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Full text of "Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences"

JOURNAL 



OF THE 



WASHINGTON ACADEMY 

OF SCIENCES 



^.7 



I/' * 



VOLUME VIII, 1918 



BOARD OF EDITORS 
Adolph Knopf A. S. Hitchcock J. Fraxklin Meyer 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY BUREAU OF STANDARDS 



PUBLISHED SEMI-MONTHLY 
EXCEPT IN JULY. AUGUST, AND SEPTEMBER, WHEN MONTHLY, 

BY THE 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



OFFICE OF PUBLICATION 

THE WAVERLT PRESS 

BALTIMORE, MD. 



N 



^i 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Vol. VIII JANUARY 4, 1918 No. 1 



PHYSICS. — The size and shape of the electron. Arthur H. 
CoMPTON, Research Laboratory, Westinghouse Lamp Com- 
pany. (Communicated by G. K. Burgess.) 

The radius of the electron is usually deduced from the energy 
of the electron in motion, assuming its magnetic energy to be 
identical with its kinetic energy. If the electron is a sphere, its 
radius must be, according to this assumption, about 1 X 10 ~^' 
cm. It is thus sufficiently small to act as a point charge of 
electricity even with the shortest 7-rays. 

Calculating on the basis of such an electron, J. J. Thomson^ 
has shown that the fraction of the energy of an electromagnetic 
wave incident upon an electron which is scattered by it is given 
by the expression 

Stt e^ 

This corresponds to a mass absorption coefficient due to a 
scattering of the primary beam equal to 

where N is the number of electrons which contribute to the 
scattering in a gram of the absorbing medium, C is the velocity 
of light, and e and m have their usual significance. As Barkla 
has pointed out, there may be absorption due to other causes, 

1 Thomson, J. J. Conduction of Electricity through Gases, 2d ed., p. 321. 

1 



2 compton: size and shape of electrons 

such as the production of secondary photoelectrons or beta rays, 
and for other than waves of short length the rays scattered by 
the different electrons in an atom are nearly enough in the 
same phase to produce the phenomenon of ''excess scattering," 
so that the absorption coefficient is in most cases considerably 
greater than the value given by this expression. If the electron 
acts as a point charge there is, however, no possible grouping 
of the electrons which can, according to classical theory, produce 
a smaller absorption than that calculated according to Thomson's 
formula. 

Barkla and Dunlop^ have shown that for a considerable range 
of wave-lengths of X-rays the mass scattering coefficients of the 
lighter elements are given accurately by equation (1) if the 
number of electrons in the atom is taken to be approximately 
half the atomic weight. For elements of high atomic weight the 
phenomenon of excess scattering occurs, except with the very 
shortest wave-lengths, and the absorption coefficient due to 
scattering becomes much greater than this value. For wave- 
lengths less than 2 X 10 ~^ cm., however, the absorption co- 
efficient becomes very appreciably less than that theoretically 
calculated, falling as low as one-fifth as great for the shortest 
7-rays. Soddy and RusselP and Ishino* have shown that for 
these shortest rays the amount of energy scattered by the dif- 
ferent elements is accurately proportional to their atomic num- 
bers, so that all the electrons outside the nucleus are effective 
in producing absorption. It is therefore impossible to account 
for this very considerable decrease in the absorption coefficient 
for very short electromagnetic waves if the electron is considered 
to be a point charge of electricity. 

If, however, the diameter of the electron is comparable in 
magnitude with the wave-length of the incident wave, the ra- 
diation scattered by different parts of the electron will be so 
different in phase that the energy of the scattered rays will be 
materially reduced. If, for example, the charge on an electron 

^ Barkla and Dunlop. Phil. Mag., March, 1916. 

3 Soddy and Russell. Phil. Mag. 18: 620. 1910; 19: 725. 1910. 

^IsHiNO. Phil. Mag. 33: 129. 1917. 



compton: size and shape of electrons 3 

is supposed to be in the form of rigid spherical shell, incapable 
of rotation, a simple calculation shows that the mass absorption 
coefficient due to scattering is given by 

l = ^^sin^(^i^y, (2) 

p 3 m'^C' V X / V X / ^ ^ 

where a is the radius of the spherical shell and X is the wave- 
length of the incident beam. For long waves this becomes iden- 
tical with equation (1), but it decreases rapidly as the wave- 
length approaches the diameter of the electron, as is shown in 
curve I, figure 1. Such an assumption is therefore able to ex- 
plain at least qualitatively the decrease in the absorption for 
electromagnetic waves of very high frequency. 

It would appear more reasonable to imagine the spherical shell 
electron to be subject to rotational as well as translational dis- 
placements when traversed by a 7-ray. The scattering due to 
such an electron is difficult to calculate, but an approximate 
expression can be obtained if the electron is considered to be 
perfectly flexible, so that each part of it can be moved inde- 
pendently of the other parts. On this hypothesis it can be shown 
that the intensity of the beam scattered by an electron at an 
angle d with an unpolarized beam of 7-rays is given by the 
expression 



If) = I — ^ < sm^ sm - / sin^ - >• (3) 

^ 2rWC* LWJ V X 2// 2j ^ ^ 



Here / is the intensity of the incident beam, r is the distance at 
which the intensity of the scattered beam is measured, and the 
other quantities have the same meaning as before. The mass 
absorption coefficient due to scattering by such an electron is 
therefore 

- = 2xAV r^smedd. (4) 

p J I 

This integral may be evaluated graphically or by expansion 
into a series. The values of a/p in the case of aluminium, tak- 
ing the numbers of electrons per atom to be 13, are plotted in 
curve II, figure 1, for different values of a/X. The values for a 



compton: size and shape of electrons 



rigid spherical electron which is subject to rotation should lie 
between curves I and II for the range of a/X here plotted. 

Unfortunately the experimental data are too meager to sub- 
mit these formulae to accurate quantitative test. There are, 



.12 

cr 
P 



■I'f 



.13. 



.16 



.0? 



.06 



M 



,01 



~^~^-\ 












nJ 




























\ 












\ 














\^ 












K 


^ 












\^ 


-^ 










\ 


\ 










• 





.05 



.10 



.15 



.20 



.Z5 a/A 0.30 



Fig. 1. Mass absorption coefficient for electrons (I) in the form of rigid 
spherical shells incapable of rotation, and (II) in the form of perfectly flexible 
spherical shells. The number of electrons per atom is taken as 13. 

however, three points on the curve w^hich are established with 
Some accuracy. Barkla^ has found that for relatively long X-rays 
the light elements scatter accurately according to equation (1), 
so that the part of the curves where a/X is small is verified. 

^ Barkla and Dunlop. Phil. Alag. 



compton: size and shape of electrons 5 

Hull and Rice*^ have shown that for wave-lengths in the neigh- 
borhood of 0.17 X 10-« cm. the value of o-/p for aluminium is 
about 0.12. From curve I this corresponds to an electronic 
radius of 2.2 X lO-^o cm., while curve II gives 2.3 X lO""' cm. 
Ishino" finds that the value of ajp, using the hard 7-rays from 
radium-C, is about 0.045. Taking the effective wave-length to 
be« 0.093 X 10-^ cm., curve I gives a = 2.1 X 10"^" and curve 
II gives a = 2.5 X 10^^^^ cm. Using either formula the agree- 
ment between the two values of the radius is within the limits 
of probable experimental error. The unusually low absorption 
coefficient for 7-rays can therefore be quantitatively explained 
on the hypothesis that the electron is a spherical shell of elec- 
tricity of radius about 2.3 X 10-"^ cm. 

Another difficulty that is found in J. J. Thomson's simple 
theory is that it predicts that if a beam of X-rays is passed 
through a thin plate the intensity of the scattered rays on the 
two sides of the plate should be the same. It is well known, 
however, that the scattered radiation on the emergent side of 
the plate is much more intense than that on the incident side, 
both in the case of relatively soft X-rays and in the case of hard 
7-rays. Barkla and Ayres^ have shown that for rather hard 
X-rays and for those substances of low atomic weight whose 
absorption coefficient can be calculated accurately by equation 
(1) this prediction of Thomson's, theory is also valid. In the 
case of the heavier atoms and the longer waves, however, the 
rays scattered at a small angle with the incident beam by the 
different electrons in the atom are so nearly in the same phase 
that the intensity is considerably increased, while at large angles 
the phase difference is much greater, and the intensity is much 
smaller. This explanation cannot, however, be applied to the 
excess scattering of 7-rays of short wave-length, since experi- 
ment shows^" that for longer waves the light elements show no 

"Hull and Rice. Phys. Rev. 8:326. 1916. 
UsHixo. Phil. Mag. 33: 129. 1917. 

« Rutherford and Andrade. Phil. Mag. 28: 263. 1914. 
9 Barkla and Ayers. Phil. Mag. 21 : 271. 1911. 
10 Barkla and Ayers. Phil. Mag. 21: 271. 1911. 



6 



compton: size and shape of electrons 



excess scattering on the emergent side, indicating that the 
electrons act independently, while for hard 7-rays the excess 
scattering is the same as for the heavier elements. 

The same difficulty is present if instead of considering the 
electron as a point charge it is assumed to be a rigid spherical 
shell incapable of rotation, as this assumption also makes the 
scattered radiation symmetrical on the incident and the emergent 
sides. If, however, the electron is a spherical shell of electricity 
which can be rotated by a passing electromagnetic wave, it is 




Fig. 2. The intensity of the radiation scattered at an angle d with the incident 
radiation, the electron being a perfectly flexible spherical shell. I, radius of 
electron = 0; II, radius = 37rX/4. 

capable of producing excess scattering on the emergent side for 
short 7-rays in much the same manner as groups of electrons 
in the atom produce excess scattering in the case of the longer 
X-rays. For purposes of calculation it is again simpler to con- 
sider the nearly equivalent case of the electron which is a flexible 
spherical shell. The intensity at any angle is then given by 
equation (3). When a = 0, this expression becomes identical 
with that calculated on Thomson's theory, and the correspond- 
ing values are plotted in curve I of figure 2. In curve II, Ig/1 is 
plotted for different values of d, using the value a = 3xX/4. 



compton: size and shape of electrons 7 

The circles are experimental values determined by D. G. H. 
Florance^^ using the 7-rays from radium bromide scattered by a 
plate of iron. Inasmuch as these rays are heterogeneous, and 
as the softer rays are scattered relatively more strongly at larger 
angles, the agreement of the experimental values with curve 1 1 
is as good as can be expected. 

A better quantitative test of this explanation is afforded by 
Ishino's observation^- that the radiation scattered on the inci- 
dent side of a plate struck by hard 7-rays from radium-C is 
about 15 per cent of that scattered on the emergent side. On 
the hypothesis of the electron as a flexible sphere this ratio is 
given by the relation 



^ = I I^sm edd \ Iq sin d dd 

/a Jv/'l i Jo 



(5) 



The values of this ratio for different values of a/X are plotted in 
figure 3. This curve explains beautifully the observation of 
Florance that the ''incident" scattered rays are softer than the 
''emergent" and the primary rays, since it shows that the rela- 
tive amount of the rays scattered backward is much greater 
for soft, or long wave-length, 7-rays than for hard rays. Ruth- 
erford and Andrade^^ have found the hard 7-rays from radium-C 
to consist of a strong line, X = 0.099 X 10~% and a weaker line, 
X = 0.071 X 10-^ cm. Taking into account this selective effect, 
we may take the effective wave-length to be 0.095 X 10~^ cm. 
On this basis, and using a = 2.3 X 10"^" as determined above, 
the calculated value of the ratio of the incident to the emergent 
scattered radiation is 8 per cent. The agreement is hardly 
within the probable experimental error, but the calculated value 
is at least of the proper order of magnitude, which is a strong 
verification of a flexible or a rotatable electron. 

According to electromagnetic theory it is obvious that the 
mass of an electron cannot be accounted for on the basis of a 
uniform distribution of electricity over the surface of a sphere 

"Florance. Phil. Mag. 20: 921. 1910. 

i^IsHiNO. Phil. Mag. 33: 129. 1917. 

'3 Rutherford and AxDRADE. Phil. Mag. 28: 263. 1914. 



8 



compton: size and shape of electrons 



of the size here assumed. Much the same effect, so far as the 
scattering of 7-rays is concerned, results from the conception of 
the electron as a ring of electricity of diameter comparable with 
the wave-length of the incident beam. It has been shown by 



I.U 

■1 
h 

•1 

.5 


"n 


\ 












\ 












• \ 














































.3 

.a 


































\ 
















^ 







3 .0 


S5 





5 .2 


LO .a 


,5 a/X 0.30 



Fig. 3. Ratio of the intensity of the radiation scattered on the incident side 
to that of the radiation scattered on the emergent side of a plate. The electron 
is assumed to be a flexible sphere. • 

Davisson^^ and Webster^^^ that this conception is compatible 
with the electromagnetic theory of the mass of the electron. I 
have not as yet been able to solve completely the problem of the 
scattering produced by such ring electrons. Approximate 

"Damsson. Phys. Rev. 9 : 570. 1917. 
»5 Webster. Phys. Rev. 9 : 484. 1917. 



compton: size and shape of electrons 9 

methods show, however, that if the electron is a rigid ring whose 
plane is invariable, the scattered energy follows equation (2) 
rather closely, and is symmetrical on the incident and the emer- 
gent sides. If the electron is a flexible ring, or one capable of 
rotation about any axis, the scattering is more nearly that given 
by equation (4), but should be somewhat greater for large 
values of a/\. The ratio of the incident to the emergent scat- 
tered radiation should also be appreciably larger than that 
given by expression (5). It seems probable, therefore, that the 
scattering of 7-rays and X-rays may be completely explained on 
the hypothesis that the electron is a ring of electricity of radius 
about 2 X lO-'i" cm., if the ring is capable of rotation about any 
axis. 

This hypothesis makes it possible to explain also the effect 
noticed by A. H. Forman'* that the absorption coefficient of 
iron for a beam of X-rays is greater when the iron is magnetized 
parallel with the transmitted beam than when the iron is un- 
magnetized or magnetized perpendicular to the X-ray beam. 
Using an effective potential of 27,000 volts the effect was about 
0.4 per cent, and with a potential of 81,000 volts it was 0.6 per 
cent. From X-ray spectra obtained under similar circumstances 
it can be shown that the effective wave-length used in the two 
cases was about 1.0 X 10^^ and 0.5 X 10^^ cm. respectively. 
If the ring electron acts as a tiny magnet, as suggested by 
Parson,^^ it may be turned by the magnetic field until its plane 
is perpendicular to the incident beam of X-rays This will 
make the rays scattered by the different parts of the electron 
more nearly in the same phase, so that the absorption due to 
scattered radiation will be increased. Moreover, since the in- 
cident rays can get a better hold on the electron in this posi- 
tion, its displacement will be greater than when unorientated, 
and absorption due to transformation of the X-rays into other 
types of energy will be greater. For the relatively long waves 
used bj^ Forman the ratio of the absorption coefficient when 

16 Forman. Phys. Rev. 7: 119. 1916. 

1' Parson, A. L. Smithsonian Misc. Collections, Nov. 191.5. Parson esti- 
mates his "magneton," or ring electron, to have a radius of 1.5 X 10""' cm. 



10 compton: size and shape of electrons 

magnetized to that when unmagnetized should be approxhnately 

K'-y -ft) 

where a is the radius of the ring electron and k is the fraction 
of the electrons which are oriented by the magnetic field. Using 
the value a = 2.3 X 10~^" cm., this means that the change in 
the absorption due to magnetization for X = 1.0 X 10 ~^ cm. is 
0.7 k per cent, and for X = 0.5 X 10^^ cm. is 2.8 k per cent. 
From the observed values of this difference we find that the 
fraction of the electrons oriented by the magnetic field is 0.6 
and 0.26. The experimental basis of the latter value is much 
the more certain. Taking the number of electrons in the iron 
atom to be 26, this means that in order to explain Forman's 
effect in terms of ring electrons a number 0.26 X 26 = 7 of the 
electrons must be capable of being oriented by the magnetic 
field. This is what would be expected if it is the 8 valence 
electrons of iron which are responsible for its ferro-magnetic 
properties. Our hypothesis of a ring electron of radius 2.3 X 
10~i^ cm. is therefore capable of explaining satisfactorily For- 
man's effect. 

It should be noted that Forman explains his effect as be- 
ing due to an orientation of the molecules in the iron. The 
experiments of Rognley and the writer'^ on the effect of mag- 
netizing a crystal on the intensity of the beam of X-rays re- 
flected by it have shown that any orientation of the molecules, 
if it occurs at all, must be extremely small. It was found fur- 
ther that unless it is very nearly isotropic the atom also is not 
rotated by magnetization. Thu^ Forman's explanation of his 
effect is inadequate. The fact that his experiments can be ex- 
plained in terms of an orientation of the electrons must be 
taken as a confirmation of the conclusion arrived at by Rognley 
and the writer that it is not the atom as a whole, but the electron 
itself that is the ultimate magnetic particle. 

18 Compton and Rognley. Science (N. S.) 46:415. 1917. 



HOSTETTER AND SOSMAN: MERCURY STILL 11 

• 

Summary. Ishino's experiments, showing that the scatter- 
ing of hard 7-rays by different materials is strictly proportional 
to the number of electrons and is not proportional to the masses, 
proves that the electrons are responsible for practically all of the 
scattering, and that for these wave-lengths they act independ- 
entl}^ of each other. According to the classical electrodynamical 
theory, this means that if the electrons are sensibly point charges 
of electricity, the absorption coefficient due to scattering for these 
rays must be given by equation (1). Since this equation does 
not hold for these wave-lengths, we cannot consider the electron 
to be a point charge. In order to account for the small absorp- 
tion coefficient of 7-rays the electron must have an effective radius 
of about 2.3 X 10"^° cm. In order to explain the fact that the 
emergent scattered radiation is more intense than the incident 
radiation, it is necessary to assume further that the different 
parts of the charge of the electron can possess certain motions inde- 
pendently of each other. It appears that these phenomena, together 
with the electromagnetic mass of the electron, can be quanti- 
tatively explained on the hypothesis that the electron consists 
of a ring of electricity subject to rotation about any axis and of 
radius about 2.3 X 10"^° cm. This hypothesis is confirmed by 
the fact that it explains satisfactorily Forman's effect of mag- 
netization of iron upon its absorption coefficient, for which 
there is no other apparent explanation. 

CHEMISTRY. — A silica-glass mercury still. J. C. Hostetter 
and R. B. Sosman, Geophysical Laboratory. 

Although numerous electrically heated mercury stills have 
been described and are doubtless being used with satisfaction, 
nevertheless there is one undesirable feature that is common 
to all vacuum mercury stills and that is avoided in the one about 
to be described: namely, that a still made of ordinary glass 
or even of combustion glass will, when slightly overheated, col- 
lapse under the pressure of the atmosphere.' 

1 The form of failure of such a tube is of some interest in itself. One of our 
ordinary glass stills that collapsed one night when the voltage on the power line 
became too high yielded symmetrically around its vertical axis, instead of flatten- 
ing out, producing a figure with three cusps separated by angles of 120 degrees. 



n 



r 



o 



\ 



■Semi-fransparent silica 
S mm inside diameter 



Semi-transparent silica 
/i mm inside diameter 
IS mm outside « 




Loose asbestos fiber 



E 
O 
OO 



E^ 



B 



y m'/ i Wf<'4 



-Aiundum tube 
•Semi-transparent silica 

■20 mm inside diameter 

34- mm outside 
■ Asbestos - macjnesia 
pipe coverina 

■Asbestos hoard 
Wooden shelf 



^ Transparent silica 
tubes, 5 mm bore. 



E 
E 

o 



WlSmm^ 
Fig. 1. Silica-glass mercury still 



12 



HOSTETTER AND SOSMANI MERCURY STILL 13 

After several such exasperating experiences with glass stills — 
the overheating being caused by rising voltage on the power 
line — we had our still remade of silica glass (fused quartz, or 
"quartz glass"), and it has been in use more or less continuously 
for several years. The additional cost of the silica-glass still is 
well expended in the insurance thereby secured against inter- 
ruption of the distillation. We have been requested to put on 
record a brief description of the still, having had a number of 
inquiries for information concerning its design. 

Design of the still. The construction is shown in detail in 
figure 1. An effort has been made to simplify the still as much 
as possible in order to minimize the difficulties connected with 
the working of silica . glass. No originality is claimed for the 
design : an inspection of the diagram will show that the essential 
points of any continuously acting still have been embodied, 
some having been taken from one still and some from another. 

The distillation chamber (D) has an inside diameter of 30 mm. 
and a length of 110 mm. The condenser (C) has an inside 
diameter of 13 mm. Both of these parts of the apparatus are 
made of the semitransparent inexpensive variety of silica glass. 
The smaller vertical tubes, A and B, however, are made of the 
transparent variety, thus enabling one to observe readily the 
rate of condensation and to see whether the vacuum is being 
maintained. At V the still is connected to a suction pump 
that gives a pressure of 1 cm. of mercury or less. This joint is 
made with hard De Khotinsky cement and is located where it 
will be air-cooled as thoroughly as possible. The lengths of the 
small vertical tubes must be such that at ordinary atmospheric 
pressure the distillation chamber is about half filled: the length 
of A is 720 mm. to the bottom of the distillation chamber, while 
B has a length of 840 mm. The inside diameters of A and B 
should not be too small; the tubes on our still have a bore of 
3 mm., but 5 mm. might be better. 

The fu7'nace. The furnace is wound so as to go directly on 
the 110-volt circuit (alternating or direct current) without any 
external resistance. The power consumption is about 60 watts. 
Since the temperature required is comparatively low, various 



14 HOSTETTER AND SOSMANI MERCURY STILL 

designs for the furnace might be safely employed; such, for 
instance, as winding the resistance wire on an asbestos-covered 
metal tube. Having at hand, however, an alundum tube of 
suitable size, we found it convenient to wind the wire directly 
upon this tube, and to hold the wire in place with alundum 
cement. The alundum tube has an inside diameter of 1^ inches 
(38 mm.) and is 4| inches (114 mm.) long. The winding con- 
sists of 51 turns (12 to the inch) of No. 30 nichrome wire (diam- 
eter 0.010 inch, or 0.25 mm.), giving a total of approximately 
24 feet (7.3 meters) of wire. Its resistance is about 160 ohms 
cold and 200 ohms hot, and the current is about 0.6 ampere. 
The furnace rests on a disk of heavy asbestos board and is 
jacketed with ordinary asbestos-magnesia pipe covering. The 
neck of the still is covered with loose asbestos fiber. 

Preliminary treatment of the mercury. As here constructed 
this still is intended for the final distillation of mercury that has 
been previously treated to remove the gross impurities. This 
may be done (a) by the well-known process of Lothar Meyer* 
since modified by Hildebrand^ and by Desha,* in which the 
mercury is allowed to pass in a fine stream through a long column 
of dilute nitric acid ; (b) by making the mercury the anode in n. 
nitric acid bath and electrolyzing ;^ (c) by passing air through 
the slightly heated mercury;^ (d) most thoroughly of all, by the 
method of Hulett and Minchin,^ consisting in subjecting the 
mercury to a preliminary distillation during which a stream of air 
is bubbled through it. The first three methods have recently 
been combined and developed into an automatic process.* 

Another very simple but surprisingly effective method of 
removing impurities, which is not generally known and which 
has been ascribed to Henry Leffman, is to shake up the con- 

2 Meyer, Lothar. Z. Anal. Ch. 2: 241. 1863. 

3 HiLDEBRAND, J. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 31 1 933-935. 1909. 

4 Desha, L. J. Am. Chem. J. 41 : 152. 1909. 

6 Wolff, F. A., and Waters, C. E. Bull. Bur. Standards 3: 624-625; 4: 9-11. 
1907. 

« Crafts, J. M. Bull. Soc. Chim. Paris 49: 856. 1888. 

^Hulett, G. A., and Minchin, H. D. Phys. Rev. 21:388-398. 1905. 

•Patten, H. E., and Mains, G. H. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 9: 600-603. 1917. 



ALLEN: SENSORY FIBERS 15 

taminated mercury with cane sugar. After such a treatment 
and a filtration through a pin hole the mercury comes out re- 
markably clean. 

Unless the mercury has been partially purified in some manner 
the tube A may become clogged by the accumulation of foreign 
metals which concentrate in the tube as the mercury distils. 

If a wet process of purification has been employed, it is best 
to dry the mercury by bubbling air through it for several hours 
before introducing it into the still. 

After a distillation from this apparatus the mercury should 
be given a filtration tlii'ough a pin hole in a filter paper in order 
to remove a slight film of oxide produced by the oxidation of 
metal impurities by the small amount of air remaining in the 
still. After such a distillation and filtration the mercury may 
be safely used in vacuum gages and in thermoregulators, and 
for other purposes requiring a reasonably pure product. 

The yield of distilled mercury is about 400 cc. per twenty- 
four-hour day, when the still is operated with a vacuum of 
approximately 1 cm. of mercury. 

PHYSIOLOGY. — Sensory fibers in the mesencephalic root of man 

and the guinea pig. William F. Allen, Department of 

Anatomy, University of Oregon Medical School, Portland, 

/Oregon. 



As a result of Marchi stained serial sections of the brain stems 
of a five year old girl and two guinea pigs, in which the left V- 
roots of the guinea pigs were previously severed behind the 
semilunar ganglion and the V-sensory root of the girl had been 
destroyed by a large glioma in the pons region, the following 
preliminary statement can be made: A number of sensory 
fibers arising from cells in the semilunar ganglion follow the 
ventral surface of the sensory root of the trigeminal nerve into 
the brain stem to pass dorsally between the V-motor and the 
V-sensory (substantia gelatinosa) nuclei to end in considerable 
numbers in the motor nucleus. Other fibers continue dorsad 
and cephalad in the V-mesencephalic root to terminate in the 



16 bartsch: Philippine land mollusks 

locus coeruleus. Degenerated fibers were fairly abundant in 
the mesencephalic root as far cephalad as the point of crossing 
of the IV-nerve root. A few of these sensory fibers apparently 
continue farther cephalad in the mesencephalic root to end in 
the V-mesencephalic root nucleus lateral to the central gray 
mass above the IV and III nuclei. Additional experiments are 
in progress to determine the distribution of the nerve fibers 
arising from the V-mesencephalic nucleus and the locus coeruleus. 

CONCHOLOGY. — The land mollusks of the genus Ohba from the 
islands of Bohol and Panglao, P. I.^ Paul Bartsch, U. S. 
National Museum. 

The United States National Museum has recently received a 
lot of shells belonging to the genus Ohba, collected by Gilbert 
S. Perez on the islands of Bohol and Panglao, which made a 
revision of the group necessary. This has resulted in the rec- 
ognition of a number of new forms, brief critical diagnosis of 
which are presented herewith. A fuller account and figures of 
these will be published in a monograph on the Philippine mem- 
bers of the genus, which is in preparation. 

Obba rota Perezi, n. subsp. 

The present race differs from Obba rota rota Broderip, which is at 
home on the island of Siquijor, in being decidedly more elevated and 
in having the peripheral keel less upturned at the edge, and situated 
about half way between the base and summit, while in Obba rota rota 
it is at the anterior extremity of the upper third. 

The type. Cat. No. 216983, U. S. N. M., comes from Bilar, Bohol, 
and measures: altitude, 10.2 mm.; greater diameter, 27.6 mm.; lesser 
diameter, 22 m. 

Obba rota panglaoensis, n. subsp. 

This race is much smaller and darker than Obba rota rota Broderip. 
It is elevated like Obba rota -perezi B. and has the keel similarly situated, 
but the sculpture is rougher in the present race. 

The type, Cat. No. 216984, U. S. N. M., comes from 'Panglao 
Panglao Island, and measures: altitude, 9.7 mm.; greater diameter, 
23.5 mm.; lesser diameter, 18.7 mm. 

1 Published by permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



BARTSCH: PHILIPPINE LAND MOLLUSKS 17 

Obba moricandi hernandezensis, n. subsp. 

The present race is more elevated and narrower than typical Obba 
moricandi moricandi Sowerby which comes from Jacna, Bohol. The 
pronounced characteristic color bands of the spire in the typical form 
are completely absent and only a faint narrow light-brown thread 
encircles the base. Our specimens come from Garcia Hernandez, Bohol. 

The type, Cat. No. 21G980, U. S. N. M., measures: altitude, 19.3 
mm.; greater diameter, 33.2 mm.; lesser diameter, 25.2 mm. 

Obba scrobiculata valenciensis, n. subsp. 

The rought axial sculpture, characteristic of Obba scrobiculata scrobi- 
culata Pfeiffer, is reduced to a minimum, while the color bands on the 
upper surface of the typical form are merely indicated by obsolete 
lines in the present race. The upper surface is marked by broad, 
light and dark oblique axial zones, which lend it a watered-silk effect. 
A color band is present on the base. 

The type. Cat. No. 216986', U. S. N. M., comes from Valencia, 
Bohol, and measures: altitude, 13 mm.; greater diameter, 29.3 mm.; 
lesser diameter, 23 mm. 



ABSTRACTS 

Authors of scientific papers are requested to see that abstracts, preferably 
prepared and signed by themselves, are forwarded promptly to the editors. 
Each of the scientific bureaus in Washington has a representative authorized to 
forward such material to this Journal and abstracts of official publications 
should be transmitted through the representative of the bureau in which they 
originate. The abstracts should conform in length and general style to those 
appearing in this issue. 

GEOLOGY. — Notes on the geology and iron ores of the Cuyuna district, 
Minnesota. E. C. Harder and A. W. Johnston. U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey Bulletin 660-A. Pp. 26, with maps, sections, and 
illustrations. 1917. 

The Cuyuna iron-ore district is near the geographic center of Minne- 
sota, about 90 miles west of Duluth and 55 miles southwest of the 
western part of the Mesabi district. In contrast with some of the 
other Lake Superior iron-ore districts, it is without marked topographic 
relief. It is mainly a region of low, irregular morainic hills interspersed 
with lakes and extensive swamps and marshes. 

The productive part of the Cuyuna district is commonly divided 
into two ranges — the north range, including the part lying north of 
the Northern Pacific Railway, and the south range, including the belt 
lying south of the railway. The discovery of iron ore in the Cuyuna 
district was entirely due to the existence of abnormal magnetic attrac- 
tions in the region. 

The bedrock in the district and adjacent region is largely concealed 
by a mantle of glacial drift that varies in thickness from 15 feet to 
about 400 feet. No rock exposures are known in Crow Wing County, 
in which most of the district is situated. The rocks that have been 
found up to the present time in the district can all be grouped under 
three classes: (1) sedimentary and igneous metamorphosed rocks 
interlayered with each other in beds and lenses and usually having 
steep dips due to extensive folding, (2) igneous rocks intruded into the 
metamorphosed rocks subsequent to their metamorphism and deforma- 
tion, and (3) younger rocks which lie horizontally on the eroded sur- 
faces of the rocks of the other two classes. The age of the various rocks 

is not definitely known. 

18 



abstracts: parasitology 19 

The iron-bearing formation of the Cuyuna district presents a variety 
of lithologic types. Among the more common rocks composing it are 
hematitic and Hmonitic chert and slate, cherty and slaty iron carbonate, 
siliceous magnetitic slate, amphibole-magnetite rock, jaspilite, dark- 
blue, red, brown, black, and yellow iron ore, black, red, and brown 
manganiferous iron ore, green chloritic schist, and dark-red hematitic 
schist. 

It is generally supposed that the original rock frorn which the present 
hematitic and Hmonitic chert and iron ore have in large part been 
formed is a banded cherty iron-carbonate rock. 

The ore bodies are as a rule roughly tabular in shape, with the longer 
axes parallel to the bedding of the inclosing rocks. As the beds of 
rock generally dip steeply, the ore bodies are shown at the surface as 
bands that extend for considerable distances along the strike of the 
beds. They range in width to several hundred feet and are usually 
very long, some of the known ore bodies being more than a mile in 
length. The Cuyuna ore shows all stages of hydration from pure 
reddish-blue hematite to ocherous yellow limonite, and both argillace- 
ous and siliceous phases are common. R. W. Stone. 

PARASITOLOGY. — A further note on the life history of Gongylonema 
scutatum. B. H. Ransom and M. C. Hall. Journ. Parasit. 
3: 177-181. June, 1917. 
Seurat in recent publications has questioned certain conclusions 
reached by the writers in former papers relative to the life history of 
the nematode Gongylonema scutatum. In the present paper these 
conclusions are upheld, namely that dung beetles and croton bugs 
fed upon the eggs of G. scutatum become infested with an encysted 
larval stage of the parasite and that it is quite evident that sheep, 
cattle, and other suitable mammalian hosts become in turn infested 
as a result of swallowing infested insects (under natural conditions 
various species of dung beetles). Certain larval nematodes found by 
Seurat (1916) in several species of Blaps in Algeria are not G. scutatum 
and it is not improbable that those which he found in various Algerian 
beetles and identified as the larvae of G. mucronatum Seurat in reality 
belong to the species G. scutatum. B. H. R. 



MEETINGS OF THE ACADEMY AND AFFILIATED 

SOCIETIES 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The 113th meetmg of the Academy, the nineteenth annual meeting, 
was held at the Cosmos Club at 8.30 p.m., Thursday, January 11, 
1917. In the absence of the Recording Secretary, the chair appointed 
F. E. Wright acting secretary. The minutes of the last annual 
njeeting were read and approved. 

The reports of the Corresponding Secretary, the Recording Secre- 
tary, the Treasurer, and the Auditing Committee were read and ac- 
cepted. William R. Maxon presented the report of the editors, which 
was accepted. 

The tellers reported that the mail ballot had resulted in the elec- 
tion of the following officers for the year 1917: 

President: W. H. Holmes. 

Non-resident Vice-Presidents: E. W. Morley and W. S. Thayer. 

Corresponding Secretary: F. E. Wright. 

Recording Secretary: William R. Maxon. 

Treasurer: William Bowie. 

Managers, Class of 1920: Paul Bartsch, C. S. Scofibld. 

Nominations for Vice-presidents from the affiliated societies were 
then presented, and the following Vice-Presidents were elected: 

Anthropological: Walter Hough. 

Archaeological: Mitchell Carroll. 

Biological: W. P. Hay. , 

Botanical: A. S. Hitchcock. 

Chemical C. S. Hudson. 

Electrical Engineers: R. H. Dalgleish. 

Engineers: A. L. Baldwin. 

Entomological: W. D. Hunter. 

Foresters: George B. Sudworth. 

Geographic: 0. H. Tittmann. 

Geological: A. C. Spencer. 

Historical: Allen C. Clark. 

Medical: G. Wythe Cook. 

Philosophical: E. Buckingham. 

The meeting was then adjourned for five minutes, after which the 
Academy met in joint meeting with the Chemical Society, with C. L. 
Alsberg in the chair. R. B. Sosman presented his address as retiring 
president of the Chemical Society, on the subject: Some problems of 
the oxides of iron. The address has been published in the Journal of 
the Academy (7: 55-72. 1917). 

R. B. Sosman, Corresponding Secretary. 

20 



proceedings: anthropological society 21 

The 114th meeting of the Washington Academy of Sciences was 
held in the auditorium of the Natm-al History Building of the National 
Museum the evening of February 1, 1917. The retiring president of 
the Academy, Dr. L. O. Howard, delivered an illus:trated lecture 
Entitled The carriage of disease by insects. The address has since been 
published in abridged form in the Journal of the Academy (7: 217-222. 
April 19, 1917). 

The 115th meeting of the Academy was held in the Assembl}^ Hall 
of the Cosmos Club the evening of March 15, 1917, the occasion being 
the presentation of the first of a series of public lectures on Heredity. 
I^of. H. S. Jennings, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, delivered 
an address entitled Observed changes in hereditary characters in relation 
to evolution. This has since been published in full in the Journal of 
the Academy (7: 281-301. May 19, 1917). 

The 1 16th meeting of the Academy was held in the Assembly Hall 
of the Cosmos Club the evening of March 29, 1917, the speaker being 
Dr. Oscar Riddle, of the Department of Experimental Evolution, 
Cold Spring Harbor, New York. Doctor Riddle's lecture, entitled 
The control of the sex ratio, has been published in full in the Journal of 
the Academy (7: 319-356. June 4, 1917). 

The 117th meeting of the Academy was held in the Assembly Hall 
of the Cosmos Club the evening of April 13, 1917. The speaker. Prof. 
W. E. Castle, of Harvard University, delivered an address entitled 
The role of selection in heredity. This lecture, which concluded the 
series on Heredity, has since been published under a shghtly different 
title in the Journal of the Academy (7: 369-387. June 19, 1917). 

William R. Maxon, Recording Secretary. 

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 513th meeting of the Society was held at the National Museum, 
October 2, 1917, at 4.30 p.m. 

Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, Curator of Physical Anthropology, U. S. 
National Museum, addressed the Society on Bohemia and the Bohem- 
ians, illustrating his address with lantern slides. 

"Bohemia," said Dr. Hrdlicka, "is not a large country but one with 
a great history; and while among the oldest in Europe and one of the 
most battered by fate it is struggling vigorously to regain its freedom 
which it lost in the dark period of the seventeenth century. Its people 
have been endowed with an unquenchable love of liberty and its free 
sons are now fighting in every Allied army." 

The speaker then noted the geographic position of Bohemia in the 
center of Europe, surrounded by a natural boundary of hills and moun- 
tains. Its area is about one-fourth greater than that of Switzerland, 



22 proceedings: anthropological society • 

with a density of population nearly twice as great as that of France, 
and one-seventh greater than that of Germany. Ethnically the Bo- 
hemians are Slavs. The names Bohemia and Bavaria are both of 
Roman origin, derived from the name of the Keltic ti'ibe of Boii, the 
forefathers of the Bavarians who may have extended over, or clanned 
a part of, Bohemian territory at one time. The name Czech (applied 
to the Bohemians) is, according to old tradition, derived from that of 
a leader or chief of the people. 

Archaeological excavations have shown that the Slavs were in Bo- 
hemia long before the beginning of the Christian era. The earliest 
historical mention of them occurs in the second and third centuries. 
They were never subject to Rome, and the Germans were their eternal 
enemies. At the beginning of the seventh century they were a strong 
political unit and in 630 were powerful enough to severely defeat the 
Germans. Thus began historically the marvelous life-and-death strug- 
gle of the Czech people with the voracious German flood that would 
engulf them, a struggle of thirteen centuries, which has lasted until the 
present day. 

The rich Bohemian literature and archives were repeatedly destroyed 
by the enemy, but enough has been saved to show that those early 
times were both idyllic and magnificently barbaric. The people were 
agriculturists and soldiers. Their organization was patriarchal, their 
government constitutional, almost republican. The religion of Bo- 
hemia was naturalistic and poetic. The priests worshiped under great 
oaks. There was a supreme deity, beside which there are series of 
belobozi, or good gods, cernobozi and dasi or demons, vily (fairies), 
vodnici (water-spirits), etc. The burials were by cremation. 

From the eighth to the fourteenth centuries the Bohemians were 
ruled by kings of a strong native dynasty. In 1526 the last of the 
Bohemian kings perished in a battle with the Turks, and soon after- 
ward Bohemia as well as Hungary joined Austria for mutual protection 
against the common peril. This was the beginning of Bohemia's 
misfortunes. During the Thirty Years War the life of Bohemia was 
nearly extinguished ; not until the nineteenth century came the time of 
a revival and restitution. Today the nation stands at the head of all 
those comprised in the medieval conglomerate of Austria-Hungary 
in education, industry, and practically every other respect. It is still 
shackled and persecuted by Austria but hopes and works for an early 
victory of the Allied arms and with this its liberation. In 1918 Bo- 
hemia will have with the Allies two small armies of its own, one in 
France and one in Russia. 

The 514th meeting of the society was held in the National Museum, 
October 16, 1917 at 4.30 p.m. 

Dr. Mitchell Carroll, Secretary of the Archaeological Institute 
of America, delivered a lecture on The story of Greece. The lecture was 
richly illustrated with lantern slides portraying the principal centers 
of Greek life, such as Olympia, Delphi, Sparta, and Athens, with the 



proceedings: anthropological. soceity 23 

monuments of architecture and sculpture that have been most influ- 
ential in the development of art. 

Dr. Carroll, in introducing his subject, noted our indebtedness to 
Greece as five-fold, comprising (1) democracy, (2) obedience to 
reason, (3) love of beauty, (4) letters, and (5) art. The history 
of Greece was outlined in seven divisions: (1) The Prehistoric and 
Heroic Ages to the Dorian n igration, 2000-1000 B.C.; (2) the Greek 
Middle Ages, 1000-500 B.C.; (3) from the Persian Wars to Alexander 
the Great, 500-386 B.C.; (4) from Alexander the Great to the Roman 
conquest, 336-146 B.C.; (5) the Roman, Byzantine, and Latin 
supremacies, 146 B.C.-1453 A.D.; (6) the Ottoman supremacy, 
1453-1832; (7) the n-odern Greek kingdom, 1832. 

The racial life of Greece was emphasized by Dr. Carroll, who said 
"The central fact of all Greek history, from prehistoric times to the 
present, is the unbroken life of the Greek race. This racial unity 
rests on common blood, common language, and common institutions." 

1. Race. From 650 to 850 the Slavs in Greece outnumbered the 
Greeks, but the Greeks, being superior in civilization, gradually ab- 
sorbed them. The process of Hellenizing the Slavonians went on 
steadily until in about 200 years it was practically complete. Thus, 
between 850 and 1050 was formed the basis of the modern Greek nation . 
It contains a large infusion of Slavonic blood, but the strain of Hellenic 
blood has been perpetual and this has determined the type of the 
modern nationality. 

2. Language. Greek, though for many centuries crude and ungram- 
matical, never lost its vitality. In organic matters of structure and 
syntax Greek has never made a compromise with any foreign language. 
Briefly, its story has been this. About 300 A.D. the spoken Greek 
language began to diverge from the literary language, but until 750 
Old Greek was generally understood by the people. Then came the 
breach of Greek tradition, due to the Slavs, and by 900 A. D. classical 
Greek had probably ceased to be generally understood. Between 
1100 and 1200 popular Greek began to have a literature of its own, the 
popular Greek of the thirteenth century differing little from the popular 
Greek of today. The chief difference between Old and Modern Greek 
is that one is synthetic and the other analytic. 

3. Character. National characteristics of ancient and modern 
Greeks are: (1) aptitude for city life; (2) ability in commerce; (3) 
love of mental culture; (4) cleverness. The real core of the Greek 
nation throughout its history is the agricultural population of Greece 
proper. The Greek nationality, like the Jewish, has never been crushed 
out nor lost. 

The 515th meeting of the Society was held at the National Museum, 
November 6, 1917, at 4.30 p.m. 

Prof. James H. Gore presented a paper on Belgium and the Belgians, 
illustrated by lantern slides. 

Starting with the revolution which resulted in the withdrawal of 
the part of Holland that afterward became an independent kingdom 



24 proceedings: anthropological society 

with the name Belgium, the speaker explained the duality of languages 
in Belgium and the ethnic differences between the users of the two 
tongues. 

Immediately prior to the present European war one-tenth of the 
entire population of Belgium were housed in dwellings which, on easy 
terms, had become or were becoming the property of the occupants. 
Thirty-five per cent of the people had accounts in the savings banks 
and 49 per cent of the inhabitants, male and female, worked at regular 
callings. Statistics were given to show the thrift of the people, the 
fertility of the soil, the extent of their foreign trade, and the variety 
and magnitude of their industries. On each square mile there were 
598 inhabitants, and for each inhabitant the railroads annually carried 
merchandise having a value of $145 as compared with Germany's per 
capita of S60, and $30 for the United States. 

Considerable attention was given to the agricultural commissions 
— a sort of university extension — which brings to the farmers of the 
country speakers who tell of recent discoveries and improvements in 
agriculture that would be of value to the people of each community. 
To this wise provision can be ascribed a large part of the productivity 
of Belgium. 

The profit-sharing dock laborers of Antwerp were described. It 
was shown that the prosperity of that port was due to the efficiency 
of its charging and discharging instrumentalities. 

The unique town of Gheel was fully described. In Gheel practically 
every family cares for one or two feeble-minded persons under the 
supervision of Government officials. If the family is unable to meet 
the expense of this care it is borne by the state. 

The 516th meeting of the Society was held at the National Museum 
on Tuesday, November 20, 1917, at 4.30 p.m. 

Mr. George Julian Zolnay addressed the Society on Roumania 
and her -people, illustrating his subject by native music and by lantern 
slides. 

Mr. Zolnay stated that, with the exception of the Roumanian Jews, 
there are few natives of Roumania in the United States at the present 
time, and of these a large majority are from Transylvania and the 
Bukovina. This accounts for the dearth of accurate knowledge con- 
cerning this picturesque country, wedged in between the Carpathian 
mountains and the Black Sea. 

The history of Roumania began in 106 when Trajan conquered 
Dacia, a country comprising the territory now known as Roumania. 
At the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth* century the descendants 
of the Roman soldiers and the Dacian women had become a distinct 
nationality, speaking a slightly modified Latin which has remained 
the language of the Roumanian people to the present day. The 
established religion has remained that of the orthodox Greek Church, 
although Roumania wds a vassal state of Turkey for more than 300 
years. During the Russo-Turkish war Roumania regained her inde- 



proceedings: biological society 25 

pendence and wa's proclaimed a kingdom in 1881, later taking her 
place as a leading country among the Balkan States. 

One of the most remarkable traits of the Roumanian is his love of 
his national music. This music is so distinct from that of all other 
nations that only the native musician can render it with the mysterious 
quality that stirs the Roumanian soul. 

Although the misfortunes of war have temporarily prostrated 
Roumania, it is to be hoped, in the light of her past history, that she 
will emerge intact, to prepetuate her Latin civilization in the midst of 
her alien neighbors. 

Frances Densmore, Secretary. 

BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 572d regular meeting of the society was held in the Assembly 
Hall of the Cosmos Club, Saturday, October 20, 1917; called to order 
by President Hay at 8.15; 42 persons present. 

Informal brief notes were presented as follows: 

Gen. T. E. Wilcox: Occurrence of California vulture in Idaho. He 
said: I have been requested to record, as it has been doubted, the 
occurrence of the California vulture in Idaho, then a territory. In the 
fall of 1879 I came upon two which were feeding on the carcass of a 
sheep. They hissed at me and ran along the ground for some dis- 
tance before they were able to rise in flight. They were much larger 
than turkey buzzards, with which I was quite familiar, and I was very 
close to them so that I could not be mistaken in their identity. The 
cattle-men said that the California vulture or buzzard w^as not uncom- 
mon there before they began to poison carcasses to kill wolves. Dr. 
Coues gives as their habitat ''Rocky Mts. to the Pacific." Boise River 
mountains rise to over 7000 feet just back of where the vultures were 
feeding. The exact locality was near the Hot Springs above Boise 
City. Poison and population have now destroyed that far northern 
habitat. The Boise Statesman, if any of Editor Kelly's time are now 
living, may be able to confirm the above statement. 

Dr. R.W. Shufeldt exhibited a small living specimen of the south- 
ern tortoise, or "gopher," Testudo 'polyphemus, and made remarks on 
its habits. 

Dr. L. O. Howard, referring to the previous note, called attention 
to the peculiar insect fauna found in the burrows of the "gopher," 
many of the species having the characteristics of cavern dwelling 
insects. 

President W. P. Hay in the same connection remarked on the fact 
that a species of frog of the genus Rana so far as is known is only found 
in the burrows of the "gopher." 

Dr. T. S. Palmer remarked on bird roosts that had lately been 
observed in the vicinit.y of Washington, calling particular attention 
to the martins and starlings in them. 



26 proceedings: biological society 

Mr. W. L. McAtee exhibited six rare bird papers which ho wished 
to dispose of for the benefit of the Society. 

Mr. William Palmer made comments on some of the papers re- 
ferred to by Mr. McAtee. 

Lieutenant Lyon remarked that among the comparatively small 
number of stools of patients that he had examined at the Walter Reed 
General Hospital he had found seven containing ova of Necator 
americanus. 

The regular program consisted of three communications: 

Dr. T. S. Palmer: A key to ornithological literature. This review of 
the literature of birds was discussed by Dr. L. O. Howard and by Dr. 
Frank M. Chapman, who mentioned particularly the literature and 
the active workers on South American birds. 

Mr. A. S. Hitchcock: The alpine flora of the Adirondacks and the 
White Mountains. During August Mr. Hitchcock visited the Adiron- 
dack Mountains in New York and the White Mountains in New Hamp- 
shire for the purpose of studying the alpine grasses. In the former 
region collections were made on Mt. Mclntyre and on Whiteface 
Mountain, both of which support an alpine flora at the summit above 
tree line. Mt. Marcy, the highest peak of the Adirondacks (5344 feet), 
was not investigated because it was impracticable to make the trip 
in one daj^ from an}^ of the surrounding bases. However Mt. Mc- 
lntyre (5112 feet), being nearly as high, presents the same conditions 
as those to be found on Mt. Marcy. Four days were spent among the 
high peaks of the White Mountains. Entering from the east by way 
of Crystal Cascade, the speaker ascended through Tuckerman Ravine 
to the summit of Mt. Washington, passing the night at the Lake of 
the Clouds Hut (Appalachian Mountain Club). The second day's 
trip was to the A. M. C. Madison Huts, passing the peaks of Clay, 
Jefferson, and Adams. The third night was spent at Lake of the 
Clouds Hut, but the return trail was to the east through the Great 
Gulf. On the fourth day the descent was made through Huntington 
Ravine over a difficult trail. Nine species of grasses may be classed 
as alpine, though a few others extend into the alpine zone from the 
lower zones (e.g., Deschampsia flexuo.sa, Calamgrostis canadensis). 
The alpine species are Torresia (Hierochloa) alpina, Phleum alpinum, 
Agrostis borealis, Calainagrostis langsdorfii, Trisetum spicatimi, Des- 
champsia atropurpurea, Poa laxa, P. glauca, Agropyron violaceum. 
Most of these are circumpolar species which extend southward in 
the mountains. The distribution of each species was discussed. 

Dr. R. W. vShufeldt: Notes on some United States hatrachians. 
Dr. Shufeldt gave life histories and the peculiar habits of a large num- 
ber of North American forms of this interesting group, all the facts 
presented having been obtained through personal observations, either 
upon captive specimens or on the animals in their native habitats in 
the field. Among the forins touched upon were Jefferson's Amby- 
stoma, which the speaker has reared in captivity, and which he illus- 
trated with lantern slides, showing the eggs in the process of hatching 



proceedings: biological society 27 

as well as the young when several months old. Other forms taken 
from life and thrown upon the screen wei"e examples of the marbled 
salamander) Amhyst omaopacum) and the elegant spotted salamander 
(.4. punctatuin), shown in its teri-estrial attitudes as well as seen under 
water. This form is comparatively rare in the vicinity of AVashington, 
less than ten specimens having been collected within the last thirty 
years. Some six or eight other species of American salamanders were 
thrown upon the screen to illustiate their forms and attitudes in 
life. 

The peculiar habit the male of the water newt (Diemydylus viri- 
descens) has of hugging the female was shown from living specimens 
in an aquarium maintained by the speaker at the time these studies 
were made. This habit of Dieniydylus is quite independent of any 
sexual act during the breeding season, and has been especially referred 
to in the published life histories of the animal. 

Large colored drawings were exhibited, giving the rare Anderson's 
tree toad and several of the Hylidae. Additional presentations by 
means of lantern were given of all the frogs, toads, and hylas of the 
Atlantic States, as well as some southern species. The remarkable 
gopher frog of Florida was fully illustrated and its life history given 
in considerable detail. 

Dr. Shufeldt's remarks were discussed by Messrs. W. P. Hay, 
William Palmer, L. 0. Howard, A. Wetmore, and A. A. Doolittle. 

The 573d regular meeting of the Society was held in the Assembly 
Hall of the Cosmos Club, Saturday, November 3, 1917; called to order 
by President Hay at 8 p.m.; 58 persons in attendance. 

Informal brief notes were presented as follows: 

Dr. T. S. Palmer called attention to the fact that the first botanical 
society in this vicinity had been founded one hundred years ago, and 
that members who failed to attend its meetings were subject to fines. 
He also exhibited a recently issued Bibliography of British Ornithol- 
ogy, which in addition to the usual bibliographic data contains 
biographical sketches of the authors of titles listed in the bibliograph3\ 

Dr. L. O. Howard called attention to the recent centennial celebra- 
tion of the Medical Society of the District of Columbia. 

Dr. H. M. Smith reported that the recent fur-seal census shows 
an increase of about 10 per cent over the previous census, the total 
number being 468,000. He also reported that the flesh of whales, 
owing to the decreasing supplies of other meats, is being used for 
human food in the United States, especially on the Pacific Coast. 

Mr. C. Birdseye remarked that large quantities of palatable seal 
meat are annually thrown away by sealers along the northeast coast 
of North America. 

Lieutenant M. W. Lyon, Jr., exhibited a photograph of a human 
anatomical anomaly in. which a kidney and its corresponding ovary 
and uterine tube were lacking. It was the third case of congenital 
absence of a kidney which he had encountered in two years. 



28 proceedings: biological society 

Mr. William Palmer exhibited a sectioned tympanic bone of a 
whale and called attention to its great density and hardness. 

The regular program consisted of three communications. 

Rear-Admiral G. W. Baird: An unusual human specimen. He 
commented on and exhibited a lantern slide of a double monster in a 
native Filipino girl of usual intelligence. The external visible parasite 
consisted of two lower extremities. She had slight control over these 
extremities, much less now than when she was a small child. 

This communication was discussed by Drs. C. W. Stiles, M. W. 
Lyon, Jr., and R. W. Shufeldt. 

Vernon BaiLey: How the pine squirrels help to feed the bears of the 
Yellowstone Park. A general account of the bears in the park was 
given and it was shown that part of their diet* consists of pine seeds 
obtained from cones cut off by squirrels. Cones from which the bears 
had extracted seeds were exhibited. 

C. Birdseye: The fur industry of Labrador. A detailed account 
of this industry, including fur farming, was given and choice skins of 
the more important fur-bearing animals exhibited. This communica- 
tion was discussed by Mr. A. Wetmore and Dr. L. O. Howard. 

M. W. Lyon, Jr., Recording Secretary. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Vol. VIII JANUARY 19, 1918 No. 2 



HISTORY. — The origin and early days of the Philosophical So- 
ciety of Washington.^ William H. Dall, National Museum. 

The history of the scientific societies in Washington has been 
admirably told by Mr. G. Brown Goode in his memoir on the 
origin of the U. S. National Museum. There were, before the 
formation of the Philosophical Society, two or three societies, all 
of which finally died. One that included most of the naturalists 
was called the ''Potomac-Side Naturalist's Club;" and it is a 
matter of some little interest that I had recently a call from Prof. 
John Chickering, the son of Professor Chickering, of Gallaudet 
College, who was one of our former members; and he told me 
that in going over his father's papers, he found the records of 
meetings of the ''Potomac-Side Naturalist's Club." 

Then there was the National Institute, which struggled along 
for a number of years very bravely against adverse circumstances, 
and finally was obliged to give up on account of the expense of 
maintaining a museum and other things of that sort which were 
beyond the means of the members of such a small society. 

When I returned from Alaska in 1868, I found that there ex- 
isted in Washington a club of, I presume, about 20 members, 
which was, to the best of my recollection, called the "Physical 
Club." It may be added that its membership comprised some 
of the most distinguished men of science in Washington, and 

*An address delivered at the 789th meeting of the Philosophical Society of 
Washington, April 28, 1917. 

29 



30 dall: origin of philosophical society 

Professor Henry was chairman. General Sherman, Admiral Jen- 
kins, J. E. Hilgard, and a number of other men whose names are 
national property were members of this club. The general 
method was to have an address or paper by some member of 
the club, and afterward a social meeting with refreshments fur- 
nished by the host of that evening. They were most enjoyable 
evenings. However, in the course of time, it began to be felt 
by some of the members that the tax on the less wealthy mem- 
bers of the club was too great. The meetings were held fort- 
nightly, and in the course of the season they would come around 
several times to the same member. There were others who 
wished very much to join, but could hardly be accommodated 
in the houses of the old members; and after more or less discus- 
sion about it Professor Henry suggested to some of the men 
who brought the matter to his attention that they should appoint 
a committee to organize a society and to have the whole subject 
laid before the club, to form an organization that would omit the 
refreshment part of the entertainment; that would make for 
scientific purposes ; and that would be available for any scientific 
man, either visitor or resident of Washington, and would be re- 
stricted to men of science. 

The result of this was that a committee was formed whose 
report you have heard read by the Secretary. The meeting was 
held in the Regent's room of the Smithsonian Institution, and 
Professor Henry, by unanimous vote, was made chairman. 

A skeleton of a constitution and by-laws, which had been pre- 
pared by the Committee of the club, was presented at the meet- 
ing and adopted with some amendments. Then General Barnes, 
who was Surgeon-General, and was one of the members, was 
good enough to offer us more commodious quarters in the city. 
In those days coming over to the Smithsonian building, es- 
pecially at night, was something of a task. The paths were not 
paved; if it happened to be rainy it was a very muddy walk indeed. 
There was a rather rickety bridge at Tenth Street over a very 
bad smelling canal which we all had to cross in order to get into 
the Smithsonian grounds. I do not know whether any of the 
present members know that that part of Washington was for- 



dall: origin of phisosophical society 31 

merly known and is still known to old residents as ''The Island" 
because it was separated from the city by the James Creek Canal. 
It is that broad road just south of the Center Market that'was 
formerly the location of this canal, which formed a sort of semi- 
circle and came around the museum grounds enclosing the more 
elevated land on which the Smithsonian Institution stands, and 
then went southward through the wide lowland nearly parallel 
with New Jersey Avenue, Southwest, to rejoin the Potomac, 
where a small remnant not yet filled in still exists. At that time 
nearly all of the members of the Society lived in the city and 
therefore found it desirable to have the place of meeting where 
they would not have to go through the Smithsonian grounds, 
often through a considerable amount of mud. 

Probably those names that were read by the Secretary mean 
somewhat less to the members of the Society at present than 
they meant to us in those days, and I have made an analysis of 
the committee of the founders, which will, perhaps, throw a little 
light on the subject. 

From the Smithsonian Institution there were of course. Prof. 
Joseph Henry and William B. Taylor, who was a very erudite 
man and had a considerable part in the activities of the Institu- 
tion, T. R. Peale, S. F. Baird, Theodore Gill, and myself. From 
the Geological Survey (there was at that time no National Sur- 
vey) came Dr. F.V. Hayden; the Signal Service was represented 
by General A. J. Myer; from the office of the Nautical iVlmanac 
came J. H. C. Coffin, whose great w^ork on the Winds of the Globe 
is well known to all meteorologists. 

From the Army there were General Sherman, General Benet, 
General Hmnphreys, General George H. Elliott, General Casey, 
General Parke, and General Meigs, who built the Cabin John 
Bridge and had a good deal to do with many of our other princi- 
pal buildings here in the District ; from the Army Medical Musemn 
staff and the Medical Department of the Army there were Dr. 
Woodward, a microscopist of high reputation ; Dr. Otis, who was 
a distinguished anthropologist; Dr. J. S. Billings, to whom we owe 
the Index Medicus; and Dr. J. K. Barnes, who was Surgeon- 
General of the Army. Then there were Admiral Foote, Admiral 



32 dall: origin of philosophical society 

Sands, and Admiral Jenkins, and from the Naval Observatory 
Asaph Hall, Simon Newcomb, and William Harkness. These men 
were all distinguished. I suppose no Society of such a small 
number of persons as this ever had quite so many distinguished 
men in proportion to the whole number. I have always felt it 
a very great honor to have been permitted to join with them in 
calling myself a founder of the Society. 

The original number o founders, that is, those whose signa- 
tures were on the list for the formation of the Society, was 43, 
including Professor Henry who proposed the name. Philosophi- 
cal Society of Washington, giving to the adjective its original 
meaning implying the inclusion of all branches of science. No 
list of members was published in the Bulletin until 1874 when the 
number was 128, there having been four deaths of members, but 
during that time 85 additional members became connected with 
the Society. Professor Henry presided over the Society until 
his death in 1878. 

The Bulletin, which was issued shortly after the formation of 
the Society, when enough material had accmnulated to form a 
volume, was reprinted at Professor Henry's suggestion, as a vol- 
ume of the Miscellaneous Collections of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. That procedure was continued during Professor Baird's 
lifetime. The publications were made up, edited, and printed 
by the Society, the Smithsonian Institution publication being 
made by the use of stereotype plates. The reprint was not 
issued until 1888. 

Meetings were held at the offices of the Surgeon-General in 
the old Ford Theater Building, and were extremely interesting. 
The Society was made up of men who could say something 
interesting on almost every branch of science. 

We had some very remarkable work presented to the Society. 
We were privileged, I think, to have the first testing of the tele- 
phone. Mr. Bell was introduced by one of the members of the 
Society. A telephone wire and receiver were strung up in the 
room where we had our meeting and the transmitter was taken 
off into another room at some distance and each member of the 
Society was enabled to hear communications that came from the 



dall: origin of philosophical society 33 

other room. That was before 1876, when the first public ex- 
hibition of the telephone took place at the Centennial Exposi- 
tion at Philadelphia. 

Among other things, I remember a paper by Dr. A. F. A. King 
in which the mosquito theory of the transmission of malaria 
was fully set forth. Dr. King was one of those who originated 
the theory that the disease is transmitted by these insects. Of 
course, the theory required proof, and it was not till a good many 
years afterward that proof was furnished by contributors from the 
Medical Corps of the Army and others. 

Most of the papers in the early days were intended to be pub- 
lished elsewhere than in the Bulletin of the Society. They were 
read there for the information of the members, and when the 
Bulletin was printed, it would give the title of the paper and state 
the place in which it was published, and in that way reference 
could be had from the Bulletin to the place of publication of 
anything that was read before the Society. At first, of course, 
the pecuniary resources of the Society were not great and it 
could not afford to publish many papers, but owing to the fact 
that most of the members were members of the Government 
staff under one Bureau or another, and that the publication of 
their results would naturally have to be through Government 
agencies, the system adopted was fairly satisfactory. The Society 
was a great boon to all of us who desired to know something of 
what was going on in the departments of science with which we 
were not personally acquainted. 

I think that there were none of us but derived welcome and 
interesting information, and added to our store of knowledge 
from the communications that came from other members in 
quite different fields of work. I ought perhaps to mention one 
of the remarkable things that were done by members of the So- 
ciety at that time. This was the work of Dr. Woodward of the 
Army Medical Museum in microscopy. He was the first, as far 
as I know — at all events in this country, and I think the first 
anywhere — to succeed in getting a diatom photograph of a per- 
fection and size that would reveal, for instance, all the almost 
invisible, complete and beautiful ornamentation with which it is 



34 dall: origin of philosophical society 

provided. Dr. Woodward brought forth his new slides and ex- 
plained the working of the modifications that he made to his 
microscope in order to produce this work, and then threw on the 
screen the beautiful figures, sometimes of an ahnost invisible 
diatom enlarged to six feet high, showing every detail of its 
beautiful structure. They were very interesting indeed. In fact 
I might go on for a long time with reminiscences of what was 
brought before us; but we are to hear from others of what devel- 
oped in the Society as it grew larger and larger and the number 
of scientific men increased, and how bodies of our members formed 
other societies and gave to them independent lives. 



ABSTRACTS 

Authors of scientific papers are requested to see that abstracts, preferably 
prepared and signed by themselves, are forwarded promptly to the editors. 
Each of the scientific bureaus in Washington has a representative authorized to 
forward such material to this Journal and abstracts of official publications 
should be transmitted through the representative of the bureau in which they 
originate. The abstracts should conform in length and general style to those 
appearing in this issue. * 

GEODESY. — Descriptions of triangulation stations in Georgia. C. H. 

SwiCK. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Special Publication No. 

45. Pp. 43, with 1 illustration. 1917. 
This volume is supplementary to Triangulation in Georgia, U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey Special Publication No. 43, abstracted in a 
preceding number of this Journal (7:584. 1917), and contains all 
available descriptions of the triangulation stations in Georgia whose 
geographic positions are given in the previous volume. Practically all 
of the triangulation data in Georgia, the observations for which were 
made before 1917, are now in published form and so are readily avail- 
able for the use of engineers, geographers, and surveyors. 

C. H. S. 

GEOLOGY. — The De Soto-Red River oil and gas field, Louisiana. 

George Charlton Matson and Oliver Baker Hopkins. U. S. 

Geological Survey Bulletin 661-C. Pp. 40, with maps, sections, 

and illustrations. 1917. 
The De Soto-Red River oil and gas field lies in the northwestern 
part of Louisiana. In 1912, gas was discovered in De Soto Parish 
near Naborton at a depth of about 800 feet. Deep drilling resulted in 
the discovery of small quantities of oil, and on May 10, 1913, the com- 
pletion of the Gulf Refining Company's Jenkins well No. 2 proved the 
presence of a notable oil pool. The producing oil and gas bearing 
sands are in the Gulf series of Upper Cretaceous age. 

The shales associated with the sands and in some places the sands 
themselves contain considerable organic matter which was apparently 
derived chiefly from vegetation, and it is believed that the oil and gas 
were formed from this organic matter by slow cKemical changes, which 
may have been facilitated by moderately high temperature and the 

35 



36 abstracts: geology 

pressure caused by the load of sediments that overHe them, and by 
the thrusts to which they have been subjected. 

The gas and oil in the De Soto-Red River field were probably accu- 
mulated under hydraulic pressure. This hypothesis is supported by 
the relations of these substances to the structure and by the occurrence 
of the oil in very productive pools of small area. R. W. Stone. 

GEOLOGY. — The Bowdoin dome, Montana, a possible reservoir of oil or 
gas. Arthur J. Collier. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 
661-E. Pp. 17, with maps, sections, and illustrations. 1917. 
The Bowdoin dome is situated on Milk River, in northeastern Mon- 
tana, on the main line of the Great Northern Railway between Malta 
on the west and Hinsdale on the east. A well drilled here for water 
several years ago has been yielding a small flow of gas ever since, and 
it is thought that the region offers a chance of success to the driller of 
deeper wells. In 1915 a large gas well was drilled at Havre. Only the 
Upper Cretaceous Claggett shale, Judith River formation, and Bear- 
paw shale, and some of the more recent surficial deposits are exposed 
in the immediate vicinity of the Bowdoin dome. The structure revealed 
by the Judith River formation in its outcrop around the valley of Milk 
River is that of a very broad, flat dome. The dips of the sandstone 
are so low as not to be detected by the unaided eye and are best re- 
corded in feet to the mile. There is no place around the dome where a 
dip as high as 1 degree has been found. 

The Bowdoin dome has a structure which if found in Oklahoma or 
Ohio would be regarded as favorable for the accumulation of oil or gas. 

R. W. Stone. 

GEOLOGY. — The Corsicana oil and gas field, Texas. George Charl- 
ton Matson and Oliver Baker Hopkins. U. S. Geological 
Survey Bulletin 661-F. Pp. 43, with maps, sections, and 
illustrations. 1917. 
The Corsicana oil and gas field, in Navarro County, Texas, measures 
20 miles from north to south and 10 miles from east to west. Oil was 
first discovered here in the city of Corsicana, and the field has been 
productive for more than twenty years. 

The oil and gas are obtained from the upper part of the Upper 
Cretaceous, the light oil and the gas in the Corsicana oil pool and in the 
Chatfield and Edens gas pools probably coming from the Taylor marl 
and the heavy oil and the gas in the other pools from the Navarro 



abstracts: geology 37 

formation. This field continue^ to yield almost the entire production 
of Texas until 1909, when the gas fields of Clay County were developed. 
The Lower Cretaceous formations have not been reached in any of the 
wells in the Corsicana field. 

The strata in the Corsicana field dip in general to the southeast at 
a rate of 50 to 100 feet to the mile. The uniformity in direction and 
amount of dip is interrupted at a number of places by folds, but none 
of the folds are continuous over large areas. The greatest dips observed 
on the folds are at the rate of 560 feet to the mile, and these high dips 
are confined to small areas. The irregularities in the normal position 
of the strata seems to have been produced by forces acting in two 
directions, as two sj^stems of folds are determinable — one approxi- 
matelj^ parallel to the dip of the rocks and the other at right angles to 
it. So far as observed, there is no evidence of faulting, or breaking of 
the rock strata, in this field. 

A review of the discussion of the structure or a study of the structure 
map of the Corsicana field shows that oil and gas occur in this field 
under two different structural conditions. They have accumulated 
along the crests of well-defined anticlines, as in the Burke pool, and 
also in beds of fairly uniform dip, as in the Corsicana pool. Drilling 
has shown, however, that the sands of this field are lenticular and vary 
in porosity and thickness from place to place. 

In the Corsicana district there are at least two productive sands 
which are believed to belong to the Taylor formation — the Corsicana 
and Edens sands. The Corsicana sand is the principal producing sand 
and yields light oil and a small amount of gas at a number of places, 
particularly toward the north end of the district. 

The oil of the Corsicana field is believed to have originated from 
organic matter in the shales that inclose the sands and to a minor extent 
in the sands themselves. R. W. Stone. 

GEOLOGY. — Structure of the northern part of the Bristow quadranylp, 

Creek County, Oklahoma, with reference to petroleum and natural 

gas. A. E. Fath. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 661-B. Pp. 

31, with maps, sections, and illustrations. 1917. 

The rocks exposed at the surface in the Bristow quadrangle and 

those beneath it to a depth of 2500 feet or more are a part of the Penn- 

sylvanian series, the series to which belong the surface rocks throughout 

the oil fields of northeastern Oklahoma. The strata dip slightly north 

of west about 50 feet to the mile, or a little more than half a degree. 



38 abstracts: parasitology 

However, the westward slope of the beds is modified by variations in 
the rate of dip, by local folds, and by small faults. Accumulations of 
oil and gas are generally found in close relation to local irregularities 
in the general structure of a region, and it is to such folds and irregu- 
larities that attention is principally directed in this paper. 

R. W. Stone. 

PARASITOLOGY. — Life history of Ascaris lumbricoides and 7'elated 
forms. B. H. Ransom and W. D, Foster. Journ. Agr. Research 
11: 395-398. November 19, 1917. 
The development of A. lumbricoides and closely related forms is 
direct, and no intermediate host is required. The eggs, when swal- 
lowed, hatch out*in the alimentary tract; the embryos, however, do 
not at once settle down in the intestine, but migrate to various other 
organs, including the liver, spleen, and lungs. Within a week, in the 
case of the pig Ascaris, the riiigrating larvae may be found in the lungs 
and have meanwhile undergone considerable development and growth. 
From the lungs the larvae migrate up the trachea and into the esopha- 
gus by way of the pharynx, and this migration up the trachea may 
already become established as early as a week after infection. Upon 
reaching the alimentary tract after their passage through the lungs, 
the larvae, if in a suitable host, presumably settle down in the intestine 
and complete their development to maturity; if in an unsuitable host, 
such as rats and mice, they soon pass out of the body in the feces. 
Heavy invasions ©f the lungs by the larvae of Ascaris produce a serious 
pneumonia which is frequently fatal in rats, mice, and guinea pigs, 
and apparently caused the death of a young pig one week after it had 
been fed with numerous Ascaris eggs. It is not improbable that 
ascarids are frequently responsible for lung troubles in children, pigs, 
and other young animals. Age is a highly important factor in deter- 
mining susceptibility to infection with Ascaris, and susceptibility to 
infection greatly decreases as the host animal becomes older. 

B. H. R. 

PARASITOLOGY. — Oil of chenopodium and chloroform as anthel- 
mintics. M. C. Hall and W. D. Foster. Journ. Amer. Med. 
Associat. 68: 1961-1963. June 30, 1917. 
Oil of chenopodium as an anthelmintic should be accompanied by 
large doses of castor oil, and when so given is a very effective and safe 
remedy against ascarids. Chloroform in castor oil was found to be 
more effective against hookworms than any other remedy tested. 

B. H. R. 



abstracts: parasitology 39 

PARASITOLOGY. — The occurrence in the United States of certain 

nematodes of ruminants transmissible to man. B. H. Ransom. 

N. Orl. M. & S. J. 69: 294-298. October, 1916. 

Attention is called to the fact that three of the four species of the 

nematode genus TricJtostrongylus that have been recorded as parasites 

of man are of more or less common occurrence in ruminants in the 

United States, indicating the probability that they also occur in human 

beings in this country but have been overlooked. B. H. R. 

PARASITOLOGY. — The zoological position of the Sarcosporidia. 

Howard Crawley. Proc. Acad. Phila. 68: 379-388. August 

14, 1916. 

The Sarcosporidia are usually assigned to the Neosporidia, one of 

the two subclasses recognized as making up the class Sporozoa, but 

it is considered by the present writer that they belong in the other 

subclass, Telosporidia and should be placed in the order Coccidio- 

morpha, which accordingly would include three suborders — Coccidia, 

Haemosporidia, and Sarcosporidia. The probability is suggested in 

view of certain evidence given that the Sarcosporidia in their normal 

life cycle depend upon an alternation of hosts, at least one of which 

must be a carnivorous animal. B. H. Ransom. 

PARASITOLOGY. — Serum therapy for trichinosis. Benjamin 
Schwartz. Journ. Amer. Med. Associat. 69: 884-886. Sep- 
tember 15, 1917. 
Serum from animals convalescent from trichinosis when injected 
into other animals did not produce immunity to trichinosis in the 
latter. Trichinous meat mixed with serum from animals during the 
active or convalescent stage of the disease proved to be still capa- 
ble of producing the disease. Animals once infected and harboring 
trichinae in their muscles were not immune to further infection when 
fed trichinous meat. Serum from a trichinous animal had no observ- 
able ill effects on the larvae freed from their cysts by artificial diges- 
tion. None of the results of the experiments appears to be in har- 
mony with the assertions made by Salzer (1916, 1917) concerning the 
value of serum from convalescent animals as a prophylactic or curative 
agent in trichinosis. B. H. Ransom. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY AND AFFILIATED 

SOCIETIES 

BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 574th regular meeting of the Society was held in the Assembly- 
Hall of the Cosmos Club, Saturday, November 17, 1917; called to order 
by President Hay at 8 p.m.; 78 persons present. 

On recommendation of the Council the following named persons were 
elected to membership: Miss Katherine A. Stuart, Alexandria, Va.; 
H. C. Fuller, Institute for Industrial Research, Washington, D. C; 
Herbert Popenoe, Assistant Editor, Journal of Heredity, Washington, 
D. C. 

Under the heading brief notes and exhibition of specimens. Dr. R. W. 
Shufeldt exhibited two grasshoppers, the black Louisiana form of 
Rhomaleum micropterum, and a specimen of the same species from 
Florida, the latter being much lighter in color, a sort of tan with a ten- 
dency in places to pinkish and greenish. 

The regular program was a symposium : Recently introduced pests 
and the problem of accidental introductions. 

1. C. L. Marlatt: The pink bollworm of cotton, illustrated by lantern 
slides. (No abstract.) 

2. A. L. Quaintance: Recently introduced fruit insects, illustrated 
by lantern slides. (No abstract.) 

3. Perley Spaulding: Some biological aspects of the spread of the 
white-pine blister rust, illustrated by lantern slides. Mr. Spaulding 
said that the white-pine blister rust probably originated in Asia, spread 
thence to Europe, and more recently to North America. The factors 
concerned in its distribution are: (1) Man aids distribution by exten- 
sive long distance shipment of nursery stock of pines and possibly of 
Rib3s infected by this disease. He hinders distribution by quarantines 
and inspections of nursery stock shipments. (2) Animals and insects 
carry the spores about on their bodies thus aiding local spread of dis- 
ease. They also hinder the production of spores by eating the fruiting 
bodies and the surrounding host tissues. Gypsy moth larvae which are 
known to be blown for miles feed freely upon the spores and in infected 
areas the spores stick in great numbers to their bodies. (3) Wind blows 
the spores freely about, as well as gypsy moth larvae which bear spores 
upon their bodies. Rain hinders spread by beating down spores which 
are floating about in the air. Sunlight within a short time destroys the 
viability of exposed spores. 

This disease is but one of many which has spread from one country to 
another and in many cases from one country throughout the world. 
A list of thirty such diseases caused by bacteria and by representatives 

40 



proceedings: biological society 41 

of all the largo groups of parasitic fungi was given, together with the 
country of origin and present distribution. The conclusion was drawn 
that it is necessary to control the commercial importation of living plants 
in such a way that only healthy plants will be received in this country. 

4. L. 0. Howard : tiome points for consideration in a discussion of the 
problem of accidental introduction. Dr. Howard discussed briefly the 
influence which our knowledge of the broad life zones of the world might 
have in regard to restrictive legislation among nations, and the influ- 
ence which our knowledge of the life zones of the United States, largely 
due to Merriam and the Bureau of Biological Survey of the Department 
of Agriculture, might have on sectional quarantines. He pointed out 
the greater probability of the establishment of an injurious form com- 
ihg from what might be termed a "parallel life zone" — as from the 
Nearctic to the Palearctic — than from another zone, but showed that 
recent experience has indicated that the country is not free from danger 
from certain pests coming from zones of radically different types of life. 
He invited discussion of the broader biological aspects of the question. 

Prof. H. Maxwell-Lefroy, Imperial College of Science, London, 
Prof. W. M. Wheeler, Bussey Institution, Harvard University, E. W. 
Nelson, J. B. Gordon, and Vernon Bailey took part in the discussion. 

The 575th regular meeting of the Society was held in the Assembly 
Hall of the Cosmos Club, Saturday, December 1, 1917; called to order 
by President Hay at 8 p.m.; 26 persons present. 

On recommendation of the Council, Lee R. Dice, of the University of 
Montana, was elected to membership. 

The following informal communications were presented: 

Dr. Walter P. Taylor: Exhibition and discussion of 'distribution of 
marmots from the State of Washington. Dr. Taylor exhibited specimens 
of marmots collected in the State of Washington, where both the caligata 
and flaviventris groups are represented, citing certain facts in their dis- 
tribution which emphasizes the principle that the extent of zonal dis- 
tribution of an animal depends, not alone on the temperature and other 
requirements of that animal, but also upon the presence or absence, in 
particular restricted areas, of closely related types filling the same or a 
similar niche in the economy of nature. He also called attention to 
the fact that the distribution of these animals is in harmony with 
what we know of the antiquity of the Columbia River as a barrier to the 
distribution of boreal forms, and suggested that as compared with the 
portions of the Cascade Mountains north and south of the Columbia 
River, the Olympic Mountains have probably been isolated compara- 
tively recently. Discussed by Gen. T. E. Wilcox. 

Alex. Wetmore discussed the peculiar molting in ducks by which 
the large wing feathers are simultaneously shed, rendering the birds 
flightless for a period during which time they take refuge in marshes. 

Dr. T. S. Palmer called attention to the recent successful meeting 
of the A. O. U^. and the interest now taken in birds of foreign countries. 



42 proceedings: botanical society 

Di". L. O. Howard made remarks on a recent article in a French sci- 
entific journal giving analysis of bread found on a Zeppelin, some of 
rye made into sandwiches of suet, and some of rye and rice with cheese, 
it being of notably better quality than bread taken from German pris- 
oners, some of the latter being made in part of the inner bark of pop- 
lar trees. 

W. P. Hay exhibited lantern slides of the marine turtles of east- 
ern North America with an account of their habits, distinctive 
characters, and uses to man. Discussed by Gen. T. E. Wilcox and by 
Admiral Baird who described a native method of catching hawkbill 
turtles without injuring the skull. 

Alex. Wetmore remarked on red bats seen November 17. Dis- 
cussed by Vernon Bailey and by M. W. Lyon, Jr., who had seen brown 
bats flying in the evening during the Christmas holidays several years 
ago at Hyattsville. 

The regular program was as follows: 

Charles Wardell Stiles: Haak as author of Br-isson's 1762 edition 
of Regnum Animate. Dr. Stiles being out of the city on sanitary work 
at one of the southern military camps, the paper was presented by Dr. 
T. S. Palmer. The work was exhibited and it was shown thatBrisson 
was not its author. Dr. Palmer gave some interesting facts about the 
life of Brisson and some of his contemporary associates. 

Lieut. M. W. Lyon, Jr.: The relative resistance of the red blood cor- 
puscles of the sheep, ox, and hog. A resume of the hemolytic action of 
human serum, certain fish serum, and hypotonic salt solutions on these 
corpuscles was given. The results are being published in the Journal 
of Infectious Diseases. 

M. W. Lyon, Jr., Recording Secretary. 

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 123d regular meeting of the Society was held at the Cosmos 
Club, Tuesday, November 6, 1917. Fifty-nine members and 4 guests 
were present. Among the guests were Dr. L. P. De Bussy, now on 
his way from Sumatra to Amsterdam, Holland, to become' Director of 
the Colonial Museum at the latter place, and also Prof. H. H. Whetzel, 
in charge of the Plant Pathology Department, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y. The program was devoted to a discussion of some of 
the newly-discovered diseases of corn. 

G. N. Collins: Maize: Its origi^i and relationships. The reasons 
for believing that maize has originated as a hybrid between teosinte, 
EuchlaeJia 7nexicana, and some member of the Andropegoneae were 
reviewed.^ Maize is dependent on cross fertilization for normal and 
vigorous development. It has now been demonstrated that teosinte 
does not share with maize this intolerance of self-pollination. Thus 
maize appears to be unique among the grasses in possessing this charac- 
teristic of hybrids. The inheritances of the characters separating 
maize and teosinte have been studied in hybrids and none were found 

1 Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 2, .520-530. 1912. 



proceedings: botanical society 43 

to be either alternative or Mendelian. These resuUs were advanced 
as evidence against the hypothesis that maize has originated by muta- 
tion from teosinte. A summary of the evidence to date was held to 
support the view that t(>osinte and the unknown ancestor of maize 
had evolved by gradual changes along divergent lines and that the 
divergence took place before the separation of the Maydeae and the 
Andropogoneae. 

Evidence was presented for believing that the Maydeae and Andro- 
pogoneae were closely related and should not be considered as separate 
tribes. It was urged that a recognition of the close relationship of 
these two groups was of practical importance in the study of maize 
diseases and as a guide in establishing quarantine regulations. 

W. H. Weston: The downy mildews of maize, their origin and distri- 
bution. During the past twentj^ years considerable alarm has been 
occasioned by several serious downy mildews which have appeared on 
maize and its relatives in the eastern tropics. Peronospora Maydis 
Rac. has been very destructive to maize in Java, Madoorah, and Atjeh 
since 1892; and although Euchlaena has so far proven immune, crosses 
of this plant with maize are extremely susceptible. Sclerospora sac- 
chari Miy. was reported in 1911 as causing serious injury to maize 
and sugar cane, and capable of inoculation onto Euchlaena, in For- 
mosa; and was later found also in Queensland and the Fiji Islands. 
Sclerospora Maydis (Rac.) But. appeared on maize in India about 
1913; and in 1916 a species of Sclerospora, possibly identical with this, 
was found to be destroying the maize crop in certain parts of the Philip- 
pines. Since these parasites are unknown in the Americas where 
maize originated, it is probabl^ they have spread to maize from some 
of the several related grasses native to the Orient. To prevent the 
tremendous loss that would undoubtedly follow the introduction of 
these diseases into the United States, the importation of maize and 
its relatives from infected countries has been prohibited. 

G. R. Lyman: Plant Disease Survey ivork on the Physoderma disease 
of maize. This disease was first found in this country by Barrett at 
Urbana, Illinois, in 1912. It was first reported as of economic impor- 
tance by Barre in South Carolina in 1914. During the next two years, 
the disease was found to be prevalent in North and South Carolina, 
Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi. In 1917, it was also found 
generally distributed in Tennessee. 

In September of this year, the Plant Disease Survey put twelve 
scouts into the field to act in cooperation with the Office of Cereal 
Investigations, Bureau of Plant Industry. In addition to the states 
named, the disease was found to be prevalent in eastern Virginia, 
Kentucky, southern Illinois, southeastern Missouri, Arkansas, and 
Louisiana, and to be sparsely present as far north as New Jersey, 
southern Minnesota, and South Dakota, and as far west as central 
Nebraska and central Texas. It has evidently spread as far as cli- 
matic limitations will permit its development, being inhibited by cold 
weather in the North and by lack of moisture in the West. 

An intensive study was made of selected regions in the South Atlan- 



44 proceedings: botanical society 

tic and Gulf States to obtain data on the seriousness of the disease and 
on its relation to various environmental factors. High temperature 
and moisture are necessary for extensive development, and in favor- 
able regions in the South the disease causes a damage of 5 per cent 
to 10 per cent. It will not be a serious factor in the North and West 
except locally and under exceptional conditions. 

The disease was also found on teosinte at two points in South Caro- 
lina and at one point in Louisiana. 

Heavy infection of fields never before planted to corn may be ex- 
plained by the presence of other host plants or by the carriage of infec- 
tion on the seed corn. 

The 124th regular meeting of the Society was held at the Cosmos 
Club, Tuesday, December 4, 1917; 72 members and 8 guests were 
present. 

C. S. Scofield: Geographical aspects of Haitian agriculture. Haiti 
lies adjacent to the steamship route between New York and Panama 
and has the most direct access to our markets of any of the American 
Tropics. The climate is favorable to crop production, the land is fertile, 
and the dense population provides a cheap and abundant supply of labor. 
The coastal delta plains are favorably located for irrigation and the 
production of sugar cane and cotton, and the hill slopes are well suited 
to coffee, which is now the chief commodity of export. The interior 
plains and the higher mountain slopes produce an abundance of grass 
for stock production. 

The present government, with American cooperation, has eliminated 
the conditions of internal disturbance that formerly retarded develop- 
ment and prosperity. The construction of roads and the protection 
of the peacefully inclined inhabitants is resulting in greatly increased 
crop production, which is opportune at this time. 

C. B. Doyle: Botanical aspects of Haitian agriculture. In Haiti 
there is very little left to represent the original forest covering. The 
primitive milpa system of agriculture is used and the natives live in 
scattered families or small groups. There are only a few large planta- 
tions on the island, the bulk of the crops of the three principal exports 
(coffee, cacao, and cotton) being produced on the small native farms. 

Most of the food plants are of American origin, but as in many 
tropical American countries, it is the introduced species that have 
become of the greatest importance to the natives. Many different 
kinds of fine fruits are abundant, but several species prominent in 
other parts of tropical America, such as the papaya, sapote, sapodilla, 
and pineapple, are absent or little used. Among the root crops that 
are commonly grown are sweet potatoes, yams, yautias, and cassava, 
and more recently white potatoes are being successfully produced in 
the cool mountain districts southeast of Port au Prince. 

In comparison with other tropical countries, conditions appear 
favorable for crop production in Haiti, if a more effective organization 
of agriculture can be established, together with a better means of 
marketing the products. 

H. N. Vlstall, Corresponding Secretary. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Vol. VIII FEBRUARY 4, 1918 No. 3 



CHEMISTRY.— MeMorfs of gas warfare.' S. J. M. Auld, 
British Military Mission. (Communicated by L. J. Briggs). 

