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&o$al Historical antr Archaeological association 



Wyt mifcenng Archaeological Society 








THE COUNCIL wish it to be distinctly understood that they do 
not hold themselves responsible for the statements and opinions 
contained in the Papers read at the Meetings of the Society, 
and here printed, except so far as No. 26 of the General Rules 
of the Society extends. 


fTlHE present volume of the Society's Journal is con- 
cerned more with the mediaeval than with the 
earlier history of Ireland. Mr. Westropp's continuation 
of his monumental work on the Prehistoric Remains 
of Clare, Mr. Hamilton's topographical study of one 
of the Roads out of Tara, and Miss Dobbs' note on 
a Burial Custom of the Iron Age are the only papers 
devoted to pre-Christian antiquities. Mr. Tuite reports 
a cup- and circle- stone in Westmeath, and Mr. Westropp 
an earthwork at Glencree (which, however, does not 
appear to be very ancient), in the Miscellanea. We 
should also note Mr. Forsayeth's account of his 
investigation of an ancient hearth. 

Mr. Crawford continues and completes his most 
valuable list of the Early Cross-slabs and Pillars, and 
also contributes a note on the construction of the 
Oran round tower. Mr. Stephens makes an ingenious 
suggestion as to the explanation of a panel on one 
of the Monasterboice crosses. Mr. Forsayeth describes 
a souterrain in Co. Waterford. These are the only 
contributions to the study of the period of Celtic 
Christianity contained in this volume. 

On the other hand, we have an unusually large 
number of valuable historical studies on the Anglo- 
Norman and subsequent periods. Mr. Orpen's study 


of the documents relating to the earldom of Ulster 
is marked by the scholarly treatment which we have 
learned to look for in Mr. Orpen's work. For a 
later period we have an equally important paper, 
that by Mr. Butler, on the Policy of Surrender and 
Regrant. Mr. Hall and Lord Walter FitzGrerald, 
studying the Marshall Pedigree and the life of 
Sir John MacCoghlan respectively, have given con- 
tributions to the studies in personal history which 
have been a marked feature of the Society's work in 
recent years. Dr. Flood traces the work of a Charitable 
Musical Society of Dublin of the eighteenth century, 
and Mr. Leask describes the now dilapidated house 
of Oldbawn, near Tallaght. Mr. Armstrong, in a 
short paper, disposes of the claims of the pre-Norman 
chieftains to have used any form of heraldry, and 
describes some mediaeval bronze horse-bells and a 
plate of copper engraved with the Taylors' arms. 
The note by Mr. Strangways on the street-names of 
Dublin should also be mentioned here, as well as 
Mr. Buckley's account of the gold-mining in Wicklow 
at the end of the eighteenth century. 

In the department of folk-lore, the chief contribu- 
tion is Mr. Crawford's illustrated note on certain stones 
used foi a cure near Dromahair. 








[Read 26 NOVEMBER 1912] 

r pnouGH perhaps at first sight the best known of all the Anglo-Irish 
genealogies, still the origin of the Marshals is not as yet fully 
ascertained, and the coheirs of this great family, unquestioned re- 
presentatives of the House of Dermot, are not easily followed through 
the tangle of their matrimonial alliances ; it is indeed by no means 
improbable that some of these ladies may at times escape recognition 
under their often changing names. Passing here the male descent of the 
Clare earls of Pembroke, and the male line of the family of the Marshals 
of England and of Ireland, the attempt to set out the issue of the coheirs, 
to about the end of the thirteenth century more or less, raises many 
side-issues, and demonstrates the obscurity surrounding the earlier periods 
of sundry illustrious pedigrees ; while abstaining as far as possible from 
irrelevant digressions, one may strive after precision in the matter of the 
main lines by assembling a sufficient corpus of pertinent dates. The 
following summary is therefore offered as an outline, to which other 
students can append more ample details in any required connexion. 1 

1 The references are principally to the Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 
and to Roberts' Excerpta e Eotulis F'miwyc ; other authorities are individually specified. 

Tour R A T $ Vol> in six th Series. ( 

*~ I Vol. XLIII, Consec. Ser. I 



At the death of William Marshal the elder in May 1219 1 his eldest 
son and heir William II was nearing 30 years of age, and had married 
first Alice de Betune daughter of Baldwin third husband of Avice, 
called countess of Albemarle, and for the term of this union Baldwin is 
called earl of Albemarle by Hoveden. 2 William de Fortibus I the second 
husband of Avice, and similarly called earl, had died in 1195, having 
been father of her heir William de Fortibus II, really earl ; and as 
Baldwin died only in 1212, whereas Alice is said to have been contracted 
to William at the age of about 5 or 6 years, she was presumably daughter 
of Avice, for the king assented to this contract 5 November 1203. 3 This 
marriage was celebrated about 1214 by some accounts, namely when 
Baldwin was some two years dead, and William the husband of Alice 
was about 23. Alice was dead by 12 April 1216, if not by 8 October 
1215, when her manors are granted to William Earl of Albemarle. 4 
William II was then a "rebel," as an early example of a useful 
precaution ; while the father stood fast by the Crown, the heir was 
active on the other side, by way of securing as much as possible, 
whatever the upshot of the troubles; and in 1215 as one of the 2-5 
" Magna Charta barons" he appears under the interesting style " Comes 
Mareschal junior." 6 Baldwin is usually said to have died s.p., possibly 
because Alice apparently his heir died shortly after her marriage without 

As Earl of Pembroke William II married secondly in 1226 the king's 
sister Eleanor daughter of John and Isabel of Angouleme. But of 
this marriage there was no issue ; and the earl was dead 11 April 1231, 
when the constable of his castle of Kilkenny is apprised of the fact by 
letters patent ; 6 though it is not till the following day that the king 
notifies the fact to the justiciary of Ireland 7 as appears by the Fine .Rolls. 

1 His burial in the New Temple was on Ascension-day 16 May (xvij kal. Jim.) 
1219 [Historia Major a, iii, 43]. It has been impossibly dated xvij kal. Apr. 
{16 March), and so appears in one text of the M<tjora, which was unfortunately 
reproduced by Dugdale. He had tested at Caversham writs et<:. entered on the Fine 
Rolls during the months preceding, of which the latest is 8 April (Roberts, i, 30) ; and 
at Caversham he died within but a few weeks later. 

2 iv, 37 ; Rolls Series. 

3 Rot. Chart, i, 112, 6. Hardy : whereby Baldwin granted to William Marshal the 
elder in free marriage with Alice, who was to marry "William the younger (with a long 
string of contingent clauses), eight manors named, being " all his lands in England." 

4 Hardy, Clam. I, 230, b ; 260, b. 

6 So Courthope, sub Pembroke, presumably quoting M. Paris (M<tjora, ii, 605). 
But the statement is not to be defended, and was written doubtless some years after 
the event, and after the death of William Marshal L. The s;ime chronicler properly 
calls him " W. jnvenis Marescallns" when the barons met at Stamford (ibid. 585). 
Tuere is undoubtedly one example at least of " Co'nes W. Mir. junior," v\x. in an 
account of the sheriff of Wilts for the manor of Mere (Hardy, dim. I, 52 la), but 
here again it is only as distinction from his late father, the account running from 
before to after the death of William Marshal I. 

C.D.I., i, 1872. . 

7 Roberts, i, 212. 


'The earl's death came speedily after the festivities attendant upon the 
re-marriage of his sister Isabel, and being utterly unexpected was 
attributed to poison, any suspicions to that purport being nowise 
hindered by his precipitate burial in the New Temple on 14 April. It 
is usual to find these accusations of poisoning discredited, especially by 
certain historians laudably determined to hope for the best of poor 
humanity, who have at least learned so much physiology as to know that 
a sudden death is at times a result of natural conditions, while not as 
yet aware that the symptoms described in these cases too frequently 
accord not with natural causes but with criminal interference as 
observable to-day, which any practitioner of medicine could tell them. 
The sane belief that this earl was poisoned attained such sufficient 
currency that next year it was one of the many charges brought against 
Hubert de Burgh. 1 

Eleanor the widow of William II was remarried 7 January 1237/8 to 
Simon de Montfort earl of Leicester, slain at Evesham 4 August 1265. 
Before or by Trinity term 125 1 2 the dower of Eleanor was by some 
process fixed at 600 marks per annum, paid by her brother the King, 
who demanded 200 marks thereof from Margaret countess of Lincoln 
the widow of earl Walter, as later ; and the remaining 400 marks by 
one-fifths from each of the five coheirs. 3 In 44 Hen. Ill the said 
coheirs were mostly in arrears for a space of 12 years past, namely 
from the date of the partition of the estates, 1247. 

William Marshal the younger was succeeded by his next brother 
Richard, and in the first days of August 1231 there is a memorandum on 
the fine rolls 4 that his relief is more fully entered on the Close Rolls ; 
whereof the abstract 5 however gives no particulars, and repeats only that 
the King lias taken Richard's fealty. On the evidence therefore seisin 
was not positively denied to him out of hand, namely on his return to 
England in August after his brother's death ; but the measure of 
indefiniteness on the matter of his relief may persuade some that 
Matthew Paris is not materially in error that seisin was denied him, 
at least for a time. 6 Richard was already holding lands in Bucks late 
his father's by 8 December 1222, when the sheriff is directed that 
Richard is to have respite for the debts of his father etc. 7 On account 
of this earl's steady opposition to the Poictevins and to the pretensions of 
the infamous Peter des Roches bishop of Winchester, Richard was at 
Peter's instigation deprived of the marshalsy so far as mere words 
could deprive, and to the same extent outlawed in 1232. Up to 
Christmas of that year the marshal's office was being exercised by his 

1 Wendover, iii, 34. 4 Roberts, i, 216. 

2 C. D. I., i, 3157. 5 C. D. /., i, 1905. 

3 Ibid., ii, 637 seq. No. 640 is misdated 54 Hen. III. 

6 Majora iii, 204, 205; "salvo releyio consueto " Minor a ii, 334; ''salvo 

7 Roberts, i, 97. 



knight William de Rodune, 1 which deputy was then displaced at the 
desire of the said Peter. The earl's defence of his rights being in the 
main successful, he was never effectually deprived of his lands in 
England.^ In Ireland however under a peculiarly villainous scheme, 
hatched doubtless by Peter, though the obloquy of its execution lies- 
mainly on Geoffrey de Marisco, the earl was at last assassinated, the 
result of a kind of battle waged against himself almost alone and lasting 
through the greater part of Saturday 1 April 1234, as graphically 
described by "Wendover ; 2 but surviving the injuries then inflicted, he 
was eventually murdered under guise of surgical treatment 1 6 April, in 
his own castle of Kilkenny, and buried next day in the oratory of the 
Friars Minors there. Since those of his own day were thus led by their 
bitter hatred for this defender of right and justice to these means for 
silencing his protests, we need not greatly marvel that on the destruction 
of that oratory the tombs there of the mighty dead were appropriated for 
conversion into swine-troughs by a community at least so far civilized as 
to feed their swine. 

This earl died unmarried. 

Gilbert Marshal the third brother succeeded and had livery, etc. 
18 Hen. Ill, 1234. Some years previously lie had married without the 
King's licence Maud de Lanvallei, accordingly their lands in Berks are- 
to be taken into the king's hand Sep. 1230. 3 Maud however died no 
great while after, for in 1235 Gilbert married secondly Margaret, daughter 
of William the Lion king of Scotland and Ermengarde de Beaumont, 
sister of the reigning king Alexander II. Though commonly otherwise 
described, this Margaret was the divorced wife of Hubert de Burgh earl 
of Kent. 1 Hubert had married her as his fourth wife about midsummer 
1221 ; but eleven years later, when he was under a cloud in August 
1232, exception was taken to a "consanguinity" between Hubert and 
Margaret. If the fact of any consanguinity could be established, that 
might go far towards elucidating the somewhat obscure origin of Hubert; 
but it teems the real point was a remote canonical affinity, arising from 
the consanguinity between Margaret and Beatrix the second wife of 
Hubert and mother of his heir, these two ladies being second cousins, 
namely both great-grandchildren of William de Warenne II the son of 
Gundrada. The latest date when Margaret has been noticed us 
"wife" of Hubert is in or about September 1232 when she was at 

1 Majora iii, 240 ; Minora ii, 353 ; Wendover iii, 47. 

2 iii, 80-87. 

3 Roberts, i, 202. 

4 Annales Monastic* (Dunstaplia), iii, 128. She is there called third wife, and the 
cause alleged is "super eo quod erat consanguinea secundse uxoris suae, scilicet 
comitiscae Gloverniae," thus ignoring Hubert's first wife. If this consanguinity were 
established, it would seem to lie in a common descent from Elizabeth of Vermandou, 
who was probably mother of Robert le Bossu, grandfather of Isabel Countess of 
Gloucester, and certainly mother of Ada de Warenne, grandmother of Margaret of 
Scotland : Isabel and Margaret were thus perhaps second cousins of the half-blood. 


Bury St. Edmunds j 1 and it appears that she was soon after separated 
from him. She certainly survived Hubert, for as " Margaret countess 
of Kent" on 5 May 1243 her rights are reserved at the granting to John 
the heir of lands late Hubert his father's. 2 Her interests are not in 
terms called dower however, and the language of the fine accords better 
perhaps with some arrangement in the nature of a settlement on 
separation. It is plain that Margaret was separated from Hubert on 
some grounds, for he afterwards married fifthly Joan daughter of 
"William de Yernon, (de Redvers) earl of Devon, if she was, as has been 
supposed, the widow of "William Briwere II, who was lately dead 
22 February 12 32/3. 3 About October 1235 she [?] is called Joan Briwere 
in a writ of novel disseisin against her etc. by Roger de Langford etc. 
concerning tenements in Brawurth'. 4 This Joan held her dower of 
Briwere's lands till about 1237; and from that date apparently Hubert 
remained a widower till his death in 1243. 5 

The earl Gilbert was killed by his horse in a tournament at "Ware, 
Herts, 27 June 1241, and buried next day in the Temple. On 
29 June mandate issues to John de Monmouth to assume custody of the 
castles of Strigoyll, Usk, and Karelioun, since Gilbert " viam est 
universe carnis ingressus." 6 He left no issue by either wife. Margaret 
his widow died in London 17 November 1244, and was buried in the 
church of the Friars Preachers. 7 

The next brother and heir was "Walter, who obtained his livery on 
Sunday (before All Saints) 27 October ; he had had respite 5 October 1241 
for 100 debts of Gilbert his brother. 8 It appears that he married in the 
following year Margaret daughter and heir of Robert de Quency earl 
of Winchester by A vice (Hawise) sister of Handle (Blundevill) earl of 
Chester and Lincoln. Margaret was widow of John de Lacy, earl of 

1 Wendover, iii, 36. 3 Ibid., i, 238. 

2 Roberts, i, 406. * Ibid., i, 290. 

5 In the Complete Peerage, G. E. C. noted that Hubert's first wife was " Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Robert de Arsiek " ; whoever she was, she left no issue to survive. 
The second wife Beatrix de "Wormegay was widow of Dodo Bardolf in or about 1209 ; 
she was married to Hubert soon after, and died about 1216. But G. E. C. reckoned 
as second wife Joan de Redvers, not as widow of Briwere but as married to Hubert 
in or before 1199 : this date being derived from an entry on the fine roll of 1 John, 
which however, as cited, does not appear to prove more than that Hubert had bought 
the marriage of Joan, which he might sell at a profit, or give away, or enjoy in his 
own person assuming him free to marry. Precise evidence that Hubert did sell this 
Redvers marriage has not been found, nor evidence that Hubert did marry the 
widow of Briwere; but a Joan had Stoke in dower (Baker, Northnnts, ii, 239). 
Further, G. E. C. discredited the assertion that Isabel countess of Gloucester, 
repudiated by King John in 1199, and widow of Geoffrey de Mandeville in 1216, was 
wife of Hubert, as quoted from the annals of Dunstable above ; he accordingly called 
Beatrix third wife, and Margaret of Scotland fourth wife, making no mention of her 
divorce. Record evidence in support of the chronicler's statement that the countess 
of Gloucester was wife of Hubert has similarly not been observed as yet, nor on the 
other hand any reason (apart from this weighty opinion) for doubting the accuracy of 
that statement. 

6 Roberts, i, 347. 7 Historia Majora, iv, 396. 8 Roberts, i, 355. 


Lincoln by " gift " of the said Avice, his mother-in-law, such gift having 
been duly confirmed by the Crown, one of the most incomprehensible of 
all the comital abnormalities in this period of evolution, assuming the 
facts to have been more or less as described. John died 22 July 1240, 
and by 27 November 1242 Walter and Margaret his wife had respite 
concerning certain disputed scutages etc. 1 and they are to have seisin of 
the lands of Avice countess of Lincoln (her mother) 15 March 1242/3. 2 
On 22 February 1245/6 Margaret again had respite in regard of the said 
scutages, 3 Walter being then dead without issue. He died at Goodrich 
castle 24 November 1245 and was buried at Tintern. By 27 January 
next Li.s executors have purchased freedom to administer, etc. 4 A Close 
Roll entry of 26 March 1246 would indicate personalty in the county of 
Notts, 6 the sheriff there being commanded to permit administration ; but 
on 3 December 1245 all the lands which were Walter Marshal's are to 
be taken into the King's hand, by mandates addressed to the sheriffs of 
Sussex, Dorset, Worcester, Oxon, Gloucester, Berks, Bucks, and Here- 
ford ; 8 together with his lands in Ireland, and his castles in Wales and 
Monmouth ; till Anselm his brother and heir shall render his homage. 7 

Margaret, as widow of Walter, had to recover her dower in Ireland ; 
it had been assigned within the portion of Maud de Fortibus, 8 one of the 
coheirs; but by an arrangement of 7 May, detailed 24 October 1252, 
she received her dower payments from William de Valence and Joan 
another of the coheirs. 9 Also as Margaret countess of Lincoln she had to 
contribute annually 200 marks to the dower of Eleanor the widow of her 
husband's eldest brother William II, as before noted. 10 She is called 
Margaret de Lascy (i.e. of Lincoln) 25 February 1253/4, n when it appears 
that some of Margaret's dower lands were of the inheritance of Maud de 
Lacy (i.e. of Meath) wife of Geoffrey de Gyenville, in regard that Maud's 
ancestor had held of the earl of Pembroke, not that Maud was herself a 
coheir of Marshal. Margaret was dead 8 March 1270/1 12 and manifestly 
then for some years past. 

At the death of Walter 24 November 1245 his youngest brother 
Anselm was living, and he is usually reckoned among these earls of 
Pembroke. But he never had seisin of his brother's lands, and died at 
Strigul (Chepstow) castle on the nones (5) of December 1245, namely on 
the eleventh day after his brother's death, and was likewise buried at 
Tintern. He had married Maud daughter of Humphrey de Bohun earl 
of Essex (in right of his mother's descent from the Mandevilles) by Maud 
of Issoudun ; but Anselm also died without issue. Maud his widow re- 
married Roger de Quency earl of Winchester (of whom further presently) ; 

Roberts, i, 390. 7 C.D. /., i, 2798. 

Ibid., i,396. a /rf., ii, 26, 30. 

Ibid., i, 448. 9 Ibid., ii, 29, 103, 185. 

C. D. /., i, 2807, 2808. 10 ibid., ii, G99. 

Ibid., i, 2818. n Ibid., ii, 336. 

Roberts, i, 444. 12 Ibid., ii, 896, 1096. 


she died at Groby co. Leicr. 20 October 1252, and on 29 October mandate 
issues that her man&r of Awre is to be taken into the King's hand. In 
Ireland she held the new and old vill of Kilkenny. 1 

Of the four ladies, all countess of Pembroke, only the countess of 
Kent was lately dead ; and at the death of Anselm there were three 
dowagers surviving. His widow became countess of Winchester ; 
Walter's widow was more generally known under her prior title as 
countess of Lincoln ; and the widow of the eldest brother "William Marshal 
junior, who had for some eight years past been countess of Leicester, is 
occasionally found on the records as countess of Pembroke and Leicester. 
None of them having borne any issue to their respective earls of Pembroke, 
the five sisters of Anselm became coheirs ; but since Anselm had not 
received seisin of his lands nor any formal recognition of his earldom, 
these sisters were technically heirs of their brother Walter, and as such 
they are usually if not invariably found. 

The coheirs, daughters of William Marshal the elder by Isabel de Clare, 
were named (in alphabetical order) Eve, Isabel, Joan, Maud and Sibyl. 
The seniority of these daughters was certainly not thus ; but what the 
sequence of their nativity was cannot be called free from doubt. Modern 
writers vary considerably, and it seems unnecessary to discuss such varia- 
tions, where no reasons are advanced in support of the sequence adopted. 
There is a passage in Uhistoire de Guillaume le Marechdl where if 
the language is vague the sense has been thought indubitable, which 
gives the sequence hereinafter marked by Arabic figures ; this passage 
reads : 

De[s] cine filles direi apres 

Si comme els vindrent pres a pres 

Maheut ont nom la piemereine etc. 11. 14915 seq. 

the sequence being by this version (1) Maud, (2) Isabel, (3) Sibyl, 
(4) Eve, (5) Joan. That such was the sequence of their birth was 
not doubted by Mons. Paul Meyer, who abridged the text "cinq filles 
dans 1'ordre de leur naissance " a comfortably definite statement, if 
the text would really carry it. On the other hand Maud was the first 
to be married, and only Joan was left unmarried at the death of their 
father; therefore manifestly this order may be the sequence of their 
marriages ; perhaps the text does not preclude that interpretation ; in 
the case of Sibyl the language positively supports it. 2 The fact that 
the first and the last do agree with the marriage-sequence, while of 
the middle one it is all but declared, cannot be thought without 
significance ; it is far from impossible that this matrimonial order is 
what the composer actually intended to express ; of language which 
different students will almost certainly interpret differently, one can 

1 Roberts, ii, 143; G.D.I, ii, 109, 110. 

2 Puts dona Ii peres Sebire, etc. 1. 14937. 


only be sure that the obscurity was either deliberate or inadvertent; 
that it was intentional is the more probable view; the motive being 
undiscovered, it can only be said here that the composer does not in terms 
say his sequence is the order of birth, though that is what he may have 
intended his verses to assert or to imply ; equally he does not say this is 
the order of their marriages, though plainly of the first and last at least 
BO much is positive. If the date of this work is accurately stated as circa 
1225, when the eldest of these sisters was aged not more than about 35, 
the order of their birth was easily ascertainable, we may suppose ; it 
might seem difficult to question such a first-hand statement of simple and 
unimportant fact, but that it is not in terms stated for a fact. Moreover 
we cannot be sure that the writer troubled to attain exact accuracy, even 
under the constraint of poetic fetters ; if he began correctly with Maud, 
he might quite possibly lose the due sequence with the juniors, supposing 
him to know or care what it was. Manifestly here the poet may set 
them down simply as they " come to mind" " one after another." 

Tli at the poet did begin correctly with Maud seems to be very 
generally agreed, and he has the support of a record cited by Dr. Round 
from the close rolls, 1 wherein it is asserted that the marshalsy has been 
assigned to Maud que Jidbet esneciam hereditatis. Such a statement is 
conclusive, unless contradicted by an inconsistent if equally conclusive 
assertion of like weight. It is well to be cautious here, for another 
contemporary record, equally to the point and much more comprehensive, 
is as mere matter of fact constructively in flat contradiction next year. 
This record is the Chancery Miscellaneous Roll, Hen. Ill, n 320 (m. 3 
dors.), as abstracted in the C. D.I., ii, 933. Here the partition of the 
Irish lands is set out with great precision ; this was the partition of the 
estates before the King, 9 May 1247 ; and here we find Maud, although 
she was then the only surviving daughter, is not named until fourth of the 
coh eirs ; moreover the cap ut laronia, the castle of Kilkenny, is duly assigned 
to the first named of the coheirs, which here is Isabel. Further, in this 
record the shares of those coheirs who were then already represented 
again by coheirs are in each case duly assigned under the name of the 
senior parcener ; it is exceedingly difficult to reject this sequence, with 
the necessarily involved assumption that a system properly followed in 
due legal form as to the lesser parts is ignored as to the principal parts ; 
when moreover we see the eisnecia share, Kilkenny, is not here assigned 
to Maud, but to Isabel. If it must come to a choice between records 
which are in conflict, the verbal statement of the one is not of greater 
weight than the legal formality of the other, which has all the appearance 
of being strictly consistent in its parts, though it make no assertion in 
words upon a fact unnecessary to state, since it lies patent on the surface. 
On the other hand the close roll entry does assert Maud's eisnecia, 

Complete Peerage, II, 611, note b , quoting Glaus., 30 Hen. Ill, m. 7 (22 July, 


though the statement is unnecessary ; the essence of the matter was 
that Maud obtained the marshalsy ; there was no need to advance any 
reason why she should be preferred to the representative of a sister, for 
her sisters themselves were all dead ; therefore the alleged reason was 
possibly not the true reason, if the alleged seniority of Maud were also 
the fact. Assuming that the marshalsy ought to descend to the senior 
coheir, as this assertion would seem to recognize, then undoubtedly it is 
a difficulty that Richard earl of Gloucester, son of Isabel, and now over 
24 years of age, was presumably well able to support his claim if his 
late mother Isabel had in truth been the eldest daughter, as indicated in 
the Chancery Roll ; and on that it may be considered whether the main 
purpose were not to exclude him, and next if the simple fact that Maud 
was the sole survivor 1 were not seized upon as a convenient pretext for 
ignoring the seniority while affecting to observe it and while accom- 
plishing the fact disregarding it. Lastly it must appear that those 
making the partition, of whom a part Lad been chosen by the executive, 
and a part by the heirs, can have had no common object in advancing 
any misstatement, or for departing from the proper sequence, if they 
did know facts it was their business to learn ; and again that they could 
have had no common end in relegating the sole survivor Maud to the 
fourth place in the series, and to the least considerable of the Irish 
honours" (co. Carlow) unless they knew full well that there was her 
proper place, although for a year past the marshalsy had been in 
Victorian phrase " called out of abeyance " in her favour, irrespective 
altogether of whether that act were of grace or of policy. 

Under the assumption that the close roll entry declaring Maud's 
eisnecia is correct in its fact, we must then suppose that these shares in 
Ireland were set out in their relative dignity, and that the coheirs 
" tossed for choice " or by some device among themselves evaded the 
sequence the mere ages of the sisters would dictate ; if that seem rather 
a bolus to swallow, then alternatively we must assume that Isabel was 
really the eldest, and that Maud's alleged seniority is a terminological 
inexactitude, and perhaps only the ultra-refined purists will boggle 
over such an assumption, for it has never been suggested that Maud 
and Isabel were twins. Being at present in no position to advance any 
third record 3 in support of either sequence, these coheirs are hereinafter 
marked by Roman capitals in the sequence shown by this chancery roll ; 
viz. : [A] Isabel (2) : fB] Joan (5) : [C] Sibyl (3) : [D] Maud (1) : 

1 This fact is deemed to be the explanation of the phrase "Matilda countess of 
Warenne and her parceners " on the Close Roll, as abstracted in C. I). 1., ii, 26. 

2 The lady placed last is Eve, to whose heirs is assigned an honour hardly recogniz- 
able but appertaining to the castle of Dunamase, amplified out to monetary equality of 
annual value by the scraps and trimmings from the other shares. The "elder" 
sisters' representatives obtained (a) Kilkenny, as above : (b] Wexford : (c] Kildare : 
and perhaps no one familiar with the .state of Ireland in that period would for a 
moment think of ranking these honours in any other order. 

3 See however the reference cited G. D. I., ii, 2186. 


[E] Ere (4) : in order that the ladies may be indicated according to 
both theories. It will at once be observed that by either notation 
Isabel was older than Sibyl, who was older than Eve ; it is easy to find 
conjectures why Joan should be last to marry, which are not con- 
jectures as to her age. The presentment of Maud in the first position by 
VHistoire is some twenty years or more before the marshalsy came to 
her, one must in candour admit ; and only by invoking the long arm of 
coincidence therefore can we associate the later fact with an early 
marriage ; both details being in strict accord are with infinitely greater 
probability explained by priority of birth. It is assuredly not impossible 
to imagine some compensatory adjustment as between English and Irish 
lands, and guessing is one of the industries upon which the unemployed can 
alwavs full back ; but short of such speculations, Sibyl and Eve married 
better than Joan did, as well as sooner ; Joan does rather look like the 
lame duck among these swans ; it is perhaps not improbable that with 
fuller knowledge the actual sequence of birth may be found eventually 
as Maud, Isabel, Joan, Sibyl, Eve, if the sequence of the chancery 
roll can be shewn erroneous. Without any expression of opinion upon a 
point of fact only to be determined by more evidence, Maud's share is 
conveniently to be taken first here, simply because it returned to the 
Crown within sixty years of the partition. 


According to VHistoire 1 Maud's marriage is to be fixed at a date 
shortly before Easter 1207 ; namely just before her father William 
was at last permitted to go to Ireland, which was early in 1207, 
In the Complete Peerage it was dated " about 1212." On the slight basis 
of the earlier date Maud's birth has been referred to about 1190 ; it is of 
course equally supposable that she was born in any other year before say 
1200, nor by the dates of her issue is there any necessity to require a 
date earlier than 1200 by anything considerable; equally there is as yet 
nothing to indicate that she was not born as early as 1190 ; to her first 
husband she had borne three sons at the time of his death in 1224/5, and 
to her second husband she bore another son in 1235 ; it is far from sure 
that she did not bear to a third husband a daughter in the spring of 1248. 
In that case, of which later, it is certain that Maud was not born in 
1190, if just possibly by 1200. 

Maud's first husband was Hugh Bigod third earl of Norfolk, who had 
done homage for his father's lands 2 August 122 1, 2 and was dead 
18 February 1224/5, when Maud's dower is to be assigned. 3 Of this 
marriage no daughters are known ; the sons were : 

(i) Roger fourth earl of Norfolk, afterwards Marshal of England. 
Alexander II king of Scots had bought the custody of this heir etc. ; 

1 11. 13335-13353. 2 Roberts, i, 69. 3 Ibid., 125. 


as recited in a fine 29 October 1227 on the death of William Longespee etc; 1 
and accordingly Roger was to be married to the king's sister Isabel 
1 June the octave of the Trinity 1225, as appears by a fine of 20 May 
1225. 2 He was then much under age and he died s. p. not long before 
25 July 1270, when he was probably under 60 years old. 

(ii) HughBigod, the justiciar of England, who died about 1266, being 
dead by 7 November of that year, when his son and heir Roger (after- 
wards fifth earl) did homage for his lands. 3 It is not unusual to see 
Hugh's death referred to the battle of Lewes, though he is expressly 
named among those who fled thence at the last moment, and further is 
found assisting the efforts of the Queen in Flanders some months later. 
Eut it is perhaps likely his heir Roger was of age only in November 
1266, and if his birth could be fixed to November or October 1245 it 
would then be possible to attain some measure of certainty as to his 
mother, of which further presently. 

Hugh had been one of the executors of his mother Maud. 4 

(iii) Ralph Bigod third son of Maud was dead 28 July 1260, in the 
lifetime of both his brothers; there is great reason to suppose that ho 
died without issue. This Ralph's wife was Bertha de Furnival, who 
was also his executrix. 5 Much of the wild confusion in the Bigod 
pedigree has been caused by heroic efforts to drag in under this Ralph 
issue of which he cannot have been the father, and other issue of which 
he cannot be shewn the father. The gentleman calling himself 
"Plantagenet" Harrison, who had his own views as to the representa- 
tion of the blood of the Angevin kings of England, was firmly persuaded 
that Edward I was in truth the son of Roger fourth earl above ; which 
he held to be a reason why Roger fifth earl should surrender his earldom, 
lands, and everything he had, to Edward I ; not that the eccentric 
Mr. Harrison always knew which Roger he meant. In the generation 
of this Hugh' the justiciar he is quite at variance with record facts, but 
at least he did not invent either the scandal or the confusion. The 
latter he seems to have taken from Milles' Catalogue of Honour ; 6 that 
work, like sundry other quasi- original sources, is mainly in accord with, 
and doubtless based in some degree upon, a Tintern chronicle of which 
the chief genealogical portions are reproduced, errors and all, in the 
Monasticon? Inasmuch as the Bigods acquired their interest in Tintern 
only by the marriage of this Maud, it might be thought that, as for 
her issue at least, this chronicle 'can be accepted, but in fact its state- 
ments cannot be contemporary, nor approximately so even, for it is in 

1 Huberts, i, 163. Ibid., ii, 333. 

* Ii,id., 128. 6 Fol. (1610), p. 504 etc. 

3 Ibid., ii, 448. 1 Edit. 181730 vol. v, p. 265 seq. 

* Ibid., ii, 33. 


error on the descent of the earldom itself. It is necessary to emphasize 
the fact that all tliese early genealogies of Bigod are more or less 
erroneous, since they are constantly being reproduced, and so 
perpetuating misapprehensions, even as to these relatively clear parts 
of the Bigod pedigree, of which the twelfth century portion is chaotic. 

When Koger the fourth earl died in 1270 his heir was Roger (fifth 
earl) his nephew the son and heir of Hugh the justiciar, and the king 
had taken the homage of Roger the heir for the lands late of Roger his 
uncle 25 July 1270.' It appears that Hugh the justiciar was thrice 
married. The first wife was Joan daughter of Robert Burnel ; so 
Milles, as aforesaid, who is veiy positive that "his children were 
by Burners daughter." 2 If the heir possibly was so, which is 
quite doubtful, this is manifestly not true of all. The date of 
Hugh's marriage with " Burnel' s daughter" has not been found; 
but by 1244 Hugh was married to another Joan, daughter and 
sole surviving heir of Nicholas de Stuteville; she was widow of 
Hugh Wake who was already dead 2 January 1241/2 when Joan 
his widow fines 10,000 marks for custody of the lands and marriage 
of (her SOD) the heir; 3 which heir was in custody of Joan and 
Hugh Bigod, 18 February 1247/8. 4 Dugdale cites the Pipe Roll of 
29 Henry III (Yorks.) that Hugh was married to Joan (de Stuteville) 
by 1244 ; 5 and no earlier date has been found. It was suggested above 
that Roger the heir was possibly not born till the autumn of 1245, in 
which case he would plainly be the son of this second wife ; and 
Dugdale cites Esc. 54 H iii, No. 25, that Roger was 25 at his succession 
in 1270, ergo born in or about 1245. In the Complete Peerage his birth 
is calculated to 1240, apparently on a statement that he was 66 at his 
death in December 1306. If the figures are correct, that was the year 
of his birth, obviously ; but that he was in fact 66 may need some 
proving. If he were indeed born in 1240, it is not clear why he must 
wait till November 1266 for seisin of his father's lands. Hugh the 
justiciary has not been found alive later than 10 April 1266, by an entry 
of that date on the patent roll. 6 Joan's death is dated 1276 ; she was 
living 12 July 1264 ; 7 and one must confess failure to recognize " Hugo 
le Bigod et Margeria ux' ejus " who take a writ of novel disseisin under 
Somerset in January 1257/8. 8 She looks like a third " wife." 

This Roger fifth earl married first Alina (often found Aliva in print) 
daughter of Philip Basset of Wycombe, and widow of Hugh le Dispenser 
who was slain at Evesham 4 August 1265. Roger had done homage for 

1 Huberts, ii, 519. 

2 Op. cil. So many copyists read this name Burned that it may be assumed they 
nd that misprint in some more accessible work. 

3 Roberts", i, 364. 6 Cal. Pat. Bolls, p. 580. 
* Ibid, ii, 28. 7 7Wrf., p. 334. 

5 Baronage, i, 135 a. 8 Roberts, ii, 269. 


all the lands of Philip 3 December 127 1, 1 but Alina dying without issue, 
Roger married second Alice daughter of John de Aveynes, in the year 
1290. 2 By this wife likewise Roger had no issue, and dying 1 1 December 
1306 his earldom, marshalsy, and estates, including the county of Carlow 
with its castles mostly in ruinous disrepair, passed to the King, by means 
of a surrender to that end which had been made in 1302. 3 It is usually 
stated that the heir was then John Bigod, brother of the earl, assumed 
to be own brother. The age of this John is given by Inquisition evidence 
as 40 years in 1306 ; which if a precise statement would imply that he 
was born in 1266, or near about. Since his father Hugh was certainly 
dead in 1266, that age may mean only that John must be at least so 
many years of age. If this 40 years was anywhere near the fact, then 
it is certain John was not son of Burnel's daughter. Though much has 
been written on the "disinheriting" of this John, and on the 
unconstitutional and invalid " surrender" of the earldom, and so forth, 
very little has been advanced as to the reason why John was thus 
excluded. But one should not overlook the possibility that the age 
given for John might be his exact age ; and in that case there is the 
obvious indication that he was gravely suspected to be a bastard. Until 
John's legitimacy can be questioned on plainer grounds than a possibly 
haphazard statement as to his age, however, he must be still deemed 
legitimate as heretofore ; and on that assumption it will follow that in 
his issue was continued the representation of Maud le Marshal and her 
first husband Hugh Bigod. 

Maud's supposed daughter by Hugh le Bigod is a most interesting 
because elusive lady. Nothing definite has ever been found as yet upon 
her parentage ; she is most obscurely called a sister of Ralph Bigod, which 
is an extremely oblique way of indicating her relation, if she were in fact 
sister to Hugh the justiciar and Roger fourth earl, Ralph's more famous 
brothers. But this oblique expression has the air of an attempt to escape 
the impossible assertion, frequently found, that she was daughter of 
Ralph, to which the answer is that she was certainly older than he or 
his brothers. This Isabel married first Walter de Lacy's son Gilbert, 
who was living 12 August, and dead v. p. 25 December 1230; and 
secondly John Fitz-Geoffrey the justiciar of Ireland, before 1 1 April 
1234. 4 That Isabel may have been daughter of some as yet unknown 
Ralph Bigod cannot well be denied ; that she was daughter of this Ralph 
and Berta de Eurnival, as constantly asserted, is a chronological impos- 
sibility. The indication that she was of the line of the Marshals in some 
way arises from the fact that Connell was her " maritagium," 5 and this was 
a Marshal manor. Notwithstanding many assertions on her parentage, no 
scrap of evidence, other than such as can be evolved by " emendation" 

1 Roberts, 554. * Watson, Genealogist N. S. xxi, 1904. 

2 Fior. Wig., ed. Thorpe, ii, 243. 5 C. D. I. I, 2121. 

3 C. D. /., v, 54, etc., 617. 


from the erroneous Bigod pedigrees of the before-noted chronicles, has 
ever been quoted ; and the question who she was must remain open 
pending the discovery of good evidence directly to the point. 1 By the 
dates of her issue, she was born about if not actually in the year 1205. 

Maud le Marshal was married to her second husband, before 13 October 
1225 2 William earl Warenne, the son of Hamelin and Isabel de Warenne. 
William died 27 May 1240, when his heir, by Maud, was John earl of 
Surrey, then aged 5 years. Maud's dower as widow of William included 
inter alia Clayton, co. Sussex, which manor was to be taken into the king's 
hand 7 April 1248 ; 3 whereby it is clear that she was then lately dead. 
Within the period 1240-1248 however it is said that Maud married third 
Walter de Dunstanville, whom Milles calls " baron of Castlecote." By a 
chancery inquisition, Wilts, 54 Hen. Ill, no. 10, made at Castlecoinbe 
8 February 1269/70 sir Walter de Dunstanville had died 14 January last 
leaving a daughter and heir Parnell who would be 22 on 22 February 
next, and was then wife of Robert de Montfort. 4 This Parnell was by 
this evidence born in February 1247/8, and without presuming to declare 
her a daughter of Maud, dead within six weeks later, one would be glad 
to know who was Parri ell's mother. If this be a daughter of Maud, 
then it is quite impossible that Maud was the eldest daughter of 
William, and born in or anywhere near 1190. The representation of 
Maud and her second husband William passed by the said John earl of 
Surrey to the Fitz-Alans, and so through the Mowbrays to the Howards ; 
and in the Mowbrays the descendants of Maud by her second marriage 
regained the marshalsy which her grandson by the first husband had 
surrendered to the Crown. 


Isabel is in sundry versions called third daughter of William Marshal 
the elder and Isabel de Clare ; that she had her mother's name is obvious, 
but no indication of the year of her birth has been observed. She married 
first about or by the year 1217 Gilbert de Clare earl of Hertford and 
Gloucester, her third cousin. He died 25 October 1230, at a place called 
Penros in Brittany by divers authorities: " de partibus iliis rediens," 

1 It is much to be desired that the gift in free-marriage should be adequately 
examined as associated with the case of the bastard daughter. In the Amicia tracts 
Main waring, who devoutly if pardonably believed the charming dogma torn to rugs 
by Mr. Round that " the law was always the same," made great play with the doctrine 
that such gift proved legitimacy ; but he utterly failed to discredit the alleged bastardy 
of Amicia, which was his main purpose. To the non-legal intelligence it might 
appear from numerous specific cases a plain inference that the gift in free-marriage 
M - as expressly invented, on the contrary, in order to make a secure provision for the 
bastard daughter, albeit subsequently applied to the purpose of endowing the bride 
legitimately born. 

2 Complete Peerage. 

3 Roberts, ii, 31. Roger her son and heir has done homage, &c. 10 June 1248. 
. 2>. 7., i, 2943. 

4 Wilts Inqq. British Record Soc., p. 53. 


according to Matthew Paris 1 and Hubert de Burgh fined 7000 marks for 
custody of Ids lands and marriage of his heir, 6 November 1230. 2 
Their son and heir Richard Earl of Gloucester 3 was born 4 August 
1222, and married first Margaret de JJurgh. This Margaret was daughter 
of Hubert by his fourth wife Margaret of Scotland, as previously ; we read 
that she had a sister " Magota of whom nothing further is known." 4 If 
Magota be no myth, 5 she was possibly spirited away ; she and Margaret 
were apparently regarded with some jealousy by the Crown, and though 
the facts are by no means clear it seems this marriage was " clandestine " 
(by which we are to understand perhaps only that it was without the 
King's licence) and that Margaret was immediately taken from the earl, 
neither being ten years old, if the date of this marriage was perhaps 
but little before the fall of Hubert in 1232. The fate of Margaret is 
unknown ; the only point suggestive that there were two daughters of 
Hubert with the same name may seem to lie in the detail that whereas 
Margaret (or Margeria) was still living in the summer of 124 1, 5 never- 
theless the earl married secondly 2 February 1237/8 Maud daughter of 
John de Lacy earl of Lincoln by Margaret daughter of Robert de Quency 
earl of Winton, Maud being thus step-daughter of Walter Marshal, 
Isabel's brother. The earl Richard dying in 1 262 was buried 28 July 
at Tewkesbury. By Maud he left a son and heir Gilbert earl of Gloucester 
and Hertford, of full age 1 September 1264, 6 who married first Alice, 
otherwise Yolande, de Lusignan, from whom he was divorced 18 July 
127 1. 7 The earl Gilbert married secondly Joan of Acre, born the year 
after his divorce, daughter of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile. Joan's 
marriage was 2 May 1290 8 ; she died 19 April 1307, 9 having remarried in 
1296 Ralph de Monthermer, to whom she bore two sons, etc. The earl 
Gilbert, called the Red Earl, had died in 1295, leaving by Joan a son and 
heir Gilbert last earl of Gloucester and Hertford, whose age is called 
18 years, 2 June and 29 M.ay 1307, in inquisitions on the death of his 
mother, from which it would appear that he was born in May 1289 ; 10 but 
his age was 16 on 11 May 1307. n This earl was slain at Bannockburn, 

1 Major a, iii, 200. 

2 Roberts, i, 205. 

3 C. J9./.,ii, HO, 428, 471. 
* Courthope, sub Kent. 

5 It seems this Magota is but Margot, the French diminutive for Margaret, and 
that there was but one daughter of this marriage to survive, the Margaret upon whom 
Hubert her father had settled the manor of Portslade, Sussex, probably at the time of 
his separation from her mother, and whereof she had been deprived upon the i'all of 
Hubert in 1232 ; it was restored to her however by the King in 1234, on his recon- 
ciliation with Hubert 23 May that year, and she was still holding it in May and June 
1241. Cf. Roberts, i, 342, 344, and-Ffor. Wig. (Thorpe), ii, 176. 

6 C. D. /., ii, 750. The lands extended, ibid., 1618. 

7 Flor. Wig. ii, 206 : This divorce, "apud Norwyciam ceUbratum." 

8 The continuator of Florence says however " ultimo die mensis Aprilis," 
ibid, ii, 242. ' 

9 C.I). I., v, 653, seq. 

10 Wilts Inqq. British Hecord Soc. pp. 337, 339. 

11 Glouc. Inqq. ibid. pp. 73-89 ; in one of these the age is however 17. 


24 June 1314, 1 and leaving no issue his three sisters were his heirs. 
These were : 

(i) Eleanor, wife (a) of Hugh Despenser the younger, by whom she 
left issue. Walsingham 2 says Hugh was hanged at Hereford on a gallows 
50 feet high on a Monday (? 24 November) 1326, and with other details 
quotes an epigram, so fully explained that he might have written it him- 
self, whereby appears the detail that whereas the beheading was done 
with a sword, the quartering was done with an axe. The representation 
of Eleanor passed by her descendant Isabel Despenser to the Nevills and 
Beauchamps, her issue of successive marriages with Richard earl of 
Worcester and Richard earl of Warwick being fully treated in the New 
Complete Peerage, under Abergavenny. Eleanor was wife (b) of William 
Zouche " of Mortimer," after 5 February 1327/8, who was dead 7 March 
1336/7 ; of this marriage it appears there was no issue surviving. Eleanor 
died 30 June 1337. 

(ii) Margaret, aged 22 in 1314, was wife (a) of Piers Gaveston, before 
5 August 1309, when she is named with him in a charter settling on 
them etc. the earldom of Cornwall, previously granted to him 6 August 
1307; 3 of this marriage there was issue apparently only one daughter 
surviving ; Piers was taken at Scarborough, but seized and beheaded 
19 June or 1 July 1312 at Warwick, by Guy earl of Warwick, whom 
Piers, in the day of his insolent prosperity, had unfortunately called the 
Black Dog of Arden. He was buried at the Friars Preachers Oxford, but 

3 January 1314/5 the Kiug translated the corpse of his familiar to 
Langley. 4 Margaret was wife (b) of Hugh de Audley, married at Windsor 
28 April 1317 ; created earl of Gloucester 1337, who died 1347, Margaret 
having died in 1342, and their daughter and heir Margaret carried their 
representation to the issue by her husband Ralph earl of Stafford. 

(iii) Elizabeth, married (a) John de Burgh son and heir of Richard 
(the red) earl of Ulster, which John died v. p. 18 June 1313, leaving their 
son William earl of Ulster, father of Elizabeth wife of Lionel duke of 
Clarence. Elizabeth de Clare married (b) as second wife, Wednesday 

4 February 1315/6 at Bristol Theobald de Verdun II, who dying at his 
castle of Alton Staffs, Tuesday 27 July was buried S. Sequanus 19 Sep- 
tember 1316 in the abbey of Croxden adjacent. 5 Of this marriage was an 
only daughter Isabel, born at Amesbury on S. Benedict 10 Ed. II,. 
to whom queen Isabel was godmother ; and thither Edward II likewise 
went to treat with his niece the lady Elizabeth of another marriage with 
one Roger Damory, thoughtfully taking that aspirant along with him. 6 

1 Walsingham, i, 140. 3 Courthope, p. 126. 

3 i, 185. * Walsingham, i, 133, 143. 

5 Chron. Croxden, Cutt. Faustina B vi, fo. 80r. 

6 Proof of age of Isabel, British Record Soc., Wilts Inq., vol. iii, p. 71 : Thisinq. 
twice calls the father of Isabel Theobald de Fontibus, the reason for which name ha& 


This Isabel de Verdun married Henry Ferrers of Groby, and so her 
representation passed to Henry Grey duke of Suffolk, and his daughters 
the Lady Jane and her sisters. Elizabeth de Clare married (c) the said 
linger cl'Amory, by whom she had another daughter, Elizabeth, who 
married in 1336 John Bardolf, grandson of Hugh first baron by writ, who 
was great-grandson of Dodo and Beatrix aforesaid ; the grandson of John 
and Elizabeth was Thomas lord Bardolf, attainted 1406. The lady 
Elizabeth de Clare died 4 November, 1360, having perpetuated her name 
by the foundation of Clare Hall Cambridge. 

As widow of Gilbert earl of Hertford and Gloucester, Isabel 
le Marshal married secondly in the early days of April 123 1 1 as first 
wife Richard earl of Cornwall afterwards king of the Romans second son 
of King John. To him she bore inter alios an only surviving son Henry, 
born in November 1235, knighted 27 May 1257 at his father's corona- 
tion, murdered at Yiterbo by Guy de Montfort 1271. Isabel had died 
when this son was about 4 years old, and was buried 19 January 1239/40 
at Berkhampstead S. Peter, Herts, before the birth of the said Guy, 
called Henry's " first cousin," viz. son of Eleanor the widow of Isabel's 
eldest brother William Marshal II. The issue of Isabel by her second 
marriage thus became extinct. 


Joan is the only one of the coheirs who was given in marriage by her 
brother, not her father, 2 whence it arrives that she was not married 
before 1219. Her husband was "Warm de Munchensi, of uncertain origin, 3 
to whom she was not a first wife. Warin survived till 1255, when 
William was his son and heir; but Joan was dead 9 May 1247 at the 
partition of the Marshal estates, and her heir was her son John 
de Munchensi. This John was also dead s.p. by 20 June following, 4 

escaped one's observation. Isabel was born 21 March 1316/7, the court being at 
Clarendon until after Easter, vhicli was 3 Apiil 1317. The inq. however was taken 
20 March 1331/2 ; and from tbe language it might not unreasonably be supposed 
that S. Benedict 4 Dec. 1316 was it e date indicated for Isabel's birth. 

1 Majora, iii, 201 ; Wendovtr, iii, 10. 

2 I'Histoire, 11. 14947-54, where the poet goes out of bis way to assure us Joan 
was not disparaged, but was provided with a ricb and noble marriage : details it was 
manifestly needless to assert of her sister Isabel's marriage to tbe earl of Gloucester 
and Hertford, or in the case of Eve whose husband was not remarkably ricb, nor an 

3 In Mr. Round's Calendar of Documents preserved in France a "certain stranger " 
Hubert de Monte Canesil is a witness to n. 582, one of a curious set of charters by 
Ferrers, this instrument professing to be dated 1141. It is hardly .necessary to- 
remark that the Ferrers pedigree is full of difficulties, some of which are caused less 
by lack of information than by superfluity of imposture. In this instrument the 
consideration is the weal of his soul, and bis father's and his mother's, and most of all 
the release of a mark of silver, rent etc., all not more dubious perhaps than the actual 
site of Montcanesil ; this surname being usually Latinized de Monte Canisio, and 
sometimes Monte Cavino, or Calvino. 

4 Roberts ii, 14 ; C.D.I., ii, 1109, 1330. 

T 13 c A T f Vol. in, Sixth Series. 

Jour. R.S.A.I. | Vol XL ' m Consec> Ser> 


leaving as sole heir his sister Joan de Monchensi, wife of William 
de Valence, half-brother of Henry III. This William was in 1264 
created earl of Pembroke, but he was already married to Joan 24 March 
1248/9. 1 He was dead by midsummer 1296, 2 and is perhaps best known 
to-day by his magnificent tomb in Westminster abbey. 

In respect of lands in Ireland, the inheritance of other her coheirs, 
William and Joan his wife rendered to the said other heirs an annual 
nionev payment in the nature of purchase for the said lands, and thus 
arises a measure of confusion at times between the lands descending 
directly to Joan and those descending originally to the said other coheirs, 
but thus held by Joan and her husband. William and Joan had pardon 
for their share of the dower of Eleanor the king's sister, viz. as widow of 
William Marshal II, together with arrears due, 2 July 125 1 . 3 At the death 
of William de Valence in 1296 his heir, and Joan's, was their son Aymer, 
who had married a coheir of Raoul de Clermont (de Neelle) Constable 
of France, but died s.p. in 1323 ; and by inquisition at Gloucester 
27 August 1324 Aymer's heirs were John de Hastings, his nephew, son 
of his deceased sister Isabel and John de Hastings ; and his nieces Joan 
and Elizabeth, daughters of his deceased sister Joan and John Coinyn of 
Badenoch : which Joan was wife of David de Strabolgi earl of Atholl, and 
her sister Elizabeth Comyn 4 was afterwards wife of Richard Tulbot to 
whom she carried Goodrich castle; from them descended the earls of 
Shrewsbury. The representation of Joan countess of Atholl passed by 
her great-granddaughter Elizabeth de Strabolgi to her two daughters 
by Sir Henry Percy of Athol, both of whom were twice married and left 
issue. Johnde Hastings, the coheir of his uncle Aymer in 1324, died in 
the next year, and in 1339 his son and heir Lawrence Hastings was 
created earl of Pembroke. While still a minor his grandson John 
Hastings was slain in a tournament at Woodstock, 1391, and this earldom 
of Pembroke then became extinct ; but the co-representation of Isabel 
de Valence remained among some at least of the Hastings claimants. 


Sibyl, bearing the name of her ancestress Sibyl of Salisbury, was the 
third daughter by both these enumerations. At the time of the partition, 
1247, she was dead, leaving her interest among her seven daughters and 
coheirs ; but her share was not perhaps divided among them immediately 
after that partition, though it had been divided, it may seem, in the life- 
time of the countess of Lincoln, but after Eleanor had become wife of 
Roger de Leyburne, as presently ; 5 data which would fix the division to 

1 C.l>.L,i, 2983. 

*Inq. p.m. 21 June at Gloucester ; and at Wexford 27 November 1296. C.D.I., iv, 

3 Roberts, ii, 109. ' 

4 Sbe was then aged 24, and her sister Joan was 30. 
5 C..L, ii, 896, 1096. 


not before July 1264, Sibyl had married William de Ferrers, after- 
wards earl Ferrers, or earl of Derby, best distinguished in that complicated 
pedigree as the son of king John's earl, who had obtained a " charter of 
restitution" 7 June 1199, and died at a great age 22 September 1247. 
Sibyl was thus dead before her husband succeeded to the earldom so 
established to his father, and her daughters were Agnes, Isabel, Maud, 
Sibyl, Eleanor, Joan, Agatha ; this is not only the sequence in which the 
daughters constantly appear in legal proceedings among themselves, but 
is that in which all, with another, are named 28 June 1248 in the matter 
of the dower of Margaret countess of Lincoln, widow of their uncle 
Walter 1 as again, with two others, 26 August 1250. 2 After the 
death of Sibyl their mother, William Ferrers their father remarried 
Margaret, daughter of lloger de Quency earl of Winchester by his first wife 
Helen of Galloway ; Roger's second wife was Anselm's widow, as before ; 
and within a matter of six weeks after her death he married thirdly one of 
the daughters of Sibyl, as presently, who was now the stepdaughter of his 
own daughter Margaret ; in short these widowers exchanged daughters 
so to express it ; or from the daughters' point of view, each had married 
the father of her stepmother. In the absence of close attention to dates, 
such transactions are apt to confuse. Before noting the marriages of each 
of these daughters of Sibyl, it may be well to observe generally that 
William de Valence and Joan had entered into bargains resembling 
purchase of the shares of Isabel, Sibyl, and Joan ; also that Eleanor 
though thrice married left no issue, and her share was eventually divided 
between Agnes, Maud, and Agatha. If the aforesaid Isabel, Sibyl, and 
Joan participated in that division, either in their own persons or other- 
wise, the fact does not seem to appear on the records, nor any reason why 
-they did not in some manner participate. 

(i) Agnes the eldest daughter of Sibyl was at the time of the partition 
wife of William son of Eustace de Yescy, by Margaret a bastard daughter 
of William the Lion king of Scots; accordingly the honour of Kildare is 
assigned to " William de Vescy and his parceners," he only being named, 
as husband of Sibyl's eldest coheir. William was dead 25 October 1253, 
when liis lands are to be taken into the king's hand. 5 His son and heir 
was John de Vescy, heir apparent also of Agnes, but dead s.p. in his 
mother's lifetime, leaving a widow Isabel. 4 Agnes had dower in England 
in the manors of Meauton' and Langeton' co. York, and Tuggehale in 
Northumberland. 5 She held lands in Dorset of the inheritance of the 
earls of Pembroke, 6 and was dead 10 June 1290, 7 by which date her son 
William is her heir and has done homage for her lands 18 June 1290. 
He was appointed justiciar of Ireland 12 September 1290, from which 

1 C. D. /., i, 2949, 3066. 3 Roberts ii, 181. 

2 Ibid., 3080. e & j). L, ii, 944. 

3 Roberts, ii, 174. 7 ibid., iii, 673, 691. 

4 C. D. 1., iv, 365. 

C 2 


office lie was removed by 4 June 1294.1 William was dead 26 July 1297 r 
and Isabel is to have her dower; it was assigned at Tugliales aforesaid.* 
"William had surrendered all his lands to the king before February 20, 
and had received in exchange a full pardon for all debts, 18 February 
12C6/7, ar.d by 22 June 1297 he bad had a regrant for the term of his 
life of the castle of Kildare etc.; 3 the lands being extended after his 
death. 1 These simple facts sufficiently refute the stories of William's 
declined duel and flight, invented to "explain" how the honour of 
Kildare came .to the Fitz Geralds in the person of John fitz-Thomas; 
the record of an assuredly queer business is that William was the plaintiff, 
and that John himself twice failed to appear. 6 This little discrepancy 
with record in the Kildare pedigree, udded to the serious doubt who- 
John fitz-Thomas really was, 6 and the borrowing for him from the 
Fitz-Mauricc-s of their great monkey legend, all suggest that much, 
remains unexplained; and such impressions are not removed by observing 
how speedily William's regrant of Kildare was followed, within a month 
or closely, by his death. In respect of his grandmother Margaret, 
William was a competitor for the crown of Scotland ; he left no issue 
surviving though he hael had a son John de Yescy, whose wife was 
Clemence, 7 who hael her dower at Sprowston. 
The representation of Agnes thus failed. 

(ii) Isabel the second daughter of Sibyl was at the time of the 
partition wife of Reynold 8 Mohun of Dunster ; they were both living at 
Michaelmas 1255, 9 anel it appears lleynold died in the following year. 
Isabel his widow had formerly been widow of Gilbert Basset ; she was 

1 C. l> ./., iii, 768; iv, pp. 120, 121. 

2 Ibid, iv, 426, 448, 839. 

3 Ibid., iv, 365, 373, 374, 375, 414, 415. 
* Ibid., 481. 

5 Ibid., 135, 137, 147, 

6 It is on divers grounds difficult to suppose that John fitz-Thomas (created earl 
of Kildare 14 May 1316, died 10 November following) was born at a date differing 
by much either May from 1255. That John fitz-Thomas who granted the church of 
Shanid &c. was apparently born about 1200 or so, and therefore cannot be this earl 
dying much over a century later. The earl, however, held Shanid it seems (cf. Orpen, 
Ireland under the Norinans, ii, 164), and if we are not to suppose "fitz-Thomas" 
a mere surname, it would appear necessary to assume a Thomas [? " h'tz-John"], 
possibly son of the first John fitz-Thomas (Fitz-Maurice) and father of the earl. 
There seems to be no trace, however, of this hypothetical Thomas, and it may safely 
be affirmed that the earl's father is yet to seek. Concerning his mother there is 
similarly no kind of evidence ; and it is thus impossible to conjecture even upon what 
grounds the honour of Kildare was granted to the future earl. That such grounds 
were either unknown or to be concealed, centuries ago, is sufficiently demonstrated by 
the invention of the " declined duel " story. 

7 C. D. L, iv, 365. 

8 C. D. /., ii, 5, 29, 184. This name is doubtless often rendered Eeginald, but there 
seems no reason to suppose that name was in general use prior to the nineteenth 
century, nor indeed to think it different in any respect from such a barbarism as 
" Gulielm " would be for William, or " Carol " for Charles. It must be conceded, 
however, that seventeenth -century examples of " Reginald" can be cited. 

9 C. D. /., ii, 471. 


herself dead 11 November 1260, l and by a "Wilts inquisition ta"ken 
at Mildenhall 19 February 1260/1 2 it was found that Isabel held 
that manor in free marriage of the gift of sir William de Ferrers her 
father with other lands of the dower of sir Gilbert Basset, and that her 
heir was her son William son of Reynold Mohun, and aged 6 years. 
The marriage of Isabel's heirs was assigned to William la Zouche for 
200 marks etc. 18 January 1261/2. 3 In respect of Isabel's Irish posses- 
sions William de Valence paid 30 per annum 4 24 October 1252 ; and 
when he was in arrears in the sum of 45, 18 October 1259, she is 
described as Isabel Basset, 5 suggesting by that name that Gilbert was 
her second husband. 

In the Irish calendar as abstracted there is a confusing error ; it 
names " Reginald and Isabel his wife, John their son and Joan his wife," 
under the date 8 May 1252; this Joan being the sister of Isabel, as 
presently, and married to the said John by 1248; and in respect of his 
said wife Joan, John was acting in the lifetime of Isabel, not his mother 
as the same record alone would indicate, when 25 January 1252/3 he 
surrenders for himself and Joan, as likewise Reynold surrenders for 
himself and Isabel, to William de Yalence and Joan, etc. 6 

William de Mohun, Isabel's heir, died at Ottery 25 August 1282 ; 7 
and Beatrix his wife is to have her dower assigned. His heir was his 
son Reynold, under 6 years of age, and by this inquisition it appears 
that the manor of Mildenhall was not held by the Marshal heirs in capite, 
but of the heirs of Lungespee, who held of the abbot of Glastonbury, 
who held of the King. 8 Reynold was still living 12 December 1284, 
when his age was returned as 7 years, 9 but dead the following year , for 
in Trinity Term 1285 the daughters and heirs of William are Eleanor, 
Mary, and Margaret; and on 14 June the custody of William's lands in 
Ireland is granted to William de Oddingseles. 10 Of these coheirs Eleanor 
the eldest married John Carew, and so passed Ottery to that family for a 
generation, but her son and heir Nicholas died s. p. in 1324; Ottery 
being passed to his younger brother of the half-blood John Carew, who 
married another Margaret Mohun, of Dunster. Mary the second coheir 
was wife of Sir John Meriet ; Margaret the youngest coheir died under 
age and without issue. 11 It is thus manifest that the representation of 
the blood of William de Mohun of Ottery, heir of Isabel the second 
daughter of Sibyl, must be confined to descendants of his daughter Mary 
(Meriet); she was born in 1282. 

I G. 1>. /., ii, 691. 6 Ibid., ii, 29, 140, 142. 

- Chan. Inq., 45 Henry III, No. 27. 7 Ibid., ii, 19G3, 2013, 2025. 

3 Roberts, ii, 365. 8 Wilts. Inq. Brit. Rec. Soc., i, 141. 

4 0. D. /., ii, 103, 139, 142, 145. 9 G. D, /., ii, 2324. 

5 Ibid., ii, 628. 10 Ibid ^ ^ 54> 86 . 

II In his instructive paper on "The Origin of the Carews" (Ancestor, v, 44) 
Mr. Round lias discussed the claim of sir Peter Carew to lands in Ireland, modestly 
-assessed as half the kingdom of Cork. 


(iii) Maud the third daughter of Sibyl was already called Matilda 
de Kyma, 28 June 1248. 1 But of which Kyme she was then widow has 
not been noted. Simon de Kyme was lately dead 28 August 1248, when 
his executors are to give security for his debts ; and 20 October following 
William the brother and heir of Simon has done homage for Simon's 
lands. 2 Of this first marriage Maud had no issue. 

Maud remarried William de Fortibus, otherwise William de Yivon, 
son and heir of Hugh de Vivon by a daughter of William Mallet. 3 This 
second husband was dead by May 1259, and Maud's quarentene is the 
manor of Shepton-Mallet, co. Somerset, his lands lying in Surrey, 
Somerset, and Dorset. 4 ISy 16 December 1261 her lands and goods are 
distrained because she has not surrendered the daughters and heirs of the 
said William, namely her own daughters, etc. 5 

Maiul was again married by Michaelmas 1272 to "Emeric " de 
Rochechouart; 6 and under date [25 November] 1274 "Matilda wife of 
Emeric " and " Matilda de Kyme " as abstracted appear different persons, 
though they are the same Maud. 7 She is dead 24 October 1299, her 
four daughters being her heirs. 8 They were all by the second husband 
William de Eortibus, namely : 

() Joan de Vivon, eldest daughter, who claimed her purparty in 
the profits of the county of Kildare 6 October 1302, and was still 
claiming it Tiinity term 1307. 9 Joan's marriage, if any, has not been, 

(1) Cecilia, wife of John Iteaucharnp of Holt, co. Wore., who haa 
licence 22 June 1301 to give all her tenements in Ireland, as well of 
her purparty as of those granted to her by Guy and Sibyl (next to 
follow), to Eobert Eeauchamp her son the King's " valettus " Io ; he how- 
ever was dead 10 June 1304 when the said lands are to be restored to 
Cicely. 11 To her descendants, in England at least, is confined the 
representation of her mother Maud, the third daughter of Sibyl ; but it 
is not unlikely that of Cicely's younger sisters the posterity may have 
been long continued. 

1 (J. D.I., i, 2940. 

2 Roberts, ii, 39, 43. 

3 See Roberts, i, 109; ii, 71. This William de Fortibus (married to Muu<i by 
26 August 1250, C. J). /., i, 3U80)is not to be confused with William de Fortibus 111,, 
earl of Albemarle, who died in 1256. 

4 Roberts, ii, 301. 

5 Ibid., ii, 365. 

6 C. D. J., ii, 935, etc. Roche. Chouart (Huute Vienne) in Poitou is 20 miles \\est 
of Limoges. Of the several Vicomtes Aymer contemporary wi'.h Maud's husband,, 
see Moreri. 

-> Ibid., ii, 1070. 

8 Ibid., iv, 580, 670, 816. 

9 Ibid., v, 129, 660. 

10 Ibid., iv, 816. 

11 Ibid., v, 315. 


(<?) Sybil, by 23 October 1299 was the wife of Guy deEochecbouart; 1 
they granted the lands of her purparty to Cecily her sister, as above. 

(d) A fourth daughter was already dead in her mother's lifetime, 
leaving an heir Aymer " de Archiaco," a minor at the death of Maud his 
grandmother, but of age by 31 October 1304, when he is to have seisin 
of his purparty. 3 

(iv) Sibyl the fourth daughter of Sibyl was wife of Frank de Bohun 

of Midhurst; they had married without licence, and 21 September 1247 

"William de Ferrers her father has terms for payment of 200, his fine 

for that transgression. 3 In the Irish calendars she appears by misprint 

or otherwise as Isabella, 10 February 1 254/5. 4 They were both living 

18 October 1259. 5 At Michaelmas 1257 Frank said he had no lands 

which had descended from the " earl marshal " in Ireland, nor in England 

any lands in exchange for such lands in Ireland; etc.; i.e. because 

Win. de Valence etc. paid to Frank and Sibyl 30 (per an.) in respect of 

Sibyl's poition. 6 Frank died 14 September 1273 ; 7 and Sibyl was dead 

3 March 1273/4 when John de Bohun her son and heir is to come to do 

homage for his lands on the king's return to England and John gives 

30 marks for his Irish lands, and 20 marks for his English lands, that he 

may not be obliged to go to the king at present for his seisin. 8 John 

has licence 10 June 1280 to sell his lands held of the king in. Ireland to 

John de Saunforcl ; but such licence had been enrolled the previous year. 

In Easter term 1277 Thomas de Eohun is named as a coheir in the rank 

of Sibyl, and would thus seem to be here either in error for John, or as 

John's attorney. 10 John died 28 September 1284, and 28 February 

1 284/5 Joan his widow, daughter and heir of Bartholomew de la Chapelle 

of Waltham, Lines., remaining in England has attorneys in Ireland. 11 

Joan is amerced, etc. 6 October 1292 12 and she survived till 1327-8. 

John's heir was John de Bohun of Midhurst, still a minor and in the 

king's custody Easter 1289 ; 13 he has only a falcon gentle or one mark of 

rent in Ireland. His lands in Sussex are to be extended for purposes 

of dower of his mother Joan ; he was still a minor 6 April 1295 ; and lie 

was apparently dead 7 April 1296, 14 his next brother James de Bohun 

was son and heir of their father and a minor; he proved his age at 

Michaelmas 1302 and is to have seisin. i 5 James also was dead 30 May 

1 C.D.I.,iv, 580. 

2 Ibid., v, 278, 363, 364. One Arcbiac is some 10 miles south of Cognac. 

3 Roberts, ii, 19. 9 Ibid., 1683. 

4 G.D. /., ii, 428. 10 Ibid., 1333. 

6 Ibid., ii, 628. ll Ibid., iii, 23, 25, 31. 

6 Ibid., ii, 557, 628, cf. 103. 12 Ibid., v. 500. 

7 New Complete Peerage, ii, 199. 13 Ihid., iii, 54, 480, 481. 

8 C. D.I., ii, 998. Dallaway (Arundel, p. 22) miscalls Jobn husband of Sibyl 
his mother. 

u Ibid., iv, 209, 293. Though John may have lived to attain bis majority, 2 June 
1296, he survived but little later. 
15 Ibid., v, 126, 137. 


1306 ; inquisition, and custody of his lands, etc. j 1 he had married Joan 
younger daughter and coheir of sir William de Braose of Bramher ; she is 
to have dower of all his lands 28 May 1307 ; 2 their son and heir was 
Sir John de Boliun of Midhurst, first baron hy writ (1363, etc.), born 
14 November 1301. 

(v) Eleanor the fifth daughter of Sibyl was wife of William de Yaux, 
(Vallibus) who had married her without licence, and was fined accord- 
ingly in the sum of 200 marks, July 1247. 3 He was dead by 9 May 
1251, 4 and 5 December 1252 Eleanor had no lands to be seized, and for 
80 marks balance of the said fine John his brother and heir has terms. 5 
Eleanor remarried Roger de Quency earl of Winchester, formerly husband 
of Maud widow of Anselm youngest brother of Sibyl mother of Eleanor, 
which Roger by Maud was father of Margaret second wife of William 
de Ferrers, and so stepmother of Eleanor. Roger had married Eleanor 
without licence, and fines 300 marks accordingly, but by the king's 
grace is quit on payment of five marks of gold (= 50 marks), Hilary term 
1 252/3. 6 Roger dying without male issue all his goods and chattels 
are to be seized etc. by reason of the debts in which he is bound to the 
king, etc., 5 July 1264 ; and 9 November following Eleanor is to have her 
dower in the manor of Stivinton, etc. 7 Eleanor soon after married 
third Roger de Leyburne ; he was dead 7 November 1271, and Eleanor 
countess of Winton is his widow, etc. 8 Eleanor is frequently called also 
Eleanor " de Vallibus " after Roger de Leyburne's death. She was still 
living in Michaelmas term 1274, but dead 25 November that year, and 
leaving no issue by any of her husbands her share in the honour of 
Kildare " descended to Matilda, Agatha, and Agnes " her sisters. 9 

(vi) Joan the sixth daughter of Sibyl was by 1248 the wife of John 
de Mohun, son of the aforesaid Reynold by his first wife " Hawys 
Fleming." 10 John was dead 10 February 1254/5. n William de Valence 
and Joan his wife had agreed to render to John and Joan 30 per annum 
for their interest in the manors of Ferns and Odogh, 24 October 1252. 12 
That payment was to be continued 18 October 1259 13 to Joan and her 
second husband sir Robert Aguillon, to whom she was remarried by 12 
November 1258. 14 Joan was still living 3 November 1267, but died 
about Michaelmas 1268 ; 15 and by 12 June 1269 Robert had remarried 
Margaret widow of Baldwin (de Redvers) earl of Devon and daughter 

1 C. 1). /., v, 530, 534, 649. 6 Roberts, ii, 149 : C. D. I., ii, 428, 471. 

2 Ibid., v, 654. 7 Roberts, ii, 410, 416 

3 Roberts, ii, 15. 8 Roberts ii, 553. 

4 C. D. I., i, 3132. 9 C. D. /., ii, 1043, 1070, 1096 ; 935. 
6 Roberts, ii, 146, 160. 

10 See Sir H. C. Maxwell Lyte, History of Dunster, for corrections of the Mohun 

11 C. D. /., i, 2919 ; ii, 428, 471. lie had died in Gascony. 

12 Ibid., ii, 103. u Ibid., 604, 831. 

13 Ibid., 628. 15 Ibid., 850, 851. 


of Thomas count of Savoy by Margaret of Foucigny.i By John de Mohun 
Joan had issue, John, who succeeded his grandfather Reynold, had 
livery in 1269 and died 1279 ; leaving issue a third John, who had livery 
in 1290, and summons to parliament in 1299. He was father of a fourth 
John, who died in 1322, father of a fifth John and of the aforementioned 
Margaret Mohun of Dunster, wife of John Carew. The fifth John, K.G., 
had only one daughter leaving issue ; her son was Richard Strange of 
Knockyn, whose granddaughter Joanna wife of George Stanley passed 
the representation of Joan Ferrers and John to her son Thomas Stanley 
second earl of Derby. Joan also left issue by her second husband 
Robert Aguillon. He was dead in Trinity term 1286, and James de Mohun 
his executor has sold all Robert's goods and chattels at the manor of 
Rerton in Ireland. 2 Joan was mother of Robert's heir Isabel, aged 28 in 
20 Ed. I, i.e. born circa 1263, and married by 1282 to Hugh first 
lord Bardolf by writ, which Isabel left issue of that marriage and died 
in 1323. 

(vii.) Agatha the seventh and youngest daughter of Sibyl was 
unmarried and in the king's custody in 1248. 3 She was "adjudged 
of full age " by 12 June 1250 when she is to have seisin, &c. ; but 
she is still in the king's custody 26 August and 4 February 1250/1, 
when Ralph Fitz-Nicholas is her guardian, as still t\vo years later in 
Hilary, 1 252/3. 4 Also in July 1253 Eudo la Zouche gives 150 marks 
to the king for the marriage of Agatha daughter of William earl Ferrers 
it' the said earl will consent. 5 She is still called Agatha Ferrers 
10 February 1254/5 6 , but by Michaelmas 1255 she was wife of 
Hugh Mortimer of Salop, 7 a younger son of Ralph Mortimer of "VVigmore 
and Gladys Dhu. Hugh and Agatha have a pardon etc., 26 October 1266 
in consideration of a horse they had sent to the king etc., at the siege of 
Kenilworth. 8 Hugh is living 4 July 1271 9 and Agatha survived till the 
year 1306. Henry Mortimer was her son and heir and aged 30+, 
12 June 1306. 10 Her younger son Hugh Mortimer had been her 
attorney in 1P00. 11 


It is fairly clear that Eve was the youngest born of the surviving 
daughters of William Marshal the elder and Isabel ; equally tbat she 

1 This Margaret the daughter is called countess of Kyburg (12 miles N.E. of 
Zurich) as widow of Hermann count of Kibourg, landgrave of Alsace. (Cf. Moreri 
sub Savoy e}. Margaret was widow of Baldwin, who died s.p. in 1262 (cf. Roberts, ii, 
284). According to Moreri Margaret was dead in 1283, and her younger sister 
4< Avoye" was the countess of Devon. 

2 C. D.I., iii, 245, 246. 7 Ibid., ii, 471, 641. 

3 Ibid.,i, 2949. 8 Roberts, ii, 447. 

4 Ibid., i, 3063, 3080 ; ii, 140. 9 C. D. I., v, 538. 

6 Egberts, ii, 166. 10 Ibid., ii, 888, 896, 904. 

6 C. D. /., ii, 428. Ibid., iv, 687, etc. 


bore the name of Derniot's daughter her maternal grandmother. In the 
partition of 9 May 1247 her representatives were to have for their 
portion the castle and town of Dunmas, now Dunamase in Queen's 
County, and it appears that the barony of Offaly (in King's County) 
twelve knights' fees, was also of her share. 1 This honour was the least 
valuable, and was brought up to the average by the inclusion of 
trimmings from the more important shares; though it is assigned as 
the burgh of Dunmas, in the subdivision of this honour the caput of 
Eve's baronium appears to have been the castle of Legh' (Lea, Queen's 
County). 2 The patent fact that this Dunamase share was the least 
considerable makes it difficult to doubt that it was the share of the last 
coheir; and thus greatly strengthens the proposition that the sequence 
of the daughters in V Ristoire is that of their marriages, not of their 
births. Eve herself was dead at the time of the partition, having died 
in 1246 ; she was buried under a stone effigy in the church of Aber- 
gavenny, still in good preservation, though her squirrel has long been 
broken away from her left hand. 

Eve's husband was William de Eraose, son of "Reginald" (for whose 
lands he had done homage 13 July 1228) 3 by his first wife Grace (de 
Briwere) ; he is the William who was hanged in 1230 by Llewellyn ap 
Jorwerth the father of his stepmother Gladys Dhu ; by most accounts 
because Llewellyn had taken William in adultery with his wife, but 
with which of his several wives is by no means clear. Assuming the 
adultery to be either a fact or a pretext however, William was not 
captured in the act, if we are to take as it stands one of the many 
accusations against Hubert de Burgh, namely that he had "betrayed" 
William to Llewellyn, . " by letters" according to Wendover, 4 such 
letters, if any, being far more probably one of the resourceful measures 
of that moralist Peter Bishop of Winchester, who did not shirk the 
publicity incident to his advancement of his own bastard Peter of 
Bivaulx. By Eve William left three daughters and heirs ; Maud, Eve, 
and Eleanor ; they were minors in the King's custody 12 November 1234. 5 
In divers pedigrees other daughters are assigned to William, but there is 
no precise evidence that they existed ; of these one frequently recurring 
is Isabel, called eldest daughter and wife of David ap Llewellyn ap 
Jorwerth, who was however doubtless the daughter of some other 
William. 6 Bridgeman found a fifth coheir, equally unknown to records. 

1 C. D. /., ii, 866, 867, 868, 970, 1039. 

2 Ibid., ii, 970. 

3 Roberts, i, 174. 

4 iii, 33; and Majora iii, 222 ; but " in adulterio deprehensus" ibid., 194. 
8 Roberts, i, 267. 

6 See generally Elwes, Genealogist, vol. iv, 1880, etc. Nevertheless Isabel, wife 
of David, is inferentially called daughter of this William (Majora iv, S85) namely, as 
entitled, according to the Welsh claim, against Humphrey de Bohun earl of Hereford 
(father of the husband' of Eleanor) "eo quod tertiam partem tertioe sororis David 
maritatae uon coucessit"; where if the contention were just, and Isabel also 
legitimate, one would expect to find "quartarn" not "tertiam," a detail the 


(i.) Maud the eldest daughter of Eve was married by May 1247 
to Roger Mortimer of "Wigmore ; and the burgh of Dunmas etc. is 
accordingly assigned in the partition to "Roger Mortimer and bis 
parceners." 1 This Roger was eldest brother of Hugh Mortimer, who 
sent the horse to Kenilworth as aforesaid, husband of Agatha Ferrers. 
In connexion with the bitter animosity shewn by the Mortimers to 
Simon de Montfort, there is a point which has not yet received any 
attention, much less solution. Among the brutalities after Evesham, 
the hands of the mutilated earl were sent to this Maud at Wigmore. 
That main fact seems to be true, however grossly overlaid with 
improbabilities of detail, not to mention metaphysical fantasies and 
absurd impossibilities. But we are to recognize that these savage and 
disgusting acts always had a definite meaning, and a "humorous 
appropriateness," to adopt the view then obtaining; as witness, sixty 
years later, the grossest of all such acts in the murder of the paederastic 
Edward II. The meaning conveyed by sending to Maud the hands of 
Simon may be unknown now, but it is absurd to doubt it was intelligible 
then not only to Maud herself, but probably also to those recording the 
circumstance; and since with the hands went other membra also, it is 
manifest that the meaning was in some aspect matrimonial. AVith this 
may be taken two other details, no less dubious in themselves than 
incongruous here. Simon de Montfort was accused, perhaps quite 
unjustly, of obtaining the king's sister in marriage by previous 
seduction. The Wellesborne "Montforts" are usually thought to 
have no basis for their claim to descend from a son of Simon, and 
those instruments by which Richard de Wellesborne, not de Montfort, 
calls himself son of earl Simon are perhaps properly deemed spurious. 
But if these claims are not wholly baseless, then it is perhaps not 
impossible that Richard was a son of Simon and of Maud deBraose; 
and that Maud, whether seduced or not, was abandoned by Simon that 
he might marry Eleanor. Without presuming to assert that these 
diverse beads may all be threaded on the same string, it is permissible 
to hope they may admit of better setting by those who can explain the 
virulent hostility of the Mortimers, and the unusual mutilation of the 
earl, and the point at which Maud in particular is drawn into the 

Roger Mortimer was dead about 27 August 1282, leaving with other 
issue Edmund Mortimer, born apparently about 1260, eldest surviving 
son and heir, who died 7 August 1304, leaving by Margaret Fiennes 
with other issue Roger his son and heir, then aged 17, who was created 
earl of March 9 November 1328, and hanged at Smithfield 29 November 
1330, leaving issue. Inquisition on the death of Maud 21 April 1301 

explanation whereof appears by no means clear. The castle oi liaverford and 
68/. 16*. Sd. of land in Ha\erford were assigned as the portion of ( ), the 

wife of D[avid] ap Llewellyn, formerly prince of North Wales. 
1 C.D.I., ii, 933, 970. 


found Edmund her son and heir and aged 30+ (viz. about 40) 1 and 
though she is therein called Maud de Mortimer, it appears she had 
remarried sir John de Brampton, by whom however she had no issue. 

(ii) Eve the second daughter of Eve was wife by 15 February 1247/8 
of William de Cantilupe, anglice Cantelow, 2 who died in September 1254. 
Their son and heir George, born 29 March 1252, had done his fealty 
1 May 1273, and died 18 October following. 3 By contract ratified 
1 September 1254 he had married Margaret de Lacy daughter of Edmund 
earl of Lincoln, 4 and leaving no issue his heirs were his two sisters. Of 
these the elder was yet again Eve, oftener Joan however, who had died 
in 1255, wife of Henry de Hastings who had died in 1268. In 1273 
their son and heir John de Hastings was coheir of George, and in right 
of his mother acquired the barony of Abergavenny. John was born 
6 May 1262, and was dead 28 February 1312/3 having married Isabel de 
Valence, by whom he had John, father of Lawrence earl of Pembroke as 
aforesaid. The younger sister of George was Milicent, who by 18 October 
1273 was wife of Eudo la Zouche ; 6 by whom she had a son and heir 
"William la Zouchc, who had done his homage as son and heir of 
Milicent de Montalt 18 March 1298/9, 6 by which date therefore 
Milicent was dead. Eudo his father was living 28 April 1279, but by 
25 May 1280 7 Milicent his widow had remarried John de Montalt, 
who was living 17 Ed. I. 8 Milicent's heir William was aged 22 in 
1298/9 ; he had summons to parliament in 1308, " creating " a barony, 
Zouche of Haryngworth, which fell into abeyance in 1625. 

(iii) Eleanor the third and youngest daughter of Eve was wife of 
Humphrey de Bohun son and heir while he lived of Humphrey earl of 
Hereford, and Essex, and brother of Maud the wife first of Anselm 
Marshal aforesaid and after of Roger earl of Winchester aforesaid. In 
right of Eleanor Humphrey the son acquired the lordship of Brecknock, 
and died at Beeston castle Cheshire 27 October 1265. By some accounts 
Humphrey is included among the slain atEvesham, 4 August preceding, 
and it is possible his death resulted from injuries there received. Eve 
had fined 800 marks for the custody and marriage of her daughter 
Eleanor, of which sum 650 marks was unpaid 30 January 1241/2 when 
the Earl of Hereford and Essex, Eleanor's father-in-law, has terms for 

1 Chan. Inq. 29 Ed. I, n. 53. Extent of her share, (J. 1). 2., ii, 2028. 

a One place named Chanteloup is in Manche (see Round, Calendar o/ Documents 
preserved in France}, and it appears, from the names of ecclesiastics in Moreri's 
Jtictionary, that there was a village so called somewhere in the diocese of Bordeaux. 

3 C\ D. /., ii, 956, 985, 987. 

4 New Complete Peerage, i, 23. 

5 C.D.I., ii, 1008. 

6 Ibid, iii, 54, iv, 599. 
''Ibid., ii, 1554, 1659. 

8 Helsby's Ormerod, i, 58. It is not unusual to see John de Montalt called first 
husband ot Milicent. 


the payment of that "balance. 1 Eleanor was dead 10 February 1254/5, 2 
and her son and heir Humphrey de Bohun succeeded his grandfather in 
1274 as earl of Hereford and Essex and Lord High Constable, and 
died 31 December 1298, The representation of this earl ultimately 
devolved upon his grandson, grandson also of Edward I, William de 
Bohun, created earl of Northampton 16 March 1336/7, whose son and 
heir Humphrey earl of Hereford and Essex and Northampton left two 
daughters and coheirs at his death in 1372. Of these the elder was 
Eleanor wife of Thomas duke of Gloucester, whose representation passed 
to her descendants the Staffords, earls of Stafford ; and Mary the younger 
was wife of Henry, son of John of Gaunt duke of Lancaster, who ascended 
the throne as Henry IY. Her eldest son was Henry V : her fourth son, 
Humphrey, created duke of Gloucester 16 May 1414, was at the same 
time created earl of Pembroke : this was the fourth, perhaps more 
accurately the fifth, creation to this chequered dignity. Though it has 
been revived on yet other five occasions, the later beneficiaries, while 
more or less remotely allied to Henry VIII, have not been recognized as 
among those by blood entitled to quarter the aims 3 of the illustrious 

1 Roberts, i, 367. 2 C. D. I., ii, 428. 

3 Party per pale or and vert a lion rampant gules. 




[Read 2G NOVEMHKK 1912] 

TN succeeding papers I Lope to give full abstracts of the inquisitions 
taken in 1333, after the murder of William de Burgh, Earl of 
Ulster, concerning the lands held by him at his death in Ulster, and in 
some outlying districts. Abstracts of the Inquisitions taken about the 
same time concerning his lands in Connacht have already been given in 
the pages of this Journal by Mr. H. T. Kuox, together with his comments 
thereon. 1 Mr. Knox, indeed, had procured from the Public Record 
Office, London, complete transcripts of all the De Burgh inquisitions 
touching Irish lands ; but not feeling able through ill-health to continue 
the work of editing them, he has handed over these transcripts to me, 
together with some useful notes thereon, and thus it has fallen to my lot 
to complete his work. 2 

These inquisitions were taken eighteen years after Edward and 
llobert Bruce had begun to deal a series of staggering blows to English 
power in Ireland, and at a time when the restraining arm of the earldom 
had recently waxed weak, and then altogether disappeared, so that in 
many places the picture presented by the inquisitions is one of the 
waste and ruin of what had been a promising civilization. To connect 
this picture with what had preceded it, and indeed to properly appreciate 
the import of many of its details, it is necessary to bear in mind the 
broad outline of the history of the province from the time of John 
de Courcy. Much of this history has never been written ; and much of 
it, even after such research as I have been able to make among the 
documents and sources, remains to me obscure. While recalling some of 
the main events of Ulster history, I shall here chiefly confine myself to 
noticing such ascertained facts as may help us to gauge the extent of 
English rule and influence from time to time. In particular, I shall note 
all changes of tenants in chief, the periods of time when Ulster was in 

1 See the volumes for 1902 and 1903. 

2 Though I freely acknowledge in general terms Mr. Knox's assistance, 1 have 
found it impossible to distribute "the suum cuique " in particular cases ; and I make 
no attempt to shift the responsibility for anything in these papers (except for the 
transcripts of the Inquisitions) to other shoulders than my own. 


the King's hand, andln general all important dealings with the land that 
have heen recorded, so as to lead up, as far as may be, to the state of 
affairs disclosed by the inquisitions. 

The orderly progress of the lordship of Eastern Ulster was much 
impeded by the conflict with the Crown in 1203-4, which ended in the 
banishment of John de Courcy and the creation of Hugh de Lacy as Earl 
of Ulster in his room. Another six years saw Hugh de Lacy in his turn 
retreating into exile before King John in person, and then for sixteen 
years Ulster was administered by seneschals for the Crown. At length, 
in 1226-7, after further fighting and much harrying of the land, Hugh 
de Lacy was once more restored. These violent changes did not conduce 
to economic progress, and yet in the space of apparently little more than a 
year, ending with this last restoration, 1 the considerable sum of 9 3G 4s. 4d. 
was received by the King's bailiff of Ulster, as appears by the following 
entry in the Close Roll : 

Keturn by inquisition taken by Geoffrey de Marisco, Justiciar of 
Ireland, of sums received there by Robert de Vallibus : 

From the bailiwick of Antrim, 300 3s. 1(W. 

From the bailiwick of Carrickfergus, excepting the vill, . 208 19*. 3d. 

From the vill of Carrickfergus, . . . . . 22 (h. 6^7. 

Froai the bailiwick del Art (the Ards), , 117 1*. $J. 
From the bailiwick of I3lathewic (ui Blaithmaic now the 

baronies of Lower Castlereagh and Lower Ards), . 135 10*. 

From the bailiwick of Ladcathel (Leth Cathail, Lecale), . 62 0*. 

Total, 936 4*. 4rf. 

It would seem that this account did not include Coleraiue and the 
Twescard (Tuaiscearf), or the northern part of the present county of 
Antrim. At this time the district appears to have been held directly 
of the Crown. Large tracts here had been granted by King John in 
1212 to Alan Earl of Galloway and his brother Thomas Earl of Athol, 
extending apparently along the whole north-eastern coast from the Glynns 
of Antrim to Lough Foyle, 2 and in 1210 John had already rewarded 
Duncan of Carrick, uncle of Alan and Thomas, for the capture of the 
unfortunate Maud de Braose, by a grant of Wulfrichford (the Ulfreks- 
fiordr of the Northmen, now the haven of Larne) and the land to the 
north, including Glenarm. 3 The grants to Alan and Duncan had been 
confirmed by Henry III, 4 and the seisins of these Scottish nobles were 

1 Robert de Vallibus came to Ireland with William Marshal, May 26, 1224 
(C.D.I., vol. i, No. 1193), was granted letters of protection on the King's service, 
presumably as bailiff or seneschal in Ulster, on April 13, 1225 (ibid., 1246), and was 
ordered to deliver the castles of Ulster to Walter de Lacy on June 25, 1226 (ibid., 

2 See Ireland under the Normans, vol. ii, 290-3 and authorities there referred to. 

3 Ibid., p. 267. 

4 In 1220 ; C. D. I., vol. i, No. 942. 


expressly reserved to them when Hugh de Lacy was restored. 1 Hugh, 
however, in company with Aedh O'Neill, had recently destroyed the 
castle of Coleraine, 2 erected by Thomas of Galloway in 1213, and had 
harried the lands of the Scottish lords, who evidently opposed his attempt 
to recover his fief by force. These lords were much impoverished in 
consequence, and were apprehensive of the results to them of Hugh's 
reinstatement. 3 In 1228 the castle of Coleraine was rebuilt, 4 presumably 
by Hugh de Lacy, and this seems to mark the resumption of the grant to 
Thomas of Galloway. Some temporary reconciliation may have been 
made with Alan, to whom Hugh gave one of his daughters in marriage, b 
but it seems probable that sooner or later Hugh recovered possession of 
all the lands granted to the Scottish lords. 6 Certainly when we next 
get clear information as to this northern district, shortly prior to the 
transfer of Ulster to Walter de Eurgh, it was in separate custody 
from the rest of the earldom, and the tenures of the Scottish nobles had 

But though the effective occupation of Ulster by the Normans was 
for many years confined to the present counties of Down and Antrim and 
parts of county Londonderry, the original grant or licence to John 
de Courcy included so much of the northern province as he could 
conquer. 7 Hence attempts were made, without permanent success, 
against Tirconnell and Tiro wen and parts of Irish Uriel, not only by 
John de Courcy, but also in 1212-3 by John de Gray, the King's 
justiciar. 8 After his restoration Hugh de Lacy appears to have remained 
on good terms with his former ally, Aedh O'Neill, up to the death of the 
latter in 1230. Disputes then arose between the families of O'jS'eill and 
MacLoughlin concerning the succession to the throne. In 1238 Hugh 
de Lacy and Maurice Fitz Gerald, now justiciar, interfered on behalf of 
Brian, son of Aedh O'Neill, dethroned Donnell MacLoughlin, and 
obtained the hostages of both the Cinel Connell and the Cinel Owen. 9 

1 C.D.I., vol. i, No. 1372. 

2 Ann. Ulst., 1222. 

3 C. D.I., vol. i, Xo. 1218, H73. 
^ Ann. Ulst., 1228. 

5 Matt. Paris. 

6 After Alan's death in 1234, Hugh de Lacy interfered in the succession to the 
Galloway fief, Matt. Paris. Chron. Maj., vol. iii, p. 64. In 1242 Patrick, son of 
Thomas, Earl of Athol, was murdered, and John By set and his uncle "Walter \vere 
outlawed in consequence, and fled to Ireland (Fordun's Chronicle}, where they 
obtained lands about Glenarm and in the parishes of Carncastle and Ardclinis and in 
Gary and Kathlin island. See extent C. D. I., vol. ii, No. 1500, and cf. Pipe Roll 
4 Edwd. 1, 36 Rep. D. K., p. 32. These lands would seem to have included some of 
those granted previously to Duncan of Carrick and Alan of Galloway. 

7 A un Johan Uluestere 
Si a force la peust conquere. 

Song of Dermot, 11. 2734-5. 

8 Ireland under the Normans, vol. ii, pp. 288-294. 

9 Ann. Loch Ce, 1238. 


Eventually in 1241 Donnell was killed by Brian O'Neill, who then 
remained undisputed king until his death in 1260. 

Hugh de Lacy assisted Richard de Burgh in the conquest of Connacht 
in the campaigns of 1230 and 1235, and had received as his reward the 
live northern cantreds of that province. Two of these cantreds he im- 
mediately granted to Maurice FitzGrerald, 2 and they formed the nucleus of 
the Geraldine Manor of Sligo. Hugh also granted Tirconnell and perhaps 
Fermanagh to Maurice. 3 This latter grant was probably the reward to 
Maurice for his participation in the expedition of 1238, when the hostages 
of Tirconnell as well as of Tiro wen were taken. From this time Maurice 
FitzGerald frequently appears fighting in Tirconnell. Thus in 1242, 
supported by Felirn O'Conor, he entered Tirconnell, and the chieftains of 
the Cinel Connell came into his house and gave him hostages. 4 These 
submissions seem for the time to have been real and not merely nominal. 
In July, 1244, Henry III invited the kings of Tirconnell and Tiro wen 
and the principal chiefs of Ulster and Uriel (as well as those of Connacht 
and Munster) to join him in an expedition against the Scots. As peace 
was made with Alexander, their services were not required; but they 
would not have been invited had it not been thought that they were 
prepared to come. 5 

Meantime, in 1242, Hugh de Lacy died, and his fief of Ulster reverted 
to the Crown. How precisely this happened is obscure. There is no 
doubt that Hugh left at least one daughter, Matilda, by his first wife, 
Leceline de Verdun. On her marriage (c. 1234) with David Fitz William, 
baron of Naas, Hugh gave her the castle of Caiiingford and all the land 
which he had with her mother in Cooley and Uriel, and in the county 
of Limerick, and all his land of Morgallion (the Manor of Jobber) in 
Meath. 6 Hugh's second wife, whom he probably married late in life, was 
Emmeline, daughter and eventual co-heiress of Walter de Ridelisford ; 
but it does not appear that he had issue by her. She was granted her 

1 Gormanston Register, f. 189. 

* Red Rook of the Earls of Kildare, H.M.C., 9th Rep., p. 266. The two cantreds 
were Carbury-Drumcliff and Luighne. 

3 Ibid., p. 266a. Maurice's granddaughter, Amabil, afterwards gave all her lands 
in Sligo, Tirconnell, and Fermanagh to John Fitz Thomas of Oifaly ; ibid., p. 267^. 

4 Ann. Loch Ce, 1242. 

5 C.D.I., vol. i, No. 2716. The northern chieftains were: Dovenald, King of 
Tirchunill (Tirconnell) ; Felim, son of the late King Oraly ((? Raghallaigh, O'Heilly) ; 
O'Hanlon (O'hAnluain) \ Brian O'Nel, King of Kinelun (O'Neill of Cinel Eoghain) ; 
O'Chatan (O'Cathain, Kane) ; O'Hynery (O'hlnneirg),e) ; Donald Mackadmel 
(MacCathmail, MacCawel) ; MacAnegus (MacAenghusu, McGuiness) ; MacKartan 
(HacArtain or MacCartain] ; MacGileamri (Mac Gilli Muire, MacGilmurry) ; 
O'Flen (O'Floinn], King of Turteii ; MacMathaven (MacMathghamain, MacMahon) ; 
and Mac O'Calmery (O'Gailmredhaigh, O'Gormley). 

6 Gormanston Register, f. 191 d. Matildala Lacy died c. 1280 ; C. D.I., vol. ii, 
Nos. 1571,1741. 

T T? c A T J v l UI Sixth Series. I 
Jour. R.S.A.I. | VoU xu , If Consec> Ser . ] 


dower out of Hugh's lands in Ireland, '* except the county of Ulster, 
which was to he retained in the king's hand." 1 She was given in re- 
marriage to Stephen Longespee, 2 and survived until 1276, when her heir 
to the lands coming from her father was her daughter hy Stephen, 3 then 
the wife of Maurice, son of Maurice FitzGerald. We do not know the 
precise terms on which Hugh de Lacy was restored to his lands. No 
actual grant appears to have been enrolled, but at the time of the carl's 
death the king refers to agreements made between him and the earl 
touching the earl's lands, 4 and the resumption by the Crown may have 
been in accordance with these agreements. At any rate the resumption 
does not seem to have been contested. 

It is true that it is stated in some late fourteenth-century annals, 
and has been long supposed, and is asserted even by writers of our own 
day, that Walter de Burgh succeeded to the lands of Ulster and the 
earldom in right of his wife, a daughter of Hugh de Lacy, 5 but contem- 
porary evidence is inconsistent with this title. Walter de Burgh obtained 
the county of Ulster under a grant from Prince Edward in exchange for 
Xilsheelan and other Munster lands. 6 This grant was made in or a 
little before 1264, when Walter is first called Earl of Ulster in the 
Irish Annals. 7 Indeed in the Chronicle of Henry of Marleburghe, under 
the year 1264, is the entry: Walterus de Burgh factus fuit comes 
Ultoniae. 8 Walter obtained seisin of his Connacht and Munster lands 
in 1250, after having given security that he would not marry without 
the king's licence. 9 At his death in 1271 his widow was Avelina, 
daughter of John Fitz Geoffrey, who was justiciar from 1245 to 1256. 10 
Richard, Walter's son and heir by Avelina, was nearly, if not quite, of 
age when he obtained seisin in January, 1280. 11 He was born then 
about 1259, and Walter must have married Avelina not later than 

1 C. I). I., vol. i, No. 2663. 

2 V. . /., vol. i, No. 2600. 

3 Ibid., vol. ii, No. 1249. 
* Ibid., vol. i, No. 2616. 

5 The statement appears first in the Laud MS. Annals, printed Chart., St. Mary's 
Abbey, Dublin, vol. ii, p. 315. It is virtually copied by Grace (c. 1537), and followed 
by Hanmer (ed. 1571), Bowling (ob. 1613), Ware (ed. 1705). Leland (1773), 
Gilbert (1865), Joyce (1893), D' Alton (1910), &c. 

6 Prince Edward's feoffment is mentioned C. D. J., vol. ii, No. 860. It was in 
exchange for the manor of Kilsilan (ibid., Nos. 1520, 1548), and probably for the 
villa of Kilfeakle and Clonmel, and the lands of Estremoy and Owney, which thus 
came into the king's hand and were granted by the king, along with Kilsilan, to 
Otho le Grandison in 1281 (ibid., 1847). Richard the Red Earl afterwards acquired 
Estremoy and Owney; C. 2). 1., vol. iii, 681 ; vol. v, 327. 

7 Ann. Loch Ct, 1264. C. D. I., vol. i, No. 2551 is misplaced. It should be 
dated 1269. The Royal Letter calendared, ibid., vol. ii, No. 860, is the king's reply. 

8 Collectanea Hiberniae, MS., T.C.D., E, 3, 10. 

9 Excerpta Fine Roll*. (Roberts), vol. ii, p. 78. 

)0 The clue to Avehna's parentage will be found in C. D. I., vol. iv, No. 638. 
11 Ibid., vol. ii, No. 1629. 


1258/9 and possibly some years earlier. A previous marriage, if any 
such can be supposed to have taken place, with a daughter of Hugh 
de Lacy cannot, therefore, have been the occasion of Walter's obtaining 
Ulster. 1 

From the time of Hugh de Lacy's death in 1242 Ulster was in the 
king's hand, and was administered by the king's seneschals up to 1254, 
when, with the rest of the royal demesnes in Ireland, it was granted 
by .him to his son Edward. Ulster was then administered by 
Prince Edward's seneschals for a further period of about ten years, 
until it was granted to Walter de Burgh as already stated. During 
this period some sporadic attempts were made to defend the English 
borders and to make the king's suzerainty over the northern chiefs a 
.reality. In 1245 Maurice FitzGerald erected the Castle of Sligo, and 
in the following years repeatedly invaded Tirconnell, took hostages, 
aud set up kings, but without any permanent result. In 1248 
John FitzGeoffrey, the justiciar, built a bridge across the Banu at 
'Coleraine, and erected a castle at Drumtarsy (no\v Killowen) on the 
western side of the bridge, and " since the power of the foreigners was 
over the Gael of Ireland," the Cinel Owen gave hostages to the justiciar. 
In 1252 Maurice FitzGerald, or perhaps his son, rebuilt the Castle of 
Caol-uisce on the Erne in Fermanagh, and John FitzGeoffrey, the 
justiciar, rebuilt the Castle of Moy Cova in Iveagh, County Down. 2 At 
the same time Brian O'Xeill once more submitted to the justiciar, and 
delivered his own brother as a hostage. 3 But this submission was no 
-more sincere than former ones. Next year Brian levelled the Castle of 
Moy Cova and other castles, and made a destructive raid into the plain 
of Down, when some undefended towns were burned, 4 and in 1257 
O'Donnell razed the Castle of Caol-uisce, burned the town of Sligo, and 

1 It is, however, quite possible that in the lifetime of the parents, when "NV alter 
was not more thau twelve years old, he was betrothed to a daughter of Hugh de Lacy, 
but for this there is no evidence. 

2 The precise sites of these castles are uncertain ; but I incline to tnink that the site 
of the Castle of Caol-uisce, originally built by Gilbert de Angulo in 1212 (Ireland 
under the Normans, vol. ii, p. 289), will be found somewhere near Belleek, while the 
Castle of Magh Cobha, originally erected before 1188, may be marked by the Crown 
Mount near Newry. I have recently visited this work, which is a typical Norman 
mote of the first class, and a castle here near Newry and the pass to Dundalk would 
seem to have been required from the first. In Ireland under the Normans, vol. ii, 
p. 1J7, I suggested that the mote of Dromore might represent this castle: but the 
Crown Mouni seems to suit the references at least as well, and the strategical require- 
ments better. See, too, English Historical Revitw, 1907, p. 442. The Annals of 
Luch Ce, 1252, seems to ascribe both castles to " Mac Muiris "; but cf. 6'. D. /., vol. ii, 
Nos. 32 and 124. Both O'Bonovan and Hennessy confuse this Caol-uisce with 
Narrow Water, Co. Down. 

3 Ann. Ulster, 1252. 

* Ann. Loch Ce, 1253: octis srtiid bhailedha do loscad. The Four Masters turn 
this into loixceter an Sraidbaile lets, meaning Dundalk ! They seeui to have been some 
^towns in Dufferin. See C. D. /., vol. ii, No. 411. 



in a fight, in which he was mortally woimded, routed a pursuing body 
of foreigners. 1 During all this disturbed time King Henry and his son. 
Edward were concerned with Gascony, with making provision in Ireland 
and elsewhere for the queen's foreign relatives, with Edward's marriage 
to Eleanor of Castile, with obtaining the crown of Sicily for Henry's 
younger son Edmund, with anything and everything rather than with 
the maintenance of good government in England, and at least the 
preservation of order in Ireland and Wales. 

In 1258, at a conference at Caol-uisce, .Brian O'Neill tried to form a 
confederacy of the Gael against the English under himself as ard-ri. 
But the attempt was only partially successful. Aedh 0' Conor, King of 
Connacht, i.e., of the five eastern cantreds, submitted to him, on 
condition apparently of getting Breffny to himself, 2 but it is clear that 
neither O'Brien nor O'Donnell submitted to O'Neill. If we are to believe 
the historiographer of Thomond, O'Brien actually claimed the position of 
ard-ri for himself. 3 The Cinel Connell were with good reason at this 
time specially embittered against the Cinel Owen, and their new chief,. 
Donnell Og, had just rejected O'Neill's demand for hostages with the 
retort that " every man should have his own world." In this retort the 
spirit of the clans found utterance a spirit incompatible with political 

The outcome of this conference appeared in 1260, when Brian O'Neill, 
" King of the Gael of Erin," supported by Aedh 0' Conor, advanced as 
far as Druim-derg, near Downpatriok, and there met with a signal defeat. 
Brian himself was killed, and his death is the subject of a remarkable 
contemporary dirge, 4 but, as the editor's notes make cLear, he had little 
title to be regarded as " king of the Gael." It would seem that he was 
not supported by the chieftains of Tirconnell, Fermanagh, or Irish Uriel, 
except O'Haulou, while the Irish of Uladh held aloof or opposed him. 
We learn, indeed, from the State Papers that the confederacy was 
defeated by local levies of the commonalty of the city and county of 
Down, apparently under the leadership of Sir Roger des Auters and the 

1 Ann. Loch Ce, 1257. The account in the Four Masters of a single coinhat 
between Maurice Fitz Gerald, " the justiciar," and O'Donnell is clearly apocryphal. 
Maurice, who had not been justiciar since 1245, died this year in the hahit of a monk 
at the Franciscan Friary at Youghal which he had founded (Clyn and Bowling). His 
ohit is entered before O'Donnell' s raid in the older Irish annals, and they make no 
mention of the single comhat. Maurice obtained seisin in 1216, and in 1257 must 
have been at least sixty-two years of age. He had given his lands in Sligo, 
Fermanagh, and Tirconnell, as well as his lands of Ofl'aly, to his son Maurice some 
time before his death. Red Book of the Earlsof Kildare, H. M. C., 9th Rep., p. 266. 

2 Ann. Loch Le, Ann. Ulster, 1258. 

3 See the account in the Caithreim Thoirdhealbhalgh quoted in Miscellany, Celtic 
Society, pp. 177-9. . 

4 The poem of Gilla Brighde Mac Conmidhe in the same Miscellany, pp. 146-172. 


Ifayorof that city. 1 These leaders were accordingly rewarded by grants 
-of land, lloger des Auters was provisionally given to farm " the land 
which belonged to O'Haugharn in the county of Culrath (Coleraine)," 2 
and Roger le Taillur, the Mayor, was provisionally granted the farm of 
the vill of Ardglas and some neighbouring vills. 3 But though O'Neill's 
attempt thus signally failed, the combination of the kings of Tirowen 
and Connacht was the most formidable native effort that the English in 
Ulster had to meet in the thirteenth century. 

The Irish Pipe Roll for the 45th year of Henry III (1260) has 
happily been preserved, and it contains two accounts concerning Ulster. 4 
'The first is the account of Nicholas de Dunheved, Knight, Prince 
Edward's seneschal. It appears that the farm of the seneschal ship of 
Ulster was let to him for 300 marks a year, so that there are no entries 
of the rents paid, but the account consists mainly of fines for defaults, 
trespasses, &c. Most of these concern Englishmen, but the following 
relate to the Irish : 

"Brian O'Neill owes 1000 cows for a trespass." This entry was 
carried forward from the previous roll, and the trespass must have been 
prior to Brian's raid to Down, when he met his death. " The same Erian 
owes 100 for an aid to the King for his war in Gascony." The King's 
expedition to Gascony took place in 1253-4, and for it he besought an 
aid from the magnates of Ireland. 5 O'Neill also owed " 3092 cows of 
a fine made with the Justiciar " perhaps for the raid into Ulidia in 
1253, when the castle of Moy Cova was destroyed and "400 cows arrears 
of rent." This was, perhaps, the rent for the year before his death, as 
later in the account there is an entry of " 3200 cows due for rent of 
Cinel Owen for several preceding years." "The Irish of Turtri owe 
200 " for the Gascon aid, and " 430 cows for a fine " ; and McGuinness, 
McCartan, MacDuilechan, and two others whose names are harder to 
identify, owed smaller numbers of cows for fines. Erom another entry 
in the account 3s. 4d. would appear to have been the equivalent of a 
cow. The entries against O'Neill were clearly " bad debts." 

The other account is that of Henry de Mandeville, custos of T wescard, 

1 C. D. I., vol. ii, No. 661. Clearly the feudal Lost was not summoned, and the 
statement which has appeared in our histories, that the justiciar, Stephen de Longespee, 
was present, is not supported by any early authority, and is inconsistent with the 

2 Ibid., No 677. This land appears to he the " villa Ohatheran " in the account of 
Henry de Mandeville, to be presently mentioned. In 1262 it was granted by 
Prince Edward under the form " Hochagerun" to Robert de Beumays, or Beaumes 
(de Bello Manso), C. D. I., vol. ii, Nos. 1782, 1976. It appears in the Ecclesiastical 
Taxation as " Hathrantone," in the inquisition of 1333 (apparently) as Harggdon, and 
is now the parish of Ballyaghran (Reeves, Eccl. Ant., p. 75). It would seem from 
this exceptional confiscation that no other Irishman of any importance dwelling among 
the English joined O'Neill. 

3 C.D.I., vol. ii, No. 678. 

4 See Facsimiles National MSS. of Ireland, Pt. ii, PL 73. 
6 C. D. I., vol. ii, pp. 46-7. 


for four terms ending November 1, 1262. Here the rents from the- 
following places are accounted for : 

Dundrif (perhaps Dundarave to the east of Bushmills), . . 2613 4' 

Dunsumery (Dwisobhairche, Dunseverick ?) including 87| crannocs 

of oatmeal sold for 5 16s. 8d. t . ' . 17 

And one mark of the old increase, . . . . 13 4 

Portkaman (now included in the parish of Dunluce to the west of 

Bushmills), 1 . . . . . . . 20 

Portros (Portrush, i.e. the parish of Ballywillm), . . . 40 

Land in Ohntheran's vill (now Ballyaghran parish. See above), . 3 0- 
The vill which is called La Pere (i.e. La Pierre, perhaps Bally- 

clogh, " the town of the stone or stones," in ihe parish of 

Dunluce), . . . . . . .400- 

Villa Ossandali (perhaps Mount SandalP near the Salmon Leap on 

theBann), . . . . . . 10 13 4 

Erthermoy (Airtlier maighe, parish of Armoy), . . . 20 

Ardbegan (part of the possessions of the Dominican Friary of 

Coleraine at the dissolution), . . . . 2 13 4 

Burgages of Coulrath (Cuil rathain Coleraine), . . . 23 8 

Villa Monasterii (probably the Church-lands formerly belonging 

to the monastery of Coleraine), 3 . . . .400 

Drumtarsy 4 (now Killowen, a suburb of Coleraine, west of the 

Bann), . 16 

Lochkel (Loughguile 5 ) with the demesnes thereof set to farm, . 64 11 4 
Increase thereof, . . . . . . 16 6 

From Henry de Mandeville for two carucates in Drumtarsy, . 200 
For 410 crannocs of the greater hundred measure of oatmeal of 

the issues of the mills of Twescard and of the mill of 

Ohatheran, ....... 147 

Issues of the fishery of the Bann, ..... 40 6 8 

Issues of the fishery of the Lynne (i.e. the Salmon Leap now 

called " the Cutts" near Coleraine), . . .168 

Land which Alan de Logan holds in Drumgenath and Drum- 

carbri, . . . ' . . 15 

Pleas and perquisites, . . . . . . 19 19 6 

Total, . . 464 9 4 

During Earl Walter's time there was peace in his Ulster lands. 
Aedh Buidhe O'Neill, who after a contest with his rival, Niall Culanach 
O'Neill, succeeded to the throne of Brian, seems to have been on friendly 

1 Reeves, JEccl. Ant., p. 7T. 

2 Mount Sandall was, I think, the site of the castle of Cill Santain or Cill San tail, 
erected by John De Courcy in 1197. See English Historical Review for 1907, p. 4^3. 

3 These Church-lands, which had become merged in the See of Armagh, had been 
occupied by the Anglo-Normans, but Hugh de Lacy in 1241 granted to Albert of 
Cologne, Archbishop of Armagh, the manor of Nobber in compensation for them. See 
Chartae Privilegia et Iinimmitates, pp. 24-40. 

* Where a castle M'as built, as above mentioned, in 1248. 

5 The early importance of this manor is evident. Compare the account of 
William fitz Warin, infra, p. 41. The ruins of Lisnnoure Castle and the earthwork* 
enclosing them probably mark the caput of the manor. 


terms with the new arl. In 1265 Earl Walter accompanied him on an 
expedition against O'Donnell, which, however, led to no important results. 
\ document dated Octoher 2nd, 1269, which hy a rare chance has 
survived, discloses the interesting fact that O'Neill's wife was a cousin 
of the earl. 1 It also shows the subordinate position of the king of the 
Cinel Owen, relative to the Earl of Ulster at this time. It indicates 
that the dehts of cows due from Brian O'Neill in the account already 
quoted were not exceptional, and prepares us for the position held by 
subsequent Ulster chieftains, as stated in the inquisition of 1333. This 
document is in Latin, arid the material parts are thus rendered: "53 
Henry III, Oct. 2nd, Antrim. Odo Onel Hex Kenlean (Aedh O'Neill, 
king of Cinel Eoghain) is bound to the nobleman, his lord "W. de Burgh, 
Earl of Ulster and lord of Connacht, in 3,500 cows to be paid as 
follows: . . , And he is bound to deliver to the said earl four 
hostages. . . If he cannot do this, then he is bound to return and 
revert to the said earl, and subject himself in all things to his person and 
will. And he has promised to bind himself under pain of excommunica- 
tion to keep Aleanor his wife, cousin of the said earl, 2 honourably and 
faithfully, furnishing her with necessaries ; and all her rights, as well in 
lands as goods, which are considered to belong to her according to the 
use and custom of his country, he will cause to be rendered to her. To 
keep this agreement he has sworn on holy relics (Saerosancta) to the 
earl. If he break the agreement the earl may drive him from his 
regality, which he is bound to hold of him (ab eo tenere debeo), and 
give or sell it to anyone else." 

