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THE JOURNAL 



OP 



THE ROYAL 

HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL 

ASSOCIATION OF IEELAND : 



ORIGINALLY FOUNDED AS 



letilfeenuj) Sltcfj&ological Society, 



IN THE YEAR 



M.DCCC.XLIX. 



VOL VIII. 

FOURTH SERIES. 



1887-1888, 



DUBLIN: 
PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 

FOE THE ASSOCIATION, 

BY PONSONBY AND WELDRICK. 
1889. 



Zee " 




THE Committee wish it to be distinctly understood, that they do 
not hold themselves responsible for the statements and opinions 
contained in the Papers read at the Meetings of the Association, 
and here printed, except so far as the 9th and 10th Amended 
General Rules extend. 



PREFACE. 



UNINTERRUPTEDLY since the period of its first appear- 
ance, in 1849, the Journal of the Royal Historical and 
Archaeological Association has been the only publica- 
tion in Ireland devoted exclusively to the illustration 
of subjects relating to the ecclesiastical and general 
history of this country; to descriptions of Irish anti- 
quities, including almost every class of monument 
known to archaeologists ; to disquisitions on the develop- 
ment of our architecture, pagan and Christian ; and 
to such folk-lore as (since the establishment of railways 
and National schools) may have been found to linger. 

The foregoing remarks but simply enunciate facts 
which are widely acknowledged, and, to the honour 
of our Association, not seldom referred to in contem- 
porary reviews, British and foreign. 

As a rule, one striking feature in the style of 
matter published in our Journal has long been variety. 
That this should be so need not excite surprise in the 
mind of anyone even slightly acquainted with the 
amount of antiquarian wealth of every kind which, 
from the remotest period of Western history, has been 
permitted to remain, even to our own day, in this per- 
haps otherwise less-favoured country. 

True it is that monuments of mediaeval splendour, 
comparable with the majority of the English, and even 
Scottish minsters, and royal or baronial strongholds, are 



iy PREFACE. 

not here to be found. It should be observed, in passing, 
that the greater number of our abbey churches and later 
ecclesiastical remains are seldom of a strictly national 
character they may be classed as Anglo-Irish. But, 
nevertheless, their styles are not devoid of interest, and 
it may be said that in detail, in beauty of moulding on 
capital or base indeed, in general chasteness of decora- 
tion, they not unfrequently present features unexcelled 
in their way though we search the grandest of British 
fanes for rivals. 

In all other respects, however, Erin must be con- 
sidered, in a manner, the archaeological museum not 
only of the British Isles, but even of many widely 
spread districts of the neighbouring continent, which 
during the dawn of European history were occupied 
by people of the Keltic race. 

Fergusson, in his beautifully illustrated work, en- 
titled, Rude Stone Monuments in all Countries, their Age 
and Uses, appears to have been indefatigable in his 
search after examples. He, nevertheless, failed to note 
that in Ireland we possess varieties of the dolmen, and 
other kindred structures, which may be considered 
peculiar to this island. 

The principal group of megalithic remains to be 
found with us occurs at Carrowmore, near the town 
of Sligo. There, within an area of about a mile in 
length, by half that measure in breadth, may be seen 
some sixty or seventy monuments, cromleacs, dolmens, 
circles, pillar-stones, earns, &c., of which Petrie has 
remarked that, excepting the monuments of Carnac, 
in Brittany, " they constitute the largest assemblage 
of the kind hitherto discovered in the world." In 
various parts of Sligo are other groups, and many 



PREFACE. V 

isolated examples. All of these, as well as the Carrow- 
more remains, and some similar works situate in the 
Island of Achill, have attracted the attention of Colonel 
Wood-Martin, by whom, together with their contents, 
they have been measured, planned, described, and illus- 
trated chiefly in the pages of the present volume. The 
contents of these venerable waifs of time, though dis- 
turbed, and embracing only debris of the original 
deposits, are of extreme interest, and clearly indicate 
the sepulchral character of these grey, time-worn piles. 
Indeed, Colonel Wood-Martin has been enabled to add 
most conclusively to evidence already published, here 
and abroad, that all remains of the cromleac, cist, and 
circle class are simply tombs of our early race, or races, 
and that the idea of their having been altars, used 
for human sacrifice, is unwarranted, and utterly un- 
tenable. 

W. F. Wakeman, Hon. Local Secretary for Dublin 
and Wicklow, sent a Paper, accompanied by a measured 
plan and elevation, on a " Cromleac-like Altar, or Monu- 
ment, at Tumna, Co. Boscommon." It stands in an 
ancient Christian cemetery, and is regarded by the 
neighbouring people as the tomb of St. Heiden, or 
Eiden, patron of the place. The writer considers this 
work as a connecting-link between the pagan cist, or 
diminutive cromleac, and a class of graves used in 
Ireland by early members of the Church. He cites 
examples to be found on Ardillaun, Co. Galway (pro- 
bably seventh century work) ; others at St. John's 
Point, Co. Down ; a number at Kilnasaggart, Co. 
Armagh ; and one at Tarmon, Glen-Columbkille, Co. 
Clare. The Tumna structure is a perfect cromleac of 
the smaller class. 



yi .PREFACE. 

W. J. Knowles, M.R.I. A., Hon. Local Secretary, Co. 
Antrim, gives a Paper on the " Prehistoric Remains of 
Portstewart, Co. Londonderry." As might be expected 
from the pen of this accomplished observer, his con- 
tributions will be found full of interest by all who would 
trace certain phases of life practised in Erin during 
archaic times. His account of the " finds" of flint 
articles, and other manufactured objects, flakes, rubbers, 
hammer-stones, knives, scrapers, arrow-heads, pottery, 
&c., discovered in the sand dunes of the North-West, 
forms one of the most striking chapters recently pub- 
lished in our Journal. A glance at the plates, represent- 
ing a selection of chipped flints and other articles, picked 
up by Mr. Knowles at Portstewart and Castlerock, would 
afford the student in such matters as great an amount of 
information as might be derived from a visit to some 
well-stocked archaeological museum. Nearly fifty illus- 
trations accompany his letterpress. 

A subject, which has hitherto not been specially 
dealt with by archaeologists, has been opened up by 
Mr. Knowles in his Paper on " Tracked Stones." He 
draws attention to the restricted area in the north-west 
of Europe, to which these objects are apparently con- 
fined, and illustrates them by a large number of speci- 
mens out of his own collection. 

The Rev. George R. Buick appears in an Article 
" On the Development of the Knife in Flint, as shown 
by specimens common in the county Antrim." The 
Paper, full of thought, and pregnant with most in- 
teresting suggestions, will, doubtlessly, be considered a 
highly valuable contribution to literature, illustrating 
what seems to be, perhaps, our earliest manufacturing 
industry. 



PKEFACE. Vll 

The late E. T. Hardman, H.M.G.S.I., at the special 
request of Colonel Wood-Martin, furnished a report of 
" Australian Flint Implements, and the Mode of their 
Construction and Fitting for Use," which appears in 
this volume, in connexion with one of the Papers, 
on the "Rude Stone Monuments of Ireland." That 
communication is of considerable value, illustrating, as 
it does, the modus operandi practised in the formation of 
their tools and weapons by people who had not yet 
been accustomed to the use of metal. 

All but antiquaries will think that the question of a 
certain class of beads having been discovered in Ireland, 
and particularly in the Northern districts, is a matter 
of little moment in connexion with the presumed status 
of Ireland as an art-producing country in early times. 
That such a fancy is scarcely tenable may be inferred 
from the peculiarly local or national character of many 
found in crannogs and burial-places in this island. 
These often beautiful objects could only have been 
made by people enjoying a very considerable amount 
of civilization. 

The Rev. L. Hassd and R. Day have each sent a 
Paper " On the Character of Ancient Beads found in 
Ireland and in the Far East," respectively. The com- 
munications of these esteemed archaeologists indicate 
infinite zeal and research on the part of their authors ; 
but it may be said that the subject as yet remains 
somewhat obscure, and would seem to require further 
elucidation. 

There can be no question that the builders of our 
megalithic structures practised an elaborate style of 
scribing on rocks, monoliths, boulders, and, not un- 
commonly, upon the walls of sepulchral chambers, which 



viii PREFACE. 

is at present attracting the attention of antiquaries not 
only of these islands, but of far-distant countries. 
Ireland is supremely rich in this mysterious class of 
work. It is not too much to say that within a space 
of a few acres, upon Slieve-na-Calliagh, a mountain 
situate close to Oldcastle, Co. Meath, may be seen a 
greater number of stones bearing archaic devices of 
the class referred to than are to be found in Britain, 
Caledonia, and Gaul, united ! Many examples occur in 
Munster, and particularly in the county of Kerry. But 
there is reason to believe they are widely distributed 
over the country, and the list of those known is yearly 
increasing. As yet no key has been discovered by 
which their meaning can be made apparent. New 
varieties are constantly occurring, so that it is to be 
hoped some clue to their significance may yet be at- 
tained. The question of the nature of rock-markings, 
or scribings, as found in Ireland, has long occupied the 
attention of the Right Rev. Charles Graves, Bishop of 
Limerick. Dr. Graves, from time to time, was followed 
in the same theme by the late Rev. James Graves, G. H. 
Kinahan, W. F. Wakeman, R. Day, of Cork, the late 
G. V. Du Noyer, and a few other archaeologists ; but 
the subject would seem to be still in its infancy. A 
notice, richly illustrated, of a profusion of deeply in- 
teresting examples, from the neighbourhood of Mevagh, 
Co. Donegal, has been contributed to the present volume 
by G. H. Kinahan, Hon. Local Secretary for Donegal ; 
and attention is drawn to the same class of memorial 
markings in Co. Tyrone, by Seaton F. Milligan. 

The Rev. Patrick Power presents a short but graphic 
account of " Casey's Lios," a once fine chambered rath 
in the county Waterford. Such Notices are of value, as 



PREFACE. IX 

works like this Lios have never been sufficiently ex- 
amined or classified. 

The Eev. J. M. F. Ffrench, of Clonegal, describes 
a most curious and elaborately sculptured memorial- 
stone remaining in the Isle of Man. Its carving is 
singularly symbolical, and invites comparison with work 
found upon monuments, which occur so frequently in 
our early Christian cemeteries. The Isle of Man, it 
may be observed, was once considered part of Erin. 

A tombstone in the churchyard of Meelick, Co. 
Mayo, bearing in an Irish inscription part of the name 
of " Gricour," or " Gregory," and an Ogam-stone in 
the Co. Cavan, marked with three crosses, have been 
described and illustrated by Thomas O'Gorman and 
Charles Elcock, respectively. 

J. G. Robertson's Paper, " Ancient Leaden Works," 
contains much information which will be new, and 
highly appreciated by Irish archaeologists. The subject 
has scarcely hitherto been entered upon, at least by 
antiquarian writers of this country. 

Colonel Philip Vigors contributes some extremely 
interesting remarks on " Slings and Sling-stones," as 
used in ancient and modern times. The sling was, 
doubtlessly, known in Ireland as an engine of offence 
from a remote period down to very recent days. The 
same author describes and figures, with great precision, 
an " Ancient Grave in the county Carlo w," from which 
a beautiful cinerary urn, illustrated by W. F. Wakeman, 
was obtained. 

Richard Langrishe, Vice-President of the Associa- 
tion, continues his valuable series of Papers on the 
subject of " Church Bells in Ireland." His Notice of 
the peal preserved in St. Audoen's, Corn-market, Dublin, 



X PREFACE. 

is of surpassing interest to the campanologist. Three of 
these bells bear inscriptions in the character of the 
thirteenth century, but their actual date, as stamped 
upon one of them, is 1423, an. 2. Hen. VI. They are 
the oldest bells still hung, and in use, in any church in 
Ireland, or, there is every reason to believe, in Great 
Britain. The notice is accompanied by facsimile en- 
gravings of their inscriptions, made from rubbings 
taken by J. E. Garstin, Vice-President of the Associa- 
tion. Numerous other bells, still remaining in Ireland, 
are referred to, and more or less described, in the same 
Paper. 

An account of the " Church Plate in the Diocese of 
Cashel and Emly," from the pen of J. D. White, Hon. 
Local Secretary for the South Eiding of Tipperary, 
contains many curious items, and is welcome if only 
as a record of existing remains. 

In a " Notice of the Career of Shane O'Neill (sur- 
named An Diomais, or ' The Proud'), Prince of Tirowen," 
by Thomas O'Gorman, will be found a stirring chapter 
in Irish history. 

" Notes on Kerry Topography, Ancient and Modern," 
by Miss Hickson, form a valuable continuation of that 
indefatigable writer's research in a difficult, and not 
often trodden, field of investigation. 

In " Notes on a Unique Monumental Slab to Sir 
Nicholas Devereux, Knight of Balmagir, Co. Wexford," 
Gabriel O'C. Eedmond, M. D., brings forward facts 
hitherto not generally known concerning one of the 
most prominent of a once powerful family. Of this 
monument probably much more remains to be said. 

The Eev. W. Ball Wright, M.A., describes a very 
curious sepulchral slab discovered by him in Balsoon 



PREFACE. XI 

graveyard, near Navan, Co. Meath, relating to Sir John 
Eliot, who died in 1616. 

A Paper by the Rev. Charles Scott, M.A., on the 
" Ancient Precedence of the See of Meath," contains 
much information which will be valued by students of 
Irish Church history. 

Gr. M. Atkinson, M.R.I.A., treats on a subject which 
seems hitherto to have escaped the notice of Irish 
antiquaries, viz. that of our " Early Sun-dials." 

A curious and interesting Paper on the " Family of 
Lattin," by J. M. Thunder, will be very acceptable to 
all who are interested in old family chronicles. The 
same writer also contributes a first Paper on " The 
Kingdom of Meath." 

Cecil C. Woods brings forward a letter dated 
" Agherim, July the 15th, 1691," which bears testi- 
mony to the gallantry with which both sides fought 
at that celebrated engagement. 

T. J. Westropp has a short Paper on the " Abbey 
of Quin." There is scarcely a more picturesque or 
better preserved structure of its class to be found in 
Ireland. The only objection which can be made to 
the communication is its brevity. 

Few of our members or readers had probably, until 
recently, heard of Irish Medallists. Dr. Frazer, in 
rescuing the reputation of a number of distinguished 
Irish artists in that line, has done honour to himself and 
to the country; and has probably revived in the minds 
of many the names and services of not a few men whose 
memories had, more or less, been undeservedly allowed 
to pass into comparative obscurity, if not oblivion. 

John Browne, M.R.I. A., Hon. Local Secretary for 
Londonderry, forwards a Report on the Antiquities of 



x ij PREFACE. 

that county. It would be well if we could get similar 
notices from other counties. 

" A Glimpse of Trinity College, Dublin, under Provost 
Hely Hutchinson, by T. J. Westropp, M.A.; and a notice 
of " Theobald Wolfe Tone and the College Historical 
Society," by Geo. Dames Burtchaell, M.R.I.A., will most 
agreeably occupy the attention of not a few readers. 

In the various chapters of " Notes and Queries" 
much valuable and suggestive matter appears. Many 
will follow with interest the remarks made by Colonel 
Vigors for giving effect to the work of preserving the 
memorials of the dead. 

Hitherto in this Preface no reference has been made 
to three obituaries which the volume contains. Doubt- 
lessly they will be sought for, and it is enough here to 
state that they emanate from the pens of men who 
enjoyed the privilege of knowing our departed friends, 
the REV. JAMES GRAVES, DR. CAULFIELD, and CANON 
HAYMAN, well and long. It would be unwarrantable to 
comment on such contributions let them speak for 
themselves. 

The Committee desires finally to record the services 
rendered to the Association by COLONEL WOOD-MARTIN, 
in his capacity of Editor, during what has been a critical 
stage in the existence of the Association. The entire 
volume now concluded has been edited by him, as well 
as a number of Papers contributed at the Meeting held 
in Londonderry. These are already set up in type, 
but have been held over for future publication. The 
thanks of the Association are due to COLONEL WOOD- 
MARTIN for the vigour with which he prosecuted the 
issue of the Journal during the years comprised within 
this volume. 



CONTENTS, 



PART I. 1887. 



PROCEEDINGS : 

January Meeting, Kilkenny, p. 1. Annual Report, p. 3. Election of Members, p. 4. 
Election of Officers, p. 5. Eeprints of the Times and other Publications. Engrav- 
ings of Medals, &c., of Ancient Date, p. 6. Beautiful Gold Breast-pin, ib. Copy 
of very Ancient Document, p. 7. 

PAPERS : 

In Piam Memoriam, James Graves, Secretary and Treasurer of the Royal Historical 

and Archaeological Association of Ireland, formerly the "Kilkenny Archaeological 

Society, p. 8. 
Irish Church Bells (No. III.). By Richard Langrishe, Vice-President, R.H.A.A.I., 

Member of the Royal Institute of Architects of Ireland, p. 28. 
The Battle of Agherim. By Cecil C. Woods, p. 46. 
The Rude Stone Monuments of Ireland. By W. G. "Wood-Martin, M.R.I.A., Fellow 

and General Secretary, R.H. A.A.I., p. 50. 
NOTES and QUERIES, p. 94. 



PROCEEDINGS : 

June Meeting, Leinster House, Dublin, p. 75. Members Elected, p. 95. Books received 
as Presentations to the Library of the Association, p. 96. Presentations to the 
Museum, ib. Election of President to the Association, p. 97. Statement by 
Lieutenant- Colon el Wood-Martin, p. 98. Address to Her Majesty Queen Victoria, 
p. 102. 

PAPERS : 

On a Cromleac-like Altar or Monument at Tumna, Co. Roscommon. By W. F. 
"Wakeman, Hon. Local Secretary for Dublin and "Wicklow, p. 107. 

Ornaments in Glass from Egypt to illustrate those found in Ireland. By Robert Day, 

Jun., F.S.A., M.R.I.A., V.-P.R.H.A.A.L, p. 112. 
On a Bronze Brooch. By Robert Day, Jun., F.S.A., M.R.I.A., V.-P.R.H.A.A.L, 

p. 115. 
The Rude Stone Monuments of Ireland. By W. G. "Wood- Martin, M.R.I. A., Fellow 

and General Secretary, R.H. A.A.I., p. 118. 



CONTENTS. 

Notes upon Street, as a Restorer-the Discoveries at Christ Church. By J. G. 

Robertson, Hon. General Secretary and Treasurer, p. 160. 
On the Opening of a Sepulchral Mound near Newcastle, Co. Wicklow. By Major J. 

M'Eniry, Curator, Museum, R.I.A., p. 163. 
Memoir of the late Canon Hayman, B.A., M.R.H.A.A.I. By Lieutenant- Colonel T. 

A. Lunham, M.A., p. 165. 
Memoir of the late Richard Caulfield, LL.D., F.S.A., M.R.H.A.A.I. By Lieutenant- 

Colonel T. A. Lunham, M.A., p. 171. 
Some Account of the Church Plate of the Diocese of Cashel and Emly. By John Davis 

White, Hon. Local Secretary for the South Riding of Tipperary, p. 176. 
Notices of the Family of Lattin. By John M. Thunder, p. 183. 
The Medallists of Ireland and their Work. By William Frazer, F.R.C.S.I., Member 

of Council and Librarian, Royal Irish Academy, p. 189. 

NOTES and QUERIES, p. 210. 

PROCEEDINGS : 

August Meeting, Enniskillen, p. 215. Election of Fellows and Members, p. 216. 
Reply to Address presented by the Association to Her Majesty the Queen, p. 217. 
Excursions to Devenish, Ballyshannon, and Bundoran, pp. 218 to 220. 



PAPERS : 

The Prehistoric Remains of Portstewart, Co. Londonderry. By W. J. Knowles, 
M.R.I. A., Hon. Local Secretary, County Antrim, p. 221. 

The Ancient Precedence of the See of Meath. By the Rev. Charles Scott, M.A., p. 238. 

On the Development of the Knife in Flint, as shown by Specimens common in the 
Co. Antrim. By the Rev. George R. Buick, A.M., p. 241. 

Description of Antiquities under the Conservation of the Board of Public Works, Ireland. 
By G. M. Atkinson, M.R.I.A., p. 249. 

The Rude Stone Monuments of Ireland. By W. G. Wood-Martin, M.R.I.A., 
Fellow and General Secretary, R.H.A.A.I., p. 254. 

Sleady Castle and its Tragedy. Contributed by Gabriel O'C. Redmond, Local Secretary, 
Co. Waterford, p. 300. 

The Medallists of Ireland and their Work. By William Frazer, F.R.C.S.I., Member 
of Council, and Librarian, Royal Irish Academy, p. 313. 

Tyrone History. By J. Carmichael-Ferrall, Hon. Local Secretary, Co. Tyrone, p. 
327. 

Report for County Londonderry. By John Browne, M.R.I.A, Hon. Local Secretary, 

p. oo. 



e ' r 

NOTES and QUERIES, p. 336. 



CONTENTS . XV 



PAET II. 1888. 



PROCEEDINGS : 

January Meeting, Leinster House, Dublin, p. 347. Election of Fellows and Quarterly 
Meeting, p. 349. Removal of Museum, p. 351. Election of Fellows and Members, 
p. 353. 

PAPERS : 

Slings and Sling-stones. By Colonel Philip D. Vigors, p. 357. 

The Rude Stone Monuments of Ireland. On certain Rude Stone Monuments in the 
Island of Achill. By W. G. Wood-Martin, M.R.I.A., Fellow and General Secre- 
tary, R.H.A.A.I., p. 367. 

Egyptian and Irish Beads. By Rev. Leonard Hasse, M.R.I.A., p. 382. 

Theobald "Wolfe-Tone, and the College Historical Society. By George D. Burtchaell, 
M.A., LL.B., Barrister-at-Law, M.R.I.A., p. 391. 

A Glimpse of Trinity College, under Provost Hely Hutchinson (from Original Letters). 
By Thomas J. Westropp, M.A., p. 400. 

On Ancient Lead Works. By J. G. Robertson, p. 404. 

Casey's Lios, Ballygunnermore, Co. Waterford. By the Rev. Patrick Power, p. 407. 

On a Unique Memorial Slab to Sir Nicholas Devereux, Knight, of Balmagir, Co. 
Wexford, and his wife Dame Catherine Power, of Coroghmore. By Gabriel 
O'C. Redmond, M.D., Hon. Local Secretary for Co. Waterford, p. 408. 

NOTES and QUERIES, p. 414. 



PROCEEDINGS : 
August Meeting, Londonderry, p. 419. Election of Fellows and Members, p. 421. 

PAPERS : 

The Mevagh Inscribed Stones and other Antiquities. By G. H. Kinahan, M.R.I. A., 
Local Secretary, Donegal, p. 427. 

On an Inscribed Monumental Stone from the Isle of Man, and some Customs of the 
Cree Indians. By the Rev. J. F. M. Ffrench, of Clonegal, p. 438. 

Notes on Kerry Topography, Ancient and Modern. By Miss Hickson, p. 442. 
A Notice of the Career of Shane O'Neill (surnamed An Diomais, or "The Proud"), 
Prince of Tirowen, 1520-15.67. By Thomas O'Gorman, p. 449. 

Notes on the Sepulchral Slab of Sir John Eliot in Balsoon Graveyard, Co. Meath. By 
the Rev. W. Ball Wright, M.A., p. 463. 

NOTES and QUERIES, p. 466. 



CONTENTS. 



PROCEEDINGS : 

Quarterly Meeting, Cashel, p. 473. Election of Fellows and Members, p. 475. Elec- 
tion of Vice-President, p. 478. 

PAPERS : 

Statement of Services to Irish Archaeology. By W. F. Wakeman, Hon. Fellow, 

p. 486. 
On an Ancient Grave in the County Carlow, by Colonel P. D. Vigors, J.P., Fellow, 

p. 491. 

St. Grigoir, of Corkaguiny. By Thomas O'Gorman, Member, p. 495. 
Tracked Stones. By W. J. Knowles, M.R.I.A., Hon. Local Secretary, Antrim, 

Fellow, p. 503. 
Notes on an Ogam Stone in Co. Cavan. By Charles Elcock, Member, p. 503. 

Rough Flint Celts of the Co. Antrim. By William Gray, M.R.I.A., Hon. Provincial 
Secretary, p. 505. 

The Kingdom of Meath. By John M. Thunder, Member, p. 507. 

On some Cup-marked Cromleacs and Rath Cave in Co. Tyrone. By Seaton F. Milligan, 
M.R.I.A., Fellow, p. 526. 



APPENDIX. 

PAGE 

The Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland, 1 

Patrons, 3 

President, ............ 3 

Vice- Presidents, ........ 3 

Committee, ........ 4 

Honorary General Secretary and Treasurer, . . 4 

Honorary Curator of the Museum, 4 

Trustees, .. .. 4 

Bankers, 4 

Honorary Provincial Secretaries, 4 

Honorary Local Secretaries, 4 

Fellows of the Association, 5 

Members of the Association, 9 

Members in arrear, ^ 

Members resigned, ^ 

Members deceased, 17 

Societies in Connexion, 18 

General Rulet, " 21 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



An asterisk prefixed indicates a Plate. 



PAGE 

1. The Bell of St. Audoen, 33 

2. The Bell of Blessed Mary the Virgin, 34 

3. The Bell of the Holy Trinity and All Saints, ib. 

4. Ground Plan of No. 53 Monument, Carrowmore, Fig. 63, 51 

5. No. 53 Monument, diminutive Cromleac, view looking south, Fig. 64, . . ib. 

6. Fragment of Pottery from No. 53 Monument, Carrowmore, Fig. 65, . . 50 

7. Ground Plan of No. 56 Monument, Carrowmore, Fig. 66, 53 

8. Ditto, No. 57 ditto, ditto, Fig. 67, 55 

9. Ditto, No. 58 ditto, ditto, Fig. 68, ib. 

10. Ditto, No. 59 ditto, ditto, Fig. 69, ib. 

11. Fragment of "Worked Bone, Fig. 70, 56 

12. Ditto, ditto, Fig. 71, ib. 

13. Ditto, ditto, Fig. 72, .. . . ib. 

14. No. 62 Monument, Barnasrahy, Carrowmore Series, Section of Cam, . . 58 

15. Sketch Plan, by the late Dr. Petrie, of No. 63 Monument, Barnasrahy, 

Carrowmore Series, Fig. 74, . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 

16. Plan of No. 63 Monument, by C. B. Jones, County Surveyor, Fig. 75, . . ib. 

17. Urn from Barnasrahy, Fig. 76, 60 

18. Plan of Sepulchral Chamber, CloverhiU, Fig. 77, 70 

19. Carving on Edge of No. 1 Stone of Sepulchral Chamber, CloverhiU, Fig. 78 ib. 
Carving on Interior Surface of 

20. No. 1 Stone of Sepulchral Chamber, CloverhiU, Fig. 79, .. .. 71 

21. No. 2 ditto, Fig. 80, . . . . 72 

22. No. 7 ditto, Fig. 81, . . . . 73 

23. "Holed" Stone, called Clock- b hreac, or Cloch-lia, at Tobernavean, near 

Sligo, Fig. 82, 74 

24. " Holed" and Sculptured Stone at Mainister, Aran Island, Fig. 83, . . 76 

25. " Holed" Stone at Teampull-na-bhfear, Island of Inismurray, Co. 

Sligo, Fig, 84, 77 

26. "Holed" Stone near Teampull-na-mban, or the " Church of the Women," 

Island of Inismurray, Co. Sligo, Fig. 85, . . . . . . . . ib. 

27. The Soled Stone, near the village of Doagh, Co. Antrim, Fig. 86,. . . . 78 

28. " Holed " and Scribed Stone in the Churchyard of Castle Dermot, Fig. 87, 79 

29. Ditto PiUar-stone at Stennis, near Kirkwall, Orkney, Fig. 88, . . 80 

30. Ditto and Cup-marked Stone at Lochgilphead, Argyleshire, Fig. 89, 81 

31. Ditto Dolmen, or Cromleac, at Rujunkolloor, in the Deccan, Fig. 90, 82 

b 



X viii INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

32. General View of Mitgaun Meav, on the summit of Knocknarea, looking 

West, Fig. 91, 84 

33. Euined Circle (No. 1) at the foot of the Great Cam on the summit of 

Knocknarea, looking North, Fig. 92, 86 

34. Plan, showing general distribution of the various Monuments on the 

summit of Knocknarea, Fig. 93, 8 ? 

35. *Flint Implements found in the Co, Sligo, now in the collection of His 

Grace the Duke of Northumberland, at Alnwick Castle, Fig. 94, . . 89 

36. *Flint and Stone Implements from Western Australia, Fig. 95, .. . . 91 

37. Buins of Ancient Church, and Cromleac-like Altar, or Monument, in the 

Cemetery of Tumna, Co. Roscommon, . . . . . . . . . . 109 

38. Ground Plan of Altar or Monument, ib. 

39. 'Ornaments in Glass and Enamelled Glass from Ireland and Egypt, . . 113 

40. Bronze Brooch found in a Crannog near the Town of Cavan, . . . . 115 

41. Reverse on back of ditto, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 116 

42. General View of Cam, on Cam's Hill, near Sligo, looking West, Fig. 96, 120 

43. General View of Stone Circle in Abbeyquarter, within the Borough of 

Sligo, Fig. 97, .. ..122 

44. Ground Plan of Monument in Abbeyquarter, Fig. 98, 123 

45. "Supposed Megalith, Cottage Island, Lough Gill, Fig. 99, 124 

46. Ground Plan of Rude Stone Monument on Keelogyboy Mountain, Fig. 100, 126 

47. 'General View (by the late E. T. Hardman, H.M.G.S.) of the Rude Stone 

Monument, Magheraghanrush, or the Deerpark, Co. Sligo, Fig. 101, . . 127 

48. 'Ground Plan (by the late E. T. Hardman H.M.G.S.) of the Rude Stone 

Monument, Magheraghanrush, or the Deerpark, Co. Sligo, Fig. 102, . . 129 

49. 'General View of the Deerpark Monument, looking East, Fig. 103, . . 130 

60. Flint " Chisel" found in the Deerpark Monument, Co. Sligo, Fig. 104, . . 136 

61. Ground Plan of smaller Monument in the Deerpark, Fig. 105, .. 137 

62. Ground Plan of " Giant's Grave " in the Townland of Drum, Fig. 106, . . 138 

63. Ground Plan of Rude Stone Monument in the Townland of Drumkilsellagh, 

Fig. 107 : 139 

64. Ground Plan of Rude Stone Monument in the Town of Castlegal, Fig. 108, 140 
55. 'General View of Ruined Cromlcac at Cloghcor, looking East, Fig. 109 . . 142 

66. 'Ground Plan of Ruined Cromleac in the Townland of Cloghcor, near the 

Village of Raughley, Fig. 110, u,, 

67. General View of "Giant's Grave," near Drumcliffe, looking South, 

^ HI, . .. 143 

68. Ground Plan of Rude Stone Monument, Drumcliffe, Fig. 112 ib. 

69. 'General View of Clocha-breaca, Townland of Streedagh, Fig. 113," .' .' 145 

60. 'Ground Plan of Monument, styled Ckcha-breaca, in the Townland of 

Streedagh, Fig. 114, ib 

61. 'General View of Stone Circle in the Sandhills, Streedagh,' looking West 

Fig-115, 147 

Around Plan of Stone Circle and Cist in the Sandhills, Streedagh, 

63. Fragment of Bone Pin from the Streedagh Cist, Fig/117, * 148 

64. 'Ground Plan of Tomban-wor, or the "Giant's Grave," in the Townland 

of Cartronplank, near Cliffoney, Fig. 118, .. 149 

66. 'Unique arrangement for the support of Headstone in* Giant's Grave " at 
Cartronplank, Fig. 119, .. ;. 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. XIX 

PAGE 

66. General View of Cist in the Townland of Creevykeel, Fig. 120, . . . . 150 

67. Ground Plan of Cist at Creevykeel, near Cliffoney, Fig. 121, . . . . 150 

68. Cup-marked Flag found at Drumlion, near Enniskillen, Fig. 122, . . 151 

69. *Cup-marked Flags from Drumnakilty, Co. Fermanagh, Figs. 123, 124, 

and 125, 153 

70. General View of Remains of Monument in the Sandhills, near Mullagh- 

more, looking "West, Fig. 126, .. .. .. .. ib. 

71. Ground Plan of Remains of Monument in the Sandhills near Mullaghmore, 

Fig. 127, ib. 

72. Ground Plan of " Giant's Grave," in the Townland of Bunduff, Fig. 128, 154 

73. General View of Kistvaen and Stone Circle on the Cliffs near Bundoran, 

looking North-West, Fig. 129, 157 

74. *Ground Plan of Kistvaen and Stone Circle on the Cliffs near Bundoran, 

Fig. 130, ib 

75. General View of a Eude Stone Monument near Bundoran, Fig. 131, .. 158 

76. " The Prehistoric Sites of Portstewart " 

* Plate I., Figs. 1-19, 231 

77. * Plate II., Figs. 20-37, 232 

78. * Plate III., Figs. 38-50, 233 

79. * Plate IV., Fig. 51, 234 

80. " The Development of the Knife in Flint" 

* Plate I., Figs. 1-6, 242 

81. * Plate II., Figs. 7-12, 246 

82. * Plate III., Figs. 13-16, 247 

83. " Description of Antiquities under the Conservation of the Board of 

Works, Ireland" 

* Plate I., Dial of Kilmalkedar, 249 

84. * Plate II., Terminal Ornaments, 252 

" The Eude Stone Monuments of Ireland " 

85. Part VI., Figs. 154-172, 257-276 

86. Part VII., Figs. 173-188, 279-296 

87. *0n "Slings and Sling-stones," 361 

" The Eude Stone Monuments of Ireland" 

88. Part VIII., Figs. 189-204, 369-381 

89. ^Monumental Slab of Sir Nicholas Devereux, Knight, of Balmagir, and 

his "Wife, Lady Katherine Power, Figs. 1 and 2, 413 

90. On the Nevagh Inscribed Stones and other Antiquities," Figs. 1-6, 429-435 

91. *Sketch of an Inscribed Stone from the Isle of Man, 439 

92. Ground Plan of a Grave in Co. Carlow, 491 

93. *Cinerary Urn from Grave in Co. Cavan, 493 

94. Tombstone in the Churchyard of Meelick, Co. Mayo, 495 

95. *Tracked Stones, 499 

96. An Ogham Stone in the County Cavan, 503 



THE JOURNAL 

OF 

THE ROYAL 

HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL 

ASSOCIATION OF IRELAND: 



ORIGINALLY FOUNDED AS 



iKilfcenny 2lvd)&ological Society, 

IN THE YEAR 

M.DCCC.XLIX. 
THIRTY-SEVENTH SESSION, 

1887, 



If any there be which are desirous to be strangers in their owne soile, and forrainers 
in their owne Citie, they may so continue, and therein flatter themselves. For such 
like I have not written these lines nor taken these paines. CAMDEN. 



YOL. VIIL PAET I. 

FOURTH SERIES. 



DUBLIN: 

PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 

FOB, THE ASSOCIATION, 

BY PONSONBY AND WELDRICK. 

1887. 



THE Committee wish it to be distinctly understood, that they do 
not hold themselves responsible for the statements and opinions 
contained in the Papers read at the Meetings of the Association, 
and here printed, except so far as the 9th and flOth Amended 
General Rules extend. 



THE JOURNAL 

OF 

THE ROYAL 

HISTOKICAL AND AECHJEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION 

OP IRELAND, 
FOR THE YEAR 1887. 



AT the LEINSTER ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, held at the 
Museum of the Association, Kilkenny, on Wednes- 
day, January the 5th, 1887 ; 

The Very Rev. the DEAN OF OSSORY, D.D., in the 

Chair ; 

The following Members were present : The Very 
Rev. the Dean of Ossory, D.D. ; the Rev. Charles A. 
Vignoles, A.M., Chancellor; Colonel P. D. Vigors, J.P. ; 
Messrs. Peter Burtchaell, C.E. ; Robert Cochrane, C.E., 
M.R.I.A. ; George D. Burtchaell, B.L. ; J. G. Robertson, 
Secretary; John Blair Browne; Edward Fennessy; and 
M. W. Lalor. 

The Minutes of the last meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 

Mr. Robertson submitted the following Report : 

" Mr. CHAIRMAN It has been usual, on the occasion of our annual 
meetings to give a report on the condition of the Association, of its 
gains and of its losses. I need hardly remind Members present that the 
latter have been very great in fact, I might say, almost overwhelming. 
For the first time in the history of the Association our Annual Meeting 
assembles without the Rev. James Graves, the Founder of the Society ; 
and such was the energy and knowledge which he brought to bear in the 

B2 



4 PROCEEDINGS. 

working of it, that we cannot but feel that it requires great efforts on the 
part of all Members to enable the Editor to carry on the Journal with credit. 

"Parts 64 and 65, which have been recently issued to Members, have 
been most favourably reviewed by the Press in general, and letters have 
been received from many subscribers expressing very great satisfaction 
with both letterpress and illustrations. 

"These remarks have carried me away from detailing our serious 
losses by death, which include the names of Sir Samuel Ferguson and 
Rev. Canon Samuel Hay man two names very eminent in the world of 
letters, and of archeology in particular. Canon Hayman was the author 
of the' History of Yough'al, and contributor of several important Papers 
to our Journal. We have also to deplore the loss of the Rev. Richard 
Deverell, who was an old Member, took much interest in our work, and 
was rarely absent from our meetings. I am happy to say that we gained 
several new Members, and I hope, that in accordance with the expressed 
wishes of many, we shall be able to carry on the work of the Association. 
We continue to receive the Transactions of many societies in connexion 
with us in exchange for ours. 

" Our funds, notwithstanding that an accumulation of work had to 
be paid for, are in a sound condition. Some Members have honourably 
discharged their arrears of subscriptions; others, proh pudor! have allowed 
the words ' bad debt' to be affixed to their names. 

" You will be called upon now to revise (according to custom) the 
list of office-bearers and to appoint Auditors. I would suggest that Mr. 
Burtchacll and Mr. J. Blair Browne be requested to act as Auditors. 
Mr. Burtchaell is not only a Trustee, but also one of the joint Treasurers. 
As I am the Acting Treasurer, I consider it right that one of my asso- 
ciates should have the opportunity of learning everything connected 
with the Accounts of the Association." 

The Rev. C. Vignoles proposed the adoption of the 
Report, which was seconded by Colonel Vigors, and on 
being put to the meeting was unanimously adopted. 

The following new Members were elected : 

The Rev. Thos. Bryan, Clonmore Rectory, Hacketts- 
town; T. S. F. Battersby, B.L., 3, Upper Mount-street, 
Dublin; Morgan William O'Donovan, B.A., Magdalen 
College, Oxford; Miss Louisa Vignoles; J.M.Wilson, J.P., 
Currygrane, Co. Longford; William Frazer, M.D., M.R.I.A., 
20, Harcourt-street, Dublin ; Goddart H. Orpen, B L , 
Kppingham, Bedford Park, Chiswick, London; Captain 
J. W. Armstrong R.N., Chaffpoole, Ballyinote, Sligo; 
Wynne Hazlewood, Sligo; Lieutenant- Colonel 
Hollybrook, Sligo; Alexander Percival, Temple 



PROCEEDINGS. 5 

House, Ballymote, Sligo ; Alex. Lyons, J.P., Rathellen, 
Sligo ; Edward Fennessy, High Sheriff, city of Kil- 
kenny; Samuel Hickey, C.E., Cavan; Professor Davy 
Thompson, Gal way. 

Colonel Vigors said that he was glad to see so many 
new Members joining the Society, and that Colonel 
Wood-Martin had sent in so good a list from his own 
county. 

The list of office-bearers was then submitted. 

Mr. Lalor proposed that the Dean of Ossory be 
elected an additional Vice-President for the province of 
Leinster. 

The Eev. C. Vignoles seconded the proposition, which 
was passed unanimously. 

On the motion of Mr. Browne, seconded by Mr. 
Robertson, Mr. Day was unanimously elected an addi- 
tional Vice-President for Munster. 

Mr. Lalor said he would propose that Colonel Lunham, 
M.A., J.P., Ardfall, Douglas, Cork, be elected a Member 
of the Committee. Colonel Lunham had for a long time 
been closely associated with the late lamented Canon 
Hayman, and was an enthusiastic antiquary, and an 
influential supporter of the Association in the South. 

Mr. Browne seconded the proposition, which was 
passed unanimously. 

The following were then appointed as the Com- 
mittee : Barry Delany, M.D. ; Rev. Philip Moore, P.P. ; 
Rev. John O'Hanlon ; W. H. Patterson; Rev. C. A. 
Vignoles; W. Frazer, M.D.; Colonel P. D. Vigors; Robert 
Cochrane, C.E., M.E.I. A. ; The O'Conor Don; Colonel 
Lunham, M.A., J.P. ; George Dames Burtchaell, B.L. ; 
and the Rev. W. Healy, c.c., Coon. 

The following resolution was proposed by Mr. Robert- 
son, seconded by Mr. Browne, and passed unanimously: 

" That Mr. Malcomson of Carlo w be requested to reconsider his 
intention of resigning his connexion with the Association, and to con- 
tinue as a Member of the Committee, and to give his valuable services 
as of old." 



6 PROCEEDINGS, 

Mr. Browne proposed, and Colonel Vigors seconded 
the following : 

" Resolved, That the Journal of the Koyal Archaeological Association 
be not sold, or sent in future to newspapers, till Members and Fellows 
have been supplied with their copies; and then only sold to non-members- 
at a cost of 5. per Part to be sold only by the Secretary, or by Messrs. 
Hodges & Figgis." 

Colonel Vigors said that some expression of satisfac- 
tion ought to be conveyed by the Association to Colonel 
Wood-Martin for the able way in which he had edited 
the last two Numbers of the Journal; the six months for 
which he had accepted the Editorship must now be 
nearly terminated, and they ought to ask him kindly 
to continue to hold the office. 

It was proposed by Colonel Vigors, seconded by Mr. 
G. Burtchaell, and unanimously resolved: 

" That the thanks of the Association be given to Colonel "Wood- 
Martin for his exertions as Editor of the Journal, and that he be 
requested kindly to continue the work." 

Colonel Vigors exhibited reprints of the Times and 
other publications, engravings of medals, &c., of ancient 
date ; facsimiles of the death-warrants of Mary Queen of 
Scots and of Charles I. ; a model of the great bell in St. 
Peter's, Rome; some beautiful old pins; the jawbone 
(containing two teeth) of the extinct species of the 
gigantic kangaroo (Disprotodon Australia), from Queens- 
land ; a bone of the extinct wingless bird, the Moa, 
from New Zealand ; beautiful specimens of Burmese 
weights, &c., and Hindoo idols ; greenish -coloured and 
other stone-axes and spear-heads ; a sling and sling- 
stones from one of the South Sea Islands, the only 
locality in which the sling is now used ; a fossil piece of 
wood from Van Dieman's Land; and some beautiful 
specimens of silver and copper work from Burmah. 

Dr. Barry Delany exhibited a beautiful gold breast- 
pin, the head being the figure of a cavalier in silver, of 
the time of Charles II. 

Mr. Robertson said that he had been lent a book by 
Mrs. Reade, of Birchfield, the widow of an old school- 



PROCEEDINGS. 7 

fellow of his, in which he found the copy of a very 
ancient document. The book had belonged to Josias 
Haydock, Commissioner or agent to the Duke of 
Ormonde, and the document found in it was a prayer 
to His Grace to relieve the petitioner from his duties. 
The document was as follows : 

" To His Grace, JAMES, DUKE OF OEMONDE, Lord Lieutenant Genl., and 
Genl. Govr. of Ireland. The humble Petition of Alder. Josias Hay- 
dock, your Grace's Eeceiver Genl. 

" Most Humbly Sheweth That yor. Petr. attended in Dublin these 
six weeks last past, in order to close his accounts both of the cant and 
rents, and deliver up vouchers of several years accounts which remain in 
his hands, but by some means or other the same has been hitherto 
delayed. That his long attendance here does not only endanger his 
health, but heap a great expence on him, as well as retard that part of 
your Grace's affaires in the country which is under his care, and the 
vouchers of his accounts being for several great sums, if any of them 
should happen to be lost or mislayed, may be of fatall consequence to 
your Petr. May it therefore please your Grace to consider the Premises, 
and to grant an order that your Petrs.' accounts may be forthwith audited 
and passed, his vouchers taken up, and a discharge given him for the 
said vouchers and accounts, and he as in duty bound will ever pray, &c. 
To the Et. Honoble. Sir Eichd. Cox, Knt. ; Sr. William Eobinson, Knt. ; 
the Honoble. Antho Upton, and William "Worth, Esqrs., my commis- 
sioners, etc., or any two or more of them. 

" Upon consideration of the within petition of Alderman Josias Hay- 
dock, my Eeceiver- General, I do hereby authorize and desire you with 
all convenient speed to audit and pass his accounts, and on his passing 
the ballance thereof for my use to Benjamin Burton, Esq., and Francis 
Harrison, my bankers, that you take up all the vouchers of his said 
accounts ; to the end I may give him a free discharge for the same. For 
doing whereof this shall be your warrant. Dated the sixth day of 
November, 1703. ORMONDE. Witness, Fran. Wright Copia vera, Ex- 
amined 12th die November, 1703, per Thomas Cooke, notary public." 

Mr. Robertson continued I have been unable to 
find out anything about any of the Commissioners ap- 
pointed. There was a Mr. Edward Worth, of Blanch- 
field, Rathfarnham, elected to represent Knocktopher in 
the Irish Parliament of 1695-1703-1727. Sir Chris- 
topher Robinson was a Justice of the King's Bench, his 
former patent being revoked, and the renewal dated 
1761. Josias Haydock was Mayor of Kilkenny. 



In $tam JHetnortam 



SECRETARY AND TREASURER 

OF THE 

historical and Archaeological Association: of toland, 

FORMERLY THE 



The REV. JAMES GRAVES was so completely identified 
with the progress and interests of to use its original 
name the Kilkenny Archaeological Society, that any 
account of his life must be, more or less, a history of 
the rise and progress of that now influential and Royal 
Association. 

James, elder son of the Rev. Richard Graves, was 
born in the city of Kilkenny, " under the shadow of the 
cathedral,'* on the llth October (St. Canice's Bay), 
1815. He died, in his 71st year, on Saturday, 20th 
March, 1886, at his residence, Inisnag, situated about 
eight miles from the place of his birth. 

In a letter to the writer of this notice, penned on his 
70th birthday, he says : u My old nurse was always in- 
dignant that I was not named Kenny! I am sorry my 
father preferred the Apostolic cognomen of his father 
more shame for him ! He was Vicarius Choralis Colkgii 
Sancti Canici, and ought to have reverenced his patron 
saint. The Rev. Canice Graves would have looked well, 
and been out of the common; but as I suppose it would 
have been reduced to < Kenny,' perhaps it is as well as 
it is." 

The subject of this Memoir was, in many respects, a 
singular man. In personal appearance he was tall and 
thin; but though apparently not possessed of much 
physical strength, he had great powers of endurance, 



IN PIAM MEMORIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 9 

which he attributed to his total abstinence from tobacco 
and alcohol. At the end of the longest day's excursion 
he would seem quite fresh ; and during the expedition 
to the Giants' Causeway in July, 1885, he astonished 
many younger men by the agility with which he ascended 
the steep path from the sea, after having had a swim be- 
fore breakfast. This was in his TOth year. His ener- 
getic temperament, methodical habits, and almost restless 
activity of mind enabled him to get through an amount 
of work, literary and other, which, to many, seemed 
marvellous. Although devoted to antiquarian pursuits, 
he was never a bore on that subject, for he never ob- 
truded his speciality upon those who did not affect an 
interest in it ; he could talk well and entertainingly on 
many subjects, and unless the occasion was one on 
which antiquarian matters were on the tapis, his con- 
versation was simply that of a highly-informed gentle- 
man. As an invariable rule he avoided politics, 
personalities, and matters of acrimonious controversy ; 
this enabled him to mix with people of every mode 
of thought, and of every rank and calling, without 
making a single enemy. 

In 1863 the late Bishop O'Brien presented Mr. Graves 
to the small living of Inisnag, near Stoneyford, about 
eight miles from Kilkenny. Here he lived till his death, 
cordially respected by rich and poor, and ministering 
diligently to his parishioners. Inisnag, which means 
the Island, or Holm of the Crane, is a parish lying on 
both sides of the Callan, or King's river, near its junction 
with the Nore. Mr. Graves often observed to the writer 
that the place did not now deserve the name, as he 
hardly ever saw a crane (heron) in the locality. Visitors 
to Inisnag will remember Mr. Graves' love of, and 
practical acquaintance with, the culture of flowers. The 
large orange-tree which stood in a square tub inside the 
sunny porch was a sight not easily forgotten when 
covered with fruit ; and even more remarkable was the 
immense Wardian case of Killarney fern, which for 
health and beauty could not be surpassed, none of which 
is now to be met with in the part of Kerry where it 
had been obtained, for collectors and tourists have 



10 IN PIAM MEMORIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 

proved too much for this fern. Mr. Graves was noted 
also for bis fine strain of fuchsias, cinerarias, cycla- 
mens, and primulas : many have observed with amuse- 
ment the heads of his fuchsias tied up in muslin hoods, 
to prevent cross-fertilization, by means of bees or flies, 
after he had impregnated them with some particular 
pollen, by the aid of a camel' s-hair brush. In the open 
o-arden he was proud of his roses, and his collection 
of gladioli and dahlias included some of the choicest 
varieties. 

With much trouble, and skilful engineering, he had 
contrived a hardy fernery on the escarpment ^of the 
rocky brow overhanging the King's river, on which the 
glebe-house was situated. Water was brought hereto 
by ingenious arrangements, and a plentiful supply was 
at hand, even in summer. Many uncommon Japanese 
and North-American ferns flourished here ; nearly all 
of the numerous varieties of the lady fern (Athyrium 
FiUx-fwmina) one of the most beautiful of our larger 
deciduous ferns as also the beech, oak, holly, and 
parsley ferns grew luxuriantly under his fostering care. 
In early spring he would point out how abundantly the 
narcissus minor grew in the fields near the river seem- 
ing to be indigenous. Unlike many florists, he was most 
generous in sharing with friends, and was always ready 
to give slips, offsets, or bulbs to those who appreciated 
them. There are many Co. Kilkenny people who can 
call to mind one or more good things in their gardens, 
for which they are indebted to the liberality of Mr. 
Graves. He was singularly successful in budding roses 
an operation requiring neatness, dexterity, and patience. 
He was a close observer of atmospheric phenomena, 
noted the rainfall and variations of temperature at 
Inisnag, and his reports were frequently to be seen 
recorded in the meteorological intelligence. He was 
acquainted with, and took much interest in, the periodi- 
cal visits of birds of passage to his district, and had 
some instructive notes regarding the annual arrival of 
the cuckoo. With entomology he had some acquaint- 
ance ; he was always particularly anxious to identify 
insects referred to in old writings under Irish names, and 



IN PIAM MEMORIAM EEV. JAMES GRAVES. 11 

to ascertain their modern names, and something of their 
habits. We often discussed the subject of the connochs, 
or murrain caterpillars, of which two figures are given 
in a Paper on " Irish Medical Superstition," by the late 
John Windele. 1 Cattle formed the principal portion of 
ancient wealth in Erin they were consequently the me- 
dium of barter, of paying tributes arid stipends in short, 
they represented, to a considerable extent, a currency, 
and were the object and prize of war, of endless forays, 
and much strife ; the reward of enterprise, courage, and 
daring. On May eve the herds and flocks were sup- 
posed to be peculiarly subject to the sinister influences 
of the " good people," for the murrain was regarded as 
a plague emanating from fairy malice ; the remedy, 
however, was very simple, if attainable. Ostensibly the 
disorder proceeded from the connoch, or caterpillar, 
swallowed by the animal, producing internal disease, 
very frequently of a fatal character. A plentiful pota- 
tion of water, in which had been immersed the powerful 
amulet called the "Murrain Stone," was generally looked 
upon as a sovereign remedy for this complaint. The 
figures of two of the connochs* represent clearly enough 
larvae of the larger sphinx moth ; one is very like that 
of the elephant-hawk moth ( Chcero-campa eljpenor), com- 
mon in Ireland the other like that of the death's head 
hawk moth (Acherontia atropos). Both of these amulets 
were found in the Co. Cork one in the old burying- 
place of Timoleague Abbey, the other near Doneraile. 
Both are formed of silver, in which is imbedded a series 
of crystals, amber-coloured and azure, and they are 
about three inches in length. Mr. Graves told me it 
was rare to find a caterpillar of the death's head moth 
in the Co. Kilkenny, so general was the practice among 
the peasantry, when they found one, to insert it in the 
cleft of a young ash sapling ; and this soon put an end 
to the caterpillar, whatever effect it may have had upon 
the murrain ! 

Mr. Graves, although not an Irish scholar himself, 
yet made great efforts to have the language taught long 

1 Journal, R.H.A.A.I., vol. vin., p. 306. 2 Ibid. 



12 IN PIAM MEMORIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 

before the present movement in favour of its revival 
was initiated. He was a member of the " Celtic Society" 
from its foundation, in 1847, and appears on the list of 
its Council in 1850. The Report of Council to the 
Annual General Meeting, held on Tuesday, 26th Feb- 
ruary, 1850, mentions that Mr. Graves had, in the most 
liberal manner, offered to edit, for the Celtic Society, an 
abstract of the Liber Primus Kilkennice. The illustrations 
of the early volumes of this Journal show that Mr. Graves 
was quite an artist in his younger days, and he always 
retained a quick eye for colour and outline. In fine 
weather he was never tired of expatiating upon the view 
from his hall-door, looking down the course of the King's 
river gliding through its valley between the woods of 
Annamult and Norelands, to join the Nore, about a 
quarter of a mile further on ; opposite were visible the 
rising grounds towards Bennett's Bridge, and, in the 
distance, the graceful slopes of Mount Leinster. Inside 
the house were to be seen choice water-colour drawings 
by Burton and Petrie, and sketches by Du Noyer, along 
with curious old prints, handsome photographs of archi- 
tectural subjects, and books in great variety. The para- 
phernalia of literary work were strictly confined to his 
study, to which only a favoured few had access, and 
where a sedate cat, of immense size, kept watch and 
ward, occupying his chair in her master's absence. He 
professed a great dread of a certain tidying process to 
which it was necessary to submit this room twice a-year. 

A hospitable welcome was ever ready for visitors, 
more especially if that visit was in any way connected 
with archaeological inquiry. Living much secluded from 
personal intercourse with the outer world, he enjoyed 
occasional visits from those who were more mixed up 
with it. He had no family, and was consequently able 
to give himself up the more completely to his favourite 
pursuits. All the energy of his mind was devoted to 
the spread of the Kilkenny Archaeological Society, and 
to the furtherance of its objects ; with it his life and 
labours are inseparably entwined. 

The inception of the Kilkenny Archaeological Society 
was on this wise. On the 19th February, 1849, a meet- 



IN PIAM MEMORIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 13" 

ing was held in Kilkenny, at the private residence of 
the Kev. James Graves, and afterwards adjourned to 
the Deanery ; the Very Rev. the Dean of Ossory was 
in the Chair. At this meeting it was resolved that a 
public meeting be held, in order to organize an Archaeo- 
logical Society for the county and city of Kilkenny and 
its surrounding districts. The members at this meeting 
were : The Very Rev. the Dean of Ossory, the Rev. 
Luke Fowler, the Rev. John Browne, LL.D. ; Rev. James 
Graves, Rev. Philip Moore, Messrs. Robert Cane, M.D. ; 
John James, L.R.C.S.I. ; and John G. A. Prim. Of these 
eight, only one now survives the Rev. Philip Moore, 
Canon, P.P., Johnstown. The first General Meeting 
was held in the Tholsel Rooms, 3rd of April, 1849, 
Robert Cane, Esq., M.D., Mayor of Kilkenny, in the 
Chair ; and at this meeting the adhesion to the project 
of a number of noblemen and gentlemen was announced. 
The Rev. Philip Moore, then C. C. of Rosbercon, had 
the honour of reading the first communication on 
" Giants' Graves." The corporation of Kilkenny met 
the young Society in the most kind and liberal spirit. 
By their permission the meetings of the Society (which 
for some years took place every second month instead 
of quarterly) were held in the Tholsel Rooms up to the 
year 1853, 2 when the Society rented apartments, in 
conjunction with the Literary and Scientific Institution. 
One of the fundamental rules (No. 7) of the new Society 
was as follows: " All matters connected with the reli- 
gious and political differences which exist in our country 
shall be excluded from the Papers to be read, and the 
discussions held at these meetings, such matters being 
foreign to the objects of this Society, and calculated to 
disturb the harmony which is essential to its success." 
This wise rule was the suggestion 3 of the Right Rev. 
James Thomas O'Brien, D.D., F.T.C.D., Bishop of Ossory, 
Ferns, and Leighlin, who was an original member, and 
one of the Patrons of the Society. At the close of its 
first year (1849) the Society numbered fifteen Roman 



Journal, R.H. A.A.I., vol. i., p. 11. 2 Ibid., vol. vin., p. 5. 

3 Ibid., vol. xin., p. 310. 



14 IN PIAM MEMORIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 

Catholic clergymen among its total of one hundred and 
forty-nine members. 

Mr. Graves, and his relative, Mr. John G. A. Prim, 
were the original Secretaries, and it may here be ob- 
served that this Society has never expended any of its 
income on salaries, it having always been a distinguish- 
ing mark of it that all its officers were honorary. Mr. 
Prim's influence with the local Press was of the greatest 
use when the Society was unable to issue a Journal of its 
own. The columns of the Kilkenny Moderator, with 
which Mr. Prim was professionally connected before 
he became the proprietor of that Paper, were always 
open for record of the proceedings of its meetings. In 
consequence of the smallness of their funds, the earlier 
volumes of the Society's publications comprised merely 
a selection of the matters brought before the various 
meetings, full reports of which were afforded by the 
local newspaper Press alone. On 14th February, 1857, 
the Rev. Mr. Graves, 1 at the Annual General Meeting, laid 
on the table a large folio volume, containing the news- 
paper reports of the Society's Proceedings, from its for- 
mation in February, 1849, to the end of the year 1853. 
These reports had been collected, arranged, and bound 
by the late Mr. Richard Hitchcock, and were then, in 
pursuance of his expressed intentions, presented to the 
Society by his widow. 

Mr. Graves, to the duties of Editor and Secretary, 
added also that of Treasurer, on the death, in 1858, 
of Robert Cane, Esq., M.D., who had filled that office 
from the foundation of the Society. 

About the date of the birth of this Society there 
were stirring times in Kilkenny, and it must have been 
frequently difficult to observe Bishop O'Brien's wise rule 
(No. 7), in its spirit as well as its letter. Dr. Cane, as 
has been noticed, was in the Chair at the first General 
Meeting in the capacity of Mayor of the " faire and 
antient cittie of Kilkenny "-and this was the second 
i CCa fT*V W1 thm * hree y ear > upon which he had been 
Mayor. Dr. Cane was a mainstay of the " Celtic 

1 Journal, R.H.A.A.I., vol. iv., p. 245. 



IN PIAM MEMORIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 15 

Union," as was Mr. Graves of the Archaeological Society. 
Dr. Cane for nine years was Treasurer of the latter, 
whilst Mr. Graves had a seat on the Council of the 
" Celtic Union;" indeed the co-existence of the " Celtic 
Union" cannot have simplified the difficulties of starting 
the Kilkenny Archaeological Society. 

Mr. Graves shared the duties and responsibilities of 
Hon. Secretary, with his relative, Mr. John G. A. Prim, 
up to the year 1875. The lamented death, in that year, 
of Mr. Prim, brought double toil upon his fellow-Secre- 
tary, who was at the same time Treasurer, and Mr. 
Graves' health broke down under stress of work. In 
consequence of his serious illness, no meetings were held 
in July or October, 1877. Although to all appearance 
he recovered his usual health and spirits, he soon began 
to suffer from a serious form of dyspepsia, attended 
with loss of sleep. This culminated in an incurable and 
painful disease of the stomach, which proved fatal on 
the 20th March, 1886. From the meeting at which he 
originated this Society (19th February, 1849) down to 
that of 13th January, 1886, the last at which he was 
present (nine weeks and three days before his death), 
he was always at his post, with the exception of his brief 
retirement from active work in 1877. 

Mr. Graves was ever ready to sacrifice himself in the 
interest of the Society. In 1862 it had been decided 
unanimously that his expenses should be defrayed for 
attendance at an Archaeological Congress about to be 
held on 25th August, and five following days, at Truro, 
in Cornwall ; but he proceeded thither at his own cost, 
declining to charge his expenses to the funds of the 
Society. Lord Dunraven and Mr. Graves were the only 
Irishmen present on that occasion ; and the latter availed 
himself of the opportunity of establishing friendly rela- 
lations and interchange of publications with the Royal 
Institution of Cornwall, and the Wiltshire Archaeological 
and Natural History Society. On his return, Mr. Graves 
reported 1 that the antiquities of the district were specially 
interesting to an Irish archaeologist. The stone forts, 
cromleacs, artificial caves (called fogou\ tumuli, and 

1 Journal, R.H. A.A.I., vol. iv., N.S., p. 183. 



16 IN PIAM MEMORIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 

stone hut-circles of the aborigines, were, as might be 
expected, alike in both countries ; but what chiefly 
attracted his attention was the fact that the stone huts 
and hut-circles were clustered on the south-western hills 
and cliffs of England, just as they are found abounding 
on the western mountain sides and cliffs of Ireland. 
Here (in his opinion) was proof that the race which built 
them were a race fighting against, and retreating before, 
an exterminating enemy, that they were finally driven 
across the Irish Sea, found shelter in Ireland for a time, 
and were at last, it might be said, hurled over the cliffs 
of Kerry and Arran into the Atlantic. He thought it 
impossible for anyone to stand on the Cornish or Kerry 
hills and not have this idea forced upon the mind. 

On the 18th March, 1863, a Special Meeting of the 
Society was convened by the President, the Very Rev. 
the Dean of Ossory, in compliance with a requisition 
numerously signed by the leading gentry and clergy 
(Catholic and Protestant) of the county Kilkenny, to 
consider the propriety of presenting Mr. Graves with a 
suitable testimonial of their appreciation of his services 
as Treasurer and Hon. Secretary. The requisition alludes 
to the obligations the members were under to Mr. Graves 
for his " unceasing and unremunerated exertions in the 
promotion of the objects of the Society since its founda- 
tion." The letters from members who were unable to 
attend, but who approved of the project, form a mass of 
written testimony to his services, which proves what an 
important factor he was in the vitality of the Association. 
Mr. Prim read letters from Col. the Right Hon. W. F. 
Tighe, the Earl of Courtown, Lord James Butler, Sir 
Erasmus Burrowes, Sir James Langrishe, the Very Rev. 
the Dean of Leighlin, Rev. Philip Moore, P.P., Johns- 
town ; Rev. John Francis Shearman, c.c., Dunlavin 
Rev. Samuel Hayman, Youghal ; the Right Hon. John 
Wynne. Hazlewood ; and many others unanimous in 
approval of a mode of expressing their appreciation of 
Mr. Graves' services to Irish Archaeology. A subscrip- 
tion list was opened, and a large sum of money was 
soon collected. 1 

1 Journal, R.H. A.A.I., vol. iv., N.S., p. 293. 



IN PI AM MEMORIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 17 

The Society, in 1849, had started with the local title of 
the "Kilkenny Archaeological Society." On 16th March, 
1853, it was carried unanimously, on the motion of 
Herbert Francis Hore, Esq., of Pole Hore, county Wex- 
ford, that the name of the Society should be the " Kil- 
kenny and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Associa- 
tion." 1 Mr. Hore promised a large accession of members 
from among the nobility and gentry of Wexford upon 
their county being thus recognised as coming within the 
district of the Society's operations. On 22nd January, 
1868, the members having increased to over 600 in 
number, residing in all parts of Ireland, a corresponding 
change of name was felt to be desirable, and it was 
changed (for the third time) to that of " Historical and 
Archaeological Association of Ireland." Other radical 
alterations were made on this occasion, viz. the annual 
subscription was raised from 5s. to 10s., and Hon. Pro- 
vincial Secretaries were appointed. Among the latter 
was George V. Du Noyer, Esq., who was elected Hon. 
Provincial Secretary for Ulster. This invaluable member 
died suddenly (3rd January, 1869) while engaged in the 
revision of the Geological Survey of the North of Ireland. 
He was a great loss to the Society. Trained under 
Portlock and Larcom in the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, 
he was one of that band including Petrie, Todd, Reeves, 
O'Donovan, and 0' Curry who have made Irish archae- 
ology a study worthy of serious men. A pupil of the 
accomplished artist Petrie, he equalled his master in 
truth of touch and the minute accuracy with which he 
rendered the details of a subject, no matter how difficult, 
whilst the true " feeling" of the artist pervaded every 
production of his pencil. In the course of the year 1869, 
the Association was fortunate enough, through the exer- 
tions of Mr. Graves, to secure for their Library the large 
and valuable collection of archaeological drawings and 
sketches, the result of his life-long labours, at the price 
fixed on by the friends of his widow. Regulations for 
the custody and management of the Du Noyer drawings 
were proposed by Mr, George H. Kinahan, Honorary 

1 Journal R.H. A.A.I., vol. n., p. 355. 

4TH SER., YOL. VIII. C 



18 IN PI AM MEMORIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 

Provincial Secretary for Connaught, and adopted, and 
thanks were given to the non-members of the Associa- 
tion, especially to his colleagues of the Geological Survey 
of Great Britain and Ireland, who had subscribed towards 
the purchase of the drawings. 

On 27th December, 1869, the prefix Royal, together 
with the privilege of electing Fellows, was granted by 
Queen's letter. The thirty-seven original members then 
living were made Fellows without payment or election j 1 
but time has since made wide gaps in that band, of 
whom remain now (March, 1887) not more than about 

eight. 

The original patrons of the Society for several years 
three in number were local notabilities, the Marquis of 
Ormonde, the Bishop of Ossory, and the Right Hon. W. 
F. Tighe. In 1855, the Prince Consort was elected a 
life member, having contributed to the funds of the 
Society the sum of 25, five times the usual life composi- 
tion. He considered the Journal worthy of a place in 
his private library, but the list of members did not 
include his name, because he had made a rule to allow it 
to appear only in connexion with metropolitan societies. 
After his death, in 1861, Sir Charles Phipps was com- 
manded to inform the Rev. James Graves of the Queen's 
wish that the Journal should continue to be forwarded 
regularly, addressed to C. Ruland, Esq., Buckingham 
Palace. 2 

In 1864, His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales 
was graciously pleased to become patron-in-chief of the 
Society, and he sent double the amount of the ordinary 
composition for life membership. In 1855, 3 the Earl of 
Carlisle was pleased to become a member and patron of 
the Society, and his example has been followed by sub- 
sequent Lords Lieutenant. When the Association became 
a Royal one, the rule 4 was made that all lieutenants of 
counties become patrons, ex officio, on election. 

The Association increased in numbers and importance, 



1 Journal, X.H.A.A.I., vol. I., 4th 3 Hid., vol. iv., p. 1. 

'J" P- 4 - . 4 Ibid., vol. i., 4th Ser., p. 7. 

* ll\d. t vol. iv., N.S., p. 141. 



IN PIAM MEMORIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 19 

including within its scope the whole of Ireland, and Mr. 
Graves brought its influence to bear upon matters of 
great public utility, such as the preservation of historical 
buildings, the punishment of vandalism, and the restora- 
tion of edifices injured by time and weather. His prompt 
action in the case of the Clonmacnoise outrage was at- 
tended with good effects, although the Crown prosecu- 
tion resulted in a disagreement of the jury. On 22nd 
May, 1864, some persons on a pleasure party at " the 
Churches " defaced some of the sculptures on the ancient 
megalithic crosses and of the carved ornamentation of the 
doorways. This conduct having been at once reported 
by the Rev. P. R. Young, c.c., and also by Mr. Vignoles, 
the rector, Mr. Graves, immediately brought it under 
the notice of Sir Thomas Larcom (Under Secretary of 
State). The case was tried at the King's County Summer 
Assizes, 1864, before the Lord Chief Justice. Mr. Ball, 
Q.C., was specially retained by the Kilkenny and South- 
East of Ireland Archaeological Society to aid the Crown 
prosecutors and to watch the trial, which resulted in a 
disagreement. The Government declined to prosecute a 
second time, but the proceedings had the wholesome 
effect of showing clearly to mischievous people that the 
.amusement of knocking noses off old figures was one 
liable to be attended with serious danger to their per- 
sonal liberty. The Society made an honorary member 
of Mr. T. L. Cooke, Sessional Crown Prosecutor for the 
King's County, in order to mark their approval of his 
praiseworthy exertions in the matter of the " Clonmac- 
noise outrage." The balance which remained in hand 
of the " Prosecution Fund" was applied to the restora- 
tion, as far as possible, of the injuries sustained by the 
monuments. 

This episode kindled a lively interest in the ruins at 
Clonmacnoise, and in the following year (April, 1865) 
the Society undertook to repair some of the buildings 
there. A fund of 71 5s. was collected for that purpose, 
and Dean Vignoles, Mr. Du Noyer, and Mr. Graves 
visited the place to see what was required. The account 
of the outlay may be seen in vol. v., N.S., p. 367, where 
there is also an exciting description of the exhumation* 

C2 



20 IN PIAM MEMORIAL REV. JAMES GRAVES. 

stone after stone, of every portion of a magnificent Hi- 
berno-Romanesque doorway a most unlooked-for dis- 
covery, as not the smallest portion of the arch had been 
known' to exist before the excavations were commenced. 
The restoration of the conical cap of the lesser round 
tower at Clonmacnoise attached to Temple Finghin, and 
commonly called Mac Carthy's tower was another good 
deed effected by the Society, which expended nearly 
200 l on the reparation and protection from further in- 
jury of the seven churches at Clonmacnoise. Similar 
works of national utility were carried out in the splendid 
Cistercian Abbey of Jerpoint and in the Franciscan 
Abbey of Kilkenny. The condition of the churches at 
Glendalough, county Wicklow, was brought under notice- 
shortly before being vested in the Board of Works. 
At the instigation of Mr. Graves the influence of the 
Association pressed upon the Commissioners of Church 
Temporalities the importance of making national monu- 
ments of all the round towers and the most interesting 
of the churches and crosses of Ireland. 2 

In the year 1869, 3 the Association caused a fount of 
ogham type to be cast. Every representation of this 
character previously attempted by any individual or 
society had been imperfectly effected by means of 
" rules" or " hyphens" used in ordinary Roman type ; 
the Association can therefore claim to have been the first 
to cast ogham type. 

The editing of the Journal WB,a by no means the light- 
est of Mr. Graves' labours. How much he contributed to 
its pages may be seen by looking over the list of his forty- 
seven communications, of which the titles and number 
of the volume they are in may be found in Appendix A. 
The style of Mr. Graves' writing varied with his theme, 
but it was always grave and concise, authoritative and 
stately. The illustrations in the first volume are principally 
his own work, for he drew accurately on stone. Among 
these illustrations are " Old Houses, High-street, Kil- 
kenny;" " Entrance to Rothe's House;" " Sedilia and 



1 Journal, R.H. A.A.I., vol. xr., page Ibid., vol. iv., 4th Ser., p. 174. 

3 Ibid, vol. i., 4th Ser., p. 5. 



IN PI AM MEMORIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 21 

Aumbry, Jerpoint Abbey ;" " Sedilia, Piscina, and Aum- 
bry, Bally larkin Church;" " Sedilia and Piscina, Callan 
Abbey." These sedilia of different styles of architec- 
ture are thus preserved to us by his pencil free from 
the disfigurement, inseparable from exposure to the 
weather, as well as from the more speedy and certain 
injury of mischievous persons. In vol. i. are also repre- 
sentations of three cromleacs, and of the Tory Hill 
supposed Pelasgian inscription from the original stone 
preserved at Woodstock, county Kilkenny. 

When first founded, in 1849, it did not appear pro- 
bable that the income of the Society would at any period 
suffice for printing the papers read at its several meetings, 
which at that time were held every second month ; the 
columns of the local newspapers were its only means of 
record. Among its original members was Joseph Burke, 
Esq., Barrister-at-Law, who then held an official position 
connected with the county Kilkenny. Mr. Burke became 
one of its most zealous supporters and one of the most 
energetic members of its managing committee. The 
other founders of the Society had not looked to, or hoped 
for, the extension of its influence beyond the limits of 
the district whose name it bore, and had never contem- 
plated in their original design the publication of its 
Proceedings in any other form than as they might appear 
in the reports of the local newspapers. 

At the end of the first year Mr. Burke startled his 
fellow-members of the committee by a proposition for 
publishing the Society's Transactions in an illustrated 
volume, to be followed annually by a similar issue ; he 
asserted that the papers read were too valuable to be left 
buried on old newspaper files, and that they were of 
sufficient importance to establish the Society's reputation 
throughout Great Britain. This suggestion, at first 
looked upon as chimerical, was yet, when carried out, 
attended with the result its proposer had foretold. It is 
no longer a mere county or provincial society, but, under 
the patronage of Eoyalty, counts its supporters and con- 
tributors from amongst the learned men, not of Great 
Britain and Ireland alone, but also of the continent of 
Europe. 



22 IN PIAM MEMORIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 

By means of the exchange of its printed publications 
the Society is now in connexion with 42 scientific bodies : 
11 in London ; 22 in England and Wales ; 4 in America ; 
2 in Scotland ; 2 in Dublin ; and 1 in Copenhagen. 
Nascitur eziguus, at opes acquirit eundo. Mr. Burke, who 
might be styled the father of the Journal^ continued 
an active member of the Society up to his death, in 

1864. 1 

The printing of the Transactions having been decided 
on, the committee entrusted the duty of editing them to 
the honorary secretaries. The impression for 1849 was- 
limited to 250 copies; for 1850, to 300; that for 1851, 
to 500. The "Transactions" for these three years, 
1849-1851, bound together, form the first volume. ^ It is 
extremely scarce, more from the difficulty of obtaining 
Part 1 for 1849 than from the scarcity of Parts 2 and 3. 
Part 1 has been long out of print indeed as long ago as- 
1853. It is rare to be able to obtain a copy of vol. i. at 
any price. 

With the year 1856 a new series of the Society's- 
Journal was commenced. This step was rendered neces- 
sary by the unwillingness of new members to place on 
their shelves an imperfect series of the Society's publi- 
cations. The impression of the new series (second) 
amounted to 850 copies ; yet so numerous had been the 
accessions to the Society, that in January, 1857, there 
remained but 150 copies on hand. This second series 
ran to six volumes. A third series, with an impression 
of 800 copies, commenced with the year 1868. Another 
(fourth) series, consisting of 1000 copies, commenced 
with the year 1870; the seventh volume of this series is- 
now completed and in the hands of the Fellows and 
Members. In Appendix B, the volumes issued up to the 
present date are numbered consecutively from the begin- 
ning, and in parallel column the corresponding ones of 
the several series, so that it can be seen at a glance how 
far short they are of a complete set. 

The writer of this memoir will ever look back with 
feelings of pleasure to three special occasions (among 



1 Journal, R.H. A.A.I., vol. v., N.S., p. 221 



IN PIAM MEMORIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 23 

many others) on which he spent entire days with Mr. 
Graves, engaged in those employments in which he shone 
to most advantage. One of the days was spent in ex- 
ploring amongst the foundations of a dwelling-house of 
the ancient but long extinct town of Jerpoint, near the 
ruins of the Abbey of that name ; another was devoted 
to an investigation of the cave of Dunmore, and an ex- 
amination of the bones therein ; the third was passed in 
the great sepulchral tumulus of New Grange, county 
Meath. 

Association with a man of such varied cultivation of 
mind, who abounded in practical information on matters 
of history, architecture, geology, and botany, and who 
was full of folk-lore and native traditions wherewith to 
beguile the time, was a privilege as well as a source of 
great enjoyment. 

PAX MANIBUS. 



ARTHUR WYNNE FOOT, M.D. 



[APPENDIX. 



24 IN PIAM MEMORIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 



APPENDIX A. 

Communications of REV. JAMES GRAVES to JOURNAL, with references 

to locality. 

VOLUME I. 1849, 1851. 

1. Ancient Street Architecture in Kilkenny (p. 41). 

2. Ancient Corporation By-laws (p. 47). 

3. Ancient Encaustic Flooring Tiles (p. 83). 

4. Ancient Seals and Seal-Rings (p. 88). 

5. Cromleac (p. 129). 

6. The Bay and Town of Bannow. No. 1. (p. 187). 

7. Ancient Irish Stained Glass (p. 210). 

8. The Ancient Tribes and Territories of Ossory. No. 1. (p. 230). 
9 Observations on the Excavation of a Cam at Cloghmanty Hill 

(p. 289). 

10. On the supposed Pelasgian Inscription of Tory Hill (p. 300). 

1 1 . Extracts from the Household Expenses of James Earl of Ossory 

(p. 415). 



VOLUME II. 1852, 1853. 

12. Ancient Tapestry of Kilkenny Castle (p. 3). 

13. On the Cross-legged Effigies of the County of Kilkenny (p. 63). 

14. The Pagan Cemetery at Ballon Hill, County of Carlow (p. 295). 



VOLUME III. 1854, 1855. 

15. Extracts from the Private Memorandum-book of Captain George 

Gafney, of Kilkenny, an Officer in the Army of James II. 
(p. 161). 

16. Notes on the Topography and History of the Parish of Hook, 

County of Wexford. Part I. (p. 194). 

17. A List of the Ancient Irish Monumental Stones at present exist- 

ing at Clonmacnoise (p. 293). 



VOLUME IV. 1856, 1857. 
(VOLUME I. NEW SERIES.) 

18. The Records of the Ancient Borough Towns of the County of 

Kilkenny (p. 84). 

19. The Surrender, in March, 1649-50, at Ballysonan, in the County 

of Kildare, to the Parliamentary Forces (p. 110). 

20. On the Landing-place of Henry II. in the Harbour of Waterford 

(p. 385). 



IN PIAM MEMOKIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 25 

VOLUME V. 1858, 1859. 
(VOLUME II. PART I. NEW SERIES.) 

21. Register of Historical Portraits (p. 232). 

22. The History, Architecture, and Antiquities of the City of Kil- 

kenny (p. 322). 

VOLUME VI. 1860, 1861. 
(VOLUME III. NEW SERIES.) 

23. "What we learn from Wilde's " Catalogue of the Antiquities in 

the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy" (p. 247). 

24. Continuation of above (p. 266). 

25. A Journey to Kilkenny in the year 1709. From the MS. Notes 

of Dr. Thomas Molyneux, edited by the Rev. James Graves 
(p. 296). 

26. The Taking of the Earl of Ormonde, A.D. 1600 (p. 388). 



VOLUME VII. 1862, 1863. 
(VOLUME IV. NEW SERIES.) 

27. Extracts from the Journal of Thomas Dineley, Esq., giving some 

Account of his Visit to Ireland in the Reign of Charles II. 
Continued, with Notes by the Rev. James Graves (p. 103). 

28. Register of Historical Portraits (continued from vol. v., p. 238), 

(p. 138). 

29. Anonymous Account of the early Life and Marriage of James, 

1st Duke of Ormonde (p. 276). 



VOLUME VIII. 1864, 1866. 
(VOLUME V. NEW SERIES.) 

30. Extracts from the Journal of Thomas Dineley, Esq., giving some 

account of his Visit to Ireland in the Reign of Charles II. 
Continued (p. 268). 

31. On a Boulder with presumed Pagan Carvings at Clonfinlough, 

King's Co. (p. 354). 



VOLUME IX. 1867. 
(VOLUME VI. NEW SERIES.) 

32. Extracts from the Journal of Thomas Dineley, Esq., giving some 
Account of his Visit to Ireland in the Reign of Charles II. 
Continued (p. 73). 



26 IN PIAM MEMORIAM REV. JAMES GRAVES. 

33 Extracts from the Journal of Thomas Dineley, Esq., giving some 

Account of his Visit to Ireland in the Reign of Charles II. 
Completed (p. 176). 

34 Some Additional Facts as to the Marriage of James Viscount 

Thurles, afterwards Duke of Ormonde, and the Lady Elizabeth 
Preston (p. 232). 

VOLUME X. 1868, 1869. 
(VOLUME I. THIRD SEEIES.) 

35. Notice of a book entitled, " Beware the Cat," by Kobert Mal- 

comson, Esq. With Notes by the Kev. James Graves (p. 187). 

36. Unpublished Geraldine Documents (p. 459). 

VOLUME XI. 1870, 1871. 
(VOLUME I. FOUETH SERIES.) 

37. Unpublished Geraldine Documents. Continued (p. 591). 

VOLUME XII. 1872, 1873. 
(VOLUME II. FOTTRTH SERIES.) 

38. Notes on an Autograph of the Fair Geraldine (p. 561). 

VOLUME XIII. 1874, 1875. 
(VOLUME III. FOURTH SERIES.) 

39. The Church and Shrine of St. Manchan (p. 134). 

VOLUME XIV. 1876, 1878. 
(VOLUME IV. FOURTH SEMES.) 

40. Unpublished Geraldine Documents (p. 14). 

41. Unpublished Geraldine Documents (p. 157). 

42. On Cup and Circle Sculptures as occurring in Ireland (p. 283). 

43. Bronze Shields (p. 487). 

VOLUME XV. 1879, 1882. 
(VOLUME V. FOITRTH SERIES.) 



IN PIAM MEMORIAM KEV. JAMES GRAVES. 27 

VOLUME XVI. 1883, 1884. 
(VOLUME VI. FOURTH SERIES.) 

44. On a Sepulchral Slab found at the Reefert, Glendalough, bearing 

an Irish Inscription, and also one in Greek letters (p. 42). 

45. The Damhliag of Achadhabhall (p. 72). 

46. Excursions to Muckross Abbey and Innisfallen ; Ardfert and 

Barrow-n-Eanach ; Aghadoe and Dunloe (p. 310). 

47. Excursion to Emania, Tynan and its Crosses, and Caledon Hill 

Demesne (p. 409). 



APPENDIX B. 

To show the Relation between the different Series of the JOURNAL, and the- 
Volumes numbered consecutively, ab initio. 



VOL. I., . . 1849, 1850, 1851. 

II., .... 1852, 1853. 

III., .... 1854, 1855. 

IV., .... 1856,1857, . . VOL. I., 2nd Ser. 

V 1858, 1859, . . II., 

VI., .... 1860, 1861, . . III., 

VII., .... 1862, 1863, . . IV., 

VIII., . . 1864, 1865, 1866, . . V., 

IX., 1867, . . VI., 

X., .... 1868, 1869, . . I., 3rd Ser. 

XL, .... 1870, 1871, . . I., 4th 

XII., .... 1872, 1873, . . II., 

XIII., .... 1874, 1875, . . III., 

XIV., . . 1876, 1877, 1878, . . IV., 

XV., 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, . . V., 

XVI., .... 1883, 1884, . . VI., 



( 28 ) 

IRISH CHUECH BELLS. 

(No. III.) 

(Continued from p. 482, VOL. VI.) 
BY RICHARD LANGRISHE, 

VICE-PKESIDENT, K. H. A. A. I., 

Member of the Royal Institute of Architects, Ireland. 

THE ancient Church of St. Audoen, in Com Market, 
Dublin, contains six bells, amongst which are three of 
the oldest now hanging in any steeple in Ireland, if not 
the oldest of all our cast bells, and therefore of surpass- 
ingly great interest to the campanologist. 

The Rev. Alexander Leeper, D.D., who has been for 
many years Rector and Prebendary of St. Audoen's, 
when applied to for permission to examine these bells 
for the purposes of this Paper, cordially responded, and 
supplied me with his Handbook to the Church and its 
Monuments. This book contains copies of the inscrip- 
tions on five of the present six bells, also of that on the 
former second bell which was recast some years ago 
from rubbings taken by John Ribton Garstin, LL.B. ; 
F.S.A., which verify those made by myself. 

The Rev. Christopher T. M'Cready, M.A., of St. 
Patrick's Cathedral who has been Curate of St. 
Audoen's for several years has also most kindly placed 
the old Vestry-book (lately recovered by him) at my 
disposal, together with a considerable amount of infor- 
mation collected by him, during a number of years past, 
from the more recent Vestry-books, and other sources. 
A good deal of this information has lately been published 
in a series of very interesting articles in The Irish Builder, 
and attention has thus been drawn to points which 
otherwise might have been overlooked. I propose to 
take the bells in their ringing order, from No. 1, or 
treble, to No. 6, or tenor, which will prevent their 
chronological order being adhered to ; this, however, 
is unavoidable. 



IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 29 

The earliest reference to the bells, in the Vestry- 
book, is in 1638, and others occur from time to time: 

" The Curfew Bell. In a meetinge of the Prebend and parishioners 
of St. Audoen's, it is agreed that the body of the church in both lies 
shalbee paved uppon the charges of those monnies remaininge uppon the 
collector's hands of the monnie that was heretofore cessed for the steeple 
And it is further agreed that the clarke of the parish shall have sixe 
o'clock belle tolled every morning and evening at the hour of sixe of the 
clocke from henceforth, and the two small bells to ring at eleven of the 
clock every day accordinge to the auncient custom, and that curfew shalbee 
rung at eight of the clocke at night from Michaelmas until Easter eve 
yearly, in consideration whereof the said clarke is to have 3d. of every 
parishioner that paies five shillings or upwards by the yeare unto the 
parson over and besides the nine pound due unto the said clarke for his 
Easter duties. 

"Dated this 14th of August, 1638." 

" Chr. Davis, Prelendarie ; Wm. Talbott, John Bamber, Church- 
wardens; Thacly Duffe, Christr. White, Win. Ussher, Wi. Bagott, 
Christr. Bryce." 

The ringing of the curfew bell was discontinued at 
the commencement of the present century. 

"1658, August 31st. This day the churchwardens, with some of the 
Parishioners, mett in the church, and itt was concluded that the organ 
pipes which weare left (many havinge been lost, and noe account being 
to be gotten of them) should be sold, and the money to be converted 
toward the new castinge of two Bells, which are now putt into the 
founder's hands ; and the sayd pipes weare accordingly sold to Mr. Webbe 
the pewterer, in High Street, in Dublin, att 8d. per pound, amounting to 
eleven pounds eight shillings, with which summe they charge themselves." 

" Ordered the same day that the aforesayd two Bells be forthwith 
cast ; and the carpenter and smith be agreed withal, for soe much as con- 
cerns their worke, in relation to the hanging of them. v And the Parish- 
ioners are hereby assessed in the severall summes to their names 
respectively annexed for the defraying of the sayd charge, and for the 
hangings of the other three Bells, lof tinge the steeple, &c." 

"William Lightburne (Minister); Warner Westenra, John Cade 
(Churchwardens) ; John Forrest, Samuel Saltenstall, John Samon, 
Geo. Gilbert, Dr. Westenra, Sam. Bradwaye." 

"May 3, 1660. At a meetinge this day in the parish Church, the 
Minister chose Aid. Peter Wybrant for one of the Churchwardens for the 
present yeare, and the Parish chose Sr. W m Usher, Kt. for the other 
Churchwarden." 

" Agreed then y* y e sayd Churchwardens shall call y e late Church- 
wardens, and all other y* have not accounted," and state and auditt their 
severall Accounts, and especially y r Accounts concerninge y e castinge of 



30 IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 

the Bells, and reparation of the steeple, and to see how the sayd Bells 
may be cast in a sufficient manner, or the moneyes collected to y 1 purpose 
repayed to the Parish." 

" April 21, 1663. Ordered that the Churchwardens out of y e assess- 
ment for Rcpaires pay Mr. Der. Westenra the sum of 17 13s. 5d., for 
money disbursed by him for the use of the Church, when he was Church- 
warden (as appears by his Account), and to secure the Bell metall now 

in his hands. 

LIGHTBUENE, Prebend" 



Derrick Westenra had been churchwarden in 1659. 

In the churchwarden's account, from 25th March, 
1667, to the 25th March, 1668, are the following entries 
having reference to the bells : 

s. d. 

11 For nails and mending y e bell wheeles, . . .010 
To Mr. Snalem y e Smith for Iron worke for y e bells, 

and Hookes and chains for y e fire poles, . .5170 
To y e Ringers when wee were sworn, . . .026 
For nails great and small, at severall tymes to mend 

y e frame and bell wheeles, . . . . . 11 
For stuff to mend y e bell wheele, . . . .026 
For new bell roapes and mending y e frame, . .0112 

For stuff for bell wheeles, 200 

Gave to y e ringers, . . . . . .026 

To more paid att severall times to j e ringers for 

sweringe the Churchwardens and sidesmen, a stan- 

dish for y e Church paper, basketts, brooms, . . 4 10 9" 

" 16?$, March 7. Agreed that Mr. Philip Castleton and St. Dutton, 
and Mr. John Davis, for the Upper Ward, and Mr. Waller, Mr. David 
Fawkner, and Capt. Walter Mottley in the Lower Ward, are chosen and 
requested by the Prebendary and the parishioners to collect and gather 
up the charitable benevolencies and contributions of all well-disposed 
persons, toward the repair of the steeple and spire of St. Audoen's, 
together with the repairs of the Bells, and to add a new tenor, and to fit 
up the clock with chimes. 

"CHARLES WALSH, Prebend." 
" GEO. GILBERT, j 

ERES, i 



" 1693, April 17th. Att a Vestry then held by the Prebend, Church- 
wardens, and Parishioners, it was unanimously agreed and accepted of, 
by the said parish aforesaid, of Mr. Tho. Somerville, and Mr. Clement 
Millward, as their Sidesmen and Churchwardens, findes the sum of 
Eleaven pounds tenn shillings sterl. and for ever hereafter to be excused 
from the services of either Sidesman or Churchwarden, the said Eleaven 
pounds to be lodged in the hands of Mr. William Baker untill further 
order for y purchasing of a Bell for the use of the said Parish ; and that 



IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 31 

Mr. Donrinick Ryan be chosen as Sidesman and Mr. James Mitchell in 
Room of the above Mr. Thomas Somerville and Mr. Clement Millward, as 
witness our hands. 

" JNO. FINGLASSE. 

" WILLIAM BAKER, WILL. TURNER, Churchwardens." 

11 1694, April y e 23rd. Att a Vestry then held in the parish Church of 
St. Audoen's, Dublin, by the Licensed Curate, Churchwardens, and 
parishioners, it was agreed that the five and twenty hundred weight of 
Brass Mettal given by the Right Honourable Henry, Lord Yiscount 
Sydney, late Lord Lieutenant of this Kingdom (1690-95) to the use of 
the said Church for the founding a new Bell be forthwith put into the 
hands of Major Henry Paris, to be by him cast into two Bells, that is to 
say, one tenor and one treble ; and that all the costs and charges for cast- 
ing the same be defraied by the said parishioners, except fifteen guineas 
now in the hands of Mr. William Baker, and five guineas now in the 
hands of Mr. William Ford, which by act of vestry are to be applyed to 
that use. 

" FRAN. HIGGINS, Cur te . 



" ALEXANDER KEANE, ) m , , ,, 
WM. FORD, j Churchwardens" 



I " 1699, April y e 10th. Att a Yestry legally called, and this day 
assembled, it was unanimously agreed by the Licensed Curatt, Church- 
wardens, and Parishioners of the parish of St. Audoen's, Dublin, that 
Mr. Patrick Forbus be exempted from serving Sidesman and Church- 
warden in the said parish, that the said money be paid into the hands of 
Alderman William Gibbons, William Stowel, William Ford, and Thomas 
Somerville, to be applied by them to the use of the Bells to be hung in 
the steeple of the parish Church of St. Audoen's. The summe of Five 
pound fifteen shillings is now currant, being paid to Alderman Gibbons, 
as treasurer, by the said Patrick Forbus. 

" THO. POUNTNEY, Curatt. 

11 JOHN QUAILE, ) >~ 7 , 7 

-WM. PARRY, | Churchwardens." 

s. d. 
"1786, May 31. The Churchwardens to pay the 

ringers as they merit, . . . . .600 

The ringers when the Churchwardens are elected to 

office, 055 

Paid Francis Davis for bell-ropes, . . . .353 

1787, Nov. 23. Cash paid Henry Rorke in full for 
hanging the bells, and attorney's fee, . . . 18 17 4 

1788, March 3. Paid to the Ringers on the King's 
recovery, . . . . 055" 

" 1790, Feb. 16. It was unanimously agreed that Mr. Richard 
Wilson be employed to cast a new treble Bell, he charging the Parish 
the sum of one shilling and five pence per pound for said bell. At the 
same time it was agreed with said Mr. Wilson, that he do allow the 



32 IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 

Parish ten pence per Ib. for old Bell in exchange for new Bell ; he also 
engages the same bell to be tuneable." 

s. d. 
"1790, April 15. Paid for weighing the old Bell, . 014 

29. Richard Wilson for new bell and 
Sundries . -25 15 6" 

Having now gone through all the entries referring to 
the bells in general, we come to that concerning the 
first, or treble. It is 29f inches in diameter, weighs 
about 6 cwt., and bears the following inscription, 
roughly engraved over the sound-bow in letters \\ 
inch high, the founder having evidently forgotten to 
stamp it on the mould before casting the bell: 

"REV. THOMAS CRADDOCK, 1 PREBENDARY; LEWIS HODGSON, 
"THO. HACKETT, CHURCHWARDENS. 1790." 

This bell appears to be the successor of at least 
two earlier trebles, for the extracts already given from 
the Vestry-book show that there were two small bells 
existing in 1638, and that in 1658 steps had been taken 
to have two bells newly cast, which were then to be put 
into the founder's hands. It seems, however, from the 
order made in 1660, as if there had been some delay 
or uncertainty as to the bells having been properly cast. 

The next order (of date 1663) would seem to imply 
that the bells had been cast at the proper time, but that 
some metal had remained over in the churchwardens' 
hands. In 1669-70, the bells still seemed to be in need 
of repairs, and a tenor bell was wanting. This shall be 
referred to again later on. 

The next mention of the treble bell is in 1694, when 
a new one, and a tenor were ordered from Henry Paris : 
the former must have been that re-cast by Richard Wilson, 
and now hanging in the steeple. 

We now come to the second bell, 32 inches in 
diameter, and which is a re-cast made some years ago 
by John Murphy of Thomas-street, Dublin, out of the 
metal of the old second, which appears to have dated 

1 Thomas Cradock was installed in St. erected to his memory in the south aisle 

Patrick's Cathedral, as Prebendary of St. of the choir. Monck-Mason's History 

Audoen's, on the 2nd November, 1776, of St. Patrick's Cathedral. 
and died in 1827, aged 86. A tablet was 



IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 33 

from 1658. There is nothing particular to be said about 
the present bell, but it is well to record the inscription 
on its predecessor, as, strange to say, it has not been 
reproduced on the new bell. Mr. M'Cready fortunately 
copied it, and states that it was 

SOLI DEO DETUR GLORIA. 1628. DANIEL WELDE, 
VERGER AND SEXTON OF CHRIST CHURCH. 

It seems more probable that the date was u 1658," 
for the figure " 5" was sometimes made in such a way 
that an unpractised observer might easily mistake it for 
a " 2." Dr. Leeper has suggested that the bell had 
been obtained from Christ Church, as the Verger's name 
appeared on it, but the more probable surmise is that 
he was the founder of it, and having been Verger from 
1628 to 1662, might have made it at either date 
named. Had the bell been cast for Christ Church, 
that Cathedral would most probably have been referred 
to as "HVIVS I ECCL " and not by name, as will be seen 
in the case of St. Patrick's Cathedral. 

We have seen " the other three bells " referred to in 
the order of 1658, and we now come to the most inte- 
resting of all St. Audoen's Church bells, although there 
are, we may say, no records about them, except the in- 
scriptions they bear, and which tell us little beyond the 
date at which they were cast. 

The smallest of these ancient bells, which is now the 
third bell in the present ring of six, is similar to the 
other two in every way, except in size. It is 33-J- inches 
in diameter, and probably weighs 8 cwt., is of pro- 
portionate height and thickness, and well moulded, with 
the high rounded canons always found on very old bells. 
It bears round the shoulder the following inscription, 
in letters of thirteenth century character, about l^inch 
in height, which have been drawn to a scale of one- 
sixth full size : 



"The Bell of Saint Audo3n. 

4TH 8ER., VOL. VIII. 



34 



IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 



There are spaces of several inches between the words, 
to spread them round the circumference, which measures 
four feet nine inches ; there is a border of four fillets on 
each side of the inscription, the whole forming a band 
three inches in width. 

The fourth, which is also one of the ancient bells, 
is 37 inches across the mouth, and bears the following 
legeiul (placed between borders of four fillets) in letters 
made with the same stamp as those on the third bell. 




"The Bell of Blessed Mary the Virgin." 

The fifth bell, which is 42 inches in diameter, has 
the date placed over the band which contains the legend 
as follows : 



*** HW10 





41 The Bell of the Holy Trinity and all Saints." 

These three bells, being similar in their moulds, and 
having their legends recorded in characters formed with 
the same stamps, or types, were certainly all cast by the 
same hands, and at the same time, in the year 1423, 
an. 2 Hen. VI. They are of fine tone, and must be of 
very fine metal, to have remained perfect for four 



IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 35 

hundred and sixty-four years. No bells of fheir size 
and age remain in constant use in any other church in 
Ireland, nor probably even in Great Britain, and it is 
passing strange how little interest appears to be taken in 
them, though they are of priceless value in the eyes of 
the campanologist. 

Judging from the legends, they would appear to 
form a complete set, the smallest being dedicated to 
St. Audoen, the next to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and 
the largest to the Holy Trinity and all Saints; there 
would seem, therefore, to have been no one else left 
worthy of having a bell dedicated to him. The only 
difficulty in arriving at this conclusion is, that taking 
them in musical or reverse order they form the 2nd, 
3rd, and 4th notes in the diatonic scale, wanting the 
keynote, or tenor bell, which was supplied by the one 
cast by Henry Paris in 1694, and it is quite possible 
that when these three bells had been made in 1423 there 
were not funds to provide a tenor for them, and that 
this want remained unsupplied until 1694. It seems that 
the order of 1658 for casting two new bells, and rehang- 
ing the other three, did not contemplate providing a 
tenor; the order of 1663 shows that one was still 
deficient, that the vestry were desirous to acquire a 
sufficient supply of bell-metal, and when they had pro- 
cured it they set about getting a peal of six completed. 

Henry Paris's tenor bell having become cracked, it 
was re-cast in 1732, as recorded on its successor : a copy 
of the inscription which was on it had fortunately been 
kept by the Rev. C. T. M'Cready. It ran thus : 

THIS BELL WAS RE-CAST BY ROGER FORD, A.D. 1732. ROBERT 
GRATTAN, PREBENDARY; THOMAS DOYLE AND WILLIAM, 
COATES, CHURCHWARDENS 

This bell weighed over 14 cwt., and was doubtless 
about 45 inches in diameter: the present one, cast by 
the late J. Murphy of Dublin, is considerably shorter, 
and half an inch less in diameter, than the bell of 1423 
above it, and quite possibly does not weigh 12 cwt., 
having been made as much thinner in proportion, as it 

D2 



36 IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 

is too small in diameter, in order to get the proper note 
from it, and this thinness of course spoils the quality of 

the tone. 

The old tenor bell, which used to be rung as the six 
o'clock bell, morning and evening, while it lasted, was, 
according to the sexton, known by the name of the 
Old Cow." 

St. Patrick's Cathedral Church, Dublin, seems to 
have been long furnished with large bells. In Monck- 
Mason's fine history of that Cathedral, references are to 
be found to them in the instructions given with the 
Patent of Edward VI., A.D. 1544, "to give four of the 
smaller bells" for the use of the parish church which 
was to be set up within the Cathedral, also in the 
(Economist's accounts the following entries occur, A.D. 
1555 : 

" Xd solutis uni carpentris qui emendavit ' le frame' secimdi campana 
A.D. 1555. de lYs solutis Johanni Love reparanti secundam campan et de 
XVId solutis pro ii 'stockes' pro campana parvi campanilis : et de Xs 
VId solutis Johanni Love pro erectione dictarum campanarum, et de Vs 
solutis pro ii 'cordes' ad dictas campanas: . . . et Xs solutis pro repa- 
ratione ii linguarum pro campanis in magno campanile . . . de XXIIIs 
sol. pro ii * baudcrkins' et reparatione magnarum campanarum : de XIIIs 
I Yd pro fabricatione machine campani Sti. Johannis : . . ." 

There was a bell-cot on the western gable of the 
nave, which may have been the " parvum campanile "- 
Monck-Mason's transcript of the Latin has been accu- 
rately followed. There were, therefore, in the cathedral 
at that period most probably eight, or possibly ten bells, 
which may have been cast at the same time as the 
ancient bells we have been treating of, for the name of 
John Prene, who was Dean in 1423, was inscribed on 
one of the bells cast in 1670. 

Richard Talbot was archbishop in 1423, and St. 
Audoen's formed part of the corps of Treasurer's Pre- 
bend, as it had been established by Archbishop Henry 
de Loundres. It was not until 1467 that it was erected 
into a separate prebend by Archbishop Michael Tregury, 
who granted to the Treasurer half the Prebend of Luske 
in exchange. It does not appear possible to discover 
who was Treasurer and Rector of St. Audoen's in 1423 : 



IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 37 

Cotton gives William Archdekyn as holding that dignity 
in the 15th century, probably between 1405 and 1471. 
Monck-Mason does not mention anyone as Treasurer 
between John de Gate in 1349, and Richard Eustace in 
1471. He states that " almost all the ancient bells were 
re-cast in 1670," but the Act of Chapter, of the 19th of 
June, 1669, implies that they were all re-cast, and it is 
very improbable that the Purdues, who were brought 
over from Salisbury for the purpose, would have thought 
it worth while to splice in one or two of the old smaller 
bells, for they brought the " sweeps" or templates for 
moulding the bells with them, and these had most 
probably been already brought to the proper sections for 
forming a ring of eight " tuneable" bells; they would 
not therefore have been likely to alter them to suit older 
bells. 

By the kindness of the Very Rev. John West, D.D., 
Dean of St. Patrick's, I have been permitted to make 
copies of the Acts of Chapter made with reference to the 
bells, and they shall speak for themselves. That above 
referred to is in the following terms : 

" Whereas Edward (? Purdue) Bell Founder come to this Citie to new 
cast the Bells of this Cathedral & Christ Church ; it is ordered by y e s d 
Dean & Chapter that the bells of this Cathedral be taken down and left 
an the Yerger's hands in order to have them, new cast according to agree- 
ment made with the said Bell Founder as apprs. by this article." 

I can only account for Purdue being called " Edward" 
by supposing it to have been a clerical error in transcrib- 
ing the order. 

The casting of the bells cost 280, as reported and 
agreed to by the Chapter in 1670. The treble of the 
eight bells, not being that cast by the Purdues, the order 
recorded in the Chapter-book for re-casting should be 
given before describing it : 

"20th day of November, 1724. Ordered, that the Eev. Mr. Wynne 
and Mr. Synge do agree with some skilf ull founder for a new bell instead 
of the Bell that's cracked in the steeple." 

There is no further allusion in the Chapter-book to 
the carrying out of this work, and the account-books of 



33 IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 

the period do not seem to be forthcoming, which is to be 
regretted, as the name of the founder might be dis- 
covered in them, for it does not appear on the bell, 
which is very like the Limerick treble, cast by Tobias 
Covey in 1703, being 30f inches in diameter, and 29 
inches in height to the shoulder. It is also^similar to 
the bell at Athlone, made by him in 1684, for it was cast 
without canons ; those now hanging it are of wrought- 
iron, rivetted into the crown, which is flat, in order to 
fit closely to the stock. 

These are the only bells I have yet seen cast with- 
out canons, and I am strongly inclined to think that they 
were cast by the same man. The legend runs round the 
shoulder, and is placed between four fillets ; the letters 
are of the same form as those already described on the 
Galway and Limerick bells, and are about one inch in 
height, not, however, made with the same stamps : 

DVRET ; ILLAESA : AD j PRECES : EXCITANS : 
VSQVE : AD ; SONITVM | SVPREMAE :.TVBAE* 
1724* 

" May this Bell remain sound, calling (the faithful) to Prayer till the 
sound of the Last Trumpet." 

On comparing the rubbing of this inscription with 
that of the legend on the bell at Hollymount, described 
in a previous Number of this Journal, the stamp of vine 
leaves and grapes, which is used on both, is evidently 
the same, although the letters are not, and it is most 
probable that they were cast by the same person. If 
this was Tobias Covey, he did not use the same letters 
or marks as on the Galway bells of 1726. The beautiful 
prayer inscribed on this bell whether composed by the 
founder, or by the reverend dignitaries who were ap- 
pointed to superintend the casting of it still goes up to 
Heaven, as Sunday after Sunday it leads the joyous peal, 
whilst they rest awaiting that trumpet call. 

The celebrated Jonathan Swift was then Dean. The 
Rev. John Wynne, A.M., was Prebendary of Swords, 
1715-27, of St. Audoen's, 1727-30, and Precentor, 
1730-62, when he died. 



IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 39 

The Rev. Edward Synge, A.M., was Prebendary of 
St. Audoen's, 1719-27, Chancellor, 1727-30, Bishop of 
Clonfert, 1730-1, of Cloyne, 1731-5, and translated to 
Ferns 1735-. 

The second bell, which is 31| inches in diameter, 
and 29^ inches in height to the crown, bears the names 
of two worthies of whom no particulars can be procured. 
These may have been copied from an older bell, or their 
owners may have been connected with the cathedral in 
some capacity at this time. The inscription is in Roman 
capitals, similar to those on the treble, though not so well 
cut : it runs as usual between four fillets : 



# # IVLY ; THE : I ANNO DOMINI \ 1670 : GIDEON j 
DELAVNE : SAMVEL : HOLT : # 

It is preceded by two sprays, and the circle is completed 
to meet them by eight stamps of fleur-de-lys pattern. It 
is plain that the legend commences with the date and not 
with the name, as given by Monck-Mason, and by Dr. 
Leeper in his Handbook. 

The third bell, which is 32^ inches in diameter, is 
inscribed with the name of the verger and the initials 
of the founders, William, Roger, and John Purdue, with 
their usual mark a bell between the letters (as may also 
be seen on many of their bells in England), and the date 
between four fillets, as on the other bells. 

ROBERTVS BRADY, VIRGER, 1670. WAPARAPAIAP. 

The words are divided by fleur-de-lys scrolls instead of 
the usual points. 

The fourth bell is 34^ inches in diameter. The in- 
scription contains only the date and the founders' initials, 
as on the last bell, with scrolls between every second 
letter of the date, the letters being placed together in 
pairs, and bells between each of the initials, as on the 
third bell 

AN NO DO MI NI 1670 A WAPARAPAlAPA ~). 



40 IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 

The fifth bell is a late re-cast of the one which bore 
the legend given in Monck-Mason's history : 

" Henry Paris made me with good sound, 
To be fift in eight when all ring round, 
At the charge of Dean Lindsey of St. Patrick's, 1695." 

This was doubtless the same Henry Paris who cast 
the treble and tenor for St. Audoen's Church in the 
previous year ; and if the sound of his bell was not better 
than that of its successor it was not cracked a day too 
soon. 

Our late honoured Secretary, the Rev. James Graves, 
in writing to the author about him, said : " Henry Paris 
was a brass and metal founder, and a sort of ancestor 
of mine. The Rev. Paris Anderson, who wrote the ac- 
count of the ' Beresford (Tyrone) Ghost,' was a grand- 
son of his." 

The present, fifth bell, was re-cast, in 1864, for Sir 
Benjamin Lee Guinness, and it bears the following in- 
scription 

"Spes mea in Deo B. L. G. 1864. John Murphy Dublin." 

Thomas Lindesay was made Fellow of Wadham Col- 
lege, Oxford, in 1678; Dean of St. Patrick's in 1693; 
and Bishop of Killaloe in 1695 ; translated to Raphoe in 
1713, and to Armagh in 1714. He died in Dublin in 
1724. 

The sixth bell was re-cast at the same period, and is 
the successor of the one made by the Purdues, on which 
was the following inscription : 

AN j DOM : 1670 : JOHANNES : DODSON : JOHANNES : PREENE : 
NON : CLAMANS j SED : AMANS : IN : AVRE : DEI : ' 

Here we meet with two names not to be found amongst 
those of the members of the Chapter of this date, yet 
their owners may have been minor canons or vicars 
choral. 

The seventh bell was also re-cast from the one made 



IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 41 

by the Purdues in 1670, and the old inscription was re- 
produced on it; it ran thus : 

FEARE : GOD : AND : HONNOR j THE : KING | 
FOE, : OBEDIENG : IS ! A j VERTVOVS : THING | 

ANNO : DOMINI i 1670 j AWAPARAPAlAPA. 

The first of these lines is to be found on a bell 
at Carhampton Church, Somerset, followed by ROGER 
PURDEY 1684, a member of the same family, if not the 
very same ROGER, whose initials are here found. On 
many of the bells cast by these worthy men such like senti- 
ments were inscribed ; and the following was added on 
that to which we now refer : 

RECAST A.D. 1809. REVD. JAMES VERSCHOYLE, LL.D., DEAN: 
THE REV. THOMAS CRADOCK, LL.D., PREB. OF ST. AUDOEN, 
PROCTOR. CAST BY JAMES WELLS, ALDBOWRN, WILTSHIRE, 
AND REHUNG UNDER THE DIRECTION OF FRANCIS JOHNSTON, 
ARCHITECT, DUBLIN, IN THE 50-TH YEAR OF THE REIGN OF 
KING GEORGE III. 

We now come to the tenor bell which has happily 
survived the misfortunes that befell the fifth, sixth, and 
seventh bells, It is identical in size with the Limerick 
tenor, both being 49 inches in diameter, and similarly 
moulded. The inscription commences with the date, and 
not with the contraction of " Reverendissimo," as given 
in Monck -Mason's history and Dr. Leeper's Handbook, 
in both of which the date is placed in the middle of the 
Dean's titles in the second line, whereas it stands in the 
first line ; a number of sprays are introduced to show 
where the lines begin arid end, the consecutive words 
being divided, as usual, by three dots placed vertically 
over each other. The lettering is in Roman capitals, 
similar to those on the Limerick and Galway bells ; it 
runs round the shoulder in three lines, the last one being 
completed by fleur-de-lys scrolls. 



* * * * A \ D 
ARCH i DVB : ET 
THO : SEELE j SS 



1670 i R DMO : IN : X TO : PAT \ MICH | D 
TOT : HIB :' D j GANG : NECNON \ R j V 
TH : PROF :***** HVIVS | ECCL 



DECANO i ET : R : V i 10 i PARRY : EIVSD : PR^CEN : ET 
PROCVRANTE : HAS j CAMPANAS : * * '* FVDIT j G 
PVRDVE : CVM : SOCIIS : 36 36 (repeated to complete the line). 



42 IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 

The Most Reverend Michael Boyle had been trans- 
lated to the Archbishopric of Dublin in 1663, having 
been made Bishop of Cork in 1660; he was the eldest 
son of Richard, Archbishop of Tuam, who was first cousin 
to the great earl of Cork. His only son, Murrough, by 
his wife, who was a daughter of Murrough O'Brien, first 
Earl of Inchiquin, was created Viscount Blessington. 
Archbishop Boyle was translated to Armagh in 1678 ; he 
died in December, 1702, aged 93, and was buried in the 
Earl of Cork's vault in St. Patrick's Cathedral. The 
Archbishop's grandson, Charles, 2nd Viscount Blessing- 
ton, who died in 1732, left no male heir, so the title and 
that branch of the Boyle family became extinct. 

According to Monck-Mason, Thomas Seele, who ob- 
tained the deanery by letters patent, in March, 1666, 
was the son of a sexton and verger of Christ Church 
Cathedral ; he was elected a Junior Fellow of Trinity 
College, Dublin, in 1633, and became a Senior Fellow in 
1637. In 1647 his name occurs as Vice-Provost of the 
University, but he does not appear to have acted during 
the Commonwealth. He was collated to the Prebend of 
Rathmichael in 1648. He was eminently distinguished 
as a preacher, and his freedom of expression was by no 
means agreeable to the Government, so that on the 15th 
of December, 1658, the Lord Deputy, Henry Cromwell, 
and the Council made an order " that Mr. Seele, who 
officiates in St. Nicholas' church, Dublin, do desist to 
preach or exercise any ministerial function in the same, 
after the 19th of this month, not having past any tryal 
of his ability, or other qualifications for the duty ; nor 
hath received any allowance, or approbation from this 
board." 

At the Restoration he was promoted to the Provost- 
ship of the College, although he was a married man ; his 
Majesty promoted him, as he expresses it, on account of 
the ample testimony he had received of his learning and 
piety, as also of his ability and fitness to exercise this 
office of Provost, &c. 

Soon after the Restoration, if not before the termina- 
tion of the Commonwealth, Seele was promoted to the 
Chancellorship of St. Patrick's, for he appeared at Chapter 
in that capacity on the 22nd of October, 1660. 



IRISH CHURCH BELLS, 

In 1668, Dean Seele and his chapter commenced to 
repair the cathedral, which had become much dilapidated 
during the time of the Commonwealth. The roof was 
in a dangerous state, threatening to fall in, so that it was 
ordered to be taken down and the organ to be removed. 
It was whilst the work of newly roofing the cathedral 
was being carried out that the bells were re-cast, by the 
most famous founders of the day, at a cost of 280. 

Dean Seele died on the 2nd of February, 1674, and 
was buried in the chapel of Trinity College. It would 
seem that he was a poor man, for on the 20th of March, 
1687, the Chapter of Christ Church made an order " to 
give five pounds to his widow for her present support." 
And in the same year she was voted 10 by the Provost 
and Senior Fellows of Trinity College, to enable her to 
go to England. 

John Parry, son of Edward Parry, Bishop of Killaloe, 
was Bishop of Ossory 1672-77, and held the Precentor- 
ship of St. Patrick's in commendam; it was chiefly through 
his exertions that the six bells for the cathedral of St. 
Canice, Kilkenny, were cast, and at his own cost princi- 
pally. He was succeeded in the See of Ossory by his 
brother Benjamin, who had, through his influence, ob- 
tained the Deanery of St. Patrick's on the death of Dean 
Seele ; but he only enjoyed the deanery for three years, 
and the Bishopric of Ossory for a few months, as he died 
at Kilkenny in 1678. Bishop Parry of Killaloe, and hifi 
sons, successive bishops of Ossory, were all buried in St. 
Audoen's Church, Dublin. 

The last name on the tenor bell is that of William 
Purdue, for there is no doubt that Gr. stands for Gruliel- 
mus, as is nearly always the case when the legend is in 
Latin. William Purdue was the elder of the company of 
founders ; he did not live to see their labours in Ireland 
completed, as we know from " Dineley's Tour," already 
published in this Journal. It may not be out of place to 
record his epitaph once more 

" Here a Bell-founder, honest and true, 
Till the Resurrection lies Purdue." 

It is to be regretted that the stone on which this was- 



44 IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 

cut has disappeared from the floor of Limerick Cathedral. 
Similar epitaphs have been placed over other members of 
this family of " cunning" founders of so many " tuneable" 
peals of bells. May their works last till they rise again ! 
The former bells of St. Canice's Cathedral, Kilkenny, 
have been so often referred to, it may be well to record 
the inscriptions they had borne, and which have been 
reproduced on the present six, cast, in 1851, from the 
old metal, by Thomas Hodges of Dublin. The treble 
was 32 inches in diameter, and weighed 7 cwt. 1 qr. 
10 Ibs. The legend on it was as follows : 

D - : M - IX VSVM j ECCLESLZE : S CANICI : KILKENNLE j 
10 : PARRY : S | T : P j TVNC : EPISCOPO | OSSOR 3 OMNE j 
EESPIRAXS i LAVDET : DOMINVM j PSAL : 6L | VERSV : 
VlARAPAFVDERE j G i COVEY : CVM | SOCIIS A j D 
MDCLXXIV : 

The second bell was 33 inches across the mouth ; it 
weighed 7 cwt. 3 qrs., and bore the following : 

"ROGERUS PURDUE ET GULIELMUS [COVEYJ FUDERUNT" 
"XOS OMXES. 1674." 

