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THE present fragment, though belonging to the history of 
another country, claims the attention of the Camden Society, not 
merely from having been written by an Englishman, but also 
because it relates principally to the services of an army of English 
auxiliaries. The narrative does not include the whole period of 
their campaign, but it supplies an account of the greater part of it. 
It appears to have been written in the form of letters, which were 
despatched to some friend at a distance,* and afterwards trans- 
cribed in a consecutive form. 

Commencing on the 13th of Aug. 1591, when the earl of Essex, 
the English general, was still near Dieppe, the port at which he 
landed, it proceeds day by day to the 6th of September. It is 
then suspended until the 3rd of the following month ; when it is 
resumed, and thenceforward continued to the 24th of December, 
at which period it was again closed, in order to be transmitted to 
the friend for whose information it had been written. Whether 
the events which occurred in. the month of September, and those 
which followed the 24th of December, were ever described by the 
same writer, it would now be vain to conjecture ; but it must be 
regretted that we have not his account of the first demonstration 
made by the Englishmen before Rouen; in which the earl of 

* See passages in pp. 33 (" no more tyll the nexte."), 60, 61 , and the concluding para- 
graph in p. 65. 


Essex had not only the misfortune to lose his only brother, but 
also to incur the censure of his detractors at home, and the dis- 
pleasure of his royal mistress. 

The true author of this Journal has not been ascertained with- 
out much difficulty. It has been attributed in one quarter * to the 
celebrated sir Henry Wotton. Such appropriation could not be 
reconciled with the authentic biography of that eminent man. 
Although he was closely attached to the earl of Essex at a sub- 
sequent period, there can be little doubt that throughout the 
year 1591 he was travelling in remote parts of the continent. 
This is shown by his letters to lord Zouch.f He arrived at 
Vienna on the llth Nov. 1590, and remained there until the 
21st April 1591. Early in February 1592 he left Padua, after 
some residence there, and on the 25th April following he returned 
to Florence ; and, although we have no positive evidence of his 
place of sojourn during the period of the present diary, it was 
clearly in the south of Germany or in Italy ; and, had he been 
in Normandy, his correspondence at this period would surely 
have contained some allusion to the circumstance. 

The MS. has inscribed upon it, by the hand of Humphry Wanley : 

" Written by Mr. Wotton." 

and as there were three elder brothers of sir Henry Wotton, 
the sons of his father's first marriage, their history has also been 
considered. Sir John, the second, was certainly engaged in the 
campaign of 1591, and was one of the knights made by the earl 
of Essex, on the 8th October ; but he is twice mentioned in the 
Journal (pp. 40, 49), and in the former place distinctly as a different 
person from the writer. 

* Sale Catalogue of Mr. Bright's Manuscripts, Lot 276 : which was evidently another 
copy of the same Journal, as shown by the passage there given, which is the same as that 
in p. 44, though slightly differing in language. It is supposed to have passed into the col- 
lection of Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. 

f Printed in the Reliquiae Wottonianse. 


The identity of the Author has at length been ascertained 
through his mentioning his cousin sir Philip Boteler,* coupled 
with the circumstance of his officiating as the muster-master of 
the army.f These facts combined have contributed to fix the 
authorship upon sir Thomas Coningsby, who is placed third in 
precedence among the twenty-four knights made by the lord 
generall on the 8th of October.]; Sir Thomas Coningsby and sir 
Philip Boteler were second cousins, inasmuch as they were both 
great-grandsons of sir Humphrey Coningsby, justice of the king's 
bench; and that sir Thomas Coningsby was muster-master is 
shown by a letter of lord Burghley.|| 

SIR THOMAS CONINGSBY was the son and heir of Humphrey 
Coningsby esquire, of Hampton Court, co. Hereford, and a gen- 
tleman pensioner to queen Elizabeth, by Anne daughter of sir 
Thomas Inglefield, one of the judges of the common pleas. He was 
elected to parliament for the city of Hereford in 1593 and 1601, 
and intermediately was sheriff of the county in 1598. On the 
12th Nov. 1617 he was appointed one of the council to William 
lord Compton, lord president of the marches of Wales. 

Fuller, in his Worthies, meeting with the name of Sir Thomas 
Coningsby among the sheriffs of Herefordshire, remarks, " I have 
heard from some of this county a pretious report of his memory, 
how he lived in a right worshipful equipage, and founded a place 
in Hereford for poor people, but to what proportion of revenue 
they could not inform me." The institution to which Fuller thus 
vaguely alludes is that of which Sir Thomas began the foundation 

* See pp. 48, 49. He also mentions another cousin, sir Richard Acton, whose degree 
of relationship has not been discovered. 

f See pp. 29, 60, 61. $ See p. 71. 

Sir Philip Boteler' s mother was Anne, daughter of John Coningsby esquire of North 
Minims in Hertfordshire, younger brother of Thomas Coningsby esquire of Hampton Court, 
co. Hereford, the father of Humphrey, father of sir Thomas. See the pedigree of Boteler 
in Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, vol. ii. p. 477, arid that of Coningsby in vol. i. p. 444. 

|| Seep. 73. 


in the year 1614, for superannuated soldiers and servants. The 
pious and affectionate feeling which gave birth to it in the mind 
of the veteran, was expressed in an elevated strain in the preamble 
of the deed* enrolled in Chancery upon the occasion, which shews 
that he had experienced some of the rude buffets of the world. 
"The said Sir Thomas Coningsby, to the honour of God, the 
father of every good and perfect gift, in thankfulness to him for 
his defence and protection, as well in foreign travels as by sea and 
land, as also for his preservation against malice and evil practices 
at home, in submission to his chastisements upon the person of 
the said Sir Thomas, which have disabled his body in this world, 
and enobled his mind and thoughts to the expectation of a world 
to come, and with a Christian hope and humble supplication to 
him for his blessing on his posterity, now depending on the last 
of six sons, which he had by his w r orthy and virtuous wife Philippa, 
the daughter of Sir William Fitzwilliams ; and being seized in fee 
of houses, lands, and parcels of the commandry, which were the 
inheritance of those knights of St. John of Jerusalem, formerly 
employed in the sustentation of Christian valour and courage, the 
said Sir Thomas ordained and constituted that all that quadrangle 
or square building of stone (&c. here it is described as to site) 
should be and remain a hospital for ever, under the name of 
' Coningsby's Company of Old Servitors/ in the suburbs of the 
city of Hereford." 

Sir Thomas Coningsby died May 30, 1625, having married 
Philippa, second daughter of sir William Fitzwilliam, of Milton 
near Peterborough, lord deputy of Ireland ; by whom he had issue 
a numerous family. Fitzwilliam, his only surviving son and suc- 
cessor, was grandfather of Thomas first earl of Coningsby. Of his 
daughters, Katharine was married to Francis Smallman, of Kinar- 

* An abstract of this deed, and of the rules of the institution, maybe seen in Duncumb, 
Collections for Herefordshire, vol. i. p. 405 et seq. ; or in Price's Historical Account of 
the City of Hereford, Appendix, p. 213 et seq. 


desley castle, co. Hereford, esquire ; Elizabeth, to sir Humphry 
Baskerville, of Erdesley castle, co. Hereford; and Anne to sir 
Richard Tracy of Hatfield, co. Hereford, knt. 

THE SIEGE OF ROUEN is well known in the history of France 
as one of the incidents of the wars of the League. The city was 
seized and garrisoned by that party in the year 1590. After con- 
siderable delay in his preparations, Henri IV. invested it on the 
llth November 1591. The siege was raised on the approach of 
the duke of Parma on the 20th April following. 

Queen Elizabeth was prevailed upon, early in the year 1591, 
to send forces in aid of the protestant king of France, as she then 
had reason to esteem him. " In the moneth of Aprill/' says 
Stowe, " three thousand footmen were sent from hence into 
Brytaine in France under the conduction of sir John Norris 
knight, to joyne with the prince Dombes, son of the duke Mont- 
pensier, and general of the French king's forces in that province ; 
which companies have sithence beene from time to time supplied." 
This army continued to serve in Britany, under the command of sir 
John Norris,* but did not unite with that afterwards committed 
to the charge of the earl of Essex. 

The negociations for despatching this second army were com- 
pleted in the month of June ;f and the following month was spent 
in mustering men, and in the other busy measures of preparation. 

* " A Journall of the honourable service by the renowmed knight S. John Norrice, 
generall of the English and French forces, performed against the French and Spanish 
Leaguers in Fraunce 1591," is appended to Churchyard's Civill Wars in the Netherlands, 
4to. 1602, pp. 119133. It extends from April 11, 1591, to March 1, 1592. 

f " June 25. A graunt to send 4,000 foot in to France, which be in Normandy, under 
the E. Essex. 

" 29. The French ambassador bound for the payment. 

"July 19. The queen at my houss to see the erle of Essex horss in Covent Garden. 
3,000 men appoynted to be imbarked for Depe to serve under the erle of Essex. 

" 21. The erle of Essex's commission for Normandy. 

" August 3. The erle of Essex landed at Diepe." Lord Burghley's Diary. 


"The xxth of this moneth," writes sir Thomas Wylkes to sir 
Robert Sydney, " my lord of Essex intendeth to imbarque with his 
troopes of 4,000 men for Normandy; in which expedicion sir 
Thomas Sherley and myself were appointed counsaillors to the 
earle, which with much adoe we have avoyded (as I hope) ; and I 
have not knowen so gallant a troope goe out of England with so 
many young and untrained commanders." * 

Sir Thomas Leighton and sir Henry Killigrew were those who 
afterwards went as councillors to the lord generall. 

There are large materials for the history of this war among the 
papers of sir Henry Unton, who was at the same time sent by 
queen Elizabeth to reside with the French king, and to watch 
the events of the campaign. Of those papers one voluminous 
portion is preserved in the Cottonian collection : f and some docu- 
ments from that source are printed in the 16th volume of Ry- 
mer's Fcedera.J To have attempted any further selection from 
them on the present occasion would have been quite to over- 
burthen this slight brochure ; but there is one which the editor 
would have been tempted to give, viz. " Notes of the incidents 
relating to the earl of Essex's expedition, with their dates," at 
fol. 76, had not the greater part of the dates been unfortunately 
burnt away from the margin by the Cottonian fire. A few pas- 
sages, however, of sir Henry Unton's despatches have been placed 
in the notes, because they directly illustrate the statements of 
the Journal. 

* Letter dated llth July, 1591. Sidney Papers, i. 327. 

f MS. Cotton. Caligula C. vm. In the memoir of sir Henry Unton, contained in the 
introduction to The Unton Inventories, which I edited for the Berkshire Ashmolean 
Society in 1841, 1 have given some notice of this volume, as also of another relating to the 
same embassy preserved in the Bodleian Library, No. 3498. A third volume of sir 
Henry Unton's papers has since made a transient appearance before the public at the sale 
of Mr. Bright's collection of MSS. in 1844, lot 263, and is now in the possession of Sir 
Thomas Phillipps, Bart. (See the Gentleman's Magazine, Aug. 1844, vol. xxii. p. 151.) 

J Some of sir Christopher Hatton's letters in the same volume have been recently 
edited in his " Life and Times " by Sir Harris Nicolas. 


Of French historians for this period, beside the more popular 
Memoirs of Sully (which do not, however, furnish dates), and the 
general works of Matthieu, Mezeray, &c. we have the Memoires de 
la Ligue, and the Chronologic Novenaire of Cayet.* From these 
and other sources, a few other notes have been added ; together 
with some brief biographical memoranda, identifying the young 
English captains, many of whom were of high birth, and some, as 
sir Robert Gary, sir Harry Danvers, sir Oliver St. John, and 
sir Thomas Fairfax, became men of considerable eminence in the 
history of the next century. 

The only English account of the same campaign that has pre- 
viously been published, is that contained in sir Robert Gary's 
autobiographical Memoirs, from which a few illustrative passages 
have been appended. 

THE manner in which armies were constituted at the period of this 
Journal differed in so many respects from their present arrangements, that 
a few prefatory observations on that subject may be acceptable ; for, without 
such explanation, some of the terms e mployed by the writer may be liable 
to misapprehension. Most of those terms are indeed still in use, but their 
import has considerably changed. 

There was only one generall of the army, whose full designation was 
lieutenant-generall, he being considered the locum tenens and representative 
of his sovereign, when that sovereign was not present with the army. He 
was, says Francis Markham, " sometimes styled generall, as Leicester in the 
Low Countries, or lieutenant as the earl of Essex in Ireland, or lieutenant- 
generall as the earl of Ormond."f He was also usually styled " lord 

* There was a " Discount du Siege de la ville de Rouen au mois de Novembre, 1591, 
e"crit par le capitaine G. Valdori," printed at Rouen in 1592 ; but of this there is no 
copy in the British Museum. 

f F. Markham's Decades of Warre, 1622, fol. p. 198. 


generall," as ambassadors were styled " my lord ambassador ;"* but the 
title was not permanent any more than the function. 

There was also one marshall, an officer of high consequence,t but inferior 
to the generall. 

A battalion was termed a " battayle :" thus "our battayle" in p. 11, 
and " the battayle of the Swizers," p. 26. 

Each regiment had a colonell or coronell,f appointed by the generall, 
and the colonell appointed one lieutenant-colonell. During the campaign 
before us, on colonell Cromwell resigning his appointment, in order to 
return home, the earl of Essex gave his regiment to captain Gary, who 
thereupon made choice of captain Power to be his lieutenant-colonell. 

The companies were then frequently termed bands. Each band had its 
captain, who like the colonell nominated his lieutenant, but not more than 
one. Thus, at p. 33 of the present Journal, we read that captain Barton's 
lieutenant was slain ; and sir Robert Gary resigned his captaincy to sir 
Francis Rich, " who was lieutenant of my company before." The number 
of men in a band varied. Describing the Spanish armies sir Roger Williams 
says, " their commissions for foote bands are like unto ours, some ensigns 
300, some 200, the most of an 150." || 

Sir Robert Gary, when he started on the campaign of 1591, "was a 
captain of one hundred and fifty men," and even in that rank his expenses 
were great. " This journey (he adds) was very chargeable to mee, for I 
carried with mee a waggon with five horses to draw it. I carried five great 

* Sir Henry Unton dying when ambassador lieger in France in 1596, was buried with 
the state due to a baron. The same honour was also formerly paid to the body of a lord 
mayor of London dying when in office. 

^ " The office of the marshall is painful and great, for he medleth with the whole affaires 
of the warres." Sir Roger Williams's Discourse of Warre, p. 14. " The lord-marshall 
of an armie, above all other officers, ought to be a most approved soldier ... for this 
man above all others hath the greatest place of action and direction in all the armie." 
Markham, p. 189. 

J As in all ages, men of high birth were sometimes placed over the heads of men of 
experience. " The martial Byron would say also, these coronells of three days marres all 
the armies of the world." So reports sir Roger Williams ; and, speaking on his own 
authority, he remarks in another place : "A man may be sufficient to conduct a private 
companie, and not sufficient to command a regiment ; likewise sufficient for a coronell, 
and not for a generall." Preface to Discourse of Warre, 1590. 

Memoirs of sir Robert Gary, earl of Monmouth, p. 33. 

|| Discourse of Warre, p. 1 7. 


horses over with mee, and one little ambling nagge ; and I kept a table all 
the while I was there that cost me thirty pounds a weeke, which was from 
Midsummer to almost Christmasse; and yet God so blessed mee that I 
never wanted, but hee still sent me means to supply my wants." 

The cavalry, says sir Roger Williams, was divided by the Spaniards " into 
an 100, under a cornet;" that is, into troops of 100 each; but as "the 
advantagers and adventurers," that is, the volunteers, generally marched 
with the generall, his cornet was always four or five hundred. Thus, in 
p. 14 of the present Journal, the " gentlemen adventurers, which made about 
40 horses," were all attendant on the lord-generall in his march, and his 
brother master Devereux led the rear of the cornet. It will be observed 
that the words cornet here and ensign above are applied to the troop or 
company, and not to their officers. 

The old English horseman was called a man-at-arms. He was fully and 
heavily " armed ;" that is, incased in defensive armour, for so was the word 
applied. " The men of arms," says Williams, " never breake their soft 
paces, unless they charge or retire." He also states that " a man of armes 
ought to have five horses ; for every horse he receives as much pay as a 
launtier," or lancer. But there were probably few, if any, cavaliers of this 
class with the English army in France in 1591, unless among the gentlemen 

The greater part of the English cavalry were light horsemen, called 
" lawnces" in p. 14. Williams states that another common name for them 
was " demilances," and he afterwards compares " our Northern speares, 
[that is, those bred and employed on the Scotish borders,] light horsemen 
we tearme them," with " the light horsemen tearmed by the strangers har- 
gulatiers, as much to say hargabushes or petronels on horseback." The 
French hargulatiers are continually mentioned in the present Journal, 
and some English " harquebuz on horseback " at p. 21. In the de- 
scription of the sally made by the besieged in p. 57, it will be seen that 
their cavalry was of three arms, " 150 horse in three squadrons, one of 
lawnces with orange-tawnye bandrolls, the others pystoliers, both well 
armed, [that is, as before remarked, protected by armour,] and the third 
harquebuz on horseback." The last were the same as the hargulatiers, and 
the pistoliers resembled those which the Germans called reiters (see the 
note in p. 68). 


There was the like variety of weapon in a regiment of foot. Of every 
hundred men forty were protected by armour, that is, corslets or breast and 
back plates, and morions or steel hats. Of these thirty were pikemen, for 
defence against the horse, and who had also swords and daggers ; and 
ten carried shorter weapons, called halberts or bills, with targets on their 
left arms. The sixty others were " shot," for offence, men who had fire- 
arms, either the caliver, which had a barrel about 2 feet 6 inches long, 
or the musket, the barrel of which was 4 feet 6 inches, and it was dis- 
charged upon a rest. The last had been recently introduced when sir Roger 
Williams wrote ; and he has a chapter, " To proove muskatiers the best 
small shot that ever were invented." He prefers 500 muskets to twice the 
number of calivers, although he admits the latter might discharge two shots 
for one of the other.* The intention of another of his chapters is " To prove 
the pike the most honourable weapon carried by footemen ;" whilst he vigour- 
ously opposes the expiring prejudices of his countrymen in favour of archery, 
maintaining that bowmen were " the worst shot used in these days," and 
that "five hundred musketers are more serviceable than fifteen hundred 
bowmen." As regards this important change in the military art, the Dis- 
course of Warre is a treatise of much curiosity. 

* Humphrey Barwick says a musket would kill the armed of proof at 200 yards, men 
in common armour at 400 yards, and unarmed men at 600. Discourse concerning the 
force and effect of all manual Weapons of Fire, and the disability of the Long Bowe 
or Archery, &c. For this and several of the preceding quotations the Editor begs to 
acknowledge his obligations to Bolton Corney, esq. M.R.S.L. one of the Council of the 
Camden Society. 

UNTYLL (blank). 

[MS.- HarL 288. f. 253279. Contemporary.] 

Augusts 13. UPON Satterdaie, beinge the 13. of Auguste, my 
lord,(2) havinge intelligence that those of Roan mente to give him a 
camisado*in the nighte, in his army provided all things necessarie to 
welcome them, together with a determynation, that if they came not 
that nyghte, then the next morninge he would have surprysed some 
of them in some of their owne holds and fortresses nere adjoynynge ; 
and for that purpose had caused all his owne cariage-horses and 
others of th'armye (which would have been above five or six score 
horses) to be in a-readiness to mownte his beste muskatiers upon. 
And being ordering of all those things, sir Roger Williams came 
from the kinge with letters. (3) Whereupon he resolved to goe the 
nexte mornynge to the kynge, with all his lawnces, and many 
other voluntarie gentlemen, with a commaundment that none 
should carrie baggage, but merely a shirte. 

Aug. 14. And so upon Sounday, beinge the 14. of Auguste, 
aboute 12. of the clocke, he tooke horse, and went that nyght to a 
towne called Newchastell, 16 English miles from Deape, in a 
verie hot daie, wonderfullie dusted, and pestered w[ith flies, where 
we camef] aboughte 10 a'clocke at nyghte. 