Earl Walter died in 1271, when little more than forty years of age. 
His son and heir Richard, afterwards known as the "Red Earl," was 
then a minor about twelve years old, and once more we have an example 
of the evils attendant on a minority. It needed the strong hand of a 
resident lord to keep order in a great feudal fief, and a seneschal 
appointed by the king-, even if an upright man, lacked the necessary 
prestige and power. William FitzWarin, the new seneschal, appears to 
have been an upright man ; but before his arrival, Henry de Mandeville, 
a former seneschal, seized the bailiwick of Twescard, and is alleged to 
have been guilty of various extortionate, unjust, and violent proceedings. 
The facts are set forth as found by the jury on an inquisition taken 
before William FitzWarin, in December, 1272. 3 This was the beginning 

1 It is among the MSS. of Lord de L'Isle and Dudley, H.M.C., 3rd Rep., p. 231. 
In the same collection is a document which, though corrupt, appears to be a bond of 
al.out the same date from M. O'Flynn, king of Tuirtri, to assist Hugh Bissett to 
recover a cattle-spoil from Eachmarcach O'Kane, King of Keenaght. 

2 The relationship appears to have been as follows: Aedh married a "daughter of 
[Miles] McCostello" (Ann. Ulst. 1263, vol. ii, p. 337), and Miles McCostello's wife 
WHS "daughter of the Earl of Ulster," i.e., Hugh de Lacy (Ann. Loch Ce, 1253). 
Walter de Burgh's mother was Egidia, daughter of Walter de Lacy, Hugh's brother. 
Therefore Walter de Burgh and Eleanor McCostello were second cousins. 

3 C.D.T., vol. ii, No. 929. 


of a quarrel between the Mandevilles and William FitzWarin, which 
broke out at intervals during the next few years. In 1273, the mayor 
and commonalty of Carrickfergus report that O'Neill and O'Kane, 
invited by the Mandevilles and their friends, had raided the property of 
William FitzWarin and done much mischief, when they were driven to 
confusion by the seneschal and Hugh Byset. 1 It is instructive to note 
that several Irish chieftains take credit to themselves for having 
assisted the seneschal by pursuing and routing the king's Irish 
enemies. 2 

In the course of this quarrel it appears that Henry de Mandeville was 
slain. For his death William FitzWarin was prosecuted before the 
King and \vas acquitted. When Richard de Burgh, son and heir of 
Walter, was given seisin of his lands in 1280 he seems at first to have 
favoured the Mandevilles. He appointed Thomas de Mandeville as his 
seneschal; and at the instance of the sons of Henry de Mandeville he took 
into his hands all William FitzWarin's land in Ulster, 3 and seized and 
destroyed his chattels. Next year peace was made between Earl Richard 
and William, and Thomas de Mandeville was ordered to restore the 
chattels. This, however, was not done, and further outrages were com- 
mitted by the Mandeville party. In July, 1282, an inquisition was 
taken before John de Saunford, Escheator of Ireland, and in the finding 
of the jury the various acts of pillage and violence are set forth. The 
Escheator then formed a Court before which William FitzWarin pre- 
sented his complaint. The defendants answered that they could not 
plead without the earl, whose tenants both they and the plaintiff were. 
Ultimately it was arranged that the matter should be tried in the earl's 
court, and that only if right were denied him there should William 

1 C.D.I., ml ii, No. 952. 

Jbid., No. 953. These chieftains seem to have been N[iall Culanach] O'Neill, 
Aedh O'Neill's 7-ival, here called "Kins: of Yncheun " (Inishowen), MacDunlevy, 
'* King of the Irish of Ulster '' (Uladh), O'Flynn, King of Tuirtre, O'Hanlon, " king of 
Krgnllia " (Uriel). [He had killed MacMahon, King of Uriel this year, and may have 
assumed the kingship in his stead], MacGillamory, " chief of Anderken (Ui Dearca 
Chein], and MacArtain, "King of Onelich." In the inquisitions of 1333, MacArtain 
is called "King of the Irish of Ou\vagh" (Ui Eachach, Iveagh). Perhaps for 
"Onelich" we should read Ouelich, representing Abhalaiy,no\\ r Ouley, a townland 
near Rathfriland in Iveagh. 

3 From the inquisitions it appears that the principal lands in dispute were the 
wards of Gary and Munerie. The former, printed Cachery for Cathery (Cathrighe), 
was co-extensive with the parish of Culfeightrim, and the latter, disguised as 
"Mamym," " Maunmery," and, in the inquisition of 1333, <( Manybery," is now 
the parishes of Ramoan and Grange of Drumtullagh. See Reeves, Eccl. Ant,., p. 302. 
"NVilliam FitzWarin also held the land of "Lerges," probably Lerkes in Kinelarty 
(Eccl. Ant., p. 30), and some land of the Bishop of Connor at " Sallovere," novr the 
parish of Solar, and his castle, called Crosscarnawy, was perhaps Carncastle, near 
Ballygally Head. The pass of " Imberdoilan" mentioned is the Moiry pass on the 
old road from Newry to Dundalk. Edward Bruce fought his way through the pass of 
" Innvermullane," and rested at "Kilsagart " (Barbour) ; and see Grace's Annals, 


seek right before ticking. 1 We hear no more of the dispute, and may 
suppose that justice was done by the earl, 

In the absence of border-warfare or any more stiring events this 
quarrel between the Mandevilles and "William FitzWarin looms large in 
the records ; but the dispute was mainly confined to Twescard and the 
damage to the property of the disputants. 2 That Ulster generally did 
not suffer much would appear from the account of William FitzWarin 
for less than t'wo years ending January, 1276, 3 when he accounts for 
1.379 10*. 3i&, made up as follows : 

Rent of demesnes, burgages, mills, &c., of Carrickfergus manor, 

with pleas and perquisites, works of betaghs, &c., . . 176 7 4 

From demesnes, pastures, fisheries, &c., of the manors of Lochkel 

(Loughguile) and Culrath (Coleraine) in T wescard, . . 259 17 10 

Rent of demesnes, burgages, &c., of the manors of Portros (Port- 

rush), Portcoman (Bushmills), and Antrim, . . 178 9 10 

From the manor of Artken (Ardkeen, Upper Ards), with the 
fishery of Balimithegan (perhaps Ballymakeagan, in the parish 
of Comber: see Eccl. Ant., p. 16, note), . . 60 19 8 

From the manor cf Dun (Downpatrick), . . . 76 9 7 

From different Ulster counties, viz., Maulyn (Magli Linne}, 

Cracfergus, &c., . . . . . . 18 10 

From farm of Ulster, . . . . . . 608 16 0^ 

Here, though a large part of the earldom was apparently let to farm, 
we have the names of several manors. This account, however, does not 
include wardships and escheats, which are separately accounted for by 
John de Saunford, and amount to upwards of 170. 4 Moreover it must 
also be borne in mind that considerable portions of Ulster were held at 
this time in dower, and the issues thereof do not appear in this account. 
Emmeline de Lacy, Countess of Ulster, died in 1276, and by her death 
the important manor of Dundonald 5 came into the king's hand, as well as 
the castles of Antrim and Rath (Dundrum), and the sheriff doms of Down 
and Nova Yilla (Newtownards). 6 It seems that by some rearrangement, 
made perhaps when Earl Walter was enfeoffed, she was given her dower 
out of these castles and lands in Ulster, though, as we have seen, on 
Hugh de Lacy's death her dower was restricted to his other lands. 
Also, Avelina, widow of Earl Walter, was at first " unwisely endowed 
with five of his castles in the marches of Ulster, which (in 1272) were 
in a hostile state, and of almost all the homages of the hostile Irish of 

r l C. I). /., vol. ii, no. 1918. It is to be noted that in the king's writ William 
Fiz Warm's lands are said to be held of the king in capite, while the Maude villes 
plead that both he and they were tenants of the earl. There was therefore a question 
of tenure involved, in which the earl, no doubt, gained his point. 

2 36 Rep. J). X., p. 32, and C. I). /., vol. ii, No. 2130. 
{ ( s Ir. Pipe Roll, 9 Edw. I, 36 Rep. U. K. t p. 54. 

4 36 Rep. D. K., p. 32. 

5 Ibid. 

6 C. D. /., vol. ii, No. 2U73. 


Ulster." 1 A new arrangement appears to have been made, and Avelina 
was endowed with other lands, including the castle of Galway. a She 
seems to have died about 1280. This is one of many examples tending 
to show that the feudal law of dower was a great tax on the successor 
and a fertile source of military weakness. 

In 1283 Earl Richard married his cousin Margaret de Burgh, great- 
granddaughter of Hubert de Burgh Earl of Kent, and the dower-lands 
of Emmelina were given to him by the king for his wife's life. 3 At 
the same time Hugh de Lacy's former manor of Ratoath was granted 
by Queen Eleanor to the Earl in fee-tail special, and he was replaced 
in seisin of the former De Burgh property in Wethny (Owney, county 
Limerick). 4 The young earl was now evidently high in favour at 
the king's court. In the grant of Ratoath he is called "the queen's 
cousin.'* How this relationship was formed is obscure to me. His 
wife seems to have been the special object of the royal favour, and 
possibly the relationship was really with her, but I have been unable to 
trace it, 

In 1286 the Earl of Ulster led an army into Connacht, and the 
annalists state "he obtained sway in every place through which he 
passed and received the hostages of all Connacht; and he afterwards 
took witli him the army of Connacht and obtained the hostages of the 
Cinel Connell and the Cinel Owen, and he deposed Donnell son of 
Brian O'Neill and gave the sovereignty to Niall Culanach O'Neill on 
this occasion. In 1291 the earl again set up a king over the Cinel 
Owen, plundered Tirconnell, and obtained "deceptive hostages" from 
the men of Counacht. 

The earl at this time was the most powerful man in Ireland ; but he 
had a rival in John fitzThomas, head of the Geralelines of Offaly and 
afterwards first Earl of Kildare. This John by gift or descent had 
acquired most of the FitzGerald property in Connacht, and had also 
begun to interfere in the succession of the kings of Connacht in opposi- 
tion to the earl. 5 In 1293 he took prisoner Aedh son of Eoghan O'Conor, 
who ten days previously had been made king by the justiciar, William 
de Vescy. Aedh, who was soon released, in 1294 threw down the castle 
of Sligo, which had been rebuilt by FitzGerald the year before, and we 
may suspect that Aedh was the nominee of the earl as well as of the 
justiciar, and that both were supposed to have connived at the outrage 
on FitzGerald. However that may have been, it was in the December 
of this year that FitzGerald took the earl prisoner and detained him in 
the castle of Lea for thirteen weeks, until his liberation was effected by 
the Parliament at Kilkenny. " In consequence of the earl's caption," 

, .D. /., joK ii, No. 9-30. * C. 1). /., vol. ii, Nos. 2102-3. 


- 36 Rep. D. K., p. 63. s See Ann. Loch CL 1288. 

3 C. D. /., vol. ii, No. 


we are told, " all Erin was thrown into a state of disturbance." 1 By the 
intervention of the king a truce was arranged, and after many pre- 
liminaries the seals of the parties were put to an agreement in 1298, the 
short effect of which was that Sir John acknowledged his trespass, and 
rendered all his lands in Connacht, Ulster, and Uriel to the earl ; that 
these lands were to he valued and 120 lihrates thereof were to remain to 
the earl as amend for Sir John's trespass, and that for the lands beyond 
that amount the earl was to make an exchange to Sir John of lands of 
equal value in Leinster and Minister. 3 This arrangement, which gave 
the earl exclusive control in Connacht and Ulster, seems to have been 
eventually carried out. 

In 1296, or a little earlier, the earl gave his sister Egidia in marriage 
to James the Steward of Scotland, and granted them his castle of Roo, 
the borough and demesne belonging to the said castle, and all the service 
and rent of the lands of the English enfeoffed by the earl in le Kenauth 
(Keenaght) to the said castle of Roo belonging on the east side of the 
river of Roo, with the island near the castle and all the earl's land of 
Rennard (perhaps Keenaght ?), with all farms and feoffees as well within 
as without the borough. 3 This castle was at or near Limavady on the 
river Roe, 4 where the demesne is still called Roe Park. This grant and 
the reference to the place in the Inquisition of 1333 prove its early 
importance as an Anglo-Gorman centre. The following deed records the 
acquisition of some land, probably in Keenaght, by the earl : 6 Edw. [1] 
Dec. 1 [1278] Dermicius Ocaan Rex Eernecreue [Diarmaid O'Cathain 
King of Fir na Craibhe] surrenders to Richard Earl of Ulster and Lord 
of Connacht all the land of Glen Oconcahil, which he held of the earl 
immediately, to hold to the earl in fee. Dated apiul Govam Villam 
de Blawyc [ISTewtown Ards]. Witnesses : W. de Mandeville then 
Steward of Ulster, Thomas de jMandeville, Hugh Byset, William de A thy, 
and Walter de Say, Knights, Roger de Sancto Bosco, Matthew de 
Hanewode, and others. 5 

Earl Richard took part in Edward's war against Balliol, King of 
Scotland in 1296 6 ; and in August, 1297, he was summoned to join the 
King in his ill-timed expedition to Flanders, but it seems that the earl's 
conditions were too hard for the King to grant, and the earl did not 

1 Ann. Loch Ce, 1294. 

3 Justiciary Rolls, pp. 23 >-('. 

3 C.D.I., vol. iv, No. 3;i8. 

4 In the " Ecclesiastical Taxation," ibid., vol. v, p. 215, the church of Roo in the 
deanery of Bynr.agh has the high value of 20. Its identity with the parish church 
of St. Kynnicof Drumgossa (Drumachose) nppears in a grant from Nicholas Fleming, 
Archbishop of Armagh, to " Odo McThaig," printed hy Spelmann, Gloss. s.v.,Corbe, 
ed. 1687, p. 152 ; and see Reeves' Co/ton's Visitation, p. 39. 

3 From the MSS. of Lord de L'Isle and Dudley, H. M. C., 3rd Rep., p. 231. The 
name Glen Oconcahil appears to be lost, unless it be a blunder for Glenn Concadhain, 
now Glenconkeine, in the parish of JBallynascreen (!'). 

6 C.D.I., vol. iv, No. 276. 


go. 1 In 1301 he was again summoned to Scotland by the King, who 
besought his assistance in a remarkable letter; but it seems that again his 
terras were too hard and he did not go. 2 He went, however, in 1303, 
when lie is said to have made thirty-three knights before setting out, 
and when he seems to have got his own terms. 3 

In 1305 the earl obtained a grant of free chace in all his demesne lands 
of Torterye, Kenath, Kenalowen, Inchyoen, Menkeue, and Moccherne, in 
tlie earldom of Ulster, and in Oenye and Estermoy, in county Limerick.* 
The first four names represent Tuirtri, Keenaght, Cinel Owen, and 
Inishowen. " Menkeue " should probably be written Menkoue, i.e. 
Magli or maigliin Collia (Moy Cova), and " Moccherne " I take to repre- 
sent Mughdhorn, (Mourne) in county Down. Oenye, more usually 
written Otheny, and Estermoy represent Aes tri muighe and Uaitlme, now 
the baronies of Clanwilliam and Owney, county Limerick. 5 In considera- 
tion of his services in Scotland the king wiped out all the earl's debts 
at the Exchequer, and these are said to have exceeded ll,600. 6 

In 1305 the earl built the new castle of Inishowen. 7 This castle 
appears in the inquisition of 1333 as the castle of Northburgh. It was 
situated at the mouth of Lough Eoyle in the parish of Moville, and seems 
to have been identical with the Greencastle there. It was evidently 
built to maintain the overlordship of Tirconnell. 

The earl's children were married into the highest families of the 
three kingdoms. In 1302 his daughter Elizabeth was given in marriage 
to llobert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, and afterwards King of Scotland. 8 In 
1308 John de Burgh, his eldest son and heir apparent, was married to 
Elizabeth de Clare, daughter of Gilbert, late Earl of Gloucester, and 
through her mother, Joan of Acre, granddaughter of King Edward. 
Upon this marriage the earl enfeoffed his son and daughter-in-law with 
the manors of Antrim, Coleraine, Portrush, Portcaman (Bushmills), 
Drumtarsy, Dunsumery (Dunseverick), and Dundryff (Dundarave ? near 
Bushmills), the issues and profits of the river Bann and " del Lyn," and 
some other lands, rents, and profits in Twescard. Also with a number 

1 I). 0. L., vol. iv, Nos. 404, 452. 

2 In the Annals of Loch Ce, 1301, it is expressly stated that the earl did not go. 
For the King's letter see C. 1). 7., vol. iv, No. 849. This letter should be dated circa 
April, 1301, of. Nos. 785, 788, 799. It seems to he again referred to (out of place) in 
vol. v, No. 151, 2nd document, where the earl's exorbitant conditions are given in 
u memorandum and a list of the magnates who proposed to go. 

3 Ibid., vol. v, No. 488, and Laud MS. Annals, p. 331. The Earl of Ulster appears 
10 have heen the principal negotiator of the terms of peace on this occasion : Cal. Clo*e 
Jiolh, 29 Ed w. Ill, p. 169. 

*Cul. Charter Itolts, 1305, p. 53. 

5 Ahout this time the earl obtained the fee of Estremoy and Otheny; C.D.I.* 
vol. v, No. 327. 

6 Jbid., 340, and cf. p. 61. 

7 Ann. Loch Ce, 1305. 

8 Laud MS. Annals, " Chart. St. Mary's, Dub.," vol. ii, p. 331. 


of manors in Connacht and Minister. 1 Soon afterwards another tie was 
formed with the house of De Clare by the marriage of the earl's daughter 
Matilda with Gilbert de Clare, the young Earl of Gloucester, who after- 
wards fell in the battle of Bannockburn. 2 In 1312 the two great houses 
of the Geraldines were linked with that of De Burgh by the marriages 
of the earl's daughters Catherine and Joan; the former to Maurice 
titz Thomas, afterwards created Earl of Desmond, and the latter to 
Thomas, sou of John fitz Thomas of Oifaly, afterwards Earl of Kildare, 3 
thus sealing the reconciliation between these great Irish houses. 

In the time of Earl Richard, from 1286 to 1315, there was 
comparative peace both in Ulster (in the large sense of the term) and 
in Comment. The districts occupied by the English were no longer 
liable to the raids of Irish tribes ; and the only disturbance of any 
importance arose out of the imprisonment of the earl in 129*4. The 
families of the O'Donnells and O'Neills, and especially of the O'Conors, 
were at times torn by the contending factions of rival claimants to the 
respective thrones ; but even these disturbances were kept within the 
bounds of the several territories. There were no inter-provincial, not 
even any inter-tribal, wars. The earl during this period exercised a 
power never held by any one man in Ireland before, and he seems to 
have exercised it wisely and with moderation. The " Pax Normanuica " 
seemed at last to be extending over even the north and west of Ireland. 

In 1315, however, Edward Bruce, flushed with the victory of 
Bannockburn, swooped down upon Ireland and destroyed the fair 
prospect. It seems that he was offered the crown of Ireland by Donnel 
O'Neill king of the Cinel Owen, 4 and he was no doubt actuated by the 
fact that the English kings had drawn from Ireland much of their supplies 
of provisions and men for the Scottish war. I do not propose to describe 
here the campaigns of 1315-18, the main facts of which are well known. 
Bruce' s attempt indeed proved a complete failure, but it did incalculable 
damage to the cause of peace and prosperity in Ireland, and has rightly 
been regarded as the turning-point of English influence. Bruce was 

1 Gal. Close Rolls, 26 Edward ill, p. 442. The Cormacht manors were Brown- 
rath (id Briuin Ratha), Strothir (Sruthair, Shrule), Kilcolgyn (Kilcolgan), Glancoskery 
(Clann Coxcraigh, somewhere east of Lough Corrib), Kynaleth (which Mr. Knox 
takes for Cinel Fathaidh', but, seeing that th often stands for eh, it would seem to repre- 
sent Cinel t'heichw better), and Lomesque (Lough Mask). Mr. Knox, when editing 
the I)e Burgh Inquisitions touching Connacht, noticed that these territories, along 
with others, were omitted, and supposed that they were held by knight-service only. 
(See Journal, 1902, pp. 136, 400, 401). He now asks me to point out that the above 
fees do not appear in the Connauyht Inquisitions because they were then in the hands 
of Elizabeth de Burgh, widow of John de Burgh. See Pipe Roll, 2 Edward III, 
43rd Kep. D. K., pp. 22, 24. 

2 Laud MS. Annals, ubi supra, p. 338. 

3 Hid., p. 341. For these marriages see, too, Clyrfs Annals, p. 18. 

4 See the " Complaint of the Nobles of Ireland to Pope John XXII " (from the 
Scotichionicon of J. JFordun), translated in King's History of Ireland, vol. iii, appendix 
No. xix. 


badly supported by the Irish, who simply took the opportunity of the 
prevailing anarchy to endeavour each to regain his own little world and 
plunder whom he could. When Edward Bruce met his fate at Faughard, 
the Irish annalist describes him as ll the destroyer of all Eiin in general, 
both Foreigners and Gael," and gives the contemporary Irish view of his 
ultimate defeat and death by exclaiming that " no better deed for the 
men of all Erin was performed since the beginning of the world, since 
the Fomorian race was expelled from Erin, than this deed ; for theft 
and famine and destruction of men occurred throughout Erin during his 
time for the space of three years and a half, and people used actually 
to eat one another throughout Erin." Ulster in particular, the head- 
quarters of Bruce's army, was utterly devastated and denuded of food 
and underwent all the horrors of acute famine. 

Great as was the destruction wrought by Bruce's invasion, its immediate 
effects in Ulster were economical rather than political. As long as Earl 
Richard lived no great change resulted except a general impoverishment. 
The earl died in 1326, and from about this time we may note an increas- 
ing spirit of turbulence among the English settlers, especially inLeinster, 
over which there was no strong lord ; and this spirit of turbulence soon 
spread to Connacht and Ulster, and gave the Irish clans an opportunity 
of which they were not slow to avail themselves. Earl Richard's heir 
was his grandson William, then in his sixteenth year. In 1328, while 
still under age, he was knighted by the king and given seisin of his lands. 
The earl's authority, in Connacht at any rate, was exercised by his 
uncle Edmoiid and his relative Walter son of William (Liath) de Burgh. 
In 1331 these two rulers came to blows. Walter's high-handed pro- 
ceedings in Connacht were not approved of by the earl and his uncle; 
and it is said by an Irish annalist that he was trying to seize the throne 
of Connacht for himself. However this may have been, Edmond took 
him prisoner, and he was starved to death in Northburgh Castle 
(1332). This was followed by the murder of Earl William on June 6th, 
1333. He was killed near Carrickfergus by John de Logan and some of 
the Mandevilles at the instigation, it was said, of Gyle de Burgh, wife 
of Richard de Mandeville, in revenge for her brother Walter. This 
murder marks the beginning of the break-up of the great earldom, and 
of the extinguishment of direct English influence over a large part of 

To f Me p. 47.] 

(Irish territories unshaded) 

47 ) 


15 Y W. F. BUTLER 
[Read 26 NOVKMBEU, 1912.] 

TGVEtt since the reign of Elizabeth the general history of Ireland has 
been closely bound up with the question of the ownership of the soil. 
All the political upheavals of the last three centuries have originated 
either from the land question or from the religious one often from both 
inextricably mixed. And both questions, it is admitted, take their rise 
in the Tudor days. 

Yet, curiously enough, the exact facts of what took place under 
Elizabeth and under the first Stuart king, have scarcely ever, if at all, 
T^een studied in any serious scientific manner by any writer in English. 
"Whatever their political leanings, practically all accept without question 
the statement so often put forward, that the root of all agrarian troubles 
in Ireland is to be found in the fact that, under the Tudors, the lands, 
previously the common property of the clansmen, were granted to 
the chiefs to win them over to the side of the Crown. Thus, say they, 
the mass of the people were reduced from the condition of landowners to 
that of tenants, and from this primary injustice flowed and still flows a 
whole train of evil consequences. 

The history of the land settlement aimed at and partially arrived at 
under Elizabeth and James I has at last been studied fully and dis- 
passionately by the Munich Professor Dr. Bonn. The two volumes of 
liis English Colonization in Ireland form the only history of the political 
and economic conditions of the island that I have ever seen based on a 
careful study of first-hand authorities and unbiased by political or 
religious feelings. He brings German thoroughness and the German 
scientific method to bear on a difficult problem, and he views his subject 
from a detached standpoint almost impossible to be reached by the native 
or the English writer. 1 

1 In some matters of detail Dr. Bonn's views seem to me to contradict our evidence. 
Iti Minister, at any rate, as I Lave shown in a previous article in this Journal, the limits 
of each clan or sept were accurately defined and recognized by their neighbours. And 
even in Ulster, it can be shown that there was far more cultivation of the land than 
Dr. Bonn admits. Sometimes, too, he places too much reliance on statements by 
Sir John Davies or by Petty. 


Among tlie most instructive portions of his work are the chapters 
dealing with the subject I propose to treat of. I may remark in passing 
that the greater part of this article was written before I had seen or 
heard of Dr. Bonn's work. The careful study of his two volumes shows 
me that, working independently, we had arrived at practically the same 
results. I have benefited by his industry and by the clearness of his 
exposition ; but the points are few indeed on which our conclusions as 
to this question differ to any appreciable extent. 

To start with, then, my conclusions and Dr. Eonn's, though he does 
not state them in so many words, are that it must be laid down that the 
view usually held the view, namely, that the land was taken from the 
people and given as a bribe to the chiefs is absolutely wrong. This is, 
of course, speaking generally. The Irish chiefs " grabbed " the clan 
lands, whenever they could i.e., whenever the Crown permitted. The 
Crown did permit, or encourage, or propose this in many cases. Dr. Bonn 
has a whole chapter on this and on the reasons guiding the Crown. 1 
This bestowal of the land on the chiefs to the exclusion of the clansmen 
happened notably in Ulster : and since that province plays the chief part 
in Irish affairs in the days of Elizabeth, and since the " Plantation of 
Ulster " was there the outcome of the grants of the clan lands to the 
chiefs, attention has been fixed on what took place there, to the exclusion 
of all consideration of what was the course followed in the rest of 

To show what really happened it will be necessary to consider the 
events previous to the reign of Henry VIII, which rendered some 
settlement of the tenure of land in Ireland imperative, the efforts that 
sovereign made to effect a settlement, the methods pursued by Elizabeth, 
and finally the continuation of her work under James I, witli the 
modifications introduced into it by the greed of that monarch and his 

When Henry VIII, after the suppression of the rebellion of Silken 
Thomas, turned his attention to the task of subduing the sixty or more 
Celtic clans and the thirty great lords of the noble English folk, who 
between them shared nearly the whole island, he found a state of things 
in existence without parallel in Europe. Almost throughout the whole 
island there was a complete divorce between the actual occupancy of the 
land, and the legal ownership of it. To explain how this state of things 
originated, it will be needful to give a short sketch of the dealings of the 
early Anglo-Norman colonists with the land. 

By the Treaty of Windsor in 1 175, Roderic O'Conor ceded to Henry II 
the two provinces of Meath and Leinster, and in return was recognized 
as sovereign over the remainder of the island, paying a yearly tribute to 
Henry. But this treaty was looked on as non-existent almost as soon as 

1 Vol. i, Bk. ii, chap. iii. 


it was made; and we" find Henry acting on the theory that the whole 
country belonged to him, and might he granted away to his harons, with- 
out any regard to the rights of the natives. The Irish were held to he 
outside the pale of the law, 1 and in short the maxim was introduced that 
no native was capable of holding land except as a tenant at will. 2 

But in the very lifetime of the first invaders, it was recognized that 
the attempt at a complete conquest of Ireland had failed. 3 Sir John 
Davies, writing in the seventeenth century, attributes this failure, and 
with truth, to the excessive grants made to the first colonists. Accord- 
ing to him, all Ireland was parcelled out between ten great grantees, so 
that there was nothing at all left to be given to the natives or to subse- 
quent settlers, and the territories granted to one man were so extensive 
that it was scarcely possible for him to subdue them thoroughly, or hold 
them if subdued. The settlers contented themselves with occupying 
the level and more fertile districts, leaving the woods and mountains to 
the natives, who maintained a precarious independence there until some 
turn of fortune might enable them to regain their hold of their former 
possessions. t 

There are exaggerations in Sir John Davies' statements. It seems 
certain that there were more than ten tenants in chief in Ireland; but in 
the main what he says is accurate. A short review of what happened in 
each province will show how each stood at the opening of the reign of 
Henry VIII. 

Leaving the first grant, Leinster, for the end, we will begin with 
Meath. This province, comprising the present counties of Heath, West- 
meath, Longford, and part of King's County, was given as a county 
Palatine to Hugh de Lacy, and parcelled out by him among a large number 
of Norman and English soldiers of fortune, Plunketts, Dillons, and others. 
They subdued the greater part of the country very completely, expelling 
the natives or reducing them to serfdom, and covering the district with 
castles and small towns which were able to defy all the attacks of the 
Irish. 4 

De Lacy's lordship passed, by the marriage of his great-grand- 
daughters, into the families of De Yerdon and De Genneville. 5 The 
eastern portion, the lordship of Trim, ultimately came to the Mortimers, 
Earls of March, and so to the Crown, in the person of Edward IV. 

1 " So as it was no capital offence to kill them." Sir John Davies, Discovery why 
Ireland was never entirely subdued. 

- Or rather, as Dr. Bonn puts it, the legal position of all Irishmen (except the 
"five bloods," -who had the benefit of English law) was that of the English villein, 
only the Irish villein had still fewer rights than his English prototype. Der Ire war 
Sache nicht mehr, vol. i, p. 129. 

3 Giraldus Cambrensis, Exp. Hib., lib. ii, cap. xxxiv. 

4 See the "Song of Dermot and the Earl," and Mr. Orpen's Ireland under the 
Normans, for details of the distribution of land in Meath. 

5 -Article on the De Verdons of Louth, Jour. Roy. Soc. Ant. Ir., vol. v, 5th series. 

T c A T J Vol. in, Sixth Series. i 
Jour. R.S.A.I.j Vol XL Consec> Ser< | 


De Lacy's vassals, Plunketts, Petits, and others, thus became tenants in 
chief of the Crown. This territory formed the chief portion of the Pale, 
the district within which the authority of England was acknowledged 
during the fifteenth century, and here almost alone in Ireland the actual 
occupiers of the land were its legal owners. The De Verdon portion, 
however, passed through females into various English families who never 
came over to Ireland. Thereupon the Irish, O'Melaghlins, O'Ferralls, 
and others, recovered a great portion of the district, the rest being in the 
hands of Dillons, Nugents, and other descendants of the original 
grantees of De Lacy, who paid little or no regard to the rights of their 
nominal overlords. Thus, though the original title of these Norman 
families was sound, it might be easy to prove against them that in many 
cases they had neglected to render the services due from them to their 

At the time of the English invasion the old kingdom of Ulster had 
long ceased to exist. The counties of Louth, Armagh, Monaghau, and 
Fermanagh formed the kingdom of the Oirghialla , whose ruling family 
had taken the surname of 0' Carroll. The northern Hy Mall, descendants 
of Connall Gulban and Eoghan, sons of^Niall of the Nine Hostages, held 
the present counties of Donegal, Tyrone, and Derry, along with a small 
district in Connacht, round Sligo. The chieftainship in the twelfth 
century was chiefly held by the families of MacLoughlin and O'Muldory, 
who soon, however, seem to have died out, and in their place appear the 
O'Neills as head of the posterity of Owen, and the O'Donnells, chiefs 
of the race of Connall Gulban. The descendants of the old inonarchs of 
all Ulster were confined to the district east of the Bann , the modern Down 
and Antrim. Their chiefs were of the family of Mac Dunslevy, or, as it 
seems sometimes to have been called, O'Eochy. 

The whole province was granted to John DeCourcy, who, however, 
found the conquest of his new territories no easy task. Aided by the 
ships of his father-in-law, the King of Man, he was able to colonize the 
eastern coast-line from Dundalk northwards. The O'Carrolls and 
MacDunslevys disappear from view during this struggle, almost the 
only case of the destruction of an Irish clan in its contest with a 
Norman baron. But DeCourcy made no real progress towards a 
conquest of the interior of the country. The Hy Niall were from time 
to time forced to give hostages and promise a tribute of cattle ; but 
west of the Bann and north of Armagh the colonists made no permanent 

DeCourcy got into trouble with King John, was expelled from 
Ireland, and his lordship was given to a son of DeLacy of Meath. This 
De Lacy had an only daughter who married Richard de Burgo, lord of 
Connaught, and so two whole provinces came, nominally at least, into 
the possession of one family. 

William de Burgo, a near relative of the famous Hubert de Burgh, 


liad received a grant of the whole or part of Connacht 1 from John in 
the lifetime of Richard I. 

No progress was made with the conquest, and the O'Conors were 
more than once recognized by the King of England as lords tinder him 
of the province. After much warfare and confusion Henry III made a 
new grant in 1228, giving twenty-five cantreds to William's son Richard, 
and reserving five cantreds which comprised most of Roscommon and 
some of Sligo. During the thirteenth century the invaders, taking 
advantage of the savage internecine warfare between the different 
branches of the O'Conors, spread over a large portion of the province. 
The five cantreds reserved by the king were at first left to ths O'Conors, 
-then grants were made to various settlers, and these were alternately 
revoked and renewed in a most puzzling way, the net result being that 
the O'Conors and the clans under them remained in possession of the greater 
part of the five cantreds, but without any clear legal title. 

In De Bui-go's portion of the province the settlers spread over the 
greater part of Galway, Mayo, and Sligo, but, as, usual, left the moun- 
tainous districts unsettled. Leitrim and Cavan had formed a sub-kingdom 
of Connacht, called Breffny. At the time of the invasion O'Rourke of 
Breffny had also acquired the kingdom of Meath. Breffny was, there- 
fore, included in De Lacy's grant. We find one of the De Verdons calling 
himself lord of Breffny, 2 but no permanent settlement was effected. 

As the conquest of Connacht was made at a later date than that of 
-the other provinces, the majority of the invaders had already acquired 
lands in other parts of the island. Thus the FitzGeralds, the Butlers, and 
the Barrys, who received great tracts of country from De Burgo, were 
already established in other districts, and neglected their new estates. 
The invaders overran the greater part of the province, but the actual 
settlers were few in number, and in many cases the grantees left the 
Irish in possession in return for a rent. 

Thus the settlement already contained germs of weakness. The 
fusion between the two races began in Connacht earlier than in other 
parts, and the descendants of the invaders took the first steps on the road 
that led to their becoming "more Irish than the Irish themselves." 

The power of the De Burgos, created Earls of Ulster in 1264, reached 
its height under the "Red Earl." Even the O'Neills in Ulster were 
forced to pay him tribute and give him hostages. But in his lifetime 

1 See for details as to settlement of Connacht Kuox's History of the County 
Mayo (Dublin, 1908), also Orpen. 

a Article on De Verdons, before cited. In the seventeenth century a certain 
Richard PI unkett claimed Cavan. (Col. State Papers, 1608-10, p. 221.) 

Western Breffny, the modern Leitrim, was given to one of the Nangles whose 
attempt to conquer it failed. (Knox, p. 314.) Lord Gormanstowu claimed part of 
the county as heir to Nangle in 1592. (CaL State Papers, p. 590.) In G<U. S ate Papers, 
1621, p. 334, the claims of Lord Gonnanstown and of Mr. J. Rouhford to part of 
Leitrim are again referred to. The Earls of Kildare claimed the northern part. 
State Papers, 1591, p. 406.) 



came the invasion of Edward Bruce, called in by the Irish in Ulster* 
Though Bruce failed, the English colony suffered irreparable injury. 
The settlers were almost entirely cleared out of Ulster, and in Connacht 
a multitude of small towns and castles were destroyed. 1 

Fifteen years later William, third Earl of Ulster, was murdered ; and 
his inheritance passed to his infant daughter, who was brought to 
England and married Lionel Duke of Clarence. From him the lordship 
of Ulster and Connacht passed to the Mortimers, and so ultimately to 
the House of York, and, on the accession of Edward IV, to the Crown. 

But in the meantime all Ulster and Connacht were lost to the 
English. The O'Neills, crossing the Bann, seized on the greater part of 
Down and Antrim. The remnants of the clans of Orghialla and Ulidia, 
Mac Gennis of Iveagh, Maguire in Feimanagh, MacMahon in Monaghan, 
O'Hunlon in Armagh, acknowledged O'Neill as their overlord. A few 
settlers, Savages, Whites, and Bissetts, maintained a precarious hold on 
the coast-line. Caiiingford and Dundalk became the frontier towns of 
the English settlements. 

So, by the opening of the sixteenth century, we find three great Irish 
lordships covering nearly all Ulster. O'Donnell held Donegal, O'Neill 
ruled Tyrone, Derry, Fermanagh, Armagh, Monaghan, and Cavan; 2 
O'Neill, of Clundeboy, an offshoot from the main stock, ruled the greater 
part of Down and Antrim. But they ruled by the sword in defiance of 
English law. A statute, passed in the reign of Henry VI, provided that 
no length of possession could give an Irishman a legal title to land, and 
in the eyes of the lawyers all Ulster was the property of the Crown. 3 

In Connacht matters went differently. Two collaterals of the house 
of De Burgo, or Burke, as the Irish called the name, seized on as much 
of the province as had been p eminently colonized. 4 In time they 
adopted Irish dress, speech, and customs. One, master of the lands in 
what is now Galway, took the name of MacWilliam Uachtar ; the other, 
lord of Mayo, become MacWilliam lochtar. 5 From Norman lords they 
became Celtic chiefs, ruling in accordance with the Brehonlaws, as heads 
of a clan formed of their kinsmen and followers. The lesser Norman 
families followed their example. The Nangles became MacCostelloes,. 
the Barretts MacWattins, the D'Exeters MacJordans. 

In the general confusion the Irish recovered a great part of the 
province. A section of the O'Conors became masters of what is now 
the county of Sligo ; the main branch of the clan ruled the greater part 

1 List of these in Annals of Loch Ce, 1315. Also a list of towns said in the 
sixteenth century to have once existed in Mayo is quoted by Knox, p. 108. 

2 The O'Donnells laid claim to, and sometimes exercised supremacy over, Fer- 
managh and parts of Leitrim, Sligo, &c. See Irish Annals, also Cul. State Tapers r 
1607, p. 365. i 

3 Cited in'jour. of Kil.Arch. Soc., vol. i. 

4 Knox gives the best account of these Connacht transactions. 

5 The Rearer and the Farther M* William. 


of Roscommon ; the 0*Kellys and the O'Maddens on the east, the 
O'Flahertys and O'Malleys on the west recovered their freedom. 1 

Thus, by the sixteenth century, one half of Connacht was in the 
hands of Irish clans, whose title was not recognized by English law. 
The "degenerate" Anglo-Norman families who held the other half 
were legally in no better position. The ownership of Connacht was 
vested in the Crown, and only those landowners who could show a grant 
previous to the murder of Earl William, and whose lands had not come 
to them by Tanistry and Gavelkind, were held to have any legal title to 
their lands. Except in the town of Gal way and its immediate neighbour- 
hood, there can scarcely have been a landowner in the province who could 
comply with these conditions. 

"When Henry VIII came to the throne, four great families of Anglo- 
Norman descent held between them somewhat more than half the 
province of Munster. The Le Poers or Powers owned the eastern part 
of Waterford. Though they had become quite Irish in speech and 
manners, their title to their lands had come down to them regularly 
from the first grantee, Robert le Poer. 

Theobald Fitz Walter, ancestor of the Butler family, had been 
granted, in or about 1185, a large district in North Tipperary. His 
descendants had acquired the greater part of the rest of the county from 
other grantees. James Butler, created Earl of Ormond in 1328, 2 had been 
given Palatine jurisdiction over the whole county. But in the con- 
fusion following on the invasion of Edward Bruce the natives had expelled 
the settlers from all North Tipperary. Various branches of the O'Brien 
family, and the clans of O'Dwyer, O'Kennedy, 0' Carroll, and others 
became masters of all the lands originally granted to Theobald FitzWalter, 
and had even captured the strong castles of Nenagh and lloscrea. But 
the Butlers had not abandoned their claims on this district, and in the 
eyes of the law the Irish were only intruders. 3 

Earl Thomas of Ormond died in 1515, and his estates went to his two 
daughters. One, married to Sir William Boleyn, grandfather of Anne 
Boleyn, succeeded to the Irish estates. Her husband resided in England, 
and the Irish lands were actually ruled by Piers, descended from a younger 
son of the third earl, the next heir to the title. The Butler lands might 
easily have gone the way of the De Burgo estates in Connacht. 

The district of Clanwilliam, partly in Tipperary, partly in Limerick, 
was held by a branch of the De Burgos ; their title was apparently a good 

1 Some of them paid tribute to the Mac Williams. The Earl of Clanric-urde claimed 
chief rent from the O'Flahertys in the sixteenth century, and O'Malley owed military 
service to the Lower MacWilliam (Knox, p. 355). The Earl claimed the castle of Moy- 
cullen in O'Flaherty's country (Car. Cat., 1544, p. 211), and received chief rent from 
it (temp. James I, Gal. Pat. Rolls Jas. I, p. 348). 

- His father, Edmund, had been created Earl of Carrick in 1315. 

3 Some clans such as the MacBriens of Ara were certainly intruders from west of 
the Shannon. So, too, according to some authorities were the O'Kennedys. 


one ; still they had become quite Irish in their ways ; and Irish ideas 
of marriage and the descent of lands were not always such as were 
recognized by the Canon Law or by the Common Law of England. 

By far the most powerful lords in Munster were the FitzGeralds. 
The earls of Kildare held Groom and a considerable district in Limerick, 
with a sound title. The Earls of Desmond claimed to be owners of all 
Kerry and most of Cork, the greater part of Limerick, and portions of 
Tipperary and Waterford. 

The two first counties, under the name of the Kingdom of Cork, 
had been given by Henry II in 1177 to Milo de Cogan and 
Eobert FitzStephen. The Fitz Geralds claimed to have inherited 
some or all of their rights. 1 But there were doubts as to the validity 
of these claims; and we find, in Elizabeth's reign, Sir Peter Carew 
coming forward and being recognized by Elizabeth as the lawful heir of 
Fitz Stephen. Moreover more than half Cork and Kerry were actually 
in possession of the MacCarthys, kings of Desmond, and their subject 
clans. The Earls of Desmond had indeed forced the MacCarthys to 
consent to pay the tributes which I have already mentioned ; but we 
may doubt if they ever saw much of the money. The FitzGeralds 
had made repeated attempts to conquer the mountain regions where the 
MacCarthys ruled ; and as late as 1521 the Earl of Desmond had invaded 
Muskerry with the avowed object of expelling the Irish. But a great 
defeat and the loss of nearly 2,000 men compelled him to desist from his 

The Desmond title to the lands in the three other counties seems, at 
first sight, valid. But it appears certain that in one instance at least the 
succession to the earldom had not followed the English rules of descent, 
but had gone by tanistry. The government, while recognizing the 
Fitz Gerald position in general, might fairly cast doubt on the claims of 
the actual holder of the title. 2 

Under the Desmonds were several great vassal families, such as the 
Barrys 3 and lloches in Cork. Their ancestors had received grants from 
De Cogan and Fitz Stephen ; and, except for possible irregularities in the 
succession, there was nothing to be said against their title. 

The O'Briens, Kings of JS T orth Munster, had held their own in Clare, 
having extirpated the De Clares, to whom their lands had been given by 
Eichard I. Their authority was acknowledged by the clans in North 

1 The whole hisiory of feoutu Munstei nom the ueatn of Fitz JMepheu to the opening 
of the sixteenth century ri mains still to be written. In particular we know singularly 
little as to the growth of the power of the Desmonds in Limerick and Kerry, though 
for Limerick Father Begley 's History of Limerick gives much valuable in formation. 

The grant of the "Kingdom of Cork" to De Cogan and Fitz Stephen raises many 
problems too intricate to enter into here. 

2 According to the generally received accounts the sixth Earl of Desmond was deposed 
for having married beneath him, and an uncle usurped the earldom and lands. 

3 The Bairys and the Roches had, in time, become tenants in capite, but were still 
counted among the followers of the Eails of Desmond. 


Tipperary and the eastern districts of Limerick, but was of course quite 
illegal in the eyes of the Crown. 

The history of the first great Irish grant, that of the Lordship of 
Leinster to Strongbow, is complex. It had passed, through Strongbow's 
only daughter to William Marshall and, on the death without issue of 
the last of his five sons in 1247, to his five daughters, who divided the 
lands between them. One brought her husband, de Vesci, the greater 
part of Kildare and King's County. William de Yesci was attainted in 
1297 and his lands given to his vassal John FitzGerald, baron of Offaly. 
John's descendants, the Earls of Kildare, ultimately became the most 
powerful nobles in the island. Their power rested not on the extent of 
their territory, but on the richness of the land, the strength of their castles, 
and their neighbourhood to Dublin, which enabled them to overawe the 
Government. It was strengthened by a system of alliances with the natives. 
Nearly every Irish chief in Leinster, and some outside that province, paid 
tribute to the Earls of Kildare as the price of their protection. 1 Yet they 
had never been able to subdue that part of their territory of Offaly which 
is now included in King's County. Here the O'Connors and O'Dernpseys 
held their own, and were a thorn in the side of the settled districts of the 

Another daughter brought Carlow to her husband Hugh Bigoel, 
Earl of Norfolk. Her lands included parts of the modern Wicklow with 
New lloss and other Wexford lands. But the Earls of Norfolk and their 
successors, being absentees, were quite unable to defend their lands 
against the Irish. Donald Mac Art Mac Murrough Cavanagh was 
elected King of Leinster about 1327 2 ; and he and his son Art became 
masters of nearly half of the old province. Of the County Carlow, 
only the town of Carlow and a small district round remained in English 
hands. 3 

Wexford the portion of another of the sisters passed ultimately, 
by marriage, to the Enrls of Pembroke. The southern portion of the 
county, thickly settled by the first invaders, was able to resist the 
Mtrc Murroughs, even iu the absence of its lord. But the Irish had 
recovered all the northern half of the modern county. All Wicklow, 
nearly all Carlow, half Wexford was held by the Mac Murroughs and 
their subject clans, in defiance of all the attempts of the Government. 

The district of Lei x, comprising about half the present Queen's County, 
had been brought by another of William's daughters to the Mortimers. 
But the Mortimers, great lords in England and Wales, were absentees. 

1 See list in the Rental Hook of the Earls of Kildare of the Earl of Kildare's duties 
on Irishmen. It has heen several times printed. SeeJount. ofKil. Arch. Soc., New 
Series, vols. ii and iv. 

3 Journ. of Kit. Arch. Soc., vol. ii, New Ser., p. 75. See entry quoted in intro- 
duction to lJowli)i(/'s Annals. 

3 One hundred and thirty-eight castles in county Carlow alone are said to have 
been taken by the Irish before 1435. Letter from Irish Parliament (quoted Journ. of 
Kil. Arch. Soc., vol. ii, p. 405). 


To guard their Irish lands by English troops was expensive. The 
English settlers largely disappeared as a result of Bruce's invasion. Irish 
mercenaries were cheap, so Mortimer confided his castles to the care of 
the O'Mores, the original owners of the territory. What followed is 
graphically told by Friar Clyn when recording the death of Lysaght 
O'More. " This man," he says, " had forcibly expelled the English from 
his lands and patrimony, for in one night he burned eight castles of the 
English men, and destroyed the noble castle of Dunamaise belonging to 
Lord Roger de Mortimer, and usurped to himself the dominion of his 
fatherland. From a servant he became a lord, from a subject a prince." 1 

As the western parts of the modern King's and Queen's Counties had 
never been subdued, we now find a great block of native territory running 
alon;.T the Shannon from Athloneto Limerick, and extending eastward to 
the Harrow. Most of it was claimed by Anglo-Norman lords ; all of it 
was independent. 

The fifth of the co-heiresses had for her share the ancient Kingdom of 
Ossory. The greater part of this territory was thoroughly subdued and 
thickly planted. Protected by numerous walled towns, it became a sort 
of inland Pale, where English laws and manners remained after they had 
disappeared from all the neighbouring districts. The De Spencers, 
descendants of Isabel le Marshal, kept effectual control of their lands 
until 1392, when they sold Kilkenny Castle and all their rights to the 
third Earl of Ormond. As his castles of Nenagh aud Roscrea had been 
taken by the Irish, he made Kilkenny his chief seat. He was already 
owner of a large tract of the county, held under the De Spencers ; now 
he became overlord of the whole. The nominal ownership of the greater 
part of the Butler lands passed, as we have said, ultimately to the 
daughters of the seventh earl; the actual rule, however, at the opening 
of Henry YIII's reign was exercised by Piers Butler, claiming to be 
Earl of Ormond. 

To sum up, over the whole island there was confusion. Five-eighths 
of the country was held by the native clans, the " Irish enemy," in 
defiance of English law and English grants. 2 Of the lords of Norman 
descent, some, as the Burkes the King's rebels were admittedly 
usurpers. Others, such as the Desmonds, held their lands more by force 
than by strict legal title. Almost every Norman lord laid claim to vast 
tracts which were in native hands, and over which the claimants had 
exercised no authority for two centuries. But by statute no length of 
occupation could give a legal title to an Irishman. And, to make con- 
fusion worse confounded, great estates were legally in possession of 

1 Clynits Annals 

-Both Mac Garth y of Musketry and MacCarthy of Carbery claimed under 
Elizabeth to have obta'ined a grant of their lands, the one from Edward IV, the other 
from Henry VII. If these grants actually existed, they may be accounted for by the 
fact that one Earl of Desmond was executed under Edward IV, and that another was 
an active supporter of Lambert Simnel. 


English noblemen who never visited Ireland, took no measures to defend 
their vassals against the natives, and, as a consequence, were scarcely 
recognized as overlords by such of their vassals as had been able to hold 
their ground in spite of this neglect. 

To give some examples of the confusion that prevailed. The Ormonds 
owned in theory almost the whole district from the Shannon and Lough 
Derg to the sea at Arklow. But all north Tipperary, with the two great 
castles of Nenagh and Roscrea, had been in Irish hands for nearly two 
centuries. 1 The castle of Tullow in Co. Carlow, if in their hands, was 
entirely surrounded by the territories of the Mac Murrouglis and the 
O'JSTolans. There is still extant a treaty between Earl Piers and 
Mac Murrough with regard to Arklow. The latter acknowledges that 
the castle and adjoining district belong to the Earl ; but he is to have 
half the rents, &c., on the fish and timber of the port and town, and all 
the rents of the adjoining territory, as well as the right of free entry 
into and occupation of the castle for life, engaging not to quarter Scots 
or galloglasses on the town. Mac Murrough's seal bears the inscription 
Ilex Lageniae; his predecessor in 1475 styles himself in a grant to the 
monastery of Duisk, Rex totius Lageniae. 2 

O'Dwyer of Kilnamanagh acknowledged the suzerainty of O'Brien of 
Thorn ond. But his lands were legally part of the Orniond territories, 
and lie paid a yearly tribute to the Earl of Ivildare of a nest of goshawks, 
for protection. 3 

The Barretts of Cork acknowledged themselves by indenture vassals 
of the Desmonds, and paid them a rent of 12 marks. But they paid 
another rent of 11 to MacCarthy M6r, and a great part of their 
territory had been seized by Mac Carthy of Muskerry. 

O 1 Conor Sligo declared to Elizabeth's deputy, Sidney, that he owed 
a yearly rent of 360 marks to somebody for the castle and lands of Sligo. 
O'Donnell claimed it by " continuance of possession for a thousand years." 
The Earl of Kildare claimed it as legal owner of the whole county, 
under a grant from the De Burgo lords of Connacht. 4 Mac William of 
Clanricarde claimed it, "alleging a composition by mutual agreement" 
between the O'Conors and his ancestors. If the unfortunate O'Conor 
paid one claimant, the other two fell on him ; and he declared that he 
ought only hold his lands of the Queen, if she would protect him from all 
other claimants. 5 

1 See article in Journ. Kil. Arch. Soc., vol. i, by Prendergast, ''On the projected 
plantation of Onnond under Chas. I." 

'tJoiir. R. Hist, and Arch. Assoc. of Ireland, vol. vi, fourth series, pp. 22 and 23. 

3 Rental Book of Earh of Kildare. 

4 The State Papers, 1591-92, give a document setting forth at length the claims 
of the Kildares to Sligo. They also claimed Fermanagh, Tyrconnell, ani the north 
of Leitrim. Cal. State Papers, 1591, pp. 406 and 460. 

5 Journal It. If. Assoc. of Ireland, vol. i, fourth series, p. 23. 


The quarrel between Henry YIII and the Pope awakened the King 
to the necessity of making his position in Ireland secure. The rebellion 
of Silken Thomas showed how weak the English hold on the island was. 
It was only the rivalry between the Butlers and Geraldines which hud 
saved the English authorities from being swept into the sea. Henry 
determined to bring the whole island into his power. 

The old plan of conquest by means of grants to great nobles, who were 
to make themselves masters by their own resources of the landsbestowed 
on them, had utterly failed. It was recognized that the Crown itself 
should undertake the task. 

Two plans suggested themselves. A war of extermination might be 
begun, with the object of rooting out all or most of the natives. This 
was the scheme which found most favour in Government circles in Dublin. 1 
But apart from all humanitarian considerations, it was doubtful if this 
scheme was feasible. The very vaguest notions were held as to the 
extent and population of the island. 2 Eut it was certain that such a 
policy would force all the natives to combine in self-defence, and that it 
would tax all the resources of England for several years to carry it 

The other plan, conquest by conciliation, was Henry's own. In all 
his dealings with the native Irish, that monarch acted in a spirit, of 
moderation which is in striking contrast with the generally accepted 
Tiew of his character. It is perhaps fanciful to attribute this to his 
Celtic ancestry. Eut it is noteworthy that it was Henry who first 
admitted the mass of the Welsh to the full enjoyment of the laws of 
England, and that all the Tudors showed themselves singularly inclined 
to favour those Irishmen with whom they came in personal contact. 3 
They were relentless towards the lords of English origin in Ireland who 
dispuu d their will ; but scarcely any of the native race who gained access 
to the Royal presence departed with their requests ungranted. 

Henry's plan for a settlement of Ireland was nothing short of 
revolutionary. The Irish were to be received into the protection of the 

1 See State lepers, Htnry VIII, vol. ii, p. 323, and Bichey, p. Ill, vol. ii, for 
R. Cowly's plans for the destruction or exile of the natives. However, he was willing. 
that some of the liishry on submission might be allowed to live " within the very 
myddes of. the English pale." (State Papers, 329.) 

But Allen would not advise the banishment of all the Irish out of their lands. 
(Ibid., p. 374.) In 1537 the Council of Ireland advised exiling the Irish of Leinster, 
but allowed that the common people might be retained " lor their be no better earth 
tillers, ne more obedient than they be, eoo as thei be never suff red to use feates of 
war, as commonlye they use nott." (State Papers, vol. ii, pt. 3, pp. 409, 412, 415.) 

2 Ireland was said by Suney to he five times as large as Wales (State Papers, vol. ii,. 
pt. 3, p. 73). The document which opens the State 1'apers declares that Ireland miglit 
yield a revenue little short of that of England if subdued and pacified. (State lapsi'x, 
vol. ii, pt. 3, p. 15.) 

3 The son of Mac Gillapatrick of Upper Ossory was "bedfellow " lo Henry's son, 
Edward. Notable examples are the favour shown by Mary Tudor to the daughter of 
O'Conor Faly, and Elizabeth's treatment of Shane O'Neill, Grace O'Malley, and. 
Florence Mac Carthy, after she had come in personal contact with them. 


law a favour whiefi under the Planta genets they had more than once 
petitioned for and been denied. 1 They were to be put on full equality 
with the Anglo -Norman" colonists, and therefore and this was the most 
startling point in Henry's policy they were to be capable of holding 
land in their own country, as freely as any other subject. 

There were two obvious difficulties to be faced. Such a policy would 
irritate the great Anglo-Irish families who claimed to be the legal owners 
of much of the lands actually held by the Irish. And it was by no means 
certain that the great Celtic chiefs who had held their own so long 
against the invaders would now renounce their independence for the 
sake of a legal title to what they had been very well able to maintain by 
their own strong hand. 

The overthrow of the house of Kildare humbled the pride of the 
great Anglo-Irish barons. A succession of vigorous campaigns during 
the years from 1536 to 1539 inclined the greater number of the Irish 
chiefs to submission. All who submitted received the benefit of Henry's 
policy of conciliation. This policy is pretty plainly laid down in a 
letter of instructions to Surrey, Deputy in 1520, showing that, even 
then, Henry had fixed on the course to be followed in dealing with 
the Irish. He would not "take anything from them that righteously 
appertaineth to them." He did not intend to expel them from their 
lands and dominions. He wished to bring them under English laws, 
but gradually. He was ready to give them a legal title to their lands. 2 

With regard to this latter point the first step was to get rid of the 
claims of absentee proprietors to the ownership of much of Leinster, 
and of those of the houses of Kildare, Orrnond, Desmond, and others, 
to great tracts in various parts of the island. The rights of the house 
of Kildare had come to the Crown by the attainder of that family. 2s ow 
the famous Act of Absentees, passed in 1537, confiscated the lands claimed 
by the Duke of Norfolk, the Lord Berkeley, the heirs general of the 
Earls of Ormond, and others. In short, all Leinster and Tipperary were 
vested in the Crown, which already was the legal owner of Ulster and 

Thus free to deal with the Leinster Irish, we find Lord Leonard 
Grey, the Deputy, entering into a series of treaties with almost all the 
chiefs. 3 They recognized the King's authoiity, promised to serve him 
in war, and to pay certain tributes. In return the King promises to 
protect and defend the chiefs and their followers against both English 
and Irish. By this promise the rights of the chiefs were at least 
implicitly recognized. 4 But it is evident that Henry's intention was to 

1 Bonn. 

2 State Papers, Htnry V III, vol. ii, pt. 3, p. 51. 

3 A very large number of these Indentures are given in the Car. Cal. under the 
yeais 1541 and 1542. 

4 In most cases no definite recognition that the native chiefs owned their lands is 


go still f urther, and grant the Irish a legal title to the lands they actually 
occupied. The chiefs were to surrender their lands to the Crown, and 
to receive them back again by letters patent, to hold in accordance with 
English law. The greater chiefs were to be given English titles and a 
seat in parliament. 

Such were the broad outlines of Henry's policy, which amounted to 
a total reversal of the policy of the preceding three and a half centuries. 
AN 7 hat the descendants of the first Anglo-Norman invaders had per- 
manently conquered they were to keep ; what the natives had managed 
to retain was henceforth to be theirs by a clear title. 

There was, indeed, one apparent exception to this. The services of 
Sir Piers Butler, now known as Earl of Ossory, had been so great that 
he was re-granted all the lands confiscated from the daughters of the 
seven tli Earl by the Act of Absentees. In the grant were included 
many districts entirely occupied by the Irish, but the clans occupying 
them had already been received into submission by the king, and it seems 
certain that he expected the Earl to leave them in peaceable possession, 
as holding their lands from him. 1 

The results of this policy were seen in the submission of practically 
every native chief in the island. Those lords of Anglo-Norman descent, 
who had for long practically disregarded the royal authority the Barrys, 
the Burkes of Clanrickarde, and the rest, nlso made a formal submission. 
Two of the greatest of the native chiefs, O'Neill, lord of nearly all Ulster, 
and O'Brien of Thomond, were made earls. The same dignity was 
conferred on Mac William Burke of Clanricarde. Lesser titles were to 
be given to minor chieftains. A parliament held in 1541 was attended 
by the chief or tanist of almost every clan in the island. They were 
present in the House of Lords, though not actually voting or taking part 
in the debates. The Deputy's opening speech was translated to them 
by the Earl of Ormond, and they joined by their acclamations in the 
Act by which Henry took the title of King of Ireland. 

In conformity with the king's plans, patents for their lands were 
given to the three earls and to some few more of the chiefs. 2 Eor some 
reason or other, however, no grants were made out during the rest of 

given. But MiicnuiiiUia \\us continued in ail his rights us chief ;.s long us lie lived 
and behaved as a subject. (Story of an Irish Sept, p. Io2.) Mac Gillapatrick was 
promised that he should have all his possessions to be held by the service of two knights' 
fees. (State Papers, Henry VIII, vol. ii, pt. 3, p. 5H.) 

1 Nenagh and Roscrea again came into possession of the Butlers, but the territory 
round them was leit to the natives: Prendergast, " On the Projected Plantation of 
Ormond by Chas. I." (Trans. Kil. Arch. Soc., vol. i.) _ 

2 Viz., to O'Shuughnessy, Macnumaru, Mac Gillapatrick, who was made Baron of 
Upper Ossory, and to 'furlough ()' Toole and his brother Art. The case of the O'Tooles 
is remarkable. Turlough had petitioned that the territory of Powerscourt, occupied 
by him, 'should be divided between him and his " sequele." As a result directions 
were given to have the premises so divided as shall be thought meet by such as shall 
be appointed by the king, " and after by division made, everie partie to h.-ive letters 
patent of their portion." (Inquisitions, Leinster, 17th-19th, Chas. I.) 


Henry's reign to the remaining chiefs ; and so, the work of settlement 
had not been properly carried out when Henry died. 

Now, it is constantly asserted by modern writers that Henry by his 
grants to the three earls meant to, and actually did, make them owners 
in fee of all the clan lands lands to which they hud no shadow of right. 
And, since the actual wording of the grants was vague, Earl Hugh 
O'Neill did make claim on these grounds to all Tyrone, Londonderry, and 
Armagh in Elizabeth's days. 

Elizabeth, with whom the Earl was for a moment a favourite, let 
the claim pass. But the matter cropped up again under James I. 
O'Cahane of Londonderry claimed that the Earl had no interest in 
his country beyond a chief rent of 21 cows, and the usual Irish cuttings 
and spendings. The Earl, on the other hand, declared that O'Cahane 
had no estate in his lands, but held, he and his ancestors as tenants on 
sufferance, as servants and followers to the O'Neills. 

Sir John Davies, reporting on the whole matter, cites the cases of the 
Earls of Thomond and Clanricarde. Their grants were precisely similar 
to Con O'Neill's, 1 but they never claimed to dispossess the subordinate 
chiefs of their freeholds and make them tenants at will. Therefore, only 
his demesne lands, according to Sir John, had been granted to Earl Con. 
This shows that the usual view with regard to these grants is quite 

Much about the same time as O'Brien made his submission with the 
demand .to have "to him and his heirs males all such lands, rents, rever- 
sions, or services as I \_sic~] had at any time before this day," we find 
an indenture made between the Lord Deputy and Sioda MacNamara, 
chief of the leading clan in Clare after the O'Briens, which clearly shows 
that Henry and his advisers never meant their grant to O'Brien to include 
the whole of Thomond. This indenture " wituesseth that the said Sioda 
Macnamara do for himself and all the rest of the said gentlemen and free- 
holders of the baronies and places aforesaid for their heirs and assigns, 
covenant, &c., ... to surrender and give up ... to the King's Majesty > 
his heirs and successors, when he thereunto shall be required, all such 
manors, castles, rents, tenements, lands, reversions, and all other heredi- 
taments that they and every of them have . . . either in use or possession, 
and then the said Sioda and the rest aforesaid shall receive and take the 
same back by letters patent to have and to hold to them and their heirs 
for ever, 3 &c., &c." It is made by Sioda " for and on behalf of himself 

1 Con was granted <{ Omnes terrae, tenementa, hereditamenta quae modo habet 
vel dudum habuit in Tyrone." (Cal. State Papers, 1606, p. 210.) It is quite certain 
that O'Brien of Thomond never claimed more tban the demesne lands and the various 
tributes and duties coming to him from the lesser clans as having been pasted to him 
by his grant, which was similarly worded. 

2 State Papers, Henry VIII, vol. iii, Part 3., p. 463. 

3 Printed in The Story of an Irish Sept, by a Member of the Sept, p. 150. 


and of all the rest of the gentlemen and freeholders of the said sept in 
the baronies of Dangan, Bunratty, and Tulla ... as authorized by the 
said gentlemen and freeholders tinder their deed and seal." 

Not only was there no question here of O'Brien getting all Thomond, 
but MacNamara was to get nothing except what was actually in his 
possession. The rest of the landowners were to get letters patent 
for their properties. 1 There is no robbery of the clan here. But 
unfortunately the Crown took no steps to secure the lesser owners in 
their possessions. It is very easy to understand why. Henry and his 
legal advisers in England were misled by the only system of land tenure 
with which they were acquainted the feudal one. To their minds a grant 
to O'Brien of the lordship of Thomond was precisely analogous to a grant 
of the County Palatine of Chester, or of any other feudal lordship. It 
would confer definite well- ascertained rights, but not interfere in the 
least with the tenures of the lesser proprietors, who held as vassals of 
the lord. Henry gave O'Brien a legal title to Thomond ; but it was 
assumed that the rest of the landowners already held their lands from 
O'Brien by what was, as regards him, a legal tenure, which he could 
not interfere with as long as they rendered the rents and services due 
from them. 

Now, this was actually the condition of a great many districts in 
Ireland held by the Anglo-Norman Barons. The Lord Barry held his 
lands under a grant originally derived from FitzStephen and De Cogan, 
and under him were a multidude of landowners, offshoots of the family 
of Barry, descendants of early colonists, even here and there some 
proprietors of Irish origin, all acknowledging the Lord Barry as their 
feudal lord, and bound to give him fixed rents or services, but owning 
the fee-simple of their lands. Just as the forfeiture of the heirs of 
FitzStephen and De Cogan would not deprive the Lord Barry of his 
lands, so a forfeiture of the latter would not affect his innocent 
vassals. 2 

Henry's intention was, then, to give the chief of an Irish county the 
same position as the Earl of Ormond in Tipperary, tbe Earl of Desmond 
in Kerry and Limerick, the Lord Barry in Cork. And as the Lord Barry 
may have been bound to render military service to some superior, and 
might have under him lesser lords, who again had vassals under them, 
so O'Brien was to be overlord of MacNamara, who had under him the 

1 Similarly- we find that Brian 0' Conor, of Offaly, on his submission asked for the 
title of Baron, and to be made of free state, and to have his portion of the country, and 
that his brothers, and all other possessors of lands, may have their portions for them- 
selves and their heirs. (State Papers, Henry VIII, vol. ii, pt. 3, p. 560.) And 
Cusack, in 1541, recommended that he should have his lands by knight's service ; all 
the freeholders taking their lands likewise to be in like case. (Ibid., vol. iii, pt. 3, 328.) 

2 The Lord Barry really was a tenant in capite in Henry VlIFs time. But his 
original title came from Fitz Stephen and De Cogan. 


chiefs of various lesser septs, who finally had under them the gentlemen 
and minor freeholders of the clan. 1 

This plan of Henry's is something very different from the absolute 
confiscation of the clan lands, and the gift of them to the chiefs which is 
generally laid to his credit. There was, however, some injustice in it. 
The succession to the dignities bestowed on the chiefs was to go according 
to English law, shutting out the claims of the chief's brothers, nephews, 
and younger sons, who had rights under the law of tanistry. Besides 
the lands actually in the hands of the chief, the demesne lands attached 
to his office, in which he had only a life-interest, were now looked on as 
his private property, and were to go, on his death, to his heirs, according 
to English law. Thus the clan was deprived of its right of election, and 
a great tract of land made into private property which had previously 
been set apart for the maintenance of the chief and the defence of the 

Yet the actual injustice was felt only by a few near relatives of the 
chief. 2 The mass of the clan cannot be said to have been injured; rather 
they profited by the stability of the succession, and they were no longer 
exposed to the risk of being expelled from their lands by the first 
Englishman who might obtain a grant of them, and be able to enforce it. 

It is worthy of note that Henry, in conferring the new earldoms, 
took the Irish succession by tanistry into account. Morrough O'Brien, 
the last king and first earl of Thomond, was not to be succeeded in his 
new dignity by his son. The latter was to be Baron of Inchiquin, and 
was provided with a becoming estate ; but the earldom and the rule over 
Thomond were to go to the tanist Donough, son of Morrough's elder 
brother and predecessor Conor. So, too, Con O'Neill seems to have been 
allowed to name his successor ; for the Earldom of Tyrone was to go to 
Mathew O'Neill, who was certainly illegitimate, even if he was a son of 
Con's at all. 3 

Unluckily for the success of Henry's plan, he and his English advisers 
were totally mistaken in their view of the internal arrangements of an 
Irish clan. As modern English lawyers are said to have gone astray in 
India by assuming that landed property there was held on tenures 

1 To a casual observer there can have been but little outward difference between 
the lands in East Cork held by the descendants of the Anglo-Norman barons and those 
in West Cork held by the Irish. Language and manners were the same. But in 
East Cork the tenures were based on English law. It was only natural to suppose 
that the land system in West Cork was the same. The lands of the Barretts were 
intermingled with those of the MacCarthys. The chief of the Barretts was feudal 
lord of his territory. It was easy to imagine that the Lord of Muskerry held a similar 
position in his territory. 

- The whole subject of succession by tanistry is still very obscure. It seems 
clear that the choice of the clan was limited to the immediate kindred of the late chief. 
There is some ground for supposing that only those whose father or grandfather had 
been chief were eligible. 

3 Con's son, Shane, was certainly legitimate. 


similar to those recognized by the Common Law, so Henry assumed that 
there was no essential difference between the English and Celtic systems. 
But as a matter of fact, as the descriptions of the MacCarthy territories 
have shown, the two systems were utterly different, and the failure to 
perceive this vitiated all Henry's endeavours at a settlement. 

So far from the Irish chiefs being feudal lords of their districts, with 
all other landowners holding from them as their vassals, the land was 
the collective property of the clans, who held each a definite district by 
immemorial occupation. Part of the clan lands were set apart to support 
the chief, the tanist, the brehons, and other officials ; part may have 
become the private property of the leading members of the clan 1 ; the 
rest was divided out amongst groups of kinsmen, sliocht, as they were 
called in Irish, septs to give them the name used by English 

The members of these septs were the ultimate owners of the land. 
The Irish writers call them " the hereditary proprietors"; the State 
Papers refer to them repeatedly as " the freeholders." The head of the 
sept had his demesne lands like the chief; the rest of the males of the 
sept had a right to a greater or smaller portion of land. 

There is no need to enter upon the thorny problem of how this division 
of the septlands among the members of the sept was effected. Were 
those entitled to land really shifted about and their possessions modified 
on the death of any member of the sept ? Or was the state of things in 
Ireland similar to that in Wales described by Mr. Seebohm ? There 
we find groups of kinsmen holding a definite share of land in common, 
entitled to divide this land after the death of all the males of one genera- 
tion, but usually holding together until the fourth generation, when the 
different groups of second cousins would divide, each forming a new 
land-holding group. 

How can we reconcile the repeated statements of the English writers 
of Tudor times as to the constant shifting about of individuals, and the 
uncertain nature of each man's possessions, with the evidence as to a 
certain amount at least of fixity of tenure contained in the accounts of 
the Plantations of Longford and Wexford ? 

Without going into these points it is enough to say that there is reason 
to believe that there was some system by means of which the number of 
males having a right to share in the redistribution of the laud within the 
sept was limited. Those members of a sept furthest removed from the 
senior branch would appear, when this limit was reached, to have passed 
automatically outside the sept, passing on their share of lands to their 

i The evidence from Desmond, Caibery, and Muskeiry shows very few, if any, 
traces ot individual ownership. Yet nil our modern authorities declare that the chief 
men of ihe clan had secured part of the clan lands as their private propeity. If they 
had, as their land was divided among all their posterity, individual ownership quickly 
revetted to the ownership of a sept. 


posterity. Hence the number of the septs would have a tendency to 
increase, while the lands held by an individual sept would diminish. 1 

At the head of each group of kinsmen was a Ceann Fine, or Canfinny, 
as the English authorities call him, having a share of land set apart for 
him and receiving dues from the rest of the kindred. Several of these 
kindreds might be included in a sept, whose chief also had his demesne 
lands and dues from the lands held by the sept ; the chief of the whole 
clan had, likewise, demesnes and dues ; finally, the head chief, or king, 
in large districts like Thoinond or Desmond had his rights. But 
the lands thus burthened by all these payments were in no sense the 
property of the chiefs. The ownership was vested in the sept ; and each 
member of the sept had a right to a share of land during his life. 

Now when the English lawyers came to bring this system into 
relation with English law, they were at once met by difficulties. The 
idea of collective ownership, if they grasped it at all, was repugnant to 
them. But the individual members of the septs, having only a life- 
interest in land, and their portions being, as the lawyers conceived, 
constantly shifted and redivided, could not though constantly referred 
to as freeholders be regarded as freeholders in the English legal sense. 

Looked at from the lawyers' point of view, the chief, already holding 
u great extent of land as his demesne, receiving dues which looked like 
rent from the rest, constantly redividing the sept lands, and moving 
individuals from one portion to another, looked very much like a land- 
lord. 3 The members of the septs, thus shifted about, appeared as tenants 
at will. Thus, if the chief had a loosely worded grant in general terms 
from the Crown, giving him all his lands, &c., it would be quite possible 
to understand it as making him owner in fee of the whole tribal territory. 

1 This seems tbe only way of explaining the constant formation of new septs 
which we have noticed among the MacCarthys and O'Sullivans, each with its fixed 
share of land. 

2 Sir John Davies declares in his letter to the Earl of Salisbury, 1607, ''but 
touching the inferior gentlemen and inhabitants, it was not certainly known to the 
State here whether they were only tenants- at- will to the chief lords, wheieof the 
uncertain cutting which the lords used upon them might be an argument." And in 
ids letter of 1610 defending the Plantation of Ulster he denies that the clansmen had 
any certain estates of inheritance. This last is in flagrant contradiction to what he 
himself had said of Fermanagh in 1607. 

(70 be continued.} 

Tour R ; A T J Vo '- IU ' Sixth Series. 
Jour. R.S.A.I. J Vo , xuu> Consec> Sen 


[Read 25 MARCH, 1913] 

r PHE examination of some Irish seals and seal matrices has led me to 
put together, though with great diffidence as the subject is obscure 
and the monuments so scanty that any conclusions can only be regarded 
as tentative and liable to be upset by further evidence the following 
notes on the subject of Irish heraldry, that is, heraldry as adopted by the 
Irish chiefs and gentlemen after the Anglo-Norman invasion. There 
have been a few papers connected with Irish heraldry published in the 
Journal from time to time, notably one by the Rev. Canon ffrench, 
entitled " The Arms of Ireland and Celtic Tribal Heraldry." 1 If it is my 
misfortune to have to differ somewhat from Canon French's conclusions, 
this is to a large extent due to the fact that my definition as to what can 
be properly called heraldry is of a much stricter kind than that adopted 
by Canon ffrench. 

That the bearing of certain symbols and devices by tribes and cities 
goes back to prehistoric times, and has been met with in many parts of 
the world, and in very different ages, must be at once admitted, A number 
of examples could be adduced showing that on the coins and seals of the 
Greeks and Romans, Persians and Egyptians, devices of various kinds are 
displayed as distinctive symbols of persons, towns, and countries. On the 
Greek coins a series of such devices can be seen ; Corinth has the 
Pegasus, Athens the owl, and so on. The seal rings of Roman nobles 
often bore devices that have much similarity with heraldic ones. Tacitus 
speaks of the coloured shields of the Germans " scuta tantum lectissimis 
coloribus distingunt." 2 

The characteristic horned and decorated helmets of the Norsemen may 
also be mentioned. The writings of modern ethnologists furnish instances 
of the employment by primitive peoples of various symbols of distinction, 
such as the painted shields of the Masai 3 and the various strange and 
mysterious ' totems ' which have been shown to lie at the base of so many 
primitive beliefs. Most of us have seen at one or other of the Colonial and 

1 Journal, ante, Vol. xxxv, p. 234. 2 Gennania, chapter vi. 

3 See Die Masai. M. Merker, Berlin, 1904. 


Foreign Exhibitions^ held in the United Kingdom, Indian villages with 
"the tents of the braves decorated with symbols of somewhat heraldic 
appearance. It is also certain from the evidence of the historical tale 
of the Battle of Magh Rath that in Ireland badges and devices were 
worn in early times, and that certain tribes or clans were distinguished 
by particular banners ; but that ' ' the ancient Irish had a heraldry of 
their own," 1 that is, if we take heraldry in its general meaning, I do 
not think can be allowed. 

It is doubtful if the use of miscellaneous devices such as are mentioned 
above ever evolved into a true heraldic system. Heraldry seems to have 
appeared in an almost fully developed state quite suddenly in Western 
Europe, and I think the term heraldry can only be used to denote a 
regular system of personal or territorial devices borne according to fixed 
rules, being hereditary in families, and often definitely attached to 
certain Lordships. 2 

Heraldry, in this sense, cannot be shown to have existed anywhere 
at an early period. The earliest evidence for a true heraldic bearing in 
England has been shown by Dr. Horace Hound to be the seal of Gilbert 
de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, which can be dated at not later than 1146. 3 
The first English king to display arms on his seal is llichard the First, 
who bears on his seal of 1189 a rampant lion. On the Continent the 
oldest instances of the use of armorial bearings are to be found on the 
seals of the kings and nobles of the twelfth century, though, as noted 
below, a few are claimed as going back to the eleventh. On such seals 
the owner is shown either seated on a throne or fully armed on 
horseback, having his arms displayed on his banner, shield, aud horse- 
trappings; sometimes the arms are shown alone on a smaller seal (the 
counter seal) used to make a second impression at the back of the large, 
so-called, seal of dignity. The earliest armorial seal known on the 
Continent is stated by Dr. Wyss, 4 following the Nouveau Iraite de 
diplomatique, Paris, 1759, t. iv, p. 376, to be a seal attached to a 
document of Robert I of Flanders, dated 1072, which displays the lion 
of Flanders. Dr. Wyss also mentions a seal of Count Raymond of Toulouse 
dated 1088, bearing the cross of Toulouse. According to Mr. Oswald 
Barren, however, the earliest seal with the arms of the Counts of Flanders 
is that of Philip of Alsace, Count of Flanders, who bears on his seal of 
1164 a lion. 5 

Armorial seals only became numerous after the middle of the twelfth 
century, and in Germany, where armory had an early and vigorous rise, 

1 Canon ffrencli, op. uit., p. 237. 

2 Modern research is showing more and more that what have heen usually regarded 
as the arms of great nobles were really the arms of great lordships. (See Archceoloyia 
vol. Ivi, p. 35.) 

3 Archaeological Journal^ vol. li, p. 43. 

* Hitteilutiyen der Antiquarischen G eaelkchaft in Zurich, Band vi, p. 8. 
Encyclopedia, JBritannica t vol. xiii, p. 312. 



there are very few armorial seals of so early a date; they only came 
into general use in the first half of the thirteenth century, and among 
the lesser German nobility the use of armorial seals is rare before the 
middle of the thirteenth century. 

It may be objected that the absence of heraldic bearings on seals does 
not prove that such bearings did not exist, as older seals might have been 
lost, or arms may have been in use for a considerable time before 
they were placed upon seals; but as soon as heraldry had reached a 
certain point of development it is fairly certain that arms, as a most 
convenient means of identification, would have been placed upon seals. 
Accordingly, there are numerous equestrian seals of the end of the 
twelfth century which show no armorials, whereas the seals of later 
members of the same families display arms. In diplomatics it is con- 
sidered a safe rule to regard armorial seals that are dated to the first 
half of the tenth century as false. 1 

Even in the most splendid days of heraldry arms were more fully 
displayed in the tournaments than in actual warfare ; and there is no 
doubt that the general adoption of the custom of using armorial seals 
must have greatly helped to codify and solidify heraldic practice. 

I think it may be taken as established that heraldry, in the ordinary 
sense of the term, both in England and the Continent, was only being 
shaped and more or less codified at the period of the Anglo-Norman 
invasion of Ireland. The conquest of Ireland and introduction of 
feudalism was a slow process, and it was only very gradually that 
English manners and customs made any permanent impression. Turning 
to the Irish seals and seal matrices for evidence, we shall find that, though 
there are very few available, such as there are lead us to the opinion, 
that heraldic devices were not adopted by the Irish chiefs until late 
times. It is hardly to be expected that the Irish chiefs would be very 
anxious to copy any portion of the feudal system under which many of 
them were deprived of their possessions. 

My friend, Mr. M. J. M'Enery, Assistant Deputy Keeper of Public 
Records in Ireland, has kindly examined some of the records under 
his charge, and informs me that he has found no documents with seals 
of Irish chiefs or gentlemen as early as the thirteenth or fourteenth 
century. As an indication that seals were by no means common in 
Ireland in early times, it may be mentioned that in a charter, which can 
be dated to the first half of the thirteenth century, given in Ireland in 
favour of the Cistercian order by a number of Irishmen and their wives, it 
is stated in the donation that, as they do not possess seals, " Donatus 
Karbreach, rex Tuadmonie" (d. 1242), at their request, has ordered hi& 
own seal to be placed to the deed. 2 

1 Dr. \Vyss, op. cit., p. 9. 

2 Revue Celtique, vol. vii, p. 85. (I am indebted to Mr. T. J. Westropp for thi* 


In the collection of the Royal Irish Academy preserved in the 
National Museum there are a few matrices inscribed with the names 
of Irish chiefs, of which the dates can be approximately fixed. 
Two are silver, and of equestrian type; of these one belonged to 
Domnall MagCarrthaigh, junior, King of Desmond, who died in 1303. 1 
The matrix shows an effigy of the king on horseback galloping to the 
right, with a sword in his right hand. His head is turned to the front, 
and is uncovered; he carries no shield, his horse has no trappings, 
and there is no trace of armorial bearings. The second belonged to a 
Mac Con, Chief of Hy-Caissin, and the design is similar to the first, and, 
like it, shows no armorial ibearings. This matrix is also probably of 
fourteenth-century date. There is a third Irish equestrian matrix 
extant, which is preserved in the British Museum. The matrix is described 
as made of brass, and is attributed to Brien, King of Keneleogain, who died 
about A.D. 1276. He is described as "In armour, with flat helmet, 
sword, and shield, with uncertain heraldic charge thereon. Hiding 
to the r.(ight) on a pacing horse." 2 


(Natural size.) 

I am enabled, by the kindness of the Keeper of the Department of 
British and Mediaeval Antiquities in the British Museum, to figure this 
seal, which has not, so far as I am aware, been illustrated before in any 
Irish publication. Examination of the figure will show that no heraldic 
charges can now be seen on the shield, and it may be questioned if there 
ever were any. 3 

1 British Museum Catalogue of S-idls, vol, iv, p. 721 ; Irish Venny Journal, vol. i, 
p. 357 ; and Annals of Ulster, vol. ii, p. 401. 

2 British Museum Catalogue of Seals, vol. iv, p. 695, No. 17,334. 

3 Jt is safer to leave the equestrian seal of Felim O'Conor, illustrated by Ware in 
the Antiquities of Ireland, vol. ii, pi. i, No. 3, out of account, as the seal has been lost 
since the seventeenth century, and the drawing figured by Ware, which shows some 
charges on the shield, may not be accurate. 


There are a few matrices in the Royal Irish Academy's collection 
inscribed with the names of Irish persons, but I do not think any of them 
can be earlier than the fourteenth century. The silver matrix of Brian 
O'Brian 1 has for a device a griffin ; and the seal of another O'Brien 
(Donogh), which I should also place in the fourteenth century, has for a 
device a galley and two fishes. 2 A silver matrix, inscribed with name 
of MacCraith Mac I Dafid, 3 has for a device a wyvern, and another 
matrix, inscribed with the name of Brian O'Harny, has for device an 
antique gem set in silver. 4 The bronze matrix of Domnall Kavanagh 
displays a seeded fleur-de-lys, and a silver matrix inscribed with what 
appears to be the name of Maurice O'Donnell has for a device a griffin. 5 
There is also in the Academy's collection a plaster impression from a brass 
matrix preserved in the British Museum which is inscribed with the name 
of Donogh O'Kennedy, and has for device a bird. Only two Irish, matrices 
in the collection display shields of arms, a matrix inscribed with the name 
of John MacArt, which bears a shield charged with a sceptre, and another 
inscribed with the name of Godfrey Dougherty, which has a shield barry 
of six pieces. A large, rough bronze matrix, inscribed with the name 
of " Johannes . O'Etli . Miles," has for device a" hand between two 
wheel-like figures; but from its appearance I should not consider this 
matrix earlier than the sixteenth century. 6 

There is also one other silver matrix in the Academy's collection, which 
is inscribed with the name of Maurice O'Neill, and has for device a shield 
charged with the hand of O'Neill; but this matrix has a rather curious 
appearance, and I prefer to leave it out of the discussion for the purposes 
of the present paper. In any case it is referred by Dr. Petrie to the 
fifteenth century. 7 

Colonel Claude Cane possesses a very interesting matrix inscribed 
with the name OCahan. The matrix is bronze and oval in shape, 
measuring 1^ by 1-J- inches; it is 1 of an inch in thickness, and has 
a stout tubular handle If inches in length. From its appearance the 
matrix probably belongs to the seventeenth century, and is a curious 

1 Irish Penny Journal, vol. i, p. 380. 

2 See my paper on " Matrices of Irish Seals," Proc. Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxx, 
Sec. C, p. 475. 

3 So read by Petrie (Irish Penny Journal, vol. i, p. 381). I cannot make out the 
last \vord of the name. 

4 Irish Penny Journal, vol. i, p. 381. 

5 Proc. Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxx, sec. C, p. 476. 

_ 6 Mr. G. H. Orpen has suggested that the owner of this matrix may be identified 
with John Roe (O'Reilly), who is mentioned in \h& Annals of the Four Masters, p. 1811, 
under the year 1583, as follows : " Turlough, son of Donnell O'Brien, and John Roe, 
the son of Hugh Conallagh, son of Maelmora O'Reilly, went to England, and were 
invested with the order of knighthood on the one day, in the summer of this year, in 
the presence of the Sovereign, Elizabeth." The knighthood would account for the 
" Miles " on the matrix, and the late appearance of the matrix agrees well with this 

7 Irish Penny Journal, vol. i, p. 380. 


example of complicated and decadent armory. The design, which 
is enclosed in a beaded border, is an oval-ended shield of arms composed 
of the coats of O'Neill and O'Connor, viz., a fesse per pale between 
in chief over a crescent a dexter hand supported on the dexter by a 
horse rampant on the sinister by a lion rampant over each a star; in 
base, a salmon swimming in the sea on the fesse, dexter three lizards 
in bend to the sinister, sinister an oak-tree, over all an in escutcheon 
charged with a Calvary cross. The shield is surmounted by a coronet set 
with many pearls, which has a decidedly foreign appearance. On each side 
of the shield is a rampant lion. Under the shield is the name OCAHAN. 

Colonel Cane also has a brass signet ring supposed to have belonged 
to an O'Cahan ; the bezel of the ring is engraved as a signet, and bears 
a cat-a-mountain turned to the left between the letters T.C. 1 

Having discussed the matrices, we must now come on to the question 
of seals. 

The earliest armorial seal appears to be that of Hugh Reanihar O'Neill, 
of late fourteenth-century date. This seal, which is illustrated, Ulster 
Journal of Archaeology, vol. i, old series, p. 255, shows a shield charged 
with the hand of O'Neill, and on each side is an ornamental animal 
rather like a wyvern. 

The British Museum Catalogue of Seals, volume iv, p. 723, gives a list 
of eighteen Irish heraldic seals, but of these only two are as early as the 
thirteenth century, and none are inscribed with the names of Irish 
chiefs. The fine armorial seal of Donall Reagh Mac Murrough Kavanagh, 
illustrated, Journal, ante, vol. xvi, p. 23, is late in date (1475), and 
the interesting little armorial seal of Owen Roe O'Neill, illustrated, 
Journal, ante, vol. xii, p. 17, is attached to a letter dated 1644. 

Among the fiants of Elizabeth preserved in the Irish Record Office 
are a number of surrenders by chiefs of Irish and Norman descent, and 
I have examined the twenty-nine mentioned on p. 31 of Appendix III, 
Index to the Calendar of Fiants of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

Of these two were apparently sealed with blobs of plain wax, and of 
the remainder the seals had disappeared except in the following cases : 

(No. 4222) Sir Lucas Dillon sealed with a small oval seal a good deal 
broken, on which the arms appear to be a lion rampant between three 
crescents, over all a fesse, and thereon a crescent. 

(No. 4263) Sir Tirlagh O'Erian sealed with a similar seal with 
quartered arms, first and fourth the familiar three lions, second three 
piles meeting in point, and a third a pheon. 

(No. 4987) Conill O'Molloy sealed with a similar seal of quartered 
arms, the first and fourth being apparently a chevron, and in chief either 

1 Colonel Cane has deposited both the matrix and the ring on loan in the National 
Museum, Royal Irish Academy Collection, where these interesting objects can be 


a star or a flower, second a chevron between three stars, and fourth a 
stag, and apparently some other figures. 

(No. 5063) Fegban O'Ferrall Boy sealed with an oval seal much 
defaced, which apparently bore arms of a saltire impaling another coat. 

(No. 5236) Hugh Boy O'Heyne sealed with a small oval seal bearing 
the monogram I.H.S. 

There are few, if any, sepulchral monuments of Irishmen displaying 
heraldry of sufficiently early date to be of use for our purpose, 1 and 
there are no early rolls of Irish arms available. Ulster's Office was not 
established until 1552, and though there are a few heraldic MSS. extant 
which give some Anglo-Irish arms, such as the illustrations in the MS. in 
the Archiepiscopal Library, Lambeth 2 (1617), and Thomas "Wall's J3ook 
of Crests 3 (1530), they are all late in date. 

As far, therefore, as the evidence of seals goes, we have the following 
results : 

No early armorial seals of Irish Princes or Chiefs have been shown 
to exist up to the present. 

In the fourteenth century armorial seals were exceptional, and the 
Irish chiefs and gentlemen were still sealing with miscellaneous devices 
such as galleys, wyverns, griffins, antique gems, &c. 

I therefore think we are justified in drawing the conclusion that 
heraldry in the ordinary sense of the word was only very slowly accepted 
by the Irish chiefs, and that its adoption on any large scale in Ireland 
did not take place until the fifteenth century, or even later. 

1 Of 2U4 coats-of-arms drawn from tombstones by G. V. DuJS'oyer, only one is 
dated between the fifteenth and sixteenth century, five belong to the sixteenth, and 
t*ie rest are later (Proc. Royal Irish Academy, vol. x, pp. 179 and 405).. See, however, 

Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol. iii, old series, p. 266, where the O'Cahan 
monument at Dungiven, supposed to be circa end of the fourteenth century, is stated 
to show armorial bearings, and also Journal, ante, vol. xxii, p. 70, for the 0' Brien 
monuments in Limerick Cathedral, the supposed early dates of erection of which I 
regard as doubtful. 

2 See National MSS. of Ireland, vol. iv, pt. i. 

3 See the Ancestor, vol. xi, p. 183. 

THE ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING of the 65th Yearly Session of the Society 
was held in the SOCIETY'S ROOMS, 6, ST. STEPHEN'S GREEN, DUBLIN, on 
Tuesday, the 28th of January, 1913, at 5 o'clock, p.m. 

COUNT PLUNKETT, F.S.A., M.E.I.A., President, in the Chair. 

Also present : 
Past Presidents. John Ribton Gurstin, U.L., F.S.A. ; Robert Cochrane, r.s.o., 

LL.D., F.S.A. 

Fellows: Francis Ellington Ball, LITT.D. ; H. F. Berry, i.s.o., LITT.D.; 
G. D. Burtchaell, M.A., M.R.I. A. ; John Cooke, M.A., M.R I.A.; Victor G. Davey ; Louis 
E. Deane; S. A. 0. FitzPatrick ; William Fry, J.P., F.R.G.S.; P. J. Lyncli, M.U.I.A.; 
Seaton F. Milligan, J.P., M.R.I. A.; S. G. Murray; Professor R. A. S. Macalister, 
F.S.A.; M. J. M'Enery, M.R.I. A., Hon. Gen. Sec.; P. J. O'Reilly; Andrew Robinson, 
M.V.O.; William C. Stubbs, M.A.; John F. Weldrick ; T. J. Westropp, M.A., M.R.I. A.; 
John White. 

Members. Joseph Bewley ; H. A. Cosgrave, M.A. ; H. S. Crawford, M.R.I. A.; 
William J. Dargan, M.D. ; J. A. Geoghegan ; Mrs. G. C. Geyer ; P. J. Griffith ; 
W. B. Joyce, B.L. ; Rev. F. J. Lucas, D.D. ; Francis M'Bride, J.P. ; R. Percy 
M'Donnell, F.R.C.S.I. ; Colonel J. K. Milner ; W. Murphy; C. M'Xeill ; Andrew 
Roycroft; R. B. Bayers; Thomas C. Townshend, B.A.; Henry Bantry White, M.A. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following Hon. Fellow, Eellows, and Members were elected : 


Morris, Rev. Canon Rupert Hugh, D.D., F.S.A., 4, Warwick-square, London, S.W., 
Editor of Archceologia Cambrensis : proposed by the Council. 


Barton, The Hon. Dunbar Plunket, M.A., Judge of the High Court of Justice, 
19, Clyde-road, Dublin: proposed by Count Plunkett, F.S.A., President. 

Coleman, James, 2, Rosehill-terrace, Queenstown, Co. Cork (Member, 1888) : proposed 
by Robert Cochrane, LL.I>., Fellow. 

Fausset, Rev. Charles, B.A., Clonmethan Rectory, Oldtown, Co. Dublin (Member, 1908) : 

proposed by E. C. R. Armstrong, If on. Gen. Sec. 
Fry, William, J.P., F.R.G.S., ex-President Incorporated Law Society, Wilton House, 

Merrion-road, Dublin (Member, 1908) : proposed by Robert Cochrane, i.s.o., LL.D. 
Moulder, Victor J., 7, Lower Downs-road, Wimbledon, London, S. W. (Member, 1906) : 

proposed by E. C. R. Armstrong, Son. Gen. Sec. 

White, W. Grove, LL.B., Crown Solicitor for Co. Kildare, 18, Elgin-road, Dublin 
(Member, 1889): proposed by M. J. McEuery, Son. Gen. Sec. 




Carolan, Miss Mary, 13, Rathdown-terrace, N. C. Road, Dublin: proposed by E. (X 

R. Armstrong, Hon. Gen. Sec. 
Denning, Miss Isabel, 102, Lower Baggot -street, Dublin: proposed by John, 

Cooke, M.A., Fellow. 
Geoghegan, Joseph Aloysius, Ballinteer Villa, Ballinteer Road, Dundrum, Co. Dublin t 

proposed by H. G. Leask, Member. 
James, Miss Frances M., 4, Roby-place, Kingstown, Co. Dublin: proposed by 

Lieut. -Col. S. A. James, Member. 
Librarian, Public Record Office, London, Chancery-lane, London, W.C. : proposed by 

E. C. R. Armstrong, Hon. Gen. Sec. 
Paton, William Mortimer, A.K.I.B.A., 6, St. Kevin' s-park, Dublin: proposed by 

P. J. Lynch, M.R.I. A., Fellow. 
Peacock, Mrs. Reginald, 1, Ovoca-terrace, Blackrock, Co. Dublin : proposed by 

Miss U. T. E. Powell, Member. 
Waller, James Hardress, M.I.C.E., Luska, Nenagh, Co. Tipperary : proposed by J G_ 

Barry, D.L. , Member. 
Wells, J. Barker, Epworth, Greystones, Co. Wicklow : proposed by George Duncan, 


The Report of the Council for 1912 was read, revised, and adopted as 
follows : 

THE meetings of the Society were well attended during the past year. 
The Summer Meeting was held at "Waterford for the Province of Munster, 
when upwards of fifty Fellows and Members took part in the Meeting 
and Excursions. A full report of the proceedings in connexion therewith, 
was published in the Journal for the current yeai\ Hospitality was 
offered to the Society by several residents in the district, to all of whom 
the thanks of the Society have been tendered by the Council. 

The places and dates of Meetings for 1913 are as follows : 




Do., . . . 

Tuesday, *Jan. 28, f 
Feb. 25, f 

Annual Meeting, and Evening 
Meeting for Papers. 

Kvening Meeting, for Papeis. 

Do., ... ,, Mar. 2o,t 

Do. Du. 



General Meeting. 


,, *June 23, 

General Meeting and Annual 

Dublin, . . . 

,, *Sept. 30, t 

General Meeting. 

Do., . . . 

Dec. 2,t 

Evening Meeting, for Papers. 

* Railway Return Tickets will be obtainable for these Meetings at a fare and a 

t Members of the Society's Dinner Club will dine at the Shelbourne Hotel,. 
Dublin, at 6.15 p.m. 


The attendances for the thirteen meetings of the Council held during 
the year up to the llth December are as follows : 

COUNT PLUNKETT, . . . 6 I E. C. R. ARMSTRONG, . . .11 

ROBERT COCHRANE, . . .12 M. J. M'ENEKY, . . . .11 



H. F. BERRY, .... 7 

T. J. WESTROPP, .... 7 

THE RIGHT HON. M. F. Cox, 4 

11. A. S. MACALISTER, . 

G. D. BUUTCHAELL, ... 7 



H. J. STOKES, 6 

W. C. STUBBS, - ... 11 j THE RIGHT HON. W. F. BAILEY, . 1 


P. J. O'REILLY, . . . 13 JAMES MILLS, .... 2 

JOHN COOKE, .... 5 

There are four vacancies caused by the retirement of four Vice- 
Presidents in rotation, one for each Province. The retirement of the 
three senior Members of the Council, and of three Members for non- 
attendance, causes vacancies, all of which require to be filled. 

Nominations for the above-mentioned vacancies have been received 
for the positions of Vice-Presidents, and Members of Council. The 
following have been nominated : 



,, LEINSTER, .. JAMES MILLS, i.s.o., M.R.I. A. 
,, MUNSTER, .. T. J. WESTROPP, M. A., M.R.I. A. 



T. G. H. GREEN, M.R.I. A. 



It will therefore be necessary to declare the foregoing as elected to the 
respective offices for which they have been nominated. 

The Society has lost by death twenty-four Members, so far as at 
present notified. 

The following is the List of Deaths recorded in 1912 : 


Handcock, G. F., 5, Hazelwell-road, Putney, London (Member, 1893; fellow, 


Phene, J. S., LL.D., 5, Carleton -terrace, London (1873). 
Saunderson, Rev. Robert de Bedick, M.A., Milton House, Sittingbourne (1898). 



Curolan, John, J.P., 13, Rathdown-terrace, N.C.R., Dublin (1894). 

D.ilton, John Paul, Camden Hotel, Cork (1908). 

Daniel, Robert G., J.P., Newforest, Tyrrell's Pass, Westmeath (1897). 

Fitzsimons, John Binghara, M.D., The Cottage, Lympstone, S. Devon (1868). 

Oeoghegan, Michael, J.P., Prince of Wales Hotel, Athlone (1890). 

Hall, Thomas, Derrynure House, Bailieborough (1893). 

Hinch, William A., 24, Cambridge-road, Rathmines (1871). 

Martin, R. T., 25, St. Stephen's Green, Dublin (1908) 

Meade, Right Rev. William E., D.D., Bishop of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross (1893). 

Meagher, Very Rev. Canon William, P.P., Templemore (1865). 

Montgomery, Robert J., M.A., M.D., 28, Upper Fitzwilliarn-street, Dublin (1897). 

Moffatt, Rev. John E., M.D., Palrnerston Villa, Rathmines (1891). 

Moore, Joseph H., A.I.M., 5, Brookfield-terraoe, Donnybrook (1885). 

Morton, John, 45, Wellington -road, Dublin (1889). 

M'Inerny, T. J., 8, Shamrock Villas, Drumcondra (1902). 

M'Kee, Robert, M.A., Harlesden College, London (1892). 

M'Ternan, Miss M., 14, Clare-street, Dublin (1905). 

O'Malley, Arthur M., The Quay, Westport (1899). 

OToole, Arthur, 5, Foster Place, Dublin (1898). 

Roberts, Edward, M.A., Plas Maesinela, Carnarvon (1897). 

Thomas, W. J., Mullingar (1897). 


The most important event in the year has been the granting to the 
Society of a Royal Charter of Incorporation by His Majesty King 
George V. The Charter, which was applied for in 1911, was passed, 
under the Great Seal, April 22nd, 1912. The granting of the Charter of 
Incorporation places the Society on an equal footing with the leading 
scientific Societies in the "United Kingdom, and the Council feel that this 
should be a matter of gratification to every Fellow and Member of the 

A copy of the Charter is printed in the appendix. 


The correspondence printed in the appendix shows the efforts made 
by the Council to obtain for Ireland the same advantages that would 
arise from the preparation of an inventory of the ancient monuments in 
the country such as is already in progress in Great Britain. The Council 
consider the reasons offered by Government for the unfair treatment of 
Ireland as entirely inadequate, and will continue to press for equality 
of treatment in this matter either in the form of a Royal Commission or 
in some other manner. They hope in this to have the sympathetic 
support of all the Irish Members of Parliament and the public, on whose 
behalf the Council are acting. The existing Acts of Parliament, while 
administered with zeal as far as they go, are totally insufficient to deal 


with all the monuments of the country. Only the fringe of this- 
important work is touched, and the matter is made worse by the 
insufficiency of the parliamentary vote, which for the past year 1911-12 
was only 500 odd for ancient monuments. The want of co-ordination 
and classification as between what should be county and what government 
charges is detrimental. In this and other matters the advice and 
assistance of an Advisory Committee, such as was formed by the Board 
of Works some years ago by representation from this Society and the 
Royal Irish Academy, would be helpful ; but the Council regret to have 
to report that the Board of Works have not seen fit to avail itself in 
late years of the services of this committee. This attitude seems strange 
in view of the action of the corresponding authorities in England in 
promoting a Bill in the present Parliament for the express purpose of 
establishing such an Advisory Board for that country. 


In former reports of the Council reference was made to the vandalism 
which resulted in the destruction of the contours of the mounds known as 
the "King's Chair" and the " Rath of the Synods." Since their issue the 
portion of the hill on which these mounds are situated has been vested 
under the Ancient Monuments Protection Act of 1892, which will prevent 
a repetition of such vandalism, but nothing has been done to restore the 
mounds to their original surface. It is gratifying to learn that the Board 
of Works have caubed an elaborate contour survey to be undertaken of 
the hill, from which a model or relief map could be made, and that sufficient 
measurements and data have been preserved which would enable the 
original contour of the defaced mounds to be restored. We hope the 
Board of Works will undertake the reparation of the damage done in 
1902, now that the mounds are vested in them. 

The completion of this valuable survey will enable the scientific 
investigation of the other mounds to be undertaken, and, as mentioned in 
the Society's report for 1910, the committee appointed by the Council are 
prepared to co-operate in this work towards which the Government 
Grant Committee of the Eoyal Society have contributed a sum, of which 
about 44 will be made available for commencing this desirable work, 
but a much larger sum will be required to carry it through to completion. 


The Register of Gormamton, edited by Mr. James Mills, will soon be 
ready for distribution. The Editor hoped it would be ready by the date 
of the Annual General Meeting, but the difficulties of making the index 
have delayed the completion of the volume. 



The Koll at the end of the year 1912 stands as follows, after removing 
the 12 names printed at end of this report as owing subscriptions for 
three years : 

Hon. Fellows, . . . . . .11 

Life Fellows, . . . . . .49 

Fellows, . . . . 138 

Life Members, . . . . . .52 

Members, ....... 773 

Total, . . . . . . 1023 

The number on the lioll for 1911 was 1053. The decrease is caused 
by the deaths noted, some resignations, and the removal of the names of 
all those who had not paid any subscriptions for the previous three years. 
The numbers elected during the year were 5 Fellows, and 29 Members. 

The following are the names which have been removed from the List 
for 1912 as owing three years' subscriptions, viz., 11*09, 1910, and 
1911, with the option of being restored to Membership on paying up all 

arrears : 


Forshaw, Charles, LL.D., 4, Hustler- terrace, Bradford, Yorks. 


Carroll, Anthony R., 47, North Great George's-street, Dublin. 

Carter, Joseph S. Bernard, Gahvay. 

Cuthbert, David, Devon Chambers, Hunter-street, Sydney, N.S.W. 

Finegun, Rev. Peter, St. Patrick's, Dundalk. 

Green, Miss, 137, St. Stepben's-greeu, Dublin. 

Le Bane, Daniel, D.I.K.S., Killaruey. 

Lovegrove, E. H., M.A., The Schoolhouse, Stamford. 

Mahouy, Peirce Gun, Kilmurry, Castleisland, Co. Kerry. 

M'Aleer, H. K., Sixmilecross, Co. Tyrone. 

Nolan, Miss L., 69, Northumberland -road, Dublin. 

Sheridan, Mrs., 26, North Earl-street, Dublin. 

List of Fellows and Members elected in 1912, and Members 
transferred to the rank of Fellow : 


Davy, Victor George, 1 Maxwell-road, Rathgar, Dublin. 
Fogeriy, George J., R.N., 47, George-street, Limerick (Member, 1901). 
Gaisford-St. Lawrence, Capt. J. C., J.P., Howth Castle, Co. Dublin. 
Gough, The Viscount, Lough Cutra Castle, Gort, Co. Galway. 
Plunkett, Joseph M., 26, Upper Fitzwilliam-street, Dublin. 


Anderson, Sir Robert, Bart., Donegall -place, Belfast. 
Butler, Matthew, 19, Belvedere-place, Dublin. 
Chancellor, John W., Fernside, Upper Rathmines. 
Dagg, T. S. C., B.A., 86, Lower Baggot-street, Dublin. 
Daniel, Miss Isabella, New Forest, Tyrrell's Puss, Co. Westmeath. 


- MEMBERS continued 

Dargan, William J., M.B., M.D., 45, St. Stephen' s-green, Dublin. 

Delaney, Joseph Francis, M.R. I.A.I., City Surveyor, Cork. 

Dickson, Mrs. Mary, Fahan Rectory, Londonderry. 

Douglas, John, 12, South Parade, Waterford. 

Downes, Nicholas J., Solicitor, Belle vue, Mullingar. 

Dundon, Miss Annie, The Cottage, Crecora, Patrick's Well, Co. Liineiick. 

Fairholme, Miss Caroline Grace, Comragh, Kilraacthonias, Co. Waterford. 

Geyer, Mrs., Geraldine Castle, Tigua, Ohio, U.S.A. 

Gillooly, Michael, Fore, Castlepollard, Co. Westmeath. 

Hannigan, James J., B.E., B.A., County Surveyor, Court House, Monaghan 

Keane, Sir John, Bart., Cappoquin House, Cappoquin. 

MacCaffrey, Rev. James, D.PH., St. Patrick's College, Mayiiooth. 

M'Donnell, Bobert Percy, F.R.C.S.I., 20, Lr. Leeson-street, Dublin. 

Mayler, Miss Margaret, Harristown, Ballymetty, Co. Wexford. 

Morrison, William H., Granville Hotel, Upper Sackville-street, Dublin. 

Murphy, Walter, Gracepark House, Richmond-road, Drumcondra. 

Ormsby, Robert Daly, Ballynamote, Carrickniines, Co. Dublin. 

Reade, James F. A., M.I.C.E., 28, Barronstrand-street, Waterford. 

Scott, William A., Architect, 45, Mount] oy- square, Dublin. 

Seigne, Miss Margery, Greenane House, Thomastown, Co. Kilkenny. 

Symes, Miss Eleanor, Mount Druid, Killiney, Co. Dublin. 

Talbot, Rev. Robert, Rector of Ballycarney, Co. Wexford. 

Toppin, Aubrey John, National Museum, Dublin. 

uaCasaide, Seamus, B.A., Board of Works, Dublin. 

On the adoption of the Report the Chairman declared the following 
elected to their respective offices : 



,, LEINSTER, .. JAMES MILLS, i.s.o., M.R.I. A 

,, MUNSTKR, .. T. J. WKSTROPP, M.A., M.H.I. A. 



T. G. H. GREEN, M.R.I. A. 

S. A. 0. FlTzPATlUCK. 


The proposed amended Statutes and By-laws under the Charter were 
discussed, and the final consideration postponed until the February 

It was proposed, and, after discussion, agreed that the Summer 
Meeting and Excursions be held in Sligo from the 23rd to the 28th 

The Meeting then adjourned until 8.30 o'clock, p.m. 


The Evening Meeting was held at 8.30 o'clock, p.m., COUNT PLUNKETT, 
F.S.A., President, in the Chair. 

The following papers were read and referred to the Council for 
publication : 

"The Dominican Church of Athenry." By Professor R. A. S. Macalisteiv 


" The Dublin Society for the Support of Decayed Musicians, 1750-1764." By 
W. H. Grattan Flood, MUS.D., Member. 

"The Seventeenth-century House, Oldhawn, Co. Dublin." By II. G. Leask r 


The Meeting then adjourned until 25 February 1913. 


American Antiquarian Society Proceedings, vol. xxi, part 1. 

Antiquary, The, for 1912. 

Archaeologia Cambrensis, vol. xii, parts 1, 2, 3, and 4. 

" A Study of the Bronze Age Pottery of Great Britain and Ireland." By the Hon. John 


Belfast Naturalists' Field Club Proceedings, vol. vi, part 5. 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society Transactions, vol. xxxiv, purls 1 

and 2. 
British Archaeological Association Journal, vol. xvii, parts 3 and 4 ; vol. xviii, parts I 

and 2. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society Proceedings, no. 61. 

Cambridge and Huntingdon Archaeological Society Transactions, vol. iii, part 7- 
" Catalogue of the Dryden Collection." By R. VV. Brown. 
Chester Archaeological Society Journal, N.S., vol. xviii. 

Cork Historical and Archaeological Society Journal, vol. xvii, nos. 92, 93, and 94. 
Det Kongelige Norske Vedenskapers Selskaps Skrifter, 1910. 
Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club, vol. xxxii. 
Epigraphia Indica, vol. x, part 7 ; vol. xi, parts 1, 2, and 3. 
Folk Lore, vol. xxii, no. 2. 

Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, vol. Ixiii. 
Irish Builder for 1912. 

Kildare Archaeological Society Journal, vol. vii, nos. 1 and 2. 
Louth Archaeological Society Journal, vol. ii, no. 4. 
Memoires des Antiquaires du Nord, 1911-1912. Aarboger, 1911. 
Numismatic Chronicle, 4th Series, nos. 43, 44, 45, 46, and 47. 
Numismatique de Musie National de Transylvanie Tranvaux, vol. iii, no. 2. 
" Palaeolithic Man and Terramara Settlements in Europe." By Robert Munro, M.A. r 


Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statements for 1912. 

Revue Celtique, vol. xxxii, no. 4 ; vol. xxxiii, nos. 1, 2, and 3. 

Royal Anthropological Institute Journal, vols. xli and xlii. 

Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland Journal, vol. Ixviii,. 

nos. 272, 273, and-274 ; vol. Ixix, no. 275. 
Royal Institute of British Architects Journal, vol. xix, parts 1-4 ; Kalenda* 



Royal Irish Academy Proceedings, vol. xxix, Sec. C, no. 9 ; vol. xxx, Sec. C. nos. 

Societe Royale de Archeologie de Bruxelles Annales, tome xxv, liv. 2-4 ; tome xxvi, 

liv. 1-4 ; Annuaire, tome xxiii. 
Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne Proceedings, 3rd Series, vol. v, 

pp. 117-240; Aeliana, vol. viii. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Proceedings, vol. xlv. 
Society of Architects Year Book, 1912; Journal, vol. v, nos. 51-60; vol, vi, m>s. 61 

and 62. 

Somersetshire Archaeological Society Proceedings, 3rd Series, vol. xvii. 
Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. liv. 
Thuresby Society, vol. xx, no. 43. 

The State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Bibliography of Wisconsin, in the War. 
United States National Museum Report, 1911. 
Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, vol. xxxvii, nos. 116 

and 117. Antiquities in the Museum. 

Yorkshire Arcbaeological Journal, vol. xxi, parts 84 and 85. 
Yorkshire Philosophical Society Report, 1911. 


The diminution in the number of photographs unfortunately continues. Hitherto 
we had never added less than a hundred photographs ; for the last two years we added 
less than a quarter and less than a third of that number, being 23 for 1911, and 31 for 
1912. Mr. H. T. Knox, as usual, heads the list, having given 23. Mr. Charles G- 
Pilkington Wilson gave 10 ; the keeper 13 ; Mr. H. S. Crawford 2 ; Dr. G. Fogerty 4 ; 
Dr. G, U. MeXamara 2. This brings the collection to 2762 at present. 

CLARE. Bishop's Island, with cells; Bunratty Castle ; Caherahoagh Fort, steps ; 
Cashlaun Gur fort ; Cratloe Castle ; Creevagh dolmen (Burren) (2) ; Doonaunroe 
(Foohagh) ; Dysert O'Dea cross and church (3) ; Illaunadoon Head ; Mogbane Fort, 
second wall, and Noughaval, O'Davoren's chapel 13 in all. 

KERRY. Bray (Valencia), two clochans (2) ; Cahergall (near Cahersiveen) ; 
Clynacartan, gallans near ; Duncanuig cliff fort, St. Finan's Bay (3) ; Dundagallan 
cliff fort (Valencia) ; Duneaner Fort, near Doulus Head ; and Rincaheragh Cattle 
(near Valencia) (2) 11 in all. 3 

LIMERICK. Mountrussell ogham stone 2. 

