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A Voyage to Indiana 

In 1817. 


Reprinted from 
Published by John Candee Dean, 
Indianapolis, Indiana, 1918 




Prepared by the Staff of the 
Public Library of Fort Wayne and Allen County 

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Journals or diaries of travelers are valuable sources of the 
early history of the American Midwest. Thomas Dean has recorded in 
his journal his impressions and experiences during a voyage by water 
In 1817 from central New York to central Indiana. John Candee 
Dean, grandson of the journalist, originally published the JOURNAL 
OF THOMAS DEAN at Indianapolis in 1918. 

The Boards and the Staff of the Public Library of Fort Wayne 
and Allen County present this diary of an early visitor to Fort Wayne 
'n the hope that It will be entertaining and informative to Library 



My grandfather, Thomas Dean, was a very methodical 
business man, who left a chest of papers, containing letters, 
contracts, accounts, legal documents, etc., all filed in perfect 
order. There are old letters from Quaker friends and rela- 
tives dating back to 1799. In this chest, now in Indian- 
apolis, was found the journal of a journey made by him in 
1817, which is published in full herewith. This journal is 
the simple record of a voyage made one hundred years ago, 
from central New York to central Indiana, all the way by 

The purpose of the journey was to secure land in the 
West for the Brothertown Indians, then living in Oneida 
County, State of New York. Owing to the encroachments 
of the white population, and their desire to purchase Indian 
lands in New York, it was deemed desirable to move the 
Brothertown Indians to the West, where they would have 
more land, advantageous surroundings, and removed from 
injurious influence incident to the presence of the white 
population on the weakness of the Indian character. 

The New York Indians were the remnants of seven tribes 
of New England Indians, who had been moved to Oneida 

County, New York, in 1788. A tract of land had been pur- 
chased from the Oneida Indians in 1774, but owing to the 
hostility of the Mohawk tribe during the Revolutionary 
War, it was considered unsafe for them to move until after 
the war had closed. The Brothertown Indians consisted of 
remnants of the following tribes: Mohegans, Farmingtons, 
Stoningtons, Pequods, Narragansetts, Montauks, and Ne- 

The boat crew, for the voyage to Indiana, consisted of 
chiefs and leading men of the Brothertown tribes, as fol- 
lows: Paul Dick, Jacob Dick, Thomas Isaacs, Charles 
Isaacs, and Rudolphus Fowler. There were also two Indian 
women aboard, Sarah Dick and Betsy Isaacs, wives of 
chiefs. The only white person in the company was Thomas 
Dean, their attorney, agent, and captain. 

There is no description of the boat, but at Vincennes, 
Indiana, "Dr. Lawrence S. Sheelee, who had been on the 
boat yesterday, took a brief account of our voyage with 
intention of publication." The boat drew twenty-one inches 
of water. Going down the Allegheny River they took on 
three passengers; it therefore carried eleven people with 
ease, besides the chests and other cargo. It was built by 
Thomas Dean at Deansboro, Oneida County, New York, 
and launched into the Oneida Creek. He, with his party, 
ran the boat down this creek into Oneida Lake, out through 
Oneida River into Oswego River, and down into Lake 
Ontario. On Lake Ontario he sailed to Niagara and up the 
Niagara River, portaged around the great falls and sailed 
to Buffalo. From Buffalo he sailed on Lake Erie to a har- 
bor near Chautauqua Lake and there portaged the boat into 

that lake. The waters of Chautauqua Lake are discharged 
into the Allegheny River, so that it was possible to sail 
down the Allegheny into the Ohio River and thus reach the 
mouth of the Wabash River. 

The southern part of Indiana he found sparsely settled, 
but the central and northern parts were still wildernesses. 
In his voyage from Fort Harrison up the Wabash to the 
mouth of the Mississinewa River and return, a distance of 
about 360 miles, he does not mention having seen a single 
white man. The Indians he met on the river could not 
speak English and he therefore had great difficulty in com- 
municating with them. He was looking for good land, well 
watered, and describes the fine, fertile, silent prairies near 
the Wabash. In his journey on foot from Fort Harrison to 
the White River country and return, he passed through a 
wilderness of forests sparsely inhabited by Indians. The 
hardships were most severe. What would a man of today 
think of making a journey from Terre Haute to Fort 
Wayne, about 220 miles, most of the way on foot, with a 
heavy pack on his back? Some days Dean and his party 
traveled forty miles. 

His unusual resourcefulness was exhibited at Fort 
Wayne, where he was unable to obtain a boat for taking 
himself and party down the Maumee River. He at once 
went into the forest, cut down a big tree, and made a large 
canoe, not only sufficient for his party, but in which he was 
able to take two additional passengers. The canoe was 
made in two working days, launched into the Maumee 
River, served its purpose, and was afterward sold for a 
good price at Fort Meigs. 

It is difficult to believe that this modern Jason, toiling 
through the forests of Indiana with a heavy pack, swim- 
ming rivers to get his boat over rapids, sleeping on beds of 
wet brush and leaves in forests, sometimes without food, 
and living like an Indian, had left behind him, at Deans- 
boro, N. Y., a large, beautiful home, situated in the charm- 
ing Oriskany Valley. He had left a wife and five children. 
He was owner of large farming interests, and was the chief 
man of affairs in that part of the county. Besides being 
engrossed in the management of Indian affairs, he served 
as postmaster, justice of the peace, etc.; was called fre- 
quently to act on arbitration boards; was on numerous 
boards of trustees, including trustee of Hamilton College; 
trustee, president, and finally sole owner of the Friends 
Cotton and Woolen Manufactory. Deansboro was named 
after him. 

From his journal, under date of August 29, it will be 
seen that while in an old shelter, made by the Indians for 
hunting on the bank of the Wabash, he realized the serious 
hazards that he was running in making this journey. He 

"This morning I awoke at about 2 o'clock and put out 
the fire, laid down again, went to sleep. I had a remarkable 
dream, which agitated me very much. It brought me to the 
situation of my family, and the state of my affairs in which 
I had left them; the imprudence of leaving home on such 
a journey without first settling all of my affairs; that they 
would lose greatly in case of my never returning to them 
again. The contents of my dream agitated me so much that 
I could not eat much breakfast." 

He was a pioneer of most sturdy stock, over six feet tall 
and very muscular. He was born in Westchester County, 
near New York city, in 1783, and moved with his father 
to Oneida County in 1798. They were Quakers, and his 
father received an annuity of £50 from the Society of 
Friends in New York city for services as missionary en- 
gaged in teaching the Indians industry and morality. Thus 
Thomas Dean grew into benevolent work among the Broth- 
ertown Indians, and the Quaker annuity eventually came 
to him. The nearest postoffice was fourteen miles away, at 
Old Fort Schuyler, now Utica. 

He devoted his life to Indian philanthropy. He was con- 
fident that the Indians could be made into industrious, 
moral citizens. His energy was prodigious. He spent much 
time in Washington, for some years going to every session 
of Congress to secure legislation in protection of the In- 
dians. These journeys were made in stage coaches. The 
distance from Deansboro to Washington was about 500 
miles. It is interesting to note the cost of transportation by 
stage in those days. His account in 1828 shows the cost of 
two seats in stage, from Utica to Albany, $7.00; Albany to 
New York city, $20.00; New York to Philadelphia, SI 2.00; 
Philadelphia to Baltimore, $12.00; Baltimore to Washing- 
ton, $5.00; total fares, one way, $56.00. There were also 
tips to drivers, ferry over the Susquehanna and other rivers, 
extras for trunks, etc. His visits to Albany to meet the New 
York Legislature were much more frequent. 

His accounts with the Brothertown Indians show the fol- 
lowing entry: "They agreed to allow me for my extra serv- 
ices going to the city of Washington six times, to Green 

Bay, Wis., four times, and sundry other journeys, in all 
about 20,000 miles." This was before the days of steam. 

Thomas Dean was not only the attorney and agent of the 
Brothertown Indians, but also acted for the Stockbridge and 
Oneida tribes. He did not succeed in acquiring Indian 
lands in Indiana, but in 1824 he made a treaty with the 
Winnebago and Menominee Indians by which the Brother- 
town tribes secured a tract of land on the east side of Fox 
River, Wisconsin, eight miles wide and thirty miles long. 

Owing to a dispute over the title to this land in 1828, he 
made a new treaty with the Federal Government, by which 
the land on Fox River was exchanged for nearby land on 
the east shore of Lake Winnebago. Twenty three thousand 
acres were laid off in a square. The title was in fee simple 
from the Federal Government, secured by patent. The 
Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians were moved to this 
tract, which they now occupy. 

Thomas Dean died at Deansboro, N. Y., in 1843. 

John Candee Dean. 

Indianapolis, Ind., March, 1918. 


Voyage from Deansboro, N. Y., to Niagara River 

Oneida Creek, N. Y., May 31st, 1817, 6 o'clock a. m. 
Wind N.W., and cloudy, with some rain. All hands at work 
fitting for the voyage. At 15 minutes of 10 a. m. Paul Dick 
arrived and joined our company, and 20 minutes past 11 
his father, Thomas Dick, came to us; 30 minutes past 
1 p. M. ran down Oneida Creek with Burlingame and sev- 
eral others on board. Ran out of the creek onto the lake 
and made sail, the wind blowing a gale. We made two or 
three tacks, but the lake was so rough that we did not gain 
more than one or two miles and it was thought best to run 
back into the creek and wait until the wind abated. Paul 
Dick and I went to Burlingame's, about three-quarters of 
a mile from the boat, and lodged; the rest of the company 
lodged in an old house or in the boat. 

June 1st. At 3 a. m. P. Dick and I started to meet our 
company and all set about getting ready to start. It was 
clear and very frosty; some ice. We drank some chocolate, 
ate some bread, all aboard, and went down the creek to the 
lake and took leave of Thomas Dick. Set sail at 6 a. m.; 
the wind very light, and from the W.S.W., so that we had 
to row. At 1 2 o'clock, opposite Roderdam, we were rowing 
along at a good rate, not expecting any shoal ; I was steering 
when I discovered rock, and we had but just time to stop our 

headway and put about. The water on the shoal was not 
more than a foot deep. I considered it fortunate that we 
had not a fair wind and going very fast or we might have 
injured our boat, for we had no idea of there being any 
such shoal water in or near the middle of the lake. At 
2 p. M. we landed on Frenchman's Island and took dinner. 
It is a beautiful island, well timbered, containing thirty or 
forty acres. At 5 p. m. we got under way with head winds, 
but ran down the Oneida River to the head of Cognoy Rift 
and put up at Sclos Billos. 

June 2d. We breakfasted on eels and put our baggage on 
board. The boat drifted around on a root, and in getting on 
board she rocked on it and it punched a hole in her larboard 
bow, on the second strap from the garboard, about one and 
a half inches in diameter. We immediately discovered the 
leak and ran down the rift, intending to go to Three River 
Point, but she took in water so fast that we had to go on 
shore, unload all our things, draw the boat up and put in 
a graving piece. We repaired our boat, loaded her, and 
embarked about 11 o'clock, went down to Three River 
Point, stopped and made some inquiry about the river. We 
then passed down to Three River Rift and took on a pilot, 
giving him one dollar to run the Rift. Then we continued 
down to Six Mile Creek and stayed all night. In the morn- 
ing we ran down to the Falls of Oswego, took out our load, 
hired a pilot to run over the falls for two dollars, hired our 
goods carried over for two dollars, and employed a pilot 
to pilot us to Oswego for two dollars more. We arrived 
there about 5 o'clock p. m. The wind being fair, we con- 
cluded to load our stores and put out into the lake, although 

it was cloudy. We put out to sea about 7 o'clock p. m. on 
the 3d of June and ran all night. The next day we put into 
Pultneyville. We ran on to Genesee River, arriving there 
at half past 7 p. m. On the 5th and 6th of June we lay 
there wind-bound until about 5 p. m. Then we ran up to 
the inlet of Long Lake, about four miles, where we stayed 
all night, and in the morning put out and sailed up to 
Braddocks Bay, thence to Sandy Creek, about seven miles, 
and there we put up for the night. 

June 8th. We started early in the morning with a fair 
wind, and clear and pleasant, and put into Eighteen Mile 
Creek, obtained some bread and milk, then stood on to 
Twelve Mile Creek and camped. About fifty-one miles 
this day. 