The third bell was 37 inches in diameter, and weighed 
9 cwt. 26 Ibs. ; it had on it merely initials and date as 
follows : 

RAPAWACA ANNO DOMINI 1674. 

The fourth bell was 39 inches in diameter, and 
weighed 10 cwt. 2 qrs. 

The fifth bell measured 43^ inches across the mouth, 
and its weight was 13 cwt. These two bells had been 
re-cast, and both bore the following : 

"THO. VESEY BAR T EPISC. ROB. MOSSOM. S. T. P. DECANO." 
" JOSUA KIPLING FUDIT. A.D. 1724." 

Joshua Kipling was a bell-founder in Portsmouth ; his 
name is to be found on some bells in that neighbourhood. 
Possibly it was he who cast the treble at St. Patrick's, 
Dublin. The tenor bell measured (according to the late 



IRISH CHURCH BELLS. 45 

Rev. James Graves) 49| inches in diameter, and 3 feet 
in height, so that it was practically identical in size with 
its sister bells in Dublin and Limerick. The legend on 
it was as follows 

D : : M : IMPERANTE CAROLO SECUNDO. HUGONE DRYS- 
DAILE ARCHIPIACO OSSORIENSI. NOS FUDIT ROGERUS PUR- 
DUE CUM SOCIJS A.D. 1675. 10. PARRY S : T P ! OSSOR. 
EPISCOPO. PROCURANTE. 

Benjamin Parry was at this time the Dean as well as 
being Dean of St. Patrick's ; he also held the rich rec- 
tories of Aghaboe in Queen's county, and Call an in the 
county Kilkenny, so that his brother John had provided 
well for him. 

In the Ossory Chapter-book of this period there are 
several entries about the bells, all of which have been 
published in the "History of St. Canice's Cathedral," and 
need not be here repeated. Dean Benjamin Parry does 
not appear to have interested himself about them ; but 
Bishop John Parry certainly defrayed the greater part 
of the cost. 

It is probable that Henry Paris cast a number of 
church bells, for some with the initials H. P. on them 
have been mentioned of late. 

The Rev. William O'Neill Lindesay, of Waringstown, 
county Armagh, has favoured me with a rubbing of the 
inscription on a small bell which was lately re-cast for 
Donaghcloney church. It had been cut in Roman 
capitals : ^ 

I BELONG TO DONOGHCLONY PARISH. 
: SVM : PARVA : AC : SONABILIS : CAMPANA : II P 84 : 
"I am a small, but clear- sounding bell." 

Its diameter was about 19^ inches, and the weight about 
1 cwt. 2 qrs. It is said to have been sunk for a consider- 
able time in the River Lagan, but being sound when 
taken out, it was re-hung in Waringstown church. Some 
time ago it had to be re-cast ; the inscription has, how- 
ever, been engraved upon the new bell. This parish also 
possesses a larger bell, cast, in 1750, by Abel Rudhall of 
Gloucester. 



THE BATTLE OF AGHEBIM. 

BY CECIL C. WOODS. 

THE original of the following letter was, I believe, 
addressed to a member of the old family of Brown, of 
Kinsale ; it is in the possession of the Rev. Jonas Jones, 
A.B., rector of Tullagh, county Cork, who lately very 
kindly allowed me to make a transcript for publication 
in this Journal Very pleasing is the testimony which 
it bears to the gallantry with which both sides fought at 
Agherim. On the back of the original, in a similar 
hand to that in the body of the letter, is written " Battle 
of Aghrim, July 12th, 1691," and it is worthy of note 
that the name of the battle is spelled " Agherim" each 
of the four times it occurs in the letter, but on the back 
Aghrim." 

Agherim, July the 15 th , 1691. 
Hon' d S r 

The Enemy were very advantageously posted with a Large bog 
and Entrenchra te made before them. We having but 2 passages, one on 
y' Right, the other on the Left. That of our Right had the Castle of 
Agherim well Manned by the Enemy w th 2 pieces of Cannon, Trenches 
Lin'd behind and before it with foot and Several Squadrons of horse, and 
Dragoones. The Main body of Horse in a hollow behind it they had, w th 
a design to break over the plaines, to force uppon our Cannon, not Doubting 
their Success. They had taken all care imaginable to cut all ditches 
from before their Camp, to march w th full Battalions of foot and Squadrons 
of horse without any denies to us and their Trenches. Our Generall 
perceaveing the Enemy to be so ne y posted, Drew out the lines for 
Encampinge our Army , not thinking it prop r to give them Battle y* night, our 
Guns not being all come up, and we strangers to the Ground, the Gener 11 
advanceinge forward upon a hill to take a View of the Enemy, an Out 
Guard of theirs appear' d, vppon w h , he order'd some Dragoones to March 
Towards them, and horse to follow, but not to Engage the Enemy Yet 
However (the Dragoones being too forward) Advanced up and fired uppon 
them they returned the like, uppon which the Dragoones pursued a little 
further uppon an Ambush of theirs lying in a bog who fired Vppon our 
Dragoones. By this time Several of our Dragoones got together vnd r a 
hedg, Dismounts, and advances towards the Ambush and Kill'd most of 
them, then their Horse march'd down in Very Considerable Bodys ; on w h 



THE BATTLE OF AGHERIM. 47 

the Ge 11 order'd the horse on y e Left wing to March downe : after them 
the Danish foot, and uppon the right wing the horse & foot and 12 pieces 
of Cannon, w ch were come up by this time, and play'd uppon the Enemy, 
at six in the Eveninge began the fight, Kirks and Gustavus Hamiltons 
Eegm ts then Marching out on the right to a ditch before the Castle. 
S r Harry Bellasy's, and my L d George Hamiltons, ag st all y e lin'd hedges 
and ditches who Making first to one hedge, perceaving the broad way, 
where their horse should come downe as is sd before upn our Cannon, 
we Cross'd and Barrocadoed it w th turnpikes, and both Reg ts joyninge to 
one another close w th out Intervale, Ynanimously went together over a 
plain field, and receav'd the Enemy's fire, likewise, theirs from the 
Castle, And took possession of their works, w ch y e Enemy perceavinge 
would not stay to Charge, but imediately retreated, here poor Jellet was 
kill'd: By this time Coll. Erie and Brewer on our Left Advanced 
through the bog : Vppon w ch the Enemy fell downe againe uppo the & 
us w th bodys of foot, & Squadrons of horse, w ch Caused both Erie and 
Brewer to Retreate, they being not able to st d their force, Here Coll 
Erie w th Cap ns Bingham & Gookeing of his Regim* were taken prisoners, 
but rescued afterwards by our horse who passed a defile one by one 
through a boggy Trench, if the way had been broader for the horse, it 
might have proved Unsuccessfull : for the Enemy would have then come 
from behind the Castle uppon our Cannon, where our horse were posted, 
from whence they would have gone up the Hill Towards the Left wing, 
but that ditch hinder 'd them. And the Enemy perceiveing our horse 
standing at the Cannon, tooke their way towards their right wing to 
come down the plains. By this time oure horse we ready, and having 
passed the defile, fell in among them, and the Battalions y* retreated of 
foot advanced w th them and put the Enemy to the Rout. We lost one 
Coll. w ch was Herbert, and Cut to pieces after (Quarter Maj r Colls Devenish 
& Fox were all Kill'd. One thing in this is observable, which is, y* if 
the Dragoones had obey'd their ord rs and not have fir'd and fain on y e 
Enemy, w ch was possitively ag* y e Gen lls ords the Battle had not been. 
Such Small Accidents sometimes hazards great body's. 

'Tis thought wee shall Invest Gallway on Sunday next, what happens 
there you shall have an account of, from 

S r 

Y r most humble Serv* 

R. F. 



[LINE OF BATTLE, &c, 



48 



THE BATTLE OF AGHERIM, 



LUTE OF BATTLE OF AGHERIM, SUNDAY, JULY THE 12 TH , 1691, 



Right wing of the first line, 
Enterlined w th foot. 

Coll. Levisons Dragoones, 2 squadrons. 

Coll. Cunninghas Dragoones, 2 squadrons. 

L d Oxfords Horse, 2 squadrons. 

Coll. Gus tu Hamiltons foot, 1 Battalion. 

Coll. Langstons Horse, 2 squadrons. 

L d Meaths foot, 1 Battalion. 

May Ge" Ruviniee Horse, 2 squadrons. 

Coll. Herberts foot, 1 Battalion. 

Brigad r Villiers Horse, 3 squadrons. 



Main body 1 st line. 



Kirk, 

L 1 Hamilton, 

Bellasis, 

Erie, 

Gribong, 

Belcastle, 

Camboon, 

La Melonire, 



8 Battalions. 



J 



Left wing 1 st line. 



Right wing of the 2 d line, 
Enterlined w th foot. 

Coll. Wynne Dragoones, 2 squadrons. 

S r J n Lanier's Horse, 3 squadrons. 
Owesly's horse 1* 6 Troopes, 2 squadrons. 

Brewer's foot, 1 Battalion. 

Foulk's foot, 1 Battalion. 

Creightons foot, 1 Battalion. 

Byarlies Horse, 2 squadrons. 

Owsley's 2 d 6 Troopes, 2 squadrons. 



Maine body 2 d line. 

Stewart, ~] 

L d Lisbourn, 

Tiffin, 

S l Johns, }> . 7 Battalions. 

Prince of Hess, I 

L d Cutts, 

Count Nassau, j 



Left wing 2 d line. 



La Torrest Horse, 2 squadrons. 
La Prince Christian foot, 1 Battalion. 
Donopp Horse, 2 squadrons. 
La Prince Fredrick foot, 1 Battalion. 
Lerladz Horse, 2 squadrons. 
Danish Guards foot, 1 Battalion. 
Boncour Horse, 2 squadrons. 
L d Portland Horse, 3 squadrons. 
Eppingers Dragoones, 3 squadrons. 


Ginckell's horse, 
Scacks horse, 
Fuon, . . ) 
Juland, . . > 
Lecland . ) 
Newhewsen, } 
Rivien, . . } 
Reitiell, . \ 
Montpilian, ) 



2 squadrons. 
2 squadrons. 

Bait or 1 
squadrons. 

Bait or 1 

squadrons. 

Batt or* 

squadrons. 



A LIST OF THE KILLED AND WOUNDED OF THE ENGLISH SIDE 
AT AGIIEEM, JULY 12, 1691. 



2 Colls. 

4 Maj" 
12 Cap tn 

9 Lieuts. 

12 Ensignes 

337 Souldiers 



Kill'd. 



5 Colls. 

3 L' Colls. 

3 Majo" 
23 Cap tn 
33 Lieu t9 
HEnsignes 
781 Souldiers 



> "Wounded. 



Of the Enemy Computed to be Kill'd Eight Thousand 25 Generall 
Offic" and Colonells Kill'd Taken and wounded. As for Cap tns and sub- 
alterns, the number not yet known. Monsieur S* lluth, the French 
Generall, had his head shot of with a Cannon Ball ; 2 nine pieces of 
Cannon, 40 Collours and Standards, All their tents, baggage train 
horses and Ammunition taken. 



1 " Batt or" thrice repeated are not in 2 " Ball" was originally " Bullet," but 

the original hand. the alteration is an old one. 



THE BATTLE OF AGHERIM. 

A LIST OP THE IRISH ARMY AS THEY WERE THE DAY BEFORE 
THE BATTLE. 



Eegim ts of Horse. 



Dragoones. 



Regim ts of foot. 



Horse Guards. Nugent. \p Kings Guards, Dorrington. Ivagh. 


Tyrconnell. Reily. 


/?Maj r Generall Hamilton. Eneskillen. 


Galmoy. Neale. 
L d Killmalock. Carroll. 


Marcus Talbott. &Rely. 
Clanrickard. p Slane. 


Coll. Lutterell. CHfford. 


Antrims. p Gal way. 


Purcell. Lutterell. 


Poore. p Boffin. 


Sunderland. p Maxwell. 


Prince of "Wales. Connor. 


Abercorn. Rely. 


Shaxby. p Bourk. 


"West Meath. 


Gormanstowne. k Grace. 


Bryen. 


Nugent. Brown. 


Merry on. 


p Belle w. Gara. 


Dulaney. 


Tuite Brigade 




Dillons. Tool. 




Oxbrugh. 




Louth. Kingland. 




&OMore. 


Memorand 8 Regim ts mentioned in this 


p Gordon Neale, Brigad r . Fitzgerrald. 
Butler. 


list were not in the fight, 5 were 


k Felix Neale. k Mc"Gillacuddy 


in Limbrick, 3 in Gallway. this 


^?Mc"Carty. 


account given by Coll. Bourk, pri- 


Cormuck Neale. Donnell. 


son 1 w th us. 


Hugh M~Mahon. ORourke. 


July the 15*. 


k Art M ~ Mahon. D ogherty . 


Portumna, Loghreagh, Banag hr , 
andEollalow in our possession. 


M~Guyer. Creagh. 
Cahan. Geoghegan. Scott, 



4X11 SEll., VOL. VIII. 



THE EUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IEELAND. 

BY W. G. WOOD-MARTIN, M.R.I.A., FELLOW AND GENERAL 
SECRETARY, R.H.A.A.I. 

[Continued from YOL. YIL, page 594.] 
III. 

No. 53. OF this circle, the few stones noticed by Dr. 
Petrie in 1837 have since been removed ; but its dimi- 
nutive cromleac is still intact, though now partially 
covered by the clearings of the field. The accompany- 
ing ground plan (fig. 63, page 51), and view (fig. 64) 
of the monument will convey a good idea of its ap- 
pearance. An excavation was made, with the following 
results : 

(a] The bones, according to W. Frazer, F.R.C.S.I., 
are all human, and had been imperfectly burned ; they 
belonged to an adult, advanced in years, judging from 
the teeth and a fragment of the jaw with two molars 
and three incisors much worn down; there were also 
portions of crania, thigh bones, &c. 

(b) A fragment of rude pottery, yellowish-drab in 
colour, and one inch in thickness, being evidently part 




Fig. 65. Fragment of Pottery from No. 63 Monument, Carrowmore. 
One-third real size. 

of a large vessel imperfectly burned, and for the purpose 
<rfgiving consistency to the material, small pieces of shells 





2 



52 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

and pebbles had been mixed with the clay of which it was 
composed ; the fragments of shells and stones are not 
apparent on the surface of the vessel, but become visible 
only where it has disintegrated, or has been chipped 
or fractured. This specimen of pottery exhibits six 
rows of rudely-punched depressions made at an angle, 
downwards, from the former rim or lip of the vessel; 
the two lower lines had evidently been punched with an 
implement of larger size ( T V) than the upper ( T 2 F ). This 
fragment is in every respect a contrast to fig. 46 (ante, 
vol. vii., p. 578), found in No. 27 Monument, to which a 
mixture of micaceous clay appears to have given great 
consistency. 

(c) Fragment of a flint-flake. 

(d) Shells of Mytilus edulis (mussel). Litorina litorea 
(periwinkle). Litorina rudis (one specimen). Cardium 
cdule (cockle). 

(e) An irregular mass of yellowish quartz, weighing 
1 Ib. 2 oz. 

No. 54. The few stones yet remaining of those which 
had originally formed this monument may now be seen 
in the fences around a neighbouring cottage. 

No. 55. This circle, with its cromleac, which Petrie 
states was, in 1837, tolerably perfect, is now so covered 
with stones the clearing of the fields which had been 
thrown on it, that a description is impossible. It forms 
a conspicuous mound, close to the road, and is the last 
link of the external chain of circles which commences at 
No. 1 Monument. If any intermediate circles formerly 
existed they have now been removed, either to form 
the road itself, or to clear a site for the cottages on 
either side. 

No. 56 is situated about seventy paces N. of the earn 
of ListoghiL The diameter of the circle is 36 feet; the 
cap-stones of the central kistvaen are gone ; the general 
form of the tomb is that of the figure of eight, with a 
narrow opening between the compartments (see fig. 66), 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 53 

ihe longest axis N.N.E., and S.S.W. (magnetic). The 
interment had evidently been greatly disturbed. 

(a) Above the calcined remains at the N.N.E. end of 
the cist a secondary and unburnt interment was found. 
The atlas and lower jaw of an adult were nearly perfect, 
with four back teeth and three incisors ; there were also 
portions of a cranium. 

(b) Six bones of a young child. 

(c) A few bones of a small rodent ; and 

(d) As the excavation proceeded, fragments of cal- 
cined human remains were turned up. They consisted of 
eight hundred and seventy-three small fragments of 




Fig. 66. Ground Plan of No. 56 Monument, Carrowmore. (Scale, 20 feet to 1 inch.) 

bones, one sound lower molar tooth, and two pieces of a 
skull. The bones had been imperfectly burned ; several 
fire-marked and partially-carbonized bones were observ- 
able (as well as others in a fragmentary condition), such 
as the anterior half of the axis (second cervical vertebra). 
Pieces of the right and left halves of the body of the 
lower jaw, the right half containing a sound firmly- 
implanted first molar tooth, the left half containing 
the roots (all sound) of the first molar, two bicuspids 
(premolars), and the canine teeth. Four pieces of the 
flat bones of the skull (parietal or frontal). Human 
teeth, i. e. four fragments of, and four complete incisors, 



54 KUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

two bicuspids and four lower molars, the crowns of each 
molar sound. Amongst the eight hundred and seventy- 
three fragments which formed the bulk of this collec- 
tion there were many which showed the crack-like 
marks noticed in the contents of other graves in fact 
some of the bones appear as if they had been subjected 
to greater heat than others. 

At the lowest level of the side-stones of the cist 
which were of the average height of four feet a floor 
or flagging of calpy limestone slabs was found ; it was 
on this, which overlay the undisturbed i i till " that in the 
opinion of the late Rev. James Graves, who assisted at 
the exploration the body or bodies had been originally 
cremated, portions of the floor showing marks of fire; 
also semi-burnt wood was in places found intact with 
the layer of calcined bones above. It was plainly evi- 
dent according to the same authority from the floor 
and burned bones extending in " pockets" under the 
side-stones of the cist, that the latter had been con- 
structed over the funeral pyre, that the calcined remains 
were the primary interment, and that they had not been 
placed within an already completed chamber. Although 
the soil in the cist was carefully excavated and sifted, 
no flint implements, ornaments, or traces of fictilia were 
observable ; yet, despite this, the exploration seems to 
throw great light on the manner in which these primitive 
" cremationists " burned their dead. In the present 
defective state of antiquarian knowledge on the subject,. 
a great amount of uncertainty exists respecting the 
manner in which the process was conducted: this can 
only be cleared up by careful examination of every 
interment, and of the conditions under which they have 
been found, not only in this, but also in other countries. 

No. 57. This circle (fig. 67), about eight paces E. of 
the preceding, is quite perfect, and consists of thirty- 
three stones, all of very large size; the central monument 
is, however, destroyed. The result of searches, in 
various spots within the circumference of the ring, was- 
but a few uncalcined bones not worth submitting for 
scientific examination, also a small fragment of worked 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 55 

flint (see ante, vol. vii., p. 580, Plate II., fig. 6), and a 
flint-flake or spear-head (find., fig. 2). 





Tig. 67. Ground Plan of No. 57 Monument, Carrowmore. (Scale, 40 feet to 1 inch.) 

No. 58 (fig. 68), situated thirty paces to the N. E. of 
No. 57, consists of an oblong cist or enclosure, which was 
probably at one time covered ; if it were ever surrounded 
by a circle, it has been long since destroyed. This site 
was most carefully searched, yet no fragments of bone 
could be discovered, neither were there any signs of 
charcoal. A fine flint-flake, or knife (see ante, vol. vii., 
p. 580, Plate II., fig. 1) was here unearthed, but its 
point was missing, possibly it may have been severed 
by the spade when digging. 










Fig. 68. Ground Plan of No. 58 Monument, Fig 1 . 69. Ground Plan of No. 59 Monument, 

Carrowmore. (Scale, 20 feet to i inch.) 



Carrowmore. (Scale, 20 feet to i inch.) 



No. 59. This monument lies but a few paces E. of 
the preceding. It seems to have been originally a rect- 
angular cist, of which four side-stones alone remain in 
situ (see fig. 69) ; its longest axis is about N.N.E. and 



56 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

S.S.W. (magnetic). Remains of human bones were found 
only under and about one of the fallen side-slabs (second 
from bottom of plan, E. side of cist); these had evidently 
been overlooked by previous explorers, who, perhaps, 
did not think it worth while to lift the fallen stone, and 
thus there became disclosed to view enough residuum to 
show that in the opinion of the late Rev. James Graves 
the usual plan of cremation or torref action of the dead, 
and also erection of the cist, had been followed in this 
instance. Two small fragments of worked bone (figs. 
70 and 71) were discovered, which had been evidently 
the head or termination of some object or objects; they 
are similar in general character. Fig. 71 was in separate 
pieces, the fractured parts, however, fitted together 
exactly; a semicircular fragment of bone, resembling 
fig. 70, was found in No. 1 Monument. It has been 
suggested that these were parts of a musical instrument, 






Fig. 70. Fragment of Worked Fig. 71. Fragment of Worked Fig. 72. Fragment of 

Bone. Full size. Bone. Full size. Worked Bone. Full size. 

but it seems more probable that they had been connected 
with the adornment of the clothing of the dead, or some 
utilitarian purpose, say, as dress-fasteners. There was 
also a fragment of a very white and highly calcined 
object (see fig. 72), with a sharply-incised hole, not, 
however, penetrating quite through ; it might be possibly 
semi-opal, or hydrated silica. 

(a) The other remains found in this cist consisted of 
two and a-half Ibs. weight of greyish -white bones, seem- 
ingly calcined; amongst them fragments of those of 
birds and animals were noticeable, some showing a dark- 
blue colour (vivianite) on the inside. 

(b) Small finger-tops, probably those of a young 
person or child, tooth of a child, also one of an adult. 

(c) Fragment of a calcined cranium. 

(d) Some bones of a dog, a fragment of a lower 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 57 

jaw, and other animal remains 1 of a peculiar white 
colour. 

(e) A few uncalcined bones. 

(/) Four pieces of fractured white quartz ; the two 
largest weighed 2 oz. and 1^ oz., respectively. 

(g] Two specimens of Cyathophyllum, a coral from, 
the Sligo limestone. 

No. 60. This monument lies to the S. of one of the 
roads leading from Sligo to Cloverhill. It is a large 
circular enclosure, ninety-two paces in diameter from 
N. to S., and about the same from E. to W., originally 
surrounded by a circle of large stones; most of them 
have been removed to clear the land, and those which 
still remain are half covered by earth. 2 The interior 
forms a gently rising hillock, known throughout the 
district of Cml-irra as the Caltragh, or ancient disused 
burial-place ; this expression is chiefly confined accord- 
ing to P. W. Joyce to the western portion of Ireland. 
Owing to the quantity of human remains turned up when 
the grassy surface was broken for tillage, it is stated 
to have been soon again laid down by the tenant, who 
imagined the crop of potatoes to be too oily in taste ! 
There is no tradition of a church having ever been 
erected near the Caltragh, neither has there been an in- 
terment in it within the memory of anyone living, nor 
is there any tradition of such having ever occurred ; it 
evidently dates back to pagan times, and is but an 
enlarged and developed reproduction of No. 8 Monu- 
ment. It had been most probably the general bury ing- 
ground for the " commonalty" of the district, as dis- 
tinguished from the sepulchres within the stone circles, 
which would appear to be those of a family, or of a 
chief. For the purpose of making a careful examina- 

1 Skulls and bones of dogs were also tilled, and is said to have been full of 
found amongst the human remains exca- human remains. In one small spot in 
vated by Colonel Meadows Taylor from the slope of the hill, from which the sod 
the rude stone monuments of the Deccan, had been stripped by cattle, fragments 
but there were no traces of either horses of calcined and uncalcined bones, peri- 
or cattle. Transactions, E. I. A., vol. winkle shells, a fragment of fractured 
xxiv., p. 346. white quartz, and animal teeth, both cal- 

2 Some three years ago part of the field cined and uncalcined, were picked up. 
outside the periphery of the Caltragh was 



53 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

tion of the remains a trench would require to be driven 
across the mound a proceeding that would entail a 
considerable outlay. 

The series of monuments commonly known as the 
" Carrowmore Group," has now been passed in review ; 
there are, however, a few situated more to the south, 
which were overlooked by Dr. Petrie. It is, however, 
thought better in this instance to follow the same route 
pursued by the first explorer. 

No. 61 is the first of the northern, or detached 
cluster of circles ; it is situated in the townland of 
Barnasrahy, near the road leading from Eathcarrick 
to Sligo. There remain but five stones, each about 
5 feet in height, and, from the arc of the circle which 
they describe, it may be concluded with certainty that 
the enclosure was of unusual extent. Taking one arc, 
the diameter would have been 75 feet, and by the other 
it would have been 110 feet. 

Nos. 61 a and 61 b. Two intermediate circles un- 
noticed by Petrie have now almost totally disappeared. 
Their position is marked by two crosses on the Map, 
vol. vii., page 485. 

No. 62 is a earn of stones, popularly known as 
Cruckan-a-curragh, i.e. the Little Hill of the Marsh a 
very descriptive appellation. Its dimensions (see fig. 73) 
are as follows : Circumference at base, 135 feet; length 




Fig. 73. No. 62 Monument, Barnasrahy, Carrowmore Series. Section of Cam. 
(Scale, 20 feet to 1 inch.) 

of slope, 19 feet; diameter at top, 11 feet. As is 
usual in sepulchral earns, its summit is rather hollowed, 
the depression in the centre being 1 foot 6 inches, and 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 



59* 



the saucer-shaped hollow is well defined by a circle of 
carefully-arranged stones. This tumulus, to all appear- 
ance, has never been opened. 

No. 63 is situated about twenty yards to the S. E. 
of the earn. In 1837 the circle, 72 feet in diameter, 
was quite perfect, but the stones which formed portion 1 
of the outer ring have been recently removed by the 
tenant for repair of his walls ; fortunately the depres- 
sions which they had occupied are still distinctly visible. 
" The interior of the circle," observed Dr. Petrie in his 
letter to Larcom, " is remarkable for a peculiar arrange- 
ment of stones, of which the annexed plan (fig. 74) will' 



! 





'^oS 



o 

Q 

I 



o 



Fig.. 74 . Sketch Plan, by the late Dr. 
Petrie, of No. 63 Monument, Barnas- 
rahy, Carrowmore Series. (Scale, 
about 50 feet to i inch.) 



Cpoo 




ig. 75. Plan of No. 63 Monument, by 
C. B. Jones, County Surveyor. (Scale, 
40 feet to i inch.) 



give you a correct idea." This sketch seemed so very 
peculiar, that a detailed map of the monument was con- 
sidered to be desirable, and two days were occupied in 
clearing the earth from off the stones and excavating 
the cists. Fig. 75 is due to careful measurements made 
by C. B. Jones, County Surveyor, and it will be seen 
at a glance that it differs in almost every respect from 
fig. 74. As the stones forming the central monument 
became apparent, one of the workmen was the first to 
perceive its meaning he exclaimed: " It is a crissy cross ; 
I saw one like it in Ulster." There can be no doubt 
that this grave represents a very peculiarly-formed 



<)0 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

cross, the only one so shaped which the writer has met 
with. Although the site of the central monument was 
most carefully gone over, no trace of an interment was 
discovered, save one uncalcined bone, pronounced by 
A. W. Foot, M.D., not to be human. A few small frag- 
ments of calcined bones were found on the floor of the 
E. cist (fig. 75, A), which was formed by a single slab, and 
(fig. 75, cjmarks the site of a cist destroyed by the tenant; 
D 3 D, D, holes left by stones removed by him into the ad- 
joining fences ; and E, E, E, denotes where he exhumed 
calcined bones and charcoal. The people of the neigh- 
bourhood allege that about the year 1797 a bronze sword 
was here found. 

This is most probably the monument in which was dis- 
covered the "Food Vessel from Barnasrahy," now in the 




Fig. 76. Urn from Barnasrahy. (About three-eighths real size.) 

collection of the Duke of Northumberland at Alnwick 
Castle, and of which his Grace has most kindly furnished 
a sketch and photograph. The urn in question is perhaps 
the most highly finished of all the sepulchral fictilia as 
yet known to have been found in the county Sligo ; a 
good representation of it is given on Plate XV. in the 
Descriptive Catalogue of Antiquities at Alnwick Castle a 
work printed for private use of the Duke of Northumber- 
land. The urn resembles the class designated " Food 
Vessels" by English antiquaries; it differs from the 
usual style of sepulchral urns characteristic of the South 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 61 

of England, though somewhat similar to those found in 
Northumberland. It is rough, hard-burned, and light - 
red in colour; measures 4 inches in height, and 5 inches 
across the mouth. The colour is uniform throughout, 
internally and externally, showing no special traces of 
fire inside. 

The northern portion of the east arm of the cross in 
No. 63 monument was literally filled with pieces of angular- 
shaped white quartz ; thirty examples varied in weight 
from -|- oz. to 1-J- Ibs. ; there were also two hammer- 
stones of the same material, as well as three others very 
much fractured. It is remarkable that fragments of quartz 
accompanied almost every interment in Carrowmore ; 
in No. 4 Monument there was a black stone ; in Nos. 15 
and 27 a rose-coloured one; in No. 53, with an adult 
of advanced age, there was a large mass of yellowish 
quartz, &c. in short, quartz was found in almost every 
interment, more especially in those which appear to have 
been but little disturbed, and these quartz stones serve 
to identify the human remains as belonging to a very 
ancient period of interment. 

At the bottom of one of the cists in the celebrated 
pagan cemetery of Ballon Hill, county Carlow, a funeral 
urn was found in an inverted position. "Beneath it were 
seen, placed in a triangular position, three small smooth 
pebbles, surrounded by a few pieces of burned bones, 
and a little impalpable white powder : of the pebbles, 
one was white, one black, and the third, which is much 
smaller than the other two, of a greenish tinge, spotted 
with a darker shade. All appear to be sea-shore pebbles, 
and numbers of a character similar to the speckled one 
described above may be picked up on the Wexford 
coast of the Waterford harbour, near Duncannon. I 
believe the markings on both to be derived from mag- 
netic iron ore. These stones were probably valued as 
charms or amulets." 1 

To Arthur Wynne Foot, M.D., the writer is indebted 
for drawing attention to the following remarks bearing 
on the subject in Scottish interments and which are 

1 Transactions, Kilkenny Archaeological Society, vol. n., p. 298. Rev. J. Graves. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

.to be found in an interesting work by C. F. Gordon 
Gumming, In the Hebrides, page 45, " Half-way across 
the moss rises a large earn, built of rounded water-worn 
stones, and surrounded by stunted trees. This has re- 
cently been excavated, and in the heart of ^ the tumulus 
were found two megalithic chambers, containing human 
remains and urns ; also divers white quartz stones, such 
as various pagan nations were wont to bury with their 
d eac [ possibly as emblems of immortality, and of sin 
forgiven or cancelled, as when the Greeks of old symbo- 
lized a release from some obligation by the giving or 
receiving of a white stone a custom probably alluded 
to in the Book of Revelation, in the promise, ' To him 
that overcometh ... I will give a white stone, and in 
the stone a new name written.' In the present instance 
the white stones were arranged in pairs, on a ledge of 
rock projecting above the urns, a single stone being 
placed at each end of this double row ; another single 
white pebble was found inside one of the urns. A con- 
siderable number of similar pebbles of white quartz have 
recently been discovered in various old British tombs 
on the Isles of Cumbrae, as also within the Sacred Circle 
on the Isle of Man a circle, by the way, which, from 
time immemorial, has been held in such reverence, that 
to this day the Parliament of the island is there con- 
vened. These pebbles were also found in most of the 
old tombs recently excavated in the neighbourhood of 
Dundee : in fact, so frequent was their presence that it 
was common for the workmen employed in excavating 
to exclaim : < Here are the two stones ! now we will 
get the bones. " : 

Rock crystal is sometimes found in lieu of the white 
quartz, and such, we have seen, was also the case in 
Carrowmore (see No. 27 Monument, vol. vii., p. 575). In 
the year 1850 three glass (crystal) balls were exhibited 
by the Royal Irish Academy and by Lord Rossmore 
in the Archaeological Court of the Great Exhibition 
in Dublin ; that belonging to Lord Rossmore was found 
in a bog. The balls were clear as crystal, and perfectly 
round. ^ Montfaucon remarks that it was customary in 
*early times to deposit crystal balls in urns, or sepul- 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 63 

chres. Thus twenty were found in Rome in an ala- 
baster urn ; and one was discovered, in 1653, at 
Tournai, in the tomb of Childeric, King of France, 
who died A.D. 480. 1 

A. H. Rhind, in a communication to the Archceological 
Journal, descriptive of an examination of a " Picts' 
house" at Kettleburn, in Caithness, Scotland, states 
" That smooth stones of various shapes and sizes, such 
as may be picked up from the sea-beach, were found 
in several of the chambers, among the ashes and shells. 
. . . With these may be mentioned a pretty variegated 
and polished pebble. ... It is somewhat curious that 
a pebble of precisely similar appearance, though larger, 
possessed an extraordinary reputation as a curative 
agent, until very recently, among the more supersti- 
tious of the Caithness peasantry. It has remained in 
the same family for many generations, having been 
handed down as a valuable heir-loom from father to 
son." This custom of burying white water -worn 
stones, or pieces of fractured quartz or crystals, may 
therefore have been practised contemporaneously both 
in Scotland and Ireland. The smooth, white, clean, 
and polished stones were probably, to the ancient 
pagan- mind, emblematic of some religious idea, at 
present a mystery to the antiquary. 

In Hamlet, Shakespere makes the priest to say, when 
.attending the body of Ophelia to the grave 

* * * " her death was doubtful, 
#*##*# * * 

She should, in ground unsanctined, have lodged, 
Till the last trumpet ; for charitable prayers, 
Shards, flints, vxA pebbles should be thrown on her." 

i.e. in a case of (supposed) self-destruction, the corpse 
being unworthy of the rites of the Christian Church, 
pagan observances should suffice. 

Two examples of this ancient peculiarity of sepulture 
were observable in the townland of Carrownagark, 
jDarish of Tawnagh, county Sligo. An EsJcer, or hill, 

1 Transactions, Kilkenny Archaeological Society, vol. n., p. 293. 1852-3. 



64 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

composed seemingly of good gravel and sand, has been 
utilized as a gravel-pit during the past half century. 
The upper surface of the soil, which appears in no 
place to be more than 18 inches in depth, was thickly 
studded with human and animal bones, the excavations 
made for sand and gravel giving a perfect section of this 
interesting Caltragh. About one foot under the surface- 
sod two human skulls were observed ; over one lay a 
hammer-stone formed of sandstone, and over the other 
lay a flint-flake, and several pieces of charcoal. Sand- 
stone and flint are, both of them, foreign to this district. 

With regard to the remains found in these primitive 
burials, it may be remarked that interments under the 
flagging in cists, though only occurring in two instances 
in Carrowmore, yet were noticeable in several chambers 
of the Loughcrew earns. There, each floor consisted of 
a square flag, on which rested a quantity of calcined 
bones; on lifting the slab in a central group, which 
consisted of four cists, charred bones lay underneath, 
and in the first opened, a bead and a pendant were 
found, both of stone, thus presenting a curious re- 
semblance to Nes. 49 and 56 Graves of the Carrowmore 
Series. 

Under certain conditions the large bones of man 
and of other mammalia are comparatively indestruc- 
tible. Animal matter is abundant in the human bones 
of Egyptian mummies, known to be upwards of 3000 
years old. Buckland made soup from bones of the 
extinct British cave hyena, and jelly was extracted 
from those of the Ohio mammoth. Bones committed 
to the ground will be preserved, or perish, in accord- 
ance with natural laws, which cannot as yet be clearly 
defined without a greater amount of specific information 
than we at present possess as to the particular circum- 
stances in regard to the opening of ancient tombs. It 
may, however, be fairly assumed, that the exclusion of 
water is a special requisite; and cromleacs, or cists, over- 
laid with great tabular slabs, or with large covering 
mounds of earth or stones, and the smaller and more 
unobtrusive "field grave," protected by flags and stiff, 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 65 

tenacious clay, being impervious to moisture, doubtless, 
to some extent, fulfil that condition. 

With reference to the several parcels of osseous frag- 
ments from Carrowmore examined by A. W. Foot, M.D., 
the following is a synopsis of the opinions formed by 
him: "It maybe remarked that bones are not necessarily 
human because they are found in an ordinary place of 
interment, or vice versd. The real difficulty in the pre- 
sent case arises from the fact of the fragmentary con- 
dition of those submitted for report. The greatly and 
universally comminuted condition of the bones from 
Carrowmore has destroyed, beyond recognition, the 
means for identification of a plurality of individuals. 
Although one skeleton might be so broken up as to pro- 
duce a collection of fragments as numerous as is the case 
in some of the interments, still the probability is that 
several of these represent the remains of more than one 
person. There are bones of different periods of burial 
among them, but the majority have the appearance of vast 
antiquity. The greater portion have been burned im- 
perfectly, i. e. short of incineration, and their subsequent 
impregnation with calcium carbonate has altered them 
very much. When compared with bones fully calcined, 
which are porous, light, and very fragile, they are found 
to be compact, heavy (most unusually so), and hard as 
stone in fact petrified. 1 There were one or two small 
fragments, exactly like bits of a chalk pencil, which had 
escaped the petrifying process. Evidence of exposure 
to fire was presented in the charred and blackened con- 
dition of many of the fragments, and the presence of 
pieces of charcoal." 

The word cremation is apt to insensibly convey to 
the mind an idea of swift and complete destruction of a 
body by fire. In the modern Siemen's method hot 
flame produced by a mixture of gaseous hydro-carbons 
and air a body weighing 227 Ibs. can be reduced to 



1 "In clearing out this chamber," re- the earth at the bottom. Two of these I 
marts Mr. Eugene A. Conwell, in describ- present as specimens, as they appear, as 
ing his examination of one of -the earns of all the others found here, to have assumed 
the Loughcrew group, "several fragments an unusual degree of hardness." Pro- 
of charred bones were found mixed with ceedings, E.I. A., yol. ix., p. 366. 

4TH SER., VOL. VIII. F 



66 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

5 Ibs. of ashes in fifty-five minutes, but the method of 
placing the body on a pile of wood is necessarily often 
imperfect in its results. These bones must have been 
broken into the small pieces they are in at present^ long 
before they became petrified, and while still retaining 
their brittleness ; they are now as hard and^firm as they 
ever were. The curious crack-like marks, or nicks on many 
of the bones seem to be the result a mechanical one of 
unequal contraction of the bone in cooling ; they cannot 
be marks of scraping, for they are, almost without ex- 
ception, transverse, whilst scrapes, if intended to strip 
the bone, would be longitudinal. They also extend 
through the entire thickness of the bones in many in- 
stances, and show on the interior of the median canal ; 
and they are also found on pieces of the flat bones of 
the skull. 1 The human teeth in the Carrowmore in- 
terments, in but very few instances exhibited traces 
of decay, the enamel being bright and glistening ; their 
crowns, however, were worn down to flat, smooth sur- 
faces, probably from the habitual use of coarsely-ground 
meal and hard food. "It has been constantly remarked 
by those who are familiar with the examination of 
ancient skulls how seldom the teeth in them are un- 
sound ; and the belief has even been entertained that 
dental disease was unknown to our hardy ancestors, 
and that it is a modern privilege acquired by a high 
state of civilization." 

With reference to caries in teeth that were dis- 
covered near Donny brook, county Dublin, in a large 
sepulchral mound, supposed to be referable to the tenth 
century, W. Frazer, F.R.C.S.I., writes : " The teeth, 
as a rule, are found to be unusually strong and healthy, 
but toothache was not altogether unknown. Sufficient 



1 "Although burning (the dead) was vailed in Britain many ages previous to 

known to the Greeks at the time of the the Roman invasion ; the Gauls practised 

Trojan war, Pliny and Cicero expressly cremation in Caesar's time. According to 

affirm, and the same may he inferred Olaus Wormius, inhumation and burning, 

from Plutarch, that it was only intro- as each obtained, marked a distinct period 

duced in Rome at a later period, probably in the history of Scandinavia. We have 

not till the time of Sylla ; but it went sufficient evidence, however, in Ireland, 

early out of fashion, and was superseded from the examination of our tumuli, &c. , 

by inhumation burial in the fourth cen- that after the latter mode of interment 

tury. The use of the funeral pyre pre- had been introduced here, both kinds of 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 67 

examples of diseased fangs 1 and even a perforation of 
the jawbone, from abscess at the root of a tooth, could 
be recognised." 

On the opening of a sepulchral mound in King's 
County, the discoverer was greatly struck by the regu- 
larity with which the teeth were worn down, as if by 
the grinding action of some very hard kind of food, 
for the form of degradation was observable also in the 
teeth of a child not exceeding seven years of age. 2 

Bell, when writing On the Teeth, remarks, " That the 
gradual abrasion of the teeth may be materially in- 
fluenced by the nature of the food, is proved by the 
fact that the teeth of sailors who, during the greater part 
of their lives are accustomed to live upon hard biscuits, 
are often found to be so much worn down by the constant 
friction produced by this diet, that a very small part 
only of the crown of the teeth remains above the edge 
of the gum ; yet no exposure of the cavities takes place, 
as they gradually become filled up by new bone, and still 
afford a solid, continuous surface for mastication." 

Colonel Meadows Taylor observes that the human 
remains exhumed by him from the Rude Stone Monu- 
ments in the Deccan were all remarkable for " the great 
thickness of the cranium, and large size of the teeth, of 
which in many instances the bright enamel was still 
perfect." 3 

Of the Carrowmore Series, there remains another tomb 
to be noticed which, although small, yet is of importance 
as forming a connecting-link between the period of the 
erection of this remarkable group of monuments and 
those of the same class in other parts of Ireland, but 

Tmrial were practised coevally. The earn, founded." Transactions, Kilkenny Ar- 

the laght, the dumha, or mound, continued chseological Society, vol. n., page 232, 

still to mark the external form of the monu- 1852- 3. John Windele. 

ment, no matter what the mode of dis- l In the Newry Magazine, vol. ii., page 

posal of the body might have heen. Some 234, it is stated, "That in drawing a 

of our historians allege that cremation had tooth from an under jaw belonging to 

been abolished in Ireland by the monarch human remains found in a earn at Knock- 

Uochaidh some centuries before the Chris- namir, county Monaghan, it was found 

tian era but this, it is suspected, requires red at the extremity of the fang." 

confirmation. The opinion which has also 2 Ulster Journal of Archeology, vol. i., 

been advanced, that the practice, when page 278. 

adopted, was confined to the opulent and 3 Transactions, E. I. A., vol. xxiv., p. 

the distinguished, may have been better 345. " Antiquities." 

F2 



68 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

more especially with the great pagan sepulchres on the 
banks of the Boyne, at New Grange, Dowth, Loughcrew, 
and elsewhere. On the lands of Cloverhill, and situated 
about 200 yards due E. of Laghtareal Hill, there are 
carvings of peculiar character on the interior surface of 
the slabs forming a cist ; and this, when first stripped by 
the plough, about the year 1830, was entirely flagged 
on the bottom, or floor in that respect differing from 
another smaller cist immediately adjoining, which pre- 
sented only an earthen surface. In the larger chamber 
were calcined bones and a cinerary urn ; but it is not known 
what became of the latter. If the brooch-pin, previously 
figured and described, were found in this cist, there would 
not be anything very surprising in the fact, as the sculp- 
tures on the sides of the chamber show the first rude 
germs of the work so often styled Opus Hibernicum. A 
bronze implement was discovered in the bog in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the grave. The exact character of 
the previous external appearance of the monument could 
not be definitely determined, but from what could be 
learnt it had not (as supposed by the first describer) been 
originally surrounded with a stone circle. The earth 
on the floor of the chamber was carefully sifted by 
the writer, but not even a fragment of bone was dis- 
covered. The ground-plan of this monument is of some- 
what oval form ; the stones touch each other, and average 
about 4 feet in height. These had been originally 
covered by an immense flag. The first intimation of 
the existence of the chamber was owing to a plough 
coming in contact with the slab, which was covered with 
a mound of earth. In the accompanying plan (fig. 77), 
drawn by W. F. Wakeman, the stones are all numbered 
for easier reference to the sculptures. It is greatly to be 
desired that the sculptured portion should be removed to 
a museum, as the lengthened exposure to climatic influ- 
ence has already played sad havoc with the designs. 
The same process of decay in the outer laminae of scribed 
slabs was observed by Mr. Eugene A. Conwell on the 
Loughcrew examples. He states that, " On the stones 
which have been long exposed to the destructive effects 
of the atmosphere, the punched or other work is often 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 69 

much obliterated, but on those lately exposed the work of 
the tool is almost as fresh and as distinct as at the period 
of its execution." The Cloverhill chamber, 5 feet 
9 inches long by 3 feet 6 inches broad, now consists 
of nine stones, for it is not thought that one situated 
to the S. of the entrance had originally formed part of 
the structure (see fig. 77, p. 70). The longest axis of 
the cist is E.N.E., and W.S.W. (magnetic). 

No. 1 stone has two sets of scorings the one upon 
its edge, the other upon its interior surface. The 
markings on its edge (see fig. 78, p. 70) consist of small 
<cup-like dots, each enclosed in a circle, also two hori- 
zontal lines, thus resembling the scorings on a re- 
markable pillar-stone at Muff, county Deny. 

The carving upon the interior surface (of No. 1 ) is 
very singular ; for an exact idea of its appearance the 
reader is referred to fig. 79, p. 71): No. 2 stone also 
bears traces of carvings of a style which antiquaries 
refer to the bronze age (see fig. 80, p. 72); Nos. 3, 
4, 5, and 6, stones are devoid of ornamentation ; No. 7 
.stone is one of the most curiously carved (see fig. 81, 
p. 73). 

These archaic markings, whether on cliffs, on simple 
earth-fast rocks, or on rude stone sepulchral monuments, 
may probably have been the outcome of some primitive 
-symbolical or mystical ideas of the savage mind, and 
thus was perpetuated on the most durable materials to 
hand, the meaning sought to be conveyed, until the cus- 
tom became characteristic of an early class of interment. 
Its meaning or original symbolism, now buried in obli- 
vion, may, perhaps, be ultimately unravelled by means 
of careful research, comparison, and analysis of these 
primitive scribings. 

This may be said to be the last of the monuments of 
ihe Carrowmore Series that bears a strictly sepulchral 
character ; but in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
Barnasrahy group there are two fort-like mounds which 
from their small size are probably of a mortuary charac- 
ter ; their real nature, however, could not be determined 
without an excavation. 

There are two other objects which deserve notice, 




JcaJ.t 



Fig. 79. Carving on Interior Surface of No. 1 Stone of Sepulchral Chamber, 

Cloverhill. 




Fig. 80.-C*mng on Interior Surface of No. 2 Stone of Sepulchral Chamber, 

Cloverhill. 




Fig. 81. Carving on Interior Surface of No. 7 Stone of Sepulchral Chamber, 

Cloverhill. 



74 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IEELAND. 

the first being (see Map, fig. 1) No. 64, a remarkable 
stone, which may, perhaps, be of coeval antiquity with 
the sepulchral remains. It marks the point of junction 
of the three parishes of the district formerly, and still 
by the country people, designated Cuil-irra. This boun- 
dary mark is a thin limestone flag, set on edge : it is 
9 feet in height and 10 feet in breadth above ground. 
The little stream which issues from Tobernavean or 
Tolar-na-lhFian, the " Well of the Warriors" laves its 
base, which must be deeply buried in the earth. Towards 




Fig. 82. "Holed" Stone, called Ckch-bhreac, or Cloch-lia, at 
Tobernavean, near Sligo. 

the east side, this flag-stone is pierced by a squarish, 

or rather an oblong perforation, 3 feet in length by 

2 feet in breadth. From its mottled appearance, this 

slab is popularly called Cloch-bhreac, or the "Speckled 

A* i- als ?. CW -^> or the "Gray Stone." 

At Minchin Hampton, in Gloucestershire, there is an 

ancient stone menhir, or tolmen, called the Long Stone. 

its lower end is a perforation through which children 

used to be passed for cure, or prevention, of measles, 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 75- 

whooping-cough, and other infantile ailments. Similar 
stones in Cornwall are said to be employed in the same 
way, as also in India. Writing on the subject, Dr. 
Petrie observes : " They have, probably, an eastern 
origin, for Mr. Walford informs us in the Asiatic Re- 
searches, vol. vi., p. 562, that perforated stones are not 
uncommon in India; and devout people pass through 
them when the opening will admit, in order to be re- 
generated. If the hole be too small, they put the hand 
or foot through, and with a sufficient degree of faith it 
answers nearly the same purpose." The following de- 
scription of a custom which prevailed at Ardmore, 
county Waterford, greatly resembles an Eastern rite; 
the stone, however, in this instance can scarcely be 
considered a " holed stone," as there was no aperture 
in it, the passage being underneath, i. e. between it and 
the rock upon which it rests : The Cloch-Nave-Deglane 
(Clock naoimk Deaglain) lies amongst the rocks on the 
strand at Ardmore, and " is the centre of great attraction 
on St. Declan's patron day ; the pilgrims, after their 
' rounds ' at it, as part of the ritual, are obliged to 
squeeze themselves under it three times. This stone is 
noted for several cures, especially for pains in the back ; 
but it is believed that no one with anything on them 
either borrowed or stolen can ever get themselves safe 
through from under it. I have several times seen this 
operation performed both by males and females, though 
with much difficulty, as the stone lies on low sharp rocks, 
pretty close to the ground." 1 

In memorials of the u holed stone" class, the earliest 
perforations appear to have been the largest, and they 
gradually dwindled down from upwards of a foot in 
diameter to such as would little more than admit a 
finger. In connexion with ecclesiastical buildings, in- 
stances occur in localities widely apart, as for example, 
in the cemetery of Kilmalkedar, county Kerry ; at Kil- 
fountain, county Cork ; and at Mainister, Aran Island, of 
which latter the accompanying illustration (fig. 83) was 
made by W. F. Wakeman, at the time of the Ordnance 

1 Journal, R.H.A.A.I., vol. i., New Series, p. 43, 1856-7. E. Fitzgerald. 



76 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

Survey. The ornamentation under the perforation seems 
to partake of the characteristics of a crux-ansata. This 
specimen stands about 5 feet above the soil. O'Donovan 
states that there were superstitious rites held in con- 
nexion with it, but does not specify their nature. 

The Island of Inismurray, county Sligo, presents two 
valuable examples of " holed stones" (figs. 84 and 85); 
the one measures 4 feet, the other 5 feet, in height. 
In the present day the postulants kneel, passing their 
thumbs into the front and their fingers into the side 
orifices, thereby obtaining a firm grasp of the angles 




Fig. 83. "Holed" and Sculptured Stone at Mainister, Aran Island. 

of the stone. Cross-inscribed " holed stones" may pro- 
bably have been so sculptured by the earliest mission- 
aries amongst the Irish, with the object of thus diverting 
the prayers of the pagan into Christian channels. It 
seems most difficult to imagine that the perforations in 
rude pillar-stones could possibly have been derived from 
any point of belief or ceremonial of the Christian 
Church. 

There is reason to believe that "holed stones," being 
unquestionably of pagan origin, were anciently connected 
with religious rites of some kind ; it has also been sug- 





Fig. 84. " Holed" Stone at Teamfull-na- Fief. 85. "Holed" Stone near Teampull-na-mlan, 

or the " Church of the Women," Island of Inis- 



bhfear, Island of Inismurray, county Sligo. 



murray, county Sligo. 



78 



KUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 



gested that they may have been used for interchange of 
oaths, promises, &c., or in commemoration of some 
event such as a battle or a treaty ; also that they were 
raised as boundary marks. This last idea would be speci- 
ally applicable in the case of the Carrowmore example, for 
it defines the spot where three parishes meet, the parishes 
themselves being probably but ancient pagan denomina- 
tions of lands, afterwards in Christian times re-named 
in honour of St. John, and the Bishops Bronus and 
Mac Owen ; i. e. St. John's, Killaspugbrone, and Kil- 
macowen parishes. In the Brehon Law Tracts, vol. iv. , 




Fig. 86. The Hole Stone near the Village of Doagh, county Antrim. 

p. 143, a monument of this class is called "a stone 
mark/' i e. a district which is marked by a stone of 
worship, or an immovable stone. 

Like the Carrowmore example, many pillar-stones 
are thin flat flags of irregular form ; others seem to be 
rudely quadrangular; some again are simply boulders 
placed on end. On a rocky eminence, about a mile 
from the village of Doagh, county Antrim, stands a larg-e 
whmstone slab called the Hole Stone (fig. 86). It is upwards 
of 5 feet in height above the ground, and near the base 



JRUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 79 

6 feet 8 inches in circumference, and 10 inches in thick- 
ness. At about 3 feet from the ground there is a round 
hole perforated through it, sufficient to admit an ordinary 
sized hand: this has evidently been made by art, but 
there is neither record nor tradition respecting the 
purpose for which it was formed. It is said that not 
long ago a large stone with a hole through it stood on 
a hill near Cushendall, in the same county. The accom- 
panying illustration (fig. 87) represents a stone of this 
class, remaining in the churchyard of Castledermot, and 
which it is alleged is inscribed with ogham characters. 
There is a remarkable perforated stone of this descrip- 
tion also inscribed, it is said, with ogham scores 




Fig. 87." Holed" and Scribed Stone in the Churchyard of Castle Dermot. 

near the church of Kilmalkedar, one mile from Smer- 
wick Harbour, in the county Kerry. At the foot of the 
round tower near Inniskeen, a small village in the barony 
of Farney, county Monaghan, was found a very large 
stone of porphyry, with a hole in the centre large 
enough to thrust the arm through, and it was once used 
for superstitious purposes. In more modern times a pole 
was placed in the hole, up which the young country folk 
used to climb at Easter for some trifling prize. 1 In Ross- 
shire, Scotland, there is a stone resembling the Doagh 

1 Proceedings, Kilkenny Archaeological Society, vol. in., p. 377, 1854-5. 



80 



BUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 



monument ; and near Kirkwall, Orkney, at a place called 
Stennis, is a large pillar-stone (fig. 88), 8 feet high, 
3 feet broad, and 9 inches thick, with a hole through it. 
The site on which it stands was deemed a place conse- 
crated to the meeting of lovers, and when they joined hands 
through the stone, the pledge of love and truth then given 
was held sacred. In his tale of " The Pirate " the stone 
circle of Stennis is specially mentioned by Sir Walter 
Scott, who was an antiquary as well as novelist. " It is 
quite certain that the oath to Wodin or Odin was sworn 




Fig. 88. "Holed" Pillar-stone at Stennis, near Kirkwall, Orkney. 

by persons joining their hands through the hole in this 
ring-stone, and that an oath so taken, although by Chris- 
tians, was deemed solemn and binding." 1 This ceremony 
was held very sacred, so that anyone breaking it was 
ostracised from society; and so late as the year 1781 
a traveller in the Orkney Islands relates that a " young 
man was called before the session, and the elders were 
particularly severe. Being asked by the minister the 
cause of so much severity, they answered : * You do not 

1 Ferguson's Rude Stone Monuments, p. 255. 



KUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 81 

Imow what a bad man this is ; lie has broken the promise 
to Odin,' and further explained that the contracting 
parties had joined hands through the hole in the stone. " 
There is a " holed" stone at Lochgilphead in 
Argyleshire, represented by fig. 89, copied from the 
Sculptured Stones of Scotland; no description of it, how- 
ever, could be found in the text ; it is not merely 
" holed," but also " cup-marked," and its position is 
lose to a stone circle. A slab that appears to have 
been intended for a " holed" stone was found by Mr. 




Fig. 89." Holed" and Cup-marked Stone at Lochgilphead, Argyleshire. 

Eugene A. Con well in his examination of the ancient 
sepulchral earns on the Loughcrew Hills, county Meath, 
and in connexion with a stone circle. It is thus de- 
scribed by him: "No. 8 contains a circular hole, 
6^- inches in diameter, cut vertically with much pre- 
cision and smoothness, to a depth of 3 inches. For 
what use this may have been intended it would be 
difficult to conjecture, if we do not suppose that the stone 
itself had been unfinished, or not completely pierced 
through. 1 " 

At Plas Newydd, in Wales, there is a chamber or 

1 Proceedings, B.I.A., vol. ix., p. 376. 

4TH SER., VOL. VIII. G 



82 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

cist where the slab which closed the entrance is pierced 
with two holes which had been originally circular, and 
about 10 inches in diameter: a good illustration of it is 
*nven in Ferguson's Rude Stone Monuments, p. 167. Holed 
stones may also be noticed in France, of which that at 
Trie, Oise, and that at Grandmont, in Bois Languedoc, 
are characteristic examples ; there is also another in the 
interior of a sepulchral chamber at Kerlescant, Carnac. 
This chamber is divided into two equal compartments 
by two stones cut away in the centre, so as to leave 
an aperture 1 foot 6 inches wide, by S^feet high. ^ "A 
similar but smaller hole exists on the side, and is iden- 
tical with those found in the long barrows at Rodmarton 
and Avening, in Gloucestershire." 1 The " holed" dol- 




Fig. 90. " Holed" Dolmen, or Cromleac, at Rujunkolloor, in the Deccan. 

mens found on the shores of the Crimea, or in the Cau- 
casus, seem to be rudely dressed. Such " holed" stones 
are very frequent in eastern dolmens : in the district of 
Bellary alone, out of a classification of 2129 rude stone 
monuments, 527 were dolmens pierced on one side with 
a circular aperture. Colonel Meadows Taylor, in his 
description of the cromleacs, kistvaens, and earns at 
Rujunkolloor in the Deccan, states that one holed dol- 
men had a top slab 12 feet by 10 feet 6 inches, and 
9 inches to 1 foot thick, the side slabs being 12 feet 
2 inches long by 8 inches broad (fig. 90) : in all these 
the aperture is in the southern side. The limestone 
of which the various tombs in this district are formed 

1 Ferguson's Rude Stone Momments. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 83 

lies naturally in laminae, which are from a few inches 
to two feet in thickness ; it is easily quarried, and can be 
broken with a hard stone into flags of any size, and this 
accounts for the uniform and seemingly hewn appear- 
ance of the cluster of tombs. 1 

With regard to the sepulchral remains in Sligo, it 
was the opinion of the late R. C. Walker that, in his day, 
the then existing vestiges furnished evidence sufficiently 
strong to warrant the conclusion that the chain of Carrow- 
more monuments had anciently extended so far in a 
N.W. direction as to connect them with the great earn 
on the summit of Knocknarea, about one mile and a-half 
distant. This earn, even from a considerable distance, 
forms a very striking feature of the landscape, standing 
distinctly against the sky line ; it commands a splendid 
panoramic view of sea and land, the mountains of 
Donegal, as well as the entire Sligo range, being dis- 
tinctly visible from its summit. Mr. Eugene A. Con well 
states that the mountains overhanging the bays of Car- 
lingford and Sligo are visible from Sliabk-na-CailUghe, 
giving a telescopic view of Ireland from sea to sea, at 
about its narrowest part, and he adds: "I have little 
doubt that the earns on the Loughcrew Hills are but a 
portion of a chain of such remains, terminated on the 
east by the great mounds of Knowth, New Grange, and 
Dowth ; and that a fuller and more careful examination 
of the country will prove that chain to have extended 
westward to the Atlantic." 2 The earn on Knocknarea 
was described, in 1779, as an enormous heap of small 
stones, in figure oval, its circumference 650 feet at the 
base ; on the one side a slope of 79, and on the other 
of 67 feet; the area on the top 100 feet in its longest 
diameter, and 85 feet in its shortest. When Petrie 
visited it in 1837 it was only 590 feet in circumference, 
and the longest diameter on the top 80 feet ; it had in 
the interval been used as a quarry. It is at present about 
590 feet in circumference, its longest diameter on the 
top 80 feet, its shortest 75 feet, and it is 34*25 in height. 

1 In St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, Kildare and of Ormonde to shake hands 
the oaken door is still preserved in -which together, in evidence of reconciliation. 
a hole was cut to permit the Earls of 2 Proceedings, R.I.A., vol. ix., p. 378. 

G2 



84 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

This huge pile is called Misgaun Meadhbh pronounced 
by the country people Misgaun Meaw and, according to 
tradition, it is reputed to be the tomb of the great Queen 
Meav ; there is, however, proof to the contrary, in the 
direct testimony of a commentary written by^ Moelmuiri, 
that " Meav was buried at Rathcroghan, which^was the 
proper burying-place of her race, her body having been 
removed by her people from Fort Meav ; for they deemed 
it more honourable to have her interred at Croghan." 
As the Book of the Cemeteries confirms this account, there 
seems no reason for doubting the fact. 




Fig. 91. General View of Misgaun Meav, on the Summit of Knocknarea, looking 
West. From a Photograph by R. B. M'Neilly. 

Meadhlh has found her way into English fairyland 
under the title of Queen Mab j 1 but the date when she 
first appeared there has not been cleared up. Ben 
Jonson and Herrick introduce her into their poetry, 
whilst Shakespere gives her, even in her disembodied 
shape, too diminutive a form, when he espouses her to 
Oberon as his fairy queen. " This great personage, the 
ancestress of the O'Farrells, Mac Rannells, and O'Conors 
of Kerry, was of the Milesian, or Scotic race, and 
flourished about A.D. 62. 2 Her acts are blazoned in the 
Tain-bo- Chuailnge in the wildest style of poetical exagge- 

1 Yonge remarks that ' ' the name Martha, has since become the queen of the fairies : 

as used in Ireland, is only an equivalent Martha for Queen Mab ! " 
for the native Erse, Meadhbh, Meav or Ogyaia. Part III., chap. 46. 
Mab, once a great Irish princess, and who 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 85 

ration, and she is vividly remembered in the traditions of 
the mountainous parts of Ireland as Meadhbh Cruachna 
(Meav of Croghan), or Queen Mab and many places 
are called after her ; but though sometimes introduced 
into modern elegies, she does not appear to have ever 
been as affectionately attached to the old Milesian 
families as Aoibhinn^ and the older banshees of the 
Tuatha-de-Danann race. 1 The reason of this is not very 
clear ; but from the stories told of her by the Irish 
shanachies, she appears to have been regarded rather as 
a quean than a queen.' 72 

In Ireland earns are very numerous ; there are few 
districts in the kingdom in which one or more of them 
may not still be seen, or where they are not known to 
have formerly existed, and the word earn (as noticed 
by P. W. Joyce) forms u the whole, or the beginning, 
of the names of about three hundred townlands, in every 
one of which a remarkable earn must have existed, 
besides many others, of whose names it forms the 
middle, or end." Wilson, in his Prehistoric Annals, 
makes use of almost the same language with regard 
to Scotland, stating that earns are to be found in 
nearly every parish, and that the prefix in the names 
of places in Aberdeenshire is very general. Many of 
these earns are of great size, and, when opened, have 
disclosed stone chambers, resembling those discovered 
from time to time in similar monuments in Ireland. 
They are not peculiar to the British Isles, but are also 
met with in northern Europe. 

Around the base of the earn on Knocknarea lie 



1 The race of the Tuatha-de-Danann, Shakesperian Queen Mab (the Connacian 
when in their turn conquered by the Queen Meadhbh} is " in shape no bigger 
Milesians, are fabled to have retired to than an agate-stone." Ben Jonson de- 
underground dwellings, and, by magic scribes her as "the mistress fairy"; 
arts, to have existed in the interior of whilst Herrick gives her an unamiable 
raths and green knolls, gradually dwind- character as well, for if the careless house- 
ling in size by living underground. They wife displease her, " Mab will pinch her 
were then called ' ' good people,' ' or fairies, by the toe." 

and were dreaded, but not reverenced : 2 Journal, R.H. A.A.I., vol. I., 2nd 

indeed, the amount of mischief ascribed Series, p. 128: "Elegy on the death of 

to them was wonderful, considering the the Rev. Edmond Kavanagh," by the 

very small stature assigned to these fairies. Rev. James O'Lalor, edited by John 

In British folk-lore the same metamor- O'Donovan, LL.D. 
phosis seems to have also occurred. The 



86 RUDE 8TONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

numerous megalithic, as well as microlithic monu- 
ments, which form a rude alignment pointing nearly 
due N. and S. No. 1 (see fig. 93) is a ruined circle ; 
diameter, about 20 feet. No. 2 is a microlithic circle, 
consisting of small limestone chips, or shivers; diameter, 
19 feet. No. 3, same formation as No. 2; diameter, 
40 feet. No. 4 is a ruined circle, of which eight stones 
only, and four of the cist, now remain fig. 92 gives a 
good idea of its general appearance. No. 5, to the N. 
of the great earn, is a circle composed of small lime- 
stone shivers, with larger stones appearing here^ and 
there. No. 6 is the remains of a small stone circle, 
touching the larger monument (No. 7) ; diameter, about 




Fig. 92. Ruined Circle (No 1) at the foot of the Great Cam on the Summit of 
Knocknarea, looking North. 

6 feet ; it is hollow in the centre, and resembles the 
one which adjoins No. 46, of the Carrowmore Series, 
and also one in Achill, hereinafter to be described : an 
excavation was made, but without results. 1 No. 7 is 
the largest of the structures around the great earn ; its 
diameter is 100 feet. The outer circle, or mound, con- 
sists of limestone shivers ; various large stones appear 
here and there, but the cist in the centre has been com- 
pletely demolished, the large covering-slab having been 
thrown to some distance from its original position, and 
other stones scattered about the enclosure. A few cal- 
cined and uncalcined animal bones were found under 



1 In the neighbourhood of Minard, in ferriter and Teeravane, to the west of 

the county of Kerry, there are, or were, Dingle, are also two small stone-circles 

a few years ago, two or three perfect stone the one measuring 9 feet 3 inches, and 

circles ; and between the villages of Bally- the other 5 feet in diameter. 









on, 

A-B. Section of Cam. 

C. Small Carn erected by the Ordnance Survey Staff. 
D. Site of probable Cist. 

E, E, E, E. Original Circumference of Carn, about 660 feet. 

F, F, F, F. Present Circumference of Carn, about 590 feet. 

G, G. Diameter, 80 feet. 
H, H. Diameter, about 60 feet. 



Fig. 93. Plan showing General Distribution of the various Monuments 
on the Summit of Knocknarea. 



88 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

one of these slabs. " From their situation it seems 
hardly possible to doubt that these smaller tombs are con- 
temporaneous with, or subsequent to, the great earn ; 
and if this really were the tomb of Queen Meave, it 
would, if opened, throw some light on this subject. The 
great earn has not, however, been dug into yet, and till 
that is done the ownership of the tomb cannot be defi- 
nitely fixed." l 

All the megalithic and microlithic monuments 
which lie at the foot of the great earn on Knocknarea 
had (as previously stated) been examined by R. C. Walker 
and Dr. Petrie, and " human remains," as also u se^ eral 
rude ornaments and implements of stone," were found 
in them. Unfortunately no description was given of 
either of these two classes of " finds." 2 However, the 
collection of flints from the Carrowmore district- 
almost compensates for this loss to archaeology, and 
that collection interests specially, by the fact that it 
presents two very distinct colours of material, the one 
being of Antrim chalk-flint, varying in shade from 
white to cream-colour, bluish-white, and yellow; whilst 
the other is an impure silex of a dark greyish-black 
colour, pronounced by W. J. Knowles, and by W. 
Frazer, F.K.C.S.I., to be a variety of Antrim flint : the- 
latter designates it " black flint," such as was formerly 
employed in the formation of gun-flints. Although flint 
is not generally met with in Sligo, yet it may be some- 
times picked up in nodules : one such was found on 
the sand-hills of Mullaghmore, county Sligo (perhaps 
on the site^of an ancient kitchen midden), and, when 
fractured, it displayed the characteristics and same 
colour as the majority of the specimens of flints^ 
from Sligo, now at Alnwick Castle, i.e. greyish-black. 
The nodule above noticed was probably a waif from 

Ferguson's Rude Stone Monuments, who worked with him, were too little- 

P * a v - i- aware of tne importance of these material 

Ferguson, in his Rude Stone Monu- points of evidence to be careful either to- 

tnts, p. 184, remarks :' At the time collect or to describe the contents of these 

3 wrote (1837) these (i.e. imple- graves; and as all, or nearly all, have- 

ments of bone, or stone) were not valued been opened, that source of information, 

or classified, as they have since been ... may be cut off for ever." 
indeed I am afraid that Petrie, and those 



PLATE IV. 



To face page 89. 







Fig. 94. Flint Implements found in the county Sligo, now in the collection of 
II is Grace the Duke of Northumberland, at Alnwick Castle. 



EUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 89* 

some disintegrated chalk-bed, and exhibited all the ap- 
pearance of having been long rolled in the sea. 

These implements present nearly every variety of 
form fabricated by the primitive flint-working folk. 

Plate IV., No. 9, of the triangular type, is hollowed 
at the base for reception of the shaft ; one of the wings 
has been fractured ; it is carefully chipped, and dark 
sepia in colour. No. 6, somewhat of the same type, 
hollowed for reception of the shaft, is carefully chipped, 
but has lost one of its wings ; it is in colour yellow, 
with a brown tint. 

Nos. 7, 8, 13, and 14 are of the stemmed variety, 
having a tang, or projection for sinking into the shaft, 
and wings on either side, which in No. 8 descend on a 
level with the extremity of the tang; one of the wings of 
No. 13 is broken off; No. 7 is in colour a warm grey; 
No. 8 is of a yellowish tinge, having a transparency re- 
sembling amber ; No. 13 is a light-brown grey, with 
one whitish streak across; and No. 14 is a whitish- 
grey in colour. 

With the exception of No. 11, the remainder of the 
implements belong to the leaf -shaped variety of flints, 
and are chipped over with great care. No. 1 is warm 
grey in colour, with two streaks of red ; No. 2, a dark, 
greyish-brown ; No. 3 resembles the preceding ; No. 4 
is a greyish-brown ; No. 5, a greyish-yellow; No. 10, 
an indefinite greenish-grey; No. 12, dark, greyish- 
brown ; No. 15, a dark-grey. All these are more 
simple in shape than those previously described, but 
they have been thus placed so as to illustrate the 
finer and more perfect manufacture of No. 11 a spear- 
head, found in Carrowmore, in the cist of the earn of 
Listoghil (see ante, vol. vii., pp. 486 and 594). This 
javelin, or lance-head, formed of flint, in colour yellow, 
with a brownish tint, is 4^ inches in length ; the faces 
are polished. Sir William Wilde, referring to Irish ex- 
amples, states that arrows of flint are never polished, but 
javelins are; the arrow showing the perfection of chip- 
ping, the spear of polishing. Mr. Evans, in his Ancient 
Stone Implements, further remarks, that the class having 
both faces polished, though still only chipped at the 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

, like fig. 27, Catalogue, Museum, E. I. A. (which is 
ofthe same class as the object now under considera- 
tion), has not, to his knowledge, occurred out of Ireland. 
To liis Grace the Duke of Northumberland the writer 
is indebted for photographs of the collection of Sligo 
implements ; and to John Brown, artist, Abbot's Tower, 
Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, for descriptive par- 
ticulars, and coloured drawings of the same. 

It is most interesting to compare the Irish flint im- 
plements found at Carrowmore with some remarkable 
specimens from the Antipodes, and it is only by a com- 
parison of the waifs of antiquity with kindred objects 
in other countries throughout the globe, that we can 
form conjectures as to the social state of Ireland during 
the pre-Christian period, for advanced civilization sweeps 
away from view those characteristic traits by which the 
various early races may have been distinguished. E. T. 
Hardman, 1 H.M.G.S.I., at special request of the writer, 
furnished the following highly interesting observations 
on the similarity of some native Australian stone wea- 
pons and implements to those of prehistoric times in 
Ireland. 

While engaged on the geological survey of a part of "Western 
Australia the Kimberley district I met with many parties of natives, 

1 E. T. Hardman lived only eight days labours, which received the special thanks 
after completion of this interesting ac- of the Government, he discovered the 
count of Australian flint implements. In Kimberley gold-fields, which have re- 
the letter which accompanied his MS., he cently attracted so much attention. Mr. 
states that he had felt too ill to forward it Hardman was elected Fellow of the 
.at an earlier date, according to promise. Chemical Society of London, was Fellow 
By his death science has lost a valued and Member of the Council of the Royal 
member, whose already very successful Geological Society of Ireland, and, in 
career gave much promise for the future, 1879, was appointed Examiner in Geology 
and, it is to be feared, his projected work and Physical Geography under the Board 
on Western Australia will not now see of Intermediate Education (Ireland) . In 
the light. Mr. Hardman was a native of addition to the numerous reports which 
Drogheda, and distinguished himself at he published officially, he was also the 
an early age by gaining a Government author of many valuable contributions to 
Exhibition in the Royal College of Science, the British Association, the Royal His- 
Dublin. Having taken his Diploma in the torical and Archaeological Association of 
Faculties of Mining and Manufactures, and Ireland, and other scientific societies. He 
numerous prizes and distinctions in the was called upon to assist in the arrange- 
College, he was appointed in 1870 to the ment of the Australian collection at the 
Geological Survey of Ireland, in which recent Colonial Exhibition in London, 
capacity he resided in Sligo for some and at the time of his death had a pros- 
time; and was subsequently selected to pect of an early return to Western 
.report upon the geology and minerals of Australia as the head of its Geological 
Western Australia. In the course of his Department. 



PLATK V. 



To fixe page 91. 










Fig. 95. Flint and Stone Implements from Western Australia. Full size, 
except No. 6, which is about one-ninth real size. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 91 

and had opportunities of examining their implements of warfare, &c., 
.and of learning their uses, and the mode of manufacture. Those formed 
of stone, flint, agate, and trap rock, diorite, &c., strikingly resembled 
many that have been found in our ancient barrows, graves, and "kitchen 
middens;" and I therefore endeavoured to obtain as much information 
.as possible on the subject. 

The stone implements of Australia are chiefly confined to the northern 
part of the continent, and are seldom found south of lat. 22 S. They 
consist of spear-heads, celts, or hatchets, and small chisels, exactly re- 
sembling our well-known "thumb-stones," or scrapers. In this northern 
district there are extensive deposits of agate, and of various species of 
flint and jasper, often forming ranges miles in extent; and that the 
summits of many of these hills have been used as manufactories is 
evidenced by the quantity of flint flakes lying about, and which are in 
shape almost exactly similar to those of Antrim. In the river-beds, 
besides flint, &c., large pebbles of pure rock crystal abound ; these also 
are utilized by the natives, who form from them very beautiful spear- 
heads, as well as knives which are employed in the process of circum- 
cision and other similar rites. 

With the progress of civilization a third material for the fabrication 
of spear-heads has been introduced that is, bottle glass. The natives 
have availed themselves of the opportunity afforded by the profusion of 
brandy bottles in certain districts, and have succeeded in making from 
them some very beautiful spear-heads. One specimen I obtained was of 
leaf shape, about 2 inches long, and brought to a fine sharp point, very 
similar to that shown in Plate V., No. 3, and having the same finely- 
worked serrated edges. This serrated form much resembles that to be 
observed in many flint arrow-heads of the Irish prehistoric period. 
Spears thus headed are used chiefly as projectiles, being thrown from 
the hand, assisted by a throwing-stick Gna-la-ling at the end of 
which there is a hook to be inserted into the butt of the spear ; it acts, 
to some extent, as a primitive bow, in giving considerable initial velo- 
city. 

These spear-heads almost exactly reproduce the highest form of pre- 
historic javelin-barbs. A figure in Lubbock's Prehistoric Man closely 
xesembles the shape of these Australian weapons, and the inferences 
drawn that the prehistoric weapon was used as an arrow, or javelin, is 
fully corroborated by the usages of the Australians, as above mentioned. 

If we judged from the specimens figured in Plate V., N~os. 1 and 3, 
we might be inclined to regard them as of different periods; quasi 
Palaeolithic and Neolithic. But, in point of fact, there may be but an. 
interval of a few days, or weeks at most, between their ages. The 
process of manufacture is very simple ; having procured, either from, 
the hills or the agate pebbles of the river-beds, suitable material, the 
native sets to work to reduce it to the rough shape shown in No. 1. 
This is done by knocking off flakes, with a rounded pebble of the rough 
sandstone so common throughout Australia. He reserves these roughed- 
out sketches for finish at his leisure. A native's "kit," which consists 
of a piece of " paper bark," from the Melaleuca leucodendron, or caje- 
put-tree, always contains a few of these roughly- chipped spear-heads 
(N~o. 1), to be afterwards worked up into the delicately-serrated form of 

:NO. 3. 



92 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

I induced a native to show me the process on a portion of a broken- 
bottle. Knocking off a piece of suitable size, he then procured a rounded 
sandstone pebble, which he slightly rubbed on another stone to give it a 
" bite," or " tooth ;" and the next requisite was a small piece of wood. 
Now seating himself, he placed the wood beneath his toes, with the 
glass resting edgeways on it, between his first and second toes. With 
light blows, adapted to the nature of the flake he wished to strike off, he 
then deftly chipped the glass into its first rude leaf-shaped form : this 
being accomplished, lighter blows were given, until a certain amount of 
finish was obtained. Then, by slight taps from a small and flat-edged 
stone, the fine points, and the finely-serrated edge, were gradually 
formed. The whole operation did not occupy more than half an hour, 
and the specimens are rude in appearance, having been made very 
hurriedly in order to explain the process. Still it is wonderful that a 
material so brittle and treacherous as glass could be worked into this 
form by such simple means. I have purposely selected this specimen as 
a connecting-link between Nos. 1 and 3, although I obtained other beau- 
tiful symmetrical glass heads one very fine example being now in the 
Museum of the Royal Dublin Society. 

Dr. Evans points out the facility with which flakes may be produced 
from flint by means of a rounded pebble used as a hammer, and not 
necessarily attached to a handle, but simply held in the hand. He also 
notices that " proper attention has not been paid to the hammer-stones, 
which, in all probability, occur with the chippings of flint." This latter 
conjecture is fully corroborated by the occurrence of these hammer- 
etones with flint chips in Australia, and their known use ; and also from 
their having been discovered, in at least one instance, under similar cir- 
cumstances in Ireland. Yery lately Mr. M 'Henry, M.K.I. A., who explored 
the prehistoric deposits of White Park Bay, Ballintoy, obtained with the 
flint implements several rounded hammer-stones, which I had no hesita- 
tion in identifying as exactly similar to those used by the Australians : 
indeed, there cannot be the slightest doubt that they were intended for 
the same purpose. 

In some localities in the northern territory of South Australia and 
North Queensland the natives are content with flakes obtained by striking 
the flint on a larger stone, by which means they can sometimes obtain a 
sharply -tapering flake ; ! but they are mostly of very rude construction. 
However, I saw in the Melbourne Museum some specimens from the 
northern territory closely resembling No. 1, though there were none 
showing the high finish of those of Kimberley. 

The spear-heads whether of flint or glass are attached to the shafts 
by means of a tenacious cement, manufactured from the " spinifex grass," 
Triodia irritam, which exudes a peculiar gummy substance. A ' ' nigger's " 
kit always contains a lump of this cement ; it is easily softened by heat,, 
and, when cool, the spear-head remains firmly fixed. 

The shafts are from 10 to 15 feet in length. One half is composed 
of heavy acacia wood, rudely straightened, the butt being formed of 
bamboo, which serves to steady the flight of the weapon, on the same 
principle that a reed with a nail inserted in the head forms (as all boys 

1 Evana, op. cit. t p. 24, and Anthropological Itev., vol. iv., p. 104. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 93 

know) an efficient substitute for a feathered arrow. These spears can be 
flung with accuracy to a distance of 50 or 60 yards. 

Stone Hatchets. These resemble almost exactly the ancient British 
and Irish Celt (see Plate Y., Nos. 4 and 5). They are usually of an 
oval or egg-shape, about 4 inches long, 2 inches wide, and 1 inch 
thick. I found, however, one specimen, about 7 inches long, the shape 
of which was that of some of our Irish stone hatchets, or adzes, i. e. 
gradually diminishing 2 inches from the edge, to the other extremity 
at 1%. This specimen showed the well-known opposite obtuse and acute 
angles of the edge ; unfortunately it was lost in the sand when shifting 
camp. These instruments are in general formed of fine-grained trap- 
rock (basalt or diorite), although I obtained one specimen made of fine 
hard grit, and almost exactly the counterpart of some that have been, 
found in the bogs in the neighbourhood of Lough Neagh. 

The mode of manufacture seems to be essentially the same as that of 
the spear-heads ; but there is a further process of grinding the edge, 
which is brought to a fine degree of sharpness; and this must be the 
result of great labour and perseverance. So far as I could learn, these 
hatchets are never used in warfare or at least they are not intended 
primarily as lethal weapons. They are chiefly used in mechanical opera- 
tions, such as cutting out portions of trees from which to construct 
wooden implements and weapons, also to cut notches in trees by aid of 
which the natives can ascend to capture opossum, &c., and rifle the 
nests of wild bees. On one occasion I noticed a tree nearly nine inches 
in diameter, which had evidently been cut down by the aid of one of 
these instruments. 

The manner of fixing the head is peculiarly simple and interesting. 
A slip of acacia wood, about the diameter and thickness of a barrel hoop 
(wooden), is doubled by the aid of heat into a loop, and in this loop the 
hatchet is fixed with spinifex gum ; the two sides of the handle are then 
brought together, and fastened firmly with ligatures of Kangaroo sinew, 
the length of the handle being usually about 16 to 18 inches. (Plate V., 
:Ko. 6.) 

Stone Chisels. These, again, are very much like the Irish form of the 
implements supposed to have been used in scraping and dressing skins. 
I brought home some specimens exactly similar to those found in the 
deposits at Ballintoy. However, these Australian instruments could not 
possibly be referred to such a use, seeing that the Kimberley natives go 
perfectly naked, and do not use the skins of animals as a protection from 
the weather. These chisels are often fastened with gum into a short 
handle, and are chiefly employed in making ornamental markings on 
their shields, and other wooden instruments. (Plate Y., No. 7.) 

"We might, perhaps, legitimately speculate on the possibility of the 
Irish aborigines in some cases, at least also using these supposed skin, 
scrapers as tools for finishing off their wooden ware. 

A circumstance worthy of remark is, that the natives carry on a 
regular system of barter between the different tribes even when hostile 
for materials with which to construct these weapons, ornaments, &c. 
Thus there is an interchange according to the natural products of the 
districts, of flint, or basalt, or spinifex gum, or a most important matter 
red and white wilgie (red ochre and white pipe-clay), for the ornamentation 
of their bodies at their great festivals or coorollorees. Often this com- 



94 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

mercc occurs between tribes more than a hundred miles distant front 
each other. This custom may throw some light on the fact that Colonel 
Wood-Martin, M.R.I.A., has, in many of his explorations in the county 
Sligo &c., found pieces and flakes of true Antrim chalk-flint ; and it is 
difficult to account for this fact, unless there was a commerce in such, 
and other necessary articles, between the western and northern Celtic 

0? the whole, it must be admitted that, between the Celtic primitive 
weapons and implements and those of the Australian savages of to-day,, 
the resemblance is both remarkable and interesting. 



(To be continued.} 



KOTES AND QUERIES. 

As late as the year 1693 the English infantry were clothed in gray, the 
drummers being in scarlet ; therefore the change recently proposed to be 
made in the colour of the regimental uniform of our line, and which was 
the subject of much discussion, would be, after all, but reverting to an 
older fashion. In the previous civil war various colours had been in use : 
Hampden's men wore green, Colonel Meyrick's gray, and Lord Saye's 
blue. As a general rule, however, the army of the Commonwealth was- 
clothed in red at least if we are to accept Hudibras as an authority : 

" So Cromwell, with deep oaths and vows, 
Swore all the Commons out of th' House ; 
Vowed that the redcoats would disband 
Ay, marry, would they, at command ! 
And trolled them on, and swore, and swore, 
Till the army turned them out of door." 



PBOCEEDINGS AND PAPERS. 



A GENERAL MEETING of the ASSOCIATION was held on 
Wednesday, June the 1st, 1887, at Leinster House, 
Kildare-street, Dublin ; 

LORD JAMES BUTLER in the Chair ; 

The following were amongst the Members present: 
E. Langrishe ; W. Gray, M.R.I.A. ; W. Frazer, F.R.C.S.I. ; 
Rev. P. A. Yorke; Rev. Canon Grainger, D.D. ; Robert 
Malcolmson, M.A. ; J. Johnston Westropp, M.A. ; G. H: 
Kinahan, M.R.I.A.; Rev. H. W. Lett, M.A. ; Edward 
Atthill ; Dr. Joly ; J. G. Robertson ; W. F. Wakeman ; 
Lieut. -Colonel Wood-Martin, &c. 

The following new Members were elected : 

Rev. Bartholomew Scanlan, c.c., St. Brendan's; St. 
John Henry Donovan, J.P., Seafields, Tralee ; Stephen 
Huggard, Clerk of the Crown and Peace for Kerry, 
Lismore House, Tralee ; Rev. W. Ball Wright, 31, 
Waterloo-place, Dublin; E. Marmaduke Sellers, M.A., 
Barrister, 10, St. Mary's-road, Dublin; William Edward 
Ellis, LL.B., Barrister, 38, Harrington -street, Dublin; 
John Cooke, B. A., 51, Morehampton-road, Dublin; 
Walter Hore, Rathwade, Bagnalstown, Co. Carlow; 
the Right Rev. John Healy, D.D., LL.D., Goad. -Bishop 
of Clonfert, Palmerston House, Portumna; Owen Phibbs, 
D.L., Corradoo, Ballinafad, Co. Sligo ; John Laird, M.D., 
Wine-street, Sligo ; M. C. Douglas, Carlow ; John Wil- 
loughby, Kilkenny; B. H. M'Neilly, Sligo; the Very 
Rev. J. W. Murray, LL.D., Dean of Connor; T. M. 

4TH SER., VOL. VIII. H 



95 PROCEEDINGS. 

Thunder, 6, Upper Mount-street, Dublin ; Owen Smith, 
Nobber, Meath; J. E. L. Dowman, 16, Cook-street, Cork; 
Charles Elcock, 19, Hughenden Avenue, Belfast; T. J. 
Alexander, Castledawson, Co. Deny ; J. J. Mahony, 
Secretary Cork and Bandon Railway, Cork; Rev. P. 
Hurley, c.c., North Presbytery, Cork ; Joseph Wright, 
F.R.G.S., Donegal-street, Belfast ; Major James Campbell, 
R.A., Crannmore, Sligo; George Taylor, Boyle. 

The following Books were received as Presentations to 
the Library of the Association : " History of Paganism 
in Caledonia," by Dr. T. A. Wise (from the Author) ; 
Vol. L. Part 1, of " Archseologia " (from the Society 
of Antiquaries of London); " Proceedings of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland," vol. viii., New Series 
(from the Society) ; " Proceedings and Transactions 
of the Royal Institute of British Architects" (from 
the Institute); " Numismatic Journal" (from the Nu- 
mismatic Society) ; " Third Annual Report of the 
Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution" (from J. W. Powell, Director); 
" Fifth Annual Report of the United States Geological 
Survey" (from J. W. Powell, Director) ; " Ancient and 
Modern Methods of Arrow Release," by Edward S. 
Mosse, Director Peabody Academy of Science (from 
Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass.) ; " Pro- 
ceedings of the Canadian Institute, Toronto (from the 
Institute); " The Ancient Life of St. Molyng," edited 
by P. O'Leary from a Translation of a MS. in Marsh's 
Library (from the Editor). 

The late Rev. James Graves had obtained a copy 
of this MS. with the intention of publishing it. 

W. J. Gillespie made the following presentations to 
the Museum : 

Several medals, in white metal, commemorative of 
the visit of George IV. to Ireland, and well described 
by W. Frazer, F.R.C.S.I., in a recent Number of the 
Journal. 

A very sharp impression of the head of the late 
Dean Dawson (also in white metal). 



PROCEEDINGS. 97 

A medal with head of Dargan, to commemorate the 
^National Exhibition. 

A shilling and a sixpence (Irish) of James L, now 
rather rare. 

Some copper twopenny tokens of Irish tradesmen, 
and the silver threepenny token of Ben Bowen, Dublin, 
all of the eighteenth century, and now very rare. Only 
four tradesmen in Ireland seem to have issued silver 
threepenny tokens, viz. : Alexander Morton, Armagh ; 
Sam Mackie, Armagh ; Ben Bowen, Dublin ; John 
Overend, Portadown. 1 

Mr. Robertson exhibited a tradesman's token of the 
seventeenth century that of John Beaver, Kilkenny 
having recently discovered the following allusion to it. 
At a meeting of the Corporation of Kilkenny, held on 
the 1st of July, 1670, " An order was made that Beaver's 
pence be cried down if he does not give security to give 
good money for them." 

For a very interesting Paper on " Kilkenny Trades- 
men's Tokens," Mr. Robertson referred anyone desirous 
to learn all about the history of the issues to a Paper, 
by the late John Gr. A. Prim, contained in vol. ii. of the 
Transactions of the Association. 

It was proposed by R. Langrishe, Vice-President, 
and seconded by Canon John Grainger, D.D., that Lord 
James Wandesford Butler be elected President of this 
Association for the remainder of the current year. 

The proposer spoke in suitable terms of the great 
loss sustained by the Society in the death of the 
late President, the DUKE OF LEINSTER, who, though a 
scholarly man, and endowed with considerable scientific 
attainments, was of a retiring nature. He had the in- 
terests of his country and of this Association thoroughly 
at heart, and did many good works in so quiet and un- 
ostentatious a manner, that few beyond his immediate 
neighbourhood, and those actually benefited by his 
acts, were aware of them. 

The resolution was passed unanimously. 

1 Mr. Gillespie possesses the first three, coveted prize, it would confer a great 
but " Overend" has escaped his anxious favour on a very ardent and generous 
search for the last twenty years, so that collector. 
if anyone can assist him in procuring this 

H2 



93 PROCEEDINGS. 

In acknowledging the compliment, Lord James Butler 
said it was gratifying to him to follow the example of 
his brother, the Marquis of Ormonde. It was also an 
honour following the hereditary enemy of the house of 
Butler, the Duke of Leinster, a personal friend of his 
(Lord James's) own (a laugh). He was inclined to think 
that though they considered him a fit person for the post, 
it might be found that he was not sufficiently acquainted 
with the details of the work. He was willing to accept 
office, but he wished to say that they must look upon 
him somewhat as a beginner. He would try to master 
his duties, and he would gladly advocate the interests 
of a society with which he had been so long con- 
nected, and in which he took the greatest possible in- 
terest (applause). 

Lieut.-Colonel Wood-Martin then made the follow- 
ing statement: 

After the death of our late lamented Secretary, 
the Rev. James Graves, in March, 1886, the organiza- 
tion of the Association became completely disarranged, 
no Quarterly Meetings having been called together. 
Without such meetings it would be almost impossible- 
to carry on the issue of the Journal with any degree 
of regularity, for these reunions serve to keep alive 
the interest of Members in their Association, and 
thus stimulate them to write Papers for it on various 
archaeological subjects. At the time of the decease of 
the Rev. James Graves the issue of the Journal was con- 
siderably in arrear, and the Papers read at previous 
Quarterly Meetings remained in the hands of his execu- 
tors, whereby great delay of necessity arose before they 
could be restored to the custody of the Association. 
Fortunately a most interesting MS. Monograph, by 
W. F. Wakeman, on the " Island of Imrismurray" 
(which had been originally intended for an Annual 
Volume), lay then at the University Press, and the 
Committee having authorized its use in the Journal, this 
proposed Annual Volume was sacrificed in order to pro- 
vide for the emergency. W. Frazer, F.R.C.S.I., con- 
tributed a Paper on a subject hitherto much neglected 



PROCEEDINGS. 99 

" The Medallists of Ireland." Other gentlemen also 
furnished Papers, but there still remained a want of 
sufficient available material to supply arrears, and bring 
the issue of the Journal up to date ; it therefore became 
needful to sacrifice another Annual Volume. The late 
Rev. James Graves had arranged that " The Rude 
Stone Monuments of Ireland" (and the antiques dis- 
covered in them) should be described by counties ; 
everything that had heretofore been written on the 
subject, both in our Journal, and in the Proceedings and 
Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy and kindred 
societies, to be collected and arranged ; our local secre- 
taries to be called on to furnish reports of all the mega- 
lithic remains in their respective districts. In this 
manner he (Mr. Graves) trusted he should be enabled 
to provide a work that would probably have done more 
for the advancement of archaeolgy than anything pre- 
viously published by this Association. Of this contem- 
plated work, portions of the first part treating of "The 
Rude Stone Monuments of Sligo" have already been 
utilized for the purpose of completing some of the lately 
published Numbers of the Journal. I, however, took 
upon myself the responsibility of causing 250 additional 
copies to be printed, in case it should be the wish of 
the Committee to adhere to the original intention of 
our late lamented Secretary. 

Our Association has never been in a more healthy 
condition it only wants now a somewhat more ener- 
getic organization ; and with this object in view, I would 
beg most respectfully to throw out the following sug- 
gestions : 

1. That there be three Secretaries appointed for 
the working of the Association one for care of the 
Finance, one for Editing the Journal, and one whose 
duties should be to organize regular Quarterly Meetings, 
and otherwise bring the Proceedings of the Association 
prominently before the public. 

2. That a Committee be formed for the special pur- 
pose of completing the organization of the Association, 
the three counties of Cavan, Leitrim, and Westmeath 
being at present unrepresented by Local Secretaries. 



100 PROCEEDINGS. 

3. That it be impressed on Members that, when a 
ballot is demanded, Fellows alone have the right of 
voting at meetings, and that, therefore, Members de- 
sirous of taking part in the working of the Association 
should cause themselves to be placed as such on the 
Roll. 

4. That our Association being entitled to bear the 
prefix "Royal," and this being Jubilee Year, an appli- 
cation should be made to Government for a small grant, 
and, if successful in this application, the valuable ser- 
vices of W. F. Wakeman might be secured as Editor. 
At present there are not funds to pay such an officer, 
up to the present all the work of the Association having 
been carried on by voluntary service. 

After a lengthened discussion, it was proposed by 
Dr. J. H. Joly, seconded by Canon John Grainger, D.D.,. 
and passed unanimously : 

" That Lieut. -Colonel Wood-Martin's suggestion as to the appoint- 
ment of three Secretaries, each with a defined department, be adopted." 

It was proposed by Rev. H. W. Lett, seconded by 
W. Gray, and passed unanimously : 

"That J. G. Robertson be Finance Secretary; Lieut. -Col on el Wood- 
Martin, Editing Secretary; and W. F. "Wakeman, Executive Secretary" 

It was proposed by the Rev. H. W. Lett, seconded 
by W. Gray, and passed unanimously : 

" That Quarterly Meetings be held according to the Rules of the- 
Association." 

It was proposed by W. Gray, seconded by G. H. 
Kinahan, and passed unanimously : 

" That the Annual Meeting of the Association be held in Dublin ; 
that one of the Quarterly Meetings be held in Kilkenny ; that the other 
two Meetings be Provincial Meetings, the exact localities to be deter- 
mined by the Committee." 

It was proposed by W. Gray, seconded by J. R, 
Joly : 

" That the next Quarterly Meeting be held at Enniskillen, and that 
the Local Secretary be requested to make the needful arrangements, and 
communicate with the Secretaries of the Association." 



PROCEEDINGS. 101 

It was proposed by R. Langrishe, seconded by E. 
Atthill, and passed unanimously : 

" That the Yice-Presidents and Local Secretaries do form a Sub- 
Committee to promote the organization of the Association, and to obtain 
new Members more especially in the counties of Cavan, Leitrim, and 
Westmeath." 

It was proposed by W. Gray, seconded by the Rev. 
H. W. Lett, and passed unanimously : 

" That the Provincial Secretaries be ex officio Members of the Com- 
mittee." 

It was proposed by R. Langrishe, seconded by E. 
Atthill, and passed unanimously: 

" That the Annual Volume of ' The Rude Stone Monuments of Sligo 
and the Island of Achill' be proceeded with in the Journal, and after- 
wards reprinted in volume form ; and that the one referring to the 
* County Dublin' should follow as soon as possible in separate form." 

It was proposed by Lieut.-Colonel Wood-Martin, 
seconded by Rev. H. W. Lett, and passed unani- 
mously : 

" That copies of the Journal be sent to the Press for review." 

It was proposed by Robert Malcolmson, seconded by 
R. Larigrishe, and passed unanimously : 

11 That Lord James Butler and Dr. Joly be requested to make in- 
quiries, and report to the next Meeting of the Association, the possi- 
bility, and best mode of publishing, in a suitable manner, the late Q-. V. 
Du Noyer's Tracings from the Charter of Waterford, temp. Richard II." 

It was proposed by W. Gray, seconded by W. F. 
Wakeman, and passed unanimously : 

" That the Committee should furnish a report to the next Quarterly 
Meeting as to the condition of the property of the Association, in blocks, 
sketches, antiques, &c." 

Dr. Joly said as this was the Royal Archaeological 
Association, he thought they should follow the example 
of other societies, and draw up, in the Jubilee year of 
Her reign, a loyal Address to Her Majesty the Queen. 
He moved : 

" That a Committee be appointed to draw up an Address to Her 
Majesty on the occasion of Her Jubilee ; that Lord James Butler, W. 
Frazer, F.E.C.S.I., and the proposer of the resolution, be the Committee, 
with power to add to their number, and to carry out this proposal." 



102 PROCEEDINGS. 

R. Langrishe seconded the resolution, which was 
carried unanimously, and the following Address was 
adopted : 

" TO HER MAJESTY QUEEN VICTORIA. 

"MAY IT PLEASE TOUR MAJESTY, 

"We, the President, Yice-Presidents, Officers, and Members of 'THE 
ROYAL HISTORICAL AND ARCHJSOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION OF IRELAND,' whose 
Members belong to every district in this island, desire to express our 
loyal devotion to your Majesty's Person and Throne. 

" During your prolonged reign we recognise such remarkable ad- 
vances in Art, Science, and Education as render it the most illustrious 
in our annals. Still we believe that neither this unprecedented pro- 
gress, nor the circumstance that your Majesty's sceptre extends far 
beyond the limits ever before granted to Royal or Imperial sway, will 
hereafter constitute your highest glory. That is best shown by the 
place you have secured in the affections of your subjects, second to none 
of your long line of ancestors, and the deep feelings of respect awarded 
to you by foreign nations. 

""We trust that the Divine disposer of events may long continue 
your Majesty's reign over us in peace and prosperity. 

" Signed, on behalf of ' THE ROYAL HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
ASSOCIATION OF IRELAND,' 

"JAMES WANDESFORD BUTLER." 

J. G. Robertson stated that he had received a collec- 
tion of old coins, brooches, beads, &c., representing 
various remote periods, and discovered in various parts 
of Ireland. He then read " Notes upon a Paper by 
Thomas Drew, architect, R.H.A., entitled, * Street as a 
Restorer/ The discoveries at Christ Church," for which 
interesting and valuable Paper the thanks of the Meeting 
were voted to Mr. Robertson. 

Papers were communicated also by Mr. Thomas J. 
Westropp on u The History of the Franciscan Monas- 
tery of Quin, Co. Clare " ; and by Mr. Thomas Davis 
White on " The Church Plate of the Diocese of Cashel 
and Emly." 

Lord James Butler said he had lately written with 
the object of securing from Government to the widow 
of the late Rev. James Graves the pension paid to her 



PROCEEDINGS. 103 

husband during the closing years of his life. He was 
not sure that his letter would be productive of any good 
result; but it might have a different effect if the Society 
authorized him to forward a memorial to Lord Salisbury 
on behalf of Mrs. Graves. 

Several Members expressed their warm approval of 
the suggestion, which was adopted. 

Lieutenant- Colonel Wood-Martin exhibited numerous 
relics from the rude stone monuments of the county 
Sligo, and some from a crannog discovered by Mr. Owen 
Smith, near Nobber, Co. Meath ; also seven Roman 
coins, said to have been found in the county Leitrim. 
These latter are the property of W. Lucas, M.D., who 
states that they were alleged to have been dug out of a 
rath close to the Church of Killenumery. The reputed 
discoverer of these coins is now dead ; however, per- 
sons in the neighbourhood assert that they " re- 
membered Johnston finding a lot of old copper tied 
up in a boot (?) some years ago." It is stated that 
upwards of one hundred specimens were then disin- 
terred. 

W. Frazer, F.R.C.S.I., who examined the coins, pro- 
nounced the collection to consist of seven examples of 
.small-sized, or third brass Roman coins, all different. 
They are coins of the Emperors 

ELorian (A.D. 276), . . . Reverse, Concordia Militum. 

Probus (A.D. 276-282), . . Fides Militum. 

Cavinus (A.D. 283-4), . 

Diocletian (A.D. 284-305), . . ,, Jovi Conservator! Aug. 

Maximian (A.D. 286-310), . . ,, Concordia Militum. 

-Constantine the Great (A.D. 323-357), ,, Providentia Aug. 

,, ,, ,, Votis, etc. (obliterated). 

Dr. Frazer further remarked that the discovery of 
Roman coins in Ireland was so exceptional as to demand 
a strict investigation into each instance of their alleged 
occurrence ; there was no evidence of the extension of 
Roman civilization to Ireland; and, considering our close 
proximity to their settlements in Britain, the positive 
absence of all antiquities bearing the slightest relation 



104 PROCEEDINGS. 

to that powerful dominant race was most remarkable. 
That the gentleman who forwarded these coins was told 
of their discovery in a rath is not sufficient verification ; 
and the story of the old boot as a receptacle for these 
copper coins of trivial value is such a palpable absurdity 
that it stamps the entire narrative as the invention of the 
individual who sold them. They are such a gathering 
as a tyro in numismatics might purchase for a mere trifle 
in an English shop. 

A story had long circulated about the discovery of 
Roman coins near Clondalkin. Circumstances led Dr. 
Frazer to investigate the legend, and the coins dwindled 
down to a solitary second brass of Antoninus Pius, picked 
up in a garden, where it was with good reason considered 
to have been dropped by children at play. It is now in 
Dr. Frazer's possession. 

When the old copper coinage was withdrawn from 
circulation some years since, several bronze Roman coins 
came into Dr. Frazer's hands, contributed by persons 
desirous to get rid of them to charity collections no 
doubt they thought the banks would replace them by 
current coin and with them were also foreign coins of 
different ages and countries. 

The alleged finds of Roman coins recorded in this 
land are not numerous, and most of them will be found 
in the pages of the Journal of our Association, or in the 
Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 

Mr. J. Carruthers states that in 1820 about three 
hundred Roman silver-coins were got near the Giant's 
Causeway, of which one belonging to the Empress 
Matidia came into his possession. It is a pity this col- 
lection was not examined by a skilled numismatist, and 
the particulars of the " find" properly verified. Another 
record is still more unsatisfactory. 

April, 1830. Five hundred Roman coins found by 
James Quig in the townland of Ponduff, one mile from 
the Giant's Causeway, and all sold to strangers visiting the 
Causeway. The demand for antiquities from tourists 
visiting this district is so notorious, and the demand 
can be supplied with such facility, that it is a matter 
of surprise why a larger trade is not carried on. 



PROCEEDINGS. 105 

Dr. Frazer looks on this alleged discovery as most 
suspicious. 

Isolated coins, which have been picked up by chance, 
are worthless to the scientific investigator: if really found, 
they were in all probability dropped there by accident, 
and, perhaps, not very long before their discovery. 
Should the story be told by a dealer of their having 
turned up in a rath or old castle, it will probably depend 
on the brilliance of his imagination, and his desire to 
enhance their value with a credulous purchaser. Of such 
isolated discoveries the following are examples : 

1850, a Eoman coin of Augustus (!) was found in 
Tyrone. 

1851, two Roman coins, one of Gordian III., and 
one of Antoninus Pius, were found near Templemore. 

Dr. Frazer would not be understood as denying the 
possible occurrence of Roman coins in Ireland, but 
wishes to caution the public against accepting rash and 
unsupported statements of such discoveries as if they 
were reliable. One deposit of genuine character appears 
on record, and it is so exceptional as to give additional 
weight to this meaning. 

" April, 1854. In the townland of Ballinrees, parish 
of Macosquin, near Coleraine, Londonderry, 2000 silver 
Roman coins, and 200 ozs. 15 dwt. of silver fragments, 
were obtained; 68 were coins of Julian II.; two of 
Jovian ; 34 of Valentinian ; 48 of Valens ; 68 of Gratian ; 
27 of Valentinian, junior ; 33 of Victor ; 41 of Theodosius 
Magnus ; 52 of Magnus Maximus ; 37 of Eugenius ; 
22 of Constantine II. ; 132 of Arcadius ; 112 of Honorius ; 
2 of Constantine in Britain, and 1305 variously clipped. 
The fragments consisted of portions of broken plate 
and two ingots, stamped with the names of Roman 
mint masters. 

This " find" carries with it undoubted evidence of its 
truth : it may have constituted the plunder of a f reeboot- 
ing expedition. Dr. Frazer possesses some of these coins, 
and considers the presence of such a number of clipped 
coins (utterly useless as objects of sale or curiosity) to 
be one of the strongest features in its favour. He would 
gladly ascertain what has become of the rest of this- 
collection. 



106 PROCEEDINGS. 

Dr. Frazer would refer to the Transactions of the 
Royal Irish Academy of the year 1841, p. 184, for de 
tails of Roman Denarii, exhibited by Prof. M'Cullagh, 
and stated to have been found near the Giant's Cause- 
way ; also to some subsequent observations by the Rev. 
Dr. Drummond upon Roman coins, alleged to have been 
discovered in this island at different times. 

The above desultory remarks must not be assumed 
as exhausting all the alleged tales of Roman coins found 
in Ireland. They will, however, serve as illustrations 
of the necessity of carefully weighing such reports before 
accepting them for truth. 

A vote of thanks to the Chairman having been passed 
unanimously, the Meeting then adjourned. 



( 107 ) 



ON A CEOMLEAC-LIKE ALTAE, OE MONUMENT, AT TUMNA, 
CO. EOSCOMMON. 

BY W. F. WAKEMAN, 

Hon. Local Secretary for Dublin and Wicklow. 

ON the Eoscommon side of the Shannon, at a site now 
popularly called Tummina situate at a distance of about 
one mile and a-half from the town of Carrick-on-Shannon 
may be seen the ruins of two churches, surrounded by 
a mur, or circular wall composed of earth and stones, 
and now only just traceable. Such enclosures, we have 
evidence to believe, very frequently formed a leading 
feature amongst the architectural arrangements of our 
earliest ecclesiastical establishments. 

The cellce at Tummina, thus environed, cannot be 
supposed to possess any features of more than ordinary 
archaeological interest. They are in plan small oblong 
quadrangles. Their walls in many places have been 
ruthlessly shattered and levelled ; and almost every 
coigne, or ope frame, has been torn away and applied to 
purposes different from those for which they had been 
designed. The masonry presents no feature of early 
style : it is throughout such as is found in the majority 
of our later mediaeval churches, and, upon the whole, is 
somewhat poor of its class. At first glance an archaeo- 
logist might fancy that in these little structures he had 
found a study relating to primitive Christian antiquities, 
but, after even a slight examination of the remains, he 
will see that first impressions are, at times, apt to de- 
ceive. 

It is certain that the rath-like work referred to, and 
the presence within its bounds of two churches, and of 
a most remarkable altar or monument, which I shall 
presently notice at length, would suggest an idea that the 
place had been occupied in early Christian days as the 
site of a monastic establishment of a greater or less note. 
In a letter, dated July 28th, 1837, and addressed from 
Elphin, by the late Doctor O'Donovan, to Lieutenant,, 



108 ON A CROMLEAC-LIKE ALTAR, CO. ROSCOMMOtf. 

afterwards General, Sir Thomas Larcom who at that 
time was superintendent of the Irish Ordnance Survey 
Department the following notice of the place will be 
found. The original is preserved in the Library of 
the Royal Irish Academy, amongst the Ordnance re- 
cords there deposited: " The patron saint of Toomnaa 
is the virgin St. Heidin, or Eidin (Goaom), and her 
grave is pointed out in the churchyard, with curious 
stones over it called oeicneabcnp, or decades." I have 
never before heard of this holy woman, and the only 
reference I have seen to Toomnaa as a church is the 
following from the Four Masters : 

" A.D. 1246 Mulkieran O'Lenaghan, a noble priest 
of Tuaim mnd, died on his way to Ardcarna, and was 
interred with pomp and honor on Trinity Island in 
Lough Key." "It is believed in the country that the 
meaning of Toomnaa is Uucrnn an Qit, the noise of the 
ford, because it lies near the lower river Boyle ; but if 
the authorities given by the Four Masters be correct, it 
cannot admit of this interpretation ; for Tuaim mnd 
means the tomb (tumulus) of the woman, and seems to 
have been the name of the place before there ever was 
a church in the locality." 

A most interesting essay might be written on the 
subject of the transition from pagan to Christian forms 
of burial as practised in Erin. Our earliest mauso- 
leums are doubtlessly the cromleacs, or simple cist, 
formed of four stones covered by a flag. The chambered 
earn was but an enlargement of this idea. It would 
seem that, as in primitive Christian times in Ireland, in 
church and dwelling, immemorial styles of structure 
prevailed so was it in the last resting-places of the 
people. Our earliest Christian graves are simply formed 
of thin flagstones, set edgeways, and covered by a slab. 
In no manner do they differ from the pagan urn-bearing 
cist, with the exception that the latter are usually in 
form more or less a perfect square. Examples of 
Christian cists have been pointed to in widely separated 
localities. Sometimes these graves are found to form a 
circle, their ends converging to a common centre, as at 
that singularly interesting primitive church (unhappily 




Ruins of Ancient Church and Cromleac-like Altar, or Monument, in the Cemetery 
of Tumna, Co. Eoscommon. 




I 2 3 4 5 6 FEET 
Ground Plan of Altar, or Monument. 



110 ON A CROMLEAC-LIKE ALTAR, CO. ROSCOMMON. 

not yet identified with the name of a patron or 
founder) at St. John's Point, county Down, and at 
the celebrated cross-inscribed pillar-stone at Kilna- 
saggart, not far from Moira, county Armagh. Cists 
purely pre-Christian in character, but certainly not 
older than the latter part of the seventh century (and 
possibly later), were examined by myself in Ardilaun, 
off the coast of Connernara. Such graves, clearly 
Christian, are by no means of rare occurrence. Besides 
these earth-enveloped cists, a few monuments which 
partake largely of pagan design still remain in connec- 
tion with a few of our more early church sites. Perhaps 
the most remarkable of these occurs at Tarmon, near 
Glencolumkille, county Clare. It consists of four large 
flagstones, set in oblong form, and converging upwards, 
but not touching each other. Their height above ground 
is at present more than four feet ; it may have been 
originally greater. Whether at one time capped by a 
table or covering stone cannot now be determined. 
Remains of a similar monument may be seen in the very 
ancient cemetery on the Hill of Slane, county Meath. 
Other instances might be brought forward. 

The so-called tomb of St. Heidin, or Eiden, still 
stands, no doubt as it was seen by O'Donovan, It is 
now, by the neighbouring people, known as the tomb of 
St. Gidin, and is considered a very sacred object. 
Stations, I was informed, used to be held at it ; but such 
observances would seem to have been long discontinued. 
In appearance the monument is a perfect cromleac, and 
if found at Carrowmore or Moytirra, or in connexion 
with any other group of pagan sepulchral remains, would 
pass unchallenged as one of them. Unlike the generality 
of Christian graves, it lies directly north and south. It 
stands at a distance of several yards outside the eastern 
end of the present church, but may possibly have 
been within the area of an older building. Its length 
on the interior is barely five feet, but there is reason 
to believe that the northern end may have been some- 
what curtailed. The structure must, I think, remain 
a great puzzle to antiquaries ; and yet, if properly con- 
sidered, may suggest a most interesting connecting-link 



ON A CROMLEAOLIKE ALTAR, CO. ROSCOMMON. Ill 

between a mode of sepulture usually in these countries 
considered prehistoric, and that which we know prevailed 
in Ireland during the earlier ages of Christianity. Tradi- 
tion makes it a tomb ; but that it was also used as an 
altar there can be but little doubt, the globular swearing- 
stones (decades), which rest upon its table, pointing irre- 
sistibly to that idea. 

Before closing this short Paper, I may place on 
record a most curious and valuable "find," of which the 
immediate vicinity of mysterious Tuaim mnd (I adopt 
the name as given by the Four Masters) was the scene. 

It appears that about thirty or forty years ago Mr. 
Edward Hayden, a farmer, who still lives close to Carrick- 
on-Shannon, was digging on the opposite side of the hill 
to that on which the tomb or altar is situated, and he 
found close to the surface eight hollow balls, varying from 
two to three inches in diameter, and each having an aper- 
ture pierced through its shell. These balls, or beads, 
a Dublin goldsmith pronounced to be formed of gold, 
and they were purchased by him from Mr. Hayden for 
the sum of 70. They were supposed by the finder to 
have been in some way connected with the ancient 
churches of the place, possibly as the necklace of a 
memorial statue, or carved figure of a saint. It is pro- 
bable, however, that their date is older than the intro- 
duction of Christianity into Ireland. They were disposed 
of in Dublin, and are in all likelihood at present preserved 
amongst the golden glories of ancient Erin, which so 
excite the wonder and admiration of all visitors to the 
Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. I may add, in 
conclusion, that I am not without hope of being able to 
identify at least a portion of this interesting " find," and 
of figuring the relics in the pages of our Journal. 



4TH 8ER., VOL. VIII. 



ORNAMENTS IN GLASS FROM EGYPT TO ILLUSTRATE 
THOSE FOUND IN IRELAND. 

BY ROBERT DAY, JUN., F.S.A., M.R.I.A., V.-P., R.H.A.A.I. 

I HAVE much pleasure in placing before the Society some 
objects that have been brought from the Nile Valley by 
my son, who has returned home after spending the 
winter in Upper Egypt. These illustrate, in a remark- 
able way, some of our Irish antiquities. 

In the Fifth Volume of this Journal, 4th Series, page 
532, among the glass ornaments described by W. H. 
Knowles is one (fig. 8, Plate II.) of a well-known Irish 
design, namely, a bead (circular) of black glass, in which 
are settings of vitreous paste of various colours, and 
without any defined pattern. Here are some of pre- 
cisely the same character (that might have been made 
in the same workshop, and fashioned by the same hand) 
that were purchased from an old Arab at Luxor, who 
probably brought them across the river from Thebes. 
The mode of purchase was not upon the one-price prin- 
ciple, but was conducted upon a plan of huxtering that 
would throw the bargaining of an Irish fair or market 
far into the shade. The Arab, after showing one bead, 
sat down with his customer, who, in order to get the old 
trader into a good humour, produced a cigarette-case, 
and both smoked and bargained. The price first asked 
was ten shillings, about the same as a county Antrim 
dealer would now attach to a similar glass ornament if 
offering it for sale. 1 This was responded to by my son's 
" raising" the bidding to half a piastre, value about one 
penny farthing. This was bringing Mr. Arab's " nobles 
to ninepence," and did not appear to put him out in the 
least, for another cigarette was smoked, and another 
half hour consumed, and finally the bead was secured 

1 At a recent sale of a collection of and undecorated, sold for 10 10*. to Mr. 

Irish antiquities in Belfast (March 17, Holland, a dealer, who has since informed 

1887), formed by the late Mr. Glenny of me that he had already sold six of the 

Newry, " Lot 72," a string of one him- number for as many pounds sterling, 
dred beads, many of which were plain 






O 













ORNAMENTS IN GLASS 

FROM IRELAND AND EGYPT. 

COLLOTYH. 8Y W.oa.OG.. 



OENAMENTS IN GLASS FKOM EGYPT. 113 

at the total cost of one piastre and two cigarettes and 
toth buyer and seller were satisfied. 