MAYO. Balla, base of Round Tower, c. ; Currykilleen fort (3) ; Dunfeeny pillar 
stone; Dunminulla, fortified head; Lismeegan grave (2); Rosserk, Frauci.-can 
Convent (2) 10 in all. 

ROSCOMMON. Baliinaphuill fort (near Ballyhaunis) (2) ; Cauraun mound (near 
Rathcroghan (3) ; Carrowkeel fort(Bohola) ; Glenballythomas grove inGrallagh town- 
land (near Rathcroghan); Kilroddan fort (Tibohine).; Lynn church font (near 
Mullingar) ; Mullaghdooey mound in Rath Park (near Castlereagh) ; RathcrogLan 
fort; Toberelon church (Baslick) (2) 15 in all. 

TITPERARY. Patrick's Well churcb, altar (near Clonmel). 
WESTMEATH. Castletown Geoghegan mote (2). 

1 Continued from vol. xli, p. 90, by T. J. Westropp, Keeper. 

2 Several of these have been reproduced in the Journal, vol. xlii. 

T T> A T ) Vol. in, Sixth Series. 
Jour. K.b.A.l. | y ol> XLI1I> Consec . s er . J 


The adjourned General Meeting was held at the Society's Rooms, 
6, St. Stephen's Green, on Tuesday, 25 February 1913, at 8.15 o'clock, 
Count Plunkett, President, in the Chair, when the Statutes and By-laws 
revised under the Charter were discussed, and their adoption moved by 
Mr. William Fry, seconded by Mr. R. J. Kelly, and passed unanimously. 
(These Statutes and By-laws which now govern the Society's proceedings 
will be found in the appendix.) 

Lantern slides of the following were exhibited by E. C. II. Armstrong, 
Hon. Gen. Secretary : 

A Matrix of a Thirteenth-century Seal, and a Bronze Plate engraved with the arms 
of the Dublin Tailors' Guild. 

The following papers were read and referred to the Council for 
publication : 

" Prehistoric Remains (Forts and Dolmens) in Burren and on its Southern Border, 
Co. Ciare" (illustrated with lantern slides). By T. J. Westropp, M.A., 

"The Northern Road from Tara." By G. E. Hamilton. Communicated by 
Everard Hamilton, Member. 

The Meeting then adjourned until the 25th March, 1913. 

An Evening Meeting of the Sixty-fifth Yearly Session of the Society 
was held in the Society's Rooms, 6, St. Stephen's Green, Dublin, on 
Tuesday, the 25th of March, 1913, at 8.30 o'clock, George Dames 
Burtchuell, Athlone Pursuivant of Arms, M.A., M.U.I. A., in the Chair, 
when the following papers were read : 

" A Note as to when Heraldry was adopted by the Irish Chiefs." By E. C. R. 
Armstrong, Hon. Gen. Sec. 

"A Burial Custom of the Iron Age, and a Suggested Explanation." By 
Miss Margaret E. Dobbs, Member. 

and referred to the Council for publication. 

The Meeting then adjourned until 29 April 1913. 





of tlie United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the 
British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith. 
To all whom these Presents shall come GREETING. 

WHKREAS an humble Petition has been presented to Our Eight Trusty 
and Right well-beloved Cousin and Counsellor, JOHN CAMPBELL, EARL OP 
ABERDEEN, Knight of our Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the 
Thistle, Knight Grand Cross of Our Most Distinguished Order of 
Saint Michael and Saint George, Knight Grand Cross of Our Royal 
Victorian Order, Our Lieutenant-General and General Governor of that 
part of Our said United Kingdom called Ireland, on behalf of the Society 
called the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, hereinafter called the 
said Royal Society, by Our trusty and well-beloved ROBERT COCHRANE, 
Companion of the Imperial Service Order, Doctor of Laws, Fellow of 
the Society of Antiquaries, Member of the Royal Irish Academy, Fellow 
of the Eoyal Institute of British Architects, Past President of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland ; PATRICK WESTON JOYCE, Doctor 
of Laws, Member of the Eoyal Irish Academy ; JOHN RIBTON GARSTIN 
.Master of Arts, Justice of the Peace and Deputy-Lieutenant for the 
County of Louth, Member of the Royal Irish Academy, Fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries ; ROBEUT DAY, Justice of the Peace for the City 
of Cork, Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, Member of the 
Royal Irish Academy, a Vice-President of the said Royal Society ; 
GEORGE NOBLK PLUNKETT (commonly called Count Plunkett), Justice of the 
Peace for the County of Dublin, Member of the Royal Irish Academy, 
Director of the National Museum, Vice-President of the said Royal Society; 
WILLIAM FRY, Justice of the Peace for the County of Dublin, Fellow of 
the Royal Geographical Society ; PATRICK J. O'REILLY, Member of Council, 
Fellow of the said Eoyal Society ; SEATON FORREST MILLIGAN, Justice of 
the Peace for the City of Belfast, Member of the Eoyal Irish Academy, a 
jmst Vice-President of the said Eoyal Society ; SAMUEL CUNNINGHAM, a 
.Member of the said Eoyal Society ; PATRICK JOSEPH LYNCH, Member of the 



Royal Irish Academy, a past Vice-President of the said Royal Society ^ 
HENRY F. BERRY, Companion of the Imperial Service Order, Doctor 
of Letters, a past Yice-President of the said Royal Society ; 
RICHARD LANGRISHE, Justice of the Peace for the City of Kilkenny, 
Senior Yice-President of the said Royal Society ; THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 
LORD WALTER FITZ GERALD, Justice of the Peace for the County of Kildare, . 
late Captain King's Royal Rifle Corps, a Yice-President of the said Royal 
Society; HENRY JOHN STOKES, Barrister-at-Law, Fellow and Honorary 
Treasurer of the said Royal Society ; THOMAS JOHNSON WESTROPP, Master 
of Arts, Member of the Royal Irish Academy ; MICHAEL JOSEPH McENERY, 
Bachelor of Arts, Member of the Royal Irish Academy, Fellow 
and an Honorary General Secretary of the said Royal Society ; 
Antiquaries, Member of the Royal Irish Academy, a Fellow and an 
Honorary General Secretary of the said Royal Society ; JAMES MILLS, 
Companion of the Imperial Service Order, Deputy-Keeper of Public 
Records and Keeper of the State Papers in Ireland, a past Yice-President 
of the said Royal Society ; GEORGE DAMES BURTCHAELL, Master of Arts, 
Bachelor of Laws, Barrister-at-Law, Athlone Pursuivant and Registrar of 
the Office of Arms in Ireland, a Yice-President of the said Royal Society ; 
Society of Antiquaries, Professor of Celtic Archaeology in the National 
Doctor of Medicine, and FRANCIS ELRINGTON BALL, Doctor of Letters, Justice 
of the Peace for County Dublin, Member of the Royal Irish Academy, a 
past Yice-President of the said Royal Society ; setting forth, amongst 
other things, that in the year 1849, the Kilkenny Archaeological Society 
was instituted for the purpose of preserving, examining, and illustrating 
ancient monuments and memorials of the arts, manners, and customs of 
the past as connected with the antiquities, language, and literature of or 
relating to Ireland ; that the operations of the Society becoming extended 
from time to time, alterations were made in the style and title of the 
Society; that on the 27th day of December, in the year 1869, 
Her late Majesty QUKEN VICTORIA was graciously pleased to order that 
the Society be called in future the Royal Historical and Archaeological 
Association of Ireland ; and that on the 25th day of March, 1890, Her 
said late Majesty was pleased to sanction the adoption of the title of 
The Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, and to become its Patron-in- 
Chief ; and that His late Majesty KING EDWARD THE SEVENTH was a 
Fellow, and also Patron-in- Chief of the said Royal Society. 

AND WHEREAS by their said Petition the said Royal Society prayed 
that there might be granted to he present Fellows and Members of 
the said Royal Society a Royal Charter to enable them as a Corporate 
Body recognizable at law to carry on with the Fellows and Members to 
be elected in future the examination and illustration of the ancient 


Monuments and Memorials of Ireland as in the past, and generally the 
lousiness of the Society. 

AND WHEREAS "We are minded to comply with the Prayer of the 

KNOW TE therefore that We of Our special Grace, certain knowledge, 
and mere motion, by and with the advice and consent of Our right trusty 
aii'l right well-beloved Cousin and Counsellor, JOHN CAMPBELL, EARL OF 
ABERDEEN, Our said Lieutenant-General and General Governor of that 
part of Our said United Kingdom called Ireland, and according to the 
tenor and effect of Our Letter under Our Privy Signet and Royal Sign 
Manuals, bearing date at Our Court of Saint James's, the 4th day of 
March 1912, in the Second Year of Our Reign, and now enrolled in the 
Record and Writ Office of Our Chancery Division of the High Court of 
Justice in that part of Our said United Kingdom called Ireland, have 
willed, granted, declared, and appointed, and by tbese Presents for 
us Our Heirs and Successors, do hereby will, grant, declare, and appoint 
as follows: The persons now Fellows, Honorary Fellows, and Members 
of the said Voluntary Association or Society known as The Royal 
Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, and all such persons as may hereafter, 
according to such Regulations or By-laws hereinafter mentioned, become 
Fellows, Honorary Fellows, and Members of the Body Corporate, hereby 
constituted pursuant to the provisions of these Presents, or the powers 
hereby granted, shall for ever hereafter be one Body Corporate and 
Politic by the name of The Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, here- 
inafter referred to as the Society, and by the same name shall have 
perpetual succession and a common seal, with the power to break, alter, 
and make anew the said seal from time to time at their will and pleasure, 
and by the same name may sue and be sued in all Courts, and in all 
manner of actions and suits, and shall have power to do all other matters 
and things incidental or appertaining to a Body Corporate, and that the 
Society may use and have a Mace. 

AND further of Our special grace, certain knowledge and mere 
motion, by and with the advice and consent aforesaid, and according to 
the tenor and effect of Our aforesaid letters, We have licensed, authorized, 
and for ever hereafter enabled, and by these Presents for Us, Our Heirs 
and Successors do license, authorize, and for ever hereafter enable the 
Society or any person on its behalf to acquire any lands, tenements, or 
hereditaments within that part of Our United Kingdom called Ireland, 
or other interests therein, now held by or belonging to the Society, or 
by or belonging to any person or persons on its behalf, and also to acquire 
any additional lands, tenements, and hereditaments whatsoever in Ireland 
(such additional lands, tenements, and hereditaments not exceeding at 
any one time in annual value calculated as at the time of the acquisition 
thereof respectively the sum of Five hundred pounds, according 
to the Irish Valuation Acts), and to hold all or any lands which the 


Society is hereby authorized to acquire in perpetuity, or on lease or 
otherwise, and from time to time, but subject to all such consents as are 
by law required, to grant, demise, alienate, or otherwise dispose of the 
same or any part thereof. 

AND "We do further, for Ourselves and Our Heirs and Successors, Give 
and Grant Our Licence to any person or persons, and any Body Politic 
or Corporate, to assure in perpetuity or otherwise, or to demise to or for 
the benefit of the Society any lands, tenements, or hereditaments what- 
soever within that part of the United Kingdom called Ireland, within 
the limits of Value aforesaid, hereby nevertheless declaring that it shall 
not be incumbent upon any such person or persons or body to enquire 
as to the annual value of the property which may have been previously 
acquired by the Society. 

AND We do further grant, declare, and appoint that there shall be in 
each year at least one general meeting of the Society as hereinafter 
mentioned, and that there shall always be a Council to direct and manage 
the concerns of the Society, and that the Council shall have the entire 
direction and management of the same in the manner and subject to the 
Regulations or By-laws hereinafter mentioned. But Our Will and 
Pleasure is that, at all General Meetings and Meetings of the Council, the 
Majority of the Fellows and Members present, and having a right to vote 
thereat respectively, shall decide upon each matter propounded at such r 
the person presiding therein having, in case of an equality of numbers, 
a second or casting vote. 

AND, further, of Our special grace, certain knowledge, and more 
motion, by and with the advice and consent aforesaid, and according to 
the tenor and effect of Our aforesaid Letter, We have willed, declared,, 
appointed, and granted, and, by these Presents, do will, declare, appoint,, 
and grant that the Council shall be constituted as follows, that is to say, 
it shall consist of the President for the time being, the Past Presidents, 
the Vice-Presidents, the Honorary General Secretaries, an Honorary 
Treasurer, and twelve or more Fellows or Members of the said Society, 
and that the first Members of the Council, exclusive of the President,, 
shall be elected within six months after the date of this Our Charter, and 
that the said ROBERT COCHRANE shall be the first President of the Society.. 

AND We do further will, grant, declare, and appoint that it shall be 
lawful for the Fellows and Members of the Society hereby established to- 
hold general meetings once in the year or oftener for the purposes herein- 
after mentioned, that is to say that the General Meetings shall choose 
a President, and such number of Yice-Presidents, representing each 
Province in Ireland, as such Meetings shall deem necessary, one or more 
Honorary General Secretaries, and an Honorary Treasurer of the Society, 
and shall also elect twelve or more Fellows or Members of the Society to 
be Members of the Council thereof; that the General Meetings shall 
make and establish such Regulations or By-laws as such Meetings 


shall deem to be useful and necessary for the regulation of the Society, 
for the admission of Fellows, Honorary Fellows, and Members ; for the 
Management of the estates, goods, chattels, library, and publications of 
the Society, and for fixing and determining the manner of electing the 
President and Yice-Presidents, Secretaries and Treasurer of the Society, 
and electing the Members of the Council, and the period of their continu- 
ance in office; also of appointing such officers, attendants, or servants on 
such conditions and at such salaries or remuneration as shall be deemed 
necessary or useful for the Society, and such Regulations or By-laws 
from time to time shall or may alter, vary, or revoke, and shall 
and may make such new and other Regulations or By-laws as they 
shall think most useful and expedient, so that the same shall not be 
repugnant to these Presents, or to the Laws and Statutes of this Our 

AND We do further will, grant, and declare that the Council shall 
have the sole management of the income and funds of the Society, arid 
also the entire management and superintendence of all the other property, 
affairs, and concerns thereof, and shall and may, but not inconsistently 
with or contrary to the terms of this Our Charter, or to the Laws and 
Statutes of this Our Realm, do all such acts and deeds as shall appear to 
them necessary or essential to be done for the purpose of carrying into 
effect the object and purposes of the Society. 

AND We do further will, declare, and grant that the whole of the 
property of the Society shall be vested in the Society, but subject to the 
powers of superintendence and management aforesaid, provided that no 
contract shall be made for sale, mortgage, incumbrance, or other disposi- 
tion of any messuages, lands, tenements, or hereditaments, or any 
property belonging to the Society, save with the approbation and 
concurrence of a General Meeting. 

AND We do further declare it to be Our will and pleasure that no 
Regulations or By-laws shall on any account or pretence whatsoever 
be made by the Society in opposition to the general scope, true intent, 
and meaning of this Our Charter, or the Laws and Statutes of Our 
Realm, and that if any such Regulation or By-law shall be made the 
same shall be absolutely void to all intents, effects, constructions, and 
purposes whatsoever. 

AND, lastly, We do by these Presents grant to the Society and their 
successors that these Our Letters Patent, or the enrolment or exemplifica- 
tion thereof, and all and singular the matters and things in the same 
contained shall and may be good, valid, and effectual in the Law 
according to the true intent and meaning of the same, and shall betaken,, 
construed, and adjudged in the most favourable and beneficial sense, and 
for the best advantage of the Society, as well in all our Courts of 
* Record ' as elsewhere, and by all and singular the Judges, Justices, 
Officers, Ministers, and other subjects whatsoever of Us, Our Heirs 


and Successors, any omission, imperfection, defect, cause, or thing 
whatsoever to the contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding. 

PROVIDED ALWAYS that these our Letters Patent be enrolled in the 
Record and Writ Office of Our High Court of Justice in that part of our 
said United Kingdom called Ireland, within the space of six months from 
the date of these Presents, otherwise these Our said Letters Patent to he 
null and void and of no effect, anything herein contained to the contrary 

IN WITNESS whereof We have caused these Our Letters to be made 

WITNESS Our Lieutenant General and General Governor of Ireland at 
Dublin the Twenty-second day of April in the second year of Our Reign. 


Clerk of the Crown and Banaper, Permanent 
Secretary to the Lord Chancellor in Ireland. 

Enrolled in the Consolidated Judgments Record and Writ Office of 
His Majesty's High Court of Justice in Ireland, Chancery Division, on the 
29th day of April 191 2. 


Clerk of Judgments, Records, and Writs. 



13th December, 1911. 

I am directed by the Lord Lieutenant to advert to your letter of 
the 9th October last, and accompanying Memorial of the President and 
Council of the Royal Society of Antiquaries complaining of the 
destruction of ancient monuments in Ireland. 

With reference to the assertions in the Memorial as to the alleged 
failure of the provisions of the Irish Land Act, 1903 (section 14), to 
ensure the preservation of ancient monuments on lands vested in 


purchasers under te Land Purchase Acts, I am to state that His 
Excellency will be glad to be referred to specific instances in support of 
these assertions. His Excellency is informed that the Royal Society of 
Antiquaries are under a misapprehension in thinking that where the 
vendor or his solicitor fails to notify the Estates Commissioners of the 
existence of any ancient monuments on estates proposed to be sold under 
the Act of 1903 such monuments pass into the possession of the tenant 
unconditionally. It will be seen on reference to paragraph 31 of the 
enclosed instructions to inspectors in the service of the Estates Commis- 
sioners that it is the duty of the inspector or surveyor to call special 
attention in his Report to the existence of any such monuments, with a 
view to their preservation under the section mentioned. Where the 
monument is worthy of preservation the Commissioners, in accordance 
with the provisions of the Act, communicate with the Board of Works, 
asking whether the Board will consent to the property in the monument 
being vested in that Department. If the Board refuses to consent, the 
Commissioners communicate witli the County Council, and they vest the 
monument in the Board of "Works or County Council, as the case may be, 
unless it appears to the Commissioners that there are special circum- 
stances which render this course inexpedient. 

I am, Gentlemen. 

Your obedient servant, 





30 tli January, 1912. 

In reply to your letter of 29th ultimo, enclosing a copy of the 
regulations made by His Excellency, in pursuance of the provisions of 
the Irish Land Act, and paragraph 31 of the instructions to inspectors, 
the Council beg to say that they are fully cognizant of the nature 
of these instructions, and desire to be permitted to mention that 
immediately after the passing of the Act, with the view of furthering the 
vesting of ancient monuments, they placed before the Estates Commis- 
sioners certain suggestions, and afterwards they were good enough to 
receive a deputation from the Council on the subject. These suggestions, 
.as well as the full text of section 14 of the Act, were embodied in the 
Annual Report of the Council, to be found in volume xxxiv of the 
JOURNAL of the Society. It is believed the advice offered contributed 


ultimately to the framing of the instructions dealing with such monu- 
ments. Since that time the steps taken by the Estates Commissioners 
for the inspecting and vesting of monuments, recorded in their Reports, 
have been printed in the Society's publications, and the sympathetic 
manner in which this Department of their work has been carried out has 
been prominently referred to in the JOURNAL of the Society. 

While appreciating the sympathetic ability with which the statutuble 
duties have been discharged by the authorities within the limits of the 
various Acts of Parliament administered by them, the Council feel it 
incumbent to express the opinion that an amendment of some of these 
Acts is desirable. They are convinced that it is not possible to effect, or 
even suggest, a remedy until the complete list is made of the monuments 
in the country in accordance with the terms of the Memorial submitted 
on the 9th of October last. 

The Council would, however, mention that it will be seen from the 
published Keports of the Estates Commissioners, that the properties dealt 
with by them cover about one-third of the whole of Ireland, and that, the 
monuments dealt with in that area number about 100. Bearing in mind that 
the estimated number of antiquarian remains in Irelnnd greatly exceeds 
20,000, it will be seen that there is sufficient cause for the concern felt 
by the Council, in common with the Archaeologists of Great Britain, for 
the remainder. The making of the inventory asked for is a matter of 
national importance, and it is trusted that Ireland will be permitted to 
share in the benefit which similar work is conferring on England, 
Scotland, and Wales, for the reasons touched on in the Memorial, quite 
apart from the beneficent operations of any Public Department. 

We are, Sir, 

Your obedient Servants, 

E. C. R. ARMSTRONG, ) Hon. Gen.. 
M. J. M'ENERY, ( Sees. 



Wth October, 1912. 

I am directed by the Lords Justices to state that Their 
Excellencies have been in correspondence with the Lords Commissioners- 
of His Majesty's Treasury, relative to the Memorial of the President and 
Council of the Royal Society of Antiquaries, praying for the appointment 


of a Royal Commission to make an inventory of the ancient and historical 
monuments of Ireland. 

Their Lordships point out that the circumstances in Ireland in regard 
to the preservation of antiquities differ from those in Great Britain, 
inasmuch as section 14 of the Irish Land Act, 1903, provides for all 
those situated on land which is transferred under the Land Acts being 
systematically dealt with. In view of this fact, and having regard to 
the contemplated changes in the Government of Ireland, their Lordships 
consider that the question whether a Eoyal Commission should be 
appointed, and, if so, what its scope and terms of reference should be, 
should remain over for the consideration of the Irish Government at 
some future time. 

I am, Gentlemen, 

Your obedient Servant, 




1 6th November, 1912. 

"WE are directed by the President and Council of our Society to 
express their disappointment at the reply to their Memorial for the 
appointment of a Eoyal Commission to make an inventory of the ancient 
and historical monuments of Ireland. 

In view of the fact that Eoyal Commissions for England, Scotland, 
and "Wales are now actively at work for a similar purpose, our Council 
have heard with surprise the principal reason given by the Lords 
Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury for postponing this work in 
Ireland, namely, that the circumstances of Ireland in this respect differ 
from those in Great Britain, inasmuch as section 14 of the Irish Land 
Act of 1903 provides for all ancient monuments situated on laud which 
is transferred under the Land Acts being systematically dealt with. 

In reply, we are directed to repeat, that the ancient and historical 
monuments and constructions in Ireland exceed 30,000 ; that while one- 
third of the land of the country an area containing at least 10,000 
ancient monuments is being transferred under the Land Acts, the total 
number of such monuments vested for preservation (pursuant to section 14 
above mentioned) in the Commissioners of Public Works, Ireland, and 
the County Councils, from 1903 to the 31st of May, 1912, amounted only 
to 77. 

We must emphatically state that it does not fall within the function 
of the Estates Commissioners to prepare an inventory such as is required 


for Ireland, and such as is being provided for Great Britain, nor have they 
the machinery necessary for the purpose. Obviously the preparation of 
such an inventory would exact specialist knowledge which it would be 
unreasonable to expect in those engaged in the special work of the Estates 

The powers of the Estates Commissioners appear to be limited to the 
makirig of these vesting orders ; for, after the orders are made, the monu- 
ments vested pass out of their hands, and the Act is silent concerning the 
fate of: 

(1) Monuments rejected by the Board of Works and County 

(2] Monuments considered, but not reserved, by the Estates 


(3) Monuments not brought under the notice of Estates Com- 

Our Council have directed us to call attention to the publications 
issued by the Royal Commissions for England, Scotland, and Wales. 
These volumes show that the men engaged on such work must have 
professional training, historical knowledge, and the acumen which can 
only be acquired by experience in antiquarian research. 

The unit of area dealt with by the Estates Commissioners is an estate 
which may be very large, or small ; as there may be a difference of many 
years in the dates of transfer of adjoining estates, there might be two or 
nn>re reports from different men, at long intervals, on the unit parts into 
\vi:ir,h a single townland may be divided. Such reports do not possess 
iiny archaeological or historical value. 

We have been directed to state that valuable monuments are dis- 
appearing very fast; that unrecorded local traditions are rapidly getting 
lo>t ; and that the first step towards the preservation of our ancient 
monuments must be the preparation of a proper inventory of them. 

Our Council wish respectfully to protest against the unequal treat- 
ment of Ireland in this important matter compared with that accorded 
to England, Scotland, and Wales; to submit that contemplated changes 
in the Government of Ireland cannot be regarded as a sufficient reason 
fur postponing this urgent work ; and to request that you will submit 
.again the entire question at issue to the Right Hon. the Chief Secretary 
for Ireland for his good offices to obtain more favourable consideration 
from the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury. 

We are, Sir, 

Your obedient Servants, 

E. C. R. ARMSTRONG, } Hon. Gen. 
M. J. M C ENERY, J Sees. 





20th November, 1912. 

I am directed by the Lord Lieutenant to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letter of the 16th instant, requesting that the proposal of the 
President and Council of the Royal Society of Antiquaries for the 
appointment of a Eoyal Commission to make an inventory of the 
Ancient and Historical Monuments of Ireland should again be submitted 
to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, and in reply 
I am to express His Excellency's regret that, for reasons already com- 
municated to you, he is of opinion that further consideration of the 
proposal must be deferred for the present. 

I am, Gentlemen, 

Your obedient Servant, 






As adopted at the adjourned Annual General Meeting, February 25th, 1913' 


1. The Society is instituted to preserve, examine, and illustrate all Ancient Monu- 
ments and Memorials of the Arts, Manners, and Customs of the past, as connected 
with the Antiquities, Language, and Literature of Ireland. 


2. The Society shall consist of 



And MEMBERS elected on or before the Annual Meeting of 28th 

January, 1913, who shall he Members of the Body Corporate. 
ASSOCIATE MEMBERS may also he elected. 


3. FELLOWS shall he elected at a General Meeting of the Society, on the nomina- 
tion of the Council, with the name of a Fellow or Memher as proposer. Each 
Fellow shall pay an Entrance Fee of 2, and an Annual Subscription of JB-1, or a Life 
Composition of 14, which includes the Entrance Fee of 2. 


4. HONORARY FELLOWS may be elected by the Society at the Annual General 
Meeting on the nomination of the Council. 

5. ASSOCIATE MEMBERS shall be elected at a General Meeting of the Society, on 
the nomination of the Council, with the name of a Fellow, Member, or Associate 
Member as proposer, and shall pay an annual Subscription of 10*. 

6. The Entrance Fees and first Annual Subscriptions of Fellows and the first 
Annual Subscriptions of Associate Members must be paid either before or on notification 
of Eluction. Fellows and Associate Members failing to pay as aforesaid shall be 
reported at the next General Meeting, and their names removed from the list. 

7. Any Fellow who has paid an Annual Subscription of 1 for ten consecutive 
years may become a LIFE FELLOW on payment of a sum of 8. 

8. Any Member who has paid an Annual Subscription of 10*. for ten consecutive 
years may become a LIFE MEMBER on payment of 5. 

9. Any Member who has paid his Life Composition, on being advanced to the rank 
of Fellow, may become a LIFE FELLOW by paying a sum of 7, which sum includes 
the Entrance Fee for Fellowship. 

10. Any Member on the roll on the 28th January, 1913, who has paid his Sub- 
scription, and is eligible for election, may be elected as a Fellow, on the recommenda- 
tion of the Council, without payment of any entrance fee. 

11. All Subscriptions shall be payable in advance on the 1st day of January in 
each year, or on election. The Subscriptions of Fellows and Associate Members 
elected at the last Meeting of any year may be placed to their credit for the following 
year. The name of any Fellow, Member, or Associate Member whose Subscription 
is two years in arrear shall be read out at the Annual General Meeting, and 
published in the Journal of the Society, and the connexion of such person with the 
Society shall cease, but his liability for moneys due to the Society shall continue. 

12. Fellows shall be entitled to receive the Journal, and all extra publications 
of the Society. Honorary Fellows, Members, and Associate Members shall be 
entitled to receive the Journal, and they may obtain the extra publications at a 
.reduced price fixed by the Council. 

13. Any Fellow, Member, or Associate Member whose Subscription for the year 
has not been paid is not entitled to the Journal ; and any Fellow, Member, or 
Associate Member whose Subscription for the current year remains unpaid, and who 
receives the Journal, shall be held liable for the payment of the full published price 
of each part. 

H. It' any Fellow, Member, or Associate Member signifies, in writing, to the 
Honorary General Secretaries of the Society that he desires to withdraw from the 
Society, he shall, with the concurrence of the Council, and on payment of all 
arrears, if any, cease to be a Fellow, Member, or Associate Member of the Society. 

15. Fellows and other Corporate Members whose Subscriptions for the current 
year have been paid shall alone have the right of voting at General Meetings of the 
Society. Associate Members have not the right of voting, and are not eligible to 
be elected as officers of the Society or Members of the Council. 


16. The Officers of the Society, who must be Fellows, shall consist of a 
President, four Vice-Presidents for each Province, one or more Honorary General 
-Secretaries, and an Honorary Treasurer. 



17. The President shall take the chair at all meetings of the Society, the Council, 
and all Standing Committees, at which he is present, and shall keep order and 
-regulate the proceedings. He shall be ex ojficio a member of all Standing Committees, 
and he may at any time summon Extraordinary Meetings of the Council, and shall 
have a casting vote on all occasions. 

On the resignation or death of the President during his term of office, the Council 
shall nominate a past President or Vice -President to act as President until the next 
Annual General Meeting. 

The President is eligible for re-election at each Annual General Meeting, but no 
Pi\ sident shall hold office for more than four consecutive years. 

The four senior or longest elected Vice-Presidents, one for each Province, shall 
retire each year by rotation, as may be determined by the Council, and shall not be 
.eligible for re-election at the General Meeting at which they retire. 


18. The Honorary General Secretary or Secretaries shall be nominated by the 
Council for election at an Annual General Meeting, and shall be ex-officio Members 
of the Council and of all Standing Committees. They shall keep the Minutes of the 
Proceedings of the Society, and cause them to be correctly and legibly transcribed. 
They shall generally superintend the ordinary business of the Society. In case of a 
vacancy occurring in the office of Honorary General Secretaries during a year of office, 
the Council shall appoint a Fellow or Fellows to hold office until the next Annual 
General Meeting. 


19. The Honorary Treasurer shall be nominated by the Council for election at an 
Annual General Meeting. He shall be ex ojficio a member of the Council and of all 
Standing Committees. He shall keep the accounts of the Society in proper books, 
provided for the purpose. He shall not make any payment (other than for current 
and petty expenses) without the previous order of the Council. He shall from time to 
time pay into the Society's Bankers all money received on its account, and shall invest 
money as directed by the Council. He shall be prepared to produce the accounts 
at any time if required by the Council, and shall submit the same personally to the 
auditor. In the case of a vacancy occurring in the office of Honorary Treasurer 
during a year of office, the Council ahall appoint a Fellow to hold that office until the 
next Annual General Meeting. 


20. The Corporate Saal of the Society shall be in the joint custody of the 
President, Honorary Treasurer, and one of the Honorary General Secretaries for the 

time being, who shall affix it to documents on the authority of the Council. 

21. The Corporate Seal of the Society shall not be affixed to any instrument for 
the sale or transfer of any of the Society's property, unless by vote of the Society on 
the recommendation of the Council. 


22. The Officers and Council shall be elected at an Annual General Meeting. 
The nominations must be received at the Rooms of the Society on or before the first 


day of January preceding the Annual General Meeting, addressed to the Hon. General 
Secretaries, and endorsed "Nomination of Officers" or " Nominations for Council." 
A meeting of the Society shall he held on the second Tuesday of December, at which 
vacancies shall he declared. Each Nomination Paper must be signed by seven or more 
Fellows or Members as proposers ; and in the case of a Candidate who has not held 
such office before, his Nomination Paper must be accompanied by an intimation under 
his hand that he will serve in that office if elected. In case the number of persons so- 
nominated shall exceed the number of vacancies, a printed Balloting Paper, containing 
the names of all such Candidates arranged in alphabetical order, distinguishing those 
recommended by the Council, shall he sent by post to every Fellow and Member 
whose name is on the Roll of the Society, directed to the address entered on the Roll,, 
at least one week before the day of election. Each person voting shall mark with a 
cross the name of the Candidate for whom he votes. The Voter shall return the 
Balloting Paper to the Hon. General Secretaries, on or before the day preceding the 
Election, in an addressed envelope (which will be supplied), closed, and marked 
Balloting Paper, and signed outside with the name of the Voter : the Balloting Paper 
itself must not be signed. In case a Voter signs the Balloting Paper, or votes for more 
Candidates than the number specified thereon, such Balloting Paper shall be rejected. 
The Balloting Papers shall be scrutinized on the day of election by at least two- 
Scrutineers appointed by the Chairman, who shall report the result at the General 
Meeting held upon that day. The Hon. Treasurer shall furnish the Scrutineers with 
a List of the Fellows and Members whose Subscriptions have been paid up to the day 
preceding the Election, and who alone are qualified to vote at such Election. Those 
Candidates who obtain the greatest number of votes shall be declared elected, provided 
that, when there appears an equality of votes for two or more Candidates, the Candi- 
date whose name has been longest on the books of the Society, shall be declared elected. 
Existing Officers and Members of Council eligible for re-election may be nomi- 
nated by the Council for election at the next Annual General Meeting. In case 
no nomination has been received for any or all of the vacancies for Officers and. 
Members of Council, in the manner prescribed, such vacancies shall be filled up by 
election at the Annual General Meeting. 


23. TLe management of the business of the Society shall be entrusted to a Council.. 
The Council shall consist of the President, Past Presidents, Vice-Presidents, the 
Honorary General Secretaries, and Honorary Treasurer, all of whom shall be ex ojficio 
Members thereof, and of sixteen Corporate Members, twelve of whom at least must 
be FelloM r s. The four senior or longest elected Members of the Council shall retire 
each year by rotation, as may be determined by the Council, and shall not he- 
eligible for re-election at the Annual General Meeting at which they retire. In case 
of a vacancy occurring for a Member of Council during the year, the Council shall, 
at its next Meeting co-opt a Fellow or Member, to retire by rotation. A Member 
of Council who has failed to attend four of the Meetings of the Council shall not be 
eligible for re-election at the next Annual General Meeting. 

The Council shall meet on the last Tuesday of each month, or on such other days 
as they may deem necessary. Four Members of Council shall form a quorum. 

24. The Council shall report to the Annual General Meeting the state of the 
Society's Funds, and other matters which may have come before them during the 
preceding year. They may appoint such Committees for dealing with special depart- 
ments of the Society's Mork as they may think fit. They may nominate for election 
at a General Meeting of the Society a paid Assistant to the Honorary General. 


Secretaries and Honorary Treasurer. In the case of a vacancy occurring in the 
post of such Assistant, the Council may appoint a Temporary Assistant or Assistants 
until the next General Meeting. 


25. The Accounts of the Society shall he audited hy an Accountant nominated 
by the Council and approved hy the Society, who shall report to the Council 
before the Annual General Meeting in each year. 


26. The Council may appoint Honorary Provincial Secretaries for each Province, 
and Honorary Local Secretaries throughout the country, whose duties shall be defined 
by the Council, and they shall report to the Council, at least once a year, on all 
Antiquarian Remains discovered in their districts, investigate Local History and 
Tradition, and give notice to the Council of all injury being inflicted, or about to be 
inflicted, on Monuments of Antiquity or on Ancient Memorials of the Dead, in order 
that the influence of the Society may be exerted for their preservation or restoration. 

27. For the purpose of carrying out the arrangements in regard to the Meetings 
and Excursions to be held in the Provinces, the Honorary Provincial Secretaries 
may be summoned to attend the Meetings of Council. Honorary Secretaries of the 
County or Counties in which such Meetings are held may be similarly summoned. 


28. The Society shall meet at least four times in each year on such days as the 
Council shall determine, for the election of Fellows and Associate Members, for the 
reading and discussion of Papers on Historical and Archaeological Subjects, for tbe 
exhibition of Objects of Antiquarian Interest, and for the transaction of other business 
of the Society. Excursions may be arranged when practicable. 

Twelve Corporate Members shall form a quorum at a General Meeting. 

29. The Annual General Meeting shall be held in Dublin in the month of January. 
The other Meetings shall be held in such places as the Council may recommend. 
Notice of such General Meetings shall be forwarded to each Fellow, Member, and 
Associate Member. Evening Meetings may be held at such times as shall be 
arranged by the Council. 


30. No Paper shall be read at any Meeting of the Society without the permission 
of the Council having previously been obtained. The Council shall determine the 
order in which Papers shall be read, and the time to be allowed for each. All Papers 
listed or Communications received shall, if accepted for publication, be the property of 
the Society. The Council shall determine whether, and to what extent, any Paper or 
Communication shall be published. 

31. All matter concerning existing religious or political differences shall be 
excluded from the Papers to be read and the discussions held at the Meetings of 
the Society. 

32. The Proceedings of the Society and the Papers read at the several Meetings, 
when approved of by the Council, shall be printed in the Journal. If the funds of 
the Society permit, extra publications may be printed. 

Tnnr K ^ A T J Vol. in, Sixth Series. ( tr 

Jour. R.S.A.I. j Vol. XLIII. Comec. JSer, j 



33. A proposal for the enactment of any new Rule, or for the alteration or repeal 
of any existing Rule, must be in the first instance submitted to the Council; the 
proposal to be signed by seven Fellows or Members, and forwarded to the Honorary 
General Secretaries. On such proposal being made, the Council shall lay the same 
before a General Meeting, with its opinion thereon ; and such proposal shall not be 
ratified unless passed by a majority of the Fellows and Corporate Members present 
at such General Meeting. 

All By-laws and Regulations dealing with the General Rules formerly made are 
hereby repealed. 








\_Continuedfromp. 65] 

rpHE great chiefs, men by no means deficient in education and intel- 
-*- ligence, very soon awoke to this possibility. The Anglo-Irish lawyers 
of the Pale were, no doubt, thoroughly acquainted with the system of 
land tenure among the natives. We know that the chiefs were very soon 
in close relations with these lawyers. 1 Accordingly we find, when 
Elizabeth once more took up her father's plans for a settlement of the 
land- after a relapse in the intervening reigns to the older policy of 
extermination that the chiefs systematically endeavoured to get grants 
conveying to them the exclusive ownership, not only of the lands they 

1 A Cork jury presented that " all the lords of this county, to colour and entertain 
their extortions, have wrought such a policy to entertain all the lawyers of the pro- 
vince, whereby no freeholder, nor poor man, can have a lawyer to speak in his cause, 
he it never so just." (Life and Letters of Florence mac Carthy mor, p. 7.) 

Tn r T? S A T J V01 ' IH Sixth SerieS ' I I 

Jour. K.b.A.l. j Vol., Consec. Ser. ( 



held in virtue of their office, but of all the clan lands as well. And in 
many cases the authorities were quite willing to meet their wishes. 

On the other hand, apart from the letter of the law, there could be 
no doubt that the real owners of the land, if strict equity was to be 
followed, were the members of the septs. 

This conflict of two distinct views as to the real ownership of the 
land is the salient feature in the second stage of the Tudor settle- 
ment. 1 

Early in Elizabeth's reign instructions were given to the Deputy to 
induce the Irish chiefs to make surrenders of the lands in their possession, 
in order to receive them back to be held in tail male under the Crown. 
In the twelfth year of her reign the Irish Parliament passed an Act to 
facilitate the same policy. 

From this time the " Policy of Surrender and Regrant," as it was 
called, becomes a prominent feature in the affairs of the island. 

Modern writers, as I have said, have seen in this a concealed system 
of confiscation. The lands belonging to the clan were to be given to the 
chiefs to purchase their fidelity to the Crown. A Machiavellian instinct 
foresaw that the chiefs would sooner or later rebel, and so the whole 
possessions of the clans could be seized and divided among English 
planters. 2 

The real facts are very different. Two possible courses presented 
themselves to the authorities. "When the chief made his surrender, he 
might be looked on as the sole owner of the clan lands, and be made 
proprietor of the whole territory. The advantages of this plan were not 
very obvious. It would of course induce the chiefs to surrender, and 
would bind them more or less to fidelity to the Crown. JS"o doubt, too, 
the possibility of a future forfeiture was not overlooked. But, on the 
other hand, it would enormously increase the power of the chiefs, and 
make their clansmen utterly dependent on them. This was by no means 
desired by the Government, which consistently aimed at breaking up the 
great Irish lordships, and reducing the chiefs from petty kings to the 
position held by the great English nobles. The second course, to recognize 
the clansmen as owners, would seem the natural one to adopt. It 
would free the clans from dependence on the chief, bring them directly 
under the Crown, and secure their loyalty, while striking a blow at the 
excessive power of the great lords. 8 

' l Dr. Bonn devotes to this conflict a great part of book ii. See especially the 
chapters " Die Belehnung der Hauptlinge niit Geschlechtsland," and " Die Yerteilung 
des Geschlechtseigen turns." 

2 As a matter of fact, Cusack, in his letter of 1541, did allude to the prospect that 
sooner or later the Irish grantees would break their covenants and so forfeit their 
lands. But he does not seem to limit his remarks to the chiefs. 

3 Dr. Bonn gives the arguments in favour of this course the just one in hook ii, 
chap. iv. 


There were difficulties, however, in this course also. It would almost 
certainly meet with opposition from the chiefs whose revenues and posi- 
tion would be greatly diminished. And it was highly probable that the 
chiefs, if hostile to the Government, would be followed by a large number 
of the clansmen, accustomed to obey their commands, and certainly they 
could reckon on their own tenants and dependents, including the mercenary 
soldiers who made up a large part of their fighting force. Then the court 
influence of the chiefs had to be taken into account. If they demanded 
from the English authorities, as many of them did, that they should get all 
the clan-lands as their own, they were constantly able to back up their 
demands by the favour of influential courtiers, or by the services which 
they had actually rendered to the Crown in times of danger. The chiefs 
could fee lawyers to maintain their claims ; the clansmen might have no 
inkling as to what was going on until the lands had actually been granted 
away to the chief. Besides, the subject was really difficult to decide 
fairly, and the authorities seem to have desired to act justly. 1 But they 
had often to choose between the letter of the English law and what equity 
demanded. We must add to these causes of perplexity the objection 
entertained by statesmen of the time to anything like peasant proprietor- 
ship. " The multitude of small freeholders beggars the country" was a 
statement looked on as axiomatic in Tudor days. 2 

We have ample proof that, in London at least, there was a sincere 
desire to protect the rights of both chief and clansmen. It is sufficient 
to name the elaborate scheme for the settlement of Monaghan, MacMahon's 
country, in 1591. The chief had been executed, unjustly as it would 
appear. But the clan lands were not confiscated. They were divided 
among the clansmen. The leading men got large estates with chief rents 
from the lesser proprietors. These lesser proprietors, over 300 in 
number, were confirmed in the lands which they already held by Irish 
custom. Letters Patent were made out for them in due course, and all, 
great and small, were to hold direct from the Queen. 3 

In 1576 we have a similar example. Sir Arthur Magennis, of Iveagh, 
applied for leave to surrender and obtain a regrant of his lands, and 
asked to be made a baron. The Privy Council's reply to the Lord 
Deputy, who had supported the requests, is instructive. They were 
willing to give the title ; but as to the lands, they say, " Forasmuch as 
we do not understand whether it be meant that he shall have the grant 

1 Sir J. Davies, as usual, states the difficulty tersely : " It was not certainly known 
to the State here whether they (the inferior gentlemen and inhabitants) were only 
tenants-at-will to the chief lords ... or whether they were freeholders yielding . . . 
certain rents and services." (Letter touching Monaghan, etc., 1607.) 

2 The phrase occurs in directions re the settlement of Longford (Cal. State Papers, 
1611-14, p. 52), temp. James I. The idea it expresses was common in. Elizabethan 

3 Cal. State Papers, 1591, p. 428. Eight chief lords and 280 others are said to have 
then got estates. A new settlement was necessary after Tyrone's war, and is given in 
Cal. State Papers, 1606-08, p. 166. Over 300 freeholders were then established. 



of the captainry by inheritance, and the land only which he holdeth at 
present as his own freehold, leaving the rest to other freeholders that 
presently have the same in occupation, whereof we think there are many, 
or else to grant to him the captainry of the whole, we would willingly 
understand your meaning. If it be meant to be the whole, it is not 
thought reasonable, neither in this nor in any other of that nature." 1 

Sir Henry Sidney, in answering this, declared that, though in theory 
it was well to dissipate the great lordships, yet, in practice, an attempt 
to do so would be perilous. A final settlement of Iveagh was not effected 
till the time of James I, and then not until after a long controversy and 
much vacillation on the part of the Government. Some thirty of the 
clan received lands, paying chief rents, some to Sir Arthur Magennis, 
some to the Bishop of Dromore, besides thirteen chief gentlemen who were 
to hold of the King in capite. A similar controversy between the chiefs 
and clansmen of the OTerralls in Longford is mentioned time and again in 
the State Papers from 1571 down to the time of James I. 

What, then, was actually done under Elizabeth ? As may be expected 
from what I have said before, no consistent plan was followed. Some 
chiefs got the whole of the territory over which they had ruled, 
others got the lands of their own clan, others those of their own sept. 2 
And it so happened that the chiefs who thus filched the lands from the 
people were those who stood most prominent in the public eye, 
MacCarthy of Muskerry, O'Neill, O'Donnell. Hence the idea, repeated 
in book after book on Irish history, that the clansmen were robbed of 
their lands by Elizabeth, to satisfy the greed of the chiefs. 

But in by far the greater number of cases the opposite plan was 
followed. The chief got the demesne lands attached to his oflice ; the rest 
of the land was divided amongst those who claimed a share in it under 
Irish law. The whole province of Connacht, with the county of Clare,, 
and a great part of the Irish districts in the three other provinces were 
treated in this way. 

Before coming to the details of this settlement, we may, perhaps, be 
able to find reasons for this difference in treatment. The actual condition 
of the Irish clans varied very much a fact constantly lost sight of by 
modern writers. Common to the whole island was the original distinction 
of the entire population into two classes, the free and the unfree. 3 The 
former originally the clans of real or supposed Milesian blood alone 
were landowners; the latter had, as a rule, no property in land, though 

1 Car. Cal., 1576, p. 36. 

2 The Fiants of the reign of Elizabeth, published in the Appendix to the Reports 
of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, show instances of all the various forms 
of giants. One can notice the extreme vagueness of some jrrants. 

3 See Bonn, vol. i, pp. 57, etc. As late as 1602 we find " nativos et nativas " 
included in a grant to the Lord of Upper Ossory (Morrin, Gal. Pat. Rolls, Eliz., 
p. 599). Nativus Mas the ordinary low Latin word for villein. Bonn prints (vol. i,. 
p. 394") Chichester's proclamation of 1605, amongst other things abolishing serfdom. 


their degree of servitude varied. Only the free landholders were clansmen, 
strictly speaking, and they alone bore arms. At one time, they would 
seem to have numbered about half the population ; but in the course of 
time, especially after the English invasion, their numbers decreased in 
proportion to those of the non-landowning classes. 1 

Many clans were shattered and enslaved during the settlement of the 
Anglo-Norman adventurers ; others were driven to seek new territories 
at the expense of weaker clans. Fugitives from conquered districts, or 
the old proprietors of lands seized on by a stronger clan, sank in status, 
retaining a certain amount of personal freedom, but no longer entitled to 
a share in the land. 2 They settled on the demesne lands of the chiefs, 
or their kinsmen, and under their protection. Thus the chiefs came to 
have under them large bodies of dependents, who were somewhat in the 
position of feudal vassals, and were not connected by ties of blood with 
the original clan. 

The chiefs grew strong, the poorer clansmen grew weak in propor- 
tion, and their numbers were liable to diminish by the chances of war. 
From the thirteenth century on, the power of the chiefs steadily grew. 
More and more of the clan lands were appropriated by the chiefs to 
provide for their sons. The latter turned temporary grants into hereditary 
lordships, becoming founders of new septs, offshoots of the ruling house. 
Thus the O'Briens, the descendants of Brian Boru, whose original 
patrimony was only a small district round Killaloe, gradually became 
owners of a large part of Clare, Limerick, and Tipperary. In some cases 
the original proprietors were violently dispossessed ; in others they were 
gradually reduced to the condition of tenants. And I have already drawn 
attention to the manner in which the descendants of Dermond MacCarthy, 
last king of South Munster, became founders of septs which in Elizabeth's 
reign owned great districts in Cork and Kerry in which, previous to the 
thirteenth century, the Mac Carthys had practically no footing, 3 

But while everywhere there was a tendency for the ruling family of 
a tribe to get possession of a large part of the tribal territory, and to 
expand into a clan having large possessions independent of the position 
of its head as king or chief of the whole tribe, the extent to which this 
process had been carried out differed very much in different districts. 

1 At the time of the Plantation of Wexford 667 claimed freeholds. The total 
population is given as about 15,000. 

2 Examples of this can be seen in the case of Desmond and Muskerry. The 
O'Cpnnells, once lords of a large part of Magunihy, became warders of Ballycarbery, 
retaining their free status, but not their clan organization. The Mac Sweeneys, land- 
owners in Donegal, sent out an offshoot to Muskerry who served as hereditary 
galloglasses, and were warders of Mashanaglas and other castles, but had no lands 
until the close of the Tudor period. 

3 Many other examples could be quoted, such as the O'Neills, O'Donnells, Maguires, 
MacGennisses, clans all holding wide districts in the sixteenth century which in the 
twelfth century had belonged to other clans. According to the Annals of Ulster, the 
.first of the Maguires to rule Fermanagh was Donn, who died in 1302. 


Some portions of the island had never been affected by the Anglo- 
Gorman invasion. Such were Donegal, Fermanagh, and Leitrim in the 
north ; Clare in the west. In these districts the land was divided among 
many clans, some of them not connected by ties of blood with the ruling 
house ; some older in the land than the chiefs. 1 The result was that the 
land was divided among many septs ; there were many freemen entitled 
to property ; the demesne of the head chief was small, though very often 
septs descended from the ruling house had become possessed of a good 
deal of the territory. In Fermanagh, we are told by Sir John Davies, the 
number of men claiming land was very great; many of them belonged 
to septs settled in Fermanagh before Maguire obtained the chieftainship. 
Maguire's demesne lands were of very small extent. 2 

Other districts had never been conquered by the Anglo-Normans ; 
but they had been seized on by clans expelled by the invaders from their 
original homes. So the O'Byrnes and the O'Tooles, driven from Kildare, 
conquered the hill districts of Wicklow ; the O'Flaherties seized on the 
country west of Lough Corrib ; the O'Sullivans, driven from Tipperary, 
found new homes in south-west Cork and Kerry. 

Now it would seem that, by Irish law, lands conquered under the 
leadership of a chief became the property of that chief to distribute as 
he pleased ; and that in such a case the victorious chief portioned out 
the greater part of the new acquisitions among his sons and immediate 
kinsmen. The leading warriors of the clan got shares ; but the mass of 
the fighting men were given lands only as tenants of the chief and of 
the leading men. This would seem to be indicated by the state of the 
O'Sullivan territories in Elizabeth's time, of which I have already 

There were some O'Neills and O'Lynes who possibly were descen- 
dants of the followers of the chiefs who made the settlement. But an 
anonymous author expressly states that " all the four branches of the 
collateral cousins of the aforesaid O'Sullivans that came along with them 
. . . had no estate conferred on them, but large and beneficial farms, with 
some tokens of rents." 3 And he goes on to enumerate the various septs 
descended from the first O'Sullivan Mor, and to specify the lands given 

1 In Clare, the O r Loughlins and 0' Conors in the west of the county were of quite 
a different Ptock from the ruling Dalcassian clans. In Fermanagh Sir John Davies 
says that there were many gentlemen who claimed estates of freehold by a more 
ancient title than Maguire claimed the chiefry. (Letter of 1607.) 

2 Rory O'More, Lord of Leix, slain in 1545, is said to have had in right of his 
" captainship " only the '* towne " of Stradbally, with its appurtenances, worth 10 a 
year. The customs, duties, perquisites, and profits of the captainship were worth 
100. His private inheritance of land was worth yearly 70 marks, and he also held 
land mortgaged to him for the loan of cattle ; 515 cows in all. Jour. Kil. Arch. Soc., 
vol. iv, N. S., p. 364. 

3 See The Ancient History of the Kingdom of Kerry, written in the eighteenth 
century, apparently by an O'Sullivan, a friar of Muckross, published in the Journal 
of the Cork Hist. Soc., 1898 and following years. 


to each in a way which shows that these O'Sullivans occupied nearly the 
whole of their new conquests. 

Other districts had been conquered, and more or less thickly colonized 
by the English, but had been recovered by the Irish in the fourteenth 
century, and the settlers expelled. This was the case with much of 
West Cork, North Tipperary, Queen's County, Carlo w, and a great part of 
Ulster and Connacht. Sometimes the original owners rose and expelled 
the settlers. The O'Ferralls of Longford, the O'Kellys of Galway, and 
the O'Dowds of Sligo are examples of this. But even here the land 
when recovered seems to have been considered as vested in the chief, and 
was divided by him as he liked among his followers. The old rights of 
the clan were held to be extinguished by the English conquest. So 
Dugald Mac Firbis, writing of the old owners of Tyrawley, in Mayo and 
Sligo, says : " The English drove these chieftains from their patrimonial 
inheritances (which we have enumerated) ; but Sen Bhrian . . . took the 
country (particularly Tir Fhiachrach) from the English ; but though he 
did, I think that many of the same old chieftains did not get much hold 
of their hereditary districts from him ; for it is certain that the sons, 
grandsons, and great-grandsons of Sen Bhrian divided the lands among 
themselves." 1 

Sometimes it happened that the English were expelled by a clan, 
which before the twelfth century had had no hold on the district. 
Thus the descendents of Hugh Boy O'Neill crossed the Bann, and drove 
out the colonists from nearly all Antrim and Down. These lands had 
never been subject to the O'Neills; but now the Clan Hugh Boy settled 
there, and seem to have managed in time to shake off all dependence 
on the O'Neills of Tyrone. The O'Flynns and other clans who had held 
this district before the English conquest appear in the sixteenth century 
as " followers " of the O'Neills, and no doubt still held some lands, but 
by far the greater part of the district in Tudor days was divided amongst 
the O'Neills. 

The case of Muskerry is somewhat similar. Here, too, the old 
proprietors of that part of Muskerry north of the Lee were a clan named 
O'Flynn. But they are not mentioned at all in Tudor days, and none 
of the name held land in 1641. The greater part of Muskerry in the 
sixteenth century was held by the chief as demesne, or by septs of 
MaeCarthys sprung from Dermod Mor, the first Lord of Muskerry. 

On the whole, the analogy of Muskerry enables us to judge of the 
condition of the districts from which the English had been expelled by 
a clan which had not previously been settled there. A few of the older 

1 Tribes and Customs of Hy Fiachrach. This Sen Bhrian, " Old Brian" O'Dowd 
lived, it is said, to be nearly a hundred, and ruled for fifty-four years, so he might 
easily have been able to settle his great-grandsons in possession of the districts he had 


clans held lands. The greater part of the country was in the hands of 
the chief, or of septs closely related to him. These septs being of 
comparatively recent foundation, the number of persons entitled to land 
was small. 1 The greater part of the free population were in the position 
of tenants to the chief and his kinsmen, and the extent of the chief's 
demesne enabled him to support a great body of dependents, free or 
unfree, unconnected by blood with the clan. 

These varied conditions of the clans may help to explain Elizabeth's 
treatment of particular cases. A chief such as MacCarthy of Muskerry, 
who already had a very large part of the territory in his possession as 
demesne, would have little difficulty in passing himself off as the owner 
of the whole country. However, there are many cases which cannot be 
thus accounted for. The special services of particular chiefs, the caprice 
of Lord Deputies, were some of the factors which explain why some 
chiefs receive grants of the entire clan territories. 

The best example of what was done under Elizabeth is the great 
settlement of landed property in Clare and Connacht known as the 
Composition of Connaught. Sir Henry Sidney, Deputy from about 1570, 
had induced most of the lords of these districts to surrender their lands 
to the Crown, with the object of having them regranted with a clear 
title by Letters Patent. Nothing, however, was done till Sir John Perrot 
took the whole matter in hand in 1585. 

A commission was sent down to settle the details. The object to be 
attained was set forth in a letter from Walsingham " To give each 
chief his own, with a salvo jure to all others that have right." 2 
Inquisitions were made to find out the area of the lands, and who were 
the owners according to Irish law ; and Letters Patent were to be made 
out, giving a legal title to these owners. 

Indentures were made with the chief lords and gentlemen of each 
territory to secure the payment of a quit-rent to the Queen, generally 
10. per quarter of 120 acres, 3 and to compensate the chiefs for the loss 
of their Irish " cuttings, spendings, and customary duties." 4 

The indentures entered into on this occasion give a clear picture of 
the work of settlement. The details for the County Sligo offer an 

1 1 give below the relationship of the various septs of the MacCarthys in 
Muskerrv to the chief. Of six septs, five at least were sprung from the first lord, 
Dermod Mor, who died in about the middle of the fourteenth century. The sept of 
Tuath na Dromin was descended from Felim, fourth son of Dermod Mor, and the 
sept of Clan Fada from his fifth son, Donough. The sept of " Shanekillie " was 
sprung from Donnell, the fifth Lord, grandson of Dermod Mor. From Eoghan, who 
was alive in 1495, came the sept of Cloghroe. Clan Cormack Oge was probably the 
chief's sept, descended from Cormac Oge, tenth Lord, who died in 1537. The six 
septs held sixty-six ploughlands. 

2 The phrase has reference to MacWilliam of Mayo and his son ; but it illustrates 
the general policy. (lar Connacht, p. 107.) 

The normal division of land in Connacht was the "quarter " of 120 acres. 

4 The proceedings as to the Connacht lands on this occasion are printed in lar 
Connacht, p. 309, &c. ; those for Clare in the Appendix to White's History of Clare. 


excellent example of "the procedure followed. The greater part of the 
modern county had been granted to the Fitzgeralds by the De Burgos, 
soon after the invasion of Connacht. It passed back again into 
De Burgo hands, though the Earls of Kildare still claimed to be lords of 
the district in Elizabeth's time. 1 

After the murder of the last Earl of Ulster, a branch of the 0' Conors 
seized the Castle of Sligo and the adjoining territory of Carbury. The clans 
inhabiting the rest of the county O'Dowds, O'Haras, MacDonoughs, 
and O'Garas expelled all the English settlers, and recognized the 
0' Conors as overlords. But Sligo and Carbury were claimed by the 
O'Donnells of Tyrconnell as their patrimony from time immemorial, and 
more than once the O'Conors were forced to recognize these claims. 2 
At the time of the Composition, twenty quarters in Carbury were held 
by O'Donnell, and we have already mentioned the distracted 0' Conor's 
petition regarding the 360 marks rent which he ought to pay to 
somebody. The rest of the barony of Carbury (excluding Church lands) 
was divided among four septs of O'Conors, or formed part of the chief's 
demesne lands. 3 

In the first place, all claims of O'Donnell, the Earl of Kildare, and the 
Earl of Clanricarde seem to have been ignored, though O'Donnell 
apparently kept the twenty quarters in his possession. 4 The usual rent 
was reserved to the queen, certain lands being free from the charge ; and 
the castle of Ballymote and some lands were given up to her. 

Then O'Conor was given the castle of Sligo, and all the demesne 
lands to himself and his heirs, as well as all the lands of Sliocht Owine 
O'Conor, "from whom the said Sir Donough O'Conor is said to be 
descended," in all thirty -two quarters. From eighty quarters in possession 
of the three other septs of O'Conors he was to get a chief rent of 13s. 4d. 
per quarter. He also got 8s. per quarter out of 154 quarters in 
Tireragh, 10s. out of 156 quarters in Leyney, the same out of twenty 
quarters in Coolavin, 9s. 3d. out of 110 quarters in Corran, and 6s. 6d. 
out of 166 quarters in Tirerrill. 5 These sums were to be in lieu of all 
tributes, cuttings and spendings which he had had from these baronies in 
right of his office of O'Coiior Sligo. The chiefs under him, MacDonough, 
O'Dowd, O'Gara, and two O'Haras, were to have for themselves and 

1 Notices of the Kildare claims to Sligo occur in Car. Cal., 1566, p. 377, Cal. State 
Papers, 1591, pp. 406 and 461. 

2 See O'Rourke's History of Sligo. O'Donnell declared in 1542 that the lands round 
Sligo had belonged to him and his ancestors for 1,000 years. (State Papers, Henry FIJI, 
vol. iii., pt. 3, p. 372.) In Cal. State Papers, 1576, p. 94, it is said that his rent of 
300 marks out of Sligo had been paid since St. Patrick's days. 

3 These septs were all sprung from Donnell O'Conor, who died in 1395(0'Rourke). 

4 Earl Rory O'Donnell expressly renounced all claims on Sligo, Tyrawley, Moylurg, 
Dartry, and Fermanagh before receiving his patent for Tyrconnell from James I, so 
that the O'Donnells had still maintained their claims in spite of this settlement. So 
had the Earls of Kildare. (Cal. State Papers, 1604, p. 140, and 1607, p. 365, for Rory 
O'Donnell' s claims.) 

5 These baronies were held by the O'Dowds, O'Haras, and other subject clans. 


their heirs all lands and castles " belonging to the name" as well 
as their own inheritance. They also got some lands free from chief 
rent to the Queen or 0' Conor. But in consideration for this all rents and 
customary duties belonging to the name of MacDonough, &c., were to 
cease at the death of the chiefs then living. The shares of the gentry 
and minor " freeholders " are not laid down in this indenture. That 
work was done by the Commission after inquisitions had been made to 
determine each man's rights. The lesser proprietors were to hold from 
O'Conor by knight's service. Similar arrangements were made in the 
rest of Connacht and Clare, with variations according to the circum- 
stances of individual districts. Thus, O'Conor Don, O'Conor Roe, and 
MacDermot apparently got no chief rents. 1 

In Mayo, nearly all of which belonged to u degenerate" Anglo- 
Normans, MacWilliam lochtar got chief rents from the lands of his 
former vassals. The sub-chiefs and some of the leading members of the 
clan generally got some lands free from any chief rent, and the castles and 
lands attached to the "name and calling" of MacEvillie, MacPaddyn, 
etc., were given to them and their heirs. But it is expressly stipulated 
that this was because all the rents and customary duties belonging to 
these petty captainships were to be extinguished on the death of the 
actual chief. 

There is a curious concession to the law of tanistry in the case of 
MacWilliam. It is provided that " Whereas there appeureth certain 
emulation or envy betwixt the above-named MacWilliam Eyghter and 
his kinsman, whereof there are some competitors that by reason of their 
birth, being descended from Mac Williams of greater fame and reputation 
than the same Sir Richard Burke, think themselves more worthy of the 
English succession now devised by this composition, and others, standing 
upon their expectancy of succeeding to his place, wisheth the continuance 
of that customary name, that it shall rest in the consideration of the Lord 
Deputy for the time being, how and in what sort, the above named castles, 
lands, &c., belonging to the name of MacWilliam shall be disposed or 
limited to the said MacWilliam and his kinsmen." 

As usual, the dormant claims of the Ormonds were revived and allowed, 
while those of other Anglo-Norman lords were ignored. The Earl of 
Ormond was recognized as owner of Achill Island, and the mainland 
adjoining, not a very profitable district, as well as of a large tract in the 
lands of the O'Kellys of Hy Many. 

1 It appears from grants to O'Conor Don, MacDermot Roe, O'Hara, and O'Beirne, 
temp. James I, that all these chiefs received certain chief rents, though none are 
mentioned in the Composition. These would be tributes which they had received 
from of old over and above the cuttings and spendings, &c. The chief rents granted 
to MacWilliam, O'Conor Sligo, &c., by the Composition, were in part at any rate new 
rents to take the place of the cuttings and spendings. " O'Brien's and MacNamara's 
rentals," documents of the fourteenth century, show that many chiefs had fixed money 
tributes from the clan. 


The lordship of the O'FJahertys comprised two baronies inhabited by 
O'Flahertys and kindred or subject clans, and one Ross inhabited by 
a family of Welsh origin named Joyce, who had been conquered by the 
O'Flahertys and had become quite Irish. Besides this the O'Flahertys 
had lately wrested the isles of Aran from the O'Briens. Their whole 
territory was estimated at 318 quarters, each quarter containing 120 
acres " manured or to be manured under tillage of cattle " besides wood, 
bog, &c. All Irish customs, chieftainships, were to be abolished. The 
Queen was to get 10s. per quarter out of 280 quarters. Sir Murrough na 
Doe O'Flaherty, as chief, got fifteen quarters free of this rent, and about 
sixty quarters as well, his own inheritance, or demesne. He got 5s. per 
quarter from fifty-seven quarters of the Joyces, and the rest of the free- 
holders in Ross were to hold of him by knight's service, according to his 
or their portion of land. From 191 quarters in the rest of the territory 
he got the same rent, but here all freeholders were to hold from the 
Queen. Teige na Buile O'Flaherty, who was chief of the western part, 
got fifteen quarters free of rent to Sir Murrough, six of them also 
being free from the Queen's rent; and after Teige's death all rents and 
customary duties due to the name of O'Flaherty were to be extinguished. 1 
Three other O'Flahertys were to have certain lands free from both rents. 
The chief of the Joyces got a quarter free, and was to renounce all rents, 
duties, and customs, except such as were due by persons holding from 

Exceptionally we find the clan-lands given to the chief in the case 
of the O'Shaughnessys, who were subjects to the Earl of Clanricarde. 
Here the heirs of SirDermod O'Shauglmessy got 101 quarters, apparently 
the whole territory, paying 10s. a year per quarter to the Queen for 
93 quarters, and 10s. a year to Clanricarde for about 50 quarters. 2 
Henry YIII had given a general grant of his lands to O'Shaughnessy, 
and this grant must have been interpreted as bestowing on him the whole 
clan-lands, though no such interpretation .was put on similar grants to 
Macnamara and O'Brien. 

The grant to 0' Conor Sligo of the lands of the sept " from whom he 
is said to be descended," in addition to the demesne lands, is worthy of 
notice. It may be explained by the fact that the demesne lands in this 
case were very small; for the total amount given him was only 32 quarters, 
and 28^ quarters were the lands of the above-mentioned sept. But, in 
any case, we often find the lands of a sept, as distinguished from those 
of a clan, given to the head of the sept. The Ceannfine, or head of a 
sept, though elected by tanistry, was usually the senior in blood. The 

1 Teige na Buile was the senior of the whole race, and tanist to Donald Crone, who 
was the actual chief by election, but who had been set aside by Elizabeth in favour of 
Sir Murrough. (lar Connacht.) 

8 The Books of Survey and Distribution show Sir Roger O'Shaughnessy as owner 
of practically the whole clan territory in 1641. 


number of members in any given sept might be very few, from the chances 
of war or the recent origin of the sept. 1 If they only included brothers, 
uncles, sons, and nephews of the head of the sept, the English lawyers, 
with their superstitious reverence for primogeniture, might very easily 
regard him as the proper owner of the sept lands.2 

It is worthy of notice that the Books of Survey and Distribution 
plainly show the existence of collective ownership in Connacht in 1641. 
These books, as far as they relate to portions of Sligo and Mayo, have 
been printed in O'Hart's Irish Landed Gentry when Cromwell came to 
Ireland, and we find several cases where such and such lands are described 
as held in 1641 by such and such a sept. 

In other cases these books show an extraordinary sub-division of 
property. Thus, in the Barony of Ross, or " Joyce's Country," the lands 
of Maine, estimated at half a quarter, and containing 450 acres, are given 
as divided as follows 3 : 

Moyler Mac Richard Joyce had ^ of a cartron and i of a cartron, and 
the of the of i of a cartron, and $ of the other cartron. 

Richard Oge Joyce had f of a cartron, Henry McFiagh Joyce -J-, Teige 
Oge O'Flaherty iV> and Andrew Lynch fitz William had f of a cartron. 

Another denomination called Termekille was counted as a " quarter." 
It contained over 2,000 acres, of which only about 124 are returned as 
" profitable." It was thus divided : 

Nicholas Oge French had 3 cartrons and -fa of a cartron. Edmund 
McTibbott Joyce had i of of a cartron. Moyler Me Richard Joyce 
of a and f of of of % a cartron and % of a cartron. Moyler 
McHenry Joyce had i of i of a cartron. 

First, we remark here an extreme sub-division. Of the 124 profitable 
acres of Termekille, more than f were held by Mcholas Oge French. 
The remaining 30 were divided among three persons. 4 And, as we see 
from the first example, these small properties were not in one continuous 
piece. Moyler McRichard Joyce's lands lay in each of the two " cartrons " 
of Maine, and he had also a portion of one of the cartrons in Termekille. 5 
And, from the manner in which his lands in this last are entered, one is 
tempted to suppose that they lay in three detached pieces there. 

Secondly, the extraordinary fractional divisions arrest attention. Why 
do the surveyors say that Moyler McHenry Joyce had $ of J- of a cartron, 
instead of simply saying -j^-, as they had in the case of Teige Oge 

1 The Commissioners appointed to settle Bere found only three persons whom they 
considered to be members of the chief's sept. (Morrin : Gal. Pat. Rolls Eliz., p. 298, ff .) 

2 Seebohm points out (Tribal System in Whales, p. 89) how the head of a " wele " 
might be regarded as the landowner of the district occupied by his kindred ; and he 
exemplifies this "by a concrete instance on p. 91. 

3 The Connacht ". quarter" of 120 acres, with their proportion of waste bog, &c., 
was divided into four "cartrons." 

4 In neither case do the fractions work out accurately. 

5 That is unless there were two Moyler McKichards. 


O'Flaherty ? Probably Because we have here a division springing from 
the rules of inheritance by gavelkind, when there was no certain spot of 
land allotted to the clansman, but when he was entitled to a fixed 
proportion of land, no matter where he might receive it. 1 A Welsh 
example will make this clearer. The descendants of a certain Rand 
Yaghan ap Asser held 1 part of a villata called Prestelegot. They were 
divided into the four weles of each of his sons, and these weles were 
subdivided into the gavells of his grandsons, four gavells each in the 
case of the first two of his sons, three in the case of the third, two in 
the case of the fourth. Now the gavell of the fourth son of Rand 
Vaghun's eldest son was divided among five holders. Hence, granting 
that their shares were equal, each would hold -J of -J- of of % of Prestelegot. 
And in the villata of Petrual, where the posterity of the same Rand 
Vaghan had -r- 3 - part, the remaining twelve being held by other kindreds, 
each of the above-mentioned five would be naturally described as entitled 
to i- of i of 1 of -^3- of Petrual. 2 Thus we arrive at the same fractional 
division, very peculiar-looking at first, but in reality giving a very easy 
way of remembering each man's share. 

We know so little of the real working of gavelkind in Ireland that 
these entries from the Books of Survey and Distribution, and the Welsh 
analogies given in Mr. Seebohm's book, seem very worthy of a close 
comparison. 3 

1 A resolution of the Irish judges condemned gavelkind in 1606 (Davies, Law 
Reports}, and incidentally described the system. But all lands enjoyed by the mere 
Irish up to the commencement of the King's reign by reason of gavelkind were excluded 
from the operation of this resolution. Hence, in 1641, there might easily still be 
traces of the custom ; and, moreover, there was nothing to prevent a father dividing 
his inheritance among his sons. 

2 I take these Welsh examples from the Appendix to Mr. Seebohm's Tribal System 
in Wales, p. 61. They refer to the 8th year of Edward III. On page 58 of the Appendix 
certain persons are said to hold two parts and a third of a third part of the "half 
gavell " of Nynyat one of the eight sons of a certain Canon ap Lauwargh, who held 
a sixth part of the " villata " of Frees. 

According to Seebohm, the "Welsh divisions were made " per capita," not "per 
stirpes," so that the analogy given above will not hold. (Seebohm, Tribal System, 
p. 74.) But if the Irish division was " per stirpes," one can at once account for the 
fractional division of these Connacht lands. 

3 A recent writer points out that we have little or no proof that the account of the 
working of gavelkind given by the resolution, of the judges above referred to is 
accurate. Nor do we even know that gavelkind was an Irish term. And it is very 
difficult to reconcile the resolution, and the verdict of the jury so often alluded to with 
regard to the lands of the O'Callaghans, with Sir John Davies' description of the 
condition of Fermanagh. " Moreover, they " (the scholars of the country) " took upon 
them to tell what quantity of land every man ought to have by the custom of the 
country, which is of the nature of gavelkind, whereby as their septs and families did 
multiply, their possessions have been from time to time sub-divided and broken into 
many such parcels, as almost every acre of land hath a several owner, which termeth 
himself a lord, and his portion of land his country." (See articles by Mr. A. 
Cleary, K.C., on the Tribal Occupier, and Sir John Davies, in New Ireland Review, 
March and April, 1905.) Besides an account of the plantation of Longford expressly 
mentions the grief of the natives on being moved from their possessions. If the 
clansmen were perpetually being moved from place to place, how can one account for 


The south-west corner of Ireland gives us a good example of the 
great want of uniformity which is one characteristic feature of the land 
settlement finally arrived at. At the same time it shows that the. 
prevailing policy was to divide the clan lands among the clan, as far as 
was possible without creating a peasant proprietary. The settlement in 
this district begun by Elizabeth was not completed until the reign of 
James I. 

lu each of the four great sub-divisions of the MacCarthy territory a 
different course was followed. In Duhallow, MacDonagh, chief of the 
whole barony, applied in 1615 for leave to surrender and obtain a 
regrant of his lands. His request was acceded to, with the proviso, 
that in preparing the grant, care was to be taken, "that the said 
Dermot shall not by force of his new grants avoid the particular estates 
of his under-tenants, provided they shall have been contributory to the 
charges of procuring said grant." 1 

Either they were not so ''contributory," or MacDonagh had special 
influence at court, for he obtained a grant of all the lands of his own 
clan, as well as "all rents, customs, and privileges, used to be paid to 
the Lord of Duhallow for the lands and territories of Poble Icallaghane, 
Poble Ikeiff," etc. And in 1641 there were at most only two other 
proprietors of the name of MacDonagh or MacCarthy in Duhallow. 

Similarly all the lands of the O'Keeffes were granted by James to the 
chief. The whole clan territory belonged in 1641 to Art O'Keeffe. 
The chiefs of this clan had special claims on the government on account 
of their loyalty ; and it is quite possible that the clansmen entitled to 
land were few in number, for almost the whole of the fighting men of 
the O'Keeffes had been cut off by the insurgent Geraldines during the 
Desmond rebellion. 

On the other hand, the MacAuliffes had joined in the Desmond 
rebellion. Their chief was attainted, and his attainder was held to vest 
all the clan lands in the Crown. 

The case of the fourth of the Duhallow clans, the O'Callaghans, 
has often been quoted. The chief had tried in 1594 to "grab" the 
clan lands, but a certain number, at any rate, of his kinsmen had 
secured estates, and appear as holding directly from the Crown in 
various inquisitions of the days of James I and Charles I. The inferior 
clansmen, however, seem to have lost their lands, becoming tenants of 
greater men. 

In Muskerry, Sir Cormac Mac Teige, and after him his nephew and 
successor, had obtained grants of the whole of Muskerry, including by 
name the lands held by the subject clans. An incidental notice in the 
State Papers shows that the government was aware that the claims of 

the attachment to his home which characterizes the Irish peasant of the present day, 
and which has been displayed over and over again during the nineteenth century? 
1 Cal. Pat. Rolls, James /, p. 201. 


Lords of Muskerry to be owners of the lands of at least one of their 
subject clans the O'Learys were unjust. 1 But the services of both 
these Lords of Muskerry to the Crown had been very great, so their 
demands were granted. 

Yet it appears from the Books of Survey and Distribution that the 
Lords had been forced by public opinion or governmental pressure to 
give estates to some of the chief inhabitants. About thirty O'Learys, 
some twenty MacCarthys, and about twenty other proprietors held 
estates in Muskerry in 1641. But the circumstance that in the vast 
majority of cases the lands of these proprietors were " restored " to the 
Earl of Clancarty in accordance with the Act of Settlement shows that 
they were held not from the Crown but from him. 

I have already dwelt at length on the peculiar features presented by 
the territories more directly under MacCarthy M6r. There were in 
1641 some 260 landowners in the ancient Desmond. But almost all of 
these owned great scopes of land, showing that here it was mostly the 
chief members of the various septs who had been provided for. Only 
about twenty landowners appear in the whole of the territory ruled over 
by O'Sullivan Bere. 

Desmond then forms a kind of transition between Duhallow, where 
the chiefs got all or most of the clan lands, and Carbery, where the 
rights of the clansmen were respected. 

In Carbery there were about 400 native landowners in 1641. Some 
of these, especially among the O'Driscolls and O'Donovans, had very 
minute portions of land, not always lying in one compact piece, but 
intermingled with other small fragmentary properties. Here there was, 
to a certain extent, a regular peasant proprietary, such as we have seen 
in Connacht. But even here there was no uniformity. 

The whole of the lands of Sliocht Felim of Glenacroim were granted 
to the chief of the sept. They had been confiscated, in theory at least, 
under Elizabeth on account of a murder committed by one of its chiefs. 2 
O'Mahony of Kinelmeaky was attainted for joining in Desmond's 
rebellion, and his whole territory, 36,000 acres, was confiscated, and 
given to two English "undertakers." 

It is a curious fact that there seem to be no grants to the smaller 
landowners of Carbery, so that we do not know how or when the 
individual clansmen were settled in their possessions. What is certain 
is that here the clansmen were looked on as the real owners of the 

The actual number of proprietors secured in their estates in Carbery 
and other districts may seem small. It is certain that there was 

1 CaL State Papers, 1588, p. 545. 

2 See Mac Carthy, The Mac Carthys of Gleanacroim ; also Fiants, Elizabeth, 
No. 5520, and Patent Molls, James J, p. 289. 


much injustice in individual cases. The poorer clansmen, who could 
only claim a few acres as their inheritance, were very generally deprived 
of their land and reduced to the position of tenants. This was because 
the statesmen of the time objected, as I have already said, to peasant 
proprietorship. Then, too, the chiefs were more easily able to override 
the rights of the poor than those of the more powerful members of the 
clan. 1 

Yet the number who thus suffered was not as great as is popularly 
imagined. In the Irish part of county Wexford 667 persons claimed a 
rijiht to a share of the clan lands. Of these only 440 were presented by 
the jurors to be freeholders, and surrendered their estates. The total 
population was 14,000 or 16,000. 2 So that, if we allow five persons to a 
family, about one-fifth of the males, at the outside, considered themselves 
as entitled to land. In Carbery the septs of the Mac Carthy s were, almost 
without exception, descended from members of the ruling house who 
were born subsequent to 1200 A.D. Therefore, allowing for the check to 
population of the never-ending wars of the Middle Ages, and remembering 
that there were no Mac Curthys in Carbery before the early thirteenth 
century, the number of males having a claim to the 299 ploughlands 
held by these septs cannot have been large. 3 

The net result arrived at during the reign of Elizabeth was that the 
main lines for the settlement of the land had been laid down for a great 
part of the island. Some of the more influential lords had obtained all 
the clan lands; over a large part of Ireland it had been decided that they 
were to be satisfied with tlie demesne lands set aside by the clan to 
provide for the maintenance of the chief. In some cases the grants 
were so vaguely worded that it was quite uncertain what had been 
granted. Everywhere the constant warfare which went on during 
Elizabeth's reign interfered to prevent a thorough settlement. 4 

1 From the Patent Rolls, James I, p. 348, we find that about eighty proprietors in 
Connemara gave power to Morrogh na Moire 0' Flaherty to procure grants to himself 
of lands lately surrendered by them which were found by inquisition to be their 
property. No doubt the intention was that he should regrant to the proper owners. 
But the Books of Survey and Distribution show that he did not do so. 

2 Details re this Wexford plantation are given in Cal. State Papers, vols. for 1611-14, 
and 1615-25. See also Miss Hickson's Ireland in the Seventeenth Century. 

3 The Books of Survey and Distribution give the names of practically every land- 
owner in 1641. From them it appears that the older clans who had held Carbery in 
the twelfth century, and whose names have been recorded with great minuteness in 
The Genealogy of Corca Laidhe, printed in the Miscellany of the Celtic Society, had 
lost nearly all their lands. Yet descendants of these old clans are still numerous. 

4 So Chichester's Proclamation of March llth, 1605, declares: "And whereas 
his Maiestie hath lately by his Letters Patents given and granted sundrie large 
Territories and Countries to divers Lords, . . . wherein are contained certaine ample 
and generall Words and Clauses, by colour and pretence whereof the Lords and 
Gentlemen do claime and challenge unto themselves the interest and possession of such 
Lands as divers auncient freeholders and their auncestors have been lawfully seized 
of ... beyond the time of memorie." And it goes on to order the Lords to permit 
such ancient freeholders quietly and peaceably to hold and enjoy their lawful freeholds 
at the ancient certain rents and services. (Bonn, vol. i, p. 394.) 


With regard to -the land of those who rebelled, a fairly consistent 
policy was pursued all during Elizabeth's reign. The lands of all who 
were slain or executed during the rebellion were confiscated. 1 In many 
cases, however, they were regranted to relatives of the former owners 
who had remained loyal. The survivors, on making their submission, 
were, in almost all instances, restored to their estates. 

Of the four great insurrections during the reign, only two were 
followed by extensive confiscations. On the death of Shane O'Neill, an 
Act of Parliament vested most of Ulster in the Crown. 2 Legally, the 
Crown was already entitled to all Ulster not covered by special grants, 
so that the Act was more explanatory than anything else. In any case, 
little or no attempt was made to enforce it. The clans were left undis- 
turbed, with the prospect of obtaining a grant of their possessions on 
making a formal surrender of them. 3 

The confiscation which followed on the suppression of the great Desmond 
rebellion was more important. An Act was passed in 1586 attainting 
140 persons by name. The lands of those who had actually perished during 
the rebellion were seized and distributed among English " undertakers." 
Much, however, was restored to the Knight of Glin, the White 
Knight, &c. ; and the Barrys, Fitzmaurices, and others, who had 
submitted before the death of the Earl, were confirmed in their 
estates. 4 

This was the only confiscation on an extensive scale ; but all over the 
island isolated estates were forfeited. Sometimes the attainder of a 
chief was held to involve the forfeiture of the entire clan lands, as in 
the cases of MacAuliffe and O'Mahony of Kinalmeaky. 6 In others, 
where the chief had been loyal, or had been pardoned and restored to his 
estates, it suited the officials better to hold the theory that the individual 
clansmen were the real proprietors. Inquisitions of the early years of 
James I give a list of about seventy clansmen of the O'Eyrnes whose 
estates, all specified by name, and most of them extremely small, 6 were 
held to have been forfeited during the insurrections of Lord Baltinglas 
and Hugh O'Neill. 

1 Often the death in rebellion of a chief was held to involve the forfeiture of all the 
lands of his clan to the Crown, as in the case of O'Donoghue M6r and Mac Carthy 
of Coshmaing. 

2 xi Elizabeth. 

3 Some unsuccessful efforts were made by Smith and the Earl of Essex to "plant " 
the districts near the sea, or on the borders of the Pale. 

4 According to Bonn, out of 577,000 acres, originally supposed to have fallen to the 
Crown, about 375,000 acres were found to belong to freeholders innocent of the rebellion, 
or who had been pardoned. The final total confiscated was 202,099 acres. He does 
not say whether English or Irish acres. (Bonn, vol. i, p, 299.) 

5 These forfeitures amounted in the aggregate to a very considerable area. Much 
of Connacht was in Protestant hands in 1641, some of it by purchase, more as the 
result of these sporadic confiscations. 

6 Some of these O'Byrnes are said to have owned only 2 or 3 acres. Pat. Rolls, 
James I, p. 115. 

T T? c A T J Vol. in, Sixth Series. \ v 

Jour. R.S.A.I. j Vo , ^ Consec Ser> | K 


"King James at first continued Elizabeth's policy. The great Ulster 
Lords, O'Neill, O'Donnell, O'Dougherty, and others, who had submitted 
before the news of Elizabeth's death had been published in Ireland, were 
restored to or confirmed in all their territories, in accordance with an 
implied promise at the time of their submission. 

Rory O'Donnell, created Earl of Tyrconnell, at once proceeded to 
induce all his subject chiefs to make surrenders to him, by which they 
acknowledged him as owner-in-fee of all Tyrconnell. 1 One of these 
vassal chiefs, Mac Swiney na Doe, had gone over to the Royal party 
during the insurrection, and had got from Elizabeth a grant of all the 
lands of his clan. This grant, too, was surrendered to O'Donnell. The 
counties of Donegal, Tyrone, Derry, and Armagh were by these grants 
practically handed over in fee-simple to five individuals. 2 

In the rest of Ireland the king, however, at first followed the 
opposite policy. The Patent Rolls of the early years of the reign 
contain numerous grants showing this. 

The almost general insurrection under Hugh O'Neill had caused con- 
fusion everywhere. A Commission of Defective Titles was issued ; and 
all landowners who felt doubtful as to their legal position were encouraged 
to surrender their lands and receive new grants. Many of the great 
landowners of Anglo-Norman descent took advantage of this. 3 Besides, 
many Irish chiefs, who up to this had made no surrenders, now legalized 
their position. 

Some of the grants are very instructive. "Mac i Brien of Arra got 
about 36 carucates in demesne, and from the rest of his country chief 
rents in money and ' Customary rents,' viz., sheep, oxen, hogs, mowers, 
reapers, labourers, ploughdays, which rents and impositions are in lieu 
of all other customs, refections, impositions or cess of horse, horse boys, 
contributions of Sragh, Sorehen, and boneragh, duties, casualties, aids, 
benevolencies or free gifts, cuttings, cosheries, and other advantages, 
claims and demands whatsoever " a most exhaustive list of Irish 
exactions. The chief rents came to 78 12s. 4d., "old silver of 
England," ten oxen, seventy-six sheep, and five hogs. 4 

O'Hara, in Co. Sligo, got chief rents, certain " methers " of wheat, 
thirty wooden dishes, six stone of iron. 6 

1 His own version of this is in Cal. State Papers, 1607, p. 373. 

2 The Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell, O'Dougherty, O'Hanlon, and O'Neill of 
the Fews. 

Chichester's proclamation refers, no doubt, to these grants, and also probably to 
some of the grants to Lords of Anglo-Norman descent. 

3 In the Anglo-Norman districts in Munster the lesser proprietors could almost all 
show good titles from their immediate lords. But the titles of these lords were in 
many cases doubtful. Lord Roche and Lord Burke of Castleconnell, for instance, 
deemed it prudent to surrender and obtain fresh grants. 

4 Pat. Rolls, Jan. I., p. 89. There were 100 ploughlands in the territory of Arra. 
6 Ibid., p. 259. 


Sir Owen O'Sullivan, of Bantry, was given the lordship of Bere, 
forfeited by his kinsman the famous Donnell O'Sullivan Bere. He got 
in demesne about sixty-six plough-lands, and chief rents from the rest 
of Bere, some of which had been paid in money from of old, others now 
imposed instead of certain duties of butter, &c., others which the barony 
had formerly paid to the Earls of Desmond. 1 

O f Dunne, of Iregan, in Queen's County, was confirmed in the posses- 
sion of a most extraordinary variety of duties, probably because here all 
the old arbitrary exactions had already been commuted for these fixed 
payments. He got, besides the demesne lands , and his own private 
inheritance, u all and singular the annual customs and rents of silver, 
beeves, oats, bread, butter, and malt, etc." For instance, from the quarter 
of Rerimore he got " eight shillings, two beeves, twenty cronocks of oats, 
forty cakes of bread, thirteen dishes of butter, and a heriot after the death 
of every ' canfinny,' a hook day in autumn out of every twenty acres, and 
two ploughdays, one in summer, one in winter out of every plough, and 
four shillings for horseboy's diet." 2 

The most valuable account which we have of the policy of settle- 
ment pursued in the early days of James I is contained in a letter of 
Sir John Davies to the Earl of Salisbury, describing his tour in the 
southern counties of Ulster in 1607. These counties, Monaghan, Fer- 
managh, and Cavan, were still in confusion as a consequence of the great 
rising under Earl Hugh O'Neill. The Lord Deputy, therefore, determined 
to visit them personally " to discover and understand the true and par- 
ticular state, both of the possessions and possessors thereof, before he 
gave warrants for passing the same by Letters Patent unto any, and 
thereby prevent that error which hath formerly been committed in passing 
all Tyrone to one, and Tyrconnel to another . . ." 

Again we are told as regards Fermanagh : " But touching the inferior 
gentlemen and inhabitants, it was not certainly known to the State here 
whether they were only tenants-at-will to the chief lords, whereof the 
uncertain cutting which the lords used upon them might be an argument, 
or whether they were freeholders yielding of right to their chief lord 
certain rights and services, as many of them do allege, affirming that the 
Irish cutting was an usurpation and a wrong. This was a point wherein 
the Lord Deputy and Council did much desire to be resolved," &c. 

A settlement had, as I have said, been already made in Monaghan by 
Sir W. Fitzwilliams in Elizabeth's reign. On the attainder and execu- 
tion of the chief, Hugh Roe MacMahon, four of the five baronies iu the 
county had been divided among the clansmen. About eight of the 
principal MacMahons, and MacKenna, chief of the leading subject clan, 
got estates of from about two to five thousand acres each ; and chief 
rents from the rest of the freeholders, amounting to 10 from every 

1 Pat. Rolls, Jas. /., p. 204. 2 Ibid., p. 123. 



960 acres, were divided among them. The rest of the inhabitants who 
could show their title to land received grants to themselves and their 

The rebellion had disturbed this settlement ; but it was now revised 
and confirmed in all essentials. Over 300 Irish received estates in the 
four baronies, the minimum grant to anyone being sixty English 
acres. As the fighting force of the clan was said in 1586 to amount to 
100 horse and 400 foot, it is evident that by far the greater number of 
the landowners under Irish law were now secure in their estates. 1 

The state of affairs in Fermanagh was different. The lord Cuconnaght 
Maguire had obtained a grant from Elizabeth, in general terms, of the 
whole country. 2 His son and successor Hugh was slain in rebellion, and 
the grant forfeited. Eut this forfeiture, it was held, did not necessarily 
carry with it the forfeiture of those of the inhabitants who claimed to be 
freeholders, and who, having survived the rebellion, had been pardoned. 

A rival Maguire, Conor Roe, had sided with the Crown, and had had 
as a reward a grant of the whole country after Hugh's death. But 
Hugh's brother and successor on the Irish side, Cuconnaght, as the price 
of his submission to the Crown towards the end of the war, had been 
promised half the country. Various plans were proposed to satisfy the^ 
two ; and Conor Roe was induced to surrender his Patent, and to promise 
to be content with somewhat less than half. No Letters Patent had yet 
been made out to either ; and the Lord Deputy now set about investigating 
what the rights of each individual were. 

It was decided that the freeholders were the real owners, and that 
Elizabeth's grants had only affected the chiefry and the demesne lands. 
These lands, which were very small, only about 5000 acres, were to be 
divided, along with chief rents instead of all former exactions, among the 
two competitors. The lands set apart for the poets, chroniclers, etc., 
about 2000 acres more, were to be seized and handed over to the chiefs 
" in respect of the persons that merit no respect but rather discountenance 
from the State." 

For the rest of the country lists were made out of all who held land, 
and in what proportion. The Brehons were called in to give their help, 
and the official roll containing a list of all the rents and services due to 
Maguire out of the whole country was obtained, not without some 
difficulty, from its hereditary custodian, the chronicler and Brehon 
O'Bristan, and copied. The land was found to be greatly subdivided, 
" as almost every acre of land had a several owner " Fermanagh had 

1 The names of all the grantees are given in Cal. State Papers, 1606-08, p. 166, &c. 

2 In the Ulster Journal of Archaeology, vol iii (of the revived series), this grant is 
quoted from Fiant 4809, 28th of Elizabeth. Maguire " shall permit the free tenant* 
in the country to enjoy their lands, they rendering the rents and services accustomed." 
" All tenants within the country shall hold of Cuconnaght and his heirs by military 
service by such part of a Knight's fee as the Deputy shall order." 


never been disturbed by an English settlement. In the new division, 
of which the plan was now made out, no one was to get less than 120 
acres ; and the total number of proprietors qualified under this rule was 
found to be above 200. 

The state of affairs in Cavan was less simple. Perrot had promised 
the whole country to Sir John O'Reilly ; but the arrangement had never 
been carried out. Afterwards another project had been made, and agreed 
to by all parties, by which Sir John was to have two baronies in demesne, 
and 10. per 60 acres, from three other baronies, given respectively to 
his brother, his uncle, and the sons of another kinsman. Two other 
baronies held by the clans of Mac Kernan and Mac Gauran were left 
subject to the ordinary Irish exactions. This settlement was never 
given legal effect ; and Sir John, as well as his brother Philip, and his 
uncle Edmund, who succeeded in turn to the chieftainship, had all died 
or been killed in rebellion. Since Edmund's death, there had been no 
recognized lord. A jury of the chief of the inhabitants, with some out 
of the Pale, now were induced to find that these chiefs had been seised 
of the whole country, " in dominio suo ut de foedo et jure," and that 
all their rights were now vested in the Crown. But, before they made 
this return, it was explained to them that their finding would not 
necessarily invalidate their claim to freeholds. And as a matter of fact 
the Deputy seems to have intended to follow the same course here as in 
Fermanagh, namely, to acknowledge the clansmen as owners. Lists of 
the possessors and possessions of the country were drawn up, as in 
Fermanagh ; but Sir John Davies does not give us any precise details. For 
the present, however, no further steps were taken with regard to the two 
countries. The Deputy decided unluckily for the natives as it turned 
out to defer the final settlement till the Michaelmas term, after his 
return to Dublin. This was in July, 1607, and in the following October, 
before anything had been done in the matter of these counties, news 
came to the Government of the flight of the Earls of Tyrone and 

This event marks a new epoch in the history of Irish land settlement. 
Once more the plan followed by Mary in Leix and Offaly and by 
Elizabeth in Munster, the policy of plantation, was revived. The 
new idea seems to have been of slow growth. The Deputy, visiting 
Ulster to investigate the circumstances of the departure of the Earls, 
declared to the inhabitants that they would be no losers by the attainder 
of the fugitives ; every man was to be confirmed in his own. The 
Earls were found guilty of treason by juries of natives whom the Crown 
found it convenient to consider as freeholders. 

By the outlawry and attainder of the Earls the greater part of 
Donegal, Tyrone, and Armagh was vested in the Crown. The insane 
revolt in 1608 of O'Dougherty, who only just before had been foreman of 
the jury which had brought in a verdict of treason against Tyrconnell, 


led to the forfeiture of the Donegal territory of Inishowen. The owner- 
ship of the modern county of Deny had been lately in dispute between 
the Earls of Tyrone who alleged that O'Cahane, its chief, "held, he and 
his ancestors, as tenant on sufferance, as servants and followers of the 
Earl" and O'Cahane, who contended that O'Neill was entitled to 
nothing more than chief rents and Irish exactions. 

Sir John Davies, called on to report on the matter, had declared 
that O'Cahane' s country had never been lands of O'Neill in demesne, 
and had not been included in any of the grants to Con or Hugh O'Neill. 
But it had been confiscated by name by the Act xi Elizabeth, and 
was therefore the property, not of O'Cahane, but of the Crown. The 
same held with regard to certain districts in Tyrone. 

Sir Oliver St. John had recommended that a grant should be made 
to O'Cahane, 1 with the proviso that he should in turn create a certain 
number of freeholders ; but nothing had been done in the matter. Now, 
on a charge, apparently groundless, of complicity with O'Dougherty, the 
chief was thrown into prison, where he was kept until his death. His 
brother had joined O'Dougherty, and had perished, and the government 
had therefore a free hand in Derry. 

The claims of Sir Neal Garve O'Donnell to Donegal were got rid of in 
a similar manner. He had gone over to the English side at the most 
critical period of the northern war, and had rendered great services to 
the Crown. 2 In return he claimed the fulfilment of the promises which 
had been made to him to put him in possession of all or most of Donegal. 
Instead of this he was accused, with some foundation it would appear, 
of complicity with O'Dougherty. He, too, was imprisoned until his 

The territory of Orior in Armagh had been granted to the chief, 
O'Hanlon, by Queen Elizabeth, 3 with remainder to his son. The 
young man joined O'Dougherty and was attainted. His father was 
induced to surrender his life-interest in return for a pension of 80 a 
year. Thus all native claimants to Tyrone, Donegal, Derry, and most of 
Armagh were in one way or another removed, and the four counties vested 
in the Crown. 

But this was not enough. As the idea of a great plantation of Scotch 

1 O'Cahane had deserted O'Neill at a critical period of the war, and had received a 
distinct promise that he would get a grant of his country. See Doewra's Narration 
(Misc. Celtic Soc., pp. 283 and 284) for Docwra's opinion as to the injustice done to 
O'Cahane. "The Devil take all English men and as many as put theire trust in 
them " were the words, according to Docwra, of O'Cahane to Hugh, son of the Earl 
of Tyrone. (Ibid., p. 277.) 

2 Docwra says, "There were noe vices in poore Neale Garvie that had done us 
manie services." (Narration, p. 281.) 

3 Saving the rights of all not of the sept of O'Hanlon. Here the Crown distinctly 
disinherited the clan. Fiants Eliz., 6090. There is a similar proviso in Fiant 5207, 
granting Inishowen to O'Dougherty. 


and English settlers took shape, it was determined, by a monstrous 
injustice, to include Cavan and Fermanagh in the scheme. 1 

The decision of the Lord Deputy, a few months before, that the real 
owners of these counties had been, not the chiefs, but the clansmen, was 
set aside. He had pledged himself, if not formally, at least implicitly by 
the whole of his proceedings to establish the inhabitants with a legal 
title in their several possessions. The promise was disregarded, the 
proceedings ignored. Sir John Davies had found in Fermanagh that the 
Crown had no title to the greater part of the county by the forfeiture of the 
chiefs ; now it was laid down that the chiefs had been sole proprietors of 
all, and that all had now come to the Crown. In his report on Cavan he 
had expressly admitted the existence of freeholders among the clansmen ; 
now, in a letter of 1610, we find him maintaining the exact opposite 
view, and quoting with approval the arguments brought against those 
natives of Cavan who claimed an estate of inheritance in their lands. 

On the pretext that the Irish customs of inheritance could not be 
reduced to agreement with the Common Law of England, it was laid 
down that the natives of these two counties were only tenants at will 
of the lords ; and so, as the chief lords had been attainted, these two 
counties shared the fate of the other four, and were declared the property 
of the Crown. 

There is no need to go into the details of the Plantation of Ulster. 
It is only right, however, to observe that some regard was paid to the 
native claims. In Fermanagh, where Sir John Davies had found over 
two hundred natives competent to be made freeholders i.e., entitled to 
120 English acres and upwards sixty-three natives received lands. 
Besides these, Conor Roe Maguire, who had been promised at one time 
the whole country, at another nearly half, and had now willingly agreed 
to the Plantation scheme, received nearly 7000 acres of profitable land. 2 
In Cavan only thirty-nine natives received grants. The rest of the 
population not only lost all their property, but were forced to leave 
those lands which were granted to English and Scotch undertakers, and 
seek new homes on the lands granted to servitors, natives and the 
Church, the only classes allowed to let land to Irish tenants. 

In the other four counties the chief men at least benefited to some 
extent. 3 The Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell had shown no disposition 
to give them estates by English tenure. No doubt the Earls would have 
left the old Irish tenures undisturbed. But to judge from the analogy 
of what has happened in the Scottish Highlands, and what happened also 
on the lands of the lords of Muskerry, andDuhallow, of the MacDonnells 

1 Cuconnnght Maguire had also fled to the Continent. 

2 This was " plantation measure." In reality he received very much more. 

3 O'Neill of the Fews in Armagh received a grant of his territory. His son 
forfeited 10,000 acres in 1641. One- third of County Armagh was confiscated by 


of Antrim, and of other Irish lords who had received grants of all the 
clan lands, in tire course of time greed would have become stronger than 
respect for old custom, and the successors of the Earls would have taken 
full advantage of the English grants which had made them sole owners 
of the greater part of three counties. Here and there some of their chief 
followers might have received from them estates of inheritance by 
English law ; but the vast majority would have become mere tenants at 
will. As it was, 153 natives received grants in Armagh, Tyrone, and 
Donegal, under the Plantation, besides some few in Londonderry. 1 

The ease with which the Plantation of Ulster had been effected, its 
apparent advantages, and the substantial gains it had brought to the 
Royal Exchequer encouraged James and his advisers to try the same 
experiment in other parts of Ireland. In the new schemes all respect for 
justice a respect which on the whole had marked the Tudor dealings 
with the land was thrown aside. Henry YIII had abandoned the old 
plan of forcible dispossession of the natives; he had laid down the 
principle that the Irish were to be given a legal title to the lands they 
actually occupied. Sir John Davies, writing in 1607, had declared that 
the State had never taken hold of a title derived from conquest against 
such of the Irish as had not been deprived of their lands at the first 
conquest, but were permitted to die seised of the same in the King's 
allegiance. 2 This is true of Tudor days, and of the early years of James. 
The Tudors had encouraged the lords of Irish countries to make 
surrenders of their lands with a view to getting a legal title to them. 
But no force was used to compel them to do so, and, as is clearly 
shown in the cases of Donegal and Carbery, the Crown did not disturb 
in their possessions either the chiefs or the clansmen of those territories 
where no such surrender had been made. 

Now all was changed. Old grants dating from the time of the first 
invasion were raked up to show that the Crown was entitled either as 
heir of the Mortimers, or under the Statute of Absentees, or through 
the treason and forfeiture of nominal English owners, to the greater part 
of the territory in Leinster still inhabited by the natives. 

The inhabitants of the Irish half of Wexford had made a surrender 
of their lands in 1609 with a view to obtaining a grant under the 
Commission of Defective Titles. It was conveniently discovered that 
the lands were already the King's by a grant of Richard II, and a 
subsequent forfeiture. A fourth of the territory was set aside for 

1 It is strange how little we really know of the Plantation of Ulster. The official 
accounts declare that 500,000 acres of profitable land made up the whole six counties, 
and that the natives received about one-eighth of this. But there are nearly three and 
three-quarter million English acres in the six counties, all of which were confiscated, 
and of these at least half a' million were owned by Irish Catholics in 1641. The 
acre of the State Paper lists apparently equals two English acres, but this will not 
account for the discrepancy. 

2 Le Case de Tanistry. 


English undertakers, who by false measurements seem, for a time at 
least, to have got possession of a half. Of 667 natives who had claimed, 
of whom 440 were admitted to be freeholders and had surrendered their 
estates in 1609, only fifty-seven received land at first. Subsequent 
inquiries into the frauds of the undertakers resulted in room being found 
for eighty more. The rest, over 300, were deprived of all land, on the 
plea that they could only show a title to less than sixty acres. 1 

The plantation of Longford followed. That the O'Ferralls had been 
in possession for three hundred years, that the chiefs had received grants 
from Elizabeth, and that one of them had served the Crown in Flanders, 
France, and Ireland, that both the King and the Deputy had promised to 
pass them their lands by letters patent, all this was of no avail. They 
had expelled De Lacy's heirs three hundred years ago ; the King now 
represented those heirs ; and the O'Ferralls were mere intruders ; such 
was the lawyers' decision. In the settlement that followed, one-fourth 
of the land was to go to undertakers ; few natives were to get less than 
one hundred acres, none less than sixty ; those who lost their estates 
were to get leases of three lives or twenty-one years from the new land- 
lords a condition which was never carried out. 2 We read that " divers 
of the poor natives or freeholders, after the loss of all their possessions 
there, some of them ran mad, and others died instantly of grief 
and others . . . who on their death-beds were in such a taking that 
they, by their earnest persuasions, caused some of their family and 
friends to bring them out to have a last sight of the hills and fields 
they lost." 

To search for flaws in title-deeds became a regular profession. The 
Irish lands along the Shannon from Ulster to Lough Derg were all found 
to be vested in the King. The native inhabitants, O'llourkes, O'Melaghlins, 
O'Molloys, MacCoghlans, O'Carrolls were deprived of a portion of their 
territories. The residue was divided among them, the smaller proprietors 
being as usual deprived of all their lands. The MacGillapatricks of 
"Upper Ossory had been one of the first clans to submit to Henry VIII, 
who had created the chief a baron. Since then, for nearly a century, 
their loyalty had been above suspicion, but this did not save them now ; 
a title for the Crown was found against them, and they were deprived of 
a portion of their lands. 

A special feature of these later plantations was that the native 
grantees were forbidden to sell or otherwise alienate their estates to any 

1 It would appear that many of the dispossessed landlords, who had gone to Dublin to 
complain of the treatment they had received, were shipped off as bondsmen to Virginia, 
Bonn, vol. i, p. 355. 

2 In Longford 142 natives got land. But among the " natives " were included the 
Earl of Westmeath, who got 3000 acres, the Earl of Kildare, and 28 others belonging 
to families of the Pale. (List given by Miss Hickson, Ireland in the Seventeenth 


mere Irish, or to grant them longer leases than for three lives or forty- 
one years. This marked a farther step towards weakening the native 

These plantations naturally excited great discontent, which, towards 
the end of his reign, induced James I to desist from any further planta- 
tions. But Stratford, during his viceroyalty, projected a new confiscation, 
more gigantic than anything which had gone before. 

We have said that Perrot had made a settlement of Connacht and 
Clare, confirming all the inhabitants in the lands they held. Owing to 
subsequent disturbances, most of the proprietors had neglected to have 
their surrenders properly enrolled and to take out letters patent. How- 
ever, in 1616 they had repaired this omission, and the Patent Rolls of 
the next few years contain page after page of grants to the Connacht 
landowners. But though the patents were made out, they were never 
properly enrolled owing to the neglect of the clerks in Chancery, though 
the grantees had actually paid 300 fees for having this done. 

On this plea, then, a claim to all Connacht and Clare was put 
forward by the Crown. The jurors of Galway who refused to find a 
verdict were fined 4000 apiece, and the sheriff thrown into prison, 
where he died. The terrified landowners gave way, and the required 
title to the whole province was found for the Crown. A similar fate 
befell the territory of Ormond, though the O'Kennedys claimed as 
undisturbed occupiers for nearly 300 years, and the earls of Ormond 
claimed under a grant of Henry VIII. 1 Strafford fell before any steps 
were taken to carry out a plantation, and the scheme came to nothing. 

But the repeated setting aside, on legal quibbles, of titles which had 
been looked on as perfectly good for years, was beginning to bear fruit in 
widespread discontent. Neither Anglo-Norman nor Celt could feel any 
security. 2 The t^\o races united in begging that sixty years' undisturbed 
possession of land should give a valid title against the Crown. They 
offered large sums of money for these and similar " Graces." Charles took 
the money, and withheld the " Graces." 

At the same time religious persecution was uniting the whole Catholic 
population in the bands of common suffering. The result was the great 
rising of 1641, followed by eleven years of merciless warfare, and ending 
with the conquest of the island by Cromwell. 

To sum up the results of this inquiry. In Connacht and Clare the 
clan lands had been divided up among the clansmen, the chiefs getting the 

1 Subsequent to the Statute of Absentees. See Prendergast "On jhe projected 
Plantation of Ormond by Charles 1." Trans. Kil. Arch. Soc., 1849-51. 

2 The " holders of land within the English Pale " complained in 1624 tbat " the 
late plantations adjoining the English Pale, and the dispossessing thereby of many 
who, time out of mind, did quietly enjoy their lands, does very much affright the 
inhabitants of the English Pale, the rather that some of His Majesty's counsel at law 
in that country have said that they shall also be questioned for their lands." Calendar 
of State Papers, 1624. 


demesne lands as their private property, and in many cases chief rents 
in lieu of their former " cuttings and spendings." The same system 
had been followed in various other districts scattered throughout the 

In the native territories which ran along the eastern hank of the 
Shannon, comprising Leitrim, Longford, and the western portions of 
King's and Queen's Counties, the distribution of the lands among the 
clansmen had been complicated by a " plantation." The share to which 
each clansman was entitled under Irish custom was ascertained. Then a 
deduction of one-fourth or one-third, in some instances even one-half, 
was made for the purposes of the plantation, If after this deduction 
the share of an individual was less than sixty English acres, he lost all ; 
if less than a hundred, he was liable to lose all ; but in both cases he was 
in theory to get a lease of twenty-one years from the new owner. All 
sorts of fraud naturally accompanied these settlements. 

In other districts, again, while the more important members of the 
clan secured estates, the lesser clansmen seem to have lost all. This is 
especially noticeable, as I have already mentioned, in Desmond. 

Then there was the case of the six Ulster counties. Here all former 
settlements were torn up, the whole of the land was confiscated to the 
Crown, and a certain number of the natives received grants more by 
favour of the Crown than in accordance with any principle to be deduced 
from their former status. 

Finally there were cases where all the lands of a clan were given to 
a chief, sometimes the chief of a sept, sometimes of a clan, sometimes of 
a whole country. An example of this last is the grant of all Donegal to 
Eory O'Donnell, of a vast tract in Antrim to the head of the Scotch 
settlers the MacDonnells, and of other great districts in Down and 
Antrim to the chiefs of the O'Neills of Clandeboy. In some cases, as in 
Muskerry, the recipient of such a grant had to respect existing rights at 
least to a certain extent, and to make estates to the chief men of his 
own kindred and of the subject septs. Examples of the grant of the 
whole lands of a clan to a chief are the cases of MacDonaghand O'Keeffe 
inDuhallow, O'Shaughnessy in Galway. Finally there were probably 
many cases where the head of a small sept got all the lands of his kins- 
men. Glenachroim is one such case ; apparently there were others in 
the district ruled over by 0' Sullivan Bere. 1 Everywhere we notice a 
certain amount of apparent caprice in the arrangements. 

We find, as a final result of the action of the Tudors and Stuarts, 
alongside of a certain number of great landowners, a vast multitude of small 
proprietors. These small proprietors were most numerous west of the 

1 For in 1641 all the lands of the O'Linchighs and O'Donnegansof Bere and Bantry 
were in the hands of the chiefs of these septs. (Books of Survey and Distribution.) 


Shannon, where there was established something not far removed from 
peasant proprietorship. 1 

In the districts occupied by the descendants of the Anglo-Norman 
invaders, too, there were innumerable small landowners, Barrys, Powers, 
Butlers, holding as vassals of the great Anglo-Irish lords. Most of the 
lords had had their estates secured by surrenders Jand regrants under the 
Commission of Defective Titles. The lesser proprietors, junior members 
of the lord's family, or descendants of those who followed the great 
barons at the time of the first invasion, mostly held their lands by tenures 
secure according to Common Law. 

Cromwell made a clean sweep of all Catholic landowners, great and 
small, Gael or Old English, or later Elizabethan settlers. East of the 
Shannon the clearance was complete. West of it a certain number 
received allotments meant to give a partial compensation for what they 
had lost. An account of the Cromwellian confiscation and settlement 
would require separate study. 

But we may briefly touch on it here, as it serves to throw light on 
the actual number of landowners in Ireland in 1641. According to 
an abstract compiled by Mr. W. H. Hardinge, M.E.I. A., and published by 
him in the Transactions of the lloyal Irish Academy in 1866, 2 out of 
the twenty million English acres in Ireland eleven millions were 
confiscated by Cromwell, i.e., belonged in 1641 to Catholics. 3 And from 
a list printed in O'Hart's " Irish Landed Gentry when Cromwell came 
to Ireland," of "Forfeiting Proprietors Listed," made in 1657 by 
Christopher Gotigh, we find that in fifteen counties and one barony there 
were some 4120 landowners whose estates were confiscated. Now, as 
these included five of the six Ulster plantation counties, in which there 
were only about 270 Irish Catholic landowners in 1641, and as nearly 
all Connacht and four Munster counties are omitted, we may safely 
assume that in the seventeen counties for which we have no returns, 
there were at least 6000 landowners Catholics i.e. of Irish or Anglo- 
Norman descent in 1641."* As most of the Protestant owners either 

1 I have purposely left out of account here the cases (such as the MacAuliffes, 
O'Mahonys, and O'Donoghues) where the clan lands were held to be forfeited by the 
death in rebellion of the chief. And everywhere there had been confiscations of 
individual proprietors on the death of their owners in rebellion. These were most 
numerous in the Anglo-Norman districts, where it was easy to ascertain who were 
landowners. And I have also omitted the exceptional case of Leix and Offaly planted 
under Mary. 

2 Vol. xxiv, Antiquities, part vii. 

3 There were 168 loyal Protestants, besides the Duke of Ormonde, whose estates 
were confiscated by Cromwell (Reports on Pub. Hecords, vol. 1821-25, p. 652). 
Their estates are probably included in the eleven million acres. Against these we 
may set the lands of the Earl of Thomond and Barrymore, of Lord Kerry and other 
Irish Protestants who -had sided with the Parliament. 

4 In sixLeinster counties 1816 proprietors lost their lands. The single county of 
Wexford accounts for 621 of these. In Cork 1031 and in Kerry 547 proprietors lost 

To face p. 127] 



sided with the Parliament or were allowed on submission to compound 
for their estates, we have unfortunately no means of estimating their 
numbers. It might be possible from existing materials to make out such 
an estimate. If this were done, we would be in a position to estimate the 
final results of the various dealings with the land of Ireland which I 
have attempted to treat of in the foregoing pages. 

Lands granted to chiefs : 

ULSTER. Tirconnell, Inishowen, Tirowen (including Co. Deny, and 
part of Armagh), Clandeboy, The Glens and Route, Tvinelarty, Orior. 

CONNACHT. Kinelea (O'Shaughnessy). 

LEINSTER. Clanmaliere (O'Dempsey), Gavell B-annell (O'Byrne). 

MUNSTEE. MacDonagh, O'Keeffe, Mac Carthy of Muskerry, 
Mac Carthy of Glanachroim, O'Donoghue of the Glens, West Corca- 
baskin (MacMahon). 

Lands divided among the clan : 

ULSTER. Monaghan, Iveagh. 

CONNACHT. All, except lands of O'Shaughnessy. 

LEINSTER. O'Toole, part of O'Byrnes. 

MTJNSTER. Clare, except West Corcabaskin ; Tipperary, viz. : 
Ormond, Ara, Ikerrin, Kilnamanagh ; Limerick : Owney, Pubblebrien ; 
Kerry : Iraghticonnor, Desmond ; Cork : Carbery, Pubbleocallaghan. 

