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Full text of "Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society"

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Journal of tlx 

Ropal Microscopical Societp 

CONTAINING ITS TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 

AND 
A SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

ZOOLOG-Y -A-HSTTD BOTANY 

(principally Invertebrata and Cryptogaraia) 

MICROSCOPY, cScc. 

EDITED BY 
R. G. HEBB, M.A. M.D. F.R.C.P. 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF THE PUBLICATION COMMITTEE AND 

J. ARTHUR THOMSON, M.A. F.R.S.E. A. N. DISNEY, M.A. B.Sc. 

Regius Professor of Natural History in the 
University of A berdeen 

FELLOWS OF THE SOCIETY 



A- B. RENDLE, M.A. D.Sc. P.R.S. F.L.S. 

Keeper. Department of Botany, British Museum 

HAROLD MOORE, B.Sc. G. H. K. MACALISTER, M.A. M.D. (Cantab.) 

Woolwich Arsenal Assistant Bacteriologist Lister Institute 



Minimis partibus, per totum Naturae campum, certitudo omnis innititur 
quas qui fugit pariter Naturam fugit.—Zmnesus. 



FOR THE YEAR 

1910 




TO BE OBTAINED AT THE SOCIETY'S ROOMS, 

20 HANOVER SQUARE, LONDON, W. 

of Messrs. WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14 Henrietta Street, London, W.C. 
and of Messrs. DULAU & CO., 37 Soho Square, London, W. 



Extra and informal Meetings are held on the 1st and 4th 
Wednesday evenings of the month. These Meetings are devoted 
to:— (l) Biology, Bacteriology, and Histology; (2) Microscopical 
Optics and Microsope Construction. 



THE 



3topl IJtiqjmwpal ^tttufo 



Established in 1839. Incorporated by Koyal Charter in 1866. 



The Society was established for the promotion of Microscopical and 
Biological Science by the communication, discussion, and publication of observa- 
tions and discoveries relating to (1) improvements in the construction and 
mode of application of the Microscope, or (2) Biological or other subjects of 
Microscopical Besearch. 

It consists of Ordinary, Honorary, and Ex-officio Fellows of either sex. 

Ordinary Fellows are elected on a Certificate of Eecommendation 
signed by three Ordinary Fellows, setting forth the names, residence, and 
description of the Candidate, of whom the first proposer must have personal 
knowledge. The certificate is read at two General Meetings, and the Candidate 
balloted for at the second Meeting. 

The Admission Fee is 21. 2s. ; and the Annual Subscription 2/. 2s., pay- 
able on election, and subsequently in advance on 1st January annually. The 
Annual Subscriptions may be compounded for at any time for 311. 10s. Fellows 
elected at a meeting subsequent to that in February are only called upon for 
a proportionate part of the first year's subscription. The annual Subscrip- 
tion of Fellows permanently residing abroad is 1?. lis. 6^. or a reduction of 
one-fourth. 

Honorary Fellows (limited to 50), consisting of persons eminent in 
Microscopical or Biological Science, are elected on the recommendation of five 
Ordinary Fellows and the approval of the Council. 

Ex-officio Fellows (limited to 100), consisting of the Presidents for the 
time being of any Societies having objects in whole or in part similar to those of 
the Society, are elected on the recommendation of ten Ordinary Fellows and the 
approval of the Council. 

The Council, in whom the management of the property and affairs of 
the Society is vested, is elected annually, and is composed of the President, 
four Vice-Presidents, Treasurer, two Secretaries, and twelve other Ordinary 
Fellows. 

The Meetings are held on the third Wednesday in each month, from 
October to June, at 20 Hanover Square, W. (commencing at 8 p.m.). Visitors 
are admitted by the introduction of Fellows. (See preceding page.) 

The Journal, containing the Transactions and Proceedings of the 
Society, and a Summary of Current Besearches relating to Zoology and Botany 
(principally Invertebrata and Cryptogamia), Microscopy, &c, is published 
bi-monthly, and is forwarded post-free to all Ordinary and Ex-officio Fellows 
residing in countries within the Postal Union. 

The Library, with the Instruments, Apparatus, and Cabinet of Objects, 
is open for the use of Fellows daily (except Saturdays), from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
It is closed for four weeks during August and September. 

Forms of proposal for Fellowship, and any further information, may be obtained ly 
application to the Secretaries, or Assistant-Secretary, at the Library of the Society, 
20 Hanover Square, W. 

a 2 



patron 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 



^Inst-jp residents. 

Elected 

♦Sir Richard Owen, K.C.B. D.C.L. M.D. LL.D. F.R.S. ' 1840-1 

♦John Lindley, Ph.D. F.R.S 1842-3 

♦Thomas Bell, F.R.S 1844-5 

* James Scott Bowerbank, LL.D. F.R.S 1846-7 

♦George Busk, F.R.S 1848-9 

*Arthur Farre, M.D. F.R.S. ...' 1850-1 

♦George Jackson, M.R.C.S 1852-?. 

♦William Benjamin Carpenter, C.B. M.D. LL.D. F.R.S. 1854-5 

♦George Shadbolt 1856-7 

*Edwin Lankester, M.D. LL.D. F.R.S 1858-9 

*John Thomas Quekett, F.R.S 1860 

*Robert James Farrants, F.R.C.S 1861-2 

*Charles Brooke, M.A. F.R.S 1863-4 

*James Glaisher, F.R.S 1865-6-7-8 

*Rev. Joseph Bancroft Reade, M.A. F.R.S 1869-70 

♦William Kitchen Parker, F.R.S 1871-2 

♦Charles Brooke, M.A. F.R.S 1873-4 

♦Henry Clifton Sorby, LL.D. F.R.S 1875-6-7 

♦Henry James Slack, F.G.S 1878 

♦Lionel S. Beale, M.B. F.R.C.P. F.R.S 1879-80 

♦Peter Martin Duncan, M.B. F.R.S 1881-2-3 

♦Rev. William Hy. Dallinger, M.A. LL.D. F.R.S. 1884-5-6-7 
♦Charles Thos. Hudson, M.A. LL.D. (Cantab.), F.R.S. 1888-9-90 

Robert Braithwaite, M.D. M.R.C.S 1891-2 

Albert D. Michael, F.L.S 1893-4-5-6 

Edward Milles Nelson 1897-8-9 

William Oabeuthers, F.R.S. F.L.S. F.G.S 1900-1 

Henry Woodward, LL.D. F.R.S. F.G.S. F.Z.S 1902-8 

Dukinfield Hy. Scott, M.A. Ph.D. LL.D. F.R.S. F.L.S. 1904-5-6 
The Right Hon. Lord Avebury, P.C. D.C.L. LL.D. 

F.R.S., etc 1907-8 

Sir Edwin Ray Lankester, K.C.B. M.A. LL.D. F.R.S. 

F.L.S. F.Z.S 1909-10 

* Deceased 



COUNCIL. 



Elected 19th January, 1!)10. 



jj resident. 

J. Arthur Thomson, M.A. F.R.S.E., Regius Professor of Natural 
History in the University of Aberdeen. 

$rcc-|kcsiucnts. 

*Frederic J. Cheshire. 
*A. N. Disney, M.A. B.Sc. 
J. W. H. Eyre, M.D. F.R.S.E. 

E. J. Spitta, L.R.C.P. (Lond.), M.R.C.S. (Eng.). 

Crcasurcr. 

Wynne E. Baxter, J.P. D.L. F.G.S. F.R.G.S. 

Secretaries. 

R. G. Hebb, M.A. M.D. F.R.C.P. 

*F. Shillington Scales, M.A. M.B. B.C. (Cantab.) 

(iWmarn ||lcmbcrs of €anntiL 

F. W. Watson Baker. 
J. E. Barnard. 

E. Heron-Allen, F.L.S. F.Z.S. F.R.Met.Soc. 

C. F. Hill. 

John Hopkinson, F.L.S. F.Z.S. F.R.Met.Soc. 

Henry George Plimmer, F.R.S. F.L.S. 

Thomas H. Powell. 

Percy E. Radley. 
*Julius Rheinberg. 
*Charles F. Rousselet. 

D. J. Scourfield, F.Z.S. 
W. Wesche. 

* Members of the Publication Committee. 



LIBRARIAN. 

Percy E. Radley. 

CURATORS. 

Charles F. Rousselet. 

F. Shillington Scales, M.A. M.B. B.C. (Cantab.) 

ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 

F. A Parsons. 



CONTENTS. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 



PAGE 



I. — On the Microscopical Structure of an Inoceramus Limestone in the Queens- 
land Cretaceous Rocks. By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S. F.R.M.S. 
(Plate I.) 1 

II. — On the Measurement of Grayson's Ten-band Plate. By A. A. C. Eliot 

Merlin 5 

III. — An Automatic Aerating Apparatus, suitable for Aquaria, etc. By James 

F. Gemmill, M.A. M.D. (Fig. 1) 9 

IV.— The President's Address. By Sir E. Ray Lankester 137 

V. — Note on Dewlrobrachia fallax Brook, a Rare and Remarkable Antipa- 

tharian. By Professor J. Arthur Thomson, M.A 142 

VI. — On the Measurement of the First Nine Groups of Grayson's Finest Twelve- 
band Plate. By A. A. C. Eliot Merlin 144 

VII. — On the Visibility of the Tertiaries of Coscinodisous asteromphalus in a 

Balsam Mount. By Edward M. Nelson 147 

VIII.— Antipathariaus from the Indian Ocean. By Sophia L. M. Summers, M.A. 

B.Sc. (Natural History Department, University of Aberdeen.) (Plate V.) 273 

IX.— Critical Microscopy. By Edward M. Nelson. (Fig. 46) .. .. '.. .. 282 

X. — On the Measurement of the Diameter of the Flagella of the Cholera 

Bacillus prepared by Loffler's Method. By A. A. C. Eliot Merlin .. 290 

XL — On the Recent and Fossil Foraminifera of the Shore-sands of Selsey Bill. 
Sussex. — V. The Cretaceous Foraminifera. By Edward Heron- Allen, 
F.L.S, F.R.M.S., and Arthur Earland. (Plates VI.-XI.) 401 

[XII. — What did our Forefathers see in a Microscope? By Edward M. Nelson. 

(Fig. 52) 427 

XIII. — Comparative Micrometric Measurements. By Dr. Marshall D. Ewell, 

Chicago, Illinois 537 

{XIV. — Hichsonella, a New Gorgonellid Genus. By James J. Simpson, M.A., B.Sc. 

(Carnegie Fellow, University of Aberdeen). (Plate XIII.) 681 

XV. — On the Recent and Fossil Foraminifera of the Shore-sands of Selsey Bill, 
Sussex. — VI. A Contribution towards the iEtiology of Massilina secerns 
(d'Orbigny sp.). By Edward Heron-Allen, F.L.S., F.R.M.S., and 
Arthur Earland, F.R.M.S 693 

XVI.— A Micrometric Difficulty. By Edward M. Nelson. (Fig. 104) .. .. 696 

X VII. — On the Resolution of New Detail in a Coscinotlixcus asteromphalus. By 

Edward M. Nelson (Fig. 105) JS 698 



Vlll CONTEXTS. 



NOTES. 

PAGE 

Convenient Form of Stand for Use as a Micro-Coloriineter and with the Micro- 
Spectroscope. By Marshall D. Ewell, F.R.M.S. (Figs. 2-4) 14 

Note on the Use of tlie Mercury Vapour Lamp in Observing the Rings and Brushes 

in Crystals. By E. B. Stringer 440 

Grayson's Photomicrographs of his Rulings. By Edward M. Nelson. (Plate XIV.) 701 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES 

Relating to Zoology and Botany (principally Invertebrata and 
Cbyptogamia), Microscopy, &c, including Original Communications 
from Fellows and Others.* 17, 149, 293, 441. 555, 704 

ZOOLOGY. 

VERTEBRATA. 

a. Embryology- 

Winiwarter, H. v., & G. Sainmont — Structure of Mammalian Ovary 17 

Bouin, P., & P. Ancel— Ottarura Glands 17 

Brohmer, Paul — Head of Embryo Chlamydoselachue 18 

Borcea, I. — Development of Heart in Teleogts 18 

„ Intermediary Mesodermic Mass in Teleost Embryos 18 

Broom, R. — Development of Marsupial Skull 18 

Mollier, S. — Blood-formation in Embryonic Mammalian Liver 18 

Marcus, Harry — Development of Head of Gymnophiona 19 

Youngman. AV. — Abnormal Unproductive Organs in Frog 19 

Guyer, M. F. — Spermatogenesis of Fowl 19 

Fleig, C. — Vitality of Spermatozoa 20 

Barfurth, D. — 11 yperdactylism in Fowls .. 20 

Agar, W. E. — Embryonic Appendage of Claics of Amniota 149 

Thomson, J'. Arthur — Study of Darwinism .. . . 149 

Kwietniewski, Casimir — Development of Wolffian and Mullerian Ducts in Rodents 150 

Disse, J. — Development of Bone and Dentine 150 

Soderlcnd, G., & A. Backmann — hivolution of Thymus in Babbit 150 

Jolly, J., & A. Carran — Development of Lymphatic Ganglia in Mammals .. .. 150 

Coyle, Ray F. — Development of Auditory Ossicles in Horse 150 

Price- Jones, ('. — Development of Bed Blood Cells in Cliick 151 

Poole, Margaret — Development of Subdivisions of Pleuroperitoneal Cavity in 

Birds 151 

Brunauer. Erna — Development of Vertebral Column in Grass Snake 151 

Hirzel, H. — Abortive Embryo of Salamandra atra . . .. 152 

Tarapani, Helena — Development of Hyobranchial Skeleton in Salamandra atra 

and Triton alpedris 152 

Janssens, F. A., & J. Willems — Spermatogenesis in Alytes obstelricans 152 

Gibson, W. T. — Hypochord in Skate Embryos 152 

Hatschek, B. — Metameres of Petromyzon 152 

Lane, H. H. — Placentation in Tatu 153 

Gates, R. R. — Litter of Hybrid Dogs 153 

Delage, Yves — Alleged Influence of Electric Discharges in Inducing Parthenogenesis 293 

Lecaillon, A. — Vitelline Membrane in Egg of Birds 293 

Guieysse-Pelissier, A. — Polynuclear Ovum in Bat 294 



* In order to make the Contents complete, the papers printed in the ' Transactions ' 
and the Notes printed in the 'Proceedings' are entered here. 



CONTENTS. IX 

PAGE 

Vayssiere, A. — Double Egg in Porbeagle Shark 294 

Baumeister, L. — Egg of Rhinophis 294 

Duesberg, J. — Mitochondrial Elements of Germ-cells anal Chondriosomes of Em- 
bryonic Cells 294 

Abel, AVilliamdja — Development of Autonomic Nervous Mechanism of Bird's Ali- 
mentary Canal -94 

Jolly, J. — Development of Lymphatic Ganglia of Duck 294 

Kuntz, Albert — Role of Vagi in Development of Sympathetic Nervous System .• 295 

Panschin, B. A. — Cranial Nerves of Pike 295 

Kerr, J. Graham — Development of Alimentary Canal in Lepidosiren and Proto- 

pterus 295 

Fuhrmann, O. — Hermaphroditism in Toads . .. 296 

Hart, D. Berry — Reproductive Organs of Free-Martin 296 

Achard. C. H., Henri Benard, & Ch. (tagneux — Leuco-reaction in Pregnancy .. 296 

Loisel, Gi stave — Influence of Male Parent in Heredity 296 

Pearl, Raymond, & Frank M. Surface — Use of Selection Index Numbers in 

Breeding 2'. >6 

Kusso — Determination of Sex 441 

Fellner, O. O. — State of Ovary during Pregnancy 441 

Kohlbrdgge, J. H. F. — Spermatozoa entering a Blastula 442 

Maximow, A. — Development of Blood 442 

Hertwig, Oscar — Role of Nucleus in Heredity 442 

Lecaillon, A. — Segmentation of Unfertilised Egg of Fowl 442 

Widakowich, Victor — Early Stages in Development of Rat 442 

Low, Alex. — Ossification of Human J. over Jaw 44M 

Tims, H. W. Marett — Seal-embryos 443 

Belogolowy, J. — Development oi Cranial Nerves in Birds 443 

Meyer, Ernst — Development of Blindworm 443 

Marechal, J., & A. de Saedeleer — Oogenesis in Raiadee 44;; 

Glaesner, L., & Marc de Selys-Longchamps — Segmentation and Gastrulatiou 

in Lamprey 443 

Legros. Robert — Development of Nephridium in Amphioxus 44:; 

Paris, Paul — Hybridisation of Wolf and Dog 444 

Guveb, M. F. — Plumage of Hybrids between Guinea-fowl and Fowl 444 

Waterston, D., & A. Campbell Geddks — Development of Penguin 444 

Pearl, R., & F. M. Surface — Fertility and Hatching of Eggs 555 

Pearl. R.. & M. R. Curtis — Reproduction in the Domestic Fowl 556 

Mietens, Harald — Origin of Blood in Toad 556 

Gallardo, Angel — Modern Study of Heredity 557 

Goggio, E.— Experiments on Tadpoles 557 

Meves, Fr. — Male Mitochondria in Fertilized Ovum 557 

Przribram, H. — Organogenefic Capacity 7"4 

Wilson. James — Inheritance of Quantity and Quality in Cow's Milk 704 

Cuexot, L., & L. Mercier — Heredity in Connection with Cancer 705 

Guthrie, C. ( . — Engrafting Tissues 705 

,, Engrafting Gonads 705 

Guthrie, C. C, & Castle — Guinea-pig Graft Hybrids 705 

Bataillon, E. — Artificial Parthenogenesis of Frog's Eggs 706 

Dehorne, Armand — Number of Chromosomes in Batrachians and in Parthenogenetic 

Embryos 7' 16 

Southwell, T. — 1 iitra-uterine Embryos of Saw-fish 706 

Durken, B. — Influence on Nervous System of Extirpation of Limb-primordia in 

Frog Embryos 706 

M'mner, F. B. — Somatic Modifications in White Mice, and their Reappearanci- in 

the Offspring 7"t; 

&• Histology. 

Pictet, A. — Minute Structure of Food Canal in Cyprinoid Fishes 20 

Reuter, Enzio — Neiv Mode of Nuclear Division .. .. 20 

Dcstin, A. P. — Thymus of Reptiles 20 

Steche, O. — Phosphorescent Organs of Fishes 21 



X CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Boeke, J. — Motor End-plate in Higher Vertebrates 153 

Trautmann, A. — Musculature in Villi of Small Intestine 153 

Roule, L. — Epidermic Papillae in Euproctus 154 

Tretjakoff, I)., & J. Belogolowt — Study of Nervous Systems 154 

Mullenix, R. C. — Peripheral Terminations of Eighth Cranial Nerve 154 

Gemelli, Agostino — Innervation of Tympanum 154 

Crawley. Howard — Mammalian Blood Studied with Dark-field Illumination .. 154 

Gregoire, V. — Phenomena of Synaptic Phase 154 

Mislawsky, A. N. — Vesicular Secretion 155 

Paton, Montgomery P. — Junction of Papillary Muscle and Chordae Tendinese . . 155 

Hxie, L. H. — Mast-cells and Plasma-cells 155 

Carlier, E. Wace — Changes in Nuclei in Varying Physiological Conditions .. .. 155 

Retterer. E., & A. Lelievre — Mammalian Red Blood Corpuscles 297 

Schmidt, W. J. — Integument of Voellzkowia mira 297 

Hulmanicka, R. — Nerve-endings in Frog's Skin 297 

Glaeseb, K. — Cartilage of Regenerated Amphibian Extremities 297 

Zimmermann, K. W., & others — Structure of Heart Muscle 297 

Meves, F. — Structure of Embryonic Supporting Tissue and Origin of Connective- 
tissue Fibrils 29S 

Stauffacher, H. — Nuclear Structure 444 

Knoll, W. — Relations of Nucleus and Cytoplasm 414 

Gallardu, Angel — Theory of Cell-division 445 

Gorgorza, J. — Skin of Pleurodeles 445 

Lelievre. Aug., & Ed. Retterer — Mucous Epithelium 445 

NnwiN, N. — Tractile-cells of Grandrys' Corpuscles 445 

Okajima, K. — Sensory Organ* of Onychodactylus 445 

Smallwood, W. 31.. & ('.G.Rogers — Granules in Nerve-cells 445 

Legendre, R. — Internal Reticulum in Ganglion-cells f. 446 

Freidsohn, A. — Blood of Amphibians 44G 

Arnold, J. — Glycogen of Muscle 446 

Renadt, J., & C. Dubreuil — Hyaline Cartilage in Mammals 446 

Lubosch, W. — Calcification of Selachian Cartilage 446 

Illlng, G. — Minute Structure of Tonsils 446 

• rTORE, G. — Glands in Gall-bladder of Dog 447 

Jonson, Arvid — Degeneration and Regeneration of Thymus in Modified Nutritive 

Conditions 447 

Heinrich, O. — Development of Dentine in Mammals 557 

Kixel, Jan — Regeneration of Bone in Birds 55*5 

Mayer, Andre. & others — Mitochondria of Hepatic Cell 558 

Pardi. F. — Clasmatocytes 558 

Heiderich, Fr. — Visible Centrosomes in Living Cells 558 

Alezais & Peyron — Nucleated Red Blood Corpuscles in Blood-vessels of the Hypo- 
physis 707 

Retterer, E., & A. Lelievre — Red Blood Corpuscles of Mammals 708 

Jolly, J. — Life of Isolated Cells 708 

C'hatin, J. — Structure of Sclerotic 70S 

Schapfer, Josef — Chordoid Tissue 708 

Nowikoff, M..Structure of Bone in Sunfish 708 

Betiie, Albrecht — Function of Neurofibrils 709 

Hoche, L. — Affinities of Mammary Glands 709 

Hoven, H. — Role of Chondriome in Secretion ' 709 

Alezais & Peyron — Process of Secretion in Human Hypophysis 709 

Retterer, Fd., & Avg. Lelievre — Peyer's Patches in Birds 709 

Lelievre, Aug., & Ed. Retterer — Nature of the Bursa Fabricii 709 

c - General. 

Cleland, J. Burton — Diurnal Variations in Temperatures of Camels 22 

Billard, G. — Immunity of Lerot to Viper's Poison, 22 

Pocock, R. I. — Colours of Equidm 22 

Seabra, A. F. de — Albinism 23 



CONTENTS. XI 

PAGB 

Jameson, H. Ltster — Struggle for Existence among South African Rats 23 

Pearl, Raymond, & Maud Dewitt Pearl — Variation in Comb of Domestic Fowl 23 

Roule, Louis — Variations in Tropidonotus 23 

Abel, O. — Attitude of Dinosaurs 23 

Dehaut. G. — Lungless Salamandrid 24 

Athanasiu, J., & J. Dragoiu — Seasonal Migration of Fat in the Frog 24 

Dollo, L., & G. Schlesinger — Studies on Fishes 24 

Brocher, F. — Capillary Phenomena in Life of Fresh-ivater Animals 24 

Morris, Esther R., & Janet Raff — Structure of Asymmetron bassanum Gunther 25 

Shipley, A. E. — Relation of Entozoa to Bacterial Disease 25 

Moore, Benjamin — Reaction of Marine Organisms to Light and Phosphorescence .. 155 

Fuchs, Hugo — Temporal Region in Vertebrates 157 

Fuchs, Hugo, & Roy L. Moodie — Morphological Significance of Sacral Ribs .. 157 

Ussoff, S. A. — Significance of the Enfochoni 'a 157 

Roule, L. — Study of the Notochord 157 

Fritz, F. — Vibrissa on Cats' Arm 157 

Trouessart, E. L. — New Insectivore 157 

Pocock. R. I. — Agriotype of Domestic Asses 158 

Broom, R. — Organ of J acob&on in Ant-bear 158 

Lane, H. H. — Classification of Edentates 158 

Huet, R. H. J. G. — Seminal Vesicles and Infection 158 

Franqois-Franck, Ch. E. — Mechanism of Respiration in Lizard 158 

Mayerhofer, Franz — Ribs of Urodela .. 159 

Pellegrin, J. — New Parasitic Fish 159 

Regan, C. Tate — Species of Three-spined Sticklebacks 159 

Burne, R. H. — Aortic Ligament of Shad 159 

Dollo, Louis — Antarctic Macrurid 159 

Allis, Edward .Phelps — Cranial Anatomy of Mail-cheeked Fishes 160 

Lloyd, R. E. — Supposed Evidence of Mutation in Malthopsis 160 

Tschermak, A. v. — Study of Heart-action in Fish Embryos 160 

Burne, R. H.— Olfactory Organ of Teleosteans 161 

Tretjakoff, D. — Mesencephalic Nerve in Ammocoetes 161 

Fage, L. — Variation in Midlet 161 

Ogilvie-Grant, W. R. — Zoology of Ruwenzori 161 

Mayer, A. G. — Relation between Ciliary and Muscular Movements 298 

Wester, D. H. — Distribution of Chitin 298 

Lannelongue — Supplementary Function of Foot in Yellow Races 298 

Gerhardt, Ulrich — Os Penis and Os Clitoris in Apes .. .. 299 

Bruhns, Fanny — Nails of Primates 299 

Ewart, J. Cossar — Restoration of Ancient British Race of Horses 299 

Houssay, Frederick — Asymmetry of Cetacean Skull 299 

Carlsson, Albertina — Macroscelidx 299 

Leche, W. — Significance of Milk Dentition 299 

Cory, Charles B. — Birds of Illinois and Wisconsin 300 

Hagmann, G. — Reptiles of Mexiana 300 

Miller, Newton — Habits of American Toad 300 

AVintrebert, P. — Transformation of Palatal Region in Axolotl 301 

„ „ Palatine and Pterygoid in Axolotl 301 

Engel, H.— Rostral Teeth of Pristis 301 

Hony, Reinhard — Suctorial Disc of Echeneis 301 

Elmhirst, R. — Notes from Millport Biological Station 301 

Bianco, Salvatore Lo — Period of Sexual Maturity in Marine Animals . . . . 302 

Scharff, R. F. — Former Land Bridge between Northern Europe and North America 302 

Goodrich. E. S. — Origin of Vertebrata 447 

Lorrand, A. — Physiology of Senescence »• 

Fuchs, H. — Homologies of Mammalian Pterygoid «' 

Curtis, Maynie R. — Ligaments of Oviduct of Domestic Fowl *47 

Welch, F. D. — Change of Colour in a Ratel n> 

Strubell, Alex. — Immunity of Hedgehog 448 

Barbour, Thomas — Reptiles and Amphibians of Jamaica 

Phisalix — Toxic Action of Mucus of Amphibians 

Agar, W. E. — Nesting Habits of Phyllomedusa sauvagii "8 



Xll CONTENTS. 

PACE 

O'Donoghue, ('has. H. — Abnormalities in Frog's Circulation 449 

Afdige, J. — Kidney of Teleosteans ' 449 

Regan, C. Tate — Caudal Fin of Elopidse and some other Teleosteans 449 

Grynfeldt, E. — Tensor Muscle of Choroid in Teleosteans .. 449 

Goodrich, B. S. — Segmental Structure of Motor Nerve Plexus in Elasmobranchs .. 449 

Evans, William — Fauna of Forth Area 450 

Daday, E. von — Fresh-ioater Microfauna of German East Africa 450 

Murray, James — Microscopic Fauna at Cape Royds 450 

Entz, Geza — Mimicry 558 

Pearse, A. S. — Reactions of Amphibians to Light .. 559 

Pearl, If., & F. M. Surface — Cumulative Effect of Selection 560 

Craig, W. — Expressions of the Emotions in Pigeons 561 

Reese. A. M. — Brain of American Alligator 561 

Roaf. H. E. — Digestion in Marine Invertebrates 561 

Nutting, C. C. — Theory of Abyssal Light 562 

Herdman, W. A.. & others — Intensive Study of Plankton around South End of Isle 

of Man .. 562 

Guodey, T. — Vestiges of Thyroid in Chlamydoselachus and Dogfish 562 

Allen, E. J., & E.W.Nelson — Rearing Marine Larvze 563 

Keller. C. — Zoology of the Minotaur Myth 563 

PiOscher. P. — Mouth and Pharynx of Hamster 564 

Guitel, Frederic — Kidneys of Fishes 564 

Mozejko, B. — Venous System of the Lamprey 564 

Billard, G. — Immunity of Lerot to Viper's Venom 710 

Bub, Max — Apparent Bactericidal Influence of Colostral Milk . . .. 710 

Lonnberg, Einar — Variation in Skull of Sea-elephants Tin 

Bemmelen, J. F. Van — Rabbit and Hare 710 

Kazzander, J. — Hairs on Mole's Hands and Feet • 710 

Lowy, R. — Double Gall Bladder in Cat .. .. 711 

Strohl, J. — Adaptation of Ptarmigan to High Altitudes 711 

< happellier, A. — Peculiar Organ in Finches 711 

Lapicque, L., & J. Petetin — Newt without Lungs 711 

Southwell, T.— Oyster-eating Fishes 711 

Burlend, T. H. — Urogenital Organs of Chimsera monstrosa 711 

Goodey, T.— Skeleton of Frilled Shark 712 

Abel, O. — What is a Monstrosity ! 712 

Tuuicata. 

Kesteven, H. Leighton — Australian Tunicates 25 

Herdman. W. A. — Antarctic Tunicata 302 

Ritteu, W. E. — Study of a Tunicate 450 

Johnson. Myrtle Elizabeth — Development of Salpa Chain 564 



INVERTEBRATA. 

Mollusca. 

Baker, F. O. — (Ecological Study of Molluscs 451 

a- Cephalopoda. 

Till, Alfred — Beaks of Fossil Cephalopods 25 

Naef, Adolf — Development of Ccelomic and Vascular Systems in Loligo .. .. 161 

Hoyle, W. E. — Catalogue of Recent Cephalopods 162 

Watkinson, Grace B. — So-called Olfactory Organ in Cephalopoda 302 

Joubin, L. — Young Spirula 451 

Massy. Anne L. — Dibranchiate Cephalopods of Coasts of Ireland 451 

Bouville, Etienne de — Salivary Juice of Cephalopods 451 

Saint-Hilaire, C. — Follicular Epithelium of Cephalopods 565 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

7- Gastropoda. rAGK 

Heyder. Paul — Development of Pulmonary Cavity in Slug 25 

Lams, Honore — Polar Bodies in Avion empiricorum 26 

Pieron, H. — Topographical Memory in Limpet and in Calyptrma 26 

Yayssiere, A. — New Family of Molididse 26 

Marceau, F. — Adductor Muscles 26 

Thiele, Joh. — Revision of Chitons 162 

Nowikoff, M. — Eyes of Placophora L62 

Russell, E. S. — Growth of Limpet's Shell 163 

Obton, J. H. — Hermaphroditism in Crepidula fomicata L63 

Ihering, H. von — Classification and Distribution of Helicidse 163 

Dall, W. H., & P. Bartsch — Monograph of West American Pyramidellidx .. . . 164 

Poluszynski, Gustav — Abnormalities in Genital Ducts of Helix pomatia .. .. 303 

Kleixert, Max — Spermatogenesis in Helix 303 

Yles. Fred — Noises made by Snail on Window-pane 303 

Morse, Edward S. — Early Stage of Acmiea 4.")1 

Trojan, E. — Luminosity of Phyllirhoebucephala 565 

Hishop, Hilda M. — Gastropod Foot and Branchial Cavity 566 

Yayssiere, A. — New Genus of Nudibranchs . . .. 566 

,, Tentacidar Anomaly in Chromodoris elegans 566 

I'errier, Remy, & H. Fischer — Adaptive Structure of Acera 713 

,. „ ,. Gill of Bulleidse 713 

MacCurdy, H. M.— Double Snail 713 

S. Lamellibranehiata. 

Germain. L. — Malacology of Equatorial Africa 26 

Harms, W. — Postembryonic Development of Unionidse 164 

Pelseneer, Paul — Commensal Lamellibranchs 303 

Cooper, J. E., & H. B. Preston — New Bivalves from Falkland Islands 304 

Tobler — Mussels Settling in Gas-vesicle of Seaweed 304 

Seydel, E. — Byssus-apparatus of Lamellibranchs 304 

Howorth, Henry H — History of Mya arenaria 566 

Lynge, H. — Marine Lamellibranchs of Siam 566 

Arthropoda. 

Stamm. R. H. — Muscle-insertions in Authropods 164 

Calman, W. T. — Guide to Crustacea, Arachnida, Onychophora, and Myriopoda of 

the British Museum 452 

a. Insecta. 

CEstlund, O. W. — Outlines of Entomology 27 

Bourgeois, J. — Cases of Defensive Mimicry 27 

Silyestri, F. — Studies on Hymenopterous Parasites 27 

Schimmer, F. — Biology of ' Myrmecophila 28 

Krecker. F. H. — Eyes of Dactylopius 29 

Martelli, G, — Study of Puss Moth :!i» 

Vaney, C, & A. Conte — Vttellus in Silfrmoth's Eggs 30 

Deegener, P. — Intestinal Secretion in Deilephih i 30 

,, „ Abdominal Sensory Organ in Noctuidse 30 

Hirschler, Jan — Development of Mid-gut in a Beetle 30 

Crosby, C. R. — Seed-infesting Chalcis Flie* 31 

Tarnani. J. C. — Luminescence in Chironomus 31 

Fromme, W. — Pulex cheopis in Hamburg Docks 31 

Bruntz. L. — Nephrocytes and Pericardial Cells of Orthoptera 31 

Morse, Max — Nuclear Components in Sex-cells of Four Specie* of Cockroaches .. 31 

Gerard, Pol — Spermatogenesis in Stenobothru* biguttulus 32 

Tragardh, Ivar — New Phorid 32 

Sciiepotieff. A. — New Primitive Insect 32 

Theobald, F. W.— Pests of the Hop 33 



XIV CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Berlese, A. — Moiiograph on Myrientomata 33 

Demoll, R. — Mouth-parts of Wasps and other Hymenoptera 164 

Jonescu, C. N. — Brain of Hive-bee 164 

Brues, C. T. — Parasitic Hymenoptera from the Tertiary of Florissant 165 

Wesche, W. — Viviparity in Phorocera serriventris and other Flies 165 

Fulmek, L. — Gossyparia ulmi on Mistletoe 165 

Wright, J. P. — Tobacco Beetles 165 

Sack, P. — Palasarctic Spongostylinese 165 

Freiling, H. H. — Odoriferous Organs in Female Lepidoptera 165 

Debaisieux, P. — Oogenesis in Dytiscus marginalis 166 

Weitlauel:, Fr. — Luminosity of Glow-worm 166 

Balfour- Browne, F. — Life-history of A grionid, Dragon-fly 166 

King, J. J. F. X., & J. N. Halbert — Irish Neuroptera 166 

Nusbaum, J., & B. Fulinski — Development of Endoderm in Mole-cricket .. .. 166 

Tullgren, Albert — Studies on Aphides 167 

Bagnall, R. S. — New Genera of Thysanopotera 167 

Injurious Insects 167 

Shipley, A. E. — Ectoparasites and Endoparasites of Grouse 167 

Neger, F. W. — Seed-gathering Ants 304 

Bugnion, E. — Habits of QScophylla smaragdina 304 

Forel, A. — Ants' Nests 305 

Janda, Viktor — Regeneration in Insects 305 

Bordas, L. — Thoracic Glands in Caterpillars 305 

Vaney, C, & A. Conte — Development of Eggs of Silk-moth 305 

Linden, Marie von — Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide by Pupse 306 

Bordas, L. — Malpighian Tubes in Larval Lepidoptera 306 

Perez, Ch. — Histology of Metamorphosis 306 

„ „ Metamorphosis of Malpighian Tubes in Muscids 306 

Annandale, Nelson — Living Species of Diplonema 306 

Bezzi, M. — Empididie 306 

Georgevitch, Jivoin — Alimentary Tract and Habits of Simulium columbacensis . . 306 

Gauthier, J. Const., & A. Raybaud— Hat Fleas at Marseilles 307 

„ ,, „ Pat Flea capable of Biting Man 307 

Perrin, Abeille de — New Species of Bhipidius 307 

Jordan, Hermann — External Digestion in Carabus auratus 307 

Kihohhoffer, Otto — Eyes of Pentamerous Beetles 307 

Mouse, Max — Beactions of Mealworms 307 

Fulinski, Benedykt — Development of Agelastica alni 308 

Hegner, R. W. — Effect of Centrifugal Force upon Eggs of Chrysomelid Beetles . . 308 

McDunnough, James — Minute Structure of Gut in Chrysopa perla 309 

Stitz, H. — Genital Apparatus of Neuroptera 309 

Pierce, W. Dwight — Revision of Order Strepsiptera 309 

Hofeneder, K. — New Strepsipteron , 310 

Bolton, H. — New Species of Fossil Cockroach 310 

Escherich, K. — Ants and Plants 452 

Jeannel, R. — Cave Beetles 452 

Popovici-Baznosanu, A. — Larvx, of Megatoma undata .. .. 452 

Johnson, Charles \Y. — NewTipididm 452 

Herwekden, M. A. van — Structure of Nucleus in Cells of Salivary Glands of Chi- 

ronomus Larvse 4.V2 

Bkrtarelli, E. — Flies and Typhus Fever 453 

Becker, R. — Head and Mouth-parts of Dipterous Larvae 453 

Pantel, J. — Adaptations of Parasitic Diptera 453 

Kershaw, J. C. W. — Structure, Habits, and Life-history of Candle Fly 453 

Becker, E. — Post-antennary Organ of Collembola 453 

Hewitt, C. G. — Bionomics of the House-fly 567 

Backhoff, P. — Development of the Dragon-fly ."><;8 

Zander, E. — Study of the Honey-bee .. ' 568 

Doncaster, L.— G<u/<e(o£renem of Gall-fly 569 

Massonnat, E. — New Host of Lynchia maura ., 570 

Vaney, C, & A. Conte— Caterpillars of Epichnopteryx helicinella 570 

Jacobson, E., & J. C. H. Meijere — Mosquito fed by Ant 570 



CONTENTS. XV 

PAGE 

Alessandrini. G. — Piophila Larvx in Cheese .. 571 

Kruger, E. — Structure and Habits of Claviger testaceus 571 

Gauthier, J. Const., & A. Raybaud — Rat-fleas 571 

Leon, N. — Roumanian Blood-sucking Diptera 571 

Bugnion, E. — Structure of Trigonalys hahni 571 

Drenkelfort, H. — Study of an Ephemerid 571 

Hammerschmidt, Johann — Development of Plasmatidx 571 

Bordas, L. — Glands of Caterpillars 572 

Collinge, Walter E. — Thysanura and Collembola of Midland Plateau .. .. 572 

Snodgrass, R. E. — Tliorax of Insects and Articulation of Wings 572 

Parker, J. B. — Nesting Habits of Bembex nubilipennis .. .. 713 

Kiefper, J. J., & P. Jorgensen— Argentine Galls 711 

Janet, Charles — Sensory Structures on Worker Bee' s Mandible 714 

Viehmeter, H. — Myrmecophilous Caterpillars 714 

Kennel, J. — Palxarctic Tortricidx 714 

Busck, August — Horn-feeding Lepidopterous Larvx 714 

Edwards, T. G. — Procession and Pupation of Larvx of Cnethocampa pinivora .. 715 

Hegner, R. W. — Effect of Centrifugal Force on the Development of Beetles .. .. 715 

Blain, A. W. — Myiasis Narium 716 

Austen, E. E. — New Cord ylobia 716 

Wesche, W. — Larvx and Pupx of West African Culicidx 716 

Malloch, J. R. — Subdivisions of Genus Phora 716 

Bertarelli, E. — Flies as Disseminators of Typhus 716 

Dudgeon, G. C. — Hemiptera Injurious to Cocoa 716 

Felt, E. r. — Injurious Insects 717 

&■ Myriopoda. 

Imms, A. D. — New Scutigerella 33 

Sinclair, F. G. — Abnormal Pair of Limbs in Lithobius 167 

Brolemann, H. W. — Classification of Geophilomorpha 168 

Silvestri, F. — Studies on Diplopoda 168 

„ „ N ew Millipedes 310 

Effenberger, W. — Structure of Polydesmus olO 

Evans, T. J. — British Millipedes 717 

5. Arachnida. 

Reuter, Enzio — Structure and Development of Mites 33 

Ammann, J. — Swiss Tardigrada 33 

Kautzsch, G. — Development of Agelena labyrinthica 168 

Samson, Katharina — Structure and Habits of Ixodes ricinus 168 

Kulczynski, Vl. — Fragmeuta Araclinolagica 310 

Strand, Embrik — New Cteniform Spiders from South America 310 

Purcell, W. F. — Development and Origin of Respiratory Organs in Aranex.. .. 310 

., „ Phytogeny of Trachex in Aranex 311 

Janeck, Reinold — Development of Lung-books and Trachex in Spiders 312 

Montgomery, Thomas H., Jun. — Spinnerets, Cribellum, and Respiratory Organs of 

Spiders 312 

Nordenskiold, Erik — Structure of Ixodes reduvius 312 

Kollmann, Max — Functions of Lymphatic Gland of Scorpion 454 

Banks, Nathan — Catalogue of Nearctic Spiders 454 

Montgomery, Thos. H., Jun. — Behaviour of Spiders 454 

Galiano, E. Fernandez — Spiders of Spain 454 

Cotte, J. — New Gall-mite on Hawthorn 451 

Tieche — Mites in Man 455 

Dahl, Fr. — Mites in Tumours 455 

Montgomery, T. H. — Courtship of Spiders {>" : " ; 

Schechtel, Edward — New Uydrachuids 573 

Hirst, S. — New Genus of Solifugx 717 

Bouvier, E. L. — Ten-legged Pantopod 717 

Walcott, Charles D. — Olenellus and other Mesonacidx 718 



Xvi CONTEXTS. 

6 - Crustacea. PAGE 

Berneckek, A. — Minute Structure of Respiratory Organ* in Crustaceans .. ■■ 3:: 

Bouvier, E. L. — Phytogeny of Atyidee 33 

Woltereck. A. — New Amphipods from Eastern Tropical Pacific 3< 

Sayce, A. O. — Terrestrial Species of Talitr us from Victoria 34 

Chapman, Frederick — New Species of Leperditia 34 

GhattoK, E. — Double Nauplius 34 

Kollmanx, Max — Notes on Rhizocephala 34 

Keilhack, L. — Generation-cycles in Cladocera 34 

Langhans, V. H. — Rudimentary Antennary Gland in Cladocera - ; 1 

Walker, A. O. — Hippolyte gracilis in the British Area 168 

Southwell. T. — Anomura of Kattiawar 168 

Horxell. J., & T. Southwell — New Species of Pinnoteres 168 

Geldherd. Charles — Digestive System of Schizopods 169 

Chattox, E., & E. Brement — Neio Copepod from an Ascidian 169 

Pearse, A. S. — Sex-recognition in Crawfishes 312 

Ritchie. James — Distribution of Palinurus vulgaris in British Waters 313 

Knebel, Walther yon — Jurassic and Modern Eryonidx 313 

Brozek, Artur — Variability of Palesmonetes varians 313 

Calman, W. T.— .B/iW Prawn from Galilee 313 

Strauss. E. — Eyes of Gammarids 313 

Tait, Johx — Agglutination of Blood Corpuscles in Gammar us 313 

Vebhoeff, K. W. — Studies on Isopods .. . • 314 

Chattox, E.. & E. Brement — Crustaceans living in Ascidians 314 

Scott. Thomas — Crustacea in Gizzard of Deep-sea Cuttlefish ;! 

Calmax, W. T. — Wood-boring Crustacea from Christmas Island ■• I 

Neresheimer, E. — Fresh-water Lernxopod 'idee 314 

Wyss, Oscar — Autumnal Iridescence of Lakes 314 

Withers, Thomas H. — New Fossil Barnacles 315 

Andrews, C. W. — Habits of Robber Crabs 455 

BUGNION, E. — Cenotiba and Acquired Characters I'-' 

Drzewixa, Anxa — Habits of Hermit Crabs 456 

Ritchie. James — Paramola cuvieri in Scottish Waters 45(3 

Kemp, Stanley — Decapoda from North Side of Bay of Biscay 456 

Mobgan,W.DE — Upogebia stellata and Gebia deltura 456 

Fukuda, T. — Japanese Stomatopods 456 

Racoyitza, E. G. — Revision of Monolistrini •• 456 

Tollinger, J. — Alimentary Tract of Lynceus 456 

Hodgson, T. V. — Antarctic Isopods 457 

Kollman, M. — Twin Saccnlina 157 

Chattox, E.. & E. Brement — New Ascidicolous Copepods 457 

Stanislaw, Jerzy — Sympathetic Nervous System of Crustacea 573 

Sexton, E. W. — Amphipods from North Side of Bay of Biscay 574 

Tait, John — Coagulation of Blood in Arthostraca 574 

Hansex. H. J. — Antarctic Schizopods and Cumacea 574 

Alcock. A. — Indian Fresh-water Crabs 575 

Bergold, Alfred — Structure of Fresh-water Ostracods 576 

Kollmanx, Max — Lerneeodiscus 576 

Kemp, Stanley — Veca pod Natantia of Coasts of Ireland 576 

Coutiere. Henri — Shopping Shrimps 571 

., .. Dimorphism of Males in Saron 718 

Stebbing, T. R. R. — Australian Amphipods 718 

Max. 1. a. Be — New Alpheidee 718 

Kathbun, Mary J. — Hare Decapods 718 

Brunelli, G. — Commensulism of Sea-anemones and Hermit-crabs 718 

Southwell, T. — Notes on Ceylonese Hermit-crabs 719 

Tait, John — Colour Change in Ligia 719 

., Blood-coagulation in Gammarus 719 

Gamble, F. W. — Light and Pigment -formation in Crenilabrus and Hippolyte .. 719 

Daday, E. vox — East African Entomostraca 720 

Joleaud, A. — Alleged Mimicry in Acorn-shells 720 

Qcidor, A. — Protandrous Hermaphroditism in Lernseopodidse 720 

Willey, A. — Association of Barnacles with Snakes and Worms > 721 



CONTENTS. . Wll 



Annulata. 



Demoll, K. — Eye of Alciopa contrainii 35 

Kostanecki. K. — Artificial Parthenogenesis in Arid a 35 

Gravier, Ch. — Peruvian Polyehsets 35 

Fantham, H. B., & Annie Porter — Disease in Arenicola ::."> 

Buchanan. Gwynneth — Blood-vessels of Australian Earthworms 35 

Arts Louis des — Musculature of Hirudinea 35 

IIallez, Paul — Sagitta enflata 36 

Kollmann, Max — Albuminoid Reserves in Annelids 169 

ZiJRCiiER, Leo — Musculature of Owenia 169 

Southern, R. — Pelagic Phyllodocidse of Irish Coasts 169 

Elpatiewsky, W. — Primitive Germ-cells in Sagitta .. ., 170 

Harding, W. A. — New Leeches from Ceylon 170 

Zielinska, Janina — Regeneration in Lumbricidse 315 

Martiis, L. Cognetti de — Earthworms of Ruwenzori 315 

Moore, J. Percy— American Polychsetes 315 

Bather, F. A., & B.S.Lyman — Fossil Annelid Burrows 315 

Paul, Georg — Phascolosoma minutum 316 

Beauchamp, Paul de — Parthenogenesis in Dinophilus conldini 3 Hi 

Goodrich, E. S. — Nephridia of Dinophilus and of Larvae of Polygordius, Echiurus, 

and Phoronis 3 1 < i 

Bcchner, Paul — Oogenesis of Sagitta 311! 

Goddard, E. J. — Australian Hirudinea 316 

Ashworth, J. H. — Giant Nerve-cells and Fibres of Halla 457 

Southern, R. — Polychiets from the Atlantic adjacent to Ireland 457 

Goddard, E. J. — Australian Hirudinea 45S 

Oka, Asajiro — Japanese Leeches -158 

Krecker, F. H. — Regeneration in Oligoch sets 577 

Ashworth, J. H. — Species of Arenicola in Paris Museum 57'. • 

Hachlov, L.— Body -wall of Leeches 579 

Stewart, F. H. — New Gephyrean Type 579 

Cary, L. R. — Life-history of Diplodiscus temporatus 57'. i 

Johnstone, Jas. — Parasites from Fishes from Irish Sea .. .. 581 

Ward, Henry B. — Fasciolopsis 581 

Dampf, Alpons — Cysticercoid from a Jerboa- flea 5S1 

Wallin, Ivan E. — Genus Allocreadium 581 

Andre, J. — Nervous System of Polystomum integerrimum 582 

„ Eyes of Polystomum integerrimum 582 

Laune, G. R. — New Species of Proteocephalus 582 

Leon, N. — Diploc/onoporus brauni 582 

Wahl, Bruno — Parasitic Turbellarians 582 

Graff, Ludwig von — North American Turbellarians 582 

Yatsu, N. — Experiments on Cleavage of Cerebratulus Ovum 582 

Southern R. — Marine Annelids of Dublin Bay 721 

Viguier, C. — Precocious Maturity of Larval Spionid 721 

Hargitt, C. AV. — Spawning of Hydr aides dianthus 721 

Nernatohehninthes. 

Linstow, O. VON — Studies 0)1 Nematodes 36 

„ ,, Neto Nematodes 36 

Vallillo, G — Ascaris mystax in Lion 36 

Southern, Rowland — Structure and Life-history of Rhabditis brassicse 36 

Bt sse, Otto — Trichinosis in Posen 36 

Mathis, C, & M. Leger — Microfilariae of Fowl 36 

d'Herelle, F., & H. Seidelin — Ttm Filarise in Snake's Blood iJ7 

KiQuiER, J. K. — Larva of Echinorhynchus in Tench 37 

Goldschmidt, R. — Nervous System of Ascaris 17" 

Bilee, Fr. — Fibrillar Structures in Muscle-cells and Intestinal Cells of Ascarids .. 170 

Martini, E. — Subcutic da and Lateral Areas of Nematodes 170 

Shipley, A. E. — Nematodes of Red Grouse 171 

Railliet, A., & A. Henry— Nematodes of the Eye :;l ~ 

Dec. 21st, 1910 b 



XVlll CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Balda38eroni, Vincenzo — Filarise in Ixodes 317 

Railliet, A., & A.Henry — Genus Onchocerca 317 

Swbenik, Jan — Structure of Gordius 317 

Horn, 1'aul — Species of Tylenchus in Moss 458 

Raillkt, A., & A.Henry — Nematodes of the Eye 458 

Linptow, O. von — New Species of Atractis 458 

Jammes, L., & A. Martin — Adaptation of Nematodes to Temperature of their Hosts 458 

Leipbr, R. T. — New Nematode from Trinidad 583 

Linstow, O. vox— New Species of Pseudalius 722 

Oznux, M. — Filar ia in Turkey's Eye 722 

Jammes & Martin — Significance of Chitin in Nematode Development 722 

Potts, F. A. — Hermaphroditism among Free-living Nematodes . . . 722 

Platyhelminthes. 

Linstow, O. von — New Species of Davainea 37 

Mrazek, Al. — Excretory System in Triclads 37 

Rodenwaldt. E. — New Trematode from Man 37 

Steinmann, P. — New Planar i a ns 171 

Hallez, P. — Paracortex car dii 171 

Deton, Willy — Synapsis in Thysanozoon bronchi 171 

Ssnitzin, D. H. — Relationships of Digenic Trematodes 171 

Leon, N. — Abnormalities in Bothriocephalus 172 

Spatlich, \V. — Structure of Tetrabothrius 172 

Pintner, Th. — Posterior End of Rhynchobothrius Chain 172 

Shipley, A. E. — Tapeworms of Red Grouse .. 172 

„ „ Parasites of Birds allied to Grouse 172 

Weiss, Annie — Australian Triclads 318 

Hallez, Paul — New Type of Turbellarian 318 

Micoletzky, H. — Turbellarians of the Gulf of Trieste 318 

Gonder, Richard — Peculiar Trematode of the Mole 318 

Pratt, Henry S. — Cuticula and Subcuticula of Trematodes and Cestodes .. .. 318 

Ransom, B. H. — Tapeworms of North American Birds 3 Hi 

Johnston, T. Harvey — Entozoa of Monotremes and Marsupials 319 

Nusbaum, J., & M. Oxner — Regeneration in Nemerteans 319 

Punnett, R. 0., & C. Forster Cooper — Nemerteans from Eastern Indian Ocean 319 

Hallez, Paul — Protective Ency station of Fresh-water Nemertean 3 1 li 

„ „ Summer and Winter Spawning in a Fresh-water Nemertean .. .. 320 

Yatsu, Nashide — Ookinesis in Cerebratuhts lacteus 320 

Pittzu, J. — Detection of Echinococcus Disease 459 

Matare, Franz — New Tetracotyle from Brain of Minnow 459 

Ssinitzin, D. Th. — Bucephalus 459 

Blaizot, L. — New Trematode from Frog 459 

Mrazek, Al. — Distomid Cyst in Blood-vessels of an 01 igochset 459 

Katsurada, F., & T. Hashegawa — Life-history of Schistosomum japonicum .. 459 

Loiiner, Leopold — Structure of Polychozrus caudatus 459 

Hallez, Paul — Fresh-water Nemerteans 400 

Joubin, L. — Antarctic Nemerteans 160 

Southwell, T. — Adidt of Pearl-inducing Worm . .. 723 

„ Endogenous Multiplication in Larvae of Tefrarhynchus unionifactor 72:; 

Oxnek, M. — Regeneration in Nemerteans 723 

Yatsu, N. — Egg of Cerebrattdus 724 

WuNiKiFP, G. — Structure of Cephalothrix 725 

Plessis, G. Dr — Hermaphroditism of Prosorochmus claparedi 725 

Incertae Sedis. 

Norman, A. M. — Pol yzoa of Madeira 37 

Dawydoff, C. — Regeneration in Enteropneusts 173 

Richters, Ferd. — Studies in Tardigrada 173 

Goddard, E. J. — Australian \ Fresh-water Polyzoa 320 

Schepotieff, A. — Indian Ocean Pterobranchia 320 

Beauohamp, P. de — lhmwcoile in Dinophilus 400 



CONTENTS. XIX 

PAGE 

Goddard, E. J. — Polyzoon on PontobdeUa 460 

Gregory, J. W. — Cretaceous Bryozoa 460 

Dogiel, V. — Neto Catenata 160 

Cadllery, M., & A. Lavalle — Infection of Ophiuroid with Rhopalura 726 

Rotifera. 

Rousselet, C. F. — Distribution of Rotifera 173 

Daday, E* von— Botifera of Turkestan 173 

Murray, James — Antarctic Botifera 461 

Shull, A. F. — Life-cycle of Hydatina senta 583 

Echinoderma. 

Agassiz, Alexander — Teeth and a Lantern in Echinoneus 37 

Siikoluw, Iwan — Luminosity of Ophiuroids 38 

Becher, S. — Systematic Position of Rhabdomolgus Novm-Zealandise 38 

Verrill, A. E. — Notes 071 North American Starfishes 174 

Morgulis, S. — Begeneration in Ophiocoma pumila 174 

McClendon, J. F — Ophiurans of San Diego 174 

Hornyold, H. A. G. — Mode of Feeding in Echinocardinm and Spatangus .. .. 174 

Edwards, C. L — Development of Uolothuria floridana 174 

Clark, H. L. — Echinoderms of ' Thetis' Collection 174 

Fisher, W. K— New' Starfishes 321 

Brown, R. N. Rudmose — Echinoids and Asteroids from Mergui and Burma .. .. 321 

,, „ Echinoids from Portuguese East Africa 321 

Simpson, J. J., & R. N. Rudmose Brown — Asteroids from Portuguese East Africa 321 

Mangold, E. — Bead ions of Echinoderms 321 

Clark, Austin Hobart — Affinities of Echinoidea 322 

Bell, F. Jeffrey — Indian Ocean, Echinoderms . 461 

Hornyold, A. Gandolfi — Gemmiform Pedicellarise , 4(11 

Benham, W. B. — New Zealand Echinoderms 461 

Ritchie, James — Holoihuria forslcali in Scottish Waters 462 

Garbowski, Tad. — Experiment with Sea-urchin Ova 584 

Koehler, Rene — Indian Ocean Shadow-water Asteroids 584 

Ludwig, H. — New Order of Asteroids 726 

Ccelentera. 

Bohn, Georges — Movements and Sensory Reactions of VeretiUum cynomorium . . 38 

Wietrzykowski, W. — Development of Lucernarids 38 

Cerfontaine, Paul — Study of Cerianthus oligopodus 39 

Warren, Ernest — Hydroid parasitic on Hydroid 39 

Thomson, J. A. — Note on Deudrobrachia fallax Brook, a Bare and Bemarkable 

Antipatharian 142 

Hadzi, Jovan — Nervous System of Hydra 175 

Downing, Elliot h. — Oogenesis of Hydra 175 

Kuhn, Alfred — Budding and Shoot-formation of Hydroids 175 

Toppe, O. — Cnidoblasts of Hydra 176 

Evans, Wm., & J. H. Ashworth — Medusoids, Medusa?, and Ctenophores of Firth of 

Forth 176 

Groselj, Paul — Nervous System of Anemones 176 

Wilsmore, Leonora J. — Zoanthese from Queensland 'and New Hebrides 177 

Lang, W. D. — Growth-stages in Parasmilia 177 

Kukenthal, W. — Observations on Living Alcyonarians . 177 

Stephens, Jane — Alcyonarians of Irish Coasts 177 

Hickson, !*\ J. — New Species of Stachy odes J '7 

Thomson, J. Arthur, & J. J. Simpson — Indian Ocean Alcyonarians 178 

Summers, S. L. M. — Antipatharians from the Indian Ocean (Plate V.) 273 

Pax, F. — Studies on Actinians 322 

Torrey, H. B., & F. L. Kleeberger — Neio Species of Cerianthus 322 

Bohn, Georges — Rhythm in Sea-anemones 322 



XX11 CONTENTS. 

PAGK 

Heron-Allen, E., & A. Earland — (hi the Recent and Fossil Foraminifera of the 
Shore-sands of Selsey Bill, Sussex.— VI. A Contribution towards the Mtiology 

of Massilina secans (<V Orbigny sp.) 693 

( 'hatton, E. — Nucleus of Amcebx 72S 

., Parasites of Labridse 728 

Mesnil, F.„ & E. ltKiMONT — Trypanosoma in an Edentate 729 

Laveran, A., & A. Pettit — Trypanosome of Lerot 729 

Martin, G. H. — Division of Trypanoplasma congeri .. 729 

Mathis, (_'.,& M. Leger — New Parasites in BulbuV s Blood 729 

Kunstler, J., & Ch. Gineste — Cytoplasmic Fibrillation of Ghilomonas 729 

Kofoid, 0. A. — Revision of Genus Ceratocorys 729 

Laveran, A., & A. Pettit — Endogenous Multiplication of Hiemogregarina sebai .. 730 

Franca, G. — Piroplasmidas 730 

Negre, L. — Intestinal Stage of Sarcosporidium 730 

Fiebiger, J. — Miescher's Bodies 730 



BOTANY. 

GENERAL, 

Including- the Anatomy and Physiology of Seed Plants. 

Cytology, 
including 1 Cell-Contents. 

Gates, R. R. — Chromosomes in Oenothera 43 

Griggs, R. F. — Mitosis in Synchytrium 43 

Wester, D. a.— Study of Chitin 44 

Maige, A. — Chromosomes of As phodelus microcar pus 182 

Lidforss, B. — Connecting Thread* between Nucleus and Cliromatophores 329 

Senn, G. — Form and Change of Position of Chromatophores 329 

Yamanouchi, S. — Chromosomes in Osmunda 330 

Klnner, O. — Lithocysts in Ficus 4GG 

Structure and Development. 
Vegetative. 

Bailey. I. W. — Wood Structure in Pinex 44 

Chevalier, A. — Wild and Cultivated Dioscorea in Tropical Africa 44 

Alien, II. von — Studies on Hoots 4T> 

Kusano, S. — Studies in JEginetia 45 

Boresch, K. — Gum-flow in Relation to Anatomy in Bromeliacese 182 

1'lant, M. — Physiological " Separating-Layers" in Gymnosperms, Equisetacesc, 

and the Bryophytes 330 

Warming, E. — Saxifragacese 330 

Gregory, R. P. — Histology of Giant nnd Ordinary Primula sinensis 331 

LANGE, F. — Classification of the Aloes by Leaf-structure 331 

Alten, H. v. — Callus-formations in Nuphar 466 

Goris, M. A. — Anatomical Study of the Mangiferese 590 

Daniel, M. Jean — Branch Types and the Age of Trees .'. 591 

Thompson, W. P. — Fhyletic Significance of Bay Tracheids in Coniferse 731 



CONTENTS. XX111 

Reproductive. page 

Ottley, A. M. — Gametophytes and Fertilization in Juniperus 45 

Saxton, W. T. — Ovule, Gametophytes, and Embryo of Widdringtouia 46 

McAllister, Y^ . — Embryo-sac of Smilacina stellata 46 

Brown, W. H. — Embryo-sac of Habenaria 47 

Cook, M. T. — Embryology of the Nynxpheacex 47 

Himmelbai'r, W. — Flower-morphology and Embryology of Datisca 1 8H 

Stephens, E. L. — Embryology of Penxaeese 183 

Saxton, W. T. — Embryologyof Encephalartos 331 

Steinbrinck, C. — Pollination-mechanism in Ricinus r>32 

Heinricher, M. E. — Germination of Seeds of Parasitic Plants i!32 

Wiesner, J. — Change in direct Sunlight during its Postage through Foliage .. .. 333 

Nicolas, G. — Respiration of Vegetative Organs of Vascular Plants 333 

Nichols, G. E. — Morphology of Juniper 467 

Young, Mary S. — Morphology and Relationships of the Podocarpdnex 731 

Physiology. 

Nutrition and Growth. 

Luetzelburg, P. von — Utricularia 183 

Renner, O. — Transpiration , 467 

Roshardt, P. A. — Function of Living Cells in Ascent of Sap 468 

Lavison, J. de llupz de — Function of the Endodermis and Selective Absorption by 

Protoplasm .. .. 591 

Nicolofp, Th. — Youth-form of Leaves and its Significance 592 

Dixon, H. H., & W. R. G. Atkins — Osmotic Pressure in Plants 51)2 

Sablon, Leclerc du — Ascent of Sap in Trees 593 



Irritability. 

Silbehberg, B. — Stimulation of Storage Tissue by Zinc Sulphate 
Linsbaier, K., & E. Abraxowicz — Chloroplast-movements 
Streeter, S. G. — Influence of Gravity on Growth of Amanita .. 
Reed, H. S. — Chemical Reagents in Relation to Wheat-seedling 
Lcbimenko, M. — Influence of Light upon Fruit- and Seed- development 



47 
184 
334 
334 

593 



Chemical Changes. 

Maquenne, L., & Demoussy — Bluhening of Green Leaves 335 

General. 

Coker, W. C— Vitality of Pine Seeds 47 

White, J. — Ferments and Latent Life of Resting Seeds 48 

Campbell, D. H. — New Flora of Krahatau 48 

Ganong, W. F. — Balls of Vegetable Matter from Sandy Sliores 49 

Schweigeh, J. — Systematic Relationship of Sarracenia and Cephaloius 184 

Becqueiiel, P. — Variation of Zinnia due to Traumatism 185 

Trabut, M. — Origin of Cultivated Oats 185 

Brockmann-Jerosch. H. — New Fossil Discoveries and their Significance .. .. 185 

Wikland, G. R. — Williamsonias of Mixteca alta 335 

Strasburger, E. — Character of Graft-hybrids .. .. 335 

Marryat, D. C. E. — Hybridisation in Mirabilis 336 

Wheldale, M. — Inheritance of Flower-colour in Antirrhinum majus •'••!•' 

,, „ Physiological Interpretation of Flower-colour '■>'■''< 

SShull, G. H. — Inheritance of Sex in Lychn is 337 

,, „ Inheritance of Colour in Lychnis 337 

Tdmelle, H., & H. Perrier de la Bathie — Clusiaceze of North-west Madagascar 732 

CRYPTOGAMS. 

Pteridophyta. 

Pelouude, F. — Structure of Fossil and Living Ferns 49 

Compton, R. H. — Anatomy of Matonia smnientosa I' 1 

Eames, A. J. — Centripetal Xylem in Equisetum 50 



XXIV CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Black, C. A. — Imbedded Antheridia in Dry opteris and Nephrodium 50 

Campbell, D. H. — ProOiaUium and Embryo of Danxa 50 

Arnoldi, W. — Germination of Salvinia natans ."'1 

Benedict, It. C. — BotrycMum ternatum and its Allies .. 51 

Heuter, W. — New Species of Lyeopodium 51 

Underwood, L. M., & others — North American Fern-flora .. 51 

Poyser, W. A . & others— North American Ferns 51 

1>Oldingh, I. — Ferns of the Dutch West Indies 51 

Rosenstock, E. — Spruce's South American Ferns 52 

Wildeman, E. De. — Ferns of the Congo 52 

Pikotta, R. — Ferns of Ruwenzori 53 

Christ, H. — Ferns of the Far East 53 

„ New Species of Malesian and Philippine Ferns 53 

Chrysler, 31. A. — Fertile Spike of the Ophioglossacem 186 

Sinnott, E. YV. — Foliar Gaps in the Osmundacese 186 

Yamanouchi, S. — Chromosomes in Osmunda .. .. 187 

Georgevitch, P. — Apospory and Ajiogamy in Trichomanes 187 

Boubier, M.—Stegmata in the Hymenophyllacex 187 

Mitchell, G. — Strobilus of Selaginella 187 

Brtjchmann, H. — Selaginella Preissiana 188 

Shattuck, Ch. — Origin of Heterospory in Marsilia 188 

Perrin, G. — Fertilisation of Fern-prothallia 189 

Farmer, J. B., & L. Digby — Cytology of Varietal and Hybrid Ferns 189 

Fischer, H. — Aspidium remotum Al. Br 190 

Leveille, H. — New French Ferns 190 

Gulia, G. — Pteridophyta of Malta 190 

Maxon, W. R. — Studies of Tropical American Ferns 190 

Christensen, C. — American Species of Dryopteris 191 

Copeland, E. B. — Ferns of the Philippines 191 

Chbist, H. — Ferns of Costa Rica 191 

„ .. Fern* of New Guinea 191 

Takeda, H. — Japanese Lycopodi ales 191 

Makino, T. — Japanese Ferns 192 

Cambier, R., & A. Renier — Structure and Position of Pinahodendron 192 

Zalessky, M. D. — New Fossil Dadoxylon 192 

Porter — Aloys Sodiro 192 

Twiss, E. M. — Prothallia of Aneimia and Lygodium 337 

Wuist, E. D. — Monoecious Prothallia in Onoclea 338 

Benedict, R. C. — Peculiar Habitat for Camptosorus 338 

Schaffner, J. H. — Interesting BotrycMum Habitat 338 

Ulbrich, E. — New Variety of the Common Ophioghssum 338 

Kummekle, J. B. — New Species of Ceterach 339 

Lojacoko-Pojero, M. — Italian Ferns 339 

Nash, G. V. — Ferns of New York Botanical Garden :;39 

( i,i te, W. N., & OTHEUS — North American Fern* 339 

Schaffner, J. H. — Pteridophytes of Ohio 340 

Christ, H. — Ferns of Costa Rica 340 

„ Ferns of Corea ami China 340 

Wernham, H. F.— Morphology of Phylloglossum 468 

Stiles, W. — Structure of Psilotum flaccidum 469 

Bower, V. O. — Phytogeny of the Filicales. I. l'lagiogyria 469 

Stephens, E. L., & M. G. Sykes — Apogamy in Pteris droogmantiana 47o 

IIeilbron, A. — Apogamy. Hybridisation, and Heredity in certain Ferns 470 

Hoyt, YV. D. — Fertilisation and Hybridisation in Ferns J To 

Blosson, M. — Dryopteris Hybrids in North America 171 

Lammeumayr, L. — Orientation of BotrycMum Lunaria 171 

Kidston, R. — Zygopteris Grayi 471 

CuFINO, L. — East African Ferns 171 

Campbell, D. H. — Development of Angiopteris and Kaulfussia 594 

Krasser, F. — Fossil Marattiacese • .. 595 

Kidstone, It.. & D. T. G wynne- Vapghan — F ossil Osmundacex 595 

Faull, J. H. — Stele of Osmunda cinnamomea 595 



CONTENTS. XXV 

PAGE 

Gordon, W. T. — Fossil Osmundacese and Zygopterideas 596 

Lignier, O., .& F. Pelourde — Fossil Ferns of France 596 

Lang, W. H. — Suspensor in Helminthostachys 596 

Vernon, K. D., & L. J. Wills — Schizoneura paradoxa 596 

Thomas, H. II. — Assimilating-tissue of Fossil Ferns (Calamites) 596 

JiuucHMANN, H. — Prothallial Development in Lycopodium .. 597 

Trail, J. W. H. — Lyopodium Selago : a curious habitat 597 

Borodine, J. — Stomata of Lycopodium annotinum 598 

Halle, T. <!.. & K. Yasui — Sagenopteris and Hydropterangium 598 

Sykes. M. G., & W. Stiles — Cones of Selaginella .. .. 598 

Wobsdell, W. C. — Rhizophore of Selaginella 599 

Holden, H. S. — Periderm-formation in Filicinean Petioles 599 

„ Note on a Wounded Myeloxylon 5'.)'.' 

Pack, L. — Peculiar Fern Prothallia 599 

Wlist, E. D. — Culture of Fern Prothallia 600 

Christ, H. — Geography of Ferns .. 600 

Christensen, O. — Ola f Swartz' 8 Types of Ferns 600 

Benedict, K. C — Relationships of the Qenera of the Vittariem 60] 

Wattam, W. E. L. — Hymenophyllum peltatum in Yorkshire 601 

Seym an, W. — Asplenium Lingelsheimi, a New Hybrid , .. .. 601 

Christ, H. — Two Species of Platycerium 601 

Moore, H. Kingsmill — Varieties of Poly podium vulgare .. .. 601 

Sennen, Frere — New -European Fern 602 

Hopkins, L. S. — New North American Fern* 602 

Dodge, R., & otheks — North American Fern* 002 

Weatherby, C. A. — American Forms of Lycopodium complanatum 603 

Rosenstock, E. — New Tropical Ferns 603 

Hicken, C. M. — Ferns of Argentina 603 

Johnston, J. li. — Ferris of Venezuela 603 

Christ, H. — Ferns of South China 603 

Meyer, A. — Ancestry of Plants 73:! 

Mottier, D. M. — Sex of Gametophyte of Onoclea 733 

Storey, A. G. — Sporangium of Lycopodium pithyoides 734 

Senn, G. — Tubers of Poly podium Brunei .. 734 

Georgevttch, P. — Apospory and Apogamy in Trichomanes 7:i4 

Boyd, W. B, — Lasbrearemota 734 

Macdonald, J. J. — Scotch Ferns 734 

Marten, J. — Indian Ferns 735 

Bryophyta. 

Labipa, E. — Relations]) i/> of Liverworts to Fern* >.'• 

Graham, M. — Sporogonium and Gametophore of Conocephalum .. .. .. ;">3 

Ooker, W. C. — Liverwort Types for Elementary Classes 54 

Weinekt, H. — Physiology of Liverwort-rhizoids .~>1 

Zielinski, F. — Biology of the Archegonium and Calyptra 54 

Janzen, P. — Life-history of Funaria hygrometrica 55 

Dixon, H. N. — Accessory Leaves in Mnium and Orthomnion ;")."> 

Stephani, F. — Monograph of the Hepaticas 55 

Sheppard, T., & W. Watson — Muscinese of Yorkshire 55 

Stirton, J. — New Scottish Mosses 56 

Hagen, I. — Norwegian Moss- flora .. ..' 56 

Petrow, J. 1'., & A. A. Sapehin — Russian Bryophytes 56 

Coppey, A. Hepatics of the Haute-Saone . .. ., 56 

GiiEBE, C. — New German Mosses 56 

Janzen. P. — Hepatics of Eisenach 57 

LoiiSKE, L. — M)iss flora of Zillerthal 57 

Gyorffy, I. — Mosses of Hungary 57 

Podpera, J. — Moss-flora of Moravia 57 

Coppey, A. — Moss-flora of Greece .. .. 57 

Ldisier, A. — Moss-flora of Portugal 58 

„ Moss-flora of Madeira 58 

Micheletti, L. — Mosses of Italian East Africa 58 



XXVI CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Negri. G.,& G. Gola — Bryophyta of Ruwemori 58 

Grout, A. J, & E. J. Hill — North American Species of Aniblystegium 58 

Cokeu, W. ( '., & E. G. Britton" — North American Bryophytes 59 

Evans, A. W. — Hepaticas of New England 59 

Stephani, F. — Mexican Hepaticx 59 

Williams, R. S. — Bolivian Mosses 59 

Brotherus, V. F. — New Philippine Mosses 59 

Herzog, Tii. — Mosses of New Guinea and the Moluccas 59 

Geit, A. — Bryophyta of Fiji 60 

Renauld, F. — Some Forms of Drepanocladus 60 

Roth, (-J. — Drepanocladus furcatus 60 

Winter — Some Critical Species of Pohlia .. .. 60 

Douin, I. — Bryum arvernense 60 

Gyorffy, I. — Some Br yological Rarities .. 60 

Lett, H, W.— John Henry Davies (1838-1909) 61 

Husnot, T., & J. Roll— A, Geheeb: Necrology 61 

Smith, A. M, — Leo Lesquereux 61 

Wilson, M. — Spermatogenesis of Mnium 192 

Akerman, A. — Chemotaxis of Spermatozoids in Marchantia 193 

Lorch, W. — Mechanism of Cohesion in Moss-leaves 193 

Andrews, A. Le Rot — Nomenclature of Sphagnum 193 

Crampton, C. B., & others — British Bryophyta 193 

Roth, G.—Neio and Rare European Mosses 194 

Schmidt, J. — Hepaticm of Hamburg 194 

Geheeb, A. — Mosses of the Rhongebirge 194 

Guinet, A. — Mosses of Savoy .'. 194 

Micheletti, L. — Bryophyta of Sicily 194 

Greenwood, H. E., & others — North American Bryophyta 194 

Herzog, T. — Bolivian Mosses 195 

Jensen, C. — Sphagnacese of Siberia 195 

Cardot, J. — Mosses of Japan and Corea 195 

Britton, E. G. — C, F. Austin: North American Bryologist 19.1 

Hatnes, C. C. — Charles Lacouture 195 

Hirsh, P. E. — Development of Air-Chambers in Ricciacea} 340 

Marchal. El. & Em. — Apospory and Sexuality in the Mosses 340 

Renauld, F. — Proper Value of a Species 34 1 

Steinbrinok, C. — Cohesion-mechanism of Moss-leaves 341 

The .Moss Exchange Club — British Mosses 341 

Wheldon, J. A. — Lancashire Mosses 342 

Cheetham, C. A. — Yorkshire Mouses .. 342 

Stabler, George (1839-1910) 342 

Nicholson, W. E. — New Hybrid Moss in Sussex 342 

Brit i on, E. G. — Mosses found in Conservatories 312 

Scmi'FNEii, V. — New European Frullania 312 

„ „ New Species of Anasirophyllum 3.43 

LORCH, W. — Polytrichacese 313 

Hagen, I. — Orthothecium strictum or O. rubelhim 343 

Cardot, J. — Notes on Fontinalis . . . . 313 

Renauld. F. — Notes on Drepanocladus 343 

Winter, II.. & I. Hagen — Norwegian Mosses 343 

Schmidt, J. — Mosses of Hamburg 343 

Glowaoki, J. — Muscinese of the Julian Alps 344 

Sommier,*S. — Italian Muscinese 344 

Meylan, O., & OTHERS — French Mosses 344 

Dismier, G. — Mosses of the Pyrenees 311 

Luisier, A. — Muscinem of Madeira 344 

I Iritton. E. G., & others — North American Bryophyta 314 

Cardot, J. — Mexican Mosses 345 

Paeis, B. Gt. — Moss-flora of the Isle of Pines 345 

,. ,, Chinese Muscinese 345 

Evans, A. W. — Vegetative Reproduction in Meizgeria 472 

Cutting, E. M. — Androgynous Receptacles in Marchantia 472 



CONTENTS. X xvil 

PAGH 

Cavers, F. — lnter-relationships of the Bryophyta 172 

Coppet, A. — Regeneration in the Hepaticse 172 

Dixon, H. N. — Some Irish Forms of Fi-sidens 473 

( 'ornet, A. — Revision of the Species of Phil onntis 471! 

Theriot, A. — Heterocladium Macounii . . ill 

Broeck, H. van den — Belgian Forms of Harpidium 474 

Haynes, C. C. — Sphmrocarpos 474 

Goebel, K. — Monoselenium tenerum Griffith 474 

Stephani, F. — Dendroceros 475 

Wiieldon, J. A., & A.Wilson — Scotch Bryophyta 475 

Armitage, E. — New Records of British Sphagna 47."> 

Haynes, C. C, & others — North American Bryophytes 475 

Cardot, J. — Mexican Mosses 476 

Armitage, E. - Hepaticse of Madeira 476 

Cufino, L. — East African Mosses 470 

Anon. & M. A. Howe— Charles Rcid Barnes (1858-1910) 47G 

Waddell, C. H. — George Stabler and J. M. Barnes .. .... 477 

Cardot, J. — Sexuality in the Mosses .. .. <;0:! 

Stevens, N. E. — Discoid Gemmse in Foliose Eepatics 604 

Douin, I. — Protonema and. Propagules in Hepaticse 605 

Schiffner, V. — Rhizoids of Marcliantiales 605 

Garjeanne, A. J. M.— Luminosity of Moss Leaves 60t '. 

Giesenhagen, K. — Types of Tropical Mosses 606 

Cavers, F. — Inter-relationships of Bryophyta 606 

Lotsy, J. P. — Primitive Form of the Liverworts 007 

Massalongo, B.— Acolea and Marsupella 607 

Schiffner, V. — Ghiloscyphus and Heleroscyphus 607 

„ „ Bryological Notes 607 

Ernst, A. — Ephemeropsis tjibodensis 608 

Dixon, H. N. — Cynodontium Jenneri , 608 

Travis, W. G. — Ceratodon conicus cos 

Luisier, A. — What is Dicranoweisia robusta Vent'- 1 ■ 6<»>s 

Gyorffy, I. — Pohlia carnea in Transylvania 609 

Dixon, H. N. — " Neolithic" Moss Remains . 609 

Macvioae, S. M.— Scottish Hepaticse 609 

Stansfield, A. — Moss-flora of Todmorden, Lanes 609 

Wheldon, J. A. — New Lancashire Mosses 609 

Travis, W. G. — Lancashire Hepatics 610 

Wiieldox, J. A. — Additions to the Manx Sphagna 610 

Meylan, C. — Moss-flora of the Jura .. ..' 610 

Coppet, A. — Moss-flora of the Haute-Saone 610 

Hil, A. Casares — Spanish Bryophytes 610 

Herzog, T. — Hare European Mosses (ill 

MiiLLER, K. — European Hepatics (ill 

CJ rout, A. J. — North American Moss Book 611 

Lorenz, A., & others — North American Bryophytes fill 

Nichols, G. E. — Critical Mosses of New England 'ill 

Kindberg, N. C. — Canadii in Mosses 612 

Cardot, J. — Mexican Mosses 613 

Theriot, I. — Bryophytes of New Caledonia 613 

Okamura, S. — Japanese Bryophytes 613 

Roll, J. — Specific Types versus Formenreihen 613 

„ „ Specific Names of Sphagnum 613 

Congress Notes (ill! 

Roth, G. — Moss Criticisms (ill 

Archer, J. — Hepatics and Contamination 614 

Loeske, L. — Phylogenetic Classification of Mosses 73f> 

Kdrssanow, L. — Phytogeny of the Archegonium .. 7:;. r > 

Monkemeyer, W. — Abnormal Capsules in Bryum argenteum •• ~-''-> 

Lorch, W. — Mechanism of Leaf-movements in Polytrichacess ~ ;;,r> 

Cardot, J. — Dicramloma 736 

Sheppaud, T. — Prehistoric Mosses from Lincoln-thin .. .. V ' I < • 



XXV111 CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Ingham, W. — Yorkshire Mosses 736 

Ali Andrew, J. — Pallavicinia Flotowiana in Scotland 736 

M AGVICAR, S. M. — Distribution of Hepaticae in Scotland 736 

Lett, H. W. — Br yophytes of Co. Donegal 737 

Muller, K. — European Hepalicx .. . . 737 

Lespain, Botjly i>e — Bryophyles of Dunkerqne 737 

• 'hppey, A. — Moss-flora of the Haute-Saone 737 

Dietzow, L . — Prussian Mosses '. 737 

('(L.Mann. P. — Swiss Mosses 737 

Giixet, A. — Geneva Mosses 738 

Bot riNi, A.— Mouses of the Italian Islands 738 

Frye, T. ('. — Piilytrii-hartx of Western North America 738 

Brotherus, V. F. — Philippine Mosses 738 

Dixon, H. N., & others — Mosses of Western India 738 

Renauld, F. — Mosses of Madagascar 739 

( ardot, J. — Antarctic Mosses 739 

Ross, H. — Otto Sendtner 739 

Hi snot, T.—P. J. F. Gravet 739 

Theriot, I.— F. Renaidd 739 

Thallophyta. 

Algae. 

Acton, E. — Coccomyxa subellipsoidea, a New Member of the Palmellacex .. .. 61 

Peebles, F. — Sphserellalacustris 62 

Sciimula — Scenedesmus 62 

Collins, F. S. — Algological Prophecy Fulfilled 6:; 

\Ve.->t, W. & G. S. — Phytoplankton of the English Lake District »',:; 

Toni, G. P. De, & A. Forti — Fresh-wider Algae from Euwemori , 64 

Schiller, J. — Microspore-fm '/nation in Chxtoceras [jorenzianum 64 

Ploomfield, E. N. — Alg:v of Suffolk and Norfolk .. 65 

Kolkwitz. ft.,& A". A. Elenktn— Fresh-water Plankton 65 

Benecke, W.— Periodicity of Algx 65 

Bernard, C. — Fresh-water Algx from the Malay Region 66 

West, W. — Some Fresh-water Algae of Fiji 66 

Philip, R. H. — Interesting Diatom near HuU 66 

O&Ti-NFELD, C. H. — Biddulphia sinensis 66 

Kindle, E. M. — Dudomaceous Dust on the Behring Sea Ice-floes i'>~ 

Riciiter, O. — Physiology of Diatoms <i~ 

Sauvageau, C. — Halopteris scoparia and Sphacelariaradicans 67 

,, „ Colpomenia sinuosa 68 

Yendo, K. — Mucilage- glands of 1'ndaria OS 

Yamanouchi, S. — Cytology of Cutleria and Aglaozonia 69 

Tarara, JM. — Oospheres in Sargassum 69 

Porgesen, F. — West Indian Floridex 69 

Brand, F. — Fresh-water Species of Chantransia .. 70 

Lewis, I. F. — Griffithsia Bornetiana 70 

Foslie, M. — Corallinacex 71 

Hayren, E. — Finland Algx 72 

Bibliography 72 

Hanson, E. K. — Phycoerythrin 195 

Sapjvageau, C. — Hybrid Fucus 196 

Tobler, F. — Epiphytes of Laminaria 196 

Drew, G. H. — Laminaria digitata and L. saccharina 196 

Eoyt, W. D. — Dictyota dichotoma 197 

"Woycicki, Z. — Laboratory Cultures under Gas 197 

Sauvageat, 0. — Naturalisation of Alga 198 

„ ,. Murine Algx and Currents 198 

Nieuwland, J. A. — Hints on Collecting and Growing Algx 198 

Holmes, E. M. — British Marine Algx 199 

Grieve, S. — Marine Algx of Dominica 199 

Okamcra, K. — Japanese Algx 199 

Fritsch, F. E., & F. Rich— Fresh-water Algx in Nature 199 



CONTENTS. XXIX 

PACE 

Wille, N. — Supplement to Engler's Pflanzenfamilien 200 

Czapek, F. — Indian Ocean Plankton 200 

Ostknfeld, C. H. — Pkytoplankton of Victoria Nyanza .. .. ii ' » I 

., .. Swiss Plankton .. 201 

Vibet, L. — Desmids 201 

Bessell, J. B. —Devonshire Diatoms 201 

Ostenfeed, C. II. — Biddulpia sinensis in the North Sea 201 

Heribaud, J. — Fossil Diatoms 202 

Bialosuknia. W. — New Genus of Pleurococcace.e 202 

GrUGLiELMETTi, G. — Protococcacese 202 

Tschodrina, O. — Astrocladium cerastioides 202 

Nieuwland, J. A. — "Knee-joint" of Mougeotia 203 

Viret, L.— Algx of Haute-Savoie 20:! 

Pasciier, A. — Chrysomonadineee of Bohemia .. .. 203 

,, „ New Genus of Chrysomonadinese 203 

Grobety, A. E. — Ourococcus bicaudutus 203 

Chodat, R. — Green Snow .. 203 

Senn, G. — Oxyrrlus marina .. .. 204 

Rothpletz. A. — Fossil Algse -01 

GricGUEx, F. — Brothers (frouan 204 

De Toni, G. B.— M. H. Foslie 205 

Bibliography .. 205 

Holmes, E. M. — British Algse 346 

Sommier, S. — Italian Algie '■'<1V> 

Howe, M. A. — Marine Algse of Panama 34G 

,, ,, West Indian Marine Alga} :!!<> 

Okamuka, K. — Japanese Algse 346 

Pascher, A. — Three new Chrysomonads :!4G 

Jacobsen. H. C. — Volvocacese 346 

Georgevitch, P. — Serbian Desmids o47 

,. .. Desmids from Macedonia . . 347 

Zimmermann. C. — Catalogue of Portuguese Diatoms 317 

„ ., Diatoms of Madeira and Port Santo 347 

Kaiser, P. E. — Vaucheria synandra 348 

ToBLER, F. — Saccorhiza bulbosa 348 

Baker, S. M. — Zoning of Brown Seaweeds 348 

Thompson, E. I. — Tsenioma 349 

Chodat, R. — Polymorphism of Algse 349 

Bibliography 349 

Chalon, J.— The Bosroff Laboratory 477 

Borgesen, F. — Greenland Fresh-water Algse 177 

Rosen vinge, L. K. — Marine Algse from North-east Greenland 478 

Szafer. VV. — Sulphur-flora of Lemberg 478 

Brunnthaler, J.— Glceothece rupestris 478 

Werner, E. — Ceratium hirundinella 478 

Lutman, B. F. — Closterium 478 

Brand, F. — Trentepohlia 479 

Nienburg, W. — Cystosira and Sargassum .. 47'.t 

Borgesen, F. — West Indian Floridese 480 

Menz, J. — Secondary Attachment in Floridese .. 480 

Bosse, A. Weber van — Symbiosis between Alga and Sponges 480 

Cayeux, L. — Fossil Algw ' .. .. 481 

Bonnet, A. — Fixing of Algse 6! 4 

Gardner, N. L. — Leuvenia, a New Genus of Flagellates 614 

Yendo, K., & K. Akatsdka — Asexual Mode of Auxospore Formation .. .. 615 

Richtkr, O. — Physiology of Diatoms 615 

Philip, R. H. — Diatoms of the Sedbergh District 615 

Muller, O. — Bacillariacese from Nyassa Land 616 

Cayeux, L. — Calcareous Phosphates compose' 1 of Diatoms 616 

Lambert, F. D. — Characium ,; l*> 

„ „ Coleochsete 616 

Figdob, W., & E. Wclff — Dasycladus clavse/ormis 616 



XXX CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Desroche, P. — Vaucheria 617 

Janse, J. M. — Caulerpa prolifera 617 

Lews, I. F. — Periodicity in Dictyota at Naples 618 

Wille, N. — Uimanthalia lorea 618 

Murray, H. — Compsopogon 619 

Wilson, H. L. — New Parasite on Gracilaria confer voider 619 

Lemoine, P. — Lithotharnnium calcareum 619 

Adams, J., & A. D. Cotton — Irish Algse 620 

Howe, M. A. — Algse of Panama 620 

Lemmermann, E. — Algse of Brandenburg 620 

Uustedt, F. — Flora of Bremen 621 

Gutwinski, R. — Algse of the Tafra Mountains 621 

Stockmayer, 8. — Algse of Trebizond 621 

Woronichin, N. N. — Black Sea Algx 621 

Elenkin. A. A. — Russian Fresh-water Algse " 621 

Ok amur A, K. — Japanese Algse 622 

Hollick, A. — New Fossil Fucoid 622 

Bibliography 622 

Davis, B. M. — Sexual Reproduction in Algse 740 

Virteux, J. — Sheath and Mucilage of Fresh-water Algae 740 

Lauterborn, It. — Vegetal on of the. Upper Rhine 741 

Bernard, ( '. — Fresh-water Algae of Dutch New Guinea 741 

Pascher, A. — Formation of Colonies in Flag ellatse 741 

Mirtensen, Til, & L. K. Rosenvinge — New Parasitic Alga 742 

Fritscii, F. E. — Phytogeny ami Inter-relationship of the Green Algse 742 

Palmer, T. C. — Stauronei* Terryi 742 

„ „ New Diatom 743 

Hate, V. N. — Bombay Characese 743 

Nordhausen, M. — Cryptoslomata and Conceptacles of Fucus vesiculosus 743 

Kylin, H. — New Batrachospermum 74:! 

Eddelbuttkl, H. —Parasitic Floridese 743 

Laing, R. M. — Alg;e of Auckland and Chatham Islands 744 

Fungi. 

Nakazawa, R. — Rhizopus Batatas, a New Koji Fungus 72 

Atkinson, G. F. — Evolution of the Lower Fungi 72 

Roussy, A. — Development of Fungi on Fatty Substances 73 

Coker, W. C. — Leptolegnia from North Carolina 73 

Atkinson, G. F. — Fungus Parasites of Algas 73 

Brooks, W. E., & H. C. I. Fraser- Cytolygy of the Ascus 74 

Schikorra — Development of Monascus 74 

Juel, O.— Species of Taphr inn on Betula 75 

Foex, E. — Oidiopsis taurica 75 

Guilliermond — Notes on Phylogenesis in Yeasts 75 

Lindav, G. — Hyphomycetes 75 

Schmidt, Ernest W. — (Edocephalnm glomerulosum, the Conidial Form of Pyronema 

oomphalodes 75 

Arthur, J. 0., & others — Uredinese 76 

Brefeld & Hecke — Smut Infection of Wheat and Barley 76 

Raoibokskil, M., & R. Lacbert — Exobasidium on Azalea 77 

?.Iaire, Rene — Podoscypha undulata 77 

Atkinson, G. F., & others — Notes on the Larger Fungi 77 

Bambeke, Ch. van — Deformation of the Egg of Mutinus caninus 78 

Hard, M. E. — Mushrooms. Edible and otherwise 78 

Lloyd, C (i!., & Ch. Bernard — Synopsis of Phalloids 78 

Hohnel, Fr. v. — Mycological Fragments 78 

Lloyd, 0. G. — Mycological Notes, No. 33 78 

Bartetzko. Hugo — Freezing of Filamentous Fungi .. 78 

Escherich. K. — Termites and Fungus-culture 79 

Clements,F. E. — Genera of Fungi 79 

Selby, A. D., & others— Diseases of Plants 79 



CONTENTS. XXXI 

PAGE 

Burgeff, Hans — Boot-fungi of Orchids 82 

Bibliography 82 

Pebcival, John — Life-history and Cytology of Potato-wart Disease 205 

Mangin, L. — Aspergillus glaucus . .. . 206 

Guilliermond, A. — Study of Endomycetes 206 

Wager, H., & A. Peniston — Cytological Observations on the Yeast Plant .. . 207 

Buba'k, F., & others — Notes on Tilletiw 208 

Krieg, W., & others — Uredinem 208 

Stami'fli, Ruth — Deformations caused by Uredinese 201) 

Kolkwitz, R., & E. Jahn — Fungi of Brandenburg 209 

Merrill, W. A., & others — Notes on some Larger Fungi .. 209 

Herpell, Gustav — Larger Fungi of Rhine-hind .. .. '-ML 

Migula, W. — German Fungus-flora 211 

Hohnel, Franz v. — Mycological Notes 211 

RoiiLAND, L. — Atlas of Fungi 211 

Gueguen, F. — Poisonous and Edible Fungi 211 

Wolff, A. — Microfungi in Cheese Curds 211 

Gerber, C. — Chemical Study of Fungus Cell-sap .. .. 212 

Pringsheim & Zempten — Ferments of Fungi 212 

Kominami, K. — Biological Experiments with Fungi 212 

Chittenden, F. J., & others — Plant Diseases ' 212 

Zach, Franz — Mycorhiza of Semper oivum 216 

Bibliogbaphy 216 

Raybaud, L. — Experiments with Mucorini 3-19 

Korff — Urophlyctis Alfalfas 350 

McOubbin, W. A. — Development of Helvetia elastica 350 

Heald, F. D., & F. A. Wolf — Systematic Position of Urnula Geaster 350 

Harder, E. — Xylaria Bypoxylon 350 

Seaver, F. J. — American Hypocreales. III. 350 

Bainier, G.— Study of Chxtomium 351 

Guilliermond, A. — Cytology of Yeasts 351 

Baccarini, P. — Development of Lasiodiplodia Wiorii sp. n. 351 

Vuillemin, P. — Classification of Hyphomycetes 351 

Lindau, G-. — Hyphomycetes 352 

Bubri, R., & W. Staub— Black Spot in Cheese 352 

Tbanzshel, W. — Uredinese 352 

Gueguen, Febdinand — Notes on the Larger Fungi 352 

Beauvebie, J. — Merulius lacrymans 353 

Wakefield, E. — Experiments on Higher Fungi 353 

Ferraris, T. — Italian Cryptogamic Flora 354 

Murrill, W. A. — Protection of Shade Trees against Attach* of Fungi 354 

Lloyd, O. G. — Mycological Notes, No. :i4 354 

Saito, K. — Fermentation Fungi from Korea 354 

Jumelli, Henri, & H. Perrier de la Bathie — Fungi of Termites' Nests .. . . 354 

Eweut — Wintering of Fungus Spores 355 

Butignot, Ed., & A. Sabtoby — Poisonous Fungi 355 

Potebnia, A. — Contribution to the Micro-fungus Flora of Central Russia, .. .. 355 

Spegazzini, C. — Argentine Fungi 355 

Bigeard, R., & others — French Fungus Flora 356 

Matruchot, Louis — Pathogenic Fungi 356 

Griffon & others— Plant Diseases .. 356 

Bibliography 358 

Griggs, R. F. — New Genus of Chytridinese .. 481 

McAlpine. D. — Phytophthora infestans 481 

Bucholtz, Feodor— Study of Balsamineae 182 

Bisyeb, G. — Developnte d of Truffles 182 

Stageb, Rob. — New Observations on Ergot 482 

Gbiffon & Maublanc — Oak Mildew .. .. .. ., 482 

Namyslowcikt, Boleslau — Two Epidemic Mildew Diseases 482 

Freeman, D. Lmvonv+^Stroma-formation in Xylaria Hypoxylon 483 

Guilliermond, A. — Critical Notes on Yeast Researches .. •■ ls:; 

Lindau, G. — Hyphomycetes 483 



XXX11 CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Coupin, Henri — Growths of Moulds in Oil 484 

Morgenthaler, O. — Uredineas 484 

BLurssanow, L. — Sexuality of Rust Fungi 484 

Buhak, Fr. — Ustilago bulgarica sp. n .. .. 485 

M aire, R. — Classification of Russules 4S5 

Fischer, 0. E.G. — Armillaria mucida 485 

Knoll, Fritz — Geotropism and Growth in Length of Coprinus stririacus .. .. 485 

Schaffnit, E. — Coniophora cerebella as Timber Destroyer .. .. 485 

Petcu, T. — Fomes lucidus, a Root-disease of the Coconut Palm 486 

Massee, G-., & others — Notes on the Larger Fungi 486 

Zikes, H. — Assimilation of Nitrogen by Yeast Fungus 48G 

Lloyd, C. G. — Mycological Notes 48G 

Hoiinel, F. vov — New or Critical Fungi 486 

Boyd, D. A. — Fungi of the Clyde Area 187 

*. appen, H. — Breaking up of Cyanamides by Fungi 487 

Massee, G. — Text-book of Plant Diseases 487 

Bobak, Fr. — Phytophthora Disease of Pears 487 

Brooks, F. T , & A. W. Bartlett — Two Diseases of Gooseberry Bushes 488 

Falck, R. — Disease of Pine Wood 488 

Salmon. E. S., & others — Plant Diseases 488 

Becquerel, Paul — Vitality of Spores 491 

Beadverie. J. — Ambrosia Fungi 492 

Potter & others — British Mycology 492 

Boulet, Vital — Mycorhiza of Fruit-trees 493 

Bibliography 493 

Hood, Olive — Neiv Chytridiaceous Fungus 622 

Petersen, H. E. — Fresh-water Phycomycetes 622 

Kritger, Fritz — Cytology of Albugo Candida and Peronospora Fiearix 622 

Viala, P., & P. Pacottet — Vine Roesleria 623 

Edgerton, C. W. — Trochila Populorum 623 

Beaver, F. J., & E.D.Clark — Studies in PyrophUous Fungi 623 

Buchanan, R. E., & Charlfs E Lewis — Monascus 624 

Seaver, F. J. — North American Ilypocreales. II. 624 

Klein. E. J. — Oak-mildew 624 

Guilliekmond, A. — Fusion of Yeast-cells 624 

Geiger, Arthur —Study of Torula Fungi 625 

Penau, Henry — Yeast-cells of Endomyces albicans 625 

Smith, W. Stanley — Functions of Yeast 625 

Voges, Ernst — Systematic Study of Hendersonia 625 

Thom, Ch. — Culture Studies of Species of Penicillium 625 

Fawcett, H. S. — Important Eutomogenous Fungus 626 

Lindaicom, G. — Hyphomycetes 626 

Kern, F. D. — Peridial Cells in the Roestelia 626 

Faber, F. C. von — Germination of Uredospores of llemileia vastatrix 626 

Pavolini, A. F. — Development of the JEcidium 627 

Tranzsohel, W. — Uredineae .. 627 

Smith. W. G. — Coloured Drawings of Mushrooms, edible and poiso7ious 627 

Storer, Wilmer G., & others — Notes on the Larger Fungi 628 

Ford, W. W. — Distribution of Poisons in Mushrooms 628 

Spegazzini, G. — Chilian Fungi 628 

Banujevic, N. — Servian Fungi 628 

Adams, J., & G. H. Pethybridge — Catalogue of Irish Fungi 629 

Ferdinandben, C, & 0. Winge — Mycological Notes. II. ' 629 

Beadverie, J. — Ambrosia Fungi 629 

IIiildrung, M. — Review of Plant Diseases : 629 

Doggar, B. M. — American Text-book of Plant Diseases 630 

Parker. J. B., & others — Plant Diseases 630 

Bibliography 631 

Orel. P. — Formation of Oogonia in Achlya 744 

Korpatchewska, Irene — Study of HeterothaUic Mucorini .. ■ 744 

Lewis, Ch. E. — Endomyces on Apples 745 

Pied aller, Andre — New Species of Monascus 745 



CONTENTS. XXX111 

PAGE 

Setchell, W. A. — Sphserosoma 745 

Wheldon, J. A. — New Lancashire Cryptogams 745 

Brooks, F. T. — Development of Gnomonia erythrostoma 745 

Heald, F. D., & F. A. Wolf — Whitening of the Mountain Cedar, Sabina sabinoides 746 

Eeiksson, J. — Mildew of Apples 746 

Eriksson, J., & A. Lemcke— Amer ican Gooseberry Mildew 746 

Fischer, Ed., & B. Baksali— Oafe Mildew 747 

Guilliermond, A. — Notes on Yeast-cells 747 

Pkingsheim, E., & H. Bilewskt — Bed Yeast 747 

Jaczewski, A. ton, & others — Uredineee 747 

Bctler, E. J. — New Genus of TJredinacess 748 

Ilkewitsch, Konstantin, & others — Wood-destroying Fungi 748 

Wheldon, H. J. — Key to the British Agaricacese 749 

Migula, W. — German Fungus Flora 749 

Massart, Jean — Fairy Rings 749 

Bourdot, H., & others — Notes on Larger Fungi 749 

Cooke, M. C— British Basidiomycetes 750 

Fawcett, H. S., & W. C. Coker — Notes on Microfungi 750 

Arnatjd, G. — Study of Fumagine Fungi 750 

Kothmayr, Julius — Popular Account of Fungi 750 

Smith, Thos. — Plea for the Study of Fungi 750 

Grandjean, Marius — Edible Fungi 751 

Btjtignot, Ed., & W. W. Ford — Poisonous Fungi 751 

Tauret, C. — Relations between Callose and Fungose 751 

Bertrand, G., & Rosenblatt — Resistance of Vegetable Tyrosinases to High 

Temperatures 751 

Harper, R. A. — Nuclear Phenomena of Sexual Reproduction in Fungi 751 

Faber, E. von, & others — Plant Diseases 752 

Gerstlauer, L. — Max Britzelmayr 753 

Bibliography .. ., 753 



Lichens. 

Zahlbrtjckner, A. — New Lichens 84 

Maire, Bene — Lichens from Greece 84 

Darbishire, Otto V. — Arctic Lichens 84 

Wainio, E. A. — Siberian Lichens 85 

Zopf — Chemistry of Lichens 85 

Bibliography 85 

Zsacke, H. — Lichen Flora of the Saal Valley 218 

Elenkin — Russian Lichens 218 

Zahlbruckner, A. — Lichens from Brazil 218 

Jatta, A. — Italian Lichens 218 

Acton, Elizabeth — Primitive Lichen 219 

Schiffner, V. — Useful Plants among Lichens 219 

Sievers, F. — Absorption of Water by Lichens 219 

Bibliography 220 

Navas, L. — Lichens of the Azores 359 

Bibliography 360 

Danilov, U. N. — Relation between Gonidia and Hyphie in Lichens 494 

Navas, P. Longinos — Lichens of Aragon 495 

Bloomfield, £. N. — Lecidea-mougeotioides Schaer. in Britain 495 

Bibliography 495 

Ssrirt, Mir — Lichen-flora of Bohemia and Moravia 633 

Bibliogkaphy 634 

Lesdain, M. Bouly de — Study of the Lichens of Dunkerque 755 

Hue — Variation of Gonidia in the Genus Solorina 755 

Fitting, Hans— Epiphytic Lichens 755 

Wheldon, J. A. — New Lancashire Cryptogams 756 

Fink, Bruce— Lichens of Minnesota 756 

Bibliography 756 

Dec. 21st, 1910 c 



XXXIV CONTENTS. 



Mycetozoa. 

PAGE 

Torrend, C. — Text-Book of Mycetozoa 220 

Blomfield, J. E., & E. J. Schwartz — Mycetozoan Parasites 221 

Petch, T. — Mycetozoa of Ceylon 360 

Blbliography 360 

Jaap, O. — Myxomycetes of Brandenburg 490 

Marchand, Ernest F. L. — Plasmodiophora Brassicae 496 

Grove, W. B. — Mycetozoa of the Midland Plateau 63i 

M aire, Rene, & Adrien Tison — Ptasmodiophoraceas 6:54 

Moore, Clarence L. — Mycetozoa of Pi ctou County 756 

Hilton, A. E. — British Mycetozoa 802 



Schizophyta. 

Schizomycetes. 

Fantham, H. B., & Annie Porter — Bacillus arenicolse 86 

Vay, F.— Granules of Plague Bacilli 86 

Baudran — Media which Attenuate or Exalt the Virulence of Tubercle Bacilli . . 86 

Werner, H. — Spirochaeta eurygyrata and S. stenogyrata 86 

Sartory, A., & A. Filassier — Microbes on Fruit 86 

NamysCowski, B. — Actinomyces of the Cornea 86 

West, G. S. — Hillhousia mirabilis 87 

Miessner & Trapp — Fixation of the Complement in Glanders 87 

Ruata, V. — Coccobacillus conjunctival 87 

Mehlhose, R. — Presence of Bacteria in Echinococci and Cysticerci 87 

Fuhrman, F. — Flageila of Spirillum volutans 88 

Osterwaluer, A. — Causes of certain Plant Diseases 88 

Yahle, C. — Comparative Studies of the Myxobacteriacese and the Bacteriaceas .. 88 

Xylander — Relation of the Ratin-bac illus to the Bacilli of the Gaertner Group .. 89 
White, B., & O. T. Avery — Observations on certain Lacic Acid Bacteria of the 

so-called Bulgaricus type 89 

Frosch, P., & K. Bierbadm — Bacillus septicemias anserum exsudativse 90 

Bibliography 90 

Hrss, H. — New Bacillus in Cheese 221 

Chattekjee, G. C. — Neio Lactic-acid Streptothrix 221 

Goillemard, Alfred — Resistance of various Bacteria to Alterations in Osmotic 

Pressure 222 

Chiarolanza, R. — Comparative Study of Streptothrix pyogenes and Actinomyces 

hominis * 222 

Proca, G., & P. I >anila — Cladothrix stercotropa 222 

Rkpaci, G. — Strepeobacillus niger gangrasnm pidmonaris 222 

Melikov, B. L. — Spores of Bacillus perfringens 223 

Bibliography 223 

Galleotti, G., & E. Levi — Bacterial Flora in the Ice of Monte Rosa 361 

Bordet, J. — Morphology of the Microbe of Peripneumonia of Cattle 361 

Makrinoff, S. — Bacillus bulgaricus vel B. lactis acidi Leichmann 361 

Repaci, G. — Bacillus moniliformis 361 

Conor, A. — Micrococcus meliten<is and Malta Fever 361 

Lipman, J. G., & P. E. Bkown — Quantitative Estimation of Soil Bacteria .. .. 362 

Fischer, Hugo — Media for Enumeration of Bacteria in Soil 362 

Revis, C. — Stability of the Physiological Properties of Coliform Organisms . . . . 362 
Kuhnemann — Morphological Differentiation of Bacillus paratyphosus and Bacillus 

typhosus 363 

Strubell & Felder — Tubercido-opsonic Index in Man and in Cattle 363 

Laven, L. — New Pathogenic Coccobacillus 363 

Ohno, Y. K. — Morphology of Cholera Vibrios in Peptone Solutions of Different 

Reactions 364 



CONTENTS. XXXV 

PAGE 

Rosenthal, G. — Antagonism of Bacillus bulgaricus and Bacillus diphtherias .. .. 364 

Chatterjee, G. C. — New Bacillus of Fowl-septicaemia 364 

Repaci, G. — New Anaerobic Streptococcus 364 

Proca, G. — Gladothrix vaccinas 365 

Ellis, David — Further Study of New Iron-bacteria 365 

Bibliography 365 

Stone, G. E. — Electricity and Micro-organisms . . , 496 

Eijkman, 0. — Investigations on Disinfection 497 

Babes, V. — Metachromatic Granules in Acid-fast Bacilli .. ., 497 

Boucek, Z. — New Bacillus of the Hemorrhagic Septicaemia Group 497 

Betegh, L. von — Tuberculosis in Salt-water Fish 497 

Maze, P. — Scientific Cheesemahing 498 

Kuhl, H. — Cultivation of Mould from Rancid Butter 499 

Spieckermann, A. — Bacterial Disease of Potatoes 499 

Johnson, T. — Bacterial Rot in Turnips 499 

Georgevitch, P.— New Species of Thermophilic Bacilli 500 

Wehrli & others — Acid-fast and Granular Types of Tubercle Bacilli 500 

Spengler, C. — New Type of Tubercle Bacillus 501 

Bertarelli, E., & G. Bocchia — Tuberculosis in Cold-blood»d Animal* 501 

Arzt, L. — Streptococcus mucosus 501 

Sangiorgi, G. — Appearance found in certain Bacteria when Examined by the Indian- 
ink Method 635 

Pennington, Mary E. — Chemical and Bacteriological Study of Fresh Eggs .. .. 635 

Bernard, P. N. — Endotoxin of Micrococcus melitensis 635 

Gage, G. E. — Biological and Chemical Studies of Nitroso-bacteria 635 

Verderame, P. — Gram-negative Cocci from the Human Conjunctiva 636 

Gaertner, A. — Disease of Sheep caused by a Lanceolate Diplococcus 636 

Galli-Valeiuo, B. — Germs in Mountain Air 636 

Dold, H. — Bottle-bacillus 636 

Frankel, E., & E. Pielsticker — Bacterium anthroposepticum 637 

Zikes, H. — Bacterial Parasites of Barley •• 637 

Babes, V., & T. Minonescu — New Variety of Mycosis occurring in Man .. .. 637 

Predtjetschensky, W. — Bacillus of Typhus Fever 638 

Maze, P. — Scientific Cheese-making 638 

Bibliography 639 

Maze, P. — Scientific Cheese-making 757 

Gorini. C. — Rennet-forming Cocci in Cheese 757 

Greig-Smith, R. — Bacterial Flora of Rachitic Stools 757 

„ „ Slime Bacteria on Sponges 757 

Jacqce, L., & F. Masay — Streptobacterium fcetidum 758 

B roquet, C. — Red Disease of Silkworm Moth 758 

Bordet, T., & V. Fally — Microbe of Fowl Diphtheria 758 

Fischer, H. — Recent Researches on Soil Bacteriology 758 

Bibliography 759 



c 2 



XXXVI 



MICROSCOPY. 
A. Instruments, Accessories, etc. 

CD Stands. page 

Ewell, M. D. — Convenient Form of Stand for use as a Micro-colorimeter and with 

the Micro-spectroscope (Figs. 2-4) .. , 14 

Zeiss' Microscope for Investigating Ultra-microscopical Particles (Fig. 5) .. .. 91 

Bibliography 92 

Watson's Naturalist's Microscope (Figs. 18, 19) 224 

Henker, O., & M. von Rohr — Binocular Loups of Weak and Medium Magnification 225 

Doelter, C. — Neiv Heat Microscope (Fig 47) .. 366 

Wright, F. E. — New Petrographic Microscope (Figs. 53-56) 502 

Watson & Sons' "Advanced'' Petrological Microscope (Figs. 57,58) 506 

Bibliography 508 

Miller-Williams, E. B. — On a New Fine-adjustment for Body and Sub-stage of 

Microscopes 535 

Old Achromatic Microscope by Trecourt and Georges Oberhaeuser (Fig. 78) . . . . 640 

Old Microscope presented by Mr. Albert Ash (Fig. 79) 642 

Old Microscope presented by Mr. C. F. Rousselet (Fig. 80) 642 

Johannsen, A. — Simple Improvements for a Petrographical Microscope (Figs. 81-84) 643 

Watson & Sons' " Royal" Microscope (Figs. 85-87) 646 

Qdidor-Nachet Microscope (Fig. 88 and PI. XII.) 649 

Bibliography 650 

Borrow, R. — Useful Microscope Device (Fig. 106) 760 

Neisser, M. — Bacteriological Demonstration Table 761 

(2) Eye-pieces and Objectives. 

Watson's 1/6 and 1/12 Objectives (Figs. 20, 21) 226 

Wright, F. E.—New Petrographic Ocular (Figs. 59-70) 508 

Watson & Sons' Parachromatic Objectives (Fig. 89) 651 

(3) Illuminating and other Apparatus. 

Beck-Gordon Speculum Lamp (Fig. 6) 92 

Bakrett, W. T. — New Form of Polarimeter for the Measurement of the Refractive 

Index of Opaque Bodies (Figs, 7, 8) 93 

Pringsheim's Yelloio Filters (Figs. 9-11) 96 

S.C.A. — Dark-ground Illumination (Fig. 12) 98 

Harding, C. F. — Use of the Polariscope in Testing High-tension Insulators .. .. 98 

Bibliography 99 

Zehnder's Neiv Half-shadow Polarimeter (Fig. 22) 227 

Kruss Epidiascope (Figs. 23-25) 229 

Martin, P. — Application of Edinger's Dratving and Projection Apparatus to 

Macroscopic Photography ; 230 

Vles, F. — Ocular Micrometer with Interior Vernier 230 

Watson & Sons' Holos Immersion Paraboloid (Fig. 26) 231 

Samut, R. — Enumeration of Blood-corpuscles (Figs. 27,28) 231 

Pulfrioh's Stereo-Komparator (Figs. 29, 30) 233 

Bibliography 233 

Gaidukov, N. — Dark-field Illumination and, Ultramicroscopy in Biology and in 

Medicine . 367 

Clendinnen, F. J. — Micrometric Measurements ly a Projected Scale (Fig. 48) . . 368 
Stringer, E. B. — Note on the Use of the Mercury Vapour Lamp in observing the 

Rings and Brushes in Crystals 440 

Hansen, F. C. — Monochromatic Illumination 514 



CONTENTS. XXXV11 

Siedentopf, H. — Ultra-microscopic Image 515 

„ „ Aplanatic or Gardioid Condenser for Dark-ground Illumination 

(Figs. 71, 72) 515 

Tafner, H. — Drawing on a Transparent Drawing-surface 517 

Brocher, F. — Drawing with the Camera-lucida (Fig. 90) 651 

Ignatowski, W. von — New Nicolfor Projection Purposes (Fig. 91) 652 

Siedentopf, H. — Allotropic Conversion of Phosphorus in the Cardioid Ultramicro- 

scope 653 

„ „ Recent Progress in Ultramicroscopy (Fig. 92) 654 

Sagnac, G. — Interferometer, with Inverse Superposed Luminous Rays, giving in 
White Polarised Light a Narrow Central Fringe of Sensible Tint and Narrow 

Coloured Fringes at White Intervals ( Fig. 93) 654 

Bibliography 655 

Georgi, W. — Measuring Inclination of Abbe's Drawing Apparatus 761 

Ignatowsky, W. von — Improvements in the Leitz Mirror Condenser (PI. XV. and 

Figs. 107-9) .. .. 761 

Anderson, J. A. — Glass and Metallic Replicas of Gratings (Figs. 110, 111) .. .. 763 

Barns, C. — Use of the Grating in Interferometry 764 

Jones, R. F. — Dark-ground Illumination with High Power 764 

Bibliography .. ' 765 

(4) Photomicrography. 

Perkins, E. G. — Cheap non-vibrating Suspension for Microphotography 99 

Mees, C. E. Kenneth — Resolving Power of Photographic Plates 99 

Comandon, J. — Ultramicroscopic Cinematography of Living Microbes and of Moving 

Particles (Plate II.) .. 100 

Bibliography 100 

Banfield, A. C. — Method of Preparing Stereo-photomicrographs, PI. III. (Fig. 31) 

and PI. IV. (Fig. 32) 233 

Eeid, Duncan J. — Method of Estimating the Exposure in Photomicrography, ivith 

Axial Cone Illumination 369 

Bibliography 517 

Jullien, J. — Practical Photomicrography (Fig. 94) 656 

Nelson, E. M. — Grayson's Photomicrographs of his Rulings (Plate XIV.) .. . . 701 

Wunderek, H. — Printing on Sensitized Papers , 765 

Franz. V. — Photography with Ultra-violet Light 766 

Bibliography , .. .. 7t>6 

(5) Microscopical Optics and Manipulation. 

Merlin. A. A. C. Eliot — On the Measurement of Grayson's Ten-band Plate . . 5 
Babrett, W. F. — Methods of Determining the Amount of Light Scattered from 

Rough Surfaces (Figs. 13-15) .. 101 

Barus, C. — An Adjustment for the Plane Grating similar to Rowland's Method for 

the Concave Grating (Fig. 16) 105 

Tutton, A. E. H. — Wave-length Comparator for Sta7idards of Length . .. 107 
„ .. Use of Wave-length Rulings as Defining Lines on Standards of 

Length 107 

Bpbliography 108 

Merlin. A. A. C. Eliot — On the Measurement of the First Nine Groups of Grayson's 

Finest Twelve-band Plate 144 

Nelson. E. M. — On the Visibility of the Tertiaries of Coscinodiscus asteromphalus in 

a Balsam Mount 147 

Tutton, A. E. — Standard Measurement in Wave-length* of Light (Fig. 33) .. .. 2tS5 

Grayson, Henky J. — On the Production of Micrometric and Diffraction Rulings .. 239 
Dec< imbe. M. L. — Measurement of the Refraction Index of Liquids by the Microscope 

(Fig. 34) .. 243 

Mennell, F. P.— Pleochroic Ualos 243 

Nelson, E. M.— Critical Microscopy (Fig. 46) 282 

Merlin, A. A. C. Eliot — On the Measurement of the Diameter of the Flagella of 

the Cholera Bacillus prepared by Loffler's Method 290 



xxxviii CONTENTS. 

pAQE 

Nelson, E. M. — What 'did our Forefathers see in a Microscope ? (Fig. 52) .. .. 427 

Eubens, H., & H. Hollnagel — Measurements in the Long-waved Spectrum .. .. 517 
Heen, P. de — Phenomena of Light-polarisation in Solid and Pseudo-liquid Organised 

Matter 518 

Ewell, Marshall D. — Comparative Micrometric Measurements 537 

Travis, C. — Behaviour of Crystals in Light Parallel to an Optic AxU (Figs. 95, 96) 657 

Vorlander, D., & H. Handswaldt — Axial Image* of Fluid Crystals 658 

Kossogonoff, J. J. — TJltramicroscopic Examination of Liquids during Electrolysis 658 

Bibliography 659 

Nelson, E. M.— A Micrometric Difficulty (Fig. 104) 696 

„ „ On the Resolution of New Detail in a Coscinodiscus asteromphalus 

(Fig. 105) 698 

Gifford, J. W. — Additional Refractive Indices of Quartz, Vitreous Silica, Calcite, 

and Fluorite "66 

Filon, L. N. G. — Measurements of the Absolute Indices of Refraction in Strained 

Glass 766 

Southall's Principles and Methods of Geometrical Optics 767 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

Chapman, F. — On the Microscopical Structure of an Inoceramus Limestone in the 

Queensland Cretaceous Rocks (Plate I.) 1 

Crawley, H. — Observations on Mammalian Blood with Dark-field Illumination .. 108 

Quekett Microscopical Club 108 

Zschokke, W. — Homogeneity of Optical Glass 244 

Spiers' "Nature through the Microscope" 244 

Qu ekett Microscopical Club 245 

Schaller, W. T. — Refractive Index of Canada Balsam 372 

Quekett Microscopical Club 518 

Herzog, A. — Diagnosis of Natural and Artificial Silks 659 

Anderson, J. A. — Method for Testing Screws 767 

Mylujs, F., & Groschuff — Micro- chemical Tests for Identification of Varieties of 

Glass 768 

Schneider, J., & J. Sourer. — Ultramicroscopic Examination of Colour* of Textile 

Fibres 770 

Nelson, E. M. — Examination in Microscopy 771 

Quekett Microscopical Club 771 

Bibliography 772 



B. Technique. 

CD Collecting Objects, including' Culture Processes. 

Hoffman, C, & B. W. Hammer — Two New Methods for Groioing Azotobacter in 

Large Quantities for, Chemical Analysis 109 

Levaditi, C, & V. Stanesco — Cultivation of Spirochseta gracilis and S. balanitidi* 110 

Esch, P. — Cultivating Meningococcus 110 

Russ, C. — Detection of Bacteria by means of an Electric Current (Fig. 17) .. -• 110 
Feoktistow, A. — New Method for obtaining Pure Cultures from Whole Organs and 

Pieces of Tissues Ill 

Marino, F. — Aerobic Cultures of " Anaerobic" Organisms Ill 

Schekeschewsky, J. — Cultivating Spirochseta pallida Ill 

Hargitt, G. T.— Collecting Cozlenterata, and Observations on the Ova 112 

Banks, N. — Collecting and Preserving Insects 112 

Fawcds, H. B. — Modification of the Conradi Medium for Isolating Bacillus typhosus 

from Excreta 112 

Bibliography •• 113 

Laveran, A., & A. Pettit — Cultivation of Leishmania Donovani in Fluid Media 245 

Mayer, A. G. — Use of Magnesium in Stupefying Marine Animals 246 

Widakowich, V. — Method of Examining Embryos from the Maternal Tissues of the 

Rat 246 

Ogata, M. — Studying New Sporozoon in Rat fever 246 



CONTENTS. XXXIX 

FAGB 

Brudny, V. — New Hot-water Funnel (Fig. 35) 246 

Levaditi, G, & V. Stanesco —Examination of the Blood for Trypanosomes, etc. .. 248 

Perkins, R. G. — Glycerin-agar in Fifty Minutes . . .. ' 24S 

Chopping, F. R. — Solmedia 372 

Huxley, J. S. — Collecting and Examining Ganymedes anaspidis 373 

Porcher, G, & L. Paxisset — Testing for Indot 'in Microbic Cultures 373 

Allan, E. J., & E. W. Nelson — Artificial Culture of Marine Plankton Organisms 374 

Tedeschi, A. — Simple Anaerobic Methods 374 

Frugoni, G — Cultivation of the Tubercle Bacillus upon Animal Tissues 375 

Gaehtgens, W., & G Bruckner — Comparative Value of recent Typhoid Culture- 
media 375 

Heidsieck — Cultivation of Oidium albicans from Throats 375 

Lentz, O. — New Anaerobic Apparatus (Fig. 73) 520 

Gorodkqwa, A. — Method of Obtaining Yeast-spores 520 

Calandra, E. — Differential Diagnosis of Bacillus typhosus and, Bacillus coli by 

means of Coloured Cultivation Media 521 

Frouin, A. — Cultivating Bacillus tuberculosis 521 

Clegg. M. T. — Cultivation of the Leprosy Bacillus 521 

Duke, H. L. — Observations on a New Gregarine, Metamera schubergi g. et sp. n. . . 659 

Wenyox, G M. — Observations on a Flagellate of the Genus Cercomonas 660 

Crendieopoulo— Simple Anaerobic Method . . 660 

Heron- Allen, E., & .A. Earland— Collecting Living Foraminifera 661 

Gessard, C — New Method of Preparing Culture Media 663 

Crendiropoulo, M., & A. Panayotatou — Isolation of Cholera Vibrios 663 

Bibliography 663 

Hjort, Johan — ' Michael Sars' North Atlantic Deep-sea Expedition, 1910 .. .. 772 
Gamble, F. W. — Studying the Relation between Light and Pigment-formation in 

Crenilabras and Hippolyte 773 

Saunders, A. M. G, & Margaret Poole — Studying the Development of Aplysia 

punctata 774 

Bruynoghe, R. — Cultivation of Meningococci 774 

(2) Preparing: Objects. 