Aug. 15. From thence, the nexte mornynge by vi. we 
were on horsebacke, marchynge towards Gisors, being put in 
verie good order at the yssuinge forth of the gate by the mar- 
shall sir Roger Williams ;(4) and so, passing thorowe the countrie, 
lead by men sent by the kinge, thorowe the moste champyon 

* A surprise: see The Leicester Correspondence, p. 319. f Worn away in MS. 



and open places (but verie much about and out of our waie), we 
made above 10 leagues that dale, although it be accompted but 
13 leagues betwixte Newchastell and Gisors, being all devotyon- 
ated to th'ennemye : but in this waie we saw of all sorts of people 
(besides those that came in our owne companye,) not ten persons. 
We found the villages and howses utterlie abandoned, but yet mylke, 
syder, freshe water, and bread almoste in e verie house readye sett 
to relieve our soldiers, which the footboyes and groomes broughte 
to their masters, for there was noe straggling out of the waie, for 
th'ennemye did attend us from hill to hill, only, as it seemed, to 
viewe and discover us ; for if they had had any other intention 
(whereof a nombre that were of goodwill were verie sorie) they 
had verie convenyent means, we passing betwixte Gorney and 
Girberrey, both of them beinge in our sighte at once, throne not 
dystante a league from us, and th'other not above halfe a league, 
being both townes of garrison of th'ennemye, both of horses and 
footmen, and the countrie verie apte, beinge somewhat close and 
upon straights betwixte hills, for ambushes : but when we recovered 
the hill in the sighte of Girberey,the marshall commaunded tohold;* 
and where before all the daie we had marched with our hargelatiresf 
some myle before us, (being to the nombre of some 30 or 40,) 
many gentlemen's servants put themselves into that companie for 
that daies march. Next followed the lord generall, with all the 
gentlemen adventurers, which made about 40 horses; after them a 
squadron of lawnces ledd by one of the corporalls ; then all the 
carriages, wagons, and carriadge horses ; and after them the reste 
of all the cornett, ledd by master Devorax.(5) Upon the hill the 
lord generall commaunded all the trumpeters together, raunginge 
our selves upon the said place within the sighte of both the fore- 
named townes. His lordship commaunded them to sound, which 
was done with a verie greate lyvelynes. All the while we dis- 
covered soundrie companies of horses upon hills and places of 
advauntage, but to noe greate nombre, for the moste we could 

* i. . halt. f hargulatiers : see the Introductory Observation*. 


understand by men of dyscretion that wente to discover, were not 
above 40 horses. The which, if they had doan their endeavour, 
although fyftie tymes so many durste not have foughte with us, 
yet might they have sore troubled us in our march, our cariages 
being many, and our passages disadvantageous, and lykewise we 
much wearyed towards nighte, being on horsebacke from before 
vi. in the mornynge tyll 2 a'clock the nexte mornynge, not want- 
inge fully one howre, where we baited in the open field our horses 
upon the growing corne, and the reste of such as was provyded 
and brought along with us ; where, under a wyndmyll, upon one 
of the lord generall's sumpter clothes, there we being garded all the 
while with th'one halfe of the horses while th'other were feed- 
inge, and having staid not fully an howre, there was intelligence 
browghte by our carbynes, that they discovered upon the hills 
nere adjoynynge to the waie we were to goe, being nere to Gorney 
and Girberey, both towns of th'ennemye, and of stronge garrison 
both of horse and foote, soundrie troupes of horses. Whereupon 
there was commaundment given to everie one their caskes, * 
having ridden with all the reste of their peeces all the dale 
before ; and so we proceeded tyll we came up to the hill nere Ger- 
berey, within halfe a myle, and not a ful] league from Gorney, 
continuyng of our jorney to Gisors, where we arryved at ij. of 
the clocke the nexte mornynge ; and so by computation we had 
marched 20, excepting our bayting howre, being let in at an ex- 
traordinarie tyme and used with greate favor by monsieur Flavan- 
courte there governor for the king, who feasted the lord generall. 
Aug. 18. The nexte mornynge we tooke our jorney towards 
Clermonte, being the 18 of Auguste, having Beavor (Beauvais) and 
Pontois, both towns of th'ennemye, with strong garrison, on either 
side of us : and being past Longueville his house, by vi. a clocke 
in the morninge, we entered into a goodly plaine countrie, where 
having ridden but ii. howres, the espyalls came and gave intel- 
ligence how they saw greate dust aryse, as if they had bene greate 
troupes of horse : whereupon our marshall, being mownted upon 

* casques, or head pieces. 


one of the lord generall's hobbyes, wente to dyscover with some 
other fewe gentlemen, who returned unto us with assurance that 
it was th'ennemye. But those whom they had dyscoverecl were not 
above 50, as he said ; yet fearing that there mighte be nere unto 
a wood some others, whom we could not dyscover, yt was com- 
maunded that everie one should put himselfe in arrnes and in 
readines, and mownte upon their beste horses, and with our 
caskes on. In a verie hott daie we rode iii. howres tyll we came 
to a castle called Meru, which being well barrocaded, we dyned 
there with such provision as we had broughte with us; the lord 
generall commaunding by sound of trumpett that noe man should 
take any thinge but what he paid for. After a small rest there, we 
marched on towards Clermonte, passing by monsieur de Mois 
castle, being utterlie battered and burnte by th'ennemye, being 
a verie zealous man, and niightylie hated of th'ennemye ; (6) and so 
at ix. a'clock at nighte wee arryved at Clermonte, where we were 
most badly lodged, and I thinke noe one man that nighte laie 
eyther in bed or sheets ; the town having by assault bene taken 
and ransacked twise in one yeare. The nexte morninge by vi. a' 
clocke we tooke our jorney towards Compeign, being a wonderfull 
goodly plaine countrie ; and beinge some twoe leagues upon our 
waie accompanyed with the governor of Clermonte, and a troupe 
of some 24 horses with him, there was intelligence brought by 
our light horses that they had some greate suspicion of some 
ambushment in a wood that laie nere our waie, because they had 
dyscovered some horses in the edge of the wood ; whereupon 
there was commaundment given every one to arme. The governor 
of Clermonte sente his troupe w T ith his lieutenante, who, going 
[to] the wood, said he dyscovered them taking their waie towards 
Pontois. After their retorne, we all disarmed our selves of our 
headpeces, and so road tyll we came to Compaign, where we were 
all marshalled five in a ranke : entering so into the said towne, we 
remayned there all that daie, and the next daie, beinge well loged, 
my lord invited for solace monsieur Revience, lieutenante- 
governor of Picardye, where a great nomber of ladies were 


gathered together, not without dauncing and musicke. His 
lordship, accompanyed by monsieur d'O, great threasorer of 
Fraunce, and governor of the Isle of Fraunce, together with 
the marquis of Pisana, (7) who lykewise was sente from the 
kinge to conducte and accompanie my lord generall to the kinge, 
who was come from Noyoun unto a castle in the mydeste of the 
waie, called (blank) from (blank) Compeign, to receave him. At 
the gate thereof the baron Bironne mett him, and conducted him 
to the kinge, who was in a garden attended with the duke Longue- 
ville,(8) the counte St. Poll, (9) and many more, receaving my lord 
with greate demonstrations of kyndness and favour, and we the lyke 
of his nobles. After a long discorse betvvene the kinge and our 
generall, the king ledd him into a castle, where he banqueted him ; 
and afterwards was by the marques of Pisana and many other 
nobles conducted out of the towne, and conveyed into a village an 
English mile off; but before his arrivall there, the kinge, attended 
with some ii. or iii., overtooke my lord rydyng with his band, 
sayinge unto all the trayne in English, (( You are welcome ;" and 
having brought my lord to his lodginge, and remayning there half 
an howre with him, retorned attended by my lord and his com- 
panie to his owne quarter. We were verie well lodged in that 
village for provision of our horses ; but noe man lay there upon or 
in any bed, but only my lord who brought it with him, but we had 
our choice of strawe and hay inough. 

Aug. 20. The nexte morning my lord went unto the king, where 
we were at a preaching in his owne chamber, for he hath noe pub- 
lique place, but preacheth in his house : the which donne, he 
wente to dynner, my lord dynyng with him by his commandment, 
and we with his grand esquire. After dynner my lord, by the king's 
commandment, being accompanyed only with a dozen gentlemen, 
did attend him to Noyoun,(lO) which he lately besieged and tooke by 
composition ; where, besides all other places of Fraunce which we 
had passed, we might see and beholde the pyttyful and firie sick- 
nes, and tokens of their lamentable warrs, the countrie being 


spoiled about, the bridges broken, all the suburbes of the towne 
burned, their orchards and gardens utterlie destroyed, ' their 
churches beaten downe, the walls rente, the towne within most 
fylthie, and breifly the countenance and face of all things showing 
desolation. The cheife intent of bringing my lord thyther (as I 
doe judge) was to take councel with the marshall Biron,(ll) who lay 
there sicke of the gowte, how to dispose of our army ; where we 
remayned one whole daie, well intreated at the king's charge for 
our dyett, which was such and in such sorte as tasted no whyte 
of the warres. 

Aug. 21. This day we spente in viewing the places of the bat- 
terie, and of the trenches made by the kinge, as well of the abbey 
as of the towne. The howses that are burned in the suburbes (as 
reporte goeth) are said to be 2,000, or more ; but I, having parti- 
cularly viewed them, can judge no lesse then 1,600 ; and many of 
them faire howses. The breach at which our English men tooke 
the abbey was not such as I and twoe more could come up in 
rancke.(12) The king determyned to raise [raze] the abbey cleane, 
leaste th'ennemye should possess him self of yt, and so trouble 
and moleste the towne. 

Aug. 22. This eveninge, being the 22. of Auguste, the kinge 
with his nobles would neades leape, where our lord generall did 
overleape them all. 

Aug. 23. The next daie, beinge the 23., my lord, after dynner, 
tooke his leave of the kinge, where all the gentlemen of accompt 
kiste his hand, unto whome he used theise speeches in effecte : 
" I shall not be well tyll I have mett theise brave men agayne, 
which shalbe before a moneth be at an end. In the mean tyme, I 
hope you will not be idle." His intention being that we should 
enterprise in the mean whyle somethinge about Roan. Then my 
lord was conducted to the gate by the duke of Longueville and 
his brother, and by the king's master of horse, above iii. myles 
out of the towne ; and there by monsieur d'O, governor of the 
Isle of Fraunce, and high threasurer of the kinge, to Compeign, 


where we found the duke Monpensiere (13) going to the kinge with 
500 horse. The king, the next dale of our departure, tooke his 
jorney to Ruytters.(14) The marshall Biron comes presently downe 
to joyne with our forces to enterprise somethinge in theise quar- 
ters of Normandie, from Compeign. 

Aug. 24. The 24. we came to monsieur de Moy's, to a village 
called Moy, where the lord thereof gave us the best entertayn- 
ment he could, which could not be greate, the generall ruin 
of the country considered, and his castle being by the duke 
de Mayne(15) taken by force of cannon, beinge a verie faire and 
stronge castle. 

Aug. 25. The 25. we marched through the meere ennemyes 
countrie, ryding all the daie armed, the weather moste extreame 
hott, our companyes being refreshed with 250 horses, conducted 
by monsieur de Moy ; and the baron de Botteville broughte us to 
the castle of Mem that daie to bayte, which holdeth for the 
kinge, where we left our footemen, who of 600 are broughte to 
240. And we marched unto Gisors that nighte, and by the waie 
there were dyscovered sondrie nombers of horse, to the nomber of 
240 ; the which sir Roger Williams havinge spyed, who ledd the 
squadron of lawnces, sente word unto my lord to lead [the] bodye, 
that he should provyde to fyghte; and so he did, marching all 
th'afternoone in a readynes to fyghte, being in view of th'ennemye, 
who kept at th'one syde all the daie. Towards nighte, being 
within a league of Gisors, we tooke some intelligense of th'enne- 
my's lying in a castle of the duke Longueville, where we were to 
passe ; but coming thither we found he had bene there all daie 
and was gonne away at nyghte. An abbesse, with some of her 
nonnes, came out (fearing that we would have lodged there), to 
beseech my lord that there should noe insolencies be doan to 
them or theirs ; who answered them that it was not his determi- 
nation there to reste ; and if he had, there should have bene noe 
wronge doan unto them. There were some of them of noble houses, 
coy and fyne, and otherwise, I thincke, then Mary Magdalen in 
their mynds. 


Aug. 26. Arryvinge at Gisors about 11 o'clock at nyghte, the 
iii. squadrons of Jawnces and the rest of the gentlemen were lefte 
there, were commaunded to mownte on horsebacke, and to goe 
meete the footemen whom we had left at Meru; who marched all 
night, and were mett before dale by the said horsemen, and in sol- 
dierly manner entred the suburbes by ix. of the clocke, being 
the 26., where we rernayned all that daie, with determination to 
rise at ij. a'clock at nighte, and to have fallen upon Gorney the 
next morninge verie early to have sene to have drawn some enter- 
pryse upon it. But we had firste intelligence that there were 300 
foote entred into yt, being before only kept by th'inhabitaunce 
and some fewe horses of the governor's. But aboute ij. a' 
clocke of the daie, there came intelligence that Villiers, governor 
of Roan and Newhaven, was entered that daie at ij. a'clock with 
400 horse ; the which intelligence gave good cause to consulte* 
In fine we sente 60 harquelatiers, iiii tie . English and 20 French, 
verie well mownted, [who,] departing from Gisors about vi. a'clocke, 
wente even unto the walls of Gorney, where they tooke some in 
their beds and some other upon the waie, who assured that 
Villiers was there with 800 horses and 1,500 [foot]. And they, 
arryvyng againe about iiii. in the mornynge, and advertysing what 
they had found, and heard the trumpets sound for everie man to 
make him selfe readie to have taken the waie that we came ; but 
when we were now readie to goe, my lord gave order that the foote 
should stay, and he torned hed and tooke the waie to Vernon, 
where he passed the river of Sceign, and lodged in a village 
about a league off, where he that lay best lay upon straw, and he 
that did eate beste did eate browne bread, and drancke water, 
unlesse he broughte somethinge els with him ; but yet we found 
verie greate provision for our horses. The beste of th'inhabitants 
were drawn with their cartes and horses into the church and 
churchyard, being strongely fortefied. About 12 a'clock at nighte 
we did ryse, and came to Pont de Larch, 8 longe leagues, 

Aug. 30. about 8 or ix. o'clock the next mornynge, being the 30. 


of Auguste, but 3 leagues from Roan ; where we toke certayne un- 
derstanding of the governor there, (a verie brave man, called mon- 
sieur Rollet,) that Villiers was retorned to Roan that morninge, 
and that he had intention to fighte with us, and strengthened him- 
selfe much that way, and although we had escaped his other am- 
buscado. Whereupon my lord consayled and resolved to send for 
our armye that daie, at Arches ; which being dispatched, the go- 
vernor would nedes invytehim to Loviers, (16) a verie faire towne 
lately surprysed by him from the Leaguers, which the kinge hath 
given him in govermente, being a verie worthie man and a greate 
undertaker, where we remayned all that daie, being the 30., in mak- 
ing of good chere and playing at tennys. Here my lord was adver- 
tysed by a gentleman of greate worth, named monsieur le Vertu, 
who had bene the cheife advertyser of Villiers his determynation, 
and had conducted us part of the waie betwixte Gisors and Vernori 
to avoid the ambushes that were laid for us, that in his retorne to 
Gisors he was in greate daunger to have bene taken by Villiers 
his companyes, who were, as he wryteth to my lord in his letter, 700 
horse stronge at the leaste, and pursued us with a full trott; and 
before we reached to Vernon, there arryved at the topp of the hill, 
some myle and a halfe off, Villiers and his companyes, and, per- 
ceiving us, paste over the river of Seign, by the bridge of Vernon. 

September the firste. We retorned upon Tewsdaie, being the 
first of September ; we passed the tyme as the daie before. 

Sept, 2. Upon Wednysday, the seconde daie of the said moneth, 
my lord was advertysed by one of the vi. messengers whom he 
sente upon Soundaie before, being harquebuz on horsebacke, 
that our army would march towards him as that daie. Where- 
upon my lord gave presente order for trumpetts to sound to 
horse, and so we retorned to Pont de Larch. About iii. o'clocke 
we mett him, his brother, and sir Roger Williams, who taryed 
all the whyle at Pont de Larch. At our arryvall there, upon a 
motion made to goe to an hill, being but a league from Pont de 
Larch, and a league and a halfe off Roan, only to vewe the towne 



and the countrie aboute, my lord, with some 24 gentlemen with 
him, mownted upon his fresh horses, and the best ronners, (if 
nede had required,) and so wente to the hill, where we mighte 
Terie playnely discerne the scytuation of it : where after we had 
stayed some while, we retorned. 

Sept. 4. Upon Sondaie the 4. of September the lord generall 
sentenced a gentleman of his cornet to be dysarmed for stryking 
of a woman. 

The same daie, after dynner, we receaved letters that our army 
was marched from Arches, (17) and would be within a myle of Roan, 
where the rendevous was appoynted. Whereupon, towards 3 of 
the clocke the trompett sounded to horse. But when all were 
readie, and advise taken, and a puyssante ennemye in our head, 
considering it was though te good by our generall to take more 
certain knowledge of the arryvall of our army at the rendevous ; 
and thereupon staid for that nighte, sending out curriers (couriers) 
continually to take intelligence what monsieur Villiers did with 
all his companyes, and how he dysposed them : who advertised 
that the 4. of this presente there was munytion and soldiors put 
into Blendville, a castle of the marques of Allegre's. 

Sept. 5. The fifte we mett with our army at Rea, leavinge all 
our baggage at Pont de Larch. 

Sept. 6. The vj. our armye rose early, and our cornett of 
horse, with the cornett of the governor of Deape, went to Pont de 
Larch to fetch the baggage, which we lefte there the daie before 
fearing that it mighte have bene some impedyment to our march, 
the ennemye being into our head, and attending us all the waie on 
th'one syde, to espye convenyently to have foughte with us, as we 
suspected. Hereupon our aunsients were sente into a straighte, 
where it was doubted th'ennemy would have incowntred our 
horses upon their retorne from Pont de Larch. In the meane 
tyme all the army marched into a faire plaine a league from the 
place where the foote stood, to attend the lawnces and the bagage, 
to have seconded if it had bene nedefull. And in the meane 


tyme my lord brake his faste under a tree, near unto a village 
where some part of th'ennemy were drawn in, as it appered after : 
for, havinge scarcely ended our soldierly repaste, there came four 
harquelatieres, who advertysed that they had discovered th'en- 
nemye comynge out of a wood nere unto us ; and, being sente 
backe to take some better understandinge of them, in going to the 
rysing of a lytel hill they were encowntred by seven harquelatiers 
of th'ennemy, who shrowded them selves behind a wyndmyll, and 
assalting ours slewe ii. of them, and hurt the third. Hereupon 
our battayle was commaunded to march up towards that lytle hill, 
by the favor wherof that few horses that were lefte came to the 
topp of the hill, and there we might see a squadron of th'ennemies 
horses some quarter of a myle from us. Whereupon there were 
[ordered] some, verie well horste with highe horses, to goe nere 
them, whom when they perceyved, ; ut out some dozen horses to 
encownter them ; and being we.i armed pressed ours home 
agayne, not without exchange of some pystoll bullett, spending so 
all the daie, until we had intelligence that our horses were within 
halfe a myle; and then there were sente 130 lawrices towards 
them to drawe them into fighte : but they, having understandinge 
of the approching of our horses, which of English and French 
weare 500, and they not determyned as yt seemed to fighte, (not- 
withstandinge they were stronge in horses, and had 2000 harque- 
latiers, as we were advertysed, as well by pesaunts taken as others 
of our espyalls,) retyred towards Roan, and we to a village called 
Gallic, where we found greate store of horse bate, but noe manner 
of meate for men but what we brought with us, except syder. (18) 

Oct. 3. The third daie of October we marched to Baly (Bulli ?) 
my lord generall goeing to Newchastell, where the marsliall was 
lodged, to conferre with him. (19) That daie, there were some 
stragglers cut of by certaine horsemen, that followed us aloofe 
for that purpose. That daie, at nighte, we had many that 
preste upon our sentnells half a dozen tymes : but we would 


take noe allarme, but caused all to stand in armes. The same 
nighte late the marshall wrote unto the lord generall that he would 
have him to advaunce, that they mighte take councell together of 
some intelligences receyved. 

Oct. 4. And so the 4. we marched unto Bellacomba,* and the 
lord generall, with his horses, wente to Seignecentes to the mar- 
shall ; and, having conferred with him, came to his quarter, where 
he arryved 3 howres before his armye, and after havinge eaten a 
morsel toke freshe horses, and with the governor of the castle of 
Bellacomba, accompanyed only with 4 gentlemen, whereof my 
selfe was one, wente a coursing the hare : but, being about a 
league from the towne, in a plaine field nere unto a wood, there 
came 16 or 20 curasers on horsebacke out of the wood, as 
faste as with their spurres they could beate on their horses, with 
their pystolls in their hands, crying, Qui vive, qui vive. The rest 
of this adventure is mete to be told in a friend 5 s earre. Where- 
upon my lord, being mownted upon a hobbye, was advysed to 
drawe a lytle asyde, and others to goe and see what they were : 
but drawing nere them found that they were of JerpenvihVs com- 
panye, who toke us for ennemy, as we did them : but hereby I 
hope we shall learne to goe on hunting hereafter strongly, so 
long as we remayne in the ennemy's countrie. 

Oct. 5. The fifthe we remayned at Bellacomba all the daie, 
whether the marshall came to my lord generall; and after consul- 
tation departed, eight of our men goinge for boot-hayling.f This 
daie we charged with 14 curasses of Roan ; and ours, being 4 
muskets and 4 pykes, induring their charge, slewe the capten of 
them, and in token thereof brought to their quarter his sword, 
hatt, and pystoll : but his bodie was recovered, and one of 
ours deadly wounded. The same daie returned from England 
mr. Frauncis Darcy, (20) whose newes of our retorne (21) more 
daunted our mynds then the sighte of all the leaguers arraynged 
in a squadron before us could have doan. 

Oct. 6. The 6. we marched to Gallic, from whence our generall 

* Bellencombre. f Hawling of booty, foraging. 


went to the marshall's quarter, being twoe leagues off, and there 
toke councell what to doe the next dale. That nighte, about 
12 a' clock, there was secrete warning given, that everie man 
should put himselfe in readines, load his caryages, and arm him- 
selfe, and be readie to marche by twoe a* clocke in the morninge, 
which was accordingly donne. 