June 9th. Started with a fair wind. It rained very hard. 
We stopped at Niagara at about 12 o'clock and went to 
view the garrison at the fort, then put up the Niagara River 
to Lewiston. 


Voyage from Niagara to Lake Chautauqua 

June 10th. We went to get our boat hauled over the 
portage, but could not. I crossed over to Queenstown, Can- 
ada, to get it over the portage, returned and crossed with 
the boat and agreed with A. Brown to take it, with the bag- 
gage, for six dollars. I entered the boat at the collector's 
office for 50 cents. 

June 11th. We loaded our boat and baggage onto two 
wagons at about 10 a. m. and passed slowly along with the 
boat and baggage. Had a very poor ox team to draw the 
boat. Thomas Isaac and I, walking a little ahead, went to 
see the famous falls of Niagara and then met the teams. 
The rest of the company then went to view the falls. We 
arrived at Chippawa about 5 p. M. without much difficulty 
or damage. Thomas and I began to unload, and when the 
rest of the company came up we ran the wagon into the 
river and launched the boat. We examined our baggage 
and dried some of it, much of it being all wet with the heavy 
rains that had fallen. It is a very fine day and dried up the 
mud smartly, the wind blowing high from the northwest. 
We ran up the river about two miles and put up at Mrs. 

June 12th. A fine, pleasant morning. We started for 
Buffalo and had a strong opposing current. We soon 
crossed over to the west channel and took dinner on Grand 


Island. Kept to the west side of the island, on the west side 
of the river, until we arrived at the ferry opposite Black 
Rock, where we crossed, and arrived about 1 7 minutes past 
7 p. M. and put up for the night. 

June 13th. In the morning we had a tight pull to get up 
the rapids, the wind being ahead. We took breakfast on the 
beach not far below Buffalo and arrived at Buffalo about 
9 A. M., where we stopped, received and read letters, and 
wrote home. We discovered our boat leaked more than 
usual ; drew her out on the beach and found we had started 
one of the nails in the seam on the bottom, and repaired 
it. We put our things on board at about 8 P. m., returned 
up the creek by the town, where we took up lodgings. 

June 14th. We found all things safe, although there had 
been a hard wind and a heavy shower of rain in the night. 
We took breakfast at Buffalo, transacted our business, ob- 
tained some provisions, etc., and put out to sea 15 minutes 
past 12 o'clock. It rained hard, and but little wind. There 
were two schooners and a sloop which went out at about 
30 minutes past 7 a. m. We passed along, using our oars, 
until about 2 p. m., when we came in sight of the three ves- 
sels standing on near our course. The wind began to blow 
a good breeze, and about 6 p. m. we came up with one of 
the schooners, called the "Buffalo Packet," the other vessels 
standing to the west. We spoke to the packet and found she 
was going to put into Cattaraugus Creek, where we intended 
to make a harbor. We passed the packet and ran into the 
creek about 35 minutes past 7 o'clock and took lodging, all 
being wet. We came about thirty miles. The schooner came 
in soon after us with several passengers, who were all wet 


as well as us. Some of them very seasick. We had a 
good harbor in this creek. The captain of the packet in- 
formed me that he intended to put out for Shaddocks Bay 
between 1 2 and 1 o'clock in the morning, so we concluded 
to start early to be in his company. 

June 15th. All hands on board and we got under way 
40 minutes past 3 a. m. and left the harbor. We soon caught 
up with the packet, which had sailed some time before us. 
At about 5 o'clock there came a very thick fog, so that we 
could see but a little way ahead, and we steered southwest 
and by south until about 30 minutes past 6 o'clock, with a 
light breeze from the N.N.E. ; then the wind began to in- 
crease, the fog soon disappeared, we found we had gained 
on the schooner while running in the fog. The wind blowing 
a good breeze, we soon overhauled her near the bay where 
we intended to make harbor. Supposed there was a creek 
to put into and get breakfast, but when we arrived in Shad- 
docks Bay we found there was no creek there, and the wind 
blew so hard and the swells ran so high that we could not 
beat out of the bay again. We out with the anchor which 
we had made at Oneida Creek. This was the first time 
we tried to use it, so we did not know how it would hold, 
and now if it gave way we must go ashore. Though it 
was not rocky, yet the surf ran so high that it is probable 
it would injure our boat; but as high as the swells were, 
our anchor held, so that we did not drag more than four 
or five rods. We kept an oar out at the stern to keep the 
boat straight with the wind and she rode out the gale very 
safely, though it made R. Fowler and S. Dick very seasick, 
it not being for the first time. I borrowed the boat belonging 


to the schooner to come along side and take Sarah Dick, 
Betsy Isaac, Jacob Dick, with Charles, on shore, and left 
Thomas Isaac, Paul Dick, and myself to manage the boat 
as well as we could. R. Fowler was so sick that he did not 
feel like doing anything, and instead of having a warm 
breakfast, which we expected, when we put about to run in, 
we were glad to take a piece of bread and raw pork, which 
relished very well with me. This place is about fifteen miles 
from the Cattaraugus Creek. When the wind abated, we 
got all on board, started for Portland, about fifteen miles 
farther up the lake, where we arrived about 10 o'clock p. m. 
It was with some difficulty that we found the harbor of 
Portland; not knowing the shore, we ran a great way out 
of our course to search the shore for fear we would run by 
the harbor, and then we would have found no harbor until 
we came to Erie. The shore of the lake, most of the way, 
was perpendicular rocks, so that there are but few good har- 
bors. We hauled our boat up on the beach as far as we 
could and took lodgings. 

June 16th. R. Fowler proposed to go across the portage 
to the Chautauqua Lake and then down the Ohio River. 
Jacob Dick and Paul Dick joined with him. Thomas Isaac 
and I were for keeping up the lake, but we consented to the 
voice of the majority, although it was much farther, but they 
said it w^as safer. We consented. Paul and Rudolphus 
went out and engaged two men with teams to take our boat 
and baggage across, for which we were to pay five dollars 
each. We loaded our boat and baggage, went about two 
miles to the four corners of Portland, and put up for the 


July 1 7th. We started with the teams and passed a very 
rough, hilly road filled with stumps, roots, and crossways 
over the land between the waters of Lake Erie and the 
Chautauqua Lake. The country was thinly settled and in 
some parts pretty good, and well timbered with some of the 
finest chestnut trees that I ever saw. We arrived at May- 
ville about 1 o'clock p. m. It is a small village on the north- 
west shore of Chautauqua Lake. The lake has very hand- 
some shores and is well stocked with different kinds of fish. 
We left Mayville, went down the lake about sixteen miles 
against the wind, and put up on the northeast side of the 
lake at the house of a man by the name of Chene, where 
there was very good land with heavy timber. 



Voyage from Chautauqua Lake to Pittsburgh 

June 18th. We started with a head wind and ran down 
to the rapids, where there are mills, with locks for boats to 
pass through. We went through them, and about one-half 
mile below we went to the village of Jamestown to get meat, 
bread, and cheese, but I could obtain no bread, nor pork 
under 30 cents per pound, and 18 cents for poor new skim 
milk cheese. It being about 12 o'clock, and having eaten 
very little this day, we had to dine on potatoes, crackers, 
and a fish which I bought for 9 cents. In the morning, 
being refreshed by our frugal meal, we embarked down the 
Chautauqua Creek, a small navigable stream with a quick 
current and a smooth bottom. It is fortunate for us that the 
waters are high at this time, or we could not go down, our 
boat drawing about twenty-one inches of water, and in a 
dry time there is not more than nine inches or a foot of 
water in the creek. We took in three passengers, one of 
whom was a good pilot, and we went down the stream, 
which was very crooked, with swift current, which made it 
difficult to sail. We passed down to the Casdaga Creek 
six miles, and there cur pilot left us. The river was larger 
and the current very moderate, the bank low and the flats 
large. We passed down ten miles and came into the Cone- 


wango Creek, which is a considerable stream. It comes in 
from the northeast, and there we put up at Captain DoUof's 
for the night. We obtained four quarts of milk, half a loaf 
of bread, and one pound of butter, of which we made a 
supper. Part of a bed was put on the floor for three of us 
to lie on. All were wet, there having been very heavy show- 
ers, which lasted almost all the afternoon. 

June 19th. We called for our bill and the reply was $2, 
which astonished me. We reasoned with him until the 
avaricious wretch was satisfied with $1.50. We then pro- 
ceeded down the river, which was very crooked, but with 
a gentle current and a deep channel. The banks are low 
and frequently overflown by high water, and the soil is 
rich, though rather low for cultivation to advantage. We 
went about six or seven miles, when we came to a small 
stream called Still Water, which river is from seven to four- 
teen feet deep, and the passage easy to the rapids, which 
are about twenty miles, where we stopped and took break- 
fast on our scanty collection of food at the dam about half 
past 1 o'clock. We had two pigeons, a pheasant, and a 
small groundhog, which we picked up in our passage of 
twenty miles down the river this morning, not being able 
to purchase either bread or meat within the distance which 
we came. After refreshing ourselves, we took in a pilot from 
the mill to run us over the dam, which he easily did, and 
at the mill we took in three passengers for Warren, Pa., 
one of whom was an Indian by the name of Henry O'Bail, 
son of the famous chief called Complanter, who acted as 
pilot. After the shower we went on toward Warren. We 
had a strong current and a crooked channel for eight and 


one-half miles to Warren, where we arrived about 7 p. m. 
Here we obtained some bread, meat, and butter, though at 
an extravagant price. We took up lodgings for the night 
at the inn. 

June 20th. We left Warren at about 5 a. m. with our 
own company and ran down the river to Broken Straw, 
about twelve miles, a stream which comes in from the north- 
west; then passed down about thirty-four miles, went on 
shore and fried bacon and boiled potatoes, not having bread 
sufficient. We went on board and ate our dinner. We got 
some wet, there being a very heavy shower, which our sails 
did not completely shelter us from. We started two or three 
deer from the river, which R. Fowler went in pusuit of, 
and got a chance to shoot at one, but did not hit him. We 
saw them again, when J. and Paul Dick went in the chase, 
but did not kill any. Night drawing near, and having the 
appearance of rain, we went down the river with our oars at 
work. We soon saw another deer in the river, which we 
fired at, but did not get. It became foggy and I expected 
rain, so we ran down to Oil Creek, about seven or eight 
miles farther, and put up about a mile and a half from 
the place where the Seneca oil is found on the waters of 
the creek, but the water is so high now that the place where 
the oil issues from the earth could not be seen. We came 
down the river today fifty-three miles, although we had a 
strong head wind through the day. 

June 21st. We left Oil Creek at 10 minutes past 5 a. m., 
went down seven miles to Franklin, at the mouth of French 
Creek, ran in there to get some bread, when it began to rain, 
and we took breakfast. When the rain abated we started 


about 10 A. M. and passed down the river. There were but 
few houses, all small log cabins, and the inhabitants ap- 
peared to live by hunting, fishing, and the few shillings 
they could get from the pockets of the travelers. Lee, the 
landlord where we took breakfast, informed me that there 
were large settlements in the country back from the river, 
but there was but very little grain raised ; that the land had 
a very good appearance, but did not produce well after two 
or three crops. He said that the frost had injured their crops 
very much for some time back. After the rain stopped we 
went on down the river with the current, helped by our oars, 
to a place called Miller's Eddy, about fifty-eight miles, and 
put up at an unfinished house. 

June 2 2d. Started about half past 4 a. m., ran down the 
river, procured some bread on shore, took breakfast, con- 
tinued on down, and passed Armstrong, a small village on 
the south side of the river. It is the county seat of that 
county, forty-five miles above Pittsburgh. We put into 
shore and stopped at a house two miles below Freeport. 
From there, passed on down to a place called Mechanics- 
burg, on the south side of the river. It consisted of several 
small houses, most of them abandoned by the inhabitants, 
four families only living there, and they so poor they could 
afford us no relief or lodging. It rained very hard. We 
crossed over the river and found poor lodging on the oppo- 
site shore, where we put up, having come about seventy-two 
miles. We were now within about ten miles of Pittsburgh. 