All I can do in the short time available is to give you, if I can, 
a general idea of what gas warfare really means on the Western 
Front at the present time. Some of you may have gotten the 
idea that gas is just an incident, and that there is not as much 
attention being paid to it as there was two years ago. That 
idea is entirely wrong. Gas is used to a tremendous extent, and 
the amount that has been and is being hurled back and forth in 
shells and clouds is almost unbelievable. I will try to give you 
a general idea of what is occurring and make the lecture rather 
a popular than a technical description. I shall also, for obvious 
reasons, have to confine myself to describing what the Germans 
have been doing, and will say nothing about what we are doing, 

Possibl}^ the best plan would be to state more or less chron- 
ologically what occurred. I happened to be present at the 
first gas attack and saw the whole gas business from the begin- 
ning. The first attack was made in April, 1915. A deserter 
had come into the Ypres salient a week before the attack was 
made, and had told us the whole story. They were preparing 
to poison us with gas, and had cyhnders installed in their 
trenches. No one believed him at all, and no notice was taken 
of it. 

' Report of a lecture delivered before the Washington Academy of Sciences 
on January 17, 1918. 

45 



46 auld: methods of gas warfare 

Then came the first gas attack, and the whole course of the 
war changed. That first attack, of course, was made against 
men who were entirely unprepared — absolutely unprotected. 
You have read quite as much about the actual attack and the 
battle as 1 could tell you, but the accounts are still remarkably 
meager. The fellows who could have told most about it didn't 
come back. The Germans have claimed that we had 6000 
killed and as many taken prisoners. They left a battle field 
such as had never been seen before in warfare, ancient or modern, 
and one that has had no compeer in the whole war except on the 
Russian front. 

What the Germans expected to accomplish by it I am not 
sure. Presumably they intended to win the war, and they might 
conceivably have won it then and there if they had foreseen the 
tremendous effect of the attack. It is certain that they expected 
no immediate retaliation, as they had provided no protection 
for their own men. They made a clear and unobstructed gap 
in the lines, which was only closed by the Canadians, who rallied 
on the left and advanced, in part through the gas cloud itself. 

The method first used by the Germans, and retained ever 
since, is fairly simple, but requires great preparation l^eforehand. 
A hole is dug in the bottom of the trench close underneath the 
parapet, and a gas cylinder is buried in the hole. It is an ordi- 
nary cyhnder, like that used for oxygen or hydrogen. It is then 
covered first with a ciuilt of moss, containing potassium car- 
bonate solution, and then with sand bags. When the attack is 
to be made the sand bags and protecting cover are taken off 
the cylinder, and each cylinder is connected with a lead pipe 
which is bent over the top of the parapet. A sand bag is laid 
on the nozzle to prevent the back "kick" of the outrushing 
gas from throwing the pipe back into the trench. Our own 
methods are practically identical with those first used by the 
Germans. 

The success of a cloud gas attack depends on thorough prep- 
aration beforehand. The attackers must know the country, 
the layout of the trenches, and the direction and velocity of 
the wind with certainty. Favorable conditions are limited 
jjractically to wind velocities between 12 and 4 miles an hour. 



auld: methods of gas warfare 47 

A wind of more than 12 miles an hour disperses the gas cloud 
very rapidl}-. .\n upward current of air is the worst foe of gas. 
The weight of the gas is not an important factor in carrying it 
along, for it mixes rapidly with air to form the moving ■"cloud." 
The time occupied by a gas attack is too short to permit of 
much diffusion of the gas out of the original mixture. 

The gas attack must be planned very carefull}-. If the trench 
line is very irregulai- it is likel}^ that gas will flow into a portion 
of one's own trenches. The limits of safety in wind direction 
are thus determined by the direction of the lines of the trenches. 
The Germans use a 40° angle of safety; that means that on a 
given straight portion of the front the wdnd direction must lie 
between the two directions which make angles of 40° with the 
neighboring sections of the front. The most suitable type of 
country is where the ground slopes gently away from where the 
gas is being discharged. The Germans made one mistake in 
believing that hilly or wooded country would not do. This 
was refuted by the French, who made a successful gas attack 
in hilly and wooded country in the Vosges, as admitted in a 
captured German report. If the country is flat like that about 
Ypres, and the wind direction is right, there is very little diffi- 
culty about making an attack, especially if the enemy does not 
know anything about it. The element of surprise is important. 

German gas attacks are made by two Regiments of Pioneers, 
with highl}^ technical officers, including engineers, meteorolo- 
gists, and chemists. They brought their first cylinders into the 
hne without our knowing anything about it, except from the 
deserter's report which was not believed. The element of sur- 
prise was greatly lessened when we began to know what to look 
for and to recognize the sounds incident to the preparation of a 
gas attack. 

The first attack was made with chlorine. If a gas attack is 
to be made with gas clouds, the number of gases available is 
limited. The gas must be easily compressible, easily made in 
large quantities, and should be considerably heavier than air. 
If to this is added the necessity of its being very toxic and of 
low chemical reactivity, the choice is practically reduced to 
two gases: chlorine and phosgene. Chlorine is to gas warfare 



48 auld: methods of gas warfare 

what nitric acid is to liigh explosives. Pure chlorine did not 
satisfy quite all the requirements, as it is very active chemically 
and therefore easily absorbed. Many men in the first attack 
who ha^d sufficient presence of mind saved themselves by burying 
their faces in the earth, or by stuffing their mufflers in their 
mouths and wrapping them around their faces. 

There were several gas attacks of almost exactly the same 
kind early in 1915. There was no gas between the end of May, 
1915, and December, 1915, and by that time adequate protec- 
tion had been provided. 

The first protection was primitive. It consisted largely of 
respirators made by women in England in response to an appeal 
by Kitchener. They were pads of cotton wool wrapped in 
muslin and soaked in solutions of sodium carbonate and thio- 
sulfate; sometimes they were soaked only in water. A new 
type appeared almost every week. One simple type consisted 
of a pad of cotton waste wrapped up in muslin together with a 
separate wad of cotton waste. These were kept in boxes in the 
trenches, and on the word ''gas" six or eight men would make 
a dive for the box, stuff some waste into their mouths, then 
fasten on the pad and stuff the waste into the space around the 
nose and mouth. But this got unpopular after a bit, when it 
was discovered that the same bits of waste were not always 
used by the same men. During the early part of 1915 this was 
the only protection used. 

Then came the helmet made of a flannel bag soaked in thio- 
sulfate and carbonate, with a mica window in it. A modified 
form of this device with different chemicals is still used in the 
British army as a reserve protection. It is put over the head 
and tucked into the jacket, and is fool-proof as long as well 
tucked down. This stood up very well against chlorine. 

In 1915 we got word from our Intelligence Department of a 
striking kind. It consisted of notes of some very secret lectures 
given in Germany to a number of the senior officers. These 
lectures detailed materials to be used, and one of them was 
phosgene, a gas which is very insidious and difficult to protect 
against. We had to hurry" up to find protection against it. 



auld: methods of gas warfare 49 

The outcome was a helmet saturated with sodium phenate. The 
concentration of gases when used in a cloud is small, and 1 to 
1000 by volume is relatively very strong. The helmet easily 
gave protection against phosgene at a normal concentration of 
1 part in 10,000. That helmet was used when the next attack 
cahie in Flanders, on the 19th of December. This attack was 
in many ways an entirely new departure and marked a new 
era in gas warfare. 

There are three things that really matter in gas warfare, and 
these were all emphasized in the attack of December. They 
are: (1) increased concentration; (2) surprise in tactics; (3) the 
use of unexpected new materials. 

Continued efforts have been made on both sides to increase 
the concentration. The first gas attack, in April, 1915, lasted 
about one and a half hours. The attack in May lasted three 
hours. The attack in December was over in thirty minutes. 
Thus, assuming the number of cylinders to be the same (one 
cylinder for every meter of front in which they were operating), 
the last attack realized just three times the concentration of 
the first, and six times the concentration obtained in May. 
Other cloud gas attacks followed, and the time was steadily 
reduced; the last attacks gave only ten to fifteen minutes for 
each discharge. We believe that the cylinders are now put in 
at the rate of three for every two meters of front, and may even 
be double banked. 

The element of surprise came in an attack by night. The 
meteorological conditions are much better at night than during 
the day. The best two hours out of the twenty-four, when 
steady and downward currents exist, are the hour between 
sunset and dark and the hour between dawn and sunrise. Gas 
attacks have therefore been frequently made just in the gloam- 
ing or early morning, between lights. This took away one of 
the easy methods of spotting gas, that of seeing it, and we had 
to depend upon the hissing noises made by the escaping gas, and 
upon the sense of smell. 

Another element of surprise was the sending out of more 
than one cloud in an attack. After the first cloud the men 



50 auld: methods of gas warfare 

would think it was all over, but ten minutes or half an hour 
later there would come another cloud on exactly the same front. 
These tactics were very successful in at least one case, namely, 
the attack near Hulluch in 1916. Some of the troops discarded 
their helmets after the first wave and were caught on the sec- 
ond, which was very much stronger than the first. 

Efforts were also made to effect surprise by silencing the gas. 
But silencers reduced the rate of escape so greatly that the 
loss of efficiency from low concentration more than made up for 
the gain in suddenness. Another method was to mix the gas 
up with smoke, or to alternate gas and smoke, so that it would 
be difficult to tell where the gas began and the smoke ended. 

The last attack made on the British by this means was in 
August, 1916. Since that time the Germans have used gas 
three times on the West Front against the French, and have also 
used it against the Italians and the Russians. It has been 
practically given up against the British, although the method is 
by no means dead. 

The last attack was a slight set-back in the progress of gas 
defense. The casualties had been brought down to a minimum, 
and, as shown by the fact that the percentage of deaths was 
high, protection was complete in all cases where used, casualties 
being due to unpreparedness in some form. The attack in 
question was brought on under difficult conditions for the de- 
fenders, as it was made on new troops during a relief when twice 
as many men were in the trenches as normally. Furthermore, 
they had to wear helmets while carrying their complete outfit 
for the relief. This was the second time the Germans caught 
us in a relief, whether through information or luck we cannot 
say. 

The protection that had been devised against phosgene proved 
effective at the time, but provision was made to meet increased 
concentration of phosgene. We never had any actual evidence 
during the attack that phosgene was being used, as no samples 
were actually taken from the cloud, but cylinders of phosgene 
were captured later. Glass vacuum tubes, about 10 by 30 cm., 
with a tip that could be broken off and then closed by a plasti- 



atjld: methods of gas warfare 51 

cine-lined glass cap, were distributed, but the only one that 
came back was an unopened tube found in a hedge, and marked 
by the finder "Dangerous; may contain cholera germs." In 
a gas attack everybody keeps quiet or else has a job on hand, 
and conditions are not conducive to the taking of gas samples. 
The original types of vacuum tube were smaller than those now 
used. 

There was a long search for materials that would absorb 
phosgene, as there are few substances that react readily with it. 
The successful suggestion came from Russia. The substance 
now used very extensively by all is hexamethylenetetramine 
(urotropine) (CH2)8N4, which reacts very rapidly with phosgene. 
Used in conjunction with sodium phenale, it will protect against 
phosgene at a concentration of 1 : 1000 for a considerable period. 
An excess of sodium hydroxide is used with the sodium phenate, 
and a valve is provided in the helmet for the escape of exhaled 
air. The valve was originally devised so that the hydroxide 
would not be too rapidly carbonated, but it was found in addi- 
tion that there is a great difference in ease of breathing and 
comfort if a valve is placed in the mask. The helmet is put 
on over the head, grasped with left hand around the neck and 
tucked into the jacket. This form is still used in reserve. 

By this time gas shells were beginning to be used in large 
numbers, and it became evident that protection by a fabric 
could not be depended on with certainty. The box type of 
respirator was the next development. Respirators have to ful- 
fill two requirements which are quite opposed to one another. 
In the first place they should be sufficiently large and elaborate 
to give full protection against any concentration of any gas, 
whereas military exigency requires that they be light and com- 
fortable. It is necessary to strike a balance between these two. 
Upon a proper balance depends the usefulness of the respirator. 
Oxygen apparatus will not do on account of its weight and its 
limited life. Two hours' life is excessive for that type. The 
side that can first force the other to use oxygen respirators for 
protection has probably won the war. 

The concentrations of gas usually met with are really very 
low. As has been said, a high concentration for a gas cloud is 



52 auld: methods of gas warfare 

1 part in 1000, whereas concentrations of two or three per cent 
can be met by respirators depending on chemical reactivity. 
One such respirator is a box of chemicals connected by a flexible 
tube with a face-piece fitting around the contours of the face, 
and provided with a mouthpiece and nosepiece. 

As regards the chemicals used there is no secret, for the Ger- 
mans have many of the same things. Active absorbent char- 
coal is one of the main reliances, and is another suggestion that 
we owe to the Russians. Wood charcoal was used in one of 
their devices and was effective, but most of the Russian soldiers 
had no protection at all. 

We wanted to protect against chlorine, acids and acid-forming 
gases, phosgene, etc., arid at one time were fearful of meeting 
large quantities of hydrocyanic (prussic) acid (HCN). At one 
period every prisoner taken talked about the use of prussic acid, 
saying that the Kaiser had decided to end the war and had 
given permission to use prussic acid. Protection was evidently 
needed against it. The three things that then seemed most 
important were: (1) chlorine and phosgene; (2) prussic acid; 
(3) lachrymators. Charcoal and alkaline permanganate will 
protect against nearly everything used, even up to concen- 
trations of ten per cent for short periods. 

The German apparatus, developed about the same time, is of 
different pattern, and is still employed. It consists of a small 
drum, attached directly to the front of the face-piece, and 
weighs less than the British respirator but must be changed 
more frequently. It has no mouthpiece. The chemicals are 
in three layers: first an inside layer of pumice with hexameth- 
ylenetetramine, in the middle a layer of charcoal (sometimes 
blood charcoal), and outside baked earth soaked in potassium 
carbonate solution and coated with fine powdered charcoal. 

As regards the future of the gas cloud, it may be looked upon 
as almost finished. There are so many conditions that have to 
be fulfilled in connection with it that its use is limited. It is 
very unlikely that the enemy will be able to spring another 
complete surprise with a gas cloud. 

The case is different with gas shells. The gas shells are the 
most important of all methods of using gas on the Western 



auld: methods of gas warfare 53 

Front, and are still in course of development. The enemy 
started using them soon after the first cloud attack. He began 
with the celebrated "tear" shells. A concentration of one part 
in a million of some of these lachrymators makes the eyes water 
severely. The original tear shells contained almost pure xylyl 
bromide or benzjd bromide, made by brominating the higher 
fractions of coal-tar distillates. 

The German did his bromination rather badly. As you know, 
it should be done very carefully or much dibromide is produced, 
which is solid and inactive. Some of the shells contained as 
much as 20 per cent dibromide, enough to make the liquid pasty 
and inactive. The shells used contain a lead lining, and have a 
partition across the shoulder, above which comes the T. N. T. 
and the fuse. These shells had little effect on the British, but 
one attack on the French, accompanied by a very heavy bom- 
bardment with tear shells, put them out badly. The eyes of 
the men were affected, and many of the men were even anesthe- 
tized by the gas, and were taken prisoner. 

Our first big experience was an attack at Vermelles. The 
Germans put down a heavy barrage of these shells and made 
an infantry attack. The concentration was great, the gas 
went through the helmets, and the men even vomited inside 
their helmets. But it is difficult to put down a gas barrage, and 
there is danger that it will not be a technical success. In the 
instance cited certain roads were not cut off sufficiently, so that 
reinforcements got up. This attack, however, opened our eyes 
to the fact that, as in the case of gas clouds, concentration 
would be developed so as to make it high enough to produce 
the required effect under any circumstances. 

\Mien the Germans started using highly poisonous shells, 
which was at the Somme in 1916, they did not attend to this 
sufficiently, although enormous numbers of shell were used. 
The substance used was trichloromethyl-chloroformate, but not 
in great strength. It had no decided reaction on the eyes, 
hence the men were often caught. 

The quantity of gas that can be sent over in shells is small. 
The average weight in a shell is not more than six pounds, where- 
as the German gas cylinders contain 40 pounds of gas. To put 



54 auld: methods of gas ware'are 

over the same amount of gas as with gas clouds, say in five 
minutes per thousand yards of front, would require a prohibi- 
tive number of guns and shells. It becomes necessary to put 
the shells on definite targets, and this, fortunately, the Germans 
did not realize at the Somme, although they have found it out 
since. 

The use of gas out of a projectile has a number of advantages 
over its use in a gas cloud. First, it is not so dependent on the 
wind. Again, the gunners have their ordinary job of shelling, 
and there is no such elaborate and unwelcome organization to 
put into the front trenches as is necessary for the cloud. Third, 
the targets are picked with all the accuracy of artillery fire. 
Fourth, the gas shells succeed with targets that are not accessible 
to high explosives or to gas clouds. Take, for instance, a field 
howitzer, dug into a pit with a certain amount of overhead cover 
for the men, who come in from behind the gun. The men are 
safe from splinters, and only a direct hit will put the gun out 
of action. But the gas will go in where the shell would not. 
It is certain to gas some of the men inside the emplacement. 
The crew of the gun must go on firing with gas masks on, and 
with depleted numbers. Thus it nearly puts the gun out of 
commission, reducing the number of shots say from two rounds 
a minute to a round in two minutes, and may even silence it 
entirely. Another example is a position on a hillside with 
dugouts at the back, just over the crest, or with a sunken road 
behind the slope. Almost absolute protection is afforded by 
the dugouts. The French tried three times to take such a posi- 
tion after preparation with high explosives, and each assault 
failed. Then they tried gas shells, and succeeded. The gas 
flows rapidly into such a dugout, especially if it has two or more 
doors. 

Among the effective materials used by the Germans for gas 
shells were mono- and tri-chloromethyl-chloroformate. Prussic 
acid never appeared; the Germans rate it lower than phosgene 
in toxicity, and the reports concerning it were obviously meant 
merely to produce fear and distract the provisions for protection. 

During the last five months the actual materials and the 
tactics used by the Germans have undergone a complete change. 



auld: methods of gas warfare 55 

The lachrymator shells are less depended upon than formerly 
for '^ neutralization," but are still a source of annoyance. Mere 
annoyance, however, may be an effective method of neutralizing 
infantry. For instance, where large amounts of supplies and 
ammunition are being brought up there are always cross-roads 
where there is confusion and interference of traffic. A few gas 
shells placed there make every man put on his mask, and if it is 
a dark night and the roads are muddy the resulting confusion 
can be only faintly imagined. It may thus be possible to neu- 
tralize a part of the infantry by cutting down their supplies and 
ammunition. 

The use of a gas shell to force a man to put on his mask is 
practically neutralization. If at the same time you can hurt 
him, so much the better. Hence the change in gas-shell tactics, 
which consists in replacing the purely lachrymatory substance 
by one that is also poisonous. 

One substance used for this method of simultaneously harass- 
ing and seriously injuring was dichloro-diethylsulfide (mustard 
gas). Its use was begun in July of last year at Ypres, and it 
was largely used again at Nieuport and Armentieres. A heavy 
bombardment of mustard-gas shells of all calibers was put on 
these towns, as many as 50,000 shells being fired in one night. 
The effects of mustard gas are those of a ''super-lachrymator." 
It has a distinctive smell, rather like garlic than mustard. It 
has no immediate effect on the eyes, beyond a slight irritation. 
After several hours the eyes begin to swell and inflame and prac- 
tically blister, causing intense pain, the nose discharges freely, 
and severe coughing and even vomiting ensue. Direct contact 
with the spray causes severe blistering of the skin, and the 
concentrated vapor penetrates through the clothing. The 
respirators of course do not protect against this blistering. 
The cases that went to the hospitals, however, were generally 
eye or lung cases, and blistering alone took back very few men. 
Many casualties were caused by the habit that some of the men 
had fallen into of letting the upper part of the mask hang down 
so as not to interfere with seeing. The Germans scored heavily 
in the use of this gas at first. It was another example of the 



56 auld: methods of gas warfare 

element of surprise in using a new substance that produces new 
and unusual symptoms in the victims. 

Up to the present time there has been no material brought 
out on either side that can be depended on to go through the 
other fellow's respirator. The casualties are due to surprise 
or to lack of training in the use of masks. The mask must be 
put on and adjusted within six seconds, which requires a con- 
siderable amount of preliminary training, if it is to be done 
under field conditions. 

Among other surprises on the part of the Germans were 
phenylcarbylamine chloride, a lachrymator, and diphenyl- 
chloroarsine, or ''sneezing gas." The latter is mixed in with 
high explosive shells or with other gas shells, or with shrapnel. 
It was intended to make a man sneeze so badly that when he 
puts on his mask he is not able to keep it on. The sneezing 
gas has, however, not been a very great success. 

All bombardments now are of this mixed character. The 
shells used are marked with differently colored crosses, and defi- 
nite programs are laid down for the use of the artillerymen. 

As regards the future of gas shells, it should be emphasized 
that the "gas shell" is not necessarily a gas shell at all, but a 
liquid or solid shell, and it opens up the whole sphere of organic 
chemistry to be drawn upon for materials. The material placed 
inside the shell is transformed into vapor or fine droplets by 
the explosion and a proper adjustment between the bursting 
charge and the poisonous substance is necessary. Both sides 
are busy trying to find something that the others have not used, 
and both are trjdng to find a ''colorless, odorless, and invisible" 
gas that is highly poisonous. It is within the realm of possibili- 
ties that the war will be finished, literally, in the chemical 
laboratory. 

The Germans have not altered their type of respirator for 
some time, and it is not now equal in efficiency to the British or 
American respirator. The German respirator, even in its latest 
form, will break down at a concentration of 0.3 per cent of 
certain substances. The German design has given more weight 
to military exigency, as against perfect protection, than has the 



auld: methods of gas warfare 57 

British. Another thing that weighs against changes in design 
is the fact that the German, already handicapped by the lack 
of certain materials, must manufacture 40,000,000 respirators a 
year in order to supply his Austrian, Bulgarian, and Turkish 
allies, as well as his own army. 

In the British and American armies the respirator must 
always be carried with the equipment when within 12 miles of 
the front. Between 12 and 5 miles a man may remove the 
respirator box in order to sleep, but within 5 miles he must wear 
it constantly. Within 2 miles it must be worn constantly in 
the ''alert" position (slung and tied in front). When the alarm 
is given he must get the respirator on within six seconds. The 
American respirator is identical with the British. The French 
have a fabric mask made in several layers, the inner provided 
with a nickel salt to stop HON, then a layer with hexamethy- 
lenetetramine ; it has no valve and is hot to wear. The French 
also use a box respirator, consisting of a metal box slung on the 
back, with a tube connecting to the face mask; the latter is of 
good Para rubber and is provided with a valve. One disadvan- 
tage of this form is the danger of tearing the single rubber sheet. 
The German niask now contains no rubber except one washer; 
the elastics consist of springs inside a fabric, and the mask itself 
is of leather. It hardens and cracks after being wet, and is too 
dependent upon being well fitted to the face when made. 

(The lecturer exhibited various types of gas shells, helmets, 
masks, and respirators.) 

The following compounds have been used by the Germans in 
gas clouds or in shells: 

1. Allyl-iso-thiocyanate (Allyl mustard oil), C3H5NCS (shell). 

2. Benzyl bromide, CeHsCHoBr (shell). 

3. Bromo-acetone, CH2Br.CO.CPI3 (hand grenades). 

4. Bromated methyl-ethyl-ketone (bromo-ketone), CH2Br- 
COC0H5 or CH3.CO.CHBr. CH3 (shell). Dibromo-ketone, CH3- 
COCHBr.CHoBr (shell). 

5. Bromine, Br2 (hand grenades). 

6. Chloro-acetone, CH2CI.COCH3 (hand grenades). 

7. Chlorine, CI2 (cloud). 



58 standley: blepharidtum 

8. Chloromethyl-chloroformate (Palite), CICOOCH2CI (shell). 

9. Nitro-trichloro-methane (Chloropicrin or nitrochloroform), 
CCI3NO2 (shell). 

10. Chlorosulfonic acid, SO3.H.CI (hand grenades and ''smoke 

pots"). 

11. Dichloro-diethylsulfide (mustard gas), (CH2C1CH2)2S 

(shell). 

12. Dhnethyl sulfate, (0113)2804 (hand grenades). 

13. Diphenyl-chloro-arsine, (C6H5)2AsCl (shell). 

14. Dichloromethyl ether, (CH2C1)20 (shell). 

15. Methyl-chlorosulfonate, CH3CISO3 (hand grenades). 

16. Phenyl-carbylamine chloride, C6H5NCCI2 (shell). 

17. Phosgene (carbonyl chloride), COCI2 (cloud and shell). 

18. Sulfur trioxide, SO3 (hand grenades and shell). 

19. Trichloromethyl-chloroformate (Diphosgene, superpalite) , 
CICOOCCI3 (shell). 

20. Xylyl bromide (tolyl bromide), CH,C6H4CH2Br. (shell). 



BOTANY. — Blepharidnmi, a new genus of Rubiaceae from 
Guatemala.^ Paul C. Standley, U. S. National Museum. 
In the U. S. National Herbarium there are specimens of a 
striking rubiaceous plant, hitherto undescribed, collected in 
Guatemala by Mr. Henry Pittier. Some years ago this material 
was examined by Captain John Donnell Smith, who concluded 
that it probably represents an imdescribed genus. Recently, 
while preparing an account of the Rubiaceae for the North 
American Flora, the writer has studied the material and has 
arrived at the same conclusion. Among North American 
representatives of the family the plant is noteworthy because of 
its large, long-petiolate leaves and of its large flowers, borne in 
peculiar 3-flowered cymes. Its general appearance does not 
definitely associate it with any of the known genera, and its 
floral details are such as to necessitate its recognition as a new 
genus, for which the name Blepharidiiim is here proposed. 

'Published by permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



ST AND ley: blepharidium 59 

Blepharidium Standley, gen. no v. 

Shrubs or trees, with subterete branchlets. Leaves opposite, petio- 
late, the blades large, chartaceous. Stipules intrapetiolar, large, thin, 
acuminate, entire, caducous. Flowers large, pedicellate, bibracteolate, 
in 3-flowered cranes, the cymes axillary, long-pedunculate; calyx-tube 
obovoid, the limb large, prolonged beyond the ovary, 4-lobate, the 
lobes very broad, imbricate, ciliolate; corolla salverform, coriaceous, the 
tube slender, elongate, densely villous within except near the base, the 
limb 4-lobate, the lobes broad, spreading, imbricate in bud, one of 
them exterior. Stamens 4, inserted in the throat of the corolla; anthers 
sessile, dorsifixed below the middle, linear, obtuse, included. Disk 
annular. Ovar}' 2-celled; style fihform, included, the stigma bilobate, 
the lobes linear, elongate, acute; ovules numerous, imbricate, winged, 
the placentae attached to the septum. 

Type species, Bhphandium guafemalense Standley. 

Blepharidium guatemalense Standley, sp. nov. 

Branchlets stout, green, glabrous, sparseh' whitish-lenticellate, the 
internodes elongate; stipules ovate-triangular, 2-2.5 cm. long, acumi- 
nate or cuspidate-acuminate, brown, glabrous outside, witiiin sericeous- 
pilose at the base and bearing numerous glands; petioles stout, 2.5-5 
cm. long, glabrous; leaf-blades oval-oblong, 17-30 cm. long, 8-14.5 
cm. wide, obtuse or acute at the base, obtuse or acute at the apex, 
concolorous, glabrous above, the costa impressed, the other venation 
prominulous, sparsely short-pilose beneath along the prominent costa, 
the lateral veins prominent, about 8 on each side, arcuate-ascending; 
peduncles 3-flowered, slender, 7-21 cm. long, glabrous, the pedicels 
stout, 0.3-2 cm. long; bracts foliaceous, oval, about 1 cm. long, the 
bractlets broadly ovate, 3-4 mm. long, deciduous; calyx glabrous, 
the tube 4-5 mm. long, the limb 4-5 mm. long, 7-8 mm. broad, the 
lobes half as long as the tube, broader than long, rounded or truncate, 
minutely ciliolate; corolla-tube about 6 cm. long, 4-5 mm. thick, 
glabrous outside, the lobes oval, about 1 cm. long; anthers 7 mm. long; 
stigma-lobes 6-7 mm. long. 

Type in the U. S. National Herbarium, no. 472925, collected in 
forest along Saklak River, below Secanquim, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, 
altitude 300 meters, ISIay 7, 1905, by Heniy Pittier (no. 266). 

Blepharidium is evidently a member of the Cinchoneae, for 
although mature fruit, upon which the classification of the 
Rubiaceae is chiefly based, is not available for study, the large, 
imbricate, winged ovules are characteristic of this tribe alone. 
Within the tribe, however, it is not easy to determine the exact 
position of the genus. In most published keys to the subgroup, 
it would fall near Exostema, but it does not appear to be very 



60 bartsch: subspecies of obba marginata 

closely allied to that genus, in which the anthers are borne on 
long filaments. By the sessile anthers blepharidium is easily 
distinguished from all the genera of the Cinchoneae with imbri- 
cate corolla lobes. 

ZOOLOGY. — A key to the Philippine subspecies of Obba mar- 
ginata with notes on their distribution.^ Paul Bartsch, 
U. S. National Museum. 

The preparation of a report on the Philippine Island land 
shells reveals so many distributional gaps in the material avail- 
able for study that it seems wise to publish a series of synopses 
in the form of keys to the various groups as the work progresses, 
together with a brief account of the zoogeographic facts pre- 
sented by the data at hand 

It is hoped that these sketches may serve to stimulate collec- 
tors to bestow their efforts upon localities from which material 
is sadly needed to render the monographic reports complete. 

Obba marginata Miiller 

In this species the shell varies from broadly conic (066a ■marginata 
mearnsi), to almost lenticular {Obba Jiiarginata samarensis) . The 
range in size is also great. 066a marginata saranganica attains a 
greater diameter of 35 mm., while in 066a marginata mearnsi it does 
not exceed 19 mm. All the races have a narrow acute peripheral keel 
to which the summit of the succeeding turn is appressed. The ground 
color varies from pale buff (066a marginata griseola and 066a marginata 
tnearnsi), to pale brownish (Obba marginata marginata). In all the 
subspecies known, the peripheral keel and the extreme summit are 
edged by a very narrow white or whitish zone, while the rest of the 
upper surface of the turns is marked by three bands of brown of which 
one adjoins the peripheral white zone while another bounds the white 
line at the summit and the third occupies a space almost midway 
between them. The width of these brown bands varies in the differ- 
ent races. In some they equal the light areas that separate them 
(066a marginata balidensis), while in others some of them are repre- 
sented by mere hair lines. The intensity of the color may be the same 
or may vary in the different bands on the same whorl, the band at 
the summit being usually much paler than the rest. Two bands are 
present on the basal sides of all the members of this species, one adjoin- 

* Published by permission of the Secreta;-y of the Smithsonian Institution. 



bartsch:' subspecies of obba marginata 61 

ing the light peripheral zone and another situated at about one-third 
of the distance between the periphery and the unibihcus anterior to 
the periphery. Here, as in the banding of the upper surface, we find 
a considerable variation both as to intensity of coloration and width of 
the band. In some the zone at the periphery is merely indicated 
(Obba marginata lanaona and Obha marginata mearnsi), while in others 
they are very dark and broad (Obba marginata marginata and Obba 
marginata balutensis). In all the forms the basal lip is toothless. 
Under the microscope we find that the first half turn is smooth; the 
turn and a half followi.ig this are marked by slender oblique, retrac- 
tively curved, axial threads, best seen near the summit and at the 
periphery; while the succeeding turns have in addition to these threads, 
very fine, closely spaced, impressed lines which cross each other more 
or less" at right angles and the lines of growth at an angle of about 45° 
and give the surface a fine cloth-like texture. 

The various subspecies of Obba marginata can readily be divided into 
two groups, one in which the dark coloration predominates over the 
light zones and another in which the reverse is true. To the first of 
these, the dark group, belong the subspecies saranganica, balutensis, 
marginata, ivorcesteri, and boholensis. In the light group we find 
characters that readily enable one to further subdivide it. In two 
forms (mearnsi and palmasensis) the shell is broadly conic. In the 
rest the shell is lenticular. This last complex is again divisible. One 
part (subspecies griseola, samarensis, pallescens, and nana) has the 
basal peripheral band well developed. In the other (subspecies zam- 
boanga, lanaona, and joloensis) the basal peripheral band is obsoletQ. 

The distribution, as known to date, extends from the central islands 
of Samar, Leyte, Bohol, and Cebu, southward over Mindanao to Jolo 
on the west and Sarangani and Palmas islands on the east in the Phil- 
ippines, and still farther south beyond our range at least to Celebes. 
A plotting of the known distribution points strongly to the fact that 
many additional subspecies may be expected when more careful and 
extensive collecting shall have been done. The species should occur 
on the islands betw:een Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao. In Mindanao 
itself we know it only from the northern coastal strip and Zamboanga 
and it scarcely stands to reason that there should be a gap in the dis- 
tribution between the north coast and the little islands of Sarangani, 
Balut, Olanivan, and Palmas off the southeast coast where it is well 
represented- 



62 bartsch: subspecies of obba marginata 

The distribution of the groups outHned above is rather interesting. 
The subspecies in which the dark coloration predominates are known 
from Bohol, Camiguin, north of Mindanao and the islands of Olanivan, 
Sarangani, and Balut off southeastern Mindanao. None of the dark 
forms so far are known from the large island of Mindanao itself. The 
broadly conic light-colored Obba marginata mearnsi and Obba marginata 
■palmasensis come from Sarangani and Palmas, respectively, both off 
southeastern Mindanao. The light colored lenticular forms having 
the basal peripheral color band well developed are so far known from 
Samar, Leyte, Cebu, and northeastern Mindanao, and I strongly sus- 
pect that the form recorded from Siquijor and that from Talisayan, 
Mindanao, will prove to belong here. The light-colored lenticular 
forms in which the basal peripheral band is obsolete are known from 
western Mindanao and the island of Jolo. 

The following key may be of help in determining the known sub- 
species^: 

Dark bands predominating over the hght zones. 
Greater diameter more than 30 mm. 

Lines of growth strongly developed (Sarangani Island). 

saranganica Hidalgo. 
Lines of growth not strongly developed (Balut Island). 

balutensis new. 
Greater diameter less than 30 mm. 
Basal bands very dark brown. 

Greater diameter more than 25 mm. (Camiguin Island). 

marginata Miiller. 

Greater diameter less than 22 mm. (Olanivan Island). 

* worcesteri Bartsch. 

Basal bands hght brown (Bohol Island) boholensis new. 

Dark bands not predominating over the light zones. 
Light zones nmch greater than the dark. 
Shell broadly conic. 

Peripheral basal color band moderately strong (Palmas 

Island) palmasensis new. 

Peripheral basal color band obsolete (Sarangani Island). 

mearnsi new. 
Shell not broadly conic, lenticular. 

Peripheral basal brown band obsolete. 

Median band above and below reddish (Zamboanga, 
Mindanao) zamboanga new. 

1 The types of the new subspecies are registered in the U. S. National Museum 
under the following numbers: balutensis, no. 256548; boholensis, no. 116914; 
palmasensis, no. 256420; mearnsi, no. 2,56423; lanaona, no. 2oM^b\' joloensis, no. 
256549; samarensis, no. 256549. 



bartsch: subspecies of obba marginata 63 

Median band above antl below not reddish, all 
bands brown. 

Base very strongly convex (Lanao Province, 

Mindanao) lanaona new. 

Base very slightly convex (Jolo Island). 

joloensis new. 
Peripheral basal brown band not obsolete. 
Greater diameter more than 23 mm. 

Band near the summit and at the periphery 
more or less interrupted (Cebu Island). 

griseola IVIollendorff. 
Band at the summit and near the periphery 
not interrupted (Samar Island). 

samarensis new. 
Greater diameter less than 21 mm. 

Peripheral basal band strong (Leyte Island). 

pallescens Mollendorff. 

Peripheral basal band not strong (Northeast 

Mindanao) nana Mollendorff. 



ABSTRACTS 

Authors of scientific papers are requested to see that abstracts, preferably 
prepared and signed by themselves, are forwarded promptly to the editors. 
Each of the scientific bureaus in Washington has a representative authorized to 
forward such material to this JouRisrAL and abstracts of official publications 
should be transmitted through the representative of the bureau in which they 
originate. The abstracts should conform in length and general style to those 
appearing in this issue. 

GEOLOGY. — Geology of the Navajo country. A reconnaissance of 
parts of Ariftona, New Mexico, and Utah. Herbert E. Gregory. 
U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 93. Pp. 161, with 
maps, sections, and illustrations. 1917. 

The region bordering the Colorado canyons between Little Colorado 
and San Juan rivers and extending southward to the line of the Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway is described. The primary object of 
the investigations was to "spy out the land," with a view to suggest- 
ing ways in which the country could be more fully utilized. The 
region is arid, and the geologic field work was therefore designed chiefly 
to obtain information concerning the water supply. 

The Navajo country is part of the Colorado Plateau province, a 
region of folded and faulted sedimentary rocks traversed by innumerable 
canyons. The consolidated sedimentary rocks exposed in the Navajo 
country are chiefly of Mesozoic age — -Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. 
The predominant rock of the whole Navajo country is sandstone of 
medium grain; limestone and conglomerate are much less common, and 
typical clay shale is rare. 

In the Grand Canyon district the dominating structural features are 
represented topographically by flat-topped plateaus, bordered by lines 
of displacement trending roughly north. The simplicity of folded 
structures in the Grand Canyon district is not, however, duplicated in 
the region east of Colorado River. Synclines and anticlines, both 
broad and narrow, sharply delineated monoclines, and domical up- 
warps follow one another in succession or abut against one another 
like waves in a choppy sea. In one feature only — their general trend — 
do the flexures displayed in the Navajo country simulate those of the 
region farther west. Ten major folds and eight minor folds, in addi- 

64 



abstracts: geology 65 

tion to local flexures of small dimensions, were noted in the region 
between the San Juan and the Puerco and Little Colorado. 

The physiographic history of the Navajo country is included in that 
of the Colorado Plateau. The stratigraphic series of the area is essen- 
tially that of the Grand Canyon district; the crustal movements of 
.the two areas, though different in kind, were probably contempo- 
raneous, and it is reasonable to suppose also that the periods of igneous 
activity for the whole Plateau province are closely related in time. 

The surface of the Navajo country has been carved rather than 
built; features resulting from deposition are I'elatively unimportant. 
Talus slopes and alluvial fans are replaced by cliffs; hills and knolls 
give way to buttes and towers; and graded slopes are represented by 
walls sculptured into rincons, recesses, alcoves, niches, windows, and 
arches, of large variety. 

Wide, open mouths of niches and caves perched high on the canyon 
walls are conspicuous. These cavities, protected from rain, from the 
glaring heat of the sun, and from the suffocating sandstorms, were 
widel}^ utilized by the ancient inhabitants as building sites — ''rock 
shelters" or "cavate dwelhngs." 

Perhaps the most striking erosion feature within the Navajo coun- 
tr}' is the recently discovered Rainbow Bridge, which spans Bridge 
Canyon, on the northwest slope of Navajo Mountain. Its symmetry 
and graceful proportions, as well as its size and beauty of color, give 
to this arch a commanding position among the natural bridges of the 
woi'ld. . R W. Stone. 

» 

GEOLOGY. — Ground water for irrigation in Lodgepole ]'alley, Wyoming 
and Neh'aska. Oscar E. Meinzer. U. S. Geological Survey 
Water-Supply Paper 400-B. Pp. 33, with 4 maps. 1917. 
This brief report discusses the distribution and water-bearing char- 
acter of the Ogalalla and Arikaree formations, the Brule clsiy, the 
underlying formations, and the Quaternary stream gravels. Large 
yields are obtained in the valley from the stream gravels and from the 
underlying jointed portions of the Brule clay. The strongest well 
3nelded, in a test of one hour, at the rate of 710 gallons per minute with 
a drawdown of less than 4 inches. The report describes the natural 
processes of storage of water in the underground reservoir and of dis- 
charge therefrom by gravity in the irrigation season. It also gives 
data by the author and by Mr. H. C. Diesem, of the Department of 
Agriculture, on the cost of pumping for irrigation. 0. E. M. 



66 abstracts: parasitology 

FFjTROLOGY. —Chemical analyses of igneous rocks published from 
1884 to WIS, inclusive. H. S. Washington. U. S. Geological 
Survey Professional Paper 99. Pp. 1201, with 3 figures. 1917. 

This paper is a revision and expansion of Professional Paper 14, 
published in 1903. In the introductory text the characters of rock 
anal3^ses are discussed under the heads of representativeness of the. 
sample analyzed and the accuracy and completeness of the analysis. 
The chief errors, both of commission and omission, to which rock 
analyses are hable are described, and the scheme for rating analyses as 
to their quahty, adopted in the work, is explained. 

It has been the aim to make the present collection as complete and 
accurate as possible and, in a sense, definitive. The search through 
the Hterature, a list of the pubhcations examined being given, has 
been very extensive, and in this the library of the U. S, Geological 
Survey has been the main reliance. The number of analyses collected 
in the tables amounts to 8602, as against 2881 in the previous collec- 
tion, which analyses are included in the present work. A great im- 
provement in quality over the earlier work is manifest. The tables, 
which occupy 1098 pages, are divided into four parts: superior analyses 
of fresh rocks; incomplete but otherwise superior analyses of fresh 
rocks; superior analyses of altered rocks and tuffs; and inferior analyses. 
The analyses in Part I are arranged according to the Quantitative 
Classification and the norm of each, every one of which has been recal- 
culated, is given. A discussion of the rules for naming and of some of 
the names of this system is to be found in the text. 

In appendixes are presented a description of the Quantitative Classi- 
fication, with a tabular presentation of its divisions and names, a 
description of the method of calculating the norm, as well as the tables 
for the calculation of the molecular numbers of the chemical compo- 
nents and percentages of mineral molecules. H. S. W. 

PARASITOLOGY. — Recent progress in the development of tnethods for 
the control and treatment of parasites of live stock. B. H. Ransom. 
Proc. Second Pan-Amer. Sci. Congr. 3: 709-718. 1917. 
Brief review with list of references. B. H. R. 

PARASITOLOGY. — The sheep tick and its eradication bp dipping. 

Marion Imes. U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmers' Bulletin 798, 31 pp., 

figs. 1-15. May, 1917. 
A popular discussion with details of methods of control and 
eradication. B. H. Ransom. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY AND AFFILIATED 

SOCIETIES 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The 118th meeting of the Academy, the twentieth Annual Meeting, 
was held in the Assembly Room of the Cosmos Club the evening of 
Tuesday, January 8, 1918, with President W. H. Holmes in the chair. 
The minutes of the last Annual Meeting were read and approved. 

The Corresponding Secretary, Dr. R. B. Sosman, elected by the 
Board of Managers in September, 1917, to fill the unexpired term of Dr. 
F. E. Wright, on account of the latter's continued absence from the 
city while engaged upon war work, reported that on January 1, 1918, 
the membership consisted of 6 honorary members, 4 patrons, and 470 
members, one of whom was a life member. The total membership was 
480, of whom 283 reside in or near the District of Columbia. During 
the year 1917 the Academy has lost b}^ death: William Bullock 
Clark, July 27, 1917; Richard Bryant Dole, January 21, 1917; 
Arnold Hague, May 13, 1917. Reference was made also to the dis- 
tribution of a new edition of the "red book," the Directory of the 
Washington Academy of Sciences and affiliated Societies, in Jul3^ 

The Recording Secretary reported that four public lectures had been 
held during the past year, including the three on Heredity, as reported 
upon in the Journal of the Academy for January 4, 1918. 

In the absence of the Treasurer, Mr. William Bow^ie, his report was 
read b}" the Secretary. The report showed a balance of $850.93 on 
January 1, 1917, receipts totaling $6442.69 during the year (including 
the payment of a note for $2000,) disbursements totaling $4308.81 (in- 
cluding the purchase of a Liberty Loan Bond for $500), and a balance 
on December 31, 1917, of $2984.81. The Auditing Committee, con- 
sisting of Messrs. E. F. Mueller, H. G. Ferguson, and H. D. Gibbs, 
reported that the report of the Treasurer agreed in all respects with the 
accounts and with the securities on deposit. 

Dr. N. E. Dorset read the report of the Board of Editors. 

The report of the tellers, Messrs. J. F. Meyer, H. E. jMerwin, and 
R. B. SosMAN, was read by the Corresponding Secretary. The tellers 
reported that the mail ballot had resulted in the election of the following 
officers for 1918: President, L. J. Briggs; Corresponding Secretary, 
R. B. Sosman; Recording Secretary, William R. Maxon; Treasurer, 
William Bow^ie; Non-resident Vice-Presidents, T. A. Jaggar, Jr., and 
B. L. Robinson; Members of Board of Managers, Class of 1921, T. H. 
Kearney and A, O. Spencer. 

The following resident Vice-Presidents, nominated by the affiliated 
societies, were then elected: Anthrojjological Society, John R. Swan- 
ton; Archaeological Society, Ales Hrplicka; Biological Society, J. N. 
Rose; Botanical Society, T. H. Kearney; Chemical Society, Frede- 

67 



68 proceedings: Washington academy of sciences 

KICK B. Power; Society of Engineers, Edwin F. Wendt; Electrical 
Engineers, P. G. Agnew; Society of Foresters, Raphael Zon; Geological 
Society, W. C. Mendenhall; Historical Society, Allen C. Clark; 
Medical Society, Philip S. Roy; Philosophical Society, George K. 
Burgess. 

The Entomological Society and the National Geographic Society had 
nominated no Vice-Presidents. 

The following amendments to the By-Laws of the Academy, de- 
signed to avoid the existing conflict of dates between the annual 
meeting of the Academy and the regular meeting of the Chemical 
Society, were then read and, in accordance with the By-Laws, referred 
to the Board of Managers : 

(1) In Section 1, Article III, substitute "Tuesday" for "Thursday." 
The section will then begin as follows: "The Annual Meeting shall be 
held each year on the second Tuesday of January." 

(2) In Section 1 of Article V substitute "Tuesday" for "Thursday." 

The retiring President, Dr. Holmes, delivered an address entitled 
Man's place in the Cosmos as shadoived forth by modern science, the newly 
elected President, Dr. L. J. Briggs, presiding. 

"The address was designed to give a brief but comprehensive view 
of the career of man not in the world simply, but to shadow forth 
his place in the cosmos of which he was formerly thought to be the cen- 
tral feature. The problems of the immediate past are in part readily 
solved, while the remote past fades into the impenetrable shadows of the 
infinite. The problems of the present appear large in the foreground, 
so that he who runs may read; but the problems of the future find their 
solutions shrouded in the mists of the unknown and the unknowable. 

"The story of the progress of research from the childish romancings of 
the savage mind through quagmires of superstitious interpretations 
to the astonishing revelations of modern science is a fascinating chapter 
in human history.* The origin of the earth is found in the reassembling 
and consolidation of ^e widely disseminated matter of a spiral nebula, 
a process believed to be responsible for the evolution of the solar 
system as a whole — the sun and its attendant bodies. These nebulae, 
of which a thousand have been identified, are thought to be due to the 
encounter of heaventy bodies with such force as to distribute their com- 
ponent particles widely throughout space, the encounters being due to 
the eccentricity of the orbits. 

"The earth thus gathered together by the forces of gravity from the 
dust of ruined spheres became, after ages of ripening, the seat of life, — 
an oasis in the vast desert of the cosmos. The story of the beginnings 
and evolution of living things has been preserved in the fossil-bearing 
strata of the earth's surface and its outlines are well made out. From 
the earliest, exceedingly simple and minute forms -advance was made 
throughout several stages of speciahzation to the culmination in man, 
each stage requiring millions of years in its accomplislmient. But the 
story is not ended. Mobility, uQceasing change is the rule of the uni- 
verse. That which grows or develops reaches its meridian and passes 



proceedings: anthropological society 69 

into other forms. The fate of the human race is wrapped up with the 
fate of the minute satclHte which we call the earth, and is subject to the 
ever active mobilizing forces of the cosmos. It must be molded and 
remolded into other worlds and suns and stars forever. 

"But there are other wonders. The atoms which now enter into the 
constitution of all things — our bodies, the world, and the universe, — are 
indestructible. They have existed always and will continue to eternity. 
The milHons of atoms which now form a drop of human blood, for 
example, have each a history more marvelous than words can tell or 
mind conceive, each having passed through changes without beginning 
and must continue to pass through other changes without end. 

"At a certain stage in the earth's evolution life was generated and 
there is no reason why a million worlds may not have reached a cor- 
responding stage — the stage at which the elements and the energies 
acting under immutable laws necessarily bring about the particular 
phenomenon known as Hfe. But in the transformations of worlds these 
phenomena of life can be but negligible incidents, and the human race 
which we see so large is with all the other attendant phenomena of life 
in the world, and in all worlds for that matter, only as a breath in the 
unending cataclysms of the incomprehensible cosmos. 

'Tf any part of the story of man's place in the universe thus outlined 
should be challenged, and many parts are open to challenge, the chal- 
lenger may be assured that, if the present interpretations of science are 
wrong in whole or in part, the storj^ which will finally be told, or which 
may never be told, must be more marvelous than this or any other that 
the human mind has conceived." 

The 119th meeting of the Academy was held in the Assembly Room 
of the Cosmos Club the evening of Thursday, January 17, 1918, the 
occasion being the first of a series of illustrated lectures dealing with 
Science in Relation to the War. The speaker, Maj^S*. J. M. Auld, of 
the British Military Mission, delivered an address on the subject 
Methods of gas warfare. A summary of the lecture will be found else- 
where in this number of the Journal (pp. 45-58). 

William R. Maxon, Recording Secretary. 

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 517th meeting of the Society was held in the Auditorium of the 
U. S. National Museum on Tuesday, December 4, 1917, at 4.30 p.m. 
At this meeting Dr. Amandus Johnson, of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, addressed the society on The Scandinavian peoples, illustrating 
his address with lantern slides. 

The Scandinavian Peninsula has undoubtedly been inhabited by its 
present occupants for 10,000 years or more. When the climate of the 
country became tolerable after the vast icefields receded, tribes of the 
Aryan race found their way into southern Sweden, and established there 
the original home of the Germanic peoples. About the year 3000 B.C., 



70 proceedings: anthropological society 

at the end of the Stone Age, considerable advancement in culture had 
been made, and during the Bronze Age the decorative instinct of the 
people found expression in works of art unsurpassed elsewhere in Europe 
at that period. Later the Hallstatt and La Tene civilizations made their 
influence felt and finally, about the beginning of the Christian Era, 
Roman culture became the predominant foreign influence. An exten- 
sive trade developed with the western world during the following cen- 
turies, and many remains of this intei'course are found in Sweden and 
Denmark. 

The most important period historically is the so-called Viking Age, 
800-1000 A.D. Wonderful progress had been made in shipping and 
navigation. Fleets of the Viking ships appeared on almost every 
shore. The bold sailors sacked cities on the Mediterranean and Black 
Seas, ruled Ireland for generations, and conquered parts of France, 
England, and Spain; they founded Russia, and settled colonies in 
America and numerous other places. Finally Christianity was introduced 
and the Scandinavians settled down to a life of peaceful toil. The 
mental and spiritual reaction following the Viking expeditions was in- 
tense. A prose literature grew up, especially in L-eland. This was the 
most remarkable in Europe at the time and was the only original prose 
of the Germanic race. With it was coupled a poetiy no less important. 
This art died, however, at about the time when distinct Scandinavian 
nationalities began to develop, and from the twelfth century onward we 
find long stretches of time nearly void of mental activity. 

From this period Sweden began to lead a more separate life, but Den- 
mark and Norway were gradually drawn closer together until the latter 
country nearly lost its identity. Denmark was the leading power of the 
north until the appearance of Gustavus Adolphus. Then Sweden 
acquired the supremacy. Through the supreme ability of her leaders she 
changed the coui'se of European history and for more than a century 
played the I'ole of a great power. In modern times Sweden has pro- 
duced leading scientists, created a rich literature, and developed large 
industrial establishments. 

After 1644 Denmark was weakened from time to time b}' the cur- 
tailment of her territory until in 1864 she was reduced to her present 
area. In the fields of science, letters, and art, however, she can point 
to brilliant achievements. Norwaj^ paid the price of dependency- for 
many generations, and not until her separation from Denmark can we 
speak of a worthy Norwegian literature. But in the last century the 
leadership of the drama belongs to her, and in many lines of achieve- 
ment some of her names rank among the fii'st. 

The 518th meeting of the Society was held in the Lecture Hall of the 
Public Library, on Tuesday, December 18, 1917, at 8 p.m. On this 
occasion Dr. Daniel Folkmar, LT. S. Tariff Commission, delivered a 
lecture on Japan: people and policies, illustrated by numerous lantern 
slides. 

Dr. Folkmar opened his address by asking "Who are the Japanese? 
Are they as closely related to the Chinese as many Americans think, or 



proceedings: anthropological society 71 

are they a v(My different race, as the Japanese themselves think? The 
whole attitude of the Japanese toward the Chinese and toward the 
American people seems to rest on the assumption that they are not 
Mongolian, strictly speaking, and that they should be ti'eated as our 
equals." 

The Japanese frequently compare their empire with Englantl, the 
Island Empiie which lules a great part of the world from its favored 
position in the Atlantic, a position similar to that of Japan in the Pacific 
Ocean. The Japanese are unquestionably a mixed race, like the English 
and most of the leading nations of the present da}'. Five distinct ethnic 
types are to be found among the Japanese. The most important is the 
]\Ianchu-Korean type, taller than the others and seen chiefl}^ among 
the upper classes. The second is the well-known Mongolian type, with a 
broader face. Perhaps the most important element in the present nation- 
ality is the Malay strain, whose representatives are small in stature. The 
Ainu preceded both Alongolians and Malays, and it now appears that 
they, in turn, were preceded b}- a smaller race of pit-dwellers. Accord- 
ing to Keane the Japanese bear a physical resemblance to the Mon- 
golians, but linguisticalh' are more closely related to the northern 
Asiatic Finno-Tataric stock. From this point of view the Japanese 
are more closely related to the Koreans than to the Chinese, since 
the Korean language is agglutinative and that of the Chinese is mono- 
syllabic. Xumerous authorities were cited on this and similar problems 
of the Japanese people. Japan received its profound philosophies from 
India and China. Thus the native religion of Japan is Shintoism, 
together with Buddhistic beliefs that came from India, and Confucianism 
fi'om China. 

Concerning Japanese policies Dr. Folkmar said, "There is no doubt 
that an exclusive policy, dominated the national policies of Japan until 
Perry, the American, broke down the barriers. This act is now regarded 
l)y the leaders and educated classes as one of the most fortunate events 
in their national history." Dr. Folkmar spoke in high encomium of the 
manner in which the Japanese Empire has kept its word in restricting 
the emigration of Japanese to the United States, and said that there can 
bo no doubt of the wisdom of taking the Japanese at their word in 
the recent convention that has been signed regarding the "open door 
policy." 

- The 519th meeting of the Society was held in the West Study Room 
of the Public Libi'ary, January 15, 1918, at 8 p.m. The program con- 
sisted of a general discussion of War Anthropology, led by Dr. Ales 
Hrdlicka, Curator, Division of Ph3'sical Anthropology, U. S. National 

Taking as his subject War and Race, Dr. Hrdlicka first directed atten- 
tion to the very general and serious apprehension that the present war 
may have an untoward dysgenic effect on the race, saying that there 
exists, even among medical men and some men of science, a fear of the 
effect of shattered constitutions and the lasting results of shocks, strains, 



72 proceedings: anthropological society 

exposure, and wounds, together with an acquisition of new diseases. 
"These assumptions," said the speaker, "are enough to make the pessi- 
mist despair of the future of the race, but happily these assumptions are 
not entirely correct. In the first place we have no scientific basis for 
the belief that any of the warlike nations of the past have actually 
degenerated physically as the result of wars Unques- 
tionably there are losses from every great war, and in these I include 
the debilitating effects of wounds and disease, but fortunately these 
appear to be only temporary." 

"There are wonderful laws working on living nature, including human- 
ity. One of these is the elimination of the unfit. Another is adapta- 
tion, still another is restitution, and finally there are the laws of com- 
pensation. These laws have taken care of war-ridden mankind in 
the past, and as they work with undiminished vigor they can safely be 
expected, with such intelligent assistance as can now be given, to accom- 
plish still more in the future." Treating of the action of these laws, Dr. 
Hrdlicka noted that many afflictions caused by the war are curable and 
others are not transmitted to progeny. The most dangerous diseases 
of previous wars have largely been eliminated by preventive means, 
while science is already coping with new conditions that have arisen. 

The speaker then recounted some of the compensations that will 
arise from the war, chief among which he placed the impetus given to the 
struggle against alcoholism. Important also among the compensations 
will be the great intellectual stimulus, the social and national regen- 
eration, and the raising of this nation from an isolated and somewhat 
selfish position to that of a world power in the best sense of the term and 
for the good of humanity. 

In the discussion which followed this communication the office of the 
Surgeon General, U. S. A., was represented by Lieut. Sidney Morgan, 
Sanitary Corps, U. S. N. A., who spoke on the surprisingly large per- 
centage of wounded men who, by expert care, are retui'ned to their homes 
fitted to be useful members of society. 

Mr. Frank D. Tansley, ex-president of the Patria Club of New York 
City, stated that the ratio of casualties in the present war is about the 
same as that in the Civil War, from which the nation has been able to 
recover. Mr. E. T. Williams, of the State Department, noted that there 
may be a deterioration of the race in time of peace, due to industrial 
conditions and crowding of factories. Dr. John R. Swanton contrasted 
imperialistic and emulative civilizations, to the advantage of the latter; 
Mr. James Mooney emphasized the thought that psychology is the 
dominant factor in race differentiation; and Dr. Leo J. Frachtenberg 
spoke of predominant elements in every race. Rev. John M. Cooper 
mentioned an essential vitality which is the outcome of circumstance 
and which has been, to some extent, lacking in American youth but 
which may be developed by present conditions. 

Frances Densmore, Secretary. 



proceedings: philosophical society 73 

BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 576th regular and the 38th annual meeting of the Society was 
held at the Cosmos Club, Saturday, December 15, 1917; called to 
order by President Hay at 8 p.m.; 19 persons present. 

The annual reports of officers and conmiittees were received, followed 
b}" the election of officers for the year 1918. The results of the election 
are given herewith : President, J. N. Rose ; Vice-presidents, A. D. Hopkins, 
H. M. Smith, Vernon Bailey, Ned Hollister; Recording Secretary, 
yi.W. Lyon, Jr.; Corresponding Secretary, W. L. McAtee; Treasurer, 
Ned Dearborn; Members of Council, J. W.Cjidliiy, William Palmer, 
Alexander Wetmore, E. A. Goldman, A*. S. Hitchcock. President 
Rose was nominated by the Society as a vice-president of the Washing- 
ton Acadeni}' of Sciences. 

President Rose appointed as Committee on Publications for 1918: 
C. W. Richmond, N. Dearborn, W. L. McAtee, J. H. Riley; as 
Committee on Communications: William Palmer, Alexander Wet- 
more, R. E. Coker, L. 0. Howard, A. S. Hitchcock. 

M. W. Lyon, Jr., Recording Secretary.^ 

PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 793d meeting was held at the Cosmos Club October 27, 1917; 
President Buckingham in the chair; 27 persons present. 

Messrs. J. T. Tate and P. D. Foote gave an illustrated paper on 
Critical potentials for electrons in metallic vapors. The subject matter 
presented was published in this Journal (7: 517. 1917). 

Discussion: The paper was discussed by Messrs. Loeb, Silsbee, and 
Becker. 

By invitation Mr. S. J. Crooker gave an illustrated paper on Experi- 
ments on direct-current corona. Electrical discharges in gases at pressures 
near that of the atmosphere may be divided into five classes: dark, 
glow, brush, spark, and arc discharges. Corona is a glow or brush dis- 
charge which appears on wires at high potentials indicating energy dis- 
sipation to the surrounding gas. Engineering experiments on the 
alternating-current corona have led to a revolution in the design and 
construction of high-potential transmission lines, machines, transformers, 
and insulators. Scientific investigations, especially on the direct-current 
corona, have led to an explanation of the phenomena observed. 

A review was given of investigations made at the University of 
Illinois on the direct-current corona under various conditions. The 
corona discharge has been found to be a complicated function of 
the applied voltage; kind of gas and its pressure; size, shape, spacing, 
condition, and material of wires; temperature; humidity; etc. 

The characteristic discharge is a uniform layer of glow for the positive 
wire and evenly spaced beads or brushes for the negative wire. The 
critical voltage increases with the radius of the wire and the gas pressure 
and is different for the positive and negative wires. A slight increase in 
pressure due to ionization occurs on sudden application of potential to 



74 proceedings: philosophical society 

the wire and is a linear function of the energy appHed for all gases. 
In hydrogen the critical voltages are much lower than in air and its 
characteristics are such that almost complete I'ectification of alter- 
nating currents is possible. When corona is present the potential dis- 
tribution curves are much distorted from the theoretical position and 
indicate an accumulation of charges near the electrodes. Roughness or 
oxidation of the wire lowers the critical point and shifts the characteristic 
I-V curves. Different metj^ls also show different characteristics. 

A short series spark destroys the bead formation on the negative wire, 
produces divergent pencils, brushes or streamers on the positive wire, 
and reverses the position of the characteristic I-V curves. A special 
hot-lime-cathode Braun tuloe showed the currents through the spark 
and the gas to be unidirectional pulses. 

The uniform positive glow is explained as ionization by collision of gas 
particles near the wire. The negative beads may be due to a combina- 
tion of ionization by collision and electron discharge. The series 
spark impulses may cause a disruptive action in the surface of the wire 
shooting off high velocity positive ions which give rise to the positive 
sti'eamers. The apparent destruction of the negative beads is probably 
a superimposed building up and decay of the observed negative dis- 
charge forms for each spark impulse. 

Discussion: The paper was discussed by Messrs. Agnew and L. J. 
Briggs. 

The 794th meeting was held at the Cosmos Club November 10, 1917; 
President Buckingham in the chair; 38 persons present. 

By invitation Mr. L. W. McKeehan gave an illustrated paper on 
Diffusion of, and recoil from, actinium emanation. Previous work on 
the diffusion of actinium emanation and on the distribution of its 
active deposit between charged metal plates was reviewed, and the 
causes of some uncertainties in the interpretation of the results were 
pointed out. Apparatus was designed to avoid the defects thus dis- 
covered, and measurements made under a variety of conditions. The 
value of the diffusion coefficient of the emanation into air at the mean 
temperature of the experiments, 20.7°C., was found to be 0.109 
(plus or minus 2 per cent). The distribution of the active deposit 
between positive and negative plates at different pressures agreed with 
that to be expected on the basis of radioactive recoil from the dis- 
integrating emanation, and gave as the range of recoil in air at atmo- 
spheric pressure and at 20.7°C. the value 0.0092 cm. A closer theo- 
retical study made it seem probable that the recoil paths are riot straight, 
and preliminary work by the author and another, using C. T. R. Wil- 
son's photographic method for studying the initial portions of a-ray 
trails, is now in progress. 

Mr. N. E. Dorset gave an illustrated paper on Radium luminous 
materials. No abstract. 

Discussion: The paper was discussed by Messrs. Bauer and E. B. 
Stevenson. 



proceedings: philosophical society 75 

The 795th ineetiiij>- was held at the Cosmos Club November 24, 1917; 
President Buckingham in the chair; 34 persons present. 

Messrs. H. E. Merwin and L. H. Adams gave a paper on Poly- 
morphism of the oxides of lead. PbO appears in a red, tetragonal form 
stable below about 500°, and in a yellow, orthorhombic form stable at 
higher temperatures. Inversion with rising temperature is rapid, but 
with falling temperature so sluggish that it is the yellow form that is pro- 
duced conunercially from molten lead oxide. From hot solution in con- 
centrated alkali both forms can be obtained. The yellow crystals 
frequently come out first and definitely orient the subsequent red crys- 
tals which are found attached to them. Pressure with a point upon 
certain faces of the yellow form causes immediate transformation to 
the red form at the point of pressui'e and along planes radiating in 
definite crystallographic directions. Pressure upon other faces causes 
cleavage, with little or no inversion. Heating causes the yellow crystals 
to become red before they begin to glow, owing to a large temperature co- 
.efficient of light absorption. In powder the red for n is dull j^ellowish. 

Discussion: The paper was discussed by Messrs. Buckingham, 
White, Swann, and Burgess. 

Messrs. G. W. AIorey and E. D. Williamson gave a paper on Quanti- 
tative applications of the phase rule. The subject of heterogeneous equi- 
librium is usually developed by the aid of the phase rule, together with 
the Le Chateliei' principle of mobile equilibrium. The phase mle is 
a qualitative corollary of a perfectly general and widely applicable 
equation, equation 97 in Willard Gibb's paper ' 'On the equilibrium of 
heterogeneous substances," 

vdp = ■r]dt + midij.i + niodix-i-^- .... Wnrf/in 
in which v, p, -q, and t denote volume, pressure, entropy, and tempera- 
ture, resp'ectivelv ; n is defined as being {—') , e being the energy, 

vii the mass of component 1, and the subscripts denote constanc}^ of 
volume, entropy, and the other masses respectively. 

The application of this equation to several problems was discussed. 
Plrst, the method of derivation of the approximations known as the laws 
of dilute solutions was exemplified by the derivation of Raoult's law, 
stress being laid on the assumptions that it is necessary to make in order 
to derive these appi'oximations fi-om the exact relations. The appH- 
cation of equation 97 to some purely phase rule problems was then dis- 
cussed. First, theorems were developed enabling the determination of 
the sequence of the P-T curves that intersect at an invariant point, then 
th? question of th? change in slope of the P-T curve of a univariant 
equililjrium with change in composition of phases of variable composition 
was discussed. 

The subject mattei' of this paper has appeared in amplified form in the 
January number of the Journal of the American Chemical Society. 

Discussion: The paper was discussed by Mr. Sosman. 

Donald H, Sweet, Secretary. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Dr. George E. Hale, Director of the Mount Wilson Solar Observa- 
tory of the Carnegie Institution, gave the public lecture at the annual 
meeting of the trustees of the Institution in Washington, on December 
13, 1917. The subject of the lecture was "The development of the 
telescope and our expanding conception of the universe." 

Prof. H. C. CowLES, of the University of Chicago, and Mr, E. W. 
Shaw, of the Geological Survey, spent two weeks of last October 
in Arkansas, continuing an investigation of the apparently fictitious 
"lakes" which have been shown on the maps of northeastern Arkansas 
for the past seventy-five years. Both the geological and the ecological 
evidence show that the lakes have had no real existence within a period 
of at least one hundred years. Their origin on the early land survey 
maps is still a mystery; later maps simply copied the "lakes" from the 
land maps or from one another. Messrs. Cowles and Shaw have 
devoted several weeks of each summer since 1913 to this investigation. 

Mr. J. E. Spurr, formerly of the Geological Survey and for the past 
twelve years a consulting mining geologist in New York and Philadel- 
phia, has returned to Washington and is residing at 1755 Park Road. 

The Delegate of the Royal Swedish Government in the United States, 
Dr. Hjalmar Lundbohm, is well known to Washington geologists as 
the Director of the iron mines of Kiruna, Sweden, and author of papers 
on the geology of these ores. Dr. Lundbohm gave a talk on the Kiruna 
ores at the Petrologists' Club on December 18, 1917. 

Representative S. D. Fess of Ohio re-introduced on December 11, 
1917, the bill for a national univei'sity. The bill provides $500,000 for 
such a university for the fiscal years 1918 and 1919. The institution 
would be governed by a board of trustees in cooperation with an 
advisory council representing the states. It would confer no academic 
degrees and would accept only students of postgraduate standing. 

The Patent Office Society of Washington has taken an active interest 
in the proposed Institute for the History of Science, i realizing the great 
aid obtainable from such an institution in the administration of the 
patent laws, as well as its general usefulness in aid of scientific 
investigation and the teaching of science. The Board of Managers of 
the Washington Academy of Sciences has voted its concurrence with the 
Patent Office Society in urging the location of the proposed Institute 
in Washington. 

1 See Science, N. S. 45: 284, 635. 1917. 



JOURNAL . 

OF THE 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Vol. VIII FEBRUARY 19, 1918 No. 4 



PHYSICS. — An optical ammeter. Paul D. Foote, Bureau of 
Standards. 

The high precision in the measurement of temperature possi- 
ble by use of a property designed Holborn-Kurlbaum optical 
pyrometer equipped with a suitable pyrometer lamp is well 
recognized. If the lamps are operated below 1300° to 1500°C. 
the calibration of the pyrometer will not change appreciably 
after years of ordinary use. These two factors, accuracy of 
photometric settings and constancy in calibration of the lamps, 
permit the adaptation of this method of photometry to the 
measurement of current. In the present note two forms of cur- 
rent measuring instrument are described, one of which is strictly a 
hot-wire ammeter with the hot wire at a temperature between 
600° and 1500°C., and the other a device for adjusting a current, 
by optical methods alone, to any preassigned value. The first 
method should prove especially useful for the accurate measure- 
ment of alternating current of high frequency. 

In order to show what precision may be expected in measure- 
ment of current through the pyrometer lamp when the instrument 
is sighted on a source of constant brightness we will make the 
assumption that a photometric match of the tip of the lamp fila- 
ment against the uniform background can be made with an ac- 
curacy of 0.5 per cent. This assumption is reasonable for pre- 
cision photometry of this type, but even if the accuracy were 
only 5 per cent surprisingly accurate measurement of current 
can be obtained, as will appear below. The current tempera- 
ture relation for a particular lamp used, G. E. No. 8, has the 

77 



78 foote: an optical ammeter 

following form where i is the current in amperes and the abso- 
lute temperature of the filament: 

(1) ^• = 0.09258 -0.000010719 (t? -273) +0.00000018074 (^-273)2 
whence 

bi _ [—0.000010719 + 0.0000003615 {d - 273)^] § 8t} 



(2) 



i i t^ 



The brightness-temperature relation for this lamp is obtained 
from Wien's law as follows : 

J \d ^ 

where Cg = 14350, and J = intensity corresponding to X the 
wave length of the monochromatic light employed. In optical 
pyrometry this wave length is usually made about X = 0.65^ 
by the use of a suitable red glass. Combining equations (2) 
and (3) one obtains: 

, 6i _ [-0.000010719 + 0.0000003615 (^-273)^]^^ X 8J 

Thus for a particular value of such as 1273° absolute we have: 

(5) - = 0.06 — 

i J 

Hence, if the photometric match is made with an accuracy of 
0.5 per cent the current % is determined with an accuracy of 0.03 
per cent, or to three parts in ten thousand. If the photometric 
match is made with an accuracy of only 5 per cent, the current 
is determined to three parts in one thousand, which is a pre- 
cision scarcely to be obtained by an ammeter, especially for 
alternating current. 

One means for adapting this method of photometry to the 
measurement of current is shown in figure 1, where A' is a red 
glass screen, A the pupil diaphragm, B the ocular lens, C the 
electric lamp connected to the electrical apparatus, F a second 
electric lamp, E a diffusing opal glass screen and D a lens focus- 
ing upon E and C. The alternating current flowing through C 



foote: an optical ammeter 



79 



brings the lamp to incandescence. By adjusting the rheostat G 
the brightness of the lamp C is matched against the image of the 
background E illuminated by F. The current required for the 
match is read potentiometrically by use of the resistance stand- 
ard K. Hence the value of the alternating current is determined 
by an auxiliary measurement of direct current. The relation 
between the currents thi'ough F and C is obtained in the pri- 
mary standardization of the instrument by using a direct cur- 
rent thi'ough C and measuring this potentiometrically. For the 
highest precision a commutating switch may be used with C, 




To electrical Cu-cuit 



D 




AA 



I — VW\AA/\AAWW\AA 



m:^ 



Potentiometer 



standard 
Resistance 



Fig. 1. An optical ammeter. 

SO that the standardization with direct current may be performed 
immediately following the observations with alternating current. 
The range of currents which can be measured by any one system 
of lamps exceeds 1:2, and lamps having filaments of varying 
sizes may be used for a large range in value of currents. Thus 
one lamp may be employed for alternating currents between 0.25 
and 0.50 ampere, another lamp between 0.5 and 1 ampere, etc. 
Or with the same lamp, the range may be extended by the use of 
shunts, although this latter method is probably objectionable 
for very high frequency. If the induction effect becomes seri- 
ous for the horseshoe filament, a lamp having a straight wire 
filament can be used. 

^^ hen a suitable magnification system is employed, the diffus- 
ing screen E is unnecessary and a magnified image of F may be 



80 



foote: an optical ammeter 



projected directly on the filament C. Another modification of 
the above method is obtained by reversing the positions of the 
lamps F and C. The above described principle can be employed 
for the measurement of alternating voltage, as well as current. 
In this case the lamp filament must be of very small wire in order 
that the instrument possess a high resistance. For voltages 
from 60 to 110 volts a 7.5-watt lamp, which has a resistance of 
1600 ohms, should prove satisfactory. 




c ur"rp.nt 



Fig. 2. Current-temperature relation for two lamps C and F. If a diffusing 
screen is used in front of the lamp F, the above curve F refers to the apparent 
temperature of the screen. 

The apparatus shown in figure 1 may be employed for the 
determining of a fixed current of any preassigned value. A 
system similar in principle to this has been used, for determining 
a fixed temperature but to the writer's knowledge the method 
has never been employed for current measurements. Suppose 
that the apparent temperature-current relations of the lamps C 
and F are represented by the curves shown in figure 2. The 
two curves intersect at the point P. Hence, when the lamps C 
and F are connected in series and are caused to glow by either 
alternating or direct current the two filaments possess the same 



Siemens and Halske French Patent No. 466064. 



foote: an optical ammeter 



81 



temperature and are accordingly matched for the current cor- 
responding to P. The condition for a match thus defines a 
standard current which can be adjusted to any desired value by 
the use of a suitable shunt. The match is effected by use of an 
adjustable rheostat in series with the two lamps. The precision 
obtainable is much less than that possible with the first method 
described and depends upon the slopes of the two curves of 
figure 2 at the point of intersection. Near the point P these 
curves can be assumed to be straight lines. Whence we have: 



(6) 
(7) 



i = a -\- ht for lamp C 
i' = a' + h't' for lamp F 



From (6) and (7) 



(8) 



8 it — t ) = _ — — - = 8i, smce i =i 

^ b b' bb' 



when the lamps are connected in series. Hence the precision 
with which the lamps can be matched (i. e., when t — t' = {)) 
depends upon the relative slopes of the temperature-current 
curves for the two lamps. As seen from equation (8) it is of 
advantage to have the slopes of the two curves at P differ con- 
siderably. There would be no accuracy whatever if the slopes 
were nearly the same. Using apparatus assembled as shown 
in figure 1, but without paying special attention to the procuring 
of lamps having widely different constants, b, the readings given 
in table 1 were made by four different observers, one of whom 
was unskilled in photometric matching. The accuracy is only 
fairly satisfactory, but undoubtedly could be improved by the 
proper selection of lamps. 

TABLE 1 



C. W. K. 


E.F. M. 


C. 0. F. 


p. D. F. 


0.933 


0.930 


0.933 


0.934 


0.934 


0.923 


0.931 


0.934 


0.935 


0.929 


0.933 


0.933 


0.933 


0.930 


0.933 


0.933 


0.933 


0.930 


0.933 


0.933 


0.932 


0.932 


0.931 


0.933 


Means 0.9333 


0.929 


0.9323 


0.9333 



82 WATSON AND GOOCH: VIVIANITE from FLORIDA 

The final mean is 0.9320 ampere, and the average deviation 
is 0.18 per cent. The final mean, neglecting the readings of 
one observer, is 0.9330 ampere, and the average deviation is 
0.06 per cent. Thus this method can be used to define a 
standard current with an accuracy of 0.2 per cent. 

It may be pointed out that both of the above methods give 
results that are practically independent of the temperature of 
the room. Hence, an ammeter designed on these principles has 
a zero temperature coefficient. ' 

* 

MINERALOGY. — Vivianite from the land pebble phosphate de- 
posits of Florida. Thomas L. Watson and Stapleton D. 
GoocH, University of Virginia. 

introduction 

During recent mining operations by the Coronet Phosphate 
Company on its property on the Northwest Quarter of Section 
34, Township 29, Range 22, about If miles southeast of Plant 
City, Florida, fairly abundant crystals of vivianite were exposed 
over an area of moderate dimensions. The occurrence was noted 
by the junior writer, who is chemist to the Coronet Phosphate 
Company, and who kindly sent the senior writer a liberal supply 
of the mineral and matrix for study. 

Although not a common mineral, vivianite has been observed 
both in this country and abroad in a variety of associations, 
more especially in veins with the sulphides pyrite and pyrrho- 
tite, in bog iron ore deposits, and in clays and marls. In all its 
occurrences the mineral is regarded as secondary in origin. 

Previous to the recent mining operations by the Coronet 
Phosphate Company near Plant City that resulted in exposing 
vivianite, the only reference to the occurrence of the mineral in 
Florida phosphate deposits found in the literature accessible to 
us is a general statement by Matson,i who remarks that vivian- 
ite has been noted at several places but is probably rare. In a 

1 Matson, G. C. The phosphate deposits of Florida. U. S. Geol. Survey 
Bull. 604, p. 85. 1915. 



WATSON AND GOOCH: VIVIANITE FROM FLORIDA 83 

recent letter to one of us (Watson), Dr. E. H. Sellards, State 
Geologist of Florida, states that a specimen of vivianite was 
brought to his office in August, 1916, by a citizen of Avon Park, 
Desoto County, Florida. The exact locality was not given, 
but Dr. Sellards says the mineral presumably came from south 
of Avon Park, which would place the locality some distance to 
the southeast of the land pebble phosphate area as defined on 
the map by Matson.- The vivianite was associated with bog 
iron ore. 

Vivianite is apparently a rare mineral in the Florida phos- 
phate deposits, and so far as we are aware it has not hitherto 
been described, although noted in places in association with 
phosphate deposits of the Florida type. Because of these facts 
and the general character of the vivianite crystals found near 
Plant City, the occurrence is regarded of sufficient interest and 
importance to warrant a published record. 

GEOLOGIC SECTION 

The vivianite occurs in a ferruginous or dark-yellow ocherous 
matrix of earthy character about 20 feet below the surface at 
the contact of the pebble phosphate bed with the "bedrock" 
(clay in this section), and partly in each. The vivianite matrix 
covers an area of approximately 1000 square feet, with the viv- 
ianite-bearing portion limited to about 20 feet square and 2 or 
3 feet deep. 

The section follows. 

Overburden: Thickness in feet 

Black sandy soil containing organic matter 2 

Sand with very little admixed clay, partly 

indurated and colored red by iron oxide 12 

Clay, more or less phosphatic 1 

Phosphate : 

Pebble phosphate with some sand 4-6 

Bedrock: 

Dark yellow ocherous earth, locally hardened 
and red in color, containing besides vivianite 
scattered pebbles of phosphate and small 
rounded quartz grains 2+ 

2 Matson, G. C. Op. cit. Folded map in pocket. 



84 WATSON AND GOOCH: VIVIANITE FEOM FLORIDA 

The contact between the overburden and the phosphate bed 
is sharply defined. The land pebble phosphate belongs to the 
Bone Valley gravel formation, which is generally regarded as 
Pliocene in age, although Matson^ thinks there is some evidence 
of the Miocene age of the phosphate. The formation is be- 
lieved to be of marine origin,^ the materials of which were prob- 
ably deposited under shallow water conditions. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE VIVIANITE 

The mineral is distributed irregularly through the ocherous 
matrix as single crystals and crystal aggregates. Individual 
crystals attain a maximum length of 22 mm., are prismatic in 
form, usually much elongated, and not infrequently flattened 
parallel to 100, with vertical striations sometimes developed. 
End faces were not observed, the crystals terminating usually in 
rough and uneven surfaces. In the crystal aggregates, the un- 
attached end of the individuals sometimes exhibits acicular 
form. Fibrous structure, usually radiate or divergent, is some- 
times developed. 

Perfect cleavage is developed parallel to 010. The luster is 
pearly on cleavage faces, vitreous on other faces. Hardness 2; 
specific gravity 2.693. Color varies from light or pale green 
through blue-green to deep indigo blue, the pale green being pre- 
dominant. Streak colorless to faint bluish white, which rapidly 
changes to deep blue on exposure. The finely ground powder 
after exposure to sunlight for more than 30 days remained deep 
blue without any indication of changing to brown as reported by 
some writers. Crystals vary from transparent to translucent, 
becoming more or less opaque on prolonged exposure. 

The optical properties of the pale-green fragments of the 
vivianite similar to those yielding the analysis in table 1, kindly 
determined for the writers by Mr. E. S. Larsen, gave the follow- 
ing results : Optically ( + ) ; 2V large ; dispersion not strong ; 
X is normal to 010; Z makes an angle of 28° 30' ± 1° with c. 

3 Matson, G. C. Op. cit., p. 69. 

'' At Pembroke aggregates of silicified oyster shells have been observed by Dr. 
Sellards and the junior writer (Gooch) in the pebble phosphate deposit. 



WATSON AND GOOCH : VIVIANITE FROM FLORIDA 85 

The refractive indices are : 

a = 1.5S0± 0.003, /3= 1.598± 0.003,7 - 1.627± 0.003. 

The grains are colorless and nonpleochroic under the micro- 
scope. On fine grinding the powder changes to deep blue, 
which has similar properties as the pale-green fragments, but is 
strongly pleochroic, with A" = deep cobalt blue, Y and Z, color- 
less. Fragments of the deeply colored blue crystals show similar 
properties and absorption formula as the deep-blue powder of 
the pale-green fragments. 

A carefully selected sample of transparent pale-green crystals 
of the vivianite was analyzed with the results shown in table 1. 

TABLE 1 

Chemical Analysis of Vivianite (By S. D. Gooch) 

FeO 32.64 

FeaO. 9.43 

P2O5 29 . 99 

H2O - 105°C 11 .86 

H2O + 105°C 15.84 

SiOo 0. 12 

CaO . 02 

MnO 0.25 

TiOs trace 

100.15 

Specific Gravity 2.693 

Careful chemical tests showed the absence of AI2O3, AlgO, 
the alkalies (Na20 and K2O), F, SO3, and CO2. Attention is 
directed in the analysis to the seemingly high percentage of 
ferric oxide. This constituent is invariably present in blue 
vivianite in varying quantity, analyses showing it to range up to 
33+ per cent. The presence of ferric oxide in the colored varie- 
ties of the mineral has been regarded as due to alteration (oxida- 
tion), but microscopic examination of the mineral and the very 
rapid change in color of the streak or powder, suggested that 
the change might possibly be due to inversion from one form to 
another. 

jMicroscopic examination of the Florida vivianite indicated 
that the blue color was not uniform but was developed in or along 
streaks, apparently fractures or cleavage planes or both. The 



86 WATSON AND GOOCH: VIVIANITE from FLORIDA 

very rapid change in color of the streak of vivianite or of its 
powder on fine grinding, from white or faint bluish white to deep 
or indigo blue, is a well known property of the mineral. 

Further chemical study of the mineral was undertaken to deter- 
mine, if possible, whether the change in color was due to oxidation 
or to inversion. * For this purpose a lot of uniformly colored pale- 
green crystals was selected and divided into two portions. The 
first portion was accurately weighed, dissolved' without grinding, 
and ferrous iron determined. The second portion was reduced 
to powder by fine grinding and exposed to sunlight for five hours, 
after which a weighed sample of the exposed powder was dis- 
solved and the ferrous iron determined. The results follow: 



FeO. 



UNG ROUND 
VIVIANITE 



per cent 

42.88 



FINELY GROUND 
VIVIANITE 



per cent 

38.43 



These figures clearly show that fine grinding of the mineral 
resulted in the oxidation of 4.45 per cent FeO to Fe203, equiva- 
lent to 4.94 per cent FcoOs. A second lot of pale-green crystals 
of the Florida vivianite was submitted to Prof. F. P. Dunning- 
ton, of the University of Virginia, who found on analysis 40.58 
per cent FeO and no Fe203 on dissolving the crystals without 
grinding. 

The results show beyond reasonable doubt that the presence 
of Fe203 in blue vivianite, which is probably the common variety 
of the mineral, is due to oxidation and not to inversion. The 
rapidity with which oxidation takes place on fine grinding, 
manifested in very rapid change of color .(blue), is noteworthy 
and of special interest. 

COMPOSITION OF THE MATRIX 

The matrix is a dark brownish yellow ocherous earth, locally 
hardened and red in color, containing besides vivianite irregu- 
larly scattered phosphate pebbles of chalky white color with 
surfaces partly smooth but usually more or less pitted, and scant 
rounded grains of pellucid quartz. It readily dissolves in hot 
dilute hydrochloric acid. 



WATSON AND GOOCHI VIVIANITE FROM FLORIDA 87 

The composition of the matrix is shown in the analysis given 
in table 2, The sample analyzed was representative of the ma- 
trix, except that care was taken in selecting the sample to avoid 
as far as possible the inclusion of phosphate pebbles. 

TABLE 2 
Chemical Analysis of Vivianite Matrix (By S. D. Gooch) • 

Si02 4.17 

AUO, 4.96 

FesO, 65.20 

FeO 1.41 

MgO trace 

CaO 1 . 68 

N^\ 0.16 

H2O - 10o°C 4.14 

H2O + 105°C 12.72 

MnO . 56 

TiO. 0.14 

PoOo 5 .02 

F trace 

SOa none 

C02 none 

100.16 

The analysis clearly indicates that the matrix is not a clay, 
but an earth composed of the hydrates of iron and aluminum, 
chiefly the former, hydrous phosphates of calcium, iron, and 
aluminum, and some free quartz. It is characterized by the 
essential absence of hydrous silicate minerals, especially kaolinite, 
a fact confirmed by microscopic study. The slight insoluble 
residue left on boiling a portion of the matrix in dilute hydro- 
chloric acid was found to be composed of quartz and not of 
silicate minerals. 

RELATIONS OF VIVIANITE TO THE ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

The principal associated minerals are hydrous oxide of iron, 
probably limonite chiefly, calcium phosphate forming the phos- 
phate pebbles, and rounded grains of quartz. The relations of 
the vivianite to these minerals clearly indicate its later forma- 
tion, for the vivianite frequentl}^ incloses phosphate pebbles and 



88 bowen: significance of glass-making processes 

occasionally a small rounded quartz grain. More often the 
quartz grains are inclosed by the phosphate pebbles, whose sur- 
faces are frequently pitted with cavities, suggesting the possible 
removal of some mineral. Some cavities in several of the peb- 
bles examined were filled with vivianite. In no specimens of 
the vivianite examined were there indications of inclusions of the 
brownish-yellow ocherous material, but some of the vivianite 
crystals showed irregularities of surface similar to embayments 
which we believe resulted probably from external interference 
of the ocher on crystal growth. 

ORIGIN OF THE VIVIANITE 

The vivianite from the Florida locality is of secondary origin, 
formed we believe by the action of ferrous-iron solutions on the 
phosphate. Although rated at the present time as a rare mineral 
in the land pebble phosphate deposits, the conditions certainly 
appear to be favorable to a more general formation and distri- 
bution of the mineral in these deposits. 

PETROLOGY. — The significance of glass-7naking processes to 
the petrologist. N. L. Bowen, Geophysical Laboratory. 
(Communicated by A. L. Day.) 