Oct. 7. Our generall going to the marshal!' s quarter, attended 
with all the volontarye gentlemen, together with the cornett of 
horses, where he arryved ij. howres before daie, found the 
marshall readie, and accompanyed with greate nobylytie there 
adjoyninge ; and our generall being verie glisteringe with a greate 
plume of feathers in his hatt, the marshall began verie merylie 
to saie unto him, " What, you young gallante, are you come hether 
to brave me with your whyte feathers ? I thynke I have whyte 
feathers too ;" and with that called for a hatt sett with a mighty 
plume, and a horseman's coate of tawnye velvett full of sylver 
lace, and with that putt on the hatt, and looked lyke an old cutting 
ruffen of Smythfield. His gallantrie and pleasantnes grewe out 
of a confidente hope he had of the good successe of a long enter- 
tayned intelligence which he had in Roan, and began then firste to 
be publyshed (although whispered amongst some of us before). The 
effect whereof was as followeth : Roan, when monsieur Rollett, go- 
vernor of Pont de Larch (a good comptroller and brave executioner) 
tooke advantage of some unkyndnes past betwixt the governor of 
Roan and one of his collonells, who to revenge the former-recyted 
promysed to delyver a gate of the towne by meane of one of the 
captaynes of the towne who was at his devotion ; for th'exoneration 
whereof, an howre before daie, toke his coach and marched to a 
village scituated in a wounderfull faire playne called Martinville, 
where the rendevous was, and he with my lord generall arryved 
firste ; next came his old bands of Gascons, being harquebuz on 
foote, to the numbre of 2,000, as they say, but I thincke not so 
many upon accompte ; next arryved the Swyzers, who are twoe 


regiments, but I thincke not many above twoe thousand; next 
followed Mallard Mount Morancy, (22) who brought in five troupe 
of horses with curasses, which mighte be some 1,500 harqelatiers ; 
then arryved our English troupes, sir Roger Williams' com- 
panye being joyned the daie before ; and that day we were 2,500 
bearing armes, and 140 horse, English : presently in comes Rollett 
with a greate companye of curasses, and seemed to be in a greate 
discontentation he had staid so longe, it being by this tyme 11 a' 
clocke. There was besides these the governor of Deape's curasses, 
the baron Bentyville Parisian, governor of Newchastell, with the 
marques de Allegre, (2.3) monsieur de Rames, and many other brave 
men. There the intention, practyse, and greate hopes were pub- 
lyshed ; and for our better securytie the marshall offered that 200 
harquebuz should first enter the ports, being old Gascons led by 
monsieur Bellcouer their collonell ; next followed our companye, 
and who should have the pointe it was longe disputed, but was 
decyded by the fortune of the dyce and of the collonells; the lord 
Audley (24) wan it, and for leading of the poynte sir John Winge- 
field (25) wan yt of sir Thomas Baskerville,, (26) who with 300 men 
was the second, the French and my lord's ensigne to have seconded 
them. Yt was a world to see how men that were before dull with 
daunts, sicknesse, and discontentation, pulled up their harts, and 
grewe into a wounderfull hope of that which by the Frenche was 
so certainly promysed. Yt was a joy to see the pleasante coun- 
tenances of men, and the promyses they made to themselves of 
wealth that daie or a brave ende. And so having made a shorte 
breakefaste we marched on, havinge 3 longe leagues unto Roan 
from that place ; and, beinge arryved in the sighte of the towne, not 
above halfe a league ofFe in a wood there, there came a messenger 
from the marshall (who ledd the battayle of the Swizers that daie) 
unto our generall who was in the troupe that was to enter, direct- 
ing and encouraginge that he should make hold,* for that there 

* A halt, or stop. 


was treason in their intelligence, which more amated us than 
the bullets of th'ennemye could have doan. And so restinge there a 
while, a la morte,* the marshall came upp, and gave us direction to 
marche unto a bourge called Direntoim,f being nerer unto Roan 
then Myle-end is to London, whether we came on such a sodaine, 
that we found many of our hostesses at home and many of our 
hosts ; and I hold it was the gainefulleste lodging that we had 
since we came into Fraunce ; there was wool and many other 
thinges more than we had cariage for, and in the morning greate 
store of wyne was found under the grounde, whereof the soldiers 
laded themselves and lett the reste ronne of their chary tie. 

Oct. 8. The viii. our lord generall tooke his horse verye earlye 
and wente to an hill nere the towne, and not farr from St. Cathe- 
rine's castle, and I thincke bemonynge his fortune that he was 
revoked before he was master of the market-place ; and then and 
there, upon a faire grene in the sighte of the towne, where there 
was three thousand soldiors besides the inhabytants, he com- 
maunded all the gentlemen to lighte, and said he Was verie sorie 
that noe oportunytie was offered him to have ledd them into a 
place where they mighte have gayned honor ; but the fault was 
not his, neyther yet in them ; for he had receaved a great goodwill 
in all, and thereof was determyned to give notes of honor to some, 
and there made 24 knights. (27) The same nighte before there came 
some 30 harquelatiers unto one of our barrocadoes, thinckirige to 
have taken our sentnell ; which when they myst of, they sente a 
volley into the barrocado and retyred ; but the matter was so well 
handled by captain Clifford, as we did not them the honor to take 
the allarme. After that all the armye was come upon a fayre 
plaine, his lordship toke his leave, attended by all his gentlemen 
and his owne cornett, wente to the marshall's quarter, and there 
taryinge some howre in consultation, tooke his leave, the 
marshall accompanying him more than a league, where, after his 
departure, we dyned under a wyndmyll, not after the fashion of 

* Half-dead with disappointment. f Darnetal 


the courte but of the kampe ; and then taking horse we continued 
our way towards Deape, where, in our sighte, issued out of a wood 
some dozen harquelatiers, and charged some of our footmen and 
lackeies, and slewe ii., and hurte ii. or three more, and we pursewed 
them speadylie ; but they did recover the wood, which was faire 
and thicke, and very daungerous to enter : and so, burying the 
men, we came to Deape about 10 a'clocke at nighte, and [the 
lord generall] staid scarce to eate, but embarked for England, 
leaving behind him a greate many mornynge, but hopinge for 
his retorne, or els God helpe the king's cause here ! 

Oct. 9. The captayne of our carbynes, who arryved here the 
ix. daie, told how he was charged by some harquebuz, and had 
both men and horses shott ; amongst the which was my horse that 
I tooke at Gornay, being the governor's sonnets chiefe horse there, 
for which I having noe use, I lent him unto Oliver St. John, a 
brave man (28) ; and his servante, going out of the waie, fell 
uppon this adventure. This daie mr. Gary came out of Eng- 
land, (29) who broughte moste comfortable newes ; but our 
generall was goon before. This daie we made good chere, in 
recompence of many a small meale. 

Oct. 10. The 10. of October our armye arryved at Arches, 
where our captens broughte word of a sally that they of Roan 
made, with above 200 horses, and came up to the topp of an hill 
to the rer-guard, and defyed eyther man to man, or ii. to ii., or 
greater nombers, to stryke a blow with sword and pystoll. Where- 
unto it was aunswered that the horsemen were gonne, but if they 
listed to come and see how they did, they should be welcome. 
The Frenchmen made aunswer that they were not come to be put 
to schoole. In the meane tyme of theise speches, our captens 
that had the rer-gard drewe downe certayne muskatiers, and 
aymed so nere, that those which had these speeches (and were 
not past 3 or 4, the reste making a stand behind,) retyred more 
then apace. Our soldiers reporte that theise men were verie 
brave in armor, feathers, and scarfes. 


Oct. 11, 12. The 11. and 12. hapened noething worthie the 
noates, but that we made good cheare, and yt coste our crownes. 

Oct. 13. The 13. we had a muster, (30) where we mustred above 
2,400 men in the field, besides sicke men, which are verie many, 
and but fewe dead. 

Oct. 14, 15, and 16'. The 14., 15., and 16*. we wente abroade 
coursing in the fields ; and that daie there came the marques de 
Allegre, with letters from the rnarshall Biron, desiring that 500 
of ours mighte come to Caudebecke for their better helpe and 
assystaunce ; which was denyed them by sir Thomas Laighton, (31) 
to their greate dislyke. 

Oct. 17. The 17. our generall retorned againe from England, 
contrarie to the generall expectation of the moste. (32) That verie 
daie he tooke counsell and resolved to make dyspatch unto the kinge 
and the marshall, of the successe of his jorney into England, in 
the which he had made a speedie and more then ordynarie poste ; 
and what is it he doth not with gallauntrie and vigyllauncie ? 
The next mornynge he dyspatched sir Roger Williams to the 
kinge, who promysed to him self a goode successe of his jorney, 
or els to become of an earneste devotyoner a brave mutyner. 
This doan, he made reformation of thinges amysse in the kampe. 

Oct. 18. The 18. we had certain intelligence of the rendring 
upp of Caudebecke by composition, which was, all the men of 
warr to depart to Roan, with a convoy for their securytie ; the 
dromes beatinge, the ensignes flyinge, the matches lighted, the 
horsemen with their pystolls in their hands. 

Oct. 19, 20. The 19. and 20. we passed in making good 
cheare, coursing in the fields, ryding of horses, playing at ballone, 
and the lyke. 

Oct. 21. The 21. he heald a marshall corte, where many greifes 
were heard and determyned ; some condemned to dye for goinge 
without passporte for England, and some for other offences. This 
daie the marshall wrote a letter to sir Thomas Laighton, a lytle 
pickante, wherein he marveyled that our men did not accomplish 



his demaund and come to Caudebecke, and matter of lyke nature 
verie Frenchely. The same dale at nighte th'ennemye lay nere 
our campe, and had slaine a soldior of ours, that was sente to the 
savegarde of an house ; and our generall with 20 horses going 
over the field for Arques towards Deape, and passing by the very 
end of the village, where th'ennemye lay in ambushment, durst 
not charge us (as it was confessed), they being 24 curasses. The 
same nighte about ix. a' clock, we had a verie hott allarme given 
us by the castle, by the shoottinge off of ij. peeces of artyllerie, 
and ringing of the allarme-bell, which was by our soldiors verie 
well aunswered ; and if you had scene it, you would have thoughte 
there had bene noe faulte of men, for the verie sicke men that had 
not bene for x. daies out of the strawe, came to aunswer the 
allarme. This daie arryved at Deape monsieur d'O, with 50,000 
crownes from Caen by sea. 

Oct. 22. The 22. daie we passed with playinge at tennys in 
the forenoone, and at playinge at ballon in th'afternoone with the 
lieuetenant-gouvernor of Deape, and the victorie fell on our syde. 

Oct. 23. On Satterdaie, retorned sir Harry Danvers (33) from 
sir Roger Williams, who broughte us certaine intelligence of the 
king's marchinge hetherwarde with all speede. 

Oct. 24. The 24. we were invyted to monsieur d'O, who 
intreated us for dayntye chere lyke Lucullus ; for we were so farr 
from want of other meaner thinges, that we did eate muske and 
amber in tartes. (34) 

Oct. 25. The 25. our generall broughte him to see our armye, 
which was drawne out into the fields, where he showed him 2,000 
and upward brave men by the head, beside iii c . (300) sicke in the 
strawe. This daie beginneth the paie of the kinge ; but much 
more contented would we be in the paie of our blessed quene ! 
All manner of provision necessarie for the siege of Roan are in 
handling here. A very displeasing newes is arryved here, espe- 
cyally ours, who were at the beholdinge ; the ladie Blendville, a 
gracefull gentilwoman, and her faire daughter, were taken prisoners 


this daie commynge from their castle to this towne ; which is the 
more to be lamented, for that she is a ladie that possessed the 

Oct. 26. The 26. daie, the manner of the paymente of the king 
unto our soldiors was agreed upon, and a 40,000 delyvered to 
our threasorer to be dystributed according to our former paie from 
her majestic ; the same daie, monsieur d'O assured my lord, that 
the king would be at Roan within viii. daies with his army, and 
that daie he had receyved letters from him. That daie his lord- 
ship wente to the marshall, who was retyred from Holflewe to 
come towards Roan. And my lord, accompanyed with some viii. 
gentlemen of his owne followers, as also with monsieur d'O, and 
his trayne, wente to Anglicavilla, where he was lodged, and there 
that nighte supped with the marshall, and counsailled and con- 
ferred of many things ; in th'end of supper the chapplaine said 
grace, and after praying to the Virgin Marye, and the words there- 
upon uttered to the marshall, I deferr to tell but in my freind's eare. 
Oct. 27. The 27. our arrnye did ryse, and mett my lord retorn- 
ynge from thence, and lodged that nighte at a village called Gon- 
ville. The same daie all our sicke men weare imbarqued from 
hence for England, which were some 400 at the leaste. 

Oct. 28. The 28. we marched towards Roan, and the departe- 
ments of our lodginge being not to our likinge, we lodged in cer- 
tayne other villages, where we were wounderfullie well accommo- 
dated. That night arryved with us sir Roger Williams from the 
kinge, who broughte letters to our generall, of the kyng's full 
determynation to besiege Roan with mighte and mayne, and that 
he marched with all expedition hetherwards. That nighte my lord 
generall dyspatched him for England, and we did ryse in a moste 
raynie mornynge from that good quarter, and came unto a village 
called Ophin, where we weare verie well quartered, but noe creature 
to bid us welcome ; noe, not so much as a peasaunte to be found 
through all the countrie we marched ; and hardly one sheepe or 
swyne. That evening, after we were sett, my lord wente to Cally, 
where the marshall was lodged, our army having bene twice lodged 


in that village before ; and there it was resolved that we should 
ryse that nighte at xii. a' clocke, and march to Roan, being but vi. 
myles from our quarter, where we should have the pointe and be 
firste lodged, which was done accordingly, and came to a place of 
rendevous, where we staid for the rest above 2 howres, which was a 
fowle breache of promyse, and their harme, as it appeered the same 

Oct. 29. About halfe an howre before daie came Hallard 
Mount Morancy, and a lytle after the marshall, where we having 
the pointe came firste unto our lodginge to our quarter, called 
Mount de Mallades, (35) betwixte 8 and 9 a' clocke in the morninge, 
where firste having sente certaine carbynes into the towne to 
dyscover, my lord accompanyed with the gentlemen followed with 
certaine harquebuz and even hard by us all our pykes, and so 
made a stand in the middeste of the village, and the gentlemen 
wente to the side of the hill hard by the walls of Roan, the village 
itselfe not being so farr from the gates of Roan as it is betwixt 
Savoy and the walls of London : from thence we mighte discerne 
a greate skyrmysh betwixt those of the towne and marshall Biron 
his companies, when those of the towne maynteyned the skyrmysh 
verie bravely, and kepte a house and the hill nere unto marshall 
Biron his lodginge tyll it was five a' clocke at nighte, there yssued 
out of the towne betwixte 200 and 300, and led themselves in a 
place of advantage, nere to them that did skyrmysh, and then the 
marshall brought certaine horse of his, but noe blow given. 
Hallard Mount Morancyes quarter, being our next neighbor, was 
so sore assaulted that he was faine to quyte some parte of his 
quarter where he had laid his soldiors, whom th'ennemye so 
pursewed that they burnte halfe his quarter, his troupes looking 
on, and had so doan with the rest if my lord generall had not 
commaunded certaine harquebuz to goe and drawe them into a 
skirmysh dy verting from him, offering to cutt betweene them and 
the towne, which was so well performed, that our horses offering 
to charge made them whele about, and certaine pykes led by sir 
John Wingefielcl made them to give ground. There were ii. 


knights, one capten, besides others, hurte, and capten Barton's 
lieuetenant slaine. There were ii. of their captens slain by us, the 
bodie of one whereof we recovered, being verie well apparelled. 
The said lieuetenant toke his scarfe, who afterward was slaine. 
Hallard Mount Morancie loste iii. captens, but they of the towne 
bragg that they made his men ronne, both horse and foote ; but we 
that are their friends will speake the beste, for that they gave 
greate honor unto us for the recoverie of their lodginge. We had 
soundrie horses hurte, whereof mr. St. John had one and captain 
Yaxlye an other ; my lord his horse was shott dead under him ; 
and this is as much as I can remember of the daie, although I can 
assure you that I sawe many more thinges worthie the memorie, 
which at more leysure I may bethincke to wryte, but here is all 
I can assure you. Yt was a moste pleasing daie to see horses and 
foote together by the eares on both sydes ; and so towards the 
eveninge we retyred to our lodging, which we possessed all that 
nighte in quyett without any enterprise againste us. 

Nov. 2. This daie, being the second of November, because they 
would not come see what we did, one captain Welch, a verie 
resolute and tall man, wente downe to a corrs de gard, which 
they hould nere the gate of the towne, and beinge descry ed by a 
sentnell that made shott at him and myst him, he made a shott at 
the other and slewe him. In th'afternoone my lord wente to the 
marshall's quarter and consulted. This evening there are pickaxes 
and spades broughte us to intrenche our selves, which we are 
doinge. Sir Francis Allen (36) and sir Mathewe Morgan are in noe 
daunger of life by their hurts ; my lord generall and we here are 
well, and eate and drincke that we can gett, and lye uppon the 
strawe, and for many of us never better in our healthes in all our 
lives, and yet many tymes lesse contented ; no more tyll the nexte. 
There are a gaily and a gallias lying uppon the river and makes 
many shott, but hath yet (God be thanked !) doan small harme. 

Nov. 3. The thirde of November th'ennemye sent out his 
drome, desiring of my lord the bodie of the capten that was slaine 


the daie of our commynge, which was yealded unto, and was taken 
out of the ground, and laid in a place where they might fetche 
him. They would have commen with some captens to have fetched 
the bodye, which was denyed them, and so in th'end one of our 
droms delyvered the bodye unto vi. of the soldiors that came for 
it without armes. But yet in the meane while of this favor and 
honnourable cortosie they made certaine shott of artyllerie out of 
the towne upon us, and slewe an horse with a falcon shott under 
one mr. Constable and brused his thigh verie sore; and wonder- 
fullie they came out that afternoone in greate nombres, and we 
expected some greate consequente; but after the chaunging of 
certaine harqebuz with our neighbor quarter of Hallard Mount 
Morancye, theyretyred, having descerned (as it should seeme) that 
we were drawne out to second our freinds and came betwixte them 
and the towne. This daie the marshall came to our quarter, and 
much praysed th'intrenchments that were in hand for the defence 
of our lodgings, as also th'ad vantage of our barrocado to be 
advaunced nerer the towne then we made the firste daie by 220 
score. He that is idle there, and would gett an honorable heate, 
mighte have it here, eyther with workinge for our defence, or fight- 
ing once a daie at the leaste, for they offer us such occasion. 

Nov. 4. The 4. our generall went to the marshall's quarter, 
where after some consultacion and assurance of the king's being 
here uppon Satterdaie or Soundaie next, he went accompanyed 
with our generall and many others to the quarter of monsieur 
Flavencourte, where, presently upon our arryvall there, there yssued 
both horse and foote out of the castle of St. Katherin's, and 
skyrmyshed verie jollylye; but noe greate accydente proceeded 
of it, savinge that the marshall with monsieur d'O and others 
standinge upon an advantage of ground to view the castle, a 
bullett of artyllerie out of the castle lighted within vi. yards 
of him. This nighte there sallied forth 400 soldiors out of the 
castle [on] Flavencorte one of the marshalls of the kampe's quarter, 
burnte it over his head, slewe as many as stood the defence, toke 


his baggage, his horses, and mules ; but at last being backed with 
certaine Gascons and a regiment of the French that were lodged 
behind him, they were inforced to retyre in this order : there was 
lefte on the ground dead 26', eight were taken prisoners, whereof 
weare twoe English and one Spanysh. There aryved during our 
aboad there 500 pyoners from Evorax (Evreux) in base Nor- 
mandie, with many necessaries for pioneers. 

Nov. 5. The fifthe there yssued of th'ennemyes horse on our 
syde, and one brave fellowe all in crymson velvett, and would 
nedes call one of ours to the sword on horsebacke, which he 
bravely aunswered, and wounded him in twoe places, and had 
broughte him prisoner, if he had not been rescued by his fel- 
lowes. This was doan while our generall was at the marshall's 
quarter. This daie our generall invyted the iii. collonells of the 
Swizers, where there was drynking to the healths of others tyll 
some of them were sicke and a-sleape. There dyned also with 
him monsieur de Grinioun and Hallard Mounte Morancie, twoe 
greate men, and toke their drincke as well as the reste, and did as 
well appere uppon them. After dynner we wente abroad, and come 
nere to a gate of the towne where the governor of Deape is quar- 
tered, where walking upon an hill ymmynente to the towne, it 
fortuned that Villiers the governor (37) was with some xx. horse, and 
seing us he drewe out certaine shott, and so began to come up the 
hill ; but being known, and ryding uppon one of the horses that 
mr. Germyn's man roade away withall into Roan, our generall 
called him unto him, and said he would speake with him at a 
blowe with a sword or pystoll, but he replyed with noe aunswere 
but the shott of 4 or 5 harqebuz. 

Nov. 6. The vi. there passed nothing of greate memorie more 
then that they planted gabbions upon their bullwarks for their 
artyllerye overagainst our quarter, and that they sent a drome 
uppon a small matter into our quarter, who being blyndfold 
brought in, he was made so droncke by the rest of ours of his 
profession, that he neded not to be blyndfold when he wente out, 
for he knewe not the waie but as one of ours conducted him nere 


to the gate. They of the towne labour in their fortifications 
wounderfully : we may see 400 or 500 working upon a ravelinge, 
or a cavillier or such lyke fortifycation that they make. They 
make greate shewes and countenaunces of resolution : but it is 
thoughte here that whensoever they shall heare our cannon speake 
they will rainge themselves to reason. 

Nov. 7- The 7 our generall invyted soundrie collonells French 
to dynner with him. The same daie our horsemen having made 
very good proffyte upon the countrie, broughte us in some 60 
kyne, and of muttons and swyne proportyonally. This daie there 
comes a soldior of the governor of Deape, sente from his master 
to my lord generall, being this verie daie redeemed out of pryson, 
from Roan, who sayth that they within had a greate desyre to 
force our quarter, and have had many conferences thereupon, 
but yet can resolve of nothing to their lykinge. This daie there 
was an hott skyrmysh, both of horse and foote, nere to the castle 
of St. Katherin's, where the people of the towne stoode uppon the 
bullwarks of the towne and beheld it as though it had bene a 
tryumphe of sporte. There were slaine some on both sydes. 
In the towne they wante bread, although they have corne ynnough, 
for the river that drove their milles is turned from them. The 
same daie at nighte there arryved from Newhaven to Roan twoe 
peeces of culveringe, two of sacre, and 9 of robenets. 