June 23d. We started about half past 4 a. m. and ran 
down the river, passing three arks with families going down 
the river; arrived in Pittsburgh about 6 a. m., where we 


put in for provisions and to get breakfast. I wrote home, 
and after breakfast our curiosity surpassed our anxiety to 
proceed, so we went to see some parts of the town, the steam 
factories, viz.: a saw mill, grist mill, nail factory, roiling 
mill, and the Flint Glass Works, which was not then in 
operation, but we went into the warehouse, where we saw 
some of as good glassware as is brought from England or 
India. We also went to see the flour mills. The town is well 
situated on the point, but it might be very considerably im- 
proved in beauty of appearance. Their manufactories are 
most interesting and surprising. Not getting our supplies 
and not satisfying our curiosity, we were not yet ready to 
start until about 6 p. m., and then we concluded to put up 
for the night at our landing place at Shepherd's. I would 
be glad to give a more particular description of Pittsburgh, 
but time will not permit. 



Voyage from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati 

June 24th. We started 30 minutes past 3 a. m. from 
Pittsburgh. The morning was very foggy and continued 
thick until about 8 a. m. We passed Big Beaver, a stream 
putting into the Ohio, and then sailed on with a gentle and 
smooth current. Took breakfast on board, then ran down 
to Steubenville, where we went on shore to get fire, some 
bread, etc. We had not time to take a view of the town as 
we wanted to, because we were rushing to pass on our 
journey down to Big Grave Creek, making 112 miles this 
day traveled. 

June 25th. In the morning it was foggy, but cleared off, 
and we ran down to Beaver Creek, which we called eight 
miles by the current, then went down, passing several 
islands and many points, until we came below States Creek, 
then running on our oars and by the current until we came 

to the . We put in and stayed all night near an 

island called the Three Brothers. 

June 26th. Started at 5 a. m. and ran down to Marietta, 
about ten miles. We put in there for breakfast and water, 
waiting until it stopped raining. We passed the Little 
Kanawha River 45 minutes past 4 p. m. and then went 
down to Blennerhassett Island, where we went on shore and 


saw a beautiful landscape with very fertile soil. The elegant 
buildings that formerly stood on it were consumed by fire, 
and their chimneys were only to be seen from a distance. 
We passed by Little Hockhocking and then Big Hockhock- 
ing on the right side at 1 5 minutes past 7 p. m. We passed 
Belleville at 45 minutes past 9 p. m. and concluded to run 
during the night, it being dark. We ran all night, but had 
little chance of seeing much of the shore or many of the 
islands we came upon. Forty-one miles today by daylight. 

June 27th. Before day we passed Letart Rapids and 
down by the Great Kanawha River and so down by Galli- 
polis, running on all day and all night, passing several 
villages and tributary streams. 

June 28th. We passed the Canseonnique Creek about 
5 A. M. and down to Lime, or Mayswell Stone, at 5 p. m., 
where we got more provisions. This is a handsome town on 
the left side of the river. From here we passed down to a 
small village called Ripley, about ten miles below Lime- 
stone Creek, where we put up, being about 248 miles below 
Marietta. I was unwell, having taken cold by being out the 
night before and lying in the heat of the sun the next day. 

June 29th. We left Ripley in the morning and passed by 
Augusta about 10 a. m., arriving at Cincinnati at 9 p. m., 
where we put up for the night. 



Voyage from Cincinnati to the Mouth of the 
Wabash River 

June 30th. In the morning we expected to wash our 
clothes and spend the day at Cincinnati. We ran two nights 
to get there, but not finding a convenient place for washing, 
we took a view of the steam mills, town, etc. I went to look 
for Robert Hunt, but found he had moved eight miles from 
town, so I was not able to see him. We concluded to take 
in provisions, etc., and start down the river, and after taking 
a preliminary sail on the river with four passengers and 
after passing General Harrison's Seat, came to Lawrence- 
burg at about 9 p. m., twenty-nine miles below Cincinnati. 
We expected to put up here for the night, but could not get 
lodgings to our satisfaction. We left three of our passen- 
gers, but one continued with us to the Falls of the Ohio. 
We started at about 10 and ran all night. 

July 1st. We passed Port Williams on the Kentucky 
River in the morning, and stopped at West Port to take 
dinner, then ran down to New London and put up for the 
night. On the 2d we went to Louisville, arriving at 8 p. m. 
Here we obtained lodgings, being about 180 miles from 
Cincinnati, This is a handsome town of Kentucky. 


July 3d. I wrote home, and started about 9 a. m. to run 
down to the falls. We passed over them without any diffi- 
culty; nothing to be seen of them except a strong current 
and a ripple on the right side near shore. Passed Salt River 
about 3 p. M. In the evening we put up about 8 p. M., Jacob 
Dick being unwell. 

July 4th. We continued our voyage, Jacob Dick being 
some better. We sailed all day down the pleasant current 
of the Ohio and only went on shore to get some vegetables, 
etc. Not finding a suitable place to lodge, we concluded to 
run all night, and so passed on throughout the night. 

July 5th. We continued our voyage until we stopped for 
breakfast, then ran down to Anderson's Ferry, put in, and 
crossed over to the opposite shore to Troy to get good water. 
In the evening ran down about three miles, and with some 
difficulty got lodging on a floor. 

July 6th. We passed down eight or ten miles and took 
breakfast on the shore near a house where a woman had a 
young child. After breakfast we started with a good breeze, 
though ahead, and beat down to the Yellow Banks; passed 
the village at that place about 3 p. M., but not stopping. 
We continued for about two miles and put in shore to be 
sheltered from a very heavy shower which we were threat- 
ened with. Here we obtained our dinner at the house of a 
very hospitable gentleman of Kentucky, and there being a 
very heavy storm of rain, wind, and thunder, we put up for 
the night with him. 

July 7th. We ran down to near the Frenchman's or Three 
Mile Island, about fifteen miles, and put in for breakfast. 
We found the people in this place, as well as in many other 


places where we stopped, very poor. There were no seats or 
furniture in the house, so we cooked our food, took it on 
board, and ate as we sailed. The wind became fair and we 
ran down before a light breeze to below Pigeon Creek, then 
beat down about two or three miles to the Red Bank at the 
village of Henderson, Ky., where we stopped at about half 
past 8 p. M. After some time I found poor lodgings for our 
company. We thought of walking out to see a steam mill, 
but in the morning we concluded not to. 

July 8th. We understood that the steam mill would not 
be in operation through the day, and finding the poverty of 
the place to be so great, we concluded to cleanse our boat 
and proceed, for we could get neither flour, meal, milk, but- 
ter, nor cheese, and our stock was small. We thought best 
to run down farther, although we had not eaten since we 
took breakfast at Frenchman's Island. After our boat was 
cleansed, we reloaded, passed down the river five or six 
miles to the place of a wealthy planter of Kentucky, who 
had many slaves, from one of whom we bought some onions 
and cucumbers. The gentleman was very polite to us and 
furnished us with greens, squashes, etc. He had a fine plan- 
tation and about one hundred slaves in different parts of 
his lands. We started about half past 11a. m., went down 
the river and took our breakfast as we sailed. The wind 
was ahead, as it usually was. We sailed till near sundown, 
then went on shore near Straight Island, made a fire, and 
cooked our supper. We concluded to run down to the mouth 
of the Wabash in the night. The boatswain and I took the 
watch, the rest turned in about 10 p. M., and we went to 
near the head of Wabash Island. We concluded to go 


ashore for fear of passing that river unnoticed, as it was 
very dark. We called all hands and ran ashore, made fast 
to some willows about 1 a. m., and lay down to sleep on 
the boat. 

July 9th. We started early and ran down by the island 
to the mouth of the Wabash River. The description by the 
Navigator of the river, etc., published in 1817, I cannot 
vouch for. I am convinced it is not correct in all respects, 
viz. : at the Frenchman's or Three Mile Island it appears 
to be erroneous, but according to his statement it is 1,003 
miles to the mouth of the Wabash River, where we arrived 
this morning at 6 a. m. Here we turned into the river and 
passed up four or five miles and landed for breakfast about 
9 A. M. As far as we have come we find the Wabash to be 
a fine river about 250 or 300 yards wide, with a gentle 
current, though it is expected that the current will be 
stronger as we ascend. In passing the waters of the Ohio it 
was not so much to our disadvantage that it rained nearly 
every day, for it raised the river fifteen or twenty feet above 
low water mark, which made it safe and easy passing down. 



Voyage from the Mouth of the Wabash River to 


July 9th, 1817. We arrived in the mouth of the Wabash 
River at about 6 o'clock a. m. after passing 1 ,003 miles on 
the Ohio River, 30 miles on the Chautauqua Lake and its 
waters; the Conewange River, 25 miles; Allegheny River 
to Pittsburgh, 197 miles; total, 1,255 miles; the grand total 
route we came from home, 1,546 miles. Being a long time 
on our way, and in much rain, we concluded to lay by and 
wash some of our clothes and clean ourselves. So we ran 
up the Wabash River four or five miles and went on shore, 
took breakfast, and made a wash. I was quite sick by tak- 
ing a drink of buttermilk and water. The Wabash appears 
to be a handsome liver, about 270 yards wide, its current 
smooth and not very rapid, with handsome sandy banks, 
though subject to be overflown by the water for several miles 
on each side, so that at times the river spreads to the width 
of ten or fifteen miles, and some said twenty miles ; that the 
banks could not be settled with safety, therefore we found 
but few houses. We got through with our wash and dinner 
and all on board about 7 p. m., and rowed upstream about 
four and one-half miles to a house on the Indiana shore 
and took lodgings on the floor. 

July 10th. We concluded to take breakfast before we 
started, so we cooked on shore, took breakfast, settled with 


our host, John McDaniel or Donil, and started about 8 or 
9 A. M. It was said that we were ten miles from the mouth 
of the Wabash and two miles from the Ohio River. We had 
a fair wind, though very light, and soon found that the 
navigation of the river was obstructed in some places by 
large bars of fine sand, which in many places extended one 
mile across the river, and the water was not more than 
twelve or eighteen inches deep, while in the channel it is 
five or six feet. We here found the current to be stronger, 
though it was very smooth. The bank of the river was from 
ten to fifteen feet high, and by the appearance of the leaves 
on the flats the water flowed eight or ten feet on them. In 
times of high water the land on the shore in some places 
appeared to be very rich and fertile and in other places not 
so good. About 2 p. m. we had a shower of rain, then the 
wind became ahead, though it was not hard. We ran up to 
within a half mile of what is called the Little Cutoff. About 
30 minutes past 5 p. m. we went to cook dinner. We were 
told that we had come sixteen miles, and were four miles 
from the Ohio River. We took dinner, it being near sun- 
set. No other house nearer than ten miles on the river, 
and passage up the river difficult, it was thought best to 
put up for the night, and we lay on the floor. We came 
about sixteen miles this day. 

July 11. We started about 5 a. m. and ran up to the 
Cutoff or chute as it is called. This is a part of the river 
that cuts off a great bend and forms an island. To go 
around the bend would be seven miles and to go across is 
about two, so that the island was nine miles in circumfer- 
ence. We entered the chute and found a swift current, and 


very full of logs and trees, so that it was difficult getting 
along. However, we with great exertion rode through in one 
hour and forty minutes; went up one-half mile and crossed 
onto the Illinois side, took breakfast on the bank, and then 
went on. The wind being fair, but light, it helped us some; 
the current being strong, rising, and smooth. We ran up to 
Wilkenson's Ferry and took dinner of mush and milk. This 
is ten or twelve miles from where we started. Near this 
place we saw the first rocks or stones since we came on the 
Wabash, as big as birds' eggs. After dinner we went two 
or three miles and came to a rapid called the Grand Chain. 
This swift water, with some rocks in the bottom, we ran up 
without difficulty, then passed several bends in the river, 
which brought the wind ahead, though it was light, and the 
clouds gathered on every side as though it would rain very 
hard, and there was much hard thunder and lightning. We 
ran until a little after sunset and put up at a cabin. The 
people very properly call them all cabins, here, they being 
small huts, though this one was poorer than common. We 
supped on mush and milk and turned down on the floors, 
where we rested indifferently. The man told us we had 
come twenty miles this day. 