Lands confiscated under Elizabeth as being property of the chiefs : 

Lands of MacAuliffe, Mac Carthy of Coshmaing, Clandonellroe, 
O'Donoghue Mor, O'Mahony of Kinelmeaky, O'Brien of Aherlow, 
O'Byrne of Shillelagh (?). 

everything. In Tipperary, Clare, and the counties west of the Shannon generally 
the subdivision of property was, as I have shown, very great. The single barony of 
Tyrawley in Mayo had 113 Catholic landowners. Hence we might almost allow 
3500 for Leinster, 4500 for Munster, and for Connacht the same as for Leinster. In 
six counties in Ulster about 400 forfeited. "We have no returns for Antrim, Armagh, 
or Down, hut we know that in this last there must have heen at least 200 Catholic 
landowners in Iveagh, Lecale, Dufferin, &c. So that 12,000 Catholic landowners in 
1641 is perhaps not an excessive estimate. Of these, according to Sir William Petty, 
twenty-six were allowed to retain their estates, as having shown " constant good 
affection " to the Parliament of England, or having been absent from Ireland between- 
164 land 1652. 


Lands divided among the clans, but settlement upset by confiscations 
of James I : 

ULSTER. Cavan, Fermanagh. 

CONNACHT Leitrim. 

MUNSTEE. Ely 0* Carroll. 

LEINSTER. Longford; Westmeath, lands of O'Melaghlin, MacGeoghe- 
gan ; King's County, Fercal, Delvin ; Queen's County, Iregan, Upper 
Ossory ; Kilkenny, Fassadinin ; Carlow, except Idrone ; Wexford, 
northern half. 

Exceptional cases O'Conorof Offaly, O'More of Leix, planted under 
Philip and Mary ; Idrone, granted to Carew. 

N.B. In the accompanying map the vertical lines of the shading 
should be completed in the small area of land above the name " Dunne," 
and the Shaughnessy territory between Galway and Clare has been 
accidentally omitted a small lozenge-shaped patch of land on the 
intersection of lat. 53 and long. 9. It should be shaded with horizontal 


In the previous part of this article I followed the statement so 
frequently met with that Ulster, &c., passed to the De Burgos through 
the marriage of Itichard de Burgo with a daughter of De Lacy. 
Mr. Orpen in his article on the Earldom of Ulster in the same number of 
this Journal shows that this currently accepted statement is wrong. 

( 129 ) 



[Read 25 MAKCH 1913] 

T DESIRE to draw attention in this paper to one of the burial customs of 
the Iron Age among the Celtic populations of Central Europe and 
the British Isles, and its possible connexion with the ancient Irish custom 
of the hero's bit and the etiquette of carving. The custom I refer to is 
that of burying portions of animals with dead bodies. This custom was 
not characteristic of the Bronze Age. Some cases have been found, but 
nothing like the number of instances found in connexion with Iron Age 
burials. I give the evidence as far as it is known to me up to the present. 
In the Revue archeologique, 4th ser., vol. xix, January 1912 7 there 
is an account of excavations in prehistoric cemeteries round Toulouse 
and that neighbourhood. At St. Roeh a cemetery covering three different 
periods was found ; in the first age a few cases of animal bones occurred 
in the burials ; in the second pig bones occurred frequently ; in the third 
they were rarer. On page 18 we are told that, along with pottery of the 
most ancient Celtic type, great quantities of unburnt animal bones were 
found in the graves : bones of ox, pig, sheep, horse, ass, dog. On page 20 
all these burials are said to belong to the second period of the Iron Age. 
On page 21 we are told that in the cemeteries examined the funeral rites 
were the same in the three periods, but in the third the animal bones 
were rare. On page 47 we are told of a tumulus containing cremated 
bones, and animal bones not cremated. This was of the Hallstatt period, 
but in another Hallstatt cemetery (page 52) no bones of animals occurred 
at all. In the Iron Age cemetery of Mas d'Agenais unburnt bones of 
animals occurred. As far as it goes this evidence seems to point to a 
custom beginning at the end of the Bronze Age, and practised at the 
beginning of the Iron Age down to a certain period, when it died out. 
Other cases are : 

At Courtisols, Marne, vessels containing bones of pig and sheep 
were found buried with a woman of First La Tene period. (See 
Guide to Iron Age Period, Brit. Mus., page 62.) 

At Sornme Bionne several graves contained bones of pig, sheep, 
and other animals (page 58). 


In Marne a whole boar was found buried with a chief in his 
chariot. (See Revue Celt., xx, page 28.) m 

In Hallstattian burials in Bavaria young boars were frequently 
found. (See Arch. Review, i, page 120.) 

At Parkhill, Aberdeen, the fore-leg of a pig was found in a cist 
burial. (See Iron Age in Scotland, Anderson.) 

At North Grimston, Yorkshire, the head and some other bones 
of a pig were found buried with an armed man. (See Archaeo- 
logia, Ix, Plate I, page 258.) Another burial at the same place 
contained the humerus of a young pig. 

At the Danes' Graves the head and forepart of a pig were found 
in a burial of two men with a chariot. (See page 277.) 

At Arras an important burial of an old man contained the heads 
of two pigs. (See page 279.) 

Another grave, apparently that of a woman of rank, contained 
the bones of the foreparts of two pigs. (See plate 284.) 

In another grave two goats had been buried with a man. (See 
page 304.) 

In another grave two goats and two pigs were found with a 
man's body. (See page 304.) 

At Lough Gur, Limerick, a stone cist containing two bodies (one 
a child) had also fragments of pig bones, including upper jaw. (See 
Proc. R.I.A. xxx, C. 10, page 299.) 

All these cases (except those in Bavaria) are undoubtedly Iron Age 
in date, and in most cases are connected with the characteristic culture 
of La Tene. We may therefore date the custom from the above evidence 
as starting about the sixth century B.C. and lasting down to the first 
century A.D. Probably many more such finds have occurred, but the 
animal bones found have not been thought worth recording, or have been 

Now was there any reason for the particular animal or particular 
joint found in all these burials, or were they merely any sort of provision 
made for the dead one's journey to the other world ? It is possible, I 
think, though not certain, that the choice of the food was directed by 
the position in life or occupation of the person buried. Irish literature 
tells us there was a regular rule or etiquette of joints allotted to different 
ranks. I now give the rules as I have found them. In Irische Texte, 
vol. iii, pages 188 and 206, in a text dealing with Cormac mac Airt 
(third century) we have : 

" His proper portion to each, viz., a thigh (laarg) to a king and 
a poet : an upper thigh (crochet) for a literary man : a shinbone 
(colpa) for a young lord : heads (cuind) for charioteers : haunch (les) 
for queens, and every due share besides." 


In Trans. R.I. A. xviii, Petrie gives the following rule : 

" for charioteers and stewards the heads (cuinn) to them. 

" The harpers have a pig's shoulder. 

*' An ollam brehon has the upper thighs (lonchrochait). 

" A sage and a royal chief have the entrails and the best or prime 
upper- thigh (primh-chrochait). 

" An ollam poet, an aire ard, an ollam historian have the larach = 
the thigh, leg. 

" A craftsman has a pig's shoulder^ 

" A druid and an aire dessa have the shinbone, lit. the calf of 
the leg (colptha)." 

In Eriu iv, page 125, in a text relating to the time of Diarmait 
Mac Cerbaill (sixth century), we read : 

' ' his proper portion ... to each one, fruit and oxen and boars and 
flitches for kings and ollaves and free-noble elders . . ., redmeat . . . 
for warriors . , ., head . . . for charioteers and jugglers . . ., veal, 
lamb, pork for young men and maidens . . ." 

Lastly, in the Senchus M6r, vol. i, p. 49 : 

" The thigh (larac) for king, bishop, and sage. 

" The shin (colpta) for young lords. 

" The heads (cuinn) for charioteers. 

" The haunch (les) for queens. 

" The upper thigh (croichet) for kings in opposition or tanists." 

It will be noticed there is a good deal of variety in these regulations 
The first and last are most nearly in agreement. We may conclude that 
the etiquette varied from time to time and from place to place. Note that 
only in one, the rule of the Senchus Mor, is provision made for clergy. 
All the others are pagan, and contain no allusion to bishop, monk, abbot, 
or church dignitary. The Senchus Mor being revised in Christian times 
by a committee including bishops, due provision was of course made for 
their dignity. The other rules seem as if they must have been handed 
down intact from pagan times. This may be taken as a sign of great 
antiquity. But the differences in their regulations are interesting, as we 
need not then expect that the portions buried as given above will tally in 
every respect with the Irish rules. The etiquette in Gaul and York- 
shire may have been quite different from that in Ireland. Yet there are 
several points of agreement between the written rule and the burial 
practice. For instance, the one thing all the rules agree on is "heads 
for charioteers." One of the Yorkshire burials contained a chariot and 
two men's bodies ; with them the head and thigh of a pig. Have we here 
the king and his charioteer? It looks like, it. Again, the most usual find 

T ,. i? Q A T J Vo1 - MI Sixth Series. ) T 

Jour. R.S.A.I. ; Vo , XL ' m Consec> Ser> { L 


has been a fore-leg, and the most usual animal a pig. The pig was the 
great delicacy and choicest dish in Irish literature, and the rules show 
that the most distinguished people always got some part of the leg. To 
be buried with a pig's leg, therefore, surely indicates rank of some sort. 
I cannot account for the man buried with the goats. These animals do 
not come into the Irish rules at all. But the French noble who had a 
whole boar buried with him must have been a very great hero indeed, 
for according to Fled Bricrend (Irische Texte, i, page 256) a whole seven- 
year-old boar was the first and foremost part of the " caurathmir," or 
hero's bit, reserved for the champion of Ulster. Very few people had 
the honour and glory of the whole animal in their graves to keep them 
company. I suggest, therefore, that this particular custom and the Irish 
rules belong to the same age and represent the same culture and modes 
of thought. They corroborate each other, and agree with the evidence 
already brought forward for the vivid and accurate reflections of the 
La Tene Age in Irish literature. There have been very few Iron Age 
burials examined or investigated in Ireland. It is to be hoped that, 
should such be brought to light, no fragment of bone may be overlooked; 
since even pigs' feet, it seems, may be of use in the discovery of 
archaeological truth. 

( 133 ) 


[Continued from p. 46] 

BY GODDARD H. ORPEN, M.R.I. A., Member. 

I now proceed to give the first instalment of abstracts of the inquisitions 
taken in the year 1333, after the death of William de Burgh, Earl 
of Ulster, concerning his lands in Ireland, other than those in Connacht. 
The originals are preserved in the Public Record Office in London, and 
are catalogued as Chancery Inquisitions Post Mortem, 7 Edward iii, 
No. 39. Including those relating to Connacht and to England, there 
are seven writs and nineteen inquisitions. I shall take the inquisitions 
relating to the earldom of Ulster first (Nos. 18, 19, 20, 25), and then 
those relating to outlying lands which belonged to the earl (Nos. 12- 

At this time the earldom was divided for administrative purposes 
into five counties, viz., the counties of Carrickfergus, Antrim, Down, 
the New Town of Blathewyc (Newtownards), and Coleraine. This 
division was of old standing, as may be seen from the substantially 
similar division of the bailiwicks in 1226, when the earldom was in the 
King's hand. 1 Indeed it is probable that the division goes back in part 
at least to the time of John de Courcy, and represents the sheriffdoms of 
his lordship, except that in his time the Twescard, or county of Coleraine, 
was only very partially occupied by his followers. Probably the rural 
deaneries of the dioceses of Down, Connor, and Dromore, which, either 
singly or in groups, seem to have been nearly conterminous with 
these civil divisions, were subsequently moulded on them. Thus, as 
Bishop Reeves remarks, instead of ecclesiastical names, such as Moville, 
Bangor, Nendrum, Goleraine, Armoy, &c., civil names, such as Blaethwyc, 
Ards, Dalboyn, Twescard, &c., were employed for the rural deaneries. 

The object of the inquisitions was to ascertain the present money 
value of the lands, with a view to the assignment of dower to the 
earl's widow and the administration of the earldom during the minority 
of the heir. Much, therefore, that we should like to know such as 

1 See ante, p. 31. The Twescard, or the county of Coleraine, was then held 
separately by the lords of Galloway ; the county of the New Town of Blathewyc was 
divided into the bailiwicks of Blathewyc and Ards ; and the county of Down was 
represented by Ladcathel (Lecale). 



the precise extents and positions of the Norman fiefs and of the districts 
still held by the Irish, and the conditions on which they were held can 
only he doubtfully inferred. We cannot even tell how much land was 
held on knight's service ; for though a list of some twenty tenants so 
holding is given, there is little or no indication as to the extent of their 
holdings. Many manors, too, were, as we have seen, 1 granted in frank- 
marriage to John de Burgh, son of Earl Richard, and his wife Elizabeth 
de Clare, and these manors accordingly do not appear in the inquisitions. 

Many of the place-names are puzzling, and there are several which I 
have failed to identify. Some of these are probably corrupt beyond 
recognition. Others are names which have become obsolete and appear 
to have left little or no trace behind them in the available records. It is 
noteworthy that the names in the Connacht inquisitions are all phonetic 
representations of Irish names, whereas in these Ulster inquisitions the 
lesser denominations seldom represent Irish names. Occasionally we 
get a semi-translation of an Irish name, as, for instance, Le Ford for 
Belfeirste (Belfast) " the mouth of the Fersat" or ford, and Waueranton 
for baile uarain, " the town of the spring." There are of course several 
representations of Irish names, but the greater number of manorial 
names, as in the east of Ireland generally, and especially in Meath, are 
formed from the personal names of the early settlers compounded with 
" toun " or " ton " (town), and several of these have since been changed 
into similar names commencing with "Bally." This difference in nomen- 
clature between the East of Ireland and Connacht is probably due to 
the fact that the names in the East were mostly given by the first-comers, 
to whom the Irish language was strange, whereas when Connacht wa& 
settled, three generations later, the settlers were more familiar with 
the sounds of Irish names, and generally retained them, though in 
somewhat uncouth phonetic forms. 

In the identification of place-names in Ulster, I must gratefully 
acknowledge my indebtedness to the late Bishop Reeves, whose scholarly 
work, The Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, Connor, and Dromore, is 
a boon to all students of Ulster topography as well as to those of Irish 
ecclesiastical lore. All my references to the ecclesiastical taxation of 
1306-7 are to his edition of that record. 

The county of Carrickfergus, with which we commence, comprised 
approximately the present baronies of Upper Glenarm, Carrickfergus, 
Upper and Lower Belfast, and Upper and Lower Massereene. It seems 
to have comprised the deaneries of Magheramourne, 2 in the diocese of 

1 Ante, p. 44. 

2 This, us Bishop Reeves indicates, appears to have been the name of the first 
(unnamed) deanery in the Ecclesiastical Taxation of the Diocese of Connor. In 1327 
the abbot of Wodebourne was " receiver of the rents, farms, &c., belonging to the (late) 
Earl (Richard de Burgh) in the counties of Maghelmourne, Auntrum and Coulrath," 
where the county of Maghelmourne (recte Magheramourne) is clearly an alias for the 
county of Cragfergus : Ir. Pipe Rolls, 43rd Rep. D. K., p. 27. 


Connor, and those of Clandermot, and Dalboyn, in the diocese of Down. 
The Castle of Carrickfergus was a royal castle, and is not included. 
The principal seignorial manors were Carrickfergus, LeFord, or'Belfast, 
and Dunmalys, or Drumaliss in the parish of Larne. There were borough 
towns at these places and at Le Coul (Carnmoney), hut the boroughs of 
Le Coul and Le Ford had been destroyed " by John de Logan, and other 
enemies of the King." This and similar statements, made in this inqui- 
sition to account for the depreciation or destruction of the earl's property, 
refer to the murder of the earl and the disturbances which followed. It 
appears that the earl, who was only in his twenty-first year, was going 
from the New Town [of Ards] to Carrickfergus, when on 6 June 1333, 
probably near Le Ford (Belfast), he was treacherously slain by his own 
men. John de Logan, Robert son of Richard de Mandeville, and Robert 
son of Martin de Mandeville are mentioned by name as among the 
perpetrators of the crime. The earl's widow, Matilda of Lancaster, 
immediately fled with her infant daughter to England. Sir John D' Arcy, 
the justiciar, came by sea to Carrickfergus, on July 1, to avenge the 
murder,: whereupon the loyal inhabitants, taking courage, marched against 
the murderers and their abettors, and executed condign punishment upon 
them. The malefactors had obtained the assistance of the Irish to 
defend themselves from justice ; and hence the great destruction of 
property that ensued before they were suppressed. 1 

That the destruction of property, coming as it did before the land 
could have recovered from the ravages of Edward Bruce, was very great, 
clearly appears from the difference between the old extent and the new, 
as given in the inquisitions. The total of the former for Ulster was 
441 16*. 2d., while the total of the latter was only 139 18s. Id. 
Even the old extent, wherever we have materials for comparison, 2 seems 
to have been much below what had previously been received ; but of 
course the parting with seignorial manors to provide for Earl Richard's 
numerous family, and perhaps other changes, may make such comparisons 

In the Pipe Roll for 1334 John Morice, the Escheator, accounts for 
the sum of 36 14s. 4d., rents and issues of two- thirds of the lands 
which belonged to the earl in the counties of Down, Blawyk, Antrym, 
Cragfergus, and Coulrath, for the term immediately following the earl's 
death, as by the extent. Also for 11 7s. Qd. for issues of county and 

1 The most authentic account of the earl's murder is contained in the Laud MS. 
Annals, Chart. St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, vol. ii, pp. 378-9. Clynn (Annals, pp. 24, 
25) adds some apparently trustworthy details, and mentions Gyle de Burgh, wife of 
Kichard de Mandeville, as having instigated the deed. See ante, p. 46. He also 
states that John de Mandeville headed those who took vengeance on the perpetrators. 
He was probably the John de Mandeville who was one of the jurors on this inquisi- 
tion. Marleburrough seems to be the first who says that the deed took place "neere 
to the foords in Vlster " : ed. 1633, p. 212. 

2 Compare, for instance, the account of William FitzWarin, Journal, ante, p. 41. 


hundred courts, mills and market tolls, of said two parts, by the extent. 
Total 48 1*. 4d. 1 The whole (including the dower, which was 
assigned to the earl's widow) would thus be 72 2*. Qd. for the term, or 
144 4*. Qd. for the year. The total, according to the sum of the totals 
of the new extent, as we have said, is 139 18*. Id. per annum. How 
the slight discrepancy is to be explained it is perhaps vain to inquire. 
In the extent the totals do not always precisely agree with the sum of 
the items given. 

Of the jurors' names Savage, Hacket, Sarasyn, and Passelowe appear 
among the names of John de Courcv's principal followers. 2 A .Robert de 
Mandeville was at Carrickfergus with King John in 1210, and appears 
as a tenant in chief in Ulster in 122 1. 3 A Robert Talbot had lands in 
the diocese of Connor before 1210. 4 The Bysets first obtained lands in 
the Glynns in 1242. 6 A William Husee held lands in Hoesetone, some- 
where in Co. Antrim, about the beginning of the reign of Edward I. 6 
The following jurors appear in inquisition No. 26 as holding by military 
service : Robert Byset, Richard Savage, Patrick Sandaie, John Talbot, 
and John de Mandeville ; to whom we may add from the list of jurors 
for Co. Antrim, William de Wellys and Koger FitzRichard. 

It is remarkable that in the Irish Exchequer Memoranda, 7 ascribed 
to 1280-4, but in some cases clearly compiled from earlier sources, only 
three services are claimed from Ulster, and as many as twenty services 
from Walter de Burgh for Coimacht, while in these inquisitions Earl 
William is said to have held his lands in Ulster by the service of twenty- 
two knights' fees, and his lands in Connacht by the service of six 
knights' fees. When the change was made is not clear, but as recently 
as for the year 1308 Richard de Burgh, Earl of Ulster, paid for three 
services only, in respect of Ulster. 8 


Before John Morice Escheator of Ireland at Cragfergus on Saturday 
next after the Feast of St. Matthew the Apostle, 7 Edw. III. 

Jurors. Robert Savage, knt. Robert Byset, John Haket, Peter Husee, 
William Baudewyn, Ralph Sarasyn, Hugh Wyteley, Robert Speneville, 
William Speneville, Richard le Savage, Patrick Sandaie, Peter Soueherche, 
Richard Aylryk, John Talbot, Walter Halywode, Henry de Weldoun, 

1 44 Rep. D. K., p. 35. 

2 See the witnesses to John de Courcy's grant of jurisdiction to the church of 
Down, Dugdale Mon. Angl. ; also the hostages in Patent Roll, 6 John, p. 55i. 

3 Close Moll, 5 Hen. Ill, p. 476*. 

4 Close Roll, 17 John, p. 223. 
6 Journal, ante, p. 32, note 6. 

6 36 Rep. D. K., p. 32. 

7 Cal. Docs. Irel., vol. ii, p. 550, " Book of Howth," Carew Cal., p. 234 ; and see 
English Historical Review, vol. xviii (1903), p. 507, where Miss 4 Bateson edits an 
Oxford MS., and collates all the documents. 

8 Jr. Pipe Roll, 7 Ed. II, 39 Rep. D. K., p. 62. 


John Gelous, Adam "Walewayn, Roger Passelowe, Nicholas Galgi, 
John de Maundevill, William Balycolyngham, Adam Bureltoun, and 
Richard Scargyl, who say upon oath that 

William de Eurgo late Earl of Ulster held in his demesne as of fee 
the following castles, manors, lands, tenements, liberties, and rents in 
Ulster from the King in chief as of the Crown by the service of 
22 knights : 

Demesne of Cragfergus, viz. : The Manor of Cragfergus -with appur- 
tenances, in which is a place called Hagard not huilt on, worth nothing, 
for want of hirers. In demesne there, 3 carucates and 40 acres formerly 
under the lord's plough and worth 4d. an acre, now nothing, because 
they lie waste and untilled owing to the destruction of the war of the 
Irish, and want of tenants ; 24 acres of meadow formerly worth 8d. each, 
now nothing ; 1 carucate at Kiogkogh in hands of farmers, who in time of 
peace used to pay 4d. an acre, now 2d. 

farmers. At Kylglan 1 2 carucates, 15 acres let for 2 : 15 : 10 ; 
at Dyleston, 1 carucate for 2 : : ; 

at Rothelang 2 1 messuage, 20 acres let to John Glee for 10s. ; 
at Le Redegate, 3 1 carucate let for 1:0:0; 
at Lyeltone, 1 carucates containing 200 acres let to John Folcard 

for 2 : 12 : 4d; 

at Hervyntoun, 1 carucate let to Thomas le Mullare for 2:0:0; 
% carucate let to Robert By set for 10s. 

Ronceven* At le Graunge of Uonceven, 2^ carucates let to John 

Eolcard and other tenants for 5:0:0; 
at Whytewelle, 60 acres let for 10s. ; 

at Lyteltoun, 1 carucate let for 2 in time of peace, now only 10s. j 
at Whytecherche, 5 1 carucate let for 2 ; 
at Suffoiiond, 60 acres let for 6s. 8d. ; 
at le Cragges, 6 60 acres let for 6s. 8d. 
at Cragfergus is a borough town which the Burgesses hold freely 

for 2 : 16 : 8. 

CoulJ 1 There was a borough town at le Coul for which the Burgesses 
used to pay 10s., now it is worth nothing, as it is burnt and destroyed by 
John Logan and other enemies of the King. 

1 The Grange of Killyglen, Upper Glenarm. 

2 Raloo Parish, Lower Belfast; Ecclesia de Rathlung ; Eccl. Tax., p. 53. 

3 Perhaps Redhall, in the parish of Templecorran, Lower Belfast. 

4 Represents the Irish Hinne Seimhne, now Island Magee. The name appears as 
Ransevyn in Eccl. Tax., p. 58. Land here belonged to Robert FitzSerlou before 
1213 ; Close Roll, 15 John, p. 138J. The " Graune of Ronceven " is now represented 
by the townland of Gransha in Island Magee. 

5 The Church of St. John of Ransevyn appears to have been known as 
" Whitkirk." It was probably in the townland of Ballykeel; Reeves, Eccl. Tax., 
p. 59. 

6 Perhaps the townland of Ballycraigy, in the parish of Lame. 

7 The parish of Carnmoney, Lower Belfast, was formerly known as Coule, and is 


Mills. At Cragfergus, a water-mill let to Robert de Speneville for 
4:6:8. At Kyloughter, 1 a water-mill let to Alan le Mullare for 3. 
At Coul another water-mill worth, in the Earl's time, 1, now nothing, 
because burnt and destroyed by John Logan, etc. 

Freeholders. 4s. rent from a messuage which Robert Spenevill 
holds freely in fee. 7s. from a messuage called Hallezerd which 
William Mattelan 2 holds in fee. 3s. 4d. from 80 acres in Masshelond 
which William Fitz Thomas holds in fee. Is. used to come from 2 acres 
in le Heymynge which a freeholder held, now lying waste. 3s. formerly 
from a messuage in the to wnof Cragfergus held in fee by Richard fitz Vicar, 
but now nothing. 3s. 6d. formerly from a messuage there held in fee by 
Matthew Swinnesheved, now nothing. 3s. formerly from a messuage there 
held in fee by John fitz Augustine. 2 formerly from 1 carucate in 
Rochfordestoun held by a freeholder, now nothing. 1 from 3 carucates 
in Houghtonemart which Robert Byset holds freely in fee. 6s. 8d. from 
60 acres in Le Redemyr which Robert Byset and his wife Affrica hold 
freely in fee. Is. of chief rent from various lands which tenants in 
Wrythertoun hold in fee. Is. chief rent from lands in Pierestoun from 
freeholders. 3s. chief rent from land in Le Hagard near Cragfergus which 
the heir of Nicholas le Whyte holds freely in fee. 

A rent of 100 eels of the value of Is., or Is. from a tenement called 
Loghmourne 3 which a freeholder holds in fee. 53s. 4d. formerly from 
lands in Le Logan which Matthew Swinesheved held freely in fee, now 
nothing, because waste owing to the war of John Logan, etc. Id. from 
60 acres in Kylglan which Hugh de Rascy holds freely in fee. A rent 
of 2 pairs of white gloves from 102 acres which the heir of Ralph Berkyng 
holds freely in fee there. 

A court for extern suitors held fortnightly in Kylglan the pleas and 
perquisites of which are worth 6s. Sd. 

Issues of Manor of Cragfergus 
and aforesaid tenants by old 
extent 50 16s. Id., and 

Master John de Coupland holds 
freely 3 carucates in Marchalestoun 4 
for suit monthly in the County 

by new extent 33 16 8 . . ^ Court of Cragfergus. JohnHaket 
holds 5 carucates in Loglyd 5 for suit as above. John Gernoun holds 5 

so named in the Eccl. Tax., p. 66. The Glebe is still marked Coule Glebe on the 
Ordnance Map. 

1 Kilwaughter Parish, Gill uachtar, in Upper Glenarru. 

2 A William Matalan appears from the Kegistry of Muckamore to bave beld lands 
in Clandennot ; Reeves, Eccl. Tax., p. 180. 

3 The name of a lake in the county of the town of Carrickfergus. 

4 "Marshall's towne lying within the liberties of the county of the town of 
Carrickfergus"; Inquis. Ulton. Antrim, 6 Jac. I, and see Hants Eliz., No. 6620, 
where the boundaries are given. "Copland water" forms the northern boundary. 
"William and Henry Copland are witnesses to John de Courcy r s grant to the Church 
of Down. 

5 Ecclesia de Loghlat appears in the Eccl. Tax., p. 56. It was in Templecorran 
Parish, Lower Belfast. 


carucates in Lisleynan 1 for life by enfeoffment of the Earl for suit as 
above. John Kilkenan holds 1 carucates in Priourtoun 2 for suit as 

Forde. There is at Le Ford 3 a Manor in which there was a castle, 
now thrown down by John Logan's war, and worth nothing. There 
was a Borough town there, now all burnt and destroyed by said John, 
and worth nothing at present, but in the Earl's time it was worth in 
perquisites of the court and other profits, 1. 

In demesne at the Ford 7 carucates [In text " acres, whereof each 
acre contains 6 score acres."] formerly worth 2 each carucate, now 
nothing on account of the above war ; 4 carucates at Castelconnaugh, 
formerly worth 1 : 10 : each, but now nothing; 2 carucates in 
Ymenaught 4 formerly worth l a carucate, now nothing; 4 from 
6 carucates formerly which Robert de Mandevill held freely in fee, but 
now nothing, for same reason. 

Formerly 1:6:8 and 24 days work of reapers in August worth 
Extent of castle and ~i Id. a day, from 8 carucates in Legolghtorp 

Manor of Forde 
etc. 28 : 15 : 4 
by old extent, and 

which David Coltaran 5 an Irishman held in 
fee, who now pays nothing for same reason. 
There was a watermill, of which the profits 

nothing by new. , ,, 

J ot toll were worth 6s. 8a., but now nothing 

because waste by burning of John Logan. 

Dunmalys. There is a Manor at Dunmalys 6 in which are no buildings 
because broken down, and worth nothing. 

1 Eeclesia de Laslaynan ; Eccl. Tax., p. 58. Lislanen ; Inquis. Ulton. Antrim, 
3 Car. I, now Forthill, a townland in Templecorran Parish. 

2 Ballyprior townland, Island Magee. 

3 As already explained, Le Ford is a translation of the Irish farset, which appears 
in the name Belfast. In the Eccl. Tax. (p. 6) the church of Shankill is called 
Eeclesia Alba, and is coupled with the Capella de Vado. The above is the earliest 
notice I have seen of the Castle of Belfast. 

4 Probably " Imany," in the Tuogh cinament, between Cave Hill and Belfast; 
Inquis. Ulton. Antrim, 7 Jac. I. 

5 O'Coltaran is mentioned by O'Dubhagain (p. 36) as a chieftain of Uladh, living 
in Dal Cuirb. Dal corb na hllamadh (of the cave) was one of the five primtuatha (chief 
families) of Dal mBuinne whose eponym was Buind, son of Fergus Mac Roig ; LL. 33 1 
(16), and see Onomasticon s.v. Dal mBuinne. Dal mBuinne was anglicized Dalboyn, 
Dalmunia, &c,, and the deanery of Dalboyn in the Eccl. Tax. (p. 44) "embraced a 
tract of country lying on either side of the river Lagan from Spencer's Bridge near 
Moira to the Drum Bridge near Belfast " ; Four Masters, 1 176, note w. The ancient 
Dal mBuinne, however, according to Bishop Reeves, was probably equivalent to what 
became known as Xillultagh, Goill Uliach, in the southern part of the barony of Upper 
Massereene, and we may regard this well-known district, which was a woody fastness 
in Elizabeth's time, as including the territory of O'Coltaran. As t and c are often 
indistinguishable in the MS., we may just as well read "Legolghcorp" in the above 
passage, and this uncouth-looking name would represent fairly well the sound of 
Dal Corb with the Anglo-Norman article prefixed, thus confirming the above 

6 Now Drumaliss, which with the Curran makes up a townland in the parish of 
Larne. It appears as Dunales in Eccl. Tax., p. 54. 


An orchard of 2 acres formerly worth 2*., now nothing. 

In demesne 2 carucates worth in the Earl's time 2, now nothing. 
10*. from 1 carucate in Le Grenelowe 1 which Nicholas Pedelowe 2 hold& 
freely in fee and makes suit at Court and mill. 2 carucates for which the 
same Nicholas does nothing but suit as above. 

A Borough town whose burgesses hold 8 carucates whereof each 
carucate contains 5 score acres, and they used to render in time of peace 
8, but now only 2. 

A Watermill, tolls worth 4. 

A hundred and a fortnightly Court in Kyltell of which the pleas 
and the perquisites are worth 1 3s. 4d. 

Issues of County. The Issues of the County [Court] of Cragfergus 
were worth in the Earl's time 13s. 4<2., and now, on account of the- 
disturbance of the country and the war, only 6s. Sd. 

Issues of Manor of Dunmalys 1 Total of Old Value 96 : 13 : 3. 

17 : 10 : Sd. by old 
extent, and 7 : 3": 4d. 
by new extent. 

Present Value 40 : 19 : 7. 

The " County of Antrim" probably included the whole district 
between the Twescard and the Co. of Carrickfergus. It would correspond 
to the deaneries of Maulyne, or Moylinny (Magh Line] and Turtrye. 
The latter, however, which was modelled on the ancient territory of Ui 
Tuirtrij was mainly an Irish district under the rule of the O'Flynns. 
The manor of Antrim, which had been the principal manor in the county, 
and which in the early part of the thirteenth century contained an 
important castle marked by a mote, was no win the hands of Elizabeth de 
Bur^h, widow of John de Burgh, and therefore does not appear in the 
inquisition. The principal seignorial manor remaining was Dunedergal, 
a name now represented by Dunadry, a townland and village in the 
Grange of Nilteen, which we may take as the manorial centre. " At 
Dunethery (Dunadry) there is a very noble mount which is planted," 
says Dubourdieu, writing before 1812. 3 This was, I suppose, the large 
earn which Bishop Reeves says was removed a few years before he 
wrote. 4 It may have marked the site of the old broken-down castle 
mentioned in the inquisition. There was also demesne land at the Grange 

1 "Half the vill of Greenlaw containing 60 acres," Inquis. Ulton. Antrim, 
90 Car. I. It is probably now Greenland, a townland in the parish of Lame. 

2 This name appears elsewhere as Pel de Lu (peau de loup), Poudeloe, &c. In 
1245 Ralph Pel de Lu received a grant in fee from the Crown of the land of Invre 
and Dumnal (Inver and Drumaliss) which he had of the gift of Hugh de Lacy, late 
Earl of Ulster; Gal. Docs. IreL, vol. i, No. 2771. 

3 Statistical Survey of Co. Antrim, p. 583. 

4 Eccl. Ant., p. 64, published in 1847. 


of Doagh. Here there was a fortnightly court. At the Grange of 
Ballyrobert there was another, while the county court was at Antrim. 

There are several place-names which seem to have disappeared. Those 
that I can identify with probability were mostly in the district of 
Moylirmy, on either side of the Six-Mile Water. Moreover, some large 
fiefs held by knight service, as stated in Inquisition No. 26, seem to have 
been in this district. Thus the heir of William Logan held a knight's 
fee in Lyn, now the parish of Bally linny, called Lynne in the Ecclesi- 
astical Taxation (p. 66) ; Ralph Logan held one in Walterton, now the 
Grange of Bally waiter, called Villa Walteri de Logan in the Ecclesiastical 
Taxation (p. 66) : Miles de Eldon held another in Roberton, probably 
the Grange of Ballyrobert; and Roger FizRichard held a knight's fee in 
Duncorrv, now Dunegore, the Duncurri of the Ecclesiastical Taxation 
(p. 64), and the Dunogcurra of Colgan, 1 where there is a well-known 

It will be observed that there are several large denominations in 
Co. Antrim known as The Grange of So-and-so. The word " grange " was 
derived from the late Latin granea, grania, granja, and is Old French for 
" a barn." It was introduced into Ireland by the Anglo-Normans, and 
seems to have been originally applied by them, in the parts of Ireland 
where they settled, to places where farming operations were carried on 
by them, or for their benefit, under the system of " landlord cultivation " 
in vogue in the thirteenth century. I think the Granges in Co. Antrim 
will be found to be either such Anglo-Norman farmsteads, or similar ones 
conducted by Monastic Houses which were remodelled under the influence 
of the new settlers. 

At Antrim before John Morice, 3 July, 7 Ed. III. 

Jurors. Robert Savage, William de Welly s. Richard de Burgo, 
Roger son of Richard, Henry Haly wode, William Fitz Lucyen, Richard 
Irtlyntoun, William Haket, Thomas son of Hugh, Robert the Clerk, 
Richard del Botelrye, Patrick del Crag. 

Demesne. The Manor of Dunnedergale 2 held in demesne as of fee, in 
which Manor are no buildings, but there is an old broken-down Castle, 
worth nothing because it lies waste and . . . since the war of the Scots. 

In demesne 4 carucates worth 6 before the said war, now nothing 
on account of that war. 

1 Trias T/iaum., p. 184. 

2 Now probably the Grange of Nilteen, Upper Antrim, where, as above mentioned, 
the name is preserved in the townland of Duuudry. It appears as Drumnedergal in 
Eccl. Tax., p. 64. 


Douagh. At Douagh 1 1 carucate worth 3:6:8 before the war, 
now waste and untilled for want of tenants in those parts. 

At Cragtoun 2 2 carucates formerly worth 2 each, now let to farmers 
for 20s. 

Free Tenants. 16s. rent from 1 cariicate 20 acres in Kilky held in fee 
by John Jolyf 3 who does suit at the lord's court and mill there. 18s. from 
1 carucate in Cranar (or Craucro) which Henry son of John holds in fee, 
and he does suit at the lord's Court there fortnightly, and at the lord's 
mill. 4d. rent, from 1 messuage and 6 acres with appurtenances which 
Adam Seyner holds in fee with suit of court and mill as above. 

1 carucate in Kyldemound which G e Hanewode holds in fee 

for suit as above. 

Mill. A. water-mill, profits 2. 

A fortnightly court held by the above free tenants, whereof pleas 
and perquisites are worth 3s. 4d. 

At Sou y, 3s. 4d. rent of 1 carucate which Hubert Byset holds in 

fee with suit at the lord's court at Douaugh fortnightly. 

Is. from 10 acres in Douaugh which John le Masoun holds in fee with 
suit of court as above. 

Is. from 10 acres in the same which William son of Hugh de 
Hertweyton holds in fee with suit as above. 

Certain free tenants of the Earl hold the vills named below in fee for 
the service of suit at the fortnightly court of Douaugh, viz. Ralph de 
Galmor for Corytoun, 4 John de Rydale for Austynestoun, 5 the heir of 
Walter llacy for Little Rascy, 6 Thomas Manmatyn and William Darel 
for Marmodukton. 

Extern Court. A Court for extern suitors is held there fortnightly 
by suit of the said free tenants, whereof the profits are 3s. 4d. 

Free Tenants. Is. for 1 carucate in Cusynton 7 which John Cosyn 
holds in fee with suit at the County Court of Antrum monthly. 

Is. from 1 carucate in Stowyston which Adam Stowe holds in fee 
with suit as above. 

1 Now the Grange of Doagh, Upper Antrim. 

2 Perhaps the townland of Ballycraigy, in the parish of Antrim. 

3 John Jolyf was at this time collector of the Great New Custom at Carrickfergus ; 
44 Rep. D. K., p. 27. 

4 Now the townland of Bally cor in the parish of the same name, Upper Antrim. 
See next note. 

5 Now Ballyeaston, a townland and village in the parish of Bally cor. Ecclesie 
ville Augustini et Ade Corry appear together in Eccl. Tax., p. 68. John, son of 
William de Rydale, died in this year (1333), and the Escheator accounted for 4 10s. 
rent and issues of his lands in Austynestown, also 4s. in respect of harvest services of 
the tenants there, and 7 6s. 2d. issues of the court and mill there ; 44 Rep. D. K., 
p. 5b. 

6 The townland of Rashee in the parish of the same name, Upper Antrim. Ecclesia 
de Rassci (Rath Sithe) appears in the Eccl. Tax, p. 68. 

7 Perhaps Ballycushan townland, in the parish of Templepatrick, Upper Belfast. 


Is. from 1 carucate in Dromlork 1 which John son of Robert son of 
Eustace holds in fee with suit as above. 

Is. from 1 carucate 10 acres in Besynton which John Kyppok holds 
with suit as above. 

Is. from 2 carucates 10 acres in Westoun 2 which Robert Savage, Knt. r 
holds with suit as above. 

2s. from 1 carucate 10 acres in Hobbeton which the Lord de 
Maundevill holds in fee with suit at the Court of Roberteston 3 fort- 

Issues of County. The Pleas and Perquisites of the Court of Ant rum 
are 13s. 4d. 

Total of old value of County of Antrim 17:3:4 
,, ,, present value 6:16:8 

1 Drumlork was one of the places claimed by John de Curci, son of Roger of 
Chester, in 1218 : Gal. Docs. Ir., vol. i, no. 833. 

2 Four carucates in " Ulveston " appear to have been given by Agnes de Weston 
to Robert de Schardelawe in exchange for lands in England prior to 1255 : CaL Docs. 
Ir., vol. ii, no. 473. This land appears as "Westoun" in the Pipe Roll, 39 Rep. 
D. K., p. 51. The capella de Westone appears in the Eccl. Tax., p. 6, coupled with 
the capella de Vado (Belfast), p. 8 ; and this "Westone is supposed by Bishop Reeves 
to be Bally vaston, a townland lying at the northern extremity of the parish of 

3 Probably the Grange of Ballyrobert, in the parish of Templepatrick. 


BY W. H. GRATTAN FLOOD, Mus.D., Member. 

[Read 28 JANUARY 1913] 

A s is well known, the present Royal Society of Musicians of Great 
"^ Britain is the outcome of a small society founded in London by 
Festing and Wiedemann on 19 April 1738. Its purpose was to relieve 
" decayed musicians," and also to provide for the orphans of deceased 
musicians ; and among the first members of such a deserving charitable 
organization were : Handel, Arne, Boyce, Carey, Cooke, Leveridge, 
Pepusch, Greene, and others. In the autumn of 1750 it was felt in 
Dublin that a similar society ought to be established for Irish musicians. 
Accordingly, on 8 October 1750, the Dublin Society for the support of 
Decayed Musicians was formally launched. It was also known as 
the Charitable Musical Society, and the treasurer was Mr. William 
Main waring, a distinguished Dublin musician and music seller. 

Until quite recently the very existence of this Dublin society was 
unknown, but fortunately Mr. Victor E. Smyth, of Rathmines, when 
going through the account-books of his ancestor, Ferdinand Weber, the 
Dublin harpsichord maker, discovered a number of documents connected 
with the working of the Charitable Musical Society from its inception to 
1764. In the latter year it got into difficulties, but was revived and 
reconstituted as the Irish Musical Fund, which was formally incorporated 
by Royal Charter in 1794. 1 Mr. Smyth most obligingly sent me an 
exact transcript of the old account book, and also Ferdinand Weber's 
statement of account in his capacity as treasurer of the society (in suc- 
cession to William Mainwaring) from 1761 to the close of the year 1764. 
As it is of historical as well as antiquarian interest, I think it well to 
reproduce the account-book exactly ; and I supply foot-notes to illustrate 
the text. 

" A list of the Subscribers for the support of Decayed Musicians from 

1 Mr. P. J. Griffith, Member, has the account-books from 1794 to 1850. 


All those 11s. 

October 8th, 1750, to March 25th, 1761, with an Account of their first 
Subscription : 

Matthew Dubourg l 
Joseph Ward 
Richard Broadway 2 
James Colgan 3 
Oliver Delahoyde 4 
Thomas Delahoyde 5 
James Forster 6 
John Clarke 7 
John Mason 
William Motte 
William Levieux 
Andrew Daly 
George Wade 8 
William Mainwaring 9 
B. Mainwaring 10 
FredSeaforth 11 
Wencel Hetschel 
Thomas Kelly 
George Fitzgerald 
John Cashin 
J. Fred. Larnpe 12 
George Walshe 13 
Joseph Ridge 
Samuel Lee u 
Timothy Carter 
William Jackson 
James Keiuplin 
Mcola Pasquali 15 
Callaghan MacCarthy 
Miss Oldmixon 
Giov. Marella 
J. J. R. deBoeck 
Lady St. Leger 
Miss St. Leper 

1 Dubourg was Master of the State Music in Ireland from 1728 to 1765, and was 
a famous violinist. 

2 Broadway was Organist of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, from 1748 to 1760, 
He died in November, 1760. 

3 James Colgan was a lay Vicar Choral of St. Patrick's Cathedral. 

*- u The Delahoydes were members of the City Band, as were also Foster, Clark, 
Wade, and Seaforth. 

9 , ^William Mainwaring and his brother were excellent Dublin musicians. The 
latter died in 1758 and the former in 1764. 

12 Lampe, the composer, was in Dublin from 1749 to 1751. 

13 George Walshe was Organist of St. Patrick's Cathedral 1761-1765. 

14 Sam Lee was leader of the City Band. He died 21 February 1776. 
lb Pasquali, the composer, was in Dublin in 1749-51. 


Lord Mornington 
Hon. Gar. Wesley. 

1 2s. 9d. each, 

Mrs. Price 
Miss St. Leger 
Mr. Cooley 
John McGregor 
John Gardiner 
T. P. Fleming 
Stephen Storace l 
Dan Sullivan 2 
James Bayley 3 
William Lamb 4 
John Woder 
Paul Jacob 
W. MacLaughlin 
Andrew Hetzell 
Richard Woodward 
Henry Mountain 6 
Samuel Leear 
William Brett 
William Hollister 7 
Ferdinard Weber 8 
Robert Mirfield 
Thomas Gotair 
Bernardo Palma 9 
John Butler 
John Marsh 
Rowl. Fitzgibbon 10 

10s. each. 

38 2s. 

1 Storace was father of the composer, and he resided in Duhlin from 1745 to 1753. 

2 Dan Sullivan was the original Joseph in Handel's oratorio of that name in 1744. 
3 , * Bayley and Lamb were Vicars Choral of St. Patrick's. 

5 Woodward was Vicar Choral of St. Patrick's, and was father of Richard 
"Woodward, Mus.D., Organist of Christ Church Cathedral from 1765 to 1777. 

6 Henry Mountain was Master of the City Music, and was also a music publisher. 

7 Hollister was a Dublin organ builder. 

8 Weber was a celebrated Dublin organ builder and harpsichord maker. He 
occasionally entertained Handel to dinner in 1742. 

9 Palma was an Italian singer who settled for a term in Dublin, a contemporary of 
Squire Marella. 

10 Fitzgibbon was one of the City Music. 


Quarterly payments received from the following persons now out of 
the Society : 

Joseph Ward, . . . . . 1 1 8 
Richard Broadway, . . . = 16 3 
Oliver Delahoyde, . . 1 17 11 
John Mason, . . . 1 1 8 
William Levieux, . . . 1 17 11 
George Wade, . . . . 1 17 11 
Frederick Seaforth, . . . 2 8 
Wencel Hetshel, . . . .1.7-1 
George Fitzgerald, . . . 1 1 7 1 1 
John Cashin, . . . . . = 18 Ill- 
John Fred Lampe, . . . . = 2 * 8 
Joseph Ridge, . . . . . = 2 8 
William Jackson . . . . 1 17 11 
Nicho. Pasquali . . . . _ g 1^ 
Callaghan McCarthy, . . . . 2 7 
Gio. Ba. Marella, . . . . = 10 10 
J. T. R. De Boeck, . . . . = 10 10 
Wm. Cooley, . . . . . 1 1 8 
John Gardiner, . . . . . 1 4 4J 
T.P.Fleming, . . - 8- 1* 
James Bayley, . . . . . = 16 3 
William Lamb . . . . - 5 5 
John Woder, . . . . . = 16 3 
Andrew Hetzell, . . . . . = 5 5 
James Walsh, . . . =16-3 
Henry Lyster, . . . . . 8 1$ 
Samuel Lee, . . . . . = 8 1 
Thos. Gotair, . . _ 2 8 1 - 
Barth. Main waring, . . . . 3 15 10 
George Walsh, . . . . . 4 3 11 
Danl. Sullivan, . . . . 1 17 11 
Henry Mountain, . 1 9 . 9i- 
Matthew Duhourg, . = 11 4 1 

Jour. R.S.A.I. j Vol. in, Sixth Series 

'Vol. XLIII, Consec. Ser. 

75 7 5J 


The Quarterly Subscriptions of the present members paid to the 20th 
of December, 1760: 

James Colgan, 

Thos. Delahoyde, 

James Forster, 

John Clarke, 

William Motte, 

Andrew Daly, 

Wm. Manwaring, 

Thomas Kelly, 

Samuel Lee, .... 

Tim. Carter, .... 

James Kemplin, . 

Rowland Jacob, 

Richard Woodward, 

Richard Whiteman, 

William Brett, 

William Hollister, 

Fred. Weber, .... 

Robert Mirfield, 

Bernardo Palma, 

John Butter, .... 

John Marsh, .... 

Rowland Fitzgibbon, 

Reed, by Lottery Tickets in 1757 

Reed, by the performance of " Alexander's 
Feast" in 1752, 

Reed, of John Putland, Esq., for 5 years' per- 
formances at the Round Church ending in 1757, 

Reed, of Mrs. Read the interest of 50 from 
9 Nov., 1752, to 9 Jan. 1759, 

Reed, of Mr. Will. Manwaring the interest of 
50 from 29 Sept. 1754, to 29 Sept. 1758, 

Reed, of Mr. Bernardo Palma the interest of 25 
from 12 July 1756, to 13 January 1758, 

Reed, of Mrs. Eliz. Stewart the interest of 20 
from 20 Nov 1786, to 13 January 1759, 

. 5- 










11 . 

















. 5 



. 5 

11 " 


. 4 



. 4 



. 2 



. 2 



. 2 

14 . 


. 2 



. 2 



. 2 



. = 
















. 29 



r, 50 




. 18 



. 12 



. 2 




. 2 




Reed, by Lottery Tickets in 1758, . . 11 2 = 

Reed, by Mr. Will. Manwaring the interest of 50 

for two years ending 29 September 1760, . 6 = = 

Reed, by Lottery Tickets in 1759, . . 10 4 = 

Reed, of Mr. Dexter the interest of 20 (being 
part of 25 lent to Mr. Palma) for a year 
ending 16 Ap. 1760, . . . .1-3-6 

Reed, by Lottery Tickets in 1760, . . 3 14 H 

322 9 1H 

Treasurer's Bill . . 122 17 9\ 

By loss on Mr. Palma's bond, 5- = = 
Remaining due on Wilcock's I -Pi 31 4 5 

and Dawson's Note, . 3-6-8 

131 -4-5 

191 . 5 . 
Ey notes of Malone and 

Company, . . 100 = 

In Mr. Manwaring's hand at 

Interest, . 50 = 

Remains in the Treasurer's hands, . . 41 5 6 

Above is an Account of the Balance remaining in the hands of 
Mr. William Manwaring, Treasurer to the Musical Society. 
Settled the 13th of August, 1761. 

1763 Ferdinard Weber. Dr. 
Oct. 12. Reed, from the Society of Musicians in 

notes and cash of different specie, 148 12 5 
By Lottery Tickets for June, 1763, . 4 10 = 

1764 Reed, one year's interest on Anthony 

Feb. 11. Malone' s notes, . . 6* = = 

May 11. Reed, interest and premium on Malone's 

notes, . . . .6-13-5 

Reed, for one Lottery Ticket in the Lock 

Hospital, . . . 2 5 = 

168 -0-10 

1764 Reed, by Lottery Tickets in the 3 United 
Nov. 10 Hospitals, . . . 9 = = 

177 -0-10 



p. Contra. 
Dec. 6. Paid to Mr. Rich. Moncrief for 15 Lottery 

Tickets, . . . . 17 1 3 

May 13 Paid to the Society, . . . 109-19-2 

127 = 5 

June 9. Paid more to said Society ac/ to order, . 30 * = = 
Aug. 15. Paid a Bill to Mr. Corry, . . . 7 1 8 

Nov. 20. Paid a 2nd Bill to Mr. Corry, . . 8-1-1 

172 -3-2 

Reed, less by Wilcocks' note, . 1 = 4 

Lost by the Spanish gold, . = 4 5 

Remains due, . . . . 3 12 11 

177 -0-10 


Professor Macalister has kindly drawn my attention to the fact that 
the arithmetic is wrong in some of the above cases; but I have copied 
the transcript exactly. No doubt some names have been omitted, which 
will account for the discrepancy. The seemingly irregular amounts of 
the subscriptions are the equivalent in Irish currency for more ordinary 
sums in English. Thus 11s. 4%d. Irish is half-a-guinea English* 
11*. Sd. Irish - 1 English ; 1-6*. 3d. Irish = 15s. English ; 1 17*. lid. 
Irish = 1 15s. English; 2s. 8%d. Irish = 2s. 6d. English ; and so on. 


To face p. 151] 




(Continued from p. 244, vol. xlii] 


No. of 

Locality and Townland. 





1. Inish Shark, N.W. At the church on the island, 13 m. N.W. of 
Same, 9n Clifden. 

(a) A broken slab with a cross incised on it. (In the church.) 

(b) A slab with a chalice on one side and a figure with extended arms on 
the other. See Handbook VI, R. S.A.I., p. 43 (M.), and Proceedings R.I. A., 
vol. xix (1893), p. 365 (M.). 

2. Ardoilean, 1 N.W. On the island, 10 m. N.W. of Clifden. 
High Island, 21 

(a) A slab about 3 ft. high, carved with a Latin cross in relief. The 
extremities are slightly expanded, and the cross is ornamented by an interlace- 
ment of one band, which forms triquetras in the arms, and encloses knots at 
the top, base, and centre ; a spiral is cut beside the top arm, and a cross-crosslet 
on the left-hand edge of the stone. (It is placed near the landing-place.) See 
Journal R.S.A.L, vol. xxvi, p. 206 (D.I.). 

(b) A small slab about 2 ft. high, having a rude cross incised on each face. 
One of these crosses has forked ends. (It rests against the wall of the holy 
well. ) Same reference. 

(c) A stone bearing a two-line Latin cross, the ends of which, except the 
base, are open. In the centre is a small circle. See Journal ft. S.A.I., 
vol. xxi, p. 351, No. 49 (I.). 

(d) A slab having on one side a three -line Greek cross with circular centre 
and semicircular ends containing fret-patterns. In the upper dexter quarter 
two circles are incised. On the other side is an incised cross formed of single 

1 There are also two slabs formed into crosses by notches cut in them. See List 
of Crosses, Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xxxvii, p. 211. 


lines, and having the base crossed by a small semi-circle. (It is placed at the- 
south side of the chapel.) See Journal U.S. A. I., vol. xxvi., p. 207 (D.I.), 
and Proceedings R.I.A., vol. x (1866-9), p. 555. 

(e) A long slab having on each side four small hollows arranged in cros& 
form. (It is placed on a station near the lake S.E. of the Cashel.) See 
Proceedings R.I.A., vol. x, p. 555 (D.). 

(/) A stone bearing a ringed cross formed of four separate incised quadrants. 
See Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xxi, p. 357, No. 31 (I.). 

3. Omey Island, S.E. In an old graveyard on the island, 6 m. 
Gooreen, 21 N.W. of Clifden. 

A stone incised with a Latin cross having forked extremities and semi- 
circular base. See Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xxi, p. 351, No. 32 (I.). 

4. Inchagoil, N.E. On an island in Lough Corrib, 4 m. N. of 
Same, 40 Oughterard Station. 

(a) A pillar about 3 ft. high, shaped like the gable bracket stones of 
early churches. On it are seven Greek crosses with forked ends, and the 
inscription lie lusuaebon macci mermeh. (In the S.W. corner of the 
graveyard.) See Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 10 (D.I.), and Proceeding* 
R.I.A., vol. xv (1879), p. 259 (D.I.) ; also Journal R.S.A.I., vol. xxxi, p. 242 
(D.I.), and vol. xxxvi, pp. 1 and 297 (D.I ). 

(b] A slab about 3 ft. 10 in. by 2 ft. 2 in., incised with a three-line Greek 
cross having a circular centre and semicircular extremities, all of which contain 
fret-patterns. (Built into the inner face of the south wall of the later church,, 
near the S.W. angle.) See Journal, R.S.A.I., vol. xxxi, p. 241 (D.I.). 

5. Knockmoy Abbey, N.W. Built into the N. wall of the chancel of the 
Abbey, ' 58 Abbey church, 6 m. S.E. of Tuam. 

A rectangular slab of late date (1401), with an inscription in four lines : 

bo moileachlaint) o Keatlait> 
t>o jii o mam agap binb bua 
l,aint> 11156 i chonchuip bopine 
mocha o anli in Ieat>ai5 pea. 

See Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 83 (D.I.). 

6. Mason Island, S.E. On a built station at the east side of the 
Same, 76 island, 3 m. S.W. of Carna, which i* 

10 m. S.W. of Recess Station. 

An erect slab, carved with a cross. 

7. St. Macdara's Island, S.W. Near the ruined church on the island, 4 m. 
Same, 76 S.W. of Carna. 

A broken slab, incised with a circle containing a two-line Greek cross, the 
centre of which is enlarged in steps. A small hole is sunk in each quarter. 
See Proceedings R.I. A., vol. x (1866-9), p. 555 (D.I.). 


8. Clonfert, 1 S.W. At the Cathedral, 4 m. N.W. of Banagher. 
Clonfert Glebe, 101 

(a) A finely carved slab, 2 ft. 9 in. long by 2 ft. wide, on which is a three- 
line cross with a circular centre containing" an interlaced cross pattern, and 
semicircular ends containing spirals, frets, and rows of pellets. In one line is 
inscribed OJA bo becsan. The cross and inscription are surrounded by a 
double-line frame. (The stone is now built into the south wall of the nave.) 
See Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 52 (D.I.). 

(b) A slab about 2 ft. in height and breadth, carved with a ringed Latin 
cross and the words op txrpa ... (It is stated to be in the E. part of the 
graveyard, and 9 yds. S. of the cathedral wall.) See Ordnance Survey Letters, 
Galway, vol. ii, p. 105 (D.I.), and Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 51 (D.). 

(c) Part of a late slab, 4 ft. 4 in. long, 5 in. thick, and tapering from 19 in. 
to 14 in. in width. On it is carved the lower limb of a four- line cross with a 
semicircular end containing a half rosette or palmette. (In the ruined south 

(d) A slab of late date, 5 ft. 7 in. long, and tapering from 1 ft. 9 in. to 
1 ft. 3 in. in width. On it is a four-line cross with expanded centre, foliated 
extremities, and stepped base. The background is occupied by an undeciphered 
inscription in four lines. (Brought from the " Nun's Acre " and placed inside 
the doorway of the cathedral.) See Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 51 (M.). 

9. St. Brecan's, N."W. At the ruined churches on Inishmore, 5 m. 
Onaght, 110 W. of Kilronan pier, Aran Islands. 

(a) Portion of a roughly rectangular slab 3 ft. Sin. by 3 ft. 1 in., incised 
with an encircled Greek cross of two lines, having a circular centre and splayed 
ends. The inscription pci bpe[ca]ni occupies the quadrants. (It lies S.W. 
of St. Brecan's Church.) 

(b) A rounded pebble 3 in. in diameter, carved with a plain Greek cross in 
a circle and inscribed round the edge ^( op ap bpan nailichep. (Found in 
St. Brecan's Bed, and placed in the Petrie collection.) 

(c) A rectangular slab about 6 ft. 3 in. by 2 ft. 10 in., incised with a three- 
line cross with two single-line cross-bars ending in circles containing crosslets. 
At the dexter side of the shaft is a double-line panel containing a pattern of 
four circular arcs combined with a lozenge ; and at the sinister side a double-line 
Latin_cross with expanded ends. The slab is inscribed across the centre in two 
lines op bo cisepnac. (It is now missing.) 

(d) An erect slab 2 ft. 8 in. high 1 ft. 1 in by 3 in. It is incised with a 
Latin cross of one broad line, having a circular centre and semicircular ends. 
The inscription, vn pom am, crosses the centre in two lines. (It stands in the 
S.E. angle of the graveyard.) 

(e) A slab 2 ft. 9 in. long by 7 in. thick built into the W. wall of 
St. Brecan's Church; and inscribed in one line op ap n canom. This 
inscription is remarkable in being cut on a raised band on the edge of the slab. 
There may be cutting on the other faces. 

(/) A rectangular slab 4 ft. 8 in. long by 1 ft. 8 in. wide and 5 in. thick. 
Om it is incised a Latin cross of one broad line rising from a base which 

1 There are also several medieval slabs in the cathedral. 


curiously resembles a pair of bent legs. The arms terminate in small circles, 
and the top in a large cross-inscribed circle. Below the latter is the inscription 
in one line, cponmael (?). (In the S.E. angle of the graveyard near (d).) 

(ff) A rectangular slab 4 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 8 in. by 6 in., bearing a two-line 
cross with circular extremities. The inscription, op QIC ap cmmam pcanblaiTi 
(not pemblain as in Christian Inscriptions), is in three lines in the lower 
quarters. (This slab lies to the W. of (a).) 

(h) A slab about 1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft., incised with a double-line circle and 
Greek cross having expanded ends. Above the circle is the inscription 
cechepnach. (Now in Belfast museum.) 

( i) A rectangular slab 2 ft. 8 in. long, 1 ft. 3 in. \vide, and 4 in. thick. 
Incised on it is a two-line ringed cross potent, which rises from a base 
resembling those of the high crosses. There are three_rolls, or pellets, in each 
sector. It is inscribed across the centre, comap op. (This slab is inside 
the church, and leans against the north wall of the nave.) 

0) A narrow stone 4 ft. long by 7 in. by 5 in., incised with a Latin cross 
of one broad line, having the upper extremities forked, and the base shaped 
like a pair of bent legs. (It stands S. of (d} in the S.E. angle of the 

(&) A slab 3 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 8 in. by 5 in., incised with a Latin cross of 
one broad line, with circular centre and extremities. 

(1) A slab 3 ft. by 1 ft. 7 in. by 4 in. thick, bearing a plain Latin cross of 
two incised lines. (It stands N. of the enclosure containing (a), S.W. of the 

(m) A slab 2 ft. 5 in. by 1 ft. 8 in. by 6 in. thick, bearing an encircled 
Greek cross formed of one broad line and having circular centre and 
extremities. For slabs a to t, see Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, pp. 17 to 23 
(D.I.), and for slabs a, d, and t, see Journal R.S.A.I., vol. xxv, pp. 251-3 
(D.I.). Much information about these slabs has been received from 
Professor R. A. S. Macalister. 

(n) A slab 2 ft. 3 in. in height, having on it a Latin cross of two lines with 
circular centre and open ends. (Formerly at a well N. of St. Brecan's : novr 
missing.) See 0. S. Letters, Galway, vol. iii, p. 392 (I.). 

10. Teampull Mhic Duaigh, S.E. West of the ruined church, 4 m. W. of 
Kilmurvey, 110 Kihonan pier, Aran Islands. 

An erect slab 7 ft. 3 in. high, on the "W. side of which is incised a two-line 
ringed cross having a long shaft and a small circular base containing a crosslet ; 
and on the E. side a Latin cross formed of one broad line and having triangular 
terminals. See Antiquarian Handbook, No. 6 (R.S.A.L), p. 72 (I.). 

11. Mainistir Chiarain, S.W. Near the ruined church N. of the road, 1 m. 

Oghil, 111 N.W. of Kilronan pier, Aran Islands. 

() A rectangular pillar 4 ft. 6 in. high, 1 ft. 3 in. wide, and 5 in. thick. 
A hole 2| in. in diameter is pierced through near the top ; below this on the 
W. side is incised a double line circle the full width of the stone, the vertical 
diameter being marked by two lines. Under this is a double-line ringed cross, 

[To face p. 



the top of which ends in spirals. A line is incised all round the margin of the 
inscribed face. (This stone stands near the E. end of the church.) See 
Journal It.S.A.L, vol. xxv, p. 262 (D.I.). 

(4) X A pillar-stone more than 7 ft. in height, 16 in. in breadth, and 5|in. in 
thickness : it is dressed to shape and the top is rounded. Two Latin crosses 
are incised on the E. side; the upper is of one line with circular centre and 
semicircular ends ; the lower of two lines with hollowed angles. Between the 
crosses is inserted a vertical bar with foiled ends. (This stone is built into the 
W. wall of the church enclosure.) See 0. S. Letters, Co. Galway, vol. iii, 
p. 369 (I.). 

(c) A pillar 6 ft. high, 1 ft. 3 in. by 5 in., which approximates to cross- 
shape by having bosses projecting from the sides and top. On one side are 
traces of two incised Latin crosses with circular centres. (In a field E. of the 

(d) A pillar almost 6 ft. in height, and resembling (c) in shape. (In a field 
N.E. of the church.) 

0) A slab 1 ft. 6 in. above ground and 1 ft. 6 in. by 4| in., bearing a plain 
Latin cross of one broad line with triangular extremities. (In a modern burial- 
ground to the north of the church.) 

(/) A stone 2 ft. 3 in. above ground and 9| in. by 8 in., incised with a 
Latin cross 1 ft. 5 in. long, having expanded ends. The base spade-shaped, the 
other extremities triangular. (On a mound or tumulus near the church, but on 
the opposite side of the lane.) See 0. S. Letters, Co. Galway, vol. iii, 
p. 367 (I.). 

(^) A stone 1 ft. 4 in. above ground and 5 in. by 4 in., incised with a plain 
Latin cross ll in. long, and having triangular extremities. (Near stone/.) 

(A) A stone 1 ft. above ground and 5 in. square, incised with a cross of the 
same design as that on g, but 7 in. long. (Near stones / and g.} 
Information as to these stones has been received from Professor R. A. S. 

12. Kilronan, S.W. Formerly near a pond beside the road, m. 
Killeany, 111 S. of Kilronan pier, but now lost. 

A pillar-stone 6 ft. in height, bearing on one side two incised crosses. The 
upper a Latin cross of two lines with triangularly expanded ends. The lower 
a circle standing on a short stem and base line, and containing a cross formed 
of intersecting arcs of circles. See 0. S. Letters, Co. Galway, vol. iii, p. 397 

13. Teampull Benain, N.W. Near the church on the hill, l m. S. of 
Killeany, 119 Kilronan pier. 

() The lower half of a rectangular slab, about 1 ft. 6 in. square, incised 
with a plain two-line Latin cross and inscribed in one line across the lower 
quarters op ap mainach. (This is not now to be found.) 

(b) A stone 1 ft. 4 in. by 1 ft. 4 in. by 1 ft. 1 in., inscribed capi. (It is 
built into the S.E. angle of the church.) 

1 b, c, d have been included in the list of crosses published in Journal R.S.A.I., 
vol. xxxvii, p. 212, b in error, c and d as intermediate between pillars and crosses. 


(c) A slab about 2 ft. 4 in. by 1 ft. 3 in., bearing a Latin cross of one broad- 
line with triangular ends. It was inscribed in three lines op . . t)O . . 
chin. (This is not now to be found.) See Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii r 
pp. 18 and 22 (a, b, c, D.L). 

(d) Portion of a slab 3 ft. 2in. long and 1 ft. 6 in. by 6 in., showing the 
base of a two-line cross with semicircular ends. (Set up about 15 yards S.W. 
of the church.) 

(2) A broken slab 4 ft. long and bearing a Latin cross with triangular ends. 
(This is not now to be found unless d is part of it, or it may be the same as c.) 
See 0. S. Letters, Co. Galway, vol. iii, p. 363 (I.). 

14. Teaglach Eanna, N.W. Built into the south wall of the church near 
Killeany, 119 the shore, l m. S. of Kilronan pier. 

A slab about 3 ft. 8 in. by 3 ft. 2 in., inscribed in two lines opoic ap 
fcanblcm. See Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 18 (D.L). 

15. Teampull na Seacht S.W. At the "church of the seven virgins" 

n-inghean, 120 on the South Island, 7 m. S.E. of Kil- 

Iniseer, ronan and 25 m. S.W. of Galway. 

A slab about 5 feet long, incised with a Latin cross, having a long shaft, a 
square base and a small head surrounded by a circle. Information received 
from Professor R. A. S. Macalister. 


[None known.] 


1. Kilbride, N.W. On a hill m. E. of village, 2 m. N.E. of 
Same, 7 Bally castle, and 8 m. N.W. of Killala 


A pillar-stone 5 ft. 4 in. high by 1 ft. 6 in. wide, incised with a plain Latin 
cross having a small upper cross-bar and small Greek crosses in the lower 
quarters. See 0. S. Letters, Mayo, vol. i., p. 410 (D.L). 

2. Doonfeeny, S.W. In the old graveyard, \ m. W. of Bunna- 
Same, 7 trahir Bay, and 9 m. N.W. of Killala. 

A rectangular pillar-stone about 18 ft. high and 1 ft. 4 in. by 10 in. in 
breadth and thickness. Near the base is incised a design about 42 in. long, 
consisting of a single-line Latin cross with forked ends and horizontal base ; 
placed over a double-line " Maltese " cross, which latter has a curved line 
above and below it. See Journal R.S.A.L, vol. xv, p. 754 (D.L), same, 
vol. xlii, p. 114 (D.L), also Borlase, Dolmens of Ireland, vol. ii, p. 423 (D.L). 

3. Kilcummin, S.W. At Kilcummin Church, 5 m. N. of Killala. 
Ballinlena, 8 

(a) A rectangular slab about 6 ft. by 4 ft., divided into quarters by a plain 
Latin cross of two lines. It is inscribed in four lines ope ap anmam f%4 m. 
ecich ^ %$. See Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 46 (D.L). 


() A slab about 1 ft. 1 in. square, incised with a cross having knobbed 
ends, round which are three circular " Patrick's crosses." (This stone is at the 
saint's grave N. of the church.) See Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xxviii, p. 296 

4. Inisglora, N.W. On the island, 6 m. W.S.W. of Belmullet, 

Same, 1C which is 25 m. N.W. of Mallaranny 


An erect slab carved with a cross of circular arcs, surrounded by two circles 
and having a spiral design of four centres below. See The Treasury Magazine, 
Sept., 1909, p. 538 (I.). 

There are several other slabs never described. 

5. Crosspatrick, N.W. In a field E. of the road at Crosspatrick 

Same, 22 House, 1} m. S. of Killala. 

A small flagstone with a plain cross incised on it. 

6. Iniskea North, N.E. On the island, 10 m. S.W. of Belmullet, 

Same, 23 which is 25 m. N.W. of Mallaranny 


(a) An erect slab about 4 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft., having a rude crucifixion incised 
on it. The ribs and heart are shown, and there are spirals on the legs. At the 
sides are the sponge and spear bearers, and in the upper corners are small Greek 
crosses of four lines. 

(b) An erect slab about 3 ft. 9 in. by 2 ft., carved with a cross made up of 
circular arcs, below which is a spiral design similar to that on Inisglora. See 
rubbings in the R.I. A. library, also 0. S. tetters, Mayo, vol. i, p. 207 (M.). 

7. Iniskea South, S.E. On the island, 11 m. S.W. of Belmullet. 

Same, 23 

An erect slab about 5 ft. by 3 ft. 3 in., on which is incised an elaborate 
design consisting of a double-band cross of circular arcs, surrounded by three 
concentric circles. The largest of these circles is 3 ft. in diameter, and is 
connected with a cruciform base or stem having spiral terminations. See 
rubbing as above, also Antiquarian Handbook, no. vi (R. S.A.I.), p. 32 (I.). 

8. Duvillaun N.E. On the island 12 m. S.W. of Belmullet. 

Duvillaun More, 33A 

A narrow pillar-stone about 6 ft. in height, having on one side a rude 
crucifixion and on the other a Greek cross in a circle. See 0. S. Letters, Mayo, 
vol. i, p. 208 (D.), also Antiquarian Handbook, no. vi (R. S.A.I.), p. 34 (D.). 

Kilmore Moy, N.E. At the upper end of the graveyard, 1 m. N. 

Ardoughan, 30 of Balliua, on the road to Killala. 

A large block, on which is incised a Greek cross surrounded by two con- 
centric circles, the larger of which is 1 ft. 4 in. in diameter. The stone is 
called Lia na manach. See Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xxviii, p. 287 (D.I.). 


10. Glendaduff, N.W. In a killeen beside the road, N.E. of 
Same, 49 Glendaduff lough and 5 m. N.E. of 


(a) A pillar-stone with a cross cut on it. 

(b) A cross-inscrihed stone lying on a grave. See 0. S. Letters Mayo, vol. i, 
p. 128 (M.). 

11. Meelick, N.E. In the graveyard at the round tower, 3 m. 
Same, 71 W. of Swineford. 

A slab 4 ft. 7 in. long by 2 ft. wide, on which is carved a Latin cross n a 
rectangular frame, both cross and frame being covered with interlacing. The 
extremities and centre are marked by small Greek crosses ; and the inscription 
ori t)0 spisou occupies the sinister quarters, and reads downwards. 
See Journal R.S.A.I., vol. xviii, p. 495 (D.I.). 

12. Breaffy, N.W. Found at the ruined church, 2 m. E. of 

Breaghwy, 79 Castlebar, and now built into a wall at 

Neale House, 3 m. S. of Ballinrobe 

A slab about 1 ft. 2 in square, inscribed in two lines lonpecnan. See 
Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 46 (D.I.), also Wilde's Lough Corrib, p. 241 

13. Clare Island, N.W. Near the S.W. corner of the graveyard at 
Strake, 85 the abbey, 20 m. W. of Westport. 

A pillar of regular shape 11 ft. high, 1 ft. 6 in. wide and 9 in. thick. 
A long narrow Latin cross is outlined on the S. face. See Proceedings R.I. A., 
vol. xxxi, part 2, p. 37 (D.I.). 

14. Louisburgh, S.W. On the roadside near Louisburgh, 13 in. W. 

86 of Westport. 

A stone bearing a single-line Latin cross, with forked ends and a pear-shaped 
base, below which is an extra shaft and similar base. At each side of the shaft 
is a smaller cross of identical shape, and in each upper quarter a small Greek 
cross with forked ends. See Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xxi, p. 355, No. 13 (I.). 

15. Knappagh, S.W. In the " killeen " 2 m. S. of Westport. 
Knappaghmanagh, 88 

A triangular stone 2 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 6 in., on which are incised two 
designs, the first consisting of two concentric circles which enclose a Greek 
cross with a small dot or hollow in each quadrant. The second a rectangle 
containing a plain cross and saltire combined. The first design is 9 in. in 
diameter, and a head and legs have been added to it. The second design is 
about 8 in. square. See Journal B. S.A.I., vol. xxxiv, p. 70 (D.I.). 

16. Knappagh, S.W. Near the old graveyard, not far from 
Lankill, 88 No. 15. 

A pillar-stone marked with crosses and other designs. See Journal JR. S.A.I., 
vol. xxxiv, p. 71 (M.). 

1 The townland has not been identified. 


17. Ballinlober Abbey, S.E. Built into the wall at Ballintober Abbey, 
Ballintober, 89 7 m. S. of Castlebar. 

A large rectangular slab bearing the name GILLABKENIN in one line, and 
partly in capitals. See Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 81 (D.T.). 

18. Gahir Island, S.E. On the island, 21 m. W.S.W. of Westport 
Same, 94 

(a) An erect slab about 2 ft. high, carved with a cross having expanded ends, 
and formed of one endless band in relief. There are three pellets in the enclosed 
space. (In the S.E. angle of the cashel.) 

(b) A somewhat similar slab. (In the N.E. angle.) 

(<?) A slab of similar type to (a). (In the N. W. angle.) 

(d) A slab 3 ft. 6 in. long by 1 ft. 6 in. wide, having on it a cross of three 
lines with semicircular base and head. The arms are separate and V-shaped. 
(This is at the Leaba Padruig east of the church.) 

(e) An erect slab about 2 ft. 6 in. high on which is a cross with splayed ends, 
formed of one endless band in relief. In the centre is a large pellet, and 
in the arms smaller ones. (This is beside (d).) 

(f) A slab of similar design. (Also beside (d).) 

(ff) A somewhat similar slab not described. (Also beside (d).) 

(h) A small upright slab bearing a rude cross with expanded ends. (On the 
northern station N. of the cashel.) 

(t) An upright slab on which is a double cross in relief, with raised 
panels in the six spaces. (On the second station S.E. o 

(j) A small erect slab rudely carved with a cross, having slightly expanded 
ends and indented top. There is a small circle in the centre. (On the third 
station S.E. of ().) 

There are also numerous stations with plain slabs and pillars set on them. 
See Journal E. S.A.I., vol. xxx, p. 362 (D.I.), also Proceedings E.I.A., vol. 
xxxi, Part 2, p. 56 (D.I.)' 

19. Dooghmakeon, N.E. Amongst the sandhills near the sea, and 
Same, 95 near Lough Cabasy ; 3| m. W.S.W. of 

Louisburgh, which is 13 m. "W. of West- 
port Station. 

A rough pillar-stone 5 ft. 6 in. above ground bearing an incised circle 1 ft. 
2% in. in diameter, and containing a cross formed of arcs of circles. On one 
angle are several scores like oghams. See Journal U.S. A. I., vol. xxvii, p. 186 


20. Cloonlaur, S.E. In a killeen, 5 m. S.W. of Louisburgh. 
Same, 95 

A rough pillar-stone 7 ft. high on which is incised a circle about 1 ft. 9 in. 
in diameter, and containing a cross of circular arcs. In each of the quarters 
is a small hollow connected with the centre by a line. See Journal . S.A.I., 
vol. xxvii, p. 186 (D.I,), also a rubbing in the R. I. A. Library. 



1. Fuerty, S.W. Near the graveyard wall, S. of the church 

Same, 39 tower, 3 m. S.W. of Roscommon Station. 

(a) A rough slab of rectangular shape, 3 ft. long by 2 ft. 3 in. wide, incised 
with a four-line ringed cross, the base of which is semicircular and the other 
extremities looped. At jthe sinister side is a fish, and at the dexter an inscrip- 
tion in two lines reading op ap anmain oibacain. See Christian Inscriptions, 
vol. ii, p. 12 (D.I.)- 

() The lower part of an irregularly shaped slab, now 2 ft. 9 in. long by 
2 ft. 3 in. wide, incised with a five-line cross having a circular centre and 
semicircular ends. The centre and base contain fret patterns, and the 
arras interlaced knots. A diamond-shaped frame of two lines surrounds the 
cross, and forms loops at the angles. In the sinister quarters are the words op 
ap mop . . . ; the remaining letters being lost with the upper quarter on the 
dexter side. See Journal R.S.A.I., vol. xxxvii, p. 418 (D.I.). 

2. Roscommon Abbey, S.E. Formerly in the abbey, but now missing. 

Ballypheasan, 39 

A slab about 2 ft. 1 in. by 1 ft. 6 in., roughly rectangular in shape, and 
having the lower portion broken away. It was inscribed in three lines 
benbachb pop anmain n lopeph. See Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, 
p. 11 (D.I.). 

Clonburren, N.E. Near the centre of the old graveyard on the 

Same, 56 W. bank of the Shannon, 7 m. E. of 

Ballinasloe Station, and 4| m. N. of 

Shannon Bridge. 

(o) Portion of a squared slab now 2 ft. 10 in. long by 2 ft. 5 in. wide, 
incised with a six-line cross in a four-line border. The ends of the arms are 
semicircular and contain spirals and forms which resemble palm trees. The 
centre and base are circular and contain crosslets ; the top is missing. The 
lower corners of the border are occupied by debased fret patterns. On the 
dexter side and reading upwards is inscribed op bo maelm[och]eip5[e]. 

() Portion of a slab 1 ft. 11 in. long by 1 ft. 8 in. wide, incised with a 
circular border of step-pattern containing a ringed cross potent of two lines. 
Outside the circle are some remains of an inscription. 

(e) A small fragment about 11 in. by 5 in. showing the comer of a square 
panel containing an encircled cross or four-pointed star formed of circular arcs. 
There was an inscription outside the panel. (Now missing.) 

(d) A fragment about 6 in. square showing the arm of a three-line cross 
with circular centre and semicircular looped extremities. The surviving arm 
is decorated with a fret pattern. Beside it is the head of a worm or serpent, 
and one letter of an inscription (now missing). See Christian Inscriptions, 
vol. i, p. 52 (D.I.). (The illustrations of a and b are inaccurate.) See also 
Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xlii, p. 28 (D.I. of a and *). 



1 Inis Muiredaich, S.E. On the island, 4j m. from the coast, near 

Inismurray, 1 Grange, which is 9 m. N. of Sligo. 

(a) A rounded stone 1 ft. 3| in. in diameter carved in relief with a Greek 
cross having triquetra-shaped ends. The cross is surrounded hy a circle in each 
quadrant of which are three conjoined spirals. See Wakeman's Antiquarian 
Remains on Inismurray, p. 63 (D.I.). 

(b) A rounded stone 11| in. in diameter carved with a Greek cross formed 
of two raised lines and having triquetra-shaped ends. There is a pellet in the 
centre and an incised circle surrounding the cross. Same reference, p. 64 (D.I.). 

(c) An oval stone 10J in. in length incised with a circle enclosing a Greek 
cross of one line, the ends of which are slightly expanded. Same reference, 
p. 65 (D.I.)- 

(d) A rounded stone 5| in. in diameter on which is incised a circle divided 
into quadrants by a plain cross. Same reference p. 66 (D.I.). 

(e) A rounded stone 5 in. in diameter on which is incised a Greek cross with 
forked ends. It is surrounded hy a circle and has a pellet in each quadrant. 
Same reference, p. 67 (D.I.). 

(/) A stone 2 feet in length and of unique form. The upper part is cubical, 
and the lower a tapering stem ; in the top is a circular hollow, and there is a 
flat stopper to cover the latter. On the front is a cross with lozenge centre and 
square ends ; each upper quarter contains a diagonal line, and each lower a 
Greek cross with forked ends. Similar Greek .crosses mark the sides and back. 
Same reference, p. 68 (D.I.). 

(g} A small pillar so rough and worn that the carving is not distinguishable. 
Same reference, p. 103 (D.). 

(h) Two fragments (about three quarters) of a slab 2 ft. long by 1 ft. 8 in. 
wide, bearing a ringed cross of two lines with triquetra-shaped ends. The 
cross is left in relief by the cutting away of the ground, and is surrounded by 
a circular band 1 ft. 3 in. in diameter ornamented with step pattern. The 
spiral base of the cross projects below this band. Same reference, p. 104 (D.I.). 

(t) An erect slab 2 feet high, bearing a Latin cross 1 ft. 6 in. long, rising 
from a horizontal base line, and having expanded centre and extremities. On 
the ends of the base and on the arms stand small crosses of similar shape. 
(Found near Teach Molaise.) Same reference, p. 103 (D.). (Stones a to i are 
now on the altar called clochabreaca in the cashel.) 

(j) An erect tapering slab about 3 ft. high, on which is incised a Latin 
cross with forked ends, and above it an encircled Greek cross with expanded 
ends. (On the station called Altoir beg in the cashel.) Same reference, p. 71 

(A) Portion of a slab 2 ft. 3 in. in length by 1 ft. 9 in. in breadth, incised 
with a doiible-line ringed cross, the three upper extremities of which end in 
semicircles. (In the cashel, near the southern entrance.) Same reference, 
p. 118(D.L). 

(J) A pillar-stone 4 ft. high, 1 ft. wide, and 7 in. thick. A Latin cross of 
two lines with circular centre and spiral extremities is incised on the western 


side, and a small hole is pierced diagonally through each angle of the eastern 
side. (At the northern side of Teampull na bhfear in the cashel.) Same 
reference, p. 76 (D.I.). 

(m) A slab 2 ft. 2 in. in length by 10 in. in width, carved with a fine cross 
formed of a broad sinking, each extremity of which expands into two spirals. 
In relief on tbis sinking are two bands twisted together and forming triquetras 
at the ends. The cross rises from a square base, and has a sunk pellet in each 
quarter. (Found near Teampull na bhfear and placed on an altar outside the 
cashel wall to the north.) Same reference, p. 97 (D.I.). 

(M) Portion of a slab now 1 ft. 6 in. square, carved with a cross resembling 
that on (m), but without spirals at the top ; and having two crosslets at the 
sinister side. The dexter is broken away. (Near Teampull na bhfear.) Same 
reference, p. 99 (D.L). 

(0) A slab 1 ft. 3 in. in length by 10 in. in breadth, bearing a cross of one 
broad line with expanded terminals and spiral base. In each quarter is a 
crosslet with forked ends. (Near Teampull na bhfear. ") Same reference, p. 100 

(p) A slab 2 ft. in length by 1 ft. 3 in. in breadth, incised with a design 
similar to that on (o), but having the base continued to form a border round 
the stone. In each angle of the large cross is a sunk pellet. (Near Teampull na 
bhfear.) Same reference, p. 102 (D.I.). 

(q) An irregularly shaped slab about 1 ft. 7 in. in length by 1 ft. 6 in. in 
width, on which is rudely incised a triple cross 1 ft. 6 in. in length. (Near 
Teampull na bhfear.) Same reference, p. 107 (D.I.). 

(r) A pentagonal slab 1 ft. 7 in. long by 1 ft. 4 in. wide, incised with a 
Greek cross of three broad lines, having a small circle in each quarter. (Near 
Teampull na bhfear.) Same reference, p. 108 (D.I.). 

(s) A slab 2 ft. 6 in. long by 1 ft. wide, bearing two crosses. The upper a 
small plain Greek cross. The lower a Latin cross of three lines which has at 
top and base cross-bars of the same length as the central bar. (Near Teampull 
na bhfear.} Same reference, p. 110 (D.I.). 

(t) A rectangular slab 2 ft. in length and 1 ft. 4 in. in breadth, on which is 
incised a Latin cross of two lines rising from a single-line horizontal base, and 
having the other extremities open. (Near Teampull na bhfear.) Same refer- 
ence, p. 112 (D.L). 

(M) A pillar-stone 5 ft. in height, incised with a Latin cross of one broad 
line rising from a horizontal base line, and having triangular extremities. (At 
the west end of Teampull na bhfear.) Same reference, p. 119 (D.I.). 

(v) Portion of a slab now 8| in. long by 6 in. wide, incised with a single- 
line cross, having a circular centre, and triangular ends. In the four quarters 
are inscribed the words cpupc pece. (Found in the cashel, and placed in a 
recess in the restored wall.) Same reference, p. 80 (D.L). 

(w) A slab 1 ft. 6 in. by 10 in., incised with a cross of one broad line 
having expanded centre and ends, with a pellet in each. Across the top is 
inscribed cprj^ . . . ; (In Teach Molaise.) Same reference, p. 82 (D.L). 

(x) Part of a small slab now 7f in. by 6 in. On it is carved a cross of two 
lines in relief in a sunk band. The ends of the cross are expanded and rounded 


and contain pellets. It is inscribed cpu;c .... (In Teach Molaise.}S&me 
reference, p. 84 (D.I.), also Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 16 (D.I.). 

(y) A flat thin stone 11 in. in length by 8 in. in breadth, on which is 
a rough inscription in four lines not hitherto deciphered. (In Teach Molaise). 
See Antiquarian Remains on Inismurray, p. 85 (D.I.). 

(z) A stone llf in. in length and 4f in. square. On one face is incised a 
ringed Latin cross of one broad line ; the upper and lower extremities being 
expanded. On the opposite face is inscribed op bo mupchab. (In Teach 
Molaise). See Antiquarian Remains on Inismurray, p. 86 (D.I.), also Christian 
Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 15 (D.I.). 

(aa) A slab of irregular shape 1 ft. 4 in. by 8 in. inscribed in three lines. 
^ op bo mupebach hu chomocain. hie boprrnc. (In Teach Molaise.} 
See Antiquarian Remains on Inismurray, p. 88 (D.I.), also Christian 
Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 15 (D.I.). 

(bb) A thin slab 1 ft. 5 in. by 11 in., on which are traces of an Irish 
inscription not deciphered. The letters are small and crowded. (In Teach 
Molaise.) See Antiquarian Remains on Inismurray, p. 91 (D.). 

(cc) Portion of a slab now 11 in. by 6 in., incised with three concentric 
circles, the outer of which is divided and has two parallel lines extending from 
the ends. Same reference, p. 115 (D.I.). 

(dd) A large slab inscribed in one line 3ft. 8 in. in length. }^ op bo 
coiTimupce. (In Teach Molaise.) See Antiquarian Remains on Inismurray, 
p. 90 (D.I.), also Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 16 (D.I.). 

(ee) An upright stone 5 ft. 7 in. in height, bearing a partially effaced design 
very similar to that on (h), but having the circular band 2 ft. in diameter. 
(Standing in front of Teach Molaise.} See Antiquarian Remains on Inismurray, 
p. 105 (D.I.). 

(ff) A square slab 3 ft. 2 in. in length by 1 ft. 1 1 in. in breadth ; on which 
is incised a rectangular frame of two lines containing a cross of three lines, 
having a circular centre and semicircular ends. Outside the frame at the 
lower end is a small spiral design. (This stone lies to the south-east of Teach 
Molaise.) Same reference, p. 116 (D.L). 

(ffff) Portion of a pillar-stone 2 ft. 83 in. in length, 10 in. in breadth, and 4 in. 
in thickness. It is broken at each end, and bears two lines of lettering. 
.... ailab ocur ap maelbpi .... 
.... opopc ocup ap eileipe 

(This stone was found in Teampull na mban.) Same reference, p. 92 (D.I.). 

(hh) Portion of a large slab now 1 ft. 6 in. in length by 9 in. in width, on 
which is incised the lower limb of a two -line cross ending in a design of two 
spirals with a triangular expansion between them. (At Teampull na mban.) 
Same reference, p. 115 (D.I.). 

(ii) A pillar-stone 5 ft. high and 11 in. by 4| in., on which is cut a single- 
line cross about 1 ft. in length with expanded ends. Holes are pierced through 
the adjacent angles. (Close to Teampull na mban.) Same reference, p. 78 

(jj) An upright stone 2 ft. 3 in. by 1 ft. 2 in., incised with an unusual 
design consisting of a single-line Latin cross rising from a semicircular base, 
and having the head surrounded by two concentric lines, the inner a circle, and 

T -D a A T $ Vol. in, Sixth Series. TVJ 

Jour. R.S.A.I. | Vol XL * Consec. Ser. I N 


the outer a pointed oval with the pointed end downwards. (Near Teampull na 
mban.) Same reference, p. 145 (D.I.). 

(kK) An upright slab about 2 ft. by 7 in, on which is incised a cross, with 
two cross-bars, and double spirals at each extremity. (On the station called 
crois na mban.} See Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 16 (D.I.). 

(tt) An upright slab 17 in. in height by 15 in. in width, on which is incised 
a two-line cross, with short arms of equal length at the top, centre, and base. 
(On the station called " Tratan na righ bhfear."") See Antiquarian Remains on 
Inismurray, p. 130 (D.I.). 

(mm) An upright slab 1 ft. 7 in. in height by 10 in. in width, incised with a 
cross of one broad line, having a circular centre, and triangular extremities. 
The base is an upturned semicircle resembling an anchor. (On the station 
called Leachta chroise mhdire.) Same reference, p. 134 (D.I.). 

(nn) An upright slab 3 ft. in height and 1 ft 6| in. in breadth, incised with a 
Latin cross of one broad line, having a horizontal base line, a circular centre, 
and expanded ends. On the arms and on the base stand four small crosses of 
similar form. (On the station called Leachta Trionoide mor.*) Same reference, 
p. 140 (D.I.). 

(oo) An upright slab 2 ft. in height and 1 ft. 1^ in. in breadth, incised with 
a cross on each face. The more elaborate is formed of a single band left in 
relief in a recessed groove ; it has a lozenge centre containing a small knot, and 
triquetras at the extremities. Surrounding the cross is a frame of one sunk 
line with spirals at the angles. The other cross is plain, of one line with 
expanded ends. (On the station called Leachta Trionoide beag.} Same 
reference, p. 141 (D.I.). 

(pp) A pillar-stone 2 ft. 8 in. in height and 11 in. by 7| in., incised with 
a Latin cross of one line, with expanded ends. (Near the station called Leachta 
Muire.} Same reference, p. 144 (D.I.). 

(qq) An upright slab 2 ft. 7 in. in height and 1 ft. 4^ in. in breadth, incised 
with a cross on each face. On the front is a rectangular frame of one line 
containing a plain broad Latin cross of two lines, on the centre of which is 
another Latin cross of one broad line. In each of the lower quarters is 
a small cross similar to the last- mentioned, and in each of the upper quadrants 
a small step pattern. On the back is a Latin cross of two lines with a circular 
centre and triangular ends. A small hollow is sunk in each quarter. (On the 
station called Leachta Choluim Cille.} Same reference, p. 146 (D.I.). 

(rr) An upright slab 1 ft. 5 in. in height by 1 ft. in breadth, incised with a 
Latin cross of three broad lines rising from a rectangular base. There is a 
circle at the centre, and two spirals at each side extremity. (On the station 
called Reilic Odhrain.} Same reference, p. 150 (D.I.). 

(**) An upright slab 2 ft. in height and 8 in. in breadth, incised with a four- 
line cross, having a circular centre and triangular ends. The lines of the cross 
are continued to enclose four panels or quarters. The quarters were carved 
with designs now worn away. (On the station called Reilic Odhrain.) Same 
reference, p. 150 (D.I.) . 

(It) A pillar-stone 5 ft. in height and 1 ft. 2 in. in breadth, incised with a 
Latin cross of two lines, having expanded ends. Surrounding and attached to 
this cross are four single-line crosses of similar shape. (Near the station called 
Reilic Odhrain.) Same reference, p. 152 (D.I.). 


2. Cliffony, S.E. Leaning against the wall of St. Brigid's 

BaUinphull, 2. Well, m. W. of the village, and 12 m. 

N. of Sligo. 

A slab 2 ft. 11 in. long by 10 in. by 5 in., on which is incised an elaborate 
cross 1 ft. 6 in. in length. The cross is divided into six panels, the uppermost 
of which contains a swastika, the centre three concentric circles, and the 
others diagonal crossed lines. Above is an arched line or canopy with spiral 
ends. See Journal E. S.A.I., vol. xv, p. 376 (D.L), also same, vol. xxi, 
p. 355, No. 4 (I.), and Ulster Journal of Archaeology (New Series), vol. vii, 
p. 92(1.). 

3. Kilturra, S.E. At the Saint's Well near Kilturra House, 
Same, 38 6 ni. S.W. of Ballymote. 

A small pillar-stone with an incised ringed cross having several ogam-like 
scores projecting from the crossbar. See Journal for the Preservation of the 
Memorials of the Lead, vol. ii, p. 358 (D.L), also Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xxi, 
p. 357, No.'lO (I.). 

4. Toomour, S.W. In the ruined oratory about 60 ft. W. of 
Same, 40 St. Lugid's Church ; 5 in. N. of Kilfree 


() A slab 1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft., on which is incised a rectangular frame, 
having an extra line at the base, and containing crossed lines to form a 
combined cross and saltire. 

(b) An erect stone with a two-line cross 1 ft. 4 in. long incised on it. 

(;) A slab almost circular in form with six small plain Greek crosses and 
two small indentations cut on it. See O^Rourke's History of Sligo, vol. ii, 
pp. 207-12 (D.I.), also Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xxi, p. 351, Nos. 15 and 16 
(a and c I.). 




Locality and Townland. 

No. of 



1. Clogrenan, S.W. Built into the west end of the ruined church 
Same, 7 in the demesne, 3 m. S.W. of Carlow. 

A stone ahout 1 ft. 4 in. long by 1 ft. wide, on which is incised a single- 
line cross potent, having a ring in each quadrant of which is a small circular 
cup or hollow. See Du Noyer's Sketches in R.I. A. Library, vol. ii, No. 60 (I.). 

2. Aghade, N.E. Near the National School, m. N. of the 
Castlegrace, 13 graveyard and 3 m. S. of Tullow Station. 

A prostrate granite pillar 10 ft. long, having near one end four plain Greek 
crosses 4 in. long and one double cross 8 in. long. There are also a number of 
doubtful ogam scores and small cup marks. See Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xl, 
p. 350 (D.). 


1. Dublin, S.E. At St. Patrick's Cathedral. 
Wood- quay Ward, 18 

(a) A rectangular granite slab about 4 ft. long, carved with two crosses. 
The upper is a Greek cross in a circle, the edges of which are lines left in relief. 
The lower is a Latin cross in relief, the angles being hollowed. See Journal 
R.S.A.I., vol. xxxi, p. 294 (D.I.)- 

(#) A granite slab 3 ft. 6 in. long by 1 ft. 3 in. wide, carved with a three- 
line cross having a circular centre and semicircular ends. The former contains 
a fret pattern and the latter triquetras. The upper portion is missing, (a and b 
are now placed in the N.W. angle of the cathedral.) 

(c) A granite slab 5 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 9 in. by 6 in. thick, carved with a 
ringed Latin cross formed of marginal lines in relief. (This stone lies outside 
the S. wall of the choir.) 

(d) A granite slab 5 ft. by 1 ft. 9 in. by 1 ft. thick. It bears two ringed 
crosses, one above the other ; they are [formed of marginal lines in relief. (It 
lies near C.) 

2. Dublin, S.E. Inside the railing of the public garden, 
Merchant's-qy Ward, 18 opposite the N. side of St. Audoen's 


An erect slab of 'granite 3 ft. long 1 ft. 10 in. wide and 5 in. thick. On 
each face is carved a ringed cross having hollowed angles and pellets in the 
quadrants. (This stone formerly stood near the doorway of St. Audoen's 
Church.) Information received from Mr. P. J. O'Reilly. 


3. Saggart, S.W. In the S.W. corner of the older portion of 
Same, 21 the graveyard in the village, 1 in. N.W. 

of Embankment Station. 

A granite pillar-stone 4 ft. high, on which is a ringed cross in relief the 
full length of the stone. See Journal Kildare A. Society, vol. v, p. 115 (D.I.). 

4. Kill-of-the-Grange, S.W. In the graveyard, 2 m. S.W. of Salthill 
Same, 23 and 2 m. N.E. of Foxrock Station. 

A triangular fragment 10 in. wide, incised with a Greek cross 5 in. long 
having splayed ends. See Journal U.S.A. /., vol. xxxi, p. 144 (D.I.). 

5. Dalkey, S.E. In the graveyard, i m. N. of the station. 

Bullock, 23 

A granite slab having at the top a cup surrounded by two concentric 
circles, and at the base a similar design. Between these is a wheel cross, 
having a cup in the centre, and rising from a circular base which also surrounds 
a cup. There are traces of small circles at the sides between the large ones. 
See Journal H.S.A.I., vol. xxxi, p. 148 (D.I.). 

6. Dalkey Island, S.E. On a rock opposite to the east end of the 

Same, 23 church, f m. E. of Dalkey Station. 

A small cross with slightly splayed arms, enclosed in a circle and having 
raised pellets in the quadrants. See Journal R.S.A.I., vol. xxi, p. 702 (D.I.). 

7. Cruagh, N.W. In the graveyard, 4 m. S.W. of Dundrum 

Same, 25 Station. 

A squared standing stone (now missing) inscribed with a cup and two 
concentric circles. It was described by Dr. Petrie in the Dublin Examiner for 
October 1816. See Journal R.S.A.L, vol. xxxi, pp. 135 and 154 (D.I.)- 

-8. Tully, N.W. In the graveyard, 2 m. S.E. of Carrickmines 

Laughanstown, 26 Station. 

(a) An erect slab of granite bearing a Latin cross in relief, marked with 
five cups and having a circular boss under each arm. 

(b) A tapering slab having small projecting arms, carved with an axial 
band of two lines, interrupted by three sets of four concentric circles, also sets 
of diagonal parallel lines between the circles. 

(c) A rectangular granite slab 2 ft. 6 in. long by 1 ft. 9 in. wide, bearing in 
relief a Greek cross in a circle 1 ft. 7 in. in diameter. 

(d) A small oval fragment 1 ft. 3 in. by 7 in. bearing a cup If in. in 
diameter and a plain Greek cross 3 in. long. See Journal E. S.A.I., vol. xxxi, 
pp. 141-2-3 (D.I.). 

3. Rathmichael, S.W. At Rathmichael Church, 1 m. W. of 

Same, 26 Shankill Station. 

(a) A granite slab 2 ft. high and 1 ft. 6 in. wide, bearing a cup 2 in. in 
diameter surrounded by three circles. There are traces of lines radiating from 
the upper part of the outer circle. (10 ft. E. of the church.) 


() Portion of a granite slab 2 ft. 3 in. long 1 ft. 7 in. wide and 4 in. thick,, 
on which is incised a cross of two lines with a small cup in the centre and part 
of another at the fractured edge. In the quarters are sets of three parallel 
lines placed diagonally as a saltire. (Under the E. window.) 

0) A holed granite slah, 4 ft. 9 in. by 2 ft. 8 in. by 8 in. thick. The hole 
tapers from each side. 'In the S.~W. corner of the church. 

(d) A fragment bearing a cup surrounded by two complete circles and part 
of a third. (5 ft. N.E. of the Round Tower.) 

(e) A fragment 1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 4 in. by 4 in. thick, bearing a cup 2^ in. 
in diameter. (10 ft. E. of the Round Tower.) 

(/) A fragment showing part of a design similar to that on (b). (At the 
S.E. side of the Round Tower.) 

(g] A fragment showing two upright lines with two cups between them, 
and at each side several horizontal lines. (Near the cemetery wall S. of the 
church.) See Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xxxi, pp. 136-9 (D.I.). 

10. Ballyman, N.W. Used as lintel to the S. window of the ruined 

Same, 28 church near the county boundary, 2 m. 

W. of Bray. 

A tapering slab about 4 ft. by 1 ft. 3 in. bearing an incised design consisting 
of an axial band of two lines, which is interrupted by two sets of four concentric 
circles surrounding centre cups. On one end of the band is a third cup without 
circles, and at the sides are lines radiating to the edges of the stone from the 
circles and band. See Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xxxi, p. 145 (D.I.). 


1. Kilgowan, N.E. 3 m. S. of Old Kilcullen, and 3 m. W. of 
Same, 32 Dunlavin Station. 

A pillar-stone 6 ft. 8 in. high, incised with a Latin cross about 1 ft. 3 in. 
long, the extremities of which are circular expansions 1^ in. in diameter. See 
Archaeolog\a, vol. xliii (1871), p. 131 (I.) 

2. JKilleen Cormac, S.E. In the ancient burial enclosure, \ m. W. of 
Colbinstown, 32 Colbinstown Station. 

() An ogam pillar 6 ft. 4 in. long, 12 in. by 11 in, inscribed also with the 
following in capitals : IVVEREDRVVIDES. (This stone lies near the entrance 

(b) A pillar-stone about 6 ft. long, bearing a small head and bust rudely 
incised. This has been touched up by some irresponsible person in recent years 
and much injured in consequence. 

(c) An erect slab 4 ft. by 2 ft. 5 in., bearing in relief a rude plain cross 
1 ft. 11 in. long and 1 ft. 6 in. wide. 

(d) A prostrate slab 5 ft. long, and 2 ft. 4 in. wide near one end of which 
is carved in relief a rude encircled cross 16 in. long and wide. See Journal 
JR.S.A.I., vol. xiii, pp. 168-80 (D.I.), also Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 2 
(D.I.)> and Journal Kildare Archceological Society, vol. iii, p. 156 (D.I.). 


3. Castledermot, N.W. In the churchyard at the south side of the 

Same, 40 church. 3f m. E. of Mageney Station. 

A granite pillar 3 ft. high, 1 ft. 2 in. hy 5| in., pierced with a hole 5 in. in 
diameter. On the east side the hole is in the centre of an incised and ringed 
cross. The west side has a ridge down the centre. See Journal R. S. A. I., 
vol. xxii, p. 69 (D.I.)- 

(To be continued."] 

( 170 ) 


Bullaun- Stone at Rathdrum. Mr. Crawford's photograph of this 
stone, which by a printer's error was omitted from p. 342 of the previous 
issue of the Journal, is here subjoined. 


Oran Round Tower, Co. Roscommon. This tower, though reduced 
to a stump 12 feet in height, is one of the most interesting of its kind. 
It is also one of the largest, as its circumference is 62 feet ; according 
to Mr. Westropp's list (Proceedings R.I. A., 1898) the only tower which 
approaches it is that at Dysert O'Dea. The walls are rather more than 
4 feet in thickness at the base, and leave an internal diameter of fully 
11 feet. 

The lower portion of the tower is formed of a curious material 
closely resembling lime concrete ; a building contractor to whom I showed 
specimens had no doubt that it was artificial. It is unlikely, however, 



that concrete was used at so early a date, and the blocks are more prob- 
ably cut from a kind of tufa or breccia. The facts that the blocks vary 


greatly in size and are fitted into each other in some places are additional 
proofs that the material is natural ; artificial blocks would be similar in 
shape and size : see fig. 2. Nine courses are formed of this conglomerate, 
which, it should be noted, is solid, not porous like ordinary tufa. In fig. 3 
it can be recognized by the comparative absence of the white lichen 
which covers the limestone portion. Eour courses of conglomerate appear 
on the interior surface of the wall, the remainder being limestone. From 
this circumstance and from the care taken in fitting the blocks so as to 


avoid cutting them down, it is evident that the material was scarce, and 
may have been used on account of the ease with which it could be cut to 
the curve of the tower. An opening has been broken in the south side 
at the ground-level, but no original features of the building remain. 
An ancient graveyard surrounds the tower, and in it are some remains 


of the church walls. The spring from which the place takes its name i& 
on the roadside opposite to the graveyard, and ishuilt round so as to form 
a square pool or hath. Oran is seven miles north-west of Roscommon 
and two miles north of Donamon station. HEXRY S. CRAWFORD. 

Notes on some Mediaeval Bronze Bells used for decorating 
Horse-Trappings. In Sir William Wilde's catalogue of the Royal Irish 
Academy's collection, we find described, under the heading of "Cattle 
Bells and Crotals," a number of bronze bells of the type known heraldi- 
cally as " hawks' bells," and much resembling the small bells with 
which children's toy reins, &c., are decorated. Sir William Wilde says 
these bells may be placed under the general heading of horse-trappings ; 
but he speaks of one of them as a " sheep bell," and later on describes 
them as cattle bells. With the so-called "crotals," the pear-shaped, 
closed bronze bells, I do not propose to deal ; their approximate date is 
known, as they were found in the celebrated Dowris hoard with socketed 
spear-heads, bronze swords, and caldrons, and belong to the latest period 
of the Irish Bronze Age. The globular bells, described as cattle bells, are 
rather remarkable. They are formed of two hemispheres of metal, joined 
in the centre, and have two holes in the upper portion and a slit in the 
lower. The bells vary in size ; the largest I have seen is in the possession of 
Mr. M. S. D. Westropp, who purchased it recently in Cork, and has kindly 
allowed me to have it photographed. The Plate shows two views of it. 
It measures almost 4 inches in diameter, and has the letters ' R. W.' on 
it ; also the number 18. Of those in the Academy's collection, one has a 
diameter of 3 inches, while the larger vary from 2 inches to 2f inches 
in diameter. And of these nine have the letters ' R. WV, two ' B, W.', 
one <E. W.', one < I. S.', and one < C. 0. ' ; thk is figured by Wilde, 
p. 612. 1 

The lower portions of all the bells are decorated with the same pattern 
a kind of tongue-shaped design, which can be seen in the figures. 
Metal loops are attached to the base ; and it is important to note that if 
the bells are held inverted by this loop and rung they emit a very musical 
sound. The small bells are of just the same shape as the larger. Two- 
have the initials R. W.', and one ' S. I.', another ' G. B.', and another 
what looks like a shield with a cross ; they are all ornamented on the 
lower portions, and have a diameter of about 1 inches. I figure 
one of these small bells. Some of the bells have numbers stamped 
on the upper portions, one of the smallest bells having ' 0,' and another 
slightly larger ' I.' Tour have the number 4, and the large one illustrated 
has 18. What these numbers represent is not known ; but as they seem 
to vary with the size of the bell, they, no doubt, have some significance. 

1 Catalogue of the Museum of the Koyal Irish Academy, 1861. 

{To face p. 172 



I do not think these bells are intended for cattle or sheep. The cattle 
bell has the same shape all over the world i.e., an open base and a 
clapper. We may infer that the early Irish cattle bells were of this form, 
as the ecclesiastical bells, which were copied from the cattle bells, and of 
which numerous examples have survived, are of this shape. 

I believe these bells were for ornamenting the trappings of horses, 
and this view is borne out by contemporary illustrations of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries. Let us take first the splendid Tournament Koll 
known as the Westminster Tournament Roll, preserved in the Heralds' 
College, London. This magnificent roll depicts episodes in the solemn 

FIG. 4. 

jousts held at Westminster tlie twelfth and thirteenth days of February, in 
the second year of King Henry VIII's reign, in honour of Queen Katherine 
of Aragon, upon the birth of Prince Henry on January 1st, 1510-1511. 
An admirable engraving of this roll was executed by George Vertue 
in 1746 for Vetmta Monumental If we turn to this, we shall see that the 
first mounted figure, Le Maistre de larmurerye du Roy, displays on the 
crupper of his horse, fastened into a decorated pad, one of these bells 

1 Vol. i, pi. xxi-xxvi. (See also Mr. Everard Green's description of this roll, 
Proc. Soc. of Antiq. of London, 2nd series, vol. xv, p. 212). 


inverted. Then, if we continue to run our eye down the roll, we find of 
the eight horsemen termed Les gorgyas de la Court, four have these 
inverted bells similarly attached to their horses' cruppers. Of Les 
ojficiers darmes, two have these bells ; the two led horses which follow 
the challengers each have a bell on the crupper. Both Le grant Escuyer 
and Le maistre des pages have these bells on their horses' cruppers. 
Out of the sixteen mounted attendants termed Lyssue du Champ, five 
have bells on the crupper, and we now see the peytrels and breechings of 
the horses decorated with smaller bells of the same shape, hung mouth 
downwards; while in some cases, where the horses are enveloped in 
trappings, the trappings themselves appear to have numbers of these 
bells attached to them. 1 I reproduce one of these figures from Vetusta 
Monumenta, by kind permission of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 
and of Sir Alfred Scott Gatty, Garter King-of-Arms (fig. 4). "We are 
not, however, dependent on this gorgeous roll alone for our evidence. 
Strohl's Heraldischer Atlas* Taf. 1, gives illustrations of a number of 
heralds of different nationalities of the fourteenth to the seventeenth 
centuries; and among these there is a figure of a mounted French Roi 
d'Armes of the fifteenth century, with a bell inverted on the crupper 
of his horse and worn in exactly the same way as those on the 
Westminster Roll. 

Again, we find that the figure of Richard, Earl of Beauchanap, 
"justying" at Gyres, shows the Earl's charger decorated with one of 
the bells inverted, and attached to the trappings that cover the horse's 
crupper. The illustration is given in Cotton MS., Julius E. IV, and the 
date of the scene is about 1410. I have no doubt that the instances of 
the use of these bells for ornamenting horse-trappings could be greatly 
extended ; it must be noted that in the days when pack-horses were 
used their harness was often hung with strings of bells, and it is 
possible that the letters on the bells may be the initials of the owner of 
pack-horses, and that the bells were used for this purpose. In any case 
I think it is sufficiently clear that they were not cattle or sheep, but horse 
bells. I do not, of course, imply that all these bells belong to the sixteenth 
century; some may be considerably later. Since the introduction of 
india-rubber tyres, bells of the same shape are largely used on the harness 
of cab and car horses. I merely wish to point out the fact that similar 
bells were in use in mediaeval times, and to suggest the possibility 
that some of the bronze bells in the Academy's collection belong to this 
period. E, C. R. ARMSTRONG. 

Dublin Street-Names. I had hoped that some information might 
be forthcoming about Glass House Lane, mentioned by Mr. E. J. French, 

1 See coloured reproductions of two figures from this roll in the Illustrated 
Catalogue of the Heraldic Exhibition, Burlington House, 1894. 

2 Stuttgart, Verlag von Julius Hoffmann, 1899. 


on page 164 of the last volume. Of the many Dublin maps in 
my collection not one gives any such lane. An article, however, by 
Mr. M. S. D. Westropp [" Glass-Making in Ireland," RJ.A. Proceedings, 
vol. xxix, sec. C, No. 3] alludes to a glass-house, at this exact position 
on Laser's Hill as follows : 

"In 1750, a new glass-house was erected at the lower end 
of Lazer's Hill. The advertisement in The Dublin Journal, of 
June 9th, 1750, gives a list of the articles made." 

The writer adds 

"This factory does not seem to have lasted very long. No 
other notice of it occurs ; and it is not marked on Rocque's map 
of 1756." 

Mr. French's lease now gives us one additional notice of this Lazer's 
Hill glass-house, to which beyond doubt the lane was a usual approach. 
Already, in 1765, Cumberland Street had appeared in that locality, 
although entered in rather varying positions on the different maps. 
The other names in this lease present no difficulty. Hansard's Lane, 
for instance, took its name from John Hansard, the property-owner 
who gave the site for St. Mark's Church (1729). In 1762, Mr. Samuel 
Sand with or Sandwitch held two lots, Nos. 26 and 27, on the 
South Strand, known also as Clenhan's Folly or merely the Folly. 
Many of the more familiar Dublin maps (e.g. that in Malton) give the 
street under that name ; and of course Dr. M'Cready does mention 
it under Sandwith Street. Precisely one hundred years later than 
Mr. French's lease, the advertisement of a sale [1864] in the Landed 
Estates Court alludes to "part of the ground called the Folly on the 
north side of Denzille Street and the south side of Boyne Street." As to 
the " shore," I venture to suggest that the reference is not, as Mr. French 
thinks, to an early Main Drainage Scheme, but merely to the actual shore 
of the tidal river which, before the South Lotts were reclaimed, formed a 
large bay here along the line (very roughly speaking) of Moss Street, 
Sandwith Street, and Grand Canal Street. Hence, of course, the phrase 
" The Folly, formerly the Strand," in this lease. See Moll's map, 1714, 
and Brooking's picture on the 172& map. 

So much additional, or corrected, information in connexion with 
the Dublin street-names has been gathered by Dr. M'Cready, that it is 
a matter of regret that, so far, there has not appeared a second edition 
of his book, which is simply invaluable, although professedly tentative 
in its original form. 