Kolmer, W. — Studying the Labyrinth 113 

Held, H. — Studying the Finer Stmcture of the Labyrinth of Vertebrata 113 

P rice- Jones, G — Studying Development of lied Blood Cells in the Chick .. " 114 

Biieke, J. — Demonstrating Motor End-plates 114 

Maximow, A. — Researches on Blood and Connective-tissue 114 

Haswell, W. A. — Hardening and Imbedding the Eggs of Temnocephala fasciata .. 114 

Suzuki, B. — Improved Method of Dehydratioii (Fig. 36) 249 

Rawitz, B. — Neio Methods of Investigating the Central Nervous Systems of Vertebrates 249 

Kowler, R. — Washing Apparatus for Fixed Material (Figs. 37, 38) 250 

Kittsteiner, C. — Methylated Spirits for Histological Purposes 250 

Maximow, A. — Preparing Delicate Embryonic Tissues for Histological Examination 251 
Palschewsea, Irene von, & Marie "Werner — Examining the Structure of Human 

Heart-muscle 252 

Uhlenhuth, P., & others — New Methods for Examining Sputum 252 

Bibliography 253 

Meunier, L., &-G Vaney — New Method of Fixing Plankton 375 

Perez, G — Studying Metamorphosis of Mmeidas 376 

Kowalski, J. — Studying the Neurofibrils in Lumbricus 376 

Bonnet, A. — Fixation of Algm by means of Quinone 521 

Flatters & Garnett — Dissecting Tile and Stand (Fig. 74) 522 

Sommerpeld, P. — Modification of Neisser's Staining for Diphtheria Bacilli .. .. 522 

Kent, A. F. S. — New Method of Staining Spores 522 

Giemsa, G. — Staining Moist Preparations and Sections by the Azur-eosin Method .. 522 

Arnold, W. — New Colour Reaction for certain Albumins 522 

Porter, Annie — Studying Structure and Life-history of Crithidia melophagia .. 664 

Cilimbaris, P. A. — Demonstrating Muscle-spindles 664 

Arndt, G. — Automatic Fixing and Imbedding Apparatus (Figs. 1 (2-14) .. .. 774 

Fieandt, H. yon — Preparation and Staining of Neuroglia '76 



Xl CONTENTS. 

C3) Cutting-, including- Imbedding- and Microtomes. i-ase 

MacBride, E. W. — Studying the Development of Amphioxus 115 

Mullenix, R. C. — Demonstrating Peripheral Nerve Terminations 115 

Timofejew, D. — New Method of Sta ining the Connective-tissue Framework of Viscera 116 

Berliner, K. — Cutting Thin Parallel Slices of Brain Substance (Fig. 39) .. .. 253 

Lendvai, J. — Apparatus for Whetting a Microtome Knife (Figs. 40-44) 253 

Lebrun. H. — Rotatory Method in Microscopy . . 255 

Berg, W. — Simple Method of Paraffin Imbedding in Vacuo 255 

Dakin, W. J. — Studying Eye of Pecten 376 

Berliner, K. — Improved Brain Microtome (Fig. 49) 377 

Andige, J. — Injecting Kidney of Teleostean Fish 378 

Nageotte, Y. — Method of Preparing Frozen Sections of Brain-substance .. . . 378 

Bonvicini, G. — Microscopical Sections through both Cerebral Hemispheres (Fig. 50) 379 

Carazzi, D.— Cooling of Paraffin Blocks 380 

Flatters & Garnett's " Firmax " Microtome (Fig. 97) 665 

Boeke, J. — Van der Stad's Improved, Rocking-microtome (Figs. 98-103) .. .. 665 

Funck, C. — Theory and Practice of Sharpening Razors 777 

Cambridge Scientific Instrument Co. — Large Sliding Microtome (PI. XV. 

(Figs. 2,3) 778 

Eighteenth Century Microtome (Fig. 115) 779 

Yurisch, A. — Numbering Celloidin Sections 782 

Bibliography 782 

(4) Staining- and Injecting-. 

Betegh, L. Von — New Method of Demonstrating the Spores in Acid-fast Bacteria 1 16 
Fuhrmann, F. — Methods of Demonstrating the Flagella and Minute Structure of 

Spirillum volutans 116 

Gassi, D. — New Staining Reaction for Tubercle Bacilli 117 

Ciaccio, C. — Demonstrating the Presence of Lipoids in Cells 117 

Stephan, S. — Modification of Gram' s Method of Staining 118 

Martinotti, L. — Staining Kosinophilous Cells 118 

Maruyama, T. — Method of Staining Peripheral Nerves 256 

Saragnone, E. — Fluoride of Silver in Golgi' s Method 256 

Vandendries, R. — Studying the Development of Crucifera 256 

Fence, C. — Device for Polishing Mounted Sections during Dehydration (Fig. 45) .. 257 

Mozejko, B. — Injection Methods applied to certain Mollusca 257 

Beegen, Karl — Different Methods of Staining Tubercle Bacilli 258 

Heinrich, G. — Studying the Development of Dentine in Mammalia 258 

Wesche, W. — Quick Method of Preparing and Staining Pollen 380 

Carazzi, D. — Bleaching Methods 380 

Guebert, M., & others — Chemical Basis of Gram's Method of Staining .. .. 381 

Eisenberg, P. — Nile-blue Staining for the Demonstration of Metachromatic Granules 381 

Mayer, P. — Methods of Staining Glycogen 381 

Mozejko, B. — Further Note upon Injection Methods 382 

Abel. Williamina — Staining Embryonic Nerve-tissues 3S2 

Friedsohn, F. — Studying the Morphology of the Blood of Amphibia 383 

Nemiloff, A. — Studying the Varicosities on Non-medullated Neroe-fibres .. .. 383 

Launoy, L. — Cell Inclusions in RabbiVs Liver 383 

Policard, A. — Vital Staining of Trypanosomes 384 

Legendre, R. — Golgi's Method for Examining the Internal Network of Spinal 

Marrow Cells 384 

McJunkin, F. A. — Staining Sections by the Romanowsky Method 37<> 

Snessarew, P. — Modification of Bielschowsky Silver Method 677 

Levy — Diagnostic Value of the Staining Method of Gasis fi 6<> 

BambboNOW, N. — Identity of Flemming's and Altmanris Granules ,.71 

Philip, B. W., & Agnes E. Porter — Detection of Tubercle bacilli in Fasces .. .. ..71 

Hindle, E. — Staining Trypanosoma dimorphon 72 

Dodson, E. — Method of Stainin;/ Deep Colonies in Plate Cultures 672 

Lippmann, A. — Demonstrating Tubercle Bacilli in the Blood 673 

Harries, E. H. R. — Detection of Tubercle Bacilli in Milk and Fxces 782 

Wright, J. Homer — Staining Blood Platelets 783 



CONTENTS. xli 

PAGE 

Giemsa, G. — Staining Wet Films by Giemsa's Azur-eosin Method 784 

Hayhdrst — Staining Blood Smears 785 

Novak, J., & F. Ranzel — Detection of Tubercle Bacilli in the Placenta 785 

Galli-Valerio, B. — Indian-ink Method in Parasitology 785 

Michialow, S. — Staining Nervous Tissue* icith Methylen-blue 785 

Schlenmer, A. — Preparation of Ammoniacal Silver Solution 786 

Martinotti, L. — Toluidin-blue 786 

„ „ Hsematin Stains , . . . 786 

Cavazza, L. E. — Chemistry of Vegetable Pigments 786 

B allen ger — New Dahlia Stain 786 

Kilduffe — Stable Solution of Gentian-violet 787 

Lindner, K. — Staining ProwazeWs Bodies 787 

(5) Mounting-, including- Slides, Preservative Fluids, etc. 

Carazzi, D. — Fixation of Celloidin Sections 384 

Smith, F. P. — Mounting Spider Dissections as Microscopical Objects .. .. . 385 

Mayer, P. — Turpineol for Microscopic Purposes 523 

Banks, C. S. — Polyscopic Cell 673 

Anitschow, N. — Mounting Serial Celloidin Sections 787 

„ „ Mounting Frozen Sections 787 

f6) Miscellaneous. 

Gemmill, J. F. — An Automatic Aerating Apparatus, suitable for Aquaria, etc. 

(Fig. 1) 9 

Gins, A. A. — Burns India-ink Method 118 

Levy, O., & others — Experimental Study of Development during the past decade . . 258 

Carruthers, V. T. — Simple Method of Counting Leucocytes 259 

Halle, B. — Method of Estimating the Hardness of Minerals 259 

Collins, F. H. — On the Labelling of Microscope Slides 267 

Ruediger, E. H. — Filtration of Immune Sera 385 

Fruhwald — Indian-ink Method of Demonstrating Spirochseta pallida 386 

Chopping, F. R — Neiv Drop Bottle (Fig. 51) 386 

Mozejko, B. — Preparation of Osteological Specimens 523 

„ „ Formalin for the Preparation of Museum Specimens 523 

Flatters & Garnett — Glycerin Jelly Bath (Fig. 75) 524 

Microscope Slide Cabinets (Figs. 76,77) 524 

Schmidt, F. W. — Removing Over-hardening in Anatomical and, Histological Pre- 
parations, and Neio Method of Silver Impregnation 674 

Pensa, A. — Gelatin Plates for Graphic Reconstruction 787 

Kronig, G. — Morphological Demonstration of Methasmoglobin in Blood 788 

Bibliography , 788 



Metallography, etc. 

Giolotti, F., & G. Tavanti — Copper-tin Alloys 119 

Pannain, E. — Silver Coinage Alloys 119 

Andrew, J. H, & C. A. Edwards — Aluminium-copper-tin System 119 

Dinstan, A. E. — Lead and Tin Alloys 119 

Grard — Brass and Copper 119 

Burgess, C. F., & J. Aston — Iron Alloys 120 

„ „ Iron manganese Alloys 120 

„ „ Iron-copper Alloys 120 

Rkvillon, L. — Steels for Gears 120 

Giesen, W.— Special Steels 120 

Portevin, A. M. — Special Ternary Steels 121 

Wust, F., & P. Goerens— Iron-carbon Diagram 121 

Guillet, L., & C. Griffith — Cementation by Carbon 1-2 

Chatelier, H. le, & others — Constituents of Steel 122 

Howe, H. M. — Metallography of Iron 122 



Xlii CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Grenet — Transformations of Iron and Steel 128 

„ Hardness of Steel 123 

Giolitti, F. — Use of Metallic Deposits in Metallography 123 

Bengough, G. D. — Rate of Change iu Alloy-: 123 

Beilby, G. T. — Surf ace-flow in Calcite 123 

Walker, W. H. — Testing of Galvanised Metals 124 

Shukoff, I. I. — Magnetic Transformation of Nickel and Cobalt 124 

Chatelier, H. le — Testing by Alternating Stress 124 

Baker, T. — Gases Occluded in Steel 124 

Bibliography 124 

Stahl, W. — Microstructure of Copper 260 

Pannain, E. — Physical Properties of Alloys 260 

Curry, B. E. — Some Zinc Alloys 260 

Pushin, N. A., & M. S. Maximenko — Alloys of Silver ivith Zinc 260 

Guertler, W. — Alloys of Tin and Lead 260 

Kurnakow, N. S., & S. Zemczuzny — Alloys of Lead with Indium and Thallium .. 261 

Urasow, G. G. — Aurides of Magnesium .. 261 

Zemczuzny, 8., & J. Schepelew — Phosphorus Compounds of Cobalt 261 

Biltz, W., & W. Mecklenburg — Systems: Tin-sulphur, Tin-selenium, Tin-tellurium 261 

Bornemann, K., & F. Schreyer — The System Cu 2 S-FeS 261 

Pellini, G. — Mixed Crystals of Sulphur and Tellurium 262 

Burgess, C. F., & J. Aston — Influence of Arsenic and Tin upon Iron 262 

Chatelier, H. le, & S. Wologdine — Phosphides of Iron 262 

Oberhoffer, P. — Alloys of Iron 262 

Campbell, W. — Heat-treatment of Iron and Steel 262 

Fay. H., & others — Defects in Steel Rails 263 

Howard, J. V.— Tests of Ingots 263 

Howe, H. M. — Closing of Blowholes in Steel Ingots 263 

Cook, F. J., & G. Hailstone — Structure of Cast Iron. 263 

Tammann, G. — Magnetic Properties of Alloys of Ferro-magnetic Metals 264 

Wedekind, E. — Magnetic Character of Compounds of Non-magnetic Elements . . 264 

Oberhoffer, P. — Metallographic Observations at High Temperatures 264 

White. W. P. — Determination of Melting-points 264 

Day, A. L., & R. B. Sosman — Nitrogen Thermometer 265 

Bibliography 265 

Chapman, J. C. H., & L. Porter — Properties of Gold Leaf at High Temperatures.. 387 

Wanjukoff, W. — Microstructure of Copper 387 

Barrel, M., & W. Broniewski — Copper-aluminium Alloys 387 

Vigi "ii'uoux, E. — Alloys of Nickel and Copper 387 

Ducelliez, F. — Alloys of Cobalt 388 

Jolibois, P. — Phosphides of Tin 388 

., „ Phosphides of Nickel 388 

Tammann, G. — Effect of Compressing Mixtures of Metals 3S8 

Wust, F. — Shrinkage of Metals and Alloys 388 

Cohen, E., & K. Inouye — Metastability of Metals 389 

Rosenhain, W., & J. C. W, Humfrey — Crystalline Structure of Iron at High Tem- 
peratures 380 

Rugan. H. F., & H. C H. Carpenter — The " Growth" of Cast Irons after repeated 

Heatings 390 

Gutowsky, N. — Iron-carbon Alloys 390 

Portevin, A., & H. Berjot — Hardness of Quenched Steels 391 

Grenet, L. — Cementation of Silicon Steels 391 

Swinden, T. — Carbon-tungsten Steels 391 

Burgess, C F., & J. Aston — Magnetic Properties of Alloys of Iron 391 

Zschokke., B.— Effect upon Steel of Sudden Changes of Temperature 391 

Oberhoffer, P. — Importance of Metallography in the Iron Industry .. .. .. 392 

Charpy, G., & S. Bonnerot — Cementation by Solid Carbon 392 

Mazzotto, D. — Composition of Mixed Crystals in Alloys 392 

Stock, A. — Sintering -point Curve 392 

Wahl, W.— Cobalt-gold Alloys • 525 

Guertler. W. — Lead-tin Alloys 525 



CONTENTS. xliii 

Friedrich, K., & A. Leroux — Nickel-carbon Alloys 525 

Giolotti, F., & F. Marantonio — Lead Bronze* 526 

Weiss, P., & K. Onnes — Magnetic Properties of Manganese, Vanadium, and 

Chromium 526 

Burgess, C. F., & J. Aston — Magnetic Properties of Iron and Alloys 520 

Konstantinow, N., & O. Kuhn — Phosphides of Iron 526 

Becker. H. — Decarburisation of Cast Iron by Gaseous Oxidising Agents .. .. 527 

Giolotti, F., & others — Cementation of Steel 527 

Loebe, R. — Improvements in Metallographical Methods 527 

Gorboff, A. — Invariant Systems and the Composition of Eutectics 52 S 

Stead, J. E. — Microscopy and Macroscopy in Workshop Practice 528 

Spring, W. — Formation of Alloys by Pressure 528 

Saposhnikoff, A. V. — Specific Heat of Metallic Alloys 528 

Pbeuss, E , & C. F. W. Rts— Mounting of Metal Sections 528 

Schenck, R. — Electron Theory and Solid Solutions of Metals 529 

Boudouard, O. — " Damping " Test of Metals 529 

Haken, W. — Thermo-electric Properties of Metallic Alloys 529 

Broniewski, W. — Thermo-electric Properties of Alloys 529 

Tagueeff, G. — Homogeneity of Metals 529 

Martens, A. — Change of State in Metals under Mechanical Strain 529 

Guye, 0. E., & others — Internal Friction of Solids at Low Temperatures .. .. 530 

Friedrich, K. — Novel Application of Alloys 530 

Sieverts, A., & W. Khumbhaar — Solubility of Gases in Metals and Alloys .. ., 530 

Schoop, U. — New Method of Coating with Metals . .. 531 

Greenwood, H. C. — Influence of Pressure on the Boiling-points of Metals .. .. 531 

Bibliography 53 1 

Bancroft, W. D. — Aluminium-zinc Alloys 675 

Edwards, C. A., & J. H . Andrew — Aluminium-copper-tin Alloys 675 

Turner, T., & T. M. Murray — Copper-zinc Alloys 675 

Giolitti, F., & O. Ceccarelli — Corrosion of Bronzes 676 

Cohen. E., & K. Inouye — Zinc Amalgams 676 

Bengough, G D., & B. P. Hill — Copper-arsenic Alloys 676 

Hudson, O. F.. & E. F. Law — Phosplior-bronze 676 

Guillet. L., & L. Revillon — Zinc Bronzes 677 

Vogel, R. — Ternary System Iron-copper-nickel 677 

Rosenhain, W. — Light Alloys 677 

Rudolfi, E. — Thermo-electricity of Alloys 677 

Shukow, I. — Nitrogen and Metals at High Temperatures 678 

Stead, J. E. — Effect of Silicon and Sulphur on Cast-iron 678 

Bennett, S. R. — Ferro-silicon . . .. . , 679 

Goerens, P., & K. Ellingen — Influence of Antimony and Tin on the Iron-Carbon 

System 679 

Schmidt, F. W. — Specific and Latent Heats of Molten Cast-iron 679 

Terry, E. M. — Effect of Temperature upon the Magnetic Properties of Electrolytic 

Iron • 680 

Bibliography 680 

Arnemann, P. T. — Metallography of Zinc 788 

Guertler, Friedrich W. — Bearing-metals and Stamped Alloys 789 

Rosenhain, W., & F. C. A H. Lantsberry — Copper-aluminium-manganese alleys 789 

WiJST, F., & others — Action of Hydrogen and Nitrogen on Temper-carbon in Iron 789 

Moore, H. — A 2 Point in Chromium Steel 789 

McWilliam, A., & E.J.Barnes — Chromium Steel 790 

Grayson, S. A. — Case-hardening 790 

Levy, D. M. — Constitution of Cast Irons and Carbon Steels 790 

Waggoner, C. W. — Effect of Low Temperature on Iron-carbon Alloys 791 

Olsen, J. (_'.,& J. S. Weissenbach — Cementation by Gases 791 

Guillet, L. — Heat-treatment of Special Steels ^91 

„ „ Thermal Treatment of Cemented Steel 791 

Belaiew, N. — Artificial Reproduction of Widmanstatten Figures 791 

Charpy, G. — " Strain-disease" in Steel 791 

Venator, W. — Application of Titanium Alloys in the Steel Industry <92 

Meissner, H, & H. Felser— Effects Produced by Rolling 792 



xliv CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Knight, S. S. — Apparatus for Metallographic Work 792 

Arnou, G. — Metallography in German and Belgian Laboratories 792 

Cloup, F. — Testing Steel by Corrosion 793 

Schimpff, F. — Heat-capacity of Metals and Compounds 793 

Lichtenecker, K. — Resistance of Alloys free from Solid Solutions 793 

Gissing, C. E. — Spark Spectra of the Metals 793 

Shepherd — National Physical Laboratory 794 

Smith, C. A. M. — Properties of A on-ferrous Metals 794 

Ruzicka, St. — Mixed Crystals or Solid Solutions ? 794 

Matweieff — Metallographical Study of Slags 794 

Bibliography 795 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Meeting, December 15,1909 125 

January 19, 1910 129 

„ February 16, „ 266 

„ March 16, „ 269 

April 20, „ 393 

„ May 18, „ 397 

May 25, „ 399 

„ June 15, „ 532 

„ October 19, „ 796 

„ November 16, „ 799 



General Index to Volume 809 



JOURN. R. M1CR. SOC, 1910. PI. I. 



• T^-. 



tffcfcww 






-£*r/ 



[*C*^ 



i^ 



Fig. 1, 




1 



Fig. 2. 




F. C. Phot. 



Fig. 3. 



INOCERAMUS ROCK. L. CRETACEOUS : QUEENSLAND. 



JOUENAL 

OF THE 

KOYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY, 

FEBRUARY, 1910. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 



I. — On the Microscopical Structure of an Inoceramus Limestone 
in the Queensland Cretaceous Bocks. 

By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S., F.E.M.S. 

( Read November 17, 1909.) 
Plate I. 

Prefatory. — The occurrence of a rock largely composed of the 
remains of Inoceramus shells in the Lower Cretaceous of Queens- 
land is by no means new. The interest attaching to it, however, 
especially from a penological point of view, will justify a fuller 
description than has yet been given. 

In Messrs. Jack and Etheridge's valuable and comprehensive 
work on " The Geology and Palaeontology of Queensland and New 
Guinea," * Mr. Jack makes the following observations (p. 400) : — 
" Eight miles beyond the Williams [River] are blocks of a very hard 
brecciated siliceo-calcareous stratified rock, from which I obtained 
Inoceramus. Portions of the rock were almost entirely made up of 
the disintegrated shelly fibres of this genus." Further, the same 
author remarks (p. 401) : — " Fifteen miles from the Williams (on 

* Brisbane and London, 1892. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

Fig. 1. — Inoceramus limestone, viewed at right angles to the bedding plane ; show- 
ing current bedding. About natural size. 
,, 2. — Surface of bed-plane, showing fragments of Inoceramus shell and numerous 

shell-prisms. About natural size. 
,, 3. — Section parallel with bed-plane, showing constitution of the Inoceramus 
limestone, shell-prisms and angular quartz-grains imbedded in a 
calcareo-ferruginous matrix, x 18. 

Feb. 16th, 1910 B 



2 Transactions of the Society. 

Fisher's Creek waters), sandstones composed almost entirely of the 
fibrous shelly matter of Inoceramus are seen to rest on hardened 
black slates and Lydian stone. Indeed, in several places, notably 
near Marathon, I noted the presence of beds almost entirely com- 
posed of this fibrous material, sufficient to attest that this mollusc 
must have lived in almost incredible numbers." 

In the same work, p. 463, Mr. R. Etheridge, jun., in referring to 
the second of the occurrences noted by Mr. Jack, says : — " Speci- 
mens of an argillaceous limestone have been obtained, with the 
weathered surfaces covered with white spicular or needle-shaped 
bodies, which are nothing more than the broken-up prisms of the 
shell-structure of Inoceramus." These quotations will serve to show 
the relatively great abundance of Inoceramus in the North Queens- 
land Cretaceous series. 

The hand specimens of Inoceramus limestone which form the 
subject of the following notes, came from the Lower Cretaceous 
beds 63 miles north of Longreacb, Queensland : a locality more than 
250 miles to the south of those mentioned by Messrs. Jack and 
Etheridge. These rock specimens were presented to the National 
Museum, Melbourne, by Mr. John Williams. 

Megascopic Structure. — The rock is of a pink to pale chocolate- 
brown colour, weathering to ochreous yellow. On fractured sur- 
faces it appears of a deep reddish brown. The exposed surfaces are 
densely covered with the spiculiform prisms of the thick outer layer 
of Inoceramus shells ; and these form so important an ingredient 
of the limestone as to whiten the weathered surface. Mr. II. H. 
Walcott, E.G.S., of the National Museum, lias kindly examined the 
rock in regard to the proportion of carbonate of lime in it — largely 
due to the presence of these shell-prisms — and he finds this to 
amount to as much as 60 p.c. This proportion to the bulk of 
the rock approaches that in a. sample of Totternhoe stone, in the 
Grey or Lower Chalk of England, in which Mr. Win. Hill * found 
the prisms of Inoceramus shell to constitute at least 60 to 70 p.c. 
of the mass. The presence of these prisms in the Queensland 
rock is, however, rendered more striking than in the English 
Grey Chalk by the dark colour of the matrix. On the edge of a 
vertical fracture, or joint-plane passing through the plane of bed- 
ding, the shell-prisms are seen to be disposed generally with their 
longer axes parallel with the bedding plane. These lines of sedi- 
mentation are so distinctly marked by the prisms as to demonstrate 
very beautifully the false bedding which is typical of this rock. 
Here and there on the weathered surface fragments of Inoceramus 
shells may also be seen conspicuously standing out in quadrangular 
outline, measuring from about 3-7 mm. on the side : these measure- 



* See Cretaceous Rocks of Britain, ii. Lower and Middle Chalk of England. 
Jukes-Browne and Hill, 1003, p. 300. 



On Inoceramus Limestone. Bij F. Chapman. 3 

ments being the limiting thicknesses of the shells noticed. Sub- 
jected to the influence of weathering, the rock shows a tendency to 
exfoliate in large pieces, the surfaces of which are not always in 
perfect parallelism with the sedimentary planes, but often highly 
curved. 

Microscopic Details. — -In thin sections under the Microscope the 
Inoceramus prisms are seen to occupy a large part of the field. 
They show a rudely parallel arrangement, and are cemented together 
by a ferruginous and calcareous matrix. As before stated, they 
measure from about 3-7 mm. in length. The carbonate of lime in 
the matrix approximates to about 10 p.c. of the whole, so that it 
reduces the proportion of shell-material to about 50.p.c. of the rock- 
mass. Interspersed amongst the shell -prisms are numerous per- 
fectly angular fragments of clear quartz, and an occasional piece of 
felspar (pagioclase). The quartz grains sometimes contain needles 
of rutile. The Inoceramus prisms vary from clear calcite to pale 
brown granulated calcite. In nearly all may be seen the accre- 
tionary bands of growth of the original shell-structure, at right 
angles to the length of the prismatic axis. They are horn-brown 
in colour and of varying translucence. Numerous differential 
cracks break up the prisms at right angles to their length into 
quadrate sections, but the original rhombohedral cleavage is always 
more or less distinct. Between crossed nicols most of the prisms 
behave as single crystals of calcite, and show a straight extinction. 
The boundaries of the prisms are in all cases sharply outlined 
in dark brown, owing to a surface deposit of ferruginous material. 
Sometimes there is a thin superficial outgrowth of calcareous 
crystals upon the prisms, and, more rarely, corrosion of the surface 
of the prism has taken place. Here and there the prisms show a 
finely granulate appearance, their internal structure having been 
physically reconstructed. In some cases there is evidence of slight 
dolomitisation. 

Conditions of Deposition. — As a general conclusion the Queens- 
land Lower Cretaceous rocks may be said to have been deposited 
in fairly shallow water, as seen particularly by the current-bedded 
structure ; the Inoceramus shells in all probability having formed 
part of the beach-material of that ancient shore-line. 

The Lower Cretaceous rocks in the northern part of Queensland 
rest upon gneisses and granites ; the Jurassic series (Ipswich forma- 
tion) being wanting. At a distance of about 150 miles to the north 
of the locality which furnished the limestone in question, there is 
a massif of granite with a limited area of gneiss at the foot. Against 
these granitic rocks the shore deposits of the Lower Cretaceous sea 
were undoubtedly laid down. The angular quartz grains and occa- 
sional felspars previously referred to, as forming a large proportion 
of the Inoceramus limestone, would therefore most likely be derived 
directly from the detritus of the highlands in the vicinity, and 

B 2 



4 Transactions of the Society. 

thus the augular character of the detrital grains of those minerals 
would be explained. 

What may be regarded as additional evidence proving the 
shallow-water origin of these Cretaceous limestones and sandstones, 
is shown by the occurrence of some drift-wood found in the same 
beds and partly coated with Inoceramus-be&rmg mud and sand. 
A specimen of this wood, given to the Museum collection by 
Mr. Williams, was seen to be much corroded and bored by some 
organism. A microscopical examination of a thin section of the 
wood showed the presence of pitted cells, but as these are typical 
of both Conifers and Cycads, it is impossible to say to which group 
of plants it belongs. The Conifers, however, being more abundant 
in Lower Cretaceous times, the probability weighs in favour of 
the latter type of vegetation. Instances are not unknown where 
fossil drift-wood has occurred in sediments of moderately deep- 
water origin, as in the occurrence of coniferous wood in the English 
Chalk at Croydon found by Murton Holmes.* Under ordinary 
circumstances it is, however, more usual to find fossil drift-wood 
associated with littoral deposits, as for example, in the shallow 
deposits of the Gault at Folkestone, and in the Lower Greensand 
of the Isle of Wight. It is easily conceived that a piece of floating 
wood soon becomes the object of attack from various marine para- 
sites and boring animals, which render it just heavy enough to 
sink and to become inclosed in the mud of the sea-bed. On account 
of its comparatively low specific gravity it stands a good chance of 
being again cast ashore and commingled with the sand and shells 
of the sea-shore. 

* See Fossil Plants, by A. C. Seward, 1898, pp. 61-2, fig. 8. 



II. — On the Measurement of Grayson's Ten-hand Plate. 
By A. A. C. Eliot Merlin. 

(Bead December 15, 1909.) 

Some years ago I undertook the laborious work of carefully 
measuring all the spacings of my Grayson's ten-band stage micro- 
meter. As such a task has probably not been undertaken by 
many, I venture to communicate the results obtained in case they 
may prove of interest to some Fellows of the Society. 

Two conditions appear to me of paramount importance in all. 
delicate micrometrical work where the most accurate results are 
aimed at : — 

1. An objective of comparatively very high initial magnifying 
power should be employed. 

2. The micrometer eye-piece should be of moderate power, so 
as not to unduly magnify errors which must always exist in even 
the best screws. 

Under such circumstances, care being taken that the same 
portion of the screw is utilised so far as possible, highly accurate 
measurements may be effected. 

For spanning the rulings of the Grayson plate it was decided 
to employ a nominal T ] g Powell dry objective. This lens is really 
€'054 in. focus, has an initial magnifying power of a fraction over 
185 on 10-in. tube, and its N.A. is 0*906. The optical index is 
thus extremely low (4 "9), but, nevertheless, used under strictly 
critical conditions in conjunction with the 6 eye-piece of Powell's 
micrometer, the ruled lines appeared sharp, it being therefore 
possible to adjust the "wires" very precisely against the diffrac- 
tion edges of the rulings. Although the optical arrangement, 
specified above, was selected at the time as the most suitable then 
available for the purpose in view, it is by no means maintained 
that the combination in question is the best possible, or the most 
desirable, and since that time I usually employ an amplifier, 
kindly specially computed by Mr. E. M. Nelson,* used in con- 
junction with a Powell -^ oil-immersion objective of N.A. 1 • 27, 
and thus augmenting its initial magnifying power about 2 • 5 times. 
In order to obtain clear definition with the amplifier inserted 
between the objective and ocular, it is necessary that the former 
be provided with a correction collar, by means of which the 

* Sec this Journal, 1904, p. 396. 



Transactions of tlie Society. 



First 


Second 


Third 


Fourth 


Fifth 


Sixth 


Seventh 


Eighth 


Ninth 


Tenth 


Kami, 


Hand, 


Hand, 


Band, 


Hand, 


Band, 


Band, 


Band, 


Hand, 


Band, 


KiOOtlis 


2( moths 


3000ths 


•months 


5000ths 


OOOOths 


TOOOths 


SOOOtlis 


EKIOOths 


10,oooths 


in. 


in. 


in. 
Drum 


in. 


iii. 
Drum 


in. 
Drum 


in. 

Drum 


in. 


in. 


in. 


Drum 


Drum 


Drum 


Drum 


Drum 


Drum 


Divisions 


Divisions 


Divisions 


Divisions 


Divisions 


Divisions 


Divisions 


Divisions 


Divisions 


Divisions 


764-1 


383-9 


254-4 


194-6 


153 7 


126-9 


108-0 


93-7 


85-3 


76-9 


762-5 


381-5 


253-1 


192-1 


152-8 


127-2 


108-1 


94-2 


85-5 


77-0 


762-3 


383-3 


254-8 


191-0 


152-0 


123-3 


108-9 


94-0 


85-4 


76-9 


762-0 


380-9 


256-0 


192-1 


150-9 


122-0 


109-0 


93-5 


85-2 


77-0 


765-9 


380-5 


252-7 


191-0 


152-7 


124-5 


109-2 


94-5 


85-4 


76-9 


765-1 


381-3 


255-7 


190-9 


153-6 


123-1 


109-4 


93-3 


84-9 


77-5 


759-0 


382-5 


253 • 2 


192-7 


153-2 


123-4 


107-4 


94-4 


84-5 


77-2 


765-0 


380-8 


253-9 


190-9 


155-0 


124-8 


109-1 


93-2 


85-5 


77-9 


762-9 


382-1 


252-4 


190-7 


155-4 


123-0 


108-2 


93-7 


84-7 


77-9 


765-1 


384-4 


254-3 


192-0 


153-5 


122-7 


108-0 


94-1 


85-3 


76-6 


r 


.. 


255-3 


192-5 


151-9 


123-8 


109-1 


94-0 


85-6 


77-4 


.. 


.. 


256-9 


192-0 


153-9 


123-3 


108-4 


95-2 


84-5 


77-2 


.. 




255-5 


191-0 


154-3 


122-4 


107-0 


95-2 


85-1 


77-5 


.. 




254-7 


190-9 


1.54-4 


123-4 


107-3 


94-1 


84-5 


77-7 






257-8 


190-9 


152-3 


122-4 


107-8 


94-3 


84-7 


75-6 


.. 






191-8 


150-9 


124-5 


107-0 


94-0 


85-3 


75-9 


.. 






191-4 


151-5 


124-1 


106-2 


94-2 


84-9 


77-4 








190-0 


152-3 


125-1 


106-6 


93-9 


85-1 


76-5 








189-7 


152-7 


124-5 


109-3 


93-5 


85-6 


77-2 








194-0 


152-6 


125-8 


107-7 


94-0 


85-3 


76-7 










153-4 


124-9 


107-1 


94-5 


85-8 


77-6 












152-8 


126-4 


107-0 


94-3 


84-3 


77-2. 












153-6 


124-5 


107-3 


94-9 


85-5 


77-6 












153-4 


125-8 


106-7 


93-8 


84-7 


77-2 


•• 




• [[ 






154-0 


125-2 
126-1 
125-9 
124-5 
125-9 


106-9 
107-3 
106-9 
108-4 
106-2 


93-7 
94-3 
94-6 
94-1 

94-8 


86-5 
84-8 
84-6 
85-1 
85-9 


76-8 
77-0 
77-3 

77-1 
77-7 


•• 




:: 








126-3 


108-4 
108-5 
107-9 
109-6 
109-0 
109-4 


93-5 
95-1 
94-8 
94-0 
94-0 
94-2 


85-1 
84-0 
84-9 
86-0 
85-4 
86-2 


77-2 
77-4 
77-7 
77-5 
77-3 
76-9 
















•• 


94-0 
94-0 
94-3 
94-8 


86-2 
86-1 
86-2 
85-9 


77-1 
77-5 
77-4 
77-1 


•• 


•• 












•• 


95-1 


85-5 
85-9 
85-9 
85-5 
86-5 
86-0 


77-5 
77-1 
77-0 
77-5 
77-0 
77-1 
76-9 
77-7 
77-0 
77-9 
77-0 


— 










Mean in 


Mean in 


Mean in 


Mean in 


Mean in 


Mean in 


Mean in 


Mean in 


Mean in 


Mean. 


lOOOths 


lOOOths 


lOOOths 


lOOOths 


lOOOths 


lOOOths 


lOOOths 


lOOOths 


lOOOths 


763-4 


764-2 


764-1 


766-4 


, 765-3 


747-1 


755-7 


753-6 


768-2 


771-8 



Grayson's Tin-land Plate. By A. A. C. E. Merlin. 7 

disturbance caused by the intervening negative lens can be com- 
pensated. With the -jJo objective, amplifier and 6-micrometer 
eye-piece, 131S divisions of the drum equal TQ Vo * n " > tnus tue 
movement of the " wire " through one drum division represents an 
interval amounting to y-yxsooo m - This ma y seem a P ract ically 
unattainable degree of accuracy, but it must be borne in mind 
that separating power is not here in question, and, to myself at 
least, the wonderfully close agreement of the means of the first 
five columns of measurements annexed hereto are sufficiently 
significant, considering that they were effected with an objective, 
the utmost separating limit of which could not exceed 94&00 ^ n - 

With reference to the annexed results, taking 763" 4, the mean 
of the first band, as a standard (the mean of nine out of ten divisions 
of another equally spaced (irayson plate in my possession is 763*6, 
the first space of the band being rejected as obviously faulty, it 
measuring only 75:2 -5 divisions), we find that the second column, 
expressed in similar parts of an inch, varies from it by just under 
one drum division, or 7^3^50 ^ n > tne means °f the second and 
third columns agreeing within the surprising amount of T l <j of a 
division, or reol M „ in.! The mean of column four exceeds the 
standard by three divisions, while column nve shows an excess 
of nearly two. It will lie noticed that fairly considerable dif- 
ferences exist in the spacing of the individual lines in all the 
bands, but I venture to submit that the accuracy of the measure- 
ments is proved by the remarkably close agreement of the means 
of the various columns, expressed, for convenience of comparison, 
in similar and equal terms. So far as I can judge, the theory. of 
probabilities renders it practically certain that such a close agree- 
ment of five means can be due to no fortuitous coincidence. 

The sixth column exhibits the greatest variation from the 
standard, falling short by the very considerable amount of 16*3 
divisions, representing a difference of about 4^54 in. The 
seventh column falls short of the standard by 7 ■ 7 divisions, and 
the eighth by 9'S. Columns nine and ten show that the two 
finest bands are wonderfully evenly ruled, their means being, 
respectively, 4-8 and 8-4 divisions more than the standard. 

Since writing the foregoing, it has been thought desirable 
that measured readings of two lines together throughout the 
second band, three lines together throughout the third band, four 
through the fourth, and so on up to ten through the tenth, should 
be effected with the exact optical arrangement and magnification 
employed for the original measurements. In this manner the 
value of the whole ten bands is indicated in terms of the first, and 
exactly the same portion of the screw is utilised for all, thus error 
from differences in varying parts of the screw is eliminated, and 
consequently the means of the five necessary readings in each of 



8 



Transactions of the Society. 



2nd band (Woo in."). 



the last nine bands will show the extent of that factor in the 
original measures. 

"This idea has been carried out, with the following results, 
which indicate the high accuracy of Mr. Grayson's rulings. The 
mean of the first band re-measured equals 762-9 divisions. 

Drum Divisions 

Mean of five TT ,Vo in. readings 763* 1 

762-4 
764-1 
758-8 
760-6 
758-4 
758-6 
758-9 
758-6 

It will be noted that screw errors are thus revealed and 
differentiated. Another remarkable circumstance is the startling 
agreement of the last four means, an exactness which perhaps 
suggests some little coincidence, especially as the fractional 
division readings, from which the means are obtained, are neces- 
sarily only estimated tenth parts. Be this as it may, it is obvious 
that the probable error is exceedingly small. 



3rd 


?) 


Off ooo ln -)- 


4th 


55 


(Woo in -)- 


5th 


55 


GoW m -)- 


Gth 


55 


(Wo 7 in -)- 


7th 


55 


(W(J0 P.)- 


8th 


55 


(moo m -)- ■' 


9th 


55 


(uoVi) m -)- 


loth 


55 


vr^wo m. J. ), 



9 



III. — An Automatic Aerating Apparatus, suitable for Aquaria, etc. 
By James F. Gemmill, M.A. M.D. 

{Read December 15, 1909.) 

The Aerator (fig. 1) to be described costs little and is reliable, 
besides having other advantages which are referred to later. The 
essential features of the apparatus are: (1) a constant inflow of 
water into a closed vessel forces the contained air under pressure 
through the aerating nozzles ; (2) the vessel is emptied automatic- 
ally at regular intervals by siphon action, air being allowed to 
replace the water siphoned off. During this period, which is 
relatively short, there is a pause in the output of air. 

Explanation of the lettering on the Sketch. 

A. Constant inflow of water under 8 feet or more of water 
pressure. The inflow must be sufficient to insure the advent, at 
the proper time, of siphon action. If too scanty the water will 
simply trickle over the summit of the siphon tube. But the in- 
flow should nob be so great as to compete effectively with the 
emptying action of the siphon. In practice the proper rate can 

.be got in a few minutes by manipulating the water-tap, but most 
water-taps require readjustment for the first few days. 

B. A small vessel (the water valve vessel) suspended within 
the large vessel C. B is kept full by the inflow and it overflows 
into C. The end of the tube F just dips into the water within B. 

C. A large glass bottle (e.g. of f gallon size) with moderately 
wide mouth closed by a rubber bung with perforations for the 
tubes A, D, E and F. The bung must be quite air-tight, and it 
should be fixed securely in the neck of the bottle so that it may 
not be driven out when the pressure rises within the bottle. The 
constant inflow of water tends to fill the bottle, driving the con- 
tained air up the aerating tube D. Sooner or later the bottle C is 
emptied by the siphon E, and then the filling up process starts 
anew. 

D. Aerating tube of T 7 g in. internal measurement. The lower 
end just pierces the rubber bung and is bevelled, while the upper 
end reaches above the summit of the siphon. From the upper end 
a small indiarabber tube (K in the sketch) leads to the aerating 
nozzles, the number of which may be multiplied indefinitely by 



10 



Transactions of the Society. 



means of Y tubes or other simple device. The height of D is 
greater than that of the siphon in order to insure that under no 
circumstances will water find its way into the rubber tubing. The 
width of D and the bevelling of its lower end insure that any 



M 



A. 
B. 
C. 
D. 
E. 
F. 
G. 
H. 
K. 



Inflow of water (constant). 
Water-valve vessel. 
Pressure vessel. 
Aerating tube. 
Siphon. 

Water-valve tube. 
Overflow tube. 
Aerating nozzles. 
Rubber tubing. 



CI. Screw clamps. 




Fig. 1. 



water which may have got into it will readily fall back into the 
vessel C when this vessel is being emptied by the siphon. 

E. Siphon. One end passes through the bung almost to the 
bottom of the vessel C, while the other end goes to an outlet and 
reaches not less than 1A to 2 ft. below the level of the first. The 



An Automatic Aerating Apparatus. By J. F. Gemmill. 11 

siphon, as well as the tubes F and G, is of ordinary glass, | in. 
internal measurement. A good all-round working height is 
7 or 7h ft. from X to Y. This gives pressure enough to aerate 
with finely divided air bubbles, but the higher the siphon the 
better will be the pressure and the finer the streams of bubbles 
that can be produced. On the other hand, a total height of about 
2^ ft. is all that is required for the output of ordinary bubbles 
and for their distribution over different aquaria the depth of which 
does not exceed a foot or so. (See also commencement of para- 
graph under G.) 

F. Water valve tube. This is open above at M, and passes 
into an overflow tube G, the bend being an inch or two above the 
top of the siphon. The primary purpose of the tube F is to allow 
the periodic entrance of air into C during the time when the 
emptying of this chamber by the siphon takes place. Any water 
which may be in F flows back into C and is followed by air, which 
bubbles up freely from the lower end of this tube. On the other 
hand, air is not allowed to escape by F when C is filling up again 
and the aerating nozzles are working under full pressure. What 
happens is, that water rises in F, as it does also in the ascending 
limb of the siphon. The height of the water in the former exceeds 
that in the latter by exactly the difference of the water levels in 
B and C. The rise is rapid till overflow from F into G occurs. 
This does not set up siphon action, because air enters freely at M. 
But as C fills up, the water level in the siphon creeps higher and 
higher till its summit is overpassed and siphoning begins. Pressure 
inside C then becomes negative ; the water in F flows back into 0, 
and is followed by air entering at M. 

G. Overflow tube, described above. This is hardly required 
for an apparatus designed only for ordinary bubbles under low 
pressure. See end of paragraph under E. (Although it is not 
shown in the sketch, 1 have lately been using the surplus water 
which overflows by G, in my apparatus at Glasgow University, to 
provide a supply of air under low pressure. This is done on the 
principle of the Sprengel pump, with the help of the Naples 
Station device, viz. a circular bend in the upper part of the tube.) 

H. Aerating nozzles. For ordinary bubbles a bit of glass 
tubing, slightly turned at the end, will serve. The amount of air 
which is allowed to escape by such a nozzle has to be regulated, 
and this can be done with perfect precision by means of a screw 
clamp on the rubber tubing. Sufficient resistance can thus be 
applied to insure that the internal pressure will be strong enough 
to force air also through the kind of nozzles that are required for 
the production of fine streams of bubbles. For these a dried and 
partly decayed branch of some suitable wood forms a simple outlet. 
Attach a rubber tube to a side branch and make some notches 
along the main one. From each of these notches as well as from 



12 Transactions of the Society. 

the cut ends, streams of bubbles will emerge when the apparatus 
is working. A bit of dried hawthorn as thick as one's little finger, 
which has been dead and exposed to the weather for a year or 
more, gives an extremely fine division of the air. But most pur- 
poses will be served quite well by woods with coarser vessels. 
Insufficient previous weathering is apt to give trouble through 
swelling taking place after immersion. An air valve may with 
advantage be set in the main stem of the rubl ler tubing in order 
to obviate all tendency to reflux, or better still, a valved extensible 
air reservoir with suitable recoil may be interposed, thus eliminating 
altogether intermittence of aeration. It goes without saying, also, 
that special arrangements may be added, such as those which 
Browne * has so successfully devised for the growth of hydroids. 

To sum up, the influx of water through A is constant, and the 
sequence of events is as follows : — Base of pressure in C ; rise of 
water in E and F ; forcing of air through the aerating nozzles ; 
overflow of surplus water through G ; filling up of C ; commence- 
ment of siphon action ; flowing back of water from F into C ; 
entrance of air into C ; emptying of water into C ; cessation of 
siphon action ; recommencement of rise of pressure in C. 

The apparatus can be fitted up wherever there is a constant 
water supply fresh or salt, under even a slight degree of pressure. 
It works quite automatically, and after being properly adjusted 
requires no attention except in arranging the nozzles from time to 
time to suit new aquaria, or the varying requirements of aquaria 
already established. No active damage can be done to the aquaria 
even though the siphon action from any cause (e.g. leakage or 
slackening of inflow) should temporarily cease. 

The air used is freed from most of its soluble and suspended 
impurities through entering by the long wet tube F, bubbling up 
through the water in B, and remaining for a time within C, into 
which there is a constant inflow of water. By way of further 
precaution, the air entering at M may be filtered through cotton 
wool. Thus the atmosphere even of a city laboratory, may be 
rendered practically harmless. 

The intervals of pause and of active aeration can be varied 
within wide limits, as also can the periodic time of both. Or the 
whole apparatus can be stopped and re-started after a time (e.g. 
to imitate tidal conditions) by turning the water-tap. 

A single aerator on the scale indicated above will provide con- 
tinuous and efficient aeration for as many as thirty small aquaria. 
Increase in the sizes of the parts gives an increased supply of air, 
while by heightening the various tubes the internal pressure can 
be brought up almost to the limit of pressure of the water supply. 

* Journ. Marine Biol. Assoc. United Kingdom, rt.s. viii. No. 1, pp. 37-43. 



An Automatic Aerating Apparatus. By F. G. Gemmill. 13 

The aerator has been fully tested in the Embryology Laboratory 
at Glasgow University during the eight months that have elapsed 
since the author first employed it there in its present form. A 
similar instrument fitted up by him at the Millport Marine Station 
in the beginning of September last has also worked with regu- 
larity. It was at the latter Institution, several years ago, that 
his first experiments directed towards designing such an aerator 
were made. 



14 



NOTE. 

Convenient Form of Stand for Use as a Micro-Colorimeter 

and with the Micro- Spectroscope. 

By Marshall I). Ewell, M.D., F.E.M.S. 

The apparatus shown in fig. 2 was constructed for use with 
Lovibond's standard coloured glass slides, or with the micro- 
spectroscope. It will be seen that the apparatus consists of two 
objectives carried by tubes screwed into a prism-box. The 12 mm. 




Fk;. 2. 



Spencer objectives are matched, and in order to absolutely secure 
equality of working distance, one of them (the right-hand one) is 
fitted with an adapter with the Society's thread, male at the upper 
end, and female at the lower. When the matching has been 
satisfactorily attained a lock-nut clamps the objective, and the two 
par-focal objectives can then be simultaneously focused by the 
ordinary slow motion. The Lovibond tinted glasses are inserted 



'Note. 



15 



in the openings b, b, closed by tubes sliding within the larger 
Microscope tubes. In order to regulate the intensity of the light, 
an iris diaphragm is interposed in the left-hand tube at c. The 
prism-box contains a pair of reflecting rhombs, and the course of 
the rays is shown by the dotted lines. Thus the effect is to 




Fig. 3. 



appose two images which readily lend themselves to comparison. 
Fig. 3 shows the apparatus fitted to a Spencer Lens Co.'s stand. 
With the exception of the stand, the residue of the outfit was 
made by Dr. Ewell in his amateur shop. 

The general idea recalls Inostranzeff s comparison chamber or 



1G 



Note. 



microscopic comparer * in which a prism chamber (see fig, 3) con- 
sisted of a horizontal tube with two vertical arms. These arms 
fitted into the tubes of two Microscopes, and the horizontal 
chamber contained four prisms. Two images, conveniently 
apposed for comparison, appeared in the eye-piece chamber. This 
idea was somewhat improved upon by van Heurck.f 




Fig. 4. 



It will be noticed that Dr. Ewell's design, which has been 
independently evolved, is an advance in several respects. It 
requires only one Microscope ; it secures par-focality of objectives, 
and, owing to the use of only two prisms, the loss of light at_A,-A 
(fig. 4) is avoided. 



See this Journal, 1886, p. 507. 



Op. cit., 1887, p. 4G3. 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES 

RKLATING TO 

ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY 

(principally invertebrata and cryptogamia), 

MICROSCOPY, Etc.* 



ZOOLOGY. 

VERTEBRATA. 
a. Embryology. t 



Structure of Mammalian Ovary. J — H. von Winiwarter and 
G. Sainmont find smooth muscle tissue in the ovary of the cat. It 
retains the character of young tissue. It occurs only in the parenchy- 
matous zone in the vicinity of growing follicles, to which it forms an 
external theca. The latter persists, after the follicle bursts, as the 
capsule of the corpus Inteum. In the mesovarium there is much greater 
muscularity : longitudinal bundles in two planes. These effect erection 
of the ovary at the time of rut. The authors also describe a principal 
and an accessory ganglion associated with the epoophoron, which have 
probably to do with the innervation of the ovary. 

Ovarian Glands. § — P. Bouin and P. Ancel distinguish Mammals 
with spontaneous ovulation, and Mammals in which the ovulation is 
provoked by copulation. The former have two kinds of corpus luteum, 
according as the ovulation is not, or is, followed by fertilisation — the 
periodic corpora lutea of menstruation, and corpora lutea of pregnancy. 
Mammals, with non-spontaneous ovulation, have only the second kind 
of corpus luteum — the gestative corpus luteum. To the first category 
the authors refer man, primates, dog, horse, cow, pig ; to the second, 
the rabbit, the guinea-pig, the mouse, and the cat. The ovaries of the 
first set have no interstitial gland, and it may be said that the periodic 
corpus luteum corresponds to the interstitial gland which occurs in 
Mammals of the second set. 

In another paper || the authors maintain that the phase of cellular 
proliferation in the mammary gland is determined by corpus luteum. 

* The Society are not intended to be denoted by the editorial " we," and they 
do not hold themselves responsible for the views of the authors of the papers 
noted, nor for any claim to novelty or otherwise made by them. The object of 
this part of the Journal is to present a summary of the papers as actually pub- 
lished, and to describe and illustrate Instruments, Apparatus, etc., which are 
either new or have not been previously described in this country. 

t This section includes not only papers relating to Embryology properly so 
called, but also those dealing with Evolution, Development, Reproduction, and 
allied subjects. % Arch. Biol., xxiv. (1909) pp. 627-51 (1 pi. and 7 figs.). 

§ C.R. Soc. Biol. Piiris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 464-6. || Tom. cit., pp. 466-7. 

Feb. 16th, 1910 c 



18 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Head of Embryo Chlamydoselachus.*— Paul Brohmer has studied 
the cavities of the head and the nerves in this type. Two of his con- 
clusions may be stated. Piatt's head-cavity is absent in some Selachians 
{Chlamydoselachus and Torpedo) ; in the others it is comparable to the 
diverticula which arise from the mandibular cavity, and are subsequently 
constricted off. These have no significance in connection with the head 
problem. The third head-somite of Van Wijhe is the upper portion of 
£he hyoid cavity. In young embryonic stages the two form one cavity, 
but the upper part is subsequently separated off and seems independent. 

Development of Heart in Teleosts.f — I. Borcea finds in Belone, 
and other Teleostean fishes, that the heart and the migratory vascular 
cells (which form the vitelline network), arise from part of the cephalic 
mesoderm, corresponding to the intermediate mesodermic masses in the 
trunk. On the other hand, the pigment-cells have an ectodermic origin. 

Intermediary Mesodermic Mass in Teleost Embryos.^ — I. Borcea 
has studied, in various types {Belone, Exocatus, Gobius, etc.), the 
intermediary differentiation of mesoderm which was first described by 
Oellacher. He finds that it gives origin to the endothelium of the 
blood vessels, the blood corpuscles, the renal canaliculi, and the lymphoid 
tissue of the kidney. 

Development of Marsupial Skull. § — R. Broom gives an account 
of his observations on the development of the skull in Trichosurus 
vulpecula and Dasyurus viverrinus. We cannot do more than refer to 
a few points. There is a remarkable resemblance between the skull of 
the very young Echidna (as described by Gaupp), and that of the young 
Dasyurus. " In fact, the Dasyure skull resembles that of Echidna more 
than it does that of Trichosurus.' 1 '' 

The parachordals and trabecule are very definite structures, but the 
occipital region is not very clearly differentiated from the parachordal. 
The trabecular form all the median, basal cartilage in front of the 
parachordals. The paraseptals are probably true parts of the nasal 
capsule, the base of the latter being trabecular. A large lateral carti- 
lage, which the author calls orbitosphenoid, seems to be as definitely 
a cranial element as the trabecula. It is continued backwards, and fuses 
with the auditory capsule, though quite distinct from it. There is 
some reason to consider that the supra-occipital is the further continua- 
tion of the same band. Broom argues in support of the rather startling 
conclusion that the element which develops into the alisphenoid is a 
specialisation of a rudiment of the palatopterygoid arch. 

Blood-formation in Embryonic Mammalian Liver. || — S. Mollier 
finds that in embryos of man, cat, rabbit, etc., blood-cells are formed 
in the liver from an indifferent material, the reticulum. This is due to 
the visceral layer of the mesoderm, and differentiates into endothelium, 

* Jenaische Zeitschr. f. wiss. Nat., xliv. (1909) pp. 647-98 (4 pis. and 15 figs.), 
t Cornptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 688-9. J Tom. cit., pp. 637-40. 

§ Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxxiv. (1909) pp. 195-214 (8 pis.). 
|| Arch. Mikr. Anat., lxxiv. (1909) pp. 474-524 (4 pis. and 8 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 19 

blood-cells, and supporting tissue. The liver is at first a predominantly 
erythropoietic organ, and the author gives a circumstantial account of 
its activity. 

Development of Head of Gymnophiona.* — Harry Marcus con- 
tinues his study of Hypogeophis embryos. The most anterior roof of 
the archentcron consists of vegetative cells, and here, in contrast to the 
trunk, the notochord has an endodermic origin, and there are typical 
mesodermic coelom-cavities. The development of the head-cavities and 
the mesoderm is described, The columella auris arises from the hyoid 
arch, and is clearly separable from the auditory capsule blastema. The 
stapedial artery, which passes through the stapes in Ichthyophis is a 
branch of the second aortic arch. A corroboration of the homology of 
stapes and hyomandibular is found in the course of the 7th and 8th 
nerves. The author also describes the formation of the cerebral ganglia. 

Abnormal Reproductive Organs in Frog.f — AV. Youngman de- 
scribes an interesting case — a large specimen of Rana temporaria. It 
had small thumb-pads, a normal ovary on the left, an ovo-testis on the 
right, two normal oviducts with eggs in them, normal ureters, no trace 
of vasa efferentia or seminal- vesicles. The correlation of the two male 
characters suggests that the thumb-pad is the outcome of a physiological 
secretion in some way connected with the male sexual elements. 

Spermatogenesis of Fowl.! — M. F. Guyer finds that accurate 
•enumeration of the spermatogonial chromosomes is very difficult. 
Seventeen is probably the correct number, but it is safer simply to say 
that there are not less than fifteen, not more than nineteen. 

Nine chromosomes ordinarily appear in the prophase of the first 
division of the spermatocytes. Of these, eight are presumably bivalent. 
The other, which is the " odd " or " accessory " chromosome, has not 
paired at this time, but is nevertheless probably a compound body 
consisting of three elements. 

The odd chromosome not infrequently reveals a tripartite structure. 
Less often one of its components seems to stand more or less apart, like 
■a " supernumerary " chromosome. The odd chromosome passes un- 
divided to one pole in the vast majority of cases, so that one daughter- 
-cell receives eight and the other nine chromosomes. 

In the second division of the spermatocytes the eight chromosomes 
of the former division pair to form four chromosomes. Likewise, eight 
of the nine which passed to the other daughter-cell pair to form four, 
but the odd one remains unpaired. In this second division the odd 
•chromosome, after lagging somewhat, divides, and thus there are formed 
two spermatids each containing five chromosomes. The spermatids 
formed from the division of secondary spermatocytes which contained 
but four chromosomes, receive only four chromosomes each. Thus the 
final result of the two divisions of the spermatocytes is the production of 
four spermatids, two of which receive four, and two five chromosomes. 

* Morphol. Jahrb., xl. (1909) pp. 105-83 (3 pis. and 37 figs.). 
t Anat. Anzeig., xxxv. (1909) pp. 301-3 (3 figs.). 
X Tom. cit., pp. 573-80 (2 pis. ). 

c 2 



20 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

As in the guinea-fowl, two sizes of spermatozoa are produced. The 
transformation of the spermatid nucleus into the head of the spermato- 
zoon comes about through the gradual concentration of the chromatin 
into an elongated curved mass at one side within the nucleus, and the 
subsequent elongation of this mass. 

Vitality of Spermatozoa.* — C. Fleig has made many experiments 
as to the survival of human spermatozoa in various fluids. After being 
" washed " in a centrifugal machine with much fluid — to get rid of albumin 
— spermatozoa will live in mineral waters or sea-water for two or three 
days. The presence of lime-salts seems to be necessary for sustained 
movement. If the mineral water is placed in a refrigerator, the 
spermatozoa remain alive for five or six days after emission. In the 
case of pure seminal matter put into the refrigerator, there was re- 
vivification of spermatozoa after eight days. 

Hyperdactylism in Fowls. f — D. Barfurth experimented with 
Orpingtons, normally 4-toed, which exceptionally produce 5-toed forms. 
Seven hyperdactylous hens (two years old) were paired with a normal 
cock of the same age, and of the 152 chickens produced between May 
and July 1908, 80 were normal and 72 hyperdactylous. The influence 
of the two parents is equal. 

b. Histology. 

Minute Structure of Food Canal in Cyprinoid Fishes.J — A. Pictet 
gives a histological description of the alimentary tract in carp and tench and 
other Cyprinoids. He gives an account of the buccal cavity, the gullet, 
and the intestine. One of his general points is that the buccal epithelium 
includes the same elements as the epidermis (flat cells, large caliciform 
cells, and terminal buds), and that the same kinds of cells occur beyond 
the gill-clefts to the end of the oesophagus. This would seem to 
indicate that the boundary between the ectodermic stomodaeum and 
endodermic mesenteron was very far back. 

New Mode of Nuclear Division^ — Enzio Renter describes w T hat 
he calls merokinesis — a new mode of nuclear division observed in the 
fertilised ovum and the larger blastomeres of a mite Pediculopsis 
graminum. The nuclear content prepares for mitosis not as a unified 
structure, but in the form of four independent parts or karyomeres, 
each corresponding to the area of an individual chromosooie. These 
nuclear parts divide with their membrane intact. The chief peculiarity 
is that each karyomere, i. e., each nuclear part corresponding to a 
chromosome, divides normally and regularly by itself. It may be a 
phyletic stage in karyokinesis. 

Thymus of Reptiles. || — A. P. Dustin has made a detailed study of 
this organ in twelve species of tortoises, snakes and lizards. As to 
the development, he finds that the small thymus cells arise directly 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 162-4. 

t Arch. Entwickmech., xxvi. (1909) pp. 631-50. See also Zool. Zentralbl., xvi. 
(1909) pp. 425-6. % Revue Suisse Zool., xvii. (1909) pp. 1-78 (2 pis.). 

§ Acta Soc. Fermica, xxxvii. (1909) pp. 1-52 (40 figs.).; 
1| Arch. Zool. Exper., ii. (1909) pp. 43-227 (5 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 21 

from the endodermic branchial primordia. As to the adult organ, 
there is but one characteristic element, the small thymus cell. The 
others are secondary mesodermic importations — connective cells, myo- 
epithelioid cells (HassalFs corpuscles), granular cells and leucocytes, 
vascular epithelium, and blood corpuscles. The seasonal and definite 
involution of the thymus is carefully discussed. As to function, the 
Reptilian thymus shows a seasonal alteration of great activity and 
repose, the former gradually waning. During activity the thymus is 
alternately the seat of vascular neo-formation and retrogression. The 
small thymus cells are actively divided, but the organ is not lympho- 
poietic, or leucopoietic, or erythropoietic. Nor is there any specialised 
secretion. Its activity is seen in changes in the number of small 
thymus cells. The myo-epithelioid cells and Hassall's corpuscles are 
metaplasmic forms of connective cells produced under the action of the 
small thymus cells. 

Phosphorescent Organs of Fishes.* — 0. Steche describes the 
phosphorescent organs of two surface fishes, Anomalops Icataptron and 
PhotobJepharon palpebratus, occurring in the Malay Archipelago. He 
was able to observe them frequently under natural conditions, and to 
keep them alive in captivity for some time. Morphologically, the 
known luminous organs of fishes may be arranged in two series. The 
first series consists of acinous glands ; it begins with open forms, but, as 
specialisation proceeds, these may lose their ducts and become round 
sacs with no lumen, and with hardly any indication that they are made 
up of glandular tubules. The organs of this series usually occur on the 
head or appendages, so that their light illumines the animal's field of 
vision. Those of the first series are much more richly supplied with 
blood and nerves than those of the second. The most important con- 
stituent of the second series is also glandular cells, but these are not 
disposed to form typical glands. They form an accumulation of 
individual cells with no lumen, except in Gonostomidae. They are 
derived from differentiated epidermal cells, which have become united 
and transferred to the cutis. It is still uncertain whether the glandular 
cells are the starting-point of this development, or whether the organs 
are derived from sensory papillae. 

The organs of the second series are smaller but much more 
numerous than those of the first, and they are sparingly supplied with 
blood and nerves. They contain lenticular cells, and occasionally 
gelatinous matrix, differentiations which never occur in the first group. 
The lenticular cells occur even in very primitive organs. Even the 
simple epidermoidal organs show a characteristic orientation to the 
surface of the body in accordance with their position on the trunk, in 
the same way as the most highly developed representative of the group. 

Functionally, the two groups also differ markedly from one another. 
In the first group the luminosity is usually extra-cellular, arising within 
the cells only in the most extremely modified organs. It is, as far as 
observations have shown, constant and very intensive. No kind of 
stimulation has any effect on it. The organs of the second group 

• Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., xciii. (1909) pp. 345-405 (3 pis. and 5 figs.). 



22 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

respond very slowly to stimulation. Their luminosity increases very 
gradually to a maximum and dies slowly down again, fluctuations taking 
place from time to time. The organs of the two forms studied belong 
to the first group, and are most nearly related to the suborbital organs 
of the Stoinatidse. But they differ from these in various particulars, 
especially in that they are complexes made up of a number of open 
glands. They are relatively, and perhaps absolutely, the largest phos- 
phorescent organs occurring in fishes, and this is the more remarkable 
since their possessors do not live in the deep sea. Physiologically they 
are especially important as the only representatives of the first group 
which have been carefully observed. The phosphorescence is extra- 
cellular but intra-glandular, and is constant. A luminosity of the same 
character is unknown anywhere else in the animal kingdom. In a note 
appended to his paper the author discusses Brauers work on the phos- 
phorescent organs of the fishes collected by the German Deep Sea 
Expedition. 

c General. 

Diurnal Variations in Temperatures of Camels.* — J. Burton 
Cleland tested a number of camels recently imported from India to 
Western Australia. The results, though comparatively few, seem to 
indicate that the camel resembles, to some extent, cold-blooded animals 
such as reptiles, inasmuch as there is a wide range of temperature, 
varying with external conditions, the oscillations sometimes being as 
much as nearly 8° F. 

The sub-normal temperature would appear to be due to the coolness 
of the mornings, the lack of active exercise, and the completion of 
rumination some time previously. The higher temperature, found in 
the evening, after hot days, is perhaps to be attributed to the small 
amount of visible perspiration, which seems restricted to an area on 
the back of the neck. This is an adaptation to conserve the animal's 
water-supply in arid regions. 

Immunity of Lerot to Viper's Poison.t — G. Billard injected large 
doses of viper's poison into the lerot {Eliomys nitela), a kind of 
dormouse, and found that there were no ill effects. He observed that 
these little animals are very pugnacious, and fight fiercely with vipers. 
On one occasion a large viper bit a lerot badly in the eye, but there was 
no sign of poisoning. It is usually said that the only Mammals immune 
to snake-poison are the hedgehog, the pig, and the mongoose. 

Colours of Equidse4 — R- I- Pocock discusses the coloration of 
horses, zebras, and tapirs. He thinks that Johnston's view of the 
coloration of Equidae is correct, namely, that they are descended from 
dark-coloured animals patterned with white spots, running into longi- 
tudinal lines originally, and at a later stage in evolution becoming 
arranged in transverse bars over the neck and body. It is this view of 
the question which gives special interest to the coloration of dapple-grey 
horses ; for if the white spots of these horses represent phylogenetically 

* Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.Wales, xxxiv. (1909) pp. 268-71. 
t C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 90-1. 
J Ann. Nat. Hist., iv. (1909) pp. 404-15. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 23 

the white spots of a tapiroid progenitor, we see in this dapple pattern a 
stage in the evolution of equine coloration antecedent to the banded 
zebroid pattern hitherto regarded as the most primitive pattern extant 
in the Equida). 

Albinism.* — A. F. de Seabra discusses the albino types in the 
Lisbon Museum, e.g., mole, rat, mouse, Microtus subterraneus, Oryctolagus 
cuniadus, Cervus axis, Phascolarctus cinereus, house martin, sparrow, 
starling, Buteo vulgaris, Balearica pavonina, Arriblystoma tigrina, and 
two fishes, Batrachus didactylus and Pscudotriacis microdon. 

Struggle for Existence among South African Rats.f — H. Lyster 
Jameson, in the course of a report on a collection of S. African 
Mammals, has some interesting notes on Mm microdon zuluensis Thos. 
and Schw. This multi-mammate rat approaches more nearly in its 
habits to the imported M. decumanus, M. rattus, and M. musculus than 
any other native species. They occur everywhere, and become a pest in 
houses. Although it is fierce and aggressive, it is unable to compete 
with the imported forms, and has consequently disappeared in the larger 
towms, where the latter have become established. 

Jameson has also interesting notes on Mystromys albicaudatus Smith, 
which was found living in a warren occupied by the meerkat (Suricata). 
Litter seems to succeed litter at intervals of thirty-seven days throughout 
the year. The female carries her young about attached to her mammae, 
and if one happens to become detached she picks it up in her mouth 
and carries it back to the nest. The young ones are thus dragged 
about until a week before the next litter is born. Re-impregnation 
occurs a few hours after the birth of the litter. Cats will not eat this 
species, presumably because of some protective secretion. 

Variation in Comb of Domestic Fowl. J — Raymond Pearl and 
Maud Dewitt Pearl give a description of the nature and amount of 
variation normally occurring in a homogeneous pure-bred strain of 
barred Plymouth rock hens in respect of form and size of the comb. 
There appears to be continuous variation, considerable in amount, in 
every definable characteristic of the comb. All degrees of intergradation 
between the extreme conditions of each of the characteristics regularly 
occur. 

Variations in Tropidonotus.§ — Louis Roule has studied variations 
in colour, in the relation of the length of the head to the length of the 
body, and in the scales. He discusses the question of species, and con- 
trasts, for instance, the well-defined, strictly unimodal T. viperinus, and 
the extremely variable plurimodal T. natrix. 

Attitude of Dinosaurs. || — 0. Abel argues against the view that 
Sauropoda had a crocodile-like position of limbs and mode of pro- 
gression. The structural features of the carpus and tarsus are in favour 
of an upright position of the limbs. 

* Bull. Soc. Port. Sci. Nat., 1909, pp. 256-63. 

t Ann. Nat. Hist., iv. (1909) pp. 455-74. 

t Biometrika, vi. (1909) pp. 420-32 (3 pis.). 

§ Arch. Zool. Exper., ii. (1909) Notes et Revue, No. 1. pp. i.-xvii. 

|| Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, lix . (1909) pp. 117-23. 



24 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

^"LunglesslSalamandrid.* — G. Dehaufc adds Euproctus montanus from 
Corsica to the list of Salaniandrida? which occur without lungs (e.g. 
Spelerpes fuscus and Salamandrina perspicillata. He notes that the 
cutaneous poison has no odour ; that it has a sharp and astringent 
taste; and that lizards which bite Euproctus montanus have violent 
convulsions. 

P* Seasonal Migration of Fat in the Frog.f — J. Athanasiu and 
J. Dragoiu have studied the movement of fat in the frog's body at 
different seasons. They find, for instance, that in spring the fat leaves 
the muscular fibres and re-enters the circulation. Part of it is eliminated 
with the urine. 

Studies on Fishes. — L. DolloJ discusses the position of the pelvic 
fins in Teleosteans, with special reference to those which he believes are 
secondarily abdominal, e.g. Atherinida?. 

G. Scnlesinger§ discusses the sagittiform type of body in free- 
swimming fishes, such as Sphyraena tome, Perophis brasilianus, and 
Gyema (drum, and the various ways in which this adaptive shape may be 
attained. 

Capillary Phenomena in Life of Fresh-water Animals. || — F. 
Brocher has studied the following cases : — 

A. Capillary action on animals in which the body is not wetted (or 

very partially). 

I. Where the whole body is not wetted. 

1. The animal lives in air (Hydrometrids, Podurids, 

etc.). 

2. The animal is amphibious, smooth (Gyrinus), or 

covered with hairs which do not wet {Par n us, 
Amalus, Hydrophilids, and Kotonecta). 

3. The animal lives in water (Cladocera, Ostracods, 

and various larvae). 

II. Where small parts of the body are wetted. 

1. The animal lives in air {Podura). 

2. The animal lives in water {Haliplus). 

B. Capillary action on animals in which the body is wetted either 

wholly or in greater part. 

I. Where the whole body is wetted. 

1. The animal lives in water (Hydrophilids, below 

the surface, or larva? of Dixa at the surface). 

2. The animal is amphibious (Nemerteans and 

various larva?). 

3. The animal lives in the air (Ephemerids). 

II. Where parts of the body are not wetted. 

1. Considerable areas {Argyroneta and Hydrophilids). 

2. Small parts (larva? of Gnats). 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 413-14. 

t Tom. cit., pp. 135-7. 

% Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, lix. (1909) pp. 135-40. 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 140-5G (7 figs.). 

|| Revue Suisse Zool., xvii. (1909) pp. 91-112 (8 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 25 

Structure of Asymmetron bassanum Gunther.* — Esther R. Morris 
and Janet Raff describe this species of lancelet which is not uncommonly 
met with at depths up to twenty fathoms in certain rather restricted 
areas along the Victorian coast. The average myotome formula is 
44, 17, 14 ; at the anterior end there is always an incomplete ring of 
pigment, the oral cirri are 24 to 26 in number, and bear sense-papillae, 
the ventral fin is divided into fin-chambers, the gonads are in a single 
series on the right side and vary in number from 25 to 30. Beyond the 
atriopore the atrial cavity is continued back and divides into two caeca 
surrounding the intestine, and separating the ccelom from the body-wall 
except on the ventral surface. This paired post-atrioporal caecum is 
distinctive. 

Relation of Entozoa to Bacterial Disease.f — A. E. Shipley dis- 
cusses a case of the Nematode CystidicoJa farionis in the swim-bladder 
of some rainbow trout, where it seems clear that the Nematode, in 
piercing through the intestinal wall, traversing the intermediate tissues, 
and entering the swim-bladder, had inoculated that organ with bacterial 
disease. He cites other cases of a similar sort, which suggest that the 
Entozoa in our digestive organs may be playing a part similar to the 
biting and piercing Ectozoa, as disseminators of microbes. 

Tunicata. 

Australian Tunica tes.J — H. Leigh ton Kesteven describes a number 
of new forms. A new genus Sidneioides combines the characters of 
Sidnyum and Polyclinwn ; in general features it closely resembles both, 
differing from the former and resembling the latter in having the wall 
of the stomach smooth ; and resembling the former and differing from 
the latter in the absence of an atrial languet. 

INVERTEBRATA. 

Mollusca. 
a. Cephalopoda. 

Beaks of Fossil Cephalopods.§ — Alfred Till finds that it is possi- 
ble to distinguish fossil Nautilus-beaks from others which are " not- 
Nciidilm,' 1 ' 1 and even to distinguish a few " genera " of beaks. 

/3. Gastropoda. 

Development of Pulmonary Cavity in Slug.|| — Paul Heyder has 
studied the development of Avion empiricorum Fer. var. rufus, with 
special reference to the pulmonary cavity. He also discusses the primi- 
tive kidney, the definitive kidney, the heart, and the pericardium. The 
primordium of the pulmonary cavity appears before there is any hint of 
the mantle fold. The branchial cavity of Prosobranchs is a deep 
insinking of the mantle groove ; branchial cavity and pallia! cavity are 

* Proc. R. Soc. Victoria, xxii. (1909) pp. 85-90 (3 pis.). 

t Journ. Econ. Biol., iv. (1909) pp. 61-71 (1 fig.). 

X Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxiv. (1909) pp. 276-95 (3 pis.). 

§ Vein. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, lix. (1909) pp. 123-9. 

|| Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., xciii. (1909) pp. 90-156 (3 pis. and 6 figs.). 



26 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the same. But in Pulmonates (Stylommatophora) there is a clear 
difference between the primary pulmonary cavity and the secondary 
mantle cavity. The lung of Stylommatophora is a special organ ; it is 
not a part of the general mantle cavity, but simply opens into it like the 
ureter or genital duct. The branchial cavity of Prosobranchs is repre- 
sented in Ario ii by the deeply insunk right portion of the mantle 
groove, which for a time receives the opening of the pulmonary cavity. 
Lung and mantle-cavity are quite different, but branchial cavity and 
mantle-cavity are the same. 

Polar Bodies in Arion empiricorum.* — Honore Lams describes 
the large ovum of this slug, the expulsion of the two polar bodies, the 
division of the first, and the reduction of the chromatin. He records 
a number of curious anomalies, such as gigantic polar bodies. 

Topographical Memory in Limpet and in Calyptraea.t — H. Pieron 
hns made numerous observations and experiments showing the " homing " 
habit in both of these Gastropods. He confirms previous work on the 
limpet, and maintains that this animal has a knowledge not only of its 
particular spot, but of its surroundings. By a method of exclusion he 
shows that we must at present believe that the limpet has a topographical 
memory. In Galyptraea there is also evidence of "homing," but it 
seems to be less precise. 

New Family of ^lolididae.J — A. Vayssiere establishes a new genus 
Eliotia, nearly related to Madrella. The two are referred to a new 
family (Madrellidae) within the iEolididae. In the new family the 
dorsal tentacles, or cylindro-conical rhinophores, show round their upper 
half numerous tubular, simple, contractile digitations. There are mas- 
sive, very thick, horny, but somewhat soft jaws, not lamellar as in 
iEolids in general. The new family should be ranked near the Cory- 
phellidae. Yayssiere found the type of his new genus, Eliotia souleyeti, 
among the debris of Polyzoa in the Gulf of Marseilles. 

Adductor Muscles.§ — F. Marceau has made a detailed study of the 
structure and functioning of the adductor muscles in a representative 
series of bivalves. He discusses the nacreous and vitreous portions, the 
contractility, the force exerted, the relation between the structure of the 
fibres and the rapidity of their contraction, and many other points. We 
may refer to the interesting discussion of fibres with smooth helicoidal 
fibrils, which, though quite different from cross-striped muscle, are able 
to contract with equal rapidity. 

S Lamellibranchiata. 

Malacology of Equatorial Africa. || — L. Germain gives an account of 
the fresh-water bivalve Chelidonopsis, a highly evolved genus of Mutelidse. 
He discusses the differences between Mutelidae and Unionidse, and the 
various genera of Mutelidse. He considers the molluscan fauna of Equa- 
torial Africa in general, and seeks to map out the migratory paths of 

* Arch. Zool. Exper., ser. 5, i. (1909) Notes et Revue, No. 1, pp. i -ix. (1 fig.). 
t Tom. cit., pp. xviii.-xxix. J Comptes liendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 636-7. 
§ Arch. Zool. Exper., ii. (1909) pp. 295-469 (4 pis. and 91 figs.). 
|| Op. cit., i. ser, 5 (1909) pp. 1-195 (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 27 

the various types. There is (1) a northern province belonging to the 
Palaearcric region : (2) an equatorial province showing affinities with the 
molluscan fauna of tropical America and tlie Indian peninsula ; and (3) 
an australo-african province, with a very archaic fauna, approaching that 
of Patagonia, Australia, and New Zealand. Many very interesting con- 
clusions are drawn as regards geographical distribution. 

Arthropoda. 
a. Insecta. 

Outlines of Entomology.* — 0. W. CEstlund has published a student's 
guide to the study of entomology. It is of the nature of a synopsis, 
giving terse and clear notes on the various systems in their structural 
and functional aspects, and its particular characteristic is that the 
entomological facts are used to illustrate biological methods and results. 



Case of Defensive Mimicry.! — J. Bourgeois refers to G. A. K. 
Marshall's observation of Geria gamblana (one of the Diptera) visiting- 
flowers in company with Polistes marginalis (one of the Hymen optera). 
He has observed a similar case. He saw Geria conopsoides visiting the 
wounds on the trunk of a horse-chestnut along with the Hymenopteron 
Odynerus crassicornis. Both visited the tree with the same end — to lick 
the exudation, and the Diptera were doubtless protected by their 
Batesian mimicry of the formidable Hymenoptera. 

Studies on Hymenopterous Parasites.:}: — F. Silvestri has studied 
I'rospalta berlesi, a Hymenopterous parasite of Diaspis, and points out 
among other interesting facts that no adult male was found among 
many hundreds of specimens. The species may be permanently par- 
thenogenetic. 

The author also describes the development of Ageniaspis fuscicollis 
Dalm.,§ giving details regarding the maturation, fertilisation and seg- 
mentation of the ova. In the case of the parthenogcnetic ova, as in 
those which are fertilised, there are two polar bodies, which remain 
distinct and form what Marchal called the paranucleus of the tropham- 
nion, dividing directly and irregularly. The protoplasm of the egg 
does not wholly go to form embryonic cells, the peripheral part forms 
an involucre, which Marchal calls the trophamnion. The polar part of 
the ooplasm and the polar bodies have a protective and nutritive role in 
relation to the embryonic part. During the formation of the polar 
bodies the nucleolus remains unchanged in the posterior part of the 
ovum ; it passes into one of the first two segmentation cells, and seems, 
as in Litomastix truncatellus, to have a retardative action on the cell in 
which it occurs, and to retain a determinant of the genital cells. From 
one ovum 10-15 embryos develop. There are three generations in a 
year as in the insect victimised, Prays oUellus Fabr. 

Another form studied by Silvestri is Encyrtus aphidivoras. It is 

* Outlines of Entomology. I. Anatomy and Physiology. Minneapolis, 1909, 
44 pp. t MT. Schweiz. Entom. Ges., xi. (1909) pp. 395-6. 

% Boll. Lab. Zool. Scuola Agric. Portici, iii. (1909) pp. 22-8 (6 figs.). 
§ Tom. cit., pp. 29-85 (2 pis. and 42 figs.). 



28 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

not a parasite of Aphides, as its name suggests, but lays its eggs in dead 
Aphides containing the larva of a Braconid (Aphidius brasskse Marsh), 
or this larva already parasitised by a Cynipid (AUotria vittrix West, var. 
infuscata Kieff). As in Litomastix and Ageniaspis the completely 
developed oocyte of the first order has a nucleus anteriorly and a nucle- 
olus posteriorly. The non-fertilised eggs develop into males. There 
are always two polar bodies, which play no part in development. The 
nuclei divide in segmentation, but the ooplasm remains undivided. 
In the cell which receives the nucleolus and in its descendant cells there 
is a retardation of multiplication. The ovum gives rise to only one 
embryo. 

In Oophthora semblidis, which develops in the eggs of Mamestra 
brasskse, the sequence of events is very much the same as in Encyrtus, 
but the form of the larva is very different. 

Biology of Myrmecophila.* — F. Schimmer publishes a contribution 
towards a monograph of the genus Myrmecophila Latr. He deals 
mainly with the forms found in ants' nests, especially with M. acervorum, 
which was the only species that could be procured alive and kept under 
observation. Only eleven forms of Myrmecophila are known, but these 
are distributed over all five regions of the earth. M. prenolepidis and 
M. americana Sauss. are identical. Wasman's hypothesis of transporta- 
tion is probably the true explanation of the wide distribution of this 
form. Although, as has been already established, all the myrmecophilous 
crickets, with the possible exception of M. americana, may be found 
associated with several hosts, yet in each region of their occurrence a few 
species of ant seem to be preferred ; thus M. acervorum is usually found 
in the nests of Lasius niger, and in suitable localities of Myrmica rubra. 
The reason for this preference is probably an adaptation in the relative 
size of host and guest. The biological reason for the symbiotic relation is 
to be found in the protection and food that the crickets find in the nests 
of their hosts. They get this food in several ways : by licking the auts, 
by robbing the workers returning to the nest with stores, or the newly 
fed larvae, by sharing in the feeding of two or more ants, or, finally, they 
may be fed directly by the ants. The psychological basis of the relation 
lies in the different instinct mechanisms of the guests, not of the hosts 
(instincts of licking, of plundering, of demanding food). The 
mechanisms of movement which come into play in this symbiotic 
relationship are, on the one hand, of a mimetic nature (imitation of 
the ants 1 social instincts : the cleaning instinct, the demanding food by 
raising the forelegs, and the imitation of the movements of the 
antennai) ; on the other hand, they are contrary to the corresponding 
mechanism of movement in the ants (circular, instead of straight move- 
ment, and power of leaping). The co-operation of these two kinds of 
movement secures for the crickets an apparent toleration on the part of 
their hosts. Both mimetic and contrary movements may, under favour- 
able conditions, fail of their effect even with the true host, and they 
may produce the same or a similar effect on strange ants, as they nor- 
mally do on the host. 

* Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., xciii. (1909) pp. 410-531 ( 3 pis. and G figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 29 

The reproduction of 31. acervorum is purely parthenogenetic, that of 
31. americana purely amphigonous. The receptaculum seminis and the 
gland ulae ductus receptaculi in 31. acervorum do not, however, show 
signs of becoming rudimentary. It is probable that in some species 
there is partial parthenogenesis associated with less frequent amphi- 
gonous reproduction (31. ochracea, 31. nebracensis). Oviposition in 
31. acervorum, and probably in other species also, takes place within the 
nest of the host. The eggs are few in number, but of large size ; they 
develop in about six weeks. Oviposition may take place at any time 
except during the winter months. 31. acervorum may pass the winter 
in the nest of the host either as an imago or in the larval state. The 
usual duration of life is two years. This species (and probably others, 
also) follows its hosts when they change their nests. The crickets, like 
the ants themselves, are guided by their sense of smell. In regard to 
structure, the oval-shaped body and the leaping legs may be considered 
as adaptations securing the necessary rapidity of movement ; the 
thickening of the antennas and cerci, the widening of the antennal pits, 
and the thickening of the maxillary palps, as adaptations to the mimetic 
association with ants ; and the hypopharyngeal tufts and hypopharyngeal 
ducts as adaptations for licking up the food. The parasitic habit has 
resulted in an increase in size of the head and intestine, and a slight 
dwindling of the proventriculus ; while the rudimentariness of the 
dioptric apparatus of the faceted eye is probably due to the subterranean 
life. The small number of eggs, the size of the egg, and its abundant 
yolk-supply, are consequent on the diminished selection conditioned by 
the parasitic habit. 

Eyes of Dactylopius.* — F. H. Krecker has made a study of the 
common mealy bug, Dactylopius destructor, with a view to throwing 
some light on the abnormal condition presented by the family Coccida? 
in regard to the number, condition and position of the eyes. He finds 
that the adult Dactylopius has three pairs of eyes, two accessory and 
one primary. The latter are bead-like, and lie on the ventral surface of 
the head. Of the former, an oval pair lies on the ventral surface, and a 
circular pair on the dorsal surface of the head. The accessory eyes have 
a large circular lens, followed by a comparatively thin layer of corneal 
hypodermis, encircling which is a single row of large iris cells. Below 
this there is a crescent-shaped area of polygonal rods, which are 
terminally situated on the retinal cells, and are separated from one 
another by a seam of denser material enlarged at its basal end. There 
is no grouping of rods or of retinal cells. From the proximal end of the 
retinal cells extend the nerve fibrils which join to form the optic nerve, 
which follows the contour of the head to enter the brain laterally. 
Reddish-brown pigment fills the retina, the iris, and also a ridge 
surrounding the eyes. There are no cells which function as pigment- 
cells alone. 

The primary eyes are extremely small. They have no corneal 
hypodermis, no visual rods, no iris. There is a lens below which are a 
few retinal cells. The nerve fibrils leave the cell proximally, and the 

* Zeitsehr. wiss. Zool., xxxix. (1909) pp. 73-S9 (1 pi.). 



30 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

nerve joins that from the accessory eyes almost immediately. The 
stages in the development may be outlined as follows : The earliest 
primordia of the eyes are to be seen in the second nymphal period, when, 
through a proliferation and elongation of the hypodermis, two groups 
of cells are formed, one on each side of the mid-ventral line of the head, 
and also behind each of the antennae on the dorso-lateral surface. By 
the third stage the areas on the ventral surface have increased sufficiently 
to meet, and the cells of the original groups protrude farther. The 
visual rods then appear. They grow out from the distal end of the cells. 
At practically the same time nerve-fibrils appear at the proximal end of 
these cells. After this the cells so far concerned sink below the adjoin- 
ing hypodermis. In the earlier part of the fourth stage this hypodermis 
undergoes a change, and, pushing in from all sides, becomes super- 
imposed on the visual rods, and forms the corneal hypodermis and the 
iris. These then secrete the lens. The depositing of the pigment keeps 
pace with the development of the lens. 

Study of Puss Moth.* — G. Martelli has studied the habits and life- 
history of Dicranura vinula, and discusses their nocturnal activity, the 
death of the male after a first or at most a second copulation (which 
may last 12 hours), the oviposition, the four larval moults. As to 
parasites, it is noted that Eiicyrtus vinulse and Eupelmus sp. attack 
the eggs and Paniscus testaceus the larvae. 

Vitellus in Silkmoth's Eggs.f — C. Vaney and A. Conte have traced 
the history of the vitelline globules that appear in the ovum about two 
hours after laying. Before the differentiation of a blastoderm the 
developing egg is a syncytium. This gives place to defined cells — 
some formative and others vitelline. A chromidial plexus around a 
number of vitelline globules becomes the centre of a vitelline cell. The 
vitelline cells are more than passive sacs ; are not digested by the intes- 
tinal epithelium ; their protoplasmic part absorbs the vitelline globules, 
and a nutritive fluid passes into the embryo by osmosis. 

Intestinal Secretion in Deilephila.f — Deegener gives a detailed 
account of the process of intestinal secretion in caterpillars of Deilephila 
euphorbise, describing seventeen stages. 

Abdominal Sensory Organ in Noctuida3.§ — P. Deegener describes 
n new organ on the first segment of the abdomen in Pseudophia lu/iaris, 
Plusia gamma, etc. A duct leads into a cavity with ridges of sensory 
setae. The function is probably auditory. 

Development of Mid-gut in a Beetle. || — Jan Hirschler has studied 
the formation of the germinal layers and of the gut in Gastroidea 
viridula Deg. One of his general results is that the mid-gut has a 
multipolar origin. It is formed from two endodermic hoop-like 
primordia and several endoderm islands. It is wholly an endodermic 
product. 

* Boll. Lab. Zool. Scuola Agric. Portici, iii. (1909) pp. 239-GO (12 figs.). 

t C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxviii. (1909) pp. 87-8. 

% Arch. Natur., lxxv. (1909) pp. 71-110 (1 pi.). 

§ Zool. Jahrb., xxvii. (1909) pp. 031-50 (1 pi. and 1 fig.). 

|| Bull. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, 1909, pp. 284-308 (1 pi. and 2 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 31 

Seed-infesting Chalcis Flies.* — C. R. Crosby describes tbe minute 
Hymenoptera, known as Ohalcidoidea. He deals with some which depart 
from the usual insect-infesting habits of their relatives and are injurious 
to seeds. The apple-seed Chalcis {Syntomaspis druparum), the sorbus- 
seed Chalcis {Megastigmus brevicaudis), the rose-seed M. aculeatus, the 
Douglas fir-seed M. spermotrophus, and others are described. 

Luminescence in Chironomus.f — J.C.Tarnani observed this in the 
sea of Azov in Ghironomus plumosus and another species, but as it was 
also seen in moribund specimens he thinks it may have been due to 
bacteria. Luminescence has been previously reported in G. plumosus, 
C. tendens, and 0. intermedins, but its nature remains obscure. 

Pulex cheopis in Hamburg Docks. $ — W. Fromme found between 
January 1 and March 28, 1909, no fewer than 199 fleas {Pulex cheopis) 
on fifty-one rats and two mice from ships in Hamburg Docks. The 
importance of this is that P. cheopis carries the plague bacillus. The 
other fleas found on rats are : P. irritans, P. felis, Ceratophgllus 
fasciatus, Gtmopsylla musculi, Sarcopsylla gallinacea. 

Nephrocytes and Pericardial Cells of Orthoptera.§ — L. Bruntz 
shows that the nephrocytes which are able to eliminate ammoniacal 
carmine are not by any means confined to the pericardial region. The 
pericardial mass is certainly most important, but nephrocytes may occur 
in the most diverse places— around the salivary glands, about the fatty 
body, in the buccal appendages, and so on. 

Nuclear Components in Sex -cells of Four Species of Cock- 
roaches. || — Max Morse has compared Peripla/ieta americam, Stylopyga 
orientalis, Blatta germanica, and Leucophsea maderiae. 

An unpaired idochromosome or odd chromosome is present in the 
male of each of these species, and the spermatogonia possess one 
chromosome fewer than the oogonia. 

In the spermatogonia the odd chromosome is not cast out into the 
cytoplasm, as Moore and Robinson state, but passes into half the 
spermatozoa. There is, however, a plasmosome which stains with many 
chromatin dyes that is extruded from the nucleus. 

A side by side conjugation (parasynapsis of Wilson) of the chromatin 
threads during synizesis probably occurs. Two longitudinal divisions of 
the chromosomes thus formed, take place in the two spermatocytes. 
Synizesis is not an artefact, but is a process bearing definite relations ro 
the behaviour of the centrosomes. 

Rabl's theory of individuality and Boveri's " Grundgesetz der 
Zahlenkonstanz " are true as far as the persistence of the odd chromo- 
some, from the beginning of the first spermatocyte stages, through to 
the formation of the spermatozoon, affords evidence. 

* Cornell Univ. College Agric, Bull. 265 (1909) pp. 367-88 (2 pis. and 27 figs.). 
t Eevue Russe d'Entom., viii. (1908) pp. 87-8. See also Zool. Zentralbl., xvi. 
(1909) p. 613. 

t Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., lii. (1909) pp. 243-8 (1 pi.). 

§ Arch. Zool. Exper., ii. (1909) Notes et Revue, No. 1, pp. xvii.-xix. 

|| Arch. f. Zellforsch., iii. (1909) pp. 483-520 (2 pis. and 1 fig.). 



32 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Spermatogenesis in Stenobothrus biguttulus.* — Pol Gerard 
describes the spermatogenesis in this small Acridiid. A testicular tube 
shows the following zones : of spermatogonia, growth, maturation- 
division, spermatids, and of spermatozoa. These zones are described 
in detail. We cannot do more, however, than refer to the author's 
twenty-six general conclusions. A very important point, corroboratory 
of other work, is that half of the spermatocytes of the second order 
have nine chromosomes and half have eight. So in the spermatids, 
half have a heterotropic chromosome which the others lack. 

New Phorid.| — Ivar Triigardh describes the female of Crypto- 
pteromyia jeanssoni g. et sp. n. from Pietermaritzburg. There are 
three ocelli ; the compound eyes have only fourteen facets ; the clypeus 
is as in Puliciphora, that is not very large ; the antennas are 6-jointed, 
of the Phorid type ; the thorax is square, with short pyriform vestiges 
of wings. The new genus is referred to a position between entirely 
wingless forms {Puliciphora, Chonocephalus, and Wandolleckia), and 
Ecitomyia and Xanionotum, which have reduced vestiges of wings. The 
author points out that Thaumatoxena andreinii and Th. wasmanni are 
hardly separable, and that Enderlein's genus Termitodeipnus must be 
included in Thaumatoxena. 

New Primitive Insect.} — A. Schepotieff describes Protopieron 
indicum g. et sp. n. from the Malabar coast, one of the Thysanura, 
nearest Acerentomon and Campodea. The chitinous cuticle is weak ; 
there is no sharp distinction between thorax and abdomen ; there are 
twelve abdominal segments, the first four with appendages ; there are 
no wings, cerci, or special copulatory parts ; the mouth-parts are 
entognathus and suctorial ; there are six Malpighian vessels ; the gut is 
straight ; the tracheal system is without anastomoses and spiral fibres ; 
there are two stigmata ; the nervous system consists of supra-cesophageal 
and sub-cesophageal ganglia, and a ventral chain of eleven ganglia ; 
the genital apertures are paired. 

Schepotieff divides the Thysanura in the following way, regarding 
■Protopieron as most primitive of all : — 

( Lepisniatidas. 
Euthysanura j Gastrothecoidea. 
^Machiloidea. 

Thysanura. Dicellura ... l£ a Pyg id8e .\ 

irrojapygidae. 

i Campodea. 
Prothysanura j Acerentomon. 

\ Protopieron. 

In many respects this new primitive type approaches the Myriopods, 
notably Scolopendrella. 

* Arch. Biol., xxiv. (1909) pp. 543-625 (3 pis. and 11 figs.). 
t Zool. Jahrb., xxviii. (1909) pp. 329-47 (1 pi. and 1G figs.). 
X Tom. cit., pp. 121-38 (3 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY, ETC. 33 

Pests of the Hop.* — F. W. Theobald discusses the hop aphis 
(Pkorodon hamuli), earwigs, a spring-tail (Entomobrya nivalis), the hop 
red spider (Tetranychus althanc), millipedes, and eelworms. 

Monograph on Myrientomata.t — A. Berlese establishes an order of 
Myrientomata for certain primitive genera — Acermtomon Silv., Acer- 
mtulus BerL, and Eosentomon Berl. The first two genera, which form 
the family Acerentoinidae, are destitute of tracheae or stigmata. This 
order of primitive forms presents most affinity with the Pauropod 
Myriopoda. Berlese gives a detailed monographic account. 

f- Myriopoda. 

New Scutigerella.J — A. D. Imms describes Scutigerella subungui- 
culata sp. n. from the Himalayas. It is closely allied to S. unguiculata. 
This is the second record of the Symphyla from India. On account of 
the phylogenetic importance of Symphyla among Myriopods the dis- 
covery of an isolated new species has more than average interest. 

5. Arachnida. 

Structure and Development of Mites. § — Euzio Reuter has made a 
detailed study of Pedicuhrpsis graminum, and has used this as a basis for 
a general treatment of the structure and development of Acarids. We 
have indeed a very important monograph on mites, to which we must 
direct the attention of specialists. His discussion of the epimorphosis 
(not metamorphosis) is very valuable. He proposes a new system of 
sub-orders— Gamasiformes, Trombidiformes, Sarcoptiformes and Erio- 
phyiformes. He finds the nearest affinities of Acarina in Pedipalpi 
(Uropygi). 

Swiss Tardigrada.|| — J. Ammann gives a short account of Macro- 
bint us pol ych set us sp. n., and discusses the occurrence of other Tardigrada 
in Switzerland. He has found nine species of Macrobiotus and three of 
Echiniscus. 

f. Crustacea. 

Minute Structure of Respiratory Organs in Crustaceans. % — 
A. Bernecker has made a comparative histological study of the respira- 
tory structures in BrancJtipus, Apus, Daphnia, Cyclops, Gammarus, 
Phronima, Asellus, Oniscus, Porcellio, Astacus, Pagurus, Argulus, 

Li in til us, and some other forms. 

Phylogeny of Atyidae.** — E. L. Bouvier shows the nature of the 
steps which may have led to the evolution of the Atyidae from the 
Acanthephyridas. The primitive family Acanthephyridas is now abyssal, 
but there were formerly littoral representatives, which became adapted 
to fresh-water conditions. 

* Journ. Board of Agriculture, xvi. (1909) pp. 617-28 (3 pis.), 

t Redia, vi. (1909) pp. 1-182 (17 pis. and 14 figs.). 

% Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool., xxx. (1909) pp. 252-5 (1 pi.). 

§ Acta Soc. Sci. Fennicffi, xxxvi. (1909) pp. 1-287 (6 pis.). 

I! MT. Naturf. Ges. Bern, 1909, pp. 1-15 (2 figs.) 

•J Zool. Jahrb., xxvii. (1909) pp. 513-630 (4 pis. and 1 fig.). 

** Comptes Rendus, cxlviii. (1909) pp. 1727-31. 

Feb. 16th, 1010 d 



34 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

New Amphipods from Eastern Tropical Pacific.*— A. Woltereck 
describes a number of interesting forms, e.g. Ghuneola paradoxa g. et 
sp. n., Mimonecteola diomedese g. et sp. n., and Microphasma agassizi 
g. et sp. n. He also discusses the " reflector-organs " of Scypholanceola, 
which he regards as adaptations to reflect the luminosity of other creatures 
or faint gleams from above. 

Terrestrial Species of Talitrus from Victoria.f— 0. A. Sayce 
describes 7\ kershawi, sp. n., and gives a fuller description than hereto- 
fore of T. sylvestris, which ranges from the seaboard to the tops of the 
highest mountains. The two species are often together. 

New Species of Leperditia.J — Frederick Chapman describes a new 
Ostracod, Leperddia shear sbii sp. n., in shaly micaceous mudstone 
(Silurian) from Yass, New South Wales, the first species of this genus 
to be described for Australia. 

Double Nauplius.§— E. Chatton describes a thoroughly double 
nauplius in Ophioseides joubini, parasite of Microcosmus sabatieri, a rare 
occurrence among Crustaceans. Double embryos of the lobster have 
been described. 

Notes on Rhizocephala.||— Max Kollmann found Farthmopea on 

Galathea dkpersa, and notes that in the nauplius there is a closed 
median endodermic vesicle. There is usually no trace of endoderm in 
the nauplius of Rhizocephala. 

Kollmann also found Lenseodiscus yalathese on Galathea intermedia, 
and points out that it has little influence on its host. 

He calls attention to cases of several specimens of Suceidina on one 
crab, and from the way in which the roots unite in one system the 
author coucludes that there is a sort of " polyembryony," one embryo 
Driving rise to several " individuals." 



n l,i "& 



Generation-cycles in Cladocera.lf — L. Keilhack maintains that the 
maximum number of parthenogenetic generations is hereditarily deter- 
mined for each species. The external conditions, which are never quite 
uniform, supply the stimulus to the onset of the sexual period, and may 
do so before the normal time. In artificial conditions with uniformity 
of temperature and nutrition, pathological phenomena set in after the 
normal maximum of parthenogenetic generations. 

Rudimentary Antennary Gland in Cladocera.** — V. H. Langhans 
notes that the glands demonstrated by Fischel, by intra-vitam neutral- 

* Bull. Mus. Cornp. Zool., Harvard, Hi. (1909) pp. 145-68 (8 pis.). 

t Proc. R. Soc. Victoria, xxii. (1909) pp. 29-34 (2 pis.). 

t Tom. cit., pp. 1-5 (2 pis.). 

S C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 482-4 (1 fig.). 

|| Arch. Zool. Exper., ser. 5, i. (1909) Notes et Revue, No. 2, pp. xhu.-xlix. 

(2 figs ) 

f Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol., ii. (1909) pp. 238-40. See also Zool. Zentralbl., 

xvi. (1909) pp. 624-5. 

** Interuat. Rev. Hydrobiol., ii. (1909) pp. 182-5 (1 pi.). See also Zool. Zen- 
tralbl., xvi. (1909) p. 626. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICBOSCOPY, ETC. 35 

red staining', correspond mainly to the terminal saccule of the shell- 
s-land, but that in some cases, e.g. in Daphnia, there is a rudiment of the 
antennary gland. 

Annulata. 

Eye of Alciopa cantrainii.* — R. Demoll gives a detailed account 
of the structure of the eye. and a discussion of its functioning. Among 
the many points of interest we may note : (a) that there is here the 
most primitive form of an optic chiasma ; (b) that there is in the middle 
of the retina a spot of acutest vision ; and (c) that the Alciopid optic 
ganglion should he compared rather to the retinal ganglion of Verte- 
brates than to the optic thalamus. 

Artificial Parthenogenesis in Aricia.t — K. Kostanecki has induced 
parthenogenetic segmentation in the eggs of Aricia by subjecting them 
to acetic acid or nitric acid solutions, with subsecpient transference to 
hypertonic solutions. Only a few of the ova segmented, and few got 
beyond three or four cells. In some cases six and eight cells were 
formed. The nuclear phenomena were carefully observed. 

Peruvian Polychsets.J — Ch. Gravier gives an account of a collection 
made by Dr. Rivet at Payta on the Peruvian coast. Of the nineteen 
species nine are new. Some of the extensions of distribution are 
striking : thus Stijlaroides (Trophonia) capmsis Mcintosh previously 
reported from the Cape and from the Red Sea, is now recorded from 
Ceylon. 

Disease in ArenicolaJ — II. B. Fantham and Annie Porter note 
that few pathogenic bacteria have been described from the digestive 
tract of Invertebrates, and that it is, therefore, of interest to record 
Bacillus arenicolse sp. n. from the lumen of the gut and within the 
intestinal epithelium of Armicola ecaudata. The bacillus causes lesions 
in the gut-epithelium, and may hasten the death of the Annelid. 

Blood-vessels of Australian Earthworms. || — Gwynneth Buchanan 
has studied nineteen species of MeijascoUdes, Megascolex, Diporochaeta, 
Perichseta, etc. The number of hearts seems to be fairly constant, three 
being the usual ; they may be always distinguished from mere swollen 
vessels by their connection with the supra-intestinal (except in Diporo- 
chueta davallia) ; their function is mainly propelling. There is no 
evidence in Australian forms of the existence of a subneural vessel. 
The ventral blood-vessel is always single ; the dorsal is usually single. 
The blood supply to the alimentary canal and related structures at 
the anterior end is generally more or less in the form of a plexus. 
These are a few of the points in this paper. 

Musculature of Hirudinea.^I — Louis des Arts has studied numerous 
types. The element is the unicellular muscle-fibre, which has a con- 

* Zool. Jahrb'., xxvii. (1909) pp. 651-86 (1 pi. and 4 figs.). 

t Bull. Iiit. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, 1909, pp. 238-53 (16 figs.). 

X Arch. Zool. Exper., x. (1909) pp. 617-59 (3 pis.). 

§ Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., lii. (1909) pp. 329-34 (1 pi.). 

|| Proc. E. Soc. Victoria, xxii. (1909) pp. 59-84 (4 pis.). 

i Jenaisclie Zeitschr. f. Natunv., xliv. (1909) pp. 415-66 (3 pis.). 



36 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

tractile cortex and an internal protoplasmic substance with the nucleus. 
The cortex consists of fibrils and interfibrillar substance, and the fibrils 
consist of finer fibrils. Usually the shape is fusiform, but there are 
various departures from the type. Muscle-bridges occur especially in 
the intestinal musculature. Many interesting details are recorded ; thus 
in the muscle-cells of the dorsal blood-vessel of Pontobdella, the con- 
tractile cortex shows circular striping externally, while the internal 
striping runs in the longitudinal direction of the blood-vessel. 

Sagitta enflata.* — Paul Hallez discusses the characters of a species 
of Sagitta common at Portel, which he refers to 8. enflata Grassi, though 
it has a smaller and more slender body, with never more than five 
anterior teeth, and with the ventral ganglion nearer the anterior fin. 

Nematohelminthes. 

Studies on Nematodes.!. — 0. von Linstow describes Hedruris 
squamata sp. n. from the stomach and intestine of the Chelonian, 
Clemmys guttata. 

New Nematodes.^ — 0. von Linstow describes the following new 
species from German S.W. Africa : Heteralcis schebeni, from the intestine 
of Gynktis penicillata ; H. poculum, from the francolin ; Physaloptera 
brevkauda, from the same ; and Oxyuris polgoon, from Xerus setosas. 

Ascaris mystax in Lion.§— G. Vallillo reports the abundant occur- 
rence of this species in the mucous membrane of the stomach and 
intestine of a lion. Only one previous case has been recorded (Linton). 

Structure and Life-history of Rhabditis brassicae.|] — Rowland 
Southern describes this new species of Nematode from a rotten turnip. 
The two sexes were found in approximately equal numbers, but the 
" females " are really self-fertilising, protandrous hermaphrodites. The 
species may be in process of transition to a dioecious condition. All 
stages between oviparity and viviparity occur, but the latter is rare. 
The evidence goes to show that Rhabditis brass icse does not originate 
disease, though they quickly destroy the turnips if they get into the soft 
tissues through an injury to the epidermis. 

Trichinosis in Posen.lf— Otto Busse found in Posen that in 96 
bodies of people over sixty, no fewer than 18 showed encapsuled 
Trichinae — that is, about every fifth. He shows in an interesting 
indirect way that the parasites may remain living within their capsules 
for more than forty years. 

Microfilariae of Fowl.**— C. Mathis and M. Leger find that in the 
fowls at Tonkin there is an abundance not only of Microfilaria mansoni, 
but also of another species which they record as M. seguiiii sp. n. 

* Arch. Zool. Exper., ii. (1909) Notes et Revue, No. 2, pp.xxix.-xxxiii. (5 figs.). 

t Arch. Naturges. lxxv. (1909) pp. 63-6. 

X Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., 1. (1909) pp. 418-51 (4 figs ). 

§ Op. cit., Ii. (1909) pp. 461-2. 

fi Journ. Econ. Biol., iv. (1909) pp. 91-5 (1 pi.). 

«j[ Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., lii. (1909) pp. 368-77. 

** C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 407-9 (1 fig.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 37 

Two Filarise in Snake's Blood.*— F. d'Herelle and H. Seidelin 
describe from the blood of Boa imperatoris from Yucatan a new micro- 
filaria, named as Filaria imperatoris sp. n., and from another snake 
(Leptophis mexicanus) another new species, named as F. Minchei. 

Larva of Echinorhynchus in Tench. f — J. K. Riquier found en- 
capsuled larvae of Pomphorhynchiis Jsevis Zoega (= Echinorhynchus 
proteus Westr.) in the liver, intestinal wall, and peritoneum of Tinea 
vulgaris. They are also known from minnow, stickleback, etc. When 
transferred to pike the larvae grew into mature forms in sixty-five days, 
and attained their maximum size in about three months. 

Platyhelminthes. 

New Species of Davainea.|— 0. von Linstow describes D. pro- 
r i ncial is sp. n. from Francolinvs adspersus from German S.W. Africa, 
and has some notes on Davainea in general. The genus is readily 
distinguished, for there is no rostellum, and the apex shows two closely 
adjacent rings of very minute and very numerous hammer-shaped hooks. 

Excretory System in Triclads.§— Al. Mrazek has found in Flanaria 
riff a, Dendrorochon lacteum, Polycelis nigra, and other forms, convincing 
evidence that there is a richly branched system of excretory vessels in 
the pharynx. 

New Trematode from Man || — E. Rodenwaldt describes Fasciolopsis 
fullebornii sp. n. f rom an Indian. Three specimens were passed. The 
generic diagnosis of this type of fluke is as follows : — Large Fasciolinre 
with smooth unarmed skin and tongue-like shape ; large digitate testes 
one behind the other ; the two divisions of the gut are unbranched ; 
the ovary is small, finely branched, and lies along with the shell-gland 
about the middle of the body ; there is a relatively large cirrus-pouch. 
Four species are known. Attention must be directed to the exceedingly 
^ine coloured plate. 

Incertee Sedis. 

Polyzoa of Madeira.^" — A. M. Norman gives a list of 139 species of 
Polyzoa from Madeira and neighbouring islands. He has himself found 
114 of the 139, and has added 39 to those previously recorded for this 



region. 



Echinoderma. 

Teeth and a Lantern in Echinoneus.** — Alexander Agassiz calls 
attention to the interesting discovery (by M. Westergren) of the presence 
of teeth and a fully-developed lantern in young specimens (3, 7, and 
4 '25 mm. in length) of the West Indian Echinoneus semilunaris. 
" This is perhaps one of the most interesting recent discoveries in the 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 409-11 (1 fig.). 
t Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., lii. (1909) pp. 248-52 (3 figs.). 
\ Torn, cit., pp. 75-7 (2 figs.). 

§ Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., xciii. (1909) pp. G4-72 (5 figs.). 
| Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., 1. (1909) pp. 451-61 (1 pi. and 3 figs.). 
1 Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), xxx. (1909) pp. 275-314 (10 pis.). 
** Amer. Journ. Sci., xxviii. (1909) pp. 490-2 (1 pi.). 



38 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

domain of echinology, considering the relationship hitherto recognised 
of Echinoneus to the Atelostomata." The presence of teeth would 
transfer the genus to the vicinity of such types of the exocyclic 
Gnathosfomata as Holectypus, Discoidea, Pygaster (Echinoconidae), and 
more remotely to the Conoclypidae. "The demonstration of this 
interesting relationship would be interesting in itself, but its great 
importance lies in the fact of the disappearance of the masticatory 
apparatus at a very early age. Young specimens of Echinoneus measur- 
ing 5 - l mm. in length, and but slightly larger than those on which 
teeth were observed, have no teeth or lantern, and nothing is left of 
them but the presence of small auricles, so that in the older and adult 
stages of Echinoneus its relationship to the Spatangoids is in no way 
modified." 

Luminosity of Ophiuroids.* — Iwan Sokolow has studied this in a 
number of northern species — Ophiacantha bidentata Retzius, Ophioscolci 
glacialis Midler and Troschel, Ophiura sarsi Liitken and Ophiopholi* 
aculeata h. 

The luminescence is not spontaneous, but is induced by mechanical, 
chemical, thermal and other stimuli. It is intra-cel hilar, no luminous 
secretion being produced. It is seen on the spines and on the plates of 
the arms, especially on the lateral plates. As separated arms and even 
spines may be luminous, it is evident that the central nervous system is 
not indispensable. The basis of the luminosity seems to be a fluid 
substance, which, on treatment with fresh water, may diffuse out over 
the whole arm from specially luminous points. There is no luminosity 
after death. Microscopic examination reveals the presence of numerous 
glandular cells with granular contents and also homogeneous fibrous 
strands, both giving a characteristic brown-violet colouring when treated 
with thionin. But the meaning of the strands is doubtful. 

Systematic Position of Rhabdomolgus Novas -Zealandise.f — 
S. Becher discusses this species, which Dendy and Hindle established 
in 1007, and gives many reasons for separating it off from Rhabdomolgus, 
and establishing for it a new genus which he calls Kolostoneura, in 
reference to the great reduction of the radial nerves. 

Coelentera. 

Movements and Sensory Reactions of Veretillum cynomorium.J 
Georges Bohn describes the behaviour of this colony (Pennatulacea), 
which passes from complete relaxation to turgidity and from insensi- 
bility to exquisite sensitiveness. The chemical equilibrium of a cell 
which has been expanded is destroyed ; the return to equilibrium shows 
two successive phases, the first of " sensibilisation," the second of 
" desensibilisation." 

Development of Lucernarids.§ — W. "Wietrzykowski finds that a 
planula emerges from the egg and lives freely for a day or two. They 

+ Biol. CentralbL, xxix. (1909) pp. 637-48 (6 figs.). 

t Arch. Zool. Exper., i. ser. 5 (1909), Notes et Revue, No. 2, pp. xxxiii.-xliii. 
(1 fig.). t C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 484-7 (1 fig.). 

§ Ccmptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 746-9. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 39 

settle down in crowded groups, combining to capture nauplii. The 
ectoderm breaks at the apex, the naked endoderm protrudes and begins 
to work on the dead nauplius. The larva becomes four-lobed and gives 
off planuliform buds, which also settle down. The larva elongates and 
forms two tentacles, and then a third and a fourth. 

Study of Cerianthus oligopodus.* — Paul Cerfontaine gives a detailed 
account of this species from the Gulf of Naples, which he established in 
1891. He proves the occurrence of spontaneous scissiparity. Artifi- 
cially cut specimens are also capable of regeneration, and the same is 
true in C. solitaries. 

Hydroid parasitic on Hydroid.t — Ernest Warren describes Lafcea 
dispolians sp. n., which was found in two cases growing up inside the 
hydranth of Sertularia bidens Bale, replacing the original polyps by its 
own. It is interesting in many ways. " It exhibits in a striking manner 
the struggle of the host to squeeze out the parasite and shut it off from 
its depredations. It also illustrates the economy exercised by the para- 
site in the secretion of perisarc." For there is practically no perisarc 
within the shelter, but a substantial one is formed when the parasite 
passes beyond its host. 

Porifera. 

Phylogeny of Amphidiscophora.J — R. Kirkpatrick discusses the 
relations of the two suborders of the Hexactinellida — namely Amphi- 
discophora and Hexasterophora, and inquires into the characters of 
their common ancestor. In an interesting discussion of amphidisks, 
he points out that the teeth, with all their wonderful developments, 
have arisen in response to the necessity for keeping the spicule orientated 
at right angles to the opposing planes of tissue, and of restoring it to 
its position when displaced. They serve, in fact, as the points d'appui 
for bands of contractile tissue passing from the parallel planes to the 
teeth. It is suggested that dwellers in earthquake countries might, 
with advantage, follow the methods adopted by the Amphidiscophoran 
sponge, for in each case there is the same problem to solve. 

Protozoa. 
Microzoa in Shales from New South Wales. § —Frederick Chapman 
describes a number or Foraminifera, and Ostracods, from a hard, grey, 
calcareous shale ; e.g. a Miliolid, Nubecidaria nitida sp. n., and two 
Rotalids, Discorbina cymbuloporoides sp. n., and Pulvinulina insiynis 
sp. n. Two new Ostracods Beyrkhia mesozoka sp. n., and Darwinula 
australis sp. n., are described. 

Haemoproteus orizivorae.|| — G. Anschiitz describes this new species 
of Hsemoproteus from the rice-bird, or padda (Spermestes orizivora). It 
shows two methods of schizogony in unpigmented forms, and also a 
division of pigmented macrogametes. 

* Arch. Biol. xxiv. (1909) pp. 653-707 (1 pi.). 

t Ann. Natal Museum, ii. (1909) pp. 105-112 (1 pi. and 2 figs.). 

% Ann. Nat. Hist., iv. (1909) pp. 479-84 (5 figs.). 

§ Rec. Geol. Survey, N.S.W., viii. (1909) pp. 334-8 (1 pi.). 

|| Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., Ii. (1909) pp. 654-9 (2 pis.). 



40 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Leucocytozoon from Chinese Partridge.* — M. Leger and C. Mathis 
describe Leucocytozoon mesnili sp. n., an intracellular parasite from the 
blood of Franco/ 7 n m sinensis. The macrogametes and microgametes 
are described. There is some resemblance to Hsemamocba majoris from 
the tit, and to a Leucocytozoon from the African francolin. 

New Parasitic Amoeba in Man.| — M. Koidzumi describes Entamoeba 
nipponica sp. n., found in the intestine of Japanese in advanced cases of 
amoebic dysentery. He compares it with other species and discusses 
(1) the binary fission ; (2) the schizogony and development of mero- 
zoites ; and (3) the encystation and chromidium formation. 

New Amoeba in Man. J — M. Elmassian describes Entamoeba minuta 
sp. n., associated with E. coli, in a patient suffering from dysentery. It 
shows asexual mitotic division into four, and autogamy followed by 
sporulation. 

Malaria in Birds of Greece. § — Jean P. Cardamatis has made a 
study of Danilewsky's Halter idiuni, which he has found in fifty-three 
species of birds in Greece. He examined 936 specimens and found the 
parasite in 25 '64 p.c. The transmission is effected by mosquitos. 

Haemoprotozoa in Birds of New South Wales.|| — J. Burton Cleland 
and T. Harvey Johnston deal with Halteridivm ptilotis sp. n., from 
Ptilotis chrysops ; H. philemon sp. n., from Philemon corniciihitus ; 
H. geocichlse sp. n., from the ground thrush, Geocichla lunulata ; 
H. meliornis from the honey-eater, Jleliomis novae-hollandise. They 
call attention to the very striking resemblance between spermatozoa of 
the honey-eaters and spirochaete-trypanosomes. 

Symmetry of Embryo Acinetse.f — B. Collin discusses the sym- 
metry and orientation of the embryos of Ghoanophrya, ToJcophrya, 
Acineta, and other forms. There is a constant morphological axis 
perpendicular to the plane of vibratile cilia. This axis determines a 
superior or apical pole, corresponding to the oral pole of a discotrichous 
Infusorian, and very often bearing an oblique row of long cilia (rudi- 
mentary adoral zone). The inferior or basal pole shows granular 
secretions, and sometimes a sucker ; this is the point of fixation and of 
stalk-formation, if there is a stalk. It corresponds to the aboral pole, 
carrying the " scopula " in the ancestral Vorticellids. 

Hypertrophied Acinetae.** — B. Collin has studied the modifications 
induced in Tokophrya and Acineta by over-feeding. These organisms 
appear to be very suitable subjects for such experimentation, and some 
interesting phenomena of degenerative growth are described. 

* Ann. Inst. Pasteur, xxiii. (1909) pp. 740-3 (1 pi.). 

t Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., li. (1909) pp. 650-3 (7 figs.). 

J Op. cit., lii. (1909) pp. 335-51. 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 351-67 (2 pis. and 3 figs.). 

|i Journ. R. Soc. N.S.W. xliii. (1909) pp. 75-96 (2 pis. and 2 figs.). 

*|f Arch. Zool. Exper., ii. (1909), Notes et Revue, No. 2, pp. xxxiv.-lx. 

** Comptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 742-5. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 41 

New Species of Opercularia.* — B. Collin describes Opercularia 
fanrei sp.n., which he found on the water-beetle Hydrophilus piceus. 
The interesting retractile apparatus is homologous with the contractile 
cord in Vortkella and Carchesium. There is a muscular bundle formed 
by the convergence of basal myonemes, a more or less differentiated 
plasmic axis, and an integumentary investment. But in Vortkella an 
elongation of the aboral pole is continued within the stalk, whereas in 
Opercularia an elongation of the body is inserted on the top of the stalk. 

Pathogenic Role of Balantidium coli.t — E. Brumpt submits ex- 
perimental evidence showing that this well known parasite of man 
(causing dysentery or colitis) is pathogenic in monkeys (Macacus cyno- 
molgus). It may form a white lining along the whole large intestine. 
The author transferred it from monkey to pig, and from pig to monkey. 
He observed transverse fission, encystation of single individuals, and 
encystation of two conjugating individuals. 

Symbiosis exhibited by a Ciliated Infusorian. \ — E. Faure- 
Fremiet has studied one of the Trichodinidse, which lives in the 
intestine of the mollusc Gyclostoma elegans. It was described long 
ago (1858-61) by Claparede and Lachmann, as Trichodinopsis paradoxa, 
and has been recently (190(3) studied in detail by R. Issel. 

"What previous observers have' taken to be vibratile cilia, are spirilla 
living on the surface of the Infusorian. Moreover, the " enigmatical 
body," described as enveloping the pharynx, is in the pharynx, and 
consists of bacteria. There is an absolutely constant symbiosis of three 
organisms : an ecto-parasitic spirillum, an internal symbiotic bacterium, 
and the Ciliate. The. author notes that the genus Trichodinopsis must 
be suppressed in favour of Trichodina. 

Tentacle-like Processes on Opalina dimidiata.§ — M. von Linden 
describes the occurrence of processes, sometimes as long as the animal 
itself, on specimens of Opalina from the frog. They bore a fringe of 
fine cilia ; they were sometimes forked ; they persisted for at least 
18 hours. Are they atypic locomotor structures, or pathological 
altogether, or have they to do with division ? The observer inclines to 
the third view. 

New Parasites of Dendrocceium.|| — E. Andre describes Ophryoglena 
parasitica sp. n., an Infusorian living in the gut of the Planarian 
Dendrocmlum lacteum. It differs very slightly from the free-living 
species of the genus, and shows little traces of the effects of parasitism, 
unless it be in the disappearance of the pharynx. 

Trypanosoma lewisi in Rat-louse. If — E. Rodenwaldt found no 
Trypanosomes in lice (Hsematopinus spinulosus) which had sucked 
uninfected rats. He does not believe in Crithidia hsematopini Patton, 
a supposed parasite of the louse apart from the rat. But lice which 

* Arch. Zool. Exper., ii. (1909), Notes et Revue, No. 2, pp. xxi.-xxix. (2 figs.). 

t C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 103-5. 

j Tom. cit., pp. 113-4. 

§ Biol. Centralbl., xxix. (1909) pp. 648-50 (11 figs.). 

|| Revue Suisse Zool., xvii. (1909) pp. 273-80 (3 figs.). 

«|[ Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., lii. (1909) pp. 30-42 (3 pis.). 



42 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

suck infected rats soon show Crithidia-\ike and Leptomonas-Hke forms — 
stages of Trypanosoma leu-isi. 

Studies in Trypanosomes. — David Bruce, A. E. Hamerton, H. E. 
Bateman, and F. P. Mackie* describe Trypanosoma inyens sp. n. from 
reed-buck, bush-buck, and ox in Uganda. In stained preparations this 
huge Trypanosoma may measure as much as 122 microns. "When alive 
it moves slowly and deliberately across the field of the Microscope, with 
a fine rippling, or at times a broader undulating movement. 

C. H. Martin and Muriel Eobertsonf found in the intestine of the 
fowl a form which they identify with that described by Eberth as 
Trypanosoma eberthi ( = Spirocliseta eberthi Liihe). Along with it there 
was a TricJtomonas-\ike form and a Monocercomonas-like form. All 
three may be phases of one life-cycle. 

C. Mathis and M. Leger* describe Trypanosoma calmettei sp. n. from 
Tonkin fowls, in which it is of rare occurrence, and apparently without 
pathogenic importance. 

New Trypanosome.§ — Jivoin Georgewitch describes Crithidia simu- 
h'se sp. n. from a specimen of the fly, Simulium columbacmsis, in Servia. 