July 12th. We started about sunrise and ran up the river 
against a strong current most of the way three miles to the 
Grand Cutoff, which is about two and one-half miles across 
and twelve or fifteen around the island. It was thought we 
could not get up with our boat through the chute; we landed 
at the point and went to reconnoitre. We went up to the 
rapids, about a quarter of a mile, while breakfast was pre- 
paring, and found strong rapids with rocky bottom. As bad 


as it appeared, we concluded to try, so we returned, took 
breakfast, and proceeded up to the rapids, which were very- 
swift and very rocky. The water falls, by appearance, 
about six feet in eight or nine rods, and the rocks are large. 
We ran our boat up to the foot of the rapids, took out our 
chest, boxes and some other articles to lighten the boat, and 
carried them up to the head of the rapids. It is at this place 
that the Harmonists are building a famous grist mill. They 
have a fine quarry of stone that is easy hewn and would 
make grindstones. Their work appeared to be well done and 
their walls very thick and strong. Some of the inwalls were 
five or six feet square and the wall laid smooth. There were 
twenty or thirty hands at work at it, carpenters, stone cut- 
ters, and laborers. They were very friendly to us. We ran 
across to the right-hand side of the stream near where the 
mill was building. Thomas Dick, Isaac J- Dick and R. 
Fowler took hold of the bowfast; P. Dick and I were in the 
boat, Paul on the bow with a pole, and I steered. The cur- 
rent ran very swiftly and it was hard work to hold her by 
the fast, but some of the Harmonists took hold and assisted. 
We ran up by the worst rock, the fast broke, and we swung 
round in spite of what Paul and I could do, and went down 
sidewise over the rocks. Some of them were so near out of 
water that we thought the boat would overset, but we went 
down without much injury and then worked the boat over 
on the right shore, where all hands got on board, and we 
ran up to the chute. The Harmonists were on the beach 
with another rope to help us. We noted that our fast was 
bent at the small sternfast, and the other warped. Then, 
after much exertion, we went up the chute. They would take 


nothing for their assistance. We took in our goods and 
proceeded up the cutoff through a gentle current until we 
came to the main river, though it was full of logs, trees, etc. 
Then we went up three-quarters of a mile to the landing, 
opposite the town of Harmony, where we arrived all fa- 
tigued about 1 p. M. We landed and took dinner, went up 
to town and obtained some fresh supplies of provisions. 
It being near night, we concluded to put up for the night 
and to lay over the Sabbath, as we had not been at any 
place since we left home where we could improve to our 
satisfaction. Therefore we concluded to stay with the Har- 
monists, having procured lodging at their public house. 
Came about five miles. 

July 13th. In the morning we prepared for meeting and 
went to their forenoon meeting. They had a very good meet- 
ing house and there were three or four hundred of the Har- 
monists assembled. They were the whole, with the exception 
of ourselves and two or three others. The minister, by the 
name of Rapp, delivered a discourse in the German tongue 
which we could not understand ; they sang in the same lan- 
guage, and appeared very solemn and severe in their devo- 
tions. After meeting (half past 10 a. m.) we went to look 
at their fields, vineyards, etc. 

July 14th. At about 3 a. m. the bell rang for duty and 
we prepared to start; got under way at half past 4 a. m., 
went up the river five or six miles, and took breakfast on 
the bank near a house or two. After breakfast we proceeded 
and in the course of the day took in some good water and 
passed up to an island. We wanted to run to the left of it, 
and got part of the way, where the bar across was so shoal 


that we thought best to run back and go around the island. 
In passing around we saw four or five wild turkeys on the 
island. They flew across to the right and were on the bank. 
Our company landed with guns, but got no chance of a shot 
at them. We proceeded on up the river until near 9 o'clock 
in the evening and took lodgings on the floor at a house on 
the bank. The current ran very swiftly. It was a hard day's 
work, though it is said we came but twenty miles, and we 
had the wind in our favor about three hours, and then a 
headwind. The banks of the river were not high and were 
subject to be overflown in high water, except where we put 
up. We saw fine pieces of cane on the shore, some of which 
we took on board before night. 

July 1 5th. We started in the morning and ran up five or 
six miles, took breakfast on the beach, then proceeded on 
up the river ten or twelve miles and took dinner on the bank, 
then went up the river until dark. Not finding a house, we 
went on shore, made fast, and lodged in the boat. I was 
very much troubled with the cramp in consequence of swim- 
ming in the course of the day. We came eighteen or twenty 
miles and stayed within about two miles of Colkey Island, 
where there is some swift water. 

July 16th. In the morning we ran up above the French 
settlement at Colkey Island and took breakfast on the shore. 
We had a fine mess of mussels for breakfast and then passed 
on up the river until we came to the mouth of the White 
River about 4 p. m. This river is between 100 and 200 
yards wide at its mouth and the water appeared deep, but 
understanding it was hard going up, we continued to go 
on up the Wabash to Fort Wayne, if possible, or we might 


lose our boat. So we continued up the Wabash and soon 
came to the Grand Rapids, where the water ran very swiftly 
and the bottom was a slippery rock. We had to get out and 
wade to find the channel, and shove the boat up. We passed 
up after dark and put up for the night. 

July 17th. Started up another rapid, where we got out, 
pushed the boat up, passed a little creek, and came to a 
small village called Palmyra, on the Illinois side, where we 
obtained some good water and two fish; went on a little 
farther and cooked dinner. I was quite unwell in conse- 
quence of taking cold by being in the water, Paul Dick 
was also unwell, and Thomas Isaac likewise. We went up 
to a place called Dukertown, about three miles from Pal- 
myra, and put for the night. There was one poor house 
where we put up; there were one or two more houses not 
far off. We all took some lus pills. 

July 18th. In the morning I was quite sick and the land- 
lord was unwell. He invited me to go to see a small prairie 
not far off. I went with him. It was settled and cultivated ; 
the land was very handsome and fertile. When we returned 
I gave him a good dose of thoroughwort tea, which operated 
well. We concluded to stay all day, and in the afternoon 
I was better. We stayed all night at the same house. The 
people were very kind. The landlord was much better. 

July 19th. In the morning I felt quite feeble, though bet- 
ter. We took breakfast and started up the river. The land- 
lord offered to pilot us up the Little Chain, which was near. 
The women and I went on shore until the boat came up, 
and then we passed up the river twelve or fourteen miles, 
went on shore, got some milk, made mush, and took dinner 


about 5 p. M. There was a hard shower, it looked like rain, 
and we concluded to put up for the night, but could get no 
lodging unless we stayed in an uninhabited house which 
was all-to-pieces, so we proceeded on up the river two or 
three miles, passed one strong rapid, and as the sky had the 
appearance of a heavy rain we went on a sand beach about 
sunset, covered our boat with our sails and prepared for 
night, there being no house within four or five miles on 
our way. 

July 20th. All hands pretty comfortable. We went up 
two or three miles and ran onto the limb of a tree which 
was sharp and lay concealed under the water, so that I 
could not see it, and it made a break in the garboard, struck 
under the boat's starboard bow. We soon found she took 
in water, and ran on shore, found the leak, put in some 
calking, then went on two or three miles farther, took break- 
fast on the beach, then proceeded on in sight of Vincennes, 
hauled our boat on shore, mended the breach, cleaned our 
boat, loaded up, went up to the town, about one and one- 
half miles, where we arrived about 2 o'clock p. m. This is 
about 170 or 180 miles from the mouth of the Wabash. 
The river here is about 270 yards wide and not more than 
four feet deep. We saw horses ford the river one-half to 
three-quarters of a mile below the town, though the river 
is very low at the town. At our landing we excited the 
curiosity of the inhabitants, and there were many of them 
of all ranks who came down to the shore to know where we 
were from, and to admire our boat, which was different 
from any ever seen at this place. I soon became acquainted 
with some of the inhabitants, in particular Thomas Jones, 


who had been an Indian trader for twenty-eight or thirty 
years and had acquired a large fortune by the trade. He 
informed me that former Governor Posey and the present 
Governor Jennings were now in town. Governor Posey is 
the present agent for Indian affairs, therefore I thought it 
advisable to have an interview with them in the morning, 
so we entertained the curiosity of the inhabitants with the 
relation of our voyage, which appeared very interesting to 

The following is a copy of the letter of introduction pre- 
sented by Thomas Dean to Governor Jennings : 

To the Honourable Governor of the Indiana Territory and 
to the Agents of the several Tribes of Indians in said 


Having been informed that a certain tribe of Indians 
residing near White River in your Territory have proposed 
to grant to the New Stockbridge and Brothertown Indians, 
who now reside in the Counties of Oneida and Madison in 
New York State, a certain tract of land upon certain con- 

We therefore, as Superintendents of the said New Stock- 
bridge and Brothertown Indians, beg leave to represent that 
they are now about to set out on a journey to that country 
to accomplish that business, and that they have agreed with 
Mr. Thomas Dean, an inhabitant of the County of Oneida, 
to accompany them and to be their agent to negotiate with 
said Indians, or their agents in your Territory, and as we 
are personally acquainted with Mr. Dean, we do not hesi- 


tate in recommending him as a suitable person for that 
purpose, and as a gentleman in whom you may place the 
greatest confidence. 

Any assistance which you can afford him in transacting 
his business will be considered a singular favour and grate- 
fully acknowledged by your humble servants. 

asabel curtiss doolittle, 
Joseph Stebbins, 

Superintendents of Indian Affairs. 
Paris, N.Y., 12 May, 1817. _ _ . 


July 21st. I took breakfast with Wheeler Mallett. He 
and his brother Baldwin were unwell. I then went to see 
the agent for Indian affairs. I gave him my credentials and 
explained to him our expectations and wishes. He appeared 
to be very friendly, and said he would aid us; that I had 
better consult Governor Jennings on the subject, though he 
had no control of Indian affairs, or of the public lands. 
We went to see the Governor, but he was three miles out of 
town, and it rained very hard. We gave over seeing him 
until the next morning, as we were told by the receiver of 
public money, with whom he resided, that he would be in 
town in the morning. I became acquainted with Doctor 
Lawrence S. Sheelee, who had been on board our boat yes- 
terday. He took a brief account of our voyage with inten- 
tion of publication. We conversed on the subject of civiliza- 
tion and internal navigation; he proposed making some 
remarks on both those subjects in his publication. He is a 
very sociable gentleman and introduced me to Samuel Dil- 
worth, printer, at Vincennes, of the Indiana Sentinel. I 


left with Samuel Dilworth the copy of Joseph Hull's Spell- 
ing Book for examination. We had a rainy day until night; 
put up at the same place, John Longe's Inn. I saw several 
people from the State of New York, who were glad to meet 
us, and we them. Met Mr. Brown, son of Oliver Brown of 
York State. 

July 2 2d. We went to see the Governor at the receiver's 
office. He was there, but it being an improper place for a 
conference, it was proposed to meet at the inn at 11 o'clock 
A. M. We then proceeded to Governor Posey's, according 
to appointment, which was at 10 o'clock. We met him and 
found him an agreeable old gentleman, as I before thought 
him to be. We had some conversation on our object, but 
the interpreter, Barron, did not bring the chiefs and people 
of the Weas, as was expected, so we returned and met the 
Governor of the State according to appointment. He is a 
talking man, and I think no great friend of Indians. We 
explained our business to him. He in a very pleasant way 
raised many obstacles. The first was that no person had a 
right by law to contract with Indians for lands. I answered 
him that I knew of no law to prohibit one nation of Indians 
from treating with another for the possession of their lands, 
which was agreed to by his excellency. Second objection 
was that the United States wanted to purchase a large tract 
of land north and east of the purchase of 1809, so as to 
extend it quite across the State of Indiana to the State of 
Ohio, that the strength of the State of Indiana might be 
concentrated and the public safety rendered more secure by 
extending the whole population throughout the interior of 
the State. It was answered by me that the small piece of 


land, say 20,000 acres, could bear but a small balance in 
discomposing the forces of the State, but would perhaps 
supply it with as good inhabitants as though it were pur- 
chased by the United States and sold by the government, 
or as good inhabitants as were now in possession of the land 
heretofore purchased, and now settled with those who call 
themselves white people; which was admitted by the Gov- 
ernor. The third objection was that the United States Gov- 
ernment had granted two miles square to the State of Indi- 
ana on some of the unpurchased land for a site for the seat 
of government, and we might choose that place and then 
Congress would not acknowledge the conveyance. I replied 
that if we chose a place suitable for the seat of government 
we would give the State the two miles square out of the 
land we agreed for. He said that would deprive the United 
States of the profits of the sale of the quantity of lands we 
possessed around the seat of government, but if we would 
take land at the head of the Wabash, he said, he thought 
there would be no objection. We replied that we were not 
partial to the White River or any other place provided the 
lands were good and well watered. After some further con- 
versation our conference broke up. 

