as isolated spaces which come 
into connection with one another ; oscula are developed. The syncytia 
consist mainly of spheroidal granular cells (amcebocytes or archasocytes), 
but collar cells and more or less hyaline cells also enter into their com- 
position. The author also describes the fusion of the larvae of a species 
of Lissodendoryx, and makes some very interesting general suggestions, 
e.g. by comparing the behaviour of the dissociated cells of sponges with 
the plasmodium formation in Mycetozoa and Proteomyxa. The ten- 
dency to fusion exhibited by two similar sponge-syncytia is probably 
adaptive. The additional safety from enemies and accidents, accruing 
from increase in the size of the mass, more than compensates for the 
reduction in number of the individual masses that start to grow. 
Experiments show that masses of considerable size are frequently able 
to withstand conditions that wipe out very small masses. 

Protozoa. 

Minute Structure of Amoeba proteus, Pall.* — S. Awerinzew has 
investigated the structure of Amoeba by the aid of sections. The 
protoplasm immediately beneath the outer p:llicle is highly vacuolar, 
but the vacuoles are very small in comparison to those layers within. 
Here there is a layer of radially arranged relatively large vacuoles, and 
within this a central region in which the nucleus lies, and in which the 
vacuoles increase in size and numbers from its periphery towards the 
centre. The vacuoles of this central protoplasmic mass are on the whole 
larger than those of the layer immediately beneath the pellicle. The 
walls of the vacuoles are beset with granules. The nuclear structure 
resembles that of the protoplasm. The nuclear vacuoles of the 
external layer nearly all show chromatin corpuscles, stainable with 
nuclear stains. Similar corpuscles occur also in the walls of the meshes 
of the remaining nuclear mass. These, however, appear to be distin- 
guished by their chemical qualities from the peripheral nuclear granules, 
and are smaller in size. The appearances of protoplasm and nucleus 
here described have nothing to do with reproductive processes, but 
represent a stage in those transformations induced by heightened feeding 
and the accelerated growth consequent on this. 

Degeneration in Opalina.f — C. C. Dobell describes the degenerative 
changes undergone by Opalina when the host is starved for some time. 
It changes form and assumes all sorts of indefinite shapes. These 
modified Opalina do not divide in the normal manner, but simply con- 
strict off pieces, which completely lose their cilia and give rise to 
globules of a substance of high refractivity in their cytoplasm, which are 
" eosinophile " in character. These globules ultimately run together 
into large masses within the cell. The chromatin of the nucleus in these 
atrichous forms becomes massed in granules at the periphery, whilst the 

* Zool. Anzeig., xxxii. (1907) pp. 45-50. 

t Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., li. (1907) pp. 633-46 (1 pi. and 2 figs.). 



330 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



nucleus itself increases sometimes to double the original diameter. In 
the larger atrichous forms, division may take place, both of nucleus and 
cytoplasm. Buds may be given off without nuclei, but they appear to dis- 
integrate and die. As a rule, the chromatin of the nucleate forms is cast 
out into the cytoplasm, and later to the outside, when the organism 
dies. The author discusses the " extraordinary parallel " which exists in 
the changes he describes and certain so-called "sexual" processes in 
Protozoa. 

Light-reactions in Volvox.* — S. 0. Mast describes in detail the 
reactions of V. globator and V. minor to light. The eye-spots are situated 
on the outer posterior surface of the individuals. Volvox rarely moves 
exactly in the direction of the light-rays, but deflects, apparently under the 
influence of gravity, up or down or to the side, the degree of deflection 
being least for strongly positive colonies exposed to light of optimum 
intensity. The motion is regulated by the relative intensity of the light 
on opposite sides of the colony. Orientation is not the result of "trial 
and error," but is brought about by motor reactions in the individuals 
composing the colony. Volvox is positive in comparatively low, and 
negative in comparatively high light-intensities, but there is great varia- 
tion in regard to this, depending upon the physiological state of the 
colonies. Weber's law seems to hold for the light-reactions of Volvox. 

Trypanosome of the Eel.f — C. Franca gives an account of Trypano- 
soma granulosum Laveran and Mesnil, which is very abundant in 
Anguilla vulgaris in Portugal. The species has very distinctive nuclear 
characters, and it occurs in two well-marked varieties, parva and magna. 
Culture in the blood of the eel gives rise to " herpetomonad " forms. 
No endocellular stages are found in the eel's blood. 

New Piroplasma from a Rodent.} — C. Nicolle describes a new 
Pwoplasma from Ctenodactylus gondi Pallas, an Octodont of North Africa. 
It appears to be common ; it resembles the Leishman body in appearance, 
and has the peculiarity of dividing into four, not two, daughter-cells. 
The author names it Piroplasma quadrigeminum. 

Structure and Life-history of Copromonas.§ — C. C. Dobell gives an 
account of Copromonas subtilis from the rectum of Rana temporaria, and 
discusses various points in flagellate morphology. There is an asexual 
and a sexual cycle in the life-history. During the former, multiplica- 
tion takes place by longitudinal division. After a time the monads 
conjugate in pairs, and reducing divisions of the nuclei take place, 
followed by encystation. The cysts are capable of being dried up. 
These are swallowed by frogs and toads, and reach the rectum by way of 
the digestive tract. As a rule the cysts do not liberate their contents 
(a small hyaline monad) until the fseces have left the frog, but some- 
times the monads emerge from their cysts and lead a semi-parasitic life 
in the large intestine. Development does not appear ever to be com- 
pleted inside the frog. 

* Journ. Comp. Neurol, and Psych., xvii. (1907) pp. 99-180 (15 figs.). 

t Bull. Soc. Portugaise Sci. Nat., i. (1907) pp. 94-102 (1 pi.). 

t C.R Soc. Biol. Paris, lxiii. (1907) pp. 213-16 (1 fig.). 

§ Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., lii. (1908) pp. 75-120 (2 pis. and 3 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 331 

Trichomonas and Megastoma in Human Intestine.* — A. Ucke has 
observed organisms in fresh fasces which he is inclined to regard as 
stages in the development of Trichomonas. Besides the typical pear- 
shaped organism, pointed posteriorly, with three flagella anteriorly, 
undulating membrane, nucleus and vacuole, there were the f