Chytridiopsis.|| — L. Leger and 0. Duboscq report four new species 
allied to Schneider's Cltytridiopsis socius. They occur in the intestinal 
epithelium of Arthropods. Their affinities remain obscure, but it is 
suggested that they are microsporidia of minute size with spherical 
spores. 

Two New Parasites from Tench. % — M. Elmassian describes Coc- 
cidium ronxi sp. n. — its schizogony, macrogametes and microgametes, 
conjugation, sporonts, cysts and sporocysts. Each cyst has four sporo- 
cysts, and each sporocyst two sporozoites — one of the features of the 
genus Coccidium (Eimeria). Another very different parasite occurred 
along with the Coccidian in the middle intestine, and in some cases 
profoundly modified the Coccidian. This second parasite is described 
as Zoomyxa legeri g. et sp. n. There are four different modes of 
schizogony and there is a sexual process. The systematic position of 
Zoomyxa is obscure. In some ways it resembles Chytridiopsis, in other 
ways it suggests a derivation from the lower Mycetozoa. 

New Spirochaet from Fresh-water.**— K. Niigler describes Spirocliseta 
flexibilis sp. n., which he found in foul mud. There is no undulatory 
membrane, but there is a characteristic ectoplasmic " periplast fibril " 
twisted in a close spiral. This new form is nearest other free-living 
species, such as 8. plicatiUs Ehrenberg. S. balbiani Certes, S. anadontse 
Keysselitz, and S. pinnae Gonder. 

* Proc. Roy. Soc, Series B, lxxxi., No. B549, pp. 323-4 (1 pi.), 
t Tom. cit.", pp. 385-91 (1 pi.). 

t C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 452-4 (1 fig.). 
§ Tom. cit., pp. 480-2 (1 fig.). 

|| Arch. Zool. Exper., i., Series 5 (1909) pp. ix.-xiii. (2 figs.). 
<f Op. cit., ii. (1909) pp. 229-70 (2 pis.). 
** Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., 1. (1909) pp. 445-7 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 43 



BOTANY. 

GENERAL, 

Including the Anatomy and Physiology of Seed Plants. 

Cytology, 
including' Cell-Contents. 

Chromosomes in Oenothera.* — R. II. Hates has crossed (Enofhera 
lata with (E. gigas and finds 21 chromosomes in the somatic cells, 7 of 
which are of maternal origin and the remainder of paternal origin. At 
the time of reduction the chromosomes segregate, half the germ-cells 
receiving 10 chromosomes and the other half 11 chromosomes, but 
sometimes the distribution is irregular, and this irregularity accounts 
for a variation in the number of chromosomes in the individuals of a 
race. The segregation of chromosomes in the germ-cells of the hybrid 
proves that there is no pairing and separation of homologous chromo- 
somes, but separation into numerically equal groups. It seems that 
there are two general methods of reduction in plants, viz. a side-by-side 
pairing of chromatin threads to form a double spirem, and an end-to-end 
arrangement to form one single spirem which afterwards splits longi- 
tudinally. The behaviour of the chromosomes in (Enothera favours the 
view of their continuity from generation to generation. If it can be 
proved that the chromosomes of (Enothera are " of unequal hereditary 
value," the author believes that it would be possible to account for the 
mutations in (E. Lamar xlciana. 

Mitosis in Synchytrium.t — In previous papers R. F. Griggs showed 
that the nuclei of Synchytrium were derived very largely by amitosis ; 
the present paper describes the mitoses which follow and their correla- 
tion with the amitoses. As in ccenocytes generally he found that all the 
nuclei in a cyst pass into mitosis simultaneously. In the resting nuclei 
the chromatin is concentrated in a globular mass, the karyosome ; the 
spirem is formed from the compact karyosome and differs in several 
respects from the amitotic spirem, though often they are indistinguish- 
able ; the spindle seems to be differentiated from a spirem strand ; some 
of them show nucleoli lying in the nuclear cavity beside the spindle, in 
others no nucleolus is present ; there are no centrosomes ; asters are 
formed at the poles and form the nuclear membrane. There are con- 
stantly four chromosomes, and the author discusses at great length the 
nature of these ; he concludes that there is no morphological continuity 
in the chromosomes, and that the nucleus rather than the chromosome 
is the morphological unit. 

* Eot. Gaz., xlviii. (1909) pp. 179-99 (3 pis.). 
t Tom. cit., pp. 339-58 (3 pis.). 



44 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Study of Chitin.* — D. H. Wester finds that chitin, as found in 
animals and plants, is identical : it never gives albumen-reaction, and is 
not coloured by iodine solution. Chitin is not digestible, and as much 
of the estimated nitrogenous substance of fungi is chitin, the nutritive 
value of fungi is seriously called in question. 

Wester's work was largely taken up with the localisation of chitin 
in animals and plants. It is of frequent occurrence in fungi : Miner 
and Phycomyces nitens have considerable quantities in their cell-walls, 
but no cellulose ; the spores of Peziza aurantia show more of it, while in 
the fungus itself it is abundant. Results were very varied in lichens, 
according to the species examined ; age also was a factor in the case : 
the author considers that the symbiotic conditions probably affect the 
quantity of chitins. Complications were also caused by the presence 
of licheuin. None of the substance was detected in Cyanophyeere or 
in Myxomycetes, except in the spores of Plasmodiophora Brassicee. 
Bacteria were free from chitins, as were all the other plants examined. 

Structure and Development. 

"Vegetative. 
Wood Structure in Pinese.t — I. W. Bailey has investigated the 
structure of wood in the Pinere, and the following appear to be 
the most notable features. In Picea the wood-parenchyma occurs in the 
outer parts of the summer wood, and in a few instances is strongly 
developed. It is only poorly developed in Larix and Pseudotsuga. In 
all three genera septate tracheids occur which clearly show the transition 
from wood-parenchyma. In Pinus similar tracheids occur, but wood- 
parenchyma is rare. There are spiral thickenings of the tracheids in 
the spring and summer wood of Picea and Pseudotsuga, and they are 
also found in Pinus. Such thickenings also occur in the marginal 
tracheids, and those interpersed in the medullary rays of Picea, Larix, 
and Pseudotsuga. Pinus appears to be distinct from other modern 
Pineae, but the nut and foxtail pines have certain details in the structure 
of their wood which resemble the structure of the wood in Picea, Larix, 
and Pseudotsuga. The author concludes "that the identification of 
woods and fossils of Picea, Larix, and Pseudotsuga is an extremely 
difficult undertaking." 

Wild and Cultivated Dioscorea in Tropical Africa.^ — A. Chevalier 
contributes a note upon the yams of tropical West Africa. In the 
virgin forests, near the sources of the Niger and Chari, the author has 
observed large quantities of a wild plant which he regards as an 
undoubted spontaneous species of Dioscorea prehensilis. In the neigh- 
bourhood of Baoute and the Ivory. Coast thirty races of yams are 
cultivated for food and medicinal purposes, and these are all included 
under the three species D. latifolia, D. (data, and D. prehensilis. These 
races are distinguishable by the gradation and frequency of the spines 
on the stem, the ramification and length of the brauches, and the 
colour, size, and form of the leaves. The most distinguishing charac- 

* Arch. Pharm., ccxlvii. (1909) pp. 282-307. See also Bot. Zeit., lxvii. (1909) 
pp. 293-4. t Bot. Gaz., xlviii. (1909) pp. 47-55 (1 pi.). 

X Comptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 610-12. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ET C. 4.~> 

teristic, however, is the variation in the size, form, etc., of the tubercles. 
An interesting biological difference between the wild and cultivated 
forms of I), prehensilis is the presence in the former of a thick bush i if 
spiny rhizomes at the summit of each tubercle. These rhizomes grow 
round the tubercle below the soil and sometimes protrude beyond the 
surface. Such rhizomes do not occur in the cultivated forms. 

Studies on Roots.* — H. von Alten has studied the root structure of 
various herbaceous and woody Dicotyledons, and finds that in the former 
the old roots are successively replaced by younger ones, but that the 
differences in structure found in old and young roots are due to 
difference in age, and not, as stated by Tschirch and others, to difference 
of function. Both nourishing and attaching roots have the same 
structure at the same age. On the other hand, the roots of woody 
Dicotyledons show a difference in structure consequent upon difference 
in function. The lower part of the main root and its attached roots are 
at first similar to those of herbaceous plants, but later on two distinct 
kinds of roots are to be noticed, viz., attaching roots and nourishing 
roots. The author considers that herbaceous plants have typically 
dimorphic roots, while heterorhizy is characteristic of woody plants. 
The present paper concludes with some general remarks upon the 
structure of the central cylinder in the two kinds of roots, the number 
of protoxylems, and the formation of hypodermis, cork, and endodermis. 

Studies in JCginetia.f — S. Kusano publishes an account of his studies 
of the embryology of JEginetia indica, and the results obtained tend to 
throw light upon our present knowledge of phanerogamic parasites. JEiji- 
netia shows transitional states between autophytic and advanced parasitic 
life, and the chief results of the author's observations are as follows :— 
The seed will only germinate under the stimulus of the host-root, the 
stimulus being due to some substance excreted and diffused throughout 
the soil. After being kept dry for two years the seed loses its power of 
germination. The host-plant may be a Vascular Cryptogam, Gymno- 
sperm or Angiosperm, and the stimulant excreted is probably common 
to all the higher plants. Although all roots can stimulate the germina- 
tion, tlje seedlings will only develop upon certain natural hosts. The 
first stage of germination is the transformation of the epidermal cells at 
the radical end of the embryo into hair-tendrils, and no further develop- 
ment takes place until attachment to the host is effected. When this is 
accomplished, spherical tubercles arise in the neighbourhood of the 
tendrils, owing to some stimulant provided by the host. Some tubercles 
are differentiated into a primary haustorium, and the remainder into 
root and shoot. 

Reproductive. 

Gametophytes and Fertilisation in Juniperus.| — A. M. Ottley 
has studied the development of Junvperus communis and J. virginiana 
with the following results. The staminate cones have many sporophylls 
with microsporangia on their under surface. The female cones have 

* Bot. Zeit.,lxvii. (1909) pp. 175-98 (2 pis. and 8 figs.), 
t Bot. CmtralbL, xxiv. (1909) pp. 286-300 (2 pis.). 
\ Bot. Gaz., xlviii. (1909) pp. 31-46 (4 pis.). 



46 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

three ovules, each subtended by a sporophyll. Soon after pollination 
the pollen-grain divides into antheridial cell and tube-cell ; in J. com- 
munis the former does not divide until the following April, while in 
J. virgmiana it divides in the same year and fertilisation takes place 
in June or July. The generative cell and the stalk-cell pass into the 
tube, and the nucleus of the stalk-cell comes to lie near the tube 
nucleus. When the pollen-tube has reached the archegonia, and just 
before fertilisation, the generative cell divides to form two similar 
hemispherical sperm-cells. The macrospore mother-cell appears one 
year after pollination, and the first mitosis is heterotypic. The female 
prothallium develops, as in other Gymnosperms, by free cell-formation. 
The archegonia] group arises from superficial cells at the micropylar end 
of the prothallium, and the group is surrounded by sheath-cells. On 
the same day that the generative cell divides, the central cell of the 
archegonium divides, but the ventral canal nucleus disintegrates without 
forming a separate cell. It appears that Juniperus is of more modern 
origin than many other Gymnosperms. 

Ovule, Gametophytes and Embryo of Widdring-tonia.* — W. T. 
Saxton publishes a preliminary account of the life-history of Widdring- 
tonia cupressoides, and the chief facts cited are as follows : — The genus 
Widdringtonia is quite distinct from both Gallitris and Tetraclinis. 
The male gametophyte is the most reduced type known among the 
Gymnosperms, and no division of the microspore takes place until after 
pollination. Many megaspores are formed, but only one forms a 
prothallus, the early development of which is perfectly normal. Over 
fifty archegonia are formed, and these are arranged in groups upon the 
upper half of the prothallus, near the margin and on the side down 
which the pollen-tube grows. Jacket-cells are poorly developed or 
absent, and the archegonia are apparently without neck-cells. The 
central nucleus of the archegonium gives rise to the egg nucleus and a 
ventral nucleus. By karyokinesis the prothallus-cells become binucleate 
or multinucleate, and this condition is persistent. The haploid number 
of chromosomes is six and the diploid number twelve. Probably two 
archegonia are fertilised by two sperms from one pollen-tube. The 
development of the embryo is normal, and a resemblance to -that of 
Sequoia sempervirens is to be noted. The details of development 
indicate an approach to those of the Gnetales, especially Tumboa 
{Welu'itschia). 

Embryo-sae of Smilacina stellata.f— F. McAllister has studied 
the embryo-sac of Smilacina stellata, and finds that the mother-cell 
divides to form four nuclei, separated by walls to form four megaspores, 
but that owing to absorption of these walls, the four nuclei occupy a 
common cell-cavity. By division eight nuclei are formed, which sub- 
sequently organise to form the embryo-sac. Thus four megaspore cells 
combine to form one embryo-sac or gametophyte. This seems to 
suggest that in the embryo-sac of the Lilies the first four nuclei are 
really megaspores. 

* Bot. Gaz., xlviii. (1909) pp. 1G1-78 (1 pi. and 3 figs.). 
f Tom. cit., pp. 200-15 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, M1CKOSCOPY, ETC. 47 

Embryo-sac of Habenaria.* — W. IT. Brown has investigated the 
embryology of Habenaria ciliaris, and finds that a single hypodermal 
cell develops without division into a megaspore mother-cell. The latter 
gives rise to two daughter-cells, both of which form two megaspores. 
There is a probability that in some cases more than one megaspore 
takes part in the formation of the embryo-sac. The latter contains an 
egg, two synergidae, two polar nuclei, and three transitory antipodal 
nuclei. The primary endosperm nucleus results from the fusion of the 
polar and second male nuclei, but quickly degenerates. There is no 
evidence in favour of the view that the endosperm is the result of a 
sexual process. Subsequent to fertilisation a long suspensor and a 
spherical embryo are formed. 

Embryology of the NympheaceEe.f — M. T.Cook contributes a note 
upon the development of the Nynipheaceae. The author finds that 
extra embryo-sacs are frequently formed ; the two nuclei resulting from 
the first division of the endosperm nucleus are separated by an extremely 
delicate membrane ; the endosperm is formed from the nucleus at the 
micropylar end of the sac ; the nucellar tube is subject to great variation ; 
a suspensor may or may not be formed, and varies much in character. 

Physiology. 
Irritability. 

Stimulation of Storage Tissue by Zinc Sulphate.^ — B. Silberberg 
has investigated the effects produced upon storage tissues by solutions of 

zinc sulphate. The strength of the solution varied from— to — , and 

1 A (j 

the plants used were Brassica oleracea, Solanum tuberosum and Trago- 
■pogon porrifolius, the best results being obtained with Solanum. The 

results of the experiments show that solutions of strength and 
produce the best results in stimulating the formation of periderm and 

callus in the meristematic tissues, while solutions of strength — to — 

° 8 1 

retard the development. It is also found that solutions of strength 

and stronger solutions inhibit the respiration of storage tissues, while a 

N 
solution of — stimulates the respiration. 

General. 

Vitality of Pine Seeds. § — W. C. Coker contributes a short paper 
upon the delayed opening of pine-cones and the vitality of the seeds 
contained therein. The author draws attention to Pinus attenuata, 

* Bot. Gaz., xlviii. (1909) pp. 241-50 (12 figs.). 

t Tom. cit., pp. 56-60 (1 pi.). 

+ Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxxiii. (1909) pp. 489-500 (4 figs.). 

§ Amer. Nat., xliii. (1909) pp. 077-81. 



48 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

P. muricata, P. contorta, and P. chihuahuana, and refers to the explana- 
tion usually given as to the advantage of retention of the seeds until the 
tree or branch is dead, in places liable to large forest fires. A brief 
account is then given of experiments performed upon seeds of P. sero- 
tina in June of the past year. The figures show that even in seeds 
fourteen years old vitality was often retained ; in one experiment Gl 
such seeds were planted and 21 germinated, while in another experiment 
(57 seeds were planted and 11 germinated. The author draws attention 
to the excellent conditions offered by closed cones for the preservation 
of seeds, e.g. exclusion of spores of bacteria and fungi, maintenance of 
requisite humidity, etc. 

Ferments and Latent Life of Resting Seeds.* — J. White has 
studied the seeds of wheat, barley, and other cereals, and finds that they 
contain diastatic, fibrin-digesting and ereptic ferments in appreciable 
amount. The duration of the power of germination varies much, being 
only about five years in rye, but eleven to sixteen years in wheat. The 
ferments retain their activity for a long time after the power of germina- 
tion has gone, sometimes for twenty years or more. A dry climate 
favours the longevity of stored seeds. It is not possible to say whether 
germination can take place in the absence of an enzyme, but no seeds 
which had lost the power of germination could be made to germinate by 
the addition of an enzyme, and where the germination was weak the 
addition of an enzyme seemed to retard germination. Erepsin is more 
abundant than pepsin, and is more abundant in rye than in any other 
cereal ; it is almost absent in maize. After six hours' exposure to a 
temperature of ',) ( J°-100° 0. vitality is destroyed, but the ferments are 
unaffected. The latter are destroyed by one hour's exposure to a dry 
heat at liJ0°-131° C. Diastase is most resistant to heat. Exposure to 
liquid air may delay germination and decrease the percentage, but does 
not kill the seeds or affect the ferments. The respiration of carbon- 
dioxide by seeds stored in air when thoroughly dried, is inhibited when 
the desiccation is only partial. 

New Flora of Krakatau.f— D. H. Campbell gives an interesting 
description of the new flora of Krakatau. The latter, during the 
volcanic outbreak of 1883, was covered with lava to the depth of 
80 metres. At the suggestion of Treub, the island has been kept under 
observation since 188G. In that year it was found that the Cyano- 
phyceae had formed thin black films over the surface of the ashes, and 
in this substratum several ferns and a few phanerogams had established 
themselves. In 1897 the island was covered with a characteristic 
vegetation — e.g. Ipomoea pes-aiprse, and other strand plants. There 
were no trees and very few shrubs, but ferns predominated. The latest 
expedition records that the present flora includes 187 species belonging 
to all the principal groups. Ferns are no longer predominant, and the 
forest vegetation is rapidly increasing, but there is a scarcity of Bryo- 
phytes. A single specimen of Cycas rircimilis was found. 

* Proc. Roy. Soc, lxxxi. (1909) pp. 411-12. 
t Amer. Nat., xliii. (1909) pp. 449-G0. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 40 

Balls of Vegetable Matter from Sandy Shores.*— Y\\ F. Ganong 

publishes a further contribution on this subject, and describes the com- 
position of balls from fresh and sea water. The well-known Position ia 
balls on the shores of the French Riviera were described as long ago as 
1870 by Weddell, but their nature had been investigated, though never 
publicly made known, by the botanists of Antibes. The present author 
quotes the various literature on the subject, describing the composition 
of balls of pine-needles, of Posidonia with or without alga? and sponge 
remains, some of Zostera, some (in English lakes) of larch-cones, some 
(in the lakes of the Engadine) of fir-cones and fir-needles, some (in the 
Lake of Geneva) of wood-shavings. Recently, too, marine balls have 
been reported from Nova Scotia, composed of alga3 — mainly Dictyosiphon, 
Desmarestia, Ectocarpits, Ghordaria, and Chorda — with some other acces- 
sory materials. Again, balls have been recorded from a lake in Michigan 
composed of tamarack leaves ; and, finally, Professor Burrows, of the 
Michigan Agricultural College, describes balls which consist almost wholly 
of hair from a tannery located on the shore of Lake Michigan. The 
wave-formed balls, therefore, occur in the sea as well as the lakes of 
fresh water, and they are made up of the most diverse materials. The 
one feature they have in common is their mode of formation, which de- 
pends upon the rolling action of the submersed parts of waves working 
upon fibrous substances resting lightly upon sandy bottoms. 

CRYPTOGAMS. 

Pteridophyta. 
(By A. Gepp, M.A., F.L.S.) 

Structure of Fossil and Living Ferns.t— F. Pelourde publishes 
the results of some comparative researches on the structure of the fossil 
and living ferns. His conclusions are that the fibrovascular system of 
the fronds permits four principal types of structure to be distinguished, 
between which are found transitions often very clear. 1. The first type 
possesses two woody bundles of Hippocampus-iovm united by their 
extremities at various levels (Pteris cretica, Nephrodiwn molle, etc.). 
2. In other cases, at the base of the petiole a certain number of bundles 
are found arranged in an arc opening upwards, the upper two having a 
xylern of triangular form with the upper point prolonged by an appendix 
recurved within (Aspidium, Flicheia esnostensis). 3. Or again, the petiole 
encloses a single arcuate bundle open on the upper side (living and fossil 
Osmundaceaj). This arc is sometimes transformed into a closed outer 
band around a transverse inner band composed of one or more bundles 
(Matoniaceas, living and fossil Marattiacea?). 4. The vascular system of 
the frond is composed of a solitary bundle in the form of an arc opening 
downwards (Anachoroptcris, certain Schizrcaceas). 

Anatomy of Matonia sarmentosa.J— R. H. Compton gives an 
account of the anatomy of Matonia sarmentosa based on material 

* Rhodora, xi. (1909) pp. 149-52. 

t Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 9, x. (1909) pp. 115-47 (figs.). 

% New Phytologist, viii. (1909) pp. 299-310. 

Feb. 16th, 1910 e 



50 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES DELATING TO 

collected in Sarawak by J. Hewitt. He describes the structure of the 
rhizome, the bifurcation of the rhizome, the anatomy and morphology 
of the frond, the root, node and protoxylem. He states reasons for 
rejecting E. B. Copeland's separation of the species from Matonia and 
placing it in a new genus Phanerosorus. 

Centripetal Xylem in Equisetufti.* — A. J. Eames treats of the 
occurrence of centripetal xylem in Equisetum. In summing up his con- 
clusions he states as follows. In Equisetum the development of the 
xylem of the vegetative stem is centrifugal throughout. The internodal 
bundle does not consist of three united bundles, but is a unit in struc- 
ture representing the much reduced internodal primary bundle of the 
Calamites. The axial bundles of the strobilus show conditions inter- 
mediate between those in the vegetative stems of the Calamites and of 
Equisetum. The vegetative leaf -trace does not arise solely from the 
protoxylem-strand of the internodal bundle, but from all three parts of 
the xylem. The discovery of cauline centripetal wood in Calamites 
petfyciirensis Scott affords a link between Equisetales and Sph en ophy Hales 
and possibly with the Lycopodiales. Centripetal wood was doubtless 
well developed in the most primitive Equisetaceous forms, but disappeared 
early in the history of the series. Yet this ancestral character survives 
in the leaf-trace. (This conservatism for ancestral characters makes 
the leaf-trace of great value in questions of phylogeny.) Centripetal 
wood is now known to exist in all the large groups of Vascular Crypto- 
gams. The formation of xylem adaxially from the protoxylem is a 
cryptogamic character. Bundles containing both centripetal and cen- 
trifugal xylem are not characteristic of any one group of Vascular 
Cryptogams, as, for example, of the ferns, nor in the higher plants can 
they be of other phylogenetic value than as indicating general crypto- 
gamic affinities. 

Imbedded Antheridia in Dryopteris and Nephrodium.f — C. A. Black 
gives a resume of recent papers by Farmer and Digby, by Lang and by 
Yamanouchi, on apogamy in ferns, and details her own investigations 
as to the development of the imbedded antheridium in Dryopteris stipu- 
laris and Nephrodium molle. In brief her results are that she found 
no apogamy in either species, although she repeated the cultural condi- 
tions of Yamanouchi. On many of the prothallia she found an imbedded 
antheridium similar to those of lower ferns. In D. stipularis she found 
in addition some deep-seated structures, half of which consisted of 
sperms and the remainder of large cells. In Nephrodium molle a deep- 
seated egg- and ventral canal-cell were found. 

Prothallium and Embryo of Danaea.ij: — D. H. Campbell publishes 
a preliminary note on the prothallium and embryo of Dansea, after 
studying a fine series of specimens of D. Jenmanii, D. elliptica and 
D.jamaicensis, obtained in Jamaica in July 1908. He briefly indicates 
the characters of the prothallium, the archegonia and antheridia, and the 
embryo with its early cell-divisions and rudimentary organs. 

* Ann. Bot.,xxiii. (1909) pp. 587-601 (pi.). 

t Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxxvi. (1909) pp. 557-71 (3 pis.). 

\ Ann. Bot., xxiii. (1909) p. 691. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 51 

Germination of Salvinia natans.* — W. Arnoldi treats of the mor- 
phology of the germination of Salvinia natans. He describes the 
germination of the microspore and of the macrospore ; the development 
of the female prothallinm ; some experiments on the germination of the 
macrospores. He draws the following conclusion : The prothallium of 
Salvinia is by no means an independent formation, notwithstanding the 
deceptive presence of chlorophyll in its cells. It is only an organ of 
the macrospore, as in Marsilia, and even Selaginella and Isoetes, which 
serves only to bear the archegonia, and is incapable of nourishing the 
growing spore-bearing generation. 

Botrychium ternatum and its Allies.| — R. C. Benedict publishes 
the third of his studies in the Ophioglossacege — namely, a key to those 
species or forms of Botrychium which belong to the group B. ternatum, 
the characters of which are as follows : Bud hairy, common stalk hypo- 
gean, short, usually less than one-quarter the height of the plant ; 
spores maturing from July to October. This represents the genus 
Siipiridium of Lyon. The group is composed of thirteen members. 

New Species of Lycopodium.J — W. Herter publishes some additions 
to his recent monograph § of Urostachys, a sub-genus of Lycopodiam. 
He gives descriptions of seven new -species, and indicates the position 
which they should occupy in the monograph cited. 

North American Fern-flora. ||— L. M. Underwood, R. C. Benedict, 
and W. R. Maxon, contribute the first sections of the fern volume of 
the North American Flora — namely, the families Ophioglossacese (three 
genera — Botrychium, Ophioglossum, Cheiroglossa) ; Marattiaceae {Dansea, 
Marattia) • Osmundacea3 ; Ceratopteridacea ; Schizaaaceaa (Lygodium, 
Actinostachys, Schizsea, Lophidium, Anemia) ; Gleicheniacere {Dicran- 
opteris) ; Cyatheaceae (Gyathea ; six other genera to be published here- 
after). English descriptions are given, and careful keys to genera and 
species. 

North American Ferns. — W. A. Poyser % gives an account of the 
fern-flora of Pennsylvania, with some introductory remarks upon the 
physical geography of the State. He enumerates 101 species and 
varieties. W. C. Coker ** gives an account of Lycopodium adpressum f . 
polyclavatum, discusses its peculiarities, and argues in favour of the 
specific difference between L. adpressum and L. alopecuroules. W. N. 
Clute, on the other hand, contends that L. adpressum is a mere eco- 
logical form of L. alopecuroules . A. Prescott|| gives some simple rules 
for the pronunciation of fern names. W. N. Clute %% discusses and figures 
Asplenium ebeneum i.furcatum, a new forked form of the Ebony fern. 

D. L. Dutton §§ describes Osmunda cinnamomea f. augusta, a new form. 

E. W. Vickers|||| calls attention to the sparse distribution of Asplenia in 

* Flora, c. (1909) pp. 121-39 (figs.). t Torreya, ix. (1909) pp. 197-200. 

X Hedwigia, xlix. (1909) pp. 88-92 (pi.). § Englei's Bot. Jabrb. Bcibl. 98. 

|| New York Bot. Gard., xvi. pt. 1 (1909) pp. 1-88. 

^f Fern Bulletin, xvii. (1909) pp. 65-83. ! ** Tom. cit., pp. 83-5 (pi.). 
ft Torn, cit., pp. 86-7. tt Tom. cit., pp. 88-9 (fig.). 

§§ Tjm. cit., pp. 89 90. |||| Tom. cit., pp. 97-99. 

E 2 



52 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

montanum in Ohio, and describes a new station — namely, a remarkable 
rock, in the Mahoning River. A. Prescott * writes of the Grape ferns 
(Botrychium), and briefly sketches the morphology and habitat of 
B. obliquum and its varieties. F. J. A. Morris, f writing from Port 
Hope, Ontario, shows how little foundation there is for the common 
impression that Ophioglossum vulgatum is rare and local. If sought for 
in suitable places the species is abundant, especially in upland meadows, 
and is often associated with Nephrodium thelypteris. E. J. Winslow % 
records the occurrence of Botrychium lanceolatum in Vermont at an 
elevation of 1500 feet, and almost on the Canadian frontier. 0. E. 
Jennings § records a new locality, near Iviukiang in Central China, for 
Hymmophyllum denticulatum, and sketches its distribution as previously 
known — namely, the Indo-Malayan region. W. N. Clute || gives further 
particulars and figures of Polystichum acrostichoides f. multi/idum. He 
also supplies a resume of E. B. Copeland's observations on humus- 
collecting and mvrmecophilous ferns in the Philippines ; and a bio- 
graphical notice of Thomas Minot Peters, a senator and judge in 
Alabama, a botanical colleague of Ravenel and Curtis, and discoverer of 
the rare Trichomanes Petersii. In a chapter headed " Pteridographia " % 
is a series of notes on Asplenium montanum, Osmunda cinnamomea, 
Schizsea pusilla, Poly podium vulgare auritum, on a form of the Lady- 
fern with red stipes, etc. 

Ferns of the Dutch West Indies.** — I. Boldingh includes in his 
Flora of the Dutch West Indian Islands, a list of the Pteridophytes 
amounting to fifty-two species. The islands explored were St. Eustatius, 
Saba, St. Martin, and also St. Croix. The collections examined are 
those of Suringar, van Grol-Meyers, Lionaron, and Boldingh. Altitudes 
and general distribution are given. 

Spruce's South American Ferns. ft — E. Rosenstock publishes a series 
of thirty-eight descriptions of new species and varieties of ferns collected 
by the late Richard Spruce on the Amazons, in East Peru and in Ecuador, 
founded on specimens preserved in the herbarium of Prince Roland 
Bonaparte. About 500 of Spruce's specimens were thus submitted to 
Rosenstock for determination. Though many of them have been named 
and described by Hooker, Baker and others, yet a number of them have 
never been determined, and some in the light of modern research are 
found to differ from the species to which in the past they have been 
referred. 

Ferns of the Congo.JJ — E. De Wildeman publishes a list of the 
Pteridophytes of the lower and middle Congo, amounting to 103 species 
and two varieties. Among them are eight new species described by 
H. Christ. 

* Fern Bulletin, xvii. (1009) pp. 100-2. + Tom. cit., pp. 102-5. 

% Tom. cit., p. 105. § Tom. cit., pp. 106-7 (fig.). 

|| Tom. cit., pp. 99-100 (pi.) and pp. 107-12. f Tom. cit., pp. 112-20. 

** Leiden: Brill, 1909, pp. 1-12. 
tf Fedde's Repertoriiun, vii. (1909) pp. 289-310. 
XX Ann. Musee Congo Beige, Bot., ser. 5, iii. (1909) pp. 23-41. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 53 

Ferns of Ruwenzori.* — R. Pirotfca gives an account of the ferns 
collected on Mount Ruwenzori during the expedition of Prince Luigi 
Amadeo of Savoy, Duke of the Abruzzi. Twenty-five species are 
enumerated, and were all collected in the Mobuku Valley. Four of 
them are new to science. 

Ferns of the Far East.f — H. Christ publishes an account of some 
collections of ferns from the Far East, viz. :— 1. 122 species collected 
in Corea by Faurie and Taquet ; nine of these are new, and are accom- 
panied by descriptions. 2. Twenty-five species from the island of 
Saghalien, collected by Faurie, including two new species. 3. Eighty- 
three species collected in the neighbourhood of Pin-Fa, in South China, 
by Cavalerie, eleven being new species. 

New Species of Malesian and Philippine Ferns. i—H. Christ pub- 
lishes descriptions of five new species of ferns collected in Luzon, 
Penang, Perak and Saigon, by C. G. Matthew in 1906-8. 

Bryophyta. 

(By A. Gepp.) 

Relationship of Liverworts to Ferns.§ — E. Lampa discusses the 
relation .between the liverwort-thallus and the fern-prothallium. It is 
held by many that the liverworts, though apparently more simple 
morphologically, yet developmentally stand higher than the mosses. 
This view is supported by the fact that the anatomical structure of the 
liverworts represents a degree of organisation superior to that of the 
mosses. A further confirmation of this view is to be found in the onto- 
genesis, which indicates that the apparent morphological simplicity of 
the liverworts is to be regarded as a reduction from a higher degree of 
development. The author throws further light upon this by her inves- 
tigation of the germination of the spores of PeUolepis grandis, and finds 
therein evidence of a clear relationship of the liverworts to the ferns. 

Sporogonium and Gametophore of Conocephalum.|] — M. Graham 
describes her investigations as to the development of the sporogonium 
of Conocephalum conicum, and also of the adjacent tissues of the 
gametophore, in order to determine the origin of the sheath which 
surrounds and incloses the calyptra, and to prove whether it bears any 
relation to the pseudo-perianth found in Marchantia and Preissia. She 
finds that this sheath in Conocephalum is not to be confused with the 
pseudo-perianth of Marchantia and Preissia which arises from cells 
immediately beneath the base of the archegonium, cells descended from 
the original cell from which the mother-cell of the archegonium was cut 
off. The sheath in Conocephalum arises from the gametophore tissue 
surrounding the archegonium, and consists of several distinct lamina? 
which are morphologically walls of air-chambers. The function of tlie 
sheath is doubtless to protect the sporogonium through the winter. 

* II Ruwenzori. Milan : Hoepli, 1909, i. pp. 477-83. 

t Bull. Acad. Internat Geogr. Bot., xviii. (1909) pp. 146-78. 

J Journ. Linn. Soc, xxxix. (1909) pp. 213-15. 

§ Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr., lix. (1909) pp. 409-14 (figs.). 

|| Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxxvi. (1909) pp. 615-23 (4 pis.). 



54 SUMMAKY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Liverwort Types for Elementary Classes.*— W. C. Coker raises a 
protest against the use of so complex and difficult a plant as Marckantia 
for demonstrating- to students the structures concerned in the alterna- 
tion of generations. The complex thallus, the stalked and still more 
complex archegoniophores and antheridiophores, the hidden antheridia, 
the small sporophytes concealed amid delicate vestments difficult to 
distinguish, render Marckantia a formidable object to the beginner. 
Far better and simpler is such a type as Pallavkinia Lijellii, in which 
by one section may be shown a longitudinal view of the young sporo- 
phyte and its envelopes, and a transverse view of the gametophyte. 
The male plant is equally simple, and the antheridia large. For showing 
the structure of the capsule and the relation of its contents, he prefers 
a species of Frullania. Here the elaters extend the whole length of the 
capsule and alternate with single rows of spore mother-cells. 

Physiology of Liverwort-rhizoids.f— H. "Weinert has investigated 
the growth and the phenomena of tropistic movements of the rhizoids 
of thalloid liverworts under the influence of light and gravity, also the 
physiology of the tuberculate rhizoids. He finds that bright light is 
favourable to the development of the rhizoids. In the dark no 
spreading rhizoids are formed, and fewer than usual of the appressed 
tuberculate rhizoids. Blue and red lights suppress the formation of 
rhizoids. Injured rhizoids do not undergo regeneration. As regards 
the gemma?, their production of rhizoids is extraordinarily sensitive to 
the access of water, and the outgrowth of rhizoids on the under side is 
induced by gravity ; they are also negatively heliotropic. The thallus 
rhizoids are little or not at all affected by unilateral illumination. Red 
rays have a strongly negatively heliotropic effect upon the gemmaj- 
rhizoids. Blue light has no heliotropic effect on the rhizoids. Gravity 
has no effect upon the rhizoids of thallus or gemmae, either at the time 
of growth or afterwards. The appressed tuberculate rhizoids are not 
tropistically affected by either lateral illumination or gravity. 

Biology of the Archegonium and Calyptra. J— F. Zielinski dis- 
cusses the biology of the archegonium and of the calyptra of mosses. 
In summing up his results he says :'— 1. The opening of the archegonium 
is due to separation of the apical cells, brought about by the slime 
imbedded in the cells. 2. The calyptra separates itself from the 
vaginula along a zone specially prepared for the purpose. Many mosses 
have an inflated calyptra which serves as a water-store, from which 
the embryo in early stages can absorb water. 3. The greater or 
lesser development of the calyptra is proportional to the greater 
or lesser susceptibility of the sporogonium to external injury, especially 
to drought. Sporogonia which have been robbed of their calyptra 
accelerate their growth and strive to attain maturity. 4. The formation 
of hairs on the calyptra is the clearest expression of the above-mentioned 
susceptibility, and bears a direct relationship to the habitat of the 
respective mosses. It is sometimes liable to become obscured by other 

* Torreya, ix. (1909) pp. 233-6 (figs.). 

t Bot. Zeit., lxvii. (1909) pp. 201-31 (figs.). 

X Flora, c. (1909) pp. 1-36 (figs.). 



ZOOLOGY' AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 55 

fiictors. 5. Among hairy calyptras several types may be distinguished 
which are characteristic of the different groups : for instance, the 
unicellular basal descending hairs of the Campylopodeae, the multi- 
cellular ascending hairs of the Orthotrichaceae, the long felted hairs of 
Polytrichum. In most groups a progressive development of the hairs is 
to be observed. 

Life-history of Funaria hygrometrica.* — P. Janzen gives a com- 
plete account of the life-history of Funaria hygrometrica, with much 
detailed text and copious figures. He describes his carefully watched 
cultures, the spores, the protonema. moss-bud, rhizoids, bulbils, root- 
parasites ; then the moss-plant, its branching, stem, leaves, manner of 
inflorescence (male and female), calyptra, embryo, sporogonium, seta, 
capsule, stomata, peristome. His notion was to give the whole story 
without any gap. 

Accessory Leaves in Milium and Orthomnion.t — H. N. Dixon 
gives an account of some undescribed structures in Milium, namely, 
certain accessory leaves or leaf-like appendages, which occur here and 
there among the normal leaves on the stoloniform branches. He 
describes their characters in M. affine, M. cuspidatum, M. rostratum and 
other species, also in Orthomnion crispum, 0. trichomitrium, and 0. Loheri. 
He also publishes some notes on the genus Orthomnion with a view to 
clearing away the confusion which surrounds the species. The type is 
0. crispum, from which the other original species 0. trichomitrium is 
distinguished by little save its organs of fructification. To 0. crispum 
must be referred as a species the Milium subcrispum of C. Miiller. The 
M. pseudocrispum of C. Miiller must, however, be referred to M. rostratum. 
The nerve structure in Orthomnion is simpler than in most species of 
Milium. 

Monograph of the Hepaticge.f— F. Stephani continues his mono- 
graphs of the genera of hepatics, giving a Latin description of every 
species. A large percentage of the species are new to science. The 
genera treated of are as follows : — Mastigobrgum (74 species, a continua- 
tion), Mastigopelma (2 species), Acromastigum (1), Micropterygium (9), 
Mgtilopsis (1), Psiloclada (?>), Sprucella (1), Lepidozia (218), Arach- 
niopsis (3), Bleptiarostoma (12), Ohandonanthus (8), Anthelia (3), 
Herpocladium (3), hot actus (49), Schisma (71), Lepicolea (5), Chseto- 
colea(l), Mastigoptiora (10), Ptilidium (5), Lepidolsena (9), Trichoclea (32). 
The greater part of this work has been published in the Bulletin de 
THerbier Boissier, a periodical now defunct. 

Muscinese of Yorkshire.— T. Sheppard,§ in his account of the visit 
of the Yorkshire Naturalists to Sedbergh, publishes some notes on the 
rare mosses collected ; for instance, Campylopvs atrovirens var. gracilis 
Dixon, Rhabtloicoisia denticulata and others at Cautley Spout, Tricho- 
stomum crispulum in Helm Gill, and Pterogonium gracile by the River 
Lune. 

* Schrift. Natur. Ges. Danzig, xii. heft 3 (1909) pp. 1-4-1 (many figs.), 
t Rev. Bryolog., xxxvi. (1909) pp. 141-7. 

X Species Hepaticarum. Geneve et Bale : Georg et Cie., 1909, iii. pp. 517-G93 ; 
iv. pp. 1-64. § Naturalist, No. 633 (1909) pp. 345-8. 



56 SUMMARY- OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

W. Watson* records the occurrence of Aplozia riparia vax.potamophila 
Bernet in an upland stream in Greenfield, Yorks., and gives a list of the 
species with which it is was associated. The variety had been pre- 
viously recorded from Scotland and the Isle of Man. The Greenfield 
plant is unusually large, and much resembles A. cordifolia. 

New Scottish Mosses.f — J. Stirton gives an account of some new 
and rare mosses from the West of Scotland He describes as new 
species the following : — D&ranowdssia sutherlandi, Mollia thrausta 
(= 31. tortuosa var. fragilifolia Lorentz), M. intumescens,\M. conspersa, 
31. subbifaria, Grimmia subaquila, Anactangium marinum, Dichodontium 
fidvescens. He calls attention to the structure of the acumen of the 
leaf of 31. tortuosa ; records the discovery of fruiting specimens of 
31. inclinata for the first time in Britain ; and announces that his own 
31. aggregate/, is probably merely a curious form of M.fragilis. He also 
publishes some further details about 31. terrena. 

Norwegian Moss-flora. :}: — I. Hagen issues the third portion of his 
treatise on the moss-flora of Norway, and treats of the Grimmiacea?, 
Timmiacea?, Schistostegaceae, and Hedwigiaceae, providing keys to the 
genera, sub-genera, and species. The remarks on distribution are in 
Norwegian ; but the critical systematic remarks are in French, since 
they appeal to a wider range of students. 

Russian Bryophytes. — J. P. Petrow § enumerates sixty-three species 
of mosses collected in the environs of Moscow. A. A. Sapehin || pub- 
lishes a list of thirty-five mosses and one hepatic, collected in the 
Governments of Kherson and Ekaterinoslav in South Russia, 

Hepatics of the Haute-Saone.1T— A. Coppey gives an account of 
the hepatics of the Haute-Saone, prefaced by a sketch of the physical 
geography of the department and of the literature already published on 
its moss-flora. The enumeration contains seventy-eight species and a 
few varieties. Inter alia he sums up in parallel columns the respective 
characters of Aneura multifida and A. sinuata. 

New German Mosses.** — C. Grebe describes in detail two new mosses 
— Ditrichum julifiliforme, from Rheine in Westfalen, and Tortula calcicola y 
from walls in Obermarsberg in Westfalen, and from various other places 
in Middle Germany. The former is quite a distinct species. The latter 
is allied to T. ruralis. The author adds an historical sketch of the species 
of the group of T. ruralis, and shows how the plants may be distin- 
guished in the sterile state. He appends a key for the ten species of 
the group. Four of these are found on bark — T. latifolia, T. papillosa, 
T, pulviuata, T. Isevipila. And six are found on the rocks and earth — • 
T. calcicola, T. montana, T. ruralis, T. aciphylla, T. alpina, T. 3LueUeri. 
Minor differences are found in characters of stem and leaf. 

* Journ. Bot., xlvii. (1909) p. 417. 

t Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist., No. 71 (1909) pp. 168-73, 241-6. 
I K. Norsk. Vidensk. Selsk. Skrift., No. 5 (1909) 114 pp. (figs.). 
§ Bull. Jard. Imp. Bot. St. PStersbourg, ix. (1909) pp. 45-64. 
|| Tom. cit., pp. 10-14. 

T Rev. Bryolog.,xxxvi. (1909) pp. 118-28, 147-52. 
** Hedwigia, xlix. (1909) pp. 66-77. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 57 

Hepatics of Eisenach.* — P. Janzen publishes a list of the hepatics 
of the neighbourhood of Eisenach, of which no account had previously 
been given, though the mosses of the district had been recorded by 
J. Roll and A. Grimme. Sixty-eight hepatics are enumerated, including 
Reboulia hemisphserica and Lejeunia calcarea. 

Moss-flora of Zillerthal.f — ■ L. Lorske gives an account of the 
mosses and hepatics of the Zillerthal Alps, prefaced by remarks on the 
geology and physical geography of the district. He indicates some of 
the special moss-habitats in the neighbourhood, and describes several 
moss-associations which he frequently met with. He obtained a few 
new varieties or forms, added four species to the flora of Tirol, and 
detected a score of rarities which are not common in Tirol. He enu- 
merates about ninety-five hepatics and over 270 mosses, interspersing 
them with many critical notes and here and there with lengthy argu- 
ments on difficult questions. 

Mosses of Hungary.f — I. Gyorffy publishes an enumeration of the 
Sphagnacea? collected by him in the Hohe-Tatra Mountains, and sub- 
mitted to J. Roll and ti> C. Warnstorf for determination. These comprise 
seventeen species and numerous varieties, several of which are additions 
to the Hungarian flora. 

Moss-flora of Moravia. — J. Podpera § publishes notes on the bryo- 
logy of Moravia, including many species new to the country, and one 
species and two varieties new to science. The differences between 
Isopteryijiuin (depression and /. densifolium are carefully detailed. He 
also describes || the geographical distribution of the Bryophytes of 
Moravia, and compares them with those of Bohemia. 

Moss-flora of Greece.! — A. Coppey publishes a second contribution 
to the study of the moss-flora of Greece. His previous paper appeared 
in 1907. The present addition is based on 320 specimens collected in 
the plains of Thessaly, in Attica and the Morea, by Rene Maire during 
April and May 1908. As a consequence the Greek moss-flora is in- 
creased by thirty species. The total number of hepatics recorded till 
the present time for Greece is about forty species, while that of the 
mosses is 215. Some critical notes are inserted in the list, and two 
species are discussed in greater detail — namely, Cheilotkela chloropoda 
Lindb. (Ceratodon. chloropus Brid.), the characteristics of which are 
figured ; and secondly, Mielichhoferia Coppeyi Card., a new species ; and 
the type of a new sub-genus (Haplodontiopsis). The morphology of 
this plant is also figured. The author devotes a chapter to the geo- 
graphical distribution of the Bryophytes in Greece, giving lists of the 
species found in the Mediterranean province, the northern mountain 
province, the latter being divided into the lower region (up to 1000 

* Mitt. Thiiring. Bot Verein. v. heft xxv. (1909) pp. 35-40. 
t Hedwigia, xlix. (1909) pp. 1-53. 
J Magyar Bot. Lapok, viii. (1909) pp. 222-38. 

<j Ber. Komm. Nat. Durchforsch. Mahrens. Briinn, No. 5 (1908) 41 pp. 
| Mitt. Nat. Klub Prossnitz, xi. (1908) 24 pp. 
«|f Bull. Soc. Sci. Nancy, 1909, 50 pp. (2 pis. and map). 



58 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

metres), the forest region (1000 to 1800 metres), the sub-alpine (above 
1800 metres). Finally, he discusses the origin of some of the Medi- 
terranean species, especially the new endemic Mielichhoferia Coppeyi, a 
representative of an exotic genus mostly of southern distribution. 

Moss-flora of Portugal.* — A. Luisier publishes a preliminary list of 
Portuguese mosses — thirty-three species collected in the neighbourhood 
of S. Fiel and Lisbon. He has in hand much more material waiting to 
be worked out. 

Moss-flora of Madeira.f — A. Luisier gives a list of the Bryophytes 
of Madeira — seventeen hepatics and eighty-one mosses, including three 
new varieties. Three genera and eight species and varieties are added 
to the Madeiran flora. 

Mosses of Italian East Africa.:}: — L. Micheletti gives an enumera- 
tion of eighteen species of mosses collected by A. Rolli and M. Da 
Carbonara in the Italian colony of Eritrea, Among them are the names 
of ten new species determined by Y. F. Brotherus, but without diagnoses. 

Bryophyta of Ruwenzori. — (1. Negri § gives an account of the 
mosses collected on Mount Ruwenzori during the Duke of the Abruzzi's 
expedition. The total number of species recorded from Ruwenzori is 
62 ; 38 of these were collected by the expedition, among them being 28 
new species and 2 new varieties. G. Gola || enumerates the number of 
hepaticas recorded from Ruwenzori — namely, 50 species. The Duke of 
the Abruzzi's expedition collected 33 species, 1(5 of which are new to 
science. 

North American Species of Amblystegium. — A. J. Grouty pub- 
lishes some notes on Amblystegium, the North American species of which 
he has lately studied with great care. He found the European experts 
to be at variance over such difficult species as .4. hygrophilum, A. 
radicate, A. orthocladon, A. Kochii. He maintains that the minute eco- 
state species ought to be removed to the Hypnea'. The remaining 
uuicostate species can then be divided into four groups : 1. Euambly- 
stegium, with live species {A. serpens, A. Juratzkanum, A. Kochii, 
A. compaction, A. Holzingeri). 2. Sygroamblystegium, with six species 
(.4. varium, A. Jiuviatile, A. irriguum, A. orthocladon, A. iwterophilum, 
A. filicinum). 3. Leptodictyum, with six species (A. riparium, A. 
brachyphyllum, A. brevipes, A. laxirete, A. vacillans, A.Jtoridanum). 4. 
A. Lescurii (transferred to Sciaromnium, by Brotherus). Each of these 
four groups is critically discussed. A new species and a new variety are 
described. E.J. Hill** gives an account of the habitats and plant- 
associations of Amblystegium noterophilum, a cold-water species which 
he has found in fruit. 

* Ann. Acad. Polytech. Porto, ii. (1907) 7 pp. 
t Broteria, Botanica, viii. (1909) pp. 31-45. 
j Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital., 1909, pp. 154-6. 

§ II Ruwenzori. Milano : Hoepli, i. (1909) pp. 485-510 (2 pis.). 
|| Tom.cit. pp. 511-35 (3 pis.). 
^ Bryologist, xii. (1909) pp. 95-100 (pi.). ** Tom. cit., pp. 108-9. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 59 

North American Bryophytes. — W. C. Coker* records some rare 
abnormalities in liverworts: 1. Aneura pinguis, with twin sporophytes 
inclosed in a single calyptra. The calyptra the author shows to be the 
product of the coalescence of two. 2. In the same species, an un- 
fertilised archegonium which had, like the others, been carried up on 
the calyptra of a young sporogonium, but which, unlike the others, had 
undergone a fair amount of growth, possibly induced by a sympathetic 
response to the vitalising influence of the adjoining sporophyte. 3. An 
instance of fasciation in Preissia quadrata is figured, showing an arche- 
goniophore of twice the normal width and forked near its apex. E. G. 
Britton | briefly enumerates the Arctic mosses identified by K Bryhn 
in the collections of Lieut. Peary in Grant Land (1902), and of L. J. 
Wolf at Wrangle Bay, Lincoln Bay, and Grant Land (1906). In all 
57 mosses and 5 hepatics. 

Hepaticse of New England.J-A. W. Evans publishes his seventh 
chapter of notes on Xew England hepaticas. Therein he discusses eight 
species, five of which are additions to the New England flora ; and the 
remaining three, though previously recorded, required distinct confirma- 
tion. He discusses the relationship of Metzgeria /areata to M. conjugate, 
their anatomical resemblances and differences, and the taxonomic value 
of the marginal gemma? in M. f areata. M. crossipilis he raises to 
specific rank ; this species produces gemma? on the antical surface of 
the thallus-wings. He insists upon the great taxonomic value of the 
vertical bands of thickening in the walls of the median internal cells of 
the thallus of Pellia Xeesiana, as distinguishing sterile plants of it 
from those of P. Fabroniana (P. eniUvisefolia). Other species discussed 
are Cephaloziella elachista, 0. Hampeana, Calgpogeia Neesiana, Scapaaia 
glaucoepphala. 

Mexican Hepaticse.§ — F. Stephani publishes descriptions of nine 
new species of hepaticre collected in Mexico by Pringle — viz. Anthoceros 
Pringlei,A. turbinatus, Oh&ilolfjeuneafissistipula, Gyathodium mexicanum, 
Fimbriaria Pringlei, Leiosegphus Priiigtei, Metzgeria breviseta, Radala 
calcarata, Symphyogyna mexicana. 

Bolivian Mosses. || — R. S. Williams publishes a second paper on 
Bolivian mosses. The first part appeared in 1903. The specimens 
treated of were collected during the expedition of Martin Conway in 
1901-2. The present part comprises nearly 200 species, and includes 
descriptions of eighteen new species. 

New Philippine Mosses. If — V. F. Brotherus publishes descriptions 
of eleven new species of Philippine mosses collected by A. I). E. Elmer 
in Negros and Luzon. 

Mosses of New Guinea and the Moluccas.**— Th. Herzog gives 
an account of two collections of mosses, one of fifteen species collected 

* Bryologist, xii. (1909) pp. 104-5 (figs.). t Tom. cit., p. 106. 

X Rhodora, xi. (1909) pp. 185-95. 
§ Rev. Bryolog., xxxvi. (1909) pp. 138-40. 
|| Bull. New York Bot. Garden, vi. (1909) pp. 227-61. 
f Leaflets of Philippine Botany, Manila, ii. (1909) pp. 651-8. 
** Hedwigia, xlix. (1909) pp. 119-27 (pi.). 



60 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

in German New Guinea by E. Werner, and the other sent from Buru in 
the Molucca Islands by K. Deninger. Six of the New Guinea species 
have never been described before, and one of them represents a new 
genus — Werner lobryum, the type of a new family. Notes on distribu- 
tion and critical remarks are added. 

Bryophyta of Fiji.* — A. Gepp contributes a list of twenty-six 
mosses and twenty-five hepatics to L. S. Gibbs's account of the Montane 
flora of Fiji. The specimens were mostly gathered at Nadarivatn, 
and at altitudes ranging between 2700 and 4000 feet. One new 
hepatic is described. 

Some Forms of Drepanocladus.f — F. Renauld publishes notes on 
some forms of Drepanocladus or Harpidla. He discusses critically 
D. fluitans var. serratus, var. submersus, var. Lindbergii, var. Mildei. 
He considers that var. Lindbergii is distinct from var. submersus, but is 
less capable of being adequately distinguished from var. Mildei. He 
discusses also the mode of inflorescence of var. Lindbergii. He pro- 
vides a table of the groups of varieties established in Drepanocladw 
fluitans and D. exannidatus. 

Drepanocladus furcatus4 — G. Roth replies briefly to the criticisms 
of L. Loeske and W. Monkemeyer concerning his views of Drepanocladus 
furcatus, and in support of his own position quotes some appreciative 
remarks by Renauld. 

Some Critical Species of Pohlia.§ — Winter publishes an account 
of his observations of the four critical species, Pohlia commutata, 
P. gracilis, P. cucullata, and P. carlnata, discussing the various forms 
of each, their habitats and distribution, and the minute differences 
between them. 

Bryum arvernense.|| — I. Douin gives a description and figure of 
Bryum arrcrnense, a new species collected on Puy-de-l)6me, and re- 
sembling B. argenteum in habit, but probably allied to B. Blindil. Its 
systematic position is uncertain until its sporogonium has been found 
and studied. There are numbers of other receutly created species in 
the same genus which have no better claim to be regarded as valid 
species. The whole genus is in a chaotic condition, incomprehensible 
to all bryologists. 

Some Bryological Rarities. 1f — I. Gyorffy gives an account of 
some bryological rarities. 1. Certain endoi'hizoid cells which occur at 
the foot of the sporogonium of Molendoa Hornscliucltlana he figures. 
The same thing has been found in Diphyscium, Buxbaumla, and Eriopus 
remotifolius. 2. A monstrous form of the sporogonium of Dicranum 
Blyttii in the Hohen Tatra. The seta forks above and bears two 
capsules. 

* Journ. Linn. Soc, xxxix. (1909) pp. 189-9G. 
t Rev. Brvolog., xxxvi. (1909) pp. 129-38. 

% Hedwigia, xlix. (1909) p. 106. § Tom. cit., pp. 54-65(2 pis.). 

|| Rev. Bryolog., xxxvi. (1909) pp. 153-4. 
i Hedwigia, xlix. (1909) pp. 101-5 (pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 61 

John Henry Davies (1838-1909).*— H. W. Lett publishes an 
obituary notice of J. H. Davies, a bryologist who spent most of his life 
in Ireland. In 1857 he Yisited the Isle of Man, and compiled a list of 
all the mosses he could find ; and he was an active member of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists. During the next half-century he resided in 
Ireland, and was busily engaged in some linen bleach-works. But 
after retiring from work some few years ago he again reverted to the 
study of mosses, and published some seven papers on new or rare mosses 
collected in Ireland. 

A. Geheeb : Necrology. — T. Husnot t gives an obituary notice of 
Adalbert Geheeb, born in 1842 at Geisa (Saxe Weimar), died September 
190!). He succeeded to his father's pharmacy business in Geisa in 
18G7, and carried it on for thirty years. From the year 1858 he 
worked at bryology. He paid special attention to the moss-flora of the 
Rhongebirge, but he also published or collaborated in several papers on 
exotic mosses. His herbarium has been purchased by a friend and 
presented to the Berlin Museum. 

J. Roll X writes a somewhat fuller notice of the same bryologist, and 
adds a portrait of him taken in 1907. He gives a brief resume of his 
chief bryological journeys, and of his various contributions to the 
literature of mosses. Geheeb was artistic : he played the violin and 
wrote poems ; he also prepared with great skill some landscapes com- 
posed of mosses. As a collector he was distinguished for his great 
powers of observation and his knowledge of the peculiarities of mosses 
and of their habitats. 

Leo Lesquereux.§ — A. M. Smith publishes a biographical notice of 
Leo Lescmereux (born 180G, died 1889). Born near Neufchatel, in 
Switzerland, he devoted much time to the study of mosses and the forma- 
tion of peat-bogs ; for a treatise on the latter he gained a gold medal 
awarded by the Swiss Government. In 1S4.S he followed his friend 
Agassiz to America, and soon began to co-operate with W. S. Sullivant 
in Bryology. Together they published the Musci Americana Exsiccati, 
the report on the mosses of Wilkes' South Pacific Exploring Expedition, 
the Icones Muscorum, etc. Lesquereux also studied the coal formations 
of the United States, publishing various reports and catalogues of the 
plants of the Coal Measures. He collaborated with T. P. James in the 
preparation of the Manual of American Mosses (1884). 

Thallophyta. 

Algae. 

(By Mrs. E. S. Gepp.) 

Coccomyxa subellipsoidea, a New Member of the Palmellaceae.H 
E. Acton describes the above-named alga, which is widely distributed 
in all parts of the British Isles, occurring only in subaerial habitats, 

* Irish Naturalist, xviii. (1909) pp. 235-G. 

t Rev. Bryolog., xxxvi. (1909) p. 155. 

X Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr., xv. (1909) pp. 165-7 (portrait). 

§ Bryologist, xii. (1909) pp. 75-8 (portrait). 

j| Ann. Bot., xxiii. (1909) pp. 573-77 (1 pi.). 



62 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

generally on damp rocks and stones. It forms a thin mucous stratum 
of a dark green colour, which, when dry, becomes almost black and 
peels off the stone. The stratum consists of large numbers of thin- 
walled cells imbedded in a colourless mucilage. These cells are, for the 
most part, somewhat irregularly or obliquely ellipsoid. Multiplication 
takes place by oblique fission, the mother-cell dividing into two, or 
occasionally four, daughter-cells. Reproduction takes place by the 
formation of four, rarely eight, non- motile gonidia, and also by 
the formatiou of macro- and micro-zoogonidia, 2, 4, 8, and 16. The 
cultures of the alga, grown by the author, are described, as well as 
her observation of the formation of zoogonidio. As regards the 
systematic characters of C. subellipsoidea, it differs from C. dispar 
Schmidle, in the greater regularity in the form of the cells and in the 
presence of pyrenoids. It shows a great resemblance to Oocystis 
submarina Lag., in the oblique division, and in the form of the cell 
and of the chloroplast. 

Sphserella lacustris.* — F. Peebles describes the life-history of 
Sphserella lacustris, with special reference to the nature and behaviour 
of the zoospores. The cycle of development is discussed and the 
author's views compared with those of other authors. The results are 
summarised as follows: — 1. Normal resting-cells from wild cultures 
always produce asexual zoospores by endogenous division. These 
spores swim about for a short time, gradually becoming larger, and 
finally assuming the typical pear-shape with distended cell-wall, long 
flagella, and protoplasmic threads between the wall and the central mass. 
2. The zoospores divide, either while swimming about or after a short 
period of quiescence, forming several generations of motile spores. 
Multiplication is by endogenons cell-division, and in rare cases by 
fission. 3. After a number of generations have been produced, the 
cells settle down for a period of rest and growth. Many of them attain 
great size, and finally divide into 16 to o2 non-motile cells, which, in 
turn, grow into large resting-cells. They divide in the usual way, 
forming a new generation of zoospores. 4. Resting-cells, which have 
been subjected to adverse conditions, such as starvation, cold, rapid 
drying, or a very brief rest, usually produce small motile spores of 
gametes. 5. By conjugation two gametes form a zygospore. This 
zygospore remains active for a few hours, then settles down, secretes a 
wall about itself, losing its four flagella. After a period of growth and 
rest, the zygospore continues the cycle of development by dividing to 
form the asexual zoospores. Finally the author suggests that since the 
megazoids are known to be asexual and the microzoids sexual, they 
should be termed respectively zoospores and gametes. 

Scenedesmus-t— Schmula describes a new species of Scenedesmus, 
S. jproductocapitatus, which was found in a ditch near Oppeln. Speci- 
mens are to be distributed on talc, as No. 728 of the Phykotheka 
Universalis. Nine other species of fresh-water alga? are enumerated, 
which were found at the same place. 

* Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., 2te Abt., xxiv. (1909) pp. 511-21 (figs.), 
t Hedwigia, xlix. (1909) pp. 85-7 (figs, in text). 



& 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 63 

Algological Prophecy Fulfilled.* — F. S. Collins announces the 
fulfilment of a prophecy made by Lagerheim some time ago, when 
describing Chsetomorphn herbipolensis, at that time the first fresh-water 
species of the genus. Lagerheim said that the desmids he had studied 
on specimens of aquatic phanerogams, collected long ago by B. 1). Greene 
in Massachusetts, indicated that the algal flora of Massachusetts was of 
almost a tropical character, and that fresh-water species of Chaetomorpha 
were to be expected there. Since that time F. S. Collins has described 
another fresh-water Clmtomorpha, C. chelonum, which was growing on a 
turtle in Michigan, and he has searched for further material in many 
ponds in New England, but in vain. Now he finds a turtle on the 
banks of the very pond from which B. D. Greene collected his desmids, 
and on this turtle's back is the fresh-water species of Chaetomorpha, for 
which he had hunted so long. Lagerheim's prophecy, therefore, that 
fresh-water species of Chaetomorpha should be found in Massachusetts 
was fulfilled by the finding of it in the very same pond as the desmids 
which he had examined, and which had led him to utter the prophecy. 

Phytoplankton of the English Lake District. t—W T . and G. S.- 
West conclude their account of the phytoplankton of the English lake 
district. Species of Flagellata and Peridinieae are recorded, and then 
the authors devote a section to the peculiarities of the English lake- 
plankton. They state that it contains a varied assortment of algas, 
<il p.c. of which belong to the Cklorophyccai, 21 p.c. to the Bacillariea?, 
and only 'J '5 p.c. to the Myxophycere. The total is 188 species and 
20 varieties. Of 120 species of Chlorophyceas, 96 are desmids, so that 
")1 p.c. of all the species recorded for the plankton belong to the Des- 
midiaceae. Nevertheless, though the English lakes contain so high a 
percentage of species, they are not so rich in actual numbers of desmids 
as the Scottish or Welsh lakes. Spondyhsium pulchrum var. planum is 
abundant generally. A table shows the abundance of desmids in the 
British lakes as compared with some of the lakes of continental Europe. 
There are relatively few Protococcoideas, but the diatoms are very con- 
spicuous in the plankton of some of the English lakes. The Myxo- 
phyceas are almost as poorly represented as in the Scottish lakes, the 
number of species being relatively few. Among the Flagellates, the 
genus Binobryon is conspicuous ; and among the Peridinieae, Peridinium 
WUUi. The latter is one of the leading features of the plankton of 
the English lake district. Lists are given of those species which are 
exclusively confined to the plankton, and of those which are much more 
abundant in the plankton than elsewhere. The authors notice that 
a greater bulk of plankton occurs in those lakes which are slightly 
contaminated by the presence on their shores of small villages and farms, 
and this they attribute to the slight increase of food constituents arising 
from the sewage. The experience of the authors is not in support of 
the view of Huitfeldt-Kaas, that small depth is favourable and great 
depth unfavourable to the development of plankton. 

* Rhodora, xi. (1909) pp. 196-7. 

t Naturalist, Sept. 1909, pp. 323-31 (figs.). 



64 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Fresh-water Algae from Ruwenzori.* — G. B. De Toni and A. Forti 
have examined the nineteen samples of fresh-water algae collected in 
the Ruwenzori area by the Duke of the Abruzzi. They record two 
species and one variety of Myxophycese, two species of Chlorophyceae, 
and thirty-five species and thirty-four varieties and forms of BaciUarise. 
Of these, two varieties are new to science. They find a great resemblance 
between certain of the samples and the flora of El Kab in Upper Egypt, 
especially in the richness of forms of Rhopalodia gibberula 0. M ., of 
Navicula sphseroplwra Kutz., and some other species. They also record 
the widely-distributed Oklamydomonas nivalis Wide from the Duwoni 
glacier, a fact which helps to confirm the opinion, expressed by Chodat, 
that the Chlamydomonads of the snow are the most widely-distributed 
plants in the world. They range from the North to the South Pole, and 
are probably the pioneers of vegetation in the glacial regions. The 
species of diatoms recorded from Ruwenzori correspond for the most part 
with the species designated by Ehrenberg as terrestrial — for instance, 
Navicula borealis, Hantzschia amphioxys, Melosira Roescana, Navicula 
mutica f., etc. The authors give a list of the localities whence the 
samples were obtained, with the predominating character of each, and 
later give a systematic account of the collection with synonyms, and 
critical or geographical notes. 

Microspore-formation in Chastoceras Lorenzianum.t — J. Schiller 
describes the formation of microspores in Chsetoceras Lorenzianum, a 
plankton-species collected in the Adriatic, where it is fairly common. 
He gives, first, a short description of the diatom, and states that he 
has never seen either the resting-spores or the auxospores. The greatest 
development of 0. Lorenzianum takes place in the autumn, October 
and November, and to a rather less extent in the late spring and early 
summer. But the species is remarkable for the irregularity and abrupt- 
ness of its appearance. It is, however, never entirely absent from the 
Adriatic plankton. The author describes the method of catching and 
fixing the material, and then proceeds to give details as to the forma- 
tion of the microspores in the mother-cell. A mother-spore is first 
formed, and this divides then into the daughter-spores. The behaviour 
of the nucleus is not always to be followed out, since the chromato- 
phores surround it and prevent it from being seen. The author dis- 
tinguishes two types of microspores, the first being quite round, and 
varying from 2 '8-3* 3//,. No cilia were visible, and no active move- 
ment could be observed. The second type had a more oval form, one 
end being rounded and the other more or less acute. The chromato- 
phores were distinctly visible, but neither here could cilia or movement 
be recorded. These microspores vary in size from 5-2 7//. in diameter. 
The view is taken by the author that these two types represent a sexual 
differentiation, but, as he says, proof may long be sought for, since the 
culture of plankton is as yet an unsolved problem. Neither the 
ripe spores nor the various intermediate stages are provided with a 
distinct membrane, but each spore is surrounded by a very fine coating of 

* II Ruwenzori, Milano (Hoepli), i. (1909) 31 pp. 

t Ber. Deutsch, Bot. Gesell., xxviii. (1909) pp. 351-61. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 65 

hardened protoplasm. The scarcity of records of raicrospore-formation 
in plankton diatoms is explained by the author by the theory that it 
occurs very rarely in a vegetative cell, but takes place normally at the 
germination of the resting-spore, a process which has never yet been 
watched. 

Algae of Suffolk and Norfolk.* — E. N. Bloomfield publishes lists 
of the marine algae and fresh-water algae and Diatomaceae of Suffolk, 
consisting principally of records made by Batters. The coast of Suffolk 
is very unfavourable to the growth of algae, most of it being covered 
with sand and shingle, while there are no hard rocks. Taking this 
into account the list is a good one, consisting of 185 species. The 
list of fresh-water algae and Diatomaceae, including both fresh-water 
and marine species, is almost entirely derived from Henslow and Skep- 
per's Suffolk Flora, 1860. A few additions were made by the late 
W. West, junr. 

E. N. Bloomfield adds a short list of twenty-two marine species 
taken from Batters' Catalogue of British Marine Algae, which have 
been found on the coast of Norfolk, and are additional to those given in 
H. D. Geldart's List of Norfolk Marine Algae published in these 
Transactions, vol. iii. 

Fresh-water PlanktDn.f— R. Kolkwitz examines the connection 
between the composition of water and the development of plankton, 
as observed in the Lietzensee near Charlottenburg. After some general 
remarks on the composition of the water of lakes and ponds, their 
chemical analysis, and plankton, he describes the Lietzensee in some 
detail. That water appears to be infested by Oscillatoria Agardhii at 
certain seasons of the year, and the author gives a synopsis of its affini- 
ties. The final chapter deals with the causes of the production of such 
masses of Oscillatoria, after which the results of the paper are summed up. 

A. A. ElenkinJ studied the qualitative plankton of Lake Sseliger 
for three months, from the end of May to the 20th of August, 1908. 
The most important species are enumerated. The rare Atth&ya Zach- 
ariasi J. Brun was present. The paper is in Russian, with a German 
summary. 

Periodicity of Algae. § — W. Benecke has made experiments on the 
periodicity of algae, having special regard to the formation of zygotes in 
Spirogyra communis. In that species the resting-cells germinate in the 
spring, and floating masses are formed. In summer these disappear, 
zygospores having been formed by copulation in the meantime. In the 
autumn growth is feeble, diminishing towards winter. There is no 
more formation of zygotes. The experiments of the author go to show 
that this periodicity is regulated by the quantity of nitrogenous com- 
binations, be they nitrates or ammonium salts or organic combinations. 
The possible cause for the diminution of these substances in the open 

* Trans. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc, viii. (1908-9) pp. 768-83, 809-10. 

t Landw. Jahrb. Erganzungsb., v. (1909) pp. 449-72 (1 pi.). 

% Bull. Jard. Imp. Bot. St. Petersbourg, ix. (1909) pp. 15-21. 

§ Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. u. Hydrogeograph. i. (1903) pp. 533-52. 

Feb. 16th, 19lo f 



66 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

and the resulting conjugation of algae, may, perhaps, be thus explained : 
the phanerogams require much nitrogen, as does also Spirogyra in 
consequence of its quick growth, also greater denitrification takes- 
place. 

Fresh-water Algae from the Malay Region.* — C. Bernard publishes 
a list of unicellular fresh-water algae collected at various stations round 
Batavia, at Singapore, Johore, New Guinea, and including a few species 
from Japan. After giving a list of bibliography, the author enumerates 
in tabular form the algae of the present list and the previous records of 
other authors, giving locality and reference to the published record. 
The species of the new collections are then treated separately and are 
shortly described in critical notes. Seventeen new species are described 
for the first time, and one of these is the type of a new genus, Spino- 
closterium, an ally of Glosterium. Most of the novelties are desmids. 
One or more figures are given of every species recorded, in order that 
there should be no mistake as to its identity. 

Some Fresh-water Algae of Fiji.t — W. West contributes a list of 
twenty-five fresh-water algae to L. S. Gibbs's account of the montane 
flora of Fiji. There are seven Chlorophyceae, twelve Bacillariaceae, and 
six Myxophyceae ; and they were gathered at Nadarivatu (2700 ft.), 
at the base of Koro Levu (500 ft.), or in the hot springs (59°) of 
Tavua (50 ft.). 

Interesting Diatom near Hull. J — R. H. Philip writes a short note 
on Amphiprora constricta Ehr. (Stauronella constricta Mereschkowsky), 
which he has found in one of the original localities, Marfleet, near Hull. 
Until it was made the type of a new genus it had been placed in three 
different genera on account of its anomalous structure. In the fifties- 
it was recorded by George Norman as being very common in brackish 
water, but apparently it is very little known by leading diatomists of 
the present day. The author gives figures of it in the present note. 

Biddulphia sinensis^— C. H. Ostenfeld writes on the immigration 
of Biddulphia sinensis Grev. and its occurrence in the North Sea during 
1 908-7, and on its use for the study of the direction and rate of flow of 
the currents. B. sinensis is frequent in the Red Sea and the Gulf of 
Siam, and is regarded as an Indo-Pacific neritic form of the tropical 
and sub-tropical coasts. The author shows the specific differences 
between this species and its nearest allies, especially B. mobiUensis and 
B. regia ; and then treats of its geographical distribution, mentioning 
its occurrence on the Guinea coast in the Atlantic. The question of 
its presence in the North Sea is then discussed, and its relationship to 
the temperature of the water and to the salinity. The presence or 
absence of B. sinensis at different periods in the North Sea is important 
as an indication of the direction and rate of flow of the ocean currents. 

* Depart. Agricult. Indes-Neerlandais. Buitenzorg, 1909, 94 pp. 6 pis. 
t Journ. Linn. Soc, xxxix. (1909) pp. 200-2. 
X Naturalist, No. 634 (1909) pp. 376-7. 

§ Medd. Kommissionem f. Havunders. Ser. Plankton i. 6 (1908) 44 pp. (4 charts 
and 5 text-figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. G7 

Diatomaceous Dust on the Bearing- Sea Ice-floes.* — E. M. Kindle 
describes his investigations of the diatomaceous dust found by him on 
the ice-floes off the south-west coast of Nunivak Island in June 1908. 
The ice cakes comprising the floes were more or less discoloured by dust 
or dirt. Some of the dust was found to be of volcanic origin, and in 
this, as well as in the other grey non-volcanic dust, were found consider- 
able numbers of marine diatoms. A list of fifteen species is given, 
found in samples collected about 30 miles north-west of Cape Roraanzof, 
and named by Dr. Mann. Diatoms have not before been observed on 
the Behring Sea ice, and the recorded occurrences of these organisms on 
floating ice elsewhere are not numerous. Some have been recorded by 
Nansen and Vanhoffen. The nearest locality to Behring Sea from 
which diatoms have been found on floe ice is near Cape Wankererna, 
west of Behring Strait about 200 miles. The author proceeds to compare 
the list of species from the Behring Sea with those recorded by the 
'Vega' and the ' Frarn,' and finds that the Behring Sea flora is related to 
that" of the Pacific, and not at all to that of the Polar Sea. The fact 
that the diatoms of Cape Wankerema, about 400 miles from Cape 
Romanzoff, bear the closest resemblance to the diatoms of the east 
coast of Greenland, and the almost complete unlikeness between the 
Wankerema and Behring Sea floras, -affords convincing evidence that no 
definite marine current connects the two areas which could carry the 
Wankerema flora southward or the Behring Sea flora north-westward. 
On the other hand, the close resemblance of the Behring Sea ice diatoms 
to the Pacific flora, which is shown by more than nine species common 
to the two, indicates a close relationship through marine currents with 
the Pacific Ocean. Dall's conclusions regarding the movement of water 
in the southern part of Behring Sea corresponds with the evidence of the 
diatoms in this respect. The author quotes from Dall's report on the. 
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey for 1880. 

Physiology of Diatoms. f — O. Rickter has continued his studies on 
the physiology of diatoms, and has succeeded in cultivating a colourless 
marine species, namely, Nitzchia putrida. He gives an account of his 
methods. N. putrida is typically saprophytic, and assimilates leucine, 
asparagin, pepton, and albumen ; and when suitable sources of carbon 
are present, also the inorganically combined nitrogen of nitrates and 
ammonium compounds. Negative auxauograms can be raised by the 
help of substances of an acid reaction. In the course of generations 
the normal power of movement becomes lost. The species appears to 
be extraordinarily capable of variation. This paper is so full of in- 
formation that it must be studied in the original. 

Halopteris scoparia and Sphacelaria radicans.J — C. Sauvageau has 
described in previous papers the peculiar development of Cladostephus 
vert ir Hiatus, and the manner in which the young plant passes through 
stages resembling Sphacelaria and Halopteris before taking on the 
characters of Cladostephus. He has also stated that there is a similar 

* Amer. Journ. Sci., xxviii. (1909) pp. 175-9 (1 fig.). 

t Denkschr.k. Akacl. Wiss. Wien, lxxxiv. (1909) pp. 656-772 (pis. and text-figs.). 

% Journ. de Bot., ser. 2, ii. (1909) 27 pp. 

F 2 



G8 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

development in Halopteris scoparia, but he lias not described the process 
in detail. In the present paper he describes and figures all the stages 
of growth of H. scoparia, in which species the process of development is 
quite different from that of Cladostephus. In Halopteris the successive 
filaments, instead of appearing independently from one another, grow 
one on the other. This is described in detail. He finds that plantlets 
arising from rhizoids which are given off by gemmae are themselves a 
kind of gemma;, and resemble a fragment detached from the plant- 
mother. On the other hand, the plantlets which result from germina- 
tion possess an indirect development, which represents probably the 
the different phylogenetic stages. 

The author has further made a special study of Sphacelaria radicans, 
in which he finds that the ramification is exclusively adventive and of 
pericystic origin. He considers that 8. radicans probably figures 
among the ancestors of Halopteris, but is separated from them by inter- 
mediates which have disappeared or of which we know nothing. The 
pericystic origin of the rhizoids and of the adventive shoots, the 
presence of certain holoblastic branches, and the germination of 
the hairs, indicate a closer connection between 8. radicans and the 
Holoblastea) than between it and the Sphacelariae, which are purely 
Hemiblastete. At the same time, there is a vast difference between the 
disposition of the sporangia of 8. radicans and those of Halopteris. 
The author then discusses other alliances of 8. radicans. 

Colpomenia sinuosa.* — C. Sauvageau adds a further note to his 
information concerning this alga. During a stay at the village of 
St. Denis on the He d'Oleron he found specimens of G. sinuosa, growing 
principally on Halopithys. Its presence there constitutes a danger to 
the oyster-culture of the Marennes. In a footnote the author comments 
on the various hosts on which the species has been found growing. 

Mucilage-glands of Undaria.f — K. Yendo has discovered a mucilage- 
gland on the blade of Undaria pinnatifida var. distans, and has made a 
minute study of its structure. The glands vary in size and shape 
according to their stage of development and position in a pinnule. 
Very few, if any, occur in the stem of rachis, and none were detected in 
the rhizines or sporophylls. Such glands have never been recorded in 
members of the Laminariacea} other than Japanese, and they are only 
now described in detail for the first time. Okamura records minute 
dark dots which are thickly scattered over both surfaces of the lamina 
-of Undariopsis Peterseniana Miy. and Okam., and similar bodies have 
been seen by Prof. Miyabe in Undaria pinnatifida, and by the author of 
the present paper in Hirome undarioides. Whether all these bodies on 
the other species are also mucilage-glands of the same sort the author is 
unable to say, since they were seen on dried material. After describing 
his investigation in detail, Yendo draws up the following summary : — 

(1) Undaria has numerous glandular cells scattered in the lamina ; 

(2) as a rule, each glandular cell originates from a single cortical cell 
which is in contact with the epidermal layer ; (8) the epidermal cell 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Bordeaux, lxvi. (1909) pp. 80S-7. 
t Ann. Bofc., xxiii. (1909) pp. 613-21 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 09 

upon a glandular cell degenerates as the latter develops, leaving a 
membranous coating over the gland ; (4) the function of the gland is 
possibly to secrete a mucilaginous substance ; (5) the glands found in 
the lamina of Birome and Undariopsis will probably prove to be similar 
to those of Undaria in their mode of development and function. 

Cytology of Cutleria and Aglaozonia.* — S. Yamanouchi, in a 
preliminary note, gives a brief account of his cytological studies of 
Cutleria multifida and Aglaozonia reptans. Of the former species he 
describes the gametogenesis, the fertilisation and germination, and of 
the latter, the zoosporogenesis. Finally, he summarises his results as 
follows : — 1. The nucleus of both male and female plants of Cutleria 
multifida contains 24 chromosomes ; and the male and female gametes 
produced contain the same number. 2. In the union of gametes the 
number is doubled, and 48 chromosomes appear in the sporelings, 
which develop into the Aglaozonia form of Cutleria. Therefore it is 
evident that the individual bearing the name of C. multifida represents 
the gametophytic phase of the species, 24 being the gametophytic 
number of chromosomes ; and the Aglaozonia form of Cutleria 
represents the sporophytic phase of the species, 48 being the sporophytic 
number. 3. Aglaozonia reptans contains 48 chromosomes, and tbe 
number is reduced in zoospore formation, the zoospore containing 24 
chromosomes. Tbe zoospore, with the reduced number of chromo- 
somes, germinates without conjugation. Although the nuclear details 
of the sporelings of A. reptans have not yet been followed, it seems 
evident that A. reptans represents the sporophytic phase of the indi- 
vidual whose gametophytic and sporophytic numbers of chromosomes 
are respectively 24 and 48. Probably A. reptans, as it occurs in nature, 
is identical with the Aglaozonia form of Cutleria multifida which he 
has grown under culture, and is now determined to be the sporophytic 
phase of the species. 

Oospheres in Sargassum. f — M. Tahara writes a preliminary note on 
the periodical liberation of the oospheres in Sargassum, which he has 
observed at the Misaki Marine Station. The species studied was 
S. enerve, which is very common in the vicinity, and often forms a 
considerable mass. Its fruiting season begins at the beginning of 
December and continues probably till the end of April. Details are 
given of the observations made, and the results are shown in a short 
summary. 1. Liberation of oospheres in Sargassum takes place simul- 
taneously, not only for a given plant, but also for all the plants of the 
locality. 2. This simultaneous liberation proceeds in fortnightly crops 
on a particular day with a fixed interval after the highest spring tide ; 
interval varies, however, in different species. 3. The oospheres in one 
and the same receptacle are not discharged at one time, but in two or 
three successive fortnightly crops. 

West Indian Floridese.J — F. Borgesen describes some new species 
of Floridere collected in the sea around the Danish West Indies, and 

* Bot. Gaz., xlviii. (1909) pp. 380-6. 

t Bot. Mag. Tokyo, xxiii. (1909) pp. 151-3. 

% Bot. Tidsskrift, xxx. (1903) 19 pp. (tabs, and figs, in tsxt). 



70 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

gives remarks on other species already known. The new species belong 
to Chantransia, Nemalion, Call ithamn ion, Seirospora, and a new variety 
to Spermothamnion investiens. All the species dealt with are figured. 

Fresh-water Species of Chantransia. — F. Brand* publishes a 
detailed treatment of the fresh-water species of Chantransia. His 
paper opens with a short historical summary of the work of previous 
authors and their views on the limits of the genus. Then, having put 
aside the marine forms, he discusses the two groups of fresh-water 
species, one of which consists of forms of other Florideae, and the other 
of independent species. All these forms and species have been care- 
fully investigated by the author and all the different characters examined 
anew. The connection between the forms of Chantransia and the 
genera Lemanea, Batrachospermum, Thorea, and Tuomeija is discussed, 
and the author is of opinion that the Chantransia stage of these algre is 
rather the result of adverse conditions than, as has been suggested, an 
exuberance of growth. He likens it to the deep-water leaves of 
Sagittaria, and points out how this theory would account for the fact 
that one Chantransia, C. chalyhea, may be connected with no less than 
eight different species of Batrachospermum. Batrachospermum is, in 
itself, so variable, that the author has never been able entirely to fit in 
his finds with any of the species described by Sirodot. An error, 
which has been perpetuated by De Toni,f is here exposed, namely, the 
placing of Chantransia violacea as a Chant ransia-i brm of Lemanea. 
0. violacea is an independent species, though it is frecptently found 
growing epiphytically on Lemanea. The author discusses the inde- 
pendent Chantransia forms, and clears up difficulties which have long- 
troubled students of the genus. Finally he gives a short systematic 
synopsis of the genus, dealing only with hydrophilous species. Refer- 
ences, synonyms, and short descriptions are given. A sub-genus, 
Pseudochantransia, includes the species which are only a stage in the 
life-history of other algae ; and this sub-genus is divided into sections 
according to the genus of which the Chantransia forms a part (1) 
Pseudochantransia Lemanese ; (2) P. Batrachospermi ; (3) P. Thorese ; 
and (4) P. Tuomeyae. This paper clears up many difficulties, and 
since every point has been personally verified by the author himself, it 
forms a most valuable addition to algological literature. 

Griffithsia Bornetiana.t— I. F. Lewis has made a very complete 
study of the life-history of Griffithsia Bornetiana. It occurs commonly 
from northern Massachusetts south to Long Island Sound, and has been 
recorded from New Jersey. In all plants examined, with two exceptions, 
the antheridia, cystocarps and tetraspores are borne on separate indi- 
viduals. The spores develop quite rapidly in the open ; indeed, bits of 
cotton cloth, tied to piles near mature plants, showed in two weeks' 
time sexual plants with ripe antheridia and carpospores, and tetrasporic 
plants with mature spores. The tetrasporic plants are always more 
abundant as well as on an average larger than sexual plants. After a 
few remarks on the methods of fixing employed in his work, the author 

* Hedwigia, xlix. (1909) pp. 107-18. f Sylloge, iv. p. 18G6. 

} Ann. Hot., xxiii. (1909) pp. G39-90 (5 pis. and 2 figs, in text). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 71 

describes fully the vegetative characters of the thallus, with special 
regard to the nuclei ; and he compares these bodies with those of Poly' 
siphonia and Xemalion, the nuclei of which have been carefully studied. 
Two methods of cell-division are described ; the nuclei appear to have 
no part in the process. Branched hairs are frequently borne on the 
upper borders of the young cells, the function of which is unknown ; 
they probably perform the functions of absorption and respiration. 
Sexual and asexual reproduction are very fully discussed, especially with 
regard to nuclear division, and the behaviour of the tetraspore-mother- 
cells is compared in tabular form with those of Coralliiui and Polij- 
siphonia. One poiut is emphasised by this comparison, namely, that at 
a critical stage in the history of rather closely related members (Poly- 
siphonia and Griffititsia) of a highly specialised group, the phenomena 
are of a most varied nature. During the period of synapsis, and up to 
the time of the formation of the chromosomes, the cytological events in 
Poly siphon in are more like those in Lilium than those in Oriffithsia or 
Corallina. From this and other facts, the author concludes that cyto- 
logical phenomena cannot be considered trustworthy guides to relation- 
ships. The other points dealt with are tetraspore-like structures on 
sexual plants, vegetative multiplication, and germination of spores. h\ 
a final discussion of results the author states that (1) there is in Griffithsi<i 
an antithetic alternation of generations, the gametophyte being repre- 
sented by the sexual plants, the sporophyte by the sporogenous cells of 
the cystocarp ; (2) in addition to this, there is a regular succession of 
tetrasporic individuals and sexual, individuals. The tetrasporic indi- 
viduals resemble the sporophyte in number of chromosomes ; they 
resemble the gametophyte in morphological differentiation. They are 
to be considered as a phase of an homologous alternation of generations, 
not the equivalent, wholly or in part, of the sporophyte of Archegoniales. 

Corallinaceae.* — M. Foslie published before his lamented death 
several papers on this subject. He describes new species of Litho- 
thamnion, Goniolithon, and Litholepis from various parts of the world, 
some of which had been previously described as forms by himself in 
-earlier writings. 

He also makes a new subgenus of Melobesia, which he calls Plio- 
stroma ; it includes five species, four of which had been previously 
placed by the author in Lithophyllum, sub-genus Carpolibhon. Plio- 
-stroma is characterised by having a thallus composed of 5-12 layers of 
-cells in the part containing the conceptacles, and forms a link between 
the genera Melobesia and Lithophyllum. 

In another paper, j a continuation of Algological Notes, and consti- 
tuting the sixth part of the series, a considerable number of diagnoses 
are published, including species of Lithathamnion, Archseolithothamnion, 
Goniolithon, Lithophyllum, and Mastophora, some new to science. These 
are followed by systematic remarks on several genera. Six sub-genera 
are raised to the rank of genera. Unfortunately the whole paper is 
in Norwegian. 

In a short note the author describes two fossil calcareous algae 

* Kgl. Norsk. Vidensk. Selsk. Skrift., 1908, Nos 11, 12. 
t Op. cit., 11)09, Nos. 1, 2. 



72 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

collected by Munier-Chalmas at Namur and preserved in Mom. Bornet's 
herbarium. The material has been known as Lithothamnion marmoreum. 
Foslie has, however, found in the specimen two species, one of which 
he describes as ArchseolUhothamnion marmoreum and the other as Lttho- 
phyllum (?) belgicum. The latter is without conceptacles, but it approaches 
Lithophyllum in its structure. The geological period of these two species 
is unknown. 

Finland Algae.*— E. Hayren gives a short list of algaj from the 
west coast of Finland, in the neighbourhood of Bjomeborg. The list 
consists of 26 species, of which 8 are Chlorophyceas, 10 Characete, 
5 Phteophyceae, and 3 Rhodophyceas. They constitute the first records 
from that coast. 

Edwards, Arthur M.— Development of the Bacillaria from an Amoeboid Form, 
and formation of that Amoeboid Form by Energenesis. 

[An extraordinary and somewhat egotistical communication.] 

Nnov. Notar.,xx. (1909) pp. 136-40. 
Mazza, A.— Saggio di Algologia Oceanica. (Notes on marine algology.) 

[A continuation of the genera of Rhodomeleaj] Tom. cit., pp. 115-35, 

Sauvageau, C— Lettre ouvert a M. le Professeur J. B. De Toni au snjet des 
huitres de Marennes et de la Diatomee bleue. (Open letter to Professor De 
Toni on the subject of the oysters of Marennes and of the blue diatom). 

Bordeaux : A. Destout, 1909, 24 pp. 
Svedelius, N.— Frans Reinhold Kjellman, 
[A biographical notice.] 

Ber. Deutsch. Bot. GeselL, xxviA (1908) pp. (55)-(75). 
Turner, C— Desmids. 

[A simple account of desmids in popular language.] 

Manchester Micr. Soc, Ann. Rep. and Trans., 1909, pp. 55-63. 
West, W. & G. S.— The Phytoplankton of the English Lake District. 

[The authors continue their account of the desmids, and give the BacillarieEe 
and Myxophycese of the district.] 

Naturalist, No. 631 (Aug. 1909) pp. 287-92 (figs, in text). 

Fungi. 

(By A. Lorrain Smith, F.L.S.) 

Rhizopus Batatas, a New Koji Fungus.f— The preparation of Koji 
by the aid of a species of Aspergillus was affirmed by K. Saito, who 
also found Rhizopus chinensis Saito in the material, and judged that 
the latter took little part in fermentation. The fermenting agents have 
been re-examined by R. Nakazawa, who affirms the importance of Asper- 
gillus, but claims to have discovered a new Rhizopus which also aids in 
fermentation : he has named it R. Batatas. It possesses larger sporangia 
and spores than the species recorded by Saito, but differs more especially 
in its power to ferment in pure dextrose, maltose, saccharose, and lactose. 

Evolution of the Lower Fungi.}— G. F. Atkinson has discussed a 
series of problems in this connection. He gives the views held by 
various writers, Pringsheim, De Bary, Brefeld, Dangeard, and others ; 

* Medd. Soc. Fauna et Flora Fennica, xxv. (1909) pp. 108-19. 
t Centralbl. Bakt., xxiv. (1909) pp. 482-7 (2 pis.). 
{ Ann.Mycol., vii. (1909) pp. 441-72 (20 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 73 

he describes the life-history of a number of forms, and then sets down 
his own conclusions. He finds a natural series from the Chytridiales- 
showing progressive evolution of the vegetative body and sexual process 
up to the Oomycetes and Zygomycetes. He notes the double swarming 
of the zoospores, reaching its highest development in Saprolegniace*, 
and proliferation of the sporangia, both phenomena unknown in alga?. 
These facts, he holds, point to the origin of the lower fungi from uni- 
cellular organisms at the level of the Protomastignieae or Protococcoidea?, 
either colourless or chlorophyll-bearing, rather than from confervoid or 
siphonaceous alga?. Other reasons are adduced to support this view, as, 
for instance, the form and ciliation of the zoospores in the Ancylistales- 
and Oomycetes, which are totally different in the Chlorophyceae, as- 
represented by (Edogonium and Vaucheria. There is also the difference 
in fertilisation between these different forms, accomplished in the fungi 
by means of an antheridial tube, in the alga? by ciliate or biciliate sperms. 
Atkinson does not consider the number of cilia of the zoospores a very 
distinctive character, as both kinds of zoospore may occur in the same 
zoosporangium. 

The writer does not hold with the theory that parasitism has a 
debasing influence, considering the group of fungi as a whole. There 
is distinct progression of development from the Chytridiales to the 
Oomycetes, all of them being parasitic. Again, the Ascomycetes and 
Basidiomycetes show extensive development of the fruit-bodies undeterred 
by the influences of saprophytism or parasitism. 

Development of Fungi on Fatty Substances.* — It has been generally- 
held that fungi do not grow on fats. A. Roussy has made experiments 
to test the validity of this statement. He found that fungi such as 
Rhizopus nigricans, Phycomyces nitens, etc., grew best on a sugar solution 
when there was only a small percentage of sugar. He applied the same 
test to fats, using only small quantities along with Raulin gelatin, and 
he obtained successful cultures. 

Leptolegnia from North Carolina.f — W. C.Coker has collected this 
rare fungus from a jar containing alga?, and has cultivated it over a 
year. It was first discovered and described by He Bary from mountain 
lakes in Germany in 1881 and 1884, and Coker tells us it has not been 
recorded since. The development of the fungus was followed, and 
various details, omitted by He Bary, have been noted. 

Fungus Parasites of Alga?4 — The species described belong to the 
Chytridiales, and are parasitic on filamentous green alga?. They were 
collected by G. F. Atkinson in the vicinity of Ithaca. He recalls his 
note on the escaping zoospores of Rhizophidium globosum, which come 
to rest on the sporangial wall, and put out pseudopod-like extensions of 
protoplasm that feel for the opening. The same phenomenon was- 
observed in R. brevipes sp. n., parasitic on Spirogyra variant : if the 
zoospore failed to find the opening with its pseudopodia, it came to rest 

* Comptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 482-4. 

+ Mycologia,l. (1909) pp. 262-4 (1 pi.). 

X Bot. Gaz., xlviii. (1909) pp. 321-38 (8 figs.). 



74 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

for a while, returned again, and repeated the process. The emptying of 
a sporangium was watched, till two zoospores only were left ; these, 
having failed to escape, put out a germ-tube some 15-20 /x long, which 
penetrated the wall of the zoosporangium ; as it failed to find nourish- 
ment the tube was withdrawn, the zoospore moved to the other side of 
the sporangium and repeated the process, after which it degenerated. 
Other species recorded are Rhizophidium sphserocarpum on Mougeotia 
parvula, Rhizophidium minutum sp.n. on Spirogyra varians, Lagmidium 
Rabenhorstii on Spirogyra sp. n., Lagmidium americanum sp.n. in zygo- 
spores of Spiroyyra ; Phlyctochytrium planioorne sp. n. also on Spirogyra 
varians, and Phlyctochytrium equate on Spirogyra insigne. A description 
is given of these plants, their development, and the formation and 
escape of the zoospores, with the effect on the host-plant. Five other 
species are listed, which were studied only for identification. 

Cytology of the Ascus. — This subject has been investigated by 
W. E. Brooks * and H. C. I. Fraser in three different Ascomycetes— 
Humaria granulata, Ascobohtsfurfuraceus, and Lachnea stercorea. These 
forms were selected, as in each of them fertilisation of a reduced type, 
represented by fusion of nuclei in the ascogoninm, had been observed, 
with a second fusion in the ascus. Methods of staining, etc., are 
detailed. In the first of the fungi examined, four chromosomes were 
observed in the ascogenous hyphre, but they were found to be four 
bivalent chromosomes equivalent to the eight chromosomes of other 
forms. In the three divisions in the ascus to form the eight spores, a 
somewhat similar process was observable in the different fungi. The 
first division was heterotypic ; the second division was homotypic, but a 
second reduction took place at the third division. After brachymeiosis 
was complete, there were four chromosomes in Humaria and Ascobolus, 
and two in Lachnea. In the first ascus division of Lachnea two long 
chromosomes and two short ones were constantly recognised ; after the 
second reduction there was one long and one short, each type of 
chromosome probably forming the physical basis of a different set of 
characters. The writers discuss at some length the conjugation of the 
premeiotic chromosomes to form the gemini of the heterotypic prophase ; 
the formation of the spore membrane is touched on. 

Development of Monascus.t - - Schikorra designates the fungus 
which he examined, Monascus x, a new species. He describes the 
formation of conidia from the tips of the hyphae, while on other hyphte 
were formed the antheridia and aseogonia with trichogynes. The 
antheridium is cut off from the top of a hypha rich in contents, and is 
always multinucleate; the cell beneath the' antheridium grows out and 
forms an ascogonium with an upper cell, the trichogyne, both also 
multinucleate ; copulation takes place between the trichogyne and 
antheridium, the nuclei of the former degenerate while those of the latter 
pass over through the trichogyne and penetrate the ascogonium, the 
dividing wall partly breaking down. Fusion does not take place, but 

* Ann. Bot., xxiii. (1909) pp. 537-49 (2 pis.). 

t Zeitschr. Bot., 1. (1909) pp. 379-410 (1 pi.). See also Bot. Centralbl., cxi. 
<1909) pp. 447-8. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. ■ 5 

the nuclei pair and pass into the ascogonial hyphse. The nuclei undergo 
conjugate division ; finally two nuclei fuse to form the primary ascus 
nucleus. A peridium is formed by the branching of the stalk-cells of 
antheridium and ascogonium. The author places Monascus in the 
Plectascinea?. 



Species of Taphrina on Betula.*— 0. Juel gives an account of ten 
species of this fungus that occur on Betulse. Some of them give rise to 
witches' brooms ; others form spots on leaves, and a third section cause 
deformations either of the leaves or the twigs. One species, Taphrina 
nana, forms small witches' brooms on Betula nana, and is only known 
in northern lands. 

Oidiopsis taurica.-j - — E. Foex is of opinion that the development of 
the mycelium of the fungus, whether external or internal, depends on the 
structure of the host leaves : if they are hairy, then the external mycelium 
is abundant, as' in Mercurialis tommtosa and Phlomis herba-venti. In 
Onobryehis sativa, which bears only simple and slender hairs, the 
mycelium is developed within the leaf, sparing always the epidermis, 
but sending haustoria into the mesophyll cells ; the conidiophores pass 
out through the stomata. Rene Maire considered that the endophytic 
condition of this fungus was an adaptation to dry atmospheric con- 
ditions, but in the case of Onobryehis it has passed to a non-xerophilous 
plant. 

Notes on Phylogenesis in Yeasts. % — Guilliermond repeats his 
previous statements of the relation between Endomycetes and Saccharo- 
mycetes, the latter having, he considers, been derived from an ancestor 
closely related to Endomyces fibuliyer. He now finds that Saccharo- 
mycopsis capsular is is closely related to Endomyces Jibuliger, and he 
proposes to place it in the same genus, Endomyces. He traces the 
connection of the various species of Endomyces with each other, and 
with the true yeasts. 

Hyphomycetes.§ — G. Lindau is nearing the end of the volume on 
Hyphomycetes. The fascicle last issued deals with, among others, such 
obscure genera as Hymenella, Sclerococcum, Epiclinitim, and Cheiromyces. 
For the sake of completeness, the author has included Sclerotium as a 
genus, and he gives the published diagnoses of a large number of 
species, though many of those described, such as ergot, have been 
satisfactorily identified with a more definite fruiting form. Ectostroma 
is another equally unsatisfactory genus, being merely blackish spots in 
which mycelium grows. Lindau remarks that the naming of such 
growth is worthless so long as no more definite fruit-form is developed. 

(Edocephalum glomerulosum, the Conidial Form of Pyronema 
omphalodes.|| — Ernest W. Schmidt found the hyphomycetous fungus 

* Svensk. Bot. Tidsskr., iii. (1909) pp. 183-91 (3 pis ). See also Bot. Zeit., lxvii. 
(1909) p. 287. 

t Ann. Ecole Nat. Agric. Montpellier, n.s. viii. (1909) 12 pp., 5 pis. See also 
Bot. Centralbl., cxi. (1909) p. 565. 

X Centralbl. Bakt., xxix. (1909) pp. 480-2. 

§ Rabenborst's Kryptogamen-Flora, 9<* Abt., Lief. 115 (Leipzig, 1909) pp. 
025-88. || Centralbl. Bakt., xxv. (1909) pp. 60-5. 



76 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

(Edocephalum on cotton wool used as a stopper in connection with 
water cultures of plants. Not only the cotton wool but the culture 
plants themselves were soon covered with a growth of the fungus. In 
the space of two weeks (Edocephalum died down and was succeeded by 
tiny red cushion-like growths, which increased, and finally formed into 
plants of Pyronema. The author reviews work done on the germina- 
tion of Pyronema ascospores, and cites the case of Peziza vesiculosa, of 
which Brefeld determined the conidial form to be an (Edocephalum. 
Schmidt also germinated Pyronema ascospores. These were difficult to 
obtain without bacteria that destroyed the cultures until he employed 
the dilution methods, so useful in bacterial cultures. From spores so 
obtained he reproduced a vigorous growth of (Edocephalum. The 
colour substance is also discussed, and the physiological properties of 
the fungus. 

Uredinese.* — J. C. Arthur gives some notes on rusts that may 
prove of service to the general botanist. An important part of field 
work is to re-visit the locality where any rust has been found and see if 
any further stage has developed on the original or other hosts. Another 
task prescribed is to take the rust to a healthy plant of the second host 
in some other locality and leave it there, then to note if infection has 
taken place. Failure may mean some flaw in the experiment, or it 
may indicate that the true second host has not been found. 

Frank D. Kern | discusses the importance of Timothy rust, which 
seems to be increasing ; an account of its identity and nature are given. 

Aaron G. Johnson J gives an account of hetercecious rusts in Indiana 
in tables showing those that have been co-related and their several 
hosts identified. The life-histories of thirty-four species of rusts in 
Indiana are known, though the ajcidia of nine of these do not occur in 
the State. 

J. C. Arthur § publishes the Cultures of Uredinefe in 1908, the 
article forming the ninth of a series of reports on the culture of plant 
rusts. Grass and cedar rusts figure largely in the report. Collecting 
trips were made and accounts are given of much good work done. 
A list of experiments is given which gave only negative results. 
Successful results are chronicled in twenty-three cases ; a number of 
new species are described with their cultural records. 

Smut Infection of Wheat and Barley. ||— Brefeld and Hecke made 
the discovery simultaneously some years ago that when the oat plant 
was infected by smuts in the seedling stage, Avheat and barley were 
attacked by the flower. Wilhelm Lang has taken up the subject and 
has examined the infected seed. He finds that the spore on germina- 
tion penetrates the ovary of the host ; by following the track of the 
pollen tube, it follows the line of least resistance, and its path is made 
still easier by the withering of the stigma after fertilisation. Lang did 
not find that hyphae penetrated the endosperm ; they were always 

* Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 1908, p. 83. f Tom. cit., p. 85. 

J Tom. cit., pp. 87-94. § M\cologia, 1. (1909) pp. 225-56. 

|| Centralbl. Bakt., xxv. (1909) pp. 86-101 (1 pi. and 2 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. i i 

confined to the embryo, and passed a resting stage in a symbiotic 
relationship with the grain, no deleterious parasitic action having taken 
place. Other questions are discussed, such as the mycoplasma theory, 
the liability to infection, effect of weather, etc. 

Exobasidium on Azalea. — M. Raciborski * has described the 
growth of Azalea politico, in the Sandomerer wood on the Caucasus. 
On the drifting sand heaps Azalea forms thick clumps of bush along 
with other plants, of which he gives a list. The leaves of the shrub 
are thickly infested with the gall-like Exobasidium discoideum. It 
appears on the under side of the leaves, at first greenish-white, 
becoming orange-red where exposed to light, and finally primrose, with 
the coating of basidiospores : these are at first linear, slightly bent, and 
1-celled, but before germination they become 1-3-septate. 

R. Laubert \ -describes the same disease on Azalea, in Germany : he 
compares it with allied species on Vaccinium, Rhododendron, and 
Azalea, and gives advice as to the best methods of checking the disease. 
He specially advises cutting away and burning the diseased parts. 

Podoscypha undulata.J— Rene Maire received a specimen of this 
fungus from the Vosges, and as it is a rare and imperfectly known 
plant, he takes occasion to give a full description and figures, and to 
rectify various errors of nomenclature. It is a small fungus with a 
cup-shaped pileus, the under side bearing the hymenium. Cystidia are 
numerous, spores colourless, smooth, and very small. 

Notes on the Larger Fungi.— Gr. F. Atkinson § describes at con- 
siderable length a new Amanita from the high Sierras and the Coast 
Range of California It attains to a large size and is covered by a 
white tough skin, the calyptra of the volva. 

F. G. Kobe || describes a case of an alga living on a fungus and the 
changes induced thereby. The fungus was almost certainly Russala 
/raff His ; the alga, Raphidium (Pleurococcacese). The Russula was 
considerably dwarfed and the gills undeveloped where the alga had 
spread. Kohe does not recognise any advantage to the fungus in this 
symbiosis, but the alga which received shelter and moisture grew 
vigorously and abundantly. 

W. A. Murrill If gives a black and white plate of illustrations of large 
fungi, most of them puff-balls ; these he specially recommends for the 
table, being easily identified fungi, and none of them being poisonous. 
They should be gathered when young, before the spores have formed. 
Several of the fungi are figured and described. 

Lars Romell ** remarks on the cases where fungi, that usually grow 
on coniferous trees, may be found on deciduous trees, and vice versa. 
Among such he cites Dsedalea unicolor, a parasite of deciduous wood, 
but found by him on Pinus Abies ; Pohjporus zonatus and P. adustus, 

* Bull. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, 1909, pp. 385-91 (2 figs.). 

t Handelsbl. Gartenbau, xxiv. (1909) pp. 466-8. See also Bot. Zeit., lxvii. (1909) 
p. 285. t Ann. Mycol., vii. (1909) pp. 426-31 (2 figs.). 

§ Bot. Gaz., xlviii. (1909) pp. 283-93 (8 figs.). 
|| Beih. Bot. Centralll, xxiv. (1909) pp. 427-30. 
i Mycologia, 1. (1909) pp. 257-61 (1 pi.). ** Tom. cit., pp. 265-7. 



78 SUMMARY OK CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

also occasionally found on Finns Abies • Polyporus giganteus he has 
collected on an oak and on a stump of Pinus silvestris. A number of 
other ca^ei are given, and the list is still incomplete. 

Deformation of the Egg of Mutinus caninus.* — Ch. van Bambeke 

passes in review the different cases of teratology noted among the 
Phallaceae, and then describes an interesting example discovered by him 
iu Mutinus caninus when cutting microscopic sections. The outward 
appearance of the egg was normal, but it was found that the interior 
consisted of one principal plant and five others connected with it, and 
developed successively at its base, presenting a kind of proliferation. 

Mushrooms, Edible and otherwise. f — M. E. Hard has published a 
good-sized volume with this title, very fully illustrated by photographic 
reproductions, and meant to serve as an introduction to the study of the 
larger fungi. The habitat and time of growth of each plant is given, 
also its edibility ; and it is hoped that it will assist fungus collectors 
to become familiar with the common mushrooms of their vicinity. 
Instruction is given in the last chapter as to the culture of mushrooms, 
and some simple cooking recipes are added. A glossary and index com- 
plete the volume. 

Synopsis of Phalloids. J — C. G. Lloyd has published at intervals 
his notes on species of Phalloids. In the present pamphlet he gives an 
account of all the family, with descriptions and photographs of the 
different species. He includes sixteen genera, one of them new, Pseudo- 
col us. His work bears a close relation to that of Ed. Fischer, though 
he has retained a number of species that Fischer regarded as forms 
only. The Phalloids are nearly all tropical or sub-tropical plants, only 
six species having been found in Europe. Lloyd gives a list of synonyms 
that have been dropped — a very long list. In an appendix is published 
a note by Ch. Bernard giving a description with two photographs of 
Aseroe rubra var. Jungliuhnii. 

Mycological Fragments.§— Under this title Fr. v. Hohnel continues 
his studies of fungi, which range over the whole subject. Many of the 
fungi already described are subjected to criticism, new diagnoses written, 
and their place in the system rearranged. The author also describes a 
number of new species collected by him in Java. The new genera 
recorded are : Scolecopeltopsis (Hypocreaceai), Phseoisaria (near to Isaria 
or Graphium), Agyrona (belonging to the Agyriese), Dyctionella (Saccar- 
diaceae), Articularia (Hyphomycetes), Tubercular iopsis (TubercularieEe). 
The author gives also a list of Mycomycetes from Java, which includes 
new genera, Physurina, Diachseella and Lepidodermopsis. 

Mycological Notes. No. 83. || — C. G. Lloyd has issued a series of 
paragraphs on various subjects connected with mycology. He gives a 
portrait and a written sketch of the late Paul Henning's life and work. 

* Ann. Mycol., vii. (1909) pp. 418-25 (3 pis.), 
t Ohio Library Co., Columbus, Ohio, xii. and G09 pp. (504 figs.). 
\ Cincinnati, Ohio, 1909, 96 pp., 108 figs, and 1 pi. 

§ SB. Akad. Wiss. YVien Math.-Nat. Kl., cxviii. 1 (1909) pp. 275-452 (1 pi. and 
35 figs). See also Ann. Mycol., vii. (1909) pp. 488-9. 
|| Cincinnati, Ohio, 1909, pp. 425-44 (11 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 79 

Professor Hard's book on fungi is strongly recommended by him as a 
good popular presentation of a difficult subject. A description is given 
of the ejection of the peridioles in Sphserobolus and the re-discovery of 
Bovistslla paludosa is chronicled. Lloyd also gives an account of a 
new Broomeia, and discusses the differences between Fames applanatus 
and F, reniformis, an American species. A closely allied species, 
F. leucophseus, is common in the United States and rare in Europe. 

Freezing of Filamentous Fungi.* — Hugo Bartetzko has carried 
out a long series of experiments on the subject with a view to studying 
tlic whole subject of injury to plants by extreme cold. Filamentous 
fungi, such as Penicillium glaucum, Botrytis cinerea, Fkycomyces nitens, 
and Aspergillus niger, were chosen for experiment and grown on 
suitable media. He found that the different fungi reacted differently 
to cold, that they could all withstand low temperatures but died off if 
the culture solution was frozen. If the period of cold were prolonged 
the plants eventually were killed, though this power of resistance was 
heightened the more concentrated the culture solution. Death by 
freezing is not simply due to withdrawal of water, because the point of 
freezing may be at a temperature higher than that at which water is 
withdrawn in any considerable quantity. The phase of development of 
the fungus is of considerable importance in the moment of freezing. 

Termites and Fungus-culture.f — K. Escherich contributes a 
study of the fungus gardens of the white ants. These gardens are 
(•(instructions of various sizes, and are traversed by gangways in which 
the fungus is cultivated ; the larva? of the ants are kept in the neigh- 
bourhood of the fungus and live on it. The fungus itself is clear or 
dark brown coloured, and forms little pustules, all closely congregate ; 
tlie substratum on which the fungus grows is of wood, or occasionally 
of leaves. On the outside of the nests very frequently an Agaric 
{Volvaria eurhiza) is found, especially after rain. If a portion of a 
nest is kept under a bell-jar the stomata of a Xylaria make their 
appearance, so the fungus garden is not a pure culture of Volvaria 
alone. The latter has never been found apart from termite nests. 

Genera of Fungi. $ — F. E. Clements has compiled, in key form, the 
genera of fungi, so far as known, taken from Saccardo's Sylloge Fun- 
gorum, Thaxter's LaboulbeniaceEe, and Zahlbruchner's Lichens in 
Engler and Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien. He also adds explanations of 
terms used by Saccardo, list of genera, and a very full index. 

Diseases of Plants.§ — A. D. Selby and T. J. Manns describe a new 
disease of cereals caused by a fungus, Colletotrichwn cereale sp. n. It 
attacks the spikes, culms, and sheaths of various grasses ; on cereals the 
attacks take place as the plant ripens, causing a shrivelling of the grain. 

M. F. Barrus || has studied the dissemination of disease by means 

* Jahrb. wiss. Bot., xlvii. (1909) pp. 57-98. 

t Biol. Centralbl., xxix. (1909) No. 1. See also Centralbl. Bakt., xxiv. (1909) 
pp. 591-2. \ Minneapolis : H. W. Wilson Co. (1909) 227 pp. 

§ Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 1908, p. 111. 
|| Tom. cit., pp. 113-22 (3 pis.). 



-SO SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

of the seeds of the host-plant, and published his research as a thesis 
presented at Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana. He distinguishes 
two classes : (1) those which infest the seed internally as in anthracnose 
of beans, Ascochyta Pisi on pea, and some smuts ; (2) those diseases 
where the fungus spore becomes attached to the mature seed 
externally, as in most of the smuts, in some rusts, etc. Some bacterial 
diseases are also propagated in this way. Advice is given as to cleansing 
of seeds. 

A disease of melons and cucumbers,* first recorded and described in 
America, has appeared in Gloucestershire. It is due to a small Ascomy- 
cete which attacks and kills the stem and the leaves ; these wither and 
die. Only the conidial (Ascochyta) stage has been noticed in England, 
and it only occurs in hot-houses. 

T. Johnson f publishes further observations on Spongospora Solani, 
the powdery potato scab. He has had opportunities of examining 
Berkeley's Tuburcinia scabies, formerly considered as a smut, and finds 
that it is identical with his specimens of Spongospora. Potato crops in 
the Scilly Islands and Cornwall have suffered from the disease this 
summer, where it appeared in a very destructive form. Johnson 
describes again the development of the fungus, and proves its identifica- 
tion w T ith the one described by Wallroth in 1842 as Ergsibe subterranea. 
Johnson finds that treating scabby tubers for 18 to 20 hours with 
Bordeaux mixture kills the disease and insures a healthy crop from 
these tubers. 

An account J comes from Kew as to the extent to which the above 
Potato scab has spread throughout the country. Most of the cases 
reported are from Scotland, the worst area being the Hebrides. Soil 
does not seem to be a factor of great importance ; the fungus is propa- 
gated from diseased tubers. Rhizoctonia violacea also attacks potato 
tubers, and when the mycelium penetrates the tissue it reduces it quickly 
to a pulp. Another disease, Hgpochnus Solani, reported from Birken- 
head, attacks the haulm just above the ground level. From St. Helen's 
in Lancashire, cases of potato leaf blotch were sent to be examined. 
The foliage was attacked by a hyphomycetous fungus, Sporidesminm 
Solani f. varians, which forms brown patches on the leaves. Spraying 
with half strength Bordeaux mixture is recommended, and, in autumn, 
the burning of all diseased tops. " Sprain " in potato tubers was also 
investigated. It is accompanied by brown spots in the flesh of the 
tubers ; in some of them mycelium was found. In some cases the 
brown spotting is an incipient stage of winter-rot. 

Sybil Longman § has also been working on potato disease to deter- 
mine the nature and cause of dry-rot. This is due to Fusariiim Solani, 
which spreads more particularly among stored potatoes. It is a true 
parasite, and if diseased tubers are planted the fungus travels to the 
shoot, causing them to shrink and die. Longman describes the 
mycelium as forming pink, white, or buff-coloured mycelium with typical 

* Journ. Board Agric, xvi. (1909) pp. 579-80. 

.t Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc, xii. (1909) pp. 165-74 (3 pis.). 

% Journ. Board Agric, xvi. (1909) pp. 642-8 (1 pi.). 

§ Journ. Linn. Soc, xxxix. (1909) pp. 120-9 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 81 

Fusarium lunate, septate spores. The older pustules become dark blue 
at the base, forming a hard dry sclerotium ; the upper part turns 
bright blue, and two different types of spores appear — the first the 
typical Fusarium spores, the second round and pointed spores. No 
asctis fruit was observed, but the pustules may be regarded as a reduced 
pycnidial stage. Sterilisation by heat is not possible, as the fungus can 
resist temperatures that kill the tubers. 

Fritz Krause* records a disease of oats in West Prussia due to 
ScoUcotrichum graminis. It appeared at first as whitish spots on the 
leaves, which presently increased in size and became brown ; on the 
white spots, black points appeared, the fructification of the fungus. 

E. J. Butler f recognises Coryneum Mori as a disease of mulberry 
in Kashmir, introduced from Japan. The fungus attacks the base of 
the twigs, and does serious damage to the trees ; it develops with great 
luxuriance on the fallen branches. Several other fungi are given as 
parasites of the mulberry. 

In his yearly report of fungi, G. P. Clinton % takes note of several 
parasitic fungi. Phytophthora Thalictri was found in Connecticut on 
Thalktrum Polygonum, also the oospores, a new discovery. Smith and 
Smorenski had announced the finding of the oospores of Phytophthora 
infestans, but Clinton sees reason to 'doubt the correctness of this, as 
culture experiments with the oospores were a failure. The oospores of 
P. Phaseoli were easily grown, and their development is described in 
detail. 

D. Kirchner § states that the oak mildew is universally prevalent in 
Wurtemberg ; it made its first appearance in May, and was at its worst 
in July and August. The mischief caused is not so great as in France. 
It has again been demonstrated that the mildew in question is not 
Phyllactinia corylea. Some perithecia of that species found on the oak 
were accidental. 

H. Klebahn|| has published in volume form the results of ex- 
tended observations of fungus diseases on lilac (Syringa vulgaris). This 
shrub has been extensively cultivated of late years, and, with overcrowd- 
ing, have arrived the fungus pests. He touches on the animal and 
bacteria pests, and then passes to parasitic fungi. Among these, there 
are three of special importance : Botrytis cinerea and Heterosporium 
Syringse, which attack and destroy the leaves, and Phytophthora Syringse 
sp. n., which causes a disease of the bark and of the buds. Klebahn 
describes in detail the appearance of the fungus, and the havoc it works 
in the tissues. He made a series of artificial cultures, and produced 
abundant oogonia and oospores. Finally by transferring to pure water 
culture a piece of the mycelium, he was able to develop sporangia and 
to watch the zoospores escape. He infected successfully twigs of the 

* Centralbl. Bakt., xxv. (1909) pp. 102-6 (1 pi.). 

t Mem. Dep. Agric. India, Bot., ser. 2, viii. (1909) 18 pp. (4 pis. and 1 fig.). 
See also Ann. Mycol. vii. (1909) p. 495. 

X Rep. Conn. Agric. Exper. Stat., xii. (1909) pp. 849-907 (16 pis.). See also Ann. 
Mycol., vii. (1909) p. 495. 

§ Nat. Zeitschr. Landw. Forstw., vii. (1909) pp. 213-17. See also Ann. Mycol., 
vii. (1909) p. 497. 

|| Krankheiten des Flieders. Berlin : Gebr. Borntraeger (1909) 75 pp. (45 figs.) 

Feb. 16th, 1910 G 



82 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

host-plant with water-containing zoospores, and produced all the symp- 
toms of the disease. The author gives advice as to the stamping out of 
the disease, which he thinks should he easily done by avoiding all 
wounding of the hark and, as far as possible, all contact between the 
young twigs and the soil. 

V. Ducomet* gives an account of his research on diseases of 
cultivated plants. He cites, first of all, a new parasite of rye-grass, 
Fusarium loliaceum, which lives on and destroys the leaves. The author 
finds it growing in a more sparse manner than is usual with Fusarium, 
but he finds that the two conditions of scattered and compact formation 
of conidiophores is a growth state, and not a generic difference. 

He records a new disease of pine-leaves caused by a minute Asco- 
mycete, Sphserella pmifolia sp. n. It encrusts the needles with brown 
hyphse, and chokes the stomata ; later, the hyphas penetrate the tissues. 

A new disease of potatoes has also been discovered by Ducomet, and 
ascribed by him to a fungus — probably Vermicularia varians. The 
fungus forms minute sclerotia on the tuber ; the fungal filaments 
collect in the superficial tissues, and form hardened surfaces. Notes 
arc also given on the oak mildew. The writer agrees that it cannot 
be Microsphaera Alni, and that it is probably distinct from Oidium 
quercinum. 

H. T. Gussowf reports on black-scab of potatoes in Newfoundland. 
Be gives a history of the disease in Europe, describes its appearance, 
and suggests remedies. He accepts the name given by European 
mycologists, ChrysopMyctis endoMotica. 

Root-fungi of Orchids.:}: — Hans Burgeff has studied the fungi 
that enter into symbiotic relationship with orchid roots, and now pub- 
lishes the results of his observations and experiments. He discusses the 
meaning of symbiosis, and combats Elenkin's theory that of the two 
symbionts one is necessarily living at the expense of the other. The 
two organisms are really well-balanced in nature ; and only when, by 
some accident, one becomes overweighted, does harm result to one or 
both of the symbionts. 

Burgeff describes the morphology and physiology of the fungi from 
data gained in his experiments. The fungus does not assimilate free 
nitrogen, and it is aerobic ; formation of spores and sclerotia depend on 
the concentration of the substratum. In the second part of the work 
he describes the result of cultures of orchids from seed with and with- 
out the fungus symbiont, gives detailed accounts of many of the orchids 
and the root-fungi, and discusses from every standpoint the value and 
function of the mycorhiza, 

Bbbgamasgi, G. — Due nuovi miceti per la campania. (Two new fungi for 
Italy.) 

[Montagnitcs Candollei and Gyrophragmium Dclilei were found, and are fullv 
described. Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., xxi. (1909) pp. 439-42 (1 pi.). 

* Ann. Ecole Nat. Agric. Rennes, ii. (1908) 1909, pp. 1-54 (54 figs.). See also 
Bot. Centralbl., cxi. (1909) pp. 545-6. 

t Dept. Agric. Centr. Exper. Farm, Ottawa, Canada, Bull. No. 63, 8 pp. (2 pis. 
and 1 fig.). \ Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1909, 250 pp. (22 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 83 

Bigeard, R., & H. Guillemin— Flore des Champignons superieurs de France. 
(Flora of the higher fungi of France.) 

[An account of the most important edible and poisonous species.] 

Chalons-sur-Saone (1909) 600 pp. (50 pis.). 
See also Ann. Mycol, vii. (1909) p. 486. 

Colin. Henri — Action toxique der sulfate de cuivre sur le Botrytis cinerea. 
(Toxic action of sulphate of copper on Botrytis cinerea.) 

[Resistance to poison of this fungus is less than that of Penicillium and 
Asj)ergillus. The author failed to localise the effect of the copper.] 

Rev. Gin. Bot., xxi. (1909) pp. 289-94. 

Garnier, R., & Am. Laronde — Champignons et Lichens. 

[List of 252 fungi and 112 lichens collected in Haut-Valais.] 

Bull. Acad. Int. Geogr. Bot., xvii. (1909) pp. 142-62. 