We parted and went to our quarters, and understood that 
Governor Posey had sent the interpreter, Barron, to our 
lodgings, wishing us to go to his quarters. We went and met 
the agent and the two Wea chiefs, with five or six of their 
men, and presently the interpreter came in, and we com- 
municated to them through the interpreter our wishes, that 
we had come to make them a visit, and run the chain of 
friendship between us, and that if it were pleasing to them 


and their people we wished to come to reside in this country, 
and we would wish to meet them and the rest of their broth- 
ers with our brothers, the Delawares, Miamis, Eel River 
and Mississinewas, at White River or some place that they 
would appoint to have a council, and we would go and visit 
the Delawares and other tribes and meet them. The agent 
replied that he and the interpreter would be at Fort Har- 
rison in two or three weeks with the goods for the Indians' 
annuity, and that would be the most proper place ; to which 
the Indians agreed, and it was therefore agreed we should 
meet them at Fort Harrison in twenty-five days from that 
time, and that we would go and visit the Delawares and 
give them notice of the council. Then the chiefs replied 
that they were glad to see their brothers, the Wapenocas, 
and said they always liked to shake hands with them, and 
that they would be glad to meet their grandfathers, the 
Delawares, in council with us, and that we must go and 
fetch them to the council. They would think that it was not 
good, or that their grandfathers were not pleased with it 
(*as we had told them we had sent four men to visit them 

*The remark in parentheses refers to a treaty made with the Delaware 
and Miami tribes in 1809. A petition of the Brothertown Indians drawn up 
by Thomas Dean, and presented to President Andrew Jackson in the year 
1829, contains the following statement : 

"In the year 1809 your petitioners (the Brothertown Indians) sent a 
delegation to the Delawares and Miamis, in the then Territory of Indiana, 
who made an agreement for a tract of land on White River, in the State of 
Indiana, in the most solemn manner, agreeable to the ancient custom of the 
Indians, but before your memorialists could remove onto their newly acquired 
lands the Government of the United States purchased the whole country of 
the Miamis and Delaware Indians, by which your petitioners lost their lands 
and all that they had expended in acquiring them." 


six or seven years before, and of the report that they brought 
back) . We replied that we could not promise that the Dela- 
wares would attend, but we thought they would. They said 
they could do nothing without them, if they did not come. 
So we shook hands and wished each other well until we 
met at Fort Harrison, and so parted. We returned and made 
some preparations for starting up the river, and I wrote 
home while at Wheeler Mallett's, he not being much better 
or his brother either. 

While going to the postoffice to put the letter in, Gov- 
ernor Posey saw Thomas Isaac and me going by. We had 
some conversation on Governor Jennings' sentiments as to 
our business, and he wished that his communication might 
be kept confidential, what had passed between us heretofore, 
as it relates to our business with the Governor. We parted ; 
he went to our boat, we to the postoffice. We then returned 
to take our departure from Vincennes. When we arrived at 
the boat the Indian agent was there, and the goods for the 
Indians had arrived which were going on to Fort Harrison, 
but he said he would not give notice of a distribution until 
about the time of our treaty. 



Voyage from Vincennes to Fort Harrison 

We parted and left Vincennes about 5 p. m., ran up the 
river and stopped at Fort Knox; got water, but it was not 
very good. This is about three miles, and we went on until 
dark; encamped in our boat on the Indiana shore near a 
small brook, there not being a house near shore. 

July 23d. Started in the morning and ran up until we 
came to a house on Elise's Prairie, which is on the Illinois 
side and is twelve miles long and seven or eight wide. We 
obtained some milk, made mush, took breakfast on the 
bank, the house not being near the river, then we passed on 
around a point and came to the prairie again. We went on 
shore and viewed it. It is a very handsome piece of land 
and settled in some places. We went around another bend 

and came to it again at Ferry, where we went on 

shore to get some good water, potatoes, etc. They had some 
noodles. We took some bread and butter; went on until 
night, when we were about to camp on the beach, but by 
blowing the horn we found a house by the barking dogs 
(which abound in this country) about one-half mile from 
shore. Here we secured the liberty of lying on the floor, 
and some milk ; supped on bread and milk. We lodged on 
the floor with satisfaction. R. Fowler and P. Dick were 
comfortably lodged in the boat. We stayed about three miles 
below the Shaker settlement, and it was said thirty miles 
from Vincennes. I paid four shillings. 


July 24th. We went up the river about three miles until 
we came to McCarter's Ferry. Went on shore to the settle- 
ment of Shakers, which is called the Buseso Prairie, which 
is about four miles wide, seven or eight miles long, and I 
did not understand the width, but it appeared to be ex- 
tensive. The Shakers have about 1,500 acres of land here 
and several other lots in other places, some in the State of 
Illinois, where they expect to build mills on the Umber 
Creek, which flows in below Vincennes. We wanted to get 
some flour and other provisions which we could not get at 
so good advantage at any other places. The flour could not 
be ground until near night, and they bid us welcome to 
stay with them, so we concluded to put up for the day and 
night. It was now about 3 p. m. There were some of the 
principal men who came to the boat and went out in the 
river with us to see how our boat would run ; then some of 
us went up with them, leaving R. Fowler and P. Dick to 
keep ship. We viewed their plantations more fully, their 
gardens and orchards, which appeared to be well cultivated, 
all in proper order. They were getting in their wheat, which 
was good. I saw some which they assured me did weigh 
seventy-three and one-half pounds to the bushel, and I 
spoke for some to bring with me, but did not think of it 
again when I came on board. We were conducted to a house 
where we were to lodge, and entertained with a great deal 
of apparent disinterested friendship. 

We attended their evening service, where they sang a 
hymn, then sang and danced two or three times, broke up, 
and we repaired to our quarters. We were called to another 
house across the street to sup, where everything appeared to 


be kept in good order by the women. We supped and retired 
to good lodgings in the apartment allotted to us, they having 
ground our flour and sent it on board the boat at evening. 

They spoke of many losses and hardships they have had 
in consequence of the war, and that they thought Tecumseh 
and the Prophet had been very much misrepresented, they 
and their people appeared to be peaceable people, and that 
they were in his opinion Christian Indians, opposed to war, 
and he thought it was an unguarded expression of General 
Harrison to one of the Pottawottomi chiefs by the name of 
Winemank that caused the battle at Tippecanoe. The 
Prophet Cala-la-wissa and his adherents did not join in 
the battle, but the Prophet withdrew across the river; that 
there were not more than 250 men engaged in the battle out 
of 800 which had assembled at the Prophet's town for the 
purpose of information, or of religious devotion; that they 
were well acquainted with the Prophet and believed him to 
be a peaceable and a good man. 

July 25th. In the morning the trumpet was blown for 
exercise about 4 a. m. and each family (four in all) re- 
paired to their different places for labor, which was short, 
and then they went to their business. They conversed freely 
on the subjects that we introduced. After finding that we 
wanted to purchase some sole leather they ascertained the 
quantity we wanted, gave us a piece, for which they would 
take no pay, which was as much as we wanted, viz.: four 
or five pounds, besides some garden sauce, in the whole to 
the amount of $5 worth. We took our leave of them at the 
mill and proceeded to the river. Two or three of them fol- 
lowed us and spent some time with us at the river. I gave 


them some pamphlets to distribute at discussions. We 
parted with them with gratitude and respect, went on up 
the river, stopped at a Frenchman's house, fifteen or sixteen 
miles, where we put up, some on the floor and some in the 
boat. We got some milk and took supper. 

July 26th. Started and took breakfast five or six miles 
upstream. Obtained some milk on a high bluff of rocks or 
sandstone and had a view of Lamotts Prairie, where we 
went on shore two or three times to see the country. It 
appeared to be delightful. We continued seventeen or eight- 
een miles and then we took dinner. Some went to the house, 
and some were in the boat. We had some buttermilk to 
drink and waited till the rain was over, when we went on 
five or six miles, went on shore, put up for the night and 
lodged in the boat five or six miles below the Union Prairie. 
We came about twenty miles. 

July 27th. We started and went up to Union Prairie. 
They have just laid out a town on the bank of the river 
and so far back into the prairie that the banks are high 
and pleasantly situated. The village is to be called York. 
There are several New York people in the neighborhood, 
one by the name of Richardson, who is a proprietor of the 
village. We came up the river twelve or fifteen miles and 
encamped on the river bank near a house, where we got 
milk, but we lodged on board. 

July 28th. Obtained more milk, took breakfast, and went 
on up the river. We saw some very large fish, but could not 
spear them. I threw the spear at one small pickerel and 
killed it. It would weigh two or three pounds. Saw many 
wild geese and some turkeys. Went seven or eight miles. 


stopped at a ferry, and secured some milk and potatoes. 
Started about noon, went up ten or twelve miles, and put 
up on the beach four or five miles above Prairie Creek 
Prairie, where we went on shore. It is a very handsome 
place. We saw very large flocks of geese. Paul Dick shot 
at some and R. Fowler shot one flying, but got none. 

July 29th. We went up the river four or five miles, went 
on shore, and ate breakfast. I went back about a mile into 
the woods and found a house on the Honey Creek Prairie, 
and procured some cucumbers. After breakfast we passed 
on eight or nine miles and came to a place called Terre 
Haute, where there is a village laid out. We stopped a few 
moments and went on. There was a hard shower and a 
hurricane. We went on the bank and waited till it was over 
and then went up to Fort Harrison, where we arrived 
about 7 P. M. This is about twenty miles that we came today 
and about 140 miles from Vincennes. We put up at John A. 
Lafond's, who had no family, but kept house and a little 



Journey from Fort Harrison to the White River 
Country and Return 

July 31st. We prepared by washing our clothes, baking 
bread for our journey, and storing our goods. The women 
finished washing the clothes that were not washed yester- 
day, and we began to unload our goods and stored them at 
John A. Lafond's, where we put up. Major Chunn offered 
to put our boat under the care of the guard at the fort, that 
it should not be injured or taken away. 

We had our goods all stored, made a chain, fastened our 
boat near the fort to a stump, put the oars, poles, etc., into 
the blockhouse, and prepared to start, but we could not get 
ready until it was too late in the afternoon. The Indian who 
was going to wade Eel River and pilot us agreed to wait 
until morning, so we made preparations to start early in the 
morning. In the evening John A. Lafond and another man 
informed me that we had best not start too early, as an 
Indian had told them that twenty or thirty of the Potta- 
wottomis had come from Chicago, were hostile, and if they 
came across us they might injure us. We thought it was a 
false report and concluded to start as soon as we could. 

August 1st. We put up what clothes we wanted to take 
with us and some bread. They told us we could go through 
in three days if we had horses, it being one hundred miles, 
so we concluded to take three days' provisions and get 
horses if we could, but it happened that there was not more 


than one pound of meat put up. We took three guns and 
an ax, started about 10 a. m., and our guide went on with 
us. The weather was very warm, and we had to go through 
the prairie, about seventy-two miles, which was very hot and 
uncomfortable. We could get no water to drink until we 
went about thirteen miles, where there was good water and 
a family lived. Here they gave us some milk to drink. After 
we had refreshed ourselves we left two guns and proceeded 
on. We traveled very fast until we came to Raccoon Creek, 
a large stream that runs into the Wabash twelve or fifteen 
miles above the fort. It was deep. Our guide went across 
and got a bark in the form of a canoe, took packs across, 
and Jacob Dick rode his horse across; the others waded. 
It was near up to their arms. I got some wet, as well as 
the rest, and it was very warm. We went on in our little 
path through the woods up the creek three or four miles, 
made a fire, and lay on the ground. Being very sweaty, 
and having no shelter, I took cold. We ate a piece of meat 
and laid down. 

August 2d. We took a piece of bread and a small piece 
of meat for breakfast. It thundered, and as we went on in 
the little path it soon began to rain. I was very sore and 
stiff, so that I could hardly travel. It rained very hard, 
which made it worse going, and being wet with sweat all 
night, and now wet with rain, I was very imcomfortable. 
We went on some miles and stopped under the trees to rest, 
then went on again until fatigued, then stopped and made 
a shelter of bark and built a fire. Our guide would not 
wait for us, so we let him go on. It was so bad going 
through weeds and brush that we stayed about one hour 


until it stopped raining, went on through mud and water 
some miles, and then came another shower. We reached a 
shelter of bark, made a fire, and stayed until the rain was 
over. As we went on we met an Indian man, woman, and 
boy, with two horses, going to the fort with skins, etc. We 
traveled until near night, made a shelter and fire, and 
camped for the night. We had a good fire, took a small 
piece of meat and a piece of bread, and obtained what rest 
we could to meet the fatigues of another day. 