Nov. 8. The viii. daie my lord, very early in the morninge, 
went to the marshall's quarter and passed not farr from the walls, 
a much more nere waie than he was wounte, for it was early. He 
had but vii. horse, whereof myself was one, and after dyspatch of 
his buysynes with the marshall, he entred into some of his usuall 
discorses of Than. Tharas with our generall, and said that he 
hoped that theise same 2000 greate Englishmen that they 
expecte, will at the leaste bringe with them 200 of the faire 
maids of England, of the which if he speake 3 words one of 
them is of that sex ; so devotyonated remembrer is he of that 
that is paste, as of that which is not in his power to doe, but 
only in speche. In our retorne we found soundrie horse of 


th'ennemye yssued out, which desyred us to hold our usuall waie, 
or paie deerly for our passage. This daie my lord was invyted to 
dynner to Hallard Mounte Morancyes quarter, and by our chere 
you would have judged there had bene noe warrs within 200 

Nov. 9. The 9. the marshall came to our quarter, where he 
mighte see a wounderfull goodly suburbes all on fyre on th'other 
syde of the water, which they forbare the doinge of tyll this daie, 
upon a certaine intelligence of the duke of Monpence * and the 
counte Swessons f (38) approches, who were quartered there ; 
and they have forborne to burne it tyll now, in respect of 8000 
crownes that was offred by the inhabitants to save it from fyre. 
There are a greate nomber of fayre buyldings in it, and bigger (in 
my concepte) then all Westminster. If they had come according to 
promyse the daie of our arryvall, their lodgings had been safe, 
which now they are constrayned to make under a tree, or goe 
farther off. This daie there being a trompett of one Jerpenville's 
sente into the towne by his lordship, Villiers the governor wyshed 
him to signyfie unto our generall, that whereas he had sente 
unto chevallier Pyccard to breake a pyke with him, he would the 
next morrow bring him into the field, eyther armed or in his 
doublet, to aunswere his challenge ; and if he lysted he would 
bring xvi. gentlemen more againste xvi. of his (39) Whereunto his 
lordship aunswered in wrytinge, that presently upon his commyng 
into Fraunce he was occasioned to send his drome thyther, un- 
derstanding of chevallier Pickard his being in towne, that he 
should tell him that he was sorie, for old acquayntaunce, that he 
should persyste in so bad an action, and againste so brave a kinge: 
but since it were so he would be glad to find him in the head of 
his troupe with a pyke ; and that he is to knowe that he is a 
generall of an armye from an absolute prince, in which there are 
a nombre of chevaliers, Pickard's equalls at the leaste, besydes ; 
that if he or any other had desire to find him, that all those of his 

* Montpensier. t Soissons. 



could justyfie, that the firste dale of his syttinge downe here he 
was twice in the head of his troupe, and offred to charge, and they 
refused and wheeled about : but, for that he himselfe is in some 
respecte of his government, he challenged him, he would make it 
good upon him eyther armed or in his doublett, that the king's cause 
was more juste and honest then that he upheld of the league ; that 
he himselfe was a better man than he, and his mistress fayrer than 
his. And if he would have helpe and parley, he would bringe xx. of 
lyke quallytie to chevalier Pickard,or 6'0, that the meaneste of them 
should be a capten in cheiffe. This daie our marshall and our 
lord generall, with soundrie with them, wente to vieue the towne, 
at whom they made 4 shott of artyllerie from the towne, which 
eyther wente cleane over our heads^ or els lighted shorte of us ; 
which sheweth noe greate skill in their cannonyers. 

Nov. 10. The x. capten Welsh, a verie tall man, being walk- 
ing nere the towne^ was shott by a sentenyll of theirs with a chaine 
bullett, and his arme broken ; the sentnyll that shott him being in 
a redd coate of one of our soldiors, which was the cause that he 
came with such convenyericye to shoote him, mystaking him to be 
one of ours. A servante of sir Conyers Clyfford charged the sentnyll 
with his sword on foote, who was rescued by a horseman in the 
meane tyme. The sentnyll charged againe, and shott him into the 
head, and it is to be feared that we shall lose them both. 

Nov. 11. The xi. there was a French horseman slaine by twoe 
of th'ennemye as he passed betwixt our quarter and the governor's 
of Deape, and for his body there grewe a greate skyrmysh, but 
they of the towne caryed it awaie. In our quarter there was a 
skirmysh, and one of their gallants fell in our sighte, and one of 
ours shott with a rnuskett. This daie my lord receaved aunswere 
of his letter from Villiers ; that in saying the cause of the king 
was a juster cause then that of the leaguers, and that he was a 
better man then he, he did lye; and would fighte thereupon, when 
the duke de Mayne should come. Whereunto my lord aunswered 
in wryting by his trompett this daie, that his lye was very fryvo- 


lous, and did no waie concern him, considering it was not given 
him upon a good ground ; yet, eftesoones, he did call him to the 
mayntenaunce of that he had denyed, and if he did not aunswere 
now, that he had noe excuse, then shame and infamye must lighte 
uppon him, which is generally spoken of him by all the French 
themselves. The governor hath sent this daie a challenge to any 
foote capten of ours, man to man, with shott and with rapyer, 
which was accepted, and capten Acton desirous of that combate, 
and his name sente to the governor to accepte his challenge ; but 
in th'end they made excuses herein, as they doe in all other 
thinges, with sleights and cunnyngs, and ronne when they come 
at blows ; whereof examples are many. 

Nov. 12. The xii. capten Welsh and sir Conyers Clyfford's 
man dyed both of their hurts. This daie, our generall receyved a 
letter from the kinge, of great love, and that he would be here as 
the next mornynge. This former nighte, we receyved 80 pyoneers 
from the marshall Bironne, to drawe the trench downe to the hill 
somewhat nerer the towne then our lodgings, out of the which our 
shott endaunger all those that eyther yssue out or walke upon 
the walls. This day there was a greate skyrmysh on our syde, 
but not dyrectly upon us ; but rather upon Hallard de Mounte 
Morancye, where the shott of the towne did much better (batter) 
his ; but with the helpe of our musketts, that plaid out of our 
trenches upon them, the skyrmish being in a playne under us, we 
quickly made them abandon the place, without their ever adven- 
turing to come and see what we had doan, which they find by 
experience doth much annoy them. They contynewe to burne all 
without the towne ; and this daie have burnt a village just betwixt 
the towne and the castle of St. Katherine's, which they have pro- 
tected to this daie. The contynewall burnynge of houses are verie 
greate and pytyfull to behold : how much bound are our people to 
God, that know not these myseries ! 

Nov. 13. The 13. we planted a culveringe by the breake of 
daie, and shott a ravelinge which they have begonne and mightily 


worke upon dale and nighte ; but so ill was our cannoriier, as 
with halfe a dozen shott we did scarce make them afraid, and 
therefore chaunged copye, and dyrected the bullett into the towne, 
where we mighte heare such ratling of houses, and see it fly 
through one house and grace upon the other, as were yt not for 
charytie it were pleasure to behold. After breakfaste, my lord 
accompanyed with soundry gentlemen, French, of greate marke, 
wente to the marshal!' s quarter, where accompanied with him my 
lord with all his in their best mountiers * and attyres, wente to 
meete the kinge, where we all dysmounted to kysse his hand, and 
he alighted to embrace the marshall and my lord, and being 
brought unto his quarter, they wente to cowncell, where they have 
resolved upon the course t to brydle this headstronge jade. In 
our retorne home, very nere to the towne, they shott twoe peeces 
of artyllerie at once, at our rysing of an hill, and escaped us very 
narrowly, and I, for my parte, never myssed so nere a daunger ; 
for I mighte sencesyblye feele the wynd of the bullets in my face, 
as it passed by me. That daunger escaped, we stood and viewed 
a skyrmysh betwixte the garrison of the castle of St. Katherin's 
and certaine soldiors of Bellgarde's regymente, where, being above 
200 soldiors on eyther syde, and skyrmyshing more then an howre 
in our sighte, we could not dyscerne any man slaine, and few or 
none hurte. The xiii., in the morninge, it pleased my lord to 
send to me and to sir John Wotton only, to attend him to the 
king's quarter, thincking to have come to his sermon there ; but 
we found him going to viewe the castle of St. Katherin's, and 
upon his retorne he called for dynner, where we staid tyll he had 
dyned, my lord standing by him all the while covered, talking and 
dyscorsinge of many matters, and all the reste standing bare : his 
dyet is of many meates, and a snatche of every one ; dryncketh 
good wine and lytle water. All the while he talked to one, or one 
to him in his eare. Before he had full dyned, my lord toke his 

* Or mountures, i. e. horses and furniture. f MS. cause. 


leave, the king telling him he would be at his quarter within an 
howre ; the which he performed, and passed throughout all our 
quarters, where all our people, to the uttermoste we mighte make, 
weare in armes, which he much praysed, though I knowe we 
wanted manye and manye a brave man that we had at our firste 

Nov. 14. This daie, in the afternoone, yt was a verie great 
myste ; and the king, takinge the advantage of it, would goe the 
nerest way to his quarter under the towne walls, betwixte the 
towne walls and the hills, in a vallye ; and my lord having com- 
maunded all his attendance here, and captens to mownt on horse- 
backe, armed and toke the hand of the king to cover betwixte 
him and the towne, the which baron Biron, in countenance of 
cortesie, to gard him, sente downe 200 horse to goe betwixte him and 
his and the walls ; who, when he perceaved their intente, he bended 
even the very counterschape, sending their leader word, that if 
they would goe nerer than he and his, he would make them goe 
into the dytche, for he would goe upon the counterscape. 

Nov. 15. The 15. my lord, only accompanyed with two gentle- 
men, wente to the king's quarter, where after dynner th'ennemye 
sallyed out on every syde, and were verie braggante, and upon the 
castle syde made skyrmysh with our French there. The king, my 
lord, and his grand esquire, lay uppon an immynente place all on a 
cloake, and beheld it. Upon our quarter they sallyed out upon our 
neighbor Mounte Morancy's men, who indevored to take a church 
(a place of some importance) nere unto the verie gate, and pos- 
sessed themselves of it. Whereupon they made their sally, and 
inforced their horse and foote to abandon the place with more 
then a lytle haste, We in their favor plaid upon th'ennemye 
from our trenches, and what by the shooting of one of theirs of 
good shewe by one of our muskatiers, whose bodie we were willing 
to recover, as also to amend some slacknes of one of our horse- 
men that did not of the best (as some toke it), but by some 
excused that his horse was shott, which in troth he lefte there, 


together with some recreante dealinge of some of Hallard's horse- 
men to their reproche, and to the glorie of th'ennemye, capten 
Acton and capten Gowre,* with some others, carne downe to the 
very gates and beate them in. They were seconded by sir Thomas 
Baskerville and sir Robert Carye and others, and having put 
them in, retorned even at the shutting of the nighte. Capten 
Powre(40) was shott with a chayne bullet, which fell so flatt upon his 
breste upon a bombastet doublett that it entred not, but brused 
him much. It is thoughte that if yt had bene with a single 
doublet he had bene wownded to the death. Although I saie it, 
our forwardnes doth make the French wounder to see ours of the 
beste sorte eyther well mounted or placed in the head of the 
troupes of pykes, to aunswere all alarme, and to make the proudest 
ronne when noj offer to chardge them. 

Nov. 16. The 16. there hath bene a spech (ever since the king 
came) of his going to Deape, which is to hasten all provisions and 
necessaries for his busynes here; but some of his domestiques, out 
of a French lyberty to speake every thynge, say that his jorney is to 
meete a saincte, (for he oweth devotyon to more than Gabryell 
only,) which he hath bene devote unto longe, whose bodie is trans- 
ported from Caen thither, because his devotion and vowes may 
be performed with more ease : but how, or whatsoever, you or I 
will speake the best of our betters. My lord this dale after break- 
faste wente to the king's quarter, where he passed the time tyll 
nighte ; and about one a'clocke the serj ante-major and others being 
buysie in planting a peece upon a broken house, where th'ennemye 
kept a corte de gard, hard without the gates, of 2,500 men, we 
might dyscerne on a sodaine the drawe- bridge fall, and a cornet of 
140 horse, and that brave ones, all in a cluster, came on as fast as 
they could, and holding that pace, they recovered an hill towards 
the king's quarter, nere to the which a regiment of Swizers are 
lodged and kepte their corte de gard even upon the hill, where 
they found marshall Biron and the baron his sonne, and many 

* Power ? f Stuffed : from bombyce, cotton. 1 Any ? 


others, who happyly were come thither to take vieue of that 
parte of the towne ; and spying them, eyther upon some spyall 
had upon them, or by happ, charged them, so much, and so hott, 
and so home, that their best stande was a fayre retreate as fast as 
their horses could carry them, as my lord and others have re- 
ported, who spake with them in his retorne from the kinge : but 
as it should seeme, some of th'ennemye, more forward then ad- 
vised, passed so farr amongst others, and not seconded by his 
fellows, that one remayneth our prisoner (as yt is said a gentleman 
well armed and well mounted). Upon this we from our quarter 
mighte behold the most of this that passed ; we might see many of 
their horse drove downe, and th'ennemye withdrawe within the 
covert of the towne ; and there we mighte behold many a horse 
well spurred, and many a sword jollyly glystering in the sunn on 
both sydes : but all put up without any effusion of blood, one 
blowe stryken, or one pystoll shott; which is not the manner of 
our quarter, for we never goe to it but eyther horse or man 
remaynes behind, and sometimes both. This evenynge in the 
skirmyshe we had hurte through the thigh a tall Irish soldior, 
who did excellent well, but yet his valure to be praised more than 
his discretion. There was also a French man's horse slaine, and 
himselfe narrowly escaped ; and by the favor of ours which ran 
out of the trenche to rescue him : but th'ennemye had the spoile 
of his horse, for that is our custome on both sydes, to leave man 
and horse naked, as soone as ever they fall, which in reason should 
make a man looke to himselfe, specyally this cold weather, for it 
would grieve a man to be torned naked in the rygor of the weather. 
This daie sir Edmund Yorke(41) hath beneupon the ryver to vieue 
the convenientest place, as well to stopp th'ennemyes passage, 
as to be accommodated for all necessaries out of base Normandye, 
and to passe and repasse th'arrnye on that syde (now commaunded 
by count Soesson (Soissons) who is alreadylodged there) hither unto 
this syde, if nede requyre, where sir Edmund Yorke hath resolved 


upon a place an English mile distaunte from the towne, and 
where there are villages on both sydes, and an island in the mydest 
of the ryver, in all the which there shalbe forts made and peeces 
of artyllerye planted, and a bridge of boats. This daie during the 
skyrmyshe there stale out of the towne, at the gate next unto us, 
a younge man, inhabitante of Roan (as he saith), who with twoe 
youthes of his kindrede have quytted the towne, fearing the ex- 
tremyty it may growe unto. I talked with him lorige, and that 
that I gathered (but a man must suspend of sodaine judgement of 
their speeches) was that Villiers was not beloved of the commy- 
naltie, and his party consisteth of some private factyonaries ; that 
the garrison is not above 1800 men, horse and foote; that the 
cyrcuyts to defend are verie great and lardge ; that th 'inhabitants 
for the moste parte would be glad to be the king's subjects, with 
the safety of their lives and goods ; of the greate severitie 
used by Villiers unto those suspected to be regalists ; that the 
clergie is verie violente against the kinge, notoriously in their 
proceedings and prechings ; and in their doings many of them 
beare armes, not only in defence of the towne, but often-tymes in 
their sallyes ; that on the daie of our sytting-downe, they had 50 
men hurte and slaine by us, where he amongste others was in the 
gard that daie. Much more he speaketh, but theise to my re- 
membraunce are the chief este points. This nighte. being a verie 
greate wynd, capten Swan's quarter was burnte to the ground, 
being the nexte howse to rny lord's lodgings, whether with negli- 
gence or mishap I cannot tell. 

Nov. 17. The 17. my lord wente early to the kinges quarter, 
being only accompanyed with 4 of us, for such a body hath he 
made of yron, supporting travaile and passioned in all extremy- 
ties, that the following of him did tyre our bodies, that are made 
of flesh and boane ; wherefore with his consente we made an 
agrement long since within our selves, that we should everie daie 
vj. of us attend him whether soever he went ; and this daie yt 


lighted upon sir Robert Carye, sir Philipe Butler, (42) sir William 
Brookes, sir Richard Acton, sir William Sackfield, (43) and my 
selfe ; and comyng almoste to the king's quarter, nere St.Katherin's 
castle, to drawe th'ennemye into some fighte, and to lay an am- 
buscado for them ; and we followed him so nere, that we found 
him at collonell Bois his lodginge, all untruste, and what he had 
bene doing God knoweth. But he made him ready before us, and 
there brake his faste, where he eate soundly on a peece of pow- 
dred beefe, and all his nobles standing about him all armed saving 
their kaskes, 3 or 4 playing at prymero hard by him while he 
eate. By this tyme horses and armour were come, and 30 gen- 
tlemen of his, led by baron Biron, and everie man on foote lead- 
ing their horses in their handes, convayed himselfe under the 
coverte and hedges and trees in a lytle vally near to the castle. 
The king, my lord generall, and certaine scatering harquebuz of 
ours drawing them within unto a skyrmysh, where they freshly 
fell out, both horse and foote, in good nombers, the skyrmysh 
grewe greate, and th'ennemye drawn on even almoste into the 
very place where we lay. Whereupon the king came unto us, 
and bad every man be in a-readynes, the which before he wente 
he sawe ; and we all with our caskes downe, and eyther sword or 
pystolls drawn, longing to have heard the word of fighte given, 
presently retorned the king againe unto us, and caused us to 
advaunce a lytle farther towards the topp of the hill : but how 
unfortunately it hapened I know not, or whether the king's often 
commynge and retorne unto us, th'ennemye presently retyred, and 
could not that daie be gotten out any more by noe degree. We 
English hoped to have doan some feate worthie the honor due by 
us unto that solempne daie, the 17- of November.* But I hope to 
God we shall have some good occasion offred ere it be longe, 
although not upon the 17. daie, yet for the honor of her that hath 
made us a daie memorable unto the ages to come ; and thus we 

* The anniversary of the queen's accession to the throne. 


retyred to the king's quarter, the castle saluting us with halfe a 
dozen of cannon bullets. My lord dyned that daie with the grand 
esquire : but it might have bene a supper, for it was almoste 4 
a'clocke ; and after a counsaile held by the king and his greate 
ones we came home. 

Nov. 18. The IS. my lord eftesoones wente to the marshall's 
quarter to the king, and spente there the whole daie in counsaile 
and conference, and staid there all nighte, and sente hether for as 
many gentlemen as were not afraid of the cold, to come thither 
armed for an enterprise to be had upon the castle of Saint Kathe- 
rine's, and such wytty and strong passages he hath to drawe on 
(if any such we have) as should be slacke in endevor. This even- 
ing, in the verie shutting of the nighte, there was an ambuscado of 
th'ennemye of horse and foote lay upon the nerest waie betwixt 
the king's quarter and ours, hard under the walls, into which 
unadvisedly fell certaine of Mount Morancyes horse, when there 
passed the beste fighte that I sawe betwixt them since ourarryvall, 
for there were blowes both with the sword and pystoll, blood on 
both sydes, horses slayne, and one of our French taken prisoner, 
whose ransome is worth 4,000. 

Nov. 19. The 19. about xii. a clocke, we toke horse and aryved 
about the castle of St. Katherine's, where the king hath made 
approches unto the castle, and buylt a forte ; and for that it could 
not be made in one nighte, the king's nobylytie of what degree 
soever, and some 25 princypall gentlemen that were with my lord, 
all armed with pykes, came thither to gard against any sally that 
should be made out of the towne and castle, which we expected to be 
in mightie aboundance ; about an howre after daie, the king came 
in person, and chered the pioneers to worke, and the reste to a reso- 
lute defence. At the verie breaking of the daie they shott 4 can- 
non shott at our workes, and finding it not prevayle they ceased. 
All we stood in gard nere to the new raysed forte, to have with- 
stood any attempte that should have been offred, which we con- 
tynually expected. Yt seemed the king was verie desirous we 
mighte have had some sporte, and particularly asked me (unto 


whom heretofore he hath doan favor of lyke nature), whether they 
would sally or noe ; whereunto I aunswered, that if they weare 
honest men they should, but if they were Englishmen they would ; 
whereunto he reply ed, " By my faith, I believe it/" When he per- 
ceived they sallyed not, he sente to drawe them out to skyrmysh ; 
which was doan by ten of our muskatiers, which, under the covert 
of an old trenche, wente within 4 score of the counterscape, where 
they kept a gard, and, as all they saie, slewe twoe. To second 
them, there were xii. of the pryncypallest of us, that, trailing our 
pykes, seconded them to brave the castle ; there salyed out 22, 
without resolution to doe any good or greate thinge. Th'artyl- 
lerye plaid all daie with verie small harme ; but one piece escaped 
the king verie nere, and so the daie passed with dyvers accy dents, 
and cold and hunger to boote, and contynewed till four a'clocke, 
when we [were] relieved by other gard of the king's best Gascons, 
we having bene all daie armed, and some with the high proofe; 
and this daies work thus ended with the death of two pryncypall 
gentlemen of the French, through the thighes ; and thus the castle 
of St. Katherine's is cyrcomvented. God send the undertaking a 
good end ! The forte is within lesse then xii. score of the castle. 
And so, cold, weary, and hungry, came home, with newes of my 
lord's jorney to England to-morowe mornynge. 

Nov. 20. The 20. in the mornynge, my lord rose very early and 
went to the king's quarter, having first dyspatched and ordred 
many thinges for th'armye, and so accompanyed with my lord am- 
bassador, (44) and many others, he alighted upon a fayre grene, and 
so did many others, not knowing his intente ; and there he knighted 
sir Henry Killigrewe ; (45) and commyng to the king's quarter, after 
the dispatch of his buysynes there, he toke his jorney (46) towards 
Deape, where we attended him for a while, and having taken our 
leaves, we mornefully retorned, and determyned to have gonne to 
Blendville, where we heard the cannon play, but before our com- 
mynge it was yealded. 