The entry of the United States into the war was the occasion 
of an enormously increased demand for optical glass to be used 
in all kinds of military instruments. The supply of glass from 
abroad was almost completely cut off. In the effort to meet 
the demand by domestic production many problems were met 
with for whose solution the advice and assistance of scientific 
men seemed desirable. Glasses are, for the most part, silicate 
'mixtures that have been melted at a comparatively high tem- 
perature and then cooled to the glassy state. Since the prin- 
cipal activity of the Geophysical Laboratory has been the study 
of the behavior of silicates at high temperatures, it was expected 
that the experience of that organization might be of material 
assistance, and its services were therefore called upon. I was 
one of the several sent to the glass plant of the Bausch and Lomb 



bowen: sigxificaxce of glass-making processes 89 

Optical Company, where we went hoping not merely to be of 
assistance in solving these urgent problems but expecting also 
to learn something of more general interest concerning the be- 
havior of silicate liquids when handled on the comparatively 
large scale of the glass plant. 

One of the principal requirements of optical glass is homo- 
geneity. A fragment of glass to be used for a lens or prism 
must have the same refractive index and therefore the same 
chemical composition in all its parts, and from every pot of glass 
made a considerable proportion is rejected because it fails to 
fulfil this requirement. Naturally, the causes of inhomogeneity 
are diligently sought for, with the hope of removing them or re- 
ducing them to a minimum, and it may be stated that these causes 
are now pretty well understood. To those interested in the causes 
of inhomogeneity (differentiation) in masses of silicate rocks the 
factors that lead to inhomogeneity in these artificial silicate 
melts are perhaps of sufficient interest to merit description. 

Optical glass is made in a great many varieties with a wide 
range of composition. SiOj and B2O3 are the principal acidic oxides, 
and the alkalies with CaO, PbO, BaO, and ZnO are the princi- 
pal basic oxides, though a number of other oxides enter into the 
composition of special glasses. The alkalies, lime, and baryta 
usually go into the batch in the form of carbonates; lead and 
zinc as oxides; and silica as quartz sand. The carefully mixed 
batch is usually fed in several instalments into the pots, which 
have already been heated to the melting temperature. Factors 
tending to produce inhomogeneity immediately set to work. 
Some constituents of the batch are readily fusible, others, es- 
pecially the sand, are quite refractory. The more fusible por- 
tions quickly form a liquid which tends to filter downward 
through the porous structure formed by the grains of the more 
refractory material. This action is especially marked in the 
heavy glasses rich in lead. 

As typically developed the result may give every appearance 
of liquid immiscibility and the formation of two liquid layers. 
The two layers may be sharply marked off from each other and 
may so persist throughout the run. But that we have here no 



90 bowen: significance of glass-making processes 

true case of liquid immiscibility and that the persistence of two 
layers is due entirely to the slowness of diffusion is shown by 
the fact that appropriate stirring will completely eliminate this 
layering and give a single homogeneous liquid. When real im- 
miscibility occurs in the glass pot, as it does under certain cir- 
stances, it is quite a different matter. If the alkaline carbonates 
used in the batch contain a considerable amount of chloride or 
sulfate, these salts form a separate liquid layer which floats on 
top of the glass, forming the ''salt water" of the glass-maker. 
No amount of stirj-ing, however vigorous, will render such a 
mass homogeneous. This immiscibility between silicate, on the 
one hand, and sulfate or chloride, on the other, serves but to 
emphasize that immiscibility between silicate and silicate is not 
encountered in the whole range of glass compositions. 

This process of settling down of heavy liquid through the 
porous mass of the batch can take place only at a stage when the 
mass is mostly solid. A factor tending to produce a closely re- 
lated result comes into play at the stage when the mass is mostly 
liquid. Of all the ingredients of the batch the sand is usually 
the last material to dissolve. The sand grains tend to rise in 
the liquid and thus to render the upper parts more siliceous and 
of lower density. This action results in a continuous density 
gradient rather than in a sharp division into two layers. That 
it is not a spontaneous arrangement of the liquid according to 
the Gouy-Chaperon phenomenon is shown by the fact that as 
time goes on diffusion tends to lessen the gradient rather than 
to increase it. 

Figure 1 is a photograph of a fragment of glass taken from 
such a pot, the straight edge being part of the original upper 
surface of the glass. Two parallel plane faces were cut normal 
to this surface and the specimen was photographed in a bright 
light close to a white screen. Under these conditions heavy 
shadows are cast by the globules of low refracting glass sur- 
rounding the silica grains and by the tails of similar material 
pointing downward from them. It is obvious that silica is 
continually being transferred towards the top. 

There can be no doubt of the correctness of this explanation 
of the density gradient as a result of the floating of sand grains, 



bowen: significance of glass-making processes 



91 



for fortunately the action can be interrupted and observed at an 
intermediate stage. When the pot is removed at such a stage 
and the glass is chilled, sand grains are found suspended in the 
glass. That they were rising slowly in the liquid and dissolving 
at the same time is shown by the fact that pointing downward 
from each grain there is a tail of glass of lower refractive index 
than the surrounding glass. 




Fifi. 1. Glass containing rising silica grains. Natural si^e. 

In a former paper' I criticized the interpretation that has 
been offered of the result of a certain experiment by Morozewicz. 
The glass from his experiment showed a density and composi- 
tion gradient, with the heavier portion at the bottom of the pot, 
and this arrangement had been explained as the result of the 
Gouy-Chaperon action. I offered the suggestion that the ar- 

' The later stages of the ei'oluiion nf the igneous rocks. Journ. Geol., Suppl. 
to Vol. 23, p. .5. 1915. 



92 bowen: significance of glass-making processes 

rangement was due to differential melting with the sinking of 
heavy liquid at an early stage and the rising of silica grains at a 
later stage, though I had not at that time seen or studied the 
phenomenon. A careful study of the behavior of the ingred- 
ients of a glass batch leaves no question as to the correctness of 
this interpretation. There is, then, no experimental basis for 
the belief in an appreciable result from the Gouy-Chaperon 
action in a small pot and, therefore, no present reason for as- 
signing to it any greater importance in rock magmas than that 
which theory would indicate. 

There are two other factors making for inhomogeneity in 
glass: the solution of the pot, and the volatilization of certain 
ingredients from the surface of the liquid. No doubt the cor- 
responding processes, namely, solution of the surrounding rocks 
and escape of material into them, have their place in magmatic 
differentiation, but if their quantitative effect in the glass-pot is 
any criterion they cannot be regarded as approaching in impor- 
tance the two processes (sinking of liquid and floating of silica) 
that have been described above. However, the conditions are so 
different that one should be careful not to push the analogy too far 
in these cases. It may be safely stated, however, that, contrary 
to certain claims that have been made, glass-making processes 
offer no support for the belief in liquid immiscibility among 
silicates, nor for the belief in a significant density stratification 
in a mass wholly liquid. They do, however, suggest the impor- 
tance of gravity acting on a mass partly liquid and partly solid, 
and emphasize two stages, (1) that at which there is much 
liquid and little solid, and (2) that at which there is little liquid 
and much solid. The effects of these processes in magmas, — ■ 
sinking of crystals at an early stage of crystallization and squeez- 
ing out of residual liquid at a late stage, — have been discussed in 
some detail elsewhere.^ 

The association of gabbro with granite or of basalt with rhyo- 
lite, and the complete absence of intermediate types that is 
often noted, have been held by some to necessitate some sort 
of discontinuous differentiation, whereas crystallization-differen- 
tiation should, for the most part, be continuous. Evans has 
offered the suggestion that in aqueous magmas there may be a 

2 Op. cit. * 



bowen: significance of glass-making processes 93 

separation into two liquid portions, the lighter of which contains 
most of the water together with much silica, alumina, and 
the alkalies.^ This is, of course, a possibility not altogether to 
be excluded, nevertheless all the available evidence is against it. 
Such experimental work as has been done hitherto on aqueous 
silicate melts gives no indication of a tendency towards a separa- 
tion into two liquid layers.^ But the range of this work is limited 
as yet and one must fall back largely upon examination of the 
geological evidence. Over against the lack of types intermedi- 
ate between gabbro and granite (granophyre, micropegmatite) 
in some localities should be placed the abundance of intermediate 
types elsewhere. Again, if we examine the gabbro of a gabbro- 
granophyre occurrence we almost invariably find a certain 
amount of the granophyre occurring in the gabbro, frozen in as 
Daly puts it.^ And when we examine the manner of occurrence of 
this frozen-in material we find nothing to lead us to believe that 
it represents an immiscible liquid. It does not form globular 
masses, large and small, scattered through the gabbro. It occu- 
pies crj^stallization interstices with all the marks of a crystalliza- 
tion residuum. Add to this the fact that it corresponds in com- 
position with the kind of crystallization-residuum one is led to 
expect from experimental studies, and the reasons for appealing to 
liquid immiscibility may be regarded as of insignificant weight. 
Many petrologists regard liquid immiscibility as the ready solu- 
tion of all difficulties. Realizing that present evidence is against 
it, some are led to ''hope" that it may yet be experimentally 
demonstrated in silicate magmas. Until then one must re- 
gard its occurrence in silicate magmas as resting on pure assump- 
tion, an assumption that is in most cases not even helpful, and 
probably never preferable to the well-supported theory of 
crystallization-differentiation.'' 

' J. W. Evans. Discussion of paper by G. W. Tyrrell on The picrite-tes- 
chenite sill of Lugar. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 72: 130. 1917. 

■* G. W. MoREY and C. N. Fenner. The ternary system H20-K2SiOi-Si02. 
Journ. Am. Chem. Soc. 39: 1173. 1917. 

5 Igneous Rocks and Their Origin, p. 241. 

^ I would be the last, however, to claim complete miscibility between sul- 
fides and silicates. Cf. Tolman a\d Rogers {A study of the magmatic sulfid 
ores. Stanford Univ. Publ. 1916, p. 10). 



ABSTRACTS 

Authors of scientific papers are requested to see that abstracts, preferably 
prepared and signed by themselves, are forwarded promptly to the editors. 
Each of the scientific bureaus in Washington has a representative authorized to 
forward such material to this Journal and abstracts of official publications 
should be transmitted through the representative of the bureau in which they 
originate. The abstracts should conform in length and general style to those 
appearing in this issue. 

GEOLOGY. — Strontianite deposits near Barstow, California. Adolph 
Knopf. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 660-1. Pp. 14. 1918. 

Strontianite in economically important quantity has recently been 
found near Barstow, San Bernardino County, California. The for- 
mation in which the deposits occur consists of a series of lake and 
terrestrial beds of Upper Miocene age. A threefold subdivision of 
the beds may easily be recognized. The strontium deposits are re- 
stricted to the middle subdivision, which is made up chiefly of grayish- 
green clay in thick beds. In places reefs of algal limestone are promi- 
nent, and obviously this part of the formation was laid down in a lake. 

Strontianite and strontium-bearing rock have been found at a large 
number of places in a belt about 2 miles long. They occur as layers 
that lie parallel to the bedding of the inclosing clays and are distrib- 
uted at intervals through a thickness of several hundred feet. The 
strontianite occurs in two forms — as fibrous masses of resinous color 
and luster and as dense, exceedingly fine grained gray or drab material, 
which in appearance exactly resembles limestone. The two varieties 
occur separately as a I'ule, but in some deposits they are intermingled, 
spherulites of coarse resinous strontianite being irregularly scattered 
through gray aphanitic strontianite rock. Some celestite is present in 
the lower-grade material of the district. 

The thickest body of pure spherulitic strontianite that had been 
found at the time of visit is 14 inches thick, but the gray aphanitic 
strontianite rock had been found in layers as much as 3 feet thick. 

The strontianite deposits were formed by the replacement of the 
lacustral limestone beds that are interstratified in the clays. They 
thus differ widely from the only other commercially productive stron- 
tianite deposits — those of the Miinster district, Westphalia — which 
consist of a series of steeply inclined veins cutting horizontal marine 

94 



abstracts: geology 95 

calcareous shales of Upper Cretaceous age. They resemble them in 
one fundamental respect, however, in that they were formed later 
than the strata that inclose them. 

GEOLOGY. — Geology and water resources of Big Smoky, Clayton, and 
Alkali Spring valleys, Nevada. Oscar E. Meinzer. U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey Water-Supply Paper 423. Pp. 167, with maps 
and other illustrations. 1917. 

This paper describes in detail three typical desert basins of the 
Basin-and-Range Province, with respect to their physiographic devel- 
opment and the absorption, circulation, and discharge of their ground 
waters. 

Two cycles of erosion are shown in the Toyabe Range by two strongly 
contrasting types of topography. After the region had been eroded to 
a stage of maturity, probably late in the Tertiary period, it was faulted 
and uplifted, and the resulting escarpment was attacked by the streams, 
producing a very rugged front. Extensive faulting, continuing until 
recent time, is shown not only by precipitous mountain fronts but also 
by observed displacements, by poHshed surfaces, and by numerous 
escarpments in the valley fill. Evidences of glaciation, previously 
reported, are believed not to exist. 

Elaborate systems of beach ridges or embankments, the largest 
nearly 50 feet high, mark the outKnes of two Pleistocene lakes, desig- 
nated by the author as Lake Toyabe and Lake Tonopah. Lake 
Toyabe, when at its highest level, was about 40 miles long, 9 miles in 
maximum width, and covered an area of approximately 225 square 
miles, or 18 per cent of the drainage basin in which it lay. Lake 
Tonopah, when at its highest level, was about 22 miles long, 5^ miles 
in maximum width, and approximately 85 square miles in area, or 
only about two-fifths the area of Lake Toyabe. This area was only 
4.2 per cent of the to^al drainage basin tributary to the lake — a per- 
centage less than one-fourth as great as that of Lake Toyabe. 

The most important contribution of the report is a quantitative 
discussion of the origin, absorption, circulation, and discharge of the 
ground water, and of the criteria for determining areas of ground-water 
discharge. The amount of absorption was estimated chiefly by meas- 
uring stream flow at successive points on a part of the 54 small streams 
that discharge into Big Smok}^ Valley, and deducting for evaporation 
and transpiration from the wetted areas. The total annual supply of 
ground water was estimated to be several tens of thousands of acre- 
feet. The criteria for determining areas of discharge are (1) the mois- 



96 abstracts: paleontology 

ture of the soil and the position of the water table, (2) the appearance 
of soluble salts at the surface and the distribution of these salts in the 
soil, and (3) the distribution of plants of certain species that feed on 
ground water. On the map are shown the areas of discharge (aggre- 
gating 130,000 acres), and also the depths to the water table predicted 
on the basis of these areas. 

Alkali Spring Valley illustrates the other type of desert basin in 
which there is no ground-water discharge, the facihties for under- 
ground leakage apparently being great enough to dispose of all the 
water that is absorbed. 

Big Smoky Valley contains three distinct types of ground water, 
which are genetically related to the geologic formations from which 
they are derived. The processes of concentration were different in 
the lacustrine epoch than they are at the present time, and they differ 
in the clay cores below the playas from those in the surrounding zones 
of active discharge. 0. E. M. 

PALEONTOLOGY. — Orhitoid foraminifera of the genus OrtJwphrag- 
mina jrom Georgia and Florida. Papers by C. Wythe Cooke 
and J. A. Cushman. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 
108-G. Pp. 16, with 5 plates. 1917. 
The first paper, by C. W. Cooke, describes several localities on , 
Chipola River, Florida, Flint River, Georgia, and Suwannee River, 
Florida, at which species of Orthophragmina havfe been found in the 
Ocala limestone and enumerates the species of other organisms that 
are associated with them. The occurrence in the Ocala limestone of 
the genus Orthophragmina, which elsewhere appears to be restricted 
to the Eocene, is corroborative evidence of the Eocene age of that 
formation. 

The second paper, by J. A. Cushman, describes and figures 6 new 
species and one new variety of Orthophragmina^. C. W. C. 

ORNITHOLOGY. — Second annual list of proposed changes in the 

A.O.U. check-list of North American birds. Harry C. Ober- 

HOLSER. The Auk 34: 198-205, April, 1917. 

This is a resume of recent ornithological activities not already treated 

in the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of 1910, its supple- 

,ment, and the First Annual List of Changes in the same. It consists 

of additions, subtractions, rejections, and the changes in generic, 

specific, and subspecific names made for zoological reasons, purely 

nomenclatural questions being excluded. In the present list there 



abstracts: ornithology* 97 

are added 13 genera recently described or raised from subgenera; one 
species and 14 subspecies either described as new, revived, or recently 
captured within the boundaries of North America. Two species are 
eliminated as synonymous, and one proposed subspecies is rejected for 
the same reason. Furthermore there are many changes in names due 
to the recognition of additional genera, the descriptions as new of the 
North American representatives of wide-ranging species, the replacing 
of later by earlier names, and similar causes. This brings the subject 
down to December 31, 1916, and annual lists of the same character 
are to follow hereafter. H. C. O. 

ORNITHOLOGY. — A cooperative bird census at Washington, D. C. 
Harky C. Oberholser. Wilson Bull. 39: 18-29. March, 1917. 
The importance of counting the actual numbers of birds over given 
areas, particular!}^ during the breeding season, has already been shown. 
Similar censuses during the height of the spring migration are also of 
considerable value, both as a basis for comparison of the relative num- 
bers of the different species in the same year and of the same species 
in different years. Such a count was made by 15 local ornithologists 
in the vicinity of Washington, D. C, on May 12, 1913. The country 
investigated consisted of the region within 20 miles of the city of Wash- 
ington and comprised the valleys of the Potomac and Anacostia rivers, 
together with tributary streams and adjacent valleys. The routes of 
the 13 parties, each of which covered a distance of from 5 to 55 miles, 
traversed the country in all directions from Washington; and the 
results were very interesting. One fact of distribution was emphasized 
by these trips, which is that almost all the best places for birds about 
Washington lie in the moi-e or less immediate valleys of the Potomac 
and Anacostia rivers. On this day the total number of species ob- 
served by all the parties was 129, of individuals actually counted, 
1257. The largest number of species noted by any individual was 
91, and the largest number of birds 3049. As the year 1913 was not 
particularly good for birds, this record is likely to be much increased 
by future observations. Three species, Podilymbus podiceps, Totanus 
flavipes, and Dendroica palmarum hypochrysea, noted on this clay, had 
not previously been observed so late in the spring. The six most 
numerous species, in the order of their abundance, were, rather sur- 
prisingly, as follows : Passer domesticus hostilis, Hirundo rustica erythro- 
gastris, Iridiprocne hicolor, Melospiza melodia melodia, Chaetura pelagica, 
and Lucar carolinensis. H. C. O. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY AND AFFILIATED 

SOCIETIES 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The Board of Managers, at its meeting on January 21, 1918, adopted 
the budget for the year 1918, increasing the allotments to the Journal 
and the Committee on Meetings. The appointment of the following 
committees was announced: 

Executive Membership Meetings 

L. J. Briggs Paul Bartsch W. F, G. Swann 

R. B. SosMAN C. L. Alsberg C. S. Hudson 

WiLLL\M Bowie G. W. Cook K. F. Kellerman 

G. K. Burgess W. J. Humphreys E. B. Phelps 

A. C. Spencer T. W. Vaughan E. W. Shaw 

Prof. Fridtjof Nansen, of the University of Kristiania, Norway, 
now in Washington as Minister Plenipotentiary of Norway on special 
mission to the United States of America, has been elected an honorary 
member of the Academy. 

Messrs. 0. H. Tittmann and W. D. Hunter were elected vice- 
presidents to represent the National Geographic Society and the En- 
tomological Society of Washington, respectively. 

Robert B. Sosman, Corresponding Secretary. 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 
The 320th meeting was held at the Cosmos Club, April 25, 1917. 

informal communications 

F. E. Matthes read a greeting from Prof. Emmanuel de Margerie. 
former president of the Societe Geographique de France, to the men of 
science in America, acclaiming with enthusiasm the entrance of the 
United States into the war. 

REGULAR program 

G. P. Merrill: The rarer constituents of meteorites. 

G. F. Loughlin: The relation of copper and zinc in the carbonate ore 
at Ophir, Utah. (Published in U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 690-A.) 
F. E. Matthes: The preglacial history of Yosemite Valley. 

The 321st meeting was held at the Cosmos Club, May 9, 1917. 

9S 



proceedings: geological society 99 



INFORMAL COMMUNICATIONS 

H. yi. Ami: Notes on the geology of Asia Minor. The general geolo- 
gic features were outlined with special reference to large undeveloped 
mineral resources. 

REGULAR PROGRAM 

Willis T. Lee : Geology and scenery of the Rocky Mountain National 
Park. 

E. 0. Ulrich: The limitations of fossils in correlation. 

T. Wayland Vaughan: Summai'y of 7'esults of study of marine 
bottom samples from Murray Island, Australia, the Bahamas, and 
Florida. 

The 322d meeting was held at the Cosmos Club, November 28, 1917. 

INFORMAL communications 

B. S. Johnson: Chalmersite, CuFciS^, a new ore of copper. This 
mineral occurs extensively in greenstone in several localities in Alaska. 
It is associated with pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite. A satiny sheen due 
to cleavage is one of its distinguishing characteristics. 

R. C. Wells: Tungstenite, disulphide of tungsten, a new mineral. 
The disulphide of tungsten, WS2, was found in material from the Emma 
mine, Little Cottonwood district, Utah, associated with pyrite, tetra- 
hedrite, and galena. The mineral resembles graphite and shows slicken- 
sided surfaces but has a specific gravity of about 7.4. It is decomposed 
by aqua regia or by fusion with niter. It occurs massive, is dull to 
brilliant metallic in luster, is gray in color, and its hardness is about 2.5. 

R. W. Stone: The developmeyii of valuable magnesite deposits in the 
State of Washington. This material is suitable for replacing imported 
magnesite for use in paper-making and for refractories. The signifi- 
cance of previously reported analyses of this material was not appre- 
ciated, and its rediscovery and recognition as a commercially valuable 
substance was purely accidental. 

REGULAR program 

Eugene Wesley Shaw: The "lakes" of northeastern Arkansas, and 
some features of the work of the Mississippi River. Northeastern Arkansas 
has, according to all maps of the region, numerous large and small 
lakes. As a matter of fact most of these lakes are fictitious and many 
are not even swamps. The "lakes" are generally believed to" have 
been caused by the New Madrid earthquake of 1811-12 and are widely 
known as "sunk lands." However, in most of them the surface has 
not been depressed ; they do not have a basin form bilt instead are as 
high as surrounding country. All are in the heavily forested bottom 
lands of the lower Mississippi. In this forest there are natural openings 
that are swampy and some of them have shallow temporary or perma- 



100 proceedings: geological society 

nent lakes. Such openings are found lioth inside and outside the areas 
mapped as lakes, and other features, such as low ridges and depressions 
and soil varieties, show Httle relation to the ''lakes" or to their "shore 
lines." 

The "lakes" were first reported and mapped by the original public 
land Survey oi about seventy-five years ago. The field work, like 
much other public land surveying, was done under contract at a price 
perhaps too low for thorough and honest work. The early maps have 
been copied unquestioningly by all later ones, though strange to say- 
there have been numerous later field examinations by various organi- 
zations, some purporting to be fairly detailed surveys of one sort or 
another, and few if any maps state that they are based on the land 
survey. 

Ownership of the lands represented as lakes hangs on the correctness 
of the original survey. If it was correct and the lakes have become 
filled or drained their fertile beds must now be parceled out among 
those owning bordering lands — the riparian claimants. If, however, 
the old surveys were erroneous, the lands are now, it is said by lawyers, 
the property of the nation and open to homestead. Up to about 1910 
no one claimed the lands — perhaps because they were poorly protected 
by levees and were more or less infested with malaria but perhaps to a 
large extent because of the reputation given Arkansas by songs and 
tales that have led homeseekers to pass over this rich State for less pro- 
ductive lands farther west. As a matter of fact few if any lands yield 
heavier crops of corn and cotton than those of northeast Arkansas, this 
area seeming to be too far north for serious difficulty with the boll 
weevil. In the past five years or since the question of title to the 
"lakes" was first raised, squatters have taken possession so far as al- 
lowed and there has been much contention between them and the 
riparian claimants. 

The Department of Justice has brought suit to quiet the title to the 
lands in the government and since there is almost no one living who 
can testify as to whether or not the lands were lakes at the time of the 
old survey, the waiter has been called upon at various times to deter- 
mine if possible by the use of geology and physiography whether or not 
one or another of the areas was a lake at the time of the old survey. 
Ecologist H. C. Cowles was employed to gather for the same purpose 
the testimony of the trees of the immense hardwood forests that cover 
the "lakes" and surrounding land. 

At first it seemed probable that the geologic and ph^^siographic evi- 
dence would be indecisive because the whole region has been subject to 
annual overflow up to the time the levees were completed (and occa- 
sionally since) and hence to more or less erosion and sedimentation. 
It was found, however, that with the exception of the natural levee belts 
bordering the Mississippi and the larger bayous and other tributaries, 
erosion and sedimentation proceed very slowly and hence the presence 
or absence of basins, shore features, lake deposits, etc., could be used. 



• proceedings: geological society 101 

Although there are probably more low swampy areas inside the 
meander or "shore " lines of the lakes than outside and in places a bayou 
or other natural feature follows one of the lines for a part of its course, 
there is with one or two possible exceptions not only no recognizable 
lake basin, shore features, or lake deposits but for the most part no re- 
lation between the meander lines and any boundary of any featui'e or 
deposits, all manner of natural boundaries crossing the "shore lines" at 
all angles and all kinds of the natural features and deposits of the region 
being found both inside and outside of the "lakes." 

The testimony of the trees, according to Dr. Cowles, has a similar 
bearing. The forest consists of oak, ash, elm, hickory, cottonwood, 
pecan, various gums, cypress, locust, maple, hackberry, sycamore, etc., 
large proportions of which are over sevent,y-five years old and none of 
which, according to the same authority, will germinate and grow in a 
lake — not even excepting cypress. The spur roots are with rare excep- 
tions at the surface indicating no practically erosion or sedimentation. 

Here and there are small tracts in which the timber was shaken down 
by the Xew ]\ladrid earthquakes of 1811-12 and the surface being de- 
pressed, elevated, covered with the sand of "sand blows" or otherwise 
changed, a different society of trees has sprung up — all less than 105 
years old and some growing astride, the still remaining fallen trunks. 
In such places events of the past century are clearly recorded. 

♦Perhaps the most important inferences concerning the work of the 
Mississippi River are (1) that it is probably filling and not deepening 
this part at least of its valley and (2) that throughout most of the flood 
plain the rate of sedimentation is very slow — not more than a few inches 
per century. 

E. S. Bastin: Genesis of the ores at Tonopah, Nevada. 

The 323d meeting was held at the Cosmos Club, December 19, 1917. 

INFORMAL COMMUNICATIONS 

Lawrence LaForge: The occurrence of "Spri7igs"m place names in 
the United States. The word is more common in the Southern States. 
The relation of the place names to glaciation, limestone formations, 
habits of the people, etc., was referred to. 

Discussion: David White called attention to the remedial qualities 
of springs and the disposition of the people of the South to resort to 
springs. T. W. Vaughan spoke of nameless springs throughout the 
Southern States and their association with Limestone formations. 
0. E. Meinzer referred to the large springs along fault scarps in Nevada, 
and W. B, Heroy spoke of the ratio of area of a state to the number 
of place-names containing the word "Springs." 

regular trogram 

Sidney Paige: Coal and iron in the terms of peace. 

H. E, Merwin, Secretary. 



102 proceedings: philosophical society 

PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 47th annual meeting (796th regular meeting) was held at the 
Cosmos Club, December 8, 1917; President Buckingham in the 
chair; 29 persons present. The minutes of the 46th annual meeting 
were read. The report of the Secretaries was read by Mr, Sweet. 
One member, Thomas W. Smillie, died during the year, one member 
resigned, and one member was dropped. Two members were trans- 
ferred to the absent list, and two members were transferred from the 
absent to the active list. Twenty-four new members were elected. 
The present active membership is 170. Fifteen regular meetings were 
held, at which 37 formal and 7 informal communications were 
presented. A complete revision of the by-laws was adopted on No- 
vember 24. According to the new by-laws the functions heretofore 
performed by the Executive Committee and the General Committee 
are concentrated in the General Committee. At the same time the 
General Committee is reduced to thirteen members. 

The Treasurer's report through December 1, 1917, was read by 
Mr. Mueller. The total receipts for the year, including cash balance 
of $443.66, were $2,537.29; the total disbursements were $2,353.16; 
cash balance on December 1, 1917, $184.13. The total par value of 
the investments now held by the society is $12,500: The report of 
the Auditing Committee, consisting of Messrs. Mauchly and Bearce, 
was read by Mr. Mauchly. This committee reported that the state- 
ments in the Treasurer's report had been found correct. The reports 
of the Auditing Committees and the Treasurer were ordered accepted 
and placed on file. 

The report of the Committee of Tellers, consisting of Messrs. Sils- 
bee and White, was read by Mr. White. A total of 43 ballots was 
received. From among those placed in nomination bj^ the informal 
ballot, the following officers were duly elected for the ensuing year: 
President, G. K. Burgess; Vice Presidents, W. J. Humphreys, R. B. 
Sosman; Corresponding Secretary, E. C. Crittenden; Recording Secre- 
tary, H. L. Curtis; Treasurer, E. F. Mueller; General Committee, 
J, A. Fleming, W. F. G. Swann (two year term) and R. L. Faris, W. P. 
White (one year term). 

The rough minutes of the meeting were read and approved. 

Donald H. Sweet, Secretary. 

The 797th meeting was held at the Cosmos Club, December 22, 
1917; President Burgess in the chair; 39 persons present. The min- 
utes of the 795th meeting were read in abstract and approved. 

The paper of Messrs. E. D. Williamson and L. H. Adams on Meas- 
urement of the compressibilities of solids under hydrostatic pressure up to 
12,000 megabars was presented by Mr. E. D. Williamson. The paper 
was illustrated by lantern slides. Specimens on which measurements 
had been made were exhibited and some of the actual apparatus shown. 

The compressibilities of the principal earth constituents are of 



proceedings: philosophical society 103 

interest in a large number of geophysical problems but, owing to the 
difficulties that offer themselves in the experimental determination, 
practicalh' no reliable data are available. This paper described a 
method by means of which the volume-change under hydrostatic 
pressure of any solid may be determined with an accuracy of about 
one jjart in a hundred million of the original volume of the solid. Re- 
sults were presented for the metals gold, copper, silver, aluminum, 
zinc, tin, cadmium, lead, and bismuth; for the alloys brass, cast-iron, 
and tin-bismuth eutectic; the minerals halite, quartz, orthoclase, 
labradorite, oligoclase, pyrite, mica, and enstatite. The pressure 
range was from 2000 to 12,000 megabars (1 megabar = 0.987 atmo- 
sphere) . 

In carrying out the determination the solid, surrounded by a liquid 
such as kerosene, was enclosed in a thick-walled steel bomb fitted with 
a movable, leak-proof piston and pairs of simultaneous readings were 
taken of (1) the displacement of the piston and (2) the pressure. 

The P-AV graphs were found to be nearly straight lines, but there 
exists a slight though distinct curvature such that the graphs are con- 
cave to the pressure axis. For the more compressible substances, the 
curvature is suffi<3ient to allow of a rough estimate of the change of 
compressibility with pressure. This change amounts to as much as 
10 per cent of the value at thg initial pressure for the most compres- 
sible substances. 

The average compressibility of the earth at the surface was calcu- 
lated to be 1.63 parts per million per megabar. 

Discussion: The paper was discussed by Messrs. Sw^ann, White, 
and Burgess. 

A paper by Messrs. N. S. Osborne and M. S. Van Dusen upon 
Latent and specific heats of ammonia was presented by Mr. M. S. Van 
Dusen. The paper was illustrated by lantern slides. 

Using a calorimeter of the aneroid type, specially designed for the 
peculiar conditions, the specific heat and latent heat of vaporization 
of ammonia have been determined throughout the temperature interval 
— 40° to + 40°C. The apparatus used has been previousl}' described 
in detail before the Society. It consists essentially of a cylindrical 
metal shell suspended within a thermally controlled metal jacket. 
The metal shell or calorimeter, containing the ammonia to be investi- 
gated, is provided with an electrical heating coil and a platinum resis- 
tance thermometer. 

In the measurements of specific heat two independent methods 
were used, each of which avoids sources of error present in the other. 
In the first method, the heat added to a fixed amount confined in the 
calorimeter under saturation conditions and the resulting change in 
temperature are measured By using data for the specific volumes of 
the two phases and the latent heat of vaporization, the corrections for 
vapor are applied, giving the specific heat of the saturated liquid. 

In the second method the calorimeter is kept full of liquid at a con- 
stant pressure. The heat added to the variable amount in the calorim- 




fe 



104 proceedings: philosophical society 

eter and the resulting change in temperature are measured. A cor- 
rection for the heat withdrawn in the expelled liquid is determined 
by special experiments. By the use of data for the heat of pressure 
variation of the liquid obtained from separate measurements, the 
corrections for pressure variation are applied, the result being a second 
determination of the specific heat of the saturated liquid. 

The greatest difference between the mean results of both methods 
and the results of either method as represented by empirical equations 
is less than 1 part in 1000. 

In the measurements of latent heat the jacket temperature was kept 
constant while a measured amount of ammonia was evaporated, 
slightly superheated, and withdrawn from the calorimeter. The 
approximate amount of heat required to effect this change was added 
electrically, the small balance being due to thermal leakage and change 
in temperature of the system, both of which were kept small and were 
measured. Analysis of the process occurring in the calorimeter during 
an experiment leads to a method of calculation whereby data from 
other sources than the direct observations enter only in the computation 
of correction terms, which can be made small by careful manipulation. 

The result of each of the determinations agrees with the mean result 
as expressed by means of an empirical equation within 1 part in 1000. 

Discussion: The paper was discussed by Messrs. White, Burgess, 
SosMAN, and Bichowski. 

The 798th meeting was held at the Cosmos Club, January 5, 1918; 
Vice-President Humphreys in the chair; 54 persons present. The 
minutes of the 797th meeting were read in abstract and approved. 

Mr. 0. S. Adams presented a paper on Lambert's conformal conic 
projection. The paper was illustrated by lantern slides. 

Since the spheroidal surface of the earth is nondevelopable, it is 
impossible to make a perfect map of a section of any extent upon a 
plane surface. The best that can be done then is to choose an approx- 
imation that may preserve the features desired in the proposed map'. 
A projection is called conformal or orthomorphic when any infinitesimal 
element of the map is exactly similar to the element that it represents. 
The Lambert conformal conic projection is admirably suited to the 
mapping of any region that has no great extent in latitude. The 
parallels become concentric circles and the meridians become radii of 
this system of circles. The projection is for this reason very easily 
constructed and thus fulfils one of the practical requirements for a 
projection. With this method of projection, a map could be con- 
structed of the United States that would not be in error of scale in 
any part by more than 1.2 per cent. The fact that angles are pre- 
served and that the error of scale is within the limits of scaling makes 
its use in France of great service at the present time. The projection 
is of interest historically because it was originated by Johann Heinrich 
Lambert in 1772, and afterwards fully discussed by Gauss. Since 
the projection is conformal, it is especially interesting to mathemati- 



proceedings: philosophical society 105 

cians as an example of the application of the theory of functions of a 
complex variable. This simple example of the broad subject of con- 
formal mapping of one surface upon another deserves careful considera- 
tion l)y all who wish to get a thorough grasp of the subject that is so 
important in the natural sciences as well as in pure mathematics. x\ll 
honor is due the Alsatian Lambert for his perception of the important 
features of such a method of projection. However, even he did not 
dream of the importance that the conformal relationship was to assume 
both in pure and applied mathematics. 

Discussion: The paper was discussed by Messrs. Sosman, Harris, 
LiTTLEHALEs, and Jones. 

]Mr. William Bow^ie presented a paper on Primary triangulation and 
precise leveling as done by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
The paper was illustrated by lantern slides and by three reels of moving 
pictures which showed the instruments used in the precise leveling and 
primary triangulation and the amount of work that has been done in 
the United States, and also the methods of carrying on the various 
operations. 

There have been completed to date about 38,000 miles of precise 
leveling and 14,200 linear miles of primary triangulation and primary 
traverse. These operations give standard elevations and geographic 
positions throughout the country which are used by surveyors and 
engineers for the control of their operations, especially in the map 
makmg of the country. The work is of particular value in State and 
international boundary surveys. 

Three reels of motion pictures were shown; one gave an excellent 
idea of the methods employed by an up to date precise leveling party. 
As now conducted, the precise level is mounted on a small motor veloci- 
pede which runs on the railroad track. The instrument is mounted 
on the car in the morning and it is not dismounted until the day's 
work is completed. It is not even removed when the car is lifted from 
the track to allow trains to pass. The recording of the rod readings 
ig now done on a listing adding machine which is mounted on a second 
motor car. 

Improvements recently made in the methods of organizing and 
conducting the precise level party made it possible to increase greatly 
the rapidity with which this work is done. The maximum progress 
made by a precise leveling part}^ in any one month was 159.6 miles of 
completed line. Each mile of this was leveled over at least twice. 
The total number of single miles of leveling in that month was 324. 
As much as 20 miles of single line were leveled in one day of seven 
hours of actual observing. 

The second reel showed the erection of the towers or signals which 
are used in triangulation in a wooded or flat country to elevate the 
instrument to sufficient height to make it possible to observe from one 
point to another. The length of lines of the triangulation varies from 
a minimum of about 4 miles to a maximum of something over 100 
miles. The signal is a double structure, consisting of an inner tripod 



106 proceedings: philosophical society 

on which the instrument rests and an outer four-legged structure called 
the scaffold which supports the observer and the lightkeeper. The 
two structures are entirely independent of each other and do not touch 
at any point. The reel showed the operation of erecting one of these 
towers from the time the building party arrived at the station until 
the structure was entirely completed. These towers are usually from 
40 to 60 feet in height and are built of lumber purchased at the point 
most convenient to the field of operation. The legs of the structure 
are set well into the ground and are strongly anchored to prevent their 
being blown over by the wind. 

The third reel showed the method of conducting the observing party. 
It showed the automobile trucks used in carrying the party and outfit 
from station to station and the various operations connected with the 
observing. It also showed the lightkeeper at work with his signal 
lamp or heliograph. Practically all of the observations of primary 
triangulation are now made on sunlight reflected from a mirror called 
a heliograph and on the signal lamps used at night. The modern 
signal lamp has a very high candlepower and the light can be sent 
over long lines and through atmosphere which would make observing 
impossible with the old style of lamp. The new electric lamp is one 
having contracted filament with dry cells furnishing the electric cur- 
rent. In the older type of lamp the fuel used was acetylene gas. 

The primary triangulation is carried on much more rapidly today 
than ever before, but there has been no decrease in the accuracy of the 
observations. The accuracy of the triangulation is that expressed by 
an average closing error of about 1". The probable error of any 
one direction in the triangulation is usuall}^ less than Y- This 
accuracy is very great, as is shown by the fact that one foot at a dis- 
tance of 40 miles from the observer subtends an angle of 1". The 
accuracy in the results is obtained by repeating the angles a number 
of times and taking the mean. The errors are probably caused by 
atmospheric conditions. 

H. L. Curtis, Recording Secretary. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Among the members of the Academy who are now with the mihtary 
forces of the United States are: 

Lieutenant Colonel R. F. Bacon, with the Chemical Service Section 
of the National Army, in France. 

Brigadier General Wm. H. Bixby, U. S. A., retired. President of 
the Mississippi River Commission and Division Engineer, Western 
Division River and Harbor Improvements, 'at St. Louis, Mo. 

Major W. R. Blair, with the Meteorological Service of the Signal 
Corps, in France. 

Major Edward H. Bowie, with the Meteorological Service of the 
Signal Corps, in France. 

Major Alfred H. Brooks, Geologist on the staff of General 
Pershing, American Expeditionary Forces, in France. 

Major General William Crozier, U. S. A., Chief of Ordnance. 

Major L. A. Fischer, Ordnance Officers' Reserve Corps, Bureau of 
Engineering. 

]\fajor General W. C. Gorgas, U. S. A., Surgeon General, Medical 
Corps. 

Lieutenant Colonel Henry S. Graves, with the Twentieth Engineers 
(Forestry) in France. 

Captain Carey V. Hodgson, Engineers' Reserve Corps, at Anniston, 
Alabama. • 

Major Douglas W. Johnson, National Army. 

First Lieutenant Walter D. Lambert, Engineers' Reserve Corps. 

First Lieutenant M. W. Lyon, Jr., Medical Reserve Corps, at Walter 
Reed General Hospital, Washington. 

Colonel John Millis, U. S. A., Corps of Engineers, at the Office of 
• the Division Engineer, Southeast Division, Savannah, Georgia. 

Biigadier General A. W. Vogdes, U. S. A., Retired, at San Diego, 
California. 

Major W. H. Wilmer, member Medical Research Board, and As- 
sistant to Chief Surgeon, Aviation Section of the Signal Corps. 

Captain Fred. E. Wright, Ordnance Officers' Reserve Corps, de- 
tailed to the Bausch & Lomb optical glass plant in Rochester, New 
York. 

Dr. H. AL Ami, iformerly of the Geological Survey of Canada, is 
spending the winter in Washington. Dr. Ami is in charge of problems 
of war metals and minerals in the Trade Department of the British 
Embass}'. 

in? 



108 SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Dr. George E. Hale, Director of the Mount Wilson Solar Observa- 
tory at Pasadena, California, has been in Washington since last spring 
as Chairman of the National Research Council, which is now acting as 
the Department of Science and Research of the Council of National 
Defense. 

Mr. NICHOLAS H. Heck has been transferred from the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey to the Navy Department, as a Lieutenant in the 
Naval Reserve Forces. 

Dr. George Tully Vaughan has been called to active service in 
the Medical Corps of the Navy. 

Dr. Otto Klotz, who with the late Dr. W. F. King, his predecessor, 
was a founder of the Dominion Astronomical Observatory at Ottawa, 
has been appointed Chief Astronomer and Director of the Observatory. 
Dr. Klotz has presented his scientific library of some 2000 volumes, a 
collection of a lifetime, to the Observatory. 

Prof. Charles A. Kofoid, of the Department of Zoology, Univer- 
sity of California, has been elected a corresponding member of the 
Societe de Pathologic Exotique of Paris. 

Prof. J. C. Merriam, of the University of California, has been in 
Washington for several months on business connected with the National 
Research Council. 

Dr. Charles Doolittle Walcott, Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, has been elected a corresponding member of the Academic 
des Sciences of Paris in the section of geology, in place of Sir Archibald 
Geikie, who has been elected a foreign associate. 

The following have become members of the Academy since the be- 
ginning of the year: Prof. Charles August Kraus, Clark University, 
Worcester, Massachusetts; Dr. Philip S. Roy, 1200 Massachusetts 
Avenue; Prof. John Warren Smith, Weather Bureau; Dr. Edwin' 
Frederick Wendt, Interstate Commerce Commission. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Vol. VIII MARCH 4, 1918 No. 5 



BOTAXY. — Plant life o)i saline soils.^ Thomas H. Kearxey, 
Bureau of Plant Industry. 

The topic that I have chosen for consideration this evening 
may not, at first thought, seem a very inviting one. Those 
of you who are famiUar with salt marsh vegetation along the 
sea-coast and with the plant life of so-called ''alkali" soils in 
the arid part of the country'- must have been impressed with 
their monotonous and rather unprepossessing aspects. Even 
the mangroves of tropical and subtropical shores, the most 
highly developed tj^pe of salt plants or halophj^tes, while in- 
tensely interesting from a biological point of view, are by no 
means so attractive to the casual eye as are many other forms 
of tropical plant life. 

Nevertheless the halophytes have long been a subject of the 
greatest interest to botanists. Study of this vegetation in rela- 
tion to its environment leads us into some of the most intricate 
problems in plant phj^siolog}'. 

ORIGIN AND NATURE OF THE SALINE COMPONENTS 

Soils containing an excessive quantitj^ of readily soluble salts 
are for the most part confined eithei" to the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the ocean or to arid interior regions. In the former 
case the salinity of the soil is caused b^- periodical inundation 

1 Address of the retiring president of the Botanical Society of Washington 
delivered February o. 1918. 

109 



110 Kearney: plant life on saline soils 

with normal or dilute sea-water and the salts present are such as 
occur in the ocean. 

In arid regions away from the coast, the accumulation of salts 
is due to local erosion. Owing to the scantiness of the rainfall, 
the saline components of the country rocks are not, as in humid 
regions, carried away by rivers flowing into the ocean. Instead 
they are transported short distances by the surface and under- 
ground drainage channels and become accumulated in the bot- 
toms of the valleys and of closed basins. In this way are formed 
the salt lakes and the alkali flats, covered during the dry season 
with a glistening white crust of salts, which are so characteristic 
a feature of arid countries the world over. 

Sea-water is practically uniform in the nature and proportion 
of its different salts and the same is necessarily true of the soil 
of coastal marshes. In both cases, sodium chloride strongly 
predominates. On the other hand, the saline components of 
soils in arid regions vary with the composition of the rocks 
from which they were derived. Salts of sodium (chloride, sul- 
phate, carbonate, bicarbonate) are usually the most abundant, but 
the corresponding salts of potassium, magnesium, and calcium 
are commonly also present. 

Since each salt, when presented in a pure solution, has its 
specific toxicity for plants, it might be thought that correspond- 
ing differences would be observed in the vegetation of ''alkali" 
soils of different chemical composition. But there is little evi- 
dence that such is the case. The reason doubtless is that the 
solution in saline soils, like the water of the sea, is a "balanced" 
solution, in the sense of Loeb and Osterhout.'- It rarely hap- 
pens, in arid regions, that soluble salts occur in large quantity 
where the soil is deficient in calcium ; and the presence of calcium 
equalizes, in large measure, the different toxicities shown in pure 
solutions by salts of the other bases.^ Consequently, it is usu- 

2 W. J. V. Osterhout. On the importance of physiologically balanced solution- 
for plants. Bot. Gaz. 42:127. 1906; also 44:259. 1907. The same investiga 
tor has developed the subject in numerous subsequent papers. 

^ T. H. Kearney and F. K. Cameron. Some mutual relations between alkali 
soils and vegetation. U. S. Dept. Agr. Rept. 71:7-60. 1902. T. H. Kearney 
and L. L. Harter. The comparative tolerance of various plants for the salts com- 
mon in alkali soils. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Plant Ind. Bull. 113. 1907. 



KEARNEY." PLANT LIFE ON SALINE SOILS 111 

ally not so much the chemical composition of the soil solution as 
its concentration and the resulting osmotic pressure which affect 
vegetation."^ 

CONCENTRATION OF THE SOIL SOLUTION 

Saline soils are extremely diverse in respect to texture, water- 
holding capacity, humus content, and fertility. The one thing 
that they have in common is a high concentration of the soil 
solution. This factor, also, is extremely variable, since not 
only the absolute quantity of salts may differ enormously within 
very short distances, but the concentration of the solution fluc- 
tuates continually, being diluted by rainfall or by inundation 
and concentrated by evaporation. 

The fluctuations are greatest, of course, in deserts, where rain- 
falls of brief duration alternate with long periods of extreme 
drought. A salt content amounting to 3 per cent of the dry 
weight of the soil, to the depth penetrated by the plant roots, 
is not uncommon in arid regions. With this salt content, and 
with a water-holding capacity of 50 per cent, the soil, even when 
saturated with water, would have a solution concentration of 6 
per cent, or twice that of sea-water. If the soil dried out to the 
wilting point for plants,^ the concentration would reach 30 per 
cent, which is bej^ond the point of saturation for sodium chloride. 

Even in humid climates the periodical fluctuations are by no 
means negligible. Hi'F reported that in a salt marsh in Brit- 
tany, heavy rains lasting two days reduced the concentration 
of the soil solution to one-sixth of what was observed immedi- 
ately before the rain began. If the original concentration had 
been that of sea- water, this would correspond to a fall in osmotic 
pressure of from about 22 to about 3.5 atmospheres.^ 

* This does not hold in the case of sodium carbonate ("-black alkali") which, 
because of its strong alkalinity, is much more toxic than other salts of sodium. 

* L. J. Briggs and H. L. Shantz. The wilting coefficient for different plants 
and its indirect determination. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Plant Ind. Bull. 230. 1912. 

« T. G. Hill. The Bouche d'Erquy in 1908. New Phytol. 8: 97. 1909. 

' Careful computations of the osmotic pressure of sea water have recently 
been published by R. H. True {Osmotic experiments with marine algae. Bot. 
Gaz. 65:71. 1918). 



112 KEARNEY: PLANT LIFE ON SALINE SOILS 

« 

AGRICULTURAL IMPORTANCE OF SALINE SOILS 

Saline soils are of small agricultural value until the excess 
salt has been removed by drainage and by flooding with fresh 
water. Extensive and successful reclamation work along these 
lines has been accomplished in India and in Egypt. Ganong* 
has described the methods by which the salt marshes at the 
head of the Bay of Fundy have been converted into hay meadows 
worth from $100 to $200 per acre. 

Different crop plants differ in their adaptability to saline soils 
and a few of them are so resistant to concentrated solutions that 
they may be regarded as partial halophytes. First and foremost 
is the sugar beet, the supposed ancestor of which is a plant of the 
sea strand in Europe and northern Africa. Asparagus is another 
example, since the nearest related wild forms are said to inhabit 
saline soils and the cultivated form finds itself quite at home 
when it strays to the borders of salt marshes. Among fruit 
trees the date palm and the pomegranate are notable for their 
ability to thrive where the soil solution is highly concentrated. 

Frorn an agricultural point of view, however, the resistance 
of the plant is of less importance than the quantity and quality 
of the product for which it is grown. Cereals will make a 
fairly vigorous growth in soils where grain production is prac- 
tically inhibited. The value of the beet for sugar making is 
much impaired, in saline soils, by the high ash content of the 
roots. Date palms, in spite of their vegetative vigor under 
such conditions, produce fruit of inferior value. Forage plants 
that are grown for the sake of the leaves and stems are usually, 
therefore, the most profitable crops for soils of relatively high 
salinity. 

DISTRIBUTION OF THE VEGETATION 

The principal types of halophytic vegetation may be roughly 
classified as : 

1. Marine formations, consisting of aquatic plants, chiefly 
algae, which live in the ocean and in brackish water. 

* W. F. Ganong. The vegetation of the Bay of Fundi/ sail and diked marshes. 
Bot. Gaz. 36: 161, 280, 349, 429. 1903. 



KEARNEY: PLANT LIFE ON SALINE SOILS 113 

2. Salt marsh, composed mainly of grasses, rushes, and sedges, 
with various other annua and perennial herbs as a secondary 
element. Salt marsh vegetation is found chiefly in temperate 
regions, where it occurs both on the sea-coast and in very wet 
saline areas of the interior. 

S. Salt scrub, composed of woody species, in large part Cheno- 
podiaceae, ranging in size from half shrubs to almost tree-like 
dimensions. This formation is typically developed only where 
the climate is arid and the soil is not constantly wet. 

4. The .mangroie formation, of small trees belonging to the 
Rhizophoraceae and a-few other families. This vegetation occu- 
pies muddy shores within reach of the tides, in and near the 
tropics. 

Time permits only brief reference to the fascinating problem 
of the local distribution of halophytes. The vegetation of saline 
soils, both along the sea-coast and in the interior, often shows 
beautiful examples of zonation, determined, in large part, by 
differences in salinity, although the physical properties and the 
water content of the soil are likewise important factors. 

The correlations betw^een distribution of the plants and salt 
content of the soils are often so close as to permit of agricultural 
classification of the land on this basis, as has been demonstrated 
by Hilgard^ and his colleagues in California and by Briggs, 
Shantz and the writer^" in the vicinity of Great Salt Lake. The 
different types of halophytic vegetation w^ere found to indicate 
with considerable precision the degree of salinity of the soil 
and hence w^hether the land is suitable for crop production 
or could be rendered suitable by the usual methods of recla- 
mation. The indicator plant method is particularly useful 
in dry areas where there may be no superficial evidence of 
salinity but where large quantities of salt may be present in the 
subsoil. 

The importance of halophytes as geological agents deserves 

' E. W. HiLGARD. Soils, pp. 534-549. ^ew York, 1906. 

1" T. H. Kearney, L. J. Briggs, H. L. Shantz, J. W. McLane, and R. L. 
PiEMEisEL. Indicator significance of vegetation in Tooele Valley, Utah. Journ. 
Agr. Research 1 : 365-417. 1914. 



114 KEARNEY: PLANT LIFE ON SALINE SOILS 

mention. Oliver^i and other British ecologists have investigated 
the manner in which Spartina, Sahcornia, etc., colonize and hold 
newlj^-deposited soil on the sea-coast. Vaughan^- gives an in- 
teresting account of land-building by the mangrove in southern 
Florida. 

Halophytic vegetation is characterized by world-wide uni- 
formity. Each of the principal types — salt marsh, salt scrub, 
and the mangrove formation — has much the same appearance, 
wherever it occurs. The comparatively small number of species, 
the similarity of the life forms, and the scarcity of showy flow- 
ers give a monotonous and even somber appearance to these plant 
formations. 

In taxononlic composition, likewise, there is comparatively 
little variation within each of the major halophytic formations, 
in different parts of the world. The genera, and in many cases 
even the species, are very widely distributed. The great ma- 
jority of extreme halophytes are comprised in comparatively 
few families. Probably not less than one-half of the species 
belong to the Chenopodiaceae, which comes nearer to being a 
purely halophytic group than any other of the larger families of 
plants. Smaller families which are predominantly halophytic 
are Plumbaginaceae, Frankeniaceae, Tamaricaceae, and Rhizo- 
phoraceae. Families which, although not primarily halophytic, 
contribute numerous genera and species to this vegetation are 
Gramineae, Cnaciferae, and Compositae. Other large groups 
are conspicuous for their absence from saline soils. Among 
these are the lichens, mosses, ferns, Araceae, Orchidaceae, Fa- 
gaceae, and Ericaceae. 

STRUCTURE OF HALOPHYTES 

As a rule, the leaf surface of haloph3^tes is much reduced as 
compared with that of mesophytes. In Salicornia and allied 

" F. W. Oliver. The shingle beach as a plant habitat. New Phytol. 11: 73. 
1912. Some remarks on Blakeney Point, Norfolk. Journ. Ecol. 1:4. 1913. 
Vegetation and mobile ground as illustrated by Suaeda ffuticosa on shingle. Journ. 
Ecol. 1:249. 1913. 

1- T. W. Vaughan. The geologic work of mangroves in southern Florida. 
Smiths. Misc. Coll. 5: 46L 1910. • 



KEARNEY: PLANT LIFE OX SALINE SOILS 115 

genera of Chonopodiaceae and in the tamarisks, the assimilat- 
ing tissue is located mainly in the stems, the leaves being mere 
scale-like vestiges. The mangroves are a striking exception, 
possessing a heavy crown of broad leaves. 

Thickness of the leaves and stems characterizes most halo- 
phytes, aside from the grasses and grass-like plants. LeSage^^ 
compared numerous maritime species with the most nearly re- 
lated inland forms and found that in the great majority of cases 
the former had the thicker leaves. In some species the thick- 
ening results merely from an increase in size of cells or in number 
of layers of the chlorophyll tissue, but many halophytes possess 
also a specialized water storage tissue of thin-walled cells, con- 
taining few or no chloroplasts. 

The degree of succulence is closely associated with the salinity 
of the medium. Several investigators have reported that non- 
halophj'tic species, when watered with salt solutions, show an 
increase in the thickness of the leaf. Conversely, halophytes, 
when grown in an ordinarj' garden soil with fresh water irri- 
gation, often develop thinner leaves and stems than in their 
natural habitat. Batalin^^ found that even Salicornia re- 
sponded in this manner. Holtermann^^ obtained a marked in- 
crease in the thickness of the water storage tissue of man- 
groves by watering the plants with a sodium chloride solution 
of about twice the concentration of sea-water. On the other 
hand, irrigation with fresh water resulted in the development 
of much thinner leaves than were observed in the normal habitat. 

Casu^^ has pointed out that succulent halophytes occur in 
nature only where the soil has a high water content as well as 
a high salt content. It is otherwise with the succulent xero- 
phytes, such as Cactaceae, which prefer soils that are normally 

" P. Lesage. Recherches experimentales sur les ynodifications des feuilles chez 
les plantes maritimes. Rev. Gen. Bot. 2: 54, 106, 163. 1890. 

" A. Batalin. Die Wirkung des Chlomatriums auf die Entwickelung von 
Salicornia herbacea. Bull. Congr. Internat. Bot. Hort., 1884, p. 219. St. 
P^tersb. 1885. 

15 C. HoLTERMAXx. Der Einfluss .des Klimas auf den Bau der Pflanzengewebe. 
Berlin, 1907. 

" A. Casu. Contribuzione alio studio della flora delle saline di Cagliari. Ann. 

di Bot. 2: 403. 1905. 

t 



116 keaeney: plant life on saline soils 

. dry, as well as non-saline. Since the Caetaceae, as Cavara^^ 
and Livingston^ ^ have shown, are also characterized by a low 
osmotic pressure of the cell sap, while the succulent halophytes 
develop very high pressures, it is evident that the relation be- 
tween succulence and salinity is bj^ no means a simple problem. 
Schimper and other ecologists regarded halophytes as being 
xerophj'tes, or drought resistant plants, in that their structure 
is modified so as to reduce transpiration. Later investigators 
have shown the one-sidedness of this point of view. It origin- 
ated largely in the mistaken conception that plants of the sea 
beaches and dunes, many of which have a markedly xerophytic 
structure, are really halophytes. ^^ It is true that in arid cli- 
mates many, but by no means all, salt plants exhibit xeroph\'- 
tic peculiarities, such as reduced leaf surface, sunken stomata, 
thick cuticle, highly developed palisade tissue, and small inter- 
cellular spaces. On the other hand, certain xerophytic charac- 
ters, particularly hairiness and the excretion of -resin and of 
aromatic volatile oils, are rarely met with in halophytes, even in 
those that inhabit deserts.-"^ 

In cool, humid regions, some of the most characteristic salt 
marsh plants exhibit almost no xerophytic peculiarities, having 
a thin cuticle, stomata level with the epidermis or even slightly 
raised, and large intercellular spaces. Terras-' in Scotland and 
Cross^- in New Zealand studied the anatomy of coastal halo- 
phytes and concluded that some of them have the structure of 
aquatic plants rather than of desert plants. 

1^ F. Cavara. Risultali di una serie di ricerche crioscopiche sui vegetali. 
Contrib. Biol. Veg. (Palermo) 4: 41. 1905. 

1* B. E. Livingston. The relation of desert plants to soil moisture and to evap- 
oration. Carnegie Inst. Publ. 50. 1906. 

^^ T. H. Kearney. Are plants of beaches and dunes true halophytes? Bot. 
Gaz. 37:424. 1904. 

-" Detailed descriptions of the anatomy of many European halophytic species 
and an extensive bibliography are given by H. Chermezon {Recherches anatomiques 
sur les plantes littorales. Ann. Sci. Nat. IX. Bot. 12: 117-313, ^^s. 7-5^. 1910). 

-^ .1. A. Terras. Notes on the salinity of the cell sap of halophytes. Proc. 
Scottish Micr. Soc. 4: 152. 1906. 

-2 B. D. Cross. Some New Zealand halophytes. Trans. New Zealand Inst. 
42:545. 1910. 



KEARNEY: PLANT LIFE ON SALINE SOILS 117 

The gist of the matter is that manj^ halophytes that grow 
under chmatic conditions favorable to intense transpiration, or 
in soils subject to periodical drought, show xerophytic modifi- 
cations; but high concentration of the soil solution does not 
necessarily induce this type of structure if the cUmate is humid 
and an abundance of soil moisture is normally present. 

WATER ECONOMY OF HALOPHYTES 

It has been repeatedly demonstrated that absorption of water 
by the roots of nonhalophytic species is difficult or impossible 
when the soil solution reaches such concentrations as are en- 
countered in .the natural habitats of halophytes. When forced 
to obtain their water from a relatively concentrated salt solu- 
tion, ordinary- mesophj^tes, such as the common crop' plants, 
show a marked decrease in transpiration and in photosynthetic 
activity, resulting in diminished growth. 

Schimper-^ argued from the known behavior of nonhalophytes 
when exposed to strong salt solutions, and from the assumed 
xerophytic structure of all halophytes, that the latter are sub- 
ject to the danger of injury from excessive accumulations of salt 
in their assimilating cells,,and that protection against this danger 
is secured by reduction of the transpiration. He later^^ modified 
this view by attributing the supposed necessity for reduced 
transpiration to the difficulty of absorption by the roots from a 
strong salt solution. In his view a saline soil is "physiologically 
dry," even when saturated with water. 

jMore recent investigations have demolished all of the pre- 
mises upon which this theory rested. It has already been 
pointed out that by no means all salt plants possess a transpira- 
tion-reducing structure, so that we are justified in speaking of 
halophilous mesophytes and hydrophytes, as well as of halo- 
philous xerophytes. Species that inhabit dry saline soils in 
arid regions doubtless find advantage in such structural modi- 
fications as tend to diminish transpiration; but the researches of 

" A. F. W. ScHiMPER. Die indo-malayische Strandflora, p. 26. Jena, 1891. 
-* A. F. W. ScHiMPER. Pflanzengeographie auf physiologischer Grundlage, 
p. 100. Jena, 1898. 



118 KEARNEY: PLANT LIFE ON SALINE SOILS 

Rosenberg'-^ and Delf^^ on salt marsh plants in northern Europe 
and Von Faber's" investigations of mangroves in the East Indies 
have shown that many halophytes transpire freely when growing 
in their normal habitats.-^ 

In conformity with these results as to transpiration, Ganong^^ 
and HilP° have proven that high osmotic pressures are developed 
in the roots of halophytes. Difficult absorption of water can- 
not, therefore, be a universal condition of existence for this 
type of vegetation. 

The salt plants are evidently able to carry on normally the 
processes of photosynthesis, metabolism, and growth, notwith- 
standi*ng the presence of much salt in their cell _ sap This is 
sufficient proof that they are not inconvenienced by the high 
osmotic pressures in their cells nor by the specific toxicity of the 
salt. It is clearly not permissible to draw conclusions as to the 
normal physiology of halophytes from the pathological condi- 
tions induced in nonhalophytes by exposure to concentrated 
salt solutions. 

Our knowledge of the physiology of halophytes is one-sided, 
since it has been gained chiefly by the study of salt marsh plants 
in northern Europe and of the mangrove formation in the tropics. 
Neither of these environments affords such extreme conditions 
as must be endured by plants inhabiting saline soils in desert 
regions. Here the atmospheric conditions ' are conducive to 
excessive transpiration, while enormous fluctuations in the water 
content of the soil and in the concentration of the soil solution 

2^ O. Rosenberg. Ueber die Transpiration der Halophyten. Kongl. Vetensk. 
Akad. Forhandl. 53L 1897. 

2^ E. M. Delf. Transpiration and the behavior of stomata in halophytes. 
Annals of Botany 25: 485. 191L 

2' F. C. VON Faber. Ueber Transpiration und osmotischen Driick bei den 
Mangroven. Bee. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 31: 277. 1913. 

2* It has been ascertained by Holtermann and by Ruhland, however, that 
in halophytes grown in strongly saline soils and having a high concentration of 
the cell sap, the quantity of water transpired is smaller than when the same 
species are grown in the absence of an excessive quantitj^ of salt. 

29 Bot. Gaz. 36:358-362. 1903. 

'" T. G. Hill. Observations on the osmotic pressures of the root hairs of certain 
salt marsh plants. New Phytol. 7: 133. 1908. 



KEARNEY: PLANT LIFE ON SALINE SOILS 119 

require corresponding powers of accommodation in the absorb- 
ing organs of the plant. A thorough investigation of the water 
economy of desert halophytes is, therefore, much to be desired 

OSMOTIC PRESSURE IN ROOTS AND LEAVES 

Comparatively few determinations have been made of the 
osmotic pressures in the roots of halophytes. The data at 
hand indicate that, at least under the comparatively favorable 
conditions of coastal salt marshes, the plant is easily able to 
cope with the problem of absorption. Thus Hill found that the 
root hairs of Salicornia can develop a pressure corresponding to 
that of an 8.7 per cent solution of sodium chloride, which is 
probably equivalent to about 65 atmospheres. 

As regards halophytes that inhabit arid regions, determina- 
tions appear to have been made only on the leaves and stems. 
In ordinary mesophytic plants of temperate climates the osmotic 
pressure of the leaf cells seldom exceeds 30 atmospheres and is 
usualh' much lower than this. But pressures up to 100 atmos- 
pheres were detected in the leaves and stems of salt plants by 
Cavara in Italy and by Fitting^^ in the Sahara Desert. Ruhland 
was able to develop, in the leaves of Statice Gmelini, a pressure 
which he estimated at 165 atmospheres. ^2 

It is not improbable that the absorbing roots of desert halo- 
phytes ceage temporarily to function when, as doubtless often 
happens, the osmotic pressure of the soil solution greatly ex- 
ceeds 100 atmospheres. Miss Halket's^^ observation that when 
the salt content of the soil solution reached 17 per cent, plants 
of Salicornia remained alive and apparentl}^ uninjured but 
ceased to grow, points in this direction. 

There is abundant evidence of the ability of halophytes to 

^'- H. FiTTiXG. Die W asserversorgung und die osmotischen Druckuerhdltnisse 
der Wustenpflanzen. Zeitschr. Bot. 3: 209. 1911. 

^- It does not follow that equally high pressures would have been detected in 
the roots, since comparative determinations upon different organs of the same 
individual plant have shown, in numerous cases, that the osmotic pressures of 
the root cells are lower than those of the leaf cells. 

^^ A. C. Halkett. The effect of salt on the growth of Salicornia. Annals of 
Botanv 29: 143. 1915. 



120 KEARNEY: PLANT LIFE ON SALINE SOILS 

accommodate their osmotic pressure to fluctuations in that of 
the medium. Hill found this to be the case in the root hairs of 
Salicornia. Von Faber observed that the pressure in the leaf 
cells of mangroves varied with the salinity of the soil solution. 
Cavara found that in Italian salt marsh plants the pressures 
were from 2 to 3 times as high after a long dry period as during 
the rainy season. The enormous power of osmotic accommoda- 
tion possessed by many bacteria, fungi, and algae is well known. 
Plants that inhabit the waters and shores of estuaries and 
tidal creeks, where daily fluctuations of great magnitude in the 
salinity of the medium occur, must possess the ability to alter 
their osmotic pressure rapidly. ^^ 

SALT CONTENT OF THE TISSUES 

Various means are employed in developing these high pres- 
sures. In some cases the salt absorbed from the soil solution 
appears to be the principal factor, while in other cases organic 
compounds elaborated by the plant itself (carbohydrates, tan- 
nins) play the chief part. Fitting found that among species 
growing side by side in the Sahara Desert, and manifesting ap- 
proximately the same resistance to plasmolysis, some had a 
highly saline cell sap, while in others there was no noteworthy ac- 
cumulation of salt. He concluded that the maximum amount 
of salt that can be accumulated in the tissues is a character 
of the species, independent, in large measure, of transpiration 
and of the salt content of the soil. 

Many halophytes take up sodium and chlorine in greater 
proportion than these occur in the soil solution. Such plants, 
even when grown on soils containing only traces of these ele- 
ments, may accumulate large quantities in their tissues. ^^ 

Schimper^^ ascertained that certain weeds that are character- 

'* An interesting example of such accommodation is described by W. J. V. 
OsTERHOUT {The resistance of certain marine algae to changes in osmotic pres- 
sure. Univ. Calif. Publ. 2: 227. 1906). 

^" G. Paris found that the leaves of a species of Atriplex, when growing on a 
soil containing the merest trace of chlorides, had an ash content of 37 per cent 
and a chloride content of 10 per cent of the total dry weight {SuV Atriplex hali- 
mus L. Staz. Sper. Agrar. Ital. 44: 141. 1911). 

^^ A. F. W. ScHiMPER. Die indo-malayische Strandflora, p. 142. 1891. 



KEARNEY: PLANT LIFE ON SALINE SOILS 121 

istic of soils rich in nitrogen also possess this power of selective 
absorption. Individuals of these species were found to give a 
strong reaction for nitrates, even when growing on soils of low 
nitrogen content. 

The quantity of water-soluble salts taken up by halophytes 
is often considerable. Cameron" found that in a sample of 
greasewood (Sarcobatus) salts of sodium constituted about 20 
per cent of the total dry weight of the leaves, x4.ll of the sodium 
chloride present was apparently free in the cell-sap and could be 
recovered by leaching the dry material with water, as Deherain^^ 
had previously ascertained to be the case with Salsola Kali. 
Paris, on the other hand, states that in Atriplex Halimus, the re- 
sults of freezing-point determinations indicated that, of the total 
chlorine found in the ash, only about half was free in the cell sap. 

In view of the injurious effects of concentrated solutions of 
sodium salts upon ordinary plants, the question arises, how are 
halophytes able to adjust themselves to such extreme salinity of 
their cell-sap? A strong development of water tissue, the cells 
of which contain few or no chloroplasts, is, as we have seen, 
characteristic of many salt plants. The plausible suggestion 
has been made that much of the salt taken up by such plants is 
stored in this tissue, rather than in the green assimilating cells, 
although apparently no direct evidence of such segregation has 
been obtained. 

Many halophytic species are able to check the accumulation 
of salt in their tissues by excreting it, in solution, upon the sur- 
face of their leaves and stems. This phenomenon is not con- 
fined to plants that possess specialized excretory organs. In 
the case of grasses hke Spartina and DistichUs excretion is sup- 
posed to take place through the stomata.*^ 

The best known cases of salt excretion are found in the 
Plumbaginaceae, Frankeniaceae, and Tamaricaceae. The mem- 
bers of these famiUes are characterized by the possession of 

" F. K. Camerox. U. S. Dept. Agr. Rep. 71: 64-66. 1902. 

3* P. Deherain. Sur l' assimilation cles substances minerales par les plantes. 
Ann. Sci. Nat. VI. Bot. 6: 366. 1878. 

^^ A. B. Klugh. Excretion of sodium chloride by Spartina glabra alterniflora. 
Rhodora 11: 2.37. 1909. 



122 KEARNEY: PLANT LIFE ON SALINE SOILS 

epidermal glands, the cells of which are very rich in proto- 
plasm and have a large nucleus. The process of excretion by 
these organs is not a passive filtration, but a true glandular 
activity, as has been demonstrated by the writer^'' and by 
Ruhland.^^ The latter investigator also obtained fairiy conclu- 
sive evidence that the salt content of the leaves is materially 
reduced when excretion is actively taking place. 

It would seem to be significant that as a rule the species which 
excrete salt do not possess a highly developed water-storage 
tissue. On the other hand, salt excretion is not known to occur 
in the Chenopodiaceae, the largest and most important of halo- 
phytic families. This family includes numerous genera in which 
water-storage tissue is exceptionally well developed. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SALT PLANTS * 

From what has been said, it is evident that there are man}" 
gaps and many apparent contradictions in our knowledge of the 
normal physiology of the salt plants. Two characteristics, 
however, are general and may be said to be conditioned by the 
nature of the environment. These are 

1. Ability to develop a high osmotic pressure in the cells of 
the absorbing organs, thus allowing water to be taken up from 
solutions of a concentration which would inhibit absorption in 
nonhalophytic species. Coupled with this, is the power of ac- 
commodating the pressure to (often rapid) changes of concen- 
tration in the medium. 

2. Ability to carry on normally all essential physiological 
functions, notwithstanding the presence of salt in the cell sap in 
quantities which, in nonhalophytic species, would seriously ham- 
per or entirely prevent photosynthesis, metabolism, and growth. 

IMPORTANCE OF SODIUM TO HALOPHYTES 

The problem of whether halophytes can grow in the absence 
of an appreciable quantity of sodium salts has been the subject 

^^ T. H. Kearney. On the excretion of hygroscopic salts in Frankenia and 
Statice. Science N. S. 19:419. 1904. 

*^ W. Rtthlaxd. Die Salzdriiscn dcr Plumbag i naceen. Jahrb. Wiss. Bot. 
55:409. 1915. 



KEARNEY: PLANT LIFE ON SALINE SOILS 123 

of numerous cultural experiments. The results are contra- 
dictory even, in some cases, when the same species was used by 
different experimenters. Unquestionably, certain species that 
in nature are confined to saline soils, will not only thrive but 
grow more vigorously in the absence of a noteworthy quantity of 
salt, although the appearance and structure of the plants may 
be materially altered. 

Batalin claimed that even such an extreme halophyte as 
Salicornia herhacea can be grown successfully in ordinary gar- 
den soil, watered with river water. On the other hand, Peklo^- 
found that this plant soon died in a Knop nutrient solution, 
which contains no sodium, but flourished in the same solution 
plus 2 per cent of sodium chloride. Similar results with other 
species of Salicornia were obtained by Miss Halket. 

The published data on cultural experiments which indicate 
that sodium salts are important to halophytes, do not permit 
a conclusion to be drawn as to whether the limiting factor is the 
presence of the element sodium or merely a high total concen- 
tration in the medium. It would be interesting to know whether 
the results with Salicornia in water cultures would have been 
equally satisfactory, if the salt added in excess to the nutrient 
solution had been potassium chloride, instead of sodium chloride. 

In order to determine definitely whether the salt plants can 
completely dispense with sodium, it would, of course, be neces- 
sary to insure the absence of any trace of the element, in both 
plant and culture medium. Since sodium is known to occur 
even in the seeds of halophytes, this experimental condition is 
probably impossible to realize. 

SODIUM IN PLANT NUTRITION 

Consideration of the physiology of halophytes brings up the 
question, what, if any, is the role of sodium in plant nutrition? 
Osterhout^^ states that this element, because of its protective or 
antagonistic action, is essential to the maintenance of life in 

*'^ J. Peklo. Bemerkungen zur Erndhrungsphysiologie einiger Halophyten. 
Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 62: 47, 114, 172. 1912. 

" W. J. V. OsTERHOUT. Plants which require sodium. Bot. Gaz. 54: .532. 
1912. 



124 KEARNEY: PLANT LIFE ON SALINE SOILS 

certain marine algae; and results obtained b}^ Benecke" indicate 
that some of the Cyanophyceae may grow equally well if potas- 
sium is completely replaced by sodium in the nutrient solution. 
In regard to the nutrition of vascular plants, however, no fact 
seems to be better established than the indispensability of a 
minimum of potassium. On the other hand, it has never been 
'proven that sodium is indispensable to any of the higher forms of 
plant life. 

Although sodium is almost always found in the ash of plants, 
it does not, as far as we know, enter into organic combination. 
This would seem to indicate that plant life is not conditioned by 
its presence as by the presence of potassium, phosphorus, and 
magnesium. Nevertheless, it by no means follows that under 
certain conditions sodium may not be an important factor in 
growth. 

Different investigators of the fertilizer value of sodium salts 
report widely divergent results, but it is impossible to ignore the 
numerous instances in which beneficial effects have been observed, 
especially where the soil is deficient in potassium in readily 
available fomi.^^ 

Such effects are doubtless, in many cases, due chiefly to the 
setting free by chemical reaction in the soil of the potassium of 
relatively insoluble compounds. But even when such reaction 
was excluded by growing the plants in water cultures or in quartz 
sand, without the addition of potassium, sodium has been ob- 
served to stimulate growth. 

It would seem, therefore, that when potassium is not avail- 
able in sufficient quantity, some of the physiological functions 
which are normally performed by that element may be assumed 
by sodium. In regard to the nature of these functions, the . 
following suggestions have been made: 

** W. Benecke. Ueber CuUurhedingungen einiger Algen. Bot. Zeitung 
66:84-96. 1898. 

"•^ This has been the subject of long-continued investigation by the Rhode 
Island Agricultural Experiment Station. The results have been published in 
the annual reports for 1894 to 1908 and in bulletins 47, 104, 106, and 153. See 
especially H. J. Wheeler and B. L. Hartwell {Concerning the functions of 
sodium salts. R. I. Agr. Exp. Sta. Ann. Rep. 1906: 186-316. 1907). 



KEARNEY: PLANT LIFE ON SALINE SOILS 125 

1. Translocation, into and within the plant, of indispensable 
anions, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. 

2. Maintenance in the cells of a requisite minimum osmotic 
pressure, upon which depends the turgor necessary for growth. 

3. Antagonistic or protective action, in relation to other ele- 
ments, by which a balanced solution is maintained. 

4. Neutralization of organic acids formed within the plant. 

5. Stimulation of diastatic activity in the cells. 

In the present national emergency, current notions in regard 
to fertilizers should be subjected to the most rigorous criticism. 
A huge superstructure of opinion in regard to our potash re- 
quirements has been erected by the commercial fertilizer in- 
terests, domestic and foreign, upon an amazingly small basis of 
proven fact. 

The enemj' boasts that his control of the great potash deposits 
makes him the agricultural dictator of the world. Wilhelm 
Ostwald is quoted as having said that the United States ''went 
into the war like a man with a rope around his neck, a rope which 
is in enemy hands." All the resources of an ably-directed propa- 
ganda have been employed for years in fostering among us the 
behef that we are helplessly dependent upon Germany in this 
matter. It would be folly, and worse than folly, to concede 
such a claim until we have thoroughly examined its foundations. 

For certain soils and certain crops, the addition of potash in 
readilj^ available form may well be essential to profitable produc- 
tion. But who knows whether the indispensable minimum is 
250,000 tons or only one-tenth of that quantity? Cannot the 
apparent need be lessened by better tillage, by rotation with 
green manure crops, and by the more extensive use of farm 
manure? Will not the use of cheaper chemical fertilizers — salts 
of sodium, calcium, magnesium — alleviate many of the supposed 
cases of ''pot-ash hunger?" Until these questions have been 
answered, no one dare say that our absolute requirement of 
potash fertilizers cannot be met by the development of domestic 
sources of supply. 



126 STAND ley: new species of rondeletia 

BOTANY. — A new species of Rondeletia from Mexico.^ Paul 
C. Standley, National Museum, 

I In an interesting collection of plants received recently from 

\ Dr. B. P. Reko, of the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, by the U. S. 
National Museum, are specimens of a handsome rubiaceous 
plant referable to the genus Rondeletia. The plant offers so 
many characters not found in other species as to suggest a new- 
generic type, but the specie 5 of Rondeletia already known show a 
remarkable range of variation for the family Rubiaceae, and the 
present plant is perhaps not more abnormal than some of the 
Cuban species, such as R. tinifolia Griseb. and R. correifoUa 
Griseb. 

Rondeletia Rekoi Standley, sp. nov. 

Branchlets stout or slender, obtusely tetragonous, densely and per- 
sistently white-tomentose, with a close tomentum; stipules linear 
oblong, 6 to 9 mm. long, bidentate at the apex, erect, persistent, densely 
tomentose outside on the lower half, glabrate and green above; leaves 
opposite, the petioles very stout, 0.5 to 1.5 cm. long, white-tomentose, 
the blades ovate or elliptic-ovate, 8.5 to 19 cm. long, 3 to 8.5 cm. wide, 
rounded and short-decurrent at the base, very acute or subacuminate 
at the apex, subchartaceous, bright-green above, lustrous, scabrous 
with short slender curved hairs, the intermediate veins very promi- 
nent, finely reticulate, beneath densely covered with a close white 
tomentum, the costa prominent, the lateral veins slender, about 14 on 
each side, subarcuate, the margin plane or subrevolute; inflorescence 
terminal (a pair of cymes present at the base of the peduncle), the 
peduncles stout, 8 to 9 cm. long, the rachis 6 to 9 cm. long, bearing 
numerous short-pedunculate bifid cymes, the branches of these 1.5 to 
2.5 cm. long, the flowers sessile, secund, the bractlets oval or oblong, 
obtuse, green, glabrate, about equahng the calyx-tube; calyx-tube 
densely white-tomentose, the 4 lobes oblong or oval, about 1 mm. 
long, rounded at the apex, green, glabrate, spreading; corolla white- 
tomentose outside, the tube stout, 5.5 to 7 mm., long, glabrous in the 
throat, the 4 lobes rounded, 2 mm. long, undulate; anthers sessile, in- 
cluded; capsule 3.5 to 4 mm. broad, didymous-globose, densely white- 
tomentose; seeds minute, pale-brown, angulate. 

Type in the U. S. National Herbarium, no. 867145, collected at 
Cafetal Las Pilas (Cerro Espino), Oaxaca, Mexico, altitude 400 meters, 
October 10, 1917, by Dr. B. P. Reko (no. 3490). 

^ Published by permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



standley: new species of rondeletia 127 

It is difficult to determine the exact relationship of Rondeletia 
Rekoi among its Central American allies. The dense tomentum 
of the leaves is characteristic of many continental species, but 
the plan of the inflorescence is unlike that of any other Rondeletia. 
The cymes simulate perfectlj^ those of the genus Antirhea, of the 
remotely related tribe Guettardeae, although in that group the 
cymes are solitary arid axillary, rather than racemose, as in this 
plant. The stipules, too, of R. Rekoi, are different from those of 
any other species, and the prominent reticulation of the upper 
leaf-surface seems unique. The plant shows a strong color con- 
trast between the bright green upper surfaces of the leaves and 
the white lower surfaces and stems, and would doubtless prove 
attractive in cultivation. 



ABSTRACTS 

Authors of scientific papers are requested to see that abstracts, preferably 
prepared and signed by themselves, are forwarded 'promptly to the editors. 
Each of the scientific bureaus in Washington has a representative authorized to 
forward such material to this Journal and abstracts of official publications 
should be transmitted through the representative of the bureau in which they 
originate. The abstracts should conform in length and general style to those 
appearing in this issue. 

GEOLOGY. — Ground water in San Simoji Valley, Arizona and New 
Mexico. A. T. Schwennesen. U. S. Geological Survey Water- 
Supply Paper 425-A. Pp. 35, with maps. 1917. 

This is a preliminary report on an extensive investigation of the 
Quaternary geology of the San Simon Valley and adjacent parts of 
Gila Valley and its relation to artesian water supphes in the region. 
The stream deposits, which resemble the ordinary deposits of other 
desert basins, are here separated by beds that were laid down in a 
lake or other body of water to a depth of several hundred feet. These 
lake beds form a gentle syncline whose axis nearly coincides with the 
axis of the valley. They include 300 to 400 feet of dense, homog- 
eneous, blue clay, which serves well as a confining bed for the water 
in the underlying sand strata and older alluvium. Extrusive basalt 
is interbedded with the stream deposits and layers of tuff occur in the 
lacustrine formation. 

The report gives data on artesian and pump wells, and on the de- 
crease in artesian pressure. It includes an excellent discussion of 
agricultural possibilities by R. H. Forbes. 0. E. ]\Ieinzer. 

GEOLOGY. — Ground water for irrigation in the Morgan Hill area, 
California. W. O. Clark. U. S. Geological Survey Water- 
Supply Paper 400-E. Pp. 48, with 3 plates. 1917. 
The water-bearing formation in the area consists of recent alluvial 
deposits which are composed of clay or claylike materials, sand, and 
gravel. Most of the deposits were formed by Coyote River, which 
has built an alluvial fan entirely across the valley and which has alter- 
nately diverted the streams on it into the Bay of Montere}' and into 
San Francisco Bay. 

128 



abstracts: geology . 129 

In this report an attempt is made to estimate the quantity of ground 
water available for irrigation within the area, based on the annual 
fluctuation of the water table and the porosity of the materials as 
shown by the logs of wells within the area. The results concerning 
porosit}^ are checked against a pumping test made at the Lower Gorge 
by the Bsiy Cities Water Company in which records were kept of the 
quantity of water pumped, the area over which the water table was 
lowered as a result of pumping, and the amount of lowering. A further 
check is made by the use of stream-flow data, which show the amount 
of water lost by Coyote River through percolation during a four-year 
period, 1903 to 1907. W. 0. C. 

GEOLOGY. — Titi resources of the Kings Mountain district, North 

Carolina and South Carolina. Arthur Keith and D. B. Ster- 

RETT. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 660-D. Pp. 24, with 

maps, sections, and illustrations. 1917. 

The Kings Mountain district contains both metamorphic and igneous 

rocks, and the metamorphic rocks include some of sedimentary and 

some of igneous origin. In age the rocks range from Archean to 

Triassic. The formations that are associated with the tin deposits are 

the Carolina gneiss and a Roan gneiss, of Archean age; the Bessemer 

granite, of pre-Cambrian age; the Whiteside granite; and, especially, 

tin-bearing pegmatites of late Paleozoic age. • 

The pegmatite occurs in sheets, lenses, and irregular masses ranging 
in thickness from a few inches to manj' j^ards and attaining half a 
mile in length. The tin-bearing deposits occur in pegmatite masses 
within Archean rocks, either the Roan gneiss or the Carolina gneiss 
along or near its contact with the Roan gneiss. The cassiterite appears 
to have been one of the first minerals in the pegmatite to crystallize, 
and it seems clear that the cassiterite was an original constituent of 
the pegmatite. • R. W. Stone. 

GEOLOGY. — Zinc carbonate and related copper carbonate ores at Ophir, 
Utah. G. F. LouGHLiN. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 
690-A. Pp. 14, with illustrations. 1917. 
This paper calls attention to the marked lamellar structure of the 
zinc carbonate, the prevailing absence of calamine, and the intimate asso- 
ciation of the zinc carbonate with copper carbonates in the Ophir mining 
district. The processes of deposition of the carbonates are described 
and the following conclusions of economic importance are reached: 
It is to be expected that bodies of lamellar zinc carbonate like those 



130 abstracts: ornithology 

at Ophir will iJiove to be of high grade, owing to the complete removal 
of limestone, but of small dimensions and confined to the immediate 
vicinity of fractures and open bedding planes. Such small bodies are 
not Hkely to lead to larger bodies of massive ore, unless they lie near 
to groundwater level, or to some impervious stratum or fault that 
impounded the waters containing the oxidized compounds of zinc. 

Where mixed sulphide deposits in limestone contain both copper and 
zinc in considerable quantity the resulting carbonate ores of both 
metals are to be expected in the oxidized zone, the copper carbonate 
immediately below the position of the original sulphide body or its 
siliceous casing, and the zinc carbonate below the copper carbonate. 

R. W. Stone. 

ORNITHOLOGY.— A^o^es on North American birds, IT. Harry C. 
Oberholser. The Auk 34: 321-329. July, 1917. 
The Arizona subspecies of T7reo bellii, originally characterized by 
Mr. Ridgwaj^ and commonly regarded as inseparable from Vireo bellii 
pusillus, is shown to be different and is recognized as Vireo bellii ari- 
zonae Ridgway. The form of Baeolophus inoryiatus inhabiting the 
Pacific Coast region from northern Lower California, north through 
southern California to Santa Barbara County, and described by Mr. 
Ridgway as Baeolophus inornatus murinus, is also reinstated. Two 
race^ of Baeolophus wollweberi are admitted: Baeolophus wollweberi 
wollweberi (Bonaparte), from central and southern Mexico, and 7?aeo/o- 
phus wollweberi annexus (Cassin), from northwestern Mexico and the 
contiguous portion of the southwestern United States. Reasons are 
given for the recognition of Geothlijpis trichas brachidactyla (Swainson), 
from the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada; Vermi- 
vora celata orestera Oberholser, from the western United States, south- 
western Canada, central and northern Mexico; Molothrus ater artemisiae 
Grinnell, from the western United States and western Canada; and 
Loxia curvirostra bendirei Ridgway, from the mountains of the western 
United States; all of which have been discredited by recent authors. 
The recent attempted elimination of Dendroica caerulescens cairnsi 
on the ground of untenability is shown to be wrong, and its characters 
as a recognizable race are given. The British form of Passer domesti- 
cus, with which the introduced English sparrows of the United States 
are found to be identical, recently described as Passer hostilis, is shown 
to be but a subspecies of the continental European bird, and should 
therefore be called Passer domesticus hostilis. H. C. 0. 



abstracts: ornithology 131 

ORNITHOLOGY. — Three reniarkable 7iew species of birds from Santo 

Domingo. J. H. Riley, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 66: No. 15. Pp. 