August 3d. In the morning we refreshed ourselves with 
some bread and water and started on our journey, it being 
the first day of the week. We followed our little path, 
crossed Raccoon Creek and its branches two or three times, 
and expected soon to come to the Wea village. About 
12 o'clock we came to three or four bark cabins of the 
Weas, where our guide lived with his relations. None of 
them could speak English. They brought us about a quart 
of boiled corn, which we soon made way with. We tried to 
get a horse, but they made signs that we must stay there 
that night, for we could not get through to the village. I did 
not feel like traveling much farther on foot that day, and 
towards night one of the family who could speak some 
English arrived. He said we could have a horse to go 
through to the village next day for $2, and some one would 
go with us. They gave us some blackberries to eat and at 
night they sweetened some for us, and showed us some 
barks we could lay on in a cabin by ourselves. We lay on 
a kind of stage, with barks on, with our own blankets to 
cover. As near as we could tell we were about sixty miles 
from the fort. 


August 4th. This morning it thundered and there was a 
hard shower of rain and some hail. It soon cleared off, and 
they gave us about three pints of boiled corn, which we ate. 
We had but two spoons to use among five of us at this place. 
The women boiled some dried venison for us. We could 
only get one horse. My companions went forward and left 
me to follow. When we started, which was about 8 o'clock, 
the old man went on foot to ride my horse back, and his 
son, the one that came from the fort with us, rode with me 
and took part of our baggage. We traveled hard through 
the woods, brush, weeds, etc., in a small path, it being very 
muddy and in some places swampy for many miles. We 
overtook the old man, and then my company. They went 
very fast, sometimes on the run. We startled many turkeys 
in our way, one of which Fowler killed with his staff, hav- 
ing left the other gun and the ax where we stayed, but we 
took a hatchet. Jacob Dick took a turn on horseback. I 
went on foot awhile to rest him. We continued traveling 
rapidly until we came to the village, about 5 p. m. The vil- 
lage is on a prairie containing thirty or forty houses in 
different places. I had a letter of introduction from Lit 
Lafo to the French trader at the village. He invited us to 
his cabin to lodge. The man who rode with me shot a young 
deer as we rode along. We had some of it cooked for our 
supper. There were many Indians who came to see us where 
we put up, and we engaged two horses to go to White River, 
one for me and one for Jacob. We came about thirty-five 
or forty miles this day. 

August 5th. We took breakfast early this morning. 
Thomas, Paul, and R. Fowler started on foot and left Jacob 


and me to come with the horses and bring the packs. We 
had to give $1.50 for each horse. We started about 9 a. m., 
in company with four or five Indians, men and women, and 
passed the woods as fast as we could. The path was bad, 
over a swamp or muddy ground. We traveled all day as 
hard as we could, but did not overtake the rest of our com- 
pany. We startled many turkeys. We camped on the ground 
at night, made a fire near the other and lay by it, and there 
came up a man and woman, who camped a little way off. 
They brought us about a pint of sweetened hoecake, which 
was very good, having nothing to eat since morning. We 
ate that, drank water, and laid down for sleep. At dark a 
young Indian came up to our camp, who was going to take 
my horse back. He had killed a young raccoon as big as 
a cat. They burned the hair off of it, then boiled it without 
salt and gave us some, which we were glad to eat. We then 
tried to get some sleep under the trees, so that we had not 
much dew on us, but many fleas. 

August 6th. They brought us a little piece of the raccoon 
and some other food which we thought was made of roots, 
which answered as bread, but I was not fond of it. We went 
on rapidly until we got through. Traveling along, the 
Indian who killed the raccoon walked before me and shot 
a turkey that would weigh fifteen or twenty pounds. We 
left the settlement about 10 a. m., gave up our horses, and 
understood that my other three companions had crossed 
White River. We therefore took the packs, rode through 
the river and went to the house of William Conner, a French 
trader, whom I found had gone to Philadelphia. His part- 
ner, William Marshall, had gone to Muncie, a town twenty- 


five miles up the river. The women could not speak English, 
but we found they had gone down the river. We went down 
across the prairie about a mile, crossed the river, and went 
about four miles to a settlement of the Delaware Indians, 
carried our packs, and met them at the lower village. They 
gave us some bread and milk to eat. We invited them to 
go to Fort Harrison to the council, but they did not agree 
to go. We returned, crossed the river, and went to Conner's 
to get a horse to the upper town, but got none. Joe, Paul, 
and Rudolphus started on foot about half past 5 p. m. ; the 
rest concluded to stay, and soon after William Marshall 
came home. He said we could not get any of the Delawares 
to go to Fort Harrison, they were all going to Fort Mayer, 
to a treaty there the 15 th of September, so we concluded 
to go up in the morning. Marshall would furnish me with 
a horse to ride. 

It is about forty or forty-five miles from the Weas to 
the White River, making about 140 miles from Fort Har- 
rison to White River, and five down and five up makes 
ten miles. 

August 7th. We took breakfast, hired a horse, and pro- 
ceeded on up to the other town. We reached the settlement 
about 10 o'clock p. m., obtained some bread and buttermilk, 
then went on toward the principal Indian village and met 
Paul Dick with horse going for us. He said the council 
must be held at the village where Anderson lived. We went 
up and met several at his house, and appointed a council 
on the morrow. We were furnished with supper, which con- 
sisted of bread and herb tea made sweet, with which we 
refreshed ourselves. There was a very heavy shower of 


rain, with hail and thunder, and a violent tempest, so that 
it was near blowing some of the cabins down. We put up 
j at the house of the principal chief. It was as good as any 
I in the village, and he a plain, majestic looking man, sixty 
; or sixty-five years old. Paul and F. Fowler were directed 
to another house to lodge, and the rest of us lodged at the 
: chief's. I had the most comfortable place. It was some 
boards or staves put on benches, and bullrushes laid on 
, them, and a small pillow, though it was wet in the shower. 
I August 8th. We got together in the morning and were 
served with some boiled corn and venison for breakfast. 
After breakfast the people began to come in, and we were 
scon served with another dish of squashes, made sweet with 
sugar, and some bread, which we partook of. After the 
chiefs and councilmen and principal men of the nation came 
in they informed us that they were ready to hear what we 
had to say. I spoke to them as I have written in the ap- 
pendix, and the reply of Anderson (Keklawhenund), the 
principal chief, as it is there noted. 

There were twenty or thirty Indians who attended the 
council, which lasted about four hours. We went to look for 
the horse that I rode, but did not see it. We mentioned that 
we wanted some provisions to take on our journey, and we 
were informed that they would be brought in the morning, 
so we put up for the night, myself, T. Isaac, and T. Dick 
at the chief's, P. Dick and R. Fowler at another house. 

August 9th. Our provisions soon came in. They were 
hoecake and Indian bread. We received two or three pairs 
of moccasons. Thomas Isaac found the horse, and after 
breakfast we took our leave, went down to the Nanticoke 


village (Nancy town), obtained some buttermilk, Indian 
wampum, and butter from a woman by the name of Nancy, 
and then started for William Conner's. In the afternoon it 
rained very hard and we were very wet. We came down to 
Conner's about 5 o'clock and prepared to start in the 
morning for Fort Harrison, to be at the treaty there. We 
endeavored to get a horse or two, but could not, so we pre- 
pared to start on foot early in the morning, 

August 10th. Took our breakfast early in the morning 
and obtained some dried beef to take with us. Settled with 
William Marshall for the use of his horse and what we had. 
Paid him $3. We shouldered our packs, waded White 
River, traveled hard all day, and at dark were within about 
three miles of Corzeton or the Wea village. I was very 
much fatigued, as were some of the rest. We traveled about 
forty-two miles this day in very bad walking. We lay down 
in our blankets amongst the weeds without fire. 

August 11th. Were up by the time we could see, and 
arrived at Longley's by sunrise or nearly, took breakfast, 
started on for the settlement on Raccoon Creek, where we 
arrived about 5 p.m., had supper of venison and lay down 
early to rest. 

August 12th. In the morning we paid $1 for what we 
had received, started early, traveled as far as we could, and 
in the afternoon it rained some. We stopped under a shelter 
for about two hours, then went on. The weeds and bushes 
were very wet, so that we were very wet ourselves. We put 
up at dark near the ford on Raccoon Creek. 


There is a break here in the journal of eight days. This 
part of the journal would have contained an account of the 
conference with the Indiana Indians regarding the sale of 
land to the Brothertown Indians. The Delaware Indians 
having refused to join the council, it was quite evident in 
advance that nothing definite could be attained. 

In 1822 Thomas Dean made a treaty with the Wisconsin 
Indians by which the necessary amount of lands were se- 
cured near Green Bay, Wis., to which the Brothertown 
Indians of New York were transferred. They now live on 
their land on the east shore of Lake Winnebago. 

J. C. D. 



Voyage from Fort Harrison to the Mouth of the 
MississiNEWA River and Return 

August 20th, 1817. We sold some of our axes, settled 
our bills, prepared to start, and settled with Jacob Dick. 
Paid him $25.06 toward helping him to defray the expense 
of the treaty, and I made Sarah (his wife) some other 
presents. We started at about 4 p. m. and Truman Ford 
went with us to Brouitlets Creek. At dark we all lay in the 
boat until morning. It is eight or nine miles from the fort. 

August 21st. Ford gave me some ore to have tested. We 
started early in the morning, went up the river as fast as 
we could. There were four or five canoes, containing about 
twenty-two Indians, in sight. They were still in sight in 
the afternoon. At night we put up on a bank and the 
canoes all passed us. We supposed that we came about 
twenty-five miles this day. We lodged in the boat. 

August 2 2d. We started early in the morning, went up 
the river, and about 12 o'clock came to a coal bank. Went 
to examine it; found the different courses to be about six- 
teen or eighteen feet deep and of a long extent. We took 
some of the coal to carry home, but we had it from the 
surface and with it some kind of ore, etc. In going on we 
passed the Indians that had passed us the night before. 
Went up the river until night, we supposed about twenty- 


three miles. It thundered and looked as if it would rain. 
We covered our boat and prepared for night to lodge on 
board, and it soon began to rain. The mosquitoes were so 
very troublesome that we could not even rest, much less 
sleep, and it rained all night very hard, with much thunder 
and lightning. The Indians in the canoes were on a beach, 
drinking. We passed them about noon and some came on 
after us, but we saw them no more. 

August 23d. As we could not sleep, and being wet, we 
started as soon as it was light, went on up the river, past 
some very handsome prairies and bluffs, one of which we 
went onto in the morning. It was high land and thin tim- 
bered. We passed several small streams and creeks and 
we went, we supposed, twenty-three or twenty-four miles. 
Went on shore for the night, lodged on board. It was clear 
and very cool. 

August 24th. Went up the river and on our way came to 
a settlement of Indians near a prairie which we supposed 
was Tippecanoe. We obtained some soft corn from them 
to boil and gave them salt, then went on. In the afternoon 
we came to a high, rocky bluff and went up onto it. It was 
sand rock. We could see a great way and over large prairie 
ground. We went on until we came to the prairie. Went 
up on the bank, but the weeds were so high that it was 
difficult to see the grassy path of the prairie, and we went 
on until we stopped for the night. Then we passed through 
the weeds, which were seven or eight feet high and very 
thick, until we came to the grass, which was fifty or sixty 
rods. We went out a half mile on the rise of ground, but 
could not see to the farther side of the prairie. It is on the 


east side of the river. Lodged in the boat. The weather was 
cool. We supposed that we came twenty-three or twenty- 
four miles. 

August 25th. We went on up the river and passed some 
prairie, and in the afternoon came to one on the west side; 
saw a large piece of high land near the prairie that had 
been cleared off, and it appeared as if it had been settled, 
which I suppose was Tippecanoe. We continued until after 
dark and put up on a beach at the mouth of a large creek, 
which is the Tippecanoe branch or West Branch. I suppose 
we came twenty miles. 

August 26th. We started early in the morning, and, pass- 
ing on, saw some wild turkeys on the trees. We shot two; 
they were young and made us a fine breakfast. We now 
came to rocky shores and soon came to a prairie on the west 
side where some Indians lived, by swift and shoal water. 
We supposed that it was Mississinewa. We spoke with 
some, but could not understand them much, but they sig- 
nified that it was farther up the river. It looked like a fine 
prairie. We went on, but soon found that our trouble was 
beginning, for the water grew shallow very fast and the 
current stronger. We passed up some very swift water, but 
it was deep enough for our boat. We passed two islands 
opposite one another and went between them. It being near 
night, went on a little farther and put up on a small willow 
island. Lodged on board, as it is the most comfortable place 
in this wild place. We came today sixteen or eighteen miles. 