Nov. 21. The xxi. there was a greate skyrmysh at the castle, 


whether that dale the kinge broughte his artyllerie and began to 
plante some of them, being a greate myste, and they within sallyed 
out very many, and pressed the baron Biron his men very hardly, 
who that daie had the gard ; and as some reporte, who saie they 
speake not the worste, and yet affirm that baron Biron his men 
the Gascons retyred more then apace. Those that salyed were led 
by a canon or prieste of Notrodame, the chiefe church of Roan, 
who was slaine even upon the verie trenches that the king had 
made ; and his body recovered by those of his, but by much to 
doe. And there were vi. or vii. of the king's syde slayne, and ix. 
hurte; they worke dayly, and will be very shortelye in the dytch, 
if they contynew. 

Nov. 22. The 22. my lord ambassador, who lyeth at the kinges 
quarter, made a greate feaste unto the generall of the Allmayne 
forces, (47) where some of ours weare, and observed the comple- 
ments due to a Dutche-fed feaste. It is said the Gascons are dyscon- 
tented for wante of money; whereby the French may dyscerne 
what dyfference is betwixte them and us, who have held our selves 
here, with a verie bare intreatye, to serve our quene and advance 
our owne honor; and they demaund, now they come, to be ym- 
ploid unto hazard wayne and ghelte. The same daie, my lord's 
coche, with his iiii. fayre mayres, a pryncypall horse of sir Phillipe 
Buttler's, and some viii. small horse more, were taken, which were 
retournynge hether from the conduction of my lord to Deape, by 
their owne willfulnesse and follye, being to be conducted by mr. 
Oliver Saynt John (a brave, discreate, and honeste man), cornet 
to my lord, who had some xx. horse for their convoy, and ap- 
poynted them to stay upon the topp of an hill without the towne, 
untyll he had gathered his company e together ; but they, out of 
their securytie and willfullnes, wente on before and lost their way, 
and lighted upon th'ennemye, who, being some xx. horse, tooke 
them, slewe my lord's yeoman of the horse, who made only 
resistance, and paid the price of his lyfe therefore, being shott into 
the head with a stele bullett, and lefte dead upon the place. Sir 


John Wotton going from hence, only with iii. horse, mett them on 
the waye, and bad them take heade, for th'ennemye was abroade ; 
but noe advise could hould them from that their willfullness and 
destynye had determyned. My cousin Buttler's boy saved him a 
right good horse, worth cl., and so would he were myne, by ron- 
nynge awaye, and, wandring whether his feare drave him, lighted 
uppon the convoy, to whom he declared the successe, who, uppon 
the spurr, wente to the place where they were taken, and pursued 
the tract of the coche, but the nighte so came upon them that 
they were hable noe more to follow, but towards Newhaven they 
wente. The same daie mr. Thorax, of Kente, going himself with 
some vi. others, was mightylye pursued ; himselfe and his sonne 
saved themselves by vertue of their horse leggs ; but he lost iii. of 
his companye; one Foulces, and an other taken, and a proper 
gentleman, one Waken eld, slaine (as is said). Theise, and the 
lyke, are the newes that everie daye yealdeth us here. 

Nov. 23. The 23. we had by some mysfortune 2 houses burnte 
in our quarter ; in the quenching whereof there was more then an 
ordynarie noyse, which caused (as I gesse) a greate sally out of the 
towne ; whereupon our centnyll sliott and cryed allarme, and a 
generall report that our trenches were taken, but yt was not so 
yll ; but if yt had, we mighte easyly have found a greate nomber 
who had a verie goodwill to have recovered them quyckly again e ; 
but when our fyre was appesed, certaine of ours being desirous to 
requyte the allarme, mounted on horsebacke under the benefyte 
of the myste and stole downe uppon the courts de gard, that they 
kepte a lytle before the gate of the towne, and slewe 4 or 5, and 
the reste escaped by ronnyng into the towne-dytches and walls, 
and other burnte howses thereabouts. 

Nov. 24. Wednesdaie the 24., I being desirous to see the marques 
of Allegra placed in his castle of Blendville, lately recovered from 
th'ennemye, being a verie courteous gentleman and my friend, 
accompanyed with 2 or 3 wente to vysyte him, and after some 
waundrings out of the waie, which mighte have coste us dere (but 


to avoid the worste we weare well horste,) we arryved there, and 
were intreated with greate kyndness of the marquesse. 

Nov. 25. The 25. in the mornynge, being an eie-sore to us to see 
the cors de gard before the gate and their sentynyll, kepte at a 
churche nere our trenches, and there caryinge away the roufe of 
the churche, which they daylye doe, there were certaine of ours 
sente downe under the coverte of an hollowe way, who were upon 
the sentynyll, and the reste that were breakinge downe of the 
churche, before they were aware, and cutt many of their throats ; 
and those that came for their rescue from the cors de gard, some 
of them had the same success, and ours retorned without any 
greate detrymente : in th'afternoone they being come to the same 
place againe, there were 2 serjants sente with some 10 the same 
way for the lyke feate ; but what for the mystakinge of the waye, 
and severaunce betwixte the commaunders, were dyscovered, as not 
goinge with resolution as was meete; and making an houlte, 
th'ennemye had planted under a wall soundrie shott which slewe 
2 of ours, and others of their cors de gard pressed the rest so 
hardly that ours quytted their bodies, where you might have dis- 
cerned a cowardlye crewel tie, for there were not so fewe as xl. 
that thrust their swords into the bodies being dead, and thus they 
gloryed. Our glorye of the mornynge was somewhat demynyshed 
by the successe of the eveninge. But herein I reserve somewhat 
to be spoken in a frend's eare, and not meete to be adventured to 
paper. God send my lord a speedie retorne, or els, &c. 

Nov. 26. The 26. I wente to the king's quarter, where I sawe 
him dyne ; and afterwards I wente to see how the trenches were 
advaunced before St. Katherin's, where we found 4 peeces of 
batterie plaunted to batter in flancke, and gabbyons plaunted to 
batter the curtaine betwixte the 2 greate bullwarkes, but I thincke 
if he had greater habylytie he would advaunce with greater expedi- 
tion. In our retorne we mett the kinge and the prince Vanhaulte 
(of Anhalt) with him, who going into the trenches, and being the 
nexte man to the king's person, was shott in the foote and one of 


his toes broken. This daie there arryved at the courte the 
cardynall of Burbon, (48) the comte St. Pooll, the chancellor, and 
many others, as well spyrytuall as temporall. This daie we sawe 
marche into the kampe twoe of the king's regiments of lawnce 
knights, where more pore people did I never see nor worse armed 
and attyred ; and that yet to behold our bands are gallants in com- 
parison of them : they growe dy scon ten ted for wante of money, 
and yt is for assured that if her majestic be not a meane to detayne 
them they wilbe gone before we shall see the end of this service, 
for th'ennemye is gallante and prowde, and kepte 200 horse on the 
hill betwixte the king's quarter and ours all this daie ; and there 
kepte above; and, had it not bene that God was my guyde, in my 
retorne I had come full upon them, as being the nerer waie, and 
the waie my lord generall did ever use to goe. 

Nov. 27. This daie noething happened worthie the wrytinge, 
more then that it is said that the duke de Mayne suspected him 
that governed the bastylion at Paris to be toe much Spanysh, 
[and] threatened him out of it with the cannon. They have executed 
a Paris the cheife presydente, as gaynesaying the publique deter- 
mynation to render to the kinge of Spaine. (As it is said) this daie 
a page commynge into the king's quarter with a letter from Villiers 
to some men aboute the king, was reprehended, and he ymme- 
diatly put the letters into his mouth to have eaten them, and had 
so doan but that one caught him by the throate, and made him 
spytt them out ; but they were so marred, that noething could be 
read at all; he hath bene tortured, and confessed some things 
for the king's torne in this buysines. 

Nov. 28. The 28., about xii. a'clocke in the mornynge, there came 
out of the forte of St. Katherin's 1400 principal horsemen bravely 
armed, and betwixte 700 and 2000 foote, and came to th'artyllerie 
planted before the castle, where there was a cors de yard of 
Swyssers, who upon the first fighte quytted their gard, and if they 
had not bene seconded by the Gascons they had loste their 
artyllerie, for they had broughte nayles and hammers to have 


cloied * the peeces, wherewith one was taken by a Swize, who only 
kepte sentnyll, and cutt off the hand of one of the horsemen 
that was about to cloie one of the cannons ; and so after a great 
skyrmysh, many slaine and hurte, th'ennemye was putt in. 

Nov. 29. The 29. I wente with some others unto the king's 
quarter, and from thence to the trenches before the castle, where 
I found some lytle thing advaunced, but noething to any purpose, 
neyther yet can I gesse that they have meanes to doe more. All 
or their greatest hopes are of the helpe of England, which God 
sende quickely, if at all ; for here is cold beinge. The king we 
mett going out a' hontinge, wherein he taketh greate delight : it was 
said he would have taken a voiage unto Deape for some per- 
formaunce of some vowes and devotyons unto some unshreived 
saint there ; but it is said that the marshall Biron told him that, 
if he wente from hence, then he would goe into Gascony, for he 
knew well that his army of voluntarie nobylytie would be dys- 
banded if he were but twoe daies from hence. 

Nov. 30. The 30., the commaunders here, taking at the harte the 
slacke performaunce and yll successe of our late skyrmysh, wherein 
we loste twoe brave soldiors and [were] enforced to quytt their bo- 
dies, laid an ambuscado in there places, capten Barton in a seller of 
an howse pulled downe nere to their dytcheand the to wne porte, with 
24 shott, capten Henry Powre in another place, with some 16' pykes, 
and some shott of monsieur Mallard's on th' other syde the porte ; 
and this being in this sorte laid before daie, about viii. a'clocke 
th' ennemye opened the portes, and came unto the usuall place of 
cors de gard, which is some 6 or 8 score from the porte, and after 
they had bene a while there and sett out their sentnylls sir Roger 
Williams, with all the choiseste of us being there in the trenches, 
caused some muskatiers to shoote at their sentnylls, and sent some 
other shott to beate them in, who was seconded from their gard. 
The skyrmish grewe warme, and xxx tie on a syde at the leaste : 
ours, according to dyrections, retreated, to bringe th' ennemye 

* To spike the cannon. 


more within the daunger of our ambuscado, and then the signe 
was given, which was the throwing-up of a hatt with feathers of 
sir Thomas BaskervilPs, and which was not observed by Barton, 
who was first by dyrection to have dyscovered himselfe, but we 
fayne to call and crye, which caused th' ennemye to suspect, and 
made a vyolente retreate as fast as their leggs could carye them to 
the porte, and Barton fell shorte of them for wante of some better 
speede (as it is taken), but it is said there fell 4 or 6 of theirs, and 
ours had the spoyle of their cors de gard, and had some cloakes 
and weapons ; but in our retreate they shott 4 or 5 peeces of 
artyllerie, one of the which unfortunately lighted upon Hallard 
Mountmorancye, slaying his horse, and breakinge of his legg 
below the knee ; and the rest of us, I thancke God, came home safe 
and sound, dyned by a good fyre, and eate capons, plovers, and 
larkes, and drancke the best wyne we could gett ; and this is the 
care we take, and the means we have, to preserve us from the cold. 
This daie retorned the Ireland capten Powre, who hath bene these 
vi. daies abroade in th' ennemyes countrie to fetch provision for the 
army, and hath broughte 60 kyne and 30 muttons, and yt is to be 
thoughte that he that can provide so well for the generall hath not 
neglected his partyculer : he had soundrie fights, and lost 2 or 3 of 
his best men. 

Dec. 1. The firste of December, accompanyed with 2 or 3 
gentlemen, I went to vysyte monsieur Hallard, and beheld the 
dressing of his wound, which in common opynyon is not deadly, 
but hath marred his dauncyng, if not his goinge. This daie being 
a great myst, th' ennemye had laid soundrie ambuscadoes for us, 
and with all invention of villanous railing they thoughte to have 
drawn us out of our trenches to skyrmysh, but ours, foreseing the 
padd in the strawe, have deferred to aunswer their words tyll we 
be strong ynough to breake their heads. This afternoone, to drive 
awaie idlenes, I wente to a monasterie of nonnes, about a league 
and a halfe from our quarter, where we so behaved our selves that 
we receyved very kynd wellcomes, and a banckett of xx tie severall 



dyshes of preserved fruits. The abbesse was of the house of 
Baskeville, a verie goodly gentlewoman, and wore her habyt very 
neate and properlye : she is a woman exceeding well-spoken, and 
of good behavior, but of yeeres meeter for God then for the world. 
But there was 2 or 3 younger noons, and all gentlewomen of good 
house, whom I know, if you had sene, you would have pyttyed 
their loss of tyme ; and so, having spente 2 or 3 howres there, 
retorned home to our strawe bed. 

Dec. 2. Thursdaie, the second daie, was a verie mystie daie, 
and darke, and lytle donne. This daie the pyoneers arryved here, 
whom for want of soldiors we are inforced to strengthen our gard 
with all. 

Dec. 3. Frydaie there came to lye with us, to strengthen monsieur 
Hallard^s quarter, one monsieur S 1 . Dennys, who kyrbeth th* 
ennemye on that syde better than those that were there before 
him, a verie brave man, and so are those that are his ; and that 
which hath bene much spoken of, and nothing donne, which is to 
keepe a cors de gard hard by where th* ennemye kepeth theirs, he 
undertoke to doe. 

Dec. 4. The 4. we possessed our selves of the church before 
the gates were open or th j enemy came out, which when they 
discerned, they yssued at the openynge of the gates in greater 
numbers than they used ; and presently began a very great skyr- 
mysh, which was handled verie soldior-lyke on both sides, and 
fine advantages taken, as well of high grounds of defence, lowe 
wayes, and walls of ruynated houses, and the lyke. They were 
seconded by some 40 of our shott, and 100 pykes for their defence 
if any horse had sallyed, and it contynewed 2 howres, and 500 
bulletts at the leaste spente, with many cannon shott ; and yett 
not above vi., as we could gesse, slaine on both sydes. Afterwards 
we wente to the king's quarter, and sawe many things provyded for 
his approches being nerer than he was, many gabbyons and engyns 
caryed upon wheeles in makinge. I was asked by the kinge (whom 
I mett with many about him), what newes of "monsieur le comte," 


meanyng my lord generall, whose commynge or staying may 
hinder or further much the action. They saie, that speake for 
certaine, that the duke of Parma (49) is entred Fraunce, and that he 
sends for all his friends to come and assist him : it is thoughte the 
lyklyest meane for him to rayse his siege against Deape. The 
king hath planted 2 cannons more in flancke, from whence he 
beateth in such sorte, that noe man sheweth himselfe now uppon 
the rampiers. It is said that chevalier Dois, the governor's 
brother, should goe out this nighte poste with c. horse, through 
the slacke gard of the French quarters. This daie monsieur S&. 
Dennys hath wroughte contynually to make himselfe stronge in 
the church, where I being this afternoone might see the governor 
on horsebacke upon the rampiers, whom he caused two of his 
sentnylls to shoote at, and they requyted him with a pece of 
artyllerie. The king, with his vi. pieces that are planted in flancke 
upon the castle, have plaid all this daie. 

Dec. 5. The 5. I wente downe to the church, to see what our 
newe neighbor monsieur S*. Dennys had doan, whom I found had 
made some lytle strengthes with casting of earth and laying of 
faggots in iiii. several places, scarce an harquebuz-shott one from 
an other, where he labored all daie and nighte, and himselfe carried 
me from place to place to shew me his determynations ; and so 
nere daunger, being utterlie unarmed, and in daunger of the small 
shott from the walls, that had yt not bene that a foolysh hardy 
Frenchman should have said that an Englishman durst not adven- 
ture his lyfe fondly as he, I could have bene contented to have 
bene in our trenches. From the walls was made soundrie small 
shott upon us, and he being attended with some x. harquebuz, gave 
a volley to those which stood upon the rampyers, which were 
many ; and so I tooke my leave, leaving him in his braving 
humor. After dynner I wente to see monsieur Hallard, whom I 
hope to be in greate hope of recovery ; and retorninge, we might 
dyscerne from our trenches a greate skyrmysh at the castle, and 
the contynuall playing of our vi. pieces of artyllerie that are placed 


in flancke. All this dale they never opened the porte, as rarely 
they do upon the Soundaie. 

Dec. 6. Uppon Mondaie, in the mornynge, we all expected 
some sporte, when th'ennemye should come unto his cors de gard 
of the half moone, which was within twenty pykes of the nerest 
cors de gard that the said S l . Dennys had made, and we having 
walked in the trenches untyll ten a'clocke expecting it, and the 
gates never openinge, nor noe bodie sallying, I wente with sir 
Roger Williams and many other gentlemen to the castle, to see 
what our 110 pyoneers (which the king had the night before) had 
donne there ; arid passing through the king's quarter, and under- 
standing he was readie to go a'huntinge, we alighted and came to 
his presence, who intreated the most of us with partycular saluta- 
tion, and told us that he would on huntinge, and the marshall 
Biron, and after dynner to our quarter, much pray sing our 
pyoneers, who wrought with their axes, and their pykes by them, 
and upon any allarme lefte their pykeaxes and toke their pykes ; 
and told us he had sente them 12 hogsheads of wyne and 200 
loves to make them merrye ; and taking horse, we wente to the 
castle, and found that what he said they receyved, for they had 
intrenched themselves neerer then his former intrenches, within a 
butt's length of the verie dytch of the castle, which with some 
hazard we wente into, and found some 4 of ours shott and one 
slaine with a faucon bullett, and a French capten with the self- 
same, who came to look on. Having passed some howre or 
twoe, in our retorninge home we might dyscerne the marshall 
with the baron his sonne, and a great troupe, going towards our 
quarter ; but when we came to the hill betwixte the king's quarter 
and ours, we dy seemed by eie and eare a mightye skyrmysh, 
horse, foote, artyllerie, pystolls, launces, swords, and what els 
soever, and a greate noyce ; the which we seing came upon the 
spurr, to take parte with our freinds, captens, and compagnyons ; 
and uppon our arryvall we found as followeth : Betwixt xii. and 
one th'ennemye, having kepte the porte shutt all daie, on asodaine 


lett fall the bridge, and yssued out as it were in a cluster, and one 
in an other's necke 1200 harquebuz, 150 horse in three squadrons, 
one of lawnces with orange-tawriye bandrolls, the others pystoliers, 
both well armed, and the third harquebuz on horsebacke ; and 
then followed the foote allmost 200 pykes, 200 harquebuz, led 
with pryncypall men excellently well armed, and came on with 
such speede, that our sentnylls had noe leysure to give the cors de 
gard any other warninge but by commynge awaie without any 
manner of resistaunce, yet without any shott dyscharged upon them 
on th'ennemyes syde. They quytted 3 of Mallard's COTS de gard, 
not without the losse of their lives which the horsemen could 
overtake. The 4th cors de gard, where their greatest strength 
was, being a large house without a roofe, the walls being a pyke 
length high, with many loope holes to shoote out at; th'ennemye, 
with men for that purpose excellently well armed, by the advan- 
tage of the walls got to the topp thereof, and leaped in amongst 
them most resolutelye, and putt them all to the sword that was 
within, and those that escaped their fury fell upon the horsemen, 
who had the lyke mercye. The horsemen advanced themselves so 
farr that our sentnylls and the rest quytted our trenches, but sir 
Thomas Gerrard (50) happyly at the instaunte drewe out the gard of 
the daie into the field to make stand, and gave allarme to all our 
armye, which came out full faste and forward, and when his gal- 
lants dyscerned the fast stand of our pykes, they had noe will to 
come nere to see of what wood they were made ; but after some 
shott of pystolls towards our forward gallants, where capten 
Barton was daungerously hurte in the face, and seeing 150 
pyoneers of ours come out, to second ours, with their pykes, whom 
they knew not but for our soldiers, they retyred, and we possessed 
our troupe of trenches. Marshall Biron arryved in the middest of 
this furie upon the hill with a greate troupe of horse and made the 
retreate, we making shewe with our pykes as though we would 
besett the hill which marshall Biron held ; but (our strength con- 
sidered) not meete for ours. After the retreate I wente downe 


with some others to see what was doan, and found dead bodies 
in every place, a wounderfull butcherie within the cors de gard one 
upon an other, and to see the place it cannot be denyed but th' 
ennemye had a brave resolution : I told xxx. dead there, and xvi. in 
the gardens, hedges, and other places. There were two captens in 
chiefe slayne, and ii. gentlemen of especyall marke and reputation ; 
the name of one was monsieur St. Sever, both whose bodies th' 
ennemye toke away : some of them and their horses staid behind, 
but few taken. The nomber of th'ennemye to my eies were above 
50; but the best opynyon is, that there were slaine above 100. 
Presently hereupon grew a new allarme upon other cause or lykeli- 
hood of matter, but you never saw such ronnynge ; and had it not 
bene for sir Roger Williams, sir Thomas Baskervill, sir Thomas 
Gerrard, myselfe, and others, I think they had ronne tyll this 
time ; who, being upon the side of the hill, might discerne there 
was noe such cause of feare as they pretended : and thus have 
you the most prowd* sally that any capten here can tell of to their 
memorie. The night of this daie those of monsieur Hallard's 
quarter did thinke in parte to have bene revenged on th'ennemye, 
and doe their endevor to make them afraid in revenge of the daies 
worke ; and soe some xx. or xxx. wente unto the porte and to 
severall other places, finding their sentnylls, and shott at them, 
thincking to give the towne allarm or to waken some of them at 
the leaste, that had a lytle before given some of their fellowes a 
drincke of everlasting sleepe : but what they did to th'ennemye 
I knowe not, but we their pore freinds here, not knowing their 
intente and hearing so greate a volley, kepte us from our straw 
tyll mydnighte. 

Dec. 7. The 7- there passed noething worthie the memorie, more 
then bringing the pyoneers into our quarter to reinforce us. In the 
mean tyme, I leave you to judge how we dwell here, and the un- 
tymely death of my cozin sir Richard Acton,(51) of the dezease of the 
kampe, which is apestylent ague, (52) somewhat lesse then a plague. 

* Anciently, prow, i. e. valiant ; hence prowess. 