1-2. December 1, 1916. 

That the possibilities of the avifauna of the island of Santo Domingo 

are not yet exhausted is emphasized by the three remarkable new birds 

recently discovered there by Dr. W. L. Abbott. The first is an owl, 

Asio noctipetens, of a genus hitherto unrepresented on the island. 

Another is Brachyspiza anfiUarum, belonging to a genus not before 

detected in any of the West Indies. Still more remarkable is a new 

white- winged crossbill, Loxia megaplaga, of another genus hitherto 

unknown from the West Indies. Strangely enough, this new Loxia 

is much more closely allied to Loxia hifasciata of northern Europe than 

to Loxia leucoptera of North America. Harry C. Oberholser. 

ORNITHOLOGY. — Generic navies applied to birds during the years 
1906 to 1915, inclusive, with additions and corrections to Water- 
house's ''Index Generum Avium." Charles W. Richmond. 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 53: 565-636. August 16, 1917. 
This is, as its title indicates, a summary of the generic names pro- 
posed during the decade which has elapsed since the publication of 
Dr. Richmond's last similar list, including other names previously 
omitted or ovei'looked. A list of the errors in the IndexGenerum Avium 
of Waterhouse is first given, together with lists of all the Linnaean 
genera and a list of the genera published in Bonaparte's papers in the 
Ateneo Italiano, May and August, 1854. The main part of this paper 
is an alphabetical list of 607 generic names, together with authority, 
original citation, type and manner of determination, and indication of 
the family to which it belongs. Many changes in current names and 
other nomenclatural notes are added in footnotes. The following 
new generic names are introduced: Tychaedon Richmond, for Aedo- 
nopsis Sharpe, preoccupied; and Amoromyza Richmond, for M crops 
samoensis Hombron and Jacquinot. A catalogue of the 607 generic 
names of the alphabetical list, arranged under families, is also added. 

Harry C. Oberholser. 

ORNITHOLOGY.— r/?e birds of the Afiamba Islands. Harry C. 

Oberholser. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 98. Pp. v + 75,pls.l-2. 1917>. 

The Anamba Islands lie in the South China Sea between the Natuna 

Islands and the Malay Peninsula. They comprise about 20 principal 

islands, with possibly 200 more islets and rocks, spread over a geo- 



132 abstracts: ornithology 

graphical area some 55 by 65 miles in extent. Dr. W. L. Abbott was, 
in 1899 and 1900, the first ornithological collector to visit these islands, 
and he made a collection of 212 specimens, representing 44 species and 
subspecies, of which 21 were new. These, together with other obser- 
vations made by Dr. Abbott, Ijring the number of birds known from 
these islands up to 66. This number will doubtless be greatly in- 
creased by future explorations, though the Anamba group does not 
seem to be so rich in bird life as the Natuna Islands, which lie nearer 
Borneo. In onl}^ one case, so far as known, are there two subspecies 
of the same species on different islands in this group. Of the birds now 
known from the Anambas, 11 are migrants from the north, and do 
not breed on the islands. Fifteen subspecies are peculiar to the Anamba 
Islands, and six other subspecies occur outside of the group only on some 
other islands of the South China Sea. The remaining 24 Anamba birds 
belong to more or less wide-ranging species. Taken as a whole, the 
Anamba Islands are faunally most closely allied to the Malay Peninsula; 
less so, but about equally to Sumatra and Borneo; still less to Java; 
and only slightty to Indo-China. Among the most interesting of the 
new forms discovered by Dr. Abbott in the Anamba Islands might be 
mentioned those of the genera Muscadivores, Collocalia, Artamides, 
Cyornis, Hi/pothyniis, Kittacincla, Lamprocorax , and Dissemurus. 

H. C. 0. 

ORNITHOLOGY.— r/ie birds of Bawean Island, Java Sea. Harry C. 
• Oberholser. Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus. 52: 183-198. Feb. 8, 1917. 

Bawean Island is mountainous, with an area of approximatel}^ 100 
square miles, from, which some 18 species of birds had been recorded 
prior to Dr. W. L. Abbott's visit from November 19 to 28, 1907. His 
collection of 35 specimens of birds is of much interest, since 7 of the 15 
species represented prove to belong to undescribed forms, most of them, 
so far as known, confined to this island; and since it adds 8 species to the 
list, making a total of 26 now known from here. The avifauna of 
Bawean Island as a whole is most closely allied to that of Java, but it 
has also a marked Bornean infusion. Among the most interesting new 
forms discovered by Dr. Abbott are a new hawk of the genus Spilornis, 
very different from the Bornean Spilornis pallidus and much nearer the 
Sumatran bird, Spilornis bassus; a new species of Strix, very different 
in coloration from Strix orientalis and Strix ocellata, the characters of 
both of which it somewhat curiously combines; and a new form of 
Malacocincla abbotti. A series of Microtarsus baweanus, collected by 



abstracts: ornithology 133 

Dr. Abbott, proves this bird to be only a subspecies of Microtarsus 
chalcocephalus of Java. H. C. 0. 

ORNITHOLOGY. — A review of the genus Pedioecetes in Colorado. F. 
C. Lincoln. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 30: 83-86, pi. 1. May 23, 1917. 
The sharp-tailed grouse inhabiting the eastern foothills of the Rock}^ 
Mountains in Colorado is found to differ subspecifically from Pedioe- 
cetes phasianellus coliwibianus of Colorado west of the Continental 
Divide and also from Pedioecetes phasianellus campestris of the plains 
in the northeastern part of this State, and' is named Pedioecetes 
phasianellus janiesi. Harry C. Oberholser. 

OR XITHOLOG Y. — A dditions to the Haitian avifauna. Paul Bartsch. 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 30: 131-132. July 27, 1917. 
The form of the South American Porzana fiaviventris occurring on the 
island of Haiti proves to be a recognizable subspecies, and is named 
Porzana fiaviventris hendersoni, after Mr. John B. Henderson. The 
Haitian golden warbler is distinguished from Dendroica petechia petechia 
of Jamaica and reinstated as a subspecies under the name Dendroica 
petechia albicollis (Gmelin). Eleven other species, mostly water-birds 
and shore lairds, are listed as additions to the avifauna of the island of 
Santo Domingo. This list includes Chaetura pelagica, an entirely un- 
expected record for April. Harry C. Oberholser. 

• 

ORNITHOLOGY. — The Porto Rican grasshopper sparrow. James L. 
Peters. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 30: 95-96. May 23, 1917. 
The resident form of the grasshopper sparrow found in Porto Rico 
proves to be separable from both the Curagao and Santo Domingo 
forms, and is named Ammodramus savannarum borinquensis. 

Harry C. Oberholser. 

ORNITHOLOGY. — Preliminary diagnoses of apparently new birds from 

Colombia and Bolivia. W. E. Clyde Todd. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 

30:3-6. January 22, 1917. 

Seven new species here described ai'e Phoenicothraupis rubiginosus, 

from Colombia; Attila caniceps, from Colombia, and Attila neoxenus, 

from Bolivia, two remarkable new birds of this tropical genus; Xipho- 

colaptes obsoletus, from Bolivia; Celeus innotatus, from Colombia; 

Pyrrhura subandina, from Colombia; and Eupsychortyx decoratus, 

from Colombia. Ten subspecies from Colombia and Bolivia are also 

described, among the most interesting of them Bubo virginianus elutus, 

from Colombia. Harry C. Oberholser. 



134 abstracts: ornithology 

ORNITHOLOGY. — Neiv genera, species, and subspecies of South 

American birds. W. E. Clyde Todd. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 30: 

127-130. July 27, 1917. 

Two new genera are Idiospiza, proposed for Linaria inornata Lafres- 

naye; andPoecilurus, for Synallaxis candaei Lafresnaye. A new species 

is Poecilurus atrigidaris, from Colombia. Nine new subspecies from 

Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama are also described. 

Harry C. Oberholser. 

ORNITHOLOGY. ~Muta7ida ornithologica. I. Harry C. Ober- 
holser. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 30: 75-76. March 31, 1917. 
During the past several years the writer has incidentally noted a 
number of necessary changes in the current scientific names of birds. 
This article is the first of a series designed to set forth these changes. 
In the present installment the following changes are made, chiefly on 
the ground of preoccupation: Nettion torquatum (Vieillot) becomes 
Nettion leucophrys (Vieillot); Chloephaga magellanica (Gmelin) becomes 
Chloephaga leucoptera (Gmelin); Cerchneis gracilis (Lesson) is renamed 
Cerchneis araea Oberholser; Cerchneis alopex deserticola Reichenow is 
renamed Cerchneis alopex eremica. Oberholser; and the fossil Rail us 
intermedius Milne-Edwards is called Rallus odelus Obeiliolsei-, nom. 
nov. H. C. O. 

• 

ORNITHOLOGY .—Washington region [winter of 1916-1917]. Harry 
C. Oberholser. Bird-Lore 19: 153. 1917. 
This paper is the first of a series designed to present current reports 
on the birds about Washington, D. C. This installment treats of the 
winter birds of 1916-1917 up to the month of March. That winter 
proved notable for the presence of several interesting northern visitors, 
including Loxia leucoptera, Loxia curvirostra minor, Spi?iuspinus pinus, 
and Olor columbianus. An individual of Polioptila caerulea caerulea, 
seen, January 1 (erroneously recorded as January 2), and one Corthijlio 
calendula calendula, noted, January 20, also are worthj^ of special 
mention. During the beginning of the spring migration two species 
appeared much earlier than ever previously noted: Seirus motacilla on 
March 17, and Nemospiza henslowii henslowii on April 1. H. C. 0. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY AND AFFILIATED 

SOCIETIES 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The 120th meeting of the Academy was held in the Assembly Room 
of the Cosmos Club the evening of January 31, 1918; called to order at 
8.30 by President Beiggs. The amendments to the By-Laws pre- 
sented at the Annual Meeting, January 8, 1918 (see this Journal of 
February 4, 1918), were adopted, on the recommendation of the Board 
of Managers. 

Professor Fridtjof Nansen, of the University of Kristiania, Nor- 
way, at present Minister Plenipotentiary of Norway on a special mis- 
sion to the United States, delivered a lecture on Changes in oceanic 
ay\d atmospheric temperatures ami their relation to changes in the sun's 
activity. 

The lecturer gave a very comprehensive review, illustrated with lan- 
tern slides, of the subject matter of a book recently published by him 
jointl}' with Professor Bjorn Heland Hansen, of the Museum of 
Bergen, under the title, Temperatur-Schwankungen des N ordatlantischen 
Ozems und in der Atvwsphdre. Einleitende Studien iiher die Ursachen 
der klimatologischen Schwankungen} 

The primary aim of the research was to find the relations existing 
between oceanic and atmospheric temperatures. The surface tem- 
perature of the water in various parts of the North Atlantic at the 
coldest time of the year foi-med the foundation of the first study. When 
the region covered by the data is divided into approximately equal 
areas, the temperature curves of these areas are found to be parallel. 
It is evident from the form of the curves that these changes of tem- 
perature taken as a whole are not due to changes in the water-masses 
transported. A relation does appear, however, between these changes 
and the prevaihng direction of the wind, as deduced from atmospheric 
pressure gradients. Where the wind turns south of (i.e. is directed 
south of) its average direction over a period of years, the temperature 
of the water is lower than the average for the same period, and vice 
versa. A similar parallelism between wind direction and water tem- 
perature appears along the coast of Norway; the effect near the coast 
is based upon the direction of the wind with respect to the land, as well 
as upon the season of the year. The air temperature variations on 
land appear earlier than the variations in water temperature. 

Certain periodicities appear in all the curves of oceanic and atmos- 
pheric temperatures, but they vary in type. At the same time a rela- 
tion also appears between these curves and curves of sun-spot activity 

1 Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter, I Mat.-Naturv. Klasse, 1916, No. 9. Kris- 
tiania, 1917. 

135 ^ 



136 proceedings: Washington academy of sciences 

and magnetic elements. The 11-year period is prominent. An oceanic- 
type and a continental (Eurasian) type can be distinguished. The lat- 
ter follows the sun-spot curve directly, whereas the former type follows 
the sun spots inversely. There is also a third and very remarkable 
type in which the curve changes more or less suddenly from direct to 
inverse. This sudden inversion is brought out in many curves, com- 
paring stations in different parts of the earth, and the inversion occurs 
in very many cases at about the year 1896. 

When the temperature curves for different months of the year are 
compared with the sun-spot curves, these three types of agreement 
again appear in very puzzling and unexpected combinations. 

In addition to oceanic and atmospheric temperatures, other meteoro- 
logical elements (air pressure, wind velocity, rainfall, cloudiness, mean 
daily temperature-amplitude) show a relation to the sun spots, sun 
prominences, and magnetic variations, and show not only the 11-year 
period but also shorter periods of two, three, and five and one-half years. 

The fluctuations of the temperature at the earth's surface do not 
follow directly the variations in the energy received from the sun as 
determined by the measurements of Abbot and Fowle. The daily and 
yearly temperature-amplitudes are believed to furnish sufficient I'efu- 
tation of hypotheses based on supposed variations in the absorbing 
and reflecting power of the atmosphere, as well as of Humphreys' hy- 
potheses as to formation of ozone or effects of volcanic dust. Bland- 
ford's hypothesis of the effect of increased evaporation in loweiing 
continental temperatures at sun-spot maxima is also not supported by 
the facts of tropical land and ocean stations. 

The mistake of most authors when they have discussed the causes of 
temperature changes has been that they took for granted that the 
average temperature at the earth's surface was directly dependent on 
solar radiation, and would give a direct indication of heat received. 
They have not considered sufficiently the fact that a ver}^ great pro- 
portion of the sun's radiation is absorbed by the higher layers of our 
atmosphere and that the distribution of heat in the atmosphere is of the 
greatest importance for the temperatures at the earth's surface. They 
seem very often to have forgotten that the variations in the sun's activ- 
ity, and in the so-called ''solar constant," and also in the sun's electric 
radiation, may primarily influence the higher layers of the atmosphere, 
thus indirectly guiding the distribution of atmospheric pi*essure and the 
circulation not only of these higher layers but also of the lower parts 
of the atmosphere. In this manner the temperature of the higher 
latitudes may be influenced more than that of the tropics, where the 
conditions are so stable. 

The variation in pressure gradient seems much more closely related 
to the temperatuie of land stations than is the variation in air pressure 
itself. For instance, the Colombo-Hj^derabad gradient runs parallel 
to the temperature in the Himalayas but opposite to the temperature 
at Batavia, while Bombay forms an example of those strange reversals • 
occurring about 1896. The Iceland-Azores gradient has exactly oppo- 



proceedings: Washington academy of sciences 137 

site effects in Norway and in mid-Atlantic. An increase of air circu- 
lation may thus have opposite effects in different regions. The sun 
spots and magnetic elements sometimes oppose and sometimes agree 
with the variations in pressure gradients. 

Various periodicities appear in the sun spots as well as in the ter- 
restrial phenomena. In the sun spots there is an 8-month period cor- 
responding with the conjunction or opposition of the planets Venus 
and Jupiter with the sun. This same period occurs in the North 
Atlantic gradient, and was found by Krogness in the magnetic decli- 
nation at Kristiania. There are also periods of six and twelve months 
in the magnetic elements, due to the position of the earth. The com- 
bination of these 6, 8, and 12-month periods gives a 2-year period for 
the magnetic and meteorological elements on the earth. But in the 
fluctuations of the sun spots a similar period of two years is also dis- 
covered, and especially noticeable are indications of minima every sec- 
ond year. Before 1896 there is an agreement between the 2-year 
minima of temperature at certain stations and the corresponding sun- 
spot minima, but the agreement is remarkable in that the greatest 
depressions in the sun-spot curve coincide with the smallest depres- 
sions in the temperature curve; this relation ceased about 1896, hence 
the peculiar inversion already referred to. 

Other periodicities have been recognized. A 32-33-month period 
at Batavia may be a combination of the 2-yea]" period already referred 
to and a 3.7-year period suspected by Lockyer. Secular changes of 
relatively long period (35 years and over 100 years) also are probable. 
The researches of Clayton have recognized correlations in daily tem- 
perature and pressure fluctuations at various stations over the earth 
and the fluctuations in the dail}^ heat radiation of the sun as meas- 
ured by Abbot and Fowle, the same three types appearing in these 
meteorological variations as have been noted in the long-time varia- 
tions. Krogness recognizes^ H-da}^ and 27-day periods in magnetic 
storms, as well as in air-pressure gradients, wind, and temperature, in 
northern Norway. 

To summarize the results of these investigations : In different groups 
of areas on the earth the meteorological elements (temperature, baro- 
metric pressure, rainfall, etc.) fluctuate or pulsate, so to speak, in time 
with one another, while in other groups of areas the fluctuations or pul- 
sations are exactly inverted, and finally, some areas show transition 
stages between the two. The result of all this is a very complicated 
picture of the meteorological fluctuations. But by means of appro- 
priate analyses we see that from this complicated and apparentlj^ 
chaotic set of fluctuations there arises a clear picture of the very inti- 
mate relation between all these variations and the variations in the 
sun's activity. We have seen that even changes of very short duration 
in the sun's radiation (of heat as well as electricitjO are distinctly re- 
peated in our meteorological conditions and in the surface temperature 
of the ocean. The effects of the solar variations are probably trans- 
ferred by means of variations produced in the distribution of pressure 



138 proceedings: biological society 

in our atmosphere. Changes in solar radiation probably first affect 
the higher layers of our atmosphere, and thus create an unrest which 
in turn is transmitted to the lower strata near the earth's surface. 

Such dynamic changes will produce different effects in different 
regions of the earth. But by thorough and complete analyses of the 
great meteorological material now at hand it may be possible to find 
the general rules. This will be an important step forward toward 
understanding the laws ruling our atmosphere. 

For this purpose it will also be of the greatest importance to have 
the wonderful researches of Abbot and Fowle continued with the 
greatest possible efficiency. These investigations of the sun's radiation 
of heat, which they have been carrying on for a long series of years at 
Washington, Mount Wilson, Mount Whitney, and in Algeria, have 
given us the remarkable revelation that our sun is *a variable star, 
the most important discovery that has been made in this field in many 
years. {Author's abstract.) 

William R. Maxon, Recording Secretary. 

BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 577th regular meeting of the Society was held in the Assembly 
Hall of the Cosmos Club, Saturday, Januarj^ 12, 1918; called to order 
at 8.00 p.m. by President Rose; 38 persons present. 

On recommendation of 'the Council the following were elected to 
membership: E. A. Chapin, F. P. Metcalf, Charles E. Chambliss. 

President Rose announced the death on October 29, 1917, of Miss 
Katherine M. Raber, a former member of the Society. 

President Rose announced the membership of the Publication Com- 
mittee as C. W. Richmond, J. H. Riley, N. Dearborn, and W. L. 
McAtee; of the Committee on Communications as William Palmer, 
Alex. Wetmore, R. E. Coker, L. 0. Howard, and A. S. Hitchcock. 

The Recording Secretary read a letter from the Washington Academ.y 
of Sciences in which subscriptions to the Journal of that Society were 
solicited on the part of members of the affiliated societies, and in which 
the aims and character of the Journal were set forth. 

Dr. L. 0. Howard introduced Prof. Stephen A. Forbes, of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, as a visitor to the Society who was invited by the 
President to take part in the discussions. 

Under the heading brief notes, General T. E. Wilcox presented a 
note read by the Secretary on the inability of camels to swim. 

A. S. Hitchcock outlined the plans formulated by a gathering of 
botanists during the scientific meetings recently held in Pittsburgh 
for the establishment of an abstract journal on the subject of botany. 

The regular program consisted of three communications as follows: 

N. E. McIndoo: The senses of insects, illustrated by charts. Three 
types of olfactory organs were discussed. (1) The lyriform organs are 
found on all the appendages of spiders. (2) The olfactory pores found 
on the appendages of insects were divided into simple and compound 



proceedings: biological society 139 

organs; the former being a single sense cell whose peripheral end pierces 
the integument, and the latter being a group of sense cells whose 
peripheral ends pierce a common plate; the compound organs are 
found only on the antennae of a certain coleopterous larva. (3) The 
antennal organs discussed are the pore plates, pegs, pit pegs, and end 
pegs; each of these organs is innervated, but the nerve does not come 
in direct contact with the external air as it does in the lyriform organs 
and olfactorj^ pores. 

Bees recognize one another chiefly by the odors they emit; in a colony 
there are a queen odor, drone odor, family odor, individual odor, and a 
hive odor. The hive odor is the most miportant one, because without 
it a colony of bees could not exist. These odors are produced by a 
special scent-producing organ. 

The tactile sense of bees is very acute, and these insects can dis- 
criminate between certain foods better than people, although they have 
no sense of taste; this is accomphshed by means of the highly devel- 
oped olfactory sense after the bees have eaten a little of the foods. 

The paper was discussed by Dr. L. 0. Howard and Alex. Wetmore. 

Eleanor C. Allex: Wax models of fleshy fungi, with an exhibit of 
several models. ]Miss Allen said she had been engaged for the past 
four years in making models of this sort for the Milwaukee Public 
Museum. She illustrated her talk bj' models of four species of mush- 
rooms, each being represented bj- a group of several individuals ar- 
ranged as in their living condition. She described the processes inci- 
dent to the making of the finished groups. Living specimens growing 
in woods or fields are found and before picking sketches of the group 
and complete notes in regard to color and habitat are made. Then 
plaster models of the various individuals are made. In the laboratory, 
using these models, wax mushrooms are cast and the details of these 
are worked out by careful modeling, coloring, and the addition of 
various materials to give a natural appearance of texture. Habitat 
material such as grass, moss, stumps, etc., are gathered and chemically 
treated. Backgrounds, natural to individual species, are prepared from 
these materials and upon these the wax facsimiles are arranged. 
Miss Allen showed photographs of the numerous groups which she 
has made and which are now installed in the Milwaukee Public Museum. 

Miss Allen not being a member of the Society was introduced by 
President Rose. Her communication was discussed by the chair, and 
by Alessrs. F. V. Colville and A. S. Hitchcock. 

C. B. Doyle: Some agricultural and botanical features of Haiti, illus- 
trated b}^ lantern slides. In Haiti there is very little left to repre- 
sent the original forest covering. The primitive milpa system of 
agriculture is used and the natives live in scattered families or small 
groups. ^lost of the food plants are of American origin, butit is the 
introduced species that have become of the greatest importance to the 
natives. There are only a few large plantations on the island, the bulk 
of the crops of the three principal exports (coffee, cacao, and cotton) 
being produced on the small native farms. Many different kinds of 



140 proceedings: botanical society 

fine fruits are abundant, but several species prominent in other parts 
of tropical America, such as the papaya, sapote, sapodilla, and pine- 
apple, are absent or little used. Among the root crops that are com- 
monly grown are sweet potatoes, yams, yautias, and cassava, and more 
recently white potatoes are being successfuly produced in the cool 
mountain districts southeast of Port au Prince. In comparison with 
other tropical countries, conditions appear favorable for crop production 
in Haiti, if a more effective organization of agriculture can be estab- 
lished together with a better means of marketing the products. 

The paper was discussed by Major E. A. Goldman, Dr. L. 0. 
Howard, 0. F. Cook, A. S. Hitchcock, and the chair. 

M. W. Lyon, Jr., Recording Secretary. 

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 125th regular meeting of the Society was held at the Cosmos 
Club, Thursday, January 3, 1918. There were 65 members and 8 
guests present. The following persons were elected to membership: 
A. A. Hansen, Leonard W. Kephart, H. E. Allanson, F. P. Met- 
CALF, Nathan Menderson, and T. Ralph Robinson. The following 
scientific program was given: 

C. V. Piper: The botany and economics of the tribe Phaseoleae. The 
word bean traces back philologically to Vicia faba known as the horse 
bean, broad bean, Windsor bean, etc. In present-day usage the word 
bean is most commonly used for the common or kidney bean Phaseolus 
vulgaris. Botanists in general restrict the term bean to the botanical 
tribe Phaseoleae, but the original bean Vicia faba belongs to the tribe 
Viciae. By extension the word bean has also been applied to seeds 
in other families, as the castor bean, cacao bean, vanilla bean, etc. 
On the other hand some of the Phaseoleae are commonly known as 
peas; for example, pigeon pea and cowpea. 

For the purpose of this discussion the term bean is restricted to the 
botanical tribe Phaseoleae. In this tribe Engler and Prantl recognized 
forty-seven genera, and Bentham and Hooker fifty. In recent years one 
additional undoubtedl.y distinct genus has been described and many 
botanists subdivide some of the older genera. Thus from Phaseolus 
have been segregated Dyslobium and Strophostyles and perhaps other 
natural genera still remain to be separated from the Phaseolus complex. 
Engler and Prantl divide the tribe Phaseoleae into six subtribes, of 
which the most important is the Phaseolinae. Of the eight to twelve 
genera in this tribe all but one or two are economic and seven are 
important as sources of human food. 

All of the edible beans are of very ancient agriculture and most of 
them have not been found, or at least identified, as wild plants. The 
exceptions which are known as wild are the cowpea, the horse bean, 
the soy bean, the lima bean, the moth bean, and the Niger bean. 

Most of the beans used for human food are prone to create digestive 
disturbances, in strong contrast with the seeds of the pea tribe, but 



proceedings: biological society 141 

very little is known of the substances in beans which cause these 
troubles. 

The speaker discussed briefly the botanical characters of the more 
important genera. Detailed data were given concerning the species 
that are of economic impoi'tance in the United States. Particular 
attention was called to the tremendous increase and relative importance 
of the velvet bean and of the soy bean. 

W. J. INIorse: Morpholoykal c/iamc'.er and food value of soy-bean 

varieties. The soy bean is native of southeastern Asia and has been 

cultivated as a food crop by the Chinese for more than 5000 years. 

In extent of uses and value it is the most important legume grown in 

^ Asiatic countries. The plant is found growing in its wild form in 

' southern China and on the southern islands of Japan. 

The number of varieties cultivated in the Orient is very extensive and 
during the past ten years the Department of Agriculture has brought 
in through the Ofhce of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction nearly 
1000 introductions, nearly all of which were distinct sorts. Very 
seldom is the same sort received twice unless from the same locality. 
In China and Japan the varieties are distinguished by color, shape, size, 
and use of the seed, and, to a slight extent, by the maturity. Certain 
sorts are favored for making bean cheese, others for bean sprouts, some 
for soy sauce, and still others for the production of oil and meal. In 
America, vaieties are classified according to color, size, and shape of 
seed, maturity and habit of plant, and color of pubescence and flowers. 
Analyses made o" all varieties introduced thus far show a range of 
from 12 to 24 per cent oil and from 30 to 46 per cent protein. The 
Department of Agriculture is doing considerable work in the selection 
of high oil-bearing varieties and also those with a high percentage of 
protein for food purposes. Investigations as to starch content indicate 
varieties having a total absence of starch to a few having perhaps 
about 3 per cent. In most varieties examined, the starch is found 
around the hilum, while in one instance a small quantitj^ was found 
scattered throughout the cotyledons. 

In Oriental countries the so}^ bean is utilized largely for food, being 
elaborated into a great variety of productions such as soy sauce, vege- 
table cheeses (fresh, dried, fermented, and smoked), vegetable milk, 
and bean sprouts. All of these products are rich in protein and fur- 
nish, with rice, a well-balanced diet to the people of these countries. 
In Europe and America soy-bean flour or meal has been used to a 
small extent for many years as a special food for persons requiring a 
food of low starch diet. During the last two or three years the dried 
beans are assuming a place on the American market and are used the 
same as the field or navy bean. The green beans, about three-quarters 
to full grown, are finding favor as a green vegetable, being utilized like 
the lima or butter bean. 

As an oil seed, the soy bean has taken an important place in the 
world's commerce and has become an important competitor of other 
vegetable oils. Hundreds of thousands of tons of beans are being 



142 proceedings: botanical society 

crushed for oil and meal in Asia, America, and European countries. 
The oil is used quite extensively in the manufacture of food stuffs 
such as butter and lard substitutes. 

The soy bean, with its products, oil and meal, present great possi- 
bilities in supplementing our ordinary food products during the present 
emergency, and once introduced on the market will give a highly nutri- 
tious food at very low cost. Extensive areas in the United States are 
suited to the production of soy beans. Although the acreage of the 
crop the past season is about five times that of five years ago, it should, 
and no doubt will, assume an important place among the faim crops of 
the United States. 

Charles Thom : Fermented soy-bean products. Some preliminary ex- 
periments have been made to determine the conditions of making and 
ripening the Chinese soy cheeses. 

The presence of a protein allied to the casein of mammalian milk 
makes possible the manufacture of these cheeses. The basis of these 
is the so-called Tofu or Dofu; it has various names. This is a soft 
curd made by the coagulation of the soy-bean milk with calcium sul- 
phate, raw salt, or by acid milk or whey. As it appears in the market, 
it contains about 83 to 88 per cent water, 7 to 11 per cent protein, 
4 to 5 per cent fat, and perhaps 0.5 per cent ash. In the fresh form 
it is comparable to low-grade Neufchatel or cottage cheese which runs 
about 10 per cent higher in nutritive constituents. The cakes of curd 
are usually about 2 inches square and 1 inch thick. These little cakes 
are riponed in cool, very moist rooms, until covered with a deep felt of 
mold; then packed in jars with excessive amounts of salt and allowed to 
cure slowly. The concentration of brine is such as to reduce the ac- 
tivity of microorganisms to a minimum. The final cheeses have high 
flavor, rather strong odor, and too much salt to be consumed in bulk 
as cheese. They are covered with red sauce and variously combined 
with other food products before consumption. 

J. A. LeClerc: The composition of the soy bean and its use in bread- 
making. The speaker presented the results of the analyses of several 
hundred samples representing 45 varieties and grown in six different 
localities. From these results it was shown that soy beans contain 
on an average 18.6 per cent of fat and about 40 per cent of protein. 
It was shown that when all these varieties were grown in the six dif- 
ferent localities the influence of environment on the protein and fat 
content was marked. The average protein content of some soy beans 
grown in one locality was as low as 38 per cent, while those same varie- 
ties grown in another locality would contain as much as 42 per cent, in- 
dicating definite varietal characteristics. The same conclusions hold 
for the fat content. In general, soy beans that are high in fat are 
low in protein, and vice versa. It was also shown how soy ])eans 
can be used as a flour substitute. Samples of bread made with 20 
per cent soy bean and 80 per cent white flour were exhibited. 

H. N. ViNALL, Corresponding Secretary. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

The Bureau of Standards has purchased eight acres of land west of 
Connecticut Avenue and has let contracts for a new engineering lab- 
oratory, 175 by 350 feet and four stories in height. The new building 
and its equipment will cost in the neighborhood of $1,000,000, and will 
increase the capacity of the Bureau by 50 per cent. The Pittsburgh 
laboratory of the Bureau, including the work on glass and ceramics, 
will be transferred to Washington. It is expected that the new building 
will be occupied during the coming summer. 

i\Irs. E. H. Harrimav has turned over to the Carnegie Institution 
of Washington the Eugenics Record Office established by her at Cold 
Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York, in 1910. Included in the gift 
are 80 acres of land, an office building, a large residence and the valu- 
able records already compiled. Mi'S. Harriman also has created an 
endowment fund jaelding an annual income of $12,000 for maintenance 
of the work. 

Mr. Frederick Webb Hodge, since 1910 Ethnologist-in-charge of 
the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, resigned 
on February 28, to accept a position with the Museum of the American 
Indian, Heye Foundation, in New York City. Dr. Jesse Walter 
Fewkes, ethnologist on the Bureau's staff since 1895, has been ap- 
pointed chief of the Bureau. 

Dr. RoLLiN Arthur Harris, mathematician and physicist, who 
had been employed in the Coast and Geodetic Survey for 28 years, 
died on January 20, at the age of 55. He was a member of the Philo- 
sophical Society, and one of the original members df the Academy. 
His work was concerned principally with the theory of functions as 
applied to geodesy and cartography, and with problems of tides and 
cotidal maps. 

Dr. J. W. Turrentine, of the Bureau of Soils, is now in charge of 
the experimental kelp-potash plant of the Bureau, at Summerland, 
CaUfornia. The plant has been in operation since late August, and 
is now marketing daily about $300 worth of materials produced inci- 
dentally in experimentation. While primarily experimental, it is 
built and equipped to make possible the obtaining of commercial data. 
It has a capacity of about 150 tons of raw kelp per day, and its equip- 
ment includes a self-propelling harvester; a pier with unloading device 
and conveyors; rotary kilns and furnaces for drying; retorts for de- 
structive distillation; lixi viator; evaporator and crystalhzer; centrif- 
ugal dryers; and the necessary incidental equipment. Dr. Turrentine 
has as his assistants Mr. E. B. Smith, formerly of the office of Public 

143 



144 SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Roads, Mr. P. S. Shoaff, formerly Chief Chemist of the Holly Sugar 
Corporation, and Dr. G. C. Spencer, formerly of the Bureau of 
Chemistry, together with an operating force numbering forty-three. 

Prof. C. C. Nutting, a member of the Academy, is organizing a 
party of naturalists, composed almost entirely of graduate students 
and instructors in zoology at the State University of Iowa, to carry on 
investigations regarding marine fauna in the vicinity of the islands of 
Barbados and Antigua, British West Indies. The party will sail 
about April 27 from New York and expects to return about August 1. 
The time will be divided between the islands of Barbados and Antigua, 
at both of which places the Colonial Governments have placed ade- 
quate quarters for the party. A well-equipped launch with excellent 
facilities for dredging down to 200 fathoms has been proffered by a 
Washington friend, who himself will be a member of the party. 

In his preliminary trip to Barbados last summer Prof. Nutting found 
that the natives of these islands are quite expert in diving, and one of 
them was capable of bringing up specimens from a depth of 10 fathoms. 
It is the intention to make rather extensive use of native divers to 
procure specimens down to this depth. 

The following persons have become members of the Academy since 
the last issue of the Journal: Miss Frances Densmore, Bureau of 
American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution; Major William Mc- 
Pherson, War Department, 1800 Virginia Avenue; Dr. Francis 
Briggs Silsbee, Bureau of Standards. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Vol. VIII MARCPI 13. 1018 No, (i 



OCEANOGRAPHY. — A7i eleztrical instrument for recording sea- 
water salinity.^ Frnest E. Weibel and Albert L. Thuras, 
Bureau of Standards. (Communicated by S. W. Stratton.) 

The modern tendency in physical research is to replace indi- 
cating instruments by recording instruments wherever possible. 
This has been especially true in the science of meteorology, 
where the recent advances have been brought about almost 
entirely by the remarkable improvements and developments 
in recording instruments. In the related science of oceanog- 
raphy there are practically no recording instruments now in 
general use, except possibly the tide-gage. If meteorology has 
been so greatly benefited by such instruments, surely in oceanog- 
raphy, where the changes in the physical properties are so much 
more regular and therefore more easily interpreted, great ad- 
vances should be looked for through the addition or substitution 
of recording instruments. 

A few years ago a recorder using a platinum resistance ther- 
mometer, ^ giving a continuous record of the surface temperature 
of the ocean, was designed and constructed at the Bureau of 
Standards. This instrument has been used successfully on 
board ship and some very interesting records have been obtained 
which show the distribution of temperature and thereby indi- 
cate the location of ocean currents and also give a knowledge 

^Done under the auspices of the Interdepartmental Committee on Oceanog- 
raphy, subcommittee on instruments, apparatus, and measurements. 

2WAiDNER,DiCKixsox, and Crowe. Bureau of Standards Bull. 10: 267. 1914. 

143 , 



146 WEIBEL AND THUUAS: 14ECORDING SALINITY 

of their boundary conditions which could hardly be obtained by 
repeated single measurements of temperature. 

The temperature, however, is not nearly so reliable a clue to 
the location of currents and the origin of water masses as is the 
salinity. A body of sea water may change considerably in tem- 
perature in moving from one place to another, but unless the 
evaporation or rainfall is excessive its concentration will change 
comparatively little. By salinity is meant the number of grams 
of salt or solids in one kilogram of sea water. The composition 
of these salts is very nearly constant everywhere in the open 
ocean, but the salinity, or concentration of the total salts, varies 
from place to place. 

From a consideration of the properties of sea water that vary 
with the salinity, the electrical conductivity seemed to be the 
most susceptible to continuous measurement, if the difficulty 
due to the variation of conductivity with temperature can b(^ 
overcome. This difficulty is avoided by the use of a method 
which is compensated for temperature. 

This paper describes the method of measurement and the ex- 
perimental work done towards the production of an apparatus 
to give a continuous record of sea-water salinity to the accuracy 
required in the most precise oceanographic research. The work 
has not been finished, but from the results obtained we believe 
that the method is practical and sufficiently important to war- 
rant publication at the present time, even though the apparatus 
is not yet built. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE METHOD 

The method consists in measuring the ratio of the resistance of 
sea water in two equal or nearly equal electrolytic cells A and B 
(fig. 1); one cell A is sealed and contains sea water of a known 
average salinity, the other cell B is open and has flowing through 
it the sea water to be measured. This ratio is obtained by a 
Wheatstone bridge using alternating current to eliminate polari- 
zation effects in the cells. A calibration of the apparatus can 
be made at any time by using sea water of known salinity in the 



WEIBEL AND THUUAS: RECORDING SALINITY 



147 



open cell. This can be done either by carrying standard samples 
or by determining the salinity of the sea water flowing through 
the open cell by some accurate method that can be used on board 
ship. Such a method giving salinity by a measurement of den- 
sity has been described.'^ A record of the resistance ratio of the 
two cells is made by a recorder similar to those now in use for 
measuring temperature, but some changes will have to be made 
t(^ adapt it for using alternating current. 




Fig. 1. 

The new and important feature of this method is the use of 
two cells containing liquids of nearly the same properties, which 
make it possible to compensate almost completely for the large 
temperature coefficient of sea water. The two cells are placed 
in a uniform temperature bath and the error will bo only that 
due to the small differential temperature coefficient of iho two 
solutions. 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

Preliminary expoi-iments to test the general feasibility of the 
method showed: 

1. Good balances can be obtained with a mnplc Wheatstone 

■'TiiunAs, A. L., Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 7: GO."). 1917. 



148 WEIBEL AND THURAS: RECORDING SALINITY 

bridge circuit containing the two electrolytic cells, using either 
a telephone at 500 cycles per second or an alternating current 
galvanometer at 60 cycles per second as a detector. 

2. The temperature compensation is sufficient. For the maxi- 
mum difference in salinity the lack of compensation did not ex- 
ceed 0.03 in salinity (0.03 gram of solids per kilogram of water) 
for a change of 10°C. 

3. No appreciable change in balance due to the flow of the sea 
water through the open cell was obtained. 

4. To obtain a continuous record of salinity an alternating- 
current galvanometer similar t o the usual direct-current galvan- 
ometer is needed to operate tlie recorder. This galvanometer 
was constructed of the electromagnet moving coil type,^ and 
had a sensitivity and other operating constants as good as those 
of the direct-current galvanometers now used. After these 
preliminary experiments on some temporary cells had shown the 
feasibility of the method a more careful study was made of cer- 
tain sources of error in order to obtain data upon which to base 
the design of the final cells. These effects are : 

1. Heating effect of the current in the cells; 

2. Temperature lag of the sealed cell when the sea- water 
temperature in the bath suddenly changes; 

3. Time necessary for the resistance ratio to reach its true 
value if the sea water passing through the open cell changes 
in salinity. 

In the ordinary conductivity measurements performed in a 
laboratory the heating effect of the current can be made negligi- 
ble l)y using a sufficiently sensitive galvanometer or telephone 
receivei', but with the less sensitive recording galvanometer this 
current must be much larger and consequently requires a spe- 
cially designed cell to dissipate the heat developed. From ex- 
]:)ei-iments on differently shaped cells the heating coefficients, 
i.e., temperature rise per watt dissipated in the cells, were found 
to l)e approximately inversely proportional to the diameters 
and lengths of the cells. Since the length of cell is limited by 

*Weibel, E. E., Bureau of Standards Sci. Paper No. 297 p. 23. 1917. 



WEIBEL AND THURAS: RECORDING SALINITY 149 

practical considerations, it was necessary to increase the diam- 
eter in order to reduce this coefficient. 

To determine the temperature lag, different cells were placed 
in a stirred bath and their time constants were found by chang- 
ing their temperatures slightly from the temperature of the bath 
and reading the resistance at definite intervals as the cell gradu- 
ally assumed the temperature of the bath. By time constant 
is here meant the time necessary for the temperature of the cell 
to approach the temperature of the bath to 67 per cent of its 
initial difference in temperature. 

The time constants were found to be very approximately 
inversely proportional to the square of the diameter of the cells. 
Therefore the condition that is required to reduce the heating 
coefficient is opposite to that which will reduce the time constant, 
and since both of these values must be small special multiple tube 
cells were designed which will fulfill these conditions. 

The time lag produced by a change in concentration of the 
sea water was determined by passing water of different salinities 
through a cell and it was found that if the cell is being swept out 
at the rate of three or four volumes a minute the ratio will re- 
spond within three or four minutes for probably the maximum 
change in salinity which can occur. The following considera- 
tions will show the purpose of reducing these factors as much as 
possible. 

In general the temperature and salinity of the ocean changes 
very gradually from place to place so that usually no special 
cell would be required to record the salinity, but at some places 
as for instance in the vicinity of the Grand Bank of Newfound- 
land, where the cold fresh water of the Labrador Current meets 
the warm salty water of the Gulf Stream, the temperature and 
salinity change comparatively rapidly in moving from one body 
of water to the other. At these places such a specially designed 
cell is necessary. A few years ago a number of temperature 
records of the ocean were taken from a vessel going at moderate 
speeds and the most sudden change in temperature was 3.5° in 
about one minute. If this change is assumed to be instantane- 
ous, the temperature of the sealed cell will in less than two min- 



150 



WEIBEL AND THURAS : RECORDING SALINITY 



utes be so near that of the open cell that the error will be less 
than 0.02 in salinity. 

Although there. are as yet no observations on the rate of change 
of salinity, it is assumed that the maximum change in a short 
interval of time is not greater than 2 in salinity. This value is 
estimated from the relative changes of temperature which are 
discussed above. A response to this change to within 0.02 in 
salinity in less than two minutes can be obtained by washing 
out the cell at the rate of 3 or 4 volumes a minute. However, 
if the temperature and salinity change at the same time, which is 





Elect t-olytic Cell 



c 




End view 



Plan view 



(m^ 



Side view 



Fig. 



¥^ 



quite probable, the lag of the recorder will be the sum of the 
two and if they are both a maximum at the same time, which 
is quite improbable, then the total time lag will be 4 minutes. 
This is probably the worst possible condition that can occur, 
but it is well to point out that as the regain of the true reading 
is exponential the recorder Avill at first quickly approach its 
correct value and although it takes four minutes to reach within 
0.02 in salinity it will take much less than two minutes to obtain 
an accuracy of 0.04 in salinity. However, if a more careful 
study of the change in salinity between different water masses 



WEIBEL AND THUKAS: RECORDING SALINITY 151 

is required it is only necessar}- to increase the flow through the 
open cell and to make a correction for the error caused by the 
rapid change in temperature. Since another recorder will be 
used to measure the temperature of the sea water this tempera- 
ture correction for the salinitj^ can easily be obtained. 

MULTIPLE TUBE CELLS 

Each of the 2 cells that have been designed (fig. 2) contains 
6 parallel glass tubes 14 cm. long and 1 cm. in diameter. These 
tubes are joined at each end to bulbs containing annular-shaped 
platinum electrodes. Each electrode has an area of 5.3 sq. cm. 
and is held rigidly in place by 4 platinum pins which are welded 
to the electrode and sealed into the glass wall of the cell. The 
cells are designed so that there are no pockets in which air can 
collect, and the sea water is admitted in such a manner as to 
sweep off any bubbles that might collect on the electrodes. 
The inlet and outlet tubes are sufficiently large to insure a 
thorough washing out of the cell in sufficient time to respond 
to the maximum changes in salinity that are liable to be met 
with on a vessel running at moderate speed. 

RECORDER 

In order to obtain a continuous record of sea-water salinity 
the "NATieatstone bridge and galvanometer must be embodied in 
a recorder mechanism such as that developed by the Leeds & 
Northrup Company. The most important changes in their 
present recorder are due to the use of alternating current. The 
electrical connections are as shown in fig. 1. The current may 
be obtained from the usual 60-cycle supply, but if only direct 
current is available then the small direct-current motor used for 
driving the recorder mechanism can be equipped with slip rings 
and be operated as a converter. The recorder paper should be 
ruled so that salinities can be read directly. 

INSTALLATION AND OPERATION ON BOARD SHIP 

To obtain a continuous record of surface salinity, the appara- 
tus will be set up similarly to the temperature-recording appara- 



152 



WEIBEL AND THURASI RECORDING SALINITY 



tus previously used.^ The recorder will be properly secured in 
a convenient place on the vessel and insulated wires will lead 
from it to the cells. The cells (see fig. 3) will be mounted close 
together in a bath through which water direct from the ocean 
will flow continuously. This will insure a uniform temperature 
throughout the bath. A flow of water will also be maintained 



f leads to the 




cell 
c/ischatge 




Sea wafer 
intake 



Plan view 



bath 
Fig. 3. 



End vievi 



through the open cell, this water being tapped off from the main 
supply which passes through the bath. This flow must be broken 
as it leaves the cell in order to eliminate the resistance error 
due to shunting the open cell. The bath and connections to 
the sea-water supply will be carefully covered with heat in- 
sulating material to insure a uniform temperature throughout. 



5 Treasury Dept., U. S. Coast Guard Bull. 5: 27. 1915. 



COOK AND cook: THE MAHO OR MAHAGUA 153 

SUMMARY 

An apparatus to give a continuous record of sea-water salinity 
by the measurement of its electrical conductivity is described. 
A pair of electrolytic cells has been designed which when used 
with a suitable alternating-current galvanometer will give 
satisfactory operation in connection with a recorder. The tem- 
perature compensation is obtained by placing both cells, which 
are in the two arms of a Wheatstone bridge, in a uniform !em- 
perature bath. 

ETHNOBOTANY. — The maho, or mahagua, as a trans-Pacific 
plant. O. F. Cook, Bureau of Plant Industry, and Robert 
Carter Cook. 

As noted previously in this Journal^ the word cumara or 
kumara, a name for sweet potatoes, is found in the Pacific islands 
and among tjie Quichua Indians of the interior valleys of southern 
Peru, on the eastern slopes of the Andes. Considering the plant 
as a native of America, the preservation of an American name 
among the Polynesians appears significant. If the sweet potato 
and its name were carried into the Pacific in prehistoric times, 
other evidences of communication may be discovered. 

The underlying question is whether agriculture and civiliza- 
tion arose independently in the two hemispheres, or had their 
early development in America and reached Asia by way of the 
Pacific islands. Did civilization grow from a single primary 
root, or were there parallel developments among widely separated 
peoples? The agriculture of ancient America undoubtedly was 
indigenous, since it was based on native plants. Nevertheless, 
several of the American plants, as the coconut palm, the sweet 
potato, the bottle-gourd, the yam-bean, and the upland species 
of cotton, appear to have been cultivated in the Pacific islands 
and the Malay region long before the period of discovery by 
Europeans. Civilization being an outgrowth of algriculture, 
evidence from the cultivated plants seems pertinent. 

The maho, or mahoe, to use the Jamaican or West Indian name 

16:339. 1916. 



154 COOK AND cook: the maho or mahagua 

that has found its way into diction9,ries, is one of the economic 
plants that appears to have attained a trans-Pacific distribution 
in prehistoric times. It is a handsome woody shrub or small 
tree, with large lemon-yellow flowers, a member of the mallow 
family, a. relative of the cotton plant, the okra, and the holly- 
hock. The leaves are entire and broadly cordate, much like 
those of the linden or basswood, a similarity recognized in the 
name given by Linnaeus, Hibiscus tiliaceiis, or linden hibiscus. 
Some writers have called it lemon hibiscus and others corkwood. 
Many botanists have treated the maho as representing a genus 
distinct from Hibiscus under the name Paritium, though as 
originally proposed the genus was called Pariti, one of the East 
Indian vernacular names being adopted by Adanson as the 
generic designation. 

A source of fiber and fire 

Among the early Polynesians the maho must have been a 
very important plant, since it affords two indispensable materials 
and has many incidental uses. The bark contains a strong, 
flexible fiber adapted to many purposes, tying and binding, 
building houses and boats, snaring or trapping game, and making 
bark cloths, nets, mats, baskets, and other equipment of primi- 
tive life. The wood of the maho has the peculiarity of readily 
producing fire by friction. The ease with which the natives of 
Tahiti were able to produce fire from maho wood is remarked 
by Darwin in the Voyage of the Beagle: 

A light was procured by rubbing a blunt-pointed stick in a groove 
made in another, as if with intention of deepening it, until by the 
friction the dust became ignited. A peculiarly white and very light 
wood (the Hibiscus tiUaceus) is alone used for this purpose; it is the 
same which serves for poles to carrj^ any burden, and for the floating 
outriggers to their canoes. The fire was produced in a few seconds; 
Init to a person who does not understand the art it requires, as I 
found, the greatest exertion; but at last, to my great pride, I suc- 
ceeded in igniting the dust. 

The heart-wood of the maho is described in Gill's Jottings, 
in the Pacific as very tough and durable, fragrant, of a very dark- 



COOK AND cook: THE MAHO OR MAHAGUA 155 

green color, and well adapted for making paddles and the frame- 
work of boats and houses. Gill states that most of the firewood 
used in the islands is furnished by this tree, and also claims for 
it an important function in agriculture: 

Perhaps the greatest blessing conferred upon these islanders by this 
tree is its power of renewing the fertility of the soil. Nothing exhausts 
the soil so speedily as yams or cotton. In ten or twelve years the 
soil is utterly impoverished. The native plan then is to allow it to be 
overrun with lemon hibiscus bush. When the timber has become heavy 
you may be sure the soil is perfectly renewed. The soil which once 
was dry and hard is now light and extremely rich. 

Such a possibility of reclaiming abandoned lands might prove 
of practical importance in many tropical countries, and would 
doubtless facilitate the commercial cultivation of the maho as a 
fiber or paper plant, which has been suggested. 

A WILD PLANT IN AMERICA 

As with the coconut palm and the sweet potato, the maho 
figures more prominently among the Polynesians than among 
the natives of tropical America, although the American origin 
of the plant is even more clearly indicated. While the coconut 
and the sweet potato are not known to exist in a truly wild state, 
the maho is an abundant or even a dominant species in many 
localities, all the way from Porto Rico and southern Florida to 
the banks of the Guayaquil River, on the Pacific coast of South 
America. Although used in the same ways as in the East Indies, 
for bark cloth and cordage, and for kindling fire, as indicated by 
Oviedo, Dampier, Sloane, Barrerre, and many later writers, 
these uses were shared with many other plants, so that no 
special prominence was attained by the maho. Sloane's History 
of Jamaica states that the outer layers of the bark were used for 
making ropes and the inner for clothing the slaves. 

A CULTIVATED PLANT IN THE OLD WORLD 

In the Pacific islands and in eastern Asia the status of the 
maho was notably different from that in America. Lack of other 
materials may have enhanced its importance. The making of 



156 COOK AND cook: the maho or mahagua 

bark cloth was a much more highly developed art among the 
Polynesians than in America. The maho cordage was used 
especially for making canoes, its strength and durability not 
being affected by exposure to water. The plant was grown 
regularly from cuttings, and in some parts of the East Indies a 
condition of seedlessness appears to have been reached, as with 
other species that have been subject to vegetative propagation 
for long periods. 

In some of the islands the maho grows spontaneously, and 
covers large areas that have been abandoned after previous 
cultivation. As a result of extensive studies of plant dispersal 
in the Pacific islands, Guppy classes the maho with the candle- 
nut as introduced trees which have replaced native forest vege- 
tation. Low banks of tidal rivers are the favorite habitat. 
Though many botanists have written of the maho as a cosmo- 
politan seashore plant, its wide dissemination may be due largely 
to human agency, as with the coconut palm. The distribution 
in both cases extends over tropical America and the Polynesian 
area, including the islands and shores of the Pacific and Indian 
oceans. 

DISTRIBUTION OF THE NAME IN AMERICA 

The name maho, with many variations, is widely distributed in 
tropical America, and is applied locally to many other plants. 
The form usually employed in Spanish books is majagua or 
mahagua, in French mahaut, mahoe, or mahoii. In Ecuador the 
maho is said to be called jagua. A reduplicated form, mahou- 
mahou, is listed by Martins for the Galibi Indians of Brazil, but 
the simple form mahu is also mentioned in relation to Mahu as a 
Tupi place name on the Upper Amazon {Ethnographie, 512). 
How far the plant extends up the Amazon is not known. No 
definitely recognizable equivalent has been recorded in the 
Quichua language of Peru, but ahua, meaning '' string" or 
"thread," ahuani to weave, ahuac a weaver, and many other 
terms of textile implication are of possible interest for comparison 
with Hawaiian words of similar sound and meaning. 



COOK AND cook: THE MAHO OR MAHAGUA 157 

The chief center of popularity for majagua as a plant name 
is in the West Indies. Oviedo, who appears to have written the 
first account of the plant in Santo Domingo, early in the six- 
teenth centur}^, called it demmahagua and it is still called dema- 
jagua and emahagua in Porto Rico. In de la Maza's dictionary 
of native Cuban plant names the word majagua or its diminu- 
tive vmjaguUla, appears in nearly a score of Spanish combina- 
tions, viajagna azul, majagua blanca, majagua de casta, majagua 
hembra, etc., in application to several genera of Malvaceae and 
Tiliaceae, which have fibrous barks, including Hibiscus, Thes- 
pesia, Pavonia, Helicteres; and Guazuma. The Porto Rican 
name of Thespesia is maga or magar, while. 7naya and maguey 
are the native West Indian names of Bromelia and Agave, two 
other important groups of fiber plants. Several species of Ficus, 
also with fibrous barks, are called gagiley, jagiley, or jagUeicillo. 
In Porto Rico yagua is the name of the leathery, fibrous leaf- 
bases of the royal palm. 

The list of Mexican plant names by Ramirez and Alcocer 
includes majagua as the name of Hibiscus tiliaceus and Hampea 
integerrima, and also mahahiia, masahua, and majagililla, as 
names of the maho or of Helicteres, Heliocarpus, and Thespesia. 

Maho names collected by Pittier from seven of the native 
languages of Costa Rica apparently have no relation to the 
West Indian and South American series of maho words, as may 
be seen from the following list: Bribri, stsd; Brunka, kro-kua, or 
krok-ua; Terraba, kip-kuo and tro-kro; Dorasque Gualaca, kis; 
Dorasque Changuina, i-lak; Cuna, Chagua tiipii; Guaymi, ko 
and kud-td. Two more aberrant names, choucoron and guimauve, 
are listed in Van Wijk's Dictionary of Plant Names, probably 
from Guiana. 

OTHER PLANTS CALLED MAHOE IN AMERICA 

Among the plants that share the name, or that have been 
confused locally with the maho elsewhere in the West Indies are 
Thespesia populnea, Hibiscus clypeatus, and Stercidia caribaea. 
In French Guiana and Brazil the names mahoe cochon, mahaguo 



158 COOK AND cook: the maho or mahagua 

de playa and niahaujo are applied respectively to Sterculia 
pruriens, Helideres haruensis, and Muntingia calabura. The last 
is called majaguilla in Venezuela, according to Ernst, who also 
gives mijagua as a name of Anacardium rhinocarpus. Gomez 
de la Maza gives macagua as a Cuban name of Pseudolmedia and 
majaguin for Pavonia. All these trees have fibrous barks that 
can be used for the same purposes as the maho bark. Muntingia 
is very widely distributed and may be considered as replacing 
the maho in the drier or more elevated regions of tropical Amer- 
ica. A Quichua name for tough-barked trees is p-hancho or 
pjancho. Muntingia is called ccarapjancho in the lower Uru- 
bamba Valley, while a species of Heliocarpus is known as 
llaosapjancho. 

From Colombia the names mamagua and maragua have been 
recorded by Pittier,^ in relation to another fibrous-barked tree 
of the mulberry family, Inophloeum armatum. In Costa Rica 
and Panama, according to Pittier, the name majagua is not ap- 
plied especially to the maho tree or its bark, but to any kind of 
tough bark that can be used for tying. Yet majagiiita is given 
as the Costa Rican name of Pavonia dasypetala, a plant that 
furnishes a very tough fiber used by the Indians. 

NAMES OF THE MAHO IN POLYNESIA 

The tendency in many of the island languages is to sup- 
press the consonants and reduce words to monosyllables, but 
when the simplified Polynesian names of the maho (rnao, 7nau, 
au, hau,fau, and vau, are brought together, the essential unity 
of the series is apparent. For the tree itself the nearest ap- 
proach in Polynesia to American forms of the name is moaua, 
recorded from Easter Island, or marau, from New Guinea, but 
mahu, mahui, mahoe, mahaga, mahini, mahae, maoa, inaharo, 
mahore, 7nagoe, mageo, 7nalo, and many similar words, relate to 
the operations of peeling, spreading, pounding, or rubbing the 
bark, to bark cloth, or to ropes, strings, or strips of bark used 
in tying or snaring, or in other ways that connect naturally 
with the maho. 

2 Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 6: 114. 1916. 



■ COOK AND cook: THE MAHO OR MAHAGUA 159 

Although Httle can be inferred with confidence from single 
instances, the Polynesian maho vocabulary includes several 
rather prominent groups of words, as the examples will show. 
Many other words that may prove to be compounds or deriva- 
tives of maho names are to be found in the vocabularies of 
Tregear, Andrews, Pratt, and Churchill. 

In suggesting that the Polj^nesian hau and fau probably came 
from a root meaning to "bind or tie up," Christian is in ac- 
cord with a custom of philologists to deduce particular names 
from words of more general meaning, but primitive languages, 
though usually rich in spedfic names, may lack generic terms, 
which are a later development. Thus a language having many 
names for different kinds of spiders and different kinds of plants 
may still have no terms to include all spiders or all plants, so 
that such names as spider-wort or hind-weed are impossible. 
Even the Spanish could not have hind-weed, there being no 
proper equivalent of weed, as representing a class of plants that 
infest cultivated lands and interfere with the growth of crops. 

The question whether fau refers primarily to the tree or to 
the act of using the bark is raised by Churchill:' 

In the utter absence of perspective in which these languages appear 
before us it would be idle to engage upon the attempt to discover 
whether in sense the tree or the act of using its bast is primordial. In 
the records before us the stem carries the tree sense without the verb 
in the Paumotu, the Marquesas, Nukuoro, and Aneityum; nowhere the 
verb where the noun does not designate a plant which yields a string. 

It seems not impossible, however, that orientation in such 
matters may be improved by taking account of the origins, dis- 
tributions, names, and uses of the agricultural and economic 
plants. Churchill has collected hnguistic evidence of Poly- 
nesian migrations from west to east. That such migrations 
took place may also be inferred from the cultivation of Malayan 
and Asiatic plants in all of the islands, but the possession of 
American plants by the early Polynesian has also to be recognized 
and explained. 

' Polynesian Wanderings, 328. 



160 COOK AND cook: the maho or mahagua • 

POLYNESIAN COGNATES RELATING TO FIBERS 

That a root word associated with the idea of ying or binding 
may be very proHfic in derived forms and meanings is appar- 
ent from such a series as our Enghsh band, bend, bind, bond, 
bound, boundary, bundle, etc. A more recently developed 
analogy is that of our word wire, now used not only as the name 
of fibers or cords made of metal, but also to designate the many 
different uses to which such material can be put, from fastening 
things together to sending telegrams. Corresponding series of 
words appear to have developed in«the Pacific archipelagoes 
from such an original as maho or mahagua, in connection with 
each of the principal uses and activities connected with this tree. 

In Hawaii rnahui means to join, unite, adhere to, or imitate; 
hoo-mau is to tie on, or to fit, as sandals or shoes; maunu, any- 
thing that affords a hold on a person for purposes of witchcraft ; 
haim and kauhau, to strike, to whip, chastise, or apply stripes; 
auau, a snare for catching and killing birds; kau, to catch, hang 
up, suspend; kauo, to drag or haul; kaula, a rope or strong cord, 
a tendon or bowstring. In Easter Island mahetu means twisted, 
like bark for rope; mahani, a habit, custom, or practice; and 
hakamahani, to tame, or keep tied, haka being a causative pre- 
fix; hai is to tie up; hahai, a package or bundle; hahie, firewood; 
magoe and hahamageo, to splice or tie together; and hakamaga, 
a roof, which primitive builders usually tie on with strips of 
bark. In Samoa fau is not only the name for the maho shrub 
and of string or bark used in tying, but is also -the verb to tie, 
or to build by tying the timbers of a house together; afauto is 
the rope along the top of a fishing net ;fa,fau is to lash on, to fasten 
with sinnet, as an adz to its handle, or an outrigger to a canoe; 
faufau, to fasten on, to tie together; afaga, the bandage put on 
the feet when climbing the coconut tree; faufili, a cord used by 
women to fasten on their burdens; and many other compounds 
given by Pratt. 

Easter Island shares with Tonga and New Zealand such words 
as mahaga, mehaga, and mahanga, relating to nooses in ropes, 
snares, baits, or allurements for taking game or fish. A Samoan 



COOK AND cook: THE MAHO OR MAHAGUA 161 

rtame for rope is maea, while maa is a sling in Tahiti. In Pau- 
motu maka is a sHng, hakamau is to thread, join, or assure; 
fakamau, to sustain; 7nau, solid or stsihle ; fakahau, to reconcile, 
soothe, or conciliate ; hau, to rule, reign, or surpass, superior, king- 
dom, government, order, peace; haunoho, to stay or sojourn; 
meamau, sure, safe; mehara, to remember, idea, disposition, 
sense; mauri, soul or mind. 

POLYNESIAN COGNATES RELATING TO BARK CLOTH 

Although the paper-mulberry appears in recent times to 
have been more prominent than the maho as a source of bark 
cloth, words relating to bark cloth indicate an earlier dominance 
of the maho. Three distinct classes of bark-cloth words may be 
recognized; the first referring to the peeling and spreading of the 
bark, the second to the beating of the bark to separate the woody 
material from the fibrous network, and the third class to the 
finished bark cloth and its uses. 

Words of the first class are represented in Hawaii by mahihi 
and mahole, to peel off bark from a tree, and maliola, to spread 
out, but mahole also means to open wide, exhibit or display, and 
maholo carries such meanings as to inspect or approve, wonder, 
admiration, beautiful, glorious, or admirable. In Tahiti mahae 
means to tear. Mahore, in the dialect of the New Zealand 
Maoris, means peeled, while mahora means to spread out. In 
Easter Island maharo means to spread out, and also to flatter, 
admire, or glorify. In Paumotu mahu is to deliver; mahoro, 
miscarriage or abortion; pahore, to peel off or scale; pahure, to 
be skinned; kihoe pahurehure, to flay; papahoro, to slip; pagore, 
smooth or without hair on the body; pahere, to lop, to prune; 
pakirotu, a piece of w^ood for beating off bark. In Tahiti, ac- 
cording 'to Tregear, the w^ord pahere means to pare off the rind, 
and in Mangareva pahore is to pare, or the peel taken off. 

Among the prominent examples of the second class of maho 
words, those that relate to the beating, softening, and cleaning 
of the bark, is hau, in some islands the name of the tree, in some 
meaning to tie or unite, in others, to reconcile or rule. But in 
Hawaii, Tonga, and New Zealand hau or hauhau carries the idea 



162 COOK AND cook: the maho or mahagua 

of smiting, chopping, attacking, or conquering. Wao and yJhu 
are to scratch or to scrape. Of words more similar to maho or 
mahagua, Hawaii affords maoha, to rub or chafe; mahaha, soft 
and tough, also applied to a kind of fish and to a variety of 
taro; maholehole, bruised, crushed together; and maua, lame, sore, 
stiff, close or stingy. The Samoan word maoa means "to make a 
chopping or hammering sound," vau, vavau, and valu, to bruise, 
pound, scrape, grate, or rub down, as taro or arrowroot. In 
New Zealand, mahoe is a small mallet, said to be used for strik- 
ing the tattooing chisel, but bark cloth was also beaten with 
mallets. In Paumotu mihara is to regret, rue, or repent; maha, 
to sooth; mahaki or maehaki, to slacken, abate, hinder, or soften; 
and pahurehure, a bruise or contusion. The Mangarevan tahoa, 
''to make papyrus by beating," is evidently connected with the 
Easter Islanders' hahoa, to cut, wound, or hurt. 

The third class of bark-cloth words relates to the finished 
product and its uses. In Easter Island mahututii is ''bast cloth 
in the last stages of composition." In Hawaii aha, aha, and ahu 
have numerous applications in connection with fibers, cords, and 
mats. Ahu in particular is a fine mat, moena a coarse mat, 
and kapahau "a fine species of kapa^' made from the bark of 
hau. In Samoa auafa are "the fine mats constituting the wealth 
of a family;" fauepa is "to prepare the fine mats on which a dead 
chief is laid in state." In Paumotu vauvau means mat, rug, 
carpet, seat; kaho or kao is cloth or clothing; and malo a strip of 
bark cloth girded about the loins. Pahorehore in Paumotu is 
defined as to smooth out linen, but is similar to several words 
already mentioned in relation to the preparation of bark cloth. 

POLYNESIAN COGNATES RELATING TO FIRE 

The importance of the maho in relation to fire is reflected in 
the fact that the name for the tree in some of the archipelagoes, 
including Easter Island, is purau, that is, fire-aw, while tamau 
is the word for tinder in Easter Island and Paumotu. A redu- 
plicated form purao-purau is recorded from Paumotu; pura 
means phosphorescent; purero, to emit, issue, or appear; pwrara, 



COOK AND cook: THE MAHO OR MAHAGUA 163 

to- diverge or to spread a report, as analogous to the eventual 
breaking out of a hidden or smouldering fire. 

In Samoa mafu is to burn, and manj^ Polynesian and Malay 
words relating to fire might be considered as echoes of the use 
of the maho for fire-making. Mahao was a Hawaiian name for 
pith, or for soft, rotten wood. In Wallace's list of Malayan 
fire-names aow occurs several times, and is accompanied by many 
similar words, aousa, hao, ahu, afu, yafu, yap, and apt, the last 
also being widely distributed. In Tahiti aahi is a rag, wick, or 
lint for use as tinder; while in Hawaii ahu or aahu is a bag in 
which fire materials were carried. Kindling fire by friction is 
the meaning of hogi and ogi in Paumotu, and the same islands 
have vera, viru, and viku as another group of words relating to 
fire, possibly connected with veru a name for cloth, thi-ough the 
use of rags as tinder. 

The two sticks of au wood used in bringing fire by friction 
have separate names in Samoa, the stick with the groove aunaki, 
that held in the hand aulima, the latter name being applied also 
to the handle of a tool of any sort. Siaga, another Samoan name 
for "si large stationary stick used in rubbing fire,", is like siapo, 
the Samoan name for bark cloth, and sia means 'Ho get fire by 
rubbing one stick on another." A fire-stick is kounati in Manga- 
reva and kauati in New Zealand, but in Paumotu kauati is to 
make fire by friction. The use of fire in clearing land or of 
sticks for digging may be reflected in such words as inahi, which 
in Hawaii means to dig the ground for the purpose of planting 
food. In Paumotu ahu means to transplant, and in New Zea- 
land to cultivate. Other uses of the wood for carrying burdens 
and for floating outriggers of canoes, as mentioned by Darwin 
in Tahiti, are reflected in such words as auamo and aumaka, 
names for burden-sticks in Samoa; auala, the bier of a dead 
chief; ama, an outrigger in Samoa, Hawaii, and Paumotu; auma- 
fute, the Samoan name of the wood of the paper-mulberry after 
the bark is stripped off; mafuna, meaning to peel off, also in 
Samoa. The buds and young shoots of the maho were eaten in 
times of scarcity by the natives of some of the islands, the 
living tissues being mucilaginous, like those of okra. 



164 COOK AND cook: the maho or mahagua 

SYNONYMS OF MAHO WORDS 

That other kinds of words, unhke 7naho or mahagua, share 
their meanings in some of the islands does not make the parallel 
series of maho words appear less significant. , Other words for 
bark, skin, or cloth are kiri, here, kero, iri, or ere, which may 
connect also with gere, to strip, and goregore, peel or rind, in 
Paumotu. Kuku or tutu is a widely distributed word for beat- 
ing or preparing the bark, and in Samoa tutu also means to 
kindle fire. The principal word for bark cloth is kapa or tapa, 
which philologists have considered an imitation of the sound of 
beating the bark, and tutu could be derived in the same way. 

In Samoa, where there are no k's, siapo is the principal name 
of bark cloth, made from the paper-mulberry, but sema is the 
name of ''a red siapo," a color which may indicate maho-bark 
cloth. Bark cloth and fine mats were valuable property among 
the Samoans and had a collective name, toga, and tolo is another 
Samoan word for kindling fire by friction. Nets or cords to 
make them were called kupenga in New Zealand, kupega in Man- 
gareva and Paumotu, and hupena in Hawaii, the last a curious 
approximation to the Greek hyphaino, to weave, and hypha, a 
thread. 

The mallet for beating cloth is called ike, eike, or ie, and simi- 
lar words mean to strike, defend, choose, select, or send. In 
addition to this ike the Paumotu people have iku, to rub, rasp, or 
to file; ika, to make fire by friction of wood; rotika, fire; roroni, 
to twist or wring; rori, to strangle with a cord; rorirori, pliant, 
flexible, or supple; rore, seductive or deluding. In Maori, rore 
is a snare, according to Tregear. The series may belong with the 
maho words, to which it runs closely parallel. 

DERIVATIVE PLANT NAMES IN POLYNESIA 

That the maho was an ancient possession of the island people 

is also to be inferred from the borrowing of its name for other 

plants, including three prominent cultivated species that un- 

. doubtedly were natives of Asia or the Malay region. From the 

manner of naming these plants it appears that the islanders 



COOK AND cook: THE MAHO OR MAHAGUA 165 

must have had previous acquaintance with the maho. In Fiji, 
according to Seemann, the maho is called vaudina, meaning the 
genuine van, to distinguish it from several other plants called vau. 

THE NAME OF THE PAPER-MULBERRY 

One of the Polynesian namesakes of the maho is the paper- 
mulberry tree, called in many islands maute or aute, in Hawaii 
ivaoke, ivauke, or kaivaiike, in ]\Iangareva eute or ute. A practical 
reason for considering the paper-mulberry a kind of au (the 
suffix te meaning another kind) is that it yields bark cloth, and 
of a finer quality than the maho. In many of the early accounts 
of the islands the paper-mulberry appears more prominent 
than the maho, though now it is seldom cultivated and on the 
heavily forested islands is becoming extinct, as noted by Cheese- 
man in Rarotonga. It is not a strictly tropical tree, being 
hardy in the United States, and often escaping from cultiva- 
tion. It is supposed to be a native of Japan or China rather 
than of the Malay region. ' There is a sHght resemblance to the 
maho in habits of growth and general appearance, adult trees 
having simple oval or cordate leaves, but on young plants and 
root-sprouts the leaves are deeply notched and divided. 

Other names that may belong to the paper-mulberry are roga 
in Paumotu and roa in Tahiti, which suggest toga, the Samoan 
name for collections of bark cloth and fine mats. These were 
valued as property and used as a medium of exchange. The 
paper-mulberry was also called tiituga in Samoa, and a second 
growth of paper-mulberry tuapipi. Seemann gives ai masi and 
malo as the native names of the paper-mulberry in Fiji, but 
Ficus scabra is also called ai' masi, with the explanation that 
masi is derived from a verb masia, meaning to scour. 

THE NAME OF THE ROSE OF CHINA 

The Polynesians also applied the name aute to the ''rose of 
China," Hibiscus rosa sinensis. In Rarotonga, according to 
Cheeseman, the maho is au, the paper-mulberry aute, and Chi- 
nese rose kaute. Though not at all similar to the paper-mul- 
berry and not used for bark cloth, the rose of China is a close 



166 COOK AND cook: the maho or mahagua 

relative of the maho, with the same kind of large showy flowers 
which render it a favorite garden shrub among the Polynesians. 
It was as natural that the rose of China should be called aute 
on account of its flowers as the paper-mulberry on account of 
its bark, but almost inconceivable that either of the two plants 
called aide should have been named directly from the other. 
Two Fijian names of the rose of China, senitoa or seniciobia, 
show no resemblance to the Polynesian names. 

names of the screw-pines 

Another prominent plant with a name that may have been 
borrowed from the maho is the Pandanus, or screw-pine, called 
by the Hawaiians hala or halau and by the Samoans fala, names 
that may be understood as hau-lesii or fau-lesii, and that appear 
proper enough when we take into account the fact that the long 
narrow leaves of the Pandanus are rich in fiber, and were woven 
or braided into mats or used in other ways like the bark of the 
maho or paper-mulberry. From Fiji Seemann reports voivoi as 
a native name of Pandanus caricosus, the species that is culti- 
vated for the sake of its fine fiber, and vaku vaku for Freycinetia 
milnei, a screw-pine with edible fruit. Another name for Pan- 
danus, possibly cognate with maho, is tima, in Paumotu, where 
man means thread or to join. Timau may be analogous to 
maute, the name of the paper-mulberry in Easter Island, and is 
also similar to tamau, the word for tinder in Easter Island. 

other POLYNESIAN PLANTS WITH MAHO NAMES 

In addition to these prominent species, maho names are ap- 
plied in Polynesia to several other trees or shrubs Thus among 
the New Zealanders, who did not have the true maho, one of 
the indigenous trees (Melicytus ramiflorus) is called 7nahoe, and 
the same word is used, according to Tregear, for "a small mallet 
used for striking the tattooing chisel." Mahoewai is* another 
New Zealand tree name, which also means 'Ho spread out," 
while mahore means ''peeled." 

The Samoans give the name faupata to a native plant, Cypho- 
lopus macrocephalus, related to ramie, used for weaving fine 



COOK AND cook: THE MAHO OR MAHAGUA 167 

mats of a sort called je sina, second only to the kind called je 
toga, which are made from Pandanus leaves. A Samoan species 
of Trama is called fan ui, fau uta is another plant name, Jauata- 
galoa is "a species of indigenous cotton," and ma'o is the ''col- 
lective name of several trees." One tree is called ma'oid and 
another mafoa. 

In Hawaii, mau-a and ma'ua are recorded as plant names, the 
former as a timber tree and the latter as food in times of scar- 
city, as also stated of kemau, which may refer to the same plant. 
Mao and hulu hulu are given by Watt as Hawaiian names of a 
native wild cotton {Gossypium tomentosum) . Cotton and okra 
are called vau van in Fiji, referring no doubt to the fact that 
these plants resemble the vau, this being the Fijian name of the 
maho. Anotherclose relative of the maho is Thespesia populnea, 
called mulo mulo in Fiji, milo or miro in Samoa. It was consid- 
ered a sacred tree in Tahiti, and called toromiro. In Manga- 
reva koumiro is a name of the cotton plant. Cheeseman records 
a species of Grewia as auere in Rarotonga, where au is the maho. 
Another possible cognate is mamaki, recorded as the Hawaiian 
name of a special kind of bark cloth made from Pipturus albidus, 
a bush related to the ramie plant. 

Some of the figs or banyan trees of Polynesia also furnished 
bark cloth and their names may be modified maho-words. In 
Rarotonga, according to Cheeseman, aoa is the name of Ficns 
prolixa, a tree planted to mark boundaries, and as the source 
of a coarse kind of bark cloth. In Tahiti also aoa refers to one 
of the fig trees and to bark cloth made from it. AoOi, aofafine, 
and aotane are names of the banyan and other fig trees in Samoa. 
Giliau and kiliau are given by Christian as names of the banyan 
tree in some of the Caroline Islands, where the maho is called 
gili fau. Another species, Ficus tinctoria, is called mati in Raro- 
tonga and matti in Tahiti, names possibly equivalent to maute 
or aute, and suggestive also of names of some of the large 
wild fig trees in Central America, amate in Guatemala, and 
chilamate in Costa* Rica. In Rheede's Hortus Malabaricus two 
species of figs are called atty alu and itiyalu. 

Still another bark-cloth tree is Antiaris bennetti, called mavu 
in Fiji and mami in some of the other islands, according to 



168 COOK AND cook: the maho or mahagua 

Seemann. Even the breadfruit tree has a fibrous bark and is 
sometimes used to make bark cloth. One of several names for 
breadfruit is mai, which could be considered a variant of mhu, 
as fai replaces fau in some of the islands. 

]\Iaho words also appear to be used in the general sense of 
bush or woods, maho thickets being the only forest on some of 
the smaller islands. Thus in Samoa la'au is tree, timber, or 
firewood; vao is bush, vai vau, unoccupied land between two 
villages, and vaomaoa, the forest. In Hawaii wao is "a wild 
place," while inahakea is jungle or uncultivated land. In the 
Quichua language of Peru 7nahiska means abandoned and mahini 
to go wild. 

maho names of the western pacific 

In many of the Micronesian islands the names of the maho are 
compound words, Hli fau, kini fau, gill fau, gili fai, giri fai, 
gini fai, probably meaning bark-/flM, to distinguish from the 
-other applications of the word. Christian states that in Ponape 
the maho is called kalau, while in another island kalaua means 
bark. In Yap the name of the maho is kal. In the Paumotu 
also kiri means bark or cloth, equivalent to ere among the 
Hawaiians, and to iri, meaning skin. 

Christian gives pa and pe from two of the Caroline Islands. 
In Siam po is a name for a related fibrous-barked shrub, Hibiscus 
macrophyllus. In China ma is an ancient name for hemp, rep- 
resented in writing by an independent radical which appears in 
many compound names of other plants. 

It may be doubted whether names like vahu, halibago, mid pago, 
used in Fiji, the Philippine Islands, and Guam, also belong to 
the maho series, but relation seems possible in view of intermedi- 
ate Polynesian forms like bago, crooked, faga, to bend, and haga, 
to form or to build. In addition to the ndore prominent Tagalog 
■ name balibdgo, Merrill's Dictionary of the Native Plant Na7nes of 
the Philippine Islands gives balabdgo, malabago, malabayo, and 
raquindi, with numerous ^^ariants or compounds of bali and bago 
as names of other plants. Names reported from Madagascar 
and neighboring islands, baro, foulsapate, var, varo, vau, vaur, 
appear to connect with the Malay and Polynesian series. Van 



COOK AND cook: THE MAHO OR MAHAGUA 169 

Wijk also gives evonove as a Gaboon nanio, the maho being re- 
ported from a few localities in West Africa. Three distinct 
names are recorded by Schumann and Lauterbach in German 
New Guinea, daiia, marau, and papalan, and another form in the 
Solomon Islands, dakatako. 

A wide-spread Asiatic name is belli pata or belli patta, which 
has been reported from Singapore, Ceylon, and Bombay. Sev- 
eral other oriental names, banid barid, barn, beligobel, bola, 
bourao, chelwa, lo, surihagas, suringas, ihengben, and thingban, 
are listed in Watt's Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, 
or in Van Wijk's Dictionary of Plant Names. Some of these names 
probably were borrowed from other fiber-producing species of 
Hibiscus, severa^ of which are natives of India. The name 
pariti adopted by Adanson from Rheede's Flora Malabarica, 
published in 1686, was also used in the native language to form 
compound names of several species of Hibiscus and Gossypium. 

Alany other maho names exist, no douJDt, in the languages of 
Borneo, New Guinea, and other parts of the East Indies, as well 
as in Tropical America, but these are not Hkely to alter the gen- 
eral contrast between the very wide distribution of the words 
that connect with maho or mahagua and the very local 
distribution of the others. 

SUMMARY 

The maho, mahagua, or linden hibiscus {Pariti tiliaceum) is 
one of the economic plants to be taken into account in studying 
the problem of contacts between the inhabitants oi tropical 
America and the Pacific islands, in prehistoric times. Though 
considered a native of America, the maho appears to have been 
distributed over the islands and shores of the Pacific and Indian 
oceans before the arrival of Europeans. 

Readiness of propagation and of transportation by cuttings 
renders this plant well adapted for culti\'ation and dissemina- 
tion by primitive peoples. Although human assistance in trans- 
portation does not appear to be so definitely re(iuired with the 
maho as with the sweet potato and other plants that are grown 
from only cuttings, the names of the maho afford almost as 



170 COOK AND cook: the maho or mahagua 

definite indications of human contacts as in the case of kumara, 
a name for sweet potato already known to have been shared by 
the Pacific Islanders with the Indians of Peru. 

The name maho or mahagua, with numerous local variants, is 
widely distributed in tropical America and is closely approxi- 
mated in many of the Pacific islands, in relation either to the 
plant itself or to its principal uses for fiber, bark cloth, and fire- 
making. While the genetic relationships of particular words or 
applications are to be considered as possible rather than as 
proved, the general coherence of names and uses would seem to 
justify a thorough philological investigation. One gains an im- 
pression of the language being formed in situ, as a reflection of 
familiar objects and activities in the minds of the islanders. 

That the primitive Polynesians were in possession of the maho 
before they became acquainted with similar Asiatic plants may 
be inferred, in view of the indications that Polynesian names of 
other important cultivated plants — the paper-mulberry (Papy- 
rius or Broussonetia) , the rose of China (Hibiscus rosa sinensis), 
and the screw-pine (Pandanus) — were derived from names of the 
maho. The making of fire by friction of wood and of cloth by 
beating the bark of trees with grooved mallets are speciahzed 
arts which may have been carried with the maho from America 
across the tropical regions of the Old World. A plant that 
enabled primitive man to kindle fire and tie things together 
must be held to have contributed much to the arts of civilization. 



ABSTRACTS 

Authors of scientific papers are requested to see that abstracts, preferably 
prepared and signed by themselves, are forwarded promptly to the editors. 
Each of the scientific bureaus in Washington has a representative authorized to 
forward such material to this Journal and abstracts of official publications 
should be transmitted through the representative of the bureau in which they 
originate. The abstracts should conform in length and general style to tho.se 
appearing in this issue. 

GEOLOGY. — Mining developmefits and water-power investigations in 

southeasterji Alaska. Theodore Chapin, H. M. Eakin and G. 

H. Canfield. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 662-B. Pp. 92, 

with maps, sections, and illustrations. 1917. 

Contains short papers on the work of 1916, as follows: Mining 

developmepts in the Ketchikan and Wrangell mining districts, by Theodore 

Chapin; Lode mining in the Juneau gold belt, by H. M. Eakin; Gold 

placer mining in the Porcupine district, by H. M. Eakin; Water-power 

investigations in Southeastern Alaska, by G. H. Canfield. 

I • R. W. Stone. 

GEOLOGY. — Mineral springs of Alaska. Gerald A. Waring, with 
a chapter on the Quality of some surface waters, by Richard B. 
Dole and Alfred A. Chambers. U. S. Geological Survey 
Water-Supply Paper 418. Pp. 109, with 9 plates and 16 figures. 
1917. 
The report contains a preliminar}^ chapter on the ph5^siography 
and geology of Alaska by Alfred H. Brooks. The mineral springs are 
grouped for description into hot, carbonated, sulphur, iron, and salt 
springs, and individual mention is made of most of the 110 springs 
whose locations are shown on maps accompanying the report. Anal- 
yses of a number of the waters are given, and their characters are 
described briefly in relation to the rock formations through which they 
issue. 

A number of the stream waters of the Territory were also analysed, 
and their characters are discussed in a separate chapter, by Richard 
B. Dole and Alfred A. Chambers. G. A. W. 

171 



172 abstracts: geology 

« 

GEOLOGY. — The Helderherg limestone of central Pennsylvania. John 
B. Reeside, Jr. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 108-K. 
Pp. 41. 1917. 
A study of seven localities in Pennsylvania leads to the following 
conclusions : 

1. The Tonoloway limestone and the Keyser, Coeymans, and New 
Scotland members of the Helderherg limestone may be traced from 
Maryland through central Pennsylvania with their respective char- 
acteristic lithology and faunas, and the essential equivalents of all are 
to be found in New Jersey and eastern New York. 

2. The Kej'ser member decreases in thickness northward from 
Maryland. 

3. The Devonian elements in the fauna apparently decrease from 
Maryland to New Jersey and New York. 

4. The • suggestion of an unconformity at the top of the Ke3'ser in 
Maryland is borne out in Pennsylvania by the variations in thickness 
of the member and the presence of arenac'eous material at the base of 
the Coeymans. R. W. Stone. 



GEOLOGY. — Geologic structure in the Gushing oil and gas field, Okla- 
homa, and its relation to the oil, gas, and ivater. Carl H. Beal. 
U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 658. Pp. 64, with maps, sections, 
and illustrations. 1917. 
The geologic work done in the field has disclosed the following 

principal facts: 

1. The folding of the formations in the Gushing field usually becomes 
greater with increase of depth, and there are many marked differences 
in structure among the Layton, Wheeler, and Bartlesville sands and 
the surface beds. 

2. The interval between the Layton and Bartlesville sands is gen- 
erally greater around the edges of the anticlines than on their crests. 

3. The distribution of the bodies of oil, gas, and water indicates 
that the source of the oil lay west of the Gushing field. 

4. In general the oil area in an elongated dome, where folding is 
simple, extends farther down on the long axes of the anticline or dome 
than on the steeper sides. 

5. The water surfaces on which the oil and gas rest in the different 
sands are not level but are inclined away from the centers of the anti- 
chnal folds. R. W. Stone. 



abstracts: geology 173 

GEOLOGY. — The Palestine salt dome, Anderson County, Texas; The 
Brenham salt dome, Washington and Austin counties, Texas. 
Oliver B. Hopkins. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 661-G. 
Pp. 28, with maps, sections, and illustration. 1917. 

Viewed as a whole the Palestine dome is a quaquaversal fold on 
whose flanks are highly inclined beds that dip in all directions away 
from its center but become approximately horizontal within a few 
miles; the center of the uplift is extensively faulted, mainly in a north- 
easterly direction, producing an irregular distribution of the Cretaceous 
beds and a triplication of the outcrop of the Austin chalk. 

Such an intensive and highly localized vertical uplift of quaquaversal 
form could be produced only by vertical thrust from below. The 
results observed are analogous to those produced by driving a punch 
into a sheet of cold steel: the effects are entirely local. 

The peculiar local nature of salt domes may be due to the effect of 
dynamic activity at certain points along lines of deformation, aiding 
in the solution and transportation of salt, gypsum, etc., from deep- 
lying formations, probably Permian, to the position in which they 
are found. 

The highly folded, faulted, and eroded condition of the Palestine 
dome and the general absence of oil and gas as surface seepages and 
in shallow wells in this area detract from its oil prospects. 

The results of drilling for oil in the Brenham dome have been dis- 
couraging, except that they have demonstrated the presence of a salt 
dome. Suggestions are given regarding further drilling at this dome. 