August 27th, We started early in the morning and about 
8 o'clock came to an Indian village. They hailed us to 
come on shore and wanted whiskey. We informed them 


we had none for them. They wanted tobacco, which we 
gave them. We let them have some powder and salt. We 
received corn to boil, and some deer skins. We did not 
want to part with our salt, but they insisted on having it, 
and we let them have one pint of salt for one skin. They 
wanted to trade more than that, but we told them we could 
not, and started to go, but a woman brought three muskrat 
skins for a pint of salt. We then put out and were called 
on the other shore by some on the bank who wanted whis- 
key, tobacco, salt, etc. We gave them some and went on, and 
were called again, but we didn't stop, but continued up the 
river one or two miles and took breakfast. Two Indians 
followed us with two deer skins and wanted whiskey, to- 
bacco or powder, but we told them we could not trade. We 
had nothing with which to pay for them and did not want 
them. They saw our fish spear, and wanted that, so I let 
them have one spear, some salt, and a little tobacco. We 
went on our way, and after going two or three miles through 
swift water, came to a rocky shoal where the river was very 
wide, the bottom a rock, so that the water was not more 
than six or eight inches deep, and in many places not more 
than three or four inches. We took out our baggage, carried 
it 200 or 300 yards on our shoulders, drew up our boat, 
and loaded in our goods. Were about four hours in going 
about half a mile. Continued on over rocky bottom and 
shallow water four or five miles until night. We came to 
strong rapids of falls. The water falls three or four feet 
in about fifteen rods. We examined the passage and ar- 
ranged to put up for the night, deciding not to attempt to 
go up until morning. An Indian went up with his canoe 


on the west shore around the bend. He towed his canoe. 
There was not water enough for our boat. We came about 
ten miles this day and lay on the west side of the river. 

August 28th. We unloaded our boat early in the morning, 
carried our baggage seventy or eighty rods up the west 
shore, then crossed over to the east shore, towed the boat 
up the rapids, crossed over, took in our things, proceeded 
up over a rocky bottom and much shoal water that we often 
had to be out to lift and shove her up fifty or 100 rods in 
a place. Our passage was thus very slow and tedious, but 
we found the channel without much difficulty, where there 
was any, but the river was wide. It spread over a wide, 
flat rock. About half past 3 p. m. we came to the forks of 
the rivers, which we supposed were the Mississinewa and 
Wabash. One came in from the north and the other from 
the northeast. The latter we thought was the Mississinewa, 
but it contained more water than the other, which was dif- 
ferent from the information we had received. Paul Dick 
went up the north branch and R. Fowler the other. When 
R. Fowler returned he said he thought we could not go up 
that branch, if it was the Wabash. Paul returned and said 
that the northeast branch was impassable, that the water 
was very shallow, there were falls in it of two or three feet 
perpendicular. It began to grow dark, looked like rain; 
we concluded to fall down the river sixty or seventy rods 
to an old shelter that was made by the Indians for hunting, 
and left by them, where we put up for the night. R. Fowler, 
Paul Dick, and I lodged on shore under the shelter. We 
made a little fire. We came about five or six miles this day. 

August 29th. This morning I awoke at about 2 o'clock 


and put out the fire, laid down again, went to sleep. I had 
a remarkable dream which agitated me very much. It 
brought to me the situation of my family, and the state of 
my affairs in which I left them. The imprudence of leav- 
ing home on such a journey without first settling all of my 
affairs; that they would lose greatly in case of my never 
returning to them again. The contents of my dream agitated 
me so that I could not eat much breakfast. I may write it 
down when I have more leisure, but I must note our situ- 
ation this morning. Paul and R. Fowler again went out up 
the northeast branch, along an old path, to find a settlement 
of Indians, or to see if we could go up the river. They 
returned and said that they thought our passage up at an 
end ; if we went any farther we would lose the boat and all 
the baggage we could not carry. We held a council to decide 
whether we should risk the sacrifice or return to Fort Har- 
rison and there dispose of Vv'hat we could, and then go by 
land. Thomas Isaac was in favor of going up the river 
as far as we could, and try the experiment. The rest were 
for returning. Betsy Isaac was unwell with the ague and 
fever, quite feeble, and it was difficult to provide a pas- 
sage for her. Thomas started to examine the northeast 
branch after breakfast and returned about 1 o'clock p. m. 
and said that he went up the east branch about eight miles 
and thought that we could not get up. We then concluded 
to return to Fort Harrison, sell our boat and what bag- 
gage we could not carry on our backs, go across the 
country through the woods. We took some bread and sas- 
safras tea, the only food we had that we could eat. Our 
pork was spoiled so that we could not eat it, but I made a 


comfortable repast; then we started about 2 p. m. down 
the river. The water in the river was falling, although it 
appeared low, we had frequently to get out and lift the 
boat along over the shoal places, but we got along without 
much difficulty and passed the falls or rapids by leading 
the boat. This is what I called the Wapanoke Dread, 
and we ran down to within three-quarters of a mile of 
the Wapanoke, where there are shoal rocky rapids and 
there we made our boat fast on shore, and laid down to 
rest, it being a fine, pleasant evening. 

x'^ugust 30th. Early in the morning we went down the 
rapids without much difficulty by passing behind a small 
island, clearing away the rocks, lifting and shoving the 
boat along, and we came down to the settlement of the 
Indians before mentioned when going up. They are the 
Pottawottomis, and we got a large piece of venison, some 
corn, a few beans, and let them have some more salt. We 
traded a little salt for five muskrat skins, and then went 
on down. The water had fallen so that we had to wade 
and shove our boat at places that were clear when we 
went up. We went down two or three miles, then stopped 
to cook our corn and venison and take breakfast. 

R. Fowler complained of being chilly and unwell. He 
took breakfast, then we proceeded down the river, not 
without some difficulty. The water was much lower than 
when we went up. We pushed on as fast as we could, and 
R. Fowler grew worse, so that by 1 o'clock he lay down. 
He had a most violent pain in his head and back, and I 
thought some symptoms of fever approaching, but we were 
in a poor situation to administer proper medicine. He 


could take no food of any kind. We continued on until 
dark with the expectation of getting to the place where we 
stopped when we went up, but could not, so went on shore, 
made some tea of thoroughwort or boneset, and gave him 
a strong draught. Then I gave him some Lee pills and we 
prepared for rest on board. 

August 31st. This morning up by day, and found R. 
Fowler more comfortable, though very poorly. He rested 
but poorly. I could often hear him groan in the night, 
and I was fearful that a fever would ensue. I proposed 
giving him an emetic, but he declined for fear of the 
cramp, which he said he was subject to at such times. He 
could take no food. We made him tea of summer savory, 
the only palatable herb we had on board. We baked some 
cakes and took breakfast on the river floating down. We 
continued to sail down until after noon, when R. Fowler 
became so sick that we went on shore at the Great Prairie, 
where we put up on the night of the 24th. We made him 
some thoroughwort tea. He drank a good dose of it, and 
it worked well. Then we went on until night, put up by 
the shore, and boiled some rice for Fowler, Betsy Isaac 
was also sick. 

September 1st. This morning R. Fowler was some bet- 
ter. We started about sunrise and went down a few miles 
below where we stayed on the night of the 23d, went on 
shore, ate breakfast, and Fowler ate some of his rice. We 
continued down the river as fast as we could when Fowler 
began to grow worse, and in the afternoon he was in ex- 
treme pain in his head and back. I would have given him 
a dose of medicine, but he declined taking any ; but now he 
was willing to take one of ipecac, but his stomach was so 


empty that I thought it improper unless we had something 
to nourish him after it had operated. We were destitute of 
provisions, being nearly out, except flour and some pota- 
toes. His distress increased so toward night we had to 
stop before sundown; warmed some water and soaked his 
feet, made him some tea of the root of sassafras, and gave 
him a drink. We had one onion on board. I applied that 
to his feet as a draft. We stayed here until morning, it 
being some distance below where we stayed on the night 
of the 2 2d when going up. 

September 2d. We started this morning as soon as it 
was light, in hopes of getting to the fort by night. Fowler 
was much better and seemed comfortable, though very 
weak. We passed the coal bank mentioned before. I went 
on shore and got some pieces of coal. We ate what little 
potatoes and cake we had cooked and went on down the 
river. Our meat being all gone, and forty or fifty miles 
to go, we tried to get a fish. I struck a fish with the boat 
pole that would weigh five or six pounds. This was near 
where we stayed on the night of the 21st. We passed the 
mouth of Sugar Creek. Went on shore and took dinner, 
three or four miles below the creek. About 12 o'clock R. 
Fowler began to grow worse and the pain returned with 
much violence. I put camphor on his head and we made 
him some more tea when we took dinner at about 2 p. M., 
then ran down below Raccoon Creek and put up for the 

September 3d. In the morning we arrived at Fort Har- 
rison about 10 A. M., unloaded our boat, and began to 
prepare for our journey across the woods, but could not 
sell our boat, as we wanted to. 



Journey from Fort Harrison to Fort Wayne 

September 4th, 1817. We arranged for starting, but 
could not sell our boat. We collected our things as fast 
as possible; tried to sell the boat and buy a horse, but 
could not do so. I sold the six axes, seven hoes and the 
skins for $25. 

September 5th. We sold the boat to Captain Brutt, but 
did not get ready to start. R. Fowler was still sick. We 
concluded to leave him with money to buy a horse when 
he got well. 

September 6th. We waited until the next morning. I 
sold my chest and other things and left about $100 with 
R. Fowler, besides what he already had. 

September 7th. We started in the afternoon and pro- 
ceeded out onto the prairie about six miles, when it was 
dark. We laid down for the night, and it was uncomfort- 
able through the night. 

September 8th. This morning it rained some. Our pack 
was so heavy that it made it very hard to get along, and 
my feet began to be sore. We arrived at Adams about 
9 o'clock and got breakfast; tried to get a horse. It rained, 
so we concluded to stay until morning. I paid 75 cents for 
our breakfast. 


September 9th. It was a very rainy night, and rained 
hard the fore part of the day, so that we could not start. 
In the afternoon we went to get the horses ready to start 
in the morning as soon as we could, if the river was not 
too high. We had the promise of two horses and I agreed 
with an Indian for one horse to go to Corzkton (Wea 
Village) for $2. Paul and Thomas stayed all night. I paid 
Adams $1 for being there two nights and days. 

September 10th. The weather this morning looked more 
favorable, though some cloudy. Paul and Thomas re- 
turned and said the man was coming with his horse, but 
we must have some one to go with him so as to have com- 
pany to return with him. Adams did not want to go, so 
we could not get any help. We started about 8 a. m. and 
went on about one mile and came to an Indian camp where 
there were six Indians. We could get no horse from them. 
They were going our way, and started immediately. We 
followed. Paul forgot his powder horn and had to go 
back after it. Thomas carried his pack and I his gun. 
The Indians left us. 

We went on to Raccoon Creek. It was very high, so 
that we could not get across. I shot a turkey on the other 
side, but we could not get to it. We then went up the creek 
to find a passage. I shot a deer, but it fell on the opposite 
side. The river was so deep and wide that it went down. 
Paul stripped and tried to ford, but it was too deep and 
swift, so we lost the deer. We then went up the creek 
through the weeds and bushes and over some bad gulfs 
until we were fatigued, and then turned off to the east 
to get on the track of the Indians, who had taken an 


unusual route to avoid the main creek. We overtook them 
near night, when they had camped, they having one in 
their company who was sick. We made a fire and camped 
near them. We came ten or twelve miles. We had in com- 
pany with us a man by the name of Peleg Tabor, belong- 
ing to Onondaga, who wanted to go through with us. 

September 11th. This morning the Indians agreed to 
let us have one horse for $1, which I gave for the day. 
We put two packs on the horse and Thomas rode in the 
forenoon and I in the afternoon. They took the other two 
packs, and we traveled hard through brush, winding hills, 
etc., and crossed some large streams and arrived at the 
head of Raccoon Creek near night and encamped close 
to the village. I paid 25 cents for venison and $1 to Peter 
Cornstalk for the use of his horse. On the way the Indian 
killed three turkeys. 