•Jaap, O.— Zur Flora von Gliicksburg. 

A list of fungi, with several new species.] 

.Schrift. Nat. Ver. Schleswig-Holstein, xiv. (1909) pp. 296-319. 

See also Ann. Mycol., vii. (1909) p. 189. 

Keissler, H. v.— Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Pilzflora Dalmatiens. 

^Twenty-two species are described that were found among a collection of 
lichens.] Oesterr. Zeitschr., lix. (1909) pp. 275-9, 299-302. 

Legxk, L. — Catalogue raisonne des Basidiomycetes qui Croissent autour de Mon- 
doubleau. 

[List of 753 Basidiomycetes from near Mondoubleau, in the Department of 
Loir-et-Cher, La Sarthe, aud Eure-et-Loir.] 

Bull. Soc.Arch. Sci.litt. Vendomois (1908) 192 pp. 
See also Ann. Mycol., vii. (1909) p. 490 

Mobignoni, G. B. — Micromiceti de Sehio. (Micromycetes of Schio.) 

First contribution to the mvcological flora of the Province of Vicenza.] 

Schio : (1909) 32 pp. (2 figs.). See also Ann. Mycol, vii. (1909) p. 80. 

Massalongo, C. — Osservazioni fitologiche. (Phytological observations.) 

[The part devoted to fungi takes note of a number of new 
forms of microfungi.] 

Madonna Verona, 11a, i. (1908) 12 pp. (12 figs.). 
See also Ann. Mycol., vii. (1909) pp. 490-1. 

,, „ Nuove osservazioni fitologiche. (Further observations.) 

[Diagnoses of two new species, Cercospora Pautensis and 
Ramularia Gardcnix.] 

Op. cit., (1909) 23 pp. (18 figs.). 
See also Ann. Mycol., vii. (1909) p. 491. 

Maze, P. — Note sur la production d'acide citrique par les Citromyces. (Note on 
the production of citric acid by Citromyces.) 

[The author concludes that the production of citric acid is a result of in- 
complete respiratory oxidation.] 

Ann. Inst. Pasteur, xxiii. (1909) pp. 830-3. 

Morten sen, L. — Versuche fiber die Giftwirkung von Kobalt-Salzen auf Asper- 
gillus niger bei Kultur auf festen und fiussigen Medien. (Experiments on the 
poisonous action of cobalt salts on Aspergillus niger in solid and fluid media.) 

Centralbl. Bald., xxiv. (1909) pp. 521-38 (4 figs.). 

Petri, L. — Flora Italica Cryptogama. I Fungi. 

[Includes the Gasterales : Secotiaceas, Lycoperdaceae, and Sclerodermataceae. 
Stress is laid on the capillitiurn as a diagnostic character, i 

Rocca : S. Casciano (1909) 140 pp.. S3 figs. 

Raybaud, Laurent— De rinfluence des rayons ultra-violets sur le developpe- 
ment des moisissures. (On the influence of the ultra-violet rays on the de- 
velopment of moulds.) 

[They were found hurtful, as in the case of bacteria.] 

Comptes Rendns, cxlix. (1909) pp. 634-6. 

G 2 



84 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Rehm, H. — Ascomycetes exs. Fasc. 44. 

[Includes Nos. 1826-50 ; several species are new, others are re- 
described and notes added.] 

Ann. Mycol, vii. (1909) pp. 399-405. 

,, Die Clypeosphariacese der deutschen Flora. 

[A review of all the species, with special reference to South 
Germany.] Tom. cit., pp. 406-12. 

„ Die Microthyriaceae der deutschen Flora. 

[Also with reference to South Germany ; notes are added to some 
of the species.] Tom. cit., pp. 413-17. 

Saccardo, P. A. — Notse Mycologicse. 

[Notes on descriptions of thirty-one species, several of them new to science.] 

Tom. cit., pp. 432-7. 

Sydow — Mycotheca Germanica. Fasc. xvi-xvii. 

[Nos. 751-850 are listed, a number of them accompanied with notes, and 
new species described.] Tom. cit., pp. 437-40. 

Wilson, G. W., & Feed Jay Seaver — Ascomycetes and Lower Fungi. 
Fasc. iii. 

[Records of various microscopic fungi, Nos. 51-75. Habitat and locality 
are given. Mi/cologia, i. (1909) pp. 268-73. 



Lichens. 
(By A. Lorrain Smith.) 

New Lichens.* — A. Zahlbruckner describes a number of new species, 
with various added notes. Arthopyrenia peranomala he classifies among 
lichens without being able to detect gonidia, from the fact that the 
perithecium is open below, a character not to be found in allied fungi. 
A new Usnea from India {U. subchalybsea) forms dense erect clumps 
about 4 cm. high. It approaches U. sulphured in habit. Finally, two 
new species of Buellia, on basalt rocks from Arizona, differing from each 
other in the reaction with potash and other details. 

Lichens from Greece. — The list of 178 lichens here published repre- 
sents a collection made by Rene Mairef during a botanical journey in 
l'.)04, and by him, along with M. Petitmengin, in 1906. They were 
examined and determined by Harmand and Bouly de Lesdain. The 
flora of the calcareous hills resembles that of the calcareous Alps ; that 
of the siliceous rocks has not been sufficiently explored to permit of wide 
generalisation. A striking feature of the flora is the predominance of 
Lecanorine forms over Lecideine ; there are only few Arctic-Alpine 
species on the high summits, but on these heights were found lichens 
that inhabit the hills and lower mountains of Central Europe. Corti- 
colous species are much like those of Central Europe. A few new 
species and sub-species occur in the list. 

Arctic Lichens.} — Otto Y. Darbishire includes in this list the 
lichens recorded from Arctic America, Greenland, Spitzbergen, and 

* Ann. Mycol., vii. (1909) pp. 472-8. 

t Bull. Soc. Sci. Nancy, fasc. 6 (1909) 36 pp. 

J Norwegian Arctic Exped. ' Pram,' 1898-1902 (1909) Report 2, 68 pp. (2 pis.). 



o - 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. uO 

Iceland. It has been compiled from lists published by various authors 
and from material brought back by the Norwegian Polar Expedition. 
Darbishire found eight new species in the material brought home by the 
' Fram,' the most striking of these being Placodium splendens, somewhat 
resembling P. elegans, but occasionally forming upright podetia. Fruti- 
culous lichens grew abundantly, though there are few species ; species of 
Gyrophora and Parmelia lamia were among the commonest. A series 
of ecological notes are given of the different lichens, and there is a 
bibliography of publications on Arctic lichens. Habitat and locality are 
given with each species. 

Siberian Lichens.* — E. A. Wainio describes the lichens collected by 
E. Almquist in Northern Siberia, and gives an account of the conditions 
in which they were found. The country round Pitlekai, where they 
were collected, is uniform and very bare. On the sand dunes of the 
sea-shore Cetraria hiascens was occasionally found ; further inland 
occurred patches of moss and a considerable variety of lichens : Ochro- 
lechia tartarea, Lecanorse, Lecideee, Pertusarise, Parmelise, Gladonise, etc. 
Stones the size of one's fist were scattered around, and on these grew 
another series of crustaceous lichens, Lecideee, etc. On some smaller 
stones near by, Umbilicaria proboscidea -grew abundantly. Detailed lists 
of these lichens are given by the author according to habitat, and then 
a full account of all the species, with diagnosis of new forms. 

Chemistry of Lich.ens.t- An important paper has been issued by 
Zopf on the chemical products of Peltigera, Solorina, and Nephroma. 
He finds several new bodies : peltigerin in all the species of Peltigera 
examined, with the exception of P. canina, P. rufescens, P. spuria, and 
P. prsetexta. Another new T substance is polydactylin. Zopf deduces 
from these researches that the genus Peltidea should not be separated 
from Peltigera, as the chemical products are so akin. 

CrKiLLi, C. — Sul Callopisma luteo-albuni var. lacteum. 

[The writer describes the varietv as a species of Gyalolechia.] 

Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital., 1909, pp. 152-4. 

Hasse, H. E. — Additions to the Lichen-flora of Southern California. No. 2. 

[A description of nine species of lichens, only two of which are peculiar to 
America ; the others are also found in Europe.] 

Bryologist, xii. '1909) pp. 101-4. 

Merril, G. K. — Lichen Notes. No. 14. 

[Description of three new species of Calicium.] 

Tom. cit., xii. (1909) pp. 107-8. 

Z a hl bruckner, A. — Vorarbeiten zu einer Flechtenflora Dalmatiens. (Pre- 
liminary work for a lichen flora of Dalmatia.) 

[Several species of Verrucariaceas and Dermatocarpacese are dealt with, 
some of them new.] Oesterr. Bot. Zeit., lix. (1909) pp. 3] 5-21. 



* Ark. Bot., viii. No. 4 (1909) 175 pp. 

t Liebig's Ann. Chemie, ccclxiv. (1909) pp. 273-313. See also Bot. Centralbl. 
cxi. (1909) pp. 231-2. 



86 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Schizophy ta. 
Schizomycetes. 

Bacillus arenicolse.*— H. B. Fantham and Annie Porter have found 
in the gut of Arenicola ecaudata a bacillus which damages the gut and 
may hasten the death of the Annelid. The bacillus is from 7-17 /x long 
by • 7-1 ■ 3 /a broad, averaging 11 /x by 1 ft. Internally it shows many 
darkly staining granules, often arranged in the form of transverse bars. 
These granules are probably composed of chromatin. The authors 
think that a nucleus exists in the form of a chromidial system. Some 
of the colorable granules are refringent and probably consist of meta- 
chromatin. The cytoplasm stains with difficulty, while the periplast 
stains deeply. Division is by transverse septation. B. arenicolse forms 
one terminal spore. 

Granules of Plague Bacilli. f— F. Vay states that in plague bacilli 
cultivated artificially granules are demonstrable which are extremely 
like in shape, position and general appearance bodies which have been 
described as nuclei. They are not fat inclusions, and are not de- 
monstrable in bacteria found in the animal body. 

Media which Attenuate or Exalt the Virulence of Tubercle 
Bacilli. :f — Baudran, by cultivating B. tuberculosis on a medium com- 
posed of glycerophosphate of iron 0'2, metaphosphate of soda 5, citrate 
of soda 2, glycerin 60, albumoses Byla 10, distilled water 1000, obtained 
a growth in which the bacilli were much attenuated, of dumb-bell 
shape, and staining feebly only at the ends. The pathogenic effect on 
animals was almost nil. When the iron was replaced by a similar 
quantity of phosphate of manganese the morphological and tinctorial 
characters were similar, but animals injected with the toxin or the 
bacilli rapidly succumbed. 

Spirochseta eurygyrata and S. stenogyrata.§ — H. Werner dis- 
covered in human fasces two Spirochetes, one with broad, the other 
with narrow turns of the spirals. 8. eurygyrata varies 4-i;-7-:> /x ; the 
turns are broad and thick. The length of S. stenogyrata is from 
3"5-6"l Li : the turns are much finer and closer than in S. eurygyrata. 
Apparently they are not identical with Spirochetes found in the mouth, 
and are probably very common habitants of the human alimentary canal. 

Microbes on Fruit.j|— A. Sartory and A. Filassier call attention to 
the possibility of the transmission of disease by raw fruit, e.g. grapes. 
strawberries, and gooseberries. The principal species detected were 
Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, B. termo, B. subtilis, M. candicans, 
Penkillitim glaucum, Rhizopus nigricans. 

Actinomyces of the Cornea. If— B. Namyslowski describes two 

Actinomycetes obtained from the human cornea, the species being 

• Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., Hi. (1009) pp. 329-34 (1 pi.). 
t Tom. cit., pp. 305-18 (1 pi.). 
X Cornptos Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 874-5. 
§ Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., lii. (1909) pp. 241-3 (1 pi.). 
II O.K. Soc. Biol. Paris, i xv ii. (iy09) pp. 445-7. 
^f Bull. Internat. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, 1909, pp. 418-27 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 87 

.4. radiatus and A. cerebriformis. The specific names are derived from 
the cultural appearances, and an examination of the photographs shows 
that these befit them well. Both species grow well on most media ; 
A. radiatus is white to grey, while A. cerebriformis is yellow to yellowish- 
orange ; both liquefy gelatin ; both form filaments and shorter elements 
supposed to be spores. 

Hillhousia mirabilis.* — Hillhousia mirabilis, says G. S. West, is a 
sulphur bacterium of giant proportions, and is much the largest solitary 
bacterium which has so far been discovered. Its average length is 
about GO /x and breadth about 26 /*. The organism is a peritrichous 
bacterium, with a large number of short cilia It occurs among 
decaying organic matter in the mud of shallow fresh-water pools. Each 
individual contains a protoplasmic network, in the wide meshes of which 
large globules of "sulphur (probably not pure, but in loose combination 
with proteid material) are located. The network includes numerous 
small granules, a considerable proportion of which consist of some 
nucleoproteid. None of them are chromatin granules. The cell-wall is 
firm, and has great power of resistance to reagents. It is not homo- 
geneous, and 5 p.c. carbolic acid demonstrates its lamellar character. 
The multiplication of this organism is relatively slow, one division 
occupying upwards of 24 hours. 

Fixation of the Complement in Glanders.! — Miessner and Trapp 
make an important communication on the fixation of complement in 
glanders, and its relation to the syphilis reaction. They describe the 
complement fixation methods, the antigen, the serum, the amboceptor, 
the complement, the blood corpuscles, and give details in respect of 
mallein. Some of the important results were : that complement fixation 
was positive in 95*7 p.c. of glandered, and in 1*27 p.c. normal horses. 
A suitable antigen was found in an aqueous extract of glanders bacilli 
made from an agar culture with 250-1000 of phenol saline. The 
antigens were very sensitive to daylight, but bore boiling and minus 
temperatures of -10° to - 15° well. With aqueous extracts of organs of 
glandered and normal horses and guinea-pigs, there was no complement 
fixation with the serum of glandered horses ; similar results were 
obtained when alcoholic extracts were used, and also with oleate of 
sodium, oleic acid, and lecithin. For further details the original should 
be consulted. 

Coccobacillus conjunctivas.:!: — Y. Ruata describes a Gram-negative 
organism which presents itself both as a diplococcus and also as a 
bacillus. By its morphological, cultural, and pathogenic characters, il 
is easily distinguished from other Gram-negative germs. Owing to its 
varying morphology it is termed Coccobacillus conjunctivse. Its patho- 
genicity is slight, though when injected into a rabbit's eye it causes a 
panophthalmitis, but seems to have no action on human connective 



tissues. 



* Proc. Roy. Soc. Scr. B, lxxxi. (1909) pp. 398-405 (1 pi.). 
t Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., Hi. (1909) pp. 115-46. 
% Tom. cit., pp. 630 44 (1 pi.). 



<S8 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Presence of Bacteria in Echinococci and Cysticerci.* — R. Mehl- 
hose, in an important communication, draws attention to the bacterial 
contents of the bladder-forms of tapeworms. The author presents his 
case in tabular form, and cites sixty examples, and afterwards describes 
the bacteria. 

Flagella of Spirillum volutans.t — F. Fuhrman found that these 
varied in number from fifteen to twenty-five. They rise for the most 
part in a single tuft at a point near one pole, but smaller secondary 
tufts occur. The average length is 12-18/*, but in older cultures 
flagella of much greater length, as much as 72 /a, are seen. Their thick- 
ness is estimated at * 03-0 ' 05 /a. Flagella are described as consisting 
of a proximal portion, starting from a point in the cell-plasma situated 
near the pole, and passing to the cell-membrane, and of a distal free 
portion, beginning at the outer aspect of the cell-membrane. The free 
portion is normally structureless. The proximal portion is a fine thread, 
resembling somewhat a chromatin-fibre. The point of origin is analo- 
gous to the blepharoplast of Flagellates. 

Causes of certain Plant Diseases.:}: — A. Osterwalder describes a new 
species of bacterium, Pseudomonas levistici, parasitic upon Levisticum 
officinale, which makes stains upon the leaves and dark brown streaks 
upon the stem. It is a small organism, rounded at one end and pro- 
vided with a terminal flagellum. It grows well on nutrient agar and 
on gelatin, which it liquefies. It forms indol. and is Gram-negative. 
Spore-formation has not been observed. 

Phytophthora omnivora is parasitic upon Calceolaria rugosa. The 
disease spreads from the stem, causing the plant to wither and die. 

Sclerotinia libertiana causes a fatal disease in Omphalodes verna. 

Che/one glabra and G. barbafa are attacked by Tylencephalus de- 
vastatrix, a Nematode, which, in the former species, causes remarkable 
distortions of the stem. 

Comparative Studies of the Myxobacteriaceas and the Bacteri- 
aceae.§ — C. Vahle gives an account of his work upon some of the 
Myxobacteria. The types investigated were the Myxococcus ruber. 
Myxococcus virescens, Polyangium fuscum, and Chondromyces crocatus. 
The author gives an exhaustive account of the development and mor- 
phology of the spores and the vegetative forms. These organisms djffer 
in some important respects from the bacteria proper. In Myxobacteria 
fission takes place by the drawing apart of the daughter-cells rather 
than by the formation of a septum, as in bacteria. The true cell- 
membrane of bacteria is represented in Myxobacteria by an adhesive 
pellicle of a different nature. Myxobacteria possess no flagella, and 
their mechanism for movement has not been clearly demonstrated. The 
development, morphology, and germination of the spores show further 
points of difference. On the other hand, a comparison of these types of 
Myxobacteria with certain of the Myxomycetes shows many striking- 
points of similarity, more particularly in respect of methods of repro- 

* Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., lii. (1909) pp. 43-74 (1 pi.). 

t Op. cit., 2te Abt., xxv. (1909) pp. 135-59. J Tom. cit , pp. 260-70. 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 178-260. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 89 

duction and spore-formation. The author is of opinion, therefore, that 
Myxobacteria ought to be included among the Myxomycetes as a special 
family akin to the Guttulinaceaj and the Dictyosteliaceae. 

Yahle also gives an account of the cultural, morphological, and 
physiological characters of the B. oxalaticus of Kuntze, and compares it 
with the /,'. ruminatus of Gottheil. He describes the germination of 
the spores upon dextrose-agar and upon sugar-free agar media. 'I 1 he 
optimum temperature for the germination of spores is 87° C, the 
maximum 47° C. Spore formation did not take place at a temperature 
above 40°. These two organisms resemble each other greatly, the most 
marked difference being found in the resistance of the spores to heat, 
and in the effect of temperature upon germination. The B. oxalaticus 
has less power of resistance than B. ruminatus. 

Lastly, this author compares Spirillum rubrum and 8. volutans. 
The former possesses four flagella at each end, whereas the latter has 
one large tuft. Both organisms are difficult to stain. Their cultural 
characters are almost identical. Their physiological characters are 
similar. They both have little power of resistance to high tempera- 
tures. The pigment formation of the former organism is the only 
salient point of distinction. 

Relation of the Ratin-bacillus to the Bacilli of the Gaertner 
Group.* — Xylander found that the cultural characters of the Ratin- 
bacillns and of a large number of bacilli belonging to the Gaertner 
group were similar. The sugar-fermentation reactions were identical. 
Agglutination reactions differentiate sharply between Ratin-bacillus and 
the B. paratyphosus (3, but fail to differentiate between Ratin-bacillus 
and the original bacillus of Gaertner. The addition of 0'8 p.c. of 
caffein to nutrient agar causes modifications in the size and form of the 
Ratin-bacillus as of the Gaertner bacillus. A thermostable toxin pro- 
duced by the Ratin-bacillus resembles greatly the toxins of the Gaertner 
group in its effect upon animals. The author concludes that this 
organism should be included in the Gaertner group. 

Xylander also reports upon " Ratio II.," a proprietary substance 
designed for the destruction of rats. It claims to be a bacterial culture, 
hut the author shows that it is in reality not a bacterial substance at 
all. but is largely composed of an extract of squills. 

Observations on certain Lactic Acid Bacteria of the so-called 
Bulgaricus type.y — B. White and 0. T. Avery obtained cultures from a 
large number of sources. These included commercial preparations, cul- 
tures from various laboratories, and strains isolated from the preparations 
of native Armenians. They found that, in cultural and morphological 
characters, these organisms had much in common with one another and 
with the group of Bacteria caucasica. They are non-motile, and do not 
form spores. Viable bacilli are Gram -positive ; involution forms are 
Gram-negative. Freshly isolated organisms grow upon milk or upon 
media containing whey or malt. The optimum temperature is 40-50 C. 

* Cent-albl. Bakt., lte Abt. lii. (1909) pp. 455-68. 
t Op. cit., 2te Abt., xx v . (1909) pp. 161-78. 



90 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Gelatin is not liquefied. In most cases, milk was found to be the best 
culture-medium. 

The authors differentiate two types, A and B. In type A, 2 ■ 7-3 ' 7 p.c. 
of lactic acid is produced in milk, this lactic acid being of the inactive 
modification. The protoplasm is stained homogeneously by Loffler's 
methylen-blne or Neisser's stain. Bacilli of type B so stained show 
deeply staining granules, and in milk 1 ■ 2-1 ■ 6 p.c. of laevolactic acid is 
formed. 

Bacillus septictemise anserum exsudativse.* — P. Frosch and K. 
Bierbaum isolated this organism from the heart-blood and peritoneal fluid 
of two geese that had died of goose-plague. It possesses many points 
of resemblance to the B. influenzse Pfeiffer. It is a small bacillus 
0'5-l # 5fi long, 0'b fj. in breadth. It takes up the ordinary stains. 
but is Gram-negative. It stains best with carbol-fuchsin. It is non- 
motile, and does not form spores. When first isolated it grows only 
upon media containing blood, but after cultivation for about twenty 
generations it will grow upon alkaline agar and some other media. 
The optimum temperature is 37° C. Cultures possess low vitality and 
are prone to die out. It is assigned to the group of pseudo-influenza 
bacilli. 

Mebbskowsky, S. S.- — TJeber die Eigentumlichkeit des Bac. typhi spermophi- 
lorum in media welche Trauben- oder Milchzneker enthalten. 

[Peculiarities of B. typhi spermophilorum in media which contain grape- or 
milk-sugar.] " Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., lii. (1909) pp. 427-9. 

Kendall, A. J. — Bacillus infantilis (sp. n.) and its Relation to Infantilism. 

[Describes asporogenous, aerobic, Gram-positive, motile bacillus found in 
cases of infantile diarrhcea.] 

Journ. Biol. Chem., v. (1909) pp. 419-37. 

Gleckel, D. — Vergleichende untersuchungen der biochemischen Eigenschaffen 
des Bacillus osteomyelitidis Henke mit denen des Staphylococcus aureus, S. 
citreus, und B. coli communis. 

[Comparative researches on the biochemical characters of B. osteomyeli- 
tidis Henke and those of Staphylococcus aureus, S. citreus, and B. coli. 
Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., lii. (1909) pp. 318-29. 

Westergaard, E. — On the Development of Mixed Cultures of Bacteria and 
Lower Fungi in Liquid and Solid Media. (Preliminary notice.) 

Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin., xxix. (1909) p. 748. 

Shattock, S. G., & L. S. Dudgeon — Note on the Relationship between 
Avian and Human Tuberculosis. 

[Experiments showing the immunity of white rats to avian tuberculosis.] 

Lancet (1909) ii. pp. 1739-42. 



* Centralbl. Bakt.., lte Abt., Hi. (1909) pp. 432-40. 



• i < ^=»+- 



ZOOLOGY, AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



91 



MICROSCOPY. 

A. Instruments, Accessories, etc.* 
(1) Stands. 

Zeiss' Microscope for Investigating Ultra-microscopical Particles.f 
This instrument is clamped to the foot-plate or board on which the rest 




Fig. 5. 

of the apparatus for demonstrating ultra-microscopic particles are placed. 
The microscope has a large mechanical stage and a special object-stage o, 
which can be elevated. It is provided at the back with a beading for 

* This sub-division contains (1) Stands ; (2) Eye-pieces and Objectives ; (3) 
Illuminating and other Apparatus; (4) Photomicrography; (5) Microscopical 
Optics and Manipulation ; (6) Miscellaneous. 

f Zeiss' Catalogue, Ultra-microscopy and Dark-ground Illumination, 3rd ed., 
1907, pp. 15-19, fig. 11. 



92 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



sliding iuto the groove of the large mechanical stage after the springs 
have been withdrawn. The object-stage can be elevated by means of 
the screwy ; it terminates at the top in a plate, on which tbe specimen 
to be examined is placed. The Microscope, as shown in the illustra- 
tion (fig. 5), is fitted with dissecting-stage and rotating-analyser on the 
sole-plate with cross slides. 

Some of the accessory apparatus used with this Microscope have 
been described already.* 

Eleizegui, A. — Un nuevo modelo de microscopio para la ensenanza (1 fig). 

Bol. de la R. Soc. espanola de Hist. Nat. Mii. (1908) pp. 442-4. 

[3 Illuminating- and other Apparatus. 

Beck-Gordon Speculum Lamp.f — This lamp (fig. G) is made for 
use with the incandescent electric light or the incandescent pendent gas 
mantle. The lamp depends for its action on a polished glass cylinder 




Fig. 6. 

A several inches long, into one end of which light from the lamp B 
enters. The light so entering is totally reflected along the sides of the 
cylinder in such a manner that when it leaves the other end it emerges 
in all directions not exceeding a moderate angle, so that this end becomes 
a radiant surface, and behaves as if it were a practically homogeneous 
disk source of light, in order to secure the best " critical " illumination 
with powers this surface is focused on to the object instead of the actual 

* See this Journal, 1907, p. 615, and 190G, p. 369. 
t Special Catalogue, 1909, E. and J. Beck, Ltd. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 93 

iliuminant by the substage condenser. The instrument consists of a 
heavy stand C with an upright rod I), up and down which the lamp can 
be moved with a rack-and-piniou E. The glass rod A is fixed to a 
block F, which can be pivoted at an angle so that the light may be 
directed either up or down, rendering the lamp useful for every kind of 
illumination for either high or low powers. The block F carries a 
bar G which carries the fitting H of the electric light B, and also the 
fitting J of the bull's-eye K. The bar G can be moved and clamped in 
the block F, thus giving a rough adjustment for moving the lamp B, or 
the bull's-eye K, nearer to or further from the glass rod A. The 
lamp B and the bull's-eye K can also be both moved by rack-and-piniou 
motions along the bar G. The lamp B when placed close to the end of 
the glass rod A gives a very intense illumination, as a large proportion 
of light enters the glass rod ; but as it is moved away by the raok-and- 
pinion the intensity of the light is reduced rapidly, varying according 
to the square of the distance of the lamp B from the end of the glass 
rod A. The condenser K can be swung out of the way when not re- 
quired, and can be focused by means of the rack-and-pinion so as to 
give parallel light or to focus the light to a small area for the illumina- 
tion of opaque objects. In front of the illuminated disk end of the 
glass rod an iris-diaphragm moved by a lever L is placed, which enables 
the illuminated disk to be reduced in size, and which forms when closed 
down the best object by which to focus the disk upon the microscopic 
object with the substage condenser for producing critical illumination. 
In front of the iris-diaphragm is a stage M which carries a trough N for 
acetate of copper, or other monochromatic solution, and by means of 
clips, glass colour filters, patch stops, or other appliances, can be attached 
to this stage. 



i &> v 



New Form of Polarimeter for the Measurement of the Refractive 
Index of Opaque Bodies.* — W. T. Barrett's instrument for the above 
purpose depends upon Brewster's well-known principle that the index of re- 
fraction of any substance is the tangent of the angle of maximum polari- 
sation for that substance, and that, hence, when a ray of light incident 
on a transparent body is polarised by reflection, the refracted ray forms 
a right angle with the reflected ray. By means of Brewster's Law the 
indices of refraction of various opaque non-metallic reflecting surfaces 
have been obtained. As every different colour has a different index of 
refraction, the law shows that the polarising angle correspondingly varies 
with the different rays of the spectrum, being, for a given substance, 
smallest in the red and largest in the violet. In bodies of low dispersive 
power the angle of maximum polarisation is nearly the same for all 
colours, and white light can be used as the source. In other cases mono- 
chromatic light must be employed — either a sodium flame or suitably 
coloured glass in front of the source described below. The amount of 
light reflected from some opaque bodies is small, and hence the deter- 
mination of the polarising angle is difficult, unless we can always keep 
the analyser placed in the reflected beam at the same angle as the ray 
incident on the opaque surface under examination. To secure this, the 

* Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc, xii. (1909) pp. 98-901 (2 figs.). 



94 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



author has devised the following instrument (fig. 7), whereby with a 
rack-work and simple link-motion, the collimator, which renders the 




Fig. 7. 



incident rays parallel, and the telescope, in which is placed the analysing 
Nicol's prism, are simultaneously moved through equal angles. The 
opaque body is placed on a movable table with levelling screws, which 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



95 



are adjusted until the reflecting surface is level, and at the centre of 
the graduated circle round which travel the telescope and collimator. 
A small but brilliant source of light is employed, such as a Nernst or a 
lo-volt electric glow-lamp ; a small lens throws a brilliant image of the 
light on to the adjustable slit of the collimator. This latter contains a 
lens in a draw-tube, so that a parallel beam falls on the opaque reflecting 
surface : and a sharp image of the slit is obtained by the lens in the 
telescope, which also contains a small Xicol's prism. Upon turning the 
rack-work handle the source of light and collimator move together, and 
through the same angle as the telescope. The observer now turns the 
polarising plane of the Xicol at right angles to the plane of the reflected 




Fig. 8. 



polarised ray, and watches the gradual extinction of the light as the 
polarising angle is approached. At the angle of maximum polarisation 
the light is extinguished (reappearing as the angle is passed), the 
clamping-screw is then turned, and, by means of the vernier, the 
angle is read off in degrees and minutes. As the polarising angle 
of nearly all substances lies between 48° and (!S°, the circle need not 
be finely graduated for more than 20°. An enlarged view of scale and 
vernier is shown in fig. 8. It is, of course, essential that the light 
incident on the opaque surface be strictly parallel : and careful adjust- 
ment of the collimator must be made beforehand for this purpose. 
Provision is also made in the instrument for two other adjustments, 
namely (1) the coincidence of the axis of collimation and the zero of 



96 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the scale, and (2) of the reflecting surface to be tested with the centre 
of the graduated circle. This latter is accomplished by a small pro- 
jecting arm with a platinum point. 

Liquids are placed in a little glass capsule on the levelling table, 
which is adjusted until the platinum point, indicating the centre of the 
circle, just touches the liquid surface, Bodies having an irregular, 
granular, or crystalline surface, if fusible, are melted. This is accom- 
plished by placing them in a small capsule of metal or porcelain, which 
is heated by a current of steam or an electric current traversing a 
platinum wire coiled round the capsule. In practice a difficulty occurs 
in determining the precise angle of maximum polarisation ; for the 
extinction of the reflected ray seems to spread over a narrow region 
rather than to occur at a definite point. This error, however, can be 
lessened by careful attention to the parallelism of the incident rays and 
homogeneity and intensity of the light. The author employed a small 
direct vision-prism spectroscope in the collimator and obtained a sharp 
spectrum, using, of course, a very brilliant source of white light. In this 
way he hoped to obtain the angle of extinction for a definite colour and 
thus see a dark band pass across the spectrum, as the polarising angle for 
such colour was reached. In the case of bodies of very high dispersion, 
such as nitroso-dimethyl-aniline, the dark band is sharp and well-defined. 
But in the case of bodies of low-dispersive power, a faint broad shadow 
is observed to move across the spectrum, the best position to read being 
when the shadow is in the green or greenish-blue ; results can then be 
obtained within 20' to 30', even with this preliminary apparatus. 

Pringsheim's Yellow Filters.* — E. Pringsheim, jun., constructs 
his filters in the following manner : White glass plates (e.g. old photo- 
graphic plates) are thoroughly cleaned by a solution of potassium 
bichromate in concentrated sulphuric acid, rinsed in running water, and. 
the future disk-side downwards, dried by being placed obliquely on 
blotting-paper. This cleaning facilitates the future adhesion of the 
gelatin layer. Every speck of dust is to be avoided. A deep reddish- 
brown solution in distilled water to which 20 p.c. gelatin has been 
added is filtered in a steam chamber, and a little glycerine at the rate of 
a single drop per 100 c.cm., is added to prevent undue brittleness to the 
layer. Some boric acid is also added to prevent growth of moulds. 
Boric acid is too weak to influence the colour, but must be added 
sparingly as it is apt to crystallise out in drying. The cleaned glass 
plates are set out on a larger glass plate accurately levelled. The gelatin 
solution is poured on to the middle of the plates, and must be hot, so 
that the application may be uniform in thickness. Any want of success 
may usually be made good by heating up the unsuccessful part on an 
asbestos layer. "When the gelatin has solidified the plates are kept 
obliquely in a dry place as dustless as possible. With rare exceptions 
the gelatin layer will be found so uniformly applied, that, when held 
between the eye and a newspaper, the printing seems scarcely affected. 
Two such plates may be turned inwards and cemented by Canada 
balsam. 

The author not only uses his filters for the windows of a box for 
studying the heliotropism of plants, but applies them to the study of 

*^Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., xxviA. (1908) pp. 556-65 (4 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



97 



microscopic organisms (e.g. algae-swarms, Euglense, Volvox colonies, etc.) 
sensitive to light. The apparatus is shown in fig. 9, where the filter 




Fig. 9. 





Pigs. 10, 11. 

will be observed underneath the stage T. the light parsing through it 
after reflection at the mirror S. On the stage itself a black cardboard 

Feb. 16th t 1910 H 



98 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

tube, D, with a lid perforated for the objective, completely surrounds 
and incloses the object P. Through an aperture, 0, ordinary light con- 
centrated by a lens can be concentrated on the object. The influence 
of the yellow light upon such organisms as are sensitive to bright 
ordinary light can then be studied. 

It is well known that Engelmann has shown, by arranging a spot of 
light in a dark ground, that many organisms lose their activity when no 
longer in the light spot. The author varies this experiment by intro- 
ducing a light flicker in a yellow field, and his apparatus is shown in 
figs. 10 and" 11. A simple small gelatin disk containing a small colourless 
circle of 5 mm. diameter is projected into the plane of the preparation. 
Racking of the illuminating apparatus will secure sharp definition of the 
circumference of the circle in the image of the organisms. A cover- 
glass acts as the glass disk, and the colourless circle is obtained by 
application of a drop of hydrochloric acid and subsequent treatment by 
a moist camel's-hair pencil. Any slight reddening due to the acid is 
made good by ammonia. The cover-glass is fastened with strips of 
paper pasted on to a large sheet of cardboard, whose plane is arranged 

normally to the incident light-rays. A 
very slight displacement of the mirror 
shifts the bright spot, so that organisms 
which had previously clustered in the 
white light come now under the in- 
fluence of the yellow light. 




Dark-ground Illumination* — S. C. A. 
describes how he successfully obtained 
good dark-ground illumination with a 
Zeiss DD X N.A.-85 one-sixth Reichert 
7a N.A. • 87 one-seventh, using Baker's 
Fig. 12. achromatic condenser N.A. 1*0. "Allthat 

is necessary is to insert a metal tube in 
back of objective, one end of which comes in close contact with the back 
lens of the objective. This end is split to enable a small metal disk to be 
sprung into it ; the other end has a collar, which sits on the top of 
objective. Two or three metal disks are necessary, each having the 
centre punched out, giving varying apertures, a large or a small aper- 
ture being used according to the amount of light to be stopped out. I 
generally leave the tube in my J in., in which case all that is necessary 
to obtain dark ground is to place expanding spot in condenser carrier. 
This extra amount of work to be readily obtained from an objective 
will be appreciated. Diaphragms, or a Davis shutter, are of no use for 
dark ground illumination with high powers, as they work too far away 
from back lens of objective." (fig. 12). 

Use of the Polariscope in Testing High-tension Insulators.f 
C. F. Harding shows that with the aid of the polariscope it is not only 
possible to determine some of the causes for the unsatisfactory service 

* English Mechanic, xc. (1909) p. 311 (1 fig.). 

t Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 1908 (issued 1909) pp. 147-9. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. "99 

given by certain glass insulators, but it is also possible to make pre- 
liminary acceptance tests upon new insulators, and to eliminate all of 
those which show signs of improper annealing. 

Evatt, Ev. J. — The Cameragraph : a Drawing Apparatus. 

Journ. Anat. and Physiol., iii. (1908) pp. 335-6. 

(4) Photomicrography. 

Cheap non-vibrating Suspension for Microphotography.* — R. <i. 
Perkins takes a 2-in. plank 14 in. wide and fixes on it in optical align- 
ment the various parts of the apparatus. It is of course necessary to 
have some arrangement so that the light and the collecting lens may 
be adjusted, though to save expense, a median fixed position may be 
secured with good results for all powers. The bellows should slide in 
the focal plane, so as to admit of looking in the eyepiece of the Micro- 
scope for the area to be photographed. Two cleats of hard wood were 
screwed to the bottom of the plank near the ends, and through these 
four screw-eyes were bolted. Four pulleys were fastened on the ceiling 
with window cord passing from the cleats on the wall through the 
pulleys and down to the screw-eyes in the plank. At any point between 
the ceiling pulleys and the screw-eyes, were interposed extension springs 
of such a tension that the rings would be separated about an eighth of 
an inch when the whole weight of the apparatus came upon them. The 
plank and its fixtures were then raised by its cords to a convenient 
height, the light connected with its source, and the machine was 
complete. The advantages which have been found in this arrangement 
are, in the first place, the absolute removal of building vibration, 
exposures of one second or one hour being equally clear, even with the 
whole affair swinging to and fro and up and down. In the second 
place, there are no legs underneath to be kicked or to get in the way, 
and the plank can be pulled up to the ceiling if desired to give more 
space in the dark room. In the third place, the plank and the 
suspension cost only three dollars, besides the time necessary for instal- 
lation. 

Resolving Power of Photographic Plates.f— G. B. Kenneth Mees 
points out that, while great attention has been paid to the resolving 
power of lenses, very little has been done for the resolving power of the 
photographic plates which are largely used in recording instruments. 
He considers that the resolving power may be defined as the distance 
which must separate two lines of light falling npon the plate in order 
that the developed image may be recognised to be that of two separate 
lines. It is clearly of no use to obtain a higher resolving power in an 
instrument than the plate used in that instrument will possess. The 
only attempt to state this resolving power appears to be that of 
Wadsworth,$ who lays down that two lines can be separated if between 
the particles in the maxima of the lines there are one silver particle and 
two spaces, that is to say, the linear distance between the two maxima 
or centres of the line is equal to four times the diameter of a particle. 

* Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull., xx. (1909) p. 325. 

t Proc. Roy. Soc, lxxxiii. (1909) pp. 810-18 (8 figs.). 

\ Astrophys. Journ., iii. (1896) pp. 188, 321. 

u 2 



100 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

If the diameter of a particle be called e, then we may assume that for 
photographic resolution it is necessary that the linear distance between 
the centres of the lines be equal to 4e. E. C. C. Baly* states that e 
may be taken as lying between 0*005 to 0*025 mm. ;l this statement 
is not confirmed, however, by other workers. It is not difficult to make 
slow plates in which the grain does not exceed a diameter of * 0005 mm. 
According to Wadsworth, these plates should therefore resolve lines 
which are not much more than T -^q mm - apart. As rough experi- 
ments showed at once that the resolving power of such plates did not 
exceed about £$ to 4V mm., the author undertook to thoroughly 
investigate the subject. After numerous experiments, he concluded 
that : 1. The resolution of a photographic plate is dependent on the 
amount of irradiation displayed by that plate. 2. That irradiation is 
not directly proportional to the size of grain, but is caused by two 
different forms of scatters arising from (a) reflection and (b) diffraction. 
3. That the resolving power is likely to be much smaller than that 
indicated by the theory of Wadsworth. 

In order to experimentally determine the resolving power, a series of 
black and white line gratings were constructed having alternate black 
and clear lines of equal width, the width of the clear glass ranging from 
0*88 to 0' 14 mm. Experiments showed that the limit of resolutions 
possessed by dry plates chemically developed were : For an ordinary 
fine grained plate, lines will be just resolved if they are separated by 
• 018 mm. (For a coarser grain, as in all fast plates, about ' 030 mm. 
is necessary.) For very fine-grained plates for violet light, 0*018 mm. 
will be resolved ; with red light, * 008 mm. may be discerned. The 
resolution on the surface of a fine-grained plate will obviously be much 
greater than this, as is shown by the very high resolving power possessed 
by the fine-grained "albumen" plates which are developed by the 
deposition of silver from an acid silver solution. 

Specially prepared gelatin plates of extreme thinness were also pre- 
pared, and were found to be more sensitive to red than to blue. The 
separation with violet light was * 008 mm. ; while with red light lines 
of * 004 mm. separation were resolved. 

[Photomicrographers will readily appreciate the superiority apparently 
possessed by red light and medium grains over violet light and fine grain 
plates. In resolving line tests the former go nearly twice as far as the 
latter. — Ed.] 

Ultramicroscopic Cinematography of Living Microbes and of 
Moving Particles.f — For carrying out the above purpose, J. Oomandon 
used as light-source an arc lamp of 30 amperes with automatic regulator, 
the luminous rays being condensed by a thin glass lens in such a way 
that the image of the positive crater of the arc covered the diaphragm 
of the Microscope condenser. The Microscope (a Zeiss) was provided 
with Siedentopf's parabolic condenser giving lateral illumination and 
thus forming the ultramicroscope. The cinematograph was Pathe's 
apparatus modified for the purpose, and adapted to the Microscope by 
the help of a bellows (soufflet). The movement of the film was 

* Spectroscopy, p. 339. 

t Comptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 938- 41 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 101 

arranged so that the operator could focus directly on to the sensitive 
layer. The stop apparatus was synchronous with the descent of the 
film, and was -placed in the luminous beam before the beam reached the 
preparation. Thus in the intervals of rest the moving particles were no 
longer submitted to the action of the light and heat of the electric arc. 
The whole apparatus was operated on an optical bench whose very mas- 
sive support eliminated vibrations as much as possible. Moreover the 
apparatus could be arranged at a variable distance from the Microscope. 
In order to get exactly the illusion of movement seen in the ultra- 
microscope, the cinematographic views must be taken at normal rate, that 
is to say at the rate of sixteen photographs per second, thus giving a 
pose of ^V sec - f° r eac h image. The quantity of maximum light, the 
film-sensitiveness, the pose time, being quantities almost fixed, the 
magnification must be varied in order to get the images with optimum 
illumination. The best results for photographs of blood and its parasites 
were obtained with a Zeiss 4 mm. apochromat, No. 4 projection ocular, 
and a film at 0*28 metre from the ocular (plate II.). A magnification 
of about 280 diameters was thus obtained. In order to get a quantitative 
measure of the movements of the particles, a rod beating seconds 
intercepted the luminous ray and thus provided a scale of observation. 
The author made some very interesting comparative studies of those 
small mobile blood particles known as Muller's hsemokonies, which were 
easily counted by this method. 

Crabtree, J. H. — Formation and Photomicrography of Crystals. 

[A useful article on the method of production, of illumination, and photo- 
micrography of crystals ; is well illustrated.] 

Knowledge, vi. (1909) pp. 411-14 (10 figs.). 

(5) Microscopical Optics and Manipulation. 

Methods of Determining the Amount of Light Scattered from 
Rough Surfaces.* — W. F. Barrett, having been consulted in connection 
with a case of " ancient lights," found it desirable to devise some trust- 
worthy methods for determining the amount of light scattered from 
large rough surfaces such as the wall of a house. The word " scattered " 
is to be taken in the sense of " irregularly reflected." Ordinary photo- 
metric methods are inapplicable in the case of large surfaces. The 
author devised the two following methods. 

Method A. — This consists of a rapidly revolving opaque disk with a 
transparent sector which can be altered in size, and whose angular 
magnitude can be measured (fig. 13). It can be driven by hand, a 
simple speed-gear being all that is necessary. It is placed at a given 
distance between the reflecting surface, which is illuminated by the sun 
or strong artificial light, and the photometer. The width of the sector 
is altered until equality of illumination between the reflecting surface 
and a standard source of light is obtained, as shown by some transmission 
photometer such as Bunsen's, Joly's, or Lummer and Brodhun's. If 
the scattered light is coloured, as from a brick building, a wedge of 
suitably coloured glass, or a coloured gelatin film of increasing thickness 
is gradually interposed in front of the standard light until a similar tint 
is obtained. 

* Soi. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc, xii. (1909) pp. 190-7 (3 figs.). 



102 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



Method B. — This consists in reducing the intensity of the stronger 
light by an absorbing medium. For this purpose the following 




Fig. 13. 



arrangement is adopted. It is in principle somewhat similar to the 
" colorimeter " often used in chemical analysis, and is an adaptation of 
the method the author recently patented for determining the "light- 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY, ETC. 



103 



threshold " of the eye. The absorbing medium is a liquid of neutral 
tint, best formed from fine China or Indian ink mixed with water, and 



* wW&> IB ■ 


■ 






• 



Pig. 14. 



allowed to stand for 48 hours ; the coarser particles are then deposited, 
and the supernatant liquid is employed. The apparatus is shown in 
fig. 14, and, in section, in fig. 15. A variable depth of the liquid is 



104 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



obtained by the movement of a plunger with glass bottom H (fig. 15) 
which can be gradually immersed within a cylinder or cistern I, also 
with a glass bottom, containing the absorbing liquid. Light is reflected 
upwards through the cylinder by means of a mirror, M, at 45°. The 
amount of light scattered from various large surfaces can thus be very 




jS 



^ 



Fig. 15. 

easily compared by the relative depths of liquid required to produce 
extinction. The pillar L is graduated, and the cistern I raised or 
lowered by the rack-and-pinion K. In order to exclude extraneous 
light the observer rests his forehead in a shaped head-rest A, and a 
black cloth covers the head. After one minute the eye attains a fairly 
steady state, and either eye can be used at pleasure by sliding the head- 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 105 

rest to and fro. On the glass bottom of H is a minute photograph of 
the graduated test type used by oculists. This is viewed through a small 
lens F, adjustable at E, until a sharp image is seen by the observer. 
When the cistern I is raised until the glass bottom of H and I touch, 
the scale-reading on L then indicates zero. The depth of the liquid (as 
indicated on the scale) required to produce complete extinction of the 
light measures the intrinsic brightness of the source. Or with a con- 
stant source of light the depth measures the " light threshold," or the 
sensibility of the observer's eye to light. This sensibility rapidly rises 
during the first minute of observation, and becomes nearly constant 
after two or three minutes. The form sense, or " visual ocuity," of the 
eye is measured by the depth of liquid required to obscure and produce 
illegibility of the test type, and this also measures the illuminating 
power of the source of light. The illuminating power of the source 
may be reduced to any given fraction by means of the adjustable 
and rapidly revolving sector, or by other means ; and it will lie found 
that the depth of liquid required to produce extinctiou of the light 
is practically the same, even when the illumination from the source 
is reduced to a very minute amount ; in other words, the intrinsic 
brightness remains the same. On the other hand, the legibility of 
the test type varies with the amount of illumination, and it is this 
we require to measure in the case of light irregularly reflected from 
rough surfaces. Hence this arrangement affords an accurate method of 
testing the illuminating power of any surface that scatters light, whether 
large or small. It is only necessary to use a steady source of artificial 
light, and note the depth of immersion of the plunger H which is 
required to produce illegibility when a silvered mirror is employed ; 
then replace or cover the mirror by a similar sized piece of the reflecting 
surface to be tested, and note the depth now required for extinction, the 
distance and intensity of the source of light remaining unchanged. 
The author quotes the following as specimens of his results : — Silvered 
glass, 100 ; plane glass surface, 65 ; ground glass, 45 ; white card, 45 ; 
grey card, 35 ; dark grey card, 21 ; smooth black paper, 20 ; black 
cotton cloth, 16 ; dull black woollen cloth, 5. 

An Adjustment for the Plane Grating similar to Rowland's 
Method for the Concave Grating.* — C. Barus states that the remark- 
able refinement which has been attained (notably by Ives and others) in 
the construction of celluloid replicas of the plane grating, makes it de- 
sirable to construct a simple apparatus whereby the spectrum may be 
shown, and the measurement of wave-length made in a way that does 
justice to the astonishing performance of the grating. He has therefore 
devised an inexpensive contrivance in which the wave-length is strictly 
proportional to the shift of the carriage at the eye-piece : which for the 
case of a good 2 -metre scale divided into centimetres admits of a mea- 
surement of wave-length to a few Angstrom units, and with a millimetre 
scale should go much further. Observations are throughout made on 
both sides of the incident rays, and from the mean result most of the 
usual errors should be eliminated by symmetry. 

* Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, xlviii. (1909) pp. 166-76 (5 figs.). 



100 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



Fig. 16 shows two double slides A, B, like a lathe-bed, 155 cm. 
long and 11 cm. apart, which happened to be available in the author's 
laboratory ; but single slides at right angles to each other, similar to 
Rowlandson's, would have been preferable. The carriages C, D, 30 cm. 
long, kept at a fixed distance apart bj the rod a R b, are in practice a 
length of -£-in. gas-pipe, swivelled at a and b, 169 "4 cm. apart, and 
capable of sliding right and left and to and fro, normally to each other. 




The swivelling joint, which functioned excellently, is made very simply 
of j-in. gas-pipe T's and nipples. The horizontal rod lc fixes the slit 
standard on the slide S, and is prolonged towards the rear for carrying 
the flame or Geisler tube apparatus : the rod k also secures the grating 
standard at t. A large lens at L, of about 56 cm. focal distance, and 
about 10 cm. in diameter, is placed in front of the grating, and throws 
an image of the slit S upon the cross-hairs of the eye-piece E. F is a 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 107 

carriage for the mirror or flame, or other source of light whose spectrum 
is to be examined. A rod h h serves to focus S. The author gives a full 
account of the adjustment necessary. He also gives some examples of 
the satisfactory results obtained. 

Wave-length Comparator for Standards of Length.* — A. E. H. 
Tutton, in describing his instrument for comparing standards of length 
— the Imperial Standard yard, for instance, with official or other copies — 
states that it is the most perfect instrument yet devised for measure- 
ment of wave-lengths in general. The principle of the instrument is 
an improved form of the author's interferometer described to the Royal 
Society in 1898. The essential point of the instrument is that one of 
the two Microscopes, employed to focus the two defining lines on a 
standard yard bar, actually carries just above the objective one of the 
two glass plates of the interference apparatus, which reflect the mono- 
chromatic light (hydrogen or cadmium red radiation) which is caused 
to interfere and produce rectilinear dark bands. When the Microscope 
is moved the plate consequently moves with it, and the amount of move- 
ment is absolutely afforded by the movement of the interference bands, 
being equal to half the wave-length of the light employed for every 
band which passes the reference spot in the centre of the held of the 
interferometer telescope. So perfectly has this fine movement been 
achieved that the Microscope and the bands can be caused to move 
simultaneously by rotation of the large fine-adjustment wheel, so steadily 
that each band can be made to pass the reference spot as slowly as one 
wishes and be arrested instantly, without the slightest tremor, at any 
fraction of its width, so that the control of the bands and the counting 
is a perfectly simple matter. 

In order to compare two standard bars it is only necessary (1) to 
place the bar of known length, supported on an elaborate mechanism 
for the adjustment of the bars, under the two Microscopes, carried on 
massive yet delicately moving sliders on a 6-foot V-and-plane bed, so 
that the two defining lines are adjusted between the spider-lines of the 
micrometer eye-piece in each case ; (2) to replace the standard by the 
copy to be tested, so that the defining line near one end is similarly 
adjusted under the corresponding Microscope ; then, if the other de- 
fining mark is not also automatically adjusted under the second Micro- 
scope which carries the glass interference plate, as it should be if it is 
an exact copy, (3) to traverse that Microscope until it is so adjusted ; 
and (4) to observe and count the number of interference bands which 
move past the reference spot during the process. The difference between 
the bars is this number multiplied by the half-wave-length of the light 
in which the bands are produced. The temperature of the whole room 
is controlled entirely electrically, being maintained constant at the official 
temperature, 62° F. (A description of the apparatus will appear later.) 

Use of Wave-length Rulings as Defining Lines on Standards of 
Length. f — The delicacy of the method of measurement in wave-lengths 
described in the preceding abstract calls for a corresponding refinement 
in the engraved lines, which form the defining lines of the length of a 
standard yard or metre or other line-measure bar. The defining lines on 

* Proc. Roy. Soc, Series A,lxxxiii. (1909) pp. 79-80. t Tom. cit., p. 81. 



108 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the Imperial Standard yard are sharp-edged, but contain the equivalent 
of 40 interference bands of red light in their thickness, and the Benoit 
defining lines of the platinum-iridium copy made in 1902 are not only 
very ragged edged but contain 15 interference bands in their thickness. 
By the help of J. H. Grayson, of Melbourne, it has been found that 
wonderfully satisfactory rulings on the scale of 40,000 to the inch can be 
made on polished speculum metal covered with a thin cover-glass. Now 
the forty-thousandth of an inch is a single wave-length of red light (for 
Ha = 3^tttt i n -5 an( l Cd red = ^^j^ in.), so that the interval between 
any adjacent pair of these lines is equivalent to only two interference 
bands. The thickness of each line, which is absolutely sharp-edged, is 
less than a single interference band. The author has therefore devised 
a " Tutton location signal," consisting of five such parallel lines spaced 
-nnjoiy m - apart, with a pair of strong "finder" lines outside them 
and parallel to them, and another pair of similar finder lines, per- 
pendicularly transverse to them, to indicate a central part of the lines 
lines for use. The central line of the five fine Grayson rulings is the 
defining line. 

Pocklington, H. C. — The Aberrations of a Symmetrical Optical Instrument. 
[A mathematical treatment on Lord Rayleigh's article on Hamilton's 
Principle and the Fine Aberrations of von Seidel.] 

Proc. Boy. Soc, Series A, lxxxiii. (1909) pp. 99-106. 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

Observations on Mammalian Blood with Dark Field Illumina- 
tion.* — H. Crawley finds that the dark field illumination is a sine qua 
non for examining fresh blood. The apparatus used consisted of a 
substage condenser, arc lamp, and rheostat for cutting down the current 
to 4 amperes. It was found to be important that the slides used should 
not exceed 1 mm. in thickness. The work was done with a -jV in. 
achromatic immersion lens stopped down with a hard rubber funnel and 
a No. 12 compensating eye-piece, though equally good pictures were 
obtained with a No. 18 eye-piece. The blood studied was that of the 
cow, sheep, rabbit, guinea-pig, white rat, and man. The blood of sheep 
and cow was drawn from the jugular vein, defibrinated and preserved in 
cultured tubes. The media used were bouillon, citrated salt solution, or 
simple salt solution. Citrated salt solution appears to have a destructive 
influence on the blood cells after a certain time. It was also noted that 
the dark field illumination acted injuriously on living cells, and that 
trypanosomes perished very quickly under its influence. The phenomena 
observed are treated under the following heads : (1) Blood dust ; (2) 
beaded threads ; (3) flagellated erythrocytes and free flagella ; (4) bodies 
showing pseudopodia ; (5) erythrocytes ; (6) leucocytes ; (7) blood 
plates. 

Quekett Microscopical Club. — The 459th Ordinary Meeting of the 
Club was held on Tuesday, October 2G, 1909, the President, Prof. E. A. 
Minchin, M.A., F.Z.S., in the Chair. Mr. W. Wesche, F.R.M.S., com- 
municated two papers, one " The Life-history of the Tachinid Fly, 
Phorocera serriventris Rondani," and a " Note on a Quick Method of 

* U.S. Dep. Agric, Bull. 119, Washington, 1909, pp. 5-15 (1 fig.). 



JOURN. R. MICR. SOC., 1910. PI. II. 




Zm 



Fig. 1. Trypanosomes in Mouse-blood. 




Fig. 2. Spirochetes of Balanitis. 



Fig. 3. Spirochetes in Blood of Fowl. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 109 

Preparing and Staining Pollen." Mr. A. 0. Banfield gave a lecture, 
with lantern illustrations, on " Low-power Photomicrography and 
Stereo-Photomicrography." Mr. James Murray exhibited some specimens 
of Rotifers obtained by the ' Nimrod ' during Shackleton's Antarctic 
Expedition. 

The 460th Ordinary Meeting was held on Tuesday, November 23. 
Reference was made to the much-regretted death on November 7 of Dr. 
W. H. Dallinger, F.R.S., etc., Member and Past President of the Club. 
The President exhibited and described two preparations of cysticercus of 
tapeworm, probably Hymenolepis diminuta, obtained from rat fleas. 
Note of a new locality, the second known, for Zoothamnium {/eniculatum 
was communicated by Mr. J. Stevens, F.R.M.S. Mr. F. P. Smith con- 
tributed a " Note on the Mounting of Spider Dissections as Microscopical 
Objects." Mr. J. S. Dunkerley, B.Sc, gave an interesting resume of 
our knowledge of that little-known group of the Protozoa, the Choano- 
flagellata. J. Clark, in America, was the first to describe the true 
structure of these forms. A typical Choanoflagellate has an oval, naked, 
protoplasmic body with nucleus, contractile vacuole, one flagellum, and 
surrounding the base of the flagellum a protoplasmic membrane — the 
collar — which is usually basin-shaped. The flagellum arises from a 
staining granule, the blepharoplast, which apparently was not seen by 
Saville Kent and other early workers. 

B. Technique.* 
Uncollecting Objects, including: Culture Piooesses. 

Two New Methods for Growing Azotobacter in large quantities 
for Chemical Analysis.f — C. Hoffman and B. W. Hammer describe two 
procedures by which they have obtained good results. 

1. For obtaining a large amount of Azotobacter cells an adaptation 
of the old " pinsel " plate culture method has been employed. In large 
8 or 11 in. Petri dishes, \ in. layer of the specific agar medium is 
placed ; the whole is then sterilised and finally cooled. The plates are 
then inoculated with a heavy suspension of Azotobacter in sterile water, 
using about 10 c.cm. per plate. This is thoroughly and evenly dis- 
tributed over the surface of the solidified agar, and the cultures so pre- 
pared then incubated. Under these conditions thorough aeration is 
possible. After the necessary period of incubation the growth, which is 
very abundant, is carefully scraped off the surface of the agar with a 
glass slide, removed to an evaporating dish, and prepared for chemical 
analysis. As much as 1 grm. of dry growth per plate has been obtained 
in this way. 

2. To study the influence of different chemical compounds upon the 
nitrogen-fixing properties of Azoterbacter, the authors devised their "sand- 
slope " culture. This consists in using clean washed and heated quartz- 

* This subdivision contains (1) Collecting Objects, including Culture Pro- 
cesses ; (2) Preparing Objects ; (3) Cutting, including Imbedding and Microtomes; 
(4) Staining and Injecting ; (5) Mounting, including slides, preservative fluids, etc. 
(6) Miscellaneous. 

t Centralbl. Bakt., 2te Abt., xxiv. (1909) pp. 181-3. 



11" SUM MARA 7 OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

sand as follows : in 150 c.crn. Erlenineyer's flasks, 10-15 grm. of sand 
are placed, together with 20 c.cm. of the specific liquid-culture medium. 
The whole is then sterilised, after which the flasks may be inoculated. 
For inoculation purposes, 1 c.cm. of a heavy suspension of Azotobacter in 
sterile water is used. After inoculation the sand is so sloped that a 
considerable quantity is above the surface of the liquid culture medium. 
This slope thus furnishes a solid substratum always well saturated with 
the culture solution due to capillary action. It further affords optimum 
aerobic conditions essential for the luxuriant growth of Azotobacter. 

Cultivation of Spirochseta gracilis and S. balanitidis.* - -('. 
Levaditi and V. Stanesco cultivated these Spirochetes — the one derived 
from a chancre, the other from the pus of balanitis — by sowing the 
microbic flora in a large tube containing horse serum, and three days 
afterwards inoculating the Spirochetes in a collodion sac filled with 
horse serum placed within the large tube. In this way the nutritive 
substances prepared by the microbic flora penetrate the sac, and assure 
the multiplication of the Spirochetes. Another method was to make 
stab-cultures in horse or human serum coagulated at 75°. Both these 
methods produced cultures extremely rich in Spirochetes. These 
organisms are, however, incapable of assimilating the nutritive substances 
of the serum without the co-operation of the associated microbes, which 
are essentially proteolytic. It is only on the third or fourth day after 
liquefaction of the medium has commenced that Spirochseta gracilis and 
S. bala nitidis begin to multiply. Thus by making use of a liquefying 
aerobic bacillus the authors obtained mixed cultures, in which S. gracilis 
multiplied in symbiosis with the bacillus. In this connection it may be 
pointed out that there is a certain analogy between the culture conditions 
of Spirochete and Amoebae. 

Cultivating Meningococcus.! — P. Esch made comparative observa- 
tions with maltose-ascites-agar, Lceffler's and Buchanan's serums, and with 
sheep's-blood-maltose-ascites-agar. The last was found to give constant 
results, and the growth on this medium was very rapid and luxuriant. In 
from 8 to 12 hours the colonies were evident, and in one instance a 
vaccine was obtained in 24 hours. The medium consists of 60 c.cm. 
pepton agar (1 p.c. pepton Witte) : to which, after cooling to about 
50° C, are added 20 c.cm. sterile defibrinated sheep's-blood. 10 c.cm. 
ascitic fluid, and 1 grin, maltose dissolved in 3 c.cm. bouillon. 

Detection of Bacteria by means of an Electric Current. J — 
C. Kuss made experiments to ascertain whether bacteria, suspended in 
an electrolyte, through which a current passes, are transmitted to 
either electrode, and if so, whether pathogenic organisms could be 
collected and extracted by such means from pathological fluids. He 
found that certain bacteria, under the influence of a suitable current, 
aggregate at one or other electrode. The aggregation varies with the 
nature of the electrolyte, and is probably due to affinity between the 
products of electrolysis and the bacteria. The aggregation by electrical 

* G.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 188-90. 

t Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., lii. (1909) pp. 150-1. 

% Proc. Roy. Soc, Series B., lxxxi. (1909) pp. 314-22 (3 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND UOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



Ill 



currents affords a means of collection and examination. The differences 
in behaviour of various bacteria are such as to suggest the possibility 
of utilising the method for purposes of specific discrimination. As an 
example, the presence of tubercle bacilli in the urine is given. For 
this, the most suitable electrolyte was ethylamine 5 p.c, 1 part; 
lactic acid 10 p.c, 4 parts; bromic acid 5 p.c, 2 parts; urine, 1 
or 2 parts. The apparatus used (fig. 17), consisted of a modified 
U-tube, filled with a mixture of tuberculous urine and the electrolyte. 
In the narrow limb of the vessel a platinum foil strip was submerged. 
In the broad limb a glass tube, traversed by a platinum wire, was 
submerged, the lower end of the tube forming a bacterial trap. After 




Pig. 17. 

passing a current for a sufficient time the contents of the trap were 
examined in the usual way for tubercle bacilli. 

New Method for obtaining Pure Cultures from Whole Organs 
and Pieces of Tissues.* — A. Feoktistow states that pure cultures of 
whole organs, e.g. spleen of mouse, or pieces of tissue, may be obtained 
by immersing the objects in 10 p.c caustic potash, or soda, for some 
few seconds, 3 to 8 according to size. The object is then transferred 
without further preliminary or care to the cultivation medium. 

Aerobic Cultures of "Anaerobic " Organisms. j— F. Marino, in a pre- 
liminary communication, states that he grows anaerobes in bouillon-serum 
prepared as follows. Test tubes are filled with a mixture of 5 c.cm. 
serum and 15 c.cm. bouillon ; these are heated for an hour at about 100°. 
Temperatures much below or much above 100° retard or prevent the 
development of anaerobes. Any quantity of bouillon-serum may be 
made provided the relative proportions of 1-3 are maintained. 

Cultivating Spirochseta pallida.} — J. Schereschewsky made culti- 
vations on horse-serum. The medium was inoculated with infected 
material. The spirochsetes were formed on the third clay, and from the 
fifth to the twelfth were very numerous. The best way to examine for 

* Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., Hi. (1909) pp. G85-7. 
f C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 664-5. 

j Deutsche Med. Wochenschr., 1909, pp. 1260 and 1652, through Centralbl. 
Bakt., lte Abt. Rof., xlv. (1909) pp. 107-9. 



112 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

them was by removing some of the fluid in a capillary pipette, and 
then using the dark-ground illumination. Films were made by fixing 
the smear with osmic acid vapour, and staining with Giemsa's mixture 
(60 c.cm. of • 5 p.c. glycerin and a few drops of the Giemsa). The mix- 
ture is used hot, and re-applied. Morphologically the spirochetes bred in 
this way are indistinguishable from the typical Sp irochseta pallida, but they 
were not pathogenic to animals. Hence these results suggest (1) that 
the spirochastes bred are not the true 8. pallida ; (2) that they have 
lost their virulence ; or (3) that syphilis is not due to S. pallida. 

Collecting Ccelenterata, and Observations on the Ova.* — G. T. 
Hargitt collected Tubularia crocea in November and Pennaria iiurella 
in July and August. The male and female colonies were kept in 
separate dishes. The medusas became free about 7 o'clock in the 
evening. When a sufficient number of eggs had been discharged, 
spermatozoa were introduced by adding a pipetteful of water from the 
dish containing the male colonies. In this way the desired stages were 
easily obtained. To secure stages earlier than fertilisation medusa; 
were removed from the colony before the time of maturation. The 
medusas thus artificially set free were at once fixed, some 15 to 12 hours, 
others 10 hours, and others at still shorter periods, before liberation. 

The following fluids were used for killing : — -Flemming's stronger 
mixture, aqueous solution of sublimate and acetic acid, Bouin's picro- 
formol, Zenker's fluid. For Tubularia the corrosive-acetic gave the 
best results, and for Pennaria Bouin's fluid was the most satisfactory. 
For staining, iron-hasmatoxylin followed by Congo red or orange G ; 
also Conklin's picro-hgematoxylin, Delafield's and Ehrlich's hematoxylin 
were useful. For purposes of comparison, Mallory's phosphotungstic 
hematoxylin, iron-Braziliu, and Auerbach's and Erlich-Blindi mixtures 
of acid-fuchsin and methyl-green. 

Collecting and Preserving Insects.f — N. Banks, in collaboration 
with other members of the Bureau of Entomology, U.S.A. National 
Museum, has compiled a small monograph dealing with the collection 
and preservation of insects. To those interested in entomology it will 
be found very useful, as full directions are given for every stage, and 
these are supplemented with a classification of insects and with special 
directions for different kinds. The volume is freely illustrated, and a 
good bibliography is appended. 

Modification of the Conradi Medium for Isolating Bacillus 
typhosus from Excreta.}— H. B. Fawcus recommends a medium of 
the following composition. To 900 c.cm. of tap water add 5 grm. 
sodium taurocholate (commercial from ox-bile) ; 30 grm. agar (powder) ; 
20 grm. peptone (Witte) ; 5 grm. common salt. Dissolve in steamer 
for 3 hours, clean with white of egg, filter through wadding and bring 
to a reaction of +15 with normal lactic acid or normal soda as required. 
Dissolve 10 grm. of lactose in 100 c.cm. of distilled water and add it 
to the melted agar. Mix well and filter through Chardin paper. To 

* Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., liii. (1909) pp. 161-212 (9 pis.). 

t Smithsonian Inst., Washington, U.S., Bull. 67 (1909) 135 pp. (188 figs.). 

% Journ. Roy. Army Med. Corps, xii. (1909) pp. 147-54. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 113 

each 100 c.cm. of the clear bile-salt-lactose-agar add 2 c.cm. of 1 in 
1000 aqueous solution of brilliant green (extra pure, Grubler) and 
2 c.cm. of a 1 p.c. aqueous solution of picric acid. The resulting clear 
bright green agar is poured into plates 17-20 cm. in diameter. After 
solidification the plates are dried in an incubator. The bile-salt-lactose 
agar made in bulk may be distributed into flasks, each containing 
150 c.cm. When required for use, one of these is melted and 3 c.cm. 
of each of the solutions of the dyes added and well mixed. This amount 
makes three large plates. After inoculation the plates are incubated at 
37° upside down. In 21 hours typhoid colonies have a diameter of 
about 1 mm. ; they are quite transparent and clear, while coli have a 
dark green spot in the centre. These characters are greatly accentuated 
in 48 hours. Paratyphoid colonies, colonies of the food-poisoning group 
and of dysentery- are indistinguishable in their growth from those of 
B. typhosus. After 48 hours the typical colonies may be fished out and 
submitted to further examination. 

Rosenthal, G., & P. Chazarain-Wetzel — La culture du Bacille per- 
fringens dans les cultures sporulees en eau blanc d'eeuf du Bacille anaerobic 
du rhumatisme aigu ; moyen de differenciation des deux varietes du bacille 
d'Achalme. G.R. Spc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 677-8. 

Sinepf, A., & R. Drosdowitsch — Prof. Dieudonne's Blutkaliagar, ein neuer 
Nahrboden fur die bakteriologische Diagnose der Cbolera. 

[Confirms the value of this medium for isolating cholera vibrio. 

Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., lii. (1909) pp. 429-31. 
See also this Journal, 1909, p. 661. 

Thaon, P. — Symbiose de Levure et Oospora dans un cas de langue noire. 

[Gives results of cultivations of these organisms.] 

C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 705-7, 

(2) Preparing- Objects. 

Studying the Labyrinth.* — W. Kolmer used monkeys for studying 
the structure of the internal ear. After the blood had been removed 
during narcosis the vessels were thoroughly washed out with warm 
Ringer's fluid. As fixative, Held's fluid was used. This consists of a 
saturated solution of potassium bichromate, 2 to 3 parts ; 10 p.c. formalin, 
2 parts ; acetic acid, 1 part. In certain instances, trichlor-lactic acid, or 
trichloracetic acid and uranium nitrate, and, for smaller objects, osmir 
acid, were added. The fixation lasted, according to the size of the object, 
for from 3 to 10 weeks. Then followed decalcification, with 5 p.c. nitric 
acid, followed by immersion in lithium sulphate 4 p.c. for one day. After 
this the pieces were washed in running water, and after passing through 
upgraded alcohols were transferred in the usual way to celloidin ; in 
this they remained for 8 weeks. The sections were stained with iron- 
hgematoxylin, after mordanting with iron-alum ; the contrast stain was 
Rubin. 

Studying the Finer Structure of the Labyrinth of Vertebrata.t 
H. Held, when examining the development of the organ of Corti and of 

* Arch. Micr. Anat. u. Entwickl., lxxiv. (1909) pp. 259-310 (4 pis.). 

t Abhandl. k. Sachsich. Gesell. ^Wissensch., xxxi. No. 5 (1909) 294 pp. (18 pis.). 

Feb. 10th, 1910 i 



114 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the macula acustica in mammals and birds, fixed the material in a 
mixture of chromic acid, acetic acid, and formalin ; the sections were 
stained by the molybdan-hsematoxylin method, and after-stained with 
erythrosin, with acid rubin or with picro-fuchsin. 

Studying Development of Red Blood Cells in the Chick.*— 
C. Price-Jones prepares films of bone marrow, spleen, liver, and 
embryonic tissue in the following manner. Small portions of the 
specimen are transferred to a watch-glass containing a dissociating 
reagent : in this way an emulsion of cellular elements is obtained. The 
dissociating solution consists of glycerin, diluted with ammonia-free 
distilled water to form a 10 p.c. neutral solution, titrating against deci- 
normal sodium hydrate, and using phenol-phthalein as indicator. The 
initial acid reaction of this solution should vary from + • 1 to + • 5 
(Eyre's Scale) ; the reagent has a specific gravity of 1029 at 15 7 C. 
A loopful of this glycerin solution is placed on a coverslip, and to this 
is added a loopful of the emulsion in the watch-glass, and very gently 
spread over the surface of the slip. The film thus prepared is allowed 
to dry in the air, without heating, until a uniform ground-glass appear- 
ance is produced. The film is then treated as a blood-film ; it is 
stained with Jenner's solution of rosinate of methylen-blue, and then, 
after washing in ammonia-free distilled water and completely drying in 
the air, is mounted in balsam. 

Demonstrating Motor End-plates. | — J. Boeke in his study of the 
motor end-plates in the higher Yertebrata, their development, form and 
connection with muscle fibres, used Bielschowsky's method. Fixation of 
embryos in alcohol-formalin was preferable to aqueous formalin, and the 
following mixture was used : formalin 10 parts, alcohol 60 p.c. 90 parts. 
After fixation the alcohol is removed by immersion in 10 to 12 p.c. 
formalin, and then the pieces of tissue are placed in 2 p.c. silver solution 
for 3 to 5 days in the dark. On removal they are washed in distilled 
water and then transferred to Bielschowsky's fulminate of silver 
solution for 1 to 2 hours, and subsequently reduced in 20 p.c. formalin. 
The pieces are afterwards imbedded in paraffin in the usual way. 

Researches on Blood and Connective-tissue. — A Maximow ex- 
amined the embryos of rats, cats, rabbits, mice, and guinea-pigs. The 
tissue was fixed in formol-Zenker. Small embryos up to 12 mm. in 
length were immersed in toto in the warm fluid ; larger ones were 
incised to facilitate the entrance of fluid. The fixation lasted from 
3 to 5 hours, after which the objects were washed and then placed in 
upgraded iodine-alcohols, and when dehydrated were imbedded in 
ceffoidin. Serial sections were stained with eosin-azur or with Giemsa. 
Iron-haematoxylin was not so useful. 

Hardening and Imbedding the Eggs of Temnocephala fasciata.§ 
The difference in consistence between the eggshell and the contents gives 

* Journ. Pathol, and Bacterid., xiv. (1909) pp. 218-23 (1 pi.). 
t Anat. Anzeig., xxxv. (1909) pp. 193-226 (40 figs, in text and 1 pi.). 
X Arch. Mikrosk. Anat. u. Entwickl., lxxiv. (1909) pp. 525-621 (3 pis.). 
§ Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., liv. (1908) pp. 417-18. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 115 

vise to considerable difficulties. If the contents are in the fresh condition, 
they burst out and become completely disorganised when the thick shell 
is broken through. If hardened in the ordinary way, the yolk becomes 
exceedingly hard and brittle. W. A. Haswell has overcome these diffi- 
culties in the following way : The eggs are fixed with sublimate alcohol 
followed by iodised alcohol and 90 p.c. alcohol. After hardening, they 
are transferred to a solution of hypochlorite of soda. This trans- 
ference is effected gradually through downwardly graded alcohols. If 
this be done too rapidly, the shell will split. 

When the solvent action of the hypochlorite upon the cells has 
proceeded far enough, the eggs are washed in distilled water and de- 
hydrated in alcohol. From absolute alcohol, they are transferred to a 
mixture of equal parts of absolute alcohol and anhydrous ether for 
twenty-four hours. They then remain for a like period in h p.c solution 
of photoxylin or celloidin in equal parts of absolute alcohol and ether, 
followed by a 2h p.c. solution of the same. The celloidin blocks, 
hardened in chloroform, are then finally imbedded in the hardest paraffin 
in the usual way. 

(3) Cutting:, including- Imbedding- and Microtomes. 

Studying the Development of Amphioxus.* — The material at the dis- 
posal of E. W. MacBride for this research consisted of a large number of 
eggs, embryos at all stages, from the spherical blastula up to the pericd 
when the mouth, club-shaped gland, and one gill-slit have been formed, 
and a number of older larvae. The material was preserved for the most 
part in corrosive sublimate and in osmic acid. The author considers 
■that osmic acid is beyond comparison the best reagent for the preserva- 
tion of histological detail. When yolk is abundant, osmic acid makes 
the material very brittle, so that for studying the stages of gastrulation, 
material preserved in picrosulphuric acid and in corrosive sublimate 
and acetic acid was used. But osmic acid material was exclusively em- 
ployed in all later stages. 

For imbedding the embryos, MacBride used the following modifica- 
tion of the celloidin and paraffin method : The celloidin containing the 
embryos, after being congealed in chloroform, was transferred to cedar 
oil. In this oil it became as clear as glass, so that the imbedded 
embryo could be observed under the Microscope, and its orientation 
determined. An appropriately shaped piece of celloidin was then cut 
out and imbedded in paraffin. The sections were stained on the slide. 

Demonstrating Peripheral Nerve Terminations.! — R. C. Mullenix, 
when studying the peripheral termination of the eighth cranial nerve in 
Vertebrates, adopted Bielschowsky's method of impregnation. The 
head of a recently killed fish was immersed in 12 p.c. formalin for at 
least 24 hours ; the fixed material was next decalcified in 12 p.c. formalin 
containing 1 p.c. nitric acid. After about 24 hours the acid was removed 
by means of running water. The material was then transferred to 2 p.c. 
silver nitrate for 24 hours or so, after which it w 7 as removed to an 

* Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., liv. (1909) pp. 290-1. 
t Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, liii. (1909) pp. 215-50 (6 pis.). 

1 2 



116 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING 10 

ammoniacal solution of silver oxide. This was prepared by adding to 
2 p.c. silver nitrate a few drops of 40 p.c. solution of sodium hydroxide, 
and dissolving the precipitate with ammonium hydroxide. After a 
period varying with the nature of the material, the pieces were washed, 
and then transferred to 20 p.c. formalin. After 12 hours the prepara- 
tion was dehydrated, cleared, imbedded in paraffin, sectioned, and mounted 
in balsam in the usual way. The foregoing method was found to be 
superior to all others, such as those of Golgi, Ramon y Cajal, Vom 
Rath, etc. 

New Method of Staining the Connective-tissue Framework of 
Viscera.* — D. Timofejew makes freehand or frozen sections of organs 
of freshly killed animals, or of pieces which have been immersed in 
physiological salt solution for one day. The sections are placed for 
15 to 20 minutes in the following solution : — Methylen-blue (Ehrlich 
rectified) 1 grm., physiological salt solution 2000-4000 c.cm. The 
sections do not harm if left in the staining fluid for 24 hours. On 
removal the sections are carefully washed in salt solution, and then 
transferred for ^ to 1 hour, or even 24 hours, to a very weak solution 
of ammonium picrate (0'1 grm. ammonium picrate in 800-1200 c.cm. 
of physiological salt solution). The differentiation takes place in a few 
minutes, and its progress may be watched under a low power. The 
sections are mounted in the following fluid : — Saturated aqueous solution 
of ammonium picrate 35 c.cm., glycerin 50 c.cm., and distilled water 
50 c.cm. In case the nuclei are not sufficiently stained, the preparation 
may be treated with Hoyer's picrocarmin. After-staining with Cajal's 
mixture of indigo-carmin and picric acid stains the collagen green, the 
other tissues remaining violet. A lengthy description of the appearances 
in different organs is given. 

(4) Staining- and Injecting. 

New Method of Demonstrating the Spores in Acid-fast Bacteria. f 
L. von Betegh makes use of a stain made up as follows : 2 grm. of pure 
dahlia are dissolved in 20 grm. of 95 p.c. alcohol ; to this are added 
50 grm. of distilled water and 4 or 5 drops of strong carbolic acid. 
L. von Betegh's process consists of the following steps : Stain with warm 
carbol-fuchsin as usual ; wash ; stain with dahlia two or three minutes 
at room temperature ; wash ; stain with iodine solution (iodine 1 grm. 
potassium iodide 2 grm. distilled water 100 c.cm.) 10 to 15 minutes ; wash 
in alcohol-acetone until no more stain conies away ; wash ; counterstain 
with picric acid or malachite-green ; wash ; dry, and mount. By this 
method, the author shows that acid-fast bacilli contain spores which are 
not acid-fast. He considers that some such method should be employed 
in routine examinations for tubercle bacilli. 

Methods of Demonstrating the Flagella and Minute Structure of 
Spirillum volutans4 — F. Fubrmann investigated living spirilla on a dark 
ground, using Reichert's mirror-condenser. To keep spirilla at rest for 
this mode of examination, he prepared a fine film of the thin bacterial 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxxv. (1909) pp. 295-301. 

t Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt., lii. (1909) pp. 550-3. 

I Op. cit., 2te Abt., xxv. (1909) pp. 129-35. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 117 

emulsion, dried this quickly in air, added a droplet of water, and applied 
a coverslip carefully. This was then ringed with paraffin to prevent 
evaporation. 

The author obtained good results by using a solution containing 
:> grm. of iodine and 3 grm. of potassium iodide in 20 c.cm. of water. A 
small drop of the fine emulsion of spirilla was placed on a clean slide, 
and to this a larger drop of iodine solution was added. A coverslip 
was then placed in position, and ringed with paraffin. 

For demonstrating minute cellular structure and the intracellular 
connections of flagella, the organisms were fixed in corrosive sublimate, 
or in weak Flemming's solution. The bacterial emulsion was placed in 
a filter-paper folded in the usual way in a filter funnel. The fixing 
fluid caused the organisms to cohere in clumps, so that none passed 
through the filter.-paper. Alcohols of mounting strengths were added, 
and then xylol and xylol-paraffin. Finally, the organisms were imbedded 
in paraffin, fine sections (2-4 /a) were cut and stained with methylen- 
blue or methylen -green. 

New Staining- Reaction for Tubercle Bacilli.* — D. Gassi stains 
the fixed smears in a warm solution of eosin for one or two minutes. 
The solution consists of 1 p.c. eosin solution, to 5 c.cm. of which a 
crystal of sublimate the size of a lentil has been added. After washing 
in water the smear is treated with a mixture of • 5 NaHO, 1 potassium 
iodide, 100 of 50 p.c. alcohol, until it assumes a pale green hue, after 
which it is further treated with alcohol and afterwards washed in water. 
The preparation is next contrast-stained with acid methylen-blue for 
2 or 3 seconds (methylen-blue 1, absolute alcohol 10, | c.cm. hydro- 
chloric acid and 90 c.cm. distilled water). After a thorough wash it is 
dried and mounted. The tubercle bacilli are red, the rest blue. By 
this method tubercle can be distinguished from smegma bacilli, as the 
latter are not alkali-fast. 

Demonstrating the Presence of Lipoids in Cells, f — C. Ciaccio 
recommends the following procedure : — 1. Pieces a few millimetres 
thick are fixed in Ciaccio's fluid for 21 to 48 hours (5 p.c. bichromate 
of potash, 100 c.cm. ; formalin, 20 c.cm. ; formic acid, 4 or 5 drops, or 
acetic acid, 5 c.cm.). 2. Immersion of the pieces in 3 p.c. bichromate 
for a week. 3. Washing in running water for 24 hours. 4. Upgraded 
alcohols for 24 hours ; absolute alcohol, 2 hours ; absolute alcohol and 
sulphide of carbon (or xylol or chloroform), 1 hour ; sulphide of carbon, 
1 hour ; paraffin, m.p. 60°, dissolved in sulphide of carbon at 37°, 
1 hour ; paraffin, m.p. 55-G0°, 1 hour. The sections are stuck on 
the slide by Henneguy's method (very dilute solution of gelatin in 
tepid distilled water, with a crystal of potassium bichromate added). 
The sections are then stained with an alcoholic solution of Sudan iii. for 
30 to 45 minutes, or with scarlet R. Excess of stain is then removed 
with 50 to GO p.c. alcohol. The sections may then be contrast-stained 
with hamiatoxylin, water-blue, crystal-violet, etc., and are imbedded 
in Apathy's gum and syrup medium. In some cases the following 

* Centralbl. Bakt., ]> Abt. Ref., lxiv. (1909) p. 758. 
t Anat. Anzeig., xxxv. (1909) pp. 17-31. 



118 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

procedure is successful : (1) Fix in Ciaccio's fluid ; (2) bichromate 
lor about a week ; (3) Marchi's fluid for 24 to 48 hours, followed by 
bichromate for 48 hours ; (4) the rest of the procedure is as before. 
By the first method, ordinary fats are dissolved, while the lipoids 
(myelin sheath, adrenal, etc.), are picked out in orange-red by 
Sudan iii. By the second method it is occasionally possible to demon- 
strate the co-existence of fat and lipoid in the same cells, a black centre 
with a red or brownish-red margin or halo. 

Modification of Gram's Method of Staining.* — S. Stephan de- 
scribes a modification of the Gram procedure, which is specially useful 
for staining sections. The alcohol-fixed sections are stained in carbol- 
water-methyl-violet 6 B solution for 10 minutes to 1 hour or more. 
.On removal they are washed in water, and then immersed in the 
following mixture, freshly prepared before use : 10 p.c. ferricyanide of 
potash 1, and 5 p.c. potassium iodide, for 10 minutes. After washing 
in water, the sections are thoroughly decolorised in absolute alcohol. 
They may now be contrast -stained with dilute carbol-fuchsin or eosin, 
and afterwards mounted in balsam. 

Staining- Eosinophil ous Cells.f— L. Martinotti finds that absolute 
methyl-alcohol is the best fixative for smears, and that ether-alcohol 
(equal parts) and heat are also very good for the purpose. For fixing 
pieces the best fluids are sublimate, formalin, and methyl-alcohol. The 
author's formula for sublimate is as follows :— Sublimate, 21 grm. ; 
alcohol, 95-100 p.c, 150 c.cm. ; physiological saline, 279 c.cm. ; acetic- 
acid, 150 c.cm. For staining the granules in sections some of theeosins 
must be used, and from these are picked out the bluish-eosin, the pure 
French-eosin, and the extra-eosin Hochst, all obtained from Griibler. 
The preparations may be contrast-stained with methyl-eosin, safranin, or 
cochineal. For staining the granules on smears the eosin-methylen-blue - 
mixture of Jenner and of May-Griinwald are recommended. A copious 
bibliography is appended. 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

Bum's Indian-ink Method.}— A. A. Gins finds that this method 
is very satisfactory for demonstrating micro-organisms, blood-plates, etc. 
A film is made of a mixture of the ink and the material to be examined 
just after the manner of a blood-smear. The method is also adapted 
for enumerating bacteria in a suspension. Eight photographs show 
organisms clearly depicted on a dark ground. The ink-smears may be 
after-stained, e.g. with Giemsa's solution. For making the films a 
smearer like Wright's is used; the author described the' procedure for 
making a smearer out of a slide. 

* Centralbl. Bakt. lte Abt. Orig., li. (1909) pp. 94-6. 

t Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxvi. (1909) pp. 4-28. 

t Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., Iii. (1909) pp. 620-5 (4 pis ) 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICIIOSCOPY, ETC. 119 



Metallography, etc. 

Copper-tin Alloys.* — F. Giolitti and G. Tavanti have re-determined 
the equilibrium diagram of this system, using thermal and microscopical 
methods. The diagram is regarded as being composed of two distinct 
parts, corresponding to alloys of the compound Cu 3 Sn with copper and 
with tin respectively. 

Silver Coinage Alloys.f — E. Pannain has investigated microscopic- 
ally the effect of working upon a coinage alloy containing 83*3 p.c. 
silver and 16 "5 p.c. copper. The alloy, etched with concentrated nitric 
acid, is observed to consist of white crystals of a solid solution of copper 
in silver, surrounded by a dark eutectic. The crystals become elongated 
by rolling ; annealing tends to restore the regularity of structure. The 
actual coining breaks up the crystals and produces a structure sufficiently 
distinct from that of cast metal to permit of the detection of some false 
coins by microscopic examination. 

Aluminium-copper-tin System.^— J. H. Andrew and C. A. Edwards 
have determined the liquidus curves of this ternary system. A diagram 
of the well-known equilateral triangle type is given, representing the 
results of freezing point determinations of more than 400 alloys. Each 
isothermal line passes through points indicating the composition of 
alloys having the same freezing point. The diagram is held to demon- 
strate that no ternary compound is deposited from any of the liquid 
alloys, and that no true ternary phase appears to form above the solidus. 
The compound Cu 3 Al is remarkably stable. Homogeneous solid alloys 
containing more than 16 p.c. tin and 12 p.c. aluminium could not be 
obtained, excessive segregation occurring. Some of the alloys separate, 
in the liquid state, into tin and a copper-aluminium mixture. 

Lead and Tin Alloys.§ — A. E. Dunstan finds that a wire of lead or 
tin, or an alloy of these metals, loaded in tension beyond its elastic 
limit, extends at a steady rate. A " viscous flow " takes place. For 
any given load a coefficient of viscous traction may be deduced from 
the rate of flow. While the effect of tin on the mobility of lead is great, 
the effect of lead on the mobility of tin is small. 

Brass and Copper. jj — The effect of cold working and annealing 

upon the tensile properties and microstructure of brass containing 

67 p.c. copper, 33 p.c. zinc, has been exhaustively studied by Grard. 

A numerical expression of degree of cold working is given bv 

100 (8 - s) _ , . , „ . , , ..,,„" 

— , o being the area of cross-section of the original fully 

o 

annealed strip, s the area of cross-section of the strip after cold-rolling 
in the direction of its length. The effect of temperature and time of 
annealing was determined on strips cold worked to 125 on the above 
arbitrary scale. Annealing below 275° C. has little effect ; between 

* Gaz. Chiin. ltal., xxxviii. (1908) pp. 209-39, through Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind., 
xxvii. (1908 j p. 1155. 

t Atti R. Accad. Lincei, xviii. (1909) pp. 523-5, through Journ. Chem. Soc, 
xcvi. (1909) p. 731. 

t Proc. Roy. Soc, Series A, lxxxii. (1909) pp. 568-79 (9 figs.). 

§ Phil. Mag., xvii. (1909) pp. 192-201. 

|l Rev. Metallurgie, vi. (1909) pp. 1069-1113 (69 fige.). 



120 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

275° and 350° C. the elongation greatly increases and tensile strength 
falls off. The effect of annealing is in the same direction, but is more 
gradual from 350°-750° C. Litfcle'change takes place from 750°-830° 0. ; 
at higher temperatures the brass deteriorates. Corresponding changes 
in microstructure are a rapid recrystallisation between 275° and 350° C, 
followed by a growth of size of crystal at higher temperatures. Similar 
investigations were carried out on brass containing 90 p.c. copper, and 
on pure copper. The etching solutions used were :— 

For 67/33 Brass. For 90/10 Brass and 
. pure Copper. 

Water 100 c.cm. 100 c.cm. 

Hydrochloric acid 6 50 

Ferric chloride 19 grin. 5 gi'm. 

Iron Alloys.*— C. F. Burgess and J. Aston tabulate the forging, 
welding, and machining properties of alloys of iron with some seventeen 
other elements. The alloys, which contained so little carbon that its 
influence might be neglected, were prepared by melting together electro- 
lytic iron containing about 0*03 p.c. of impurities, and the alloying 
element, in weighed quantities. In the nickel, copper, cobalt, tungsten, 
molybdenum, chromium, manganese and silicon series there was a 
general agreement between the weights used and the percentage com- 
position of the resulting alloy. Silver, selenium, aluminium and lead 
do not alloy at all in the proportions added. Although arsenic and tin 
vaporise at temperatures much below the melting point of iron, con- 
siderable amounts of these elements remained in the alloy. 

Iron-manganese Alloys.f— C. F. Burgess and J. Aston give dia- 
grams and tables showing the effect of increasing manganese content 
upon the permeability and other magnetic properties of iron-manganese 
alloys prepared from pure electrolytic iron. The tests were made on 
the material (1) as forged ; (2) annealed at 675° C. ; (3) annealed at 
1000° C. ; (4) quenched from 900° C. The permeability falls as the 
manganese content increases. 

Iron-copper Alloys4— C. F. Burgess and J. Aston have determined 
some mechanical properties of a series of alloys, prepared from electro- 
lytic iron and electrolytic copper. An alloy containing 1 • 5 p.c. copper 
appears to be a promising material. Segregation was not observed in 
the alloys containing 0-8 p.c. copper. 

Steels for Gears.§— L. ReVillon gives, in addition to the results of 
practical tests of gears, much information as to the thermal critical 
points, heat-treatment and mechanical tests of 26 steels, most of which 
contained nickel and chromium in varying proportions. 

Special Steels.||— W. Giesen deals with a variety of subjects related 
to alloy steels. Great importance is attached to nitrogen content. The 
critical nitrogen content lies between 0"037 and 0-041 p.c. for carbon 
steel, that is the point at which no elongation is obtained in tensile 

* Electrochem. and Met. Ind., vii. (1909) pp. 436-8. 
+ Tom. cit., pp. 476-8 (4 figs.). J Tom. cit., pp. 527-9 (2 fi<rs ) 

§ Rev. Motallurgie, vi. (1909) pp. 1024-53. Iron and Steel Inst. Carnegie 
Scholarship Memoirs, i. (1909) pp. 161-218 (12 figs.). 

|| Iron and Steel Inst., Carnegie Scholarship Memcirs, i. (1909) pp. 1-59 (2 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 1-1. 

tests. The thickness of carburised layer obtained by case-hardening at 
different temperatures for various lengths of time was determined for 
steels containing as the alloy element, nickel, titanium, silicon, man- 
ganese, chromium, tungsten, and molybdenum. The results of much 
other experimental work are given, but it is difficult to ascertain whether 
the numerous and varied statements made by the author are conclusions 
drawn from his own work or are based upon other published investigations. 

Special Ternary Steels. *— A. M. Portevin has carried out shearing 
tests by the Fremont method, and tensile tests, on a large number of 
alloys of iron and carbon with a third element. The electrical resistance 
of the steels was also determined, and the relations between electrical 
resistance, chemical composition, micro-structure and heat- treatment 
were investigated. ' The steels used contained as third element man- 
ganese, nickel, chromium, tungsten, vanadium, aluminium, silicon, 
molybdenum, titanium, tantalum and boron, and were the steels of 
which other properties had been determined by Guillet. It does not 
appear possible to express the relation between tensile and shearing pro- 
perties by any general formula). For a given series of alloys, the curve 
showing the relation between proportion of third element and electrical 
resistance is made up, as a rule, of several rectilinear portions, and the 
inflections in the curve correspond 'with changes in micro-structure. 
The thermal critical points of a number of vanadium and titanium 
steels were determined. A bibliography is appended. 

Iron-carbon Diagram. — F. Wustf gives an historical account of the 
development of the equilibrium diagram of the iron-carbon system, and 
states the experimental evidence on which he founds the following con- 
clusions. Carbon is not dissolved in molten iron as elementary carbon, 
but as carbide of iron. " Kish " is formed by the decomposition of the 
carbide which crystallises from the fluid solution. The solidification of 
iron-carbon alloys does not take place according to the equilibrium curves, 
which apply only to the stable system. Graphite is formed by the decom- 
position of separated carbide. Elements present other than iron and 
carbon have both a direct and an indirect influence on graphite-forma- 
tions : (a) direct, in that they enter into the composition of the carbide, 
and either increase its rate of decomposition (silicon, nickel, aluminium) 
or decrease it (manganese, chromium, tungsten) ; (b) indirect, in that 
the solubility curve of iron carbide in solid or liquid iron is displaced, 
and the quantity of separated free carbide is correspondingly greater or 
smaller. The carbide is decomposed in solid alloys by the action of heat. 
The influence of foreign elements on the temperature at which temper 
carbon is set free has the same explanation as in the case of graphite 
formation. 

P. GoerensJ deals very fully with ternary systems consisting of iron, 
carbon, and a third element. As an example to illustrate methods of 
investigating and representing ternary equilibriums, the lead-tin-bismuth 
system is selected. A model showing the diagram in solid form may be 
constructed from sheets of transparent celluloid, each representing a 
section through the diagram, erected perpendicular to a triangular base 

* Iron and Steel Insfc., Carnegie Scholarship Memoirs, i. pp. 230-364 (67 figs.). 
t Metallurgie, vi. (1909) pp 512-31 (19 figs.). 
X Tom. cit., pp. 531-6, 537-50 (46 figs ). 



122 SUMMABY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

any point in which represents the composition of an alloy. The dia- 
gram of the iron-manganese-carbon system is shown in this manner. 
The iron-phosphorns-carbon system, considered as a ternary system the 
components of which are iron, iron phosphide and iron carbide, resembles 
the lead-tin-bismuth system. Alloys of iron and carbon with a third 
element follow one of two types: — 1. The iron -carbon-manganese 
system. The third element forms solid solutions with both y-iron and 
iron carbide. Systems following this type are Fe-Cr-C, Fe-W-C, 
Fe-Xi-C, Fe-Si-C. 2. The iron-carbon-phosphorus system. The third 
element forms a chemical compound with iron, and the compound is 
insoluble in iron carbide, and insoluble or partly soluble in y-iron. To 
this type belong Fe-P-C, Fe-Sn-C. Fe-As-C, Fe-Sb-C. 
Useful bibliographies are appended to both these papers. 

Cementation by Carbon.* — L. Guillet and C. Griffith have made 
careful cementation experiments on iron and low-carbon steel. Samples 
buried in powdered purified sugar-carbon and heated at 1000° C. in a 
porcelain tube in which a vacuum was maintained showed a small 
increase in carbon content, but when the metal and carbon were both 
previously heated separately to expel occluded gases, a similar " cemen- 
tation " gave no increase in carbon. The effect of pressure, slight or 
great, was also studied. The chemical analyses were checked by micro- 
scopic examination, which gave information as to the distribution of 
carbon absorbed by the metal. The authors conclude that pure carbon 
cannot be absorbed by iron when heated in a vacuum, unless contact be 
assured by mechanical means, or dissolved gases be present. Cementation 
increases with increase of pressure. 

Constituents of Steel. — The definitions adopted by the Copenhagen 
Congress of the International Association for Testing Materials! are 
given. A " metaral " is a chemically homogeneous constituent, an 
" aggregate " is a chemically heterogeneous constituent. The metarals 
are ferrite, graphite, cementite, austenite, and martensite. Pearlite, and 
possibly osmondite, are aggregates. Martensite is defined as a solid 
solution of carbon and iron, not stable at any temperature, distinguish- 
able from austenite by its greater hardness and magnetic permeability. 

H. le Chatelier| discusses the definitions, and explains the replace- 
ment of the name " troostite " by " osmondite," and the omission of 
" sorbite." 

F. Osmond§ does not agree to the abandonment of " sorbite " and 
the replacement of " troostite " by " osmondite." 

Metallography of Iron.|| — H. M. Howe considers that the results 
obtained by Baykoff IT have made possible a simplification of the theory 
of the iron-carbon system. The. needle structure of martensite now 
appears to be characteristic of /3-iron, not of a crystallitic form of y-iron. 
The author collects the evidence that the martensite needles represent a 
stage intermediate between y- and a-iron. The specific volume, brittle- 
ness and hardness corresponding to the needle structure are all greater 

* Eev. Metallurgie, vi. (1909) pp. 1013-23 (3 figs.). t Tom. cit., pp. 1122-3. 
J Tom. cit., pp. 1124-6, 1366. - § Tom. cit., pp. 1183-7, 1363-5. 

|j Electrochem. and Met. Ind., vii. (1909) pp. 423-7 (5 figs.). 
i See this Journal, 1909, p. 669. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. L23 

than those of y- or a-iron. It is, therefore, improbable that the martensite 
needles can be merely a mixture of a- and y-iron. 

Transformations of Iron and Steel.*— Grenet holds that the trans- 
formation of iron, and the solution of carbon in iron, are not two 
separate and distinct phenomena. When carbide of iron goes into 
solution in iron, the iron changes from the a to the y condition. The 
case of pure iron undergoing the change from a to y is the limiting 
case, the concentration of carbon in the y solid solution formed being' 
nil. Assuming the stability of cementite, the only phases occurring in the 
iron carbon system in the temperature range -180° C. to +1200° C, 
and the concentration range to 1 • 60 p.c. carbon, are f errite, cementite, 
and solid solution. . 

Hardness of Steel.f — Grenet has sought to determine if the effect 
of annealing quenched or cold worked steel reaches a limit for any 
given temperature. Small pieces of a hard carbon steel and a nickel 
chromium steel were quenched in water from 800° C. and heated for 
various lengths of time, up to 04 hours, at 30o°, 500°, 650°, and 675° C. 
Hardness was determined by the Brinell method. The annealing effect 
at 300° C. was practically complete after 15 minutes. At 500°, 650° 
and 675° C, the effect was not complete after It! hours, though after 
four hours the action was very slow. Variation in temperature of 
annealing has a relatively much greater effect than variation in length 
of time. 

Use of Metallic Deposits in Metallography.! — F. Giolitti has 
applied the method of depositing thin layers of metal on the polished 
surface of an alloy by immersion in a solution of a metallic salt, to the 
study of solid solutions. Indications of the heterogeneity of solid 
solutions may thus be obtained. The method has been employed in 
the study of bronzes. 

Rate of Change in Alloys. §— G. 1). Bengough describes a method 
of determining the rate of change in metastable solid alloys when heated. 
Portions of the alloy are heated at a selected temperature for various 
lengths of time, and quenched in water. Photomicrographs are taken 
and enlargements on bromide paper are made. The relative proportions 
of the phases present are determined by cutting them out and weighing 
the paper. 

Surface-flow in Calcite.|| — By a development of the method of 
step-by-step etching, G. T. Beilbyhas shown that the disturbance of the 
surface of calcite by polishing penetrates to a depth of 500 to 1000 /*/*. 
The method of etching consists in placing on the polished surface a drop 
of water containing a minute and known quantity of hydrochloric acid. 
A known quantity of calcium-carbonate is thus dissolved, and the depth 
removed by a number of successive etchings is calculated. By illuminat- 
ing by the nearly critical image of the sun, the author detected a roughen- 

* Bull. Soc. Chim.,v. (1909) pp. 758-64 (4 figs.). 
+ Rev. Metallurgie, vi. (1909) pp. 1054-9 (3 figs.). 

t Gaz. Chim. Ital., xxxviii. (1908) pp. 3o2-7, through Journ. Chem. Soc, xciv. 
(1908) pt. 2, p. 945. § Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind., xxvii. (1908) pp. 752-3. 

|| Proc. Roy. Soc, Series A, lxxxii (1909) pp. 599-605. 



124 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES. 

ing of the surface, caused by etching', calculated to be not more than 
'2 molecules in depth. The unetched polished surface shows no trace of 
disturbance, and the presence of a disturbed surface layer is revealed 
only by etching. The disturbed layer seems to have a different mole- 
cular structure, and is harder than the original crystal. The presence 
of this protective skin does not interfere with the parallel growth of 
•crystals of sodium nitrate on the polished surface. 

Testing of Galvanised Metals.* — W. H. Walker, in discussing 
methods of determining the resistance to corrosion of zinc-coated metals, 
describes their microscopic structure. Between the outer coating of 
zinc and the iron base are a number of zinc-iron alloys. 

Magnetic Transformation of Nickel and Cobaltf — I- I- Shukoff 

finds that sudden changes occur in magnetic properties, electrical con- 
ductivity and thermo-electric properties, at about 340° C. for nickel and 
1000° C. for cobalt. A heat effect was observed with cobalt at 985° C. 
by the differential method of taking cooling curves, but no such effect 
was observed with nickel between 600° and 180° C. The author concludes 
that the transformation observed in nickel depends on some change 
occurrin": in the internal structure of the atom. 



.-> 



Testing by Alternating Stress.} — H. le Chatelier discusses the 
relation between the behaviour of a metal under A. Quillet's vibiatory 
test§ and its resistance to alternating stresses. Perfect elasticity is 
unknown. However small the deformation, a piece of metal, when the 
•stress is removed, does not return completely to its original form, but 
remains deformed to a slight degree. A part of this slight remaining 
distortion disappears slowly, but an exceedingly small permanent de- 
formation remains. In the slow recovery towards its original form, the 
metal exhibits viscosity, and this is the property which the Guillet 
" damping " test appears to reveal. 

Gases Occluded in Steel. || — T. Baker has determined the com- 
position and volume of the gases evolved by two crucible steels, contain- 
ing respectively 0*81 and ,( .)0 p.c. carbon, when heated in vacuo. A 
little aluminium had been added to the second steel before casting, none 
to the other. More than !)7 p.c. (by volume) of the total gas evolved 
was hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and the sound steel, to which alu- 
minium had been added, evolved twice as much gas as the steel contain- 
ing blow-holes. 

Sang, A. — Cementation. 

[Theories of various cementation processes are discussed, and methods 
described.] Electrochem. and Met. hid., vii. (1909) pp. 485-7, 532. 

Vanstone, E. — Miscibility of Solids. 

[The theory of the formation of solid solutions is discussed; and the results 
of experimental work on various organic bodies are given.] 

Journ. Chem. Soc, xcv. (1909) pp. 590-604 (3 figs). 



* Electrochem. and Met. Ind., vii. (1909) pp. 440-2. 

t Journ. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc, xl. (1908) pp. 1748-52, through Journ, Chem. 
Soc, xcvi. (1909) pp. 209-10. 

t Rev. Metallurgie, vi. (1909) pp. 1156-GO (2 figs.). 

§ See this Journal, 1909, p. 675-6. 

|| Iron and Steel Inst., Carnegie Scholarship Memoirs, i. (1909) pp. 219-29 
<3 figs.). 



125 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



MEETING 

Held on the 15th of December, 1909, at 20 Hanover Square, W., 
E. J. Spitta, Esq., L.R.C.P., etc., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Meeting of November 17, 1909, were read and 
confirmed, and were signed by the Chairman. 

The List of Donations (exclusive of exchanges and reprints) re- 
ceived since the last Meeting, was read as follows, and the thanks of the 
Society were voted to the donors : — 

Acta Societas Scientiarum Fennicse, xxxvi. No. 4, "ZurMor-| From 

phologiederAcariden-byEnzioReuter.. . ... I The Author , 

Ditto, xxxvu. No. 7, " Merokmesis, by Enzio Reuter. (4to, f 
Helsingfors, 1909) J 

William Spiers, Nature through the Microscope. (8vo, London, t ™ Autlwr 
1909) •• ••/ 

Attention was called to some enlargements of photomicrographs of 
the an tenure and falces of a female spider exhibited by Mr. H. 8. 
Cheavin ; to some specimens of the rarer Foraminifera from Selsey Bill, 
exhibited under a Microscope by Mr. E. H eron- Allen ; and to some 
photomicrographs of arranged diatoms, etc., from Mr. M. J. Allan, of 
Geelong. 

The Chairman said : One of the most painful tasks that falls to the 

lot of a Chairman of any Society is having to refer to the death of any 

of its Fellows. In some instances, however^ this task is at the same 

time one of great difficulty, such being especially the case when touching 

the death of a man of such great notoriety and distinction as possessed 

by the late Dr. Dallinger. Born in 1840, he entered the Society in 

1X71, and was for many years one of its most prominent Fellows, 

attaining to the Chair in 1884, a position he occupied for four years. 

Of late, however, we have not often seen him here, in consequence, I 

fear, of the weight of increasing years and loss of that vigorous health 

with which he used apparently to be blessed ; consequently, many 

present here to-night only know of him by reputation rather than by 

any personal knowledge. He was a man of undoubted power, having 

the charm of drawing unusually large audiences. This arose, I think, 

not only from his quiet manner and vigorous method of speech, but 

also from the value of what he had to say, which was always enriched 

by his great personality. I do not propose — for time forbids — to give you 

any details of his remarkable life, of his researches with Dr. Drysdale, 

or of his numerous papers devoted to our science, for all of these 

subjects are related in a far better manner than I could hope to do in 

an article from the pen of our Secretary in the December issue of the 

Journal ; but I must refer before sitting down to a request of the 

Council that I should bring this mournful subject before your notice 



»• 



126 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

so that your wishes could be obtained as to whether you would not like 
to offer some expression of sympathy with the relatives of Dr. Dallinger, 
seeing he has had such a lengthy and illustrious connection with our 
Society. The Council have already passed a resolution to this effect, 
but I repeat it has been thought you might very possibly desire — nay, 
even more, would very likely have considered it an omission on then- 
part had they not offered you the opportunity of joining in the same. 
Is it then your pleasure, gentlemen, that the Secretary be requested to 
write a suitable letter of condolence to the family, expressing your 
sympathy with them in their bereavement, and assuring them at the 
same time of the loss you feel the Society has sustained by the death of 
so illustrious a Fellow ? 

The motion for a vote of sympathy with the family of the late 
Dr. Dallinger was then put to the Meeting, and carried unanimously. 

Mr. A. A. C. E. Merlin's paper " On the Measurement of Grayson's 
K) Band Plate," was read to the Meeting by Mr. F. S. Scales. 

Mr. Rheinberg said the high degree of accuracy attained in the 
rulings of these lines was sufficiently marvellous, and although it might 
sound curious to say so, he considered it a positive advantage that an 
absolute accuracy could not be attained, as in the use of these gratings 
both for testiug the resolving powers of objectives and for diffraction 
experiments the appearances resulting from the slight deviations from 
absolute accuracy were particularly helpful to forming one's conclusions. 

Mr. Shillington Scales said he did not quite see how Mr. Merlin 
managed to make measurements of such small degree, because the 
ordinary micrometer wire was considerably coarser than some of the 
measurements given, even with the highest magnifications, and would in 
such minute divisions more than cover the object it was wished to 
measure. He had met with this difficulty himself in making measure- 
ments of less than 0"25/x, and should like to understand how it was got 
over. • 

Mr. A. E. Conrady said there would, no doubt, be a considerable 
difficulty in obtaining the measurements of a very minute single object, 
but Mr. Merlin worked upon several objects, and in that case it was 
posssible to estimate distances very accurately when a line came between 
two or three other lines, and the accuracy with which measurements 
could then be made was quite astonishing. This would be very possible 
in the case of one-third of a micron, or one-thousandth of a millimetre ; 
but when one spoke of two-millionths of an inch, it looked like a subject 
for discount. 

The Chairman said it would be, he thought, a good institution if 
when a new Fellow joined the Society his friends should introduce 
liim to the Secretaries and to other prominent members present, so that 
he should rapidly become acquainted with them all. He mentioned 
this because it had been brought before his notice that some new 
Fellows had complained very naturally they felt dull and strange at the 
Meetings, which was very foreign, he felt sure, to the wishes of those 
present. It had also been brought before him to mention that the 
Sectional Meetings of the Society were held on the first and fourth 
Wednesday evenings in the month, and that it would be an encourage- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 127 

ment if more attended the same, for objects were often exhibited aud 
discussions frequently took place that perhaps might not be suitable at 
the ordinary Meetings, but were, nevertheless, of great interest to those 
who studies were in some particular direction. 



Dr. Hebb said that he was present at the last Meeting of the 
Biological section on December 4, when Mr. E. J. Spitta gave a 
beautiful demonstration of the value of the application of the cinemato- 
graph to photomicrography. Various aspects of Pond Life, animal 
aud vegetable, were thrown ou the screen and exhibited with remarkable 
fidelity. The demonstration was given at Mr. Banfield's studio, and it 
was his skill and knowledge of the cinematograph which made the 
demonstration a complete success. He therefore proposed a special vote 
of thanks to Mr. Banfield for his courtesy and kindness. 

The Chairman said he felt greatly indebted to Mr. Banfield for his 
kind assistance, for without his very great kindness, he, the Chairman, 
would have not been able to have shown the section his films. 

The Chairman added that he had been requested to announce that 
the next Meeting of the " Brass and Glass " section would be held on 
January 26, when the subject of low-power illumination was to be dealt 
with. 

Dr. Marshall Ewell's paper " On a Convenient Form of Stand for 
Use as a Micro-colorimeter and with Micro-spectroscope," was read by 
Dr. Hebb, diagrams in illustration being shown upon the board. 

The thanks of the Meeting were voted to Dr. Marshall Ewell for his 
communication. . 

Dr. James F. Gemmill's paper on " An Automatic Aerating 
Apparatus for Aquaria," was also read by Dr. Hebb, the drawings 
referred to in explanation being reproduced upon the board. 

The Chairman said that it was always somewhat difficult to 
thoroughly grasp at the moment descriptions of new apparatus, especi- 
ally when of a somewhat complicated kind, but the design of the author 
was very ingenious, and deserving, undoubtedly, of their best thanks : 
he felt sure those present would desire to return their thanks to the 
author for his communication. 



Mr. F. Enock then gave a lecture " On the Life-history of the 
Hessian Fly, with Notes on the Tenby Wheat Midge," the subject being 
illustrated by a number of beautiful coloured lantern slides, showing 
the various stages from the egg to the perfect insect, and the effect of the 
ravages of the larva upon the stems of the affected corn. Although known 
in America as far back as 1776, and believed to have been introduced there 
in the straw mattresses of some Hessian troops, it was not until 1886 
that public attention was called to it in this country. The fallacies 
then circulated were described and corrected, and the true life-history, 
as traced by the lecturer, was given. Some notes on observations on 
the Tenby Wheat Midge, Clinodiplosis equestris, followed, and were 
illustrated by lantern slides, and by the exhibition of a living larva 
under the Microscope. 



128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

The Chairman, in moving a vote of thanks to Mr. Enock for his 
interesting lecture, said that to hear or read about the results of obser- 
vations of this kind was one thing, but it was quite another to carry out 
the necessary research. This involved much time and patience. A 
friend of his once told him that the whole of a four years' research 
only occupied half a sheet of paper. Now Mr. Enock's half -hour lecture 
represented observations of a most lengthy kind ; such, indeed, might, 
easily have taken him several weeks of very close observation ; and he 
felt sure those present would like to offer Mr. Enock their hearty con- 
gratulation both as to the final results obtained, as well as for the 
intellectual summary he had just given them. 

Dr. Hebb reminded the Fellows that the next Meeting would be the 
Annual Meeting, when the President would give his Address. He then 
read the list of Officers nominated by the Council for Election for the 
approaching session : — 

President— Professor J. A. Thomson, M.A., F.R.S.E. 

Vice-Presidents — Messrs. Cheshire, Disney, Eyre, and Spitta. 

Treasurer — Mr. W. E. Baxter. 

Secretaries — Dr. Hebb and Mr. F. Shillington Scales. 

Ordinary Members of Council — Messrs. F. W. Watson Baker, Barnard, 
Heron-Allen, C.F. Hill, Hopkinson, Plimmer, Powell, Radley, Rheinberg, 
Rousselet, Scourfield, and Wesche. 

Librarian — Percy E. Radley. 

Curator of Instruments, etc. — Charles F. Rousselet. 

Curator of Slides— -F. Shillington Scales. 

Auditor on behalf of the Council — D. J. Scourfield. 

The Fellows present were then asked to nominate an auditor to act 
on their behalf at the annual audit. Mr. C. L. Curties, having been 
proposed by Mr. Soar and seconded by Mr. Taverner, was unanimously 
elected as auditor to represent the Fellows. 



Dr. Hebb, after alluding to the Special Meeting in June last at 
which it was agreed to admit Women Fellows to the Meeting, gave 
notice of the following alterations in By-laws 4 and 27 (viz. omission 
of the words male and males). These alterations would have the effect 
of conferring the full privileges of the Society on Women Fellows. 

It was intimated that the rooms of the Society would be closed from 
December 24 to January 3. 

The following Instruments, Objects, etc., were exhibited : — 
Dr. Hebb : — Three enlargements of Photomicrographs of Parts of Leg, 
Mouth-organs and Antenna of female Spider, sent for exhibition 
by Mr. Harold S. Cheavin ; and Photomicrographs of arranged 
Diatoms, etc., from Mr. M. J. Allan, of Geelong. 
Mr. E. Heron-Allen : — Slides of the rarer Foraminifera from SelseyBill. 
Mr. F. Enock : — Lantern Slides and living Larva of Clinodiplosis equestris r 
in illustration of his lecture. 



New Fellow. — Mr. Walter Bagshaw was balloted for and duly 
elected a Fellow of the Societv. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 129 



ANNIVERSARY MEETING 



Held ox the 19th of January, 1910, at 20 Hanoyer Square, W. 
Sir Edwin Ray Lankester, F.R.S., etc., President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Meeting of December 15, 1909, were read and 
confirmed, and were signed by the President. 



Messrs. H. Taverner and C. D. Soar were duly elected as Scrutineers 
of the Ballot for the election of Officers and Council of the Society for 
the ensuing year. 

The List of Donations, exclusive of exchanges and reprints, 
received since the last Meeting, was read, and the thauks of the Society 
were voted to the donors. 



Attention was called by Mr. F. Shillington Scales to a projection 
lantern, presented by Mr. J. W. Ogilvy, provided with a self-regulating 
arc lamp of 3000 candle power, and having a neat and convenient 
arrangement for taking any size slide. As it could be coupled on to 
the electric supply of that room, it was likely to be of much service to 
the Society, and was not only a very welcome donation, but one for 
which they felt greatly indebted to the donor. 

On the Motion of the President the special thanks of the Society 
were voted to Mr. Ogilvy for his valuable addition to their apparatus. 



Mr. C. F. Rousselet said he was exhibiting under a Microscope 
in the room some specimens of a rare species of Pedalion, P. oxyure 
Sernow, which he had found in material collected by Dr. Cunnington 
and C. Boulenger in the brackish lake Birket Qarun, in the Fayum 
Province of Egypt. It would be remembered that the first species of 
this genus, remarkable amongst all other Rotifera, for the possession of 
six arthropodous limbs, P. minim, was discovered in 1871 by Dr. C. T. 
Hudson, at Clifton, near Bristol. A second species, P.fennicum, was 
found by Dr. Levander, in Finland, in 1892, and the third species, 
P. oxyure, now exhibited, was found by S. Sernow in 1903 in the Aral 
Sea. This same species was also found last year by Professor von Daday 
in material collected in Turkestan, and named by him P. mucronatum, 
which name, therefore, is a synonym, and cannot stand. P. oxyure most 
nearly resembles P. fennicum, but differs from it in the fact that the 
posterior end of the body is drawn out into an elongated hyaline 
projection. 

The President said it was extremely interesting to hear of this find, 
and hoped they would hear more of it, his opinion being that Pedalion 
was the most wonderful of all the Rotifers, as having legs and striated 
muscles to work them, and hairs on them resembling those of Crustacea. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Rousselet for bringing this specimen for 
exhibition. 

Feb. 16th, 1910 K 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

The President called attention to an exhibition of sections of eyes., 
exhibited by Mr. F. W. Watson Baker under a number of Microscopes 
lent for the occasion by Messrs. Watson and Sons. 

The thanks of the Society were unanimously voted to Mr. Baker for 
this very excellent exhibition, and to Messrs. Watson and Sons for the 
loan of the instruments. 



The Report of the Council for the year 1909 was then read by Mr. 
F. Shillington Scales. 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL FOR 1909. 

FELLOWS. 

Ordinary. — During the year 1909,28 new Fellows have been elected,, 
and 3 have been reinstated, whilst 9 have died, 13 have resigned, 3 have 
been removed, and 2 elections have been declared void. 

Five of the deceased were Fellows for periods of from 38 to 58 years, 
and among them is found the name of Rev. W. H. Dallinger, of whom 
an obituary notice, with portrait, was given in the December number of 
the Journal. 

Honorary. — The Council regrets to have to announce the deaths of 
three Honorary Fellows : — Dr. J. Brun, Dr. Anton Dohrn, and Dr. Henri 
van Heurck. 

The number of Honorary Fellows is reduced by the above losses 
to 40. 

The list of Fellows now contains the names of 382 Ordinary, 1 Cor- 
responding, 40 Honorary, and 79 Ex officio Fellows, being a total of 502. 

FINANCE. 

The greater activity displayed by the Society this year has necessarily 
been accompanied with some increased expenditure, but it has also pro- 
duced an accession of income. Both admission fees and subscriptions 
are larger than for some few years. The expenditure, however, is still 
slightly in excess of income, but it is hoped that, as a result of the 
greater interest shown in the Society's work, the number of Members 
elected will continue to increase. 

JOURNAL. 

The Journal for 1909 compares favourably with any of its prede- 
cessors. Sixteen important papers are recorded in the Transactions. 
Some of these papers are very freely illustrated. 

It is gratifying to be able to announce that there has been a great 
increase of the sale of the Journal during the past year. 

The Council takes the opportunity of expressing its thanks to the 
editorial staff for the continued excellence of their work in connection 
with the summary of current researches relating to Zoology, Botany, 
Microscopy, and Metallography. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 131 

LIBRARY. 

The Library has been maintained in good order, and has been en- 
riched during the past year by a most valuable donation from Dr. Braith- 
waite of a large number of interesting papers on Mosses, bound in twelve 
volumes. The Society has also received a number of other works, the 
titles of which have been recorded from time to time in the Journal. 

In response to an appeal. for funds to print a Catalogue of the 
Library, a large amount of support has been given ; the Catalogue, 
which has been carefully prepared by Mr. P. E. Radley, and the cost of 
which was largely defrayed by the generosity of 114 Fellow T s, is now com- 
pleted and ready for distribution to the subscribers. 

INSTRUMENTS AND APPARATUS. 

The Instruments and Apparatus in the Society's Collection continue 
to be in good condition. 

During the past twelve months the following additions have been 
made : — 

Jan. 20. — A Reflecting Microscope, by Amici. Presented by Mr. S. R. 
Roget. 

Feb. 17. — A Wilson Screw-barrel Single Pocket Microscope, made by 
E. Culpeper. 
„ A Small Wilson Screw-barrel Single Pocket Microscope, made 

by George Sterrop. 
A Single Pocket Microscope, made by Banks. 
A Lieberktihn " Transparent Solar Microscope," made by 
Dollond. All presented by Mr. E. Heron- Allen. 

Mar. 17. — A New r T V-im Oil-immersion Objective. Presented by the 
maker, Mr. E. Leitz. 

April 21. — A Large Binocular Microscope, with accessories, made by Ross 
in 1888, and 3 Apochromatic Objectives and Compensat- 
ing Eye-pieces, by Carl Zeiss. Presented by Lord Edward 
Spencer Churchill. 

May 19. — A Microscope Lamp, by Ross. Presented by Lord Edward 
Spencer Churchill. 

June 16. — An Old Microscope, by George Adams. Presented by Mem- 
bers of the Council. 

Oct. 20. — Two Electric Speculum Lamps, of his own design. Pre- 
sented by Mr. J. W. Gordon. 

CABINET. 

The following slides have been added to the Cabinet during the past 
year : Six slides of Foraminifera from the Adriatic, mounted on the 
points of needles, so that the specimens can be rotated, presented on 
February 17 by Mr. Ernest Heath, F.R.M.S. ; 77 slides of Foraminifera, 
from the collection of the late Wm. Kitchen Parker, presented on 
October 20 by Mr. Ernest Heath, F.R.M.S. ; a slide of the very rare 
diatom, Aulacodiscus superbus,* presented by Mr. J. T. Norman Thomas. 

* See this Journal, 1909, pp. 793-4. 






132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

At a Conversazione held in connection with the Seventh Internationa] 
Congress of Applied Chemistry, on June 1, at the Natural History 
Museum, the Society exhibited a collection of Metallurgical Microscopes 
and accessory apparatus, together with a set of Metallographic Photo- 
graphs and Specimens. Considerable interest was manifested in the 
display, and the success attained was not inadequate to the effort made. 
The exhibition of instruments, photographs, and specimens was highly 
appreciated by the assembled chemists — not only for its unprecedented 
novelty, but also for the excellence of the collection. 