A few other Dublin wants may perhaps be mentioned. A really 
complete list of all known maps of the city (up to, let us say, the first 
Ordnance Survey) is still to seek, and could be made of high value and 


interest if furnished with descriptive notes on the differences or in- 
accuracies of these " accurate surveys " as they all claim to be. Some 
also of the more important surveys of special parcels of ground made 
from time to time by the " Surveyor of theHonble City of Dublin " might 
very well be reproduced in our Journal, and (if one may risk seeming 
ungracious to those toiling writers who so loyally support the Editor) 
might supply a not unwelcome variety after the real feast of Promontories, 
Raths, Forts, Motes, and Middens, with which recently we have been 
regaled. 1 

Finally one may put in a plea for the publication by the Society 
of that part of Dineley's Tour which deals with Dublin. If, as we are 
told, the us. has at last been traced after so many years, surely some 
one can now be found willing to edit it for the benefit of those members 
who are interested in Dublin. LEONARD 11. STKANGWAYS, M.R.I.A., Fellow, 

Souterrain at Craggs. There is a fine example of an earthen fort or 
Iws in the townland of Craggs, in the parish of Clashmore, about two 
miles from Goish Bridge. The neighbouring county is rich in these 
relics of bygone days. In the townland of Tinascart, which adjoins 
Craggs, there are three forts (one of which has a large flagstone inside), 
which I excavated, but found no remains. Knockanarris, another town- 
land, also has three forts ; Curradarea, one ; Coolbagh, one ; and at 
Kilmore is a huge enclosure, commonly called Kilmore Hath, but which 
the Rev. P. Power says is really an ancient church -site. It is 
260 yards in the greatest diameter, and is composed of walls no less than 
12-16 feet high in parts. Further information will be found in Place 
Names of the Decies, by Rev. P. Power, M.K.I.A. 

The lios at Craggs is, however, of average size ; its greatest diameter 
is 124 feet, and the other a few feet less. The height of the rampart 
from the inside is 5 feet 9 inches ; from top of the rampart to the bottom 
of the fosse is 10 feet; the fosse itself is 10 feet broad. In the east 
and west diameter, about 82 feet from the west rampart, there is a small 
opening in the ground which leads into a souterrain, and which comes out 
again, probably through a falling in of the roof, about 6 feet from, the 
last rampart, after an underground passage of some 35 feet. The 
entrance to the passage is very low and narrow ; the path slopes gradually 
downwards. After traversing 10 feet 9 inches, traces of what appear to 
me to have been a sort of doorway are met with ; the ground still slopes, 
and at length another doorway is reached, so small that it is difficult to 
squeeze through it ; once through this, it is almost possible to stand up 

1 [The importance of such publications is fully admitted, but it should be 
remembered that they can be brought out at any time : the pressing necessity at the 
present moment is to have as many of the field remains surveyed as possible, in face 
of the deplorable destruction taking place. ED.] 



n a chamber 4 feet 3 inches broad, 1 1 feet 3 inches long by 4^-5 feet in 
height. At the right-hand far corner, there is a passage leading straight 
out for about 14 feet, where progress is stopped by a fall of earth and 
stones from the roof, through which daylight may be seen, per- 
colating through the interstices. The floor of the passage and chamber 
is covered with loose stones, like field-stones, which t I think, have been 
thrown in by people, as they do not seem to have fallen from the roof, 
with the exception of a few. I searched the sides and roof of this 
souterrain for ogham and other scribings as in the well-known souterrain 
at Drumloghan at Stradbally, but found no traces of such writing. 
"What these souterrains were intended for, is a difficult question to 
answer. Generally they are supposed to have been either places of 


ni nil I i In M 

FIG. 5. 

retreat or stone houses. The latter theory appears to me to be the more 
likely, as few people only could possibly hide in a souterrain, such 
as at Craggs ; and, moreover, could easily be made to surrender by 
smoking them out. All these raths and forts were not used for defence 
against human enemies, I think, but rather against wolves and bears, 
when the people of Ireland used, and probably built, these forts, 
to shelter their cattle at night. Of course when we find a rath with a 
double or triple rampart and a deep moat, that they were intended as 
forts against hostile tribes is no doubt the correct theory. 

The accompanying plan and section of the souterrain will doubtless 
give a better idea of its shape and dimensions than any further written 
description. GOKDON W. FOESA.TETH. 


Prehistoric Cooking-Places. In the year 1885 the late Mr. Quinlan 
excavated a prehistoric cooking-place, known locally as a " FolachtFiad," 
in Cloncordin Bog (JR. H. A. A. /., vol. vii, 4th Series). In his essay on 
the discovery he mentioned that these cooking-places are to be found by 
the side of small streams, and are fairly common. In the townland of 
Ballygambon, in Whitechurch, there are no less than five. One I 
excavated thoroughly (plan and section enclosed). The shape of the 
cooking-place is like a horseshoe, and the banks comprising it are a few 
feet high, and about twice the height in breadth. I commenced digging 


FIG. 6. 

a trench, about 3 feet deep, starting at the centre of the oval and 
working right through the enclosing bank. At a depth of a few inches 
the earth became black, and full of fragments of charcoal, and the stones 
mixed with it all bore traces of fire. No traces of bone, burnt or other- 
wise, were found, which strikes one as peculiar, if they are really 
cooking-places. At a depth of about 3 feet a rude platform was met 
with, corresponding somewhat to that Mr. Quinlan mentions, with 


this difference, that the stones composing the platform I found were 
simply quarried, and not hewn to any particular shape, while Mr. Quinlan 
describes the stones composing his platform as " heavy sandstone blocks, 
apparently dressed neatly and hollowed out." Also, the Ballygambon 
cooking-place is larger than the Cloncordin one by about 10 feet. 
Mr. Quinlan also found a trough composed of an oak-tree, hollowed out, 
and in the neighbourhood three bronze celts ; no like objects were, 
however, discovered by me. In the townland of Cool, which adjoins 

FIG. 7. 

that of Cloncordin, I excavated another Folacht Fiad, with the same 
result, only finding the rude stone platform ; and E. J". Ussher, Esq., 
of Cappagh, also dug a Folacht Fiad in or near Cappagh, finding only 
burnt stones and earth. From these circumstances, I am inclined to 
doubt the truth of the statement that these mounds are cooking-places. 
If so, why is it that no traces of burnt bones are ever found near them ? 
Surely, if people took the trouble to construct an elaborate fireplace, 
which could cook a whole deer at a time, they would have a feast, and 
consume the meat then and there, and thereby leave traces in the shape 
of bones. I am of the opinion that these places corresponded to Turkish 
baths, or at least hot baths, the bath being the wooden trough, the dimen- 
sions of which are about 10 feet long by 2 feet wide in fact, a little larger 
than the modern metal bath. The country people knew the value 
of hot baths and sweating, as is evident by the sweating-houses in parts 
of Ireland, on which see Col. Wood-Martin's book, Pagan Ireland, p. 197. . 
Lewis and Clarke, in their Voyage up the Missouri, describe a vapour- 
bath " We observed a vapour-bath, consisting of a hollow square of 6 
or 8 feet deep, formed in the river-bank by damming up with mud the 
other three sides, and covering the whole completely, except an aperture 
about 2 feet wide at the top." 

The water was undoubtedly boiled by means of stones brought to a 
high temperature by fire, and then dropped into the trough ; this was 
filled by the temporary diversion of a stream, which is always a feature 
of these so-called cooking-places. My theory is not weakened by the 
absence of a trough in my two excavations, for, doubtless, it decayed and 
vanished through countless ages, as the ground is not of a turfy nature 
where I dug, and therefore would not act as a preservative. There 
.are many other Folacht Fiad in the County Waterford, half a dozen or 

Jou,. R.S.A.L J V.K gjSWbSjH.^ J o 


more within 2 miles of where I live, which I hope to explore. I 
shall be greatly obliged if any archaeologist, digging any Folacht' Find 
about these neighbourhoods, will compare notes with me to test my 
statement that no traces of bones, burnt or otherwise, have been, or 
will be, found in these monuments of antiquity. 

The plans (figs. 5, 6, 7) will be, I hope, of use in giving an idea of the 
appearance of the Folacht Fiad to any persons who have not seen 
Mr. Quinlan's drawing of the one at Cloncordin. GORDON W. FoRSArETH, 

St. Patrick's Well and Bed, Co. Galway. A walk of about a mile 
from Recess Hotel on to Oughterard road brings one to a road which 
turns off to the left towards the mountains. Proceeding along this road 
for about another mile, one reaches the foot of a pass, up which a barely 
recognizable track runs between two of the range of Maam Turk 
Mountains. At the summit of the pass, and just as the country on the 
other side opens out to view, the holy well of St. Patrick is reached. It 
is as lonely a spot as can be imagined, and the well is no doubt of great 
antiquity. A loose circle of stones surrounds it, on which old jam- 
crocks are to be seen. A rude wooden cross stands in the circle. 
St. Patrick's Bed, which resembles St. Kevin's Bed at Glendalough> 
is cut out of a rock-cliff on the west side of the pass, somewhat 
higher up than the well. 

The accompanying photographs, which were taken on a somewhat 
gloomy day, show the well and the Bed, and the little shepherdess 
guide, Delia Joyce. H. A. COSGKAVE. 

Concentric Circle and Cup-marked Stone in Westmeath. A short 
time ago Mr. George Kelly, M.A., of County Roscommon, mentioned to 
me that he noticed a curious stone at the right side of the Ballymahon 
road, a short distance outside the village of Rathcondra, that he thought 
it would be worth looking up. A few weeks afterwards Mr. N. J. 
Downes and I visited the district, and found at the place indicated 
(Ballinlug near Rathconrath) a very good [specimen of concentric circle 
and cup ornamentation, incised on a large block of millstone grit. The 
stone is of rather regular shape and not native of the district. It is 
34 inches across, 19 inches in height, and 10 inches thick, and resembles 
the kind of slab used for covering pagan cists, which are very numerous 
in this part of Westmeath. Ballinlug is quite near Uisneach, and just a 
mile off in the townland of Glascorn is the great Rath Lochaid, which 
according to the Four Masters was erected in the time of Mai Faidh, 
son of Eremon, A.M. 3529 (F. M., vol. i, page 37, identified in index 
us Glascorn, Westmeath). The outermost of the concentric circles, of 

[To face p. 180 




which there are three, is 1 1 inches in diameter, the other 7 and 
5 inches. The inside of the smallest circle is cup-hollowed to a depth of 
about 1 inch. Running through the lower part of the circles is a radial 
groove, which, however, might tend to show that it was not a cist-cover. 
On the left are two diagonal grooves. There are five cup-markings at 
the top right-hand corner, and two others near the top, over the circles. 
So far as I know this is the first concentric circle ornamentation 
discovered in Westmeath. I send a photograph of the stone. 


Some years ago this stone was taken from the adjoining field and 
used in the erection of the wall, the mason placing it with the carved 
side inwards. In more recent times, the wall requiring to be rebuilt, 
the carved side was turned outwards to face the road. 

While we were engaged in taking a rubbing from the stone and 
photographing it, about half a dozen persons came to look on. We told 
them something about its history, and they at once became interested 
and anxious to help us. This and similar experiences I have had show 
me clearly that all that is wanted to secure the support of the people in 
the preservation of our historic monuments is to tell them what the 
monuments are and what they represent. In about a week after our 
first visit we returned to the place, but the stone was gone. We were 
certainly amazed. However, in a few minutes an old woman came on 
the scene, and told us that Mr. Donohoe, who owns a little farm at the 



other side of the wall, hearing that the stone was valuable, had removed 
it to the yard of his nice cottage, where it now serves as a seat along- 
side the door. There no doubt it is safer than it was in the wall. We 
received a hearty welcome from Mr. Donohoe. He and his brother that 
day showed us many kindnesses by bringing us around to see other 
antiquities, and, when leaving them, we felt that we had done a good day's 
work in the cause of local antiquarian research. 

JAMES TUITE, Local Hon. Secretary for South TTestmeath. 

A Good Example. We have received from Mr. N. J. Downes a copy 
of a circular which has been issued by him and Mr. James Tuite, our 
energetic local secretary for county Westmeath, for distribution among 
Clergy, County and District Councillors, Justices of the Peace, Teachers, 
Police, and other prominent residents in the county. When all our 
local secretaries show the same appreciation of their duties and responsi- 
bilities as Mr. Tuite, the work of the Society in securing the preservation 
of ancient monuments by arousing local interest in them will be more 
than half accomplished. The circular is a four-page sheet of ruled 
foolscap, on the first page of which is printed the following excellent 
letter : 


" 14th February, 1913. 

"May we, as Members of the Antiquarian Society of Ireland, 
solicit your assistance to preserve a record, for the benefit of future 
generations, of the various places and things in our county which have an 
antiquarian or historic interest ? We wish to obtain a list of the ancient 
Castles, Churches, Graveyards, Holy Wells, Cromlechs, Kaths, Artificial 
Mounds, Caves, Pillars or Inscribed Stones, Crosses, &c., in your district 
with the names of Saints, Scholars, Chiefs, or other remarkable personages 
associated therewith, and to collect the legends or stories of the local 
people about these places or things. 

"No matter how apparently ridiculous or improbable a legend may 
be, we would like very much to have full details, for very often these 
legends, with the help of information obtained in other directions, assist 
in elucidating obscure parts of the history of our land. In addition, we 
would urge that no feeling that the story would appear to be hostile to 
our national or local history, or our different views on religious matters, 
should prevent details being given. 

" In filling up this form we would ask you to give the fullest list and 
the fullest details possible, even in cases where you feel that we must 
know the places already, such, for example, as in the case of the well- 
known places or ruins of Fore, of Tristernagh, the rath of Rathconrath, 



the hill of TJsnagh, the ancient gravestone at Portloman, the Holy "Well 
of St. Finian at the Downs, or the Caves of Skeagh. 

" To facilitate a visit to take further details and photographs, we 
would suggest that the name of the townland and of the occupier of the 
land should be given, and, if at all possible, the Irish name of place or 
thing. [Then follow specimen descriptions, as a guide to correspondents.] 

" When you have filled up the form, you will please fold it so as to 
show the address on the back, and drop it into the nearest post-office. 

" Trusting you will kindly participate in our work, and apologizing 
for troubling you, 

" We are, dear Sir, 

" Your obedient servants, 

" JAMES TUITE, Hon. Sec. (Local] R.S.A.I. 

" N. J. DOWNES, M. R.S.A.I." 

Discovery of Gold in Co. Wicklow. The following official letter is 
so circumstantial and informing that it is considered worth printing in 
the Journal. It was communicated by the Lord Lieutenant to the 
Prime Minister of the day, and is copied from the Hardwicke Papers in 
the British Museum, vol. dlxxxv, fol. 76 : 

11 Dublin Castle, Sth October 1795. 
" His Grace the Duke of Portland, &c., &c. 


"I have the honor to acquaint your Grace that a Quantity of Gold 
ore has been lately discovered in the Vale of Ballinvally, situated amidst 
the Mountains about seven miles from the Town of Arklow in the 
County of Wicklow. The existence of this Ore has been well known 
for several years only to a poor Farmer the Tenant of the Land, who 
collected it secretly and from time to time brought small Quantities of it 
to Mr. Vigne a Jeweller in this City, to whom he sold it. Within a 
very short time the knowledge of this Ore has become no longer a secret, 
and multitudes of the neighbouring County people are assembled there 
in search of it. The Quantities now collected are very considerable, 
many lumps weighing several ounces. Booths are erected for the sale of 
whiskey, and a Spirit of animosity begins already to appear among the 
different parties employed in gathering the ore. I have therefore thought 
it necessary without loss of time to direct the Commissioners to order the 
Collector of the King's Revenues for the District of Wicklow to take 


charge of the Mine, with the assistance of a military force, to prevent the 
plunder of the ore and to preserve the peace of the Country. 

" Small grains are got in the sand of the Rivulet which runs from the 
Mountain through the Vale ; larger pieces are found in the adjoining boggy 
soil, but the largest pieces are procured by raising the strata of a slaty 
stone, between which the gold lies, in appearance as if it had been in a 
state of fusion and had taken the form of the hard substance of the stone. 
The ore is uncommonly free from impurities, and in its crude state is 
nearly of the value of Standard Gold, and I understand from Mr. Yigne, 
who has refined it, that the alloy which nature has mixed with it, is of 
the purest silver. 

" Having been informed that this mine lies in the manor of Arklow, 
which Manor belongs to the Ormonde Family under a Grant from the 
Crown, I caused the Rolls Office and the Entries in the Auditors' Office 
to be searched, in order to know whether the Grant included the Royal 
Mines. But no enrollment of the Deed has been found, and I have been 
since informed that the original is properly [*c] deposited in the Tower 
of London. At all events I deemed it expedient whether the property be 
immediately in the Crown, or held under a Royal Grant, to protect it 
from the depredations of the country people. 

" I have hastily thrown together the several circumstances which 
have as yet come to my knowledge that some sort of judgement may be 
formed upon the probable importance of this discovery and upon the 
measures to be taken in consequence thereof. And I request your Grace's 
speedy instructions for my conduct. 

" I have, &c., 


The first discovery of gold here is said to have been made by an old 
schoolmaster about the year 1775. In 1795 a piece weighing half an 
ounce was found by a man crossing the Ballinvalley stream. The country 
people soon heard of the find and swarmed from all quarters to search for 
more. The Government then interfered, and stationed a party of the 
Kildare Militia on the banks of the stream to stop operations. During 
the short space of two months spent by the peasantry in examining and 
washing the sands of the Ballinvalley stream, it is supposed that 2666 
ounces of pure gold were found, which sold for about 10,000. Prom 
that time until the year 1798, when the works were destroyed, Govern- 
ment undertook the management, and appointed directors under an Act of 
Parliament. For a while the produce of the work repaid the expenditure 
of Government, and left a surplus besides. In 1801 the directors applied 
to Government for permission and support to commence more important 
works. They desired not only to continue the stream- work in search of 
alluvial gold, but also to drive levels into the depths of the mountain in 


search of auriferous veins. The experiments proved unsatisfactory, and 
Government support was withdrawn. 

The quantity of gold found while the stream-works were under the 
blighting management of Government appears to have been inferior to 
that collected by the peasantry, amounting to the value of 3,675 7s. 
only. (Of. Guide to Co. Wicklow, Dub., 1834). JAMES BUCKLEY. 

Earthwork near Curtlestown, Co Wicklow. On the hills flanking 
this beautiful valley, leading from Powerscourt up to Glencree, Mr. Guy 
Lloyd called my attention to a remarkable earthwork. It runs along a 
steep slope just up the hillside, westward from the Roman Catholic Church 
of Curtlestown. It consists of a fosse, up hill, at least 12 feet wide, and 
often 5 feet deep, with a mound 6 feet high, and about as wide, running 
beside it. 

We followed its course for some distance eastward, and I understand 
that traces occur at intervals along the hill. I am anxious to learn if this 
has been noted, as it does not appear on the maps, and yet seems too old 
and massive for a late fence. So far I only heard one probable suggestion 1 
as to its character, that it may have been the fen,ce of the ancient Royal 
Park of Glencree. This latter has been recorded in a historic sketch by 
Mr T. P. Lefanu in the Journal? The forest was brought under the 
Norman forest laws at least before 1229, and covered the whole valley 
of Glencree. In later days (as Holinshed and Spenser attest) mighty 
trees covered the hillsides of Wicklow, the hill-tops (as was the case in 
various forested parts of western Ireland) at the time of the Civil Survey, 
virca 1655, being bare. This may account for the fence being specially 
protected up hill, as the enclosed park was in the valley. The forest 
was stocked with eighty deer from Chester in 1 244 ; this again shows 
that " the King's Park at Glencree " 3 was amply fenced to keep the game 
from escaping into the wilds. So late as 1654 there was an organized 
"Department" for the forests of Wicklow and Wexford, with a woodreeve, 
four assistants, and a clerk. 

Mr. Lefanu gives many early records of great interest ; grants of large 
oaks fit for timber, and sales of copsewood are given from 1280 to 1289. 
Queen Eleanor established large timber works at Glencree and New Castle 
Mac Kinegan in 1290 for her castle of Haverford in Wales. The Scottish 
wars of King Edward I and his Flemish expedition drew off strong 
bodies of Normans, and left the hill tribes unchecked. Their raids gave 
serious trouble to the Irish Government in 1301-2 and 1306-7. In the 
Bruce invasion the O'Tooles, O'Byrnes, and O'Moores wasted from 

1 From Mr. Mills, Deputy Keeper of the Records. 

2 Vol. xxiii (1893), pp. 268-280. 

3 Cal. Documents, Ireland, vol. i, section 2671. 


Arklow to Leix with fire and sword, and the unsettlement and growing 
decay of the Norman power were probably followed by the decay and 
jettison of the Royal Forest of Glencree. If, as seems probable, the 
earthwork is part of its enclosure, I hope attempts may be made to seek 
other traces, and mark the ambit of the park on the maps of the county. 


Copper Plate Engraved with the Taylors' Arms. Antiquaries are 
greatly indebted to Dr. H. F. Berry for much information about the 
Dublin City Gilds. On p. 338, vol. xxxv, of the Journal, he pub- 
lished a list of the existing records and properties of the old Dublin 
City Gilds, including records or objects at present existing of the Taylors' 
Gild (St. John the Baptist). I am happy to be able to add one more 
object to this list, a copper plate engraved with the arms of the Taylors, 
which is preserved in the collection of the Royal Irish Academy. It is 
entered in the Academy's Register in the year 1863, but there are no 
particulars as to how it was acquired. The plate measures 6-A- inches 
in length and 4if inches across. It has three holes on each side, and 
was probably affixed to the wall of the Taylors' Hall. It bears the arms 
granted to the Taylors in 1684 by Sir Richard Carney, Ulster King of 
Arms : Silver a tent between two sleeves gules, on a chief azure a silver 
lamb passant between two bezants. Crest, on a helmet and wreath of 
the colours St. John the Baptist's head on a golden charger. Supporters, 
two camels spotted with bezants. Motto, NUDUS ET OPERUISTIS ME 
(Matthew xxv. 36). 

Below are the following names 1 : 



JAMKS BURN \ A ' t t JOHN CASTILLO > Asistttnts 




Addenda and Corrigenda, Journal, xlii, p. 106, add to the legends 
of Geodruisge one edited by Mr. T. F. O'Rahilly in Gadelica i, p. 171. 
(In one version Crom Dubh takes the place of Geodruisge); p. 201, 
line 7, for wildest read widest; p. 291, line 8, for Daibre read Dairbhre\ 
p. 300, plate, Title should be " 1. CROSSES IN COOL ", 2. CROSS NEAR 
ST. BRENDAN'S WELL"; p. 304, plate, for " DUNCANNIG " read 


1 The date of the plate being late, it seemed unnecessary to identify the 
and Assistants mentioned. 

[To face p. 186 




^ A I^A 7 \ 






Ancient Monuments Consolidation and Amendment Bill. This bill, 
introduced in the House of Lords by Earl Beauchamp, is now going 
through Parliament. Its chief provisions enable local authorities to 
acquire monuments. It constitutes an Ancient Monument Board ; enables 
preservation orders to be made, and inspectors to be appointed ; and 
prescribes penalties for injuring monuments ; and, most important of all, 
provides by sect. 4, sub-sect. 2, that all expenses incurred by the Com- 
missioners of Works in maintaining monuments acquired shall, subject to 
the approval of the Treasury, be defrayed out of the moneys provided by 
Parliament. The Bill is especially excluded from application to Ireland, 
although so much important work of the kind has to be done in this 
country which it is absurd to expect to be defrayed out of the limited 
funds at the disposal of the Board of Works and the County Councils. 
Why should English, Welsh, and Scottish Monuments be thus specially 
favoured to the exclusion of the equally important monuments of Ireland ? 


( 188 ) 

Notice* of 

NOTE. Books marked thus (*) are by Members of the Society. 

* Prehistoric Faith and Worship. Glimpses of Ancient Irish Life, by the 
Rev. Canon J. F. M. ffrench, pp. 212 4- vii, 7 x 4f inches, bound in 
cloth, with five plates and twenty-five illustrations in the text. 

THE title of this book is a little misleading, as only about half the chapters 
deal with prehistoric faith and worship. The rest are a series of articles 
on a variety of subjects put together in no particular order. It might 
have been better to call the book " essays" or "studies" on Irish 
subjects. The title is too weighty for so discursive and popular a treat- 
ment of a very big subject. Of course it is impossible to treat it really 
scientifically from the Irish point of view at our present stage of 
knowledge. The treasures of Irish literature and of archaeology are not 
yet sufficiently explored and known to permit anyone to write 
authoritatively on their contributions to the study of ancient Irish 
religions. The author has collected a vast number of facts, and has 
evidently read widely. Unfortunately his acquaintance with Irish 
literature is second-hand, and based in many cases on old-fashioned 
authorities, good in their day, but already superseded by newer know- 

Under these circumstances one regrets that any time should be spent 
in treating of matters only fit for the research stage. The concluding 
essays on Clonegal, tribal badges, &c., are pleasantly written, and are full 
of information. 

^Ireland under the Commonwealth : being a selection of Documents 
relating to the Government of Ireland from 1651 to 1659. Edited, 
with Historical Introduction and Notes, by Kobert Dunlop, M.A., 
Lecturer in Irish Ristory ; author of Life of Daniel J Connell, etc. 
Two vols. Manchester, at the University Press, 1913. 

MUCH has been written with regard to the Cromwellian Settlement of 
Ireland, in almost every instance with more or less of a partisan bias. 
Mr. J. P. Prendergast, in especial, who had the advantage of consulting 
original manuscripts under peculiarly favourable circumstances, and 


had a rare opportunity of giving to the world an unprejudiced account 
of that important period in the chequered history of Ireland, may he 
said to have missed his opportunity. He wrote a prejudiced and 
inadequate narrative of events, of which Gardiner expressed the opinion 
that he was more intent on describing the woes of the Irish than on 
trying to give a complete view of the Commonwealth Government. 

In the two fine volumes before us, Mr. Robert Dunlop gives us 
the documents themselves, from some of which Prendergast drew, for 
the period 1651-1659; and henceforward no one who deals with the 
Commonwealth, and desires to be impartial, can afford to overlook the 
wealth of material here collected. Many years ago Mr. Dunlop saw 
the importance of these Records, previously preserved in the Record 
Tower, Dublin Castle, but now in the Public Record Office, and he 
copied or had transcribed a large number of the State Papers contained 
in the collection. Considerable space is devoted to an Historical Intro- 
duction, in which the course of events from 1541 to 1649 is reviewed, 
and the policy of the Tudors and Stuarts in the government of Ireland 
is considered, chiefly with a view to discovering the true cause of the 
outbreak of the Rebellion. Putting aside various theories as not in 
accordance with facts, Mr. Dunlop thinks that its true origin may be 
traced to the feeling of antagonism between the English in Ireland and 
the English in England, noticeable from the time of Henry the Second. 
The English looked on and treated Ireland as a conquered country, 
while the Irish refused to acquiesce in this view. The Rebellion may 
be looked on as an episode in the great European struggle between 
Protestantism and Roman Catholicism, in which England and Ireland 
once more found themselves ranged on opposite sides ; and the situation 
was rendered all the more acute by the question of the independence of 
the latter country. 

Mr. Dunlop points out that the settlement under Cromwell appears 
to have been a natural consequence of the policy pursued by England 
from the time of the Reformation. Here, however, she lost the oppor- 
tunity presented to her of establishing the reformed religion, which was 
seized on by Rome, and a war of religion commenced. 

Nothing appears plainer and Mr. Dunlop fully brings out the point 
in his Introduction than that England's policy continually shifted; there 
was no continuity, and every few years some different plan was tried, 
which kept the country in a perpetual state of unrest that seriously 
affected its progress and settlement. He conceives the actual rising to 
have been due more to a fear of a Puritan ascendancy entertained by the 
Roman Catholics than to any serious religious or agrarian grievances of 
the Irish, and he thinks its breaking out was more or less of an 

The documents begin at the time of Cromwell's arrival in Ireland, 
and Mr. Dunlop furnishes his readers with a special Introduction to 


them, lucidly written. The first printed is an abstract of the Instruc- 
tions given to the Commissioners of Parliament for the affairs of Ireland. 
The remainder deal with the measures taken to establish a ministry, 
even to preaching to the people of the country in their own language ; 
to preserve freedom of conscience ; to repress ungodliness in public and 
private life ; and to enforce a habit of moral living on the students of 
Dublin University ; legislation as to habitual beggars ; to repress 
"coshering"; to advance trade and manufactures; to give the country 
a solid coinage ; to suppress piracy ; to prevent woods being destroyed ; 
to improve the postal system ; and the erection of lighthouses for the 
safety of shipping, &c. 

Apart from the study of the documents themselves, a perusal of 
Mr. Dunlop's Introduction will be found to afford much food for reflec- 
tion, and a great deal of broad-minded criticism of events and of th& 
personages who swayed the destinies of Ireland during the century that 
preceded the Rebellion. "While there are many points on which it 
would be impossible that all should agree, it must be admitted that the 
author has performed his allotted task in scholarly fashion, and that 
Mr. Dunlop's pages are those of a fair-minded and candid historian. 

*The Diocese of Emly. By Rev. St. John 1). Seymour, B.D., with a 
preface by the Lord Bishop of Cashel. Dublin : Church of Ireland 
Printing and Publishing Co., Ltd., 61 Middle Abbey St. ; pp. 291, 
9 x 5f inches. 

This book is a welcome addition to the literature of Irish Ecclesiastical 
History, and Mr. Seymour has once more placed students of the medieval 
and modern records of our country under an obligation. The imposing 
list of authorities consulted, occupying three closely printed pages, is 
enough to show the care which the author has bestowed on the task to 
which he set himself. 

The book is divided into thirteen chapters, followed by three short 
appendices and a full index. In the first chapter the pre-ecclesiastical 
history of the diocese, if we may so style it, is sketched an account 
being given of the tribes and tribal districts, and their relation to the 
rural deaneries which are comprised in the diocese. In this chapter are 
one or two blemishes, suggesting that the author is here not so much 
at home with his authorities as he proves himself to be in the latter part 
of the history. For instance, it is possible to pick several holes in this 
passage : "At one period the entire Diocese seems to have been in- 
habited by a race named the Aradha [better Arada], from whom the 
district was named Ara Cliach . . . Whether the Aradha were a pre- 
Celtic people, or whether it was merely a general name for a number o 


separate tribes, is tfot at all clear. A recent writer believes them to be 
equivalent to the Iberians, who were the neolithic inhabitants of Ireland, 
and, therefore, that the old stone monuments scattered throughout the 
district, the pillar- stones, the circles, &c. . . . must be laid to the 
credit of these latter, who . . . have . , . become identified with the 
Ma[i]rtine, a sept of the Firbolgs." One might remark on this (1) that 
so far from Ara Cliach being the name of the district derived from the 
tribe, it is really the name of the tribe derived from the district (Cli'u, of 
which Cliach is genitive, though treated as nominative in this book) ; 
(2) that we ought to have fuller references vouchsafed us than the vague 
"a recent writer"; (3) that such terms as " pre-Celtic," "Iberian," 
"Firbolg," have no ethnological meaning, and should be got rid of; 
(4) that pillar-stones and circles are not necessarily neolithic ; indeed 
circles belong usually to the Bronze Age ; and (5) that the form " Fir- 
bolgs " is incorrect. " Firbolg " is itself plural, as we may perhaps hope 
that in time everyone who concerns himself with Irish antiquities will 
realize. 1 We hope also to see in time the omission of the hyphen from 
Irish names that consist of more than one word : we should no more have 
the hyphens in " Aos-tri-muighe " than in " Little-Peddlington-by-the- 
sea " or in " Appii -forum." Another curious slip is the promoting of 
the "eclipsing" n after old neuter substantives into the dignity of a 
capital letter. Thus muir n-Icht and fert n-Ailbi become respectively 
"the sea of Met" and "Fert Nailbei " (pp. 46, 49). Nor can we 
pass without comment this sentence on p. 41: "The earthen dun 
[the fortress of Cormac Gas, where he was buried] has long since 
vanished, but it was probably piled up over the still existing cromlech." 
For "cromlech" read "dolmen": the word "cromlech" ought, for 
various reasons, to be expunged out of existence altogether. This, how- 
ever, is not the point. A dolmen is essentially a Stone Age, or very early 
Bronze Age, monument, and therefore could not commemorate Cormac 
Cas, supposing such a person to have existed ; nor can a " dun " (which 
is not a tumulus) be " heaped over'' such a structure. 

We are sorry to see, on p. 61, the phrase " a mass of legendary 
absurdities " applied to the traditional life of St. Ailbhe. This takes up 
the obsolete attitude of Campbell, whose very interesting Philosophical 
Survey of the South of Ireland is here several times quoted, and who, after 
a paragraph about the beliefs in fairies, ends impatiently : " But enough 
of this trash ! " Granted that the details of such documents are not of 
historical value, still they are now recognized as being of value in other 
directions, and they should not be dismissed quite so disdainfully. 

Let us assure Mr. Seymour that we do not indicate these flaws in the 
first few pages of his excellent book in order to find fault. It is to point 

1 It will be a happy day for science in Ireland when such dreadful nonsense as 
' the de Danaans" (a monstrosity that Mr. Seymour does not perpetrate) will be set 
up in print for the very lust time ! 


a moral. Irish Archaeology is gradually emancipating itself from the 
clouds of false notions that imperfect knowledge had accumulated round 
it. It is becoming a scientific study, and therefore all books that contain 
pseudo-phonetic misspellings and " anglicizations," falsely so called, of 
Irish words and names, misconceptions as to the relative periods of rude 
stone monuments, and confusions between the traditional history and 
the true history as deduced from archaeological, ethnological, and 
linguistic study, must expect to run the gauntlet of an ever-increasing 
severity of criticism. The welcome time is approaching when it will be 
recognized that for an Irish historian to speak about " Turlogh 
O'Connor" or Brian " Boru " is in every respect as deserving of censure 
as for a Greek or Roman historian to speak about "Zenefun" or 
" Seezer." 

When Mr. Seymour gets into the region of ecclesiastical record 
proper, one feels at once that he is on more familiar, and probably more 
congenial, ground. The history of Emly Cathedral is sketched in a 
chapter that begins with the Vision of MacConglinne, and ends with 
1887. We then are given the names of the bishops, with biographical 
notes on each ; many of those notices are of great value for the student 
of social history. Two chapters on the pre-Reformation history of the 
diocese, its manors, monasteries, and parochial clergy, testify to the care- 
ful study which the author has made of his subject. In the following 
chapters the chronicles of the disastrous seventeenth century are set 
forth. This century tries as with fire every historian's work that 
touches upon it. In relating such events as the massacres of 1641 the 
author of the book before us makes no attempt to hide the point 
of view from which he contemplates them ; but he is studiously impartial. 
Some interesting documents relating to these unhappy events are here 
printed. Finally, we have in a concluding chapter the history brought 
down to the present day. In the Rural Deans' Returns for 1780 we are 
told that " the outsides of some of the churches were damaged by hand- 
ball-playing ; but in at least one instance this was put a stop to by the 
simple expedient of digging up the ground, which, of course, prevented 
the ball hopping." We recommend the device to modern custodians of 
some of our ancient buildings, where the evil still continues. 

Of the appendices, the first is of especial value ; it is on account of 
the church plate now existing in the various parishes of the diocese. 

Not the least interesting part of the book are the illustrations, many 
of which consist of facsimiles of sketches, made by the seventeenth- 
century travelling antiquary Dineley, of buildings now much ruined or 
totally destroyed. R. A. S. M. 

( 193 

A QUARTERLY GENERAL MEETING of the 65th Yearly Session of the Society 
was held at No. 6, ST. STEPHEN'S GREEN, DUBLIN, on Tuesday, 29 April 
1913, at 8.30 o'clock p.m. 

EGBERT COCHRANE, LL.D., i.s.o., F.S.A., Past President, in the Chair. 

Also present : 

Fellows. S. A. 0. FitzPatrick, J. Ribton Garstin, Thomas Laffan, P. J. O'Reilly, 
G. W. Place, Andrew Robinson, Andrew Roy croft, William C. Stubbs. 

Members. J. P. Dalton, T. G. H. Green, R. J. Kelly, Rev. F. J. Lucas, D.D., 
R. D. Ormsby, Miss A. Peter, Ricbard Blair "White. 

The Minutes of last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following Fellows and Associate Members were elected : 


Boyd, John E, 21, Grosvenor-square, Ratbmines, Dublin : proposed by O'Meaia 
Conyngham, Member. 

Cotterell, Howard Herschel, F.H.HIST.S., Myvod, Foden-road, Walsall : proposed by 
E. C. R. Armstrong, Hon. Gen. Sec. 

Dawson, William R., M.D., Inspector of Lunatic Asylums, Dublin Castle : proposed 
by M. J. Nolan, Fellow. 

Glynn, Joseph A., B.A., St. Jarlath, Ailesbury-road, Dublin {Member, 1901): proposed 
by Robert Cochrane, LL.D., i.s.o., Fellow. 

Lawder, James Ormsby. D.L., Lawderdale, Ballinamore, Co. Leitrim : proposed by 
Mrs. Tarleton, Member. 

M'Donald, John J., Solicitor, 116, Grafton- street, Dublin: proposed by P. J. 
Lynch, M.R.I.A., Fellow. 

Place, G. W., Indian Civil Service (retired), 9, Ailesbury-road, Dublin (Member, 
1904) : proposed by E. C. R. Armstrong, Hon. Gen. Sec. 

Roycroft, Andrew, 94, Drumcondra-road, Dublin (Member, 1906) : proposed by Robert 
Cochrane, LL.D., i.s.o., Fellow. 


Andrew, James, 69, Pembroke-road, Dublin : proposed by G. W. Place, Member. 
Bruen, Mrs., Oak Park, Carlow : proposed by The Hon, Mrs. Shore, Member. t 

Eustace, Major H. M., Munfier House, Ballycarney, Ferns: proposed by Francis 
Guil bride, J.P., Member. 

Harold-Barry, Philip, J.P., Ballyellis, Buttevant, Co. Cork : proposed by M. J. Nolan, 

M'Lean, A. H. Blumenville, Tralee, Co. Kerry : proposed by Singleton Goodwin,., 



M'Nulty, Robert, Lifford, Co. Donegal : proposed by E. C. R. Armstrong, Hon. Gen. 

Maddock, Simon William, Mount Jerome House, Dublin : proposed by P. J. Lynch, 

M.R.I.A., Fellow. 
Nagle, Garrett, R.M., FortwilKam, Belfast : proposed by M. J. Nolan, Fellow. 

Stokes, Frank, 60, Dawson-street, Dublin: proposed by P. J. Lynch, M.R.I. A., 

Townshend, Thomas Loftus, 7, Palmerston-park, Dublin: proposed by Thomas C. 

Townshend, Member. 

The following paper was read, and referred to the Council for 
publication : 

" The Islands and Shores of The Corrib." By The Very Rev. Jerome Fahy, p.p., V.G., 

The Meeting then adjourned until the 23 June 1913. 

The Meeting held at Sligo, 23-28 June 1913, will be reported in 
the next issue of the Journal. 

T , i? <5 A T $ Vo1 - In > Sixth Series. 
Jour. R.S.A.I. | Vol XL ' m Consec . Ser- 







[Read 28 JANUARY 1913] 

TN 1241 Meyler de Bermingham, second baron of Athenry, granted 
land for a Dominican friary, and contributed a hundred and sixty 
marks towards its foundation. This was done, it is said, at the request 
of St. Dominic himself. In 1242 a general chapter of the order was 
held in the newly built monastery. The founder, Meyler, died in 1252, 
and was buried in the precincts. 

A house for scholars was founded in the friary by Finghin Mac Floind, 
Archbishop of Tuam, in 1256 ; and in 1324 the house received a further 
benefaction from William de Burgh and his wife Fionnghuala, who 
then gave above a hundred marks to the friars to help in building the 
front of their church. They also enlarged the choir twenty feet. Pope 
Boniface IX granted in 1400 a bull of indulgence to those who visited 
the monastery and contributed to its repair. 

A catastrophe overtook the house in 1423, the church being con- 
sumed by an accidental fire. A bull was issued for its repair by Pope 
Martin V, and renewed by Pope Eugene IV in 1445, at which time there 
were thirty friars in the foundation. 

The buildings were granted by Queen Elizabeth to the portreeve and 
corporation of Athenry, at the yearly rent of 26*. 6d. Irish. For a brief 




period of revival, dating from 1644, the house was made a university; 
but this cannot have been for long, as the Walls tomb (1682), described 
below, records its destruction by Cromwellians, and its subsequent restora- 
tion. In the eighteenth century the remains of the Dominican house 
were utilized as a barracks, and Archdall records how part of the ruins 
had been taken down in this adaptation, and how the " numbers of 
mausoleums " that the church had contained had been " erased " by the 
soldiers, and their fragments strewn over the church, which was nearly 
covered with them. The church was roofless in 1792, but the tower 
was still standing. It is shown in Bigari's drawing, reproduced in 
Grose's Antiquities. Probably the fall of this tower reduced the church 
to its present condition of final ruin, and perhaps helped to demolish the 
barracks, which have now entirely disappeared, their place being taken 
by small houses and an open field. 

The foregoing is an outline of the history of the Dominican friary of 
Athenry, of which nothing remains but the ruined church, standing in a 
neglected and overgrown graveyard. We may now proceed to describe 
this church and its monuments. 

(Archdall gives a list of persons of importance buried in the monastery. 
This list it is unnecesssary to transcribe ; not a single one of the monu- 
ments that no doubt commemorated the persons named can now be 

It is evident that the Dominican church of SS. Peter and Paul, 
Athenry, when originally erected, was a simple oblong structure, of 
considerable length in proportion to its breadth, and without any structural 
division between nave and choir ; no doubt there was a wooden or built 
stone screen at the junction. There was probably no bell-tower, the 
bells being hung in a bell-cote on one of the gables. The church was lighted 
by rows of lancet windows, probably on both sides in the nave, and 
on the north side only in the choir. The south side of the choir was 
always blank, as the sacristy (wliich remains) and the various monastic 
offices (of which traces are to be seen) butted against it. Some of these 
lancets still remain. There are five perfect on the south side of the 
nave, and half of an another which has been partially blocked by the 
erection of the tower; and six perfect on the north side of the choir, 
with half of another that has been partly cut away in building the tran- 
sept. It is not improbable that there were originally in all three groups 
of seven lancets, one in the choir and one on each side of the nave ; as 
the block-plan shows (fig. la), such a distribution would about fill the 
available space. There were probably three lancets in the original east 
front, and three, or perhaps two, in the west. There may have been a 
west door under these ; in any case there was a door, with a plain equi- 
lateral pointed arch, underneath the westernmost lancet on the south 
side of the nave. This still remains blocked up, and will be seen in the 
south elevation (Plate III). 




5CALE of ffIT 





The lancets are all deeply splayed, with equilateral pointed heads. 
They are quite plain, not being enriched by mouldings in any way. In 
fact, the church of Meyler de Birmingham was of the simplest possible 


FIG. 1. 

description, and there is no evidence that it possessed any decorative 
details whatever. 



The greater part of the church, as we see it now, dates from the 
reconstruction of 1324, to which William de Burgh and his wife con- 
tributed. These benefactors " enlarged the choir twenty feet," i.e., they 

built the sanctuary, with two charming two-light windows on each side 
and a superb six- light window in the east end, and they also " gave 
above a hundred marks to the friars to assist them to build the front of 
the church." This must mean the west front, which contains a window, 


still in fair preservation, of the same period as those of the new part of 
the choir. The north aisle and transept were added at the same time. 
The cloisters of the monastery being against the south wall of the nave, 
extension in this direction was impossible. Fig. U shows a block plan 
of the church at this stage. 

The church, as thus completed, is 148 feet in length, internally. 
The orientation is not exact, the direction of the long axis being 112. 
The choir is 64 feet 6 inches long and 23 feet broad. As already 
mentioned, six and a half of the original lancets of 1241 survive on the 
north side ; the remainder were removed when the north transept was 
thrown out. 

The east window must have been a very fine specimen of geometrical 
tracery, if we may judge by the meagre fragments remaining. The 
window opening was moulded, and on the inside had jamb-shafts with 
moulded capitals and bases. There were six lights. Nothing remains but 
the points of attachment of the tracery to the window arch, and even the 
cusps are hidden by the masonry of the Jacobean window that has been 
inserted into the opening. Under the circumstances, restoration can be 
only conjectural. An attempt at indicating the possible appearance of 
this window will be found in fig. 2b, The heavily shaded parts of the 
drawing are the parts which alone remain. 

The two side windows of the sanptuary are simple and pleasing. 
They each consist of two lights with trefoil heads ; in the apex of the 
northern window is a spherical triangle, in that of the southern window 
a circle, both enriched with cusps (fig. 3b, c). 

The south side of the nave remained unchanged in the 1324 rebuild- 
ing. The west wall was probably rebuilt, and in any case a four-light 
window was inserted in place of the lancets or whatever other opening 
there may have been in the original structure. This window is shown 
in fig. 2#. It will be seen that the lights are capped with squat ogee 
arches, and the mullions prolonged to interlace. For the topmost 
interlacement a vertical bar is substituted in the design. All openings 
in the tracery are cusped. The design is simple but effective. The 
central mullion, and the part of the tracery depending on it, have been 
destroyed, but enough remains to make the restoration certain. The 
present appearance of the window is shown on the west elevation 
(Plate II), and in the photographic view, Plate X. The lower part of 
the wall is now built up to make a ball-alley against the outside of the 

The north wall of the nave was pulled down in 1324, and in its stead 
were built an aisle and transept, separated from the nave by an arcade 
of five bays, supported on circular columns, with capitals partly 
octagonal, and having octagonal responds at the ends of the arcade. 

The arches of the arcade were in two orders, the edges being finished 
with a simple chamfer. The section of the mouldings of the capitals 



is shown (in fig. 4,~no. 1); the bases are now buried in earth, and are 
quite invisible. 

The aisle, separated by this arcade from the body of the church, has 
no architectural features except four windows and a doorway. The 
latter is quite plain, not dissimilar from the older south doorway in 
the nave. It is now built up. There is a window at each end of the 
aisle, and two in its south wall ; the latter are remarkably far apart. 
The design of all these windows is similar ; they are two-light windows, 
the head bifurcating with cusps (fig. 30). 

The nave arcade is returned along the transept (with a skew arch 
at the south-west angle of the transept), and thus cuts off a porch from 
the transept area. The skew arch springs from the angle of the transept 
with a corbel dying into the wall. 


The porch thus cut off has a plain pointed doorway, the archivolt 
being in two orders. This, however, appears to be a reconstruction. 
There is a west window of similar design to those of the aisles. The 
transept proper had, in its north wall, a great four-light window. The 
tracery of this has entirely disappeared, and not even such small frag- 
ments as are left of the east window are to be seen. In Grose's time there 
appears (to judge from his drawing) to have been tracery, like the poor 
Jacobean tracery of the later east window, still to be described. The 
original window was probably similar in pattern to the west window of 
the church. Beside this, there was a two-light window on the east wall 
of the transept, similar to and alongside of the east window of the aisle. 


The tracery of this was probably similar to the porch, window opposite, 
and thus identical in pattern with the other two-light windows of the 
added part of the church ; but it was rebuilt in the Jacobean period. An 
extraordinary mullion, with a double shaft on the outer surface, remains 
from this reconstruction ; otherwise the later window has followed its 
predecessor into oblivion. Grose shows this window as identical with 
the aisle window beside it. 



The most striking feature of the transept is the charming arcade, or 
rather series of arcades, running under the north window. These are 
probably not so much an architectural ornament as a row of sepulchral 
monuments, and as such they will be described later when we have 
finished discussing the fabric of the church itself. 

It is evident that the roof was finished with a half-hexagon ceiling, 
which was flat under the tie-beams. The outline of such a roof remains 
indicated on the western gable. There was apparently a long, narrow 
chamber in the roof above the ceiling, lighted by a small lancet window 


at the east end. This was complete in Grose's time ; the lower half of 
it still remains. 

The fire of 1423 cannot have done much injury to the structure, 
though no doubt the woodwork of the church was consumed. In 1427 
we learn that William Ryedymer and Richard Golbe, and other 
Dominicans, petitioned the Pope (Martin V) for licence to found two 
chapels and oratories, with a belfry, bell, cemetery, house, cloisters, and 
other offices. Where these structures were intended to be erected is 
not clear. It is uncertain whether they were at Athenry. But in all pro- 
bability the tower of the Athenry church is to be assigned to the second 
quarter of the fifteenth century, and we may with probability assume 
that, whether this petition referred to Athenry church or not, the tower 
was built about this time ; and that the opportunity, afforded by the 
repairs rendered necessary by the fire of 1423, was taken to make this 
important addition to the church building. 

To support the tower two strong rectangular piers were built, the 
southern pier occupying the nave wall, and stopping up half of one of 
the original series of lancets ; the northern pier, which has completely 
disappeared during the past century, must have blocked up the transept 
entirely, and turned it into a small subsidiary chapel. The passage under 
the tower was spanned by two broad arches, with crossed groining-ribs 
vaulting the space between them. The springs of these arches, starting 
from a string-course, and the groining-ribs, supported on capital-like 
corbels, still remain in the fragments of the south pier, which is all 
that is left of the tower. In fig. Ic is a plan of the church at this 

Bigari's drawing, in Grose, shows that the tower was in two square 
stages, the upper slightly narrower than the lower. There was one 
window in the east of the belfry-chamber, and two in the north ; 
probably there were corresponding windows in the sides opposite to these. 
In the lower stage, just above the archway, was an opening which gave 
access to the chamber under the roof already mentioned. This is shown 
in Bigari's drawing, immediately above the archway, which is lofty and 

On the north side of the tower, in the lower stage, there are two 
window-openings, one below and one above the apex of the transept roof. 
These are probably for lighting a turret staircase. There is such a 
staircase remaining, starting about 12 feet above ground, on the outside 
of the church, in a turret projecting on the south side. This was the 
last important structural addition that the church received before the 
vicissitudes through which the foundation passed under the Tudors 
and Stuarts. 

A remarkable feature of the church is the watching-loft(?) projecting 
into the nave on the south side, west of the westernmost lancet. This is 
like a small balcony, in plan half a hexagon, and is supported on a 

To face p. 207] 

S s 




corbel. A narrow, flat-topped window-opening in the eastern side, 
enables a person within to see a limited part of the nave. It is 
evidently not a pulpit, which it is popularly called. It is approached 
by an external staircase, now blocked up. Mr. Westropp records a 
tradition that this is the "cell of a penitent of the last century." Its 
place will be seen in the south elevation, Plate III, and a photographic 
view will be found in Plate IY a. 

Between the third and fourth lancet of the nave (counting from west 
to east) is a niche for a statue, which also appears to date from the 
sixteenth century. The niche itself is round-headed. The statue 
(missing) was supported on a richly moulded octagonal console, borne by 
a demi-figure of an angel (which has recently been defaced by boys). The 
most remarkable point about this console is the way in which one of the 
mouldings is developed into a plait. See Plate IY b. 

The church, no doubt, suffered much in jury during the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, and probably was reduced to ruin by the Crom- 
well ians ; the destruction of the Walls tomb was surely not the only 
damage they wrought. During the brief period of hope under the later 
Stuarts an attempt was made to restore the church. The east window 
had evidently been destroyed ; the opening was partly filled up, and a 
poor four-light window, with interlacing mullions, but no cusps, was 
inserted. This, which still remains, was singled out by Grose for special 
admiration. The transept windows seem to have been repaired in the 
same style. The most remarkable structural alteration, however, was the 
enclosing of the pillars of the nave and transept arcade inside heavy 
rectangular pieces of masonry, supporting smaller arches. The church 
thus attained its final shape, represented in plan in Plate I. The 
masonry piers, and the arches they support, would, if drawn in the 
north elevation, prevent the details of the aisle being seen ; they are, 
therefore, represented by faint dotted lines, and the older pillars and 
arches are drawn instead (Plate III). 

In the eighteenth century the transformation of the old Dominican 
house to a barrack no doubt aided the ruin of the church, which, as 
Archdall hints, was wantonly defaced by the soldiers. The total absence 
of monuments between 1730 and 1780 is to be noticed. The fall of the 
tower at the end of the eighteenth or beginning of the nineteenth century 
completed the ruin. 

There is a large series of interesting monuments remaining, though 
probably only a small fraction of what were once to be seen. It is 
possible that there may also be some stones worthy of notice in the 
graveyard ; but till the luxuriant nettles and other noxious weeds that 
fill it are cut away it is impossible to say what may be there. I noticed 
only one monument that called for a passing glance a tombstone of 
the end of the eighteenth century, the top decorated with a couple of. 


Inside the church there are monuments of every period from the 
date of the foundation. 

The earliest monuments remaining all take the form of arcades of 
two or three arches inserted into the Avail. These cannot have served 
for sedilia, piscinae, or for any other practical purpose ; nor are they mere 
architectural ornaments, as they are too irregular in their disposition. 
They must, I think, mark the graves of persons buried under the church 
floor. There are nine such monuments remaining in the church. 


On the south side of the nave there are three, duly recorded in the 
-elevation (Plate III). The first (westernmost) is drawn out in full detail 
in fig. 5. It is a handsome structure of three three-centred moulded 
arches, supported on slender columns; the mouldings and foliuge with 
which it is ornamented indicate the first half of the fourteenth century 
as the probable date to which to assign it. The second is similar, but has 
in addition three moulded quatrefoil openings inserted in the wall above ; 
these encroach on the fourth of the series of nave lancets. This tomb- 
re*cess has been built up, and the central part is now completely hidden. 
Immediately east of it is the third of these tombs ; all but the western 

To face p. 209] 

> 3 

W S 



jamb and the spring of the arch above it is concealed by masonry, and 
by a comparatively modern altar-tomb erected in front of it. 

In the choir there is only one of these arcade-tombs. It is of similar 
type to the first described, except that the arches are pointed above (four- 
centred) and not round above (three-centred). The arch -mouldings, 
capitals, and bases of this tomb are shown in fig. 4, no. 2 a-c. This is 
the monument claimed by the Walls family in the remai'kable inscription 
which is built in under the central arch. 

The north wall of the transept contains a series of three tombs of the 
same type which, at first sight, look like an ornamental arcade. But, 

on examination, it proves to reduce 
itself into three groups of arches, 
with two arches in one (the eastern- 
most) and three in the others. There 
is a narrow pier separating the two 
latter from one another, and a wide 
pier between them and the third ; 
and it will be seen from the plan 
that it has been necessary to cut out 
the north-east corner of the transept 
obliquely in order to admit of the 
insertion of the last arch. Obviously, 
this would never have been done, 
nor would there have been the un- 
equal dividing piers, had the whole 
been an ornamental insertion of one time. The three tombs must have 
been put in separately, at short intervals of time, after the erection of 
the transept. The mouldings of these arches are uniform, and are shown 
in fig. 4, no. 3 a-c, A photographic view is shown in Plate X b. 

In the aisle are two tomb-recesses of a different type. Each consists 
of two low ogee arches, underneath equilateral arches ; the openings are 
richly moulded and cusped. There is a drawing of one of these tomb- 
recesses in fig. 6 ; the other is identical in design, but is much injured, 
having lost several stones from the middle of the tracery. These tombs 
probably belong to the end of the fifteenth century. 

There is a sixteenth-century traceried altar-tomb on the north side 
of the church (Plate VI). The front of the altar is divided into five 
panels, capped by low four-centred arches. Above is a very lofty 
arch, with rich but rather flat mouldings, and filled with tracery like 
a window. Of this tracery only the springs remain, and I cannot suggest 
a satisfactory restoration. On the eastern jamb is in low relief a rude 
figure of the Virgin, crowned, and Child (Plate V). There are two stiff 
pinnacles, one on each side of the arch, with clumsy finials ; and the top 
of the arch is widened and flattened, probably to receive a figure or some 
other ornamental termination which has now disappeared. On the jamb 

FIG. 6 



is a curious group of scratches, of which fig. 7 is a full-sized facsimile 
from a rubbing. 

There is no inscribed tomb now remaining older than the seventeenth 
century. There are, however, a number of interesting slabs belonging 
to that period, as well as several of the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries. There are also a few altar-tombs. The following is a list of 


the more important monuments remaining in the church, in chronological 
order : 

I. 1615. Mariota de Bur go. A rectangular slab, with the lower 
corner cut obliquely off. It bears a handsome circular foliation in lieu 
of a cross-head, and a plaited stem, terminating horizontally below. There 
is a difficult inscription running spirally around the margin which reads : 


alias d'Oran More baro) PBO cuius AIE (?) ET BIB (?) ET(?)EBNO TJBNAS (?) 
SPECTAEE PEECES FUNDiTE 1615. The unusual ligatures, especially EN, 
make the inscription peculiarly difficult to decipher, but the general sense 
is clear (PI. VII, No. 2). In the choir, close to the south pier of the 

II. 1627. John Burke. This elaborate monument bears a floriated 
cross-head, with a plain stem, ending below in a handsome interlacing 

pattern. On the dexter side the initials IHS and a lozenge- shaped 
ornament. On the sinister side three animals and a peculiar ornament 
of curves enclosing a figure of eight. The slab is rectangular, but has a 
small shouldered projection bearing the words ION BVBKE 1627 ; and 
round the margin is the legend : THIS is THE TOMB OF ION BVEKE AND OF HIS 


No. 12). In the middle of the choir on the north side. 


Tr K ; A T ) Vo1 ' 1U > Sixth Series. 
Jour. R. S.A.I. | Vol XL ' jn> Consec Ser 


III. c. 1630. A handsome floriated cross, with a lozenge -shaped 
body and long stem ; the base is concealed by the sedilia, under which 
the stone runs. There is no inscription (PL IX, No. 14). 

IV. 1631. A broad, slightly coffin-shaped slab, bearing a cross with 
interlaced lozenge-shaped head, on a plain plaited stem. On the dexter 
side an interlaced pattern of six points and a triquetra ; on the sinister 
a set of smiths' tools hammer, chisel, and anvil. In the upper sinister 
corner a reversed tetraskelion in a circle ; in the upper dexter the initials 

IHS and the date 1631. There is no other inscription (PI. VII, No. 4). The 
second of a row of four slabs inside the door in the porch. This slab is 
evidently imitated from that of Mariota de Burgo, described above. 

V. c. 1650 (?). A slab, with incised ringed cross, the arms ending in 
rude floriations. On the sides a knife and bellows. The knife has no 
ring, and appears to be in a sheath. The bottom part of the slab is 
broken. There is no inscription (PL VII, No. 1). It is the second of a 
row of three slabs in front of the second arcade tomb in the nave. 

VI. c. 1650 (?). A slab, bearing in relief an anvil, and incised a 
hammer, with a raised knob in front of its striking end. The stone is 
coffin-shaped, shouldered at its narrow end. No inscription (PL VIII, 
No. 7). The third of four slabs just inside the door, in the porch. 

VII. 1670. Matthew Semper. A small tablet under the westernmost 
surviving lancet of the choir inscribed : PEAY FOE THE SJOVLE OF MAT|HEW 


VIII. 1676. Fathers Thomas and John Burke. A slab bearing the 


the sedilia. 

IX. 1677. Bridgid and Mary Bermingham. A slab inscribed with 
the following in relief : HEEE : LYES BEIDGID | AND : MAEY : BEEMING | 


1676: AND: 1677. A good many of the letters are ligatured. Beside 
the tomb of Lady Matilda Bermingham, on the south side. 

X. c. 1680. A slab with a floriated cross of a type common in the 
church, but slightly more ornate than the majority; inside a raised 
border, which ends in spirals at each corner ; lower end of slab missing 
(PL VII, No. 5). In the north-east corner of the transept. 

XI. c. 1680. A coffin-shaped slab, with a floriated cross of a type 
similar to the last. No inscription. At the west end of the existing 
portion of the arcade (PL VII, No. 3). 



XII. c. 1680. A slab, with a floriated cross in relief, inside a raised 
margin. The stone is broken, and the lower part lost. It has been used 
to mark a modern grave. No inscription (PI. IX, No. 11). The first of a 
row of four slabs in the porch, counting from the door. 


XIII. 1682. Thomas Tanian. A broad slab, unfortunately mutilated, 
under the tower and close to the south pier. It bears a cross pattee, with 
long stem, and u number of smiths' tools a bellows on the dexter side, 
and on the sinister an augur, pincers, anvil, horseshoe, and a hook-shaped 
object. The date, 1682, is on the base of the cross, and the inscription, 


edge (PI. IX, No. 13). 

XIV. 1683. Sir John urke.0n the south wall of the choir. A 
slab bearing a shield and the following inscription : HEEKE LYES THE. 



XY. 1684. Hugh Higenn. A recumbent slab, bearing incised a smith's 
bellows and knife, with the following inscription in cavo rilievo running 
spirally round the edge : (PRAY F) OR THE . SOVLES . OF . HVGH . HIGENN . 

AND DONELL . HIGENN . AND . THIRE . POSTERTY 1684 (fig. 8, No. 15). West 

end of aisle. The name spelt " Novlle " is probably Nuala, the modern 
abbreviated form of Fionnghuala. 

XVI. (16)86. Florence Eeyne. A fragment lying on the step of the 
sanctuary, with the following inscription in raised letters : IHS | PRAY . 


MAR | CH 86 THIS M [ . . . iTRE . . Two or three of the letters are ligatured. 

XVII. 1686. Owen Crawley. A slab with floriated cross much 
defaced, with the lower end broken away. The design can be seen 
in PI. VIII, No. 10. On the sinister side of the cross this inscription, 
in three lines, cavo rilievo FOR . THE . VSE . OF . OWEN . CRAw(ley) . AND . 
CATHERIN . MONAGHAN . AND . (their) POSTERITY . 1686. As is common in 
these slabs, several of the letters are ligatured. Centre of nave, opposite 
the console in the south side. 

XVIII. 1686. Oliver Browne. A rectangular slab built against the 
blocked north window of the transept. It bears on a shield, (or) an eagle 
displayed with two heads (sable) for BROWNE, impaling (azure) a chevron 
between three trefoils slipped (or) for LYNCH : an esquire's helmet, sur- 
mounted by the crest, two eagles' heads couped conjoined (sable). The 
inscription, on each side of the shield and below it, runs as follows : 


SOVLE [shield] OF pt 



RITY . ANO . DNI . 1686. 

Several of the letters are in ligature. The slab appears in Plate X b. 

XIX. 1686. Bryn Vaghan. A. flat coffin-shaped slab, which has 
become broken in two : the pieces are misplaced. On one fragment is 



PRAT FOR, and the date, 1686 ; and on the other SOTLE OF BRYN VAon(an). 
Centre of nave. 

XX. 1697. William Boyne. A slab bearing a puzzling inscription 
in seven lines of cavo rilievo. It runs : PRAT FOR THE SOVLE (of) WILLIAM 


CHILDREN, 1697. The punctuation is not given on the stone, but is here 
inserted to make the legend clearer. Evidently two married couples 

are commemorated. Eeneath is IHS and MARIA, and underneath all is 
a plough. Below that again the name IAMES ROVAN has been added in 
italic capitals incised. The northernmost of three slabs in a row under 
the tower (fig. 8, No. 16). 

XXI. 1700. Daniel Nolan. A slab, much worn, with the usual 
bellows and knife incised, and the inscription DANIEL NOLAN 1700 in two 
lines, cavo rilievo, on the sinister side. Some irregularities on the centre 
of the slab are possibly (but not probably) remains of an interlacing 
pattern (PI. VIII, No. 6). In front of the second arcade tomb in the 

XXII. c. 1700. William JBurto.A. slab inscribed Pray for | the 
soul | of William | Burke and | his wife | Anne alias | Ward and | 
their | Posterity. The outermost of a row of three slabs in front of 
the second arcade tomb in the nave. 

XXIII. c. 1700. A recumbent slab, with a plain cross on a calvary 
between a smith's bellows and knife. No inscription (PL VIII, No. 9). 
Nave, just west of the blocked south doorway. 

XXIV. 1713. Patrick Morsy. A slab bearing a much-worn inscrip- 
tion in cavo rilievo, which reads PRAT FOR THE | SOVLE . OF . PATRI | CK 
MORST & HIS | POSTERITIS 1713. Just east of the arch from porch to 

XXV. 1784. McDonnell family. Built into east wall behind the 
Clanricarde tomb. 

XXVI. 1786. James Quin. k slab beside the choir wall on the 
south side. 

XXVII. 1786. Lady Matilda Bermingham. This gigantic monument 
dwarfs all the other memorials in the church. It is a large and costly 
erection of grey stone, with stucco medallions, wreaths, and symbolic 
figures, including a portrait of the youthful Lady Matilda herself, to 
whose memory the tomb was erected, and whose virtues the fulsome and 
tiresome inscription records at length. The maker's name, Coade of 
London, appears on several of the stucco ornaments (Plate 


XXVIII. 1789. Rev. W. Burke. A partly defaced inscription on 
the north side of the tomb of Lady Matilda Bermingham. 

XXIX. 1789. Daniel Coneely. A slab inscribed IHS | Underneath 
lie the | Remains of Daniel Conneely who | Did August 1789 | Agd 44 
years | Lord have mercy on him and his | Posterity. The fourth of 
four slabs, inside the door in the porch. 

XXX. 1791. Patrick Ryan. A slab, reading: This monume | nt 
was Erected | by James Ryan | and his wife | Elonora Ryan | in 
Remembr | ance of their | Son Pat k Ryan | who Died the | 14th year 
of his | Age 1791. The second of three slabs in a row under the 

XXXI. 1792. Mary Kennamore. A slab which has been used twice. 
The original memorial bore, in cavo rilievo, a cross on a calvary of three 
steps, between the usual knife and smith's bellows ; but the head of the 
cross has been carefully chiselled away, and this inscription substituted: 
Lord have | mercy on the soul of Mary | Kennamore | wife to lohn 
Ha | nly who died Nov | 1792 aged 49 years (PL VIII, No. 8). Beside 
John Hanly's stone, No. xxxiii. 

XXXII. 1793. Burke family. A defaced inscription. East of 
Lady M. Bermingham's tomb. 

XXXIII. 1793. John Hanly. A slab inscribed: Lord have | mercy 
on the | soule of io | hn Hanly | who Died | July the 12 | 1793 aged 
49 years. Nave, just in front of the westernmost arcade tomb on the 
south wall. 

XXXIV. 1799. James Ryan. A slab bearing a semi-circle with 

IBS and this inscription : Lord have mercy | on the soul of James | 
Ryan who departed | this life [broken] \ 1799 aged 30 years | This 
Monument was | erected by his wife | Honor Ryan alias | Craven in 
memory | of him & | posterity. The southernmost of three slabs in a 
row under the tower. 

XXXV. End of 18th century. Daniel Higgins. A recumbent slab 

inscribed : IHS | Lord have mercy | on the souls of Daniel | Higgins 
and his Daughter | in law Annie Higgins | this monument was erected 
by his son | Daniel Higgins in memory of them & his | Posterity. Nave, 
east of blocked south doorway. 

XXXVI. End of 18th century. An illegible slab. West end of 

XXXVII. c. 1800. A large altar-tomb of massive stone, the 
sides divided into plain panels, standing on a broad raised platform. 
No date or inscription. In the south-east angle between nave 4 and 


XXXVIII. e. 1800. Two large altar- tombs, without inscription. 
One of these occupies the place of the north pier of the tower, which 
was probably cleared away to make room for it. It was enclosed inside 
iron railings, which have disappeared. These tombs are against the east 
wall of the transept. 

XXXIX. 1809. Donell family. On the sanctuary step, beside the 
Clanricarde monument. 

XL. 1810. Dominick Grean. An altar-tomb, elaborately carved with 
the symbols of mortality, common in the period, and a long inscription. 
West end of nave. 

XLI. 1836. Earl of Clanricarde. A colossal erection of grey stone, 
pyramidal in general outline, with an iron railing, and crowned at the 
top by a stone cross. It fills about one-third of the east end of the 

XLII. 1841. Alice Higgim. At west end of nave. 
XLIII. 1847. Murty Hanly. A slab at west end of nave. 

XLIY. 1 9th century. Egan family. A marble slab in the end of the 
recess in the south pier of the tower. 

There are also the fragments of an ornate but debased altar-tomb 
lying loose in the east end of the choir. This, no doubt, dates from the 
end of the seventeenth century. They are ornamented with conventional 
floral devices in sunk square panels for the greater part, but in two of the 
panels the artist has copied the two end windows of the church. The 
Jacobean east window is easily recognizable, as is also the Decorated west 
window, though the latter is not rendered with exactitude. 

It is clear that a large mural monument has disappeared from the 
west wall ; there is a recess provided for it, filling the space under the 
west window. 

But the most remarkable of all the monuments in the church is a slab 
inserted into the central arch of the arcade tomb in the choir (fig. 9). 
This is rectangular ; the lower end is partly concealed, and some lines 
of the writing cannot be seen. This is one reason why the inscription 
is so obscure ; but another reason is the pedantry of the writer of the 
legend, who attempted to compose in English, French, and Latin without 
having a sufficient knowledge of either of the latter languages. In 
consequence the text defies exact translation, and even the general 
sense is not very easy to grasp. The following attempt can claim only 
to be an advance on previous decipherments, which have missed the 
fact that the French part of the inscription is an attempt at a quatrain. 

The slab bears a shield charged with a lion rampant and a Latin cross 
on the dexter side ; an esquire's helmet and mantling, crest a dexter hand 



couped grasping a sword in fess. The inscription can be rendered most 
clearly by setting it forth in sections thus : 

" The mistcall sense of the armes [are] in this verse 

" Pour honeur de conquestrant, 

Et un illustre marque de glor, 

II voleut q[u]e le lion rempennt, 

Porta le pris de leur victoire. 

" Here is the antient sepulchre of the sept of "Walls of Droghty, late demolished 
by Cromellians, and now reedified by Walter Wall fich Peeter (i.e. mkic Peadair, son 
of Peter) of the said sept, for his oune and posterities use ; Ano Domni 1682. 

" Insignia hujus famili[a]e Crux et Leo : et notat H . . . sus n[o ?] bills antiquum 
retniet (sic) gens Vallia sterna (sic) nam leo magnanimam cu . . ." 


CRV6eET lEO-ET* NOTRT *H' < f 

FIG. 9. 

The sacristy is a small rectangular chamber on the south side of 
the choir, approached by a doorway with a plain equilateral arch. It 


measures 28 feet 8 inches by 11 feet 9 inches. There are no archi- 
tectural details of any interest, a flat-headed window of three lights at 
the east end being the only attempt at decoration. The south wall 
contains a series of three recesses ; one of these is blocked up with 
masonry, from which the side of a stone trough projects. There is a 
fourth recess above, which is partly filled with human bones. This is 
most probably part of the original thirteenth-century church, but it is 
impossible to assign a date to it with any assurance. 

Mrs. J. R. Green and Mr. Padraig Colum kindly assisted me in taking 
the measurements and rubbings necessary for preparing the drawings 
here presented. 


[The illustrations in this paper have been supplied by the Author.] 

[To face p. 222 



( 223 ) 


[Read 23 JUNE 1913.] 

clan territory of the MacCoghlans was in ancient times called 
Delvin Eathra and Delvin MacCoghlan, to distinguish it from a 
Delvin in the neighbouring County of West Meath, called Delvin M6r, 
the territory of the clan O'Finnallan, and now the barony of Delvin. 

Delvin-MacCoghlan is now the barony of Garry castle, in the King's 
County ; but the parish of Lusmagh (St. Cronan's), in the southern 
extremity of the barony, strangely enough belonged to the O'Maddens, 
the remainder of whose territory lay on the opposite side of the Shannon 
in the county Galway, and was known as Silanchia, now the barony of 

Delvin-MacCoghlan contained the parishes of : 
Clonmacnois, the patron saint of which is St. Ciaran, 9th Sept. 
Gallen, ,, ,, ,, St. Mochonog, 19th Dec. 

Lemanaghan, ,, ,, ,, St. Manchan, 24th Jan. 

Reynagh (in which Banagher is included), 

the patron saint of which is The B. Y. Mary. 
Tisaran, ,, St. Saran, 20th Jan. 

Wheery, alias Fuire, alias Foithre (meaning " Forests "). 

Some authorities, Archdall among them, state that the former name 
of the ancient church in Banagher was " Kil- Reynagh," or St. Reynagh' s 
Church, so called from Rioghnach, a sister of St. Finnian of Clonard, 
hence the name of the parish in which Banagher lies ; the Martyrology of 
Donegal, however, does not include her in its list of Irish saints, though 
it states that she was the mother of two saints. 1 That the church of 
Reynagh and the Church of Banagher are the same is proved by Sir John 
MacCoghlan's will of 1590, in which he desires to be buried " in ecclesia 
beate Marie de Ranach," and in the chancel of the Banagher Church 
ruins his tomb-slab lies at the present time. 

1 A St. Righnach, d. of Feradnch, was venerated on the 18th of December; but 
this is not the sister of St. Finnian, whose father was named Finloch. 


Sir John MacCoghlan, Kt., of Cloghan and Garry castle, was the son 
of Art, the son of Cormac MacCoghlan, who was chief of his sept in 

In 1539 the territory of Delvin was partitioned by Pelim O'Melachlin, 
chief of Clan-Colman, in West Meath, between three of the Mac- 
Coghlans, one of whom was Art, son of the above-named Cormac. 







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This Art, in 1548, was appointed sole chief of his sept by the English ; 
the date of his death is not on record, but he was still alive in 1554. 

Art's successor, as chief of Delvin-MacCoghlan, was his son Shane, 
or John, who was knighted by the Lord Deputy in 1570. 

To fact p. 2251 



Sir John MacCoghlan appears to have been twice married, as is 
suggested in the folio wing curious and scanty extract from the Calendar 
of State Papers of Ireland, dated the 22nd December, 1588 : 

Gerald McCoghlan in a letter to Sir John " Gilford," alias 
McCoghlan in Delvin, claims him as his father. Threatens Teige 
and Hugh Daley (? Dallaghan). Has obtained the Pope's pardon 
for him. Urges him to put away Daley's (? Dallaghan's) sister, and 
take back O'Molloy's daughter for his wife. 1 

From this it would appear that Sir John had repudiated his first wife, 
O'Molloy's daughter, possibly the "Lady TJnina" mentioned in his will 
quoted further on; and married secondly " Sabina inghi Dalachan" 
(i.e. Soyv or Sabia 0' Dallaghan), the mother of his son and heir 
Shane " oge," or John the younger. The writer of the letter, Gerald, 
judging by the way he advocated the cause of O'Molloy's daughter, 
must have been a son of hers. 

At some period after he had been knighted, an event which occurred 
in 1570, and during the time that Sabia O'Dallaghan was his wife, he 
erected a castle, and inserted in it a mural tablet bearing the following 
inscription in small raised Roman capital letters, the words being divided 
by a perpendicular line : 


There is no more of the inscription on the slab; the stone is badly 
damaged on the right-hand side, and the letters in brackets have been 
restored from a reading by the late Rev. Denis Murphy, s.j., which 
appeared on p. 380, vol. i, of the "Journal of the Association for the 
Preservation of the Memorials of the Dead, Ireland." A translation of 
the Latin would convey that : 

This tower (or castle) was built by the energy of Sir John 
MacCoghlan, Kt., chief of his sept, at the proper cost of Sabia 
O'Dallaghan, on the condition that she should have it for her life- 
time, and afterwards each of her sons according to their seniority, 
with her . 

1 Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, 1588-92, p. 89. 


This slab was removed many years ago, and taken by one of the 
Lawrence family to his residence across the Shannon at Belview 
(formerly Lisreaghan) near Lawrencetown, nine miles from Banagher, 
and in the County Galway, where it still remains inside the house near 
the back door. Unfortunately it is not known from which of the 
MacCoghlan castles it was taken, but in all probability it came either 
from Garrycastle, the ruins of which stand less than a mile to the south 
of Banagher ; or else from the castle of Coole in the parish of Wheery, 
nine miles as the crow flies to the north-east of Banagher, which is 
mentioned in Sir John's will as being left to his wife for her life (the will 
is quoted in full at the end of these notes). According to a King's County 
Exchequer Inquisition, 1 Sir John MacCoghlan surrendered his possessions 
in Delvinto the Crown on the 24th of August, 1581, and received a re- 
grant of them to be now held by knight's service, to him and his heirs, 
by Letters Patent, dated the 31st August, 1582 ; at the same time, 
instead of being styled " Chief Captain of his Nation," he was appointed 
to the office of Seneschal of Delvin-MacCoghlan, a post to be inherited 
by his son Garrett and his heirs, with remainder to his other son, John 
junior, and his heirs. 

At this period, Sir John MacCoghlan was in possession of the under- 
named castles, towns, and lands : 

Cloghan, alias Cloghanegappagh ; Cregan and Kappagh ; Killreske 
or Kilbresk, Dryshoke, Ballinlaghan, Killineboy, Corcallingay and 
Coulreogh, Feyrbane, Knogouse, Garryrosse, Glencorlakensie, 
Rathmagherybane, Fyfadda, Clonin-Hughe, Ballenkyllin, Cowill- 
na-torchan in Clonifenloge, Cowle Raghra, and Garry-in-Caslan 
(Garrycastle), "ad regia via vocata Ballach-anoer," all of which 
were held from the Queen, and lay in the territory of Delvin- 
McCoghlan, in that county called " le King's County." 3 

Several of these place-names do not now appear as townland names on, 
the 6 -inch Ordnance Survey Maps. 

Sir John had a castle at Cloghan, parish of Gallen, of which there is 
now no trace. There is another Cloghan Castle, still inhabited, in the 
barony of Garrycastle ; but, being situated in the parish of Lusmagh, it 
belonged to the 0' Maddens of Silanchia, as mentioned above. 

Sir John's other castles were Garrycastle 3 , near Banagher, called by 
the Annalists, " Garrdha an chaisleain " and also " Caislean an Fhothair";. 

1 No. 39 of Elizabeth. 

2 Ibidem. 

3 In the southern portion of the townland of Garrycastle there is an old burial- 
ground, and a group of wells close to it viz., " All Saints' Well," "Our Lady's 
Well," "the Head and the Eye Wells." Patterns were formerly held here on. 
St. Peter and St. Paul's Day (29th June), and on Garland Sunday i.e., the last 
Sunday in July. 

To face p. 227.] 


00 ,0 

* s 


and Coole Castle, 6 miles to the north-east of Cloghan. The Annals of 
the Four Masters mentions Cloghan Castle in the year 1548, and that of 
Garry castle in 1517. 

A tomb-slab lies in the ruined chancel of the church in the town of 
Banagher, and, judging by the inscription on it, it was ordered to be 
made by Sir John during his lifetime, i.e., between the years 1576 and 

This slab, in its present condition, measures 5 feet 3 inches in length ; 
a few inches are evenly broken off at the lower end. In width it is wider 
at the top than at the foot ; allowing for a portion that is fractured off at 
the right top corner, it was 25 inches across at the top and 21 inches at 
the foot. An eight-armed cross of an ornamental character occupies the 
centre of the slab. There are the remains of inscriptions in two lines at 
the top end and at the two sides ; though some letters are missing at the 
ends of the two outer side-lines, the lower end possibly bore no inscription, 
as the reading of it, as it is, makes sense. 

At the top end there was a word commencing with BE, for which 
Resurgam has been suggested. Below it there are an H * and an s ; then 
comes the break in the slab. Mr. J. K. Garstin, in the work already 
referred to, 1 gives the following reading of the inscription, which is 
curiously abbreviated, particularly the co for COGHLAN : 


H (= hie) S[EPVLTVS] 



ET AN ' ELIZAS ' REG ' 1 9 * ET 


Except where there are diamond-shaped stops, the words are separated by 
jagged perpendicular strokes, as shown in the illustration. 
The translation of the Latin is : 

I will rise again. Here lies buried Sir John [MacJCoghlan, K*., 
formerly Chief of his Sept, who caused this tomb to be made, and 
in the 19th year of Queen Elizabeth's reign (i.e., 1576), and in the 
year of the suppression of the taxes of (?) Imaileac. . . . 

The word IMAILEAC .... is very puzzling, as there is no such place-name 
in the barony of Garrycastle, nor is it in the name of a tax. 

Before service was discontinued here (the new Protestant church was 
built in 1829), this MacCoghlan slab must have lain under the flooring 
of the church. 

1 Journal of the Association for the Preservation of the Memorials of the Dead 
Ireland, vol. ii, p. 158. 

Tour K S A T J Vol> ni > Sixth Series. 
Jour. K.b.A.I. ( Vol xuiij Consec S 


Sir John's will 1 is in Latin, and dated the 10th July 1590 ; his death 
took place on the 1 8th July, in the same year. 2 The Annals of the Four 
Masters thus records the event : 

1590. MacCoghlan, John, the son of Art, son of Cormac, died. 
There was not a man of his (extent of) property, of the race of 
Cormac Gas, who had better furnished or more commodious courts, 
castles, 3 and comfortable seats, than this John. His son John Oge 
was appointed in his place. 

As far as can be ascertained, Sir John had several children ; by his 
first wife, (?) Unina O'Molloy, may have been his sons Gerald, referred 
to before (who was alive in 1588), Teige, and Art; the last two are 
mentioned in the Fiant of Elizabeth, No. 1580. 

By his wife Sabia O'Dallaghan he had; 

I. GAUKKTT, whose death is thus referred to in the Annals of the 

Four Masters, under the year 1583 : "The son of MacCoghlun, 
Garrett, the son of John, the son of Art, the son of Cormac, an 
intellectual youth, was, on his first assumption of chivalry, slain 
by the sou of O'Kenuedy Fin, 4 namely, by Murrough, the son 
of Brian, the son of Douncll, the son of Donough." 

Thus Garrett's death took place seven years before that of his 
father. He died without male issue, and so his younger brother, 
John, became his father's heir. 

II. JOHN, or SHANE OGE, of Cloghan and Garrycastle, was knighted 
by the Earl of Essex in 1599. His death took place on the 
16th July, 1633. By his wife " Mary Coghlun " he had issue : 

I. GARKETT, who also died during the lifetime of his father, 
on the 17th April, 1629, and was buried at Cloninac- 
nois. In 1613 he had married Honora, daughter of 
Sir William Burke, Kt., of Kilcooley, in the county 
Tipperary, by whom he had issue : 

1. JOHN MACCOGHLAN of Cloghan and Garrycastle, 

who, for rebellion on the 8th December, 1641, at 
New town, in the parish of Lusinagh, was out- 
lawed, and his estates forfeited to the Lord 
Protector (Inquisition). 

2. GAKHETT MACCOGHLAN, and five daughters : 

Honora, Mary, Joan, Margaret, and Hose 
(Funeral Entry). 

1 A Prerogative Will in the Dublin Record Office. 

2 King's County Exchequer Inquisition, No. 39 of Eli/abeth. 

3 On the map of the barony of Garrycastle, on p. 222, all the known MacCoghlau 
castles are marked down. 

4 The O'Kennudy sept occupied the barony of Onnond, in the county Tipperary. 


II. JOHN, who married Elenor, daughter of Edmond 
Berminghara, of Bally vollan, county West Meath, a 
branch of the Berminghams of Rahinelly, in the 
county Kildare. 

I. ROSE, the wife of Myles Bermingham, son of Edmond of 
Ballyvollan, mentioned above. 

Of Sir John MacCoghlan's daughters, whether by (?) Unina O'Molloy 
or Sabia O'Dallaghan, the names of three only are known, viz. : 

o T) I Both mentioned in their father's will. 

3. SHYLY, who married Calvagh mac William "ower" (the pale) 
O'Carroll, otherwise Sir Charles O'Carroll, Kt., Chief of 
Ely-0' Carroll, who was slain by the O'Meaghers in 1600. 


In the name of God. Amen. To all who may inspect the present 
letters, the parish priest (curatus parochialis] of Fuire 2 sends greeting in 
the Lord. We make known that in our presence, and that of the 
witnesses underwritten, for this specially called and asked, having been 
therefor personally appointed, the honourable man, Sir John Cochlan, 
knight, my lord and parishioner, lying on his bed of sickness, infirm of 
body, but sound of mind, realizing and considering that the life of man 
on earth is short, that nothing is more certain than death, and nothing 
however more uncertain than the hour thereof, desiring to provide for 
the health of his soul, and to attain to the joys of eternal happiness, 
made and disposed his last will and testament in manner and form 

First, he recommended his soul to the Most High God his Creator, 
when it should depart from the body, and his body to the worms of the 
arth, wishing it to be buried in the church of the Blessed Mary of 
Ranach. 3 

Next he willed and ordained that all his debts should be paid in due 
form and restored to the persons to whom they should be due. 

Item, the said testator, of the goods so conferred on him, bequeathed 
for the benefit of his soul to the church of Cluain m Nois, a cow. Item 
to John, son of Hugh (loanni filio Hugonis) for a Mass-offering 

l The original of this will is in Latin ; a copy of it, with a translation, were made 
for me^by Mr. Thomas Morrissey, of the Dublin Record Office. 

2 Now written Wheery, a parish in the barony of Garrycastle. 

3 Now the churchyard in the town of Banagher, parish of Reynagh. 



(sacrificio), a cow. Item, to the churches of Galine, Fuire, Techsaran, 
and Ranach, he bequeathed two cows. Item, to the church of 
Liamanachan, a cow in calf. 

Item, he bequeathed to Margaret, daughter of Donnell (or Mac- 
Donnell, " Margarete Donaldi") four large and four small cows. 

Item, he said that Solomon MacEgan (Salamonem McAodhagain) 
should not be disturbed as long as he lived in the half -quarter of 
Guile, 1 so to him thus left by his (MacCoghlan's) father, Art. Item, 
he left the castle and the remaining part of the same town to the lady 
his wife as long as she should live unmarried ; and if she should 
marry again, the same to be restored to John Cochlan, son of Sabia 
O'Dallaghan (Sabina inghi Dalachan) as is just and according to the 
tenor of the intention of the feoffment of all the other fees. 

Item, he formerly gave to the said John all his untrained farm-horses 
(caballos), horses, dishes, hauberks, pots, and all arms, and all flagons 
and vessels, and other utensils made of pewter, and the large pan which 
he lately had of the inheritance of his mother, which gift he now 
confirmed ; but, however, he said that two horses were to be given to 
the lady Unina, viz. : the black palfrey and the brown. 

Item, he said that whatever further movable goods, corn, chattels, 
and furniture he had, should be divided into three equal parts, and one 
part to be given to the lady his wife, another to his daughters Parosina 
and Dorenna, and the third to his son Jojm before named; with six 
silver vessels which are called in English " tonna," and two cups bought 
and made in his own name, which eight vessels are not reckoned in the 

Item, he said that the fruits of the four quarters of the tithes which 
he lately had to farm for five years, were to be divided, and a third part 
given to the said lady (? TJnina), and the remaining parts to the said 
John and his mother, and this with their accustomed charges ; and to 
hold all and singular the premises, the said testator nominated as his 
executors Patrick Hogan, Archdeacon of Killaloe, John Cochlan, son of 
Sabia Dalachan, and Hugh Daly, to which executors for the fulfilling 
of all and singular the premises, the said testator bound all his goods 
whatsoever and wheresoever, revoking all other wills if any there are 
otherwise by him made, wishing this his will to obtain the strength of 
validity in the best way, manner, and form, in which it can and ought to 

In witness whereof, I, Cormac Dalachan, the before-named rector (of 
Euire), have placed my sign manual to this present will. These things 
were done in the house of Solomon MacEgan, in the town of Cuil, in 
the year of our Lord, 1590, and on the 10th day of July. 

CORMAC DALACHAN, Rector (Paroehus), witness. 
1 Coole, containing a castle in the parish of Wheery. 


These witnesses written below were present at the time of the making 
of this will : 

JOHN O'DoNis, priest, is a witness. 


I, SOL (unfinished). 1 

Proved, &c., by the oath of Hugh O'Daly, one of the executors, &c., 
and the burden of the execution of the will was committed to John, 
son of the said John MacCoghlan, saving the right of all persons 

1 The last three signatures are in Irish characters. 

[The illustrations in this paper have been supplied by the Author.] 

( 232 ) 


[Continued from vol. XLI, p. 367.] 

[Read 25 FEBRUARY 1913] 

rPnE extreme richness of the north-west angle of the County Clare in 
prehistoric 1 remains rendered an attempted survey far longer and 
more difficult than one could have foreseen when, in 1895, I laid the 
first of this series of papers before the Society. We have now reached 
the eleventh of the series ; with one more paper I hope to close it, com- 
pleted, at least as regards all structures of any importance. Begun in 
May 1878, and continued (at first at long intervals, 1883, 1885, and 1887), 
I have, from 1892, striven to work over the district as methodically as 
possible ; but no worker can have been so many years as even from 1892 
without modifying and widening his views. Structures, only briefly 
noticed in the earlier sections, seemed to be of greater importance as the 
value of their lessons was better appreciated. Trying to revisit in later 
times the chief remains, new facts stood revealed. So perilous and 
difficult were the fissured and often overgrown crags, that I had at first 
turned aside from sections of the county which later experience led me 
at all risks to examine. From these causes 1 soon found that a perfectly 
methodical design was sacrificed. Completeness of description, however, 
is of far greater importance, and the table giving the forts and dolmens 
under each parish in their natural sequence (with which I purpose 
to conclude the work) should compensate for the broken design, and 
bring together all references in the series of papers. 

It became plain, even before the first part was published, that, instead 
of merely describing some eight or ten of the chief forts, a survey was 
needed. 2 Though this detailed task called for far longer and more severe 

1 I (as usual) apply the term "prehistoric" to any early but unrecorded period, 
even if within the limits of history in general. 

2 The earlier notes relate to Eastern Clare. Magh Adhair, vol. xxi, pp. 462-3 ; 
Killaloe, xxiii, p. 191 ; Moghane, Langough, &c., xxiii, p. 281 ; and Cuherc-alla, 
xxvi, p. 150. The survey of the foils of the other parts of the county may he found 
the eastern half in Proc. R. I. Acad., Sec. C, vol. xxvi, p. 217 (Newmarket and 
Tradree), p. 376; (Quin., Tulla, Bodyke), vol. xxix, p. 186; (Killaloe) South-west 
Clare, vol. xxxii, p. 58; (Bioadford to Clooriey), Journal, xxxviii, pp. 28, 221,344; 
xxxix, p. 113; xli, p. 117. Many are briefly described, with plans, in "The Cahers 
of Co. Clare," Proc. R. 1. Acad., vi, Ser. HI, p. 415. 


work, and for more patience in students of its results, no one can question 
(however my personal work may have fallen short of my ideal) that this, 
and not merely records of exceptional remains, could alone be valuable 
to scientific workers. After Mr. Borlase's book, " The Dolmens of 
Ireland," appeared, the notes (which I had previously sent to him as 
soon as I examined any such monument) were included along with the 
forts. jS"o one realizing the swift destruction falling on Irish field 
antiquities will grudge the publication of such notes ; but the subject is 
neither popular nor fame-winning, and, to those who are interested only 
in history or elaborate architecture, must always be distasteful. Scholars 
both of our islands and the Continent, however, have already formed a 
different judgment. 1 

To those who wish to follow it on the field, great are the fascination 
and interest; for the wildernesses blossom with flowers and ferns; and 
the dainty colouring of the rock-ledges and their shadows, the lovely 
outlooks to distant hills and out on the sen, the ivied cliffs, the spray 
of the waterfalls, the loneliness, and the strange weird sounds on 
the uplands, have a vast and lasting charm. ]S"o one fully realizes how 
he loves the strange hills, glens, and plateaux till, after absence, he feels 
the joy of returning to them again, no matter how often this may recur. 

The types of remains may be briefly enumerated as : (1) promontory 
forts on inland spurs; (2) simple ring-walls or ring-mounds; (3) ring- 
mounds of more complex character, with more than one girding wall; two, 
as at Glenquin anil Tullycommaun, or three, as at Cahercommaun ; (4) the 
more or less rectangular " mothair " ; (5) the hitherto inexplicable parallel 
earthworks, as at Ardnagowell ; (6) ring- walls for worship or sepulture, 
like that around the dolmen of Creevagh and those at Ballyganner. Of 
other remains : (7) pillars, which are few ; (8) simple tapering cists, 
usually in a mound, or cairn, the mound rarely higher than to the bottom 
of the cover; (9) anomalous monuments, like the pillared dolmen of 
Ballyganner or the enclosure of slabs round the cist of Iskancullin 
(10) earns and tumuli, often with cists and kerb blocks, sometimes 
mere memorial earns; (11) tumuli within an earth- ring (like Lislard 
and the Mote), or earns within a stone ring-wall; (12) avenues, formed 
by removing the surface layer of the crags; (13) huts, which are 
usually badly preserved, but which were beehive structures, sometimes 
of several cells ; (14) souterrains, usually simple, straight, curved, 
or L or T-shaped, in plan. Barely do side cells occur. The nearest 
approach to a fort with a raised platform is the rock- cut fort of 
Doon. One fort, Ballykinvarga, has a remarkable abattis. 2 Alignments 

1 It is satisfactory to note the valuable work done by Mr. H. T. Knox in the 
Journal, vol. xli, pp. 93, 205, 302, and by Dr. Costello and Mr. E. W. L. Holt in the 
Galway Archaeological and Historical Society (vols. ii, p. 105, and vii, p. 205) on the 
forts of Connacht. 

2 See infra, p. 260. 


and large circles of stones are unknown in the district. None of the 
complex (and therefore possibly later) gateways with side cells and loop- 
holes exist ; all are simple passages, with a lintelled outer gate, and, as a 
rule, coursed jambs, far more rarely with stone posts. The steps are 
equally simple, in Clare, usually running straight up to the terrace, or 
from it to the wall; a few examples of sidelong steps occur, as at 
Cahergrillaun and Cahernahoagh. There is rarely a second terrace. The 
wall is sometimes built in sections, like the Aran forts. The masonry of 
the stronger and probably older forts is very perfect, with beautiful curve 
and batter ; cells never occur in the walls. 

The district originally intended to be worked (as may be seen in the 
second section of this survey) covered the Barony of Burren, or East 
Corca Modruadh, along with the craglands adjoining it in the parishes of 
Killilagh and Kilfenora, the parishes of Kilnaboy and Ruan in Inchiquin, 
and a portion of Dysert and Rath. The present section completes the 
Inchiquin portion, and I hope to complete the Corcomroes in the closing 
paper. There are, roughly speaking, 280 forts in these parishes in 
Kilnaboy about 90, in Ruan over 100, in Rath 30, in Dysert O'Dea over 
40, in Kilnamona 20. 


Twice in the Cathreim Thoirdhealbhaigh we read of "Ruan of the 
grass-grown hollow uamhadha" ; the latter word, locally pronounced Ooan, 
is used indiscriminately for a cathair or a souterrain. The first notice 
creates a difficulty, and may be a heedless slip of memory ; but the last, 
in May, 1318, undoubtedly refers to this district. Here Sir Richard 
de Clare camped for the night before the fatal Battle of the Ford before 
Dysert O'Dea. The epithet is most appropriate, for Ruan abounds in 
ring-forts ; to attempt a complete survey might add rather to the length 
than to the value of my survey, so I will only select a couple of impor- 
tant groups, and a few other examples. The Liss names are numerous : 
Lisnabulloge. Lisbeg, Lisduff, Lisheenvicknaheeha ; the fort to the 
north of the last is locally Lisheenahuckera j 1 Lisnavooauu, Lisronalta, 
Lisinuinga, Lissyline, and Liscarhuanaglasha (Carhuanalashee alias 
Cahernamart in 1666). To complete the Liss names known to me in 
the adjoining parishes I give Lisduff, Lisvetty, and Lisheenaboughil 
in Kilnaboy, and Lissyogan and Liscullaan in Rath. No such names 
occur in the parishes of Kilkeedy, Kilnamona, and Dysert so far as I am 

DROMOEE AND RUAN (O.S. 25). Three low earthen forts of no great 
size, and planted with hawthorns, lie to the east of the road from 
Teemea to Ruan. 

1 I believe my informant referred to the northern fort and not to " Lisheenvick- 
naheeha." It isLisin an chrochaire (little fort of the hangman), telling a grim story 
of some forgotten execution. 


LISHEENVICZNAHEEHA, "the little fort of the son of the night," is 
the most southern of these. This weird name may after all be simply 
derived from some former occupant, for the name, Mac na haidche, appears 
in our Annals from 1104 to 1281. I have not found it in later records, 
a fact which favours some age for the liss. The form (if correct) seems 
akin to the name Cahervicknea in this district about 1650. It is a very 
low little earthen fort studded with hawthorn bushes. 

CAHEKMACREA (O.S. 17). This once fine cathair 1 is most probably 
the Cahervicknea of the Down Survey and other documents of the mid- 
seventeenth century : r and n are interchangeable in local phonetics, as 
Croch and Knock, Cahermacrole and Cahermacnole. 2 The maps affix 
the modern name to a large oval ring of tumbled mossy stones in a 


thicket ; the ring measures roughly 300 feet east and west, by 250 feet 
north and south, and (from the small amount of material anywhere 
remaining, the absence of facing and the lack of internal foundations) 
was probably an unusually large bawn, or cattle pen, against wolves. 
So far as I can find, no one attaches the name to it at present. 

The ring- wall, now called Cahermacrea, is I believe entitled to the 
name. It was an important, massive cathair of excellent masonry, 
carefully fitted, and of large blocks. The wall is 7 feet high for a 
long reach, the batter is usually from 1 in 7 to 1 in 12 ; its facing is 
inferior to the east, but gets better at the north-east, at which point 
are several upright joints, as at Cahercloggaun and "Caherbeg" on 
Knockauns mountain. Some of the facing blocks are 19 inches by 
1 1 inches by 16 inches up to 36 inches by 12 inches by 16 inches. The wall 
is about 9 feet thick with large filling, but the inner facing was of small 
blocks and, as so usually, has collapsed. The garth is 1 10 feet across ; the 
fort being about 130 feet over all, and, being thickly planted, all traces 

1 Noted iu the Journal, vol. xxvi, p. 368. 

2 The Cahermacirrilu of the 0. S. maps. 


of house-sites nre gone. Parts of the outer wall have been rebuilt to- 
protect the trees, and all trace of the gateway seems removed. 

LIS.IVOOAN or CAHERMORE, beside the road leading southward to 
Adclroon (the site of a very curious dolmen formed of high pillar slabs), 1 
is a thickly overgrown and nearly levelled stone-faced earthwork. It 
has a fosse 12 feet wide and only a few feet deep, and slight rings 
almost obliterated to the north. There is a straight souterrain in the 
garth in a thicket of hazels; it lies north-west and south-east, the walls 
being of small masonry roofed with shapeless surface slabs. It is nearly 
filled up. The road has cut into the rings along the south segment. 
A small defaced fort, LISBKG, lies west from it, and to the north at the 
cross-road is Kilranaghan, a large levelled ring 200 feet across. 

LISSTLINE, north from Ruan, is a very low earthwork, somewhat oval, 
250 feet north-west and south-east by 230 feet, with a shallow fosse, the 
mounds regularly set with hawthorns. To the south-west is a defaced 
normal lisa called LISHEENAMTJDDAGH, a low fort with a bank and fosse ;. 
its diameter is about 110 feet over the bank. 

POHTLECKA (0. S. 25). On the grassy ridge south from the village 
and ruined church of Kuan is a cathair commanding an extensive view 
to the Glasgeivnagh Hill round by Callan to Aughty and Slieve Bernagh, 
the ramparts of the eastern plain of County Clare. The ring was stone- 
faced, and is now rarely over 4 feet high, consisting chiefly of heaps of 
field stones with foundations of the outer facing of large blocks and more 
rarely traces of the inner face. This wall was from 15 to 18 feet thick, 
and enclosed a garth 183 feet east and west, 177 feet north and south, 
and 217 feet over all. It is strange that this evidently very important 
fort is nameless. The garth is levelled inside, being raised like a terrace 
5 feet over the field to the south-east and lowered a couple of feet to the 
north. There was an inner house-circle, the wall 9 feet thick, and still 
over 3 feet high, extending for about 114 feet in the south-west segment. 
Another defaced enclosure lies beyond it to the north-west of the garth. 
In the centre of the fort is a souterrain of some interest. It is L-shaped 
in plan, the longer limb lying north-west to south-east. The southern 
entrance is 2 feet by 3 feet wide ; the passage 17 feet 8 inches long and 
4 feet 6 inches wide ; at 8 feet it narrows to 15 feet 3 inches from the ope: 
this narrow passage being 2 feet 3 inches to 2 feet 10 inches wide. In 
the right (north-east) side is a recess 18 inches square, which, like a 
shallower recess opposite, was evidently for a doorpost. This is, I think, 
the only case I have found in this barony, though there are set stones 
perhaps for beam. sockets in other souterrains. The passage turns at right 

1 Proc. It. I. Acad., vol. iv, Ser. in, Plate IX, No. 4, and p. olo. 


angles to the south-west, being 5 feet 5 inches high at the turn. The 
next wing is 16 feet 6 inches long : the side walls are as usual of small 
masonry, with no cornice ledge such as we find at Mortyclough and 
Ballyganner. The souterrain is roofed with large slabs of limestone. 
There are two large slabs and four lintels over the outer passage, and 
seven over the inner ; at two places are carefully arranged little openings, 
evidently shafts for air and light. 1 

Three entirely defaced ring- walls lie between this fort and Dromore 
Lake in the townland of Portlecka, and another lies in NOOAN. This 
townland is interesting both as recalling the " grass-grown uamhadha " 
of history by its name, and as having been once rich in early remains, 
now miserably defaced. Of three other forts, one has the stone facing of 


a. Sockets- 
b-C- Section 
A- Air-Kok- 


good masonry intact to the south-west, the rest nearly all removed by 
road-makers. The souterrain lies in the open field between the two 
eastern forts, and is nearly stopped up ; its entrance has a large lintel 
8 feet 10 inches long, 3 feet wide, and 1 foot 7 inches thick. There is 
no trace of any enclosure round it. 

CAHERNANOORANE. This is a much-injured little ring-wall on a rising 
ground on the border of Ballymacrogan West. It is said to derive its 
name from the fairy songs heard in it. 

TEMPLENARAHA. Below the last (in 1897) I found a very interesting 
though defaced ruin; a little oratory in a large ring-wall. The latter was 

*For ventilating shafts see Lubboek's Prehistoric Times (5th ed.), p. 121. 
They occur in several Irish forts, e.g. Ardfinnan Rath. 


151 feet across the garth, the wall of large blocks was. overturned, and 
only in a few places was the well-laid facing visible, rarely 3 to 4 feet 
high. At 87 feet from the eastern curve lay the remains of a little 
oratoiy, the "Temple of the Rath": it was of fine "cyclopean" 
masonry, beautifully fitted together, and was 24 feet long by 16 feet 
10 inches wide over all, the walls being 3 feet thick. The west door had 
inclined jambs formed of large slabs running through the wall ; no part 
was much over 4 feet high, nor did any other feature remain. A 
neighbouring farmer had so little regard for antiquity or respect for 
church remains that he removed the ruin altogether in February 1906; 
poetic justice overtook him, as the calf-shed he built of the material 
collapsed, killing the animals in it not long afterwards. Strange to say, 
in Tooreen, not very far away, another outrage on our antiquities was 
avenged on the perpetrator. A man blew up a dolmen to clear his land, 
and in the explosion he was struck on his right hand by a splinter of 
stone, and was long crippled. A hope is left that such incidents may get 
known and discourage such sordid, unpatriotic destruction of our early 
remains, a blot on the present inhabitants of Clare and elsewhere. I 
have noted and given a plan of the wrecked dolmen in the Proceedings 
of the Royal Irish Academy. 1 Four small stones (one to the west and 
three to the east) remain, and part of the cover, one of the eastern stones 
being rather ajlow pillar, 4 feet 6 inches high. 

CAHERLOUGH GKOUP (0. S. 17). This portion of the district lies 
between Kuan, Monanagh Lake (the Lough Cullaun of the maps), and 
Lough George. I can find no ancient name for these lakes. Near Kells 
(Cealla) on a low green ridge opposite Ballyportrea Castle, lies a large 
and, as usual, very low liss with a fosse, measuring about 250 feet over 
all, with two low rings; in its ambit lies the bossed stone cross described 
by Dr. G. U. MacNamara in these pages. 2 It is between Lough Cullaun 
and the lesser lakes of Knockaundoo and Toole's Lough, and commands 
the approach from the ancient ford of Corravickburrin (Cora mhic 
Dhaboirean) at Kells Bridge. 3 The fort is about 200 feet across ; inside 
the fosse is a souterrain, to the east side an oblong foundation and the 
venerated hawthorn called Sceach an bheannuighthe. The early church 
of Templemore or " Moor " probably stood in a fort, as there is a 
souterrain near the graveyard, but I did not see any ring on either of 
my visits. It and a legendary church site at St. Catherine's gave the 
name Cealla " churches," now " Kells." The St. Catherine's site is now 
an orchard, and, strange to say, O'Daly's biting satire in the early seven- 
teenth century (A.D. 1617) lampoons the people of Cealla for " digging 

1 Proc. S. I. Acad., vol. xxvi, p. 465, plate xxv. See also Journal xxxv, p. 212. 

2 Journal, vol. xxx, p. 32. 

3 See Cathreim Thoirdhealbhaigh in 1317. Near it were " Bescnate's streaming 


in the churchyard in the snow." Burials have been found deep below 
the surface. 

The old bed of the Fergus is now dry, but is still crossed by TCells 
Bridge over water-fretted sheets of rock, the fissures of which perhaps 
contain valuable antiquities. Dr. MacNamara found from a very old 
woman (who did not survive very long afterwards) that this old ford was 
named Corravickburren. This identifies it with an important ford of the 
Fergus, crossed by the army of Prince Deriuot O'Brien, in 1317, on his 
way to the battle at Corcomroe Abbey ; it was then called Cora mhic 
Dhaboirean or MacDavoren's weir. South of the river bed and of Kells 
rises a long rough ridge of crag sheeted with dense hazels and thorns 
largely in the townland of Caherlough. It lies about a mile from the 
townland of Tullyodea and the fort of Liscarhoonaglasha or Cahernamart. 

I think it probable that here and not at Tully the fierce little battle 
of Tulach (?Ui Deadhaid) was fought in 1313, when Prince Murchad 
O'Brien led his first attack on his opponents of the house of Brian Ruadh. 
He was aided by the 'Kelly s of Aidhne, some of the Burkes, 0' Maddens, 
Comyns, O'Loughlins, and Macraith O'Dea, with the men of Cineal 
Fermaic. O'Shanny brought them news that their opponents had 
mustered on Tulach's slopes to the southward with the clan Mahon 
O'Brien, the O'Gradys, and the Ui Bloid of eastern Clare. The foe saw 
Murchad's banners on the mountain moor, and soon he was leading his 
forces under a shower of missiles up "a steep-cut, rough, and seamy" hill 
" steep hillside," " a projecting bluff," 1 and with difficulty he got foot- 
hold on the table-land on top, and after a fierce, bloody fight drove the 
enemy down into the wooded country ; few could have escaped but that 
night fell, and Murchad's force could not pursue through " the close and 
rugged country." "With the morning the Prince proceeded to take 
pledges from Corcavaskin in the south-west of the County Clare, and soon 
had driven out the sons of Prince Domnall and Mahon O'Brien, who fled 
to Richard de Clare at Bunratty Castle. The battle certainly did not 
take place on the ridge of Tully, a grassy, gently rising, broad-topped 
hillock. It was fought up a " steep, rough, and seamed ridge," on top of 
which there was hardly room to fight for the short space during which 
the issue hung doubtful. It commanded the approach from the important 
pass of Bealach Fhiodhail or llockforest. All of these facts suit the 
Caherlough ridge ; the only difficulty lies in the name, Tulach) and the 
titles of battlefields are notoriously artificial. The ridge is most difficult 
to examine between the often impenetrable thickets and the dangerous 

1 No similar feature is found at or near the other Tulachs, Tulaeh na nEaspog in 
East Clare or Tulach ui Chuirc near Kilfenora; while Tully comniaun seems off the 
track, and has no narrow ridge on top, though, as Mahon fled to Inchiquin, and the 
Kinel Fermaic came in to Murchad and went with him to Corcavaskin^ the site is not 
impossible. But the question is at present uncertain. 


fissures of the rock beneath, which is practically earthless. It has a 
-curious group of late-looking forts which I purpose examining. 

The first of the group lies just within the townland of Rinneen, 
divided by the side road from the end of Caherlough on its eastern edge. 
CAHER-RINNEEN is a nearly levelled but interesting ruin. The wall is 
from 10 feet to 11 feet 4 inches thick, the garth 73 feet across north- 
east and south-west along the axis of the souterrain. The " Ooan " 
(uamha) is 6 feet 4 inches from the wall at the south-west, and is T-shaped 
on plan ; the longer limb is 20 feet long and 4 feet 3 inches wide, its 
southern end is roofed with large limestone slabs for 12 feet. The cross- 
wing at the northern end is 13 feet 6 inches long and 4 feet 2 inches 
wide ; only three of its lintels remain. It is 42 feet from the wall. North 
from the end is a trace of a hut-enclosure adjoining the rampart. 

LISNAVULLOGE. This lies due east from the last in Caherlough, a stone 
fort planted with hawthorns, and quite overthrown. Going up the lane as 
far as Thornville we pass two nearly levelled rings, and climb up the 
difficult crags to the north-east of the house. CAHEKNAVILLARE lies on the 
summit ; it is 63 feet over all, the stones so spread that its thickness 
cannot be measured. At 300 yards to its north-east lies CAHEUEEN in a 
nearly impassable thicket ; when I found it the fort was buried in bracken 
6 feet high; the garth is 57 feet across the wall, as usual a tumbled ring 
of mossy stones. At 800 feet to the south-east lies CAHERLODGH, almost 
exactly 1000 feet due east from Cahernavillare, and about 200 feet from 
Caherlough. Between the last two, but close to the last, is another small 
house ring of mossed blocks, barely 60 feet over all. The modern wall 
(apparently so unnecessary in this wilderness) curves round upon the old 

CAHEELOUGH. The chief fort is about 95 feet across, thickly overgrown, 
on a most dangerous fissured crag. The wall has large facing, well set, 
with a slight batter of about 1 in 10 and about 9 feet thick. The fort 
has a large, but evidently later, annexe to the east; it is 114 feet across 
inside. The wall is built of large, coarse blocks, and is only 6 feet thick 
and 5 feet high, without filling (a late indication), on the bare ribbed 
crags. Inside, near the south, is a house-enclosure of large, rough blocks. 

To the south-east is another far smaller cathair, also with a side 
enclosure. The former has a wall of coarse, large blocks with no batter, 
5 feet high and 7 feet 6 inches thick. There are two hut-sites in the 
garth, which is 93 feet to 95 feet across, also a rock-cutting (probably 
once roofed to form a souterrain). It has a lining wall, and lies east- 
south-east, and west-north-west, being partly buried in debris. The 
fort-wall embodies several large blocks, which evidently lay on the 
-crag before it was built. The annexe (unlike that at Caherlough) is 
carefully bonded into the fort ; it is 6 feet thick with a little filling, and 


it is evidently contemporary with the fort. The rough garth is 60 feet 
across north and south, and 75 feet east and west. 

Another slight ring-wall, nearly levelled, lies some 700 feet northward 
from the last. Over the north edge of the townland, beyond the road 
from Teernea Cross to Kuan, and in Teernea, was a curious fort, 8-shaped 
in plan, of two equal rings, and excellent masonry with two faces and 
filling. It seems to have been built in one piece : the wall is usually 
4 feet to 4 feet 6 inches high ; so thick are the sloes and hazels 
everywhere (inside and outside) up to the wall, that I could not get 
any cross-measurements. 

North from it, in an open field, is the last cathair of the group, also 
in Teernea. It is 102 feet wide iuside, the wall 6 feet thick to the west, 
where it is only 3 feet high and 10 feet thick, and over 4 feet high to 
the east. The north and north-west parts are levelled to the foundations, 
which are of large blocks. 1 Of the other fort-names in lluan, I note 
Rathcahaun, "Rathvergin, Lisronalta, Lisbeg, Lisnavooan, Lisduff, 
Lismurnga, Lissyline, Doonanoge, and Ooankeagh. 



CAHEKCLANCY. I examined three stone forts in this townland. The 
actual Caherclancy is greatly defaced, a laneway runs through it, and 

1 One of the Teernea cathairs is called, in 1655, Caher Tirnavoghter in the Book of 


the road to Ballygriffy Castle has encroached upon its base. Much of 
the wall of large blocks, with a slight batter, and about 5 feet to 5 feet 
6 inches high, remains, but calls for no remark. 

The other forts lie south of the road; passing across the thyme- 
tufted crags, we see on a low knoll, half-way between the road and the 
eastern fort, a large slab with a cave dug under it. The fort is greatly 
injured ; only part of its walls is standing, 5 to 6 feet high, coarsely 
built with bad stones, and probably late. There are no foundations in 
the garth, which is about 100 feet north and south, by 80 feet east and 
west ; it may be the bawn or cattle-pen of its neighbour fort. 

The western cathair, on the contrary, is one of the finest pieces of 
masonry in this district of nobly built forts. It stands 68 feet to the 
west of the last, on a low grassy knoll, above a depression. It is from 
6 to 7 feet high, and 10 to 12 feet thick, the last at the western side, 
with two faces of beautiful polygonal masonry of large blocks, but 
rather wide joints, and is fairly perfect all round. The batter is regular, 
1 to 1 in 4. The garth is level, and is raised 5 feet above the field ; it 
is 90 feet across, and large, old hawthorns grow round the edge. The 
fort measures 110 feet to 120 feet over all. 


There are over thirty forts of earth and stone round Ballygriffy, and 
nearly sixty from Ruan to Dysert ; none call for any special notice, being 
commonplace and featureless ; a few deserve slight mention. 

LISNANOWLE in Rath is nearly levelled to build the wall and back 
gate of Cragmoher House beside it. The records 1 give Cahernemoher 
and Cahergreenane in Cragmoher, alias Dromfinglas, 1655. It may be 
the " stone fort of Dromfinglas" (if the castle is not intended) in the 
Inquisition on the death of Donald O'Brien of Inistymon in 1588 2 It is 
named in the will of Matthew Sweeny of Lisnanoule, yeoman, Feb. 3rd, 
1695; the testator orders his burial in "the church of Coude (Goad)." 
There are curious outspoken directions about the mares and cattle ; and 
two cows were named "Dufheane" and " Cronedovagha." The fort 
seems to have had two rings ; considerable foundations of the inner one 
remain. 3 

CAHERCORCANE in Rath is a nearly levelled ring-wall. A coin of King 
John was recently found in its gateway. Conor (son of Mortagh) 
O'Brien owned Cahircorkeane, and was pardoned in 1591. 4 I could hear 

1 Book of Distribution, p. 526. 

2 Public Record Office, Dublin. 
8 Will, Killaloe Registry. 

4 Report xvi, Dep. Keeper Rec. Ireland, p. 196. The place is Craig Corcrain in 
the Annals of the Four Masters, 1589. In all other documents of Elizabethan times 
it is Cahercorcaun ; probably both names existed as Tullycommaun and Cahercommaun, 
Cluainsavaun, Dunsavaun, and Clochansavaun. 