Now the finding of these beads away up the Nile 
Valley, 400 miles from Cairo, and digging up their 
counterparts in a North of Ireland dried-up lake dwell- 
ing, is both suggestive and instructive. It goes a long 
way to prove that the most beautiful of all our ancient 
glass ornaments (those with the enamel settings) are not, 
as has been by some supposed, of Irish manufacture. 
Their birthplace must be looked for in some of the old 
trade centres upon the Mediterranean shore, from which 
they were borne north and south, east and west ; or 
possibly in Egypt itself, where such countless thousands 
of vitrified beads have been found in the tombs and 
temples. I have quite a score of beads of the same 
variety in my own collection identical with those from 
Luxor. There is no defined pattern in any of these 
enamelled beads; the vitreous paste is inserted unequally, 
and without any attempt at design, in the surface of the 
glass ; and as a rule the brightest and most diverse 
colours were used. I have selected one from Luxor 
(No. 1), and one from the Co. Antrim (No. 2), to illustrate 
my subject (see Plate). In W. H. Knowles's Paper, al- 
ready referred to, he finds a difficulty in the fact that the 
character of the beads from the British Islands are not 
in every way identical, the examples from Anglo-Saxon 
graves differing from those that are discovered in ancient 
Irish tumuli. But the wave of population that migrated 
to the south and east of England were Teutons, Scandi- 
navians, and Frisians, differing widely from the Celtic 
immigrants who struck upon the south and west of 
Ireland, and the south of Wales, and who worked their 
way from Cape Clear to Down and Antrim, and crossed 
from thence to Scotland, carrying with them their own 
peculiar ornaments, weapons, and tools, which although 
bearing a general resemblance to those of their Teutonic 
neighbours, yet differed in many well-marked pecu- 
liarities. 

In addition to these enamelled beads, there are others 
resembling, in their construction and form, those found 
in Ireland, one of which a blue bead is a very com- 

12 



114 ORNAMENTS IN GLASS FROM EGYPT. 

mon variety, made as if two beads were joined in one. 
More than a dozen such are in my collection, both dual, 
triple, and quadruple. It is probable that these beads 
were made in a continuous length, and were cut off 
one from the other during the process of cooling. An 
Egyptian bead, and one from Ireland, are numbered 
3 and 4 in the illustration for comparison. 

With these I have illustrated a remarkably fine 
Anglo-Saxon cylindrical glass bead, of a brick-red 
colour, with wavy yellow lines passing through two 
circular beads of green (No. 5). And two very fine 
examples from the county Westmeath one like that 
figured (Plate II., No. 4) by W. H. Knowles, but that the 
nipple-like projections are blue upon a red ground-work, 
and within circles of yellow (No. 6) ; and the other of 
the same design, but upon a black body. It measures 
-J-th inch diameter x |-th inch in thickness (No. 7). 

The Arabs, both at Thebes and at the Pyramids, are 
adepts in the art of counterfeiting antiquities, more 
especially Scarabei. A favourite mode of giving these 
the rubbed and polished, dulled and blunted, appear- 
ance of age, is to " cram" an unhappy goose or turkey 
with a few, which after undergoing a certain number of 
revolutions in the gizzard, are recovered, and sold as 
relics of the shepherd kings, or later dynasties. I am 
not aware that the Arabs manufacture glass ornaments, 
or try to improve or manipulate the modern beads into 
those resembling the antique varieties ; so that collectors 
of these have less to fear than the young aspirant to 
Numismatic fame, for the show places in Egypt are 
simply sown broadcast with English forgeries of Roman, 
Greek, and other coins. As a proof of the worthless- 
ness of these, and that the source from whence they 
came is well known, an Arab could not have his feelings 
more outraged than in giving him one such as "back- 
sheesh." 



ON A BEONZE BBOOCH. 

BY ROBERT DAY, JUN., F.S.A., M.R.I.A., V.-P., R.H.A.A.I. 

THE bronze brooch, 1 of which illustrations are here 
given, came into my collection in July, 1886, shortly 




after its haying been found in a crannog near the town 
of Cavan. The bronze of which it is made is hard, 

1 For a brooch of the same variety, vide vol. in., part i., 4th Series, p. 158. 



116 



ON A BRONZE BROOCH, 



and of a close grain ; and while having a peculiarly 
dark patination, it has also the appearance of having a 
larger proportion of tin than usual in its composi- 
tion. 

The pin is of a lighter colour and coarser texture, 
and is an ancient mending or restoration, the original 




acus, which probably was ornamented, having been 
broken or lost. 

The brooch, in the character of its ornament, has- 
.some resemblance to the " Dublin University Brooch " 
(reproduced in fac simile by Waterhouse & Co.) in its 



ON A BRONZE BROOCH. 117 

interlacing of animals' legs, and in their general treat- 
ment. In the Dublin brooch these animals are worked 
up in the casting, and rest upon a solid ground. But in 
this they form an open-work margin to the outer rim of 
the ornament, inside which is a rope-work fillet, the 
whole enclosing serpents twisted into an interlaced pat- 
tern in the usual manner of the Celtic art craftsmen 
of the twelfth century. 

The reverse, or back of the brooch, has engraved lines, 
forming the segment of a circle, which cuts off its angles, 
and the arch or outer circle of the ornament terminates 
in heads that resemble those of the fresh-water eel or 
conger (see illustration, p. 116). 

The lacustrine dwellers must have drawn largely 
upon the resources of the surrounding water for their 
food supply, and it is reasonable to suppose that, in 
accordance with their taste for fish and fishing, the 
symbols of that seductive art should find a fitting place 
upon their decorative ornaments. 



THE RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

BY W. G. WOOD-MARTIN, M.R.I.A., FELLOW AND GENERAL 
SECRETARY, R.H.A.A.I. 

[Continued from page 94.] 

IV. 

To those who have made ancient Celtic tales and poems 
their study it has become an established conviction that 
they had been composed to commemorate real personages; 
but in the decadence of the bardic profession, or before 
these tales had been committed to writing, much of the 
truth was lost or obscured ; the substance alone was 
preserved, and in this state some of them perhaps 
examples of the survival of the fittest have struggled 
for existence even to our own times. " One of the many 
indications of that synthetic and reconstructive, rather 
than analytic and destructive tendency, which marks this 
second half of the nineteenth century, is the fact that his- 
torical scholars are beginning to look on popular legends 
and romances, not certainly with the uncritical credulity 
of the days before Niebuhr, but with the belief of find- 
ing in them such records of historical events as will 
repay the trouble of investigating them." 

From Misgaun Meadhbh, on the summit of Knocknarea, 
can be seen, at a distance of about two miles to the 
eastward of Carrowmore, two large earns, situated on 
two hills overlooking Lough Gill, and which monuments 
give name to the townland of Cams, formerly styled 
na- Carna, an elevated tract overlooking the lake. These 
earns are mentioned in the Dinmenchus, a celebrated 
ancient Irish MS., supposed to have been compiled, in the 
sixth century, by Amergin, chief bard of King Diarmid. 
In the sixth century of our era, therefore, the sepul- 
chral character of rude stone monuments was evidently 
well understood, for the two earns Carn Romra and 
Cam Omra were in that MS. reputed to mark the 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 119 

graves of two chiefs so named. 1 The legend is as 
follows : 

In former times two chiefs, yclept Romra and Omra, 
lived on the plain now occupied by the waters of Lough 
Gill. Romra had a daughter, who, from the clear bright- 
ness of her skin, obtained the name of Grill. Omra 
asked her in marriage, but she rejected him. Shortly 
afterwards she proceeded to lave her fair skin in a well 
on the plain. After having disrobed, she beheld in the 
limpid water the reflection of her rejected wooer stand- 
ing above. She died of shame ; and her nurse, on dis- 
covering Grill's body lying lifeless in the well, poured 
out such a flood of tears that they formed a lake, which 
thus derived its title from Gill, the daughter of Romra. 
In revenge for the death of his daughter, Romra killed 
Omra, and the former died of grief. 2 Gill is not the only 
Irishwoman who is stated in legendary lore to have died 
of shame ; for (as pointed out by P. W. Joyce) Fial, the 
wife of Lewy, son of 1th, the uncle of Milesius, gave 
name to the River Feale, in Kerry. Her husband unex- 
pectedly came in sight, while she stood naked after 
bathing in the stream, and she, not recognizing him, 
immediately died through a paroxysm of mingled fear 
and shame. The Sligo legend does not, however, specify 
which is Cam Romra and which Carn Omra. That 
situated on Cams Hill (see fig. 96) has a circumference 
of about 180 paces, and a diameter of 36 paces on the 
summit, which is slightly cup-shaped. There is, seem- 
ingly, a ruined cist on the S.S.E. portion of the periphery 
of the pile, and there are traces of a facing of stones at 



1 The following notice of a earn, pre- for himself." The Round Towers of Ire- 

served in the Book of Lecan, fol. 247 a, land, p. 107. 

conveys a distinct idea that some of those 2 MS. letters Ordnance Survey. " This 

monuments were raised by the chief dur- story," remarks P. W. Joyce, "would 

ing his lifetime, and had been also used be of great interest (1) if the legend is 

as a spot for the annual meeting of the really in Dinnsenchus ; (2) if the earns be 

people, called in Irish Oenach: " Carn properly identified. There is a similar 

Amhalgaidh, i.e. of Amhalgaidh, son of well-known Greek story, not similar in- 

Fiachra Elgaidh, son of Dathi, son of deed, but exactly the same, with only 

Fiachra. It is by him that this earn was change of names." There can, however, 

formed, for the purpose of holding a meet- be little doubt about the proper inden- 

ing of the Hy-Amhalgaidh around it every tification of the earns, as there are no 

year, and to view his ships and fleet going others in the vicinity of Lough Gill, 
and coming, and as a place of interment 



120 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 



the west side : about 12 feet further in there is another 
wall, built with great exactness. It would thus appear 
as if the monument had been terraced; but it is nowjim- 
possible to determine whether, in the original design, 
these terraces were observable or had been covered. 

In a Paper entitled " Typical Specimens of Cornish 
Barrows," a very similar description has been given 
by W. C. Borlase, F.S.A. ; it is as f ollows : l "An outer 
ring of well-selected granite blocks was first encountered, 
of which twenty to thirty appeared on the surface in 
different places round the mound. From the fact that 
three or four of these were found lying one above the 
other, I came to the conclusion that it was very pos- 



; 




Fig. 96. General View of Cam on Cam's Hill, near Sligo, looking West. 

sible that similar stones, arranged in layers or steps, 
were once placed, pyramid fashion, around it, so as to 
encase the whole. There are traces also, as I think, of 
a detached circle of single stones having surrounded this 
earn. At a distance of fourteen feet inside this first 
ring we came upon a rude perpendicular wall four feet 
high; three feet inside that again was a second, and 
at a like distance a third." The Cornish explorer ar- 
rived at the conclusion which, in the Sligo example, is 
also apparently self-evident, that the earn had been 
raised, or added to, either as part of the original 

1 Archceologia, vol. xlix., p. 106. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 121 

design, or at different periods ; that the interior wall 
marked the former exterior of the primitive place of 
sepulture, and that each subsequent circumvallation was 
an addition to the original nucleus. 

The diameter of the summit of the second earn, 
(situated on Belvoir Hill), would appear to be about the 
same as its companion monument. Its circumference 
at base could not be ascertained, owing both to the 
uneven nature of the ground and to its being surrounded 
by trees, and a close undergrowth of briers, furze, &c. 
It appears to be of greater height than the mound on 
Carns Hill, but is in a more dilapidated condition ; its 
S.S.E. side has been utilised as a quarry. Scattered 
amongst the stones forming both these monuments, sea- 
shells and fragments of uncalcined bones were picked up. 

About half a mile due south of these earns are two 
cashels, distant two hundred yards from each other ; that 
to the westward has a N. and S. diameter of 100 feet, 
that to the eastward 66 feet ; both are nearly level with 
the ground, the materials of the walls having been pro- 
bably used to form the fences around the fields ; directly 
to the south of each is a ruined monument of seemingly 
sepulchral character. In close proximity to the more 
westerly cashel there is a ruined circle, 38 paces in N. 
and S. diameter, with traces of an inner circle, whilst also 
to the southward of its companion cashel there is a 
slightly raised mound that had originally been surrounded 
with a circle of stones, of which a few on its northern 
circumference still remain. It is about 40 feet in diameter 
from E. to W. ; to the S. are the remains of what appears 
to have been a cist, and at some feet distant there is a 
solitary stone, perhaps the trace of an outer circle ; but 
the monument altogether is in such a state of dilapida- 
tion that it would be useless to give a map of it. To 
the west the soil composing the mound has been carried 
away, possibly for agricultural purposes, and rabbits are 
now rapidly completing its destruction. 

The summit of the earn on Belvoir Hill commands 
one of the most picturesque views in the county Sligo, 
and being within twenty minutes walk from the town is 
the most accessible and advantageous point from which a 



122 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 



stranger may view a great extent of the county. Descend- 
ing the hill on the side facing the water there may be 
observed, close to the path, a large erratic boulder, its 
upper surface presenting a depressed cup-shaped hollow, 
with three small circular holes. This was pointed out 
as a " Druid's Altar." It does not seem like the remains 
of a " Giant's Grave" ; the boulder has all the appearance 
of having been eroded by natural weathering. 

At a short distance from Cams Hill, in the townland 
of Abbeyquarter, and within the bounds of the borough 
of Sligo, there is a stone circle (see fig. 97), situated on 
a rising ground, about fifty yards from the southern 
bank of the river Garvogue or Sligo river and close to 
the walls of the county prison. Strange to find a pagan 




Fig. 97. General View of Stone Circle in Abbeyquarter, within the Borough .iff 

of Sligo. 

burial-place in such a position, within hearing of the hum 
of the now busy town, and the constant shriek of the 
steam-whistle that obtrusively remind us of the present, 
and of the thousands of years that have probably elapsed 
since the human remains we were disinterring had been 
here deposited in the calm solitude of a primitive land- 
scape. The circle of boulders is nearly perfect, forming 
a ring on a raised mound 65 feet in diameter ; the inside 
surface is perfectly level. On the north there are two stones 
seemingly the remains of an inner circle ; in the same 
direction, but on the exterior of the circle, there are three 
large boulders, which had probably belonged to the outer 
ring or fence, but have been rolled out of their place. 
Of the cist or cromleac only two stones remain, one of 
these being of the usual dimensions ; the other is a 



EUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 



123 



mere slab. An excavation was made at the foot of 
the solitary remaining support ; traces of the flooring of 
the cist were discovered, and on it were some bones, of 
which the greater portion were calcined ; the interment 
had been greatly disturbed. The locus examined was 
probably but a septum, or division of the original sepulchre, 
as a glance at the plan (fig. 98) will show that it is not 
in the centre of the circle. The miscellaneous " finds" 
submitted to W. Frazer, F.R.C.S.I., for examination 




P V 2? 3C 



*f<-^. 



Fig. 98. Ground Plan of Monument in Abbeyquarter. (Scale, 20 feet to 1 inch.) 

were mixed up together in inextricable confusion, and 
lay but a few inches beneath the surface of the soil; 
they consisted of If Ibs. of calcined bones, seemingly all 
human, but in a very fragmentary state, 2^ oz. of un- 
calcined human bones, three molars, and one incisor 
tooth of a young individual, the tooth of a goat, and 
another probably of a dog, also the bones of a goat or 
sheep. 

Just in front of the south entrance of the small ruined 
church, situated on Cottage Island, in Lough Gill (see fig. 
99), there is a curious arrangement of stones ; the blocks 
are, however, in such a confused position that it would 
be unsafe to hazard a positive assertion as to its having 
originally formed a cist or cromleac, for it may be 




Fig. 99. Supposed Megalith, Cottage Island, Lough GUI. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 125 

portion of a mur which formerly encircled the church. 
An excavation could hardly decide the point, unless 
calcined bones were discovered. 

Dr. Petrie, in his Round Towers of Ireland (p. 450), 
notices the similarity existing between pagan and early 
Christian sepulchres, the graves of the first converts to 
Christianity being, in point of fact, connecting-links 
between the old and the new faith. He remarks that 
" the tombs of the early saints present a variety of forms, 
as in those on Aran, which are often rude sarcophagi, 
somewhat similar to pagan cromleacs or kistvaens, while 
at other times they are small earns, enclosed by a circu- 
lar or quadrangular wall.' 7 Similarly the ancient pagan 
cashel surrounding primitive churches on the Island of 
Inismurray, off the Sligo coast, presents the curious 
example of a primal monastic establishment, enclosed 
within a wall as old as the celebrated Staigue Fort in 
Kerry, Dun Conor, and other cashels in various parts of 
Ireland, all of which are universally acknowledged by 
antiquaries to belong to ante-Christian times in Ireland. 

About five miles from the town of Sligo, and near 
the summit of Keelogyboy 1 Mountain, in a locality 
called Aultnacaha, 2 there is a curious grave which, 
though of the rudest description, is interesting on ac- 
count of its general arrangement. The stones forming 
it are small in size, and are placed in two impinging 
circles, the larger or northern one being about 20 feet 
in diameter, and the smaller about 10 feet. No re- 
mains of an interment were discoverable in the larger 
enclosure, but traces of a rude cist were apparent in 
the smaller circle, close to where it touches upon the 
larger one. The osseous remains were submitted to W. 
Frazer, F.R.C.S.I., who states there were no evidences of 
adult interment, save two incisors (large size), and three 
molars, the rest all belonging to a child ; the set of teeth 
(incisors not being shed) points to an age before seven, 



f l Pronounced Keelogabwee ; it is con- ing where the women used to winnow 

tinuation of the Castlegal range. corn. The name is modern. It has 

2 This name signifies (according to P. also been translated (by another Irish 

W. Joyce) the height of the winnow- scholar) "the height of the showers." 



126 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

and the bones also appeared to belong to that age. There 
were six molars, three incisors (one canine), twelve uncut 
tops of teeth, fragments of child's ribs, two vertebrae,. 




Fig 100. Ground Plan of Rude Stone Monument on Keelogyboy 
Mountain. 



parts of the skull, one portion of temporal bone, with 
auditory process, finger- and toe-bones, forearm and leg, 
portions of pelvis all in a fragmentary condition. 

The county Sligo numbers amongst its rude stone 
monuments one of the most remarkable primitive struc- 
tures in Ireland. A model of it is to be seen in the 
Museum, R.I. A., and from it a sketch was taken that 
appears in the Museum Catalogue; this sketch is some- 
what misleading, and does not show the trilithons, its 
most distinguishing feature. At first sight it would 
appear inappropriate to compare the grand circular 
monument of roughly-hewn stones on Salisbury Plain 
with an arrangement of boulders, such as is repre- 
sented by fig. 101, or to compare trilithons of such 
diminutive elevation with those of Stonehenge, one 
of which measures 16 ft. 3 in., another 17 ft. 2 in., and 
the central trilithons 21 ft. 6 in. in height. Geoffrey 
of Monmouth, who wrote circ. 1147, states that Stone- 
henge was erected by Ambrosius, with the aid of the 
wizard Merlin, who actually transported the monument 
from Ireland. 




4TH 8EK., VOL. Till. 



128 HUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

In the year 1187, Giraldus Cambrensis further states 

and this is the most important part of his narrative, as 

he probably saw the monument referred to with his own 

eves that in Kildare " similar stones" to Stonehenge, 

and erected in a similar manner, were to be seen in his 
day. After separating the wheat of the legend from 
the chaff, the conclusion may, perhaps, be drawn, that 
the design of the English monument was of Irish 
origin. 

The late James Ferguson was of opinion that the tri- 
lithon is certainly exceptional in Europe, and its origin 
not easily traced, his impression being that it was merely 
an improved dolmen, standing on two legs instead of three 
or more. However, the three trilithons l still to be seen 
in the Deerpark, county Sligo, have been seemingly 
the entrance or portals of the cists, of which the re- 
mainder, and more especially the roof-flagging, has, 
to a great extent, collapsed. This Sligo monument 
crowns the summit of a hill standing some 500 feet 
above the sea level, and from it a wide extent of 
ountry can be viewed; it bears directly east of, and 
points towards, the great earn on the summit of Knock- 
narea. The structure in question lies about four miles 
east of the town of Sligo, a short distance off the 
road leading to Manorhamilton, and in the townland of 
Magheraghanrush ; the locality in which it is situated is 
now commonly known as the Deerpark, the property of 
Owen Wynne, Esq. A glance at the ground plan of the 
monument (fig. 102) at once attracts attention to the 
rudely-symmetrical method displayed in the construction 
of this enclosure ; its primitive architects were, indeed, 
not particular about the difference of a few feet, but^as 
the following measurements demonstrate they, in their 
rude way, had some well-defined purpose in the arrange- 

1 Trilithons were not unknown to the marked : "the most curious point, how- 
Romans. In De Vogue's work three ex- ever, connected with these monuments is 
ttmples are engraved : one of them, which the suggestion of Indian influence which 
dates from A.D. 222, is very like a refined they, especially at Elkeb, give rise to. 
Stonehenge example. Dr. Barth observed The introduction of sloping jambs, de- 
several trilithons at a place called Ksaea, rived from carpentry forms, can be traced 
forty-five miles from Tripoli. There are back in India, in the caves of Behar, and 
.good representations of such in Ferguson' a the Western Ghauts, to the second cen- 
liude Stone Monuments, where it is re- tury before Christ." 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 131 

ments. At either end there is a slightly-defined mound, 
about 20 feet in diameter. The principal " aisles" are each 
27 feet, and the third 24 feet long. The central enclosure, 
about 50 feet long, is, roughly speaking, twice the length 
of the " aisles." The scarcely traceable circular mound 
with a few stones appearing here and there, and situated 
at each extremity of this curious monument, had originally 
some symmetrical arrangement which, however, cannot 
now be correctly mapped ; the general appearance alone 
is marked (fig. 103). Doubtless these mounds formed an 
adjunct of the original structure, and they are of very 
nearly similar dimensions, the eastern being about 20 ft., 
and the western 21 feet in E. and W. diameter. The 
entire monument has an over-all length of about 144 feet, 
and consists primarily of a rude oblong, or blunted oval, 
bounded by rough stones, set on edge. This oval has a 
length of about 50 feet, by 28 feet in width at its broadest 
part. At each extremity of this are what, for want of 
a better term, may be called "aisles": indeed it is 
curious to observe the general resemblance of the plan 
taken in its entirety to that of a modern cathedral : 
the western end may be said to represent the chancel, the 
central enclosure the portion under the dome, whilst the 
eastern extremity is not without analogy to the nave with 
side " aisles "; the bearing of its longest axis is approxi- 
mately, 55 W. of N. At the western end of the monument, 
the single " aisle" 27 feet long, and 12 feet 6 inches 
wide inclines slightly to the N., and is not quite a pro- 
longation of the axis of the remainder of the structure, 
being 45 W. of N. ; it is consequently somewhat defec- 
tively given on the plan (fig. 102), made by the late E. 
T. Hardman. About equi-distant from the two extremi- 
ties, this " aisle" is divided by two low stones, having a 
space between them, and the western end of the structure 
is closed by two immense blocks, the outer one leaning 
against the inner: these are about 6 feet high, 7 feet 
long, and 2 feet thick. The exterior stone appears to 
be one of the displaced covering-slabs of this now dis- 
mantled cist. The western " aisle" opens into the main 
enclosure by a trilithon of two rude upright stones, and 
a long cap-stone ; the height of the ope is 3 feet to the 



132 RFDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

under side of the cap-stone, and about 5 feet 6 inches to 
the upper part, the cap-stone itself being about 8 feet in 
length. From the above description it will be seen 
that the Deerpark monument is but a diminutive repre- 
sentative of that class of remains of which Stonehenge 
is the grand exemplar. Near the centre of the southern 
side of the principal enclosure are some stones, arranged 
in such a position as to convey the impression that they 
had been originally so placed for the purpose of forming 
an entrance. They are four in number, two being on 
each side, and having a space between them 5 feet in 
width, and about 10 feet in length ; one is a limestone 
block, 6 feet wide, and 4 feet 6 inches high. 

At the eastern end of the central compartment two 
" aisles " open into it by means of rude doorways, 
or opes, composed of trilithons, each formed by two 
upright stones covered by a cap-stone, all being nearly 
of the same dimensions. The uprights measure about 
3 feet to the under and 5 feet to the upper surface of 
the cap-stone. The over-all measurement of the eastern 
" aisles " is approximately the same as the western, i. e. 
about 27 feet ; they are respectively 8 feet and 9 feet 
6 inches in width, and are separated from each other by 
a space of 5 feet 6 inches, not, however, opening into 
the central enclosure, but cut off from it by a large 
upright flagstone. The two eastern " aisles" resemble 
the western in being divided nearly midway by twa 
stones standing opposite to each other, and near the 
outer walls ; it is quite possible that they also may 
have had cap-stones. A careful excavation of both the 
western and eastern " aisles" demonstrated the fact that 
they had been originally roofed with covering-slabs ; 
indeed the remains, in a broken state, of such slab& 
was so obvious, as to attract the comments of one of 
the workmen. 

The stones used in the construction of the monu- 
ment are of limestone, and " have been apparently 
obtained from the beds of rough, rubbly limestone, which 
crop out at the surface in the vicinity, unlike many 
other prehistoric structures which are often, in Ireland, 
formed of erraticblocks of a stone foreign to the neighbour- 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 133 

hood. Its builders must, therefore, have had some idea 
of quarrying, and have had sufficient mechanical con- 
trivances to enable them to first displace, and then set 
in position, the large blocks of rock they used ; at the 
same time, the rude appearance of the rocks, and in- 
difference shown as to size or arrangement, although 
there is symmetry in the general structure, would seem 
to point to a more primitive age than that of Stone- 
henge unless, indeed, we are to suppose the Irish of 
that period were behind their British neighbours in 
civilization." 

The late E. T. Hardman, H.M.G.S.I., who, in 1879, 
thus described this unique structure (in the Journal, 
R.H.A.A.I.), suggested " that it was the place of a cere- 
monial observance of some kind. It is clearly not a 
sepulchral structure, seeing that the solid rock occurs 
within a foot or so of the surface." That, however, forms 
no argument in disproof of its mortuary character, as the 
majority of interments unearthed during this later ex- 
amination seem to have been originally deposited almost 
on the former surface of the soil, and the writer is also 
aware that E. T. Hardman had subsequently consider- 
ably modified his original theory. The late James 
Ferguson, in his Rude Stone Monuments, pp. 2345, is 
very specific in his statement that he did not consider 
this monument to be of a mortuary character. He says : 
" It would be tedious to enumerate the other dolmens 
in Ireland, which have neither dates nor peculiarities to 
distinguish them from others of this class ; but there is 
one monument of a megalithic character in Ireland which 
must be described before leaving the country, though it 
certainly is not a dolmen, and its date and use are mys- 
terious at present. . . . The three entrances from the 
central to the side apartments are trilithons of squared 
and partially-dressed stones, 1 and would remind us of 

1 In the writer's opinion these stones but the lateral pressure is sufficient to 

do not show the slightest signs of dress- prevent its fall. As this crack must have 

ing, hut there are evident traces of weather- been due to the effects of weathering 

ing a fact noticed also by the late E. T. since the block was placed in its present 

Hardman, who remarked that "the stone position, it is, I think, an evidence in 

capping the entrance into the northern favour of the great antiquity of this 

* aisle' has been fractured across the monument." 
centre, the fissure being some inches wide, 



134 KUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

Stonehenge, were they not so small. They are only 
three feet under the lintel, and you must bow low indeed to 
pass under them. Indeed, when speaking of these 
enclosures as apartments, it must be borne in mind that 
one can enter anywhere by passing between the stones, 
and stepping over the walls, which are composed of 
stones hardly ever touching each other, the highest being 
only 3 or 4 feet high. Many of them, though massive, 
have only half that height. What, then, is this curious 
edifice ? It can hardly be a tomb, it is so unlike any 
other tomb which we know of. In plan it looks more 
like a temple ; indeed it is not unlike the arrangement of 
some Christian churches ; but a church or temple with 
walls pervious, as these are, and so low that the con- 
gregation outside can see all that passes inside, is so 
anomalous an arrangement that it does not seem admis- 
sible. At present it is unique. If some similar ex- 
ample could be discovered, perhaps we might guess its 
riddle." 

S. F. Milligan, in a lecture delivered to the Bel- 
fast Natural History and Philosophical Society in 
February, 1887, combated the opinion of Messrs. Hard- 
man and Ferguson, that this monument, in general 
ground plan, resembled a cathedral ; and he proceeded 
to show its likeness to the rude outline of a giant figure, 
cut in the ground, and outlined with huge standing- 
stones ; the head turned to the west, and the limbs of 
the figure at the eastern end pointing to the rising 
sun. 

Excavations made in the four smaller divisions, at the 
eastern and western extremities of the monument, clearly 
demonstrated the fact that they had been formerly covered 
like ordinary Jcistvaens with roofing slabs, as these were 
found lying in the ground in a fragmentary state, when 
the sod was turned up. In these four excavations human 
and animal bones were discovered, all uncalcined ; with 
them was a flint-flake (see fig. 104, p. 136). 

Explorations in the central enclosure were not attended 
with equally decisive results; for although in two in- 
stances some traces of osseous remains were found, yet 
in other spots the soil appeared to be undisturbed. The 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 135 

conclusion, therefore, may be with safety drawn, that the 
eastern and western "aisles" are simply uncovered kist- 
vaens ; that they were erected when inhumation burial 
was practised, and when flint implements were in use ; 
but whether the central enclosure had been used for 
burial or merely for ceremonial observances before com- 
mitting the bodies to the tomb could not be determined 
with any degree of certainty. 

The following are the results of excavations made at 
different periods by explorers in this interesting monu- 
ment : In the year 1884, the late Rev. James Graves 
visited the locality, and made a slight excavation ; the 
osseous remains were submitted to A. W. Foot, M.D., who 
stated that there were sixteen fragments of animal bones, 
dry, white, apparently long dead, and bearing no sign 
of burning, or petrifaction. Recognizable among them 
were a dorsal vertebra, small portions of skulls, a piece 
of the lower jaw, and several fragments of the long bones 
of the limbs all human. 

S. F. Milligan also " made excavations in the interior 
of the structure at three different places, and in every 
instance found a quantity of human bones, together with 
those of animals. The bones had been examined by 
Dr. Redfern, of the Queen's College, Belfast." 

According to A. W. Foot, M.D., the result of the 
writer's exploration was as follows: The osseous re- 
mains from the western kistvaens, or "aisles," were 
mostly human, and uncalcined, some being bones of a 
young child and of an old man ; also there were a great 
many bones of deer. 

The osseous remains from the eastern kistvaens, or 
" aisles," showed evidence of three individuals, one of 
them quite a young child ; there were likewise fragments 
of human and deer bones, all uncalcined ; no sign of fire 
on any ; also some bones of birds, a tooth of an ungulate 
quadruped (? horse), helices, &c., and a flake, formed of 
dark-grey flint, but coated over with a thick crust caused 
by weathering, giving it a perfectly white appearance ; 
the material was only recognizable by its having been 
cut in two by the spade (see fig. 104). It belongs to 
the class of implements that Wilde (p. 27, Catalogue, 



136 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

Museum, R.I. A.) places under the heading of flint-chisels, 
" approaching in form, but not altogether taking the 
shape of, a stone celt." The implement shows traces 
of careful chipping for a short distance round the segment 
of a circle which forms its cutting edge, the remainder 
of the tool being left in a rough unfinished state, with 
thick blunt sides. 

From the labourers engaged in this excavation the 
information was gathered that two heaps of small stones 
lying close to the central monument had originally formed 




Fig. 104. Flint ''Chisel" found in the Deerpark Monument, 
Co. Sligo. (Full size.) 



part of it (possibly were used in " spalling" the interstices 
in the low walls) ; but being scattered in confusion, both 
inside and outside the monument, the late Right Hon. 
John Wynne had them carted away, in order to allow 
a clearer idea to be formed of the original shape of 
the structure. The late Sir William Wilde stated that 
several of the stones were manifestly placed across the 
others, like those in Stonehenge ; but the monument had 
been much damaged some years previously, by persons 
seeking for treasure supposed to be hid beneath the surface. 
The monument was formerly called "The Giant's Grave;" 
also more particularly Leacht Con Mic Ruis the grave of 
Con the son of Rush. 

About 300 yards to the S. of this strange megalithic 
pile there is a " Giant's Grave." It will be seen by a 
glance at the ground-plan (fig. 105) that it appears to have 
originally consisted of an arrangement of four (almost 
parallel) rows of slabs. The central space alone now 
shows traces of having been covered over, and a dis- 
placed covering-flag still remains at either extremity. 

An excavation was made, and the osseous remains 
submitted to A. W. Foot, M.D., who states that they were 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 137 

a portion of an adult (male) sacrum, some bones of a 
child, evidence of two individuals besides the child, and 
probably of different sexes, a fragment of a platycnemic 
tibia and of a pilasteric femur : in other words, pieces of 
very strong bones of an ancient race. All who were pre- 
sent at the examination of this grave were much struck 
by the great size of the bones ; there occurred also re- 
mains of deer and shells from the sea-shore. Almost in 
a line between these two megaliths in the Deerpark 
there are traces of a cashel with a souterrain. 




Fig. 105. Ground Plan of smaller Monument in the Deerpark. 

At the foot of Cope's Mountain, to the W. of the road 
leading from Sligo to Glencar, and in the townland of 
Drum, there is another monument of the same class 
as the smaller one in the Deerpark; it is, however, 
more diminutive and in a more dilapidated condition. 
Its Irish name is not remembered ; it is known merely 
as the " Giant's Grave." 

Not many years ago it narrowly escaped total oblite- 
ration. A countryman, having dreamt twice successively 
that a crock full of gold was buried under the monument, 
waited impatiently, before commencing operations, for 
the dream to be repeated a third time, as this would have 
completed the charm; however, it never did recur, and 



138 KUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

consequently the tomb escaped destruction. Bucolic 
discoverers of cinerary urns were formerly under the 
delusion that the calcined bones and ashes, with which 
they were sometimes filled, were in reality gold ingots 
and gold dust, which, through the magic of the " good 
people," assumed that delusive appearance, in order to 
hide the treasure from the ken of ordinary mortals. "Fairy 
Doctors" recommended the sacrifice of a black cat on the 
tomb, with the object of propitiating the spirit supposed 
to guard the hoard ; and the contents of the urn, if care- 
fully watched till midnight, would, under these circum- 
stances, again assume its real character; an amusing 
anecdote of this nature is related at p. 378 of the Journal 
R.H.A.A.I., for the years 1852-3. 




Fig. 106. Ground Plan of "Giant's Grave" in the Townland of Drum. 
(Scale, 20 feet to 1 inch.) 

About twenty years ago, owing, as our informant 
believed, to a tale which appeared in the columns of the 
Nation newspaper, a story became prevalent amongst 
the country people of a member of the O'Rorke family 
having concealed his treasures in one of the tombs, or 
" Giant Graves" in the neighbourhood, previous to 
some great battle in which both he and his favourite 
henchman were killed; consequently, the secret of the 
buried gold was lost. Imagining this monument to 
have been the one selected as the "hiding-place," some 
of the country people excavated the west cist to a con- 
siderable depth ; but the result of the search could 
not now be ascertained. In the present instance, an 
excavation was made under the only covering-stone still 
in situ ; but little was found, save a few calcined bones, 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 139 

large fragments of charcoal, shells of oyster and cockle, 
and some uncalcined human bones, found together in a 
heap, " for all the world," as the labourer remarked, " as 
if he," i. e. the occupant of the tomb, " had been buried 
in a sitting position." Owing to their soft condition, 
few of the bones could be extracted from the soil ; but 
these were submitted to W. Frazer, F.R.C.S.I., who states: 
" There were a few fragments of burned long bones, 
which were probably human, but they cannot be identi- 
fied with absolute certainty, being only portions of the 
shafts of bones with clay and masses of charcoal adhering. 
The grave must have been disturbed long ago, and only 
a few fragments of the original interment left, for there 
is no connexion between the " finds." Judging by ap- 
pearance, some of the animal remains notably the bones 
of a cow are unquestionably of a more recent date." 

On the summit of a hill, overlooking this megalith, 




Fig. 107. Ground Plan of Rude Stone Monument in the Town and of Drumkilsellagh. 
Cross enclosed within dotted line shows former position of Stone, similarly 
marked. (Scale, 20 feet to 1 inch.) 

and in the townland of Drumkilsellagh, there is a curious 
monument, in form oblong (see fig. 107), and consisting of 
two parallel compartments, which, though not at present, 
had been formerly connected with each other by a con- 
tinuous line of stones : this central space is rather hol- 
lowed. In the townland of Kilsellagh, about half a mile 
distant, there is a similar monument, nearly the same 
size, i. e. 10 paces long by 6 broad : close to this, but 
higher up the mountain slope, there is a singular arrange- 
ment of cists, five in number, and but a few yards apart ; 
the alignment runs approximately N. and S. ; the longer 
axis of the cists being about E. and W. It presents the 



140 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OP IRELAND. 

appearance of a pagan cemetery. Two of the kistvaens 
have evidently been thoroughly explored, and all are now 
devoid of covering-stones. 

Close to a gravel-pit in the hill-side, in the townland 
of Castlegal, there is another megalith, of which the ac- 
companying plan (fig. 108) will give a good idea ; but it is 
in such a very dilapidated condition that its former shape 
is hardly discernible. It is to be remarked that this 
cluster of monuments, nine in number, are all in the im- 
mediate vicinity of Cashelgal the name is thus pro- 
nounced by the country people, not Castlegal as given 
on the Ordnance Maps. Little save the mere site of this 




Fig. 108. Ground Plan of Rude Stone Monument in the Townland of Castlegal. 
(Scale, 20 feet to 1 inch.) 

ancient cashel now remains : its disappearance need not 
excite wonder, considering (as our informant averred) 
that all the houses in the neighbourhood are built of the 
stones of which it had been formerly composed. 

In the townland of Cloghcor pronounced by the coun- 
try people Cloghcur there is a megalith, situated close 
to the ruins of the Castle of Ardtarmon, near Raughley, 
and about 200 yards S. of the road. It is marked on the 
Ordnance 6" Sheet as a BruiU'S &ltar, and appears origi- 
nally to have consisted of three lofty uprights, surmounted 
by a covering-slab; the two remaining pillars are upwards 
of nine feet in height above the present surface of the 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 141 

soil ; the third had, at some remote period, succumbed 
either to violence or atmospheric action, and lies fractured 
beneath the covering-slab, which has fallen outwards and 
to the westward. The greatest length of this slab is 12 
feet 6 inches from E. to W., and it is upwards of 2 feet 
in thickness. In the construction of this monument a really 
difficult engineering feat was the lifting and proper placing 
on its three uprights of the heavy mass of stone forming 
its roof ; and it is thought that the plan suggested by the 
King of Denmark, in a paper read at the annual meeting 
of the Society of Northern Antiquaries, as that practised 
by the primitive constructors of similar monuments, may 
have been, in this instance, the one adopted, that is to 
say Beams would be placed, side by side, on an inclined 
plane, raised as high as the upper edge of the uprights, 
in such a way that the one end would project beyond the 
edge as much as the length of the great stone required ; 
while the other would pass under the stone as it was 
brought up. By the help of levers and wedges the block 
was raised a little from the beam which carried it, and 
rollers were introduced. These preparations being com- 
plete, the raising of the stone might commence, and with 
the aid of wedges, levers, rams, and the strength of men 
and of beasts of draught, the block could be rolled up the 
inclined plane as far as the stones which were to form its 
supports; these last, being stayed by earth, could not 
shift either way, and the tram-road itself, along which 
the load was drawn, resting also on a solid base, would 
not break down. An accident of this kind could happen 
only when the great upper stone had entirely passed the 
inclined plane and gone beyond the point of support, or 
the edge of the stones ; but even then the stone would 
fall into its place, and the broken ends of the beam could 
be removed (see footnote at conclusion of Chapter). 

Scarcely two hundred yards to the westward of the 
village of Drumcliif, and close to the northern bank of 
the river, there is another u Giant's Grave," very similar 
to the smaller monument in the Deerpark (ante, fig. 
105), as regards length, breadth, and general arrange- 
ment, though it is in a much more perfect condition. 
It still retains two of the original covering flagstones 




. W9. General View oi Ruined Cromleac at Cloghcor, looking East. 




Fig. 110. Ground Plan of Ruined Cromleac in the Townland of Clochcor, near the 
Village of Eaughley. (Scale, 4 feet to I inch.) Cross marked on Stones in Plan 
show that they do not belong to the Original Structure. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 



at either extremity (fig. Ill gives a good idea of its 
general appearance; fig. 112 of its ground plan). The 
late Rev. James Graves, during a visit to Sligo, in 1880, 
was informed of the then recent exposure of a human 




Fig. 111. General View of " Giant's Grave" near Drumcliffe, looking South. 

skeleton, in consequence of the falling of the earthen 
bank of the river in close proximity to this monument. 
When first discovered, the skeleton was decorated with a 
bead necklace, which was removed by the country people; 




Fig. 112. Ground Plan of Rude Stone Monument, Drumcliffe. (Scale, T J<j-) 

but, as far as could be ascertained, the beads appear to 
have been formed of baked clay, or perhaps steatite, 



4TH SER., VOL. VIII. 



L 



144 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

being described as " marbles such as children play with." 
The length of the skeleton indicated a height of 5 feet 2 
or 3 inches : the remains (that of an old woman) were 
considered by the late E. T. Hardman to be of the 
Prehistoric Age. 

Not far distant in the townland of Cashelgarron is 
Cashel Bawn. It is almost circular in form, the difference 
in diameter from N. to S., and from E. to W- being but 
about two feet. The inner face of the wall is perfect to 
the height of six or eight feet, and it appears to have 
been originally 12 feet in thickness; the principal en- 
trance was at the eastern side : a few large stones which 
formed the ope yet remain in situ, and to the right hand 
as one enters there are slight vestiges still apparent 
of the spring of the steps which formerly led to the 
summit of the wall. Inside the cashel there is a depression 
occasioned by a souterrain which has fallen in ; and on 
the western and exterior face of the rampart there is a 
small ope in correspondence with it. This would appear 
to be a diminutive reproduction of the singular entrances 
(described by W. F. Wakeman) in the cashel on the 
Island of Innismurray. 1 

In the townland of Streedagh, parish of Ahamlish, there 
is a very curious monument (figs. 113, 114), which is styled 
by the country people Ckcka-breaca, i. e., the speckled 
stones. The boulders forming it are on a mound of 
oblong form, about 110 paces in outside measurement. 
Its condition is so dilapidated that it is scarcely possible 
to be certain of the original plan, which, however, as far 
as can now be judged, appears to have consisted of a series 
of cists, running nearly due E. and W. To the N.E. will 
be observed the segment of a circle, and this circle too 
large to show on the plan could be throughout distinctly 
traced. In several places it is still faced with stones, the 
diameter being about 33 paces. 

In the same townland there is another " Giant's 
Grave" situated on the sandhills, close to the sea-shore 

1 See Journal, R.H.A.A.I., vol. vn., pp. 193-7. 




Fig. 113. General View of Clocha-breaca, Townland of Streedagh. 




Fig. 114. Ground Plan of Monument, styled Clocha-breaca, in the Townland of 
Streedagh. - (Scale, 20 feet to 1 inch.) 



1 16 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

(see fig. 115 for general appearance). The circle enclos- 
ing the cist is 36 feet in diameter, formed of small stones, 
and just inside of the exterior one there appears to have 
been a second circle, composed of still more diminutive 
stones. The inside length of this grave is 9 feet ; the 
breadth 2 feet 6 inches at head, but only 2 feet at foot, 
a difference probably occasioned by one of the slabs 
having fallen in, as the breadth would appear to have 
been originally uniform. The earth in the cist was 
about 13 inches in depth ; the bottom was flagged regu- 
larly with limestone slabs. The arrangement approxi- 
mates to the general style of the Carrowmore series, but 
the grouping of the stones around the cist appears pecu- 
liar, and there was no trace of the covering-slab or slabs. 
This sepulchre had been entirely buried in the sand until 
the commencement of the present century, when it was 
laid bare by a violent storm, which changed the configu- 
ration of the sandhills and swept away the drift, thus 
exposing the former surface soil. There exists no tra- 
dition of its having been rifled, but that such had been 
the case was, on examination, self-evident. 

The calcined bones were a collection of fragments, 
chiefly of small size, and, with few exceptions, it was im- 
possible to refer to any special bone ; calcined and uncal- 
cined fragments were mixed together, the soil having 
evidently been greatly disturbed. 

The uncalcined human bones can all be referred to 
one person, an adult, well developed, with marked platy- 
cnemic tibias, and projecting interfemoral ridges; possibly 
the two human teeth belonged to this body. Upon re- 
sifting the clay the following additional human remains 
were found : lower end of an arm bone, fragment pro- 
bably of thigh bone, marked front ridge of leg bone 
(tibia), half of the pelvis, small shoulder-blade (source 
undetermined), portion of finger bone. All the bones 
appear to have been broken when in a brittle state and 
long after interment ; they bore no appearance of being 
gnawed by animals. 

There were two lower jaws of a large dog or wolf, 
also portions of three lower jaws, being left sides of jaws 
of young dogs or wolves, the remains of cubs from one- 




Fig. 115. General View of Stone Circle in the Sandhills, Streedagh, looking W. 



o 
o y 



o 




o 





00 




o 









Fig. 116. Ground Plan of Stone Circle and Cist in the Sandhills, Streedagh. 



148 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

third to one-half grown, and traces of one of much 
smaller size. Fragment of the lower jaw of a small 

rodent and a rabbit ; gnawed and 

r^y^^BBBLJia broken bones of a goat and of a 

Fig. 7.-F,ent of Bone cow of small size ; bone of a hare ; 

(Haif r r e 1 l t si e ze S ) reedash(:ist ' several bones of fowl, probably 

goose or swan; shells of limpets 

(Patella vulgaris)] a couple of flat fish-scales, similar to 
the plates of sturgeon ; fragment of bone pin, with head 
pierced 1 (fig. 117). 

In the townland of Breaghwy, and close to the police 
barracks, there is a grass-covered earn, about 100 paces 
in circumference at base; on its S.S.E. slope are traces 
of what appears to have been the entrance to a cist, but 
which is now partially blocked up. About 300 yards 
distant, and due S.S.E. from it, there is another earn. 

In the townland of Cartronplank, not far from the 
village of Cliff oney, there are the remains of a " Giant's 
Grave," called by the Irish- speaking natives, Tombau-na- 
wor, " the tomb of the (great) men." It had been seemingly 
of oblong form (fig. 118), originally divided into three cists, 
septa, or divisions ; the N. one is nearly complete ; the 
stones which, in all probability, had formerly divided the 
S. portion into two lie against the E. side. The present 
position of some of the boulders is shown by a cross ; the 
shaded stones indicate the places they occupied until 
recently disturbed by the tenant, who dug up portion of 
the grave, with the hope of finding treasure. To the S.E. 
the arrangement of boulders appears like the remnant of 
a circle, of which some of the stones may be seen in the 
fence near the tenant's house. Fig. 119 gives a good idea 
of a peculiar arrangement for the support of the head- 
stone. 

Near the village of Cliffoney, and in the townland of 
Creevykeel, the remains of another " Giant's Grave" 
presents no feature of interest ; it is, in all probability, 

1 Report by W. Frazer, P.B.C.S.I., M.H.I.A. 




Fig. 118. Ground Plan of Tomban-na-wor " Giant's Grave" in the Townland 
of Cartronplank, near Cliffoney. 




Fig. 119. Unique Arrangement for the support of Headstone in " Giant's 
Grave" at Cartronplank. 



150 



RUDE [STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 



merely a small portion of a more extensive arrangement 
of cists (fig. 120). No inducement could prevail on the 
tenant to make an excavation ; he and his father before 
him, he stated, had refused, although " untold gold" had 




Fig. 120. General View of Cist in the Townland of Creevykeel, looking N. 

been offered! However, some few days afterwards, having 
occasion to verify the compass bearings, a return to the 
spot was needful, when it became evident that in the 




Fig. 121. Ground Plan of Cist at Creevykeel, near Cliffoney. 

interval the grave had been dug out to the depth of four 
or five feet. In short, the suspicious yokel, imagining 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 



151 



that the contemplated search was for a " crock of goold," 
had determined to retain the treasure for himself. The 
debris thrown out by the would-be gold digger was care- 
fully sifted, but nothing was found save numerous frag- 
ments of charcoal, no trace of bones being apparent. A 
man who was with the treasure-seeker during a portion 
of his excavation, stated that the floor of the cist was 
flagged, and on it rested a thick layer of charcoal, but 
nothing else. The flagstones that had formed the floor- 
ing were pointed out ; one of them bore a cup pattern : 
this specimen was 20 inches in length by 14 inches in 




Fig. 122. Cup -marked Flag found at Drumlion, near Enniskillen. 

breadth, and 2| inches in thickness ; but being too heavy 
to carry off with comfort at the time, it was unfortunately 
left behind, and the next day, when sought for, it had 
disappeared, and cannot since be traced. It resembled 
the cup-marked stones described by W. F. Wakeman in 
a former Number of the Journal, R.H.A.A.I., and it is 
much to be regretted that this relic has vanished, parti- 
cularly as no special note or drawing of it had been 
made. As far as memory serves, it was an almost exact 



152 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

replica although a diminutive one of the cup-marked 
leac, discovered on the slope of Drumlion, at a distance 
of little more than a mile from Enniskillen, and of which 
fig. 122, gives an excellent idea. It measures 2 feet 
4 inches in length by 1 foot 11 inches in breadth, 
averaging about 8 inches in thickness, so that it will 
be seen to be considerably larger than the Sligo example. 
u The entire surface of the face of the flag," writes W. 
F. Wakeman, " which, as usual, is composed of hard, 
red sandstone, has been carefully worked over, and, as 
shown in the illustration, presents twelve cup hollows, 
measuring respectively about three inches in diameter. 
Two of these are partially enclosed by lines, evidently 
intentional, and each forming a rather rudely executed 
segment of a circle. The hollows vary in degree of 
depth ; but all are well defined, and are certainly arti- 
ficial." Figs. 123, 124, and 125 represent cup-marking* 
from a rude stone monument at Drumnakilty, Co. Ferma- 
nagh. These slabs measure respectively 14 inches by 
11 inches, and 10 inches by 6 inches, and formed a 
portion of the floor of a cist, which contained a mag- 
nificent burial urn, placed mouth downwards, and filled 
with calcined human bones. Two other cupped stones, 
supporting urns, were found in the immediate vicinity. 

The slight remains of the monument (fig. 126, longest 
axis N. and S.), situated in the sandhills near Mullagh- 
more, about two miles from Creevykeel, are depicted, 
not that they present any feature of interest, but that 
they, together with another stone about 40 yards distant, 
form at present the only apparent traces of a cluster of 
monuments. A countryman stated that before bent had 
been planted on the sand-hills, a storm, by changing the 
general configuration, frequently laid bare stone circles 
and other strange arrangements of boulders. 

The " Giant's Grave," situated in the townland of 
BundufP, close to the sea-shore, near the bounds of the 
county, is almost perfect, wanting only the covering 
flagstone ; it faces the cardinal points, the longest axis 




I 




_ 

II 



8! 

I* 



II 



bb 

s 



154 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

being E. and W. (fig. 128). Permission to excavate was 
refused by the landlord, the Hon. Evelyn Ashley. 




I 1 I I I 



Fig. 128. Ground Plan of " Giant's Grave " in the Townland of Bunduff. 

In the valley of Gleniff there is a locality, marked on 
the Ordnance Map as "Jiermoli antr rattme's iSefc," 1 
and an expedition was made to the spot, under the im- 
pression that probably the discovery of a fine cromleac 
might reward our exertions; it was found, however, 
that the celebrated cavern of GlenifP, situated high up 
on the mountain side, was the locus indicated on the 
Ordnance Sheet. This seems to be the only instance 
at least within the county Sligo 2 in which the story of 
the celebrated runaway couple is connected with any 
object, save a rude stone monument, and it is here 
mentioned because it differs in representing the cavern 
as the permanent residence of Finn Mac Cumhaill and 
his faithless wife, and not the mere shelter for the night, 
erected by Dermod O'Dyna for Grainne, whilst the fugi- 



1 "These caves were, some of them E. T. Hardman. 

certainly, formerly inhabited." Memoirs 2 According to the version of the " Pur- 

of the Geological Survey, 42 to 43. A suit of Dennat and Grania," translated 

bronze celt formerly in the writer's posses- from the Gaelic by P. W. Joyce, the run- 

sion, now in the Museum, E.I. A., was here away couple resided for some time in a 

found in a mass of stalagmite, and under cavern in a mountain overlooking Dingle 

the present floor of the cavern bones of Bay. See Old Celtic Romances, pp. 296- 

recent animals were dug up by the late 305. 



KUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 155 

tive couple were flying from the pursuit of the enraged 
Finn. The legend is as follows : The cavern was the 
residence of the famous giant, Finn Mac Cumhaill and 
his beautiful wife, Grainne. The latter possessed not 
only the witchery of beauty, but the practical gift of 
witchcraft; and at such times as she desired to enjoy 
the society of Dermod, she could, by the simple but 
effective process of crossing her thumbs, lay a spell upon 
her husband, compelling him, at one time, to gather 
seaweed and burn kelp on the sea-shore; at another to 
cut rushes in the valleys, to make mats ; and again, send 
him to distant mountains, after supposititious strayed 
cattle. Our peasant guide expressed himself uncertain 
as to the final result of the intrigue ; he only knew that 
it ended in there being " a terrible row entirely" in this 
mountain cavern. 

It is hazardous to build theories on apparent etymo- 
logical similarity in names, still the coincidence is very 
striking between the names Adonis and O'Dyna, and 
between Grainnk and Grian ; indeed one writer 1 is of 
opinion that it is impossible to doubt the story of O'Dyna 
being an Irish version of the legend of Adonis. " They 
are both cautioned against hunting the wild boar ; both 
are slain by that animal; and in both cases the wild 
boar is a rational being, metamorphosed 2 into that shape 
for the express purpose of effecting the destruction of 
the hunter; add to this that the corpses of both are 
sought with loud mourning, and both are again raised to 
life." 3 

A similarity between Irish, Greek, and Oriental 

1 James O'Laverty. Ulster Journal of should in consequence of his father's 
Archceology, vol. vn., p. 341. cruel deed meet his death hy the tusks 

2 This metamorphosis, according to of that animal. To frustrate this pro- 
"The Pursuit of Dei-mat and Grania," phecy, Dermod was forhidden ever to hunt 
as translated hy P. W. Joyce in Old Celtic a wild hoar. 

Romances, was occasioned hy Dermod 3 Then Angus said : " I will hring 

O'Dyna's father having killed Dermod's the hody of Dermat with me to Bruga of 

foster hrother, who was a son of his the Boyne; and I will keep him on his 

steward. He was jealous that the steward's hier, as if he lived, and though I cannot 

son was more popular amongst the house- indeed, restore him to life, yet I will 

hold than his own. The steward striking hreathe a spirit into him, so that for a 

the dead hody of his son with a magic little while each day he shall talk with 

wand, turned him into a great hristly me." Old Celtic Romances, P. W. Joyce^ 

wild hoar, having neither ears nor tail, pp. 249250. 
and he foretold that Dermod O'Dyna 



156 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

legends is attempted to be traced by the same writer, 
and in " Le cycle mythologique Irlandais et la mythologie 
critique," a work lately published by Jubainville, he also 
seems to advocate the same theory. 

It having been stated that on the summit of Benbulben 
there was a " Giant's Grave," called Ooey, an expedition 
thither resulted in the discovery of a limestone cavern 
much smaller than, yet resembling, that of Gleniff. On 
the descent, an arrangement of stones in the townland of 
Cloyragh was inspected, which appeared somewhat like 
the vestiges of a rude stone monument. 

In the immediate vicinity of Bundoran, county 
Donegal, there are a few megalithic remains, which are 
here mentioned, not only because they in a striking man- 
ner resemble some already figured and described in 
the county Sligo, but also because the district in which 
they are situated was of old considered to be attached 
now to Sligo, now to Tirconnell as Donegal was for- 
merly designated according as the Tirconnellians or 
Connacians happened to achieve temporary ascendency ; 
in ancient times it was debateable ground between the 
populations of the northern and western provinces of 
Erin. 

The first monument noticed was a stone circle, about 
three miles from the boundary of the county Sligo, and 
one mile from Bundoran, the boulders only just showing 
above the surface of the soil (fig. 129). It would seem to 
have been originally about TO feet in diameter, but the 
greater portion of its site has been swallowed up by the 
Atlantic a result expedited in some degree by quarry- 
ing at the base of the cliff. The longest axis of the cist is 
about N.N.W., and, as will be seen on reference to the plan 
(fig. 130), it does not appear to have occupied the centre 
of the circle. It had been apparently divided into septa or 
divisions, for just above the surface soil two stones which 
formed the separating barrier are still visible. Many 
years ago, bones, ashes, and a cinerary urn were found 
in this tomb. Due east, and close to the neighbouring 
cottage, there are vestiges of another megalith, but not 




Fig. 129. General View of Kistvaen and Stone Circle on the Cliffs near 
Bundoran, looking N.-W. 



8 












o 
Q^ 

O o O 

Fig. 130. Ground Plan of Kistvaen and Stone Circle on the Cliffs near Bundoran. 



158 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 



sufficient to enable a correct idea to be formed of the 
original ground plan; it is about 21 feet in ^length by 
9 feet in breadth ten stones are still in position. For 
a general view of this monument, see fig. 131. 




Fig. 131. General View of remains of a Rude Stone Monument near Bundoran. 

About two miles from Bundoran, on the Ballyshannon 
side, and in the townland of Finner, there are remains of 
a earn, with exposed cist and circle of upright stones. 
A. W. Foot, M.D. (who on this occasion accompanied the 
writer), ventured into the chamber, and emerged bearing 
with him several human bones. 

A few years ago, Colonel J. Ffolliott, of Hollybrook, 
had given directions for the erection of a wall on this 
portion of his estate, and the workmen employed utilized 
the materials of this earn. After some time they came 
upon a large stone which they sledged to pieces, when the 
cist became exposed to view; it contained a large quantity 
of human bones, amongst which were several skulls in 
fine preservation. Before, however, any intelligent 
person had been made aware of the discovery, the place 
was invaded by a number of treasure-seeking roughs 
from Ballyshannon, who broke the crania in pieces and 
scattered the other remains. That the bodies which 
tenanted this cist had been subjected to the action of 
fire was evidenced by the scorched appearance of many 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 15D 

of the bones, and by the presence in the soil (amongst 
the small and large stones by which they were surrounded) 
of pieces of charcoal in perfect preservation. At a little 
distance from the chambered earn the workmen had, 
some time previously, broken into a grave which was 
found to contain human ashes, calcined bones, charcoal, 
and a fine cinerary urn, of which some fragments only 
have been preserved. 

It is stated, that not long ago there were still traces 
of a stone circle and portion of another in the imme- 
diate vicinity : these could not now be found ; they 
have probably been destroyed; but about fifty paces 
distant there is a rude cist, 14 feet 6 inches long by 6 
feet in breadth. None of these remains call for remark ; 
they are of the most primitive description, 



NOTE to p. 141. V. Ball, at pp. 163, 164 the deceased's family are prepared to 

of Jungle Life in India, gives a most in- stand, a greater or less number of men 

teresting description of the manner in assemble, and proceed to the spot where 

which the flagstones to form the rude the stone is to be raised. If the flag 

stone monuments of some of the abo- selected be not very heavy it is placed 

riginal tribes of India are brought by on a wooden framework, and so carried 

them to their destination. His account on men's shoulders to its destination ; 

is as follows: "The rivers where the when, however, the stone is of large 

stones are raised are not, unfrequently, size, it is placed on a kind of truck, with 

several miles distant from the villages enormously massive wheels, which is 

near which the menhirs and dolmens are specially constructed for the purpose, 

erected. The transport of the stones is Sometimes it is necessary to make a road 

effected in the following manner: Partly for the passage of such a truck ; at others 

according to the estimation in which the the pushing and pulling with ropes is 

deceased was held, partly according to sufficient to carry it over all the ob- 

the amount of refreshments chiefly rice stacles which are encountered on the 

Leer which the surviving members of way." 



(To be continued.') 



4in SEII., VOL. viri. M 



( 160 ) 



NOTES UPON STREET AS A RESTORER THE DISCOVERIES 
AT CHRIST CHURCH. 1 

BY J. G. ROBERSTON, HON. GENERAL SECRETARY AND TREASURER. 

I HAVE for some time back been desirous of making a 
few observations on the above Paper, confining myself 
to the latter part of the subject. I was a very early 
visitor to Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, whilst the 
excavations were in progress, and I had the advantage 
of being accompanied by an accomplished artist, who 
brought with him a copy of a map, which showed that 
the ruins recently exposed had been measured and drawn 
to scale about the end of the last, or beginning of the 
present century. The map was published about that time 
in one of the magazines printed in Dublin. 

In examining the remains of the Chapter-room I 
was much struck with the fragments of what had been 
a splendid window, bearing a close resemblance in design 
to the style of ornamentation carried out in the remark- 
able doorway in the north transept of St. Canice's 
Cathedral, Kilkenny, i. e. columns in short lengths, with 
richly -moulded bands. The resemblance does not stop 
here, as I find that the stone used in this richly-carved 
work is the same in both buildings. Whence it was 
brought seems a much - disputed point. Mr. Street 
maintained that it was Caen stone. Mr. Drew rather 
ridicules the idea that it was brought from Caen, but he 
does not even hint at any other locality. 

This useful kind of stone, so much employed in the 
finer carvings of St. Canice's Cathedral, is also to be 
found in the Abbey of Graigue-na-managh ; in St. Mary's 
Church, New Ross ; and in the ancient Church of Bannow, 
county Wexford, where it is used in the ring-stones of 
the chancel arch, which has a broad chamfer, most pro- 
bably decorated in former times with a pattern in red 
colour, such as was found on the chamfered ring-stones 

1 A Paper in The Dublin University Iteview, June, 1886, by Thomas Drew, Esq., 
Architect, R.II.A. 



NOTES UPON STREET AS A RESTORER. 161 

of the arch (now reconstructed) which led into the Lady- 
Chapel of St. Canice's Cathedral ; the tint of this stone 
being well suited for showing out a coloured design. 

The ancient masons appear to have been economical 
in the use of this expensive stone. We are therefore 
surprised to find that the quoin-stones of Grennan Castle, 
near Thomastown, county Kilkenny, are composed of it. 
For such a massive building the headers and stretchers 
are unusually small ; but they are very neatly wrought, 
fitted, and chamfered. 

The late Mr. John Gr. A. Prim, in one of the series 
of Papers, entitled " Nooks and Corners," thus alludes 
to Grrennan Castle: " But look above where the quoins 
yet remain, and see how beautifully they are cut ; and 
observe, that they are of Caen stone, which must have 
been imported for the purpose. It was no mean feudal 
chieftain, believe us, who raised this tower in the days 
of chivalrous adventure, nor was its erection long after 
the Anglo-Norman Conquest. Grrennan is evidently the 
oldest remains of English military architecture existing 
in our county." 

I may observe that, in the year 1864, Mr. Harrison, 
the well-known architectural carver who was then en- 
gaged at the restoration of St. Canice's Cathedral made 
several experiments (at which I was present), with a view 
to find out the locality whence the kind of stone in 
question was brought. He fractured and pulverized it, 
and arrived at the conclusion that it was not from Caen ; 
he pronounced it to be from Ancaster in Lincolnshire ; 
and, notwithstanding some objections which I have 
raised, he gives me to understand that he is of that 
opinion still. I regret that, after a comparison of the 
stones, I cannot agree with a man of so much experience 
and practical knowledge. I exhibit a piece of an ancient 
capital from St. Canice's, and a piece of Ancaster stone, 
sent to me by Mr. Harrison ; and also another piece 
direct from Ancaster, which the vicar of the parish sent 
to me : it seems of finer grain than Mr. Harrison's speci 
men. I leave the subject much where I began, that is, 
in doubt ; but I am glad to be able to state that I have 
recently heard that an attempt to trace the locality of this 

M2 



162 NOTES UPON STREET AS A RESTORER. 

stone has been made by Mr. Sharpe, who found some- 
documentary evidence referring to it, and then visited 
the quarry indicated, viz. Doulting, Yorkshire. However, 
as he has communicated his information to a very high 
authority (Mr. Gr. H. Kinahan, F.G.S.), I need not say more. 
A trifling matter, but of some interest, connected with 
the recent discoveries at Christ Church Cathedral appears 
to have escaped Mr. Drew's notice. I allude to the 
lowest or base length of one of the columns, which had 
been at one time of wood : this formed a case for a coat- 
ing of fine plaster, and repeated coats of distemper 
colour, so that it passed as being of stone, like the re- 
mainder of the column. The timber had decayed 
previous to the excavations being commenced, but the 
shell or covering of plaster remained, and retained its 
shape. My friend and I were just in time to see it, as 
I presume that it soon crumbled away. I may here re- 
mark, that all the lengths of the columns of the beautiful 
windows of what had been the Lady Chapel of the Priory 
of St. John's, Kilkenny now the parish church are of 
timber, but covered with repeated coats of distemper 
colour; and, as the stone work has been frequently 
washed with the same, they all appear to be of the same 
material. 

There is one passage in Mr. Drew's Paper from which 
I am disposed to differ. He says that the limestone 
effigy of a female, "when exposed to the foul air of 
Dublin, immediately scaled off and disintegrated." I 
cannot think that any malarious air could have such an 
effect, particularly upon a material of a nature so sound 
as limestone. I should be more inclined to think that 
the disintegration was caused by the style of workman- 
ship that had been bestowed upon the effigy; as I have 
remarked, in the Priory of St. John's, in the case of the 
effigy of " Margaret Purcell," that in the covering of the 
neck, which is of the same piece as the horned head-dress, 
where the sculptor has minutely worked the stone into a 
diaper pattern, and where, no doubt, he struck innume- 
rable light blows, thereby disturbing, as it were, the 
cohesion of the stone there, I say, I have observed the 
stone scaling off. 



( 163 ) 



ON THE OPENING OF A SEPULCHRAL MOUND NEAR NEW- 
CASTLE, CO. WICKLOW. 

BY MAJOR J. MACENIEY, CURATOR, MUSEUM, E.I.A. 

ON the 6th September, 1872, a quantity of calcined 
human bones and a bronze fragment were deposited in 
the Academy by the Rev. Mr. Irwin of Prospect, Co. 
Wicklow, who stated that they were discovered two days 
previously in a mound situated in a field about a mile 
distant from the town of Newcastle in the above county. 
Having been assured that the locality was well deserving 
of a personal inspection, I visited the spot three days 
later, and there obtained the following details. In the 
mound, which rises somewhat abruptly from the sur- 
rounding field, an excavation had been recently made to 
a depth of nearly 9 feet from the summit, exposing to 
view some large rough flagstones, the covering of a rudely 
constructed oval chamber or cist, on the clay floor of 
which had been found, gathered into a heap, the calcined 
bones, and lying on these a fragment of bronze. On 
removing the flags (three in number) the wall of the cist 
was seen, formed of seven stones, each stone averaging 
in height and girth respectively 18 and 54 inches. 
These stones were placed contiguously, enclosing a space 
42 inches long and 2 feet wide ; the average measure- 
ment of each flagstone was length, 32 in.; width, 21 in.; 
and thickness, 4 in. In the earth heaped on and about 
the cist to a height of 3 feet was imbedded a bone, appa- 
rently of some large animal. Above the earth was placed, 
30 inches in depth, a layer of small stones, extending 
around to a distance of some 5 feet from the centre of 
the mound; a thick coating of vegetable mould sur- 
mounted all, the whole forming a hillock, at present 
nearly 9 feet above the level of the surrounding field, 
but which, I was informed, had been twenty years ago 
at least 10 feet higher. A second excavation, within 
3 feet of the first and of a similar depth, was made in my 
presence; during its progress several stones were found, of 



164 SEPULCHRAL MOUND NEAR NEWCASTLE, CO. WICKLOW. 

much the same size as those of the cist; also animals' teeth, 
clay mixed with mucous matter, and near the level of 
the floor of the cist charcoal in considerable quantities. 
As to the probability of further excavations disclosing 
other objects of interest I offer no opinion ; I may state, 
however, that such is the conjecture indeed almost the 
conviction of the gentleman with whom originated the 
idea of exploring this mound, and to whose courtesy I 
am much indebted for the facilities afforded me in 
collecting the foregoing details. 



( 165 ) 

MEMOIK OF THE LATE CANON HAYHAN, B.A., M.R.H.A.A.L 
BY LIEUT.-COLONEL T. A. LUNHAM, M.A. 

AMONGST the numerous removals by death during the 
past twelve months, few will be felt more keenly by the 
readers of this Journal than that of the late Canon Hay- 
man, Rector of Douglas, county Cork, for many years 
one of our most valued contributors. It is purposed in 
the present Paper to attempt a brief sketch of his life, 
his publications, and his connexion with this periodical. 

The family of Hayman is of ancient origin, and, 
according to the article in Burke' s Landed Gentry (sub 
voc. " Hayman"), " of Norman descent; and their 
genealogical roll embraces a period of nine centuries." 
Leaving such inquiries to the curious or the interested, 
we find the branch of the family with which we are at 
present concerned, settled at Youghal, county Cork, early 
in the seventeenth century. From it descended, in a 
direct line, the subject of the present Memoir, who was 
born at the family seat, South Abbey, Youghal, 27th 
July, 1818. He was the eldest son of Matthew Hay- 
man, Esq., by Helen, third daughter of Arundel Hill, 
Esq., of Doneraile. Educated at Youghal, sub ferula 
Rev. Thomas Nolan, and subsequently at Clonmel, by 
Rev. R. Bell, D.D, he entered Trinity College, Dublin, 
as a fellow-commoner, October 18, 1835, and graduated 
B.A. July 2, 1839. 

He was ordained Deacon, at Cork, September 19, 
1841 ; and Priest, at Killaloe, August 14, 1842. 

From 1841 to 1847 he officiated as curate of Grlan- 
worth ; from 1847 to 1849 as curate of Grlanmire ; and 
from the latter date to 1863 as curate of his native 
town. 

He married, on 26th September, 1854, at St. Anne's, 
Belfast, Emily, daughter (by his first wife, Henrietta, 
daughter and co-heiress of Samuel Jackson, Esq.) of 
the Rev. Marcus Cassidy, Chancellor of Kilfenora, and 
Incumbent of Newtownards, county Down, by whom he 
had issue an only child Emily Henrietta Aline. 

For an account of the very ancient family of Hay- 



166 MEMOIR OF THE IATE CANON HAYMAN. 

man, Heyman, or Haimon, vid. Rev. Atkin Hayman, 
Vicar of Ballyclogh, Cloyne, who was the great grand- 
father of the Rev. Samuel Hayman. 

In 1863, Bishop John Gregg appointed Mr. Hayman 
to the living of Ardnagihy, and in 1867 offered him the 
rectory of Doneraile, where he remained until 1872, 
when the extensive parish of Carrigaline, county Cork, 
including the chapelry of Douglas, becoming vacant, 
through the resignation of the Rev. John Watkins Benn, 
the Rev. Samuel Hayman was unanimously elected to that 
important cure. Great inconvenience having arisen 
from the size of the parish, distance of the places of 
worship (five miles), as well as other collateral causes, it 
was decided, with the full consent of the bishop and 
parishioners, to separate Carrigaline from Douglas, 
which was accordingly effected in 1875, when the latter 
was raised to a distinct benefice. 

The unsatisfactory condition of his new charge, in 
some respects, engaged the earnest attention of the 
recently-appointed ector immediately upon his induc- 
tion. The want of a suitable residence for the clergy- 
man had long been felt, while the unsightly appearance 
of the sacred edifice itself was a matter of deep concern 
to his feelings. At the pressing instance of the late 
bishop of the diocese the lamented Right Rev. John 
Gregg, D.D., who had ever evinced the kindest interest 
in all matters concerning the parish and its welfare 
and assured of the co-operation and sympathy of the 
parishioners and friends, Mr. Hayman undertook the 
.serious task of restoring the church, or rather rebuilding 
it, and erecting a glebe-house. So strenuously did he 
exert himself, and so thoroughly were his efforts seconded, 
that the new church was in great measure completed, 
and ready for divine service, in August, 1875. It was 
consecrated on the 27th of that month by the Lord 
Bishop, who had contributed most munificently to its 
funds, and in memory of whose generosity the south 
transept is styled " Bishop Gregg's," where, high up in 
the gable, his armorial bearings appear, impaled with 
those of his See, emblazoned in a handsome quarterfoil 
light. The outlay on the building, thus far completed, 
exceeded 3000, great portion of which was collected 



MEMOIR OF THE LATE CANON HAYMAN. 167 

by the rector himself. Since then the work has further 
advanced : the nave has been restored to its true pro- 
portions ; a fine western window, and the first storey of 
the tower added both in the rector's lifetime, and 
through his instrumentality. 1 

The providing a rectory house next occupied 
Canon Hayman's attention, and in this likewise he was 
eminently successful. Devoting himself with untiring 
energy to the work, he was soon permitted to see the 
fruit of his labour in the completion of a handsome and 
commodious dwelling. Towards the cost of this the 
Board of Public Works advanced the sum of 1100 ; the 
remainder was furnished from voluntary contributions 
the major portion being gathered by the indefatigable 
efforts of the incumbent. 

Canon Hayman's pen, during the intervals of paro- 
chial duty in the several parishes where his lot was cast, 
was seldom idle. He contributed, from time to time, 
various articles, in prose and verse, to periodicals and 
otherwise, more especially, however, to the Dublin Univer- 
sity Magazine, with whose then editor the gifted Charles 
Lever he was on most intimate terms of friendship. 
The Christian Examiner, the Gentleman 7 s Magazine, and 
the Patrician of which latter work, indeed, the fifth 
volume was inscribed by the editor, Sir Bernard Burke, 
Ulster, " to the Rev. Samuel Hayman, as one of the 
ablest contributors to the Patrician, and a constant co- 
adjutor in the author's genealogical works.' 7 He also 
published the following : " The Annals of Youghal." 
First Series. Youghal : 1848; 12mo; pp. 44. "An 
Account of the present state of Youghal Church (includ- 
ing memorials of the Boyles), the College, and Sir 
Walter Raleigh s House." Youghal: 1850; 12mo ; pp. 
52. We may observe, obiter, that Canon Hayman in 
formed the writer that this so-called Raleigh's House was 
originally the lodging of the warden of the adjacent 
college, and had been occupied for many years by the 
Hayman family. He used to exhibit a fine copy of 



1 The completion of the tower and siderable sum has heen already subscribed 
spire is contemplated as a befitting me- for that object, 
jnorial to Canon Haymau, and a con- 



168 MEMOIR OF THE LATE CANON HAYMAN. 

Peter Comester's Historia Scholastica (a small folio, well 
printed in black letter, with rubricated capitals), dis- 
covered behind the wainscot of one of the rooms, and 
probably part of the warden's library. The college was 
founded December 27, 1464, by Thomas, Earl of Des- 
mond, and possessed, among other endowments, that of 
Carrigaline (to which Canon Hayman was subsequently 
appointed). Thus we read that in 1591 " Ecclesia de 
Bevcr spectat ad Colleg. de Youghell (sic.) Edmundus 
M'Brean curat." Bever, or Beaver, is a corruption for 
Beauvoir, in allusion to the beauty of the local scenery. 
Again, in 1615, " Bever, als. Carrigaline, Rector, Coll. 
de Youghall." The earliest allusion to the benefice we 
can find is in 1291. 

To return, however, to our author's further publica- 
tions, we find the following : " The Annals of Youghal." 
Second Series. Youghal, 1851. " The Annals of Youghal." 
Third Series (Hand-book for Youghal). Ibid., 1852. 
Cr. 8vo ; pp. xvi and 96. " Notes and Records of the 
Ancient Foundations at Youghal, County Cork, and its 
Vicinity." 1854; 8vo; pp. 60. Again, 1855-9, " Annals 
of Youghal." Fourth Series. 8vo ; pp. xxxvi and 76. 
" Guide to Youghal, Ardmore, and the Blackwater "; 
with a map, and sixty illustrations. 1860 ; Fcap 4to ; 
pp. 90. " The Illustrated Guide to the Blackwater and 
Ardmore"; with twenty-five illustrations. Ibid., 1861 ; 
sm. 4to ; pp. 44. " The Illustrated Guide to St. Mary's 
Church, and the other Ancient Religious Foundations at 
Youghal." 1862 ; sm. 4to. " Memorials of Youghal." 

Canon Hayman published many sermons, addresses, 
and latterly several larger works, chiefly of a devotional, 
or practical character. His earlier writings, especially 
those of a topographical description, or of local interest, 
are scarce, and, we believe, out of print. 

In the Journal he was for many years an able and 
constant writer. In the Appendix to this article a list of 
his publications will be found. 

Of a singularly gentle and unobtrusive disposition, 
modest and retiring, he might almost have been accused 
of shyness but it was the shyness of the student and 
the author. His sympathetic and sensitive nature was 
ever touched by the suffering, and the wants of the 



MEMOIR OF THE LATE CANON HAYMAN. 169 

afflicted and the needy, while his large-handed charities 
were bestowed alike on all who required them. His 
varied and curious information on most points of archaeo- 
logical lore, together with a rich fund of anecdote, ren- 
dered him a most agreeable and instructive companion. 
Generous alike with his time, his money, and his books, 
he was never happier than when assisting others. His 
theological attainments, and work as a minister, it is 
scarcely within the scope of this Paper to discuss ; but 
the writer may be forgiven for paying a passing tribute 
to the faithful and affectionate manner in which his 
pulpit duties were performed. 

For a number of years Canon Hayman had been 
officially connected with various public societies and 
local institutions, in which he continued to take the 
greatest interest to the last. His services to the * i Home 
for Protestant Incurables" (of which he acted as Hon. Sec.) 
were of a most important description, and no sacrifice of 
time, trouble, or money was too great for him in its 
behalf. Ever zealous in his Master's cause, his best 
energies were devoted to the propagation of religious 
knowledge through the different associations established 
for that object. By all these his loss will be deplored 
his place with difficulty supplied. 

His literary ability was considerable ; his style simple, 
but polished ; graceful, but unaffected. 

The excellent health enjoyed by Canon Hayman led 
his friends to anticipate for him many years of useful- 
ness, and a green old age sed aliter visum. His strength 
had been failing, more or less imperceptibly, during the 
past twelve months, and towards the close of 1886 his 
condition became such as to warrant the gravest ap- 
prehensions. These were, unfortunately, but too well 
founded. Dangerous symptoms rapidly manifested 
themselves, and it became apparent to all that the 
end was at hand. Surrounded by those he loved best 
upon earth, his sufferings alleviated by all that skill and 
affection could administer, in the enjoyment of the most 
perfect peace, and in the sure and certain hope of a 
happy eternity, he entered into his rest December 15, 
1886 

" In seterna memoria erit Justus." 



170 MEMOIR OF THE LATE CANON HAYMAN. 

APPENDIX. 

Papers communicated to the JOURNAL, B.H.A.A.L, ly CANON HAYMAW. 
VOLUME III. 1854, 1855. 

1. The Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Youghal. 

(a) St. Mary's Church (Collegiate). With illustrations (pp. 27). 

2. The Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Youghal. 

( ft) The Nunnery, or Chapel of St. Anne. The Franciscan 
Friary, commonly called the South Abhey. The Domini- 
can Friary, commonly called the North Abbey. With 
illustrations (pp. 10). 

VOLUME IV. 1856, 1857. 
(VOLUME I. NEW SERIES.) 

3. The Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Youghal. 

(y) Conclusion St. John's House of Benedictines. The College 
of Youghal. Sir Walter Raleigh's House. Illustrated 
(pp. 14). 

VOLUME VI. 1860, 1861. 
(VOLUME III. PAET I. NEW SERIES.) 

4. A Notice of two Inedited Youghal Tradesmen's Tokens. With 

woodcuts (pp. 2). 

VOLUME XV. 1879-1881. 
(VOLUME V. FOURTH SERIES.) 

5. Library of Franciscan Friars at Youghal described; also Youghal 

" Money of Necessity." With a lithograph illustration (pp. 3). 

6. Observations on a Crannog at Ardmore. With a drawing (pp. 2). 

7. Flag of the Volunteers described. 

8. Remarks on a Drawing, by Grose the Antiquary, of a Cross-legged 

Effigy, formerly in the Dominican Abbey, Youghal, and on a 
curious Stone Relic. 

9. The Geraldines of Kildare (a most important Paper) : with trans- 

lation from original Irish. Edited, with preface, by Canon 
Hayman (pp. 53). 

VOLUME XVII. 1885. 
(VOLUME VII. FOURTH SERIES.) 
10. The Geraldines of Kildare. Continued (pp. 26). 



MEMOIR OP THE LATE KICHAKD CATJLFIELD, LL.D., 
F.S.A., M.E.H.A.A.I. 

BY LIEUT.-COLOKEL T. A. LUNHAM, M.A. 

AFTER a short illness, Richard Caulfield, LL.D., passed 
away quietly, on the 3rd February, 1887, at his residence, 
Royal Cork Institution. His loss is in some respects 
irreparable; for, apart from the grief which must be felt 
by a wide circle of friends, to whom his warm-hearted 
and affectionate character had much endeared him, his 
extensive learning, and accurate information upon all 
matters of archaeological and antiquarian research con- 
stituted him an authority unsurpassed in his peculiar 
province of knowledge. As a genealogist he had few 
rivals, and great was the assistance he afforded to others 
engaged in this and kindred pursuits. His aid was con- 
stantly sought, and never unsuccessfully, by many from 
every part of the kingdom, while his courteous and un- 
selfish disposition never shrank from any personal sacrifice 
of trouble or time. 

Born in Cork, April 23rd, 1823, he was educated 
under Dr. Browne, at the Bandon Endowed School, 
from whence he entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 
1841 ; commenced B.A., 1845 ; proceeded LL.B., 1864, 
and LL.D. JEst., 1866. While in College he attended 
Divinity lectures, amongst others those of the cele- 
brated William Archer Butler, the well-known author 
of " Lectures on Ancient Philosophy," &c., obtaining 
the Testimonium in due course. From his early years 
Dr. Caulfield had evinced a very decided taste for those 
studies, the results of which are now before the public ; 
and in 1853 he published his Higilla Ecclesice Hibernicw 
Illustrata the Episcopal and Capitular Seals of the Irish 
Cathedral Churches, illustrated, 8vo., pp. iv. and 48, with 
plates. He next edited for the Camden Society (London, 
1857) the " Diary of Rowland Da vies, Dean of Cork, 
1689_90." Embracing, as it does, the stormy period of 
the Revolution, this work is full of interest, whilst the 



172 MEMOIR OF THE LATE RICHARD CAULFIELD. 

valuable notes with which the diary is illustrated and 
enriched contain an amount of curious and important 
historical and genealogical lore scarcely elsewhere ob- 
tainable. In addition to other matters will be found 
one of the best accounts of the siege of Cork in 1690, 
at which Dean Davies was present. This, as well as the 
preceding work, is now out of print and very scarce. 

In 1859 Dr. Caulfield was chosen a Member of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Normandy, and the same year 
his Rotulus Pipce Clonensis ex orig. in Reg. Oath. Clonen. 
asservata; or, " Pipe Roll of Cloyne" appeared. In 
1862 the Society of Antiquaries of London, recognising 
his strong claims to that honour, elected him a Fellow 
of their distinguished Association. In the same year he 
also visited London and Oxford, where he received that 
courteous attention and cordial hospitality to which his 
many qualifications entitled him. In the latter University 
he discovered, in the Bodleian Library, the curious MS. 
life of St. Finn Barre, which he copied and subsequently 
published (London, 1864). His next production was a 
u Lecture on the History of the Bishops of Cork" 
(delivered before the St. Peter's Working Men's Society). 
This is an able and attractive account of the See of Cork, 
and its occupants, from the founder to the late much re- 
spected and beloved Eight Eev. John Gregg, D.D., to 
whom the lecture is inscribed. 

Dr. Caulfield had already published " The Autobio- 
graphy of Sir Richard Cox, Bart., Lord Chancellor of 
Ireland, from the original MS." : London, 1860 ; and 
in 1876 appeared his important edition of the " Council 
Book of the Corporation of Cork, 1609-1643, and from 
1690 to 1800, with Annals and Appendices extracted 
from public and private Records": Ghiildford, 1876; an 
8vo ; volume of 1,191 pages. In 1877 the Register of the 
parish of Christ Church was printed, and in the follow- 
ing year the " Council Book of the Corporation of 
Youghal, 1610-1659, and 1666-1687-1690-1800, with 
Annals and Appendices from public and private Records ": 
Guildford, 1878 ; pp. Ixiv and 637. This was followed 
by the " Council Book of the Corporation of Kinsale, 
with Annals, Appendices, etc.," similar to the others, and 



MEMOIR OF THE LATE RICHARD CAULFIELD. 173 

covering the period from 1652 to 1800 : Gruildford, 
1879 ; pp. xcii and 447. In addition to the foregoing, 
he was author of " Annals of St. Finn Barre's Cathedral" : 
Cork, 1871; " Annals of the Cathedral of St. Colman, 
Cloyne": Cork, 1882; and " Handbook of St. Finn 
Barre's Cathedral," 1881. His contributions to " Notes 
and Queries," Journal, E.ff.A.A.L (including the index) 
of which he was for some time a joint editor as 
well as many other publications, are too numerous 
to mention. 

An indefatigable student himself, his zeal in the 
acquisition of knowledge was only equalled by his 
willingness to impart it ; and his frequent and in- 
teresting Papers on Folk-lore will be remembered with 
pleasure by many. 

His intimate acquaintance with books, as well as his 
great capacity, recommended him for the post of Librarian 
to the Queen's College, Cork, to which he was accord- 
ingly appointed, under the royal sign manual, in 1876, 
and the duties connected with which he continued to 
discharge until his death. He had occupied a similar 
position at the Royal Cork Institution from the year 
1864. 

Dr. Caulfield's connexion with the Cathedral of St. 
Finn Barre was of a most intimate description, and only 
terminated with his life. Ever feeling the deepest in- 
terest in all matters pertaining to the ecclesiastical history 
and antiquities of the Diocese, he was united by the 
closest ties to the church of the ancient Founder. An 
enthusiastic admirer of architecture, he identified himself 
with that great effort which resulted in the erection of 
the present edifice ; and, as a member of the Building 
Committee and Select Vestry, his services were invalu- 
able. He delighted in church music, and from his boy- 
hood, until increasing infirmities interfered, was a regular 
attendant at the Cathedral. 

" He, too, is blest whose outward eye 

The graceful lines of art may trace, 
"While his free spirit, soaring high, 

Discerns the glorious from the base ; 
Till out of dust his magic raise 
A home for prayer, and love, and full harmonious praise. 



174 MEMOIR OF THE LATE RICHARD CAULFIELD. 



far away, and high above, 

In maze on maze the tranced sight 
Strays, mindful of that heavenly love, 

Which knows no end in depth or height, 
While the strong breath of music seems 
To waft us ever on, soaring in blissful dreams." 

In 1882 the Royal Academy of History, Madrid^ 
elected Dr. Caulfield an honorary member of their 
Society, which was the last public distinction conferred 
upon him. "I do not regret anything I ever wrote," 
he remarked to the writer, a short time before his death, 
and truly he had no occasion. All his writings are- 
characterized by erudition, as thorough as it is un- 
assuming. 

The writer of the above brief sketch, while fully 
conscious of its inadequacy to do justice to the memory 
of one who, to be appreciated, must have been known, 
cannot allow this opportunity to pass without recording, 
however imperfectly, his deep sense of gratitude for the 
many advantages derived from an unbroken friendship 
of five- and- twenty years. An excellent classical scholar 
himself, Dr. Caulfield spared no efforts to imbue the 
minds of his pupils with a love for those masterpieces of 
antiquity in the study of which consists the truest educa- 
tion. Nor were his exertions confined to one department 
of instruction : all knowledge was to him an object of 
solicitude. 

In accordance with his wish, expressed to the writer 
(when the latter happened to be churchwarden of the 
parish) some years previous to his death, he is buried 
at Douglas, county Cork. It is a pretty rural spot, which 
he always much admired 

" Inter oves locum praesta, 
Et ab haedis me sequestra, 
Statuens in parte .dextra." 

Would that we were able to conclude in the language 
of the poet he loved ! 

" Exegi monumentum aere perennius." 



MEMOIR OF THE LATE RICHARD CAULFIELD. 175 

KOTE. With a view to perpetuating Dr. Caulfield's memory by some 
appropriate local memorial, a public meeting was held in Cork on March 
8th, the Lord Bishop presiding, and a number of influential gentlemen 
and friends being present. The Right Rev. Chairman alluded in feeling 
language to the irreparable loss sustained by the city and county, as well 
as the Cathedral, in the death of Dr. Caulfield, and after some suitable 
remarks upon his many excellent qualities of head and heart, stated the 
object of the meeting. The following resolution was then proposed by 
Anderson Cooper, seconded by Francis Hodder, and passed unanimously: 

" That a Subscription List be opened to erect a suitable memorial in 
St. Finn Barre's Cathedral to the memory of the late Richard Caulfield, 
LL.D., F.S.A., &c. ; and that it be also contemplated to erect a monument 
over his grave in Douglas churchyard." 

A committee was appointed to carry out the above, and a considerable 
amount was subscribed in the room. 



APPENDIX. 

Communications of E. CAULFIELD, A.B., Cork, to the JOUENAL of 
the R.H.A.A.I. 

VOLUME III. 1854-55. 

1 . Copy of the Cost of the Wake and Funeral of Anthony Ronayne, 

Esq., of Ronayne's Court, in the county of Cork (p. 215). 

2. Other curious Documents, op. cit. (p. 323). 

YOLTJME IV. 1856-57. 
(VOLUME I. NEW SEEIES.) 

3. Transcripts of two curious Original Documents (p. 75). 

4. On the City Insignia of Cork (pp. 105, 165). 

5. On the Ancient Jewel-box of Cork (p. 167). 



VOLUME XV. 1879-1882. 
(VOLUME V. FOUETH SEEIES.) 

6. On the Round Tower of Kinneigh (p. 16). 

7. The Silver Official Oar of Castlehaven (p. 265). 

8. Three Volumes of MSS. relating to County and City of Cork 

(p. 269). 

9. Lord Mountcashel's Elegy (p. 732). 

VOLUME XVI. 1883-84. 

(VOLUME VI. FOFETH SEEIES.) 
10. Observations on the Franciscan Abbey, Cork (p. 182). 

4TH SER., VOL. VIII, N 



( 176 ) 



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE CHURCH PLATE OF THE DIOCESE 
OF CASHEL AND EMLY. 

BY JOHN DAVIS WHITE, 
Son. Local Secretary for the South Riding of Tipperary. 

THE subject of Church Plate having begun to engage attention, it occurred 
to me that, as I was for many years officially connected with the Diocese 
of Cashel and Emly, an application made by me to the clergy for infor- 
mation on the subject would not be disregarded. I have obtained a 
number of returns, from which I propose to extract the required parti- 
culars, and to describe them as far as I am able. 

I could only seek this information from the clergy of my own Church, 
and therefore, with one important exception, this account will treat only 
of the plate held in the diocese by the clergy of the Church of Ireland. 

I was informed by Mr. James O'Heney, that the reason the clergy of 
his Church have not, in general, very ancient church plate is, that it had 
been a rule when such articles became worn and old that they should be 
broken up, melted, and sold. 

It was not uncommon for chalices to be buried along with the priest 
who had used them. I formerly possessed one which had been taken 
out of a grave under the Church of St. Mary's, Clonmel. It was of 
inferior metal, probably pewter, and had been greatly crushed together. 
It was stolen from me more than twenty years ago. 

W. F. "Wakeman, in his Handbook of Irish Antiquities, men- 
tions as one of the most singular relics in the collection of the Royal 
Irish Academy a chalice of stone, of which he gives a woodcut. He 
says, ''it is well worthy of observation, though formed of so rude a 
material. There is nothing in its general form, or in the character of 
its decorations, to warrant a supposition that it belongs to a very early 
period. Few chalices of an age prior to the twelfth century remain in 
Ireland, and any of a later period which have come under the observa- 
tion of the writer are not very remarkable. A chalice of silver, found 
in the ruins of Kilmallock Abbey, was melted by a silversmith of Limerick, 
into whose hands it had fallen. Cups of stone appear not to have been 
uncommon among the Irish. An ancient vessel of that material, of a tri- 
angular form, remains, or very lately remained, by the side of a holy well 
in Columkille's Glen, in the' county of Clare, and another was found in 
the county of Meath, near the ruins of Ardmulchan Church." 

Abington. An alms dish, inscribed on front, "Parish of Abington, 
Dio. of Cashel, 1779;" and on back, "Gift of Rev. John Seymour, 
Rector." A chalice and a paten, each inscribed, " Parish of Abington, 
Dio. of Cashel, 1779." A spoon, bearing the inscription, "Abington 
Church, 1829 "; and a flagon, inscribed, "Abington Church, 1879, pre- 
sented by Sir Croker Barrington, Bart." All are of solid silver. 

Aney A Communion chalice (hall-marked), with the following inscrip- 
tion engraved on the body : " The Guift of the Right Honorable Rachell, 



ON THE CHURCH PLATE OF CASHEL AND EMLY. 177 

Oountess Dowager of Bath, To her Chappel att Loughgur in the Kingdom 
of lerland, Anno Dom. 1669." l A large-sized paten, with inscription 
round the rim, same as on the chalice ; also I.H.S., surrounded by a 
"glory," engraved in the centre. The antique spelling and capitals 
{same in both) are exactly as given above. I believe it is not known how 
this plate came into the possession of Aney parish. A plain chalice, with 
the following inscription : "The Guift of his Grace William Ld. Arch- 
bishop of Cashell to the Church of Awney, 1701," and (probably) from 
the same donor, a small paten, plain, no inscription, but the word 
" Awney " engraved on the stand underneath. 

Ardmayle. Silver-plated chalice and paten, each dated 1819. Latten 
forass alms-dish, dated 1883. 

Athassel. A flagon, chalice, and paten. Inscription on each, 
" Athassel Parish, 1863." 

This plate was, I believe, presented to the parish by the former 
rector, Rev. J. M. Poole, and his friends. 

Ballinlanders. A chalice and paten, each inscribed, " Ballinlondry 
Church, 1850." 



?. The incumbent writes : " There is a silver flagon, 
which was purchased by money collected by Mrs. R. U. Bayly for an 
east window in Dundrum Church ; but that plan fell through, and the 
mone y about 20 was given to the Dean of Cashel to purchase a 
flagon for the use of this church. The inscription is, " Presented to 
Ballintemple Church, diocese of Cashel, Christmas, 1879." 

There are two cups of much older date, but the year not mentioned. 
The inscriptions run as follows : " The Gift of the Honbl. Thomas Ralph 
Maude to the Parish Church of Ballintemple, county Tipperary." " The 
Gift of Anthony Maude, Esquire, to the Parish Church of Ballintemple." 
This latter is evidently the more ancient. 

The paten, which is also of silver, has, curiously enough, the word 
" Thurles" graven underneath. 

(There are other cases in which plate belonging originally to one 
parish has yet been found in another. Most probably the minister, on 
getting new plate, presented what was no longer required, to a parish 
which had not been previously supplied.) 

Ballylrood. A paten, cup, and flagon, all dated 1814. 

Ballysheehan. A silver-plated chalice and paten, each dated 1864. 
A latten brass alms-dish, dated 1870. 

Borris. A cup and paten, each inscribed "Paul Higgins, Minister 
of the Union of Drume. James Willington, Thos. Loyd, Churchwardens." 
Also a silver salver, " Littleton Church, 1794." 

Drom being part of the corps of the treasurership, the plate was 
transferred to Borrisleigh, or Littleton, the head of the Union, upon the 
Church of Drom being shut up and disused. The Rev. Paul Higgins 



1 Rachel, daughter of Francis Fane, Bourchier, Earl of Bath. He died in 
Earl of Westmoreland, married Henry 1654. 

ira 



178 ON THE CHURCH PLATE OF CASHEL AND EMLY. 

lived at Clonakenny, near Killea, about 140 years ago; his will was in 
the Diocesan Registry, and I remember having to produce it on a Record 
at Nenagh, about the year 1841, when there was much amusement on 
Mr. Brewster (afterwards Lord Chancellor) reading out the bequest of 
" my Nagg Button." Sixty years ago the Rev. Robert Forsayeth, rector of 
Kilfithmone, performed the occasional duties of Drom parish, which 
adjoined his own. Willington and Lloyd are names well known in that 
district. 

Cahirconlish. Paten and cup, dated 1837. 

Cahercorney. A chalice, bearing the following inscription: "The 
Guift of Edward Croker, Esq., to ye Church of Cahircorny, 1725." A 
small paten, plain, no inscription, but merely the word "Cahircorny" 
on the stand underneath. 

Cashel. A silver flagon, cup, and paten. Inscription, "Ex Dono, 
Reverissi in Christo Patris Ac du T. F. nuper Cassalen, Archiepiscopi 
qui objit 31 Die Martis Ano dni, 1667. Mt sui. 74." 

Thomas Fulwar, D.D., was consecrated Bishop of Ardfert in 1641, 
translated to Cashel, 1660, and is buried in St. John's churchyard; his 
tombstone was recently placed against the wall of the Diocesan Library, 
in order to prevent the inscription being defaced by the foot-tracks. 

A large flagon, two large cups, two patens, all of solid silver, and 
bearing the following inscription : " This plate was given for ye use of 
ye Cathedrall Church of Cashell, by Mrs. Mary Palliser, wife of ye most 
Reverend father in God, doctor Willm. Palliser, Lord Archbishop of 
Cashell, this 27th day of September, 1715." 

From the Very Rev. Dean Quirke, parish priest of Cashel, I obtained 
the following information relating to plate now in his possession. A very 
fine silver-gilt chalice, of an old and convenient form ; inscription, "Ad 
usum Ecclesiae Cathedralis Sancti Patricy, Cassellensis, 1647." A small 
silver Gothic chalice ; inscription, " Orate pro anima Donati Fogarty 
Sacerdotis qui me fieri fecit, A.D. 1641." A chalice in Rosegreen ; the 
inscription put on long subsequently, " This chalice belongs to the parish 
of Cashel, 1838. Pray for Elenor Joph. Jolly." A large silver chalice, 
1820. There are patenas with all these chalices. 

The first of these had been only a short time procured when it was 
" looted" by Inchiquin's soldiers, when the Rock was taken on the 15th 
September, 1647. 

It is not likely that this chalice was given to the then Protestant 
Archbishop of Cashel, for, had it been available for use, it is improbable 
that his successor, Thomas Fulwar, would have bequeathed money to pro- 
cure Church plate for the parish. 

It is stated that Archbishop Agar, more than 100 years after its being 
taken, returned the chalice to the parish priest of Cashel. It is most probable 
that he purchased it from the descendant of the party who had taken it, 
in order that he might do a graceful act. 

"With regard to the chalice in Rosegreen, further particulars will be 
found under Fethard parish. 

Clonbeg. The Communion plate belonging to Clonbeg Church con- 
sists of a cup, and a paten, both inscribed, " The Gift of James Dawson, 
Esq., to Clonbeg Church, 1731." 



ON THE CHURCH PLATE OF CASHEL AND EMLY. 179 

Clanoulty. A silver chalice of good size. Inscription on it, " The 
-Gift of Mrs. Elizabeth Judkins, to ye Parish Church of Clonoulty." It 
seems old, but bears no date. A small silver paten; inscribed, "The 
Gift of Richd. Lehunte, Esq., to ye Parish Church of Clonoulty, in ye 
County of Tipperary, 1740." 

The Lehunte family have large estates in the parish of Clonoulty. 
The Judkins owned the townland of Torah. 

Cullen. A paten and a cup, each inscribed, " The gift of the late 
Rev. Morgan Hickey to the Parish of Cullen." 

The Rev. Morgan Hickey was curate of Toem in 1719. He was 
collated Prebendary of Newchapel January 30, 1737. He was likewise 
curate of Kilmore, and Yicar-General of the diocese. In 1744 he re- 
signed his prebend, and accepted the benefice of Fethard. He was a 
liberal benefactor to the poor, to the schools, and to the Church, as will 
be seen by the following extract from his will : "I bequeath all my 
Plate to be sold, and the money arising thence to be applied to buy 
Church Plate for such churches of this diocese as my Executors, the sur- 
vivor, or survivors of them, shall think fit, by and with the consent and 
approbation of the Archbishop of Cashel for the time being." 

Hereinafter will be seen the parishes which had the benefit of this 
legacy. 

Doon. A chalice and paten of sterling silver, each inscribed, "Doone 
Church, 1822." Two plated salvers for collecting alms, both inscribed, 
" Presented by Laurence Marshall, Esq., of Toomoline House, to Doon 
Church." 

Donohill. The cup and paten bear this inscription: " Presented for 
the use of Donohill Church, by the lady who built it, 1855" The 
flagon has simply the word " Donohill." 

In or about the year 1855 an English lady staying at Colonel Pure- 
foy's, of Greenfield, took pity on the miners working at Holyford, who 
had no church nearer to them than Toem, and she said she would give 
500 to build a church where Donohill Church now is. I have been 
unable to ascertain her name 

Fethard. The plate of Trinity Church, Fethard, consists of a massive 
silver two-handled cup, having the following inscription : "This Cup was 
given to the Church of Fethard by Mrs. Ellenor Jolly, in consideration of 
a piece of ground given by the Minister and Churchwardens for a burying- 
place for her family anno 1711." A silver cup and paten, evidently old, 
but bearing no date: the cup has the inscription, "ParochiadeFeathard." 
A silver-handled knife, silver spoon, and silver-handled cork-screw, all 
bearing the inscription, "Feathard Church." The hall-mark appears 
to be old, but the inscription has a more modern appearance, and, except 
for the spelling of Fethard, is almost identical with that on the cup. A 
cup and two plates of the pattern supplied by the late Eccl. Comrs. ; no 
-date; inscription on cup, "Fethard Church." Two alms plates (plated) 
presented by the late William Surges, Esq. 

The Journal of the Kilkenny Archaeological Society, published in 
1863, contains an interesting Paper, from which I extract the following: 

The inscription upon the tomb of Robert Jolly is as follows : "Here 



180 ON THE CHURCH PLATE OF CASHEL AND EMLY. 

Tinder foot lyeth interred the body of Robert Joly, formerly of Theobalds 
Hereforesh, in England, and late of Knockelly, Esquire, who died the- 
20th day of August, 1709, and in ye 52nd yeare of his age." 

A biographical sketch of Eobert Jolly is rather romantic. He was a 
private soldier in a horse regiment, stationed in Fethard, in the year 
1680. At the same time there lived in that town a young orphan girl 
named Ellen Meagher, under the guardianship of Mrs. St. John. Young 
Jolly and this girl formed an acquaintance, which, however, was soon 
broken off by Jolly's regiment being suddenly sent off on foreign service. 
Ellen Meagher, soon after, went with a young English lady, as companion 
and attendant, to London. While living with this lady she attracted the 
notice of a very rich Jew. Some state that she was either married to the 
Jew, or lived with him as housekeeper and confidential manager ; how- 
ever, this old gentleman perceiving his end approach, and having no 
issue, made her sole heir of all his property, and died in a few days. 
Ellen Meagher, now possessed of great wealth, when passing in her carriage 
one day by the barrack-square, recognised her old friend Jolly walking 
up and down on guard. She instructed him to call at her residence, and 
having done so, she purchased his discharge, and gave him her hand in. 
marriage. They then carried their wealth to Ireland, and came to reside 
in Mrs. Jolly's native town, when they chose Knockelly for their resi- 
dence, where they lived a long time, and had three daughters, who 
ultimately married three barristers, viz. Mr. Gahan of Coolquil Castle ; 
Mr. Meagher of Kilmore, near Clonmel ; and Mr. O'Callaghan, ancestor 
to Lord Lismore. It is stated that when the latter gentleman made his 
proposal to Mrs. Jolly for one of her daughters he was accompanied by 
Toby Butler (a well-known character of the day). The business upon 
which they had come being stated, Mrs. Jolly inquired from Mr. 
O'Callnghan the extent of his property : " Put out your tongue," said 
Toby Butler to O'Callaghan, and he did so. " Madam," said Butler, 
"that is the extent of his property." 

Galbally. A chalice and paten. There is no inscription on the 
paten, but it is evidently very ancient ; the diameter is over nine inches. 
Inscription on chalice : " This Chalice was given by Elizabeth Irby to 
ye Church of Duntryleague, in the King-dome of Ireland, as a Grateful 
acknowledgement to Almighty God for her safe Returne to her Native 
Country, and finding her Husband & Father in good health, which 
Mercy she hopes never to forget." 

"Antony Irby, M.A. (D.D. 1696), collated Treasurer of Cashel Nov. 
17, 1674. In the next year be became a Prebendary of Emly, and held 
both these preferments till his death in 1706. He was collated Preben- 
dary of Kilneleige, or Killenellick, Dec. 16, 1675." Cotton's Fasti. 

Grean. A plated flagon, chalice, and paten, without any inscrip- 
tion. A silver chalice and paten, inscribed, " Given by Rev. Richard 
Burgh to the Parish Church of Cullen, A.D. 1745." 

Holy cross. Inscription on chalice, "Ex Dono Reuerendissim Gulielim 
Archiopis Cassellensis, 1699." 

The paten that accompanies this chalice seems to be of the same- 
style and age, but it bears no date. Archbishop Palliser was the donor. 



ON THE CHURCH PLATE OF CASHEL AND EMLY. 181 

Eilbehenny. A cup and paten. Inscription on both is, " Kilbehenny 
Church, 1840." 

Kilcooly. A silver cup and a silver paten, each bearing as inscrip- 
tion, " The Gift of Sir "William Barker, Bart., to the Parish of Kilcooly, 
May, 1777." A large silver flagon. Inscription, " Parish of Kilcooly, 
1813." 55 oz. 12dwt. Two large silver plates; inscription on each, 
"Parish of Kilcooly, 1813." 18 oz. 15dwt. each. 

The last three articles cost 44, and were purchased out of parish 
funds, according to entry in Vestry-book. 

Killenaule. A cup and paten of solid silver, with the following in- 
scriptions on each, " The Gift of the Rev. Samuel Biall, LL.B., to the 
Church of Killenaule, 1791." 

Eilfitlimone. A cup and paten, having upon them the letters 
"B.I.C." 

[Most probably these were the gift of members of the Garden family, 
the letters standing for " Benjamin and Indiana Garden."] 

Killoscully. "Presented by The Right Honble. Lady Bloomfield to 
the Church of Killoscully Parish (on Christmas Day, 1829*.") 

Kilvemnon. A flagon and paten. Inscription on each, " The Gift of 
Isaac Homan to the Parish of Kilvemnon, 1805." A chalice, with in- 
scription, "The Gift of Rev. Thomas Sheppard, Rector, to the Church 
of Kilvemnon, 1771." 

Killomery. A chalice and paten. Inscription, "Killamery Church." 
Lismalin and Ballingarry. No inscription. 

Mogorlan. A silver paten and chalice. Inscription, " The Gift of 
Charles Brodrick, D.D., Archbishop of Cashel, to the Parish of Mogorban, 
1821." 

Moyne. A cup and paten of plated copper, old, worn, and without 
inscription. 

Newchapel. A two-handled goblet, used as a Communion cup, bears 
the following inscription: "This Oration Prize, the legacy of Dr. Hooper, 
adjudged to Richard Moore, by Trinity College, Cambridge, 1771." On 
the reverse side is inscribed, " Given by the said R. M., Dean of Emly, 
to the Parish of Newchapel, in the Diocese of Cashel, for Sacram. use, 
1809." 

St. John's, Newport. A chalice and paten, without inscription. 

Templemore. A large silver plate with dove on it, and underneath, 
" Glory to God in the highest, & on Earth Peace good will to men. 
Luke, ch. 2, ver. 14"; also a silver paten. These two seem old, but the 
donors are unknown. An electro-plated flagon, and on it, " Temple- 
more Church, 1845." Two electro -plated chalices, with same inscription 
as flagon. 

Templeneiry. The inscription on the church plate is " Templeneiry 
Church, 1845." 



182 ON THE CHURCH PLATE OF CASHEL AND EMLY. 

TempletuoJiy. A cup and paten of hammered silver ; the cup weighs 
16oz. 3 dwts., and it has two stars of sixteen points upon it, which 
enclose the letters " I. H. S.," with a cross above the H, and three nails 
below it. 

In the church there is a mural tablet, on which the inscription states 
that the church was built by Archbishop Agar in 1810, and probably the 
plate may have been his gift. 

Toem. A paten and cup, both being inscribed, " The Gift of the 
Rev. Morgan Hickey to the Church of Toem." No date on either. 

Tipperary. A chalice. " In usum Ecclesiaa de Tipperary, D.D., A.D. 
1821. Yerney Lovett, S.T.P., Coll. Trin. Cantab. Parochiae Indigena." 

There is a monument to Yerney Lovett in Lismore Cathedral. Lieut. 
Yerney Lovett Cameron, the African explorer, is a descendant of the donor. 

A chalice of massive silver, and inscribed, " The Gift of E. D. to ye 
Church of Tipperary (evidently older than the chalice previously de- 
scribed). A paten. Coat-of-arms; no motto or inscription; old-fashioned; 
stands on three legs (massive silver). The coat-of-arms is that of the 
Rev. Morgan Hickey, who left plate to several other parishes. A flagon, 
electro-plated ; no inscription. 

Thurles. A modern flagon, inscribed, " Thurles Parish Church." A 
chalice, inscribed, " The Gift of the Rev. Morgan Hickey to the Church 
of Thurles, 1748." 

The paten bears merely the coat-of-arms of the Rev. Morgan Hickey. 

Tuogh. Electro-plated chalice and paten, "Tuogh Church, 1848." 
Electro-plated flagon, " Tuogh Church, Cappamore, Co. Limerick, 1879." 

The latter was presented by Robert William Stein, Esq., Raglan- 
road, Dublin. 



( 183 ) 



NOTICES OF THE FAMILY OF LATTIN. 
BY JOHN M. THUNDER. 

THE family of Latton, variously spelt Latin, Latyn, Latoun, and Latten, 
are believed to have derived their origin from the house of Estouteville, 
or Stutville, a noble race so called from a borough of that denomination 
in Upper Normandy. Of this family was William de Stutville, who was 
made Cardinal by Pope Eugenius IV., 1439. He died, 1482. 

After the Conquest the Stutvilles were Barons of Lydedale in Cum- 
berland ; created Earls of Yorkshire, and held large possessions in Rut- 
land, Lincoln, and Warwick. From such a remote period it is difficult 
to trace family origin, or to place entire reliance on genealogical research. 
However it is asserted that one Walter assumed the name of Latton, 
retaining, however, the armorial bearings of the Stutvilles 

Wiltshire appears to have been the original home of the Lattons, but 
the leading branches of that family settled in Berkshire, of whom we 
have much information in Ashmole's "Antiquities" of that county. 
William de Latton came to Upton in Berkshire in 1325, which fact is 
stated in the Herald's office. He married Joan, daughter and sole heir 
of Walter de Percy, who was grandson of William de Percy, a younger 
branch of the house of Northumberland. 

William de Latton assumed the Percy arms in compliment to his wife, 
but the succeeding generations of his family resumed the Stutville arms. 
The principal manors of the Lattons in Berkshire were 

Upton. Inglefield. 

Chilton. Hockburn. 

Blewbery. Oke. 

Wantage. Draycot Park, held from Saint 

Sing. John's College in Oxford, 

Latton' s Downs. was for many years in the 

Fawley. Latton family. 

John Latton of Chilton, was High Sheriff of Berkshire, 22nd year of 
Queen Elizabeth. The last residence of the family in Berkshire was at 
Kingston, in the Hundreds of Oke, which seat and manor was purchased 
by John Latton of Chelton, 33rd year of Henry VIII. The Lattons 
held large possessions in Oxfordshire, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Devon, 
Dorset, Essex, Kent, Norfolk, Middlesex, and Surrey. 

The descent of the family is given in the Herald's _ office for twenty 
generations, fourteen of which owe their birth to Berkshire. 

The Lattons of Surrey had their chief residence at Esher. John 
Latton, son of Thomas Latton of Kingston, in Berks, purchased the 
former. He was a particular favourite of King William III., who 
bestowed upon him several offices of distinction. He was Equerry, 
Master of the Buckhounds, Master of the Game in Hampton Court Chase, 
of the Lodge in Richmond Park, with a lease of the lands belonging 



184 NOTICES OF THE FAMILY OF LATTIN. 

thereto for thirty years ; Stewart of the Manor of Richmond, and Keeper 
of Windsor House Park. 

John Latton of Esher died 1727. Previous to his death he resided 
at Burwood, and sold Esher to the Duke of Newcastle. By his second 
wife Anne, daughter of Sir Robert Pye of Faringtpn, Berks, he had ten 
children, one of whom was page of honour to William III. 

Before we notice the Latton family in Ireland, a few extracts from the 
last will and testament of Anne Latton of the Chilton branch will be of 
interest, given as it is in the quaint diction of the Elizabethan period : 

The LAST WELL and TESTAMENT of MRS. ANN LATTON, Daughter of 
JOHN LATTON of CHILTON. 

"In the name of God, amen, the 6th day of November, 1584, and 
26 year of the reign of our Sovereign Lady Elizabeth, by the Grace of 
God, Queen of England, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith. 

" I, Anne Latton, one of the daughters of John Latton of Chilton, in 
Co. of Berks, Esq., deceased, being sick in body, but in good and perfect 
remembrance (thanks be given to God), do make and ordain this my last 
will and testament in manner and form following: That is to say, 
renouncing, revoking, and annihilating first and foremost all former 
Wills heretofore by me made, either by word or writing. 

"And principally I bequeath my Soul to Almighty God, my Heavenly 
Father, surely, and most steadfastly believing through the merits of his 
dear Son's Passion only to be saved, and my body I render to the earth 
from whence it came, with a desire to be buried in the parish Church of 
Blewbury, as near unto the place as may be where my late Father lieth 
buried. I give to the poor inhabitants of Wantage Parish twenty two 
pounds of lawful money of England, to be delivered unto them within 
five years after my decease, by the discretion of my executors. I give 
the poor inhabitants of Upton twenty shillings." [Then follow various 
grants of charity to different parishes.] " My mind and intent is, that 
my executors shall bestow 100 smocks, or 200 ells of canvas of the price 
of Wd. an ell, unto and upon 100 poor women dwelling within the 
villages and parishes next above said. My mind and will is, that my 
executors shall bestow and distribute these my legacies upon some 
Friday and Friday in their several parish Churches of the aforesaid, 
desiring them to give God thanks for all his benefits." [Then follows 
donations towards repairing the churches of Upton, Chilton, &c.] "I 
give unto every one of my sisters one ring of gold, and one silver spoon. 
I give unto Anne Legatte, my sister's daughter, 7 10*. of lawful money 
of England, to be paid within five years." [Next comes various small 
bequests to her nephews and sisters.] " I give and bequeath unto John 
Welbeck, and Richard Welbeck, my sister's sons, 5 a-piece, to be paid 
within five years of my decease. I give unto the same Richard Welbeck 
an iron-bound chest; also I give unto the same Richard Welbeck the 
lease and term of years of that land in Henred which I bought of 
Iveringham. I give to Anne Welbeck one diaper cloth, six napkins, 
one towel, and a quilt. I give unto my brother, John Latton, one 
goblet of silver. I give unto my cousin, John Latton of Kingston, one 
silver cup, and unto every one of his children one silver spoon a-piece. 



NOTICES OF THE FAMILY OF LATTIN. 