The Biological (with which the Bacteriological is now combined) 
and the Brass and Glass Sectional Meetings have been well attended, 
and they promise to become an important feature of the Society. For 
the success of these supplementary Meetings the Society is indebted to 
the continued efforts and interest of Mr. D. J. Scourfield and Mr. 
F. Cheshire, the Sectional Secretaries. 

In December 1908, a Special Meeting was held, at which the question 
of granting to women Fellows equal rights with men was debated. As 
a result of this debate a Special Committee was appointed to deal with 
the matter. After much labour and correspondence the Committee 
brought up a Report, to which a minority Report was attached, at a 
Special Meeting in June. At this Meeting it was resolved that the 
By-laws be altered so that women Fellows should be admitted to the 
Meetings. The Council, however, are of opinion that it is advisable to 
alter the By-laws so as to give equal rights to women Fellows, and 
suggest that the By-laws be altered in this sense. To give effect to this 
it is merely necessary to omit the references to males in By-laws 4 and 27. 

It is hoped that this alteration will have the effect of allaying a long- 
standing grievance and of increasing the number of Fellows. 



The Treasurer's Report and Balance Sheet for the year 1909 were 
read to the Meeting by Mr. W. E. Baxter. 

On the motion of the President, the Report and Balance Sheet were 
unanimously adopted. 



The Report of the Scrutineers was then handed in, and the follow- 
ing Fellows were declared to have been duly elected as Officers and 
Council of the Society for the ensuing year : — 

President — J. Arthur Thomson, M.A. F.R.S.E., Regius Professor of 
Natural History in the University of Aberdeen. 

Vice-Presidents — Frederic J. Cheshire ; A. N. Disney, M.A. B.Sc. ; 
J. W. H. Eyre, M.D. F.R.S. (Edin.) ; E. J. Spitta, L.R.C.P. (Lond.) 
M.R.C.S. (Eng.) 

Treasurer— Wynne E. Baxter, J.P., F.G.S. F.R.G.S. 

Secretaries— R. G. Hebb, M.A. M.D. F.R.C.P. ; F. Shillington Scales, 
M.A. M.B. B.C. (Cantab.). 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



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134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Ordinary Members of Council — F. W. Watson Baker ; J. E. Barnard ; 
Edward Heron-Allen, F.L.S. F.Z.S. F.R.Met.S. ; C. F. Hill ; John 
Hopkiuson ; Henry Geo. Plimmer, F.L.S. ; Thomas H. Powell ; P. E. 
Radley ; Julius Rheinberg ; Charles F. Ronsselet ; David J. Scourfield ; 
W. Wesche. 

Librarian — Percy E. Radley. 

Curator of Instruments, etc. — Charles F. Rousselet. 

Curator of Slides— F. Shillington Scales, M.A. M.B. B.C. (Cantab.). 



Pursuant to notice given at the previous Sleeting, the following 
alterations in the By-laws were suggested by the Council, to meet the 
resolution carried at the Meeting of the Society in June : — ■ 
Rule 4. — To omit the words " all being males." 
„ 27. — Line 4, to omit the word " male " ; line 8, to omit the 
words " being males." 

These alterations having been moved by Mr. Heron-Allen, and 
seconded by Mr. Hopkinson, were put to the Meeting by the President, 
and declared to have been carried. 



The President then gave the Annual Address, in the course of which 
he congratulated the Society upon its increased prosperity, and, after 
making appreciative reference to the work of the late Dr. Dallinger, he 
referred to such work as he thought could be carried out by the Fellows 
with reference to the action of light upon protoplasm, the differentiation 
and specific effects of a-, /3-, and y-rays emanating from radium, and the 
part actually played by bacteria in the processes of digestion. Medical 
science wanted their assistance in these investigations, which he thought 
could be, in some directions, better followed up by Naturalists than by 
Physiologists. Attention was also called to an organism (Clathrocijstis 
aeruginosa) found by Henfrey in 1852, in a pond in Kew Gardtns, and 
so named by him, as worthy of their attention. He regretted that he 
had been unable to attend more of their Meetings, but assured them 
that he took great interest in the work of the Society. 

Mr. A. D. Michael said he rose to move that the best thanks of the 
■Society be given to the President for his Address, and to request that he 
would allow it to be printed and circulated in the usual way. He need 
not say that the address was one of very high interest, because the 
President was not in the habit of writing or delivering addresses that 
were not so ; but this address was not only one of great scientific in- 
terest, but also of great practical value, opening up a vast field of research, 
particularly to the Fellows of their own Society. It was an address 
which, when printed, would enrich the pages of the Journal. 

Mr. Wynne E: Baxter said he had great pleasure in seconding the 
vote of thanks to the President for his address, which had been of great 
interest to them all, and he thought it a great honour that their Pre- 
sident should have been with them that evening, on the fiftieth anniver- 
sary of the day when, as President of the Society, his father had delivered 
the annual address. He had not only given them a most useful and 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 135 

interesting address, but he had given thern a good year's work to do if 
they carried out all his suggestions. They were extremely obliged to hin> 
for coming amongst them that evening. 

The motion having been put to the Meeting, was carried unani- 
mously, with acclamation. 

The President thanked the Fellows of the Society for the way they 
had received his address, and also the mover and seconder of the vote 
of thanks for their kind references to it. He hoped that some of the 
suggestions made would bear fruit, many of them it would be quite 
possible to carry out, and should be taken up. 



Mr. Maurice Blood moved that the best thanks of the Society be 
given to the Honorary Officers of the Society for their services during 
the past year. They had carried on the business of the Society so 
smoothly that their work was likely to be overlooked, and perhaps it 
would be possible to appreciate their services better if things went wrong 
sometimes. Though their officers were all very busy men, as everybody 
knew, yet they were willing to give their time and services to the efficient 
working of the Society, which still further entitled them to the gratitude 
of the Fellows. 

Mr. George Tilling said that he seconded this motion with very great 
pleasure, for they knew not only that their officers must have given a 
great amount of time to the business of the Society, but they as Fellows, 
had evidence of the quality of the work done. They knew also that their 
Secretary, Dr. Hebb, had been especially active in the interests of the 
Society, and he could not recall one instance previously in which he had 
been absent from their Meetings. It would be invidious, however, to 
mention the work of individuals where every Honorary Officer had done 
so much. 

The motion, on being put to the Meeting by the President, was 
carried unanimously. 

Mr. F. Shillington Scales said it fell to him this time to acknow- 
ledge this vote of thanks on behalf of the Officers and Council. The 
last year had been an unusually anxious one to tbem on account of the 
special matters which they had to consider. There was the matter of 
the lease referred to in the Report, and the question of finance had 
occupied attention, though he was glad to say that this was the first time 
for some years in which they had been able to report a distinct improve- 
ment in their financial position. The idea of the new Library Catalogue 
had originated with one of the Fellows who was not on the Council, and 
who had offered a contribution towards the cost, and the rest of the 
money had been raised by subscription. This catalogue of the books in 
the library would very shortly be ready for issue. It had entailed a 
great deal of labour, for all of which they were greatly indebted to 
their Honorary Librarian. Another anxious matter had been the ques- 
tion of the admission of women Fellows to the full privileges of the 
Society, now an accomplished fact. Though somewhat outside his 
province, he might, perhaps, be allowed to point out the advantage to the 
Society of having a mar. of such scientific eminence as Sir Ray Lankester 
as its head. They also had elected many new Fellows. He greatly 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

regretted the absence of Dr. Hebb that evening, to whom, as Secretary, 
the Society was greatly indebted ; for eleven years past he had given 
thern his services, had come to them not seldom at great personal incon- 
venience, and he believed this was the first time Dr. Hebb had been 
absent during the whole of that time. 

A vote of thanks to the Auditors and Scrutineers was then moved by 
Mr. Marshall, seconded by Mr. Freshwater, and unanimously carried. 

Mr. Heron-Allen said he rose to propose that a very cordial vote of 
thanks be given to their Librarian, Mr. Radley, for the skill, labour, and 
enthusiasm which he had put into the work of preparing the new 
catalogue. The Society had known for many years that they had a 
great treasure packed away upon their crowded shelves, but were in the 
position of a man who knew he had a mine of wealth under his estate, 
but had no one to whom he could entrust the work of developing it. 
Such a person had arisen in their midst in the person of Mr. Radley, 
who had undertaken to make the catalogue, and had now completed the 
task with conspicuous ability and consequent success. They probably 
knew something of what heart-breaking work it was to compile a 
catalogue of books, and the invisible labour involved in the process, and 
be felt sure that all the Fellows of the Society would join in according 
to Mr. Radley the vote of thanks which he had proposed. 

Mr. W. Wesche, having seconded the motion, it was put to the 
Meeting by the President, and carried unanimously. 



The following Instrument, Objects, etc., were exhibited :— 

The Society : — Projection Lantern, with self -regulating arc-light, pre- 
sented by Mr. J. W. Ogilvy. 

Mr. 0. F. Rousselet : — Mounted specimen of Pedalion oxijure Sernow, 
from Egypt. 

Mr. F. W. Watson Baker : — Microscope Slides, illustrating the structure 
and development of the eye : — 1. Section through embryo Rat, 
showing the eyes. 2. Ditto, head of foetal Mouse, showing eyes. 
8. Ditto, head of fcetal Guinea-pig, showing eyes. 4. Section of eye 
of Snail. 5. Ditto, Ditiscus. 6. Ditto, Dragon-fly. 7. Eyes of 
garden Spider (Epeira). 8. Section of eye of Cray-fish. 9. Ditto, 
head and eyes of Pipe-fish. 10. Ditto, ditto, Goby. 11. Ditto, eye 
of Dog-fish. 12. Ditto, head and eyes of Squid. 13. Ditto, eye of 
Frog. 14. Ditto, eye of Pigeon, showing pectern. 15. Ditto, human 
retina through fovea centralis. 1G. Meibomian glands in human 
eye-lid. 



New Fellows : — The following were elected Ordinary Fellows of 
the Society : — Messrs. F. C. Dumat, Frederick Leonard McKeever, 
Alfred William Sheppard, Sir Almroth Edward Wright. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

ROYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY. 

APRIL, 1910. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIRTY. 



IV. — The President's Address. 
By Sir E. Ray Lankesteii. 

(Bead January 19, 1910.) 

At the close of my year of office, I desire to congratulate the 
Society on its prosperity, on the increased number of its Fellows, 
and on the settlement of the question as to the rights of women in 
regard to the Society. We have lost one very distinguished Fellow, 
a former President, for whose work I have always felt the greatest 
respect and interest — the Rev. W. H. Dallinger. Full details of his 
life and work have been given in the Journal of the Society. I 
would only add to what is there said, that I consider his work to 
have been typical of that fine and original investigation which we 
get from the real lover of microscopic biology, the true amateur, the 
true dilettante- — he who works because he loves the subject, and 
not because it is a profession, or connected with business and 
advancement. Such absolutely original observation and views as 
we owe to Dallinger cannot come from the academic laboratory- — 
they are born in the private study and workshop. The Society has 
from time to time had such original and independent workers 
amongst its leading Fellows, and it needs their presence and assist- 
ance more than that of any other type of man. 

The Society has received some valuable communications during 
the year, but they have not been so varied nor so numerous as might 
be expected. There are many subjects upon which microscopical 
examination throws a flood of light, which are not part of the 
regular work of the colleges and schools : there are the old tra- 
ditional fields of delight in which the Fellows of the Society are 
famous — the pond-life of minutest animals and plants. I could 
have wished to give you some account of what has been going on 

April 20th, 1910 L 



138 Transactions of the Society. 

in some of these regions of discover), but, unfortunately, my time 
and my strength are both limited and greatly taxed at present. 1 
must content myself by alluding to one or two matters which have 
come under my notice of late, and seem to me to demand the 
attention and work of the Fellows of this Society, to whom, indeed, 
such inquiries are especially appropriate. 

There is, in the first place, the whole question of what is called 
the ultra-microscope. We may distinguish between indefinite 
vision and definite vision. It has always been the object of the 
microscopist to obtain definition: a picture with sharp presentation 
of outline and shape corresponding to a natural reality. The ultra- 
microscopist abandons this aim ; it is enough for him if he can 
obtain evidence, by speck-like vague obstruction of light, that some- 
thing capable of interrupting the path of a light-ray is present. 
And when our aim is limited to the recognition of the existence of 
such vague undefined particles, we have to extend very greatly the 
limits of the size of the " ultimum visibile," as compared with the 
limit assigned when something like an outline and the discrimina- 
tion of shape is understood by the word "visible." Eemarkable 
results as to the existence of particles indefinitely (by no means de- 
finitely) visible have been obtained by using special modes of illu- 
mination. The ordinary horizontal illumination, which we used 
to call " dark -ground illumination,'" has been lately brought into, 
use in Paris and elsewhere in the study of living microbes and 
blood — with some success — and the name "ultra-microscopy " has 
been applied to some of the results, such as brilliant illumination 
of granules otherwise invisible. The most interesting application 
of this horizontal illumination has been to the production of cine- 
matographic films, showing actively moving spirilla driving their 
way corkscrew-like through the blood, whilst the slower move- 
ments of phagocytes are also recorded. The great difficulty in 
producing such films arises from the fact that the intense illu- 
mination necessary for rapid photography of the moving object is 
paralysing and destructive to living naked protoplasm. It is more 
rapidly fatal to amoeboid protoplasm than to the flagella of spirilla 
and bacteria, but acts fatally upon both ; the former can rarely be 
photographed in movement, the latter always remain active for a 
sufficient time. The films made in Paris will, I believe, soon be 
exhibited in London, being in the hands of the great entrepreneur 
of cinematography, Pathe et Cie., at whose works the experimental 
films were made. I hope very much that some of our own Fellows 
may take take up this interesting but difficult practical problem, 
and I believe that Dr. Spitta has already achieved satisfactory 
results, though I have not been able to see them for myself. 

It is interesting in connection with this question of bacteria 
and light to note that an interesting contribution to our know- 
ledge of this subject has lately been made by Sir James Pewar. 



The President's Address. 139 

Sir James was desirous of studying the action of intense cold 
(a few degrees above the absolute zero, which corresponds to 
— 273° C.) upon the simplest living matter. He found a con- 
venient corpus vile, or experimental organism, in the bacteria 
which cause phosphorescence of stale fish, etc. He found that he 
could freeze cultivations of these bacteria, when their luminosity 
would cease and all evidence "of " life " disappear, but that on 
raising the temperature, even after an interval of weeks, the bac- 
teria immediately became luminous — giving thus a ready test 
of their return to the active phase of life, and a proof that they 
had survived the temperature to which they were exposed. He 
found that phosphorescent bacteria survived an exposure of many 
weeks to a temperature approaching the absolute zero. In that 
frozen condition nothing could attack them or injure them ; so 
long as the low temperature was maintained they were in a state 
of " arrested movement " — a true suspended animation — like a 
watch the movement of which is restrained by a needle. When 
the needle, or the low temperature, is removed, the apparatus 
works as before. But Sir James Pewar found that there is one 
agent which can affect the bacteria even when they are frozen hard 
at the temperature of liquid hydrogen. That is radiant energy of 
that wave-length which we call violet and ultra-violet. The rays 
of the blue end of the spectrum destroy the bacteria even when 
frozen — as he showed by a simple experiment. Kept in the dark or 
shade, the frozen bacteria survive and become phosphorescent once 
again on thawing, but if exposed to direct sunlight, or to the blue 
end of the electric arc, they are killed. 

It seems to me that there is a splendid field here for further 
work by some of our Fellows. It was long ago shown that direct 
sunlight inhibits and then kills ordinary putrefactive bacteria. 
The more precise study of the action of light-rays on protoplasm 
of various kinds is open to further investigation, as well as the dis- 
covery of the various means by which the protoplasm of both the 
lowest and highest animals is protected from the destructive action 
of light. 

And this brings me to one of the questions of the day, namely, 
the action of the a, /3, and 7 rays of radium upon protoplasm in its 
different conditions of nakedness and protection. We shall not get 
to a real understanding of the possible use of radium-rays as a 
curative agent until the action of each group, the a, /8, and 7, has 
been studied experimentally in the most simple cases, so as to de- 
termine in what way these rays, each apart from the other, affects 
the elaborate proteid molecules and the ultimate hidden highest 
combination, concealed in that slimy structure which we call 
protoplasm. 

I hope that some work on this subject may be undertaken by 
Fellows of the Societv. It is of no use for the purpose of reallv 

l 2 



140 Transactions of the Society. 



getting far in the matter to roughly apply a bulb holding radium 
salt to this or that tissue of plant or animal. More delicate 
methods of experiment must be devised, and the simplest micro- 
scopic organisms will probably be found to lend themselves to 
the inquiry. 

Let me now pass to another question concerning bacteria, one 
which we as naturalists and biologists might pursue on lines 
somewhat distinct from those necessarily used by the medical man. 

The part played by bacteria in the alimentary canal of man 
has become a very important matter of investigation. It is now- 
attempted to check the activity of putrefactive bacteria which 
require alkaline conditions for their activity, by introducing with 
the food (as suggested by Metchnikoff) acid-producing bacteria, 
those which produce lactic acid. Such lactic-acid-producing bac- 
teria are taken in sour milk, and it has been certainly ascertained 
that they do for a time establish themselves in the large intestine 
and produce there an acid environment, which checks the growth 
of certain putrefactive micro-organisms. The whole subject of the 
microbian flora of the alimentary canal is under investigation and 
demands an immense amount of further observation and experi- 
ment. The condition of the alimentary canal of lower animals in 
regard to bacterial activity is of great interest. It has been held 
by some writers that the activity of bacteria is absolutely necessary 
for the proper accomplishment of the digestive process in animals. 
Metchnikoff has, however, shown that the large fruit bats (Ptero- 
pus) of the East Indies have the digestive tract practically free 
from bacteria, and that certainly bacteria do not take part in the 
breaking up of food in that creature's intestine. The same fact 
has been shown in regard to the digestion of some insects — experi- 
ments having been made in which newly hatched larvse were fed 
upon food devoid of bacterial germs. The subject, in so far as it is 
one which is elucidated by the study of the smaller forms of animal 
life, is one which is admirably suited to the efforts of the micros- 
copist who works in his own study with simple apparatus. A 
complete study of the bacteria to be found in the alimentary tract 
of all animals, with a demonstration of the history and source and 
activity of such bacteria as are found, is required. Even amongst 
the Protozoa we find intrusive "bacteria" taking part in the life- 
processes of their hosts as a normal thing. The " rodlets " described 
by Greef in his original account of the amoeboid Pelomyxa — as a 
constituent part of the organism — are very abundant and were 
regarded as crystalline needles. They were, however, not present 
in a new species of Pelomyxa discovered by Professor Bourne in 
Madras, although invariably found in the European Pelomyxa palus- 
tris. Fourteen years ago these rodlets were shown in my laboratory 
at Oxford to be bacteria, and were cultivated by Mr. Hill, now of 
Eton College. Among the Ciliata, bacteria occur in a more excep- 



The President's Address. 141 

tional way, though they are so frequent in a species of Paramecium 
as to have been formerly mistaken for spermatozoa. The relations 
of bacteria to sponges, to hydroid polyps and sea-anemones, cannot 
fail to yield valuable results when studied, and those occurring in 
the gut of Annelids and Molluscs, when the digestive secretions 
are also studied, must give new insight into the whole subject. 
In the great Sipuncuhts nudus, common at Naples, I found years 
ago that the remarkable little csecran placed near the rectum is 
not unfrequently distended and tilled with a cream-like mass of 
delicate bacilli. 

Lastly, I would venture to mention to the Society an extremely 
interesting organism connected with the Bacteria — one of the 
Cyanophycea; — which exists at our doors in London, namely in the 
" museum-lake " at Kew Gardens, where it was originally discovered 
fifty-five years ago by Henfrey, who gave to it the name Clathro- 
cystis aeruginosa. In masses it has a strong apple-green tint, which 
on drying turns to a verdigris blue if exposed to sunlight, but not 
if kept in the dark. It is associated with Amphanizomenon and 
Anabcena, and there is much to suggest that it is a "glceococcus" 
phase of one of those genera. It has a special interest for me as 
resembling some of the peach-red coloured bacterial growths which 
I described many years ago as Bacterium rubeseens. Professor Ferdi- 
nand Colin, of Breslau, considered the " glceococcus " phase of that 
rubescent organism to be referable to Henfrey's genus, and called it 
Clathrocystis roseo -persicina. T have again this year made some study 
of Henfrey's C. <-i>ruginosa, especially as to the existence of nucleus 
or nuclear matter, but I have not now proper opportunity for its in- 
vestigation. The question of the genetic relation of " glceococcus " 
forms to the filamentous Bacteria and Cyanophycea is well worth 
the attention of microscopists. I formulated many years ago the 
view — based on my study of Bacterium rubeseens — that this is (as 
also are other but not all Bacteria) a polymorphic species, and that 
the red Clathrocystis is one of its growth-phases, others being long 
filaments, very large bacterial forms, remarkable disks, and also rod- 
like growths and HydrodictyonAike networks. Zopf subsequently 
advocated the same view and gave illustrations of polymorphic 
phases, not only from my B. rubeseens (Cohn's C. roseo-persicina), 
but from other forms, such as Beggiatoa, which serve to connect 
the Cyanophyceas and the Bacteria. But of late years the view 
seems to have prevailed that our polymorphic growth-phases are 
distinct species and genera — a conclusion the truth of which I do 
not think has been made probable, much less established. I should 
like to see the whole question re-investigated. 



142 Transactions of the Society. 



V. — Note on Dendrobrackia fallax Brook, a Rare and 
Remarkable A ntipatharian. 

By Professor J. Arthur Thomson, M.A. 

(Read February 16, 1910.) 

In a collection of Alcyonarians which I received for description 
from His Serene Highness the Prince of Monaco, there were four 
specimens of unusual appearance and puzzling character — with a 
spinose axis and pinnate tentacles — which are undoubtedly refer- 
able to a remarkable type of Antipatharian, which Brook described 
in 1889 under the name Dendrobrackia fallax. Although I have 
not much that is new to add to Brook's excellent description and 
figures, it may be of interest to record the re-observation of an ex- 
traordinary type, which seems to have remained unnoticed for more 
than twenty years. Very unfortunately, three of the specimens 
were dry, while the fourth, which was preserved in spirit, had only 
a few extremely brittle polyps. 

What are the peculiarities of the type which give it a somewhat 
aloof position among Antipatharians ? 

1. The axis is without a central canal. In its younger parts it 
consists of about five longitudinal ridges or plates, standing out 
from a thin central stem and showing a distantly dentate margin. 
As growth goes on, there seems to be an increase in the number of 
outstanding ridges, and at the same time, by the deposition of 
successive concentric layers of horn, the deep troughs between the 
ridges are filled up, and an approximation to the ordinary type of 
Antipatharian axis is thus reached. There is great diversity in the 
size and shape of the spines in different parts of the colony. The 
colour of the axis varies from yellowish-brown to amber-brown. 
The basal portion, which was absent in Brook's two specimens, is 
well seen in two cases. 

2. The polyps are even more remarkable than the axis. They 
arise laterally, often in sub-opposite pairs, but there may be a con- 
siderable interval, of two lengths or more, between two pairs. In 
short, they are much more distant than is usual in Antipatharians. 
Nor do they, in most cases, stand out at right angles, as Antipa- 
tharian polyps usually do ; they are often appressed to the twig, or 
form an acute angle with it. The tentacles are retractile, which is 
also unusual, so that in some cases there is simply a circle of knobs 
around the prominent oral cone. Still more striking is the fact 
that they bear well-developed pinnules, six to seven pairs in the 



Note on Dendrobrachia fallax Brook. By J. A. Thomson. 14;; 

twelve polyps examined. It was impossible to cut the extremely 
brittle tissue, and the tentacles split very readily up the middle, but 
in four or five cases there seemed no doubt as to the presence of 
eight. Brook was not able to determine the number. In one case 
it seemed fairly certain that there were, eight mesenteries. 

The occurrence of eight pinnate tentacles at once suggests an 
Alcyonarian, and one was reminded that in many cases Alcyonid 
Alcyonarians grow over the naked axes of Gorgonids so thoroughly 
that a very deceptive appearance results. There is not, however, 
anything — such as uncovered tips on the twigs, or hummocking of 
the ccenenchyma — to lead one to suppose that the specimen is not 
a unity. Moreover, there is no hint of Alcyonarian spicules, and 
the pinnules on the tentacles are much more irregular than in 
Alcyonarians. One would not indeed consider this possibility, 
were it not that some cases of the masking of extrinsic axes by 
Alcyonarians are almost incredibly deceptive, and were it not that 
the type in question is such a puzzling Antipatharian. 

That Antipatharians have affinities with Zoantharians seems 
probable, and it is interesting to remember that the primitive type 
Edwardsia has only eight complete mesenteries, that a young 
Halcampa has eight tentacles, and that some sea-anemones, e.g. 
Adinodendron, ha ye irregularly pinnate tentacles. There seems to 
be little doubt that Dendrobrachia fallax is a primitive Anti- 
patharian, nearer than many to the Zoantharian stock. One 
would like to see more of it. 

Brook's two specimens were dredged in 1876 from 425 fathoms 
off Ascension ; those now exhibited were dredged in 1901 from 
219 fathoms off the island of St. Vincent, in the Caps Verde 
Islands. 



144 Transactions of the Society. 



VI. — On the Measurement of the First Nine Groups of Grayson's 

Finest Twelve-band Plate. 

By A. A. C. Eliot Merlin. 

(Bead February 16, 1910.) 

I have recently effected the measurement of the first nine groups 
of Grayson's finest plate containing twelve bands of rulings, com- 
mencing at yo&oo m - s P aces > an( l increasing up to 120W0 * n - ^o 
far as I am aware, no attempt has hitherto been made to span such 
close lines with the screw micrometer wire, and it has consequently 
been thought that the outcome may prove worthy of record. 

The measurements, details of which are contained in the 
annexed table, were effected by means of a y 1 ^ Powell oil-immer- 
sion objective of measured N. A. 1 " 27, a negative amplifying lens, 
increasing the initial magnification of the objective about two and 
a half times, and an ordinary Powell screw micrometer furnished 
with a 6 eye-piece. With this optical combination, 134*5 drum 
divisions were found to equal yoooo * n "' ^ nus ma k m » a movement 
of the wire through one division equal to 7345(500 m - ^ * s nere > 
perhaps, hardly necessary to remark that in the highly accurate 
determination of intervals, well within the defining power of a 
lens, the separating limit does not enter as a factor. 

In order to eliminate and indicate the micrometer screw error, 
and to make evident the true relative accuracy of these beautiful 
rulings, in addition to the values of the individual line spaces 
given in the first of the two columns devoted to groups 2, 3, 4, 5, 
6, and 7 in the annexed table, which were necessarily effected 
with varying and sometimes wholly different portions of the screw, 
a second column exhibits the readings obtained by spanning two 
spaces throughout the second band, three throughout the third, 
and so on up to seven throughout the seventh group, utilising for 
all the spaces the exact portion of the screw used for each of the 
TUooo i n - li nes °f the first band, so that the means of the five 
resultant readings, given in these columns, are free from micro- 
meter screw error, and indicate the true value of the various 
groups in terms of the first. 

The first seven bands ( To -ooo ^° 70000 m -) were measured 
under strictly critical conditions with the full axial illuminating 
cone of Powell's dry apochromatic condenser, affording a working 
aperture of N. A. 0'95, or thereabouts, used in conjunction with 
Gifford's F-line screen. For the eighth and ninth bands (5000U 



Grayson's Twelve-hand Plate. 



145 



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146 Transactions of the Society. 

and 9oc>oo i n -) it vvas f° ulu 'l advisable to employ oblique light 
from an oil-immersion condenser, and only ten lines of these two 
latter bands were spanned, the fixed wire being brought to the 
first ruling of each of these groups, and continuous readings of the 
movable wire taken as it was screwed up to the edge of each line 
in succession,* thus every line was spanned with a wholly different 
portion of the screw, but, nevertheless, the additions of the 
readings of the first eight lines of the eighth group, and the first 
nine of the ninth, afford true iooo"o m - readings free from screw 
error, being effected with the same portion of the screw used for 
the yoooo' i Q - spaces of the first band. 

In conclusion, I should mention that it would have been 
practically impossible to properly effect the above measurements 
had the micrometer not been supported on a separate pillar-stand 
designed by Mr. Nelson many years ago. In this way the micru- 
meter is brought close to, but not actually touching ; the Microscope 
tube, thus turning the drum, imparts absolutely no vibration or 
movement to the most highly magnified image. The common 
rough-and-ready method of fitting the micrometer into the tube of 
the instrument itself in the manner of an ordinary eye-piece, is 
fatal to accuracy. A micrometer, provided with a screw-traversing 
frame, carrying both wires, as described, and figured in " Carpenter," 
would have greatly facilitated the work and have saved much 
labour. It speaks volumes, however, for the wonderful workman- 
ship of the mechanical stage of Powell's large stand that the fixed 
wire could be brought into accurate position by such means under 
the magnification employed. A more crucial test for accuracy of 
workmanship could hardly be devised by the most exacting micro- 
scopist, and I venture to assert that few instruments would 
satisfactorily withstand such an ordeal. 

* The measurements of the lines of bands 4,5, 6, and 7 were also obtained in this 
way, the fixed wire being, however, adjusted to the edge of each line of the first 
three groups. In measuring the five xvhns in. intervals in bands 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 
7, the fixed wire was accurately adjusted each time. It was not found feasible to 
adjust the fixed wire so as to obtain five ^t^rrr in. readings throughout bands 
8 and 9. 



147 



VII. — On the Visibility of the Tertiaries of Coscinodiscus 
asteromphahis in a Balsam Mount. 

By Edward M. Nelson. 

(Read March 16, 1910.) 

Some twelve years ago, when examining a slide of Nottingham 
deposit, mounted in sulphide of arsenic by Dr. Meates, and kindly 
presented to me by Mr. Ingpen, I saw for the first time the ter- 
tiaries in the Coscinodiscus asteromphalus. These tertiaries are 
formed by a sieve covering the dots surrounding the primary areo- 
lations of this diatom.* 

A balsam-mounted selected slide of this diatom has been in my 
box of test-objects since 1876, and it is no exaggeration to say that 
during that time hundreds of objectives have been tested upon it. 

When an objective is tested, an endeavour is made, by means of 
a large axial cone and deep eye-piecing, to obtain the very utmost 
that can be got out of the lens, and therefore if these tertiaries had 
been visible in this balsam mount such an important fact would 
have been noted. 

Towards the end of last month a long tube -^ apochromatic 
N.A 1 '4 was received from Messrs. Zeiss, and in being put through 
its routine of tests an examination of this old balsam-mounted 
specimen was made. The tertiaries which had for so many years 
eluded the grip of all kinds of lenses were conspicuous. 

Here, then, we have a definite case : the specimen, the Micro- 
scope, the substage condenser,* the lamp, the method of work, and 
the eye at the eye-end (hardly improved for being twelve years 
older) were all the same. The only possible explanation why 
detail formerly invisible should without any particular difficulty 
now be seen, is that there has been an improvement in the objective. 

Microscopists frequently assign improvements in the Microscope 
objective to definite epochs ; for example, the date of its achroma- 
tisation, or the date of its apochromatisation. It is true that at 
these dates the capacity of the objective went up several steps at 
one bound; but it is also true that several single steps — and shall 
we say half-steps — were made at other times that were hardly, if 
ever, noticed by the user of the Microscope. 

Some have said that the Microscope objective was apocfaro- 

• Journ. Quekett Micr. Club, vii. (1898) p. 81, pi. 8, fig. 8. 
t See this Journal, 1895. p. 229, fig. 32. 



148 Transactions of the Society. 

matised in 1886, since when there has been no further improve- 
ment ; others, better acquainted with practical optics, have predicted 
that owing to the instability of these new fancy glasses there would 
be a falling off in the performance of the finest kinds of object- 
glasses, because manufacturers would only use glass well proved 
for its stability, the optical qualities of which conform more nearly 
to the ordinary old-fashioned flints and crowns : but this observa- 
tion of the tertiaries of Coscinodiscus aster omphal us in a balsam 
mount has proved the fallacy of both these statements. 

This apochromatic ^ is more sensitive to tube-length, stands a 
larger axial cone, bears a deeper eye-piece, and has sharper definiton 
than any Microscope lens I have as yet seen. 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES 

RELATING TO 

ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY 

(principally invertebrata and cryptogamia), 

MICROSCOPY, Etc.* 



ZOOLOGY. 

VEBTEBBATA. 
a. Embryology, -f 



Embryonic Appendage of Claws of Amniota.J — W. E. Agar finds 
in the embryos of the armadillo Tolypeutes and other Mammals, as also 
in those of cbick and lizard, that the claw includes besides the dorsal 
" Krallenplatte " and the ventral " Krallensohle," a third portion, the 
neonychium. This is an entirely provisional embryonic structure, which 
turns the tip of the claw from a hard scratching point into a smooth 
rounded surface. It is highly probable that its function is to protect 
the embryonic membranes from being torn by the claws during move- 
ments of the embryo. As the time for birth or hatching approaches, 
the neonychium begins to break away from the rest of the claw, and is 
probably in most cases rubbed off by contact with the ground directly 
the embryo emerges, as was shown to be the case in the chick. 

Study of Darwinism.§ — J. Arthur Thomson has published six lec- 
tures on Darwinism delivered in South Africa in the autumn of 1909. 
They form an introduction to the study of the theory of organic evolu- 
tion, and bear the following titles : What we Owe to Darwin ; The Web 
of Life ; The Struggle for Existence ; The Raw Materials of Progress ; 
Facts of Inheritance ; Selection : Organic and Social. It was the chief 
aim of the lectures to explain the gist of Darwinism — what problems 
Darwin set himself to solve, and what solutions he arrived at, and to 
indicate what progress has been made as regards the problems of Organic 
Evolution since Darwin's day — what has been added to Darwinism, what, 

* The Society are not intended to be denoted by the editorial " we," and they 
do not hold themselves responsible for the views of the authors of the papers 
noted, nor for any claim to novelty or otherwise made by them. The object of 
this part of the Journal is to present a summary of the papers as actually -pub- 
lished, and to describe and illustrate Instruments, Apparatus, etc., which are 
either new or have not been previously described in this country. 

t This section includes not only papers relating to Embryology properly so 
called, but also those dealing with Evolution, Development, Reproduction, and 
allied subjects. J Anat. Anzeig., xxxv. (190j) pp. 373-80 (7 figs.). 

§ Darwinism and Human L if e : the South African Lectures for 1909. London 
(1909) 245 pp. 



"1">0 SI M.MARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

if anything, has been taken away, and, especially, what is now being 
reconsidered. An endeavour — necessarily straitened by the limits of 
the short course of lectures — was also made to suggest how Darwinism 
touches everyday life, in farm and garden, in city and empire. 

Development of Wolffian and Mullerian Ducts in Rodents.* — 
( iasimir Kwietniewski has studied this in guinea-pig and rabbit. In the 
former the seminal vesicles arise as conical evaginations of the Wolffian 
ducts ; the Wolffian and Mullerian ducts open at first separately on the 
colliculus seminalis ; by an insinking on the colliculus seminalis the 
Mullerian ducts are drawn into the depression, and the caudal portions 
of the Wolffian ducts are brought close together ; the epithelial partition 
disappears and the lumen of the united Wolffian ducts coalesces with the 
caudal ends of the Mullerian ducts ; the Mullerian ducts remain as the 
uterus masculinus. In the rabbit the Mullerian ducts are displaced 
ventrally by the parts of the Wolffian ducts which coalesce to form 
"Weber's organ," and take no part in forming this organ. 

Development of Bone and Dentine.f — J. Disse discusses the forma- 
tion of the amorphous ground-substance by the protoplasm of the cells 
and the differentiation of fibrils within this. These fibrils appear after 
the ground-substance is separated from the cells, and are quite indepen- 
dent of the cells which form the fibrils. 

Involution of Thymus in Rabbit.J — <>• Soderlund and A. Backmann 
supply precise facts in regard to the changes in the thymus as age in- 
creases. When preparations for spermatogenesis begin, i.e. at an age 
of four months, the weight of the thymus as a whole and of the two 
parts of the parenchyma (medulla and cortex) reaches a maximum total 
of 2*49 grm. A rapid decrease sets in. marked especially by the reduc- 
tion of the cortex. 

Development of Lymphatic Ganglia in Mammals. §— J. Jolly and 
A. Carran have studied the development of the popliteal ganglion in 
sheep embryos. The first stage is a group of anastomosing lymphatic 
vessels ; the connective tissue between is modified into a primitive nodule, 
a cellular reticulum ; the third stage is marked by the penetration of 
blood-vessels and the beginning of lymphoid infiltration. At this time 
the lymph current surrounds the primitive nodule ; the penetration of 
the nodule by the marginal sinus is later. The cortical lymphoid layer, 
traversed by the sinus, forms both the cortical and the medullary 
substance. 

Development of Auditory Ossicles in Horse. || — Ray F. Coyle finds 
that the malleus, incus, and stapes are derivatives of the mandibular 
arch. The stapes and incus are at all times structures distinct from the 
Meckelian bar, being chondrified independently. The malleus on the 
other hand is continuous with the proximal end of Meckel's cartilage. 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxxv. (1909) pp. 240-56 (13 figs.). 

t Arch. Mikr. Anat., lxxiii. (1909) pp. 563-606 (2 pis.). 

X Tom. cit., pp. 699-725 (1 pi. and 6 figs.). 

§ O.K. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 640-3. 

|| Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh, xxix. (1909) pp. 582-601 (6 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 1 5 1 

and the connection between them is of a primary nature. The Btapes 
cannot be homologous with any structure found in the lower Vertebrata, 
for it is derived from the first arch, whilst the amphibian and reptilian 
stapes is either derived from the auditory capsule or from the second 
arch, like the hyomandibular of fishes. The malleus and incus are 
homologous with the articulare (in part) and the quadrate of the lower 
groups. 

Development of Red Blood Cells in Chick.* — C. Price-Jones finds 
that the nucleated red cells of the fowl's blood originate in the embryo 
from primitive mesoblast cells, and develop by successive stages of 
" primitive erythroblasts," " metrocytes," and " daughter-cells," that 
result from repeated cell-generations. In each generation a large pro- 
portion of the cells have insufficient vitality to attain maturity, and in 
consequence suffer degeneration ; the proportion is greater among the 
more primitive cells. The author suggests the possibility that the pro- 
ducts of each successive series of degeneration may constitute the 
stimulus for the development of less primitive forms into the next 
higher condition of cell, or may be the origin of anti-bodies to the 
primitive forms, constituting an immunity to these forms and inhibiting 
their further production. 

Development of Subdivisions of Pleuroperitoneal Cavity in Birds.t 
Margaret Poole has re-investigated this subject, and confirms the results 
of Bertelli and of G. W. Butler. She also compares the subdivisions of 
the coelom in reptiles and birds, noting, for instance, that on the whole 
the condition in the Orocodilia seems to approach most nearly to that in 
birds, yet the manner of the exclusion of the lungs from the peritoneal 
cavity in the latter is far more like what occurs in Testudo, and probably 
also in the Varanidas. 

Development of Vertebral Column in Grass Snake.J — Erna 
Briinauer finds that in Tropidonotus natrix the first primordium of the 
axial skeleton appears in the form of band-like thickenings, the hints of 
the bases of the arches, the transverse processes, and ribs. The vertebras 
arise from the perichordal sheath and are at first distinguishable from the 
bases of the arches, with which they subsequently fuse. The chondrifica- 
tion proceeds from three groups, one in the centrum, the others in the 
dorsal part of the neural arch. Ossification is prefaced by the degenera- 
tion of the cartilage in the centre of the centrum. The deposition of 
bony lamella? proceeds from the ventral and dorsal aspects of the 
centrum, and from four spots on the neural arches. The inter-vertebral 
ring appears in early stages as a boundary line in the sclerotome. It 
consists of fibrous connective tissue and becomes implicated in the 
articulation. The notochord shows inter-vertebral constrictions ; in the 
course of development it is almost completely constricted, first within the 
joint and then in the vertebral region as well. In the trunk region 
there are unpaired intercentra ; in the tail they form paired inferior 
arches, pushed cranium-wards on the centra. 

* Journ. Pathol. Bacteriol., xiv. (1909) pp. 218-23 (1 pi.). 

t Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1909, pp. 210-35 (14 figs.). 

\ Arb. Zool. Inst. Univ. Wien,xviii. (1910) pp. 133-56(2 pis. and 2 figs.). 



152 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Abortive Embryo of Salamandra atra.* — H. Hirzel has studied 
an abortive accessory embryo, which shows a monstrous dilatation of the 
body-wall. The nervous system is normal or nearly so, and the 
ectoderm ic products generally are less divergent than the mesodermic 
and endodermic organs, such as the rudimentary and peculiar repre- 
sentatives of heart and lungs. 

Development of Hyobranchial Skeleton in Salamandra atra and 
Triton alpestris.j — Helena Tarapani gives a caref nl account of the 
development of the hyoid and branchial arches in the larvre of these 
Urodela, and of the retrogressive changes and new formations which 
lead from the larval skeleton to the definite support of the tongue. 
Some beautiful reconstructions are photographed. 

Spermatogenesis in Alytes obstetricans.J — 1°. A. Janssens and 
J. Willems describe (a) the " somatic kinesis " of the mother sperm-cells, 
the twin chromosomes, and the behaviour of the nucleoli ; (b) the 
maturation kineses, the zygosomes, the amphitajne stage, the pachytene 
stage with dyads, the dyads in a ring, and so on. 

Hypochord in Skate Embryos. §— W. T. (Jibson discusses this 
structure— the sub-notochordal rod of many embryologists — as it appears 
in embryos of Raid bath. It is practically co-extensive with the em- 
brvonic ?ut and with the notochord until the formation of the latter 
ceases posteriorly. It is derived from the chorda-hypoblast, and it never 
loses touch with the notochord except within the last stages of degenera- 
tion. It ends its existence within the embryonic period, disappearing 
long before the notochord reaches its maximum size. It is confined 
to the Ichthyopsida, and is probably in some way "useful to the 
notochord." 

The author also discusses the epibranchial groove. Vestiges of it 
occur in embryos of reptiles and birds, and of the skate ; the theory is 
suggested that the air-bladder may be derived from it. 

Metameres of Petromyzon.||— B. Hatschek finds that the paired 
mesoderm bands exhibit a thorough-going segmentation, hyposomatic 
a,s well as episomatic, resulting in primitive segments like those of the 
lancelet. At a stage when the primitive segments are defined, and so 
far differentiated that their parachordal myoblasts extend through the 
entire length of the segments, the first mandibular segment (mesodermic 
acromerite) is still in process of being constricted off from the endo- 
derm. The formation of myoblasts is at this stage still lagging in the 
second, third, and fourth segments. The archencephalon (first and 
second primary vesicles) corresponds in its extent to the mandibular 
segment, and belongs to the acromerite. The first visceral pouch is 
intersegmental, its anterior wall belonging to the acromerite, its 
posterior wall to the second segment. 

* Jenaische Zeitschr. Naturw., xlv. (1909) pp. 1-56 (3 pis.). 

t Tom. cit., pp. 57-110 (6 pis.). 

X La Cellule, xxv. (1909) pp. 151-78 (2 pis.). 

§ Anat. Anzeig, xxxv. (1909) pp. 407-28 (13 figs.). 

|| Morphea. Jahrb., xl. (1909; pp. 480-99 (2 pis. aud 1 fig.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. L53 

Placentation in Tatu.* — H. H. Lane has studied the habits and 
placentation of Tatu novemcinctum var. texamim, the only Edentate 
living in the United States at the present time. It gives birth usually 
to four young in a litter. The uterus is simple and globular, the ovi- 
ducts are only slightly convoluted. Each foetus develops within its 
own amniotic sac, though a common chorionic vesicle serves for all. 
While the evidence is not decisive, the fact that the young were all of 
the same sex in the case studied, as well as the fact that all lie within a 
■common chorionic vesicle, may be held to favour the view that there is 
poly em bryony (von Jhering, Newman and Patterson), and that the sex is 
determined in the fertilised ovum. The chorionic villi vary from short 
simple ones to long arborescent ones. The short villi form two longi- 
tudinal bands, separating two discoidal areas of the long villi. The 
placenta is of a deciduate type intermediate in form between the zonary 
and the discoidal. It does not conform exactly to Strahl's placenta 
zono-discoidalis, and may be called placenta zono-discoidalis indistincta. 
There is no decidua capsularis. 

Litter of Hybrid Dogs.f — R. R. Gates describes the progeny of a 
thoroughbred Old English Bobtailed Sheep Dog (the mother) and a 
thoroughbred Scotch Collie (the father). In no character was there 
complete dominance of one parent in all the offspring. There was 
remarkable diversity in the litter. There is a tendency as regards a 
given character for the offspring to " take after " one parent or the 
other, though in certain cases, as in the character of the hair, there is a 
marked departure from either parent. This is, perhaps, the reappearance 
of a character derived from some cross in the ancestry of one of the 
breeds. 

b. Histology. 

Motor End-plate in Higher Vertebrates.^ — J. Boeke has made a 
•comparative study of the structure and development of the motor end- 
plate. He finds that the motor end-plate is not the real terminus of 
the conducting element, which is only bound to the muscle by the 
■contact of " sole-plate." Very fine fibrils arise from the motor plate in 
which the motor fibre attains a large surface in a system of neurofibrils. 
These very fine fibrils enter into union with the contractile substance, 
forming an extremely fine reticulum between the cross-striped myo- 
fibrils. 

Musculature in Villi of Small Intestine.§ — A. Trautmann has 
studied this in domestic animals. The origin of the musculature (of 
the main mass at least) is in the muscularis mucosas, from which 
muscle-fibres diverge and pass up between the glands into the propria 
mucosae, forming a number of bundles up the villus. The bundles end 
in connective tissue fibres, which end on the sub -epithelial membranes. 
Perhaps some muscle fibres go directly to these. The muscle bundles 
in the villus are surrounded by fine nets of delicate elastic fibres. 

* Bull. State Univ. Oklahoma, i. (1909) pp. 1-18 (3 figs.). 

+ Science, xxix. (1909) pp. 744-7. 

t Anat. Anzeig.. xxxv. (1909) pp. 193-226 (40 figs.). 

§ Op. cit., xxxiv. (1909) pp. 113-25 (1 pi.). 

April 20th, 1909 M 



l. r >4 SUMMARY OF CURRENT KESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Epidermic Papillae in Euproctus.* — L. Roule calls attention to the 
small epidermic protuberances which occur over the body of some Uro- 
dela, such as Euproctus. and shows that in their structure they may be 
fairly compared with the hairs of Mammals. 

Study of Nervous Systems. — I). TretjakofrVf gives an account of 
the minute structure of the spinal cord in the larval lamprey, and com- 
pares it with that of Amphioxus on the one hand and with that of 
higher Vertebrates on the other. 

J. Belogolowy $ has studied the development of the cranial nerves in 
the chick. He describes their histogenesis and discusses their morpho- 
logical significance. 



"»" 



Peripheral Terminations of Eighth Cranial NerveJ — R.C.Mullenix 
has studied this with special reference to Fundulus, a Teleostean fish. 
Between the supporting cells and the layer of the sensory cells is a region 
which is rich in nervous material, in the form of an entangled mass of 
fibres which extend in various directions. In this so-called nerve plexus 
the author found no case in which the neurofibrillas of one axis cylinder 
were in undoubted continuity with those of another axis, cylinder. In 
the ear, at least, we have a portion of the peripheral system in which the 
conditions are such as to furnish strong anatomical evidence in support 
of the neurone theory — the theory which regards ganglion cell, dendrite 
and axis cylinder as together constituting the structural unit of the 
nervous system. In the case of Fundulus, the absence of anastomosis 
between different axis cylinders, the distinctness of the sense-cells, and the 
free terminations of the axis cylinders, support the validity of that view. 

Innervation of Tympanum. || — Agostino Gernelli describes, in refer- 
ence to horse, ox, cat, etc., the tympanal ramifications (1) of the 
auriculo-temporal branch of the trigeminal, and (2) of the nerve of 
Jacobson — a branch of the glossopharyngeal. He gives an account of 
the various plexuses formed and of the terminations in the cutaneous, 
mucous, and fibrous layers. 

Mammalian Blood Studied with Dark-field Illumination. f — 
Howard Crawley proclaims the advantages of this method, and describes 
what he has seen in the way of " blood-dust," beaded threads, flagellated 
erythrocytes and free flagella, bodies with pseudopodia, erythrocytes, 
leucocytes, and blood-plates. 

Phenomena of Synaptic Phase.** — V. Gregoire discusses the pheno- 
mena of synapsis, the formation of gemini, and the rest. He cannot accept 
the view that the synapsis represents an abortive karyokinesis. It is 
the first and fundamental stage in the heterotypic or reductional pro- 
phase. 

* Comptes Rendus, cl. (1910) pp. 121-3. 
t Arch. Mikr. Anat., lxxiii. (1909) pp. 607-80 (3 pis.). 

j Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, arm. 1908 (published 1909) pp. 177-325(9 pis.). 
§ Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, liii. (1909) pp. 215-50 (6 pis.). 
|| La Cellule, xxv. (1909) pp. 119-27 (1 pi.). 

If Bureau of Animal Industry, U.S. Dept. Agric, Bull. 119 (1909) pp. 5-15. 
** La Cellule, xxv. (1909) pp. 87-99. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 155 

Vesicular Secretion.* — A. N. Mislawsky has studied the process of 
secretion in the superficial mandibular gland of the rabbit, which is not 
a salivary gland, but nearer the axillary gland in man and the inter- 
digital gland in ruminants. It illustrates the so-called " vesicular " 
secretion. The secreted material accumulates at the distal portion of 
the cell, which bulges out like a dome and is extruded into the lumen 
of the gland. Mislawsky shows that there is an intense nuclear multi- 
plication on the part of the glandular cells. 

Junction of Papillary Muscle and Chordae Tendinese.f — Mont- 
gomery P. Paton has studied this mode of attachment in view of the 
fact that there is no true sarcolemma over the cells of the cardiac 
syncytium. The apex of the musculus papillaris is ensheathed by a 
covering of dense fibrous tissue, continuous with the endocardium. 
The chorda? arise from the free surface of this investment or helmet, 
while from its deep aspect numerous well-developed trabecular descend 
and freely ramify amongst the cardiac muscle-cells. It is here that the 
junction of the cardiac syncytium and the chorda? tendinese occurs. 
The more central of the fibres or trabecular insinuate themselves in the 
most intimate fashion between the muscular elements, so that there 
results an interdigitating svstem of fibrous tissue and cardiac muscle. 
The interstitial cement material is therefore responsible for the strength 
of the junction. 

Mast-cells and Plasma-cells. $ — L. H. Huie discusses these ele- 
ments. She records the mitosis of the former in the skin of foetal 
mice. She does not find any plasma-cells in Malpighian corpuscles or 
in germ centres. They are abundant in the splenic pulp and in the 
siuuses of lymphatic glands. Their lymphocyte nature must be ex- 
cluded. They seem to arise from the endothelial cells lining the blood- 
vessels. 

Changes in Nuclei in Varying • Physiological Conditions. § — E. 
Wace Carlier gives a brief account of some of the changes exhibited by 
nuclei during and subsequent to functional activity and points out the 
danger of interpreting normal phases as pathological. 

c. General. 

Reaction of Marine Organisms to Light and Phosphorescence. jj 
Benjamin Moore has experimented chiefly with nauplii of Balanus. The 
characters of the response are not constant, but vary for the same organ- 
ism according to the intensity of the light and the previous history of 
the organism in regard to light. As a general rule, the organism is 
positive to feeble light and negative to stronger light, and for a con- 
stant intensity of light at a given moment, previous darkness, or weak 
stimulation, tends to turn organisms positive, and previous exposure to 
bright light turns them negative. 

Both the positive and negative behaviour to light may be explained 

* Arch. Mikr. Anat., lxxiii. (1909) pp. 681-98 (1 pi.). 
t Proc. Scot. Micr. Soc, v. (1909) pp. 22-3. 

\ Tom. cit., pp. 37-41 (1 pi.). § Tom. cit., pp. 82-6 (1 pi.). 

|| Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc, xxiii. (1909) pp. 1-34. 

M 2 



156 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

on the basis of one chemical action of light upon the cell (a katabolic 
one). The positive state indicates that the speed of reactions in the 
cell lies below a certain value, which may be called the optimal value, 
and the negative state corresponds to a speed of reactions in the cell 
above the optimal value. In the former case the sentient surfaces are 
turned into the light to increase velocity of reaction up towards the 
optimal value ; in the latter case the sentient surfaces are turned away 
from the light so as to decrease the velocity of the reactions down 
towards the optimal value. 

As a result of the orientation so caused, there arises movement of 
the organism towards or away from the source of light, but such orienta- 
tion is not a fixed orientation, but rather a steering action ; the animals, 
as a result, do not remain in one fixed plane, or direction of movement, 
but the net result of the movement is that the organisms move to or 
from the light. In the case of young plaice, the animals may be in all 
possible planes of orientation to the light when the movement is finished. 

In the nauplii of Balanus movement towards or away from the light 
has an associated movement upwards or downwards. These two move- 
ments would coincide in natural conditions. Addition of small amounts 
of acid or alkali was not found to alter the reactions to light. The rate 
of movement is almost the same with different intensities of light and 
different coloured lights, showing that the locomotor apparatus is not 
affected by the light, but continues to work at the same rate. The 
nauplii moved from red light to blue light, and from blue to green. 
Movement in converging and diverging light is described, and shown to 
be explicable on the basis of intensity of light alone. Direction pro- 
duces its effects in a secondary manner on account of the light and shade 
effects of the animal's own body. 

Phosphorescent Copepods were found to be indifferent in regard to 
movement to light from without. That light from without has another 
type of influence upon these phosphorescent organisms is shown, how- 
ever, by the fact that their periods of activity and rest in regard to 
phosphorescence follow respectively the hours of daylight and darkness. 
This alternating diurnal periodicity may persist for twelve days in the 
absence of the accustomed recurring stimulus of day and night. The 
phosphorescence is spontaneous. When freshly taken the organisms 
show a faint persisting light, with flashes at intervals. At a later period 
the light disappears entirely between the flashes, which have a longer 
interval between them. Under probably pathological conditions, after 
the organisms have been confined for a considerable period, there may 
be lighting up of the organisms with a continuous glow. 

The appearance of the spontaneous phosphorescence at nightfall and 
its disappearance at dawn are characterised by the same changes in a 
reversed order in the two cases. Before the appearance of spontaneous 
phosphorescence at night, and after its disappearance in the morning, 
there is a period of minimal excitability of about half-an-hour, during 
which stirring still calls out phosphorescence. After this the organisms 
became completely refractory. 

Additions of fresh water, or formol, produce, during the period in 
which the organism is dying, a most vivid phosphorescence, which lasts 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. L57 

for two or three minutes and then fades and disappears. This display 
is very feeble daring a daylight period compared to what is seen after 
dark, when spontaneous phosphorescence is present. 

Temporal Region in Vertebrates.* — Hugo Fuchs takes a compara- 
tive osteological survey of this region of the skull in quadrupedal 
Vertebrates. 

Morphological Significance of Sacral Ribs. — Hugo Fuchs t dis- 
cusses the view that the sacral ribs of the crocodile are not homologous 
with dorsal ribs, but with transverse processes. Transverse processes 
are never separated off by sutures from the neural arch. The sacral 
ribs of the crocodilians are always so separated off, and they are homo- 
logous with ordinary ribs. 

Roy L. Moodie + discusses the same question, and concludes that the 
sacral rib does not differ from a dorsal rib except in function and form. 

Significance of the Entochorda.§— S. A. Ussoff regards the ento- 
chorda as a " collective organ," comprising various primordia which 
have not been developed. Thus, in the head of Anura it develops at 
the expense of those endodermic primordia which appear as a result of 
the attempt of the gut to unite with the " stomodseum-ectochorda " — the 
front end of the notochord. This is merely an illustration of the author's 
interpretation. 

Study of the Notochord. || — L. Roule maintains that the primary 
embryonic form is hollow — a diverticulum of the gut (cordocoel) or an 
enteric groove (cordoglyph). The former is seen in Enteropneusts and 
Tnnicates, the latter in Cephalochorda and Craniota. The solid type or 
rhabdocord is secondary. Roule's views are summed up in this scheme : 

Type du Type du 

Cordocoele Cordoglyphe 

, Craniotes 

(Rhabdocordes -I ' ' 

Notoneures J ( Urocordes Tuniciers 

vCcelocordes Enteropneustes 

Vibrissas on Cats' Arm.^f — F. Fritz describes what Beddard has 
called carpal vibrissas. About 2 \ cm. above the carpus there are 3-G 
tactile hairs projecting from a wart-like tubercle. The minute structure 
of the region, including the innervation, is described in detail. 

New Insectivore.** — E. L. Trouessart gives a short account of 
Neotetracus sinensis g. et sp. n., from Western China — a small animal 
about the size of a wood mouse (Mm sylvaticus) with very long hind 
legs. Its dentition approaches that of the hedgehog, but it has a 
Gymnurine pelage. It seems to lead to a union of the two sub-families, 
Erinaceinae and Gymnurinae. 

• Anat. Anzeig., xxxv. (1909) pp. 113-67 (25 figs.). 

t Op. cit., xxxiv. (1909) pp. 349-56 (2 figs.). J Tom. cit., pp. 361-4. 

§ Op. cit. xxxv. (1909) pp. 168-76 (10 figs.). 
|| Arch. Zool. Exper., x. (1909) pp. 447-546 (4 pis.). 
«j Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., xcii. (1909) pp. 291-305 (1 pi. and 2 figs.). 
** Comptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 950-2. 



158 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Agriotype of Domestic Asses.* — R. I. Pocock calls attention to 
the large black or dark brown patch which almost always marks the base 
of the ear in domestic asses. So constant is this feature that it is im- 
possible to avoid the conclusion that it has been inherited from their 
ancestral form. If this be so, that ancestral form was not E. asinus 
africanus, nor E. asinus tseniopus, nor E. asinus somaliensis, in which 
the ears are decidedly black or brown behind or at the tip, the basal 
patch being evanescent. There is some evidence of a Nubian wild ass 
with a distinct patch. 

Organ of Jacobson in Ant-Bear.f — R. Broom has studied this in 
a recently born specimen of Orycteropus. As the organ seems to be less 
affected by change of habits than almost any other, it is of great im- 
portance in revealing the obscured affinities of aberrant forms. On the 
whole, the condition in Orycteropus comes nearest to that in Marsupials, 
but there are many points of difference. The evidence would seem to 
point to Orycteropus being descended from a line of ancestors the earlier 
members of which were probably allied to Marsupials, whilst the later 
members branched off from the Eutherian stem before any of the higher 
Eutherian types had been specialised. If the Orycteropus line ever 
coincided with that of Dasypus, the two must very early have diverged. 

Classification of Edentates. t— H. H. Lane believes that the Eden- 
tates transcend the limits of an " order." They may be regarded as a 
super-order, comprising four orders : — 

Tgeniodonta (Cope) . Conoryctidre, Stylinodontida?. 

Xenarfchra (Gill) . . Bradypodida?, Megalonychida?, Megatheriidtc, 

Myrmecophagidae, Orophodontida?, Dasy- 

podidge, Glyptodontidas. 
Pholidota (Weber) . Manidae. 
Tubulidenta (Flower) Orycteropodidse. 

It is suggested that the orders diverged from some ancestral group at 
present unrecognised, and that the Tseniodonta are more nearly related 
to the Xenarthra than to the other orders. 

Seminal Vesicles and Infection.§ — R. H. J. G. Huet has studied 
the seminal vesicles in horse, bull, ram, goat, etc. He finds that there 
may be micro-organisms in the seminal vesicles of healthy animals. In 
the secretion of the seminal vesicles of animals which died of acute 
septicaemia the specific micro-organisms were present. Virus may be 
transferred in act of coition. In artificially infected animals the virus 
lingers in the seminal vesicles after it has apparently disappeared from 
the circulation and from the parenchymatous organs. 

Mechanism of Respiration in Lizard. || — Ch. E. Francois-Franek 
describes the costo-sternal and muscular apparatus in the lizard {Lacerta 
ocellatus), and gives an account of his observations on the respiratory 
movements. He also discusses the structure of the lung, its contractility, 
the innervation, and the process of respiration in general. 

* Ann. Nat. Hist., iv. (1909) pp. 523-8. 

t Proc. Zool. Soc, 1909, pp. 680-3 (1 pi.). 

% Bull. State Univ. Oklahoma 1909, No. 2, pp. 21-7. 

§ Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., lii. (1909) pp. 477-97. 

I| Arch. Zool. Exper., x. (1909) pp. 547-615 (61 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. L59 

Ribs of Urodela.* — Franz Mayerhofer discusses the morphology of 
the ribs in Urodela, with special reference to their development in the 
salamander. He concludes that rib and transverse process are genetically 
and morphologically related ; they are independent parts of one piece 
which divides proximally and sometimes also distally : that a comparison 
with fishes makes it probable that the rib is a lateral outgrowth of the 
hasinal arch, and the transverse process to another lateral outgrowth of 
the same. 

New Parasitic Pish.f — J. Pellegrin has an interesting note on 
Vandellia wimeri sp. n., a small Silurid from South America (Rio Napo), 
which, like two other species, lives on the gills of Platystomus. It fixes 
itself and rasps off the skin by means of the teeth and the opercular 
scales. The buccal cavity is adapted for facilitating the engulfing of 
blood. The author distinguishes it from the two other species. 

Species of Three-spined Sticklebacks.^ — C. Tate Regan finds that 
Gastrosteus aculeatus is very variable. Specimens from the north have 
a strong dermal ossification, the series of bony plates is complete, the 
caudal keel is prominent : specimens from the south have a weaker 
dermal ossification, and if the bony plates form a complete series, they 
are not so deep, nor usually so numerous as in northern marine examples, 
and the caudal keel is less prominent. There are also other differences. 
As synonyms of G. aculeatus, Regan includes all the three-spined species 
hitherto described, with the exception of G. algeriensis, which has 21) 
vertebra\ In G. aculeatus there are 8 (2 to 5) spines and '.) to 14 dorsal 
rays, 1 pelvic spine, 7 to 11 anal rays, and 81 to 88 vertebra?. The snout 
is shorter than the postorbital part of the head, and the first dorsal spine 
is inserted nearly above the base of the pectoral fin, and well in advance 
of the pelvic spine. The author establishes two new species — G. halo- 
Uymnus, from Rome, with no bony plates, and G. santse-annse, from 
California. 

Aortic Ligament of Shad.§— R. H. Burne describes the ligamentum 
longitudinale ventrale of a shad (Glupea alosa). It lies in the aorta 
suspeuded by a longitudinal fold of its dorsal wall — a tight band of 
elastic tissue. The late Professor Charles Stewart suggested the inter- 
pretation which the author adopts, that in the flexions of the body in 
swimming the ligament remains practically stationary, owing to its 
tension, and will, in effect, form a series of diagonal curtains passing 
regularly in succession down the length of the aorta. Each curtain will, 
of necessity, push the blood before it. The faster the fish swims the 
faster will the blood flow. The ligament is apparently formed around, 
though not actually from, the subchordal rod. The author has notes on 
the elastic ligaments of the skate's gill-pouches, and on the plate of elastic 
tissue on the anterior wall of the capsule of the costo-vertebral joints in 
a python — which helps in the protraction of the ribs. 

Antarctic Macrurid.§ — Louis Dollo discusses Nematonurus lecointei, 
an abyssal Macrurid found by the Scottish Antarctic Expedition under 

• Arbeit. Zool. Inst. Univ. Wien, xvii. (1909) pp. 309-58 (2 pis. and 9 figs.). 
t Comptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 1016-17. 
I Ann. Nat. Hist., iv. (1909) pp. 435-7. 
§ Proc. Zool. Soc, 1909, pp. 201-4 (3 figs.). 
Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh, xxix. (1909) pp. 488-98. 



160 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEAKCHES RELATING TO 

Br. W. S. Bruce, in the zone between 00° S. and the Antarctic circle. 
It was previously obtained by the 'Belgica' within the Antarctic circle. 
He points out that the Macrurida?, like other fishes, are unfavourable to 
the theory of Bipolarity, since there is no species or genus common to 
the Arctic and Antarctic waters. 

Cranial Anatomy of Mail-cheeked Fishes.* — Edward Phelps Allis 
completes his account of the structure of the head in the Loricati. He 
discusses the bones, nerves, sensory canals, and blood-vessels in detail 
and comparatively, and the position of particular types, such as Gottus 
and Dactylopt&rus. He pays particular attention to the myodome, in 
Dnctylopterus, for instance. The myodome of fishes is primarily a sub- 
pituitary space that is connected with the orbit of either side, or with 
the orbital region, by a canal that transmits the pituitary vein. Second- 
arily, this subpituitary space acquires a wide communication with the 
orbits, the primal cause of this secondarily acquired communication 
apparently being a deepening of the hind ends of the orbits, due to a 
marked enlargement of the eyeballs. Following this deepening of the 
orbits, certain of the eye-muscles of either side enter the pituitary canal, 
and, enlarging that canal, finally wholly break down the wall that 
separates the orbits from the subpituitary space. It seems possible 
that the subpituitary space may represent the conical depression on the 
anterior surface of the body of a vertebra, the later acquired, posterior, 
or basi-occipital extension of the myodome possibly being due to the 
assimilation of similar depressions in more posterior vertebrae. 

Supposed Evidence of Mutation in Malthopsis.f — R. E. Lloyd 
reports on the deep-sea fishes caught by the ' Investigator ' in the Indian 
Ocean since 1900, describing five new genera and nineteen new species. 
The collection includes five types of the genus Malthopsis, and there is 
some evidence that they illustrate mutation, round 31. lutea, as regards 
their shape and their dermal ossicles. Among the offspring which the 
members of the species are producing, are some which differ widely from 
their parents as regards shape and ossicles, and the same kind of differ- 
ence is occurring in widely separated localities. 

Study of Heart-action in Fish Embryos.J — A. v. Tschermak has 
studied the action of the heart in embryos of Gobius and ScylUum, and 
also in young lampreys. He finds that the embryonic heart has from 
the beginning of its activity the fundamental characteristics seen in the 
adult heart — the refractory phase, the compensatory pause after extra- 
systole, the maximum reaction, and so forth. There are, indeed, pecu- 
liarities in the embryonic heart, but the essential features are the same 
as in the adult, which shows that the establishment of innervation is not 
indispensable. The essential myogenic properties of the heart are even- 
tually modified in a characteristic way by the neurogenic conditions. 

Olfactory Organ of Teleosteans.§— It. H. Burne has studied the 
structure of the olfactory organ in 51 genera of Teleostei. It may be 

* Zoologica, xxii. (1909) Heft 57, pp. 145-219 (2 pis.). 

f Memoirs Indian Museum, ii. No. 3 (1909) pp. 139-80. See also Illustrations 
of the Zoology of the Investigator Pishes, part x., pis. xliv-1. 

t SB. Akad. Wiss. Wien, cxviii. (1909) pp. 17-115 (2 pis. and 25 figs.). 

§ Proc. Zool. Soc., 1909, pp. 610-63 (26 figs.). » 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MIOKOSCOPY, ETC 111 I 

divided into the essential olfactory chamber with its rosette, and the 
accessory nasal sacs which are of secondary importance. The author 
discusses the varieties in the form of the openings, the occurrence of 
valves in some forms, the varieties in the rosette and in the accessory 
sacs. Water may play on the laminae of the rosette by the action of 
cilia within the anterior nostril and upon the lining membrane of the 
olfactory chamber, or by the deflection of water into the nose-cavity 
during forward progression, or by the alternate dilatation and compres- 
sion of accessory sacs connected usually with the hinder part of the 
olfactory chamber. Bateson has shown that practically all Teleostei seek 
their food by sight ; perhaps the rhythmical currents in the nose may 
be of some use in testing the water used for respiration. There seems 
to be very little evidence of any relation between the characters of the 
olfactory organ and the habits of the fish. 

Mesencephalic Nerve in Ammocoetes.* — I). Tretjakoff describes a 
very delicate nerve arising on each side from the mid-brain. It is the 
N. thdlamicus of Hoffmann, but is more correctly called mesencephalicus. 
It represents the second true metameric nerve of the front of the head. 

Variation in Mullet. f — L. Fage has studied the different appearances 

of mullet, distinguishing those due to age, to sex, and to habitat. He 

shows that the Linnean species Mullus barbatas and M. surmuletus are 

connected by intergrades ; indeed M. surmuletus may be regarded as an 

arrested form of the more evolved M. barbatas. He sums up in this 

schema : — , , ■ 

M. barbatas L. ; l i 4 t (southern type 

var. surmuletus u.\ ,, , jr 
(northern type 

Zoology of Ruwenzori4 — W. R. Ogilvie-Grant organised an expedi- 
tion to the " Mountains of the Moon," or Ruwenzori range in Equatorial 
Africa, and he writes a preface to the zoological results. The collections 
made included thousands of specimens, e.g. 404 Mammals, 2470 Birds, 
135 Reptiles and Amphibians, 31 Fishes, 12 Crustaceans, 100 Arachnids, 
1015 Beetles, and so on. An itinerary by R. B. Woosnam, who led the 
expedition, is followed by reports on the Worms (F. E. Beddard), 
Molluscs (E. A. Smith), Crustaceans (W. T. Caiman), Arachnids (A. S. 
Hirst), Neuroptera and Urthoptera (AV. F. Kirby), Rhynchota (W. L. 
Distant), and Diptera (E. E. Austen). 

IN VERTEBR AT A . 

Mollusca. 
o. Cephalopoda. 

Development of Ccelomic and Vascular Systems in LoligoJ — 
Adolf Naef gives an account of this intricate development. Some of 
his conclusions may be briefly stated. The blood-vessels arise as spaces 
in the originally thick " mesoderm." Their walls are formed by the 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxxiv. (1909) pp. 151-7 (3 figs.). 
+ Arch. Zool. Exper., i. ser. 5 (1909) pp. 389-445 (1 pi.). 
I Trans. Zool. Soc. London, xix. (1909) pp. 1-100 (3 pis. and 12 figs.). 
§ Jenaische Zeitschr. Naturwiss., xlv. (1909) pp. 221-66 (3 pis. and 14 figs.). 



162 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

mesoderm cells bounding the spaces. There is no genetic connection 
between the coelothel and the vascular walls. The arterial heart arises 
from paired primordia which unite in the middle line. Paired clefts in 
the " mesoderm " form the pericardial primordia, which meet in the 
middle line. About the same time the kidneys arise from the mesoderm 
as two distinct solid primordia, which are from the first in close relation 
with the venas cava?. The ccelomic system consists of the paired renal 
cavities and the pericardial cavity, which are connected both as regards 
cavities and epithelial lining. Naef emphasizes three points : that there 
is no primary connection between kidney and pericardium ; that the peri- 
cardium has never any direct connection with the exterior ; and that the 
primordium of the heart has no connection with a sinus of the hind-gut ; 
indeed this sinus, which Distaso described, is the primordium of the 
genital veins. 

Catalogue of Recent Cephalopods.* — W. E. Hoyle brings his list 
of cuttlefishes up to 1906 ; this second supplement dealing with the 
period 1897-1906, and recording 69 new specific names and 29 new 
genera, 10 of which, however, are divisions or re-namings of older genera. 

/3. Gastropoda. 

Revision of Chiton s.f — Job. Thiele completes his revision of the 
order Placophora, and indicates his view of the relationship of the 
families and sub-families in the following schema : — 

Acanthopleurinse Cryptoplax 

I I 

Sclerochiton Chonepla.r 

I I 

Chitonins* Ischnochitonirue Ghsetopleurinse MopaliicUe Acanthochitinae 



Callochitoninse — Nuttalochiton 

Trachyderrnoninse 

.1 
Hernial' thrum 

Lepidopleuridse 

Eyes of Placophora. :{: — M. Nowikoff has studied the intra-pigmental 
eyes of Chiton and Gallochiton, comparing them with the other types of 
eye that occur. There are two types of intra-pigmental eye, for that of 
Chitoninse is different from that in Callochitoninas, and both are differ- 
ent from the extra-pigmental eyes in Toniciinas and the rather more 
complex forms in Liolophurinae. Yet all the three types seem to be 
derivable from one and the same material, the cells of the megalassthete. 
The eyes do not seem capable of more than distinguishing between 
light and shade, and probably help the animals to keep away from 
muddy water. 

* Proc. Roy. Pliys. Soc, xvii. (1909) pp. 254-99. 
t Zoologica, xxii. (1910) Heft 56, pp. 71-124 (4 pis.). 
j Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., xxxix. (1909) pp. 668-80 (1 pi. and 2 figs.). 

?3 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. L63 

Growth of Limpet's Shell.* — E. S. Russell has studied (1) the rate 
of growth in the limpet's shell (taking the size of the shell as a measure 
of its growth), and (2) the gradual change in the shape of the shell as 
it grows in size. His conclusions are the following : 1. The breeding 
season extends from July to January. 2. Sexual maturity is reached 
at a length of 20-25 mm. 3. An average size for a limpet of the last 
season's brood in January or February is 10 mm. At the end of the 
first year it may be 29 mm. long. Probable sizes at the end of the 
second and subsequent years are 38, 44, 48, and 53 mm. Shells over 
50 mm. may be considerably more than five years old. 4. Sexual 
maturity is reached in the first year, and when the limpet is only half- 
grown. 5. The rate of growth decreases with age and maturity. It is 
slower during the colder months of the year. 6. Considerable change 
takes place in the ratios of the shell dimensions during growth. 7. 
These changes are probably, in large part, the expression of " laws of 
growth," and not due to natural selection. 

Hermaphroditism in Crepidula fomicata.f — J. H. Orton dis- 
cusses this interesting Calyptrasid, which has been imported to England 
from America along with oysters, and has established itself on the coast 
of Essex and Lincolnshire. Individuals have the habit of associating 
permanently in linear series, one on the top of another, forming " chains " 
— sometimes of as many as twelve. All the young are able to creep 
about, but the adults are sedentary. The individuals in a chain offer a 
transitional series, from maleness to femaleness, both in primary and 
secondary sexual characters. Since all the young ones are males, the 
species is a protandrous hermaphrodite. Dwarf females occur as " physio- 
logical variations.' 

Allied species and a species of an allied genus will very likely be 
shown to be likewise protandrous, and there is good reason for thinking 
that this condition may be even more widely spread among the Strepto- 
neura. " Since the males in Crepidula fornicata change into females, it 
would seem in this case that it is the male which possesses the potenti- 
alities of both sexes. A solution to this problem is offered, if, as seems 
likely, allied species present an evolutionary series in the acquisition of 
protandric hermaphroditism." 

Classification and Distribution of Helicidae.ij: — H. von Ihering di- 
vides the Helicidae into five new sub-families : — 1. Hygrorniinas (includ- 
ing Hygromia Risso (Fruticicola Held), Eulota Hartm., Helicodonta Fer. 
(Gonostoma Held), Lysinoe H. and A. Ad., Acanthiaula Beck, Vallonia 
Risso. 2. Helicellina?, including Helicella Fer. (Xerophila Held.), and 
Leucochroa Beck. 3. Cepolinae, including Gepolis Montf . and Polymita 
Beck. 4. Heliocostylinee, including Helicostyla Fer. (Cochlostyla Fer.), 
and Uhlorsea Alb. 5. Helicinse, including Helix (L.) Ih., Heliciyona Fer. 
(Campyleea, Arianta, etc.), and Leptaxis Lowe. 

He discusses the Atlantis theory of Heer and his own Archhelmis 
theory, and the probable migrations of HelicidaB in the past. Two " ele- 
mentary laws of distribution" are formulated : — 1. Terrestrial animals, 

* Proc. Zool. Soc, 1909, pp. 235-53 (1 pi.). 

t Proc. Roy. Soc.B, lxxxi. (1909) pp. 468-84 (3 figs.). 

% Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, lix. (1909) pp. 420-55 (1 map). 



l»i-± SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

of more or less cosmopolitan distribution, that occur in South America, 
are not autochthonous there, but immigrants from the northern hemi- 
sphere. -1. The autochthonous animals of South America have spread by 
migrations through Central America to the south of the United States, 
but in no single case beyond America to the palasarctic region. 

Monograph of West American Pyramidellidae.* — W. H. Dall and 
P. Bartsch have executed a laborious task in this monograph of a family 
of Gastropods, the members of which are mostly of minute size. The 
distribution is world-wide. There are four main genera — Pyramidella 
Lamarck, Twbonilla Risso, Odostomia Fleming, and Murchisonella Morch, 
with a large number of sub-genera. 

5. Lamellibranchiata. 

Postembryonic Development of Unionidse.f — W. Harms begins by 
giving a fresh description of the glochidia of Anodonta, Umo, and Mar- 
garitana, and he also refers to the peculiar Lasidiiim-lnTvu of the South 
American mussel, Glabaria, one of the Mutelidas, in which a parasitic- 
stage has not been discovered. The transition to parasitism is then dis- 
cussed, in connection with which it is noted that tadpoles, Proteus, and 
axolotl may be infected, as well as fishes. Only in the axolotl, however, 
does development complete itself. Harms then proceeds to the main 
subject of his investigation, the changes that go on in the parasitic period, 
leading to the definitive mussel form. 

Arthropoda. 

Muscle-insertions in Arthropods. J— R. H. Stamm discusses the in- 
sertion of muscles in the chitinous skeleton of Arthropods, and defends 
against other observers the conclusion which he arrived at in 1904, that 
the insertion is always " indirect." The typical cross-striped muscle- 
substance never reaches the chitin, but is always separated from it by a 
longitudinally striated tendon, which is due to modified hypodermis cells. 

o. Insecta. 

Mouth-parts of Wasps and other Hymenoptera.§ — R. Deinoll gives 
an account of the mouth-parts in Vespidaa, Tenthredinidae, and Uro- 
ceridae, and describes what seems to be an olfactory organ at the end of 
the labial palp of Sirex gigas. 

Brain of Hive-bee. || — C. N. Jonescu gives a detailed comparative 
account of the complex brain of the hrVe-bee. The supra-cesophageal 
ganglion has its protocerebrum (with several subdivisions), its deuto- 
cerebrum, and its tritocerebrum ; the sub-oesophageal ganglion is triple. 
The origin of the various nerves from the brain is described. Some of 
the comparisons of the brains of queen, worker, and drone are very in- 
teresting. The worker has, as is well known, a larger brain than the 
queen. In the drone the optic lobes are large, corresponding to the large 

* U.S. Nat. Museum, Bull. 68 (1909) xii. and 258 pp. (30 pis.). 

t Zool. Jahrb., xxviii. (1909) pp. 325-86 (4 pis. and 9 figs.). 

% Anat. Anzeig., xxxiv. (1909) pp. 337-49 (7 figs.). 

§ Zeitschr. wiss Zool., xcii. (1909) pp. 187-209 (1 pi. and 9 figs.). 

|| Jenaische Zeitschr. Natur., xlv. (1909) pp. 111-80 (5 pis. and 13 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. L65 

eyes, but the brain proper is not larger than that of the worker. The 
author has devoted much attention to the two "mushroom-shaped bodies" 
— parts of the brain— which reach their climax in Hymenoptera. They 
seem to be organs for the combination of various sensory impressions, 
and probably for the acquired associations. 

Parasitic Hymenoptera from the Tertiary of Florissant.* — C. T. 
Brues describes no fewer than 112 clearly defined species of fossil Hymen- 
opterous insects from Florissant, Colorado. The wings are usually well 
preserved, lying between the laminse of the shale, and the preservation 
of the colour is often remarkable. Most of the species are Ichneumon- 
idre, but Chalcidoidea and Braconidre are well represented. 

Viviparity in Phorocera serriventris and other Flies.f — W. Wesche 
notes that this Tachinid fly is viviparous, the living larvae being intro- 
duced by the " ovipositor " into caterpillars. By means of the Microscope 
it is possible to detect the viviparous condition of flies, if the specimens 
are properly cleaned and prepared, as the hard chitinous jaws of the 
larva? are not dissolved by potash, and are seen through the cleared 
plates. Wesche has observed this not only in Phorocera serriventris, but 
in Oliviera lateralis F., Plagia trepida Mg., Phoraruficomis Mg., Myiobia 
fenestrata Mg., Siphona geniculata Deg., Blepharidea vulgaris Fin. 

Gossyparia ulmi on Mistletoe. J — L. Fulmek found on the mistle- 
toe (in Wachau) full-grown females of the Coccid Gossyparia ulmi, which 
is usually found on elm-trees. 

Tobacco Beetles. § — J. P. Wright has a note on beetles from Turkish 
tobacco-leaf, which apparently " thrive " in napthalin. Bisulphide of 
carbon effectually disposes of them. 

Palaearctic Spongostylinae.|| — P. Sack gives an account of this 
family of Bombyliida3, which includes a number of sun-loving forms, 
with a tuft of hair at the tip of the antennas, such as Anthrax virgo 
Egger, Bibio hesperus Rossi, and Spongostyliim mystaceum Macq. The 
author makes eight new genera. 

Odoriferous Organs in Female Lepidoptera.1T — H. H. Freiling de- 
scribes (1) odoriferous organs on the wings of both sexes in Adopsea 
lineola, Aciptilia pentadactijla, Notris verbascella ; (2) sensory organs on 
the wings of N. verbascella ; (3) odoriferous organs (modified scales or 
setas) near the external genital organs in females of Gonopteryx rhamni 
and Euplcea asela, Stilpnotia salicis, and Thaumatopcca pinivora ; (4) in- 
tegumentary duplicatures between the 8th and 9th abdominal segment, 
modified as odoriferous structures — a dorsal fold in the female of Orgyia 
antiqua and lateral saccules in the female of Bombyx mori ; and (f>) 
evaginable odoriferous brushes lying dorsally between the 7th and Kth 
segments in the males of Euplcea asela and Danais septentrionalis. 

* Bull. Mus. Harvard Comp. Zoo!., liv. (1910) pp. 1-125 (1 pi.). 
t Journ. Quekett Micr. Club, 1909, pp. 451-8 (1 pi.). 
% Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., 2te Abt., xxiv. (1909) pp. 10G-8 (3 figs.). 
§ Journ. Quekett Micr. Club, 1909, p. 472. 
l| Abb. Senck. Nat. Ges., xxx. (1909) pp. 503-48 (4 pis.). 
«j Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., xcii. (1909) pp. 210-90 (6 pis. and 17 figs.). 



166 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Oogenesis in Dytiscus marginalis.* — P. Debaisieux finds that four 
differential kineses succeed theoogonial kineses and give rise to an oocyte 
with fifteen nutritive cells. The " chromatic mass, 1 ' which appears at 
the first of the four differential kineses, is transmitted intact to the 
oocyte. After the last differential division there is a true synapsis, before 
" the great increase of the oocyte." The behaviour of the chromosomes 
is fully described. 

Luminosity of Glow-worm. f — Fr. Weitlauer finds no warrant for 
regarding the luminescence of Lampyris splendidula as bacterial. It is 
an oxidation phenomenon, occurring mainly in the grains ofammouiacal 
uric acid and diffused through the body, and in both sexes. Occasionally 
the luminosity is absent in both sexes. 

Life-history of Agrionid Dragon-fly. J — P. Balfour-Browne deals 
especially with Agrion palchellum and Ischnura elegans. While a pair 
fly about or rest, attached per collem, the female curves her abdomen so 
as to bring the underside of her 9th segment in contact with that of the 
2nd abdominal segment of the male. Soon after the transference of 
sperms the female begins to lay, the male usually holding her, though 
remaining entirely passive. The observer followed Agrion and Ischnura 
right through from the egg to the imago, and describes the stages marked 
by the successive moults. He discusses the development of the form of 
the nymph, and pays special attention to the pro-nymph stage. This 
stage is apparently for the purpose of freeing a tightly-packed larva from 
the egg. The amnion, instead of breaking and remaining within the 
shell, continues intact until after the larva is clear. The amnion forms 
the pro-nymph skin. 

The fact that certain moults have nothing whatever to do with 
growth (e.g. of the pro-nymph) seems fatal to a theory that growth is the 
cause of moult : while the fact that certain moults have apparently nothing 
to do with development, seems fatal to a theory that makes development 
the cause of the moult. Since, however, both causes seem to be at work, 
it is possible that both theories, combined and readjusted, may give us a 
true explanation of the significance of the moult. 

Irish Neuroptera.§ — J. J. F. X. King and J. N. Halbert have made a 
new list of the Neuroptera of Ireland, including 240 species, in 105 
genera — rather less than two-thirds of the number recorded for Great 
Britain. They have added eight species of Planipennia (alder-flies, etc.), 
eleven species of Trichoptera (caddis-flies), and some others. The nomen- 
clature has been brought up to date, and emphasis is laid on cases of 
interesting geographical distribution. 

Development of Endoderm in Mole-cricket. || — J. Nusbauni and 
B. Fulinski have traced the development of the mid-gut in Ghryllotalpa 
vulgaris, and compared this case with otheis. In the anterior region of 
the blastoderm the primordium of the endoderm and, immediately in 

* La Cellule, xxv. (1909) pp. 207-29 (2 pis.). 

t Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, lix. (1909) pp. 97-103. 

% Proc. Zool. Soc., 1909, pp. 253-85 (2 pis.). 

§ Proc. 11. Irish Acad., xxviii. Section B (1910) pp. 29-112. 

j| Zeitscbr. wiss. Zool., xciii. (1909) pp. 306-48 (2 pis. and 11 rigs.). 



- 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. L67 

front of it, the stomodasal invagination arise simultaneously. Ln the 
posterior region the primordium of the endoderm arises slightly before 
the appearance of the proctodseal invagination. There soon comes about 
a coalescence of the endoderm-primodia with the stoniodaeurn and the 
proctodeum. The authors make an interesting series of seven different 
ways in which the mid-gut epithelium is established iu Pterygota. 

Studies on Aphides,* — Albert Tnllgren discusses the sub-family 
Pemphiginse and its various tribes — Vacunina, Hormaphidina, Mindarina, 
Pemphigina, Schizoneuriua, Anceciina. 

New Genera of Thysanoptera.f — R. S. Bagnall describes two large 
and interesting forms from Venezuela — Anactinothrips meinerti g. et sp. n., 
in the Phlceothripid group, and Actinotlirips longicornis g. et sp. n., in the 
Idolothripid group of the Tubilifera. The author calls attention to an 
organ, or set of organs, first discovered by Tryborn, which apparently 
exists in all Thysanoptera, and is found at the base of the femur near the 
line of union with the trochanter, taking the form of a thinly chitinised 
area, or areas, of varying shapes. 

Injurious Insects.:}: — The oyster-shell bark-scale (Aspidiotus ostrese- 
formis) which is injurious to various fruit-trees in Britain, and the brown 
scale of the gooseberry and currant (Leccmium persicse var. ribis), are the 
subject of two recent leaflets from the Board of Agriculture. 

Ectoparasites and Endoparasites of Grouse. § — A. E. Shipley begins 
with the Mallophaga (Goniodes tetmonis Denny, Nirmus earner atus 
Nitzsch), the Hippoboscid grouse-fly (Omiihomyia lagopodis Sharp), and 
two fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinulse Dale and C. garei Rothsch.). A fly, 
Seatophaga stercoraria, which lays its eggs in grouse-droppings, is also 
discussed. The following Acarina were studied : Ixodes ricinus L., Aleuro- 
bius farinse de Geer, and Gamasus coleoptratorum L. 

Three species of tapeworm (two of Davainea and one of Hymenolepis) 
are found in the alimentary canal, and the question is as to their previous 
host. A slug (Arion empirieorum) found in the crop was sectioned with- 
out showing any cysts. Various Copepods in the moor streams were 
tried without result. It is probable that some insect is the source of 
infection. Artificially-reared grouse showed no Davainea nor Hgmeno- 
Jepis ; and another notable fact is that grouse three weeks old often 
contain fully grown Davainea, which shows infection must be very early. 
Attention is directed to moth-larvae which occur in rushes. Many re- 
mains of insects were found in the grouse, though sportsmen and game- 
keepers usually maintain that the bird eats no insects. 

#• Myriopoda. 

Abnormal Pair of Limbs in Lithobius. — F. G. Sinclair || refers to 
a case described by Doncaster, and gives it a different interpretation. 
The abnormalities in Myriopods may be reduplications in the transverse 

* Arkiv Zool., v. (1909) pp. 1-190 (92 figs.). 
t Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) xxx. (1909) pp. 329-35 (1 pi.). 

X Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, Leaflets No. 210 and 223 (1909) 8 pp. 
(6 figs.). § Proc. Zool. Soc. 1909, pp. 309-34 (13 pis.). 

I| Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc, xv. (1909) p. 235. 



168 .SUMMARV OF GUKKENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

axis (e.g. a bifurcating leg), or reduplications in the longitudinal axis. 
The former is the more frequent. The abnormal appendage described 
by Doncaster is probably a reduplication, not of the poison-claw, but of 
the second maxilla. 

Classification of Geophilomorpha.* — H. W. Brolemann discusses 
the classification proposed by Verhoeff, and compares it with that sug- 
gested by Attems and by himself. He also gives diagnoses of some 
new genera — Trematorya, Ribautia, Gnathoribautia, AUoschizotcenia, 
Brachygeophilus, and Chalandea. 

Studies on Diplopoda.| — F. Silvestri describes Perkambala orientalis 
g. et sp. n. from Tonkin, and erects for it a new family Pericambalida? 
in Cambaloid section of Diplopoda. 

8. Arachnida. 

Development of Agelena labyrinthica.^ — Gr. Kautzsch begins with 
the formation of the polar bodies and the segmentation of the eggs ; 
he follows the stages in the differentiation of the blastoderm— the 
appearance of cumuli and of metameres ; he discusses the remarkable 
process of " Umrollung " exhibited by the germinal streak, the origin of 
the heart and the blood-cells, and the difficult question of the " endo- 
derm " — a term which does not seem to have much meaning (in a 
comparative embryology sense) in the development of Arachnoids. 

Structure and Habits of Ixodes ricinus.S — Katharina Samson 
gives a valuable account of this tick, describing the various systems of 
the body and the reproduction. Many new points of interest are dis- 
cussed. 

e. Crustacea. 

Hippolyte gracilis in the British Area.[| — A. 0. Walker records 
this Mediterranean species from Worthing, where he found it associated 
with H. varians. This is the first record for the British area proper. 
In 1899 Walker reported a specimen taken by Hornell in the Channel 
Islands. 

Anomura of Kattiawar.1T — T. Southwell reports on a small collec- 
tion of Anomura from Okhamandal in Kattiawar, including Porcelana 
yaekwari sp. n. and Polyonyx hendersoni sp. n. The collection is 
interesting in showing the considerable degree of variation present in 
certain species of the family Galatheidas, and secondly, the large size of 
many individuals, which shows the luxuriant conditions under which 
they must have lived. 

New Species of Pinnoteres.** — J. Hornell and T. Southwell 
describe P. placunse sp. n. abundant in the window-pane oyster (Placuna 
placenta). It is characterised by being extremely flattened dorso- 

* Arch. Zool. Exper., iii. (1903) pp. 303-40 (1 table), 
t Boll. Lab. Zool. Scuola Agric. Portici, iv. (1909) pp. 66-70 (5 figs.). 
X Zool. Jahrb., xxviii. (1909) pp. 477-538 (3 pi. and 25 figs.). 
§ Zeitscbr. wiss. Zool.,xciii. (1909) pp. 185-236 (4 pis. and 18 figs.). 
i| Ann. Nat. Hist., v. (1910) p. 216. 

•f Report to Govt. Baroda Marine Zool. Okbamandal in Kattiawar, 1903, pp. 
105-23 (1 pi.). •* Tom. cit., pp. 99-103 (lpl.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 169 

ventrally (in adaptation to the habitat), by having the front of the 
carapace straight and broad in the female, and by the approximately 
square outline of the carapace. The other extreme is P. globosus. 

Digestive System of Schizopods.* — Charles Gelderd has studied 
Macromysis flexuosa and related forms. The fore-gut has the same 
general structure as that of Decapoda and Edriophthalmia, and contains 
similar pieces. These are dealt with in detail. The author describes 
the acinous " salivary glands," the hepatopancreas, and the structure of 
the gut generally. In each long tube of the digestive gland there is an 
irregular longitudinal ridge projecting into the lumen. It seems to be 
characteristic of Schizopods. 

New Copepod from an Ascidian.t — E. Chatton and E. Brement 
describe the female of Enteropsis roscoffensis sp. n. found in Styelopsis 
grossularia. The pereiopods i.-iv. are uniramous ; the antennas are 
vaguely two-jointed, the last joint dagger-like ; in these and other 
respects it differs from related species. 

Annulata. 

Albuminoid Reserves in Annelids. $ — Max Kollmann describes 
peculiar adipose cells in the perivisceral fluid of Spirographis and other 
Polychsets. They contain, besides fat, numerous granules of albuminoid 
substance, more or less acidophilus. They probably develop from 
leucocytes, and they bear a close resemblance to the adipose cells in 
insects. It is highly probable that they are of the nature of reserves. 

Musculature of OweniaJ — Leo Zurcher has made a histological 
study of the musculature in this Chaetopod. In the body-wall he 
describes (1) the external epithelium ; (2) a connective tissue limiting 
membrane (circular musculature in the thorax) ; (3) longitudinal muscu- 
lature, composed of elongated pointed cells, differentiated into medullary 
space and contractile cortex with spirally disposed fibril-columns ; and 
(4) a glandular peritoneum. 

The blood-vessels have a connective-tissue intima and a circular 
muscular layer. The sinus between the intestinal epithelium and the 
circular muscle layer is lined with connective-tissue membranes. The peri- 
toneum of the splanchnopleure is epithelial in two places — on the muscu- 
lature of the vascular membrane in front of the second septum, and on 
the neural mesentery in the genital region. Elsewhere it is reduced to a 
few nuclei, apposed to the muscular layer. The vesicular connective- 
tissue is not a peritoneum, but an aggregate of degenerate lymphocytes. 

Pelagic Phyllodocidae of Irish Coasts. || — E. Southern describes 
some members of the sub-family Lopadorhynchidae, collected at consider- 
able depth off the west coast of Ireland. No species of this small and 
imperfectly known group has hitherto been recorded from the British 

* La Cellule, xxv. (1909) pp. 7-70 (4 pis.). 

t Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xxxiv. (1909) pp. 196-203 (5 figs.). 

: Tom. cit., pp. 149-55 (3 figs.). 

§ Jenaische Zeitschr. Naturwiss., xlv. (1909) pp. 181-220 (6 pis. and 4 figs.). 

i| Sci. Invest. Fisheries, Ireland, iii. (1908) published 1909, pp. 1-11 (3 pis.) 

April 20th, 1910 N 



170 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES' BELATING TO 

marine area — a fact which is easily accounted for by the rarity and in- 
accessibility of the members composing it. He deals with Pelagobia 
hnujccirrata Greef, P. serrata sp. n., Maupasia caeca Viguier var. atlan- 
tica n., Haliplams magna sp. n., Lopadorhynchas appendiculatus sp. n. 

Primitive Germ-cells in Sagitta.* — W. Elpatiewsky finds that one 
of the blastomeres arising from the fifth cleavage is the first primitive 
germ-cell. It is marked by a particular body — taking on nuclear stains 
— which is seen in all the germ-cell lineage. 

New Leeches from Ceylon.j — W. A. Harding describes Ozolranchas 
shipleyi sp. n., in which the abdominal region bears eleven pairs of digitate 
branchiae, and Glossiphonia ceylanica sp. n. The former is parasitic on 
the terrapin Nicoria trijuga, the latter on the soft tortoise, Emydn vittata. 

Nematohelminthes. 

Nervous System of Ascaris.J — R. Goldschmidt continues his in- 
timate analysis of the nervous system of Ascaris megalocephala and A. 
lumbricoides. He deals with the nerve-ring and the mode of union 
among its components, attaching numbers to the various cells and fibres, 
so that their connections are clearly seen in the diagrammatic reconstruc- 
tions. Pie also discusses the general problems of continuity or contiguity 
of elements, of the neuron, and of the reflex arc, and ends up with a com- 
parative morphological sketch of various nervous systems. His three 
schematic plates of the Ascarid system are very remarkable achievements. 

Fibrillar Structures in Muscle-cells and Intestinal Cells of Asca- 
rids.§ — Fr. Bilek has studied in Ascaris cam's and A. semiteres, and other 
forms, the peculiar fibrils in the muscle-cells and intestinal cells which 
have been called " neurofibrils," " spongioplasm," " supporting fibrils," 
and a " chromidial apparatus." The muscle-cells are gigantic ; the thin 
gelatinous sarcoplasm requires some support in its contraction and dilata- 
tion. The fibrils form a kind of internal scaffolding. In the gut-cells 
they are not only supporting elements, but they replace the absent 
muscularis. The fibrils are essentially sarcoplasmic, not nuclear, and 
their interpretation as chromidial is erroneous. 

Subcuticula and Lateral Areas of Nematodes. ||— E. Martini has 
made an exhaustive study of sixteen types. Apart from the tail-end, 
behind the muscles, where there are no longitudinal lines, the sub-cuti- 
cula is without nuclei. These occur only in the inturnings of the sub- 
cuticula, which are called longitudinal lines. In the trunk the dorsal 
line is without nuclei. The ventral line shows some nuclei. There are 
usually three rows of nuclei in the lateral area, and they may be very 
numerous. Nuclei are never absent from the lateral line. In the head, 
all the four main longitudinal lines show nuclei, and the tissue of the lines 
extending inwards forms a support for the nerve-ring and nerve-centres. 

A more general statement may be useful. The epidermis of Nema- 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxxv. (1909) pp. 226-39 (19 figs.), 
t Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc, xv. (1909) pp. 233-4. 
I Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., xcii. (1909) pp. 306-57 (3 pis. and 21 figs.). 
§ Op. cit., xciii. (1909) pp. 625-67 (2 pis.). 
I| Tom. cit., pp. 535-624 (2 pis. and 21 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 171 

todes, which covers the whole body outside the muscles, is well developed 
only in the so-called longitudinal lines, especially in the lateral areas. 
Between the lines (subcuticula) it is very thin. By the development of 
the muscles, the nuclei of the epidermis come to lie in the longitudinal 
lines, especially in the lateral lines. The epidermis makes the cuticle 
repeatedly in the course of life. 

Nematodes of Red Grouse.* — A. E. Shipley reports on the follow- 
ing :~Trichostrongylus pergracilis Cobbold, Syngamus trachealis (which 
occurred twice), Trichosoma longieolle Rud., Heterakis papillosa Block, 
and Filaria smithii Sambon. 

Platyhelminth.es. 

New Planarians.f — P. Steinmann gives a full description of Planaria 
teratophila Steinmann, pointing out how it differs from P. alpina, P. 
montenigrina, and P. anophthahna, e.g. in the presence of two vesicular 
tentacular sense-organs ; in the differentiation of the glandular zones on 
the pharynx into cyanophilous and erythrophilous ; in the independence 
of the posterior cerebral hemisphere, and in some details of the male 
genital organs. He also discusses P. lactea Oerst. var. bathycola var. n., 
and P. infernalis Steinmann. 

Paravortex cardii.J — P. Hallez gives an account of the structure, 
habits, and development of Paravortex cardii sp. n., a Rhabdoccel parasite 
of the cockle. It reproduces viviparously throughout the year. It is a 
protandrous hermaphrodite, but the male organs continue to function 
throughout life. The empty shells, more than eighty in number, remain 
in the body, while the embryos bore out of the parent into the alimentary 
canal of the host, first the stomach and then the intestine. They pass 
out by the siphon. Copulation occurs in the intestine, perhaps also in 
the free-living stage. Thereafter there is migration into the stomach of 
a cockle, where the life is completed. 

The segmentation is rather irregular, in a general way epibolic. A 
morula is formed, and all the elements seem to be of equal value. Hallez 
refrains from speaking of germinal layers. The ectolecithal nuclei share 
in development. The development proceeds like that of a bud, or like a 
neoformation after histolysis. A careful account of the whole process is 
given. 

Synapsis in Thysanozoon brocchi. § — Willy Deton describes the 
resting nuclear reticulum that is re-established after the last " gonial " 
kinesis. The great increase in the size of the oocyte is preceded by a 
synaptic stage. This Turbellarian must be added to the list of those 
forms (e.g. Planaria gonocephala) in which there is a pseudo-reduction by 
means of a " zygotasnic " stage. 

Relationships of Digenic Trematodes.|| — D. H. Ssnitzin lays em- 
phasis on the absence of asexual multiplication in digenic Trematodes, 

* Pl-oc. Zool. Soc, 1909, pp. 335-50 (8 pis.). 

t Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., xciii. (1909) pp. 157-84 (1 pi. and 3 figs.). 

X Arch. Zool. Exper., ix. (1909) pp. 429-544 (10 pis.). 

§ La Cellule, xxv. (1909) pp. 133-47 (1 pi.) 

|| Biol. Centralbl. xxix. (1909) pp. 664-82 (1 pi.). 

N 2 



172 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

either in the form of division or budding. He goes so far that he would 
exclude them from the class. Their relationship with Turbellaria and 
Cestoda is very dubious ; their resemblance to monogeuic Trematodes is 
quite superficial. " The ancestor of the digenic Trematodes possessed a 
secondary co3lom (gonoccel), and must be sought for among the nearest 
ancestors of the lower Crustaceans." 

Abnormalities in Bothriocephalus.* — N. Leon describes two speci- 
mens of Bothriocephalus latus, which were in many ways peculiar. The 
colour was slate-grey, perhaps due to the bile. There were numerous 
supernumerary triangular joints, incomplete divisions of joints, curious 
irregular excrescences, and disk-like scales with short stalks. The scales 
are formed by evaginations of the cuticle and sub-cuticle. The pro- 
digious multiplication of joints expresses a tendency to multiplication of 
the gonads. 

Structure of Tetrabothrius.f — W. Spatlick describes two new species 
from Puffinus, and discusses the general structure of this Cestode type. 
The strongly developed longitudinal musculature is not interrupted at 
the boundaries of the joints. The musculature is very complex in the 
proglottides, and that of the scolex is derivable from it. The peculiar 
adhesive bothridia are described in detail. There are ten longitudinal 
nerve-strands, with three annular commissures in each joint, and central- 
isation in the head by means of a nerve-ring with four ganglia. Ganglion- 
cells were found in the head only. The anterior part of the head is with- 
out flame-cells. Not a few features in the Tetrabothrius-type confirm the 
interpretation of the Cestode body as that of one individual. 

Posterior End of Rhynchobothrius Chain. $ — Th. Pintner has studied 
specimens of Rhynchobothrius ruficollis Eysenhardt, which retain the 
original terminal proglottis, showing a retort-shaped bladder with which 
the excretory vessels are connected. This bladder arises as an invagina- 
tion of the outer layers of the body, with a special thickening of the 
circular muscle. It may be inferred that the original state of affairs at 
the end of a Tetrarhynch us -chain included a bell-shaped invagination 
around a central papilla, or that the original hind-end showed a pro- 
trading annular fold, the posterior half of the cavity forming a bladder ; 
while in the anterior part the original external surface of the tail-end and 
the interna] surface of the fold have coalesced up to the four excretory 
canals. 

Tapeworms of Red Grouse.§ — A. E. Shipley describes Davainea uro- 
galli (Modeer), D. cesticillus, Hynwiolepis microps (Diesing). Numerous 
insects have been searched in the hope of finding the cyst-stages of these 
tapeworms, but no result has as yet rewarded the author's labours. 

Parasites of Birds allied to Grouse. || — A. E. Shipley gives a list of 
the Cestodes, Trematodes, Nematodes, and Acanthocephala known to 
occur in grouse, ptarmigan, willow grouse, hazel-hen, blackcock, and 
capercaillie. 

* Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., 1. (1909) pp. 616-19 (2 figs.). 

t Zool. Jahrb., xxviii. (1909) pp. 539-94(4 pis. and 9 figs.). 

X Arb. Zool. lust. Univ. Wien, xviii. (1910) pp. 113-32 (2 pis.). 

$ Proc. Zool. Soc, 1909, pp. 351-63 (5 pis.). || Tom. cit., pp. 363-8. 



7"-> 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 17 

Incertee Sedis. 

Regeneration in Enteropneusts.* — 0. Dawydoff has studied this in 
Ptychodera minuta and in a Xew Guinea species. It appears that the 
regenerative processes pursue a somewhat palingenetic poth. In some 
cases the regeneration is atavistic. But there is no fundamental differ- 
ence between the ordinary ontogeny and the regenerative development. 
Dawydoff uses his results to throw light upon some morphological ques- 
tions, e.g. the significance of the proboscis-ccelom and its relations to the 
pericardium. In regard to the so-called " notochord," he is of opinion 
that it corresponds to a pre-oral region of the gut, which previously 
functioned as a gullet. The proboscis pores of Enteropneusts represent 
an organ which has changed its function, and is homologous with the 
metanephridia of Annelids. 

Studies in Tardigrada.f — Ferd. Richters describes several fresh-water 
species of Makrobiotus ; a marine form, Tetrakentron synaptse Cuenot, 
parasitic on Synapta ; Batillipes minis g. et sp. n., another marine type. 
Sis marine genera are now known— Lydella, Echiniscbides, Tetrakentron, 
Makrobiotus, Halechiniscus, and Batillipes. Richters maintains that the 
Tardigrada are related rather to the Annelids than to the Arthropods, 
finding arguments in a seta-like nature of the " claws " in many types 
and in the cirri in others. 

Rotifera. 

Distribution of Rotifera.! — C. F. Rousselet discusses the results of 
recent investigations with regard to the geographical distribution of 
Rotifera, and arrives at the conclusion that most of these creatures 
enjoy an almost cosmopolitan range all over the world, and that it is not 
possible to speak of any typical or peculiar Rotatorian fauna for any 
continent, zone, or region. Numerous examples are given of rare species 
appearing in widely separated localities, indicating that distance is no 
obstacle to their distribution, provided only that suitable conditions are 
encountered. The fact that some few Bdelloid Rotifers can come to 
life again after a prolonged desiccation does not sufficiently account for 
this wide range. The author considered that it is their resting eggs, 
which are able to resist both desiccation and low temperatures, and can 
moreover readily be transported by the wind to any distance, which are 
the main cause of this cosmopolitan distribution of the Rotifera from 
the equator to the polar regions. 

Rotifera of Turkestan. § — E. von Daday has examined some Plankton 
material collected by D. D. Pedaschenko in two inland seas in Turkestan, 
and found therein amongst other creatures eleven species of Rotifera, 
one of which the author describes as new under the name of Pedalion 
mucronatum. This same species has, however, previously been found 
in the Aral Sea and described by Gernow in 1903 as P. oxyure, which 
name therefore has priority. It resembles most nearly P. fennicum 
Levander, but differs from it in the possession of a pointed posterior 
prolongation of the body. 

* Zeitschr. wiss Zool., xciii. (1909) pp. 237-305 (4 pis. and 23 figs.), 

t Ber. Senck. Nat. Ges., xl. (1909) pp. 28-48 (2 pis.). 

\ Journ. Quekett Micr. Club, x. (1909) pp. 465-70. 

§ Trav. Soc. Imp. Nat. St. P6tersbourg, xxxix. (1909). 



174 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Echinoderma. 

Notes on North American Starfishes.* — A. E. Verrill calls attention 
to some apparent hybrids, e.g., between Asterias epichlora and Pisaster 
ochraceus. He also discusses multiplicity of rays, which is common on 
the north-west coast. Twelve of the forty north-west American species 
of Asterias and Pisaster have normally six rays. A number of interest- 
ing abnormalities are recorded, e.g., four-rayed forms of Ctenodiscm 
crispatus. The advantages of having numerous rays, e.g., for holding the 
food securely and holding to the rocks, are discussed. 

Regeneration in Ophiocoma pumila.f — S. Morgulis finds that if the 
radial nerve is injured before cutting off the arm, only a small stump is 
regenerated. If the nerve is destroyed near the disc, so little new tissue 
is formed that it is difficult to recognise it at all. "Where the radial 
nerve is left intact, a long new part is regenerated. In cases where the 
brittle star throws off the arm at the place of injury to the nerve, there 
is absolutely no regeneration from the cut surface thus produced, while 
other arms in the same specimen with the nerve intact regenerate 
normally. 

Ophiurans of San Diego. J — J. P. McClendon reports on a collection 
from this region, which includes some new species — of Ophiomusium, 
Ophiura, Ophiopholis, etc. "Although most of the species react 
negatively to light, and hide under rocks and in sea-weed, sponges, etc., 
some of them appear to protectively coloured." 

Mode of Feeding in Echinocardium and Spatangus.§ — H. A. G. 
Horny old finds that the buccal tube-feet are extended, feel about in the 
sand, broaden out terminally, seize a particle, and pass it to the spines of 
the lower lip. These with the assistance of the upper-lip spines pass 
the particles into the mouth. There is no shovelling of sand into the 
mouth by ploughing through it. Robertson of Millport described the 
action of the tube-feet and spines, and the author corrobates his 
observations in great part. 

Development of Holothuria floridana.|| — C. L. Edwards describes 
in particular the development of the tentacles, pedicels, and papillae. 
There is no free Auricularia larva, but the embryonic stages are passed 
within the vitelline membrane during the first five days after the 
fertilisation of the egg. On the sixth day the embryo hatches as a larva 
with five primary tentacles, four developed (projecting) and one as a 
bud (buried in the skin), and also with one posterior pedicel. The order 
of appearance in subsequent stages is carefully chronicled. 

Echinoderms of ' Thetis ' Collection. f — H. L. Clark reports on a 
collection of fifty-four species collected by the ' Thetis ' from Lord 

* Anier. Nat., xliii. (1909) pp. 542-55 (7 figs.), 
t Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci., xliv. (1909) pp. 655-9 (1 fig.). 
X Univ. California Publications (Zoology) vi. (1909) pp. 33-64 (6 pis.). 
§ Biol. Centralbl., xxix. (1909) pp. 759-62. 
|| Journ. Morphol., xx. (1909) pp. 212-30 (3 pis.). 

^ Sci. Results Trawling Expedition H.M.O.S. ' Thetis.' Australian Museum, 
Sydney, Memoir iv. (1909) pp. 518-64 (12 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 175 

Howe Island and similar localities. The collection is of great scientific 
interest, not merely because eighteen of the species have not hitherto 
been described, but also because of the new light which it throws on the 
breeding habits of some species and the distribution of certain geneni. 
A new genus of Ophiuroids, named Astrorhombus, has the disc covered 
by a very irregular, rough pavement of granules and plates of very 
diverse sizes, without any definite indication cf radial shields. 

Coelentera. 

Nervous System of Hydra.* — Jovan Hadzi describes nerve-cells, 
processes of nerve-cells, sensory nerve-cells, and sensory cells. The 
greater part of the system is an ectodermic network. It is not 
appropriate to speak of neurons, for the cells are directly connected by 
plasmic processes, and Hydra is too far away from the type in reference 
to which the concept of neurons was established. The author has also 
studied the reactions of Hydra to contact stimuli, corroborating on the 
whole the results of previous investigators. 

Oogenesis of Hydra.f — Elliot R. Downing gives an account based 
partly on his own observations and partly on those of others. In H. 
dicecia the ovaries are large and contain several ova ; H. viridis, H.fusca, 
and H. yrisea have one or very rarely two. The ovary is formed by rapid 
mitosis of interstitial cells beside the egg or eggs. There is no evidence 
of a migration of interstitial cells into the ovary. The interstitial cells 
form radiating rows to facilitate the transfer of nutritive material to 
the ova and to carry away the excretory products. The egg-cell is dis- 
tinct from the interstitial cells from the start. The changes in shape, 
in granulation, in the size and structure of the nucleus, and so on, are 
described. The " pseudo-cells " are nuclei of ingested interstitial cells 
or are due to a confluence of small yolk-granules formed by the egg. 
When their formation is complete, the pseudopodia of the egg-cell are 
withdrawn. The first polar spindle has twelve chromosomes and the 
second six. 

On the whole one is impressed, in a study of the ovogenesis of the 
Hydra, with the independence of the egg and its antagonism to the parent 
organism ; it ingests portions of it as a parasite might live on a host. 
From the first the egg-cell pursues its destined life-history : it grows 
and matures, going through a definite cycle of events, dependent on the 
adult Hydra only for food. If constancy in the nucleo-plasma relation 
is characteristic of the life-cycle of the soma (and that seems very doubtful) 
it certainly is not for the germ-cells ; on the contrary, continuous change 
seems to mark this relation in their life-cycle. 

Budding and Shoot-formation of Hydroids.J — Alfred Kuhn has 
made a fresh study of the hydroid colony. He shows that the mode of 
budding is much more diverse than is usually supposed. He illustrates 
convergence, e.g. in parallelisms between Hydrallmania and Aglaophenia 
types, and maintains that the selectionist interpretation is applicable to 

• Arbeit. Zool. Inst. Univ. Wien, xvii. (1909) pp. 225-68 (2 pis. and 2 figs.). 
t Zool. Jahrb., xxviii. (1909) pp. 296-324 (2 pis. and 2 figs.), 
j Tom. cit., pp. 387-476 (6 pis. and 22 figs.). 



176 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Rome details at least. Evidence is given in support of the view that the 
Halecidae diverged at an early stage from the Thecaphora stem which 
bears Campanularians and Sertularians, and that the Halecidae lead on 
to the Plumularians. 

Cnidoblasts of Hydra.* — 0. Toppe finds that the large pyriforui 
cnidoblasts with stilets on the nematocyst play the most important part 
in capturing prey. The nematocyst, helped by the stilets, perforates 
the cuticle of a Corethra larva, and the secretion acts rapidly "and destruc- 
tively, forming a depression. There is no doubt that the nematocyst, 
partly by boring, partly by dissolving, can work through a chitinous 
membrane of considerable thickness. The large cnidoblasts work for 
the most part mechanically, and they seldom miss the mark. The nema- 
tocysts of the small cnidoblasts coil up in a corkscrew spiral after explo- 
sion, and they seem to respond to a different kind of stimulus. Thirdly, 
there are cylindrical cnidoblasts which aid in the attachment of the 
tentacles or the proboscis. 

Medusoids, Medusas, and Ctenophores of Firth of Forth.j — Win. 
Evans and J. H. Ashworth record the following Hydromedusae : — Mar- 
gelis britannica Forbes, Sarsia tubulosa Sars, Melicertidium octocostatum 
Sars, Tiaropsis multicirrata Sars, Mitrocomella polydiademata Eomanes, 
Eutonina socialis Hartlaub, Timet bairdii Johnston, JEnuorea norvegica 
Browne. Of Scyphornedusae they collected Gyanea capillata Linn., and 
Aurelia aurita Linn. ; of Ctenophores, Pleurobrachia pileus Fab., Bolina 
infundibulum Fab., and Beroe cucumis Fab. 

Nervous System of Anemones. $ — Paul Groselj has studied numerous 
Actinians — such as Actinia equina, Cerianthus membranaceus, Adamsia 
paJUala, Bunodes gemmaceus — with respect to the minute structure of the 
nervous system. He describes the sensory nerve-cells (both ectodermic 
and endodermic), the ganglion-cells, and the processes of both. Attention 
is directed to the incipient centralisation to be seen in the ectoderm of 
the gullet, where the nerve-fibre layer is strongly developed ; the sensory 
nerve-cells are very abundant : their processes form a very intricate 
ramification ; there is extraordinary abundance of tripolar and multipolar 
ganglion-cells, which are arranged in radial bands and form a rich plexus 
of processes. 

Zoanthese from Queensland and New Heurides.§ — Leonora J. 
Wilsmore describes Zoanthus sandvicensis sp. n., Z. similis sp. n., Z. pig- 
mentalus sp. n., and Gemmaria arenacea sp. n. The abundance of yellow- 
brown pigment in Z. pigmentatus is very striking. At the same time, 
zooxanthellae are as abundant as in Z. sandvicensis and Z. similis, in which 
there is very little pigment. It seems, therefore, that the relationship 
between zooxanthellae and pigment-granules, in virtue of which they re- 
place one another in the genus Parazoanthus, and in several families of 
Actinaria, does not exist in these species. 

* Zool. Anzeig., xxxiii. (1909) pp. 798-805 (7 figs.). 

t Proc. R. Phys. Soc, xvii. (1909) pp. 300-11 (1 fig.). 

j Arbeit. Zool. Inst. Univ. Wien, xvii. (1909) pp. 269-308 (1 pi. and 22 figs.). 

§ Journ. Linn. Soc, xxx. (1909) pp. 315-28 (3 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC 177 

Growth-stages in Parasmilia.* — W. U. Lang- has studied the growth- 
stages in British species of this coral. The points touched on are these : — 
Hereditary growth-stages exhibited in rejuvenescence as evidence that 
the latter is a form of fission ; views on the formation of dissepiments 
and tabulae, and Bernard's ideas on these in connection with fission ; their 
equal application to the colony and to the individual, and a suggested 
relation with histolysis ; finally, comparison with other widely different 
groups of branching organisms — Plants and Polyzoa — so that laws of 
branching in one group may be compared with those in another, and any 
law common to all may be determined. 

Observations on Living Alcyonarians.f — W. Kiikenthal has studied 
living specimens of Alcyonium adriaticum, Pteroeides griseum, and 
Eunicella verrucosa. When colonies were placed in water bereft of 
its oxygen, they showed a more or less marked swelling up, which 
suggests that the intake of water is largely of respiratory significance. 
Colonies may be expanded for preserving purposes by placing them in 
water with little oxygen. The pores at the top of the shaft in Pteroeides 
serve for rapid expulsion of water. 

Alcyonarians of Irish Coasts. J— Jane Stephens reports on a collec- 
tion of Alcyonarians from Irish waters. It includes Sarcodictyon 
catenata Forbes, Alcyonium digitatum Linn, Anthomastus agaricus 
Studer, Eunephthya (Dura) rosea (Kor. and Dan.), Gymnosarca bathy- 
bius Kent, Gorallium johnsoni Gray, Ceratoisis grayi Wright, Acanella 
arbuscida Johnson, Ghelido/iisis aurantiaca Studer, Caligorgia flabellum 
(Ehrenberg), Stachyodes versluysi Hickson, Chmatissa robusta (Wright 
and Studer), A. muricata Verrill, Paramuricea atlantica, Gallistephanus 
Jcoreni Wright and Studer, Pennatida aculeata Kor. and Dan., P. 
bellissima Fowler, Virgularia mirabilis (0. F. Miiller), Protoptilum 
thomsoni Kolliker, Funiculina quadrangular is, Benthoptilum sertum 
Verrill (a remarkably fine specimen), Kophobelemnon stelliferum Miiller, 
Umbelhda encrinus (Linn) var. ambigua Marion. 

New Species of Stachyodes. §— S. J. Hickson describes Stachyodes 
versluysi sp. n. from Irish waters, e.g., 77 miles west-north-west of 
Achill Head, 382 fathoms. Its closest affinities are with S. dichotoma 
and S. studeri, from which it differs in the large number of zooids in 
each whorl and in the character of the coenenchym spicules. It is 
probable that the specimens from the Bay of Biscay described by Roule 
as Calypterinus all man i belongs to this species. 

Indian Ocean Alcyonarians. || — J. Arthur Thomson and J. J. Simpson 
give an account of the Alcyonarians collected by the ' Investigator ' in the 
littoral area, and W. D. Henderson is responsible for the treatment of 
the huge and difficult genus Spongodes or Dendronephtliya. The collec- 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1909, pp. 285-307 (19 figs.). 

t Aus der Natur., v. (1909) pp. 321-8 (4 figs.). 

X Sci. Invest. Fisheries Ireland, v. (1907) published 1909, pp. 1-28 (1 pi.). 

§ Tom. cit.,pp. 10-13. 

|| An Account of the Alcyonarians collected by R.I. M.S. S. 'Investigator' in the 
Indian Ocean. II. The Alcyonarians of the Littoral Area. Printed by order of 
the Trustees of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 1909, xviii. and 319 pp. (9 pis.). 



178 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

tion includes 187 species (61 belonging to Dendronephthya) ; 108 are 
new, but 53 of these belong to Dendronepldhya. Two new genera are 
established, Dactylon&phthya appended to the NephthyidaB, and Para- 
belemnon among the Veretillids. There is also a full description of 
Studeriotes mirabilis n.n. ( = Studeria mirabilis Thomson), and Cacto- 
gorgia Simpson, two new and remarkable types previously reported. 
Perhaps the most interesting result of this memoir is the evidence that 
the genera Studeriotes, Dactylonephthya, and Cactogorgia are annectent 
types related to Alcyonids, Nephthyids, and Siphonogorgids. 

Porifera. 

New Family of Calcareous Sponges.* — R. W. Harold Row reports 
on Crossland's collection of Calcarea from the Sudanese Red Sea, 
which includes sixteen species, six new. The collection is extremely in- 
teresting, owing to its strikingly intermediate character between the 
faunas of the Mediterranean and Atlantic on the one hand, and of the 
Indian Ocean on the other. Of much interest is the author's account 
of a new type, Grantilla, which requires a new family, Grantillidas. A 
dermal cortex is always present covering over the chamber layer. The 
skeleton includes sub-dermal "prochiacts" (modified triradiate spicules), 
and may or may not include sub-dermal sagittal triradiates and quadri- 
radiates. Subgastral prochiacts may or may not be present. Chambers 
and skeleton arrangement are as in the Grantidse. 

Another new genus, Kebira, is of unusual interest as a living member 
of the Pharetronidre, an almost wholly fossil family, and in having 
peculiar triradiates, the paired rays of which are vestigial. The de- 
veloped fibres, which look like oxeas, lie radially disposed, or inclined but 
little to the radial direction, in the chamber-layer. The canal system is 
leuconoid, with large sub-dermal cavities, inhalant and exhalant canals. 

Hexactine Spicules.! — R. Kirkpatrick gives reasons for the following 
conclusions. The regular hexactine spicule (with three axes crossing at 
right angles through a common centre and corresponding with the axes 
of the regular crystalline system) was primarily formed in Hexactinellid 
sponges, as being the most economical and efficient means for supporting 
the strands of a syncytial network ; for, in the gastrosome at any rate, 
the microscleres would be useless for upholding the body or flagellated 
chambers, but most efficient for the vitally important function of keeping 
open the meshes of the dermal network. The geometrical forms of cubes, 
squares, or lines (hexactins, stauractins, amphidiscs), arise in correspon- 
dence with the requirements for supporting cubical spaces, surfaces, or 
concentric lamiiue. The support of flagellated chambers and of the 
body as a whole was a later need, and was effected by the development 
of microscleres into parenchymal and auxiliary surface macroscleres. 
The identity of axes of the regular hexactin with those of the regular 
crystalline system is a coincidence, the real determining factor of the 
shape being a biological one. 

* Joum. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) xxxi. (1909) pp. 182-214 (2 pis. and 8 figs.). 
t Ann. Nat. Hist., iv. (1909) pp. 505-9. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 179 

Protozoa. 