Jou,R.S.A.I.jVo...-,S| S S i ne |e J s 


of no stone fort in the adjoining CAHERNAMONA. There are three typical 
earthen ring-forts between it and Corofin railway station. LISCTJLLATJN 
has a rath with a conjoined larger annexe to the north-west, about 
150 feet over both rings. Of other forts I may name HATH BLAMAIC (an 
ordinary low earthen fort, and near it the base of a tumulus or cairn of 
earth and large blocks). CAHERVICKAUN and CAHER MACGORMAN (utterly 
defaced when the adjoining houses were built) ; they lie in a detached 
part of Kilnamona on a hillside. 1 Thence a steep road crosses the low 
part of Cappanakilla Ridge, close beside LISZILLACTTLLOO. The latter is a 
large low earthwork, pear-shaped in plan, about 250 feet east and west, 
and 200 feet across, and only a few feet high. RATHARELLA is an 
earthen fort, and CAHERBANNAGH 2 is a much-gapped, featureless ring- wall 
on a high spur ; a sheepfold has been built out of the ruin ; both lie in 
Kilnamona. The two largest forts are only of slight interest, being as 
usual low and featureless. That in KILKEE WEST is 200 feet across, 
while KTLKMORE fort in Killeen, near Lough Atedaun, opposite Corofin, is 
300 feet across east and west, and but little less north and south. In it 
is a killeen graveyard for children. There are many traces of cairns 
usually nearly removed. One gives its name to Knockacarnaun. One on 
a low crag near Shallee Castle in Bally neillan is 74 feet across, and 
has a polygonal chamber about 5 feet every way. It was explored in 
1874-6 ; it yielded a skull and the bones of two bodies. 3 

KILCURRISH (O.S. 25). An interesting group lies close to the curious 
church of Gill Croise, or Kilcurrish, in Kilnamona and Dysert. A cairn of 
large blocks stands on a spur about 300 feet above the sea on the edge 
of Caherbannagh. It is 57 feet across, and at present only 8 feet high, 
being hollowed out in the middle by treasure-seekers, but no cist is 

Down the eastward slope is a cathair, a ring of filling 7 to 9 feet 
high, with portions of the outer face of well-fitted, large blocks, with 
a batter of 1 in 4 ; the interior face is well preserved. The garth 
has been tilled, and is 102 feet across north and south, and 111 feet 
east and west. 

Farther to the east in Dysert Parish is a huge natural block which 
some ignorant visitor has taught the local people to call " the Cromlech";, 
the mistake, however, led to my discovery of two real dolmens near it * ; 

1 They and an earthen fort to the west named Ratharella are in line. Only the 
east segment of Cahervickaun remains. 

2 Morogh, Earl of Thomond, granted Cahirbeanagh in Inchiquin to Michael O'Dea, 
14th December, 1660. The latter assigned it to Samuel Burton (of Buncraggy), 
July 18th, 1685. (Patent Rolls, William and Mary, No. 5, Pars 4, facie.) 

3 Journal xiii, p. 160, and xiv, p. 12, Proc. It. I. Acad. xxvi (c). Plate xxv for plan 
and section, p. 467 for description. 

4 Plan of the lower dolmen, Proc. R.I. Acad., vol. xxvi, (e), plate xxv, and 
p. 467. 


one has collapsed, and is embedded in the roots of a venerable hawthorn 
130 feet from the fort. The sides are 7 feet 3 inches north, 6 feet 
10 inches south ; the cover is 6 feet 3 inches, by 5 feet. North from 
the last, in the bottom of a valley among thickets of tall hazel, is another 
unmarked dolmen. It is 9 feet 10 inches by 4 feet over all, with two 
very rude blocks to each side and one to each end ; it is not tapering, but 
rectangular. The cover has been tilted off, but rests on the side ; it is 
6 feet 8 inches long, and 5 feet wide like the last, and did not slope. 
We explored the open fields back towards Magowna Castle, but found no 

TIKMICBRALNT (0. S. 17). A remarkable little rock fort in Rath 
Parish. It is greatly defaced, standing on a knob of limestone 1 on a 
steep, high ridge covered with brushwood and overlooking the lake and 
marshy valley of Tirmicbrain on the edge of Rath Parish. Local tradition 
connects the name with Bran the famous hound of Finn MacCumhail, 2 
which, pursuing a magic stag, sprang from the top of Keentlea (Ceann 
Sliabh) or InchiquinHill into the lake, where it and its quarry disappeared 
for ever. The fort faces the richly wooded hill, the tall ivied castle, and 
the picturesque old terraced garden and villa of the Burtons. Reached 
with difficulty through thorny brakes, little is found. Two rings of 
large blocks rudely built, the walls rarely 6 feet high, crown the knoll, 
clinging irregularly to its edges. The upper ring is a little over 40 feet 
across ; the annexe is over 50 feet, but is almost impossible to measure 
on account of thorn bushes. 

The forts of Kilnaboy have, for the most part, been fully described ; 
but a few extra notes on them and certain other antiquities seem 
desirable. The misleading statement in the Ordnance Survey " Letters 
of Co. Clare" 3 that "there are several cahers in this parish, but the most 
remarkable is Cahermore," ignores all the really remarkable examples 
in which Kilnaboy parish is so very rich. 

SLIEVENAGLASHA (0. S. 10.). The lofty ridge at the high cliffs, almost 
overhanging the beautifully situated fort of Cahermore, 4 in Lackareagh, 

1 It is marked, but not as an antiquity, on the new map at the " B, " of 
" Riverstown." 

2 The district appears in Irish literature as a haunt of Finn. u The Dialogue of 
Ossian" (Trans. Ossianic Soc., vol. iv, p. 51) tells of his "two hounds at the Lake 
of Inchiquin, two hounds at Formaoil " or Formoyle in the neighbouring parish of 
Inagh. The scene of the Feis tighe Chonain is laid on the summit of Inchiquin Hill, 
and the same summit figures as a battle-field between Finn and the Tuatha De in 
the local legend of the Glas cow. 

3 Vol. i, p. 67. 

4 Supra, vol. xxvi, p. 367, plan ; vol. xxvii, p. 199. Ancient Forts of Ireland, 
Plate VJI. It is called Cahermore in Glenkeane in 1655, in the Book of Distribution 
and Survey, p. 519. 



at the mouth of Glenquin (Ghanncaoin in 1311), is crowned by a remark- 
able early cemetery. It is best reached past the Russells' house, up 
by the fort, along the echoing little glen below the cliffs, till we reach a 
vast talus of fallen blocks forming a rude ladder to the lofty summit. 
Cahermore, I may add, is a striking illustration of how little the fort- 
builders troubled themselves to secure an absolutely commanding site. 
Such a one was attainable on the ridge beside the little glen, yet the 
fort was built beside a high crag platform commanding its outer enclosures 
and the rampart of the central ring. Seeing it, Cahernaweulaun and 


Caherlisaniska, in Co. Clare (even without considering the overhung forts 
in other parts of Ireland, and several promontory forts in Mayo, Kerry, 
and elsewhere), we cannot attach such weight as other antiquaries have 
done to the mere theory that a fort is not residential if its ambit is over- 
looked by neighbouring high ground. This view fails to recognize how 
rarely our so-called forts are "castles," how usually " courts" round a 
residence, whose builders hardly thought of attack or of siege, or mural 
assault as more than a mere possibility. The masonry of this noble fort 


is similar in parts to Langough, near Newmarket, 1 in eastern Co. Clare, 
the stones being in certain cases rudely hammer-dressed to take the angle 
of the next block when necessary. 

Three small earns stand on the cliff-bastion, which towers behind 
the fort and rock platform. They are much defaced, 12 feet to 16 feet 
across, and rarely 4 feet high. The middle one has a looped cattle 
shelter (for which it was dilapidated) ; much of the material was used 
to build the loose-stone wall on the dangerous edge of the precipice. 

Far more interesting is the group of eight earns on the highest 
summit, 700 feet above the sea. The weird, bleached grey heaps 2 on 
the brown moorland overlook the curved grey rock terraces of Mullach- 
moyle and Glenquin, and all central Clare to the hills of Slieve Bern.-igh, 
across Co. Limerick to the Galtees. Southward we overlook glittering 
lakes and dark woods to Inchiquin Hill and Callan ; westward we see 
out past the edge of the old world, for, when the sun gets low, a white 
blaze glows behind the low hills the sunset on the waters of the 

(1) The north-east earn is 18 feet across and 4 feet high; it is 
kerbed by a ring of slabs, set on edge, and usually 4 feet long and 2 feet to 
3 feet high. There is a central cist, long since opened and partly tilled ; 
its cell is still opened for 5 feet inwards. (2) To the south is a levelled 
earn ; part of its kerbing remains, but the stones are spread too widely 
for measurement. (3) At 50 feet farther southward is a third one 
kerbed, and 5 feet high, much dilapidated by rabbit-hunters. (4) At 
140 feet to the south is a heap with remains of the kerb, and two slabs 
of the cist, which was 6 feet long. Another mass of stones of doubtful 
nature lies in a hollow to the north-west. (5) At 80 feet to the south of 
the last earn is the chief monument of the group, and perhaps on that 
account the oldest, being on the actual summit. It stands looking across 
the valley (where the bare brown patches are reputed to be the beds of 
the wonderful Glasgeivnagh cow and her calf), to the great cathair of 
Mohernagartan, 3 the fort and cave of the divine smith, Lon mac Liomhtha. 
Farther up the plateau are seen the largest cairn on the hill, and the fine 
neighbouring dolmen at Cappaghkennedy, while far to the south-west 
the ruined cottage and shining slabs of the wrecked dolmens of Slievena- 
glasha 4 catch the eye. Everywhere lie the rain-fretted level pavements of 

1 Proc R. I. Aca'i., vol. xxvii, Plate X. . 

2 The cnirns in early times were sometimes the scenes of magic rites. The Annals 
of the Four Masters, under A.D. 556, cite a poem attributed to St. Columba, which 
alludes to " the hosts which proceed round the cairns.'' Also Annals in Silva 
Gadelica, vol. ii, p. 424, "round the brugh let him walk right-handed." 1 have 
heard of no relic of such observance in Western Ireland, though some attached to 

3 See Journal, xxvi, p. 364. It is also called Cahermore, a very common name in 
north-west Clare. 

i 4 The dolmen was destroyed about 1880 by an idiot, who set the fuel stored in it 
on fire. 


the crag, showing (as the inhabitants believe) the actual tracks of the 
wonderful cow and Lon's sons. So, at Kinallia such markings represent 
in popular idea the footprints of the soldiers and hoofmarks of the 
horses of Guaire Aidne's guard pursuing the fugitive banquet, swept from 
the king's table by the Easter miracle of St. Colman MacDuach. 

The identification of strange stones with cows is early in Ireland, 
e.g., in a twelfth-century manuscript, "the cows of Aife are stones which 
are on the sides of mountains, and are like white cows from afar." 1 
Tracks and lines of earthworks are frequently attributed to supernatural 
animals; the Bian Bo of Ardpatrick, Co. Limerick, and that near 
Ardmore, Co. Waterford, were made by the horns of St. Patrick's cow, 
while the Dane's Cast, the Worm Ditch, and the Duncladh in Ulster are 
believed to have been made by dragons, or by the Black Pig. 2 It is not 
impossible that the Cladh Ruadh trench from Kerry Head to Athe'a may 
have once been connected with another pig, as the strange boar, Banbh 
Sinna, son of Maelenaig, was slain at Temar Luachra, near its eastern 
termination. 3 The ledba patches are very apparent from the earn. I 
have given their curious legend elsewhere in these pages, and in Folk 
Lore, as it was preserved in 1839, and found practically unaltered in 
the recesses of these hills by Dr. MacNamara. 4 He and I were told by 
John Finn, in 1896 (I took it down at the time), a version mainly identical 
with O'Dono van's. " At Slievenaglusha are the Glas cow's beds ; no grass 
ever grows on them ; she used to feed near the herdsman's house [at the 
dolmen], 5 and over Cahill's mountain, where she could get plenty of 
grass, on to Teeskagh." His legend ended : " And she went away, and 
how do I know where ? and there were no tidings." As another Tully- 
commaun version ended, " She was taken by an Ulsterman," one suspects 
that she was the cow hidden with the native of that province in the cave 
of Ledba na haon-bo, in Ballynahown, near Oughtdarra and Crumlin, 
farther west; but the natives say the " Hean bo " was not the " Glas." 6 

1 Revue Celtique, 1892, p. 378. 

2 Journal, vol. xl, p. 126 ; Battle of Magh Tura, p. 65. See also Rian Bo (Rev. 
Patrick Power), Journal, xxviii, p. 1, and xxxv, p. 110. For Mr. De Vismes Kane's 
" The Ulster Earthworks," see Proc. 11. 1. Acad., vol. xxvii, p. 322 ; also Canon Lett 
in Ulster Journal of Archaeology (new), vol. iii, pp. 23, 67 .'ill very full and valuable 
papers. Also Ancient Forts of Ireland, section 149. In the Tain Bo Cuailnge (ed. 
Faraday), p. 141, the Dun Bull digs a long double ditch. 

3 Revue Celtique, vol. ii, p. 93. 

* Journal, xxv (1895), p. 227. Folk Lore, vol. xxii(1911), pp. 88, 89, also vol. xxiv. 

6 Journal xxvi, p. 365. 

6 Journal, vol. xxxv, p. 346. Glasgeivnagh legends, see, for MacKineely and 
Balor at Tory Island, Donegal, Ulster Journal of Archceolooy, vol. i, p. 115, and 
Bentley's Miscellany, ^ov. 1837 ; for Elin Gow at Cluainte in Kerry, J. Curtin's Hero 
Tales, p. 1 ; for the Clare Stories, Folk Lore, vol. xxii, 1911, xxiv, 1913 ; also Journal, 
xxv, p. 227. For the " Gloss Gavlen" in Achill, see West Irish Folk Tales, W. 
Larminie, p. 1. She would pasture at Cruahawn of Connaclit, and drink at Loch 
Ayachir-a-guigala. The legend also occurs at Hallynascreen in Deny, and Glengavlen 
in Cavan. There was a mound of the Glas at Tara. 


The chief earn is 42 feet in diameter, 7 feet to 8 feet high, and 
fairly perfect ; it has no kerbing, and the cist (if it exists) is concealed. 
The heap was an important trigonometrical station on the new survey, 
and a shelter was built on top visible far across the plains. (6) At 
30 feet to the south is a large but greatly levelled earn, also 42 feet in 
diameter, unkerbed, and hardly 3 feet high ; pens and cattle shelters 
have been built out of the stones close beside it. (7) On the edge of the 
platform to the extreme south, 135 feet from the last, is a defaced little 
earn 18 feet across. (8) The last of the monuments lies across a shallow 
depression, and is about 255 feet westward from the last, and 288 feet 
south-westward from the chief earn. It is 30 feet across, and 4 feet to 
5 feet high, nearly perfect, save that it has been opened at one point, and 
the central cist exposed by treasure-seekers. This, unfortunately, is 
almost universal in Co. Clare, and took place everywhere too far in the 
past to recover any intelligible account of what was found. At the 
beginning of the last century it was recollected that pottery and crumbled 
bones, but no implements or gold, had usually been found. I carefully 
searched every open cist, but never found a particle of clay vessels or 
metal; only sometimes bones reduced to the smallest flakes. I know of 
no closed dolmen, save, perhaps, one, and four cairns apparently intact, 
which it is best not to specify at present. It is noticeable that the three 
southern earns of Slievenaglasha are unkerbed ; if (as I believe) one of 
these is the oldest, then the more advanced form (such as we find at 
Poulawack and elsewhere), may be the later; however, kerbing is found 
round the mounds of important dolmens, such as Clooneen and 

GLENCOLUMBCILLE (O.S. 10.) The venerable church 1 dedicated to the 
great Columba, the patron of Ireland and of lona, gives the name to the 
valley. I heard no tradition of the saint's sojourn here as I did at 
Crumlin. The church (as little known) I may describe, for it has been 
wrongly attributed to the fifteenth century, 2 because an inserted doorway 
is of that period. It is of the late eleventh or early twelfth century ; 
the west end and much of the north wall are destroyed, and part of the 
south side rebuilt in modern times, from the jamb of an early window 
eastward. The east light has a chamber and recess, and a well-built 
splay ; it is 16 inches wide, but the head is gone. There are projecting 
handle-stones in the east gable. The building measures 41 feet 9 inches 
outside by 21 feet 6 inches ; it is 16 feet 6 inches wide inside, the walls 
being 2 feet 3 inches to 2 feet 6 inches thick. The upper half of a conical 

1 Proe. R. I. Acad., Ser. m, vol. vi. 

2 The Ordnance Survey Letters frequently describe essentially early churches as 
late when a Gothic door has been inserted. 



quern of sandstone, 13 inches across and 7 inches high, lies at the north- 
west angle of the rnin. 

The ridge on which the church stands lies between the glens at the 
foot of Cappaghkennedy Hill, between Glenquin and the rich thickets 
of Glencolumbcille golden, scarlet, and pink in the autumn, with ash, 
hazel, hawthorn, pegwood, and wild guelder rose running up past 
Cappagh Castle to the lonely hermitage and well of St. Colman MacDuach, 
under the huge Eagle Cliff 'of Kinallia. Glencolumbcille church 
commands lovely views of these and the terraced hills, and down the 



" pleasant valley " of Gleann Caoin, with a broad, open view of the low 
land down the glen. 

I include the site, however, not for its religious interest or its beauty, 
but because the church and burial-ground stand within a large low ring- 
fort of earth and stones 236 feet across the interior, north and south, 
258 feet east and west, and about 280 feet over all. It is largely of dry- 
stonework 1 to the south, and is much removed; the mound round the 

1 Miss Stokes in Three Months in the Forests of France, p. 28, mentions her discovery 
round the knoll on which once stood the monastery founded by St. Columbanus at 


north semi-circuit is 10 feet to 12 feet thick, and 6 feet high, faced with 
large stones in part, but now featureless, for I found no trace of a gate. 
The area is terraced up on each side of the ridge for about 4 feet over the 
field. The occurrence of churches in forts is rare in the lower Shannon 
valley. Templenaraha oratory, with a massive ring- wall, near lluan, I 
have noticed. Tulla church, in eastern Clare, had two circular ramparts 
about 150 feet and 480 feet across, stated in the life of St. Mochulla, in 
1 142, to have been dug and stone-walled by the seven converted soldiers of 
King Guaire, about A.D. 620. l Moyarta and Kiltinnaun stood on low, flat- 
topped motes, with fosse and annexe; Killilagh and Rathborney, beside 
circular earthworks. In the neighbouring County of Limerick an imposing 
example occurs at Cloncagh church, 2 of which I give a plan. It is 750 feet 



100 100p EET 


to 770 feet across, and consists of two mounds with a fosse between, such 
as St. Enda of Aran raised about A.D. 480, round the monastery of his 
sister, Fanchea, at Rossory, 3 where a circular fosse and mound remain. 
Templebryan Church, Co. Cork, stands in a large ring 400 to 500 feet 
across, with a souterrain and pillar-stone inside the ambit. Abbey Grey, 

Annegrai, of a dry-stone wall, like Irish cashels, probably dating from the founder's 
time, circa A.D. 580 ; a view is given. There was a cashel at St. Elois' Monastery of 
Solignac, ibid., p. xxxii. 

1 Vita S. Mochullei Episcopi, also Journal, xli, pp. 17, 18. 

2 Proc. It. I. Acad., xxv (c), p. 413, xxvi (c), p. 60. 

3 Vita S. Fancheae. 


or Monasternalea, in Athleague, on the Suck, is girt by a large mound 
600 feet inside, and 700 feet over all, with a fosse 25 feet wide. 
It is, therefore, quite as probable that the Glencolumbcille earthwork 1 
is ecclesiastical, as that some earlier chief gave his dun to God and 
the Church in the days of St. Columba. To the north-east of this 
work, close to the road, is a plain cross with three steps, and a thin 
octagonal shaft, each face only 3 inches wide. Across the road, on the 
fence, is a large natural block of limestone 4 feet long by 3 feet high, with 
six little round holes, the third and sixth larger than the rest, the reputed 
marks of the saint's fingers. 

MULLACH (0. S. 17.) I visited again the great cathair on Mullach 
ridge in Dabrien. I found that the hill (ridge) is locally named Clochdn 


wullach and the fort CaherwullacJi. The large limestone boulder on the 
ridge is understood to be the " Clochan." 

My first brief description in these pages 2 is from a letter of 
Dr. MacNamara; from notes on my subsequent three visits I may expand 
it here. It is a fine oval ring-wall of good masonry, the batter in parts 

1 1 found the supposed ecclesiastical earthwork at Kilmore, Co. Waterford, had 
no tradition or trace of a church or graveyard inside this strange but overrated 
earthwork. The name proves nothing, as the church (or wood) may have been else- 
where in the townland. 

2 Vol. xxvi, p. 367. 


being curved and in others in two slopes, 1 in 4 below for 6 feet up, 
and 1 in 3 above. The outer face of good large blocks sometimes 3 feet 
long, the inner of small stones. The rampart is often over 9 feet high 
and thick, the summit usually 6 feet 6 inches. Eour inches lower is a 
narrow terrace from 27 inches to 36 inches wide (a part only 15 inches 
wide), being best preserved round the northern half, and reaches to the 
south-east. It is usually 4 feet above the garth. There are recesses 
perhaps for ladders, but the northern is only 10 inches deep, while 9 feet 
6 inches long. The north-western is clearer, being 3 feet 3 inches wide. 
There is a well-defined rock cutting, a tank, or, more probably, a souter- 
rain, in the south-west segment. The fort measures 129 feet north and 
south, and 138 feet east and west outside, and the garth 112 feet and 
120 feet inside respectively. 

CAHEKAHOAGH (O. S. 17). Dr. George Mac Samara got the bushes 
in the overgrown garth of the fort cut away, disclosing once more the 

iii"" ~~ Vx/'y/////, 


curious ladder steps sketched by me 1 long before, but hidden for many 
years. I give a plan and details of the curious ring- wall. The gateway 

1 For the former description and views see Journal, vol. xxvi, pp. 366-7, and 
" Ancient Forts of Ireland," fig. 13, No. 6. 


is of cut stone inserted about 1480 ; the steps near it are possibly as late, 
but have been nearly destroyed since my first visit. The laneway to the 
fort is called Bohereenacaheragh (JBoiihrin na Cathracfy. 

CAHKRBULLATJN. It lies 58 feet to the south-west of Caherahoagh, and 
is now quite levelled ; the walls are 8 feet thick, the garth 82 feet across. 
To the east of this townland is Ballard ; the local name for the adjoining 
part of it is " Bohaunnascraw," while Ballyeighter is locally Beol eighter, 
and Lough Cullaun is known as Loch Monanagh. Aglish is Ballaglish. 1 
Ashfield is called Garraunawhinshog. 

CASHLAUNGAR (0. S. 10). The townland of Tullycommaun is 
probably the Tulauch-comyn held by (King Torlough) O'Brien in 1298 
as given in the Pipe Rolls? Through it in 1317 the army of Prince 
Dermot marched on his way to Corcomroe Abbey, "along the fortress- 
begirt tracks " between Leana and Crughwill. Hugh O'Donnell's troops 
plundered it in their great raid into Thomond in 1599. In again visiting 
the curious rock- fort I found two middens inside the wall at the south 
end of the platform, with bones of deer and oxen. The destruction of a 
bush revealed another fragment of wall not given on my first plan in 
1896. I also found, utterly hidden in thick hazels on the platform spur 
below the rock tower on the north, a very massive walled enclosure or 
bawn, now nearly levelled. Mr. Richard Ussher made some experimental 
diggings in some of the caves in Glencurraun near the fort, and found 
very early traces of human habitation, such as he found at Edenvale. 
Unfortunately he was unable to carry on any works there. In Caher- 
commaun I also found a midden in the rock-cut drain ; it yielded bones of 
oxen, deer, and swine, with shapeless iron implements greatly decayed. 
The fort name occurs in various records, as Kahirekamon in 1585 3 and 
Cahircomaine in 1655. The divisions of Tullycomon in the latter year 
were Gleancrane, Leshene, Slewbegg, Lisheenageeragh, Dullisheen, 
Cahir-comaine, and Cahir-comane or Lyshinlyane. 4 The personal name 
Chumann or Coman has been long connected with the district of Burren 
and Corcomroe ; its earliest recorded chief, Celechar, slain in 70 1, 5 was 
son of Coman. 

CAHERFADDA (O.S. 16). The cathair now bearing the townland name 
is most insignificant. It is a ring-wall of poor coarse crag slabs nearly 
levelled when some houses were built in it. The epithet, "fada," long, 
does not seem justified in any fort on these townlands* As may be seen 

1 I have not, however, found the name Ballaglish in any document ; the place is 
Eaglascarna in the Earl of Thomond's Estate Map, 1703. 

2 Pipe Roll No. -27, anno xxvii Edw. I. 

3 Fiants Elizabeth (Report D. K. R. App. No. xv). 

4 Book of Distribution and Survey (P.R. O.2., p. 520) ; the name, though found in 
common use in the townlands hy Dr. MacNamara and myself, does not appear in the 
1839 map. 

5 Or 704, according to the Annals of Ulster. 


(in the next section), the townland was " Carrowfadda," long quarter, in 
1551 (Ceathramadh, not Cathair}. The names, both in Irish and English 
forms, frequently interchange ; but in this case the townland, not the fort, 
was "long," and the epithet probably passed to the fort. I may again point 
out that groups of nouns with the same terminal occur in place-names, 
e.g., Dun-savan, Clochan-savan, and Cluan-sumain, Cloghan-savann, near 
Loop Head. The forts between Caherfadda and Lemeneagh Castle are a 
levelled ring- wall near the avenue, a low fort of earth and stones over 
the little valley, and another low earth-ring on the summit of Knockloon 
Hill. Traces of two small ring- walls lie between Caherfadda and the 
dolmens of Parknabinnia. 

CAHERSCRIBKEN (O.S. 16). I need only add to my former description 
of this rude but interesting and important fort 1 its plan and a record 

Rock cutting 

50 100 

=3 FEET 




V<* *:>><- .-. > o. - X^P^ \\ui 

rr^^^^ w 


bearing on the early form of its name which hitherto I found in no 
document (though well known on the ground) till it was inserted on the 
new maps. The will of Murrogh O'Brien, " The Tanist," last recognized 
king and first Earl of Thomond and Baron of Inchiquin, is fortunately 
preserved in a contemporary copy at Dromoland, and dates 26th July, 1551.- 

1 Journal, xxvi, p. 368. The nearest equivalents to the long parallel traverses across 
the garth are, so far as 1 know, those in the ring-fort at Carrowmore, Co. Sligo. 
Such also occur in German forts. 

2 I have to thank Mr. C. R. MacDonnell, of Newhall, for the use of his copy 
-of the will. 


In it occurs this passage "Item. Altri filio tertio Donate relinquo 
castelluin, vulgo nuncupatur Leamneh, cum quinque quarteriis sibivicinis 
quorum nomina sunt haec, scilicet, tres quart, terr. Cnokloine et Carah- 
Scribnib et quarteria in Clundin (Clooneen) et dimidiate quarteriae 
Fahafane' n In the inquisition taken in 1626, after the death of 
Conor O'Brien in 1609, the three quarters of Lemeneagh are called 
Carrowcastle, Carrowmoyle, and Carrowfadda. The last two are evidently 
Cahermoyle-Roughan and Caherfadda, which also appear in the marriage 
settlement of the later Conor O'Brien and his formidable wife Maura Rhue, 
Mary, daughter of Therlogh Roe MacMahon of Clonderlaw, 2 October 
19th, 1639. The gateway with his arms and an inscription in 1646 has 
only recently been pulled down and removed ; it stood before Lemeneagh 
Castle, and was most inj udiciously taken by the owner to his garden in 
eastern Clare. 

SHESHY (O.S. 9). This townland, lying to the north of Lemeneagh^ 
has two ring-forts. CAHEBMOEK occupies a good position on a gently 
rising crag ; it has fine block masonry of the usual type, and is from 

5 to over 6 feet high for much of its circuit. CAHERACLABIG, in a thicket 
of hazel bushesj near the Carran road, though far more dilapidated, ha& 
an unusual feature in the lower courses of its masonry. The bottom course 
is of large more or less rectangular crag blocks, but on these rests a 
course of thinner (header) slabs set on end like books on a shelf. I have 
only seen similar work in a cathair near Carrahan in eastern Clare, and 
even there all has been removed since 1 892, 3 when I fortunately sketched 
it. There are somewhat similar courses in the upper part of the wall in 
Cahercommaun and Caherscrebeen, but they rather radiate like rude flat 
arches than stand upright. 

Near these forts are two dolmens, one in the deep little glen of Deer- 
park or Poulquillika. Borlase published my description and plan of it 
in "Dolmens of Ireland." 4 It stands on a low ridge, and consists of a 
chamber narrowing and lowering eastward, in all 18 feet long (in two 
compartments), and 7 feet to 5 feet wide. It has a fence of slabs round 
it. The covers are respectively 8 feet 2 inches by 5 feet 3 inches and 

6 inches thick and 13 feet by 10 feet 3 inches to 9 feet and 9 inches thick. 
The remains of a small well-built house-ring appear on a small knoll to 
the west ; the mere ring of large foundation blocks of a second cathair is 
seen on a bolder cliff between the Carran road and the old road to Castle- 
town near their angle. There are also some defaced, roughly built, 
rectangular " mohers." 

1 It was called Cahirpolla, and adjoined Ballyganner ; one document seems to place 
it next Lismoher. 

2 Dromoland Papers. For her legends and history, see Journal, vol. xxvi, p. 363 ; 
vol. xxx, p. 408. 

3 Described in a paper on the remains in eastern Clare, Proc. H.I.A., 1913. 
* Vol. i, p. 70. 



CLOONEEN (O.S. 9). The most beautiful of the dolmens in this part 
of the country is certainly Clooneen. Borlase's view, 1 though quite 
accurate, does not give any idea of its fine proportions ; his plan is good. 
It lies in a dilapidated earn, and is a tapering cist of very regular slabs ; 
its cell, 15 feet 3 inches long, 5 feet 6 inches to 3 feet 2 inches wide, and 
5 feet 6 inches high. The cover is over 15 feet by 8 feet and is 10 inches 
thick. A fence of slabs lay outside to the north, and a kerbing girds the 
mound. Such slab enclosures are no uncommon features in Co. Clare, as 


I have recorded their occurrence at a now levelled ''long dolmen" at 
Milltown, near Tulla, at Newgrove, Ardnataggle, and perhaps .Killo- 
kennedy in eastern Clare, and at Iskancullin, Deerpark, and Clooneen. 
There is a small hole pierced in the south side-slab and the tops of the 
sides are hammer-dressed. 

ARDNAGOWELL (O.S. 16). The most problematical of the early earth- 
works of Clare is certainly that on Knock Ardnagowell, a low green rise 
in the shale land, not far to the south of the road from Lemeneagh to 
Kilfenora, 2 in the townland of Bally clancahill. It is a conspicuous object 

1 " Dolmens of Ireland," vol. i, p. 80. -See also Journal, vol. xxxi, p. 291. 

2 The plan is by Dr. G. U. MacNamara, who also measured the tumuli at Knockacaru 
and Ballygctnner Hill for me. The townland is locally called Baliycloonacahill. 


from the north and the south, consisting of two great parallel mounds 
over the saddle of the hill, but is not marked either on the old or the new 
maps. The mounds are 53 feet apart or 98 feet from top to top ; they 
run north and south, looking in the distance like an old wide embanked 
road, on the summit of the ridge. They are respectively 185 feet and 
198 fVet long, the western being usually 40 feet thick, 5 feet 3 inches 
over the hillside, and 1 1 feet over the interspace ; the eastern is 45 feet 
thick and of equal height. The western runs for an even distance about 
92 f-et down each slope of the ridge and is dug into for 60 feet, leaving 
the outer edge only about 3 feet thick and a foot high. An old roadway 
runs to the south at 70 feet froiu the western mound, and a large boulder, 

11 highowhollow.7 over field.. 7 Jet over hollow 

After GTOWbmaa 


15 feet across, lies between it and the western mound. The ends die 
away into the slope, and nothing suggests that the works were joined by 
cross-mounds or loops. There is no tradition as to its nature. It is too 
wide for a road, too short for a mearing, too open for a fort, and being 
over a summit is of course unsuited for a reservoir, even if dew- 
ponds or artificial tanks were found in western Ireland. As we have seen, 
the ridge is slightly lowered between the mounds. I commend the 
problem of this strange work to other antiquaries. 

KNOCKACABN (O.S. 16). A conspicuous little tumulus stands on a 
ridge in Clooneen. It is 46 feet in diameter north-east to south-west, 
and 40 feet across, being oval. It is only 5 feet high ; large blocks crop 
out of the sod, especially near the top. 



TTTLLAGHA (O.S. 16). I limit this paper from Lemaneagh onward to 
the antiquities lying immediately south of the Kilfenora road. Beyond 
these limits to the south there is but little to describe. Forts are few, 
and nearly all of the common type, about 100 feet across, of earth with 
rare traces of stone-facing and a fosse and low rings. The only ones 
worthy of any detailed notice about Milltown, Cahermurphy, and in the 
" Irrus" peninsula from Loop Head to Dunbeg I have already described. 1 
Of dolmens, only those of Carncreagh and Cullan and the problematical 
Ogham slab near the last needed and received notice. Two of the earthen 
forts lie near the road opposite the cross-road leading pastBallykinvarga, 
Noughaval, and Cahermacnaughten to Bally vaughan ; they are in Tullagh 




10 10 30 FEET. 



(locally Tullagha) townland, probably the ancient Tulach Chuirc. The one 
nearest the road is 220 feet over all, and is a mass of beautiful green 
sward, rising 13 feet over the fosse, which is 6 feet deep and 15 feet wide, 
with no outer ring. It is nearly filled up on the east and south, and is 
still wet in parts and filled with yellow iris. The rampart is 31 feet 
thick at the field-level to the south, and rises 6 feet over the garth ; it is 
41 feet thick at the base and 12 feet on top to the north. There are three 
gaps, two very shapeless and narrow, the third faces the east and was 
probably the ancient entrance. The garth is 117 feet across and nearly a 
true circle ; it has been tilled, arid is now much overgrown with docks. 
The rampart was once evidently faced by revetments of large regular 

1 Journal, xli, p. 125, pp. 132-136 ; xxxviii, pp. 28, 114, 221, 344. 

Jour. R.S.A.I. j Vol. UI ' Six th Series . 

f vol. XLIII, Consec. Ser. f * 


sandstone blocks, but few traces remain, save along the inner foot of 
the mound. 

The earthen fort on the low rising ground of KNOCKALISH lies about 
400 yards away to the south-west. It is 150 feet across, but of little 

I have already described the more noteworthy forts of Kilfenora 
parish, Doon, Ballykinvarga, Ballyshanny, and Caherminaun. Doon was 
very probably the Tech nJSnnach, the dun made by Ennach, son of Timor, 
on the river Dael, which rises from the ridge on which this great 
rock-cut fort sits imposingly, dominating the view from Koughan 
and the Tullycommaun ridges to far out to sea. CAHERBALLAGH is a 

(From a Photograph by Dr. G. U. MacNamara.) 

featureless ring planted with hawthorns near Lough Ballagh. CAHEB- 
SHEKKIN is only a small defaced ring-fort. The " Down Survey," circa 
1655, shows near it a large rectangular fort which is not given on the 
old or new Ordnance Maps, and I could not learn that any trace exists. 
Just within Kilnaboy parish lies LISSYOGAN, an oblong earthwork, 100 feet 
by 150 feet on Knockaunadrankady (Little Hill of the Fleas) in Moher- 
bullog, while CAHEKGAL in Maghera is a barely visible ring of filling on a 
pleasant hillock on the flank of Inchiquin Hill, overlooking the green 
valley towards Applevale. 

In the closing section of this paper I hope, so far as I am able, to 
conclude my survey of the ring-forts of north-west Co. Clare by notes on 
those undescribed round Lisdoonvarna, and the results of farther exami- 
nation of the district thence to Ballyganner ridge and the Kilfenora road, 
so as to meet the present survey. 

( 261 ) 




(Continued from p. 169) 
LEINSTER- continued 

No. of 

Locality and Townland. 





1. Gowran, S.E. Near the W. window of the church, close to 
Gowran Demesne, 20 the village. 

(n) A pillar-stone 5 ft. 6 in. hi<;h by 1 ft. square, bearing an incised cross 
of earlv design. See Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xl, p. 345 (M.). 

(b) An ogam stone 5 ft. bigh, 1 ft. 2 in. by 1 ft., bearing also an incised 
four-line cross potent with circle in centre. The cross is about 1 ft. 6 in. in 
length. See Brash, Ogam Inscribed Monuments, plate xxxix (I.). 

2. Killamery, S.W. In the graveyard, 9 m. N. of Carrick-on- 
Same, 30 Suir. 

(a) A rectangular slab about 1 ft. 3 in. by 9 in., having a single-line Latin 
cross fibout 5 in. long, and with slightly enlarged ends incised on it. Below 
the cross is the inscription op ap cbuachal. 

(b) A rectangular slab 4 ft. 11 in. by 1 ft. 9 in., incised with a double-line 
Latin cross, having a semicircular base containing a triquetra. The cross is 
surrounded by a double-line frame below which is a triangle containing another 
triqnetr.i. At the upper end of the cross is inscribed op ap anmin aebaen, 
and at the side op ap anmainn aebain. See Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, 
p. 24 (D.I.) and Journal of the Waterjord and S.E. Arch. Soc., vol. ix, pp. 11, 

(c) An upright stone 3 ft. by 1 ft 8 in. by 6| in. thick, incised with a plain 
single-line Latin cross surrounded by two lines, which follow the outline 
except at the top where they break off. 

.3. Ballyneale, N.W. 4 m. N.W. of New Ross. 

Same, 37 

A pillar-stone about 2 ft. high, bearing a plain incised Latin cross 1 ft. in 
length. See Da Noyer's Sketches in R. I. A. Library, vol. i, No. 74 (I.). 




Clonmacnois, S.E. In the cathedral and graveyard, 9 miles 

Same, 5. N.W. of Ferbane Station. 

By far the largest collection of early slabs in the country belongs to 
Clonmacnois : 272 stones are recorded, of which 200 are still to be seen, 72 
having unfortunately disappeared. It is not necessary to describe these slabs 
in detail, as those bearing inscriptions have been published in Dr. Petrie's 
Christian Inscriptions in the Irish Language, and more recently the entire series 
has been clearly illustrated in Professor Macalister's Memorial Slabs of 
Clonmacnois. In the latter work they are divided into ten classes as follows : 

(1) Inscriptions only. 

(2) Inscriptions with small initial crosses. 

(3) Inscriptions with small crosses not initial. 

(4) Larger crosses of simple form. 

(5) Crosses in square panels. 

(6) Crosses in circular panels. 

(7) Crosses in which the limbs extend outside of the ring. 

(8) Crosses having expanded centres and extremities. 

(9) Similar crosses having loops at the extremities. 

(10) Later designs, being Latin crosses in rectangular panels. 

Since the publication of Professor Macalister's book, an additional slab has 
been found and is described in the Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xl, p. 235. It shows 
the upper portion of a five-line cross having a circular centre containing a 
spiral pattern, and semicircular looped ends containing fret and interlaced work. 

The slabs most interesting for their ornament and inscriptions are : 

No. 81. An interlaced design in a circular fret border. 

No. 120. A ringed cross decorated with swastikas, in a rectangular frame 
covered with Greek fret. 

No. 156. Part of a slab showing a seven-line cross with elaborate spiral 
and fret patterns in the expansions. 

No. 192. A perfect specimen of characteristic type ; a three-line cross with 
a circular centre containing a triskelion and looped semicircular ends containing 

No. 195. A similar slab (broken), having in each quarter a worm gnawing 
the cross. 

No. 249. A ringed cross having looped angles and a square base. In the 
centre a square panel surrounded by four lozenges. Each of these, as well as 
the shaft and arms, is decorated with separate interlaced pattern. 

No. 253. Part of a cross made up of four separate endless bands. Each of 
these forms one quadrant, and interlaces on itself in an elaborate knot at the 
centre and at each end. 

No. 39. Inscribed pechcnia, an abbot, ob. 779. 

No. 59. fcachal, a bishop, ob. 817. 

No. 70. cuachsal, an abbot, ob. 763. 

No. 126. Gippaic annpem, an abbot, ob. 929. 

No. 145. obpcm hau eolaip, a scribe, ob. 994. 

No. 237. puibme Tn c mailaehumai, anchorite and scribe, ob. 892. 


No. 239. copbp iv chpvTnm, abbot and bishop, ob. 899. 

No. 240. bubcen mac Gabghain, a prince, ob. about 950, and 001101115 
u a corspais, a bishop, ob. 997. 

No. 262. aeb rnc caiog, a king, ob. 1014. See Petrie's Christian 
Inscriptions in the Irish Language, vol. i, Macalister's Memorial Slabs of Clon- 
tnacnois, O'Neill's Sculptured Crosses of Ireland, Journal JR. S.A.I., vol. iii, 
p. 294, vol. xxix, p. 116, vol. xl, p. 235, vol. xli, p. 51. 

2. Tihilly, S.E. At the ruin marked " Temple Kieran" on 
Laughaun, 8 the 0. Map, 3 m. N.W. of Tullumore. 

(a) A rough slab 4 ft. by 2 ft. 5 in., bearing a three-line cross with a plain 
square centre and rectangular extremities. A rectangular frame or panel 
surrounds the cross, and a defaced inscription occupies the sinister side. 

(b) A similar slab in which the centre and extremities of the cross are filled 
by interlaced knots. A defaced inscription runs across the upper part. The 
slab is broken into three pieces, and the top is missing. For (a) and (b) see 
Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xxvii, p. 132 (D.I). 

(c) A slab bearing a design consisting of a cross or four-rayed star formed 
of intersecting arcs of circles, and surrounded by two concentric circles, the outer 
being 11 in. in diameter. See Journal R. S.A.I. vol. xxix, p. 65 (1.). 

3. Durrow Abbey, S.W. In the graveyard in the demesne, 4 m. 
Durrow Demesne, 9 N.N.W. of Tullamore. 

(a) The lower portion of a tapered slab of sandstone 3 ft. 4 in. by 1 ft. 
10 in., bearing a cross formed of two bands, which fork and interlace in the 
arms, and are joined to the two bands \vhich form the enclosing panel. The 
bands are mitred at the centre and interlaced with a ring. There is a partially 
effaced inscription in three lines in the upper sinister quarter. 

(b) A narrow slab of sandstone 3 ft. 7 in. by 1 ft. 4 in., incised with one of 
the finest cross designs known. A ringed Latin cross of three lines, with square 
centre, and three rectangular extremities containing knots. The top is semi- 
circular and contains a spiral pattern. The segments of the ring are orna- 
mented with a running design of spirals. In one line down the sinister side is 
inscribed op bo 

(c) A rectangular sandstone slab 2 ft. 11 in. by 2 ft. 6 in., incised with a 
ringed cross, having a square centre, and rectangular extremities, all containing 
knots. The arms of the cross are nearly equal in length, and the ring is 
ornamented with pluits. Below the cross is the inscription %* op bo cachalan. 
For (a), (b), (c) see Journal, . S.A.I., vol. xxvii, pp. 138 to 141 (D.I.), and 
for (b) and (c) see Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 56 (D.I.). 

4. Gallen Priory, S.E. On a mound near Gallen House, m. S. of 

Gallen, 14 Ferbane Station. 

(a) The dexter half of a slab now 3 ft. 4 in. by 1 ft. 8 in., incised with a 
six-line cross having a circular centre, and a four-line frame surrounding it. 
The arrangement of the lines is unusual. The lower quarter is inscribed 
biam . . . See Christian Inscriptions, vol. i, p. 11 (D.I.). 


(b) A slab 2 ft. 11 in. by 1 ft. 11 in., incised with a seven-line cross with 
circular centre and semicircular looped ends ; the centre contains a knot and 
the ends fret patterns. An inscription reads down the sinister side op bo 

(c) A fragment of a slab 1 ft. 11 in. by 1 ft. 4 in., showing one arm of a 
four-line cross in a rectangular fret-border. Outside is inscribed the name 

(rf) A small slab 1 ft. 6 in. by 11 in., incised with a four-line cross in a 
circle, beyond which the stem alone projects. There are some remains of an 

(e) A slab 2 ft. 1 in. by 1 ft. 6 in., incised with a large ringed cross between 
two smaller ones. All have expanded bases. 

(/) The lower portion of a slab 1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 5 in., incised with a 
seven-line cross having a circular centre and semicircular looped ends containing 
traces of interlaced work. 

(^) A slab 2 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 10^ in., incised with a two-line Latin ringed 

(h) A slab 1 ft. 10 j in. by 1 ft. 2 in., incised with a two-line ringed cross. 

(i) One half of a slab now 1 ft. 7 in. by 1 ft., incised with a Greek cross 
formed of interlacing and surrounded by two circles. For a to i, see Journal 
R.S.A.I., vol. xxxviii, pp. 61 to 66 (D.I.). 

(j) A slab 3 ft. 2 in. by 2 ft. 6 in., incised with an elaborate design greatly 
injured but perhaps copied from a metal cumdach. The design is a cross of 
close interlaced work, surrounded by a rectangular frame, the base of the 
latter being of square fret and the remainder of triangular fret. The 
designs in the upper quarters are almost obliterated; the lower dexter quarter 
contains a knot of irregular and unusual form, and the sinister a 'crucifix. 
At the dexter side of the stone is a small plait of four strands. Above the fret 
border are inscribed the words op bo bpaesermch. See Journal It. S.A.I., 
vol. xxxviii, p. 173 (D.I. 

5. Lemanaghan, N. W. In the graveyard beside the road to Clara , 

Same, 15 4 m. N.E. of Ferbane. 

a) A slab about 1 ft. 9 in. by 1 ft. 3 in., carved with a rectangular panel 
containing an interlaced cross in relief. This cross is made up of triquetnis 
joined by their angles and showing the unusual feature of pairs of bands uniting 
in one. Above is the word pecah and below a word not deciphered. (The 
stone is now missing.) See Christian Inscriptions, vol. i, p. 60 (D.I.). 

(b) A slab about 3 ft. 3 in. by 2 ft., incised with a double-line ringed cross 
and the name conlapac, which reads down the sinister side. (This stone i& 
now missing.) See Christian Inscriptions, vol. i, p. 18 (D.I.). 

(c) A slab of sandstone 2 ft. 2 in. by 1 ft. 8 in., incised with a Greek cross, 
having expanded ends and rounded off angles, in a circle of 14 in. diameter, 
and surrounded by another circle of 16 in. diameter. (This stone lies near 
the wall W. of the church.) 

(d) A slab of sandstone 2 ft. 2 in. by 1 ft. 8 in., incised with a 16-in. 
circle containing a ringed Latin cross of two lines, having the sectors of the 
ring recessed. The centre of the cross is 2 in. above the centre of the 
surrounding circle. (This stone lies near the last-mentioned.) 


(e) A rough slab of sandstone 1 ft. 11 in. by 1 ft. 3 in., incised with a 
double-line ringed Latin cross. The lower end of the shaft is pointed, and the 
upper end furnished with loops. (Leaning against the wall in the N. W. corner 
of the graveyard.) 

(/) A slab of sandstone 1 ft. 3 in. above ground by 1 ft. 6 in wide, 
carved in relief with a ringed cross potent. (Set upon a grave S.E. of the 
church, and about half way to the boundary wall.) 

(g] An upright sandstone slab, slightly tapering, 2 ft. 3 in. above the 
ground and 1 ft. 5 in. wide, covered on one side with a continuous diagonal 
key-pattern, having the centres of the keys modified into spirals. (This stone 
stands a short, distance S. of the west end of the church.) 

(h) A thin slab of sandstone, broken and wanting one corner. It is 3 ft. 
6 in. long by 2 ft. 4 in. wide, and bears a ringed cross of two lines incised, and 
having the sectors of the ring recessed. The base of the shaft is stepped and 
pointed, and the cross is surrounded at the upper end and sides by a rectangular 
incised line. Above the line and inverted is the inscription % benbacc pop 
a[nmajin aitbepci5. (Leaning against the wall N.W. of the church.) For 
(a) to (h) see Journal R.S.A.I., vol. xli, pp. 151 to 156 (D.I.). 

>. Tisaran, N.W. In the old graveyard in Moystown Demesne, 

Moystown Demesne, 22 3 m. S.W. of Belmont Station. 

A small slab incised with a double-line ringed cross. Immediately below 
the shaft is a small circle. The inscription op bo bpan runs across the 
top and down the sinister side. See Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 50 (D.I.). 

7. Seir Kieran, N.W. In the churchyard, 7 m. N. of Eoscrea. 

Churchland, 39 

(a) A slab of irregular shape, incised with a six-line cross, having the 
centre a circle, and the ends three quarter circles. At the sinister side are the 
traces of an inscription op bo ch ... 

(b) A similar slab, incised with a seven-line cross of similar shape, having 
in the centre a crosslet with spiral ends. 

(c) A third early slab. (Not described.) 

(d) A fourth early slab. (Not described.) See Christian Inscriptions, 
vol. ii, pp. 48-9 (I.). 

(To be continued.) 

( 266 ) 

The Dublin Society for the Support of Decayed Musicians. 
Referring to Dr. Grattan Flood's paper (ante, p, 144), Mr. P. J. Griffith 
writes that he holds the account-books not from 1794 to 1850 as there 
stated, but from 1787, the year of the foundation of the society, down to 
the present time, and the minute-books from 1798 to the present. 
Mr. Griffith encloses a copy of the last report of the society (now called 
the Trish Musical Fund), which shows that it is still actively carrying on 
its useful work. 

Mr. Victor Smyth further writes that three names, viz., James Walsh, 
Henry Lyster, and Richard Whiteman, have been accidentally omitted 
from the list on p. 146; they should come between Richard Woodward 
and Henry Mountain. The names in this bracket should be credited 
with 11. 4%d. each, not IQs. Also on p. 146 Paul Jacob should be 
Rowl d Jacob, on p. 147 Samuel Lee should be Samuel Leear, and on 
p. 148 John Butter should be John Butler. The totals should be carried 
over across pp. 146-149. 

In a further communication referring to the date of the foundation of 
the Charitable Musical Society, Mr. Smyth writes that it must be earlier 
than 8 October 1750: for in the Dublin Almanack of 1752 occurs the 
following : " In the year 1743 the Charitable Musical Society of Crow 
Street (now removed to the Philharmonic Rooms in Fishamble Street, 
where they hold their concert every Wednesday evening) resolved 
to appropriate their fund towards the supporting of an Hospital for 
Incurables. And as a House was opened 23 May 1744, for the 
reception," etc. 

The Arms of Ireland (vol. xlii, pp. 172, 340). With reference to 
Mr. Nuttall Smith's note under the above heading, I enclose an extract 
from Boutell's Heraldry, p. 434 of the third edition (1864), which perhaps 
may throw further light on the subject. The paragraph occurs in the 
chapter on " Augmentations." 

" Another most remarkable example of an earlier period is the Augmentation 
granted by Rich?ird II to his favourite Robert de \~ere, K.G., ninth Earl of Oxford, 
Marquess of Dublin and Duke of Ireland : az. three crowns or, within a bordure 
arg., being a differenced Coat of St. Edmund to be borne quarterly with Arms of 
de Vere. This augmentation appears to have been regarded as the Arms of Ireland 
(eee Mr. J. Gough Nichol's paper on the Earldom of Oxford, in vol. ix of the 
Archteol. Journal.]" 

The above-mentioned Robert de Vere, 9th earl of Oxford, was created 
Duke of Ireland in 1385. He was the first "Marquess" created in 
England. He died without children. FREDERICK W. SHAW. 


The tall cross at Monasterboice. I have not been able to find in 
any book the interpretation of a small panel at the top of the east face 
of this cross, immediately above the intersection. It has occurred to 
me that the sculpture represents the boat with the disciples, and Peter 
sinking when his faith failed him ; a figure, presumably our Lord, is 
holding out His hand to another who appears to be sinking, beside a 
boat full of men with oars. F. E. STEPHENS. 

Notes on Stones used as a Cure at Killerry, near Dromahair, and 
on certain Bullauns. The ancient graveyard of Killerry is situated 
on the borders of Sligo and Leitrim, about two miles to the west of 
Dromahair. In it may be seen a rough horizontal slab, on which are 
set out seven smooth, rounded stones, ranging from 6 to 10 inches in 
diameter ; at one side of the slab a small peg-shaped stone is fixed 
upright in the ground. All these can be recognized in the photograph 
(fig. 1). The caretaker of the place, in pointing out the stones, stated 
that there was a spring of good water under the slab. As the latter 
lies on the ground, there is no sign of water, nor from its position is it 
likely to have much under it. The mention of water, however, is not 
without interest, as in many cases where collections of round stones 
occur they are placed in hollows or rock-basins, and these retain water 
to which useful properties are ascribed. In this instance there are no 
basins, and the assertion that there is water under the stone may be due 
to a general idea that water in some form should be associated with 
monuments of the kind. 

The people of the surrounding district frequently resort to these 
stones for the cure of strained sinews. The procedure is as follows : 
A friend of the sufferer goes to Killerry and brings a piece of thread, 
which should in strictness be of unbleached linen, though this condition 
is not always adhered to. On arrival at the place, the thread is wrapped 
round the peg-like stone mentioned above ; the round stones are then 
turned separately while a prayer is said; afterwards a thread left by 
some former visitor is taken up, brought to the patient, and bound 
round the affected part ; the cure soon follows. This process is called 
"Lifting a strain thread" ; it is equally effective for the cure of horses 
or cattle. 

A resident in the neighbourhood informed me that in his case the 
thread had been entirely successful ; it was applied at night, and next 
morning he was quite well and able to go to work as usual. 

The story told locally to account for this custom is that St. Patrick 
when travelling through the district was refused a passage at the ford of 
Sligo, and had to proceed round Lough Gill. In the rough ground 
about Killerry his horse strained a sinew, and the Saint then arranged 


these stones so as to cure the animal and avoid delay to his journey. 
When departing he blessed the stones, and left them ready to cure strains 
in men and animals for ever. 

These stones may be compared with the better-known " St. BrigicTs 
Stone," situated about twenty miles further east, near the old church of 
Killinagh, at Blacklion, in the County Cavan. 

Mr. Wakeman published a sketch and description of this monument 
in the Journal, 1 and also in the Proceedings JR.f.A. 2 In these accounts a 
certain confusion will be noticed. In the Journal the stone is described 
as a nine-hole bullcLn, and is stated to have eight basins in a circle with 
a ninth in the centre; in the Proceedings R.I. A. it is called a ten-hole 

The stone containing the basins is roughly circular in plan, about 
5 feet in diameter, and having the upper surface flat. On this flat 
surface are nine basins or hollows, arranged roughly in a circle, and each 
containing a rounded stone ; a tenth stone of larger size than the others 
is placed in the centre of the circle, but there is no hollow under it. 
Since Wakeman's time the field has been tilled, and on the removal of 
the grass round the monument an additional basin and stone were 
discovered at the north-east side, and at a lower level than the others ; 
they are clearly seen in the photograph (fig. 2). 

The monument in its present condition therefore exhibits ten basins 
and eleven rounded stories. In contrast to that at Killerry, it has not 
been resorted to or made use of for many years; but Wakeman has 
recorded the tradition that it was formerly used by persons wishing to 
bring a curse on someone who had injured them, the condition of its 
use being that the curse fell if the accusation was just, but otherwise it 
recoiled on the head of the person who invoked it. 

Several other monuments of the same class are on re?ord, but 
no traditions of any value seem to have survived in connexion with 

One with five hollows and five round stones at Keimaneigh, 3 near 
Gougane Barra, in the County Cork, may be mentioned; another with 
nine basins is at Meelaghans, 4 near Tullamore, in King's County. 

Many others are known which have no loose stones connected with 
them, these having probably disappeared in the course of time ; one 
of these at St. Fechin's, near Cong, 6 in Co. Mayo, has five shallow 
basins, and in shape closely resembles the Blacklion stone. Another at 
Gortavoher, in the Glen of Aherlow, 6 near Tipperary, has six basins 
arranged symmetrically in a circle, and three of these break through the 
edge of the stone, so that they are incomplete, and of little use except 
to contain a stone. 

1 Vol. xiii (1875), p. 459. 2 Vol. xvii (1889), p. 262. 

3 Proceedings R.I. A., vol. xvii (1889), p. 263. 4 Journal, vol. z (1869), p. 349. 

5 Proceedings R.I. A., vol. xvii (1889), p. 264. 6 Journal, vol. xl (1910), p. 60. 

\Tofaeep. 268 

FIG. 1 

FIG. 2 


Glendalough in the County "Wicklow possesses a greater number of 
bull HUD stones than any other locality ; most of these are single, but 
some have two basins side by side, others two on opposite faces of the 
stone. These are usually considered to have been grain- rubbers, and the 
different basins accounted for by the supposition that when a hollow 
became inconveniently deep the stone was turned round, and another 
started. Two of the larger bullauns preserved in St. Kevin's House 
retain their rounded stones ; these also are pointed out as mortars, but 
it will be found that the stones are so close a fit that it is difficult to 
move them much without danger of crushing the fingers; on the whole, 
it is just as likely that they were used for ' turning"* like the stones at 
Black lion and Killerry. 

As showing how widespread is the idea of obtaining advantage by 
turning stones, it is interesting to read in Dr. Sven Hedin's Trans- 
Himalaya (vol. ii, p. 200), that one of the stations on the pilgrimage 
round the sacred mountain Kailas consists of a circular wall, in the 
centre of which is a small boulder, having in it a hollow containing a 
round stone like the hoof of a yak. 

He continues " When the faithful pilgrim passes this spot, he takes 
this stone, strikes it against the bottom of the hollow, and turns it round 
once like a pestle " 

Other stations are described as decorated with rags, streamers, and 
locks of hair attached to cords supported on poles or fixed to the stones 
by lumps of butter. In conclusion maybe mentioned the pot-holes, often 
formed when stones are kept in constant motion by water, and sometimes 
liable to be mistaken for the handiwork of man. 


Further Ossory Letters 


Dublin de 22 1677. 
Dear S r 

This brings you the ill news of our Bishops Death who it has 
pleased God to take out of this world last night at nine aclock God 
prepare us all for our lust end; he was consumd to nothing; hee has 
don very well by madam Parry ; & has left considerably to the Church ; 
Dr. Parry is your Bishop & M r Morton is dean of Christ Church & Dean 
Worth is Dean of S* Patricks; the Duke of Cambridg is dead; the 
Bishope of london is removed to Canterbery ; now S r I must thank you 
for yours and my bill ; I have received the mony ; I am obliged to you 


for your advice but being I have begun I think I shall goe on with it 
& I will give you many reasons when I see you ; all the Church men 
are full of expectations but some must bee disapfoinjted 1 ; pray S r will 
you see my poor boys for I hear they look very ill which I am infinitely 
trobled at I begg you for God sake to see them & lett mee know the 
truth how they doe for I long to bee with them my service to M rs Hadock 
lam S r 

Your afectinate servant 

Jane Hill 

I am at the Bishops hous which God knows is very snd wee have bin 
is [sic] soe great confusion all this weeck I could not writ to you. 
I wish you a merry Cristmas. 

[Endorsed : ffor Alderman Hadock at his hous in Kilkeny."] 

Dear S r John 

I am much troubled at the unexpected blow in your Family, but 
I hope your own Prudence will moderate my Poor Sister S Dorus, as well 
as your self. M r Schuldham died three days since, by w ch y e living of 
Knocktopher a Parliamantary Union worth 270 p an : or thereabouts is 
now in my disposal ; He was allso Prebendary of Blackrath worth about 
20 1 p an : w ch being at a distance from y e liveing, and near y e town, I 
have given to M r Lewis y e Duke of Ormonds Schole Master. The living 
is at your Service ; I know you will reside on it, and tho* it is at a 
distance from your Estate, yet if Dorus's living be equivalent you may 
both in time be easily accomodated. There is no house but 2 or 3 acres 
of Gleb. I believe you had best make hast to this Country. 

I am your affec : 

Tho : Ossory. 
Abbey-leix Dec : 4 

[Endorsed : To the Reverend S r John Staples Bart* at Tullyhogs near 
Dungannon. Free Tho : Ossory.] 

M r Haydock 

I should have wrote to you by my Bro r Marten but knew he needed 
not any recommendans to so good a friend : M r Haydock If you thought 

1 Paper torn. 


it feasible or if it could be easily effected ; I would willingly bave a small 
contribution motion'd for M r Woodroffe wbo is a little above y e ordinary 
rate of Curates, for reading constant morning Prayers : tbo I shall never 
bee there I am willing to subscribe my Guynea yearly & I am sure 
M r Sweet will as much. I am in hast so have not else to add but respects 
& services to yo r good spouse M ra Gostling and all friends am 

yors affectionately 

Jo n Ossory. 

[Endorsed : For Alderman Josias Hay dock att Kilkenny.] 


Errata. P. 170, ante, line 9, for issue read volume; p. 176, line 10 
from bottom, for last read east ; p. 177, line below figure, for stone read, 
store ; p. 180, line 4, omit no-, p. 192, line 6 from bottom, f or on read an. 

( 272 ) 

A QUARTERLY GKNERAL MEETING of the 65th Yearly Session of the Society 
was held in Sligo, on Monday, the 23rd June, 1913, at 8 o'clock, p.m., 
in the Town Hall, by kind permission of the Mayor and Corporation. 

COUNT PLUNKETT, F.S.A., M.K.I.A., President, in the Chair. 

Also present : 

Fellows : E. C. R. Armstrong, Hon. Gen. Sec. ; Robert Cochrane, i.s.o., LL.D., 
Past President ; RightHon. M. F. Cox, M.D. ; Henry Courtenay, i.s.o., J.P. ; Anthony 
Lucy, M.A. ; Seaton F. Milligan, J.P. ; M. J. Nolan, L.R.C.S.I. ; P. J. O'Reilly; 
Andrew Rj croft ; D. Carolan Rushe, B.A. 

Members: J. G. Alcorn, J.P. ; Mrs. Allen; Miss Anna Barton; Miss Carolan; 
Miss M. E. Cunningham; Miss S. C. Cunningham; W J. Dargan, M.D. ; Miss I. 
Daniel ; Miss Isabel Denning ; Edwin Fayle ; A. T. Gilfoyle, D.I.. ; Mrs. E. L. Gould ; 
Francis Guilbride, J.P. ; Lucas White King, LL.D. ; Mrs. E. Maunsell ; H. C. MonU 
gomery ; "William Colles Moore; John P. M' Knight ; Miss Parkinson; Miss U. T. 
E. Powell; Rev. Patrick Power ; E. C. Quiggin, M.A. ; Miss Redington ; E. Weber 
Smyth, J.P. ; Mrs. E. W. Smyth ; William Webster. 

Associate Members : Mrs. E. Bewley ; Geoffrey Bewley ; Mrs. Dargan ; Mrs. Gil- 
foyle; Mrs. Colles Moore; Edmond M 'Knight; Miss S. H. O'Grady; Mrs. E. (J. 
Quiggin ; Miss Nora Young. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following Fellows and Associate Members were elected : 


Courtenay, Henry, i.s.o., J.P., Hughenden, Grosvenor-road, Rathgar : proposed by 
E. C. R. Armstrong, Hon. Gen. Sec. (Member, 1895.) 

Curran, Rev. M. J., Archbishop's House, Drumcondra, Dublin: proposed by Right 
Hon. M. F. Cox, M.U., fellow. 

Torney, Henry C. S., 3, Royal-terrace, East, Kingstown: proposed by Herbert 
Wood, M.U.I. A., Member. 


Bewley, Mrs. E., 89, Merrion- square, Dublin : proposed by Dr. H. T. Bewley, Member. 
Bewley, Geoffry, 89, Merrion-square, Dublin : proposed by Dr. H. T. Bewley, Member. 

Craig, Francis B., M.K.I.A.I., Kenmare, Orwell-park, Rathgar, Dublin: proposed*by 
P. J. Lynch, M.R.I. A., Fellow. 



Dargan, Mis. T., 45, St. Stephen's-grcen, Dublin: proposed by W. J. Dargan, M.D., 

Darley, Arthur Warren, 4, Palmeiston-park, Dublin: proposed by P. J, Griffith, 

Deane, Miss S. D., Longiaigue, Foulksniilis, Co. Wexford : proposed by E. C. R. 
Armstrong, Hon. Gen. Sec. 

Gilfoxle, Mrs. A. T., Carrowcallen House, Skreen, Co- Sligo : proposed by A. T. 
Gilfoyle, D.L. 

Healy, James J., 16, Kenilworth-square, Dublin: proposed by Robert Cochrane, 
LL.D., F.S.A., Past President. 

Lawrence, Major Grorge Henniker, East Lancashire Regiment, Fullwod Barracks, 
Preston : proposed by E. C. R. Armstrong, Hon. Gen. Sec. 

M'Grane, Mrs. M., Grace Park House, Drumcondra, Dublin: proposed by E. C. R. 
Armstrong, Hon. Gen. Sec. 

M'Knight, Edmorid, Nevara, Temple Gardens, Dublin: proposed by P. J. M'Knight, 

Moore, Mrs. Colles, 5, Herbert-road, Sandymount : proposed by "W. Colles Moore, 

Nicol, Robert, Provincial Bank, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin: proposed by T. G. H. 
Green, M.K.I. A., Member. 

O'Brien, Michael, Mullnaburtlin N. S., Lisnaskea, Co. Fermanagh. : proposed by 
Joseph Whitton, Member. 

O'Grady, Miss S. H., Aghamarta, Cork: proposed by Mrs. E. L. Gould, Member. 

Orr, Rev. John, B.D., T.C.D., St. John's Rectory, Sligo : proposed by S. F. Milligan, J.P., 

Quiggin, Mrs. E. C., 88, Hartington-grove, Cambridge: proposed by E. C. Quiggin, 

Walker, Henry John, B.A., Solicitor, Athlone : proposed by W. P. Kelly, Fellow. 

Young, Miss Nora, Rathvarna, Chichester- park, Belfast : proposed by Robert Magill 
Young, Fellow. 

The following paper was read and referred to the Council for 
publication : 

" The O'Conor Sligo Monument," by the Right Hon. M. F. Cox, M.D., Fellow. 

The following papers were taken as read, and referred to the Council 
for publication : 

"Promontory Forts of Achill, Co. Mayo," by T. J. Westropp, M.A., M.R.I.A., 

" The Promontory Forts and early remains of the coasts of Co. Mayo, The Mullet 
(concluded)," by T. J. Westropp, M. A., M.K.I. A., Fellow. 

" Notes on Sir John MacCoghlan, Kt. of Cloghan, Chief of Delvin-MacCoghlan, 
who died in 1590," by Lord Walter FitzGerald, Fellow. 


The following Programme of Excursions as arranged was successfully 
carried out : 

Monday, 23 June. On arrival the Members lunched at their respec- 
tive Hotels ; after which they assembled at Sligo Abbey, and inspected it. 

Tuesday, 2fy June. The Members drove round the north side of 
Lough Gill to Dromahair, stopping on the way to examine the remains 
of a number of Cashels and Stone Alignments, and a large Carn and 
the Fern Glen. Visited the Abbey, Dromahair, and, returning by the 
south side of the Lake, ascended the Carn. 

Wednesday, 25 June. Members drove to Carrowmore, and examined 
the various Megalithic Monuments, and returned to Sligo for lunch. 
After lunch they drove to the Deer Park. 

Thursday, 26 June. Drove to Knocknarea and saw Queen Medb's 
Carn, the Stone Circles, and the Glen. On the return they went by 
motor boats up the river to Lough Gill, and visited the Holy Well and 

Friday, 27 June. Drove to Glencar Lake and visited the Waterfalls, 
Swiss Valley, and two Crannogs in the Lake. Thence went to Drum- 
cliff, and saw the Round Tower, High Cross, and Dolmen. They 
then went to Lissadell for afternoon tea by the kind invitation of 
Sir Josslyn Gore-Booth, Bart. 

Saturday, 28 June. Drove to Ballisodare to see the Rapids, Water- 
fall, and Ancient Church. Drove to Collooney, passing over the ground 
where the Battle of Carrignagat was fought with the French in 1798, 
noted the Monument, and saw the Flour, Woollen, and Carbide Mills 
at Collooney, and returned to Sligo. 








[This paper was submitted by J. RIBTON GAKSTIN, Past-President, on 
27 APRIL 1909] 

T^IFTY-SEVKN years ago the late Mr. Evelyn Shirley, the author of 
the History of Monaghan, began to communicate to the Society the 
journal which Thomas Dingley kept during his visit to Ireland in the 
years 1680 and 1681, and in a series of twelve papers, which were spread 
over a period of eleven years, contributed the greater portion of its 
contents. 1 The completion of its publication has since been desired by 

1 The papers contributed by Mr. Shirley are printed in the following volumes of 
the Journal of the Society, according to the consecutive numbering of the volumes 
now adopted : vol. iv, pp. 143, 170 ; vol. v, pp. 22, 55 ; vol. vii, pp. 38, 103, 320 ; 
vol. viii, pp. 40, 268, 425; vol. ix, pp. 73, 176.' To his last paper, Mr. Shirley has 
appended a notice of Dingley, and one will also be found in the Dictionary of 
National Biography. The material for these notices has been chiefly obtained from 
information given by John Gough Nichols in the introduction to another work by 
Dingley, which was published in 1867 by the Camden Society. That work, which 
has been reproduced by a lithographic process in facsimile, is entitled a History from 
Marble, and treats, in a similar manner to the present Journal, of antiquities in 
England. As Mr. Garstin has remarked, though the present manuscript is styled a 
journal, it has no reference to days or dates, and, as will be seen, consists mainly of 
inscriptions in churches and on public buildings. 

T,,r T? Q A T J Vo1 - ni Sixth Series. ) TT 

Jour. R.S.A.I. j VoK - XLlllf Consec. Ser. { 



Irish antiquaries, but, owing to a disastrous fire at the seat of its owner, 
Sir Francis Winnington, in Worcestershire, all hope of the appearance 
of the remaining portion was for a time laid aside. With the assist- 
ance of my friend, the Rev. Horace Monroe, then rector of Great 
Witley, I discovered, however, some years ago, that the journal had 
escaped the flames, and by the generous kindness of Sir Francis 
Winnington the Society is now enabled to print the concluding portion, 
which is reproduced from photographs of the original manuscript. 1 



FIG. I 2 

[Here are drawings of the arms of the University of Dublin and of 
the City of Dublin.] 

[Here are drawings of the arms of the Earl of Essex. 3 ] 


the chief of this City, of which hereafter, hath in it a fair monument 
erected by the eminently Honourable Richard, y e first Earle of Cork, 
who being born a private Gentleman, and younger brother of a younger 
brother, of Herefordshire, to no other Heritage than is expressed in 

1 With the exception of some emendations of the punctuation, and the additions 
denoted by the use of brackets, the manuscript is followed exactly. 

3 The primitive vehicle depicted by Dingley was in his time the ordinary mode 
of conveyance between Dublin and Ringsend. Except when the river Dodder was 
in flood, the route was then across the strand, which extended to Trinity College, and 
the distance was traversed in a few minutes by the coaches, which were driven at a 

3 The Duke of Ormond held the sword during Dingley's visit to Ireland, and 
the prominence given to the arms of his predecessor, the Earl of Essex, cannot be 



the Device and motto, which is seen on y e s d monumet and his humble 
Gratitude hath caused to he inscribed on all the Palaces he built (viz.) 


by that Providence and his diligent and wise industry, raised such 
an honour and estate, and left such a family as never any subject of 
these 3 Kingdoms did, and that with so unspotted a reputation of 
Integrity, (as y e reverend D r . Walker takes notice), 1 that the most 
invidious scrutiny could find no blott though it winnowed all the 
methods of his riseing most severely. 

This noble Lord by his prudent and pious Consort was blest with 
5 sons, of which he lived to see 4 Peers of y e Kingdom of Ireland, and 
the fifth an eminent Yertuoso. He left also 8 daughters. 

And that you may remark how all things were extraordinary in this 
great Personage, it will not be much out of the way to add this short 
Story from the mouth of a Lady of Quality his Relacon. 2 Mr. Boyle 
(for then y e s d Earle was no more) and who was then a widdower, came 
one morning to wait upon s r Geoffrey Fenton, Knight, Principall Secre- 
tary of State in Ireland, (whose Statue is made Kneeling in the 3 d range 
of y e Cork monument in S l Patrick's Church), who then being Engaged in 
some business, and not knowing who waited to speake with him, for a 
while delay'd him access, which time he spent pleasantly with his yong 
daughter in the Nurses arms. But when s r Geoffrey saw whom he had 
made stay somewhat long he civily excused. But Mr. Boyle reply'd he had 
bin very well entertained, and spent his time much to his satisfaction in 
courting his daughter, if he might have the honour to be accepted for 
his son in Law. At which s r Geofirey smiling, (to hear one who had bin 
formerly married, move for a babe carried in arms, and under 2 yeers old, 
for a wife), asked him if he would stay for her ; to which he frankly 
answer'd him he would, and s r Geoffrey as generously promised him, he 
should then have his full consent, and they both kept their words 
honourably. 8 And by this Virtuous lady he had 13 children, ten of w ch 
he liv'd to see honourably married, and died a Grandfather by the 
youngest of them. 

1. Richard y e R 1 Hon bl Earle of Burlington and Cork. 

2. The R* Kon ble Roger Earl of Orery, that great Statesman, Poet, 
and souldier. 

1 The identity of Dingley's authority has baffled me. 

2 The wife of Callnghan, 3rd Earl of Clancarty, who married as her second husband 
Sir William Davys, Chief Justice of the King's Bench. She was a daughter of 
George, 16th Earl of Kildare, and was through her mother a granddaughter of the 
great Earl of Cork. 

3 This anecdote will be found more correctly related in a letter from Evelyn 
(Diary, ed. 1879, iv, 39). As the great Earl of Cork married his second wife within 
eight years of the death of his first one, the circumstances cannot have been as Dingley 


3. Francis Lord Shannon, whose Pocket Pistol as he styles his book, 
may make as wide breaches in the walls of the Capitol, as many cannons. 1 

4. And that Hon ble and well known R. Boyle Esqf, that profound 
Philosopher, accomplished Humanist, and excellent Divine, whose works 
alone may make a Library. 

The Female branches were 

1. The Lady Alice Boyle who was married to y e first Earle of 

2. The Lady Sarah to s r Robert Digby, Lord Digby of this Kingdom 
of Ireland. 

3. The Lady Letitia to y e eldest son of the Lord Goreing, who died 
Earle of Norwich. 

fell yji not- \A 


* [' 

; ^J* ! 

"lliiiii N*V;^ 

FIG. 3 2 

4. The Lady Jone to the Earle of Kildare, not only y e first Earle of the 
Kingdom of Ireland but the ancientest house in Christendome of that 
degree, the present Earle being s d to be by D r Walker the 26 or 27 of 

1 He is mentioned by Harris (Ware's Works, ii, 186) amongst the writers of 
Ireland, and appears to have been author of tracts on the papal controversy. 

* In the forefront to the left a group of soldiers will be noticed. Similar groups 
are introduced elsewhere, and are said to have been cut out of prints and stuck on 
the sketches ; See Dingley's History from Marble, i, 32. 


lineal Descent. And according to the ObservaCOn of that great Antiquary 
the late King of blessed memory, that the three ancientest families of 
Europe for nobility were y e Yeers in England Earls of Oxford, the 
Fitz Geralds in Ireland Earls of Kildare, and the Montmorancys in 
France. 'Tis observable also that the now Earl of Kildare is a mixture 
of the blood of Fitz Geralds and Veers. 

5. The Lady Katherine was married to the Lord Yiscount Ranelaugh, 
y* son of Roger Viscount Ranelaugh, whose monument is also seen in this 
Church opposite to that of y e Earle of Cork, 1 and who was also mother to 
the present Earle of Ranelaugh, of which family there is a very eminent 
remark in Fullers worthies. 2 

6. The Lady Dorothy was married to s r Adam Loftus K". 4 , the heir 
of s r Adam Loftus, Vice Treasurer and Treasurer at Warrs in Ireland. 

7. The number of Perfection which shutt up and crown'd this noble 
train, for the 8*? y e Lady Margaret died unmarried, was y e excellent 
Lady Mary married to Charles Earle of Warwick, whose Coat Armes & 
matches I have touched off in a fair monument in y e Town of Youghall 
in the county of Cork which see Page [Supra, vol. vii, p. 327]. 

Near the East end of St. Patrick's Church is seen a inonuni* with this 


In the Body of the Quire even with the Pavement of St. Patricks is 
seen the Monument or Tombstone inlayde with brass of the most 
Reverend Primate Richard Talbot, Arch Bishop of Dublin, who was 
appoynted Deputy to his brother John Earle of Shrewsbury who came 
over Lord Lieutenant of this Kingdome. 

[Here is given a passage relating to the Earl of Shrewsbury's place 
of sepulchre from Borlase's Reduction of Ireland, p. 77, which will be 
also found inDingley's History from Marble (Camden Society), pp. 129 & 

1 Both these monuments, which now stand respectively in the north aisle and 
nave, -were then in the choir. 

2 Archbishop Jones, the father of the first Viscount Ranelagh, was a native of 
Lancashire, and in a notice of him Bishop Fuller observes (Worthies of England, 
ed. 1811 ; i. 544) that while the sons of the clergymen of England never mounted 
above the degree of knighthood, those of the clergymen of Ireland sometimes 
attained to the dignity of the peerage. "I say no more," he adds, "but good 
success have they with their honour in their persons and posterity." 

3 See History of St. Patrick's Cathedral, by W. Monck Mason, App. p. xlix ; 
Handbook to Monuments of the Cathedral of St. Patrick, by Rev. Alexander Leeper, 
ed. 1891, p. 81 ; Journal of the Association for the Preservation of the Memorials of the 
Dead, Ireland, vi, 528. 


The Inscription upon the Archbipps Tombestone remains at his 
feet thus, upon a square brass plate in the same character as on the 
other side 


Archi fuit Praesul huius Sedis Reverendae Parvos Canonicos, 
qui fundavitque Choristas Anno Milleno C quater quater X 
quoque nono Quindeno Augusti mensis mundo valedixit. 
Omnipotens Dominus cui propicietur in aevum. 1 

FIG. 4 

He was founder of the Petty Cannons and Choristers of this Church, 
and died Aug : 15. 1449. 

1 The brass has disappeared, but by the aid of Dingley's drawing a stone which 
had been unearthed in the Cathedral churchyard was identified some years ago as its 
matrix. The present Bishop of Ossory, Dr. J. H. Bernard, who was then Dean of 


In this Church is also interred John de Saunford, Archbipp of this 
Citty, the seventh Governour of Ireland in the Reigne of Edward I, who 
died in England Octob r 2 d 1294, at his returne from an Embassy to his 
Imperiall Majesty, he governed here under the title of Lord Justice, he 
was buried the ffebruary following his death ; Alexander Bicknor, 
Archbipp of Dublin, who was Lord Justice of Ireland anno 1318, at whose 
request y 6 University was granted by Pope John to this citty, also granted 
the use of this Church for the Exercise of the students in their solemne 
commencements. 1 

Decent Sepulture is not onely naturaly to be desired, but the most 
Heroick minds made it their great desire to be honourably buried. 
Mezentius asks it of Aeneas. Yirg. Aen. lib 10. 2 This care of burial 
made the Countess of Cork (Semiramis like) to cause the following 
monument to be sett up to the Honour and memory of her ancestors and 

[Here follows a passage from the Familiar Epistles of Sir Anthonie 
of Guevara, edited by Edward Hellowes, ed. 1584, p. 334.] 

But to return to this plain Dublin monument, the Earl of Cork's 
monument, erected at the request of his Lady, that her grandfather 
& herself might be buried together. This, according to the other side 
of the leafe, consists of four stories, reaching thirty four foot from the 
ground, and is placed under an Arch that in times past was a passage 
into S. Maries Chapel of this Cathedrall of S* Patrick ; records say it cost 
y e sayd Earle above a Thousand pounds sterling. 3 

[Here are given the inscriptions and a drawing of the monument. 4 ] 

Opposite to this famous monument is seen that of Dr. Thomas Jones, 
Primate of Dublin and Lord Chancellor of this Kingdom, who with 
Sir John Denham, Knt., Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, were under 
King James, Anno 1615, constituted Lord Justices here. 

[Here follows a long extract relating to Sir John Denham's monu- 
ment at Egham, and his part in introducing customs into Ireland, from 
Borlase's Reduction of Ireland, pp. 198, 199, together with a drawing 
and description of his arms.] 

the Cathedral, made an unsuccessful appeal for the renewing of the brass. See his 
lecture on the "Early History of St. Patrick's Cathedral," Irish Church Quarterly, 
iv, 103. The inscription, which Mr. Garstin points out is in verse, is more cor- 
rectly given by "Ware, Works, ii, 339, and will also be found in Borlase's Reduction 
of Ireland, p. 79, and the Discoverie of Errount, by Augustine Vincent, p. 465. 

1 According to Cotton (Fasti Ecc. Sib., ii, 12, 14), these archbishops were buried 
in Christ Church, but the authority of Ware confirms Dingley's statement. For the 
foundation of the University see Mason op. cit., pp. 117, 119, and App., p. ix ; also 
the Cathedral of St. Patrick, by Dr. J. H. Bernard, Bishop of Ossory, p. 74. 

2 Line 901. 

3 The cost was 400. See Illustrations of Irish History, by C. Litton Falkiner, 
p. 378. 

4 See for illustrations of the monument and the inscriptions, Mason, op. cit., App., 
p. liii; Leeper, op. tit., p. 52 ; Dr. Bernard, op. cit., p. 46 ; Memorials of the Dead, 
vi, 69, 545. 




[Here follow the remainder of the inscription on Archbishop Jones's 
monument and a drawing of the structure, 1 together with an extract 
relating to the Archbishop from Borlase's Reduction of Ireland, p. 196.] 

FIG. 5 


[Here follows the remainder of the inscription on a brass to Sir 
Edward Fitton. 2 ] 

The ancient Romans did use their dead after two manners, and their 
obsequies were of two Sorts, the most ancient was to cover the dead 

1 See for illustrations of the monument and the inscriptions, Mason, op. cit., p. 7, 
and App., p. xlix ; Leeper, op. cit., p. 59 ; Dr. Bernard, op. cit., p. 18 ; Memorials of 
the Dead, vi, 527. 

2 See Mason, op. cit., App., p. Hi ; Leeper, op. cit., p. 85 ; Dr. Bernard, op. cit., 
p. 59 ; Memorials of the Lead, vi, 527. 



with earth, to erect a pillar, Gravestone, Piramyd, or other monument 
and Inscripcon as wee do, and the other to burne the bodies and conserve 
the ashes in an TJrne. This magnificence in burning did much exceed 
in expence other funerals, for with the bodies of great Personages, as 
you have it in Sandys Travels they burnt great riches, according as it is 
sett out by Statius the Theban concerning the body of Archemorus, and 
translated by Sandys book I, the originall see on ye other leafe. 

[Here are given from Sandy's Travells (Loud. 1670), p. 66, sixteen 
lines from the Thebais of Statius (vi, 206-221), together with a trans- 
lation of equal length.] 

The funerall solemnity of Patroclus was performed by Achilles with 
greater Pomp than that, for with him were burn'd Oxen, Sheep, Hounds, 
Horses and douzen stout & valliat sons of noble Trojans. Achilles him- 
self tore the hair off his head, throws it in the fire, and sett on foot 
several funerall Games to the honour of his slayne friend Patroclus, the 
Glory of the Grecians. Horn. Iliad lib 23. 

[Here is given the argument to the 23rd book of the Iliad in Greek 
and Latin, together with George Chapman's English translation in verse.] 


Fio. (> 

Over the Quire Door of this Church are read these Inscripcons : 
The R' Hon ble S r Oliver S* John, Knight, descended of the noble 
House of the Lord S* Johns of Bletso, Deputy Generall of Ireland, who 


tooke the sword of State and Government of this Kingdome into his 
hands august 30 1616. 1 




The riseing of this last Insrcipcon, which is in a Compartment of 
Gold, and the setting up the new staircase over the Quire door leading to 
the Lord Lieutenants seat, hath, with y e late beautifying this Church, 


Fio. 7 

obliterated and obscur'd severall Inscripcons and monuments of ancient 
date, among which are these : 

The Hon ble S r John Denham, K nt , Lord Chief Justice of his Ma ties Chief 
Place, and one of the Lords Justices in this Kingdom in the year 


1 This inscription is given in Borhise's Reduction of li viand, p. 201. 

2 See also ibid., p. 19 ( J. 



[Here is given the inscription on a monument to the sons of Lord 
Grey of Wilton. 1 ] 

The next monument to be considered is that of Ricardus de Clare, 
Earle of Pembroke and Strigill, sirnamed Strongbowe, whose name is 
used in this citty upon the same occasion as was that of Duke Humphrey 
buried in St. Pauls London, where people in distress used to walk when 
they were at a loss how to compass a dinner, and were by a by word sd 
to have din'd with Duke Humphrey : So here whoever misseth of his 
dinner is sayd to have dined with Strongbowe. 2 

FIG. 8 

Strongbowe als Strangbowe was sent over by Henry the second in 
the yeer MCLXXIII Lord Justice of Ireland, after having bin the first and 
principall invader thereof, Ann Dm MCLXIX, as appears by Inscripco, 
which is to be seen in Christes Church, whose monument I have sketcht 

1 See Inscriptions on the Monuments in .Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, by the 
Rev. John Finlayson, ed. 1878, p. 14 ; Memorials of the Dead, vii, 303. 

3 " It was usual to make rents of Dublin property payable on Strongbow's head. 
The monument has given rise to much controversy. See Cathedral Church of the Holy 
Trinity, by William Butler, p. 25 ; and, for an account of the restoration of the 
monument, Street's sumptuous volume on Christ Church Cathedral." J.R.G. 


off on the other side this leafe with the sayd Inscripco. He died 
An. Dom. MCLXXVI. His sons monument, cut off in the middle, is also 
seen by it. This execution was sayd to be done upon his son by 
Strongbowes own hand, because he flinched in the Battaile as appeared 
by the Inscripcon of auncienter date than this, in Latine 

According to York ye Blacksmith page 240, l the coat differs from 
that on ye shield and are thus, or 3 cheverons Gules, a Label of 5 azure. 

It is sayd of him that standing upright he was able with the palms of 
his hands to cap his knees, which shewed a prodigious long reach and 
strength with all for drawing of the long bow. He died at Kilkenny 
A.D. 1177. Mr. Yincent sayth page 412 2 that his son who led some 
forces ag 8t y e Irish, and loosing the feild his Father slew him. 

This Strongbowe founded the ancient Priory of Kilmainham about 
half a mile out of Towne, A Dni MCLXXIV, whose endowing King Henry 
y e second confirmed. 

Strongbowes other Titles were besides Lord of Chepstowe, Count of 
Ogny in Normandy, Earle of Leicester, Earle Marshall of England, 
Vicegerent of Normandy, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Prince of the 
Province of Leinster in the right of Eva his wife, sole daughter and 
heiresse of Dermot Mac Morogh, King of Leinster, by whom he had a 
daughter named Isabel. 

This last monument of Strongbowe is thought to be onely a Cenotaph 
or Honorary tomb erected Honoris vel memoriae gratia such as the 
souldiers made to the memory of Drusus upon the river Rhine, when his 
body was carried to Rome and interr'd in Campo Martio. 

Octavia the sister of Augustus buried her son yong Marcellus with 
600 honorary monuments, and gave to Virgil above 5000 French crowns 
as a reward for writeing these 26 Hexameters in her sons prayse. Virg. 
JEn lib 6. 

[Here follow lines 861-887 of the 6th book, together with Ogilby's 
translation of them.") 

Alexander Severus slayn An Dni 238, an Emperour, sayth s r Thomas 
Eliot (who translated his story out of Greek 8 ), whose death all Rome 
lamented, all good men bewayl'd, all the world repented, whom the 
senate deified, noble fame renown'd, all wise men honour'd, noble writers 
commended, had his Cenotaph erected in France where he was slayne, 
but his body was carried to Rome : some say he was slayne at Mentz in 
Germany some in England. 

Septimivs Sever vs the Roman Emperour died in York city A Dni 212, 
where is seen a great mount of Earth raised up for his Cenotaph in a 

1 The Union of Honour, by James Yorke, Lond., 1640. 

2 The Discoverie of Err ours, cited p. 281w. 

3 "The Image of Gouernance compiled of the actes and sentences notable of the 
most noble empevour Alexander Severus," by Sir Thomas Elyot, ed. 1556, p. 157. 


place beneth the city westward, though his corps was carried forth and 
comitted to the funeral fire there, and then y - ashes put into an Urne of 
gold, or porphire, were carried to Rome and shrin'd there in y e monument 
of the Antonines. 

The Annals of this Kingdom of Ireland will have Richard Strangbowe 
to be buried in the Quire of the ancient Friars predicants in Kilkenny 
of whom it is thus written 

Cujus sub fossa Ikilfcenuia concinet ossa 

"Whose bones bestow'd in Grave so deep 
Kilkenny Town doth safely keep. 

V \ -/ f 



FIG. 9 

Were he buried in any other place, a brave martial Earl he was, who with 
fresh courage attacqued Lluellin, Prince of Wales, who invaded his 
Territories in his absence, whilst he was performing his never to be 
jforgotten conquest of Ireland. 


[Here are given the inscription and arms on a monument to Edward 
Griffith of Penrin. 1 ] 

Here lyeth buried Christopher Wansford Master of 
the Rolls who was Lord Deputy of this Kingdome 
under Charles the 1st of Blessed memory ADMDCXL 
Apr. 3 d and who died on a sudden Dec r . 3 d 1640. He 
was also a member of the Hon ble House of Comons 
in England. 

In the Organ Gallery of the King's Chappel, or Christ Church Dublin, 
on the left hand of the organ is seen this monument ; in w ch Gallery, on 

FIG. 10 

the right hand of the organ, are seen the escutcheons of the twelve tribes 
1 See Finlayson, op. cit., p. 16 ; Memorials of the Dead, vii, 307. 


and by several Escutcheons in painting is also sett forth the descent of 
the Crown of England upon the King of Scots. 

Opposite to this and over the seat of the Archbipp of Dublin in armes 
is also sett forth the Pedigree of the Earl of Strafford. 

Under the Organ Gallery in Christ Church : 


FIG. 11 

[Here is given the inscription on this monument which was erected 
to the memory of Francis Agard and his wife Lady Cecilia Harrington.] 1 

On the south side y e Chore hangeth this Table with y e Arms and 
Inscripcon following [infra, p. 292, fig. 13] ; though the body lieth at 
Westminster England which see in my English itinerary, page 2 . 

St. Mary's Chappell, Chriatchurch, hath a fair Tombstone of 
Richard Brown sheriff of Dublin, 3 and another of Colonell Robert 
Hill, upon which a sad accident happened 6 years ago, viz., one Quin, 

1 See Finlayson, op. cit., p. 16 ; Memorials of the Lead, vii, 302. 

3 See Dingley's History from Marble, p. ccccl. 

3 The monument still remains, and the inscription is given by Finlayson, op. cit. r 
p. 16, and in the Memorials of the Dead, vii, 307. " Dingley probably did not intend 
to give all the inscriptions," adds Mr. Garstin, " and it seems worth observing that 
he takes no notice of the polyglot JON LVMBARD inscription in Lombardic lettering 
the oldest and most interesting of them all." 



SWi ^ 

r' * 

S 2 




c ^i b > 

^ ^ 


: ' 

5 Si ' " ^ 

; C ' 



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2 fc 


3 3! ' 

; 2 ^ 


^ ^i * i 

r s 

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c i! : : ' 

j I 



- ^ 

3 3i * 


: B 

: -t S ' v 

1 : 


42 So 


c3 2 





T v? y A T J Vol. HI, Sixth Series. 
Jour. R.S.A.I. j Vol> XL ' ni> Consec> Ser . 

FIG. 13 


an alderman of this Citty, cut his own throat, since which time this 
chappel is neglected and goes to decay. 1 



He was killed by Sr Francis Blondell and his 2 brothers. 

St. James hath besides the above monument of my Lord of Tarrah, 
the following, with these arms and Inscripcon : [Arms] Here under 
lyeth interr'd the body of Thomas Waterhouse, late Alderman of the 
city of Dublin, also the bodies of his beloved wives Eose and Anne ; 
the sayd Alderma departed this life the 17 day of february Anno 
Domini MDCLXIV. 

Virtus Post Funera Vivit. 

In the same Church is also this monument and Inscription : 
Here lyeth the body of [Anthony] Stoughton of the city of Dublin, 
Esq r , sometimes clerk of his Ma ties High court of Chancery Starr-Chamber 
in this Kingdome, who having bin officer thereof for the space of [forty] 
yeers together ended this life the 5* of September Anno Domini MDCXXVI, 
being the 82 yeer of his age ; as also the body of his dear and 
loving wife Margaret Stoughton who deceased the 17 day of May in 
the year of our Lord God MDCXXXIII, being the 67 yeer of her age, for 
whose memory this monument was erected. 


[Here is given the inscription on a monument erected by Sir 
Edward Brabazon, who was created by James I Baron of Ardee, 
to his father. 3 ] 

1 This occurrence is alluded to by Swift in his lampoons upon Chief Justice 
"Whit shed, who was Quin's grandson. Quin, whose Christian name was Mark, was 
an apothecary, and had filled the mayoral chair. 

2 According to Cokayne (Complete Peerage, vii, 368) Lord Tara was killed by the 
Blundells in 1674. 

3 See Memorials of the Dead, iv, 238. 



In the same Church also is another monument erected by s' Edward 
Brabazon to the memory of his ffreind Roger Pope w th this Inscripcon : 


Edwardus Brabazon miles a consiliis privatis hujus Regni Hiberniae 
in benevolentiae testimonium 

H. M. P. 1 


In it is seen a very fair monument w ch was removed out of the 
Church, having bin first translated thither from Cork House, which was 
heretofore a nunnery, and is now made into an Exchange. 3 

It is thought to represent The Founder and Foundress of the 
sayd nunnery, in the shape of A Knight in Armour mayle with a shield 
with 3 crosses not much unlike those on the sheild of Strongbow in 
Christ Church ; his Lady also layd down at his left side on a Cushion 
guarded with Angells. This monument is supported round about, 
with severall figures of s ts , Apostles, and scripture History. 


Amongst other monuments here are that beginning 

P. M. S. 

That of Moloney family and his wife Penteny with these devices 
at each end the Tombestone, ECCE TALI DOMO CLAUDITUR OMNIS HOMO and 


1 From references to him in the State Papers, Roger Pope would appear to have 
been in his time a leading merchant in Dublin. His will is on record, and indicates 
that he was unmarried, The only one of his name mentioned by him is his nephew, 
William Pope, who is described as the son of his eldest brother, and as resident in 
England. He desires to be buried in the chancel of St. Catherine's Church, and leaves 
legacies to the Poor House of St. James, the Poor Houses in St. Kevin's, and the 
prisoners of Newgate, as well as to numerous friends. 

2 I.e. Werburgh's. 

3 This monument is now identified as erected to the memory of one of the Earls of 
Kildare. See Memorials of the Dead, i, 347, iii, 70. 

4 I.e. Audoen's. 

5 This monument is still in existence, but the inscription is &aid to be illegible. 
See Memorials of the Dead, v, 200. 

6 See ibid., p. 62. 


And that of the Terrels with this inscripcon : 

Here underlieth the Bodyes of Richard Terrell alderman mayor of 
this city of Dublin Anno MDII the [1]8 of Hen. 7. and also Walter Terrell 
alderman son to the sayd Terrell mayor MDXL 32 H. 8. and of their 
posterity John Terrell alderman son to the sayd Walter Terrell who 
caused this monument to be made 20 Dec 1600 in the 43 yeer of 
Queen Elizabeth her reigne 

Super est quod supra est Yia Yeritas Yita 

Here also lyeth the body of Matthew Terrell the eldest son of S r John 
Terrell K nt late mayor of this city who caused this monument to be 
finished Anno MDCXIX obiit 

Upon a Tombstone also is read this Inscripcon : 


In another place a fair Tombstone even with the pavement with this 
Inscripcon : 


H. M. P. 


ANNO DNI MDCxxxvm 2 

Here is also an ancient monument sett up in the time of Ed. 4., 
in memory of S r Rowland Fits Eustace, Lord Lieu* anno 1462, founder 
of the Covent of minor Friers at Kilkullen (where he was buried at New 
Abbey so called) ; he had the title of Baron given him by Edw rd 4, and 
that [of] Yiscount Baltinglass by H. 8. This monument takes notice 
also of his lady. 3 






1 See ibid., p. 67, where it is said these inscriptions are now illegible. 

2 See ibid., p. 64. 

3 See ibid., p. 202 ; and also, for this and the preceding inscriptions, the Irish 
Guilder, xxviii, 308, 309. 


DAUGHTERS (who are all dead) 

Another monument hath this Inscripcon 

Here lieth the Lady Elizabeth Mac Donnell Daughter to the 
R l Honble Henry Earle of Anglesey and wife to Alexander Mac Donnell 
Esq r son to the R l Hon ble S r Randall M c Donnell K nt Earle of Antrim 
who departed this life the fourth day of September MDCLXXII 

with this motto under the armes : 

In Domino Confido 


Died Abner as a fool dieth ? Thy hands were not bound nor thy feet 
put into fetters, as a man falleth before wicked men so fellest. Sam 2. 
3. 33. 34. 



In ST NICHOLAS CHURCH, near y e Communion Table, is a fair Monu- 
ment with 3 Inscriptions not one worth note. 

Into the World they all came from one Wombe, 
And when they all go out they have one Tombe. 
This life is to each man a Pilgrimage, 
Or as a scene soon acted on the stage. 

ST. THOMAS COURT was anciently a Religious House built by the Order 
of King Hen. II d anno 1178, in expiation (as it was thought) of the 
murther of Thomas A Becket, In the Government of Fitz Audelm 
Senescallus Hiberniae 4 th Governor of Ireland. "Whose Charter ran thus: 

Henricus D. G. Rex Angliae Dnus Hiberniae Dux Normanniae Aqui- 
taniae et conies Andegaviae Archiepiscopis, Episcopis, Regibus, Comitibus^ 


Baronibus, et omnibus fidelibus suis Hiberniae salutem Sciatis me D. Gra. 
sanum esse et incolumen, & negotia mea bene et honorifice procedere, 
Ego vero quam cito potero, vacabo magnis meis negotiis Hifoniae nunc 
autem ad vos mitto Willielmum filium Audelm Dapiferum meum, cui 
commisi negotia mea tractanda et agenda mei loco & vice. Quare vobis 
mando & firmiter praecipio, quod ei sicut mihimet intendatis de agendis 
meis & faciatis quicquid ipse vobis dixerit ex parte mea, sicut amorem 
meum desideratis & per fidem quae mini debetur. 

Ego quoque ratum habeo & firmum quicquid ipse fecerit tanquam 
egomet fecissem, & quicquid vos feceritis erga earn stabile habeo 

Teste Galfrido Archidiacano Cantuariensi & 
Richardo Archidiacano Pictaviae & Richardo 
Constabulario apud Yalon. 

Hugh Lacy having been y e first and 3 times Governor of Ireland 
Anno 1 1 84 was murdered with a Pickax, his body was translated to the 
Monastery of Beckley, and his Head was enterr'd in this St Thomas 
Abbey of Dublin. 


In Tables hanging against the wall are read these Inscriptions of 
some Archbishops of Dublin in Roman Capitols : 

Adamus Loftusius ab archiepiscopali sede Armachnae Dublin translatus 
Anno 1567 postea dominus cancellarius factus terque unus e dominis 
Justiciariis Hiberniae obiit An Domini 1605 

Another hath 

Hugo Corren archidiaconus Oxoniae & Decanus Herefordiensis a 
Maria Regina ad Archiepiscopatum Dublin evectus 1555 cui cum annos 
duodecim praefuisset Oxon translatus obiit Anno 1568. 


Thomas Jones in Episcopum Midens consecratus anno 1584 hue 
translatus 1605 eodem tempore a Rege Jacobo Dominus Cancellarius 
factus & postea bis unus e Dominis Justiciariis Hiberniae obiit Anno 


Lancelotus Bulkley ex Archidiacono Dublin fit Dublin Archiepiscop 
Anno 1619 a Jacobo Rege paulo post consiliariis suis in Hibernia 
enumeratus est obiit Anno Dni 1650. 

1 I.e. the Lady Chapel of St. Patrick's Cathedral. 

FIG. 15 l 

1 One of the groups of soldiers already noticed (supra, p. 279, n. 2) is introduced 
on the steps of the Tholsel. 


' * 


Jacobus Margetsonus Decanus Ecclesiae SS. Trin Dublin posquara 
vacaverat sedes Dublin An. 10 consecratus est Archiepiscop Dublin 1660. 
Ann 1663 translatus est ad Archiep sedem Armagh ubi adhuc praefulget 

Another of the Present Primat of Ireland and Lord Chancellour 

Michael Boyle consecratus est Corcagien Clonen & Eossen Episcopus 
Anno 1660 ad Archiepiscopatu Dublin translatus 1663 cui hodie presidet 
factus etiam Dominus Hiberniae Cancellarius Anno 1665. 1 

In the CORNE MARKET is seen a Conduit of marble, with a globick 
Dyall for y e sun, with the Armes of Dublin and this Inscription thereon 
in an escutcheon with Letters of Gold, 

The Armes 


DUBLIN CASTLE was first founded by John Comyn 
Archbishop of Dublin and since beautified by s r 
Henry Sydney then Lord Lieutenant Anno 1575 
under Queen Eliz. as appeares by Inscripcon. 


Thomas Butler, Anno 1408, being left Deputy 
Lieut 1 of this Kingdome, by Thomas Duke of 
Lancaster, son to Hen. IV, during his Gouvern- 
ment who was also Prior of Kilmainam, King 
Henry 4 th gave the sword to this City, which was 
formerly gouvern'd by One under the Title of a 
Provost, as appeares by the ancient Seale called 
Sigillum Praepositurae, which in the 14 Henry I II. 
was under a Mayor and two Bailiffs, which were 
changed into Sheriffs by Charter of Edward VI, 
1547. But since in the seventeenth year of the Raigne of our Lord 

FIG. 16 

1 " These commemorate six successive Archbishops of Dublin from the Reformation, 
the two first being transposed, and the contemporary, Parker, not included. Paintings 
of the arms of Archbishops of Dublin, with inscriptions such as are here described, 
now hang in the robing-room near the south-west porch of St. Patrick's Cathedral." 
J. R. G. 


King, the Gouvernment was changed into a Lord Mayor by y* Letters 
Patents dated July 29 at Westminster. 

The first who took upon him this Hon ble Title of Lord Mayor was 
S Daniel Bellingham Anno Dm, MDCLXV. Who hath bin succeeded by 
these following : 

John Desraynieres 

Mark Quinne 

John Forrest 

Lewis Desmynieres 

Enoch Reader 

John Touie 

Robert Doe 

Josuah Allen 

This last is since Knighted 

John Smith, call'd ye Beardless 
He is sayd to have bin Lord Mayor 
3 years, and Mayor for 7 years 
before, though now poor and fool 
with age in Dublin Hospital l 

Captn [John] Eastwood 

Luke Lowther 










The flourishing UNIVERSITY OF DuBLiN 2 was first granted to this city 
by Pope John 22, anno Dm MCCCXX, at the request of Alexander Bicknor 
als Bignor Archbip|> of Dublin. But put into the state it is, by Her 
Highness Queen Elizabeth of ever blessed memory, in the year 
MDLXXXXI, who then founded a Colledge in the time that s r William 
Fitz William was Lord Deputy of this Kingdome, upon a Place which 
was heretofore called the Monastery of All Saints. The Colledge is 
now dedicated to the Holy and individuall Trinity, under this Title, 
Collegium Sanctae ac individuae Trinitatis ex Fundatione Reginae 
Elizabethae juxta Dublin, who enriched and bestowed upon it all the 
Priviledges of an University, since which time S r Willia Fitz Williams 
Arms are not onely seen over y e colledge gate, but its chappel gate also. 

Its Chancellours were 

I s . S r William Cecill, K nt , Baron Burleigh, Lord High Treasurer of 
England one of his Ma ties most Hon ble Privy Council and Knight of the 
most noble Order of the Garter. 

1 This civic patriarch has been called by Sir Frederick Falkiner (Hospital of King 
Charles II, p. 76) tbe Whittington of Dublin. It was in the King's Hospital that he 
ended his days on the pretext that he was governing the house ; and, as a brass to his 
memory records, it was in its chapel that he was buried. 

Dingley's account of the University of Dublin is drawn in a large degree from 
Borlase's deduction of Ireland, pp. 142-170 ; but as there are additions and alterations,, 
it has been thought desirable to print it in full. 


II nd Robert Devereux, Earle of Essex, Earle Marshall of England, 
Lord Lieutenant of the Kingdome of .Irelan, and Chancellour not only 
of this but of the famous University of Cambridge in England ; he came 
over with full power to make warr or peace, to pardon any offence of 
Treason or anything against Q. Elizabeth even Tir-Oen himself, so that 
being furnished with 16,000 foot and 1,300 Horse accompanyed with y e 
Prime youth of the nobles and Gentry of England, he came into this 
Kingdome, but did little and return'd in her Maties displeasure and 
Anno 1601 feb. 25 was beheaded within y e Tower. 

In the Reigne of King Charles the Martyr Doctor Willia Laud 
Arch Bishop of Canterbury was Chancellour both of the most famous 
University of Oxford and of Dublin. 

Then succeeded him His Excellency James Marquis of Ormond, Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland, since made Duke and Chancellour of the University 
of Dublin now likewise of the most Famous University of Oxford. 

This University hath a Colledg of Physitians who enjoy many and 
considerable Priviledges from his most sacred Ma tie Charles the second. 

The Glory of the University Library was eclipsed much after that 
inhumane and most horrid Rebellion, w ch happened A Dni MDLXXxxvm 1 
when S r Thomas Bodeley is sayd to have purchased some of the books 
and translated them from that of Dublin to his incomparable Library of 
Oxford, which is thought by Travellers not to give place to that in the 

Benefactors to the Library of Dublin were the officers of the Army 
who gave money to be layd out in Books in England by M r . Challoner 
and M r . Usher his son-in-law afterwards Lord Primate (since which time 
any officers son is admitted gratis provided he be not worth 20 per 
annu), Henry Cromwell and S r Jerome Alexander, a justice in y c coon 
Pleas here, who bequeathed his own. Library, as well of Law books as 
others, with an hundred pounds to sett it up. Also 500 L to be layd out in 
additionall Building to the Colledge, and 24 L per ann ffee simple, to be 
disposed of as see Page [infra, p. 302], 2 

Belonging to this university to be considered by the Travell* is a 
fair Library wherein amongst other choice manuscripts, rarities and 
Antiquities, as medalls, coines, Roman Urnes, &c., is seen the Library of 
the late R* Reverend Bishop Usher consisting of the best and choicest 

1 During Tyrone's rebellion Trinity College was in great financial difficulties. See 
Dr. Mahaify's Epoch in Irish History, pp. 93-99. The present library had its 
beginning in 1601, and a list of forty books made in the previous year has hitherto 
been supposed to include all that the College owned before that time. The Book of 
Trinity College, p. 147. 

2 -ln some notes on the judges of Charles II's reign [(Journal of the Cork Hist, and 
Arch. Soe., n, vii, 222), I have collected particulars of this extraordinary man, who 
at the commencement of his career was convicted of forgery, and gratified the 
wishes of his enemies by writing a book in which his misdoings have been preserved 
for the information of posterity. 


books extant. This guift was by Henry Cromwell, made by his ffather 
the late usurper in the year 1655 Lord Lieut 1 of Ireland, a person who 
openly shew'd himself against the anabaptists then rageing, and 
countenancing this university then in a low ebb, bestowing the s d 
admirable Library of 33ipp Usher thereon carrying himself so as some 
of the rigour of his ffather was thereby taken off. 

The Government of this university is by a Chancellour, Vice- 
Chancellor, Provost, Vice-Provost, Proctor Senior, Propoctor, &c. The 
present Chancellour is his Grace the Duke of Onnond. 

The present Vice-Chancellour is Michael Boyle, L rd Chancellour and 
Primate of all Ireland. 

The present Provost is D r Marsh of Oxford. 

The Vice-Provost is 

The Vice-Provost, Senior Proctor, Proproctor, Senior Deane, Senior 
Lecturer, Burser, Divinity Professor, who also have a share in the 
Government of this university, are elected yearly out of the seven senior 
fellows, the 9 junior fellows are not left out of the Government. 

The Scholars are in number seventy which with students at this time 
make up in all above two hundred and fifty. In conferring Degrees 
respect is had to standing, Batchelours at four years, Masters at seven 
years, Batchelours of Divinity at 15 years, Doctor at twenty years. They 
cap to all university officers, Fellows juniors & seni 8 ; Fellow commoners 
cap to none but the Provost and upwards. 

The first Sch oiler was the late most K' Reverend ffather in God 
Archbpp Usher, who prophesied the Rebellion which happened in Ireland 
in the reigne of the late King of blessed memory the 23 October 1641, 
40 years before it happened : Archbishop Usher preaching soon after the 
overthrow of the Spanyards at Kinsale 1601, on the vision of Ezek chap 4. 
vers 6, he drew a fitt applicacon. This bloody Rebellion brake out 23 
Octob. 1641, S l Ignatius Loiola's birth day, that less than such a Patron 
might not be intituled to so close and bloody a designe. In this the Rebells 
pretend a Commission under the Kings broad scale, occasioned by one 
Plunkets having taken an old Broad scale from an obsolete out of 
date Pattent out of Farnham Abby and fixed it to a forged Commission, 
which served to seduce the vulgar and Irish rabble into an opinion of 
their Loyaltie, 

The afore mentioned Judge of the comon Pleas, S r Jerome Alexander, 
besides his own Library, 100 U in money, 500 L more in decoration of the 
College, gave the ffee simple of 24 s $> an to these uses, 7 L per annu addition 
to the Library Keeper, 20 ty annu for a yeerly sermon on Christmass 
day to be preached in the Colledge and the remainder to be disposed of 
monthly to such poor persons as the Provost and Senior Fellows shall 
think fit. 

The Remainder of his Estate he left to his daughter Elizabeth, 
provided she married no Irish man, or any related to that Interest ; if 


she did or died without Issue, the whole Estate be settled on the Colledge 
of Dublin. 

The Provosts or Presidents of Dublin Colledg. 

The first was Adam Archbipp of Dublin. 

2. Mf Walter Travers a Cantabrigian of Trinity A 1594. 

3. M* Henry Alvey of tbe same university and S* Jobns. 

4. M r William Temple, afterwards knighted and made one of the- 
masters of the Chancery in Ireland, of Cambridge Kings Colledge, thence 
he was made choice of by S r Philip Sidney, K nt , to attend him in the 
united netherlands during his Gouvernmeut there, and at the instance of 
D r Usher, Lord Primate, came to his Provostship An UDLXXX [recte 
1609], in which he lived 17 years, and in the 72 yeer of his age died, 
and is euterr'd under a fair Tombstone in the Colledge Chappell just 
before the Provosts Seate without Inscripcon. 1 

5. M r W m Bedel of the same university & Emanuel Cott presented to 
King Charles y e martyr by the famous S Henry Wotton as a fitt man for 
to be his Maties Provost of Dublin Colledge. 

6. Doctor Robert Usher, who dying in England his monument and: 
Inscripcon are seen at Pantabirsley in the county of Salop, which read 
page .- 

7. M r William Chappell, Batchelour of Divinity, of Christs Colledge 
Cambridge, afterwards Dean of Cassels ; he lieth buried in Bilthorp in. 
Notinghamshire, whose Inscripcon read page , 3 

8. M r Richard Washington of University Colledge in Oxford sworne 
August 1640. 

9. D r Teate borne in Ireland brought up in the Colledge the author 
of a choice book called Right Thoughts the righteous mans Evidence. 4 

10. Doctor Anthony Martin a Cantabrigian of Emanuel Colledge 
Bishop of Meathe ; he died of the Pestilence then rageing June 1650 and 
was then buried in Chappel of the Colledge but without Inscripcon. 

11. M r Samuell Winter came in in the y 1649 by Act of Parliament, 
and continued untill his Maties most happy Restauracon. 

12. Doctor Thomas Seele, born in Dublin city and educated in the 
Colledge, a happy Restorer thereof, Dean of S l Patricks, and the first 

1 The original chapel, which was superseded towards the close of tbe eighteenth 
century by the present one, stood on the northern side of what was in Dingley's time 
the principal quadrangle, and lay to the east of a steeple or spire which is a prominent 
object in a birdseye view of the college taken by him (infra, p. 305). Its site is now 
occupied by the campanile. 

a The inscription which is given by Dingley has evidently been copied from 
Borlase's Reduction of Ireland, p. 154. 

3 It has also been copied by Dingley from Borlase's Reduction of Ireland, p. 159. 

4 In the administration of the affairs of the College Teate was joined with 
Dr. Dudley Loftus, and in their appointment they are styled temporarii subrectores. 
They were soon superseded. See Dr. Mahaffy's Epoch in Irish History, p. 277. 
Teate is mentioned by Harris ( Ward's Works, ii, 161) amongst the writers of Ireland. 