R. W. Stone. 

GEOLOGY. — Oil and gas possibilities of the Hatchetigbee anticline, 
Alabama. Oliver B. Hopkins. U. S, Geological Survey Bul- 
letin 661-H. Pp. 33, with maps, sections, and illustrations. 1917. 
The geological examination of the area shows that a broad, low anti- 
cline, the Hatchetigbee anticUne, 'extends from a point north of Jack- 
son, Ala., northwestward across Tombigbee River to the Alabama- 
Mississippi state line and beyond; that the disturbance of the earth's 
crust which produced this fold also produced a fault, the Jackson 
fault; that the Hatchetigbee anticline has in general stronger dips on 
its southwestern slope than on its northeastern; that two areas along 
the crest of the fold are particularly favorable, structurally, for the 
accumulation of oil and gas, and other areas along the crest of the 



174 abstracts: ornithology 

fold and along the east side of the Jackson fault are also favorable; 
that the best chances for accumulations of oil are probably in the 
sands above and below the Selma chalk, which lies from 780 to 2700 
feet below the surface along the crest of the anticline; and finally that 
there are doubtless other areas of favorable structure in the adjoining 
region where oil and gas may have accumulated if they are present in 
commercial quantities anj'where in the region. 

R. W. Stone 

ORNITHOLOGY. —Washington region [April and Maij, 1917]. Harry 
C. Oberholser. Bird-Lore 19:211-212. 1917. 
The months of April and May, 1917, were unusually cold at Wash- 
ington, D. C, and the resultant spring migration of birds was peculiar. 
Many species of migrants that appeared in April were ahead of their 
usual schedule, but many that came in Ma}^ were very much delayed. 
A number of birds rare in the District of Columbia, at least during 
spring, made their appearance, chieflj^ in May. Conspicuous among 
these were Phalacrocorax auritus auritus, Larus atricilla, Chlidonias 
nigra surinamensis, Hydroprogne caspia, Phloeotomus pileatus ahieti- 
cola, Pisohia fuscicollis, and Protonotaria citrea. H. C. O. 

ORNITHOLOGY. — Description of a n.eiv subspecies of Perisoreus ob- 
scurus. Harry C. Oberholser. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 
30:185-188. December 1, 1917. 
A new geographic race of the Oregon jay is here described as Periso- 
reus ohscurus rathhuni, from Clallam County, Washington. It is 
darker than either Perisoreus ohscurus ohscurus or Perisoreus ohscurus 
griseus, and much more grayish above than the former, with a usually 
broader whitish nuchal collar. Its geographic distribution is appar- 
ently limited to that part of the State of Washington about Puget 
Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. H. C. O. 

■♦ 
ORNITHOLOGY.— A review of the subspecies of the Leach Petrel 

(Oceanodroma leucorhoa iVieiUot). Harry C. Oberholser. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 54: 165-172. October 19, 1917. 
Notwithstanding the considerable attention that has been paid to 
the petrels of the Oceanodroma leucorhoa group, there is evidently 
something yet to learn concerning these birds. A study of the entire 
species, with extensive material, leads to the conclusion that three 
forms are recognizable: Oceanodroma leucorhoa leucorhoa (Vieillot), 



abstracts: ornithology 175 

which Ijieeds in tho North Athuitic and North Pacific Ocean; Oceano- 
droma leucorhon beali. Emerson, which breeds from southeastern Alaska 
to the coast of northern Cahfornia; and Oceanodroma leucorhoa kaedingi 
Anthony, which occurs off the Pacific coast of Lower Cahfornia, south 
to the Revillagisedo Islands, western Mexico. Of these three forms 
only the first and third aie cun-ently considered valid. Furthermore, 
Oceanodroma leucorhoa kaedingi has hitherto been treated as a species, 
whereas it is but a subspecies of Oceanodroma leucorhoa. H. C. O. 

ORNITHOLOCtY. — .4 neir .•<i(bsj)ccics of (!eothlyi)is behUngi. Harry 
C. Oberholser. The Condor 19: 182-184. December 7, 1917. 
A very distinct subspecies of the Belding yellow-throat is heie de- 
scribed as Geothlypis beldingi goldmani, from San Ignacio, Lower Cali- 
fornia. It differs from Geothlypis beldingi beldingi in its nuich duller 
and less yellowish upper paits, whitish instead of yellowish area on the 
crown behind the black mask, and more restricted yellow of lower sur- 
face. Its breeding lange is confined to central Lower California, al- 
though a single specimen indicates its winteiing in the Cape San Lucas 
region. H. C. O. 

ORNITHOLOGY. — .4 remarkable martin roost in the city of Wash- 
ington. Harry C. Oberholser. Bird-Lore 19:315-317. De- 
cember 1, 1917. 
Although late summer roosts of the purple martin are by no means 
uncommon in the eastern Ignited States, there is apparently no record 
of a martin roost in the District of Columbia prior to 1917. During 
the latter pait of the summer of this year great num])ers of the purple 
martin (Progne subis subis) gathered nightly in the INIall, along Fourth 
Street, where they roosted in the trees along the street-car line. The 
birds were first noted here on August 5 and continued nightly to resort 
to this roost until September 9. The numljer of birds ranged from 
about 2500 to about 12,000, but the usual number was between 7000 
and 8000. They assembled daily about 25 or 30 minutes before sun- 
set and we;e all at i-est in the trees by from 12 to 30 minutes after 
sunset. Their evolutions during this period were of much interest. 
During the martin occupation this roost regularly housed also l^etween 
100 and 500 European stailings (Sturtius vulgaris vulgaris), from 1000 
to 4000 purple grackles (Quiscalus quiscida quiscula); also, on a few 
days, a number of bank swallows (Riparia riparia riparia) and rough- 
winged swallows (Stelgidopteryx serripemiis serripennis) . H. C. 0. 



176 abstracts: ornithology 

ORNITHOLOGY.— iVo^es on North American birds. III. Harry 
C. Oberholser. The Auk 34:465-470. October, 1917. 

This paper contains technical notes on two genera and three species. 
The genus Bannermania Mathews and Iredale, recently proposed for 
the reception of Oceanodroma hornbyi (Gray), proves on examination of 
further material to be invahd, since the characters given in the original 
diagnosis are not constant. The name of the species should therefore 
remain Oceaiiodroma hornbyi. 

The subgenus Cytnochorea Coues, recently raised to generic rank by 
Mathews and Iredale, seems not to be worthy of this elevation. A 
careful examination of the species of Oceanodroma discloses the fact 
that there are no constant structural differences between them, and 
that consequently all must be included in the same genus. In view of 
this, Cymochorea Coues can be considered of nothing more than sub- 
generic rank. 

A new subspecies of booby (Sula dactylatra calif ornica) , recently de- 
scribed by Dr. Walter Rothschild from San Benedicto Island, in the 
Revillagigedo group, western Mexico, although said to be from Cali- 
fornia, has apparently never been taken within the confines of that 
State, and therefore must be excluded from the list of North American 
birds. 

The name Fregata aquila Linnaeus, currently applied to the North 
American frigate bird, has been shown by Mathews to be applicable 
only to the bird of Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. The 
frigate birds of North America now prove to belong to two other 
species: that of the West Indies and southeastern United States being 
Fregata magnificens rothschildi Mathews, and the Pacific bird, Fregata 
minor -palmer stoni (Gmelin). 

The name Strix ivapacuthu Gmelin, recently revived for the Arctic 
horned owl (the Bubo arcticus of Swainson), is now shown, as con- 
tended previously by Mr. Brewster, to be applicable only to Nyctea 
nyctea, and thus unavailable for the other species, which should there- 
fore still be called Bubo virginianus subarcticus Hoy. H. C. 0. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY AND AFFILIATED 

SOCIETIES 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The meeting of the Board of Managers on February 18, 1918, was 
devoted chiefly to the discussion and amendment of the report of a 
special committee on membership poHcy. The Board adopted rules 
for the guidance of the Committee on Membership, limiting the resi- 
dent membership of the Academy to 20 per cent of the active scientific 
population of Washington, as represented by the number of names in 
the "Red Book" (the biennial directory of the Academy and its affili- 
ated societies). The requirements for admission to membership, 
which are stated only in general terms in the By-Laws of the Academy, 
were more exactly defined by the Board; the principal qualifications 
adopted is that "the nominee shall have attained recognition for 
original and meritorious scientific investigation." 

Robert B. Sosman, Corresponding Secretary. 

BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 578th regular meeting of the Society was held in the Assembly 
Hall of the Cosmos Club, Saturday, January 26, 1918; called to order 
at 8 p.m. by President Rose; 62 persons present. 

On recommendation of the Council, J. B. Norton and S. F. Blake, 
both of the Department of Agriculture, were elected to membership. 

On recommendation of the Council a proposed amendment to the 
constitution was announced by which members of the Society might 
become life members upon the payment of fifty dollars in two annual 
instalhnents of twenty-five dollars each. 

Under the heading brief notes and exhibition of specimens the fol- 
lowing informal communications were presented: 

A. Wetmore remarked on food habits of grackle with reference to 
eating and cracking pin-oak acorns, the peculiar structure of the bill 
of the genus Quisqualus being specially adapted for this purpose. This 
was discussed by Messrs. Paul Bartsch, Vernon Bailey, and F. V. 

COVILLE. 

A. S. Hitchcock called attention to a recently issued flora of the 
Rocky Mountains by P. A. Rydbsrg, in which 6000 species of plants of 
that region are described. 

Paul Bartsch referred to a recently received collection of Philip- 
pine shells from the island of Luzon, containing an unusually large 
number of new forms. 

L. O. Howard referred to the utiHzation of acorns for the manufac- 
ture of alcohol. 

177 



178 proceedings: biological society 

W. L. McAtee described the behavior of ducks, geese, bitterns, 
jacksnipe, and kingfishers in North Carohna during the recent con- 
tinued cold weather; the kingfishers' activities being confined to the 
vicinity of spring holes. 

The regular program of the evening was as follows: 

Emerson Stringham : Notes on the speed of fishes, especially thealewife. 
Mr. Stringham said the question of the speed with which fish swim 
has elements which, it would seem, might make it popular, but there 
appear to be few recorded observations. It becomes of economic im- 
portance in connection with the effect of water power development on 
the fisheries. 

Three preliminary points should be mentioned. In the first place 
some fish, besides swimming, are able to jump from the water and by 
this means pass over a current which it would be wholly impossible for 
them to swim through; we are not concerned here with that question. 
Secondly, it is assumed that if a fish can maintain itself against a steady 
current of so many miles an hour, it can swim the same number of miles 
an hour in still water. Thirdly the velocity of a stream is much less 
at the bottom or behind obstacles than at surface. 

A Belgian engineer (G. Denil), while studying fishways, concluded 
that the salmon could swim at a speed of 3.15 meters a second for at 
least 14 meters. The author also refers to similar figures given by a 
French engineer. In a report on the obstructed condition of the 
Frazer River published in the Report of the British Columbia Com- 
missioner of Fisheries for 1913, the author (G. P. Napier) expresses 
the opinion that the limiting velocity of a steady stream up which a 
sockeye salmon is apparently capable of swimming a very short dis- 
tance lies between six and seven miles an hour. Mr. H. von Bayer, of 
the Bureau of Fisheries, published a paper on fishways in 1910, in which 
he said that the current velocity in fishways should not exceed 10 feet 
per second. It is remarkable that the three figures, which appear to 
be independent of each other, are almost identical. The Belgian esti- 
mate is about 6.9 miles an hour, the Canadian's is 6 to 7 miles an hour 
and the American's is 6.8 miles an hour. 

In the spring of 1917 Mr. Stringham had an opportunity to study 
several fishways in Massachusetts, and to make some observations 
on the velocities of water up which the fish swam. These fish belonged 
to the species Pomolohus pseudoharendus (Wilson), one of the common 
alewives. The instrument used to measure the velocity of the water 
was a Price current meter lent by the Bureau of Standards. Measure- 
ments were made of the rate of flow at 7 points in the fishway where 
the current appeared to be greatest, and it was found to vary from 4 
to 5 feet per second. At Middleboro the fish were imable to ascend a 
little sloping falls where the velocity was about 11 feet per second. 
Just below they were swimming through one place where the current 
was 5.3 feet per second. At East Warham the head of water, and there- 
fore the velocity could be varied. The fish swam up a slope about 3 



proceedings: entomological society 179 

feet long: where the water was going down at rates of 6.1, 7.8, and even 
9.8 feet per second. Tliey were perfectly helpless when it was raised 
to 13.5 feet per second. 

These figures show that for a few feet at least this species can swim 
through water flowing al)out 10 feet per second. That is the same 
figure suggested for the salmon by two different investigators and is 
the limit suggested for fishways by a third. 

The paper was discussed by William Palmer, A. N. Caudell, 
Vernox Bailey, Paul Bartsch, H. M. Smith, E. A. Goldman, and 
R. W. Shufeldt. 

W. E. Safford: Natural history of Paradise Key, Florida. 

Mr. Safford's paper was illustrated b\^ numerous lantern slides and 
is to be published in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution. 

M. W. Lyon, Jr., Recording Secretary. 



EXTOIMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 309th regular meeting of the Society was held at the Saenger- 
bund Hall, January 4, 1918; called to order by President Sasscer; 
2(3 members and 10 visitors were present. 

A resolution was adopted providing for a permanent entertainment 
fund to be administered by an Entertainment Committee appointed 
b}^ the Executive Committee. 

Articles III (Members) and VII (Fees) of the Constitution were 
amended. 

The regular program consisted of the address of the retiring Presi- 
dent, Prof. C. R. Ely, upon Recent entomological chemistry. This in- 
teresting review of literature called forth considerable discussion, par- 
ticipated in by Messrs. Middleton, Sasscer, G. G. Ainslie, Woglum, 
Baker, Wood, and Bishop. 

At the close of this discussion the Society was entertained by some 
brief remarks from two of our visitors, Prof. A. L. Lovett, of the 
Oregon Agricultural College, and Mr. R. H. Allen, of ]\Iassachusetts. 

Mr. Paixe exhibited some interesting photographs made under 
artificial light. 

The 310th meeting of 'the Society was held at the Cosmos Club, 
February 7, 1918; called to order by the President; 29 members and 
9 visitors were present. 

The annual report of corresponding-secretary-treasurer was ac- 
cepted. The corresponding secretary announced the following changes 
in the pubhcation of the Proceedings: The Proceedings will appear in 
nine numbers per year instead of four, and will carry advertising. The 
cover will be printed on the same kind of paper as the text, the seal 
omitted, and in the space now occupied by the seal will appear the table 
of contents. Each page will carry a running head which will consti- 
tute a complete citation, and the printing of the list of members pres- 
ent at meetings as well as all business transacted at the meetings will 



* 

180 proceedings: philosophical society 

be discontinued. Other minor changes looking to the improvement 
of the piibhcation will also be made. 

Dr. Carlos E. Porter, of Santiago, Chile, and Mr. Robert M, 
FouTS, of Washington, D. C, were elected to membership. 

The regular program was as follows: 

C. L. Marlatt: Notes on the work of the Federal Horticultural Board. 
Mr. Marlatt gave a very comprehensive account of the organization, 
purposes, and scope of the services of the Board. 

In discussing Mr. Marlatt's remarks, Dr. L. 0. Howard gave a 
very interesting account of the events and causes which led to the 
passage of the Plant Quarantine Act. 

Carl Heinrick: On the Lepidopterous Genus Apostega and its larval 
affinities. The author illustrated his remarks with a number of charts 
and drawings. This communication drew forth considerable discus- 
sion, participated in by Messrs. McIndoo, Pierce, Rohwer, Baker, 
BoviNG, Craighead, and Hyslop. 

Under the head of short notes: 

Dr. Howard announced the recent death of an early member of 
the Society, Mr. Chas. R. Dodge. Mr. Schwarz also gave a few rem- 
iniscences of Mr. Dodge. 

Mr. Snyder called attention to a recent article entitled Origin of 
castes in termites by Dr. C. B. Thompson, of Wellesley College, pubhshed 
in the Journal of Morphology. Mr. Snyder spoke very highly of the 
paper, as did also Messrs. Baker and Howard. 

Mr. Snodgrass expressed his pleasure at the evident interest mani- 
fested and progress being made in the study of insect anatomy. Messrs. 
Howard, Caudell, and Craighead gave additional remarks along the 
same line. 

Dr. T. J. Headley, of New Jersey, responded to the president's in- 
vitation to address the Society by giving some interesting reminiscences 
from his experiences. 

Mr. J. G. Sanders, of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, responding to a 
similar invitation, gave an interesting account of some of his experiences 
since leaving the Bureau of Entomology to go to Wisconsin and later 
to Pennsylvania. He gave an especially interesting account of some 
recent researches in Pennsylvania on the life history of the Angoumois 
grain moth. 

A. B. Gahan, Recording Secretary. 

PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 799th meeting was held at the Cosmos Club, January 19, 1918, 
with President Burgess in the chair. There were 45 persons present. 

Mr. E. T. Wherry presented a paper on Certain relations between 
optical properties and crystal form, and their hearing on the question of 
"crystal molecules" in organic compounds. The refractive indices of 
several simple organic compounds have been determined by the im- 
mersion method, and their values substituted in the Lorentz formula 



proceedings: philosophical society 181 

connecting refractive index and density'. The "refraction ratio," or 
ratio of the several vahies obtained for each substance, has been com- 
pared with the cr3rstallographic axial I'atio in each case. In some 
substances, as urea and iodoform, the two sets of values show exact 
inverse proportionality, and it is concluded that this indicates that the 
luunljer of pinacoidal planes in the two cr^'stallographic directions in 
the crystal molecule, or unit cell of the space lattice, is the same. 
Others, like oxahc acid, show inverse proportionalitAMU two directions 
but not in the third, although in the latter a simple integral relation 
exists. It is concluded that in these the crystal molecule contains dif- 
ferent numbers of planes in some diiections than in others. In acet- 
amide, which is dimorphous, the planes show somewhat greater diver- 
gence in the unstable than in the stable form, suggesting that there is a 
tcndenc}^ toward equalization of the number of planes. From these 
data it is possible to draw conclusions as to the types of space-lattices 
represented in these substances, without the necessity of submitting 
theni to examination by X-rays. 

Discussion: The paper was discussed by Messrs. Merwin, White, 
SosMAX, and Bichowski. 

A paper by W. F. Meggers and C. G. Peters on The refractive index 
and optical dispersion of air, was presented by Air. Peters. This 
paper was illustrated by lantern slides. A survey of previous re- 
searches on refraction of air shows that most investigators have worked 
either with white light or with one monochromatic radiation, and dis- 
persion measurements have been limited to a small interval of the 
spectrum. No index measurements exist for waves longer than those 
corresponding to orange light, and in the ultra-violet the dispersion 
formulas disagree by more than 10 per cent of the index of refraction. 

Recent work in spectroscopy makes it very desirable to have more 
accurate and extensive data on the index of refraction and dispersion of 
ail'. The international system of standard wave length measurements 
made under other conditions require small corrections because of the 
effect of temperature and pressure of the air upon its optical dispersion. 
Furthermore, it is often desirable to multiply wave lengths measuied in 
air b}' the indices of refraction of air for these wave lengths and thus 
convert them to their value in vacuum. An accuracy of one part in 
several millions is now striven for in the measurement of wave lengths, 
and to maintain their relative accuracy in the reduction to vacuum 
values it is necessary to know the indices of refraction to about one unit 
in the seventh decimal place. 

For several years the Bureau of Standards has been engaged in the 
accurate measurement of wave lengths. Interferometer comparison of 
wave lengths have been made throughout a large range of spectra antl 
the grating spectra of more than fifty of the chemical elements have been 
photographed and measured in the red and infra-red spectral regions. 
In connection with these accurate measurements of wave lengths, it 
was thought advisable to measure the absolute indices of i-efraction of 
air for the entire spectra region that is accessible to photography. 




X- 



182 proceedings: philosophical society 

Accuracy and efficiency recommended the use of a interferometer of 
the Fabry and Perot type for this work, since this apparatus can be 
conveniently enclosed in a chamber in which the temperature and pres- 
sure of the air can be regulated as desired, and it also permits simul- 
taneous observations for a lai'ge number of different wave lengths. 
Sections of the circular fiinges, produced bj^ various radiations from a 
source of light illuminating the parallel plates of the interferometer, 
were photographed either with a grating or a prism spectrograph, first 
when the space between the plates was evacuated and then when dry 
air at measured temperature and pressure was present. 

The index of refraction of air for a particular wave length was ob- 
tained dii'ectly from measurements of the photographed interference 
fringes, which allowed the ratio of lengths of this wave in vacuum and 
in ail' to be calculated. Observations were made at spectrum intervals 
of about 40 A from the extreme ultra-violet at 2200 A, through the 
visible spectrum and into the infra-red to 9000 A . 

Complete sots of observations were made on dry air at atmospheric 
pressure and at temperatures of 0°C., 15°C., and 30°C. These ai-e 
quite well lepresented by the following dispersion formulae: 

13.412 0.3777 

(.-1)0X10^ = 2875.66 + ^^,^^, + ^-^^^^, ' 

12.288 0.3555 

(„ - 1). X 10' = 2720.43 + ^^^^, + ^;r^j^, 

12.259 0.2576 

(« - I),. X 10' = 2589.72 + ^-^^^ + ^-^^^^, 

The coefficient of index variation with temperature was found from 
these ol)servations to be a function of the wave length. For long- 
waves this optical temperature coefficient is identical with the density 

temperatuie coefficient, i.e., ,y^, but as the ultra-violet absorptio?i 

band is approached it increases rapidly, l)ecoming ^^y^ at 2500 A. 

Discussion: This paper was discussed by Messrs. Burgess, SwAnn, 
CRi'rr]«]NDEN, and Meggers. 

The third paper, on Barometric ripples, was presented l)y W. J. Hum- 
phreys. This paper was illustrated by lantern slides. Small pressure 
changes, amplitude usually 0.1 to 0.3 mm. and period of 5 to 10 minutes, 
and continuing for hours or even days together, are very common 
during cold weather. 

As first demonsti'ated by Helmholtz, whenever layers of air that diffei' 
in density at their interface flow over each othei-, long billows, anal- 
ogous to giavity water waves, aie produced, which conform, af)proxi- 
mat(;ly, to the equation 



I'JiOCEEUlNGS: PlIILOSOl'HK'AL SOCIETY ISo 

f/X (do — dj) 



dAii- V)- + dAV -v)- = 



• TV 



in wliicli V is the velocity of wave propagation, d\ and r/o (ho densities 
of the layers whose velocities are u and v lespectivejy, q the gravity 
acceleration, antl X the wave length. If, now, the nnder layer is colder 
than the upper, as often happens <luring winter, and lather shallow, 100 
meters to 500 meters thick, say, the passage of the air billows, like the 
passage of waves in shallow water, necessarily prodnces greater oi- less 
cori-espomling changes in the pressni'e on the bottom layer changes 
that appear as a seiies of rii)ples in the I'ecord of a sensitive barograph. 
Furthermore, such shallow air billows, like shallow water waves, doubt- 
less are turbulent — a condition that accounts, prcsumabh', for the 
surprisingly rough flying the aviator often experiences during winter 
at low levels (300 meters and less). 

During summer when air billows rarely form near the surface, thougii 
frequently at greater altitudes, especially that of the ciri-us clf)ud, 
baiometric ripples and shallow turbulences of the kind just mention(>d 
seldom occur. This, doubtless, is because wave disturbances in air 
as in water do not penetrate far beneath the wave level. 

Discussion: Mr. Littlehales called attention to the fact that where 
there are two layers of water of different density, waves frequently 
occur at the interface that separates the two watGr layers and yet no 
waves are visible on the surface. These waves at times are sufficient 
to impede the progress of vessels. The paper was further discussed 
by Messrs. White, Burgess, Sweet, Buckingham, and Sosmax. 

H. L. Curtis, Recording Secretary. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

The Honoraiy Advisory Council for Scientific and Industrial Re- 
search of Canada visited Washington on February 25-28. The Coun- 
cil is considering plans for the encouragement of scientific research in 
Canada, and spent some days in consultation with members of the 
National Research Council, and in visiting the scientific bureaus of 
the ( Jovernment. The visiting members were: Professor A. B. Macal- 
LUM, of the University of Toronto, (chiirman); Professor S. F. Kirk- 
PATRicK, of Queen's University, Kingston; Professor R. F. Ruttan and 
Professor F. D. Adams, of McGill University, Montreal; President A. S. 
Mackp^nzie, of Dalhousie University, Halifax; Mr. Arthur Surveyer, 
of Montreal; Mr. J. B. Challies, of the Water Power Branch, Depart- 
ment of the Interior, Ottawa, (Honorary Secretary o: the Council). 

Professor C. A. Kofoid, of the Department of Zoology, University 
o' California, has been commissioned a major in the Sanitary Corps 
of the National Army, and is stationed at the Department Laboratory, 
Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas. 

Major R. A. Millikan, member of the National Research Council 
and Chief of the Science and Research Division of the Signal Corps, 
has been commissioned a Lieutenant Colonel in the Signal Corps. 

In honor of the appointment of Dr. J. W. Fewkes as Chief of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, a complimentary luncheon was ten- 
dered to him and Mrs. Fewkes at the Smithsonian Institution on 
Friday, March 1, 1918. Every member of the staff and all the em- 
ployees of the Bureau were present. At the close of the luncheon 
Dr. Fewkes made a brief address, recalling the high traditions of the 
Bureau of Ethnology and outlining plans for its further development. 
The primary objects of ethnologic research in this country were de- 
fined by Dr. Fewkes as, Man in America, — wher-e did he come from, 
hoiv long has he been here, and what has he been doing since he came? 
Short sijeeches were made by members of the Bureau, the first 
speaker being Mr. James Mooney, who noted that the study of eth- 
nology tends to bind the whole human race together by securing a 
better understanding of mankind. 

The following persons have become members of the Academy since 
the last issue of the Journal: Mr. Lon A. Hawkins, Bureau of Plant 
Industry, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C; Dr. Oscar 
Riddle, Department of Experimental Evolution of the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New 
York; Mr. Erskine Douglas Williamson, Geophysical Laboratory 
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D. C. 

184 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Vol. VIII APRIL 4, 1918 No. 7 



GEOCHEMISTRY. — Note on the inorganic constituents of two 
small crustaceans.^ F. W. Clarke and B. Salkover, 
Geological Survey. 

It is well known that very small crustaceans, such as the 
copepods, form an important part of the marine plankton, and 
that they serve as food for larger animals, like the fishes and 
cetaceans. The larger crustaceans all have shells or skeletons 
which contain much calcium phosphate, and a comparison of the 
two classes seemed to be a matter of some interest. Accordingly 
two samples, each made up of hundreds of individuals, were ob- 
tained from the U. S. National Museum and subjected to partial 
analysis. They were as follows: 

1. Temora longicornis (O. F. Miiller), from the coast of New 
England. Weight of dried sample, 0.6105 gram, A copepod. 

2. Thysanoessa inermis (Kroyer), from Balena, Newfoundland. 
Weight of dried sample, 1.5973 grams. A small shrimp. 

As the amount of material was insufficient for a thorough 
analysis, only three determinations were made on each sample. 
They were: loss on ignition, mainly organic matter and water; 
phosphoric oxide; and residue insoluble in acid. The phosphoric 
oxide, P2O5, was recalculated into the form of tricalcic phosphate, 
Ca3P208, and with that adjustment the analyses assume the fol- 
lowing shape. 

• Published by permission of the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey. 

185 



186 



COOKE : JACKSON AND VICKSBURG DEPOSITS 



Loss on ignition 

Tricalcic phosphate 
Ipsoluble 




92.08 
7.68 
0.22 



99.98 



These analyses show that the inorganic matter of these minute 
creatures consists ahnost entirely of calcium phosphate, although 
more refined analyses on larger quantities of material would 
doubtless show small percentages of other things. So far, how- 
ever, it seems that these very small organisms effect what is 
perhaps a primary concentration of the traces of phosphorus 
that exist in sea water, and so, as food for the larger animals, 
they furnish the material from which the skeletons of marine 
vertebrates are built. It is a familiar fact that vertebrate 
skeletons consist largely, although not exclusively, of calcium 
phosphate. 

GEOLOGY. — Correlation of the deposits of Jackson and Vicks- 
burg ages in Mississippi and Alabama.^ Charles Wythe 
Cooke, Geological Survey. 

The deposits of Jackson and Vicksburg ages in Alabama are 
usually referred to a single formation, the ''St. Stephens lime- 
stone," although many writers have pointed out differences 
between the upper and the lower parts. Smith and Johnson'^ 
divided the "St. Stephens limestone" into three members which 
correspond roughly to the major divisions adopted in this paper, 
and incomplete studies in western Alabama led Vaughan^ to the 
opinion that more detailed investigation would differentiate the 
Jackson from the Vicksburg. 

This paper summarizes the results of field studies on the 
stratigraphy and paleontology of the ''St. Stephens limestone" 

1 Published by permission of the directors of the U. S. Geological Survey 
and the Mississippi Geological Survey. 

2 Smith, E. A., and Johnson, L. C., U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 43: 20. 1887. 
' Vaughan, T. W., U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 71: 738, 739. 1912. 



COOKE : JACKSON AND VICKSBURG DEPOSITS 



187 



made in 1913 and 1914 for the U. S. Geological Survey. It 
contains also a synopsis of a manuscript report on the Jackson 
formation and the Vicksburg group in Mississippi prepared in 
partial fulfilment of an agreement between the U. S, Geological 
Survey and the Mississippi Geological Survey for a co6perati\'e 
investigation of the physiography, stratigraphy, and ground 
waters of Mississippi. The correlations and names adopted are 
shown in Table 1. 



TABLE 1 

Correlation of the Jackson and Vicksburg deposits in Mississippi 

and Alabama 



Age 



a 

o 



a 

o 
o 



a 

O 

u 
bC 

b£ 

M 



Mississippi 



Alabama 



BYRAM CALCAREOUS MARL 



Glendon limestone member 



Mint Spring ' .. "Chimney Rock" 
calcareous marl . facie,* 

member 



FOREST HILL 
SAND 



RED BLUFF 
CLAY 



Yazoo clay member 



Moodys calcareous marl member 



OCALA LIMESTONE 



JACKSON FORMATION 

In Mississippi, Lowe" has divided the Jackson deposits into 
formations described by him as Yazoo clay marl, Moodys Branch 
green marl, and Madison sands. The last of these, which was 
doubtfully placed in the Jackson by Lowe, is here referred to the 
Vicksburg group and will be discussed later. The other two 
intergrade so much that it seems advisable to consider them 
members of a single formation rather than as constituting inde- 
pendent formations. In the succeeding discussion they are 

* Lowe, E. N., Mississippi, its Geology, Geography, Soils, and Mineral Re- 
sources. Mississippi Geol. Survey Bull. 12: 78-84. 1915. 



188 COOKE : JACKSON AND VICKSBURG DEPOSITS 

called the Yazoo clay member and the Moodys calcareous marl 
member of the Jackson formation, of which the Yazoo clay is 
the upper and the Moodys marl the lower member. Although 
the typical exposures of the Yazoo clay are in the bluff of Yazoo 
River at Yazoo City, Mississippi, both of these members crop 
out in the vicinity of Jackson, Mississippi, where their relative 
stratigraphic position is evident. The Moodys calcareous marl 
member is named from Moodys Branch, a small tributary of 
Pearl River within the city limits of Jackson. 

The Jackson formation in Mississippi is composed chiefly of 
more or less calcareous clay and less prominent sand and marl 
beds. At Jackson and Garland's Creek, the Moodys marl 
member contains at the base a bed of shells inclosed in quartz 
sand and glauconite and merges below into lignitic clay and 
sand supposed to be of upper Claiborne age (Yegua formation) . 
Toward the top, the Moodys member is less sandy and much 
more calcareous and contains thin beds of indurated marl or 
impure limestone. Although these ledges of marlstone are dis- 
continuous, the zone in which they are found extends from 
Yazoo River to western Alabama, where it has been called the 
" Zenglodon bed."^ The Yazoo clay member consists almost 
entirely of calcareous, very plastic clay of various colors, but in 
most places blue or green when wet but gray when dry. 

The thickness of the Jackson formation varies considerably 
from place to place. In general, the Moodys marl thins from 
east to west and the Yazoo clay thickens rapidly in the same 
direction. In central and western Mississippi, its thickness 
does not much exceed 35 or 40 feet, but farther east, owing to 
the interpolation of beds of sand and clay, it is materially greater. 
In Alabama, a few miles east of the Mississippi state line, the 
equivalents of the Moodys marl are more than 90 feet thick. 
The Yazoo clay member is thickest in the extreme western part 
of Mississippi, where well borings south of Vicksburg indicate a 
thickness of nearly 600 feet, and thins rapidly toward the east. 

5 ScHUCHERT, Charles, U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc. 23: 329. 1900; Cooke, C. 
W., U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 95: 116. 1915. 



COOKE : JACKSON AND VICKSBURG DEPOSITS 189 

In the vicinity of Jackson the Yazoo clay probably does not 
exceed 200 feet in thickness; at Shubuta it is reduced to 70 feet; 
and in western Alabama it becomes of negligible thickness and 
merges with the underlying member. The aggregate thickness 
of the Jackson formation appears to be about 600 feet in western 
Mississippi, about 230 feet at Jackson, and about 150 feet at 
Shubuta. 

In Choctaw and Washington counties, Alabama, and in the 
adjacent part of Mississippi, the stratigraphy of the Jackson is 
somewhat different. The formation divides naturally into five 
lithologic units, as follows: 

Subdivisions of the Jackson formation in ivestern Alabama and eastern Mississippi 

feet 

5. Yazoo clay member: Greenish gray calcareous cla}' with white cal- 
careous concretions 8-50 

4. '"Zeuglodon bed.": Buff argillaceous marl with hard ledges. Tere- 
bratulina lachryma, Aturia alabamensis,'^ Ostrea trigonalis, 0. falco, 
Pecten perplanus, Schizaster armiger, Basilosaurtis cetoides 8-15 

3. Fine yellow sand with indurated lumps in the upper part. Well ex- 
posed at Cocoa, Alabama 11-70 

2. Greenish yellow, calcareous, very plastic clay 30-50 

1. Hard yellow or brown impure limestone or indurated marl with Peri- 

archus lyeUi or P. pileus-sinensis and Pecten perplanus 0-15 

Division 1 of this generalized section appears to be largely 
identical with the " Scutella bed" which Smith^ doubtfully 
referred to the ''St. Stephens limestone." In a section at Willow 
Branch^ I drew the Claiborne-Jackson line at the top of an 
attenuated remnant of this bed, and Hopkins^ accepted this 
correlation. My reasons for referring this bed to the Jackson 
are the following: (1) Pecten perplanus and Periarchus pileus- 
sinensis, species elsewhere restricted to deposits of Jackson age, 

^ I am probably to blame for the slip of the pen which caused Hopkins to list 
Belosepia ungiila instead of Aturia alabamensis in the "Zeuglodon bed" (U. S. 
Geological Survey Bull. 661-H: 296. 1917). Fortunately, I attached the cor- 
rect name to the specimen figured by him on plate 27. 

^ Smith, E. A., Johx.sox, L. C., and Laxgdo.n', D. W., Report on the Geology 
of the Coastal Plain of Alabama. Alabama Geol. Survey, p. 111. 1894. 

* Cooke, C. W., The age of the Ocala limestone. U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. 
Paper 95: 115. 1915. 

^ Hopkins, O. B., Oil and gas possibilities of the Hatchetigbee anticline, Ala- 
bama. U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 661-H: 294, 297. 1917. 



190 COOKE : JACKSON AND VICKSBURG DEPOSITS 

have been found in it at some places; (2) it is the first calcareous 
bed of a series dominantly calcareous and succeeds noncalcareous 
sands; (3) at Willow Branch and one or two other places there 
is evidence strongly suggestive of unconformity between this 
bed and the underlying Gosport sand. 

The other four divisions are the same as those described by 
Hopkins^'* and need no further comment here. Sections illus- 
trating them are given by Hopkins and Cooke in the papers 
cited. 

The Jackson formation contains a large marine fauna. From 
Jackson, Mississippi, I have listed 200 species of mollusks and 
Vaughan has identified 12 species of corals; of these, about 49 
are survivals from the Claiborne and about 15 are supposed to 
have lived also in Vicksburg time. Canu and Bassler^^ list 
67 species of Bryozoa from Jackson, of which 15 are known from 
the Claiborne group and 9 from the Vicksburg. The commonest 
and most significant vertebrate is Basilosaurus cetoides. 

OCALA LIMESTONE 

East of Tombigbee River a rather abrupt change is noticeable 
in the stratigraphy of the deposits of Jackson age. The beds 
become progressively more calcareous, lose their individuality, 
and assume more and more the lithologic and faunal aspects 
of the Ocala limestone of Florida. In some places a dual divi- 
sion of these beds may be distinguished, but it is not everywhere 
possible to draw a sharp line of demarkation between the upper 
and the lower members. The lower part consists chiefly of very 
argillaceous and somewhat glauconitic limestone, and on Sepulga 
River the approximate position of the yellow sand at Cocoa 
(division 3 of the generalized section) is occupied by calcareous 
sandstone. The upper part, corresponding to the " Zeiiglodon 
bed" and the Yazoo clay, consists of soft, cream-colored, amor- 
phous limestone which closely resembles the ''chimney rock" of 
the overlying Marianna limestone. 

10 Op. cit., 296. 

1' Canu, Ferdinand, and Bassler, R. S., Manuscript list of Eocene, and Oli- 
gocene Cheilostome Bryozoa. 



COOKE : JACKSON AND VICKSBURG DEPOSITS 191 

As the upper Eocene limestone of southeastern Alabama is 
continuous with the Ocala limestone of Florida and southwestern 
Georgia and does not differ materially from it in lithology or in 
fossils, the name Ocala limestone is extended to all of the deposits 
of Jackson age in that part of the state, but future more detailed 
field work may show the propriety of restricting the name 
Ocala to the upper part of the formation. Just where the 
boundary between the Ocala limestone and the Jackson forma- 
tion should be drawn is a matter of expediency, for the transi- 
tion area, although narrow, is without definite natural limits. 
Either the Tombigbee River or the 88th meridian might con- 
veniently be selected. 

» 

VICKSBURG GROUP 

In Mississippi the Vicksburg group falls naturally into three 
divisions, the upper, middle, and lower Vicksburg, which differ 
from one another in both lithology and fossils. The first of 
these, which corresponds to the ''Higher Vicksburgian" of 
Meyer'- and to the ''Upper Vicksburgian" of Casey, '^ is herein 
named Byram calcareous marl; for the second, which is approxi- 
mately equivalent to the "Middle and Lower Vicksburgian" of 
jMeyer and to the "Lower Vicksburgian" of Casey, the name 
Marianna limestone, already in use in Florida, is available; the 
third includes two facies, a shallow-water or nonmarine facies in 
western Mississippi, which will be called the Forest Hill sand, 
and a marine facies in eastern Mississippi and western Alabama 
known as the Red Bluff clay. In the middle division, or Mari- 
anna, two subdivisions are recognized, herein named Mint 
Spring calcareous marl member and Glendon'^ limestone mem- 
ber. East of Clarke County, Alabama, the middle and lower 
Vicksburg are similar lithologically and are both included in 
the Marianna limestone. 

12 ]\Ieyer, Otto, Amer. Journ. Sci., 2cl. ser., 30: 71. 1885. 

" Casey, T. L., Philadelphia Acad. Nat. Sci. Proc. 53: 515. 1901. 

" The name Glendon limestone has been adopted, with mj- consent, by O. B. 
Hopkins (U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 661-H. 1917) who had access to my notes and 
manuscripts. 



192 COOKE : JACKSON AND VICKSBURG DEPOSITS 

FOREST HILL SAND 

The name Forest Hill sand (from Forest Hill, 5| miles south- 
west of Jackson, Mississippi) replaces the ''Madison sands" of 
Lowe,^^ which name is preoccupied. The Forest Hill sand appears 
to rest conformably upon the Yazoo clay member of the Jackson 
formation. Although the character of the sediments indicates 
a change from marine to very shallow water or palustrine con- 
ditions at the close of Jackson time, it is probable that the 
change was gradual and that deposition was nearly continuous. 
The Forest Hill is overlain conformably by the Mint Spring 
marl member of the Marianna limestone. The relations of the 
Forest Hill to the Red Bluff clay are not definitely known, but 
it is believed that the two were formed contemporaneously, the 
latter having been deposited under more strictly marine con- 
ditions than the Forest Hill sand. 

In the type area, the Forest Hill sand consists chiefly of cross- 
bedded or laminated, more or less ferruginous, silicious sand 
and some clay.^" West of this area, the formation becomes 
more argillaceous and contains lenses of lignite and lignitic clay. 

In Warren and southern Yazoo counties, the Forest Hill sand 
is estimated to be about 60 or 70 feet thick, and at Forest Hill it 
is between 50 and 60 feet thick. 

Petrified wood, leaves, and other plant remains are common 
in the Forest Hill sand, but recognizable forms are not abun- 
dant. No animal remains have been found in the formation. 

The Forest Hill sand crops out along the bluff from Vicks- 
burg northward to within a few miles of Satartia. Exposures 
are numerous in eastern Hinds County and in Rankin County 
as far east as Rankin. Outliers of the Vicksburg group in 
Madison County afford good exposures of the Forest Hill sand. 
Southeast of Rankin the country has not been explored in suffi- 
cient detail to determine the extent of the formation in that 

15 Lowe, E. N., Op. cit., 82. 

1^ A section at Forest Hill School has been published by O. B. Hopkins (U. S. 
Geol. Survey Bull. 641-D: 100. 1916). I consider the lower 7 beds of his 
section as typical Forest Hill sand and refer the upper 6 beds to the Marianna 
limestone. 



COOKE: JACKSON AND VICKSBURG DEPOSITS 193 

direction, but lignitic clays that are tentatively referred to the 
Forest Hill have been observed at a number of places in Smith 
County. 

RED BLUFF CLAY 

Fossiliferous deposits on Chickasawhay River at Red Bluff, 
1^ miles below Shubuta, were first noted by Harper ^^ in 1857. 
Three years later they were called the Red Bluff group by Hil- 
gard, who correctly announced that their stratigraphic position 
lies between the Jackson and typical Vicksburg strata and that 
their fossils are more closely related to those of the Vicksburg 
than to those of the Jackson. ^^ 

Wherever the contact of the Red Bluff clay with the under- 
lying Jackson has been observed, the two appear to be conforma- 
ble. The upper limits of the formation are less well known, 
but there seems to be no break between it and the Marianna 
limestone. As the formation has not been traced west of Wayne 
County, its relations to the Forest Hill sand are conjectural, but 
it is believed that the two were approximately contemporaneous 
in origin and that the Red Bluff clay represents the marine 
equivalent of the exceedingly shallow water deposits of the 
Forest Hill sand in the Mississippi Embayment. The formation 
extends eastward into Alabama but rapidly thins, becomes cal- 
careous, and merges laterally into the Marianna limestone. 

The Red Bluff consists chiefly of stiff blue or greenish gypseous 
clay, but contains also discontinuous ledges of indurated marl or 
sandstone and a thin bed of shell marl. On Buccatunna Creek 
Jhe formation is 70 feet thick. 

The Red Bluff fauna includes more than 128 mollusks, 6 
corals, and a considerable number of Bryozoa. Of the 134 
species listed from Mississippi, about 60 appear to be restricted 
to the Red Bluff beds; about 55 are present in the Mint Spring 
marl or have varieties there; and about 49 species or varieties 
are known in the Byram marl, of these species 10 have not yet 

^^ Harper, L., Preliminary Report on the Geology and Agriculture of the 
State of Mississippi, p. 142. 1857. 

" HiLGARD, E. W., Report on the Geology and Agriculture of the State of 
Mississippi, p. 136. 1860. 



194 COOKE : JACKSON AND VICKSBURG DEPOSITS 

been found in the Mint Spring marl. Twelve mollusks, 3 of 
which range through the Vicksburg group, are listed also from 
the Jackson formation, but some of these are characterless 
species of supposedly very long range. 

MARIANNA LIMESTONE 

The name Marianna limestone was given by Matson and 
Clapp^^ in 1909 to the soft, porous, light-gray to white limestones 
at Marianna and other places in w^estern Florida ''which are 
characterized by an abundance of Orhitoides mantelli and other 
Foraminifera associated with many other fossils, prominent 
among which are Pecten poulsoni and P. per planus. '"'^'^ The 
last named species has since been found to be restricted to under- 
lying Eocene strata^^ and was referred to the Marianna limestone 
by mistake. 

The Marianna limestone was included in the Vicksburg group 
by Matson and Clapp, by whom it was regarded as the strati- 
graphic equivalent of the upper part of the bluff at Vicksburg 
(Byram marl). It was later found to lie conformably upon the 
Ocala limestone, 22 which had been thought to be the highest 
formation of the Vicksburg group. 

The typical Marianna hmestone is very homogeneous, white 
or cream-colored, and when first quarried is so soft that it is 
easily sawed into building blocks which harden on exposure. 
Because of its extensive use for building chimneys, it is popularly 
known as "chimney rock." This facies of the Marianna lime- 
stone extends with remarkable uniformity from Marianna, 
Florida, nearly to Pearl River, Mississippi. It is characterized* 
nearly everywhere by a great profusion of Bryozoa and an 
abundance of Lepidocyclina mantelli, Pecten poulsoni, and 

"Matson, G. C, and Clapp, F. G., A preliminary report on the geology of 
Florida: Second Ann. Rept. Florida Geol. Survey, p. 51. 1909. 

20 Idem, 52. 

2' Not having seen the type of Pecten perplanus, I am accepting as correct the 
species so named in the collection of the U. S. National Museum and described 
by Dr. Dall {Tertiary Fauna of Florida, p. 732). Hopkins has figured a specimen 
on plate 27, in U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 661-H. 

22 Cooke, C. W., The age of the Ocala limestone. U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. 
Paper 95: 109. 1915. 



COOKE : JACKSON AND VICKSBURG DEPOSITS 195 

Clypeaster rogersi. From a thickness of 74 feet at St. Stephens 
Bluff, Alabama, the "chimney rock" thins to about 45 or 50 
feet on Chickasawhay River, Mississippi, and to about 20 feet 
in the neighborhood of Brandon, Mississippi. 

Glendon limestorie memher. Overlying the ''chimney rock" 
and conformable with it is a series of ledges of hard, partly 
crystalhne, yellowish or pinkish limestone interbedded with 
softer strata of impure limestone composed largely of Bryozoa, 
Foraminifera, and shells of Ostrea vicksburgensis and Pecten 
poulsoni. This rock is distinguished from the other parts of the 
Marianna limestone mainly by its lithology, but a few species of 
organisms are restricted to it. At Glendon, Alabama, it is 18 
or 20 feet thick and overlies 20 feet of "chimney rock." 

The Glendon limestone extends from McGowans Bridge, 
Conecuh River, to Mississippi River at Vicksburg. It forms the 
hard ledges at the top of St. Stephens Bluff and the cap rock 
of several picturesque waterfalls near Vicksburg. Although it is 
in few places thicker than 20 feet, the Glendon limestone, because 
of its hardness, is the most conspicuous part of the Vicksburg 
group in Mississippi, to which it has given the undeserved 
reputation of being composed chiefly of limestone. 

Mint Spring calcareous marl member. The "chimney rock" 
facies of the Marianna limestone is replaced in western Alis- 
sissippi by sands and shell marls for which the name Mint Spring 
calcareous marl is here proposed. The name is derived from 
Mint Spring Bayou, a small stream entering Centennial Lake 
just south of the National Cemetery at Vicksburg. The strata 
to which the name is applied are exposed beneath a waterfall 
in the lower course of the stream. 

Between Vicksburg and Pearl River the Mint Spring marl 
occupies the entire interval between the Forest Hill sand and 
the Glendon limestone, but east of Pearl River, it is overlain by 
a thickening wedge of the Marianna "chimney rock." It has 
not been recognized east of Chickasawhay River, on which 
it is exposed Ij miles northwest of the mouth of Limestone 
Creek. Other important exposures are along Glass Bayou at 
Vicksburg, and at Haynes Bluff, 14 miles north of Vicksburg, 
where it is 25 feet thick. 



19() COOKE : JACKSON AND VICKSBURG DEPOSITS 

The list of species collected in the Mint Spring marl includes 
160 mollusks and 3 corals. Of these, 81 occur also in the Byram 
marl, about 55 are found at Red Bluff or are represented there 
by varieties, and about 66 appear to be restricted to the Mint 
Spring marl. 

BYRAM CALCAREOUS MARL 

The type exposure of the Byram marl is in the bank of Pearl 
River at Byram, Hinds County, Mississippi. The Byram beds 
were supposed by Casey-^ to constitute a "sub-stage" inter- 
mediate in age between the Red Bluff clay and the Mint Spring 
marl, but more detailed study of the fauna shows that the marl 
at Byram is of the same age as the upper shell bed at Vicksburg. 
The formation consists chiefly of sandy glauconitic marl, but 
contains also thin beds of impure limestone, clay, and sand. 
At Vicksburg it is 42| feet thick; on Chickasawhay River incom- 
plete exposures indicate a thickness of at least 70 feet, but at 
intermediate places the exposed parts are much thinner. 

Overlying the Glendon limestone at several localities in Ala- 
bama are beds of limestone, marl, and clay that appear to repre- 
sent the Byram marl. Among these localities may be noted 
Paynes, Salt Mountain, Gainestown,* and Choctaw Bluff (which 
last I have not visited), in Clarke County; Castleberry, Conecuh 
County, and Yellow River at Watkins-Henderson bridge, Coving- 
ton County. It is probable that at least part of the exposure at 
Natural Bridge, Walton County, Florida, represents the same 
horizon. The upper 60 feet or more of the section at Salt Moun- 
tain probably includes the Byram marl, but as the two species 
of corals in the limestone at the top are found elsewhere in 
deposits of Chattahoochee age^'* part of the section may be 
younger than the Byram. The Glendon limestone member and 
perhaps also part of the underlying "chimney rock" of the 
Marianna limestone are represented in the lower part of the 

23 Casey, T. L., Philadelphia Acad. Nat, Sci. Proc. 53: 517-518. 1901. 
2^ Vaughan, T. W., Tertiary corals from Central America, Cuba, and Porto 
Rico. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 102 (in press). 



COOKE : JACKSON AND VICKSBURG DEPOSITS 197 

section, all of which was included in the ''CoraUimestone" of 
Smith and Johnson." The Salt Mountain section, which has 
been considerabl}^ disturbed by folding and faulting, deserves 
more critical study than it has yet received. 

The Byram marl is the horizon from which Conrad obtained 
his typical Vicksburg fossils. The formation contains 6 corals 
and 136 species of moUusks, of which 81 occur also in the Mint 
Spring marl, 46 persisted from the Red Bluff clay (including 6 
which have not been found in the Mint Spring marl), and 55 
which appear to be pecuhar to the Byram marl. One of the 
most widely distributed and abundant species is the little Sca- 
pharca lesueuri Dall, which appears to be restricted to this 
horizon. The recent discovery at Vicksburg of a coral which 
T. W. Vaughan-'' reports from the fossil coral reef at Bainbridge, 
Georgia, Tampa, Florida, and many places in the West Indies, 
suggests a closer correlation of the Oligocene chert of Flint River 
with the Byram marl than has hitherto been suspected. 

OUTLINE OF GEOLOGIC HISTORY 

The beginning of Jackson time was marked by a northward 
transgression of the sea which carried the marine fauna of the 
Moodys marl into areas in which swampy conditions had pre- 
vailed during upper Claiborne time. This transgression was 
most pronounced in the Mississippi Embayment where the 
marine Jackson fauna extended into Arkansas and where the 
Jackson flora has been recognized by Berry^^ 135 miles farther 
north than the northernmost recognized upper Claiborne of 
this area. The effects of this transgression are noticeable as 
far east as Alabama River and become prominent again in 
central Georgia, where marine deposits of Jackson age overlap 
all older Eocene and Cretaceous strata and rest upon the crystal- 
line rocks of the Piedmont. ^^ 

-= Smith, E. A., and Johnson, L. C, Tertiary and Cretaceous Strata of the 
Tuscaloosa, Tombigbee, and Alabama Rivers. U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 43 
18-21. 1887. 

" Op. cit. 

2^ Berry, E. W., Erosion intervals in the Eocene of the Mississippi Embayment. 
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 95: 81-82. 1915. 

-8 Cooke, C. W., and Shearer. H. K., Deposits of Claiborne and Jackson age 
in Georgia. U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 120-C (in press). 



198 COOKE : JACKSON AND VICKSBURG DEPOSITS 

In western Mississippi the close of Jackson time was followed 
by shoaling of the sea, attended by a southward recession of 
the strand line, in the course of which the lignitic beds and 
laminated' and crossbedded sands of the Forest Hill were de- 
posited. In eastern Mississippi and Alnbama, however, the 
change from Eocene to Oligocene time was not accompanied by 
changes in physical conditions affecting materially the character 
of the sediments, for the clay of the upper Jackson and the 
limestones of the Ocala are succeeded by similar materials in the 
Red Bluff clay and the Marianna limestone. 

While the lignites and crossbedded sands of the Forest Hill 
were forming in the west and the marine clays and marls of the 
Red Bluff were being deposited in the intermediate region, the 
calcareous sediments of the Marianna limestone were accumu- 
lating on the Floridian plateau and adjacent parts of Georgia 
and Alabama. As time went on the phase of deposition produc- 
ing ''chimney rock" progressed westward, and the Marianna 
limestone overlapped first the Red Bluffs beds and then part of 
the Mint Spring marl until it had reached the ninetieth meridian. 
Subsequently, nearly uniform conditions, attending the deposi- 
tion of the Glendon limestone, prevailed across Mississippi and 
far into Alabama. Therefore, the Marianna limestone repre- 
sents a longer time interval in the east, where it includes both 
the middle and the lower Vicksburg, than in the west, where it is 
restricted to the middle Vicksburg. 

Deposition of the Byram marl appears to have succeeded 
without interruption that of the Glendon limestone, but the 
change in character of the sediments indicates a more plentiful 
supply of mud and sand. 

The stratigrapjiic relations of the Byram marl to the overlying 
Catahoula sandstone are conjectural. At none of the places 
where the contact of the two formations has been seen, has any 
indubitable evidence of unconformity been observed, but at 
some localities, as near Waynesboro, Mississippi, the change in 
lithology is so abrupt as to suggest the probability of an inter- 
ruption in deposition. At other places the transition is so 
gradual that deposition appears to have been continuous. 



maxon: a new anemia from Mexico 199 

BOTANY. — A new Anemia from Mexico.^ William R. Maxon, 
National Museum, 

The following new species is one of a number of interesting 
ferns in a collection received by the U. S. National Museum 
from Prof. C. Conzatti, of Oaxaca, Mexico, in 1917. At the 
suggestion of Professor Conzatti it is named as below in honor 
of his friend and fellow-collector, Dr. Emilio Makrinius. 

Anemia makrinii Maxon, sp. no v. 

Plants about 50 cm. high; rhizome short-creeping,d ensely clothed 
with turgid acicular septate dark brown hairs; fronds several, close, 
distichous, long-stipitate, the sterile and fertile ones nearly alike in 
size and proportion. Fertile fronds erect, 45-50 cm. long; stipe 25 cm. 
long, slender, dull strammeous from a dark base, narrowly sulcate later- 
ally and ventrally in the upper part, deciduously blackish-fibrillose; 
sterile lamina deltoid, 18-25 cm. long, 12-16 cm. broad, acuminate, 
once pmnate, the rachis stramineous, deeply sulcate ventrally ancl 
laterally, glabrate; sterile pmnae 7 or 8 pairs, distant, oblique, straight 
or mostly falcate, the lowermost the largest, petiolate (4-10 mm.), 
6-11 cm. long, 1.4-2 cm. broad, narrowly lance-oblong and long- 
acuminate or tapering gradually from near the base to a long-attenu- 
ate apex, the base subequilateral and broadly cuneate; succeeding 
pinnae gradually shorter and more oblique, the upper ones free or 
subsessile, much smaller than the conform or basally lobed terminal 
segment; costa medial, percurrent, prominent beneath, stramineous, 
sparsety fibrillose; veins free, very oblique, repeatedly dichotomous, 
close, prommulous (especially beneath), glabrous; margins faintly 
cartilagmous, serrate or m the outer part deeply biserrate, the teeth 
very obHque, nearly straight, flat, acutish; leaf tissue thin-herbaceous, 
dark green and somewhat iridescent above, paler beneath, glabrous; 
fertile pinnae ascending, 10-16 cm. long, about half the length of the 
sterile lamina, the panicle as long as the slender stalk or longer, flat- 
tish, 8-15 mm. broad, the lower and middle segments remote, petio- 
late; spores closely and rather sharply cristate-striate. Sterile fronds 
similar, but the stipe relatively shorter and the blade more narrowly 
triangular. 

T^'pe in the U. S. National. Herbarium, no. 867444, collected at the 
Cafetal Nueva Esperanza, District of Pochutla, Oaxaca, Mexico, at 
an altitude of 800 meters, April 9, 1917, by Prof. C. Conzatti, Dr. B. 
P. Reko, and Dr. Emilio Makrinius (no. 3087). A second collection, 
received more recently from Dr. Reko, is from the Cafetal Calvario, 
Oaxaca. altitude 700 meters, September 30, 1917, Reko 3365. 

' Published with the permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution. 



200 maxon: a new anemia from Mexico 

Ane7nia makrinii belongs to the small group of species with distichous 
simply pinnate fronds with the basal pinnae fertile, of which A. speciosa 
Presl and A. mexicana Klotzsch are the only North American repre- 
sentatives. It resembles A. speciosa somewhat in its short fertile 
pinnae, but differs widely in its more numerous and narrower sterile 
pinnae, its thin-herbaceous (not rigidly coriaceous) leaf tissue, and in its 
prominulous veins, the veins of A. speciosa being distinctly impressed 
upon the upper surface. In the character of its leaf tissue it is near A. 
mexicana, but that species is characterized by having the pinnae sub- 
cordate-truncate at the base, or exciso-cuneate below, the veins fibril- 
lose-hirtous beneath, and the fertile pinnae erect and invariably sur- 
passing the sterile lamina of the fertile frond. Anemia makrinii differs 
noticeably from both in the flat, nearly straight teeth and only faintly 
cartilaginous margins of the sterile pinnae, the margins in the two re- 
lated species being strongly cartilaginous and the teeth stoutish, very 
rigid, often concave, and curved or, in A. speciosa, commonly hamate. 

The somewhat iridescent appearance of the upper surface of some 
of the sterile blades is an interesting character but one probably not of 
specific importance, as it is variable and tends to disappear. When 
present it gives the frond a singularly attractive aspect. 



ABSTRACTS 

Authors of scientific papers are requested to see that abstracts, preferably 
prepared and signed by themselves, are forwarded promptly to the editors. 
Each of the scientific bureaus in Washington has a representative authorized to 
forward such material to this Journal and abstracts of official publications 
should be transmitted through the representative of the bureau in which they 
originate. The abstracts should conform in length and general style to those 
appearing in this issue. 

PHYSICS. — Specific heat of liquid ammonia. Nathan S. Osborne 
and Milton S. Van Dusen. Bureau of Standards Scientific 
Paper No. 313. Pp. 35. 1917. 

By use of a calorimeter of the aneroid type specially designed for 
the peculiar conditions, the specific heat of saturated liquid ammonia 
has been determined throughout the temperature interval —45° to 
+ 45°C. 

Two distinct and independent methods were used, each of which 
avoids sources of error present in the other. The greatest difference 
between the mean results of both methods and the results of either 
method as represented by empirical equations is less than 1 part in 
1000.. 

As a final result, the specific heat <r in joules per gram per degree 
centigrade, of liquid ammonia, kept saturated, at the temperature d, 
is given in the range —45° to +45°C. by the equation 

16.842 



(J - 3.1365 - 0.00057 6 + 



V 133 - ^ 



N. S. 0. 



PHYSICS. — The latent heat of pressure variation of liquid ammonia. 
Nathan S. Osborne and Milton S. Van Dusen. Bureau of 
Standards Scientific Paper No. 314. Pp. 51. 1917. 
When a fluid undergoes a change of pressure, there occurs a trans- 
formation of energy into heat or vice versa, which results in a change 
of temperature of the substance unless a Hke amount of heat is ab- 
stracted or added. This change expressed as the heat so transformed 
per unit change of pressure will be called "latent heat of pressure varia- 
tion." For most liquids under usual conditions of temperature and 
pressure this quantity, which depends on the thermal expansivity, is 

201 



202 abstracts: physics 

small compared with the other quantities of heat which are iisuallj^ 
observed, but for liquid ammonia in the range — 40 to + 40°C. and 
corresponding saturated vapor pressures it is sufficiently large to be 
taken into account in calorimetric determinations of specific heat; and, 
in consequence, the measurements here described were made as a 
supplement to a series of such determinations in order to correlate 
measurements of specific heat of liquid ammonia made at constant 
pressure with others made under saturation conditions. 

The latent heat of pressure variation has been determined in two 
ways, namely, by direct calorimetric observations and by computation 
from the expansivity, using for the latter two independent sources of 
experimental data. Thus, three independent determinations were 
obtained. N. S. 0. 

PHYSICS. — Latent heat of vaporization of ammonia. Nathan S. 
Osborne and Milton S. Van Dusen. Bureau of Standards 
Scientific Paper No. 315. Pp. 33. 1917. 

Using a calorimeter of the aneroid type specially designed for the 
peculiar conditions, the latent heat of vaporization of ammonia has 
been determined throughout the temperature interval -A2 to -52°C. 

A detailed description of the design and construction of the instru- 
ment has been given in a separate paper.^ The results of each of 34 
determinations agree with the mean result as expressed by means of an 
empirical equation within one part in 1000. An empirical equation 
was found that in addition to representing closely the results in the 
range of temperature covered experimentally also conforms to what is 
known about the behavior of substances in general when approaching 
the critical point. 

As a final result the latent heat of vaporization of ammonia, that is, 
the heat required to convert saturated liquid into saturated vapor at 
constant temperature, in joules per gram, is expressed in the range 

-42 to -52°C. by the equationj 

L = 137.91 \/l33 - e - 2.466 (133 - B) 

If the latent heat of vaporization is expressed in calorieS2o per gram, 
taking 1 calorie2o = 4.183 joules, the equation becomes 
L = 32.968 a/133"^0 - 0.5895 (133 - d) 

Using the results obtained for the latent heat of vaporization of 
ammonia together with the specific heat of the saturated liquid, the 
specific heat of the saturated vapor has been computed for various 
temperatures and given in a table. N. S. 0. 

» Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards 14: 133; Sci. Paper No. 301. 1917. 



abstracts: chemistry 203 

CHEMISTRY. — The iodometric determination of sulfur dioxide and the 
sulfites. John B. Ferguson. Joiirn. Amer. Chem. See. 39: 364- 
371. March, 1917. 

In this paper are presented and discussed the results of an investi- 
gation of the various iodometric methods for the determination of 
sulfur dioxide and the sulfites. The object of this investigation was 
threefold: (1) To ascertain the limitations of the existing methods and 
procedures; (2) to determine the important sources of error; (3) to 
develop, if necessary, procedures suitable for general application. 

Sulfur dioxide. Of the methods considered, the excess iodine is 
suitable for the analysis of mixtures of either high or low sulfur-dioxide 
content; the Selby Smelter Commission method is suitable for mixtures 
of low sulfur-dioxide content; the Reich method gives only approxi- 
mate results unless large samples are available; and the sulfite method 
must not be used without a correction factor. Two precautions are 
essential: (1) The gas sample must not come in contact with even a 
trace of moisture prior to reaching the absorbent; (2) the analj'^zing 
apparatus must be free from rubber connectors if mixtures containing 
2 per cent or more of sulfur dioxide are to be analyzed; and rubber 
connectors would best be eliminated altogether. The excess iodine 
method is recommended. 

Sulfites. In the Tread well method errors due to the oxidation of 
the sulfite solution arise from various sources and to eliminate them 
the following procedure is recommended: The solid salt is dissolved 
directly in an excess of an iodine solution containing sufficient hydro- 
chloric acid, and the excess iodine determined with thiosulfate. 

J. B. F. 

CHEMISTRY.— T/i£' ternarij system H20-K2SiOz~Si02. George W. 

MoREY (Chemical Study) and C. N. Fenner (Microscopic Study). 

Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc. 39; 1173-1229. June, 1917. 
The ternary system H20-K2Si03-Si02 has been studied over the 
temperature range 200° to over 1000°. The work comprises a deter- 
mination of the composition and properties of the various stable soli|^ 
phases which can coexist with solution and vapor within the above 
temperature range, of the composition of the solutions in equilibrium 
with the solid phases, of the change in composition of these solutions 
with temperature, and the approximate determination of the corre- 
sponding 3-phase pressures. The chief experimental method used was 
an adaptation of the "quenching" method so extensively used in the 
Geophysical Laboratory for the investigation of dry melts. 



204 abstracts: geology 

The following compounds occur: Silica, SiOa; potassium hydrogen 
disilicate, KHSi^Os; potassium disilicate, K2Si205; potassium disilicate 
monohydrate, K2Si205.H20; potassium metasilicate, K2Si03; potassium 
metasilicate hemihydratc, K2Si03.5H20; and potassium metasilicate 
monohydrate, K2Si03.H20. 

The detailed results of the experiments are summarized in tables 
and also presented graphically by means of curves and photographs of 
solid models. 

A short discussion of some of the theoretical considerations which 
govern the equilibrium relations in binary and ternary systems con- 
taining a volatile component is given and the proper use of the term 
"solubiHty" is discussed. G. W. M. 

GEOLOGY. — Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. B. K. 

Emerson. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin No. 597. Pp. 289, 

with maps and illustrations. 1917. 

This treatise, which is accompanied by a large geologic map of 

Massachusetts and Rhode Island embodying the latest information, 

describes in detail the distribution, character, and relation of the many 

varieties of sedimentary and igneous rocks exposed in these two States. 

R. W. Stone. 

GEOLOGY. — Anticlines in the southern part of the Big Horn Basin, 
Wyoming. A 'preliminary report on the occurrence of oil. D. F. 
Hewett and C. T. Lupton. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 
No. 656. Pp. 192, with maps, sections, and illustrations. 1917. 
This report gives information regarding 50 domes and anticlines in 
the south half of the Big Horn Basin, Wyo., and contains many struc- 
ture contour maps. 

The area described embraces some productive oil territory in Wyo- 
ming that is undeveloped but very promising. Besides the Greybull, 
Torchlight, and Grass Creek anticHnes, which are already sufficiently 
ileveloped to contribute largely to the production of oil in Wyoming, 
there are seven or more domes and anticlines in which oil or gas has 
been struck, but which are not yet sufficiently drilled to indicate their 
value as oil reservoirs. Thus 11 of the anticlines here described have 
already proved to be productive. 

The probability that the remaining anticlines and domes described 
in this resort may contain oil or gas has been carefully considered by 



abstracts: petrology 205 

• 

the authors, who have noted their form and prominence, their 
mutual relations, their positions in the basin, the formations exposed 
on their axes, and their similarity to like domes and anticlines that 
carry or do not carry oil or gas. So far as can now be determined 
from the surface indications, about half of these are considered promis- 
ing, but the drill, which is the final test, may show that some of them 
are barren and that others which are now regarded as less promising 
may be productive. It is highly probable that half or more of the 
antichnes and domes here described constitute a large part of the most 
promising undeveloped oil territor}- in Wyoming. The Big Horn Basin 
seems to be destined to furnish a large contribution to the Nation's 
supply of high-grade oil. 

R. W. Stone. 

GEOLOGY. — Louisiana clays, including results of tests made in the 
I'ahoratonj of the Bureau of Standards at Pittsburgh. George 
Charlton ^Iatson. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 660-E. 
Pp. 12, with maps and sections. 1917. 
This paper shows the geographic and geologic distribution of Louis- 
iana claj^s and includes 26 tests made by the Bureau of Standards 
showing the working and burning behavior. 

R. W. Stone. 

PETROLOGY.— T/ze problem of the anorthosites. N. L. Bowen. 
Journ. Geol. 25: 209-243. April-May, 1917. 
Anorthosites are made up almost exclusively of the single mineral 
plagioclase and in virtue of this fact they present a very special prob- 
lem in petrogenesis. The conception of the mutual solution of minerals 
of the magma and the lowering of melting temperature consequent 
thereon is no longer appHcable. Yet anorthosites give no evidence of 
being abnormal in the matter of the temperature to which they have 
been raised; in other words, they give no evidence of having been raised 
to the temperature requisite to melt plagioclase. A possible alternative 
is that they may never have been molten as such and are formed simply 
by the collection of crystals from a complex melt, probably gabbroic 
magma. This possibihty is in harmony with the expectations that 
grow out of experimental studies and for this reason a consideration of 
the hkehhood that anorthosites have originated in the stated manner 
becomes imperative. 



206 abstracts: petrology 

« 

A discussion of the method whereby accumulation of plagioclase 
crystals might take place leads to the conclusion that the most prom- 
ising method is the separation by gravity of the femic constituents 
from gabbroic magma while the plagioclase crystals, which are calcic 
bytownite, remain practically suspended. Then, at a later stage, when 
the liquid has become distinctly lighter, having attained diorite-syenite 
composition, the plagioclase crystals, which are now labradorite, 
accumulate by sinking and give masses of anorthosite, at the same 
time leaving the liquid out of which they settle of a syenitic or granitic 
composition. 

Some of the consequences of this manner of origin of anorthosite are 
discussed. 

A consideration of anorthosites with special reference to the Adiron- 
dack and Morin areas gives some reason for believing that anorthosites 
show the requisite characters. For the Adirondack area especially, 
evidence is adduced favoring the possibility that there anorthosite 
and syenite may still occupy the relative positions in which they were 
generated by the process outlined, the Adirondack complex being 
interpreted as a sheetlike mass with syenite above and anorthosite 
below. 

Other monomineral rocks present essentially the same problem and 
are restricted in their occurrence in substantially the same manner if 
we consider especially those that approach most closely to the strictly 
one-mineral character. All of the monomineral rocks do occur, how- 
ever, as dikes and dike-like masses in essentially contemporaneous, 
congeneric igneous rocks, a fact which may be interpreted as due to 
the intrusion of a heterogeneous, partly crystalline mass. 

On the whole the inquiry gives considerable support to the belief 
that the monomineral rocks, of which the anorthosites are perhaps the 
most important representatives, are generated by the process of col- 
lection of crystals under the action of gravity. 

N. L. B. 

PETROLOGY. — Adirondack intrusives. N. L. Bowen. Journ. Geol. 
25: 509-512. Sept.-Oct., 1917. 
A reply to criticism by Professor Gushing of certain statements 
relative to Adirondack structure occurring in the paper abstracted 
above. 

N. L. B. 



abstracts: ornithology 207 

VOLCANOLOGY. — Persistence of vents at Stromholi and its hearing on 
volcanic mechanism. Henry S. Washington. Bull. Geol. Soc. 
Amer. 28: 249-278. March, 1917. 
In August, 1914, six vents were active on the crater terrace of Strom- 
boli. Examination of plans and illustrations in the literature (many 
of which are reproduced in the paper) shows that at least three of 
these vents have persisted in location as far back as 1768. Similarly, 
at Kilauea the main vent has persisted in location for about a century;' 
and there is evidence of such persistence at some other volcanoes. 
This feature of volcanoes seems to have been previously unnoticed. 
Another notable feature of the Stromboli vents is that the oldest 
three of them open about *1 000 meters above sea-level near the upper 
edge of a precipitous scarp of that height. An analogous situation is 
true of some of the vents at Etna and also of one or two of those of 
Kilauea. 

In the discussion of these and other features it is shown that such 
vents can not have originated through explosive agencies; but that 
their formation, situation, persistence in location, and other features 
can best be explained by Daly's so-called "gas-fluxing hypothesis," 
which supposes a "blow-piping" of narrow, vertical vents through the 
superjacent rocks by hot gases derived from the magma in its reservoir 
below and kept hot by chemical interreactions. • H. S. W. 

ORNITHOLOGY.— 7'/!e migration of North American birds. 1. Five 
sicallows. Harry C. Oberholser. Bird-Lore 19 : 320-330. De- 
cember 1, 1917. 
In this article there are given tables of migration dates for both 
spring and fall, chiefly from the United States and Canada, of the five 
following species of swallows, together with the subspecies of each: 
Petrochelidon lunifrons (lege albifrons), Iridoprocne bicolor, Tachy- 
cineta thalassina, Riparia riparia, and Stelgidopteryx serripenyiis. The 
data given serve as an index to the migratory movements of these 
species, and include the average date of spring arrival, the earliest 
date of spring arrival, the average date of last one observed, and the 
latest date of last one observed, in autumn as well as in spring, together 
with a statement of the numbers of years of observation on which the 
averages are based. M. C U. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY AND AFFILIATED 

SOCIETIES 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The meeting of the Board of Managers on March 5, 1918, was de- 
voted principally to the consideration of nominations and the elec- 
tion of new members. Plans for the development of the Journal were 
discussed, and were referred to a committee consisting of Messrs. 
Knopf, Hrdlicka, and Maxon, to be reported on at a later meeting. 
The dues of members absent from the United States on military or 
naval duty were remitted. 

Dr. WdODROW WiLSQ]^, The White House, Washington, D. C, was 
elected an honorary member of the Academy in recognition of his con- 
tributions to economic and political history. 

Robert B. Sosman, Corresponding Secretary. 

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 520th meeting of the Society was held in the West Study Room 
of the Pubhc Library, January 29, 1918, at 8 p.m. At this meeting 
Dr. Leo J. Frachtenberg made an address on Poland and the Polish 
question. (No abstract.) 

The 521st meeting of the Society was held in the West Study Room 
of the Public Library, February 12, 1918, at 8 p.m. Dr. Joseph 
Dunn, of the Catholic University of America, was the speaker of the 
evening and presented an interesting paper on Scotland. 

"The Scotch reached Scotland from Ireland and are not the de- 
scendants of Gaelic Celts who had been pushed north by a later (British) 
invasion of Britain. The first authentic information on Scotland 
dates from the time of the Romans, 79 A.D. Roman rule in Britain 
came to an end in 410, and Britain then ceased to be a part of the 
Roman Empire. The population of Scotland is made up of Pictish, 
Irish, British, Saxon, Danish, and Norman elements, all of them 
Indo-Celtic, the three first, Celtic, the three last, Germanic peoples. 
The Picts contributed the bulk of the population, but were overcome 
by the Scotti (Irish), who had settled in Dalriada, a part of the 
present county of Argyle (Airer-Goidel, 'Margo Scottorum'). The 
Scotti then became the dominant people. Brythonic Celts dwelt in 
Strathclyde; their chief city was Dumbarton (Dun Brettan, 'Fort of 
the Britons'). -Towards the close of the eighth century, the Danes ap- 
peared and ravaged the coast settlements and the isles. The Saxons 
first appeared in 428 in Britain. In the eleventh century Norman 
refugees first crossed the border into Scotland. 

208 



proceedings: anthropological society 209 

"The first Irish colonization in Scotland took place toward the end 
of the second century, but the kingdom of Dalriada was not effected 
until the close of the fifth. It is these Scotti who have given theii- 
name to Scotland. The relations between the two countries was very 
close and lasted for a thousand years, or at least up to the Uefoima- 
tion, and the early literature and civilization of Scotland belong to 
Ireland. The Scottish (laelic reached its greatest extent in the eleventh 
century, when the Anglian-Celtic linguistic line ran from Tweed to 
Solway and to the Pent land Frith. The fine has since been receding. 
Of the three parts into which Scotland is naturally divided, the larger 
part of the central and all of the northern, with the exception of the 
northeast part of Caithness, the Orkneys, and the Shetlands, is Gaelic- 
speaking. The 1911 census showed 202,398 Gaelic speakers in Scot- 
land, of whom 18,400 were monoglots. 

"According to legend, the name Scotch is derived from Scota, a 
daughter of one of the Pharaohs. The word is probably related etymo- 
logically to the German Schatz, and means 'masters, owners.' Origi- 
nally, and therefore in all medieval Latin texts down to the end of the 
eleventh century, it meant only Ireland. Since that date it means spe- 
cifically Scotland. The Scotch Gael never calls himself Scotch, but 
Gael, or, to indicate his country, Albanach. EngUsh-speaking High- 
landers, even though Scotchmen, are Saxons in the mind of a Gael. 
In the fifteenth century, when English became the predominant speech 
in the Lowlands, the English. and non-Celtic Scotch called Gaehc 
'Erse.' Since* the sixteenth century the name Scotch has been ap- 
plied to the English spoken in the Lowlands. So, by a strange freak 
of fortune, Scotch, originally applied to a variety of Celtic, has come 
to mean Broad Scotch or Quaint Enghsh, a language of Germanic 
origin. 

"The distinction made between the Highlands and Lowlands of 
Scotland is correct merely so far as the physical configuration of the 
country is concerned, but incorrect if a racial significance is read into 
it. There is a mistaken notion that Scotland is a country of two races, 
Celtic in the north and Teutonic in the south, and that the latter ele- 
ment has displaced the former. No doubt the Lowland Scotchman is 
a person of very composite blood, but he is above all a Celt. 

"When Scotland was in possession of complete autonomy she en- 
joyed unrivaled prosperity. She was spoken of on the Continent as 'a 
nation of heroes,' and the French proverb 'Fier comme un ecossais' is 
still current. Many treaties of alHance were made with France, and 
Scottish merchants, traders, and scholars were known all over Europe. 
The disaster at Culloden (1746) would appear to have crushed Scot- 
tish nationality out of existence. The incorporating Union of 1707, 
'which was carried by force and fraud' (Prof. William Smith), reduced 
Scotland to the humiliating level of an appendage of England. Lord 
Roseberry called Scotland 'the milch cow of the Empire,' and the 
Marquis of Bute and others have estimated that the dead loss to the 
country as a result of the Union is from twelve to thirteen million pounds 



210 proceedings: anthropological society 

per annum. As a result of the ' clearances/ the crofters and cotters have 
had to move to the towns and their places have been taken by rich 
men who have turned the country into 'sanctuaries' for deer and grouse. 
The present day Scotch republicans, who represent a party which 
came into existence at the time of the French Revolution, are now tak- 
ing steps to see to it that the principle of 'self-determination' is applied 
to Scotland." 

The 522nd meeting of the Society was held in the West Study Room 
of the Pubhc Library, February 26, 1918, at 8 p.m. On this occasion 
Dr. Peter Alexander Speek, of the Library of Congress, addressed the 
Society on The 'problems of race and nationality in Russia. 

Pointing out the difficulties of a definition of the term ''nationality," 
the lecturer stated that race is a perpendicular division of mankind, a 
group of people separated according to ethnological and anthropologi- 
cal differences which have resulted mainly from the natural surround- 
ings in prehistoric times, and that nationality is a perpendicular sub- 
division of a race or races, a group of people with common ways and 
forms of life, but different from other groups because of histological 
development under the influence of the different geographical condi- 
tions and social forces. Thus nationality may be expressed more or 
less in everything which is native to a human being and characteristic 
of his existence, in physical form, in mental and spiritual develop- 
ment, in economics, politics, science, arts, moral principles, customs, 
and habits. 

The speaker described Russia as a conglomerate oT a large num- 
'ber of highly varied countries, races, and nationalities united by con- 
quests into one body politic, ruled up to the time of the revolution by 
the same monarch and the same laws and institutions. 

In 1914 the population of Russia was nearly 180,000,000, the race 
composition of which was as follows: Indo-European, about 80 per 
cent; Ural-Altaic, 14 per cent; Semitic, 4 per cent; indefinite, about 2 
per cent. The statistics of nationality were as follows: Indo-Euro- 
pean race — Great Russian^, about 44 per cent; Little Russians, 18 per 
cent; Polish, 6 per cent; White Russians, 5 per cent; German, about 2 
per cent; Lithuanians, 1 per cent; Lettonian, 1 per cent; Armenian, 
1 per cent — Ural-Altaic race: Turkish-Tartar, 11 per cent; Finnish, 2 
per cent; Esthonian, 1 per cent — Semitic race: Jews, 4 per cent — other 
minor nationalities of the above races, 2 per cent of the whole popula- 
tion. The last Russian census shows that there were 123 different and 
distinct nationalities living in Russia. The Great Russians, about 44 
per cent of the population, ruled all the other subjugated nationalities, 
i.e., 56 per cent of the whole population. 

The policy of the Russian monarchy was to Russianize the non- 
Great Russian nationalities by violence. This policy is to be explained 
in part by the teachings of Pan-Slavism. Pan-Germanism and Pan- 
Slavism sprang from the teachings of the German historians and poli- 
ticians, who emphasized the fact of the absorption of Slavs by Teutons 
in northern Prussia and of Finns by Slavs in the northern part of 



proceedings: biological society 211 

European Russia centuries ago. Overlooking the fact that this absorp- 
tion resulted from peaceful intercourse and unconscious assimilation, 
these German writers began to agitate in favor of Germanizing non- 
German nationalities by violence. I'nder the influence of this propa- 
ganda appeared Pan-Slavism. 

It is believed that the desire to denationalize other nationalities 
rises from the economic interests of the ruling nationality, oi' rather of 
its ruling classes, for the differences in nationalit}^ handicap the expan- 
sion of trade and business. The results of the efforts to crush weaker 
nationalities have been negative, as bitterness, hostility, and opposing 
force have been created. The problem of nationality can not be solved 
by violence. 

There are three philosophical doctrines dealing with the problem: 
cosmopolitanism, emphasizing the unity of mankind and ignoring na- 
tionality, or opposing it; nationalism, ignoring the unity of mankind, 
believing in the separation of one nationality from another and holding 
one's own nationality to be the highest, with a special mission in his- 
tory (]\Iessiahs, Kultur, etc.); and internationaHsm, holding that all 
nationalities have equal rights for existence. Self-determination of 
nationalities is a principle of internationalism. When this principle is 
realized, the growth of peaceful intercourse and voluntary assimila- 
tion of nationalities will be secure, — a step forward in the progress of 
mankind. ' Frances Densmore, Secretary. 

BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The o79th regular meeting was held in the Assembly Hall of the 
Cosmos Club, Saturday, February 9, 1918; called to order by President 
Rose at 8 p.m. ; thirty-six persons present. 

LTnder the heading brief notes and exhibition of specimens, A. S. 
Hitchcock referred to the feeding of gulls and pelicans at Tobago as 
observed by him. The gulls outnumbered the pehcans by 10 to 1 
and almost^ as the pelicans brought up fishes, the alert gulls snatched 
them away before the pelicans could adjust the fishes for swallowing. 
This note was discussed by the Chair, L. 0. Howard, and others. 

The regular program was as follows: 

S. A. Rohwer: Notes on the nesting habits of the social wasps. After 
stating that the term ''social wasps" was restricted to the family 
Vespidae, Mr. Rohwer told of the recent advances in knowledge of the 
habits of the Neotropical species by the work of A. Ducke and R. von 
Ihering. The recent work on the habits suggest that the family may 
be divided into two sub-families on the shape of the fovea, through 
which the ligament connecting the gaster with the propodemn passes. 
These two groups have different habits. In the polygamic forms many 
of the species swarm, the nest is begun by a number of females and 
lasts no fixed period. The monogamic forms never swarm, the nest is 
begun by a single female and is used only a single season. Eighteen 
shdes, arranged to show the development in nest making from the 



212 proceedings: biological society 

simple type of Apoica to the more complex type of Poli/bia, illustrating 
nests of the polygamic forms, were shown. Eleven slides showing the 
nests of the monogamic forms were exhibited. These slides showed the 
differences between the single comb made by species of Po'istes and 
the more complex nest made by the Vespae. Attention was called to 
the three different types of location used for the nest by the different 
species of Vespa. 

Mr. Rohwer's communication was discussed by A. S. Hitchcock, 
L. 0. Howard, R. W. Shufeldt, and M. W. Lyon. In the discussion 
the author called attention to the desirability of collecting the smaller 
types of nests of social wasps and pointed out how they may be col- 
lected with safety. 

R. W. Shufeldt: Biological ahnormalities as exemplified by the col- 
lection in the Army Medical Museum. Major Shufeldt illustrated his 
communication by lantern slides, presenting various forms of so-called 
"monsters" and other teratologic types, selected from the different 
branches of the vertebrata including man. All of the specimens shown 
were chosen from the collection in the Army Medical Museum. 

Attention was invited to the occurrence of such deformities in plants, 
moUusks, insects, crustaceans, and other forms. Various theories were 
touched upon as to the causes of these departures from the normal 
animal or plant. Interesting cases, too, of polydactylism, hermaph- 
roditism, diplogenesis, hydrocephalus, Cyclops, spiana bifida, terata 
katydidyma, and numerous other teratologic types were introduced 
and explained. A somewhat full account was given of the Siamese 
■ twins and the lives they led, and other famous united twins were 
* described, and the propriety of the surgical operation to separate them 
briefly discussed. This interesting field of research was more or less 
fully entered upon, and a series of illustrated cases, conditions, and the 
medico-legal questions involved were passed in review. 

The 580th regular meeting of the Society was held in the Assembly 
Hall of the Cosmos Club, Saturday, February 23, 1918; called to order 
at 8 p.m. by President Rose; 48 persons present. 

Miss M. T. Cooke, Biological Survey, and Edmund D. Gibson, 
Bureau of Entomology, were elected to membership. 

The following informal communications were presented: 

Vernon Bailey exhibited and described some newly born examples 
of the common opossum, and commented on the comparative sizes of 
newborn and their parents in various mammals. 

R. W. Shuffeldt exhibited and described a young box tortoise 
with two heads. The individual had lived for a period of nine months 
in captivity. 

C. D. Marsh called attention to the recently issued Fresh-Water 
Biology by Ward and Whipple. 

The regular program comprised two communications: 

0. W. Barrett: A promising new source of sugar. Mr. Barrett said 
that the Kaong, or sugar palm (Arenga saccharifera) of the Far East, 
has been used for centuries as a source of syrup and moist sugar, as 



proceedings: biological society 213, 

well as vinegar, starch, fiber, etc. In 1914 the Bureau of Agriculture 
at Manila, P. I., worked out a process by which it is possible to produce 
a fairl}^ light-colored sugar, which crystallizes readily. The opening 
male inflorescences of the palm are tapped in practically the same 
way as the coconut and nipa palms are tapped. The fresh sap contains 
about 15 per cent sucrose, and each flower-branch runs for 8 to 12 
weeks. By bringing the fresh sap to about 95°C., then rapidly cooling 
and treating the liquor above the albuminous predipitate, then treating 
with lime water until considerably alkalined, then treating with carbon 
dioxide until another heavy precipitate falls, and finally by lioiling the 
perfectly clear supernatant liquor, — the process is completed. In the 
Province of Cavite on the Island of Luzon, interesting customs attend 
the preparation of the inflorescence for tapping, treatment of the raw 
surface during the flow period, and treatment of the tree afterward. 
Conservatively reckoned, sugar to the value of $600 to $1000 per 
acre can be obtained from a moderate stand of Kaong; in other words, 
without the expense of cultivation, the sugar palm yields a better crop 
year in and year out for at least twenty years than does the much 
more popular and better known sugar cane. Vast areas of the sugar 
palm occur in Indo-China, the Philippines, and Malaya. The trouble 
heretofore in making a high-grade sugar from the Arenga lay in the 
large amount of organic impurities in the sap, which with ordinary 
treatment turn very dark and then tend to reduce the crystallizing 
power of the sucrose. 