New Heliozoon.* — H. R. Hoogenraad describes Frmzelina minium 
sp. n. from fresh-water pools in Holland. He contrasts it with Penard's 
F. reniformis from the Lake of Geneva, and gives the following extended 
definition of the genus : — Shell hemispherical or more than hemispherical, 
slightly compressed antero-posteriorly and vertically, thin, glassy, trans- 
parent, more or less thickly covered with foreign particles ; the plasma 
has an elliptical or kidney-like shape, with thread-like, often forked 
pseudopodia. The genus is readily distinguished by the shape of the 
shell from the nearly allied Pseudodifflugia. 

Conjugation in Anoplophrya.f — B. Collin describes the details of 
the conjugation in Anoplophrya branchiarum Stein (= A. circidans 
Balbiani), the well-known astomatous parasite of the blood of Gam- 
marus pulex. There are two micronuclear maturation mitoses, and a 
third division forms the pronuclei. The migration of one of the pro- 
nuclei in conjugation is described. A study of the behaviour of the 
macronuclei confirms the interesting observation of Schneider that there 
is an exchange of half of the macronuclei between the conjugates. 

Notes on Suctoria4 — B. Collin has some notes on Dendrosomides 
paguri Collin, pointing out that the vermiform individuals, produced by 
the tentaculate (trifurcate) types by external budding, can transform 
themselves into trifurcate types. The dimorphism is only apparent. 
In Podophrya fixa 0. F. Miiller there are two forms of encystation — for 
division and for rest. What has been called transverse division in 
Podophrya is budding, with a change of axis. Within the cyst, Collin 
observed what looked like division into two and then into four, but it is 
really budding. The products pass out as ciliated or tentaculate forms. 
A budding which looks deceptively like division occurs in.parasitic forms 
of Sphserophrya. 

Life-cycle of Paramecium^ — L. L. Woodruff finds that the proto- 
plasm of these organisms, when subjected to a comparatively constant 
culture medium, passes through long cyclical changes in vitality which 
finally result in the death of the organism. The protoplasm may be 
"rejuvenated" by suitable changes in the culture medium (stimuli) at 
critical points in the cycle, and thus be enabled to resume active repro- 
duction for a longer period. The essential fact brought out by this 
study is that the protoplasm of the individual Paramecium isolated 
over two years ago to start the culture has had the potential to divide 
(so far) over one thousand two hundred and thirty times at an average 
rate of more than three divisions every two days, and the representatives 
of the untold millions of its progeny which are still in captivity give 
every indication of being in as normal physiological and morphological 
condition as their ancestor. This suggests that when the protoplasm is 
constantly subjected to a suitable varied environment the cycle may be 
greatly prolonged and probably entirely eliminated — the fluctuations in 
vitality not transcending the rhythm. 

* Tijdschr. Nedorland. Dierk. Ver., xi. (1909) pp. 61-70 (1 pi.), 
t Arch. Zool. Exper., i. ser. 5 (1909) pp. 345-87 (2 pis. and 2 figs.). 
X Comptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 1407-8. 
§ Biol. Bulletin, xvii. (1909) pp. 287-308 (5 figs.). 



180 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Skeleton of Peridinids.* — C. A. Kofoid gives a detailed account of 
the structure of Peridinium steini Jorgensen. He discusses the nomen- 
clature and gives a table showing the synonyms. He also gives an 
account of the skeleton in Podolampas eleyans. It consists of two apical, 
one intercalary, six precingular, three postcingular, four antapical plates, 
and a ventral area in which four divisions are recognisable : instead of 
one apical, five precingular, three postcingular, and two antapicals and a 
longitudinal furrow plate as heretofore stated. The missing girdle is 
represented by a narrow band fused to the lower ends of the precingular 
plates. On the surface of this band which is in the place along which 
the transverse flagellum passes, is a very shallow furrow. The so-called 
girdle (Schiitt) of Blepharocysta striata is in reality the band of three 
postcingular plates. The "comb-like furrow" of Stein is a band of 
peculiar alternating pores on the antapical plates. The pores are highly 
differentiated and are distributed with reference to the movement of 
fluids and plasma of the cell-body. The plates are united by oblique 
sutures with overlapping edges and denticles intercalated between the 
elements of the bands of striae. These striae represent differentiations in 
the substance of the wall rather than surface ridges. 

Studies of Trypanosomes.f — N. H. Swellengrebel gives an account 
of the structure and division of Trypanosoma gambiense and T. eguinum. 
He deals, for instance, with the achromatin axial filament running through 
the cell. It splits longitudinally in the division, and plays a role in 
nuclear division like that of the nucleolo-centrosome in Euglena. It is 
comparable to the axial rod in Trichomastix and Trichomonas. 

Howard Crawley $ describes Trypanosoma americanum sp. u., which 
seems to be a common parasite in healthy American cattle. Its structural 
peculiarity is that the trophonucleus and kinetonucleus lie very close 
together. This peculiarity is shown by T. transvaliense, taken to be a 
variety of T. theileri, and, as well as can be made out from his figures, by 
the trypanosome found by Miyajima. If this last fact be so, then Miyajima 
is in error in his conclusion that his flagellate is a phase of Piroplasma. 
The fact that trypanosomes occur in cultures of blood from healthy 
cattle is decidedly against the theory that they are stages in the life-history 
of a Hasmosporidian. 

Cryptobia and Trypanoplasma.§ — Howard Crawley points out that 
Leidy used the term Cryptobia in 1846 for organisms which would now 
be referred to the genus Trypanoplasma Laveran and Mesnil. He after- 
wards abandoned the name because of its resemblance to C'ryptobium, but 
according to the tyrannical rules of priority it must stand and replace 
Trypanoplasma. 

Piroplasma of Hedgehog. || — W. L. Yakimoff describes Piroplasma 
niiiense sp. n. from the blood of the hedgehog. Its intermediate host is 
the nymph of a tick, Dermatocentor reticulatus, the adult of which is the 
bearer of a Piroplasma in horses. 

* Archiv Protistenk., xvi. (1909) pp. 25-61 (2 pis.). 

t Tijdschr. Nederland. Dierk. Ver., xi. (1909) pp. 80-98 (1 pi.). 

X Bureau Animal Industry, U.S. Dept. Agric, Bull. 119 (1909) pp. 21-31 (1 fig.). 

§"Tom. cit., pp. 16-19 (1 fig.). 

|l Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., lii. (1909) pp. 472-7 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 181 

Transition Types between Bodo and Trypanoplasma.* — A. Alexieff 
indicates that it is easy to arrange a series showing the morphological 
transition from Bodo Ehrenberg to Trypanoplasma Laveran and Mesnil. 

Spirochaeta pallida in Ova of Congenitally Syphilitic Child. | 
Jas. Mcintosh reports a case in which the ovaries, along with the other 
organs, of a congenitally syphilitic child showed enormous numbers of 
Spirochseta pallida (= Treponema pallidum). This has been previously 
observed by Levaditi and Sauvage and by Bab. The spirochast evidently 
passes upwards into the ovary by the connective-tissue stroma and in- 
vades the Graafian follicles, even entering the ovum. The majority of 
the invaded follicles showed no degenerative changes. The author con- 
cludes that it is no longer legitimate to deny the possibility of the 
passage of S. pallida directly through the ovum of a syphilised woman 
to her offspring. 

Infection of Rabbits and Guinea-pigs with Syphilis. \ — Mario 
Truffi gives a circumstantial detailed account of the infection of both 
rabbits and guinea-pigs with syphilis. A cutaneous inf ectiou thus brought 
about gives rabbits absolute and lasting immunity. 

Study of Sarcosporidia.§ — L. v. Betegh gives an account of the 
structure of the sporozoites of Sarcocystis tenella Raill and S. blanchardi 
Dofl. at different stages in their development. 

Ichthyosporidian Disease in Sea Trout. || — Muriel Robertson de- 
scribes a parasite causing fatal disease in sea trout. It is closely allied 
to, if not identical with, Ichthyosporidium y aster oplrilum from Motella 
mustela and Liparis vulgaris. The parasite had invaded practically all 
organs of the sea trout, but was most abundant in the muscles of the 
heart. M. Robertson found a similar or identical form in 1906 in a 
small flounder {Pleuronectes flesus). She also reports another occurrence 
■of what seems to be the same in the tissues of the haddock. 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 649-51. 

t Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk.,li. (1909) pp. 11-13 (3 figs). 

t Op. cit., lii. (1909) pp. 555-65. § Tom. cit., pp. 568-73 (2 pis.). 

|| Proc. Zool. Soc, 1909, pp. 399-402 (3 pis.). 



-KS»+- 



182 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



BOTANY. 

GENERAL, 

Including the Anatomy and Physiology of Seed Plants. 

Cytology, 
including: Cell Contents. 

Chromosomes of Asphodelus microcarpus.* — A. Maige has studied 
the formation of the heterotype chromosomes in Asphodelus microcarpus, 
and finds no support for Overton's theory as to the existence of pro- 
chromosomes, nor for the theory of Gregory and Berghs of two spirems 
existing side by side. Neither in the prosynapsis stage nor in the 
synaptic stage is there any sign of such structures. The chromosome- 
formation at first led the author to favour Farmer's theory, but subse- 
quent closer examination has induced him to believe that Strasburger 
and Gregory are correct in their descriptions and theory. One curious 
condition observed in the present type is the delay of the longitudinal 
splitting of the portions of the spirern. 

Structure and Development. 
Vegetative. 

Gum-flow in Relation to Anatomy in Bromeliaceae.f — K. Boresch 
has studied the flow of gum observed in connection with the Brome- 
liacege in order to discover in what way it is related to the anatomy. In 
over fifteen species the flow of gum is from the stem, the chief seat of 
formation being the parenchyma of the stem, more especially the cortex. 
In Pitcairnia Roezlii gum exudes from the lower part of the leaf. A 
significant fact in connection with the origin of the gum-cavities is the 
staining of their walls with ruthenium-red. In Quesnelia roseo-margi- 
nata the gum can be stained with iodine-green. The walls of the gum- 
cavities have remarkable thylose-formations, which often fill the cavities 
themselves. Most gum-cavities are probably of lysigenous origin, but 
some appear to be schizogenous. The gum in the first instance is 
derived from the cell-membrane, but later on the cell-contents share 
in its formation. Gum-flow may be produced artificially, and when 
occurring naturally must be regarded as a pathological phenomenon, 
the cause of which is unknown. It appears to originate in a circular 
meristematic zone, which lies between the central cylinder and the cor- 
tex, and extends from the growing point down into the lower parts of 
the stem. The Bromeliacea; appear to be related in this respect to 
those Monocotyledons having specialised cambial zones. Especially 

* Coruptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 1084-8G. 

t SB. Akad. Wiss. Wien, cxviii. (1908) pp. 1033-80 (3 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. L83 

remarkable in this instance are the extent and duration of this cam- 
bium. Aechmea Pineliana exhibits certain colour-reactions, showing 
that the cells contain some unknown chemical compounds in theii 
parenchyma-cells. 

Reproductive. 

Flower-morphology and Embryology of Datisca.* — W. Himmel- 
baur has studied Datisca cannabina and finds that the whole inflores- 
cence is a thyrsus ; the individual parts of it, however, are more or less 
complete dichasia. The female flower has three inferior carpels and 
three superior perianth-leaves. The placenta tion is marginal-parietal. 
The seed usually contains one embryo-sac mother-cell, which divides 
ouce and then develops into the embryo-sac. The archegonium com- 
pletely disappears from the embryo-sac. The flower must be fertilised 
and the pollen-tube pushes its way by the funicle through the micropyle 
to the egg-apparatus. The opinions enunciated concerning partheno- 
genesis in this plant appear to be due to misconception. 

Embryology of Penseaceas.f — E. L. Stephens has examined five species 
belonging to the genera Sarcocolla, Pensea and Brachysiphon, and records 
several interesting facts in connection with their embryology. The embryo- 
sac mother-cell arises in the sub-dermatogen layer, and when heterotypic 
division occurs it already consists of four to five cell-layers. It develops 
directly into the embryo-sac. A central vacuole gradually forms, and 
here the four nuclei collect. By division sixteen nuclei are formed which 
arrange themselves symmetrically in four groups, which give rise to four 
groups of cells. Three of these groups unite and ultimately give rise to 
the egg-apparatus and the antipodal cells. The four free nuclei remain 
in the centre of the cell, and later on unite with the second nucleus of the 
pollen-tube to form the secondary nucleus of the embryo-sac. Endo- 
sperm-formation starts directly the embryo begins to develop. Usually 
embryo-development begins in the upper cell-groups, but development 
from lateral cells has also been seen. Polyembryony has been observed, 
but no instance of parthenogenesis or apogamy. 

Physiology. 
Nutrition and Growth. 

Utricularia. — P. von Luetzelburg has studied many species of 
Utricidaria, and concludes that they are truly insectivorous, being able 
to digest the insects which they catch owing to the secretion of an 
enzyme and an acid. The hairs which entrap the insects secrete sugar 
and mucus, but have no digestive action. The bladders are all of 
similar structure, and the flap closes so tightly owing to the mucus 
present that no insects can possibly get out. The direction of growth 
is strongly influenced by heliotropism and geotropism. Winter-buds 
can be produced artificially at any time. By special culture, also, the 
inflorescence axis can be made to produce lateral branches and growing 

* SB. Akad. Wiss. Wien, cxviii. (1908) pp. 91-113 (1 pi. and 4 figs.), 
t Ann. Bot., xxiii. (1909) pp. 363-378 (2 pis.). 
X Flora, c. (1909) pp. 145-212 (48 figs.). 



184 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

points. Utricularia vulgaris and U. neglecta are unable to live out of 
water, but U. Bremii, U. minor, U. ochrohuca and U. intermedia can 
exist for a long time if carefully watered. U. montana is a true land 
form and has lost its plasticity. The species U. cornuta, U. reniformis, 
U. Gluckii, U. elephas, U. Herzogii, U. Menziesii and U. neottio'ides show- 
great difference in form and adaptability. It would appear that the 
formation of the bladders may be of use in classifying and identifying 
species. U. neottio'ides has bladders on the leaves of young plants, 
although the older plants have no bladders. 

Irritability. 

Chloroplast-movements.* — K. Linsbauer and E. Abranowicz have 
studied the movements of chloroplasts, especially in Lemna trisulca and 
Funaria. The conclusions formed are briefly as follows : — The move- 
ments of the chloroplasts of these two plants show many analogies with 
the streaming of protoplasm. Ether-water (1 p.c.) inhibits the move- 
ments normally exhibited when the plants are placed in darkness, while 
the assumption of the profile position due to direct insolation is facili- 
tated. In positive apostrophe, however, etherised chloroplasts retain 
their position. Withdrawal of CO., is favourable to the taking up of 
the apostrophe position in direct sunlight, but is unfavourable to the 
change into the epistrophe position upon cessation of this light. Move- 
ment of the chloroplasts, unlike streaming of protoplasm, ■ is connected 
with the power of assimilation. Increase in turgor favours the positive 
apostrophe. The collecting of chloroplasts in definite positions must be 
connected with phototaxis of the protoplasm. In Funaria the chloro- 
plasts move along threads of protoplasm which are continually changing 
in form and position. Chloroplast movement is passive, although accom- 
panied in some cases by an amoeboid movement of the chloroplasts 
themselves. 

General. 

Systematic Relationship of Sarracenia and Cephalotus.f — J. 
Schweiger has studied the anatomy and morphology of Sarracenia and 
Gephalotus, and although he agrees with those authors who find a large 
number of similarities between the two genera, e.g. in the formation of 
the vascular bundles, the large number of tannin-cells and starch-grains, 
the structure of the glands, etc., he does not consider that there is suffi- 
cient ground for inferring a systematic relationship. The similarities 
appear to be of a biologic and not of a systematic character. The 
differences on the other hand balance the similarities in number and 
are of more weight in relation to systematic position. Thus, the flowers 
of the Sarracenias are pentamerous while those of Gephalotus are hexa- 
merous. The structure of the stamens and of the pollen-grains is different 
for the two genera. Especially to be noticed is the difference in seed- 
development, that of Sarracenia being of the sympetalous type while 
the seed of Gephalotus is of the polypetalous type. In Sarracenia the 

* SB. Akad. Wiss. Wieu, cxviii. (1909) pp. 137-82 (2 pis. and 2 figs.), 
t Beih. Bot. Centralbl., xxv. (1909) pp. 490-539 (58 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 185 

embryo-sac absorbs the entire nucellus, while in Gephalotus the ripe seed 
contains perisperm. Gephalotus has numerous seeds, while Sarracenia 
has only one. These and other differences appear to discredit any 
systematic relationship between the two genera. 

Variation of Zinnia due to Traumatism.* — P. Becquerel contributes 
some interesting observations upon variations exhibited by Zinnia elegans 
in consequence of traumatism. The plants having been partially frost- 
bitten, the damaged portions were cut away. The remaining shoots 
produced very fine flowers, which showed some remarkable variations in 
the structure of the capitula, the colour and scales of the florets, and the 
grouping of the leaves upon the stem. The author is not prepared to 
assert that these phenomena have any connection with mutations, but he 
awaits the results of the seeds produced by these flowers, before making 
any definite statements. 

Origin of Cultivated Oats.f — M. Trabut contributes a note upon 
cultivated oats. The writer has examined many species of North African 
oats, and finds that they are all to be regarded as secondary species of 
Arena sterilis. They differ in no important respect from the cultivated 
oats of the Mediterranean region, and they are not hybrids. It would 
appear that A. sterilis and A./atua have given rise to two series of cul- 
tivated oats ; the former is characteristic of the Mediterranean region, 
and has tough elongated glumules, the lower glumule inserted obliquely, 
and other less important characters ; the latter is characteristic of central 
Europe, and has short glumules inserted horizontally, while the flowers 
separate by rupture from the rachis. The character of the articulations 
may be useful in determining spontaneous species, but should only be 
regarded as of secondary importance. 

New Fossil Discoveries and their Significance.! — H. Brockmann- 
Jerosch contributes a preliminary paper upon some new fossils discovered 
in the quaternary beds and their significance in reference to the flora of 
the Ice Age. Through excavations lately made in the neighbourhood 
of (luntenstall it has been proved that the geological strata in that 
region are less old than the slate-coal beds of Uznach. The present 
discoveries show that the Nathorst theory as to the Dryas-ftoYH is not 
tenable, for everywhere that this flora has been examined, there has been 
found intermingled with it a flora characteristic of the climate of modern 
central Europe. This flora includes both water and land plants, such as 
Sparganium, Potamogeton, Alisma, Salix repens, Betula, Ranunculus, etc. 
This tends to show that we are dealing with a flora of warm, level 
regions. The author regards the Dryas-Qora, not as a remnant of a 
general flora but as a zone surrounding an ice-region, and believes that 
the fossil discoveries cited in favour of the Nathorst theory have been 
wrongly classified as to their geological age, owing to misconceptions 
derived from the theory itself. 

* Cornptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 1148-50. f Torn. cit.,pp. 227-9. 

J Vierteljahrsch. Naturf. Gesell. Zurich, liv. (1909) pp. 101-15. 

April 20th, 1910 



186 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

CRYPTOGAMS. 

Pteridophyta. 

(By A. Gepp, M.A., F.L.S.) 

Fertile Spike of the Ophioglossaceae.*— M. A. Chrysler discusses 
the nature of the fertile spike in the Ophioglossaceae. He recapitulates 
the theories that have been put forward by previous authors, describes his 
own investigations, and gives the following summary. 1. The pair of 
vascular bundles in the fertile spike of Botrychium virginianum arise 
from near the edges of a trough-shaped and usually split leaf-trace. 
Each of these bundles leaves a gap in the leaf -trace. Similar gaps occur 
in other ferns. 2. Since the bundles running into the pinna? of the 
sterile frond arise in exactly in the same way, it is inferred that the 
fertile spike represents two fused basal pinnae. 3. In B. tematum and 
B. obliquum there is a slight modification as to the gaps, which is 
regarded as a reduction of the condition found in B. virginianum. 

4. In other species a further reduction is found, the gaps being absent. 

5. Abnormal specimens of B. obliquum show either a pair of fertile 
spikes, or a pair of spikes with a single spike (fused pair) below. Such 
cases are regarded as reversions. G. In Ophioglossum the bundles lead- 
ing to the fertile spike break off from the two edges of the curved row 
of strands which represents the leaf -trace. This condition is regarded as 
derived from that of Botrychium. 7. In Helminthostachys the vascular 
supply of the fertile spike is derived principally from one edge of the 
curved row of bundles which forms the leaf -trace ; and it is inferred 
that here the fertile spike represents a single pinna. 8. The Ophio- 
glossaceae are related to the ferns, having sprung from near the level of 
the Osmundaceae. They branched off from the primitive stock at a 
very remote period. 9. A study of the internal structure of the leaf in 
Ophioglossaceae affords strong support to Roeper's view that the fertile 
spike represents two fused basal pinnae, though in certain cases a spike 
represents a single pinna, which, however, does not rise ventrally. No 
support is afforded to the view of a strobilar origin or of a direct 
derivation from Hepaticae. 

Foliar Gaps in the Osmundaceae. f — E. W. Sinnott discusses the 
presence of foliar gaps in the Osmundaceae. 1. He examined six species, 
and found foliar gaps in all at the points where leaf-traces branch off 
from the vascular cylinder, though sometimes obscured. 2. All fossil 
Osmundaceae with parenchymatous pith show foliar gaps. 3. All young 
Osmundaceae, with a single doubtful exception, show foliar gaps from 
very early stages. 4. In seven species a gap in the arch-shaped leaf- 
bundle was always found at the base of the trace to the pinna. In 
three species this gap affected only the xylem, but in the remaining four 
involved a complete break in the vascular tissue. 5. That foliar gaps 
represent a primitive feature in the Osmundaceae is quite clear from the 
fossil evidence and the structure of the young plant and the foliar 
strands (both of which are ever conservative of ancestral characters). 

* Ann. Bot., xxiv. (1910) pp. 1-18 (2 pis. and figs.), 
t Tom. cit., pp. 107-118 (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. L87 

r>. The Osmundacea? are, therefore, very properly placed in Jeffrey's 
phylum Pteropsida, the members of which are primitively phyllosiphonic. 

Chromosomes in Osmunda.* — S. Yamanouchi has studied the 
behaviour of chromosomes during both homotypic and heterotypic 
mitoses in Osmunda cinnamomea. He finds that : — 1. The reticulum in 
the young nucleus arises from the chromosomes of the previous division 
by vacuolation, and consists chiefly of chromatin. 2. The chromatin 
network during the resting stage shows no indication of a pairing of 
knots or strands. 3. Individuality of the chromosomes is retained in 
the vacuolate and reticulate form during the resting stage, although the 
limits of individual chromosomes become hard to trace. 4. The pairing 
of chromatin material, perhaps of maternal and paternal derivation, 
■appears only at the early prophase of heterotypic mitosis. The pairs 
may come into the closest association during synapsis, but the duality is 
maintained. As a consequence no actual fusion occurs. 5. There is no 
splitting of chromosomes in the heterotypic mitosis ; each bivalent 
chromosome is formed by the association of two independent chromo- 
somes. The separation of the two gives an appearance of longitudinal 
•division. 

Apospory and Apogamy in Trichomanes.t — P. Georgevitch pub- 
lishes a preliminary note on apospory and apogamy in Tricfiomanes 
Kaulfussii, supplementing some observations by F. 0. Bower. He 
describes the filamentous prothallium, its gemmge and their further 
development into gametophytes bearing antherida and rhizoids. The 
transition from sporophyte to gametophyte is attended by no alteration 
in the number of chromosomes. The number of chromosomes is about 
eighty in both generations. As to the nucleoli, the number and appear- 
ance were the same in both generations. It is impossible to draw a 
sharp line of distinction between sporophyte and gametophyte. As in 
other plants, npospory implies absence of the meiotic phase. 

Stegmata in the HymenophyllaceaB.J — M. Boubier describes the 
nature of the " stegmates " {stegmata, Deckzellen) discovered by 
Mettenius in 1864. They are cells of peculiar character found in the 
petiole or stem of some of the Hymenophyllacese, where they are applied 
to the outside of the fibrovascular bundles or to the stereids, and have 
their walls unequally thickened. The original cell-wall applied to the 
vessels is of pectose with a little cellulose ; its strong internal secondary 
thickening is much lignified in some species, and mainly of pectose in 
other species. The middle part of the cell is occupied by a large 
crystalloid body which consists of a silicious capsule inclosing a mass of 
pectose strongly impregnated with silex. The author describes the 
reagents which he used for his microchemical examination. 

Strobilus of Selaginella.§ — G. Mitchell gives an account of the 
morphology of the strobilus of Selaginella with a view to completing the 
.series of papers published by R. J. Harvey-Gibson upon the anatomy of 

* Bot. Gaz., xlix. (1910) pp. 1-12 (pi.). 

t Ann. Bot., xxiv. (1910) pp. 233-4 (fig.). 

t Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve, ser. 2, i. (1909) pp. 281-4 (figs.). 

§ Ann. Bot., xxiv. (1910) pp. 19-33 (2 pis.). 

O 2 



188 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the genus. She describes the cone, the sporangia, imperfect sporangia, 
variation in the number of spores in the sporangium, detailed structure 
of the sporangium wall and mechanism for spore-shedding, the vascular 
system, and the ligule. She concludes as follows : — " The examination 
of the species serves to emphasize the intermediate position in which 
Selaginella stands. On the one hand, it may resort to conditions 
characteristic of the distinctly primitive Lycopodia, whilst on the other, 
its wonderful adaptations for cross-fertilization, bringing into play the 
most elaborate mechanism seen in the Pteridophyte group, and its near 
approach to the seed habit, render it one of the most interesting as well 
as instructive genera in the whole of the plant world." 

Selaginella Preissiana.* — H. Bruchmann gives an account of Selagi- 
nella Preissiana, with a view to showing how far this peculiar species 
agrees in structure and arrangement of its organs with the other species 
which he has investigated. He describes the prothallium, the germina- 
ting plant, the mature plant, the apical growth arising from a group of 
apical cells, the branching, the stem, leaves, rhizophores, roots. The 
plant is strongly xerophilous, being well protected against loss of water 
by means of the conversion of its second dichotomial branch into a sub- 
terranean rhizome, and by means of the crowding of the shoots which 
soon produce fertile spikes and which have narrow lanceolate entire 
leaves, and also by means of the strongly cuticularised epidermis of 
shoots, rhizome, and rhizophores. 

Origin of Heterospory in Marsilia. t — Oh. Shattuck discusses the 
origin of heterospory in Marsilia. He gives the following summary of 
his investigations. 1. The megaspores of Marsilia can be killed by a 
spray of cold water. They occur only in the oldest sporangia. The 
plant may then be put under good conditions to ripen sporocarps with- 
out megaspores. 2. The greatest variations occur when the megaspores 
and the oldest microspores are killed, and when strong plants develop 
a few sporocarps out of season. 3. When less than half the spores abort, 
enlargement does not appear among the microspores ; the surviving 
spores are larger the greater the abortion. 4. The development of the 
mother-cells may be checked till the tapetal nuclei completely invest 
them. A perinium will then form around the mother-cell Wall, invest- 
ing the four young spores. The sporangium then invariably contains 
sixteen large forms each containing four nuclei. Or, if growth is less 
checked, the spores are more or less completely free and vary much in 
size and shape. 5. Among the young megaspores in a sporangium the 
contest for supremacy is very evident, several of them assuming con- 
siderable proportions', but one centrally placed invariably secures the 
ascendancy. The survivor sometimes retains the aborted members of 
its tetrad 'attached to its papilla. 6. The enlarged microspores vary in 
size up to 8 to 1G times the size of the ordinary ones, and the position 
of the nucleus changes from a central to an apical one (as in megaspores) ; 
and the vacuolation being more extensive, the shape of the nucleus varies 
from spherical to oval and finally to meniscus shape (as in megaspore)- 

* Flora, c. (1910) pp. 288-95 (figs.). 

t Bot. Gaz., xlix. (1910) pp. 19-40 (4 pis. and fig.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 189 

7. In extreme cases of abortion in the microsporangia only one spore 
survives, and grows to about 16 times the size of the normal microspore. 
The aborted tetrads remain as in the megasporangium, but are larger 
and better developed, indicating a more prolonged contest for supremacy. 

8. In plants kept from sporocarp-formation until September 10, many 
microsporangia developed secondary megaspores, so called because they 
are formed after the first or primary ones. Such megaspores are inter- 
mediate in size and are also more nearly the spherical shape of the 
microspores. 9. In a few cases the megaspores did not develop a peri- 
nium. but enlarged considerably and became full of starch. 10. In 
normal plants, and in all cultures, a homosporous tendency is found, 
shown by the formation of microspores in the megasporangia, especially 
in those' most distant from the nutritive supply. 11. Marsilia may be 
made to repeat, uuder culture, all the phases in the development of 
heterospory reported by Williamson and Scott for Calamostachys Bin- 
neyana and 0. Casheana, and in addition to produce a megaspore of 
intermediate size. 

Fertilisation of Fern-prothallia.* — G. Perrin gives a brief account 
of some experiments made upon fern-prothallia in order to test the ap- 
plicability of Traube's theory that the rapidity of osmosis and the state 
of equilibrium dependent upon it is above all a function of the differ- 
ence of the superficial tensions of the liquids present. Antherozoids of 
ferns in pure water with a superficial tension of 7 • 5 mg. move about 
without change of form or volume ; but in solutions of lower superficial 
tension they move more slowly, swell, lose their form, and not rarely 
burst. Thus under the latter conditions fertilisation is fatally hindered. 
In the experiments described, solutions, with the surface-tension reduced 
by the addition of various infinitesimal amounts of bile-salts to pure 
water, were employed, and produced a corresponding reduction in the 
percentage of archegonia fertilised. Through swelling or bursting the 
antherozoids tend to fail to penetrate into the archegonia. 

Cytology of Varietal and Hybrid Ferns.f — J. B. Farmer and L. 
Digby discuss the cytological features exhibited by certain varietal and 
hybrid ferns, and in particular Polypodium Schneideri, which is stated 
to be a hybrid between P. aureum and P. vidgare var. elegantissimum. 
In their summary they say that : — 1. The view that Polypodium 
Schneideri is of hybrid origin receives support from a study of its 
cytology. 2. The nuclei of P. aureum are one-third smaller than those 
of P. vidgare. The number of chromosomes in P. aureum is about 
34 to 36, in P. vidgare about 90. In P. Schneideri they vary between 95 
and 125. 3. In P. vidgare var. elegantissimum many abortive spores 
are produced, in P. Schneideri all are abortive. This sterility is asso- 
ciated with degeneration of the cytoplasm and of the nuclear apparatus. 
4. The achromatic spindle in P. aureum, etc., is bipolar, in P. vidgare 
mostly quadripolar, in P. Schneideri either bipolar or quadripolar, usually 
the latter. 5. The spindle is formed from a differentiation of the cyto- 
plasm (kinoplasm) and is influenced in its distribution by the aggregation 

* Comptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 1086-7. 
t Ann. Bot., xxiv. (1910) pp. 191-212 (3 pis.). 



11*0 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

of the chromatin linin in the nucleus and by electrical conditions. »>. 
Chromatic droplets are ejected from the nucleus into the cytoplasm at 
certain stages of mitosis. 7. Nuclear divisions resembling amitosis 
occur frequently in the hybrid P. Schneider/', but they also occur rarely 
in P. vulgare and its var. elegantissimum. These imperfect mitoses are 
brought about by the failure of the nuclear wall to disappear at the end 
of diakinesis. 8. Much irregularity as to pairing of the chromosomes 
to form the bivalents exists in the hybrid plant, and also, though less 
obviously so, in P. vulgare var. elegantissimum. 9. The processes that 
lead to depauperation of the reproductive cells, and ultimately to sterility, 
in hybrids are encountered in certain sports, which also exhibit sterility 
in a marked decree. 



-■to* 



Aspidium remotum Al. Br.*— H. Fischer discusses the question as 
to whether Aspidium remotum is the outcome of crossing or mutation. 
He collected specimens of the plant in the Vosges and raised plants from 
some of the spores. Some of the material germinated plentifully and 
the prothallia produced numerous plantlets, but they remained apoga- 
mous. The apogamy followed the usual lines and showed nothing of 
special interest ; the upper part of the midrib, near to the apex, grew 
out into the young plant. The author comes to the conclusion that 
Aspidium {N&phrodium) remotum is certainly no good species, but also 
no montrosity ; the question remains whether it is a bastard or has 
arisen by mutation. The author inclines to the latter view. Whether 
apogamy is the general result of germination in N. remotum is also an 
unsolved question. Should further investigation prove that apogamy is 
typical for N. remotum, then the interesting fact is established that a 
bastard or a " mutante " has inherited apogamous methods of reproduc- 
tion, such as we have only known till now in good species or monstrosities. 

The author then discusses certain monstrosities (N.filix-mas monstr. 
polydactyla Moore and Athyrium filix femina monstr. depauperata r subvar. 
Edelstenii Lowe) which he has grown under supervision, as well as some 
other species. He doubts whether Asplenium germanicum Weiss is really 
a bastard. 

New French Ferns.f — H. Leveille gives an account of two new 
varieties of French ferns described by H. Christ, Polystkhum (Dryop- 
teris) fllix-mas var. Pagesii and Asplenium for esiacum var. angustatum, 
both collected in the department of Herault by H. Coste. 

Pteridophyta of Malta 4 — Gr. Gulia gives a list of the Pteridophyta 
of the Maltese islands. These comprise fourteen species, the distribu- 
tion and native names of which are stated. Scdvinia natans depends 
upon a single record, upon which Sommier casts some doubt in view of 
the absence of this species from all the Italian islands. 

Studies of Tropical American Fems.§ — W. R. Maxon publishes a 
second paper on tropical American ferns, with the following chapters :— 

* Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., xxvii. (1909) pp. 495-502. 

+ Bull. Acad. Internat. G6ogr. Bot., xvii. (1909) pp. vii.-viii. 

J Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital., 1909, pp. 220-2. 

§ Contrib. U.S. Nat. Hist. Herb. Washington, xiii. (1909) pp. 1-43 (pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. L91 

1. Notes upon ferns recently collected in Guatemala, by Baron von 
Tiirckheim, with descriptions of thirteen new species. 2. The bipinnate 
species of Oy allied (one of the five species is new). 3. A revision of the 
West Indian species of Polystichum, with a key to the nineteen species 
(live of them are new). 4. Description of four new species. 

American Species of Dryopteris.* — C. Christensen publishes a re- 
port on the American ferns of the group of Dryopteris opposita con- 
tained in the U.S. National Museum, including some 425 specimens, 
many collected by John Donnell Smith in Central America. Nine 
species are described as new ; and in this and a preceding paper 94 
American species of this one group have now been treated of by the 
author. The species of the Andes and West Indies have much affinity, 
while those of South Brazil show a remarkable difference. In the West 
Indies the continental element is strongest in Jamaica, where several 
species occur which are not found in the smaller islands. The geo- 
graphical distribution of the species is displayed in tabular form. 

Ferns of the Philippines.! — E. B. Copeland publishes a fourth 
article on new or interesting Philippine ferns, containing descriptions of 
seven new species and a new variety. Gurrania is a new genus, with 
one species, collected in the island of Luzon. It is probably derived 
from Athyrium, but is distinct in aspect and in various characters from 
every group in that genus, and its sori have no indusia. 

Ferns of Costa Rica .| — H. Christ publishes a sixth paper on the 
ferns of Costa Rica containing nearly fifty species, twenty-nine of which 
are new, including Costaricia Werckleana. the type of a new genus. This 
plant, though sterile, shows a sufficiency of characters to mark it out as 
a representative of a genus previously undescribed, but of uncertain 
position. Possibly it will eventually be found to have dimorphic fronds 
like a PoJybotrya. Its habit resembles that of Nephrolepis. But from 
both these genera Costaricia is distinguished by various details. The 
specimens determined in this paper were collected by C. Werckle and 
C. Brade. 

Ferns of New Guinea. § — H. Christ gives an account of the ferns 
brought back from New Guinea by the Dutch Scientific Expedition. 
They are seventy-three in number, and were collected mostly by G. M. 
Versteeg and a few by Brariderhorst : and they include eighteen new 
species and varieties. 

Japanese Lycopodiales.|| — H. Takeda gives a systematic account of 
the Lycopodiales of Hokkaido and of Japanese Sachalin, showing the 
synonymy, literature and distribution of each species and variety, and 
supplying some text-figures. The enumeration comprises 12 species, 
X varieties, and 2 forms of Lycopodium, 3 species of Selaginella, and 2 of 
Isoetes ; and the detailed keys to the species are provided under each 
genus. 

• Smithsonian Misc. Coll. Washington, lii. (1909) pp. 365-90. 

t Philippine Journ. Sci. Manila, iv. (1909) pp. 111-15. 

j Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve, ser. 2, i., pp. 216-36 (figs.). 

§ Result. Expe'd. Sci. Neerlandoise a la Nouvelle-Guinee, viii. (1909) pp. 149-64. 

|| Bot. Mag. Tokyo, xxiii. (1909) pp. 200-43 (figs.). 



192 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Japanese Ferns.* — T. Makino gives descriptions of the following 
Japanese ferns : — Plagiogyria stenoptera Diels, P. Hayatana (new species), 
Monachosorum nipponicum (new species), Athyriwn Nakanoilnevr species), 
Blechnum nipponicum Makino, Polypodium Engleri var. yalcushimense 
(new variety) ; and supplies an analytical key to the Japanese species of 
Plagiogyria. 

Structure and Position of Pinakodendron.f — R. Carnbier and A. 
Renier publish some observations on Pinalcodendron, of the three species 
of which little has been known hitherto. Being in possession of fine 
specimens of P. Macconochiei from Charleroi, they give a more complete 
account of the structure of the stem and branches, when it is concluded 
that Pinalcodendron belongs to the Lepidodendrese as much as do 
Asolanus and Bothrodendron, the chief characters being found in the 
details of leaf -scars and the ornamentation of the bark. Cyclostigma 
has great affinity with Pinalcodendron. P. Macconochiei appears to be 
specifically distinct from P. musivum and P. Ohmanni, but possibly the 
two latter are con specific. 

New Fossil Dadoxylon.J— M. I). Zalessky gives a preliminary account 
of Dadoxylon Trifilievi, a new species found in the Upper Devonian of 
the Donetz basin in Russia. The medulla of its stem is surrounded by 
numerous bundles of primary xylem with mesarch structure and mostly 
contiguous to the secondary wood, which is of the Dadoxylon type. The 
author shows how the structure approaches D. Spenceri on the one hand 
and Pitys antiqua on the other. 

Aloys Sodiro.§ — Porter publishes an obituary notice of A. Sodiro, 
who died at Quito in June, 1909. A native of Italy, he acquired his 
early knowledge of plants in the southern countries of Europe. Going 
to Ecuador in 1870 he succeeded to the professorship at Quito held 
by W. Jameson. In studying the ferns and flowering plants of 
Ecuador he had great difficulties to contend against, amongst others, 
a lack of named specimens and of botanical books. He published 
several papers, the most important being his Cryptogams Vasculares 
Qui tenses. || 

Bryophyta, 
(By A. Gepp.) 

• Spermatogenesis of Mnium.f — M. Wilson publishes a preliminary 
note on the spermatogenesis of Milium hornum. He cites the statement 
of Arensand of Docters van Leeuwen-Reijnvaan, and points out wherein 
his own results differ from theirs, giving in brief many details concern- 
ing the nuclear changes observed during the development of the 
antheridium and spermatocytes. 

* Bot. Mag. Tokyo, xxiii. (1909) pp. 244-8. 
t Comptes Rendus cxlix. (1909) pp. 1167-9. 

t Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Pe'tersbourg, ser. 6, No. 18 (1909) pp. 1175-8. 

§ Le Monde des Plantes, (1909) xi. pp. 47-48.). 

|| Quito (1893) 670 pp. (7 pis.). % Ann. Bot., xxiv. (1910) p. 235. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. L93 

o o 

Chemotaxis of Spermatozoids in Marchantia.* — A. Akerman gives 
an account of his investigations into the chemotaxis of the spermatozoids 
of Marchantia. The spermatozoids are attracted not only by proteid 
matters but also by salts of potassium, rubidium, and caesium. The 
spermatozoids become conscious of potassium salts and of proteid matters 
by different and independent acts of perception. Sodium and calcium 
salts have no such chemotactic action ; on the other hand the salts of 
magnesium and ammonium exert a weak repulsion, and the salts of the 
heavy metals a strong one. As to the spermatozoids, all their move- 
meuts of this character are of a chemotactic nature ; they have no osmo- 
tactic excitability ; but, as Lidforss has shown, they manifest a clear 
aerotaxis. 

Mechanism of Cohesion in Moss-leaves.f — W. Lorch continues his 
dispute with Steinbrinck about the mechanism of cohesion of PoJy- 
trichum leaves. He is convinced that his opponent is wrong, and 
adduces fresh arguments to prove it by the peculiar behaviour of cer- 
tain cells under polarised light. 

Nomenclature of Sphagnum.} — A. Le Eoy Andrews criticises the 
proposals, which Roll will lay before the coming International Con- 
gress of Botanists at Brussels, concerning the nomenclature to be applied 
to Sphagnum. These proposals are broadly as follows. 1. Sphagnum- 
species are in their nature series of forms, and hence a type-form is an 
impossibility. Species based on a single form or specimen are of little 
value, and should give way to species described from a series of forms. 
2. The description of a species (series of forms) should be short and 
characteristic, and should not repeat the characters of the genus, varie- 
ties, or forms. 3. Extension or completion of a description already 
existent does not justify change of specific name or change of author's 
nauie. 4. When within a genus a group is changed in rank or moved 
into another group without change of rank, the first author shall be 
cited, and the author for the change, if cited at all, be put in a paren- 
thesis. Andrews regards Roll's proposals as founded on a fallacious idea 
of the species and types, as an offence against the principles of binomial 
nomenclature, as encouraging insufficient descriptions, and as generally 
reactionary. 

British Bryophyta.§ — -0. B. Cramptou records the occurrence of 
fruiting cushions of Dicranum Bergeri in Caithness, June 1908. 

J. A. Wheldon || records the finding of the very rarely fruiting Ulota 
phyllantha with abundant capsules, near Kingsbridge, in S. Devon, by 
H. Beesley in May 1909. 

E. Armitage IT gives a list of nine mosses and four hepatics, new- 
records for the vice-counties Elgin and Easterness, among them being 
I r lota phyllantha with fruit. A new record for Ayr is added. 

C. H. Waddell** publishes a supplementary note on the late J. H. 
Davies and his connection with Thirsk and the mosses of Yorkshire. 

* Zeitschr. f. Bot., ii. (1910) pp. 94-103. 

t Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell. xxvii. (1909) pp. 460-5. 

; Bryologist, xiii. (1910) pp. 4-6. § Journ. of Bot., xlviii. (1910) p. 23. 

|| Tom. cit., p. 57. f Loc. cit. ** Loc. cit. 



1 ( .'4 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

George Holmes,* of Stroud, Gloucestershire, is the subject of an 
obituary note. He died last October, aged 75, and for many years had 
been a keen and careful moss-student. 

New and Rare European Mosses. f — G. Roth publishes descriptions 
and drawings of some twenty-three mosses, which are supplementary to 
those comprised in his book, " Europaische Laubmoose," published five 
years ago. Three of them are new to science, and the remaining species 
are rarities about which but little has been known hitherto. 

Hepaticae of Hamburg.^ — J- Schmidt publishes some new con- 
tributions to the study of the Hamburg flora, and among them gives a 
list of twenty-one hepaticse with their local distribution and a few 
critical notes. 

Mosses of the Rhongebirge. — A. Geheeb has published a series of 
notes, nearly 100 in number, on the moss-flora of the Rhongebirge, his 
native mountains. In the course of the last thirty years he had made 
numerous pedestrian tours in the district, and had acquired a great know- 
ledge of the moss-flora. The notes are of a critical character, and are 
arranged in systematic order. 

Mosses of Savoy. ]| — A. Guinet gives an account of some bryological 
excursions in the Alps of Annecy in Savoy — Mt. Veyrier and Roc de 
Chere. He enumerates 135 mosses, six Sphagnacese, and fifteen hepatics. 

Bryophyta of Sicily. f — L. Micheletti publishes a list of thirty-two 
mosses and two hepatics collected by himself and two others in Sicily, 
and adds an account of a moss which he found on the wall of an aqueduct 
near Messina in 1893, and which was named by Max Fleischer Eucla- 
dium verticillatum var. Michelettii. 

North American Bryophyta.** — H. E. Greenwood gives a list of 
thirty-six hepatics collected at Worcester, Mass., where the swampy 
ground is favourable to the growth of the thalloid species ; but the 
species proper to damp woodlands are disappearing. 

I. Hagen |f publishes a note on the synonymy of Hijpnum ornitho- 
podioides Scop. 

A. J. Grout \X publishes a fifth chapter of notes on Vermont bryo- 
phytes. 

Bolivian Mosses. §§ — T. Herzog publishes a contribution to the moss- 
flora of Bolivia, the proceeds of his visit to the provinces of Chiquitos 
and Velasco, to Cerro Amboro and Incacorral. He gives descriptions of 
three new genera, seventy new species, which he illustrates by means 
of plates and text-figures. He gathered also 322 species, additions to 

* Journ. of Bot., xlviii. (1910) p. 64. 

t Hedwigia, xlix. (1910) pp. 213-29 (2 pis.). 

\ Allgem. Bot. Zeitschr., xv. (1909) pp. 193-4. 

§ Tom. cit., pp. G8-71, 90-2, 105-8, 135-7, 151-2, 171-3, 186-92. 

|| Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Geneve, xiii. (1909) pp. 52-65. 

i Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital., 1909, pp. 212-16. ** Bryologist, xiii. (1910) pp. 7-9. 

tt Tom. cit., p. 9. U Tom. cit., pp. 13-15. 

§§ Beih. Bot. Centralbl., xxvi. 2te Abt., 1909, pp. 45-102 (3 pis. and figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 19;" 

the Bolivian flora, which he enumerates in tables geographically arranged 
according to the localities which he explored, including the same in a 
bryo-geographical sketch. The new genera denned are Polymerodon 
(to be referred perhaps to the Dicranaceas), Simplicidms (with the vege- 
tative habit of a Fissidens), Wollnya (resembling Splachnacese in ha I tit 
and Bryeoe in peristome). 

Sphagnaceae of Siberia.* — C. Jensen gives an account of the Sphag- 
naceas collected by Arnell (in 1876) and others. These comprise twenty- 
seven species and some varieties. In addition to synonymy and distri- 
bution, the author supplies critical notes on the plants. The rest of the 
mosses and the hepatics were published by Arnell and Lindberg in 1889. 

Mosses of Japan and Corea.f — J. Cardot publishes a further list of 
new mosses collected by Faurie and others in Japan and Corea, being 
a sequel to the lists in Bull. Herb. Boissier vol. vii. (1907) p. 701), 
and vol. viii. (1908) p. 331. The present paper contains descriptions of 
sixty-one species and varieties, nearly all of which are acrocarpous. 

C. F. Austin: North American Bryologist.J — E. Gr. Britton gives 
a biographical account of Coe Finch Austin (b. 1831, d. 1880). Many 
of the mosses and hepatics issued in his published sets were collected 
near his home in Closter, New Jersey. His Musci Appalachiani con- 
tained 450 numbers and were issued in 1870, followed by a Supplement 
of 100 numbers in 1878 ; and his Hepaticee Boreali-Americana?, with 
150 numbers, were issued in 1*78. His moss herbarium is in Columbia 
College, New York, and his hepatics in Manchester. He published some 
twenty-eight papers. 

Charles Lacouture.§ — C. C. Haynes publishes an obituary note on 
Charles Lacouture, who died at Dijon on November 7, 1908, aged 
76. He was the author of an illustrated synoptical key to the French 
hepatics (1905), and of a similar key to the forty odd subgenera of 
L&jeunea (1908) ; and he left a nearly completed key to all the 
known genera of hepatics, which it is expected F. Stephani will finish 
and publish. 

Thallophyta. 
Algae. 

(By Mrs. E. S. Gepp.) 

Phycoerythrin.|| — E. K. Hanson publishes some observations on 
phycoerythrin, the red pigment of deep-water algas. The object of his 
study was to throw light on (1) its role in assimilation, and (2) its 
chemical nature, suggested to be protein. The preparation of material 
was a difficulty, as the colouring matter occurs in very small proportion 
in most red algaa. Ceramium rubrum and other species of the genus 
yielded a fair quantity. The author describes his methods and then 

* K. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Handl., xliv. No. 5 (1909) 18 pp. 

t Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve, ser. 2, i. (1909) pp. 120-32. 

X Bryologist, xiii. (1910) pp. 1-4 (portrait). 

§ Tom. cit., p. 10. || New Phytologist, viii. (1909) pp. 337 44. 



196 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

discusses the part played by phycoerythrin in assimilation, the chemical 
nature of phycoerythrin, and the action of proteolytic ferments on solu- 
tion. His results appear to show that : — 1. Phycoerythrin plays the 
part of assistant to chlorophyll by absorbing blue-green light and de- 
grading it to the light which corresponds to the absorption bands i. and 
iii. of chlorophyll. 2. Phycoerythrin is probably a colloidal nitrogenous 
substance, related to protein — but not a true protein, as its nitrogen 
content is too low and it does not give the Biuret reaction. The evidence 
is incomplete ; pure phycoerythrin has still to be prepared, and even 
comparatively pure phycoerythrin in sufficient quantity for extended 
chemical investigation has not yet been obtained. 

Hybrid Fucus.* — 0. Sauvageau writes on a hybrid between Fucus 
vesiculosus and F. serratus. In a previous work he recorded a hybrid 
plant from Cherbourg, and in the present communication he states that 
he has found similar specimens at St. Malo and at Ploumanac'h. Tin- 
author describes briefly both the hybrid and the parents. He considers 
that the formula of the hybrid is F. vesiculosus^ x F. serratus <$ . 

Epiphytes of Laminaria. f — F. Tobler writes on the epiphytes of 
the Laminarias from a biological and morphological standpoint. The 
material was collected on the coast of Norway. He divides his remarks 
into general and special parts, and describes the different algae which 
appear as epiphytes ; the habitat and surroundings ; the development of 
the epiphytic flora ; the normal and pathological anatomy of the Larnina- 
riaceaa ; the manner of attachment of certain epiphytes ; the communities 
and relation to the animal world ; physiology. He finds that the epi- 
phytic flora consists mostly of small forms ; larger plants occurring rather 
on the basal, and therefore perennial, portions of the host. The smallest 
forms grow partly over one another. The development and form of the 
basal organs of attachment in the epiphyte is of course an important 
factor, and this is fully dealt with by the author under the names of the 
different genera, Rhodochorton, Chantransia, Ceramium, Ptilota, Poly- 
siphonia urceolata, Rhodymenia, Callophyllis, Delesseria, etc. Some of 
the epiphytes may be regarded as half-parasites and saprophytes. In an 
appendix the author gives lists of species which were found growing 
only epiphytically in two localities ; one contains twenty-three species, 
the other twelve. 

Laminaria digitata and L. saccharina.J — Gr. H. Drew writes on the 
reproduction and early development of Laminaria digitata and L. sac- 
charina. After a short introduction, he gives a summary of the more 
important characters of the plants, and then describes his methods of 
collecting specimens, preservation of living specimens, examination of 
the reproductive areas, and culture methods. Detailed accounts are given 
of the reproductive process and the development of the young plant, and, 
finally, the author gives a summary of his results. These are as follows : — 
1. The Laminaria plant is the gametophyte. 2. The reproductive areas 
consist of gametangia and paraphyses. 3. Flagellated gametes escape 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Bordeaux, lxvii. (1909) pp. 832-3. 

t Bot. Jahrb. f. Syst. Pflanzen., etc., Engler, xliv. (1909) pp. 51-90 (2 pis.). 

% Ann. Bot.,xxiv. (1910) pp. 177-90(2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 1 ( J7 

from the gametangia, and isogamous conjugation occurs. 4. The result- 
ing zygospore divides and gives rise to a chain or mass of cells. These 
may be of the " 2 x " type, or the reduction may occur in the early 
divisions of the zygospore. 5. The cells of this structure rupture, and 
their contents grow out and form the gametophyte. 6. The young 
gametophyte consists of a flat lamina, one cell thick, and is attached at 
its base to surrounding objects by a number of unicellular rhizoids. 
7. The cells of the lamina divide, and eventually form the limiting and 
cortical layers and part of the medullary tissue. 8. The stipe is formed 
by a modification of the base of the lamina. 9. Part of the medullary 
tissue is formed by an upgrowth of cells from the base of the rudimentary 
stipe. 10. A disk-shaped expansion is formed at the base of the stipe, 
and from this the hapteres originate. 

Dictyota dichotoma.* — W. D. Hoyt describes some interesting ex- 
periments made by him on Dictyota dichotoma at the laboratory at Beau- 
fort, North Carolina. The cultures were started in the laboratory and 
then transferred to the harbour. The whole process is described, with 
the methods employed for preventing contamination. The results of the 
experiments show that the belief in alternation of tetrasporic and sexual 
generations in I), dichotoma, previously based on cytological evidence 
alone, is proved. The author summarises his conclusions as follows :— 
Plants of D. dichotoma raised from fertilised eggs gave thirty-three tetra- 
sporic plants and no sexual ones. Plants raised from tetraspores gave 
sixty-four sexual plants and no tetrasporic ones. The tetraspores of a 
single plant produced both male and female plants, in one case in about 
equal numbers. 

Laboratory Cultures under Gas.f — Z. Woycicki was incited, by a 
perusal of Pascher's work on Mougeotia, to undertake and publish some 
investigations on certain filamentous Chlorophycese concerning their 
growth, regeneration, and propagation in laboratory cultures and under 
the influence of coal gas (Leuchtgas). He describes his results in some 
detail, and at the end of his paper gives a clear summary. In certain 
species of Spirogyra the influence of the gas is shown by disturbances of 
the morphogenetic process, which lead to peculiar pseudorhizoidal hyper- 
trophies. Hand in hand with this occur also changes in the contents 
of the energids, as is seen in the degeneration of the chloroplasts and the 
precipitation of tannin-albumen compounds in a finely granular mass. 
Such a degeneration of the single energids of the filament produces a dis- 
solution of these bodies in the gormogonial portions or in single cells, and 
these make an effort to bring about regeneration of the individuals. This 
regeneration does not, however, follow a normal course in certain species 
of Spirogyra, but is associated with hypertrophies, which generally appear 
in the end-cells of the new individuals. The degeneration and the 
dismembering of the hypertrophied cells form distinct evidence against 
the rhizoidal character of their outgrowths. Cladopltora fracta var. 
horrida is far less sensitive in general than Spirogyra in laboratory cul- 
tures. Under certain doses of coal-gas, however, it forms either aplano- 

* Bot. Gaz., xlix. (1910) pp. 55-7. 

f Bull. Internat. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, No. 8 (1909) pp. 588-6G7 (figs, in text). 



198 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

spores or cysts, both of which serve for the propagation of the organism. 
Besides this, the cells of Gladophora are also capable of taking on a 
palmella-condition under the influence of coal-gas. In certain cases, 
during the formation of aplanospores, there is a marked diminution of 
the number of nuclei in the interior of the cell as a consequence of 
karyogamy. The structure of the nuclei of aplanospores, cysts, and such 
like, differs from that of the nuclei in vegetative cells. The setting free 
of the aplanospores, and apparently also of the cysts, as well as of the 
palmella-like portions, takes place through a slimy degeneration of the 
coats, and of certain parts of the contents of the mother-cells, whereby 
it is made possible to eject the aplanospores from the cells. During all 
these processes there takes place, in most cases, a tearing asunder of the 
ri laments into separate pieces, whereupon the various parts continue their 
growth in pseudorhizoidal fashion. Details are also given as to the be- 
haviour of Mougeotia genuflexa in cultures. 

Naturalisation of Algae.* — 0. Sauvageau writes a note on the diffi- 
culty of naturalisation of certain alga? in the Gulf of Gascony. For 
instance, Ascophyllum nodosum and Himanthalia lorea, though they are 
continually washed into the gulf in a fruiting condition, have never taken 
foothold and become established. The same occurs with Gystoseira con- 
mtenata and Sargassum vulgare var. fiavifolium. On the other hand, 
Gystoseira granulata, which appeared to exist only north of the mouth of 
the Gironde, has been found not far from Guethary, on rocks where it 
has clearly become well established, and grows at the same level as 
G. ericoides. Oddly enough, G. granulata is one of the species which is 
seldom thrown up into the Gulf of Gascony. 

Marine Algae and Currents.! — C. Sauvageau deduces certain in- 
teresting conclusions as to the direction of marine currents, from the fact 
that floating species of Fucoideae are thrown up on the shores of the Gulf 
of Gascony. Ascophyllum nodosum, Himanthalia lorea, and Gystoseira 
granulata are often thrown up on the beach at Biarritz and Guethary, 
and the author believes that they are carried northward from the coast of 
Galicia by a surface current, which is too weak to influence navigation, 
but is strong enough to float along marine algae. C. concatenata and 
Sargassum vulgare var. flavifolium are also found among the shore debris, 
and are presumably washed along the shores of Spain and Portugal from 
the African coast. These slight marine currents can only be traced by 
the help of marine algae, and have hitherto been overlooked. 

Hints on Collecting and Growing Algae. :f — J. A. Nieuwland gives 
some important directions for the growing of algae brought home from 
excursions. Large armaria are not necessary, the best results being often 
obtained with gallon or two-gallon jars. The algae should, if possible, 
be grown in the water in which they were found. The water should not 
be changed, especially in the case of bog-algae, and when it is necessary 
to renew the water not more than one-fifth the volume should be added, 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Bordeaux, lxvii. (1909) pp. 830-32. 

t Tom. cit., pp. 829-30. 

\ Midland Naturalist, i. 4, Notre Dame, Indiana, 1909, pp. 85-97. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 199 

and tap water should be allowed to run for a moment to avoid the in- 
troduction of undesirable salts. If the water be too hard it can be made 
soft by growing Chara in it. Bacterial decomposition is best prevented 
by introducing only a small amount of material, not more than one cubic 
inch to the gallon. A little Utricularia will clear away undesirable 
animal life in the water. In the case of filamentous algae good results 
have been obtained by strewing a layer of washed sea-sand on the bottom 
of the vessel. When the algai disappear the culture should not be thrown 
out, for the forms usually reappear after a time. Mud and sticks from 
spots where alga? have been noticed may be brought into the laboratory 
in midwinter and soon yield vigorous cultures. By means of these cul- 
tures it is possible to study questions of periodicity in algse, as well as 
their development, and to have at hand at all times a rich material for 
the use of students. 

British Marine Algae.* — E. M. Holmes exhibited at the Botanical 
Society of Edinburgh specimens of Fucus inflates from Lerwick, Shet- 
land, and Colpomenia sinuosa from the English Channel. He gave a 
short account of the invasion of the English shores by G. sinuosa, and 
of the damage which it had done to the oyster beds of France. 

Marine Algae of Dominica. f — S. Grieve gives a list of twenty species 
of marine algae from the island of Dominica, which constitutes the first 
record from that island. The specimens were named by E. M. Holmes, 
who has added a few short notes. 

Japanese Algae. J — K. Okamura has published two more parts of his 
valuable Icones of Japanese algae. In them the following species are 
figured both in habit and structure •.—Hypnea variabilis sp. n., H. Sai- 
dana Holmes, Peyssonnelia involvens Zanard., Laurencia dendroida J. Ag., 
Gelidium rigidum Grev., Hypnea musciformis Lamour., Laurencia con- 
cinna Mont., Eucheuma spinosumJ. Ag., Halymenia formosa Harv., Poly- 
opes Polyideoides Okam., Hyalosiphonia csespitosa Okain., g. et. sp. n., 
and Valonia confer voides Harv. The text is in English and Japanese. 

Fresh-water Algae in Nature.§— F. E. Fritsch and F. Rich have 
pnblished the results of their five years observation of the Fish Pond, 
Abbot's Leigh, near Bristol. The object of their study was to obtain 
data concerning the periodicity of the algal flora, but they soon found 
that valuable sidelights were cast on other important problems. In the 
present paper they discuss the general consideration of the physical 
features of the pond and of the meteorological data ; the more important 
constituents of the flora both cryptogamic and phanerogamic ; general 
consideration of the life-cycle in the pond ; general consideration of re- 
production in the pond ; and epiphytic forms. Under summary and 
general conclusions the authors give a full resume of their results. They 
find that the algal flora of the Fish Pond, Abbot's Leigh, is dominated 

* Trans. Proc. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, xxiv. (1909) p. vii. 

t Tom. cit., pp. 7-12. 

% Icones of Japanese AlgEB, ii. Nos. 2-3 (Tokyo, 1909) pp. 21-61 (pis. 56-65). 

§ Proc. Bristol Nat. Soc, ser. 4, ii. pt. 2 (1909) pp. 27-54^(pl. and charts). 



200 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

by a successive association (formation ?) of Cladophora, Spiroggra and 
abundant Diatoms, both free-living and epiphytic, while the principal 
subsidiary forms are (Edogonium, Mougeotia, and Cyanophyceae. The 
algal flora shows a well-marked periodicity. Four phases are distinguish- 
able in a normal annual cycle : (1) Winter-phase with an abundance of 
free Diatoms ; (2) Spring-phase with dominant Spiroggra ; (3) Summer- 
phase with dominant Cladophora and abundant epiphytes ; (4) Autumn- 
phase, chiefly characterised by renewed activity after the inactive summer 
period, often with a prominent development of Spiroggra, (Edogonium. 
or some other form. The reproductive processes in the pond show con- 
siderable uniformitv, which is ascribed to the rather narrow range of 
temperature in the water. The epiphytic algal vegetation finds its chief 
host in Cladophora, and one of the most salient features in the annual 
cycle is the struggle between Cladophora and its epiphytes. The factors 
operating in the pond are of three kinds, seasonal, irregular, and corre- 
lated ; these are discussed. Finally, the authors state that all their 
observations tend to indicate that the doctrine of limiting factors will 
probably be found to underlie the whole scheme of intricate changes 
that are so striking a feature of fresh-water algal vegetation. 

Supplement to Engler's Pflanzenfamilien.*— N. Wille publishes a 
supplement to the volume of Chlorophyceae in Engler's Natiirlichen 
Pflanzenfamilien, which appeared about twenty years ago. In that time 
much work has been done on the group, and the author embodies it in 
the present supplement. In a preface he explains that he does not see 
his way to recognise the new groups of Heterokontae and Akontae, since 
the characters which distinguish them are found in the most different 
and widely separated sections of the green algae ; hence he regards the 
groups as unnatural. He adheres to the old divisions of Conjugate, 
Protococcales, and Chaetophorales ( = Confervales). Siphoneae is divided 
into two sections of equal value, Siphonocladiales and Siphonales. In 
the former section are placed, besides Yaloniaceas and Dasycladaceas, 
the families Oladophoraceae and Sphaeropleaceas. Another addition 
to the treatment of the Chlorophyceae is the inclusion of a series of 
colourless organisms, hitherto reckoned with the fungi, and now re- 
garded as akin to Yolvocaceas, Plcurococcaceae, Oocystaceae, and (Edo- 
goniaceae. 

Indian Ocean Plankton.f — F. Czapek gives a short account of plank- 
ton material which he collected in the neighbourhood of Karachi. He 
found it to consist entirely of diatoms, of which he enumerates twenty- 
eight species. Many of them have been already recorded in the plankton 
of the Gulf of Aden. The author then discusses the phosphorescent 
Peridinieae of the Indian Ocean, and gives a list of eleven species, col- 
lected by himself, which produced phosphorescence. The species which 
takes the greatest part in this phenomenon is Ceratium tripos. Figures 
are given of stages of division in Coscinodiscus sgmmetricus, as well as of 
a Dinopligsis which was continually found connected in pairs. Other 
stages of division were, however, not found in the latter species. 

* Die Natiirlichen Pflanzen., Suppl. to Teil. i., 2te Abt. (1909) 9G pp. (figs, in text), 
t SB. k. Akad. wiss. Wien, cxviii. (1909) pp. 231-9 (5 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 201 

Phytoplankton of Victoria Nyanza.* — 0. H. Ostenfeld reports on 
some samples of plankton taken from the Victoria Nyanza, sent to him 
by Agassiz. The interest of the collection lies in the fact that it was 
made in the month of February, and can be compared with the plankton 
of April, October, and November, already known from that lake. In 
February Melosira Agassizii predominates with other diatoms of less im- 
portance, while green aud blue-green algae are rare ; in April the green 
algffi predominate, as well as Desmids and Protococcoideas, while diatoms 
are of less importance and blue-green algre are rare ; in October and 
November the Myxophyceas predominate, the green algas (especially 
Botryococcus Braiinii) are subdominant as well as diatoms {Melosira 
nyassensis and Surirellse), and the phytoplankton is very rich in species 
and individuals. In the second chapter the author enumerates the species 
observed in the collection entrusted to him, including 1 Peridiniale, 
7 Bacillariales, 6 Myxophyceae, and 15 Chlorophyceae. Critical remarks 
are made, and Melosira Agassizii is described as new. 

Swiss Plankton. f—C. H. Ostenfeld publishes notes on the tem- 
perature of the water, time of gathering, and contents of some samples 
of plankton from fifteen Swiss lakes. 

Desmids .|— L. Viret gives a list of Desniidiacese from the valley of 
Trient in Canton Valais, Switzerland. The plants were collected at 
stations which offered very different biological conditions, and the species 
sixty-nine in number, include twelve novelties. The author finds that 
Desmidiaceas are rare in clear water, such as torrents or brooks, 
but are abundant in muddy water containing large quantities of humic 
matter. Critical notes are appended. 

Devonshire Diatoms. §— J. B. Bessell mentions several interesting 
diatoms found by him last summer in the neighbourhood of Torquay. 
Among these are: — Achnanthidium flexellum Breb., Gomphonema intri- 
catum Kiitz., Achnanthes coarctata Breb., and Navicula pusilla W. Sm., 
at Anstey's Cove. Pinniilaria acrospheria Breb., P. subcapitata Greg., 
Gomphonema subclavatum Grun., and Navicula elliptica of quite unusual 
size, from Moretonhampstead. At Corbyn's Head several species were 
found, which had been recorded by Griffiths more than fifty years ago ; 
as well as Navicula inornata Grun., a new record. The most interest- 
ing find was Syndendrium diadema Ehr., the spore form of Ghaeioceros, 
probably brought by a current. 

The same author in another paper enumerates the Diatoinaceaa of 
the Torquay district, which includes 203 species. 

Biddulphia sinensis in the North Sea.|| — C. H. Ostenfeld writes 
once more on this subject, which has been treated at length by him. An 
abstract of his work has appeared in this Journal,!!" and the present paper 

* Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard College, iii. (1909) pp. 171-87. 
t Ber. Schweiz. Bot. GeselL, xviii. (1908) pp. 6-13. 
X Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve, ser. 2, i. (1909) pp. 251-68 (1 pi.). 
§ Journ. Torquay Nat. Hist. Soc, i. (1909) pp. 13-14, and 26-33. 
|| Internat. Rev. Hydrobiog. and Hydrog., ii. (1909) pp. 362-74 (9 figs, in text). 
4 See this Journal, 1910, p. 66. 
April 20th, 1910 p 



202 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

by Ostenfeld is merely a long account of his previously published work. 
It concerns the immigration of a plankton diatom into quite a new area 
within recent years. 

Fossil Diatoms.* — J. Heribaud has examined the diatoms of the 
Travertin strata laid down by the mineral waters of Sainte Marguerite, in 
Puy-de-D6me. He finds that the Travertin may be divided into three 
zones, inferior, middle, and superior. The principal species of each zone 
are enumerated, but the new species are left over for another and later 
communication. More than eighty species were obtained, about a score 
of which are new to the Massif Central, and about half a score new to 
science. The author concludes with a short summary : — 1. From the 
presence of numerous marine diatoms, in the lower Travertin, and from 
the almost complete absence of these species in the actual waters, it may 
be deduced that the waters of Sainte Marguerite must have been formerly 
much more strongly mineral than they are at the present day ; their 
salinity has been constantly decreasing from the lower to the upper zone. 
2. From the absence of marine diatoms in the actual waters, and from 
the presence, in the immediate neighbourhood of the mineral springs, of 
a fairly large number of plants belonging exclusively to a marine flora, it 
may be deduced that diatoms are more exacting, with respect to the 
mineralisation of water, than are the higher plants. 3. The examination 
of specimens taken at different levels allows the successive modifications 
of the diatom-flora to be followed with great exactness, and since the 
variations should correspond with those of the sabnity of the water, it 
follows that a careful study of the Travertins would furnish exact in- 
formation on the history of mineral springs. 

New Genus of Pleurococcaceae.f — W. Bialosuknia describes an alga 
which he, with the help of Chodat, has isolated from Lecanora tartar w. 
It forms the type of a new genus, and is called Diplosphsera Chodati. 
Details are given as to the method of multiplication. The formation of 
zoospores has not been observed. The alga was grown in various nutri- 
tive solutions, which are described. 

Protococcaceae.J — G-. Guglielmetti begins a series of papers on the 
algological flora of Italy, the first contribution of which deals with the 
Protococcacere collected in and around Padua. Forty-five species are 
enumerated, to many of which critical notes are appended. One species 
and a few varieties are new. 

Astrocladium cerastioides.§— 0. Tschourina describes a new genus 
of algai of which she has found one species in the duck-ponds of the Pare 
de l'Ariana, near Geneva. It belongs to the family Palmellacege, and 
may possibly be the same species as that described by Reinsch under the 
name of Cerasterias raphidioides, but the drawings and description of the 
latter are too incomplete to allow of certainty. The development and 
mode of division of the new alga are described. 

* Comptes Rendus, cl. (1910) pp. 61-4. i 

t Bull. Soc. Bot. oeneve, ser. 2, i. (1909) pp. 101-4 (1 pi.). 

X Nuov. Notar., xxi. (1910) pp. 28-39. 

§ Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve, ser. 2, i. (1909) pp. 98-101. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 203 

" Knee-joint " of Mougeotia.* — J. A. Nieuwland has studied " knee- 
joints " iu several species of Mougeotia, and comes to the conclusion that 
it does not represent a stage in coujugation, for the joints are present 
only in vegetative stages, and never in typically conjugating material. 
" Usually the cells of the filament hold together so firmly that the cells 
break through the middle rather than separate at the ends ; but in ma- 
terial with the knee-joints, the cells are easily dissociated, and, succeeding 
the appearance of the joints, the amount of material increases enormously, 
so that the joints seem to be related to vegetative multiplication." 

Algae of Haute-Savoie.t — L. Viret publishes a list of sixty-three 
species collected on the mountain groups of La Tournette, La Filliere, 
and Les Aravis. The localities are briefly described, with their altitudes. 
Critical notes are added to some of the records. 

Chrysomonadineae of Bohemia.! — A. Pascher has worked out the 
species of this group found iu Bohemia, and enumerates thirty-nine 
species. Five varieties are new. 

New Genus of Chrysomonadineae.§ — A. Pascher describes a new 
genus of Chrysomonads, Pyramidochrysis, found by him in the old bed 
of the Olsch river, in southern Bohemia, in 1909. The cells are pyriform- 
oval, somewhat rounded off at the base, and at the forward end more or 
less abruptly narrowed. A detailed description is given of the genus. 
Movement takes place by means of a single cilium, and the genus belongs 
therefore to the Chromulinaceae. The movement of the cilium is pecu- 
liar, and resumbles that of Peranema. Pyramidochrysis appears to be 
holophytic, and the well-developed chromatophore is sufficient for pur- 
poses of assimilation. Division takes place along its length : the process 
is described. Resting-states were observed, but the germination of these 
cysts was not seen. Two species are described, P. splendens and P. 
modesta. 

Ourococcus bicaudatus.|| — A. E. Grobety writes a short account of 
this alga, hitherto known as Dactylococcus bicaudatus Braun. She gives 
a short history of the species and of the confusion which has arisen as 
to its characteristics. Hansgirg has united it with Gharaciwn pyriforme, 
making it a variety. As a result of growing 0. bicaudatus in a culture, 
the author finds that it differs from Scenedesmus by the absence of a 
cenobium ; from Lagerheimia by its single prolongation, irregularly dis- 
posed ; from Raphidium by its gibbous form (ventrue) and its asymet- 
rically disposed points, which terminate the cell irregularly. The cells 
of this species which have two prolongations are not a variety, but merely 
one of the forms resulting from division, a process which is described by 
the author. 

Green Snow. If — R. Chodat describes an appearance of green snow 
caused by a new species of alga, Raphidium Vireti (Ankistrodesmus 

* Midland Naturalist, i. (1909) pp. 82-84. See also Bot. Gaz., xlix. (1910) p. 79. 

t Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve, se'r. 2, i. (1909; pp. 199-203. 

J Lotos, lvi. (1909) 7 pp. (2 figs, in text). 

§ Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., xxvii. (1909) pp. 555-62 (1 pi.). 

|| Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve, se'r. 2, i. (1909) pp. 357-8 (figs.). 

i Tom. cit., pp. 294-97 (figs, in text). 

p 2 



204 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Vireti). It was collected by Viret in a depression situated between the 
Aiguilles du Chardonnet and the Grands Mulets, at the edge of the Ar- 
gentine glacier. The colour of the snow was dirty green, and the patch 
extended a length of 30-40 metres, by 2-3 metres broad. In R. Vireti 
the points of the cells are excessively long and narrow, while in R. nivale 
Chodat the points are short. Both species are figured. The author 
mentions also a few other algae found in coloured snow on the group 
of Mont Blanc. 

Oxyrrhis marina.* — G. Senn has studied this organism and shows 
that it belongs to the Dinoflagellatae, and not (as has been supposed) to 
the Flagellatae. It multiplies by transverse division, not longitudinal 
as is found always in the Flagellatae, aud it possesses two grooves, one 
longitudinal the other transverse, from the bottoms of which arise the 
two fiagella which distinguish it. One of these flagella is stretched out 
behind while the organism is in movement, while the other causes the 
cell to turn by means of its rapid undulatory vibrations. If it be taken 
for granted that 0. marina has but one protoplasmic membrane it would 
then belong to the Gymnodiniaceae, notably to Hemidinium. The re- 
moval of this species from Flagellatae to Dinoflagellatae removes the 
only exception to the rule that true Flagellatae multiply only by longi- 
tudinal division. 

Fossil Algae. f — A. Bothpletz describes some fossil alga3 from the 
Silurian beds in Gotland and Oesel. He treats of his subject under the 
following headings :— 1 . Calcareous algse with intertwined cell-filaments. 
Under this section three algae are described, one of which, Sphserocodium 
gotlandic ■um, is new. 2. Under calcareous algae with cell-filaments placed 
regularly side by side the author deals with species of Solenoporetta and 
Solenopora, one of which, Solenopora tjotlandica, is new. The generic 
differences between these two genera are described and the relation that 
both hold to the Lithothamnia. After describing a new genus of Hydro- 
zoa, containing two species, the author discusses the differences in growth, 
both micro- and macroscopical, between the balls of Hydrozoa and those 
composed of calcareous algae. 

Brothers Crouan.J — F. Gueguen gives a short biographical notice 
of the brothers Crouan. Pierre-Louis Crouan was born in 1798, and 
Hippolyte-Marie Crouan in 1802. They had a chemist's shop in Brest, 
but retired from the business in 18G0, and thenceforward devoted them- 
selves to the study of Botany, especially Cryptogams. The flora of 
Finisterre was their special interest, in the study of which they explored 
the whole region exhaustively. They collected thus an immense amount 
of material ; and this, including the algae which had been published in 
sets in three octavo volumes in 1852, under the title Algues marines du 
Finistere, enabled them to write their famous Florule du Finistere. That 
work was the crowning production of their lives, and was carefully illus- 
trated by Hippolyte. It is a catalogue containing 1031 phanerogams, 
20 vascular cryptogams, 247 Muscineae, 299 lichens, 2502 fungi, and 

* Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat., period 4, xxviii. (1909) pp. 492-3. 
t K. Svensk. Vetensk. Handl., xliii. (1908) 25 pp. (6 pis.). 
% Bull. Trimestr. Soc. Mycol. de France, xxv. (1909) pp. 69-78 (2 portraits). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 205 

')84 algas, making a total of 5092 plants. Many of the species are merely 
enumerated, being already known, but descriptions are also included of 
360 new species of Cryptogams Taigas and fungi). The original drawings 
for this work, executed in lead pencil and coloured, on bits of Bristol 
board, are preserved in the Laboratoire de Cryptogamie d'Ecole de Phar- 
macie, and their general herbarium is said to be preserved at the Biblio- 
theque at Quimper. The list of their joint publications, mostly on algae, 
amount to a total of twenty-six. 

M. H. Foslie.* — CI. B. De Toni writes a short obituary notice of 
Michael H. Foslie, curator of the Botanical section of the Museum at 
Trondhjem. He was born at Borge (Lofoten) on October 21, 1855, 
and in 1885 he was elected Conservator of the Museum at Tromso. In 
1892 he was appointed curator at Trondhjem, a position which he held 
at the time of his death. His first contributions to algology were on the 
subject of Arctic marine algae and of Laminaria, published in 1881 and 
1883 respectively. The marine algas of Norway then occupied his atten- 
tion, and he wrote a paper on the Norwegian forms of Ceramium as well 
as other contributions to the marine flora of his native land. But the 
greatest work of his life was his study of the Corallinaceae, on which 
subject he knew more than any living botanist. He wrote a large 
number of papers oil the subject, and but for his untimely death would 
have written a great work on the system of the group. De Toni had 
hoped that Foslie would elaborate that part of the Sylloge Algarum, but 
Foslie refused, saying that he had yet more to examine and study before 
he would be ready to lay down finally his views. He was ever ready to 
help other botanists, and his loss will be sadly felt throughout the 
botanical world. A list is given of his published writings, which 
number sixty-eight. 

Clements, P. S., & Schautz H. Le Roy — A New Genus of Blue-green 
Algae, Eucapsis, with plate. Minnesota Botanical Studies, 1. (1909) pp. 133-5. 

Kolkwitz, R. — Ueber die Planktonproduction der Gewasser, erlautert an Oscil- 
latoria Agardhii Gom, (On the plankton-production of certain waters, as 
exemplified by Oseillatoria Agardhii.) 

Landw. Jahrb. Erganz., v. (1909) pp. 449-72 (pi.) 

M a z z A, A. — Saggio di Algoiogia Oceanica. (Notes on Marine algae.) 

[A continuation.] Nuov. Notar., xxi. (1910) pp. 1-27. 

Migula, W. — Die Desmidiazeen (cont.) 

Mikrokosmos, iii. (1909-10) pp. 131-4 (2 figs.). 

Nonweiler, G.— Morphologische und physiologische Untersuchungen an Chara 
strigosa Br. (Morphological and physiological investigations on Chara stri- 
gosa Br.). Zurich : (1908) 48 pp. (2 pis. and figs.). 

Fungi. 
(By A. Lobeain Smith, F.L.S.) 

Life-history and Cytology of Potato-wart Disease/]" — JohnPercival 
has made a study of the organism causing this disease, known as Chryso- 
phlyctis, and he concludes that it really belongs to an older genus, 

* Nuov Notar., xxi. (1910) pp. 56-62. 

t Centralbl. Bakt.,xxv. (1909) pp. 440-7 (3 pis.). 



206 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Synchytrium. By culture experiments he was able to infect young- 
tubers and watch the growth of the disease from stage to stage. The 
resting spores or sporangia germinate in the early spring and produce a 
large number of zoospores, which are oval or pear-shaped, with one 
cilium ; these enter the young tissue of the buds on the thin rhizomes 
and the " eyes " of the young tubers. In three or four days after infec- 
tion, proliferation of the tissue begins, producing the warts. There is a 
second form of sporangium produced in May and June, with thinner 
walls and smaller zoospores, but otherwise similar to the resting sporangia. 

After entry into the host-cell, the parasite imbeds itself in the cyto- 
plasm, and grows rapidly, soon being visible as a round thin-walled cell 
with a central nucleus, and reticulated cytoplasm with denser portions of 
irregular form. The nucleus contains a nucleolus, inside or around the 
surface of which the chromatin is concentrated, and attached to it is a 
peculiar and characteristic body of amoeboid form, which extends a short 
distance into the nuclear cavity. At a later stage the reticulum breaks 
up into swarm-spores. The development of the thin-walled sporangium 
is also traced ; the cytoplasm of this cell is more dense than that of the 
other ; the primary nucleus is large, and is frequently placed excentric- 
ally ; a round nucleolus is also present, which becomes vacuolated when 
the reproductive stage commences ; at the same time the nucleus shrinks 
and disappears, the chromatin contained within it being found in the 
form of " chromidia " in the cytoplasm of the parasite. Round the 
chromidia small vacuoles appear, and nuclei arise at these points. The 
primary nucleus was not seen to undergo recognisable mitotic division, 
but undoubted mitosis was observed in the minute secondary nuclei. 

Percival gives his reasons, based on the life-history and development 
of the organism, for placing it in the genus Synchytrium, and he further 
suggests that the Synchytria, and possibly the majority of the Chytri- 
diaceaj, may ultimately be placed among the Protozoa. 

Aspergillus glaucus.* — L. Mangin has studied this mould in order 
to clear up the confusion as to the species included under that name. 
He defines the species as having large globose or ovoid slightly warted 
conidia (9-15 /x in diameter). Aspergillus repens, which has often been 
united with the above, has much smaller conidia (7-8 ' 5 /a in diameter), 
and also smaller ascospores. Mangin therefore divides the forms into 
two groups : 1. A. glaucus, with large conidia and spores ; 2. A. repens, 
including those with smaller conidia and spores ; but he also found that- 
there was so much variation in the conidial form as regards size and 
ornamentation of the conidia, due to temperature, etc., that it was not 
possible to distinguish species by single conidia. Among the large 
spored forms he recognises only one species, A. glaucus, but among the 
smaller he differentiates A. Amstelodami sp. n., A. Chevaleri sp. n., 
A. repens, and A. herhariorwn. Mangin gives a long account of his 
cultures and of the observations made on temperature, coloration, etc. 

Study of Endomycetes.j — A. Guilliennond had undertaken a study 
of this order of fungi to throw some light on the formation of the ascus 

* Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 9, x. (1909) pp. 303-71 (15 figs.). 

t Rev. Gen. Bot., xxi. (1909) pp. 353-98, 401-19 (8 pis. and figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 207 

and on the systematic position of the closely allied Saccharornycetes. 
He finds that the formation of the spores in Eremascus is exactly com- 
parable with the same process in Saccharomyces, and that the ascus of 
the one is homologous with that of the other. In Endomyces fibidiger 
there are variations from these forms, though they are closely allied : 
there are only four spores formed in the ascus instead of eight, and 
there is no trace of sexual conjugation. Saccharomyces capsidaris, 
another closely allied form, differs in the total absence of any anastomosis 
of hyphas, which is a feature of Endomyces fibuliger. He finds, how- 
ever, in E. magnusii a true heterogamic conjugation representing sexual 
reproduction. It is also characterised by a much-branched mycelium. 

Guilliermond describes at great length the development of these 
different fungi, compares them one with another, and discusses the views 
on their systematic positions held by various authors. He finds little 
difference between Endomyces fibidiger and Saccharomyces capsidaris, 
and places them in the same genus ; he show T s further their affinity with 
Eremascus. The latter should include forms characterised by the 
absence of conidia, and an H-spored ascus derived from an isogamic con- 
jugation. Guilliermond's study of these various types leads him to 
conclude that the yeasts are derived from a form akin to Eremascus 
fertiJis. From that original form he traces two lines, the one including 
Endomyces fibuliger, E. capsidaris, Zy go saccharomyces, and the Saccharo- 
mycetes, the other Endomyces magnusii and the Schizosaccharomycetes. 

Cytological Observations on the Yeast Plant.*— H. Wager and 
A. Peniston refer to a previous paper published by Wager on the yeast- 
cell nucleus in which he stated that the combined nucleolus and vacuole 
constituted the nucleus of the cell. They give the views of other 
workers who contest this statement, and describe their methods of 
culture, fixing, and staining employed to enable them to make a new 
examination of the subject. They conclude again, as a result of their 
work, that the nucleus consists of nucleolus and vacuole ; the vacuole 
contains a clear nuclear sap, a network of strands which occur mainly at 
the periphery, and one or two bright metachromatin (volutin) granules. 
The nucleolus always occupies a position at the side of the vacuole and 
projects into the cytoplasm of the cell. There is no well marked 
nuclear membrane. The nuclear vacuole varies in size and seems to 
disappear entirely during spore-formation. The nucleolus and the net- 
work of the vacuole may become impregnated with chromatin, and these 
give a distinct reaction for phosphorus and iron. The cytoplasm 
contains bright volutin granules, and glycogen is abundant at certain 
stages. 

In the process of bud-formation the nucleus divides amitotically into 
two equal or unequal portions, one of which passes into the daughter- 
cell with a portion of the vacuole and chromatin. In spore-formation 
the nuclear vacuole and network disappear, the nucleolus becomes closely 
surrounded by chromatin granules and then divides by elongation and 
constriction ; the two daughter-nuclei divide in a similar manner to 
form the spore-nuclei. 

* Ann. Bot., xxiv. (1910) pp. 45-83 (5 pis.). 



208 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Notes on Tilletise. — F. Bubals* has added another to the three 
known species of Tilletia on cultivated cereals. It grows on Hordeum 
and infests the seedling plants. The spore masses are violet-brown and 
fill the sheaths of the seeds. The epispore in the new species is much 
darker than in the other species of the genus. 

P. Magnus | described in Hedwigia J a form of Tilletia in the fruits 
of Bromus secalinus, which he named Tilletia Belgradensis. He has 
been informed by Hariot that the same fungus was described on Bromus 
erectus as Tilletia guyotiana in 1900. Bubak also found it on Bromus 
arvensis in Bulgaria, and described it as Tilletia VelenovsJcyi. Hariot's 
name being the earliest takes precedence. The fungus has been now 
reported on three species of Bromus, and has been collected in France, 
Servia, Bulgaria, and Russia. 

OttoAppel§ has experimented with barley and wheat to test the value 
of hot water as a fungicide. It was found that the treatment was 
absolutely effective in killing the smut spores if the grain was first 
soaked from 4 to 6 hours in water at a temperature of 20° to 30° 0., and 
then treated either with water or air for about 20 minutes at a tempera- 
ture of 50° to 54° C. These temperatures are quite harmless in their 
effect on the germinating power of the seed. The double treatment 
secures the germination of the fungus spores in the first soaking, and 
their prompt destruction by the greatly increased heat. 

UredineaB. — W. Krieg || finds that Uromyces Dactylidis is a compound 
Uredine, and after a series of cultures he concludes that it represents 
four different species, all of which form their uredospores on Dactyl is 
glomerata, and their JEcidium-i orrn on different plants — (1) on Ranun- 
culus platanifolius, R. aconitiferus, R. alpestris, and R. glacialis ; (2) on 
R. bidbosus and R. repens ; (3) on R. silvaticus, and (4) on R. lanuginosus. 

He points out that R. lulbosus and R. repens are also the alternative 
hosts of Puccinia magnusiana. 

O. Schneider-Orelli % publishes notes on willow Melampsorse. He dis- 
tinguishes three groups. In two the teleutospore membrane is not 
thickened, but one has elongate, the other round uredospores, while the 
third group has a thick wall to the teleutospores and round uredospores. 
He also gives a special account of Cseoma Saxifrages. 

E. W. D. Holway,** in his Notes on Uredineae V., corrects the nomen- 
clature of several species of Puccinia, and gives notes as to hosts and 
locality. 

Ernst Schaffnit ff has devoted his attention to the question of the 
capacity to germinate and the germination of uredo- and secidiospores 
of rusts. Various authors have already written on the question, and 
Eriksson adduced the lack of germinative capacity in these spores as 
reason for the necessity of his mycoplasma theory. Schaffnit found as 
a result of his experiments that temperature exerted considerable influ- 

* Zeitschr. Landw. Versuch. Oesterr. , xii. (1909) p. 545. See also Centralbl. 
Bakt., xxv. (1909) pp. 526-7. 

t Hedwigia, xlix. (1909) p. 100. % Op. cit.,xlviii. (1908) p. 145. 

§ Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell., xxvii. (1910) pp. 606-10. 

|| Centralbl. Bakt., 2te Abt., xxv. (1909) pp. 430-6. f Tom. cit., pp. 436-9. 

** Mycologia, ii. (1910) pp. 23-4. ft Ann. Mycol., vii. (1909) pp. 509-23. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 209 

ence ; also that spores were not ripe so long as they remained attached 
to their stalks, and that the maturing of the spores depends on particular 
temperatures. 

J. Yleugel * has published a paper on the Phragmidia of Rubus. He 
divides the species into two groups : those with paraphyses (six species) ; 
and without paraphyses (one species — P. Rubi-Idsei). 

F. Miihlethaler j made a series of cultures with coronate rusts. With 
teleutospores from Galamagrostis varia he infected several species of 
Rhamnus ; and with fecidiospores from R. alpina he reproduced uredo- 
spores on Calamagrostis. He does not think the Uredine is identical 
either with Puccinia coronata or P. coronifera. With tecidiospores from 
Rhamnus cathartica he produced uredospores on Bromus erectus var. 
condmsatus, and on several species of Festuca. Later, he found Bromus 
< rectus at the same locality with a good growth of coronate teleutospores. 
The author thinks he may he dealing with a biological species of Puccinia 
coronifera. 

Deformations caused by Uredinese.J — Ruth Stampfli considers these 
under three heads : galls, deformations of flowers, and deformations of 
stems and of leaves. The galls may be formed on leaves usually on the 
veins, on the leaf -stalks, and on the stems. In the leaves the palisade 
parenchyma takes part in the gall-formation ; in leaf -stalk and stems 
the pith, wood-cells and cambium grow out, and in a lesser degree the 
bark, bast, and epidermis. As regards flower deformations, the petals, 
etc., are changed often to vegetative leaves ; other changes that occur 
are also described. In stems and leaves witches' brooms are formed, 
leaves are thickened, and their shape altered. In general, it is found 
that the tissue formed approaches more nearly to parenchyma in form, 
and this seems to indicate a return to more primitive tissue. 

Fungi of Brandenburg.§ — E,. Kolkwitz gives an account of the 
Schizornycetes — the bacteria — of this province, both economic and 
pathogenic, He gives a history of the study of this group of organisms, 
describes their development and habitat, and then gives a systematic 
account of genera and species. 

E. Jahn begins the discussion of the Mysobacteriaceas, giving a 
history of their discovery, and tracing their life-history and development. 

Notes on some Larger Fungi. || — W. A. Merrill publishes a coloured 
plate of nine different species of fungi — species of Leotia, DictyopJiora, 
Mutinus, and Scleroderma — with full descriptions, and notes on each of 
the species. 

H. J. Banker If traces the history in literature of Linnaeus' plant, 
Hydnum parasiticum, confused later with H. strigosum Swartz. The 
latter plant is very rare in America, and is now classified as Gloiodon 
strigosum. 

* Svensk. Bot. Tidssk., ii. (1908) pp. 123-38 (5 figs.). See also Ann. Mycol., vii. 
(1909) p. 306. f Centralbl. Bakt., 2te Abt. xxvi. (1910) p. 58. 

J Hedwigia, xlix. (1910) pp. 230-67 (27 figs.). 

§ Krypt. Flora Mark Brandenb. Pilze, Leipzig, Gebriider Borntraeger, v. 1 
(1909) 192 pp. (5 pis.). 

Mycologia, ii. (1910) pp. 1-6 (1 pi.). 1 Tom. cit., pp. 7-11. 



210 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

M. F. Barret* gives full synonymy and descriptions of three species 
of Auricular ia : A. auricula, A. nigrescens, and A. mesenterica, all of 
them found in America. They have been described under many different 
names. 

W. A. Murrill f publishes a new genus of Phalloids collected near 
Cinchona, Jamaica, which he names Protophallus. It resembles the 
egg of a Phalloid, but it never elongates, and shows no trace of a stipe. 
Unlike other members of the order, it is odourless. 

F. von Hohnel % collected a number of the larger fungi in South 
Tyrol. He found Cyphella fasciculata, a North American species, on 
alder leaves ; it had been previously collected in Venetia. Critical 
notes and corrections are appended to the descriptions of species. 

Symington Grieve § exhibited before the Edinburgh Botanical Society 
a specimen of Schizophyllum commune on the fruit of the coco-nut palm ; 
the nut had germinated, and then the shell had been cracked or rotted 
off, exposing the endosperm on which the fungus had grown. The speci- 
men was found in Dominica, at the mouth of a rivulet. These coco-nuts 
resist sea-water, and it was suggested that experiments might be made to 
see if the spores of the fungus would retain their vitality after being 
soaked in sea-water. 

H. Mayr || has attempted to introduce forest culture of edible fungi, 
especially of species of truffle. He bases his recommendations on his 
knowledge of Japanese methods, and he made experiments with a much- 
appreciated Japanese fungus, Agaricus shitake. The successwas not clear, 
but he hopes to carry on the experiments with other Japanese edible 
species. 

J. S. Bayliss If has made a biological cultural study of Pohjst ictus 
versicolor. He obtained from the germinating spores an Oidium-f ovming 
mycelium, then a few months later the proper mycelium, which de- 
veloped into the pilei of the fungus. He found that it grew easily on 
ash, mountain-ash, sycamore, horse-chestnut, or birch, not so easily 
on alder, oak, or elm. No culture was successful in the laboratory ; the 
fungus grew only in the open air, and best in warm weather. Changes 
of moisture in the atmosphere gave rise to zone-formation. Light in- 
fluenced the coloration of the zones and the formation of the pores ; the 
latter were never produced in the dark. The author also deals with the 
enzymes of the fungus and its destructive power on wood. The mycelium 
is remarkably long-lived : it revived after being dried up four years. 

W. A. Murrill ** describes the cultivation of an edible mushroom in 
Formosa, called by the natives " Shutake." It is highly esteemed by the 
Chinese and Japanese, and had been recently introduced from Japan. The 
oak-tree, on which it grows, is cut down and rice-water is thrown over it 
at intervals to prepare it for the mushroom. Murrill also mentions that 
the edible mushroom of Jamaica, known by the native name " Junju," 

* Mycologia, ii. (1910) pp. 12-18. t Tom. cit., pp. 25-6. 

X Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr., lix. (1909) pp. 62-6 and 108-12. 

§ Trans. Proc. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh, xxiv. (1909) pp. xii-xiii. 

I! Nat. Zeitschr. Forst.-Landw., vii.(1909) pp. 274-9. See also Ann. Mycol.,vii. 
(1909) p. 563. 

\ Journ. Econ. Biol., iii. (1908) pp. 1-22 (2 pis.). See also Hedwigia, Beibl., xlix, 
(1909) p. 25. ** Mycologia, 1. (1899) pp. 274-5 (1 fig.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 211 

grows on bogs, but there is no attempt at cultivating it. The natives 
search for it eagerly, and consider it a great delicacy. 

Larger Fungi of Rhine-land.* — A first list of Agarics is published 
by Gustav Herpell, and instructions are given as to collecting and pre- 
serving species. Herpell has had great success in preparing and mounting 
specimens for the herbarium, and at first he advised against their poison- 
ing. He now finds that the preparations are liable to be attacked by 
insects or by moulds, and he considers it necessary to poison them with 
a 2 p.c. solution of mercuric chloride in methylated spirits (90 p.c). 
With this solution he paints the back of the gelatin paper on which the 
fungi are pressed, and further he paints over the specimens with cellu- 
loid varnish. Herpell describes the natural features of the locality in 
which he collected the fungi. He gives notes as to habitat, etc., and 
with each species the size of the spores. 

German Fungus-flora.f — W. Migula continues his work on the fungi 
of Germany. He begins the third section with a discussion of the 
Basidiomycetes, which he considers under two divisions, the Hemi- 
basidii and the Eubasidii. The Hemibasidii include the UstilaginaceEe ; 
the Eubasidii are subdivided into two great groups, the Pro to basidio- 
mycetes and the Autobasidiomycetes. 

Migula has already finished his description of the Ustilaginaceaa and 
has begun with the Protobasidiomycetes, the first order being the Ure- 
diuales or rust fungi. The genera are illustrated by coloured or by 
black and white plates. 

Mycological Notes.J — Franz v. Hohnel continues his notes and criti- 
cisms on systematic mycology, with special reference to species occurring 
in Java. Many new species are described, and the following new genera : 
Koorrfersiella and Loranthomyces (Sphajriaceas) ; Coccoidella and Disco- 
dothis (Dothideaceas) ; Trichopeltopsis, near to Dimerosporium ; Scliiff- 
nerula (Englerulaceaj) ; Myxasterina, near to Aster ina • Micropoerella 
( Spheroid eas) ; Japonia (Excipulaceas) ; Araneomyces (Tubercularieas) ; 
and Strumellopsis (Tubercularieae dematieas) ; the last a parasite on leaves 
of Vaecinium. Notes on some Myxomycetes are also added. 

Atlas of Fungi. § — L. Rolland has for some time been issuing 
coloured plates of fungi of France, Switzerland, and Belgium. As the 
series is finished, he has issued in pamphlet form descriptive notes of 283 
species, represented on 120 plates. The first pages discuss the larger 
fungi, generally explaining the method of classification and the structure 
of these plants. Particular attention is paid to locality and time of 
growth, and to the edible or poisonous nature of those described. 

Poisonous and Edible Fungi. || — F. Gueguen contributes the con- 
cluding chapters to Rolland's Atlas of Fungi. He gives descriptions 
of poisonous species, with an account of the symptoms of poisoning. 

* Hedwigia, xlix. (1909) pp. 135-212. 

t Flora von Deutschland, lief. 80-4 (1909) pp. 241-320 (25 pis.). 

\ SB Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. KL, cxvii. 1 (1909) pp. 813-904 (3 figs.). 

§ Paris : Paul Klincksieck (1910) 107 pp. || Tom. cit., pp. 108-20. 



212 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

and the methods of treating people who have been poisoned. Scien- 
tific estimation reckons the number of those at about 10,000 each 
year, though only a comparatively small number of cases are fatal. 
Gueguen also discusses the value of fungi as an article of food, by ex- 
amining the composition of the various parts of a series of edible forms. 
He concludes that fungi provide a complete food, and various experi- 
menters have existed on them alone for several weeks. They are more 
nutritions than most vegetables, and provide a food of the greatest 
utility. An index of the whole volume is added. 

Microfungi in Cheese Curds.* — A. Wolff undertook the examina- 
tion of milk that had failed to produce the necessary curds for cheese. 
He found an Oidium and three forms of Cladosporiam. He cultivated 
these fungi on gelatine plates, and gives an account of their growth 
and development. Some other organisms were also found in the milk, 
species of bacillus. 

Chemical Study of Fungus Cell-sap.f — C. Gerber has carried out 
a series of experiments on the cell-sap of a number of the higher fungi, 
to determine the curdling reactions of each. He expressed the juice of 
young and fresh plants, and tested it with milk. The results are recorded 
in tabular form. He found that, in this regard, the most active cells 
were those in the neighbourhood of the hymenium in gilled species ; in 
others, such as perennial Polyporese, the cells of the pileus were more 
active. He tested also the effect of heat, and found the most susceptible 
were those that grew in autumn, when there are no extremes of heat or 
cold. The more resistant forms were those that grew in winter (Tricho- 
loma nudum, etc.), and in their power of coagulation they approached 
the higher plants. 

Ferments of Fungi.! — Priugsheim and Zempten have made press- 
extracts of various fungi, and tested the fermentative power of the sub- 
stance. In some cases the extract gave negative results, while the residue 
was found capable of active fermentation, showing that the active 
principle could not be separated from the body of the cell. In the case 
of Aspergillus Wentii both extract and residue were active. Some of 
the fungi were able to use as food disaccharides which they were unable 
to ferment. 

Biological Experiments with Fungi. §— K. Kominami has attempted 
to throw some light on the subject of the inheritance of acquired 
characters by growiug generation after generation of filamentous fungi 
in certain media. He took conidia of Aspergillus niger and grew them 
in a normal solution : other conidia that had been grown in a salt solu- 
tion ; and a third series that had been under the influence of salt solution 
for ten generations. He found that when these conidia, produced under 
different conditions, were sown on a highly concentrated salt medium, 
the first failed to germinate, the second germinated fairly well, while 
the third grew vigorously. Kominami could not carry the experiments 

* Centralbl. Bakt., xxiv. (1909) pp. 361-73 (3 pis.), 
f Comptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 944-7. 

% Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschr. Physiol. Chemie, lxii. (1909) pp. 367-85. See also 
Bot. Gaz., xlix. (1910) pp. 74-5. 

§ Journ. Coll. Sci. Tokyo, xxvii. 5 (1909) 33 pp. (3 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC 213 

beyond the conidial form. He records the finding of sexual character- 
istics in Mucor racemosus. 

Plant Diseases. — F. J. Chittenden * records a disease of Lavatera 
trimestris caused by Golletotrichum malvarum. The first symptom is the 
appearance of small yellowish-brown spots on the upper surface of the 
leaves, stalks, and stems. The spots gradually extend owing to the 
spread of the mycelium, and the tissue dies off. 

A disease of Antirrhinum is also reported due to an allied fungus 
Septoria Antirrhini. This also begins with yellowish leaf spots. Both 
of these fungi are particularly fatal on the stems of the plants, as they 
spread all round and quickly kill the host. Spraying with Bordeaux 
mixture is recommended in both cases. 

R. Lucks f records a fungus w T hich he found infesting the outer 
sheath of earth-nuts. He was led to examine these carefully, as cattle, 
etc., fed on nut-meal were often unwilling to eat it and not infrequently 
appeared to suffer from poisoning after partaking of the nut-meal. 
Lucks found a minute fungus, which he names Goniothecium arachnideum, 
infesting the sheaths of the nuts, especially on the inner side. He made 
a large series of cultures on various media and under different conditions 
of temperature, and gives a full account of all his culture experiments. 

T. H. Middleton % contributes a report on destructive insects and 
pests. The fungal diseases are chiefly cases of potato-wart disease, due 
to Chrysophlyctis endobiotica, and the American gooseberry mildew ; for 
both of these destructive diseases he suggests remedies, and instructs 
growers how to deal with the pests. 

In the same Journal § information is given as to the control of plant 
diseases in Germany. There are twenty-seven principal stations through- 
out the country for dealing with pests. The most common diseases dealt 
with during the year were the potato-wart disease, American gooseberry 
mildew, and a root disease of wheat caused by a fungus Ophiobolus 
herpotrichus. 

A stem and root disease of Viola tricolor has been determined by 
F. A. Wolf [| to be due to Fusarium Violse sp. n. The plants die off 
quickly, and show a dark slightly sunken area on the stem, just at the 
surface of the ground. The root system is almost entirely destroyed. 
Precautions should be taken not to fertilise with barn-yard manure im- 
mediately before planting, as that seems to encourage if not to cause the 
disease. 

A number of parasitic microfungi were noted by D. Cruchet^T in the 
valley of Tourtemagne during an excursion of the Societe Murithienne. 
He found Cintractia Garicis on three species of Gctrex, and a Pyreno- 
mycete on Liliaceas ; several parasitic Sphaeropsidese were also noted. 

Gr. Kdck ** describes three very troublesome fungus diseases, Pseudo- 
peronospora cubensis — which attacks cucumber-plants and is wide-spread 

* Journ. R. Hort. Soc, xxxv. (1909) pp. 213-17 (2 figs.), 
t Centralbl. Bakt., xxiii. (1909) pp. 642-55 (3 pis.). 
X Journ. Board Agric, xvi. (1910) pp. 845-8. 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 848-9. || Mycologia, ii. (1910) pp. 19-21 (1 pi.). 

1 Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. Geneve, xxviii. (1909) pp. 190-2. 

** Verh. k.k. Zool. bot. Ges. Wien, lix. (1909) pp. 48-57. See also Centralbl. 
Bakt., xxv. (1909) pp. 519-20. 



214 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

in Austria. Experiment proved that the different varieties of cucumber 
were not all equally liable to take infection, and that the fungus varied 
in the size of the conidia according to the species on which it grew. 
Bordeaux mixture has been used with good results as a fungicide. Kock 
reports also on the American gooseberry mildew, which was introduced 
with bushes from infected countries. Bordeaux mixture was effective 
in checking the fungus. Leaf-rolling in potato-plants is due also to a 
fungus, but weather conditions are powerful agents in inducing the ger- 
mination and growth of the parasite. 

L. Hauman-Merck and J. A. Devoto* have published the first 
attempt at a complete survey of plant diseases in Argentina. They 
chronicle the occurrence of Phycomycetes, such as Cytospora, Plasmopara 
(on the vine), and Peronosporse (on cabbage, lucerne, and spinach) ; one 
Hyphomycete, Oidium (on vine) ; Erysiphaceas (on beans, oats, and roses) ; 
Apiosporium (on cherry) ; Sclerotinia libertiana (on beans) ; Exoascus 
deformans (on cherry), and Pseudopeziza medicaginis (on lucerne). 

A considerable number of rusts have also been identified on wheat, 
oats, and maize, on fruit-trees, clover, shrubs, and trees, also smuts on 
maize and other cereals and grasses. Several species of Sphasropsideae 
have also been diagnosed belonging to the genera, Glozosporium, Cerco- 
spora, and Septoria. Mycoidea parasitica was found on leaves of magnolia, 
and Guscuta on lucerne. 

Diseases caused by insects are also included in the work. 

H. Klebahn t has studied a disease of celery that has been doing 
much harm in the market gardens round Hamburg. The tubers and 
base of the stem are affected, and the sheathing leaves on which the 
fungus grows become scabbed and unsightly. If the celery is used in 
the early season, not much damage is done, but in cases where it is 
earthed up for later use, rottenness sets in and there is great loss. 

One of the fungi causing the mischief is Septoria Apii, but other 
species of Sphaeropsideae are also to be found on celery, notably Phoma 
apiicola, which is parasitic on roots, leaf-sheaths, and leaf-bases. The 
fungus passes the winter in the soil, and attacks the young plants in 
spring. 

The diseases of cultivated plants have been treated in two divisions 
for the Encyclopedic Agricole. The first, by G. Delacroix f describes 
the various pathological conditions of the plant organisms as repre- 
sented by teratological formations induced by wounding, frost, soil, 
conditions, etc. 

The same author,§ along with A. Maublanc, has written on para- 
sitic diseases induced by phanerogams, fungi, bacteria, and epiphytes. 
Causes that lead to attack, and methods of treatment, are dwelt on, 
and the whole made useful to the cultivator. 

Some diseases of cultivated plants from the tropics have been 
recorded by Brick, || especially those that attack economic plants such 

* Bol. Minist. Agric. Buenos Aires, x. (1908) pp. 98-113. See also Bot. Cen- 
tralbl., xxv. (1909) p. 520. 

t Zeitschr. Pflanzenkr., xx. (1910) pp. 1-40 (2 pis. and 14 figs.). 

J Paris : J. B. Balliere (1908) xii. and 431 pp. (58 pis.). 

§ Paris (1909) 452 pp. (83 pis.). See also Centralbl. Bakt.,xxv. (1909) pp. 518-19. 

|| Jahresb. Ver. Angew. Bot., 1908 (Berlin 1909). See also Centralbl. Bakt., 
xxv. (1909) pp. 522-3. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 215 

as cocoa, on which he found a Ftisarium that killed the branches, and 
which required their cutting and burning in order to save the tree. 
Seedling cocoa plants were attacked by Pestalozzia guepini ; the roots by 
Hymenochsete noxia. Coffee trees were attacked by Nectria Behinskiana, 
and by a Hyphomycete, Pellicularia Icoleroja. 

L. Petri * publishes further notes on the diseases of olive trees in 
Italy. On the young leaves he found Phyllosticta Olese sp. n., which 
causes spots ; the fruits were often attacked by bacteria, which gave 
rise to gummosis, and the roots were covered at the tips by a niycorhiza 
which prevented further development. At the tips of the roots he also 
found the perithecia of a new fungus, Gryptoascus oligosporus g. et sp. n. 

F. Bnbakt reports on the work done at Tabor in Bohemia during 
the year 1908. Pine trees were attacked by Macrophoma bohemica and 
by Rehmiellopsis bohemica g. et sp. n., the latter an Ascomycete with a 
many-spored ascus. Steganosporium SiraTcoffii sp.;n. did considerable 
damage to young trees of Morus nigra. Tomatoes suffered from Macro- 
sporium Solani. Sphserotheca Mali was found on apple trees, and Oidium 
Quercinum on oak, with perithecia. 

F. 0. von Faber % has published a monograph dealing with the various 
diseases to which cocoa trees are liable, a number of them being caused 
by parasitic fungi, such as Pltytophthora sp., which induces a brown- 
rot. He devotes considerable space to methods of fighting the various 
diseases. 

F. W. Neger § has studied the diseases of the seeds of forest trees. 
The failure of these seeds to germinate arises from various causes, but 
in many cases it has been traced to the presence of fungi. He found 
spores in acorns, chestnuts and pine trees that were very similar to smut- 
spores, and Urocystis has been demonstrated on edible chestnuts. A 
disease of red chestnut seeds was also caused by a fungus, mycelium 
being found within the seed-coats. On cultivation, Botrytis cinerea was 
constantly produced ; infection had probably occurred during the flower- 
ing season. 

W. J. Gallagher || has described some root diseases of Hevea brasili- 
enses, the Para rubber tree. Fomes semitostus is one of the worst ; it 
envelops the lateral roots with a fine white felt and quickly kills them. 
The spores germinate only saprophytically on dead wood, and the fungus 
then passes to the living root. 

In another paper 1[ the author describes a branch and stem disease 
of Hevea caused by Corticium Zimmermanni ; it checks the flow of latex 
and causes the early fall of the leaves. 

E. S. Salmon** reports on Economic Mycology — work connected with 
fungoid plant diseases that has been undertaken at Wye during 1908. 
Diseases of various fruit trees, flowering plants and vegetables were 

* Atti Reale Accad. Lincei, xviii. (1909) pp. 635-42 (4 figs.). 

f Zeitschr. Land. Versuch. Oesterr. Wien, 1909, pp. 453-6. See also Hedwigia, 
Beibl., xlix. (1909) p. 72. 

X Arb. k.Biol. Anst. Berlin, 1909, pp. 193-351 (1 pi. and figs.). See also Hed- 
wigia, Beibl., xlix. (1909) pp. 72-3. 

§ Tharandt. Forstl. Jahrb. Leipzig, lx. (1909) pp. 222-52 (figs.). See also Hed- 
wigia, Beibl., xlix. (1909) pp. 73-5. 

|| Dept. Agric. Federated Malay States, Bull. No. 2 (1909) 13 pp. 

\ Op. cit., No. 6 (6 pp.). See also Ann. Mycol., vii. (1909) pp. 562-3. 

** South East Agric. Coll. Wye (London, i909). 



216 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

treated. Experiments were undertaken to test the resistance of Ghryso- 
pMyctis sporangia to frost ; their germinating power was not destroyed 
after an exposure to temperatures varying from 5° to 8° C. for four hours. 

Mycorhiza of Sempervivum.* — Franz Zach describes the formation 
of fascicles of short roots in Sempervivum which recall the appearance of 
witches' brooms. He found in the cells of these roots the slender hyphaj 
of an endophytic mycorhiza, and he found also the stouter mycelium of 
a Hyphomycete. Whether the short roots are caused by the mycor- 
hiza or whether they are an adaptation to xerophytic conditions the 
author does not say, as experimental research would be necessary to 
determine this. 

Almeida, Jose Verissimo d' & Manoel de Souza da Gamaka — Coii- 
tributiones ad Mycofloram Lusitaniae. (Contributions to the fungus-flora of 
Lusitania.) 

[Several new species are published in the list, which numbers 500 specimens.] 

Bol. Soc. Brot., xxiv. (1908-9) pp. 150-213. 

Bittman, Otto— Die holzztorenden und holzzersetzenden parasitaren, sowie sa- 
propb.ytiscb.en Pilze unserer Laubhblzer im Wald und auf den Lagerplatzen. 
(Wood-destroying parasites, and the saprophytic fungi in forest and timber- 
yards.) Oesterr. Forst, und Jagd.-Zeit., xxvii. (1909) pp. 74-6, 84-5, 95-G, 
and 135-6 (5 figs.). See also Hedwigia, Beibl., xlix. (1909) p. 26. 

Bloomfield, E. M., & E. W. Swantok — Sussex Fungi: Preliminary List. 
[A list of Hymenomycetes and Gasteromycetes found in the county.] 

Hastings and Sussex Naturalist, i. (1909) pp. 131-52 (4 pis.). 

Burlingham, G. S. — Lactarise of North America. Fasc. i.-ii. 

[Habitat and distribution in America are given.] 

Mycologia, ii. (1910) pp. 27-36. 

Cruchet, Denis — Micromycetes nouveaux. (New Micromycetes.) 
[Several new species from Valais.] 

Bull. Soc. Valid. Sci. Nat., xliv. (1909) pp. 469-75 (3 figs.). 

Fischer, Hugo — Ueber Coremium arbuscula sp. n. 

[Diagnosis and description of the new species, with notes on the genus.] 

Bcr. Detdsch. Bot, Gesell, xxvii. (1909) pp. 502-4 (2 figs. ). 

Knischewsky, O. — Tagesringe bei Penicillium lnteum. 

[Culture experiments which proved that ring-formation in fungal cultures 
were due to effects of light.] 

Landw. Jalirbilchcr, xxxviii. (1909) p. 341. 
See alsoJBo*. Centralbl, cxiii. (1910) pp. 120-1. 

Knoll, F. — Eine neue Art der Gattung Coprinus. (A new species of the genus 
Coprimes.) 

[The fungus Coprimes stiriacus sp. n. grew in hot-houses and in the open ; 
it is allied to C. ■psexidoplicatilis.'] 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. Wien, lix. (1909) pp. 129-33 (2 figs.). 
See also Hedivigia. Beibl., xlix. (1909) p. 64. 

Korpatchewska, Irene— Sur le Dimorphisme physiologique de quelques Mu- 
corinees Heterothalliques. (Physiological dimorphism of some heterothallic 
Mucorini.) 

[The difference between the two sexes is apparent in their chemical be- 
haviour (chimisme) and in their growth.] 

Bull. Soc. Bot. Genive, ser. 2, i. pp. 317-51(1 pi. and 4 figs.). 



SB. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. Kl., cxviii. (1909) pp. 185-200 (3 pis. and 4 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 217 

KiiiEGEB, W. — Zwei neue sachsische Pilze. (Two new Saxon fungi.) 
[Two species of microfungi are described.] 

Ann. Mycol., vii. (1909) p. 542. 

Lindner, P. — Catenularia fuliginea (Saito) ein Schulbeispiel zur Demonstration 
der Sporenkettenbildung. Catenularia fuliginea, a school example for demon- 
stration of spore-chain formation.) 

[Photographic figures, and notes as to the formation of the spores.] 

Bcr. Dcutsch. Bot. Gesell, xxvii. (1909) pp. 530-6 (1 pi.). 

Maestro, Cesar Sobrado — Datos para la Flora Micologica gallega. 
[A list of fungi collected in November, mostly in Cataluna.] 

Bol. Hist. Nat., ix. (1909) pp. 491-4. 

Magnus, P. — Beitrag zur Kenntnis der parasitischen Pilze Agyptens. (Contri- 
bution to the knowledge of the parasitic fungi of Egypt.) 

[The species described are chiefly Uredinea? ; there are no new species.] 

Hedivigia, xlix. (1909) pp. 93-9 (1 pi.). 
Masse e, G. — Fungi exotici. IX. 

[Sixteen new species of Boletus are described, and Strobilomyccs paradoxus 
sp. n., from Singapore.] Bull. Roy. Bot. Gard. Keiu, 1909, pp. 204-9. 

Moesz, G. — Gombak Budapestrb'l es kornyekerb'l. (I. Kdzlemenig.) (Fungi from 
Budapest and the neighbourhood (first contribution). 
[140 species are listed ; a number are new to science.] 

Beibl. Bot. Kozemenyek, 1909, heft 4-5, 31 pp. (1 pi.). 
See also Ann. Mycol., vii. (1909) p. 560. 

M off att, W. S.— The Higher Fungi of the Chicago Region. Part I. The Hy- 
menomycetes. 

[A large number of known species were collected.] 

Chicago Acad. Sci. Nat. Hist. Survey, Bull. No. vii. (1909) 
pp. 1-156 (24 pis.) See also Ann. Mycol, vii. (1909) p. 560. 

N oel li, A. — Alcuni micromiceti dell' Ossola. (Some Micromycetes from Ossola.) 
[A list of species, with notes on the development of many of the forms ; there 
is one new species, Mollisia fagicola.~] 

Malpighia, xxiii. (1909) pp. 171-84 (lfig.). 

Patouillard, N. — Additions au catalogue des Champignons de la Tunisie. 

[Fungi observed or collected in Tunis and Algiers, including many rare and 
some new species.] 

C.R. Congr. Soc. Sav., 1908 (Paris, 1909) pp. 242-56. 
See also Ann. Mycol., vii. (1909) pp. 560-1. 
Fetch, T. — New Ceylon Fungi. 

[A number of new fungi and two new Mycetozoa are described.] 

Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Peradcniya, Colombo, iv. (1909) pp. 299-307. 

See also Bot. Centralbl., cxiii. (1910) p. 19. 
Rehm, H. — Ascomycetes exs. Fasc. 45. 

[Nos. Ib51 to 1S75 are listed ; several of them are new to science.] 

Ann. Mycol., vii. (1909) pp. 524-30. 
,, Ascomycetes novi. 

[Fifteen new species are described from North America ; from 
South America there are nineteen, with one new genus, Phseo- 
fabrsea.'] Tom. cit., pp. 531-42. 

Bitter, G. — Ammoniak und Nitrate als Stickstoffquelle fur Schimmelpilze. (Am- 
monia and nitrates as a source of nitrogen for filamentous fungi.) 

[Culture experiments were made with a series of fungi, and results given. J 

Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Gesell, xxvii. (1910) pp. 582-88. 

Schroeder, Ec. Aug. — Ueber die Craterellus-Arten im allgemeinen und den 
Craterellus nucleatus sp. n. im besonderen. (On Craterellus species generally 
and on C. nucleatus in particular.) 

[The new species is good for eating ; it has been carefully described.] 

Centralbl Ges. Forstw., xxxiv. (1908) pp. 396-404 (1 fig.). 
See also Hedivigia, Beibl. xlix. (1909) p. 64. 

April 20th, 1910 q 



218 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Sydow, H. & P.— Fungi Paraenses. 

[The list includes a large proportion of new species.] 

Hcdivigia, xlix. (1909) pp. 78-84. 

,, ,, Einige neue resp. bemerkenswerte Pilze aus Sudafrika. (Some 

new and noteworthy fungi from South Africa.) 

[Six new species are described and others recorded, with 
notes.] ' Ann. Mycol., vii. (1909) pp. 543-7. 

Lichens. 
(By A. Loerain Smith.) 

Lichen Flora of the Saal Valley.* — H. Zsacke has published a 
list of lichens he has collected, and along with it a short geological 
sketch of the neighbourhood. The calcareous rocks vary greatly in the 
amount of calcium contained in them, and this variation tells at once on 
the lichen flora. Where the two types of rock with much or little 
calcium are closely associated, the species of lichen may pass over from 
one rock to the other, but they become untypical and show differences 
both in thallus and size of spores. 

Russian Lichens.f — In his report on the vegetation of the Sseliger 
Lake (Gouv Twer, Ostaschkow), Elenkin gives an account of the moss 
and lichen formations in the neighbourhood of the lake, more especially 
on the sandy soil. The most characteristic species were Stereocaulon 
condensatum, Cladonia verticillata, Bacomyces roseus, B. byssoides, and a 
new and interesting form, Placynthiella arenicola g. et sp. n. Some rare 
crustaceous Lichens were also found on stones, e.g. Rhizocarpon postumum 
and Acarospora oligospora. 

Lichens from Brazil. J— A Zahlbruckner has had charge of the 
lichens collected by the Austrian Botanical Expedition of 1901 to South 
Brazil. He has determined 297 species, many of them new to science. 
He gives notes and new diagnoses of many species already known, 
especially in Grapkidese, in which family the apothecia have often been 
imperfectly described. The different groups are all fairly well repre- 
sented, though the more noticeable foliose and fructiculose forms are the 
most numerous. The Parmelise are specially abundant, and Zahlbruckner 
gives a synoptic key to enable the students to determine these and other 
specimens with greater ease. The paper is illustrated by five plates of 
coloured photographs. 

Italian Lichens. § — In the present issue A. Jatta commences the 
study of Heterolichenes. These he divides into (1) Epiconiaceaj, (2) 
Discocarpaceae, and (3) Pyrenocarpaceee. The first includes only the 
coniocarps, a comparatively small group. The second is the largest, and 
consists of nearly all the foliose and fructiculose lichens as well as the 

* Zeitschr. Naturw., lxxx. (1908) pp. 231-53. See also Bot. Centralbl., cxxii. 
(1910) pp. 91-2. 

t Bull. Jard. Imp. Bot. St. Petersbourg, ix. (1909) pp. 15-21. See also Hed- 
wigia, Beibl.,xlix. (1909) p. 54. 

X Denkschr. k. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. Kl., lxxxiii. 2 (1909) 125 pp. (5 pis.). 

§ Flora Italica Cryptogama. Lichenes, i. fasc. 2 (1909) pp. 113-264. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 219 

crnstaceous Lecanoreae, Lecideas, and Graphidaceas. The last group is- 
not yet touched ou. With each family he gives a figure of the out- 
standing characters of the genera, and a bibliography of important works 
bearing on the special group. Diagnoses are written in Latin. A 
synoptic key to the species is given at the head of each genus. 

Primitive Lichen.* — Elizabeth Acton has examined Botrydina vul- 
garis, and finds that it is not, as is sometimes supposed, a green alga, 
but is a composite plant consisting of a central group of algal cells im- 
bedded in mucilage, which is traversed by fungal hyphas, both plants 
growing symbiotically together. The fungal hyphaa formed an envelope 
of considerable thickness. She concludes that it should be regarded as 
a lichen, possibly one of the most primitive of existing lichens. Alga 
and fungus are able to live separately. B. vulgaris occurs in damp 
situations among mosses on rocks or on the ground. 

Useful Plants among Lichens. — V. Schiffner divides such plants 
into three categories. 

1. Edible lichens for men or animals. — The gastronomic quality de- 
depends on their content of lichenin and isolichenin (lichen-starch). 
Lichenin is always associated with a bitter principle, but it can be re- 
moved by frequent washing, and the plants made serviceable to man. 
Such lichens are Cetraria islandica, Gladonia rangiferina, Evernise, Sticta 
pulmonacea, Gyrophora proboscidea, G. cylindrica, G. esculenta, A lector ia 
sulcata, and Lecanora esculenta. 