Provost after the Kings most happy returne, whose monument in black 
marble and Letters of Gold against the wall is seen in the Colledge 
Chappell, and whose inscripcon I have wrote off page [infra, p. 308]. 
13. Doctor Marsh of in the University of Oxford. 

A late President of the Colledge of Physicians, was Doctor John 
Stearne whose monuments Inscription I transcribed page [infra, 
p. 306]. 

A Famous learned Vice-Provost Deane of Lismore and Chaplaine to 
his Grace the Duke of Ormond was y e late D r Richard Lingard l whose 
most elegant inscripc n upon his Tombstone I wrote out of the University 
Chappell page [infra, p. 307]. 




This last Inscripcon is engraven on a brass plate over a door in the 
Old Quadrangle under marked with y e letter C. 3 



The last Inscripcon and armes are seen over the doors in the walls of 
the first courte marked with the letters S. S. 4 





1 See for an account of Lingard the late Professor Stokes' s Worthies of the Irish 
Church, edited by Professor Lawlor. 

2 Then Bishop of Clogher, and afterwards Bishop of Meath. 

3 See birdseye view of the College On the opposite page. 

4 See idem. 

5 The will of George Baker, who died in 1638, is on record, and shows that he was 
a kinsman of the Stearne family. His bequest to the College is in the following 
terms: "I give and bequeath unto the College near by City of Dublin the sum of 
tive hundred pounds sterling, to be disbursed in building of a new quadrangle in or to 
the said building, to begin within two years next after my decease ; provided that if it 

; shall happen any of my name of the Bakers shall come to be of that College, that they 


This Inscripcon is in the new Buildings under the door undermarked ' 
thus . These Buildings are called S r Jerome Alexanders Buildings. 

The Chappel door in the Old Quadrangle of curious artifice repre- 
senting a Moses an Aaron the Arines of the twelve tribes, and at the 

FIG. 17 1 

Bottom a Pharo and his host drown'd, marked with y e letter T 1 hath this 
Inscription over it : 


be first provided and preferred to the chambers in that new building to be erected, 
before any other ; wherein I hope that the Provost and Fellows for the time being 
will not defraud this my trust reposed in them." Baker lived in the parish of 
St. Nicholas Without, in St. Patrick's Street, and left provision for the distribution of 
bread to the poor of that parish on Christmas Day and Good Friday, as well as for a 
gratuity to the preacher on those festivals. 

1 The key to the letters is not forthcoming. The *' T " to which Dingley refers as 



With his Armes this motto Prohibere nefas and this date 
MDLXXXVIII ; lie descended from the Fitz Williams of Sprots Bury 
K nts in Yorkshire. 

Adjoining to the Library are seen the Armes of the Foundresse 
Q. Elizabeth after ye manners, on ye right hand with this device at 

bottom SEMPEH EADEM. 1 

Entering into the University Chappell on the left hand is seen a fair 
monument in white marble of one Chaloner who was founder of the 
s d Chappel as appears by Inscription thereon : 

: A v\- 


1 1 


V'll ! 


FIG. 18 

In the Chappel on the right hand the altar in black marble in the 
wall in Letters Roman Capital of gold is read this Inscripcon. 

[Here is given the inscription on the monument to Dr. John Stearne. 2 ] 

Upon a fair Tombstone even with the pavement in y c body of the 
Chappell Read this excellent Encomion on Dr. Richard Lingard Vice 
Provost : 

denoting the chapel-door is on the ground near the spire and looks more like an " F." 
It will be noticed that, as in the view of St. Patrick's Cathedral and the Tholsel, 
a group of soldiers is introduced. The following tentative key is suggested by 
Mr. Garstin and myself. It is based on the information given by Dingley, and on 
a similar view of the College which was sent to Lord Burghley at the time of its 
foundation, and which has been reproduced by Dr. Mahalfy in the second edition of 
his Epoch in Irish History. The gate in the front of Dingley's view faces the west, 
where College Green lies. (A) The hall, surmounted by a turret, to the west of 
which was the kitchen. (B) The chapel, adjoining a steeple, which formed part of 
the monastery of All Hallows. (C) The library. (D) The Provost's lodging. 
(E) Sir Jerome Alexander's buildings. (F) The pump. (G) The garden. (H) The 
Provost's garden and orchard. (SS) The first court. (T) The chapel door. 

1 The stone still survives, and is to be seen in the Library of Trinity College. 

- See for these inscriptions, The Book of Trinity College, pp. 208, 209, and 
Memorials of the Lead, vii, 26, 27. 



M. S. 


Hujus Collegii vice prepositi Decani Lismorensis 
Quodque sumrnum ducebat Ormoniae Duci a sacris &c. 
At neque Lingardo vel mortuo, quod viventibus 

quibusdam contigit 
Dt soli in illo dorrairent tituli 
In uno quippe hoc viri miraculo 
Gloriae quicquid, meritorum quicquid est 


Per compendium aeternitati consecrantur 
In uno Ecclesia Academiae imo et Doctrinae 


Si non emori at languere saltern videbantur 
Tantus erat in rostris in cathedra tantus 
Quasi antiquam in se cum nova Eomam generose 


Utramque mundo triumphantem exhiberet 
Dum in illo Tullius Papatum consecutus est 
Nam quia vel Ethnicus erat vel papista sed 

Oratorum Alpha. 

Quamque alter frustra loci judicii ille autoritate 
Huinanam (si qua sit) infallibilitatem vindicavit 
Deflendas si quis in eo artes rogitet'silebit 

Nee alia nisi musarum fata ingemiscenda 


Si votivos ex ejus scientiis dolores metiremur 
Infiniti audient dum in circulo lugeamus 

Amissam in eo Eucuclopoediam 
Quas enim Babel sparserat Universas prope 

liiiguas recolligens 
Rebus tarn faeliciter accomodavit 
Ut eum non tarn verba quam res ipsas produxisse 

Summique aliquatenus in dicendo opificis 

ad instar cum loqueretur ageret 
Quod mores spectat, quae omnium ornamentoru 

ornamenta sunt. 

Tarn supra Plebem vixit Lingardus 
quam sapuit, 

1 These letters may represent Pro-Prepositus. J. R. G. 

D e A T J Vol. in, Sixth Series. { 
Jour. R.S. A.I. ( Vol j^j,, Consec . Ser> | Y 


Yitamque docte adeo et honorifice plain 

Ut inde vel absque Academiae gratia ad The- 

ologiae doctoratum evectus sit. 
Nee titulo contentus jam repotitur 

Vale et imitare 

Denatus 10 Novembris Anno MDCLXX 


On the left hand entring into the Chappel is a fair monument of him 
that was first Provost after the Kings Restauracon, on black marble in 
y e wall and roman capitall Letters of gold 

[Here is given the inscription on the monument to Dr. Thomas 
Scale 1 ] 

From this "University there hath shott forth many usefull Lights in 
the comon Firmament besides Dr. James Usher, Primate of Armagh, 
one of the greatest magnitude for generall Learning and Piety the last 
ages can truely boast of; he was the first of the Schollars admitted 
into the Foundacon of Queen Elizabeth of ever blessed memory, so 
gradually proceeding according to his yeers. 

Not farr from the Colledge worthy the sight of the curious is the 
SPRING GARDEN Belonging to the R* Hon ble Colonel Carey Dillon Privy 
Counsellour. 2 

Less than a mile out of Town at KILMAINEHAM which was anciently 
a Priory is a very fair Hospitall lately built for the reception of his 
Ma ties maimed souldiers ; this was founded by his Grace y* D. of Ormond 
out of deduccoDs of the Pay of the present standing Army. One of the 
Priors named Rawson gave the following Coat lately seen in y e Ruines 
of the Old Priory. 


He gave for Coat armor, two Coats quarterly, the first is parted 
per fesse under sable and azure, a Castle with four Towers Argent, the 

1 See The Book of Trinity College, p. 209, and Memorials, vii. 27. In 1798 this 
monument and those to Challoner and Stearne were removed to an enclosed space at 
the north-east corner of the present chapel, and are still there. The monument to 
Lingard has disappeared. 

2 He succeeded a few years later to the earldom of Roscommon as fifth of the line, 
and died in the winter of 1689 at Chester. The Spring Garden was near Lazy Hill, 
where Townsend Street lies. See MSS. of S. Philip Unwin (Hist. MSS. Com.), 
p. 570. 


second is Or on a Cheveron Vert, three Ravens heads erased, argent, the 
third as the second, the fourth as the first, ensigned all over with s, 
chief Gules and thereon a Cross of the third, the said Rawson was 
Knight of this order, and Lord Prior of that late dissolved Priory of 
Kilmainham. 1 

1 Sir John Rawson, Prior of Kilmainham, was in high favour with the English 
Government, and was recommended by Lord Deputy St. Leger as having kept the 
best house next to his own, and feasted and entertained strangers to the king's 
honour. He was given a pension by Henry VIII. He surrendered, with the con- 
sent of the convent, the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, in November, 1541, and 
was then created for life Viscount of Clontarf, which he made his abode. He died 
in 1560, when the title of course became extinct. His arms are not among those 
engraved in Burke's Extinct Peerage, but they appear in Burke' s General Armory. 
J. R. G. 


v 310 ) 



[Head 25 FEBRUARY 1913] 

A s is well known, there were in ancient Ireland five principal roads 
" which led from Tara in Meath to the political centres of gravity 
of the other four provinces. Each of these roads was called a slighe, 
with reference to which Cormac's Glossary says "it was made for the 
passing of chariots by each other, for the meeting of two chariots, i.e. a 
King's chariot and a Bishop's chariot, so that each of them may go by 
the other." (1) The Four Masters state at A.D. 123 that on the night of 
the birth of Conn Ceadcathach " were discovered the five principal roads 
to Tara, which were never observed till then." This entry probably 
means that these roads were built by Feidhlimidh Reach tmhar, King of 
Ireland, Conn's father. These roads long survived the abandonment 
of Tara ; and if Dublin is put in the place of Tara, their general direction 
is followed by the main roads of the present day. It is, however, with 
the northern road from Tara, or Slighe Miodhluachra, that I intend to deal 
in this paper. 

I hope to show that evidence exists which would support the view 
that the course of this road was as follows : It started from Tara and 
proceeded almost due north, crossed the Boyne in the neighbourhood of 
Drogheda, then passed near to Dundalk, and, within a mile or so north 
of Dundalk, divided into two branches, one of which, called Bealach M6r 
an Fheadha (2), traversed the barony of Upper Fews along the line of 
the present road which passes near Beal Atha an Airgid (Silverbridge) 
and through Newtown Hamilton, and ended at Eamhain Macha (the 
" Navan Fort"), near Armagh. 

The other branch traversed the Moyry Pass, passed close to Newry, 
crossed the River Flanrye at the ford where " Crown Bridge" now is, 
passed through the baronies of Upper and Lower Iveagh, Co. Down, and 
finally reached Dunseverick, near the Giants' Causeway. 

The following are some of the principal references^ to Slighe Miodh- 
luachra : In Caithreim Conghail Cldiringhnigh (3), Conghal, marching 
northwards from Tara, reached " Benna Anann, which is called Benna 
Breag" (4), and thence saw the host of the King of Ireland's son whom 
he met at Ath fuar (cold ford), alias Ath in Oighe (deer ford), on the 
Boyne, which, as the text explains, gets its name of " cold ford " because 


"it is there the fresh water and the salt water rush together, and it 
is the colder thereby." From that place " Conghal marched then to 
Crwch Rois (5) and to Magh Temil Mhara, which is called Fochaird Mh6r 
Muirthemhne(6), and by the Rough Way called SligJie Mhor Mhiodhluachra, 
to lubhar Chinnchoidhce mic Nsachtain, called lubhar Chinn Trachta (7) 
now, and to Ath M6r, called Ath Cruithne (8), and to Magh Cobha 
Cennmh6r (9) east, and from Cnoc Diamhrach (10) till he reached Cam 
Macu Buachalla in the centre of Ulster, which is called to-day Baile o 
nDongaile (11)." From Cam Macu Buachalla Conghal went a day's 
march to Blena Corra Crioncosaigh (12), then called Lena an Gharbh- 
aidh (13), and from thence to Aonach Jnbhir Tuaighe (14), which was on 
the seashore (15). 

The following references to Slighe Miodhluachra appear in the Tain 
Bo Cuailgne: "It is then that Medb went with a third of the host 
with her to Cuib (16) to seek the Bull; and Cuchulain went after her. 
Now on the road of Midluachair she had gone to harry Ulaid (17) and 
Cruthne (18) as far as Dun Sobairche (19) . . . Cuchulain turned back 
(from Cuib) to Mag Murthemne (20)" (21). " Medb said after every 
one had come with their booty, so that they were all in Findabair 
Cualngi (22): 'Let the host be divided,' said Medb; 'it will be 
impossible to bring this expedition by one way. Let Ailill go with 
half the expedition by Midluachair ; Fergus and I will go by Bernas 
nVlad'" (23) (24) . . . " (The Bull) went on the road of Midluachair 
in Cuip ... he made a trench there. Hence is Gort Buraig (25). 
Then he went until he died between Tflaid and Hui Eachach at Druim 
ZWri(25)" (26). 

It is clear that Slighe Miodhluachra traversed the Moiry Pass (Bealach 
an Mhaighre) (27), because Cill na Sag art, which is at the entrance of 
the pass, is mentioned (28) as in Miodhluachair. 

In the map of the " Southern Part of Ulster " in the Irish Historical 
Atlas of 1609 a road is marked which runs from Dundalk past " Faghart " 
and the " Fort of the Moierie Pace " to a bridge which crosses the 
" Owen Glin Ree FL," opposite to the gate of Newry ; this road is called 
on the map the " Moierie Causie." 

The evidence relating to the branch of Slighe Miodhluachra which ran 
from near Dundalk to Eamhain Macha is scanty. Cuchulain going from 
Eamhain Macha to his death on Magh Muirtheimhne, " started southwards 
along the road of Midluachair . . . then he drove along the road of 
Midluachair around Sliab Fuad." (29) & (30). 

The latest notice of the Slighe Miodhluachra which I have discovered 
is the statement in the Annals of the Four Masters at A.D. 1101. 
Muircheartach Ua Briain, King of Munster, after plundering Ulster and 
demolishing Griandn Ailigh (31), went oveYJFeartas Camus (32) in U~laidh, 
and carried off hostages of Ulaidh . . . and went by Slighe Miodluachra to 
his house." From this it would seem that Muircheartach marched 


directly east from Grianan Ailigh, crossed the Bann, and then proceeded 
southwards through the present counties of Antrim and Down. 

(1} Joyce, Soc. Hist., ii, 394. 

(2) i.e. " Great road of the wood." The baronies of Upper and Lower 
Fews, Co. Armagh, derive their name from the forest called Fiodh M6r or 
Fiodh Conaille, v. Onom. Goedel. sub roc., which , formerly covered the greater 
part of the barony of Upper Fews. For BealAthaan Airgid (Silverbridge), 
v. Onom. Goedel. sub voc. Sliab Fuait. 

(3J Jr. Texts Soc., v, 28. 

(4) Benna Breag would seem to be Sliabh Breagh (Slieve Breagh), between 
the baronies of Upper and Lower Slane in Meath, but for the fact that Conghal 
would have to cross the Boyne before he could reach this range of hills. 

(5) Part of the barony of Fearney, Co. Monaghan, and of the barony of 
Ardee, Co. Louth. Carrickmacross is in it. 

(6) Faughart, Co. Louth, two miles north of Dundalk. 

(7) i.e.Newry. 

(8) O'Don., A.F.M., ii, 614, says that Ath Cruithne is in Sheeptown t.l. 
in the Lordship of Newry. Aodh Ua Duibhgeanain in Journal Co. Louth 
Arch. Soc., i, 96, states that " Crown Mound, which is in Sheeptown, probably 
means * the Mound of the Picts,' and Crown Bridge, which spans the River 
Flanrye, where it divides Sheeptown from Crobane, I believe to be on the site 
of the Ath Onwflwe." 

(9) Of which later. 

(10) Unknown to me ; there is no reference to this place in Onom. Goedel. 

(11) Baile o nDongaile is Castlecaulh'eld, Co. Tyrone. If the identification 
of Cam Macu Buachalla with Baile o nDongaile is correct, this route from 
Tara to Dunseverick must have gone west of Loch Neagh. The other references 
to Cam Macu Buachalla seem to place it in Iveagh. See Onom. Goedel. sub 

(12) Jr. Texts Soc., v, 48. 

(13) Ib. 46. From the only reference to this place in Onom. Goedel. it 
would appear to be near the Bann. 

(14) Ib. 60. This seems to be the mouth of the Bann, , alias "Aonach 
Tuaidhe," ib. 44. It was one of the " three estuaries of Kire," Book of 
Ballymote, 42a. 

(Id) Jr. Texts Soc., v, 66. 

(16) Cuib or Cuip. This name appears to be another form of the Cobha of 
Mdgh Cobha or Ui Eachach Cobha. Compare the entry, Colman of " Druim 
m6r hi Cuib" in the Book of Lecan, 272, with " Druim m6r Mocholmdc i 
nUibh Eachach Ulad" in the FeUire of Gorman, 112. Mdgh Cobha alias Ui 
Eachach C6bha alias Ui Eachach Uladh was coextensive with the baronies of 
Iveagh, Co. ,Down. Several other places are mentioned in the Tain as being in 
Cuib, but Ath Cruithen (L.B.L. 599) and Cam Maccu Buachalla (L.B.L. 
599) are the only ones which I can identify. 

(17) It is difficult to say why the phrases * Ulaid and Cruithne" and 
" Ulaid and Hui Eachach" (infra) are used, as even in, its narrower connota- 
tion Ulaid always contained all Dal Kiada and Ddl nAraidhe, i.e. the present 
counties of Down and Antrim : see Onom. Goedel. sub voc. t 

(18) Cruithne seems to have been the same as Ddl nAraidhe, i.e. Co. Down 
and the, south half of Co. Antrim : see Onom. Goedel. sub vocibus Cruithne and 
Dal nAraide. 

(19) Dunseverick, Co. Antrim. 

(20) The plains of Co. Louth. 

(21) Miss Faraday's Translation, 59; L.U. 70. 

(22) Clogher townland and parish at Clogher Head, about four mile& 
north-east of Drogheda : see Onom. Goedel. sub voc. Finnabair Chualngi and 
Cell Clochair. 


(23) " Bernas nUlad," or " Bernas Bo nUlad," "the cow-gap of the 
Ultonians," LM. 65; L.B.L. 589. Probably Forkhill Pass under Slieve 
Gullion from Forkhill to Meigh, on the west side of the Great Northern 

(24) Faraday, p. 44 ; L. U. 65 ; L.B.L. 588, 

(25) Unidentified. 

(26) Faraday, p. 140 ; L.B.L. 644. 

(27) The Moiry Pass runs from the ruins of Moiry Castle, which is just on 
the west of the Great Northern Railway, in the townland of Carrickbroad 
(O.S. 32), parish of Killeavy, barony of Orior Upper, Co. Armagh, by Jones- 
borough to Killeen House, in the same parish and barony. The railway keeps 
to the west of the pass. 

(28) v. Onom. Goedel. Cill na Sagart is on the other side of the railway, 
just opposite to the Moiry Castle ; it is in the townland of Edenappa and 
parish of Jonesborough. 

(29) Father Hogan in Onom. Goedel. (sub voc. Sliab Fuait) wishes 
to iaentify Sliabh Fuaid with the mountain the western summit of which is 
Carraig an tSeabhaic (Catrigatuke), 1200 feet, in the townland of Armagh - 
brague, parish of Lisnadill, and the eastern Deadman's Hill, 1178 feet, in the 
townland of Clady Beg and parish of Kilclooney, on the boundary of the 
baronies of Upper and Lower Fews. The road from Dundalk to Armagh 
crosses the mountain between these summits. But all the evidence with 
reference to Sliabh Fuaid points to the conclusion that the name was never 
applied to a single mountain, but rather to the range of mountains which runs 
in a north-east direction from Castleblayney in Co. Monaghan into Co. Armagh, 
and of which Mullach Aisse (Mullyash), 1034 feet, in parish of Muckno, 
barony of Cremorne, Co. Monaghan, Shank's Hill, 832 feet, Carraig an tSeabhaic 
and Deadman's Hill are the principal summits ; cf . Sliabh Bladhma, Sliabh 
Luachra, Sliabh Damh, each of which is the name of a range of mountains. 
In the map of the " Baronie of Fues," in the 1609 Atlas the name " Slew 
Fode " is given to a mass of summits at the point where the baronies of 
Armagh and Fews and the County of Monaghan meet. The denominations 
immediately on the northern side of this mass are " Tonregie " (Tanderagee), 
" Tulbrone (Tullybrone), and ll Armaghonaga " ( Armagh brague), all in the 

?arish of Lisnadill ; and on the southern side '* Teemurrifree " (Drumlougher, 
'eer and Teer Island) in Creggan parish, " Ballmerrie" (Ballynarea), and 
' ' Tulliuelan " (Tullyvalan) in Newtown Hamilton parish. If, therefore, 
" Slew Fode " is intended to be any particular summit, it must be one of those 
a little to the west of Armaghbrague House. Since writing the foregoing I 
have discovered the following additional notice of Sliabh Fuaid, which confirms 
the view that the name is that of a range of mountains, " Daire Nuis i Sleib 
Fhuait," Feilire of Aongus, 134 ; this is the parish of Derrynoose, Co. Armagh, 
which covers the southern part of the Barony of Tiranny and the western part 
of the Barony of Armagh about the church of Maddan, There is no townland 
called Derrynoose, and I do not know where the ancient parish church was, 
but possibly it is the "old church" marked by the Ordnance Survey in 
the townland Listarkelt (0. S. 19). In the 1609 map of the "Baronie of 
Toghrany " a building which seems to be a ruined castle is marked in Listarkelt, 
which is there called " Lisrocattv." 

(30) Cuchullin Saga, Hull, p. 254. 

(31) The ancient residence of the kings of Ulster, on Greenan Hill, 4 miles 
N.W. of Derry. 

(32) The ford over the Bann near the ancient church of Camus Comhghail 
alias Camus Muighe Goscain, 3 miles south of Coleraine. 

( 314 ) 


BY H. G. LEASE (Member) 

[Read 28 JANUARY 1913] 

HPHE Caroline House at Oldbawn, near Tallaght, in the county of 
Dublin, has been noticed in the Irish Builder, in Handcock's 
History and Antiquities of Tallaght, and in The History of County Dublin, 
by Dr. F. Elrington Ball, in which the history and associations of the 
house have been very fully treated. The house itself and its surroundings, 
however, do not seem to have received so much attention in these 
valuable records as they deserve, and it is the principal purpose of the 
present paper to treat the subject rather from the architectural point of 
view a labour the more necessary seeing that the building is fast 
falling into ruin, and the surroundings undergoing^ very considerable 

It is desirable to recapitulate briefly the known history of the place 
and its inhabitants, and I have to acknowledge great indebtedness to the 
authorities already named, particularly to Dr. Ball's History, and to 
Mr. Handcock's book, in both of which will be found very full accounts, 
upon which the following is based. I have taken the liberty of quoting 
passages from both, but principally from the former. 

Oldbawn was erected by William Bulkeley, Archdeacon of Dublin, a 
son of the archbishop of that name. He "had a grant from Charles I, 
dated 5 March 1627, of many towns and lands," 1 including those of 
Oldbawn. Besides these, the archbishop bought and presented to his son 
another estate at Dunlavin, Co. Wicklow. The father, Launcelot Bulkeley, 
was consecrated Archbishop of Dublin in 1619, died at Tallaght in 1650, 
and was buried in St. Patrick's Cathedral under the Communion Table. 3 

The family came from Wales, the prelate being the youngest son of 
Sir Richard Bulkeley, of Beaumaris, 8 who was a descendant of Richard 
Bulclogh, or Bulkeley, of Eaton in Cheshire, and sheriff of that shire in 
1341. 4 

The house was erected about the year 1635, in what is described as a 
" desolate and wild" spot, and we are told that the archdeacon, a man 
who found his greatest diversion in the improvement of his estate, 

1 Handcock's History of Tallaght. 3 Harris's Ware. 

2 Dictionary of Nat. Biog. 4 Burke's Commoners, vol. iii. 


made many plantations, turning the place " into a most delightful 
patrimony." 1 In the troubled times of 1641 Oldbawn waft- burned, and 
much property and live-stock destroyed. After this a claim was put in 
for the whole cost of the house, 3000, and a further claim of a remark- 
able and amusing nature, in that the archdeacon's mother-in-law was 
compelled to marry again during the disturbance, and "he firmly 
believed in his conscience" that his wife had "thereby lost a legacy" 
expected from that source. 2 

" When a survey of the parish was made after the establishment of 
the Commonwealth," the house was in good condition, and was described 
as being "the only one" in the parish "occupied by a family of 
position." 3 The household then numbered thirty, and included a large 
retinue of servants of varying degree enumerated in Mr. Ball's 
History " cookmaid, dairymaid, porter, brewers, cook-boy, scullion 
boy, ploughman, stable or ' garron ' keeper, horse boy, footman, and 
boys for cattle, sheep, and swine." 

The members of the family are also described in some detail the 
archdeacon's mother, an old lady of eighty-three, taking first place. 
" On account of her great age she had been granted leave to eat lamb," 4 
the killing of lambs at that time being prohibited under penalty. Burke's 
Commoners in a note to vol. iii states that "Mrs. Bulkeley petitioned 
for licence to eat lamb, by reason of her great age, and weakness of body : 
in consideration whereof her petition was granted, and she had a licence, 
17 March 1652, to kill and dress so much as would be necessary for 
her own use and eating, not to exceed, however, three lambs in the whole 
of that year." The rest of the family are nai'vely identified; the Arch- 
deacon, " a man of middle height and slender build, with brown hair 
and grey beard"; his wife, "tall and slender, with a long visage 
and brown hair" 8 ; and her sister, Miss Mainwaring. Besides these 
were the Archdeacon's son and daughter, the former a Trinity student, 
aged seventeen, the future Sir Richard Bulkeley; and the cleric's 
" cousin-german," Rowland Bulkeley. 

At this time the village of Oldbawn contained about 100 inhabitants, 
all probably dependent in some degree upon the estate, including a 
steward, gardener, and foreman; and amongst various tradespeople, a 
tailor, a brogue-maker, smith, carpenter, and fowler. 6 It is probable 
that most of these were Welsh people brought over by the Bulkeley s. 

In the days of the chimney- tax " Oldbawn was rated as containing 
12 hearths," 7 which seems to point to something like an evasion of the 
law, since there must have been at least fifteen in the house alone. 

1 Ball's History of Co. Dublin, vol. iii, p. 33. 5 Ibid., vol. iii, p. 34. 

2 Ibid., vol. iii, p. 33. 6 Ibid. 

3 Ibid., vol. iii, p. 34. 7 Ibid., vol. iii, p. 34. 

4 Ibid., vol. iii, p. 34. 


At the death of the founder in 1671, the estate passed to his son, 
Sir Richard, who had been created a baronet, " and represented Baltinglass 
in the Irish Parliament." 1 He settled down in middle age at Oldbawn, 
after a youth spent in travel, giving a great deal of attention to horse- 
breeding. " He was twice married, in the first instance to a daughter 
of the Right Hon. John Bysshe, Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and 
secondly to a daughter of Mr. H. Whitfield." 2 On his death in 1685 he 
was succeeded by his son, the second Sir Richard Bulkeley, a man 
deformed in body, given to study, and of great learning, and a graduate 
of Dublin University, and B.A. of Oxford. He was a Fellow of the 
Royal Society at the same time as John Evelyn, with whom he was 
intimate ; and in the archives of that body are preserved some papers 
read by him before the Society. Amongst these is one dealing with a 
self-propelling vehicle invented by him, entitled, " On a new sort of 
Calesh," 3 which effusion seems to have caused some merriment, since 
serious Evelyn was constrained to make the following entry in his 
"Diary" under date 28th October, 1685: "Sir Richard Bulkeley 
described to us a model of a chariot he had invented, which it was not 
possible to overthrow in whatever uneven way it was drawn, giving us a 
wonderful relation of what it had performed in that kind, for ease, 
expedition, and safety ; there were some inconveniences yet to be 
remedied it would not contain more than one person ; and was ready to 
take fire every ten miles ; and being placed and playing on no fewer 
than ten rollers, it made a most prodigious noise, almost intolerable. A 
remedy was to be sought for these inconveniences." 

Sir Richard was evidently somewhat of the leisured crank, and in his 
later years got into the hands of some prophetic enthusiasts called 
" French Prophets." So much was he under their influence that he 
wrote and published several pamphlets in their defence, and intended 
to sell his estates, and divide the proceeds amongst them, had not 
death frustrated him. He it was who, according to Lynch's Life of 
St. Patrick, destroyed the wall-paintings and decorations in the little 
building at St. Doulogh's Well while returning with his troopers from 
the Battle of the Boyne. 

He married a daughter of Sir G. Downing, represented Fethard in 
Parliament, and died, leaving no issue, in 1710, when Oldbawn became 
the residence of the "much -married judge, the Hon. William Worth," 5 
who espoused as his third wife the widow of the first Sir Richard 
Bulkeley, and, as his fourth essay in matrimonial seas, married the relict 
of the second Baronet of the name. We may suppose that he found 
Oldham a comfortable and pleasant abode, since that " delightful 

1 Ball, vol. iii, p. 34. 4 Dictionary Nat. Biog. 

2 Ibid., vol. iii, p. 35. 5 Ball, vol. iii, p. 35. 

3 Dictionary Nat. Biog. 


patrimony " must then have been at its best, the plantations grown 
into fine trees in their eighty years of life. 

A son by his second wife, a daughter of Sir Henry Tynte of 
Co. Cork, succeeded him on his death in 1721. This son took the 
name of Tynte, 1 and married a grand-daughter of the first Sir 
Eichard Eulkeley, thus doubly connecting himself with the place 
and family. He took a prominent place in politics as the Eight 
Hon. James "Worth Tynte, and was succeeded, in 1758, by his son, 
Eobert Tynte, who survived him by only two years, Oldbawn being 
then occupied by his widow, a daughter of the first Earl of Aldborough, 
and passing to her son, who was created a Earonet, as Sir James 
Stratford Tynte. He took a prominent part in the Volunteer movement, 
being made a General of ^ ^ olunteers; and when he died in 1785 was 
accorded a military funeral to Donnybrook, where is the family burial- 
place. 2 

During the middle years of the nineteenth century, Oldbawn was 
occupied by Mr. Joseph McDonnel, whose family had for years worked 
the adjoining paper-mills, which now lie in an even more derelict state 
than the house. The house suffered from the proximity of the factory, 
and was in part given over to mill purposes. 

In the autumn of 1907 I first visited Oldbawn, in company with 
Mr. Joseph A. Geoghegan, to whom I am indebted for my introduction 
to the place, and whose idea it was to make a careful survey and 
conjectural restoration of the house and surroundings. It is through his 
help and knowledge that I am able to place this paper, the result of our 
joint labours, before the Society. We found ample evidences to form 
the basis of a restoration of the house in its original state, which 
evidences will be referred to in detail later. 

Oldbawn lies in the townland of the same name, and in the parish 
of Tallaght, about three-quarters of a mile to the south of that village, 
and about 500 yards to the west of the road from Tallaght to Oldbawn 
Bridge on the Dodder. 

The remains in 1 907 comprised the still roofed shell of the original 
house, with various later additions ; and a fine yard building or barn, 
having a curved gable in the centre crowned by a light cupola, with 
a clock beneath, which bore the dates 1721 and 1747 entwined 
(apparently those of its construction and repair), and the words "Math 
Cr." 3 Beside the house stood the ruins of the paper-mill, with its ponds 
and races, and a fine brick chimney of the circular type raised on a square 
base. There were also yards and gardens, and a farm-house of Victorian 
date not connected with the house. 

The appearance of the house, closely surrounded by trees and over- 
grown shrubberies, and covered with luxuriant ivy, was very neglected, 

1 Ball, vol. iii, p, 36. 2 Ball and Handcock, note. 3 Handcock, p. 59. 


and, towards the gathering of dusk, sinister in the extreme. The formally 
laid out, but overgrown, pleasure ground, given over to pasture, was still 
a pleasant place, and perhaps more pleasing in its wildness than it may 
have been when in its stiff glory. In the description which follows, 
the present tense is used of the place as it stood in 1907, except where 
reference is made to the conjectural restoration of its original state. 
The present condition of the house will be referred to in conclusion. 

(Birdseye view) 

The first feature to claim attention is the long avenue leading from 
the road axially to the front door. This, though no longer used as 
such, is quite plainly defined by two parallel fences about 200 feet 
apartj running unbroken to the public road. Such an avenue would 
be quite characteristic of the period, there being examples in England, 
notably in Northamptonshire, belonging to the period immediately 
anterior to the time when Oldbawn was built. Portions of curved 


walls remain at the end of the avenue, and these are probably of 
comparatively recent, date, marking the site of a later entrance gate. 
It seems probable that the house was built upon the site of some older 
dwelling, since the name Oldbawn, referred to in the original grant, 
suggests the existence of at least an enclosure, "bawn," or garth. 
The term is sometimes applied to the cattle enclosures common to 
castles in this country, and is a form of "bodhun," or cattle fortress. 

This enclosure was perhaps of the irregular shape shown within the 
fosse or moat, which does not appear to have been noticed in any 
previous description of the place. It is to be seen in what must be 
almost its original state, a cutting about 25 feet wide across the south 
end of the garden and pleasure-ground; and a regular depression in 
continuation of this extends right across the east side of the plot, but is 
obliterated at the head of the avenue. On the other two sides, where are 
the modern mill-ponds, races, and mill-buildings, the signs are not so 
clear ; but the existing indications seem to warrant the assumption of 
its existence on all sides. When the date of the house, so little removed 
from the castle-building era, and its proximity to the hills, from whence 
in the seventeenth century the O'Byrnes and O'Tooles still issued, are 
considered, it seems more than probable that a moat existed. 

The base or fore court would be a feature of a house of the period, 
and the ground within this space is sunk somewhat below that 
adjoining. Buildings or offices on each side of this court are probable, 
and the wall to the south appears to show traces of their existence. 
Probably there were also a gate-house and drawbridge, of which, 
however, there is no trace. 

The yards to the right, and the small garden at the back of the 
house are arbitrary, but probable, divisions. The yard at the back of 
the barn (which I think is of eighteenth-century date) occupies the 
likely position for the farm-yard. It is approached through the archway 
in the centre of the barn building. 

The pleasure-ground, 300 feet long by 130 feet wide, to the south of 
the house, is probably original, judging from its position and the traces 
of formal laying out, with fish-ponds, circling walks, and a walk or alley 
bordered with yew trees, separating it from the orchard. Along the 
east side stood, until May, 1909, a fine row of beech trees sheltering it 
from the east winds. 

The house, however, is the centre of interest; it is built upon the 
typical late Tudor H-plan, a fashion on the wane in England at the time 
of its erection ; but, since tradition dies hard in remote places, it is natural 
that it should have been adhered to by the craftsmen (probably Welsh) 
who were employed in the building. 

A ground-floor plan is shown of the house as it stood in 1907, before 
the removal of the staircase and mantelpiece (happily now housed in the 
Museum of Science and Art, and to be referred to later) ; a restoration, 


plan from the indications available is also shown. The centre portion 
is occupied by the hall, about 20 feet by 35 feet, and the wing to the 
left by the parlour and another room, probably also a sitting-room, the 
staircase being between. The position assumed for the latter in the 
" restored " plan is the typical one, and is based upon the obvious 
evidence of the shape and lighting of the room to the rear in " existing " 

plan, which, it is safe to assume, would never have been planned 
originally in this awkward way, with one window and half the fireplace 
obstructed by the staircase enclosure. When the staircase was moved 
to this position, it is not possible to say; perhaps after the burning of 
1641 ; but more probably later, since there is a piece of balustrading 


of late seventeenth- or early eighteenth-century date on the landing 
immediately o?er. Of the three openings at the north end of the 
hall, in "restored" plan, one still exists, and the others are built up, 
but traceable. In the " Screens" 1 of the typical Tudor Hall plan, 
this arrangement of doors is not uncommon. 

The plan of the north or kitchen wing, used in the last century as 
part of the paper-mill, and for this purpose completely gutted from the 
first floor to the roof, is made clear by the position of the large fireplace 
of the kitchen now built up ; and by the squint window in the internal 
angle to the rear, which by its position between the levels of the 
other windows, indicates the presence of a staircase, probably communi- 
cating with the attics. There is a gable of the main roof at this 
end, allowing sufficient headroom for the staircase to reach to the attic 
floor. The space marked "Buttery" is the usual position for such an 
apartment ; and there are indications of cellarage under this portion, 
wliich would be its natural appurtenance. Another room adjoins, of 
which the use is uncertain. 

On the first floor, over the hall, there is a large room (now divided 
into two), the typical "Great Chamber" of the period, and over 
the parlour is another large room, much altered from its original state, 
the ceiling having been raised at the expense of the room on the floor 
above, and containing an uninteresting modern marble mantelpiece. 
There is a second story, with rooms partly in the roof, and an attic 
story, completely in the roof, over the level of the roof-ties. 

The buildings between the projections of the wings at the back are 
of modern date, and do not call for remark. The roofless building 
attached to the north wing, and marked "offices" on plan, is of 
later date than the house, but had a high-pitched roof, and was possibly 
the first mill erected here. 

The clear height of the ground-floor story is 9 feet 6 inches, that of 
the first floor 8 feet ; and the second-floor rooms, partly in the roof, are 
7 feet 9 inches in height to the roof-ties, which form the floor-beams of 
the attic or garret over. The external walls are very solid, averaging 
3 feet 6 inches thick, of rubble masonry. 

The external appearance of the house is the thing of greatest interest 
about it ; and careful examination has made it possible to give an accurate 
restoration of its original state. The illustration shows it as it stood in 
1890, before neglect and the vigorous growth of ivy made a good 
photograph impossible. For the use of this photograph I have to 
thank Mr. Weston St. John Joyce, who very kindly lent it. The 
illustration is from his recent book, The Neighbourhood of Dublin. 

The window openings, where not built up or otherwise altered, are 
filled with double-hung sashes of the ordinary type, except in the north 

1 Namely, the passage separating the hall from the kitchen wing. 


wing, where the original openings have been formed into great square 
gaps, and filled with open timber trellis-work to admit plenty of air for 
the drying of paper. 

All of the outer walls are plastered and dashed, there being two 
layers of plaster, the outer one easily detachable, leaving exposed the 
older plaster under : and, in this latter, round the original window- 
openings, are smooth plaster bands or architraves, with horns at the 
angles, disclosing the manner in which the modern frames have been 
inserted. Further examination laid bare several of the original solid 
window-frames in openings on the south side of the house, and in some 
of the upper windows, now built up. These frames are of oak, 6 inches 
by 5 inches, set 5 inches back from the wall-face, with slate sills below, 
and prepared for casement-sashes, opening outwards. Austin Cooper, 
who visited the place in 1779, described it as possessing "old-fashioned 
lattice windows." Prom these indications the sketch has been prepared. 

It is possible that the smooth plaster surrounds to the windows, and 
the similar treatment of the angles of the building, may not be original, 
but it is beyond doubt that they are earlier than the existing window- 
frames and sashes. 

The high-pitched gables and dormers, and the massive chimney- 
stacks, which give the building its picturesque quality, are quite 


characteristic of the period, and must be considered original. The 
chimney-stacks are built in brick at the top, and plastered, and have 
sunk panels with semicircular heads, almost precisely similar to a design 
I recently came upon in some English cottages dated 1634. It is possible 
that the roof -covering is not original, though it is very old, the manner 
of using large slates at the eaves, and many courses of small slates above, 
being very usual in early work in Dublin. The projecting courses at 

To face p. 323] 



the verges of the gables are also in brick, of a soft red kind, and are 
plastered over. 

The granite porch to the entrance-doorway appears to be of later date 
than the house, the free way in which the regular classic details are used 
seeming to point to the later part of the seventeenth century ; but, for 
lack of parallel examples, it is not possible to dogmatize as to this. The 
blocks to the columns are very heavy, and the details generally rather 
coarse, no doubt in part due to the nature of the stone ; but the whole 
has a certain dignity and appropriateness to its position. The wooden 
door itself is frankly eighteenth century, and possesses a heart-shaped 
pierced brass key -hole plate, similar to those on the locks of Dublin 
houses of that date. 

The south, or garden, front also bears sufficient traces to make a 
restoration possible, and in the narrow windows beside the chimney- 
stack are two of the original window-frames. 

In the back, or west elevation, the openings have been very much 
altered, the large gaps to be seen being simply the originals broken 
into one; and there are visible traces of all the windows shown in the 
" restored " elevation. 

The great chimney-stack in the centre is that of the hall, and the 
little squint-window in the angle marks the position of the stairs in the 
north wing, already referred to. 

Internally, the object of greatest importance is the parlour mantel- 
piece, which has now been removed to the Museum of Science and Art, 
and erected there. It is executed in modelled stucco, and bears the date 
1635. In the upper portion is a representation of the rebuilding of the 
walls of Jerusalem, as recorded in Nehemiah : " They which builded on 
the wall, and they that bare burdens, with those that laded, every one 
with one of his hands wrought in the work, and with the other hand 
held a weapon. For the builders, every one had his sword girded 
by his side, and with the other hand held a weapon, and so builded." 
Recollecting the uncomfortable nearness of the O'Byrnes and O'Tooles, 
the Archdeacon's choice of a subject for the chief decoration of his house 
must be considered peculiarly fitting. 

It is not impossible that this mantel may have been erected after the 
raid and burning of 1641, when the house was re-edified, in which case 
the date is commemorative of its foundation, and the subject even more 
apposite. Possibly the upper portion alone belongs to the later date, 
the character of the modelling seeming to be different from the lower 

In front of niches on each side of this centre-piece stand two 
figures in seventeenth-century costume, one armed with spear and sword 
and the other with a peculiarly shaped trumpet and also girded with a 
sword; and at each angle outside these are consoles crowned with female 
heads carrying the cornice over. These consoles have grotesque faces 
in high relief on the swell, and end in volutes resting on the shelf. 

T - Q A T ) Vol. ill., Sixth Series. { 7 

Jour. R. S.A.I. j Vol.XLin..Consec.Ser. j 


The projecting cornice has strap-work ornament on the soffite, the 
space over the cornice to the ceiling being filled with rude scrolls and 
grotesque heads, and in the centre are the Bulkeley arms and the 
Archbishop of Dublin's " pallium " on a shield held by two small 
winged figures. 

The heavy mantle-shelf sloping forward has more heads and faces in 
low relief, four representing the winds, surrounding the scroll in the 
centre, which in all probability had a painted motto or text ; and one 
face over each of the supporting half-columns, which latter have rude 
Ionic caps and neckings. On the lower edge of the shelf, in the centre 
below the scroll, is the date 1635. The curious feature of the design is 
the liberal use of grotesque heads and faces of all shapes and sizes, there 
being no less than fourteen, excluding those attached to figures. 

The modelling of the figures is rude, which is quite characteristic of 
the figure-work of the period ; but the use of stucco or plaster is very 
interesting, and it may be noted that this was not uncommon at the 
time. In The Manor Houses of England, by P. H. Ditchfield, F.S.A., 
examples are given, scattered all over England, and no less than four are 
to be found in the famous house of Plas Mawr at Conway, which is of 
earlier date than Oldbawn. The Archdeacon's mother was a Bulkeley of 
Conway, and it is therefore probable that the craftsman who made this 
mantel, and who perhaps came from the same locality, was at least well 
acquainted with this type of work. 

The timber beam casings and cornice to the room, which is simply a 
half-section of the cross-beams carried round the walls, appear from the 
style of the enrichments to be original ; but the wall-panelling, as may 
be seen from the portions erected in the Museum, is evidently of the 
early eighteenth century. There are also semi-circular-headed door 
openings from the hall and ante-room of similar character. 

The mantel in the hall, though not so elaborate, has some dignity, 
and has a larger shield, with shell ornament over, bearing the " pallium " 
and the Bulkeley arms: "Sable a chevron, between three bulls' heads 
caboshed argent, armed or." The niches were once evidently occupied 
by figures. 

Modelled stucco appears to have been the mainstay of the decoration 
of the house, the delicate enrichments of the beams in the " Great 
Chamber " over the hall being specially good, but difficult to illustrate. 
The soffits of these beams are timber, however, and are covered with a 
" chip-carved " diaper pattern of very delicate type. 

On the first-floor landing are two fine door-surrounds, apparently 
coeval with the house, the doors with raised mouldings and small heads 
in the top panels being worthy of remark. 

The staircase (of which, owing to its position and bad lighting, it was 
impossible to get a photograph) is now erected in part in the Museum, 
where it may be easily examined. It is rough in its details, which, 
though in the style of the period, are crudely executed ; but it is most 

[To face p. 324 





admirably constructed with 11 -inch by 6-inch strings and 7-inch by 
6-inch handrails, all of oak, tenoned and pinned to heavy square newel 
posts. The balusters are square, and tapered, with surface carvings and 
moulded bases and capitals, joined at the top, under the handrails, by 
curious elliptical arches in timber, 


On the first floor landing is a balustrade of late seventeenth- or early 
eighteenth- century type, which has already been mentioned. 

The great oak roof-principals are very massive, the members being 
tenoned and pinned together, and the rafters also tenoned into the 
purlins instead of crossing them in the modern manner. This principle 
of tenoning and pinning has been adhered to throughout, and has certainly 
well stood its trial for durability. The timbers are in fairly sound con- 
dition, except where the roof covering has given way, and the weather 
has gained entrance. 

I had an opportunity of visiting Oldbawn within the last week, to 
find the state of the building many degrees worse than as described above. 
The trees have been almost all cut down, leaving the house gaunt and 
bare, where before it was almost invisible from the public road, The 
house itself has lost half its roof from the north gable, which is gone, to 
the centre of the main block, and it is evident that the work of demoli- 
tion is proceeding daily. The chimney-stacks oil the south side are 
badly split at the top by the weather, 1 and are in a very dangerous con- 
dition, while the cupola and clock from the yard building have been 
removed. The whole place is desolate, and will soon be a complete ruin. 

For me, the only crumb of satisfaction was to find the moat, more 
evident than usual, fulfilling all its defensive functions owing to the 
recent heavy rains, and thereby greatly re-enforcing my belief in its 
previous existence as a complete entity. 

1 One has fallen since. 

( 326 ) 



(Continued from p. 265) 
LEINSTER- continued 

No. of 

Locality and Townland. 






1. Caldragh, S.W. Beside the " Caldragh Stone" in the old 
Killeen, 20 graveyard near Foxhall House, 5 m. S. 

of Edgeworthstown Station. 

A fragment about 14 in. by 9 in., bearing portion of a design consisting of 
a band which forms three circles on a stem line. In the circles are cruciform 
frets. See Du Noyer's Sketches in R. I. A. Library, vol. vi, No. 21 (I.). 

2. Inchleraun, 1 S.W. At the churches on the island in Lough Ree, 
Same, 21 11 m. N. of Athlone, and 3 m. E. of 

Knockrougheiy Station. 

(a) An erect slab 2 ft. 6 in. in height, having on one side a double-line 
Latin cross with hollowed angles, and on the other a plain single-line Latin 
cross surrounded by a double -line Latin cross potent with a square centre. In 
each of the upper quarters is a small circle. (Close to N. side of Temple 

(b) An irregularly shaped slab 2 ft. 2 in. long by 1 ft. 9 in. wide, incised 
with a three-line cross, having a circular centre and semicircular ends, all of 
which contain frets. It is inscribed oji t)O laichbcach. (It lies near 
Temple Muire.) For inscription see Journal M.S. A.I. , vol.'xlii, p. 31 (M.). 

(c) Portion of a similar slab, showing a circle with lines radiating from it. 
(On a wall at the caretaker's cottage.) For (), (b), and (c) see Journal 
H.S.A.L, vol. xxx, p. 85 (I.) 

(d) A fourth slab, 
p. 31 (M.). - 

(Not described.) See Journal U.S. A.I. , vol. xlii, 

1 Slab No. 177 in Christian Inscriptions, vol. i, is there stated to be at Inchleraun. 
It has, however, always been at Clonmacnois. 



1. Dunleer, S.W. Formerly in Dunleer churchyard. 
Same, 18 

A slab inscribed with a two-line cross and the words op bo puib across 
the upper part. (It is now missing.) See Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 69 

2. Rokeby Hall, S.E. Found in an old graveyard called Marlay, 
Rokeby, 18 and now placed at the doorway of 

St. Peter's Church, Drogbeda. 

A rough slab 2 ft. 9 in. long by 2 ft. 4 in. wide, incised with an oval panel 
containing two crosses ; the first a single-line Latin cross 7 in. long with 
bifurcated ends, the second a similar cross 12 in. long, and having a ring and a 
surrounding line which follows the outline. Above tbe crosses is the word 
chubach, and below colman p. Information received from Mr. J. R. Garstin. 

3. Monasterboice, N.W. In the graveyard N. of the church next to 
Same, 21 the Round Tower. 

A rough slab 4 ft. 9 in. long by 2 ft. 8 in. wide, incised with a three-line 
cross having a circular centre and semicircular ends. It is enclosed in a three- 
line rectangular panel, and inscribed down the sinister side op bu jiuajiocm. 
See Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 67 (D.I.). 

4. Termonfeckin, S.W. Built into the inside wall of the porch of 
Same, 22 Termonfeckin church, 4 m. N.E. of 


A rectangular slab 2 ft. 4 in. long by 8 in. wide, inscribed in three lines 
5* opoic bo ulccm & bo bubchach bopism m caif-pel. See Christian 
Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 70 (D.I.). 


1. Kilbeg, N.W. In the S. end of the old graveyard near 
Same, 11 Kilbeg mote, 4 m. N.E. of Kells. 

(a) An erect slab 2 ft. 6 in. high by 1 ft. 6 in. wide and 3 in. thick, on 
which is a ringed cross of two bands in relief. 

(b) A slab of irregular shape 3 ft. long by 2 ft. 3 in. wide by 3 in. thick, 
incised with two plain Greek crosses in circles, the diameters of which are 
1 ft. 3 in. and 4 in. See Du Noyer's Sketches in the R.I. A. Library, vol. x, 
No. 11 (I). 

2. Castletown Church, N.W. In the churchyard 2f m. S.E. of Nobber 
Castletown, 12 Station. 

(a) A small erect slab 2 ft. 4 in. above the ground, 13 in. wide by 6 in. 
thick, incised with a two-line Latin cross in a two-line rectangular frame. 
The upper quarters are filled by fret patterns shaped like the letter E. (35 ft. 
W. of the church.) See Du Noyer's Sketches in the R.I. A. Library vol. iii, 
No. 9 (I.). 


(*) An erect slab 4 ft. above the ground, 2 ft. wide and 6 in. thick. On it 
is a sunk Latin cross 1 ft. 9 in. long by 1 ft. wide. This slab appears to be 
made of tufa. (It is 40 ft. S.E. of the church.) Same reference, vol. i 
No. 75(1.). 

3. Drakestown, S.W. In a field E. of the road, and near the 
Same, 12 entrance to the old graveyard, 3 m. X. W. 

of Wilkinstown Station. 

A slab 3 ft. long by 1 ft. 2 in. wide by 4 in., incised with a ringed cross 
1 ft. 8 in. in height. (This slab is now set on a concrete pillar.) 

4. Clonabreany, S.E. In the centre of the old graveyard beside 
Bobsville, 15 the road, 2 m. W. of Croesakeel, and 6 m. 

S.W. of Virginia-road Station. 

A slab 2 ft. 9 in. long by 1 ft. 6 in. wide by 5 in. It bears a ringed cross 
potent of four lines, having a point added below the base. There are some 
remains of an inscription, but the surface is greatly worn. Information received 
from Professor R. A. S. Macalister. 

6. St. Kieran's, N.E. A few yards E. of the ruined church beside 

Castlekeeran, 16 the railway, 3 m. W. of Kells. 

A rectangular slab 4 ft. long, 2 ft. wide and 3 in. thick, on which is carved 
a four-line cross having a plain circular centre and semicircular ends. It is 
enclosed by a two-line frame, and the quarters are sunk. See Du Noyer's 
Sketches in the R.S.A.I. Library, vol. x, pp. 38 and 41 (I.). 

6. Kells, N.W. In the churchyard, (a) and (b) are leaning 
Townparks, 17 against the older church tower; (c) i& 


(0) Portion of a slab 1 ft. 8 in. by 1 ft. 6 in. by 4 in. thick, incised with 
the upper part of a two-line ringed cross with rounded angles. See Du Noyer's 
Sketches in the R.S.A.I. Library, vol. x, p. 36 (I.). 

(1) A slab of sandstone 4 ft. 5 in. by 1 ft. 7 in. by 5 in. thick, having on 
it a sunk panel containing a cross potent in relief carved with an interlaced 
pattern. In the background are traces of an inscription. 

(c) A fragment about 1 ft. 7 in. by 6 in., inscribed op oo fosa . . See 
Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 65 (D.I.) . 

7. Monknewtown, 1 N.E. In the graveyard close to the county 
Same, 19 boundary, 5 in. W. of Drogheda on the 

road to Slane. (It is now missing.) 

An erect stone bearing a small T-shaped cross with a base of three points. 
See DuNoyer's Sketches in the R.I. A. Library, vol. i, No. 76 (I.), and 
Journal R.S.A.I., vol. xxi, p. 351, No. 10 (I.). 

8. Kilmore, S.E. In the graveyard near Moynalvy, 4 m. 
Same, 43 N. of Kilcock Station. 

A tapering limestone slab 5 ft. 8 in. long by 2 ft. 2 in. wide and 4 in. thick. 
On it is carved a crucifix and date 1575. At the sides are long inscriptions in 
Irish and Latin ; the name being yiughpaibh buibbe rnhag mhach- 
Sharnhna. See Journal Kildare Arch. Soc., vol. v, p. 470 (D.I.). 

1 This identification is uncertain. Du Noyer calls it Monksgrange, near Drogheda. 
The stone is not to be found at Monknewtown. 


9. Clonard, N.W. Formerly in Clonard Church, but now lost. 

Anneville, 47 

Along narrow slab inscribed meinb 1115111 meic ppappan. See Christian 
Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 63 (D.I.). 


(None known.) 


1. Inchbofin, N.W. In the northern church on the island in 

Same, 15 Lough Ree, 9 m. N. of Athlone. 

(a) A slab broken into several pieces, 3 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. 1 in., incised with 
a two-line ringed cross, having plain arms and top and a looped base. The 
centre is circular. Across the upper part is the inscription in two lines 
[o]poic bo [ch]opTnaccm. See Christian Inscriptions, vol. i, p. 57 (D.I/ 
and (for inscription) see Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xli, p. 30 (D.). 

(b) A slab 1 ft. 9 in. by 1 ft. 2 in, bearing a ringed cross of two incised 
lines. The base is pointed, and there are small spirals at all the extremities. 
The inscription mael rnapcain reads down the sinister and turns up the 
dexter side. 

(c) A slab 1 ft. 11 in. by 1 ft. 7 in., bearing a three-line cross with a 
circular centre containing a tetraskelion, and semicircular ends containing frets ; 
the ends are looped except the upper. 

(d) A slab 1 ft. 9 in. by 1 ft. 8 in., similar to the last, except that the 
centre is blank, and all the extremities are looped. 

(e) A slab 2 ft. 10 in. by 2 ft. 2 in., much worn, but showing traces of a 
three-line cross with semicircular ends containing frets, and of an inscription. 

(/) A slab 1 ft. 2 in. by 1 ft., bearing a single-line cross incised. The 
grooves are 1 in. wide, and are slightly enlarged at the ends. 

(g) A fragment 1 ft. by 7 in, showing part of one end of a cross similar to 
(/) but larger. 

(h) Two fragments 1 ft. 2 in. by 1 ft. and 5 in. by 4 in., showing portions 
of a three-line cross with expanded ends containing frets, but without loops. 

(i) A fragment 11 in. by 6^ in., incised with the letters cb, and below 
them . . p . 

2. Hare Island, S.W. Formerly at the church on the island, but 
Same, 22 now missing. 

A broken slab about 1 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 3 in., bearing a two-line cross 
potent, having a square centre containing a knot and a partial frame. 
Inscribed above the cross, op ap cuachchapan. See Christian Inscriptions, 
vol. i, p. 45 (D.I.). 

3. Athlone, N.W. Formerly in the graveyard at the Franciscan 
Same, 29 Abbey in the town, but now lost. 

A slab about 2 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 6 in., incised with a two-line ringed Latin 
cross having open loops at the extremities. The inscription op bo choppaich 
reads across the upper quarters and down the lower. See Christian Inscriptions, 
vol. i, p. 32 (D.I.), and Journal R.S.A.I., vol. i, p. 410 (D.). 


4. Athlone, N.W. Lying in the Rectory garden behind 
Same, 29 St. Mary's Church. 

(a) A fragment bearing part of a cross with semicircular ends. See Journal 
R.S.A.I., vol. xlii, p. 28 (M.). 

(b) A fragment bearing the upper arm of a two-line ringed cross with an, 
expanded top of triangular shape. The cross is covered by an interlaced pattern 
showing two rows of pointed knots, and the ring by a plait of four strands. At 
the sinister corner are the letters . . n rj . .See Journal U.S.A. I., vol. xlii, 
p. 28(D.L). 

5. Calry, N.W. From the old church of Culree, now on a 
Mount Temple, 30 mote at Shurock House, 2 m. N. of 

Moate station. 

A slab about 3 ft. 4 in. by 1 ft. 8 in., inscribed in two lines fa op bo 
mailmairie. See Christian Inscriptions, vol. i, p. 30 (D.I.). 


1. Clone, S.E. In the field S. of the graveyard, 2 m. S. of 
Same, 15 Ferns. 

An erect slab, 2 ft. high and 1 ft. 4 in. wide, on which is incised a circle 
1 ft. in diameter containing a cross formed of circular arcs. See Journal 
U.S.A. I., vol. xvi, p. 38 (M.). 

2. JBeg Erin, N.W. In the graveyard on the island (now joined 
Begerin Island, 38 to the shore) in the N. end of Wexford 

Harbour, 3 in. N.E. of Wexford. 

(rt) A slab 2 ft. 8 in. long, incised with a double-line cross having a circular 
centre and slightly enlarged ends. See Journal . S.A.I., vol. xxi, p. 35, 
No. 50 (I.). 

(b) A heart-shaped slab about 1 ft. 6 in. long and 1 ft 3 in. wide, bearing a 
plain Latin cross in relief. See Du Noyer's Sketches in R.I. A. Library, 
vol. i, No. 50. 


1. Kilbride, N.E. Beside a reservoir in the field behind Kilbride 

Same, 7 Church, 2 m. S.W. of Bray. 

(a) A slightly tapering slab of fine granite 5 ft. 6 in. long by 1 ft. 7 in. 
wide. Incised lines divide the slab into three panels, of which the outer ones 
contain plain Greek crosses of two lines with 4-inch cups in the centre. The 
design in the central compartment cannot be made out. 

(b) A rectangular slab of coarse grained granite, 3 ft. long by 18 in. wide. 
In the centre is a cup with three concentric circles, above and below this a 
medial band of two lines, and also diagonal markings. See Du Noyer's 
Sketches in R.I. A. Library, vol. v, p. 42 (I.). Information given by 
Mr. P. J. O'Reilly. 


2,. Fairy Hill, N."W. In a disused graveyard beside the road, and 

Kilbride, 8 immediately S. of Fairy Hill House, 1 J m. 

S.W. of Bray. 

An erect slab of rough granite 3 ft. 9 in. in height by 1 ft. 9 in. wide and 
6^ in. thick. On the E. side is a Greek cross in relief. The lower limb 
divides and turns outwards into two bosses 4 in. in diameter ; the other limbs 
are slightly expanded at the ends. See Du Noyer's Sketches in R.I. A. Library, 
vol. i, p. 77 (I.)- Information given by Mr. P. J. O'Reilly. 

3. The Scalp, S.E. In Killegar graveyard, 1 m. S. of the Scalp, 

Killegar, 3 3 m. W. of Bray. 

(a) A granite slab 1 ft. 4 in. wide, 3 in. thick, and 1 ft. 6 in. above the 
ground, incised with a flat-bottomed cup 2^ in. diameter, surrounded by two 
concentric circles 6 and 9 in. in diameter. Below the circles is a horizontal 
line 9 inches long, and above three lines, one vertical and the others radiating 
to the upper corners of the stone. (It is placed in the centre of the chancel of 
the ruined church.) See Journal R. S.A.I., vol. xxxi, p. 146 (D.I.). 

(b) A granite slab 2 ft. 4 in. long by 1 ft. 2 in. wide and 3 in. thick, incised 
with a cup 2 inches in diameter, surrounded by two concentric circles. Below 
are portions of two similar circles, and above a plain Greek cross with 
diagonal lines, three in each of the upper quarters and two in each of the 
lower. (It lies about 25 ft. S. of the S.W. corner of the chancel.) Same 
reference as (a). 

(c) A rectangular granite slab 3 ft. 10 in. long by 1 ft. 7 in. wide, carved 
with a Latin cross in relief. On the cross are five cups and several incised 
lines, and on the background are a number of C -shaped grooves. The stone 
has small projecting arms which do not coincide Math the arms of the cross. 
(This stone lies about 20 ft. N.E. of the chancel.) Information given by 
Mr. P. J. O'Reilly. 

4. Glendalough, N.E. 7m. N.W. of Rathdrum, at Rhefert church, 

Lugduff, 23 S.E. of the upper lake. 

(a) A rectangular slab bearing a three-line cross with circular centre and 
semicircular ends, in a two-line frame. Inscription reading down both sides : 
o^ bo copppe maccachail . a & . itjs . XP S ' (Destroyed.) See 
Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 59 (D.I.), and Journal JR.S.A.L, vol. xlii, 
p. 60 (D.). 

(b) A rectangular slab 5 ft. 5 in. by 2 ft. 3 in., bearing a three-line cross, 
having expanded centre and ends. Triquetras in the latter and traces of a 
crosslet in the former. Inscription down sinister side, op bo bpepal, down 
dexter, a & a> . irjs . %ps . (Nowplacedin St. Kevin's House for protection.) 
See Journal R.S.A.I.^ vol. xvi, p. 42 (D.I.). 

(c) A rectangular slab 5 ft. 10 in. by 3 ft. 1| in., carved with a' unique 
pattern, consisting of four saltires of three lines with circular centres and ends, 
arranged to form a continuous pattern in a single-line frame. (Now placed in 
St. Kevin's House for protection.) 

(d) A rectangular slab 5 ft. 3 in. by 2 ft. 1 in., carved with a three- line 
cross. The band forming the cross is interlaced and surrounded by a ring at 
the centre, and worked into triquetras at the ends. (It lies 40 ft. west of the 


(e) A rectangular slab 5 ft. 3 in. by 2 ft. 3 in., incised with a two-line 
cross, having a small circle at the centre, and semicircles at the ends ; in a two- 
line frame. (It lies at the N.W. corner of the church.) 

(/) A rectangular slab 5 ft. 4 in. by 2 ft. 1 in., incised with a six-line 
cross with circular centre and semicircular ends; in a four-line frame. (It lies 
S. of the church.) 

(g) A rough slab 5 ft. 4 in. by 1 ft. 9 in., incised with a plain two-line 
Latin cross almost effaced. (It lies E. of the S. corner of tbe chancel.) 

(h) A rough slab 4 ft. 9 in. by 1 ft. 6 in., incised with a single-line cross 
having triangular ends. (It lies 24 ft. N.E. of the churcb.) 

5. Glendalough, N.E. In the graveyard round the Cathedral. 

Camaderry, 23 

(a) An erect slab 7 ft. 4 in. by 5 ft., incised with a broad two-line cross 
having expanding ends and a pointed top. (Built into the wall of the old 

(b) An erect slab 1 ft. 4 in. high by 1 ft. by 2 in., incised with a two-line 
Greek cross having hollowed angles and a |-inch hole through the centre. 
(Twenty feet W. of the Round Tower.) 

(c) A rough slab 5 ft. 5 in. by 2 ft. 1 in., incised with a two-line Latin cross, 
having hollowed angles, and much shorter than the slab. (It lies 6 ft. from 
the S.W. corner of the cathedral.) 

(d) A rectangular or slightly tapering slab 6 ft. 4 in. by 2 ft. 1 in., having 
a single-line cross in a single-line frame. The cross is triple, with a circular 
centre and triangular ends. The upper cross-bar is short and plain ; the lower 
has circles at the ends. (At the N.E. corner of the Priest's Church.) 

(i) A fine slab of granite, now much worn, 7 ft. 1 in. long by 3 ft. 3 in., 
tapering to 2 ft. 10 in., having on it a cross formed of one continuous band, 
the ends of which are triquetras and the centre circular, and containing an 
interlaced pattern. In the upper quarters are encircled Greek crosses, with 
expanded centres and ends ; and in the lower the following inscriptions, much 
worn : op t)O . maccoif . and op bo biapmaic. (In the chancel of the 
cathedral.) See Christian Inscriptions, vol. ii, p. 60 (D.I.), and Du Noyer's 
Sketches in R.I. A. Library, vol. ii, No. 24. 

(/) The upper part of a slab 4 ft. 4 in. by 2 ft. 2 in., incised with a two- 
line ringed cross, having a pointed top; iu a single-line frame (near (e}). See 
Du Noyer's Sketches iu R. I. A. Library, vol. ii, No. 23. 

(ff) The upper portion of a tapering slab of late date, carved in relief with 
a pattern of scroll foliage up the centre (near (e)). 

Glendalough, N.E. At St. Kevin's Church. 

Camaderry, 23 

(A) A large rectangular slab of granite 7 ft. 3 in. by 2 ft. 2 in., carved in 
relief with a double-ended ringed cross having slightly expanded ends ; inside a 
raised border. The ring at one end has rolls inside the quadrants. (Near the 
N. side of St. Kevin's.) 


() A rectangular slab 5 ft. 10 in. by 2 ft. 2 in., incised with a cross formed 
of one endless band. It has double-looped ends and circular centre. (Near 
the N. side of St. Kevin's.) 

(j>) A rectangular slab 5 ft. 2 in. by 2 ft., bearing a small Latin cross in 
relief in the centre. (Near the N. side of St Kevin's.) 

(k) A rectangular slab 5 ft. 10 in. by 2 ft. 6 in., on which are traces of a 
two-line Latin cross. (Near the N. side of St. Kevin's.) 

(1) An. upright slab 4 ft. 10 in. by 2 ft. 5 in., with a rounded top, and carved 
in relief with a ringed cross having slightly expanded ends. (Near the N. side 
of St. Kevin's.) 

(m) Part of a rectangular granite slab 3 ft. 7 in. by 1 ft. 11^ in., incised 
with a three-line cross in a two-line frame. The cross has a circular centre 
and semicircular ends. (At the east end of St. Kevin's.) 

() An erect slab 1 ft. 9 in. long by 10 in. wide by 2^ in. thick, carved with 
a cross having expanded ends and a long straight stem below. (It is kept in 
St. Kevin's Church.) 

(o) The upper portion of an erect slab, lOf in. by 7^ in. by 1| in., carved 
on one side with a two-line Greek cross formed of aros of circles and surrounded 
by a circular band, and on the other by a two-line Latin cross potent with a 
square centre. (It is kept in St. Kevin's Church.) 

5. Glendalough, N.E. At St. Mary's Church, to the west of the 

Camaderry, 23 graveyard. 

(p) A rough slab 3 ft. by 1 ft. 5 in. by 4 in., set in a socket, and having a 
plain Latin cross in relief on the E. side. (About 20 feet W. of the church.) 

(q) A rough slab set upright, 3 ft. by 1 ft. 2 in. by 3 in., having a plain 
Latin cross in relief on the E. side. (About 8 feet N. of the church.) 

(r) A tapering slab 5 ft. 2 in. by 1 ft. 11 in., incised with a two-line panel 
containing a three-line cross having a circular centre and semicircular ends. 
(In the chancel.) 

(s) The lower part of a tapering slab 3 ft. 10 in. by 2 ft. 1| in., incised 
with a two-line panel containing a two-line cross potent with a square centre 
and spiral base. (In the chancel.) 

(t) A rough tapering slab 4 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft., incised with a single-line panel 
containing a single-line cross with small triangular ends. (Outside the S. wall 
of the chancel.) 

Glendalough, N.E. A short distance E. of the graveyard at the 

Brockagh, 23 point where the roads to Glendalough 

and Glendassan separate. 

(u) A rough pillar-stone 3 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. 2 in. by 1 ft. On the south side 
is a plain Latin cross in relief, and at its dexter side a small cross of similar 
shape, but sunk. 


Glendalough, N.E. Lying on the fence at Trinity Church. 

Brockagh, 23 

(v) A rectangular slab 4 ft. 9 in. by 1 ft. 8 in. by 6 in. thick, with a small 
plain cross incised on each side. For all the Glendalough slabs see Appendix to 
the 80th Report of the Commissioners of Public "Works in Ireland (1912-13). 

7 Bally kine, N.W. 'Found in the graveyard of All Hallows 

Bahana, 35 Monastery (Whaley Abbey), 3 m. S.W. 

of Rathdrum, and now in the National 

A narrow pillar 3 ft. 6 in. long and 6 in. wide, on which is carved a cross 
of two lines having a circular centre and a triangular base ornamented with a 
spiral. There is an inscription down the sinister side, opoic bo echccm. 

8. Aghowle, N.E. On a grave about 28 ft. S.E. of the church. 

Aghowle Lower, 42 

A wedge-shaped slab of rough slate 3 ft. 2 in. long and 8 in. wide, having 
on one side a Greek cross with expanding ends in a circle 8| inches in diameter, 
and on the other a rude human face of the same size as the cross. 


The following stone was accidentally omitted from its place in the 
list, and is therefore added here : 


Oldcastle, N.E. In a field beside the road to Kilnaleck, 

Dungummin, Lower, 42 2 m. W.N.W. of Oldcastle, and about 

200 yards from the County boundary. 

An ogam stone, 5 ft. 3 in. in height and 1 ft. 8 in. by 1 ft. 4 in., bearing 
four small incised crosses with expanded ends. Two are on the S. side and 
one each on the N. and E. See Journal R.S.A.I., vol. xviii, p. 503 (D.I.)' 

( 335 ) 


Castle Blathagh, Drogheda. My statement that the Castle Blathach 
of certain early records stood at Drogheda led to a denial of the fact, 
and necessitated my publishing the authority on which I relied in the 
Journal, xxxix(1909), p. 368. 

I have to thank Mr. Mills, D.K.B., for calling my attention to another. 
Where the former placed it at Drogheda, the present one further locates 
it on the Meath side, and shows that it stood beside the mote, still extant, 
near the south wall of the town. 

Calendar Patent jRolls, England, 1381-5, p. 33 (condensed). Kichard II 
to John Asshewell, of Drogheda, grant of a vacant plot called the Castle- 
mote of Drogheda on the Meath side ; with license to build a windmill 
thereon, and for that purpose to pull down the stone walls of an old 
house in a garden called Le Castel blathachyerd, of Drogheda, " adjacent 
to the said plot, and use the materials. Also to make a way to the mill 
through a vacant place called Castelblathach, but without hindrance to the 
king's access to and repair of his prison there." I regret that I have 
been obliged for so long to leave aside the subject of the Limerick Castles 
in papers on which my notes originally appeared. T. J. WESTBOPP. 

Bishop's Island and George's Head, Go. Clare. 1 have been able to 
make very careful examination of both these sites ; the first in various 
lights, and with a strong field-glass. Dr. George Fogerty, K.N., has 
also photographed and enlarged views of it. In consequence it is now 
quite clear that both were promontory forts of considerable interest. At 
Bishop's Island we find a clear trace of a crescent, or ring-fort, partly 
destroyed by the ditch and fence along the edge of the cliff opposite to 
the island. It was a dry-stone wall of flags, 6 feet thick, now nearly 
removed to the foundations, and measures 80 feet deep to the edge and 
54 feet across. Beside it a water-runnel cut a deep channel down the 
steep grassy slope to the cliff edge, down to which an easy natural stair- 
case leads. In the chasm several reefs rise above the waves, showing 
that the headland was pierced, as is still the condition of the south side 
of the island, by a set of caves. These evidently pierced the headland in 
natural arches, like the "Mermaid's Arch" in the next headland, 
under the promontory fort of Doonaunroe or Foohagh Point. Beyond 
the chasm rises the well-known precipice at the landward (east) end of 


the island, and above its broken face are the remains of the steep slope 
which evidently rose from a low neck, as is the case at Illaunadoon, 
another fortified head not far to the south. At the head of this slope a 
long wall of good flagstone masonry formed a revetment in front of the 
oratory and cell all along the line, where the broken rock shows that the 
neck formerly extended. Three reaches of the wall, a few feet high 
and long, still stand ; there are lines of fallen stone where other parts 
recently collapsed, sliding down the slope, and a very square break, 
which Dr. Fogerty regards as a gate-pier. Behind these defences, on the 
level platform of the island, lie the oratory and cell. The place being 
rarely visited save by the most active crag-men, I will give the notes of 
one of the rare visitors, probably the only antiquary who stood in the 
ruins since they were isolated. The cells stand on a platform 215 feet 
high, so clearly visible from the opposite cliff (about 300 feet away), and 
from Foohagh Head, that every feature can be sketched, and every stone 
comes out in a photograph if enlarged. The oblong oratory measures 
18 feet by 12 feet ; the walls are 2 feet 7 inches thick ; it has a liutelled 
south door at the west end next that wall, and a nearly square east window, 
framed by large stones, and more like to some on Skellig Kock than to the 
normal window-slits of early churches elsewhere. The roof is of flags. 
The cell was circular (or oval), "about 34 feet across, or 115 feet in 
circumference ; part of the north-east segment is standing, a corbelled 
dome, with alow, square lintelled door, and the wall rising in four offsets. 
The walls of a modern fold 1 (built for the shelter of the sheep which I 
remember in 1868 as brought up on the backs of climbers, aided by a rope 
round the galldn at the head of the slope) give the cell an oblong appear- 
ance, and it is marked as such on the Ordnance Survey maps. The pillar 
is about 5 feet high ; every blotch of lichen on its east face can be seen, 
but no scribings or carvings. The north cliff projects beside the slope 
and to the west of it, and, there, several early graves are seen, marked by 
set stones, and with low blocks to either end. The whole falls under the 
head of a well-marked class of promontory fort (like Island Hubbock and 
Danes' Island in Waterford or Doon on Cliara (Clare Island) in Mayo), 
where a very slight defence lies on the mainland, and the neck dips, 
rising again to a fortified platform. Inside an early monastic community 
established itself probably in the eighth century. Local legend tells of 
a bishop who, to avoid feeding the poor during a famine, crossed the then 
narrow gully on a plank, bringing in abundant provision for winter. In 
u great storm, however, the rock collapsed, leaving a gaping chasm, 
beyond which he starved and died in sight, but out of reach, of those he 
left to starve. If the tale is not true, it at least tallies remarkably well 
with the remains and rock conditions. We have seen rock-falls in our 
time on this very coast that could well render a cranny too wide to be 

1 Other more elaborate folds remain on Illaunaiiiaraun, an equally precipitous 
island a couple of miles to the south, just beyond Dunlicka Castle. 


crossed, among them the collapse of a natural arch at Bishop's Island 
itself. 1 

The works at George's Head, though irregular in line, are not more so 
than the fortified Heads of Ferritter's Castle and Dunmore, Co. Kerry. 
The earth- works, often 23 to 26 feet wide, are far too thick to represent 
a modern fence, and through them such deep ancient cattle tracks have 
cut their way that the rampart must be of great age. It had a centre of 
small stones, now under sward, but this possibly represents the dry-stone 
wall sometimes found on top of earth-works ; and it had a slight fosse 
outside. It winds along the top of a steep ridge above a watershed, and 
then up a hillside being 975 feet long, from Burne's Hole to the Northern 
Bay, formerly called the Great Horseshore. The main cattle entrances 
and lane ways run through it at from 84 feet, 132 feet, and 300 feet from 
Burne's Hole. Though the works are greatly worn, they are far more 
distinct than at such forts as Gubadoon, near Dooega on Achill and Kil- 
farrassy, Co. Waterford, where the fallen end shows a filled ditch 6 to 
8 feet deep, and the base of a massive wall. The disappearance of the 
ancient name of the head leaves us to speculate whether (as at 70 out of 
over 100 fortified heads on the west coasts of Comment and Munster) 
the name alluded to the fort. T. J. WESTROPP. 

Curious Stone at Kiltoom, Co. Roscommon. What is probably the 
most curiously shaped stone in Ireland stands close to the west side of 
the railway, a short distance north of Kiltoom station. The photograph 
shows it as seen from passing trains. The stone is a purely natural 
formation, but has often been ascribed to the hand of man, which is 
my excuse for sending it to the Journal. I have several times been 
asked for what purpose it was erected, and also whether I had seen the 
Druid's altar, or Giant's table at Kiltoom. 

The level of Lough Bee is now five or six feet lower than the stone, 
but it is evident that the water at one time lapped round it up to the 
shoulder, and in the course of ages wore away the limestone evenly. The 
hollowed portion above the shoulder is due to the action of the water 
when the lake was high, probably assisted by the waves in rough 
weather. The height of the stone is 6 feet ; at the ground-level it is 
10 feet by 7 feet ; two feet higher up it is 2 feet by If feet ; and at a 
height of four feet it is 8 feet by 7 feet. 

In the same field are several other stones showing attempts to pro- 
duce the same form, but these have failed owing to joints and cracks in 

1 Proc. R. I. Acad., vol. vi, Ser. iii (C), p. 166. Journal, xxxviii, p. 275. 
W. F. Wakeman, Archueologia Hibernica, p. 58. Two Months at Kilkee, p. 77 (1836). 
Rev. Ph. Dwyer, Diocese of Killaloe, p. 1. 


the stone. The most interesting are two in which the process has 
reached its natural conclusion, the necks being worn through and 


nothing left hut low pointed blocks. Perhaps the most remarkable 
thing about the stone in the photograph is that the wearing away 
process should have ceased when the most perfect form had been arrived 

Ossory Letters. Mr. E. Langrishe has sent the following note, 
which refers to members of the Haydock family, referred to in the 
letters recently published in this Journal : 

From Members of Parliament for the County and City of Kilkenny front 
A.D. 1295 to 1888, $e. By G. D. Burtchaell, M.A., T.C.D., Barrister- 
at-Law (Athlone Pursuivant). 

" Josias Haydock (City 1692-3) was an apothecary in Kilkenny, and 
had probably come from England in the train of Cromwell's army. He 
served as Sheriff of the city in 1659-60, was elected an alderman, and 
served as Mayor for three successive years, 1673-4-5-6. On the City 
Militia being embodied in 1667, he got a commission as an Ensign, and 
became Captain in 1681. He was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the 


City Militia when that regiment was re-embodied in 1691, his com- 
mission being dated 13 February. He died before the dissolution of 
Parliament, but after it had ceased to sit; his will is dated 13 May, 
was proved 3 June 1693, and he was buried in St. Mary's Church. 
He left two sons and a daughter (1) Josias, of whom presently, (2) 
Stephen, who succeeded to the apothecary business, became Sheriff, 
1697-8, was Alderman, three times Mayor, and died while in office in 
1730 (1) Mary, married Captain Ebenezer Warren, M.P. for the City, 
1695-9 and 1715-21. Josias Haydock (II) was born in 1660, educated 
at Kilkenny School, entered T.C.D., 1 August 1677, obtained a 
Scholarship, 1679, and graduated B.A., 1682. He was elected Alderman 
in 1693, and was Mayor in 1701-2. In July 1702, he was appointed 
Captain of the Grenadier Company of the City Militia, and became 
Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment in 1715. He died in 1726, having 
married Mary, daughter of Alderman Charles Goslin (who, after her 
husband's death, married Sir John Staples, third Baronet of Dunmore, 
Queen's County), and left a daughter Margaret, married, 2 June 1737, 
William Evans Morres, afterwards Knight and Baronet, M.P. for the 
City, 1752-68 ; and a son, Charles Haydock, Sheriff of the City, 1735-6, 
who died in 1741, s.p. His sister Margaret, wife of Sir William Evans 
Morris, succeeded to his property in Kilkenny, and of Buolick, County of 

" William Evans Morres was second son of Francis Morres, of Castle- 
Morres, byKatherine, second daughter and heiress of Sir William Evans, 
Bart., of Kilcreen (adjoining Kilkenny), by Jane, daughter and co-heir 
of Colonel the Hon. Richard Coote of Tullamaine, County of Kilkenny, 
son of the first Earl of Mountrath by his second wife, Jane, daughter of 
Sir Robert Hannay, Knight and Baronet. William Evans Morres was 
M.P. for the City, 1752-61-68 ; his elder brother, Harvey Morres, was 
M.P. for St. Canice or Irish town, Kilkenny, 1733-56, and was created 
Baron Mountmorres, 4 May 1756, and Viscount Mountmorres, 29 June 

"William Evans Morres was High Sheriff of County of Kilkenny in 
1741, was an Alderman of the City, and was elected Mayor for 1754-5. 
During his year of office the Marquess of Hartington (afterwards fourth 
Duke of Devonshire), Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, visited Kilkenny, and 
conferred upon him the honour of Knighthood in June 1755. Sir Wm. 
Evans Morres died 11 October 1774, and was succeeded by his eldest 
son, Haydock Evans Morres, second Baronet, who was M.P. for the City, 
1768-76-Y7 ; he married his cousin Frances Jane Gorges, only daughter 
and heiress of Ralph Gore of Barronmount, M.P. for the City, 1748-60, 
and 1776-8, but left no issue. He was succeeded by his half-brother, 
William Ryves Morres, who died unmarried, when the title became 

T v a \ T ^ v l- nl > Sixth Series. > n A 

Jour. R.S.A.I. j Vol XL ' IUf Consec . Ser . I Z A 


"Plassey," Co. Clare. In the Westminster Gazette for 2 December 
1913, speaking of Yiscount Olive, who on that day attained his 
majority, reference is made to "one of his father's titles, that of 
Baron Olive of Plassey, Co. Clare, which is the peerage conferred on the 
great Clive in 1762." 

I suggest the following queries : 

1. Is there now, or was there ever, a place called Plassey in the Co. 
Clare ? 

2. Are various farms, &c., on the Co. Limerick side of the river, 
marked as Plassey (about ten miles from the city of Limerick), called so 
only since 1762, or were they called so originally? 

3. Had the great Clive any connexion with the Co. Clare before 

4. I would remind the Royal Society of Antiquaries that in that 
same year, 1762, a Tumour was created Baron Winterton of Gort, Co. 
Galway, and in this case it is possible to ascertain the reason for the 
selection of Gort, which had only recently been rebuilt as a town! 
Gort, however, had been an important place in previous ages, whereas 
nothing is related of Plassey previous to the battle. GOTJGH. 

The Dublin Society for the Support of Decayed Musicians. In 

answer to Mr. Victor Symth (see p. 266, ante), who quotes from Watson's 
Dublin Almanack of 1752, to the effect that "the Charitable Musical 
Society of Crow Street" was in existence in 1743, I have to remark 
that there were four Charitable Musical Societies in Dublin in 1743, 
referred to in my History of Irish Music (p. 282) each of which 
devoted its funds to a specific charitable purpose. The Dublin Charitable 
Society for the Support of Decayed Musicians dates from October 1750, 
and the first annual meeting of the Society was held at the Bier, in 
College Green, on 7 April 1752. W. H. GKATTAN FLOOD. 

Between Two Hills. The subjoined cutting, from the Irish Times 
of 1 October 1913, is, I think, of interest. It shows that the position 
between two hills is considered very inauspicious for a house : also that 
there are people who think that the fairies would condescend to occupy 
a new labourer's cottage ! 

"At the Fethard Petty Sessions District Inspector White 
charged William O'Connell, Corbally, Drangan, and his wife, with 
having neglected their four children. It was stated that the man's 
wife and family were living in a new labourer's cottage, which they 
held from the Cashel District Council, when, without any reason, 
they went back to live in the old roofless hovel that they formerly 



occupied. The rain was coming down on them, and the children 
were in a dreadful plight. 

" Mrs. O'Connell (wife of the tenant) As sure as God is over 
us, we couldn't live in the cottage, because it is between two hills, 
and it is full of * vapours.' Other parties had to leave the house, 

" Sergeant Do wd said that the house was all right. 

" Mrs. O'Connell said that the house was built in a valley, and 
was infested by fairies, and nobody would live in it. 

" Mr. Slattery, J.P. Do not imagine for a moment that the 
magistrates are believers in fairies. 

"A fine of 2*. 6d. was imposed. The magistrates warned 
O'Connell that if he did not take his children out of the hovel within 
a month he would have to go to jail." 


An Inscribed Slab. During the summer of 1912 I was engaged in 
searching the graveyard surrounding the well-known church of Seskinano, 


famous for its ogham-inscribed lintels, for old inscriptions, and found a 
peculiar stone doing duty as a headstone to a grave. The stone is formed 
of a slaty sandstone, or freestone, as it is locally called. It is roughly 
oblong in shape, but the bottom half is narrower than the upper. The 
dimensions are, 10 inches broad by 21 inches high, and about 3 inches thick. 


One face is rather flatter and smoother than the other, and is marked 
with various scribings, as will be seen from the enclosed photograph. 
The back of the stone is devoid of anything in the shape of artificial 
markings. The scribings are fairly deeply cut, and are quite distinct. 
There at first sight appears to be part of an ogham inscription on the 
left edge of the slab, but as the lines depart from the edge, and appear 
solely on the face of the stone, I think they are not oghamic. 

There are two T-shaped crosses, the smaller with a circle over it. 

The Rev. P. Power, in his Ruined Churches or his Place-names of 
the Decies, says that he found a stone in the above graveyard, and 
doing duty to a modern grave, with ogham markings on it. But this 
stone, he informs us, was formed of " coarse conglomerate," so that it 
cannot be the same stone as that which I discovered. I failed to find 
any marks on the few conglomerate headstones in this place, but hardly 
expected to do so, as it would be curious to use such a hard medium as 
conglomerate, formed as it is of many small stones cemented together, 
for any kind of writing. I wrote to Father Power on the subject, but 
he informed me that he had mislaid his MSB., but could not recollect any 
such stone as mine. GOBDON W. FOBSAYETH. 

Turlough O'Brien, of Fomerla. In a paper on " Inchiquin, 
Co. Clare," which appeared in Journal KS.A.L, 1891 (p. 351), I regret 
to say I was guilty of an error, which I hope has not misled others, in 
stating that Turlough O'Brien, of Fomerla (parish of Tulla), who was 
hanged at Galway in May 1581, was the son of Donough of Dromoland, 
son of Murrough, 1st Earl of Thomond. Further study of the period 
has convinced me that the Four Masters were right in calling him 
Turlough, son of Donough (2nd Earl of Thomond), son of Conor. 

In the Duke of Ormond's letter to Cecil, 3 July 1570, he is styled 
"Tirrolough of Formerly, the Earl's brother," i.e., younger brother of 
Conor, 3rd Earl of Thomond. In this year Turlough was high sheriff 
of Clare, and apparently in high favour with the Government. He was 
security for the peaceful behaviour of several of the principal gentle- 
men of the county, and in his own name held the following nine castles, 
as given in the list made out by (or for) the Earl of Ormond, who had 
been sent into Thomond to pacify, and, if necessary, coerce, Conor O'Brien, 
the 3rd Earl, who had shown strong signs of disaffection : 

Fomarlu, Tyredagh, Ballymullin (now Milltown), all in parish of 

Doonimulaihill (now Doon), parish of Inchicronan. 

Cahermoroghoe (now Cahermurphy), parish of Kilmihill. 

Tromora, parish of Kilmurry, Ibrickan. 

Inchiquin, parish of Kilnahoy. 

Ballyagowan (now Smithstown), parish of Kilshanny. 

Moyrhee, parish of E-uan. 


Later on we learn from the State papers that Turlough O'Brien was 
detained in irons by Sydney in July 1576. After some time he was set 
free, but taken prisoner again the following November. On 10 March 
1581, Pelham sends orders from Limerick to the president of Con- 
nacht : " Turlagh the Earl's brother and late sheriff of Clare to be by 
you committed to the provost marshall or any other jail." The unfor- 
tunate gentleman was hanged at Galway after enduring twelve months' 
imprisonment, on the 26th May 1581 according to the Four Masters, but 
the Annals of Lough Ci say the 27th. On the 30th of the following 
June, Malbie reports to Walsingham that he had an offer made him 
of 1000 for the life of Turlough O'Brien a large bribe in those 
days, if the story be true. In any case it is manifest some all-powerful 
influence was at work for his destruction. 

Why, then, was this man pursued with such persistent enmity, even 
unto death, while the sons of the Earl of Clanrickard and Mahone O'Brien, 
of Cloonavaun (now Rockvale, parish of Kilkeedy), all equally guilty of 
the rebellion of the previous year (1580), received full pardon, though 
the last-mentioned, according to the Eour Masters, was the chief instigator 
and organizer of the insurrection ? It was, no doubt, a time of great 
demoralization among the governing class everywhere. The " days of 
chivalry" were gone for at least a couple of centuries. The end, no 
matter how ignoble, usually justified the means, and honour was only a 
plaything. The massacres of Mullach Maisten (1577), Dun an oir 
(1580), St. Bartholomew (1572), the atrocities of Alva in the Nether- 
lands, and the attempts of English "noblemen" to poison Irish chieftains, 
disgraced, but, I am ashamed to say, did not stagger, humanity. Buccaneer- 
ing and piracy were gloried in as worthy occupations for a gentleman, 
and rewarded and honoured by the State. 

The Eour Masters state that Conor O'Brien, 3rd Earl of Thomond, 
and brother of Turlough, died in 1580, the Annals of Loch Ce say 1581. 
The latter is probably the true year, for if Conor died before 25 March 
it would be recorded as occurring in the preceding year A.D. At any 
rate, Turlough was not executed until after the earl's death, though 
in jail for over a year, which looks rather extraordinary. The only 
possible reason that occurs to me for the exceptional severity shown is 
that the English officials feared his interference with the peaceful 
succession of his nephew, Donough, 4th Earl of Thomond, who, it is said, 
was brought up in the court of Elizabeth (Lodge, 1754), and may have 
been in England at the time. The minions of the Government would 
readily, I have no doubt, commit any atrocity in order to avoid another 
war of succession in Thomond, such as took place a short time before on 
the accession of Donough, the 2nd Earl. 

Ormond (Thomas, son of JameSj son of Pierce ruadh) was a man of 
paramount influence at the time. He was Turlough's first cousin, the 
latter's mother, Ellen Butler, being his aunt, and widow of Donough, 


2nd Earl of Thomond. She resided (1570) in the Castle of Lissofm 
(Ormond's Castle List). It is hard to believe that Ormond had not a 
finger in the pie, and could have got Turlough pardoned if he tried. 
I hope I am not wronging him ; but things look as if he acquiesced in, 
if he actually did not prompt, the execution. The fact tbat Teig O'Brien, 
Turlough's son, was apprehended in 1596, in the country of the Butlers, 
" after having been a long time engaged in plundering " perhaps trying 
to avenge his father was hanged "by the advice of the Earl of Ormond," 
the same Thomas, son of James, son of Pierce ruadh (A. IV M.) to say 
the least of it, seems very suspicious. GEO. TJ. MACNAMARA. 

The Stone of the "Seven Romans" on Aran Mor. The famous 
monument, inscribed vir ROMANI, has often been discussed, and there have 
been many speculations as to who these Seven Romans were, and how 
they came to Ireland. I have hit on a reference which I think solves 
the mystery. It is in the Martyrology of Gorman, July 10th 

Cesad sund secht mbrathar 
Ir-R6imh nar-ros rigsaer 

" this is the passion of seven brothers in Rome of the Royal noble 
pedigrees." These seven brothers are also mentioned in the Feilire of 
Oengus, so that they were celebrated in Ireland. They were of course 
the seven sons of Felicitas, martyred during the Antonine persecution. 
The coincidence is too striking to be accidental. The stone is thus a 
dedicatory, not a memorial stone ; it is like the stones inscribed TOMAS AP., 
and sci BRECANI, in the same graveyard; and there never were "seven 
Romans" on Aran! R. A. S. MACALISTER. 

( 345 ) 

Notice* of 

NOTE. Books marked thus (*) are by Members of the Society. 

Prehistoric Times. By the late Rt. Hon. Lord Avebury. Seventh edition 
Revised and Reset. 623 pages + 3, with three plates in colours, and 
numerous illustrations. Williams & Norgate. London. 1913. 
Price 10s 6^. 

IT is pleasant to welcome again such an old and tried friend as Prehistoric 
Times in a seventh and thoroughly revised edition. The publishers' note 
states that the late Lord Avebury was working at the revision of this 
edition in the spring of the year only a few months before his death ; and 
the traces of the revision can be seen on many of the pages. We presume 
that Prehistoric Times, in one or other of its numerous editions, is in the 
library of most archaeologists ; and it is therefore hardly necessary to 
discuss the contents of so well-known a work in detail. It may, however, 
be of use to mention briefly some of the new features introduced into 
this edition. First of all we congratulate the publishers on the inclusion 
in colour of the three fine paintings of prehistoric animals from the walls 
of^the cave of Altamira, Spain. These are the polychrome bison, the horse 
and the hind, and the galloping wild boar. Among new matters touched 
on is the difficult question of Bronze-age Chronology ; and in this con- 
nexion Lord Avebury declares himself a follower of Dr. Montelius, in 
placing the probable date of the commencement of the Bronze Age in 
Northern Europe and Great Britain at about 2500 B.C. 

Another fresh subject is that of the remarkable series of flint imple- 
ments discovered by Mr. J. Reid Moir, near Ipswich, resting in the 
undisturbed base of the Red Crag, resting on London Clay. These are 
of course the famous Eagle-beaks or Rostro-Carinates about which we 
have recently heard so much. 

The chapters on Modern Savages have demanded less revision than 
those dealing with Prehistoric Archaeology. 

On the whole we can recommend this edition of this exceedingly 
useful book to all interested in Prehistoric studies ; but it must be 
remembered that the original book was written many years ago, at a time 
when our knowledge of, for instance, the Stone Age was elementary 
compared with what is known to-day ; and consequently Lord Avebury 's 
book would have had to be entirely re-written and replanned to have 
included adequately thejpresent results of Modern Archaeological Science. 
With this reservation we wish the best of luck to the seventh edition of 
our lamented Honorary Fellow, Lord Avebury's, Prehistoric Times. 



The Roman Camp and the Irish Saint at Burgh Castle : with local History. 
By Louis H. Dahl, M.A., Eector of Burgh Castle, Suffolk. (London : 
Jarrold & Sons.) 

FOR Irish readers the interest of this book lies in its life of Fursa, the 
seventh-century missionary to East Anglia and Northern France. A 
section of this history of the scene of his labours Burgh Castle, 
Suffolk is devoted to an account of the life and times of the saint. It 
does not profess to be more than a compilation from printed sources, but 
will, no doubt, serve a useful purpose in opening the eyes of English 
readers of Parish Histories to the importance of the Irish missionary 

The author indulges in some rather risky philology when he seeks to 
derive Cnolheresburg, Bede's name for the site of Fursa's monastery, from 
the Irish cnoc, which he supposes to mean a castle, and the Anglo-Saxon 
hereslerga, explained as " the station where an army rested on their march." 
The explanation of the ornamental device known as the triquetra (p. 91) 
as " one of the most ancient Irish symbols of the Eternal and Unchange- 
able, Three Persons, One God," is at least doubtful. It may be questioned 
whether there was any more idea of symbolism in the mind of the artist 
who first designed a triquetra than there is in the mind of the schoolboy 
who makes a sexfoil in a circle by stepping a compass round the 
circumference. On the same page of the book "Naco" should be 

The rest of the work before us hardly concerns the special interests of 
this Journal. It is an industrious compilation of material bearing on the 
East Anglian parish, which possesses an important Roman Camp, as well 
as the usual ecclesiastical and manorial antiquities. It. A. S. M. 

*Irish Seal-Matrices and Seals. By E. C. R. Armstrong. With 80 
illustrations. (Dublin : Hodges, Figgis, & Co.) 

THE history of Art, and many other branches of historical research, are 
illumined by the study of seals, the necessity for which led to their 
invention at a very early stage in the development of human activities. 
The seals of Ireland have at last found a competent historian ; and the 
work before us, in which Mr. Armstrong has fully described the fine 
collection of the Royal Irish Academy, and such other seals as have come 
to his notice, will long be the standard authority for comparison whenever 
any new seal happens to come to light. 

Mr. Armstrong has classified his seals partly according to their devices, 
and partly according to their historical connexions. The seals of knights, 
chieftains, and other ^persons of secular importance come first, with devices 


of men on horseback, coats-of-arms, etc. Municipal seals, and then 
Ecclesiastical seals, follow in order. There is then a chapter on the 
matrices of foreign seals in the ft. I. A. collection, and another on seal 

Each seal is described, and almost every one illustrated with an 
excellent group of photographs, showing the matrix, the side (from 
which a clear idea of the handle of the seal can be obtained), and the wax 
impression. The inscriptions are carefully set out, as nearly exactly as 
typography can imitate them. 

The Irish seals, it must be confessed, are on the average of a low 
order of merit artistically. But as illustrations of the skill of the 
local engravers, of contemporary costume and architecture, and as his- 
torical documents of the Middle Ages, they are of great value, and 
Mr. Armstrong's careful study does them full justice. 

*Irish Witchcraft and Demonology. By St. John D. Seymour, B.D. 
Dublin : Hodges, Figgis, & Co. London : Humphrey Milford. 

THE author of this interesting work does not fail to quote, at the outset, 
the well-known chapter on the snakes of Iceland as a parallel to the 
book that might well be written on his subject though, by the way, 
he unfortunately prejudices a reviewer inclined to be captious by writing 
"Ireland" instead of " Iceland." For there is but little trace in Ireland 
of the witchcraft superstitions which elsewhere in Europe caused so 
much unnecessary bloodshed. In his introductory chapter the author 
discusses this remarkable fact, for it is remarkable that, notwithstanding 
the proverbial superstitiousness of the Irish, there is scarcely any evidence 
for witchcraft, in the strict sense of the term, either in the Middle 
Ages or in the terrible witch-burning times of the seventeenth century. 

In fact, this particular form of trafficking with the unseen world 
does not seem to have been developed among the native Irish, but 
where found is x an importation from England. This is emphatically 
the case of the first and most classical example, the Kyteler case at 
Kilkenny in 1324 A.D. Alice Kyteler was of an Anglo-Norman family, 
and the prosecutor, Bishop de Ledrede, was an Englishman. This case, 
and its sequelae, are very fully discussed by Mr. Seymour, who has 
given a most useful synopsis of the complicated story. 

Following on the Kyteler incident we have a number of minor 
cases, among them the stories of the Earl of Desmond, Dr. Colville, 
Florence Newton of Youghal, Valentine Greatrakes, and other more 
or less known illustrations of these forms of human folly. Mr. Seymour 
has pursued his subject to America, and found a very pretty example 
of alleged witchcraft in an Irish family that fell under the tender 

T i? c A T $ Vo1 - UI Sixth Series. < 

Jour. R.S.A.I. j Vol XL IUt Consec . Ser . { 


mercies of the notorious Mathers of Massachusetts. Later cases, 
like the Island Magee case of 1710-1711, and the Carnmoney case 
of 1807, are also duly recorded. We are glad to see that Mr. Seymour 
corrects the mistake made by the penny-a-liners of calling the famous 
Clonmel " changeling " case of 1895 a " witch-burning." 

A little more care in correcting proof-sheets might, perhaps, have 
been exercised; " Elibabethan," on p. 236, stands out provokingly in 
the very clear type in which the book is printed. But Mr. Seymour 
has written a very interesting book, in which, so far as we can judge, he 
has exhausted the subjects lie has chosen. E. A. S. M. 

*St. Mullins, Illustrated : A local History, and the Life of St. Moling. 
Compiled from ancient MSS., with Notes and Traditions, by Patrick 
O'Leary. Graig-na-managh, 1913. 

THIS is an industrious compilation, which will, we trust, be of great use in 
arousing local interest in the history and antiquities of St. Mullins. It 
contains a translation of the ancient lives of the saint, with topographical 
and historical notes, and in its seventy-five pages contains a large 
quantity of local information. There are some good photographic 

( 349 ) 

A Quarterly General Meeting of the 65th Yearly Session of the 
Society was held in the Society's Rooms, 6, St. Stephen's Green, Dublin, 
on Tuesday, the 30th September, 1913, at 8.30 o'clock, p.m. 

JOHN RIBTON GARSTIN, D.L., F.S.A., Past President, in the Chair. 

Also present : 

Fellows : E. C. R. Armstrong, Hon. Gen, Sec. ; G. D. Burtchaell, LL.B. ; John 
Cooke, M.A., M.R.I.A. ; Rev. M. J. Curran ; Rev. Charles Fausset, B.A. ; R. A. S. 
Macalister, F.S.A. ; S. G. Murray; M. J. M'Enery, Hon. Gen. Sec. ; P. J. O'Reilly ; 
G. W. Place; Andrew Robinson, M.V.O. ; Andrew Roy croft ; Henry C. S. Torney ; 
John F. Weldiick. 

Members : Mrs. S. Bewley ; A. Kirk Brown ; "William Chanmey ; George Duncan ; 
Freeman W. Deane ; E. J. Trench, M.A. ; T. G. H. Green ; P. J. Griffith ; J. J. B. 
Jennings ; R. J. Kelly; H. G. Leask ; R. G. Pilkington ; Rev. J. L. Robinson, B.A. ; 
R. B. Sayers ; E. Weber Smyth ; Mrs. E. W. Smyth ; Miss Edyth Warren ; 
Miss Helen Warren ; Robert Blair White. 

Associate Members : S. W. Maddock ; Robert Nicol ; Frank Stokes. 

The Minutes of last Meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following Fellows were elected : 

Fawcett, Surgeon-General William James, C.B., D.L., Lecarrow, Spencer Harbour,. 
Carrick-on-Shannon, Co. Leitrim : proposed by J. Ormsby Lawder, Fellow. 

Matthews, William Henry, Rosemount, Bolton, Bradford, Yorkshire: proposed by 
W. F. Figgis, Member. 

Paul, Rev. Julian Nigel Wilfred, Rector of the Grammar School, Alwar (Rajputana),. 
India: proposed by E. C. R. Armstrong, Hon. Gen. See. 

It was proposed by Mr. Edward Weber Smyth, seconded by 
Mr. Burtchaell: 

" That the Society approve of the nomination and appointment by the Council 
of Messrs Craig, Gardner, & Co. as Auditors of the Society's Accounts," 

and passed unanimously. 


The following papers were read, and referred to the Council for 
publication : 

1. " Extracts from the old minute-books of the Commissioners of St. Stephen's Green, 

Dublin, from 1814." By Edward Weber Smyth, Member. 

2. " Dungory Castle, Kinvara." By Richard J. Kelly, Member. 

3. " Church wardens' Accounts, 1484-1600, St. "Werburgh's Church, Dublin." By 

Rev. John Lubbock Robinson, B.A., Member. 

A paper 

" Ruins of Cruachan Ai," by Hubert T. Knox, M.R.I. A., Fellow, 
was taken as read, and referred to the Council for publication. 

The Meeting then adjourned until the 9th December, 1913. 

A Meeting of the 65th Yearly Session of the Society was held in the 
Society's Rooms. 6, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin, on Tuesday, the 9th of 
December, 1913, at 8.15 o'clock, p.m. 

JOHN RJBTON GARSTIN, D.L., F.S.A., Past President, in the Chair. 

Vacancies for a President, five Vice- Presidents, an Hon. Treasurer, 
two Hon. Secretaries, and nine Members of Council, were declared. 

The following papers were read, and referred to the Council for 
publication : 

1. " The Earldom of Ulster. Part III : Inquisition touching Down and Newtown- 

ards." By Goddard H. Orpen, B.A., Member. 

2. " The Account-book of a Dublin Harpsichord-maker, Ferdinand Weber, 1764- 

1783." By W. H. Grattan Flood, MUS. DOC., Member. 

3. "Gleanings from the National Library, Paris." By Lieut.-Gol. W. 0. Cavenagh, 


The Meeting then adjourned until the 27th January, 1914. 





(Revised 31st DECEMBER, 1913} 






THIS Society, instituted to preserve, examine, and illustrate all 
Ancient Monuments of the History, Language, Arts, Manners, and 
Customs of the past, as connected with Ireland, was founded as 
Queen Victoria, on December 27th, 1869, was graciously pleased to 
ASSOCIATION OF IRELAND, and was further pleased to sanction the 
adoption of the title of THE KOYAL SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF 
IRELAND on 25th March, 1890. 

The Society holds four General Meetings in each year, in Dublin 
and in the several Provinces of Ireland, when Papers on Historical 
and Archaeological subje.cts are read, Fellows and Associate Members 
elected, Objects of Antiquity exhibited, and Excursions made to 
places of Antiquarian interest. The Council meets monthly, at 
6, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin. Evening Meetings of the Society 
are also held monthly in Dublin during the Winter. Honorary 
Provincial and Local Secretaries are appointed, whose duty it is to 
inform the Hon. Secretary of all Antiquarian Remains discovered in 
their Districts, to investigate Local History and Traditions, and to 
give notice of any injury inflicted on Monuments of Antiquity, and 
Ancient Memorials of the Dead. 

The PUBLICATIONS of the Society comprise the Journal and the 
"Extra Volume " Series. The "Antiquarian Handbook" Series was 
commenced in 1895, of which six sets have been published. 

The Journal, now issued Quarterly, from the year 1849 to 1913, 
inclusive, forms forty-three Volumes (royal 8vo), with more than 
3000 Illustrations, and contains a great mass of information on the 
History and Antiquities of Ireland. 

The following Volumes are now out of print: First Series, Vols. I. 
(1849-51) and III. (1854-55) ; New Series, Vols. I. (1856-57) and 
III. (1860-61) ; Fourth Series, Vols. IV. (1876-78), VIII. (1887-88), 
and IX. (1889). Of the remaining Volumes, those for 1870-1885 
can be supplied. to Member at the average rate of 10s. each. Odd 
Parts, included in some of the Volumes out of print, can be supplied 
at an average of 3s. each. Part I. of the Fifth Series (1890) is out 

( 3- ) 

of print ; the other Parts of this, the present Series, can be had for 
3s. each. 

The Extra Volumes are supplied to all Fellows, on the roll at date 
of issue, free, and may be obtained by Members, at the prices fixed 
by the Council. 

The Extra Volume Series consists of the following Works : 

1853. " Vita S. Kannechi, a codice in bibliotheca Burgundiana extante Bruxelli 
transcripta, et cum codice in bibliotheca Marsiana Dublinii adservuto collata." Edited 
by tbe Most Hon. John, second Marquis of Ormonde. 100 copies presented by him 
to the Members of the Society. (Out of print.} 

1855 and 1858. Parts I. and II. of " Social State of S.E. Counties" as below. 

1865-7. " Observations in a Voyage through the Kingdom of Ireland: being a 
collection of several Monuments, Inscriptions, Draughts of Towns, Castles, &c. By 
Thomas Dineley (or Dingley), Gent., in the Year 1681." From the original MS. in 
the possession of Sir T. E. Wilmington, Bart., Stanford Court. Profusely illustrated 
by fac-simile engravings of the original drawings of Castles, Churches, Abbeys, 
Monuments, &c. Price of issue, 1 10s. (Out of print.} 

1868-9. " Social State of the Southern and Eastern Counties of Ireland in the 
Sixteenth Century : being the Presentments of the Gentlemen, Commonalty, and 
Citizens of Carlow, Cork, Kilkenny, Tipperary, Waterford, and Wexford, made in the 
Reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth." From the originals in the Public Record 
Office, London. Edited by Herbert F. Hore and llev. James Graves, M.K.I.A. Price 
of issue, 1. (Out of print.) 

1870-8. "Christian Inscriptions in the Irish Language." From the earliest 
known to the end of the twelfth century. Chiefly collected and drawn by George 
Petrie, Esq. With Topographical, Historical, and Descriptive Letterpress. Illus- 
trated by 107 plates and numerous woodcuts. Edited, with an Introductory Essay, by 
M. Stokes; revised by the Rev. William Reeves, D.D. 8 Parts in 2 Vols. Price of 
ssue, ; price to Members, 3 ; for Parts I., II., III., IV., VI., and VII., 10s. each. 

1888-9. " Rude Stone Monuments of the County Sligo and the Island of Achill." 
With 209 Illustrations. By Colonel Wood-Martin. (Out of print.} 

1890-1. "Account Roll of the Priory of the Holy Trinity, Dublin, 1337-46. 
with the Middle English Moral Play, The Pride of Life" From the original in the 
Christ Church Collection in the Public Record Office, Dublin. With fac-simile of 
the MS. Edited, with Translation, Notes, and Introduction, by James Mills, M.K.I.A. 
Price to Members, 10s. 

1892. "Survey of the Antiquarian Remains on the Island of Inismurray." 
By W. F. Wakeman, Hon. Fellow of the Society; Author of "A Handbook of 
Irish Antiquities," &c. With a Preface by James Mills, M.K.I.A. 84 Illustrations. 
Price 7*. 6rf. 

1893-5. "The Annals of Clonmacnoise" : being Annals of Ireland from the ear- 
liest period to A.D. 1408, translated into English A.D. 1627, by Connell Mageoghagan, 
and now for the first time printed. Edited by the Rev. Denis Murphy, s.j., LL.U., 
M.R.I. A., Vice- President of the Society. Price 10s. 

1896-7. "The Register of the Diocese of Dublin in the times of Archbishops 
Tregury and Walton, 1467-1483." Edited by Henry F. Berry, M.A. 10s. 

1898-1901. "The Index to the first 19 Volumes of the Journal of the Society, 
1849-1899," forming Vol. XX. of the Consecutive Series. Parts 1., II., and lit. 
complete, 10*. 

1902-6. " The Gormanston Register." Edited by James Mills, M.K.I.A. (Shortly 

1907-8." Clonmacnois and its Inscribed Slabs." By R. A. Stewart Macalister, 
M.A., F.S.A. Price 10s. 

1909-10." Old Irish Folk Music and Songs." By P. W. Joyce, LL.D. Price 
10s. 6d. 

( 4 ) 

The foregoing may be had from the Publishers, Messrs. HODGES, 
FIGGIS, & Co., Ltd., 104, Grafton-street, Dublin, including the "Anti- 
quarian Handbook Series,*' of which No. 1, " Tara and Glendalough," 
price 6</., has been issued (now out of print) ; No. 2, "The Western 
Islands of Ireland" (Northern portion), price Is. ; and No. 8, " The 
Western Islands of Ireland" (Southern portion), price Is. ; No. 4, 
" The Western Islands of Scotland, Orkney, and Caithness," price 
2s. 6d. ; Nos. 5 and 6, "The County Clare Handbook," price Is., all 
copiously illustrated. 

All who are interested in antiquarian study are invited to join 
the Society. Application for membership may be made to the Hon. 
Secretaries, 6, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin, or any Member of the 

Subscriptions to be sent to the " Honorary Treasurer," 6, St. 
Stephen's-green, Dublin, by Crossed Cheque or Postal Order, payable 
to " The Koyal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland." 

Annual Subscription of Fellows, . .100 
Entrance Fee of Fellows, . . . .200 
Annual Subscription of Associate Members, 10 
Life Composition Fellows, including 

Entrance Fee, 14 

Life Composition Fellows of Ten 

years' standing, 800 

Life Composition Members of Ten 

years' standing, 500 

FELLOWS wishing- to designate their connexion with the Society 
may use the initials F.R. S.A.I. 

(By order of Council), 


lion. Gen. Secretaries. 

31sl Leconber, 1913. 












O'DONOVAN, C.B., M.A., D.L. 






E. C. 11. ARMSTRONG, F.S.A., M.R.I.A., 
M. J. M'ENERY, B.A., M.R.I.A., 



* The names are arranged in order of seniority of election. 

Cmwnl f0r 

PATRICK J. LYNCH, M.R.I.A., .. .. ...... 


H. F. BERRY, I.S.O., LITT.D., ...... 


JOHN COOKE, M.A., M.R.I.A., ...... . .. 

G. D. BURTCHAELL, M.A., LL.B., .......... 

RICHARD LANGRISHE, J.P., ........ ..... 

T. G. H. GREEN, M.R.I.A., ............ MEMBER. 

S. A. 0. FITZPATRICK ............... FELLOW. 

CHARLES M'NEILL, .............. MEMBER. 


Past Presidents who are ex-officio Members of Council. 



MR. J. C. BALL. 

x>f limits iwir f 


Qvfottou xrf gucjcxrmtiji (f0r 1912). 



DMT, f wbiiuhl $ttntmts. 


THE REV. CANON J. F. M. FFRENCH, M.R.I.A., Enniscorthy. 
THOMAS J. WESTROPP, M.A., M.R.I.A., Dublin. 


THE REV. CANON LETT, M.A., M.R.I.A., Loughbrickland. 
SEATON F. MILLIGAN, J.P., M.R.I.A., Belfast. 

THE REV. CANON C. MOOUE, M.A., Mitchelstown. 

EDWAHD MAUTYN, Tulira Castle, Ardrahan. 

* The mimes are arranged according to date of election. 

Antrim, North, . . 
,, South, .. 
Belfast, City, 

Down, North, 
,, South, 

City, . . 
Galway, North, . . 

South, .. 
King's County, , . 

Queen's Co., 

Tipperary, South, 

,, Forth, 

City, . . 
Westmeath, North, 






R. M. YOUNG, J.P., B.A., M.R.I. A. 


WILLIAM J. FEGAN, Solicitor. 


O'DoNovAN, M.A., J.P., D.L. 





WILLIAM C. STUBBS, M.A., Barrister-at-La\v. 



RICHAIID J. KELLY, Barrister-at-Law, J.P. 




M. M. MUHPHY, M.R.I. A., Solicitor. 


H. J. B. CLEMENTS, J.P., D.L. 



J. M. WILSON, J.P., D.L. 




D. CAHOLAN RUSHE, B.A., Solicitor. 
GEOKOB A. P. KELLY, M.A., Barrister-at-Law, 








DR. G. E. J. GREENE, M.R.I.A., F.L.S., J P. 