Dec. 8. The 8. I wente into the trenches upon my first rysing, 
and at the opening of the gate, the cors de gard of Hallard's 
quarter toke the allarme, and quytted the cors de gard ; but being 
incouraged from our trenches they stood to yt, promysing them 
to second, and they toke harte of grace and retorned to their 
gards after some light skyrmish. The king, this daie, came to our 
quarter ; and sir Roger Williams, sir Thomas Baskerville, and I, 
being in our trenches, wente to meete him, and the first salutation 
he made us was to this effecte. " You muste wryte into England 
that we must have leave to marchandyze ; for the duke of Parma is 
marched iii. dayes march into Fraunce/' He allighted and viewed 
the ground for some approches to be made; but we must be 
stronger firste : and then toke his horse and wente to vysyt mon- 
sieur Hallard. This nighte there were severall notices given of 
fyre out of an high steeple in the towne, which is some advertyse- 
ments th'ennemye giveth of some of his without. 

Dec. 9. The 9th, we being in the mornynge dyspleased at the 
pryde of th'ennemye, they commyng as it were with triumphe 
with xx. boats full of harquebuz, bournte soundrie houses in an 
island in the river, over against our quarter, where the king is 
determyned to buyld some forty fycations as well to commaund 
the river as to annoy the towne ; they burnte certaine howses that 
were therein, and cutt downe the trees and caryed them away, as 
much as they thought mete for their purpose. Sir Nicolas Clyf- 
ford, and some 40 with him, laie in the nerest ambuscado to 
the towne ; sir Thomas Baskervill laie in an hollowe way to have 
seconded them upon any occasion ; and sir Roger Williams, with 
the pryncypall gentlemen of the armye and others, to have come 
to their rescue : and in this sorte we all stood expecting tyll xi. a 
clock, and they never yssued. Some thinke they dyscovered 
certayne of ours from the topp of an high steeple ; and seing it 
prevayled not, every man arose and came to dynner. Sir Roger 
and I were invyted to certaine French gentlemen, where we dranke 
carowses ; and what eyther with the cold of the long expectation 


in the mornynge, or overmuch wyne at dynner, th'one syde of my 
head did ake 2 daies after. The king this daie toke his jorney to 
Gisors, where it seemed that he had taken some knowledge that 
monsieur Flavencourt, his governor there, had too much intelli- 
gences with the Leaguers. (53) 

Dec. 10. The x. we had a wonderfull greate brute of artyllerie, 
which made us thinke that there had bene some fighte amongst 
our shipps, that brought our artyllerie up the river from Deape, 
and th'ennemye ; but it proved noething but a triumphe of their 
arryvall at Codebecke, and the joy of the towne there. 

Dec. 11. The xi., to take the fresh ayre out of this infectious 
place, 3 or 4 of us on horsebacke, well mounted, went to take our 
adventure from hill to dale, and from one good village to another, 
and enquyring whose house this was, and whose castle th'other, 
we were informed where some good and gracefull company was of 
fayre ladies, where, after some dexterytie to gett the gates opened, 
we so behaved our selves, that we were not only for the present 
well banquetted, but with severall cortesies entertayned and 
intreated to make our abode there all nighte, which we durst not 
for certain considerations adventure, but since invyted to retorne : 
Sir, I assure you, the companie was not unpleasing unto my kind 
harte. The nighte drawing on and the countrye daungerous, with 
pystolls and swords drawn, upon a gallopp we came home, and 
upon our arryvall, I found a greate friend of myne, the marques 
de Allegra, who had earnestly sente to desyre me to procure him 
some xx. pykes, whom he would well intreate for their owne sakes 
and myne, for his better defence of his government of Gisors ; 
yet I was not (to my greife) any way hable to procure them (our 
weaknes here considered). 

Dec. 12. This daie, a serjante of the pyoneers had conspyred 
to lead away 50 or 60 pyoneers, of the pryncypalleste of them, 
into Roan, which being dyscovered, they were, by a cownsell at 
warr, thereupon heald, all brought to the tree, and the serjant 
only executed for example, in the presence of them all. This 


d&ie, in th'afternoone, th'ennemy made a great sally upon the 
Swizers' quarter, of above 100 horse, and 50 or 60 foote, and soe 
sodainly fell upon their quarter that they slewe 2 or 3 of their 
sentnylls ; but the plaine honest men put themselves in a-readynes 
with such spede as their hevy humor might permytt, and followed 
with their auncients flying, their dromes beating, and them selves 
all armed, downe towards the towne with shott of the cannon. 
This daie there hapened a thing to a gentleman worthie the 
markinge, to dyscerne the corruption of theise warrs. This 
gentleman having a fayre horse in a large village not farr hence, 
was desyrous to have a protection from my lord generall, who 
promysed to provyde him a certaine quantytie of oats and hay 
weekely, which he justly performed. There were a coople sente to 
gard his house, and there commynge certaine of monsieur 
Hallard's lackies for forage upon that village, they were not on) ye 
roughly intreated, but their horses taken from them : whereupon 
they retorning to their maister's the night following at mydnight, 
40 curasses entered the house, with force toke our Englysh 
prisoners, wounded the master to death, spoyled his house, toke 
their owne horses, and all his, and the next newes that we heard 
of our Englysh was that they were prisoners in Roan, sould to 
th'ennemye by those that will hold us their friends to serve their 
owne turnes ; by this I leave you to gesse and conceave the rest. 
This nighte we receaved intelligence from many places, that 
th'ennemye had determynation to force our quarter, whereby our 
sentnylls were doobled and our gards reinforced, and we slepte 
like hares, with open eies. 

Dec. 13. The xiii. the fame thereof increased, and thereby our 
expectation and readyries contynewed. 

Dec. 14. The 14. our worthie and long looked for generall 
arryved with those he wente with, and only accompanyed with one 
that was not here before, mr. Harcott (54) ; and notwithstanding his 
long and greate jorney, whereof his followers were wearie, he would 
nedes, before his alighting, goe downe to the trenches, and hear- 

CAMD. soc. i 


ing of the greate threatenings, whereof we were somewhat in 
doubte, he would needes call unto a sentynyll of th'ennemye, and 
bad him tell monsieur Villiers that he was come with some 20 
gentlemen with him, and that if he would enterpryse any thing 
against the Englysh quarter he must doe it eyther that nighte or 
never, for the nexte daie we should be too stronge for him ; 
there being to array 2000 Englysh of the old bands of the Low 
Countryes this nighte. Whilest he was at supper, the sentnylls 
and cors de gard toke a greate allarme, occasioned by the gaily 
and some other boats that wente downe fraighte with harquebuz 
and other small shott, thincking to have surprysed a village 
wherein certaine French bands are lodged, but they fayled of their 
enterpryse, and after a greate nomber of shott made, they retyred: 
we stood in armes in the field, to expect the successe of that sally, 
above twoe howres, and a colder wynd did I never feele. 

Dec. 15. The king retorned from Gisors, having with fayre 
words but effectuall dedes dysplaced the suspected governor. My 
lord wente to vysyte him, who was much wellcomed. 

Dec. 16. The 16. monsieur Grinion, (55) who is a greate inter- 
mitter to drawe a composition betwixte the king and the towne, and 
is a knight of the Holly Ghost, a greate favoryte of the late king, 
and nere kynne unto Villiers, and one by whom he was first bredd 
into the world, whose brother is governor of Hunfleur, by Villiers 
appoyntment ; and yet they have procured his newtralytie, and 
sufferred the king's shipping to passe without ympeachment. He 
was shott following the kinge into the trenche, into the arme 
above the ellbowe. 

Dec. 17. The 17-1 wente to the horse quarter to take muster, where 
we found fewlesse than 200 horse, but much fallen from the plyghte 
that men and horse were in at the first muster at Deape upon our 
arryvall, where then everie one had plumes and now some were with- 
out hatts : but yet they commaund the countrie, and domineer, 
and have their parts in any thing passinge. In my retorne I mett 
with a lubberly serving-man upon sir William Hangetree his best 


horse, who as he said was unhorste by a dozen carbynes, and his 
horse taken from him : in such securytie ryde we here, that we 
knowe neither freind nor enemye ; but all is good boote for him 
that is the stronger. 

Dec. 18. The 18. I toke muster of all the 25 old companies and 
deducted them into viii., and are shorte of their nomber. This 
daie the prowde Rollett, (56) governor of de Larches and Loviers, 
was taken prisoner on the further syde of the river by breach of fayth 
of th'ennemye, others say by good war[ning] ; but howsoever he is 
safe, and greate tryumphe made of his taking, being a man that 
hath doan them much harme, and, as they say, has broken his 
oath and fayth with them heretofore. 

Dec. 19. The 19. the bands of the Low Countries were mustered, 
and 5 of them were presentlye sente unto an other quarter, where 
they kepte watch and ward everie third nighte, and my lord him- 
selfe with many other pryncypall gentlemen which watch everie third 
nighte, being within iii. pykes length of th'ennemyes gard, where 
they have contynuall shooting, and dyvers of our pyoneers slaine, 
and sir Edmund Yorke hurte on the head. My lord generall had 
great speech with chevalier Pickard, (5 7) who asked for his mistress 
that he had in England, and promysed to come and dyne with his 
lordship one daie, and there passed many fayre speeches between 
them, but the bulletts wente apace the meane tyme. 

Dec. 20. The xx. we had greate rumors of the duke of 
Parma his commynge to Deape, as it is thoughte, where they 
all worke mightylye, and noe man exempted from working upon 
their rampyers and fortes. If he come thither, and if her majestic 
healpe not well, God helpe us and them here ! 

Dec. 21. The xxi. my lord, going unto Dernytall, was daun- 
gerously scarred with a peece of artyllerie, and a Dutch gentleman 
slayne, being the next man unto him, attending the baron of 
Stenberge, who was at the corte at Wyndsor the last yere, who 
rode with my lord. This daie there arryved 3 pynnaces of ours 
over against our quarter, where they caste ancor, and were saluted 


with many cannon shot from the old pallace ; but in the nighte 
they fell downe lower, fearing to be awaked. This daie th'en- 
nemye made a verie greate sallye upon the village underneath the 
castle of Saint Katerin's, where ours receyved greate prayse for 
being presently in readynes and yssuing out to encounter th'en- 
nemye ; sir Conyers Clyfford receyved greate prayse both of for- 
wardnes and of good dyrections that daie. The king being on the 
head of the hill, and seing that sally, came downe like god Mars 
his thunderbolt, but verie slenderly attended : he gathered unto 
him those that were scattered upp and downe : they prest th'en- 
nemye by meane of the foote, who were verie forward, and putt 
th'ennemye quickly within the gate. 

Dec. 22* This daie monsier de Graund and baron Biron were 
elected knights of the Holy Ghost of that fraternity. (58) The 
weather hath been verie extreme 4 or 5 daies, and lytle provision 
commeth to our markett, what for the unsecurytie of the passage 
for pore men, by coldnes of the weather, and the wannts of the 
countrie, for we are now come to forage xii, miles off, so that we 
are compelled to send out our carts one daie, and come home the 
next, but with great daunger. 

Dec. 23. This daie we have a greate allarme of the removing of 
our quarter from hence, whereby to be neerer the trenches of 
Saint Katherin's castle, where now we watche in. daies in a weeke, 
being of ours but five companyes, and with th'assistaunce of the 
voluntarie gentlemen who watche there to advaunce their honor ; 
which is a large proportion for such a handfull of men as we are, 
and shame for the rest that are 10,000 in the leaste accownte, that 
will dysproportion us so much, and would doe more if all our 
companys were there. 

Dec. 24. This daie my lord generall wente to the trenches (59) 
with many, where we forced th'ennemye from the counterscape, 
and slewe many, and toke many cloakes, weapons, and the 
lyke, to the greate reputation of the doers. Baron Biron toke 
upon him to defend the ground which was wonne, which was of a 


verie mightie importaunce, and such as without it they could not 
have held the forte iii. dales : but th'e [nnemye,] fynding the mis- 
cheife, sallyed out in greate nombers the 25. about xi. o'clocke, 
and forced the gard there ; ours fought verie bravely for halfe 
an howre, and never seconded of the French ; sir Thomas Basker- 
ville lykely to have bene taken ; capten Marson did th'office of a 
raanfull capten ; our soldiers had spente all their powder and shott; 
th'ennemye with greate fury drove downe the barells of earth, 
which we had laid for our, defence in the trenches ; sir Thomas 
Baskervill sawe no remedye but to sally out, and to beate them 
with the pyke and hallberte, but [he] was slenderly followed, and 
forced to retyre, abandoned of too many of our common soldiers, 
but xvii. gentlemen and offycers relyed (rallied) and made a stand. 
This is the truth ; but I pray you use yt with your wonted dys- 
cretion ; for I would not wryte thus much but to you. This is sir 
John Wingfield's nighte and myne to watch ; you shall heare, if yt 
please God, we will discharge the duty of honest men ; my lord 
himselfe goeth also. 


(1.) Dieppe. The English camp was at Arquea near Dieppe. " My lord had over with 
him two hundred horse, and foure thousand foote, besides voluntaries, which were many. 
After that my lord had stayed at Arques beside Deep some three weeks or more, and had 
commodiously lodged his army, [that is, still at Arques,] he made a journey to Noyon, 
and passed still through the enemies country, without any let or interruption, and took 
only his two hundred horse for his guard." (Memoirs of Robert Gary, Earl of Mon- 
mouth.) This is the march which our Journal more minutely describes. 

(2.) Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, K.G. the successor of his step-father the earl 
of Leycester as the favourite of his royal mistress, was only eleven years of age at his 
father's death in 1576. At the period before us he was twenty-six. He had previously 
taken every opportunity of distinguishing himself in a military capacity. In his early 
manhood he joined the earl of Leycester's army in the Netherlands, and was made a 
knight barmeret after the battle of Zutphen, in which his cousin sir Philip Sydney re- 
ceived his mortal wound. At Tilbury Camp in 1588, the queen made him general of the 
horse. In the next year he went the Portugal voyage, without having previously obtained 
the permission of his royal mistress. He now engaged in the wars of France. His later 
actions in Spain and in Ireland are well known. 

(3.) Sir Roger Williams came from the king with letters. This was thus announced in 
a letter of sir Henry Unton, the English ambassador, to lord Burghley, written at 
Dieppe on the 15th August. " Sir Roger Williams came hether with an earnest message 
[from the] king, signifyinge his greate desier to speake with my lo[rd generall] before his 
(the king's) goinge to ward es Lorraine, whether he is pre [paring his] journy, to hasten 
his strangers ; where uppon his l[ordship is] gonn, onelie with his horse, to meetehim att 
Gysors, and pro[poses to be] here backe againe by the ende of six daies, havinge left . . 
. . of foote remaininge here." MS. Cotton. Calig. E. vm. fol. 304. 

(4.) Sir Roger Williams was the marshal of the English army. An anecdote regard- 
ing him is told in the Camden Society's early volume of " Anecdotes and Traditions," 
p. 47, where the editor has appended the character which Camden bestowed upon him on 
his death in 1595. His name also occurs several times in the Society's volume of Ley- 
cester Correspondence, the earl of Leycester on one occasion (the battle of Zutphen) 
affirming " that Roger Williams is worth his weight in gold, for he isnoe more valiant than 
he is wise, and of judgment to governe his doings." Sir Roger Williams was the author of 
" A brief Discourse of Warre, 4to. 1590," which is dedicated to the earl of Essex. He 


also wrote an account of the Actions in the Low Countries, printed, some time after his 
death, in 4to. 1618. This book is dedicated to sir Francis Bacon, by sir Peter Manwood, 
" in whose hands the manuscript had long lyen," and an introductory address to the reader 
is prefixed, written by sir John Haywarde. 

(5.) Master Devereux. This was the lord general's only brother, Walter Devereux. 
He was " slain with a small shot before Rouen" (Stowe's Chronicle) on the 8th of Sep- 
tember (see note 18). In Murdin's Cecill Papers, and in the Hatton Correspondence, 
edited by Sir N. H. Nicolas, will be found a letter of sir Christopher Hatton to the 
earl of Essex, dated Oct. 5, condoling with him on his loss. Camden mentions him on 
occasion of the Portugal voyage in 1589, which (he states) the earl of Essex was induced 
to join, partly because several of the colonels and captains had been obliged to his brother 
for their preferment. Sir Henry Wotton also bears a remarkable testimony to the talents 
of Walter Devereux, "And here I must not smoother what I have received by constant 
information, that his own father died with a very cold conceit of him (the Earl), some say 
through affection to his second son Walter Devereux, who was indeed a diamond of the 
time, and both of a hardy and delicate temper and mixture." Again, in speaking of the 
earl's military employments, he distinguishes as " The saddest, that of Roan, where he 
lost his brave brother." Parallel of the earl of Essex and duke of Buckingham. 

(6.) Monsieur de Moy. Charles d'Humieres, marquis de Mouy or Moy. He was slain 
in attacking the Spanish camp at Ham, in 1595, when Sully terms him " the best and 
bravest officer in all Picardy," and de Thou says he was lamented by the king and the 
whole kingdom. There is a MS. memoir of his illustrious actions in the Bibliotheque 
Royale, No. 8930. 

(7.) Marqms of Pisana. Jehan de Vivonne, marquis of Pisana ; he was ambassador 
to the Pope in 1593, when Henri IV. had determined to be reconciled to the see of 

(8.) Duke Longueville. Henri due de Longueville, descended from the comte of 
Dunois, bastard of Orleans (who died 1470.) He succeeded his father 1573, and 
died 1595. 

(9.) Count of St. Pol. Francois comte de St. Pol, brother to the due de Longueville, 
was governor of Picardy. He died in 1631. 

(10.) Siege of Noyon. This town had been taken on the 9th of August. Memoires do 
la Ligue, vol. iv. p. 65. The articles of capitulation in the original French are in MS. 
Cotton. Calig. E. viu. f. 418, and a translation at f. 416. 

(11.) The marshalt Biron. Armand de Gontault, mareehal Biron. Next to the 
king, says Sully, he was regarded as the chief support of the Protestants. He retained 


a lively temperament in his old age, as evinced by the anecdotes related by our author in 
pp. 25, 36. He was killed the following year, when besieging Epernai. His son, Charles 
de Gontault, the baron Biron mentioned in p. 17 and elsewhere, was afterwards made a 
marechal in 1594. 

(12.) The Ireach at which our English men tooTce the abbey. " The kin ge hath also 
latelie taken by assaulte the abbey in the suburbs of Noyon, stronge and well fortified, 
which was onlie executed by sir Roger Williams and his companies, who behaved them- 
selves verie valiantly and with great reputation, and if capten George* had been seconded 
when he advanced himself to the bridge of the towne to enter pesle mesle with the enemie, 
they had taken the towne, but for want thereof he was taken prisoner, and was sore hurte 
with a shott." Letter of sir Henry Unton to lord treasurer Burghley, dated " from 
Deepe, 17th of August, 1591, newe stile." MS. Cotton. Calig. E. vin. f. 312, v. 

(13.) The duke Montpensier. Henri de Bourbon, duke of Montpensier. He com- 
manded an army for Henri IV. in Normandy, and was very successful in taking many 
towns from the Leaguers. 

(14.) The Icing tooJce his journey to Ruytters. The occurrence thus mentioned seems 
to have been that the king, after having welcomed his English auxiliaries, went to receive 
those, the Reiters, he expected from Germany. " The kinge departed on frydaie last 
towardes Challons, accompanied onlie with only 500 or 600 horse, to meete the armye of 
Reisters there, from whom he receaved advertisement of their arrival at Metz, the 28th of 
this present moneth stilo novo : with a further declaration that since the said armyes 
dislodgment from Strasburgh, there is joined to the same above six thousand Frenche, 
horse and foote, of persons that had retyred themselves out of the realme, by occasion of 
the present troubles : so as the same armye is thereby greatly increasede [the two last 
words substituted by sir Henry Unton for raised to the nombre of 30,000 men, which his 
secretary had written.']'''' Letter of sir Henry Unton to lord Burghley, 31st August. 
MS. Calig. E. vui. f. 322, v. In the same volume, f. 566, et seq. are several documents 
in French, being the articles between the French king and " Les Reistres." They are 
printed in Rymer's Foedera, xvi. 180, et seq. Sir Roger Williams says, " The Almaines, 
during the time they carried launces, caried a farre greater reputation than they doo now, 
being pistolers named Ridters." (Discourse of Warre, p. 35.) Sir Henry Unton reports, 
" The kinge is much discontent with the manner of his Reisters marching, who if they 
march 2 dales will rest 3, which hath hindred his service and the enterprise of Roan." 
Letter, Oct. 1591, to lord chancellor Hatton, MS. Calig. E. viu. p. 296, v. Our author's 
opinion of them will be be seen in p. 51, where he speaks of them as the king's " lawnce 
knights :" having previously, in p. 48, called them " the Gascons." 

(15.) Duke de Mayne. Charles de Lorraine, duke of Maienne, second son of Francois 
de Lorraine, duke of Guise, was the general of the league. 

* Ferdinando Gorges, afterwards knighted by the earl of Essex on the 8th Oct. 


(16.) Louviers was taken by Henry IV. through the treachery of a priest, who was 
employed as a watchman on the belfry. The sieur du Rollet, mentioned by our author, 
was the man who conducted the surprise. (Memoirs of Sully.) 

(17.) Our army was marched from, Arches. The lord general had sent for his footmen, 
which he had left at Arques on the day at which the Journal commences. " Being all 
safe at Pontlarge, my lord sent to Arques for all his foote to come to him, which came in 
five or six days. After they had rested awhile, he took leave of the governour, and 
marched by small journeys toward Rouen* (for then wee feared no encounter of any 
enemy)." Memoirs of Robert Gary, earl of Monmouth. 