2. Lichens as medicine. — Cetraria islandica is the only one of service. 
Chlorea vulpina is used by peasants in Norway to poison foxes, and Alpine 
dwellers employ Thamnolia vermicularis in lung disease of pigs. 

3. Lichens in the Arts. — The following dyes are obtained : orchil, 
cudbear, orchil-extract, French purple, and litmus. These are extracted 
from Roccellse, Dendrographa leucophsea, Pertusaria dealbata var. violaria, 
Lecanora tartarea, and Umbilicariafrustulata. Sticta pulmonaria is a sub- 
stitute for hops in the brewing of beer ; Physica ciliaris and Evernia 
prunastri are used in perfumery ; Cetraria islandica and Gladonia rangi- 
ferina are occasionally used in the preparation of alcohol. 

Absorption of Water by Lichens. J — F. Sievers confirms ZukaFs 
observations on this subject, viz. that crustaceous lichens absorb water 
from the upper surface only ; foliose lichens on both surfaces. Among 
crustaceous lichens there are modifications of this rule ; in some species 
there are no cracks on the surface, and in that case the water penetrates 
by injured places, or in others at the edge of the thallus. Parmelise, 
with black, impenetrable under surface, absorb water from above ; 
where rhizinae are well developed, they serve to hold water. In 
shrubby lichens the hygroscopic nature of the thallus provides for 
absorption from the moisture of the atmosphere ; thus Gladonia rctipora 

* Ann. Bot., xxiii. (1909) pp. 578-85 (1 pi.). 

f Naturw. Wochenschr. , xxiv. (1909) pp. 65-72 (25 figs.). See also Bot. Cen- 
tralbl., cxiii. (1910) p. 22. 

I Wiss. Beil. 38 Jahresber. Ber. Landw. Schule Marienberg, Ostern. (Helm- 
stadt, 1908). See also Hedwigia, Beibl,, xlix. (1910) p. 108. 

Q 2 



220 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

almost equals Sphagnum in its absorptive capacity. Mucilaginous 
lichens have great power of swelling up, and so of absorbing and 
retaining water. 

Bachmann, E. — Die Flechten des Vogtlandes. (Lichens of Vogtland.) 

[Of 278 species only 185 were crustaceous forms, owing to the lack of lime- 
stone and old trees.] 

Abh. Nat. Gcs. Isis, Dresden, 1909, pp. 23-42. 
See also Hcdwigia, Beibl.,xlix. (1910) p. 107. 

Harm and — Notes relatives a la Lichenologie du Portugal. 

[431 species are listed, collected chiefly by R P. Cordeiro in the neighbour- 
hood of Seterbal.] Bull. Soc. Bot, France, lvi. (1909). 

Havaas, Jo han — Beitrage zur Kenntnis der westnorwegischen Flechtenflora. 
(Contributions to the study of the West Norwegian lichen-flora.) 
[The list includes some species and varieties new to science.] 

Bergens Museums, Aarborg, i. (1909) pp. 1-36. 
See also Bot. Zeit,, lxviii. (1910) pp. 15-16. 

Hue— Le Mastoidea tessellata Hook. fil. and Harv. 

[A controversy as to the nature of the plant has been settled by the de- 
velopment of lichen fruits.] 

Bull. Soc. Bot. France, lvi. (1909) 8 pp. (5 figs.). 
See also Bot. Centralbl, cxi. (1909) p. 622. 
„ Lichens. 

[An account of some lichens collected at Tangiers, with a discussion of 
the systematic value of Roccella 2~>oiicntosa.'] 

Act. Soc. Linn. Bord., lxiii. (1809) 4 pp. 
See also Bot. Centralbl, cxi. (1909) p. 623. 

Mahew, J.— Notes relatives a la Cryptogamie de l'Espagne. Les Lichens du 
Montserrat. 

[Seventy-seven species of lichens from Montserrat, including an exotic 
species, Polucauliona maheui.'] 

Bull. Soc. Bot. France, lvi. (1909) 19 pp. (3 figs.). 

Marc, F. — Catalogue des Lichens recueillies dans le massif de l'Argoual et le 
bassin superieur de la Dourbie. (Lichens collected on the heights of Argoual 
and the upper basin of the Dourbie.) Acad. Int. Bot,, xviii. (1908) 98 pp. 

See also Bot. Centralbl, cxiii. (1910) pp. 20-1. 

Petrow, J. P.— Die Flechten des Moskauer Districts. (The lichens of the Moscow 
district.) 

[The author records twenty-two species, and a further list of fourteen.] 

Bull. Jard.Imp. Bot, St. Pe'tersbourg , ix. (1909) pp. 73-90. 
See also Hedivigia, Beibl., xlix. (1909) p. 64. 

Wainio, E. A.— Lichenes insularum Philippinarum I. (Lichens from the Philip- 
pine Islands.] 

TA number of new species, shrubby and leafy lichens, are included in this 
list.] Phil. Journ. Sci., iv. (1909) pp. 651-62. 

Mycetozoa. 
(By A. Lorrain Smith.) 

Text-Book of Mycetozoa.*— C. Torrend tells us in his preface that 
his projected list of fifty-one species observed by him in Portugal gave 
place to a full account of all the known members of the group. Seeing 
there was no complete work on the Mycetozoa in French, he now pub- 
lishes the complete account in the French language. He begins by 

* Flore des Myxomycetes, S. Fiel (1909) 270 pp. (9 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 221 

giving a biological account of Mycetozoa, their growth and reproduction. 
Torrend concludes that they are related to fungi rather than to animals, 
and retains for them the title Myxomycetes. He gives directions to 
the student how to collect and how to preserve these minute organisms, 
and how to make microscopic preparations. He gives detailed keys to 
families, genera, and species, and publishes plates of genera and species. 

Mycetozoan Parasites.— J. E. Blomfield * and E. J, Schwartz have 
studied the tumours of Veronica chamsedrys, and of the organism causing 
them, a parasitic Mycetozoon, Sorosphaera Veronicas. The tubercles vary 
in size from a pin's head to that of the last joint of the little finger. 
The parasite is largely local in its action, and does little damage to the 
host-plant. The Mycetozoon has no power to penetrate through the 
cell-walls, and spreads by the dividing of the host-cell containing it ; 
primary infection takes place in the vicinity of the growing points of 
the stem. At the final stage the infected cells are mostly filled with 
the spherical zoospheres of wedge-shaped spores. Nuclear division was 
observed, and is carefully described. 

E. J. Schwartz f publishes a preliminary note on another species of 
Sorosphaera J unci, which attacks the roots of various species of Juncus. 
The life-history is very similar to that of S. Veronicas. 



Schizophyta. 
Schizomycetes. 

New Bacillus in Cheese. J — H. Huss describes Pseudomonas 
cowardi, a new bacillus isolated from a sample of Cleveland cheese sent 
to him from Yorkshire. This is a short, Gram-positive, motile, non- 
sporing organism, possessed of one flagellum. It grows well on ordinary 
media and ferments dextrose, but not lactose or mannite. Indol is 
formed. Gelatin is not liquefied, nor milk clotted. Associated with 
" rusty spots " in cheese, this bacillus also forms a reddish-yellow 
pigment in cultures, which is soluble in absolute alcohol, but not in 
water. 

New Lactic-acid Streptothrix.§ — From Dadhi, an Indian sour-milk 
preparation, G. C. Chatterjee has obtained an organism, which he assigns 
to the class Kornchen bacilli of Lehmann and Neumann, a group allied 
to the Streptothrices. It grows well on glucose-agar, forming convo- 
luted chains. In specimens stained with methylen-blue, it is seen that 
while the bacillus stains blue, it contains pink granules placed at regular 
intervals. It has been thought that these are glycogen granules ; they 
are certainly not spores, as they are not resistant to heat. In other 
respects, this organism resembles B. bulgaricus and its congeners. It 
coagulates casein in milk, and produces a large quantity of lactic acid. 
When inoculated with certain pathogenic bacilli into milk, it destroys 
them rapidly. 

* Ann. Bot.xxiv. (1910) pp. 35-43 (1 pi.). t Tom. cit., p. 236. 

X Centralbl. Bakt., 2te Abt., xxv. (1909) pp. 401-6. 
§ Op. cit., lteAbt.Orig.,liii. (1910) pp. 103-12. 



222 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Resistance of various Bacteria to Alterations in Osmotic Pres- 
sure.* — Alfred Guillemard added varying quantities of salts of alkalies 
and alkaline earths to broth, and observed the influence of the thus 
altered physical conditions of the culture medium upon the growth of 
different types of bacteria. In this preliminary notice of his researches 
he gives a few figures which show that Bacillus megatherium is, of the 
organisms submitted to experiment, the least tolerant of such changes, 
whereas Staphylococcus pyogenes possesses relatively high powers of 
resistance. The organisms of the so-called coli-typhoid group occupy 
an intermediate position. The author is of opinion that these variations 
in toleration of such physical conditions are sufficiently constant to afford 
a useful means of differential diagnosis between, for example, B. Frietl- 
landeri and B. lactis aerogenes, organisms difficult to distinguish by the 
methods at present in use. 

Comparative Study of Streptothrix pyogenes and Actinomyces 
hominis.f — R. Chiarolanza compares the morphological and cultural 
characters of these organisms, as well as the effects of their inoculation 
into experimental animals. As regards their cultural characters, he finds 
that there are many points of similarity between the two types. Both 
grow well upon agar, forming whitish adhesive colonies, the Streptothrix 
colonies being as a rule larger. On glycerin-agar, Streptothrix colonies 
appear dark yellow, sometimes black. Both liquefy gelatin. Neither 
form produces haemolysis on blood-agar plates. As regards their mor- 
phological characters, both forms consist of threads of various lengths 
with true branching. Yacuoles appear in the threads in old cultures. 
Both forms are Gram-positive. Streptothrix pyogenes is acid-fast, Actino- 
myces hominis is not ; but acid-fastness in the streptothrices is a variable 
character, susceptible of modification by passage and other means. So 
that the value of this as a diagnostic point must not be overestimated. 

Cladothrix stereotropa.J — G. Proca and P. Danila point out that 
this organism, which is found in syphilitic products, exists in four types : 
a bacillary form with pseudo-branching ; a Streptothrix form ; a diphthe- 
roid form ; and a coccobacillary form. Injected into animals (rabbits 
and mice) it gives rise to abscess or septicaemia. 

Streptobacillus niger gangraense pulmonaris.§— G. Repaci isolated 
from a gangrenous lung a streptobacillus which has some morphological 
resemblance to Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is easily stained, and is Gram- 
positive. It is an essential anaerobe, and grows only at incubation tem- 
peratures. The growth on sugar-agar consists of small circular colonies, 
at first opaque, but becoming black in about a fortnight. Fluid media 
are rendered turbid ; the growth is deposited as a whitish sediment. It 
does not form gas or indol. It does not attack sugars, but glucose is 
slightly fermented. The cultures exhale a strong putrefactive odour. It 
is extremely pathogenic to animals. 

* C.R Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 538-40. 

t Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Orig., liii. (1910) pp. 1-11. 

j C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxviii. (1910) pp. 190-3 (6 figs.) ; and pp. 79-81. 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 216-18. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 223 

Spores of Bacillus perfringens.* — B. L. Melikov found that the 
spores were best cultivated in white of egg broth {bouillon blanc d'ceuf) 
and stained by Ziehl's method with a weak decoloriser (1 p.c. sulphuric 
acid). The vitality of the spores is great. In aerobic cultures, mixed 
with B. coll on agar slopes, they grow in about fifteen days, and in 
white of egg broth deprived of air for four or five years they may also 
give colonies. The spores are killed at 100° in a few minutes. The 
spores are large, oval, and usually central. When small and young the 
spores stain more deeply than when fully developed. 

Babbeb, M. A. — The Effect on Mice of Minute Doses of B. anthracis. 

Joum. Infect. Diseases, vi. 1909, pp. 634-61. 

Kbuyff, E. de — Les Bacteries thermophiles dans les Tropiques. 

Centralbl. Bakt., 2te Abt., xxvi. (1910) pp. 65-74. 

Rankin, A. C. — Germicidal Action of Metals and its Relation to the Production 
of Peroxide of Hydrogen. Proc. Boy. Soc, Ser. B, lxxxii. (1910) pp. 78-87. 

Savage, W. G. — Differentiation of Streptococci by means of the "Goat Test." 

Rep. Local Govt. Board, 1909, Appendix B 3, pp. 294-315. 

,, „ Etiology of Paratyphoid Fever and the Belationship of Para- 

typhoid Bacilli to other members of the Gaertner Group. 

Op. cit., Appendix B 4, pp. 316-40. 

YVidal, F., P. Abrami, E. Joltbain, E. Bbissaud, & A. Weil — Sero- 
diagnostic Mycosique. Applications au diagnostic de la Sporotrichose et de 
l'Actinomycose. Les coagglutinations et cofixations mycosiques. 

Ann. Inst. Pasteur, xxiv. (1910) pp. 1-33. 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 806-7. 



224 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



MICROSCOPY. 

A. Instruments, Accessories, &c* 
(1) Stands. 

Watson's Naturalist's Microscope.t — This instrument (figs. 18 and 
19) is an inexpensive Microscope, and is intended for students and for 




Fig. 18. 



biological class Avork. The base for the Microscope is formed either by 
the case, or by the bench on which it is to be used. The illustrations 
show the instrument (1) with stage and mirror removed, fitted in 

* This subdivision contains (1) Stands ; (2) Eye-pieces and Objectives : (3) 
Illuminating and other Apparatus; (4) Photomicrography; (5) Microscopical 
Optics and Manipulation ; (6) Miscellaneous. 

+ Watson and Sons' Special Catalogue. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



225 



socket and fixed to bench or table (fig. 18) ; and (2) when mounted in 
socket on side of containing case (fig. l ( ->)- 

Binocular Loups of Weak and Medium Magnification.* — O.Henker 
and M. von Rohr discuss the principles which must underlie stereo- 
scopic vision, with especial reference to the image in space. If an 
object-point be selected, the principal rays proceeding from it must 




Fig. 19. 

first be determined. These principal rays are those which diverge from 
the object to the centres of' the entrance-pupils of the right and of 
the left instrument. After their passage through the instrument, these 
rays generally leave the exit-pupils at an increased refraction-angle to 
their corresponding axes. A space-image, in the sense of geometrical 
optics, occurs when the directions, produced backwards, of the principal 
rays pertaining to a selected object-point, intersect in a point of the 
space-image. The combination of all such space-points will give the 
true space-image of the whole object. If such a condition, incontestable 
as a proposition in geometrical optics, be satisfied, it is, furthermore, 

* Zeit. f. Instrumentenk., xxiA (1909) pp. 280-6 (7 figs.). 



226 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



possible to discuss the conditions of the allied subject — viz. the change 
whereby the perspective arising in the space-object is presented to the 
eye. That change is closely connected with the above condition. It 
must at the same time be supposed that the observer's eyes remain 
accommodated for infinity. Yet it cannot be asserted that these 
conditions as to accommodation-adaptability of the eyes are ever com- 
pletely satisfied. But it will be difficult to deny the authors this 
simplifying assumption if the similar condition be conceded without 
hesitation in the clearer case of monocular instruments. In any case 
the conditions should be plainly and clearly laid down on which the 
consequent explanation depends. 

In many instruments intended for binocular use there is no space- 
image, in the sense of geometrical optics, owing to the fact that in 
many cases the rays do not intersect, but merely cross one another. 
But "since the observer, even in such instances, not infrequently receives a 
uniform impression, the explanations must be sought for in physiological 
rather than in geometrical optics. The result of the authors' view, 
therefore, is to very much narrow down the ground on which binocular 
instruments should be treated, and to lay a sure foundation for 
explaining the construction of selected forms. The space-image, in the 
strict sense, will only arise when the axes-directions of the system 
serving both eyes are parallel in both the space-object and in the space- 
image, and when there is also exact and similar correspondence between 
the planes of the object and the planes of the images. 

Moveover, it is possible to consider systems with a common objective 
— under these circumstances the space -object possesses only a single 
position-plane — or with both systems completely separated, and set up 
parallel to each other. 

The authors then discuss the application of their princples to double 

loups. 

(2) Eye-pieces and Objectives. 

Watsons' 1/6 and 1/12 Objectives.* — The essential features claimed 
for these lenses (figs. 20, 21) are the capability of bearing high eye-pieces 
without breaking down ; the capability of utilising a large solid cone of 





Fig. 20. 



Fig. 21. 



illumination ; perfect centring ; a definition which leaves no doubt as 
to the structure examined. 

* Watson and Sons' Special Catalogue. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



227 



C3) Illuminating- and other Apparatus. 

Zehnder's New Half-shadow Polarimeter.* — L. Zehnder reports 
that this half-shadow polarimeter has proved itself very useful for the 
examination of elliptically polarised light. The chief parts are shown 
in fig. 22. The goniometer used in its construction was von Lang's. 
The parallelised rajs, proceeding from the objective of the slit-tube 
C, pass through the polariser P. They then traverse the Soleil-Babinet 
compensator K, and the new half-shadow analysing arrangement A. All 
these parts are in front of the telescope objective. The polariser P is 
rotatory about the slit-tube axis, and a finely divided circle 1\ is closely 
connected with it. This circle is coarsely adjustable, and also, by 
means of the screw S x , finely adjustable ; the rotation is read off in 
degrees and minutes by a vernier. The compensator K is intended to 
convert into a directly polarised beam the light reflected at the surface 
under examination, and more or less elliptically polarised, of the body 
set on the goniometer. The compensator consists (i.) of a plane-parallel 




Fig. 22. 



quartz plate c of uniform thickness, and (ii.) of two quartz wedges 
a and b, which together form a plane-parallel plate of variable thickness. 
The optical axes of a and b, on the one hand, and of c on the other, are 
orientated in the well-known manner, perpendicular to each other. The 
half-shadow analysing arrangement A consists of the half-prism N" and 
of the plane-parallel dark glass R, which together half cover up the 
held of view defined by the circular diaphragm D. The divided circle 
T 2 is closely connected with this analysing arrangement, and can be 
rotated about the telescope axis ; the movement is partly coarse and 
partly, by means of the screw S 2 , fine ; the vernier reads to degrees and 
minutes. The opacity of the dark glass plate is so selected that the 
diaphragm D under the light used is perfectly visible, and for this 
reason the ocular lens of the telescope F is made of variable width by 
means of an ocular slit. The well-known conditions of the Lippich 
half -shadow polarising apparatus are made use of in adjusting the half- 
prism and the dark glass. As the dark glass in each rotation of the 
analyser about the telescope axis transmits a uniform quantity of light, 
there occurs on each side of every dark adjustment of the half -prism 
an adjustment for half-shadow equality — that is, for uniform brightness 



* Ann. d. Physik., xxvi. (1908) p. 985. 
1909) pp. 29G-8 (1 fig.). 



See also Zeit. f. Instrumentenk., xxix. 



228 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



of the whole field ; between these positions the position of maximum 
darkness of the half-prism lies midway. As the adjustment for uniform 
illumination admits of greater precision than that for maximum dark- 
ness, this analysing arrangement is more accurate than a single nicol. 
It is, moreover, especially advantageous to have two positions of adjust- 
ment, and to take their mean. 

The reflecting plane of the glass body is, by means of an auto- 




Fig. 23. 



collimation ocular, provided with cross-threads, set parallel to the 
rotation axis of the goniometer, whereby the polarising planes of the 
analyser and polariser are parallelised with great accuracy, being per- 
pendicular to the goniometer rotation axis. Consequently, it is likewise 
possible, with great accuracy, to calibrate the drum divisions of the 
compensator, and to so adjust the rotatory compensator about the 
telescope axis that the optical axes of its quartz plates lie parallel, being 
both perpendicular to the goniometer axis. 

In adjustments with the compensator, the movable quartz wedge is 
first pushed far enough to make the half-prism show dark ; it is_ then 
further pushed, first in one, afterwards in the other direction, until the 
field shows equal illumination. The mean of these two adjustments of 
the wedge gives the position of dark adjustment more accurately than 
if one attempted to get it by one position of the nicol. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



229 



Kniss Epidiascope.* — This instrument, which was described in 
this Journal,! ant ^ was invented rather more than a year ago, has lately 
been improved in certain details and adapted by A. Kriiss to a greater 
range of purposes. Figs. 57 and 58 of the former abstract illustrate 
the principle, while the accompanying figs., 23, 24, show the new applica- 
tions. Fig. 23 shows the epidiascope in normal adjustment. A self- 
regulating lamp for 30-50 amperes acts as the light-source. Transition 
from diascopic to epidiascopic projection is effected by pressure on one of 




Fig. 24. 



the levers seen in the figure. If both mirrors (S t S 4 original fig. 57) are 
thus put out of action and the front wall let down (fig. 24), the light- 
rays may then pass axially through the apparatus, and an optical bench 
may be inserted. Fig. 24 also shows the optical bench adapted for polarisa- 
tion demonstrations. Suitable arrangements may be similarly made for 
exhibition of spectral, interference, and diffractive phenomena. A pro- 
jection Microscope can be applied to the bench. Sometimes this Micro- 
scope objective would be equally suitable for the projection of opaque 
objects or of diapositives. But when considerable magnification is re- 
quired, and increased distance from the screen is unattainable, the 

* Deutsch Mech.-Zeit., 1909, pp. 230-2(3 figs.). 
t See this Journal, 1909 p. 251. 



230 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



arrangement shown in fig. 25 may be used with diapositives. This 
arrangement may, moreover, be used for the simultaneous projection of 
two diapositives, the front part being fitted with a specially large illumi- 
nating lens, which equally illuminates two adjacent diapositives adjust- 
able in two mutually perpendicular directions. The diapositives may be 
independently exchanged. 




Fig. 25. 



Application of Edinger's Drawing and Projection Apparatus to 
Macroscopic Photography.* — P. Martin has devised a stand which very 
much increases the usefulness of Edinger's apparatus.!. The stand is 
manufactured by the firm of Leitz, and consists of a convenient frame- 
work in which a camera can be placed and clamped at any angle. This 
camera replaces the usual optical parts, and is capable, when adjusted at 
a suitable distance, of projecting into the ordinary photographic part 
images of very large objects. By this means the author has secured 
photographs of the pelvis of a horse, or even of an entire horse carcass. 
In the latter case the carcass was on the floor of a hall, and the frame 
was conveniently arranged in a gallery over. The frame is mounted on 
castors, and is therefore easily transferred to any desired spot, e.g. a 
patient's bedside. AVith an horizontal adjustment, an object on a wall, 
or vertical screen may be photographed. 

Ocular Micrometer with Interior Vernier. J — The firm of Nachet, 
under the instruction of F. Vies, has manufactured an ocular micrometer 
which is intended to possess a precision equal to that of the best divided 
drum-micrometers, but with a less complicated mechanism. The read- 

* Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxvi. (1909) pp. 219-22 (2 figs.), 
t See this Journal, 1905, p. 650, and 1891, p. 811. 
j C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 537-8. 




ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 231 

ing, moreover, is within the Microscope, and therefore the time and in- 
convenience usually spent in reading an external graduation will be saved. 
The ocular has in its focal plane a scale divided on glass similar to ordi- 
nary micrometric oculars. In contact with this scale, and also in the 
ocular field, is a vernier divided into tenths, on the lower face of another 
glass slip gliding on that of the fixed scale. A simple metallic slide, a 
push-screw, and a back-spring suffice to move the vernier. The process 
of measurement will be easily understood, and takes place in the field of 
view. There are no special precautions to be taken, such as are usually 
necessary, with regard to errors of screw, of springs, or of carriers, in the 
case of external scales. Moreover, the measurement is made without 
taking one's eye from the ocular, and it is possible, in case of need, to 
dictate the readings to an assistant without the observer abandoning the 
observation of a fugitive phenomenon. 

Watson and Sons' Holos Immersion Paraboloid.* — This appa- 
ratus (fig. 2G) gives an intensely black background, with a brilliantly 
illuminated object, with high-power objectives up 
to 0'95 N.A., and is specially suited for showing 
unstained living bacteria. The makers supply full 
directions for the successful working of the appa- 
ratus. 

Enumeration of Blood-corpuscles.j — R. Samut 
advocates the use of the following simplified me- Fig. 26. 

thods for counting blood-corpuscles. 

The enumeration of the formed elements of the blood, although 
admittedly of paramount importance in the diagnosis of disease, is not as 
frequently carried out as its value would call for. This is undoubtedly 
due to the fact that, in enumerating blood-corpnscles by means of Gowers's 
or the Thoma-Zeiss haemocytometer, the chief difficulty encountered is 
the necessity of counting the large number of corpuscles in each of the 
sixteen small squares which make up one of the large squares, since at 
least eight sets of sixteen small squares should be counted before a fairly 
accurate result can be expected. Moreover, corpuscles often overlap the 
lines which form the squares, and great care is required and time lost to 
avoid counting them twice over. 

By means of the Blenden ocular " Ehrlich " these difficulties are 
avoided. The construction of the ocular is as follows. An ordinary 
No. 2 ocular is provided with a screen which cuts out a square from the 
field of vision of the ocular. By means of the little knob (fig. 27) 
this square can be narrowed, and by means of notches, which divide one 
side of the square into four equal parts, the reduction may be effected 
in exact proportion (fig. 28). 

Enumeration. — With this instrument enumeration of corpuscles is 
done as follows. The drop of blood is obtained and diluted in the 
Thoma-Zeiss pipette and blown out on to the Thoma-Zeiss ruled slide in 
the usual way. When this has been placed on the Microscope, allow 
5 minutes to elapse. Use a No. 9 Leitz objective and a Blenden ocular, 

* Watson and Sons' Special Catalogue, 1910. 
t Lancet (1909) ii. pp. 1424 (2 figs.). 



232 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



the slit being so adjusted by means of the little knob that four squares 
of the central platform of the counting chamber just coincide with it. 
The number of red corpuscles are counted, and the preparation may now 
be shifted as many times as desired, each count representing the number 
of corpuscles in four squares, since the slit corresponds exactly to four of 
the squares. The total number obtained after several such counts being 
divided by the number of counts, gives the number of red corpuscles per 




Fig. 27. 

field of four squares ; hence division by four gives the number per square. 
This number multiplied by 4000 would represent the number of corpuscles 
per cubic millimetre were it not that the dilution has to be taken into 
account, and accordingly the result must be multiplied by 100 or 200. 

Example : Average number of red corpuscles per square = 10. Then 
10 x 4000 x 100 = 4,000,000 per cubic millimetre. 

The method is quicker and more accurate than that usually employed, 






Fig. 28. 

since it enables a much larger number of squares to be counted irrespec- 
tive of the lines of the counting chamber, which constitute an element 
of confusion in the process of counting. 

Again, the Blenden ocular may be used for the purpose of counting 
the leucocytes in the following manner. A dry-film preparation of the 
blood to be examined is fixed and stained by Irishman's or Jenner's stain. 
Using a No. 9 Leitz objective and a Blenden ocular, the number of red 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



-;;; 



and white corpuscles are counted, the shutter of the ocular being at one- 
half or one-quarter of the total field of vision. The count is made several 
times through the same slit, and an average of corpuscles per field is 
obtained. 

Now L : K : : I : r . ' . L = — 

r 

where L represents the unknown number of leucocytes, R the known 
number of red corpuscles per cubic millimetre, and I and r represent the 
average of leucocytes and red corpuccles respectively per field of vision. 

Pulfrich's Stereo-Komparator. — C. Pulfrich* has introduced an 
improvement into the above instrument, designed a few years ago,f 
which not only makes it better fitted for its original purpose, but also 
adapts it for photometric and spectrographic measurements, as well as 
for estimation of star magnitudes. In the earlier design the ray of 
light impinged on an inclined and semi-opaque film of silver (fig. 29), 





Fig. 29. 



Fig. 30. 



and was thus partly reflected and partly transmitted. It was found 
that the two images thus obtained, differed in intensity, thereby causing 
difficulties in experiments of comparison. The author has now replaced 
this silver film by a disk divided into ten sectors (fig. 80), five of which 
are opaque and five are transparent. He gives full details of the appli- 
cation of his design, which seems to have been highly successful. 

Ulbricht, R. — Zur Anwendung des Xugelphotometers und Zur Lichtschwer- 
punkt-Bestimmung. Electrotech. Zeitschr., xxviii. (1907) p. 777 ; 

Op. cit, xxx. (1909) p. 322. 
See also Zeit. f. Instrumentenk., xxix. (1909) pp. 353-6(3 figs.). 



(4) Photomicrography. 

Method of Preparing Stereo-photomicrographs.} — A. C. Banfield 
describes a method by which he has met with considerable success. 

* Zeit. f. Instrumentenk., xxx. (1910) pp. 1-6 (8 figs.). 

t Tom. cit., xxiv. (1904) pp. 161-6. See also this Journal (1904) p. 578. 

X Journ. Quekett Micr. Club, 1909, pp. 459-64 (4 pis.). 

April 20th, 1910 R 



234 SUMMAKY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

The mathematical principle involved is that the interocular distance, 
normally 62 mm., has to be divided by the required magnification in 
order to give the angular separation through which the objective must 
be moved. Thus, for 32 diameters, the separation would be 2 mm. ; 
and for 1000 diameters, 62 micra. In practice the photographic 
objective is kept still, and the object moved. The author uses two of 
Zeiss' optical benches, mounted on trestles. For very low magnifications 
(to about x 10) one only is used ; for higher magnifications they are 
placed end to end. At one end of the bench, fig. 31 (pi. III.), is fixed the 
lamp casing, the bench itself carrying the condensers, object-stage, lens 
and camera, all of them adjustable in any position on the bench. The 
camera itself is a very simple affair, adapted for the English standard 
stereoscopic size, 6f X 34 inches. The formula regarding objective 
separation resolves itself in practice ■ into two parallel lines drawn on 
the focusing-screen, 62 mm. apart, by means of the stage. The object 
is moved until one of the lines cuts the image centrally : the first 
exposure is then made ; the object is next transferred to the other line, 
when a second exposure will give the truly stereoscopic pair. The 
author uses Zeiss' " planar " photo-objectives, their very flat field making 
them especially suitable for this work ; their aperture is, however, too 
low for high magnifications. Incident light seems to be more satis- 
factory than transmitted light. The Nernst electric lamp, with a 
one-ampere filament, makes an excellent light-source. Incandescent 
gas is also good, but requires long exposures. It is essential that each 
picture should have identical exposure. Arc-light involves a risk of 
burning a specimen, but only requires short exposures ; it is a great 
help when dealing with autochromes, which have, however, special 
difficulties. 

In the figure, B parallelises the rays ; T) is a long-focus lens for 
converging the parallel rays, after reflexion from mirror H, on the 
object ; E is a short-focus lens ; F a plano-concave lens to parallelise 
the converging rays from E (this gives a parallel beam of small diameter, 
but of great intensity) ; G, object-stage, laterally adjustable by means of 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE III. 

A. Lamp casing containing hand-feed arc lamp. 

B. Lens to parallelise rays from arc. 

C. Water-cooling chamber. 

D. Long-focus lens, converging the parallel rays, after reflecting from mirror H, 

on the object 0. 

E. Short-focus lens. 

F. Plano-concave lens to parallelise the converging rays from E. This gives a 

parallel beam of small diameter, but of great intensity. 

G. Object stage laterally adjustable by means of the vertical pinion. 
H. Small mirror universally adjustable. 

I. 35 mm. lens (Zeiss Planar). 

J. Focusing pinion. 

K. Camera. 

L. Optical bench, on which the whole of the above is adjustable. The optical 
axis of the condensing system is 52 mm. above that of the camera. The 
horizontal line shows the course of the central ray of light. The con- 
densers D and E are mounted on a hinged fitting, the one not in use 
being folded down out of the path of the rays. 



JOURN. R. MICR. SOC, 1910. PI. II 




a 

Ph 
■4 
P3 
O 
O 
Ph 

o 



o 

H 

o 

a 

PM 

1 

o 

w 

P3 

m 

H 
02 

Ph 
O 
& 

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<1 
Ph 
-0 

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fe 



JOURN. R. M1CR. SOC 1910. PI. IV. 




x 






CO 

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B 
CO 

o 

u 
o 

o 
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B 
H 

H 

M 



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ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 235 

the vertical pinion ; H, small mirror, universally adjustable ; I, 35 mm. 
lens (Zeiss planar). 

The author gives several examples of his results, one of which is 
shown in fig. 32 (pi. IV.). 

(5) Microscopical Optics and Manipulation. 

Standard Measurement in Wave-lengths of Light.* — The 
principles underlying A. E. Tutton's method of interference measure- 
ments were described in the February number of this Journal, and a 
later description of the apparatus was promised.f 

A general view of the interferometer and one of the duplicate 
Microscopes of the comparator, together with sufficient of the bar- 
carriage to enable some idea of the whole apparatus to be gained, is 
now given in the accompanying illustration (fig. 33), together with 
the author's description. 

The whole instrument is mounted on a large stone block, resting on 
isolated concrete foundations. On a small stone pedestal, similarly 
isolated, in front of the large block, rests the pedestal of the auto- 
collimating telescope and attached Geissler tube of the interferometer. 
In the common focal plane of the telescope objective and eye-piece, 
opposite the junction of this main optical tube with the rectangularly 
attached side-tube carrying the Geissler tube, a small totally reflecting 
prism is arranged, half covering the focal aperture. A still smaller 
rectangular stop or opening in a plate in front of, and almost touching, 
that one of the perpendicular prism faces which is directed towards the 
objective, and lies in the focal plane very close to the edge, dividing the 
closed half from the open half, is the effective source of the interfering 
light ; the rays from the Geissler tube, received on the other face of the 
right-angled prism, are arranged to fill this stop after reflection from 
the hypotenuse of the prism. The rays proceed from the stop to the 
objective, which they are arranged to fill with light, and thence pass out 
of the telescope as parallel rays, in the path of which the dispersion and 
interference apparatus is placed. The rays return to the telescope from 
the latter along practically the same path, but after re-entering the tele- 
scope, instead of returning to the little rectangular stop, their origin, 
they are deflected just sufficiently to one side to form an image of the 
stop, the same size as the original, in the open semicircular aperture of 
the focal plane, within a couple of millimetres of the real stop. This 
closeness to identity of path of the outgoing and incoming rays, and 
consequently normal incidence on the reflecting glass surfaces of the 
interference apparatus, is largely responsible for the magnificent field of 
parallel straight-lined interference bands which the author's interfero- 
meter affords, for it fulfils an essential condition for perfect interfer- 
ence. 

With the ordinary eye-piece in position, the images of the stop 
reflected from the various surfaces of the interference apparatus can be 
focused, adequately magnified, and viewed during their adjustment to 

* See this Journal, 1910, pp. 107-8. 

t Tom. cit., p. 107 ; Phil. Trans. A, ccx. (1910) p. 1 ; Nature, lxxxii. (1910) pp. 
338-41 (1 fig.). 

It 2 



236 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



the theoretically ideal positions. But when this eye-piece is replaced 
by a special one consisting of a Ramsden micrometer, combined with an 




CO 

CO 



fc 



additional lens between the latter and the focal plane, the telescope is 
converted into a low-power Microscope, which focuses simultaneously 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 237 

the interference bands, a little silvered reference ring in the centre of 
one of the two surfaces reflecting the interfering light, and the micro- 
meter spider-lines. There are two parallel vertical spider-lines ; one is 
adjustable by the left drum-head of the micrometer, so as to be able to 
set it at any convenient distance from the other in order to include a 
single band and most of the reference ring between them ; and both are 
moved together by the other (right) measuring drum, in order to be able 
to determine the band-width and any fraction of a band which may 
have passed the reference centre. 

The dispersion apparatus consists of a Hilger constant-deviation 
prism, which enables the desired spectrum ray to be isolated from all 
others, and that alone delivered to the interference apparatus. The 
rays are deviated exactly at right angles by this prism towards the 
interference apparatus, the surfaces of which they strike at normal in- 
cidence, after which they return through the constant-deviation prism 
(thus securing double dispersion) to the telescope. The prism is 
mounted on a divided circle, so that it may be calibrated for the 
delivery of light of any desired wave-length, if desired, and has numer- 
ous adjustments. Such calibration is not essential, however, as the 
particular image of the origin-stop in the colour corresponding to the 
spectrum bright line of cadmium or hydrogen can be adjusted visually 
on removal of the front lenses of the Ramsden eye-piece. 

The interference apparatus consists of three circular and thick glass 
disks, the third of which is of black glass polished an absolutely true 
plane on its outer surface, which is one of the two important surfaces 
concerned in the production of the interfering light. It is ground on 
the back surface, by which it is attached in an adjustable manner to the 
right Microscope of the comparator, the movement of which it is to 
record. The outer two are larger disks of colourless glass, identically 
similar, the two truly plane surfaces of each disk not being strictly 
parallel, but inclined at the minute angle of 35'. The left surface 
of that one nearest to the black glass disk is the second surface con- 
cerned in the interference, and approaches the black glass within a 
millimetre ; the second is a duplicate one, merely introduced on the 
right of it to correct for the slight dispersion produced by the 35' of 
inclination, the two being set oppositely as regards the direction of the 
wedge. The 35' inclination is just adequate to deflect out of the field 
of the telescope the reflection from the other (right) surface of the left 
colourless disk, and both images from the countervailing disk are got 
rid of by a slight tilt in the rectangular direction. All the many 
adjustments required are provided for in the mounting of the two 
colourless disks on a separate carrier sliding along the face of the upper 
V-and-plane bed of the comparator. 

The apparatus, as described up to this point, is the interferometer. 

The comparator consists of two V-and-plane beds, nearly 7 ft. long, 
of specially homogeneous cast-iron, and worked truly plane with con- 
summate care, together w T ith their contents ; they are arranged step- 
wise, one on the top of the stone block, and the other 7^ in. below and 
in front. On the upper one slide the two duplicate Microscopes, and on 
the lower one the standard-bar carriage and accessory fine-adjustment 
fittings. The carriage is given a longitudinal motion, a transverse 



238 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

motion adequate to bring either of the two bars to be compared under 
the Microscopes, as well as fine-adjustments for azimuth, height, and 
level, thus enabling the defining marks on the bars to be readily focused 
without touching the Microscopes if it is so desired. 

Each Microscope is carried on a solidly constructed slider on the 
Y-and-plane bed, by which its coarse-adjustment for position is effected. 
The microscope-bearing bracket is not, however, fixed directly to this 
slider, but to a second one sliding over the first, also with V-and-plane 
contact, and with the further control of the movement of a cylinder 
within a cylindrical boring. The fine-sliding is effected by means of a 
most carefully made screw of fifty threads to the inch, on which the 
success of the instrument depends, and which carries at its outer end a 
large milled head for hand rotation, and a worm-wheel of 100 teeth 
gearing with an endless screw, which can either be rotated by hand by 
means of a milled head or by means of a shaft and a large wheel, seen 
in front in the illustration. One complete rotation of the latter corre- 
sponds to the movement of the Microscope and the black glass 
interference disk to an extent which causes the passage of fifteen 
interference bands past the reference centre. More than an inch of 
movement of the circumference of the wheel is necessary to effect the 
passage of a single band. Two-thirds of the dead-weight of the 
Microscope and slider are taken up by four spring pistons, and the move- 
ment of the slider by the screw is only a push in either direction against 
the walls of a recess in the free slider, there being absolutely no strain 
anywhere. Hence this movement of the Microscope is not only an 
excessively fine one, but also so steady that the bands pass with a pre- 
cision which leaves nothing to be desired, and each band may be held 
for any length of time for counting purposes. 

Each Microscope is provided with a micrometer eye-piece, with 
spider-lines arranged as in the interferometer. The fine-adjustment is 
made exceptionally steady and regular. Two sets of objectives are 
provided, one pair for observing the defining lines in the countersunk 
wells near the ends of standard bars, with a magnification of 150 
diameters, and without penetration of the well by the objective, and the 
other set for use with the wave-length rulings. 

The defining lines, of whatever character, are illuminated (with 
" critical illumination ") by the brilliant image of a distant Nernst 
lamp, with the aid in each case of a little reflecting prism, a collimating 
lens, an iris diaphragm, and a glass-plate mirror above the objective, all 
provided with fine-adjustments. This avoids all heating effect on the 
bars, and the last traces of heat rays are filtered out by a thick water- 
jacket in front of the lamp and its beam-parallelising lenses. The 
illumination of the wave-length rulings ^^hnr m - apart is excellent with 
the -fa m - dry objectives employed, and the definition truly surprising. 

The temperature of the whole comparator room is maintained at the 
official temperature, 62° F., entirely electrically, both as regards artificial 
heating and the thermostat, which is original. So sensitive is the latter 
that the entrance of a person into the room is immediately followed by 
the extinction of one of the heating lamps to compensate for the extra 
w T armth introduced. 

The finest defining lines yet employed on any line-measure bars are 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 239 

those on the platinuni-iridium copy of the imperial standard yard. Yet 
even each of these has a thickness equivalent to fifteen interference 
bands. The defining lines on the imperial yard itself are three times as 
coarse. Hence we have now arrived at that stage in the competition 
between defining lines and refinement of measurement when the latter 
has far surpassed the former. It was for this reason that the author 
took up the investigation of wave-length rulings, with the idea of their 
possible use as defining lines commensurable with the increased refine- 
ment of measurement. Mr. H. J. Grayson, of Melbourne, whose 
wonderfully fine rulings have recently been much discussed in micro- 
scopic circles, has kindly made a number of rulings of j^oif m - fi ne " 
ness, which preliminary experiments indicated as feasible for the 
required purpose, on polished speculum-metal and platinum-indium, 
which appear, particularly the former, perfectly satisfactory. The 
Ttfixoo m - being the wave-length of red hydrogen or cadmium light, the 
distance between two lines ruled at this interval corresponds to only 
two interference bands. "With the ^ in. dry objectives, the lines, more- 
over, are as cleauly cut as spider-lines, and the thickness of a line is 
less than half a wave-length. Five such lines are ruled in succession, 
the central one being considered as the defining line. A strong finder- 
line is ruled on each side of the five, and two other strong ones at right 
angles in order to localise a central part of such a system. It appears 
perfectly feasible to carry out a stepping-off process for the counting of 
the total number of wave-lengths of cadmium red light in the British 
yard, in which such rulings would take the place of the glass plates of 
the Michelson or Fabry and Perot etalons, a base line of the thirty- 
second part of an inch being first actually counted in bands with the 
aid of the interferometer, between limits defined by two such systems of 
rulings. The final fraction of every stage in such a process could be 
absolutely checked by the interferometer in all cases where Michelson 
found it possible to do so, that is, so far as interference bands are 
still visible, about 4 in. ; and, as it has already been proved that the 
accuracy with the rulings is almost as great as with interference bands, 
this checking ceases to be as imperative as when only the coarse existing 
defining lines are available. Hence, the future before these rulings 
appears likely to be both interesting and important. 

On the Production of Micrometric and Diffraction Rulings.* 
Henry J. Grayson says : Some years ago I had occasion to use some 
finely-ruled glass plates, not exceeding 0" 01 in. thickness, the lines upon 
them ranging from ' 02 in. to ■ 004 in. apart. These, I found, were not 
readily obtainable commercially, so that I had to devise some method of 
producing them for myself. After a few experiments, I soon found I 
had no difficulty in ruling lines greatly exceeding in fineness and 
accuracy any of the kind I had hitherto seen, and, as the matter was 
interesting to me from a microscopical standpoint, I pursued it apart 
from my immediate requirements. 

The apparatus I first devised and used was exceedingly simple in 
principle, and consisted essentially of a fine steel screw and wedge of 
glass, the incline of the latter bearing some definite ratio to the pitch of 

* The Microscope, i. (1909) pp. 4-11. 



240 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the former. This glass wedge travelled along a bed, or base-plate, also 
of glass, being kept in position by means of a slot cut along its surface. 
As the wedge was propelled forward by the screw it raised a vertical 
plate, accurately adjusted at right angles to the base-plate, and as free 
as possible from movement other than that imparted to it by the wedge. 
To this vertical plate, the slide, or disk to be ruled upon, was attached 
by means of a suitable cement. A platform, for the support of a sliding 
diamond carriage, bridged the base-plate and wedge at a suitable height, 
being, of course, arranged transversely to and in front of the vertical 
slide. 

With this roughly constructed apparatus I was able to produce ruled 
bands, or groups of lines, ranging from 5000 up to 50,000 lines per inch. 
The apparatus has since been completely rebuilt, being variously 
modified and altered in accordance with experience gained, and the 
greater precision demanded by the class of work subsequently under- 
taken. 

My work has tended mainly in the direction of perfecting rulings 
for micrometric measurements, and for test purposes. To accomplish 
this, I have had so to modify and improve the apparatus with which I 
first commenced work, as to render it capable of precise and accurate 
movements much less than 0*00001 in. ; also to select and mount 
diamonds with knife edges of a fineness or keenness equal to the group- 
ing together of lines less than ' 00001 in. apart, and yet of such strength 
and durability as to be capable of producing many thousands of such 
lines without material alteration in character ; and, last, but by no 
means least, so to mount these rulings as to exhibit them in the best 
possible manner, while at the same time insuring their permanence as 
microscopical preparations. 

The selection, setting and cutting action of the diamond are of the 
utmost importance. Nearly all the stones I have used have been 
obtained from Bingara, N.S.W. 

I have tried Brazilian and West Indian diamonds, also the black 
diamond or carbonado, none of which appear to possess any advantage 
over those obtained from New South Wales. Some little time ago I 
received from Dr. van Heurck, of Antwerp, two stones which had been 
specially prepared after the method of Nobert, by one of the most 
skilful diamond workers in that city, neither of which was of any value, 
the cutting edges being much too blunt for fine work. My own method 
of preparation is to carefully break the stones so as to insure fracture 
parallel with some of the numerous cleavage planes. The fragments so 
obtained are examined under the Microscope as to the perfection or 
otherwise of the angles or edges and faces forming them, the promising 
pieces being put aside for trial. Good results have also been obtained 
with stones upon which large facets had been ground on the outer or 
natural face and afterwards broken so that one face of the knife edge 
was artificially formed, while the other followed the line of cleavage. 
Excellent cutting angles have been obtained, too, in the case of stones 
one face of which forms the outer coating, or skin as it is termed, of the 
uncut gem. 

I always set or mount the diamond so that its cutting edge is 
perfectly parallel with the line to be cut, and slightly raised in the 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 241 

direction in which it is to travel. This is contrary to what one would 
expect, comparing the action of a diamond with a steel graver or other 
cutting instrument for like purposes, but when it is remembered that 
the faces, the junction of which form the cutting edge, wear more 
rapidly than the edge itself, one sees the analogy no longer holds good. 
In the setting and adjustment of the diamonds it is important to 
remember that, in the case of test rulings at any rate, the lines after 
being ruled must on no account be rubbed or polished, consequently, 
the material removed must be deposited on one side or the other of the 
groove formed, and this involves the utmost nicety of adjustment of the 
cutting edge, and not infrequently is a considerable tax upon one's time 
and patience. The finer the ruling, the greater is the importance to be 
attached to this particular feature. The length of the cutting edge is 
also of moment. The longer the edge within certain limits, soon 
ascertained by experience, and providing it is perfectly straight, the 
longer will it endure, but as depth and breadth of line are important 
factors, too long an edge implies too great a pressure strain to produce a 
line of given depth and width. The pressure upon the diamond to 
produce a line of a certain depth and breadth, I apply, in the case of 
micrometric rulings, by means of a spring controlled by a screw ; this 
gives good results up to a rate of 20,000 lines per inch, but beyond this 
the friction involved is detrimental. The variation of pressure requisite 
in test plate ruling is obtained by means of a series of weights ranging 
from 20 grin, or more down to a fraction of 1 grm. 

In the matter of spacing, it is of the utmost importance that a 
correct standard should be obtained as a basis for all micrometric 
measurements. At the outset, I obtained copies of portions of the 
standards in use at the Melbourne Observatory, both metrical and 
English inch values. On carefully examining these I found a slight 
discrepancy between the inch scale, as copied directly from the standard, 
and the same values obtained by computation and ruling from the 
metrical standard. As I had no means of determining which of the 
two scales was more likely to be correct, I adopted the metrical scale as 
it stood as my standard for metrical values, and the inch values, as 
copied from the standard inch scale, as a standard for fractional values 
of an inch. At a later date I submitted several micrometer rulings to 
Mr. E. M. Nelson, a recognised authority upon all matters connected 
with measurements of this character, with the result that it was found 
that the ratio of inch to millimetre was, in the case of my inch rulings, 
25 "8821 instead of 25 "89997 ; but as the metrical values proved to be 
correct, in comparison with the best standards, I have since adopted this 
scale as a basis for both systems. It may be of interest to know how I 
determine that lines stated to be ruled, say, at the rate of 9o,000 per 
inch, are really of that value. For this it is only necessary to adjust 
the relationship of the wedge to the screw once for all, so that forty 
revolutions of the latter give a movement equal to 0"02 in., in which 
case one revolution will equal 0*0005 in. As the error in forty revolu- 
tions can easily be brought within ^oixro m -> ^ ie error in ^ of this is a 
negligible quantity. The screw-head being divided into 3G0 degrees 
reading by a vernier to T V of a degree, 8 degrees of movement of the 
screw-head advance the plate being ruled the ^g-innr part of an inch, 



242 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

and so, proportionately, for other values up to 120,000 lines per inch, 
the finest I have ruled which have so far been resolved. In passing, I 
may state that the finest lines it has been possible to resolve or separate, 
by means of the most perfect microscopical appliances hitherto con- 
structed by the best makers, have not exceeded 120,000 per inch. 

I have yet said nothing concerning the glass most suitable for ruling 
upon. Ordinarily the outer crust or surface of the glass as it leaves the 
makers' hands is much too hard and brittle for the purpose, and speedily 
ruins the hardest diamonds. This is especially so in the case of thin 
unannealed- microscopical cover-glass, which it is essential to use for 
many purposes. Hence it occurred to me that, it might be possible to so 
modify and alter the surface of this glass by a process of annealing that 
better results would be obtained. After some few trials I found that by 
inclosing a carefully cleaned cover-glass in a metal capsule, and slowly 
heating to a certain point, short of actual softening, and allowing the 
cooling process to extend over as long a period as possible, the glass 
proved to be both softer and tougher, and at the same time far less 
liable to any alteration due to changes in temperature, or the relief of 
certain surface strains inherent to the glass in its unannealed condition. 

I pass on now to a matter of equal importance with any hitherto 
dealt with, viz., the preservation of the completed rulings. Ordinarily 
in the case of micrometer rulings varying from 1 mm. to - 01 mm. all 
that is necessary is to fill the lines with graphite, and mount the cover 
on a slip with Canada balsam. But this method is not suited to the 
finer rulings, or where it is desirable to preserve the lines without the 
graphite filling, as in the case of test plates. Nor is it possible to pre- 
serve them by attaching the cover-glass to a cell wall or ring of cement 
or wax, as is frequently done with other microscopical preparations. I 
myself tried every, or almost every, known cement and wax cell at all 
suited to the purpose, and in every instance it was only a question of 
time, probably a year or more, and the cover-glass became coated or 
covered with minute crystals in some instances, or microscopical beads 
of moisture in others, to such an extent as to detract greatly from the 
beauty and perfection of the lines, and in some cases to partially oblite- 
rate the finer bands altogether. It therefore remained for me to 
endeavour to mount the ruled plates in a medium possessing a refractive 
index differing from glass by an amount equal to the difference between 
glass and air. Several such media existed, and had been used for other 
purposes, but with only partial success. These were phosphorus, sulphur, 
and realgar, or arsenic disulphide. The latter appeared to me the most 
promising substance to work with, seeing it possesses a refractive index 
equal to 2 "54;), but its use is attended with many difficulties, and I 
worked with it for nearly a year with only partial success. I soon 
abandoned all attempts to use it in a liquid form dissolved in the usual 
solvent, bromine, which I found both uncertain and dangerous to use, 
and turned my attention to the production of thin films, by sublima- 
tion. With these I was more successful, and after a time was able to 
produce exceedingly thin films, which have so far proved quite per- 
manent. Some of the films here shown have been mounted over two 
years, while those sent to London some little time ago withstood all the 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



243 



changes of temperature to which they were subjected ou the journey 
without showing any signs of depreciation. 

Measurement of the Refraction Index of Liquids by the Micro- 
scope.* — M. L. Decombe's method is based on that of Brewster, but 
is much more precise. The method requires a glass plate with parallel 
faces L, and a plano-convex lens resting on the plate (fig. 34). A drop 
of the liquid to be studied is placed at 0, between the plate and the 
lens. A is a luminous point. By the help of a Microscope, the positions 
of the images 0' and A' are determined, being (1) the distanpe from 
the point of contact of plate and lens ; and (2), the 
distance from the luminous point A. If A be the dis- 
placement of the Microscope, and v the index of the 
liquid, it follows that 

a B 



M i 



'A' 




4A 

i 

■ 

Fig. 34. 



where A and B are two positive constants which, in 
the special case when A is at infinity, have for their 
respective values A = N, B = R ; N and R expressing 
respectively the index and the curvature-radius of the 
lens. The coefficient A = N must be previously de- 
termined by goniometric methods ; then B can be cal- 
culated, if v for a known liquid be taken. 

The point 0', being independent of the imperfec- 
tions of the plate L, of the aberrations of the curved 
surface and of the nature and opacity of the liquid, 
can be determined with great accuracy, and can be 
ascertained, once for all, at the outset of each series of 
observations. Precision depends particularly on B ; but 
the author's experiments show that in monochromatic 
light the error can be easily rendered less than 0"001. 
To get the second point as accurately as possible, a 
liquid biconcave meniscus should be employed — i.e. the liquid should be 
interposed between two convex glasses in contact at their summits, the 
radii of curvature being chosen in such a manner as to reduce to a 
minimum the mean spherical aberrations. 

In the author's experiments a cross lightly traced with a diamond 
on the plate L served as a net for the first point. Various precautions 
had to be taken, and these are described in the treatise. A Monpillard 
screen giving green light sensibly monochromatic, was used. When the 
adjustments have been made, and the constants obtained, it will be 
noticed that the method requires only a single drop of the liquid ; and 
that also the extreme tenuity of the layer is serviceable for translucid 
fluids ; and that the small volume removes difficulties as to temperature. 

Pleochroic Halos.i — F. P. Mennell draws attention to the special 
interest attaching to this subject, since Professor Joly's suggestion that 
they are due to the radio-activity of the inclusions round which they 

* Comptes Rendus, cl. (1910) pp. 389-91 (1 fig.), 
t Geolog. Mag., vii. (1910) pp, 15-19 (1 pi.). 



244 SUMMARY OF CURKENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

occur. The usual type of halo, as seen in rock sections, is a dark spot 
of roughly circular outline surrounding a small centrally situated inclo- 
sure in another mineral which itself may, or may not, also be pleochroic. 
The author has found that the following minerals usually show halos : — 
Beotite, augite, hornblende, mnscovite, chlorite, tourmaline, cordierite, 
staurolite, and audalusite. There is sometimes a difficulty in the 
identification of the mineral producing the halo, but the author has 
detected zircon, sphene, apatite, orthite (allanite), and epidote. All 
these latter minerals (except, perhaps, epidote) are well known to be, 
comparatively speaking, strongly radio-active. As far as the rocks are 
concerned, halos are far more common in those of igneous origin than 
in the other classes, and are especially noticeable in the plutonic types, 
particularly the granites. The halos are usually spherical in shape, but 
irregular grains, or granular aggregates, produce halos of corresponding 
shape, the coloured margins being, however, of uniform width. This 
uniformity of width is a remarkable feature, the measurement of a large 
number of cases giving few variations from ■ 03 mm. Professor Joly 
has pointed out that the penetration of the a rays emitted by radium 
compounds is about * 04 mm. in the case of aluminium, and, having 
regard to the slightly greater density of the minerals examined, the 
results are in close agreement with the theory that the halos are due to 
the alteration of the surrounding minerals by these rays. 

(6) Miscellaneous. 

Homogeneity of Optical Glass.* — W. Zschokke points out the diffi- 
culties in producing homogeneous glass. The importance of the subject 
needs no demonstration, but the attainment of homogeneity seems im- 
possible. Even the best compounded and cooled glass-meltings vary 
considerably in their refractive index. The variation would be less im- 
portant if the manufacturer had only to make a single lens, but his task 
is more frequently the manufacture of compound lenses and of reproduc- 
tions. As a means of testing want of homogeneity, the author suggests 
the cutting of a right-angled prism from a given slab. By telescopic 
observations on an " infinitely " distant object seen through the prism, 
the refractive index can be calculated for different parts of the prism. 
The knowledge thus obtained may be useful in selecting a suitable part 
for lens manufacture. 

Spiers' " Nature through the Microscope." f — This work, the sub- 
title of which is " The Bambles and Studies of a Microscopist," is a 
popular account of some of the better-known " Marvels of the Micro- 
scope." It is written in language as simple as the subject-matter permits, 
and the descriptions convey as much information as a quite uninstructed 
observer may be expected to assimilate. It is designed primarily to 
interest such an observer in the Microscope and its revelations, and 
also to assist a beginner in the choice and use of an instrument. The 
volume is copiously and satisfactorily illustrated. 

* Zeit. f. Instrumentenk., xxix. (1909) pp. 286- 9 (1 fig.). 

t London : Culley (undated) 335 pp. (10 col. pis. and about 300 drawings). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 245 

Quekett Microscopical Club. — The 461st Ordinary Meeting of the 
Club was held on December 28, 1909, the President, Professor E. A. 
Minchin, M.A. F.Z.S., in the Chair. Mr. R. T. Lewis, F.R.M.S., gave 
an interesting account of " The Pollination of the Asclepiads." His 
attention had been drawn to the subject by the rinding of dried pollen- 
sacs of one of this genus firmly attached to the feet of some insect speci- 
mens received from Lindley, O.R.C. A reference to Kerner and Oliver's 
" Vegetable Kingdom, ii. pp. 257-9, was given. 

The 462nd Ordinary Meeting was held on January 25, 1910, the 
President in the Chair. Mr. James Murray, one of the scientific staff on 
board the ' Nimrod,' gave an interesting account of the aquatic organisms 
taken in the Antarctic by Lieut. Shackleton's expedition. Preparations 
by Mr. Rousselet from material brought home by the expedition were 
shown of PMJodina gregaria, which occurred in great abundance ; P. 
alata, remarkable for its large lateral processes ; Adineta grandis sp. n., 
from Ross Island ; and Hgdalina senta. 

At the 44th Annual General Meeting, held on February 22, the Presi- 
dent, Professor E. A. Minchin, M.A. F.Z.S., delivered the annual address, 
taking for his subject, " Some Considerations on the Phenomena of 
Parasitism amongst Protozoa." In the sense under discussion a Protozoan 
is a parasite when it lives at the expense of another animal, called its 
" host." Such parasites may live on the host (epizoic) or in it (entozoic). 
Both these classes may be further divided into non-lethal (harmless) and 
lethal, or disease-producing, species. The lethal powers of the latter class 
are most probably due to specific toxic effects produced by them. Lethal 
species may be regarded as exceptional and aberrant forms, the majority 
of Protozoan parasites being harmless. After dealing briefly with the 
few known cases of active migration of parasites to infect a new host, 
the special methods of dissemination, of which at least six are known, 
where the escape of the parasite by anatomical channels is not possible, 
were described at some length. Sir E. Ray Lankester had suggested that 
the extinction of animals seen in past geological periods may have been 
due, in some cases, to their extirpation by some species of parasite new 
to them, and consequently very deadly. In proposing a vote of thanks 
to the President, the Chairman, Mr. C. F. Rousselet, F.R.M.S., said that 
when recently in Canada he had heard it suggested that the extinction of 
the vast herds of buffalo was caused by some peculiar parasitic malady. 

B. Technique.* 
(1) Collecting: Objects, including- Culture Processes. 

Cultivation of Leishmania Donovani in Fluid Media, f — 
A. Laveran and A. Pettit use a peptone-salt medium, which is dis- 
tributed in Roux's flasks and then sterilised. Into each is poured an 
equal quantity of defibrinated rabbit-blood. As the cultures are only 
successful when there is a thin layer of liquid, the flasks are laid flat in 
the incubator, which is regulated for 21-22° C. The quantity of 

* This subdivision contains (1) Collecting Objects, including Culture Pro- 
cesses ; (2) Preparing Objects ; (3) Cutting, including Imbedding and Microtomes ; 
(4) Staining and Injecting ; (5) Mounting, including slides, preservative fluids, etc. ; 
(6) Miscellaneous. t C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxviii. (1910) pp. 114-15. 



246 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

liquid should not exceed one-tenth of the total capacity of the flask. 
In three or four days growth is evident ;^in a week the colonies are 
visible to the naked eye. 

Use of Magnesium in Stupefying Marine Animals.* — A. G. 
Mayer finds that marine animals can be anaesthetized much more 
rapidly if placed in an aqueous solution of MgS0 4 or MgCl 2 of three- 
eighths molecular concentration. They then subside into complete 
relaxation, and after an hour or two may be killed in any way without 
becoming distorted through contraction. The method has been tried 
with marked success, and seems specially suitable for stupefying highly 
sensitive and contractile animals. 

Method of Examining Embryos from the Maternal Tissues of the 
Rat. j — Y. Widakowich, in a contribution to the study of the embryology 
of the rat, gives an account of his method of obtaining embryos and ova 
from the uterus and Fallopian tubes of the female rat. In some cases 
he examined specimens extracted from the maternal organs ; in other 
cases, he prepared specimens of the tubes or the uterus with the con- 
tained embryo and examined the tissues by means of serial sections. 
Zenker's fluid and Schaffer's formalin-alcohol were the most satisfactory 
fixing fluids. Sublimate-alcohol was tried, but made the specimens 
very brittle. 

For imbedding such objects as Fallopian tubes containing ova, or 
the uterus containing an embryo, the ordinary celloidin and paraffin- 
methods were unsatisfactory. A combined celloidin-paraffin method gave 
good results. The material was soaked in 4 p.c. celloidin and then 
exposed to chloroform vapour. When the celloidin became solid, the 
block was immersed in benzol and then imbedded in paraffin with a 
melting-point of 58° C. 

Studying New Sporozoon in Rat-fever. J — From the blood and 
lymphatic glands of two individuals suffering from rat-fever — rat-bite 
disease — M. Ogata has obtained sporozoa, to which he has given the 
name Sporozoa Muris. They appear to belong to the Neosporidia, 
Inoculation of material from the ulcers, blood, or lymphatic glands of 
the patient into rabbits and guinea-pigs causes the death of these 
animals in from one to three months. From their blood, sporozoa in 
various stages of development may be recovered. 

New Hot-water Funnel.§— Many of the present funnels for fil- 
tering agar and other fluids at a high temperature, prove unsatisfactory 
in use. V. Brudny describes an improved apparatus (fig. 35), free from 
the disadvantages of the older types. It consists of a copper vessel in 
the shape of an hour-glass. The lower truncated cone contains water, 
maintained at a constant level by means of the small side-chamber 
provided with supply and overflow tubes. The water is heated by 
means of a Bunsen ring, which is fixed to one leg of the tripod stand 

* Biol. Bull., xvii. (1909) pp. 341-2. 

t Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., xciv. (1909) pp. 242-7. 

% Mitt. Med. Fakul. K.-Jap. Univ., viii. 3 (1909) pp. 287-318. 

§ Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxvi. (1909) pp. 418-21. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICKOSCOPY, ETC. 



247 



on which the apparatus rests. The steam rises into the upper inverted 
cone, in the hollow of which rests the glass filter funnel. The inner 
wall of this hollow cone is perforated to permit of the escape of the 
steam and its access to the outside of the glass funnel. Any condensa- 
tion water trickles down into the receptacle below, seen in the hollow 
of the Bunsen ring. 




Fig. 35. 



Examination of the Blood for Trypanosomes, etc.* — C. Levaditi 
and V. Stanesco have utilised the hasmagglutinating property of ricin 
to facilitate searching in the blood for trypanosomes, spirilla, and the 
like. They take small centrifuge tubes and place 4 c.cm. of the solution 
of ricin in each tube. The tubes are then sealed and sterilised. When 
required for use, a tube is opened and 20-30 drops of blood introduced. 
Agglutination begins at once, and is completed in a few minutes. 
When all the globules have fallen to the bottom, the supernatant fluid 
is decanted and centrifugalised. The supernatant fluid is again centri- 
fugalised, leaving a drop to dilute the sediment. This is then pipetted 
off, and may be examined fresh or stained with Giemsa. In the 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) (1909) pp. 594-6. 



248 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

authors' hands this method has greatly simplified the detection of these 
parasites. 

Glycerin-agar in Fifty Minutes.* — R. G. Perkins describes the 
following method for the easy and rapid making of glycerin-agar. 
The materials used are agar 12 grm., peptone 10 grin., salt 5 grm., 
and Liebig's extract 1\ grm. Witte's peptone and Liebig's extract 
appear to be necessary, as the results are less good with others. 

Weigh an enamelled pan, preferably one with a double copper 
bottom, as this reduces the chances of burning, with 1200 c.cm. of 
distilled water, and record the weight. Place on the gas stove while 
weighing the other materials, with about 150 c.cm. of additional water 
to allow for evaporation. This is an important part of the process, as it 
makes a greater dilution for the first solution of the materials. Add all 
the materials at once and boil till the whole is in solution, which should 
be in less than 15 minutes. Cool to 60° C. by the addition of enough 
cold distilled water to keep the total weight up to about 150 grm. over 
the sum of the pan, 1200 c.cm. water and the agar, etc. Make faintly 
alkaline to litmus, and add the whites only of two absolutely fresh eggs, 
beaten up in a little water. Boil, not too vigorously, until the medium 
boils up clear, and the egg is completely coagulated. The weight at 
this poiut should be the sum of the pan, the 1200 c.cm. of water, and 
about 50 grm. for the added materials. Skim and pour into wire 
funnels with filters of Schleicher and Scliull No. 580, which have just 
had boiling water poured over them. The funnels are of the type 
which can be bought with a rubber ring at the top for compression, but 
I have found them more satisfactory when the top ring is of wire with 
the rays soldered to it. The filter paper need not be creased, nor 
an outside funnel used, accidents being very rare. If the room is 
moderately warm, filtration takes place in a few minutes, usually 
not requiring more than one sheet of paper divided into fourths. As 
soon as the filtration becomes slow repeat with a fresh piece of paper, 
the residual medium being reheated to the boiling point, and boiling 
water being poured into the paper before the introduction of the agar. 
As soon as the first 500 c.cm. have come through, it is the custom for 
the students to add the glycerin or dextrose, etc., and to tube the media 
while the rest is coming through. From the time that the first 
weighing is begun until the time when the filled tubes are placed in the 
sterilizer need not be over 50 minutes, and the students, even the first 
time, accomplish it in an hour and a half. 

The resultant medium is transparent, almost colourless, unless it has 
been burnt, when it will have a yellow colour. No difficulty has been 
found in growing the ordinary strains of streptococcus, diphtheria or 
tuberculosis, and a large proportion of pneumococcus cultures show good 
development. The medium is firm enough for satisfactory plating, and 
has adequate water of condensation. 

The use of distilled water is important, as also the special grade of 
filter paper, but the most essential points are the excess of water during 
the process, the absolute freshness of the eggs, and the preservation of 
filter paper and media at the boiling point until they meet. 

* Johns Hopkius Hosp. Bull. xx. pp, 324-5. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



249 



(2) Preparing- Objects. 

Improved Method of Dehydration.* — B. Suzuki considers that the 
ordinary method of dehydration, by which objects are placed successively 
in 50, 70, and 00 p.c. alcohols, is unsuitable for delicate objects, and 
describes an apparatus (fig. 36) by which the concentration of alcohol 
is increased gradually. G x and G 2 are filled with distilled water ; the 
inverted flask K is filled with 50 p.c. alcohol. The material M is placed 
in G 2 , resting on washed sand S. The junction tube W is filled with 
glass-wool. As water trickles away through the capillary tube A, an 
alteration of level in G x causes 
alcohol to enter slowly from the 
inverted flask, and so the concentra- 
tion process proceeds automatically. 
It is only necessary to re-fill the 
flask, when it become empty, first 
with 70 p c, then with 90 p.c, and 
finally with absolute alcohol. The 
same apparatus, with slight modifi- 
cations, may be used for hardening 
and washing processes. 

New Methods of Investigating 
the Central Nervous Systems of 
Vertebrates.f— Under this title B. 
Rawitz describes new methods of 
fixing and staining portions of brain 
and spinal cord. Material, which 
has been preserved in 10 p.c. forma- 
lin, is transferred to a 10 p.c. solu- 
tion of tincture of iodine in 95 p.c. 
alcohol. After 5 days the material 
is removed to a saturated watery 
solution of potassium bichromate. 
This solution is changed after 24 
hours, and in this second bichromate 
bath the tissues remain for 7 to 10 
days, according to the size of the 
pieces. They are then removed, dried with filter paper, and put into 
95 p.c. alcohol for 3 days, absolute alcohol for 2 days, and chloroform 
for 2 days. Then after 24 hours in chloroform-paraffin, the material is 
imbedded in paraffin. 

The author gives accounts of a number of new stains, namely indulin, 
indamin-blue, and azo-acid-blue. The last-named stain, made up in the 
following combination — azo acid-blue B (Hochst), 2 grm. ; tartar emetic, 
1 grm. ; oxalic acid, 4 grm. ; distilled water, 200 c.cm. — gave good results. 
The ganglion-cells and neuroglia are coloured purple, the axis-cylinders 
light blue. With this stain made up in some other combinations, the 
author could not obtain this amphichromatic effect. He ends his paper 
with illustrations of the application of his methods. 

* Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxvi. (1909) pp. 211-19. 
t Tom. cit., pp. 337-52. 

April 20th, 1909 S 




Fig. 36. 



250 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



Washing Apparatus for Fixed Material.* — R. Kowler describes an 
apparatus (rigs. 37, 38) by means of which tissues can with safety be 
washed in a stream of water. The apparatus is made of glass, of the form 
shown in the diagram. The rubber tube is connected with a water supply. 
The expanded chamber is at each end separated from the narrow part 
of the glass tube by a sieve of glass (Glassieb). The material is intro- 
duced into the chamber, which is then closed, and the water is turned 
on slow]y : at first, until the air is driven out. Then the current of water 




Fig. 37. 



is so adjusted that the material remains on or near the bottom of the 
chamber. 

Methylated Spirits for Histological Purposes.! — In the German 
Empire spirits of wine for commercial purposes consists of 90 p.c. ethyl- 
alcohol to which have been added small quantities of methyl-alcohol, 
acetone and pyridine bases. C. Kittsteiner finds that, as a fixing re- 
agent, this fluid is for ordinary purposes almost as good as ethyl-alcohol. 
Material must, however, only remain in it for three days, and must then 

* Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk., xsvi. (1910) pp. 259-60. 
t Tom. cit., pp. 191-203. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



251 



be -removed to uncontarninated alcohol. Treatment of nervous tissues 
with methylated spirits gives extremely bad results, and with unstriated 
muscle also the results are most unsatisfactory. For hardening and 
staining purposes, this reagent is quite as good as the ordinary 90 p.c. 
alcohol. 

Preparing Delicate Embryonic Tissues for Histological Examina- 
tion.* — For cytological and histogenetic investigations of Vertebrate 




Fig. 38. 



embryos/ A. Maximow has devised modified methods of fixation and 
imbedding suitable for such easily damaged material. As fixing re-agent, 
he uses a modified Zenker's fluid of the following composition : — For- 
malin 10 c.cm., sodium sulphate 10 grrn., potassium bichromate 25 grm., 
corrosive sublimate 50 grm., distilled water 1000 c.cm. For some pur- 
poses he adds 10 c.cm. of 2 p.c. osmic acid to this solution. In the case 
of larger embryos the specimen must be so prepared by incision, or other- 
wise, that the fixing fluid can readily gain access to all parts. After 
careful dehydration the specimens are imbedded in celloidin and cut by 



Zeitachr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxvi. (1909) pp. 177-90. 



S 2 



252 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

means of a sliding microtome. The block is kept moistened with 65 p.c. 
alcohol. Each section, as it is cut, is transferred to a slide, cleared with 
oil of cloves, and washed free of celloidin with absolute alcohol and 
mixed alcohol and ether. Maximow uses a large number of staining 
methods, of which he recommends particularly the iron-alum-hamiato- 
xylin method, Giemsa stain and Doniinici's eosin-orange-toluidin-blne 
process. 

Examining the Structure of Human Heart-muscle.* — Irene von 
Palschewska fixed the material mostly in a mixture of absolute alcohol 
90, and pure 25 p.c. nitric acid 10. The pieces used, about 8 mm. thick, 
were left in the fluid for about 24 hours, and when removed were trans- 
ferred to faintly alkaline 94 p.c. alcohol, and this was renewed daily. 
After a few days, ammonia-free alcohol was used. The alcohol was 
afterwards downgraded to water for staining purposes, and the staining 
was effected with hamialum. 

Marie Werner t fixed her material in the 10 p.c. nitric acid and 
absolute alcohol 90 p.c. mixture, and then washed out with 94 p.c. 
alcohol, until litmus paper was no longer reddened. She found that 
neutralisation with ammoniated alcohol impaired the picture. The pre- 
parations were stained with haemalum (1 part to 5-10 water). The 
pieces remained in the stain for 8 days. 

New Methods for Examining Sputum. :j: — P. Uhlenhuth recom- 
mends his antiformin method for demonstrating the presence of tubercle 
bacilli, By means of a 20-25 p.c. solution, the sputum is rendered 
quite homogeneous. It is then centrifuged, and the deposit washed 
with saline. As the antiformin kills off the associated bacteria, it may 
be used for obtaining pure cultures of human tubercle bacilli. 

H. Haserodt is of opinion that the foregoing antiformin method has 
a great disadvantage : the film does not fix well to the slide ; and recom- 
mends the following modification. The sputum should first be rendered 
homogeneous by means of caustic potash, and then shaken up with 
ligroin. A combination of the antiformin and ligroin methods gives 
good results. 

G. Bernhardt proceeds as follows : About 5 c.cm. of sputum and 
20 c.cm. of a 20 p.c. solution of commercial antiformin are placed in a 
stoppered bottle. When quite homogeneous, ligroin, to form a layer 
3-5 mm. thick, is poured in. The bottle is then vigorously shaken, 
until a thick suspension forms ; it is then left at room temperature for 
about half an hour, and afterwards loopfuls of the layer immediately 
underneath the ligroin are removed. Films are fixed and stored in the 
usual way. 

H. Hammerl uses a solution composed of 99 parts ammonia and 
1 part caustic potash. A mixture of 5 parts of the solution to 1 of 
sputum is then vigorously shaken. In a few minutes it is quite homo- 
geneous. To 15 c.cm. of the mixture are added 5 c.cm. acetone. This 



& 



* Arch. Mikr. Anat. u . Entwickl., lxxv. (1910) pp. 41-100 (18 figs.). 

t Tom. cit., pp. 101-48(53 figs.). 

X Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt. Ref., xlv. (1909) pp. 282-4. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



253 



is centrif uged for half an hour. Films are made from the deposit, and 
stained in the usual way. 

Glaeser, K. — TJntersuchungen uber die Herkumft des knorpels an regeneri. 
erenden Amphibienextremitaten. 

Arch. f. Mikr. Anat. u. Entwikl., lxxv. (1910) pp. 1-39 (1 pi. and 16 figs.). 

(3) Cutting-, including' Imbedding and Microtomes. 

Cutting 1 Thin Parallel Slices of Brain Substance.* — K. Berliner 
describes an apparatus (fig. 39) which has been in use at the hospital 
in Giessen for a number of years. The material to be cut is fixed on a 
sliding base (Sch) which moves along grooves in the bars L, L, one of 
which is provided with a scale. The vertical rods, F, F, guide the 




Fig. 39. 

movements of the knife or fretsaw, and so vertical slides of equal thick- 
ness can be made. For fresh material a kuife is used, but in the case 
of brains hardened in Miiller's fluid or in bichromate it is found that a 
fine fretsaw is more suitable. 

* 

Apparatus for Whetting a Microtome Knife. — J. Lendvai has 
found Apathy's method of whetting the best. This consists in the appli- 
cation of emery, Vienna chalk, iron-oxide, or diamantin powder, on 
three mirror-glass plates. For this purpose the author has devised a 
special apparatus, which has been constructed for him by the firm of 
C. Reichert. The three plates are necessary because the materials are of 

* Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk.,xxvi. (1909) pp. 382-4. 
t Tom. cifc., pp. 203-5 (5 figs.). 



254 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

different degrees of hardness. One plate is for emery, the second for 
Vienna chalk, and the third for iron oxide or diamentin. These three 



( :: j! 




Fig. 40. 




Fig. 41. 






\j 


1 

*, i 



Fig. 43. 



Fig. 44. 



glass plates are kept in a wooden block, each in a separate compartment, 
the compartments being lined with cloth (fig. 40) ; the intention being 
to prevent soiling the plates with dust or with foreign material, which 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 255 

might possibly notch the knife. When in use, the glass plate is laid on 
the upper face of the block and is fastened down with screws. It is then 
smeared with a fine emery paper moistened with distilled water ; or with 
Vienna chalk paper moistened with distilled water ; or with iron oxide. 
The knife is then drawn rather frequently over the plate (60 or 70 times), 
and the edge is held forward, in such a position that it is perpendicular 
to the direction of movement. The knife-edge as it appears under a 
magnification of 100 diameters is shown in fig. 48. A special facet of 
20° to 25° is ground on the knife by placing the back of the knife in a 
laterally-open iron tube, and clamping it with screws (fig. 41). From the 
diameter d of the tube and the breadth a of the knife the angle (a x + a 2 ) 
can be calculated. Thus 

— = tan a, + tan a 

(fig. 41). The facet, which has been roughly fashioned with emery, is per- 
fected with Vienna chalk, the teeth on the edge now becoming very fine 
(fig. 44) under the same magnification as before. The iron-oxide is only 
used for whetting that side of the facet which glides, when in action, on 
the paraffin or celloidin. 

Rotatory Method in Microscopy.* — H. Lebrun, after three years' 
experience of his method of diskal arrangement,! sees his way to several 
improvements, the first of which is concerned with the microtome. It 
was found that in cutting very thin sections tremor of the machine 
caused much irregularity in the sections themselves. This difficulty the 
author remedies by attaching the knife-carrier to parts of the microtome 
not liable to agitation. The paraffin block, instead of being truly rect- 
angular, is now made with sloping slides according to the size of the 
disk on which the serial sections are to be received. Full directions 
are given for accurately obtaining the proper shape of block. There 
are several other improvements in the mechanism and manipulation of 
the microtome. As above-mentioned, the object-carrier is disc-shaped, 
the rectangular form being abandoned. An ingenious combination of 
hand and screw-work brings every part of the object, in spiral fashion, 
successively under the objective. This arrangement is also particularly- 
convenient in the case of such an object as a tapeworm. The author 
recommends his method as tending to great economy both in materials 
and in time. His ideas have been satisfactorily worked out for him by 
the firm of Seibert, of Wetzlar. 

Simple Method of Paraffin Imbedding in Vacuo.! — W. Berg 
describes a method which is applicable to any ordinary paraffin oven. 
The paraffin is contained in a glass flask, firmly stoppered, which com- 
municates by means of stout rubber tubing with an ordinary water suction 
apparatus. The rubber tube passes through the hole in the top of the 
oven, which normally holds a thermometer. It is advisable that the 
paraffin should fill only the lowest portion of the flask, as it foams some- 
what, when the exhausting process is commenced. This procedure does 
not interfere with the ordinary use of the oven. 

* Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxvi. (1909) pp. 223-41 (13 figs.). 

t See this Journal, 1906, p. 725. 

J Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxvi. (1909) pp. 209-10. 



256 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

(4) Staining and Injecting. 

Method of Staining Peripheral Nerves.* — T. Maruyaina discusses 
the method devised by Yamagiwa and its applicability to pathological 
tissues, more particularly in connection with the study of beri-beri. The 
process is as follows : — After hardening in Muller's fluid in the ordinary 
way and imbedding in celloidin, sections are cut. They are stained in 
concentrated alcoholic eosin for a period of from 1 to 12 hours. Next, 
after prolonged staining with concentrated watery anilin-blue, they are 
placed in a differentiating fluid — weak alcohol make slightly alkaline by 
the addition of liquor potassa? — and washed in distilled water. The 
sections are then put into weak alcohol to remove excess of anilin-blue, 
dehydrated in absolute alcohol, cleared in oil, and mounted in balsam. 
In sections stained thus, the axis-cylinders appear deep blue, medullary 
sheaths red, connective-tissues and cell-nuclei bright blue, red blood- 
cells pink, and unstriped muscle pale violet. The preparations lose their 
stain usually in a few months. 

Fluoride of Silver in Golgi's Method.| — E. Saragnone describes 
a new procedure for demonstrating the intracellular network. It is 
really a modification of Golgi's method, fluoride of silver being sub- 
sisted for the nitrate. The preparation used is known as " tachiolo 
Paterno," and is a 10 p.c. solution of silver fluoride, which is not 
reduced by the action of light. The full procedure is as follows : 
1. The pieces are fixed in a solution consisting of formalin (20 p.c.) 
30 grin. ; saturated solution of arsenious acid, 30 grm. ; alcohol (96 p.c.) 
30 grm. Time, 10 to 12 hours. 2. The pieces are then transferred to 
tachiolo Paterno, 30 c.cm. ; distilled water, 100 ecru., for one or two 
hours. 3. They are next washed quickly in distilled water, after which 
they are immersed for a few minutes to an hour in hydroquinone, 
30 grm. ; sulphite of soda, 5 grm. : formalin, 50 grm. ; water, 1000 c.cm. 
4. After- washing in distilled water the pieces are passed through up- 
graded alcohols to xylol and imbedding. 5. The sections are treated 
with the following solutions mixed immediately before use : (a) hypo- 
sulphite, 30 grm. ; sulphocyanide of ammonium, 30 grm. ; water, 
1000 grm. ; (&) chloride of gold, 1 grm. ; water, 100 grm. The 
reaction is watched and suspended when the sections have assumed a 
definite grey tint. 6. Wash in distilled water and pass rapidly through 
permanganate of potassium, 0*5 grm. ; sulphuric acid. 1 grm. ; distilled 
water, 1000 grm. 7. Wash rapidly in 1 p.c. solution of oxalic acid, 
and afterwards in distilled water. 8. Stain with carmalum. Wash 
again. 9. Pass through alcohol and mount in balsam. 

Studying the Development of Crucifera4 — R. Vandendries fixed 
the material for a day or so in Bouin's fluid, then washed it till it was 
white in one-third alcohol, and afterwards preserved it in 80 p.c. alcohol. 
Sections, 8-12 fi, were stained preferably by Heidenhain's method. 
As the slow method was found not to be particularly suitable for 

* Mitt. Med. Fakul K.-Jap. Univ., viii. 3 (1909) pp. 368-70. 

f Pathologica, i. (1909) pp. 536-8. 

X Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxvi. (1909) pp. 422-4. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 



257 



studying the phenomena of fertilisation, a more rapid procedure was 
adopted. In this the alum mordant was used for 15 to 30 minutes ; this 
was followed by hematoxylin staining for 1 to 3 hours. Differentiation 
was effected with great care and constant inspection under the Micro- 
scope. 



Congo-red was used in contrast stain and gave excellent results. 



Device for Protecting Mounted Sections during Dehydrations- 
It is a common experience that when a number of slides bearing sections 
are put in a flask of alcohol, or other fluid, specimens may be spoilt by 
movements of the slides against each other. C. Funck suggests a 
simple plan for remedying this (fig. 45). A grid, preferably of nickel- 
plated brass, of the form shown in the figure, is placed inside the flask, 
resting on the bottom. The lower ends of the slides rest in the 





Fig. 45. 

numbered spaces. The slides thus remain, touching only at the top 
edges. The portion of the slide which bears the section is kept free 
from all contact with its neighbours. 

Injection Methods applied to certain Mollusca. f — B. Mozejko 
describes a method of gelatin injection for the anatomical investigation 
of Anodon, Mytilus edulis, and some other Mollusca. For the greater 
part of his work, the author used a 4-6 p.c. solution of gelatin. By 
the use of finely pow r dered insoluble mineral dyes, he was able to tint the 
gelatin variously, and thus differentiate the separate systems or vessels 
injected. For example, in the case of Anodon, it is possible to inject the 
arteries, veins, intestine, genital ducts, and the cavities of the organs of 
Bojanus separately, and thus get a specimen injected in five colours. 
Specimens so injected can be fixed in formalin, and imbedded in paraffin 
for the purpose of cutting sections. 



* La Cellule, xxv. (1909) pp. 415-60 (1 pi. and 54 figs). 
t Zeitsehr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxvi. (1909) pp. 353-77. 



258 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Different Methods of Staining Tubercle Bacilli.* — Karl Bergen 
gives a critical review of the literature of this subject, describing the 
staining methods employed by various authorities, and dwelling particu- 
larly upon the granules (sc. spores) which are brought out by some 
methods. For his own research, he selected Much's modification of 
Gram, Ziehl-Neelsen, and Gasis' methods as the three most promising. 
Gasis' plan is a reversal of the Ziehl-Neelsen procedure. After staining 
in an acid stain, the film is decolorised by alkali. Gasis maintained 
that the alkali-fast property of tubercle bacilli is possessed by organisms 
in very young and very old cultures, organisms not often acid-fast, as 
well as by bacilli of the average period. 

Bergen found that the advantage of the Ziehl-Neelsen method lay in 
its ease and certainty. On the other hand, the granular form of the 
tubercle bacillus was hardly stained at all, and some young forms did not 
retain the stain. Modified Gram staining is not suitable for differential 
diagnosis, and in preparations from pure cultures a clear picture is not 
obtained. The method of Gasis is peculiarly suitable for investigation 
of minute structure. It gives beautiful films. On the other hand, the 
technique is difficult, and the results therefore may be inconclusive in 
cases of differential diagnosis. This method is perhaps the most suitable 
for making permanent preparations. 

Further, Bergen gives an interesting account of the effects obtained 
by him as a result of combinations of these methods. 

Studying the Development of Dentine in Mammalia.f — For the 
histological investigations in this research, G. Heinrich used a variety 
of reagents such as formalin, alcohol, Zenker's fluid, osmic acid, and 
others for fixing his material. Formalin gave the best results, especially 
when used in connection with the silver-staining process. 

By staining sections successively with iron-alum-haBmatoxylin, dilute 
rubin S and Heidenhain's connective-tissue stain, good contrasts were 
obtained. Connective-tissue fibres and the uncalcified ground substance 
were stained deep red, calcified areas black, and tooth-fibres pale grey. 
The odontoblasts are stained more deeply than the connective-tissue 
cells. 

In the silver process, the paraffin sections, after prolonged soak- 
ing in 2 p.c. silver nitrate, are treated with an ammoniacal silver 
solution. The stain is developed in a formalin bath, and treatment with 
gold chloride, followed by hyposulphite, completes the silver staining. 
The sections are then mounted on slides and washed with xylol to remove 
paraffin, and then with alcohol. Alcoholic solution of light-green is 
used as counterstain, and the section is then dehydrated and mounted in 
Canada balsam. These preparations are well adapted for microphoto- 
graphic purposes. 

(6> Miscellaneous. 

Experimental Study of Development during the past decade. f 
The advances in this branch of investigation are surveyed by 0. Levy. 

* Centralbl. Bakt., lte Abt., liii. (1910) pp. 174-208. 

t Arch. Mikr. Anat., lxxiv. (1909) pp. 783-8. 

% Zeitschr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxvi. (1909) pp. 426-73. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 259 

He deals first with artificial parthenogenesis. J. Loeb's experiments 
upon the ova of Eehinoderms showed that it was possible by the use of 
saline solutions of various strengths to initiate 'developmental changes. 
The most successful and suggestive chemical excitant was a dilute cyanide 
solution, in which DO p.c. of unfertilised ova developed into larvae. 

Roux, Herbst, and others have directed their attention to the medium 
in which development takes place, and to the importance of its con- 
stituents. By altering the quantities of oxygen, water, and salts in this 
medium, development was variously influenced. 

Injury to the ovum in its earliest stages, deprivation of chromatin, 
shaking apart of blastomeres, amputation of blastomeres, artificial fusion 
of ova, and the effects of such mechanical interferences, form the subject 
of the next series of researches here reviewed. Others have studied the 
abnormalities of development caused by interference at a later stage 
with the primitive layers and organ-rudiments by mechanical and other 
means. 

In the remainder of the paper the recent work upon regeneration, 
transplantation, and functional correlation are reviewed. Full references 
are given throughout, rendering the article a valuable guide to the subject. 

Simple Method of Counting Leucocytes.* — This method, devised by 
V. T. Carruthers, depends upon the fact that when equal-sized drops of 
diluted blood are placed on a clean slide, they should cover equal areas 
and contain equal numbers of cells. Drops of blood, well diluted, are 
placed on a grease-free slide by means of a grease-free glass rod, and 
allowed to dry. The blood-pigment is washed off with water and the 
slide is stained with watery methylene-blue. A number of fields in each 
film are counted. By means of an obturator inserted in the eye-piece of 
the Microscope, the author has simplified the enumeration process. By 
comparing a few counts with the numbers obtained with a Thoma-Zeiss 
ha?matocytometer, a standard is obtained, so that from the average number 
of leucocytes in a field, the degree of leucocytosis can be calculated. For 
all counts, the degree of dilution must, of course, be the same, and the 
same glass rod and obturator must be used. The successful application 
of this method depends upon careful observation of a number of trivial 
details, for an account of which the original paper should be consulted. 

Method of Estimating the Hardness of Minerals.! — B. Halle 
claims that this method of estimating hardness by grinding, devised by 
him, is superior to the scratching methods. By the latter method it is 
difficult to get constant results owing to variations in the quality of the 
diamond point used, and to the difficulty of maintaining even pressure 
during the scratching process. In Halle's method the mineral is 
ground on a revolving brass plate for a definite time, and the loss of 
weight is observed. The specific weight of the mineral is known. All 
the other factors — time, pace and pressure of grinding, grinding material 
— are constant, and therefore the only variable, proportional loss of 
weight, gives the relative hardness. By this method very fine differ- 
ences in degree of hardness can be estimated. 



■ / &* 



* Brit. Med. Journ., (1909) ii. p. 1749. 

t Zeitsehr. wiss. Mikrosk., xxvi. (1909) pp. 424.-5. 



260 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 



Metallography, etc. 

Microstructure of Copper.* — W. Stahl gives photomicrographs of 
samples of copper taken from the molten bath at different stages in the 
final refining operation. At the beginning the copper contained 
0*8-0 '9 p.c. oxygen ; the photomicrograph shows crystallites of cuprous 
oxide in a ground mass of eutectic. There is a continuous diminution 
in amount of oxide present till in the refined copper a thin network 
of eutectic surrounds the grains of copper. 

Physical Properties of Alloys.f — E. Pannain finds that the specific 
gravity of coinage alloys (bronze and silver-copper alloy) is raised con- 
siderably by the mechanical treatment involved in the manufacture of 
the coins. Most of the increase in density occurs in the first rolling. 

Some Zinc Alloys4 — B. E. Curry has determined the equilibrium 
diagram of the antimony-zinc system by taking heating curves of 27 pre- 
viously annealed alloys. The diagram thus obtained differs in important 
respects from that given by Monkemeyer, and to a smaller extent from 
that given by Zemczuzny. Six solid phases occur in the diagram : pure 
antimony, pure zinc, the compound ZnSb, and three series of solid solu- 
tions, a, fi, and y. The a and (3 phases are instable below 437° and 
405° C. respectively. The y phase is stable only below the solidus. 
The results demonstrate the inadequacy of cooling curve determinations. 
The two phases in the zinc-tin diagram are pure zinc and a solution of 
zinc in tin, having a maximum concentration of about 7 p.c. at 180° C. 
In the zinc-cadmium diagram the two phases are two solid solutions, 
zinc in cadmium (maximum concentration 4 p.c. at 217° C), cadmium 
in zinc (maximum concentration 5 p.c. at 217° C). The liquid melt 
separates into two layers in the zinc-lead and zinc-bismuth systems. 
Particulars of suitable etching reagents are given. 

Alloys of Silver with Zinc.§ — N. A. Pushin and M. S. Maximeuko 
have determined the specific resistances, the temperature-coefficients of 
the specific resistances, and the thermo-electric forces of alloys of silver 
and zinc. The existence of the following compounds is inferred : Zn 6 Ag, 
Zn 4 Ag, Zn 3 Ag 2 , ZnAg, ZnAg 2 (?), Zn 2 Ag (?) and Zn 10 Ag (?). Several 
series of solid solutions are formed. 

Alloys of Tin and Lead.|| — The linear relation between composition 
and electrical conductivity of tin-lead alloys appears to indicate that 
neither compounds nor mixed crystals are formed. On the other hand, 
the thermal evidence points to the existence of mixed crystals at both 

* Metallurgie, vi. (1909) pp. G09-10 (8 figs.). 

t Atti R. Accad. Lincei, xviii. (1909) pp. 700-1, through Joum. Soc. Chern. Iud., 
xxviii. (1909) p. 1089. 

J Joum. Phys. Cheru., xiii. (1909) pp. 589-605 (7 figs.). 

§ Journ. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc, xli. (1909) pp. 500-24, through Joum. Chem. 
Soc, xcvi. (1909) pp. 539 -40. 

|| Zeitschr. Elektrochem., xv. (1909) pp. 125-9, through Journ. Chem. Soc, 
xcvi. (1909) p. 319. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 261 

ends of the diagram. W. Guertler suggests as an explanation of this 
discrepancy that the mixed crystals formed during solidification decom- 
pose at lower temperatures into tin and lead. 

Alloys of Lead with Indium and Thallium.*— N. S. Kurnakow 
and 8. Zemczuzny have determined the electrical conductivity curve of 
the lead-indium and lead-thallium systems. The plasticity of the alloys 
was also studied by determining the pressure required to produce flow 
through an aperture of given size. The flow-pressure curve was found 
to follow closely the Brinell hardness curve, and was the reverse of the 
conductivity curve. The authors conclude that lead and indium form a 
continuous series of mixed crystals. Lead and thallium form three series 
of mixed crystals. No compounds occur in either system. 

Aurides of Magnesium. - ) - — CI. G. Urasow has made a careful deter- 
mination of the equilibrium diagram of the gold-magnesium system. 
The cooling curves of 109 alloys were taken. In some regions of the 
diagram inoculation was necessary to prevent supercooling. The com- 
pounds occurring and their melting points (dystectic points or maxima 
in the diagram) are Mg 3 Au 818° C, Mg 2 Au 788° C, MgAu 1150° C. ; 
the compound Mg 5 Au 2 is formed at 796° 0. by a reaction taking place 
between Mg 3 Au and the liquid. Mg 5 Au 2 exists in two forms, the trans- 
formation temperature being 721° C. The microstructure of alloys rich 
is magnesium was sufficiently developed by polishing on wet chamois 
leather. Sections of the other alloys were etched with hydrochloric 
acid and bromine. 

Phosphorus Compounds of Cobalt.J — S. Zemczuzny and J. Schepelew 
have studied the range 0-33 '7 atomic p.c. phosphorus of the cobalt- 
phosphorus system by thermal and microscopical methods. A dystectic 
point at 33*33 atomic p.c. phosphorus indicates the compound Co 2 P, 
melting at 1380° C. ; this compound has a transformation point at 
920° C. The eutectic contains 19*85 atomic p.c. phosphorus and melts 
at 1022° C. The hardness of the alloy was measured. Co 2 P was 
observed as well-defined crystals in sections polished and etched with 
ferric chloride solution in hydrochloric acid. 

Systems : Tin-sulphur, Tin-selenium, Tin-tellurium. § — W. Biltz 
and W. Mecklenburg have determined the equilibrium diagrams. The 
volatility of sulphur restricted the range of the tin-sulphur system in- 
vestigated to 0-23-4 p.c. sulphur. The compounds occurring and their 
melting points are SnS, 882° C. ; SnSe, 861° C. ; Sn 2 Se 3 or SnSe 2 , about 
650° C. ; SnTe, <S00° G. The compounds SnS, SnSe, and SnTe were 
observed microscopically in sections of the alloys. 

The System Cu 2 S-FeS.||— K. Borneinann and P. Schreyer have de- 
termined the equilibrium diagram by thermal methods and confirmed it 
by microscopical examination of the melts after solidification. The 

* Zeitschr. Anorg. Chem., lxiv. (1909) pp. 149-83 (5 figs.). 

t Tom. cit., pp. 375-96 (16 figs.). J Tom. cit., pp. 245-57 (7 figs.). 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 226-35 (7 figs.). 

|| Metallurgie, vi. (1909) pp. 619-30 (22 figs.). 



262 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

diagram is too complex for brief summarising, and in some regions is 
insufficiently established. The compounds (Cu 2 S) 2 (FeS), (Cu 2 S) 3 (FeS) 2 
and probably (Cu 2 S) 2 (FeS) 5 , or (Cu 2 S)(FeS) 2 , are indicated by the dia- 
gram. Concentrated nitric acid was used for etching those sections 
which required etching. 

Mixed Crystals of Sulphur and Tellurium.* — G. Pellini finds that 
sulphur and tellurium do not form a compound, but form a series of 
mixed crystals. A solid amorphous solution of tellurium and sulphur 
was also obtained. 

Influence of Arsenic and Tin upon Iron.f — C. F. Burgess and J. 
Aston have studied the magnetic properties of alloys prepared from 
electrolytic iron, one series containing 0" 29-4 '14 p.c. arsenic, the other 
series containing 0' 29-2 "06 p.c. tin. Compared with approximately 
pure iron, the alloys give materially lower hysteresis losses and have a 
higher permeability. 

Phosphides of Iron. J — H. le Chatelier and S. Wologdine point out 
that many metallic compounds, which have been described from time 
to time, are imaginary. Until these supposed compounds are eliminated, 
by the application of modern metallographic methods of investigation, 
it is not possible to arrive at any laws governing the formulas of metallic 
compounds. An examination of the compounds of iron and phosphorus 
reduces their number from nine to four. The existence of Fe 3 P and 
Fe 2 P is undoubted, that of FeP and Fe 2 P 3 is very probable, but their 
formulas are not so well established as those of Fe 3 P and Fe 2 P. 

Alloys of Iron.§ — P. Oberhoffer briefly summarises published work 
on the binary and ternary alloys of iron. Our knowledge of the equi- 
librium diagrams is incomplete for the binary systems, and is still less 
advanced for the ternary systems. 

Heat-treatment of Iron and Steel. || — Methods of heat-treatment 
suitable for various descriptions of carbon steel are specified. The 
position of Ac 3, in steels containing not more than ■ 90 p.c. carbon, 
may be calculated approximately from the formula 

Ac 3 = (900 - 200 c) °C, 

c being the percentage of carbon in the steel. 

W. Campbell f has made further experiments on the removal of 
" ingotism " by annealing. In a previous investigation he had found 
that in a steel casting containing - 43 p.c. carbon, the coarse ferrite 
network was not completely removed at 1180°C, but could not be 
detected after heating to 1195°C. The present work was done on two 
pieces of steel castings (a) and (b) containing ' 35 and ■ 5 p.c. carbon 

* Atti R. Accad. Lincei, xviii. (1909) pp. 19-24, through Journ. Ghem. Soc. 
xcvi. (1909) p. 805. 

t Electrochein. and Met. Ind , vii.(1909) pp. 403-5 (3 figs.). 

% Cornptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 709-14. 

§ Metallurgie, vi. (1909) pp. 612-18. 

|| Amer. Soc. for Testing Materials, Proc. ix. (1909) pp. 214-18. (Report of 
Committee on heat-treatment of steol.) t Tom. cit., pp. 370-7 (12 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 263 

respectively. The manganese sulphide and slag occurred as strings or 
veins in (b), but were evenly distributed as small globules in (a). Heat- 
ing a little above Ac 2 - 3 completely refined the structure of (a), but 
did not altogether remove the ferrite network of (&). A network of 
manganese sulphide or slag appears to prevent complete refining by 
acting as nuclei on which the ferrite precipitates. 

Defects in Steel Rails. — H. Fay and E. W. G. Wint* describe the 
various ways in which the presence of slag (manganese sulphide, 
manganese silicate, and possibly other substances) may cause the failure 
of rails. In many sections examined the sulphide was seen to be broken 
at right angles to its length, its extreme brittleness causing it to break 
during preparation for microscopic examination. Cracks invariably begin 
in and follow from one slag area to another. Flow of metal in many 
cases appears to be due to the presence of internal cracks originating in 
slag inclusions. Hard spots in rails are due to (1) imperfect solution of 
f erro-manganese ; (2) surface hardening through friction of the wheels ; 
(3) segregation. The authors believe that some hard areas containing 
martensite and troostite, found in a nickel steel rail, were caused by segre- 
gation of nickel. 

R. Jobf has investigated some defective open-hearth steel rails, 
and has found that failure was the result of segregation, piping, and 
unsoundness. 

P. H. Dudley % has found that in numerous cases of splitting of 
heads of rails, etched sections of the rail show dark streaks, found to 
be harder and to have a higher carbon content than the rest of the 
rail. The presence of these dark streaks is ascribed to the inclusion in 
the steel of metal washed away from the cast-iron base of the ingot 
mould, by the impinging of the stream of molten metal when the ingot 
was cast. 

Tests of Ingots.§ — J. E. Howard has examined with the unaided 
eye and microscopically, sections of ingots, and of the various forms 
derived from them during their manufacture into rails. In this way 
the effect of reduction by rolling upon size and shape of grain, gas or 
shrinkage cavities, and slag inclusions, was followed step by step. 

Closing of Blowholes in Steel Ingots.|| — H. M. Howe found that, 
while comparatively great variations in density occurred in a steel 
ingot due to the presence of blowholes, the plates rolled from the same 
ingot were of uniformly high density. Contrary to the generally 
accepted view, it would appear that the gas is driven out of the blow- 
holes during rolling. It should, therefore, be possible to close and weld 
up blowholes by rolling. 

Structure of Cast Iron.^f — F. J. Cook and G. Hailstone explain 
variations occurring in the mechanical properties of a series of cast irons 
of identical chemical composition, by differences which they found in 

* Amer. Soc. for Testing Materials, Prcc. ix. (1909) pp. 77-89 (14 figs.). 
t Tom. cit., pp 90-97 (12 figs.). % Tom. cit., pp. 98-105 (9 figs.). 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 319-26 (10 figs.). || Tom. cit., pp. 327-47 (7 figs.). 

% Foundry, xxxv. (1909) pp. 21-3 (13 figs.). 



264 SUMMAKY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

microstructure. High tensile strength appeared to be associated with a 
comparatively fine state of division of the graphite, and a net-like 
formation of the phosphorus eutectic. 

Magnetic Properties of Alloys of Ferro-magnetic Metals.* — G. 
Tammann deduces some general rules from the experimental data pre- 
viously published by himself and others, relating to the magnetic 
properties of alloys containing iron, cobalt, and nickel. A solid solu- 
tion of a non-magnetic in a ferro-magnetic metal is magnetic, while a 
solid solution of a ferro-magnetic in a non -magnetic metal is non- 
magnetic. Chemical compounds are practically non-magnetic. The 
depression of the temperature at which magnetic properties disappear on 
heating, by the presence of other elements, is discussed. 

Magnetic Character of Compounds of Non-magnetic Elements.f 
E. Wedekind has studied the magnetic properties of the compounds 
MnB, MnSb, Mn 2 Sb, and MnP. The greatest temporary magnetism 
was shown by MnSb, the least by MnP. 

Metallographic Observations at High Temperatures. J— P. Ober- 
hoffer has attacked the problem of direct microscopic examination of 
easily oxidised metals at temperatures up to 1000° C. The le Chatelier 
stand with horizontal stage above the Microscope tube is used. The 
section is held, polished face down, at the lower end of a vertical quartz 
tube on which a heating coil of platinum wire is wound. The quartz 
tube is contained within a glass vessel with flat bottom, through which 
the specimen is observed, surrounded by a brass cooling vessel, through 
which water circulates. A vacuum is maintained in the glass vessel by 
means of an air-pump. Gases can be introduced for etching the hot 
specimen ; chlorine and hydrogen were tried. A diaphragm of sheet 
platinum resting on the flat bottom of the glass vessel, reflects upwards 
heat which would otherwise be radiated downwards to the Microscope 
objective, but permits observation through a central opening. A thermo- 
couple in contact with the specimen enables its temperature to be followed. 
During the heating the specimen was observed, usually with a 16 mm. 
objective and Zeiss No. 18 compensating eye-piece, till the beginning of 
a change was noted. The heating current was cut off, and the specimen, 
when cool, was photographed without being disturbed. Heating was 
then resumed, and when the change had proceeded further, the specimen 
was cooled and photographed again. These operations were repeated as 
required. In this way the transformation from austenite to pearlite was 
followed, but more definite results were secured in the observation of 
the formation of temper carbon in cast iron. The results obtained are 
of value chiefly as indicating the possibilities of the method. 

Determination of Melting-points.§ — W. P. White discusses methods 
of determining melting and freezing points, and the sources of error in 
the results obtained. The prime cause of obliquity in melting curves is 
the presence of impurities, which cause the melting to occupy a certain 
temperature interval. 

* Zeitschr. Phys. Chem., lxv. (1908) pp. 73-83. 
t Op. cit., lxvi. (1909) pp. 614-32 (4 figs.). 
% Metallurgie, vi. (1909) pp. 554-67 (41 figs.). 

§ Amer. Journ. Sci., xxviii. (1909) pp. 453-73, 474-89, through Journ. Chem. 
Soc, xcvi. (1909) pp. 970-1. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 265' 

Nitrogen Thermometer.*— A. L. Day and R. B. Sosman have com- 
pleted the work of extending the gas scale of absolute temperature to 
1550° C. The errors in temperature measurement with the nitrogen 
thermometer have been reduced to about one-fourth of their former 
magnitude. Much information is given as to the use of melting and 
freezing points of metals as fixed points. 1755° C. is arrived at by an 
indirect method as the melting-point of platinum. A table of melting- 
points of metals, etc., is given. 

Bauer, 0. — Appearance of Fractures and Quality of Materials. 

Stahl und Eisen, xxix. (1909) pp. 1338-40 (3 figs.). 

Belloc, G. — Emission of Gas by Heated Metals. 

Comptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 672-3. 

Benedicks, C. — A New Form of Pearlite. 

Metallurgie, vi. (1909) pp. 567-8 (4 figs.). 
See also this Journal 1909, p. 407. 

Coste, M. — Transformations of Selenium. 

Comptes Rendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 674-6. 

Froitzheim, C— Influence of Light on the Texture of Iron and Steel. 

Staid und Eisen, xxix. (1909) p. 2022. 

Gulliver, G. H.— A New Experimental Method of Investigating certain Systems 
of Stress. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin., xxx. (1909) pp. 38-45 (1 fig.). 

Janecke, E. — .Isomorphous Ternary Mixtures. 

Zeitschr. Phys. Ghem., lxvii. (1909) pp. 641-88 (70 figs.). 

Heyn, E. & others. — Copper-ammonium Chloride Etching Method of Macro- 
scopic Testing. 

[The practical application of the method is discussed by E. Heyn, A. v. 
Dorrnus, L. Kruft and M. Widernann.] 

Stahl und Eisen, xxviii. (1908) p. 1827 ; 
xxix. (1909) pp. 356-8, 517-8, 907-8, 1823-4. 

Neumann, 0. — Diamonds in Iron. 

Zeitschr. Elektrochem., xv. (1909) pp. 817-20. 

Pawlow, P. — Dependence of Melting-point on the Surface-energy of a Solid Body. 

Zeitschr. Phys. Ghem., lxv. (1908) pp. 1-35, 545-8 (11 figs.). 

Pelabon, H.— Mixtures of Sulphur, Selenium, and Tellurium with Metals. 

Ann. Ghim. Phijs., xvii. (1909) pp. 526-66. 

Ross, A. D. & R. C. Gray and F. Heusler & P. Richarz. — Magnetic 
Properties of Alloys of Manganese, Aluminium, and Copper. 

Zeitschr. Anorg. Ghem., lxiii. (1909) pp. 349-52 ; lxv. (1909) pp. 110-12. 

Ruer, R. — Ternary Systems. 

Zeitschr. Phijs. Chem., lxviii. (1909) pp. 1-31 (4 figs.). 

Schenck, R. — Departure from Wiedemann-Franz Law in Solid Metal Solutions. 

Metallurgie, vi. (1909) pp. 550-3 (3 figs.). 

Stern, E— Microstructure of Portland Cement. 

Zeitschr. Anorg. Chem., lxiii. (1909) pp. 160-7 (17 figs.). 

Tammann, G. — Chemical Eelationship of Metals and the Constitution of Alloys. 

Stahl und Eisen, xxix. (1909) pp. 1084-5 (1 fig.). 



* Amer. Journ. Sci., xxix. (1910) pp. 93-161 (6 figs.). 
April 20th, 1910 



266 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



—^Zy3C2^~ 



MEETING 



Held on the 16th of February, 1910, at 20 Hanover Square, TV. 
Professor J. Arthur Thomson, M.A., etc., President, in the 
Chair. 

The Minutes of the Meeting of January 19, 1910, were read and 
confirmed, and were signed by the President. 



The List of Donations to the Society, exclusive of exchanges and re- 
prints, was read, and the thanks of the Society were voted to the donors. 

From 

Eug. Warming, Dansk Plantevsekst, part 2 The Autlwr. 

24 Micro-slides from the Collection of the late Mr. Fredk.) Miss Fitch 

Fitch J 

An Old Microscope by Tr6court and Georges Oberhaeuser . . j 

An Old Microscope by Browning > The Council. 

Eight Lieberkiihn Microscopes in cases ) 

A Withering's Botanical Microscope Mr. A. N. Disney. 

Two Grayson's Rulings. A complete inch divided into mm- j Mr Conmd BecJ ._ 

dredths of an inch, and 25 mm. divided mto 0'25 mm. . .J 



Mr. C. F. Rousselet described the Old Microscopes mentioned in the 
foregoing list, the instruments being severally exhibited to the Meeting. 



The President said that before proceeding to read his paper, he 
wished to be allowed to thank the Fellows of the Society for the honour 
which they done to him by electing him as their President ; he need 
hardly say that he appreciated the compliment very highly indeed. It 
was exactly twenty-five years since he began to work for the Journal of 
the Society, and he felt it a great honour to be added to the distinguished 
list of their Presidents, and particularly that he should be the immediate 
successor of their last President, Sir E. Ray Lankester — than whom since 
Huxley no Zoologist had made a deeper mark on British biological science. 
It would be his aim to do all in his power to advance the interests of the 
Society ; they must not, however, expect too much of him, since he lived 
at such a great distance from London, and on that account might not be 
able to be present as often as he wished. 

The President then read his paper, entitled "Notes on Dendro- 
hn i chia fall ax, a Rare and Divergent Antipatharian," the subject being 
illustrated by specimens and by a number of preparations exhibited under 
Microscopes in the room. The difficulty of making satisfactory use of 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 267 

the dried specimens on account of their extreme brittleness was mentioned 
at the conclusion of the paper, and the President asked if any Fellow 
knew any device by which anything could he made of a desiccated speci- 
men such as that before him. 

Mr. Wesche suggested a mixture of xylol and phenol, which he said 
would clear most structures, thick or thin — 2 parts of xylol to 1 of 
phenol. 

The President said he had tried in various ways to cut the polyps and 
to mount them whole, but always with the result that the whole thing 
crumbled to dust. 

Dr. Hebb thought something might be done by imbedding the objects 
in celloidin, and retaining the celloidin with the sections so as to keep 
them from coming to pieces. The celloidin would not at all interfere 
with the examination of the object, for though the usual practice was to 
dissolve it out, this was not at all necessary. 



Mr. A. A. C. E. Merlin's paper, "On the Measurement of the First 
Nine Groups of Grayson's finest Twelve-band Plate," was read by Dr. 
Hebb. 

Mr. F. H. Collins' paper, " On the Labelling of Microscope Slides," 
was read by Dr. Hebb. In it the author complained of the inconvenience 
arising through no uniform system having hitherto been adopted, the 
general practice being for the name of the object to be written parallel 
to the short ends of the slide, in which position it was impossible to read 
it when placed upon the stage — whereas if written parallel to the slides 
it could be easily read when in that position. The communication was 
accompanied by drawings of slides as, in the opinion of the author, they 
should, and should not, be labelled. 

Dr. Spitta thought the reason slides were marked in the usual manner 
was not far to seek : it was simply because they could be read in the 
cabinet far easier than if they were written in the manner just suggested. 



Mr. A. D. Michael said he rose to repair an omission on their part — 
it was obvious that the President could not propose a vote of thanks to 
himself for what had been an extremely interesting communication, and 
he was sure the Society was very much obliged to him for bringing the 
specimens and for describing them in such a lucid manner. He had, 
therefore, very great pleasure in moving that the best thauks of the 
Society be given to the President for the very interesting paper he had 
given them in opening their proceedings that evening. 

The proposal having been seconded by Mr. C. F. Rousselet, was put 
to the Meeting and carried unanimously. 

The President, in thanking the Meeting for the vote of thanks which 
they had so cordially passed, said he wished to offer his own thanks to 
Messrs. Angus and Co., for the loan of the Microscopes under which the 
specimens had been shown in illustration of his paper. 



268 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

A letter was read from Mr. Shearsby, in which he said he had sent 
to the Society a small bottle of diatoms gathered from the Yass River, in 
Australia, and asked if anyone would tell him the names of the species 
included. He further offered to collect more specimens, if desired, when 
out on his geological excursions. 

Dr. Hebb intimated that any Fellow of the Society wishing to take 
up the matter, or desiring to have any of the material, should communi- 
cate with Mr. Parsons. 



Mr. C. F. Rousselet said that he was exhibiting in the room, under 
six Microscopes, four of the six known species of fresh-water Medusa?, 
and two of the hydroid polyps producing them, of which he gave a short 
account. 

The President said that Mr. Rousselet had made a very interesting 
communication, and he was sure they must admire the manner in which 
he had followed up the quest of these important types, bringing to- 
gether so many representatives. He would also take the opportunity of 
mentioning that when Mr. Rousselet and he were delegates to the Inter- 
national Congress held at Boston in 1907, the beautiful microscopic pre- 
parations which Mr. Rousselet there exhibited were the subject of very 
strong and warm commendation. 



The following Instruments, Objects, etc., were exhibited :— 

The Society : — An Old Microscope by Trecourt and Georges Oberhaeuser : 
a Microscope by Browning, and Lieberkiihn Microscopes in cases, 
presented by the Council ; a Withering's Botanical Microscope, pre- 
sented by Mr. Disney. 

The President :• — Various specimens and the following slides : Axis of 
Dendrobrachia ; typical Antipatharian, axis ; ditto, polyps — in illus- 
tration of his paper. 

Mr. C. F. Rousselet : — Limnocodium Sowerbyi, from Regent's Park ; 
Hydroid polyp of ditto ; Limnocnida tanganyikse, from Lake Tan- 
ganyika ; Medusa from Hunyani River, Rhodesia (unci escribed) ; 
Ma'Hsia Lyonsi, Hydroid stage, and ditto Medusa stage, from Lake 
Qarun, Egypt. 



New Fellows : — The following gentlemen were balloted for and 
duly elected Fellows of the Society: — C. E. Mannall Fretwell and 
Alfred Reid. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 269 



MEETING 

Held on the 16th op March, 1910, at 20 Hanover Square, W., 
Professor J. Arthur Thomson, M.A. F.R.S.E., President, in 
the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Meeting of February 16, 1910, were read and 
confirmed, and were signed by the President. 

The List of Donations to the Society received since the last Meeting- 
was read as follows, and the thanks of the Society were voted to the 

donors : — 

From 

M. Auerbach, Die Cnidosporidien. (8vo, Leipzig, 1910,"! y^ Publisher 

Dr. Werner Klinkkardt) / 

jST. Gaidukov, Dunkelfeldbeleuchtung und Ultrarnikro-| 

skopie in der Biologie und in der Medizin. (8vo,> The Publisher. 

Jena, 1910, Gustav Fischer) ) 

Live-box with Micrometer Scale engraved on the lower j^. j j m Cooper Webb. 

glass tablet, by Andrew Pritchard / 



Mr. C. F. Rousselet said that the live-box presented to the Society 
that evening was one made by Andrew Pritchard about 1846. It had 
a micrometer scale engraved on the bottom glass tablet, the idea being 
to enable an object placed in it to be measured, or at least its size esti- 
mated when observed, though he thought this would not be very easy 
to accomplish in the case of an object which kept moving about. The 
live-box would be a valuable addition to their collection of instruments 
and apparatus. 

The President, in introducing a paper by Miss S. L. M. Summers, 
M.A., B.Sc, " On Antipatharians from the Indian Ocean," said that it 
was a coincidence that led him again to ask the attention of the Society 
to the group of animals that he had discussed at the last Meeting — the 
Antipatharians, or " Black Corals." The paper he had to submit was 
by one of his assistants, and described a collection made by two of his 
students, Mr. R. N. Rudmose-Brown, D.Sc, and Mr. J. J. Simpson, 
M.A., B.Sc, in the Mergui Archipelago and off Ibo in Portuguese East 
Africa. It included fourteen species of which three were new, and it 
threw some light on a number of species which had been previously 
described from axes without polyps. After referring to the variety of 
form among Antipatharian colonies, to the characteristic spinose axis of 
which fourteen examples — very similar at first sight — were shown under 
Microscopes on the table, to the structure of the polyps, which was illus- 
trated by coloured diagrams and by cross-sections under the Microscopes, 
and to the affinities of the group, which are apparently with the sea- 
anemones, but must remain somewhat uncertain until the embryonic 
development is discovered, the President read a portion of the paper, 
and complimented the author on her terse and precise descriptions of 
species. 



270 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

The paper described a collection made by two of his students, 
mainly in the Indian Ocean, containing fourteen species, three of which 
were new. The Antipatharians were popularly known as Black Corals, 
and were colonies of grey arborescent growths, sometimes attaining a 
length of 6 ft. The polyps were remotely related to sea anemones, 
but their life-history had not been traced, no one having yet seen a 
young one, so that their embryonic stages were unknown. The indi- 
vidual polyps had each six tentacles — except in the case of the species 
described by him at the last Meeting of the Society — and these were not 
retractile. The general structure of these organisms was then further 
explained by reference to coloured diagrams exhibited in the room. 

A portion of the paper was then read to the Meeting— in illustration 
of which some specimens in bottles were exhibited and a number of 
mounted examples were shown under Microscopes in the room. These, 
the President remarked, were apparently very much alike until they 
were carefully looked into. 

Mr. D. J. Scourfield said he was sure all present would agree that 
their best thanks were due to Miss Summers for submitting to the 
Society the paper which had just been read, and also to their President, 
not only for reading it, but also for the very interesting preliminary 
remarks on Antipatharians in general. Personally he should take a 
much greater interest in the group than he had ever done before, and 
he believed many other Fellows would do the same. He would like to 
mention that Miss Summers' paper was not the first they had had by a 
lady, and he certainly hoped it would not be the last. On the contrary 
it was sincerely to be hoped that the Society would receive many further 
papers from ladies in the future, 



Mr. E. M. Nelson's paper " On the Visibility of the Tertiaries of 
Coscinodiscus aster omphalus in a Balsam Mount" was read by Dr. Hebb. 

Mi'. E. J. Spitta. in reply to the President, said that as they had no 
illustrations before them giving the details of what Mr. Nelson had seen, 
it was difficult to say anything on the subject. It would be interesting 
if Mr. Nelson would photograph or draw these so that the Fellows 
might know about what he was talking. 

Dr. Hebb mentioned that a paper "On Critical Microscopy," by 
Mr. E. M. Nelson, had been received. The author suggested that it 
might be taken as read, but on consideration was deferred till the next 
Meeting. 



Mr. A. A. C. Merlin's paper " On the Measurement of the Flagellum 
of the Cholera Bacillus " was read by Dr. Hebb. 

Mr. E. J. Spitta said it would always be a very difficult matter to say 
what was really the diameter of these flagella, because it was never a 
constant quantity, seeing it appeared quite different according to the 
kind of stain with which the specimen had been treated. Not much 
attention had been paid to the subject as it was not of the slightest 
importance either to the Microscopist or the Bacteriologist. 

Dr. Hebb thought that the ordinary Bacteriologist did not trouble 
himself very much about the measurement of flagella, or whether they 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 271 

could be seen at all in non-motile organisms. He remembered on one 
occasion being invited to see the flagella of tubercle bacilli, but was 
quite unable to do so, though others who were present recognised them 
easily. All these points were quite caviare to him, but then he did not 
profess to be a critical Microscopist. 

Mr. F. Shillington Scales thought that some of these measurements 
were of such a nature and made such exaggerated cla'ms to minute 
accuracy of measurement as rather to bring the subject of micrometry 
into discredit amongst practical workers in laboratories. Their old friend 
the tubercle bacillus had been a source of considerable controversy, and 
the very existence of its flagella was denied by bacteriologists, yet the 
subject was constantly reverted to with the same result, and here claims 
were made as to actual measurements of the flagella. He thought it 
was a pity that so much attention should be given to the subject. 

Mr. Rheinberg thought the extinction method of measurement was 
interesting, but had Mr. Merlin been present he would have liked to ask 
him whether precautions were taken as to the strength of the illumina- 
tion, which he thought was a factor of importance for any comparative 
measurements of this description. The apparent size of a flagellum was 
greatly determined by the strength of the illumination, as this deter- 
mined the apparent size of the diffraction disks which overlapped the 
flagellum, and the degree of opacity of the flagellum would also affect 
the result. 

Mr. Conrad Beck, while expressing great interest in the extinction 
method of measurement, did not think it could be used except by the 
most expert microscopist who had perfect command of the illumination, 
and even then did not consider the results obtained could be accepted 
without complete confirmation from some other method, as too little 
was known as to the limits of resolution under different conditions of 
illumination. The limits of resolution of double stars had even been 
called in question of late, although Mr. Nelson's work on this subject 
had not been confirmed by Professor Porter. 

Mr. Conrady said the great objection to the extinction method of 
measurement was that it required a knowledge of the degree of opacity 
of the object. It was an easy matter to compute the width required 
for an absolutely opaque object to be just visible with a given numerical 
aperture, but a semi-transparent object would have to be broader, nearly 
in proportion to the light which it transmitted, in order to become 
visible under similar conditions. For this reason such a method seemed 
to him illusory. 

Mr. J. E. Barnard said that, looked at from a practical point of view, 
microbes, even of the same species in any one culture, varied very con- 
siderably in size, and it might, therefore, be inferred that the flagella 
would vary also ; the actual benefit of exact determinations in such 
cases therefore seems doubtful. As to the point raised by Mr. Conrady, 
by the silver deposition method of staining an absolutely opaque object, 
could be produced by this means, although, of course, the thickness of 
the silver film was unknown. 