(Revised 31st Dtcember, 1913.) 

A star [*] preceding a name denotes that the Subscription for 1913 was unpaid on 
31st December, 1913; two stars denote that the Subscriptions for 1912 and 
1913 are unpaid; and three stars that the Fellow owes for three years. 

The Names of tbose who have paid the Life Composition, and are Life Fellows, are 
printed in heavy-faced type. (See Rules 3 and 7, page 37.) 









1889 | 




Armstrong, E. C. R., F.S.A., M.R.I. A. (Hon. General Secretary, 

1909). 73, Park-avenue, Sidney-parade. 
Alton, James Poe. Elini, Grosvenor-road, "West, Rathgar. 

BAIN, Colonel Andrew, R.E. 12, Palmer-street, Westminster, 

London, S.W. 
Balfour, Blayney lleynell Townley, M.A. (Cantab.), M.R.I.A., 

J.P., D.L. Townley Hall, Drogheda. 
BALL, Francis Elrington, HON. Lirr.D. (Dun.), M.R.I. A., 

J.P., Booterstown House, Booterstown, Co. Dublin. (Hon. 

Treasurer, 1899-1900; Vice- President, 1901-1904.) 
BARRYMORE, Bight Hon. Lord, J.P., D.L. Fota Island, 

Cork; and Carl ton Club, London. (Vice- President, 1897- 

Barton, The Hon. D unbar Plunket, M.A., Judge of the High 

Court ot Justice, 19, Clyde-road, Dublin. 
Batchen, Thomas M., M. INST. C.E. Westbourne, Temple 

Gardens, Dublin. 
BEATTY, Samuel, M.A., M.B., M.Cn. Craigvar, Pitlochry, 

Bellingham, Sir Henry, Bart., M.A. (Oxon.), LL.D., H.M.L., 

Bellingham Castle, Castlebellingham. ( Vice-president, 1910.) 
Berry, Henry F., I.S.O., Lirr.D., M.A., M.R.I.A., Barrister-at- 

Law. 51, Waterloo-road, Dublin. ( Vice- President, 1907- 

Berry, Major Robert G. J. J., A.S.C. Care of Sir C. R. 

M'Gregor, Bart., & Co., 25, Charles -street, St. James's- 

square, London, S.W. 




























Baveridge, Ersldne, F.S.A. (Scot.). St. Leonard's Hill, Dun- 
fermline, Fife. 

Bigger, Francis Joseph, M.R.I. A. Ardrie, Belfast. 

Boiighton-Chambers, Capt. William, Indian Service. Office of 
Indian Freemasons, Bombay. 

Boyd, John E. 21, Grosvenor- square, Rathmines, Dublin. 

Browne, Most Rev. James, D.D., Bishop of Ferns. St. Peter's 
College, Wexfbrd. 

BROWNE, William James, M.A. (Lend.), M.R.I.A., Inspector 
of Schools. Templemore Park, Londonderry. 

Brownrigg, Most Rev. Abraham, D.D., Bishop of Ossory. 
St. Kieran's, Kilkenny. (Vice- President, 1896-1900.) 

BURTCHAELL, Geo. Dames, M.A., LL.B. (Dubl.), M.R.I.A., 
Barrister-at-Law, Athlone Pursuivant of Arms. 44, More- 
hampton-road, Dublin, (lion. Gen. Sec., 1907; Vice-Presi- 
dent, 1909-1912.) 

Cane, Colonel R. Claude, J.P. St. Wolstan's, Celbridge. 
Carlyon-Britton, Philip William Poole, F.S.A., D.L., J.P. 

43, Bedford -square, London, W.C. 
Castletown, Right Hon. Lord, K.P., D.L. Doneraile Court, 

Co. Cork. (Vice- President, 1885-1889, 1910-1913.) 
COCHRANE, Robert, LL.D., I.S.O., F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A., 

M. R.I. A., Past President Inst. Civil Engineers of Ireland; 

Vice-Pres. Cambrian Aruhaeol. Assoc. 17, Highneld- 

road, Dublin. (Hon. Treasurer, 1888-1898; Hon. General 

Secretary, 1888-1909; President, 1909-1912.) 
COLLES, Richard, B.A., J.P. Millmount, Kilkenny. 
Coleman, James, 2, RoBehill- terrace, Queenstown, Co Cork. 
Colvill, Robert Frederick Stewart, B.A. (Cantab.), J.P. Coolock 

House, Coolock. 
Connellan, P. L. C, Via Augusto, Yalenziani Porto, Salaria, 


Cooke, John, M.A., M.R.I. A. 66, Morehampton-road, Dublin. 
Cosgrave, E. Mac Dowel, M.D. 5, Gardiner's-row, Dublin. 
Cotterell, Howard Herschel, F.R.Hist.S. Myvod, Foden-road, 

Courtenay, Henry, I.S.O., J.P. Hughenden, Grosvenor-road, 

Rath gar. 
COWAN, Samuel Wm. Percy, M.A., M.R.I. A. Royal Hotel 

Mansions, Henley-on-Thames. 
COX, The Right Hon. Michael Francis. M.D., Hon. Causa, 

R.U.I., F.R. C.P.I., M.R.I. A. 26, IMerrion- square, Dublin. 

(Vicc-PresideHt, 1912.) 

Croxier, His Grace the Right Rev. John Baptist, D.D., Arch- 
bishop of Armagh. The Palace, Armagh. (Vice- President, 

1906-9, 1911-1913.) 
CURRAN, Rev. M. J., Archbishop's House, Drumcondra, Dublin. 

Dames, Robert Staples Longworth, B.A. (Dubl.), M.R.I.A., J.P., 
Barrister- at -Law. 21, Herbert-street, Dublin. 

Dawson, William R, M.D., Inspector of Lunatic Asylums, 
Dublin Castle. 

Davey, Victor George. 1, Maxwell-road, Rathgar, Dublin. 

Day, Robert, F.S.A., M.R.I. A., J.P. Myrtle Hill House, Cork. 
(Vice- President, 1887-1897 and 1900-1903 and 1911.) 

Day, Right Rev. Maurice, D.D., Bishop of Clogher. Bishops- 
court, Clones. 

Deane, Louis E. Hall, Senior Architect Local Government Board, 





1910 i 



1894 1895 

Delany, Very Rev. William, S.J., LL.D. 35, Lower Leeson- 

street, Dublin. 
DOBBS, Archibald E., M.A. (Oxford), J.P.,D.L. Castle Dobbs, 

Carrickfergus, Co. Antrim. 
Donnelly, Most Rev. Nicholas, D.D., M.R.I. A., Bishop of 

Canea. St. Mary's, Haddington-road, Dublin. (Vice' 

President, 1900-1903 and 1905-8.) 
DONNELLY, Patrick J. 4, Queen-street, Dublin. 

1904 190G *Doran, A. L., Ph. C. 1, Goldsmith-terrace, Bray. 

1890 1902 ESMONDE, Sir Thomas H. Grattan, Bart., M.P. Bally- 

nastragh, Gorey. ( Vice- President, 1902-1905.) 
1889 EWART, Sir William Quartus, Bart., M.A., J.P., D.L. 

Schomberg, Strandtown, Belfast. (Vice- President, 1901- 
1904, 1907-1910.) 

Fahey, Very Rev. Jerome, T.P., V.G., St. Column's, Gort. 

(Vice- President, 1910-1913.) 

Fausset, Rev. Charles, B.A. 25, Herbert-place, Dublin. 
Fawcett, Surgeon General William James, C.B., D.L. Lecarron, 

Spencer Harbour, Can ick-on- Shannon. 
FFRENCH, Rev. James F. M., Canon, M.R.I. A. Clonaston, 

Enniscorthy. (Vice -President, 1897-1900.) 
Fielding, Major Joshua, J.P., M.R.I. A. 51, Rathgar-road, 


FITZGERALD, Lord Frederick. Carton, Maynooth. 
FITZGERALD, Lord Walter, M.R.I.A., J.P. Kilkea Castle, 

Mageney. (Vice- President, 1895-1898, 1900-1903, 1908- 


FITZMAURICE, Arthur, J.P., Johnstown House, Carlow. 
Fitz Patrick, S. A. 0. Gowrun, Brighton-square, Rathgar, 

Co. Dublin. 

Fogerty, George J., R.N. 67, George -street, Limerick. 
Fogerty, William A., M.A., M.D. 67, George-street, Limerick. 
Frost, Frederick Cornish, F.S.A. 5, Regent -street, Teign- 

mouth. Devon. 
1913 FRY, William, J.P., F.R.G.S. Wilton House, Merrion-road, 















1901 1912 
1890 1898 


1912 Gaisford-St. Lawrence, Captain J. C., J.P. Howth Castle, 
Co. Dublin. 

1866 1875 ! GARSTIN, John Ribton, LL.B., M.A., B.D., F.S.A., 

F.R.H.S., J.P., D.L. (Vice- President, R.I.A.). Bragans- 

town, Castlebellingham. (Vice- President, 1885-1895; 

President, 1903-1905.) 

1899 Gibson, Andrew. Fail-field, Landsdowne-road, Belfast. 
1903 GLENCROSS, J. Reginald M., M.A. (Cantab.). Makshufa, 

Hare field -road, Uxbridge. 

1901 1913 Glynn, Joseph A., B.A. St. Jarlath, Ailesbury-road, Dublin. 
1895 Gotf, Sir William G. D., Bart., D.L. Glenville, Waterford. 
1912 GOUGH, Right Hon. Viscount, K.C.V.O., D.L. Lough Cutra 

Castle, Gort. Co. Galway. 

1867 1888 Gray, William, M.R.I. A. Auburn Villa, Glenburn Park, Belfast. 

( Vice- President, 1889-1896.) 




1910 ] 

1889 1895 



























Green, William A. 4, Salisbury-villas, Chichester-pk., Belfast. 
Greene, George E. J., M.A., D.Sc., M.R.I.A., F.L.S., J.P. 

Monte Vista, Ferns. 
GREGG, Huband George, J.P. Clonmore, Stillorgan, Co. 

Guinness, Mrs. R. N. St. Nessnn's, Howth, Co. Dublin. 

Hanson, Philip, B.A., Commissionerof Public Works. 28, Clare- 
street, Dublin. 

Hastings, Samuel, J.P. Church-street, Downpatrick. 

Healy, His Grace the Most Rev. John, D.D., LL.D., M.R.I. A., 
Archbishop of Tuam. The Palace, Tuam. ( Vice- President, 
1890-1898, 1899-1902, 1903-1906, and 1908-1911.) 
*Hickey, Rev. Michael P., D.D., M.R.I. A., Professor of Gaelic 
and Lecturer on Irish Archaeology. Carrick Beg, Carrick- 

Higgins, Patrick. 35, Catherine-street, Waterford. 

Hill, Right Hon. Lord Arthur Wm. 74, Eaton-place, London, 
S.\V. ; and Bigshotte, Rayles, Wokingham, Berks. (Vice- 
President, 1888-1895, and 1912.) 

Hilliard, John. Lake Hotel, Killarney. 

HOGG, Eev. A. V., M.A., Canon. St. Mary's Rectory, Gowran, 
Co. Kilkenny. 

Houston, Thomas G., M.A. Academical Institution, Coleraine. 

Howard, Stanley M 'Knight. Seapoint, Rostrevor, Co. Down. 

Howley, Most Rev. M. F., D.D., Archbishop of St. John's, 

Humphreys, John, M.D.S., F.S.A., F.L.G. 24, Clarendon- 
road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 

Humphreys, Very Rev. Robert, M.A., Dean of Killaloe. 
Beechlands, Shankill, Co. Dublin. 

INCHIQUIN, Eight Hon. Lord, D.L. Dromoland Castle, 
Newmarket-on -Fergus. ( Vice- President, 1906-9.) 

Iveagh, Right Hon. Viscount, K.P., G.C.V.O., M.A. (Dubl.), 
LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A.,M.R.I.A., D.L. 80, St. Stephen's- 
green, Dublin. 

Jourdain, Major H. F. N., F.R.G.S. Army and Navy Club, 

Pall Mali, London, S.W. 
Joyce, Patrick "Weston, LL.D., M.R.I. A. Barnalee, 18, Leinster- 

road, West, Rathmines, Co. Dublin. (Hon. President, 1906 ; 

President, 1907-1908.) 

Joyce, Weston St. J. 7, Ormond-road, Rathmines, Dublin. 
Joynt, Richard Lane, M.D., F.R. C.S.I. 84, Harcourt-street, 


Keating, Miss Geraldine, Cannon Mills Cottage, Chesham, 

Kelly, Denis Patrick Joseph. Kingscote, Walton on the Naze, 

KELLY, Edward Festus. Hollington House, Newbury. 

*Kelly, George A. P., M.A., Barrister-at-Law, J.P. 
glasnymore, Stiokestown. 
















Kelly, John Forrest. 284, W. Housatonic -street, Pittsfield, 

Mass., U.S.A. 
Kelly, William P., Solicitor. The Park, Athlone. (Vice- 

President, 1911.) 
Knowles, William James, M.R.I. A. Flixton-place, Ballymena. 

(Vice- President, 1897-1900.) 
Knox, Hubert Thomas, M.R.I.A. Rivershill, St. George's- 

road, Cheltenham. (rice-President, 1907-1910.) 

Laffan, Thomas, M.R.C.S. Cashel. 

Langrishe, Richard, J.P. Archersfield, Kilkenny. (Vice- 
President, 1879-1895, 1900-1903, and 1909-1912.) 

Latimer, Rev. William Thomas, M.A. The Manse, Eglish, 
Dungannon. (Pice -President, 1903-6.) 

Lawder. James Ormsby, D.L. Lawderdale, Ballinamore, Co. 

Lei trim. 
* Lawrence, L. A., F.R.C.S. 32, Devon shire -place, London, W. 

LEINSTER, His Grace the Duke of, M.R.I.A. Carton, 

LEWIS CROSBY, Rev. Ernest H. C.,B.D. 26, Mountjoy- 
square, Dublin. 

Lillis, T. Barry. Carrig, Queenstown, Cork. 

Lucy, Anthony, M.A. 35. Hillcroft Crescent, Ealing, London, W. 

Lynch, Patrick J., M.R.I.A. 9, Northbrook-road, Leeson- 
park, Dublin. (Vice- President, 1907-10.) 



























Macalister, Robert Alexander Stewart, M.A., F.S.A., Professor 
of Celtic Archaeology, University College, Dublin. New- 
lands, Clonskeagh. 

Mac Cormick, Rev. F. H. J., F.S.A. (Scot.), M.R.A.S. 
Wrockwardine Wood Rectory, Wellington, Salop. 

Mac Ritchie, David, F.S.A. (Scot.) 4, Archibald- place, Edin- 

MARTYN, Edward. Tulira Castle, Ardrahan. (Vice-Presi- 
dent, 1897-1900.) 

Matthews, William Henry. Rosemount, Bolton, Bradford, York- 

McCREA, Rev. Daniel F., M.R.I.A. (Rome.) 
*M'Crum, Mrs. Elizabeth Jane. Ballyveasy, Carnmoney, Co. 

M'Donald, John J., Solicitor. 11G, Graf ton -street, Dublin. 

M'Enery, M. J., B.A., M.R.I.A. (Hon. (.ten. Secretary (1909)). 
Public Record Office, Dublin. 

Mellon, Reuben Edwatd. 64, 
Co. Dublin. 

MELLON, Thomas J., F.R.I.B.A, 
Co. Dublin. 

MILLIGAN, Seaton Forrest, J.P., M.R.I.A. Bank Buildings, 
Belfast. (Vice- President, 1895-1899, 1900-1903, 1905.) 

Mills, James, I.S.O., M.U.I. A. Public Record Office, Dublin. 
(Vice- President, 1904-1907 and 1913.) 

Moore, Rev. Courtenay, M.A., Canon. The Rectory, Mitchels- 
town, Co. Cork. (Vice- President, 1908-1911.) 

Moore, Rev. H. Kingsmill, D.D., M.R.I.A. Kildare -place, 

Morrieson, Lieut. -Col. Henry Walters, R.A. 42, Beaufort- 
gardens, London, S.W. 

Moulder, Victor J. 7, Lower Downs-rosid, Wimbledon, London, 

Brighton-square, Rathgar, 
Sorrento- terrace, Dalkey, 






































1908 j***Muldoon, John. 0' Maoldubhian House, Dungannon, Co. 

MURPHY, Michael M., M.R.I.A. 1, Ellerslie-villas, Novara- 

a venue, Bray. 
Murray, Samuel Grierson. Eilene, Dartry-road, Dublin. 

Nolan, M. J., L.R. C.S.I. District Asylum, Downpatrick. 

Norman, George, M.D. 12, Brook-street, Bath. 

Oakden, Charles Henry, F.R.P.S. 30, Meadow-road, Short- 
lands, Kent. 

O'CONOR DON, The, H.M.L. Clonalis, Castlerea. 
O'BRIEN, William, M.A., LL.D. 4, Kildare-street, Dublin. 
O'Connell, John Robert, M. A., LL.D. Ard Einin, Killiney, 

Co. Dublin. 
O'Donovan, The, B.A. (Oxon.), C.B., J.P., D.L. Liss Ard, 

Skibbereen. ( rice- President, 1890-1894 and 1912.) 
0' Duffy, Kevin E. 85, Harcourt- street, Dublin. 
O'NEILL, His Excellency The, Comtc de Tyrone, (Grand 

Officier de la maison du Roi). 59, Rua das Flores, Lisbon, 

Portugal. (Vice- Preside nt, 1910-1912.) 
O'REILLY, Rev. Hugh, M.R.I.A. St. Colman's Seminary, 


O'Reilly, Patrick J. 6, Brighton -square, Rathgar, Dublin. 
ORMSBY, Charles C., M.I. C.E.I. District Engineer's Office, 

M.G.W. Railway, Galway. 
OWEN, Edward. Royal Commissioners' House, Westminster, 

London, W. 

Palmer, Charles Colley, J.P., D.L. Rahan, Edenderry. 
Paul, Rev. Julian Nigel William, Hector of the Grammar School. 

Alwar (Rajputana), India. 

Peacock, Dr. Charles James, D.D.S. 57, Queen's-road, Tun- 
bridge Wells. 
Place, G. W., Indian Civil Service (Retired). 9, Ailesbury- 

road, Dublin. 
Plunkett, George Noble, Count, F.S.A., M.R.I.A., K.C.H.S. 

Barrister-at-Law, Director, Irish National Museum. 

26, Up. Fitzwilliam-st., Dublin. (Vice- President, 1906-9 ; 

President, 1912.) 

Plunkett, Countess. 26, Upper Fitzwilliam-street, Dublin. 
PLUNKETT, Joseph M. 26, Upper Fitzwilliam - street, 


Pope, Peter A. New Ross. 

Power, James Talbot, D.L. Leopardstown-park, Co. Dublin. 
Purefoy, Richard Dancer, M.D., Ch.B., F.R.C.S.I., M.R.I.A. 

62, Merrion-square, Dublin. 

80, North Weiner- avenue, 
116, St. 


Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A. 
Robinson, Andrew, M.V.O., C.E., Board of Works. 

Laurence-road, Clontarf . 
ROBINSON, Rev. Stanford F. H.,M.A. 17, Lower Leeson- 

street, Dublin. 

Rovcroft, Andrew. 94, Drumcondra-road, Dublin. 
Rushe, Denis Carolan, B.A., Solicitor. Far-Meehul, Monaghan. 





















Scott, Anthony, C.E., M.S. A. 49, Upper Sackville-street, 

Shaftesbury, Right Hon. the Earl of, K.P., K.C.V.O., H.M.L. 
Belfast Castle, Belfast. (Vice -President, 1908, 1911-1913.) 

Shaw, Sir Frederick W., Bart., J.P., D.L. Bushy Park, 

Shea, William Askin, J. P., D.L. Ellenville, 5, Garville-avenue, 

Sheehan, Most Rev. Richard Alphonsus, D.D., Bishop of Water- 
ford and Lismore. Bishop's House, John's Hill, Waterford. 
(Vice- President, 1896-1899, 1901-1904, and 1909-1912.) 

Smith, Worthington G., F.L.S., M.A.I. 121, High-street, 
Dunstable, Beds. 

Somerville, Bellingham Arthur. Clermont, Ratline w, Co. 

Somerville, Capt. Henry Boyle Townshend, R.N". H. M. S. 
"Research," c/o Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, S.W. 

Stevenson, Sir George A., C.V.O., C.B., Chairman, Board of 
Public Works. St. Stepheu's-green, Dublin. (Vice- 
President, 1911.) 

Stokes, Henry J. Rookstown, Howth; and 45. Raglan-road, 
Dublin. '(Hon. Treasurer, 1903.) 

Stonestreet, Rev. W. T., D.D., LL.D., F.R.S.L. Rivers- 
dale, Ansdell, Lytham, Lancashire. 

Stoney, Rev. Robert Baker, M.A., D.D., Canon. Holy Trinity 
Rectory, Killiney, Co. Dublin. 

STRANGWAYS, Leonard Eichard, M.A., M.R.I. A. 56, 
Holland-road, London, "W. 

STUBBS, William Cotter, M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 28, Hatch- 
street, Dublin. (Hon. Treasurer, 1900-1902 ; Vice-President, 

Swan, Joseph Percival. 22, Charleville - road, X. C. R., 

TATE-STOATE, Eev. W. M., M.A., M.R.I. A. Pebworth 
Vicarage, near Stratford-on-Avon. 

Tenison, Charles Mac Carthy, M.R.I. A., Barrister-at-Law, 
J.P. Care of Hibernian Bank, College-green, Dublin. 

Thorp, John Thomas, LL.D., F.R.S.L., F.R. HIST. S. 57, 
Regent-road, Leicester. 

Tighe, Edward Kenrick Bunbury, J.P., D.L. Woodstock, 

Tighe, Michael J., M.R.I.A.I., M.S.A., M.R.SAN. I., Archi- 
tect. Merville, Gal way. 

Torney, Hemy C. S. 3, Royal Terrace, E., Kingstown. 

Uniacke, R. G. FitzGerald. Foxhall, Upminster, Essex. 
Upton, Henry Arthur Shuckburgh, J.P. Coolatore, Moate, Co. 

Vinycomb, John, M.R.I. A. 59, Thornton-avenue, Streatham, 
London, S.W. (Vice -President, 1907-1909.) 


















Warnock, Frank H. 15, Herbert-park, Donnybrook. 
Warren, Rev. Thomas. Belmont, 29, Gipsy Hill, London, S.E. 
j**Watson, Thomas. Ship Quay Gate, Londonderry. 

Weldrick, John Francis. 12, Booterstown- avenue, Co. Dublin. 
WESTROPP, Thomas Johnson, M.A., C.E., M.R.I. A., Member 

of the Prehistoric Society of France. 115, Strand-road, 

Sandymount, Dublin. ( Vice -President, 1902-5, and 1913.) 
White, John. Malvern, Terenure-road, Co. Dublin. 
White, John Nevvsom, M.R.I.A., J.P. Rocidands, Waterford. 
White, William Grove, LL.B., Crown Solicitor for Kildare. 

18, Elgin-road, Dublin. 
Windle, Sir Bertram C. A., M.A., M.D., D.Sc. (Dubl.), 

F.R.S., M.R.I.A., F.S.A., President, University Coll., 

Cork. (Vice- President,, 1905-1908.) 
WOOLLCOMBE, Dr. Robert Lloyd, M.A., LL.D. (Dubl. Univ.) ; 

LL.D. (National Univ.) ; F.I.Inst., F.R.C.Inst., F.R.G.S., 

F.R.E.S., F.S.S., M.R.I.A., Barrister-at-La\v. 14, 

Waterloo-road, Dublin. 
WRIGHT, William, M.B., D.Sc., F.R.C.S., F.S.A. 143, 

Dartmouth-road, Cricklewood, London, N.W. 

Young, Robert Magill, M.A., F.R.I.B.A., C.E., M.R.I.A., J.P. 

Rathvarna. Antrim-road, Belfast. (Vice- President, 1898- 

1901, 1904-1907, and 1911.) 
Young, Capt. William Edward, F. R.C.I., M.R.S.A., F.R.S.L. 

Xenagh, Coleshill-road, Teddington-on-Thames. 




1909 Coffey, George, A. I.E., M.R.I. A., Officier $ Academic, Prof, of Arch, in the 
R.H.A., Keeper of Irish Antiquities in the National Museum, and 
Curator to the R.I. A. 5, Harcourt-terrace, Dublin (Member, 1891; 
Fellow, 1894). 

1909 Evans, Sir Arthur John, LITT. D., Hon. LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., Hon. 
M.R.I. A. Youlbury, Oxford. 

1909 Hartland, Edwin Sidney, F.S.A., Highgarth, Gloucester. 

1909 Howorth, Sir Henry Hoyle, K.C.I.E., D.C.L., F.R.S., President of the 

Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1909, 
Vice-President of the Society of Antiquaries. 30, Collingham-place, 
London, S.W. 

902 Montelius, Oscar, PH. D., Prof, at the Nat. Hist. Museum, Stockholm. 

1913 Morri?, Rev. Canon Rupert, D.D. 4, "Warwick-square, London, S.W. 
Editor of Archaeologia Cumbrensis. 

1891 Munro, Robert, M.A., M.D. (Hon. M.R.I. A.), Secretary of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland. Elmbank, Largs, Ayrshire, N.B. 

1891 Pigorini, Professor Luigi, Director of the Museo Preistorico-Etnografico 
Kircheriano, Rome. 

1910 Raglan, His Excellency the Right Hon., Lord, C.B.. Lieut. -Governor of the 

Isle of Man, Honorary President of the Isle of Man Natural History 
and Antiquarian Society. Government House, Douglas, Isle of Man." 

1891 Rhys, The Right Hon. Sir John, M.A., D.Lrr., Professor of Celtic, 
* Principal of Jesus College, Oxford. 

1909 Thomas, Ven. David Richard, M.A., F.S.A., President of the Cambrian 
Archaeological Association, 1906 ; Archdeacon of Montgomery. The 
Canonry, St. Asaph. 

Life Fellows, 50 

Honorary Fellows, 11 

Annual Fellows, 147 

Total, 31st December, 1913, 208 


(Revised 31st December, 1913.) 

A star [*] preceding a name denotes that the Subscription for 1913 was unpaid on 
31st December, 1913 ; two stars denote that the Subscriptions ior 1912 and 1913 
are unpaid ; and three stars that the Member owes for three years. 

The Names of those who have paid the Life Composition, and are Life Members, are 
printed in heavy-faced type. (See Rules 8 and 9, page 37.) 









Acheson, John, J.P. Dunavon, Portadown. 

Adams, Rev. William Alexander, B.A. The Manse, Antrim. 

Alcorn, James Gunning, Barrister-at-Law, J.P. Kilroe, Drumgriffin, Co. 

Gal way. 
Allingham, Hugh, F.S.A. (Scot.), M.R.I.A. The Mall, Ballyshannon, Co 


Allen, Mrs. Stillorgan Rectory, Co. Dublin. 
Alment, Rev. William F., B.D. Drakestown Rectory, Navan. 
Andrews, Michael Corbet. 17, University- square, Belfast. 
Archer, Rev. James Edward, B.D. Seagoe Rectory, Portadown, Co. 


Ardagh, Rev. Arthur W., M.A. The Vicarage, Finglas. 
Ardagh, Mrs. Robert. Pouldrew, Portlaw, Co. Waterford. 
Ardilaun, Rt. Hon. Lord, M.A., LL.D., M.R.I.A., D.L. St. Anne's, 


Atkinson, C. C. Ivanhoe, Belgrave-road, Monkstown, Co. Dublin. 
Atkinson, Ven. E. Dupre, LL.B. (Cantab.), Archdeacon of Dromore. 

Donaghcloney, Waringstown. 

Badham, Miss, LL.D. St. Margaret's Hall, Mespil-road, Dublin. 
*Bailey, Right Hon. William F., P.C., C.B., M.A., Barrister-at-Law, 

3, Earlsfort-terrace, Dublin. 

Baillie, Col. John R., M.R.I.A., J.P. Strabane, Co. Tyrone. 
Bardan, Patrick. Coralstown, Killucan. 
BARRINGTON-WARD, Rev. Mark James, M.A., S.C.L. (Oxon.), 

F.R.G.S., F.L.S. The Rectory, Duloc S. 0., Cornwall. 
Barry, Henry. Fennoy. 

***Barry, H. Standish, J.P. Leamlara, Carrigtwohill, Co. Cork. 
Barry, James Grene, D.L. Sandville House, Ballyneety, Limerick. 
Barry, Rev. Michael, P.P. Ballylanders, Knocklong, Co. Limerick. 
Barry, Rev. Robert, P.P. Oldcastle, Co. Meath. 
Barton, Miss, Lancelot, 12, Brighton-road, Rathgar. 
Barton, Miss Frances M. Glendalough House, Anamoe, Co. Wicklow. 
Battley, Colonel D'Oyly, J.P., D.L. Belvedere Hall, Bray, Co. Wicklow. 
Bayly, Colonel W. H. Ballynaclough, Nenagh. 





1898 Beater, George Palmer. Minore, St. Kevin's Park, Upper Rathmines. 

1903 Beatty, Arthur W. Norham, Mains, Zion-road, Ratbgar. 

1893 Begley, Rev. John, C.C. St. Munchins, Limerick. 

1910 Belas, Philip E., B.A. University College, Cork. 

1902 Bellew, the Hon. Mrs. Jenkinstown Park, Kilkenny. 

1903 Bennet, Mrs. 1, Tobernea- terrace, Monkstown, Co/Dublin. 
1890 Bennett, Joseph Henry. Brumana, Rushbrooke, Co. Cork. 
1895 Beresford, Rev. Canon, M.A. Inistioge Rectory, Co. Kilkenny. 

1889 BERESFOED, Denis B. Pack, M.R.I.A., D.L. Fenagh House, 


1895 Bergin, William, M.A., Professor of Natural Philosophy. University Col- 
lege, Cork. 

1895 Best, Mrs. 57, Upper Leeson-street, Dublin. 

1897 Bestick, Robert. 5, Frankfort-avenue, Rathgar. 

1907 Betham, Mrs. 9, Belgrave-square, North. Monkstown, Co. Dublin. 

1890 Bewley, Joseph. 8, An glesea- street, Dublin. 
1901 Bewley, Dr. H. T. 89, Merrion- square, Dublin. 
1901 Bewley, Mrs. S. Knapton House, Kingstown. 

1897 Biddulph, Colonel Middleton W., D.L. Rathrobin, Tullamore, King's 

1910 Bird, William Hobart, M.I.M.E. The Gate House, Coventry. 

1901 Black, Joseph. Portballintrae, Co. Antrim. 

1902 Blake, Lady. Myrtle Grove, Youghal, Co. Cork. 

1904 Blake, Martin J. 10, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, London. 

1902 Boland, John, M.P. 40, St. George's-square, London, S.W. 

1893 Bolton, Charles Perceval, J.P. Brook Lodge, Halfway House, Waterford. 
1899 Bolton, Miss Anna. 67, Wellington-road, Dublin. 

1906 Bompas, Charles S. M. 121, Westbourne-terrace, London, W. 

1903 Boothman, Chas. T., Barrister-at-Law. 14, Clarinda-park, W., Kingstown. 
1889 Bowen, Henry Cole, M.A., J.P., Barrister-at-Law. Bowen's Court, 

Kildorney, Co. Cork. 

1894 Boyd, J. St. Glair, M.D. Chateworth, Belfast. 

1905 BOYLE, E. M. F. G., Solicitor. Gorteen, Limavady. 

1905 Brady, Bev. James, P.P. Parochial House, Sevill-place, Dublin. 

1892 Brereton, Fleet- Surgeon R. W. 2 Palermo-villas, Knock, Co. Down. 
1891 BRODIGAN, Mrs. Piltown House, Drogheda. 

1904 Brodrick, Hon. Albinia L. Ballincoona, Caher Daniel, Co. Kerry. 

1893 Brophy, Michael M. 48, Gordon-square, London, W.C. 

1888 Brophy, Nicholas A., A.R.C.A. Glenlevan, Lansdown-road, Limerick. 
1911 Brown, Alfred Kirk, A.R.I. B.A. Office of Public Works, Dublin. 
1908 Brown, Thomas. 104, Grafton-street, Dublin. 

1910 Browne, Rev. Henry, S.J., M.A., Professor of Greek, University College, 
Dublin. 35, Lower Leeson-street, Dublin. 

1906 Brunker, J. Ponsonby. 18, Grosvenor-place, Rathmines. 

1906 Brunker, Thomas A. Provincial Bank of Ireland, Carlow. 

1894 Brunskill, Rev. K. C., M.A. Rectory, Stewartstown, Co. Tyrone. 
1903 Brunskill, Rev. T. R., M.A. St. Mary's Rectory, Drogheda. 
1896 Buckley, James. 11, Homefield-road, Wimbledon, Surrey. 

1907 Buckley, J. J. National Museum, Kildare-street, Dublin. 
1910 Buckley, Nicholas D. 6, Ely-place, Dublin. 

1884 Buggy, Michael, Solicitor. Parliament-street, Kilkenny. 

1907 Bulger, Mrs. A. Tbomond House, Lisdoonvarna. 

1899 Burnard, Robert, F.S. A. Thiccaby House, Princestown, S Devon. 

1892 Burnell, William. Dean's Grange, Monkstown. 

1910 * Burns, J. Roseman, Architect. Glencot, Sidmonton, Bray, Co. Wicklow. 

1905 Burnett, George Henry. St. George's, Herbert-road, Bray, Co. Wicklov,-. 
1891 Burnett, Rev. Richard A., M.A., Canon. Rectory, Graignamanagh, Co. 

1907 I Burton, Miss. Adelphi, Corofin, Co. Clare. 

1906 Bute, The Marchioness of. Mount Stuart, Rothesay, N.B. 
1912 *Butler, Matthew. 19, Belvedere-place, Dublin. 

1903 **Butler, Mrs. Cecil Wolseley. Milestown, Castlebellingham. 

1904 ] Butler, Miss E. The Lodge, Waterville, Co. Kerry. 



1909 ! 

1898 ; 



Butler, John Philip, J.P. Southhill, Blackrock, Co. Dublin. 

Butler, William F., M.A., F.R.U.L. 1, Hume-street, Dublin. 

Butler, Rev. Michael, D.D., P.P. Parochial House, Roundwood, Co. 

Butler, R. M., Architect, F.R.I.B.A. 34, Upper Leeson-street, Dublin. 

1891 j Cadic, Edouard, D.LiTT., R.S.H., Professor of French and Roman Philo- 
logy, National University of Ireland. Belmont, Monkstown-road, Co. 

1904 Cald\vell, Charles Henry Bulwer, J.P. Antylstown, Navan ; and The 
Cedars, Wyndlesham. 

1910 Callaghan, Frederick William. 58, Lansdo\vne-road, Dublin. 

1904 Callanan, Martin, Physician and Surgeon. The Square, Thurles, Co. 

1896 Callary, Very Rev. Philip, P.P., V.F. St. Brigid's, Tullamore, King's 


1897 | Campbell, A. Albert, Solicitor. 4, Waring -street, Belfast. 

1911 **Carey, Rev. J. A., M.A., Minor Canon, Belfast Cathedral. 66, Eglantine- 

avenue, Belfast. 

1893 Carmody, Rev. William P., B.A. Knockbreda Rectory, Belfast. 
1900 Carmody, Rev. James, P.P. St. Colman's, Milltown, Co. Kerry. 
1913 Carolan, Miss. 13, Rathdown-terrace, N.C.R., Dublin. 
1910 Carolin, Miss Ida. Ivera^h, Shelbourne-road, Dublin: 

1900 Carolin, Geo. 0., J.P. Ive^agh, Shelbourne-road, Dublin. 

1888 Carrigan, Rev. Canon William, D.D., P.P., M.R.I.A. Durrow, Queen's 

1893 Carrigan, William, K.C. 13, Herbert-street, Dublin. 

1901 CARTER, Mrs. Hugh. Foxley, Burnham, Bucks. 

1904 Cassidy, C. D., L.D.S. 29, Westland-row, Dublin. 

1893 Castle Stuart, Right Hon. the Earl of, J.P., D.L. Drum Manor, Cooks- 

town ; Stuart Hall, Stewartstown, Co. Tyrone. 

1906 Cavenagh, Lieut. -Colonel Went worth Odiarne. The Red House, St. Mar- 

garets-at-Cliff, Dover. 

1894 Chambers, Sir R. Newman. Carrig Cnoe, Greencastle, Co. Donegal. 

1905 Chambre, Mrs. C. Northland-row, Dungannon. 

1907 Chamney, William. 15, Elgin-road, Dublin. 

1907 Champneys, Arthur C., M.A. 45, Frognal, Hampstead, London, N.W. 

1912 Chancellor, John W. Fernside, Upper Rathmines, Dublin. 

1906 Chute, J. H. C., A.M.I.C.E. Wine-street, Sligo. 

1896 Clark, Miss Jane. The Villas, Kilrea, Co. Londonderry. 

1909 Clarke, William, 4, Jervis-place, Clonmel. 

1890 CLEMENTS, Henry John Beresford, J.P., D.L. Lough Rynn, Leitrira. 
1874 Clonbrock, Right Hon. Lord, B.A. (Oxon.), K.P., H.M.L. ( Vice- President, 

1885-1896.) Clonbrock, Aghascragh. 
1904 Coakley, Rev. Cornelius, C.C. Farran, Co. Cork. 

1910 *Cochrane, Rev. Robert Hawken, B.A., T.C.D. Queen-street, Clonmel. 

1893 Coddington, Lieut. -Colonel John N., J.P., D.L. Oldbridge, Drogheda. 
1900 Colahan, Rev. Richard Fallen, C.C. 47, Westland-row, Dublin. 

1894 Colles, Alexander. 3, Elgin-road, Dublin. 

1903 Colvin, Miss Carolin, Ph.D. Orono, Maine, U. S. A. 

1897 Commins, John. Desart N. S., Cuffe's Grange, Kilkenny. 

1897 CONAN, Alexander. Mount Alverno, Dalkey. 

1876 Condon, Very Rev. C. H. St. Mary's, Pope's-quay, Cork. 

1893 Condon, Frederick William, L.R. C.P.I., &c. Ballyshannon. 

1889 Connellan, Major James H., J. P., D.L. Coolmore, Thomastown. 

1904 Connor, G. W., M R.C.S., L.R.C.P., L.D.S. 77, Hill-sireet, Newry. 

1898 Conyngham, O'Meara. Hotel Metropole, Sackville-street, Dublin. 

1894 CORBALLIS, Richard J., M.A., J.P. Rosemount, Roebuck, Clon- 


1899 Corcoran, Miss. Rotherfield Cottage, Bexhill-on-Sea. 







Cosgrave, Henry Alexander, M.A. 67, Pembroke-road, Dublin. 

Costello, Thomas Bodkin, M.D. Bishop-street, Tuam. 

COWAN, P. Chalmers, B. Sc., M.lNST.C.E. Local Government Beard, 


Cowell, Very Rev. George Young, M.A. 14, Herbert- place, Dublin. 
Coyle, Rev. James, P.P. Leighlin bridge, Co. Carlow. 
Craig, Rev. Robert Stewart. St. Catherine's Rectory, Tullamore. 
Crawford, Henry Saxton, B.E., M.R.I. A. 9, Grosvenor-square, Rath- 


Crawford, Robert T. Estate Office, Ballinrobe. 
Creaghe, Philip Crampton, M.R.I. A. Kilcreene House, Kilkenny. 
Credin, David, Electrical Engineer. Clat>by, Fiverniletown, Co. Tyrone. 
Crone, John S., L.R.C.P.I. Kensal Lodge, Kensal Rise, London, N.W. 
Cronin, Richard. 49, Lansdowne-road, Dublin. 
Crooke, T. Evans Beamish, J.P. Lettercollum, Timoleague. 
**Crossley, Frederick W. 30, Molesworth-street, Dublin. 
Crowley, Timothy, M.D. Larchfield, Coachford, Co. Cork. 
Cunningham, Miss Mary E. Glencairn, Belfast. 
Cunningham, Miss S. C. Glencairn, Belfast. 

Cunningham, Rev. Robert, M.A., Canon. Ballyrashane Rectory, Coleraine. 
Cunningham, Samuel. Fernhill, Belfast. 
Curran, John. Ventry N. S., Ventry, Co. Kerry. 

Dagg, T. S. C., B.A. 86, Lower Baggot- street, Dublin. 

Dallow, Very Rev. Canon Wilfrid. Upton Hall, Upton, Birkenhead. 

DALTON, John P., M.A. Portarlington. 

DALY, Rev. Patrick, P.P., St. Michael's, Castlepollard, Westmeath. 

Daniel, Miss Isabella. New Forest, Tyrrell's Pass, Co. Westmeath. 

Dargan, William J., M.B., M.D. 45, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin. 

D'Arcy, Right Rev. Charles Frederick, D.D., Bishop of Down, Connor, 
and Dromore. Craigavad, Co. Down. 

D'Arcy, S. A., L.R C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I. Etna Lodge, Clones. 

Davids, Miss Rosa. Greenhall, High Blantyre, N.B. 

DAVIDSON, Kev. Henry W., M.A. Abington Rectory, Murroe, Limerick . 
! *Davys, Miss Teresa. The Manor Cottage, Malahide, Co. Dublin. 

Dawkins, Professor W. Boyd-, D.Sc., F.R.S., F.S.A., &c. Fallowfield 
House, Fallowfield, Manchester. 

Dawson, Joseph Francis. Inspector, Munster and Leinster Bank, Dame- 
street Dublin. 
**Day, Rev. G. F., M.A. St. Ann's Vicarage, Dublin. 

Deady, James P. Hibernian Bank, Navan. 

Deane, Freeman W. Ashbrook House, Sallymount-avenue, Dublin. 
*Decie, Mrs. Prescott. Ballyglas, Kildare. 

de Gernon, Vincent. Tempo, Clarinda Park, East, Kingstown, County 

Deglatigny, M. Louis. 11, Rue Blaise Pascal, Rouen. 

Delaney, Joseph Francis, M.R.I. A. I. City Surveyor, Cork. 

Delany, Rt. Rev. John Carthage, Lord Abbot of Mount Melleray, Cappoquin. 

Denniug, Miss Isabel. 102, Lower Baggot-street, Dublin. 

Denny, Francis Mac Gilly cuddy. Denny-street, Tralee. 

Denvir, Patrick J. 27, Northumberland-avenue, Kingstown. 

D'Evelyn, Alexander, M.D. (Dubl.). Ballymena, Co. Antrim. 

Diamond, Rev. Patrick J. 29, Mott-street, New York, U.S.A. 

Dickie, Thomas Wallace. 9, Wellington-road, Dublin. 

Dickson, Mrs. Mary. Fahan Rectory, Londonderry. 
*Dickson, Rev; Canon William A. Fahan Rectory, Londonderry. 

Digby, Cecil, M.D. Knockane, Beaufort, Co. Kerry. 
Dillon, Sir John Fox, Bart., J.P., D.L. Lismullen, J 



















Dobbs, Miss Margaret E. Portnagolan, Cushendall, Co. Antrim. 

Doherty, E. E. B. Oaklands, Bandon. 

DOLAN, Joseph T. Ardee, Co. Louth. 

Dougherty, Right Hon. Sir James B., M.A., C.V.O., C.B., Under- Secretary 
to the Lord Lieutenant. Under-Secretary's Lodge, Phoenix Park, Dublin. 

Douglas, John. 13, South-parade, Waterford. 

Douglas, M. C. Beechville, Carlow. 

Downes, Nicholas J., Solicitor. Bellevue, Mullingar. 

Doyle, Edward. Charleville Lodge, Cabra, Dublin. 

Doyle, Rev. Luke, P.P. St. Mary's, Tagoat, Wexford. 

Doyle, M. J. N. S., Windgap, Co. Kilkenny. 

Drennan, John T., Barrister-at-Law, Assistant Secretary to the Estates 
Commissioners. Upper Merrion- street, Dublin. 

Drew, Thomas, Secretary, Committee of Agriculture and Technical Instruc- 
tion. Courthouse, Kilkenny. 

Duffy, Joseph J. 5, Brighton Vale, Monkstown, Co. Dublin. 
*Dunalley, Right Hon. Lord, H.M.L. Kilboy, Nenagh. 

Duncan, George. 1, Fortfield- terrace, Upper Rathmines. 

Duncan, James. 55. Highfield-road, Rathgar. 

Dunlop, William Henry, F.S.A.A., F.C.R.A. 29, Mespil-road, Dublin. 

Duan, Rev. John J., P.P., V.F. Murroe, Co. Limerick. 
*Dundon, Miss Annie. The Cottage, decora, Patrick's Well, Co. Limerick. 

Dunlop, Robert, M.A. Ill Neutinggasse 15, Vienna. 

Earle, Rev. George A., M.A. Dunkerrin Rectory, King's County. 

Eeles, Francis Carolus, F. R. HIST. S., F.S.A. (Scot.). 202, Grangeloan, 

Edinburgh ; and 5, Antrim Mansions, London, N.W. 
Elliott, Charles. Homeleigh, 137, Sunderland Rise, Forest-hill, London, 


Ermis, Michael Andrew, J.P. 10, Longford-terrace, Monkstown, Dublin. 
Erne, Right Hon. the Countess of. Crom Castle, Newtownbutler. 
Everard, Rev. John, P.P. Clogheen, Co. Tipperary. 

Fairholme, Miss Caroline Grace. Comragh, Kilmacthomas, Co. Waterford. 

Falkiner, Rev. William F., M.A., M.R.I. A. Bank of Ireland, 

Faren, William. 11, Mount Charles, Belfast. 

Farragher, Rev. Murtagh, P.P. Kilronan, North Aran, Co. Galway. 

Fawcett, George. Montevideo, Roscrea. 

Fayle, Edwin. Kylemore, Orwell Park, Rathgar, Co. Dublin. 
*Fegan, William John, Solicitor. Market Square, Cavan. 

Fegan, Rev. Nicholas. College House, Galway. 

Fennessy, Edward. Ardscradawn House, Kilkenny. 
**Femon, Rev. Charles E. O'Connor, M.A. Roundhay, Leeds. 
**Fenton, Rev. Cornelius O'Connor, M.A. 20, Nelson-street, Liverpool. 
**Fenton, Rev. S. L. O'Connor, M.A. St. Paul's Vicarage, Durban, South 

Ferrar, Benjamin Banks, B.A., M.D. (Univ. Dubl.). Royal Zoological 
Gardens, Phoenix Park, Dublin. 

Fielding, Patrick J. D., F.C.S. 66, Patrick-street, Cork. 

Figgis, William Fernsley. Rathcruachan, Bray. 

Fitz Gerald, Rev. James K., P.P. St. Brendan's, Ardfert, Co. Kerry. 

Fitz Gerald, John J., M.D. District Asylum, Cork. 

Fitz Gibbon, Gerald, M. INST. C.E. 30, Steele's-road, Haverstock Hill, 
Hampstead, London, N.W. 

Fleming, James S., F.S.A. (Sept.). Inverleny, Callander, Perthshire- 

Flood, William H. Grattan, Mus. Doc. Rosemount, Enniscorthy. 

Flynn, Very Rev. Patrick F., P.P. St. Anne's Presbytery, Waterford. 

Fogarty, Most Rev. Dr., Bishop of Killaloe. Ashline, Ennis, 

















Foley, J. M. Galwey, J.P. Ballintohar House, Nenagh. 
*Forde, Rev. George H. The Parsonage, Dunham, Province of Quebec 

Forsayeth, Gordon W. Whitechurch House, Cappagh, Co. Waterford. 
*Fottrell, Miss Mary Josephine. 1, The Appian Way, Leeson Park, Dublin. 

Fox, Rev. Arthur W., M.A. (Camb.). Fielden Hotel, Todmordcn, Lanca- 

Fox, James Joseph. Ard-na-Greine, 15, Bergholt Crescent, A mhurst Park,. 
London, N. 

French, Edward John, M.A. 71, Ailesbury-road, Dublin. 

Flicker, Ven. Archdeacon, M. A., P.P. The Presbytery, 25, Rathmines- 
road, Dublin. 

Frizell, Rev. Canon Charles W. M.A. 6, Clareenc -place, Belfast. 

Frost, John G. Newmarket-on Fergus, Co. Clare. 

Fry, Matthew W. J., M.A., F.T.C.D. 39, Trinity College, Dublin. 
*Furlong, Nicholas, L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I., M.R.I. A. Lymington, Ennis- 

Gaffney, James S., B.A. 86, O'Connell-street, Limerick. 
Galway, William Berkeley, M.A., Solictor. Whitehall Building, 13, Ann- 
street, Belfast. 

Gardner, Iltyd. Coed-y-twyn, Govilon, Abergavenny. 
Geoghegan, John Edward. Belcamp Park, Raheny, Co. Dublin. 
Geoghegan, Joseph A. Ballinteer- villa, Ballinteer-road, Dundrum, County 


Geoghegan, Thomas F. 2, Essex-quay, Dublin. 
George, William E. Downside, Stoke Bishop, Clifton. 
*Geraghty, Rev. Canon Bernard, P.P. Kilbegnet, Roscommon. 
Geyer, Mrs. 133, Leinster-road, Rathmines. 
Gibson, Very Rev. Thomas B., M.A., Dean of Ferns. The Rectory, 


Gibbs, John Talbot. Clonard, Westfield-road, Harold's- cross, Dublin. 
GILFOYLE, Anthony Thomas, M.A., J.P., D.L. Carrowcullen House, 

Skreen, Co. Sligo. 

*Gilligan, Rev. Laurence, P.P. The Cottage, Dunkerin, lloscrea. 
Gillooly, Michael. Fore, Castlepollard, Co. Westmeath. 
GLEESON, Paul. Kilcolman, Glenageary, Co. Dublin. 
Gleeson, Michael, Crown Solicitor. Nenagh. 
Glover, Edward, M.A., M. Inst. C.E., F.R.I.B.A. County Surveyor's 

Office, Naas. 

Glynn, Thomas. 102, Salisbury-road, High Barnet, Herts. 
Glynn, William, J.P. Kilrush. 
GODDEN, George. Phoenix Park, Dublin. 
Goff, Rev. Edward, B.A. Kentstown Rectory, Navan. 
Goodwin, Singleton, B.A., M.Inst.C.E. Tralee. 
Gore, John. 4, Cavendish-row, Dublin. 
Gore, Mrs. Derrymore, O'Callaghan's Mills, Co. Clare. 
Gorman, Ven. Archdeacon. Mall House, Thomastown, Co. Kilkenny. 
Gorrnanston, The Dowager Viscountess. Gormanston Castle, Balbriggan. 
Gosselin, Rev. J. H. Prescott, M.A. Muff Parsonage, Londonderry. 
Gould, Mrs. Ellen Louisa. Stradbrook House, Blackrock, Co. Dublin. 
Gray, Robert, F.R. C.P.I., J.P. 4, Charlemont-place, Armagh. 
GRAYDON, Thomas W., M.D. La Fayette Circle, Clifton. Cincinnati, 

Ohio, U.S.A. 

Green, Mrs. Alice S. A. 36, Grosvenor-road, Westminster, London. 
Green, T. Geo. H., M.R.I. A. Lisnagar, Temple Gardens, Palmerston Park, 

Green, Lieut-Colonel J. S., B.A., M.B., M.R.I. A. Air Hill, Glanworth, 

Co. Cork. 

*Greene, Dr. T. A., J.P., District Asylum, Carlo w. 
GREENE, Mrs. T. Millbrook, Mageney. 














Greer, Thomas MacGregor, Solicitor. Ballymoney. 

Griffen, Mrs. C. M. Provincial Bank House, Newcastle "West. 

Griffith, Patrick Joseph, Professor of Music. 13, York-road, Rathmines, 

Co. Dublin. 

Grubb, J. Ernest. Carrick-on-Suir. 
Grubb, Miss Rosa F. Cooleville, Clogheen, Cahir. 
Guilbride, Francis, J.P. Newtownbarry, Co. "Wexford. 
Guinness, Miss Eva Frances. Fairleigh, Slough, Bucks. 
Guinness, Henry Seymour. Burton Hall, Stillorgan, Co. Dublin. 
Guinness, Howard R. Chesterfield, Blackrock. 
**Guy, "Wilson. Raceview Villa, Fintona, Co. Tyrone. 

Hackett, Edmund Byrne, Publisher. 135, Elm-street, New Haven, Con- 
necticut, U.S.A. 

HADDON, Alfred Cort, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.Z.S. 3, Cranmer-road, 

Hade, Arthur, C.E. Carlow. 

Hales, Mrs. Arthur. 17, Lansdown-crescent, Batb ; and Charmouthj 

*Hall, Ernest Frederick. The Lodge, Westport. 

Hall- Dare, Robert Westley, D.L. Newtownbarry House, Newtownbarry. 

Hamilton, The Lady Alexandra Phyllis. Barons Court, Stewartstown, 
Co. Tyrone. 

Hamilton, Everard, B.A. Ballinteer Lodge, Dundrum, Co. Dublin. 

Hanan, Yen. Denis, D.D., Archdeacon of Cashel. The Rectory, Tipperary. 

Hannigan, James J., B.E., B.A., County Surveyor. Court House, 

Hargrave, Miss Jennette, M.D. 8, Upper Mount-street, Dublin. 

Harman, Miss Marion. Barrowmount, Goresbridge. 

Harty, Spencer, M. Inst. C.E.I. 76, Merrion-road, Ball's Bridge, Dublin. 
***Hayes, James. Church-street, Ennis. 

Hayes, Rev. William A., M.A. The Deanery, Londonderry. 

Headen, W. P., B.A. (Lond.), J.P. La Bergerie, Portarlington. 
***Healy, Nicholas, Solicitor. High -street, Kilkenny. 

Healy, Rev. John, LL.D., Canon. The Rectory, Kells, Co. Meath. 

Healy, Rev. William, P.P. Johnstown, Co. Kilkenny. 

Hemphill, Miss Mary B. T. Oakville, Clonmel. 

HEMPHILL, Rev. Samuel, D.D., M.R.I. A., Canon. Birr Rectory, Parsons- 

Henderson, William A. Belclare, Leinster-road, West, Dublin. 

Heron, James, B.E., J.P. Tullyvery House, Killyleagh, Co. Down. 

HEUSER, Rev. Herman J. Overbrook, Pa., U.S.A. 

Hewson, Rev. Lindsay Joseph Robert Massy. 71, George-street, Limerick. 

Higgins, Rev. Canon Michael, P.P. Blarney, Co. Cork. 

Higinbotham, Granby. Fortwilliam Park, Belfast. 

Hill, William Henry, Jun., Civil Engineer and Architect. Monteville, 
Montenotte, Cork. 

HOBSON, C. I. 515 W. 178th- street, New York City. 

Hodgson, Rev. William, M.A. 32, Holford-square, London, W.C. 

Hogan, Rev. Henry, B.D., Canon. All Saints' Vicarage, Phibsborough- 
road, Dublin. 

HOGG, Right Hon. Jonathan, D.L. 12, Cope-street, Dublin. 
**Hollwey, Peter Good, M.I.N.A., Naval Architect. Crumlin House, Co. 

Holmes, Mrs. St. Michael's Vicarage, Shrewsbury, Shropshire. 

Holt, E. W. L., M.R.I. A., Inspector of Fisheries. 3, Kildare-place, 

Horan, John, M.E., M. INST. C.E., County Surveyor. 4, Pery-square, 

Hore, Philip Herbert, M.R.I. A. 121, Coleherne Court, Earl's Court, 
London, S.W. 

Horner, John. Drum-na-Coll, Antrim-road, Belfast. 

















Howe, Thomas A., C.I., R.I.C. Belvedere, Tivoli, Cork. 

Huband, Rev. Hugo R., M.A. (Cantab.). Ipsley, Fareham, Surrey. 

Hughes, Benjamin. 96, North Main-street, Wexford. 

Hughes, Edwin, B.A., J.P. Dalchoolin, Craigavad, Co. Down. 

Hughes, Wm. C.E. Ahenny, Carrick-on-Suir. 

Hunter, S. C. 2, Wellington-place, Belfast. 

Hussey, Miss. Aghadoe House, Killarney. 

Hutton, Mrs. Mary A. 17, Appian-way, Dublin. 

Hynes, Miss. 6, Beresford-terrace, off Marlborough -road, Dublin. 

Irvine, James Potts, C.E., Architect. Aileach, Jordanstown, Belfast. 

Jackson, Charles James, J.P., F.S.A., Barrister-at-Law. 6, Ennismore 

Gardens, London, S.W. 

James, Miss Frances M. 4, Roby-place, Kingstown, Co. Dublin. 
James, Lieut. -Colonel Samuel A. Le Bicoque, Minchin Hampton, near 


Jennings, Ignatius R. B. 70, Eccles- street, Dublin. 
**Johnston, Swift Paine, M.A. Hotel Metropole, Lower Sack ville- street, 


Joly, Miss Anna M. 76, Lower Drumcondra-road, Dublin. 
JONES, Capt. Bryan John. 1st Leinster Regiment, Limawilly, Dundalk. 
Joyce, William B., B.A. 57, lona-road, Glasnevin, Dublin. 
**Joynt, Alfred Lane, B.A. 2, Seaview-terrace, Ailesbury-road, Dublin. 

Kane, William F. de Vismes, M.R.I.A., D.L. Drumreaske House, 


Kavanagh, Very Rev. Michael, D.D., P.P., V.F. New Ross. 
***Keane, E. T., Proprietor and Editor of the Kilkenny People. Parliament- 
street, Kilkenny. 

Keane, Marcus, J.P. Beech Park, Ennis. 
Keane, Sir John, Bart., D.L. Cappoquin House, Cappoquin. 
Keaveny, Thomas, D.I. R.I.C. 59, Clifton Park-avenue, Belfast. 
Keene, Charles Haines, M.A. 19, Stephen's-green, and University Club, 

Keene, Most Rev. James Bennett, D.D., Bishop of Meath. 24, Fitzwilliam- 

square, Dublin. 

Kehoe, Lawrence. Tullow, Co. Carlow. 
Kelly, Edmund Walsh. Bella Vista, Tramore. 
Kelly, Rev. James, Adm. Doon, Clifden, Co. Galway. 
Kelly, Rev. Joseph, C.C. Episcopal Residence, Mullingar. 
Kelly, Very Rev. James J., D.D., V.G., M.R.I.A., Dean of Elphin. St. 

Peter's, Athlone. 

Kelly, Richard J., Barrister- at- Law, J.P. 45, Wellington-road, Dublin. 
Kelly, Thomas Aliaga. 61, Anglesea-road, Dublin. 
Kennedy, R. R., M.A. 8, Royal-terrace, East, Kingstown, Co. Dublin. 
Kenny, Miss Elizabeth. Grace Dien, Clontarf, Dublin. 

* : - 

Kenny, Henry Egan. Hillington House, Goole, Yorks. 
Kenny, Thomas Hugh. 55, George-street, Limerick. 

Kernan, Rev. Richard Arthurs, B.D., Canon. The Rectory, Hillsborough. 
Kerr, Rev. Wm. John B. Irchester Vicarage, Wellingborough. 
Kerrigan, Dr. Owen P. Ardna Greina, Castletown-Geoghegan, Co. West- 


f *Kincaid, Mrs. M. M. 4526, Brooklyn-avenue, Seattle, Washington. 
King, Lucas White, C.S.I., LL.D., F.S.A. Roebuck Hall, Dundrum, 

Co. Dublin. 

Kirkpatrick, Robert. 1, Queen's-square, Strathbungo, Glasgow. 
*Kirwan, Denis B. Dalgin, Milltown, Tuam. 
Knox, Mrs. Godfrey. 51, Northumberland-road, Dublin. 
Kyle, Valentine Joyce. Gortin, Co. Tyrone. 
















Lane-Poole, Stanley, M.A. (Oxon.), Litt.D. (Dublin). Donganstown 

Castle, Wicklow. 

LANG AN, Bev. Thomas, D.D. Abbey lara, Granard. 
La Touche, Christopher Digges. 40, Merrion- square, Dublin. 
Laughlin, Robert C. Gortin, Co. Tyrone. 
Laverty, Rev. Francis, P.P. St. Mary's Presbytery, Portglenone, Co. 


Law, Michael, late Judge of the Mixed Courts of Egypt. 20, Longford- 
terrace, Monkstown, Co. Dublin. 
*Lawler, Chas., J.P. 62, Leinster-road, Rathmines. 
Lawless, Rev. Nicholas, C.C. Kilcurry, Dundalk. 

Lawlor, Rev. Hugh Jackson, M.A., D.D., Canon. Trinity College, Dublin. 
*Lawlor, Patrick. Ballincloher N. S., Lixnaw, Co. Kerry. 
Leask, Harold Graham. Office of Public Works, Dublin. 
Lee, Philip G.. M.I). 26, St. Patrick's Hill, Cork. 
Leeson- Marshall, M. R., Barrister-at-Law. Callinafercy, Milltown, R.S.O., 

Co. Kerry. 

LeFanu, Thomas Philip, C.B., B. A. (Cantab.). Abinton, Bray, Co. Wicklow. 
Lefroy, Benjamin &t. George. Derrycashel, Clondra, Co. Longford. 
**Leonard, Mrs. T. Warrenstown, Dunsany, Co. Meath. 

Leslie, Rev. J. Blennerhassett, M.A. Kilsaran Rectory, Castlebellingham. 
Lett, Rev. Henry Wm., M.A., M.R.I. A., Canon. Aghaderg Glebe, Lough- 


Librarian. The John Ryland's Library, Deansgate, Manchester. 
Librarian. Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass, U.S.A. (c/o E. G. 

Allen & Son, Lim.) 14. Grape-street, Shaftesbury-avenue, London, W.C. 
Librarian. Carnegie Free Library and Museum, Limerick. 
Librarian. Public Library, Capel-street, Dublin. 

Librarian. Public Free Library, Town Hall, Clonmel, c/o Town Clerk. 
Librarian. Public Library, Armagh. 

Librarian. Public Record Office, Chancery-lane, London, W.C. 
Librarian. Belfast Library, Linen Hall, Belfast. 
Librarian. Belfast Free Public Library, Belfast. 
Librarian. Free Public Library, Liverpool. 
Librarian. Public Library, Boston, U. S. 
Librarian. Public Library, New York, U.S., c/o B. F. Stevens & Brown, 

4, Trafalgar-square, London. 

Librarian. King's Inns Library, Henrietta-street, Dublin. 
Librarian. Library of Advocates, Edinburgh. 
Librarian. Limerick Protestant Young Men's Association. 97, George-street, 


Librarian. Natural History and Philosophical Society, Armagh. 
Librarian. Public Library, North Strand, Dublin. 
Librarian. Public Library, Melbourne, per Agent-General for Victoria. 

142, Queen Victoria-street, London, E.G. 
Librarian. University College, Belfast. 
Librarian. University College, Cork. 
Librarian. University College, Galway. 
Librarian. Berlin Royal Library, per Messrs. Asher & Co., 13, Bedford-st., 

Covent Garden, London. 
Librarian. St. Patrick's College, Maynooth. 
Librarian. Marsh's Library, St. Patrick's Close, Dublin. 
Librarian. Royal Library, Copenhagen, c/o William Dawson & Sons, 

St. Dunstan's House, Fetter-lane, Fleet-street, London, E.G. 
Librarian. Board of Education, South Kensington, London, S.W. 
Librarian. Reform Club, Pall Mall, London, S.W. 
Librarian. Public Library, Thomas-street, Dublin. 
Librarian. London Library, St. James' -square, London. 
Librarian. Yale University, New Haven, Conn., U. S. A. c/o E. G. Allen 

& Son, London, 14. Grape-steet. Shaftesbury-avenue, London, W.C. 
Lindesay, Rev. William O'Neill, M.A. St. Michael's, Sallins, (Jo. Kildare. 
LINDSAY, Dr. David Moore, L.R.C.P.I., &c. 551, South Temple, Salt 

Lake City, Utah, U.S.A. 


















Lloyd, Miss Annie. 16, Pembroke Park, Dublin. 
*Loftus, Capt. John Blake. Mount Loftus, Goresbridge, Kilkenny. 
Long, Mrs. 4, Palmerston Villas, Upper Rathmines, Dublin. 
Longford, Right Hon. The Dowager Countess of. 24, Bruton-street, 

London, W. 

Lopdell, John. 28, Upper Fitzwilliam-street, Dublin. 
Lough, Right Hon. Thomas, M.P., H.M.L., Co. Cavan. 14, Dean's Yard, 

London, S.W. 

Lowe, William Ross Lewin. Middlewych, St. Albans, Herts. 
Lucas, Rev. Frederick John, D.D. 2, Cliff-terrace, Kingstown. 
Lunham, Colonel Thomas Ainslie, M.A., M.R.I.A., C.B., J.P. Ardfallen, 

Douglas, Cork. 

Lyle, Rev. Thomas, M.A. Dalriada, Howth-road, Dublin. 
LYNCH, J. J. Towanda, Pa., U.S.A. 
Lyons, Patrick, Sergeant, R.I.C. Athenry, Co. Galway. 
Lyster, Rev. Canon H. Cameron, B.D. Rectory, Enniscorthy. 

MacCaffrey, Rev. James, D.Ph. St. Patrick's College, Maynooth. 

MacClancy, James. Milltown Malbay, Co. Clare. 
*M'Elney, Rev. Robert, M.A. The Manse, Downpatrick. 

Mac Enemy, Rev. Francis, C.C. "Westland-row, Dublin. 

Mac Ilwaine, Robert. Secretary, County Council Office. Courthouse,. 

Macmillan, Rev. John, D.D. Dinanew House, Ravenhill-road, Belfast. 

Macnamara, George Unthank, L.R. C.S.I. Bankyle House, Corofin. 

Mac Namara, Rev. John. Redemptorist Fathers, St. Joseph's, Dundalk. 

Maconachie, Rev. James H., B.A. Heaton Presbyterian Church, New- 
castle-ori-Tyne, England. 

Macray, Rev. Wm. Dunn, M.A., Lirr.D., F.S.A. Bloxham, near Banbury, 

M'Bride, Francis, J.P. 39, Grosvenor-square, Rathmines. 

M* Bride, Joseph M. Harbour Office, Westport. 
'*M'Carte, James. 51, St. George's Hill, Everton, Liverpool. 
*M'Carthy, Charles. 2, Emmett-place, Cork. 

M'Carthy, James. Newfound Well, Drogheda. 

McCarthy, Samuel Trant, J.P. Srugrena Abbey, Cahirciveen, Co- 

M'Clintock, Very Rev. Francis G. Le Poer, M.A. (Cantab.), Dean of 
Armagh. Drumcar Rectory, Dunleer. 

M'Clintock, Miss Gertrude. Drumcar, Dunleer, Co. Louth. 

M'Connell, John, J.P. College-green House, Belfast; Rathmona, 


*M'Connell, Sir Robert, Bart., D.L. Ardanreagh, Windsor-avenue, Bel- 

M'Cormick, H M'Neile. Cultra House, Cultra, Co. Down. 

M'Coy, Matthew D., Solicitor. 6, Alphonsus- terrace, Limerick. 

M'Creery, Alexander John. John-street, Kilkenny. 

M'Crum, Robert G., J.P., D.L. Milford, Armagh. 

M'Donnell, James. 2, Lakeview, Kilkenny. 

M'Donnell, Robert Percy, F.R.C.S.I. 15, Upper Leeson-street, Dublin. 

M'Enery, D. T., M.A., D.I.N.S. 80, Sunday's Well, Cork. 

M'Gee, Rev. Samuel Russell, M.A. The Rectory, Narraghmore, Co. 

M'Glone, Very Rev. Canon Michael, P.P. Rosslea, Clones. 

M'Golrick, Right Rev. James, D.D., Bishop of Dunluth. Minnesota, 

M'GRATH, Eev. Joseph B., C.C. St. Agatha's Presbytery, Richmond- 
place, N.C.R., Dublin. 

M'Inerney, Very Rev. John, P.P., V.G. Kilrush, Co. Clare. 
*M'Kean, Rev. William. The Manse, Strandtown, Belfast. 

M'Kenna, Rev. James E., Adm., M.R.I. A. Dromore, Co. Tyrone. 














M 'Knight, John P. Temple Gardens, Palmerston Park, Dublin. 

M'Mahon, Rev. Canon John, P.P. St. Mary's, Nenagh. 

M'Manus, Very Rev. Canon, P. P. St. Catherine's, Meath-street, 


M'Neill, Charles. 19, Warrington-place, Dublin. 
M'Xeill, Professor John, B.A. 19, Herbert Park, Donnybrook. 
Maffett, Rev. R. S., B.A. 17 Herbert-road, Sandymount. 
*Maguire, John. Moore Mount, Dunleer. 
Mahony, Daniel, M.A., Barrister -at -Law. Mount Alverno, Dalkey, Co. 

Mahony, Denis M'Carthy, B.A., Barrister-at-Law. 2, Howard-place, 


Mahony, J. J. 4, Lower Montenotte, Cork. 
Mahony, Thomas Henry. 8, Adelaide-place, St. Luke's, Cork. 
Malone, Laurence. Innismaan, Queen's Park, Monkstown. 
Malone, Mrs. Innismaan, Queen's Park, Monkstown. 
Mangan, Most Rev. John, D.D., Bishop of Kerry. Killarney. 
Manning, John Butler. 18, Upper Sackville-street, Dublin. 
March, Henry Colley, M.D. (Lond)., F.S.A. Portesham, Dorchester. 
'**Marstrander, Professor Carl. School of Irish Learning, 122, St. Stephen's 

Green, Dublin. 
Mason, J. J. B. 6, Ely-place, Dublin ; and Glenmalure, Bushy Park- 

road, Terenure. 

Mason, Thomas H. 5, Dame-street, Dublin. 
Maunsell, Mrs. E. The Island, Clare Castle, Co. Clare. 
Max, John T., J.P. Maxfort, Thurles. 

May, Miss Charlotte P. Knockmore, Enniskerry, Co. Wicklow. 
May, Miss Stella M. E. Knockmore, Enniskerry, Co. Wicklow. 
May, Mrs. Florence E. Abbey lands, Milltown, Co. Kerry. 
Mayler, Miss Margaret. Harristown, Ballymitty, Co. Wexford. 
Mayne, Thomas, F.R.G.S.I. 19, Lord Edward-street, Dublin. 
*Mayne, Ilev. William J., M.A. Auburn, Sydney Parade - avenue, 

Men ion. 
Mayo, Right Hon. the Earl of, K.P., D.L. Palmerstown House, 

Meadows, Henry Lloyd, M.A., F.R.A.S. Clerk of the Crown and Peace 

for the County of Wexford. Ballyrane, Killinick, Co. Wexford. 
Mecredy, R. J. Vallombrosa, Bray, Co. Wicklow. 
MEEHAN, Kev. Joseph, P.P. Florence Court, Enniskillen. 
Meehan, Rev. Patrick, P.P. The Presbytery, Keadue, Carrick-on- 

Micks, William L., M.A. Commissioner, Congested District Board, 

Rutland-square, Dublin. 
Miller, Mrs. The Manse, Armagh. 
*Milligan, Humphrey, Athlone. 
Milliken, James. 146, Anfield-road, Liverpool. 
MILLNER, Colonel Joshua Kearney. Leeson Park House, Dublin. 
*Mills, Dr. John, M.B. Resident Physician, District Asylum, Balli- 


*Milne, Very Rev. Kentigern. The Abbey, Fort Augustus, Scotland. 
MITCHELL, Thomas. Walcot, Birr. 
Moloney, Maurice T. Ottawa, Illinois, U.S.A. 
Molony, Alfred. 4/48, Dartmouth Park Hill, London, N.W. 
Molony, Henry, M.D. Odellville, Ballingarry, Limerick. 
Monteagle of Brandon, Right Hon. Lord, K.P. Mount Trenchard, Foynes, 

Co. Limerick. 

Montgomery, Archibald V., Solicitor. 13, Molesworth-street, Dublin. 
Montgomery, Henry C. Ballyholme House, Bangor, Co. Down. 
*Moony, George M. S. Enraght, J.P. The Doon, Athlone. 
Moore, John. 117, Grafton-street, Dublin. 
Moore, John Gibson, J.P. Llandaff Hall, Merrion. 
*Moore, William. Castle Mahon, Blackrock, Co. Cork. 
Moore, William Colles. 5, Herbert-road, Sandymount. 



1909 ***Moore-Brabazon, Chambre. Tara Hall, Tara. 

1889 *Morgan, Arthur P., B.A. (Dubl.), D.I.N.S. South Mall, Lismore. 

1903 ***Morris, Henry. 8, Main-street, Strabane. 

1912 Morrison, William H. Granville Hotel, Upper Sackville-street, Dublin. 

1907 Morrissey, James F., B.A. Public Record Office, Dublin. 

1907 Morrissey, Thomas J., LL.B. Public Record Office, Dublin. 

1909 *Moynagh, Stephen H., Solicitor. Roden-place, Dundalk. 

1903 Mulhall, Mrs. Marion, c/o Mrs. Greer, Bandon, Co. Cork. 
1889 Mullan, Rev. David, M.A. 93, Ranelagh-road, Dublin. 
1902 Mullan, James. Castlerock, Co. Londonderry. 

1891 Mullan, Robert A., B.A. 9, Trevor Hill, Newry. 

1889 Mullen, Frank. Cavanacaw, Clanabogan, Co. Tyrone. 
1907 ***Mulligan, Miss Sara. 13, Patrick -street, Kilkenny. 

1902 Mulvany, Rev. Thomas, C.C., Adm. Collinstown, Co. Westmeath. 

1890 Murphy, Rev. Arthur William, P.P. Brosna, Abbeyfeale. 

1901 *Murphy, Francis. 284, Newport-road, Cardiff. 

1892 Murphy, Rev. James E. H., M.A., M.R.I. A., Professor of Irish, Dublin 

University. Rathcore Rectory, Enfield, Co. Meath. 
1889 Murphy, Very Rev. Jeremiah, D.D., P.P. Macroom. 

1895 Murphy, John J. 6, Mount Edgecumbe, Stranmillis-road, Belfast, 

1896 Murphy, M. L. Ballyboy, Ferns. 

1897 Murphy, Miss. Ard-na-Greine, Ardeevin-road, Dalkey. 
1889 Murray, Archibald. Portland, Limerick. 

1910 Murray, Bruce. Portland, Limerick. 
1899 Murray, Daly, J.P. Beech Hill, Cork. 

1889 Nash, Lieut.-Colonel Edward, J.P. 94, Piccadilly, London, W. 

1895 Nash, Richard G., J.P. Finnstown House, Lucan. 
1905 Nash, Sir Vincent, Knt., D.L. Tivoli, Limerick. 

1902 Neale, Walter G. 29, Grosvenor-square, Dublin. 

1890 Nelis, John. Londonderry. 

1904 Nichols, James. 85, Ranelagh-road, Dublin. 
1899 Nichols, Mrs. Kilbrack, Doneraile, Co. Cork. 

1893 Nixon, James H. F., F.R.G.S., J.P. Mount Prospect, Mount Nugent, 

Co. Cavan. 

1902 Nolan, Rev. John, P.P. Kircubbin, Co. Down. 
1890 Nolan, Pierce L., B.A., Barrister- at- Law. 6, St. Stephen's-green, 


1896 **Nolan, William R., B.A. Brookville, Simmonscourt-avenue, Donnybrook. 

1898 Nooney, Thomas F., J.P. Earl-street, Mullingar. 

1910 | Nugent, Michael. Knocktopher Abbey, Knocktopher, Co. Kilkenny. 




O'BRIEN, Conor. 7, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin. 

O'Brien, Mrs. South Hill, Limerick. 

O'Callaghan, Mrs. Maryfort, O'Callaghan's Mills, Limerick. 

O'Conchobhair, Domhnall. 15, Hollybank-road, Drumcondra. 

O'Connell, Daniel, J.P., D.L. Derrynane Abbey, Waterville, Co. Kerry. 
*0'Connell, Mrs. Mary. Killeen, Killiney, Co. Dublin. 
***0'Connell, Sir Morgan Ross, Barf., D.L. Lake View, Killarney. 

O'Connor, Right Hon. Charles, K.C., Master of the Rolls, M.A. 
28, Fitzwilliam-place, Dublin. 

O'Connor, M. J., Solicitor. 2, George-street, Wexford. 

Odell, Mrs. Cloncoskraine, Dungarvan, Co. Waterford. 
*0'Duffy, John, L.D.S., R.C.S.I. 67, Great Britain-street, Dublin. 

O'Grady, Guillamore, M.A., Dublin Herald-of-Arms. 49, Fitzwilliam- 
square, Dublin. 

O'Hanrahan, Timothy Win., J.P. Parliament-street, Kilkenny. 

O'Hara, Right-Rev. John M., Monsignor, P.P., V.F. Crossmolina. 

O'Hennessy, Bartholomew. Kilkee. 

O'Leary, Very Rev. Archdeacon David, P.P. The Presbytery, Kenmare. 

O'LEAEY, Eev. Edward, P.P. Portarlington. 






















O'Morchoe, The. Kerry mount, Foxrock. 

O'Morchoe, Rev. Thomas A., M.A. Kilternan Rectory, Golden Ball. 

O'Reilly, George. 26, Trinity-street, Drogheda. 

O'Reilly, Very Rev. Michael, O.C.C. 56, Aungier- street, Dublin. 

0'RIORDAN,'Rev. John, C.C. Cloyne. 

O'Ryan, llev. T. W., C.C. Presbytery, Golden Bridge, Dublin 

ORMONDE, Most Hon. the Marquis of, K.P., H.M.L. The Castle, 


Ormsby, Robert Daly. Ballynamote, Carrickmines, Co. Dublin. 
Orpen, Goddard H., B.A., Barrister-at-Law. Monksgrange, Enniscorthy. 
Orpen, Right Rev. Raymond d'A., M.A., Bishop of Limerick and Ardfert. 

The Palace, Henry- street, Limerick. 

*0'Sullivan, Daniel. Caherdaniel, Waterville, Co. Kerry. 
Oulton, Rev. Richard C., M.A., B.D. 17, Warrington- place, Dublin. 

Pakenham- Walsh, Lieut. Winthrop Pakenham. Crinken House, Shankill, 

Co. Dublin. 

Parkinson, Miss. Westbourne, Ennis. 
*Patch, Mrs. F. R. Fareham, Hants. 

Paton, William Mortimer, A.R.I.B.A. 6, St. Kevin's-park, Dublin. 
Patterson, Mervyn S. Rosavo, Cultra, Co, Down. 
Patterson, William Hugh, M.R.I. A. Garranard, Strandtown, Belfast. 
Patton, Rev. George Herbert, M.A. The Rectory, Kilmessan, Co. Meath. 
Peacock, Mrs. Reginald. 1, Ovoca-terrace, Blackrock, Co. Dublin. 
Pentland, George Henry, B.A., J.P. Black Hall, Drogheda. 
Peter, Miss A. 29, Darthmouth-square, Dublin. 
Phelps, Ernest James. 9, Lower Hatch -street, Dublin. 
Phillips, James Gastrell, Architect. Barn wood- avenue, Gloucester. 
Phillips, James J., C.E., Archt. Assurance Buildings, 16, Donegall-square,. 

South, Belfast. 

Pilkington, Richard Grant. 25, Morehampton-road, Dublin. 
Pirn, A. Cecil. 47, Franklin -street, Belfast. 
Pirn, Miss E. M. Newtown Park, Waterford. 
Pirn, Miss Ida. Lonsdale, Blackrock, Co. Dublin. 

Pirn, Jonathan, M.A., K.C., Solicitor- General. 10, Herbert -street, Dublin. 
Place, Thomas Dumayne. Rosemount, New Ross. 
Plunkett, Thomas, M.R.I. A. Enniskillen. 
Poe, Colonel Sir William Hutcheson, Bart., C.B., J.P., D.L. Heywood, 


POER, COUNT DE LA, H.M.L. Gurteen Poer, Kilsheelan, Co. Waterford. 
Pollock, Hugh, Barrister -at -Law. 50, Northumberland-road, Dublin. 
Pounder, Festus Kelly, B.A. St. John's-terrace, Enniscorthy. 
Powell, Miss Una T. E. Bella Squardo, Blackrock, Co. Dublin. 
Powell, Rev. William H., D.D. Garrycloyne Rectory, Blarney. 
Powell, Thomas Valentine. 36, Palmerston-road, Eathmines. 
**Power, John Joseph, Ecclesiastical and General Decorator. High-street, 


Power, Rev. George Beresford, B.A. , Canon. Kilfane Glebe, Thomastown. 
POWER, Rev. Patrick, M.R.I.A. University College, Cork. 
Power, Rev. John, P.P. Kilteely, Pallasgrean, Co. Limerick. 
Price, George, LL.D. Board of Works, 6, Upper Merrion- street, Dublin. 
Prochazka, the Baroness P. Leyrath, Kilkenny. 
Purefoy, Rev. Amyrald D., M.A. The Rectory, Chapelizod, Co. Dublin. 

Quan-Smith, Samuel A. Bullock Castle, Dalkey, Co. Dublin. 
Quiggin, Edmund Crosby, M.A. Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.. 
Quinn, Augustine. The Beeches, Liscard, Cheshire. 
Quinn, John Monsarratt, J.P. 4, Kildare- place, Dublin. 












Rankin, Rev. R. B., B.A. All Saints, Newtown-Cunningham, Co. 

Rapmund, Rev. Joseph, P. P.' Parochial House, Silverstream, Co. 


Reade, James F. A., M.I.C.E. 29, Barronstrand- street, Waterford. 
Redington, Miss Matilda. Kilcornan, Oranmore. 
Reynell, Miss. 22, Eccles-street, Dublin. 
Reynolds, Mrs. Kate Isabella. The Mullens, Ballyshannon. 
Rice, Ignatius J., Solicitor. Rose Lawn, Ballybrack, Co. Dublin. 
Rice, Lieut. -Colonel Richard Justice, J.P. Bushmount, Lixnaw. 
ROBE, Alfred A., M.A., PH. D. Lisnabreeny House, Castlereagh, Belfast. 
Robertson, Hume. 26, Porchester-terrace, London, W. 
Robinson, Rev. John Lubbock, B.A. 35, Anglesea-road, Dublin. 
Roche, H. J. The Castle, Enniscorthy. 

Rochfort, William, J.P., D.L. Cahir Abbey, Cahir, Co. Tipperary. 
Rogers, William E. Belfast Banking Company, Portaferry. 
Ross-Lewin, Rev. Canon G. H., M.A. St. Cuthbert's Vicarage, Shotley 

Bridge, Co. Durham. 

ROTHEBAM, Edward Crofton. Belview, Crossakiel, Co. Meath. 
Ryan, Very Rev. Arthur, P.P., V.G. The Presbytery, Tipperary. 
Ryan, Rev. James J., President, St. Patrick's College, Thurles. 
Ryan, James P., M.D. Collins-street, Melbourne, Victoria. 
Ryan, Rev. Patrick. St. Patrick's College, Thurles. 

Ryland, Richard H., B.A., Barrister- at- Law. Sea Lawn, Sutton, Co. 

Salazar, Count Lorenzo, Consul for Italy in Ireland. Melrose House, 


Sayers, Reginald Brydges. 27, Killeen-road, Ratbmines, Dublin. 
Scott, Conway, C.E. Albion Hotel, Falmouth. 
Scott, John Alfred, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.S.I. 36, Lower Baggot- street, 


Scott, Samuel. 28, Ashby-road, Burton-on-Trent. 

Scott, William A., Architect, A.R.B.A. 45, Mountjoy-square, Dublin. 
Seigne, Miss Margery. Grenane House, Thomastown. 
Seton, Malcolm Cotter Cariston. 13, Clarendon-road, Holland Park, 

London, W. 
Seymour, Rev. St. John, B.D. Donohil Rectory, Cappa white, Co. 


Shackleton, George. Anna Liffey House, Lucan. 
*Shaw, Frederick, M.R.I. A. 20, Laurence-street, Drogheda. 
Shaw, Thomas J., J.P. 58, Earl-street, Mullingar. 
SHEIL, H. Percy. Mvarna, Greystones, Co. Wicklow. 
Sheridan, George P., Architect. 1, Suffolk-street, Dublin. 
Sheridan, Rev. N. T. Ramsgrange, Arthurstown, via Waterford. 
Sherwin, Rev. James P. University Church, St. Stephen's -green, Dublin. 
Shore, Hon. Mrs. Ballyduff, Thomastown, Co. Kilkenny. 
Shortal, Nicholas, Solicitor. Parliament-street, Kilkenny. 
Sides, Rev. John Robert, B.A. The Rectory, Burnfoot, Londonderry. 
Simpson, Mrs. West Church Manse, Bally mena. 

Simpson, William M. Walmer, Bally hoi me- road, Bangor, Co. Down. 
*Sinclair, Thomas. 18, Castle-lane, Belfast. 

Skeffington, Joseph Bartholomew, M.A., LL.D., S.I.N.S. Waterford. 
Small, John F., Solicitor. 37, Hill-street, Newry. 
Smith, Blair, J.P. Errigal House, Laurence-street, Londonderry. 
Smith, Rev. George Nuttall, M.A. Kelly Rectory, Lefton, Devonshire. 
Smith, Owen. Nobber, Co. Meath. 

Smyth, Edward Weber, J.P. 6, St. Stephen's -green, Dublin. 
Smyth, Mrs. E.' Weber. Cuil-min, Blackrock, Co. Dublin. 
Smyth, Miss Isabella. 14, Morehampton-road, Dublin. 
Smyth, Richard O'Brien, C. E., Archt. 2, Kenilworth-square, Dublin. 























Smyth, Robert Wolfe, J.P. Portlick Castle, Athlone. 
Spring, Richard Francis, C.E. Polehore, Wexford. 
STACK, Rev.C. Maurice, M.A. The Vicarage, Magheraclone, Kells. 
Stacpoole, Miss Gwendoline Clare. 24, Harcourt-street, Dublin. 
**Stanley, John Francis, Designer. 3124, Hull-avenue, New York City. 
Steele, Rev. William B., B.A. Levally Rectory, Enniskillen. 
Stephens, Pembroke Scott, K.C. 30, Cumberland- terrace. Regent's Park, 

London, N.W. 

Stevenson, James, M.R.I. A., J.P. Fort James, Londonderry. 
Stewart, Rev. Harvey, M.A. 44, Upper Mount-street, Dublin. 
Stourton, Miss. South Gate, Castlebellingham, Co. Louth. 
Stubbs, Henry, M.A., J.P., D.L. Danby, Ballysbannon. 
Studholme, Lancelot Joseph Moore, B.A. (Oxon.), C.E. Ballyeighan, Birr. 
Swanston, William. 4A, Cliftonville-avenue, Belfast. 
Swanzy, Rev. Henry Biddall, M.A. Omeath Rectory, Newry, C. o. Louth. 
Symes, Miss Eleanor. Mount Druid, Killiney, Co. Dublin. 
Synnott, Nicholas J., B.A. (Lond.). Barrister-at-Law. Furness, Naas. 

Talbot, Rev. Robert, Rector of Ballycarney, Co. Wexford. 

Tarleton, Mrs. The Abbey, Killeigh, Tullamore. 

Taylor, Nathaniel, Solicitor. 35, Waterloo -road, Dublin. 

Telford, Rev. William H. Reston Free Church Manse, Berwickshire. 

Tempest, Harry G. Dundalgan Press, Dundalk. 

Tempest, William, J.P. Douglas-place, Dundalk. 

Tenison, Arthur Heron Ryan, F.R.I. B.A. 21, Great Peter-street, 

Westminster, London, S.W. ; and Elm Dene, 32, Bath-road, Bedford 

Park, Chiswick, W. 

Thunder, Francis P. Grasa Da, Upper Drumcondra, Dublin. 
Tibbs, John Harding, B.A. Gortmore, Abbey-park, Londonderry. 
Tivy, Henry L., J.P. Barnstead, Blackrock, Cork. 
Toler-Aylward, Hector J. C., J.P., D.L. Shankill Castle, Whitehall, Co. 


Toppin, Aubrey John. National Museum, Dublin. 

TOBBENS, Thomas Hughes, J.P. Edenmore, Whiteabbey, Co. Antrim. 
Townshend, Thomas Courtney, B.A. (DubL). 23, South Frederick-street, 


Townshend, Thomas L. 7, Palm erston- park, Dublin. 
Traill, William A. ; M.A., C.E. Giant's Causeway, Bushmills. 
Tresilian, Richard S. 9, Upper Sackville-street, Dublin. 
Tuite, James. 14, Greville-street, Mullingar. 
Tuthill, Lieut. -Colonel Phineas B. Villiers-, R.A.M.C. The Slopes, 

Kingstown, Co. Dublin. 

Tuthill, Mrs. M. W. C. Villiers. The Slopes, Kingstown. 
Twigg, Thomas S. Rarc-an-ilan, Coliemore-road, Dalkey, Co. Dublin. 
Twigge, R. W., F.S.A. Reform Club, Pall Mall, London, S.W. 

UA CASAIDE, Seamus, B.A. Board of Works, Dublin. 
TJSSHEB, Beverley Grant, H. M. Inspector of Schools. 20, Glenmore- 
road, Hampstead, London, N.W. 

VANSTON, George T. B., LL.D., K.C. 

Hildon Park, Terenure-road, 

1, Bayswater-terrace, Sandycove. 
10, Anglesea-street, 

Waddell, John J., Barristar-at-Law. 

Co. Dublin. 
Waldron, The Right Hon. Laurence A., M.R.I. A. 


Walkington, Miss, M.A., LL.D. Edenvale, Strandtown, Co. Down. 
WALL, Bev. Francis J. St. Mary's, Haddington-road, Dublin. 
Wallace, Joseph, B.A. 9, Victoria-terrace, Limerick. 
Wallace, Rev. J. Craig. Raphoe. 
Wallace, Colonel Robert H., C.B. Myra Castle, Downpatrick. 












Waller, James Hardress, M.I.C.E. Luska, Nenagh, Co. Tipperary. 
WALSH, John Edward, M.A. (Dubl.), Barrister-at-Law, J.P. Belville,- 

Donny brook. 
Walsh, Very Rev. James H., D.D., Dean of Christ Church. 47, Upper 

Mount-street, Dublin. 
Walsh, Richard Walter, J.P. Williamstown House, Castlebellingham, Co. 

Walsh, Ven. Robert, D.D., Archdeacon of Dublin. St. Mary's Rectory, 


*Walsh, Thomas Arnold, Kilmallock. 
Walsh, V. J. Hussey-. 10, Avenue Marceau, Paris. 
*Walshe, Richard D. 42, Bloomfield-avenue, S. C. R., Dublin. 
Ward, Edward. Ulster Bank, Dundalk. 
Ward, H. Somerset. Dunibert House, Balfron, N.B. 
W.ard, Hon. Kathleen A. N. Beechwood, Killiney, Co. Dublin. 
Warren, Miss Edyth G. 1, Raglan-road, Dublin. 
Warren, Miss Mary Helen. 1, Raglan -road, Dublin. 
Webber, William Downes, J.P. Mitchelstown Castle, Co. Cork. 
Webster, Rev. Charles A., B.D. St. Michael's, Blackrock, Cork. 
Webster, William, Solicitor. 3 5 A, Church-street, St. Helens. 
Welch, Robert John, M.R.I. A. 49, Lonsdale-street, Belfast. 
Weldrick, George (c/o R. H. Beauchamp, 5, Foster -place, Dublin). 
Wells, J. Barker. Epworth, Greystones, Co. Wicklow. 
Wells, Samuel W. 216, Beechcliffe, Keighley, Yorkshire. 
Wheeler, Francis C. P. 14, Fade-street, Dublin. 
White, James, L.R.C.P.S.E., J.P. Kilkenny. 

White, Colonel J. Grove, J.P., D.L. Kilbyrne, Doneraile, Co. Cork. 
White, Henry Bantry, M.A., M.A.I., I.S.O. Ballinguile, Donnybrook. 
WHITE, Eev. Patrick W., B.A. Stonebridge Manse, Clones. 
WHITE, Richard Blair. Ashton Park, Monkstown. 
White, Samuel Robert Llewellyn, Lieutenant-Colonel 1st Leinster Regt. 

Scotch Rath, Dalkey, Co. Dublin. 

Whitfield, George. Modreeny, Cloughjordan, Co. Tipperary. 
Whitton, Joseph, B.A., B.E. Board of Works Office, Enniskillen. 
Whitworth, Mrs. Blackrock, Dundalk. 

Wilkinson, Arthur B. Berkeley, B.E. Drombroe, Bantry, Co. Cork. 
Wilkinson, George, B.A. Ringlestown, Kilmessan, Co. Meath. 
Wilkinson, W. J. Newtown Park, Trim. 
Willcocks, Rev. Wm. Smyth, M.A., Canon. Dunleckney Glebe, Bagenals- 


Williams, Edward Wilmot, J.P., D.L. Herringston, Dorchester. 
*Williams, Rev. Sterling deCourcy, M.A. Durrow Rectory, Tullamore. 
Williams, Mrs. W. Parkside, Wimbledon Common, London, S.W. 
Williamson, Rev. Charles Arthur, M.A. Ashampstead Vicarage, Reading, 

Wilson, Charles J., Barrister-at-Law. Derlamogue, Ailesbury-park, 


Wilson, Charles Pilkington, Solicitor. Lismallon, Foxrock, Co. Dublin. 
Wilson, James Mackay, J.P., D.L. Currygrane, Edgeworthstown. 
*Winder, Very Rev. T. E., M.A., Dean of Ossory. The Deanery, Kilkenny. 
Windisch, Professor Dr. Ernst, Hon. M.R.I. A. Universitats Strasse 15, 

Wood, Herbert, B.A., M.R.I. A. 6, Clarinda-park, E., Kingstown, Co. 

Woodward, Rev. Alfred Sadleir, M.A. St. Mark's Vicarage, Ballysillan, 

Woodward, Rev. George Otway, B.A. Rectory, Newcastle, Co. Down. 

Young, Rev. T. E., M.A. Aghold Rectory, Coolkenno, Co. Wicklow. 
YOUNGE, Miss Katharine E. Upper Oldtown, Rathdowney, Queen's 




1913 ! 


Andrew. James. 69, Pembroke-road, Dublin. 

Bewley, Mrs. E. 89, Merrion- square, Dublin. 
Bewley, G. 89, Merrion- square, Dublin. 
Bruen, Mrs. Oak-park, Carlow. 

1913 | Craig, Francis B., M.R.I.A.I. Kenmare, Orwell Park, Rathgar. 

1913 j Dargan, Mrs. T. 45, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin. 

1913 Darley Arthur "Warren. 4, Palmerston-park, Dublin. 

1913 Deane, Miss S. D. Longraigue, Foulksmills, Co. Wexford. 

1913 Eustace, Major H. M. Munfier House, Ballycarney, Ferns. 

1913 Gilfoyle, Mrs. A. T. Carrowcullen House, Skreen, Co. Sligo. 

1913 Harold-Barry, Philip, J.P. Ballyellis, Buttevant, Co. Cork. 

1913 Healy, James. 16, Kenil worth -square, Dublin. 

1913 Lawrence, Major George H. 26, Watling- street Road, Fullwood, Preston, 

1913 M'Clean, A. H. Blumenvllle, Tralee, Co. Kerry, 

1913 M'Grane, Mrs. M. Grace-park House, Drumcondra. 

1913 M' Knight, Edmund. Nevara, Temple Gardens, Dublin. 

1913 M'Nally, Robert. Lifford, Co. Donegal. 

1913 Maddock, Simon William. Mount Jerome House, Dublin. 

1913 Moore, Mrs. Colles. 5, Herbert- road, Sandymount, Dublin. 

1913 Nagle, Garrett, R.M. Fortwilliam, Belfast. 

.1913 j Nicol, Robert. Provincial Bank, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin 

1913 O'Brien, Michael. Mullnaburtlin N. S., Lisnaskea, Co. Fermanagh. 

1913 O'Grady, Miss S. H. Aghamarter, Cork. 

1913 Orr, Rev. John, B.D. St. John's Rector}-, Sligo. 

1913 Quiggan, Mrs. E. C. 88, Hartington-grove, Cambridge. 

1913 I Stokes, Frank. 60, Dawson-street, Dublin. 

1913 ! Walker, Henry John, M.A., Solicitor. Athlone. 

1913 | Young, Miss Nora, Rathvarna, Chichester-park, Belfast. 


Total number of Fellows, ... 208 (Life and Hon. Fellows, 61.) 
,, Members, ... 776 (Life Members, 51). 
,, ,, Associate Members, 28 

Total, 31st December, 1913, . 1012 

M.B. The Fellows and Members of the Society are requested to communicate 
to the Honorary Secretaries, 6, St. Stephen's -green, Dublin, changes of address, 
or ether corrections in the foregoing lists which may be needed. 




0f JUrtiqtrams 01 

FOR 1913. 

Academic Royale d'Archeologie de Belgique: c/o Monsieur Fern and Donnel, 45, 
Rue du Transvaal, Antwerp. 

American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass., U. S. A. 

Antiquary (Editor of), 7, Paternoster-row, London, ]E.C. 

Architect, The (Editor of), Imperial Buildings, Ludgate Hill, London, W.O. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club : The Museum, Belfast. 

Bergens Museums, Bibliothek. The Librarian, Bergen. 

Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Society: Rev. William Bazeley, M.A. 

Librarian, The Society's Library, Eastgate, Gloucester. 

British Archaeological Association: Hon. Secretary, 15, Paternoster-row, London. 
British School at Rome: The Library, British School, Palazzo, Odescalchi, Rome. 

Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire Archaeological Society: William Emery, Hon. 
Secretary, Eynesbury House, Eynesbury, St. Neots. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society: Frank James Allen, M.B., 8, Halifax-road, 

Cambrian Archaeological Association: c/o Canon Trevor Owen, M.A., F.S.A. 

Bodelwyddan Vicarage, Rhuddlau, North Wales. 
Chester and North Wales Archaeological and Historic Society: John Hewitt, Hon. 

Librarian, Grosvenor Museum, Chester. 

Det Kgl. norske Videnskabers.'Selskab, Throndhjem Norvege. 
Folk Lore (Editor of), 270, Strand, London, W.C. 

Glasgow Archaeological Society : A. H. Charteris. 19, St. Vincent-place, Glasgow. 
Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire: The Secretary, Royal Institution, 

Colqditt- street, Liverpool. 

His Majesty's Private Library : The Librarian, Buckingham Palace, London. 
Irish Builder, Editor of : R. M.Butler, Esq., Dawson Chambers, Dawson -street, 


Kent Archaeological Society : The Hon. Secretary, Maidstone, Kent. 

Kildare (County) Archaeological Society : c/o Lord Walter Fitz Gerald, Kilkea 

Castle, Mageney. 

Kungl Universitetets I Uppsala, Bibliotek. Ansel Anderson, Chief Librarian. 
Louth (County) Archaeological Society : c/o Rev. James Quinn, C.C., Cooler, 


National Library of Ireland, Kildare -street, Dublin. 
Numismatic Society : The Secretaries, 22, Albemarle-street, London, W. 


Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia : Hall of the Society, Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, U. S. A. 

Numismatique et Archeologique du Musee National de Transylvanie, A. Eolozsvar 

Palestine Exploration Fund (Secretary of), 2, Hinde-street, Manchester-square, 
London, W. 

Paris, Museum of St. Germain. 

Revue Celtique : Monsieur C. Professeur Vendryes, 85, Rue d'Assas, Paris. 

Royal Institute of British Architects : The Librarian, 9, Conduit-street, Hanover- 
square, London, W. 

Royal Institution of Cornwall: The Hon. Secretary, Museum, Truro, Cornwall. 
Royal Irish Academy : 19, Da wson- street, Dublin. 

Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland : The Hon. Secretary, 
19, Bloomsbury-square, London, W.C. 

Societe Royale d'Archeologie de Bruxelles, 11, Rue Ravensten, Bruxelles. 
Societe des Bollandistes, 14, Rue des Drsulines, Bruxelles. 

Societe Royale des Antiquaires du Nord: Messrs. Williams and Norgate, 14, 
Henrietta -street, Covent Garden, London. 

Society of Antiquaries of London : The Assistant Secretary, Burlington House, 
Piccadilly, London, W. 

Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne : C. Hunter Blair, Librarian, The 

Black Gate, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland : Joseph Anderson, Esq., LL.D., National 

Museum of Antiquities, Queen-street, Edinburgh. 

Society of Architects, 28, Bedford-square, London, W.C. 

Smithsonian Institution: Washington, D.C., U.S.A., c/o Wm. Wesley, 28, Essex- 
street, Strand, London. 

Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society: H. St. George Gray, 
Taunton Castle, Taunton. 

Stockbolm, Academy of Antiquities. 

Suffolk Institute of Archaeology: H. R. Barker, The Librarian, Mayes Hall 
Museum, Bury St. Edmunds. 

Surrey Archaeological Society: Hon. Secretaries, Castle Arch, Guildford. 

Sussex Archaeological Society : Care of Hon. Librarian, The Castle, Lewes, Sussex. 

The Bodleian Library, Oxford (5 & 6 Viet. c. 45). 

The Copyright Office, British Museum, London. 

The Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, 64, Chancery-lane, London, W.C. 

The Library, Trinity College, Dublin (5 & 6 Viet. c. 45). 

The National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth. 

The Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 50, Great Russell- 
street, London, W.C. 

The State Historical Society of Wisconsin, c/o Messrs. Henry Sotheran & Co., 
140, Strand, London. 

The Thoresby Society, 10, Park-street, Leeds. 

The University Library, Cambridge (5 & 6 Viet. c. 45). 

Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : The Secretary. Devizes. 

Yorkshire Archaeological Society: E. K. Clark, Esq., Hon. Librarian, 10, Park- 
street, Leeds. 

( 37 ) 





1. The Society is instituted to preserve, examine, and illustrate all Ancient Monu- 
ments and Memorials of the Arts, Manners, and Customs of the past, as connected 
with the Antiquities, Language, and Literature of Ireland. 


2. The Society shall consist of 



And MEMBERS elected on or before the Annual Meeting of 28th 

January, 1913, who shall he Members of the Body Corporate. 
ASSOCIATE MEMBERS may also he elected. 


3. FELLOWS shall be elected at a General Meeting of the Society, on the nomina- 
tion of the Council, with the name of a Fellow or Member as proposer. Each 
Fellow shall pay an Entrance Fee of 2, and an Annual Subscription of 1, or a Life 
Composition of 14, which includes the Entrance Fee of 2. 

4. HONORARY FELLOWS may be elected by the Society at the Annual General 
Meeting on the nomination of the Council. 

5. ASSOCIATE MEMBERS shall be elected at a General Meeting of the Society, on 
the nomination of the Council, with the name of a Fellow, Member, or Associate 
Member as proposer, and shall pay an annual Subscription of 10s. 

6. The Entrance Fees and first Annual Subscriptions of Fellows and the first 
Annual Subscriptions of Associate Members must be paid either before or on notification 
of Election. Fellows and Associate Members failing to pay as aforesaid shall be 
reported at the next General Meeting, and their names removed from the list. 

7. Any Fellow who has paid an Annual Subscription of 1 for ten consecutive 
years may become a LIFE FELLOW on payment of a sum of 8. 

8. Any Member who has paid an Annual Subscription of 10s. for ten consecutive 
years may become a LIFE MEMBER on payment of 5. 

9. Any Member who has paid his Life Composition, on being advanced to the rank 
of Fellow, may become a LIFE FELLOW by paying a sum of 7, which sum includes 
the Entrance Fee for Fellowship. 

10. Any Member on the roll on the 28th January, 1913, who has paid his Sub- 
scription, and is eligible for election, may be elected as a Fellow, on the recommenda- 
tion of the Council, without payment of any entrance fee. 

11. All Subscriptions shall be payable in advance on the 1st day of January in 
each year, or on election. The Subscriptions of Fellows and Associate Members 
elected at the last Meeting of any year may be placed to their credit for the following 
year. The name of any Fellow, Member, or Associate Member whose Subscription 
is two years in arrear shall be read out at the Annual General Meeting, and 
published in the Journal of the Society, and the connexion of such person with the 
Society shall cease, but his liability for moneys due to the Society shall continue. 


12. Fellows shall be entitled to receive the Journal, and all extra publications 
of the Society. Honorary Fellows, Members, and Associate Members shall be 
entitled to receive the Journal, and they may obtain the extra publications at a 
reduced price fixed by the Council. 

13. Any Fellow, Member, or Associate Member whose Subscription for the year 
has not been paid is not entitled to the Journal ; and any Fellow, Member j or 
Associate Member whose Subscription for the current year remains unpaid, and who 
receives the Journal, shall be held liable for the payment of the full published price 
of each part. 

14. If any Fellow, Member, or Associate Member signifies, in writing, to the 
Honorary General Secretaries of the Society that he desires to withdraw from the 
Society, he shall, with the concurrence of the Council, and on payment of all 
arrears, if any, cease to be a Fellow, Member, or Associate Member of the Society. 

15. Fellows and other Corporate Members whose Subscriptions for the current 
year have been paid shall alone have the right of voting at General Meetings of the 
Society. Associate Members have not the right of voting, and are not eligible to 
he elected as officers of the Society or Members of the Council. 


16. The Officers of the Society, who must be Fellows, shall consist of a 
President, four Vice -Presidents for each Province, one or more Honorary General 
Secretaries, and an Honorary Treasurer. 


17. The President shall take the chair at all meetings of the Society, the Council, 
and all Standing Committees, at which he is present, and shall keep order and 
regulate the proceedings. He shall be ex offido a member of all Standing Committees, 
and he may at any time summon Extraordinary Meetings of the Council, and shall 
have a casting vote on all occasions. 

On the resignation or death of the President during his term of office, the Council 
shall nominate a past President or Vice -President to act as President until the next 
Annual General Meeting. 

The President is eligible for re-election at each Annual General Meeting, but no 
President shall hold office for more than four consecutive years. 

The four senior or longest elected Vice- Presidents, one for each Province, shall 
retire each year by rotation, as may be determined by the Council, and shall not be 
eligible for re-election at the General Meeting at which they retire. 


18. The Honorary General Secretary or Secretaries shall be nominated by the 
Council for election at an Annual General Meeting, and shall be ex-ojficio Members 
of the Council and of all Standing Committees. They shall keep the Minutes of the 
Proceedings of the Society, and cause them to be correctly and legibly transcribed, 
They shall generally superintend the ordinary business of the Society. In case of a 
vacancy occurring in the office of Honorary General Secretaries during a year of office, 
the Council shall appoint a Fellow or Fellows to hold office until the next Annual 
General Meeting. 


19. The Honorary Treasurer shall be nominated by the Council for election at an 
Annual General Meeting. He shall be ex ojicio a member of the Council and of all 
Standing Committees. He shall keep the accounts of the Society in proper books, 
provided for the purpose. He shall not make any payment (other than for current 
and petty expenses) without the previous order of the Council. He shall from time to 
time pay into the Society's Bankers all money received on its account, and shall invest 
money as directed by the Council. He shall be prepared to produce the accounts 
at any time if required by the Council, and shall submit the same personally to the 
auditor. In the case of a vacancy occurring in the office of Honorary Treasurer 
during a year of office, the Council ahall appoint a Fellow to hold that office until the 
next Annual General Meeting. 



20. The Corporate Seal of the Society shall be in the joint custody of the 
President, Honorary Treasurer, and one of the Honorary General Secretaries for the 
time being, who shall affix it to documents on the authority of the Council. 

21. The Corporate Seal of the Society shall not be affixed to any instrument for 
the sale or transfer of any of the Society's property, unless by vote of the Society on 
the recommendation of the Council. 


22. The Officers and Council shall be elected at an Annual General Meeting. 
The nominations must be received at the Rooms of the Society on or before the first 
day of January preceding the Annual General Meeting, addressed to the Hon. General 
Secretaries, and endorsed "Nomination of Officers" or " Nominations for Council." 
A meeting of the Society shall be held on the second Tuesday of December, at which 
vacancies shall be declared. Each Nomination Paper must be signed by seven or more 
Fellows or Members as proposers ; and in the case of a Candidate who has not held 
such office before, his Nomination Paper must be accompanied by an intimation under 
his hand that he will serve in that office if elected. In case the number of persons so 
nominated shall exceed the number of vacancies, a printed Balloting Paper, containing 
the names of ail such Candidates arranged in alphabetical order, distinguishing those 
recommended by the Council, shall be sent by post to every Fellow and Member 
whose name is on the Roll of the Society, directed to the address entered on the Roll, 
at least one week before the day of election. Each person voting shall mark with a 
cross the name of the Candidate for whom he votes. The Voter shall return the 
Balloting Paper to the Hon. General Secretaries, on or before the day preceding the 
Election, in an addressed envelope (which will be supplied), closed, and marked 
Balloting Paper, and signed outside with the name of the Voter : the Balloting Paper 
itself must not be signed. In case a Voter signs the Balloting Paper, or votes for more 
Candidates than the number specified thereon, such Balloting Paper shall be rejected. 
The Balloting Papers shall be scrutinized on the day of election by at least two 
Scrutineers appointed by the Chairman, who shall report the result at the General 
Meeting held upon that day. The Hon. Treasurer shall furnish the Scrutineers with 
a List of the Fellows and Members whose Subscriptions have been paid up to the day 
preceding the Election, and who alone are qualified to vote at such Election. Those 
Candidates who obtain the greatest number of votes shall be declared elected, provided 
that, when there appears an equality of votes for two or more Candidates, the Candi- 
date whose name has been longest on the books of the Society, shall be declared elected. 

Existing Officers and Members of Council eligible for re-election may be nomi- 
nated by the Council for election at the next Animal General Meeting. In case 
no nomination has been received for any or all of the vacancies for Officers and 
Members of Council, in the manner prescribed, such vacancies shall be filled up by 
election at the Annual General Meeting. 


23. The management of the business of the Society shall be entrusted to a Council. 
The Council shall consist of the President, Past Presidents, Vice-Presidents, the 
Honorary General Secretaries, and Honorary Treasurer, all of whom shall be ex ojicio 
Members thereof, and of sixteen Corporate Members, twelve of whom at least must 
be Fellows. The four senior or longest elected Members of the Council shall retire 
each year by rotation, as may be determined by the Council, and shall not be 
eligible for re-election at the Annual General Meeting at which they retire. In case 
of a vacancy occurring for a Member of Council during the year, the Council shall 
at its next Meeting co-opt a Fellow or Member, to retire by rotation. A Member 
of Council who has failed to attend four of the Meetings of the Council shall not be 
eligible for re-election at the next Annual General Meeting. 

The Council shall meet on the last Tuesday of each month, or on such other days 
as they may deem necessary. Four Members of Council shall form a quorum. 

24. The Council shall report to the Annual General Meeting the state of the 
Society's Funds, and other matters which may have come before them during the 
preceding year. They may appoint such Committees for dealing with special depart- 
ments of the Society's work as they m*y think fit. They may nominate for election 


at a General Meeting of the Society a paid Assistant to the Honorary General 
Secretaries and Honorary Treasurer. In the case of a vacancy occurring in the 
post of such Assistant, the Council may appoint a Temporary Assistant or Assistants 
until the next General Meeting. 


25. The Accounts of the Society shall he audited by an Accountant nominated 
by the Council and approved by the Society, who shall report to the Council 
before the Annual General Meeting in each year. 


26. The Council may appoint Honorary Provincial Secretaries for each Province, 
and Honorary Local Secretaries throughout the country, whose duties shall be denned 
by the Council, and they shall report to the Council, at least once a year, on all 
Antiquarian Remains discovered in their districts, investigate Local History and 
Tradition, and give notice to the Council of all injury being inflicted, or about to be 
indicted, on Monuments of Antiquity or on Ancient Memorials of the Dead, in order 
that the influence of the Society may be exerted for their preservation or restoration. 

27. For the purpose of carrying out the arrangements in regard to the Meetings 
and Excursions to be held in the Provinces, the Honorary Provincial Secretaries 
may be summoned to attend the Meetings of Council. Honorary Secretaries of the 
County or Counties in which such Meetings are held may be similarly summoned. 


28. The Society shall meet at least four times in each year 011 such days as the 
Council shall determine, for the election of Fellows and Associate Members, for the 
reading and discussion of Papers on Historical and Archaeological Subjects, for the 
exhibition of Objects of Antiquarian Interest, and for the transaction of other business 
of the Society. Excursions may be arranged when practicable. 

Twelve Corporate Members shall form a quorum at a General Meeting. 

29. The Annual General Meeting shall be held in Dublin in the month of January. 
The other Meetings shall be held in such places as the Council may recommend. 
Notice of such General Meetings shall be forwarded to each Fellow, Member, and 
Associate Member. Evening Meetings may be held at such times as shall be 
arranged by the Council. 


30. No Paper shall be read at any Meeting of the Society without the permission 
of the Council having previously been obtained. The Council shall determine the 
order in which Papers shall be read, and the time to be allowed for each. All Papers 
listed or Communications received shall, if accepted for publication, be the property of 
the Society. The Council shall determine whether, and to what extent, any Paper or 
Communication shall be published. 

31. All matter concerning existing religious or political differences shall be 
excluded from the Papers to be read and the discussions held at the Meetings of 
the Society. 

32. The Proceedings of the Society and the Papers read at the several Meetings, 
when approved of by the Council, shall be printed in the Journal. If the funds of 
the Society permit, extra publications may be printed. 


33. A proposal for the enactment of any new Rule, or for the alteration or repeal 
of any existing Rule, must be in the first instance submitted to the Council ; the 
proposal to be signed by seven Fellows or Members, and forwarded to the Honorary 
General Secretaries. Oa such proposal being made, the Council shall lay the same 
before a General Meeting, with its opinion thereon ; and such proposal shall not be 
ratified unless passed by a majority of the Fellows and Corporate Members present 
at such General Meeting. 

All By-laws and Regulations dealing with the General Rules formerly made are 
hereby repealed. 

6, ST. STBFHEN'S-GKEEN, DUBLIN. Honorary General Secretaries. 




Royal Society of Antiquaries 
of Ireland, Dublin