I give unto my cousins, George Tippinge and Bartholomew Tippinge, 
one silver spoon a-piece. I give unto my cousin, Dorothy Wiseman, one 
jewel, called the ''Two Maidens." I give unto my cousin, Elizabeth 
Jennings, my girdle, studded with gold. I give to my cousin, Anne 
Holloway, one diaper cloth. I give unto my cousin's son, Edward, 20 
wether sheep. I give unto Mary Pawling, my sister Spier's daughter, 
one feather bed furnished; and whereas her husband oweth me 13 6s. 
8d., my mind and will is, that my executors shall receive the same money, 
and deliver him his bond, and give the same unto the said Mary Spier's 
children, and 10 to be equally divided among them. I give unto every- 
one of my god-children 10s. a-piece. I give and bequeath unto R.Welbeck, 
my sister's son, and unto Latton Welbeck, and to their heirs and assigns, 
all my lands, tenements, in county of Essex for ever. I give to my 
servant, William "White, 10 wether sheep. I give unto Eichard Tall, 
10 wether sheep, and a mourning coat. I give unto the 12 men who 
carry me to the grave a mourning coat." 

Ashmole, in his Antiquities of Berkshire, says, that from the 
Wiltshire Lattons, like those of Berkshire, are descended the Lattons of 
the Naas, a town and ancient barony in the county of Kildare ; and adds 
that they came to Ireland in the reign of King John. In Burke' s 
History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland, 1838, it is stated 
that from the Lattons of Latton, in North Wilts, diverged several 
branches seated in various parts of England, and enjoying high respecta- 
bility, the Lattons of Upton, and Esher, &c., as well as the family 
which, obtaining from King John considerable grants of land in Ireland, 
settled there, and became seated at Morrist own- Latton, in Kildare. 
[The first notice of the name in Ireland I have been able to discover is 
in the year 1295.] " Geoffry de Latton, for unjust occupation of the 
King's Chapel, fine, Dublin % a mark." (" State Papers," Ireland.) 
Dalton, in King James's Army List, mentions that the surname Lattin 
(I shall now adopt the modern spelling) appears in Irish Records, 1386, 
in William Latoun. John, the son of William, was a merchant in jNTaas 
at the close of the sixteenth century, and confidential trustee to the 
Wolfe family. Among the Petitioners of the Gentry of the Pale to the 
Lord Deputy in 1605 was ~N. "N. Latin; and Stephen Latyn was a 
member of the Naas Corporation at the same period. In 1590, 
William Lattin of Morristown, and his wife, Anne Luttrell of Lut- 
trellstown, founded at Naas an alms-house for poor women. Several 
members of the Lattin family bequeathed small sums in perpetuity for 
the support of its inmates, and there is at present a charge on the Lattin 
estate of 20 per annum for that purpose, and still regularly paid. This 
house was twice pulled down first in 1787 to widen the street, and 
again in 1798, during the Rebellion, to enable the artillery to put their 
guns in position. The Government, in 1802, allowed a small sum to re- 
build the house. There are three inscribed stones set in the front wall. 
The first bears the names of the founders, and date of foundation, " Gul. 
Latton de Morristown et Anna Luttrell de Luttrellstown me fiere f ecerunt 
Anno MDXC." The inscription on the second stone is not decipherable. 
On the third we have a scriptural text, " Wealth maketh many friends, 
but the poor man is separated from his neighbour," Prov. xix. 4. When 
the house was pulled down, in 1798, Mr. Thomas Plunkett, sub-agent of 
the property, took charge of these stones, and had them restored when it 



186 NOTICES OF THE FAMILY OF LATTIN. 

was rebuilt. 1 William Lattin sat in Parliament for the borough of Naas 
in 1621. Among the monumental inscriptions at St. David's Church, 
N"aas, we find, " Gulielmus Lattin de Morristown, Anna Luttrell de 
Luttrellstown quorum miserere Deus me fiere fecerunt S. P. Q. S. 
Domum eternam. The former stone, erected by W. Lattin and Anne 
Luttrell of Morristown, in the year 1600, being broken, this was fixt by 
Patrick Lattin, and Jane Alcock of the same place, Anno 1719. Here 
lyeth the body of John Lattin, eldest son of the above Patrick Lattin, 
who departed this life the 7th day of July, 1731, in the 21st year of his 
age. Here also lyeth the body of said Patrick Lattin of Morristown, 
Esq., who departed this life the 19th day of June, 1732, in the 64th 
year of his age. Also the body of his son George Lattin, L. Lattin, Esq., 
who died 8th July, 1773, aged 59. Also the body of his wife, Catherine 
O'Ferrall of Ballyna, who died November 12th, 1800, aged 66 years." 

Of the Morristown Lattin family was James Lattin, born in Kildare, 
1581. He entered the Jesuit Order in Rome, and laboured as a missionary 
in Dublin, 1642. He was imprisoned in 1643. 2 Among the list of 
Irish priests and Jesuit students at Douai, mentioned in a letter to the 
Archduchess of Austria in 1613, is James Lattin. John Lattin, in the 
year 1641, was seised of Morishtown, Moynagh, 400 acres; Lowstown, 
30 acres, and 4 tenements ; Westowne, 80 acres, the castle of Molestown, 
and 30 acres; Rathash, 22 acres, the grazing of 12 cows and bull upon 
the Common of Newtown, in the barony of Naas, 100 acres, with a castle 
and 4 tenements, in Craddockstown, and 1 castle and 8 tenements ; also 
one house and back side in the town of Naas. 3 

The direct ancestor of William Lattin, who represented Naas in 
Parliament, 1621, was William Lattin, who married one of the Caddell 
family ; his son, Patrick Lattin, married Jane, daughter of William Alcock 
of Clough (now Wilton), county Wexford, and had issue : 

1. John, who left no issue. 

2. George, who succeeded his father. 

1. Jane, married Alexander Eustace of Craddockstown (whose son, 
Colonel Eustace, died unmarried ; two daughters, Mary, and Anne ; the 
former married Sir Duke Gifford, and the latter, John Caulfield). 

2. Begnet, married Fitzgerald of Baltenoran. 

3. Another daughter, married Kennedy, Esq. ; died without male 
issue. 

4. A daughter, married Fitzgerald, Esq. 

5. Elizabeth, married James Archibald of Eadestown, Kildare. 
Patrick Lattin died 1732, and was succeeded by his son George, who 
married Catherine O'Ferrall of Ballyna, and had issue : 

1. Patrick. 

2. Ambrose, d. in the Austrian Service, 1 789. 

1 . Mary, m. Patrick Lambert of Carnagh. 

2. Jane, m. Major Fitz Gerald, Co. Kilkenny. 

1 "Historical Notice of Naas." Eev. the Faith." 

M. Comerford, M.R.I. A. 3 "Inquisitions (Lagenia), Record Pub- 

2 See Rev. Brother Foley, s./., " Col- lications " 
lectanea" ; and O'Reilly's " Sufferers for 



NOTICES OF THE FAMILY OF LATTIN. 187 

3. Anne, m. Le Marquis de La Yie, of Bordeaux. 

4. Begnet, m. James Lambert, of Bantry Lodge, "Wexford. 

5. Eleanor. 

6. Frances. 

George Lattin died 1773; his brother, who was known as Jack Lattin, 
is said to have been a celebrated dancer, and there is an old rhyme pre- 
served in the family, which says : 

" Jack Lattin, dressed in Satin, 
Broke his heart of dancing : 
He danced from Morristown 
To Castle-Brown." 1 

Patrick Lattin, who succeeded his father, George, was born at Morris- 
town Lattin, county Kildare, 1762. He was educated at the College, 
Henry IY., Paris, and at the University of Turin ; was a Captain in the 
Irish Brigade, and aide-de-camp to General Count Dillon. Patrick Lattiu 
married, 1792, Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Eobert Snow, of Drum- 
downey, county Kilkenny, and had issue Paulina, who married, 1817, 
Alexander Mansfield of Yeomanstown, county Kildare. Patrick Lattin was 
a man of high intellectual attainments, unsurpassed in the brilliancy of 
his wit and talent as a raconteur. Lady Morgan, who knew him well, 
declared that in his presence " Shiel was silent, and Curran dull." In 
her Book of the Boudoir she speaks of Lattin as a raconteur whom it 
was a boast to know, and who in his residence at Morristown, and at his 
pretty hotel in the Chaussee D'Autin, delighted his guests by his rela- 
tion of anecdotes in French, which rivalled the purisme of Madame de 
Genlis. Thomas Moore was a frequent guest of Mr. Lattin' s in Paris, 
and the former frequently mentions him. in his " Journals." Moore was 
dining in Paris one night in Lattin's company : Lattin amused his audience 
by telling them that he had just met a Frenchman who declared he had 
never read the history of France, but had guessed it. On another occa- 
sion Moore was dining with Lattin : the company included the Lords 
Holland, John Russell, Thanet, and Trimleston : the host entertained 
his guests by telling them of the feelings of the Irish for Napoleon 
Bonaparte. He said when he was last in Ireland he was taken to the 
secret part of the cabin of one of his poor tenants, who whispered, " I 
know you will not betray me, sir, but just look there, and tell me 
whether that is the real thing" pointing at the same time to a soi-disant 
portrait of Napoleon, which turned out to be a print of Marshal Saxe. 
At this dinner Lattin proposed the health of Moore's father and mother, 
and declared the pleasure it gave him to witness the triumph of the 
elder Moore at the great celebration given at Dublin in honour of his 
gifted son. 

Lord Cloncurry, in his "Memoir," gives us his portrait of Lattin, 
and the close friendship which existed between them. He says that 
Patrick Lattin was in company with Count Dillon at the time of his 
murder, and that he resigned his commission, and returned to Morris- 
town Lattin, where he lived many years, the centre of a circle of friends, 

1 Now Clongowes Wood College. 



188 NOTICES OF THE FAMILY OF LATTIN. 

whom he delighted by the brilliancy of his wit and eminent social 
qualities. Lord Cloncurry obtained from Marshal Berthier permission, 
from Napoleon for Lattin to return to Paris, and to reside in a house, 
of which he was the owner, in the Rue Trudon. Lattin translated 
Voltaire's Henriade into English verse, the proceeds of which were given 
towards helping an emigre friend. He also published " Observations on 
Dr. Duigenan's Fair Representation of the Present Political State of 
Ireland" (1805). Dr. Duigenan answered in a libellous pamphlet, 
which caused Lattin to take proceedings against him. The case was 
tried in the Court at Westminster. Lattin recovered large damages from 
an English jury. 

The present representative of the Lattins is George Patrick Lattin 
Mansfield, D.L., Morristown Lattin, grandson of the subject of our 
Memoir, who inherits the Lattin property by right of his mother (the 
daughter of Patrick Lattin). Mr. Lattin died in Paris 1836, leaving no 
male issue. The name is also represented by Lattin Thunder, Kingston 
Lodge, county Meath, great-grandson of Patrick Lattin (maternally). 



( 189 ) 



THE MEDALLISTS OE IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 
BY WILLIAM FRAZER, F.R.C.S.I., 

Member of Council and Librarian, Royal Irish Academy. 

[Continued from VOL. VII. , page 619.] 
NO. III. THE WOODHOUSES. 

JOHN WOODHOUSE, son of "William Woodhouse (whose works as a medallist 
I have already described), was born in Dublin in 1835, and educated in 
that city. He entered the Art Schools of the Royal Dublin Society in 
1851, under Mr. Neilan. Next year he was occupied at Cork in striking 
his father's medals at the Art Exhibition held there, and obtained a first 
prize for his drawing of the Dying Gladiator from the Royal Dublin 
Society, and a Certificate of Proficiency in the junior class for Artistic 
Anatomy. In 1853 he was employed in cutting his first steel die the 
harp for the reverse of the " Dargan " medal made by his father ; he also 
prepared a miniature medallet, representing the head of Dargan, copied 
from the larger-sized medal. He was awarded the silver medal of the 
Royal Dublin Society for Artistic Anatomy, and the Local Medal and 
National Medallion for his execution of four heads modelled in low relief; 
these, with an impression of the medal of Sir Benjamin Brodie, are pre- 
served in a frame in the possession of the Irish School of Art. I understand 
there were only four of these National Medallions ever issued for Irish 
competition. 

In 1854 he again succeeded in obtaining the Local Medal for a model 
of the head of the Queen, intended to be used for a medal by the Queen's 
University ; this was copied after the portrait engraved on the Corona- 
tion Medal made by Wyon. The die for this medal was engraved by his 
father. When undergoing the process of hardening, a crack appeared across 
the face of the portrait, which did not interfere with its being used to strike 
medals until some time had elapsed, when Mr. Woodhouse re-engraved it. 
The impressions from the first die are recognised by having the letter " w" 
on the Queen's neck. Medals made from the second die are marked WOOD- 
HOUSE F underneath the bust, and the lettering of the inscription is in dif- 
ferent characters. About 1876 a third die was required, which John 
Woodhouse made. In this medal the Queen's head is represented of larger 
size, and it has underneath the words J WOODHOUSE. 

In 1862 the Prize Medal of the Royal Hibernian Academy was pre- 
sented to Mr. J. Woodhouse for his skill in modelling, and in the course of 
the next year he was elected to the rank of an Associate Academician. 
His talents as a medallist can be judged by studying his works, and the 
number of medals he executed will testify to the diligence with which he 
pursued his profession. Unfortunately, in the midst of his career, he was 
attacked by a dangerous and severe illness, which has incapacitated him 
from pursuing his usual avocation j after some months of suffering, he has 



190 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 

so far improved in health, that his friends hope they may again see him 
engaged in the active prosecution of his attractive art. It is with much 
regret that I state, from my own knowledge, how little his talents have 
profited him. Like many of Ireland's brilliant sons, we are proud of his 
abilities, but fail to reward them with more than empty praise and words, 
not acts of sympathy. 

DABGAN MEDALLET. Head to right ; behind it DAEGAN. Reverse. 
Blank. A white metal proof in my possession, made for practice in die- 
sinking when sixteen years of age. Size, *9. 

MEDALLET OF CUPID IN CHAINS, leaning on a hoe, to right. Engraved 
after a gem of Pichler's. "White metal ; unique impression, in my collec- 
tion. Size '9. 

MEDALLET OP HOESE. In white metal; an early study, and rare; 
in my possession. Size, *9. 

SIE BENJAMIN BEODIE. A finely-modelled head (copied from the 
English medal of this distinguished surgeon), looking to left, behind 
BEODIE. On the neck j w. Reverse. An olive wreath. Size, 2'0. This 
medal was made as an art study. I have an impression in bronze. 

DANIEL O'CONNELL. Bust with neck of coat, and portion of well- 
known cloak to left. DANIEL O'CONNELL BOEN ATJG T 6 TH 1775 DIED MAY 
15 TH 1847. Beneath is the " Patent Registration mark" between two 
shamrocks ; and on the arm of the bust w WOODHODSE. Reverse. Foley's 
model for the Monument now erected in Sackville- street ; on base H. FOLEY 
E A ; and beneath, in small letters, j WOODHOUSE. The inscription is, TO 

COMMEMOEATE THE CENTENAEY OF o'cONNELL's BIETH AUGUST 6 TH 1875. 

Size, 2-1. 

This was the last medal made by "William "Woodhouse before going to 
the country ; and its reverse the first die published with his son's name ; 
struck in white metal. About six dozen impressions were struck. 

DANIEL O'CONNELL (Erection of the Monument). A replica of the last 
described medal, but the monument has the date 1881 ; and the inscrip- 
tion on two raised ribbons is TO COMMEMOEATE THE EEECTION OF THE 

O'CONNELL MONUMENT IN DUBLIN. Size, 2-1. Struck in white metal. I 
have an impression. 

DANIEL O'CONNELL (Centenary of Birth). Bust to right ; on neck w w. 
Inscribed DANIEL O'CONNELL M p, BOEN AUG 6 TH 1775 DIED MAY 1847. 
Reverse. Round tower, harp, and wolf-dog, with sun rising over the sea. 

Above, CATHOLIC | EMANCIPATION | EEPEAL. In CXergUC, CENTENAEY | 

1875. I In small letters under tower, j. w. Size, T4. 

Portrait copied from Mr. "W. "Woodhouse's model. Of this medal, 1 1,000 
sold within a few weeks. I have a white metal proof. 

DANIEL O'CONNELL (Erection of Monument). Copy of last head, 
marked WOODHOUSE on neck, and underneath, DUBLIN. Reverse. Irish 
cross with harp, dog, and distant round tower ; around top of cross, 

CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION. Inscription, COMMEMOEATE THE EEECTION OF THE 



THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 191 



1881, in exergue. Size, 1*4; in white metal. 
Occurs also with date altered to 1882. Similar to the last described 
medal, it was largely sold. 

ARTHUR JACOB, M. D., F. R. C. S. Bust to left, draped ; marked be- 
neath w WOODHOUSE, F. and behind the figure, JACOB. Reverse A laurel 
wreath, outside which is inscribed ARTHUR JACOB M. D. F R c s PEOF OF AN AT 

& PHYS EOT COL OF SURG IN IRELAND ; and within, IN | COMMEMORATION | OF 
I EMINENT SEETICES | EENDEEED TO | SCIENCE | AND | THE MEDICAL PROFES- 

SION | IN | IRELAND | 1860. Size, 2-6. 

Dr. Jacob's long association with the Royal College of Surgeons and 
his valuable services to the College, and the profession of Surgery in Ire- 
land, rendered his friends desirous of presenting him with a service of plate, 
which he declined to accept, and in its stead this medal was prepared and 
struck for subscribers to the " Jacob Fund." About 120 were distributed, 
one impression being in silver, which was given to his brother, Dr. Jacob 
of Maryborough. It is needless to recall Dr. Jacob's high surgical and 
scientific attainments ; his name will always be associated with the dis- 
covery of the " Membrana Jacobi" in the structure of the eye and remem- 
bered as editor of the Medical Press. He died in 1874, aged 84 years, 
having retired to England some years previously. Though bearing the 
initials of his father, this medal was the work of Mr. J. Woodhouse. I 
have a good impression of this medal in bronze. 

TRINITY COLLEGE. A replica of Mr. W. "Woodhouse's medal. Portrait 
well executed, and of larger size ; distinguished by J w on the sleeve. 
Size, 1-6. 

Only one bronze, and a few white metal, proofs were struck before the 
die broke ; of these I have a white metal proof impression. It is recog- 
nised by several minute differences in the ornamentation of the dress from 
the die subsequently engraved. Reverse. A wreath. 

TRINITY COLLEGE. This medal bears, like the last, the bust of Eliza- 
beth, and inscription COLL. ss. ET INDIVID TEIN EEG ELIZABETHS IUXTA 
DVBL. 1591. Reverse. The College arms on a field, diapered, and semee 
with shamrocks ; at side the Tudor rose and portcullis. Struck in gold, 
it is given for various moderatorships, and has different inscriptions. 
That before me bears ETHICIS ET LOGICIS FELICITER EXCULTIS, and the name 
of the recipient engraved, JOHANNES F FRAZER 1873, having been obtained 
by my son, the late Rev. John Findlay Frazer, Sch., T. C. D. 

TRINITY COLLEGE LATIN MEDAL. Roma draped and armed, holding 
Yictory on outstretched hand, seated on a cuirass, with shield ; underneath 
these J WOODHOUSE. In exergue, ROMA. Reverse. College arms, &c., as 
last medal ; inscription, PROPTER LITERAS LATINAS FELICITER EXCTJLTAS. 
Size, 1-4. 

The die is copied from a fine first-brass coin of Nero. It was intended 
as a companion prize to Wyon's Greek Berkeley Medal made in 1874, and 
constitutes the Yice-Chancellor's Prize Latin Medal, one or two being 
awarded, struck in gold, in each session. A few proofs of this medal 
were struck in bronze ; of these no less than three have found their way 
to my cabinet. 

4TH SER., VOL. VIII. 



192 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 

THEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OP TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN. A shield bearing- 
the College Arms, with Tudor rose and portcullis at the sides ; above in- 
scribed, FOUNDED | 1837. All inclosed within a thick laurel wreath, 
outside which is, THEOLOGICAL SOCIETY or TRINITY COLLEGE DUBLIN. 
Reverse. Blank, with wreath of olive and oak leaves. Size, 2*1. 

I have early proofs of this medal, struck in white metal and in 
bronze. 

PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY or THE UNIVERSITY OF DUBLIN. A shield with 
the arms of the University on a diapered ground semte, with shamrocks ; 
at side the Tudor rose and portcullis. Around all, PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF DUBLIN, FOUNDED 1854. Reverse. Blank centre, for 
inscription, with olive wreaths ; underneath, in small letters, J w. Size, 1 *9. 

I have an impression in silver, with ring for suspension. 

TYRRELL MEDAL. Bust to left, marked j w on neck. Inscribed, 

WILLIAM GERALD TYRRELL BORN NOV 28 TH 1851 DIED AVG 28 1876. Reverse 

A shield with the University arms, Tudor rose, and portcullis, and within, 
an olive wreath, outside which, DULCES ANTE OMNIA MUSAE. Size, 1*6. 

The premature death of this promising young man was much 
regretted by his companions in College. There was an intention of 
commemorating his death by instituting a College medal, which was not 
carried out. I believe only two impressions of this medal were struck, 
of which I have one in bronze. The portrait is well executed. 

THE QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY IN IRELAND. Thus inscribed above a dia- 
demed head of the Queen, to left ; on the neck, in small letters, j WOOD- 
HOUSE, and underneath, FOUNDED 1850. Reverse. The arms of the 
Queen's University, with shamrocks at side, on a shield, with space round 
edge for inscription. Size, 1-6. 

This prize medal was struck in gold and silver; it is distinguished 
from the medals made by W. "Woodhouse, by the portrait of the Queen 
being of larger size, and by the inscription on the neck. Seen in an 
early impression, it is a fine piece of work. I have a white metal proof. 

PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF THE CORK COLLEGE. Head of the Queen, 
inscribed, VICTORIA REGINA. Reverse. An engraved inscription. Size, 2'0. 

Presented as a prize by the Vice-President of the College in the year 
1877-8. 

KOYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS, IRELAND. The arms of the College, 
with supporters. Motto, on a ribbon underneath, CONCILIO MANUQUE, 
and, in small letters, J. w. Reverse. A blank centre for engraving, 
around this, ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS IN IRELAND. Size, 1'6. 

Issued in gold and silver for prizes by Sir Charles Cameron, Professor 
of Chemistry, and late President of the College. I have a white metal 
proof, and also an impression in an unfinished condition. The supporters 
are modelled "nude," in Mr. Woodhouse's usual manner for securing 
accurate proportion when delineating the human figure, the drapery being 
a subsequent addition. 

SIR PATRICK DUN'S HOSPITAL MEDAL. The arms of Sir Patrick Dun, 
with his motto, CELER ATQUE FLDEUS, on a ribbon, and underneath, in 



ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 193 

minute letters, i w. Around the arms, PATR DUN EQ AUR NOSOCOMII SCHOL.E 
MEDICINE IN HIBERN FUND*. Reverse. A blank centre for inscription, 

With, AWARDED TO FOR THE SESSION. Outside this, HAUGHTON CLINICAL 

MEDAL INSTITUTED AD 1868. Size, 2'0. 

This medal, founded by the Rev. Dr. Haughton, is struck in silver, 
and awarded to the best students examined on medical and surgical 
cases treated during the year, and reported by themselves. Those who 
are familiar with the subject of medical education in Ireland are aware 
how much the Medical School of the University of Dublin is indebted to 
Professor Haughton for its present distinguished position, and its success 
in promoting the study of medicine and surgery on a scientific basis. 
My example of this medal is a white metal proof. 

SIR PATRICK DUN'S HOSPITAL MATERNITY. The medal is inscribed 
with these words, around the figure of a woman, who holds an infant, 
and at whose side is a young child ; in the exergue are, j WOODHOUSE, in 
minute letters, and FOUNDED 1867. Reverse. A blank centre for inscrip- 
tion, with AWARDED TO. Surrounding this, HAUGHTON MATERNITY MEDAL 

INSTITUTED A D 1869. Size, 2'0. 

This maternity, besides its usefulness as a local charity, has trained a 
number of efficient nurses, many of whom became employed in regiments 
at home and abroad. Usually two silver and a few bronze medals are 
issued each year and given after examination. My specimen is in bronze. 

CITY OF DUBLIN HOSPITAL MEDAL. A shield bearing above the arms 
of the City of Dublin, and underneath the Good Samaritan with a 
wounded man, resting on a field semee with shamrocks, j w in small 
letters underneath. Inscription, CITY OF DUBLIN HOSPITAL . FOUNDED 
1832. Reverse. Blank, with olive wreaths. Size, 2-0. 

This medal is issued as a premium ; struck in silver. My specimen is 
in bronze. 

CARMICHAEL MEDICAL SCHOOL. Bust of Mr. Carmichael, draped, to left. 
Underneath on the bust, j WOODHOUSE AR H A, in small letters. Inscription, 
RICHARD CARMICHAEL. Reverse. A blank centre for engraving, around 

Which, CARMICHAEL SCHOOL OF MEDICINE FOUNDED 1828. Size, 1'6. 

Richard Carmichael, born 1779, was accidentally drowned at Sutton 
in 1849. Having acquired a large fortune, he liberally endowed the 
Medical School in North Brunswick-street, of which he was one of the 
original founders, and also left bequests to be distributed by the Royal 
College of Surgeons, and to the Benevolent Medical Association of Ire- 
land. In 1879, the school built by Mr. Carmichael's bequest in North 
Brunswick-street was closed, and a new school built in Aungier-street. 
The bust on this medal is copied from one in marble in the College of 
Surgeons, and from a former medal made in electrotype from an en- 
.graved seal. The medal is given to different classes in this school for 
prizes at examinations. 

MATER MISERICORDL^ HOSPITAL. Inscribed with these words and 
DUBLIN around the centre, which bear the letters CLINICAL MEDAL. Re- 
verse. Blank, with olive wreaths. Size, 1*6. 

Given as a prize medal by the late Dr. Hayden ; struck in gold in 
1881 I have a white metal proof. 

02 



194 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 

JERVIS-STREET HOSPITAL, FOUNDED 1718. The medal bears this in- 
scription round a blank centre for engraving. Reverse. A wounded 
man, leaning against a tree, is attended by a surgeon ; behind, a horse is 
represented, and in the distance a person is seen hurrying away. It 
appears to be intended to represent the Good Samaritan. In exergue, 
MISERIS SUCCURRERE. The artist's initials, J w, are beneath the horse's, 
fore-feet. Size, 1-6. 

Made in 1885, as a prize medal. I have a white metal proof. 

LEDWICH SCHOOL OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY. This inscription appears 
round the centre, which has, PRESENTED | BY | THE LECTURER | ON | 
CHEMISTRY. Reverse. Oak leaves and Royal Crown, within which, PRIZE 
MEDAL. Size, 2 '6. 

Struck in silver as a premium for pupils attending the classes on 
Chemistry and Materia Medica. 

LEDWICH SCHOOL OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY. A similar medal of' 
smaller size. Reverse. Two olive wreaths, with blank centre. Size, 
1-6. 

Struck, in 1882, for premiums, in gold and silver. I have a white 
metal proof impression. 

LEDWICH SCHOOL OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY, DUBLIN, inscribed around 
a blank centre. Reverse. A bearded bust of ,/Esculapius ; in front, a 
serpent twined around a rod, and behind, .ESCULAPIUS ; j w in small 
letters on the neck of bust. Size, 1-6. 

Made in 1885, to be given for medical and surgical prizes. I have 
an impression in white metal. 

LAW STUDENTS DEBATING SOCIETY. THE O'HAGAN PRIZE FOR ORATORY, 
inscribed within an olive wreath, and outside, LAW STUDENTS DEBATING 
SOCIETY OF IRELAND. Reverse. Elevation view of the King's Inns, 
Henrietta-street. In exergue, SOCIETY FOUNDED 1830. Size, 1*6. 

This medal, struck in gold and silver, was given by the late Lord Chan- 
cellor O'Hagan. It is awarded each year for oratory. I have proofs in 
bronze and white metal. 

LAW STUDENTS DEBATING SOCIETY (Law Medal of Chief Baron Palles). 
Bust of Cicero to left, marked j w on neck ; above, MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO. 
Reverse. Blank centre for inscription, with olive wreath, around which 

is, LAW STUDENTS DEBATING SOCLETT OF IRELAND. Size, 1*6. 

This medal, struck in gold, was awarded for Legal Debates, one 
in each year for 1877, 1878, and 1879. The bust is well executed. 

LAW STUDENTS DEBATING SOCIETY (Armstrong Medal for Oratory}. 
A hand grasping a thunderbolt, VOLAT IRREVOCABILE VERBUM. Reverse. 
Blank centre and olive wreath, outside which, LAW STUDENTS DEBATING 
SOCIETY. Size, 1*5. 

This medal was presented by the late Serjeant Armstrong. Only 
one medal, in gold, was issued in the year 1876. My example is a white 
metal proof. 

^ LAW STUDENTS DEBATING SOCIETY (Plunlcet Medal for Oratory}. 
Within a wreath of shamrocks is inscribed, PLUNKET | PRIZE | FOR | 



ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND fHEIR WORK. 195 

-ORATORY | PRESENTED | BY | DUNBAR PLUNKET BARTON. Reverse. Blank 

centre, with olive wreath, outside which, LAW STUDENTS DEBATING SOCIETY 

OF IRELAND. Size, 1'6. 

Struck in gold since 1880, and presented for excellence in legal 
debates. I have a white metal proof. 

LAW STUDENTS DEBATING SOCIETY (Professor Jelletfs Medal}. FLAVIUS 
JUSTINIANUS IMPERATOR. Head and bust to right, with fillet diadem ; 
underneath, j. w. Reverse. An olive wreath. Size, T6. 

Presented by Professor Jellett, Q.C., in 1878. I have a proof in 
white metal, being the second impression taken from the die. 

LEGAL AND LITERARY DEBATING SOCIETY. A shield with the arms of 
Dublin, and beneath an open book, inscribed LAW, and a roll marked 
LITERATURE ; on each side olive branches ; above, an Imperial Crown, an 
Irish motto on a ribbon beneath. The inscription, LEGAL AND LITERARY 

DEBATING SOCIETY DUBLIN. INSTITUTED 1871. M0VW86. Blank, With olive 

wreath. Size, 1*6. 

Five or six medals were given as prizes, and then discontinued. I 
-have white metal and bronze proof impressions. 

SOCIETY OF ATTORNEYS AND SOLICITORS OF IRELAND. Arms, a shield 
with Harp and Crown ; above, a small figure of Justice ; supporters, two 
Irish greyhounds ; the motto, on a ribbon beneath, VERITAS VINCIT, and 
under this j w. .Reverse. A blank centre, surrounded by olive wreath, 
outside which is THE SOCIETY OF THE ATTORNEYS AND SOLICITORS OF IRE- 
LAND, INST 1841. INCORP 1852. Size, 1'6. 

The medal is presented to those students who pass a distinguished 
-examination. I have a bronze proof impression. 

ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY, CUNNINGHAM PRIZE MEDAL. This is intended 
to be a replica of the work executed by the elder Mossop, which I have 
-already described, the dies having become worn out by frequent use. It 
can be recognised by the small letters on the arm of Lord Charlemont, 
w. MOSSOP, F . J . w., by three small crowns placed within the star on his 
breast, and by the lettering of the inscription, which is somewhat larger 
sized than in the original medal. On the reverse, also, in addition to 
w. MOSSOP, F, are the letters j w. The shape of the round tower is better 
denned, and a few other minor details may be detected. Size, 2-2. 

The engraving of this medal was the last work Mr. J.^Woodhouse 
completed before his illness. It bears favourable comparison with Mossop' s 
medal, its execution affording ample proof of the artist's skill in repro- 
ducing a portrait of the highest class, both in workmanship and finish. 
Besides using an early proof of Mossop' s medal, Mr. Woodhouse availed 
himself of the original medal, in wax, of Lord Charlemont's portrait that 
Mossop prepared before engraving it, and which is in my possession. I 
have the only impression struck in soft metal from the dies previous to 
being hardened, and also a silver proof made specially for me from the 
finished dies after annealing. 

EOYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY MEDALS. There are at least three medals 
made by Mr. J. Woodhouse for this Society which require mention. 



196 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 

No. 1 . A medal, the obverse of which is filled by the arms of the- 
Society, with supporters and motto, underneath, in small letters, being 
j WOODHOUSE | A.E.H.A. There is no flange at the exterior, merely a circle 
of dots. Reverse has a similar border with the inscription, EOYAL DUBLIN 
SOCIETY, having olive wreaths inside, and a blank centre for engraving. 
Size, 2-2. 

No. 2. Similar obverse, with arms. Reverse. Mare and colt. In 
exergue, HORSE SHOW, and above, the name of the Society in old English 
letters. Size, 2*2. This was made in 1883. I have a soft metal proof 
impression. 

No. 3. Similar obverse, with arms. Reverse. A horse to left, above, 
in small square letters, EOYAL DUBLIN SOCIETY, and in exergue, HOESE SHOW ; 
the portion outside blank for engraving. Size, 2-2. 

The initials j w are seen behind the horse's hind feet. The " Horse " 
was copied from a fine statue by Kiss of Berlin, of a favourite Arab 
belonging to Napoleon I., in the possession of Mr. O'Reilly of Booters- 
town, county Dublin. I have the first white metal impression taken 
from the finished dies. 

ROYAL HIBERNIAN ACADEMY or AETS. Head of Queen Yictoria, with 
coronet, to right ; on the neck, in small letters, WOODHOUSE ; and above, 
VICTOEIA BEGIN A ; outside this is a second compartment, with the words, 
EOYAL HIBEENIAN ACADEMY OF AETS, 1823-1861. Reverse. "Wreaths of 
oak and Imperial Crown. Inscription, PEIZE MEDAL ; a blank border for 
engraving. Size, 2*5. 

The Royal Hibernian Academy have instituted examinations each 
July of the works of students attending their Art School, at which medals 
are given to successful competitors. In addition to the medals thus 
awarded, a very limited number of proof impressions were struck by 
Mr. J. Woodhouse in bronze ; that which I have was made for T. M. 
Ray, Esq. 

ROYAL IEISH ACADEMY or Music. Head of the Queen, with diadem, to 
right, inscribed, VICTOEIA EEGINA; underneath, in small letters, WOOD- 
HOUSE F. Reverse. A blank centre for engraving, and Irish harp, from 
which rises two wreaths of olive, outside being the words, EOYAL IEISH 

ACADEMY OF MUSIC. Size, 1'8. 

The Queen's head on this medal is struck from Mr. "W. "Woodhouse's 
die made for the Queen's visit to Ireland in 1848. In the year 1878 
eight impressions of this medal were made in bronze. I have a white 
metal proof, being the first taken from the dies. 

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGLNEEES. Bust to right, marked on neck j w, 
and behind, on the field, MULLINS. Reverse. INSTITUTION OF crm, ENGI- 
NEERS OF IEELAND EST D 1835, iECOE D 1877. Size, 1'6. 

This medal is awarded for communications on subjects of Engineer- 
ng importance; struck in gold. It was made November, 1879. I 
have a white metal impression, being the first struck from the die ; also 
a wax impression of the bust before the inscription was sunken. 

FEIENDLY BEOTHEES' MINIATUEE MEDAL. This pretty little medal is 
similar to that struck by Mossop. It was intended to be made in gold 
and silver-gilt. I have a unique white metal proof. Size 1*0. 



ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 197 

ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OP IRELAND. Mr. J. "Woodhouse re- 
engraved the inscriptions for the dies made by his father on the larger 
and smaller medals in February, 1880, by turning the edge and adding 
fresh lettering. 

IBISH BEEKEEPERS' ASSOCIATION-. This medal represents one of the old- 
fashioned straw hives on a pedestal, which has a harp crowned, and motto, 
INDUSTRIA ET LABORS. In exergue, ES T 1881. The inscription is, IRISH 
BEEKEEPERS ASSOCIATION. Reverse. Two olive wreaths, with blank centre. 
Size, 2-0. 

Struck for prizes to be given, in 1882, at an exhibition held by this 
Society. I understand these prizes were instituted under Canon Bagot's 
influence. I have a white metal impression, and also a fine proof in 
bronze. 

IRISH RIFLE ASSOCIATION. A shield, representing Hibernia holding 
an olive wreath, with harp and wolf dog ; above, an Imperial Crown ; 
for supporters an Irish bowman with bow, and figure of Major Leech 
with his rifle. Motto on ribbon, PRO PATRIA ET REGE ; and underneath, in 
minute lettering, JOHN WOODHOUSE ARHA. Reverse. A thick olive 
wreath, with blank centre for inscription ; outside, THE IRISH RIFLE ASSOCIA- 
TION FOUNDED 1867. Size, 2'5. 

This medal was made in 1867. Four struck in bronze, and one in 
silver, were intended to be given each year as prizes to different rifle 
clubs in Ireland. The figure of the rifleman is a good representation of 
Major Leech, who was the principal originator of the Rifle Association. 
The bowman is copied from the figure of an Irish gallowglas procured 
from Kilkenny. 

EXHIBITION OF MANUFACTURES, MACHINERY, AND FINE ARTS, 1864. A 
medal thus inscribed around a shield, bearing the arms of the Royal 
Dublin Society above, and underneath those of the city of Dublin ; at 
upper part a Royal Crown. On a ribbon, NOSTRI PLENA LABORIS ; below 
the shield, in small letters, J w. The reverse represents a crowned female, 
bearing a copia, and leaning on harp to represent Hibernia; in the back- 
ground a lighthouse and steamer, railroad, with train, &c. In exergue, 
j WOODHOUSE. Size, 1*7. 

I have a bronze proof impression. There were few copies of this 
medal struck, and these were in white metal. 

DUBLIN EXHIBITION, 1865. Head of Prince Albert to left, ALBERT 
EDWARD PRINCE OF WALES, and underneath, in small letters, j WOODHOUSE 
ARHA. Reverse. A front view of the Exhibition Building, with flag, 
inscribed, DUBLIN INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. In exergue, in three lines, 
OPENED THE 9iH OF MAY 1865 BY HRH THE PRINCE OF WALES ; beneath the 
building to left is the artist's name, j WOODHOUSE. Size 1-9. 

Several hundreds were struck in white metal, and one or two in bronze. 
It has become rather difficult to obtain an impression of this medal. 

GUINNESS ART EXHIBITION, 1872. In the centre is a seated winged 
figure, raised on a pedestal, who places wreaths on the heads of two 
females, one with a painter's palette, who represents art, and the other 
with hammer and anvil, signifies manufactures. The pedestal is deco- 
rated with shamrocks, and below, on a small shield, are the arms of Dublin ; 



198 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 

underneath, in minute characters, J WOODHOUSE ARHA. The inscription 

is, EXHIBITION OF ARTS INDUSTRIES AND MANUFACTURES. In exergue, 

DUBLIN 1872. Reverse. A thick wreath of roses, shamrocks, and thistles, 
having above an Imperial Crown, and below a ribbon, with TRIA JUNCTA 
IN UNO. Size, 1*7. 

Struck in bronze. About 120 were distributed as prizes, and one 
made in silver, was presented to Lady Gort, for an exhibition of porcelain. 
The dies cost 60. I have a bronze impression. 

CASHEL ART EXHIBITION, 1874. Thus inscribed, with date in centre. 
Reverse. Blank. Size, 1*3. 

This medal was, I believe, used as a season admission ticket to the 
Exhibition. A specimen was specially struck for me by my friend, the 
late Eev. Dr. Adams of Santry, in silver. It was issued in bronze. 

CASHEL AET EXHIBITION, 1884. Similar to the last described medal, 
but made in bronze, in which metal I have an impression. 

EXHIBITION OF IRISH ART AND MANUFACTURES, 1882. Medal with this 
inscription outside wreaths of shamrocks and olives, within which, 
AWARDED TO, with blank space for engraving name. Reverse. A falling 
man near an anvil is being raised by a female figure; above are the 
words, SELF-RELIANCE, and in exergue, LABOR OMNIA VINCIT. Size, 2*1. 

For the exhibition, held in Cork, this medal was given as a prize. I 
have an impression in bronze. 

EXHIBITION OF IRISH ART AND MANUFACTURES, 1882. A view of the 
Exhibition Building erected in the Park at Blackrock, near Cork. In- 
scription, IRI&'H NATIONAL | EXHIBITION | 1882. Reverse. Pemale seated 
with distaff, and man working at anvil ; behind is the rising sun, also a 
factory, ship, &c. At top, RESURGAM, and in exergue, IRISH MANUFACTURE. 
Size, i-6. 

Struck in bronze and white metal, as a memorial of the Exhibition. 

DUBLIN ARTIZANS' EXHIBITION, 1885. An elaborate piece of workman- 
ship, with four round spaces, representing Painting, Sculpture, Building, 
and Manufactures, by emblematic figures, resting on a wreath of olives, 
the interspaces filled by Celtic ornamentation and fancy work. Reverse 
inscribed, IRISH ARTIZANS EXHIBITION . DUBLIN, in large letters on a 
field of shamrocks. In centre a harp and Celtic knots, over which is a 
blank label for engraving, and the date, 1885. Size, 2 '2. 

This was given to the successful exhibitors at the Artizans' Exhibi- 
tion. I have an early proof medal in bronze. 

DUBLIN ARTIZANS' EXHIBITION, 1885. TO COMMEMORATE THE IRISH 
ARTIZANS' EXHIBITION, 1885, inscribed around the centre, which repre- 
sents, on four shields, the arms of the provinces of Ireland ; between each 
shield is a shamrock, and in small letters above are the names of the 
provinces. Reverse. A well-executed female head to left, wearing a 
mural crown, behind which is EBLANA ; on the neck of the figure, in small 
letters, j WOODHOUSE | DUBLIN. Size, 1-4. 

This commemoration medal was designed to be sold at the Exhibition, 



ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 199 

It was struck in white metal and bronze. I have the first white metal 
impression taken from the dies. 

NATIONAL DOG SHOW, DUBLIN. Inscribed in old English letters, 
around a blank centre for engraving. Reverse. Heads of eight varieties 
of dogs, each in a medallion ; in centre a harp crowned, also in a medallion, 
surrounded with shamrocks; beneath the harp, in small letters, J. w. 
Size, 1-8. 

This was issued, in silver and bronze, in the year 1873, for prizes. I 
have a bronze proof impression. It may possibly have been employed 
afterwards for similar exhibitions. 

DUBLIN INTERNATIONAL DAIRY SHOW, 1882. Inscribed outside wreaths 
of corn ; the centre blank for engraving. Reverse. Cow standing, and 
calf lying down. In exergue, in small letters, WOODHOUSE FECIT. Size, 
1-6. 

The reverse was taken from a medal of the Royal Dublin Society, 
made by W. Woodhouse. I have a white metal impression. It records 
one of the earlier efforts of Canon Bagot, and some energetic friends of 
his to excite an interest in the improved process of dairy farming. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF IRELAND. Inscribed outside olive wreaths, 
with blank centre for engraving. Reverse. A seated female figure to 
left, placing her hand on a camera to withdraw its covering ; around are 
photographic and chemical apparatus. In exergue, INSTITUTED | AD 1854 ; 
and in minute letters, w w to left of base, and j w to right. Size, 1*5. 

This medal was made for Sir Jocelyn Coghill, at that time President 
of the Photographic Society. About ten were struck in silver, and a 
few bronze proof impressions, of which I possess an example. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY OF IRELAND . Inscription similar to last, around 
centre, composed of an ornamented quarterfoil, with shamrocks, contain- 
ing four shields, bearing the arms of the provinces of Ireland. Reverse. 
Olive wreaths, with blank centre for engraving. Size, 2*1. 

The Society, having been re-organized, caused this medal to be struck 
a few years since. I have a bronze medal, and a white metal proof. 

DUBLIN METROPOLITAN AMATEUR REGATTA. This medal, made several 
years since, was inscribed with those words outside a coil of knotted rope, 
within which was a racing gig in full course, to left. Reverse. Wreaths 
of olive, with two oars crossed at lower part, and a small flag ; the centre 
blank for engraving. Struck in gold. Size, 1*3. 

IRISH CHAMPION ATHLETIC CLUB. CHAMPION WRESTLER thus inscribed, 
around blank centre for engraving name. Reverse. Two athletes engaged 
in wrestling ; j w in small letters at base to right. 

One medal was struck in gold, and six in silver. I have a white metal 
proof impression. A "Badge" was also struck for this Club, consisting 
of an Irish cross, with arms of equal length upon a circle, bearing the 
words, IRISH | CHAMPION | ATHLETIC | CLUB | . It was pendant from a bar, 
with Imperial Crown and shamrocks. Struck in bronze, of which I have 
a proof. 



200 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK* 

FITZWILLIAM LAWN TENNIS CLUB A D. MDCCCLXXVII. Inscribed round 
centre, which consists of an oval shield, with harp and crown resting on a 
star, bearing shamrocks. Reverse. Blank. Size TO. 

A " Champion " medal in gold, weighing 11 dwt., was struck in 1884., 
I have the white metal proof. 

COMMEECIAL ROWING CLUB, SUGG. Inscribed in small, square letters 
round blank centre. Reverse. The arms of Sligo : a square tower and tree ; 
at base a hare running, held by an oyster at its foot, and six other oysters 
around on the shore. In the distance the sea is represented. Size, 1'3. 

This medal was struck in July, 1880 ; six made in silver, and twelve 
in white metal. I have a white metal proof impression. 

LIMERICK GAELIC ASSOCIATION. Inscribed around a shield with the 
arms of Limerick : an old castle and gate, behind which is a dome, with 
cross. Under this in minute letters i. w. DUBLIN. Reverse. CHAMPIONSHIP 
| MEDAL, with raised border bearing shamrocks. Size, 1'3. 

I have a white metal impression. I do not know the history of this 
Association. 

E. DWYER GRAY MEDAL. This medal bears the following lengthy 
inscriptions: AUGUST 16 TH 1882 | E DWYER GRAY E S<I . MP | HIGH SHERIFF 

OF DUBLIN CITY | COMMITTED TO RICHMOND PRISON BY | MR JUSTICE LAWSON 
FOR THREE MONTHS | FINED 500 AND ORDERED TO FIND | BAIL IN 10,000 
OR BE IMPRISONED FOR | A FURTHER THREE MONTHS FOR | " CONTEMPT OF 

COURT" I - . . SEPTEMBER 30 TH MR GRAY WITHOUT | SOLICITATION 

LIBERATED BY THE | SAME JUDGE ON PAYMENT OF | THE FINE, WHICH HAD I 

BEEN PROVIDED BY | PUBLIC SUBSCRIPTION. Reverse. OCTOBER 24 TH 1882 | 

RIGHT HON W E GLADSTONE | PRIME MINISTER DECLARED IN THE | HOUSE OF 
COMMONS, IN REFERENCE TO | MR GRAYS CASE THE INTENTION OF | GOVERN- 
MENT TO INTRODUCE A BILL IN THE | COMING SESSION TO AMEND THE | LAW 

REGARDING | "CONTEMPT OF COURT" PRESENTED TO | THE HIGH 

SHERIFF, | IN COMMEMORATION OF THESE | EVENTS. BY THE | GRAY | INDEM- 
NITY COMMITTEE DEC. 1882. 

There was a single impression struck in gold. Size, 2*0. I obtained 
the rare proof taken in white metal, and the dies, being of no artistic 
value, were destroyed. It is needless to give any details of the circum- 
stances recorded by these inscriptions. The subsequent history of the 
medal is, however, worth describing. It was given to the Corporation of 
Dublin, by Mr. Gray, to be attached to the High Sheriff's Chain of Office. 

THE BOYCOTT EXPEDITION. Inscribed under an Imperial Crown IK- 
HONOUR | OF THE | LOYAL & BRAVE | ULSTERMEN. Reverse. THE BOYCOTT 

EXPEDITION | LOUGH MASK | 1880, with blank space for inscription ; wreaths 
of olives, and underneath WEST & SON in very small letters. Size, 1-6. 
The following extract will describe the history of this medal : 

" A silver medal has been struck to commemorate the Boycott Expedi- 
tion. Each person who took part in the expedition is to be presented with 
one, his name being engraved thereon, and a specimen is to be presented 
to the British Museum." Fifty TJlstermen were engaged in this historic- 
campaign. I obtained the first proof impression, made in white metal, 



ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 201 

from the unpolished die. Messrs. West & Son, whose names appear on 
the medals, were the Dublin silversmiths through whom they were 
supplied. 

MASTER MAGEATH. On the death of this celebrated greyhound, the 
property of Lord Lurgan, its body was duly brought to the Medical 
School in Dublin University, and examined ; the heart was observed to 
be of exceptional size. Mr. J. Woodhouse, who was much devoted to 
coursing, prepared a small die for a scarf-pin ; and as the resulting figure 
was successful, he made it into a medal, and struck me a white metal 
proof. Under the dog is inscribed MGRATH 1868 & 69, in small letters. 
The reverse is blank. Size, 1*3. I believe only one impression was 
struck. 

MASONIC EOTAL ARCH MEDAL. On one side of this medal are inter- 
laced triangles and an inscription A iNV-3381. On reverse, around a triple 
tau, are H.T.W.S.S.T.E.S. Size, 1'6. 

The dies were not hardened after engraving. A single impression was 
struck in bronze for Royal Arch Room, Dublin, for masonic purposes, in 
February, 1879 ; and I obtained the white metal proof which was made 
from these dies. 

MASONIC ORPHAN BOYS' SCHOOL, IRELAND. This inscription is placed 
round a wreath of acacia and olive branches, with blank centre for en- 
graving. Reverse. Solomon and Hiram consulting about the erection of 
the Temple ; behind are pillars, cut stones, &c. In exergue, i. CHRON 
xxii ; to the right, under Hiram, j w. Size, 1'6. 

This prize medal was made in the year 1878. One was intended to 
be given in silver each year. I have a white metal proof. 

MASONIC ORPHAN (GIRLS') SCHOOL, IRELAND. View of the new school 
built at Merrion-road. Inscription, MASONIC FEMALE ORPHAN SCHOOL. In 
exergue, OF IRELAND. Underneath the building to right, in small letters, J w. 
Reverse. SCHOOL FOUNDED 1792 NEW BUILDING MERRION ROAD OPENED 1882. 
In centre, FOUNDATION STONE | OF NEW SCHOOL LAID | ON | ST JOHNS DAY 

1880 | BY | HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF | ABERCORN K G. | M W. | GRANDMASTER. 

Masonic emblems at top and bottom. Size, 1*6. 

Mr. "Woodhouse contributed these medals to a most successful bazaar, 
which was instituted on opening the school. I have an impression in 
white metal from the unfinished die before the building was fully engraved, 
also white metal and bronze proofs. 

MASONIC ORPHAN (GIRLS') SCHOOL, IRELAND. A similar medal, with 
view of the school. Reverse. Wreaths of acacia and olive, with crown 
above and masonic emblems below. Inscription, FOR SUCCESS IN ART 

AWARDED TO. Size, 1'6. 

Intended to be given as a prize for diligence in art studies, by Mr. 
Woodhouse. 

ERASMUS SMITH'S SCHOOLS PRIZE MEDAL. A head of Minerva with 
helmet, and armour on .upper part of bust ; beneath, in small letters, 
j WOODHOUSE A.R.H.A. The inscription being INGENIO VIRTUTE LABORE. 
Reverse A shield, which is supported and rests on an anchor, bearing the 



202 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 

arms of Erasmus Smith, having palm wreaths at the sides. The motto is, 

MUNIFICENTIA ERASMI SMITH. Size, 1'8. 

This medal, which is struck in silver, and engraved with the name of 
the pupil and of the school he belonged to, is a repetition of that made by 
William Woodhouse. The head of Minerva is more finished, and differs 
in some trifling details. Six of these medals were to be distributed ; of 
late years the number has been considerably increased. They are given 
to the schools at Galway, Ennis, Drogheda, and Tipperary, and also to 
the High School, Harcourt- street, Dublin. I have an impression in 
silver. 

CHURCH OP IRELAND YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. The medal 
has this inscription around a blank centre for engraving the name, &c. 
Reverse. A shield, with the arms of the See of Dublin ; above is an open 
Bible, and underneath a ribbon, inscribed, PROVE ALL THINGS, HOLD FAST 
THAT WHICH is GOOD. Below this, in small letters, r. w. Size, 1*8. 

This medal was first issued in 1876. It is awarded, struck in silver, 
each year. I have a white metal proof, being the second made from the 
dies. 

BOARD OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION, GENERAL SYNOD, CHURCH OF IRELAND. 
This medal has the inscription around a centre, having an open Bible, 
resting on an heraldic Irish cross, above being a mitre, and at the sides 
two crossed croziers. Reverse. ASSOCIATION FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN 
EDUCATION, with the words AWARDED TO at top of blank centre. Size, 1*4. 

Made in the year 1886. Intended to be struck in gold and silver for 
premiums. I have a bronze proof impression. 

CHURCH OF IRELAND SUNDAY SCHOOL MEDAL. Two open books, marked 
HOLY BIBLE and COMMON PRAYER, and above a mitre, with the words 
CHURCH OF IRELAND ; on a ribbon, underneath, PROVE ALL THINGS, and some 
shamrocks. Reverse. Blank, with a palm wreath. Size, 1'8. 

I possess a bronze proof of this medal. It was intended by Mr. Wood- 
house to be used as a premium for Sunday School scholars. I also have an 
early-struck white metal impression (made in 1876), with shamrock 
wreath on the reverse. 

CHURCH OF IRELAND SUNDAY SCHOOL MEDAL. A similar medal, with 
Mr. Woodhouse' s obverse of open books, mitre, &c. Reverse struck 
from a die made by Carter of Birmingham, representing the " Good Shep- 
herd," with sheep, and carrying a lamb ; beneath, in small letters, CARTER 

BIRM. Motto, HE SHALL GATHER THE LAMBS IN HIS ARMS | THE GOOD SHEP- 
HERD. Size, 1-8. 

I have an impression in white metal. The circumstances attending 
the striking of this medal are not known to me. It was probably struck 
in large quantities at Birmingham. 

MEDAL OF THE ROYAL SCHOOL, DONEGAL. This bears a bishop's mitre, 
with Greek inscription, EPEYNATE TA2 TPA<I>A2 InANN. v. 39. 
Below the mitre, in minute letters, j WOODHOUSE A.R.H.A. Reverse. SCHOLA 

EEGIA DONEGALENSIS REV. T. A. WELR PRECEPTOR. Size, 1*8. 

The Raphoe Royal School was founded in the reign of Charles I. I 



ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 203 

have a finished bronze proof impression of the medal, and also one struck 
in white metal, with the mitre, &c., and reverse blank, with shamrock 
wreath. 

POETOEA SCHOOL MEDAL. Head of young man to right. Inscription, 
FREDERICK STEELE DIED 5 Nov 1866 ; on the neck, in small letters, j WOOD- 
HOUSE. Reverse. Blank, with oak and olive wreaths. Size, 2*1. 

The Royal School at Enniskillen was founded in the reign of 
Charles I. A son of Rev. W. Steele, D.D., Head Master, was drowned 
when boating on Lough Erne ; in remembrance of this accident the Steele 
Memorial Prize, " value 12," is annually awarded, and this medal was 
struck as a record of his death. I have a bronze impression. 

LONDONDEEEY SCHOOL MEDAL. A view of the buildings ; above is 
inscribed, LONDONDEEEY ACADEMICAL | INSTITUTION | 1868 | and in exergue 
CK TraiSeias euSws | SCHOOL MEDAL. The letters J w to left of school. 
Reverse. An oval shield, with orange-tree, and motto on ribbon, EK 
IIAIAEIAS AIAO3, and also two square shields, with the arms of the 
city of Derry and of Ulster ; outside, a blank space for engraving. 
Size, 1-6. 

Two medals, struck in silver, and one in gold, were issued in January 
1880, with a blank reverse, of which I have a white metal proof. In 
October, 1880, the reverse was added ; and of this also I possess a white 
metal proof impression. 

THE NOETON MEDAL. The medal represents Captain Norton standing 
in a country scene, with trees, &c., throwing a spear in Australian 
fashion from a rest ; in exergue, PEIDE IN HIS POET | DEFIANCE IN HIS EYE. 
Reverse. Oak and olive wreaths, outside which is, PEESENTED TO THE BEST 

SPEAE THEOWEE AT THE SANTEY SCHOOL, and in Centre, THE I NOETON ] 

MEDAL I AIEN API2TEYEIN. Size, 1-6. 

This is a medal of exceptional rarity. About twenty impressions were 
struck in silver, of which nineteen were remelted, and one issued, as some 
accident occurred from the spear throwing, which led to its being aban- 
doned, and further competition stopped. There were, I believe, two bronze 
proofs made, and the copy in white metal which was specially struck for 
my cabinet. 

SCHOOL MEDAL. Helmetted head and bust of Minerva in armour ; to 
left marked j w in minute letters. Reverse. Wreaths of fruit and corn- 
heads. Size, 1-6. 

Issued as an ordinary school premium. I have a white metal im- 
pression. 

POETAELINGTON MEDAL. Arms of Lord Portarlington, with support- 
ers, motto, &c. ; HENEICUS COMES DE POETAELINGTON in. ; in minute letters 
on the ribbon with motto, J. w. Reverse. Elevation of Tullamore College, 

With J W to left, IN COLLEGIO TULLIOLANO SOC JES | SCIENTIAEUM EAUTOE | 

D.D.D. Exergue, blank for engraving. Size, 2-6. 

Presented in silver gilt, one each year, and in 1878, for the first time^ 
in silver. I have a white metal proof. 

POETAELINGTON MEDAL. A medal for athletic sports ; obverse similar 
to last. Reverse. Draped figure of Hercules with club ; surrounded by 



204 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 

olive wreaths, and inscribed ATHLETIC PRIZE in old English characters. 
Size, 2-1. Struck in silver. 

ST. STANISLAUS' JESUIT COLLEGE, TULLAMOEE. Elevation of the College 
buildings, surrounded by a fancy wreath, j. w. to left, FOESTEE & co to 
right. Inscription, soc JESU COLLEG TULLIOLAN SANCTI STANISLAI, in old 
English letters. Reverse. A blank centre, with olive wreaths, and 
around this, VIETUTI AC DILIGENTIA BENE MEBENTI. Size, 2*1. 

This prize medal was struck in silver. I have no copy of it. 

JESUIT COLLEGE, GALWAY. View of the church ; inscribed, COL- 
LEGIUM s. IGNATH soc JESU GALviENSE ; and underneath, j WOODHOUSE. In 
exergue, A M D G. Reverse. Blank. Size, 2-6. 

Struck in silver for premiums. I possess a bronze proof impression. 

ST. VINCENT'S COLLEGE, CASTLEKNOCK. A view of the college build- 
ings ; COLLEGIUM SANCTI VINCENTII | APUD | CASTLEKNOCK | MDCCCXXXTV | 

In exergue, in small letters, RELIGIONI ET SCIENTIAE ; the initials J w 
under left of building. Reverse. Two large olive wreaths ; and on the 
ribbon, in small letters, j w. Within is inscribed, IN | DOCTEINA | CHRIS- 
TIANA | ET HISTOEICA | ECCLESIASTICA | LAUEEAM MEEUIT, Size, 2'1. 

Four medals silver-gilt and three of silver were struck in 1881. 
I have bronze and white metal proof impressions. 

CLONGOWES COLLEGE. A view of the college buildings. Inscription, 
COOPT.IN. CONG B v MABLE AP COLL CLUEN. In exergue, in minute charac- 
ters, j WOODHOUSE. Reverse. Figure of the Virgin, with outstretched 
hands, standing above a serpent ; MARIA SINE LABE CONCEPTA ORA PRO 
NOBIS. The name j WOODHOUSE, is also placed under the figure. 
Size, 1-4. 

I have one of these medals made in silver. Sixty were struck in 
1868. 

FRENCH COLLEGE, BLA.CKROCK, Co. DUBLIN. COLLEGE FRANJJAIS DE 
L' IM* CCEUR DE MARIE BLACKEocK DUBLIN. Within are two olive wreaths 
and two of lilies, with flowers ; in centre a heart in flames, pierced by 
a sword, and surrounded by a row of roses ; above this a rayed triangle 
with dove. Reverse. Two olive wreaths ; outside, ON THE VOTE OF HIS 

COMEADES, SUBJECT TO THE APPEOVAL OF HIS MASTEES. In Centre Space, 
AWARDED | TO FOE | GOOD CONDUCT. Size, 1'8, 

The impression in my cabinet is a bronze proof. 

CONVENT SCHOOL MEDAL. Seated nun teaching children ; above a 
cross with rays. On pedestal j. w. | BEOWNE & NOLAN. In exergue, 
PEO DOCTBINA CHRISTIANA. Reverse. A thick wreath of shamrocks. 
Size, 1-6. 

I have a proof taken in white metal. It was struck in 1883 for Mr. 
Browne (of the firm of Browne & Nolan, Nassau-street), as a pre- 
mium for convent schools. 

DUNHEVED COLLEGE, LAUNCESTON. This is one of the few medals 
struck in Ireland for use in England. The inscription is as given, with 



ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 205 

POUNDED 1873, around a shield, having armorial bearings ; on a ribhon 
is the motto BENE OKASSE BENE STUDISSE, surrounded by roses, sham- 
rocks, and thistles. Reverse. Blank, with palm wreaths. Size, 1/8. 
There are bronze and white metal proofs of this medal in my 
possession. 

HEADFORD AGRICULTURAL MEDAL. Arms of the Marquis of Head- 
ford, with supporters, &c. Motto, CONSEQUITUR QUODCUNQUE PETIT. 
Above, the word HEADFOKD, and in exergue, FBOM THE | LANDLORD | TO | 
HIS IMPROVING TENANT, j w on the ribbon, with motto. Reverse. 
Wreath of shamrocks and blank centre. Size, 1/8. 

Made in silver in 1875 ; to be given each year. I have a white 
metal proof impression. 

LANSDOWNE AGRICULTURAL MEDAL. Armorial bearings of the Mar- 
quis of Lansdowne, with supporters, and motto, VIRTUTE NON VERBIS. 
Under this, in very small letters, j WOODHOUSE, and in exergue, FROM 
THE | LANDLORD | TO | HIS IMPROVING TENANT | . Reverse. Blank centre, 
surrounded by olive wreaths. Size, 1/8. 

This medal was issued struck in silver. I have a white metal proof 
impression. 

BALLINASLOE DISTRICT AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. Thus inscribed 
around a blank centre for engraving. Reverse. A sheep with two 
lambs, beneath which, to right, is j WOODHOUSE. 

This medal was struck in 1882. I have a white metal proof. 

BANBRIDGE FARMING SOCIETY. Farm-house and yard, with domestic 
cattle. At base to right side, j w. Inscription above the farm-house, 
BANBRIDGE FARMING SOCIETY, and in exergue, A.D. 1878. Reverse. A 
blank centre, surrounded by corn wreaths, having two sickles at their 
junction. Size, 2-0. 

I have a white metal proof, the first impression taken from the die. 

AGRICULTURAL MEDAL. Mare and foal ; in small letters at base, j w. 
Reverse. Blank centre, with wreaths of palm, olive, and oak. Size, 1/8. 

This was made for general use, and struck October, 1880. I have 
a white metal proof. 

AGRICULTURAL MEDAL. Hayrick and farm-house to left ; in front a 
cow, on which a female rests her hand ; and a modern plough, where a 
young man is seated. There is a harrow and fowl in the foreground, 
also sheep, pig, &c. Near the edge of medal, j WOODHOUSE. Reverse. 
Blank, with olive wreaths. Size, 2 f O. 

The impression I have of this medal was specially made for me on 
softened thick leather ; for after twenty-four medals were struck, in the 
winter season of 1874, the die suddenly cracked into several pieces 
during the night-time, the weather being unusually cold. This disrup- 
tion of an annealed steel die may be due to internal crystallization 
of the metal, and to irregular tension during sudden exposure to low 
degrees of temperature. Mr. Woodhouse informed me that he found it 
liable to occur with certain descriptions of steel, which he carefully 
avoided using. 



206 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 

CLONES UNION FARMING SOCIETY. The medal bears this inscription 
outside two olive wreaths enclosing a blank centre. Reverse. A ram 
of the improved Leicester breed, and in the exergue, in small letters, 
j WOODHOUSE. Size, 2*0. 

This medal was made in January, 1879. Mr. Woodhouse went to 
considerable trouble in obtaining a correct representation of the Lei- 
cester ram. It may be gratifying to an agriculturist ; but the utter 
absence of artistic beauty in the animal is remarkable, which resembles 
an over-stuffed pillow, supported by four little feet. I have a white 
metal proof impression. 

Other agricultural medals were made and struck by J. Woodhouse, 
of which I possess no record or examples. 

QUEEN'S COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. An Irish harp, sur- 
mounted by an Imperial Crown ; underneath are two copias crossing, 
filled with fruits and flowers ; above, on a ribbon, is UTILE DULCI. A 
raised embossed border, with shamrocks, surrounds the centre part. Re- 
verse. Blank, with wreath of corn and fruits. Size, 1'8. 

Issued in silver, as a prize medal, some years since. I have a white 
metal proof. 

TEMPERANCE MEDALS. Several varieties of dies were employed. 
Those of which I possess examples are : 

HIBERNIAN BAND OF HOPE UNION. Hibernia, with harp and wolf- 
dog, presents two children to a seated female, whose robe is marked 
TEMPERANCE. In exergue is, SAVE THE CHILDREN. Reverse. Shamrock 
wreaths, temperance pledge, and a quotation from Scripture. Size, 1-6. 

Issued in hundreds ; struck in white metal ; of this I have an im- 
pression ; and one was made in bronze, which is in my cabinet. 

CHURCH OF IRELAND TEMPERANCE ASSOCIATION. Thus inscribed 
around the temperance pledge ; underneath are wreaths of shamrocks. 
On reverse, St. Patrick holding a book, and displaying the shamrock ; 

WATCH & PRAY THAT YE ENTER NOT INTO TEMPTATION. MATT, XXVI. 41. 

Size, 1-4. 

Largely issued in white metal. The die was made December, 1879. 

CHURCH OF IRELAND TEMPERANCE ASSOCIATION, PARISH OF BRAY. A 
fish-shaped medal thus inscribed in eight lines. Reverse. Blank. Has 
a ring for suspension. Size, 1-2 by 0-9. 

Issued in white metal, of which I have an impression. 

DERRY AND EAPHOE, DIOCESAN TEMPERANCE SOCIETY. Inscribed 
around a blank centre on a fish-shaped medal, with loop for suspension. 
Reverse. Centre blank, and outside, FREE CHURCH ASSOCIATION. Size as 
last. 

KINGSLAND PARK, DUBLIN. Inscribed around a temperance pledge. 
Reverse. An open Bible resting on the world as a globe ; outside, 

METHODIST BAND OF HOPE. Size, 1'4. 



6N THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 207 

SOUTH GREAT GEORGE'S- STREET. A similar medal to that last de- 
scribed. Both medals issued in white metal. 

EUAN TEMPERANCE SOCIETY. Inscribed RUAN above a shamrock, 
Outside is, TEMPERANCE SOCIETY A.M.D.G ESTABLISHED JAN* 23 KD 1876. 
Reverse. Bust of Father Mathew to left ; on arm, j WOODHOUSE | 
DUBLIN. Inscription, THE VERY REV D THEOBALD MATHEW. Size. 1-8. 

Struck in white metal, of which I have a specimen. Euan is a post- 
town near Ennis. 

ST. PATRICK'S JUVENILE TEMPERANCE SOCIETY. Inscribed around an 
ornamented Irish cross (the Monasterboice Cross). In exergue, j WOOD- 
HOUSE | DUBLIN. Reverse. 'St. Patrick to left, with mitre and crozier, 
holding a shamrock ; behind are a round tower and mountains, with 
the sun rising over the sea. SAINT PATRICK APOSTLE OF IRELAND PRAY FOR 
us. Underneath, A D 432 ; and on a stone j w. Size, 1-7. 

I have a white metal proof. This medal was made in 1878. Two 
thousand were struck for the Eev. the Eector of Phibsborough. 

OSSORY TOTAL ABSTINENCE ASSOCIATION. Obverse, similar to reverse 
of last-described medal, but engraved on a smaller die ; inscription as 
given, and underneath, S T PATRICK APOSTLE OF IRELAND PRAY FOR us. In ex- 
ergue, AD 432. Reverse. A representation of the Crucifixion ; around 
this the pledge, i PROMISE TO ABSTAIN 'FROM ALL INTOXICATING DRINKS 
DURING MY LIFE | 1880 | Above the date is inscribed, i THIRST. Size, 1*5. 

I have a white metal impression. This medal was struck in large 
numbers. 

GUILD OF ALL SAINTS. Thus inscribed, with crown and shamrocks, 
beneath two crossed palm branches. Reverse. A decorated cross, and 
the words NO CROSS, NO CROWN. A fish-shaped medal for suspension, 
1*8 by 1*0. Made in white metal and bronze, in 1875, for Eev. Dr. 
Maturin, parish of Grangegorman. I have an impression in white 
metal. 

Oval and fish-shaped white metal medals, struck for Religious Asso- 
ciations and Confraternities. 

Mr. Woodhouse made several, of which I have examples. It ap- 
pears needless to describe them, as they are not important or in- 
teresting. 

IRISH HOME EULE LEAGUE. A four-rayed star, with centre bearing 
a shamrock, over a circle with four shields of small size, having the arms 
of the provinces of Ireland ; inscription, in small letters, IRISH HOME 

KULE LEAGUE. 

About 500 were struck in bronze for the Home Eule Procession in 
1879. I have an impression. 

MASONIC ORPHAN SCHOOLS, DUBLIN. Inscribed on a raised border, 
resting on a star of two'triangles, crossing ; in centre, Charity, as a 
female, is represented with three children, one of whom has an anchor, 
and another carries a cross. Made with ring for suspension. 

4TII SER., VOL. VIII. P 



208 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 

This star was made for the Masonic Schools for premiums. I have 
a bronze impression. 

Badges or stars were also made for : 

Royal Academy of Music. 

Dublin University Athletic Club. 

Irish Champion Athletic Club. 

Queen's Institute, Dublin ; founded A. D. 1861. 

Morehampton House School, Dublin. 

Miss Creighton's school, Dublin. 

I also possess a long list of important official seals, engraved by Mr. J. 
Woodhouse for dignitaries of the Protestant and Catholic Churches in 
Ireland, for Public Boards, Institutions, and Corporate Bodies : in fact, 
with few exceptions, all such dies were made by him which were required 
for many years past in this kingdom. 



209 ) 



KOTES Otf THE FAMILY OF GROVE OF BALLYHYMOCK 
AND KILBYRNE, CO. CORK. 

BY CAPTAIN GROVE WHITE. 

THE first member of this branch of the Grove family that settled in the 
county Cork appears to have been Ion Grove of Hendon, Middlesex. He 
may have been connected with the Grove family of Wiltshire, as James 
Grove, son of Ion Grove of Ballyhirnock, in making his will in 1773, used 
a seal with the same crest and arms as are borne by that family, viz. : 
crest, a talbot dog, statant ; arms, Erm. on a chevron, three escallops. 

Ion Grove rented Cardowgan Castle, near Doneraile, from Lord Roche 
in 1603. By a decree, dated 10th July, 1633, Thomas Grove of Roscike, 
in the county Cork, and John Grove of the parish of Cardowgan in said 
county, are described as Plifs., and Richard Williamson, and Grissel his 
wife, as Defts. It is decreed that the Plifs. shall be established in 
possession of the Castle, and of Cardowgan in the county Cork, and so 
much of the eight Plowlands of the same as Ion Grove, father of the 
Plifs., conveyed to his son Henry, and also certain rents due out of two 
and a-half Plowlands of same, demised to William Grove, &c. 

Major Ion Grove, son of William Grove, was a 1649 officer, and in 
1666 obtained the following grant of property in the county Cork, viz., 
West Drinagh, alias Kilursin, bar. Orrery and Kilmore: Ballyhymock 
(Annesgrove) : Keatingstowne : Ballynemongree, alias Ballynumare : 
Ballytolosy, alias Ballytantasy : Ballytrasna : Kilbirne, alias Kilboirne, 
alias Kilbyrne, bar. Fermoy : Ballym c murragh, bar. Duhallow : total 
quantity 1487A. 3n. 20p. plant. (R.O.D.). 

By deed, dated 17th April, 1667, Major Ion Grove gave Kilbyrne to 
his brother John Grove, whose daughter and heiress Grace Grove married 
in 1694, James White, Jun., described in the Mar. Lie. Bond as of Dro- 
managh, Barony of Descese, county Waterford. The descendants of this 
marriage still possess Kilbyrne. In the deed of gift, Major Ion Grove is 
described as of Lisgriffin Castle. This place is about six miles west of 
Doneraile, and the ruins are still in existence. 

The following extract is taken from Census of Ireland, 1659, county 
Cork: " Parish of ' Ballyclough ' Lisgriffine 52 people Ion Groves 
4 Eng., 48 Irish." 

Major Ion Grove appears to have had two sons and one daughter. 
The elder son Ion inherited his estates and family place of Ballyhimock, 
and his elder son, Robert, married Mary, daughter and heiress of Richard 
Ryland of Dungarvan, county Waterford (see Ryland Pedigree, p. 365, 
vol. v., Fourth Series, Journal, R.H.A.A.L}. She died at Cork, 1st 
June, 1758, leaving one child, Mary Grove, who married, 1776, Francis 
Charles, 2nd Viscount Glerawley, created Earl of Annesley in 1781. 
Ballyhimock is still in possession of General Annesley' s descendants. 

It would seem the only families that now trace descent from " Grove 
of Ballyhimock and Kilbyrne" are the descendants of Ellinor, dau. of 
Robert Grove of Ballyhimock, and the descendants of James White, Jun., 
and Grace, dau. of John Grove of Kilbyrne (see Pedigree of Earl of 
Clare, p. 722, vol. v., Fourth Series, Journal, R.H.A.A.I. In that pedi- 
gree Isabella, dau. of John Grove, should be corrected to Ellinor dau. 
of Robert Grove). 



( 210 ) 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Is the year 1765, Captain George Glas (a native of Scotland) sailed in the 
good ship Sandwich, from Oratava, for London. The Sandwich had treasure 
on board to the amount of about one hundred thousand pounds ; and this 
attracted the cupidity of the crew, some of whom conspired together to ob- 
tain it. The captain thwarted their designs for three successive nights. 
At last on Saturday, November 30th, 1765, the four assassins killed the 
captain, and then the two sailors who were not in the conspiracy, together 
with Glas, his wife, and daughter. These murders took place in the 
British Channel, and the miscreants changed the vessel's course and 
steered for Ireland, where, on Tuesday, December 3rd, they arrived within 
ten leagues of the harbour of Waterford and Ross. They loaded the cock- 
boat with dollars, and then, knocking out the ballast-port, quitted the ship 
with fiend-like nonchalance, leaving the two boys (the only survivors 
then left) to perish in the doomed vessel. Before they lost sight of the 
ship they saw it heel over. All witnesses to their atrocious deeds thus 
destroyed, they rowed up the river or estuary, and landed two miles from 
the port of Duncannon, in the Co. Wexford, where they buried most of 
their treasure between high and low water-mark. Next day they pro- 
ceeded to Ross, where at a public-house they exchanged 1200 dollars for 
current gold, purchased pistols, and hired six horses and two guides to 
take them to Dublin. What a touch of the times we here get ! No roads, 
only paths, and these, no doubt, in places, not safe against highwaymen. 
Meanwhile a totally unlooked-for event took place. The good ship 
Sandwich did not sink, but was driven ashore in the Co. "Waterford, and 
having no one on board, and still bearing witness to scenes of violence 
having been committed, was, from these causes, connected with the strange 
travellers who had been so reckless and extravagant with their money in 
Ross. An express which then meant a messenger mounted on a fleet 
horse was at once despatched to Dublin, with the result that two of the 
murderers were apprehended the same day, and, being examined separately, 
confessed the murders, and gave full particulars of the occurrences. The 
third man was seized in Dublin, as he was receiving payment from a gold- 
smith for 300 worth of dollars ; and the fourth, who had set out in a 
postchaise for Cork, in order to take ship to England, was captured at 
Castledermot, Co. Kildare. Thus, in ten days from the destruction of the 
Glas family the murderers were caught ; the treasure was subsequently 
found, and the murderers met with their deserts. A more pathetic and 
frightful tale could scarcely be conceived by the most sensational writer 
of nautical fiction. One point is noticeable the murderers spent more 
than the money alleged to be missing from the treasure, therefore a quan- 
tity of Glas's private means must have been found. There is also appa- 
rently lost to posterity a MS. relative to the west coast of Africa, which 
Glas had been about to publish, and which he mentions in his work on the 
" Canary Islands." Captain George Glas's book was printed in London, 
1764 a year before he was murdered so he probably had not time to 
issue his work on the Coast of Africa. The questions here arise: 
1. Are there any traditions in the neighbourhood of Duncannon about 
the treasure and the murders? 2. Are any of the "dollars" to be 
found among the people in the neighbourhood? 3. What became of 
the papers found on the wreck ? 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 211 

At a meeting of the Corporation of Kilkenny, held the 9th February, 
1609, the following Bye-law was passed : 

" To avoid excessive gossiping (sic.} : That no maid, wife, or widow 
come to any lying-in woman for salutation, gratulation or entertainment 
to be given or received, save the godfathers and godmothers, the mother 
and mother-in-law, sisters and sisters-in-law of the woman delivered, the 
parish-priest of the parish and his clerk, and that they shall not receive 
or take any entertainment, except brewed ale, Bragett (?) wine and aqua- 
vite (sic.\ and this not sitting as at dinner or supper, but as a repast only, 
and that at their departure they shall not carry away any piece or pieces 
of bread or cheese commonly called junketts, nor shall have it sent unto 
them on pain of 10s. forfeit, or imprisonment for a month. Any midwife 
or servant inviting any person other than the above mentioned to forfeit 
13s. 4d., or six weeks' imprisonment. It shall be lawful for the lying-in 
woman to give one dinner or supper to the persons above mentioned. 
Dinner or supper is allowed to be provided and sent by the above licensed 
persons to the house of the lying-in woman, and if any of them be absent 
at said dinner or supper, that the lying-in woman shall then give another 
to those that were absent, whether provided by the lying-in woman or 
sent by the persons aforesaid. If the lying-in woman transgresses, she to 
suffer two months' imprisonment or pay 20s. City officers to inspect the 
houses of all women lying-in, and no lying-in woman to give any other 
entertainment, dinner, or supper, within the month. 

" No woman to go to the banquet at the Mayor's house on Michaelmas 
day and Whit-Sunday but the wives of the aldermen." 

"Flint Jack" Counterfeit antiques are by no means uncommon, for a 
tendency to dishonesty has been characteristic of every age. The most 
celebrated forger of flint implements was, undoubtedly, the well-known 
character "Flint Jack." Born in the year 1816, of humble parentage, he in 
after life went by a hundred aliases. The skill he displayed was such, that 
(it is said) he included on his list of dupes the then curator of the British 
Museum ; some collectors on whom he had palmed off his forgeries were 
again deceived, even after the discovery of their first "take in." Jack, 
however, never succeeded in discovering the art of surf ace- chipping, which 
he declared was a barbarous art that had died with the flint-using folk ; 
hence his flint forgeries are easy of detection. He attained to such skill 
at his business (for to such proportions did his trade extend) that he could 
make and sell fifty flint arrowheads in a day ; and this accounts for the 
extraordinary supply of forged flint weapons with which almost every 
museum, public or private, was then provided. It is quite probable that 
the " Benn Collection " in the Belfast Museum may contain many speci- 
mens of his handiwork ; but, undoubtedly, that was not the only collection 
he was successful in " enriching ;" for Jack, at one time considering that 
his English customers would be improved by a "rest," started on a tour 
through Ireland, confining his travels, however, almost entirely to Ulster, 
where he states that he did well. 

Crannog-liJce Fishing Huts on the Bosphorus. It is stated that the 
crystal clearness of the waters of the Bosphorus was evidenced by the 
rude and simple apparatus of the Turkish fishermen. A few poles being 



212 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

driven into the bed of the stream, and a hut of the rudest description 
constructed thereupon, nets were then stretched across the banks of the 
stream, and such was the transparency of the water, that the fishermen 
from their huts could see the fish in their nets and haul them up without 
any further trouble. By this simple contrivance large captures of the 
finny tribe were made, the fishermen with true Eastern gravity smoking 
their pipes in the huts above while the nets were filling. 

Origin of the saying "ly hook or by crook." In the early period of 
England's history the land was everywhere clothed with forest, and the 
inhabitants were few and far apart. The possessors of the lands gave 
permission to their dependents to cut and lop the branches as far as the 
hook and crook would reach ; but should it be discovered that the trees 
had been cropped higher than an ordinary man could reach, this privilege 
was withdrawn, and they could no longer gather their fuel "by hook or 
by crook." A neighbourhood where this privilege prevailed was always 
sought by new settlers ; but inasmuch as it was uncertain whether the 
trees had been already topped, the men could never be certain of obtain- 
ing the needful fuel. Antiquaries have discovered old stones, that are 
supposed to have been boundary marks, with the hook plainly discover- 
able upon them ; and this is believed to have been the ancient way of 
recording that the district possessed the privilege. 

This explanation appears much more rational than the tradition which 
attributes to Strongbow the expression, " I shall take "Watcrford ly hook or 
ly crook." That he never uttered these words is, in my opinion, rendered 
quite apparent by the late llev. James Graves in an article on the 
" Topography and History of the Parish of Hook, County Wexford," 
which was published in the Proceedings and Transactions of the Associa- 
tion in 1854. In this the learned writer states that the point of land, 
now known as the " Hook," was not so called at the time of the Anglo- 
Norman invasion, but was designated by the Irish Rinn-dulhain, which 
means the " point of the hook" (Rinn, a point or peninsula; dulhain, 
a fishing-hook) ; and that gradually the English colonists, as they 
gained ground, adopted the translated title, and the peninsula, became 
known as the Point of the Hook, oiHook Point. In order to place reliance 
on Strongbow's traditional saying, we must presume him to have been 
acquainted with the Irish language, and to have gone to the trouble of 
rendering into his own tongue the Irish name Rinn-dubhain ; and as he 
spoke Norman-French, and not English, the argument is entirely against 
the probability of his having ever given utterance to the oft-repeated 
expression. 

GABBIEL O'C. REDMOND, Local Secretary, Co. Waterford. 

THE following transcripts of two old documents show the usual manner of 
engaging preceptors and servants at the beginning of the last century. 

I. 

"An agreem* made Between "William Bayly, Gen 1 , and Charles Stanton, 
dancing master the 21 of October, 1718. 

"It is agreed that the said Charles Stanton shall teach the said 




NOTES AND QUERIES. 2l3 

"William Baylies Children to the Number of four to dance until! they 
perfectly Understand Jygs, Minutes, Hornpipe and Country dances, and 
such dances to dance very well, as one of understanding in that respect 
shall Adjudge. 

" In Consideration whereof the said William Bayly shall pay unto the 
said Charles Stanton the sum of two Gynnies, or six and twenty shillings, 
when taught perfectly as aforesaid and Not before. In witnesse whereof 
the parties above Named have Interchangeably set theire hands and scales 
the day and yeare above written. 

" Memorand that it is 
further agreed that since 

the youngest may not per- " CHARLES STANTON." 

form to be ready as soon 
as the rest, that then m r 
Bayly will consider that 
part, the said Stanton 
doing his endeavo r to for- 
ward the said Child. On the back is 

' < Being p r sent < < M r Stantons 

" DARBY DONOVANE, agreem* for 

" WILL HEAS." teaching to dance." 

II. 

" &{m gttfcewtee Made the first day of September anno domini one 
thousand seven hundred and Eighteen, BETWEEN William Bayly of Bal- 
lincolly in the Barony of west Carbery in the County of Corke, Gen fc , 
and Elizabeth Coughlan daughter of John Coughlan late of Skubbereene, 
defunct WITNESSETH that the said Elizabeth Coughlan with the Consent 
of her Nurse Margaret Neale (her father and mother being dead) hath 
and doth sett and put her selfe an apprentice unto him the said William 
Bayly and Lucy his wife, for and during the space time and term of five 
yeares beginning from the day of the date hereof, and them after the 
manner of an Apprentice to serve faith fully, and honestly during the 
said term, she shall not give away or Imbezle any of theire goods, but 
shall take Care to Keepe and secure all to the best of her power, she shall 
not Commit fornication, or absent her selfe without her Master or Mis- 
tresses leave during the said time and term day or night. The said William 
Bayly and his said wife shall during the said time of five yeares provide 
and finde for the said Elizabeth sufficient Meat, drinke and Cloathes 
wollen, and Linnen, And at the end of the said term shall give unto the 
said Elizabeth two sutes of Apparell the one for holy dayes and the other 
for working dayes, Also shall give her, the said Elizabeth an Incalfe cow. 
IN WITNESS whereof the parties above Named have interchangeably put 
theire hands and scales the day and year first above written. 

" Signed sealed and de- s V^ 

livered in the p r sence of tt ,, . p / A 

" WILL HEAS." ELIZ ' Lo(mLA *' I SBAH 

" RICHARD CORBETT." V I 

On the back is " The Counterpart of Betty Coughlans Indenture." 



214 NOTES AND 

FUNERAL EXPENSES IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 
To Nesserrys at the Funerall of M r Tho* Fife Simons, June y e 2lst 1748. 

ToaShroude, 13 6 

To a Yelvett Pall, 11 4 

To 12 paire of mens Kidd gloves a 1 1 s 6 d . . . 018 

To 7 p r of womens D, , 10 6 

To 17 p r of mens Shammey a 1 1 s l d ? 018 5 

To 8 p r of womens D, 088 

To 7 y d8 of Cambrick a 1 5 8 6 d v 213 

To 2 y ds of Muslin a* 5 8 f 0126 

To Bibon to D 08 , 010 

To 8 Cloaks, 080 

To 2 Conductors, 044 

To a Coach, 066 

To the use of a hatband to the manager, .... 1 1 



7 15 2 

Rec d the Contents of the "With In Ace*, being for full of all Acc ts to 
this 23 of June, 1748. 

JOHN HOCKDLLL. 
7 15 2 



To M R CHRISTOPHER FITZ SIMONS. Dr. 



For 36 Masses, 


. . . 1 19 





For 31 Priests who Assisted at the Office, . 
For the Priest who Sung the high mass, . 
For the Deacon & Sub-deacon, .... 


... 4 3 
... 2 

2 


11, 

8, 

?r 


For two Canters, . . . . 


5 


5 


For M r Cashell, 


. . . 9 


2 


For "Wax Lights, 


13 


;; 


For Mould Candles, 


1 


8 


For Bills for the Office, . .... 


5 


5 


For 4 Conductors, 


. . 4 


4 


For porterage, 


1 


q 









8 8 10 
By Cash Beceived 7 Guineas, . . .719 3 

By Do., 1 18 8 

By Do., 10 10 



10 8 9 
Deed 1 as above, . . . 8 810 



Ball" due, . . . 1 19 11 
8 8 10 
1 9 
1 2 9 



10 12 4 lle d and Gave an Ace* of the Above 
his 29 of June, 1749. 

For my brother 

THOMAS Fz SIMON, 



PKOCEEDINGS AND PAPERS. 



A QUARTERLY MEETING was held in the Town Hall, 
Enniskillen, on Tuesday, August 23rd, 1887; 

The REV. CANON GRAINGER, D.D., M.R.I. A., Vice- 
President, in the Chair. 

The following Members were present : 

W. F. Wakeman, Executive Secretary ; Edward Atthill, 
J.P., Local Secretary; W. J. Knowles, M.R.I.A. ; Rev. 
George R. Buick, A.M., Cullybackey ; Carmichael Ferrall, 
Augher Castle; S. K. Kirker, C.E. ; Rev. G. H. Willey, 
Gracehill ; Charles B. Jones, County Surveyor, Sligo ; 
Rev. L. G. Hasse*, M.R.I.A. ; Robert Gairdner ; William 
Purdon, C.E. ; Thomas Plunkett, M.R.I.A. ; Rev. James 
Bradshaw, &c. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting having been read 
and confirmed, the Chairman remarked that this was the 
second time they had met in Enniskillen. The former 
was a good meeting, for they had in it the vital spirit of 
the whole Institution, now, alas, taken from them. He 
(the Chairman) referred to their late indefatigable Secre- 
tary of the Association, the Rev. James Graves. Great 
kindness also had been shown to them by the late Earl 
of Enniskillen another Patron removed since their first 
re-union in this town. There were, however, many 
persons of archaeological talent in the neighbourhood, 
from whom they might expect help. That very morning 
a stone hatchet had been found near the bridge at the old 
ford of Enniskillen, and he hoped that more evidences of 

4TH BER., VOL. VIII. Q 



216 PROCEEDINGS. 

the ancient inhabitants might be discovered. He was 
sure they would have a successful meeting. Perhaps 
during their sitting they could obtain some information 
from those who live in the neighbourhood, and be able 
usefully to exchange ideas. Founded originally as the 
Kilkenny Archaeological Society, the enlargement and 
development of its undertakings led to the present 
Association receiving a Queen's letter, incorporating the 
body, and authorizing it to elect Fellows and Members, 
since which time it has been known by the wider title it 
now so worthily bears. It has for its President Lord 
James Butler, a nobleman respected for his research in 
matters of science, as well as for his capacity in the 
conduct of public business ; and instead of the opera- 
tions of the Association being confined to a single 
county, its sphere extends now throughout the entire 
kingdom. 

The Rev. George R. Buick, A.M., Cullybackey, and 
the Rev. L. G. Hasse*, M.R.I. A., were unanimously elected 
Fellows of the Association ; also the following new 
Members were proposed and elected : 

E. Perceval Wright, LL.D., M.R.I.A. ; Joseph Dollard, 
Dame-street, Dublin ; Professor H. Hennessy, Donny- 
brook ; Sir E. Sullivan, Bart., Dublin ; T. Mason, 
Parliament-street, Dublin; Henry R. Joynt, Merrion- 
square, Dublin ; Rev. G. T. Stokes, T.C.D. ; Rev. G. 
M'Cutcheon, M.A., Kenmare ; Thomas Plunkett, Ennis- 
killen; G. Mansfield, Naas ; A. M'Arthur, Knox's-street, 
Sligo ; Thomas Lough, Chiswick ; John Wray, C.E., 
Enniskillen ; J. W. Dane, Enniskillen ; 0. Ternan, 
M.D., Enniskillen ; W. Purdon, C.E., Enniskillen; Rev. J. 
Bradshaw, Maguiresbridge ; Hugh H. Moore, Bingfield, 
Crossdoney, Cavan ; James Gillespie, M. D., Clones; 
George Lord, Jun., Heathlands, Prestwick, Manchester ; 
Rev. Patrick J. Horgan, p.p., Kilworth, Diocese of 
Cloyne ; G. T. White, 33, Lansdowne-road, Kensington 
Park, London, W. ; William M. Simpson, 15, Hughen- 
den-avenue, Belfast ; William J. Robertson, University- 
square, Belfast; John A. Hanna, Bank Buildings, Belfast 



PROCEEDINGS. 217 

With reference to the resolution passed at the last 
CJ-eneral Meeting of the Association held in Dublin 

" That Lord James Butler and Dr. Joly be requested to make in- 
quiries, and report to the next Meeting of the Association, the possi- 
bility, and best mode of publishing, in a suitable manner, the late G. Y. 
Du Noyer's ' Tracings from the Charter of Waterford, temp. Richard II.', " 

the following communication from the President (Lord 
James Wandesford Butler) was read : 

" I have made such inquiries as I was able concerning the l MS. and 
Illustrated Charter of Richard II.,' with the disappointing result, that 
although it is of the date, or nearly so, of the fourteenth century, the 
decayed state in which it is, and the all-but-unintelligible letterpress, 
make it of very little value, except such as the illustrations possess. 
J. T. Gilbert, M.R.I. A., very kindly went into the matter with me, and as 
it was through his hands, as I may say, that the four plates published 
in his latest volume on Irish MSS. passed, he is the most competent 
judge. I am therefore not inclined to come forward in the matter. 
J. T. Gilbert seems to think that all that would be attractive, viz. the 
four he selected, having been already published, it would be waste of 
money to do more." 

The President also forwarded the reply received to 
the Address of congratulation presented by the Associa- 
tion to the Queen, upon the occasion of Her Most Gracious 
Majesty attaining the 50th year of her reign : 

" WHITEHALL, 23rd July, 1887. 
"MY LORD, 

" I have had the honour to lay before the Queen the loyal and 
-dutiful Address of the President, Vice-Presidents, Officers, and Members 
of ' THE ROYAL HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND,' on 
the occasion of Her Majesty attaining the Fiftieth Year of Her reign ; 
and I have to inform your Lordship that Her Majesty was pleased to 
receive the same very graciously. 

" I have the honour to be, my Lord, 

" Your Lordship's obedient servant, 

" HENRY MATTHEWS. 
"LORD JAMES WANDESFORD BUTLER, 
" 18, Eutland-square, Dublin." 

A number of Papers were read and illustrated by 
exhibits of various forms of ancient flint implements. 

Q2 



218 PROCEEDINGS. 

Rev. G. R. Buick treated of " The Development of 
the Knife in Flint," which he illustrated by a series of 
implements from Mid- Antrim. 

W. J. Knowles gave an interesting description of the 
pre-historic sites of Portstewart, and he exhibited a large 
collection of objects found there by himself. 

Papers were read on the following subjects: "A 
Primitive Ancient Dwelling found within the Waters of 
the Co. Donegal," by G. H. Kinahan, H.M.G.S.I., M.R.I.A. ; 
" Sledy Castle," sent by Gabriel Redmond, Co. Waterford; 
" Ogam Inscribed Stones and other Antiquities from 
the Co. Kerry," by George M. Atkinson, London ; " The 
Ancient Precedence of the See of Meath," by Rev. 
Charles Scott, M.A., Belfast; and an interesting episode 
in " Tyrone History," by Carmichael Ferrall. 

The exhibits included an inscribed bullaun, by W. F. 
Wakeman, who also showed two Irish inscriptions, as yet 
unedited. C. Ferrall exhibited a very old and rare 
version of a Syrian Bible. E. Atthill showed remains 
of ancient Indian pottery, pipes, &c., dug up by him in 
Canada, and which singularly correspond in character 
with remains found in this country. 

The meeting adjourned for luncheon, and an excursion 
was arranged by Mr. Plunkettfor the purpose of visiting 
Devenish and of viewing the canoes lately found at St. 
Angelo and Killadeas, on the property of Mr. Pomeroy 
and Colonel Irvine. The members were charmed with 
the beautiful scenery of the lake, and were greatly in- 
terested in the ruins and relics on Devenish Island. On 
leaving that locality, a start was made for St. Angelo, 
where the first canoe was to be seen, and the visitors 
carefully examined this interesting specimen. 

A meeting was held in the evening, at 8 o'clock, in 
the Town Hall, Enniskillen, Canon Grainger, D.D., 
M.R.I.A., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

In the absence of W. F. Wakeman, Executive Secretary, 
W. J. Knowles, M.R.I.A., was appointed to act pro tern. 

Mr. Plunkett then read a Paper on " Canoes recently 
found on the shores of Lough Erne." The President 
having requested Mr. Plunkett to favour the Association 
with some details of his recent explorations and discove- 



PROCEEDINGS. 219 

ries in the surrounding neighbourhood, he first exhibited 
a wooden vessel of curious formation, which was found 
in a bog several feet below the surface ; also shoes of a 
very ancient type ; relics from crannogs and caves, con- 
sisting of stone, bronze, and flint implements, the most in- 
teresting being those found near East Bridge, during the 
progress of the drainage works. He also submitted to 
the Association an inscribed stone, the characters on 
which are supposed to be Runic. The Bishop of Limerick, 
a learned antiquary, had requested an opportunity of 
examining it, and it is hoped he may be able to decipher 
the inscription. 

Two Papers from Gr. H. Kinahan, " The Mevagh 
Inscribed Stones," and " The Barnes Dallans, or 
Standing Stones," were read. 

Rev. George R. Buick furnished a note on " A Find 
near Larne." 

The following resolution proposed by Rev. Leonard 
Hasse*, M.R.I.A., seconded by W. J. Knowles, was carried 
unanimously : 

" That this Meeting desires to express its recognition of the very 
efficient services rendered by Lieut.-Colonel WOOD-MARTIN to the Asso- 
ciation, in the editing of the Journal, and expresses the hope that the 
Committee will give him every assistance in the continuance of the 
work." 

It was recommended that Derry or Larne be selected 
for the next Summer Meeting the Mid- Antrim Members 
to give every assistance in getting it up. 

A vote of thanks to T. Plunkett for the assistance 
given by him during the day was carried by the members 
rising to their feet; for, indeed, to his presence, his 
marvellous energy, vast experience, and great knowledge, 
the visitors owed in a large measure the pleasure and 
profit which resulted from their gathering. He was 
amicus, host, guide, and instructor. The enthusiastic 
manner in which the members collectively passed the 
resolution of thanks to him, and the tone in which they 
individually spoke of his successful efforts to enlighten 
and entertain them, revealed their thorough appreciation 
of what he had done in their behalf. 



220 PROCEEDINGS. 

Arrangements were made for an excursion to Bally- 
shannon and Bundoran on the following day. 

The meeting then adjourned, and on Wednesday the 
Members of the Association visited Bundoran, where they 
viewed some old settlements situated above the river, 
between Ballyshannon and Bundoran ; they found there 
a great variety of flint implements, including arrow- 
heads, scrapers, saws, knives, &c. 

As on the previous day, the Members of the Associa- 
tion were deeply indebted to Mr. Plunkett, without 
whose personal assistance, archaeological knowledge, and 
local experience, the meeting would have been far from 
the pleasant and successful gathering it proved to be. 



( 221 ) 



THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART, COUNTY 
LONDONDERRY. 

BY W. J. KNOWLES, M.R.I.A., 
Honorary Local Secretary, County Antrim. 

AT the Portrush Meeting in 1885 I read a Paper on the 
" Prehistoric Sites at White Park Bay, County An trim,' ' 
which appeared in the Journal for July of that year ; 
and I then intimated that the Paper would be followed 
by notices of other places which had been explored by 
me. I will now give a revised account of various " finds" 
from the sand-hills, near Portstewart, and other neigh- 
bouring sites of a similar kind. The first sand-hills 
which I explored were at Portstewart. The discovery 
that they were implement-bearing was made in 1871, 
owing to a friend telling me that, while walking over 
them, he had found an arrow-head. This induced me 
to make an examination, and I found, to my surprise, 
several large pits, or hollows, among the sand-hills, 
over the surface of which were spread great quantities 
of flakes, cores, hammer-stones, scrapers, arrow-heads, 
broken pottery, bones, shells, &c. The first pit, examined 
attentively, was a large hollow space about fifty feet 
in depth, and fully one hundred paces broad at the 
bottom. In the centre there was a mound ten yards in 
diameter, on the top of which rested about a dozen small 
boulders, such as one could easily lift, and the surface 
all around was closely covered with the flakes and other 
objects mentioned. I brought away upwards of fifty 
manufactured objects on my first visit, and shortly after- 
wards went again, when I discovered other pits, some of 
which were smaller in size, though all were nearly similar 
in character. There was generally a little mound in 
some part of each pit with a few boulders on the top, 
and flakes and other objects lying scattered over the 
surface for some distance from the centre. My visits 
were repeated at short intervals during the next three 
years, and a great quantity of manufactured flints were 
collected, besides pottery, teeth, bones, shells, &c. The 



222 ON THE PKEHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART. 

liunt after these objects was most fascinating. The pits 
never seemed to get exhausted, for, if cleared out to-day, 
a new lot was sure to be found on my next visit. At 
first the place was a perfect puzzle to me : there was the 
little mound in the centre of each hollow with the few 
boulders on the top, which had evidently been used as 
hearth-stones, and all around there was evidence of a 
busy trade having been carried on in the manufacture 
of flint implements. Nothing seemed displaced, and 
everything favoured the idea that the place had not been 
long deserted. I soon found out, however, that things 
had not always remained as I saw them. In some places, 
at the sides, could be observed little platforms with a 
floor more solid and of darker material than the surround- 
ing sand : objects of a similar kind to those near the 
hearth-stones were found on the surface of this floor, 
which extended round the sides of the pit, in some places 
appearing as a black layer in the sand. On the top of 
this layer there was a covering of sand varying in depth 
from two feet up to fifty, and this was protected by 
a growth of bent, grass, moss, or bracken, which pre- 
vented the sand from being blown away ; but the sides 
of the pits which had no vegetable covering were con- 
stantly suffering denudation, and the pits were daily 
becoming wider, owing to the wind removing material 
from those unprotected parts. In digging into the black 
layer there were flint implements, pottery, bones, shells, 
&c., similar to those found on the surface, and I was led 
to the conclusion that, until a very recent period, the 
pits had been filled with sand; that the black layers 
represented the surface of the sand-hills at the time of 
the occupation of that place by the flint implement 
makers ; and that the covering of sand was not heaped 
up suddenly, but by a slow and gradual process, which 
was dependent on the rate of growth of the vegetation. 
The objects discovered in the pits had therefore dropped 
from the black layers. The hearth-stones represented 
the sites of dwelling-places, and the various objects men- 
tioned as being found in greatest abundance around those 
sites would naturally lie close to such spots. The hut 
sites were not necessarily always placed on a mound ; 



ON THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART. 223 

the stones and flakes would give protection to the sand 
below them, whilst removal of the sand would go on freely 
all around, and cause the protected part to take the form 
of a mound. Such is the interpretation, given by me on 
several occasions, of the nature and origin of the remains 
found at Portstewart and elsewhere, and further re- 
searches made even up to the present time fully con- 
firm all I had previously said on the subject. Notes of 
descriptions of the various pits which yielded manufac- 
tured objects and which were written down on the 
spot during my visits previous to the end of 1874 
formed part of my first Paper on the subject, which 
was read at the Belfast meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation in that year. 1 As the pits have changed 
considerably in appearance since then, those early 
descriptions may be worth recording. The numbering 
begins at the side nearest Portstewart. I entered 
the sand-hills from near the termination of the road 
that goes down to the shore past the spa- well, and 
after walking about twenty perches came to the pit 
alled by me No. 1, and which was about ten yards in 
diameter at the bottom. The sides of the pit (on the 
south-east) were fully twenty feet in height; to the 
north-west it opened out almost on a level with lower 
ground. In the centre were several large basaltic stones 
{evidently hearth-stones) and flakes, scrapers, bones, 
pottery, and shells were lying exposed round about them. 
From the action of the weather the higher side of the 
pit was gradually crumbling down, and, as it did so, 
exposed two old surfaces, the upper about ten feet from 
the present surface, and the other about three feet lower. 
These appeared like two blackish layers a few inches 
thick in the sand which formed the sides of the pit. 

Proceeding farther in the same direction, I came to 
the pit called by me No. 2. It was about twenty yards 



1 The Secretary of the Anthropological returned to me through Mr. William 

Department requested liberty to publish Gray, of Belfast, who stated that he was 

the Paper in the "Journal" of the instructed to say that the Institute had 

Anthropological Institute, and I handed not room for it. My first Paper was, 

it over to him for that purpose, but after therefore, never published, 
keeping it for some time the Paper was 



224 ON THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART. 

in diameter at the bottom, and the black layer was some 
twenty feet below the present surface. In this pit a 
portion of the black layer was thoroughly bared, but 
at one side the action of the wind had cut through the 
layer and excavated a hollow, in which many hammer- 
stones, cores, flakes, scrapers, arrow-heads, pottery, 
and bones, were discovered. Two kinds of pottery 
were observable in this pit, one being similar in 
quality to ordinary sepulchral urns, the other much 
harder and of a grey colour. It was only here that 
I found this latter kind of pottery, and it lay ex- 
posed on the surface. One piece the rim of a vessel 
with stout projecting part for handle has a diameter 
of 3| inches. It would, therefore, be a rather small 
vessel, and I am not sure that it is of the same age 
as the flints. A little farther on, the next pit (No. 3) 
was still larger, being upwards of one hundred yards 
in diameter. It was divided by a jutting portion, 
and it might have been looked upon as two pits, a 
larger one and a smaller. In the larger portion the 
sand had in one place been excavated below the old 
surface, and a portion of the black layer with the 
covering sand removed stood out as a sort of platform : 
as this platform crumbled down into the space below, 
several black layers close to one another were seen. I 
found the beautiful arrow-head (fig. 13, Plate I.) in this 
part of the pit, and also hammer-stones, scrapers, a flat 
stone, which had been used for rubbing or grinding, 
and several other objects. 

In the centre of the smaller portion of No. 3 there 
was a small mound covered with flakes, shells, arrow- 
heads, scrapers, broken pottery (some of it nicely orna- 
mented), flakes of a black material, supposed to be 
obsidian, or pitch-stone, portion of a stone hatchet made 
of close-grained rock, and several flakes of the same 
stone, some being partly polished. On the surface of this 
mound, and near to it, have also been found three or four 
dozen small beads (about -J- to in. in diameter), which 
are made of a beautiful greenish stone; they are generally 
broader on the one surface than the other, and the per- 
foration being wider on the broader surface, and tapering 



ON THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART. 225 

down to a narrow opening on the other, gives them 
a dish-shaped appearance. A few of them were irre- 
gular in outline, as if a small chip had been polished 
and bored, though possibly considered too precious 
to be reduced in size, and so the irregularities of 
the edge were not rounded off. Two beads of this 
class are shown in No. 47 of the Journal, Plate L, 
figs. 10 and 12; and three are now shown in fig. 46, 
Plate III. The stone from which these beads were 
made does not appear to have been found in the 
neighbourhood. Gr. H. Kinahan, M. R. i. A., to whom 
some of the beads were submitted, considers that the 
mineral is Saussurite jade, and it may be found 
in veins of the metamorphic rocks of the county 
Donegal. 1 These minute objects were procured by 
very closely examining the surface of the mound, and 
the old surface being of more than the usual thickness, 
was sometimes dug up and allowed to stand some days 
when beads were usually found, but they were not 
obtained direct from the layer itself. I believe, how- 
ever, that they are of the age of the flint implements. 
No. 4 pit was reached in proceeding from No. 3 in the 
direction of the mouth of the river Bann. It was in 
form a large oval hollow, having a rim of pretty equal 
height all round it, and in one corner there was a 
mound of sand, with flakes, numerous teeth, and broken 
bones, spread over it. There were also shells in con- 
siderable quantities, chiefly Littorina and Patella, which, 
besides being strewn over the surface, were sometimes, 
while digging, found in little heaps. Several scrapers 
were procured here, and fragments of coarse pottery, 
one piece being ornamented. I also found several bored 
stones, and a small anvil-stone. Turning now a little 
backward, and in the direction of the sea, pit No. 5 was 
reached. It is shallow, and the bottom is entirely com- 
posed of boulders of the raised beach : among the stones 
were found several scrapers, three hollow scrapers, and 
two arrow-heads. As far as could be made out, this was 



1 A. M'Henry, M.R.I.A., sent me a piece He found it in the metamorphic rocks at 
of mineral very similar in appearance to Ballycastle, county Antrim, and called 
that from which the heads are formed. it " Ballycastle jade." 



226 ON THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART. 

the pit in which the first arrow-head was discovered, 
but the finder was not able to make me quite sure on 
that point. 1 Fig. 24, Plate II., shows an arrow-head 
which, though not found at Portstewart, is similar in 
form to the first one found there. It has the point at 
the broad end, and belongs to a fairly abundant type. 

No. 6 pit was a large oval hollow, situated farther on 
towards the mouth of the Bann. It was about one hundred 
and twenty yards in length, by eighty in breadth, and the 
sides were in some places from forty to fifty feet in height. 
This was the pit first discovered by myself, and I obtained 
from it many arrow-heads, scrapers, knives, hammer- 
stones, and cores : this, and the smaller portion of No. 3, 
yielded more implements and other manufactured objects 
than all the others put together. It had the mound in the 
centre, with hearth-stones on the top, and the flakes, cores, 
hammer-stones, and other objects, lying round about. In 
a large pit like this one could the more easily see how, 
on moving away from the mound, the flakes and other 
objects became less numerous, and that very soon scarcely 
any were observable. The workers must, therefore, 
have carried on their daily occupation in the immediate 
vicinity of the huts here, as at White Park Bay. At 
one side of this pit, a few feet from the bottom, the black 
layer appeared thicker and blacker than usual, and in 
one part of it a great many bones, and also portions of 
antlers of the red deer, were found cut or sawn, the 
sawing having been done in the irregular way that one 
would expect to see if a flint flake were used instead 
of a metal tool. The long bones as in all the other 
pits were broken and split, in order, it is believed, to 
obtain the marrow. 

No. 7 was an oval pit, thirty to forty yards in length, 
and ten yards in breadth. Many large bones and teeth, 
several scrapers, and a few pieces of the top of a quern, 
were here found. In excavating a portion of the old 
surface-layer on the side of this pit, I found a little nest 
of scrapers, evidently just as they had been laid down 
by the maker after manufacturing them. 

1 I was always anxious to obtain this who must in turn have disposed of it to 
arrow-head ; but the finder, after keeping some of the English collectors. I have 
it a considerable time, sold it to a dealer, not been able to trace it. 



ON THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART. 227 

No. 8 was a shallow pit, and (except at the edges) the 
sand was not loose, as in the other pits. Bent and other 
grass had taken hold at the bottom, and was growing up 
through the flakes and implements. I here obtained 
several arrow-heads and scrapers, an oval tool- stone, and 
a flint knife (fig. 37, Plate II.). 

There were several other pits of smaller size in the 
lower ground towards the mouth of the Bann : from 
them I obtained scrapers, cores, flakes, and hammer- 
stones ; but within about a mile of the mouth of the river 
I found that the pits among the sand-hills ceased to yield 
anything of the nature of flint flakes or implements. 
The explanation of this appears to be that, since the flint 
implement manufacturers occupied the locality, the Bann 
had, by bringing down material, formed a small delta, 
which later on became covered with sand-hills. Some 
are of opinion that the Bann at one time flowed into the 
sea at a place that would seem to divide the implement- 
bearing from the non-implement - bearing sand-hills. 
This may have been partly the case, as when a delta 
is being formed there are generally several mouths, the 
main flow of water occasionally shifting from one to 
another. 

On the land side the farmer has encroached on the 
sand-hills : at one time they extended farther inland, 
the sandy covering gradually thinning out. We there- 
fore find the old prehistoric surface a few feet down in 
some of the cultivated fields adjoining. I have examined 
hollows which had been scooped out by the wind in 
several fields, and have obtained from them scrapers, 
flakes, and hammer-stones, sometimes accompanied with 
modern clay-pipes, and pieces of crockery, which had 
been carried out in the manure. About three years ago 
a very interesting object, formed of baked clay, was 
dug up in one of those fields ; it is very similar in 
material and finish to the fragments of pottery found 
with the flakes and other objects in the sand-hills. It 
is either a lamp or a crucible ; but as it does not seem 
to have stood any excessive degree of fire, the weight of 
opinion is in favour of its being a lamp. It is 6 inches 
long, 4f inches broad, and 1 inch deep ; the shape is 



228 ON THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART. 

oval, and there is a neat spout at one end, in which a 
wick could lie. At one side of the spout there is a portion 
blackened, evidently by fire : the regular burning of a 
wick would, no doubt, produce this discolouration. It was 
dug out, I believe, by Mr. William Oke, of Portstewart, 
from whom it was procured by the Rev. Gr. R. Buick, 
who has kindly allowed me to figure it (see fig. 44, 
Plate III.). I have examined the spot where it was 
found, and am of opinion that it came from an old 
surface below the present one, and had remained beyond 
reach of the spade until recently turned up. Mr. 
Buick exhibited it at the Armagh meeting in 1884; 
but without carefully examining the object, those who 
ought to have been better judges gave lectures on the 
forged pottery in the Benn collection, 1 and made such 
insinuations against this excellent, genuine, and, I think, 
unique little vessel, that it also was looked on as a 
forgery, and, so to speak, hooted out of court. The 
late Mr. Graves, seeing the mistake that had been made, 
offered, after the meeting was over, to figure the lamp, 
and insert the notice which had been prepared for the 
Journal, but seeing that his well-meant information was 
treated with ridicule by leading men of the Association, 
Mr. Buick withdrew the Paper which he had read, and 
the object has lain on the shelf ever since without 
further notice being taken of it. 

Dr. Arthur Mitchell, in The Past in the Present, de- 
scribes and figures the "crusie," or oil lamp, of Scotland. 
He says that thirty or forty years ago there were probably 
many thousands of them in Scotland, and now they have a 
place in collections of antiquities, and can only be bought 
at a considerable price, paraffin having swept them out of 
existence. In form the " crusie" is not unlike our Port- 
stewart lamp ; it has a wide basin-like part, and a spout 
for the wick, and if we could trace the " crusie" back- 
ward, it would, no doubt, reach to prehistoric times. 



1 The late Mr. Benn, in his old age, certify that it possesses no likeness to 

was basely deceived hy an unscrupulous genuine prehistoric pottery. The vessels 

dealer. The forged pottery referred to are of most fantastic forms, and if placed 

should not have deceived anyone. I have in water would, no doubt, dissolve before 

seen it eiuoc Mr. Benu's death, and I can our eyes. 



ON THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART. 229 

The shape of our present iron hammers bears, in many 
cases, a very close resemblance to our ancient hammers 
of stone, and most probably the pattern has come down 
in unbroken succession from prehistoric times to our 
own. We can speak in a similar way of our axes, 
knives, &c. : the pattern of the stone tools has been 
reproduced in metal, and in many cases there is scarcely 
any variation from the old forms. We cannot imagine 
that the early occupiers of the sand-hills near Port- 
stewart would spend the winter nights in darkness, and 
lamps like the one described would, doubtless, be 
employed. The Esquimaux and the Chukches use 
lamps, and these people are looked on as stone-age 
savages, who still exist in out-of-the-way corners of the 
globe. One of the Chukch lamps is figured by Norden- 
skiold in his Voyage of the Vega (vol. ii., p. 22), and only 
that it is semi-lunar in form, it is not unlike our Port- 
stewart specimen. The Chukch lamp is 1^ inches 
longer than that found at Portstewart, but the breadth 
is about the same. 

Exactly similar sand-hills, with implement-bearing 
black layers, are found on the other side of the river 
Bann, at a place called Grangemore, about one mile and 
a-half from Castlerock. I have discovered as many as 
two hundred manufactured objects in one day, and my 
wife and sons have at different times added considerably 
to my collection by finds of arrow-heads and other objects 
at this place. I have several beautiful arrow-heads, 
hollow scrapers, a polished stone-hatchet, scrapers, slugs, 
and borers from this side of the Bann, besides pottery 
and other objects exactly similar to those found on the 
Portstewart side. Over one thousand scrapers have been 
obtained by myself from those two places, which may be 
looked upon as one settlement. The arrow-heads which 
have come into my own possession only amount to fifty 
in number, but many more have been found by the 
fishermen about Portstewart, and sold to collectors in 
various parts of Ireland and England. 

Until my Paper on this subject was read at the British 
Association in Belfast, Portstewart was an unknown 
place for flint implements, and the old surfaces which I 



230 ON THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART. 

discovered had never been heard of. After that, how- 
ever, we had excursions to it, and several gentlemen 
soon became as well acquainted as myself with its several 
pits and black layers. I was anxious for everything to 
remain in the shape I found it, with the hope that 
scientists might wish to examine the place, but others 
who had now become acquainted with it, not having a 
like desire, lost no time in digging everything over 
in search of implements. The method of investiga- 
tion, which they soon discovered to be least trouble- 
some, was to employ little boys to dig over the 
portion of sand thought most likely to be profitable, 
and then wait till the wind would blow off the loose sand, 
before making a search. On various occasions I dug 
over portions of the old surface with a little garden 
spade, very carefully examining every spadeful with my 
own hands, and in 1879 gave a report of this, and similar 
work elsewhere, to the British Association. Cores, flakes, 
hammer-stones, scrapers, anvil-stones, pottery, bones, 
and shells, similar to those lying loose on the surface, 
were obtained by me, but my labour was not so well 
rewarded at Portstewart as at White Park Bay. I was 
enabled, however, to show that the majority of objects 
found on the present surface could also be discovered in 
the old surface-layer. Although the grant made to me 
by the British Association was not renewed after 1879, 
I did not relax my efforts on that account, but went 
regularly to Portstewart and Castlerock to gain further 
information, always doing some more digging and find- 
ing out from the fishermen what had been procured by 
them in my absence. Had the grant been continued, no 
doubt much fuller knowledge could have been obtained 
by means of the larger series of objects that would have 
been procured direct from the black layer or old surface : 
even as it is, the study of these and other sand-hills has 
considerably widened our knowledge of the pre-historic 
Irish people. 