Mr. Barrett's paper was discussed by Messrs. A. A. Doolittle, A. S. 
Hitchcock, and William Palmer. 

W. C. Kendall: Some unrecognized anatomical facts and their rela- 
tions to fish-cultural practices. The paper pertained to the peritoneal 
membranes. Dr. Kendall said that the species of the genera On- 
corky nchus, Salmo, and Salvelinus haye a certain extent of ventral 
mesentery, extending from its anterior ventral and intestinal insertions, 
just back of the base of the ventral fins, to the posterior end of the 
abdominal cavity. The ovaries of the same species consist of perito- 
neal folds, each of which is boat-hke in form, wi h cross-wise parti- 
tions or ovigerous lamellae. In natural position the open or upper 
surface is inclined inward against the mesovarium so that the ovary is 
completely enfolded in membrane. A short but varying distance from 
the posterior end of the abdominal cavity, the dorsal mesentery ter- 
minates, leaving a communicating aperture from one side of the ab- 
dominal cavifiy to the other above the intestine for the remainder of its 
extent. With the termination of the mesenteny, the mesovarium also 
ends. From the posterior end of each ovary, the mesovarium and 
ovarian membrane continues as a trough-like channel as far as the 
communicating aperture. Thence the two ovarian membranes, 
united and attached to the median line of the upper surface of the in- 
testine, form a common trough-like oviducal channel which a short 
distance from the ovipore diverges to each side and becomes attached 
to the abdominal lateral walls, thus forming a reduced homologue of the 
so-called funnel-like oviduct of the smelt as described by Huxley 



214 proceedings: botanical society 

(Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883). Contrary to general anatomical and 
icthyological statements concerning the reproductive oigans of Sal- 
monidae, the ova cannot naturally "fall into the abdominal cavity," 
and, if they in any way gain access to it, they can not be extruded. 
To those familiar with fish-cultural practices as respects Salmonidae 
the application of these facts is obvious. 

Mr. Kendall's communication was illustrated by lantern slides of the 
structures described. The paper was discussed by R. W. Shufeldt. 

M. W. Lyon, Jr., Recording Secretary. 

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 126th regular meeting of the Society was held in the White 
Parlor of the New Ebbitt Hotel at 8.15 p.m., Tuesday, February 5, 
1918. Mr. Walter T. Swingle presided. Fifty-one members and 
45 guests were present. Mr. T. H. Kearney, the retiring president, 
delivered an address on Plant life on saline soils. (See this Journal 8: 
109. 1918.) Following the address, there was dancing in the Crystal 
Dining Room. 

The 127th regular meeting of the Society was held at the Cosmos 
Club at 8 p.m., Tuesday, March 5, 1918. There were 50 members 
and 4 guests present. L. B. Scott and Sidney F. Blake were elected 
to membership. The following scientific program was given: 

D. N. Shoemaker: The American species of the genus Phaseolus (with 
lantern). The American species of "beans" cultivated are: (1) Phaseo- 
lus vulgaris, our common bean; (2) Phaseolus lunatus, the Lima bean; 
(3) Phaseolus coccineus, the scarlet runner, and (4) Phaseolus acutifolius, 
var. latifolius, the tepary bean. 

Phaseolus vulgaris is much richer in varieties than the other species, 
the number reaching at least one thousand. These do not fall into well- 
defined groups, and their classification is not readily made. The most 
obvious division is into true dwarfs, or plants of determinate growth, 
and trailers, or plants of indeterminate growth. . 

Phaseolus lunatus is rich in varieties, which may be grouped as: (1) 
Sieva forms, including the small flat Limas, — a group distinct as to 
vegetative characters as well; (2) large Limas, which may be further 
divided into large flat and large round or turgid. All three forms of 
Lima beans occur with determinate and indeterminate growth. 

Phaseolus coccineus, as grown in the United States, does not have a 
large range of varieties, and may best be classified on color of ripe seeds. 

Phaseolus acutifolius has few varieties, which can best be divided on 
seed color. 

The varieties of the first species are each confined in their cultural 
requirements to definable regions. These regions are roughly as fol- 
lows: (1) The eastern and northern region, extending from New England 
to Idaho, and south along the Appalachian Mountains to the Georgia 
border. White pea, White medium. White Marrow, White Kidney, and 
Red Kidney being the main types grown here; (2) the Pacific Coast 
region, mainly in CaHfornia, the varieties being small California Whites 



proceedings: botanical society 215 

and Large California Whites; and (3) the southwestern region from 
western Texas to southern Cahfornia, and extending into the moun- 
tains through Colorado. The varieties here are old native types of 
beans long cultivated by the Indians, the best known being the Pinto 
and California Pinks. Besides these there are Bayos, Mexican Reds, 
and Mexican Whites. This region is the one where production is on 
the most rapid increase at present, and where expansion can be almost 
imlimited since beans are grown both as a dry-land crop and under 
irrigation. 

The Lima bean is grown commercially only in the southern part of 
California along the coast. Scarlet Runner beans are grown only in 
the northern part of the United States, and then only in gardens. 

Tepary beans are better adapted to dry-land farming than are other 
species. They are fairly salable. They are found growing wild in 
some of the mountain ranges of southern Arizona, and are a recently 
discovered part of the aboriginal agriculture of this region. 

W. E. Safford: Economic Phaseoli of the ancient AmericauH (with 
lantern) . The origin of the. edible species of Phaseolus was for a long 
time held to be doubtful. Writers on cultivated plants who relied 
upon the testimony of early explorers and colonists were not convinced 
that they were all American. The most convincing testimony is that 
offered by actual specimens from prehistoric graves, burial mounds, 
and cave dwellings. The writer was fortunate during his explorations 
in vSouth America in finding excellent specimens of Phaseolus vulgaris 
and Phaseolus lutmtus from graves on the coast of Peru. During the 
recent Pan-American Scientific Congress he made an exhibition in the 
National Museum of the food plants, textiles, aromatic, narcotic, and 
other economic plants of this continent, which included several distinct 
varieties of beans. Among them were Phaseolus vulgaris, Phaseolus 
lunatus, and Phaseolus coccineus. None of the last-named was found in 
South America; but on the other hand, a number of smooth globose 
beans called tchui, or chuvi, by the Quichua Indians were taken from 
graves at Ancon, and it is possible that these may be specifically dis- 
tinct from Phaseolus vulgaris. In one net of a peculiar shape, which 
may be likened to a three-fingered glove, at least eight varieties of 
beans were found, including four kinds of "purutus" (Phaseolus vul- 
garis), three kinds of "pallares" (Phaseolus lunatus), and the spheroid 
'tchuis" already mentioned. In the same net specimens of cotton 
seed were also found. 

Padre Cobo mentions the fact that the round beans called tchui, 
often beautifully colored, were used by the ancient Quichuas in playing 
certam games. In Mexico the variously colored beans of Phaseolus 
coccineus were somewhat similarly used by the Aztecs, who called the 
beans, ''avacotli," or "ayecotli," and the game of chance played with 
them ''patolli." The fleshy root of this bean, called "cimatl," was 
used by them medicinally. The white variety of Phaseolus coccineus 
"iztacayacotli," now called ayacote bianco or patol bianco, has been 
frequently mistaken for Phaseolus lunatus, and it is one form of this 
variety which, under the name of "Aztec bean," has been exploited as 
a discovery in an ancient cave dwelling of our Southwest. As a matter 



216 proceedings: botanical society 

of fact, it is far inferior to the common Phaseolus lunatus, and, though 
a good snap bean when green, it is scarcely edible when mature. 

A few specimens of Phaseolus lunatus from Peru are pure white, like 
the common varieties of our markets; some, however, are mottled like 
the "pataxte" of Chiapas and the "patani" of the Philippine Islands; 
others are blackish or maroon colored or yellow and brown and brown 
particolored. The presence of a number of distinct varieties in a single 
prehistoric grave indicates that beans had been cultivated in Peru a 
long time previous to the discovery. 

Phaseolus lunatus, the Lima bean, was unknown in North America 
before the Discovery. When first seen by a certain tribe of Indians 
they gave it a name signifying, the ''bean-that-resembles-the-ground- 
bean." The ground-bean referred to proved to be Falcafa conwsa, 
which, in addition to flowers of the ordinary type, yielding small pods 
enclosing several small seeds, has apetalous flowers on slender creep- 
ing basal branches, which bury themselves in the soil and produce 
solitary seeds resembling Lima beans, usually mottled with purple, 
but soft and turgid, with an outer skin which never becomes hard, but 
shrivels on drying. These ground-beans were a food-staple not only 
of the aboriginal inhabitants of Virginia, but also those of the river 
valleys of the interior of our country. They are easily gathered and, 
if cooked when fresh, have a buttery consistency and a pleasant flavor 
not unlike that of an artichoke. 

The lantern slides exhibited included illustrations of Phaseolus vul- 
garis and Phaseolus lunatus found in graves with Peruvian mummies 
and in ancient Indian graves of Argentina and North America; several 
varieties of Phaseolus cocci neus ranging from Guatemala to Mexico; 
and fine large specimens of Falcata comosa collected near the Potomac 
a short distance above Georgetown, together with plants from the 
normal seeds and from the "ground-beans" referred to, the latter much 
larger and more vigorous than the former. 

David Griffiths: Illustrations of the conspicuous groups of Opuntia 
(with lantern). Doctor Griffiths gave an illustrated talk on the gen- 
eral aspects of the groups of the genus Opuntia, considered in its broad- 
est phases. The slides were selected to show the salient features of the 
group in the most common representatives both as regards habit and 
details, they being thrown on the screen mostly in pairs, one showing 
details and the other habit. 

A point of special mterest has been revealed m the cultural studies 
which have extended over a period of ten years, namely, that the 
Clavateae commonly considered to be naked spined are in reality pos- 
sessed of spines in scabbards similar to the Cylindropuntia, but the 
sheaths are early deciduous and consequently not commonly seen in 
dried specimens. This characteristic of spines in scabbards is distinctly 
a North American trait and gives a line of cleavage other than a geo- 
graphical one, the Clavateae being intermediate in this respect be- 
tween the Cylindropuntia of North America and the Tephrocacti and 
cylindrical-jointed species of South America. 



proceedings: entomological society 217 

A few remarks were iiiade upon the food value and the products pre- 
pared from the fruits of the genus. Specimens were exhibited of pre- 
served prothicts, still well preserved, made in Mexico by crude processes 
over ten years ago. Enough of this 10-year-old "ciueso" was on hand 
to be sampled by those present. Brief reference was made to "Miel," 
"Melcocha," and "Colonchi," made from the tuna. Various other 
economic aspects of the genus were alluded to. 

H. !N. Vinall, Corresponding Secretary. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 311th meeting of the Society was held at the Cosmos Club, 
INIarch 7, 1918; forty members and ten visitors present. 

The following names were favorably acted upon for regular 
membership; R. E. Snodgrass, Joseph D. Smith, and R. H. Van 

ZWALUWENBURG. 

The regular program was as follows: 

Vernon L. Kellogg: Possibilities of entomology in ^ the war. Dr. 
Kellogg forcefully set forth the need for increased food production and 
conservation, especially of cereals, and pointed out the great oppor- 
tunity for important work along both lines devolving upon ento- 
mologists through the control of insects. He stated that the food supply 
of the world was in a critical condition and it was extremely important 
that all manner of losses from insect infestation be controlled in so 
far as possible. The speaker was of the opinion that present condi- 
tions offered a splendid opportunity for entomologists to do their part 
in winning the war . and at the same time advance the science in 
public esteem. 

In discussing Dr. Kellogg's remarks, Dr. Pierce gave some inter- 
esting observations regarding the effects of the past winter on the 
cotton boll weevil. He stated that the- unusually low temperatures 
had given the weevil a very severe set-back and he was of the opinion 
that the same would be found to be true in the case of other insect 
pests. 

Mr. W. R. Walton stated that while the early fall frosts and severe 
low 'temperatures had perhaps reduced insect infestation, they had at 
the same time badly damaged the winter wheat, thus causing injury 
as well as benefit. 

Mr. C. L. Marlatt stated that Australian stored wheat had been 
very badly injured by insects and that the British government had 
sent an entomologist there who would attempt to disinfect it and save 
the grain for Allied use. This entomologist had stopped in the United 
States on his way to Australia for the purpose of studying our methods 
of dealing with such conditions. Mr. Marlatt also spoke interestingly 
of food conservation by preventing insect damage to other stored 
products and growing crops. 

N. E. McIndoo: Olfactory organs of Diptera. Illustrated with 
charts and wax models. (No abstract). 



218 proceedings: society of American foresters 

W. S. Fisher: A new species of Agrilus froyn Florida. Read by title. 

C. T. Greene: Thr-ee new species of Dipfera. Read by title. 

Under the head of notes and exhibition of specimens Mr. S. A. 
RoHWER discussed an interesting new genus and species of sawfly 
which he had recently received from California, where it infests 
Libocedrus decurrens. 

A. B. CtAHan, Recording Secretary. 



SOCIETY OF AMERICAN FORESTERS 

An open meeting of the Society of American Foresters (Washington 
Section) was held Thursday evening, February 14, at the home of 
Mr. S. T. Dana. Twenty-eight active members and twenty-nine 
visiting members and guests were present. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Henry S. Graves, the speaker of the evening, 
in an informal talk described the work of the forest regiments in France 
and outlined his experiences while abroad. The work it seems is 
entirely behind the lines and has for its purpose the supplying of the 
American Forces with the timbers, ties, and lumber needed at the 
front, or in the construction of docks, depots, and permanent camps. 

The timber lies, for the most part, in state, communal, or private 
forests and is acquired through the French Government. Cutting is 
done under regulations laid clown by the Forest Service or private 
owner, and in the state and communal forests under the direction of 
the local forest officers. 

Following Colonel Graves, Major H. L. Bowlby outlined briefly 
the kind of work the Road Battalions of the 20th Engineers (Forest), 
now nearly recruited, expect to be called on to do. 

Following the program, refreshments were served and music was 
furnished by Mr. Wm. C. Stump, after which the meeting adjourned. 

An open meeting of the Washington Section of the Society was held 
Thursday evening, February 28, at the home of Mr. Herbert A. 
Smith. Eighteen members and nine visiting members and guests were 
present. 

Under the head of announcements and communications, Mr. A. 0. 
Waha read portions of a letter from Captain A. C. Ringland now in 
France with the 10th Engineers (Forest) describing a recent air raid on 
Paris. 

Mr. A. F. Hawes then introduced the topic for the evening, Forestry 
and the fuel problem, outlining the causes of the recent fuel shortage; 
what had been done by State Foresters, State Fuel Administrators, and 
the Poorest Service to relieve it by encouraging the cutting, marketing, 
and consumption of wood in place of coal; and what it was hoped could 
be accomplished in the future by the wood fuel campaign both to re- 



proceedings: society of American foresters 219 

lievo the fuel situation another wintoi', and to stiniulato the practice of 
private and municipal forestry. It was pointed out that the laigely 
increased demand for wood fuel was both an opportunity for and a 
danger to the practice of forestry in that while it created a market for 
forest products not otherwise merchantable, it also might lead to over 
cutting and to the destruction of potential timber trees. 

In the discussion which followed, Messrs. Mattoon, Besley (State 
Forester of Maryland), Krousz (recently with the (ireat Southern 
Lumber Company of Louisiana), Munns, R. C. Jones (State Forester 
of \'irginia), Sparhaw'k, E. H. Jones (United States Fuel Adminis- 
tration), Baker, and Harris took part outlining their experiences in 
the wood fuel campaign and discussing the subject from various angles. 

Following the program refreshments were served and the meeting 
adjourned. 

An open, meeting of the Societ}^ was held Thursday evening, IVLarch 
14, at the home of Mr. E. H. Clapp. Nineteen members and twelve 
visiting members and guests were present. 

Under the head of announcements Mr. Raphael Zon reported that 
at a recent meeting in New York the War Committee was reorganized 
and Prof. J. W. Toumey elected chairman. The purpose of this com- 
mittee is to keep in touch with the needs of the Government and with 
the available technical foresters of the country in order that specially 
trained men can be mobilized for war work as needed. 

The topic of the evening, Forest products and the war, was intro- 
duced by Mr. E. H. Clapp, who outlined briefly the many and varied 
uses of wood in the present struggle, and pointed out what an indispen- 
sable factor wood is in modern warfare. He also described briefly the 
war work at the Forest Products Laboratory of the Forest Service, 
mentioning some of the more important investigations now under way 
or proposed. 

Following Mr. Clapp, Mr. H. S. Betts discussed certain phases of the 
work of the Forest Products Laboratory bearing directly on the war, 
illustrating his remarks by reference to a number of models and draw^- 
ings. In the work of box testing and testing of woods for various pur- 
poses the Laboratory has been especially active. As a result existing 
specifications have been modified in a number of cases in such a way 
as to allow the substitution of more available woods and lower grade 
material without lowering the quality of the product. This has made 
possible a more complete utilization of available supplies with a con- 
sequent saving in cost and reduction in the strain on production. He 
also stated that new methods of kiln drying lumber have been per- 
fected which make it possible to season material in a few weeks that 
would ordinarily take several years. This has made possible the speed- 
ing up of construction of all kinds where seasoned wood is requu-ed. 
Tests of veneers, glues, and methods of gluing have also been of great 
value, particularly in airplane construction, while changes recom- 



220 proceedings: society of American foresters 

mended in wooden ship specifications have made possible their construc- 
tion in the East where the large timbers originall}'' called for are not 
available. 

Mr. Rolf Thelen then explained the various types of airplanes and 
their method of construction. He dwelt particularly^ on the kinds of 
wood used and the ways in which wood enters into airplane construc- 
tion, mentioning some of the difficulties encountered in securing suit- 
able material and how these are being overcome. 

During the discussion which followed, Dr. L. F. Hawley, Chemist 
for the Forest Products Laboratory, was called on and spoke of the im- 
portance of products derived from wood in the war — acetone, acetate 
of lime, alcohol, and charcoal being mentioned particularly. 

Following the program refreshments were served and the meeting 
adjourned. 

J. A. Mitchell, Secretary. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

The Chemical Society of Washington, the local section of the Ameri- 
can Chemical Society, gave a reception at the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion on February 28, 1918, to visiting chemists on war duty. The 
guests were received by Dr. F. B. Power, President of the local society; 
Dr. George P. Merrill, representing the Secretary and Regents of 
the Smithsonian* Institution; Prof. F. W. Clarke, of the Geological 
Survey; Prof. Charles L. Parsons, Secretary of the American Chemical 
Society; Dr. W. F. Hillebrand, of the Bureau of Standards; and Dr. 
C. O. Johns, of the Bureau of Chemistry. Short talks were giv^tn later 
in the evening by Messrs. Merrill, Clarke, and Parsons, and by 
Major S. J. M. Auld, of the British Mission, Dr. Samuel Avery, of 
the National Research Comicil, and Prof. W. D. Bancroft, of the 
Bureau of Mines Experiment Station. 

About 550 invitations were sent to visiting chemists, while the 
membership of the local section is over 400. The number of chemists 
now in Washmgton is thus in the neighborhood of 1000. 

Over two-thirds of the scientific staff of the Geophysical Laboratory 
are absent from Washington on work connected with the m^ufacture 
of optical glass. F. E. Wright is in charge of the optical glass plant 
of the Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. in Rochester, New York, and is 
assisted by J. B. Ferguson and R. H. Lombard. C. N. Fenner is 
in charge at the glass plant of the Spencer Lens Co., near Buffalo, New 
York, and E. T. Allen, E. G. Zies, and N. L. Bowen have assisted at 
different times at this plant. At the request of the Pittsburgh Plate 
Glass Co. a party under the direction of J. C. Hostetter and in- 
cluding L. H. Adams, G. W. Morey, H. S. Roberts, and E. D. Wil- 
liamson, was sent in December to the optical glass plant of that com- 
pany at Charleroi, Pennsylvania. 

The Geological Society of London has awarded the Wollas.ton medal 
to Dr. Charles D. Walcott, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, in recognition of his contributions to geology and Cambrian paleon- 
tology. The Wollaston medal was established "to promote researches 
concerning the mineral structure of the earth and to enable the coun- 
cil of the Geological Society to reward those individuals of any country 
by whom such researches may hereafter be made." The list of eighty- 
seven men of science who have received this medal since its establish- 
ment in 1831 contains the names of five other Americans who have 
been so honored — Louis Agassiz, James Hall, James D. Dana, Grove 
Karl Gilbert, and W. B. Scott. It is an interesting circumstance to note 

221 



222 SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

in connection with the award of this medal to Dr. Walcott that Wol- 
laston, the eminent Enghsh chemist who estabhshed the medal, was an 
intimate friend and scientific associate of James Smithson, of London, 
through whose beneficence the Smithsonian Institution in Washington 
was founded. 

The National Research Council has rented additional space and is 
now occupying the building at 1015 Sixteenth Street in addition to the 
offices at 1023 Sixteenth Street. The following four Divisions will be 
housed in the new offices: (1) Agriculture, Botany, Forestry, Fisheries, 
and Zoology; (2) Chemistry and Chemical Technology; (3) Geology and 
Geography; (4) Medicine and Related Sciences. 

Dr. H. M. Ami, formerly of the Geological Survey of Canada and 
now stationed in Washington at the British Embassy, has been elected 
vice-president of the Societe Geologique de France. 

A "second general report" by the Permanent Commission of the 
International Committee in charge of the "Tables Annuelles de Con- 
stantes et Donnees Numeriques" has been received. The first volume 
of these Annual Tables of Constants (covermg the year 1910) had ap- 
peared, and the volumes for 1911 and 1912 were m .preparation at 
the time of the first report of the commission, which was made to the 
Eighth International Congress of Applied Chemistry in New York 
in 1912. The publication of Volume IV, covering 1913, was inter- 
rupted by the outbreak of war, and no publication has been possible 
since that date, although the collection of material has continued under 
the direction of Dr. Charles Marie, the general secretary, and the 
followmg members of the commission: Carrara (Milan), Cohen 
(Utrecht), Dutoit (Lausanne), Lewis (Liverpool), and STiEGLiTi- 
(Chicago). French, British, and American grants to the Tables have 
been continued and even increased during the war. The Philosophical 
Society of Washington and the Chemical Society have been contribut- 
ing annually to the project. 

The following persons have become members of the Academy since 
the last issue of the Journal : Mr. James Percy Ault, Department of 
Terrestrial Magnetism of the C'arnegie Institution of Washington, 
Washington, D. C; Mr. William H. Babcock, 802 F Street, Wash- 
ington, D. C.; Mr. Charles Raymond Duvall, Department of Ter- 
restrial Magnetism of the C'arnegie Institution of Washington, Wash- 
ington, D. C.; Mr. John Clyde Hostetter, Geophysical Laboratory 
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D. C; Prof. 
Herbert Spencer Jennings, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 
Maryland; Dr. Paul D. Merica, Bureau of Standards, Washington, 
D. C.; Mr. William John Peters, Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D. C; 
Major General Hugh Lenox Scott, Headquarters 78th Division, Camp 
Dix, New Jersey; Mr. Bradshaw Hall Swales, Division of Birds, 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 223 

V. S. National Museum, Washington, D. (-.; Prof. JIichard Chace 
ToLMAX, Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, 
Illinois; Prof. Edwin Bidwell Wilso.v, Department of Physics, Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Dr. 
WooDROW WiLSOxV. The White House Washington, D. C. 

RESEARCH IXFORMATION COMMITTEE 

1. By jomt action the Secretaries of War and Naw, with the ap- 
proval of the Council of National Defense, have authorizerl and ap- 
proved the organization, through the National Research Council, of a 
Research Information Committee in Washington with Branch Com- 
mittees in Paris and London, which are intended to work in close co- 
operation with the officers of the Military and Naval Intelligence, 
and whose fimction shall be the securing, classifying, and disseminating 
of scientific, technical, and industrial research information, especially 
relating to war problems, and the interchange of such information be- 
tween the Allies in Europe and the United States. 

2. In Washmgton the Committee consists of: 

(a) A civilian member, representing the National Research Council, 
Dr. S. W. Stratton, Chairman; 

(b) The Chief, Military Intelligence Section; 

(c) The Director of Naval Intelligence. 

3. The initial organization of the Committee in London is: 

(a) The Scientific Attache, representmg the Research Information 
Coirmiittee, Dr. H. A. Bumstead, Attache; 

(b) The Military Attache, or an officer deputed to act for him; 

(c) The Naval Attache, or an officer deputed to act for him, 

4. The initial organization of the Committee in Paris is: 

(a) The Scientific Attache, representmg the Research Information 
Committee, Dr. W. F. Durand, Attache; 

(b) The Military Attache, or an officer deputed to act for him; 
(cj The Naval Attache, or an officer deputed to act for him. 

5. The chief functions of the foreign committees thus organized are 
mtended to be as follows: 

(a) The development of contact with all important research labora- 
tories or agencies, governmental or private; the compilation of prob- 
lems and subjects under investigation; and the collection and compila- 
tion of the results attained; 

(b) The classification, organization, and preparation of such infor- 
mation for transmission to the Research Information Committee in 
Washington; 

(c) The maintenance of continuous contact with the work of the 
offices of Military and Naval Attaches m order that all duplication of 
work or crossing of effort may be avoided, with the consequent waste 
of time and energy and the confusion resultmg from crossed or dupli- 
cated efifort; 



224 SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

(d) To serve as an immediate auxiliary to the offices of the Military 
and Naval Attaches in the collection, analysis, and compilation of scien- 
tific, technical, and industrial research information. 

(e) To serve as an 'agency at the immediate service of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Military or Naval Forces in Europe for the 
collection and analysis of scientific and technical research information, 
and as an auxiliary to such direct military and naval agencies as may 
be in use for the purpose; 

(f ) To serve as centers of distribution to the American expeditionary 
forces in France and to the American naval forces in European waters 
of scientific and technical research information, originating in the 
United States and transmitted through the Research Information 
Committee in Washington; 

(g) To serve as centers of distribution to our Allies in Europe of 
scientific, technical, and industrial research information originating in 
the United States and transmitted through the Research Information 
Committee in Washington; 

(h) The maintenance of the necessary contact between the offices 
in Paris and London in order that provision may be made for the 
direct and prompt interchange of important scientific and technical 
information; 

(i) To aid research workers, or collectors of scientific, technical, and 
industrial information f^om the United States when properly accredited 
from the Research Information Committee in Washington, in best 
achieving their several and particailar purposes. 

6. The headquarters of the Research Information Conmiittee in 
Washington is in the offices of the National Research Council, 1023 
Sixteenth Street; the Branch Committees are located at the American 
Embassies in London and Paris. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Vol. VIII APRIL 19, 1918 No. 8 



AVIATION. — Aviation and the war.^ C. F. Lee, Commanding 
Officer, British Aviation Mission. (Communicated by 
L. J. Briggs.) 

I should much prefer to stand here and answer a few direct 
questions rather than to try to give you miscellaneous informa- 
tion on subjects connected with aviation. But there are repre- 
sentatives here of so many different sciences, men who are in the 
habit of asking and answering questions on such a variety of 
topics, that it is probably better that I do not attempt to answer 
any ^ientific questions at all on the theory of aviation, especially 
as my scientific knowledge of it is nil. 

Not everyone realizes how long a time it takes to make a 
service flyer. The average period, from the time that the pupil 
is brought to the cadet schools of the Flying Corps to the time 
he is ready to go over-seas and fly over the lines, is about seven 
months. That is a very considerable length of time, especially 
in these days of intensive training and preparation, yet the 
actual training in flying is one of the simplest items. The 
principal factor to consider in teaching flying in war time is 
whether it is worth while to spend the necessary time on a pupil. 
If a country is at peace and there are plenty of machines available, 
it may pay to stick to a man who will undoubtedly make a flyer 
sooner or later, for anyone can fly if sufficient time be given to his 
instruction. But in times of war when, as at the present time, we 

1 Report of a lecture given before the Washington Academy of Sciences on 
Thursday, March 7, 1918. 

225 



22(i lee: aviation and the war 

have neither a surplus of machines available for flying nor the 
extra time to spend in training, it is not a practical thing to do. 
The hard, specialized training which everybody has to come to 
sooner or later is not only important, but absolutely essential. 

Much has been said about ''dangerous stunts," frequently 
with the implication that these are spectacular performances 
which thrill the spectators but- are needlessly risky, and I should 
like to devote a few words to this matter. 

It is quite true that some lives were lost in the earlier days in 
instructing pupils in what we call ''stunting," but it is quite 
useless to send a man over-seas if he is unable to "stunt." In 
individual fighting, unless the flyer can really do things better 
than the German, he is not going to come out alive. For instance, 
when one machine meets another, each speeds up and goes 
through every kind of maneuver to get into a good position so 
as to be able to "get" his opponent. The man who is going to 
come out alive is the one who can outdo his opponent in flying. 
It is not a question of "getting away from the German." It is 
not a matter of getting away at all, but of getting into a good 
position so that you can down him. He is going to do the^ame 
thing as you are, and unless you are able to outdo him in his 
maneuvers you are going to come out beaten ; and unless you are 
trained to do real stunts (which are really not at all dangerous), 
you are not going to be able to down him. The danger is not 
in "stunting;" the danger is in not being able to "stunt." 

If a flyer goes over-seas and cannot do these things, then his 
life isn't worth a "scrap of paper." If he can do these things, 
and if the time comes when he is absolutely match to match with 
his opponent, the man who will kill his opponent is the one who 
can turn his machine about at will and get out of a difficult 
position. Getting out of the difficult position saves his life, but 
that is not all; the real problem is to get into a good position so 
that he can down the enemy, and the downing of the Boche is 
the thing that every flyer is out for. He is there not to get away ; 
he is there to kill his opponent. 

To succeed, the flyer must be taught properly. It may cost 
one or two lives on this side of the water, but if the men are 



lee: aviation and the war 227 

taught thoroiig hly it will mean the ending of these casualties on 
the other side. What is more important, if the flyer does not 
know how to "stunt," it will not only mean the death of the pilot 
himself, which is relatively not so important in view of the 
fact that so many thousands of men have been killed in this war, 
but it may result disastrously to a great number of men on the 
ground. When the man in the air goes down, there may be 
batteries depending on him for spotting our own fire and the 
enemy's artillery; there may be infantry regiments waiting to 
know where the Germans are; and there may be whole divisions 
waiting for certain information. It is thus absolutely criminal to 
send a pilot to the front who does not know how to fly, and the 
only way to make him capable is to teach him to stunt. It is 
now taught at all the flying schools. 

The teaching of stunting is not difficult, but we must have 
pupils who have a certain amount of knowledge and skill. I 
will give you one or two instances which we had in the beginning 
of the war. We were very hard pressed for apparatus and very 
hard up for machines by the end of 1'915. A lot of pilots were 
sent over-seas after they had been given the best training that 
the short time would allow, but there were many casualties. 
Some of them were due to the fact that some of these fellows 
could not really "stunt" their machines. ^The Boche would 
get "on their tail" and they would put their nose down. If the 
man in the disadvantageous position puts his nose down, the 
pilot on his tail can do the same and get him very easily. Now, 
the fellow who can stunt will do some fast climbing, turn, and 
maneuver himself into a better position from which to attack his 
opponent, while the fellow who cannot stunt will put his nose 
down and try to get aw^ay and will find himself an easy mark for 
the enemy. This was very noticeable with raw German flyers. 

I want to make it very plain that there is no danger whatever 
in stunting, and I could show you that with proper training a 
pupil can be taught to stunt in twenty-five hours. The onlj^ 
danger is in doing it too near the ground, but at 2000 feet there 
is not a single position that the machine cannot be put into with 
safety. 



228 lee: aviation and the war 

The evolution of the machines themselves is very interest- 
ing. At the beginning of the war we had only about four small 
squadrons, of 12 machines each. They consisted of what we now 
call very old machines. There were some Farman machines, 
some 2. A and B's, and one or two Bleriots, which at that time 
were considered very speedy machines. All those machines are 
now considered too slow even for training. In those days they 
used to fly under 3000 feet and used to come back with a tre- 
mendous lot of bullet holes in their machines, but there were not 
many casualties. As the war went on, with time and experience 
the machines gradually were improved, until at the present time 
we have scout machines that fly 135 miles an hour, machines 
that will climb 15,000 feet in less than fifteen minutes. 

That is the evolution that has been forced on France and 
England. It is a matter of life and death to the Allies to keep just 
a little better than the German. But it is very hard to get very 
much better than he. In practically every case a machine is 
obsolescent from the time that it appears on a production basis 
at the front. So it is one huge race to get a machine with a little 
more maneuverability, a little more climbing ability, and a little 
more speed. Your defense is not the bullet-proof seat you are 
sitting in; the only defense you have is the maneuverability of 
your machine. , 

To return to the training. When the pupils come to the ground 
schools they get a certain amount of ground training. They 
are told what the machine can do, and the detailed operations 
that are performed by the various parts. They are also given 
the ordinary subjects connected with drill and military life. 
After six or eight weeks in training, when they have become- 
soldiers to a certain extent and have acquired a certain amount 
of discipline, they are drafted to a school of flying. 

At this school of flying, according to their temperament, 
according to how they fly, according to age, and according to 
their all around knowledge, they are assigned to one of three 
branches: first, the single-seater scout; second, the artillery- 
observation squadrons ; or, third, the bombing machines for both 
day and night bombing. 



lee: aviation and the war 229 

All these subjects are highly specialized at the present time. 
It is absolutely impossible for a pilot to be an expert in all three 
subjects. He may be an excellent flyer in a heavy machine but 
he msiy fail as a gunner; another pilot may be extremely good in 
the scouts. All these things require special knowledge and 
special tactics for teaching them. The pilot in the single seater 
must be an expert gunner. He must know his gun absolutely 
thoroughly, but if he can't shoot straight he may as well go home. 
Some machines have three or four guns. If a gun goes wrong, 
the pilot must be able to locate the trouble and correct it. He 
must go through various courses of training, including ''stunting" 
courses, and until he has completed these he is not allowed to 
go over-seas. 

Furthermore, before he goes over-seas he has to be absolutely 
proficient in what is called formation fljdng. In former days the 
machines went out one, two, or three at a time. Nowadays it is 
of no use to go over alone or in pairs. The machines now fly 
in sixes, eights, twelves, sixteens, and twenty-fours. They fly 
together, bunched up and well packed in. If the formation is 
well packed in no Boche will attempt to touch it. But if one of 
the pilots drops out of the formation, if his engine goes wrong and 
his revolutions start dropping and he starts losing height, then 
the enemy is after him. They wait their time until he is well put 
of his formation and then his only safeguard is to stunt. 

A friend of mine (now Colonel), Jack Scott, used to go out 
''Hun hunting" by himself. He once was out beyond the lines 
looking at his own squadron, when a squadron of Boches came 
between him and his own lines. The only thing he could do was 
to stunt, and although he got bullets all through his machine, 
his gun was hit, he had three holes through the seat, and a lot of 
holes through other parts of his machine, he got away all right. 
But he said he got so tired of flying around and around that he 
was almost ready to give up, when one of the enemy happened 
to come in line, and Scott fired when he saw him on his sights. 
The Boche went spinning to the ground. That little accident 
heartened him so that he revived and got away. 

There was another fellow, Bishop, who was of the same sort. 
He went out scouting alone and saw five enemy machines just 



"230 lee: aviation and the war 

getting ready to leave their aerodrome. He flew right down close 
on top of them and crashed two machines before- they left the 
ground. He then went for the third machine and sent that 
crashing to the earth. But things were then getting too hot for 
him so he climbed two thousand feet, where he finally got the 
fourth one. Then to show his independence he went after the 
fifth. He got the Victoria Cross for that. 

Artillery machines are quite another matter. They have a 
very hard job and a very interesting one, and it is a job that 
requires lots of courage because they have to stay in the same 
place over the batteries and spot the other batteries' fire. They 
have to keep their eyes on the land, and on a cloudy day the 
enemy sometimes creeps up on them through the clouds. Gen- 
erally speaking these men are a little older and are chosen because 
they have the temperament and are a little more suited to staying 
over one place and seeing the job out. It is not very pleasant 
for the men who are accustomed to scouting to have to fly over 
a certain area and see the same place every day. The artillery 
nowadays is practically dependent on wireless and aeroplanes 
for spotting. The total number of aeroplanes you can get now 
in a definite area is dependent on the wireless you can get into 
that area without being "jammed," and not on the total number 
of machines available. 

Coupled with the work with the artillery, these aeroplanes 
also have duties to perform with the infantry, such as contact 
patrols. 

The next class is that of the bombing machines. Bombing 
is one of the most difficult things there is. It is extremely hard 
to drop a bomb upon a certain object when an aeroplane is travel- 
ing at such an enormous speed and at such high altitudes. If 
you should go over Washington in an aeroplane, you would be 
surprised at the many places where you could drop a bomb and 
do no damage. With your wide streets and avenues it would be 
very difficult to drop a bomb on any spot where it would do very 
much harm. If dropped in the street, it would probably do no 
more damage than to break a few shop windows. If you struck 
a definite target it would be with a certain amount of luck. 



lee: aviation and the war 231 

However, it is not all luck. The man who is highly trained will 
make more hits than one who is not. There is a special course in 
bombing and a special course on the bombing sights which are 
attached to the aeroplane. 

There was a friend of mine, Harvey Kelly, who went out flying 
a great deal alone. He was a happy-go-lucky sort of fellow and 
thought that he could come and go as he pleased. There wasn't 
anything that he would not try. Once he saw a battery firing 
and let off one bomb at it. He saw no result so he came up again 
and let off another one. He happened to look out over the other 
side of his machine on his third attempt and saw that bomb burst 
in a village about a mile away from the battery. So you see it 
is none too easy to drop bombs accurately on any place. 

Machines are frequently used nowadays for going up and down 
the lines, picking off men in the trenches, and generally making 
things uncomfgrtable. Nothing is more detrimental to morale 
than to have aeroplanes continually flying overhead, and the 
same is true of the observation balloons. The men on the ground 
think that you can see far more than you can, even when the 
aeroplane is 15,000 feet above the ground, when as a matter of 
fact you can't really see any details at all. There is always the 
possibility of having a battery of guns directed upon them that 
keeps the men thinking and worries them. If there is a column 
of infantry moving behind the lines, the aeroplane cooperating 
with the artillery can always have a battery of guns directed into 
it. What with aeroplanes flying overhead all day and bombing 
going on all night, the morale of the soldiers in the trenches has 
to stand a severe test. 

Bombing by night requires a great deal of practice, and night 
bombing now is a matter to which serious training is devoted. 
Every night the machines go over the lines and keep the enemy 
awake as far as possible. After a long spell of trench work, 
possibly ten days in the trenches, when the men are at the rear 
resting and playing games, to be continually disturbed at night 
cannot but have an effect on their efficiency, making them less 
likely to be of use when they go back to the trenches. That is 
one object of bombing — to prevent the enemy from having a rest. 



232 wells: periodic system 

I went down to the Texas flying fields about a month ago, and 
found the cadets there splendid. They are a keen, real good lot, 
with good discipline, and are an excellent selection of healthy 
young men. They are all fellows who play games, or ride, or 
enjoy some sport, and have been well chosen. But they will 
have to be taught, even at the cost of some casualties. 

(The lecturer then showed a series of lantern slides giving views 
of the front taken from aeroplanes, including the city of Bapaume 
in flames, the effect of the bombardment of Guillemont at the 
battle of the Somme, and the bombing of an aerodrome; aero- 
plane views of England, showing the kind of information that 
can be obtained by the aeroplane photographer concerning 
country to be crossed by the troops; the first flying schools in 
Wiltshire; repairs to planes and engines; the types of aeroplanes 
and the older types of guns; and various phases of the training 
of the flyers.) 

PHYSICS. — Note on the -periodic system of the elements. P. V. 
Wells, Bureau of Standards. (Communicated by S. W. 
Stratton.) 

The electron theory of atomic structure gives to the periodic 
system a new significance. This is shown very clearly by the 
spiral periodic table of Stoney and others as revised by Harkins 
and Hall. The spiral form has the advantage of being in a plane 
instead of in space, and thus of naturally representing two co- 
ordinates, atomic number and atomic weight. 

Chancourtois, the first to discover periodicity in the properties 
of the elements, used a helix and a period of sixteen. Newlands 
discovered the period eight, and called his relation ''the law of 
octaves." Mendeleef recognized both periods but considered 
eight the fundamental period, from valence considerations. This 
is also in harmony with the electron theory of valence. I have 
therefore changed the spiral table given by Harkins and Hall to 
a period of eight instead of sixteen, as is shown in figure 1 . The 
distance from the center represents atomic weight, the elements 
occurring in angular order of atomic number, which increases 



wells: periodic system 



233 



with clockwise rotation. Each group is thus arranged radially, 
the subgroups being shghtly displaced. 

The table appears to me to have all the advantages of the space 
double helix, and is much simpler. It overcomes the artificial- 



ThEir..Ra.Ein 




Fig. 1. Spiral table illustrating the electron theory 

ity of the spiral of period sixteen,, which has two half turns 
containing no corresponding elements. It brings the subgroups 
and main groups together, as in Mendeleef's table. 

The spiral table is particularly adapted to illustrating the 
electron theory. Thus each turn represents a ring of eight 
valence electrons. The vertical axis represents in a general way 
the transition from positive to negative valence. To the right 



234 PAIGE AND steiger: sericitization 

are the metals of positive valence, to the left the nonmetals of 
negative valence, etc. ' 

The table suggests that the elements in the first two series are 
systems too simple to have the more complicated relationships 
fully developed. It is interesting, however, to note in this con- 
nection the possibility of two forms of neon, perhaps an embry- 
onic foreshadowing of the first triplet Fe, Co, Ni. But the main 
use of the periodic table is to assist the mind in grasping the host 
of experimental facts accumulated by the chemist. Today these 
facts are of interest to a wider circle of scientists and the slightest 
simplification in their presentation is welcome. 

REFERENCES 

Chancourtois, B. de, Nature 41: 186. 1889 (by P. J. Hartog). 

Harkins, W. D., and Hall, R. E., Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc. 38: 169-221. 1916. 

Mendeleef, D., Chem. News. 40, 1879; 41, 1880; Principles of Chemistry, Vol. 

2. 1891. 
Newlands, J. A. R., Chem. News. 10: 94. 1864; 12: 83, 94. 1865. 
Stoney, G. J., Proc. Roy. Soc. 85: 471-473. 1911 (by Lord Rayleigh). 

GEOCHEMISTRY. — Fluorine in sericitization.^ Sidney Paige 
and George Steiger, Geological Survey. 

The intense alteration of granodiorite or quartz monzonite 
porphyries in which large deposits of secondary chalcocite occur 
(the so-called porphyry coppers) is a matter of common knowl- 
edge. This alteration, of two kinds — primary, resulting in the 
introduction of sericite, pyrite, and quartz; and secondary, 
resulting in the deposition of chalcocite from descending sulphate 
solution — leaves the original rock in a scarcely recognizable 
condition. 

The degree of sericitization is in many places astonishing. 
Where fractures are numerous and ascending waters have freely 
circulated, the rock mass may be almost wholly replaced by 
sericite, quartz, and pyrite, the former two minerals occurring in 
about equal amounts. 

Changes resulting from the descending, oxidizing waters have 
been in places quite as noteworthy; the sericitized rock has been 

* Published with the permission of the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey. 
Mr. Steiger is responsible for the chemical analyses. 



PAIGE AND STEIGER: SERICITIZATION 



235 



altered to kaolin, and here again where fractures are plentiful 
and the descending solutions have been active, considerable parts 
of the rock in the aggregate have been altered to this mineral or a 
closely allied compound. 

The formation of sericite from feldspar is usually assigned to the 
action of either heated water alone or to the action of heated 
water containing carbonate. As may be observed at many places, 




Fig. 1. Illustrating the replacement of breccia by veins of kaolin without 
movement along the veins. 

sericite forms with ease from oligoclase, orthoclase, andesine, 
and labradorite. According to Lindgren,- this fact was first 
described by Bischof,^ who also furnished the chemical explana- 
tion. The potassium carbonate contained in the water changes 
the sodium-bearing silicate into potassium silicate, which unites 
with the aluminum silicate to form sericite. 

In the copper deposits at Tyrone, New Mexico — deposits that 
are typical chalcocite deposits resulting ''from secondary enrich- 



- Lindgren, Waldemar, Meiasomatic processes in fissure veins. 
Inst. Min. Eng. 30: 31-608. 1901. 

= BiscHOF, Chemische Geologie, I, p. 31 et seq; also p. 44. 



Trans. Amer. 



236 



PAIGE AND STEIGER: SERICITIZATION 



ment" — the nature of the formation of kaolin below the chal- 
cocite ore bodies seemed to require more than the ordinary 
■explanation, for the evidence is fairly conclusive that quartz 
in considerable amount, together with the other constituents of 
the porphyry, has been metasomatically replaced by kaolin. 

In figure 1 a .series of veins is illustrated, cutting a very brec- 
ciated porphyry. The arrangement of the fragments is such that 
it is evident that there could have been no movement anlog the' 
veins in any direction. The veins are composed of kaohn. In 
figure 2 another kaolin vein is illustrated. Here there is a perfect 
gradation from the common sericitized porphyry at one end of 
the vein to kaolin at the other end. About midway, quartz 
phenocrysts, residual from the porphyry still remain inclosed 




Fig. 2. Illustrating the progressive replacement of porphyry by kaolin. 
Quartz is the last mineral to disappear. 

in the kaolin, whereas the pure masses of kaolin contain none. 
This is apparently a clear case of the progressive removal of 
quartz by metasomatic replacement. 

In discussing with Dr. Adolph Knopf, of the Geological Survey, 
this occurrence, which appeared to demand more than the 
ordinary explanation, Dr. Knopf suggested that perhaps fluorine 
had been active. In the Tyrone district fluorine occurs in fluor- 
ite in veins, at one place in a vien several feet thick and at other 
places in small veins a few inches thick. It is presumed there- 
fore that it also occurs more generally in small veinlets. That 
it has not been more generally recognized in small veinlets, how- 
ever, is natural, for processes of secondary enrichment by waters 
carrying sulphuric acid are precisely those that would readily 
attack fluorite and remove it. Nevertheless, it was felt that while 
fluorine viight have been present in fluorite in numberless veinlets, 



PAIGE AND steiger: sericitization 237 

a search for another source was demanded, and sericite was 
chosen as the mmeral most likely to contain it. 

It is well known that muscovite mica contains fluorine. It is 
now recognized that sericite is a form of muscovite, but analyses 
proving that sericite contains fluorine are surprisingly few. 
Spurr-* has argued that fluorine is necessary for the formation of 
sericite, but his tests were not convincing as to the fluorine con- 
tent of sericite, though its presence in a specimen (which con- 
tained no sericite) to the amount of 0.12 per cent indicated that 
the waters that altered the rock contained it. 

To throw more light on the matter therefore, a part of a narrow 
replacement vein traversing quartz monzonite porphyry was 

TABLE I 
Analysis of Sericite Vein 

SiOs ..68.11 NaaO 0.44 

AI2O3 16.84 K2O 4.08 

FeiOa 0.80 FeS2 6.68 

CaO 0.44 F *0.09 

MgO 0.50 

97.98 

chosen for analysis. The specimen contained about equal 
amounts of sericite and quartz and a little pyrite. No fluorite 
was visible with the high powers of a microscope, and no other 
minerals than those mentioned were noted. 

The results of the analysis obtained are given in table 1. 

The mineral composition of the vein, as computed from the 
analysis, is quartz, 45.30 per cent, sericite, 46.00 per cent, and 
pyrite, 6.68 per cent: sum, 97.98 per cent. The analysis was 
carried out by standard methods. The fluorine, however, was 
indirectl}^ determined by the colorimetric method, depending 
on the bleaching effect of fluorine on the color produced by 
hydrogen peroxide with titanium solution. A qualitative check 
was made by the old Berzelius method, and the presence of 
fluorine was proved by its etching effect on glass. All the alkalies 
and the alkali-earth metals were computed into the sericite. 
Thus a maximum amount of sericite was figured. The percent- 

* Spurr, J. E., Geology of the Ton6pah Mining District. U. S. Geol. Survey 
Prof. Paper 42: 232-3. 1905. 



238 PAIGE AND steiger: sericitization 

age of fluorine in the sericite is practically 0.20. Any lesser 
amount of sericite would show a higher content of fluorine in the 
sericite than that calculated. Equivalent silica was allotted to 
the alkalies and the alkaline earths and the remainder computed 
as quartz. The failure to sum up to' 100 per cent is due to water 
in the sericite, not determined. 

When the fact is taken into consideration that sericite is a very 
abundant mineral in the rocks of the T^yrone district, the amount 
of fluorine indicated to be present in the district becomes very 
significant; first in the role it must have played in the primary 
mineralizing waters, for it is an element of great potency in 
effecting the decomposition of aluminum silicates, and second, 
its part in further decomposing the rocks during processes of 
secondary enrichment on being set free by the action of sulphate 
waters on sericite. 

That fluorine is potent to decompose aluminum silicates is 
evident not only from the fact that it is used in ordinary analytical 
work for this purpose, but its use forms the basis of several pat- 
ents involving the decomposition of feldspar or kaolin. The 
Doremus process of making potassium sulphate^ involves the 
treatment of "finely powdered orthoclase with aqueous hydro- 
fluoric acid." A soluble and an insoluble compound are pro- 
duced. Both are further treated with sulphuric acid; sulphates 
are obtained and the fluorine gas and acid recovered. 

The Childs process of deriving alumina from kaolin involves 
the passing of hydrofluoric acid gas, or some other volatile com- 
pound of fluorine, for example, silicon fluoride, through kaolin.^ 

It is well known that dilute sulphuric acid solutions will de- 
compose sericite and that kaolin or kaolin-like products originate 
from this reaction. Fluorine will be set free. 

The action of fluorine in descending solutions, whether derived 
from fluorite or from sericite, might well be somewhat as follows: 
Fluorite is decomposed by sulphuric acid with the formation of 
calcium sulphate (CaS04) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) and 
hydrogen fluoride unites readily with silica to form water and 

5 United States Patent Office, Spec'ficat on of letters patent No. 1,054,518, 
patented February 25, 1913. 

« Patents Nos. 1,036,453 and 1,036,454, dated August 20, 1912 



PAIGE AND steiger: sericitization 239 

silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4), a gas soluble in water. Silica would 
thus be attacked and carried off. It is known that 
SiF4 + 4H2O = Si(0H)4 + (4HF) 
2SiF4 + (4HF) = 2HoSiF« 



3SiF4 + 4H2O = Si(0H)4 + 2H2SiF6 
Thus silicon hydroxide and hydrofluosilicic acid are formed. 
This latter compound is stable only in water, and is inert so far 
as attacking quartz is concerned. In the rocks under discussion 
here, it would probably form alkaline salts. On evaporation 
of the water, however, silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4) would again 
be formed and the more or less insoluble alkaline salts deposited. 
Whether the silicon tetrafluoride set free would, on recombining 
with water, again produce the active agent hydrofluoric acid is 
not known. More likely the process outlined above would be 
repeated, a certain portion of silicon hydroxide, Si (OH) 4, being 
deposited, and the inert hydrofluosilicic acid going again into 
solution, to again combine with alkaline bases. 

But it is to be expected that these salts will yield to decomposi- 
tion by acidified waters, as does sericite. And there is reason to 
believe that fluorine will be again and again set free, so long as 
sulphuric acid waters are present. 

summary 

The intense sericitization common in regions where large 
deposits of secondary chalcocite occur may be in large measure 
due to the fact that the primary mineralizing waters contained 
appreciable amounts of fluorine. The further decomposition of 
the rocks by descending sulphate waters with the attendant 
formation of kaolin-like substances may also be accelerated by 
the presence of the fluorine in the sericite, which is set free by 
reaction with sulphuric acid. The removal of quartz from veins 
consisting of kaolin-like matter which apparently has metasomati- 
cally replaced porphyry is thus explained. 

The presence of fluorine in veins and the determination by 
chemical analysis of 0.20 per cent fluorine in the sericite of the 
Tyrone district, New Mexico, support this thesis. 



240 ADAMS : FUNDAMENTAL POLYHEDRON OF DIAMOND 

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. — Note on the fundamental polyhedron 
of the diamond lattice. Elliot Q. Adams, Bureau of Chem- 
istry. ^ (Communicated by Edgar T. Wherry.) 

The space lattice according to which the carbon atoms in 
diamond are arranged has been established by the work of the 
Bragg's" and has been found not to correspond to any of the 
previously recognized point systems of the cubic type, having 
planes of ''gliding reflection" and axes of ''helical symmetry." 
To each of the already recognized point systems there corre- 
sponds a convex polyhedron capable of filling space, and having 
a symmetry correspondent to that of the point system. No 
such polyhedron appears to have been described as corresponding 
to the diamond lattice. The form of this polyhedron has been 
worked out and is given below. 

The polyhedron corresponding to the simple cubic lattice is 
the cube (100); to the face-centered lattice, the rhombic dodeca- 
hedron (110); and to the cube-centered lattice, the cubo-octa- 
hedron (111), (100), in which the octahedral faces are truncated 
just enough to make them regular hexagons. Since each carbon 
atom in diamond is near four others, tetrahedral faces will be 
present. As space can not be filled with tetrahedra, some other 
face must occur also. This face proves to be that of the rhombic 
dodecahedron, truncating the tetrahedral faces sufficiently to 
make them regular hexagons. The polyhedron may be called 
the dodeca-tetrahedron k (111), (110). (See figures 1-3). 

That diamond is crystallographically holohedral, while the 
unit polyhedra, as may be seen from the figures, are hemihedral, 
results from the fact that the mode of arrangement in space of the 
dodeca-tetrahedra constitutes a sort of twinning. Practically 
all the elements of the fourth column of the periodic table 
crystallize in a form similar to that of diamond. If the alternate 
atoms in such a lattice are different, the crystal becomes hemi- 
hedral, as in the case of sphalerite (ZnS). In this case the poly- 
hedra corresponding to the two elements need not be equal in size, 

1 Contribution from the Color Investigation Laboratory of the Bureau of 
Chemistry, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

2 Br\gg, W. H., and W. L., X-Rays and Crystal Structure, p. 102. 1915; 
Proc. Roy. Soc. (A) 89: 277. 1913. 



ADAMS : FUNDAMENTAL POLYHEDRON OF DIAMOND 



241 



and the dodecahedral faces will be relatively larger on the large 
figure and small, or even wanting, on the smaller. At the limit, 
one becomes a tetrahedron of infinitesimal size, while the other 
reduces to the dodecahedron of the face-centered lattice. 






Fig. 1. Orthographic projection. Fig. 2. Clinographic projection. Fig. 
3. Development of surface; may be used as net for constructing model. 

In chalcopyrite,^ where alternate planes of iron and copper 
atoms replace the zinc of sphalerite, the axis perpendicular to 
these planes is unique and the crystal is therefore tetragonal. 
Replacing alternate iron planes by tin, as in stannite, leaves the 
system still tetragonal. 

' BuRDicK, C. L., and Ellis, J. H., Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc. 39: 2518. 1917. 



242 ricker: synopsis of albizzia 

BOTANY." — A synopsis of the Chinese and Formosan species 
of Albizzia. P. L. Ricker, Bureau of Plant Industry. 

In a study of the specimens of Albizzia collected in China by 
Mr. Frank N. Meyer, agricultural explorer of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, specimens were found not agreeing with the 
descriptions of existing species, and, as a further examination 
of the material in the U. S. National Herbarium and a part of 
the material in the Arnold Arboretum showed the determinations 
of many of the specimens to be in a state of confusion, it became 
necessary to make a critical study of the material in order to 
determine what names to use. All of the Chinese species thus 
far reported belong to the subgenus Eualbizzia. 
Sect. I. Macrophyllae. Leaves 1-4-pinnate, leaflets 3-6- 
pinnate, mostly broad and large, 2-4.5 cm. broad 
and 4-9 cm. long, the costa slightly or not all 
excentric. 

A. Flowers pedicellate. 
Albizzia bracteata Dunn, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 35: 493. 1903. 

This species is distinguished from all of the nearest related 
species by its pedicellate flowers. 

China: Yunnan; Meng-tsze, Szemao, Henry 9997A-E, 4500- 
5000 feet altitude. 

AA. Flowers sessile. 
Albizzia meyeri Ricker, nom nov. 

Mi7nosa lucida Roxb. Fl. Ind. (2: 344. 1824?) ed. 2. 2: 544. 
1832. Not Vahl, 1807. 

Albizzia lucida Benth. Lond. Journ. Bot. 3: 86. 1844. 

Name in honor of Frank N. Meyer, agricultural explorer of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture, in recognition of his 
valuable botanical explorations in China. 

China: Yunnan; Meng-tsze, Henry 9373A. 
Sect. II. Obtusilobiae. Leaves 2-6 (rarely 8-9)-pinnate, leaf- 
lets 4-25-pinnate, ovate or oblong, obtuse, mostly 
less than 4 cm. long, the base broader or scarcely 
inequilateral, the costa somewhat excentric. 



ricker: synopsis of albizzia 243 

A. Flowers in pedicellate heads, the peduncle axillary or short 
racemose; corolla often up to 6 mm. long; leaflets 1-3.5 
cm. long. 
B. Pods noticeably stalked (5 mm. long), gradually tapering 
at apex and base. 
Albizzia kalkora (Roxb.) Prain, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 66: 
511. 1897. 
Mimosa kalkora Roxb. Hort. Beng. 40. 1814, nom. nud.; Fl. 
Ind. ed. 2. 2: 547. 1832. 

Acacia macrophylla Bunge, Mem. Sav. Etr. Acad. Sci. St. 
Petersb. 2: 135. 1833. 

The identity of Roxburgh's name was unknown until it was 
taken up by Prain who doubtless had opportunity to examine 
authentic specimens. Bunge's name (type specimen from 
Pang-shan) has been considered by Forbes and Hemsley a 

* 

synonym of A. lebbek L. The latter species is quite widely 
cultivated in the tropics, the type being from Egypt. The 
glands on the leaf are variable. In addition to the glands always 
found between the middle and base of the petiole, another gland 
is usually found either just below the lower or upper pairs of 
pinnae, and on some leaves the gland is found below every pair 
of pinnae. Some authors have used the position of the gland on 
the petiole as a character for separating species of Albizzia, 
but its position is entirely too variable to warrant such use. 

China: Province of Shantung; Boshan, F. N. Meyer 768a 
(S. P. I. 21969), Sept., 1907. Province of Chih; Pang-shan, 
F. N. Meyer 865a (S. P. I. 22618), Nov. 23, 1907. Province of 
Fokien; Dunn's expedition, May 25, 1905. Province of Hupeh; 
Hetiry 1605, 2870A, 6203; Wilson 511, May, 1900. Province 
of Kiangsu; near Nanking, F. N. Meyer 1448, June 4, 1915. 
Province of Shantung; Tsingtau, Zimmermann 211, 1901; 
Laushan, F. N. Meyer 305, Aug., 1907. 

BB. Pods sessile, acute or obtuse at apex and base. 
C. Flowers glabrous except tips of corolla lobes. 
Albizzia henryi Ricker, sp. nov. 

A large shrub or small tree 2.5-6 meters tall; leaves and pinnae 
1-2-pinnate; leaflets 5-10-pinnate, thin, glabrous, oblong or 



244 ricker: synopsis of albizzia 

oblong-elliptic, 2-3 cm. long, 1-2 cm. broad, the midvein but 
slightly excentric; flowers 1 cm. long, many in heads on axillary 
peduncles 4-9 cm. long, the pedicels 5-6 mm. long, glabrous; 
calyx 4-4.5 mm. long, glabrous, with shallow teeth; corolla 
white, puberulent only at the tips of the lobes; pods nearly 
sessile, 13-14 cm. long, 22-28 mm. wide, coriaceous, abruptly 
obtuse at both ends, mucronate-pointed; seeds smooth, brown, 
elliptic, thin, 8-9 mm. long, 4.5-5.5 mm. wide. 

China: Yunnan; j\Ieng-tsze, A. Henry 10683, in flower May 
29, in fruit June 30, 1896. (Type in U. S. Nat. Herb.). 

CC. Flowers puberulent throughout. 
Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. Lond. Journ. Bot. 3: 87. 1844. 

Mimosa lehbek L. Sp. PL 516. 1753. 

I have not seen Henry's specimen from Ichang reported by 
Forbes and Hemsley, but think it probable that it is A. kalkora, 
as are most of the specimens from China that have b'een named 
as above. It is doubtful if the true A. lehbek is found wild in 
China except rarely as an escape from cultivation around some 
of the larger cities. The only apparently genuine specimen I 
have seen from China was from Hong-kong. A. viacrophylla 
Bunge, usually referred here as a synonym, is quite distinct and 
is a synonym of A. kalkora. 

AA. Flowers in heads, long pedicelled; heads in subcorymbose 
racemes; leaflets less than 2.5 cm. long. 
Albizzia retusa Benth. Lond. Journ. Bot. 3: 90. 1844. 

This species is distinguished from its nearest relative, A. 
pedicellata Baker, by having its leaflets only 6-10-pinnate instead 
of 15-20-pinnate as in that species. 

Formosa: South Cape, Henry 992. It is also found in the 
Philippines. 

AAA. Flowers axillary, sessile or very shortly pedicelled, 
small; corolla 4 or rarely 6 mm. long; peduncles short, 
fascicled, often in numerous short leafless panicles. 
B. Flowers glabrous. 
Albizzia corniculata (Lour.) Ricker, nom. nov. 

Mimosa corniculata Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 651. 1790. 

Albizzia milletiii Benth. Lond. Journ. Bot. 3: 89. 1844. 



ricker: synopsis of albizzia 245 

China: Hong-kong, Ford; C. Wright in 1853-56; Sargent, 
Nov. 5, 1903. New Territory, Mrs. L. Gibbs, 1909. Lung- 
chau; Kwang-si, H. B. Morse 655. 

BB. Flowers pubescent or puberulent. 
C. Leaflets 6-8-pinnate. 
Albizzia procera (Roxb.) Benth. Journ. Bot. 3: 89. 1844. 
Mimosa procera Roxb. PL Corom. 2: 12. pi. 121. 1798. 
This species lias the costa but slightly excentric and the widest 
half of the leaflet turned towards the tip of the leaf instead of the 
narrowest half as is usual in most species. 
China: Henry li^lS. 

CC. Leaflets 8-25-pinnate. 
Albizzia odoratissima (Willd.) Benth. Lond. Journ. Bot. 3: 
88. 1844. 
Mimosa odoratissima Willd. PL Corom. 2: 12. pi. 120. 1798. 
China: Yunnan; Meng-tsze, Henry 9910, 10811 A. 
Albizzia odoratissima mollis Benth. in Hook. Fl. Brit. Ind. 
2: 299. 1878. 
China: Yunnan; Tapin-tze, Delavay 658. 
Sect. III. Falcifoliae. Leaves many(5-10)-pinnate; leaflets 
many (10-40) -pinnate, small (5-10 mm. long), often 
falcate; costa close to the upper margin. 
A. Stipules linear, caducous; leaflets 10-20-pinnate. 
Albizzia julibrissin Scop. Del. Insubr. 18. pi. 8. 1786. 
Acacia julibrissin Willd. Sp. PL 4: 1065. 1806, 
Forms of this species are occasionally found with the branches, 
foliage, and inflorescence densely pubescent or even velutinous 
throughout (A. jtdibrissin mollis (Wall.) Benth.). The com- 
monest form, however, has these parts but slightly pubescent 
or almost glabrous. 

China: Hupeh; Henry, without locality, 6185; Wilson 792, 
1315, 2032 without locality. Chili; Peking, Sargent, Sept. 
18, 1903; Tientsin, Meyer 1001, June 12, 1913. 

Core a: Chemulpo, Faurie, Sept. 28, 1901; Quelparte, Faurie 
1695, July, 1907; Jaquet 728, without locahty, July, 1908. 
AA. Stipules broad, coriaceous, caducous; leaflets 20-40- 
pinnate. 



246 kicker: synopsis of albizzia 

Albizzia chinensis (Osbeck) Merrill, Amer. Journ. Bot. 3: 575. 
1916. 

Mimosa chinensis Osbeck, Dagbok Ostind Resa 233. 1838. 

Mimosa marginata Lam. Encycl. 1: 12. 1783. 

Mimosa stipulata Roxb. Hort. Beng. 40. 1814, nom. nud. 

Acacia stipulata D. C. Prodr. 2: 469. 1825. 

Mimosa stipulacea Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. 2. 2: 549. 1832. 

Acacia marginata Hamilt.; Wall. Cat. No. 5243. 1832, nom. 
nud. 

Albizzia stipulata Boivin, Encycl. XIX Siecle 2: 33. 1838. 

Albizzia marginata Merrill, Philipp. Journ. Sci. Bot. 5: 23. 
1910. 

There are no specimens of this species in the National Herba- 
rium or Arnold Arboretum from China. Osbeck describes it 
from an island near Wampoa (not far from Canton), where it 
had probably been introduced from Cochin-china, Siam, Java, 
or the Philippines, where it is a native. 

China: Hong-kong, Hance; Hainan, B. C. Henry. 



ABSTRACTS 

• Authors of scientific papers are requested to see that abstracts, preferably 
prepared and signed by themselves, are forwarded promptly to the editors. 
Each of the scientific bureaus in Washington has a representative authorized to 
forward such material to this Journal and abstracts of official publications 
should be transmitted through the representative of the bureau in which they 
originate. The abstracts should conform in length and general style to those 
appearing in this issue. 

PHYSICS. — The work of the National Bureau of Standards on the 
establishment of color standards and methods of color nomenclature. 
Irwin G. Priest. Trans. Ilium. Eng. Soc. 13: 38. February 
11, 1918. 
This paper deals in a descriptive and enumerative way with the 
Bureau of Standards "Color Standards Investigation." The present 
status of color standards and color specification is considered, special 
emphasis being placed on the lack of standards, established nomen- 
clature, suitable instruments, etc. 

A Committee of the Illuminating Engineering Society to cooperate 
with the Bureau in establishing standards and nomenclature is 
proposed. I. G. P. 

ELECTRICITY. — A method for testing current transformers. F. B. 
SiLSBEE. Bureau of Standards Scientific Paper No. 309 (Bull. Bur. 
Stds. 14). 1917. 

In measuring large amounts of electric power it is usual to employ 
current transformers which supply to the measuring instruments a 
small current bearing an accurately known relation to the large current 
to be measured. Several very accurate methods are available for 
determining this relation between the two currents but they involve 
the use of rather sensitive and therefore delicate apparatus. 

The present method is intended for the use of the smaller central 
stations and laboratories which may wish to test current transformers 
with moderate accuracy but have not the facilities for the more com- 
plicated methods. It consists in connecting the transformer under 
test in series with a standard calibrated transformer of the same nom- 
inal ratio, the secondary windings also being connected in series. A 
measuring circuit is bridged across between the transformers and 

247 



248 abstracts: geology 

serves to cany any difference which there may be in the secondary 
currents. 

The detector should be sensitive to 0.00005 ampere. The moving 
coil of a commercial wattmeter, the current coil of which is separately 
excited, is suitable for this purpose. 

Two modifications of the general method are described in detail in 
the paper. F. B. S. 

« 

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY.— (7as interferometer calibration. J. D. 
Edwards. Bureau of Standards Scientific Paper No. 316. 1917. 
The Rayleigh-Zeiss gas interferometer which finds numerous appli- 
cations' in precision and technical gas analysis is usually calibrated by 
means of gas mixtures analyzed by chemical methods. The new 
method here proposed requires only the use of a pressure gage and a 
knowledge of the refractive indices of the gases for which the calibra- 
tion is desired. It is based upon the relation between the density and 
the refractivity of a gas and the relation between the composition and 
refractivity of gas mixtures. J. D. E. 



GEOLOGY. — Phosphatic oil shales near Dell and Dillon, Beaverhead 

County, Montana. C. F. Bowen. U. S. Geological Survey 

Bulletin 661-1. Pp. 6. 1918. 

The oil shale that promises to be valuable occurs south of Dillon, 

Montana, at about the same horizon as the phosphate deposits of 

Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming and, in addition to the oil it yields, 

contains considerable phosphate. Laboratory tests have shown that 

the phosphate is not driven off by distillation, and the fact that the 

shale yields oil on distillation and yet retains a notable quantity of 

phosphate in the ash presents to the technologist a problem whose 

solution may be of economic value. R. W. Stone. 

GEOLOGY. — Gold placers of the Anvik-Andreafski regioyi, Alaska. 

George L. Harrington. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 

662-F. Pp. 17, with geologic sketch map. 1917. 

Paying placers have been found on both sides of a greenstone ridge 

intruded by granitic rocks. Quartz veins related in origin to the 

intrusives are the source of the gold. Other mineral resources are 

coal and mineral springs. G. L. H. 



abstracts: geology " 249 

GEOLOGY. — Geologic structure of the northwestern 'part of the Paivhuska 
quadrangle, Oklahoma. K. C. He.\ld. U. S. Geoloj^ical Survey 
Bulletin G91-C. Pp. 44, with maps and sections. . 1918. 
This paper describes those geologic features of a portion of the 
Pawhuska quadrangle, Oklahoma, which bear on the occurrence, dis- 
covery, and development of commercial quantities of oil or gas. The 
rocks that crops out in the area are shown in a generalized stratigraphic 
section, but the characteristics and extent of certain beds of value in 
mapping the structure of the region are described full}^ The probable 
character of the rocks to a depth of 4000 feet below the surface is also 
described, and some evidence is given by graphic representation of 
well records and stratigraphic sections. ' R. W. Stone. 

GEOLOGY. — The Flaxville gravel and its relation to other terrace 
gravels of the northern Great Plains. Arthur J. Collier and W. 
T. Thom, Jr. V. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 108-J. 
Pp. 5. 1918. 
The Flaxville gravel in Montana is from a few feet to 100 feet thick 
and is composed of well-rounded quartzite and argillite pebbles from 
the Rocky Mountains but it contains also sand, clay, marl, and volcanic 
ash. It rests upon a series of plateaus which are cut on the Fort Union, 
Lance, and Bearpaw formations and which range in altitude from 2600 
feet at the east to 3200 feet at the west. Fragmentary fossils col- 
lected at 25 well-distributed localities show that the formation can 
not be older than Miocene nor younger than early Pliocene. 

R. W. Stone. 

GEOLOGY. — The Dunkleberg mining district, Granite County, Montana. 

J. T. Pardee. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 660-G. Pp. 7, 

with 1 plate and 1 figure. 1917, 
The ore deposits, which have been worked intermittently during 
the last 30 years and have produced $200,000 worth of silver and lead, 
occur in limestone, sandstone, and shale of Cretaceous age and also in 
diorite sills that have invaded these rocks. Except one, which is a 
contact-metamorphic body of zinc ore, the deposits are simple quartz 
veins in fissures that follow inclined bedding planes or cut across the 
sedimentary beds and the sills. Silver-bearing galena and carbonate 
derived from it are the most valuable minerals, though zinc blende 
is locally abundant. J. T. P. 



250 ABSTKACTS: TECHNOLOGY 

TECHNOLOGY. — The 'properties of Portland cement having a high 
magnesia content. P. H. Bates. Bureau of Standards Technologic 
Paper No. 102. Pp. 42. 'January 19, 1918. 

The question of the maximum amount of magnesia allowable in 
Portland cement is one of the most interesting encountered in the study 
of this complex material. There is still much diversity of opinion. 
Magnesia in amounts not greater than 8 per cent is believed by many to 
be harmless, whereas others consider amounts greater than 4 per cent 
injurious. 

It was considered very desirable to investigate the subject because 
failures of mortars and concrete were attributed to high magnesia 
content and especially so since all investigations to date have been 
somewhat at fault. 

A series of cements have been burned in the experimental rotary 
kiln of the Bureau in which the limestone used in the raw material 
was replaced in part or in whole by dolomite. Cements were thus 
obtained in which the magnesia content varied from 1.77 per cent to 
25.53 per cent. The results obtained show that cements when contain- 
ing not more than approximately 8 per cent magnesia will produce con- 
cretes with satisfactory strength at the end of one and one-half years. 
At this amount of magnesia, monticellite and spinel (constitutents not 
present in cement of lower magnesia content) appear; and those cements 
seem to hydrate with a large increase in volume. 

P. H. B. 



TECHNOLOGY. — The determination of absolute viscosity by short- 
tube viscosimeters. Winslow H. Herschel. Bureau of Standards 
Technologic Paper No. 100. Pp. 55. November 9, 1917. 
The Engler and the Saybolt Universal viscosimeters, which are the 
instruments usually employed in the oil trade, have such short outlet 
tubes that the equation for the flow through long capillary tubes is not 
applicable without correction factors. The literature has been care- 
fully reviewed and further experimental work has been done. The 
conclusion is reached that water is not a suitable liquid for use in finding 
the relation between viscosity and time of discharge for short-tube 
viscosimeters, and that Ubbelohde's equation, and all others based 
upon it, are seriously in error. 

W. H. H. 




PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY AND AFFILIATED 

SOCIETIES 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The Board of Managers met on Monday, March 25, 1918. A 
majority of the committee appointed at the preceding meeting to 
consider the project of pubHshing reviews of articles from foreign 
journals on problems connected with the war reported adversely on 
the project, principally on account of the lack of editorial facilities for 
such purposes. A committee consisting of Messrs. Maxon, Knopf, 
Dorset, Sosman, and Scofield was appointed to offer plans for 
making the Journal more systematically and equally representative 
of the different branches of science, and more useful to the affiliated 
societies. A committee consisting of Messrs. Sosman, Kearney, 
and Bartsch w^as appointed to confer with the Board of Management 
of the Cosmos Club on facilities for the scientific society meetings in the 
new assembly hall of the Club. 

Robert B. Sosman, Correspondi7ig Secretary. 

PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 800th meeting was held at the Cosmos Club, February 2, 1918; 
Vice-President Humphreys in the chair; 19 persons present. The 
minutes of the 800th meeting were read in abstract and approved. 

Mr. W. S. Gorton presented a paper on X-ray 'protective materials. 
The importance of the purpose served by X-raj^ protective materials 
is generally recognized. A thorough comprehension of the subject 
involves knowledge of both the physical and physiological properties 
of X-rays. 

X-rays are generated by the stoppage of cathode rays by matter. 
They may be classified as soft and hard; synonyms for these terms are 
"easily absorbed" and "penetrating." It is now known that X-rays 
are like light waves but of shorter wave length. The penetrating power 
increases with decreasing wave-length. jVIethods of measuring quahty 
are as follows: 1, absorption in some substance, generally aluminum; 
2, parallel spark gap; 3, wave length; 4, Benoist penetrometer. The 
last device has l3een shown (at the Bureau of Standards) to be of 
practically, no use with a modern transformer outfit. 

The physiological effects of X-rays may be classified as superficial 
and deep-seated. The former class comprises X-ray "burns." These 
burns are due to the absorption of very soft rays by the skin. They 

251 



252 proceedings: philosophical society 

have frequently led to loss of life. Cancer has also resulted from 
X-ray burns. The latter class comprises the destruction of the lympho- 
cytes and of the tissue forming them, with consequent deleterious effect 
on the bodil}^ economy. The former class of lesion is the more im- 
portant practically. 

The absorption coefficient of a substance is defined as the quantity 
X in the expression : 

for the intensity/ of a homogeneous beam of X-rays at a point d centi- 
meters below the surface. X increases with increasing wave length. X-ray 
absorption is independent of the state of chemical combination of the 
absorbing elements. Weight for weight, elements of high atomic weight 
are more efficient absorbers than those of low atomic weight. 

Of the elements of high atomic weight lead is, for practical reasons, 
always used for protection from X-rays. It is used in the metallic 
state and also as the oxide in glass and rubber. Silk loaded with a lead 
salt has also been used. ' 

There is no general agreement as to the thickness of lead necessary 
to give adequate protection. The amount, of course, would depend 
upon the quantity and quality of the rays against which protection is 
necessary. For long exposures the German Rontgen Society advocates 
one of the following: metallic lead, 2 mm. thick; lead rubber, 8 mm. 
thick; lead glass, 10 to 20 mm. thick. 

In estimating the protection offered by j^rotective materials it is much 
more convenient to ascertain the amount of lead contained in the mate- 
rial than to measure the absorption coefficient. This latter varies 
with the hardness of the rays used and with the constitution of the beam. 
Lead is a standard and easil}^ reproducible substance and a knowledge 
of the lead content of a piece of protective material will enable the user 
to estimate easily the protection offered at any time when investigations 
may have rendered our knowledge of the necessary protection more 
exact. 

The absorption of a piece of protective material is due principally to 
the lead content. The absorption of the remaining constituents is 
equivalent, for practical purposes, to that of a certain small additional 
thickness of lead. The whole piece, therefore, is equivalent to a certain 
thickness of lead. This statement has been verified experimentally. 
The simplest method for estimating the protection, and the one used at 
the Bureau of Standards, is to place the substance to be measured on an 
X-ray plate- beside a series of thicknesses of lead. The density of the 
plate under the material is then matched with the density of one of the 
thicknesses of lead. This thickness is termed "the equivalent thick- 
ness of lead" for the material. It has been shown experimentally that 
it is independent of all conditions and is the same if a fluorescent screen 
is used instead of an X-ray plate. The ratio of the equivalent thick- 
ness of lead to the thickness of the material is termed the "protective 
coefficient" of the material. 



proceedings: philosophical society 



253 



The Bureau of Standards purchased in the open market twelve 
pieces of lead glass for X-ray protective purposes. No information 
could be obtained about them other than that "the protection is 
adequate." These pieces averaged about 5 mm. thick. The average 
protective coefficient was 10 per cent, i.e., on the average each piece of 
glass was equivalent to 0.5 n m. lead. Two pieces (the nost expensive 
of the lot) had each a protective coefficient of 0.9 percent and so were 
worthless for X-ray protection. They were replaced by the vendor. 

Samples of lead rubber ."howed an average protective coefficient of 
22 per cent. One piece went as high as 32 per cen . 

Correspondence was carried on with several firms relative to the 
improvements to be desired in protective materials. The results have 
been most gratifying. It is now possible to obtain materials with the 
following properties : 



SUBSTANCE 



Plate glass . . 

Rubber 

Bowl (tube holder) 



PROTECTIVE 

COEFFICIENT 



per cent 

18 
48 
16 



lead content 
(by weight) 



per cent 

50 
94 

47 



equivalent lead 
for particular 

SAMPLE 



1.16 
1.17 

f minimum) 



The density of practically^ every sample of protective material 
received at the Bureau of Standards has been determined. It has been 
shown that there is a linear (approximately) relation between the density 
and the protective coefficient. 

Discussion: The paper was discussed by Messrs. Silsbee, Sosman, 
Briggs, Humphreys, and Webster. 

Mr. P. T. Weeks then presented a paper on The efficiency of production 
of X-rays. 

The term efficiency of production of X-rays is ordinarily taken to 
mean the ratio of the total energy of the X-rays emitted either from 
the tube or from the target to the energy supplied to the tube. The 
value of this efficiency has been found by actual measurement to be of 
the order of one tenth of one per cent. It has been found to be nearly 
proportional to the atomic weight of the target. A simple theory of 
the method of production of X-rays would indicate that the efficiency 
should be proportional to the potential applied to the tube, and experi- 
ments have verified this conclusion so far as it is applied to the general 
X-radiation. The manner in which the energy of the characteristic 
radiation varies with the voltage has been only partly determined. 

In general two effects have been used for measuring X-ray energy, 
the ionization produced in a gas and the heatjng effect on absorption. 
In most of the determinations of the efficiency only a small energ^^ input 
could be used and widely varying results were obtained b}^ different 
observers. The author used a Coolidge tube with much larger energj- 
input and determined the value by a bolometer method. His results 



254 proceedings: philosophical society 

indicate that the total X-ray energy emitted, including both that of the 
characteristics and of the general radiation, is approximately propor- 
tional to the third power of the potential, or that the efficiency is pro- 
portional to the square of the potential. The actual value found for 
the efficiency agrees with that found b.y other observers using the same 
method. 

A consideration of the results obtained by the ionization and bolom- 
eter methods indicates that only a fraction of the X-ray energy absorbed 
by a gas is actually used in the production of ions. The fact that the 
amount of energy absorbed per ion produced is a variable quantity 
brings into question the validity of the ionization method of measuring 
X-ray energy. There is need of further detailed investigation of this 
particular point. 

Discussion: This paper was discussed by Messrs. Sosman and 
Webster. 

The 801st meeting was held at the Cosmos Club, February 16, 1918; 
President BurCxESS in the chair; 41 persons present. 

JNIr. H. E. Merwin presented a paper on Comj)lem.entary colors and 
the. properties of pigmeyits. The paper was illustrated by samples of 
pigments. 

Consideration must be given to refractive index, pleochroism, and 
shape of grain as well as to the more commonly considered properties 
of pigments. Diffusing power is determined primarily by refractive 
index and size of grain. The blue of scattered light is a prominent 
constituent of some grays and purples. The optimum size of grain of 
colored pigments depends upon the manner in which the color is diffused 
— whether by the colored grains or by admixed grains or by a subjacent 
diffusing surface. 

The refractive index of grains of a black pigment should be equal to 
the refractive index of the vehicle surrounding the grains. A white 
pigment should differ as much as possible from its vehicle in this respect. 

Mixing white or black with a colored pigment, causes a shifting of hue 
which depends upon several factors, one of the chief of which concerns 
the character of the boundary between light that is strongly absorbed 
and that which is freely transmitted. 

The coloring efficiency of a pigment in mixtures producing tints 
may be very different from its efficiency in mixtures producing shades. 
A given amount of colored material will "go farther" as a glazing color 
than in mixtures. 

Discussion: The paper was discussed by Messrs. Sosman, Bancroft, 
and Priest. 

Mr. I. G. Priest then presented a paper on A precision metJiod for 
producing artificial daylight, which was illustrated by lantern slides. 

Light having a spectral distribution of energy closely approximating 

that of daylight (black body at 5000° abs., sun at the earth V surface or 

sun outside the earth's atmosphere), may be produced by passing the 

■ light from an artificial source (acetylene flame, vacuum tungsten lamp, 

or gas-filled tungsten lamp) through two nicol prisms with a crystalline 



proceedings: philosophical society 255 

quartz plate between them, the path of the hght being parallel to the 
optic axis of the quartz, and the thickness of the quartz as well as the 
angle between the principal planes of the nicols being properly chosen. 
If three nicols are placed in series in the beam, one quartz plate being 
placed between the first and second nicols and another quartz plate 
between the second and third nicols, the approximation to a desired 
spectral energy distribution may be made still closer. 

The rotatory dispersion of quartz has been previously used by others 
in "chromoscopes," etc. The novelty of the present communication 
consists soleh^ in showing how the method maj^ be used in producing 
"artificial daylight," and in presenting precise specifications for pro- 
ducing results. 

This method, of course, is not adapted to illuminating large surfaces 
and so is not a commercial competitor with the blue-glass method 
or other "artificial daylight." It is, however, very well adapted to use 
with instruments (photometers, microscopes, etc.) where the quartz- 
nicol system may be inserted between the eyepiece of the instrument 
and the observer's eye. 

The chief advantages of this method over the blue-glass method are : 

1 . A much more accurate reproduction of the desired spectral energy 
distribution. The distributions obtained by the use of blue glass (e.g., 
Luckiesh's "Trutint" or Corning "Dayhght") are always distorted 
from the desired distribution by a sharp maximum at X = 570 mm as 
well as by a rise in the red for X greater than 660 jjlijl. 

2. Certain reproducibility and definiteness of specifications. 

3. Adjustabilit}^ By varying the angle between the principal 
planes of the nicols, the distribution may be slowly changed by known 
amounts. 

Discussion: The paper was discussed by Messrs. Sosman, Critten- 
den, Burgess, and White. 

The third paper, on A simplified form of Robinson's anemometer, 
was presented by Mr. B. C. Kadel. This paper was illustrated by 
lantern slides. 

To begin with, the observer is assumed to have a watch or clock 
available with which to measure a suitable time interval. The next 
step is to arrange the anemometer to make electric contact at short 
intervals, the signal being made audible to the observer by means of a 
door bell, buzzer, or telephone receiver. The most convenient interval 
is found as follows: 

Distance distance D d . , . , 

-y^. = — -. or 7^ = - m which 

Time time T t 

D = the linear unit chosen as a measure. 
d = the travel of the wind between signals. 
T = the time unit chosen as a measure. 
t = the time the signals are to be counted. 



256 proceedings: anthropological society 

Whence d = —. 

Now selecting the customary unit — miles per hour — and letting t 

be one minute for convenience, we have: 

1 X 5280 
d = — = 88 feet, which must be the travel between contacts 

6!) 

in order that the number of contacts per minute shall be equal to the 

velocity in miles per hour. 

dT 
We may now write i = -jr- 

We have, therefore, the following rule for the use of the instrument, 
the same consti'uction answering for any unit of measurement desired: 

"The number of signals in 60 seconds equals the velocity of the wind 
in statute miles per hour. 

The number of signals in 52 seconds equals the velocity of the wind 
in knots per hour. 

The number of signals in 27 seconds equals the velocity of the wind 
in metres per second. 

The number of signals in 97 seconds equals the velocity of the wind 
in kilometers per hour." 

It is evident that the customary dial mechanism may be omitted 
from the instrument entirely, thus eliminating tedious and expensive 
construction work and lessening the cost. The standard cups, spindle, 
and bearings have been retained in order to preserve the present relation 
between wind movement and cup movement; but the framework of 
the instrument has been made of materials easily available to manu- 
facturers, instead of the tapered tul^ing used in the old pattern, which 
requires special orders through the mills for its production. 

Gustiness of the wind is indicated in a general way by the variation 
in the frequency of signal, and the anemometer thus gives information 
that is lacking in the ordinary one-mile registration. 

A similar device has been manufactured by Richard, Paris, for many 
years, but the contacts are made to actuate a pen arm upon a sheet to 
produce a continuous record. Mr. Friez, of Baltimore, has marketed 
an anemometer that makes contact every 3^ mile, but it required a 
table for interpretation of the signals. 

The price of the new model is not yet definitely known, but should 
not exceed $25 for a complete equipment, as compared with $100 
for standard anemometer and register. 

Discussion: This paper was discussed by Messrs. Burgess, Schlink, 
Herschel, Humphreys, and Briggs. 

H. L. Curtis, Recording Secretary. 

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 523rd meeting of the Society was held in the West Study Room 
of the Public Library on Tuesday evening, March 12, 1918, at 8 p.m. 
The speaker of the evening was Mr. Edward T. Williams, Chief 



proceedings: anthropological society 257 

of the Di\nsion of Far Eastern Affairs, Department of State, who 
presented a paper on The origins of the Chinese. Mr. WilUams out- 
lined four theories regarding the origin of the Chinese that deserve 
examination. 

The first, advocated by Dr. L. Wieger, a missionary of the Society of 
Jesus, is that they originated in the Indo-Chinese Peninsula. His 
reasons for so beheving are, briefly, that 

1. The Chinese ideograms have existed since 3000 B.C. and the 
most ancient represent tropical animals and plants, thus pointing to a 
tropical country as the place of origin for the race. 

But the oldest Chinese ideograms known to the world are not older 
than 1200 B.C., when the Chinese were already settled in the valley 
of the Yellow River and in constant intercourse with their neighbors 
to the south. These ancient ideograms, moreover, represent animals 
and plants of the temperate zone rather than of the tropics. Those 
for sheep and cattle are found, too, in many root words, indicating 
that the early Chinese were shepherds and herdsmen, pursuits not found 
in tropical countries. 