Mr. Conrady begged leave to say that the silver would have to be 
deposited in a very appreciable thickness in order to be quite opaque. 



272 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Moreover, silver films usually became highly reflective as their thickness 
increased, and there would, therefore, be false light from that source. 



Dr. Hebb said that Mr. F. H. Baker, of New South Wales, had 
written to ask if any Fellows would like to exchange for microslides of 
Polyzoa, of which he had a fine collection, English slides or shells. 
Anyone wishing to accept the offer should apply for particulars to 
Mr. Parsons. 

The President proposed a vote of thanks to Messrs. Baker for the 
loan of fourteen low-power Microscopes, under which the specimens of 
Antipatharians were shown that evening. Carried unanimously. 



It was announced that the Society had held its last Meeting in their 
present room, but that tbe next Meeting would take place on April 20th 
in the North Room. 



The following Instruments, Objects, etc., were exhibited : — 

The Society : — Live-box with Micrometer Scale engraved on the Lower 
glass tablet, by Andrew Pritchard. 

The President, in illustration of Miss Summers' paper : — Specimens in 
bottles, and the following slides : Ant ipat lies abies, Axis, Main stem : 
ditto, Axis, Tip of branch ; A. gracilis, Axis ; A. lent i pinna, Axis ; 
A. salicoides, Polyps ; A. tristis, Axis ; Girripathes propinqua, Axis ; 
G. S2riralis, Axis ; Pteropathes simpsoni, Axis ; Stichopathes bi- 
spinosa, Axis ; S. diversa, Axis ; S. echimdata, Polyps ; ditto, 
Polyps V. S. showing ovary ; ditto, Polyps L. S. ; S. gracilis, 
Axis ; ditto, V. S. ; series of sections showing growth of ovary. 



New Fellows : — The following were elected Ordinary Fellows of 
the Society: Geoffrey Alfred Bracewell, Kate M. Hall, John Craig 
Hately, William Llewellyn Jones, Ethel Sargaut. 



274 Transactions of the Society. 

Family ANTIPATHID.E Verrill. 
Sub-family Antipathin^ Brook. 

Section 1. Indivisae. 

Genus Cirripathes Blainville. 

Cirripathes indica sp. n. 
G. propinqua Brook. 
C. spiralis Linn. 

Genus Stichopathes Brook. 

Stichopathes diversa (Brook) = Cirripathes (?) diversa Brook 

= (?) S. alcochi Cooper. 
S. bisjrinosa nom. n. = Cirripathes (?) fiagellum Brook ; n. 

= Stichopathes flag ellum Eoule. 
S. echimdata Brook. 
S. gracilis Gray. 

Section 2. Ramosse. 
Genus Ahtipat/tes Pallas. 

Antipatlies scdicoides sp. n. 

A. furcata Gray. 

A. tristis Duchassaing. 

A. lentipinna Brook. 

A. gracilis Gray. 

A. abics Brook. 

Genus Pteropatkes Brook. 
Pteropathes simpsoni sp. n. 

Cirripathes indica sp. n. Plate V. fig. 9. 

See Cirripathes (?) Thomson and Simpson, Ceylon Pearl Oyster Eeport, 1905, 
Supplementary Eeport 30, p. 95, fig. 8. 

A simple colony wound in a large circle, whose circumference is 
77 cm. and diameter IS cm. The polyps are badly preserved, but 
are distributed all round. In some parts they are crowded together. 
The axis is black, 2 mm. in diameter, with a canal of • 5 mm, ; it 
is covered with minute spines, distinctly papillose, all alike and 
equal. They are arranged in no definite order, and from twenty- 
four to thirty can be seen from one aspect. The specimen agrees 
with the specimen which Thomson and Simpson described but did 
not name. 

Locality. — Portuguese East Africa, Previously recorded from 
Ceylon. 



Antijaatharians. By Sophia L. M. Summers. 275 

Cirripaihes fropinqua Brook. 

See Brook, Report on the Antipatharia of the ' Challenger' Expedition, 1889. 
p. 82, pi. x. figs. 9-13 ; pi. xii. fig. 14 ; pi. xiv. fig. 7. 

Of the several broken specimens one is 32 ■ 5 cm. in length, and 
is very stout and straight, difficult to bend or break. It is thickly 
covered with ccenenchyma, and the polyps are arranged all round 
the axis. They are not all of the same size, the largest being 
about 2 mm. in diameter. They stand out prominently, about 2 mm. 
high. The tentacles are long and tapering, and the mouth is pro- 
minent. The axis is thicklycovered with spines and is 5 mm. in 
diameter ; the central canal is only 1 mm. in diameter. The spines 
are short and thick, and are longer on one side of the stem than 
on the other. They stand out at right angles to the axis, but are 
not arranged in any definite order. 

Locality. — Portuguese East Africa. Previously recorded from 
New Guinea. 

Cirripathes spiralis Linn. 

See Brook, Report on the Antipatharia of the ' Challenger ' Expedition, 

p. 85, pi. xii. fig. 10. 

Of the two specimens, one is spirally coiled, 33 ■ 3 cm. round 
the spiral, and 8*5 cm. high; the other is twisted irregularly, 
33 • 4 cm. in length. On the spiral specimen there are only a few 
polyps left ; the other has numerous polyps, but badly preserved. 
They are crowded together and are arranged all round the axis. 
They are circular, 2 mm. in diameter ; the tentacles are long. The 
ccenenchyma is very thin. The axis, which is not very stout, is 
black in colour. Its diameter is 1 mm., while that of the central 
canal is • 5 mm. The spines are short and conical, and are longer 
on the outer side of the spiral than on the inner. They are arranged 
in spirals and longitudinal rows, eleven of which can be seen from 
one aspect. The members of a row are about one length apart. 

Locality. — Portuguese East Africa. Previously recorded from 
the Indian Ocean, Molucca, Norway, Mediterranean, Ceylon, 
Kurrachee, and the East Indies. 



Stichopathes diversa (Brook). 

See Cirripathes (?) diversa Brook, Report on the Antipatharia of the 
'Challenger' Expedition, p. 87, pi. 12, fig. 12. 

A stout spiral, 15 cm. high. The polyps are arranged on the 
outer side, while the inner is left bare. They are straw-coloured in 
spirit, and are very flat, with long tentacles and prominent mouth. 
There are two types of spines, large ones with small ones between 

u 2 



JOURN. R. MICRO. SOC. 1910, PI. V. 




INDIAN OCEAN ANTI PATH ARI AN S. 



West. Newman imp. 



JOUENAL 

OF THE 

EOYAL MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY 

JUNE, 1910. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 



VIII. — Antipatharians from the Indian Ocean. 

By Sophia L. M. Summeks, M.A. B.Sc. 
(Natural History Department, University of Aberdeen.) 

(Bead March 16, 1910.) 

(Plate V.) 

The Antipatharians here reported on were collected for the most 
part at Ibo, in Portuguese East Africa, by Mr. Jas. Simpson, 
M.A. B.Sc, Carnegie Fellow, University of Aberdeen. A few were 
collected in the Mergui Archipelago by Mr. E. N. Eudmose- 
Brown, B.Sc, and Mr. Simpson. 

The collection includes fourteen species, of which three are new. 
The list is as follows. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE V. 

Fig. 1. — Antipathes abies Gray. Arrangement of spines, main axis. 

2. — A. salicoides sp. n. Arrangement of spines near the tip of the axis. 

3. — Pteropatlies simpsoni sp. n. Arrangement of spines. 

4. — Antipathes salicoides sp.n. Arrangement of spines, main stem. 

5. — Stichopathes bispinosa nom. n. Arrangement of spines. 

6. — Antipathes abies Gray. Showing forked spines. 

7. — A. salicoides sp. n. Polyps on main branches. 

8. — A. tristis Duchassaing. Arrangement of spines. 

9. — Cirripathes indica sp. n. Arrangement of spines. 
10. — Sticlwpathes bispinosa. Polyps. 
11. — S. echinulata. Polyps. 

June 15th, 1910 u 



276 Transactions of the Society. 

them. The large ones are blunt and rough, and those on the outer 
side of the spiral are much longer than those on the inner. The 
small or secondary spines are short, sharp, and triangular. Cooper 
has described (1909) a new species, Stichopathes alcocki, but his de- 
scription of it corresponds with Brook's description of Cirripathes 
diversa, e.g. in the arrangement and form of the spines. Brook 
could not decide whether his specimen belonged to Cirripathes or 
Stichopathes, as it was quite devoid of polyps. Cooper remarks on 
the large size of the central canal. It is probable that S. alcocki 
Cooper should be united with S. diversa (Brook). The canal is well 
seen in this specimen, the wall of the corallum being comparatively 
thin. 

Locality. — -Portuguese East Africa. Previously recorded from 
Galle, Ceylon. 



Stichopathes bispinosa nom. n. Plate V. figs. 5, 10. 

= Cirripathes (?) flagellum Brook non = Stichopathes flageUurn Eoule. 
See Brook, Beport on the Antipatharia of the ' Challenger ' Expedition, 

p. 87, pi. xii fig. 13. 

The longer of the two specimens is 130 cm. in length, and is 
twisted into large spirals with a diameter of 21 cm. The axis is 
stout and sinuous, and tapers gradually. The diameter at the base 
is 7 mm. It is covered with thin ccenenchyma, through which the 
spines project. The polyps are confined to one side of the stem, 
and are quite different from those of other species. They are fiat, 
with a small mouth overlapped by two of the tentacles. A little 
to the side are two other tentacles, and pushed down the side of 
the axis is a third pair. At first sight one would believe the polyps 
to have eight tentacles. So closely are the mouths situated, that it 
is difficult to discover to which polyp the tentacles belong. The 
tentacles are short and thick. The spines are arranged in longi- 
tudinal rows, nine of which can be seen from one aspect. They 
are very large (about * 5 mm.), and they gradually decrease until 
exactly opposite the longest spines are the shortest (about ■ 1 mm.). 
There are secondary spines scattered between the rows. The spines 
are distinctly papillose at the tip. Members of a row are about a 
length apart. The central canal is very large, having a diameter of 
1 * 5 mm. The arrangement of the spines and the general characters 
of the specimen correspond exactly with Brook's description of 
Cirripathes (?) flagellvm. As Brook s specimen had no polyps, he 
could not decide whether it should be referred to Stichopathes or 
to Cirripathes. 

Locality. — Portuguese East Africa. Previously recorded from 
Ceylon. 



Antipatli avians. By Sophia L. M. Summers. 277 

Stichopathe* echinulata Brook. Plate V. fig. 11. 

See Brook, Keport on the Antipatharia of the ' Challenger ' Expedition, 

p. 92, pi. xii. fig. 9. 

Of several specimens, the longest is 95 cm. It is twisted in 
irregular spirals. The axis gradually tapers to a fine point. The 
diameter at the base is 1 mm., and of the central canal 0*5 mm. 
The polyps are large and crowded on one side of the axis. In 
some of the specimens they show a peculiar mode of growth, 
being bunched together at intervals in a sort of hummock. The 
longest diameter of the polyp is 3 mm. The mouth is raised on 
a prominence 1 mm. in height. The tentacles are long and thin. 
The spines are numerous, and are arranged in steep spirals. Of 
the vertical longitudinal rows of the spiral, nine can be seen from 
one aspect. In one part of the stem the spines are short, tri- 
angular, and much compressed ; at another part they are much 
longer. Members of a row are about three lengths apart. 

Locality. — Portuguese East Africa. Previously recorded from 
Mauritius. 

Stichopathes gracilis Gray. 

See Brook, Keport on the Antipatharia of the ' Challenger ' Expedition, 

p. 90, pi. xii. figs. 17-19. 

Two fragments, one 26 5 cm., the other 8 cm. The larger 
specimen is somewhat spirally coiled. The axis is black and 
tapering. At the base it is 2 mm. in diameter, at the tip 1 mm. 
The polyps are on one side of the axis, and are large and circular 
(2 mm. in diameter) ; the tentacles are short and thick ; the mouth 
is prominent. The spines vary very much in different portions of 
the axis. In slender portions of the stem the spines are arranged 
spirally and in longitudinal rows. They are triangular and com- 
pressed and stand at right angles to the axis. In thicker portions 
the arrangement is less regular. Most are simple and have a 
sharp apex, but a few are forked at the tip. 

Locality. — Portuguese East Africa. Previously recorded from 
Fiji, lied Sea, Seychelles, Ceylon. 

Antipathes salkoides sp. n. Plate V. figs. 2, 4, 7. 

The whole colony is like a miniature weeping-willow. The 
main stem, which seems to be broken, is only 10*5 cm. high. It 
is 2 mm. in diameter at the base, and gives off long tapering 
branches from one side, the first of which reaches a length of 
32*5 cm. Some of these branches remain undivided, while others 
give off long slender twigs. The whole specimen is densely 



278 Transactions of the Society. 

covered with polyps, which are arranged alternately on the 
branches. They are large and circular; the mouth is prominent; 
the tentacles are short and thick — the two transverse ones lying 
a little below the level of the others. The diameter of the largest 
polyp is about 2 mm. The spines on the main stem are crowded, 
and do not all point in one direction — an unusual feature. They 
are arranged neither in rows nor in spirals. On the branches the 
spines are short, sharp, and triangular. They are arranged in 
longitudinal rows, seven of which can be counted from one aspect. 
The members of a row are about one length apart. 
Locality. — Portuguese East Africa. 



Antipathes furcata Gray. 

See Antipathes (?) furcata Brook, in Eeport on the Antipatharia of the 
' Challenger ' Expedition, p. 104, pi. xi. tig. 2. 

The main stem is broken, and is only 5 cm. in length. It 
gives rise to a branch which reaches the length of 8 cm., and is 
then broken. It in turn gives rise to a branch 23 cm. in length. 
The axis of this branch tapers very markedly, and gives off delicate 
branches on all sides and in no definite order. These are mostly 
directed upwards. The polyps, which are badly preserved, are 
elongated in the direction of the longitudinal diameter of the axis, 
and are twice as long as they are broad. They are about 1 mm. 
in length. They lie close together, but are not crowded. The 
tentacles are short. The spines are short, triangular, and com- 
pressed, and are far apart. They are arranged in longitudinal 
rows, six of which can be seen from one aspect. 

Locality. — Portuguese East Africa. Previously recorded from 
Madeira. 

Antipathes Iristis Duchassaing. Plate V. fig. 8. 

See Antipathella (?) tristis Brook, Eeport on the Antipatharia of the 
'Challenger' Expedition, p. 111. 

A small delicate colony 5 cm. high. The stem is slender, and 
gives off delicate branches irregularly at right angles to the stem. 
Anastomoses occur, but are not frequent. The polyps are situated 
on one side of the axis. They are small, and have short digiti- 
form tentacles. The polyps are about 1 mm. apart. The spines 
are sharp and triangular, and are arranged in irregular longitudinal 
rows, six of which can be seen from one aspect. Members of a 
row are about two lengths apart. 

Locality. — Portuguese East Africa. Previously recorded from 
Guadeloupe, Santa Cruz, Montserrat, Martinique, St. Lucia, and 
Barbadoes. 



Antipatharians. By Sophia L. M. Summers. 279 



Antipalhes lentipinna Brook. 

See Antipathes (?) lentipinna Brook, Eeport on the Antipatharia of the 
'Challenger' Expedition, p. 103, pi. xi. fig. 19. 

A shrub-like colony 28 cm. high, densely branched. The main 
axis is black and hard, 7 mm. in diameter. In the branches and 
pinnules the axis is light brown. The polyps are arranged on 
one side of the axis, and are large (2 mm. in diameter) and 
crowded together. Here and there small polyps are crowded in 
between the large ones. Branches are given off, usually from one 
side only. On the main stem the arrangement of spines is very 
irregular. The axis is flattened out, and the spines are scattered 
all over it, but on the branches they are arranged in regular 
spirals and longitudinal rows, five of winch can be seen from one 
aspect. The spines are long and triangular, and are very close 
together. 

Locality. — Portuguese East Africa. Previously recorded from 
the Bed Sea. 

Antipathes gracilis Gray. 

See Antipathella (?) gracilis Brook, Beport on the Antipatharia of the 
' Challenger ' Expedition, p. 113, pi. xi. fig. 8. 

Two specimens, one 8 ■ 5 cm. in height, and the other a little 
over 9 cm. The latter is a delicate colony, with no regular mode 
of branching. The branches are thin and short, and are given off 
at right angles. Anastomoses are frequent, but the terminal 
fronds are free. The polyps are crowded together on one side of 
the axis. They are circular, 1 ■ 5 mm. in diameter. The tentacles 
are short and thick, one pair lying slightly below the level of the 
other two pairs. The spines are long and numerous, and are 
arranged in spirals and longitudinal rows, five of which can be 
seen from one aspect. Members of a row are from two to three 
lengths apart. 

Locality. — Portuguese East Africa. Previously recorded from 
West Indies and Madeira. 



Antipathes abies Gray. Plate V. figs. 1, 6. 

See Antipathes abies Brook, Beport on the Antipatharia of the ' Challenger' 

Expedition, p. 70, pi. xi. fig. 21. 

The four specimens show a remarkable difference in the mode 
of growth. The first specimen, from Five Islands, consists of two 
fragments, much-branched and bearing many polyps. Some of the 
polyps are very well preserved, and show a prominent mouth raised 



280 Transactions of the Society. 

on a cone, and long tentacles. The polyps are arranged close to- 
gether on one side of the stem, and are relatively large. The 
ccenenchyma is thin, and the spines can be seen projecting through 
it. The spines are very numerous. On the lower part of the stem 
they are sharp and needle-like, and stand out at right angles to the 
axis, but on the branches they are small and blunt, and lean 
towards the axis. The second specimen is 16 cm. in length. The 
mode of branching is the same as in the first case. The branches 
are given off all round. The main axis is thick. The polyps are 
situated on one side of the axis, and are crowded. They are • 5 mm. 
in the longest diameter. The mouth is slit-like and prominent. 
The tentacles are much contracted, and are placed in three pairs 
round the mouth. The spines are exactly of the same type as those 
of the first specimen. 

Locality. — Portuguese East Africa. 

The third specimen branches in one plane and is fan-like. The 
main axis is thick and flattened out at the base, and gives off 
alternate branches. The polyps are similar to those of the second 
specimen, but are far apart, being separated on some parts of the 
axis by intervals of fully 0'5 mm. The spines are of the same 
type as in the previous specimens, but are not so long on the stem. 

Locality. — Portuguese East Africa. 

The fourth specimen is from Bentinck Island, Mergui. It is 
similar to the last specimen in being fan-like, but the branches are 
smaller and more delicate. It is 12 • 5 cm. high. The polyps are 
crowded together on the branches, and the largest have a diameter 
of • 5 mm. The ccenenchyma is very thin. The spines agree with 
those of the other specimens, but the needle-like spines on the axis 
are very numerous. It seems that Antipathes abies is a very 
variable species. 



Pteropathes simpsoni sp. n. Plate V. fig. 3. 

A small colony, 10*5 cm. in length. The branching is irregular, 
and there seems to be no main axis. The whole specimen is clothed 
on one side with whitish polyps, which give it the appearance of 
being covered with a mould. These polyps are unfortunately so 
badly preserved that their structure cannot be made out, though 
in some parts long tentacles are seen. The spines, which are large 
and numerous, are triangular with a broad base. They are arranged 
in very steep spirals ; seven or eight can be seen from one aspect. 
Towards the tip of the axis the spirals become irregular. The 
spines also form longitudinal vertical rows, the members of which 
are about a length apart, and in some places even less. 

Locality. — Mergui Archipelago. 



Antipatharians. Bi/ Sophia L. M. Summers. 281 



Literature referred to — in Addition to that Noted by 
Brook (1889) and Roule (1904).! 

1889. Brook, G. — Antipatharia. ' Challenger ' Eeport, xxxii. 222 pp., 15 pis. 
1903. Cooper, C. — Antipatharia. In Gardiner's Fauna and Geography of 
the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes, ii. pp. 791-6, 1 pi. 

1903. Roule, L. — La distribution bathymetrique des Antipathaires. C.E. 

Ass. Franc., 31 Sess., p. 236. 

1904. Roule, L. — Resultats Comp. Sci., par Albert I. de Monaco, Fasc. 30, 

pp. 6-99, 10 pis. 

1905. Thomson, J. Arthur— Scotia Collections, Scottish Antarctic Expe- 

dition. Report on the Antipatharians. Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. 

Edinburgh, xvi. pp. 76-9. 
1905. Thomson, J. Arthur, & J. J. Simpson — Report on the Antipatharia, 

in Herdman's Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fishery Reports, Royal Society, 

iv. pp. 93-106, 1 pi. 
1907. Roule, L.— Sur la valeur morphologique des epines du polypier des 

Antipathaires. Comptes Rendus, 1907, pp. 1533-4. 
1907. Thomson, J. Arthur— Note on a large Antipatharian from the Faroes. 

Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinburgh, xvii., 1 pi. 
1907. Hickson, S. J. — Alcyonaria, Antipatharia, and Madreporaria collected 

by the ' Huxley ' from the north side of the Bay of Biscay, in August 

1906. Journ. Marine Biol. Assoc, viii. No. 1. 
1909. Cooper, C. — Antipatharia of the Percy Slaclen Trust Expedition to 

the Indian Ocean. Trans. Linn. Soc. London (Zool.) vii. pt. 4, 

pp. 301-21, 1 pi. 
1909. Silberfeld, E. — Japanische Antipatharien. Abhandl. der Math.- 

Phys. Kl. der k. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., i. Supp. 1, Bd. 7, Abhandlg. 

pp. 4-30, 2 pis. 



282/ Transactions of the Society. 



IX. — Critical Microscopy. 
By Edward M. Nelson. 

(Read April 20, 1910.) 

Fi;OM time to time requests are received for information as to the 
method of procedure for obtaining a critical image. As the pub- 
lications upon this subject are much scattered — e.g. some being in 
back numbers of the English Mechanic,* not always accessible, 
and some in this and the Quekett Microscopical Club Journals, 
while some are included in papers upon other microscopical 
subjects — it is therefore not always easy to give correspondents 
suitable references which they can find. Several times I have 
been requested to publish a description of the whole method, so 
that it may be readily available in a single reference ; to this I 
now accede, the more readily as the method is so simple that it 
can be explained in a few words, by which much future trouble 
will be saved both to correspondents and myself. 

When, in the early seventies, I began microscopical work, the 
leading Microscope makers supplied in the box with the Micro- 
scope a whole drawer full of various illuminating apparatus, 
which at that time was considered necessary in order to obtain 
the best results. I well remember going through all these various 
appliances and practising so as to be proficient in the manipulation 
of each of them ; but when in 1875 the advantage of the large 
axial cone was perceived, all this apparatus was abandoned, with 
the exception of the achromatic condenser, a silver side reflector, 
and a few lieberkiihns. 

It is now difficult for us to realise the position of " Microscopy " 
at that date. Student's Microscopes, for example, hardly ever had 
a substage-condenser ; it was considered right that they should 
have at least a wheel of diaphragms, but some did not have even 
that. An examination of twenty-three Student's Microscopes 
of that time showed that only one was fitted with a substage- 
condenser (Webster's) ; another, a Boss No. 3, had a fitting to carry 
a substage. The better class of those instruments were capable of 
having a substage fitted, but a substage together with a substage- 
condenser was always looked upon as an accessory, much in the 
same way as we to-day regard a polarising prism, or a revolving 
selenite holder. An authority of that time writes : — " The stage 

* English Mechanic, xxxviii., xxxix., xl. (1883) No. 977 (1884) Nos. 980, 986, 
1017, 1021, 1027. 



Critical Microscopy. By E. M. Nelson. 283 

should be fitted with a diaphragm, and there should be a substage 
or tube for receiving the accessory apparatus, condenser, etc., 
which may afterwards be added." This shows that in the writer's 
opinion a substage-condenser is not regarded as a necessity, but 
rather that it falls under the category of a polariscope, spot-lens, 
or paraboloid. 

In those days no one ever thought of tackling diatom structure 
without oblique light, and Grubb and Sollitt's methods* of a 
swinging substage were revived. Microscopes were constantly 
appearing with some new variety of swinging substage, but by 
that time my mind with regard to the large axial cone was fully 
made up, and a swinging substage, however well designed or 
beautifully made, never became an allurement to me. 

The Amphiplcura pelhicida had just been resolved, and the 
true number of the striae both seen and counted for the first time 
by Messrs. Powell and Lealand with their new superstage oblique 
illuminator,! a piece of apparatus still kept in my cabinet as a 
curiosity (a device which has lately again come into notice in the 
form of Dr. Siedentopfs method $ of side illumination). 

There were also the beautiful photographs by Colonel Woodward 
both of Amphipleitra and Robert's bands taken by sunlight passed 
through a blue screen and used oblique. § Just at this time too 
there began to be published in the microsopical literature of this 
country Professor Abbe's spectrum theory of microscopic vision, || 
which showed that the resolution of periodic structures depended 
upon the manufacture of a spectrum at one side of an object glass 
by an oblique beam at the other. It was no wonder then that 
with all this evidence in favour of oblique light, brought forward 
by the leaders of microscopical science, I and my large axial cone 
had a bad time of it. But repeated exhibitions of objects shown 
by means of the large axial cone at the meetings both of this 
Society and of the Quekett Microscopical Club bore fruit, so 
by degrees less and less was seen of swinging substages and 
oblique light illuminators, and gradually critical illumination was 
adopted by those doing the highest class of microscopical work. 
When the controversy was at its height in 1888 a photograph of 
Pleurosigma angulatum taken by means of a small axial cone was 
published If by Messrs. Zeiss, and in the next year Professor Abbe 

* Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., iii. (1855) p. 87. See also this Journ., iii. (1880) 
pp. 1055-80. (In the list on p. 1055 Sollitt's Microscope is omitted.) 

t Monthly Micr. Journ., i. (April 1869) pp. 315, 319. 

X See this Journal, 1903, p. 573. 

§ Monthly Micr. Journ., xviii. (1877) p. 61; Op. cit., i. (1878), p. 246, and 
ii. (1879) p. 769, figs. 5, 6. 

i First notice, Monthly Micr. Journ., xii. (1874) p. 29. Full account, see this 
Journal, 1881, pp. 303 r 60. (For Bibliography see 1879, p. 651.) 

^ Published as a leaflet, and widely distributed ; also in Catalog fur Mikro- 
photographie, by Dr. Roderich Zeiss, 1888. 



284 Transactions of the Society. 

published a paper condemning the wide-angled cone.* This photo- 
graph, afterwards withdrawn, was taken with one of the new oil- 
immersion apochromatic y 1 ^ and an electric arc lamp, and with all 
the resources of the Zeiss factory at the operator's hands, yet it 
showed not an iota of advance upon results obtained thirty years 
previously with dry achromatic objectives.! In brief it was, as I 
said at the time, a repetition of Keade's "plate of marbles."J 
When a wide-angled axial cone is used the hemispherules or 
marbles disappear and in their place is seen the true structure, 
which is a piece of siliceous sieve or net. Under the large cone 
so sensitive does the object-glass become that it is possible to cut 
optical sections, and visually separate the upper net from the lower 
net. Those who in this manner have studied this diatom are able 
to tell you from a slight difference in appearance whether you are 
looking at the outside or inside net. With the narrower cone 
there is indeed " a plate of marbles," but no one would have the 
slightest suspicion that there were two plates, each capable of 
holding their own marbles ; and as for recognising any minute 
difference between the two nets, it is quite impossible with a small 
cone to see any net at all with any lens, however perfect. With a 
small-angled cone the benefits both of apochromatism and of large 
aperture are entirely thrown away, and a really fine objective is 
degraded to one of common place. This example of P. angulahim 
has been selected for illustration, as it was a well-known case, and 
will be remembered by some. Mr. T. F. Smith, who was then 
working on the Pleurosigma, exhibited before this Society some 
very beautiful photomicrographs in illustration of his theories as 
to the structure of this genus. His system of illumination differed 
from mine, as he used a bullseye in conjunction with a dry 
achromatic condenser, which gives what may be called annular 
illumination, the back of the object glass having the appearance 
shown in K (fig. 46), which is not a large solid axial cone such as 
mine shown in B. His method, by whatever name it is known, was 
the very antithesis of the Abbe small cone, and, like mine, was 
adversely criticised at that time by those who upheld Professor 
Abbe's views upon the subject. Of the photomicrographs which 
have been produced, and of the objects which have been exhibited 
under small cone illumination, none may be said to present 
structures minute enough to be considered difficult microscopical 
images. The work which would be suited to low-power lenses of 
medium capacity under large cone illumination requires under 
small cone illumination high-power lenses of the greatest capacity. 
Nearly a quarter of a century has now elapsed, and we are still 

* See this Journal, 1889, p. 721. 

t See Hogg on the Microscope, 2nd ed., 1855, p. 152, fig. 99. 

\ Rev. J. B. Reade, F.R.S., President R.M.S., Monthly Micr. Journ., ii. (1869)- 
p. 5. 



Critical Microscopy. By E. M. Nelson. 



285 



waiting to see some results worthy of [ that theoretically perfect 
method of microscopical illumination. 

Critical Image.— The image of an object is critical when it is 
obtained by means of an objective of fine quality which has been 

ooo 




66® 



H 



K 



© 



O 



M 



Fig. 46. 



placed in correct adjustment for that object by its screw collar, 
or by the alteration of the tube length, and when the illumination 
is critical. 

Critical Illumination. — An object is said to be illuminated 
critically when ic is placed at the apex of a solid axial cone, the 



286 Transactions of the Society. 

aperture of which is not less than three-quarters of the N.A. of 
the observing objective (B). 

To armnge a Microscope for Critical Illumination. — 1. Place a 
low power, say a 1-in., §-in. or ^-in., upon the nose-piece, an object 
upon the stage, and a condenser in the substage. Incline the 
Microscope and point it directly at the source of light, which should 
be the edge of the flame from a ^-in. wick of a paraffin lamp. 
Fill the field with any kind of light by racking down the condenser, 
and bring the object, or a well-marked part of the object, to the 
centre of the field. 

2. Close the iris -diaphragm, or if there is not one place a 
diaphragm with a small hole in it beneath the substage condenser, 
and rack the condenser so that the image of this hole is focused 
upon the plane of the object on the stage, and by means of the 
substage centring screws bring the image of this hole central with 
the centring object. 

3. Eack up the condenser further until the source of light comes 
into focus in the plane of the centring object. If the source of 
light does not happen to be central with the centring object, the 
lamp must be moved so that the image of the source of light shall 
be superimposed on the centring object. (On no account must the 
centring screws of the substage condenser be used for this purpose, 
only the lamp must be moved.) 

4. Remove the low power used for centring and place the 
object glass which is going to be used on the nose-piece. If the 
object and the image of the source of light are not central to 
the new field, first place the centring object central to the new 
field, and then by means of the substage centring sere svs bring the 
image of the source of light central to it. (On no account must the 
source of light be moved for this purpose.) 

5. The eye-piece is now removed, and the back lens of the 
objective is examined by looking down the Microscope body. 
Open the iris, or other diaphragm, until it is seen that three-quarters 
of the back lens of the object glass is full of light, as in B. 
Note. — A disk of light as in B cannot be obtained unless the 
aperture of the substage condenser is aplanatic to that extent. 

6. It is usual to go over Nos. 2 and 3 a second time ; thus, when 
in (3) the lamp has been moved so that the image of the edge of 
the flame is central with the centring object, rack down the sub- 
stage condenser until the diaphragm hole comes into focus, and 
note if it is still central to the centring object, if not re-centre it 
by means of the substage centring screws. Next rack up the 
substage condenser until the image of the edge of the flame is in 
focus, and if necessary re-centre it to the centring object by moving 
the lamp. 

If it is necessary to use a Microscope in a vertical position, the 
above procedure should be gone through with the image of the 



Critical Microscopy. By E. M. Nelson. 



287 



edge of the flame reflected from the plane-mirror ; it is, whenever 
possible, far simpler and more satisfactory to work with the lamp 
direct. 

All this centring operation may be performed in less than 30 
seconds, and a practised manipulator will not require to use a low- 
power objective, but will employ for this purpose the objective he 
is going to use for observation. 

Anyone wishing to become acquainted with the elementary 
practice of critical illumination must learn by heart the appearance 
of the figures A, B, C, D, E and F. These figures represent the 
back lens of a Microscope objective when the illumination is 
centra], as seen either when the eye-piece is removed or by an 
inspection with a magnifying lens of the Eamsden disk, which 
appears as a spot of light just above the eye lens. This Ramsden 
disk is a diminished image of the back lens of the objective. The 
higher the power of the eye-piece the greater is this diminution. 
The following table explains the figures : — 



Figure 


A B 

7 3 
g 2 

•875 .75 
•766 -562 


C 
8 


D 

i 

2 


E 
1 


F G 

i -i- 

i 141 


H 

1 


W.A. (working aperture) is N.A. of\ 
objective multiplied by .. ../ 

Illuminating power is tbat of tbe'l 
wbole objective multiplied by .. f 


•625 
•391 


•5 
•25 


•375 
■141 


•25 -707 
•0625 -5 


•8 
•64 



Example. — P.angulatum is placed underneath an apochromatic 
^ in. of X. A. • 65. With a cone as at D a false resolution of the 
diatom is seen, the image being lines crossing one another at an 
augle of 60°. When the W.A. is increased to H a true image, so 
far as it goes, is obtained. It consists of isolated black dots, each 
hole in the network being represented by a black clot.* The ^ in. 
must be a good lens to give a sharp picture of this view of the 
object under these conditions. 

A novice will probably call the figures A, B and H hair-splitting, 
but if he tries them he w r ill find a much greater difference in the 
quality of the image than he imagined. Now, G shows an objective 
divided into equal areas, the area of the annulus being precisely 
equal to that of the central disk, therefore half the illuminating 
power of the whole objective resides in that narrow black annulus ; 
then as the black annulus in A represents less than one quarter 
of the illuminating power of the whole objective, it follows that 

* Tbe following measurements very carefully performed witb a long-tube oil- 
immersion j'-j in. may be of interest. Transversely tbe rows of dots count 45,260 
per in., diagonally in botb directions 45,720 per in. Tbe mean of tbe tbree direc- 
tions being 45,490 per in. or 1791' 5 in mm. 



288 Transactions of the Society. 

the difference between the annulus in A and that in G- amounts 
to more than 25 per cent, of the illuminating power of the whole 
objective. 

If any black dots should appear in the disk, as at K, the 
learner must understand that either his substage condenser is 
racked up within its focus, or if in focus there must be spherical 
aberration somewhere in his illuminating beam. It may be that 
his substage condenser is defective, or a bullseye has been placed 
between the source of light and the substage condenser and not 
properly focused so as to give parallel rays. 

It was mentioned above that Mr. Smith's annular illumination, 
K, differed from mine. This kind of illumination is very likely 
to double periodic structures. The following test should be applied 
when this kind of illumination is used.* Illuminate the periodic 
structure by means of a very narrow axial cone, an objective of 
wide angle being used. Example. — Let the objective have an 
aperture of N. A. 1 ■ 0, and let its back lens appear as in L, where 
we see that the four diffraction beams are 0'25jST.A. apart; con- 
sequently we know that the structure under this objective must 
have a periodicity of about 24,000 per inch. Now, if by manipu- 
lating the illumination, or by introducing spherical aberration into 
the objective by means of an improperly adjusted tube-length, a 
structure of 48,000 per inch is resolved, it should be recognised at 
once that this resolution must be false ; for if the structure had 
had a periodicity of 48,000 per inch the back lens of the objective 
would have presented an appearance as in M, and certainly not as 
in L. 

This test consists, then, in roughly measuring in terms of the 
estimated N.A. the angular divergence of beams diffracted by 
periodic structures ; then by means of the table, printed on the fly- 
leaf of this Journal, the periodicity of the structure will be found. 
It is obvious that the scheme of this test may be extended by 
making the narrow illuminating beam so oblique that it touches 
the edge of the back lens ; then if there are two spectra their 
distance apart will be ■ 5 1ST. A., and the structure will be 48,000, 
but if only one, then it will be 96,000 ; if the separation is equal 
to about two-thirds of the back lens, then the structure would be 
60,000, and so on. Of course, if the objective used for the test has 
some N.A. other than 1*0 N.A., its N.A. must be multiplied by 
the fraction, whatever it may be, as in the W.A. in the above table. 
This test has obviously nothing whatever to do with the Abbe 
theory, because the physical fact that light in passing through a 
minute grating is bent off at a certain angle, which depends on 
the fineness of that grating, was known before Professor Abbe was 
born ; therefore any one could have employed the aperture of an 

* Bristol Naturalists' Society, viii. pt. 2 (1897) p. 163. 



Critical Microscopy. By E. M. Nelson. 289 

object-glass as a rough means of determining this angle of deflec- 
tion, and hence the fineness of the grating (apart from any resolu- 
tion of it) before the Abbe theory had been published. This test 
may be applied not only to rulings, but also to diatoms, such as 
Naviculacex, Pleurosigma, Nitzschia, Schizonema, etc., but of course 
not to Aulacodisci, Ewpodisci, Aulisci, Coscinodisci, Isthmia, Tri- 
ccratia, etc., for in these latter examples the whole of the back lens 
is flooded with light, and that is the reason why they are more suit- 
able than any other objects for testing objectives. 

The examination of bacteria upon a dark ground is a plan now 
much used ; this I advocated in 1884 at the Quekett Micro- 
scopical Club for the purpose of " saving the eyes from the woful 
glare of the direct light, and to enable the objects to be much more 
easily detected." With this kind of illumination the whole area 
of the objective is utilised, and those who have selected their lenses 
by a bacterial test and a small cone now find that their lenses 
break down with this dark -ground illumination, so they are having 
stops made to cut off the fluffy margins of their lenses so that they 
may use them with reduced apertures. 



June loth, 1910 



290 Transactions of the Society. 



X. — On the Measurement of the Diameter of the Flagella of 
the Cholera Bacillus prepared by Lojflers Method. 

By A. A. C. Eliot Merlin. 

(Read March 16, 1910.) 

Slides of bacteria intended to render the flagella demonstrable 
even under the highest powers of the modern Microscope are 
almost invariably prepared by Loffler's, or some similar method, 
which greatly distends the organism and its appendages, thus 
rendering them comparatively coarse objects. It has been said 
that the reason why flagella are (supposedly) invisible in the 
ordinary balsam- stained preparations is because these appendages 
then fall alongside the microbes. As a matter of fact, it has long 
been known that flagella are readily observable in such slides 
under proper optical conditions. 

Little or nothing seems to have been attempted as regards the 
measurement of the diameter of these delicate appendages since 
the late Dr. Dallinger read his famous paper " On the Measure- 
ment of the Diameter of the Flagella of Bacterium termo : a 
Contribution to the Question of the ' Ultimate Limit of Vision ' 
with our present Lenses." * Dr. Dallinger made four sets of fifty 
separate drawings and measurements with each of four lenses 
GV' i J> 55> an( ^ 35 ^ n -)> an( ^ taking the mean of these two hundred 
measurements found ■ 00000488526, or nearly 2 oiV oo * n -> ^° ^ e 
the value of the diameter of the flagellum of B. termo. We now 
know that this value requires antipoint correction, which makes 
the true diameter of the flagellum 0-00000993 ( TT5 ^ 00 in -)> 
assuming that the W.A. was • 8.f In truth, a flagellum possess- 
ing such a thickness should prove readily visible with a X.A. of 
0*5, and thus be well within the grasp of an ordinary good £ in. 
of the period (my Powell \ in., made in 1850, has N.A. ■ 72, and 
will stand a large W.A.). Nevertheless, we can imagine the incredu- 
lity that would have found open expression had anyone calmly 
stated at the time that the flagella of B. termo could be readily 
perceived with such an objective ! 

At the present day lenses of N.A. 1 ■ 3 and 1*4, in the hands 
of trained professional bacteriologists, are apparently insufficient 
to demonstrate the existence of the flagella of B. tuberculosis and 
M. melitensis, although both are visible under proper optical con- 
ditions with a dry objective in ordinary balsam well-stained slides. 

* See this Journal, 1878, p. 169. f Op. cit., 1903, p. 581. 



Flagella of Cholera Bacillus. By A. A. C. E. Merlin. 291 

Under these circumstances it has been thought that a measure- 
ment of the diameters of the cholera bacillus flagella, prepared by 
Loftier' s method, may be of service if only to render manifest the 
real dimensions of appendages commonly considered delicate objects 
entailing the employment of the highest powers for their success- 
ful demonstration. Kecent advances in practical microscopy render 
it easy to ascertain the true diameter of flagella with great precision 
and little labour ; a suitable objective, with a Koyston-Pigott * iris 
diaphragm above it, and an Abbe apertometer being needed for 
the purpose. In the present instance extinction measurements f 
were effected with an apochromatic £ in. of 20-2 I.M.P. and N.A. 
- 70, and an apochromatic nominal § in. of 18*6 I.M.P. and N.A. 
0"35. With both these lenses it was found that the very finest 
flagella in the Loffler slide were extinguished with a clear N.A. of 
0*25 and the coarser at N.A. 0*24, a full illuminating cone and 
Clifford F line screen being employed. It is thus apparent by the 
table on p. 550 of the Journal (1909) that the finest flagella pos- 
sess a diameter of ■ 00001545 (64725) in -> tne coarser equalling 
0' 00001606 (g2266) m - Some lew of the coarsest appendages 
even slightly exceed the latter diameter. All the flagella are 
beautifully shown under a semi -apochromatic 1 in. of 12 # 1 I.M.P. 
and N.A. • 28, used critically with a screen. 

An excessively slight closing of the Pigott diaphragm produces 
invisibility of the flagella when the critical point is reached. It 
is necessary that the clear N.A. should be very exactly ascertained 
by means of the Abbe apertometer preferably used on a revolving 
divided stage as described in " Carpenter " (eighth edition, p. 395), 
and fully explained in this Journal (1896, p. 592). For the 
definite extinction of most structures it will be found necessary to 
reduce the N.A. in the manner described, i.e. by employi: , a full 
illuminating cone and cutting down the objective's aperture by 
means of a diaphragm placed immediately above it. The proper 
extinction point cannot be exactly ascertained with an objective of 
large N.A. by merely closing the condenser diaphragm and thus 
reducing its W.A., it having been found in practice that the 
presence of flagella is indicated, when this method is employed, by 
vague diffraction effects long after the true extinction point is 
passed. It is, therefore, necessary or advisable to always substitute 
clear N.A. for W.A. in effecting extinction measurements by the 
table given in this Journal (1909, p. 550). I am able to state 
that Mr. Nelson fully concurs in this view. 

Addendum. 

As a check on the accuracy of the above described extinction 
measurements, it was thought desirable to ascertain, if possible, at 



* Monthly Micr. Journ., xiii. (1875) p. 56. 
f See this Journal, 1909, p. 549. 



x 2 



292 Transactions, of the Society. 

least approximately, the diameter of these flagella by means of the 
filar micrometer, and in consequence of the comparatively very 
considerable thickness of such distended filaments it proved feasible 
to do so, and to obtain results closely confirming those yielded by 
extinction. A bacillus having a long and clean flagellum was 
selected for the purpose, a Powell ^-in. objective being employed 
with amplifier (thus practically converting it into a 3^ of N.A. 
1 • 27) together with a special Nelson-Powell micrometer having a 
traversing screw-setting frame and ] O-compensating ocular. With 
this combination the selected flagellum (one of the finest on the 
slide) appeared broad and coarse, the spider lines being in com- 
parison extremely fine. It was found that when the upper edge of 
the "fixed" wire was accurately adjusted by screw to just touch 
the lower edge of the flagellum, it required a revolution of the 
drum through twenty -one divisions to bring the top edge of the 
moving wire in contact with the upper edge of the flagellum, one 
drum division being equal to y^fyoo ^ n - ^hia gives a value of 
0*00001079 in. for the flagellum in question, which, however, 
requires antipoint augmentation * of • 00000425 in. for the W.A. 
0'875, thus making the true diameter 0-00001504, or 6 64F9 in., 
as against the extinction q±\^§ m - f° r flagella of approximately 
similar fineness. In consequence of these results I venture to 
submit there can be no reasonable doubt regarding the practical 
efficiency of the extinction method when dealing with smaller 
objects so minute as to absolutely defy accurate measurement in 
any other manner, even with the most refined appliances. 

* See this Journal, 1904, p. 271. 



SUMMARY OF CURRENT. RESEARCHES 

RKLATINQ TO 

ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY 

(PRINCIPALLY INVERTEBRATA AND CRYPTOGAMIA), 

MICEOSCOPY, Etc.* 



ZOOLOGY. 

VERTEBRATA. 

a- Embryology, t 

Alleged Influence of Electric Discharges in Inducing Partheno- 
genesis. J — Yves Delage has come to the conclusion that electric dis- 
charges do not in themselves induce parthenogenetic development. Apart 
from electrolytic effects, an electric current has no influence in this 
connection. Electrolysis has a feeble influence as a factor in partheno- 
genesis, through the acids and alkalis formed at the electrodes. Minimal 
quantities of metallic salts very injurious in slightly larger doses, e.g. 
sulphate of copper and chloride of zinc, are active agents in partheno- 
genesis. Their activity is notably increased by a slight acidification. 
Various substances without aoid or alkaline reaction, in particular formol 
and alum, are active parthenogenetic agents, and acidification helps. The 
same is true of almost infinitesimaliy small doses of colloidal hydrate of 
iron. Delage adheres to his view that the artificial inducing of the 
formation of a vitelline membrane, and the dissolution of the nuclear 
membrane, sets the egg developing parthenogenetically. 

Vitelline Membrane in Egg of Birds.§ — A. Lecaillon has studied 
the egg of the blackbird in this connection. He finds that the so-called 
vitelline membrane has three layers. The innermost shows no cellular 
structure ; the middle one is an epithelium in process of degeneration ; 
the outermost one consists of fibrillar connective-tissue. In the advanced 
ovarian ovum there is a follicle with these three layers just as in the 
laid egg. Thus what is called the vitelline membrane consists of part 
of the follicular theca, and would be better called vitelline capsule. 

In another paper || he gives minute data in regard to the structure 

* The Society are not intended to be denoted by the editorial " we," and they 
do not hold themselves responsible for the views of the authors of the papers 
noted, nor for any claim to novelty or otherwise made by them. The object of 
this part of the Journal is to present a summary of the papers as actually pub- 
lished, and to describe and illustrate Instruments, Apparatus, etc., which are 
either new or have not been previously described in this country. 

f This section includes not only papers relating to Embryology properly so 
called, but also those dealing with Evolution, Development, Reproduction, and 
allied subjects. % Comptes Eendus, cxlix. (1909) pp. 890-6. 

§ Op. cit., cl.(1910) pp. 240-2. 

C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxviii. (1910) pp. 218-19. 



294 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

of the vitelline capsule, which includes (l)an internal layer, the vitelline 
membrane of the ovarian ovum ; (2) a median layer, the remains of the 
granulosa of the ovarian follicle ; and (8) an external layer, the most 
internal part of the theca of the ovarian follicle. 

Polynuclear Ovum in Bat.* — A. Guieysse-Pellissier describes in 
Vesperucjo abramus a strange kind of abortive ovum, which has become 
polynuclear through the immigration of adjacent cells derived from the 
granulosa and of leucocytes. 

Double Egg in Porbeagle Shark. f A. Vayssiere describes a double 
egg in the left oviduct of Lamna cor/iubica. The separate developing ova 
were enclosed in a single shell, which was too large to be expelled. 

Egg of Rhinophis4 — L. Baumeister describes the egg and embryo 
in Rhinophis trevelyanus. The number of eggs that develop at one 
time is reduced to two (in adaptation to subterranean life and viviparous 
birth at an advanced stage) ; they occur only in the left oviduct ; the 
egg-envelopes are extremely delicate and without calcareous encrustation ; 
the shape of the eggs is an elongated cylinder. 

Mitochondrial Elements of Germ-cells and Chondriosomes of 
Embryonic Cells.§ — J. Duesberg has succeeded in the rabbit in demon- 
strating the continuity of the mitochondrial elements of the ovum and 
the chondriosomes of the somatic cells of the young embryo, thus show- 
ing the maternal origin of at least some of them. 

Development of Autonomic Nervous Mechanism of Birds' Alimen- 
tary Canal. ||--Williamina Abel finds that the whole sympathetic system 
is secondary in formation to, and directly derived from, the central 
nervous system. The abdominal sympathetic is produced by the migra- 
tion of cells from the spinal cord and intervertebral ganglia downwards 
through the mesentery to the gut. From these cells are formed the 
various divisions and synapses of the autonomic system. That these 
cells are not the sheath-cells described by Harrison as growing from the 
posterior root in the tadpole is indicated by some of their number sub- 
sequently forming the cells from which the two plexuses in the intestinal 
wall develop. 

Development of Lymphatic Ganglia of Duck. If — J. Jolly finds that, 
while the typical lymphatic ganglia of Mammals are formed by the 
growth of a mesenchymatous nodule between the lymphatics crowded 
at the periphery and forming the marginal sinus, those of the duck 
develop by the progressive partitioning of a lymphatic vessel, mesen- 
chymatous buds growing in on the cavity at short intervals. Associated 
with this, there is an invasion of adjacent adipose lobules by the lym- 
phoid tissue, an extension of the spongy substance and of the sinus net- 
work by accessory lymphatics and by budding of sinuses. 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 692-4. t Tom. cit., pp. 872-3. 

X Zool. Jakrb.,xxviii. (1910) pp. 603-10 (6 figs.). 
§ Anat. Anzeig., xxxv. (1910) pp. 548-53 (4 figs.). 
I, Prcc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, xxx., pp. 327-47 (4 pis.) 
1 C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 684-6. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 295 

Role of Vagi in Development of Sympathetic Nervous System.* 
Albert Kuntz has made observations on embryos of the pig which lead 
him to conclude that the primordia of the myenteric and submucous 
plexuses, the pulmonary plexuses, and the cardiac plexus, have their 
origin in nervous elements which migrate from the vagus ganglia and 
the walls of the hind brain along the paths of the vagus nerves. 

Cranial Nerves of Pike.t — B. A. Panschin comes to the following- 
conclusions. The olfactory is a visceral-sensory nerve, whose segmental 
nature is obscure. The optic presents no peculiarity. The oculomotor 
is a somatic-motor nerve, except as regards a new ciliary ramus of 
unknown nature. The trochlear and abducens are purely somatic- 
motor and present no peculiarity. The trigeminus i. is an incomplete 
segmental nerve, somatic-sensory in nature, probably associated with the 
first post-oral gill-cleft. It is to be distinguished from the complete 
segmental nerve trigeminus ii., associated with the prse-spiracular cleft. 
In spite of the disappearance of the spiracle in Teleosteans, the facial is 
its complete segmental nerve. The glossopharyngeal is an incomplete 
segmental nerve of the first gill-cleft : it has lost two branches. In 
the vagus group are included two non-segmental and at least three 
segmental nerves. The acustico-lateralis complex has three ganglia. 

Development of Alimentary Canal in Lepidosiren and Proto- 
pterus.J — J- Graham Kerr gives the following summary of the results of 
his investigation. The fore-gut first becomes folded off from the main 
mass of yolk-cells, The pyloric valve arises by the hind end of the 
fore-gut being pushed back into the cavity of the mid-gut. The main 
mass of yolk-cells becomes gradually " modelled " into a spirally coiled 
intestinal rudiment. The main part of the buccal lining is developed 
in situ from large yolk-cells. 

The part of the ventral side of the head, on which are the olfactory 
rudiments, becomes enclosed in the buccal cavity by the development of 
the upper lips and by the forward growth of the lower jaw. The 
olfactory opening becomes divided into anterior and posterior nares by 
the apposition and fusion of the intermediate portion of its lips. 

The thyroid arises as a solid downgrowth from the bucco-pharyngeal 
floor, which gradually becomes cut off from behind forwards. The 
tongue is a primary tongue like that of Urodeles, but without gland- 
field. The pancreas arises from a dorsal and two ventral rudiments. 

The lung arises from a solid mid-ventral rudiment. When the lung 
becomes bilobed, the (actual) right lobe is for a time small in size as 
compared with its fellow. Complicated torsional processes take place 
during the development of the lung. Through the dorsal mesentery 
becoming partially merged in the splanchnoccele roof, the lungs come 
to be outside the splanchnoccele. The general facts of lung develop- 
ment go to support the view that the lung of Polypterus shows a persist- 
ence of the condition ancestral to that of Dipnoi and Actinopterygii. 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxxv. (1909) pp. 381-90 (4 figs.). 

t Tom. cit , pp. 443-67 (7 figs.). 

t Journ. Quart. Micr. Sci., liv. (1910) pp. 483-518 (13 figs.). 



296 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Hermaphroditism in Toads.* — 0. Fuhruiann examined 91 male 
toads in the month of April, and found that 11 were in some degree 
hermaphrodite. There may be slight hermaphroditism in the gonads 
or in the ducts, or there may be potentially, if not also effectively, 
functional autogamy. 

Reproductive Organs of Free-martin.f — D. Berry Hart discusses 
the nature of a free-martin, which is an apparent sterile twin cow, usually 
co-twin with a potent bull. It has, in this case, the lower part of its 
genital tract to the naked eye like that of a cow, the upper part defective, 
and it is usually considered as a cow sterile from incomplete develop- 
ment of its upper vaginal and uterine tract. The author dealt with thirty 
recorded cases and with John Hunter's specimens, and finds that the 
free-martin, when the co-twin is a potent male, is a sterile male, and not 
a sterile female, i.e. they are identical male twins, except in their genital 
tract and secondary sexual characters. There is no trace of ova, the 
gonads are testes, and an epididymis is present. The potent and sterile 
twins arise from one zygote : " the somatic determinants are equally 
divided, the genital determinants unequally divided, the potent going to 
the one twin, the potent bull, the non-potent genital determinants to the 
free-martin." The potent organs are dominant, the non-potent reces- 
sive, and a Mendelian interpretation is possible. The free-martin is a 
pure or extracted recessive qua its genital determinants, and the potent 
twin a pure or extracted dominant. 

Leuco-reaction in Pregnancy.! — Ch. Achard, Henri Benard, and 
Ch. Gagneux find that during pregnancy the leucocytes react in a specific 
way to placental extract. A study of the leuco-reactions makes it 
possible to determine the stage of pregnancy. There is also a placental 
reaction in the new-born (but not after a few days) and in sexually 
mature males. 

Influence of Male Parent in Heredity. § — Gustave Loisel has experi- 
mented for five years on rabbits (288), carefully measuring all the 
organs in each generation. His general conclusion is that the male 
parent not only determines the characters of a proportion of the progeny, 
but modifies, in a degree which seems to be measurable, the hereditary 
transmission of the recessive characters of the grandparents. 

Use of Selection Index Numbers in Breeding. || — Raymond Pearl 
and Frank M. Surface call attention to the usefulness of " selection 
index numbers " in breeding operations. The idea of such index num- 
bers is to combine in a single numerical expression the values of a series 
of variable characters with regard to all of which the breeder wishes to 
practise selection at the same time. The analytical expression of this 
idea is discussed, and its adaptability and usefulness are illustrated by 
examples drawn from poultry and maize breeding. It is shown that 
selection index numbers form a valuable adjunct to the score card in 
stock judging. 

* Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat., xxviii. (1909) pp. 499-500. 

t Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, xxx. (1910) pp. 230-41 (2 pis.). 

X C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris., lxviii. (1910) pp. 159-01 (1 fig.). 

§ Tom. cit., pp. 153-6. || Amer. Nat., xliii. (1909) pp. 385-400 (1 fig.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. L M .»7 

b. Histolog-y. 

Mammalian Red Blood Corpuscles.* — E. Retterer and A. Lelievre 
find that the first-formed red blood corpuscles are large nucleated cells. 
They disintegrate rapidly, their fragments circulate in the blood, and 
their liberated nucleus degenerates. The definitive non-nucleated red 
blood corpuscles are formed from the nuclei of somewhat older embry- 
onic cells. This nucleus is transformed within the connective-tissue into 
a small mass with haemoglobin, and the shape may be spherical, hemi- 
spherical, oval, or lenticular. The first-formed are cells, the others are 
transformed nuclei, and the first set does not give origin to the second 
set. 

Integument of Voeltzkowia mira.f — W. J. Schmidt has made a 
thorough study of the general and minute structure of the skin in this 
lizard, discussing scales and scutes, epidermic sense-organs, pigment, 
peripheral nerves, and the development of the integument in the re- 
generated tail. 

Nerve-Endings in Frog's Skin. J — R. Hulanicka describes (1) two 
kinds of free nerve-endings in the frog's skin ; ("2) the diffuse occurrence 
of tactile cells ; and (?>) the innervation of the tactile prominences (Tast- 
flecken of Merkel). 

Cartilage of Regenerated Amphibian Extremities.§ — K. Glaeser 
finds that parts of the persisting tissue change into fresh cartilage, and 
the greater part of the new skeleton is formed by a recapitulation of 
the ontogenetic process in a cartilaginous strand. There is no produc- 
tion of cartilage from similar tissue 

In newts a protochondral acidophilous substance arises from peri- 
osteum-fibrils and connective-tissue fibrils (axial regeneration). A baso- 
philous cartilage, rich in cells, arises from the cells of the periosteum 
(peripheral regeneration). A basophilous cartilage, rich in cells, arises 
from fresh embryonic regeneration-tissue as in ordinary development 
(embryonic regeneration). Cartilage may also arise from the medulla 
of the bone. 

The embryonic regeneration is independent of the place of amputa- 
tion. Axial regeneration occurs after amputation of a small part of the 
extremity. Peripheral regeneration occurs after amputation of a large 
part of the extremity. 

Structure of Heart Muscle. — K. W. Zimmermann,|| Irene von 
Palczewska,1[ and Marie Werner,** bring forward evidence, from a study 
of the heart in Man and Mammals, in support of the old view that the 
musculature consists of well-defined cells, in opposition to M. Heiden- 
hain's view that the musculature in the adult heart is a reticulate syn- 
cytium with scattered nuclei. 

* C.R Soc. Biol. Paris, lrviii. (1910) pp. 32-5. 

t Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., xciv. (1910) pp. 605-720 (3 pis. and 24 figs.). 

t Bull. Internat. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, 1909, pp. 687-9 (1 pi.). 

§ Arch. Mikr. Anat., lxxv. (1910) pp. 1-39 (1 pi. and 16 figs.). 

! Tom. cit., p. 40. 

% Tom. cit., pp. 41-100 (18 figs.). ** Tom. cit., pp. 101-48 (53 figs.). 



298 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Structure of Embryonic Supporting Tissue and Origin of Con- 
nective-tissue Fibrils.* -- F. Meves has studied the chondriosomes 

which he finds in all the cells of the supporting tissue of the embryo, 
and he brings forward evidence that they form the material for connec- 
tive-tissue fibrils. He describes the development of tendons, and shows 
that the fibrils, after they are once formed, increase independently both 
in length and thickness. 

C. G-eneral. 

Relation between Ciliary and Muscular Movements.! — A. G. 
Mayer has found that in Scyphornedusae the nervous stimulus which 
produces each pulsation is caused by the constant formation of a uric 
oxalate of sodium in the marginal sense-clubs. This sodium oxalate 
precipitates the calcium which constantly enters the sense-club from the 
surrounding sea-water, and forms crystals of calcium oxalate, while 
sodium chloride is set free. Thus the stimulus which produces pulsation 
is due to ionic sodium. 

The sodium of the sea-water is in many cases (Annelids, barnacles, 
Ctenophores, medusas) a strong nemo-muscular stimulant, while the 
magnesium, calcium and potassium are inhibitors, and exactly counter- 
balance the stimulating effect of the sodium, thus permitting weak 
internal stimuli to produce movements. 

It is remarkable, however, that the effects of the ions, sodium, 
magnesium, potassium, and calcium, upon the movements of cilia of 
Infusoria, vertebrate spermatoza, marine larvae, and Ctenophores, is 
always the exact opposite of their effect on the neuro-muscular system. 
In ciliary movement the depressant effect of sodium is offset by the 
stimulating influence of magnesium, potassium, and calcium. A 
Spirillum living in fresh-water reacted as do the cilia of animals, and it 
is suggested that the ciliary movements of animals may have been taken 
over from motile plant-like ancestors and maintained unchanged, where- 
as their neuro-muscular movements have been developed later and are 
controlled by the ions of the blood salts in a manner the exact reverse 
of cilia. 

Distribution of Chitin.J — D. H. Wester discusses the occurrence of 
chitin in Arthropods (even in the mid-gut in some cases) ; in Molluscs 
(e.g. in cuttlefish jaws, snail's radula, some bivalve shells and siphons, 
as in Mya ; operculum of Buccinam) ; in Chwtopods (setae, tentacles, 
intestine of earthworm and Aphrodite) ; in Brachiopods (shell, stalk and 
bristles of Lingula) ; in cuticle of Bryozoa ; in Hydroids ; in the gem- 
mules of a fresh-water sponge. There is no chitin in silk or in byssus. 
None was found in the egg-shells of Invertebrates. There is no evidence 
of chitin in Protozoa, Echinoderma, or Vertebrates. 

Supplementary Function of Foot in Yellow Races. § — Lannelongue 
brings together a number of interesting cases among yellow races in 

* Arch. Mikr. Anat., lxxv. (1910) pp. 149-208 (2 pis.). 
t Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol, and Med., vii. O.909) pp. 19-20. 
J Zool. Jahrb., xxviii. (1910) pp. 531-68 (1 pi. and 1 tig.). 
§ Comptes Rendus, cl. (1910) pp. 503-7. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 299 

which the foot retains considerable prehensile powers, e.g. in rowing, or 
in lifting objects from the ground. Some can even catch mice with 
their feet. 

Os Penis and Os Clitoris in Apes.*- -Ulrich Gerhardt describes 
the os penis in Hylobates leuciscus, Siamanga syndactylus, Simia satgrus, 
Trotjloilytcs niger, etc., and the os clitoris in orang and siamang. 

Nails of Primates.! — Fanny Bruhns gives a detailed account of 
the structure and disposition of the nails in lemurs and monkeys, with 
special reference to the phytogeny of the nails in man. 

Restoration of Ancient British Race of Horses4 — J- Cossar 
Ewart has tried by crossing ponies of different breeds, e.g. Connemara, 
Shetland, and Arab, to reconstruct or re-create the Celtic pony of pre- 
historic times. Of some forty crosses eventually produced, some belong 
to the robust " forest " type, some are a blend of the " forest " and 
" plateau " types, in others there is a suggestion of the Prjevalsky 
(" steppe ") type, while several in their limbs, teeth, and skull, closely 
agree with the 12*2 hands pony found at the Roman fort of Newstead. 
The results strongly suggest that the ponies of north-western Europe 
are mainly a blend of a coarse-limbed, broad-browed, short-faced race of 
the " elephant bed " or Solutre type, and a fine-limbed race characterised 
by a fine muzzle and short-pillared molars, a race (like asses and zebras) 
without hind chestnuts and (unlike asses and zebras and the wild horse 
of Mongolia) without fetlock callosities or ergots. 

Asymmetry of Cetacean Skull.§ — Frederick Houssay expounds an 
ingenious theory, similar to one of Kukentkal's, as to the origin of the 
asymmetry in the Cetacean skull. The primitive Cetacean is supposed 
to have had a tendency to roll round on its own axis : the flippers 
counteract this ; the result is dissymetrical pressure on the head, and this 
brings about a deformation of the skull. This general idea is developed 
in detail. Direct adaptation appears to be postulated. 

Macroscelida3.|| — Albertina Carlsson discusses the characters and 
position of these interesting Insectivores, contrasting the three genera — ■ 
Rhynchocyon, Petrodromus, and Macroscelides. The affinities are closest 
with the Erinaceidaa, from the old stock of which the Macroscelids have 
probably arisen, but there are also marked affinities with the Tupaiidre. 
A very instructive tabular contrast of the three families is given. 

Significance of Milk Dentition.^" — W. Leche discusses the very in- 
teresting dentition of the badger and of Proteles, and finds additional 
evidence that the milk dentition represents a phylogenetically older state 
of affairs, being less differentiated than the permanent dentition, and 
without some of its specialised adaptations. 

* Anat. Anzeig., xxxv. (1909) pp. 353-8 (6 figs.). 

+ Morphol. Jahrb., xl. f 1910) pp. 501-609 (131 figs.). 

X Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, xxx. (1910) pp. 291-311 (27 figs.). 

§ Anat. Anzeig, xxxvi. (1910) pp. 12-17 (1 fig). 

il Zool. Jahrb., xxviii. (1909) pp. 349-400 (11 figs.). 

If Tom. cit., pp. 449-56 (1 pi.). 



300 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Birds of Illinois and Wisconsin.* — Charles B. Cory has published 
an illustrated key to the 398 known birds of Illinois and Wisconsin, with 
descriptions of their various plumages, nests and eggs, and geographical 
distribution. 

Reptiles of Mexiana.f — G-. Haginann gives an interesting account 
of the reptiles of this alluvial island in the Amazon estuary, which stands 
only a few feet out of the water, and is completely flooded every March. 
He discusses, among others, the beautiful tree-snake Trypanurgos com- 
pressus, the anaconda Eunectes murinus, the large turtle Podocnemis 
expansa, the caimans Caiman schrops and G. niger. There are many 
interesting details given with regard to habits, e.g. the diet of snails in 
the case of Dipsas bucephala and other Amblyeephalidge, as also of 
Dracsena guianensis, which Goeldi regarded as a fish-eater. There is an 
extraordinary photograph showing the abundance of caimans in their 
" summer residence." 

Habits of American Toad.J — Newton Miller gives the following 
summarv of his study of Bufo lentiginosus americanus Leconte. 

Bufo lentiginosus americanus spawns from the latter part of April to 
the first of July. This species lays in small ponds, and only a portion 
of each is used as a spawning ground. The males are the first to reach 
the water in the spring ; 88 ■ 8 p.c. of all the toads in a pond at any 
given time are males ; males are in proportion to females as SO " 7 : 100. 
Trilling in full vigorous voice is heard only during the mating season. 
Females respond to the call of the males. Males will not hold other 
males. Spawn may be deposited at a depth of 18 in. or more. This 
depth does not materially affect the hatching. Fertilisation takes place 
in an improvised basket formed by the hind feet of the male and the 
body and hind legs of the female. About 85 p.c. of the eggs laid in natural 
ponds are fertile. Oviposition requires G to 18 hours. The laying of 
two or four strands of eggs at a time cannot be considered of specific 
importance. Toads lay 3,900 to 15,800 eggs at one laying. The eggs 
hatch in 2 to 6 days, depending upon the temperature. Metamorphosis 
takes place in 32 to 200 days. On an average, the tadpoles double their 
weight seven times in 32 days. The tadpoles are omnivorous. Toads 
feed entirely on animal matter ; no food is taken unless it shows signs 
of life. Toads refuse no insects, worms, or slugs which they can swallow. 
On an average, toads feed only once in a day and a half. The average 
amount eaten in a day by a toad is 1'12 grin. About 80 p.c. of the 
toad's food consists of harmful insects. Toads may be active from the 
latter part of March to the middle of November. Toads are chiefly noc- 
turnal. Toads go into the ground to pass the winter. The greater per- 
centage of those that do not get below the frost-line perish. In the 
strictest sense of the term, toads do not hibernate if kept in a warm 
place. Toads feed throughout the winter if kept warm, although eating 
comparatively little. No preparation is made for the winter other than 
burying to a depth below the frost-line. Some toads do not hibernate 

* Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Chicago, ix. (1909) Publication 131, 764 pp. (many 
figs.). t Zool. Jahrb., xxviii. (1909) pp. 473-504 (1 pi.). 

' t Amer. Nat., xliii. (1909) pp. 730-45. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 301 

until after the middle of November. The eggs are seldom eaten by other 
animals. Great numbers of tadpoles are destroyed by insects and insect 
larvae. Birds, fishes, and reptiles feed upon tadpoles. A large per- 
centage of the eggs and larvae are killed by the lowering of the water. 
Toads are destroyed, chiefly, by all classes of Vertebrates, by drought and 
winter, and by the sewer systems of towns. 



Transformation of Palatal Region in Axolotl.* — P. Wintrebert 
finds that the larval vomer and palatine disappear during the metamor- 
phosis. They undergo progressive decalcification. The so-called ptery- 
goid bone, the " queue pterygoidienne " of the palatine, does not exhibit 
more than a partial involution. There is an autonomous formation of a 
new vomer, in which the palatine does not share. A new perichondria! 
ossification around the cartilaginous pterygoid is added to the partially 
retrogressive ossified part mentioned above. 

Palatine and Pterygoid in Axolotl.t — P. Wintrebert finds that in 
a normal axolotl these two bones form one piece. An axolotl in bad 
condition absorbs more or less of its vomerine-palatal-pterygoid appa- 
ratus according to its degree of emaciation. A branchiate " Amblystoma " 
shows no palatine, a pterygoid as in the adult, and a well-ossified but 
incomplete vomer, 

Rostral Teeth of Pristis.i — H. Engel finds that these teeth are in 
structure and development allied to placoid scales. There is an epider- 
mic enamel organ and a mesodermic tooth-germ. The primordium 
sinks into the mesoderm. There is pulp and a vascular reticulum in the 
young stages and the blood-vessels persist. The superficial layers of 
the point are vitrodentine and dentine. These are soon worn off and 
vasodentine is left. There is no replacement. 

Suctorial Disc of EcheneisJ — Reinhard Honv srives an account of 
this extraordinary structure, discussing its musculature and sensory 
apparatus, and its innervation from the first five spinal nerves and a 
branch of the vagus. He goes into the evidence, showing that the 
organ has not arisen in its present position, but has passed from the 
trunk on to the head, apparently as a transformation of the anterior 
dorsal fin. 

Notes from Millport Biological Station. ||— R. Elmhirst notes that 
the hermit-crab which is usually associated with the sponge Suberites 
domuncula is Eupagurus pubescens (Kroyer), just as E. prideauxii is 
always found associated with the cloaklet anemone Adamsia palliata. 
But in three cases out of several thousands E. bernhardus was found 
with the sponge. Elmhirst has also some notes on the moulting and 
regeneration of Galathea strigosa, and on the lobster's aquarium habit 
of heaping up pebbles. He cites a case of a lobster burying its cast 
cuticle. The " spout-fish " (Solm) withdraws suddenly into its hole. 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, Ixviii. (1910) pp. 178-80. t Tom. cit.. pp. 419-20. 

t Zool. Jahrb., xxix. (1909) pp. 51-100 (4 pis. aud 2 figs.). 
§ Tom. cit., pp. 101-38 (4 pis. and 1 fig.). 
Zoologist (Feb. 1910) 3 pp. 



302 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

This is due in part to the expansion of the end of the foot into a disc 
like a mushroom-anchor, about two inches in diameter, and upturned 
edges. " Even a soft, fleshy mushroom anchor pressing into the sand 
would give an enormous hold." The spawn of Oscanius (Pleurobranehus) 
membranaceus is a soft gelatinous ribbon, about one inch thick and 
several feet long in an irregular coil. A spiral thread, containing the 
egg-capsules, runs through the ribbon. There seems to be one egg in 
each capsule ; the diameter of an egg is about ■ 1 mm. and that of a 
capsule 0"16 mm. 

Period of Sexual Maturity in Marine Animals.* — Salvatore Lo 
Bianco supplements his previous collection of data (1888 and 1899) on 
the time of year at which the various animals in the Bay of Naples reach 
sexual maturity. His very valuable memoir refers to a large number of 
types, from Sponges to Fishes. 

Former Land Bridge between Northern Europe and North 
America.t — R. F. Scharff states some of the evidences of this — partly 
geological, partly bathymetrical, partly distributional. Thus there are 
some animals which occur in Europe and North America, but not in 
Asia, such as the fresh-water sponges Ephydatia crater if or mis, Hetcro- 
meyenia ryderi, Tubella pennsylvanica ; the beetles Carabus eaten ulatus, 
C. nemoralis, 0. groznlandicus and G. chamissoni ; and a number of Col- 
lembola. Twelve species of Lepidoptera common to Europe and North 
America are absent from Asia, and the family of Percidse are absent 
from Western North America and Eastern Asia. The distribution of 
Helix hortensis is interesting, for it occurs in Great Britain, Ireland, 
Greenland, and some localities in North America. 

Tunicata. 

Antarctic Tunicata. :}: — W. A. Herdman reports on a collection of 
about twenty-two species from the sea area south of 60° S. Two species 
of Styeia, one of Halocynthia, one of Boltenia, four of Molgulida? and 
two compound Ascidians are new to science. The collection confirms 
the view which Professor Herdman has previously expressed, that the 
Ascidian fauna of the far South is characterised by the abundance and 
the large size of the individuals of a comparatively small number of 
species. In the present collection, made by the ' Discovery,' there are 
specimens of Styeia spectabilis 18 cm. in length, of Molgula hodgsoni of 
4 cm., of Halocynthia setosa of 10 cm., and so on. 

INVERTEBRATA. 

Mollusca. 
a. Cephalopoda. 

So-called Olfactory Organ in Cephalopods.§— Grace B. Watkinson 
has studied the olfactory organs in Sepia, Loligo, Octopus, and other forms. 

* MT. Zool. Stat. Neapel, xix. (1909) pp. 513-761. 

t Proc. R. Irish Acad., xxviii. (1909) No. 1, pp. 1-28 (1 fig. and 3 maps). 
% National Antarctic Expedition, Nat. Hist., v. (1910) pp. 1-26 (7 pis.). 
§ Jen. Zeitschr. f. Natur., xliv. (1909) pp. 353-414 (2 pis. and 47 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 303 

There are two types, papilla-like and pocket-like, with transitions. The 
pocket type is often changed in form by the contraction of the skin, and 
may be protruded. 

The organ consists of a layer of thickened epithelium with nerve- 
endings. The olfactory epithelium consists of ciliated cells and sensory 
cells, the latter being deeply situated, probably amoeboid, with a peculiar 
slightly pigmented body inside and a rounded or rod-like terminal 
process. 

The " olfactory nerve " does not arise from the ganglion pedunculi 
("olfactory ganglion"). Its fibres run in close association with the 
optic nerve, and are probably not exclusively of cerebral origin. The 
" olfactory organ " of Dibranchiata is in its innervation homologous with 
the rhinophores of Nautilus, but not with the osphradia of other molluscs. 
It is probably an organ of chemical sense for testing the water. 

y. Gastropoda. 

Abnormalities in Genital Ducts of Helix pomatia.* — Gustav 
Poluszynski describes some variations, e.g. in the presence of a short 
diverticulum on the duct of the receptacnlum, a trace of its connection 
with the oviduct during development. In five cases the duct of the 
receptaculum divided into two for a short distance and then became one 
again. The duct of the receptaculum is phylogenetically the youngest 
part, and it shows considerable variability, notably of a reversionary sort. 

Spermatogenesis in Helix. f — Max Kleinert gives a detailed account 
of the stages of spermatogenesis in Helix (Tac/tea) nemoralis and hor- 
tensis. The spermatogonia have forty-eight chromosomes, among which 
are two particularly large and bent or horse-shoe shaped. The two large 
chromosomes divide longitudinally ; in the small chromosomes the direc- 
tion of the division was not clear. Full particulars are given of the 
reduction to twenty-four chromosomes, of the idiozome or " Nebenkern," 
and of the differentiation of the spermatozoon. There is in the sperma- 
togenesis no difference between the 5 -banded and 3-banded forms of 
Helix nemoralis, or between the unhanded and banded forms of Helix 
hortensis. 

Noises made by Snail on Window-pane. % — Fred Vies discusses this 
problem, in regard to which there is considerable difference of opinion. 
His observations lead him to conclude that the grating noise is due to 
the shell, not to the radula, and that there is another rarer noise of un- 
known origin, like that made by the bursting of a large bubble on the 
surface of water. 

S. Lamellibranchiata. 

Commensal Lamellibranchs.§ — Paul Pelseneer discusses Montacuta 
found on Echinocardiurn and Spatangus, Entovalva Voeltzkow in the 
gullet of Synaptids, Scioberetia Bernard on a sea-urchin (Tripylus), and 

* Bull. Internat. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, 1910, pp. 17-20. 

t Jen. Zeitschr. f. Natur., xlv. (1909) pp. 445-9S (4 pis. and 22 figs.). 

% Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xxxiv. (1910) pp. 251-4. 

§ Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg.,Classe des Sciences, 1909, No. 12, pp. 1144-50. 



304 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Jousseaumiella Bourne on a Sipunculid {Aspidosiphoii). They form a 
series of increasing specialisation — from Montacuta to Entovalva, and 
further to Jousseaumiella and Scioberetia — and their origin must be found 
among the Lucinacea. They are related to one another, and are rightly 
referred to a special family, Montacutidte, for which the following 
diagnosis is proposed : Commensal Lucinacea, opisthogyrous ; the mantle 
with one posterior suture considerably elongated ; the foot byssogenous, 
and provided with an anterior protractor ; the gill formed of one lamella ; 
hermaphrodite, retaining the young in an incubatory chamber (probable 
in Jousseaumiella. 

New Bivalves from Falkland Islands.* — J. E. Cooper and H. B. 
Preston describe a number of new species, additions to the somewhat 
meagre Molluscan fauna, as at present known, of the Falkland Islands. 
Two small species, apparently referable to the family Erycinidse, require 
new genera, which are named Malvinasia and Davisia. 

Mussels Settling in Gas-vesicle of Seaweed. f — Tobler describes 
how the larvas of Mytilus edulis pass into injured gas-vesicles of Asco- 
pliyllum nodosum, settle down there, begin their shell-development, and 
gradually outgrow the vesicle, in which they induce a series of interesting 
modifications. 

Byssus-apparatus of Lamellibranchs.J — E. Seydel has made a com- 
parative study of the byssus-apparatus in Arcinas, Pectinidae, Limidse, 
Aviculidaa, Anomiidaj, Mytilidae, and Dreissensiidse, discussing the mus- 
culature, the acidophilous glands (which form the byssus), the basophilous 
glands (which are quite accessory), the epithelium lining the apparatus, 
and so on. The byssus is not a simple but a composite secretion. 

Arthropoda. 
a, Iusecta. 

Seed-gathering Ants.§ — F. W. Neger has studied the ways of 
Messor barbarus, a common ant in Dalmatia, which is at once a leaf- 
cutter and a seed-gatherer. Most of the seeds (of Leguminosse in par- 
ticular) had already begun to germinate when the ants put them out to 
dry, and it is suggested that the advantage of the germination is to burst 
the seed-coats, for it does not go far enough to change the starch into 
maltose and dextrin. The shelled and desiccated seeds are taken back to 
the nest and chewed into a dough, which is exposed in the sun in crumbs, 
and baked into biscuit-hardness. Perhaps there is some sterilisation in 
this, but there is some mould left {Aspergillus niger is abundant), which 
may act as a ferment on the starch. 

Habits of (Ecophylla smaragdina.|| — E. Bugnion gives some account 
of this common ant of hot countries, which nests on trees and uses the 



3 5 



* Ann. Nat. Hist., v. (1910) pp. 110-14 (1 pi.). 

t SB. Nat. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande, 1909, pp. 10-12. 

\ Zool. Jahrb., xxvii. (1909) pp. 465-582 (7 pis. and 16 figs.). 

§ Biol. Centralbl., xxx. (1910) pp. 138-50 (3 figs.). 

|| Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat., xxviii. (1909) pp. 511-13 (3 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AXD BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 305 

silk-secreting larva as the source of supply for the thread with which 
the leaves are bound together into a nest. Bugnion describes the extra- 
ordinary device employed in drawing two distant leaves together. Several 
ants, up to five or six, form a chain to bridge the gap, one ant gripping 
the waist of another in its mandibles. Many such chains may co-operate 
for hours in drawing two leaves together. 

Ants' Nests.* — A. Forel, in a report on ants from Barbary and from 
Ceylon, gives an account of the different kinds of nests made by various 
species of Polyrliackis : — A. Nests of pure silk : (1) a multilocular laby- 
rinth of pure silk ; (2) a unilocular web on a leaf ; (3) a fine silken tissue 
lining a unilocular subterranean chamber. B. Nests of silk and debris, 
of two types. C. Nests of silk and paper, of two types. D. Some 
doubtful types. 

Regeneration in Insects.f — Viktor Janda has made some remarkable 
experiments. The larva? of Aeschna are able to re-grow excised antenna?, 
legs and wing-rudiments. The regeneration goes on slowly in the in- 
terval between two moults, beneath the old cuticle, without being exter- 
nally noticeable. Total extirpation of antenna? and limbs is followed 
by their restitution. The size of the regenerated part is proportional to 
the time between the operation and the next moult. 

The regenerative capacity in nyniphs of Libellula is much less than 
in Aeschnids, but in favourable conditions antenna? and limbs may be 
re-grown. As Child and Young found, the limbs of Agrionid larva? have 
a high regenerative capacity, and the regenerated tarsi have fewer joints 
than the normal. 

Thoracic Glands in Caterpillars.^— L. Bordas describes, in illustra- 
tion of these glands, that found in the caterpillar of Staur opus fag i. It 
is 6-7 mm. in length, with delicate walls, between the nerve-cord below 
and the mid-gut above. It extends posteriorly into the abdomen, and 
narrows anteriorly, without a distinct duct, to open between the first 
pair of limbs on the first thoracic segment. Bordas also refers briefly to 
the similar gland in Hadena monoglypha. 

Development of Eggs of Silk-moth.§— C. Yaney and A. Conte dis- 
tinguish three periods in the development of the "univoltin " egg : (1) 
the period of the formation of the germinative " bandelette " and the 
vitelline elements (about five days) : (2) the period of latent life without 
appreciable embryonic changes (nine months) ; and (3) the period of 
embryonic construction, in the course of which (about ten days) a cater- 
pillar is formed. In the first period there is a percentage loss of weight 
of 2 • 67, in the second of 4 ■ 96, in the third of 7 * 84. The authors have 
also studied the changes in the content of glycogen and fat. During 
histogenesis there is a great consumption of glycogen. A contrast is 
drawn between the development of the " univoltin" and the " polyvoltin " 
■eggs of silk-moths. 

* Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sci. Nat., (1909) pp. 369-407. 
t SB. k. Bohm. Ges. Wiss., xxi. (1909) pp. 1-36 (2 pis.). 
J Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xxxiv. (1910) pp. 24S-9. 
§ Cornptes Rendus, cl. (1910) pp. 553-5. 

June loth, 1910 y 



306 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Assimilation of Carbon Dioxide by Pupae.*— Marie von Linden 
brings forward fresh evidence in support of her conclusion that pupae, 
e.g. of Hylophila prasinana, are able to assimilate carbon dioxide from 
the air. 

Malpighian Tubes in Larval Lepidoptera.f— L. Bordas finds that 
the number of these in caterpillars is six, except in Carpocapsa pomonella, 
where there are four. They are usually varicose. Their wall consists of 
an external peritoneal membrane, a basilar membrane, and a secretory 
epithelium. The urinary reservoir has almost the same structure. The 
tubes contain crystals of uric acid, urates of sodium and ammonium, 
oxalate of lime, and, especially, crystalline concretions of carbonate of 
lime. 

Histology of Metamorphosis.?— Ch. Perez distinguishes three general 
processes. 1 . There is total atrophy and destruction of the most highly 
specialised organs of the larva. Except in tbe case of the epithelium of 
the mid-gut, which is exuviated, the mechanism of the atrophy is by 
phagocytosis. 2. The most highly specialised organs of the imago are 
constructed denovo from special embryonic histoblasts. 3. Some struc- 
tures are gradually altered in situ, passing over from larva to imago after 
modification. There is a " de-differentiation " and a " re-differentiation," 
sometimes associated with a curious cellular purgation. In Muscids 
there is an almost complete destruction and re-construction, but in many 
other types there is more of the third mode of transformation. 

Metamorphosis of Malpighian Tubes in Muscids. § — Ch. Perez 
finds that the four Malpighian tubes of the Muscid larvae persist to form 
those of the adult, whereas in some other cases, e.g. ants, they disappear 
and are formed de novo. But it is interesting to observe that during the 
pupa period the Malpighian tubes exhibit a progressive loss of their larval 
differentiation. They cease for a period to be excretory, and are stores 
of fatty material. Gradually re-differentiation sets in. 

Living Species of Diplonema.|| — Nelson Annandale gives a diagnosis 
of a surviving species of this genus of Psychodid Diptera. Three speci- 
mens were captured in the Darjeeling district (altitude 5000 ft.). The 
genus Biplonema appears to have been known hitherto from three Tertiary 
species, which occur in Baltic amber, and from one quaternary form in 
fossil copal. 

Empididse.^T— M. Bezzi reports on a rich collection of these Dipterous 
insects made by W. Schnuse in South America, describing no fewer than 
ninety species. Many of these are new, and six new genera are estab- 
lished. 

Alimentary Tract and Habits of Simulium columbacensis.** 
Jivoin Georgevitch discusses this " Goloubatz " fly, which destroys nu- 
merous pigs, horses, and cattle in Servia. There is a suctorial pump 

* SB. Nat. Ver. Preuss. Rheinlande, 1909, pp. 25-30. 
t Comptes Rendus, cl. (1910) pp. 737-9. 

% C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxviii. (1910) pp. 167-8. § Tom. cit., pp. 42-3. 

II Journ. Proc. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, -iv. (1908, received 1910) pp. 353-4. 
% Abhandl. k. Leopold. Carol. Akad. Nat., xci. (1909) pp. 293-408 (1 pi.). 
** C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxvii. (1909) pp. 540-2 (1 fig.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 307 

in the middle of the oesophagus — an unusual position. The wound is 
made in the same way as in the mosquito. A trypanosome, Crii 'India 
simulise, was found in the intestine. 

Rat Fleas at Marseilles.* — J. Const. Gauthier and A. Raybaud give 
statistics of the different kinds of fleas found on the brown rat {Mus 
decumanus), the black rat {Mus rattus), and the Alexandrine variety 
{Mus alexandrinus). The commonest is Pulex cheopis, the others are 
Ceratophyllus fasciatus, Ctenopsylla musculi and Ctenocephalus serraticeps. 
The human Pulex irritans was not found. The seasonal distribution is 
of interest. The months of August and September show the greatest 
prevalence of P. cheopis (on the brown rat), and these are the months 
in which there is most plague in temperate parts of the northern 
hemisphere. 

Rat Flea capable of Biting Man.t— J. Const. Gauthier and A. Ray- 
baud have put it beyond doubt that Ceratophyllus fasciatus, the habitual 
flea of the rat {Mus decumanus), is able to " bite " man, and thus to play 
a role in distributing plague and other diseases. 

New Species of Rhipidius.J — Abeille de Perrin has some notes on 
Rhipidius boissyi sp. n. from Provence, one of those strange and very 
rare little beetles which spend their larval life inside Orthoptera, as 
Stylops in Hymenoptera. 

External Digestion in Carabus auratus.§ — Hermann Jordan has 
observed how this beetle makes a depression in a piece of flesh that it is 
eating, exudes some digestive juice into this, works it up with its jaws,, 
and goes on doing so until a genuine external digestion has occurred.. 
The author has collected a number of other instances of this external 
digestion of the food. 

Eyes of Pentamerous Beetles. || — Otto Kirchhoffer has made a 
detailed study of the eyes of Staphylinidae, Histeridaj, Silphidse, Cleridre, 
Elateridae, etc. He finds that they have no crystalline cones. An appa- 
rent crystalline cone seen in many cases is merely a piece of the cornea. 
The retinula consists of eight visual cells, with seven distal nuclei, and 
one sunk deeply. The rhabdom is usually formed from only six of these 
visual cells. The cell whose nucleus is deeply sunk is in many cases the 
origin of a basal rhabdom, or basal organ. But we cannot do more than 
refer to a few of the conclusions of a very careful piece of work. 

Reactions of Mealworms.lf — Max Morse has investigated the factors 
determining the reactions of the larva of Tenelrio molitor. The body 
surface as a whole is sensitive to light of great intensity. Nevertheless 
there is no orientation exhibited by virtue of this reaction. This was 
made evident by painting one side of the animal with lampblack mix- 
ture, leaving the head exposed. Orientation takes place by means of 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxviii. (1910) pp. 196-9. 

t Op. cit., lxvii. (1909) pp. 859-60. % Tom. cit., pp. 854-8. 

§ Biol. Centralbl., xxx. (1910) pp. 85-96. 

|| Arch. Biontolog., ii. (1909) pp. 237-87 (7 pis.). 

^ Joum. Comp. Neurol, and Psychol., xix. (1909) pp. 721-9 (1 fig.). 

Y 2 



308 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the light receptors entirely — the eye-spots which lie on either side of the 
head, immediately posterior to the base of the antennae. The larvae are 
positively geotropic. The mealworm's random movements are discussed, 
and it is shown that the tropism theory, at least in its naive form, can- 
not be made to apply to its behaviour. Low in the scale as it is, the 
larva presents highly complex behaviour, the factors of which are but 
slightly known. 

Development of Agelastica alni.* — Benedykt Fulinski finds that 
the so-called blastoderm is developed quite in the same way as in other 
Chrysonielidae, but the ventral portion of the blastodermic epithelium — 
the germinal ectoderm — forms two lateral plates and a median plate, 
which are not sharply marked off from one another. The amnion-f olds 
develop from the germinal ectoderm, and the amnion-cavity precedes 
gastrulation. In gastrulation there is a true invagination, the middle 
plate being inturned into the yolk and forming the primary endoderm, 
which subsequently differentiates into the secondary endoderm and the 
mesoderm. 

Effect of Centrifugal Force upon Eggs of Chrysomelid Beetles.f 
R. W. Hegner has made some interesting experiments yielding the fol- 
lowing results. 1. Eggs of Chrysomelid beetles, when oriented in a cen- 
trifugal machine, with either posterior or anterior ends toward the axis 
of rotation, and subjected to 1500-2000 revolutions per minute for from 
1 to 12 hours, become stratified into three layers : (a) a light vesicular 
zone at the inner end, (&) a heavy granular grey cap at the outer end, 
and (c) a comparatively large intermediate mass of yolk, the larger 
globules lying at the outer end of this layer. 2. The grey cap is induced 
by a lesser amount of centrifugal force in an egg containing many cleav- 
age nuclei than in a fresh egg. Either the grey-cap material is liberated 
during development, or else some condition of the yolk-mass in the older 
egg allows it to pass more rapidly toward the heavier end. The grey- 
cap material is not necessary for the normal development of the embryo. 
3. The vesicular zone becomes visible after 15 minutes of centrifuging. 
It is composed of fat imbedded in cytoplasm. This zoue disappears 
during development. 4. The yolk-globules are distributed through- 
out the intermediate region of the egg ; the largest spheres are at the 
outer heavy end. It takes very little centrifugal force to cause this re- 
arrangement. Restitution to the normal condition takes place soon after 
the egg is removed from the centrifugal machine. 5. The cytoplasm is 
lighter than the grey-cap material or the yolk, but heavier than the fat 
of the vesicular zone. The passage of the cytoplasm to the light end of 
the egg does not incapacitate it for the production of an embryo. 6. The 
nuclei are apparently equal in specific gravity to the cytoplasm. Cleavage 
nuclei and vitellophags rise to the inner end of the egg ; the nuclei of 
the blastoderm of older eggs are not visibly influenced by centrifugal 
force. 7. The germ-cell determinations move en masse from their usual 
position at the posterior end towards the anterior end when the former 
is placed inward. The further history of these granules has not been 

* Bull. Intemat. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, 1910, pp. 12-16. 
t Journ. Exper. Zool., vi. (1909) pp. 507-52 (24 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 309 

traced. 8. Restitution takes place very slowly. Those substances 
easily displaced are also the first to redistribute themselves. The cyto- 
plasm seldom regains its normal position, but produces a dwarf embryo 
outside of the yolk at the light end of the egg. 9. The age of the egg 
determines the susceptibility to centrifugal force and the future growth 
of the embryo. In general, an egg in a late cleavage stage becomes 
stratified sooner than a fresh egg. Eggs centrifuged when in the blasto- 
derm stage or older almost always produce normal embryos, and some- 
times larvae. 10. Centrifugal force has no influence upon the rate of 
development of eggs which produce normal embryos or larvse. 11. The 
orientation of the embryos produced by centrifuged eggs is not affected 
by centrifugal force. Dwarf embryos, however, are frequently formed at 
the posterior ends of the eggs : these never produce larvas. 12. In the 
majority of cases the eggs laid by centrifuged beetles produce normal 
larva?. 13. The eggs of insects, although supposed by many embryo- 
logists to be the most highly organised of any animal eggs, may have 
their contents profoundly disturbed without preventing the production 
of a normal embryo. The cytoplasm and nuclei of centrifuged eggs are 
forced out of their usual positions, but often normal development takes 
place. This would indicate that a high degree of organisation does not 
prevent the egg from adapting itself to changed conditions. 

Minute Structure of Gut in Chrysopa perla.* — James McDunnough 
gives a detailed histological account of the structure of the gut and its 
associated organs (Malpighian tubules, salivary glands, etc.), both in the 
larva and in the imago of Chrysopa perla. We shall do no more than 
quote one of his conclusions. " The epithelium of the mesenteron is 
formed of homomorphic cells, which have alternately the functions of 
secretion and of absorption ; the ' Stabchensaum ' is no permanent 
structure, but appears mainly on resting cells ; the peritrophic membrane 
is to be regarded as a product of the whole mid-gut epithelium, and has 
nothing in common with the intima of the stomodasuin." 



■■& 



Genital Apparatus of Neuroptera.j — H. Stitz gives a careful account 
of this in S talis lutaria, Rhaphidia notata, Chrysopa perla, C. vulgaris, 
Hemerobius nervosus, and MyrmeJeon. The males always show paired 
testes, an ejaculatory duct, and a copulatory organ — the two last rela- 
tively simple. The vesicula seminalis may be very complicated. In 
Sialis the female parts are paired almost to the aperture, even the bursa 
copulatris being divided. The author discusses the various forms of 
bursa, receptaculum, vestibulum, and so on. Characteristic structures 
are the " rosettes " on the anal valves of both sexes. 

Revision of Order Strepsiptera4 — W. Dwight Pierce has done good 
service in preparing a revision of this interesting order, which he regards 
as quite by itself, on a distinct line from that of Coleoptera and nearer 
the Hymenoptera and Diptera, and as highly specialised as the highest 
insects in any of the orders. He discusses the remarkable life-history, 

* Arch. Natur., lxxv. (1909) pp. 313-60 (5 pis.). 

t Zool. Jahrb., xxvii. (1909) pp. 377-448 (5 pis. and 26 figs.). 

% U.S. Nat. Mus., Bull. 66 (1909) pp. 1-232 (15 pis.). 



310 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

the effect of the parasitism on the host, the sexual dimorphism and the 
internal structure, and takes a systematic survey of all the known forms. 

New Strepsipteron.* — K. Hofeneder describes Menyenilla chobautii 
g. et sp. n., from North Africa, a Strepsipteron allied to Mengea from 
Baltic amber, notably in having a 5-jointed clawed tarsus. The C-jointed 
antennas have joints 3 to 5 prolonged into lateral processes. 

New Species of Fossil Cockroach.-)- — H. Bolton describes an Orthop- 
teron wing from the South Wales coal-field, and refers it to Archimylacris 
(Etoblattina) woodwardi sp. n. 

&• Myriopoda. 

New Millipedes.} — F. Silvestri describes a number of new forms 
from Uganda, establishing the following new genera : Eviulisoma, Rha- 
pidostreptus, Analocostreptus and Metriostreptus. He also gives § pre- 
liminary descriptions of ten new genera of Diplopoda from Mexico, South 
America, and other countries. 

Structure of Polydesmus.|| — W. Effenberger has done a useful 
piece of work in giving a clear account of Polydesmus complanatus — 
especially of its external characters, respiratory system, alimentary tracts, 
glands, and reproductive organs. He also discusses this millipede's habits. 

5. Araclmida. 

Fragmenta Arachnologica.^f — VI. Kulczynski describes some new 
Mediterranean species of Palpimanus, and submits additions to or cor- 
rections of previous descriptions of various species of Araneus, Xystkus, 
and Lycosa. 

New Cteniform Spiders from South America.** — Embrik Strand 
reports on a number of interesting forms with a general resemblance (in 
the disposition of their eyes) to the genus Gtenus, e.g. new species of 
Acanthoctenus, Gtenus, Enoploctenus, Gupiennius. 

Development and Origin of Respiratory Organs in Aranese.-f-j— W.F. 
Purcell has studied the development of the lung-books, of the tracheae, 
of the abdominal longitudinal muscles and their tendons, of the enta- 
pophyses (ectodermal tendons) of the pulmonary segment, and other 
associated structures. Forty-one species of spiders were used for ana- 
tomical purposes. The development was studied chiefly in Sitticus (Attus) 
fioricola O.K. We shall state some of his general conclusions. 

The medial trunks of the trachea? must be regarded as equivalent in 
their entirety to metamorphosed entapophyses. 

The pair of lateral branches of the trachea? of the ninth somite in 

* Ber. Nat. Med. Ver. Innsbruck, xxxi. (1910) pp. 33-58 (1 pi.). 

t Geol. Mag., vii. (1910) pp. 147-51 (1 pi.). 

% Ann. Mus. Civico Storia Nat. Genova, iv. (1910) pp. 457-78 (9 figs.). 

§ Zool. Anzeig., xxxv. (1910) pp. 357-64 (10 figs.). 

|| Jen. Zeitschr. Natur., xliv. (1909) pp. 527-86 (4 pis. and 13 figs.). 
i Bull. Internat. Acad. Sci. Cracovie, 1909, pp. 667-87 (1 pi.). 
** Zool. Jahrb., xxviii. (1909) pp. 401-28. 
tt Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., liv. (1909) pp. 1-110 (7 pis. and 7 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 311 

Dipneumonous spiders must have been derived from the pulmonary sac, 
and not the reverse. 

The secondary tracheal tubes may arise anywhere on a tracheal 
trunk, when required, and quite independently of the pulmonary saccules. 

The arguments in favour of the branchial origin of the lung-saccules 
(from sunken-in gill-lamellae) appears overwhelming. The lung-books 
of scorpions and spiders have arisen independently. 

Tracheae in Araneae have a diphyletic origin, from entapophyses and 
from lung-saccules. There is no evidence of any sort to indicate that the 
spinnerets of spiders were derived from sunken-in lung-books. 

Phylogeny of Tracheae in Araneae.* — W. F. Purcell suggests that 
the saccules (hollow air-containing leaves) of the second pair of lung- 
books have been converted into tracheal tubules in the common ancestor 
of the Dysderidae, Oonopidae, and Caponiidae. The resulting tracheae 
then increased in size, and, as the number of the leaves of the anterior 
lung-books decreased in inverse ratio, the former became the principal 
organs of respiration. 

The second pair of spiracles retained their position, or may even have 
moved slightly forwards, and the conversion of the entapophyses into 
tracheae could not take place here, and would, moreover, be quite un- 
necessary. 

In the Caponiidae the anterior pair of lung-books were converted 
into tracheae in a similar manner, but at a later period, and indepen- 
dently of the conversion of the posterior pair ; but as the latter 
already provided almost the entire body with tracheae, the anterior pair 
did not further increase in size. In the second place, in the progenitor, 
or progenitors, of the remaining tracheate spiders, the posterior lung- 
books became reduced in size and effectiveness by the disappearance of 
their saccules, accompanied by an increase in the number of the leaves 
of the anterior lung-books. Further, the posterior spiracles became 
approximated and united to a single spiracle and moved towards the 
hinder end of the body, thereby causing the entapophyses of the tracheal 
segment to elongate. In this condition the Filistatidae, Sicariidae and 
Palpimanidae have remained, with slight modifications, such as the divi- 
sion of the tracheal ante-chambers into branches in some forms. 

In the great majority of the families, however, the elongated entapo- 
physes became transformed into a pair of medial tracheal trunks, thus 
producing a tracheal system consisting of four simple unbranched trunks, 
which is still found in some genera at least, in nearly all the families. 

A new factor having been introduced, viz. the presence of the respi- 
ratory entapophyses lying in the large ventral sinus containing venous 
blood requiring aeration, we accordingly find the second respiratory 
segment again taking a prominent part in the respiration in many forms, 
owing to the increase in size and the branching of the medial trunks, 
accompanied ultimately by a corresponding reduction in the size of the 
anterior lung-books, e.g. in the Attidae. This method of origin of the 
tracheae is independent of that of the Dysderidae and their allies, and 
the tracheal tubules, when present, would here not be derived from 
saccules, but would be new formations. 

* Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., liv. (1910) pp. 519-61 (1 pi. and 21 figs.). 



312 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Development of Lung-books and Tracheae in Spiders.* — Remold 
Janeck has studied this, especially in Lycosa ammtata, with some other 
forms for comparison. The foldings on the under surface of the primor- 
dium of the abdominal appendage are quite distinct from the foldings 
which give rise to the lung-book, and the author is against the view 
which derives lung-books from branchial organs. 

The lung-book arises from a compact cell-mass, of ectodermic origin, 
and from an associated invagination of the ectoderm ; the tracheae arise 
from invaginations of ectoderm, and there is often a solid proliferation 
which subsequently gets a cavity. The author is therefore strongly in 
favour of the view which derives lung-books from trachea?. 

Spinnerets, Cribellum and Respiratory Organs of Spiders.f — 
Thomas H. Montgomery, jun., has studied Theridium, Loxosceles, Eva- 
grus and Filistata. He confirms the interpretation of the cribellum as 
a modified and fused pair of spinnerets. The colulus or hypopygium is 
an integumentary extension with a large axial blood cavity, and may be 
a supplementary respiratory organ. The anterior spinnerets and colulus 
or cribellum develop from the fourth abdominal segment, the median 
and posterior spinnerets from the fifth. The colulus and cribellum 
arise as elongate thickenings mesial from the appendages of these seg- 
ments, the appendages becoming the anterior and posterior spinnerets. 
Colulus and cribellum are in their development homodynamous with 
the median spinnerets of the segment behind them. 

Each lung-book arises in the regiou of the appendage of the second 
abdominal segment. An ectoblastic invagination forms the stigma and 
chamber, and into this the appendage invaginates, forming both oper- 
culum and secondary lamella?. There are no radical anatomical diffe- 
rences between tracheae and lung-books, but the developmental differences 
are considerable, and there is no complete homodynamy between the 
two sets of organs. There is no embryological ground for deriving the 
lung-books from gills. 

Structure of Ixodes reduvius.J — Erik Nordenskiold continues his 
account of this tick, and describes the circulatory, respiratory, and repro- 
ductive systems. 

«. Crustacea. 

Sex-recognition in Crawfishes. § — A. S. Pearse has studied the copu- 
lating reactions of three species of Cambarus. Males which had recently 
been in active copulation were not necessarily induced to copulate again 
by the immediate presence of an active female. The readiness with 
which copulation takes place depends largely on the " chance " coming 
in contact of two individuals which are in the proper physiological state. 
The temperature of the water has some influence ; conditions of light- 
stimulation are apparently of little consequence ; experiments with pieces 
of ovary and the like lend no support to the view that there is any 

* Jen. Zeitschr. f. Natur., xliv. (1909) pp. 587-646 (1 pi. and 67 figs.), 
t Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, lxi. (1909) pp. 299-320 (4 pis.). 
% Zool. Jahrb., xxvii. (1909) pp. 449-64 (1 pi.). 
§ Amer. Nat., xliii. (1909) pp. 747-53. 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 313 

stimulating secretion given off by the female. Sexual union seems more 
or less a matter of chance. There is little or no power of sex-discrimina- 
tion. During the mating season the male " tries " every crawfish which 
he meets, and the instinct of the female is to remain passive, while 
another male seeks to escape. 

Distribution of Palinurus vulgaris in British Waters.* — James 
Ritchie finds that the thorny lobster has been recorded from various 
localities along all the coasts of the British Isles, except from that portion 
of the east coast which lies to the north of Flamborough Head. It is 
most abundant in the south-west, becoming scarcer northwards, although 
the apparent scarcity may, in part, be due to its long and unyielding 
antennas, which frequently hinder it from entering crab-pots. 

Jurassic and Modern Eryonidae.f — Walther von Knebel has given 
a precise diagnosis of the family Eryonida? and a reconstruction of the 
Jurassic forms, even the moulting process being recorded in the fine 
stone. There seem to have been ancient attempts at establishing new 
adaptations on the part of the Jurassic Eryonids, but without achieve- 
ment. In the section Eryonidas angustiformes there is persistence of 
highly evolved features from the Jurassic times till now. 

Variability of Palsemonetes varians.f — Artur Brozek has made a 
statistical study of this common prawn at Triest, and compares his 
results with those obtained at Plymouth and elsewhere. 

Blind Prawn from Galilee. §— AY. T. Caiman describes Tgphlocaris 
qalilea g. et sp. n., from a small pond communicating with the Sea of 
Galilee." It probably came from subterranean waters. Though refer- 
able to the Palaemonidaj, it is quite different from Palsemonetes antrorum 
Benedict and P. eigcnmanni Hay from Central Africa, and requires a new 
genus. The list of subterranean Decapods now includes nine forms, viz. 
two Atyida? (Troghcaris schmkltii Dorm, and Palsemonias gauteri Hay), 
four species of Cambarus, and the three forms referred to above. 

Eyes of Gammarids.|| — E. Strauss gives a careful description of the 
structure of the normal eye in Gammarids and of various stages of 
degeneration. The crystalline cones may become small discs, or may 
wholly disappear. The retinulse and rhabdoms may be affected, and the 
point of this fine study is that stage after stage of degeneration is 
depicted in a succession of types, until finally even the optic nerves 
disappear. 

Agglutination of Blood Corpuscles in Gammarus.f — John Tait 
finds that the antenna? of Gammarus marinus afford a very convenient 
object for the study of the agglutination of the blood corpuscles. If 
the end is cut off the blood pours out into the surrounding water and 
the formation of the clot is very readily observed. 

* Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinburgh, xxiii. (1910) pp. 68-71. 
t Arch. f. Biontolog., ii. (1909) pp. 195-233 (4 pis.). 
% SB. k. Bohm. Ges. Wiss., 1909, No. 2, pp. 1-11 (1 pi.). 
§ Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool., xi. (1909) pp. 93-7 (1 pi.). 

I! Wiss. Ergehnisse Deutsch. Tiefsee Exped., xx. Lief. 1, pp. 1-84 (6 pis. and 47 
figs.). f Quart. Journ. Exp. Physiol., i. (1908) pp. 247-9. 



314 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Studies on Isopods.* — K. W. Verkoeff establiskes four new genera 
of Oniscinae, several new species of Porcellio, and a new genus of Tricko- 
niscidas. He discusses some morphological points connected witk tke 
appendages. In referring to tke stridulating apparatus in Liyia and Sys- 
pastus, ke notes tkat ke has kad tke pleasure of listening to tke sounds 
made by Armadillo officinalis. Tkis is made by botk sexes wken rolled 
up, and it is due to a kind of rotating movement of tke fourth and fifth 
pairs of legs. 

Crustaceans living in Ascidians.f — E. Ckatton and E. Brement 
describe Enterocola pterophora sp. n., a sluggish eruciform Copepod living 
in Leptoclinum commune. It is readily distinguished from other species 
of the genus by the presence of aliform dorsal plates. 

The authors also describe % Mycophilus curvatus sp. n., another 
ascidicolous Copepod, from Polycyclus renieri and various species of 
Botryllus. It is pointed out that tke genera Mycophilus and Enteropsis 
are very closely alike, and may simply be two stages in parasitic adapta- 
tion. 

Crustacea in Gizzard of Deep-sea Cuttlefish. § — Tkomas Scott 
reports on "a carcinological collection " obtained in tke stomack of Stau- 
roteuthes hippocrepium, from a deptk of 2425 fathoms. Tke most in- 
teresting item was Pontostratiotes abyssicola Brady, a curious species 
wkick does not seem to kave been met witk since Brady's discovery of it 
in tke ' Ckallenger ' collection. Tke autkor supplements Brady's de- 
scription. 

Wood-boring Crustacea from Christmas Island. || — W. T. Caiman 
describes Ghelura insulse sp. n., and Limnoria andrewsi sp. n. Tke 
aberrant Ampkipod family Cheluridse kas 'hitherto comprised only a single 
species, the well-kown Ghelura terebrans of the North Atlantic and ad- 
joining seas, and the discovery of a second species in tke Indian Ocean 
is therefore of interest. Of tke Isopod genus Limnoria five species kave 
been already described ; of tkese tke only one known from tropical seas 
(from tke island of Minikoi) is L.pfefferi Stebbing ; it appears to be very 
different from tkat now described from Christmas Island. 

Fresh-water Lern8eopodida3.1T — E. Neresheimer discusses such forms 
as Tracheliastes, Achtheres percarum, Basanistes huchonis, B. coregoni, 
Lerneeopoda carpionis, and L. heintzi sp. n., and shows that for the deter- 
mination of genera and species reliance may be placed on the structure of 
the attaching apparatus of the second maxillipede. 

Autumnal Iridescence of Lakes.** — Oscar Wyss has studied tke 
" Herbstiris," a rainbow-like appearance seen on tke calm surface of tke 

* Arch. Biontolog., ii. (1909) pp. 339-87 (3 pis.), 

t Bull. Soc. Zool. France, xxxiv. (1910) pp. 223-9 (5 figs.). 

% Tom. cit., pp. 234-40 (4 figs.). 

(> Ann. Nat. Hist., v. (1910) pp. 51-4 (2 pis.). || Tom. cit., pp. 181-6 (1 pi.), 

f Ber. Bayer. Biol. Versuch. Miinchen, ii. (1909) pp. 1-8 (1 pi. and 1 fig.). See 

also Zool. Zentralbl., xvii. (1910) p. 93. 

** Rev. Suisse Zool., xvii. (1909) pp. 441-7 (1 pi.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 315 

Lake of Zurich and elsewhere towards the end of October, and finds that 
it is due to the extraordinary abundance of the prism-shaped winter ova 
of Baphnia longispina. 

New Fossil Barnacles.* — Thomas H. Withers observes that little 
has been done to British Cretaceous Cirripedes since the publication of 
Darwin's monograph, and he describes five new species from the British 
Museum collection. 

Annulata. 

Regeneration in Lumbricidae.t— Janina Zielinska has studied the 
regeneration of the posterior end in species of Lumbricus, Helodrilus, 
and Eisenia. In general, what happens in the long thin regenerating 
bud is precisely like the process of embryonic development. There is, 
however, a mode of regeneration by a short, thick bud, which is probably 
divergent. 

Young forms regenerate more rapidly than mature forms. Those cut 
far back regenerate more rapidly than those cut further forward. 

A scar is formed which leaves the anus open. It consists at first of 
lymphocytes and subsequently of spindle-shaped cells from the longitu- 
dinal musculature which degenerates locally. There is abundant phago- 
cytosis. 

Cells migrate inwards from the epidermis and play an important 
regenerative role. It remains uncertain whether the mesoderm bands 
arise from mesoderm or from ectoderm. The reconstruction of muscu- 
lature and blood-vessels is followed in detail. 

Earthworms of Ruwenzori.J — L. Cognetti de Martiis reports on a 
collection of twenty species, of which fifteen are new. The region seems 
to be exceedingly rich even at high elevations. The genera include 
Alma, Dichogaster, Gordiodrilus, Pareudrilus, etc. 

American Polycha3tes.§— J. Percy Moore continues his laborious 
investigation of American Polychastes. He deals with a collection from 
Monterey Bay and San Diego, California— 64 species, 21 new ; and with 
the ' Albatross ' || collection of Syllidas, Sphaerodoridae, Hesionidae, and 
Phyllodocidae from off the coast of Southern California. 

Fossil Annelid Burrows.lf— F. A. Bather discusses fossil burrows 
referable to the work of Polydora, and brings together a number of 
instances. He also has notes on tubes referred to Tigillites, Taonurus, 
etc. " It seems probable that a large number of forms previously placed 
by geologists in a convenient receptacle labelled ' Fucoids ' may now be 
safely regarded as due to burrowing Annelids." 

B. S. Lyman ** records a burrow of Scolithus linearis with orifice 

* Geol. Mag., vii. (1910) pp. 151-9 (14 figs.). 

t Jen. Zeitschr. Naturw., xliv. (1909) pp. 467-526 (5 pis. and 3 figs.). 
% II Ruwenzori. Relazione Scientifichs, i. (1909) pp. 1-56 (4 pis.). See also 
Zool. Zentralbl., xvii. (1910) p. 81. 

§ Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, lxi. (1909) pp. 235-95 (3 pis.). 

|| Tom. cit., pp. 321-51 (2 pis.). ^ Geol. Mag., vii. (1910) pp. 114-16. 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, lxi. (1909) p. 297. 



316 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

complete in Cambrian rock. Crater-like orifices were seen precisely like 
those of the burrows of littoral Polychastes. A form with a larger tube 
in Siluro-Cambrian limestone was referred by Torell to his genus Mono- 
craterion. 

Phascolosoma minutum.* — Georg Paul gives an account of Petalo- 
stoma minutum Keferstein, Phascolosoma sabellarise Theel, and P. 
improvisum Theel, and shows that they must be merged in P. minu- 
tum Keferstein. Perhaps P. anceps will have to follow. It is pointed 
out that P. minutum is hermaphrodite, the only certain case among 
Sipunculids. The author has also some notes on the structure of Onche- 
soma steenstrupi. 

Parthenogenesis in Dinophilus conklini.f — Paul de Beauchamp 
finds that the nanism of the males is associated in this species with in- 
dubitable parthenogenesis. But this can only go on for several genera- 
tions in the absence of males, and leads to a degeneration of the stock. 
This is very interesting in itself, and also in connection with the probable 
relationship between Dinophilus and Rotifers. 

Nephridia of Dinophilus and of Larvae of Polygordius, Echiurus, 
and Phoronis4 — E. S. Goodrich describes in Dinophilus a new type of 
solenocyte formation, representing perhaps an intermediate step between 
the Platyhelminth " flame-cell " and the more typical Polychaste sole- 
nocyte, in which each tube, with its flagellum, has its own nucleus. This 
latter state might be reached by a multiplication of the nuclei until they 
came to correspond in number with the tubes. That Dinophilus is re- 
lated to Polygordms has long been suspected ; and it is interesting to 
note that in the larval nephridium of Polygordms there is a similar 
multiplicity of tubes. In P. neapolitanus a single nucleus, at the tip of 
each branch of the nephridial canal, controls a set of from six to seven 
solenocyte tubes. " The canal and solenocytes of the Annelid nephridium 
form a whole, a single organ derived from one rudiment, strictly com- 
parable to the canal and flame-cells of the platyhelminth excretory organ." 
The author also discusses the solenocytes seen in the larvae of Echiurus 
and Phoronis. 

Oogenesis of Sagitta.§ — Paul Buchner gives an account of the 
oogenesis in Sagitta, with some notes on maturation and fertilisation. 
The unequivocal persistence of the ovum chromosomes throughout the 
whole oogenesis is emphasized. 

Australian Hirudinea.|| — E. J. Goddard continues his studies on 
Australian Hirudinea, describing Glossiphonia intermedia sp. n., G. 
heteroclita (?), and Limnobdella australis. It is pointed out that the 
structure of the genital apparatus in Glossiphonia strengthens the view 
that the members do not copulate. Whitman has shown that hypodermic 
impregnation obtains in G. parasitica. It is interesting that all members 

* Zool. Jahrb., xxix. (1909) pp. 1-50 (2 pis.). 

f Coniptes Rendus, cl. (1910) pp. 789-41. 

% Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., liv. (1909) pp. 111-18 (1 pi.). 

§ Anat. Anzeig., xxxv. (1910) pp. 433-43 (17 figs.). 

|| Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxxiv. (1909) pp. 467-86 (2 pis.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 317 

of any genus of Hirudinea from any part of the world fall into two 
groups, one of which has the genital apertures separated by one annulus, 
the other being characterised "by the presence of two annuli between the 
pores. The author thinks that the primitive stock from which the 
Glossiphonid forms were derived was originally provided with a penial 
structure, and that the genital apertures were separated by a number of 
annuli, the pores being situated probably in successive somites. 

Nematohelminthes. 

Nematodes of the Eye.* — A. Railliet and A. Henry discusses the 
genus Thelazia, established by Bosc in 1819 for a Nematode from the 
eye of an ox. The parasite in question was afterwards called by Clurlt 
Filaria lachrymalis, but the male has a large number of pre-anal papilla?, 
the female has an anterior vulva (a short distance behind the end of 
the oesophagus), the buccal capsule opens directly into the oesophagus 
without a pharynx, and so on. The authors re-establish the genus 
Thelazia, and point out that its affinities are with Ceratospira (Schneider) 
and Oxyspirura (Drasche). They recognise five species : T. rhodesi 
(Desmarest) the type ; T. lacrymalis Gurlt ; and three new ones, T. 
gulosa, T. alfortensis, and T. leesei. 

Filarise in Ixodes.f — Vincenzo Baldasseroni reports an interesting 
case of embryos of Filaria quadrispina (Diesing) occurring in the intestine 
of Ixodes ricinus parasitic on the beech-marten (Mustela foina). There 
were also many of the worms below the skin of the marten. 

Genus Onchocerca. £ — A. Railliet and A. Henry propose to re- 
establish Diesing's genus Onchocerca for certain Filariidee with thick 
cuticle found in the connective-tissue of Mammals. In addition to the 
type species, 0. reticulata Diesing, the authors recognise 0. cervicalis 
sp. n. in the ligamentum nucha? of the horse, 0. armillata Raill. and 
Henry in the wall of the aorta in cattle, 0. fasciata sp. n. from a 
dromedary, and 0. volvulus (Leuckart) from man. 

Structure of Gordius.§ — Jan Svabenik has made a minute study of 
many species of Gordius. From a study of some young stages in 
beetles and in an earwig he is convinced that the Gordiidse must live 
several years in insects before they become sexual. A full account is 
given of the nervous system, with its ventral cord, cerebral ganglion, 
and anal ganglion. The cerebral ganglion of Gordiida? cannot be com- 
pared with that of Annulates, for it develops late and probably by a 
differentiation of the ventral cord. Of considerable interest is the 
segmental evagination of the germinal epithelium in the females, for it 
is a suggestion of Annulate segmentation. The presence of a primary 
and a secondary body-cavity is also significant, and the author supports 
Vejdovsky's view that the Gordiida? form an order (Nematomorpha) 
between Nematohelminthes and Annulata. 

* C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxviii. (1910) pp. 213-16. 
t Bull. Soc. Entomol. Ital., xl. (1909) pp. 171-4. 
% C.R. Soc. Biol. Paris, lxviii. (1910) pp. 248-51. 
§ SB. k. Bohrn. Ges. Wiss., vii. (1909) pp. 1-64 (1 pi.). 



318 SUMMARY OF CURRENT RESEARCHES RELATING TO 

Platyh.elmintb.es. 

Australian Triclads.* — Annie Weiss gives a detailed account of six 
new species of Planaria from Australian fresh water, paying particular 
attention to the epithelium, musculature, alimentary system, nervous 
system and sense-organs, and the reproductive organs. 

New Type of Turbellarian.f — Paul Hallez describes an interesting 
new type, Bothriomolus constrictus g. etsp. n., which he found on the 
shore at Portel, in half-brackish water, at the level where Procerodes 
ulvse is abundant. It is one of the Alloioccela in the family Bothrio- 
planidas, beside Bothrioplana and Otoplana. There is a sacciform gut 
much lobed and branched in the adult. Two ovaries lie in front of the 
pharynx. The copulatory organ has five lobes supported by spicules, 
the anterior lobe perforated by the ejaculatory duct. Eosinophilous 
glands open into the unpaired oviduct ; cyanophilons glands open into 
a cavity homologous with the uterus of Triclads. There is an anterior 
and ventral ciliated pit, connected with a frontal sensory organ ; there 
are no lateral ciliated pits. The animal creeps about without swimming. 
It is 5-6 mm. long by • 5 mm. broad, constricted in front and behind 
the pharynx, opaque white in colour. Vibratile cilia are absent in the 
adult from the dorsal surface and on the median ventral line behind the 
pharynx. There are some filiform rhabdites in the caudal cells. The 
front and sides of the head bear stiff cilia. Numerous adhesive papilla? 
occur on the ventral surface, the margins, and the posterior end. 

Turbellarians of the Gulf of Trieste. J — H. Micoletzky gives a list : 
12 Accela in 5 genera ; 25 Rhabdocoela in 17 genera ; 19 Allceoccela 
in 8 genera, and about a dozen Polyclads. He obtained most of his 
material among the Zostera. 

Peculiar Trematode of the Mole.§ — Richard Gonder describes Ityo- 
gonimus lorum (Dujardin), an elongated cylindrical Trematode which 
occurs occasionally in the intestine of the mole. It has some points in 
common with Harmostomum, but stands markedly by itself. 

Cuticula and Subcuticula of Trematodes and Cestodes.|| — Henry 
S. Pratt has studied this much-discussed subject, and reached the follow- 
ing conclusions. 1. The cuticula of Trematodes and Cestodes is not 
homologous to that of other worms and of Arthropods. 2. The cuticula 
of Trematodes and Cestodes is the peripheral portion of the parenchyma, 
being composed mainly of secretions of it. 3. The subcuticula is not an 
epithelium or a hypodermis, but belongs genetically to the parenchyma. 
4. The subcuticular cells are not present in the monogenetic Trematodes, 
in most of the Aspidobothridas, and in many digenetic Trematodes, or in 
any Trematodes or Cestodes during the earliest larval stages, when the 
cuticula first forms. 5. The function of these cells is not known, and 

* Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., xciv. (1910) pp. 541-604 (4 pis. and 1 fig.). 

t Arch. Zool. Expe'r., xliii. (1910) pp. 611-64 (3 pis.). 

\ Arbeit. Zool. Inst. Univ. Wien, xviii. (1910) pp. 167-82. 

§ Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk., liii. (1910) pp. 169-74 (1 pi. and 3 figs.,. 

|| Amer. Nat., xliii. (1909) pp. 705-29 (12 figs.). 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. 319 

although most authors have ascribed a glandular or secretory function to 
thern, it seems likely that they form an indifferent embryonic tissue 
which develops into specialised tissues as the worm increases in size. 

Tapeworms of North American Birds.* — B. H. Ransom deals with 
about 140 species of Tamioid Cestodes which have been reported from 
North American birds. These represent nearly forty genera, such as 
Davainea, Liga, Rhaidometra, Hymenolepis, and Diorchis. A key for 
identification is given, and the parasites are arranged not only systema- 
tically, but also according to their hosts. It may be noted that the 
Teenioid Cestodes are characterised primarily by the presence of four 
cup-shaped suckers upon the head, and form a natural group, classed 
by some authorities as a superfamily, Tajnioidea, by others as an order, 
Cyclophyllidea. 

Entozoa of Monotremes and Marsupials.f — T. Harvey Johnston 
gives a list of parasites, chiefly Cestodes, in various Monotreme and 
Marsupial hosts. Platypus yields a species of Distomum ; the Echid