I have referred to most of the implements when 
describing the several pits, but it is necessary to say 
something further by way of explanation. The scrapers 
are principally of the horse-shoe pattern, though a few 



PLATE I. 



To face page 231 








12 









18 




19 



1-19. Arrow-heads Portstewart and Castlerock. 
(Scale, one-half linear measure.) 



ON THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART. 231 

are longish in shape ; occasionally one may be found that 
has a small, somewhat pointed scraping-end with broad 
base ; but this class, which is abundant at White Park 
Bay, is rare here. None of the scrapers are very large, 
and many are small. Some are not larger than a finger 
nail. Figs. 20, 21, and 25, Plate II., shown half size, 
give a fair idea of them, fig. 20 being one of the smallest, 
and fig. 25 being of fairly large size. Fig. 34, Plate II., 
shows one of the hollow scrapers. 

Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 10, Plate I., are leaf-shaped 
arrow-heads, or small spear-heads. Fig. 10 has a 
twist, the edges not being in one plane. It is sup- 
posed that this kind may have been made for rotat- 
ing, but I am rather inclined to believe that the 
shape is due not to any special design on the part 
of the maker, but rather to a natural twist in the 
flake from which it was made. We may find a small 
number of twisted arrow-heads in large collections, 
but they are too few to justify us in saying that 
they were a type of arrow-heads manufactured for a 
special purpose. Fig. 4, Plate I., is diamond-shaped, 
a variety found in considerable abundance in the north 
of Ireland. We have indented arrow-heads, as in figs. 
5, 7, and 12, Plate I. one very deeply indented, and the 
others less so. The barbs in this kind stand out when 
shafted, and appear as effective as in those having a 
central tang. The barbed, with central tang, or stem, are 
the most numerous, ten examples of that type being 
shown on Plate I. However, if we examined a larger 
series we would probably find the three leading types, 
leaf-shaped, indented, and stemmed, more nearly equal. 
I find in my own collection of fully 1500 arrow 
heads, obtained from different parts of the north of 
Ireland, that those three types (if all their varieties 
be included) do not show any wide difference in point 
of numbers. Some of the arrow-heads appear to me 
to have been only partially finished. Fig. 8, picked 
up by my son on the Castlerock side of the Bann, would 
be as effective as any of the more perfectly formed, 
but it has still the ridge of the original flake remaining, 
and is only dressed round the edge after the manner of 

4TH SER., VOL. VIII. R 



232 ON THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART. 

our modern forgeries ; its porcelaneous glaze, however, 
shows it to be a perfectly genuine specimen. Fig. 15 
also appears to have been unfinished. Though quite 
symmetrical round the edges, and perfect at the point, 
yet if another series of small flakes had been taken round 
both edges and on both sides, it would, I expect, appear 
very like fig. 13 shown in the same row of Plate I. Fig. 
14 has the tang dressed into a gable form. I find a con- 
siderable number of arrow-heads, with beautifully dressed 
gable-shaped tangs, and this kind may be looked upon 
as an intentionally -made variety of barbed and stemmed 
arrow-heads. Fig. 19, a beautiful little obsidian arrow- 
head, is another variety of the stemmed and barbed 
arrow-heads, of which I possess some very handsome 
specimens. Fig. 1 6 is peculiar in shape ; it may have 
been used as a borer, the edges near the point having 
lost the sharpness which we usually find in arrow-heads. 
There are three knives with tang, dressed back, and 
cutting edge, shown in figs. 29, 30, and 31, Plate II., and 
there are other objects which might be called knives; 
one shown in fig. 32, Plate II., with small end dressed as 
a scraper, and a beautifully curved knife, is shown in 
fig. 37, Plate II. Fig. 36, in same plate, is one of those 
flakes dressed neatly over the back and plain on flat 
side described as knives by Canon Greenwell, F.R.S. 
(see British Barrows, pp. 285, 380, &c.). This specimen 
has neatly-rounded ends dressed like scrapers, the end 
to the left being specially scraper-like. Fig. 28, on 
same plate, is also a knife-like flake, trimmed at one 
edge. 

Figs. 22 and 23 are unmistakably small chisels: in both 
of them the cutting edge is very sharp, and the sides 
and ends are dressed for the purpose of shafting. The 
cutting edge appears above in these specimens, the 
artist having unintentionally reversed them. Fig. 26, 
Plate II. , is a spear-like flake, neatly dressed along both 
edges to a point ; and fig. 33 is possibly intended as a 
short, broad, spear-head. It has been made by a few 
bold strokes. Fig. 27, Plate II., shows a small core ; 
and fig. 35, an arrow-head in an early stage of manu- 
facture. 



PLATE II. 



To face page 232. 







21 









27 








35 

Figs. 20-37. Scrapers, Knives, &c. Portstewart and Castlerock. 
-(Scale, one-half linear measure.) 



PLATE III. 



To face page 233. 




47 





Figs. 38-50. Pottery, Beads, Bronze Pin, Lamp, &c., Portstewart. 
(Scale, one-half linear measure.) 



ON THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART. 233 

Several flat, circular discs have been found with holes 
l)ored through the centre. I possess one pretty large 
specimen five inches in diameter, and a smaller example, 
partly broken, is shown in fig. 50, Plate III. A few oval 
tool-stones have been found, some of which are broken 
as at White Park Bay and a few anvil-stones, with slight 
pits on one or both sides (see fig. 49, Plate III.). 

The fragments of pottery are not so numerous as 
at White Park Bay, nor have so many patterns been 
observed in the ornamentation ; but such as have 
been discovered could all be matched by specimens 
found there. One pattern was puzzling ; it was some- 
what similar to marks that might be made by the milled 
edge of a shilling being rolled over wet clay (see fig. 
39, Plate III.). I now believe such marking to have 
been made by a cord twisted so much that the folds, 
instead of running in a slanting direction, appear to 
cross the cord at right angles. The shape of some of 
the vessels can be made out, one kind appearing some- 
what barrel- shaped, whilst others show a wide neck, 
but nearly all seem to me to have been different in 
shape from sepulchral pottery. On some specimens there 
are projections which appear like little catches for 
assisting in lifting the vessel. Several pieces of a 
hard greyish pottery, already referred to, were dis- 
covered on the surface of one of the pits ; but I only 
found this kind at one place ; and whether it be of the 
same age as the other pottery or not I cannot decide. 
One piece has a projecting portion which may also have 
served as a handle, possibly on one side only, as the 
vessel, from the apparent size of the mouth (3-j- inches 
in diameter), could not be larger than a small mug, and 
would, therefore, not be likely to have two handles. 
The projecting handle, with piece of rim attached, is 
shown in fig. 40, Plate III. 

Various pieces of haematite were obtained here as 
at White Park Bay ground and rubbed on several 
sides, evidently for the purpose of procuring paint. 

Several cut bones were found, the cuts evidently 
having been made with flint flakes, as none of them 
show such regularity in the sides as would be made 

R2 



234 ON THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART,. 

with a metal tool. By examining any of these cut* 
we can clearly see that they were made with very 
short instruments, and that, after a little progress, 
there was a fresh start on new ground. Some people- 
have argued that these bones were not cut with flint ; 
that they are only ordinary beef bones, cut with a metal 
saw. I must say that my view, that the cutting was done 
with flint saws, was always supported by those who 
were the highest authorities in England, and had large 
experience. However, in order to test the cutting pro- 
perties of flint, I tried an ordinary flake on a piece of 
common beef bone, and found that by using it as a 
saw, and adding a little water occasionally, the flint cut 
remarkably well. Several deep cuts were made in a 
very short time ; but for the sake of testing what could 
be done in a given time, I took a new part of the bone 
and cut through it in fourteen minutes, though part of 
my time was taken up in frequently clearing out the 
matter that was clogging the flake, and also in adding 
water. I found an antler of the red deer, with several 
tines cut off, and some bones manufactured into objects 
of use. One bone has two prongs, which may have been 
a tool used in thatching ; there is a similar implement 
in use at the present day called a "spurtle." It may, 
however, have been used in digging up shell-fish ; it is 
shown in fig. 47, Plate III. There is also a cylinder of 
bone, somewhat wider and shorter than a cylinder of 
that material discovered by me at White Park Bay 
(see fig. 48, Plate III.). I also found a small portion of 
a curved bone, which must have been part of a bracelet. 
It is partly pierced longitudinally, and then diagonally 
through the longitudinal boring, so as to make con- 
nexion with another piece. It is shown in fig. 45, Plate 
III. I have been able to make similar holes in bone with 
sharp-pointed flakes. Another piece of bone, dressed 
somewhat like a pin, is shown in fig. 43. Plate IV. 
shows a section through a sandpit, the old surface ap- 
pearing as a black band bifurcate at the sides of the pit. 
It is represented in this way to show how two layers, 
when found one above another, soon become merged 
into one. 



PLATE IV. 



To face page 234. 




ON THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART. 235 

The material principally used in manufacturing the 
flint implements was the flint nodules obtained on the 
shore, and in the raised beach, as may be seen from ex- 
amination of the flakes and cores. That the supply of 
flint was not abundant is evidenced by their working up 
other material. I have found flakes of the Portrush lias, 
numerous small flakes of a close-grained rock, supposed 
to be pitch- stone, or obsidian ; also several flakes that 
had been struck from a piece of a close-grained stone 
hatchet. Two of the arrow-heads, figured 18 and 19, are 
made of this supposed obsidian. I have a large series 
of black arrow-heads from different parts of the county 
Antrim, and seeing that the prehistoric inhabitants of 
the stone age did not confine themselves to flint in mak- 
ing arrow-heads, I have formed the opinion latterly that 
the old flint- workers, in places where they could not find 
flint, would use the chert from the carboniferous lime- 
stone. Seeing the scarcity of flint implements, as we 
proceed southwards, from the flint-bearing rocks, it 
appears to me that we must either find arrow-heads and 
other implements of chert in districts which do not 
yield flint, or come to the conclusion that the south 
and west of Ireland was not inhabited by a bow-using 
people. 

There is evidence here as at White Park Bay of 
a series of flint objects older than the scrapers and arrow- 
heads found there. They were all deeply weathered 
before they were last used for re-working into scrapers and 
other flint implements. I have several old cores and 
some flakes of the older series from Portstewart. The 
older flakes are much thicker and coarser than those of 
the newer series. 

One of the fishermen before referred to sold me a 
bronze pin found by him lying on the surface of the 
sand, near the extremity of that part of the hills yielding 
the manufactured flints. He procured also a small ring 
of bronze near the same place (see figs. 41 and 42, 
Plate III.). Since writing my Paper on White Park 
Bay, which appeared in No. 63 of the Journal, a bronze 
pin was there found on the surface of the sand-hills 
by the Rev. L. Hasse*, M.R.I.A. ; and my son got an 



236 ON THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART. 

almost similar pin from a herd, who stated that he 
discovered it near the same place. In consequence* 
of these " finds," some are inclined to believe that the 
bronze and flint objects found in these places were in 
use at the same time ; but we must remember that bronze 
has not yet been found in the old surface layer ; and 
these stray " finds" of bronze on the present surface do 
not prove the flints and bronze to be contemporaneous, 
any more than finding a coin of Queen Elizabeth, or one 
of Queen Victoria, could prove the flints to belong to 
either of those periods. 

In thinking of the mode of life of the dwellers on the 
sand-hills during this later flint age, we are helped in 
arriving at a conclusion by accounts of the life of savages- 
in the present day. The description given by Nor den - 
skiold of the life of the Chukches should give us some 
insight. Tribes of them dwell in tents in dunes of fine 
sand near the coast. " Marks of them are therefore 
met with nearly everywhere, and the dune is accord- 
ingly bestrewed with broken implements or refuse of 
the chase." " They still almost belong to the Stone 
Age," and though, from trading with civilized nations, 
the principal part of their weapons has now come to be 
of metal, yet they have still some stone and bone im- 
plements, the mounting of which (as shown by the 
drawings in the Voyage of the Vega, vol. ii., pp. 112 and 
123) is curious and instructive. Their dwellings on the 
sand-dunes, near the sea, skin-covered huts, or tents, 
the use of the bow, the skin dress, and the lamps, which 
are occasionally made of clay, would suggest to me, 
more or less, the manner in which the Stone Age in- 
habitants spent their lives on the sand-dunes near Port- 
stewart. 

There appeared an article in the Cornhill Magazine, 
March, 1886, entitled " The Story of the one Pioneer 
of Tierra del Fuego " descriptive of a man who 
lived some time among the Fuegians which is also 
instructive. The men are represented as expert at mak- 
ing flint arrow- and spear-heads ; the women do all the 
work ; the men lie about the huts. When in hunting 
they obtained a dead animal, all immediately fell upon 



ON THE PREHISTORIC SITES OF PORTSTEWART. 237 

it, tore it to pieces, and ate it raw. If a dead seal was 
cast ashore they ate it in the same manner, gorging 
themselves on the putrid flesh and blubber. Some- 
times the tribe with which he lived would march for 
five or six days, then settle down for several weeks; 
sometimes they lived on the sea-shore, subsisting chiefly 
on raw mussels and other shell-fish. 1 Accounts like 
these are very useful in helping us to form an idea of the 
way in which the Portstewart flint implement-makers 
lived; but I would be inclined to think that the old 
Portstewart natives were more settled and less savage 
than the Fuegians. The more kindly and peaceable 
Chukches, as described by Baron Nordenskiold, would 
fit in better with my ideas of the ancient people of 
White Park Bay and Portstewart. 



1 For further information respecting Naturalist, pp. 204-234. 
the Fuegians, see Darwin's Voyage of a 



( 238 ) 



THE ANCIENT PKECEDENCE OF THE SEE OP MEATH. 
BY THE KEY. CHARLES SCOTT, M.A. 

FROM a very early date the See of Meath has enjoyed a 
peculiar precedence. The occupants of the other suffra- 
gan Sees ranked according to date of consecration, but 
Meath always took precedence next after the archbishops. 
Ware says: " As to the order of sitting among the 
suffragan Bishops of Ireland in Councils and elsewhere, 
the Bishops of Meath had the first place." In recent 
times, when the style of address became settled, the 
Bishop of Meath had the same style of address, " Most 
Reverend," usually given to archbishops. 

No reason is assigned by the authorities for this 
peculiarity ; it seems to be set down to immemorial 
usage. But every ancient custom is founded upon some 
reason. From the very persistence of this custom, one 
might fairly presume that it was at one time considered 
of very great importance. I could only think of two 
possible reasons, either that the bishop of Meath, as the 
Bishop of Royal Meath one of the ancient provinces 
had the same honour as the chief bishops of the other 
provinces, or that as being in some sort the representa- 
tive of two great Irish saints, Columba and Kieran of 
Clonmacnoise, he took a superior place. 

It would seem, however, that the first reason is nearer 
to the truth, as I have found a statement which appears 
to set the matter at rest. 

In the Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, 1252- 
1284, mention is made of a document connected with a 
controversy which had been going on from the reign of 
Henry II., between the Crown and the Archbishops of 
Armagh, with regard to the rights and privileges of the 
Primacy. In this Paper we find the reason of the 
peculiar precedence of Meath. 

King Edward I. writes (August 19, 1284) to the 
Sheriff of Louth, and sends a writ of summons to be 
forwarded to the Archbishop of Armagh, commanding 



ON THE ANCIENT PRECEDENCE OF THE SEE OF MEATH. 239 

the archbishop to be present at Drogheda on the 9th of 
September, when articles were to be proposed against 
him. The first charge against the archbishop was that 
he had appropriated certain vacant bishoprics and 
abbeys, " especially in regard to Meath, being metro- 
politan, is in the King's hand in vacancies." The second 
charge was, that the primate had consecrated a bishop 
for Meath without Royal licence, and without fealty 
.given. 

The contention of the Crown is, that Meath occupied 
a special position ; and whatever might be alleged with 
regard to the other Sees referred to, viz. Derry, Raphoe, 
and " Cudlac" (sic.), the Primate could make no pretence 
to Meath, as it was itself a Metropolitan See, and there- 
fore unquestionably " in the King's hand in vacancies." 

We see from this statement that Meath was at this 
time recognised as a Metropolitan See, and thus retained 
the position, even after the smaller Sees of the province 
were suppressed and formed into rural deaneries, as 
we know they were by the Synod of Newton, Trim, in 
1216. The Bishop of Meath, then, as the ecclesiastical 
head of the ancient province of Meath, took rank with 
the heads of the other provinces ; but as Meath lost at an 
early date its civil rank, its bishop never became an 
archbishop like the others. So we find the Archbishop 
of Cashel styled Primate of Munster, and the Archbishop 
of Tuam Primate of Connaught. Meath only retained 
style and precedence, and, like Nicsea and Chalcedon and 
Jerusalem in the East, had precedence but not power. 

This document gives us the testimony of the Crown, 
and its admission of the fact as an element in its claim 
as against the demands of the primates. It is therefore 
a testimony of the highest importance, inasmuch as it is 
not adduced by Meath, but advanced by the Crown in 
its own controversy. 

In a communication from the learned Dr. Reichel, 
Bishop of Meath, relating to this matter, he calls my 
attention to another instance of the same kind in the 
Eastern Church : 

" I do not know whether you are aware of another 
and more remarkable precedent in the ancient Eastern 
Church. The Archbishop of Ephesus was counted as 



240 ON THE ANCIENT PRECEDENCE OF THE SEE OF MEATH. 

such, and was a primate, though he had no bishops 
under him after the bishoprics of Cyprus were removed 
from his jurisdiction." 

The Vice-President of our Association, Dr. William 
Reeves, Bishop of Down and Connor and Dromore, who 
must be recognised as the authority upon every question 
of this kind, kindly communicated to me the following: 

" Your view of the expression ut metropolitana seems 
correct, and harmonizes very well with the provisions of 
the Synod of Rathbresail, which in defining the provinces 
(four) did not include the diocese of Meath or its 
representatives in any one of the four, but placed the 
Churches of Duleek and Clonard together, as a quasi 
province in themselves. These two, with Kells, are, in 
my opinion, the three dioceses which are grouped on the 
Meath seal. (The Meath seal displays three mitres.) 
Clonmacnoise was a perfectly distinct See in itself until 
1568, when, by an Irish Act of Parliament, temp. 
Elizabeth, it was annexed to Meath. 

"The Primate who is referred to in the writ to the 
Sheriff of Louth was Nicholas Mac Molisa (1272-1303), 
whose opposition to an English or Norman nominee kept 
the See of Meath open from 1282-1287, till the weight 
of the Papal interference enabled the king to make good 
his appointment of Thomas de Sancto Leodagario (St. 
Leger), who was consecrated, not in Armagh province, 
but by the Archbishop of Dublin, assisted by the Bishop 
of Ossory, in St. Canice's of Kilkenny, Nov. 3, 1287." 

From all these considerations, we are able to under- 
stand the peculiar position of the See of Meath. We 
find that it did not rank with other suffragan Sees, 
because it represented an ancient province, that the 
Crown claimed it as being Metropolitan, and that the 
Crown succeeded in its contention as against the Primate. 
We find, too, that though the ecclesiastical province was 
suppressed, the precedence of the See was retained, and 
that several Metropolitan Sees of the Eastern Church 
occupied the same position. Therefore this letter of 
King Edward I., which definitely asserts the ancient 
precedence of Meath, must take an important place 
amongst the documents of the See of Royal Meath. 



( 241 ) 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE KNIFE IN FLINT, AS 
SHOWN BY SPECIMENS COMMON IN THE COUNTY 
ANTEIM. 

BY THE REV. GEORGE R. BUICK, A.M. 

THERE is an Aztec myth to the effect that a flint knife, 
born of a goddess, fell from heaven ; from it there 
sprang the many gods of the Mexican mythology, 
who, having received a particular bone from the Lord 
of Hades, mixed its fragments with blood drawn from 
their own persons, and so made man. Without going so 
far as this, we may safely admit that the knife has played 
an important part in human history; the story of its 
development is the story, in brief, of human progress. 
The finished product of the Sheffield cutler's handiwork 
is but the outcome of ideas and efforts born thousands of 
years ago. The end proposed to-day is identical with 
that to the attainment of which Palaeolithic man bent his 
fresh, adventurous energies, viz. the production of a 
perfect cutting implement, fitted for use in the hand, and 
the modern knife is, perhaps, as near the realization of 
that ideal as it is possible to come. But the thought of 
which it is the expression goes back to the beginnings of 
human history, and the stages by which its perfection 
has been reached mark out for us the long path by which 
the world has travelled from the far-off starting-point in 
prehistoric times to the progress and success of this 
nineteenth century. 

I do not propose, at present, to discuss all these 
various stages. I confine myself to a single depart- 
ment of the subject the development of the knife as 
manufactured out of flint. And, what I have to say 
shall have special reference to specimens found in the 
North of Ireland. 

The primitive knife was a flake or splinter with a 
sharp edge. Any kind of hard stone, breaking with 
more or less of a conchoidal fracture, would do for its 
production ; but flint, for several good and sufficient rea- 
sons, was the one almost universally selected. A flake 
of this material held in the hand cuts well, and serves a 



242 ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE KNIFE IN FLINT. 

variety of useful purposes. But with all its usefulness it 
has its disadvantages. For one thing, the edge produced 
by natural fracture soon loses its keenness when in use ; 
for another, since it has usually a sharp edge all round 
its circumference, or almost so, the parts not in actual 
use for cutting would incommode or injure the hand in 
which it was held. The efforts made to overcome these 
disadvantages led to the development of the knife in two 
very different directions. 

(1). To remedy the defect through loss of sharpness, 
the edge of the flake employed was carefully chipped. 
In this way fresh keenness was given to it a keenness 
more permanent than that of the natural edge and 
when this in turn was lost through further use, it could 
easily be restored by repeating the process. The advan- 
tage gained in this way soon led to the extension of the 
chipping all over the upper or ridged surface of the 
flake. The result was a thinner and sharper blade, flat, 
or nearly flat, on the under surface which as a rule was 
not interfered with and slightly convex on the upper 
surface, which was usually trimmed or chipped all over 
(see Plate I., figs. 1 and 2). This is the kind of knife 
so frequently found associated with other "finds" in 
earns and barrows. 

In many instances the flakes which are thus dealt with 
are not straight, as might be expected, but curved (fig. 13, 
Plate III.); some, indeed, are almost semicircular in shape 
the convex surface being the one which has received the 
dressing. At first sight it might be supposed that the 
curve is an accident. When we consider, however, not 
only the large number of these blades, but the fact that 
much straighter flakes, to operate upon, could easily have 
been obtained if desired, we are led to the very opposite 
conclusion. The curve in each is a matter of deliberate 
design, and, doubtless, for this reason, that a blade so 
shaped would cut a circular or semicircular pattern out 
of, say, leather or hide, in a neater and altogether more 
workmanlike manner, than a knife which was perfectly 
straight. 

Chipping the flake on one side naturally led to chip- 
ping it on both. In this way a fresh advance was made ; 



PLATE I. 



To face page 242. 




Fig. 1. Knife formed from flake by chipping it on one side. Fig. 2. Do. Fig. 3-6. 
Knives, with edges formed by natural fracture of the flint, whilst the tangs and 
backs are formed by chipping. Fig. 3 is left-handed ; figs. 4, 5, 6, right-handed, 
(Size, f ) 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE KNIFE IN FLINT. 243 

a still finer blade was obtained, and the limit of treat- 
ment practically reached. This latter advance, however, 
I am sorry to say, does not appear to have been made to 
any very appreciable extent in Ireland. Only one really 
good specimen has been met with, and it is now in 
the Royal Irish Academy. The specimen in question 
is 3 inches long, but 1 inch of this length belongs to the 
handle. It is described in the Catalogue (where it is 
figured at page 14), as the most perfectly-shaped flint 
knife yet found in Ireland or any other country. The 
advance referred to, though not fully realized in this 
country, was early reached in Denmark and Scandinavia. 
There, the treatment of such a hard and brittle material 
as flint was carried out with a degree of artistic skill and 
beauty of form truly marvellous. Daggers and knives 
some of them from a foot to over eighteen inches in 
length, and not much thicker throughout than a penny 
were produced, the ripple work on which is exquisite. 
When the primitive artist had succeeded in working such 
a blade, with a haft of flint attached, along which a series 
of raised frills ran by way of ornamentation, the power 
of his hand, deft and subtle as it was, could go no farther. 

(2). The second line of development of the knife grew 
out of the fact that the original flake had a keen edge at 
other parts of its margin than that expressly made use of 
in cutting. These parts were liable, as already remarked, 
to incommode or injure the hand in holding, or using it, 
a disadvantage which was overcome in a variety of ways. 
The remedy first thought of seems to have been this 
the part of the flake to be held in the hand was wrapped 
round with skin, or fibre of some kind, which allowed 
pressure to be applied without danger of wounding. A 
flake treated after this fashion and which was found in 
the bed of the river Bann was exhibited at the Paris 
Exhibition in 1867 ; the butt was wrapped round with 
moss and fibre. 

But even such a remedy as this was not altogether 
satisfactory ; the wrapping itself was liable to cut, and 
in case it did so, the difficulty and danger reappeared, 
therefore the next step apparently taken was to set the 
flake in a piece of wood, in such a way that the part of 



244 ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE KNIFE IN FLINT. 

the edge intended for cutting with was the only part 
uncovered. Sometimes the flake was simply inserted 
lengthwise in a split in the wood, and then secured by 
means of a wrapping of sinew at either end; in other 
cases it was kept in its place by means of some kind of 
pitch. From the Lake Dwellings of Switzerland examples 
of this last mode of hafting are common (they are often 
called saws, but are really knives). I am not aware, 
however, that any specimens set in wood after this 
fashion have been found in Ireland. 

In the two ways just noticed of fitting the simple 
flake for use as a knife, it will be observed that the flake 
itself was left untouched. The end sought was obtained 
by the addition to it of a protection for the hand in the 
shape of a wrapping of hide or fibre, or else by means of 
a covering of wood. By-and-by it was found that the 
same end could be secured by operating on the flake 
itself; accordingly, the parts not required, and which 
were inconvenient or dangerous through their sharpness, 
were chipped away. At first the point alone was dealt 
with. A little piece was cut away so as to truncate or 
round off the upper edge, and leave a convenient rest 
for the forefinger when the flake was grasped in the 
hand. The object of thus obtaining a rest for the fore- 
finger evidently was to allow of pressure after a safe 
and natural manner being applied to the knife when in 
use. This in itself was a great improvement, and it is 
worth while to observe that it is an improvement which 
passed over into the age of bronze. Blades of peculiar 
shape were found in the Lake Dwellings of Switzerland 
(figs. 15 and 16, Plate III.). What we call the back has 
a hollow, or indentation, just at the spot where the fore- 
finger would press on handling the implement. Keller 
figures several (see Lake Dwellings, vol. ii. Plates LII. and 
LIII.), and notes that they are knives rather than razors, 
as some have described them. He believes the hollow 
was designed to receive the forefinger and thus to 
facilitate the management of the knife, and there can be 
little doubt as to the correctness of this supposition. 
When the blade was intended for use in the hand with- 
out the addition of a handle, the hollow is farther 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE KNIFE IN FLINT. 245 

away from the butt than it is when the blade was meant 
to be attached to a haft. In this latter case it is almost 
close to the portion forming the tang, and in both cases 
it is always at the proper distance for the forefinger to 
reach. The advantage gained from a rest for the fore- 
finger such as this is evident at once. 

To come back, however, from bronze to flint: the 
sharp flake rounded off, or truncated at the point, was 
constantly used, we may be sure, immediately and by 
itself in the hand. At the same time, it was often set in a 
handle of wood, or perhaps horn, after the style of an ordi- 
nary dinner knife. When so set, the butt-end was chipped 
down to a convenient thickness for insertion i. e. a tang 
was formed. The whole of the edge, too, not designed for 
cutting was removed, and in this way a blade was 
obtained, having a strong back and a fairly keen edge, 
admirably adapted to serve as a knife. Knife-blades of 
this sort are very common in Mid. -Antrim. I have in 
my collection over three hundred specimens, all obtained 
in the course of a few years. Many of them were found 
by myself at Glenhue. They have also been discovered 
at the pre-historic sites near Ballintoy and Portstewart ; 
and at Bundoran, county Donegal, two specimens have 
recently been picked up not far from the large earn over- 
looking the sand-dunes. Under a misconception as to 
their intended use, these knives have hitherto been 
described (when described at all), even by the best 
authorities, as single-winged or lop-sided arrow-heads. 
A few specimens, indeed, might pass as such, but of the 
great majority it maybe said, without fear of contradic- 
tion, that they have never pointed an arrow, and never 
were intended to do anything of the kind. They are 
altogether unsuited for effective employment in any such 
way. Many have the point so rounded off, either by 
chipping or grinding (see fig. 10, Plate II.), as to render 
them entirely useless as implements for piercing; and 
more, perhaps, are of such a shape that any one of them, 
instead of being an effective addition to an arrow, would 
practically render it worthless. Moreover, almost all 
of them present evidences of wear and tear: these 
evidences are always found at the one place, viz. the 



246 ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE KNIFE IN FLINT. 

cutting edge. Here they are hacked and worn in a 
manner which conclusively establishes the use to which 
they were formerly put. It is pleasing to note that Sir 
William Wilde, when he arranged the collection in the 
Royal Irish Academy, put them in their proper place. 
He says, at page 15 of the Catalogue, " On the sixth row 
are nine knife-bladed articles right and left-handed 
five for the right and four for the left. The majority of 
these are of reddish-coloured flint; they have been 
chipped on both sides, although the natural face has 
been to a certain extent preserved on the concave aspect. 
The greater number of them are If inch long." And 
then he adds : " Had there been but one or two of these 
objects found, it might be supposed they were accidental 
or defective arrow-heads ; but an examination of the nine 
specimens of the same variety will convince the inquirer 
to the contrary." 

Whilst the average size is that stated by Wilde, there 
is a considerable degree of variation. I have one, little 
more than an inch in length, tang and all, the cutting 
edge of which- measures only half an inch, whilst others 
in my collection are from three to four inches long (see 
PI. II. figs. 7 and 8). Wilde also speaks of the specimens 
in the Royal Irish Academy as right- and left-handed. 
Perhaps it would be more accurate to say that some were 
intended for cutting towards the person, and others for 
cutting from the person. These two varieties were 
produced by a difference of choice on the part of the 
maker as to the particular edge of the original flake best 
fitted to make a sharp and useful blade. Suppose we 
take a flake and lay it before us with the butt next us 
and the flat or concave surface downwards, we can easily 
see that if the left-hand margin is chosen for the edge of 
an intended knife, and the other margin that towards 
the right hand chipped away, say into the mid-rib or 
centre, the resulting blade will be right-handed, or 
specially fitted for cutting towards the person. If, 
however, the right-hand margin is chosen for the 
cutting edge, the blade will be left-handed, or one best 
adapted for cutting away from the person. Figs. 4, 5, 6, 
8, and 10 represent right-handed knives ; figs. 3, 7, 9, 
left-handed ones. 



PLATE II. 



To face page 246. 









Fig 7, 8, 9, 10. Flint Knives made from narrow flakes ; the backs and tangs formed 
by chipping; the edge by natural fracture. Figs. 9 and 10 have the point rounded 
off. Fig. 11. Shoemaker's old Knife; the blade of iron; the handle of wood. 
Fig. 12. Flint Knife set in handle (supposed method). (Size, f ) 



PLATE III. 



To face page 247 







Fig. 13. Side-view of curved Knife. Fig. 14. Small blade set as a Fleam (sup- 
posed method). Fig. 15. Bronze Knife, with hollow in back, for use in the 
hand; unhafted, after Keller. Fig. 16. Bronze Knife, with hollow in back, and 
hafted, after Keller. Figs. 15 and 16 are for comparison. 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE KNIFE IN FLINT. 247 

The shape of the knife, therefore, depended to a 
certain extent upon the particular margin of the flake 
chosen for the cutting edge. It depended also on the 
shape of the original flake itself. If this was long and 
narrow, the resulting blade was similar in character, e. g. 
figs. 7 and 8, Plate II., and if it was short and broad, the 
knife in turn was short and broad. When it happened 
to be very broad in proportion to its length, the result 
was a blade with the edge almost at right angles to 
the back and tang. Fig. 3, Plate L, shows one of this 
kind. Some of these shorter knife-blades have little or 
no dressing on the under or concave surface ; the back, 
looked at from that side, presents the appearance of an 
unchipped edge produced by natural fracture. In most 
instances, however, the back is dressed on the one side 
as well as on the other, and, as a rule, the cutting edge 
is never chipped. The tang is sometimes rounded, but 
more generally it is flat, and it seems to have answered 
admirably the purpose for which it was intended. In 
several large collections to which I have access I 
have noticed but very few broken across, either at 
or near the tang. When the tang round or flat, as 
the case might be was inserted in a handle, the knife 
would present the appearance of the ordinary one used 
at present by shoemakers for cutting leather. Fig. 1 1 , 
Plate II., represents a shoemaker's old knife (iron), and 
Fig. 12, Plate II. , one of flint, mounted in the same 
manner. It can be seen at a glance how closely they 
approximate in form, and we may reasonably conclude 
from this, that, in all likelihood, they were intended to 
serve similar uses. Such a knife as that shown, fig. 12, 
Plate II., would answer remarkably well for cutting the 
skins, from which the clothing of its original owner was 
made. I fancy also that many of the smaller sizes were 
used as fleams for bleeding cattle. In this case they 
would, no doubt, be hafted after a somewhat different 
fashion ; possibly they were set in wood or horn 
in some such way as that represented by fig. 14, 
Plate III. 

And now, having described this somewhat peculiar 
kind of knife, the question presents itself : What is its 

4TH SER., VOL. Till. S 



248 ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE KNIFE IN FLINT. 

proper chronological place ? To what precise age does 
it belong ? The facts from which the answer is to be 
deduced are somewhat contradictory. For instance, Dr. 
Joseph Anderson figures a specimen in his book, Scotland 
in Pagan Times, p. 246, fig. 245. This he himself found 
in a chambered earn at Ormiegill in Caithness, and he 
refers both it and the earn to the Stone-age. But then, 
on the other hand, no tool of this description has been 
found elsewhere associated with structures or grave 
" finds," referable unmistakably to that age; neither 
has any barrow nor crannog belonging to the Bronze 
age in Britain or Ireland yielded so far as I am aware 
a single specimen. The Lake Dwellings of Switzer- 
land are equally barren, and it seems strange that this 
should be the case if the method of making these knives 
was known and practised in Neolithic times. There is 
some reason, therefore, for concluding that they belong 
to the transition period, when the age of Bronze was 
passing over into the age of Iron. If so, they were 
fashioned after the pattern of the bronze or iron knife, 
i. e. they were, in fact, reproductions in stone of imple- 
ments in metal, which were necessarily scarce and costly, 
and, in consequence, not easily obtained. 

At the same time, it is only fair to say that the 
positive evidence furnished by the Caithness specimen is 
very strong and not easily set aside. More facts are 
necessary to settle the matter conclusively. Perhaps, 
now that attention has been called to the subject, some 
other member of our Association may be able to throw 
further light upon it, and so help to answer satisfactorily 
a question not without interest, at any rate, to the Irish 
Archaeologist. 



Jour.R.H.A.A.I Vol.VHI.4- fc > I 




WestNewman & Co. photo-hth . 



DIAL at KILMALKEDAR. 



( 249 ) 



DESCRIPTION OF ANTIQUITIES UNDER THE CONSERVATION 
OF THE BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS, IRELAND. 

BY G. M. ATKINSON, M.R.I.A. 

I HAVE the pleasure of presenting copies of sketches 
taken by my friend Mr. James Brenan, R.H.A., in the 
summer of 1886. Some of these objects are reproduced, 
with additions, in the accompanying Plates. Plate I. 
The cross, or dial, at Kilmalkedar. Plate II. Two re- 
markable terminal forms, that once ornamented the gables 
of Kilmalkedar Church, and Tempullgeal Oratory. 

I am anxious to record the changes effected in this 
locality by the Board of Public Works, Ireland, and to 
attract the attention of Members of our Association, and 
of all persons interested in the history, art, and civiliza- 
tion of Ireland, who are bound to investigate every 
change particularly when the work is done under, and 
by the authority of, such a body which cannot be 
always correct, as the abominable crotchet terminal 
put on Ardmore Round Tower testifies. 

The remarkable group of monuments at Kilmal- 
kedar, barony of Corcaguiney (Ordnance Sheet No. 42), 
situated about four miles north of Dingle, county Kerry, 
are well known. The oratory was described in this 
Journal, vol. v., 1864-5, p. 29. The ogam stone which 
is there, is given in Brash's Ogam Monuments, p. 243. 
This so-called cross, holed-stone, or sun-dial (Plate I., 
fig. 1), is very interesting. At my request Mr. Brenan 
made inquiry from the Clerk of Works (Mr. F. J. Murphy) 
employed by the Board to undertake the restoration, 
and he very kindly sent me the following informa- 
tion: " The cross found by me, doing duty as the 
head-stone to a modern grave, in the burying-ground 
at Kilmalkedar, was fixed in the base, and verified 
by Mr. Brenan. We placed it against the west wall 
of the church. ... It was, in my opinion, what^ we 
here call a chalice cross, with a betrothal, or swearing- 
hole, in it. Similar holes are found in very many 
crosses throughout Ireland." ... u I do not know the 



250 ON SKETCHES OF ANTIQUITIES. 

particular attitude that the people put themselves in 
when the oath was administered, but it was very com- 
mon among the Irish, when a clergyman could not be 
obtained to celebrate a marriage, that the couple the 
bride and bridegroom came here, put a finger each 
through this hole, and pledged themselves, in the pre- 
sence of witnesses. This stood good until a reverend 
gentleman was available. ... I have seen the stone you 
allude to at Kilcoman, county Mayo ; another at Saul, 
county Down. There are no marks or letters on the 
stone or portion of circular slab that formed the base of 
the cross ; nothing to indicate the hour conspicuous on 
the horizon or elsewhere." This was in answer to my 
inquiry, if there were any natural marks, or pyramids 
of stones, that the sun, passing over, would thereby 
indicate the time, as in Iceland or circles of stones, 
as at Rushen, Isle of Man ; and at Wallsend, Northumber- 
land. The hole does not go through, and the orna- 
ment is similar on both sides. Of course this hole 
held the metal gnomon, now gone. Mr. Brenan did 
not sketch the back of the dial. I fill up the plate with 
the ornament on the back (fig. 2) and side (fig. ft) 
taken from a plate by my friend the Rev. Daniel H. 
Haigh, and given in a learned communication on sun- 
dials, published in the Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, 
vol. v., 1879. He instances this and others in Ireland 
as evidence that, in early times in Ireland, the ancient 
Octaval system of dividing time into eight periods was 
employed. " Here, then, we are introduced to a system 
of time division day-night into eight equal parts, sub- 
divided sixteen, and again subdivided thirty-two 
quite distinct from that of the primitive Chaldeans into 
twelve, that of the Book of Enoch into eighteen, that 
of the Greeks, Latins, and Egyptians into twenty -four, 
and that of the Hindus into thirty. And the remarkable 
fact is presented to us, that this system was in use in 
Ireland as well as in England twelve hundred years ago. 
Were our horizon limited by these Isles of the West, 
it might be a question whether our fathers learned it in 
Ireland or introduced it there ; but if we ascend 
Elburz, and take a wider range, we shall see that it must 



ON SKETCHES OF ANTIQUITIES. 251 

be referred to an antiquity compared with which the 
seventh century of our era is but as yesterday ; for not 
only have the Norsemen, later immigrants into Northern 
Europe than the Angles, observed this system from 
the earliest period to which their history reaches down 
to the present century. Even in Hindustan and 
Burmah, notwithstanding the introduction of a later 
system, very considerable traces of this more ancient one 
remain." As a possible connection with the interlacing 
on the back (fig. 2), I put on the plate a form (fig. 4) that 
I have often seen. Some thirty years ago it was very 
generally used in the South of Ireland on the 17th of 
March, and called " St. Patrick's Cross ; " it was cut out 
of paper, and pinned to the cap of boys and on the 
right shoulder of girls. Many times have I seen a 
small cut branch of a tree doing duty for a pair of com- 
passes to strike out the form, which was about four 
inches in diameter, and proud was the boy who possessed 
a box of paints, enabling him to fill in the forms. 

I would be obliged if any Members of our Associa- 
tion could inform me of other swearing- stones besides 
this, and the ogam-stone at Kilmalkedar, the ogam-stone 
at Tempullgeal, or Ballymuiragh (given in Brash's Ogam 
Monuments, p. 206, Plate XXV.), Rathanglish, Reask, 
Kilogrone (near Cahirciveen), and Ballyferriter (near 
Dingle), Co. Kerry ; at Ballyveruish, parish of Kil- 
bride, Co. Antrim ; the " Cloch-a-Phoill," parish of 
Aghade, and at Castledermot churchyard, Co. Carlow ; 
the " Holed Stone," called " Cloch-na-Pecaibh," at 
Kilquane graveyard (near Mallow) ; and, in the same 
neighbourhood, one at Lackendarragh, parish of Kil- 
colernan, Co. Cork ; at Inishcaltra, on the Shannon ; 
and at Tubbernuveen, Co. Sligo. 

The dials in Ireland, noticed in a Paper by the 
late Mr. Albert Way and compiled from the notes 
and drawings of the late Mr. George V. du Noyer in 
the Journal of the Archaeological Institution, vol. xxv., 
p. 213, can be seen at Inishcaltra, or Holy Island, in 
Lough Derg, river Shannon, on the top of a slab, 
measuring five feet in length, by sixteen inches in 
breadth ; it consists of a simple semicircle, divided by 



252 ON SKETCHES OF ANTIQUITIES. 

radiating lines, into four nearly equal parts, the five 
lines, giving the five great canonical hours Matins 
(6 A.M.), Nones (9 A.M.), Prime (or Noon), Tierce (3 P.M,) 
and Vespers (6 P.M.). St. Gamin founded an abbey 
there, and died A.D. 653. 

The one under consideration at Kilmalkedar church- 
yard is cut out of a thick slab of grit ; its form is that 
of an inverted semicircle, resting on a rectangular shaft. 
The horse-shoe form, called Khaphir, the Tierce, indi- 
cated by three lines, and the Greco -Irish fret ornament, 
are each commented upon. 

At the south-east side of the old church at Clone, 
near Ferns, Co. Wexford, two holes in the dial show 
that there the gnomon was formed with a diagonal 
brace, or support. At Kells, Co. Meath, there is one 
in the graveyard, but not in its original position ; also 
in the graveyard of the old church of Saul, Co. Down 
(near the little village of Rahalt), and at Kilcummin, 
near Killala, Co. Mayo. 

About the terminal forms (see PL II., figs. 1 and 2) 
Mr. Murphy writes: " The crosses at Tempullgeal and 
Kilmalkedar were set in the apices of gable barges. They 
are curious enough indeed. The terminal cross at Kil- 
malkedar (fig. 2) measures from arm to arm two feet six 
inches, and seven and a-half inches thick, and stood on 
the western gable. I never saw exactly the same." 
Tempullgeal, i. e. the White Church, is in a keel, or, as 
it is called in the locality, a cealuragh, townland of 
Ballymuiragh, and parish of Dingle (Ord. Sh. No. 43). 
The ogam-stone already referred to, and a description 
of the Well of St. Monachan, with the information of its 
virtues, as given to our late Member, Mr. John Windele, 
will be found at p. 207 of the Ogam Monuments by R. 
E. Brash. While looking over the work of the late Lord 
Dunraven, Notes on Ancient Irish Architecture, edited by 
Miss M. Stokes, I found a similar form on the photograph 



(PL No. LXV., p. 127), and have reproduced it on tl 
plate (fig. 3). It is at Tober-na-Dru, a well, about one 
and a-half miles north-east of Freshford, townland of 
Clontubrat, parish of Lisdowny, county Kilkenny. The 
doorway faces east ; the roof rises to a point, formed by 



ON SKETCHES OF ANTIQUITIES. 253 

stones laid horizontally, projecting each beyond the 
other, but dressed to the pitch. " At the side stands 
one of those remarkable stones which formed an orna- 
ment for the apex of the gable, such as has been already 
observed in the description of the ruins of Leaba 
Molaga." On referring to the description, a figure, some- 
thing similar, is given on Plate at p. 62 ; and, on p. 63, 
" are two spherical stones, of rude form, but one was 
ornamented by two deeply incised lines, which cut each 
other at right angles. These stones were preserved on 
the altar, and held by the people to be of miraculous 
origin." At St. John's Well, in Morwenstow, Cornwall, 
there is a somewhat similar form, given by J. T. Blight, 
Ancient Crosses, p. 82. The only object I ever saw like 
them was (in 1866) on the eastern-nave gable of the 
cathedral at Lund, Sweden ; it was a terminal form in 
the shape of the female figure, i.e. the upper portion 
trunk without arms. But these bear a greater re- 
semblance to the Terms, or Hermes, well known in 
connection with the worship of the powers of nature. 
Being desirous to record the existence of an ogam 
stone, just found by Mr. Murphy, near the bed of the 
river running to Miltown, Dingle, I send a drawing of 
it, made by Mr. Brenan. When the stone has been 
deposited in one of the museums, I hope to be enabled 
to say something about the inscription which it bears. 



( 254 ) 



THE EUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 1 

BY W. G. WOOD-MARTIN, M.R.I.A., FELLOW AND GENERAL 
SECRETARY, R.H.A.A.I. 

\_Continuedfrompage 159.] 

VI. 

AFTER close consideration of the bardic legends relat- 
ing to the second battle of Moytirra little doubt can 
apparently remain that either there had, in reality, been 
only one battle of Moytirra, or if there were two contests, 
then both would seem to have taken place at Moytirra, 
county Sligo. From the legendary accounts of the first 
battle of Moytirra (Moytirra, Cong) we gather thatEochy, 
the Firbolg king, left the battle-field with a body-guard 
of one hundred men, followed by a party of one hundred 
and fifty of his opponents, led by the three sons of 
Nemedh, who carried on the pursuit as far as Traigh-Eothaile, 
now Beltra, near Ballysadare, county Sligo. Whilst 
crossing that strand the Firbolgs were overtaken by 
their pursuers ; a fierce combat ensued ; King Eochy was 
killed, and the same fate befel the three sons of Nemedh, 
leaders of the Tuatha de Danann. The latter were buried 
at the west end of the strand, at a spot since called Leca- 
Mic-Nemedh, or the Grave-stones of the Sons of Nemedh, 
whilst King Eochy was buried where he fell ; and the 
megalith, the site of which is known to this day as the 
monument of Traigh-Eothaile, was raised over him in the 
district of Cuil-Cnamh, i. e. the Corner of the Bones an 
ancient denomination of land which was almost coexten- 
sive with the present parish of Dromard. This megalith 
existed in the year 1858, when it was destroyed ; it had 
formerly ranked among the Mirabilia Hibernice. Beranger, 
at the time of his artist-antiquary tour through Ireland, 
made a sketch of this monument, which he supposed to 
be Cuchullin's grave ; his statement is " stopped to draw 
a plan and view of Cuchullin's tomb a circle of stones 

1 Part V., descriptive of the Monuments in the District of Moytirra, or Moytura, 
Co. Sligo, has already appeared in the Journal, 4th Series No. 60, October, 1884. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 255 

27 feet in diameter, but much covered by the sand which 
the waves carry on it." 

In strange corroboration of the legend of the burial 
of the Firbolg king, a small circle composed of earth and 
stones was pointed out on the island of Inishhullion on the 
opposite, that is to say, the Cuil-irra side of Ballysadare 
bay. The country people recounted how a great battle 
was formerly fought on the shore, and the two " Gene- 
rals " were killed, one being buried at Beltra (i. e. Traigh, 
Eothaile), and the other in this island. For a distinguished 
leader the monument in question is of mean workman- 
ship, and small size, measuring only 21 feet in over-all 
diameter : a few paces distant, however, there is an erra- 
tic boulder which, to judge from present appearances, may 
perhaps have formed the covering-stone of a cromleac. 

It is clear that the pursuit of a retreating force could 
hardly have been kept up a distance of fifty miles from 
Cong, in the county Mayo, to Ballysadare, whilst, on the 
other hand, a routed host might be easily followed thither 
from Moytirra, in Sligo, not more than nine miles distant. 
Jubainville, a recent French writer, in Le Cycle My- 
thologique Irlandais, confidently affirms his belief that 
these narratives are simply twisted and distorted alle- 
gories, representing the contests between the powers 
of Light and Darkness, or of Good and Evil, the former 
being represented by the Tuatha de Danann, the latter 
by the Firbolgs ! 

If we place dependence on the statement in the 
Libellus de Matribus Sanctorum, contained in the Book of 
Leinster, it would appear that Carn-Eothaile was, at a 
subsequent period, used as a place of meeting ; the notice 
of it is as follows : u And all these saints met in a synod 
at the earn of Traigh-Eothaile, and they made a covenant 
of union, and they said of whosoever shall break that 
union on earth that his soul should not reach heaven, 
and he shall not recover his station on earth ; and as for 
this earn, at which we have met, the sea shall never cover 
it, until it overflows the surface of Tireragh." In the 
present day this prophecy sounds strange, for in the year 
1858 a rampart was built across the strand, and thus, 
from the greater part of Traigh-Eothaile the sea is now 

4TH 8ER., VOL. VIII. T 



256 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

excluded, so that were it ever to break its way through 

this rampart, the prediction might be said to be fulfilled. 

A popular tradition relating to Beltra strand is, that a 

woman named Hele' (some say Helen of Greece) set out 

in search of her own tribe, the Fians, who had gone on 

an expedition to a foreign country. When crossing these 

sands she met a man, from whom she made inquiries 

about her people. He answered, " They are above, lying 

under the trees," pointing to the district of Coillte-Luighne 

(the wood of Leyny). On receiving this reply, she said : 

" Alas ! I can follow them no further ; I now lay aside 

all hope of ever meeting them again : were they my 

people, each of them, if lying down, would reach from 

the trees to where I stand," and in her despair she 

dropped down dead ! Two earns were raised over her 

on the strand, opposite Coillte-Luighne; the large earn 

rested over her head, and was called Carragin O'hele; the 

other, resting over her feet, was called Carragin-beg. These 

monuments were about two hundred yards distant from 

each other, which affords a good idea of Helens stature ! 

Another legend recounts that a combat took place 

between two heroes on the strand, of whom a warrior 

called Groll was one : that Hel^ looked on, and seeing 

her loved one fall, she dropped dead through excess of 

grief ; and over her one earn was erected, the other over 

her luckless lover. 1 

There are two " Giants' Graves" in the townland of 
Tanrego West, and to the left of the lane leading to the 
sea from the Ballina road. The first of these graves is 
situated about 10 yards distant from the fence : the plan 
and view of the monument (figs. 154 and 155) will give 
a good idea of its general appearance. Two of the up- 
rights still remaining are each about 6 feet in height : 
the very large-sized covering-slab has been thrown off. 
At a distance of about 200 yards is the other megalith, 
now in a very dilapidated state. Fig. 156 is taken from 
a carefully-made survey. Of both these monuments the 
longer axis is almost due E. and W. 

On the left-hand side of the road, leading to Long- 
ford House (the residence of Sir Malby Crofton, Bart.), 

1 MS. Letters, Ordnance Survey. 




Fig. 154 General View of "Giant's Grave" in the Townland of 
Tanrego West, looking S.E. 



O 




Fig. 155. Ground Plan of " Giant's Grave " in the Townland of Tanrego "West 
(Scale, 20 feet to 1 inch.) 




oO 



Fig. 156. Ground Plan of Second " Giant's .Grave" in the Townland of 
Tanrego West. (Scale, 20 feet to 1 inch.) 



T2 



258 KUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

there is a slightly raised mound, now covered with trees, 
but which had been formerly encircled with boulders. It 
is stated that " the place in old times was called Cool- 
crave, that it took its name from a battle fought close by, 
and after the fight the dead were buried there." The 
mound measures about 57 feet from N. to S., and 45 feet 
from E. to W. 

Scarcely half a mile due N. of the sepulchre on Inish- 
hullion (so called by the country-people, but marked Inish- 
more on the Ordnance Map, sheet 20), on the northern 
shore of Ballysadare bay, and in the townland of 
Breeogue, there is a large circular enclosure consisting 
of two concentric earth en- circumvallations, intermixed 
with large boulders, having an over-all diameter of 190 
feet, the diameter of inside circle being 95 feet ; the in- 
terior bank is still in places 9 feet in height, and each 
alternating bank and hollow appears to have been about 
15 feet in breadth. This monument has the characteristic 
features of a rath, and its sepulchral nature would pro- 
bably have remained unsuspected, had not the tenant, 
in order to repair a fallen fence, made some excavations 
on the northern periphery of the inner vallum, inside, 
outside, and under which he discovered a quantity of 
human bones, quite close to the surface, all apparently 
uncalcined ; with them were teeth of animals, together 
with shells of various crustacese, fragments of oyster shells 
predominating ; the soil in which they were embedded 
was black and greasy, evidently consisting of decom- 
posed animal matter. 

Due east of, and distant about 150 yards from, the 
monument there is a field still called the Caltragh; no 
trace of the enclosure now remains ; it has been many 
years levelled. A countryman stated that a hundred and 
fifty years ago this locality (Breeogue) was unreclaimed, 
ana in a state of nature ; but since that period the land 
has been divided into holdings, and a large portion of it 
has been brought under cultivation only within living 
memory. The demolition and obliteration of similar 
sepulchres are events of common occurrence, and their 
entire disappearance may at no distant period be antici- 
pated if agricultural improvements continue to progress 
in the same ratio. The designation Caltragh is, in Sligo, 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 



259 



by no means uncommon : there is a townland of the name 
within the borough bounds, another in the parish of 
Easky ; there is a site called Caltragh Fort in the town- 
landof Drumraine, parish ofKilmacallen, and many other 
instances could be adduced. 

Directly over Primrose Grange schoolhouse which 
is situated at the foot of Knocknarea there is, on the 
spur of the hill, a rude stone circle with a central cist. 
The entire arrangement of the boulders is primitive in 
the extreme, and the cist bears the appearance of having 
been excavated. 

Not far from the old church of Killaspugbrone, in tn 




Fig. 157. Ground Plan of Labbynawark. (Scale, - 8 \-.) 

neighbouring sandhills near the little village of Strandhill, 
there is a " Giant's Grave" called Labbynawark 1 (fig. 157). 



1 The late Dr. Todd, in a Paper read be- 
fore the Royal Irish Academy, drew atten- 
tion to an Irish inscription, of the close of 
the fourteenth, or commencement of the 
fifteenth, century, in which there is an 
unquestionable example of the use of the 
word leaba (teAbAig) i.e. bed ; and he 
thus traces back the application of that 
term still given by the peasantry in 
every part of Ireland to the rude stone 
monuments to an inscription, in black 
letter, on a slab inserted in the wall of 
the choir of the Abbey of Knockmoy, Co. 
Gal way : 



ofceallaid 

do | rt | mwaini | agas | 
laind | inge [ icboncbuir | 
matba | ocogu | m \ leabaijg; | sea." 

("For Muleachlaind O'Keallaid, for 
the King of Hy-Maini, and for Finola, 



the daughter of O'Conchuir, Mathew 
O'Cogu made this bed.") 

DualdMac Firbis, writing circum 1662, 
states that "it was the English that 
erected all the bawn of Longphort (Long- 
ford) except Leaba- an- Eich Bhuidh, which 
was erected by Sen Brian O'Dowd," i~e. 
between A.D. 1278-1354. This Sligo ex- 
ample, together with the inscription from 
the Abbey of Knockmoy, create interest 
by showing that the natives of the country 
thoroughly understood the rude stone 
monuments of Ireland to be places of rest, 
i.e. sepulture, and not merely altars, &c., 
for ceremonial observances. These sepul- 
chres were, to the mind of the primitive 
race, who reared them, most probably as 
truly the habitations of the spirits of the 
dead, as were their dwellings the abode 
of the living ; they were the "beds" into 
which all the members of the clan, ox 
family, were ultimately to be laid in 
their long repose. 



260 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

Its over-all length is 21 ft. by 6 ft. in breadth : it appears 
to have been originally divided into two compartments 
of equal size, but the westerly one is formed of the 
largest stones, and is in the best state of preservation. 
The head-stone of this cist is 4 feet 2 inches high on the 
inside ; that on the N. 4 feet ; that on the S. 3 feet 
9 inches ; the remainder of the stones scarcely average 
2 feet in height. The slabs appear as if either quarried 
or selected with great care. 

In many primitive mortuary structures in Ireland, 
stones have been observed of considerable size, and yet 
presenting a smooth surface. This fact has often excited 
surprise, when taking into consideration the very defec- 
tive appliances at command of their constructors. There 
is, however, a process as explained in the Ulster Journal 
of Archaeology by which, in all probability, the people of 
even the " stone period " may have been enabled to pro- 
duce this effect. Having decided as to the part of the 
rock which might most readily be cleft, they cut a groove 
in it which they could perfectly well do with their flint 
tools and their stone axes into this groove water might 
be poured, let lie, and the stone be heated by fire placed 
under or around it. The points of wedges, in sufficient 
number, and formed of seasoned oak or of stone, could be 
inserted in the grooves and driven home with wooden or 
stone mallets. By these simple means, large blocks of 
the limestone of the country could be split into pieces 
presenting a perfectly smooth surface. 

There is a " Giant's Grave" situated about half way 
between Ballysadare and Sligo, in the townland of 
Drumaskibbole, and, like many others in the county, it is 
not marked on the Ordnance Map. Seat on F. Milligan, 
who first drew the writer's attention to this example, 
had made a slight excavation, and found some bones 
seemingly bearing traces of fire ; but on his return early 
in the following week, to complete his exploration, he 
found that the country -people had employed themselves 
on the previous Sunday in digging in the interior of the 
monument, thereby displacing several of the stones. Be- 
fore this semi-destruction it had been a fine specimen of 
an elongated cist, apparently divided into four septa or 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 261 

compartments. Its longer axis, measuring about 25 feet, 
is approximately E. and W., its average width being 
15 feet. Even in the immediate neighbourhood its ex- 
istence was scarcely known, as until a comparatively 
recent period it had been concealed from observation by 
briers, bushes, and ivy. The few Irish-speaking natives 
in the vicinity called it " Tumban" (i.e. little tumulus), 
but they possess no tradition with regard to it. The 
debris thrown out of the interior was examined, but 
nothing came under notice save a few calcined and 
uncalcined bones and a piece of quartz. 

In or about the year 1859, when the railway from 
Longford to Sligo was in course of formation, a row of 
cists stated to have been then called u Giants' Graves" 
were demolished in the townland of Springfield or 
Carrowmire, parish of Ballysadare, barony of Tirerrill. 
A man who was present at the destruction described these 
cists as " stone coffins" from 4 to 5 feet high. They 
would appear to have been aligned, and close together ; 
nothing save dark-coloured greasy earth was found in 
them. 1 

Fruitless search for a reputed sepulchre was made in 
the townland of Knockmuldoney , i. e. the hill and the whirl- 
pool of the Domnans, said to have been a tribe of the 
Firbolgs. At the base of this hill the Ballysadare river 
forms a deep pool, having a slight eddy caused by the 
waterfall above ; and in the pool vessels to this day lie, 
as did probably the ships of the Fomorian invaders of 
Erin, before the battle of Moytirra, upwards of 2000 
years ago. 

The search thus made was occasioned by a statement 
that, many years ago, an urn had been found in the 
vicinity of Ballysadare, and that the " Giant's Grave," 
situated formerly in the townland of the name (Ordnance 
6 " Sheet, No. 20), had been swept away, probably in 

1 There was, in the same townland, were the foundations and ruins of, seem- 
another locality, where the railway passed ingly, some kind of ecclesiastical build- 
through, an old graveyard, near which ing. 



262 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

the formation of the railway. It was alleged that the 
urn had been deposited in the Museum, R.I. A. On 
reference, however, to the official catalogue, it appeared 
that the cinerary vessel in question is said to have been 
discovered at a place called Ballagradone, but no such 
locality can be identified as occurring in the county 
Sligo. It may possibly be a corruption of Ballajadare. 
which name if written with a long " s " might have thus 
appeared when in MS. The urn (fig. 158) is labelled 
as " found in a stone chamber," and it has been partially 
encrusted with carbonate of lime " possibly the drip- 




Fig. 158. Cinerary Urn, "found in a Stone Chamber," 
at "Ballagradone," Co. Sligo. 

ping of stalactites a material which has done good 
service in preserving cinerary urns." It bears a great 
resemblance to a vessel found on the summit of the hill 
of Tallaght, near Dublin, but it is devoid of ornamen- 
tation on its base. It presents a great variety of designs, 
decorated bands, chevrons, dots, and lines ; it is about 
4 inches high, 5|- wide, and 4-$- inches across the mouth. 

Not far from the village of Collooney, and in a bend 
of the river Unshin, is situated the townland of Cloon- 
mucduff, i. e. the holm of the black pig, a legendary 
animal whose deeds and death form a fruitful subject 
for the Shanachies, not only of this locality, but of several 
other places in Sligo. This animal, said to have been 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 263 

killed close to Collooney, must, like the proverbial cat, 
have had seven lives, as it is stated to have been slain 
in so many different localities. In the townland of 
Cloonmucduff, and close to the river, there is a circular, 
fort-like elevation about 6 feet in height and 50 paces 
in diameter ; its periphery appears to have been formed 
with flagstones. In the centre is an almost quadran- 
gular limestone block, 5 feet 8 inches by 5 feet 4 inches, 
and 2 feet 4 inches in thickness ; on the top it is pierced 
by a circular aperture with a cleft passing outwards ; 
this, however, does not seem to be artificial, but rather 
the effects of weathering. By the country people this 
rock is styled " Patrick's Altar," and throughout the 
area of the enclosure are scattered large stones, which 
may formerly have marked graves. The hillock appears 
to be of sepulchral character, but careful excavation 
would be necessary before arriving at a definite conclu- 
sion. If it be a " Caltragh," or burying-ground, it is 
one of the very rudest to be met with in the county Sligo. 

In the parish of Kilross, townland of Arnasbrack, and 
barony of Tirerrill, there is a sepulchral monument (fig. 159) 




Fig. 159. Ground Plan of Rude Stone Monument, called Cloghmore, 
in the Townland of Arnasbrack. (Scale, 20 feet to 1 inch.) 

designated Cloghmore (the Great Stone), which is situated 
on a slight eminence overlooking Castledargan 1 lake. 
It appears to have originally consisted of an oblong 

1 Castledargan, the Caislerilocha Dergan, still observable on the height on the 
mentioned in the Irish Annals at the year southern shore of the lake. 
1516. The remains of the edifice are 



264 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

enclosure erected on a mound, and lying nearly due E. 
and W., its length being 55 feet, divided into septa, or 
divisions; it is at present partly hidden by briers and 
undergrowth, which renders the survey difficult. 

About 300 yards due E. of this megalith, in the town- 
land of Carrownagh, parish of Killery, there is a somewhat 
similar, though smaller, " Giant's Grave" (fig. 160); the 
longest axis of this grave lies the same as that previously 
noticed, i. e. about due E. and W. ; it is only 27 feet in 
length. Although (on the Ordnance 6" Sheet, No. 21) it 
is marked as a fjrm&'a ^Ite, yet it is styled leaba- 
Dhiarmada-agus- Grainne by the country people, one of 
whom said that it was the grave of a man called 
Darby ! another stated that in old days two people 
called Dermod and Grainn lived here : the lady was 







Fig. 160. Ground Plan of " Giant's Grave" in the Townland 
of Carrownagh. (Scale, 20 feet to 1 inch.) 

not Dermod's wife, but our informant could not tell 
what brought her there; Dermod was, however, he 
said, a very strong man in fact a giant ; for one day 
when his horses went up the adjacent mountain side, 
and got sunk in the bog, he pulled them out, and carried 
them home, one under each arm ! 

Not far distant is the townland of Ballygrania, or 
GrainnPs land, and in the popular legend still current 
in the county of the death of Dermod through being 
gored by a boar on the heights of Benbulben it is re- 
counted that it was to a rath in this locality that the 
outraged husband, Finn Mac Cumhail, brought the head 
of Grannies lover, which he cut off, as a present to his 
runaway bride. There are thus, at least, three localities 
in the county Sligo in which the name Grainne' forms a 
component part, i.e. the townlands of Graniamore and 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 265 

Graniaroe in the parish of Drumrat. 1 The remains of the 
celebrated prehistoric fortress of Cashelore (incorrectly 
written Castleore on the Ordnance Map), situated about 
a mile E. of the " Giant Graves" just described, present 
a good example of cyclopean work. The entrance faces 
E., and appears to have been protected by an outwork. 
The structure on a commanding position is oval in 
form, the inside diameter being 30 paces from E. to W., 
and 22 from N. to S. At Cashelore Dermod andGrainn^ 
would have had much better quarters than in the leaba 
assigned to them by popular local tradition. 

About 200 yards W.N.W. of the cashel there is a 
collection of stones simulating a ruined cist, and at the 
same distance due E. there is another, which somewhat 
resembles a very dilapidated " Giant's Grave ; " however, 
a few carefully " planted" questions elicited from a 
countryman the information that his father could in 
the words of Edie Ochiltree " mind the bigging o't." 

Four hundred yards to the S.E. of the cashel there is a 
genuine monument which, about fifty years ago, had 
been greatly dilapidated, and its materials utilized in 
the neighbouring fences ; those stones that still remain 
in position were spared, not from any antiquarian scruple, 
or superstitious dread, but on account of their greater 
size, rendering more difficult the transfer from their 
original purpose of guarding 
the ashes of the dead to the 
vulgar and utilitarian purpose 
of strengthening the boundary 
wall. As will be seen by a 
glance at the ground plan 
(fig. 161), the monument ap- v 
pears to have originally con- V 
sis ted of a stone circle its \ 

former Size, and the position F ; g . l6l _GroundPlan of Rude Stone Menu- 

of the flagstones were pointed ^^^ lando{C 

out by a countrym an to which 

was attached an elongated cist about 14 feet in interior 



1 P. W. Joyce is, however, of opinion ference to the heroine of the earliest of 
that Grania, in these names, has no re- Celtic romances. 




266 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

length, and this probably had been divided into septa 
or compartments : the longer axis of this portion of the 
megalith lies, roughly, E. and W. The western end of 
the cist had been most probably terminated by a circle 
corresponding to that attached to its E. extremity, as in 
a similar monument (fig. 144) observed near the village 
of Highwood, barony of Tirerrill, and also one in the 
island of Achill, hereinafter to be figured and described. 

Three urns, or rather fragments of urns, were found 
in the district: unfortunately little has been recorded 
save the mere fact of their discovery. The summit of 
the hill in the townland of Carrickbanagher, parish of 
Bally sadare, is crowned with a large cashel, and not far 
from this, an elaborately ornamented cinerary vessel 
was found imbedded in the ground, at a depth of 3 feet ; 
the slab covering it was " shaped like a mill-stone.' 7 




Fig. 162. Cinerary Um found in the Townland of Carrickbanagher. 

The vessel dark brownish-grey in colour is 3f inches 
in height and 5 inches in diameter across the mouth. 
The body of this vase may be described as being divided 
into numerous compartments and fillets, which are adorned 
alternately by chevrons, or curvilinear details, clearly 
and sharply executed. The base of the urn is very 
artistically decorated. 

In the year 1827, an urn (fig. 163), and fragments of two 
others, were found near Ballymote. The best preserved 
specimen is 5f in. in height, and 5| in. across the mouth ; 
the colour light drab. The neck displays what may be 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 



267 



considered as either a chevron, or lozenge design, re- 
sembling work seen upon the stones of the great pagan 
cemetery of Newgrange, on the Boyne. The bands or 
fillets are in low relief, but as a whole are very effective. 




Fig. 163. Cinerary Urn found near Ballymote. 

Figs. 164 and 165 represent portions of the cinerary 
vessels found with fig. 163. Fig. 164, drawn full size, 





Fig. 164. Fragment of Cinerary Urn 
found near Ballymote. 



Fig. 165. Fragment of Cinerary Urn 
found near Ballymote. 



is of a faded red tint, and fig. 165 (drawn to same 



268 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

scale) resembles the previous fragment in colour. These 
cinerary fictilia, together with those found in the Car- 
rowmore group of Rude Stone Monuments, seem to 
have been the outcome of a good school of Irish pre- 
historic design, for in not a few of their decorative 
arrangements they present a variety rarely met with 
except in the west and north-west of Ireland. 

Several discoveries of archaeological importance took 
place in the historic neighbourhood of Ballymote. In 
the year 1856 the Rev. Constantine Cosgrave presented 
to the Museum at Kilkenny a bead of a necklace, and 
some human teeth which were found in an ancient in- 
terment in the vicinity of Kesh, near Ballymote, county 
Sligo, in a locality of which the Irish name signifies 
Myles' Carn. The monument consisted of an immense 
flagstone, resting on slabs set deeply in the ground, 
their upper extremities being only slightly elevated 
above the surface. The weight of the covering-stone 
was distributed equally on its supports, and it was so 
heavy that its removal was considered to be impracticable 
without very great manual assistance; advantage was 
therefore taken of the gaps between the supports, and 
through these spaces the excavation was carried on. 
The flagged flooring was soon reached; " and on this 
were arranged, in several regular rows, a number of 
small circular enclosures formed by flat, upright stones, 
and each overlaid by a thin slab of the same material. 
In these enclosures were placed large quantities of bones 
all except the teeth, presenting a charred appearance." 
The explorer only preserved a few of the human remains, 
amongst which was found " a sort of rude necklace which 
appeared to consist rather of some partially petrified 
substance than of actual stone. The beads of which it 
consisted seemed carefully wrought and polished ; their 
substance being of a somewhat laminated texture, it was 
difficult to find one so entire that it had not parted with 
some of its exterior plates." 1 

Near Ballymote there are raths containing chambers, 
and some good examples of forts (or perhaps tumuli), 

1 Journal, R.H.A.A.I., vol. i., New Series, p. 52. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 269 

ramparted and moated ; also a curious mound, of sugar- 
loaf form, and seemingly of sepulchral character ; it is 
called, in Irish, Sidhean-a-Gkaire, the " Fairy Mount of 
Laughter." In the neighbourhood can be seen traces of 
a couple of demolished earns ; and near Chaffpool (the 
residence of Captain J. W. Armstrong, R.N.), are two 
megaliths, still observable. 

To R. A. Duke the writer is indebted for the 
following account of some monuments and "finds" 
in the baronies of Corran and Tirerrill : " The earn 
on the bowl-shaped Hill of Doo (i. e. Dumha, a 
sepulchral mound) is a conspicuous object both from 
its size and situation, measuring 240 feet in circum- 
ference at base, 40 feet on the side, and at top there 
is a truncated cone about 12 feet in diameter. It is 
constructed of loose stones, with a covering of soil 
and grass, so as to present a fairly uniform slope all 
round. Its position is close to the high road leading from 
Drumfin to Ballymote, in the townland of Doomore, 
parish of Kilmorgan, barony of Corran. The same 
barony can boast of another large earn on the hill of 
Kesh at a height of some 1200 feet above the sea-level 
and, similarly, composed of loose stones roughly piled 
up and bare to the view ; the measurements are 280 feet 
round the base, 36 feet on the side, and 24 feet across 
the top. There are also several earns on the summits of 
the hills, situated on the western shores of Lough Arrow, 
opposite to the district of Moytirra." 1 

On a hill, in the townland of Ballinaclassa, a short way 
west of Doomore, we find a small earthen circumvallation 
which once surrounded a earn. Early in the century, on 
the stones being removed for fencing purposes, a cist was 
laid bare, which contained a couple of urns that were 



1 In the Proceedings of the Kilkenny generality of its kind ; and at a distance 

Archseological Society (vol. in., p. 58, from it of about 9 feet is a cromleac of 

1854), it is stated that the Rev. Constan- corresponding proportions. The superin- 

tine Cosgrave, P.P. of Kesh, Ballymote, cumbent slab is in the usual sloping 

drew attention to the district of Doona- position, and possesses all the character- 

veeragh, in the county Sligo, " in one of istics of the class of antiquities to which 

the valleys of which (called Carrick-na- it belongs, although deeply marked by 

horna) stand a number of huge primeval the decaying hand of time." Only one 

monuments . . . The most prominent of of these monuments came under notice of 

these is one known as "The Rocking the writer, and that was an unimportant 

Stone " which is massive beyond the grave in the townland of Whitehill. 



270 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

taken possession of by the tenant of the farm. The 
ultimate fate of these interesting relics is not known, but 
they may have found their way to the Museum of the 
K. I. A. (possibly those already described, ante, p. 267). 
In connexion with this subject, it may be mentioned 
that on the townland of Killaraght a part of the Co. 
Sligo that runs like a promontory into the Co. Ros- 
common, three miles west of Boyle may be observed a 
large grassy earn placed, not on an elevation, as usual, 
but in a hollow between two hills. A countryman, ques- 
tioned as to its supposed origin, replied, " The old people 
say that when the Danes were fighting over in this 
country long ago they put up one of these mounds 
wherever a chief or ' high-up officer ' fell, and they say 
it would be worth a man's while to ' root ' into them for 
the gold and silver they wore on their regimentals " ! 

" In the summer of 1880, while some relief works were 
in progress in the barony of Leyny, a cutting was made 
(for the purpose of lowering a hill) at a spot where the 
road crossed a large circular rath. At a depth of several 
feet the stone-work of portion of the structure was cut 
through to the bottom in two places, and it was found 
to consist of several bee-hive-shaped chambers, connected 
by a gallery. The former about 3-|- feet in diameter 
at the base, 4^- to 5 feet high, and 20 to 30 feet apart 
were almost filled with debris clay and ashes in which 
were found teeth of sheep and smaller animals (rabbits?), 
with pieces of charred wood, and other indications of 
burning. The connecting- gallery (of stone, like the 
chambers) had a rectangular cross-section, some 30 inches 
by 18, and it formed a rude sort of communication all 
round with the series of chambers. Three or four of 
these chambers were destroyed, and two or three that 
had been apparent in cross- section at the side of the 
road were soon walled up when making good the fences. 
The measurements given are approximate, and from 
memory. The late E. T. Hardman, who was present, 
made a few sketches at the time in his note-book." 

About a mile from the village of Coolaney, and opposite 
the glebe-house attached to Rathbarran church, there is 
a lofty circular mound, the summit environed by two 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 



271 



concentric rings. It appears of sepulchral character, 
and it is considered to be the locality in which was found 
(many years ago) the urn now in the Museum, R. I. A. 

This urn is of graceful form, and enriched about the 
middle with five raised bands, more or less ornamented 




Fig. 166. Cinerary Urn found in the Townland of llathbamm. 

with chevrons, and wavy, oblique lines. It is catalogued 
as " discovered at Rathbarran, five miles west of the 
village of Collooney, on the summit of an ancient rath," 




Fig. 167. Mica-slate Disc found in the interior of a Cinerary Urn. 

in a " square coffer" of flagstones placed on edge; the 
vessel contained calcined bones, as also a small mica- 
slate disc (fig. 167 represents it two-thirds real size). The 

4TH 6ER., VOL. VIII. IT 



272 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

urn is 4| inches high, 6 inches broad, and 5f wide in the 
mouth. It is indented all over with a serrated tool, and, 
like some of the oldest specimens in the Museum, R. LA., 
it is also slightly tooled over at the lip. The interior of 




Fig. 168. Celt, formed of Shale, found with the Cinerary Urn in the 
Townland of Rathbarran. 

the neck is enriched by a fillet of straight lines ; the base 
is plain, and in colour the vessel is of a light greyish 
drab ; with it was found a shale celt, 3^ inches long, 
(see fig. 168). 

The townland of Rathbarran appears to abound in 
mortuary and other pre-historic remains. About five 
years ago, while a field belonging to John Colman was 
being tilled, a stone encountered by the plough was 
about to be removed, when the crowbar used in raising 
it slipped from the labourer's grasp into a cavity beneath, 
that turned out to be a cist, in which was found an urn. 
Before, however, it had been seen by anyone competent 
to pronounce an opinion on it, the urn was broken and 
the fragments afterwards came into the possession of the 
late E. T. Hardman, who was then engaged on the Geo- 
logical Survey of the county Sligo. The plough is a 
frequent factor in the discovery of these unobtrusive 
" field cists ; " of this the Cloverhill scribed tomb is a good 
example, whilst, in the year 1840, at Loughanmore, in 
the county Antrim, a horse suddenly sank to the knees 
in a deep hole, when, on examination, it was found that 
he had put one of his feet into a fine sepulchral urn, 
which was of course totally destroyed; but two other 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 273 

specimens of cinerary fictilia were exhumed in a perfect 
state of preservation. 1 

About five years prior to this find at Rathbarran, 
another cist situated on a hill called Sheeawn had 
been uncovered, which contained two urns, one inside of 
the other, the smaller stated to have been in the pos- 
session of the late E. T. Hardman was perfect, but the 
larger one was in fragments. 

About two miles from the village of Coolaney, on 
the slope of the Ox Mountains, and in the townland of 
G-ortakeeran by the country people pronounced Gurta- 
heeran there are two megaliths ; but the one near the 
road is greatly dilapidated : it would appear to have been 
a simple oblong enclosure, about 18 feet in length, the 
longest axis approximately S.E. The other monument 
(ground plan, fig. 169, is the result of a careful survey), 




Fig. 169. Ground Plan of Monument in the Townland of Gortakeeran. 
(Scale, 20 feet to 1 inch.) 

situated higher up the mountain, consists of a series of 
cists, the longer axis nearly due E. and W. ; towards the 
latter extremity it is terminated by the remains of 
several cists, thus approximating to a cruciform arrange- 
ment or rather a T-shaped grave, and resembling one 
observed in the district of Moytirra (fig. 135). 

When Sir William Wilde wrote his Beauties of the 



i Proceedings, R.I.A., vol. n., p. 163. Drumnakilly, county Tyrone.-Jourml, 
A very similar discovery occurred at R.H.A.A.I., vol. n., 4th Series, pp. 115 
Cool, in the county Kilkenny ; also at and 499. 



274 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

Boyne and Blackwater, he appears to have been of opinion 
that at the time no sepulchres of the T or hammer-shape 
had been found in Ireland ; for he draws attention (p. 228) 
to that form of grave, found in Denmark, but of which 
he states there is no example in this country. 

In the adjoining townland of Cabragh there are two 
megaliths : the one situated below the road seems to have 
originally consisted of a circle about thirty-three paces 
in diameter ; the central cist occupies most of the enclo- 
sure, and its longer axis bears about E. and W. The second 
monument is on higher ground : it consists of a series of 
cists resembling the arrangement displayed in fig. 169 ; 
but no transverse compartments were observable. Its 
over-all length is 27 feet ; its longer axis lies E. 35 S. 
It is environed by a heart-shaped arrangement of flag- 
stones not boulders set on edge ; in this respect it 
somewhat resembles fig. 54, in Fergusson's Rude Stone 
Monuments ; the longest diameter is 40 feet. 

These four megaliths in the townlands of Gortakeeran 
and Cabragh are very distinct in character ; in the two 
latter the circle is subordinate to the monument, and not 
(as is more generally the case in Carrowmore) the central 
monument subordinate to the circle or enclosure, and in 
the original design the flag-stones appear to have formed 
a continuous fence without intervals between the slabs. 

In Knockadoo there is a good specimen of a earn ; 
from it the townland derives its name. 

On the Ordnance Map a " standing- stone " is marked 
in Carrowmurray, but it could not be identified ; a small 
circle simulating sepulchral remains was however disco- 
vered : the stones of which it is composed are of small 
size, its diameter not more than 15 feet. 

On the borders of the parishes of Achonry and Killoran, 
just within the bounds of the latter, and in the townland 
of Knockatotaun 1 (pronounced Cnochatutchaun by the 
country people), a fine specimen of a " Giant's Grave" 

1 Enockalotaun, i.e. " The Hill of the Conflagration" a modern name. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 275 

which is sometimes called simply leac, i. e. the flagstone- 
was inspected. The view (fig. 170), looking E., gives a 
good idea of this interesting megalith. The covering-slab 
is nearly if not quite horizontal, and it now restsupon 
only four supports, although it seems to have had origi- 



J'' ::?S %:;"OT^gr%-:^^-= 




Fig. 170. General View of " Giant's Grave" in the Townlaad of Knockatotaun, 

looking E. 

nally many more. It measures 11 feet from N. to S., and 
a little more than 9 feet from E. to W., the extreme 
height from the ground to the upper surface of the slab 
being 4 feet 3 inches ; its average thickness is but nine 
inches. 

In a field at Wellmount, parish of Achonry, and barony 
of Leyny, there is what appears to be a sepulchral 
circle, showing traces of a central monument, and close 
to it is a burying- ground, called by the country 
people Caltragh, wherein children and strangers are 
still buried : until very lately, even adults of the neigh- 
bourhood were laid in it; there is neither fence nor trace 
of fence, such as one might suppose would have sur- 
rounded the last resting-place of the dead ; cattle rove 
unheeded over the open space. No enclosing wall has 
been considered needful perhaps on the principle that 
those inside cannot get out, and those outside do not 
want to get in ! 



276 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

Overlooking the road, in the townland of Castlecar- 
ragh, now called Castlerock, there are some vestiges of 
the fortress of Castlecarragh, erected in days of old to 
guard the important pass into the barony of Tireragh, 
along the edge of that beautiful sheet of water, Lough 
Talt. Near the ruins of the castle can still be seen an 
ancient monument (fig. 171) marked on the Ordnance 
Map as " Dermod and Grainnes Bed." Our guide, 




Fig. 171. Ground Plan of " Dermod and Grainne's Bed" in the 
Townland of Castlerock. (Scale, 20 feet to 1 inch.) 

while giving it the same name (in Irish), said it was 
the burial-place of two people who formerly lived in 
the neighbourhood, on the shores of Lough Talt. The 
grave lies approximately E. and W., the east end being 
now nearly obliterated owing to an excavation made for 
the formation of a limekiln, to which, perhaps, the ter- 
minal stones had been consigned. 

In the townland of Rathscanlon, just outside the 
village of Tubbercurry, there is a " Giant's Grave," con- 
sisting of two cists, the longer axis of both being nearly 



O 



0c3 




fl 



Fig. 172. Ground Plan of " Giant's Grave " in the Townland of Rathscanlon. 
(Scale, 20 feet to 1 inch.) 

E. and W. ; they are on an oblong mound slightly raised ; 
fig. 172 is a ground plan of these structures, which, how- 
ever, possess no very distinctive features. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 277 



VII. 



IN the barony of Tireragh there is a earn, which 
O'Donovan was of opinion could be identified with 
an historical epoch. Ruadh, i.e. Rufina, daughter of 
Air tech Uichtleathan, and wife of the celebrated King 
Dathi, died in giving birth to Fiachra Ealach, and she was 
buried (according to the historian, Duald Mac Firbis), 1 
under a earn situated on the summit of a hill, named after 
her Mullacli Ruadha, or Mullaroe, in the parish of Skreen. 
The barony of Tireragh derives its name from her son, 
i. e. Tir Fiachrach (Fiachrach's land). On this subject 
O'Donovan writes : 



" It should be here added that the district lying round the Eed Hill of 
Skreen was originally called Cnoc-na-Maili, and afterwards Muttach 
JRuadha, which is now, strange to say, applied not to the hill itself, but 
to a small townland lying to the east of it, but the name was never so 
applied until the original Ballybetagh was subdivided into half -quarters, 
which constitute the present townlands, when the names were very 
strangely confounded. Thus the half-quarter on which the church 
stands received the appellation of Skreen from the church, the division 
to the south of it was called Lecarrow, i. e. Ceiu ce&c|mni&, the half- 
quarter, from its quantity ; the hill itself, which originally gave name to 
the whole district, or Ballybetagh, was called Cnoc Ruadha, i. e. Rufma's 
Hill, now incorrectly translated Red Hill, while Mullach Ruadha, the 
more ancient appellation, was transferred to a subdivision to which it 
is by no means applicable, inasmuch as it is not a mullach, or summit, in 
relation to the other subdivisions, and contains no monument of the Lady 
Rufina, with whose name it is compounded. In this manner, however, 
have ancient names, in many instances, been transferred and corrupted. 
The earn erected over the body of Ruadh, or Rufina, the wife of Dathi, 
still remains on this hill, but is not on its very summit as Duald Mac 
Firbis writes. It is thus described by Robert Jones, Esq., in a letter to 
R. C. Walker (Christmas, 1843): 'I made a search for the earn of 



The Genealogies, Tribes, and Customs of the Hy-Fiachrach," pp. 97 and 416-417. 



278 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

Knockroe, or Mullaghroe, and have discovered it. I enclose a sketch from 
the Ordnance Map, Sheet 19. In the townland of Mullaroe there is 
nothing of the sort ; but the district up the hill is all called Cnockroe, or 
the Red Hill, and there is a large stone fort shown in the Ordnance 
Survey, called the Red Hill. This, however, is not the earn, but lower 
down the hill I discovered the earn, which had been opened and con- 
tained several small chambers ; the principal one has still the covering- 
stone on it, but filled with smaller stones underneath. The earn is of an 
oval form, 96 paces round. The entire hill is a light soil on a limestone 
rock, which everywhere protrudes. The earn is formed of these stones ; 
the first chamber has a double covering of large limestone flags, the sides 
being formed of upright flags of the same material, like a small cromleac, 
and is about six feet square. There appear to be several other smaller 
ones, which have been opened, and the rubbish thrown back again.' " 



In the townland of Grangebeg, parish of Templeboy, 
there is a " Giant's Grave," of which fig. 173 is a carefully 
surveyed plan. It is of oblong type, and presents no 
feature of interest. 

In the townland of Belville, parish of Kilmacshalgan, 
there is a curious arrangement of stones, formerly called 
by the country people clocha-breaca, i. e. the speckled 
stones ; but the monument is now known in a semi- 
Anglicised form as " The Bracked Stones." It is in a 
condition so dilapidated that a ground plan would be 
useless. The view (fig. 174) taken from the neighbouring 
fence, and looking N.E., gives a good idea of the remains, 
which appear to have formed originally either a series of 
cists or cromleacs, or perhaps two cromleacs connected 
by intermediate compartments, the two terminal septa 
being the largest ; however, the covering-slabs of both 
are displaced : the one in the foreground is five 
feet two inches above the soil ; that in the background 
four feet. 

The following description (accompanied with a sketch- 
map) of a circle (fig. 175) situated about two miles south 
of JJromore West Workhouse was communicated by 
J. Carnegy. It was discovered by him (under 7 feet 
of peat), in July or August, 1881, when he was engaged 
in making a bog-road for J. L. Brinkley, Esq., in Bun- 
crowey. The extreme outer diameter of the circle was 
50 feet, and from top of bank to top of bank 30 feet. In 



'v; 




Fig. 173. Ground Plan of " Giant's Grave" in the Townlaiid of 
Grangebeg. (Scale, 20 feet to 1 inch.) 




Fig. 174. General View of " The Bracked Stones" in the Townland of Belville. 

looking N.E. 



50 




Fig. 175. Sketch-Map of Sepulchral Monument, found under a great depth of Peat, 
in the Townland of Knockaunbaun. From a Drawing by J. Carnegy. 



280 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

the centre was a pile of boulders, the top-stone, about 5 feet 
in height, being placed on a level platform ; next came a 
hollow excavation, and then the outer vallum or bank, on 
which were four piles of stones arranged at regular dis- 
tances, and in the same form and manner, though not so 
large in size as the central pile. The stones were all 
rough mountain boulders, long and narrow in shape. 
The outer circle consisted of a bank of red clay, with a 
hollow excavation, and depression both inside and out- 
side. There was nothing discovered within the circle 
except the heaps of stones, which were steadied in their 
places with loose clay. 

In the summer of 1887, when the road was being 
continued further into the bog, other interesting facts 
came under notice. At a distance of about one hundred 
perches from the circle just described, traces of numerous 
fires were discovered at from 5 to 7 feet beneath the 
present surface of the bog. These sites were all paved 
with small stones for the purpose of forming the hearth ; 
6 inches of black mould lay between the paving and the 
red clay. The labourers cut across the track of a group 
of small fires, and also a large one, the hearth in the 
latter being semicircular in shape, and 30 feet in dia- 
meter. Under it lay about three cartloads of paving- 
stones ; but from the combined action of fire and water 
they all crumbled to pieces when shovelled up to the 
surface. In sinking a drain, the site of a very large fire- 
place, 40 feet in length, became exposed. It was paved 
with the same kind of stones, covered with a quantity of 
charcoal and ashes. In early ages the locality would seem 
to have been well wooded, as numerous roots and 
branches (principally of alder and oak) were met with ; 
however, strange to say, no trunks of trees were noticed. 
From the quantity of ashes, and the burnt state of the 
stones, it is certain that fires must have been in use for a 
long period ; possibly it was a camping-ground, as in 
it were found the remains of stakes, well pointed with 
a hatchet, and driven deeply into the earth ; or the site, 
perhaps, may have been one of the Falachda-na-Feine, 
i.e. " Encampments of the Fenians," or cooking-places, 
so frequently discovered in nearly every part of Ireland, 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 281 

and descriptions of which are to be found in the Journal ', 
R.H.A.A.I., and in the Ulster Journal of Archaeology 1 . 

J. Carnegy stated that, in a little valley about 400 
yards from the buried circle, there is a cromleac or 
" Griddle," as these monuments are called in the district, 
the top stone of which is of great size. He also adds 
that in the townland of Clooneen there had been the 
remains of a " Griddle" in a dilapidated state, and not 
of any great size ; it consisted of six supports, and a 
covering-slab. These were blasted with gunpowder to 
clear the ground for agricultural purposes. 

In the Demesne of Fortland there are several raths 
of the ordinary form and dimensions, also a small crom- 
leac in excellent preservation, and a " Giant's Grave," 
13 feet in length, by 5 feet in breadth, and which is sur- 
rounded by boulders set on edge. 

Some years ago a fine specimen of a polished flint 
axe (now to be seen in the Museum, R.I. A.) was found in 
Fortland, during the excavation of a ditch. 

Close to the village of Inishcrone, and situated be 
tween the castle and the sea, may be observed the 
remains of a stone circle about 50 feet in diameter. 
Towards the N.W. 14 stones still remain in position, as 
also two supports of the central kistvaen. 

1 A very similar discovery to that made it had suffered some injury ; several of 
in Buncrowey is described by George Siger- the stones had been removed, or broken, 
son, M.D., as having been noticed by him and a fence had been run through it. ... 
in the townland of Knocknahorna, in the Be it remarked that the circle of flag- 
county Tyrone (Proceedings, JR. I. A, 1870- stones was situated on a gentle knoll, or 
9): "I came with my guide to a large eminence, so that there could have been 
circle of flag-stones raised on end. To- no formation of marsh or flow bog. . . . 
wards the E.S.E. was an entrance passage, The question of the antiquity of these 
with flag-stones on either hand, and one monuments of ancient civilization is bound 
laid across, whose edge just appeared up with the question of the rapidity of 
above the soil. What is peculiarly re- the growth of bogs, concerning which 
markable about this (which is not set nothing definite, I believe, is known." 
down on any map) is, that it had been Little more than a quarter of a mile to 
disinterred in the process of turf -cutting. the westward of the earn, on Topped 
My guide had himself been cutting turf Mountain, county Fermanagh, on a spur 
over it some fifty years ago. There were of the hill, and in the midst of a " cut- 
two feet of bog above the top of the flag- away " bog, a fine stone circle is observ- 
stones, which are three feet high. When able. A few years ago it was completely 
they dug down upon it the circle was covered by several feet of peat, and even 
perfect, all the stones standing, and in now the original level of the enclosure 
good order. When we saw it last January does not appear to have been reached. 



282 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 



In the townland of Tawnatruffaun, and parish of Kil- 
macshalgan, may be seen a fine example of a cromleac ; but 
unfortunately the support at its N.W. termination has 
fallen inwards, thus diminishing the average height 
above ground of the level of the under surface of the 




Fig. 176. General View of the Cromleac in the Townland of Tawnatruffaun. 

covering-slab, which had been originally, in all proba- 
bility, upwards of 6 feet. The table-stone measures 
11 ft. 6 in. by about 9 ft., and is from 1 ft. 9 in. to 2 ft. 
9 in. in thickness (fig. 176). 

Thirty -five paces due N. of the " Griddle " (as this 
gigantic megalith is called) there is a ruined cist, of which 
the covering-slab, now split into several fragments, is 
nearly on a level with the surface of the ground. Its 
longest axis, 14 feet, points nearly E. and W. The frac- 
ture of the covering-slab was occasioned by bonfires, 
which the young lads of the neighbourhood were in the 
habit of lighting upon it, yearly, on St. John's eve (23rd 
of June) ; but up to the present the larger table-stone of 
the cromleac has remained in safety, the custom at any 
rate in that locality having at present fallen into 
desuetude. 

When about to leave the spot, and taking a last look 
at this characteristic monument, the tenant on whose 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 



283 



land it stands offered to show the mark of a "horse's 
hoof" on a stone close to it. Fig. 177 gives a good idea of 
this sculpture, which is a deeply-incised "dot and circle," 
the depth of the inner circle being nearly 2 inches ; whilst 
fig. 178 represents another carving of the same style, but 
only slightly depressed. These ornamental devices were 
on stones, partly built into the present fence, which, as 
will be seen from the sketch (fig. 176), touches the cromleac 
at the extremities of its longer axis. Both flagstones 
had been fractured, unfortunately, just at a point 
which renders these curious primitive scribings slightly 
defective. The tenant stated that he was told by his 
father that in his father's time there had been another 
u Griddle" on the land, which was destroyed. These 
sculptured stones may, perhaps, have formed part of that 




Fig. 177. " Dot and Circle " on a Fragment of 
a Flagstone in the Townland of Tawna- 
truffaun. (About one-fourth real size.) 




Fig. 178." Dot and Circle " on a Frag- 
ment of a Flagstone in the Townland of 
Tawnatruffaun. (About one-fourth real size.) 



monument. The slabs somewhat resemble two portions 
of rude millstones, and the reader is referred to the 
account of the discovery of a cinerary urn at Car- 
rickbanagher (ante, p. 266), where the cover of the cist 
was " shaped like a millstone." The description of pri- 
mitive ornamentation graven on these fragments of rock 
seems to be in every age the natural outcome of the 
savage mind. The writer has seen bone ornaments and 
shells from the Isles of the Pacific similarly marked ; and 
William Frazer, F. R.c. s.i., draws attention to a rude 
decorative pattern, consisting of a number of small in- 
dented circles, each with a central depression, on a pair 
of heavy ivory leg-rings or manacles, removed from the 
ankles of a slave captured by a cruiser on the Zanzibar 
coast. W. Frazer further observes that similar little 
circles are of frequent occurrence on some of our early 



284 RTTDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

Irish antiquities. 1 Figs. 179, 180, 181, and 182 are cup- 




Fig. 179. Cup-marked Stone from Ryfad, Co. Fermanagh. No. 1. 

marked stones from Ryfad, county Fermanagh, described 
by W. F. Wakeman in the Journal, E.H.A.A.I. 2 




Fig. 180. Cup-marked Stone from Ryfad, Co. Fermanagh. No. 2. 

"It is not necessary," observes the Rev. G. Rome 

1 Proceedings, R. I. A., vol. n., 2nd length; fig 181 measures 7 feet in length, 
Series, p. 457. by 3 feet in breadth ; fig. 182 measures 

2 Fig. 179 measures 11 feet in length, 3 feet 4 inches in height, and the same in 
by 7 feet in breadth ; fig. 180 measures length. 

3 feet 9 inches in height, by 6 feet in 




Fig. 181. Cup-marked Stone from Ryfad, Co. Fermanagh. No. 3. 




Fig. 182. Cup-marked Stone from Ryfad, Co. Fermanagh. No. 4. 



286 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

Hall, F.S.A., when writing on cup-marked slabs from 
North Tyndale, " to believe that these incised stones 
have been graven by tools of metal ; a sharp -pointed im- 
plement of flint, or even angular fragments of native 
limestone such as were found with the inhumated chief 
would answer the purpose as a practical master mason 
at Birtley assures me. . . . Sir J. Y. Simpson describes 1 
a successful experiment made by him with a flint and a 
wooden mallet. The question was also practically solved 
during the International Anthropological Congress held 
in Paris in 1867." Cup-markings and concentric ring- 
sculptures occur in Scotland, Northumberland, Brittany, 
Scandinavia, and on the American continent. " These 
rude outlines of primitive men in various countries," 
remarks H. M. Westropp, " like the rude attempts at 
drawing by children, cannot but bear a family resem- 
blance to one another." 

" A traditional sanctity may have attached to them 
through succeeding ages, because," remarks the same 
writer, u we find them placed occasionally, as ' survivals' 
of a past religious observance, on the walls or upon the 
floors of dwellings in Romano-British times." The 
examples still existent of cup-marked slabs among the 
Romanized Britons bring these scribings down to the first 
century of the Christian era ; thus the early examples 
may have been cut with flint, the later with bronze or 
iron implements. 3 

On referring to fig. 78, ante, p. 70, it will be seen that 
the cup-like dots on the Cloverhill scribed tomb are each 
enclosed in a circle, accompanied by two horizontal 
lines, and in general appearance bear a strong resem- 
blance to those now under consideration ; but some 

1 Archaic Sculpturing, p. 122. the hollows were designedly arranged in 

2 Vide Archceologia Acliana, vol. xn., certain alignments. A huge block found 
pages 281-2, for a list of cup-marked at Loher, near Derrynane, exhibiting 
stones. some of these hollows, served as the 

3 In a Paper read before the Royal covering-stone of a sepulchral chamber. 
Irish Academy in 1860, Dean Graves Monuments in the Island of Valencia, at 
described monuments with inscribed Cahirciveen, at Waterville Bridge, and 
circles, or groups of concentric circles, at Sneem, exhibit the same symbols, 
having in the centre small cup-shaped "In Ireland cup-markings have been 
hollows. Again, in 1864, he mentions found accompanied by representations of 
thecovering-stonesofsomelargecromleacs, penannular fibulae and the cross, but, in 
in which there is reason to believe that general, alone, or with concentric circles. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 287 

scribings on slabs forming a cist on the summit of Knock- 
many Hill, parish of Clogher, county Tyrone, present, if 
possible, an even closer similarity to the Cloverhill 
markings, one of the circles being as in the Sligo ex- 
ample accompanied by two horizontal lines ; the dia- 
meter of each is apparently 15 inches. An arrangement 
of like nature was noticed in the cavern, called " Gillie's 
Hole," at Knockmore, county Fermanagh; the discoverer 
states that there were " a couple of lines, which, though 
placed at some distance above them, may possibly be 
associated with the group of crosslets already noticed." 1 
Such coincidences are inexplicable, except on the hypo- 
thesis that the characters represented ideas then known 
to the sculptors ; but on the difficult subject of the eluci- 
dation of these symbols little can be done till all known 
sepulchral scribings have been carefully copied and pub- 
lished. 

Until about sixteen years ago there was no road into 
the townland on which the " Griddle " (fig. 176) stands, 
and adjoining it is an even wilder tract of country called 
" Caltragh," i. e. the burying- ground. This latter town- 
land may be said even yet to be roadless, for it takes 
almost an hour's walk across the bog to reach two monu- 
ments which, however, well repaid us for the visit. 
Night was falling fast, so that time did not permit of a 
detailed plan being made of the principal megalith, but 
(fig. 183) gives a good idea of its general appearance. 
It is styled Griddle-more-na- Yean, i. e. " the Big Griddle 
of the Heroes," and consists of two contiguous septa, the 
nearer compartment being open, and the other still 

In Denmark cup-markings are often found reported the discovery of similar rock 
sculptured without other symbols; they sculpturings in Northland, as well as 
are sometimes combined, however, with South Sweden ; it was difficult, he ad- 
the cross within a circle ; sometimes with mitted, to fix their age, for even the pre- 
rude figures of men and ships. At the sent Swedish peasantry had some kind of 
Stockholm Congress of Prehistoric Archae- veneration for them, and made offerings 
ology, 1874, M. Desor, remarking on on them. An Icelandic Saga makes 
similar cup-markings found in Switzer- mention of a cup-marked stone in Ice- 
land and Sweden, on stones, compared land, where it could only have been 
them with undoubted rock sculpturings carved by Norsemen." -Jour. Jt.H. A. A.I. 
of the bronze age. M. Soldi remarked vol. iv., 4th Series, pp. 295-6. 
that they could only have been made * Proceedings E.LA^ vol. x., p. 397. 
with metal tools. M. Helvebrand, senior, 

4TH SBR., VOL. VIII. X 



288 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

covered. In the background will be seen a confused 
mass of stones, at one time forming a prolongation of the 
" Griddle " in that direction. 




y 
I 



Fig. 183. General View of Griddle-more-na-Vean. Height from Capstone to 
ground about 5 feet 6 inches. 

About 300 yards distant, on the slope of a hill over- 
looking a mountain torrent, there is a very similar monu- 
ment, styled Griddle-beg -na- Vean, or " the Little Griddle of 
the Heroes." The stones composing it are smaller in size, 

et it appears to be longer than its companion megalith. 

ts extreme length is 30 feet, and it consists of a series of 
cists, seemingly four in number ; three of the covering 
slabs still remain, but they are slightly displaced. The 
longer axis of these two monuments do not appear to 
coincide. By the time these observations were completed, 
not alone was night fast falling, but it was ascertained 
that the compass had been lost. It seems ludicrous that 
two expeditions to these Rude Stone Monuments, although 
separated by an interval of upwards of 120 years, should 
have been each attended by a series of petty misfortunes. 
The account of the one undertaken by Gabriel Beranger, 
circ. ann. 1760, would, with trifling variation, do for that 
at present under notice. Beranger's Diary runs as 
follows : 

" June 9th. Set out with Colonel Irwin, interpreter, and servants on 
horseback, to draw a famous cromleac, called Tinmacool's Griddle,' 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 289 

situated in a bog ten miles long, and about three broad. Took two guides 
on the verge of said bog. Went by various windings, until arrived at a 
small hill, on which this old monument is fixed. Drew a plan ; but Mr. 
Irwin, looking at his watch, and seeing dinner-time approach, asked our 
guides for a short cut to go to Portland which he knew there was. 
They seemed ignorant of it, but undertook to try and find it out. We 
followed, when, all of a sudden, my horse sunk under me in the bog. 
This stopped us ; and, as he could not get out, the guides were sent for 
assistance and spades to dig him out. We left our interpreter and servants 
on the spot ; and the Colonel, trusting to his memory, undertook to guide 
me, and we set forward on foot, making many zig-zags on the worst 
ground I ever trod on, sinking at every step half-way up my boots, and 
being obliged to walk, or rather run, pretty fast, for fear of sinking. 
After an hour's travelling, we could see nothing but the heavens and the 
bog, and the ground became softer and wetter, so that we could not 
advance without sinking in it. We tried to the right, then to the left, 
and twined and twined so much that we knew not which way to go, the 
Colonel having lost sight of his landmark. We continued moving on, 
as the Colonel told me that we should be lost if we ceased moving one 
moment. I confess here that I thought it my last day. The anxiety of 
the mind, the fatigue of the body, the insufferable heat of the day, and 
the intolerable thirst I felt, made me almost unable to proceed ; but re- 
membering that to stop a moment was instant death, I followed Mr. 
Irwin, putting my foot from where he withdrew his, as nearly as I could 
on the ground, which was now quite liquid, and appeared a lough to me. 
Two hours more were we in this situation, when Mr. Irwin got sight of 
some other mark, which gave me new courage ; and little by little the 
ground grew firmer, and we made for some stacks of turf, and so forth on 
firm ground unto Portland, where we arrived at seven, having been since 
three o'clock wandering in this horrid wilderness." 

In the townland of Scurmore, parish of Castleconnor, 
there is a locality marked on the Ordnance Map with the 
singular title " Children of the Mermaid." On visiting the 
spot it was ascertained that this designation applies to some 
large stones stated to be seven in number on theN. E. 
periphery of a circular rampart, surrounding a fine 
tumulus 1 called Cruchancornia, situated in a plantation 
close to the road. The position of these boulders does 
not convey the impression of any specific plan, but the 



1 The following legend, stated to have alluded to, may perhaps be the tumulus 

been translated from the Dinnsenchus now under consideration : Triul the 

(and, as far as the writer's memory Wise, King of Ireland, arrived at the 

serves, extracted by him from the Ord- mouth of the Moy, then called the Inver 

nance Survey Correspondence), thus ac- of Garnglas ; there he was met by his 

counts for the name Magh .Tibrath a foster-mother, Tibrath, daughter of Cas- 

locality situated at the mouth of the Clothach, of the race of the Tuatha de 

River Moy and the Tulchan, or' hillock, Danann. Tibrath led the monarch to her 



290 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

following legend, relative to their origin, is still recounted 
by the country people : 

In old days, when the O'Dowds were Lords of 
Tireragh, the then chief, when walking early in the 
morning along the sea-shore, discovered amongst the rocks 
a mermaid lying asleep, enveloped in a gorgeous mantle. 
Now everybody or at least everybody in that locality 
knows that if one can only get possession of this special 
article of a sea-nymph's costume she at once loses her 
aquatic nature, both as regards form and disposition, 
and degenerates into an ordinary mortal ! 

O'Dowd, therefore, stepped forward stealthily, and be- 
came the happy possessor of the magic mantle. In this 
case the wooing was not long in doing, for the chief took 
the metamorphosed nymph home as his bride, and care- 
fully concealed the gorgeous garment. Retribution, how- 
ever, finally overtook him. His seven children were nearly 
grown to maturity, when, one day his youngest-born saw 
him abstract the mantle from its hiding-place to deposit 
it where he imagined it would be still more secure. The 
youth, struck by the manner in which as he gazed on 
it the garment flashed, glistened, and changed hues, ran 
off to describe its beauties to his mother, who, thereupon 
seized with a sudden yearning to return to her native 
element, inquired where her husband had left it. On 
resuming possession of her long-lost garment she bade 
her children follow her to the sea-shore, and being now 
re-endowed with all the attributes of a mermaid, she 
touched each of her children in succession with her magic 
wand, and thus changed them into seven stones, whilst 
she herself plunged into the ocean, and has never again 
been seen in Tireragh. 

There is an Esquimaux legend which bears a singular 
resemblance to this story. A hunter is said to have 



dun, or dwelling, then called Magh Glas; near the strand and from her Magh 

there the king sickened, and died. His Tibrath is named. Tulchan-na-ngairthe, 

subjects carried off the body, for interment, i.e. the "Hillock of Lamentation," de- 

to the pagan cemetery at Croghan. The rives its name from the keening of the 

grief of Tibrath, for the death of her foster- people of the bhaile,or locality, bewail- 

eon, was so great, that she threw herself ing the death of the king and his foster- 

into the sea ; her body was cast ashore mother, 
by the waves, and buried in the plain 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 291 

captured a " sea - girl " before she had time to resume 
her original form, and she lived with him as his wife 
he, however, promising never to kill gray gulls, as they 
were of her race. This compact he one day forgot, 
upon which his wife shook the feathers from the slain 
birds over herself and her children, thereby transforming 
them all into Kittiwakes. 

In the Annals of Loch Ce it is recounted that in the year 
1118 two mermaids were caught by Irish fishermen, the 
one at Lis Airglinn, the other at Waterford. The narra- 
tive is more guardedly given in the Annals of Ulster, 
where it is mentioned as " a wonderful story which the 
pilgrims relate." In the year 887, a mermaid is stated 
to have been cast ashore in " the country of Alba," and, 
according to the MS., she measured 195 feet, having 
fingers 7 feet long, nose of same length, and a skin of 
pure swan-white colour. The dimensions of this wonder- 
ful creature are rivalled, however, by the sea serpent of 
the nineteenth century ! 

Strange fantastic names have been bestowed by the 
imaginative Celt on rude stone monuments, or even mere 
earth-fast rocks, situated in the most widely-severed loca- 
lities in Ireland. There are designations such as "Finger- 
stone," " Lifted-stone, " " Stone of the Champions," 
"Griddle," "Giant's load," 1 "Hag's bed," "Giant's 
bed ; " poetical designations, such as Leaba-an-Sidh, the 
"Bed of the Fairy;" "Finn Mac CiunhaiPs Finger- 
stone;" also names purely local, such as the "Goat's 
stone," the "Ass's manger;" or simply descriptive, such as 
the "Grey stone," the " Speckled" or "Bracked stone," 
the " Holed stone." These quaint descriptive expressions 
are yet firmly rooted in the minds of the peasantry : their 
history, when traceable, is of interest, for they may be 
regarded as fossilized ideas ; and, as in the strata of the 
rocks we find traces of extinct genera and species, so in 
these expressions fossilized forms of old-world fancies 
become apparent. 2 

1 At Ballymacscanlon, in the ccnmty 2 For a list of curious names given to 

Louth, there are three great pillars sup- megaliths, see (a part of) the Dind-senchus 

porting a ponderous impost, and the struc- of Uriu, translated by J. O'Beirne Crowe, 

ture is called the "Giant's load." Dublin A.B., vol. n., 4th Ser., Jour. R.H.A.A.I., 

University Magazine, vol. LXXVI., p. 144. page 139. 



292 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OP IRELAND. 

In the immediate neighbourhood of Scurmore there 
is a tumulus which is styled " the Grave of the Black 
Pig ; " and from this mound is derived the name of the 
townlandof Mucduff, stated to have originally comprised 
that of Carrowcarden. This tumulus or, perhaps, earth- 
covered earn is about 125 feet in circumference, 8 feet 
in height, 39 feet in N. and S., and 35 feet in E. and W. 
diameter. About fifty years ago one of its slopes was 
slightly damaged by people seeking for treasure. 

The legend regarding the name of the tumulus is as 
follows : 

Many years ago there was, in the North of Ireland, 
an enormous magical boar which committed great devas- 
tations throughout the country, so much so that all the 
hunters of the kingdom assembled with the determination 
to pursue the animal until they succeeded in killing it. 
The chase was sustained until the boar, finding the pro- 
vince of Ulster to be uncomfortable quarters, made off 
from it, but was overtaken in the " Valley of the Black 
Pig," a little vale in the county Sligo, situated partly in 
the townland of Mucduff, and partly in the neighbouring 
denomination. Here the boar turned at bay, and was 
slain on the spot where he was subsequently buried ; his 
pursuers stood around, leaning on their spears, and 
viewing with amazement the vast proportions, and the 
length and strength of the bristles with which he was 
covered. One of the hunters incautiously stroked the 
skin the wrong way, thereby causing a venomous bristle 
to prick his hand, and he at once fell down writhing in 
agony, and beseeching his companions to bring him 
water from a neighbouring well to assuage his unbearable 
thirst. None, however, could succeed in conveying to 
him the liquid, for by some magical property attached 
to the spring, no human being could carry water away 
from it in the hollow of the hands, as it always escaped 
through the fingers; and for this cause the well has 
ever since borne the name of Tubbernawuston. It is 
quite evident that this legend is merely a slightly modi- 
fied version of the death of Dermod, as recounted in the 
" Pursuit of Dermod and GrainneV 

The prefix muck y \. e. swine, is attached to eighty-one 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLTGO. 293 

townland names throughout Ireland, and to three in 
Sligo, that is to say, the one under consideration ; 
Muckelty, in the Barony of Leyny, and Muck Island, 
in the Barony of Tirerrill. The recounter of the Sligo 
legend said that, a woman from the North of Ireland, 
who had lodged in his house some time previous to our 
visit, stated that the same story was told of a locality 
named Mucduff, near to where she lived, and that the 
two " Graves of the Black Pig" were identical in shape, 
size, and material. There is, however, according to the 
Ordnance Survey, only one other denomination of land 
of the same name in Ireland, i. e. the townland of Muc- 
duff (Upper and Lower) in the county Wicklow. 

In the "late Celtic" period the figure of the boar 
was used as a decoration ; and there is a representation 
of one on a highly ornamented bronze shield found in 
the river Witham. 1 The boar is stated to be a well-recog- 
nised Celtic symbol : M. de la Saussaye in the Revue 
Numismatique for 1840, p. 91 states that this animal 
is represented on the coins of every part of Gaul, as well 
as on those struck by the cognate races of Britain, Spain, 
Illyria, and Galatia. In English coins it appears even 
on those of Cunobelin, although refined and modified to 
suit Roman taste. 2 

There was found at Lieches town, Banff shire, a swine's 
head of bronze, 8^ inches in length, with round disc 
attached to its base. It has 
been described by John Alex- 
ander Smith, M.D., 3 who stated 
that it u may perhaps have been 
also used in accordance with 
some early superstitious customs 
of the Celts." 

Representations of the animal 
in bronze have been occasionally 
found in Ireland ; fig. 184 depicts a bronze boar (half 
the real size) which may be seen in the Museum, R.I.A. 
A Porcine legend is thus told by W. Hackett : Long 



1 Sorce Ferales, PI. XVI., p. 190. 3 Proceedings of the Society of Anti- 

2 I&id., p. 86. quaries of Scotland, vol. vn. 




294 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

ages ago the race of pigs increased throughout Erin to such 
an extent that at length the people assembled and de- 
stroyed them all except a boar and two sows that lived 
at Imokilly, in the south of Ireland. These, being ma- 
gical pigs, escaped all snares laid for them, and kept 
the surrounding country in terror by their depredations. 
When the first of the Geraldines came to Ireland he 
determined to kill the monster, and he succeeded in his 
attempt, but unfortunately left the dead animal unin- 
terred, and the decay of the carcass occasioned a pesti- 
lence which swept away the people by thousands. The 
remains of the boar were then buried, and a large mega- 
lithic monument was erected over it at Kilamucky, near 
Castle Martyr, the ancient seat of the Fitz Geralds of 
Imokilly. This monument, however, was destroyed in 
the year 1844. 

We learn also that in the time of the Firbolgs, 
Ireland was overrun with pigs which committed vast 
depredations, but when the Tuatha-de-Danann became 
masters of the kingdom they extirpated all these animals, 
with the exception of one furious herd which devastated 
the maritime districts of the county Clare. Their destruc- 
tion was beyond the mere human energies of the Tuatha- 
de-Danann, who, therefore, had recourse to magic, and at 
length succeeded in their efforts; but for a time one 
ferocious boar withstood all their efforts. In oral legends 
we find Finn MacCumhail slaying boars in various parts 
of the kingdom ; we have thus strong indications, in 
tradition and folk-lore, that in ancient times the boar 
was held in great dread, or, perhaps, in great estima- 
tion : one writer even goes so far as to say that " The 
prominence given to this animal, in our topographical 
nomenclature and legendary tales, suggests the idea that 
the boar may have been identified with that system of 
animal-worship which we have some reason for believ- 
ing once existed in this country." 1 Kemble states that 
among the Germans and Anglo-Saxons, swine were 
sacred animals. 2 



1 Journal, E. H. A. A. I., vol. i., 3rd 2 Hora Xerales, p. 68. 
Series, pp. 120-5. Richard R. Brash. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 



295 



In the year 1842, Dr. Todd, V.-P., R.I.A., gave a 
short abstract of the contents of an ancient Irish MS. 
preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. It is a large 
quarto, on vellum, that was formerly in the collection of 
Archbishop Laud, and previously in that of Sir George 
Carew. What interests chiefly is that at fol. 58, The 
History of MacDatho^s hog is given, and the partition of 
the carcass of this animal had the same effect in Irish 
as the presentation of the apple in classical mythology. 
There are also two copies of this legend in the Library 
of Trinity College, MS. H. 2. 18, and H. 3. 18. The 
story is as follows : MacDatho, King of Leinster, 
in the first century of the Christian era, invited the 
Kings of Connaught and Ulster to a feast, when he 
caused to be served up an enormous hog, the cutting up 
of which, and the assigning to each chieftain his proper 
share, became a matter of fierce contention between the 
guests, and produced the effect intended by their crafty 
entertainer. 1 

Bovine are even more general than Porcine legends, 
and there are few districts de- 
void of tales of magical cows. 
Before leaving this subject of 
enchanted animal-lore, it is well 
to draw attention to a represen- 
tation in bronze of a bovine head, 
to be seen in the Museum, R. I. A 
The art-characteristic of this or- 
nament (fig. 185) is strictly Celtic, 
the metal composing it is of very 
fine quality, and of a golden 
colour. It was formed by a pro- 
cess of casting ; great care seems 
to have been taken to spare the Fig ^.-Representation of Bovine 

nrtn4-/-vir>l /^vKr f\rm OTTO crvrlrof Head in Bronze, in the Museum, 

material, uniy one eye-socKei R.I.A. (Half real size.) 
remains; it is shallow, but still 

sufficiently deep to have held an eye, composed pro- 
bably of glass, vitrified paste, or enamel of some kind. 
The head is open at the back ; and that it had been 




Proceedings, R.I. A., vol. 11., p. 347- 



4TII 8EH., VOL. Till. 