2. Other reasons given for a tropical origin are that the oldest form 
of the Chinese language is found in southern China today. 

3. The Chinese language is purest in the south and grows more and 
more corrupt as one approaches the north. 

4. The Chinese language is tonal, as are the languages of Indo- 
China, and is therefore most nearly related to these. 

It is not necessary, however, to assume a southern origin for the race 
to account for these facts, which are just as easily explained by the 
arrival of the Chinese from the north in successive waves of migration, 
the later comers crowding the earlier further and further towards the 
south, so that the oldest and purest forms of Chinese would be found 
just where they are The tonal languages of the Indo-Chinese Peninsula 
in that case are to be regarded as the languages of the vanguard of the 
migration. 

As a . matter of history it is now knovv^n that many tribes of Cambodia, 
Siam, and Burma came from the north, the Tibeto-Burmans from a 
region as far north as the Tien Shan. Some social or physical change 
forced these tribes to migrate. The dominant element in the population 
of Burma did not reach that land until about two or three thousand 
years ago, while the tribes of Cambodia arrived in their present habitat 
about 215 B.C. and the Shans, progenitors of the Siamese, ruled south- 
ern China until the thirteenth century of the Christian era. The 
movement of races therefore has been from north to south and not vice 
versa. 

The second theory is that the Chinese originated on the Ame ican 
continent. This theory does not require much attention. There 
have been movements of population, it is true, from America to Siberia, 
even in historical times, and there is cultural and physical similarity 
if not identity of the peoples on the opposite shores of the northern 
Pacific. But the tribes of which this is true lie to northeast of China 



258 proceedings: anthropological society 

and differ strikingly from the Chinese in physical appearance, language, 
and social institutions. 

The third theory is held by a number of distinguished scholars and 
declares that the Chinese are autochthonous and their civilization 
indigenous. It must be admitted that the oldest existing records of 
China seem to know no other region as the home of the Chinese fore- 
fathers than the valley of the Yellow River, and it is held accordingly 
that they gave up nomadic habits and settled as agriculturists there in 
an unknown antiquity and that it was there that they developed 
their civilization, including their written language. As to the last- 
mentioned the theory is almost certainly wrong. This civihzation, 
including the use of the ideograms, appears to have been shared by 
surrounding tribes, from among whom in fact some of their most famous 
rulers came. 

One of these tribes, the Chou, headed a league of nine tribes from the 
west which subdued the Shang Dynasty about 1200 B.C. These 
tribes were amalgamated with the earlier and much of the culture of 
China must be ascribed to the Chou. This fact and the enforced 
migration of the Mon-Khmer, Tibeto-Burmans, and Shans to the 
south because of some disturbance apparently in central Asia gives 
plausibility to the fourth theory. 

This theory would place the origin of the race in central or in western 
Asia. A number of distinguished scholars have held this view. Pump- 
elly's explorations in central Asia have shown that that region was the 
seat of an ancient civilization as old as 8250 B.C. Great chmatic 
changes have there converted what was once a moist and fertile land 
into an arid desert and caused the inhabitants to migrate to other 
parts of the world. It was this perhaps that drove the Sumerians into 
the Euphrates valley and that forced other peoples down upon the 
Tibeto-Burmans and caused the movements of population in China. 
The earliest Sumerian monuments show that people to have been 
Turanian, not Semitic, and to have had obliquely-set eyes. Dr. 
C. J. Ball, of Oxford, has shown that there are striking resemblances 
between the earliest Sumerian ideograms and those of the Chinese. 
He has also published a vocabulary of more than a thousand words 
which show similarities of sound and meaning in Chinese and Sumerian. 
This lends weight to the theory that both have a common origin and 
that the peoples were probably related. Most of the mounds of central 
Asia remain to l)e explored and it is not too much to hope that, in the 
not far distant future, evidence may be found establishing conclusively 
that the Chinese race originated in that locality. 

In the discussion which followed the paper Dr. Ales Hrdlicka 
called especial attention to the importance of the whole subject and the 
urgent need of archeological and anthropological investigations in these 
regions. Others who discussed the paper were Dr. John R. Swanton, 
Mr. James Mooney, and Mr. Henry Farquhar. 

The 524th meeting of the Society was held in the West Study Room 
of the Public Library on Tuesday evening, March 26, 1918, at 8 p.m. 



proceedings: anthropological society 259 

A paper on TJie origins of the Italian people, especially prepared for the 
Anthropological Society of Washington by Dr. V. Giuffrida-Ruggeri, 
Professor of Anthropology, University of Naples, was presented by 
Dr. Austin H. Clark, U. S. National Museum. 

The author leaves aside all that relates to the Paleolithic age, in the 
remains of which Italy is less favored than other regions of Western 
Europe. A more solid ground is encountered in the Neolithic epoch. 
From the Lombard plains to the Ionic shore of Italy archeologists have 
repeatedly found circular foundations of huts half buried in the earth, 
the remains of dwellings of a Neolithic pastoral people. The huts 
were hollowed in the ground on purpose, perhaps to afford shelter from 
the wind, and they were entered either by means of steps, or an inclined 
plane, or a shaft made close to the hut. In the hollows that remain 
are found weapons of polished stone and various remains of domes- 
tic handicraft, including pottery of advanced technique, form, and 
decoration. 

After describing the burials in natural and artificial caves, the author 
notes the coming of a new people into Italy from the east. These 
people came in canoes, and, having crossed the Mediterranean, landed 
on the southern shores of the Italian peninsula as well as in Sicily and 
Sardinia. They are called Ligures (Liguri) by historians. The Siculi 
belonged to the same race as the Ligures, and both were physically of 
tlje Mediterranean type. 

In western Sicily are found similarities to the Iberian civilization, 
attributable to "that great wave of influence which touched the coast 
districts of western Europe, bringing with it the dolmen and the dolmen- 
pottery." The evolution of the "domus de janas" in Sardinia reached 
its highest development about 2000-1500 B.C. These burials belong to 
the "Eneohthic " age in which copper was used a well as stone. Whilst 
the civilization of the dolmen and megalithic monuments flourished in 
Western Europe and in the Mediterranean region there was a different 
civilization in Central Europe. There we find evidences of a people 
who lived in the lake-regions on pile-structures (palafitte), a people 
whose history is written only in the refuse of their daily Hves, covered 
today by water and peat-bogs. This refuse shows us a primitive 
pottery, the cultivation of flax and grain, and a pastoral life." .... 
"Toward the end of the second millenium B.C. there took place a great 
movement of peoples into Italy from the north, and the pine-dwellings 
of eastern Lombary, as well as the hut-dwellings of the Ligures, were 
deserted by their inhabitants." Later the Umbrians and the Etrus- 
cans entered Italy. 

The question as to who were the "Italic." seems superfluous to the 
author "for there were no special people of that name. Italy is a 
historic formation and all the antecedent races who contributed to her 
making are equally 'Italian' .... The population of the 
'Eternal City' was composita. It probably embraced from early times 
the representatives of all the three main races of Europe, — the H. 
mediterraneus, H. alpinus, and H. nordicus." 

Frances Densmore, Secretary. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Professor Henry Adams, one of the charter members of the Academy, 
died at his residence, 1603 H Street, on March 27, 1918, at the age of 
eighty years. Mr. Adams was born in Boston, February 16, 1838, 
the third son of the late Charles Francis Adams, American minister to 
England during the Civil War. He was a professor of history at 
Harvard University from 1870 to 1877, and was the author of a number 
of historical works. He was a member of the Philosophical and An- 
thropological Societies of Washington, and one of the founders of the 
Cosiros Club. He had been a resident of Washington since 1877. 

Professor Marston T. Bogert, formerly Chairman of the Chem- 
istry Committee of the National Research Council, has been com- 
missioned a lieutenant colonel in the Chemical Service Section, National 
Army. He succeeds Lieutenant Colonel Wm. H. Walker, who has 
been commissioned as colonel and has been placed in charge of the new 
gas-shell plant of the Ordnance Department, near Baltimore. Dr. John 
Johnston, Executive Secretary of the National Research Council, is 
acting chairmanof the Chemistry Committee. .« 

Mr. Edmund Heller, of the American Museum of Natural History, 
has recently returned from an exploring expedition in western China, 
near the borders of Burma and Tibet, under the auspices of the Museum. 

Dr. E. Lester Jones, Superintendent of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, has been commi sioned a lieutenant colonel in the Signal Corps. 

Dr. William H. Nichols, of the General Chemical Company, and 
Prof. C. K. Leith, chairman of the nuneral imports committee,were 
before the House Committee on Mines and Mining on March 27, 1918, 
to urge action on the bill giving the President power to guarantee 
prices for war minerals and to provide for governmental control of such 
minerals. The members of the Committee on Mineral Imports and 
Exports, representing the Shipping, War Trade, and War Industries 
Boards, are C. K. Leith, Pope Yeatman, and J. E. Spurr. 

Representative B. G. Humphreys introduced in the House of 
Representatives on March 22, 1918, a bill (H. R. 10954) changing the 
name of the U. S. Naval Observatory to the LT. S. National Observatory, 
and placing the Observatory under the control of the Secretary and 
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The bill was referred to the 
Committee on Naval Affairs. 

An experimental laboratory has been established in which repre- 
sentatives of the Food Administration and of the Department of 
Agriculture will cooperate in standardizing war-time recipes and putting 
them out in the form in which they will be most useful. The work is 

260 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 261 

in line with the laboratory work which the Department of Agriculture 
has been doing in testing the nutritive value of foods. 

The central hall and auditorium of the National Museum have been 
turned over to the Bureau of War Risk Insurance, which is also occupy- 
ing a part of the main floor of the Museum. It will be necessary, 
therefore, to hold the scientific sessions of the National Academy this 
year in the hall of the Smithsonian Institution. 

The spring meeting of the American Physical Society, which has 
been held in Washington each year (excepting 1912) for the past 
twelve years, has been transferred to New York this year on account 
of the difficulty of obtaining accommodations in Washington. The 
meeting will be held at Columbia University on Saturday, April 27, 
1918. 

The annual conference of State Geologists was held in Washington 
at the U. S. Geological Survey on April 3 and 4, 1918, A reception 
to the geologists was given by the Geological Society of Washington 
at the Interior Department on the night of Thursday, April 4. 

Dr. F. L. Ransome, of the Geological Survey, has recently returned 
from an extended field investigation of the quicksilver resources of the 
nation. 

The following persons have become members of the Academy since 
the last issue of the Journal: Mr. Andrew Nelson Gaud ell, U. S. 
National Museum, Washington, D. C.; Dr. Charles Wythe Cooke, 
U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C; Mr, Harlan W. Fisk, 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington, Washington, D. C; Capt. Edward Elway Free, In- 
spection Division of the Ordnance Department, War Department, 
Washington, D. C; Mr. John B. Henderson, 16th St. and Florida 
Ave., Washington, D. C; Dr. Charles Dwight Marsh, Bureau of 
Animal Industry, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C; 
Mr. P. L. RicKER, Bureau of Plant Industry, Department of Agricul- 
ture, Washington, D. C. 

THE PETROLOGISTS' CLUB OF WASHINGTON 

The fiftieth meeting of the Petrologists' Club, held on February 
19, 1918, at the home of Whitman Cross, seems a fitting occasion to 
review briefly the work of the Club during its first eight years of exist- 
ence, particularly as no report of its meetings and discussions has 
heretofore been published. 

The Petrologists' Club of Washington was organized on January 
25, 1910, by a small group of representatives from the Geological 
Survey and the Geophysical Laboratory. The purpose of the organ- 
izers was to provide for the discussion of petrologic problems from all 
points of view, including those of the physicist and chemist as well as 
those of the geologist and petrologist ; to make the discussion much more 
informal than was felt to be possible in the public meetings of the 



262 SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Geological Society, which are devoted rather to the reading and dis- 
cussion of stated papers on geological subjects; and to include in the 
discussion problems and hypotheses which were still in an unfinished 
or only partly developed state. 

Meetings have been held regularly at the homes of members, on which 
account the membership has had to be restricted to forty-five. The 
following brief list gives some of the subjects selected for discussion, 
and will serve not only to show the kind of problems considered but also 
to indicate the direction of petrologic thought and research in recent 
years : 

Eutectics, in the laboratory, in the field, and in their relation to rock 
classification. 

The role of mineralizers in magmas. 

Ore bodies of magmatic origin. 

Water as a primary agent in mineral and rock formation. 

The relation between igneous activity and movements of the earth's 
crust, with especial reference to differentiation, the cause of "petro- 
graphic provinces," and the hypothesis of Atlantic and Pacific kindred. 

The textures of metamorphic rocks. 

The tools and methods of petrography. 

The weathering of rocks. 

The assimilation of rocks by magmas. 

The theory of magmatic stoping. 

The forms of silica. 

The volume change of rocks on fusion. 

The mode of escape of mineralizers from deep-seated bodies of 
magma. 

The origin of large intrusive rock bodies. 

Isostasy in its relations to petrographic provinces. 

The description of minerals, and of sedimentary, igneous, and 
metamorphic rocks. 

The areal distribution of igneous rocks and of their chemical constit- 
uents. 

The minor constituents of meteorites. 

Pegmatitic rocks and minerals. 

The secondary enrichment of ores. 

Volcanic gases. 

The nature and sequence of magmatic emanations, as shown by 
pegmatites, volcanic emanations, contact deposits, and mineral veins. 

The determination of opaque minerals. 
, The origin of the Kiruna ores. 

The sampling and chemical analysis of rocks. 

Some of the meetings have been devoted to reviews of petrologic 
literature, such as Barker's Natural History of Igneous Rocks and 
Bowen's Later Stages of the Evolution of the Igneous Rocks. Short 
reports of work in progress have also been given, and the discussion 
of the results from the field and laboratory points of view has never 
failed to bring out aspects of interest and thus to add to the value of 



• SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS . 263 

field o])scrvations and laboratory experiments. The hopes of the 
organizers of the Club have been abundantly justified by the results. 

R. B. S. 

THE ONE HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE FOUNDING OF THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Dr. George F. Becker, of the Geological Survey, has written the 
following ]ett{>r to Prof. E. S. Dana on the occasion of the one-hundredth 
anniversary of the founding of the American Journal of Science. 

March 9, 1918. 
Dear Dana: 

That a scientific journal should have lasted one hundred years is 
much: that for a century it should have been conducted by only the 
founder, his son-in-law, and his -grandson is, I believe, unexampled. 
To me it is appalling to reflect upon the drudgery your family has 
undergone in order that students of science might teach what they 
know and learn what their fellows thought. With all possible allow- 
ances for pride of achievement and for satisfaction in the respect of 
every member of the scientific public, you and your kin must have 
been sorely afflicted with the New England conscience. 

Up to about the time of our Civil War Silliman's Journal was partly 
devoted to reproducing in full important papers which appeared in 
European journals, to which few American readers had access. This 
was a function on which Louis Agassiz laid stress, considering it how- 
ever as a matter of course. The younger men of today would incline to 
regard such a policy as provincial; but it was not. In the first half of 
the last century the number of scientific workers in the whole world 
was very Imiited, and papers recognized as important were reproduced 
in extenso in most of the great journals such as the Philosophical Maga- 
zine, the Annales de Cheniie et de Physique, Poggendorjf, etc. It was 
assumed that the representative reader had access to no other similar 
periodicals and was entitled to the news of the day. Neither were 
bits of useful information then excluded. In hunting up a translation 
by Thomas Young in the Philosophical Magazine of a paper by Laplace 
on the construction of curves by their radii of curvature (a method 
afterwards reinvented by Kelvin), I came upon a serious discussion of 
how best to keep your razors sharp when your- beard becomes wiry! 

To me, and I fancy to a large part of the retiring generation, the file 
of the American Journal seems a monument to James D. Dana. AVho 
but he was industrious enough and nearly enough omniscient to deal 
with the w^hole range of scientific thought? Young men in this Survey 
'think of him as a mineralogist, or a geologist, and do not know that 
he began his career as an instructor in mathematics and in early life 
achieved fame as a zoologist. Louis Agassiz in 1847 wrote as follows 
to Milne-Edwards : 



264 SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS • 

"Among the zoologists of this country I would place Mr. Dana at 
the head. He is still very young, fertile in ideas, rich in facts, equally 
able as a geologist and mineralogist. When his work on corals is com- 
pleted, you can better judge of him. One of these days you will make 
him a correspondent of the Institute, unless he kills himself with work 
too early." 

This prediction was fulfilled twenty six years later. Dana became 
a corresponding member of the Institute in 1873, not as a geologist or 
mineralogist, but in the section of anatomy and zoology; and I am told 
that for the fnost part the conclusions he drew from his studies of the 
Crustacea nearly 80 years ago are still accepted, 

Dana's kindness and helpfulness to his old pupils has often been 
recorded. This goodness was not confined to them: it was extended to 
me whom he never saw and it heartened me when I needed encourage- 
ment. His very last letter was spontaneous and without other occasion 
than to inform me of a favorable opinion by H. A. Newton on a bit of 
my work. He could have saved himself the trouble of writing, but 
preferred to give pleasure. 

Berzelius is said to have remarked that he was the last chemist 
who would know all chemistry, the idea being that no younger man could 
catch up. The anecdote is at least "ben trovato," and Berzelius was 
the man to realize the fact. Dana in 1879 may be said to have been 
a complete master of geology, but he did not realize his loneliness. Just 
at the time Clarence King appointed me on this Survey, Dana coun- 
seled him to choose no assistant who could not do his own stratigraphy, 
paleontology, mineralogy, and lithology! Fortunately, King saw the 
impossibility of setting up a standard that would have excluded every- 
body but Dana. 

The Journal has exerted a potent influence on science in America. 
Its banner afforded a rallying point for a few idealists when there was 
imminent danger that Philistinism would gain complete control of a 
nation struggling with natural resources almost excessive in their 
abundance. It has been one of the landmarks of our independent 
nationality, for such a journal could not have thriven in a mere colony. 
It stimulated the spirit of investigation and helped to guide the devel- 
opment of research along sane and sound lines. For a time it constituted 
the scientific periodical literature of the country, and if today it is only 
one of numerous periodicals devoted to science, many of them may well 
be regarded as offshoots from the American Journal of Science. 

Salve! 

Sincerely yours, 

George F. Becker. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Vol. VIII MAY 4, 1918 No. 9 



CHEAIISTRY. — Crystals of harium disilicate in optical glass. 
X. L. BowEN, Geophysical Laboratory. (Communicated by 
J. C. Hostetter.) 

In optical glass of the variety known as ''barium crown," 
and especially in those types rich in barium, there frequently 
form in the melting furnace numerous six-sided crystal plates 







-.,4 



"■■^-^ 



P'iG. 1. Fragment of barium crown glass showing crystals of BaSi205 with 
"frayed" edges. (Natural size.) 

upwards of 3 mm. in diameter. These crystals are colorless and 
transparent in their central portions but are surrounded by white 
opaque rims that render them verj^ conspicuous (see photograph, 
fig. 1). A piece of glass containing these crystals, with their 

- 265 



266 



BOWEN : BARIUM DISILICATE IN GLASS 



marked symmetry of outline and their common arrangement with 
greater dimensions parallel to flow lines in the glass, constitutes a 
specimen of much beauty and perhaps of some interest to the 
mineralogist, though nothing could be more ruinous to the glass 
for optical purposes than this incipient crystallization. Even 
glass which comes from the melting furnace free from this defect . 
may devitrify during subsequent heat treatment with formation 
of crystals of the same nature, though in this case of much smaller 
dimensions. One step in an investigation designed to discover 
the best conditions for avoiding the formation of these crystals 
involved a determination of their nature. 

Under the microscope the larger crystal 
plates that form in the melting furnace are 
found to be about 0.03 mm. thick in the trans- 
parent central portion, which is a single crys- 
talline unit of uniform orientation. Ar6und 
the edges of the larger crystal, however, in- 
numerable tiny crystals, each identical in 
nature and in habit with the larger crystal, 
have sprouted out in all directions. These 
tiny crystals with their interstitial glass, 
giving diffusion of light, constitute the white 
opaque rims of the larger crystals. The 
arrangement recalls the feldspar microlites 
with fibrous edges sometimes seen in rocks.' 
The crystal plates have the shape of an elongated hexagon as 
shown in figure 2, and are about 3 mm. long and 2 mm. wide. 
The terminal angles as measured under the microscope are 
approximately 100° and the lateral angles 130°. As shown by 
their symmetry, taken together with their optical properties, the 
crystals are orthorhombic. There is a good cleavage parallel to 
the elongation. The elongation is always negative. The plane 
of the optic axes is parallel to the platy development and the 
optical character negative with 2V = 70° approximately. The 
refractive indices are: y = 1.613 and a = 1.595, as measured in 
immersion liquids under the microscope. 

1 Figured by J. P. Iddings in Rock Minerals, p. 215, 1911. 




Fig. 2. BaSi205 show- 
ing optical orien- 
tation. 



bowen: barium disilicate in glass 267 

The optical properties correspond with those of no crystals 
hitherto described. In casting about for a possible composition 
for the crystals the orthorhombic symmetry of K2Si205 was 
recalled together with the general tendency towards isomorphism 
of potassium and barium compounds and it was thought possible 
that the crystals might be BaSi205. Accordingly a mixture of 
that composition was made up and melted in a platinum crucible 
and this was found to give on cooling a homogeneous crystalline 
mass having optical and crystallographic properties identical 
with those exhibited by the crystals in the glass. The refractive 
indices were determined on this pure material, on which they can 
be determined with greater accuracy than on the very thin 
crystals embedded in glass. They are as follows: 7 = 1.617, 
a = 1.598. 

It is probable that the slightly lower values given for the 
crystals in the glass represent a real difference and that when 
formed from the glass they take a small amount of alkaline disili- 
cate into solid solution, but this cannot be definitely decided 
without measurements on larger crystals that will permit of 
greater accuracy. The very minute crystals formed by devitri- 
fication of the glass at low temperatures appear to have indices 
that are even somewhat lower still, suggesting that they have a 
larger amount of 'alkaline disilicate in solid solution. The 
probability of solid solution between barium disilicate and potas- 
sium disilicate is very great, for they show a striking degree 
of isomorphism, the corresponding angles of potassium disilicate 
being, within the limits of error of measurement under the micro- 
scope, exactly the same as those here found for barium disilicate.^ 
In subsequent work a detailed study of solid solution between 
these compounds wdll be made. 

Barium disilicate appears not to have been prepared and studied 
before and this note has been written to place its properties on 
record. To make it more complete the melting point has been 
determined. It was found to melt congruently at 1426°C., 
as determined with a platinum-rhodium thermo-element and 
potentiometer system. The only reference in the literature to 

* See crystals figured by Fenner in a paper by G. W. Morey (New crystalline 
silicates of potassium and sodium. Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc. 33: 228, fig. 4. 1914.) 



268 vaughan: correlation of tertiary formations 

BaO. 2Si02 is given in Gmelin-Kraut, where it is stated that a 
mixture of that composition melts to a clear glass. ^ This obser- 
vation was confirmed and the refractive index of the glass was 
measured and found to be 1.606. 

J. W. French describes a crystal enclosed in " optical flint glass" 
which is hexagonal and beautifully regular and shows ''stream 
lines" about its edges. ^ From the general description I would 
consider it possible that his crystal was identical with those of 
barium disilicate here described were it not for the fact that he 
noted no colors in polarized light. This may, however, have been 
due to the extreme thinness of his crystals. It is true the glass 
is called a flint glass which, in speaking of optical glass, means 
a lead glass; but it is also stated that the source of the glass and 
its composition are unknown. 

I am indebted to Mr. L. H. Adams for the photograph of the 
glass specimen, to Mr. Olaf Andersen for a survey of the litera- 
ture in search of previous information on barium disilicate, and 
to Mr. G. W. Morey for calling to my attention the article by 
French. 

GEOLOGY. — Correlation of the Tertiary geologic formations of the 
southeastern United States, Central America, and the West 
Indies.^ Thomas Wayland Vaughan, Geological Survey. 

The present paper contains tabular statements of the results 
derived from prolonged investigations of the stratigraphic 
equivalence of the Tertiary geologic formations in the South 
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal' Plain of the United States, Mexico, 
Central America, and the West Indies. The tables are excerpted 
from two larger papers I now have in course of publication, 
referred to in the foot-note below,- but as the two papers men- 

^ Gmelin-Kraut, Handbuch der Anorganischen Cheinie, 3^: 237-238. 

* Trans. Optical Soc. 16: 224. 1916. 

1 Published by permission of the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey. 

^ Vaughan, T. W., The biologic character and geologic correlation of the sedi- 
mentary formation of Panama in their relation to the geologic history of Central 
America and the West Indies. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 103 (in press); Cenozoic his- 
tory of Central America and the West Indies. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., vol. 23 
(ready for press). 



vaughan: correlation of tertiary formations 269 

tioned are not likely to be distributed within less than twelve 
months and as there is considerable demand among geologists 
for the stratigraphic results contained in them, it is desirable at 
least to publish promptly the tabular summaries. 

Tables such as those here given are necessarily based on the 
work of many men, and I wish to express my indebtedness to 

E. W. Berry, J. E. Brantly, C. W. Cooke, J. A. Cushman, W. H. 
Dall, .\lexander Deussen, E. T. Dumble, E. N. Lowe, W. C. 
Mansfield, G. C. Matson, G. S. Rogers, E. H. Sellards, E. W. 
Shaw, H. K. Shearer, and L, W. Stephenson, who have con- 
tributed to the literature on the Tertiary formations of the 
southeastern and southern United States during the past six 
years. I have also had the benefit of the unpublished results of 

F. Canu and R. S. Bassler on the Tertiary Bryozoa of the Coastal 
Plain of the United States and of Miss Julia Gardner on the 
Mollusca of the upper Miocene of Virginia and North Carolina 
and of the lower Miocene (the Alum Bluff formation and its 
members) of Florida. More specific referrences to the con- 
tributions of these investigators -will not be made in this place. 

Recently the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey, in fulfil- 
ment of a cooperative agreement between the Geological Survey, 
the Canal Commission, and the Smithsonian Institution, trans- 
mitted to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution the manu- 
script and illustrations for a volume entitled Contributions to the 
Geology and Paleontology of the Canal Zone, Panama, and Geolog- 
ically Related Areas in Central America and the West Indies. Pre- 
pared under the direction of T. W. Vaughan. This volume contains 
the following papers: Preface, by T. W. Vaughan; On Some 
Fossil and Recent Lithonamnicae of the Panama Canal Zone, by 
M. A. Howe; The Fossil Higher Plants from the Canal Zone, 
by E. W. Berry; The Smaller Fossil Foraminifera of the Panama 
Canal Zone, by J. A. Cushman; The Larger Fossil Foraminifera 
of the Panama Canal, by J. A. Cushman; Fossil Echini of the 
Panama Canal Zone and Costa Rica, by R. T. Jackson; Fossil 
Bryozoa from the Canal Zone and Costa Rica, by F. Canu and 
R. S. Bassler; Crustacea Decapoda from the Panamanian Re- 
gion, by M. J, Rathbun; Cirripedia from the Panama Canal 



270 vaughan: coerelation of tertiary formations 

Zone, by H. A. Pilsbry; Fossil Corals from Central America, 
Cuba, and Porto Rico, with an Account of the American Tertiary, 
Pleistocene, and Recent Coral Reefs, by T. W. Vaughan; The 
Sedimentary Formations of the Panama Canal Zone with 
especial reference to the Stratigraphic Relations of the Fossili- 
ferous Beds, by D. F. MacDonald; The Biologic Character and 
Geologic Correlation of the Sedimentary Formations of Panama, 
in their relation to the Geologic History of Central America and 
the West Indies, by T. W. Vaughan. These memoirs are in 
press as Bulletin 103 of the U. S. National Museum. 

A set of memoirs on the Lesser Antilles and Cuba, similar to 
that on the Canal Zone, is almost complete, and will be submitted 
to the Carnegie Institution of Washington for publication. 
The stratigraphic results procured from the West Indian investi- 
gations have been utilized in making geologic correlations. 

CORRELATION OF THE TERTIARY FORMATION OF THE SOUTH 
ATLANTIC AND EASTERN GULF COASTAL PLAIN 

Table 1 indicates the present status of the correlation of these 
formations, and although it may have to be modified to accord 
with the results of additional investigations, there seems to be 
every reason to believe that subsequent changes will be only in 
matters of minor refinement. However, I wish to say that in 
my opinion four paleontologic zones will be discriminated and 
defined in the Chattahoochee formation, and that the collections 
on which to base these subdivisions have already been made and 
in large part described, but I will not now discuss those details. 
I confidently expect the Ocala limestone also to be subdivided 
into two or more zones, for the genus Orthophragmina so abun- 
dantly represented in the lower part of the formation appears to 
be absent in the upper beds. 

CORRELATION OF THE TERTIARY SEDIMENTARY FORMATIONS OF 

PANAMA AND THE WEST INDIES 

Three new stratigraphic terms introduced in table 2 need to be 
briefly defined in this place. More comprehensive definitions are 



vaughan: correlation ot tertiary formations 271 

given in my paper on the fossil corals from Central America, 
Cuba, and Porto Rico. 

St. Bartholmnew limestone. This formation is of upper Eocene 
age and is paleontologically characterized by species of Ortho- 
-phragmina, one of which is of stellate form, similar to those 
recently described b}" Cushman'' from the Ocala limestone of 
Georgia and Florida; by about 30 species of corals, among which 
the genera Stylophora, Astrocoenia, Antilloseris, Physoseris, and 
Actinacis are conspicuous; by many echinoids, which were 
described by Cotteau; and by some Mollusca and Brachipoda 
described by C. W. Cooke in a manuscript now awaiting publica- 
tion. The formation is typically exposed along the shore of St. 
Bartholomew northwest of St. Jean Bay for a distance of about 
one and a half miles. The rock is a hard bluish limestone, inter- 
bedded at its base with volcanic tuffs and water-worn volcanic 
fragments. 

Anguilla formation. This formation is uppermost Oligocene, 
if the Aquitanian of Europe is correctly referred to the 
Oligocene. In the opinion of some paleontologists it would be 
classified as earliest Miocene. It is paleontologically char- 
acterized by certain Foraminifera, described by J. A. Cushman 
in a report not yet published; by numerous species of corals, 
among which are the genera Stylophora, Stylocoenia, Antillia, 
Orbicella, Siderastrea, and Goniopora; by echinoids described by 
Guppy or by Cotteau, among which are Echinolampas semiorhis 
Guppy, E. lycopersicus Cotteau, and Agasizzia clevei Cotteau; 
and by a number of species of Mollusca, described in manu- 
script by C. W. Cooke. The Mollusca include Amusium lyonii 
Gabb and Orthaulax pugnax (Heilprin). I obtained no specimens 
of Lepidocyclina in Anguilla. The type exposure is along the 
southeast and south shore of Crocus Bay. The material con- 
sists of calcareous clay, argillaceous limestone, and more or less 
pure limestone. The formation unconformably overlies basic 
igneous rock. 

' Cushman, J. A., Orhitoid foraminifera of the genus Orthophragmina from 
Georgia and Florida. U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 108: 115-124, pis. 40-44. 
Dec. 12, 1917. 





TABLI 
A Pkovisional Correlation Table op the Tertiary Geologic Formations oil 


AGE OF 
DEPOSITS 


NORTH CAROLINA 

(South of Hatteras axis) 


SOUTH CAROLINA 

(San tee drainage) 


SOUTH CAROLINA AND 
GEORGIA 

(Savannah drainage) 
(Not recognized) 


GEORGIA 

(Chattahoochee 
drainage) 


z 


VVaccamaw marl 


Waccamaw marl 






s. 

0. 

3 


Duplin marl 

Unconformity 


Duplin marl 


Duplin marl 

Unconformity 






Edisto marl 


Z 

m 




Marks Head marl 


o 


's 

1 


(Absent) 




Unconformity 

Alum Bluff formation 










Alum Bluff formation 




o 
a 

ft 

3 






Chattahoochee forma- 
tion 


Chattahoochee forma' 
tion 

Unconformity — 
Vicksburg formation 


a 


.2 


z 

o 


t-l 


\ 








<u 
ft 

a 

3 


Castle Hayne limestone 
Trent marl 


Cooper 
marl 


Barnwell 
formation 


Barnwell formation 
(with Twiggs clay 
member) 


Ocala limestone 


Ed 

z 


_2 
_-d 

s 




McBean formation 


McBean formation 


McBean formation 


. O 






Congaree shales of Sloan 
Williamsburg formation 


(Probably overlapped) 


Wilcox formation 






Black Mingo formation 


(Probablj- overlapped) 


Midway formation 




• 






272 

1 







THE South 


Atlantic and 


Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of the United States 


FLORIDA 


ALABAMA 


MISSISSIPPI 


LOUISIANA 


Caloosahatchee marl, 
Nashua marl, Alachua 
clay, and Bone Valley 
gravel (largely con- 
temporaneous) 


Citronelle 
forma- 
tion 


Citronelle formation 


Citronelle formation 


Citronelle forma- 
tion 


Jacksonville formation 


Choctaw- 
hatchee 
marl 


Pascagoula clay 


Pascagoula clay 


Pascagoula clay 


(Absent) 


(Absent) 


















— Le 

in 1 


coDioriiuiy 
Shoal River 


marl member 


Alum Bluff 
formation 


Hattiesburg 
clay 


Hattiesburg clay 




— c 


Oak Grove sand member 


Hattiesburg clay 


5 *" 
< 


Chipola marl member 




Tampa forma- 
tion 


Chattahoochee 
formation 


Chattahoochee 
formation 


Catahoula 
sandstone 


Catahoula sandstone 


Catahoula sand- 




stone 


a 


Marianna limestone 
(western Florida) 


0. 

o 

M 

-a; 

o 

> 


Marianna limestone (with 
Glendon limestone mem- 
ber). 


3 
O 

M 

ST 
t-. 

3 

> 


Byram calc. marl 


\ 


3 

s 

St 

u 


Marianna limestone (with 
Glendon limestone and 
Mint Spring calc. marl 
members). 


Vicksburg \ 
limestone \ 


-' 


Red Bluff clay 


Red Bluff clay 


\ 


Ocala limestone 


Ocala 
limestone 


Jackson 
formation 


Jackson formation (with Yazoo 
clay membei and Moodys 
calc. marl member) 


Jackson forma- 
tion 




Q. 
3 

s 

g 
O 

'5 

O 


Gosport sand 


a, 

3 

o 

WJ 
0) 

a 
o 

'3 
O 


Yegua formation 



3 

S 

a 
o 

•3 

O 


Yegua 
formation 




Lisbon formation 


Lisbon formation 




(Buried) 


St. Maurice 




Tallahatta buhrstone 


Tallahatta buhrstone 


formation 


(Buried) 


i 

1 


Hatchetigbee formation 
Bashi formation 
Tuscahoma formation 
Nanafalia formation 


3 

e 

bl 
X 

o 
o 


Grenada formation 
Holly Springs sand 
.\ckernian formation 


Wilcox formation 




C. 

o 
5 


Naheola formation 
Sucarnochee clay 


n 

3 
O 

61 

>. 

C3 
_^ 


Tippah sandstone of Lowe 
Porters Creek clay 


Midway forma- 




(.i5l 


irieu; 




Clayton limestone 

1 


Clayton limestone absent 
or replaced by sand 


t 


on 

• 



273 



TABLE 

A Provisional Correlation Table of the Tertiary 



AMERICAN TIME 
SUBDIVISIONS 


PANAMA 


JAMAICA 


OTHER ANTILLES 


Pliocene 


Toro limestone 


Manchioneal 
formation 

Kingston for- 
mation 


Pliocene of Guantanamo, Cuba 




upper 








Miocene 


middle 


Gatun formation 




La Cruz marl 
(Cuba) 


Upper horizon 
in Martinique 


Upper horizon in 
Santo Domingo 




lower 


Bowden marl 


Marl at Bara- 
coa, Cuba 


Lower horizon 
in Martinique 


Zones G, H, and 
I in Santo Do- 
mingo (of Miss 
C. J. Maury) 




upper 


Emperador li 

Culebra 
formation 


mestone 

Upper part of 
Culebra 




Anguilla formation (Anguilla), and beds at many 
localities in Cuba 




middle 


Lower part of Cu- 
lebra and lime- 
stone at Tonosi 


Coral reef at 
Guantana- 
mo, Cuba 


Antigua 
formation 
(Antigua) 


Pepino for- 
mation 
(Porto Rico) 


Lower hori- 
zon in San- 
to Domingo 


Oligocene 


lower 


Limestone with Or- 
thophragmina, on 
Haut Chagres" and 
limestone at David 
(contempora- 
neous)* 


Bohio 
congF 


Montpelier 
white limestone 






upper 




Cambridge 
formation 

Richmond 
formation 


St. Bartholomew limestone (St. Bartholomew) 
Extensively distributed in Cuba 


Eocene 


middle 


Eocene of Tonosi 


' 






lower 

















" Reported by H. Douvilld and referred to"Stampieninf6rieur" = Vicksburgian=Lattorfian. 
* May be upper Eocene instead of lower Oligocene. 

274 



2 

Marine Sedimentary Formations op Panama 



MEXICO AND CENTRAX. AMERICA 



Pliocene of Yucatan and Limon, 
Costa Rica 



St. Marys formation 
Choptank formation 



Gatun for- 
mation 
(Costa 
Rica) 



Pacific 
Coast of 
Nicaragua 



Exposures 
on Isthmus 
of Tehuan- 
tapec 



San Rafael formation 



Manzanilla*, Costa Rica, and deposits 
with Pecten aff: P. poulsoni and 
large discoid orbitoids, Mexico 



SOXTTHEASTERN UNITED STATES 



Waccamaw marl, Nashua marl, and Caloosahatchee marl 
(nearly contemporaneous) 



Sicilian 

Astian 

Plaisancian 



Yorktown formation, Duplin marl, and Choctawhatchee marl 
(nearly contemporaneous) 



Pontian 
Sarmatian 



Calvert formation 



Marks Head marl 



Shoal River marl member 
Alum Bluff formation ■{ Oak Grove Band member 
Chipola marl member 



Chattahoochee formation 



Tampa formation 



I Byram calcareous marl 
Vicksburg group •] Marianna limestone 
[Red Bluff clay 



Brito formation of Ni- 
caragua (typical Brito) 



Frio clay 
Fayette ss. 



Claiborne group 



Wilcox formation 



Midway formation 



-3 



O 

J3 



Jackson formation 



Ocala limestone 



I Gosport sand 
Claiborne group -j Lisbon formation 

[Xallahatta buhrstone 



Wilcox group 



Hatchetigbee formation 
Bashi formation. 
Tuscahoma formation 
Nanafalia formation 



Midway gioup 



fNaheola formation 
■{ Sucarnochee clay 
[Clayton limestone 



EUROPEAN 

TIME 

SUBDIVISIONS 



Tortonian 



Helvetian 



Burdigalian 



Aquitanian 
Chattian 



Rupelian 



Lattorfian 
(Sannoisian) 



Ludian (Pria- 

bonian) 
Bartonian 



Auversian 
Lutetian 



Ypresian** 



Sparnacian'' 



Thanetian'' 
Montian'* 



" May belong stratigraphically somewhat higher. 
"* Correlation proposed by E. W. Berry. 



275 



276 VAUGHAN : CORRELATION OF TERTIARY FORMATIONS 

La Cruz marl. This marl is of midde Miocene age, as it appears 
to be slightly higher stratigraphically than the Burdigahan 
Bowden marl of Jamaica. The fossils obtained in it are described 
in my paper on the fossil corals of Central America, Cuba, and 
Porto Rico, and in unpiibHshed manuscripts by J. A. Cushman 
and C. W. Cooke. Among the corals are the genera Stylophora, 
Orbicella, Solenastrea, Thysanus, Siderastrea, Goniopora, and 
Porites. Solenastrea, Siderastrea, and Porites contain species that 
I have been unable to distinguish from hving West Indian species; 
but the genera Stylophora, Thysanus, and Goniopora are extinct 
in the Atlantic Ocean. The type exposure is along the railroad 
leading east from La Cruz, which is on the east side of Santiago 
Bay. The formation is well exhibited in the bluffs along the east 
side of the Bay north of the Morro. The material is a yellowish, 
very calcareous marl, or an argillaceous limestone, which is as a 
rule well bedded. ( 

Only one point on the correlation table appears to need special 
comment, that is whether the limestone containing Orthophrag- 
mina on Haut Chagres and at David, Panama, should be referred 
to the uppermost Eocene or to the basal Oligocene. It has been 
stated above that the Ocala limestone contains large stellate 
species of Orthophragmina, and that I collected a similar species 
in St. Bartholomew. Of the Eocene age of these deposits, of the 
typical Brito formation in Nicaragua, and of certain limestones 
containing Orthophragmina in Cuba there seems to be no reason- 
able doubt. But, according to Douville, the small stellate Ortho- 
phragmina (subgenus Asterodiscus) ranges upward into the lower 
Oligocene. The association of Asterodiscus, and small, even 
non-stellate, species of Orthophragmina, with species of Lepido- 
cyclina that at some localities are associated with a coral fauna of 
middle Oligocene affinities has inclined me to the opinion that 
certain peculiar species of Orthophragmina occur in deposits of 
early Oligocene age. Dr. Cushman, however, is disposed to 
regard the beds in which these species of Orthophragmina were 
found as of Eocene age. At present the evidence is not decisive, 
and additional studies are needed. 



wherry: crystal form and optical properties 277 

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. — Certain relations between crystalline 
form, chemical constitution, and optical properties in organic 
compounds, — /. Edgar T. Wherry, Bureau of Chemistry. 

That definite relations can be traced between the refractive 
indices and chemical constitution of substances has long been 
recognized. Most work has been done with organic liquids, 
and it has been found that each element possesses a characteristic 
refractivity, that the sum of the refractivities of the constituents, 
modified by their manner of combination, is equal to the molec- 
ular refractivity of the compound, and that from this in turn the 
refractive index can be derived.^ Data for crystalline inorganic 
salts have been collected- and the relations shown to be similar; 
in systems other than the cubic (isometric) the mean refractive 
indices are usually employed. There is of course every reason 
to expect that the mean indices of crystalline organic compounds 
could be applied in like manner;^ but it seemed desirable to 
inquire into the possibility of correlating the several indices of a 
given substance with its crystal structure instead of concealing 
in mean indices whatever relations may exist^. 

The refractive indices of substances may be connected with 

other properties by various formulas, of which the Lorentz- 

72.- — 1 
Lorenz expression, which may be used in the form , - = 

— ^ — ^ is the most satisfactory. For short the left hand term 

may be referred to as the ''refraction," and denoted by the 
letter R. If the refractive indices in different directions in a 
single anisotropic substance be substituted for n, directional 
values of R will be obtained; these may be called Ra, R&, and Re, 
the first two of course being identical in uniaxial crystals. 

1 An excellent summary of this work has been prepared by Eisenlohr (Spektro- 
chemie Organischer Verbindungen. Leipzig, 1912). 

2 Especially by Pope (Journ. Chem. Soc. 69: 1530. 1896). 

3 The refractivities of a few crystalline organic compounds have been calcu- 
lated by Taubert (Zeits. Kryst. Min. 44: 313. 1910). 

* The theoretical relations between the refractivities shown in the different 
directions in anisotropic substances and the electrical interaction of the atoms 
have recently been discussed by Silberstein (Phil. Mag. 33: 92. 1917). 



278 wherry: crystal form and optical properties 



The atomic weight W being always, and the refractivity M usually 
the same throughout, the several values of R must be propor- 
tional to those of the density p, or factors corresponding to it, 
in the several directions. The ratio of the R's, which may be 
termed the ''refraction ratio," should therefore give some 
information as to the structure of the substance. 

Because o^the existence of dispersion of double refraction or 
change in double refraction with wave length of light, the refrac- 
tion ratio is not constant throughout the spectrum; but the 
following list of the approximate dispersions of a few typical 
substances, obtained mostly by extrapolation from recorded 
data, indicates that the effect of this phenomenon is ordinarily 
negligible, the variation in the ratio rarely exceeding the prob- 
able error of the data, 3 units in the third decimal place, over 
practically the whole visible spectrum. The relation will not 
hold, of course, in the ultra-violet, where these substances show 
absorption bands; but this does not affect the conclusions reached 
in this paper, for the atoms themselves are anisotropic for these 
short wave lengths. 

TABLE I 
Approximate Dispersions op Double Refr\ tion of Selected Organic 

Substances 



UNIAXIAL 



Wave lengths. 



i-Erythrite 

Guanidine carbonate. 
Urea" 



Calcium formate 

Cane sugar 

Oxalic acid (anhj^d.)" 



400 



1.558 
1.514 
1.504 



700 



1.541 
1.492 
1.480 



1.526 
1.551 
1.465 



1.507 
1.537 
1.440 



400 



1.535 
1 . 505 
1.625 



700 



1.517 

1.482 
1.597 



1.599 
1.582 
1.650 



1.573 
1.569 
1.620 



DOUBLE 
REFRACTION 



400 



0.023 

0.009 
0.121 



700 



0.024 
0.010 
0.117 



MAXIMUM 

DOUBLE 

REFRACTION 



0.073 
0.031 
0.185 



0.066 
0.032 



REFRACTION RATIO 



400 



1.036:1 
1,015:1 
0.837:1 



700 



1.039:1 
1.018:1 
0.834:1 



EXTREME 
REFRACTION RATIO 



0.899:1 
0.956:1 



0.180 0.758:1 



0.904:1 
0.954:1 
0.750:1 



" Extrapolated from new measurements by the writer, made by the immersion 
method. 

The studies of crystals by X-rays which have been carried on 
in recent years have shown that it is possible to regard the atoms 
as lying in definite layers; in simple substances planes pass through 



wherry: crystal form and optical properties 279 

the centers of gravity of the atoms in these layers, while in more 
complex ones, the centers of gravity may be alternately slightly 
to one side or the other of planes. ^ The spacings between the 
planes prove to be more or less connected with the crystallo- 
graphic axial ratios and other properties of the substances. The 
less the spacing of the atomic planes in any direction in an aniso- 
tropic substance, the greater should be the refraction in that 
direction. In fact, if the layers in the different directions are all 
close-packed, the difference in spacing may be the only cause of 
anisotropism, and the factor p will then be inversely proportional 
to the spacing d. It therefore appears probable that an exact 
inverse relation may exist in some cases between the refraction 
ratio and the crystallographic axial ratio of a substance. 

Crystallographic axial ratios (which will be referred to hereafter 
simply as ''axial ratios") are usually stated to the fourth decimal 
place. A variation of one minute in an angle, however, pro- 
duces on the average a change of one unit in the third place, and 
crystals are rarely perfect enough for measurements to agree 
more closely than ±5'. The fourth decimal is therefore usually 
entirely fictitious, and even the third often of doubtful signifi- 
cance. Refractive indices also are often stated to the fourth 
place, although the results of different observers usually differ 
one or two units in the third place. The refraction ratios are, 
accordingly, likewise obtainable with a certainty of but two or 
three units in the third place. In general, therefore, inverse 
agreement between the two ratios to one unit in the second place 
may be regarded as complete. 

Furthermore it can not be assumed that the standard axial 
ratio is a definite thing. Crystallographers are obliged in general 
to choose one out of several possible forms as the unit, and to 
take the axial ratio as inversely proportional to the intercepts 
of that form on the axes. The criteria for selecting unit forms 
are limited in number, comprising prominence, presence of 
cleavage, and the yielding of simple symbols to the other forms 
present by the derived ratio. The Fedorov rule, that substances 

'" The latter arrangement appears, for instance, in the Bragg diagram of cal- 
cite (X-rays and Crystal Structure, p. 117). 



280 WHERRY : CRYSTAL FORM AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES 

with tabular habit and basal cleavage are likely to have a positive 
axial ratio (c greater than a) and those with prismatic habit and 
cleavage a negative one (c less than a) is also useful. All these 
features are, however, likely to be connected only with the larger 
atoms, and the presence of layers of smaller ones to be shown only 
by the appearance of minor forms, or even not to have any 
external expression at all. But as all the layers combine in the 
production of refractive effects, it is essential, before any com- 
parison can be made, that the true axial ratio, based on all the 
atomic planes, be ascertained. 

In the few anisotropic inorganic substances thus far studied by 
means of X-rays the standard axial ratios appear in fact to be 
produced only by certain of the larger atoms, smaller ones, such 
as oxygen, failing to find expression in them. But it seems 
likely that in organic compounds, where the relative sizes of the 
atoms do not differ so markedly, all might share in the location 
of the prominent forms, and the true axial ratio be identical with 
the standard one. This class of substances has therefore been 
investigated first, their refraction ratios and axial ratios being 
compared in order to ascertain whether inverse relations really 
exist; later papers will take up inorganic compounds. And at the 
start only those that crystallize in the tetragonal system will be 
considered, since its geometrical relations are the simplest, and 
will therefore form a good foundation upon which to base future 
studies in other systems. 

Exact inverse relations can of course not be expected to hold 
in all cases. For instance, if the atoms in a layer are alternately 
considerably above and below the central plane, yet not far 
enough to become close-packed into new layers, the effect of 
the spacing on the refraction will be modified. Variations of 
several units in the second decimal place might be attributable to 
this cause. Further, if any of the constituent atoms are them- 
selves anisotropic, which is probably the case with those giving 
rise to intense colors, as well as with those present in asymmetrical 
combination or position, the value of the refractivity, M, in the 
formula will vary with the direction, and even the -first decimal 
place of the refraction ratio may be affected. While these 



wherry: crystal form and optical properties 



281 



sources of variation render the method of study here proposed of 
little value in connection with the more complex compounds, it 
seems likely to be useful for simple ones. 

Certain features of the tetragonal system may now be briefly 
reviewed. The classes it includes, with their symmetry and typ- 
ical representatives, are listed in table 2. 

TABLE 2 
Tetragonal System 





CLASS 




SYMMETRY 


















ORQ.VNIC 












t-t 


REPRESENTATIVE 




Standard name 


Common name 


Planes 


Axes 


o 

1 




1 


Ditetragonal-bipyramidal . . 


Normal 


4 vert. 


1-4, 4-2 


Mellite 








1 hor. 








2 


Ditetragonal-pyramidal .... 


Hemimor- 
phic 


4 vert. 


1-4 





Penta- 
erythrite 


3 


Tetragonal-bipyramidal. . . . 


Pyramidal 


Ihor. 


1-4 


1 


i-Erythrite 


4 


Tetragonal-pyramidal 


Pyr.-hemi. 





1-4 





Barium-an- 
timony 
tartrate 
monohy- 
drate. 


5 


Scalenohedral 


Sphenoidal 


2 vert. 


1-2,2-2 





Urea 


6 


Trapezohedral 


Trapezohe- 





1-4,4-2 


n 


Guanidine 






dral. 








carbonate 


^7 


Bisphenoidal 


Tetartohe- 





1-2 


n 


(No repre- 
sentative 






dral. 




















known). 



Classes 4, 6, and probably 7 rotate the plane of polarized light, 
indicating the presence of some asymmetrical arrangement of 
atoms, and their refraction and axial ratios are therefore likely 
to show poor agreement. In class 5 the positions of the hori- 
zontal axes are fixed by the symmetry, so good agreement between 
the two ratios is possible in the crystals belonging to it. In 
classes 1, 2, and 3, however, there is a choice between the two 
sets of horizontal axes, and there is no fundamental reason why 
the closeness of packing in the layers, which is apparently what 
determines the refractive effect exhibited all the way around a 
uniaxial crystal, should be greater in one of these directions than 



282 



wherry: CRYSTAi. FORM AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES 



in the other. Though often greatest in the layers perpendicular 
to the one selected as a, — calling the most prominent pyramid 
(111), — it may be greatest in those along the alternate one, a', 
which is obtained by making this pyramid (lOl^ the relation 
between the two being: a' = a\/2; or, if the structure is so simple 
that the arrangement is about the same in the layers of atoms 
traversed in both directions, the refractive effect may even be 
the mean of those along the two axes, and a hypothetical value 
a + a' 



a" = 



must be used. 



In the course of the preparation of this paper many helpful 
suggestions have been received from Dr. H. E. Merwin, of the 
Geophysical Laboratory, Dr. E. Q. Adams, of the Bureau of 
Chemistry, and others, to. all of whom the writer's warmest 
thanks are herewith extended. 

REFRACTION RELATIONS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 

Urea 

CO(NH2)2 Tetragonal-scalenohedral; a : c = 1 : 0.833 
The simplest organic compound known to crystaUize tetra- 
gonal is urea, or carbamide; it was accordingly selected as the 
iirst subject for study. The refractive indices of this substance 

TABLE 3 

Refraction Relations of Urea 



REFRACTIVE INDICES 


REFRACTION RATIO 


AXIAL RATIO 


CO 


€ 


Rw/Re 


c/a 


1.484 
±0.002 


1.G02 
±0.002 


0.834 


0.833 



Refractivity, based on mean rio = V J^^ = 1.522 andp = 1.33: Md =13.77. 
Refractivity, calculated from data obtained from liquids: Md = 13.67. 

were determined by the immersion method by using essential 
oils, in which it is but slightly soluble. The results are shown in 
table 3, which includes (1) the refractive indices for D, and their 
probable errors; (2) the ratio of the refractions, R, in the hori- 

C02 - 1 /€2 - 1, 

zontal and vertical directions a and c, that is,— ~ / r' 



WHERRY : CRYSTAL FORM AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES 283 

and (3) the axial ratio of the substance. The two ratios are 
ahvays used in the opposite order; that is, if the one refers to 
a/c, the other is taken as cla. 

The agreement of the two ratios is very exact, and indicates 
that in urea the standard axial ratio is identical with the true one, 
all of the atoms having a part in determining the position of the 
unit' sphenoid. 

The information at hand now seems sufficient to warrant the 
working out of the probable space-lattice of the substance, which 
may be accomplished by bearing in mind the following points : 

Since no change from one isomer into another is ever caused by 
crystallization, molecules must be preserved in crystalhzed 
organic compounds better than in most of the inorganic ones that 
have been studied with X-rays. The chemical molecule should 
therefore be retained as far as possible. It should be spread out 

H ^ TT 

in one plane, somewhat like this: N C N ^^^^ partial 

H H 

interpenetration of these groups is likely to occur. 

Since urea shows cleavage in three directions at right angles, the 
lattice should have a general cubic plan. But since the crystal 
class is scalenohedral, there must be some alternation of group- 
ings, corresponding to that shown by the sulfur atoms in the 
tetrahedral mineral sphalerite. The lattice should possess 
a vertical axis of alternating four-fold symmetry, two horizontal 
axes of two-fold symmetry, and two symmetry planes. The 
atoms must be equally represented in the layers in all three 
directions in space, and the average distance between their 
planes vertically be 0.833 times that horizontally. Some explan- 
ation of this difference in spacing should be seen in the atomic 
arrangement. 

A space-lattice fulfilling these requirements proves to be very 
easy to construct; and a portion of it containing five layers of 
atoms in each direction is shown in figure 1. Four chemical 
molecules are represented in this cell, as may be seen when it is 
remembered that of each atom lying on outer surfaces only half 
belongs to it. The oxygen atoms in the top and bottom layers 



284 WHERRY : CRYSTAL FORM AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES 

may be regarded as belonging alternately to carbon atoms shown, 
and to others lying in adjacent cells; interlocking thus occm-s in 
these oxygen layers. It also occurs in the nitrogen layers shown, 
and in both cases is probably associated with residual affinity or 
secondary valence of these elements. 

In the writer's opinion the valency-volume hypothesis, accord- 
ing to which the volumes of atoms are proportional to their val- 
ences, which is much used in the study of molecular structure, is 




Fig. 1. Space-lattice of urea. 



fallacious. Kopp's data on atomic volumes in the liquid state 
yield the diameters: H, 2.20; 0', 2.45; C, 2.75; 0", 2.85; N, 2.95; 
or, if the diameter of the H atom is taken as 1.25 X 10"^ cm., 
those of the others are O', 1.40; C, 1.55; O", 1.60; and N, 1.70, 
all X 10-^ cm. There is no reason to expect marked changes 
from these values in solids. 

In the two horizontal directions, front-back and right-left — 
which are of course equivalent, as required by the symmetry — 



wherry: crystal form and optical properties 285 

oxygen or nitrogen atoms are present in all the layers and the 
planes of the layers are therefore regarded as approximately 
equally spaced. In the vertical direction, however, there are 
layers containing hydrogen + carbon atoms, alternating with 
others made up of oxygen and of nitrogen alone. In the first 
kind the carbon atoms lie over vacant spaces in adjoining layers, 
into which they can extend, so that the space occupied by these 
layers is determined by the hydrogen atoms, which are distinctly 
less in diameter than any of the others. The reason that urea 
has a negative axial ratio is thus evidently the presence of layers 
containing hydrogen atoms alternating with others made up of 
thicker nitrogen and oxygen atoms in the vertical direction, while 
all the layers contain the latter atoms in the horizontal one. 
The next step is to calculate the spacing of the planes in centi- 

^ / x X W X m 
meters, which may be done by the formula da = % 

^ y X p X c 

where da is the distance between the planes in the horizontal 
direction, x the number of chemical molecules in the portion of 
the space-lattice studied, W the molecular weight referred to 
hydrogen, m the mass of an atom of hydrogen, y the number of 
unit cells in the larger one, p the density, and c the vertical 
crystal axial value. In the case of urea the values are: x = 4, 
W = 59.57, m = 1.64 X 10-^^ gram, y = 64, p averages 1.33, and 
c = 0.833. Substituting, da = 1.77 X 10-^ cm., which is very 
slightly greater than the average diameter of the atoms concerned, 
in hquids. Correspondingly, c?c = c X (ia = 1.47 X 10 -^ cm. 
In the cell figured there are vertically 1 N layer, 2 H layers, and 
2 half O layers; the total d = 4 X 1.47 = 5.88 X 10-« cm. If 
the vertical thickness of an O layer is 2 per cent greater than in 
liquids, or 1.63, and of N 1.73, total 3.36, the thickness of an H 

r CO Q «^g 

layer = — '- — = 1.26; this barely exceeds the diameter of 

a hydrogen atom adopted above. The structure assigned to 
urea thus agrees quantitatively with all available data. 



286 swanton: anthropology and provincialism 

ANTHROPOLOGY. — Anthropology as a corrective of provin- 
cialism. John R. Swanton, Bureau of Ethnology. 

Anthropology is distinctly the study of man in society. It is 
by its attention to the group or social idea that physical an- 
thropology differs from anatomy and physiology, comparative 
philology from the mere study of vocal expression, and culture 
history from psychology. And it is apparent that the well being 
of the individual depends, always and in an ever increasing degree, 
upon the well being of the group of which he forms a part and the 
harmonious relations between himself and that particular group. 
Of course anthropology is not the only science which considers 
man primarily as a social being. The same is true of history, 
sociology, economics, and various others. But history, at least 
that of the older orthodox type, limits itself for the most part to 
those peoples and those periods of which there are scriptorial 
records, sociology places its emphasis on mankind in the so-called 
civilized nations, and economics and similar sciences consider 
man with particular reference to his material environment or else 
some special phase of his social relations. In particular it is to 
be observed that each of these sciences is concerned with the 
peoples of that one great culture center, which, beginning in the 
immediate neighborhood of the eastern Mediterranean, gradually 
spread westward until it came to be represented by the so-called 
civilized nations of today. Anthropology, considering ethnology 
and ethnography as subordinate branches, is the only science 
w^hich, professedly and from the very beginning, has taken cog- 
nizance of all human societies whether they be conventionally 
called "civilized" or "uncivilized." 

The importance of this fact appears when it is known that what 
we call civilization has sprung up independently at a number of 
distinct points or "culture centers," and that no two of these 
culture centers has consisted of the same elements, has undergone 
the same institutional or psychical development, has enjoyed, or 
suffered from, the same environment. Thus the history which 
each center presents, the expression of its life, the social organi- 
zations and institutions which have developed within it are 
different, and the peculiar outlook on life which an inhabitant of 



swanton: anthropology and provincialism 287 

any one may happen to have needs correction by a study of the 
outlook of individuals belonging to other centers. Thus in 
pre-Columbian North America we find that there was a culture 
center in the eastern woodlands, one on the North Pacific coast, 
one in the semi-arid Southwest, one, or perhaps, two, in Mexico 
and Central America, and one in the West Indies. In South 
America were two or three scattered along the Andean chain 
and one in the region of Guiana. Turning to the Old World, 
we are at once arrested by a few well-known culture centers like 
those of China, India, and the eastern Mediterranean, while 
centers more obscure may be detected in Polynesia and north- 
east Africa. On examining some of these we note the further 
interesting fact that they were originally complex, having resulted 
from the fusion of several originally independent centers. This 
is true in a way of the center in the eastern woodlands of North 
America and those on the Andean plateau, but the most con- 
spicuous example of the kind is to be found in that great east 
Mediterranean culture center from which our own civilization is 
descended. This is found to have incorporated a center in the 
Nile valley, another in the valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris, a 
third on the island of Crete, and probably a fourth in eastern 
Asia Minor. These facts show that we must not consider culture 
centers as so many water-tight — or rather influence-tight — com- 
partments having no meaning for one another. On the contrary 
it is not likely that a single one could be pointed out which had 
been affected in no degree by at least one other, and there is 
reason to believe that there has never been a time when thought 
vibrations have not been able to reach all parts of the human race, 
no people that may be said to have been intellectually sterilized. 
Each of these centers is to be regarded as the result of a particular 
running-together or complex of thought waves, a systematization 
of ideas found in their crude and dissociated condition among all 
human beings, or at least among many more than those consti- 
tuting the particular center. 

At the same time anthropology does not lose sight of or ignore 
peoples not included in culture Centers. Viewed in one way they 
may be divided up and attached to the several centers as so many 



288 swanton: anthropology and provincialism 

parts of a ''culture area," since each center influences the more 
primitive people bj^ whom it is surrounded, but it would prob- 
ably be truer to consider these primitive or "savage" peoples as 
comprising the raw material, the people of dissociated ideas and 
institutions, out of which the several culture centers have been 
built, the lowlands of culture from which the centers of civilization 
project like so many mountain peaks. The subsequent reaction 
of the culture centers upon them should not obscure the fact 
of their originally fundamental position. 

And now as to the importance of all this for us. We know 
how, even in the comparatively limited horizon of one nation or 
one state, individuals tend to assume that to be right and just 
to which they themselves and their immediate associates are 
accustomed and that to be wrong which is foreign to their ways 
of thought. We call such an attitude " provincial," and we laugh 
at the man from the back township or the mountain county, 
who thus exhibits his narrow prejudices and the limited mental 
outlook of the community from which he sprang. But we should 
be warned that provinciahsm is relative. One may be ''cosmo- 
politan" as regards counties or towns and make fun of the 
provincial with only the county or town outlook but be equally 
provincial himself with relation to views entertained in the next 
state. Again he may be cosmopolitan as between states but 
provincial when it comes to another nation, or cosmopolitan as 
between nations of approximately the same type of civilization 
but provincial when confronted with nations or peoples of a 
different cultural or racial type. Even the broadest of us is prone 
to consider, or rather assume — for such things are often imbedded 
too deeply in our subconscious natures to be made matters of 
consideration — that certain ideas, customs, technical processes, 
forms of government are best, or rather that they are essential, 
as much part and parcel of humanity as hand or foot or eye, yet 
we may be absolutely deceiving ourselves. It is the especial 
function and peculiar privilege of anthropology systematically 
to study and record ideas, technical processes, customs, and so on 
wherever found, to the end that mankind may constantly become 
less provincial, more cosmopolitan in his outlook, may discern 



swanton: anthropology and provincialism 289 

more clearly what are the essential accompaniments of human 
life and human association, what are its nonessentials, also what 
institutions have been worked out by different peoples and found 
of benefit, what have been found harmful, what laws seem to be 
justified by the experience of mankind in other parts of the world 
and in other periods. In this way anthropology paves the way 
for a broader outlook on the questions which every culture center, 
every people, nay every individual, has to face. It renders 
available as guides, not merely the experience of our immediate 
ancestors, of related peoples, of our cultural forebears who 
happened to be possessed of the art of writing, but the experience 
and experiments of all peoples without any limit other than that 
set by the boundaries of the globe or the extent to which human 
memorials have been preserved. 

And in the very processes that this study sets at work there 
is involved a most important corollary. As the more intelligent 
of all nations seize upon data provided in this manner the cos- 
mopolitanization of thought is certain to extend until mutual 
toleration and appreciation take the place of mutual repugnance, 
dislike, and hostility, and much of the psychology that now 
ultimates itself in war passes away. An obsession that the good 
of the world requires that its culture shall be all German, or 
French, or English, or American is but the display on a wider 
field of the provincialism which holds that it should be patterned 
on that of Jones county or Smithville. It is an obsession that 
the prosecution of anthropological studies and the diffusion of the 
results of such studies are certain to destroy, and I presume that 
no reasonable human being will, in the light of current history, 
consider such destruction of other than practical value. 



ABSTRACTS 

Authors of scientific papers are requested to see that abstracts, preferably 
prepared and signed by themselves, are forwarded promptly to the editors. 
Each of the scientific bureaus in Washington has a representative authorized to 
fonvard such material to this Journal and ab.stracts of official publications 
should be transmitted through the representative of the bureau in which they 
originate. The abstracts should conform in length and general style to those 
appearing in this issue. 

GEOLOGY. — Ore deposits of the northwestern part of the Garnet Range, 
Montana. J. T. Pardee. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 
660-F. Pp. 80, with 4 plates and 10 figures. 1918. 

The report describes the quartz lodes and placer gravels and the 
principal features of the physiography and the geology in an area of 
about 400 square miles north of Clark Fork River and east of Missoula. 
The lodes are considered by districts, those of the Garnet, Coloma, 
and Elk Creek districts, which are valuable chiefly for gold, being classi- 
fied as filled fissures and replacement veins in granodiorite and schist. 
In the Top o'Deep district there are contact-metamorphic replacements 
in limestone valuable for copper, and quartz veins that contain gold. 
In the Copper Cliff district mineralized fault breccias, and in the Clin- 
ton district composite veins or shear zones in granodiorite, are valuable 
for copper. Outlying deposits consist in part of silver-bearing galena 
that has replaced limestone. 

Under placer deposits is given a brief historical sketch of Bear and 
Elk creeks, which produced between $6,000,000 and $10,000,000 in 
placer gold in the "early days," and the origin of the gold-bearing 
gravels is discussed. 

Under geology there are condensed descriptions of the rocks, which 
include 5000 feet of Belt strata, chiefly quartzite and shale; 4000 feet 
of Paleozoic strata, mostly limestone; early Tertiary or late Cretaceous 
intrusive granodiorite; and middle Tertiary extrusive rocks. Folds 
and faults involve the strata, one of the chief structural features being 
a large overthrust fault that has carried a great mass of Belt rocks 
from the west over Paleozoic and younger formations. 

Under physiography the elevated remnants of a peneplain are de- 
scribed and their correlation with an erosion surface of Eocene age 
known in the adjacent regions is indicated. 

J. T. P. 

290 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY AND AFFILIATED 

SOCIETIES 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The 121st meeting of the Academy was held in the Assembly Room 
of the Cosmos Club the evening of Thursday, February 21, 1918, with 
President Briggs presiding, the occasion being the second lecture of the 
series on Science in Relation to the War, by Dr. George E. Hale, 
Director of the Mi. Wilson Solar Observatory of the Carnegie Institution 
of Washington, and Chairman of the National Research Council. 
The subject of the address was Astronomy and war — some examples of 
the close 'parallelism between the methods and work of the astronomer and 
those of the military engineer. The lecture, which was abundantly 
illustrated with lantern slides and moving pictures, was aimed to show 
that men of science in any field, no matter how remote apparently 
from that of military affairs, are prepared by the usual demands of their 
scientific investigations to deal with problems pertaining to the war. 

The 122d meeting of the Academy was held in the Assembly Room 
of the Cosmos Club the evening of Thursday, March 7, 1918, with 
President Briggs presiding. The third lecture of the series on Science 
in Relation to the War was delivered by Col. C. F. Lee, Commanding 
Officer, British Aviation Mission, his subject being Aviation and the 
war. The address, which dealt essentially with the more practical 
phases of aviation work, has been published in this Journal (8: 
225-232. April 19, 1918) . Colonel Lee was followed by Major Gilmore 
of the Royal British Flying Corps, who spoke appreciatively of the 
work of American flyers and dwelt upon the necessity of expert training 
in gunnery, as well as in actual flying, and the personal qualifications 
which combine to make a successful and resourceful flyer. 

The 123d meeting of the Academy was held in the Assembly Room 
of the Cosmos Club on the evening of Wednesday, April 3, 1918, with 
President Briggs presiding. The occasion was the fourth lecture of the 
series on Science in Relation to the War, by Maj. Gen. John Headlam, 
C.B., D.S.O., in charge of the British Artillery Mission, entitled The 
development of artillery during the war. A summary of the lecture 
will appear in a later number of the Journal. 

William R. Maxon, Recording Secretary. 

291 



292 proceedings: philosophical society 



PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 802d meeting was held at the Cosmos Club, March 2, 1918. 
Vice-President Humphreys in the chair; 40 persons present. The 
minutes of the 801st meeting were read in abstract and approved. 

Lieut. D. L. Webster presented a paper on Emission quanta phe- 
nomena in X-rays, illustrated by lantern slides. The paper was- a brief 
account of the work on this subject that has appeared in the past three 
3^ears in the Physical Review and the Proceedings of the National Academy 
of Sciences. 

In the general radiation spectrum, the frequency whose quantum 
is the energy of one cathode electron was found by Duane and Hunt, 
and by Hull, to have an upper limit, at which the spectrum ends. It was 
shown by Webster that the existence of such a limit to the spectrum is 
direct evidence that the rays are trains of periodic waves rather than 
pulses; and with further experimental work, that if atoms in the anti- 
cathode could be struck only by electrons of a definite velocity, any 
atom's chance of emitting rays of a given f requeue}^ jumps from zero 
discontinuously to a finite value as the energy of the cathode electron is 
raised continuously past the quantum value of that frequency. A 
further continuous increase of energy of the cathode electron would 
produce a continuous decrease of intensity of rays of that frequency. 

For the characteristic rays of the K series, it was found by Webster 
that no such rays are produced until the cathode electron's energy 
reaches the quantum value of the highest frequency of the series, at 
which point all the lines of the series appear together. Their intensities 
increase by the same law for all lines, but this law is very different from 
that holding for any given frequency in the general radiation. These 
phenomena are all consistent with the hypothesis that the primary 
characteristic rays produced by cathode rays come from the same 
atomic mechanism as the secondary characteristic rays occurring in 
fluorescence. This statement holds, whatever that mechanism may be. 

For the L series it was found by Webster and Clark that the laws are 
similar to those of the K series except that the lines must be considered 
as belonging to at least two, and probably three, separate series, each 
of which behaves like the K series. 

Discussion: This, paper was discussed by Messrs. Swann, White, 
and FooTE. 

The second paper, on Determination of the constant Co of Plan.k's law, 
was presented by Major C. E. Mendenhall. It was illustrated by 
lantern slides. No abstract furnished. A paper of the same title was 
published in the Physical Review, 15 : 515. November, 1917. 

Discussion: This paper was discussed by Messrs. Crittenden, 
Abbott, Coblentz, Foote, Sosman, WhiteI^ Swann, and Webster. 

H. L. Curtis, Recordiyvj Secretary. 



proceedings: philosophical society 293 

The 803d meeting was held at the Cosmos Club, March 16, 1918. 
President Burgess in the chair; 39 persons present. The minutes 
of the 802d meeting were read in abstract and approved. 

A paper on Thermal expansion of alpha and of beta brass by P. D. 
■jNIerica and L. W. Schad was presented by Mr. Merica. This paper 
was illustrated by lantern slides. Within the past four j-ears an investi- 
gation has been in progress at the Bureau of Standards of the cracking 
or fracturing of cast and wrought brass, particularly^ of the type com- 
position, 60 per cent of copper and 40 per cent of zinc. It has been 
found that in most failures of such brasses in service the cracking can be 
ascribed to the presence of initial stresses in conjunction with surface 
corrosion. These initial stresses may be produced either in the mechan- 
ical working of the material, such as drawing or rolling or by shrinkage, 
as in the case of cast metal. As, however, a number of instances of 
cracking in brass of this type have come to the attention of the authors 
for which such explanations cannot be applicable, it was their intention 
to ascertain whether local internal stresses could not be produced in 
brass of this composition by heat treatment such as it might receive 
in manufacture. 

Brasses of this type are heterogeneous, consisting of the mechanical 
mixture of two constituents, called respectively, the alpha and the beta 
constituents. Measurements of the linear thermal expansion of these 
two constituents have shown that of the beta constitutent to be con- 
siderably in excess of that of the alpha. So great is this difference that 
rough calculations have shown the possibility of the development of 
average stresses due to the sudden cooling by quenching of the brass 
containing these constituents equal to approximate!}' 15,000 pounds per 
square inch. 

Experiments showed that these stresses were probabty responsible 
for the lowering of the proportional limit of such brasses amounting to 
as much as .25 per cent. 

The thermal expansion curves illustrate also very well the nature of 
the thermal transformations in the beta constituent varying about 
1460°C. 

Discussion: This paper was discussed by Messrs. White, Briggs, 
and Burgess. 

A paper on The principles of electrical measurements at radio fre- 
quencies was presented by Mr. J. H. Bellinger. The principles of 
radio or high-frequency measurements are coextensive with the prin- 
ciples of radio engineering to an extent not true in other fields. This is 
typified in the wavemeter, which is a complete radio transmitting and 
receiving station, albeit in miniature. The principles of ordinary 
alternating current theory apply with little change to the phenomena at 
very high frequencies. This was not true a few years ago, when damped 
waves were universally used in radio work, but the introduction of 
satisfactory sources of undamped currents has largely eliminated the 
specialized theory that went with damped waves. 



294 proceedings: philosophical society 

While precision measurements with direct current are commonly 
made by null methods, high-frequency measurements on the other hand 
use the opposite critical phenomenon, a maximum rather than minimum 
of current. Resonance or tuning is thus the basis of radio measure- 
ments as well as of wave transmission and reception. At resonance 
the reactances due to capacity and to inductance annul each other and 
the current is limited by resistance only. As resistances are small in 
comparison with reactances at radio frequencies, the current is rela- 
tively very great at resonance, i.e., the resonance is very sharp and is 
thus a suitable basis for measurements. 

The wavemeter is a resonance instrument, and is used to measure 
capacity and inductance as well as wave length. The other most 
generally useful radio instrument is the ammeter. With these two, 
measiu'ements are made of current, resistance, power, and associated 
quantities, in addition to the quantities above mentioned. In general 
the best methods are those which are the least complicated. This is 
particularly true because of the disturbing effects of small inductances 
and capacities in lead wires and accessory apparatus. Small capacities 
in and near the measuring circuits are especially troublesome. They 
include the capacities of instrument cases, table tops, walls, and the 
observer, and they cannot always be determined or eliminated. 

While resistance is of distinctly less importance in determining the 
flow of currents at high frequencies than at low, nevertheless resistance 
is the measure of power consumption. As it varies rapidly with ratio 
frequencies, its measurement is very necessary. The same measure- 
ment gives resistance and the associated quantities, sharpness of reson- 
ance, phase difference, and decrement. 

Great advances in the precision of all these measurements have 
recently been made possible by the introduction of electron tubes as 
sources of current. They have the very great advantage of giving a 
steady current, and as the current is undamped the simple sine wave 
theory of alternating currents may be used. 

Discussion: The paper was discussed by Messrs. White, Bichowsky, 
and SwANN. 

Mr. G. W. ViNAL then gave a paper on Some electrical properties of 
■silver sulphide. Silver sulphide may be prepared in the form of short 
wires or thin strips like a metal. The wire, which must be drawn hot, 
has been found to conduct electricity hke a metal of high specific re- 
sistance and practically zero temperature coefficient. The strip of 
sulphide, rolled at room temperature, has a large temperature coeffi- 
cient and shows both metallic and electrolytic conduction at the same 
time. It has a volt-ampere curve characteristic of a pyroelectric 
conductor. The resistance of these strips has been examined with both 
alternating and direct curi-ent, with the result that the alternating- 
current resistance was nearly always found to be higher than that with 
the direct current, and the passage of a small alternating current of a 
frequency as low as 60 cycles increased temporarily the resistance of 
the sulphide, while a small direct current produced the opposite effect. 



proceedings: botanical society . 295 

Experiinents were made to find the electrochemical decomposition 
due to the electrolytic conduction of the strips of sulphide. A strip in 
air (5.5 by 0.3 by 0.01 cm.) with silver-plated ends was soldered to 
copper leads and put in a direct-current circuit. The initial current of 
25 milliamperes was passed through it for nearly an hour without 
visible change. The current was increased by steps of 50 milliamperes 
at 10-minute intervals until with 200 milliamperes a discoloration of the 
plating at the anode end was noticed. A further increase to 300 milli- 
amperes completed the destruction of the silver plating at the anode end 
and finally burned off the terminal, but before this happened a myriad 
of little shinj' silver crystals appeared on the black surface of the sul- 
phide. The appearance of these crystals was carefully studied under 
the microscope, and it was found that they occurred even to within a 
small fraction of a millimeter of the anode terminal. They appeared 
in various forms, some of which suggested that they had been expelled 
from the interior of the sulphide by considerable force. 

Discussion: The paper was discussed by Messrs. Buckingham, Hon- 

AMAN, BiCHOWSKY, SoSMAN, and BuftGESS. 

E. C. Crittenden, Corresponding Secretary. 

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 128th regular meeting of the Society was held at the Cosmos 
Club at 8.00 p.m., Tuesday, April 2, 1918. There were 28 members 
and 4 guests present. Messrs. L. L. C. Krieger, H. F. Bergman, 
G. A. Meckstroth, and Wm.'N. Ankeney were elected to membership. 
The following scientific program was given: 

Carleton R. Ball: The grain sorghums: a botanical grouping of 
varieties cultivated in the United States (with lantern). There are two 
chief centers of origin for the sorghums, Africa and India. The prin- 
cipal groups cultivated in the United States are kafir, milo (including 
feterita), and durra. All of these are of African origin. The kafir 
varieties mostly were obtained from the native tribes in Natal, South 
Africa. The Guinea kafir, however, probably was derived from the 
West Coast of Africa, whence it was brought as food for slaves during 
their long voyage to America. It is now cultivated in several islands 
of the West Indies. The milo varieties probably are of Egyptian origin. 
Very similar forms are grown in Egj^pt today under the names Durra 
Beda (white) , Durra Saf ra (yellow) , and Durra Ahmar (brown) . Feter- 
ita was derived from the British Egyptian Sudan. The durra varie- 
ties, white and brown, probabh' came from North Africa, where they 
are still found among the native tribes. These are the varieties known 
in California as "White Egyptian corn" and "Brown Egj^ptian corn," 
respectively. The white variet\^ has been grown in the Great Plains 
area under the name "Jerusalem corn." The kaoHang varieties are 
derived from North China and ^Manchuria. The different groups are 
clearly separated by botanical characters. The speaker exhibited 
charts showing by means of keys the classification of the sorghums. 



296 . proceedings: biological society 

The chief groups of the sorghums are Broomcorn, Sorgo, Kaohang, 
Kafir, Shalhi, Durra, and Milo. Keys were given showing the relation 
of the varieties of the Kafir group and of the Durra-Milo group. 

F. V. Rand: The Shaw aquatic gardens (with lantern). The Shaw 
Aquatic Gardens, near Washington, were started several years ago as a 
matter of curiosity and recreation. Beginning with a half-dozen 
roots of the native white waterlily set in a little dug-out pond in the 
swamps of the Anacostia River the gardens have increased in size until 
there are over five acres under water. In these ponds are grown nearly 
all varieties of water plants that will live in our climate. They are sold 
all over the United States and even in the Hawaiian Islands. The 
business has been an artistic and financial success from the start; 
but has not been without its difficulties. Turtles, muskrats, and 
various insects offer each their special brand of tribulation. The 
biology and successful control of a serious fungus disease of pond lilies 
(caused by Helicosporium 7iymphaeariwi n. sp.) have been worked 
out by the writer; and a fungous leaf spot of Egyptian lotus (caused 
by an Alternaria) is under study. 

Following Mr. Rand's paper, Mrs. Fowler, the Manager of the 
Shaw Gardens, invited the members of the Society to visit the gardens 
and pointed out that June is one of the best times to inspect them. 

H. N. ViNALL, Corresponding Secretary. 

BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 581st regular meeting of the Society was held in the Assembly 
Hall of the Cosmos Club, Saturday, March 9, 1918; called to order at 
8 p.m. by President Rose; 30 persons present. 

On recommendation of the Council Miss E. E. Stevenson was elected 
to membership. 

Two informal communications were presented: 

T. S. Palmer made remarks on the systematic feeding of quail in the 
city of W^ashington during the past winter. A census of these birds 
showed 60 coveys with a total of 1235 individuals. Discussed by Gen. 
T. E. W^iLcox.' 

R. W. Shufeldt showed lantern slide X-raj^ picture of the double- 
headed tortoise exhibited at the previous meeting of the Society. 
Major Shufeldt also exhibited two living specimens of the whip-tailed 
scorpion, Thelyphonus giganteus, collected by Mr. Nelson R. Wood, at 
Auburndale, Florida. Reference was made to its geographic distribu- 
tion, Florida and West Indies, its habits in capitivity, its structure, 
and its systematic position. Its popular names were stated to be vine- 
gerone, vinaigner, mulekiller, and vinegar maker. 

The regular program consisted of three communications: 

John T. Zimmer: An intensive feeding habit i?i young herons. Read 
by the Recording Secretary in the author's absence in New Guinea. 
This note will appear in full in the Proceedings of the Society. It was 
discussed b}- Dr. T. S. Palmer and Alex. Wetmore. 



PROCEEDINGS I BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY 297 

E. P. Churchill, Jr.: The life history of the blue crab. Various 
features of the life history of this form were studied by means of observa- 
tions and experiments carried on during the interval from July 1, 1916, 
to December 1, 1917, especial attention being given to the crab of 
Chesapeake Bay. The eggs of the crab were found to measure about 
1 100 of an inch in diameter. As they are laid they become attached 
to the endopodites of the four anterior pairs of swimmerets, forming 
the "sponge." About 1,750,000 eggs are laid- at one time. They 
remain upon the swimmerets until they hatch, which event occurs 
within about fifteen days after the,y are laid. Upon hatching the young 
leave the female at once and do not cling to her as has often been 
supposed. Most of the spawning in Chesapeake Bay is accomplished 
from the first of June to the first of August and occurs mostly in the 
southern part of the bay. 

About one month is required in which to pass the zoeal and the 
megalops stages. After the latter stage is passed the crab molts about 
fifteen times before the adult condition is reached. Most probably it 
does not molt after reaching maturity. The young, which are hatched 
in the southern part of the bay, migrate to Maryland waters and reach 
maturity and mate there. There is a cessation of growth and molting 
during the winter. Maturity is reached during the second summer, at 
the age of about twelve to fourteen months. Mating occurs during 
July and August. Mating takes place in the female at the time of her 
last molting, at which time the abdomen changes from a triangular to 
a broad rounded form. Most of the females do not lay the eggs the 
same season in which mating occurs but migrate to the southern part 
of the bay, he on the bottom in deep water there, and spawn the fol- 
lowing season. The males do not migrate southward to as great an 
extent as do the females, but remain in more northerly waters. The, 
crabs do not bur}' in the substratum during the winter as has been 
commonly supposed. 

At least two and probably three batches of eggs are laid by the 
females. Some lay their first lot late in the summer and another lot 
the next season. Some lay two batches during the same summer. At 
the time of the only copulation which occurs during the life of the 
female, enough spermatozoa are deposited b.y the male in the sperm sacs 
of the female to fertilize all the eggs which she lays during her life time. 
The females die shortly after the last batch of eggs is laid, death usually 
occurring during the late summer or earty fall. The usual length of 
life of the crab is about three years. 

The paper was illustrated by lantern sHdes. It was discussed by 
W. P. Hay and Dr. T. S. Palmer. 

R. H. True: Notes on the early history of the pecan in America. 
The earliest account of the pecan is probabty that by Cabeza de 
Vaca, who saw it in 1533 on the lower course of the Guadaloupe River in 
Texas. De Soto found it in use by the Indians in 1540-42 along the 
Mississippi River from near the mouth of the Illinois River and south- 
ward. The pecan seems to have been first introduced into the English 



298 proceedings: entomological society 

colonies by Captain Bouquet and John Bartram in September 1761. 
Daniel Clark of New Orleans sent nuts to Vice President Jefferson in 
1799. The first botanical description is by Jefferson in his Notes 
on Virginia, in 1782. The name "pecan" was found in use by De Soto 
about 1540 and by Penicault, 1704, among the tribes of the Mississippi 
Valley; probably not used by the Texas tribes west of this region. The 
pecan was probably cultivated in Spain at an early date, but the first 
ascertained record of its introduction into Europe was by John Bartram 
who sent pecans to Peter Collinson in England early in 1761. First 
introduction into France was probably through Jefferson in 1787. The 
earliest cultivation in America probably took place in Mexico about 200 
years ago. William Prince succeeded on Long Island with nuts planted 
in 1772. Abner Landrum successfully budded the pecan on common 
hickory at Edgefield, S. C, in 1822. 

The paper was discussed by Gen. T. E. Wilcox and Major R. W. 
Shufeldt. 

The 582d regular meeting of the Society was held in the Assembly Hall 
of the Cosmos Club, Saturday, March 23, 1918; called to order at 8 
p.m. by President Rose; 65 persons present. 

The regular program consisted of an illustrated lecture by Edmund 
Heller entitled The Chinese borderland of Tibet and Burma. Mr. 
Heller gave an account of his recent collecting trip made in conjunction 
with Mr. Roy Andrews through Japan, China, and northern Burma. 
He described the route taken, the geographic and geologic features of 
the country passed through, the characteristics and customs of the 
people, and the nature of the larger animals encountered. He called 
particular attention to the deforested conditions of China and the 
intensive system of agriculture in vogue. The absence of animal life in 
China was rather conspicuous as contrasted with many of the neighbor- 
ing and less densely populated countries. The scarcity of birds in some 
places with no apparent increase in insect pests was noteworthy. His 
talk was profusely illustrated by lantern shde views of all the features 
mentioned by him. 

Mr. Heller's paper was discussed by the chair, A. S. Hitchcock, and 
Dr. George W. Field. 

M. W. Lyon, Jr., Recording Secretary. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 312th regular meeting of the Society was held at the Cosmos Club, 
April 4, 1918. There were twenty-nine members and four visitors 
present. 

In the absence of President E. R. Sasscer, the Honorary President 
Mr. E. A. ScHWARZ occupied the chair. 

The following names were favorably acted upon for membership: 
Dr. J. A. Nelson, Bureau of Entomology; Mr. Oscar H. Basseches, 
Bureau of Entomology; Mr. L. P. Rockwood, Forest Grove, Oregon; 



proceedings: entomological society 299 

Mr. C. W. Collins, Gipsy Moth Laboratory, Mehose Highlands, 
Massachusetts; and Mr. Howard L. Clark, North Farm, Bristol, 
Rhode Island. 