(18.) Skirmish before Rouen. The Journal here breaks off just before the memorable 
skirmish in which Walter Devereux was slain. The omission may be briefly supplied by 
pursuing the narrative of sir Robert Gary : " The second night we lodged at a great 
village-town called Pavillie, where finding great store of victuall, and all things necessary 
for the relief of the souldiers, it was resolved that we should stay there for four or five 
dayes. In which time, to shew Villiers how little we esteemed him and his forces, in a 
morning betimes both foote and horse marched some five miles off, only in a bravado, to 
see whether Villiers or any of his troopes in the towne durst come come out and skirmish 
with us: but there unfortunately we lost m.r. Walter Devereux, my lord's only brother, 
with a shott in the head, and so we retourned that night to Pavillie, the whole army being 
full of sorrow for the losse of so worthy a gentleman. 

" The next night after, the towne fell on fire, and in lesse than an hour it was all burnt 
to the ground, so that wee had much adoe to get our troopes and carriages safe out of the 

" In four days after wee came to Arques, when our horse and foot rested a good space 
and refreshed themselves, till it was resolved that my lord and his troopes only should go 
to besiege Gournye, which was some fortnight after." Memoirs of Robert Cary, earl of 

(19.) Siege of Oournai. When the journalist resumes his story in October, he was at- 
tending on the earl of Essex at the siege of Gournai. Among sir Henry Unton's papers is 
a letter to queen Elizabeth, signed Hacqueville, dated " Du camp devant Gournay ce 
4 e . Octobre 1591," in which he says, " Monseigneur le comte d'Essex est icy au siege 
de Gournay, lequel se porte tresbien, comme aussy toutes les troppes que luy avez baillees, 
avec lesquelles il faict tresbien, comme un tresgalland seigneur et cavalier qu'il est." 
The writer proceeds to beg the queen to send another aid of 2,000 men. (MS. Cotton. 
Calig. E. vni. f. 81*.) It is the same letter that is printed in Rymer's Fcedera, xvi. 124, 
but with nearly as many errors as lines. The earl of Essex's conduct at this siege receives 
equal commendation in sir Henry Union's letter of the 27th Sept. to lord Burghley ; he 
writes : " Wee dayly expect her majesties pleasure and your lordship's awns were of our 
letters for the stay of my lord generall, who in this siege of Gournay hath conducted him- 

* Printed Arques in the Memoirs, but clearly in error. 


selfe with extraordinary paynefullnes, watchinges, and with such trew valour and discre- 
tion as did incourage his soldyers greatly and gaigne him greate reputation with the 
marshall [Biron] and the rest of the French, wherfor hee can heare hardly bee sparede." 
MS. Cotton. Calig. E. vm. fol. 440 v. 

(20.) Mr. Francis Darcy. He was the seventh son of sir Arthur Darcy, and grand- 
son of Thomas lord Darcy, K.G. He was knighted in 1591, probably during this cam- 
paign. He had a house at Isleworth, co. Middlesex, and in the church there remains 
a monument, with kneeling effigies of sir Francis, in armour, and of his wife. He was 
buried Nov. 29, 1641. See Aungier's Isleworth, p. 146. 

(21.) News of our return. Whilst the earl of Essex lay before Gournai, says sir 
Robert Gary, "there came letters out of England, to command him presently to repaire 
for England, and to leave his charge with sir Thomas Layton. He presently dis- 
patched sir Francis Darcy to desire longer stay, and let the queen know that the king 
intended shortly to besiege Roan, and what a dishonour it would be for ever to him, 
if he should leave him at such a time." But sir Francis was now " sent back with a 
streight commaund for my lord to retourne, as he would answer it at his utmost perill, 
with commission for sir Thomas Layton to execute the place." (Memoirs of the earl of 
Monmouth, pp. 32, 34). Our journalist seems to have expected that the troops were 
recalled with the earl of Essex, or else that he should himself have to accompany him. 

(22.) Monsieur Allard de Montmorency. The real name of this person was Francois 
de Montmorenci d'Hallot. Sully notices his being wounded at the siege of Rouen, as 
related in p. 53. He was assassinated shortly after by the marquis d' Allegre. 

(23.) Marquis de Allegre. Sully states that the marquis of Allegre was the person 
who seized Rouen for the league in 1590. He is represented as performing a different 
part in these pages : and our author calls him "a great friend of mine," (p. 60,) having 
previously visited him at his castle of Blendville (p. 49). Christopher marquis of Allegre 
was in 1591 guilty of the assassination of Francois de Montmorenci d'Hallot. Were there 
two of the name ? 

(24.) Lord Audley. Henry Touchet, lord Audley. He had served with the earl of 
Leycester in the Netherlands. He was the father of George the first earl of Castlehaven. 

(25.) Sir John Wingfield. Sir John Wingfield was the son of Richard, fifth son of 
Sir John Wingfield, of Letheringham, Suffolk, by Elizabeth Vere, sister and coheir to 
John 14th earl of Oxford. He was knighted in 1586, and walked at sir Philip Sydney's 
funeral in that year, as one of the " twelve knights of his kindred and friends." He was 
quartermaster-general in the Cadiz expedition, 1596, and was the only Englishman of 
note slain on that occasion ; his body being honourably interred in the principal church. 
(Camden's Annals.) His cousin sir Richard Wingfield, afterwards the first viscount 
Powerscourt, was at the present time lieut.-colonel in sir John Norris's army in Britany. 


(26.) Sir Thomas Ifashrville was knighted in 1588. He had been one of the four 
colonels of the army sent to assist the king of Navarre, under Peregrine lord Willoughby, 
in 1589. 

(27.) Twenty-four knights. The only list (unmixed with those made at other times) 
which the Editor has been able to find of these knights, either at the British Museum 
or the College of Arms, is the following. It contains only twenty-two names. 
" Knights made by Robert Erie of Essex before Roane 1591 : 

Sir Charles Percy.* Sir Thomas Fairfax.! 

Sir William Brooke.f Sir Nicholas Clifford. 

Sir Thomas Conisbye. Sir [Edmond] Yorke. 

Sir Thomas Gerrard. Sir Robert Drury. 

Sir John Tracy. Sir Thomas Jermyn. 

Sir John "Wootton. Sir William Woodhowse. 

Sir Richard Acton. Sir William Dawtery. 

Sir Henry Jones. Sir Griffin Markham. 

Sir Francis Allyn. Sir Henry Danvers. 

Sir Edward Yorke. Sir Edward Hastinges. 

Sir Matthew Morgan. Sir Ferdinando Gorge." 

(MS. Harl. 6063, art. 26.) 

Besides these the earl of Essex made several other knights during the campaign ; as 
Francis Darcy (see p. 70), sir Robert Cary (see p. 74), sir Walter Harcourt (p. 79), 
sir Henry Power (p. 77), and probably more. 

Camden says of the lord general's prodigality in this respect, that he thus incurred the 
risk of discontenting some who had obtained that honour before they set out from home, 
and might perhaps think that he cheapened the dignity, which had hitherto been in great 
esteem among the English, and which the queen had conferred only on a very few persons, 
and those of distinguished character and good family. A letter of Lord Burghley, 
addressed to the earl on the 22nd Oct. thus alludes to this matter : " Your lordship's 
so liberall bestowing of knighthoods is here commonly evil censured, and when her 
majesty shall know it, which yet she doth not, I fear she will be highly offended, consider- 

* Sir Charles Percy was a younger brother of the Earl of Northumberland. He 
engaged in the wars of the Low Countries and of Ireland ; and, as a friend of the earl of 
Essex, was implicated in his rebellion, and had a pardon 44 Eliz. On the death of the 
queen he was one of the messengers sent by the privy council to announce that event to 
king James in Scotland. He died in 1628, s. p. 

*( Sir William Brooke was the second son of William lord Cobham. He was born 
Dec. 11, 1565, and had for his sponsors in baptism Cecilia daughter of the king of 
Sweden, Thomas duke of Norfolk, and William lord Howard of Effingham, then lord 
chamberlain. Collectanea Topog. et Geneal. vol. vii. p. 353. 

J Afterwards the first lord Fairfax, 1627, died 1640. 


ing she would have had that authority left out of your commission, if I had not supplied 
it with a cautelous instruction. But quod factum est, infectum esse non potest; and, 
secondly, hereby you have increased your state of ladyes present and future." (Murdin's 
Cecill Papers, p. 648.) Elizabeth was notoriously sparing of her honours, and on this 
occasion she is said to have remarked that " his lordship had done well to have built 
his almshouses before he had made his knights," in allusion, it may be presumed, 
to the Poor Knights of Windsor ; or perhaps to the hospital for decayed soldiers which 
Essex's step-father, the earl of Leycester, had founded at Warwick. In making 
knights, however, the lord general followed the precedent, not only of former times, 
but of the earl of Leycester in the Low Countries ; and he was not deterred from 
making many more in his expedition to Cadiz and in Ireland. On the former of these 
occasions the list amounts to sixty -five names ; and some of them, we may suppose, would 
afterwards become candidates for such an asylum as the queen is said to have contem- 
plated, if we may credit the old rhyme, 

A knight of Cales, a shentleman of Wales, and a laird of the North Countree, 
A yeoman of Kent, with his yearly rent, will weigh them down all three. 

(28.) Oliver St. John. This young nobleman, who, though now only a cornet to the 
earl of Essex, is commended by our author as " a brave, discreet, and honest man," (see 
p. 48,) was afterwards highly distinguished by his services in Ireland ; where, after filling 
other posts, he was made lord deputy in 1616, and high treasurer in 1625. He was 
created baron Tregoze of High worth, co. Wilts, in 1626, and died s. p. in 1630. His 
elder brother sir John St. John of Lydiard Tregoze was ancestor of the Viscounts 

(29.) This day mr. Gary came out of England, who Iroughte most comfortable newes ; 
but our generall was goon before. Upon the surrender of the town of Gournai, which 
happened on the 26th or 27th Sept. the earl of Essex determined to send a special 
messenger to the queen, hoping the good news might alter her intentions, The person 
selected to execute this mission was mr. Robert Gary, who carried with him a letter from 
sir Henry Unton to the lord treasurer, which contained the following testimony to his 
merits, in reference to the siege of Gournai : " This gentleman mr. Carew (so the 
ambassador wrote the name) was very forward to goe to the assaulte, and with very 
greate resolution ready to marche towardes the breache. He is a gentleman of very greate 
hope and forwardnes." (MS. Cotton. Calig. E. vm. fol. 440, v.) Before mr. Cary 
arrived at the court, sir Francis Darcy was already departed, with the message that has 
been already stated. Cary describes his audience with the queen, which was conducted 
with all her characteristic impetuosity. " She presently burst into a great rage against 
my lord, and vowed she would make him an example to all the world, if he presently left 
not his charge, and retourned upon sir Francis Darcy's coming to him." After hearing 
mr. Gary's discourse (which he details at some length) she still " seemed to be something 
offended, and bade me to my dinner ; " but the captain had scarce made an end thereof, 
before he was sent for again, when " she delivered me a letter, written with her own hand 


to my lord, and bade me tell him, that if there were any thing in it that did please him, he 
should give me thankes for it. I humbly kissM her hand, and said to her, I hoped there 
was in it that which would make him of the most dejected man living a new creature, 
rejoicing in nothing so much as that he had to serve so worthy and so gracious a mistresse." 
Mr. Gary took post horse the same afternoon, congratulating himself that he had procured 
from the queen " that which all my lord's friends in court, nor all her counsaile, could 
procure." In consequence, however, of the queen's message by sir Francis Darcy, the 
earl had not ventured to await the return of mr. Gary, and the latter arrived at Dieppe in 
less than two hours after the earl had sailed, so that " they all wondered that I miss'd 

(30.) A muster. The letter addressed by lord Burghley to the earl of Essex on the 
22nd Oct. commences with the following passage, which notices the great loss by deser- 
tion and otherwise which had taken place in the English army, and particularly refers to 
the muster taken by our Author on the 13th Oct. mentioning him by name as having 
made a return to the government at home : " My very good lord, Your last letters brought 
unto me are of the 18th of this month, being the day after your arrivall, whereby I per- 
ceive that, by reason of your absence, coming from thence, such numbers of footmen are 
coming away, as you find there upon report but 2000 footmen, and eighty horse of your 
own, and eighty of other gentlemen. If any horseman be lacking of your former numbers 
by their coming hither, I hope they will return to seek their generall, but dare not affirm 
so for the footmen. It were well done that the muster-masters would particularly set 
down the numbers of such as be missing now in every band, besides such as remain there 
in France in places, known to be sick, so as it might be here known, if her majesty 
would supply the numbers, to which of the captains they might be sent, and so distributed. 

" In a breviatt of the musters sent from mr. Coningsby, taken at Arques the 13th, it 
seemeth there are of every band some sick, some at Diepe, some at Arques, and some at 
Gournaie, of which there may be hope by their recovery to come to the service of the 
bandes; but for such as be sick further off, as at Noyon, St. Denis, and other places far 
of, left by sir Roger Williams, I doubt of their recovery, and yet I doubt not but pay is 
asked for them. For the others, that are come into England, or for such as have been 
slain, I think it were reasonable the pay for them might be spared, specially considering 
what large allowances the captains have for their dead pays." Murdin's Cecill Papers, 
p. 647. 

(31.) Sir Thomas Leighton, who had been knighted in 1579, and who was now chief 
in command during the earl of Essex's absence, had been sent ambassador about 1577 to 
the States of the Netherlands, and then to don John of Austria. (Memoirs of Robert 
Gary, earl of Monmouth, p. 36.) He was captain of Guernsey at this time. As an 
officer of experience he was " sente by her Majestie to assiste the earle of Essex, 
generall of her troupe afore Roan, with his councelle and service, as welle for the preserva- 
tion of the said earle in good estate as for the advancement of the service committed to his 
charge ;" and " a memorialle" containing his instructions on the occasion will be found 


in MS. Cotton. Calig. E. vm. f. 89. He was not sent, however, before the beginning 
of September. (Lord Burghley's Diary.) There is a letter of the queen to the earl 
of Essex, dated the 4th Oct. in which she expresses her anger that sir Roger Williams 
had " presumed, in an audatious and foolish manner," to commend the first action 
before Rouen, and desiring the general, in consequence, to prefer in future the advice 
of Sir Thomas Leighton. (Murdin's Cecill Papers, p. 644.) 

(32.) Our generall retorned againefrom England, contrarie to the generall expectation 
of the moste. The earl of Essex had made a brief but successful visit to the queen. " At 
my lord's coming to court, whereas he expected nothing but her majesties heavy dis- 
pleasure, he found it cleane contrary, for she used him with that grace and favour, that he 
stayed a week with her, passing the time in jollity and feasting ; and then with teares 
in her eyes, she shewed her affection to him, and for the repaire of his honour gave him 
leave to retourne to his charge againe. He made all the haste he could to Deepe. As 
soon as he saw me he drew his rapier, and came running to me, and laid it on my 
shoulder, and streightly embraced mee, and said to mee, when he had need of one to plead 
for him, he would never use any other oratour than myselfe. I delivered him the queen's 
letter ; then he said, Worthy cousin, I know by herself how you prevailed with her, and 
what a true friend I had of you, which I shall never forgett." (Memoirs.) Sir Robert Gary, 
who thus received his first exaltation in rank, was the fourth and youngest son of Henry 
first lord Hunsdon, and was the earl's cousin once removed through his aunt Katharine 
Gary, wife of sir Francis Knollys, K.G. and mother of Lettice countess of Essex and 
Leicester. Before attaining to his knightly dignity, sir Robert Gary had been one of 
the captains employed against the armada in 1588, and had also held the post of deputy- 
warden of the East March towards Scotland. He was afterwards master of the robes to 
Charles duke of York, chamberlain to Charles when prince of Wales ; created lord Gary 
of Leppington in 1622-3, and earl of Monmouth in 1625-6 ; and died 1639. His very 
interesting autobiographical memoirs were edited in 8vo. 1759, by the earl of Corke and 

(33.) Sir Harry Danvers. Afterwards the first earl of Danby (1625-6), K.G. and 
the founder of the Phisick Garden at Oxford ; born 1573, died 1643. "He was partly 
bred up in the Low-Country wars, under Maurice E. of Nassau (afterwards Prince of 
Orange) and in many other military actions of those times, both by sea and land. He was 
made a captain in the wars of France, and there knighted for his good service under 
Henry the Fourth, the French king." Epitaph at Dauntsey, Wilts, of which the remainder 
will be found in Dugdale, Baronage, ii. 417. 

(34.) Banquet given by monsieur d'O. Francois d'O, sieur de Fresnes, Maillebois, &c. 
who had been master of the wardrobe to Henry III., was superintendent of the finances 
to Henri IV. Our journalist's account of his festivities is strikingly confirmed by the 
following passage in the Journal de 1'Etoile, Ann. 1594, p. 37 ; " He surpassed kings and 
princes in extravagance and prodigality ; for, even to his suppers, he had pies made up of 


musk and amber served up, that amounted to twenty-five crowns." Sully says of the same 
person, " His disposition, naturally leaning towards profusion, indolency, and voluptuous- 
ness, had been wholly ruined by all those vices for which the court of Henri III. was 
famous, deep play, unbounded debauchery, expensive follies, domestic disorders, and ex- 
travagances of every kind." 

(35.) Mount de Mallades. This 29th of October was the day on which the city of 
Rouen was first seriously attacked. Sir Robert Gary's account may be quoted, as being 
more clearly stated than our journalist's, both with reference to the position of the forces 
and the order of events. " My lord's quarter was allotted to be at Mount Malade, the town 
lying under us not full a quarter of an English mile. The king, with his horse and foot, 
tooke for his quarter the towne of Daringtall (Darnetal). Between the king and my lord 
lay the Switzers, upon another hill. Upon the right hand of my lord lay Montmorancie,* 
close to the towne on low ground. The rest of the king's army, as well on the side wee 
lay on as on the other side of the water, were dispersed in diverse partes. Monsieur de 
Roulet (governour of Font-large) with his troopes were lodged on the other side of the 
water. The rest of the commanders, and the names of the places they lay in, I do not 
well remember ; but sure I am my lord came to his quarter by five o'clocke in the 
morninge, and the whole towne was roundly besieged before eleven of the clocke. 

" But Villiers, governour of Roan, did that day show himself to be a brave soldier, and 
a great commander. He brought out his troopes both of horse and foote, and there was 
not a quarter in the whole army but what was bravely assaulted and fought withall by 
them that day. The king's quarter was not exempted ; but they did so furiously assault 
Montmorancies quarter, that, had not my lord of Essex sent his horse to relieve him, 
he had been driven out of his quarter with great dishonour. Towards three in the after- 
noone they had shewn their worth and valour in all places. They came up towards my 
lord's quarters. We were ready to entertain them, and wee held skirmish at the least 
two hours, and, after some killed and hurt on both sides, they fairly retired into the 
towne, and we to our lodging ; and so ended that day's sport." Gary afterwards adds, 
" They had a spleene to no quarter so much as to Montmorancies. The reason was for 
that he had begged of the king the gouverment of the towne, if it had beene taken either 
by agreement or by assault." 

(36.) Sir Francis Allen. One of the recently dubbed knights. At the assault of 
Sluys, in 1587, " captain Francis Alene swam in with captain Hart after the breach 
was made : during his time none shewed greater valour." Sir Roger Williams on 
Warre, p. 53. 

(37.) Villiers, the governor. Andre de Brancas marquis of Villars, and admiral of 

* The noble editor of the Earl of Monmouth's Memoirs has here appended a note, 
erroneously identifying the person mentioned with Charles de Montmorenci, afterwards 
admiral of France. 


France, had been governor of Havre de Grace, and was appointed lieutenant-governor of 
Normandy for the League by the duke of Mayenne, who had nominated his own son Henry 
of Lorraine to be governor of the province. (Chronologie Novenaire, 12mo. 1608, p. 500.) 
Sully, who during the siege of Rouen negociated with Villars for a peace, gives him the 
highest character both for courage and integrity. Having been reconciled to Henri IV. 
he was killed by the Spaniards before Dourlens in 1595. 

(38.) Count of Soissons. Charles of Bourbon, son of Louis prince of Conde. He 
died in 1612. 

(39.) The earl of Essex's challenge to the chevalier Picard. The French account of this 
affair agrees remarkably closely with that of our journalist : 

" Villars qui desiroit se faire signaler par ce siege (sur quelques lettres qu' avoit escrit 
le comte d'Essex au chevalier Picard, portant ' Que hors mis la cause qu' il soustenoit il 
luy estoit amy, pour 1'avoir cogneu avec monsieur de Marchemont en Angleterre, mais 
qu'en ceste guerre il seroit tres-ayse, de le trouver a la teste de son regiment la picque au 
poing,') manda pour responce au comte d'Essex, ' Qu'il trouveroit tousjours prest le 
chevalier Picard pour luy en faire passer Penvie seul a seul, ou avec tel nombre qu' il 
seroit arreste, et qu'ils s'offroit de faire ceste partie pour luy.' A laquelle offre, le comte 
d'Essex respondit, ' Quant est de vostre offre de faire une partie pour moy, je responds, que 
j'aycommandement d'une armee en laquelle se trouvent beaucoup de la qualite du cheva- 
lier Picard, et suis Lieutenant d'un souverain absolu. Mais si vous voulez combattre vous- 
mesmes a cheval ou a pied, arme ou en pourpoint, je maintiendray que la querelle du 
Roy est plus juste que celle de la Ligue : que je suis meilleur de vous, et que ma mais- 
tresse est plus belle que la vostre. Que si vous refusez de venir seul, je meneray avec moy 
vingt, le pire desquels sera une partie digne d'un Colonel, ou soixante le moindre estant 
Capitaine. Signe, ESSEX.' 