Fig. 186. Dagger-blade of Bronze, found in a Tumulus in Castleconnor. 
Weight, 16^ dwt. (Half real size.) 




Fig. 187. Dagger-blade of Bronze locality of discover}' unknown 
(Half real size.) * 




Fig. 188. General View of " Giant's Table " near Ballina. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 297 

attached to some object is sufficiently clear from the fact 
that the sides are pierced with a row of small apertures, 
that held pins by which the neck was secured. 1 

A small dagger-blade of bronze (fig. 186) was found 
in a tumulus in the parish of Castleconnor, county Sligo 
with calcined bones in the year 1874. It is covered 
with a green patina. The holes for rivets, by which 
a handle probably of wood or bone was attached, are 
still to be seen, and, when first discovered, one short 
rivet was in its place. The locality in which fig. 187 
was discovered is now unknown, and it is given simply 
for purposes of comparison, as it appears to belong to 
the true bronze age, and has also traces of two rivet- 
holes. The blade is 6f inches long, and 1^ broad. 

Near Carrowhubbock is a subterranean chamber, 
with several smaller openings off it, and the main 
passage extends for a considerable distance under 
ground. Not far distant are three mounds resembling 
grass-covered earns. 

Before concluding the description of the Rude Stone 
Monuments of Sligo we shall make an excursion into 
the neighbouring county Mayo for a distance of 
about two hundred yards to where there is a remarkable 
cromleac 2 supported by three stones, of which fig. 188 
gives a perfect representation, taken from a photograph 
as well as a sketch. It is now popularly called "The 
Giant's Table," but by the Irish-speaking natives Clocli- 
an-Togbhail. The cap-stone, which is nearly hexagonal 
in form, and now practically horizontal in position one 
of the supports having slightly given way measures 
about 9 feet by 7. 3 This monument interests chiefly as 
being, according to the late John O'Donovan, the only 
megalith in Ireland which can be satisfactorily connected 
with history. The story is as follows : 

In the life of St. Ceallach, it is related that Eoghan 



1 It is quite possible that this antique rock, but it probably, at no period, had 
may belong to a class of typical ecclesias- any connexion with the monument. It 
tical ornamentation, and attention is di- bears distinct traces of having been 
rected to the case of Molaise's Gospel blasted with gunpowder, and the holes 
(R.I. A.), on which this device appears, in which it was inserted are still visible, 
apparently as one of the four evangelical 3 A ground plan of this cromleac is 
symbols. given by Fergussun in Rude Stone Monu- 

2 Close to it there is a fragment of ments, p. 233. 

Y2 



298 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

Bel, King of Connaught, when dying: from the effects of 
wounds received at the battle of Sligo (fought in the 
vear A.D. 537), counselled the Hy Fiachrach to elect his 
son Ceallach to be king in his stead. This Ceallach 
was the great-grandson of king Dathi, whose red pillar- 
stone at Rath Croghan, erected A.D. 428, is still pointed 
out. According to the King's dying injunction mes- 
sengers were sent to Ceallach at Clonmacnoise, and he 
accepted the proffered dignity, despite the remonstrance 
and threats of St. Kieran, under whose tuition he was 
there residing. The saint thereupon solemnly cursed his 
pupil, and although a reconciliation afterwards took 
place, and Ceallach, entering the priesthood, attained 
Episcopal dignity, the curse was still efficacious, and 
could not be revoked. King Guaire Aidhne conceived a 
mortal hatred of the Bishop, on account of his having 
been elected to the sovereignty, and Ceallach in conse- 
quence resigned his See and retired to the seclusion of an 
island on Lough Conn, where, at the King's instigation, 
he was murdered by four of his pupils, or foster-brothers ; 
and thus St. Kieran's curse was fulfilled. Cucoingilt 
(brother of Bishop Ceallach) succeeded in capturing the 
murderers, and carried them in chains to a place in the 
county Sligo, since called Ardnaree, where he slew them 
on the banks of the Moy. The hill, 1 on the Sligo side 
overlooking the river, was hence called Ard-na-riadh, i. e. 
" The Hill of the Executions," and this, in turn, gave 
name to a village (situated on the east side of the stream), 
which may be considered a suburb of the town of Ballina. 
The bodies of the four murderers were'carried across the 
river, and interred on the summit of an eminence, on 
the Mayo bank, subsequently called Ard-na-Maol (the 
Height of the Maols), or Leacht-na-Maol (the Tomb of the 
Maols), from the four murderers of St. Ceallach having 
had the prefix Maol attached to their names. A more 
circumstantial account of the execution and interment is 
given in the Dinnsenchus, fol. 246. 

This is the story related to account for the Megalith ; 
but does it not seem strange that, after the date of the 



1 Immediately adjoining the hamlet to from a fortalice which stood on it in times 
the south. It is now called Castlehill, comparatively modern. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN SLIGO. 299 

introduction of Christianity, men who had murdered a 
bishop of the Church should yet have been interred with 
such outward marks of distinction as would be implied 
by the special erection of a cromleac over their bodies ? 
Possibly an examination of the interior of the structure 
might result in showing a carnal interment overlying 
calcined remains, and thus in some degree prove the 
truth of the legend ; that is to say, it might thence be 
inferred that the murderers of the bishop, being con- 
sidered unworthy of the rites of Christian burial, were 
therefore consigned to a pagan tomb ; though, as has 
been demonstrated, carnal interments have been found in 
purely pagan cemeteries, and overlying calcined remains. 

It would also appear as if the native Irish, long after the 
introduction of Christianity, sometimes continued to bury 
in ancient pagan cemeteries : at least such an inference, 
it is thought, may be drawn from an entry in the Annals 
of Loch Ce, under date 1581 : " Brian Caech O'Coinne- 
gain, an eminent cleric, and keeper of a general house of 
guests, died, and the place of sepulture, which he selected 
for himself, was, i. e. to be buried at the mound of Baile- 
an-tobair " (05 Durha baile cm cobaip). The compilers 
of the Annals add the following remark: " And we 
think that it was not through want of religion Brian 
Caech made this selection, but because he saw not the 
service of Grod practised in any church near him at that 
time." 

The Rude Stone Monuments in the county Sligo have 
now, it is hoped, been fully described ; of those which 
have been injured or destroyed, the descriptions were 
taken either from acpounts written prior to their dilapi- 
dation or annihilation, or from people who had actually 
seen them. As every precaution was taken to ensure, if 
possible, perfect accuracy, and every megalith still extant 
and herein mentioned has been personally visited and 
examined by the writer, it seems scarcely possible that 
any monument of importance can have escaped notice. 

In the next Number of the Journal a short account 
will be given of some of the sepulchres to be seen in 
the Island of Achill, off the Mayo coast, and hitherto 
unknown to the general public. 



SLEADY CASTLE AND ITS TRAGEDY. 

CONTRIBUTED BY GABRIEL O'C. REDMOND, 

Local Secretary, Co. Waterford. 

(AUTHOR'S NAME UNKNOWN). 

IN a secluded part of the county Waterford (in the parish of Modelligo) 
stands the lonely ruin of Sleady Castle, 1 which, though unnoticed by 
tourists and sketchers, was celebrated in its day for a tragedy of real life, 
marked by features of romance, and connected with the civil discords of 
Ireland in the seventeenth century. It is a fragment of local history now 
fast passing from tradition. But the castle is not favourably situated for 
attracting attention, though within a few miles of the town of Cappoquin. 
It stands on a slight elevation, at a short distance from a road little fre- 
quented, leading from Cappoquin to Clonmel, and in an uninteresting 
landscape, consisting simply of ground a little undulating, a sprinkling 
of plantation, the shallow river Finisk 2 winding beside the way, and 
peeps of low hills in the distance. 

The tall, dark, square ruin, with, its many gables and high chimneys, 
less resembles a castle than a bawn, as we call in Ireland a stone dwell- 
ing, strongly and defensively built, but not regularly castellated. It is 
a lone and naked object ; there is no graceful veil of ivy, no umbrageous 
tree near it. The edifice is in the form of a double cross, the eight limbs 
all of equal length, and each finished by a tall, large gable, crowned by a 
high chimney. Of these gables seven remain perfect, the eighth has 
fallen. The castle is placed diagonally on its site a circumstance which 
added considerably to its defensive capabilities. It is of rough stone, 
plastered over, and every corner is faced with cut-stone. The walls are 
very thick, and still partially covered with a steep stone-roof. The windows 
are irregularly placed rather small, oblong squares, divided into panes 
by slight stone mullions and transoms. The entrance is completely 
demolished, but its two square flanking towers, one at each side, still 
remain. That on the left (as the spectator faces the castle) has a para- 
peted and battlemented platform, with a machicolation ; the other is of 
inferior size, with remains of stone stairs, midway in which is an opening 
a small round arch of cut-stone. The broken stairs lead to a small, ill- 
lighted stone room, the " ladye's bower " of the olden times, and thence 
up to the turret top. 

The interior of the castle is a mere shell, and the ground is covered 
with, ruins and rubbish, overgrown with nettles and rank weeds ; but it 
is still evident that there were four storeys, with three floors supported 
on plain stone corbels. On the ground floor may be traced the kitchen, 

1 Pronounced Slay-dy. The place is "Water: " from Fionn (pronounced Finn), 

called in Irish Curach-na- Sleady, i.e. the fair, and Uisge (pronounced Ish-ga), 

" Bog of the Quagmires." water. 

a In Irish, Fionn Uisge, i.e. the "Fair 



SLEADY CASTLE AND ITS TRAGEDY. 301 

with its ample fireplace, and an arched recess beside it : this apartment 
adjoins the machicolated flanking tower. Of other rooms nothing can be 
distinguished. The whole building is very plain ; solidity and security 
seem to have been the sole aim of the founder. 

The entire was surrounded (according to tradition) by a moat, furnished 
with a drawbridge : of these no vestiges remain. 

But it is time to pass from the description of Sleady Castle to its his- 
tory, and that of its original possessors, the M'Graths. 

In very early times, the ancient family of M'Grath l held large estates 
in the western part of the county Waterford. They richly endowed the 
Augustinian Abbey, at Abbey side, 2 near Dungarvan, among the ruins of 
which, under a low window at the east end, 3 is an ancient tomb, 
inscribed, " Donald M'Grath, 1400." For the defence of the abbey this 
family built, beside it, a lofty square castle, some ruins of which still re- 
main. Local tradition affirms that the M'Graths also built Fernane Castle 4 
(of which scarce a fragment now exists), near Sleady, and Castle Clonagh, 6 
Castle Connagh, and Castle Eeigh, all near the boundary line between the 
counties of Waterford and Tipperary. 

At the close of the sixteenth, and commencement of the seventeenth 
century, the most remarkable person of the family was Philip M'Grath, 
commonly called in Irish Philib-na-Tsioda (pronounced na-Teeda], that is, 
" Silken Philip," meaning polished or elegant. The country people 
relate that, at this period, one of the family estates comprised seven 
townlands, within a ring fence. Philip had two brothers, of whom one, 
named John, is said to have built the old and now ruined castle of 
Cloncoscoran, 6 near Dungarvan ; the other, named (I think) Pierce, is 



1 This name occurs in old records, with 3 It formerly stood at the north side, 
various orthographies Cragh, Creigh, near the altar the usual situation for 
Creagh,* M 'Cragh, M'Craith, Magrath, the tomhs of founders of religious edi- 
and M'Grath. I have adopted the latter, fices. 

as in use in the districts where the family * Near Fernane now stands a modern 

flourished. Dr. Lanigan says: "Our house, called Mountain Castle, in memory 

old writers allowed themselves too great of the ancient stronghold. 
a latitude in spelling proper names, so as 5 Castle Clonagh in the (county Tip- 

often to excite doubts as to the identity of perary) is a circular structure, command - 

one and the same person. Hundreds of ing the Glen of Eossmore, through which 

instances might he adduced." Ecclesias- runs the boundary line of the counties of 

tical History, vol. ii. "Waterford and Tipperary. Castle Con- 

2 The remains of this building (the nagh stands on a high rock over the river 
wall, tower, entrances, and windows) Nier ; it is square, and is protected on the 
show it to have been of great beauty. side next the river by two round towers. 
The light Gothic tower is sixty feet high, Castle Connagh and Castle Eeigh are in 
and the arch that supports it is greatly the county Waterford, in the barony of 
admired for the elegance and skill of its Glenaheira. 

construction. The oak timber used in 6 This castle is in a very low situation ; 

turning the arch, though much exposed it has a moderately elevated square tower 

to the wet, is still in good preservation, at one end, and has much the appearance 

after a lapse of six centuries. of a religious structure. 



* The author has erred in stating that Oreagh is a form of M'Grath. According 
to a tradition amongst the Creaghs themselves, their name was originally O'Neill, and 
they obtained the cognomen, Cf\AobAC, i.e. Ramifer, from one of the family, who 
carried a green branch in a battle in which he distinguished himself. Note by 
GABRIEL O'C. REDMOND. 



302 STEADY CASTLE AND ITS TRAGEDY. 

stated to have built the old castle of Kilmanehin, in the barony of 
Glenaheira. 

The personal grace and accomplishments of Silken Philip found favour 
in the eyes of a noble maiden, 1 Mary Power, or Poer, daughter of John le 
Poer, then 5th Baron of Curraghmore. She surmounted the opposition of her 
family, and married him ; and Philip brought home his bride to the old 
castle of Fernane, where he then resided. " Omnia vincit amor," says 
Virgil ; but in this instance love had not subdued all the pride of the high- 
born fair : she despised her husband's dwelling as soon as she saw it, and 
positively refused ever to enter it, saying that her father's stables would be 
a more befitting residence for a lady. She ordered dinner to be served 
on a rocky hillock that overlooks the river Finnisk; and when the 
repast was over she returned to her father's seat, and there determined to 
remain till her husband should have built for her such an abode as she 
could esteem worthy of her presence. She further required that it 
should be erected on her own jointure lands of Cur ach-na- Sleady, to secure 
herself in the use of the intended castle during her life. Philip at first 
refused to build the desired residence ; but his wife insisted with such 
vehemence that a serious misunderstanding took place between them, 
and the lady vowed never to be reconciled until she obtained her wish. 
The bridegroom, seeing his domestic comfort at stake for ever, yielded at 
length, and commenced the work. His friends and relatives came 
forward to his assistance ; and the numerous tenants of his family and 
their connexions not only gave voluntary labour, but also brought such 
large contributions of every kind towards defraying the expenses of the 
building, that when the castle of Sleady was finished Philip M'Grath 
found himself much richer than when he commenced a circumstance 
worthy to be recorded of an Irish gentleman ! A quantity of fine oak 
timber was used in the construction oj the castle ; but not a vestige of it 
now remains, having been all carried away piecemeal by the peasantry 



1 This lady's sister, Catherine, married first Earl of Grandison. The relationship 
John Fitzgerald of Dromana (county will be easily understood by a reference 
Waterford), and was grandmother of the to the following extract: 



JOHN POWER, = 
5th Lord Power 
and Curragh- 
more. 


= RUTH, daughter and heiress 
of Robert Phypoe, of St. 
Mary's Abbey. 


Richard Power 6th Hon. Katherine Power, = 
Lord, whose grand- w., 1658. 
daughter, Lady 
Katherine Power, 
*., in 1707, Sir 
Marcus Beresford, 


= Sir John Fitz- Hon. Mary Power, 
gerald of Dro- m. Philip M'Grath 
mana. of Sleady Castle. 



Katherine Fitzgerald = 1677, the Hon. Edward 

of Dromana, Lady I Villiers, son of the 

of The Decies. Viscount Grandison. 

John Villiers, 6th Viscount, 
created Earl of Grandison. 

(Note by GABKIEL O'C. REDMOND.) 



SLEADY CASTLE AND ITS TRAGEDY. 803 

subsequent to its desolation ; and in one of the principal apartments was 
placed a handsome marble chimney-piece, with the name of the founder 
and the date of the completion of the building: " Philippua M'Grath, 
1628." That memorial was extant for about a century after the deser- 
tion of the castle, but is not now to be found. Tradition says that the 
building of Sleady Castle occupied seven years, during which period the 
lady of Philip M 'Grath presented him with four children : the three 
elder were daughters, named (in the order of their birth) Margaret, 
Catherine, and Mary ; the youngest was a son, named Donnell (Anglice 
Daniel). 

The castle being at length finished, and the lady's pride gratified, she 
came, with her husband and children, to take possession, and the now 
happy couple looked forward to many years of enjoyment. But scarcely 
had five years elapsed from the completion of the castle, when Philip 
M'Grath was snatched away, in the prime of life. On his death, the 
heir, his son Donell, 1 a child, was removed by his guardians to Dublin, 
for his education ; but the widow, with her daughters, remained at Sleady. 
She was a clever woman ; and all things that devolved to her manage- 
ment throve so well, that Sleady Castle, forlorn as it now looks, was 
famed for its ample stores of rich plate, fine linen, handsome furniture, 
and well-filled money-chests. 

Another sorrow, however, afflicted her not long after the loss of her 
husband. Her son, Donell M'Philip M'Grath (as he is styled in old 
records), died in his minority, between the years 1633 and 1641. The 
estate of Sleady, or at least a principal part, seems then to have vested in 
the next male heir, Pierce M'Grath (probably the brother of Philip) ; but 
the widow still continued at the castle with her daughters, who were 
possessed of large fortunes. The widow was endowed with many excel- 
lent qualities : time, sorrow, and the exercise of a strong understanding 
had chastened all her feelings, and her merits were universally acknow- 
ledged. She gave her daughters a good education, according to the 
fashion of the times, and they grew up to womanhood, remarkably handsome 
and attractive, and had, as may well be supposed, innumerable admirers, 
not less on account of their beauty and accomplishments than of their 
wealth. Tradition relates that the eldest (Margaret) had inherited the 
pride of her mother in her youthful days. The youngest (Mary) is said 
to have been mild and winning : so kind, so gentle, so full of feeling, so 
lovable, that she was commonly called in Irish, Maire milis ni Philib na 
Tsioda (pronounced Mayra meelish nee Philip na Teeda), i. e. " Silken 
Philip's sweet Mary." The three sisters were fond of society, and they 
frequently visited Clonmel, which was then, as now, a military station. 

The commotions of the seventeenth century were favourable to the 
gangs of outlaws who infested the rural districts, robbing and murdering 
by night, and taking shelter by day in bogs, or among rocks, or in moun- 
tain recesses. The part of the county Waterford of which I write (the 
parish of Modelligo, in the barony of Decies-Without-Drum) was fre- 
quented by a band of robbers, whose captain was a desperado called in 
Irish Uaithne (pronounced Oo-a-nee), which, being translatable into 



1 By an Inquisition, taken at Cappo- M 'Philip M'Grath was found to be seised 
quin, the 10th of September, 1633, Donell of Sleady, &c. 



304 SLEADY CASTLE AND ITS TRAGEDY. 

''Green," I shall term him by that name for the convenience of readers 
unacquainted with the Irish language. This man had long desired the 
plunder of Sledy Castle ; but all his plans for effecting an entrance were 
defeated by the caution of the widow, who, quite alive to the dangers of 
the times, kept garrison with unrelaxing vigilance. The gate was always 
locked, and the keys in the lady's possession ; the moat was always full, 
and the drawbridge never lowered, without strict precaution ; no ingress 
or egress was permitted to any person whatever after nightfall. To 
attempt swimming the moat would induce the double risk of being 
drowned, or espied and shot by the sentinel ; and the height and narrow- 
ness of the castle windows precluded escalade. Eut Green knew that the 
pillage of Sleady would amply repay time spent and pains lavished, and 
he determined to await his opportunity. 

At this period he had established his head-quarters at a "Lis" (a 
circular, flat, green mound, surrounded by an earthen grass-grown ditch) 
on the borders of a stream, and lying four or five miles distant from 
Sleady. Experience had proved to him that he had little chance of suc- 
ceeding in his design upon the widow's stronghold without the aid of 
domestic treachery. The servants generally were faithful, being fol- 
lowers or fosterers of the family. There was, however, amongst them a 
kitchen-maid, on whom he hoped to work, through the means of love and 
vanity. Green had among his band a son, who acted as his lieutenant 
a remarkably handsome young man ; him the outlaw tutored to throw 
himself in the way of the maid, as she went and returned from Mass, and 
to profess himself her lover. They met thus on Sundays and holidays ; 
and the fine words and fine person of the pretended suitor gained so much 
on the wretched woman, that she entered into all his views, and 
promised to watch the first favourable opportunity for his stealing into 
the castle, and make it known to him by a preconcerted signal. In con- 
sequence of this agreement, Green the elder moved his band nearer to 
Sleady for their night quarters, establishing them about a mile from the 
castle, at a huge rock, called in Irish Carrig na Chodla (pronounced 
Carrig na Hullah], i. e. "Rock of the Sleep," and popularly termed in 
English " The Sleepy Eock," which is a corruption of "The Sleeping 
liock " a name given to the place by the peasantry, from the circum- 
stance of Green taking his repose there while his sentinels were on the 
watch for the promised signal from the castle. The Sleepy Rock is the 
chief of a group of stratified, conglomerate rocks, laid bare near the 
summit of Eagle Hill. These rocks lie on the site of the ancient road 
between Clonmel and Dungarvan, and they present numerous shelves 
and recesses, shaded by superincumbent masses, and partially clothed with 
tufts of heath and fern, grass and wild flowers. It is about a mile from 
Sleady. Upwards of three miles from the rock is a kind of pass, called 
the Dhu Clee (Dubdh Cloidh], i. e. the " Dark Fence," which seems to 
have been a kind of fortified road between two woods; from thence 
Green's " Lis " is a mile distant. 

Among the wild crags of the Sleepy Rock, the outlaws made their 
midnight lair besifle their watch-fire. The whole district was then 
densely wooded, and frequented by the wolf 1 and wild cat, the fox, 

1 The last presentment for killing a (and the last, I think, in Ireland), was in 
wolf, in the neighbouring county, Cork 1710. 



SLEADY CASTLE AND ITS TRAGEDY. 305 

badger, hedgehog, and weasel, the eagle, raven, hawk, and kite, and 
occasionally visited by wild geese, ducks, cranes, and sea-gulls. All 
of these, except the wolf and wild cat, are still denizens or visitors of 
the locality. The night scene at the Sleepy Rock must have been one 
worthy of a pencil such as Salvator Eosa's : the dark thick woods, 
the savage crags, the still more savage figures grouped amongst them, 
round their fire, with their wild glibs of hair hanging over their faces, 
their pointed barrad caps, their straight trouse, rude brogues, and 
long frieze coats, with skirts divided into four the pistols and skean 
(dagger-knife) in the girdle ; and over all the ample frieze cloak, of 
which Spenser speaks so angrily " The Irish mantle, a fit house for an 
outlaw, a meet bed for a rebel, an apt cloak for a thief. . . . The 
outlaw being, for his many crimes and villainies, banished from the towns 
and houses of honest men, and wandering in waste places far from 
danger of law, maketh his mantle his house, and under it covereth 
himself from the wrath of heaven, from the offence of the earth, and from 
the sight of men. When it raineth it is his pent-house ; when it bloweth 
it is his tent ; when it freezeth it is his tabernacle." Wrapped in such 
mantles, the banditti at the Sleepy Kock reposed round their fire, while 
the wakeful sentinel kept watch for the long-expected signal from their 
ally in the castle. 

Leaving these worthies, we shall return to the fair sisters of Sleady. 
They had become acquainted at Clonmel with three English officers, 
whose names and rank tradition has not preserved, though one of them is 
said to have been a member of a noble family. The acquaintance soon 
ripened into mutual and warm attachment, which promised to terminate 
happily ; for, upon the suitors laying their pretensions before the mother 
of the fair maidens, they were favourably received. 

It was now the summer of the year 1641 a year memorable for the 
great rebellion in the month of October. Margaret, the eldest of the 
sisters, could not have been more than twenty, Catherine, eighteen or 
nineteen, and Maire milis the sweet Mary about seventeen. The 
three officers having received an invitation from the widow to become 
her guests at Sleady Castle, they obtained leave of absence for a few 
days. 

It not being the fashion in the seventeenth century for English officers 
to disguise themselves as civilians, the guests from Clonmel appeared in 
their military dress : the heavy and encumbering portions of it were 
laid aside, but the breastpiece gleamed beneath the stout buff coat, 
with its deep cuffs and collar, and silver buttons ; the casque shone 
upon the head ; the broad scarf crossed the figure from shoulder to 
hip ; the trusty belt sustained the heavy sword ; the gorget protected 
the throat, the iron-fingered gauntlet the hand and wrist ; and the high 
horseman's boot, with the spur on heel, encased the leg. After each 
officer rode his servant, with his master's cloak-bag and valise, or small 
travelling mail. 

While "all went merry as a marriage bell" in the state apart- 
ments of the castle, there was no lack of rude revelry and hospi- 
tality in the servants' hall. The domestics of Sleady, according to 
their ideas, considered that the most proper way to welcome the 
strangers' servants was to treat them to whiskey at a public-house in the 
vicinity of the castle. On this festive occasion, the vigilance of the 



306 SLEADY CASTLE AND ITS TRAGEDY. 

widow had relaxed, and she entrusted the keys to another hand. Per- 
haps she thought that the addition of six men trained to arms formed so 
strong a reinforcement to her garrison that she need fear nothing during 
their stay. A faintly-remembered tradition states that Pierce M'Grath 
(the inheritor of the entailed estates after the death of the minor, Donell), 
who was present at this fateful visit, was the person to whom the 
matron confided her keys. The Sleady servants petitioned him to permit 
them a short absence to " treat " their new acquaintances, engaging that 
the kitchen-maid would carefully attend to the drawbridge during their 
temporary evasion. Pierce M'Grath suffered himself to be persuaded. 
He unlocked the gates, the servants cautiously lowered the drawbridge, 
and, under cover of the night, all stole out to the neighbouring public- 
house, leaving behind them only the perfidious maid, who, with an affec- 
tation of good-nature, had volunteered to watch the lowered bridge till 
their return. However, scarcely had they departed, when she hurried to 
the top of the flanking tower, and there displayed a light in the manner 
preconcerted between her and young Green. The light was speedily 
descried by the sentinel at the Sleepy Rock, and Green the elder collected 
his men, and, favoured by the darkness, they set out silently for the 
betrayed castle. 

The lady and her happy little party had concluded the social supper, 
when suddenly the sound of stealthy, yet heavy footsteps, caused them all 
to turn their eyes towards the door. It opened. The doorway and the pas- 
sage behind were crowded with ferocious-looking ruffians, armed to the 
teeth, and seeming the more terrible from their indistinctness, as but par- 
tially revealed by the light of the candles on the supper-table. 

The officers attempted to seize their swords ; but the banditti, rushing 
forwards, overpowered and disarmed them, and held pistols to their heads. 
The widow, recognizing Green, flung herself on her knees before him, 
exclaiming, " I know you, and I know your purpose ; but I do not ask 
you to spare my property ; I only make one prayer to you oh ! for the 
love of heaven ! harm not my daughters." 

" Madam," replied the outlaw, " you are worthy to have your request 
granted, for you bear a good name ; and it shall be granted, if your guests 
here remain quiet, and give us no trouble. Hark, ye, boys ! " (turning to 
the gang, and holding out a pistol), " if the best among you, even my own 
son, dares lay a hand on that lady or her daughters, so long as these 
soldiers are quiet, he shall receive the contents of this through his 
brains." 

The matron surrendered all her keys at the demand of Green, who, 
with his men, quitted the room to begin their pillage, but leaving his 
son, with some of the fiercest of the band, to stand guard over the officers. 

And where, it will be asked, was Pierce M'Grath the while ? Tradi- 
tion says he was present during the whole scene, but does not state that 
he took any active part or offered any remonstrance. 

After a lapse of time, the heavy tread of the robbers was heard ap- 
proaching. They entered, laden with plunder ; and Green, addressing the 
guards whom he had left behind, said : ** Come, boys, it is time to return 
to our quarters : we have got as much as we can carry ; so, come away, 
and bring your prisoners with you." 

At these terrible words, the lady and her daughters fell at the feet of 
Green and his son, imploring them to release their prisoners, and offering 



SLEADY CASTLE AND ITS TRAGEDY. 307 

large ransoms, which they promised should be left at any place the bandit 
would appoint. 

"No, madam," said Green to the widow; " my own safety requires 
that I should take charge of these Saxon soldiers." 

Again the weeping women besought the robber. Green was inex- 
orable ; and at length, bursting into a rage, he swore, with a tremendous 
oath, that if he were thus pestered any longer he would blow out his 
prisoners' brains, and hold himself freed from his promise to the widow. 
The threat prevailed, and the robbers left the apartment, with their 
captives in the centre of the band. 

Unspeakable was the consternation of the officers' servants, on their 
return from the public-house with the other domestics, to find the castle 
plundered and their masters carried off by ruthless miscreants. 

That was a miserable night at Sleady. At the first gleam of light the 
officers' servants mounted, and gallopped back to Clonmel, to report their 
masters' misfortune to their corps. The strictest search was instantly 
made by both civil and military authorities to discover the robbers and 
their prisoners ; but the former had abandoned the Sleepy Rock and the 
" Lis," and could not be traced ; and no ingenuity, no activity, not even 
the proclamation of a large reward, availed to procure the least clue to 
the fate of the ill-starred officers. For some time the sorrowing sisters 
tried to hope that they were yet safe, that Green had only confined them 
in some remote and secret nook, till he could release them without danger 
to himself or his band. Though Sleady Castle had been pillaged of money, 
plate, and jewels, to an extent that seriously injured the family, they dis- 
regarded their loss in their anxiety for their absent friends. 

At length, as time passed on, and still brought no intelligence of the 
missing officers, the sisters began to yield to the miserable conviction that 
their betrothed had been murdered and buried in some secret spot that 
defied discovery. The search relaxed, and was then given up as hopeless. 
A year had now elapsed. The civil war that had broken out in October, 
1641, was raging throughout the country, and the family of Sleady were 
denounced by the Government as rebels, on account of the outrage 
committed under their roof on English officers. At the close of this 
wretched twelvemonth, a cowherd, who was in search of a strayed 
heifer, came to a dark and solitary glen, watered by a stream that rises 
in an adjacent turf-bog, and falls into the Colligan river. There, in a deep 
pool, in the bed of the stream, he perceived some unusual appearance. He 
went to examine it, and discovered the bodies of the three ill-fated officers, 
still clad in their military array. He hastened to Clonmel, declared his 
discovery to the authorities, and claimed the promised reward. A 
detachment was sent to the spot, from the garrison, to remove and ex- 
amine the bodies, which, being but little decayed, 1 were still capable of 
complete identification ; and it was clearly discernible that they had been 
barbarously murdered. The bodies were removed, and consigned to a 
consecrated grave, with due rites and honours ; and the part of the stream 
where the mortal remains were found is called to this day Ath-na-Soighi- 
diura (pronounced Augh-na-Seedhura), i. e. "the Soldier's Ford." 2 It lies 

1 Bogs have preservative power over 2 The "Soldier's Ford" is, I am in- 

animal matter, and the rivulet above formed, half a mile nearer to the source 
mentioned is a bog stream. of the stream than as marked on the 



308 SLEADY CASTLE AND ITS TRAGEDY. 

a mile from the " Lis" of Green, and upwards of six miles from Sledy. 

Of Green and his comrades, I have been unable to learn anything cer- 
tain. Some assert that they escaped safely out of the country ; others 
maintain that they were hunted down and exterminated some of them 
being shot, and others captured and hanged. 

The tragedy of Sleady Castle, occurring as it did at the fatal era of 
1641, gave rise to very serious charges against the M'Grath family. The 
outrage committed on royalist officers within the castle, in the presence 
of its owners, and by the treachery of the household, who not only 
afforded ingress to the assassins, but previously lured away the attendants 
of the victims, leaving the latter no help in the hour of danger ; the gates 
being unlocked by Pierce M'Grath himself ; his non-interference, though 
the atrocity was proceeding before his eyes : a neutrality which was 
attributed not to dread of the ruffians, but to acquiescence with them 
his own personal immunity the horse and sledge which dragged the 
victims to the slaughter having been supplied from the offices of the castle 
all these facts appeared condemnatory to the authorities engaged in the 
investigation, who considered the servants of Sleady and the outlaws as 
acting in concert with the heads of the family. It also appeared, in the 
course of examination, that on the day of the officers' arrival the steward 
of Sleady was riding near Green's "Lis," when he was met by the robber, 
who asked was there anything new at the castle ? The steward replied 
that three English officers had come to Sleady, and it was thought they 
would be married to the young ladies. He added that he was then going 
to the wood of Graigue-na-gower l to make some provision for the evening's 
entertainment. As he turned to depart, he heard Green say to a com- 
panion " Then will Uaithne avenge himself on the soldiers of the Sas- 
senach (Saxon), and rescue from them the fair daughters of Morya Philib," 
i. e. Mary Philip for so the widow of Philip M'Grath was popularly called 
in Irish. It was asked why did the steward, after hearing this, permit 
the servants to leave the castle ? All extenuating points were overlooked ; 
the grief of the sisters was disregarded ; the pillage of the castle was 
either disbelieved or considered as got up by collusion, for effect. Those 
were days of passion and prejudice on all sides ; and the whole occurrence 
was held to be a piece of deliberate treachery for the destruction of ser- 
vants of the English crown, and was consequently adjudged to be an act 
of treason and rebellion. A decree of forfeiture went forth against the 
M'Graths, which affected all their property : the estates vested in Pierce, 
the widow's jointure lands, her daughters' inheritance, all were con- 
fiscated, and apportioned by the Government amongst strangers. 

The lady and her children, on expulsion from their residence, retired 
to a humble cottage, little more than half a mile from the castle. It is 
still in existence, though in a state of decay. They were reduced very 
low, and were just saved from pauperism by some small resources the 
fruit of the matron' s former good management, which she had preserved from 

Ordnance Survey Map. A faintly-re- a sword was still grasped in the hand of 

membered tradition states that the un- one of the corpses. 

fortunate officers had effected their escape l Graigue-na-gower (i.e. the "Brambly 

from the rohbers, and were making their Hill-side of the Goats") is on the banks 

way to Clonmel by this ancient pass when of the river Nier, in the barony of Glena- 

they were overtaken and murdered at the heira. 

ford. It is asserted that, when discovered, 



SLEADY CASTLE AND ITS TRAGEDY. 309 

the general wreck and they lived in their altered circumstances with a 
pious resignation that gave dignity to misfortune. Although leading a 
life of great retirement they were not forgotten, and the fame of the 
sisters' beauty was enhanced by the admirable manner in which they sus- 
tained their trials. 

Part of the Sleady estate had fallen to the lot of the Osborne family, 
the head of which was Sir Richard Osborne, who had come over 
from England early in the seventeenth century, was created a baronet 
in 1629, and had acquired considerable property in various parts of 
the kingdom. His son, who became the second Sir Richard Osborne, 
but not till long after the date of our narrative), inspired with the gene- 
rous wish of restoring one of the innocent sufferers of Sleady to a share of 
her lost affluence, resolved, with rare disinterestedness, to seek a wife from 
amongst the impoverished but still respected family. And now I have to 
relate a most curious and unique wooing, in the recounting of which I 
shall "tell the tale as 'twas told to me" by an aged man, who had 
received it from his mother, a relative of the M'Gfraths. 

One morning, soon after sunrise, Mr. Osborne, attended by a single 
servant, set out from his residence at Cappagh, near Dungarvan, and 
directed his course towards Cur ach-na- Sleady. When he approached the 
end of his ride, he sent his attendant to wait for him at an appointed place, 
and proceeded alone to the cottage that then sheltered the last M'Graths 
of Sleady Castle. It was breakfast hour when he arrived there, and the 
matron herself came to the door, and invited him to dismount and enter. 

" I thank you, madam, for your courtesy," he replied ; " but I may 
not alight or enter till I know if I shall be a welcome guest. It is my 
ambition to be the husband of one of your daughters, but I come to woo 
as a plain man, in all sincerity, and without holiday phrases. Suffer me 
to prefer my suit to your eldest daughter in my own brief way. A few 
simple words will settle all. If I am accepted, it will then be fitting 
time for me to enter your habitation, but not before." 

The widow smiled, but indulged the suitor in his eccentric fancy ; and, 
re-entering, she persuaded her daughter Margaret to appear to their 
visitor, and hear him. He at once made the offer of his hand, earnestly 
and politely, declaring how happy and honoured he should feel by her 
acceptance. 

Margaret firmly, but not ungraciously, declined his proposal, alleging 
that, blighted as her fortunes had been, she could not endure to enter his 
family a portionless bride. She had too much delicacy to allude to her 
former unfortunate engagement, or to urge any personal objection ; but 
it is asserted that she afterwards acknowledged to her friends that she 
refused Mr. Osborne because he was but a "new man" in the country. 

"I have sped but ill," said the gallant to the matron, when her 
daughter had retired ; ' * yet my desire of marrying into your family re- 
mains the same. Permit me an audience of your second daughter ; per- 
haps I may be more successful with her." 

The widow, who appreciated the value of the connexion to her unpro- 
tected girls, complied, and led forward her daughter Catherine, to whom 
the gentleman addressed himself in much the same terms as he had used 
to her sister. She likewise negatived his offer in nearly the same words 
as Margaret had spoken. 

"Well, madam," observed the rejected wooer, "this is but sorry 



310 SLEADY CASTLE AND ITS TRAGEDY. 

encouragement to a farther essay; "yet I have one remaining chance: 
allow me to try it with your youngest daughter." 

The lady acquiesced, and presented Mary, who was addressed by the 
persevering gallant as her sisters had been. Mary apparently thought she 
could more easily conduce to her mother's comfort as the wife of a wealthy 
man, whose disinterestedness demanded her gratitude, than as a helpless 
mourner over the irretrievably lost. She listened to the proposal with 
blushes, and when the speaker had concluded she, with grace and modesty, 
accepted his proffered hand. Instantly springing from his horse, he caught 
her in his arms, and ratified the treaty with an energetic salute thus ter- 
minating his suit as unceremoniously as he commenced it. " And now in 
to breakfast," said he, " since I can enter in the character that I wished 
that of one of your family." And he gallantly led in his promised 
bride. 

After " sweet Mary " became the wife of the wealthy Osborne she had 
ample opportunities of indulging her natural benevolence ; and to this 
day the country people dwell with fondness on many traditional anec- 
dotes of her munificence and her charities, which were so unbounded that 
her husband was often obliged to limit her powers of bestowing, otherwise 
her generosity would have exceeded even his ample means. It is related 
of her that in her affectionate zeal to give her mother consequence she 
prevailed on her husband to pass to his Sleady tenantry receipts for their 
rents, in the name of her parent, in order to preserve for her a semblance 
of authority, and a shadow of her former rights to deck her fallen 
fortunes. 

In some time after Mary's marriage, Margaret M'Grath became the 
wife of a gentleman of her own county, and of sufficiently long standing 
to satisfy her pride of pedigree. She is remembered as a religious woman ; 
and I have been shown by her descendants a silver chalice, which she 
caused to be made for the celebration of private Masses in her house. 
Round the base is the following inscription : " Margaretha Cragh uxor 
Joannis Power de Clashmore Equitas me fieri fecit, in honor em Sancta Tri- 
nitatiz Beataque V. Marice, A. D., 1668." * 

The remaining sister (Catherine) was also married, but to whom I am 
unable to say with any certainty. To the romantic and sentimental it 
will appear, no doubt, quite a spoiling of the legend that the sisters 
should have ever married, after the tragical fate of their first loves. 

Sleady Castle was deserted from the time of the forfeiture, and it fell 

1 "Margaret Cragh, wife of John Power,* of the Blessed Virgin Mary, in the year 
of Clashmore, Knight, caused me to be of our Lord 1668." 
made in honour of the Holy Trinity, and 



* John Power of Clashmore, who married Margaret M'Grath of Sleady , was son and 
heir of John Power of Clashmore, who, in consideration of a fine of 20, was granted 
the lands of Clashmore, Cooleboe, Eallymaclassy, in the Decies, dated 3rd January, 
1684. This John Power is supposed to be the same person as John Power, Baron of 
Donhill, Lord of Kilmedan, who was dispossessed of his estates by Cromwell. Mr. 
De-la- Poer, of Gurteen-le-Poer, says, " that after the restoration the Baron was 
amongst those named to be restored to portion of his estates, and Donoyle was to 
have been given back to him, Sir John Cole, to whom it had been granted, being first 
'reprised.' This, however, was not carried out, and it seems very probable that the 
lands of Clashmore, &c., were granted to him instead." Note by GABRIEL O'C. 
REDMOND. 



SLEADY CASTLE AND ITS TRAGEDY. 3 1 1 

to ruin by slow degrees. Occasionally some poor, houseless person took 
up his abode, unpermitted, yet unforbidden, among the empty chambers. 
The last lonely dweller there was a country schoolmaster, about seventy 
years ago, when the castle was much more perfect than at present ; he 
taught his ragged scholars in the kitchen, but chose for his own use a 
room on the upper floor. He was the descendant of some old follower of 
the M'Graths, whose former greatness was his favourite theme. He wrote 
a kind of chronicle of that family, containing a great deal of local history, 
and some curious information. 1 Some gentlemen of that period, who had 
seen the manuscript, were anxious it should be published ; and the school- 
master made several efforts to get it printed at Clonmel (Dublin being 
then beyond reach of men in his humble sphere); but he was unsuccessful. 
I have been unable to learn what became of the MS. after the death of 
its writer. 

After the schoolmaster's decease, Sleady Castle remained wholly deserted. 
Short, indeed, had been the period of its palmy state : from the completion 
of the building to the day of its desolation, by the decree of forfeiture, it 
had scarce numbered twice seven years. This ancient family of the 
M'Graths has passed away ; their place knoweth them no more ; their 
lands are held by other lords, their strongholds and mansions are in ruins, 
their very name has now but a legendary existence 

" Omnia tempus edax depascitur, omnia carpit ; 
Omnia sede movit, nil sinit esse diu." 

[Sleady Castle is now the property of Richard Power, Esq., M.P.] 



1 The Irish, in olden times, were fond lost, until an imperfect copy was dis- 
of preserving pedigrees, and writing covered hy John 0' Donovan, and is now 
family chronicles. Various hooks of this in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, 
kind are still extant, in MS., written by There is (or was) a " Book of Kilronan," 
the hereditary bards and annalists of a different work, being a chronicle of 
ancient races, e.g. "The Book of the events written by the clergy of Kilronan 
O'Kellys of Hy-Maine" (a district that Church, and commencing at A. D. 900. 
comprised the present county of Gal way, "The Book of Bally mote," written under 
and part of Roscommon), compiled for the patronage of Tomaltach M'Donagh 
that family, in whose hands it remained (chief of a district now comprised in Sligo, 
till 1757. Amongst a variety of other Leitrim, and part of Roscommon), at his 
matter, it contains pedigrees and accounts residence, Ballymote, containing, amongst 
of the chief races, derived from Nial of a mass of other matters, pedigrees of the 
the Nine Hostages ; a list of the princes ancient families of Ireland as the Hy- 
of Hy-Maine, from Ceallach, the great BriuinHeremonians, the O'Connors, Clan- 
ancestor of the O'Kellys, down to 1427 ; Colla, &c. Early in the seventeenth cen- 
pedigrees of the principal families of tury Muireadach O'Daly wrote a poem 
Ulster ; filiations of the races descended on the Fitzgerald family, recording both 
from Heber ; many historical poems, &c. the chief and the minor branches the 
"The Book of Fermoy," containing ac- name of the head of each tribe that branched 
counts of the possessions of the Roches off from the main stock the principal ac- 
of Fermoy, with some historical tracts. tions of the family the castles, abbeys, 
'The Book of the O'Duigenans, or Annals and monasteries they built, &c.^ At the 
of Kilronan," a family chronicle of the same period Mac Bruodin, hereditary poet 
Mac Dermott's, compiled by the O'Duige- of the O'Gormans, wrote a poem on that 
nans, hereditary historians of" Kilronan. family, tracing their pedigree, and show- 
It begins at A.D. 1014, and ends at A.D. ing the tribes that sprung from the same 
1571. This work was supposed to be root. 

4TH 8ER., VOL. VIII. -2 



312 SLEADY CASTLE AND ITS TRAGEDY. 

The foregoing interesting particulars relating to " Sleady Castle" 
came to my knowledge, some years ago, in the form of a printed 
pamphlet, but the author's name is to me quite unknown. 

As, however, the ruins of the old castle are situated in this district, 
and I have frequently heard the story corroborated by the people of the 
locality even to the details I have thought it my duty, as Hon. 
Secretary of the Society, to lay the story, in its entirety, before the 
members of the Association, at the same time that I do not, in any 
way, claim to have written it. 

The different localities mentioned in the narrative are quite familiar 
to me. The description of the castle ruins is very accurate, although, 
indeed, it is now a mere shell. Green's "Lis" can still be faintly traced; 
and the people of the locality point out " Carrig-na-Chodla," or The Sleepy 
Rock, and the spot where it is supposed the sentinel watched for the 
signal. Ath-na-Soighiduira, the " Soldier's Ford," is also clearly iden- 
tified ; and I believe three large stones mark the spot where the bodies 
were found. It is a great pity that the names of the officers have not 
been handed down to us. It is the only " flaw" in an otherwise perfect 
traditional record of the seventeenth century. I hope, before long, to 
make sketches of the castle and the places of interest in connexion with 
the story. 

GABRIEL O'C. REDMOND, 

Hon. Local Secretary, Co. Waterford. 



( 313 ) 

THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 
BY WILLIAM FRAZER, F.R.C.S.I., 

Member of Council and Librarian, Royal Irish Academy. 
[Continued from page 208.] 
No. IV. 

MEDALS COMMEMOKATIVE OF DEAN SWIFT. It appears desirable to collect 
together all the medallic records of Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's ; 
they are far from numerous, but possess that special interest which 
invests every subject connected with his life and literary history, 
especially to natives of Ireland. 

REV. J. SWIFT, D.S.P.D. Bust, with three-quarter face turned to left, 
in wig and canonicals ; contained within a small oval frame, supported by 
a winged child on clouds. Minerva underneath, seated to the left, having 
behind her a Gorgon shield, and at her side a shield, with Irish harp, to 
which she points ; to the right is a female, with her arm resting on a pile 
of books, who crowns the Dean with a wreath. Above is a winged figure 
of Fame, with crescent on the forehead. Inscription on a scroll under the 
bust. Reverse. Hibernia, seated, to left with harp and olive-branch ; in 
the background a shepherd and his flock, and view of the sea, with ships. 
In exergue, MDCCXXXVIII I.E. FECIT. 

Size, 1*5. This is a rudely- executed medal, cast in silver; the obverse 
is copied from an engraving by P. Simms, on the title-page of a volume 
of Swift's works, published in 1734. It is stated in the British Museum 
Catalogue to be " very rare." I have a good specimen. 

IONAT SWIFT, S.T.P. ET. D.S.P. IN Hib. A three-quarter faced bust of 
Swift, to waist, in full wig, and with canonicals ; head towards the right ; 
executed in high relief ; beneath the bust are the words NON PAREIL. 
Reverse. Blank, with the letters I.P.F. 

An oval portrait, measuring 3'05 by 2'4. Cast in iron, with polished 
letters. The portrait is a close copy of Virtue's engraving, from which it 
is taken, being the frontispiece to Swift's works, published by Faulkner, 
in 1735. It is stated by the writer, in the "Medallic Illustrations of 
British History," to have been made by " Isaac Parkes," a well-known 
die-sinker and medallist in this city; but I do not feel disposed to accept 
the statement. The original, and I believe, unique specimen, in the British 
Museum was purchased at a sale of the late Dr. R. R. Madden' s, and, 
owing to the kindness of the Museum authorities, I obtained an excellent 
replica. Dr. Aquilla Smith possesses an impression a round, not oval 
made in gutta-percha, which he took from the original iron mould or die 
that was in the possession of Sir "William Wilde, who purchased it in 
Dublin, and which was broken by him in his endeavouring to obtain im- 
pressions. The fragments were, I understand, thrown away or lost. I 

Z2 



314 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 

consider this die was made about the time of the last-described medal,, 
and the unique iron casting made from it for some special object pos- 
sibly for the lid of a box. 

See Madden's " Sale Catalogue," 1865, where he describes it as 
11 unique and valuable," and conjectures it was made in Prance. 

DEAN SWIFT. A medal intended by "William S. Mossop to form one 
of his projected series of illustrious Irishmen, which he never completed. 
The die of this medal was left unhardened, and without inscription. I 
have already described it. 

DEAN SWIFT. A little medallet, with portrait of the Dean, who is 
represented late in life, attired with full wig, bands, and robes to- 
waist. He is full-faced, and looks to the left. Inscribed, j. s. D. D. 
s. P. D. Reverse. Blank. 

Size, '6. Struck in silver. This exceptionally rare medal is, I 
believe, the work of one of the Mossops. The die is lost. I have a 
good specimen. 

DEAN SWIFT. In a framed collection of impressions of seals in wax, 
belonging to the Mossops, was discovered the original portrait from 
which the last-described medallet was copied. It was extremely well 
cut, and appears to have been a striking likeness. I got it reproduced 
in silver by electrotyping, and wish to record it to prevent mistakes 
hereafter. The costume differs somewhat, and is more in detail. OvaL 
Size, 1-1 by -9. 



THE LOUTH ELECTION, IST Nov., 1755. A rock rises from the sea, on 
which Hibernia stands, holding a harp ; the four winds How on the sur- 
face of the rock. Inscription, FIRM TO OUR COUNTRY AS THE ROCK IN THE 
SEA. Reverse. BY OUR | STRICT | UNION IN LOUTH J WE DISAPPOINTED THE 

| HOPES OF OUR ENEMIES | ON THE 1 OF NOVEM | 1755 IN THE 29 YEAR | OP 
TITE REIGN OF | K GEO THE II | WHOM GOD LONG | PRESERVE | . Above is a 

heart, with two hands united together, and around the inscription, MAY 

THE LOVERS OF LIBERTY NEVER LOSE IT. 

Size, 1*75. Struck in silver ; and some years since one in lead appeared 
for sale in a catalogue. It is not a common medal, and was made for the 
Louth Independent Club, which succeeded in returning Thomas Tipping 
and Hon. W. Fortescue as members of Parliament, in opposition to Mr. 
Bellingham. It resembles the work of Thomas Ping, who probably 
struck it. 

COUNTY WESTMEATH ELECTION, 25in JULY, 1768. Liberty, embracing 
a pillar with her right arm, and supporting herself by it ; her left resting 
on a shield ; casque and other emblems lying at her feet : VINCIT AMOR 
PATRIAE ANNO 1768. Reverse. A hand presenting a civic crown PRE- 
SENTED TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE A MALONE BY THE FREE AND INDEPENDENT 
ELECTORS OF THE COUNTY OF WESTMEATH IN ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF HI 
STRENUOUS & SUCCESSFUL SUPPORT OF THEIR INTERESTS ON THE 25 OF JULY, 
1768. 



ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 315 

As I have not this medal, the description is imperfect. Anthony Malone, 
n in 1700, represented Westmeath for several years. In 1757, he 

became Chancellor of the Irish Exchequer, and afterwards a member of 

the Privy Council. He died 8th May, 1776. 

THE TRUE PATRIOT SOCIETY, 1754 ? A bust, with bald head, on a 
pedestal to right. Motto : DULCE ET DECORUM EST PRO PATRIA MORI. Reverse. 
Hibernia, represented standing, holding an Irish harp, inscribed 

LIBERTAS ET NAT ALE SOLUM. 

Size, 1-6. Struck in silver. There is an impression in the Royal Irish 
Academy. I know nothing of its history. In Sanders' Sale Catalogue 
it is ascribed to the " True Patriot Society." 

MEDAL OF THE CHARITABLE MUSICAL SOCIETY. Pero is represented 
nursing her father, Cimou, within a prison. Inscription, i WAS IN PRISON 
AND YE CAME UNTO ME. Reverse. An open music-book, with several 
musical instruments, and outside a name is engraved of the owner, within 
a border. 

Size, 1*5. Struck in bronze. I possess two different medals ; one of 
much earlier workmanship, and rude execution, with large letters ; it has 
the name of ROB STEPHENSON ESQ. The second medal is of better fabrica- 
tion, and later date of manufacture ; of this I have two examples with the 
names of IOHN CVRTIS & RICH D NELSON. 

There is frequent mention in Faulkner's Journal of " The Charitable 
Musical Society for the benefit and enlargement of poor distressed prisoners 
for debt in the several marshalseas of the city of Dublin." This was held in 
the Bull's Head Tavern in Fisharnble- street, and removed, in 1741, to their 
great music-hall in the same street. It was only one of a numerous fol- 
lowing, such as the Charitable Musical Society, held at " The Bear," iu 
College-green; the Charitable Musical Society, in Yicar-street, for en- 
larging the fund for the reception of the sick and wounded poor of this 
kingdom into Dr. Steevens's Hospital ; the Charitable Musical Society 
in Crow-street; and the Musical Society in Werburgh -street. There were 
likewise similar Associations founded in Cork, Drogheda, &c. ; but the 
Fishamble-street Society appears to have been the principal one, and had 
the honour of taking a prominent part in inviting Handel to visit Dublin, 
in 1741. It probably experienced the usual vicissitudes of Irish societies, 
and declined until 1757, when Lord Mornington revived it so effectually 
that, by the loan of small sums of money, it relieved nearly 1300 distressed 
families. Finally it developed into the " Charitable Musical Loan," which 
still exists, though marshalseas and their wretched inhabitants have long 
since disappeared. 

ASSOCIATION OF PAINTERS AND SCULPTORS. A boy is represented sculp- 
turing a bust, and behind him another with pallet and colours ; in the 
background a column with capital. Reverse. Marked, EXHIBITION TICKET. 

This Association nourished about 1756. It erected, with the assistance 
of a parliamentary grant, an exhibition-room in William-street, but was 
not incorporated, and falling into difficulties, was ejected in 1800 from the 
rooms, which became the " City Hall." Probably it was one of these 
medals which is described, in a sale catalogue in Edinburgh, as " belonging 
to a Dublin Society of artists, with figures emblematic of sculpture and 



316 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 

painting. Presented to N. Eevelt, 5th March, 1771," with hook for 
suspension. 

FRIENDLY BROTHERS OF ST. LUKE There is in the Royal Irish Academy 
an engraved medal in copper, having this inscription, and a representation 
of St. Luke as a painter, and behind him a bull's head. 

Size, 2-5. There is no record of this association, so far as I can 
ascertain; it was probably one of the minor artistic clubs of Dublin 
about 1760. 

PRIMATE ROKEBT. A bust similar to that in Mossop'e medal, to right ; 
inscribed, RICH HIBERN PRIMUS BARO ROKEBY DE ARMAGH. Reverse. A view 
of the Library, Armagh, TO TH2 *YKH2 IATPEION ; and in the 
exergue, BIBLIOTH ARMAC | MDCCLXXI | KIRKE r | . 

Size, 1*5. A bronze impression in Koyal Irish Academy. The Pri- 
mate was born in Yorkshire, in 1709 ; became primate in 1765, and was 
subsequently created Baron Rokeby ; he died 10th October, 1794. This 
medal commemorates his erection of the Library in Armagh. That 
struck by Mossop records his gift of the Observatory. The artist, John 
Kirke, was a pupil of Dassier's, and obtained premiums from the Society 
of Arts ; he became a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists, 
and exhibited medals at their annual exhibitions. He died in London, 
27th November, 1776. 

DEBATING SOCIETY, TRINITY COLLEGE. I have described two early- 
struck medals of the " COLLEGE HISTORICAL SOCIETY," in connexion with 
the works of the elder Mossop. Owing to the kindness of the Rev. Mr. 
Carson, the following medal of THE DEBATING SOCIBTY | TRIN T COLL" | 
DUBLIN, is recorded. It bears, in addition, the words, ADJUDGED THL* 

MEDAL TO I BOB* HICKSON | FOR HIS DISTINGUISHED | MERIT IN | ORATORY | 

JUNE 19 TH 1795 | . Reverse. A wreath of oak and laurel. Motto, NEC 

ABEST | FACUNDIS | GRATIA | DICTIS. 

Size, 1*5. Struck in silver, with loop for suspension. The inscription 
is engraved; but it appears deserving of record in relation to the history 
of the literary societies of Trinity College. 

UNION BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. Two emblematic 
figures of females are represented with joined hands ; one bears a cadu- 
ceus and shield of arms ; the other has a copia and olive branch. Motto,. 

IUNGUNTOR OPES. FIRMATUR IMPERIUM. I. JAN MDCCCI. 

Size, 2*1. Struck in silver, copper, and copper-gilt. As I have not 
this medal the description is incomplete. 

UNION BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND (2nd Medal). Two 
female figures, emblematic of Great Britain and Ireland, with blazoned 
shield and harp resting against an altar, support a bundle of fasces, 
to which they are binding an olive branch ; behind is a pyramid, in- 
dicating solidity. Motto, FRIENDSHIP UNION AND PEACE. In exergue, 
the date 1800 ; and in small letters, HANCOCK on base line. Reverse. 
Above, an open volume, inscribed ONE | LAW, lying on a sceptre and 
olive wreath, GREAT | BRITAIN | AND IRELAND | UNITED | MDCCC | . Beneath, 
a lion resting on an anchor, with scales of justice; to right an oak, and 
to left a shamrock ; p K underneath. 



ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 317 

Size, 1-55. There is a silver impression in the Royal Irish Academy. I 
have a bronze proof, and have seen one in white metal, in the possession 
of Mr. Robertson of Kilkenny. The artist, J. G. Hancock, executed 
several good medals, and excelled in engraving portrait dies towards the 
end of the eighteenth century. 

UNION BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND (3rd Medal). Time, 
standing on a section of the globe, drops its hour-glass, and receives 
another from a hand in the clouds. Marked, in small letters, HANCOCK. 
Reverse. The shamrock, rose, and thistle, with inscription, MAT THIS AND 

EVERY FUTURE AGE WITNESS THE PROSPERITY OF THE UNITED KINGDOMS ; and 

in exergue, JANUART 1" 1801. 

Size, 1*65. Struck in white metal. Royal Irish Academy. 

DEFEAT OF THE FRENCH FLEET, OCTOBER, 17 98. Bust, in naval uniform, 

to right, SIR J B WARREN BART K B REAR ADMIRAL OF THE BLUE ; On the arm, 

in small letters, HANCOCK. Reverse. Hibernia, turned to the left, is seated, 
playing on a harp, and holding with one hand an olive branch ; shield 
at her side with cannon, balls, &c. ; British ship and two smaller vessels 
at a distance. Above, on a raised rim is inscribed, ATTACKED AND DEFEATED 

THE FRENCH SQUADRON ON THE COAST OF IRELAND. In exergue, OCT R 12 

1798. 

Size, 2-5. Struck in bronze ; in Royal Irish Academy. The admiral 
was no relation to Sir J. Borlase Warren, of Co. Cork, who was born about 
the date of this battle, and baptized after the name of his distinguished 
namesake. Another medal, which is " anonymous," was struck in com- 
memoration of the same victory, and may be appropriately considered 
here. 

DEFEAT OF THE FRENCH FLEET (No. 2). Three-quarter bust, in naval 
costume, to left. S R J B WARREN BARONET. KB.; and in small letters, below 
the bust, THE LORD OF HOSTS is WITH us. Reverse. Two war ships en- 
gaged. Inscription, THE SISTER COUNTRY AGAIN RESCUED FROM INVASION. 
In exergue, BREST. SQUADRON DEFEAT" | OFF TORY ISLAND | OCTOBER 12. 
1798, 

Size, 1-65. Struck in bronze, of which I have an impression. Sir 
J. B. Warren captured the " La Hogue " and four large French frigates. 
He was Ambassador to St. Petersburgh in 1802, and died in 1822. 

There are a few medals respecting which I have obtained imperfect 
information, and would place them on record in the hope of hereafter 
acquiring further knowledge respecting their history. 

RICHARD KIRWAN, LL.D., F.R.S. In the year 1792 a medal, struck 
in Irish gold, was presented to him by the Dublin Society, in recognition 
of his exertions in procuring for that Society the Leskean collections of 
minerals and other objects of natural history, for which purpose a vote 
of 1200 was granted by the Irish Parliament; and to obtain their 
possession he went to Germany, and afterwards arranged the minerals. 
He had previously obtained the Copley Medal of the Royal Society for 
his chemical researches, and was elected president of the Royal Irish 
Academy in October, 1797, which he continued to hold until his death, 
in 1812. His portrait is preserved in the council-room of the Academy ; 



318 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 

and an excellent memoir, published by Michael Donovan, M.R.I.A., is 
contained in the Appendix to the 4th volume of their Proceedings. I 
have not succeeded in obtaining further information about this medal. 

AUNGIER- STREET THEATRE, DUBLIN. On May 8th, 1733, this theatre 
was commenced, four foundation stones being laid by the Right Hon. 
Richard Tighe, Hon. General Napier, William Tighe, Esq., and Hon. Sir 
Edward Lovett Pearce, Surveyor-General of the King's Works in Ireland. 
Each stone was laid to the sound of trumpets, bands of music, &c. ; and 
under each of them were placed " medals," struck for the occasion by the 
managers of the old Theatre Royal. Wine and ale were freely dis- 
tributed, presents made to the workmen, and all the proceedings wound 
up by a dinner. See the Irish Builder of April 1, 1879. 

I am not aware of any record of these medals except the notice above 
given. 

SLIGO SOUP TICKET. Struck in brass, with blank reverse. Size, '9. 
This little medallet was probably made in the year 1798, when soup 
shops were opened under Government to relieve the prevalent distress of 
the poor ; but there is no certain knowledge of its history to record. 

THE RT. HOBBLE. JOHN POSTER. Three-quarter bust, in full robes 
and wig, as Speaker of the Irish House of Commons ; turned towards 
right. On the sleeve, in minute letters, D B HILL F. Reverse, inscribed 

SPEAKER | OF THE | IRISH HOUSE | OF | COMMONS | 1799. 

Size, 1-6. This is a pewter medal, of rather rude workmanship. The 
specimen which I have is the only one that has fallen under my notice, 
and it appears, therefore, to be of rare occurrence. The name of its 
fabricator is not contained in the city directories of the time, and I know 
nothing of him. 

JAMES BRUSH. 

JAMES BRUSH is designated in Watson's Dublin Directory for 1797 as a 
jeweller and Madeira wine merchant, residing at 7, Andrew-street. We 
have an advertisement of his appearing in the Dublin Chronicle news- 
paper on January 6th, 1789, which states: " In the seal line, he 
presumes to say that no person in this city can equal him for neatness 
and durability of the settings. He has engaged an eminent seal-engraver 
from London, specimens of whose work are ready for inspection ; among 
them is a striking likeness of Mr. Grattan." Engraved portraits of the 
popular patriot were in demand ; and from a ring in my possession, with 
the likeness engraved on bloodstone, Mr. Brush's assertion of the high 
quality of his work appears to be fully sustained. He was treasurer to 
the Masonic Female Orphan School (founded in the year 1797, by Lodges 
190 and 15) in 1800, at which time it was located in Cullenswood, and 
he then handed it over to the charge of Grand Lodge. His connexion 
with Irish medallic history depends on the two following medals that 
bear his name. They are stigmatized by Dean Dawson, in his Paper 
on Irish Medals and Medallists, as "miserable in point of design and 
workmanship;" but the expression is rather strong, and they possess 
interest regarded as historic records. 



ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 319 

ORANGE SOCIETY. William the Third is represented on horse, to 
right, within a border of flowers, probably lilies. On a scroll above, 
THE GLORIOUS MEMORY ; and underneath, ZING AND CONSTITUTION. Reverse. 
A sword and sceptre crossed; behind a crown, within wreaths of leaves, 
bearing lilies ; and below, on a scroll, GOD SAVE THE KING. Marked, in 
small letters, BRUSH, underneath the wreaths. 

This medal is of oval shape, with ring for suspension, measuring 1*5 
by 1'4. Struck in silver. Dean Dawson is of opinion that this was 
the original badge of the Orange Association, and struck soon after it was 
founded in 17 97-98. 

I have allowed the above statement to remain unchanged, but fear, 
like many other alleged "facts" in Irish history, it is not correct. 
The history of Orange societies remains to be written. As a contribution 
to the subject, I would refer to p. 236 of Charles Topham Bowden's 
Tour through Ireland for Two Months, commencing 23rd August, 1790 ; 
published in Dublin in 1791. He states, when at Belfast, "I was 
introduced to the Orange lodge by a Mr. Hyndeman, a merchant of the 
town. This lodge is composed of about three hundred gentlemen, 
amongst whom are the Hon. Mr. O'Neil, the Marquis of Antrim, the 
Marquis of Downshire, the Earl of Hillsborough, and many others of the 
first consequence and property. Mr. Hyndeman informed me this lodge 
was founded by a Mr. Griffith." 

BATTLE OF COLOONY. The arms of Limerick. A gate, with two 
castles ; and behind, a turret with flag flying ; within wreaths of olive 
and palm. Marked, CORPORATION AND CITIZENS OF LIMERICK. Reverse. 
A Royal crown, within olive wreaths, TO THE HEROES OF COLOONY 5 TH SEP* 
1798 ; and, in small letters, BRUSH. 

Size, 1-6. Struck in silver, to commemorate the engagement of a 
detachment of Limerick Militia corps of yeomanry and four curricle 
guns, under Colonel Yereker, against General Humbert, commanding the 
invading French troops and Irish insurgents. The detachment under 
Colonel Vereker's command did not exceed 300 ; though obliged to retire, 
they saved Sligo, and thus defeated Humbert's attack. 

DUBLIN SOCIETY. Seated and plumed figure of Minerva, with copia 
and shield, on which is represented a harp, surrounded by the motto, 
NOSTRI PLENA LABORis, in very large letters. Reverse, blank for engraving. 

An oval medal, struck in silver, with loop for suspension. Size, 1-7 by 
1-5. The example I have is dated 1793 ; and, from the similarity of the 
lettering used in the motto with Brush's other medals, I would ascribe it 
to the same workman who made them possibly some die-sinker or 
button-maker employed by Brush, as a matter of trade for it is not 
probable that a " jeweller and Madeira wine merchant" either fabricated 
dies or had a press for striking medals. I have a record of this medal 
being given also in 1795 to William Robertson, kindly communicated 
to me by the Secretary to the Royal Historical and Archaeological 
Association, J. G. Robertson, Esq., of Kilkenny. 



320 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 



JOHN JONES. 

JOHN JONES. This medallist would deserve slight notice except for 
his continuing to strike medals from Mossop's designs and dies after the 
death of that great artist. He is reported to have come from Liverpool, 
and commenced his career "by pulling the rope for Mossop's coining press. 
He died about 1880. At one period of his life he went to America and 
made some money. Strange stories are told of the mode in which he 
dissipated his earnings. 

QUEEN VICTORIA. Head, to left, with coronet; marked, in small 
letters on the neck, JONES. F. 

An unfinished die, copied from the head on army medals, and 
purchased with other dies by Mr. Woodhouse. I have a lead proof. 
Size, 1-6. 

O'CoNNELL. Head and bust, to right, D O'CONNELL ESQ* M p THE 
UNDAUNTED ASSEETOE OF IEELANDS EIGHTS; below the bust, in small letters, 
JONES. Reverse. Figure of Hibernia, seated, with spear and cap of 
Liberty. EMANCIPATION OBTAINED APEIL 13. 1829. In exergue, JONES F. 

The portrait is copied from Mossop's medal of O'Connell, of reduced 
size. The reverse is an unblushing appropriation of Mossop's reverse 
for the Centenary of the House of Hanover, with the addition of a spear 
and cap of Liberty, and a risen sun substituted for that rising above 
the ocean. I have a bronze medal and white metal proof. Size, 2-0. 

O'CONNELL (No. 2). Head and bust, as last. Reverse. O'CONNELL 

EUTHVEN & EEPEAL OF THE LEGISLATIVE UNION, Within Wreath.8 of 

shamrocks. 

Size, 2*0. I have examples in bronze and white metal. 

O'CONNELL (No. 3). Obverse as last. Reverse. An urn, with flames 
at top ; and at the sides weeping willows, rising from a pedestal ; in- 
scribed, D O'CONNELL BOEN AUG 6 TH 1775 DIED MAY 15 1847 ; and in 
exergue, JONES DUBLIN. 

Size, 2-0. In white metal, which I have. 

OEANGE MEDAL. William the Third, on horse. A repetition of 
Mossop's medal, with JONES . F in exergue. Reverse. Royal arms, with 
lion and unicorn ; KING AND CONSTITUTION, at upper part of medal. Lower 
portion blank. Also struck from a Mossop die. 

Size, 1'7. Bronze. 

OEANGE MEDAL (No. 2). William, on horseback. THE GLOEIOUS ANI> 
IMMOETAL MEMOEY. In exergue, JONES . F. Reverse. Royal arms, KINO 
AND CONSTITUTION ; and below, JONES F. 

Size, 1-4. This I have, struck in bronze and white metal. The 
obverse is Mossop's die. The reverse, one of his dies re-hubbed with 
trifling variations. 

OEANGE MEDAL (No. 3). In centre, a bust of William, in armour, to 
left. Two rows of inscriptions ; outside, PEOTESTANT CONFEDEEATION 

1360 1535 1688 1801 

NON NOS SED GEATIA DEI ; within, WICKLIFF, EEFOEMATION, WILLIAM, UNION 



ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 321 

beneath the head, in minute letters, JONES F. Reverse. An open Bible, 
with rays, HOLY BIBLE 4 OCT 1535. 1 PE. CH 2. vs 17, within a tri- 
angle ; ORDER, LOVE, TRUTH, at the sides ; around all, a garter ; and above 
a Royal crown. 

Size, 2-0. In white metal, of which I have an impression ; and in 
bronze, in the Royal Irish Academy. 

IRISH CONSTABULARY MEDAL. Harp, with Imperial crown; under- 
neath are wreaths of oak and shamrock ; REWARD OF MERIT. IRISH CON- 
STABULARY. Reverse. Blank, with wreaths of olive and shamrock. 

Size, 1*5. Presented in silver to officers and men, who distinguished 
themselves during the Fenian disturbances in 1868, by the Lord 
Lieutenant. I have a white metal proof. 

ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF IRELAND. A harp, crowned ; and 
underneath, in small letters, INSTITUTED 1841. Reverse. Blank, with 
wreaths of palm, olive, and oak; underneath, JONES. 

Size, 1*5. The impression in my cabinet is in white metal. It was 
issued in silver. 

NORTH-EAST SOCIETY OF IRELAND. Cattle, with view of distant hills ; 
in exergue, ESTABLISHED | 1826. Reverse. A blank centre, with corn 
wreaths, and above, ADJUDGED TO. JONES, in small letters, inscribed on 
both sides. 

Size, 2'0. I have fine bronze proofs. Dean Dawson designates this 
as his " premium medal." If really his own handiwork, it is well 
finished and deserving of the dean's praise, being in taste and execution 
a very beautiful performance. 

FARMING SOCIETY. Is inscribed beneath wreaths of corn, with blank 
centre for inscription. Reverse, also blank, with a plough at upper part, 
and, in small letters, JONES F. 

Size, 1-6. Struck in silver. That which I have is engraved 
"Tipperary Union, 1856." 

TEMPERANCE MEDAL. Shield, with lamb and IHS; above, a cross, 
with rays. Supporters, a man and woman with banners, inscribed, 
SOBRIETY DOMESTIC COMFORT. The man is being crowned by a flying angel, 
underneath are two seated children, with shamrock, rose, and thistle. 
Inscription, IN HOC SIGNO VINCES. In exergue, in small letters, JONES. 
Reverse. A cross inscribed with the temperance vow, and FOUNDED 10 
APRIL, 1838. Around are the words, THE TOTAL ABSTINENCE SOCIETY OF 

IRELAND. THE VERY REV D T MATHEW PRESIDENT. 

Size, 1-7. Struck in silver. Engraved around the edge of this 
medal is, PRESENTED TO DAVID M HENNESSY BY THE VERY REV D THEOBALD 
MATHEW OCT R 1841. Imitating the regal example of giving a medal to 
persons who sought relief from " king's evil," Father Mathew, too, 
liberally decorated those he wished to rescue from a far worse affliction ; 
his liberality entailed disastrous results, leading to such difficulties as 
shortened the life of this most estimable man. I have a manuscript 
volume, compiled from original letters and documents by his private 
secretary of all the proceedings of the temperance movement under Father 



322 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 

Mathew. Jones struck other temperance medals, with slight differences 
in the inscriptions. 

TEMPERANCE MEDAL. Similar to last, but both figures are being 
crowned by angels ; and in exergue, JONES DUBLIN. 
Size, 1*3. I have a silver impression. 

SCHOOL MEDAL. I have a bronze medal, withMossop's inscription of 
Barrett and Bernes' school ; and on the reverse are olive wreaths, with 
blank centre ; marked, in small letters, JONES. 

Size, T6. Struck in bronze. It was probably struck as a show- 
piece or pattern by Jones. 

SCHOOL MEDAL. A copy of Mossop's seated Minerva, with MERIT HAS 
ITS REWARD ; in exergue, JONES. Reverse. Wreaths, same as last- 
described medal. 

Size, 1'6. I have a bronze impression. 

SCHOOL MEDAL. A group of globe, lyre, books, &c. ; marked in 
exergue, JONES. Reverse. Blank centre, with wreaths as last. 
Size, 1*7. The impression I have is a bronze proof. 

SCHOOL MEDAL. Smaller size, similar to last ; also a bronze proof 
impression. Size, 1*5. 

The design on obverse of these medals I would attribute to Mossop, 
junior. 

IRISH MISSIONARY | SCHOOL | BALLiNASLOE [ MATT 9. 27. 28. Inscribed 
within olive wreaths. 

This die was purchased by Mr. "Woodhouse with the residue of Mr. 
Jones's stock, containing a large number of the Mossop dies. I do not 
know the history of this medal, of which I have only a lead impression. 
It has every appearance of being executed by one of the Mossops. 
Size, 1-6. 

ACADEMIC INSTITUTE. REV JA" RICE, PRINCIPAL, inscribed around centre, 
which bears the words, FOR DISTINGUISHED ANSWERING IN AT EXAMINA- 
TION HELD . Reverse. Mossop's die for the Feinaglian Institution, 
with his name removed from the pillar, and JONES substituted. 

Size, 1-7. I have a white metal proof. 



GEORGE MILLS. 

An English artist, born 1793. He received three gold medals from 
the Society of Arts, and was an exhibitor at the Koyal Academy from 
1816 to 1823. He executed several of Mudie's series of national medals ; 
also patterns for coins, and died at Birmingham, 28th January, 1824. 
There is one Irish medal which he fabricated, and the reverse for 
B. Wyon's medal of George lY.'s visit to Ireland. 

LISMORE SCHOOL. A view of the castle and woods at Lismore rising 
above the river, with distant bridge, &c. In the exergue, in minute 



ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 323 

letters, MILLS . r. Reverse. Inscribed, ALUMNO | SCHOLJE LISMORIENSIS | 

OB LITERAS | FELICITER EXCTTLTAS | GULIELMUS DUX DEVONI^] | D.D. Around 

this is a plain ring, and outside, in upper part, SUNT HIC ETIAM STJA 

PR.EMIA LAUDI. 

Size, 2-25. I have an electrotype of this medal, copied from one 
struck in copper. A specimen was sold, April, 1878, with the duplicate 
medals of the Bank of England. 



THE WYONS. 

This distinguished family of die-sinkers have contributed some 
valuable dies to the series of Irish medals, a record of which is indispens- 
able in describing the history of these productions. 

THOMAS WYON, junior, was born in 1792, at Birmingham, his family 
being of German descent. He was educated in London and apprenticed 
to his father, who was engraver of his Majesty's seals; and, under the 
training of Mr. K". Marchand, he acquired a correct taste for the antique. 
He obtained the medals of the Royal Academy, and premiums from the 
Society of Arts, for whom he engraved the head of Isis, which was 
utilised for their prize medal. At the early age of 16 years he made his 
first medallic die, for a medal given to Lieutenant Pearson, R. N., for 
saving life, presented by a society of ladies. In 1811 he was appointed 
probationary engraver, and in 1815, chief engraver to the Mint. He 
died September 22, 1817, aged 25 years. A memoir and list of his 
principal works is contained in the Gentleman's Magazine for February, 
1818, and another account published in Mr. Sainthill's Olla-podrida. 

CORK BRUNSWICK CENTENARY MEDAL. A finely-modelled head of 
George III. to right, laureated ; THE ILLUT* HOUSE OF BRUNSWICK ASC D THE 
THRONE OF G T BRITAIN AUG T 1 T 1714 ; and underneath the neck of bust, in 
minute letters, T WYON JUN. s. Reverse, inscribed THE | CENTENARY | OF 

THE ACC W OF THE | HOUSE OF BRUNSWICK | TO THE THRONE OF | GREAT 
BRITAIN | WAS CELEBRATED IN THE | CITY OF CORK | ON THE 1 T 2 D & 3 D OF 
AUG T 1814 [ IN THE 54 H Y R OF THE REIGN | OF KING GEORGE THE 3 D | S R 

DAVID PERRIER | MAYOR. The entire surrounded by a broad wreath of 
shamrocks. 

Size, 2'0. Struck in bronze. Mr. Sainthill gives the following 
account of this medal : " The Corporation of Cork having determined to 
celebrate the anniversary of the Centenary of the Accession of the House 
of Brunswick to the Throne by three days' public rejoicing, I suggested 
to Sir D. Perrier to have a medal struck to record the event and to wear 
on the occasion. Sir David immediately acceded to the plan, and 
authorized me to invite Mr. Wyon to engrave one with his Majesty's 
bust from Marchand's" (see Mr. Sainthill's Olla-podrida, vol. i., p. 29, 
where there is an engraving of the obverse of the medal). I have an 
impression with the blue ribbon and rosette used when worn, still 
remaining attached. 

BENJAMIN WYON, born in London, in 1802 ; a younger brother of 
Thomas "Wyon, under whom he studied. He succeeded his father as 
engraver of the Eoyal seals, and engraved the Great Seal of William the 



324 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 

Fourth, the Crimean medal, and several other important works. He died 
November, 1858. 

VISIT OF GEORGE THE FOURTH TO IRELAND. Head of George IY. to 
left ; in minute letters on the neck, B WYON. Inscription, GEORGIUS mi 
D G BRITANNIARUM REX FD. Reverse. George is represented landing in 
full court dress, with cocked hat in hand, greeted by a female with harp 
and wolf-dog ; behind her are some distant buildings to represent Dublin ; 
and the boat from which the king steps bears a Royal standard. In 
the exergue, IN COMMEMORATION OF HIS MAJESTYS | MOST GRACIOUS VISIT TO 
IRELAND I 1821 I w HAMY DiREX. This medal is marked, MILLS F, at 
side. 

Size, 2'1. This medal was got up by the firm of Hamy and Mann, 
silversmiths in Dublin. Wyon's work the head of George IV. is well 
designed and executed. The reverse of the medal was made by George 
Mills, who executed many celebrated medals, such as those of Sir John 
Moore, "Watt, Chantry, &c. The reverse, like all Mills' work, is well 
done, but the design was probably the idea of some amateur ; at all 
events, the fat and smiling Adonis, in full court dress, who pays his 
addresses to the young and rather demonstrative lady, is vulgar and 
quite unworthy of commemorating a Royal visit. 

I have a bronze impression, the edge of which is inscribed, IRISH 
COPPER FROM THE MINES IN THE COUNTY OF wiCKLow, in small letters ; and 
also a white metal one without this inscription. 

WICKLOW AGRICULTURAL MEDAL. Thus inscribed in exergue. A sheep 
on a grassy hill, with, in front, a plough; WYON, in small letters, to left 
Reverse. Blank centre, with olive wreaths. 

Size, 1*7. There is a bronze proof in the Museum of the Royal Irish 
Academy, and also another copy of the medal without the name of Wyon. 

LEONARD CHARLES WYON, born in 1 826 ; he studied his art under tho 
tuition of his father, William W T yon, R. A., whom he succeeded as modeller 
and engraver to the Mint in 1851. He has executed most of the military 
and naval medals struck since his appointment, and also several series of 
colonial and foreign coinages. 

RICHARD SAINTHILL, OF TOPSHAM, DEVONSHIRE, NUMISMATIST, BORN 
JAN. 28, 1787. Thus inscribed around a portrait of Mr. Sainthill; be- 
neath the neck is the date 1835, and, in minute letters, L c WYON FT. 
Reverse. Three emblematic figures ; Numismata, typified by a female, 
standing, who draws back a curtain and reveals an aged man, the emblem 
of time past, seated on a treasure box, marked with inscribed square and 
Greek letters ; in front, a young female, emblematic of present time, joins 
hands with the central figure. In exergue, NUMISMATA, and in small 
letters, L c w. Inscription, HERALDING THE PRESENT. RESTORING THE PAST. 

Size, 2*4. This is an extremely beautiful example of what a good 
medal should be. The figures, which are in low relief, are engraved in 
superior style, and the portrait of Mr. Sainthill leaves nothing to be 
desired. I owe my impression to the kindness of Alderman Day, of Cork, 
who obtained it from Mr. Sainthill's relatives. It was struck for private 
distribution by the well known author of Olla-podrida, a learned numis- 
matist and genealogist. The impression is a bronze proof. 



ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 325 

REV D . THEOBALD MATHEW. A bust of Father Mathew to the shoulders, 
draped. Reverse. A kneeling crowd, which is blessed by him. Inscription, 

HE REASONED ON TEMPERANCE. 

Size, 2-4. ^ Struck in bronze, and probably in silver. I have no im- 
pression of this medal. My description is therefore less full than I could 
wish. The bust was modelled from life, by L. C. Wyon, when in Cork, 
in 1846. See Sainthill's Olla-podrida, vol. n., p. 405. 

JOSEPH SHEPHERD WYON, son of Benjamin Wyon, born 1836. His first 
important medal was a likeness of James Watt, and subsequently he 
engraved the great Seal of England for Queen Victoria, and that of 
Canada. He succeeded his father as chief engraver to the Mint in 1858, 
and died August, 1873. 

A. B. WYON, also a son of Benjamin Wyon. 

TRINITY COLLEGE GREEK MEDAL, BERKELEY PRIZE. The arms of 
Trinity College on a shield. Above a portcullis, and at the sides Tudor 
roses; all on a diapered ground, semee, with shamrocks. Inscription, 
THIN : COL : DUBLIN * vos EXEMPLARiA GBAECA*. Reverse. A horse (Pe- 
gasus ?) in full flight AIEN API2TEYEIN. In exergue, G*B | 1752. 
In minute letters to right, J s & A B WYON. s c. 

Size, 1-5. Issued struck in gold as the " Berkeley Prize." I have a 
white metal proof . This medal was made about 1867. It is reported 
that when it reached Ireland the Greek P was found represented by a 
Roman R, which had to be altered before issuing the medal. 

The above medal was struck to replace worn-out dies of BISHOP 
BERKELEY'S GREEK PREMIUM, founded in A. D. 1734. It represents a 
galloping horse, and has for motto, AIEN API2TEYEIN. Reverse. 
A laurel wreath, and the words, vos EXEMPLA-RIA-GRAECA. 

Described and figured in the British Museum Catalogue. It is a 
rare medal. In the year 1751 Dr. Berkeley ordered his initials, G. B., 
to be placed under the horse ; and the name of the medallist was also 
added, KIRK FEC T . Next year he gave the dies to Trinity College, with 
120 to strike two gold medals annually. These were given to Middle 
Bachelors, attending the Greek Lectures of the Regius Professor of 
Divinity, until 1856. Since this time they are awarded, by examina- 
tion, open to all candidates. 

STEETEN'S HOSPITAL MEDAL. JAMES WILLIAM CUSACK BORN 1788 DIED 
1861. Bust to right, in high relief, and, in minute letters underneath, 
j s WYON s c. Reverse. A view of the front of the hospital, inscribed 
above, D B STEEVENS HOSPITAL DUBLIN. In the exergue are two shields with 
armorials, and the letters CUSACK PRIZE FOUNDED 1861. Underneath 
the building, to right, in small lettering, j s WYON s c. 

Size, 3*1. I possess a bronze proof impression. 

This is an excellent likeness of Dr. Cusack, in whose School of Medi- 
cine, in Park-street, I studied my medical and surgical work, and had the 
privilege of commencing life as his colleague in teaching and lecturing 
my former fellow-students. His connexion with the school at that time was 
confined to delivering a course on practical operative surgery, and I still 
remember his addresses, .distinguished as they were by sound informa- 
tion, conveyed in a manner that rendered his slightest words of invaluable 
worth. 



326 ON THE MEDALLISTS OF IRELAND AND THEIR WORK. 

AWARDED BY THE BOARD OF INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION, IRELAND. In 
centre a shield with harp and Imperial crown above it, surrounded by 
trefoil arches, the lower ones bearing shamrocks, and, in minute letters, j s 
& A B . WTON ; outside are ornaments and shamrocks. Reverse. A very 
wide border of olive leaves and shamrocks, en closing a space the size of a 
shilling for inscription ; at the lower part the names of the artists in 
minute letters. 

Size, 2-2. Struck in silver, weighing upwards of two ounces. 

GALLE. 

This distinguished French medallist must be mentioned in connexion 
with his medal of Henry Grattan. 

HENRY GRATTAN. "Bust, draped to right, inscribed with the name, 
marked in small letters, GALLE, F. Reverse. IN MEMORY | OF | THE SHORT 
PERIOD | OF | IRELAND'S INDEPENDENCE ; and then follow two lines, i SAT 

AT ITS CRADLE | I FOLLOWED ITS HEARSE | GRATTAN. 

Size, 2'0. I have an impression in bronze. 

Dr. R. R. Madden, in his sale Catalogue, 1860, states that sixty medals 
only were struck before the die broke ; but in Moore's Diary we read : 

" October, 1821 Went to Mossop,the medallist, who did the fine head 
of Grattan, from which Denon is having a model taken for me (Memoirs, 
vol. in., p. 285). And, again : 

" Paris, May, 1822 Denon told me that the medal of Grattan was 
nearly finished. By-the-bye, when Lord Holland was in Paris, I men- 
tioned the plan I had for ten persons subscribing five pounds each to have 
a medal inscribed," &c. (Memoirs, vol. in., p. 352). In the diary, under 
September 23, 1822, mention is made of a visit to Denon's, to pay the 
medallist one thousand francs, the price agreed for the medal ; but the 
medallist insisted on fifty louis, and was paid that sum, in English money 
about 50. Finally, in the Diary, 28th October, 1822, Moore mentions 
having gone to the Mint, received his fifty medals, and having the " die 
broken"! (Memoirs, vol. in., p. 12.) 

It is difficult to refrain from stigmatizing these extracts in the terms 
they deserve ; from beginning to end they exhibit Moore's conceited igno- 
rance and blundering stupidity. He deliberately visits an Irish artist, 
fully the equal of Galle, appropriates one of his beautiful creations the 
head of Henry Grattan and carries it off to have a replica executed in 
France, of somewhat larger size, and pays a French artist for aiding him 
in this act of plunder, whilst an Irish genius who made the work was 
starving for want of proper recognition. I have both medals before me, 
and that of Galle is simply a replica of Mossop's original handiwork. 

BORREL. 

DANIEL O'CONNELL. Portrait to left. In small letters, under neck, the 
artist's name. Reverse. IL NE DOIT | PLUS ETRE FAIT | DE DISTINCTION | 

ENTRE LE PEUPLE | D*ANGLETERRE j ET CELUI | D'lRLANDE | O'CONNELL. 

Size, 1. Struck in a pale golden bronze. I have an impression. The 
portrait is well engraven, but not a likeness of O'Connell. It is one of the 
few medals, referring to Irishmen, struck in France. 



( 327 ) 

TYRONE HISTORY. 
BY J. CARMICHAEL-FEERALL, HON. LOCAL SECRETARY, Co. TYRONE. 

THE following curious facts relating to the period immediately 
succeeding the colonization of Ulster are taken in the main from a book 
published in 1811, and called "A Breefe Memoriall" of Dr. James 
Spottiswood, taken from a MS. in the library of Auchinleck, in Scotland, 
edited by A. B. (one of the Bos wells of that* place and grandson of Lord 
Auchinleck). We are informed that Lord Balfour, second son of Sir 
James Balfour, of Pittendreich, &c., in Fife, had obtained from Sir 
Thomas Ridge waye (afterwards Lord Ridge waye) a mortgage of the Castle 
and Demesne of Augher; that, having been in debt to the Bishop, he offered 
him them for 800, which the Bishop having neither lands nor housea 
left him by his predecessor accepted ; and as Sir James Areskin (Erskine) 
came over with a blank grant to make some nobleman an earl, about this 
time, a bargain was struck, whereby the reversion in the mortgage was 
sold to Sir James and 2500 acres in possession, adjacent to the castle 
Sir James to assure Lord Ridgewaye of the honour. Bishop Spottiswood 
had then only two children, a son and a daughter ; so Sir James, by Lord 
Balfour's advice, made overtures to marry his son to the Bishop's 
daughter, on whom he would settle the lands of Augher ; but as the 
contract was about to be drawn up, Sir James made such extravagant 
demands that it was broken off. However, one day when the Bishop had 
company at dinner, and his wife was attending her sick son, the Erskines 
bribed a maid to bring Miss Spottiswood to the street, and they enticed 
her to Sir James's room, where a debased minister celebrated the 
marriage. Lord Balfour's part in this was little suspected by the 
Bishop, and he advised the Bishop to marry his son to the niece of 
Viscount Valentia discoursing much on Sir James's decayed estate and 
he succeeded in his plan, though it seems he had no good will to either 
the Bishop or his children. The Bishop's life seems to have been embittered 
by quarrels with different people, and among others Sir John Wimbes, 
who owed him some rent. Unfortunately a scuffle took place between 
some of Sir John's and some of the Bishop's retainers, in which Sir John 
was mortally wounded. Sir William Cole came to Portora, where the 
Bishop then was ; and after a good deal of talking, the Bishop, for peace 
sake, entered into a recognizance for 1000, and his son, Mr. Archibald 
Erskine, for 500, for the appearance of the servants at the assizes. The 
servants were induced not to appear; so he lost the case: besides which, when 
he appeared before the judges Lord Angiers, the Master of the Rolls, and 
Mr. Philpott they intimated to him to forbear sitting with them on the 
bench ; and when he asked if they would have divine service before they 
began, they professed themselves indifferent, and the Bishop, after several 
persons including one Mr. Hatton, curate of Clogher and tutor to Sir 
William Stewart's children had refused to preach before them, preached 
himself. The recognizances, having been estreated, were granted under 
the English Great Seal to James Carmichael, carver to the King (after- 
wards Lord Carmichael of Carmichael, in Lanarkshire), by patent, which 
was brought by his son William (afterwards master of Carmichael) to 
Dublin, and sold to the Bishop in Trinity Term, 1627. Next year the 
Bishop began to settle himself at Clogher, which had originally two 

4TH 8BR., VOL. VIII. 2 ^ 



328 TYRONE HISTORY. 

churches and a good number of inhabitants, but had been ruined in the 
late wars so much so that when he came to reside there, some ten or 
twelve poor people living in huts, patched up with scraws or wattles, 
constituted its sole population. The Bishop began to build in the above 
year a house for himself, to repair the church, build an inn, stables, 
barns, kiln, mill, &c. The income he had from the Bishopric was worth 
1500 a-year, after getting in various outlying lands of the See, i.e,, 
Devenish Island, in Lough Erne, from Lord Hastings, and Inishmore 
Island from Sir Ealph Gore, Bart. ; as also the Quarter of Drumkenna- 
dagh. He died in 1664, having had besides his son above alluded to, Sir 
Henry and Mrs. Erskine three other children, James, Elizabeth, and 
Mary, of whom the latter married Abraham Creighton, Esq., ancestor of 
the Erne family, connected (the editor of the MS. supposed) through the 
Creightons of Lugton to the Bishop on his mother's side. 

LIST OF REPRESENTATIVES OF TYRONE IN PARLIAMENT. 

1613. Sir Thomas Ridgway, Knight and Bart. (Treasurer at War), 
Tor Mohan, Devon. 

Sir Francis Roe, Knight, Mount joy. 
1634. Sir James Ereskyn, Knight, Favour Royal. 

Sir Henry Tichborne, Knight, Blessingborne. 
1639. Toby Caulfield, Esq., Charlemont, Armagh. 

Audley Mervyn, Esq., Castle Mervyn. 
1661. Sir Audley Mervyn, Knight, Castle Mervyn. 

Sir Arthur Forbes, Bart, Castle Forbes, Longford. 
1692. Henry Mervyn, Esq., Trillick. 

James Hamilton, Esq., Donalonge. 
1695. Henry Mervyn, Esq., Trillick. 

James Hamilton, Esq., Donalonge. 
1703. Richard Stewart, Esq. 

Audley Mervyn, Esq. 
1713. Richard Stewart, Esq. 

Audley Mervyn, senior, Esq. 
1715. Audley Mervyn, Esq, after deceased. 

Charles Stewart, Esq. 

Audley Mervyn, Esq. 
1727. Hon Richard Stewart. 

Henry Mervyn, Esq. 

Robert Lindsay, Esq., in place of Hon. Richard Stewart, 
deceased. 

Hon. James Stewart, in place of Hon. Robert Lindsay, Justice 
of Common Pleas. 

Galbraith Lowry, Esq., in place of Henry Mervyn, Esq. 

"William Stewart, Esq., in place of Hon. Jas. Stewart, deceased. 
1761. Galbraith Lowry, Esq. 

"William Stewart, Esq. 
1769. Armar Lowry Corry, Esq. 

James Stewart, Esq. 
1776. Armar Lowry Corry, Esq. 

James Stewart, Esq. 

Nathaniel Montgomery, Esq., in place of Armar Lowry Corry, 
created Lord Baron Belmore. 



TYRONE HISTORY. 329 

1783. James Stewart, Esq. 

Nathaniel Montgomery, Esq. 
1790. James Stewart, Esq., of Killymoon. 

Hon. Thomas Knox. 
1798. James Stewart, Esq. 

Hon. Somerset Lowry Corry, commonly called Lord Viscount 
Corry. 

John Stewart, Esq., of Athenree, county Tyrone, vice Viscount 

Corry, created Earl of Belmore. 
1802. James Stewart, Esq., of Killymoon. 

John Stewart, Esq., of Athenree. 

1806. James Stewart, Esq., of Killymoon. 
Thomas Knox, Esq., Dungannon. 

1807. James Stewart, Esq., Killymoon. 
Thomas Knox, Esq., of Dungannon. 

1812. Thomas Knox, Esq., of Dungannon. 

Sir John Stewart, Bart., of Bally gawley. 
1818. Sir John Stewart, Bart., Greenhill, county Tyrone. 

William Stewart, Esq., Killymoon. 
1820. Sir John Stewart, Bart., Greenhill. 

"William Stewart, Esq., Killymoon. 
1825. "William Stewart, Esq., Killymoon. 

Henry Thomas Lowry Corry, Esq., of Athenis, county Tyrone, 
and Castlecoole, county Fermanagh, vice Sir John Stewart, 
accidentally killed. 

1830. Henry Corry, Esq., of Castlecoole, county Fermanagh. 
Sir Hugh Stewart, Bart., Ballygawley. 

1831. Sir Hugh Stewart. 
Henry Corry, Esq. 

1833. Henry Thomas Lowry Corry, Esq., of Aughenis. 

Sir Hugh Stewart, Bart., of Ballygawley. 
1835. Lord Claud Hamilton, Baronscourt. 

Henry Thomas Lowry Corry, Esq., of Castlecoole. 
1837. Henry Thomas Lowry Corry, Esq. 

Lord James Du Pre Alexander, Viscount Alexander. 
1839. Lord Claud Hamilton, vice Viscount Alexander, created Earl 

of Caledon. 

1841. Henry Thomas Lowry Corry, Esq. 
1841-68. Lord Claud Hamilton. 

1873. Captain William Lowry Corry, Castlecoole, vice Henry Thomas 

Lowry Corry, Esq., deceased. 

1874. J. W. Ellison Macartney, Esq. 
Captain William H. Lowry Corry. 

1880. J. W. Ellison Macartney, Esq. 
Edward F. Litton, Esq., Dublin. 

1881. Thomas Dickson, Esq., Dungannon. 

I would also call the attention of the Association to the following copy 
of a letter, written in 1665, by Rev. Andrew Stewart, minister of 
Donaghadee, to his cousin, Robert Stewart, of the Irry, High Sheriff of 
Tyrone, the original of which my friend Canon Grainger will, I trust, be 
induced to show us at some future time : 

" Worshipfull Cusin, The infirmity of body which of ten holds me at 

2A2 



330 TYRONE HISTORY. 

this tyme of the yer, the hadness of the waye, and length of the 
journey, have concurred to forbid my own travell at this tyme ; but 
because I have had notice of my unckle's death and that he was pleased 
to remembr that I was a Kinsman, I have sent the bearer, my own boy, 
Alexander Crookshankes, to carry this testamony of my respect to you 
and all other my friends whom I can noe other wayes respect in my 
present condition, but to love and honour and wish you weel. And I 
shall profess this hourly in God's sight there could not any earthly 
thing be mere acceptable to me nor the happyness and welfare of all 
my friends especially of yourself and your neerest relations and if I could 
I would set you on the way to it, but the Lord hath barred up my way 
that I cannot I may not I dare not be usefull as I would to you or any 
else. Meantyme dearest cusin you have had in your short tyme many 
examples which may be commentaryes to the word of God (and I ame not 
doubtful you make that chiefly your study). You have much good 
example from many to imitate and much bad example also not to follow 
but to escue and I hop God hath given you grace to chuse the good and 
escue the evil which if you do God will bless you above the blessings of 
your fathers who are now at their rest. I pray you labour to be upright 
with God and downright with men and let religion and reason guide your 
counsels and advyces. Thus you shall have the blessings of your fathers 
fulfilled in your own person. Your greatgrandfather and his father my 
Lord of Ochiltree 1 were eminent seekers of God. Your own grandfather 
I think surely had surely the fear of God whatever hum' preveald 
and your own father I can witness how much inward light and conviction 
was in him a man whom I highly pryced yet wer ther som things in all 
these which you would avoyd, and the Lord bless you so as to walk in this 
way. I have heard that my unckle has devoted 20 to me as a token of 
his love at his death, and I hop I need noe mor, but to send my boy for 
it since you are there, whoes justice and kyndness will see that part of 
his test executed with the first. If y u need acquittance, Mr. John 
Abernethie will satisfie you. My unckle also promised me the written 
book, q r in he observed many thing may be he hath forgot; but I ame 
even fully confident that though he had left it to somebody else you will 
procure it and send it to mee as being more useful for mee than almost to 
any others of his so neer relations, and if thear be any other books of his 
which you think might be fittly bestowed on mee, leave it upon yourself; 
and now, dear cusin, I need say no more, but the Lord sanctifie all our 
case and carriage, and make us the remnant of that poor family to serve 
him in feare. Remember my best respects to your wife, though I have 
not seen her, and the Lord himself guyd you in your privat and publyk 
employments. My love to all your brethren and sisters. The Lord be 
with you. I rest, sir, your respectiv cousin, 

"A. STEWART. 
" Killathies, Feby. 19, 1665." 

(Stewarts of Castle Stewwt, pp. 243, 244.) 



1 This was Andrew, 2nd Lord, com- minds one of Obadiah ; one of the leading 
monly called "the Good Lord Ochiltree," characteristics of Lord Ochiltree being to 
whose position in the court politics re- do right, impugn it who list. 



TYRONE HISTORY. 331 

Memoranda taken from a MS. book in the writing of Andrew Car- 
michael, Provost of Dungannon ; some extracts from it have already 
appeared in the Journal, R.H.A.A.I., the last of which related to the 
appointment of a Public Lapper. The following is the certificate of 
Robert Lowry, Esq., J.P. for county Tyrone, about the character, &c., 
of William Holmes, who had been appointed : 

" I do hereby certify that I have diligently enquired into the character 
of the above-named Win. Holms, Dealer in Linnen Cloath, and find him 
to be a person truly deserving the character given him in y e above certificate. 
I have likewise enquired into the character of the persons whose names 
are subscribed to the above certificate and find them to be Inhabitants in 
the county of Tyrone, and that they are either weavers, Bleachers, or 
Dealers in Linnen Cloth, and men of good Reputation and Credit in their 
Dealings, as witness my hand this 1 st Day of Feb., 1719." 

The following is the preamble of a pleading in the Court Equity Ex- 
chequer, which, as the Court is extinct, may be of interest. 

" To the R* Hon ble the Chancellor, Treasurer, Lord Chief Baron, and 
the Rest of the Barons in His Ma tie " Court of Exchequer in Ireland, In 
most humble manner complaining sheweth unto yo r Hon rs your suppliant 
and daily orator, James Smith, of Dunmore, in the county of Roscommon, 
Esq r , His Ma tie " Debtor and Farmer, as may appear by the Receipt of His 
Ma tiei Excheq r , etc." 



( 332 ) 



REPORT FOR COUNTY LONDONDERRY. 

BY JOHN BROWNE, M.R.I.A. 
Hon. Local Secretary. 

I WISH to draw the attention of the members of this Association to the 
fact that the lulldn stone, known as " St. Columba's Font," and which 
was originally in the graveyard connected with the old church of Desert- 
Toghill, near Garvagh, county Londonderry, has by some means been 
removed, and now rests in an adjoining field. Desertoghill or Desert 
Otwarchyll O'Tuohill's Desert is so called from the family that for- 
merly resided there : Rory More O'Tuohill is traditionally remembered as 
the last chieftain. Their descendants (now called Toghills) are still to be 
found in this part of the country. 1 St. Columbkill is stated to have here 
founded an abbey, which afterwards became parochial. In the Topo- 
graphical Dictionary , published by Lewis, is the following reference to 
the font now in question : " A curious stone, wherein are two small and 
rude fonts considered by the peasantry to be the impress of the knees of 
St. Columbkill, while praying stands in the churchyard." 

The question suggests itself to me, could these bulldn stones have been 
intended for the reception of exposed children ? For as far back as the time 
of Justinian houses of mercy for children were founded by him. The 
churches and church charities became refuges for this unfortunate class, 
and Christian charity attempted to alleviate the great evil which the law 
could not correct, nor the usual spirit of humanity prevent. A marble 
vessel was provided for exposed infants at the door of each church ; but at 
a later age this simple provision of humanity was imitated in a manner 
which produced great evils in the well-known " turning slide" (tour) of 
French asylums for foundlings. In that time of cruelty and hardness, 
however, the church receptacle was for these infants the alternative to 
servitas aut lupanur. 

Any of the members of our Association who have visited Belfast are, 
no doubt, acquainted with the appearance of St. George's Church, at the 
foot of the High Street in that town. The portico is all that remains of 
Ballyscullion House. I may mention that Ballyscullion is a parish partly 
in the barony of Upper Toome, county Antrim, but chiefly in that of 
Loughinsholin, county Londonderry. The splendid palace, built by the 
Earl of Bristol, when Bishop of Derry, was scarcely finished at his Lord- 
ship's death, and it was taken down and the materials sold : the only 
portion that had been preserved entire being the beautiful portico, which 
was purchased by Dr. Alexander, Bishop of Down and Connor, who pre- 
sented it to the parish of St. George, Belfast, as an ornament to that 
church. 

Being Honorary Local Secretary of our Association for the county 
Londonderry, but living on the borders of the county Tyrone, I was 
invited by the Rector of Desertcreight Desert-da- Chrioch (F. M.), the 
11 Hermitage of the Two Territories " to visit his rectory, situated at the 
foot of Tullyhogue Fort, and known as Ballymully Glebe. During the 
spring of 1886, a lawn-tennis court was being made at the Rectory, and 

1 See Bishop Reeves' Cotton' t Vititation of the Diocese of Derry. 



REPORT FOR COUNTY LONDONDERRY. 333 

the men employed in levelling the ground came upon a covered passage, 
which apparently ran in the direction of the fort. They removed a few of 
the stones forming this souterrain, and in so doing found an iron spear- 
head and a piece of glass, along with some human bones. Unfortunately 
the men could not be induced to follow up this passage. The spearhead 
and piece of glass I now have the pleasure of exhibiting to the present 
meeting through our Executive Secretary, W. F. Wakeman. 

At Donerisk, in the parish of Desertcreight, stood the priory of that 
name, founded, in 1294, by one of the O'Hagan family. Of this priory 
nothing remains but the cemetery, remarkable as the burial-place of the 
sept of O'Hagan, and more recently as that of the ancient family of 
Lindesay and Crawford, of whom there are several tombs, the most 
remarkable being that of Robert Lindesay, chief harbinger of King 
James. This Robert obtained from James I., in 1604, the grant of Tully- 
hogue, &c., where, and at Loughry, the family have ever since resided. 
Their house and documents were burnt during the civil war of 1641 ; the 
tomb was also mutilated and covered over, and in that condition it re- 
mained till 1819, when, in sinking a vault, it was discovered. Numerous 
ornaments of gold, silver, and copper, also various military weapons, have 
been found here : the latter seem connected with the camp and fortress 
of Tullyhogue, the chief residence of the sept of O* B.a/rd/hagin, or O'Hagan, 
where the kings of Ulster, from the most remote period, were inaugurated 
with the regal title and authority of the O'Nial. 

It might not be out of place to mention that Cookstown, the post- town 
-of our district, is situated in that part of the parish of Derryloran, i. e. the 
grove or oak wood of Loran, which is in the barony of Dungannon, county 
Tyrone, and takes its name from its founder, Allan Cook, who had a lease 
for years renewable, under the See of Armagh, upon whose land the old 
town was built about 1609. It is situated on the mail road from Dun- 
gannon to Coleraine, and consists of one street more than a mile and a 
quarter long, with another street intersecting it at right angles. The 
present town was built, about the year 1750, by Mr. Stewart, its then pro- 
prietor. A patent for a market and fairs had been granted to Allan 
Cook, August 3, 1628. Closely adjoining the town is Killymoon, origi- 
nally the residence of W. Stewart, Esq., for some time the proprietor of 
the town and the land immediately adjacent. The house was built in 
the pure Saxon style, from a design of Mr. Nash, and it is situated in a 
demesne containing very fine timber. Not far distant are situated 
Loughry, the residence of Lieut.-Col. Lindesay; and Lissan, the seat of 
Sir Nathaniel Staples, Bart. Tho former demesne contains about 200 
acres, well wooded and watered by the river Loughry. The estate, as 
already mentioned, was granted, in 1604, by James I. to Sir Robert 
Lindesay, his chief harbinger, and it has ever since been the residence of 
the senior branch of that ancient family, which is among the claimants of 
the Earldom of Crawford and Lindesay. Lissan, or Lisane parish, is partly 
in the barony of Dungannon, county Tyrone, partly in that of Loughin- 
sholin, county Londonderry ; and it is bounded on the north by Slieve 
Gallion. In the war of 1641, the castle which was at that time the pro- 
perty of the Staples family, to whom it was granted at the Plantation of 
Ulster was seized by Nial O'Quin for Sir Phelim O'Nial, who plundered 
the house of Sir Thomas Staples, while rendezvousing at Moneymore 
Oastle, and he compelled the men employed in the iron- works on Lissan 
water to make pikeheads from the stores of their master. 



( 334 ) 



NOTES ON THE FRANCISCAN ABBEY, MANISTER CUINCRE, 
OR QUIN, CO. CLARE. 

BY THOMAS J. WESTROPP. 

THE most perfect of our abbeys, and one of the finest in our island, stands 
over the little stream of Rine, near the village of Quin ; the place is well 
described by Luke Wadding : 

" Exstructus est totius exmarmore polito, in Clancoelen, 
Loco amceno, ad ripam prseterlabentis rivuli." 

The name of the founder and the origin of the abbey are lost in doubt ; 
many seem to confuse the old church, Cil Cuinche, with the abbey Hamster 
Cuinche. The former is undoubtedly very ancient : it has a plain three- 
light east window, massive buttresses, and huge gutters, which bespeak 
age, as does also the record of the disastrous battle of Quin in 1278, when 
Donogh, son of Brian Roe, defeated the Earl de Clare. The Four Masters 
relate how the Irish burned the church over the heads of his people and 
caused indescribable destruction. Macgeoghegan, in his translation of 
The Annals of Clonmacnoise, adds the expression of his regret for De Clare's 
escape. The old church was taxed in 1306, 1 but little further is told 
about it. 

The abbey stands on the ruins of a very massive Norman fortress. 
The east, and originally the south wall of the church, were adapted from 
its curtain walls ; the ancient entrance exists beneath the belfry, and three 
half-demolished bastions are at the east and south-west corners. Foun- 
dations of buildings appear, in all directions, in the field in which the 
abbey stands. Wadding places the date of its foundation before 1350, 
and the older parts can scarcely be later than 1320. I put forward as a 
mere conjecture that the De Clares, seeing the value of Quin as a central 
station, commenced the fortress after the disaster of 1278, and that after 
their annihilation, at Dysertodea, in 1318, the Macnamaras (who had been 
confirmed in Clancullen by the O'Briens for their valuable aid) gave the 
desolate castle to the monks as a thank-offering . The latter inserted 
windows in the castle-walls, and built their church and domicile out of 
the remainder, so that little exists of the west and north flanks. Possibly 
the church belongs to the earlier, and the cloisters, &c., to the latter half 
of the fourteenth century (1318-1402), while the transept and belfry 
date from 1433, and some of the details even later. 

Sioda M'Namara, son of Maccon, and chief of Clancullen, was fond of 
building, as the church of Tulla and castle of Rosroe testified. He, in 1402, 
turned his attention to Quin, and so complete was his edification of it r 
that in popular belief, and even by annalists and antiquaries, he has been 
accounted the founder. His work was continued, in 1433, by his younger 
son, Maccon, who in that year obtained a Bull from Pope Eugeniusto 



1 " Calendar of State Papers." 



NOTES ON THE FRANCISCAN ABBEY, CO. CLARE, 33 

reform the house and establish the observant there. It was the first 
reformed convent in Ireland. A copy of the Bull is extant among Maccon's 
descendants. It became the great burial-place of the Macnamaras, instead 
of Croghane, on the hill- slopes near Bunratty and Ennis Abbey. Quin was 
dissolved in 1541, and granted two years later to Conor, Baron Ibracken, 
who, like all his family, protected the monks. Five years later 1548, 
September 18 the abbey and its grounds were granted to Teig M'Conor 
Brien and Tirlagh O'Brien of Dough. It consisted of " The precincts of 
the late house of Frances Friars at Queyne in Thomond, conteyninge 
1 acre in which is one great church now ruinose covered with sclate, 
& stepill greatlie dacied, a church & cloister & 1 great haull fower 
chambers, two cellars, & ruinous cloister, with an orchard and other 
edifices & also 1 water mill ruinose & prostrate & ten cottages in 
Queyn village." On October 2nd, 1578, Queen Elizabeth, in a letter 
from "Windsor, directs Sir Henry Sidney, the Lord Deputy, to confirm the 
Earl of Thomond in the Friaries of Ince and Cohenny (Ennis and Quin). 1 
In 1584, the friars were still in possession, possibly by the favour of the 
Earl of Thomond whom Bruodinus describes as " nominally a heretic, 
but really a Catholic at heart." In this year, December 15th, 2 it was 
renewed to Tirlagh O'Brien and his heirs, " provided they did not conspire 
with rebels." It was restored by the monks in 1604, and, in 1643, 
possessed eight hundred students ; but, in 1652, the college was broken 
up, and several of the monks executed. The monastery must have 
again revived, for in 1681 Dyneley notes it as "lately harbouring 
Friars of the Order of Seynt Francis," and his sketch shows the gables 
crowned with huge and ornate metal crosses. The monks fled to Drim, 
not far distant, where the last of them, John Hogan, died, in 1820. 

John Hooper of Dublin published an excellent engraving of the place 
in 1794, and this was republished in Grose's Antiquities. I am told 
that an order of a Vandal grand jury is extant for demolishing part of the 
ruins to mend the neighbouring roads, but this was rendered inoperative 
by the superstition (too harsh a name in this case) of the peasantry, and 
so the building was preserved to our time. It is now vested in the Board 
of Public Works, and by them most ably conserved in 1881, at a cost 
of some 1700. 



1 " State Papers." 2 MS. in Trinity College, Dublin. 



( 336 ) 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Jubilee Offering to the Queen. A very interesting presentation was 
made to Her Majesty on the occasion of her Jubilee. It consisted of an 
original Irish arrowhead, mounted in a shaft of gold, in the form of 
a brooch. The arrowhead was a beautiful specimen in mottled grey 
flint, selected for the purpose out of Mr. W. J". Knowles' large collection 
of Irish antiquities. It was one and three quarter inches long, and was 
delicately serrated at the edges, and perfect in form and shape at the 
point and the barbs. The brooch itself, with arrowhead and shaft, is 
three and three quarter inches long, and on the reverse side the letters 
Y.R.I, and the date of the Jubilee are engraved. 

The presentation, accompanied by an Address, was made by the 
members of the Bally menaArcha3ological Society W. J. Knowles, M.R.I.A., 
President ; John Grainger, D.D., M.R.I. A., Vice-President ; George 
Raphael, George R. Buick, M.A. ; Alexander Thomas Kirkpatrick, M.A. ; 
George Kirkpatrick, A. H. Beattie, J. H. Willey, J. W. Frazer, J.P. ; 
Marcus J. Ward, Leonard G. Hasse, M.R.I.A., Secretary. Ballymena, 
county Antrim, June 21st, 1887. 

The Address tastefully engrossed on vellum contained the emblems 
of the rose, the thistle, and the shamrock in appropriate distribution, and 
the capitals were filled in with the device of royalty and the gracefully 
laced forms of mediaeval Irish ornamentation. 

The presentation was acknowledged by SIR HENRY PONSONBY in the 
following letter : 

" WINDSOR CASTLE, July 15, 1887. 

" SIR, I am commanded by the Queen to request that you will 
thank the members of the Ballymena ArchaBological Society for the very 
interesting and valuable present of the mounted flint arrowhead which 
they have so kindly presented to Her Majesty. I have the honour to be, 
sir, your obedient servant, 

" HENRY F. PONSONBY. 

"Rev. L. Hasse." 

SIR HENRY PONSONBY added the remark that the Queen was extremely 
pleased with the present. 



Note on White Stone in Grave. A fanner called Tipping who 
resides at Killyglen, a townland not far from Larne, county Antrim 
when planting potatoes last spring, in a field not before under cultiva- 
tion, came upon a spot the soil of which seemed very different to that 
in the other parts of the field. Wondering why it should be so, he dug 
the soil out, and the portion excavated proved to be a grave, about 
7 feet long, and 4 feet broad, which had been made in the boulder clay, 
or till. At the bottom he found a small piece of pottery (which, 
unfortunately, was not preserved), a chip of flint, and two round 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 337 

stones. The larger one is of flint ; it is seemingly a natural nodule, 
which has been hammered a good deal all round. Seven or eight small 
chips have been detached from the surface ; it is 2 inches in diameter. 
The other pebble is of limestone, and it is somewhat flattish, being about 
half an inch in thickness, whilst on the face it is rather more than an 
inch across. It is pierced in the direction of its longer diameter ; the 
hole, which is two-eighths of an inch across, is apparently natural, not 
artificial, and, to get it as near the centre as possible, the stone seems to 
have been scraped and cut. I am inclined to think that originally the 
pebble was a small sponge from the chalk, in which case it is easy 
accounting for the hole ; or it may have been a piece of limestone bored 
by a pholas, and afterwards dressed to make a pendant, to hang on the 
corpse of the person in whose grave it was found. The grave itself was 
within about forty perches of the " Mullagh-Sandal Standing-Stone." 
OEOEGE E. BUICK. 