September 12th. We secured two horses from the In- 
dians to go to the Wea town, where they were going. 
I paid them $2 for the two and we traveled rapidly. Paul 
and I took turns riding and Thomas rode the other horse. 
We had very bad traveling. The mud and water in many 
places was up to our knees, and some creeks were deep, 
the water being very high. We arrived at the Wea town 
near night and went to Longlewy to encamp. He informed 
us he was going to start in the morning for Detroit, and 
would supply us with two horses in the morning to go to 
Mississinewa, if he could. 

September 13th. In the morning I went up to the Indian 
that I had hired the horses from yesterday, to get two to 
go to Mississinewa, and he went with me to our quarters, 


but would not go without $10. I agreed with Longlewy 
for two horses to go to Mississinewa for $5. I paid him 
$1 for our breakfast. We started about 12 o'clock. 
Thomas and I rode. Paul and Peleg went first, on foot, 
we taking the packs. We went over a very fine county of 
land and crossed Sugar Creek. It was very high. We 
went twelve miles and came to a prairie which extends to 
the White River. It was about four miles across, and we 
went some distance into the woods and encamped under 
a shelter of some bark. Longlewy and his wife, a good- 
looking Indian woman, and two little boys encamped near 
us with their tent. The air was very cold and it looked like 
rain. We came about eighteen miles. 

September 14th. This morning it began to rain at about 
2 o'clock A. M., but the bark sheltered us. We ate some 
bread and a little meat and started about 7 o'clock in the 
morning. The bushes and weeds being very wet, and as it 
was raining some, it was very muddy and bad traveling. 
The creeks were high, some of them so deep as to wet the 
packs on our horses. Our friend Longlewy killed a rac- 
coon, but it lodged in the tree and he could not get it down. 
Towards night his dog treed a small one, which his boy 
shot. We went on until near sundown and camped in the 
woods. Being wet and cold, we made a large fire, got some 
bark and made a shelter, dried ourselves as well as we 
could, and prepared for sleep. I suppose we came this 
day about thirty-two miles. 

September 15th. It continues cloudy and some rain, 
though we lodged dry in our shelter. We started about 
7 o'clock and went on through good land, but a very 


muddy road, and crossed several streams of water, but 
none very large except Wild Cat Creek, which we crossed 
about 1 o'clock p. m. We went on until about 5 o'clock 
and encamped within about six miles of Mississinewa. 
Our provisions were all gone. We ate our last piece of 
bread at the Wild Cat Creek. Our friend Longlewy killed 
another raccoon, of which they gave us some. We came 
about twenty-two miles this day and made a shelter with 
a piece of cloth of Longlewy's, and our bed of weeds. 

September 16th. This morning was clear, and I was 
up by the break of day, dried my things, which were wet 
by the rain and crossing deep water. We had a little of 
the raccoon and some boiled corn to eat; started about 
half past 7 a. m., went down to the village, crossed the 
river, and went about one and one-fourth miles, where 
we stopped at a house of a mixture of half French and 
Indians. Here I paid Longlewy $5 and he went on his 
way to Detroit. We could get nothing to eat here but soft 
corn to take with us for food. We obtained fifty or sixty 
ears of corn and gave 50 cents. I prevailed on the Indians 
to let each of us have a piece of bread, and we got some 
sassafras tea. I had agreed with an Indian for two horses 
to go with us to Fort Wayne for $6, and we waited until 
in the afternoon for him to come, but he sent word that he 
would not go under $8. I could get no other Indian or 
horse to go, so we shouldered our packs, as heavy as they 
were, and started about half past 1 o'clock, went up the 
river about twelve miles, and crossed it. It was two or 
three feet deep. We went about three or four miles, made 
a fire about sundown, and encamped on some leaves. Peleg 


Tabor came up with us about dark, we having outwalked 
him. It was clear and pleasant, but lightened in the eve- 
ning and thundered at a distance. We roasted some corn 
and ate it for supper. 

September 17th, We were up early in the morning and 
roasted corn for our breakfast. It was cloudy and had the 
appearance of rain; it thundered hard. We started about 
6 o'clock, went on two or three miles, and it began to rain 
very hard. We stopped a few minutes under the trees, but 
it rained so hard we soon got wet, and went on through 
the rain. It soon began to be very muddy and slippery. 
We crossed the Wabash twice. It was about waist deep, 
but we got very wet and had very hard work to travel. We 
went about thirty miles and came to the middle village, 
where there are ten or twelve Indian wigwams. We arrived 
there about 4 p. m. and secured some boiled corn, also 
thirty or forty ears, which I had boiled, to take with us 
tomorrow. I gave them 75 cents for the corn and received 
some noodles. They gave us some corn and boiled squash, 
also some dried venison, for which I paid 12 cents. Peleg 
came up before night and ate with us. He was unwell. 
We could not lodge in their wigwams, so we started about 
sundown, and, going into the woods about one-half mile, 
took fire with us and made fire, and gathered some brush 
to lie down on. We had dried ourselves as well as we 
could, and went to sleep. We had passed Longlewy in 
the forenoon where he had pitched his tent. He came to 
the village, passed us and encamped about two miles ahead 
of us. 


September 18th. Up early, ate boiled corn, and started 
on. It was very muddy and bad traveling, or rather wad- 
ing, in the mud. We traveled on as fast as we could, hav- 
ing very heavy loads. Besides my pack, I had to carry 
R. Fowler's rifle, which Peleg undertook to carry, though 
it was very burdensome. We passed Longlewy's camp, and 
then he passed us. We traveled rapidly through the mud 
and crossed several streams of water. Some of them were 
waist high or more, and several Indians passed us who 
were going to Fort Wayne. Their horses made the going 
still worse, as they made the mud deeper. We crossed 
two or three creeks that were very deep, and some swampy 
marshes, and arrived at Fort Wayne about 8 o'clock in 
the evening, being very wet and very much fatigued. We 
waded St. Mary's River before we came to the fort. Put 
up at Hunt and Olivers, got supper of bread, milk, etc., 
and changed our clothes. I gave Thomas Isaac $1 to get 
some whiskey, and we went to bed, having traveled about 
thirty-five or forty miles. 



Voyage from Fort Wayne to Detroit 

September 19th, 1817. We went to Isaac Wobby's,* 
but he has gone to the treaty. We took breakfast with 
Jane. I paid $1.12 for our supper and lodging. We tried 
to buy a canoe or boat to go down the river. I went to the 
garrison, but the major was so sick that I could not see 
him, nor could I get an answer until in the afternoon; 
then it was that we could not have a boat, but we obtained 
the liberty to cut a tree to make one. We concluded to 
begin the next morning; bought some soap for 75 cents 
per pound to wash our clothes, and bought a quart of 
whiskey for $1. 

September 20th. We prepared to make our canoe. I 
bought some beef for $1.75. We went out into the woods 
and selected a tree about two and one-half miles from the 
fort, cut it down and began to work on it, by blocking it 
out, until night. I trod on the path of a bear and ran a 
bone in the bottom of my foot, which made me very lame. 

September 21st. This day we thought best to be still and 
not work on the canoe, as we had not often an opportunity 
of resting on the first day (Sunday). Towards evening 
we prepared to resume work the next day on our canoe. 

*A Brothertown Indian. 


September 2 2d. This morning we employed two hands 
to help us on the canoe. We went out early, worked all 
day. There were some very heavy showers of rain, which 
made us very wet. We worked until night; got the inside 
dug out, so that it was &t to draw to the river. I paid the 
men $2 for their work. 

September 23d. We prepared to move our canoe to the 
river. We secured a yoke of oxen and hauled it up to the 
landing. I bought fifteen pounds of beef for $1.50 for 
provision. We made our paddles and intended to start 
about noon, but it rained, and we concluded to wait until 
morning and start early. I paid Thomas Isaac $3 to get 
stores, bread, sugar, whiskey, etc. We were ready to start 
early in the morning, and agreed to take in a woman pas- 
senger. Peleg Tabor came on again and wanted to go in 
our canoe. We consented that he might, if we could get 
along with him in the canoe. All prepared to start early 
in the morning, 

September 24th. We took leave of Jane Wobby and her 
family and started about 7 a. m. with Peleg Tabor and 
the widow Jane Edwards as passengers, and ran down the 
river in our little canoe, which we called the Roebuck. We 
went on all day without much difficulty, and at night 
camped on the bank of the river, having sailed down the 
river forty-five or fifty miles this day. 

September 25th, We started early in the morning; met 
a pirogue bound for Fort Wayne. Ran down the river all 
day and had frequent showers that wet us some. About 
sundown we passed the old Delaware towns and went until 


near 9 p. m. in hopes of reaching Fort Defiance, but, being 
very cold and wet, encamped on the bank of the river, 
having come about forty-six miles. 

September 26th. We passed on down the river, and 
going down a rift we struck on a rock and swung around 
and filled the Roebuck and wet our baggage. We cleared 
out the water, went on, and arrived at Fort Defiance about 
9 A. M. We stopped and bought some bread and meat for 
$2.50. The Auglan River comes in here. We started about 
half past 12 p. m., leaving Peleg Tabor behind. We ran 
until after dark and expected to get to Lamot Prairie, but 
it was so dark we went on shore and encamped for the 
night. We ran about twenty-five or thirty miles this day. 

September 27th. We started very early, ran down three 
or four miles, and stopped at Lamot Prairie, took break- 
fast, and then went past an Indian settlement. Two In- 
dians came to us in a canoe and brought some peaches. 
We let them have some tobacco. We were at the head of 
the rapids about 1 p. m. ; passed down and found them 
difficult, the water being very shallow and the bottom 
rocky, so that we had to wade a good deal of the way. 
We passed down to Roche de Bout before sundown and 
encamped with some men who were taking flour down to 
the treaty. It was about nine miles down the rapids and 
eighteen miles from Lamot Prairie to the head of the 
rapids. It was very cold and froze some. 

September 28th. This morning there was a hard frost. 
We started about 7 a. m., went down wading and shoving 
our canoe along over the rocks where the water was too 
shoal for it to float with us in. The water ran very swiftly 


and sometimes we shipped water and had to go on shore 
to bail. Arrived at Fort Meigs about 11 a. m. and found 
Isaac Wobby and Henry Nunham* there and put up at 
their marquee. 

September 29th. We attended the treaty meeting, which 
was held by Governor Cass and General McArthur on 
the part of the United States, and the Wyandotts, Taidyas, 
Shawnees, Pottawottomis, Delawares, and some other 
tribes of Indians. We also attended on the 30th, when the 
treaty was finally signed by the parties and concluded. 

October 1st. We again attended the treaty, and when 
the presents were given out I received the goods from 
Governor Cass that were due to the widow Pictrocke, to 
the amount of $137, and delivered them to Henry Nunham 
and Robert Schugite to forward to her. We sold the Roe- 
buck to H. Nunham for $8 worth of goods and in the 
evening we held a council with the Delaware and Shawnee 
chiefs. The Delawares, in the presence of John Johnson, 
agent, expressed the desire that the Brothertown Indians 
would go into their country, and on the 2d I received a 
certificate from John Johnson of the purport of the council. 

October 3d. We engaged our passage to Detroit on 
board the "Fire Fly," Captain Hammon. Paul and 
Thomas Isaac assisted in loading the most of the day, and 
I had a conference with Stickney, the agent for the Miamis, 
about their lands on the Wabash. We left the marquee 
and put our packs into a tavern near the landing and 
lodged there. In the morning my two blankets were stolen 
from Paul's pack. 

♦Brothertown Indians. 


October 4th. We were under way about 11 a. m., and 
going down the river we got onto the rocks, but with some 
exertion we shoved off and went on down into the lake, 
and had a fair wind. We ran all night, arriving at Detroit 
about 7 A. M. on the 5th of October, being about seventy 
miles from the foot of the Maumee Rapids. We left our 
packs on board the "Fire Fly" and the next day went 
about the village, and lodged on board at night. Our lodg- 
ing was but indifferent. 

October 6th. It rained some part of the day. We spoke 
a passage in the "General Wayne" and bought some stores. 
Paul Dick and I lodged on shore; Thomas Isaac lodged 
on board the "Fire Fly." Stores cost $1.25; lodging for 
Paul and me, $1. 

October 7 th. We engaged pa^ssage on board the schoon- 
er "General Wayne," Captain Rough, and put our bag- 
gage and stores on boerd. We took a deck passage for $3 
each, and lodged in the hold on the cable.