" A ceste lettre le sieur de Villars respondit, ' Pour venir a Particle de vostre lettre, 
par laquelle vous me desfiez au combat, vous scavez assez qu'il n'est en ma puissance de 
Paccepter pour le present, et que la charge ou je suis employe, m'oste la liberte de pou- 
voir particulierement disposer de moy. Mais lors que monsieur le due de Mayenne sera 
par deca, je Paccepte tres-voluntiers, et vous combatray a cheval avec armes accoustumees 
aux gentils-hommes : ne voulant cependant faillir de respondre a la conclusion de vostre 
dite lettre, par laquelle vous voulez maintenir que vous estes meilleur que moy : sur quoy 
je vous diray que vous en avez menty, et mentirez toutes les fois que vous le voudrez main- 
tenir, aussi bien que vous mentirez lors que vous voudrez dire que la querelle que je sous- 
tiens pour la deffence de ma religion ne soit meilleure que de ceux qui s'esforcent de la 
destruire. Et quand a la comparison de vostre maistresse a la mienne, je veux croire que 
vous n'estes non plus veritable en cet article, qu'aux deux autres : Toutesfois ce n'est pas 
chose qui me travaille fort pour le present. Signe, VILLARS.' 

" Ces lettres coururent de main et main en ce temps la ; sur lesquelles plusieurs firent 
divers jugements solon Paffection des partes qu'ils tenoient : on remarquoit en Pune le 
naturel ancien des vieux chevaliers Anglois, qui couroient le monde pour maintenir la 


beaute de leurs maistresses : et en 1'autre, un dementy donne promptement, pour lequel 
maintenir on s'excusoit sur Tabsence de monsieur de Mayenne. Aussi toutes ces choses 
ne furent que des paroles." Chronologie Novenaire, by Cayet, vol. ii. f. 502 v. 

The tribute here paid to English knight-errantry is remarkable. It was not many 
months after that the English ambassador, sir Henry Unton, challenged the young duke 
of Guise, in defence of the reputation of his queen. The particulars of this incident, 
which is noticed by many authors, will be found in The Unton Inventories, p. Iv. 

(40.) Captain Power. There seem to have been two captains of this name in the 
army : for on the 30th Nov. we find that whilst " captain Henry Powre " had been 
engaged in a skirmish in the morning (p. 52), " the Ireland captain Powre " returned 
during the day, after having been six days absent on a foraging party." (p. 53.) Captain 
Henry Power, who was an Irishman, and afterwards a peer of Ireland, was lieutenant- 
colonel of sir Robert Gary's regiment (see the Introduction, p. 9). He was knighted 
during the campaign. By patent, dated March 1, 1619-20, he was advanced to the 
dignity of viscount Valentia. He died in 1642 ; when his kinsman sir Francis Annesley 
succeeded to the peerage, it having been enlarged to him by a second patent. The banner 
of Ireland was borne by the viscount Grandison and the viscount Valentia at the funeral 
of king James I. in 1625. 

(41.) Sir ISdmund Yorke. " In the moneth of February (1591-2) sir Edmonde 
Yorke, knight, conducted over into France five thousand footemen well appoynted, sent 
from hence for service of the French kinge, which upon their arrivall remained under the 
charge of sir Roger Williams, being then generall of the English Companies there." 
So it is stated in Stowe's Chronicle ; but from Lord Burghley's diary it would appear the 
number was exaggerated. He says, " 1600 new men sent into Normandy, conducted 
by sir Edward Yorke." There were both sir Edmund and sir Edward (see p. 71), 
but the former, it seems most probable, was the commander. 

(42.) Sir Philip Butler. This appears to have been the son and heir apparent of sir 
Philip Boteler, of Watton Woodville, co. Hertford, by Anne, sister to sir Henry Coningsby 
of North Mimms in the same county. He was knighted in 1586, and went the Portugal 
voyage in 1589. He died on the 27th January 1591-2 (probably therefore a victim to 
this campaign), when his body was buried at Watton. He had married Katharine 
dowager lady Offaley, daughter of sir Francis Knollys, K.G. and mother of Lettice created 
baroness of Offaley, the wife of sir Robert Digby of Coleshill. By that lady he left four 
sons and a daughter : see the pedigree in Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, ii. 477. 

(43.) Sir William Sackville was the third son of Thomas lord Buckhurst, K.G. (after- 
wards the first earl of Dorset,) and had been knighted by Henri IV. in October 1589, at 
the age of nineteen. (Milles's Catalogue of Honour.) He lost his life during the pre- 
sent campaign. (Family Pedigree by Segar, &c. 1623.) 


(44.) My lord ambassador. This was sir Henry Unton, who was sent by queen 
Elizabeth to reside as ambassador with the French king, in July 1591, as mentioned in 
the Introduction. 

(45.) Sir Henry Killigrew. Nothing can show more strikingly the sparing hand with 
which Elizabeth doled out even the honour of knighthood at home, than the number 
of eminent men who received that grade in the present episode of their history. Sir 
Robert Gary and Sir Henry Killigrew had both served as ambassadors to Scotland, but 
the credit of conferring upon them this well-merited distinction was reserved in the one 
case for the earl of Essex, and in the other for Henri IV. Mr. Killigrew was sent ambas- 
sador to Scotland in 1573. (Lodge's Illustrations, ii. 75.) He was " appointed to at- 
tend the earl of Essex in France " August 4, 1591. (Lord Burghley's Diary.) He had 
married Katharine, one of the accomplished daughters of sir Anthony Cooke, and sister 
to lady Burghley. When Carew wrote his Survey of Cornwall, in 1602, sir Henry Kil- 
ligrew was still living, and " after ambassades and messages, and many other profitable 
employments of peace and warre, in his prince's service, to the good of his country, hath 
made choyce of a retyred estate, and, reverently regarded by all sorts, placeth his prin- 
cipal contentment in himselfe, which, to a life so well acted, can no way bee wanting." 

(46.) Took his journey. The earl of Essex made another flying voyage to England. On 
the 23d Nov., as lord Burghley has recorded in his diary, he "came to Westminster 
unlocked for. Dec. 5. The erle of Essex returned to Normandy. 7. Took* shipp at 
(Wanti) for Depe." 

(47.) The generall of the Allmayne forces. This was the prince Christian of Anhalt. 
(MS. Cotton. Calig. E. viu. f. 56, v.) Two letters which queen Elizabeth addressed to 
him at this time, dated at Richmond, Oct. 22, 1591, and at Westminster, Dec. 3, are 
printed in Rymer, xvi. 130, 138. In the second of these she acknowleges a letter which 
the prince had addressed to the queen, dated from the camp before Rouen on the 24th of 
the preceding month, relating the communications he had made with her majesty's ambas- 
sador. That letter, therefore, was written only two days after the feasting recorded by 
our journalist. Sir Henry Unton's papers in the Cottonian volume are very much 
disarranged, and the Editor has not been able to find any dispatch of this date, which 
might have furnished the ambassador's own report of his interview with the German 

(48.) The Cardinal Bourbon. Charles son of Louis prince of Conde, and brother to 
the count of Soissons. He was archbishop of Rouen, and abbe of St. Ouen and St. Catha- 
rine at Rouen, as well as of St. Denis and St. Germain des Pres near Paris, of Orcamp, 
&c. He died at an early age, July 28, 1594. 

* Misprinted Sold by Mnrdin. 


(49.) Prince of Parma. Alexander Farnese, prince of Parma, was made governor of 
the Low Countries in 1578, and died at Arras in Artois, Nov. 12, 1592. Sir Roger Williams 
says in his Discourse of Warre, 1590, " This armie of the prince of Parma hath bene in 
action unbroken since Charles the Fift his troubles against the Germaines. They have 
continued in the Low Countreyes three and twentie yeares." 

(50.) Sir Thomas Gerrard. Afterwards, it is believed, the first baronet, so created in 
1611. The Gerards were a very wealthy Roman Catholic family, and are still existing. 

(51.) Sir Richard Acton. The Editor has taken considerable trouble to ascertain the 
family connections of this gallant knight, in the hope they might lead to the identification 
of the Author, who calls him cousin. The search has been rewarded with no further 
success than finding that he was the son of Charles Acton esquire, to whom administra- 
tion of his property was granted by the prerogative court of Canterbury : " Ricardi Acton 
nuper servientis serenissimae Reginae militis, et in partibus transmarinis decedentis." 

(52.) The disease of the camp, which is a- pestilent ague. This disease, which killed 
sir Richard Acton, did not spare high or low. The earl of Essex himself had an attack, 
and so had the ambassador sir Henry Unton, and the latter afterwards died of the same 
disorder, when again ambassador lieger in France in 1596. 

(53.) Gisors. Sully claims for himself the merit of taking Gisors from the enemy 
" by means of correspondence which a gentleman in my company, named Fourges, carried 
on with his father, who was in the place." Sully was mortified that the king did not 
bestow the government of the town upon him, but choose a Catholic in preference, whose 
name however he does not mention. He was probably this Flavencourt, whom the king 
now removed (pp. 60, 62). 

(54.) Mr. Harcott. This was sir Walter Harcourt, of Stanton Harcourt, knighted by 
the earl of Essex before Rouen (misprinted Rome in Brydges's edition of Collins's 
Peerage, iv. 440). 

(55). Monsieur Grinion. The person meant here and in p. 35 was Jacques 
Berton de Crillon, or Grillon. Sully mentions his arm being broken, but erroneously 
supposed it was in the great sally which Villars made from Rouen (see p. 81). 

(56.) Capture of the sieur du Rollet. The circumstances of this occurrence are re- 
lated by Cayet, Chronologie Novenaire, iv. 14. He had been practising with Lan- 
gonne, lieutenant of the castle at the end of the bridge of Rouen, for admission into 
the same, and meeting that officer by appointment, unaccompanied, was seized by an 
ambush of fifteen soldiers concealed in some of the ruined houses. 

(57.) The chevalier Picard. The lively sallies of this gallant chevalier, in which our 


Journalist appears to have taken such interest, were shortly after terminated by his death. 
Being at the old fort on the 2d Feb. he was struck on the thigh with a cannon-ball, and 
died four days after, notwithstanding the utmost care of the famous surgeon Bailleul. 
He was buried in the abbey of St. Catharine. Chronol. Novenaire, iv. 18. 

(58.) Knights of the Holy Ghost. " Le premier jour de 1'an, la solemnite de 1'ordre 
du Sainct Esprit se fit dans I'eglise de Dernetail ; la oii, par le commandement du roy, 
monsieur le mareschal de Biron, comme le plus ancien des chevaliers qui se trouva en 
ceste ceremonie, donna 1'ordre a monsieur 1'archevesque de Bourges, et a monsieur de 
Biron son fils." Ibid. fol. 15, v. 

(59.) The trenches. The principal notice that Sully in his Memoirs takes of the English 
at the siege of Rouen, is with reference to the assistance they afforded when the king at- 
tacked a great trench which Villars had thrown out from the castle of St. Catharine. " As 
this new work was extended far into the country, and as it not only disordered the be- 
siegers in their attacks upon the castle, but also exposed them to be fallen upon in the 
rear, while at the same time they had the garrison from within in front, the king resolved 
to seize it, and render it useless to the enemy. For this purpose he made choice of the 
night when it was his turn to watch at the trench with his three hundred gentlemen, 
whom he commanded to be completely armed, and to have, besides their usual arms, hal- 
berts in their hands, and pistols at their girdles ; and to this troop added four hundred 
musketeers. It was at midnight, and amidst the extreme cold of December, that we at- 
tacked this trench in different places. The action, which was very obstinate, continued 
half an hour with equal animosity on both sides. We used our utmost endeavours to 
gain the brink, and the besieged repulsed us several times. I was twice thrown to the 
ground, my halbert broke, and my armour loosened or broken in pieces. Marignan, 
[his secretary,] whom I had obtained permission to keep near me, raised me, put my 
armour again in order, and gave me his halbert. The trench was at last carried by main 
force, and we cleared it of more than fifty dead or dying enemies, whom we threw from 
the top of the hill. This trench was open to the cannon of the fort ; but the king had the 
precaution to order some gabions, hogsheads, and pieces of wood to be brought there, 
which covered the English, to whom he committed the guard of it. [This agrees with 
what our journalist states in pp. 64 and 65.] 

" Villars did not expect to have seen his outworks carried in so short a time. When 
he was told it, and that it was the king himself who had conducted the enterprise, ' By 
heavens!' said he, ' this prince deserves a thousand crowns for his valour. I am sorry 
that, by a better religion, he does not inspire us with as strong an inclination to gain him 
new ones as to detain him from his own ; but it shall never be said, that I have failed to 
attempt in my own person what a great king has performed in his.' In effect, he put 
himself at the head of four hundred men, armed as he had been told the king's were, and, 
taking also eight hundred musketeers selected out of his whole number, he attacked the 
English and dislodged them from the trench. 

" The king, piqued with the vanity of Villars, and resolving not to let go his hold, pre- 


pared for a second attempt. The English, apprehending reproaches, which they certainly 
had not deserved, intreated the king to put a hundred English gentlemen in his troop, 
and to suffer all the foot, who were to attend him on this occasion, to be English like- 
wise. They also demanded leave to sustain the first effort of the enemy, and behaved so 
bravely, that the trench was a second time regained : they afterwards maintained them- 
selves in it, and took away from the besieged all inclination to approach it for the future. 
By this obstinate struggle for a trench only, it is easy to judge of the event of a siege, 
of which this attack was only the beginning." 

Some days after, according to Sully, (but he keeps no dates,) " Villars made a sally at 
the head of a hundred horse, with whom he overthrew the guard ; and would have been 
the cause of much greater confusion, if the king, armed only with a cuirass, had not ran 
thither, followed by the baron de Biron, an English officer (whose name I have forgot), 
Grillon, and some others who were about him : these three gentlemen especially gained 
immortal glory there. Grillon's arm was broke by a shot from an arquebuse. As for 
the king, having precipitated himself into a danger somewhat like that which is related of 
Alexander the Great in the city of the Oxydracae, he extricated himself out of it with 
equal presence of mind, and equal intrepidity. If this, which is only an example, has 
all the appearance of a fable, Henry's action had two whole armies to be witnesses of it." 

The reader will regret that Sully did not remember the name of the valiant English 
officer, and altogether his arrangement of events seems not very accurate. It is not, at 
least, easy to adjust the details now quoted, commencing in " the extreme cold of Decem- 
ber," with those of our Journal ; and there is little doubt that he misrecollected the 
occasion of monsieur Grillon's wound, which (as already shown) happened on the 16th 
of December. 


Acton, captain 39, 42 

sir Richard, 45, 58, knighted 71. 

Note, 79 

Ague, " the disease of the camp " 58, 79 
Allegre, marq. of 22, 26, 29. Note, 70 
Allen, sir Francis 33, knighted 71. 

Note, 75 
Anglicaville 31 

Anhalt, prince of 50. Note, 78 
Armies, constitution of 9 
Arques, " Arches," 21, 22, 28, 30, 66, 69 
Audley, lord 26. Note, 70 

Ballon playing 29, 30 

Barton, capt. 33, 52, 53, wounded 57 

Baskerville, sir Thomas 53, 58, 59, 65. 

Note, 71 
Beauvais 15 
Belcourt 26 
Bellacombe 24 
Bellgarde 40 
Bentyville, baron 26 
Biron, baron 17, 41, 45, 48, 64, 80. 

Note, 68 
marshal 18, 19, 25, 27, 29, 31, 

32, 34, 37, 39, 40, 52, 57, 80. Note, 67 
Blendeville 22, 47, 49 

the lady 30 

Boteler, sir Philip 45, 48, 49. Note, 77 

Boteville, baron de 19 

Bourbon, cardinal 51. Note, 78 

Bourges, bishop of 80 

Boys, colonel 45 

Brook, sir William 44. Note, 71 

Bulli 23 

Burghley, lord 66, 68, 71 

Caen 42 

Gallic, 23, 24, 31 

Cary, sir Robert 10, 28, 42, 45, 75. 

Note, 72 

Caudebec 29, 30, 60 
Clermont 16 
Clifford, sir Conyers 38,39, 64 

sir Nicholas 59, knighted 71 

captain 27 

colonell,and lieutenant-colonell 10 

Compeigne 16 

CONINGSBY, SIR THOMAS, Memoir of 5 7; 
attends personally on the earl of Essex 
24, 40, 44 ; acts as muster-master 60, 
73; addressed by Henri IV. 46, 54, 59 ; 
knighted 71 

Constable, mr. wounded 34 
" Cornet" 11 
Coursing 24, 29 
Cromwell, colonell 10 

Danvers, sir Harry 30, knighted 71. 

Note, 74 

Darcy, sir Francis 24, 70 
Darnetal 27, 63, 75, 80 
Dawtrey, sir William 71 
Devereux, Walter 15, 21, 69. Note, 67 
Dieppe, 2831, 42, 48, 52, 55, 63, 66 
Dombes, prince of 7 
Drinking, hard 35, 59 
Drury, sir Robert 71 



Elizabeth, queen, the Author's devotion 
to 30, 45; her reception of sir Robert 
Gary 72, of the earl of Essex 74 

Essex, earl of, " the lord generall " 14 ; 
meets Henri IV. 17; leaps with the 
king 18; confers with marshal Biron 
13, 25; leaves for England 28, re- 
turns 29; his horse shot under him 33; 
entertains the French colonels at din- 
ner 36; his answer to chev. Picard's 
challenge 37, 63, 76; challenges Vil- 
lars 38; has a letter from the king 39 ; 
waits on him 40, 41, 42, 44; his "gal- 
lantry and vigilancy " 29 ; his strength 
of body 44 ; his "witty and strong pas- 
sages" 46; leaves the army again 47; 
returns 61, 78. Note, 66 

Evreux 35 

Fairfax, sir Thomas 71 
Feasting 21, 30, 37, 74 
Flavancourt, mons. 15, 60, 62 
Foraging 24, 53 
Foulces, one 49 

Gabrielle, the fair 42 

Generall, the office of 9 

Gerrard, sir Thomas 57, 58, knighted 71. 

Note, 79 
Girbirey 14, 15 

Gisors 14, 19, 20, 21, 60, 62, 79 
Gonville, 31 

Gorges, sir Ferdinando, 68, 71 
Gournay, siege of 14, 15, 20, 28, 69 
de Graund, mons. 64 * 

Grillon (or Crillon), Jaques de 35, 62, 

81. Note, 79 
Hallot, see Montmorency 
Hangetree, sir William 62 
Harcourt, sir Walter 61. Note, 79 

Hargulatier, explained 11 

Hastings, sir Edward 71 

Henri IV. welcomes the English 17; ser- 
mons before him 17, 40; his leaping 1 8 ; 
his dinner 40 ; his breakfast 45 ; his gal- 
lantries 42, 52; delights in hunting 52, 
56; addresses the English soldiers 45; 
compliments them 47; speaks to the 
Author 46, 54, 59; conduct during the 
siege, 41; engaged with the enemy 64, 

Honfleur 31, 62 

Hunting 24, 52, 56 

Jermyn, mr. 35 

sir Thomas 71 

Jerpenville 24, 37 
Jones, sir Henry 71 

Killegrew, sir Henry, 8 ; knighted 47. 

Note, 78 

Knights made by the earl of Essex 37, 71 
Leaping 18 
Leighton, sir Thomas 8, 29 bis, 70. Note, 

Longueville, duke of 17 19. Note, 67. 

His house 15 
Louviers 21, 63, 68 

Maienne, duke of 19, 38, 51. Note, 68 

Markham, sir Griffin 71 

Marshall, office of 10 

Marshall court 29 

Marson, captain 65 

Martinville 25 

Meru 16, 19 

Montmorency, d'Hallot 26, 32, 34, 37; 

his leg broken 53. Note, 70 
Montpensier, duke of 19, 37. Note, 68 
Morgan, sir Matthew 33, knighted 71 



Moy, mons. de 16, 19. Note, 67 
Musters 29, 62, 63, 73 

Neufchatel 14, 23 
Newhaven 36, 49 
Norris, sir John 7 
Noyon, siege of 17, 67, 68 
Nunnery, visited by the Author 53 

d'O, mons. 17, 18, 30, 31, 34. Note, 74 
Ophin 31 

Paris 51 

Parma, duke of 55, 59, 63. Note, 9 

Pavilly 69 

Percy, sir Charles 71 

Picard, chev. 37, 63. Note, 79 

Pisana, marq. of 17. Note, 67 

Pont de 1'Arche, 21, 22 

Pontoise 15 

Power, capt. 9, 42, 52, 53. Note, 77 

Primero 45 

Punishments in the army 22, 29, 60 

Rames, mons. de 26 

Rea 22 

Red coats of the English soldiers 38 

Reiters, the German 19 ; the Author's 

opinion of 51. Note, 68 
Revience, mons. 16 
Rich, sir Francis 10 
Rollet, mons. 21, 25, 63, 75, 79 

Sackville, sir William 45. Note, 77 

St. Denis, mons. 54, 55, 56 

St. Esprit, knights of, made, 64, 80 

St. John, Oliver, 28, 33, 48. Note, 72 

St. Katharine's castle 44, et seq. 

St. Pol, count 17, 51. Note, 67 

St. Sever, mons. 58 

Seignecents 24 

Sherley, sir Thomas 8 

Soissons, count 37, 43. Note, 76 

Steinberg, baron of 63 

Sully, due of 8, 79, 80 

Swan, capt. 44 

Switzers, " their hevy humor " 61 

Tennis playing 21, 30 
Thorax, mr. 37 
Tracy, sir John 71 

Union, sir Henry 8, 9, 47, 48, 66, 68, 

69, 77, 78, 79 

Vernon 21 
la Vertu, mons. 21 

Villars, mons. 20, 21, 22, 35, 37, 38, 44, 
51, 55, 62, 76. Note, 75 

Wakefield, one 49 

Welch, or Welsh, capt. 33, 38, 39 

Williams, sir Roger 13, 19, 21, 26, 29, 

30, 31, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 47, 77. 

Note, 66. His Discourse on Warre, 67; 

extracts from that treatise, 9, 11 
Wingfield, sir John, 26, 32, 65. Note, 70 

sir Richard 70 

Woodhouse, sir William 71 

Wotton, sir John 4, 40, 49 ; knighted 71 

sir Henry 4 

Wylkes, sir Thomas 8 

Yaxley, captain 33 

Yorke, sir Edmund 43, 63 ; knighted 71. 

Note, 77 
sir Edward 71, 77 

London : J. B. Nichols and Son, Printers, 25, Parliament-street. 

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