Indian Dolmens. " The Lurka Kols, or as they prefer to call them- 
selves, the Hos, are with rare exceptions only to be found in the portion 
of Singhbhum known as the Kolehan or Hodesum, as it has been called. 
There they live, shut out from all Aryan influences, observing a most 
rigid conservatism with regard to the language and traditional customs 
of their race. Notably among these customs, as being one that must 
force itself on the notice of every traveller in this district, is the erection 
of stone tablets and slabs (Menhirs and Dolmens) over the graves, and to 
the memory of the deceased. Although it is only within the limits of 
the Kolehan that these monuments are erected at the present day, they 
are to be found scattered throughout Chutia Nagpur, and to some ex- 
tent in the Orissa Tributary States (occasionally in localities upwards 
of one hundred miles distant from the Kolehan), which, in all probability, 
have not been inhabited by Hos for many centuries. There are few 
parts of the Kolehan, where an extensive view of several villages can be 
obtained, which do not include several groups of upright monumental 
stones. These groups may include any number, and there is no restriction 
to odd numbers, as is said to be the case in the Khasia Hills. The stones 
.selected for erection are generally more or less rectangular or cylindrical 
in form ; but sometimes they are of very fantastic shapes. These latter, 
however, it is important to observe, are not due to either freak or design 
on the part of the people. They are the natural forms of the flags, 
which they assume in their exposed positions in the rivers. Beyond 
being forced from the beds by means of crowbars, they are not, as a rule, 
touched with any tools. I have often come across the spots in the river 
sections, whence stones for this purpose, and also larger ones intended for 
dolmens, had been raised. The geological formations in the Kolehan 
consist in part of schists and slates, which supply an abundance of flags 
suited to the purpose. In portions of the country not now occupied by 
the Hos, when the rocks are granite, and flag-like masses can seldom be 
obtained, the ancient monuments are less tabular in shape and of smaller 
size. I cannot help thinking that the geological formation may have 
had something to do in determining the selection of the Kolehan as the 
final resting-place of the race." Jungle Life in India. By V. BALL, pp. 
162, 163. 



338 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Antiquarian Discovery at Lochleven. Considerable interest has quite 
recently been excited in Kinross-shire by the discovery of the remains of 
an ancient " crannog," or lake dwelling, in the bed of Lochleven. 
Several years ago an ancient canoe was found embedded in the lake, and 
this clearly indicated a pre-historic settlement in the district. At length 
attention was drawn to a peculiar accumulation of wood and stones lying 
at the bottom of the loch to the south of the old churchyard of Kinross. 
On careful examination of the mound, which was then from three to four feet 
under water, it presented all the appearance of the remains of an ancient 
crannog, and so soon as the waters subsided to their summer level, intelligent 
and trustworthy workmen were directed to turn over carefully as much of 
the accumulation as the shallowness of the water permitted them to reach. 
It yielded results which completely establish the character of the structure. 
The articles found consisted of animal remains bones and teeth along 
with portions of a clay hearth, with ashes adhering to it ; several pieces 
of charred wood, and a considerable number of fragments of coarse, thick, 
hand-made crockery. The only other "find" of an artificial character 
was a piece of wood, conjectured to be the handle of a rude heckle for 
dressing flax. It is difficult to give an exact description of the crannog, 
as, with the exception of the small portion already referred to, it is still 
entirely under water, varying from one to two feet in depth. As nearly, 
however, as can at present be ascertained, it has consisted of an oblong 
platform, lying parallel with the shore, measuring about thirty yards from 
east to west, and abouttwenty yards from north to south. Thisplatform was 
composed of undressed trunks of trees several yards in length, and from 
nine inches to a foot in diameter, supported on piles, and across these logs 
there have been laid smaller branches, placed close together, which were 
covered with an immense quantity of brushwood. On the top of all is a 
layer of stones, gathered from the loch, but evidently selected, as they 
are larger and more uniform in size than the stones which lie scattered 
along the shore. The piles supporting this platform are fully nine 
inches square, and they had been at least twelve feet high, as the water 
round the crannog must have been nine or ten feet deep. The piles have 
apparently been broken over at the root, for only a foot or eighteen inches 
of the pointed ends are to be found at the bottom of the loch. The 
timber is reduced almost to a pulp ; in many instances, however, the bark 
still adheres, and presents the same natural appearance and colour as if 
only now removed from the tree. The crannog had been erected at a 
distance of from sixty to seventy yards from the land, and it had been con- 
nected with the north shore of the loch by a gangway, which, judging from 
the remains of the piles on which it was supported, must have been fully 
twelve feet in breadth. Beyond the south edge of the " crannog" there 
can be traced at the bottom of the loch a rude encircling breakwater of 
stone, crescent-shaped, and about two feet in height. This had enclosed 
the structure on the south or lochward side, and was thus clearly intended 
to lessen the force of the waves before they reached the supporting piles. 
The " find" is a highly important one, from an antiquarian point of 
view. 

Volcanic Eruptions and Earthquakes. " The direct cause of earth- 
quakes and volcanic eruptions seems to be thus : The earth's crust is- 
undergoing shrinkage consequent on the gradual cooling of the interior, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 339 

and cracks and faults take place along lines of weakness, which are 
fairly well denned. Through these openings water finds access to the 
depths of fusion. The heat may be increased by decomposition of the 
water and oxidation of the metals ; but in any case great disturbance 
would take place, resulting in violent explosions and the formation of 
enormous volumes of steam and water vapour. These explosions and the 
effort of steam, water vapour and heated lava to escape would be produc- 
tive of those forces from which earthquakes appear to result. Should 
the force generated be sufficient to overcome resistance at a weak point, 
then, at that point, a volcano would break forth. The stress within the 
earth having thus been relieved, earthquake shocks would decline until 
the seismic forces again collect and were unable to find escape. In the 
case of Stromboli that escape is always possible ; but should circumstances 
occur to prevent that relief, then that volcano, or a neighbouring one, 
would finally break out into violent eruption. So long as Vesuvius is 
in frequent activity earthquakes are not severe, and the eruptions are 
mild compared to those which occur after a period of repose." E. 
WETHEKED, F.G.S., F.C.S., F.R.M.S. 



The following extracts are from the " Salvetti Correspondence" : 

LONDON, IStJi February^ 1626. " The Coronation of King Charles took 
place yesterday in Westminster Abbey, but without the customary Royal 
cavalcade, and comparatively without the magnificence characteristic of 
the ceremonial. 

" The day before the Coronation the ceremony of creating sixty knights 
of the Order of the Bath was performed, with no diminution of splendour, 
notwithstanding the pest. The knights were mostly men of title and 
well-born gentlemen. They rode in their mantles (of crimson velvet and 
ermine, embroidered with certain white stripes), each knight being 
between two esquires, also on horseback, and with a mounted page in 
front, bearing the sword and gilt spurs of his master. They were also 
attended by grooms and other officials. On arriving at the palace they 
were introduced, with great ceremony, into the hall, and were there 
knighted by his Majesty, who touched each on the shoulder with an 
unsheathed sword. The new knights were then girt with gilt swords, 
and were invested with a crimson ribbon, with a medal of gold attached, 
bearing a device of three crowns in its centre, and the motto, " Tria 
juncta in uno." Lastly the spurs were fixed by a noble friend and an 
assistant, and this completed the ceremony. Next Sunday the king will 
create a number of earls in honour of the Coronation. It is a dignity of 
the highest class, conferred only on great personages, and with much 
pomp and solemnity." 

LONDON, 6th March, 1626. " The Persian ambassador arrived here on 
Saturday, and the first audience was appointed for Monday, after dinner. 
In the meanwhile he accidentally met Sir Robert Shirley, an Englishman, 
who has been here for more than three years endeavouring to open a silk 
trade with Persia. The two ambassadors from words came to blows, and 
in the encounter his Excellency, Sir Robert Shirley, had the worst of it, 
whilst the Persian not only would not recognise him as an ambassador, 



340 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

but tore up the credentials which the Englishman showed in proof of his 
mission. In consequence of this incident the audience had not taken 
place. I do not see how it can end, except in proving that one or other 
is an impostor. There can be no reception till the matter is cleared up." 

LONDON-, 26th March. " The new Persian ambassador has at last had 
an audience of his Majesty, during which, besides the usual compliments, 
he explained his instructions to invite this nation, together with the 
Dutch to whom another ambassador had been sent similarly instructed 
to open a trade in silk with Persia, with promises of the most 
favourable conditions. He also had an audience of the Queen, and is 
now waiting to communicate with commissaries with whom to commence 
business negotiations. This proposed trade must depend upon the good- 
will of the leading merchants, and it must involve a great expense, even 
to make a beginning. It will not, therefore, be surprising if after some 
time spent in discussion it should end in smoke." 

" As for the other ambassador, Shirley, who carried off such a load of 
fisticuffs from his newly-arrived rival, I believe, as I have already said, 
that he had better remain quiet, as there appears to be no remedy, and as 
he is under the shadow of a suspicion that he has for a long time pretended 
to be what he is not." 

LONDON, 27th March, 1626. " The new Persian ambassador presented 
his Majesty, on the occasion of his audience of Monday, with several 
long and wide carpets made in his country, with I know not what 
quantity of gold and silver brocade. It is said of the value of about five 
thousand crowns. There are as yet no commissioners appointed to consult 
with the ambassador on his proposals." 

" As to the other ambassador, the Englishman, Shirley, it is proposed 
to send a person expressly to Persia to ascertain if he is recognised by 
the King ; and perhaps they will send him also, in company with 
the messenger, at his own special request. In the meanwhile, his rival 
will be detained here till his return, or till, by some means, the real facts 
are ascertained." 

LONDON, 1st May, 1626. "The Persian ambassador, who arrived last, 
went to Dover on Sunday to catch a vessel belonging to the East India 
Company, in which to return to his country ; but it sailed before his 
arrival, and he returned to London to await another opportunity." 

' ' Sir Robert Shirley, also Persian ambassador, is about to proceed to 
Persia, with his Majesty r s sanction, in company with Sir Dodmore Cotton, 
with the title of Ambassador, to inquire whether Shirley is actually the 
Persian ambassador, and above all to ask for satisfaction on account of 
the insolent conduct of the Persian who assaulted a well-born gentleman 
who had been recognised by his Majesty as Persian ambassador." 

The Segger&on or Seckerston Family in Ireland. In the Introductions 
to the First and Second Series of the " Lismore Papers," edited by the 
Rev. Dr. Grosart, it is stated on the evidence of entries in the diaries of 
the 1st Earl of Cork (Sir Richard Boyle), deeds, wills, &c., that his 
cousin, Elizabeth Boyle, married, 1st, Edmund Spenser, the poet; 2dly, 
Roger Seckerston ; and 3rdly, Captain Robert Tynte ; and that by her 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 341 

second husband she had a son, Eichard, the godson and nameson of the 
" Great Earl." In a letter written by the second wife of Boyle to her 
husband (Second Series, "Lismore Papers," vol. i., p. 84) she desires 
to be commended to her "Cousin Seggerson," and Dr. Grosart questions 
whether this is meant for ft Seckerston." There can be little doubt that 
this is the case. In the depositions relating to the year 1641 (in Trinity 
College Library) the name is spelt indifferently Seckerston, Seggerson, 
and Segerson. Between 1 640 and the early part of the present century a 
family named Segerson lived in Iveragh and Dunkerron, in the south- 
west of Kerry, and held property and also a good position among the 
gentry thereabouts. I think the family is now extinct in Kerry in the 
male line ; but some sixty or seventy years ago a female member of it 
married the late Rev. Denis Mahony, of Dromore Castle, near Kenmare, 
and had a son and heir, the present Eichard Mahony, Esq., D.L., of 
Dromore Castle. In the deposition of Tirlogh Kelly, printed in Ireland 
in the 17 th Century; or, the Irish Massacres of 1641, vol. n., p. 128, 
mention is made of a Mr. Segerson, an " English Eoman Catholic," who 
was with the Irish, until taken prisoner by Sir Edward Denny's troops 
at Ballinskelligs, in Iveragh. The words, " English Eoman Catholic," 
in the language of that time, did not necessarily imply that Segerson was 
a native of England, but that he was an Englishman by descent. There 
were very many of the 1st Earl of Cork's English-descended tenants in 
Waterford and Cork ; some moved into Kerry : amongst them, I suppose, 
were Segersons or Seckerstons Spenser's connexions. I do not know 
whether any of their male descendants still exist in Kerry or Cork; but 
some years ago a friend in Dublin wrote to me, stating that a Dr. 
Segerson had asked him to ascertain from the Dublin Public Eecord 
Office and the Eegistry of Deeds Office particulars about families of his 
name. I had nothing to tell at that time ; but the notices of Elizabeth 
Spenser's second husband, Eoger Segerson, and her children by him, and 
the mention of their family name in the Kerry depositions of 1641, have 
recalled my attention to my friend's inquiries. MAET 



Pile Dwellings in New Guinea. " Kaili (450 inhabitants) is charm- 
ingly situated at the head of a spacious bay. This is the second entirely 
marine village I have visited. It consists of forty houses, built on long 
poles in shallow water. There are four rows of these dwellings, the 
teacher's being the last. The church, which stands apart^ between two 
rows, is connected with Eeboama's. The road to church is merely one 
row of poles stuck in the sea, cross sticks connecting the sacred edifice 
with the first series of aerial dwellings. It must be a ticklish thing to 
walk to church by such a road. There is no communication between the 
other rows except by canoes or swimming. "We entered one or two 
curious dwellings ; their valuables consisted of grass petticoats, armlets, 
spears, clubs, axes, and nets, with a few earthenware pots for cooking. 
"We laughed at seeing a fine hog, in a pen, between two houses. The 
teacher feeds his poultry on the platform of his dwelling. The only 
reason assigned for erecting these marine villages is fear of their inland 
foes, and that their fathers did so before them. . . . These sea villages 
have one obvious advantage over those built ashore they are free from 
mosquitoes. ... At the back of the range of hills facing Kaili is a 



342 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

warrior tribe, named Manukols. Farther inland still, on the Astrolobe, 
are the Koiari not very numerous, who are kind to strangers. Utterly 
unlike the coast natives, they neither beg nor steal they are thorough 
mountaineers. They are supposed to be the original lords of the soil, 
and are the makers of the stone adzes. . . . Passing on our way east- 
ward we saw a number of old piles, indicating the original site of Kaili 
before they were driven away by the Manukols. Later on we anchored 
at the village of Kapa-Kapa, consisting, in truth, of two hamlets half 
a mile apart, thirty-three miles east of Port Moresby. This is my third 
Swiss-lake-like village in New Guinea. It has a population of 450. . . . 
I was struck with a hut standing apart from all others, in the middle of 
the bay, and learned that it was built by a man who had quarrelled with 
all his friends ! Fowls and hogs are fed, and evidently thrive in these 
remarkable dwellings (and a fine plantation of yams, bananas, and sweet 
potatoes lies opposite to the village). Our boat was pulled between the 
rows of dwellings, Mr. Chalmers occasionally throwing a handful of small 
pieces of tobacco into the sea. Men, women, and children all dived 
down for the coveted prize, and, in a friendly way, contended with each 
other for it. This Papuan Venice consists of forty houses. . . . Hula, 
like Tupuselei, Kaili, and Kapa-Kapa, is built in the sea. It contains 
about 400 people. With our clerical friend I went, in a canoe, through 
this long village, or rather two villages. Wishing to look at some of 
these houses, we climbed not without some difficulty up on to a plat- 
form ten feet above the sea; on this wretchedly-insecure place they 
dance every night by torchlight. By day the younger members of the 
family sit and smoke there, regardless of the hot sun. Beyond is a 
shaded place for the parents. Climbing up a short ladder you enter by 
a small door into their only sleeping apartment, which is very dark. A 
portion of it, however, is marked off. Here the daily cooking is done, 
the accumulated ashes preventing the house from catching fire. The 
flooring is made from the sides of old canoes, well adzed, and secured to 
the framework of the house by rattan cane. One would surmise that 
their bones would be sore with lying through the night on bare boards : 
such, however, is not the case. Their ornaments and petticoats, weapons 
and chatties, hooks, lines, and seines, are all in their proper place. The 
thatch is either of sago or nipa-palmleaf . All along, outside the ridging, 
sprouting cocoa-nuts are kept ready for use. Ornaments occasionally 
dangle from the extremity over the doorway. . . . Each dwelling at 
Hula is connected with the next by means of a single loose plank. A 
rail sometimes assists the hand in steadying the body of the adventurous 
traveller. It was interesting to observe how they ran from one house 
to another in perfect safety. We, too, achieved the feat not, however, 
without fear of getting a ducking." Work and Adventures in New 
Guinea, pp. 281-5. By James Chalmers and W. Wyatt Gill. 



Discoveries at Enniskillen Bridge. The cutting of the channel at the 
East Bridge, Enniskillen, has brought to light several things of interest. 
The bridge crosses the old ford, and both Mr. Best, the contractor for 
the work, and Mr. T. Plunkett, M.E.I.A., were on the look-out for any 
relic of the past. The workmen were careful in turning over the stuff, 
and thus it happened that several coins were found. Mr. Plunkett was 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 343 

so fortunate as to find nine stone hatchets, one of them being of the 
elliptical kind, said by some antiquaries to have been used for hollowing 
out ^ canoes. The presence of the hatchets in the old ford shows its 
having been frequented in remote antiquity. 

One of the coins obtained by Mr. Best is dated 1672, and bears the 
representation of St. George and the dragon. Thus are we brought to 
the time of Charles II. ; but it is most likely it was flung into the river, 
at the time of the Revolution, from the old bridge of seven arches, which 
then spanned the strait. What a story it might relate if it could but 
speak. What hand flung it into the water ? Was it one of the English 
soldiers sent to relieve Inniskilling, who came from Ballyshannon 
under Major-General Kirke ? or came it from some of the band which 
sallied forth across the narrow bridge to the relief of Crom ? Mayhap 
some English officer of the King's (James II.) flung it in in idle jest, or 
as an intended gift for the warders who kept the guard-house on the 
bridge, and it slipped into the water below. The lowering of the lake 
has revealed many interesting objects, but none more so than those 
discovered in the channel at the East Bridge. 



Discoveries at Pompeii. At Pompeii fresh efforts have been made 
recently to unearth the secrets of the past. A wooden case was dis- 
entombed, containing a complete set of surgical instruments ; also four 
beautiful silver urns, together with four smaller cups, eight open vases, 
four dishes, ornamented with foliage and the figures of animals, and a 
statue of Jupiter. But there still remains a great mine of antiquarian 
treasure to be recovered. We do not know what secrets modern explo- 
ration will yet reveal ; but we are aware that within the past century 
its prosecution has filled our museums with specimens of ancient art. 
It is now beginning to be understood that the only authentic history 
of the world lies buried beneath its surface. As the world ages, its 
knowledge increases. By slow degrees we are recovering ancient his- 
tory. But there still remain many gaps to be filled up. The vacant 
spaces in the map of the earth's history are, however, steadily grow- 
ing fewer, and it may be that before many years the wonderful panorama 
will be completed. 

Counterfeit Antiquities. For years past some of the so thought most 
important remains disinterred from the lake -dwellings of Switzerland 
have been spurious antiquities, manufactured by a gang of forgers, for 
the purpose of imposing on the soi-disant savants who have devoted 
themselves to the subject of pre-historic man. It has been observed that 
of late the "finds" have been increasing in number, and antiquaries 
have been fairly puzzled by the plethora of material. A copper shield, 
and various horn implements, were among the most notable of these 
discoveries. These horn implements bore rude carvings, and seemed to 
be of the highest possible interest and value. 

All these antiquities (?) have been discovered to be counterfeits. The 
shield was made of modern metal, and the remnants of a "horn age" 
were fabricated by the- jack-knives of Nuremberg toy-makers. This 
scandalous trade is a not unnatural outcome of the zeal of antiquaries, 

ITH SER., VOL. vin. 2 B 



344 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

and the growth of interest in the subject. This, it must be remembered, 
is not the first time that there has been an exposure of a similar kind. 
In America the utmost care has to be exercised in order not to be 
deceived by " bogus " relics. In Mexico there is a great deal more sham 
Aztec pottery and other " curios" sold than there is of genuine anti- 
quities. The foreign demand for "American antiquities" is now so 
great, that one manufacturer concentrates his attention on " mound 
builders' pipes." A large business is done in hematite axes and gorgets 
cut from blue slate. The artists who made " pre-historic pottery" so 
over-did the trade that it no longer pays. From all parts of the world 
comes the same tale. Ingenious knaves are everywhere sedulously 
devoting their talents to the fabrication of ancient implements. 



Vitrified Forts. These structures have excited a great degree of 
curiosity, and must continue to be objects of wonder, from their magni- 
tude and singular construction. " The dry stone walls of the original 
hill-fort were, by a process of vitrification, rendered a mass of impreg- 
nable rock ; but the means used to effect this change can only be guessed 
at. It seems agreed that the people who raised these works were 
ignorant of the use of lime or other cement, and it is not improbable 
that accidental conflagration may have at first given the hint for so 
peculiar a mode of architecture ; but whether a process like the burning 
of kelp, or the addition of any particular substance to the part exposed 
to the heat, produced the fusion of the mass is not known." 



Attack on a Crannog. In a letter written by Sir R. Bingham to 
Burghley (published in the Calendar of State Papers], dated, Athlone, 
16th December, 1590, occurs the following interesting account of the 
siege and capture of a crannog by the troops of Elizabeth : " A new 
fort, erected in the strait of the Curlews, doth good service. There was 
one Dualtagh O'Connor, a notorious traitor, that of all the rest continued 
longest as an outlaw of power to do mischief. He had fortified himself 
very strongly, after their manner, in an island, or crannog, within 
Lough Lane, standing within the county of Eoscommon, and on the 
borders of that county called Costelloghe. A few days ago, as opportu- 
nity and time served me, I drew a force on the sudden one night, and 
laid siege to the island before day, and so continued seven days, restrain- 
ing them from sending any forth or receiving any in ; and in the mean- 
time I had caused divers boats from Athlone, and a couple of great iron 
pieces, to be brought against the island, and, on the seventh day, we 
took the island, without hurt to any on our side save my brother John, 
who got a bullet- wound in the back. When our men entered the island 
there was found within it 26 persons, whereof 7 were Dualtagh' s sons 
and daughters ; but himself, and 1 8 others, seeking to save them- 
selves by swimming, and, in their cot, to recover the wood next to the 
shore, were, for the most part, drowned. Some report that Dualtagh 
was drowned, but the truth is not known. It was scarce daylight, and 
the weather was foggy, when they betook themselves to flight. The 
Irishry held that place as a thing invincible." 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 345 

C unions EPITAPHS COPIED BY LIEUTENANT F. A. MOYSEY, R.N., 11* 
THE NAVAL CEMETERY AT MALTA. 

Here lie the remains of a toil-worn stoker, 
Whose body Avas weak, but his spirit brave, 

His shipmates in him always found their joker, 
But now his body lies cold in the grave. 

I pray let him rest, may his sins be forgiven, 

And may Christ be his balm in the glory of Heaven. 



Although my body lies here to rot, 
I hope that I am not forgot 
By all my messmates, whom I love well, 
That on board the " Queen" do dwell. 



Here a sheer hulk, this poor Peter Tor, 
In prime of life was doffed, 

Stranger, on him don't cast a slur, 
But hope his soul's aloft. 



Here lies retired, from busy scenes, 
A private of the Eoyal Marines, 
"Who served in Spain with gay content, 
And marched wherever he was sent. 
Now stripped of all his warlike show, 
Confined in box of elm below ; 
Confined to earth in narrow borders, 
Not to rise 'till further orders. 



James King at last has sailed out of this world, 
His shrouds are cast off, and his topsails are furled, 
He lays snug in Death's port without any concern, 
And he's moored for a full due ahead and astern. 
Through the compass of life he has merrily run, 
His reckoning is paid, and his voyage is done, 
When summoned before the great Judge of all, 
His living in life will condemn or approve. 

This world's an Inn, and I a Guest, 
I've eat, and drank, and took my rest 
Awhile with her ; and now I pay 
Her lavish bill, and go my way. 



Praises on tombs 

Are trifles vainly spent, 
A man's own good name 

Is the best monument. 



346 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

For as deep was their grief as the calm ocean's bed, 
And as silent the tear which they sorrowing shed 
For his early tomb, while they smoothed his rock pillow, 
And laid in his last berth this son of the billow. 



All you that do pass by this grave 

Stop here, and do relent, 
Here Fisher's life it was but short, 

He'd not time to repent. 
For this was on a Sunday morn, 

He on the cross-trees stood, 
To press the yard out from the mast, 

He fell and spilt his blood. 
A mother and sister he has got, 

They're his relations all, 
And we, his shipmates, do regret 

That he died by this fall. 



EPITAPHS COPIED IN THE NAVAL CEMETEBY AT BERMUDA, 

JAMES SUTHEKLAND, 
OCT. 18TH, 1819. 

Peaceful sleep out the Sabbath of the tomb, 
And wake to raptures in a life to come, 
See and confess, one comfort still must rise 
'Tis this, tho' man's a fool, yet God is wise. 



JAMES EEKKLEY, 

SEPT. 27Tn, 1818. 

To this sad shrine, whoe'er thou art, draw near, 
Here lies the friend most loved, the son most dear, 
Who ne'er knew joy, but friendship might divide, 
Or gave his parents grief but when he dyed. 
Oh ! let thy once-loved friends inscribe thy stone, 
And with a parent's sorrow mix their own. 



WILLIAM SIMPSON, 
JUNE 10TH, 1845. 

It's age, nor youth, nor wealth cannot withstand, 
Or shun the power of Death's impartial hand ; 
Life is a cobweb, be it e'er so gay, 
And death the broom that sweeps us all away. 



PROCEEDINGS AND PAPERS 



THE ANNUAL MEETING of the Association was held in 
Leinster House, Kildare-street, Dublin, on January 
4th, 1888 ; 

E. LANGRISHE, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following Fellows and Members were present: 

Eev. Canon Grainger, Colonel Vigors, Dr. Joly, 
Lieut. -Colonel Wood-Martin, Eev. Canon O'Neill, Dr. 
H. King, Eev. Leonard Hasse", Thomas Westropp, Eev. 
W. Ball Wright, Eev. T. Twigg, Eichard A. Gray, W. 
E. Molloy, E. Cochrane, W. F. Wakeman. 

William E. Kelly, C.E., J.P., Melcomb, Newport, Co. 
Mayo, was unanimously elected a Fellow of the Asso- 
ciation. 

The following new Members were proposed and 
elected : 

James E. O'Doherty, M.P., Londonderry, and Mill- 
burn, Buncrana ; Eev. W. Falkner, Kilmessan Glebe, 
Co. Meath ; Eev. John Healy, LL.D., St. Columb's, Kells, 
Co. Meath. 

Lord Arthur Hill and Lord Carlingford were elected 
Vice-Presidents for Ulster ; and Dr. Joly was appointed 
a Member of the Committee. 

Lieut. -Colonel Wood-Martin and W. F. Wakeman 
were elected Hon. General Secretaries ; and J. G. 
Eobertson was re-elected Curator of the Museum, and 
Hon. Treasurer. 

4l'H SER., VOL. VIII. 2 C 



348 PROCEEDINGS. 

The following were elected as additional Hon. Local 
Secretaries : J. M. Thunder for Dublin ; J. H. Fuller- 
ton for Armagh ; Colonel Vigors for Carlow ; James A. 
Mahony, of Ramelton, for Donegal ; Rev. T. S. Chap- 
man for Cavan ; T. Plunkett for Fermanagh ; Rev. 
Edward Hewson for Kilkenny ; Rev. Dr. T. Healy and 
T. H. Moran for Meath, Mr. Garstin having retired ; 
W. E. Kelly, J.P., for Mayo, vice E. Glover; E. Glover 
for Kildare; R. Langrishe for Roscommon; Rev. W. 
Healy for Queen's County. 

Colonel Vigors and R. Cochrane were appointed 
Auditors. 

A number of highly interesting Celtic antiquities, 
found in Ireland, also a collection of arms and imple- 
ments, from Australia and elsewhere, were exhibited by 
Colonel Vigors. 

Rev. Canon Grainger laid on the table, for exhibi- 
tion, three cinerary urns, which had been found in a 
cist near Kilmuckridge, county Wexford, when digging 
a foundation for the porch of a house. 

Papers were read on the following subjects : 
" Ancient Beads," by the Rev. Leonard Hasse*; " The 
Use of Slings and Sling-stones," by Colonel Vigors ; 
" Some Ancient Monuments in Meath," by Rev. W. 
Ball Wright; "Hunting the Wren on St. Stephen's 
Day," by George M. Atkinson. 

Two Papers one of them referring to " Canon's 
Island Abbey"; the other to " Certain Letters, 1780- 
90, relating to Trinity College, Dublin, under Provost 
Hely Hutchinson" were contributed by Thomas J. 
Westropp. 

The Rev. Canon O'Neill, P.P., Clontarf, exhibited a 
specimen of ancient printing, being a book of sermons 
in Latin, published A. D. 1493 ; also an original deed, exe- 
cuted by thirty-four private soldiers of Crom well's army 
in Ireland, conveying to their officers the parcels of land 
(in county Tipperary) allotted to them in lieu of money- 
payment for their military services in the Cromwellian 
wars. This deed was published by Mr. Prendergast in 
his Cromwellian Settlement. The soldiers had merely 



PROCEEDINGS. 349 

affixed their marks, only five or six of them being able 
to write their names in full. 

It was proposed by Colonel Vigors, and seconded 
by the Chairman, " That the Committee consider the 
subject of the preservation of the memorials of the 
dead." 

Lieut.-Colonel Wood-Martin handed in a Notice, to be 
taken into consideration at the next meeting of the 
Association. 



A QUARTERLY MEETING of the Association was held in 
Butler House, Kilkenny, on Wednesday, the 4th 
of April, 1888 ; 

LORD JAMES BUTLER, President, in the Chair. 

The following Members were present : 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Ossory, D.D. ; 
Colonel Vigors ; Rev. C. A. Vignoles, A.M., Chancellor; 
Rev. E. F. Hewson; Rev. M. Ffrench; R. Langrishe ; 
W. F. Wakeman ; William Gray, Hon. Local Secretary 
for Ulster ; R. Cochrane, c. E. ; Peter Burtchaell, c. E. ; 
G. D. Burtchaell, M.A., B.L. ; J. B. Browne; David H. 
Creighton ; Patrick Watters, M. A. ; Dr. C. E. James ; 
P. M. Egan, Mayor ; M. Hogan. 

LORD JAMES BUTLER, when opening the General 
Meeting of the Association, stated " that it was the first 
time he had met them as President since they had done 
him the honour of electing him for that high position, 
but he would do his best to carry out the duties con- 
nected with it, and hoped that this, his first essay, would 
be looked upon with kindness. There was a subject to 
be laid before them now which required serious con- 
sideration, and it had been discussed a few hours pre- 
viously at a Committee meeting. The proposition was, 

\S 2C2 



350 PROCEEDINGS. 

that negotiations should be entered into with Dr. Ball 
who has charge of the Museum of Science and Art in 
Dublin to take over the Museum, R.H. A.A.I., and the 
objects of interest attached to it, all these to be held under 
the Crown, in the name of the Association, and to be 
housed in a room in Leinster House, where they would 
be open to inspection of a greater number of the public. 
The articles might be considered to be not a gift but 
a loan, as in the case of the fine picture, by Sir Edwin 
Landseer, which had been lent by the National Gallery 
of England to the National Gallery of Ireland, on per- 
petual loan. The articles in question, when placed 
amongst the Dublin collection, could all be labelled, for 
there were many Members who still feel great pride in 
having an Archaeological Society in Kilkenny, and in 
having its name perpetuated. The opening proceedings 
connected with this important subject had been carried 
out, and it was hoped that the present meeting would 
sanction them, or suggest means of improving the plan 
laid before them for consideration. Several Papers had 
been sent in to be read before the Meeting some of 
them being of considerable length, and in manuscript ; 
it would, therefore, seem desirable that these should be 
referred, with a report from the Committee, that they 
are well worthy of consideration. He (the President) 
felt great interest in the Society, as did also his brother, 
the late Lord Ormonde. He could not but consider 
himself part and parcel of it, as being one of the 
modern additions to this important Archaeological Asso- 
ciation." 

The Minutes of the previous Meeting were then 
read. 

Mr. Browne said that, as stated in the Minutes, the 
Annual Meeting had been held in Dublin; but in 1878 
a resolution was passed to the effect, " that the Annual 
Meeting should be held in Kilkenny," and that resolu- 
tion not having been rescinded, the last Meeting could 
not have been the Annual Meeting. He merely drew 
attention to this point, being himself most anxious that 
the headquarters should now be in Dublin ; the change, 
however, should be effected regularly. 



PROCEEDINGS. 351 

The Minutes were then signed, with the following 
attached : 

EESOLVED, " That we consider the holding of the last January Meet- 
ing in Dublin the Annual Meeting was a mistake, as the Annual 
Meetings are, by former resolution, confined to Kilkenny ; and till the 
resolution be rescinded, on due notice, the Annual Meeting cannot be 
held elsewhere than in Kilkenny." 

The President said that the next subject to be 
brought under their consideration was Colonel Wood- 
Martin's notice of motion, which was as follows : 

" At the next Quarterly Meeting of the Association I, or some Fellow 
of the Association, on my behalf, will move (1) That after the inven- 
tory of the books, contents of Museum, and other property of the Associa- 
tion in Kilkenny is taken and valued, they be offered for sale to the 
Science and Art Department at Leinster House, or any other public body, 
where they will be open to the inspection of the general public ; or (2) 
that they be lent to the Science and Art Department, Leinster House, in 
return for a yearly grant to the Association." 

Mr. Langrishe, on behalf of Colonel Wood-Martin, 
proposed, and Mr. Cochrane seconded, the motion. 

Mr. Gray said that the question had been much dis- 
cussed outside Kilkenny and Dublin. There were many 
Members of the Association who knew nothing about 
the collection, and it was the first time that he himself 
had an opportunity of seeing the Museum, which con- 
tains a variety of articles that ought to be properly 
arranged, so as to be available to the greatest number 
of Members of the Association throughout the Kingdom. 
For that reason he thought the Museum should be trans- 
ferred to Dublin, provided that arrangements can be 
made that will be satisfactory to the Committee. It 
was simply impossible for them to provide the large 
sum of money requisite for keeping up the collection 
so as to be available for educational purposes, and it was 
therefore best to transfer it to the care of the Crown. 

Rev. Mr. Ffrench considered that it would be like 
" sending coals to Newcastle' 7 to send the collection to 
Dublin ; there it could only serve to add to a museum 
which was already full, whereas if it could be put on a 
satisfactory footing in Kilkenny, it might occupy an 



352 PROCEEDINGS. 

important educational position. Doubtless, however, 
the Committee had given this matter their most careful 
consideration. 

The Mayor expressed himself glad to support the 
observations made by Rev. Mr. Ffrench with regard 
to the resolution before the Meeting. They were, of 
course, aware that the treasure-trove, when carried to 
Dublin, would be labelled " Kilkenny" but that would 
be small consolation. Able and learned men had founded 
the Association in Kilkenny, and respect for their me- 
mory should prevent the removal of this monument of 
their labours from the locality where they had spent so 
much of their lives. 

Mr. Gr. D. Burtchaell was of opinion that the best 
way to preserve and to honour the memory of its- 
founders would be by making the Museum more gene- 
rally known. 

Mr. Browne said that it was with great reluctance 
he was compelled to differ from the Mayor, because in 
Dublin one hundred persons not inhabitants of Dublin 
will see the different items of the Museum, for one 
person who could see them in Kilkenny. The Associa- 
tion had grown to be the Archaeological Association, 
not of Kilkenny, but of Ireland ; and consequently the 
capital of the Kingdom ought to be the home of its 
Museum. 

Mr. Langrishe stated that it was in consequence of 
the financial difficulty of maintaining the Museum, and 
having it looked after in Kilkenny, that they now pro- 
posed to have it removed to Dublin for safe custody. 

The President felt warranted in explaining that there 
really were not funds forthcoming that would enable 
them to retain this Museum in Kilkenny. He was 
aware that Mr. Graves had been most desirous to put 
the Association on a higher footing, but he could not 
see his way to have a suitable building erected, and the 
needful staff maintained, for its guardianship. If the 
Museum could be transferred to the management of the 
Crown, it would be more accessible for the public gene- 
rally than it could possibly be in Kilkenny. 

The Bishop of Ossory explained that it was not un- 



PROCEEDINGS. 353 

common in large museums to receive a number of articles 
belonging to one or more individuals and to keep them 
together intact. A valuable collection of things had 
been given by a celebrated Egyptologist to the British 
Museum, on the condition that they should be placed 
together, and kept in a room by themselves. He was 
himself acquainted with other instances in which similar 
arrangements had been made; and, therefore, if the 
Kilkenny Museum were to be transferred to Dublin, all 
could be kept in a separate room, and labelled, " The 
Museum, R.H.A.A.I." Then any person feeling special 
interest in that Society would feel gratified by the in- 
spection. 

The Mayor then proposed as an amendment 

" That the resolution be not considered." 

This was afterwards modified by him to the terms 

" That the Museum be retained in Kilkenny. 5 ' 

Mr. Hogan seconded the amendment. 

The President put Colonel Wood-Martin's resolu- 
tion and the Mayor's amendment to the meeting, 
when the former was carried, there being only two 
dissentients. 

Mr. Langrishe said that he had a matter to bring 
before them on which there could be no difference of 
opinion. He moved 

" That steps be now taken to erect a suitable memorial to the memory 
of our late lamented Secretary, the KEY. JAMES GKAVES, in St. Canice's 
Cathedral, Kilkenny ; and that the Very Rev. Dean Hare, D.D.; the Rev. 
C. Vignoles, Peter Burtchaell, J. Gr. Robertson, P. Watters, Rev. E. F. 
Hewson, M. W. Lalor, and Richard Langrishe, be appointed a Committee 
to carry out the work." 

The resolution was passed unanimously. 

Count Plunket, M.R.I.A., B.L., 2, Upper Fitzgibbon- 
street, Dublin, and Very Rev. Dean Humphreys, The 
Glebe, Quin, were elected Fellows; and Deputy Surgeon- 
General Henry King (already a Member) was also 
elected a Fellow. 



354 PROCEEDINGS. 

The following were elected Members of the Associa- 
tion: Joseph Gorman, Cavan; Thomas H. Longfield, 
F.S.A., M.R.I. A., Harcourt-street, Dublin ; Rev. M. Comer- 
ford, Rosglas, Monasterevan ; Rev. W. S. Wilcocks, Dun- 
leckney Glebe, Bagnalstown ; Hugh H. Johnston, 15, 
Trinity College, Dublin ; Rev. William Carrigan, c.c., 
Ballyragget ; Edward Walshe Kelly, Summerhill, Tra- 
more ; S. Healy, Tramore ; W. E. Wilson, Rathowen ; 
J. J. Philips, Architect, Belfast ; Charles Falconer, 
Dublin ; C. G. F. Chute, Leicester- square, Rathmines ; 
and James Colemari, Southampton. 

A resolution, proposed by the Mayor, and seconded 
by Mr. Browne, was unanimously passed : 

" That a list of the Donors to the Museum be sent to the local papers 
for publication at the earliest convenience." 

Mr. Robertson stated that since the beginning of the 
year a number of books, reports on branches of geology, 
&c., had been received from several places, including 
A merica ; also, Mr. John Davis White, of Cashel, had for- 
warded, for the Kilkenny Library, three portions of his 
work on Local Antiquities in the County Tipperary. 
An order was then made, granting him the loan of 
some woodcuts belonging to the Association (for which 
he had applied), for the purpose of illustrating a work 
on which he was then engaged. 

Colonel P. D. Vigors brought under notice of the 
Meeting, the National Society founded at Norwich in 
1881, for preserving the memorials of the dead, and he 
strongly represented the necessity for one of a similar 
nature in this country, thus relieving the English Society 
from the care of Irish monuments. Organization was all 
that was required, and he felt that the R.H.A.A.I. was 
bound by its name, and by its duties, to endeavour to 
check the further destruction of memorials of the dead. 
Much could be done through their Hon. Local Secretaries, 
with the aid of the bishops and clergy of all denomina- 
tions. County organization, he considered, would be the 
best starting-point. Lists of their tombs and monu- 



PROCEEDINGS. 355 

ments, together with copies of their inscriptions, should 
be made : indeed, at a very trifling expense, much that 
would prove to be of interest and value could be effected. 
He trusted the matter would not be allowed to drop. 

Mr. Langrishe seconded the proposition of Colonel 
Vigors, and suggested that if a short circular were drawn 
up, stating the facts of the case, it would be of benefit, 
and might tend to arouse greater attention to the subject. 

The Rev. E. F. Hewson said that it might interest 
the President to know that, a few miles from Kilkenny, 
monuments of his own family were to be found, broken 
and scattered about. There were also, at Gowran, in- 
teresting old monuments of many other families. 

The President said that what Colonel Vigors had 
stated was worthy of consideration, and he would have 
pleasure in joining the body to consider the matter. 

The motion was adopted unanimously. 

Papers were taken as read on the following sub- 
jects : " Inscribed Monumental Stones in the Isle of 
Man," by Rev. J. H. Ffrench ; " Ancient Leaden 
Works," by J. G. Robertson ; and " Ancient Graves 
lately discovered in the County Carlow," by Colonel 
Vigors. 

Mr. Gray proposed, and Mr. Browne seconded a 
resolution, which was passed unanimously- 

" That the next Quarterly Meeting should be held in Derry, on the 
first "Wednesday in July." 

Colonel Vigors exhibited some curious rings, one of 
w hich the Zodiac ring was found, in 1880, on the 
west coast of Africa. He also produced a document, 
granting a commission in the army to one Tobias Purcell, 
signed in the reign of William and Mary ; the date was 
26th October, 1691. Another document contained a 
lease, by William III., of 44 acres of the lands of 
Curraghmore, dated 5th December, 1701. 

Mr. Wakeman exhibited a rubbing taken from a 
bronze sword-sheath, one of four found in the crannog 
of Lisnacroghera, county Antrim. These sheaths are 



356 PROCEEDINGS. 

now preserved, by Canon Grainger, in his Museum of 
Irish antiquities at Broughshane. 

Mr. Langrishe said that as Mr. Robertson whose 
kindness, whilst amongst them, they would all remember 
was about to leave Kilkenny, and resign his post in 
the Association, he would now propose that Mr. Cochrane 
be appointed their Treasurer, and this being duly 
seconded by Colonel Vigors, the President stated that, 
" in accordance with the proposition of Mr. Langrishe, 
he begged leave to move that Mr. Cochrane be the 
successor to Mr. Robertson in the responsible office of 
Treasurer of the Royal Historical and Archaeological 
Association. He regretted that, as years passed on, Mr. 
Robertson scarcely found himself, perhaps, quite equal 
to the duties that had fallen on him, and that had accu- 
mulated from time to time. With his family and his 
name he (the President) had been acquainted as long 
as he could remember. He regretted the parting with 
Mr. Robertson, but trusted that whatever his career 
might be henceforward, the recollections of those with 
whom he lived and worked would not be unsatisfactory 
to himself." The appointment of Mr. Cochrane as Hon. 
Treasurer of the Association was passed unanimously. 

Mr. G. D. Burtchaell seconded Mr. Gray's proposi- 
tion, that Mr. Robertson should continue to be Curator 
of the Museum during the next few weeks ; and Mr. 
Browne seconded the proposition of Rev. C. Vignoles, 
that Mr. D. H. Creighton should act as Curator after 
Mr. Robertson. 

These resolutions passed unanimously, and the busi- 
ness being thus concluded, the Meeting was adjourned. 



( 357 ) 



SLINGS AND SLING-STONES. 
BY COLONEL PHILIP D. VIGORS. 

PARTICULAR weapons, it is well known, belong to certain 
nations, or countries; for example, the boomerang to 
Australia ; the kries, to the Malay ; the sumpitam, or 
blow-pipe, to the Dyaks natives of Borneo ; and other 
instances might be adduced. 

In this Paper I shall consider only the sling and its 
projectiles, as used in war; and it appears wonderful that 
they have not been more generally adopted by primitive 
nations. No doubt certain conditions are desirable, if 
not essential, to their general use. The country where 
sling-stones would be effective should be open, not 
densely wooded with tropical virgin forest and under- 
wood. There should be a facility for obtaining ammuni- 
tion, i.e. either sea or other water-worn pebbles, or a 
geological formation yielding stones capable of being 
readily formed, and suitable to the sling. They should 
be soft when first cut, weighty, and abundant. One 
would suppose that they should have been discovered in 
large quantities on some of the battle-scenes of this 
island, or in and about the raths and other ancient Irish 
works, if they had been in general use. I very much 
doubt their ever having been so. 

To begin at the beginning, we must draw on the 
sacred writings of the Old Testament. The stories 
therein told, and the mention made of slings and slingers, 
and the work they performed, are no doubt familiar to 
most, if not all, my readers. 

BIBLE KEFERENCES TO SLINGS AND SLING-STONES, &c. 

We read of the 20 and 6000 Benjaminites that drew 
the sword, besides the inhabitants of Gibeah, 700 chosen 
men: " Amongst all this people there were TOO chosen 
men, left-handed; every one could sling stones to an 
hair-breadth, and not miss" (Judges xx. 16). 



358 SLINGS AND SLING-STONES. 

Amongst the companies that came to King David 
were mighty men, armed with bows, who could "use 
both the right hand and the left in hurling stones and 
shooting arrows out of a bow" (1st Chronicles, xii. 2). 

Again, in xxvi. 14, of 2nd Chronicles, we read that 
Uzziah, the king, had a host of fighting men, and pre- 
pared for them shields, and spears, and helmets, and 
habergeons, and bows, "and slings to cast stones," also 
engines, "invented by cunning men, to shoot arrows 
and great stones withal." 

Again, in xxv. 29, of 1st Samuel, we find Abigail 
pacifying David, and saying: " The souls of thine ene- 
mies, them shall he sling out, as out of the middle of a 
sling" (this was 1060 years before Christ). Again, the 
term, " sling out the inhabitants," is used by the prophet 
in Jer. x. 18. 

The story of David and the Philistine giant, Goliath, 
as told in the 17th chapter of 1st Book of Samuel, is too 
well known to all to make it necessary to go into details 
here of the flight of the Philistines from the result of 
the sling- stone one of the five smooth stones he took 
out of the brook. " His sling was in his hand," it is 
said. 

In Proverbs (xxvi. 8) we find mention of the sling : 
"As he that bindeth a stone in a sling, so is he that 
giveth honour to a fool." Also, in the 2nd Book of 
Kings (iii. 25), the slingers are again mentioned ; and, 
lastly, in the Book of Job (xli. 28), we read: " The arrow 
cannot make him flee ; sling-stones are turned with him 
into stubble." 

Passing from sacred to profane writers, we find, 
amongst the Greeks and Romans, that slings and sling- 
stones were in use ; and although there is no mention of 
them in the Iliad, yet, according to Herodotus, 20,000 
slingers were offered by Gelon to the Greeks, against 
Xerxes. The inhabitants of some parts of Greece were 
reputed more famous than others for their perfection in 
the use of this weapon. Three thongs of leather were 
used to form the Achaean sling. The manner of throw- 
ing the stone differed essentially from that of the natives 



SLINGS AND SLING-STONES. 359 

of New Caledonia, judging from the figures representing 
it. The mode of carrying the stones was also different. 
The New Caledonians, living in a tropical climate, wear 
no " pallium," but carry their sling-stones in a bag worn 
round the waist. " Metal missiles, cast in moulds," were 
also used. Lucretius describes them as being in shape 
between that of "an acorn and an almond." Probably 
these were hand-projectiles. They have been found 
at Marathon, and in other parts of Greece, and are 
remarkable for the description and devices they 
bore, such as thunderbolts, names of persons, and 
the Greek word AEEAI (" Take this") a very 
appropriate inscription. The Libyans carried no other 
weapons than three spears and a bag of stones (Dio- 
dorus Siculus III. 49). Xenophon refers to the 
use of the sling in the retreat of the ten thousand 
(Anabasis). Early Egyptian paintings represent the 
sling-bag worn over the shoulder. There is no mention 
of its use by the Persians. The Greeks are said to have 
employed mounted slingers in battle. The Jews (Fos- 
broke tells us) were very expert slingers. 1 Pliny attri- 
butes the invention of the sling to the Phoenicians, 
but other writers ascribe it to the inhabitants of the 
Balearic Isles (Majorca and Minorca) ; they were famous 
for their dexterity in the use of the sling. Florus and 
Strabo say: " These people bore two kinds of slings, 
some longer, others shorter, which they used according 
as their enemies were nearer, or more remote." Diodo- 
rus Siculus adds: " The first served them for a head- 
band, the second for a girdle, and the third was 
constantly carried in the hand. In fight they throw 
large stones with such violence, that they seemed to be 
projected from some machine, insomuch that no armour 
could resist their stroke. In besieging a town they 
wounded and drove the garrison from the walls, throw- 
ing with such exactness that they seldom missed their 
mark. This dexterity they acquired by constant exer- 
cise, being trained to it from their infancy, the mothers 
placing their daily food on the top of a pole, and giving 

1 Encyclopedia of Antiquities, vol. ii. 



360 SLINGS AND SLING-STONES. 

tli em no more than they beat down with stones from 
their slings. The Roman slingers came from the Balea- 
ric Isles, and they are represented in some of the ancient 
sculptures. This art is still, in some measure, preserved 
by the shepherds of these Islands." 

I find it said that the invention of the sling has been 
erroneously ascribed by some writers to the inhabitants 
of England. Froissart (vol. i., chap. 85) gives an 
instance in which slings were employed for the English 
by the people of Brittany, in a battle fought in that 
province, during the reign of Philip de Valois, between 
the troops of Walter de Mauni, an English knight, and 
Louis d'Espagne, who commanded 600 men on behalf of 
Charles de Blois, when competitor with the Earl of 
Montfort for the duchy of Brittany. The Anglo- 
Saxons are said to have used slings, and it is recorded 
that they were used in England as late as the beginning 
of the fifteenth century. According to another author, 
they were also used in naval combats. In 1572, slings 
were used at the siege of Saucerne by the Huguenots, in 
order to save their powder. D'Aubigne*, who records 
the fact, says, that " they were hence called Saucerne 
harquebusses." Slings were made of different materials, 
chiefly flax ; hair and leather were also used, woven into 
bands, or cut into " thongs," broadest in the centre for 
the reception of the stone, or baked clay ball, or metal 
projectile ; the slings tapered gradually towards both 
ends ; and with one of these slings a good slinger would, 
it is said, throw a stone 600 yards. An ancient Icelandic 
treatise, supposed to have been written about the twelfth 
century, mentions slings fixed to a staff. The use of both 
slings and hand-stones by the ancient Irish is, I believe, 
fully established. They are, I think, mentioned by the 
late Sir R. Wilde, also by 0' Curry and other writers, on 
the manners and customs of the ancient Irish. Balls of 
concrete and of metal were also in use, both for slings 
and for the hand. The death of Meadbh, or Mab, the 
Queen of Connaught, is recorded as having been caused 
by a sling-stone thrown at her across the Shannon ; but, 
as I have already remarked, I cannot but think that if 
sling-stones had been in general use in Ireland, more of 



To face page 361. 




Fig. 1. Metal Mould, in the Museum, Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. Supposed 
to have been used to form projectiles for Sling- or Hand-stones. Full size, 
S 1 ? x 2 x 1J inches. 




Fig. 2. Sling-stones used by the Natives of New Caledonia. 

Length of Four, measured 2 inches each. Width of Eight, measured 1 inch. 

"Weight, l oz. to If oz. (Soap-stone.) 



Illustrating Paper " On Sling and Sling- Stones," by COLONEL P. D. VIGORS. 



SLINGS AND SLING-STONES. 361 

them would have been found. We have drawings of 
various kinds of weapons, and of people using them ; but 
I am not aware that there is any drawing or carving 
representing a sling, or a person in the act of using one, 
amongst the ancient Irish. 

There is in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy, 
in Dawson-street, a bronzed mould (closely resembling 
fig. 1), which is supposed to have been used for the 
purpose of forming projectiles perhaps of baked clay 
for use in war. From the size I do not consider they 
were sling-stones ; hand-stones they may have been, but 
I think we require further evidence before we can say 
they were used as projectiles at all. The length of 
the mould inside is 3 inches, its width 2-J- inches, its 
depth about 1^ inches; the thickness of the edge of 
the mould is about ^-inch, if my memory serves mo 
right. 

Mr. G. A. Prim, in an article contained in the 
Archaeological Journal for 1852, says (at p. 122): 
" Amongst other articles discovered at the opening of 
a rath at Dunbel, county Kilkenny, they found some 
piles of round pebbles evidently intended to be used as 
sling-stones ; they varied from the size of a hen's egg to 
that of a pigeon's egg, but were more globular." 

Some specimens have been placed in the Museum in 
Kilkenny. Globular stones were also found (by Mr. 
Wakeman) in the crannogs of Drumdarragh, county 
Fermanagh, supposed to be sling-stones by some, and by 
others hammers. They varied "from the size of an 
orange to a moderately-sized plum, some formed by art, 
others merely water-worn pebbles." 

Having touched on slings and slingers of olden days, 
I shall now endeavour to describe an instance of slings 
being used in war at the present time. Some years 
since, during a cruise amongst the South Sea Islands in 
H. M. S. Havannah, under the command of the late 
Admiral John E. Erskine, we visited New Caledonia, 
and spent about a month there. We landed at several 
places along the coast, from Balade, on the N. E., to 
Gitima, near the S.W. end of this great island. _ It was 
during one of our trips on shore that I first noticed the 



362 SLINGS AND SLING-STONES. 

peculiar weapon used by the natives, namely, the sling 
and sling-stone; and this weapon appeared to be the 
one most valued by the natives of the island, conse- 
quently they are more expert in its use than in that of 
their other weapons the bow and arrow, spear and 
club. Though no mean performers with these, the club 
is generally used to finish the work begun by the spear, 
or sling-stone. Their slings are about six feet in length ; 
they have a tuft at one end, and a double loop at the 
other. This loop is about four inches long, and is 
intended to be twisted round the fingers to keep that 
end of the sling from leaving the hand when the other 
end is released. In the centre the sling is double for 
the length of about three inches this is to receive the 
sling-stone and it is plaited; the rest of the sling is 
twisted. It is made from some strong fibre, probably 
the bark of a tree. They have fishing-nets and lines, 
very neatly made from the same description of material. 
The stone is kept in its place by the thumb and fore- 
finger of the left hand, the left arm being at its full 
extent, and nearly level with the shoulder. The right 
arm is bent, and the right hand kept near the right ear, 
the head being partly turned towards the right side. 

The attitude of the slinger before throwing the stone 
is one that develops the muscles, and is most manly and 
attractive. A single swing of the stone round the head 
is all the impetus the stone gets; when opposite the 
right side, the tuft end of the sling is released from the 
palm of the hand, and the stone proceeds with great 
velocity and wonderful certainty towards the object 
aimed at. There are not the many revolutions round 
the head that our schoolboys formerly made when using 
a sling ; neither was there such grace or nobility in their 
action as in that of the New Caledonian stone-slinger. 
Both at Balade and at Yengen, on the east coast of this 
island, I saw numbers of the natives with marks of 
injuries from sling- stones. Some of these wounds must 
have been very severe. On the side of the thigh of a 
native, who was in the boat with me one afternoon, I 
noticed a mark so like what one would expect to see 
from the wound of a bullet, that I asked him about it. 



SLINGS AND SLING-STONES. 363 

He at once took a sling-stone from the bag he carried 
and put the point of the stone to the wound ; then he 
showed me a corresponding wound on the inside of his 
leg, where he explained to me that the stone had gone 
through. I would not have believed this, had I not seen 
the wound and heard his explanation (in broken English). 
Hearing ^ also the way they made the stones " whistle'*' 
in the air, like a bullet in its flight, impressed me with 
an idea of the great velocity and power they were able 
to give to them. 

Fig. 2, p. 361, will explain the shape of the stones 
used. The ends are round-pointed. I measured several, 
and they varied very little in their dimensions. Their 
length was from 1 T V to 2| inches; their diameter exactly 
1", and did not vary T V of an inch. Their weight was 
from 1^- to If ounces. They appear to be composed of a 
sort of " steatite," or soap-stone. The natives sometimes 
use rough stones, which I found came very near the above 
in their dimensions. The stones shaped by the natives 
seem well adapted for their purpose, being soft, and 
therefore easily worked ; while their weight, being con- 
siderable for their size, adds much to their effect. 

Some little distance from the mouth of the Yengen 
river, on its left bank, I found a large table of rock, 
" honey combed" with circular holes. Its novel appear- 
ance attracted my attention, and I found on inquiry 
that the holes were formed in the process of making the 
sling-stones. Thousands of these must have been made 
here, to judge from the number of holes. The holes 
were about one inch in depth. 

It has occurred to me that some of the rocks found 
in Ireland with cup and other shaped holes in them, 
and about the origin of which I believe considerable un- 
certainty hangs, may have been formed in a somewhat 
similar manner and for a like object: I allude to the 
mysterious cup-shaped markings noticed by Mr. Wake- 
man near Youghal, and described in the Journal of this 
Association for 1887; or those found near Enniskillen; 
also those at Ballykean, county Wicklow, and Bally- 
brennan, county Wexford ; also in Norway, Wales, 
India, Switzerland, &c. Could they have been used for 

4TH SER., VOL. VIII. 2 D 



364 SLINGS AND SLING-STONES. 

grinding up minerals for Pigments ? or reducing gold 
or other ores for smelting ? I am not myself in a posi- 
tion to answer the question, as I have never seen these 
cup-marked stones ; therefore I merely throw out the 
suggestion. 

I shall now describe the bag used by the New Cale- 
donians to carry their supply of sling-stones. It is about 
10 inches long by 5 wide, and is made of closely woven, 
or netted cord, having bands of the same material about 
2 inches wide, and double ; these go round the waist and 
keep the bag in its place; they also serve to hold an 
additional supply of stones. Between the bag and the 
waist-straps about fifty stones could be carried. 

From the marks on some of the sling-stones obtained 
by me, they appear to be first rudely shaped with the 
native jade-axes used by the aborigines of New Cale- 
donia, some of which rival those of New Zealand: 
although I think the jade stone of that country is of a 
greener and purer colour than the " Nephride " of New 
Caledonia, judging from the pieces I saw. After the 
sling-stones have been shaped as nearly as possible to 
the proper size with the axes, they are finished in the 
holes in the rocks I have already described, or in similar 
ones. 

I lately obtained an old print (dated 1809), repre- 
senting: " The Massacre of Part of the Crew of the 
Vessel of Perouse at Maouna, one of the Navigation 
Islands" in the Pacific. It is stated that " in the un- 
fortunate affray Captain de Langle and nine seamen 
were massacred." The engraving represents the natives 
attacking two of the ship's boats with hand-stones and 
sling-stones, and the description says: " The inhabitants 
of the Islands of the Navigators, of which Maouna is 
one, are very dexterous with their slings, and when they 
take aim rarely miss their object." On the left of the 
picture one of them is seen carefully adjusting a stone 
in his sling, fearless of danger, though threatened by his 
enemies. 

It may be remembered that La Perouse, who is here 
mentioned, was the French circumnavigator who sailed 
from Botany Bay, in Australia, in 1788, with the ships 



SLINGS AND SLING-STONES. 365 

Boussole and Astralobe, and who was never afterwards 
seen, nor his ships ; neither was anything known about 
their fate till 1826, when Captain Peter Dillon, in the 
ship St. Patrick, discovered a quantity of things which 
fully established the fact of the two unfortunate French 
ships having been lost at the Island of Vanikolo (now 
also called La Perouse's Island, in honour of the com- 
mander of the ship. China, silver spoons, and other 
articles marked with a fleur-de-lis, French money, brass 
guns, &c., were found by Dillon, and taken by him to 
Paris. The natives said the ships had been lost in a 
dreadful hurricane many years before ; most of the crews 
were drowned, some were killed by the natives, others 
built a small boat and left the island, but were never 
again heard of. 

The natives of New Zealand so far as I am able to 
find out no longer use the sling ; and when I was there 
(some twenty-five years since) I saw no trace of any such 
weapon. The " Pakaha Maori,' 7 the author of " Old 
New Zealand," writing about 1863, says, in speaking of 
the hill forts constructed by the natives: " When an 
enemy attacked one of these places, a common practice 
was to shower into the place red-hot stones from slings, 
which, sinking into the dry thatch of the houses, would 
cause a general conflagration," p. 201. 

I have endeavoured to discover if sling- stones were 
still used in any of the South Sea Islands, except in New 
Caledonia. 

The Eev. Dr. R. H. Codrington, of Wadham College, 
Cambridge, who has only just returned from the South 
Pacific, says that in the Banks Islands slings are used by 
boys as an amusement for killing birds. " In former days 
they were used in war by those who were skilful in their 
use, principally for sending stones along the paths by 
which a village might be attacked in the night. From 
time to time stones were slung down these paths in the 
darkness. The stones were not shaped, only chosen of 
suitable weight. A sling is called talvava." 

" In the Solomon Islands slings are used chiefly as an 
amusement. But a native of Florida Island told me that 
in his younger days they were not known in his village, 

2 D 2 



366 SLINGS AND SLING-STONES. 

and that they had since come into use as good weapons 
for assaulting the tree-houses, to which the natives of 
the Island of Ysabel retire, as to forts. The Florida 
name of a sling was taken from that of these tree- 
houses." Dr. Codrington also said that he could not 
remember to have seen any Milanesian slings, but 
thought that " Savage Island" was a great place for 
slings. 

The Rev. Alfred Penny, in reply to my inquiries, 
states that he always considered it a strange fact that 
the use of the sling, as a weapon, is entirely unknown 
in the islands of the Solomon group, with which he was 
familiar, viz. San Cristoval, Malayta, Gruadalcanar, the 
Floridas, and Ysabel ; but he adds that he once read 
that slings were used in the islands at the north-west 
extremity of the Solomons; and further says he has 
never seen the sling employed except as a toy of the 
rudest kind. Although well acquainted with the New 
Hebrides, the Loyalty Islands, Banks, and Santa Cruz 
islanders, he had never heard of the sling being in use 
there. I can, in a good measure, confirm this, having 
myself visited most of the islands above named. 

The spear, cross-bow, and club, are the weapons of 
these islanders. Mr. Penny says that in the Santa Cruz 
group, archery is carried to perfection. 

In conclusion, I would say that it is only too pro- 
bable that as civilization advances, and spreads through 
the many groups of lovely coral-bound, or volcanic 
islands, of that great southern expanse of water which 
has become known to us under the pleasant-sounding 
name of the Pacific Ocean though at times and seasons 
it ill deserves the name and as the white man barters 
for the tortoise-shell, sandal-wood, ebony, and other pro- 
ducts of those islands, and pays the ignorant natives in 
tomahawks, and such HkQ, a few years more, and per- 
haps before this century closes, we may hear of slings 
and sling-stones merely as things of the past to be 
found only in the museums of civilized nations. 



( 367 ) 



THE BUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

ON CERTAIN RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN THE ISLAND OF ACHILL. 

BY W. G. WOOD-MARTIN, M.R.I.A., FELLOW AND GENERAL 
SECRETARY, R.H.A.A.I. 

[Continued from page 299.] 

VIII. 

IF the state of peace and tranquillity of a locality be 
judged by the non-appearance, in disturbed times, of 
its name in the records of the kingdom, then the Island 
of Achill during the early, the Danish, and Anglo- 
Norman epochs must have been, when compared with 
other portions of the west of Ireland, a veritable para- 
dise. Only once as far as the writer could discover 
is it mentioned, when, in the year 1235 (according to 
the Annals of Loch Ce\ Eccuill, i.e. Achill, was plundered 
by the Irish allies of Maurice Fitzgerald. Eccuill sig- 
nifies Eagle Island, but it might now-a-days be ap- 
propriately named Insula phocarum, the " Isle of the 
Seals' 7 ; for although during their stay on its shores, 
neither W. F. Wakeman nor the writer found " phocae 
slumbering on the beach, " yet strangers from afar visit 
Achill to en joy the sport of seal-shooting in the caverned 
depths, situated at the ocean-laved foot of the granite 
mass of giant SUevemore, which stands as if to u sentinel 
enchanted land." 

The island is still in a very primitive condition, and 
though slowly changing for the better, yet the old order 
of things lingers on. Fifty-two years ago the late Sir 
William Wilde thus describes the customs of these pri- 
mitive people : 

" There are several villages in Achill, particularly those of Keeme 
and Keele, where the huts of the inhabitants are all circular or oval, and 
built, for the most part, of round water- washed stones, collected from the 
beach, and arranged, without lime, or any other cement, exactly as we 
have good reason to suppose the habitations of the ancient Firbolgs were 
constructed, and very similar to many of the ancient monastic cells 
and oratories of the fifth and sixth centuries, which religious veneration, 



368 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

and the wild, untrodden situations where they are located, have still pre- 
served in this country. Those of our readers who have ever passed the 
Minaun, or Goat's Track, on the towering cliff that rises above the 
village of Keele, with the glorious prospect of Clew Bay, and the broad 
swell of the western Atlantic before them, and have looked down upon 
the pigmy dwellings, resembling Indian wigwams, scattered over the 
beach beneath, may call to mind the scene we describe. During the 
spring the entire population of several of the villages we allude to in 
Achill close their winter dwellings, tie their infant children on their 
backs, carry with them their loys and some carry potatoes, with a few 
pots and cooking-utensils drive their cattle before them, and migrate 
into the hills, where they find fresh pastures for their flocks ; and there 
they build rude huts and summer-houses of sods and wattles, called booleys, 
and then cultivate and sow with corn a few fertile spots in the neigh- 
bouring valleys. They thus remain for about two months of the spring 
and early summer, till the corn is sown ; their stock of provisions being 
exhausted, and the pasture consumed by their cattle, they return to the 
shore, and eke out a miserable, precarious existence by fishing. No 
further care is ever taken of the crops : indeed they seldom ever visit 
them, but return, in autumn, in a manner similar to the spring migration, 
to reap the corn, and afford sustenance to their half-starved cattle. With 
these people it need scarcely be wondered that there is annually a partial 
famine." 

This " partial famine " still occurs almost every year. 

In the townland of Keele West, we found three 
ancient shell-mounds, just above high-water mark, and 
in close proximity to each other ; these remains of 
the repasts of primitive toilers of the sea had been 
almost entirely removed by the peasantry, who burned 
the shells for the purpose of reducing them to lime for 
whitening their homesteads. This process has been going 
on for years, so that the original size of the refuse heaps 
must have been very great ; two of them, however, had 
not been quite so much explored as the first we came 
upon. Here, at various times, were found a half -formed 
" spindle whorl"; a bead of green opaque glass; a 
hammer-stone, now, it is believed, in the museum of 
Canon Grainger ; a bone of Cervus elaphus (or, perhaps, 
of a small ox), which showed unmistakable marks of 
cutting implements. Traces of charcoal, bones of the 
Cervus elaphus, teeth and bones of Sus scrofa, and of 
ray -fish, were observable ; there were also shells of 
various marine species oyster, mussel, cockle, limpets, 
&c. Nothing, however, of metal was discovered. 

In a work entitled, A Tour in Connaught, published, 
in 18^9, by the Rev. Caesar Otway, he thus alludes 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN ISLAND OF ACHILL. 369 

(pp. 370-372) to the Achill rude stone monuments : 
" My attention was directed to some more than usually 
grassy slopes on the side of the hill (Slievemore\ when I 
at once recognized a whole assemblage of antiquities 
a Druidical circle, two cromlechs, an artificial cave, and 
what, all over Ireland, wherever I have met one, is 
called a ' Giant's Grave.' The circle of pillar-stones 
was not large, one of the cromlechs was perfect, the 
cave was torn open and its covering removed, and the 
grave was as much destroyed as the people could afford 
without expending more labour than was convenient." 

The monuments reposing under the shelter of this 
mountain have hitherto almost escaped the notice of 
archaeologists, and yet the several megalithic remains on 
the Island of Achill are most interesting, and present to 
observation nearly every variety of ancient sepulture. 
It is, perhaps, a tolerably safe statement to make that 
as yet free-standing cromleacs or dolmens, with circles 
at their terminations, or with parallel rows of stones 
leading from these circles to the cromleacs, or dolmens, 
are principally confined, as far as it is at present 
known, to the west of Ireland, although they may very 
possibly occur elsewhere in the kingdom ; indeed there 
is an example in the county Cavan. 

Little more than a mile (in a S. W. direction) from 




Fig. 189. General View of " Giant's Grave," situated about one mile from Doogort. 

the Protestant missionary settlement at Doogort which 
is the principal village in Achill we noticed the first 



370 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 



sepulchre ; it is situated on the right of the road leading 
to an ancient burial-ground. The monument is much 
dilapidated, only six stones being in situ. It seems to 
have been an ordinary cist, pointing N. and S., and 
presenting no very distinctive features. Fig. 189 gives a 
good idea of the general appearance of the megalith. In 
the ground-plan (fig. 190) the stone numbered (1) is 4 feet 
4 inches long, 8 inches thick and 8 feet high ; No. (2) 
is 9 feet 9 inches long and 6^ inches thick ; No. (8) is 
3 feet 3 inches long and 6^ inches thick ; No. (4) is 10 
feet 5 inches long and 9 feet 3 inches in width ; No. (5) 
is 5 feet 1 inches in length and 3 feet 9 inches thick ; 
No. (6) is 4 feet 5^ inches long by 3 feet 9^ inches in 
breadth. 

About one-third of a mile south-west of the " Giant's 
Grave" just described, there 
is a circular structure of dry 
stone-work, called Slievemore 
Caher (fig. 191). It seems, 
however, more akin to the 
sepulchral than to the mili- 
tary class of buildings. The 
vallum is quite 17 ft. thick, 





Fig. 190. Ground Plan of " Giant's 
Grave." 



Fig. 191. Ground Plan of Slievemore 
Caher. 



and is still, in places, from 4 to 5 feet in height, the 
internal diameter being, as nearly as could be ascertained, 
43 feet. There appears to have been an ope in the wall, 
and outside (to the left as you enter) are the remains of 
two small enclosures ; it is, however, difficult to decide 
now whether these are modern additions, or had formed 
part of the original plan. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN ISLAND OF ACHILL. 371 

Distant about twenty perches from this circular 
structure may be seen, to the south-west, a group of 
sepulchral remains, marked on the Ordnance Map as a 
" Pagan cemetery." Of these, the one represented by 
fig. 192, and called, by the Irish-speaking natives, 
Clochan-na-stooca, i.e. " The Stone House 
of the Stooks, or Pointed Stones," is -*. 

certainly the most extensive, the re- V^/ 

mains of this much-ruined monument 
being, even yet, about 200 feet in length. 1 J ! 
It appears to have been constructed, with > ' J 
its longer axis, a little E. of N. (magnetic), 
where there had been a circle, 8 feet in 
diameter, and from which, in parallel 
lines extended, in a slightly south-westerly **,< 

direction to a distance of 52 feet, two 
rows of stones about 10 feet apart ; next 
came a seemingly oblong enclosure, and 
then one of quadrangular form, measur- I 

ing about 26 feet 6 inches by 25 feet 6 / 
inches. From thence extended, in a / 
slightly south-westerly direction, two lines 
of stones, being a prolongation of the pas- 
sage connecting the northern circle with 
the central chamber, or enclosure. What may be de- 
signated as the south-eastern line has been destroyed, 
within the memory of a man now living on the spot, 
who stated also that formerly there had been a circle 
at the southern extremity of the structure, although 
no traces of it now remain. This circle, as may be seen 
by a glance at the plan, fig. 192, would bring the ar- 
rangement of the monument into perfect symmetry, i.e. 
a large central compartment, connected by parallel rows 
of stones (formerly, perhaps, divided into septse or cells), 
with two circles, one at either extremity, and, as is usual 
with sepulchres thus shaped, it points almost due N. 
It may be considered certain that the long parallel rows 
of stones observable in this and other monuments of the 
same class had never been covered over. 

In the same direction, and within a few minutes' walk of 
Clochan-na-stooka, there is another megalith (figs. 193, 194), 



372 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 



very much dilapidated, and, as far as could be discovered, 
bearing no special name. It consists of an ordinary 
cist some of the original covering-stones are still in 
position with a circle at either extremity, and it closely 
resembles a monument at Highwood, county Sligo. 1 

Near the " Giant's Grave" just described there is 
another in the form of a T, or perhaps double I (fig. 195). 
It measures 53 feet in its longest direction, and would 
appear to have been originally surrounded by a circular 
or oval arrangement of stones. No covering-slabs re- 
main. This tomb also closely resembles one near 
Highwood, county Sligo. 

The next grave (fig. 196), bearing the Irish desig- 
nation Tonalorcha, is situated a short distance from the 
preceding. With the exception of the northern curve 
of the circle, it is formed of small-sized stones. About 
thirty-two stones of the circle remain, and forty- 
three of the alignment, which is 90 feet 
in length. It points almost due N., and at 
its southern extremity it probably termi- 
nated in a circle corresponding to that on 
the N., which is 80 feet in diameter. 

The grave (fig. 197) distant nearly a 
quarter of a mile from the 
last described is on the 
slope of Slievemore. It 
had no special designa- 
tion, and is in a state 
of great dilapidation. It 

^> would seem to have been 

^jp a simple cist, or rectan- 

/ 2 5 4. s 6 Fer g ular sepulchre. 

The next monument 

-Ground Plan of ruined Cist. (fig> ^ ^ ^ rf ft ^^ 

situated also on the slope of the mountain, and marked 
on the Ordnance Sheet as tumulus, cromleac, Danish ditch, 




1 See p. 459, vol. vi., Jour. R.H.A.A.I. 
The Sligo example measures about 66 feet 
in length ; the Achill, 52 feet 6 inches ; 
hoth point almost due N. and S., but in 
the Achill structure the circles are of 



greater size, being about 20 feet in dia- 
meter ; and the largest of the stones 
covering the cist is 3 feet 3 inches in 
length, by somewhat over 2 feet in 
breadth. 




Fig. 193. Ground Plan of Megalith near Clochan-na-stooka. 




Fig. 194. General View of Megalith, with Circles at either extremity. 

f 



\ 




Fig. 195. Ground Plan of T orl -shaped 
Grave. 



Fig. 196. Ground Plan of Megalith at 
Tonalorcha. 





Fig. 198. General View and Ground Plan of Cup-marked Cromleac. 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN ISLAND OF ACHILL. 



375 



&c., respectively. The blocks of stone that remain had 
evidently formed the supports of the ancient covering- 
slab, which has now disappeared. The cup-markings 
on the largest of the remaining supports present a pecu- 
liar feature, these marks being rare on cromleacs or 
dolmens, although not uncommon on stones forming 
portion of mound-covered sepulchral chambers, like 
those of New grange, Dowth, Sliabh-na-cailligJie^ Knockmany, 
&c. On a structure of the cromleac, or uncovered class 
of monuments, cup-markings have not been elsewhere 
found in Ireland, except in rare instances as, for ex- 
ample, on one at Clochtogle, near Lisbellaw, county Fer- 
managh. In both instances the cup-markings are equal 
in number, and diminish in size as they extend from 
left to right ; this arrangement clearly indicates inten- 
tion, and the strong likeness existing between work upon 
sepulchral structures so widely separated is worthy of 
note. 

The monument (fig. 199) immediately adjoins the 







Fig. - 199. General View of Labby. 

cup-marked cromleac, and is called by the country 
people Labby, i.e. the " Bed or Grave." It may be 



376 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 



described as a double cist, and seems to have remained, 
comparatively speaking, undisturbed. The dotted lines 
on the ground-plan (fig. 200) denote the shape of the 
two covering-slabs. 

Near the above cist N 

there is a small stone 
circle (fig. 201), about 15 
feet in diameter, which 
is peculiar, inasmuch as 
the cist, or interior ar- 
rangement of the se- 
pulchre, appears to have 





I 2 3 4 5 6 7 FEET 



Fig. 200. 
Ground Plan of Lobby. 



Fig. 201. Ground Plan of Stone Circle, 
with Circular interior arrangement. 



been likewise circular in character, and to have been 
placed not (as is usual) in the centre of the enclosure, 
but nearly touching the interior and northern circum- 
ference. The unshaded stones have evidently been 
disturbed and do not occupy their original position. 

Close to the circle there is a earn 25 feet in length, 
by 17 feet in breadth, the longer axis extending N. and 
S. (fig. 202). This monument was carefully examined, 
and the conclusion arrived at, that it originally con- 
tained a cist or chamber, which had been broken up and 
destroyed, probably, by treasure-seekers. This earn 
forms portion of the sepulchral group of cromleacs, 
circles, and cists situated close to it. 

The next monument to be noticed is about a quarter of 
a mile distant from Slievemore graveyard, and close to the 
road (fig. 203). It had been formerly a tumulus or earn, 




Fig. 202. General View of ruined Cam. 




as> jo- 



Fig. 203. Ground Plan of denuded Cam, showing arrangement of Cists. 



378 RUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

composed of earth and stones ; its diameter is about 96 
feet. The stones have been, to a great extent, utilized for 
building fences, &c. ; and thus became exposed to obser- 
vation the peculiar arrangement of the interior cists, 
consisting of a cross-like device, the arms being divided 
into septae or compartments. Each of these had probably 
held a separate, or possibly several interments, for the two 
cists (marked in black) had been cleared out some years 
ago by treasure-seekers, who, however, found nothing, 
it is said, but " bones" to reward their search. These 
chambers, each side formed by a single flagstone, are 
nearly square in shape, being 4 feet 6 inches by 5 feet 
in length, and they would seem originally to have been 
5 feet deep. At its southern extremity the figure is ter- 
minated by two circles, the interior one being 10 feet 
and the exterior 21 feet in diameter. It is strange to 
find such an elaborate design concealed, as it were, from 
observation, cross-shaped graves being generally exposed 
to view. This form of the central chambers of cists en- 
closed within earns is not peculiar to Achill, for on clear- 
ing away the loose stones and earth which filled the 
central compartment in one of the earns of the Lough - 
crew Group, county Meath, the arrangement of the 
interior was shown to be in the form of a cross. 

About three-quarters of an hour's walk from the 
village of Doogort, there is a sandy point called Porteen, 
i.e. the " Little Landing-place" ; here a circular ar- 
rangement of stones (fig. 204) was discovered between two 
sand-hills, in a hollow cleared out by the storm-winds of 
the Atlantic, down, evidently, to the original surface of 
the ground. Stones and circle were both of small size, 
the latter being but 5 feet 4 inches in diameter. 

With the exception of fig. 202, and the great earn, 
fig. 203, all the sepulchres noted in Achill belong to the 
" free-standing," or sub-aerial class of course not taking 
into consideration the miniature circle just described, 
which had been alternately both covered and uncovered 
by the winds of heaven. 

Before closing this account of the Rude Stone Monu- 
ments of the county Sligo, and of the Island of Achill, 
it may not be amiss to note a few of the ideas suggested 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN ISLAND OF ACHILL. 



379 



to the mind during the progress of examination. As no 
authoritative account exists of the erection of these pre- 
historic structures, all who feel interested in the subject 
should be considered free to form their own speculative 
theories, either from personal explorations, or careful 
perusal of the observations made by others in the same 
line of research. It is certain that, in Ireland at least, 
the monuments in question were places set apart for 
purposes of sepulture, and not for mere ceremonial or 




Fig. 204. Diminutive Circle in the Sand-hills at Portecn. 

sacrificial observances an idea that so long lingered 
with regard to remains of like nature in Great Britain 
and elsewhere. 

It is not improbable that the varieties of form observ- 
able in the outline of these monuments of primitive man 
were emblematic of their deities of the one, perhaps, 
whose protection was thereby invoked ; and such may 
have been the origin of the custom that prevailed 
during the earliest age of the Christian Church/ for 
nations, families, or individuals to select as guardian 



4TH 8ER., VOL. VIII. 



2E 



380 KUDE STONE MONUMENTS OF IRELAND. 

some special saint, or holy person, to watch over and 
protect them from evil influences. Again, the varieties 
of outline may also be viewed as signs of tribal distinc- 
tions ; that is to say, certain forms in a locality might 
have been used as marks to denote the last resting- 
place of neighbouring septs or families, even as in later 
ages a crest or coat- of -arms served a similar purpose. 

The greatest jealousy and excitement are, up to the 
present day, aroused by the suspicion of any encroach- 
ment by one family on the supposed boundary of the 
burying-ground appropriated to another family ; so that 
in the early ages distinctive outlines must have been 
essential in order to preserve the claim either of septs 
or individuals. 

It is remarkable that, in the county Sligo, the charac- 
teristic features of the megaliths varied according to 
districts : for example, in Carrowmore the circular form 
was almost universal, whereas in Northern Carbury an 
oblong arrangement appears to predominate. Again, in 
the Deerpark Monument, the general architectural prin- 
ciples displayed at Stonehenge can be traced. 

Cremations and bodily interments have been found 
intermixed in a manner to lead to the belief that both 
forms of burial prevailed contemporaneously. Urns to 
contain the ashes of the dead were, possibly, used as a 
special mark of honour ; also, perhaps, to facilitate the 
conveyance of the human remains from a distance to the 
chosen place of interment. In a country wherein were 
thick woods and long stretches of bog to be traversed, 
the passage of funeral processions must have been at- 
tended with delays and difficulties. 

In many instances, so great an amount of charcoal- 
remains have been discovered that, there seems reason 
to believe the bodies were burned at the place of sepul- 
ture ; and from the quantity of animal-bones found inter- 
mixed with the human, it cannot but be inferred that 
an ample supply of " funeral baked meats" was pro- 
vided for those who attended the obsequies. 

Amongst the Irish peasantry the custom still survives 
of providing refreshment not merely for persons who are 
present at the place of interment, but for friends and 



RUDE STONE MONUMENTS IN ISLAND OF ACHILL. 381 

neighbours who assemble to watch at night beside the 
corpse during the intervals occurring between the dates 
of death and burial; and these " wakes" (as they are 
called), although supposed to betoken respect for the 
dead, are often scenes of unseemly feasting and carous- 
ing. 

Climate, the productions of the country in which 
they dwell, and the habits of life thereby engendered, 
influence strongly the character and acts of a people, 
.and although the general instinctive feeling of primi- 
tive man led him to honour the last resting place of his 
dead, yet the memorials thus erected necessarily depend 
upon the kind of material at hand available for the pur- 
pose. The geological nature of the surroundings must 
be taken into consideration, not merely with regard to 
megalithic structures, but also to cashels, some of which, 
according to the districts in which they were found, had 
been constructed with stones of very small size, whilst 
in other instances the stones were of greater magnitude. 



2E2 



( 382 ) 



EGYPTIAN AND IRISH BEADS. 
BY REV. LEONARD HASSE, M.R.I.A. 

AMONG the objects discovered by the Egypt Exploration Fund during 
the winter and spring of 1885-86, and exhibited by the Committee, 
in September, 1886, in the Rooms of the Royal Archaeological Institu- 
tion of Great Britain and Ireland, was a large collection of glass beads, 
amounting to about five or six hundred, exclusive of stone beads, and the 
common green or blue porcelain beads, which numbered several thousands. 
I was anxious to see the collection before it was dispersed, in order to 
institute a comparison between Egyptian and Irish beads, and by this 
means to obtain some data for determining the relative age of the latter. 
I went to London with this view ; and though the Exhibition was 
already closed to the public, I obtained the kind permission of Mr. 
Flinders Petrie to examine the collection at my leisure. My work 
was greatly facilitated through the extreme courtesy of Mr. Llewelyn 
Griffith, Mr. Petrie' s assistant, in the field of discovery, and I had the 
further advantage of obtaining from Mr. Griffith, both at the time and 
subsequently, much personal information about the sites and circum- 
stances of the various finds. Shortly after my return I read a report 
of my observations at a meeting of the Ballymena ArchaBological Society. 
Mr. Day's instructive Paper on " Ornaments in Glass from Egypt, to 
illustrate those found in Ireland" contained in the last Number of the 
Journal having drawn attention to the connexion between Egyptian 
and Irish beads, I am induced to offer the following contribution to the 
subject, as the result of my examination of the above collection, and tc~ 
combine with it the inquiry into the antiquity of our Irish beads. 

I. 

The Egyptian beads were procured whilst excavating at Tell Nebesheh, 
not far from Tanis, and at Tell Defenneh (the Hebrew Tahpanhes, 
and the Greek Daphnse), on the road to El-Kantara. The majority of 
the beads of the Defenneh section were brought in by the Arabs, and 
were probably obtained from Ramesside ruins of the twentieth dynasty, 
which exist within a distance of about ten miles from this site ; these 
are of blue or green porcelain. There are, however, Ptolemaic and 
early Roman remains at Defenneh itself. At Nebesheh beads were 
found " by the pound weight." There are a few remains of the twelfth 
dynasty, and more of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twenty-sixth 
dynasties ; the Ptolemaic and Roman periods are well represented. At 
Gemayemi, three miles from Nebesheh, a glass-worker's factory was 
discovered, with moulds and bars of coloured glass. (See The Academy, 
vol. xxix., pp. 153, 262, 458 ; vol. xxx., p. 4330 

The great difficulty in instituting a comparison between Irish and 
Egyptian beads lies in the long duration of time over which the manu- 
facture of beads in Egypt extended. Leaving the period of the native 
Empire till the end of the twenty-sixth dynasty entirely aside, and 



EGYPTIAN AND IRISH BEADS. 383 

reckoning only from the time when Naukratis was thrown open to Greek 
merchants in the seventh century B.C., there are many "Egyptian beads" 
which are, in reality, of Persian (525-332 B.C.), or Grecian (332-30 B.C.), 
or Eoman (30 B.C.-395 A.D.) date. Beads found in Theban tombs may 
be of any age up to the first century B.C. The city was laid in ruins by 
Ptolemy Lathyrus, 87 B.C, and since that time they have been undis- 
turbed, but the same patterns which we encounter on Theban beads sur- 
vived into the period when Egypt was under Eoman rule, and at no 
great distance from Thebes, Christian anchorites lived and died from the 
close of the third century A.D. It follows that the value of dated 
Egyptian beads is extremely great. 

There were two classes of dated beads in the collection. At Nebesheh 
a large number were obtained in the ruins of a house, which coins, 
bronzes, and other objects showed to have belonged to the Ptolemaic 
period about 200 B.C. The house had been burned, and some of the 
beads showed traces of the conflagration. Close to Nebesheh also were 
found a number of beads, which had evidently once formed a necklace, 
with a large central pendant in bronze, and these were dated, by coins 
found along with them, as belonging to the period of Constantine II., 
337-340 A.D. Beads from other Roman remains were also found at 
Nebesheh. 

As we have to deal with beads of varying sizes, it will be well to 
adopt some convenient expression for approximately fixed dimensions. 
Thus, beads measuring ^-inch, either in length or in diameter, I call 
No 1 size beads ; f-inch, No. 2 size; -f-inch, No. 3 size; i-inch, or more, 
No. 4 size. It will also be of use to follow the classification of Mr. W. 
J. Knowles, in his Article on " Ancient Irish Beads and Amulets," 
published in the Journal, vol. v., 4th Series, 1881. 

1. The majority of the beads were of No. 1 or No. 2 size ; on the 
Constantine II. necklace there were a few No. 3 size, from Nebesheh, 
and a few single beads of this size from the same locality. The large, 
No. 4 size, did not occur at all. 

2. The nearest approach to the " scribbled beads," with wavy or 
zigzag pattern (Mr. Knowles' first class), was among the beads belong- 
ing to the tomb of Constantine's date. None were so large as those 
figured on Mr. Knowles' second Plate, Nos. 1, 2, 3, and the figure of 
the scrawl was not so close as on the Irish specimens. I observed five 
"beads of this class: one had the white enamel or blue ground, the 
others had the ordinary dark bottle-glass ground. Of these the zigzag 
pattern was in one case white, in another light-green. A fourth bead 
had yellow markings, enclosed between red borders; and a fifth had 
yellow and green zigzag lines crossing each other alternately. The rela- 
tive age of this class of beads is attested by a specimen, figured in 
Mestorf's Vorgeschichtliche Alterihuemer aus Schleswig-Hoktein (Hamburg, 
1885), Plate LV., No. 677, which is extremely like the Irish scribbled 
beads. It represents a fine large brown bead, with a wide hole, and the 
yellow enamel running well over the surface. It belongs to the great 
finds of the Torsberger Bog in Schleswig, which are marked by Roman 
coins, from the time of Nero to Septimius, as being of a date later 
than 211 A.D. There is nothing in the wavy or zigzag ornamenta- 
tion in itself to prevent the scribbled bead from being of much earlier 
origin ; the pattern occurs on glass vessels found in Cyprus and else- 



384 EGYPTIAN AND IRISH BEADS. 

where which Perrot assigns to a period long before the Christian era. 
The only question is at what time the pattern was put on beads ; 
and this must be determined by dated finds. The design is seen on 
beads from the Hallstadt cemetery, but those figured by Yon Sacken 
(Plate XVIII., Nos. 34, 35, 37) are not the same as the Irish specimens 
of this class. 

3. There were no " knob-beads," nor any with the spiral-thread 
pattern, or with any Tariation of this type, which constitutes Mr. 
Knowles' second class. 1 

4. Mr. Knowles' third class consists of " blotch beads," or " spot 
beads," of which Mr. Day figures a specimen from Thebes. I found 
several beads of this pattern among the number obtained in the Ptole- 
maic House at Nebesheh. Only a few were of No. 3 size ; the majority 
were smaller, and they had not so wide a hole as the Irish specimens. 
The body of the beads was composed of a thick consistent glass paste, 
uniform in colour, and of coarse quality as several broken fragments 
showed. The beads, whilst in a semi-fused condition, appear to have 
been rolled over, or sprinkled with assorted grains of glass of different 
colours, which adhered to the beads, and formed the blotches or spots 
upon them. The bead was then re-heated, and, with greater or less 
pressure, was put over a grooved mould of stone or metal ; by this means 
the grains were imbedded in the bead. Sometimes the particles, so 
applied, had fallen out, or been rubbed off, leaving the matrix, in which 
they had originally lain, still perceptible. The Irish beads were, no 
doubt, made in the same manner. The process thus described would 
account for the occasional excrescences of the spots above the proper 
surface of the bead ; these would be formed where a large grain of glass 
adhered to it, and the pressure in rolling it was slight, especially in 
putting it on and removing it from the mould. The simple rotation of 
the rod would partially diffuse the melting particle of glass, but it would 
not imbed it in the body of the bead : for this the mould was requisite. 
The same process also explains how two colours may overlap one another 
without destroying the contour of the bead. I have one specimen, which 



1 It is remarkable how few specimens and countries " ; among these there are 

analogous to our Irish beads are found in three large knob beads, and one fine blue 

the great Egyptian collections at the British blackberry bead; No. 553 is a face bead. 

Museum. I enumerate, for comparison, The number of melon beads in the Orien- 

those which I have examined ; some of tal sections is also surprisingly small. See 

them were first pointed out to me by in I. Egyptian Room, Case E,Nos, 16376 

Mr. Knowles. In the II. Egyptian Eoom (blue) and 6278 (yellow) ; Case D, No. 

No. 16711 represents tbe class of "knob- 16706 (yellow) ; No. 56 Case, 14451. In 

beads"; Nos. 16706 and 6288 belong to II. Egyptian Room, No. 16714 (small 

tbe scribbled-beads ; Nos. 16704 and 16857 size, blue or blue -green). In III. 

to the blotch-beads; Nos. 16859 and 6287 Egyptian Eoom, No. 14743 (two beads, 

are a sub-type of the "eye bead," and small). In the Assyrian Eoom, Case 

resemble some Irish forms; No. 16708 next to " C," opposite to Nos. 64, 63, 

is something like the "face bead," Jour., on the glass-cases along the wall, with 

1881, Plate II., No. 10 ; No. 16383, a title, " Assyria, principally Parthian 

plain, large blue ball-bead, occurs in the Period, 250 B.C.," one specimen. In 

same size, and smaller in Irish collec- the I. Vase Eoom, Case A, there are 

tions. In the III. Egyptian Eoom Nos. three melon beads from Kamiros, and 

2890 and 2889 are knob beads. In the one from lalysos ; also some single speci- 

Glass and Majolica Eoom, in Case F, mens. 
there are beads marked "various ages 



EGYPTIAN AND IRISH BEADS. 385 

has so many minute grains of different coloured glass on the whole sur- 
face that no other means of applying them suggests itself than that of 
rolling the bead among particles of glass, or of sprinkling the grains on 
to the bead whilst still in a viscid state. In comparing the beads of the 
Egyptian collection with our Irish specimens, I found the former to be 
generally inferior in size and execution. 

5. Of other well-known types of Irish beads, three deserve some 
notice the dumb-bell bead, the melon-bead, and the cylindrical ring- 
bead. I found five specimens of the dumb-bell shape of translucent 
glass, but I have no memorandum of the section to which they belong. 
They were blue in colour, very coarsely made, and were inferior to our 
Irish beads. 

6. I did not find many beads of the melon-shaped pattern ribbed in 
the direction of the axis. Those that I saw were of No. 2 size ; none were 
as large as the beads of this class found in Saxon graves, and abundantly 
represented in the British Museum. There was a small specimen, dull- 
blue in colour, made of opaque paste, and exactly like a bead from Thebes, 
in my possession, which had belonged to the collection of the late 
Egyptologist, Samuel Sharpe ; it differed slightly in shape from our 
Irish beads, and represents an earlier form. In general the melon-bead 
is not found frequently in Egypt. It characterizes the early Roman 
period of Egyptian history, and is, I believe, widely distributed over the 
continent of Europe. I saw two blue melon-beads made of translucent 
glass, rather less than No. 2 size, of an oval shape, and resembling the 
Saxon grave type, but very much smaller. They were very perfectly 
made, and appear to be late Eoman. As far as I remember they belong 
to the Nebesheh section. 

7. I was greatly struck with what appeared to be the original form 
of one of our translucent glass beads, the long blue ring beads of cylin- 
drical form, ribbed transversely to the axis, of which Mr. Day figures 
an Egyptian and an Irish specimen. The Egyptian beads were of a gritty 
paste, entirely opaque, and were of the common greenish colour which 
prevails on articles of Egyptian faience. They varied in length from four 
to nine rings ; the longest, however, did not exceed the dimensions of a 
six-ringed Irish specimen, which I possess. These beads were numerous, 
and had generally a diameter across the axis as large as the majority of 
the Irish beads of this class. The opaque beads appear to go back to the 
time of the eighteenth dynasty, but they held their place into Grecian 
times; the translucent ones are probably of the Christian era. 

I imagine that the Irish beads were rolled, when the tube of glass was 
on the metal rod, over a flat surface with slightly elevated ridges at right 
angles to the rod, and that the incisions so made produced the rings. It 
is possible that each bead was cut singly off the tube by a diamond and 
was made separately marks of cutting with a diamond were found on 
the glass at Gemayemi ; this was probably the case when any ornamenta- 
tion was laid on the bead. If the bead, however, was plain, a succession 
of upright ridges, raised at intervals above the level of the others, would 
serve equally well to cut the bead to the rod in different lengths as 

^ A similar process may account for the origin of another class of 
Irish beads. Although the familiar "blackberry bead" is probably of 
very late date, yet I think the pattern is ancient ; the same remark applie 



386 EGYPTIAN AND IRISH BEADS. 

to the very recent small melon-shaped bead and to the polygonal 
bead. (See Perrot, History of Art in Phoenicia, vol. ii., Plate X.) The 
blackberry bead has been made by rolling the tube of glass over a 
flat surface, indented with little cells. On the finished bead these stand 
out in line, like the excrescences of the fruit in question. Projecting ridges 
on the mould, at right angles to the rod, seem to have cut the single beads, 
and the marks of the rotary movement at the ends of the bead are generally 
distinctly visible. I saw some beads of this type, probably manufactured in 
a similar manner, made of a blue opaque paste. They were dotted with 
small erections of the same colour as the body of the bead, rather more 
thickly set than on our translucent specimens, and not in such regular 
lines, yet reminding one at first sight of the analogous Irish pattern. 

The recognition of this method of rolling the tube of glass over a 
surface, furnished with moulds cut in semicircular grooves or in triangles 
and squares, explains the formation of other well-known types of our 
Irish beads, and their peculiar shapes. 

9. The majority of the glass beads were the common so-called " eye- 
beads," or "Phoenician beads." They were especially represented in the 
Nebesheh section, containing the remains of the Ptolemaic House, circa 
200 B.C. ; the class, however, continued into Roman times. The ground 
colour was generally a bright blue. On this white crescents, or sometimes 
completely circular figures were laid on ; frequently the enamel was blue, 
on a dark bottle-glass ground. The beads varied from below No. 1 size 
to No. 3, and were very much like those figured in Perrot, op. cit., vol. ii., 
p. 382. The small-sized eye bead is probably the most typical of the 
pre-Christian period ; its occurrence in Ireland, if existing at all, must be 
very rare. It has, I believe, been met with among Roman remains in 
England, but in seven Irish collections 1 amounting to about 2500 glass 
beads with which I am familiar, I have not observed a single specimen 
of genuine style. The nearest representative that I have seen, beyond 
those which are found in Mediterranean countries, was on a beautiful 
string of ancient beads from the Vindya Mountains in India, now in the 
possession of Rev. G. R. Buick, M.A. 

10. Casting up the results of my examination of the whole collection, 
I found that those " Egyptian" beads, which were most like the Irish, 
were either such as characterize Roman imperial times, or such as had 
survived into Roman times : the particular forms of the scribbled beads, 
described above, belong to the former class, the blotch beads to the latter. 
I recognized inferior specimens of the dumb-bell and of the melon bead, 
and seemed to observe the parent form of the ring and of the blackberry 
beads, both, however, being made of paste, and not translucent. I found 
none with the knob ornamentation, or with the spiral-thread pattern. I 
also noticed what appears to be the complete absence from Ireland of the 
true " Phoenician beads " with the eye-pattern. 

11. It would be premature, in our present state of knowledge, to 
pronounce a final opinion on the antiquity of our Irish beads ; at the same 
time, the cumulative evidence of the various facts under consideration 
seems to point to the conclusion that, speaking generally, the earliest date 

1 The collections referred to are those of Mr. Knowles, Canon Grainger, Mr. 
of the Royal Irish Academy, the Benn George Raphael, Rev. G. R. Buick, and 
Collection, Belfast, and the collections my own. 



EGYPTIAN AND IRISH BEADS. 387 

which can be assigned to the Irish glass beads is that of the last century 
of the Roman Republic, or the first century of the Christian era. We 
have, relatively, few paste beads of coarse, gritty quality, like the melon- 
beads. I know of only twenty-eight specimens of this material in the 
seven collections above referred to ; nor does it necessarily follow that 
those of this class which we do possess are always the most ancient. The 
majority of our beads are translucent, and, even where opaque, are distinctly 
of glass. The glass bead is a development of the paste bead, which, how- 
ever, still continued to be made long after the advance to glass had been 
effected. It seems to differ from the paste bead, not only in the freer 
use of mineral potash, but also in the fineness of the silicious powder 
which was employed, and in the consequent higher degree of fusion 
obtained in the process of smelting ; a more skilful and ornamental method 
of treatment accompanied the development. The clear translucent glass 
appears to have been essentially Roman. 

It now remains to supplement this examination of the Egyptian 
collection with some observations made nearer home. 



II. 

It is difficult to bring the Irish beads into relationship with the 
different "ages" of pre-historic times ; nor are we yet in a position to 
group our materials for a proper survey of the Irish Stone, Bronze, and 
Iron Periods, in so orderly and comprehensive a manner as Dr. Anderson 
has done in his great work on Scotland in Pagan Times. I cannot, how- 
ever, ascertain that glass beads have been found in Ireland in cinerary 
urns or along with grave goods, belonging distinctly to the Stone or the 
Bronze Age. A late well-known Ballymena dealer has stated privately, 
that in one case a single bead, and in another a string of beads, of which 
he had one for sale, were discovered, respectively, in a burial mound and 
in a cinerary urn ; but the particulars of the finds are not known, and 
no record of the circumstances exists. I am also informed that in 
an urn placed within a larger one, which was excavated in the county 
Down, and is now in the collection of Canon Grainger, a single glass 
bead of a blue colour was originally discovered. As, however, the 
practice of cremation survived in all probability into the first centuries 
of the Christian era (Sullivan in O'Curry's Manners and Customs of the 
Ancient Irish, vol. i., p. 320), the presence of a cinerary urn is not 
evidence in itself that the burial belonged to the Stone or the Bronze age. 
The glass and amber beads found in 1847, in the interior of one of the 
chambers in the Hill of Dowth, were accompanied by the bronze pins of 
fibulas, and by iron knives and rings (Dublin University Magazine, vol. 
xxx., p. 743). Dr. Sullivan does not consider the tumuli on the Boyne 
to be pre-historic in the sense of lying outside the traditions ot the 
country, but rather to belong to the cycle of the heroic poems and tales 
which are still preserved in Irish Manuscripts, t. e. they may well De < 
an age approximate to the beginning of the Christian era (0 Curry, op. 
cit vol i , p 328). It would be exceedingly interesting to ascertain 
whether any allusions to glass beads occur in early Irish literature : some 
Celtic scholar might well investigate the point. I cannot find any 
i-eference to the subject in O'Curry (op. cit.\ or in Sullivan's introduction. 



388 EGYPTIAN AND IRISH BEADS. 

I may mention, in passing, that the Celtic words glain, gloin, and 
glaine, known in the form of the " glain neidyr," or snake bead (Wallace- 
Dunlop, Glass in the Old World, p. 203^"), for which a Phoanician 
etymology was once current, are derived by Diefenbach and Waldman, 
as quoted by Schrader (Handelsgeschichte und Warenkunde, p. 84), from 
a Teutonic source, through the intermediate form, glasin. The word in 
some such original form as glaxa must have first indicated amber ; from 
it the Latin glesum, and the Anglo-Saxon glas are derived ; then when 
glass beads became known, the term was transferred to the new article, 
both for its translucency and for its character as an object of personal 
adornment. Whether the word glain is a loan word, taken over at the 
stage when in its original form it indicated amber only, or at a stage 
when it embraced glass and amber alike, I cannot tell. The word "bead" 
with the meaning, attaching to it now, is of late origin; the earliest 
example given in Murray's New English Dictionary is from Piers Plow- 
man, c. 1377, whereas in its original sense of " prayer," it is as old, in 
English Literature, as Alfred's time. One would like to know what term 
was in use (berry ? or pearl ? cf. Germ. " glas-perle ") before the change 
of meaning took place. The term " amber " came in with Norman - 
Prench ; it first appears circa 1400, as the name of the fossil resin. 

"We may learn something of the antiquity of glass beads in Ireland 
from examining the conditions under which they appear in Scotland. 
They do not seem to be found with remains of the Stone Age. In 
Anderson's Stone and Bronze Age more than two hundred and ninety-one 
specimens of beads and plates of jet or lignite, as well as a smaller num- 
ber of amber beads are mentioned, but this is no record of the occurrence 
of glass beads. On the other hand, in speaking of "the Brochs and their 
contents," in his volume on The Iron Age, glass beads are enumerated, 
and a specimen figured (p. 233, fig. 204) is so exactly identical with Irish 
beads in private collections and with a bead from Lagore, in the Royal 
Irish Academy, figured in Colonel Wood-Martin's Lake Dwellings of 
Ireland (p. 123, fig. 163), that there can be no doubt that the bead in 
question was an article of trade in both countries at one and the same 
time ; the age of the Brochs, however, is post-Roman (Anderson, op. cit. t 
p. 259). A woman's grave of the Yiking Period from the eighth to the 
end of the tenth century, A.D. found on the island of Islay, disclosed a 
number of beads, some of which resemble the later forms of Irish speci- 
mens (Anderson, op. cit., pp. 28-37). 

The great majority of glass beads in Scotland and Ireland, procured 
in distinct finds, of which the relative age could be determined, have 
been discovered in crannogs ; of these thirty-one specimens are figured 
in Colonel Wood-Martin's above-mentioned work, and eleven in Munro'a 
Ancient Scottish Lake Dwellings. All the Scotch beads could be matched 
with Irish specimens; we encounter the familiar shapes of the melon bead, 
the dumb-bell bead, and the spiral-thread bead (pp. 48, 137). I do not find 
any indication of the scribbled bead, or of the blotch bead in Munro or 
Anderson. Munro includes glass beads among the objects found in the 
Scotch crannogs, which betray a Romano-British origin ; he ascribes 
the construction of the crannogs on a comprehensive scale to the fifth 
century, and their general abandonment to the tenth century, A.D. 

Colonel Wood-Martin takes his illustrations from nine Irish crannogs, in 
which glass beads have been found ; others, no doubt, could easily be added 



EGYPTIAN AND IRISH BEADS. 

to the list, but those enumerated are very good representatives of the whole 
class. At whatever period they may originally have been constructed, 
there is good reason for believing that the crannogs in question were still 
in a state of occupation during the period which Munro has assigned to 
the Scotch lake dwellings. In the case of Lagore there is historical 
evidence to this effect. Ardakillen and Lough Ravel were tenanted up 
to a much later date, and the character of the objects found in the cran- 
nogs discloses the same fact with regard to the sites at Randalstown 
(op. cit., pp. 167, 68), Lough-na-glack (p. 195), and Drumkeery (p. 201). 
The period of the abandonment of the crannogs at Lisnacroghera, Ballin- 
derry, in county Westmeath, and Lough Eyes cannot be so immediately 
determined ; iron was, however, plentifully represented in the two former 
crannogs ; the date of the occupation of the islands in Lough Eyes is less 
certain. 

If we allow the age of the Scotch lake dwellings to have been 
correctly fixed by Munro and Anderson concurs in ascribing them 
to a period subsequent to the Koman Conquest (The Iron Age, pp. 269- 
70) the probable antiquity of the Irish crannogs, in which beads of the 
same type have been found as those met with in Scotland, affords us no 
substantial grounds for resisting the conclusion that the Irish glass beads, 
so procured, are either all or in greater part remains of the Christian 
era. 

It is probable that all the different classes of Irish beads are more or 
less represented in English finds ; the illustrations and descriptions given 
of English beads seem to indicate this ( Wallace -Dunlop, op. cit., pp. 205, 
207) ; in what proportion, however, they may occur it is difficult to 
ascertain. The large melon bead, as already said, is frequently found in 
Saxon graves ; the dumb-bell bead has been met with in more than one 
locality in Lincolnshire (Wallace-Dunlop, op. cit., Plate IV., fig. 5); 
variants of the scribbled bead (Wallace-Dunlop, Plate IV., fig. 6, and 
Je witt's Half -hours Among English Antiquities, fig. 285), the knob bead 
and the spiral-thread bead, seem also to exist. I have no doubt that a 
careful examination of some half-dozen local museums in England would 
greatly tend to set the question of the antiquity of our Irish beads at rest. 

With regard to the earliest distribution of glass beads in Britain, 
Canon Greenwell's excavations among the wolds of Yorkshire are highly 
important (British Barrows}. Although he expressly states that_ else- 
where in England glass beads have been found belonging to the period of 
the round barrows of the wolds, that is, before the introduction of iron 
(p. 52 .), yet none were discovered in the three hundred and seventy- 
nine burials, which represent the Stone or the Stone and Bronze Period in 
Yorkshire (pp. 52, 212). At Cowlam, along with a bronze armlet and a 
bronze fibula with an iron pin, a necklace was found made up of seventy 
small glass beads of a deep-blue colour, with a zigzag pattern in white, 
and of a single large bead, with inlaid enamel circles (p. 208) ; beads of 
the same character have been found at Arras. The Cowlam, Arras, and 
a few similar burials, Canon Greenwell assigns to the period \' which 
elapsed between the introduction of iron and the time when Britain came 
more or less under Roman rule and influence " ; and he considers this 
period to have been one of short duration (p. 212) ; it embraces the last 
century of the Classical age and the commencement of the Christian era 
in North Britain and Ireland. In a barrow of post-Roman date, in West- 



,390 EGYPTIAN AND IRISH BEADS. 

moreland, a single glass bead, apparently of the blotch pattern, was found 
inside of a tree-coffin along with bronze remains (p. 384), and a neck- 
lace of amber and glass beads was discovered along with bronze fibulas, 
in a secondary interment, in an Anglian grave in the East Riding of 
Yorkshire (p. 178). 

There can be little doubt that there are varieties of age among the 
different classes of Irish beads : some appear at first sight of earlier, others 
of later origin. There are not only distinct characteristics of design and or- 
namentation, which may with little hesitation be pronounced to belong to 
different periods, and to indicate different prevailing tastes' ; but there are 
also differences of art, which seem to betray divergent methods of manu- 
facture, and different appliances. It is also quite possible that different 
sources of importation or of production may be discovered; as regards the 
latter contingency, the use of glass for ornamental purposes on the Cross 
of Cong, the Tara Brooch, the Crozier of Clonmacnoise. and the Ardagh 
Chalice, is strong presumptive proof that the glass- worker's art was well- 
known in Irish monasteries in mediaeval times. It would be a matter of 
interest to follow up progressively the order of age in the Irish beads; but 
to enter on this investigation would exceed the proper limits of the present 
Paper. 



( 391 ) 



THEOBALD WOLFE TONE AND THE COLLEGE HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY. 

BY GEORGE D. BURTCHAELL, M.A., LL.B., BARRISTER- AT- LAW, M.R.I.A. 

IN the life of Theobald "Wolfe Tone, written by himself, he refers to the 
fact, that during his sojourn in Trinity College, Dublin, he had obtained 
" three medals from the Historical Society, a most admirable institution, 
of which (he says) I had the honour to be Auditor, and also to close the 
Session with a speech from the Chair the highest compliment which that 
Society is used to bestow." 

The Historical Society, at the time Tone was a member, was at the 
height of its fame. It had then been established on a permanent basis 
in College for thirteen years. " The Club," founded by Edmund Burke 
and four companions, is the oldest College Debating Society in the United 
Kingdom of which any account remains. The Minute Book of the Club, 
the greater part of which is in Burke's own handwriting, is now preserved 
among the records of the Historical Society. Other Debating Societies 
succeeded, the records of which have unfortunately been lost. The study 
of history which did not at that period form part of the University curri- 
culum was considered essential, as the debates were altogether upon 
political and historical subjects ; hence these successive Societies were 
known as "Historical" Societies. Not having, however, a fixed place of 
meeting, they appear to have enjoyed only a fitful existence until the year 
1770, when thirteen students, having obtained from the Fellows the use 
of the Common Room, in which to hold their meetings, formed themselves 
into "The College Historical Society," for the exercise of History, 
Oratory, and Composition. The Society rapidly grew and prospered, and 
became the training school of the alumni of the University, who rose 
to eminence in the Senate, in the Church, and at the Bar ; nor was the 
medical profession unrepresented among its distinguished members. 

A dispute with the Board, in 1794, led to the banishment of the Society 
from the College ; but it was immediately re-formed upon new lines and 
continued within the walls until 1815. On the 1st February, in that 
year, the Society adjourned sine die, believing the restrictions sought to 
be imposed upon it by the Board were calculated to injure its usefulness. 
At the end of five years an attempt was made to form a Society outside 
College, and in some shape or form it continued to exist till 1844. But 
having no permanent abode, the difficulty of carrying out its objects was 
very great, and the tendency to split up into rival societies more than 
once caused confusion. In 1843, however, arrangements were made with 
the Board, by which the Society was once more established within the 
College, and has so continued till the present day. 

The Society possesses an unbroken series of records from 1770 to 1815, 
and from 1843 to the present, as well as some of the Minute Books of the 
period of its exile, between 1830 and 1843. 

It was formerly the custom 1770 to 1794 for each member, on 
taking his seat in the Society, to sign a declaration giving his assent to 
the laws; and the roll of signatures (976 in number), includes the auto- 



392 WOLFE TONE AND COLLEGE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

graphs of the most prominent Irishmen of the end of the last and com- 
mencement of the present century. 

On Wednesday evening, 19th November, 1783, " Mr. Tone was pro- 
posed for admission by Mr. Miller, 1 seconded by Mr. Plunket." 8 The 
following Wednesday he was ballotted for, and admitted, and took his 
seat on that night week, 3rd December. His signature is the 364th 
upon the roll. He appears to have been a regular attendant at the 
meetings, and was occasionally fined by the Chairman a fate which befel 
very many members, for slight breaches of order. 

The officers of the Society were then elected for periods of three 
months each, and it appears to have been the custom for each outgoing 
officer to propose the names of three members from whom to choose a 
successor. An important change was proposed on 21st April, 1783, by 
Mr. Lee : 3 " That the 3rd Law of the 3rd Chapter be amended as follows : 
That the night preceding the expiration of the offices of Auditor, 
Treasurer, and Librarian, the Society shall proceed to ballot for four 
gentlemen, out of whom the successor shall be chosen the ensuing night." 
This was carried by twenty-four votes to twenty-one, Mr. Tone being 
teller for the " Ayes." The next night, in pursuance of this resolution, the 
Society proceeded to nominate four gentlemen, out of whom on the succeed- 
ing night to elect one to fill the office of Treasurer for the ensuing period, 
and on ballot the following were nominated : Mr. Warren, Mr. Tone, 
Mr. Lee, 4 Mr. Driscol. The ballot was, however, set aside the following 
night, and the practice of nomination by the outgoing officers reverted to. 
Mr. Tone was not one of those nominated by the outgoing Treasurer, Mr. 
Abraham Stewart. 

His first appearance in the debates was on the 9th June, 1783. The 
question appointed was: " Is an Absentee Tax admissible in a free State ?" 
and the "pleaders" were Mr. Euxton and Mr. Tone. The question 
was carried in the affirmative, nem. con. The same night it was decided 
instead of the question " Was the Restoration of advantage to 
England?" to substitute, on the following Wednesday, "Whether, 
under the British Constitution, Octennial or Triennial Parliaments are 
preferable ; " and Mr. Tone and Mr. Stawell were appointed pleaders. 
On the question being put, " That Octennial Parliaments are preferable," 
there were thirteen " Ayes" (Teller, Mr. Tone), and twenty-one " Noes." 

On 30th June, 1784, " The Auditor, Treasurer, and Librarian, having 
examined the returns for Oratory, reported as follows : 

" That Mr. E. JEPHSON 6 had 196 returns, 
" That Mr. STAWELL had 151 
" That Mr. TONE had 4 

" The Chairman accordingly declared that Mr. R. Jephson and Mr. 
Stawell were entitled to medals, and that Mr. Tone was entitled to 



1 Afterwards F. T. C. * Afterwards King's Counsel. 

2 Afterwards Lord Plunket. 5 Afterwards Baronet, and Judge at 

3 Afterwards M. P. for county Water- Gibraltar. 



WOLFE TONE AND COLLEGE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 393 

the remarkable thanks of the Society, for their distinguished merit in 
debate." 

At the commencement of the next Session, 1784-85, Tone was for 
some time absent. On 5th January, 1785, the Vice- Auditor proposed the 
following gentlemen as Presidents (Chairmen) for the four ensuing nights 
of meeting, viz : Mr. Bushe, 1 Mr. Tone, Mr. Conway, Mr. Sharkey. The 
Society accordingly proceeded to ballot, when Mr. Tone was elected 
unanimously, and the other three gentlemen were elected. On 26th 
January, Mr. R. Jephson, Yice-Auditor, nominated for the office of 
Auditor Mr. Quaill, Mr. Thorp, 2 Mr. Miller, and Mr. Tone, Mr. Thorp 
being the successful candidate. The result of the Oratory returns for the 
period was declared on the 30th March, as follows : 

Mr. GEORGE MILLER, 315 returns, 
Mr. GooLD, 3 210 

Mr. TONE, 209 

Mr. BUSHE, 142 

The first two were declared entitled to medals, and the others to "the 
remarkable thanks of the Society, and to have their names entered on the 
Journals, in return for their distinguished merit in debate." But on the 
following night it was proposed by Mr. Graves, 4 seconded by Mr. Goold, 
" That an extra medal be presented to Mr. TONE for his exertions in 
Oratory during the last period," which was passed in the affirmative, 
nem. con. 

On 27th April Tone was again nominated for the Auditorship, the 
other candidates being Messrs. George Miller, sen., Mr. Graves, and Mr. 
Matthew Hamilton, and on this occasion Mr. Miller was elected. _ 

It was at that time customary to open and to close each Session with 
a speech from the Chair. The member selected to deliver the speech was 
generally one of senior standing, and who had, as a rule, previously held 
office, or obtained a medal. On the 15th June, 1784, Mr. Tone pro- 
posed, and Mr. Goold seconded, " That Mr. John Jephson, our present 
worthy Chairman, do take the Chair to-morrow evening, in order to close 
the Session with a speech." 

While the earlier portion of each night of meeting was devoted first 
to an Examination (conducted by the Chairman) in an appointed portion 
of history, and secondly to the debate of some question previously agreed 
upon, the chief interest centered round the business subsequently 
transacted. The proposal of new laws or the impeachment of officers 
then, as now, called forth the debating powers of the members. It would 
seem that disorderly interruptions had become very general, as on the 
first night of the Session, 25th October, 1785-86, Mr. Tone proposed, 
" That when any member interrupts another under the pretence of rising 
to order, he shall specify to the Chair wherein he conceives the member 
interrupted to have been disorderly; the Chairman shall then decide the 

1 Afterwards Lord Chief Justice of 'Afterwards Serjeant -at -Law, and 

Trpland Master in Chancery. 

' Afterwards Chief Justice of Sierra * Afterwards F.T.C., Dean of Ardagh. 
Leone. 



394 WOLFE TONE AND COLLEGE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

point, and his decision shall be for that night final." This was seconded 
by Mr. Driscol, and unanimously agreed to. 

On the 2nd November, 1785, the Auditor, Mr. George Miller, having 
obtained leave to resign that office, proposed the following gentlemen : 
Mr. Gabriel Stokes, Mr. Abraham Stewart, Mr. Tone, and Mr. Bushe ; 
and on the next night Tone was elected Auditor. In January following 
he obtained medals both in Oratory and History for this period. In 
Oratory, Mr. Jebb 1 had 139 returns, and Mr. Tone 103. In History, Mr, 
Burleigh and Mr. Tone had 1 1 returns each ; Mr. John Dickson and 
Mr. Hawkesworth 9 each. The two latter were awarded the " remark- 
able thanks of the Society." 

During the last month of his Auditorship Tone was absent, and on 
8th February, 1786, Mr. Magee, 2 Yice- Auditor, on behalf of Mr. Tone, 
resigned the office of Auditor, and proposed Messrs. Goold, Radcliffe, 3 R. 
Jebb, and C. Ward. On the following night it was carried by 37 to 34, 
" That one of the gentlemen nominated for the office of Auditor being- 
incapable of filling that office, the present Auditor do nominate another in 
his place." Tone, who was then present, nominated Mr. Francis William 
Greene, who was elected to the office. 

We pass over the details of the next Session. The interest in the 
regular debates appears to have declined to such an extent that on 5th 
November, 1788, a motion was made by Mr. C. Bushe, and seconded by 
Mr. Garnett, "That a committee of seven be appointed to take into conside- 
ration the most effectual means to excite emulation among the members of 
the Society, and to prevent the alarming decline of debate." During this 
Session we find the subject fixed for debate on the 10th December : 
" Whether an Union with Great Britain would be of advantage to Ire- 
land?" and the appointed pleaders (who, however, did not speak), were Mr. 
Power and Mr. Butt, father of the late Mr. Isaac Butt, M.P. The question 
was passed in the negative, nem. con. 

On 28th January, 1789, Tone was presented with the two medals 
gained for Oratory on former occasions, and on 4th February he received 
the medal for History. 

On 15th April, 1789, a motion was made by Mr. Tone, and seconded 
by Mr. C. Bushe, " That an extra silver medal be given to the author of 
the best Poetic Composition on the late happy recovery of his present 
Majesty, to be delivered on or before this night month." 

This Session appears to have been a stormy one, as it was marked by 
more than one impeachment ; and that the members had grown careless in 
pursuing the objects for which the Society had been founded, is sufficiently 
attested by the fact that, on 29th April, no less than fifty- two were fined 
for not answering in History. 

On 18th June, Mr. Schoales, 4 Auditor, moved, and Mr. A. Stewart 
seconded, " That Mr. Tone be requested to come prepared with a speech 
to close the Session on 1st July next," which was agreed to. 

On Wednesday, July 1st, 1789, Mr. Theobald Wolfe Tone in the Chair, 
there were sixty-eight members present. Mr. Tone having closed the 
Session with a speech from the Chair, Mr. Auditor moved (at the request 

1 Afterwards Judge of the King's 3 Afterwards Judge of the Prerogative 
Bench. Court, P.C. 

2 F.T.C. ; Archbishop of Dublin. * Afterwards King's Counsel. 



WOLFE TONE AND COLLEGE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 395 

of the Chairman), seconded by Mr. Radcliffe, That the Senior Member 
do take the Chair." Agreed to nem. con. 

MR. GEORGE MILLER, P.T.C., in the Chair. 

A motion was made by Mr. Auditor, seconded by Mr Radcliffe 
"That the remarkable thanks of the Society be given to our late Chair* 
man for his excellent speech from the Chair." And the question bein* 
put, it was carried in the affirmative, nem. con. 

A motion^was made by the Auditor, seconded by Mr. Radcliffe, "That 
our late Chairman be requested to furnish the Secretary with a copy of 
his speech, that the same may be entered on the Journals of the Society" 
and the question being put, it was carried in the affirmative, nem. con. 

THE SPEECH OF MR. THEOBALD WOLFE TONE, C a AIRMAN OF THE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY, AT THE CLOSE OF THE TWENTIETH SESSION. 

"GENTLEMEN OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 

"At the close of a troublesome and tempestuous Session, which 
has been marked by a variety of important incidents, I have the honour 
to meet you in the situation to which your goodness has raised me. In 
appointing me to take a review of the transactions of this Society, you 
have decidedly shown that it is not exalted ability or splendid eloquence 
which you require. I am fond, therefore, to hope that in your present 
Chairman you sought to find what in your present situation you most 
need, a severe and impartial examinator of your late conduct ; one who 
has not sufficiently mixed in your recent debates to be tainted by party 
or prejudice ; yet is not so far detached as to have lost his original warm 
regard for your interest and your honour ; who should censure indecency 
and impropriety without consideration whom he might offend, and boldly 
tell you your faults, though at the certain forfeiture of your favour. Under 
this impression I have accepted the Chair, and under this impression I 
shall proceed to state my opinion of your conduct this Session. 

"The task will be to me very irksome; my duty will confine me 
chiefly to your faults ; but even so, it is time for the plain voice of un- 
adorned truth to be heard from the Chair ; the season of compliment and 
flattery is over. Were I to attempt to palliate or disguise your alternate 
Insanity and Lethargy ; your giddy and eager pursuit of the idle fantoms 
of Legislation and Impeachment that every night start up to delude you ; 
your total and absolute neglect of the great principles of our institution, 
I should but ill requite the confidence you have reposed in me. Adulation 
on your late conduct would be equally dishonourable and useless, for the 
feelings of every man who hears me would recoil from a fiction so 
monstrous as no degree of self-love could tolerate. Many of my prede- 
cessors have in various shapes and with great ability tried the experiment 
of shaming the Society into rectitude by ironical commendations of 
imaginary virtues ; but if such experiments failed when this Chair was 
filled by a Ball and a Butler, when the faults of this Society were com- 
paratively few and unimportant, when some shame, at least, was to be 

4TJI SEH., TOL. VIII. 2 F 



396 WOLFE TONE AND COLLEGE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

detected by diligent inquiry among us ; if, I say, such a weapon failed in 
their hands, far be from me the idle attempt to draw it against you, 
advanced and confirmed, as I now think you, and veterans in enormity. 

" The time has been, and not a very remote time, when the Historical 
Society was looked up to as the brightest star in this Constellation of Lite- 
rature ; when the breast of every member, proud of the then honourable 
distinction of being so, glowed with an ardent zeal to support the past, 
and add future glory to an institution which, like the parent earth, 
rewarded the diligent cultivator at once with intellectual treasures and 
mental health, the offspring of mental exercise ; the hurricanes of un- 
governable passion were unknown, the unwholesome blight of party 
malevolence was neither felt nor dreaded ; in such a soil, under such a 
climate, is it wonderful if this Society should, with an exuberant fertility, 
throw up the strong and vigorous shoots of genius, which we have seen 
in every department arrive at perfection? How many names, now high 
in the estimation of their country, crowd on my recollection, whose early 
and honest pride it was to give and to receive in this Institution instruc- 
tion and delight ! Men who now proceed in a prosperous career to the 
highest honours of their profession, yet still elevated as they are above 
us, do not disdain by their example, their attendance, their advice to 
regulate the wild disorder of our conduct, and pay to their successors part 
of the debt of gratitude they owe to this Society. 

"But why do I recur to the glories that are past? Why recall to 
your memory examples which, were I to form my judgment from your 
present state, I should not hesitate to say you were no more desirous 
than able to emulate ? Let me not consider what the Historical Society 
has been, let me, painful as it is, lay before you what you are. 

"In the long detail of your follies and your faults there is one 
which pre-eminently cries aloud for the most unqualified and decided 
condemnation I mean the vindictive spirit of sanguinary personal 
resentment which has through this whole Session disgraced your pro- 
ceedings, and would, if prosecuted with the same, acrimony in which it 
commenced, have degraded you into a mob of gladiators. Others of 
your misdeeds affect the form, but this strikes at the life of the Insti- 
tution. 

" What ! Shall the Historical Society be no more mentioned but as 
a theatre of war and tumult? Shall the civil magistrate never rest 
from our broils, or must an eternal succession of bail bonds and recog- 
nizances perpetuate our disgrace ? Shall the laws of the country be in- 
sulted, the discipline of the University contemned, and disorder, and 
misrule, and anarchy be let loose on us, at the will of any hot-headed, 
giddy young man, who may chose these walls as the scene of his riotous 
valour, and turn the seat of science into a field of blood ? Not for such 
heroes was this Society instituted ; not such were the views of our wise 
and able founders ; not such was the practice of this Assembly while the 
Historical Society deserved that name, while we moved obedient in our 
proper orb round the centre of our institution, not as we have of late 
appeared breaking our order, and shooting wildly across the system, 
glaring, and fiery, and portentous ! 

" It is now time to tell the hot and inflamed spirits who kindle at any 
provocation, or at no provocation, that the wretched, solitary excuse for 
such outrageous impropriety defeats itself. It may be thought that this is 



WOLFE TONE AND COLLEGE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 397 

a convenient place to establish a reputation of courage ; but perhaps when 
gentlemen reflect^ that it is easier and, of course, less glorious to bully a 
crowd than an individual ; that there is much safety in quarrelling 
before a hundred gentlemen, any one of whom, by calling the Sheriff, 
may prevent the combat, and that a bloodless battle across the table is at 
best a very equivocal proof of courage ; such reflection may tend, perhaps, 
a little to abate this feverish thirst for flame by showing that it is a 
suicide and destroys itself. 

" It has been my fortune to have been an unwilling witness to many 
quarrels in this Society, very few of which came to a termination in the 
field ; and in none did any serious mischief occur, except to the reputa- 
tion of this Institution. Indeed, at one period they were so frequent as 
to become ludicrous, until so many abortions of duels brought discredit 
on the practice. Gentlemen seemed at last ashamed of playing a quarrel 
in public ; the temple of Janus was shut by common consent. I did, with 
great satisfaction, congratulate myself that the demon of duelling was 
laid, though not in a red sea, and, as I hoped, would walk within these 
hallowed walls no more. But those halcyon days of peace were but a 
deceitful prelude to the storm : the evil genius of the Society sickened at 
our tranquillity, unread the spell which fettered our old arch enemy, and 
let him loose among us with renovated rage. What have been his 
triumphs ? Have we not seen with horror the very pillars of our Insti- 
tution slope to the ground beneath his touch ? Have we not waited in 
anxious silence for the sentence of a body that could with a word annihi- 
late us, with scarce a hope of that clement mitigation which every man 
of us was conscious we did not deserve ? Did we not despair of ever 
again meeting beneath this roof ? and were we not at the moment, seeing 
the immense value of what we had forfeited, forced, in the bitterness of 
remorse, to confess that we were unworthy of the jewel we had rashly, 
and peevishly, and contemptuously flung from us, and that mercy ex- 
tended to us would be the clemency of folly ? 

" The storm has wonderfully blown over! And now, let me ask, if 
any such disaster should again befall us, should we again by the same 
means incur the censure we have so very narrowly escaped? Let me 
ask, I say, what right has any single individual to set at hazard the 
common property we all boast to have in the existence of this Society ? 
How shall any man dare to risk the sacrifice of our great, and wise, and 
glorious Institution, at the bloody shrine of his own moody sullenness or 
arrogant presumption ? What reparation, what answer could such a man 
make to the strong demands of the orderly and regular members of ^the 
departed body, when they should say to him, ' Sir, we admitted you into 
an assembly high, and deservedly high, in the estimation of the Univer- 
sity and of the Kingdom ; we held forth to your exertions honours and 
rewards ; we received your efforts with candour and with patience ; why, 
in return, did you raise your hand against the bosom that was disposed to 
foster and cherish you ? Why did you not leave us at least as you found 
us ? and since you did not add much to our stock of reputation, why did 
you study to deprive us of advantages, the value of which you had not, 
perhaps, sense or feeling to conceive V What answe rcould such a man 
make in such an event? What could he do but hide his degraded^head 
in infamy and silence ? The destruction of the Temple of Ephesus is yet 
remembered with regret, and the incendiary devoted to eternal detesta- 

2F2 



398 WOLFE TONE AND COLLEGE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

tion. But such is the fate of human undertakings. "What art, and in- 
dustry, and taste, and genius had laboured for years to accomplish, a 
bold booby, with no better implement than logs and brushwood, could 
consume in an hour! 

" Unwillingly I am compelled thus to observe on the dangerous spirit 
of contention which has this Session haunted your debates ; it is now my 
duty to see whether you have carried the same active, ardent spirit into 
the necessary and essential parts of your business, into History, Compo- 
sition, and Oratory. What is the result of the inquiry ? In all these 
obsolete pursuits your faculties have been chilled and torpid ; but when 
the hot fit returned, your desperate and paralytic exertion of strength 
was exhausted either in a silly or contemptible impeachment, or a more 
baneful and destructive personal quarrel. But let me come to particulars. 
"What has been your attendance at History ? A wretched evasion of the 
spirit of your laws by a thin attendance of members, not half prepared, 
endeavouring to distribute the poor modicum of information, which one 
or two had collected, among the needy remainder, and so to impose on 
the chairman and save sixpence ! 

" What have been your debates ? Night after night have they been 
begun and concluded by the two pleaders, not infrequently by one single 
pleader; and if they extended beyond those narrow limits, instead of 
clear and spirited investigation of the question, running out into common- 
place harangues, or more ruinous contention and invective. And here 
let me warn those gentlemen who sometimes take a part in the debates 
of this Society against a notion which has obtained, and supports itself 
with some on no better grounds than its immense absurdity, that the 
perfection, at least the most useful part of Oratory is personal abuse. 
Let such look to the low scurrility of a Demosthenes against an ^Eschines, 
the pitiful sarcasms of a Cicero against an Antony, the contemptible 
ribaldry of a Grattan against a Flood, and see how those mighty geniuses 
fall into contempt and ridicule when, with a hand able to grasp the 
thunderbolt, they descend to the infamy of wielding a dungfork ! On 
the subject of Composition, silence is mercy this is not your era for 
Composition ! 

" It is a strong and striking proof of our degenerate state when the 
three great branches of our Institution every one rapidly on the decline 
form but a secondary object for my observation and your amusement, 
when it is the duty of your chairman to exhort you, not to the cultiva- 
tion and improvement, but to the preservation of the very existence of 
your Institution. And here let me pause and view the meagre, emaciated 
figure of what was the Historical Society, harassed and broken by intes- 
tine commotion, alternately raging in a paroxysm of vindictive impeach- 
ment and personal quarrel, or subsiding into a morbid and listless apathy 
of dull debate, flat composition, and absolute historic ignorance. A 
melancholy speculation, and yet more hopeless when I reflect that in 
this very Chair, this very Session, you have had at once the strongest 
precept and the most splendid example to show what this Society has 
been what it yet, perhaps, may be. Dark and gloomy as are our pro- 
spects, I do not yet despair of the republic. Let us set ourselves seriously 
to the work of reformation. In pointing out what I have thought wrong 
in our past proceedings, I have in effect laid down the rules which I 
would have you pursue. Fly, like the pestilence, the spirit of private 



WOLFE TONE AND COLLEGE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 399 

quarrel. If any troublesome and petulant member breaks the good order 
of the Society with his personal resentment, instantly remove the evil 
thing from amongst you, and dismiss him to his proper station the bear- 
garden. Let not the sacred fire of your resentment be dragged forth on 
every trivial occasion, nor the censure of the Society be a weapon in the 
hand of every peevish individual who may raise himself into imaginary 
consequence on the stilts of an impeachment. Be assiduous in history ; 
be bold, yet temperate, in debate ; be candid and cautious on the merits 
of compositions. Think of your past glories, the infamy of desertion, the 
greatness of reward, the easiness of acquisition. This do, and ye shall 
live ! Omit it, and ye are nothing !" 

END OF THE 20TH SESSION. 



( 400 ) 



A GLIMPSE OF TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN, UNDER PROVOST 
HELY HUTCHINSON. (FROM ORIGINAL LETTERS.) 

BY THOMAS J. WESTROPP, M.A. 

IN writing this Paper, my object is not to give an elaborate essay on the 
state of the College in the last century, but to lay before the Association 
a few curious old letters throwing a gleam of light on the then Provost, 
as he appeared to the students and townsmen. These letters taken 
from a large collection in the possession of Mr. Richard Stacpoole, of 
Edenvale, county Clare comprise some 460 papers, the majority being 
letters, of which many excite very little interest; some 130, however, 
are of considerable value, containing accounts of political events, such 
as the organization of the Irish Volunteers, the struggle of Grattan and 
the Patriots, elections and jobbery in Clare and Dublin, quarrels and 
scandals of public and private persons, and much quaint social information, 
especially about Western Ireland. 

As is well known, John Hely Hutchinson, a brilliant orator and 
ambitious politician, was, to the great anger of the Fellows of T.C.D., 
appointed Provost, although he was a layman. This selection was 
strenuously assailed by Dr. Patrick Duigenam (Fellow, and Professor of 
Laws) in a tract entitled, Lachrymce Academics. 

The first letter here quoted shows a street quarrel between these two, 
in which the Hon. Phil. Tisdall, Attorney-General (who was M.P. for 
the College, and had unseated the Provost's son, John Hely Hutchinson) 
was also involved. The letter, dated from Dublin, April 19th, 1777, 
is from George Stacpoole (a Dublin barrister) to his brother "William, in 
county Clare. 

" DEAR BROTHER. This day a most extraordinary fracas happened at 
the Courts. Mr. Provost, in passing by Mr. Dignam (late Fellow of the 
College) happened to rub against him, whereupon Dignam called him a 
green-eyed rascal, and threatened to knock his head against the wall. 
The Provost did not reply to D., who soon after went off, but he, the 
P., immediately went to the Court of Chancery, and called the Attorney- 
General, who walked with him into the Court of Common Pleas; the 
judges being risen, the following dialogue ensued, as I have it from the 
best authority : 

Provost. ' Sir ! I have been insulted by one of your understrappers, 
and I have called upon you to let you know that I will hold you account- 
able for his conduct.' 

Attorney-General. 'Sir! I assure you I will not be accountable for 
any man's conduct : it is enough for me to account for my own.' 

Provost. ' Harkee, old man ! I have already insu Ited you, and shall 
not now abuse you by words, nor chastise you as you deserve (here 
shaking his fist) ; but I desire you may consider yourself as abused and 
chastised.' 



TEIN. COLL., DUEL., UNDER PROVOST HUTCHINSON. 401 

Attorney-General. 'I assure you I shall not consider myself as either 
abused or chastised, and, Mr. Provost, I will not break the peace.' 

"Here they parted. Mr. Attorney, with all the composure imagin- 
able, went into the Exchequer and pleaded with his usual judgment and 
accuracy on a nice law point. Is not this brave sport ? " 

The Provost endeavoured to modernize the somewhat monastic Uni- 
versity ; he established two Professorships of Modern Languages, encou- 
raged athletics, also as his enemies said duelling. The next letter, 
while giving a quaint sample of a lady's taste a century ago, shows the 
Board under the energetic Provost figuring as a court of honour. 
Fancy the present grave and learned body in a similar position. 

"April 9th, 1785. MY DEAR FATHER, The coach is painted green, 
as you desired; it is not the most fashionable colour . . . The only 
thing that hinders its being finished is they don't know the colour of the 
Stamer Arms ; I tryed everywhere and could not find them, unless you 
choose to give a guinea and a-half at the Herald's office. My mother 
wished to have orange-coloured linings and blue tassels, which can be 
got . . . There was a duel lately fought here between Mr. Hutchinson 
and Mr. Parsons ; but as they behaved brave, the Board would not punish 
them ; but one man sent a message to the same H., after he had fought, 
but afterwards flinched, and, as he did so cowardly an action, he was 
both flogged by H. and afterwards both publicly admonished and rusti- 
cated . . . 

To WM. STACPOOLE, Esq., Edenvale." "GEORGE WM. STACPOOLE. 

A few years later this correspondent himself entered College, and his 
letters to his father conclude this Paper. 

"January llth, 1789. MY DEAR FATHER, "We left Donass last 
Thursday and came here on Friday. I went early on Saturday to Mr. 
Burrowes, stayed some time with him, when I met Mr. Fitzgerald and 
gave him your letter, which he afterwards showed to Mr. B., who said 
he was to attend lectures and the Board. I stayed in his rooms until he 
came back at 3 o'clock. "We went to Dr. "Waller, the Senior Lecturer, 
who examined me in the YIII. Book of Homer and the 2nd Book of the 
Epistles of Horace, bestowed many encomiums on me, and asked me in 
what school I was educated? who was my father? and soforth. He 
shut the books. I paid the entrance money, which was 35 guineas. I 
got 20 pounds at the Bank. To get a gown is next to an impossibility. 
We came post in one day from O'Brien's Bridge to Monasterevan .^ . . 
The snow is so great here that a bigg boy was buried in it this morning, 
but was taken out of it before he was dead, and part of the river Liffey, 
near Essex Bridge, was frozen over. Your very dutiful and affectionate 
son, GEO. WM. STACPOOLE. m 

1 The Fellows of the College named in Waller, Fellow, 1768 ; D.D. 1779. Doo- 

the letter are, Robert Burrowes, Fellow, nass was the residence of W . Stacpoole s 

1782; D. D. 1792; Gerald Fitzgerald, brother-in-law, Sir Hugh Dillon Massy, 

Fellow, 1765, D.D. 1778; and John M. P. for Clare. 



402 TRIN. COLL., DUEL., UNDEE PROVOST HUTCHINSON. 

" Jan. llth, 1789. MY DEAR FATHER, Astley has come to town, 
and has brought over beautiful scenes. I was fortunate enough to buy 
a gown, almost new, for three guineas. Last Wednesday a gentleman 
shot a boy in the Library for throwing snowballs at him." 

"DUBLIN, Feb. 13th, 1789, Friday. MY DEAR FATHER, A few 
Freshmen deprived the foot police of their arms last Wednesday, not 
without first receiving some severe wounds, to revenge which a number 
of the lads, armed with swords and sticks, attacked the combined forces 
of the horse and foot police at the Parliament House, and deprived them 
of their firelocks, swords, pistols, and helmets. The horse made a 
vigorous attack, but were soon forced to retire, cut in the most shocking 
manner. The Speaker used the lads very ill ; but he will, I suppose, 
soon repent, for they intend to cut the traces of his carriage, to take him 
out and pump him. I did not think that their proceedings were proper, 
BO I did not join. The reasons they assign for their conduct are because 
the Speaker will not allow any of the lads to be admitted before he takes 
the Chair ; then, as the gallery is too crowded, he orders the doors to be 
shut." 

"DUBLIN, Tuesday, June 9th, 1789. MY DEAR FATHER, Commons 
on Trinity Sunday were very pleasant ; geese thrown, trenchers broke, 
and everything tore and broke, &c." 

" DUBLIN, May 24th, 1790. MY DEAR FATHER, The city election 
ended without any extraordinary occurrence, except the loss of a few 
lives in a riot on that night with the police, who have not ventured to 
stir out of the guard-houses until last night. A proclamation has been 
issued offering a large reward to any person or persons who shall lodge 
Mr. Devonshire and his brother, Mr. Newenham, in any jail in Ireland. 
He is accused of murdering a man by giving him repeated strokes on the 
head with a loaded whip, for beseeching him not to ride through his 
garden. He threatened also to serve a clergyman in the same way for 
attempting to interfere." 

"Friday, June, 1790. TRINITY COLLEGE. I answer for my last 
exam, in College on next Monday, being the day on which I am to dis- 
pute. The forms of disputation you have, I presume, been long ac- 
quainted with, consisting in a certain number of syllogisms composed by 
the candidates for degree of B.A., or, rather, certain principles laid 
down, the truth of which is to be supported. Except composing a Greek 
and Latin theme, these are the principal matters required." 

" DUBLIN, Jan. 2Sth, 1791. Examination on Saturday, 22nd. . . . My 
judgements were only read yesterday. Dr. Hodkinson examined my 
division. . . . Politicians were engaged at the Popery Bill. It is said 
that the pious intention of the Government is to take part with the 
Eoman Catholics, with the sole intention of causing disturbances, which 
they think will bring about an union with England." 

11 April 11th, 1791, Saturday. As the heap of sciences would not 
allow Mr. Elrington (our principal examiner) to make out the different 



TRIN. COLL., DUEL., UNDER PROVOST HUTCHINSON. 403 

judgements before the Board day, contrary to the usual custom we had 
Dr. Fitzgerald, a Senior Fellow, to examine us in Greek and Latin, while 
the others, to use his own phrase, ' switched us ' in science. ... A long 
advertisement appeared in the Dublin Evening Post, setting forth the 
extraordinary conduct of the Provost, who, in addition to his other mani- 
fold breaches of the statutes, has assumed to himself the power of trans- 
ferring lads to any Fellow he pleases. It was the custom, when any 
Fellow went out on a living, to transfer his pupils to whatever Fellow 
he approved of, or his pupils wished ; in consequence of which there is 
to be an application made to the Vice-Chancellor and Visitors to redress 
the many grievances which the Fellows and students at present sustain. 
GEO. W. STACPOOLE." 

The letters and diary of Mr. Stacpoole are curious records of that 
stirring period. 



( 404 ) 



ON ANCIENT LEADEN WORKS. 
BT J. G. KOBERTSON. 

ALTHOUGH at the present time lead is no longer used in an ornamental 
manner, the case was different in the Middle Ages, when it was made to 
receive the impress of the hand of the art-workman, in common with 
other materials, which appear to be more fitted for the purpose, and many 
varied objects composed of this metal were so treated. Outside build- 
ings, the gutters were sometimes formed of leaden troughs, stamped with 
u flower pattern as at Lincoln Cathedral and the ridges of the roof were 
crested with a running fleur-de-lis design in lead as at Exeter. Abroad 
there exist also finials and vanes similarly composed, and fixed to iron 
cores; even statues were constructed of plates of this metal, soldered 
over wooden images, and afterwards placed outside edifices, where stone 
would soon perish. Leaden coffins, 1 now so hideous, were, in medieval 
times, often richly ornamented ; those in the Temple Church, London, 
of the twelfth century, were fine specimens of art. The cists discovered 
at Lewes, and which contained the bones of "William de "Warenne, and 
Gundrada, the daughter of the Conqueror, were decorated with a diamond- 
shaped design, formed by the impression of ropes on the sand-mould, used 
for the casting. 

In English domestic-work lead continued to be employed ornamentally 
down to a very recent date. "When rain-water pipes were introduced, 
the heads were often embellished with a coat-of-arms, or the initials of 
the owner, or bore a date. Cisterns were also objects of much decora- 
tive art, an excellent example being still in use at " The Cedars, ' r 
Croydon. 2 Fonts of lead are met with both on the Continent and in 
England ; in the latter country there are probably about thirty. Thus 
far I have availed myself of a preamble to a Paper upon a " Leaden 
Font," published some years ago in the " Collections of the Surrey 
Archaeological Society"; and although I have not heard of any leaden 
font being in Ireland, I find that we have in our own county, i.e. Kil- 
kenny, examples of some of the objects mentioned in the Paper, and 
which I shall endeavour to describe. 

I take coffins first, as being the most ancient leaden works, and of 
these two or three were found upon opening, in 1864, the vaults which 
are under the floor of the east end of the chancel of St. Canice's Cathedral, 
one at each side of the communion-table. As well as my memory serves, 
only one coffin was ornamented, the ornamentation consisting of the face 
and bust of a woman, in low relief, upon the lid. The coffin was 6 feet 
8 inches long, and measured 1 7 inches across the shoulders, and 1 5 inches 
at the feet. In the other vault supposed to be that of the Ormonde 

1 Modern leaden coffins are not intended Eobertson need not have gone to England 

to be seen, being concealed, or covered, for an example of a decorated leaden cis- 

with handsome outer cases of polished tern, as he had found a very fine one in 

oak or mahogany. the yard of the house now occupied by 

3 The Chairman remarked that Mr. him 'in Rutland-square, Dublin. 



ON ANCIENT LEADEN WORKS. 405 

family were found wooden coffins, the escutcheons on one of them 
apparently showed the arms of the last Duke of Ormonde. 

In one corner of this vault stood a fluted leaden urn of classic design. 
"The first impression which was formed on beholding it was that it 
might be the receptacle of the heart of James, the ninth Earl of Ormonde, 
who died of poison, treacherously administered to him whilst at a 
banquet at Ely House, Holborn, London, in the year 1564. By his- 
directions, his body was interred in London, but his heart was conveyed 
to the cathedral of St. Canice. However, the top of the urn is closed 
with a brass plate, on which is engraved an escutcheon, bearing what 
appeared to be the arms of the family of Howard of Effingham exactly 
the arms borne by the Duke of Norfolk at the present day. On the 
sinister side of the shield there is an impalement of the Butler arms 
which serves to account for the urn being found in the Ormonde vault 
viz. 1st and 4th, a chief indented ; 2nd and 3rd, three covered cups. 

" Mr. Robert Malcolmson, one of our Fellows, who is so well informed 
in all that relates to the history of his country, discovered that Balph 
Stan dish Howard, Esq., of Standish Hall, Lancashire, married Mary, 
eldest daughter of George Butler, Esq., of Ballyraggett, grandson of 
Edmond, 4th Yiscount Mountgarrett ; and Lodge records of this gentle- 
man that he died of smallpox, at Kilkenny, in April, 1735. It is 
probable that his body was disemboweled in Kilkenny, in order to be 
embalmed, and sent, in a leaden coffin, to his family burying-place in 
England, whilst the heart and viscera were placed in the leaden casket, 
and deposited here in the vault of his wife's family." 1 

Next in order of antiquity may come down-pipes and their heads, 
examples of which were found when Kilkenny Castle was being restored 
some fifty years ago. The present leaden down-pipes and heads are 
copies of the old, the heads having been cast in moulds, taken from the 
originals by a very ingenious plumber (John Gray), who was for many 
years in the employment of William Bobertson, architect. 

The down-pipes are almost square, and the heads have upon them the 
Ormonde crest, and date 1682, in good relief. These are the only 
examples of this kind of work in lead which have come under my notice 
in Ireland. 

The last kind of work in lead which I am enabled to describe is that 
of statues, which were probably contemporaneous with the heads of the 
down-pipes at Kilkenny Castle. It would appear that the demesnes and 
houses of the Irish gentry were occasionally decorated with works of this 
kind, both as groups and single figures. Some seventy years ago there 
might have been seen, in the grounds of Kilcreene House (now the 
residence of Edmond Smith wick, Esq.) a leaden group, representing 
" Cain slaying Abel." The figures have long since disappeared, but the 
very substantial cut-stone pedestal still remains ; and I have recently 
discovered, in the possession of a member of an old Kilkenny family, a 
fine head formed of lead, which is called the "^Head of Cain"; and 
although the possessors of it do not know why it is so called, I am 
myself disposed to look upon it as the head of the Kilcreene Cain. 

There are still to be seen in this county two single figures in a very 
good state of preservation. The one (which represents Diana, I think) 

1 Extracted from the Kilkenny Moderator of 14th and 17th September, 1864. 



406 ON ANCIENT LEADEN WORKS. 

stands upon a good cut-stone pedestal, in a field at the other side of the 
road, but opposite to Danesfort House, the residence of Major Otway 
Wemyss. The other, a small figure representing a knight, clad in 
armour, stands in a niche in the front of Castleblunden House, immedia- 
tely over the portico; it is a very neatly-cast figure, and is uninjured. 
"Within the last few days an antiquary in England obtained from a 
clergyman an ornamented leaden coffin, which had contained the bones 
of a Roman lady ; these remains were reverently re-buried, but the coffin 
is to be preserved, where it may be seen. 



( 407 ) 

CASEY'S LIOS, BALLYGUNNERMORE, CO. WATERFORD. 
BY THE REV. PATRICK POWER. 

ON the townland of Ballygunnermore, about three and a-half miles from 
the city of Waterford, and to the right of the road leading to Dunmore 
East, stands (or rather stood, for it is now in a ruinous condition) a fine 
specimen of the^ stone-lined and stone-roofed rath-chamber. A pecu- 
liarity about it is that it seems to have been constructed, not in the 
centre of the enclosure, but in the thickness of its earthen wall. The 
chamber remained perfect till a few years ago, when the vandal-minded 
farmer, upon whose land it stood, thinking its stones suitable for build- 
ing purposes, began its demolition. He had not proceeded far, his neigh- 
bours relate, when lo ! the usual ill-fate overtook him his cattle died, 
his son was killed, and other misfortunes following fast, he was obliged 
to sell out, and his end was the Workhouse. The circular wall of the 
rath is now almost destroyed, save where a portion had been incorporated 
in the neighbouring fence ; its diameter, evinced by a slight depression 
in the surface of the field, was about fifty-eight yards. The ruined 
chamber, in the thickness of the existing portion of the earthen wall of 
the lios, towards its eastern point, is oval or elliptical in shape about 
12 feet 6 inches long by 7 feet broad, and it lies north and south. It is 
impossible, without excavating, to give exact measurements owing to the 
accumulation of rubbish in the interior, and the destruction of part of 
the side wall of the chamber. The height of the cave, or chamber, as it 
at present stands (and it does not appear ever to have been much higher) 
is about 6 feet. Its wall, curved inwards in the usual way, was to form 
a vault, closed at top by a large flag or flags, now displaced. A con- 
siderable portion of this wall at one side is wanting. The masonry, it 
is needless to say, does not exhibit the use of either mortar or cement. 
The stones are all of small size, but the arrangement of their flat surfaces 
makes a peculiarly smooth front. At the northern point of the oval 
chamber was the entrance through a cyclopean doorway, 2 feet 2 inches 
wide at the top ; but whether it widens towards the base is impossible to 
say, it being blocked up by delris, amongst which appear the large slabs 
that had formed the cap. The lintel of this doorway is a piece of rough 
conglomerate, 3 feet long by 9 inches deep. The chamber itself seems 
to have been the termination of a passage through the earthen wall, of 
which there now stands only the portion immediately adjoining the 
mound that covers a portion of the chamber. The mound, in part, at 
least, consists of small round stones, seemingly field-stones : they may 
have been thrown there during farming operations, 

Taken altogether, this chamber, which, as far as I know, has not 
been hitherto noticed, is most interesting as a specimen of the lios cave, 
with stone-lined sides, and cyclopean doorway, perfect as far as they go. 
A few years more will probably see it destroyed. I may add, that of all 
the raths in the neighbourhood, this one, called " Casey's," from a 
quondam owner of the land on which it stands, is looked upon with the 
greatest reverence by the peasantry. An old man, who was working in 
a field close by, informed me that he once discovered the entrance to a 
subterranean passage within the same rath circle ; but, feeling afraid, he 
closed it up again in the same state as he had found it. 



( 408 ) 



ON A UNIQUE MEMORIAL SLAB TO SIR NICHOLAS DEVE- 
REUX, KNIGHT, OF BALMAGIR, CO. WEXFORD, AND HIS 
WIFE, DAME CATHERINE POWER, OF COROGHMORE. 

BY GABRIEL O'C. REDMOND, M.D., 
Hon. Local Secretary for County Waterford. 

THE study of the various classes of sepulchral monuments, and memorial 
stones, in use in this country since the first advent of the Norman race, 
towards the close of the twelfth century, as well as previous to that era, 
is full of interest and instruction ; and any addition to what is already 
known on the subject cannot fail to be acceptable. 

The exceedingly curious and interesting memorial slab, of which 
the engravings on page 413 furnish an exact representation, was found 
many years ago in the old Castle of Adamstown (barony of Bantry, 
Bounty of Wexford), a fortress of the Devereux family. The slab is in 
many respects worthy of careful attention ; and not the least point of 
interest attaching to it, is the fact that so few relics, coffin -lids, inscrip- 
tions, or monumental stones, relating to the old and numerous Anglo- 
Norman families of the county Wexford, have been preserved to our day. 
Those which have escaped the ravages of time, the hand of man, and 
the general destruction from revolution and strife, as well as from the 
occasional indifference of descendants to the records of their ancestors, 
ought to be preserved with zealous care. It is with this object, that I 
have made the Devereux memorial stone the subject of this Paper. 

The seal in the heraldic dexter side of the front face of the stone 
(see fig. 1, page 413) is that of Sir Nicholas Devereux, knight, of Bal- 
magir, barony of Bargy, county of Wexford, founder of the Castle of 
Adamstown. And the inscription, in black-letter character, on the 
sinister side, is commemorative of that brave knight and his lady, Dame 
Katherine, daughter of Sir Richard Power, Knight, Lord of Coroghmore, 
who was created a Peer of Ireland by Patent dated 13th September, 
1535, when he was raised to the dignity and title of Baron de le 
Power and Coroghmore, and was the first Lord Power and Corogh- 
more. The reverse side (see fig. 2, page 413) presents an incomplete 
inscription running along two edges of the stone, the two corresponding 
sides showing no marks of any kind. The character of this inscription is 
quite distinct from the one on the front face, the letters approaching in 
type to the Celtic form, totally dissimilar to the black-letter inscription, 
of which, however, it is a continuation, as I shall presently point out. 

On the reverse side is sculptured also a representation of a floriated 
cross, with a prolonged shaft or stem, which gradually widens in uni- 
formity with the outside edges of the stone, and terminates at the 
sculptured border, showing no pedestal or steps at the foot. Near the top 
of the stem, and under the arms of the cross, is an ornamentation in the 
shape of a double ring in relief. The stem and floriated extremity 
rudely representing a cross are also cut in relief, and probably are on an 
exact level with the inscribed border. There can be little doubt that the 



MEMORIAL SLAB TO SIR NICHOLAS DEVEREUX, ETC. 409 

central stem is meant for a cross : the pious nature of the inscription with 
which it is in juxtaposition, forbids one to suppose that it could be any 
profane symbol or warlike weapon. 

It will attract notice that the stone tapers somewhat towards one 
end ; also that the reverse side is narrower than the front. The form of 
slab, tapering from head to foot, was introduced by the Anglo-Norman 
invaders, who also carved effigies on their monuments; whereas true 
Celtic tombstones were not tapered, and instead of an effigy they invari- 
ably bore a cross with a short inscription. In this slab I would draw 
attention to the fact that a combination of both forms appears, viz. Anglo- 
Norman and Celtic. -The black-letter character and the seal, showing 
the coat-of-arms and supporters in effigy, are of the Norman type ; 
whereas the reverse is more Celtic in workmanship, showing a cross of a 
peculiar, though not unusual form, and letters approaching to the Irish 
in character. 

The most remarkable peculiarity about this slab is, that the inscription 
is continued from the front to the lack, or reverse side of the stone ; and the 
fact cannot fail to attract the attention of students of sepulchral and 
monumental architecture. The Rev. Charles Boutell, M. A., in his work 
on Christian Monuments, does not give a single instance of an inscription 
that was continued from one to the other side of slabs, coffin-lids, incised 
or monumental slabs. It is scarcely probable that the under side of a 
coffin -lid, would be elaborately ornamented with arms, or inscription; and 
if not a coffin-lid or slab, what was it ? The inscription and position of 
the seal, clearly show, that it was meant to be read sideways, and the 
inference I have drawn from close and careful consideration of it in all 
its bearings is, that it was a memorial raised to commemorate the erection 
of the Castle of Adamstown, after the death of the founder, and his wife, and 
that they very probably were interred under it. The most rational explana- 
tion of its use is, that it was built into an aperture in the wall of the 
chapel, attached to the castle in such a manner that the front face, show- 
ing the arms and names of the founders, could be seen and read from the 
outside, whilst the reverse, with the floriated cross, and pious prayer for 
the repose of their souls, was situated on the inside wall of the chapel 
immediately over their tomb. It therefore, in my opinion, combined the 
dual purpose of a memorial of the foundation of the castle, and a monu- 
ment to the founder and his lady ; in all probability it was placed in the 
position it occupied immediately after the death of Lady Devereux, who 
outlived her husband five years. (See Note A, page 411.) 

The seal on the front face (fig. 1, page 413) is worth a passing 
notice. In the centre are represented, somewhat rudely, the arms of Sir 
Nicholas Devereux, Knight, of Balmagir, which bear some similarity to 
those at present borne by the Viscounts Hereford, in England, and the 
family of Devereux. The former bear Arg : a fesse. gu : in chief three 
torteaux ; the latter Erm : a fesse. gu : in chief three torteaux. 

The arms on the seal in fig. 1 undoubtedly show the fesse with two 
hexagonal charges in chief, which very probably are meant for torteaux, 
though they really have more the appearance of the modern heraldic 
JSstoile or star with six wavy rays. The rays, however, have a line of 
circumference, which approximates them to the torteaux. Below the fesse 
in dexter base, sinister base, and middle base, are three crosses, apparently 
engrailed (they might be meant for daggers ; but the cross was more 
frequently borne in the middle ages owing to the Crusades). 



410 MEMORIAL SLAB TO SIR NICHOLAS DEVEREUX, ETC. 

On these premises I venture to hazard a guess at the blazon of this 
shield, which is, of course, open to criticism. The shield was probably 
Argent, same as the Herefordshire family. ^ Therefore the heraldic 
description I offer is Arg : a f esse gu : in chief two torteaux, in base 
three crosses engrailed two and one. Around the external border of the 
shield is a scroll, buckled, with the legend in black-letter character : 

" S. Nicolai Devereux Militis." 

On the external circumference of the scroll, or belt, are delineated two 
peculiar, and unusual-looking creatures. They resemble rats, or mice 
more than any other quadruped. Had they been depicted on the other 
side of the slab, one might infer that they were so placed to recall to mind 
the gloom and darkness of the vault; but appearing as they do on the seal 
of the knight, it is most reasonable to presume that they are the supporters 
of the arms. Supporters are figures placed in the attitude of protecting 
or holding up a shield, and they invariably appear in pairs, one on the 
dexter, the other on the sinister side of the shield. In modern days 
they are generally distinct, but formerly they were alike, as in the 
instance before us, where, however, they are placed outside the scroll, 
instead of in proximity to the shield; nevertheless, they are in the attitude 
of supporting it. I am inclined to think that these animals are meant to 
represent talbots, a sort of hunting dog, between a hound and a beagle, 
having a large nose, round, thick, and long ears ; this surmise I have 
grounded on the facts that one of the crests of the Devereux family is 
out of a ducal coronet, or, a talbofs head, arg : erased gu ; also that the dexter 
supporter of the arms of Viscount Hereford (Robert Devereux) is a talbot 
arg : eared gu. In all probability, therefore, the supporters on the seal in 
fig. 1 are talbot dogs, as very frequently the crest and supporters were 
similar. 

The inscription in black-letter character on the front face of the slab 
is shown on accompanying illustration. 

" Pray for the souls of Nicholas Devereux, Knight, and the Lady 

Katherine Power, his wife, who built this castle, A. D. 1 ." The 

date has been obliterated, but I am fortunately able to supply it. There 
was a close connexion at that period between the Power, Devereux, and 
Redmond families, as shown in accompanying extract (see Note B, p. 411); 
and I find it recorded in family papers that Adamstown Castle was founded 
in 1556 by the Knight and his Lady. 

"With regard to the inscription on the reverse, the legend is obscure, 
and apparently incomplete. It is as follows : 

-IOC : cujus anime propitietur Dims." 



" Upon whose souls may God have mercy." 
The two inscriptions together read thus : 

"Pray for the souls of Nicholas Devereux, Knight, and the Lady 

Katherine Power, his wife, who built this castle, A.D. 1 . Upon 

whose souls may God have mercy." 



MEMORIAL SLAB TO SIR NICHOLAS DEVEREUX, ETC. 



411 



The tautology displayed in tlie repetition of the word " souls" leads 
me to think that the ruder and more incomplete inscription on the reverse, 
was executed some years subsequently to the seal and long inscription, 
and by a less skilful hand. 

The custom of using seals was, I believe, confined to nobles, knights, 
and ecclesiastics. Sir Nicholas Devereux was knighted for distinguished ser- 
vices in protecting his native county against the attacks of the Kavanaghs 
and other Irish clans. He had been a ward of the Lord of Wexford 
the Earl of Shrewsbury who put him to school in England, where he 
was a schoolfellow of Lord Burghley's. I hope to give a historical sketch 
of the Devereux family before long ; but in connexion with the Castle of 
Adamstown and the curious slab of its founders, these few notes will be 
found explanatory and interesting; and for that reason I have selected 
them for insertion here. 



NOTE A. 

Sir Nicholas Devereux had livery of Ms estate, 21st May, 31 Hen. VIII. (1540). 
He succeeded Ms grandfather his father having died Vita Patris. His will is dated 
3rd April, 1575, and he died on the 25th October, 1576. His wife survived him 
some years, and died 5th February, 1581. Alexander Devereux, the last Abbot of 
Dunbrody Abbey, was uncle of this Sir Nicholas Devereux. Some years since the 
matrix of the Seal of the Abbot was in the possession of the family of Devereux, of 
Carrigmenan, county Wexford the senior representatives of the ancient House of 
Balmagir who are now extinct. 



NOTE B. 

Sir Richard Power == Lady Katherine Sir Nicholas Devereux = Eleanor Sir John Redmond 



(ist Lord Power Butler 
and Corogh- 
more), d. 1539. 


of Balmagir, died 
before 1540 v. P. 


Keatinge, 


of "The Hall," 
called " The 
Hospitable 
Knight"; died 
1521- 


Sir John Power = 
(3rd Ld. Power 
and Coro^h- 
more), died 
1592. 

/ 


= Lady Eleanor 
Fitz Gerald, 
3rd dau. of 
1 4th Earl of 
Desmond. 

t 


Edmond Power - 
ofMothel.Co. 
Waterford, 
was the last 
Abbot of Mo- 
thel. 

Nicholas Powei 
ofMothel,gent 
living 1584. 


= ? Katherine 
Power of 
Corogh- 
more, d. 
1581. 

t 


1 1 1 
= Sir Nicholas Jane = Robert 
Devereux, died Redmo 
Knight of 1542. of " T 
Balmagir, Hall," 
died 1576. Co. We 
ford,Ej 
\ and of 
"The 
Hooke 


A dau. Robert Redmond, 
, 4th and youngest 
son. Secretary 
to the Bishop of 
Waterford and 
Lismore. 


Alex. Redmond 
eldest son anc 
heir, of " The 
Hall," Esq. 
and of " The 
Hooke"; diec 
April ist, 1577 



Alexander Redmond, the eldest son of Robert Redmond and Jane Devereux, is 

4TH SER., VOL. VIII. 2 r 



412 MEMORIAL SLAB TO SIR NICHOLAS DEVEREUX, ETC. 

mentioned in several Deeds of Sir Nicholas Devereux. I subjoin two from the Patent 
and Close Rolls : 

Elizabeth R. Membrane, 2. (1) 7:" Deed whereby Nich : Deverowx of IM- 
raagir in the Co. Wexford Kn*. conveyed to Edw d (Edmond) Power of Mothyll in 
the Co. "Waterford ; Walter Whytey of Ballytege, Alexander Redmond of the Hooke, 
and Edward Walshe of the City of "Waterford the Manor of Balmagir and other 
lands in Co 8 . Wexford and Kilkenny to hold in trust for the use of the said Sir Nicholas 
Devero?<x for life remainder to Dame Katherine his wife with other remainders." 
Sept. 3, 12 Eliz. 

(2) " Deed whereby Sir Nicholas Deveroux of Belmagir conveyed to John 
Rawcetter of Rathmacknee, Alexander Redmond 'of the Hooke' Richard Whitty 
and Jn Deveroux of Norristown, the Manor of Adamstown in Bar : of B. feake in 
Co. of Wexford, to hold for ever in trust for use of Sir Nicholas for life, and after his 
decease to such uses as shall be expressed in his last Will and Testament. March, 
1575." 

In his will, dated April, 1575, he leaves his lands, castles, &c., to his sons in suc- 
cession, viz. : 1st, Nicholas; 2nd, James; 3rd, Richard. James, the second son, was 
knighted on the 22nd June, 1599, by Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex and Viceroy of 
Ireland, on which occasion he tarried three days at Balmagir, where he was entertained 
right royally. According to tradition, Sir James Devereux "sold three townlands to 
pay for three days open house, and all the gentry of the county Wexford passed under 
the Portcullis of Balmagir." 




Fig. 1. Front face of Slab. 



Fig. 2. Reverse of Slab. 



Monumental Slab of Sir Nicholas Devereux, Knight, of Balmagir, and his wife, 
Lady Katherine Power, found in the ruins of Adamstown Castle, Co. Wex- 
ford. 



( 414 ) 



NOTES AND Q U E E I E S . 

IN support of the movement to found, in Ireland, a society for the 
"Preservation of Memorials of the Dead," Colonel Vigors cites a number 
of cases of mutilation and desecration of ancient monuments. 

In England there had been fonts thrown out, or sold as waste mate- 
rials ; monumental slabs covered over by modern tiles, with cement and 
mortar; marble figures from churches adorning gardens ; brasses removed 
and lost ; shameful destruction (in 1855) of old monuments at Nantwich, 
in Cheshire; the coach-house of a vicarage in Somerset flagged with 
tombstones and a similar case had occurred in Cheshire ; injury done 
at so-called "restorations" of churches; the Earl of Carnarvon's state- 
ment of monumental brasses being disposed of for old metal ; the marble 
tomb of Sir Richard Gardiner, a former Chief Justice of Ireland (1619), 
broken up at Bury-St. -Edmonds, and the loss irreparable ; also Athel- 
stane's tomb at Malmesbury, with many other instances of neglect and 
misuse. 

Amongst cases that occurred in Ireland was the noble effigy of de 
Cauteville, lying buried for over five-and-twenty years at Kilfane, county 
Kilkenny ; and the sculptured and broken figures at Jerpoint Abbey, 
Gowran Abbey Church, and Graigue-na-managh, in the same county. 
Quite recently, at Bagnalstown, county Carlow, the doorways of a public- 
house were formed of two beautifully- carved and fluted triple-headed 
stones, reputed to have not long since belonged to the Abbey Church at 
Gowran. There was also the fine sixteenth century Barn wall monu- 
ment, at Lusk Church, county Dublin, said to be going to destruction 
for want of the sum of 6 (two of which had been promised by the 
National Society of England) ; but it is hoped the Society would soon be 
relieved from works of that nature in Ireland. 

Colonel Vigors also refers to the shameful state of the noble tombs 
of Kilmallock ; to Mr. Hitchcock's notice of the sad condition of the 
" Knight of Kerry's tomb," in a farmyard near Ardfert ; to Mr. R. 
Brash's Paper on the "Tombs in Mittevant Abbey"; and likewise to 
the excellent Paper, by Mr. Wakeman, on the " Tombs, &c., of Innis- 
murray." 



Folk-lore. In one of my summer walks near the romantically- situated 
watering-place of Crosshaven, Cork Harbour, I met a peasant who is 
known for many miles around as " Paddy the Doctor," and who enjoys 
the well-earned reputation of being skilled in the practice of medicine ; 
for although his medicine-chest may not be filled from the Apothecaries' 
Hall, or by any of the pharmaceutical chemists in Cork, yet it contains 
the simple extracts drawn from the herbarium of his native fields, and 
heather-grown cliffs ; and as my story tells, it will be seen that when a 
poultice, blister, or plaster is required, he has no necessity to fall back 
upon the Spanish fly, linseed-meal, or " Alcock's Porous." 

^ As it requires no formal introduction in order to be familiar with an 
Irish peasant, I opened the conversation with " Good-morrow, Paddy." 

" Good-morrow, kindly, sir; I hope your honour's well?" 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 415 

" "Well, thank you ; but wouldn't you rather see me on the sick-list, 
that you might enjoy the gratification of curing me ?" 

" Wisha, then, if I thought that you'd give me the chance of feeling 
your pulse, or looking into your mouth when you are sick, 'twould be 
something to be looking forward to ; but with Dr. Pearson below in the 
village, small hope I'd have of operating upon the likes of you, let alone 
the possibility of your giving me a chance ; for sure you're the very picture 
of health, God bless you." 

" Tell me, Paddy, how was it you commenced the practice of medicine 
and surgery?" 

" Well, sir, I was born upon a Good Friday, and the priest said if I 
was christened between the first and second Mass on Easter Sunday I 
would be a wonderful doctor, and able to cure all diseases." 

" I am told that you confine your attention to particular complaints 
that, in point of fact, you are what is known in the profession as a 
' Specialist,' and that you have done more good by limiting your powers 
of healing to a few, rather than to the many, diseases of which we are 
all, more or less, the victims." 

" Quite right, sir ; the complaints I am most at home in are the 
' Evil ' God between us and harm and the * Farsee.' " 

" You mean, I suppose, the disease known as the ' King's Evil,' and 
the complaint from which horses suffer in the throat ? " 

" Yes, sir ; last summer a hooker, with three men, came all the way 
from the county Waterford, and took me there to cure these disorders." 

" And did you succeed ?" 

" To be sure I did; I am now just after spending a whole month in 
Queenstown with a woman who had the 'Evil/ and I left her completely 
cured and recovered." 

"Now, without inquiring too closely into the secrets and mysteries 
of your profession, would you tell me what treatment you adopt for the 
cure of the 'Evil'?" 

" Well, sir, the most certain is a pup. You get, if possible, the first 
pup of the first litter ; but if this can't be secured, any one of the pups 
will do, and you divide the pup from the nose to the tail. You must split 
the tail, and then you apply one-half to the part affected. The patient 
can never stand it more than two hours, 'tis so fetching ; 'tis a wonderful 
cure entirely." 

" Have you any charms or incantations?" 

" In throth, I have, sir. Sure the cures would have no effect without 
them and they are all in the Irish." 

This man appeared to be thoroughly in earnest, and absorbed with 
the belief in his powers of healing. He has the exceptional character of 
speaking without cursing, swearing, or using profane language, and has 
the reputation of never having soiled his lips with an oath. The race of 
such practitioners has almost passed away from Ireland. The National 
Schools, and the increase of education, are doing their sure and certain 
work, and " Paddy the Doctor," when he lays aside his recipes and Old 
World cures, will leave no successor in his immediate locality upon whom 
his mantle of healing will have descended. 

I have attempted to give this conversation just as it occurred, plead- 
ing as my only excuse the importance of preserving in the pages of 
our Journal such bits of folk-lore as it contains. ROBERT DAY, F.S.A, 



416 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

The following letter, contributed by George T. "WTiite, from hia 
numerous documents, illustrates the difficulty in transmitting money, 
120 years ago, even to London; and it is evident, from the hesitation 
of the sender, that he was doubtful as to whether the carrier or the Post 

xx nr - 4-1~* s\ or-Prii oViariYlol * 



Office were the safer channel : 

" To MR. CHARLES HOWARD, SOHO, LONDON. 

"MiDDLETON, March 19th, 1767. 
" DEAE CHAELES, 

" I rec d y r letter this day sennight, w h made me very uneasy. I 
got a thirty pound bill of a Kirby Tradesman ye Thursday after old 
Candlemas day, and he promis'd to put ye Letter into ye Post Office ye 
Sunday after with ye bill inclos'd, but he has been some way negligent 
ab* it, and 1 thought he might have been trusted. I hope you have got 
it ere now. I desire you to send me a speedy answer to satisfy me ab* 
it. This from y r affectionate Uncle, 

" THOMAS To WEES. 

"I took this way for it because it was reckon'd a better way than 
sending it with ye carrier." 



EXTEACTS FROM " JuNGLE LlFE IN INDIA." BY V. BALL, M.A., F.R.8., 

formerly of the Geological Survey of India, now Director of the Science 
and Art Museum, Dublin. 

Lake Dwellings. As seen from the sea, the village of Malacca, 
Nankowri Island, Nicobar Group, presents a very picturesque appear- 
ance. " The bee-hive-shaped houses are all supported on posts near the 
high-water line, the height of the floors above ground being from six to 
seven feet." 

Kitchen-middens and Graves in the Nicobar Islands. "Close to the 
villages (Nankowri Island) there are refuse-heaps, veritable kitchen- 
middens, in which cocoa-nut husks, the ddbris of pandanus fruits 
clam and cockle-shells and hog's bones are thrown together. Generally, 
too, there are graveyards in the vicinity. Over each grave crossed 
sticks are erected, upon which the clothes and other property of the 
deceased are suspended. Alluding to this custom, Dr. Kink writes : 
' When I first came to the village of Malacca, or Nankowri, the manner 
in which the natives had ornamented the grave of an English sailor-boy 
(who had lived with them several years, and had adopted their customs) 
with his axe and his open trunk, made quite a touching impression. ' 
The complicated and singular funeral ceremonies of the Mcobarese are 
described by Dr. Eink, and in the account of the Novara voyage." 

Flint Flakes, $c. Flakes of cherty-quartzite were found lying on 
the surface of the ground near the village of Chukardhurpur; and a well- 
shaped and partially-polished celt between Gomria and Eoghar. " It was 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 417 

of particular interest, as being the first example of the so-called neolithic 
type which had been met with in Bengal." 

In the bed of the Narbada, close to Birman Ghat, are certain pebble 
conglomerates ; whilst at Bhutra " the important discovery in these 
beds of stone implements, of undoubted human origin, was made by 
Mr. Hacket, of the Geological Survey, thus affording incontestable 
evidence of the existence of man at a time when now extinct species of 
elephant, Steaodon, Hexaprotodon, Tetraprotodon, deer, buffalo, wild cattle, 
tiger, and bear, inhabited this region. The remains of the deer and 
buffalo show a close affinity, if they are not identical, with species found 
existing in India at the present day." 

Flint and Glass Lancets, Andaman Islands. Y. Ball had proposed 
to make special inquiries on the spot, in the Andaman Islands, upon the 
method practised by the inhabitants in the fabrication of flint and glass 
flakes. It fortunately happened that on observing a group of Anda- 
manese he saw a woman making flakes, which she skilfully chipped off 
a piece of dark bottle-glass with a quartz pebble. " Having struck off a 
flake of suitable character, she forthwith proceeded, with astonishing 
rapidity, to shave off the spiral twists of hair which covered the head 
of her son. Mr. Homfray informed me that the Andamanese can still 
manufacture the flakes of flint, which they effect by first heating the 
stones in a fire, that being found to facilitate the breaking in the required 
direction. Thus we have, at the present day, a race practising an 
art, the widespread knowledge of which, in pre-historic times, is proved 
by frequent discoveries in all quarters of the globe. The Andamanese 
are, however, advancing beyond their Stone Age. In one corner of the 
building a woman was occupied in polishing, and wearing down into 
shape, an iron arrow-head. It was a most formidable affair, heart- 
shaped, and from 2^- to 3 inches in diameter." 

Articles of Soap-stone, India. " In addition to the metalliferous ores, 
. . . the rocks of the sub-metamorphic series (near Dumria and Khatra) 
contain other mineral products of economic value. The principal of these 
are several varieties of pot-stones, and impure soap-stones. These are in 
many places quarried, and manufactured into plates and bowls, which 
are apparently preferred by the Hindus to vessels of pottery ; and large 
quantities of these articles are despatched from Manbhum to Burdwan, 
and thence to Calcutta. In the Kanigunj coal-field similar platters are 
manufactured from a fine sandstone ; but these are less highly esteemed. 
The natives have found out that the vessels made of certain varieties of 
these pot-stones will stand heat ; and these are, of course, more valued 
than those which crack on being placed upon the fire." 

Tombs in India. " The camp at Bussutpur was in a grove which had, 
in former times, been used by the Lurka Kols as a cemetery, and con- 
tained a number of ancient stone monuments. The major part of these 
had a sort of truncate pyramidal shape, and were marked superficially 
with groovings, which may possibly have some signification; they re- 
called to recollection the ancient Ogam inscriptions of Ireland, though 
not actually similar to them in form." 



418 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

V. Ball states also that in Indian dolmens a circular arrangement 
is seldom seen ; generally the stones are either ranged along a straight 
line, or form the arc of an ellipse. The only localities where he had seen 
an attempt at sculpture on stone monuments was in the western part of 
Hazarebagh, on the borders of Palamow, and at Bussutpur, in the same 
district. In both places the stones had the appearance of great anti- 
quity, and, whether rightly or wrongly, were attributed by the people 
of the neighbourhood to an ancient settlement of Kols. 

At several places, more especially between Pugar and Sorodah, were 
to be seen groups of stone monuments, the sole remnants of former 
colonies of Lurka Kols or Hos. Some of them, unlike those erected at 
the present day, were dressed into shape with cutting-tools, and one or 
two resembled a form commonly used for head-stones in English grave- 
yards. 

Volcanoes. The mighty volcano of Mauna Loa, in the Island of 
Hawaii situated in the Pacific Ocean about 2000 miles distant from 
San Francisco is thus described by Captain Dutton, of the American 
Geological Survey: "In the aggregate of its eruptions, Mauna Loa is 
unrivalled. Some of the volcanoes of Iceland have been known to dis- 
gorge, at a single outbreak, masses of lava fully equal to them ; but in 
that land such extravasations are infrequent, and a century has elapsed 
since any of such magnitude have been emitted, though several of minor 
extent have been outpoured. The eruptions of Mauna Loa are all of 
great volume, and occur irregularly, with an average interval of about 
eight years. Taking the total quantity of material disgorged during the 
past century, no other volcano is at all comparable to it. A moderate 
eruption of Mauna Loa represents more material than Vesuvius has 
emitted since the days of Pompeii. The great flow of 1855 would nearly 
have built Vesuvius ; and those of 1859 and 1881 were not greatly- 
inferior." 



PROCEEDINGS AND PAPERS. 



A QUARTERLY MEETING of the Association was held in 
the Council Chamber of the Corporation, London- 
derry, at 3 o'clock, p. M. , on Thursday, August 2nd, 
1888 ; adjourned from July 4th, 1888. 

The VERY REV. CANON GRAINGER, D.D., M.R.I.A., in the 

Chair. 

The Hon. Treasurer, Mr. Cochrane, M.R.I. A., acted as 
Hon. Secretary, assisted by Mr. Gray, M.R.I. A., Hon. 
Provincial Secretary. 

The following Fellows and Members were present: 

Richard Langrishe, F.R.I. A.I. , Vice- President ; S. Kerr 
Kirker, Hon. Local Sec., Cavaii ; John Browne, M.R.I.A., 
Hon. Local Sec., Londonderry ; W. J. Knowles, M.R.I. A., 
Hon. Local Sec., Antrim; Thomas Watson, Hon. Local 
Sec., Derry City ; John A. Mahony, Hon. Local Sec., 
Donegal; Edward Atthill, J.P., Hon. Local Sec., Fer- 
managh; Arthur Wynne Foot, M.D. ; Henry King, M.B., 
M.R.I. A. ; Rev. Narcissus Gage Batt, A.M. ; Rev. George 
R. Buick, A.M. ; Rev. A. Hamilton Beattie ; Seaton 
F. Milligan, M.R.I. A. ; W. J. Browne, M.R.I. A. ; Rev. 
Edward J. Hartrick, M.A., T.C.D. ; John Matthewson ; 
Rev. Canon Bennett; William A. Traill, M.A., Ing., 
F.R. G.S.I. ; George Norman, M.D., F.R.M.S. ; Very Rev. A. 
Ferguson Smyly, Dean of Derry ; Dr. Walter Bernard ; 
Joseph Colhoun; Robert Cochrane, C.E., M.R.I.A., Hon. 
Gen. Sec. and Treasurer; William Gray, M.R.I.A., Hon. 
Provincial Sec., Ulster. 

The notice convening the Meeting was read, and the 
Minutes of last Meeting having been read and confirmed, 

4TH SER., VOL. VIII. 2 H 



420 PROCEEDINGS. 

the Honorary Treasurer placed on the table the following 
publications, and a vote of thanks was unanimously 
passed to the donors : 

" Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness," 
vol. xiii., 1886-87. Presented by the Society. " The 
Magazine of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion." 
Presented by the Council. " The Gododin of Aneurin 
Gwawdrydd." Presented by the Honourable Society of 
Cymmrodorion. " Memoires de la Societe Royale des 
Antiquaires du Nord." By the Royal Society of North- 
ern Antiquaries, Copenhagen. New Series, 1887. "Aar- 
boger for Nordisk Old Kyndighed og Historic," 2 parts, 
1887; 1 part, 1888. " Report of the United States 
National Museum," under the direction of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, for 1884. Presented by the Board of 
Regents. " Journal of the Architectural, Archaeological, 
and Historic Society of Cheshire," part xii., Dec. 2. 
Presented by the Society. " Journal of the Royal Insti- 
tution of Cornwall," vol. ix., part ii., Dec., 1887. 
Presented by the Institution. " Proceedings and Ex- 
cursions of the Oxford Architectural and Historic Society 
for the year 1884." Presented by the Society. New 
Series, No. 30. "Inaugural Address of the President, and 
List of Members of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 
1888." Presented by the Society. " Archselogia," vol. 
LI., part i., 1888. Presented by the Society of Anti- 
quaries, London. " Journal (No. 18, vol. iv., New Series) 
Royal Institute of British Architects." Presented by the 
Institute. 

Proposed by Robert Cochrane, C.E., Hon. Treasurer, 
seconded by R. Langrishe, F.R.I.A.I., Vice-President : 

RESOLVED "That in accordance with the recommendation of the 
Committee, the following Memhers be transferred to the rank of Fellow, 
they being qualified for that distinction. Stip. cond. : 

J. W. Agnew, M.D., Hobart Town, Tasmania. 
George Anderson, C.E., 35, Great George-street, Westminster. 
The Most Rev. Dr. Browne, Bishop of Ferns, Wexford. 
Rev. Arthur Eden, Ticehurst, Hurst-green, Sussex. 
William Gray, O.E., M.R.I.A., Mountcharles, Belfast. 
William J. Gillespie, Whitehall, Stillorgan, Dublin. 



PROCEEDINGS. 421 

The Right Rev. Dr. Graves, Bishop of Limerick. 

Rev. E. J. Hartrick, the Rectory, Ballynure, Belfast. 

Mitchell Henry, J.P., D.L.. Kylemore Castle, Co. Galway. 

The Right Hon. Lord Arthur Hill, M.P., Hillsborough Castle. 

George Henry Kinahan, C.E., M.K.I.A., 132, Leinster-road, Dublin. 

James Martin, M.D., Portlaw. 

Sir Herbert Eustace Maxwell, Bart., M.P., Monreith, Wigtonshire. 

The Right Hon. The O'Conor Don, M.E.I. A., D.L., P.C., Clonalis, 

Castlerea. 

The Yen. Archdeacon O'Rorke, D.D., P.P., M.E.I. A., Collooney, Sligo. 
Col. Sir John Robinson, Bart., C.B., D.L., Rokeby Hall, Dunleer. 
The Right Rev. Dr. Reeves, M.E.I.A., Bishop of Down, Conway House, 

Dunmurray, Co. Antrim. 
Thomas F. C. Trench, J.P., Millicent, Naas. 

The Right Rev. W. P. "Walsh, D.D., Bishop of Ossory, Kilkenny. 
Thomas A. Wise, Thornton House, Upper Norwood. 
D. Carolan Rushe, Church- square, Monaghan. 

The following gentlemen were then elected Members 
of the Association : 

Frederick Franklin, Architect, Westbourne, Tere- 
nure, Dublin ; J. Ousley Moynan, M.A., B.E., County 
Surveyor, Greenhill, Longford; Rev. Alexander George 
Stewart, Bogay, Londonderry; W. J. Robinson, C.E., 
City Surveyor ; Thomas Drew, R.H.A., Architect, Dublin; 
George Norman, M.D., Bath ; Rev. Canon Bennett, 
Raphoe ; Joseph Colhoun, Strand, Derry ; Dr. Bernard, 
Londonderry. 

The following gentlemen were elected Fellows on 
payment of the usual entrance-fee, 2 : 

S. K. Kirker, C.E., Hon. Local Sec., Cavan; P. M. 
Egan, Mayor of Kilkenny; Seaton F. Milligan, M.R.I.A., 
Royal-terrace, Belfast ; The Very Rev. A. F. Smyly, 
Dean of Derry. 

The Secretary reported the following Members 
deceased since last April Meeting : 

April, 1888. Rev. Canon Moore, P.P., Johnstown, 
Kilkenny, an original Member, a contributor and mem- 
ber of Committee ; Henry Bruce Armstrong, Union 
Club, Trafalgar-square, London ; Rev. P. A. Yorke, c.c., 
Summerhill-parade, Dublin. 



422 PROCEEDINGS. 

June 8th, 1888. Sir Francis Hastings Doyle, Pro- 
fessor of Poetry, Oxford. 

July, 1888. Robert Clayton Browne, D.L., Browne's 
Hill, Carlow ; Sir Denham Norreys, Bart., M.R.I.A., 
Mallow Castle, Co. Cork. 

The following Letter was then read : 

"July 20^, 1888. 

" To the CHAIRMAN of the Meeting of the ROYAL HISTORICAL 
AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION OF IRELAND, to be held in 
Londonderry on the 2nd of August next. 

" SIR For reasons which were described at the Meeting of our Asso- 
ciation, held in Kilkenny, in April last, I now resign my position of Hon. 
Secretary. I hope and trust that for years to come I may have the honour 
to continue my connection with an Association so distinguished as ours 
has been from the day of its formation. My heart is still in the old 
work. 

" Believe me to remain, 

" Yours most faithfully, 

(Signed) " W. F. WAKEMAN. 

" 6, Seafort-parade, 

"Blackrock, Dublin." 

The Meeting having considered this letter, and several 
Members having referred in complimentary terms to the 
service rendered the Association by Mr. Wakeman, it 
was proposed by the Rev. Canon Grainger, D.D. ; 
seconded by William Gray, M.R.I.A. ; and 

RESOLVED " That, in accordance with the recommendation of the 
Committee, a subscription list be opened to present Mr. Wakeman with a 
testimonial. That the Association contribute 6 (six), and that the Com- 
mittee considers the possibility of obtaining from the Literary Pension 
Fund a pension similar to that enjoyed by our late Secretary and Trea- 
surer, the Rev. James Graves, and that a statement setting forth Mr. 
"Wakeman's claim for consideration be prepared and circulated." 

The following subscriptions were obtained for Testi- 
monial Fund: u Royal Historical and Archaeological 
Association of Ireland," 6 ; Rev. Canon Grainger, 
D.D., 2 2s. ; R. Langrishe, 1 ; R. Cochrane, 1 ; 
William Gray, 10s.; Col. Vigors, J.P., 10s. 



PROCEEDINGS. 423 

Proposed by R. Langrishe ; seconded by W. Gray : 

RESOLVED " That Mr. Wakeman having resided the office of General 
Secretary, Mr. Cochrane, Hon. Treasurer, be appointed General Secretary, 
thus uniting these offices as heretofore." 

Proposed by R. Langrishe ; seconded by W. Gray : 

RESOLVED " That the best thanks of this Association be, and are, hereby 
given to Mr. Wakeman for the zeal which he has always displayed in 
promoting ArehaBological Science, from which this Association has derived 
such great benefit." 

Proposed by R. Cochrane; seconded by William 
Gray; and 

EESOLVED " That in recognition of Mr. "Wakeman's services, he be 
elected an Honorary Fellow of the Association, and that Mr. J. G. 
Robertson, 74, Stephen' s-green, Dublin, one of the original and founding 
Members of the Association, who had acted as Curator of the Museum for 
twenty-nine years, and as Treasurer for two years, be also elected 
Honorary Fellow." 

The following letter was read : 

" ST. KIERAN'S COLLEGE, KILKENNY, 
" May I4th, 1888. 

" DEAR SIR At the request of many citizens who take an interest in 
the collection of objects of local interest at present in the Museum of the 
Kilkenny Archaeological Society here in Kilkenny, I make application to 
you to have these objects transferred to the Museum we have in the 
College, where they will be safely preserved, and in a convenient place 
for the citizens of Kilkenny to inspect them. We have a fine collection 
already, principally objects belonging to the Diocese of Ossory chalices, 
vestments, beads, reliquaries, &c. It is the opinion of many in this dis- 
trict that the College is a most suitable place for the objects pertaining to 
the history of this country and city. 



" To the SECRETARY." 



" Faithfully yours, 
(Signed) " M. BARRY, President. 



After full consideration, it was proposed by William 
Gray ; seconded by R. Langrishe ; and 

RESOLVED "That the letter now read be entered on the Minutes, and 
that the Rev. Mr. Barry be informed that inasmuch as the Association now 
look upon their collection as a National one, they are not prepared to alter 
the arrangements for the disposal of the collection now being made by the 
Committee." 



424 PROCEEDINGS. 

RESOLVED " That the arrangements made by the Committee for future 
Meetings be approved of, viz. : On the applications of the respective 
Hon. Local Secretaries, the Meetings for Munster be held at Cashel, on 3rd 
October next, and at Limerick, on 5th July next ; and that the January 
Meetings of the Association continue to be held in Dublin, in accordance 
with the resolution passed at a General Meeting of the Association, held 
June 1st, 1887." 

The Hon. Treasurer intimated that Postal Orders had 
been received from Belfast, Omagh, Carrick-on-Suir, and 
London, the senders omitting to give name or address. 
If any Member residing in those places had not received 
receipts for Postal Orders sent, he should communicate 
with the Treasurer, stating amount and date of remit- 
tance. 

During the interval between the Afternoon and 
Evening Meetings a large party of visitors was very 
kindly conducted over the Cathedral, the City Walls, and 
other places of interest by The Very Rev. A. F. Smyly, 
Dean of Derry. 

EVENING MEETING. 

A crowded Meeting was held in the evening at eight 
o'clock, in the Council Chamber of the Corporation Hall, 
at which The Rev. Canon Grainger, D.D., presided. 

The President, in addressing the Meeting, congratu- 
lated the Members on their admission to the Maiden City. 
He thought they might anticipate that all their other 
Ulster Meetings would be as nothing compared with the 
present, for they had all the grand characteristics and 
features of their former Ulster Meetings. If Belfast is 
populous, so is Derry. If Ballymena is industrious, so 
is Derry. If Armagh had its associations with St. 
Patrick, had not Derry also associations with the 
apostle of North-West Ireland ? If Enniskillen was 
historic, he was sure Derry was not behindhand in 
that respect ; and if Portrush was beautiful, he thought 
Derry had even greater beauty. He congratulated them 
also on the fact that Derry was the place where began 
the real scientific treatment of Irish antiquities. They 
were aware that about fifty years ago the Government 
of the country voted a sum of money for making a 



PROCEEDINGS. 425 

proper archaeological and geological examination of 
Ireland. Every parish in the kingdom was at that time 
thoroughly and diligently surveyed by engineers of the 
very highest character, who were sent round the whole 
country. The records of their work still exist, the 
Ordnance Office, Phoenix Park, and the Royal Irish 
Academy sharing the custody of the manuscripts, the 
printing and publication of which was declined by the 
Government, the only exception being the portion relat- 
ing to the parish of Templemore, of which a splendid 
and altogether model survey is published. Perhaps their 
Association might do something towards urging on the 
Government to complete the work of publishing these 
valuable papers, which really formed the ground-work 
of most of the parish histories now extant, and altered 
the system by which, when extraordinary monuments 
were discovered, powerful imaginations attributed them 
to the Phoenicians or the Druids. Their Society was a 
daughter of this survey, and had carried on the work 
of Historical and Antiquarian research, unassisted by 
the public funds. In conclusion, the President referred 
to the presence in that neighbourhood of the monument 
of Grianan, of which one of their own sons had loving 
care, and for which they thanked him heartily. 

After the Chairman's Address the following Papers 
were read: " The Priory and Castle of Rathmullen," 
by Rev. M. G. Batt ; " Notes on Raphoe," by Rev. Canon 
Bennett; " Small rough Flint Celts of Antrim," by 
William Gray, M.R.I.A. ; " Cup-markings on Cromlechs 
in County Tyrone," by Seaton F. Milligan, M.R.I.A. ; 
" Tracked Stones," by W. J. Knowles, M.R.I.A. 

As the reading of the above Papers and the very 
animated discussion which followed occupied so much 
time, it was proposed by Canon Grainger ; seconded by 
William Gray ; and 

RESOLVED " That the following Papers contributed to this Meeting be 
taken as read, and that they be referred to the Editor for publication, 
subject to revision " : . . 

" Smooth-leaved Holly," by G. H. Kinahan, F.G.S. ; 
" The Stone Circle at Beltinne, near Raphoe," by Charles 



426 PROCEEDINGS. 

Elcock; " Notes on Ogham Stones in County Cavan," 
by Charles Elcock ; " List of Rude Stone Monuments 
at Desertoghill, County Deny," by Robert Johnston ; 
" Mistaken Identity as to the Birthplace of St. Patrick," 
by Rev. Sylvester Malone; " Ballintubber Castle, County 
Roscommon," by The O'Conor Don ; " Fairy Lore of the 
County Antrim," by Rev. A. Brennan ; " Notes on the 
Armada Ships lost on the Coast of Clare in 1588," 
by Thomas Johnston Westropp, M.A. ; " Report of the 
County Derry," by John Browne, M.R.I.A. 

In response to the invitation of Lord Arthur Hill, 
Vice-President for Ulster, and Hon. Secretary of the 
Irish Exhibition in London, the following members of 
Committee assisted in getting up the Archaeological col- 
lection from Ireland, viz. : Dr. Frazer, Robert Day; 
J. G. Robertson ; Robert Cochrane. 

Dr. Frazer and Mr. Day went over to London and 
arranged the exhibits of the Association which were 
insured for 300 they consisted chiefly of finds from 
the Dunbell Raths, County Kilkenny. 

Dr. Frazer wrote the introduction to the Irish Anti- 
quities in the Official Catalogue of the Exhibition, and in 
it refers to the exhibits of other members of our Associa- 
tion, viz. : W. J. Knowles ; W. H. Patterson ; George 
H. Kinahan ; Count Plunkett, &c. 

In the Catalogue, the Exhibition Committee have 
acknowledged their obligations to those gentlemen, and 
also to the Association, for without their valuable as- 
sistance, the Archaeological Exhibits would have been 
a very meagre and unsatisfactory representation of 
Irish Antiquities. 



( 427 ) 



THE HEVAGH INSCRIBED-STONES AND OTHER 
ANTIQUITIES. 

BY G. H. KINAHAN, M.E.I.A., LOCAL SECRETARY, DONEGAL. 

THE first locality is situated between Mevagh hamlet 
and the small head called Crannog Point, in ^Ross- 
guile (Wooded Promontory), near the north-west shore 
of Mulroy Bay, county Donegal. In the same town- 
land is an old church, formerly the Parish church, 
with a standing carved cross ; and on a neighbouring 
height is the ruin of a caher, of a type very common 
in the county Donegal small diameter and high wall. 
Crannog Point may possibly be a name to excite in- 
terest, suggesting that there was once a "lake dwelling" 
in the neighbouring portion of Mulroy Bay : this, how- 
ever, is a very vague idea, as the term "crannog" is 
often used also to denote stepping-stones. That Mevagh 
was once a place of note seems probable on account of the 
ruins already mentioned, while in the county Donegal 
there are various structures, unrecorded on the maps, 
very similar to those described by Wilson in north- 
western Scotland; they being fosleacs, Insects, and other 
pre-historical structures, all of which point to an early 
occupation of the country, by a race, probably, of 
fishermen, the habitations being more or less similar to 
those of the Lapps, which are described and figured by 
Du Challieu in the Land of the Midnight Sun; and by 
Baron Nordenskjold, in The Voyage of the "Vega" Some 
of the old structures of the county Donegal have already 
been listed in previous reports, and further lists are in 
preparation. 

A little south of the hamlet (now temporarily used as 
a Coastguard Station), and westward of the boat-house, 
there is a long crag, formed by a massive felstone dyke, 
and on a surface of this, about sixty feet long, and of 

4TH 8ER., VOL. VIII. 2 I 



428 ON THE MEVAGH INSCRIBED-STONES, ETC. 



widths varying from fifteen to twenty-five feet, there 
are numerous inscriptions, generally more or less in 
groups, while others are scattered about separately. 
Indeed, in other places on the crag, single inscrip- 
tions were detected, but so indistinct and isolated that 
they attracted little notice. My attention was first 
directed to the locality by my colleague, S. B. 
Wilkinson. 

The rock surfaces are very much weathered, and in 
places are clothed with a thin peat ; some of the mark- 
ings on the flat top surface of the crag are so far effaced 
that no attempt was made to copy them, the rubbings 
taken being of the best preserved and most noticeable 
groups. 

From the rubbings it will be seen that the scribings 
in general consist of combinations of circles, cups, and 
furrows, sometimes a cup being surrounded by circles, 
but often the former having a channel leading from it. 
In some, however, the cup is replaced by a ball. Oc- 
casionally the circles are combined with a cross ; in one 
place a cross is combined with cups ; whilst in a few 
places there are other forms. 

Kubbing No. 1 (fig. 1) represents the largest and 
best preserved group observed. It is on a surface slop- 
ing about south-east. Above there is a peculiar and 
unique scribing, while below it are elaborate combina- 
tions of circles, &c. To the westward are remarkable 
crosses in circles ; a similar cross was also found to the 
south-east, as recorded on rubbing No. 5 (fig. 3), while 
there maybe others, as hereafter mentioned. A curious 
scribing, like a circle, open at one side, and with curved 
outward arms, occurs. 

A rubbing was taken from the same rock-surface as 
No. 1, with which it is nearly continuous. The scrib- 
ings of most interest are a combination of circles, with 
an easterly furrow from the cup, and an open circle, 
with arms like that previously mentioned on No. 1. 
A considerable portion of this group was covered with 
a peat growth that had to be removed. Immediately 
south of the east portion of this latter group there is a 
large circle system. 






I 

I 




212 



430 



ON THE MEVAGH INSCRIBED-STONES, ETC. 



Rubbing No. 4 (fig. 2) was taken from an isolated 
surface some distance south-west of No. 1. It will be 
seen from its appearance that the surface is very much 
weathered ; but the scribings are remarkable, being of 
smaller dimensions, while one resembles a Latin cross, 
with a cup at the north end of the long arm. A some- 
what similar cross will be mentioned when describing 
the Barnes dalldns. 




Fig. 2. Mevagb, Rossquile, Co. Donegal. Rubbing No. 4. 

Rubbing No. 5 (fig. 3) has, besides elaborate circles, 
with their cups, a cross like that on No. 1, while in two 
other places there may be similar crosses, too much 
obliterated, however, to make them out satisfactorily. 

On an examination of the various rubbings it will 
be seen that the scribings are not after a preconceived 
design. Some were apparently cut regardless of posi- 
tion; and as there was not space to complete those 





I 



432 ON THE MEVAGH INSCRIBED-STONES, ETC. 

adjoining, the latter were modified to suit circumstances. 
This is conspicuous in rubbing No. 1 (fig. 1). Across the 
portion of the surface represented by rubbing No. 1, the 
young natives have made a stone slide a species of 
tobogging, in which you sit on a stone instead of a sleigh, 
and you slide down a surface of stone instead of ice. 
This sliding has produced a polished surface, which seems 
to have preserved the markings. 



THE BARNES "DALLANS," OR STANDING-STONES. 

These dalldns are found to the northward of Kilma- 
crenan, and about half a mile east of the south end of 
Barnesbeg (Little Gap). The county hereabouts, in pre- 
historic times, must have been a place of importance, 
as scattered about are various structures and places of 
note. The most remarkable is named Termon situated 
where the new Roman Catholic chapel now stands 
which shows that in this locality there must once have 
been a Pagan " City of Refuge." South-east of the 
dalldns, in the townland of Goldrum, there is a so-called 
cromleac, having in its horizontal covering-stone 
numerous cup-marks, while in its vicinity there is a 
system of luscas in the form of a T. 

The two Barnes dalldns are near together, but not on 
the same line or facing one another, which is so com- 
monly the case. The largest, to the southward, is a 
massive flagstone, seven feet high above the ground, 
and seven feet wide ; the smaller one, which is six feet 
high, by five feet in the widest part, seems to have been 
worked to represent the head of a huge spear. This is 
very conspicuous when its sides are exposed down to 
the old surface of the ground, which was about 2*5 
feet below the present one. (See diagrammatic sketch, 
fig. 4.) 

On the western face of the large dalldn there is one 
up, and a faintly-marked cross, which is evidently a 
modern reduced copy of the cross hereinafter noted on 
the western face of the smaller dalldn (fig. 4). 






ORIGINAL SURFACE 



Fig. 4. Diagrammatic Sketch of small dalldn, 
Kilmacrenan, Co. Donegal. 



434 



ON THE MEVAGH INSCRIBED-STONES, ETC. 



On the eastern face there is very elaborate sculptur- 
ing, down to a foot and a-half below the present surface, 
and at the lower south-east margin there is a curious 
combination of circles, furrows, and cups (rubbing 




Fig. 5. Barnesbeg, Kilmacrenan, Co. Donegal. Rubbing No. 1. 

No. 1, fig. 5). More or less similar combinations have 
been figured and described elsewhere in the north of 
England, &c. 

Rubbing No. 2, fig. 6, which nearly joins on to No. 1, 
represents the sculpturings that occupy the upper por- 
tion of the northern side of the eastern face, or, at least, 
a, considerable part of it. The conspicuous group con- 
sists of cup and saucer designs, connected by furrows, the 
whole effect giving an appearance as if they were a spray 
of aesthetic flowers. The row of seven cups, in a nearly 
horizontal line, may have some meaning, as also the 
circle of cups round the cup and saucer to the south. 
This circle is not well represented on the rubbing, which 
had evidently moved while it was being taken. 



436 ON THE MEVAGH INSCEIBED-STONES, ETC. 

Rubbing No. 3 gave all the markings on the eastern 
face of the small dalldn ; while No. 4 represents the 
principal markings on the western one (see fig. 4). In 
addition to those on the sketch, there are some six or 
eight cup-markings underneath, and partly below the 
present surface-level. The cross appears as if it might 
be more modern than the cups, which it seems to me to 
be ; at the same time there is a certain degree of re- 
semblance between it and the cross on the No. 4 Mevagh 
rubbing (fig. 2), which there seems to be part of the 
design. 

As has been mentioned in previous reports, scribed 
stones are not uncommon in the eastern, or rather north- 
eastern, portion of the county Donegal, but in general 
they consist solely of cup-markings. In a Paper laid 
sometime since before the Association, was figured and 
described the dalldn at Muff, near Lough Foyle, on 
which there is a combination of cups, circles, &c. ; while 
in Lewis's Topographical Dictionary, vol. ii., p. 669, 
occurs the following : " In the parish of Errigalkeroge 
is a flat stone, set upright, about three feet broad, and 
of the same height above ground, having one side 
covered with carvings of a regular design, consisting of 
waving and circular lines ; it had been the covering of a 
vault formed of flags set edge- way. In the vault were 
found two earthen vessels containing ashes." These 
records evidently refer to stones more or less sculptured, 
like those at Mevagh and Barnes. 

The Donegal cup-markings are sometimes numerous, 
but usually there are only seven, called " giant's finger- 
marks," as they are said to be the impression of his 
fingers when pushing the stone, which is often called a 
" giant's finger-stone." The cup-marks are found on 
natural rock surfaces as on the summit of Culbwe and 
the hill south-west of Lough Salt; on erratics, as at 
Trintagh and elsewhere; on " standing-stones," as on the 
hill near Litter; on " cover-stones" of cromleacs, as at 
Goldrum ; and on flat stones in ancient structures. 
Roughly-rounded stones on which more or less cup- 
marks occur, are numerous cups on the stone called 
" St. Columbkill's Bed," in the parish of Gartan, and 



ON THE MEVAGH INSCRIBED-STONES, ETC. 437 

west of Lough. Akibbon ; in the same parish, very many 
on a stone at the side of the road from Churchhill 
to Glen do wan ; and on a stone in the old deerpark of 
Castleforward. The last was described, at the begin- 
ning of the century by Dr. M 'Parian, in his Statistical 
History as standing on uprights. It is now dismantled, 
broken in two, and one half carried away. 

The Mevagh scribings, although not so elaborate in 
design, yet resemble in a slight degree those in the 
tombs of the De Danaan at Lough Crew, and also those in 
the sculptured caves of the Fermanagh Hills. The cup 
and saucer designs of the Barnes dalldns are somewhat 
allied, but more elaborate, to the so-called "St. Patrick's 
knee-marks" on " St. Patrick's Chair," south-west of 
Westport, where he used to pray on his way to Croagh- 
patrick ; these latter, however, are not connected with 
furrows. 



( 438 ) 



ON AN INSCRIBED MONUMENTAL STONE PROM THE ISLE 
OF MAN, AND SOME CUSTOMS OF THE CREE INDIANS. 

BY THE REV. J. F. M. FFRENCH, OF CLONEGAL. 

ALTHOUGH the Royal Historical and Archaeological Asso- 
ciation devotes its time especially to the study of subjects 
connected with Ireland, yet I have observed that from 
time to time it admits within the limits of its consideration 
subjects relating to the archaeology of other countries, 
when those objects serve to illustrate home antiqui- 
ties. With that purpose in view, I lay before the 
Association a sketch of an inscribed Monumental Stone 
from the graveyard of the church of Andreas, or St. 
Andrew, in the Isle of Man. This stone is about fifteen 
inches long, and is carved in low relief with a bold and 
well-formed cross, one side of which has been very much 
injured and the stone broken away, but enough remains 
to enable us to mentally reconstruct it. I have not been 
able to find an Irish cross similar to it among the many 
engravings that I have looked over ; but although I 
could not find any exactly resembling it, yet its details 
have been separately produced in many Irish crosses : 
for instance, the general outline is the same as that of 
the cross of Durrow, if the circle binding the arms of 
that cross together were removed. In the centre of 
the cross there is a small circle, similar to that displayed 
on many of the monuments figured by Mr. Wakeman 
in the description of the " Antiquities of Innismurray," 
published by him in the 64th Number of the Journal of 
the Association (see figs. 68 and 80). Outside the cross, 
at the bottom of the stone, there is a style of interlacing 
ornamentation which bears a strong resemblance to what 
is sometimes called the Greek fret : it also is like the 
ornamentation sketched by Mr. Wakeman in the same 
Number of the Journal, figs. 50 and 51. Above this 
there is a rude carving of the figure of a man, doubtless 
of the ecclesiastic over whom the monument had been 
erected, with a book (probably the Gospels) in one hand, 
and a cross in the other. This man seems to be engaged 




Sketch of an Inscribed Stone from the Isle of Man, illustrating Paper by the 
Rev. J. F. M. FFRENCH. 



440 INSCRIBED MONUMENTAL STONE, ISLE OF MAN, ETC. 

in a contest with two evil spirits in the form of serpents : 
one of them he is trampling under foot, and the other is 
still above his head. But perhaps the most remarkable 
of the symbols carved on this stone is the representation 
of a fish. We know that the idea of this symbol was 
derived from the Greek word for fish (ix^s), which 
contains the initials of the words (which stand in Greek 
for) " Jesus Christ the Son of God the Saviour." This 
Christian symbol, which was so common in the Catacombs 
at Rome, ceased to be used in Italy in the fifth century ; 
and although it is found more than once in our early 
manuscripts, it is said to occur on only one tomb in 
Ireland. On the monumental stone from the Isle of Man 
there is observable a small cross inscribed on the shaft 
of the large one, and which seems to rise out of, and 
stand on, the body of an intwined serpent: the arms 
of this cross are strangely interlaced in a manner which 
I believe is peculiar to the Isle of Man. I am indebted 
to the kindness of the Rev. T. T. Smith, of Southport, 
for the sketch of this monument, which I produce. He 
also mentioned to me a curious circumstance regarding 
three churches in the island. The churches of Rushen, 
Lezayre, and the Dhoon, are all dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity, and are called Kirk Christ. These churches 
were doubtless founded by the Norse, or Northmen, who 
governed the Isle of Man, at first as independent kings 
or princes, and afterwards as kings subject to the over 
lordship, first of the kings of Scotland, and afterwards of 
the kings of England, until Edward III. deposed the 
last Danish, or Norse Queen. I believe the Isle of Man 
was at one time included in a Norwegian diocese. Now 
we have in Ireland a notable church which was founded 
by Scandinavian rovers; it was dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity, and that church is now commonly called Christ 
Church Cathedral, Dublin. Is it a peculiarity of these 
foundations to be dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and to 
be called Christ Church ? 

I submit for inspection of this meeting of the 
R.H.A. A.I. a coin struck in the Isle of Man during the 
period that the Dukes of Athol were kings of that 
island. 



INSCRIBED MONUMENTAL STONE, ISLE OF MAN, ETC. 441 

At the Waterford Meeting, Mr. Robert Day ex- 
hibited a very beautiful collection of flint arrow-heads 
from America. Many of them were similar to those 
found in Ireland. It has always been a difficulty to 
me to understand how these arrow-heads were fastened 
into the shafts, there being apparently no way of lashing 
them on, or otherwise securing them. 

To the Rev. T. T. Smith I am indebted also for some 
observations regarding the Cree Indians (amongst whom 
he once lived), which illustrate the customs that pre- 
vailed in this country in pre-historic times. 

The Indians shoot wild duck with blunt arrows 
which have a little knob on the top of the shaft, and 
these arrows are fired with such force that they stun the 
birds, and in this manner they are caught. 

An Indian brought one 01 these arrow-heads to Mr. 
Smith, who asked him how it was fastened to the 
shaft. The Indian told him that the " old people" who 
used flint arrow-heads inserted them in a slit made in 
these blunt shafts by piercing the knob at the top (in 
much the same way as we would insert anything we 
wished to preserve in a clip), and when they fired at any 
large game, such as deer, the force with which the arrow 
struck inserted the flint head in the animal, and the 
shaft dropped off uninjured, and was picked up, when- 
ever possible, for future use. Doubtless arrow-heads 
were used in the same way in Ireland. 

Mr. Smith also mentioned that these Indians, when 
they could not procure suitable utensils from the traders, 
were in the habit of boiling meat in vessels made of 
birch-bark sewn with the fibrous roots of the pine. These 
vessels they filled with water, and then boiled the meat 
by dropping in hot stones. This they were readily able 
to do, although birch-bark is a highly inflammable 
substance. Now that method of cooking is exactly the 
same in principle as had been sometimes adopted in 
Ireland, when meat was cooked in skin bags. 



( 442 ) 



NOTES ON KERRY TOPOGRAPHY, ANCIENT AND MODERN. 

Continued from page 500, Vol. VII., Fourth Series.} 
BY MISS HICKSON. 

OP the next rural deanery of Ardfert Diocese, only the two first letters 
of the name are decipherable in the Papal Taxation of 1291-1300 ; but it 
evidently comprehended the western and south-western portions of Corca- 
guiny from Dunquin, bordering on the Atlantic to the neighbourhood of 
Castlemaine or Killorglin, and the western side of the Brandon Mountains. 
Amongst the earlier records in London there is a grant of " Ossuerus 
Cantred," in Kerry, from King John to Fitz Nicholas, either a Fitz Gerald 
or a Fitz Maurice. The word " Ossuerus" maybe a corruption of 0' Sheas, 
a tribe that, in the twelfth century, possessed a large portion of Corca- 
guiny, as we shall hereafter see. 

DEC DE Os .... 

3. d. 

Eccia de Donetyn, 400 decia 8*. Od. 

Eccia de Fly ... aghit, . . . . 180 decia 2*. 9Jrf. 

Eccia de Kendromma, . . . . . 0134 decia Is. 4rf. 

Eccia de Rath (1) eyn, 10 decia Is. Qd. 

Eccia de Dunaghny, 100 decia 2s. Qd. 

Eccia de Bungles, 100 decia 2s. Qd. 

Eccia de Kilmelkedar p. vicario Rec. ejusdem 

eccie Philip Cancellar Arthfert ilia rectoria 

e. ej. pbendem, 168 decia 2s. 8d. 

Eccia de Iveragh, 168 decia 2s. 8d. 

Eccia de Gorienath, 168 decia 2s. 8d. 

Eccia de Kinard p. vicario, . . . . 10 decia Is. Qd. 

Eccia de Mynard p. vicario, . . . . 050 decia Os. Qd. 

Eccia de Ardnegaltin, 068 decia Os. 8d. 

Eccia de Villa Pontis, 0134 decia Is. 4d. 

Eccia de Inse p. vicario 045 decia Os. b^d. 

Sm. taxacois 14 10s. 9d. Inde decia 1 9s. pb. &c. 

^ The Eccia de Donetyn, at the head of this list, I was inclined to iden- 
tify with the ancient church of Dunquin parish, in the extreme west of 
Corcaguiny. But the Right Rev. Dr. Reeves, Lord Bishop of Down and 
Connor, thinks that the Donetyn is a corruption of Daingean, the old 
Irish name of Dingle. If Dingle was in 1291 before the creation of the 
earldom of Desmond and the palatinate, as it has been since A. D. 1400 
the chief town of the barony and a prosperous little port, its church 
would probably have been the highest rated on this list as Donetyn is. 
But it seems probable that Smerwick was the chief port of Corcaguiny in 
very early times, as Fenit, not Tralee, was the chief port of Trughen- 
acmy barony. The oldest Irish records of Dingle call it Daingean ui 
Chuis; and in the 16th century its chief burgesses told Sir Nicholas 
White that the original name was Daingean de Cousa, after an old 
English settler, De Cousa, who had a castle there. In this case it is 
likely that the final words would not have been omitted from the name in 
the Taxation, but that it would have been called Ecclesia de Donetyn ui 



NOTES ON KERRY TOPOGRAPHY, ANCIENT AND MODERN. 443 

Chuis, or Eccia de Donetynes, or some similar attempt at the Irish 
name, such as the scribe attempted in the case of many other churches. 
It is also to be noted that, in this Corcaguiny list, the names of the 
churches on the mainland, from the church of Kendromma i.e. -the 
modern Kildrum parish seem, to have been set down, one after the other, 
from the west to the east. However this maybe and Dr. Reeve's great 
learning and careful examination of the original MS. give his opinion, 
needless to say, immense weight (although I believe he is not familiar 
with the district between Dunquin and Dingle, from having personally 
examined its antiquities) Dunquin parish was, in very early times, 
evidently an important centre of missionary work. The ruins of its 
ancient parish church stood on the townland of Ballintemple ; and near it 
is a place called Vicarstown, the ecclesiastical ruins of which are said to 
have been extensive, but they have been swept away, like those of the 
church, to build modern cottages and fences. There is a " calluragh" at 
Vicarstown, and a penitential station and stone cross, with gallauns. On 
Coomenole a townland of Dunquin, but bordering on a portion of Ballin- 
voher parish, which (in modern times, at least) is oddly sandwiched 
between Dunquin and Ventry parishes are a number of cloghauns and a 
calluragh. On the adjoining townland of Glenfahan, which now forms 
part of this outlying portion of Ballinvoher parish, but which in ancient 
times may have been part of Dunquin (rede, Dun caoin, Beautiful Fort) is 
the extraordinary collection of cloghauns and stone enclosures, the veri- 
table pre-historic city of Fahan. described by Curry in his lectures on the 
Manners and Customs of the Ancient frisk; also by Lord Dunraven, and 
by Petrie. A little to the east of Fahan are the ruined church of Team- 
pull Beg and several gallauns. The next church on the list, Eccia de 
Fly . . . aghit, is probably a barbarous corruption of Ecclesia de Fionn- 
traigh, or Fionn-traght, the modern Ventry. In the copy of the Taxation 
which I obtained from the London Public Record Office in 1880, the 
official copyist found this second name on the above list beyond his power 
to decipher, time and wear had rendered it so illegible ; but in the 
Calendar, edited by the late Mr. Sweetman, continued by Mr. Handcock, 
and printed in 1886, it is set down by the former as " Fly . . . aghit," and 
corrected by the latter to "Fynnaghit" (v. Cal., text p. 297, corrigenda 
p. xviii.). The almost certainty is, that whichever of the two spellings 
be that of the old MS., the church meant is the church of Fionn-traigh, 
now Ventry. The old scribe put a y for the i, and may have omitted the 
t at the beginning of the last syllable, although he preserved the second 
at the end. Old Ventry church, in ruins, stands or stood a few years 
ago close to the harbour of the Fionn-traigh, i.e. the white strand. 
There is another older Teampull Beg, a holy well dedicated to St. Bran- 
don, and a calluragh, a little to the north-west of Ventry church. 

The Eccia de Kendromma of the Taxation was evidently the church 
of the parish now known as Kildrum, lying to the north and west of 
Dingle and Ventry parishes. On the Ordnance map of Kildrum two 
ancient churches are marked, many forts, gallauns, calluraghs, and wells 
of more or less sanctity in popular estimation. On the townland of Kil- 
fountain are (recte Cill Fintari) a ruined church, a calluragh, and monu- 
mental pillar. On the neighbouring townland of Ballyeightragh is the 
ruined church of Teampull Managhan, with St. Manchan's grave, and a 
monumental pillar. Close to these is Toiler Managhan. Is this the 

4TH SER., VOL. Till. 2 K 



444 NOTES ON KERRY TOPOGRAPHY, ANCIENT AND MODERN. 

Manchan, the disciple of St. Patrick, u mrum sanctum et in scripturis 
egregie versattim," of whom an account is given in the Rev. J. Shearman's 
interesting "Loca Patriciana," No. X., in the 4th volume of the 4th 
series of the Journal ? According to that Paper, Manchan was a fellow- 
student of St. Patrick in Gaul, accompanied him to Focluyd, and was 
subsequently superior of the school founded by him at Rossnant in South 
Wales, called by the Irish Gill Muine, the Church of the Brake or 
Shrubbery, and by Latin writers Menevia. The Rev. J. Shearman's 
theories respecting the later years and the death of Manchan at Kildare 
are, of course, quite inconsistent with the tradition that he was buried at 
Teampull Managhan in Corcaguiny. But Mr. Shearman does not put them 
forth as more than theories and speculations, based on certain passages 
which he found in different old MSS. and in Colgan. A little to the 
south of St. Managhan's Well are two others, called respectively Tobler- 
breda (Bridget's Well ?) and Tobereendoney, which Dr. Joyce interprets 
the Well of the King of Sunday (Irish Names of Places, 1st series, p. 108). 

The Eccia de Rath . . . which follows that of Kendromma on the list, 
was probably a church which stood in or near Hath Fhionain, now 
Rahinnane, in the extreme west of Ventry parish, bordering on Marhin 
parish. This is not the Finan of Innisfallen and Swords, but another 
saint of that name, who was born in Corcaguiny, of the royal race of 
Duibhne, who gave his name to the barony, grandson of Conaire II., 
King of Munster, A.D. 123. This St. Finan' s church or oratory is still 
to be seen at Lough Ctirrane, in Iveragh, near Derrynane, which place was 
also called after him, Daire Fhionain, i. e. the Oak Grove of Finan. John 
Hill Burton, the learned historian of Scotland, in his delightful little 
volume, The Book-hunter, in the course of some instructive remarks on 
the ancient ruined churches of Scotland and Ireland, says : " I shall 
not easily forget how, once accompanying a piscatorial friend on the 
Lough of Currane, near Ballinskelligs, in Kerry, I stepped on a small 
island to visit a Norman ruin there, and saw, beside that ruin and a stone 
cross, one of those small rough domes, testifying, by its venerable sim- 
plicity, that it had stood there three centuries before the Norman church 
rose beside it." (Book-hunter, p. 373.) 

Archdall, in his notice of Kinnity Abbey, in King's County, another 
foundation of St. Finan Caum as he was called says that he was a pupil 
of St. Brendan of Clonfert, the Trughenacmy saint, and that he died circa 
655, so that his oratory or church at Lough Currane was built, not three, 
but probably five centuries before the English invasion, and prior, of 
course, to the famous synod of Whitby, where the Irish clergy asserted 
their spiritual descent from the Eastern Churches of St. John, and refused 
to adopt the ecclesiastical usages of Latin Christianity. An interesting 
account of the stately ruined castle of Rahinnane (owned in 1590 by the 
Knights of Kerry, and which stands within the ancient Rath Fhionain) 
will be found in the Kilkenny Archaological Journal for 1854-55, with 
an admirable picture of both castle and fort. Mr. Handcock has corrected 

Mr. Sweetman's Eccia de Rath to Eccia de Rath . . . (l)eyn ; but the 

I in his parentheses was probably an ill- written / in the original, making 
Rathfeyn the old English scribe's attempt at Rathfhionain (v. Joyce's 
1st series of Names of Places, p. 144). There are caves and long sub- 
terraneous passages beneath Rathfhionain which have never been fully 
explored. They are supposed by the peasantry to communicate with the 



NOTES ON KERRY TOPOGRAPHY, ANCIENT AND MODERN. 445 

townland of Ballineanig nearly two miles distant, in the parish of Marhin. 
There are monumental stones, gallauns, an ancient rained church, and a 
well called Tubbermolaga, in Marhin parish, which does not appear (under 
that name at least) in the Taxation of 1291. It may, at that time, have 
been included in Ventry parish, The Eccia de Dunaghny of the Taxation 
was probably the church of the present parish of Dunurlin, lying to the 
north of Dunquin and to the west of Smerwick harbour. Dunurlin parish 
church has long been swept away ; but the district around its site, and on 
the shores of Smerwick harbour, is full of remains most interesting to the 
antiquary and the historian, 1 One of the townlands of Dunurlin is called 
Ballyaglisha (the Town of the Church), and near it is a penitential station, 
with a stone cross, and the site of a church called Kilbeg ; while the 
neighbouring graveyard of Kilmore shows that two churches probably 
existed there in ancient times. On the neighbouring townland of Bally- 
ferriter are a stone cross and holy wells, one of which is dedicated to St. 
Brendan. 

The sixth church on the above list, Eccia de Du . . . ., appears in Mr. 
Handcock's Corrigenda as " Eccia de Dungles," which I cannot help 
thinking is an attempt at Dinglechuis, the corruption of Daingean ui 
Chuis. According to Archdall, there was a monastery at Dingle in very 
early times, a cell from the abbey of Killagh to be noticed herafter, 
Modern "improvements" (?), rural and urban, have cleared away many 
of the antiquities of Dingle parish, but a few gallauns, lioses, and 
cloghauns remain. At the west side of Dingle harbour near Burnham 
House, the seat of Lord Ventry is a monumental pillar, a " station," 
and holy well dedicated to St. Michael ; and on the east side are townlands 
called Ballintaggart (the Town of the Priest), Kilnegleragh (the Wood of 
the Clergy, or more probably the Church of the Clergy), and Garrana- 
braher (the Garden of the Friars). The last is mentioned in the list of the 
forfeited possessions of the Dominican friary of Tralee, taken in 1587, as 
consisting of two acres, with a house in decay thereon. It was probably 
the site of the old Dingle monastery of Canons Eegular, which was 
granted by Desmond to the Dominicans ; and Kilnegleragh may have been 
another portion of the Canons' possessions. 

The Eccia de Kilmelkedar is, of course, the well-known fine ruin near 
Smerwick, described by Mr. Hill in the Journal, R.H.A.A.I., byPetrie, 
by Lord Dunraven, and others. The eighth church in the list is set 
down in Mr. Handcock's Corrigenda as Eccia de Iveragh. The three last 
letters " agh " were all that Mr. Sweetman could decipher ; and they are 
all that appeared in the copy made for me in 1881. One would have 
expected to find the chief church of Iveragh barony in the deanery of 
Aghadoe to be noticed hereafter yet it is not unlikely that it was 
really included among the Corcaguiny churches. In the curious map of 
Iveragh barony, drawn between 1590 and 1600 (and preserved in the 
Carew MSS., Lambeth Library), there are a great number of churches 
marked. By referring to the fac-simile of this map in my second volume 
of Old Kerry Records, printed in 1874, it will be seen that Logh Currane 



1 Here at Smerwick, the Little Revenge, ballad, did her first good service against 

Drake's ship in the Armada fight, and the Spaniards in 1580. See the curious 

Grenville's in the fight off the Azores, picture of the fleet at Smerwick, preserved 

celebrated in Lord Tennyson's finest in the Record Office, London. 

2K2 



446 NOTES ON KERRY TOPOGRAPHY, ANCIENT AND MODERN. 

is there called Logh Legh ; and that on the island in the logh, the 
church of St. Finan Caum, of Corcaguiny, with a large cross on its gable, 
is conspicuous. Iveragh (rede, Ui Rathach} was, according to O'Donovan, 
the ancient territory of the 0' Sheas, who, with the O'Falveys, were of 
the race of Corcaduibkne. The same high authority tells us (v. his notes 
to O'Heerin's Topography) that the O'Falveys, shortly after 1172, possessed 
Corcaguiny as far as Ventry; while their kinsmen, the 0' Sheas, were 
lords of Iveragh. Under those circumstances, it was natural that the 
Logh Currane church of St. Finan Caum, a native of Corcaguiny, should 
be included in the rural deanery of that barony. 

The Eccia de Gorienath of the Taxation was probably the old church of 
Garfinnagh parish, to the east of Dingle, and long in ruins. Around it 
are many cloghauns, lioses, and gallauns. One of the Hoses is called 
Liosgallach (the Lios of the Standing Stones); another is Liossawalla. But 
the most interesting remains in Garfinnagh are a monumental pillar, and 
a well dedicated to St. Martin and called Tubber Martin. Close by these, 
but in the next parish of Kinard, on a townland called Churchfield, is the 
ancient Church of St. Martin. This church, which Lord Dunraven 
believed to have been built in the eighth century, may have been that 
mentioned in the Taxation ; but another ruined church stands on a town- 
land called Tobbermoodane, south of Churchfield. A little to the north of 
St. Martin's Church is a fine fort called Fohernanallanagh, with pillar- 
stones. The word seems to be the Fort of the Albanach, i.e. Scotchman 
(v. Joyce, 2nd series, p. 121). The next parish to the east of Kinard is 
Minard ; but the Eccia de Mynard of the Taxation is not easy to identify. 
There is a large central townland of Minard parish called Aglish, which 
shows that a church once stood thereon, bnt no trace of it remains, 
although an old graveyard (still used) probably indicates its site. Near 
this graveyard are gallauns, a curious stone circle, and a monumental 
pillar. In the south-east corner of Minard parish is a townland called 
Kilmurry, on which is a ruined church of the same name ; and close by 
is St. John the Baptist's well, which is visited twice in the year by 
devotees from all parts of the district around Dingle. The name of the 
ruined church of Kilmurry (according to Dr. Joyce, Cill-Mhuire, i.e. the 
Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary) does not appear in the Taxation ; so I 
am inclined to think that the Eccia de Mynard which it does mention was 
an ancient church on Aglish large townland, in the centre of Minard parish ; 
and that the Kilmurry church, which is close to the ruined Geraldine 
fortress of Minard Castle, was erected by that family after 1307, when, 
perhaps, the Eccia de Mynard on Aglish had fallen to decay, or become too 
small for the district. 

The Eccia de Ardnegaltin of the Taxation may have been a church 
on the western verge of Glannagalt, but it seems possible that the word 
is a corruption of Ardnagallaun, and that it refers to some church which 
once stood on the townland of Ardnamore, near Aglish townland. There 
are several curious groups of gallauns on Ardnamore, and on the next town- 
land of Aghacarrible is a fort called Liosnakilla. A little to the south of 
this fort are several cloghauns. The Eccia de Villa Pontis is still more 
difficult to identify. No Bridgetown, or Ballindreghid the English and 
the Irish equivalents of this word now appear in Corcaguiny, or (as far 
as I am aware) in Iveragh, Trughenacmy, or Magunihy. One townland 
alone, lying in Ballinacourty parish, adjoining Minard parish, may be 



NOTES ON KERRY TOPOGRAPHY, ANCIENT AND MODERN. 447 

taken as representing in very early times the Villa Pontis of the Taxation, 
that is, Ballinclare, as it is now called, where a well-known Kerry fair 
is held. Dr. Joyce says (Irish Names, 2nd Series, p. 218) that in old 
Irish the word clar, which means literally a plank, was sometimes applied 
to a plank bridge over a ford, and he adds that the people of the village 
of Clare, on the river Fergus, have a tradition that the place owes its 
name to such a bridge, which once crossed that river, and that ultimately 
the name was transferred to the whole county (Irish Names, 1st Series, 
p. 389). It is true that he seems to think that the name Ballinclare, in 
Munster, generally means the town of the level plain, "the old form 
claar, glossing tabula" being sometimes applied to a plain. Eut the 
Corcaguiny Ballinclare cannot be said to be on a level plain, and as a 
good-sized river the Owenascaul, swelled by two or three tributaries, 
flows through a small townland called Gurteen (i.e. the Little Field), 
adjoining the present Ballinclare, but which probably, in ancient times, 
formed part of it, the strong probability is, that a claar, or ancient plank 
bridge once existed here, and that close to it was the Villa Pontis of the 
Taxation of 1291. Dr. Joyce observes that those ancient plank bridges 
were generally placed over a ford, either directly from bank to bank, or 
else resting on rocks in the water (Irish Names, 2nd Series, p. 218), and 
he says that Anascaul, the modern village on the Owenascaul river, seems 
to be the * ' Anglicised representative otAth-na-scal, the Ford of the Heroes " 
(ibid., p. 105). A glance at the Ordnance Townland, or Parish Map 
(No. 44) of Corcaguiny will show that the present village of the Ath-na- 
scal, or Anascaul, stands on the said little townland of Gurteen, imme- 
diately adjoining Ballinclare, but which, as I have said, probably formed 
part of it in 1291. The present Protestant church, and the late Roman 
Catholic church of Anascaul stand close to the stone bridge, which now 
spans the Ath, or ford, and just above this modern bridge is a row of 
stepping-stones, or rocks, on which the ancient Claar probably rested. 
Ballin (the town) Claar (the plank bridge), over the ford on the Owenscal 
river would therefore seem to be identical with the Villa Pontis, or Town 
of the Bridge, of the Taxation. No other place in Corcaguiny corresponds 
with the old Latin name. There is a holy well at Ballinclare, called 
Tullernacrosha (the Well of the Cross), and nearly on aline with it, a few 
yards to the west, is a fine triple-fenced dun called Doonclaur, on the 
before-mentioned Ordnance Map, beyond which, a little further westward, 
is another holy well called Tublereendoney , i.e. the Well of the King of 
Su