The regular program was as follows: 

Harold ^Morrison: Notes on the Virgin Islands. Mv. Morrison dis- 
cussed briefly the size, location, past history, and the economic devel- 
opment of the islands, giving some notes on the principal agricultural 
crops and their chief insect enemies. Among the insects mentioned 
were termites, the different varieties of a species of weevil (Diaprepes 
sp.) the cotton-leaf blister mite, and the sweet-potato weevil (Euscepes 
batata). About thirty species of scale insects were collected, and about 
twenty-six hundred specimens representing other orders. No fruit 
flies were found, and fruit was very scarce on the islands due to the great 
destruction caused by the recent hurricane. Mr. Morrison's communi- 
cation was di'scussed by Messrs. Schwarz, Casey, Busck, and Pierce. 

R. E. Snodgrass: The value of pictorial charts in extension entomology. 
This paper was illustrated by a number of artistically drawn charts 
designed to illustrate the life histories of economic insects. The speaker 
presented a strong argument in favor of this manner of carrying ento- 
mological information to the general public. He stated that the charts 
would attract and hold attention, that they were designed to bring out 
the most vuhierable points in the life-histories of the insects illustrated ; 
and that they were quickly and easily read. He believed that the 
essential points in control would be more readily grasped by the reader 
than from the written page. In discussing Mr. Snodgrass' remarks 
Dr. L. O. Howard pointed out some of the excellencies of the charts 
from the artistic standpoint. . 

W. D. Pierce: The case of the genera Rhina and Magdalis. Read by 
title. 

E. A. McGregor: A new host plant for the cotton-boll weevil. Read 
by title. 

S. A. Rohwer: New sawflies of the subfamily Diprioninae. Read by 
title. 

A. B. Gahan, Recording Secretary. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Dr. H. Foster Bain has recently returned from China, and has 
accepted the position of Assistant Director of the Bureau of Mines. 

Dr. Graham Edgar, of Throop College, Pasadena, California, has 
been appointed Technical Assistant to the newly established Research 
Information Committee, and has entered upon his duties at the office 
of the National Research Council. Mr. Walter M. Gilbert, of the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington, is secretary of the local office of 
the Committee. 

Dr. YoGORO Kato, formerly a member of the Research Laboratory 
of Physical Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
and now professor in the Higher Technical School of Toyko and director 
of the Nakamura Chemical Research Institute, visited Washington in 
March. 

Dr. E. C. Lathrop, formerly of the Laboratory of Soil Fertility In- 
vestigations, left Washington on May 1, 1918, to accept a position in 
the organic dye research laboratory of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and 
Co., at AVilmington, Delaware. 

Mr. Joseph U. Monroe, chief of the telegraph division of the 
Weather Bureau, died suddenly on April 13, 1918, after a service with 
the Bureau of twenty-seven years' duration. 

A ''Joint Information Board on Minerals and Derivatives" has been 
formed for the purpose of systematizing the handhng of official inquiries 
regarding minerals and mineral products. This body is intended to 
serve as a clearing house to secure the prompt preparation and trans- 
mittal of data from a single authoritative source without duplication of 
effort, and is composed of representatives from the various government 
bureaus, boards, arid departments ihterested. Mr. Pope Yeatman, of 
the War Industries Board, Division of Raw Materials, is chairman, and 
Dr. Edson S. Bastin, of the Geological Survey, is secretary of the new 
Board. 

The following persons have become members of the Academy since 
the last issue of the Journal: 

Mr. Sidney F. Blake, Bureau of Plant Industry, Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Dr. Joseph Augustine Cushivl^n, Sharon, Massachusetts. 

Mr. Ernest G. Fischer, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Professor William Suddards Franklin, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Mr. Ned Hollister, National Zoological Park, Washington, D. C. 

Dr. Raymond Pearl, U. S. Food Administration, Washington, D. C. 

.300 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Vol. VIII MAY 19, 1918 No. 10 

ORDNANCE. — Developments in artillery during the war} John 
Head LAM, Major-General, in charge of the British Artillery 
Mission. (Communicated by L. J. Briggs.) 

It is a trying ordeal for a soldier with no pretension to scien- 
tific knowledge to address such an audience as this, particularly 
when he has to commence with an apology for ignorance on that 
part of his subject which is of most interest at the moment. I 
must confess to you, gentlemen, that I have not even a theory to 
advance regarding the Paris gun, and I can only throw myself on 
the mercy of the court! But I take courage from your well- 
known kindness so constantly extended to British officers. And 
if I can not claim to be one of those artillerymen who have in- 
vaded the domains of science, I have learned, as an artillery 
commander in the field, how much we owe to the scientists who 
have devoted their talents to the solution of the problems which 
confront us. I think therefore that I may be able to tell you 
something of the development of artillery during this war, from 
the user's point of view, which may be of interest. The subject 
is so vast that it would be quite impossible even to touch on, 
much less to deal adequately with, all the directions in which 
these developments have taken place, even if I were to devote 
myself entirely to the science of artillerj^ 

But this is not everything. To engage the right target from 
the right place, with the right guns, this is the artillerj-man's 

1 A lecture given before the Washington Academy of Sciences on April 3, 1918. 

301 



302 headlam: developments in artillery 

art, without which his science is half wasted. In artillery, more 
than in any arm of the service, tactical and technical considera- 
tions are most intimately connected. I shall try to show how 
the changes in taotics affect technical matters and how the de- 
mands of the soldier may upset the plans of the scientist, and I 
hope that I shall be able to make you understand that the entry 
of science into war has in no way taken away the glamour of 
romance however much it may have increased its horror. 

I shall not trouble you wdth any reference to organization. 
You must accept it from me that every operation in this war has 
confirmed the necessity for a carefully elaborated scheme for 
the employment of concentrations of artillery, involving a method- 
ical allotment of tasks from the outset, and largely depending for 
its successful execution on an effective chain of artillery command. 

Field artillery material. It will, I think, be advisable to com- 
mence with some brief reference to the various types of artillery 
employed in the field, without attempting to go into detail re- 
garding any particular nature. Taking field artillery first, we 
stand practically where we were. At one time an idea got 
abroad that the days of field artillery were numbered, that it 
had been supplanted by the ''heavies." This was a very dan- 
gerous heresy, but it is dead. The field artillery is as firmly es- 
tablished in its position as it ever was, the proportion of guns to 
bayonets has altered little, and the material has changed least of 
all. The Germans still have their old field gun, made as a breech 
loader in 1896 and converted into a quick firer in 1906. Our 
own 18-pounder, which was brought into the service at the be- 
ginning of this century, immediately after the South African War, 
is still in our belief admirably suited for its work. It is no secret 
that the American artillery has adopted a field gun designed and 
made by those admirable gunners, the French, in the nineties of 
the last century. 

Shrapnel versus high explosive. But there are two points in 
connection with field artillery material on which a real differ- 
ence in opinion and practice exists. 

The first is the relative values of shrapnel and high explosive 
shell, On this the French and ourselves are the great protago- 



headlam: developments in artillery 303 

nists of the rival schools. Their 75-mm. is primarily designed for 
the rapid fire of high explosive shell and its "rafales" did marvels 
in throwing back the first great German advance on the Marne. 
The English, as befits the country of the inventor, General 
Shrapnel of the British Army, have always been great shrapnel 
adherents; our 18-pounder was designed as a shrapnel gun, and 
has undoubtedly the most pow^erful shrapnel in existence. I ad- 
mit that we carried this too far in having no high explosive at all, 
and you may possibly recall the great outburst of indignation 
caused by some so-called "revelations" in the press regarding the 
shortage of high explosive shell in 1915. The question now is not 
of there being enough high explosive, but of getting the artillery 
to use the proportion that the manufacturers- would like to 
produce. We saw the effect of our shrapnel on the German in- 
fantry in 1914, and we have not forgotten it. 

The second is the advisability of including howitzers in field 
artillery. Here again we join issue with our French friends, who 
hold that the lowest caliber for the howitzer is the 6-inch. But 
we know^ what our howitzers have done for us, and as I see again 
in memory the many fields on which our 4.5-inch rendered such 
yeoman service, ever since they first came into action among the 
slag banks and pitheads at Mons, I can scarcely imagine how we 
should have fared without them. And here I know that our in- 
fantry would back me up. 

Use of heavy artillery in the field. When we turn to heavy ar- 
tillery, in which I include all natures other than field, the story is 
one of almost miraculous progress. Broadly speaking, it may be 
said that heavy artillery formed no part of the equipment of 
modern armies at the commencement of the war. This is not 
strictly true, for the Germans had a battalion of 6-inch howitzers 
in each corps, while we had a battery of 60-pounders in each divi- 
sion. But the use of heavy artillery in the field was no new 
thing, though the whole world gasped in amazement when the 
Germans brought up their big siege pieces on the Aisne. In mod- 
ern days, it had been done with success by the Boers, who used 
the 6-inch guns taken from the fortifications of Pretoria with suc- 
cess against us on many occasions. As soon as Port Arthur fell 



304 headlam: developments in artillery 

the Japanese brought their 11-inch howitzers to join the field 
army in Manchuria, and the mountings of some of your coast de- 
fense guns on their way to join the field army in France are mod- 
eled on those which our sailors improvised to carry their ship 
guns across the South African veldt. 

Proportion of howitzers. In field artillery- we have seen that 
controversy raged around the inclusion or not of howitzers at all. 
In heavy artillery all are agreed that both are necessary, but 
opinion is at variance as to the proportion of each. Here again 
we find ourselves on the side of the Germans while the French 
are, or were, all for the gun. But in this matter as in so many 
others, friendly discussion, and the exchange of experience, has 
brought us very much to the same point of view. The whole 
thing really turns on whether howitzers should be used for counter 
battery work or confined to bombardment. We hold that the 
howitzer is more accurate against such a target as an enemy's 
battery; that it is more mobile for the same weight of shell; 
that its fire can be more easily observed, especially from an 
aeroplane; that it has a longer life; and that it is easier to place, 
not only because it can be tucked away into hollows of the 
ground where it would be impossible to use a gun; but also (and 
this is a curious development of this war of masses), because it 
can be used in crowded areas. I have often seen our big howit- 
zers in action in the midst of a mass of. congested traffic around 
some depot of supplies, with troops moving in every direction, 
wagons loading up with stores, and so forth, under their very 
muzzles, where the blast of a gun would have swept everything 
away in front of it. But while controversialists are marshalling 
such arguments it looks as if the ground would be cut away from 
under their feet by the disappearance of the distinction between 
gun and howitzer! The length of the- howitzers has gradually 
grown from 13 calibers to 17, and now in some of the latest to 
over 20, while the use of varying charges either to reduce the 
wear, or to allow of the employment of curved fire, is gaining 
ground for guns. 

Trench mortars. At the other end of the scale we have trench 
mortars, again only a revival of a weapon well known a century 



headlam: developments in artillery 305 

or more ago. They also were used extensively by the Japanese 
in Manchuria, but I am afraid that the artillery as a whole was 
rather inclined to scoff at them when they first appeared. Those 
days, however, soon passed. It was recognized that in the form 
of trench mortars, we could increase our strength for bombard- 
ment by utilizing material and labor not good enough for guns. 
The German trench mortars, for instance, were chiefly made by 
a firm famous the world over for its cream separators! What 
distinguished officers at one time called 'Hin pot artillery" thus 
rose gradually in favor, until in Italy it took the place of horse 
artillery as a corps d'elite. But in those days we were shorter of 
guns and ammunition than of men. Now the position is re- 
versed. Trench mortars are terribly expensive in men, and more 
especially in officers, and so just when the material is being per- 
fected, the mortars are dropping to some extent out of use. It 
is just one of those changes which must be so baffling to the 
civilian w^ho tries to help us. 

Increase in range. With all natures, guns and howitzers, field, 
heavy, and trench mortars, there has been a continual cry for- 
range, and still greater range. This has been due to many causes, 
chiefly tactical, but principally to the extension of field of fire 
given by aeroplane observation. The various expedients which 
have been resorted to to meet this demand are interesting. In 
the first place there was the simple lengthening of the howitzers, 
and the bringing into the field of the long high-velocity naval 
and coast-defense guns. Then there came the various alterations 
in form of shell, the general feature of all of which is a great 
lengthening of the ogive (the pointed nose of the projectile). 
The radius of curvature of the ogive has been increased from 2 
to 6, and in some cases to 8 calibers, but the most notable form 
is the French ''Obus D," so called after General Desailleux, the 
officer chiefly responsible for the design, and usually designated 
by us as the "stream line" form. Our experience with this form 
has not been very encouraging, but it is admitted that the slope 
of the base has a very important bearing, and must be determined 
for each nature, and I may mention as an instance of the close 
cooperation existing between us, that the French have recently 



306 headlam: developments in artillery 

designed a shell for trial in our guns with which we hope to get 
better results. The ''false head," another form of the same 
idea, is largely used by French and Germans in the heavier long 
range guns, but again it is not so popular with us. It introduces 
considerable complication in supply and fitting and is suspected 
of being a possible cause of ''prematures." No doubt with the 
extension of the use of longer-headed shell, the necessity for 
false heads disappears to a great extent. But I am by no means 
satisfied that they have not great possibilities when used with 
shell designed from the commencement for them. 

Long-burning fuses. The most difficult problem in connection 
with range is the provision of a time fuse which will be reliable 
for long range fire. We should use shrapnel far more than we 
do, if we could get a good time fuse, reliable at long ranges. 
Here is an opportunity if ever there was one for the scientists. 
As you probably know, the fuses in the service now depend on 
the burning of a train of composition, which must be liable to 
many inaccuracies, especially when you consider the conditions 
under which it has to be kept on service. Mechanical fuses have 
been known for long, and we did our best to encourage inventors 
nearly twenty years ago, but such fuses only came into real use 
last year when it was noticed that the Germans were making 
uncommonly accurate practice at our balloons, at ranges up to 
over 20,000 yards. Early in the. summer we got specimens 
of their fuse, which turned out to be a clock-work fuse designed in 
1916. The Academy of Sciences will be interested to hear that 
they were at once handed over to the Cambridge Physical Labo- 
ratory — it would perhaps be indiscreet to proceed further with 
my revelations. 

Use of guns at close quarters. But if the tendency is always to 
increase the range of our guns, do not think it is with the object 
of keeping them back. Far from it, for even if guns are as a rule 
further apart than they were in the old wars, the men who direct 
the guns are closer than they were even in Napoleon's time, and 
there is still as much room as ever for the display of personal en- 
terprise and gallantry. But as a matter of fact, just as this war 
has seen the revival of hand-to-hand fighting with the bayonet and 



headlam: developments in artillery 307 

the butt, so it has seen guns pushed into closer ranges than has 
occurred for a century at least. On many occasions I have known 
individual field guns put within 200 yards of the enemy's trenches. 
This was of course for some special task, such as breaching a para- 
pet or knocking out some particularly obnoxious *'nest" of ma- 
chine guns. With time, ingenuity, and courage, a gun can be 
got almost anywhere, and the effect of its fire at such ranges is 
very marked, while its presence affords immense encouragement 
to the infantry. Great care must of course be taken in working 
out the preliminary arrangements, and in one case I may men- 
tion where a gun had to be brought up over the open, it was 
moved at night under a canopy, like a dignitary of the Church in 
high festivals, and the gunners who carried the canopy were 
trained to drop it on the gun whenever a flare went up. This 
gun fired its 100 rounds at a range of 70 yards in nine minutes, 
completely destroying its objective, and the detachment then, 
strictly against orders, joined in the assault. 

Another case I know forms rather a touching story. When I 
was on the Italian front beyond Gorizia in 1916 I happened one 
day to see a gun very cleverly concealed in the front line, to be 
used in much the same way. Curiously enough I met last year 
the commander of the corps to which this gun belonged, and 
talking one day he asked me if I remembered it. He said he 
had been going around after me, and the noncommissioned officer 
in charge had told him how an English general had shaken his 
hand and congratulated him on being in the place of honor. 
Poor fellow, he did his work with complete success next day, 
but he and all his men were killed. 

Increase of heavy artillery. But, gentlemen, I am not sure that 
the real romance of artillery in this war does not lie in the efforts 
made to furnish us with the material we so urgently needed. At 
the beginning, as I have said, we had one battery of "heavies" 
per division, or 24 guns in the whole of our "contemptible little 
army." On the Aisne we got our first siege howitzers of 6-inch 
caliber, and I had placed under my command there the same bat- 
tery which as a young staff officer I had guided tj* its first position 
against the Boers at Pardeberg. During the winter of 1914, a 



308 headlam: developments in aetillery 

few more heavy guns and howitzers began to arrive, but by mid- 
summer of 1915, we had only about 70 all told. The summer of 
1916, however, saw this number increased just tenfold, while by 
last summer it had been more than doubled again. How was this 
done? In the first place by utilizing every gun, whether de- 
signed for a fort or a ship, that we could lay hands on. The 
mounting of such guns, for work in the field, either on railway 
trucks or carriages, has given great scope for ingenuity, espe- 
cially as the task has become more and more complicated by the 
necessity for economy in metals and in skilled labor. But all 
along the great consideration has been time, and this of course 
has been especially true of new manufacture. It is to that ele- 
ment of time that I would like to draw your special attention, 
because it is one which, if you will pardon me for saying so, the 
scientist is perhaps a little inclined to overlook. It is only nat- 
ural that he should be absorbed in the perfecting of his design, 
but the poor soldier facing the German can not wait for the fairy 
tales of science and the long results of time, but wants something, 
anything, and quickly, that will shoot. 

National efforts. And then Mr. Lloyd George, like a new Peter 
the Hermit, led a crusade to stir up the people at large to the 
manufacture of guns and shells. We perpetuated designs which 
we knew to be out of date. We adopted, with our eyes open, 
new designs which were in many points based on considerations 
of facility of manufacture, rather than of perfection, and we 
risked the omission of many of the regular stages of trial hitherto 
considered essential. It was a gamble, but it was the only way 
to get the numbers required, and it was justified by success. 
In this connection I may perhaps mention a most remarkable 
instance of adherence to antiquated pattern, in order to avoid 
any delay to output, afforded by the Germans. The outbreak 
of war found Germany, as I have already mentioned, with an 
obsolescent field gun, but as I personally discovered in the battle 
of the Somme, she directed all her energies, not to remedying its 
defects, but to developing production. I happened by accident 
to examine th^ two captured guns which were standing side 
by side. One, No. 40, had been made twenty years before and 



HEAD lam: developments in artillery 309 

converted from breech loading to quick firing; the other, No. 
6173, had only been made the previous year, but there was not 
a rivet's difference between them; only, in the new gun, time 
had been saved by omitting engraving the Imperial cipher on 
the breech! 

Ammunition. As with the guns, so with the ammunition, but 
perhaps to a still greater extent, production has been the great 
problem, for from early in the first autumn of the war our stocks 
of ammunition were practically exhausted, and we gunners had 
over and over to turn a deaf ear to the calls for help from our 
almost exhausted infantry. Everything possible was done to ex- 
pedite output. , National shell factories were set up all over the 
country, for the smallest shop could at least make 18-pounder 
shrapnel bodies, and delicate women toiled long hours at the 
lathes. We adopted designs which were not the best but 
which were the easiest to make, and then faced the danger of 
''prematures." 

Prematures. This bursting of guns by the premature explo- 
sion of the shells is almost inevitable when one has to depend on 
hurried and unskilled production : it is one of the risks which must 
be run when shells have to be rushed out to the front. But the 
loss of guns and men may be serious, and it is always a trying ordeal 
to the artillery. The French with their large expenditure of 
high explosive shell were the first to suffer severely from it. I 
remember seeing many of their wrecked 75 's when we were 
fighting side by side at Ypres at the time of the first gas attack, 
but they bore it with the calm fortitude which has been their 
attitude through all these long years of trial, and when our own 
time came, their experts placed all their experience at our dis- 
posal, and rendered us invaluable assistance in getting through 
our trials, and I would like especially to mention here the names 
of General Gossot, an artilleryman who has gained more than 
a national reputation as a contributor to science, and General 
St. Claire Deville, whose name is a household word in France as 
"the father of the seventy-five." It will do no harm now, and 
may do good, to tell you how serious our position was at one 
time. [The ratio of prematures, at first irregular, then rapidly 
decreasing, was shown by tabled.] 



310 headlam: developments in artillery 

There will always be prematures, and loss of life from them, 
while high explosive shells are used, but we look to science to 
apply its methods to the investigation of every cdse, and to 
guard us, as far as human ingenuity can, against them. 

But what did we gain by accepting these risks? The average 
number of tons of ammunition fired away per week in France will 
probably be the simplest way of putting it. [The figures, in tons 
per week, showed the immense increase in output attained since 
the war began.] 

Economy of materials. It was not until our production was 
assured that we were able to set ourselves to improving our de- 
signs, and then came the necessity of economizing materials, to 
dampen the enthusiasm of our designers again. We have had 
to reduce the capacity of our favorite 18-pounder shrapnel to al- 
low of the use of lower grade steel. We have had to replace our 
well tried propellant, cordite, by nitro-cellulose; to reduce the 
percentage of T.N.T. in our explosives; to let brass displace 
aluminum, and cast iron displace brass, in our fuses; and to 
change the form of our driving bands to economize copper. But 
everywhere again science has come to our aid once the need has 
been fairly put. 

Production. Judging from our experience, the guiding rules in 
order to insure projiuction would appear to be to develop to the 
utmost the production of what can be got easiest — remembering 
always that there will certainly be a demand for changes, and to 
press on research in the meantime so as to be ready to change 
to more efficient patterns as soon as the position allows of it, 
watching always the tactical changes so as to be able to antici- 
pate demands. Thus the business man and the scientist have 
full fields for their activity, but both will have many discour- 
agements to face, for in war they must be controlled by the 
needs of the soldier. 

When the scientist after weeks of intense study has solved the 
secret of some wonderful idea for improvement in design, he will 
be told that it is not worth the loss of output it w^ll entail; for 
to every change — however fascinating or desirable in itself — 
must be applied the touchstone "How much will it retard out- 



headlam: developments in artillery 311 

put?" Just when the manufacturer is priding himself upon the 
introduction of improvements in method which will shortly 
double his output, he will be told to shut down. 

So it is, and so it must be — war is not, and never will be, a 
business proposition. 

Wear of guns. The output of new guns has not only to provide 
the numbers required to bring the army up to the desired strength, 
but it has to meet the wastage due to accident, to the enemy's fire, 
and to wear, of which the last completely overshadows the other 
two. 

As long ago as 1916, General Gossot said in my hearing ''Up to 
this the guns have eaten up shells; we shall now see the shells 
eat the guns." He was absolutely right. At the beginning we 
had httle anxiety, for so admirable was the material of which our 
guns were made that their lives proved in practice to be far 
longer than had ever been anticipated. But as the output of 
ammunition increased they began to give out, and it may inter- 
est you to have some figures as to what the "lives" of the more 
important natures are. [Tables were presented showing the 
average life of guns and howitzers]. 

Needless to say that the search for a cure has been pursued 
with vigor, and this is a matter in which there is a great field for 
science; a field which has not been overlooked in this country, as 
witness the learned paper on the subject by Dr. Howe in the 
Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers of 
last February. There is no doubt that the intense heat caused 
by prolonged rapid fire has brought on' the guns a strain which 
was never anticipated, and in France and Russia and Italy I 
found that deterioration in the quality of the steel used since 
the war began was thought to have been a contributing cause. 
With us this latter does not appear to have been the case, except 
perhaps in individual instances, nor have we been able to deter- 
mine whether carbon, nickel, or nickel-chrome steel gives the 
best results. 

Reduced charges have now been introduced. Strict rules as to 
pauses to cool the guns have been promulgated, and various 
substances are now used for greasing the bore. We hope to get 



312 headlam: developments in artillery 

good results from our latest mixture, the composition of which 
has, needless to say, been communicated to your ordnance 
authorities. 

Repair of guns. But all the above are merely palliatives. We 
have to face the fact that our guns have all a very limited life 
under modern conditions. One battle may be enough for some, 
and so the question of repair has become one of great and grow- 
ing importance. Facility for relining must ever be in the mind 
of the designer, the provision of sufficient plant for repair must 
be included in the outfit for war, and a regular system of with- 
drawal in rotation instituted. Just as in a fleet some ships must 
always be in dock if the docks are not to be congested by a sud- 
den rush, so must a regular system of sending guns for relining 
be maintained. 

With the ocean between your guns and your arsenals, the 
problem is a very difficult one for you. 

Wear of carriages. And the same thing applies to the car- 
riages. The delicate mechanism which is an essential feature of 
a modern carriage, even in field artillery, requires skilled and 
careful handling, especially when called upon for such a strain 
as is imposed by long continued rapid fire, with its consequent 
heating of all the parts, expansion of oil in the buffers, and so 
forth. It has always been the boast of artillery officers to know 
and care for their equipments, but the entry into action of large 
bodies of newly-raised artillery in 1916, synchronizing as it did 
with the enormous development in ammunition supply, un- 
doubtedly led to a considerable amount of preventable damage. 
Where this struck us particularly was in the springs of our field 
carriages, and in the air recuperators of some of our heavier 
mountings. One divisional artillery commander told me in 
August that his guns had fired 7,500 rounds in six weeks, and 
that since the beginning of the action he had had on an average 
25 per cent of his guns always out of action from this cause. 
All the spring-makers in England were called into conclave — 
representatives of the design departments of all the great gun 
making firms were taken over to France, to see on the spot where 
the failures were. But no doubt the chief damage was due to 



headlam: developments in artillery 313 

the fact that in the heat of battle, inexperienced personnel had 
forgotten the constant attention buffers require. Great atten- 
tion has since been paid to this part of the training, and after 
visiting many of the field workshops a few days after the com- 
mencement of the attack in Flanders, I was able to report that 
preventable damage was practically dead. But there are still, 
alas, some cases of prematures, and with the counter battery work 
that goes on now many cases of damage from the enemy's fire, so 
that our field workshops are still kept busy. Close up to the front 
you will find everywhere installed in ruined farms or under a tar- 
paulin shelter these ordnance workshops, containing a hetero- 
geneous collection of damaged guns and carriages. From thestore 
of ' 'spares" it may be possible to put the damage right with some 
adjustment, or from three such ''lame ducks" it may be pos- 
sible for one or two to be made complete, and so the work goes on 
all night, and by dawn the guns are in their places in the line 
again. The work done by the officers and men who man these 
workshops is a very material factor in the great artillery struggle, 
but nothing can compensate for the daily care of the gunners, and 
I always think the mottoes inscribed on the French 155-mm. Fil- 
loux guns "should be on every gunner's heart : 

"Le Canon bien tendu en vaut deux." "Soyez bons pour les 
f reins." 

I hope, gentlemen, that you will not think I have devoted too 
much of your time to this subject of production and repair, but 
it is one of absolutely vital importance to the efficiency of an army 
in the field, and it is one in which science has a great part to play. 

Accuracy of fire. I had intended to tell you something of the 
development of the work of artillery in the field, of counter bat- 
tery work, and of the "barrage," a word which seems to have 
captured the American imagination almost as much as ' 'camou- 
flage." But time does not permit, so I will confine myself as far 
as work in the field is concerned to giving you an idea of what has 
been done in the way of developing the accuracy of artillery fire 
during the war. * 

Accuracy of fire is of course the first essential to success in the 
artillery, and the first thing therefore that the good gunner does is 



314 headlam: developments in artillery 

to get as good a platform for his gun as he possibly can, and that 
probably means much heavy labor in digging deep, and gathering 
material — rubble, bricks, timber — from a distance. This search 
for materials sometimes leads to amusing scenes. 

Care of ammunition. But however solidly a gun may be sup- 
ported it can not be expected to give uniform results unless the 
ammunition is in good order. Powder and fuses must be pro- 
tected from the weather, and this entails much labor and constant 
care. We had, for instance, great trouble when we first adopted 
nitro-cellulose powder because we did not realize how sensitive 
it was to damp. 

Protection from the weather is not, however, all that has to be 
done to insure good shooting from the ammunition. Cartridges 
and fuses are made in lots, and no ''adjustment" can quite get 
over the differences between tliese. Every effort is made to keep 
lots together, and the system of doing so is at this moment being 
greatly developed, but even with all possible care, lots will in- 
evitably get mixed in their passage from the factory to the ship, 
from the ship to the depots, from these to the dumps, and so 
through the various echelons of supply till they reach the guns. 
Cartridges and fuses must therefore be sorted in the batteries, 
and the necessary allowances made when using the different lots. 
Somewhat the same thing has to be done with the shell, for 
when a large output of ammunition is to be obtained from all 
sorts of factories it is out of the question to reject all which are 
not exactly within the strict limits of weight. They are accepted 
but with the weight marked upon them, and these again must 
be sorted and the necessary allowances made. 

Calibration of guns. The next thing the artilleryman has to 
think of is the age of his gun, or rather how hard it has lived ! As 
a gun wears, its accuracy and its range fall off. The former can 
not be calculated, though it must be allowed for; the latter can, 
and the loss of muzzle velocity in each gun must be found and 
allowed for. This is what we call ' 'calibration," and it has to be 
repeated with each propellant, and, in a howitzer, with each 
charge. It is usually carried out on the front, because we prefer, 
whenever possible, that every shell should have at any rate a 



HEAD lam: developments in artillery 315 

chance of killing a German. To enable it to be done the topo- 
graphical sections provide batteries with maps, mounted so as to 
avoid errors due to shrinkage or warping, and showing accurately 
not only the positions of the guns and observing stations, but also 
such datum points as may be desired in the enemy's lines. 

Error of the day. Having by this means found the errors of the 
guns, a battery commander has next to think of the error of the 
day, or rather of the moment. He must ascertain and allow for 
the height of the barometer, the temperature of the air, the tem- 
perature of the charge, and the force and direction of the wind 
for a* given time of flight, and here he has to depend on his scien- 
tific friend "Meteor" who sends to him every few hours cryptic 
telegrams. 

Error of the gun. And yet after all this meticulous care, we have 
to recognize that a series of rounds fired at the same elevation will 
not fall on the same spot, but will cover a rectangle varying in size 
with the gun and the range. The size of the ' '50 per cent zone" — 
the length and breadth of which are a quarter of those of the 100 
per cent zone — is given in the range table of each gun, and this 
has to be continually in the mind of the battery commander, for 
without a thorough realization of it he can not judge how many 
rounds will be required to accomplish such a task as, for instance, 
the destruction of an enemy's battery. But its most important 
use is perhaps to avoid danger of shelling one's own troops. 
Nothing is so distressing to an artillery general as to receive com- 
plaints from the infantry that his shells are falling in their trenches, 
and yet whatever the skill of his batteries this must happen some- 
times, with the lines as close together as they are, unless this in- 
herent quality in the gun is recognized and allowed for. 

Difficulty of applying calculations in the field. ' I will not pursue 
the subject further, but remember that though the calculations 
may appear very simple to you, they are not so easy, given the 
conditions under which they have to be made — the absence of any 
conveniences, the presence of every disturbing element. It is very 
easy then to make an error which may have fatal results. One of 
my best battery commanders was killed by a shell from his own 
battery when himself conducting the fire from a trench from which 
he had cleared the infantry. 



316 headlam: developments in artilleky 

Ohservation of fire. But however confident he may be of the 
accuracy of the information furnished to him by his scientific 
assistants, and of the correctness of his own calculations, the good 
artilleryman will always do everything in his power to insure his 
fire being observed. The possibility of sending artillery officers 
forward with the advancing infantry had been hotly debated 
before the war and in some cases practised as far as this could be 
done in peace, so it did not take long to fall into the idea when the 
first halt on the Aisne gave the opportunity — and the demands 
that the w^ork made on the enterprise and ingenuity of our officers 
caused it to be taken up with enthusiasm. The following example 
may bring home to you some idea of what this meant. 

At one point on the Western Front there was a low ridge be- 
tween the opposing front lines of trenches. Beyond the end of 
this ridge there was an offset in both lines. There were ammuni- 
tion dumps behind the ridge, and beyond the offset stood the 
ruins of a farm-house, from which a good view could be had of the 
German positions behind the ridge. One of our battery com- 
manders discovered that he could get up to that farmhouse at 
night. He went up one night and explored it and found that 
there was a gable still standing, and that the end of the gable had 
been knocked out by a shell, but that there were strips of drying 
tobacco hanging in the opening which he thought would give him 
shelter. So he got his telephone up there the next day, after 
many difficulties; he was only about 150 yards from the German 
lines. There he carried out a shoot which is a good instance of 
what I said about the importance of accuracy. Here was the 
ridge, and our trenches were just short of the crest. He wanted 
to shoot at the point beyond the crest. It was extremely 
difficult from th6 gunner's point of view to get a shell which 
would clear this crest and hit the objectives desired, for there 
was danger that the shell would hit the crest or drop into our 
own trenches. He succeeded through his control of the fire by 
direct observation, although he had to carry all that out in a 
place where he could not move and where he was really in full 
view of the Germans within almost pistol range. It was one of 
the sort of problems that artillery officers are continually 
attacking and solving in this war. 



headlam: developments in artillery 317 

Aeroplane observation. Almost simultaneously the aeroplane 
observer entered the field. The story of how the present system of 
communication between aeroplanes and artillery has been gradu- 
ally developed is in itself a subject for a lecture. Now not only 
does the observer in the air observe our fire, he also proves the 
correctness of his observation by bringing in a photograph of the 
result, which is used also by comparison with the zone of the guns 
to check the accuracy of the work of the battery. I need hardly 
refer to the science that has been devoted to developing the means 
of communication and prefecting the system, but all those who 
have had real experience, whether they belong to the Flying Corps 
or the Artillery, will I am sure agree that success will never be 
attained without the closest possible personal touch and sympathy 
between the observer in the air and the gunner below. They must 
know each other — without the personal equation, half the benefit 
of science is lost. 

But practical experience showed the danger of relying too 
exclusively on aeroplane observation as liable to be put ouf of 
action by bad weather, while in any case the number of machines 
which can work on any given front is strictly limited. Great 
efforts are now therefore being made to develop all other possible 
means of observation. The balloon — the first cousin to the aero- 
plane — is of course very restricted in its zone, but it has the great 
advantage that the observer in it is in direct telephonic com- 
munication with the artillery — indeed it is nothing but an ob- 
serving station in the air, which can be occupied by any artillery 
officer. 

Observing stations. The ordinary observing stations have been 
developed in the one direction by camouflage which was first 
directed to this end, rather than to the concealment of the guns 
themselves; then to their elaboration — instead of the officer 
covering behind his precarious screen of tobacco leaves, he would 
be in a comfortable splinter-proof tower which had been ingeni- 
ously built inside the ruins ; or sitting in the cellar, with his eye 
to a giant periscope, or perhaps a camera obscura. 

Flash-spotting and sound-ranging. In the elaborately equipped 
observatories of the ' 'flash spotters" the burst of every round may 



318 headlam: developments in artillery 

be accurately recorded by the intersections of three widely 
separated observers, and instantaneously transmitted to the 
plotting stations. There too will be registered the position of 
any gun that is foolish enough to open fire from an insufficiently 
masked position when the clouds are dark behind it. 

Then the ' 'sound ranger" too plays his part, as with his delicate 
instruments he registers the discharge of the enemy's gun, — also, 
often enough, the burst of the enemy's shells. Their work must 
be done far to the front, and often with little or no protection, and 
I would like to bear witness to the gallantry of the distinguished 
savants who have let no consideration of personal safety or com- 
fort interfere with the accuracy of their observations. 

Gentlemen, I commenced by making one confession — that I 
had no information to give you about the new German gun, and 
I must conclude on the same note, for I am not going to attempt 
to say anything about what is by far the most interesting scientific 
development of artillery during the war — I mean anti-aircraft 
gunnery. The study of the ballistics of shell fired at such angles, 
the effect of high altitudes on the burning of the fuses, the inven- 
tion of the wonderful instruments in the way of height-finders and 
so forth required for the direction of the fire, have opened up 
entirely new fields of scientific research. I have just had the 
pleasure of handing to your experts the results of a series of very 
exhaustive experiments which have been conducted in England. 
But it is wise to recognize one's own limitations; I very soon dis- 
covered that anti-aircraft gunnery had reached an atmosphere 
too rarified for me. You must therefore find younger and more 
scientific brains to tell you the wonders of the new science still in 
its infancy, but progressing by leaps and bounds. If you think 
that the results attained have been small, that with all the ex- 
penditure of talent and material devoted to it the proportion of 
aeroplanes brought to bag is insignificant, you must remember 
the difficulties of the task. An aeroplane covers more than half 
a mile while the shell is in the air, and I leave it to the sportsmen 
among you to say how many ducks they would pick up under such 
conditions. 

Gas shell, the other great real novelty in artillery, has already 
been ably dealt with by my friend Major Auld, with whom ' *oVer 



wherry: crystal form and optical properties 319 

there" I have so often discussed their development and effect. 
There are indeed some other directions in which science is, I hope, 
even now on the threshold of discoveries, which if they will not 
"revolutionize warfare" will at least greatly increase the power 
of the artillery. A famous speaker is credited with the advice to 
a beginner, that if he could not be interesting he could at any rate 
always be indiscreet. But in war time one is denied even this 
resource. And so I am afraid that my contribution to your series 
of lectures on science in relation to the war has been a story of 
gradual development rather than of sensational advances. Even 
so, I hope that I have been able to show you that we artillerymen 
have maintained our traditional interest in science, and that it is, 
not in vain that the famous statue of ''Armed Science" has been 
for so many years the presiding genius of our mess room at Wook 
wich. I have shown you also a little of what men of science have- 
done for us not only in the study but in the field. I am sure that, 
you will come forward as freely, and that my brother officers of 
the American artillery will welcome as we have done all the assist- 
ance that science can give them. 

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. — Certain relations between crystalline 
form, chemical constitution, and optical properties in organic 
compounds, — 11.^ Edgar T. Wherry, Bureau of Chemistry. 

Penta-erythrite 

C(CH20H)4 Ditetragonal-pyTamidal; a :c = 1 : 1.024. 

The optical data given by Groth^ are tabulated here in the same 
manner as were those of urea. (See table 4, p. 321.) 

The refraction and axial ratios agree within the limits of error of 
measurement, so in this substance, as in urea, the standard axial 
ratio is also the true one. 

The chemical molecule of penta-erythrite can be brought into 
agreement with the observed symmetry if spread out around a 
central carbon atom with all the OH groups pointing in one direc- 

<■' Continued from page 285. 

7 Chemische Krystallographie III: 385. 1910. 



320 wheirry: crystal form and optical properties 



tion, bringing out thereby the lack of a horizontal symmetry 
plane. The space-lattice shows cube-centered arrangement 
within the smallest cells, as well as in the whole structure. These 
features are incorporated into figure 2. 

As this substance possesses a rather complicated space-lattice, 
certain simplifications are introduced, such as the grouping of the 
H atoms and the OH radicals. In addition, the symbols are 



HH — 




Fig. 2. Partial space-lattice of penta-erythrite. 

given only for atoms that occur on the surface, except in the 
upper right forward cell, which is labeled completely; it is under- 
stood that all the points in any one horizontal plane indicated by 
dots or rings are occupied by the same atoms or groups that 
occur where the planes reach the front of the diagram. The 
space-lattice shown should be. increased one-third in each hori- 
zontal direction to attain completeness. It will then contain 
11 chemical molecules and 8^ = 512 of the smallest cells, and the 



wherry: crystal form and optical properties 



321 



spacing of the cells can be determined by applying the same 
formula as was used for urea. Here x = 11, W = 135.02, m = 
1.64 X 10--^ gm., y = 512, p = 1.40, c = 1.024. Solving, da = 
1.49 X 10-8 cm., and dc = 1.52 X 10-^ cm. The arrangement 
is too complicated for this to be interpreted in terms of the thick- 

TABLE 4 
Refraction Relations of Penta-erythrite 



REFR.^CTIVE INDICES 


REFRACTION RATIO 


AXIAL RATIO 


CO 


e 


Rco/Re 


c/ a 


1.559 


1.548 


1.0 7 


1.024 



ness of any one kind of atoms, but the values are not far from 
those of urea in the direction in which hydrogen layers appear, 
indicating that the spaces occupied by the several kinds of atoms 
in the two substances are about the same. 



Mellite 

Al2(C.COO)6.18H20 Ditetragonal-bipyramidal; a : c = 1 : 0.746. 
If the alternate axial ratio of this peculiar mineral is used, the 
axial and refraction ratios show approximate inverse agreement, 
as brought out in table 5. 

TABLE 5 
Refraction Relations of Mellite 



REFRACTIVE INDICES 


REFRACTION RATIO 


AXIAL RATIO 


W 


e 


Rco/Re 


c/ a 


1.539 


1.511 


1.046 


1.055 



In this substance complete working out of the space-lattice is 
impracticable, as the dispositions of the atoms in the organic 
radicals are uncertain. But the partial structure shown in figure 
3 has several points of interest. In it R stands for (C.COO) and 
the heavy dots for H2O. The fact that a compound in which 
certain groups appear in threes or multiples of three should 
crystallize tetragonal seems at first sight anomalous; but when 



322 wherry: crystal form and optical properties 

the number of atoms represented in a square occupied at 'both 
corners and centers of edges is figured out, it is found to be three; 
or if the atoms are moved from the corners part way toward the 
center — in the figure they are half way^ — ■, six prove to be present. 
The latter arrangement seems to fill the requirements in the pres- 
ent case the best. 

The R groups are regarded, then, as lying in planes, with the 
Al atoms arranged, as required by the symmetry, along the verti- 




Fig. 3. Space-lattice of mellite. 



cal axis between them. A sort of spool-shaped structure is there- 
by produced, and it is only natural that water of crystallization 
should, as it were, take the place of the thread. The 18 mole- 
cules of this can best be arranged in three layers of six each. 

If the atoms of the (C.COO) group are actually spread out in 
the same vertical layers, occupying nodes where these intersect 



wherry: crystal form and optical properties 323 

horizontal ones shown, the spacing of the planes of the layers 
may be calculated in the usual way. In mellite x = 1, W = 
62.95, ni = 1.64 x IQ-^", y = 64, p = 1.64, and c' = 1.055, 
whence da = 2.10 X 10-« and dc = 2.22 X lO-* cm. The some- 
what greater values obtained in this case are what would be 
anticipated from the presence of the relatively large aluminium 
atoms, although the structure is too complicated and too un- 
certain for exact valuation of the effects of the several atoms. 

The double propionate group. 

The crystallographic and optical data in the literature^ upon 
the double propionates of calcium with strontium, barium, and 

TABLE 6 
Refraction Relations of Double Propionates 



METALS 


REFRACTIVB INDICES 


REFRACTION 
RATIOS 


AXIAL 
RATIOS 




CO 


e 


Rco/Re 


c/ O 


CajSr 

CaaPb 


1.487 
1.526 
1.510 
1.485 
1.457 
1.444 


1.496 
1.540 
1.522 
1.498 
1.457 
1.444 


0.984 
0.978 
0.981 
0.978 
1.000 
1.000 


0.976 
0.979 


Ca2(Pb, Ba) \ 

CajBa 


0.981 
0.986 
1.000 
1.000 







lead respectively, show fair inverse agreement to exist between 
their crystallographic-axial and refraction ratios, as brought 
out in table 6. The barium salt is cubic, but this may be looked 
upon as a limiting case of the tetragonal system, where axis c = 
1, and the refraction ratio is of course also 1. 

The refractive indices and axial ratios have been accurately 
determined for a large number of isomorphous mixtures of the 
lead and barium salts; three of these are here listed as typical. 
Toward either end of the series the refraction and axial ratios 
show inverse agreement, but they deviate through the middle 
portion. Evidently the irregularities in the layers of atoms that 

' Groth, op. cit., p. 203. 



324 wherry: crystal form and optical properties 

result when large numbers of both barium and lead atoms are 
present disturb the refraction effects of the layers in which they 
lie in one direction, whereas when atoms of one kind are in con- 
siderable excess the layers, as it were, smooth out, and their effect 
on the refraction is normal. 

One of several possible interpretations of the structure of these 
salts is shown in figure 4. It is easy enough to arrange two metal 




Fig. 4. Space-lattice of Ca-Sr propionate. 



atoms of one kind and one of another kind into a group with 
tetragonal symmetry — the latter may occupy the corners of a 
square, the former the centers of its edges (only | of the first and 
J of the second belonging to the square). But the propionic acid 
radical CH3.CH2.CO is rather clumsy to handle in a space- 
lattice. The mean positions it probably occupies are indicated 



wherry: crystal form ^ and optical properties 325 

by R in the figure, but speculation as to the arrangement of the 
atoms within this group seems profitless. 

Exceptions 

It now seemed desirable to inquire into the relations in cases 
where inverse proportionality of the axes and the refractions fails 
to hold, and five illustrations of this were found among the 50 
representatives of the tetragonal system listed by Groth,^ 
namely: calcium-cupric acetate, ammonium-uranyl acetate, i- 
erythrite, /3-methyl-glucoside, and guanidine carbonate. 

In calcium-cupric acetate the inverse refraction ratio is 1.088 
and the standard axial ratio 1.032. These are apparently too 
far apart for observational errors to cause their divergence, so 
it is concluded that in this substance either the atoms are irreg- 
ularly arranged in one direction, or that a marked anisotropism 
of the copper atoms is associated with the coloring and pleo- 
chroism of the substance. 

In ammonium-uranyl acetate the inverse refraction ratio is 
0.979, and the standard axial ratio 1.412. If the form usually, 
called (102) is made (111), the latter ratio becomes 0.998, 
approaching the former one. Probably some layers of atoms have 
no effect in fixing the position of the prominent form (111) on 
which the standard axial ratio is based, and yet their existence 
finds expression in the appearance of the subordinate form known 
as (102). The crystallographic measurements of this substance 
made by different observers vary nearly one degree, which 
may explain the lack of more exact agreement; and moreover 
some anisotropism of the uranium atoms is probably present as 
well. 

In i-erythrite the inverse refraction ratio is 1.037, the standard 
axial ratio 0.376; but if the form taken as (111) is really (102) the 
latter ratio would be 1.068, which is nearer, yet still not identical 
with, the refraction ratio. However, the substance must possess 
a rather complicated structure, containing two asymmetric 

'Chemische Krystallographie III (also a few in I and II). 



326 wherry: crystal form ^nd optical properties 

carbon atoms, which are no doubt anisotropic ; a deviation of the 
two ratios is thus not unexpected. 

In the case of /3-methyl-ghicoside the situation is similar to the 
preceding. Here, however, the change needed in the standard 
axial ratio is merely the use of the alternate value for c, and the 
tabular habit and basal cleavage point to the fundamental cor- 
rectness of this value, for in accordance with Fedorov's principle 
c should exceed a in such circumstances. The ratios are then: 
refraction, 1.035; crystallographic, 1.137. The complication of 
the structure, and the presence of several asymmetric carbons, 
are probably sufficient explanation of the divergence. 

In guanidine carbonate the refraction ratio is 1.020, while 
the standard axial is 0.991. The numerical deviation is not 
very great, but is remarkable because the two lie on opposite sides 
of unity. However, crystals of this substance exhibit rotation 
of the plane of polarized light and abnormal dispersion of double 
refraction — showing a minimum around 589 and increasing 
both directions therefrom — , thus offering evidence of possible 
reasons for the above unusual relation. 

The exceptions to the inverse relation of refraction and crystal- 
lographic axial ratios are thus readily explainable, although no 
data are as yet available that would permit the evaluation of the 
disturbance caused by each of the several factors which may be 
represented. 

Preliminary observations have also been made on several other 
organic compounds that possess simple formulas and crystallize 
in fairly symmetrical systems and classes, comprising oxalic acid, 
iodoform, acetamide, both stable and unstable forms, and 
aldehyde-ammonia. For various reasons the measurements of 
the indices which it has thus far been possible to make are not 
particularly accurate, and although simple numerical relations 
appear to exist between the crystallographic and refraction ratios 
in many instances, the details of the structures are so compli- 
cated that no satisfactory space-lattices have yet been worked 
out. Further study of these and other compounds is planned, 
however, and will be reported from time to time as definite results 
are obtained. 



I 

wherry: crystal form and optical properties 327 



SUMMARY 

In this paper the study of the "refraction ratios" of crystalHzed 
organic compounds is suggested, these ratios being obtained by 
substituting in the standard refractivity formula the refractive 
indices exhibited in different directions. It is pointed out that 
these ratios as well as the crystallographic axial ratios are con- 
nected with the spacing of the planes of atoms in the space- 
lattices of the substances, and that comparison of the two ratios 
may be expected to throw considerable light on the type of space- 
lattice represented in each case. Such a comparison is made for 
the substances urea, penta-erythrite, mellite, and three double 
propionates, and their refraction ratios prove to be the exact 
inverse of the crystallographic axial ratios. The relations in 
several other substances are also discussed, and deviations from 
inverse proportionality are shown to be connected with atomic 
anisotropism, asymmetry of carbon atoms, etc. Further work 
on other substances is planned. .yi^XrT> 



r 



ABSTRACTS 

Authors of scientific papers are requested to see that abstracts, preferably 
prepared and signed by themselves, are forwarded promptly to the editors. 
Each of the scientific bureaus in Washington has a representative authorized to 
forward such material to this Journal and abstracts of official publications 
should be transmitted through the representative of the bureau in which they 
originate. The abstracts should conform in length and general style to those 
appearing in this issue. 

PHYSICS. — Resonance and ionization potentials for electrons in cad- 
mium vapor. P. D. Foote and J. T. Tate. Bur. Stand. Sci. 
Paper No. 317. Pp. 17. 1918. 
The object of this investigation has been the determination of the 
resonance and ionization potentials for electrons in cadmium vapor. 
Resonance collision of the electron with the atom was observed at 
3.88 volts and inelastic impact resulting in ionization was observed at 
8.92 volts. The single hne spectrum of cadmium is X = 3260.17. If 
we substitute the frequency corresponding to this wave length in the 
relation hv = eV, where h == 6.56. 10~" erg. sec, e the electronic charge, 
and V the resonance potential, we obtain V = 3.79 volts, in good agree- 
ment with the above. On the basis of Bohr's theory the ionization 
potential should be 8.97, in most excellent agreement with the experi- 
mentally determined value. P. D. F. 

GEOCHEMISTRY. — The ferrous iron content and magnetic suscept- 
hility of some artificial and natural oxides of iron. R. B. Sosman and 
J. C. HosTETTER. Bull. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng. 907-931. June, 
1917. 
The percentage of ferrous iron and the relative magnetic suscepti- 
bility in powder form have been determined on a number of art fie al 
and natural oxides of iron. Artificial oxides made at 1100*^ and 1200° 
consist of a solid solution of FesO, in Fe203. Their relative magnetic 
susceptibility is approximately proportional to their percentage of 
FeO, from Fe203 over to Fe3 04. The deviations may be partly ac- 
counted for by the effect of various factors, of which the fineness of 
grain of the powdered oxide is the most important, especially in the 
case of the more ferromagnetic members of the series. The colors of 
the powdered oxides depend both on their chemical composition and 
on their physical constitution, especially the fineness of grain. 

328 



abstracts: geochemistry 329 

In addition to the oxides whose siisceptibiht}' depends upon their 
content of FeO, there exists also a highly ferromagnetic form of Fe203, 
which appeal's to be rare in natural occurrence. 

The natural iron-oxide minerals are similar to the artificial in that 
many are solid solutions of Fe304 in Fe203. Others are mixtures of 
Fe304 and Fe203. If the ferrous iron is not in solid solution or in mag- 
netite admixture, the magnetic susceptibility falls below the norma'. 

Some natural oxides can be magnetically fractionated; and the less 
magnetic portions are found to deviate more widely from normal 
than the more magnetic. The cause of this deviation is not yet en- 
tirely clear. 

Martite is a pseudomorph after magnetite, but its constituent gran- 
ules or fibers consist usually of a solid solution of Fe304 in Fe203. The 
ferrous iron content and the magnetic susceptibility of the specimens 
examined suggest that they have been produced at temperatures con- 
siderably higher that atmospheric. 

R. B. S. 

GEOCHEMISTRY. — Zonal growth in hematite, and its hearing on the 
origin of certain iron ores. R. B. Sosman and J. C. Hostetter. 
Bull. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng. 933-943. June, 1917. 
The powdered oxide from certain crystals of hematite from Elba 
contains considerable FeO and can also be fractionated magnetically. 
It is therefore not homogeneous, as would be the case if the crystal were 
a uniform solid solution throughout. Analyses and magnetic measure- 
ments on a cross-section of an Elba crystal showed that the magnetic 
susceptibility' and percentage of FeO vary, not irregularly, but con- 
tinuously, being highest at the base and lowest at the free-growing 
tip of the crystal. The crystal is therefore zoned with respect to its 
FeO content. * 

Since Fe304 goes into solid solution in Fe203, forming a single solid 
phase of var3dng composition and properties, a zonal distribution of 
FeO is to be expected in an oxide of iron depositing from a vapor or 
solution. The occurrence of such zonal growth indicates continuously 
changing conditions of temperature, pressure, and concentration during 
the formation of the crystals. Several ore deposits of contact-meta- 
morphic origin show a zonal distribution of ferrous iron, probably 
arising from the sanie causes as the zoning of the single crystals. 

R. B. S. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY AND AFFILIATED 

SOCIETIES 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

The Board of Managers met on April 29, 1918. Upon the recom- 
mendation of the special committee on the Journal, it was decided to 
discontinue the lists of references which have been published in the 
Journal from time to time, and to appoint a group of assistant editors 
to supplement the present editorial board of three members. The 
Academy's membership in the American Metric Association was con- 
tinued for the present year. Ten resident and five nonresident mem- 
bers were elected. 

Robert B. Sosman, Corresponding Secretary. 

BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 583d regular meeting of the Society was held in the Assembly Hall 
of the Cosmos Club, Saturday, April 6, 1918; called to order at 8 p.m. 
by President Rose; 37 persons present. 

On recommendation of the Council, Miss Crystal Thompson and Mr. 
Norman A. Wood, both of the Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor, Mich- 
igan, were elected to membership. 

The following informal communications were presented; 

W. L. McAtee remarked on the contents of birds' stomachs and ex- 
hibited the stomach of a merganser containing an embedded fish 
hook, which undoubtedly had been in a swallowed fish. 

Gen. T. E. Wilcox remarked that he had once found an Indian arrow 
head in the stomach of a grouse. 

Dr. L. 0. Howard called attention to efforts made to limit the spread 
of pink boll-worm by the establishment of cotton -free zone: in Texas. 

William Palmer exhibited some fossil teeth and bones lately ob- 
tained by him from the Calvert Cliffs, near Chespeake Beach, Mary- 
land: tooth of Hexanchus primigenius; fragment of bone of Puffinus; 
tooth of Champsodelphis acutidens; tooth of a sirenian; tooth of Del- 
phinodon, n.s.; tooth of Thinotherium annulatum. His remarks were 
discussed by Dr. L. 0. Howard and Capt. M. W. Lyon, Jr. 

The regular program consisted of two communications; 

C. D. Marsh: The cause of milk sickness or trembles. The first publi- 
cation in regard to milk sickness was in 1810, but it had been known as 
far back as the Revolutionary War. The disease was especially common 
in the early days in the states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, but has 
rarely been recognized in pubhcations upon diseases as a disease with a 

330 



proceedings: anthropological society 331 

specific entity. The most noticeable sjonptoms are pronounced nausea, 
with vomiting, extreme constipation, and trembhng. The disease was 
said to afiect particularly cattle and was transmitted through the milk 
to human beings. A good deal of mystery has been attached to the eti- 
ology of the disease and among the suggestions as to the cause have been 
fungi, insect-borne germs, emanations from the soil, and a number of 
supposed poisonous plants. The plant to which suspicion has been par- 
ticularly directed has been Eupatorium urticaefolium. commonly known 
as white snake root. The work of Jordan and Harris in 1909 seems to 
prove that the disease is produced by a distinct bacillus, and the pub- 
hcation of Crawford in 1908 seemed to negative the possibility of Eupa- 
torium being the cause of the disease. It seemed best, however, on 
account of the suspicion which still attached to this plant for the De- 
partment of Agriculture to make a series of feeding experiments. These 
experiments proved conclusively that Eupatorium urticaefolium is poison- 
ous to both cattle and sheep. The knowledge thus acquired in connec- 
tion with other pubhshed statements seems to make it certain, not only 
that the Eupatorium is poisonous to both cattle and sheep, but that it 
is the cause of many, if not almost all of the so-called cases of milk 
sickness in cattle and sheep. 

Dr. IMarsh's paper was illustrated by lantern shdes showing character- 
istic attitudes of poisoned animals. 

J. W. Gidley: Segregation an important factor in evolution with its 
special bearing on the origin and distribution of mammals. (No abstract.) 

Mr. Gidley 's paper was discussed by Prof. Bradley M. Davis, Dr. 
T. S. Palmer, Mr. William Palmer, and Capt. M. W. Lyon, Jr. 

M. W. Lyon, Jr., Recording Secretary. 

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 525th meeting of the Society was held in the Lecture Hall of 
the Public Library on Tuesday, April 9, at 8 p.m. Dr. PaulHaupt, 
W. W. Spence Professor of Semitic Languages and Director of the Ori- 
ental Seminary at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, 
gave an address upon Mesopotafnia and Palestine. 

"The early civihzation of Babylonia was Sumerian. The Sumerian 
language appears to be related to Georgian in Russian Transcaucasia. 
Mesopotamia passed successively under the sway of the Sumerians, 
Accadians, Hittites, Cassites, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Persians, IMace- 
donians, Parthians, Romans, Sassanians, Arabs, Mongols, Tartars, and 
Turks. Since 1638 it has been a part of the Turkish Empire. 

"In 1902 the Turkish Government granted to a German syndicate 
a charter for the construction of a railway from Constantinople through 
Asia Minor to Bagdad, and afterw^ards to Basra. This through line 
from Hamburg to the Persian Gulf, which threatened the British do- 
minion of India, was one of the most important factors which led to 
the world war. 



332 proceedings: anthropological society 

"In 1886 I recommended colonization of Mesopotamia, construction 
of the Euphrates Railway, and restoration of the ancient system of 
irrigation. In 1887 I prepared a memorandum concerning a national 
expedition to Mesopotamia under the auspices of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution. In 1892 I suggested settlement of the Russian Jews in 
Mesopotamia. My plan was afterward advocated by Israel Zangwill.i 
The restoration of the ancient system of irrigation, which would make 
Babylonia again the chief granary of the world, was taken up in 1909 by 
Sir William Willcocks. 

"The relations between Mesopotamia and Palestine are very close. 
The ancestors of the Israelites came from Mesopotamia. The Israel- 
ites were settled in Palestine when the Edomite ancestors of the Jews 
were in Egypt. Judah was not a tribe but a religious association of 
worshippers of Jahveh, including not only Edomites, but also Horites, 
Canaanites, Ishmaehtes, Moabites, Hittites, Amorites, Philistines, 
Egyptians, and Ethiopians, i.e., a mixture of Asiatic, African, and Euro- 
pean elements. 

"It will perhaps be possible to solve the complicated ethnological 
problems in Palestine with the help of the new sero-diagnostic methods 
based on deviation of complement whereby the lytic action of a hemo- 
lysing fluid is prevented. Hansemann made some experiments with 
Egyptian mmnmies. Friedenthal tested the blood and flesh of a mam- 
moth which had been found in 1902, imbedded in the ice of Siberia. 
The reaction showed the near relation of the extinct mammoth to 
the existing Indian elephant. 

"Palestine (both Western and Eastern) is nearly as large (9840 sq. 
m.) as Sicily (9860 sq. m.), but it has only about 750,000 inhabitants, 
(Mesopotamia about 1,500,000). Like Sicily, which was the bridge 
between Europe and Africa, Palestine, the connecting link between 
Mesopotamia and Egypt, never was the land of a single nation and 
probably never will be. Certainly the Jews can claim only Judea, not 
the northern districts, Samaria and Galilee, or the country east of the 
Jordan. The majority of the colonists whom the Assyrian kings sent 
to Gahlee were Aryans, i.e., Iranians, so that the founders of Chris- 
tianity may not have been Jews by race. 

"With the passing away of anti-Semitism Jewish nationalism will dis- 
appear. The Jews in this country will be Americans, the Jews in 
France will be Frenchmen, but they will continue to regard Jerusalem 
as their spiritual mother." 

The 39th annual meeting (526th regular meeting) of the Society was 
held in the West Study Room of the Public Library, April 23, at 8 p.m.; 
President Babcock in the chair. The following officers were elected 
for the ensuing year: President, Mr. E. T. Williams; Vice-president, 
Dr. Truman Michelson; Secretary, Mr. Felix Neumann; Treasurer, 
Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt; Councillors, Mr. J. P, Harrington, Mr. Francis 

» See The American Hebrew, May 21, 1909. 



proceedings: anthropological society 333 

LaFlesche, Rev. John M. Cooper, Dr. E. D. Morgan, Miss Frances 
Densmore. The society then Hstened to the address of the retiring 
president, Mr. W. H. Babcock, on Some anthropological and national 
factors in the present war. 

The speaker reviewed the series of papers on national subjects which 
had been deHvered before the society during the past year. 

"The war is a contest of nations, conditions, and racial aspirations; 
between the central Teutonic empires, with originally Turanian adher- 
ents, and the surrounding republics or liberal monarchies, chiefly Latins, 
Slavs, and the English-speaking peoples. But the difference in kinds 
of government had less to do with beginning the war than the vehement 
hostility of races and national ambitions. 

"A 'race' and 'nation' are variable terms. Language does not al- 
ways accord with either. No people is homogeneous. What counts for 
most is a conviction of national identity and racial affiliation sustained 
emotionally by an ideal of patriotism. When this is violently over- 
ridden, a sense of outrage and sacrilege is evoked — the most fruitful 
source of devastating wars. The best preventive would be such 
political redistribution as would end alien oppression and make aggres- 
sion very difficult." 

The speaker sketched the human movements which have evolved and 
defined the peoples of Europe; also the special changes needed. The 
same victorious powers of civilization which must effect the latter could 
also maintain them. The prospect of a general and lasting peace was 
never so good as now; for the world is nearly full and well under control, 
excepting as yet the Central Powers and their auxiUaries. There would 
be no danger from outside barbarians, such as wrecked the long con- 
tinued, but territorially restricted, dominion of Rome. 

Frances Densmore, Secretary. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

At the meeting of the National Academy of Sciences, held in Wash- 
ington on April 22-24, 1918, the following fifteen persons were elected 
to membership : Robert Grant Aitken, astronomer, Lick Observatory, 
California; George Francis Atkinson, botanist, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y.; George David Birkhoff, mathematician, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass. ; Percy Williams Bridgman, physicist. 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; Stephen Alfred Forbes, zo- 
ologist, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111.; John Ripley Freeman, 
engineer, Providence, Rhode Island; Ludvig Hektoen, pathologist, 
University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. ; Charles Judson Herrick, neu- 
rologist, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111.; Frank Baldwin Jew- 
ett, engineer. Western Electric Company, New York, N. Y.; Walter 
Jones, physiologist, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.; Ir- 
ving Langmuir, chemist, General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. 
Y. ; Charles Elwood Mendenhall, physicist, University of Wiscon- 
sin, Madison, Wis.; John Campbell Merriam, paleontologist. Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley, Cal. ; Henry Norris Russell, astrono- 
mer, Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. ; David Watson Taylor, 
engineer, rear-admiral and chief of the bureau of construction and 
repair, United States Navy. 

Prizes and medals were awarded as follows: The Comstock prize of 
$1500, for discoveries in magnetism and electricity, awarded to Sam- 
uel Jackson Barnett, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

The Draper medal, for discoveries in astronomical physics, awarded 
to Walter Sydney Adams, Mount Wilson Solar Observatory, Pasadena, 
California. 

The Daniel Giraud Elliot medal and honorarium for work in paleontol- 
ogy and zoology, awarded to Frank M. Chapman, American Museum 
of Natural History, New York. 

A special train left Washington on Monday evening, April 29, carry- 
ing members of the American Electrochemical Society on a six days' 
trip through the Appalachian South, to visit some of the more impor- 
tant electrochemical, electro-thermal, and power developments in that 
part of the country. 

Dr. W. L. Argo, of the University of Cahfornia, has been engaged in 
researches on gas masks at the Geophysical Laboratory and the Catho- 
lic University. 

Dr. Louis A. Bauer has been elected Foreign Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the Royal Society of Natural Sciences of Netherlands India. 

334 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 335 

Mr. Albert Burch, of the Bureau of Mines, and Mr. E. F. Burchard, 
of the Geological Survey, have recently returned from Cuba, where 
they went to ascertain the possibility of Cuba supplying a portion of 
the United States' requirements of manganese ore and chromite. They 
found that it is probable that Cuba will be able to furnish a portion 
of the manganese ore and chromite formerly imported from other foreign 
sources. 

Mr. F. S. DuRSTON, of the Bureau of Standards, has been commis- 
sioned a Ueutenant in the U. S. Naval Reserve Forces. 

Professor L. C. Graton is on leave of absence from Harvard Uni- 
versity and is in charge of the work of the Copper Producers' Committee 
in New York. 

Professor F. R. Moulton, of the University of Chicago, is in Wash- 
ington on leave of absence and has been commissioned a major in the 
Ordnance Reserve Corps. 

Professor Ivanoichiro Suidzu, of the Department of Organic Chem- 
istry, Tokyo Higher Technological College, visited Washington in April. 

Professor David G. Thompson, of Goucher College, Baltimore, is on 
leave of absence and spent the past summer on field work with the party 
of 0. E. Meinzer, of the U. S. Geological Survey, locating and marking 
watering places in the deserts of the Southwest near the Mexican 
border. 

Professor Richard C. Tolman, of the University of Uhnois, is on 
leave of absence to do war research in Washington. He is temporarily 
stationed at the laboratories of the Cathohc University. 

News was received on April 18, 1918, that Captain Ernest Weibel 
had died of wounds at a hospital in France. Captain Weibel became a 
member of the staff of the Bureau of Standards in 1910. He was 
commissioned a captain in the Engineers Corps after the declaration of 
war by the United States, and was soon afterward sent to France, 
where he was engaged in the sound-ranging service. He was a member 
of the Philosophical Society of Washington, and author of several 
papers in collaboration with F. Wenner and F. B. Silsbee on time- 
constants and inductance of low-resistance standards, the use of the 
Thomson bridge, and the testing of potentiometers. He also pub- 
hshed, in collaboration with A. L. Thuras, a paper in this Journal 
of March 19, 1918, on An electrical instrument for recording sea-water 
salinity. 

Dr. H. O. Wood, formerly of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, has 
been commissioned a captain in the Engineer Officers' Reserve Corps 
and is engaged in special research work at the Bureau of Standards. 



336 SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

The following persons have become members of the Academy since 
the last issue of the Journal : 

Surgeon General Rupert Blue, U. S. Public Health Service, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Professor Henry Edward Crampton, Barnard College, Columbia 
University, New York City. 

Dr. Heinrich Hasselbring, Bureau of Plant Industry, Department 
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Dr. George Grant Hedgcock, Bureau of Plant Industry, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Dr. George Samuel Jamieson, Bureau of. Chemistry, Department 
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Professor Arthur Becket Lamb, Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass., 
and American University Experiment Station of the Bureau of Mines, 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. S. J. Mauchly, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, Washington, D. C. 



The Executive Committee of the Entomological Society of Washing- 
ton has recently adopted the following rules and suggestions governing 
articles published in the Proceedings of the Society: 

Rules 

Rule 1. No description of a new genus, or subgenus, will be pub- 
lished unless there is cited as a genotype a species which is established 
in accordance with current practice of zoological nomenclature. 

Rule 2. In all cases a new genus, or subgenus, must be character- 
ized and if it is based on an undescribed species the two must be char- 
acterized separately. 

Rule 3. No description of a species, subspecies, variety, or form will 
be published unless it is accompanied by a statement which includes 
the following information, where known: (1) the type locaHty; (2) of 
what the type material consists— with statement of sex, full data on lo- 
calities, dates, collectors, etc. ; (3) present location of type material . 

Rule 4. No unsigned articles, or articles signed by pseudonyms or 
initials will be published. 

Rule 5. The ordinal position of the group treated in any paper must 
be clearly given in the title or in parentheses following the title. 

Suggestions 

1. All illustrations, accompanying an article, should be mentioned 
in the text and preferably in places where the object illustrated is 
discussed. 

It is desirable in describing new genera and species that their taxo- 
nomic relationship be discussed, and that distinguishing characters be 
pointed out. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 337 

3. In discussion of type material modern terms indicating its precise 
nature will be found useful. Examples of these terms are type (or holo- 
type), allotype, paratype, cotype, lectotype, neotype, etc. 

4. In all cases in the serial treatment of genera or species and where 
first used in general articles the authority for the species or genus should 
be given; and the name of the authority should not be abbreviated. 

5. Where the title of any publication referred to is not written in 
full, standard abbreviations should be used. 

6. When a species discussed has been determined by some one other 
than the author it is important that reference be made to the worker 
making the identification. 



WAR ORGANIZATION OF THE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 

Because of the urgent necessity of improving means of dealing 
promptly' and effectively with all problems bearing on the war, a re- 
organization of the National Research Council was effected on April 1, 
1918, a summary of which follows. 

The Executive Board has established eight divisions, each under the 
charge of a chairman who shall give all, or the greater part, of his time 
and attention to the affairs of his division, so as to be in a position to 
give immediate consideration to any problems which may arise. The 
following statement indicates the steps thus far taken. 

Each of the eight divisions is to have an Executive Committee, to 
include members representing the several committees of the Council 
included within the Division. All of the former committees that are 
still active are retained under the new organization and additional com- 
mittees will be established as the needs of the work may demand. The 
final organization of the Coun-cil may differ materially from the one 
indicated, both in the grouping of the various subjects into divisions 
and in the organization of sections and committees within the divisions. 

General Officers 

George E. Hale, Chairman 

Charles D. Walcott, First Vice-Chairman 

Gano Dunn, Second Vice-Chairman 

Robert A. Millikan, Third Vice-Chairman 

John Johnston, Executive Secretary 

Whitman Cross, Treasurer 

Walter M. Gilbert, Assistant Secretary 

Alfred D. Flinn, Assistant Secretary 

Executive Board 

(Consists of Officers, Chairmen and Vice-Chairmen of Divisions, 

Chairmen of Sections of Administrative Division, 

and members at large) 



338 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 



John 
Whitman Cross 
Gano Dunn 
Walter S. Gifford 
George E. Hale 
Henry M. Howe 
John Johnston 
Vernon Kellogg 
Van H. Manning 
Charles E. Mendenhall 
J. C. Merriam 



J. Carty, Chairman 

Robert A. Millikan 
Arthur A. Noyes 
Richard M. Pearce 
Michael I. Pupin 
S. W. Stratton 
Charles D. Walcott 
William H. Walker 
William H. Welch 
Robert S. Woodward 
Robert M. Yerkes 



Interim Committee 

(Consists of Officers and Chairmen of Divisons) 

Arthur A. Noyes, Chairman 

Whitman Cross Vernon L. Kellogg 

Gano Dunn J. C. Merriam 

George E. Hale Robert A. Millikan 

Henry M. Howe ' Richard M. Pearce 

John Johnston • Charles D. Walcott 

Administrative Division 

Arthur A. Noyes, Chairman 
Section on Foreign Relations, George E. Hale, Chairman 
Section on Relations with Educational Institutions and State Research 

Councils, J. C. Merriam, Chairman. 
Section on Industrial Relations, John Johnston, Chairman. 
Research Information Committee: 



Washington Committee. 



London Committee . 



Paris Committee. 



S. W. Stratton, Chairman 
Colonel R. H. Van Deman 
Captain Roger Welles 
[ Graham Edgar, Technical Assistant 

' Military Attache, or his representative 
Naval Attache, or his representative 
Scientific Attache, H. A. Bumstead 
S. W. Farnsworth, Technical Assistant 

Military Attach^, or his representative 
Naval Attach^, or his representative 
Scientific Attach^, W. F. Durand 
K. T. Compton, Technical Assistant 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 339 

Military Division 

Charles D. Walcott, Chairman 

S. W. Stratton, Vice-Chairman 
Carl L. Alsberg Rear-Admiral Robert S. Griffin 

Admiral William S. Benson Brig. Gen. P. D. Lockridge 
Major-Gen. W. M. Black Van H. Manning 

Howard E. Coffin Charles F. Marvin 

Major-Gen. Wm. Crozier George Otis vSmith 

Rear-Admiral Ralph Earle Major-Gen. George O. Squier 
Walter S. Gifford Rear-Admiral David W. Taylor 

Major-Gen. W. C. Gorgas Col. Ralph H. Van Deman 

LiEUT.-CoL. Henry S. Graves Capt. Roger Welles 

Engineering Division 
Henry M. Howe, Chairman 

Division of Physics, Mathematics, Astronomy, and Geophysics 

Robert A. Millikan, Chairman 
Charles E. Mendenhall, Vice-Chairman 

Division of Chemistry and Chemical Technology 
John Johnston, Chairman 

Division of Geology and Geography 

J. C. Merriam, Chairman 
Whitman Cross, Vice-Chairman 

Division of Medicine and Related Sciences 

Richard M. Pearce, Chairman 
Robert M. Yerkes, Vice-Chairman 

Division of Agriculture, Botany, and Zoology 
Vernon Kellogg, Chairman 

« 

research information committee 

The chief functions of the Washington office of the Research Infor- 
mation Committee have been defined as follows: 

(a) To provide means of ready cooperation with the London 
and Paris offices of the Committee bj^: 

1. Receiving, collating, and disseminating information for- 
warded from these offices. 

2. Rendering available such evidence and documents as may 
be collected by the National Research Council relative to re- 



340 SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

search in the United States, so as to formulate repHes to in- 
quiries sent from abroad. 

3. Communicating to foreign offices needs for additional in- 
formation relating to problems originating in the United States. 

(b) Classification, cataloging, and filing of papers and reports 
received from various sources at the request of the National Re- 
search Council, and record of researches in progress concerning 
which detailed information may be obtained elsewhere. 

(c) Issue of lists of available information and preparation of 
digests of such information for distribution to properly accredited 
persons. 

(d) Maintenance of contact with various research agencies in 
the United States. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Vol. VIII JUNE 4, 1918 No. 11. 



BIOLOGY. — Biology and war.^ Raymond Pearl, U. S. Food 
Administration. 

Science is playing a part in the conduct of the present world 
war far beyond anything ever dreamed of as a possibility before 
its beginning. The physicist and the chemist have been called 
into consultation with regard to practically every sort of mili- 
tary activity, both offensive and defensive. They have been 
asked on the one hand, to devise new mechanisms of destruction, 
and on the other hand to provide effective means of defense 
against such measures of annihilation as the enemy has been 
able to put into operation. The response to these demands has 
been generous, timely, and effective in all of the countries at war. 
In view of his contributions in these directions the university 
professor of physics or chemistry seems in a fair way to attain, 
when the war is over, a position of respectability and esteem in 
the world's affairs never before imagined in his wildest dreams. 
The submarine, the aeroplane, gas warfare, as indeed practically 
all of the new fighting methods which have been put into opera- 
tion in the last few years, are highly recondite developments of 
physical science, using the term in a broad sense to include 
chemistry, mathematics, and even astronomy, as was pointed out 
to the Academy in an earlier lecture in this series by Doctor Hale. 

One has heard very little about the immediate help rendered 
by biology in the conduct of the war, except in relation to the 

^ A lecture given before the Washington Academy of Sciences on May 9, 1918. 

341 



342 pearl: biology and war 

medical sciences, where the contribution is directly to the sal- 
vaging of the human wreckage with which the pathway of war 
is strewn, and only rather indirectly towards its winning. It is 
generally taken for granted, and to a considerable extent even 
by professional biologists, that in the nature of things the biologi- 
cal sciences, other than the medical, can have only rather a remote 
and indirect relation to the conduct of war. 

One purpose of this paper is to make some examination of the 
biological philosophy of war. It has seemed to me that if one 
does this, he is likely to come to the conclusion that the ordinarj^ 
valuation of the relative significance of the physical and chemical 
problems connected with war as compared with the biological 
problems is substantially the reverse of the true valuation. To 
begin with, we should remind ourselves of a distinction which is 
often forgotten when one attempts to evaluate in military terms 
the potential contributions of the different sciences to war. 
Essentially what the physicist and the chemist contribute is 
towards the creation, development, or perfection of some de- 
structive or protective mechanism — at best an inanimate, im- 
personal machine. But the very essence of a fight is that it is 
between living things. A 120-kilometer gun, or a submarine, or 
a tank, cannot of and by itself make war. All such engines of 
destruction are only the secondary implements of war. The 
primary implements are biological entities — men. Without 
these entities there neither would nor could be any war. So then, 
obviously, the primary problems of war are biological problems. 
They are such problems as why men fight; what kinds of men 
make the best fighters; what conditJbns, both internal and exter- 
nal, biological and environmental, conduce to the most effective 
fighting; and what are the probable biological consequences 
(including physiological, social, and genetic) of the fight, both to 
the winner and the loser. This is the sort of problems to which 
the biological sciences can alone make any significant contri- 
bution and they are clearly much more fundamental than those 
entailed in the designing of a new aeroplane or submarine. 

Furthennore, it admits of no doubt that the accumulated 
knowledge in the field of biology could be utilized in a way to be of 



pearl: biology and war 343 

large strategic value. The biological analysis of the events of the 
war as they pass might be made of direct military importance in 
the forecasting of the future course of events. An illustration here 
is found in what has happened in Russia. The collapse of Russia 
was at bottom not due to any shortage of powder or shot or other 
secondary requirements of military activity, but it came esseni- 
ally because a Russian is, in certain respects, a totally different 
kind of animal from an Englishman, a Frenchman, an Italian, 
or an American. Because he is a different kind of animal he has 
throughout his past history reacted to certain sorts of stimuli in 
a different way than would or did the individual of the other 
nations mentioned. Any thoughtful student of the biological 
aspects of history — that neglected branch of science which 
Frederick Adams Woods has been trying for years to interest 
people in, under the somewhat forbidding label "historiometry" — 
could have foretold with considerable precision both as to time 
and event, or better eventuality, just what Russia's contribution 
to the cause of the Allies would be. 

What I have so far said will serve as a general indication, I hope, 
of the fact that we have signally failed to make effective use of 
the contribution to war that biological science, in the broadest 
sense, is potentially able to make. The indictment here, if there 
be any, falls upon the class to which I professionally belong. 
What I wish to do in the remainder of the time at my disposal is 
to discuss a few of the more important biological problems of 
war, in the hope that such discussion may serve in some si ght 
degree at least to arouse interest in these problems on the part of 
many biologists much more capable of dealing with them than I 
am. If this can in any way be accomplished I feel that biology 
will make to the cause in which we are all vitally interested a 
contribution second to none. 

WHY MEN FIGHT 

War constitutes a gigantic experiment in human evolution. 
For the experimental study of evolution in lower organisms we 
have many laboratories and institutes. In such laboratories one 



344 pearl: biology and war 

studies the effect on the race of modifications in the environment, 
of crossing the different races, and of various other factors which 
may be supposed to have a determinative influence in bringing 
about evolutionary change or modification. A great war per- 
forms all these experiments on a stupendous scale with the. human 
organism as material. 

In saying this I am not at the moment referring to the relation 
of natural selection to war. That is a topic to which I shall come 
later. I am here referring to a very much broader aspect of the 
question. War is not merely selective (if it be so at all) through 
elimination by death of men at the front. Its biological effect 
on the human species is much more profound than anything 
which could possibly result from any merely selective process. 
War makes a most complete and far-reaching change in the whole 
biological environment of the human beings of the countries 
engaged in it, and if the number of these countries is sufficiently 
large it affects the whole world. In this regard, it is most nearly 
comparable to what the geologist calls a catastrophic change in 
evolutionary history. The reason why war induces so profound 
a change in human environment is that it disturbs every -psy- 
chological and social relation of men with each other. For 
modern civilized man the environment does not mean primarily 
the climate, the flora, or the geological structure of the place in 
which he lives. To a very considerable extent civilized man con- 
trols and modifies the impirgement of the direct physical elements 
in his environment. I'he important elements of human environ- 
raent are those which grow out of the activities of the human 
mind, or as one may broadly say, the psychological and social 
elements. These include all the social relations which are built 
up during yesLra of peace. But war, in and of itself, brings about 
an entirely new revaluation of all existing social, economic, 
intellectual, and moral relations. This is true not alone for the 
combatants, but for all the non-combatant or neutral nations. 
In a war such as the present one men everywhere begin to recon- 
sider their thought and action about such things as what con- 
stitutes proper education for their children, what is a desirable 
mode of activity for the church, what sort of activities in the 



pearl: biology and war 345 

conduct of business may be tolerated, and a thousand other of 
the complex and manifold relations between human beings. 

True evolutionary change in a strict philosophical sense means 
a definite and permanent alteration in a group of organisms, both 
in the group as a whole and in the individuals composing it, as 
individuals. When one uses the term "permanent" in this con- 
nection it should, of course, be understood always to carry the 
qualification, permanent until the conditions which produced 
the initial evolutionary change themselves become altered. Now 
human social evolutionary change rests upon two broad general 
bases instead of the one upon which the organic evolution of lower 
forms of life depends. Lack of recognition of this fact has been a 
fruitful source of failure to arrive at philosophically sound con- 
clusions in many discussions of the social evolution of man, under- 
taken from the biological point of view. 

The basic element and limiting factor in organic evolution is 
the germ plasm. It is at once the race stabilizer and the race 
initiator. The germ plasm is the physical basis of inheritance in 
general. Borne in the reproductive cells of the organism it is 
the one thing which preserves physical continuity between suc- 
cessive generations of organisms. If successive generations are to 
differ from one another biologically there must be concomitant 
and equivalent changes in the germ plasm. Genetic and eugenic 
research has abundantly proven that the germ plasm plays the 
same role in human inheritance and human evolutionary changes 
that it does in lower organisms. Here one needs only to mention 
the studies of Galton, Pearson, and Davenport by way of illus- 
tration. Many others might be added to the list. 

Besides this strictly biological base of the germ plasm there is 
also another underlying factor in human social evolution which 
is nearly, if not quite, of as great significance. I refer to that com- 
plex of ideas and actions which has been rather badly called 
"social inheritance." This factor operates in somewhat the 
following manner. Starting from a germ-plasmic base the indi- 
viduals composing any social group are biologically differentiated 
from those forming other social groups. On this account they 
develop social relations and social institutions of a sort in some 



346 pearl: biology and war 

degree unique and peculiar to the group. Once started, these 
social relations and institutions acquire a sort of inertia which in 
and of itself tends to stabilize them quite without any conscious 
activity looking towards stabilization on the part of any of the 
component individuals in the group. This inertia extends within 
the group in an extraordinary degree to every sort of social rela- 
tion, including even the minor conventions. It makes the whole 
social fabric, which, as we have seen, constitutes a very important 
element of human environment, extremely resistant to change or 
alteration of any sort. Ordinary social forces produce but little 
effect. It requires years of unremitting effort to bring about 
even mild and minor social reforms or changes in the ordinary 
normal course of human events. It has taken nearly seventy- 
five years to get as far forward as we are with the prohibition 
movement in this country. More strongly socially inherited 
institutions would be still more difficult to alter. To illustrate 
the point, let us consider the social-economic institution of inter- 
est. It is entirely possible, not to say easy, to conceive a society 
so organized that credit and the interchange of credit would be 
effected without the institution of interest. But try to conceive 
the concrete possibility of putting into actual operation in the 
civilized world today a system which would do away with interest 
charges. The mind balks at the thought. The inertia of this 
institution, its social inheritance, is so strong that to change it 
would be a task of commensurate relative magnitude somewhat 
approaching to the task of so changing the germ plasm of the 
human race that man would have, for example, no vermiform 
appendix. Both are extremely stable things which cannot be 
easily or quickly changed by the operation of ordinary forces. 
Both changes involve an alteration in stably equilibrated sys- 
tems, and it is a general characteristic of such systems that they 
do not change either frequently or easily. The inertia of social 
relations, which is I think a better term than social inheritance, 
is simply a special case of the general phenomenon of the natural 
occurrence of systems in stable equilibrium, the manifestations 
of which in the inorganic world have been so brilliantly expounded 
by Lawrence J. Henderson in his book The Order of Nature. It is 



pearl: biology and war 347 

precisely homologous to germ-plasmic inheritance in the biologi- 
cal realm and not less potent in its influence as a stabilizing factor 
in human social evolution. 

The one outstanding cause in present-day civilization which 
can quickly break the inertia of social institutions and induce 
changes, and by so doing perform a function in the scheme of 
social inheritance analogous to that of mutation in physical 
inheritance, is war. It operates to direct sharp and searching 
attention to the real significance of every social institution, from 
the standpoint of national efficiency, national economy, and 
national well-being. If under such stressed examination change 
or reform appears to be necessary it rather quickly follows. The 
inertia of the long established is broken by the conditions of 
war. 

If it would not take us so far afield into philosophy and perhaps 
even metaphysics I should like to pursue this point further, but I 
think that perhaps enough has been said to make clear the only 
thing which is requisite here, which is that if we are profitably to 
discuss the biological philosophy of war we must recognize that 
besides the influence of the germ plasm in human affairs we have 
to deal with another general factor of a social but still essentially 
biological character, namely the inertia of social relations and 
institutions themselves, which stabilizes them against sudden or 
rapid alteratiori by any but the most catastrophic causes such as 
great wars. 

As a concrete example of the application of what we have been 
discussing to present conditions, we may take the case of Eng- 
land. Already since the beginning of the war England has passed 
and ended a stage in its social evolution to which it can never 
return. The institutions and people of that country in all their 
outlook on social relations in the widest sense have been essenti- 
ally and fundamentally changed, and however the war may end, 
will be permanently different from what they were five years ago. 
Anyone who will take the trouble to read the recently promul- 
gated program of the English labor party will realize how pro- 
found the alteration has been. Or, again, consider the whole 
history of the Home Rule question. More progress has been 



348 pearl: biology and war 

made towards its solution since the beginning of the war than in 
all the previous struggles with it. 

To bring about such changes, which constitute a real and defi- 
nite step in social evolution, it is not at all necessary that the 
enemy should win a war. It is war itself which accomplishes 
these alterations in human relations and human beings. It only 
need be sufficiently comprehensive in its magnitude, and suffi- 
ently long continued in time, to produce definite and permanent 
evolutionary changes through alterations of social relations and 
institutions. 

There is a further side to the evolutionary aspect of war which 
we have not yet considered. If we view the matter in terms of 
nations, not of individuals, it is at once apparent that war is a 
deliberately planned struggle between biologically unlike groups 
of individuals for the purpose of maintaining or bettering their 
status in the general hierarchy of group domination or preced- 
ence. A modern war is not entered into casually and without 
some degree of both spiritual and material preparation. In the 
nature of the thing itself it cannot be so entered. To make a 
whole nation w^ant to fight, including all the ignorant, because 
uninformed, people in it, it is necessary that their emotions be 
stirred, either by some act or supposed act of an offending nation 
or else by deliberate emotional propaganda. At the outstart of 
any war this emotional incentive to belligerency is wholly lacking 
in a very considerable portion of the populations of the nations 
involved. It has to be worked up, a process in which the enemy 
always renders most efficient service, by such things in these 
latter days as air raids over inoffensive towns, sinking passenger 
vessels without notice, or in other ways too revoltingto mention. 
Pending the general distribution of rage in the involved popula- 
tions, the business of war has to be planned and executed by the 
nation's leaders in as detached and impersonal a manner as' any 
other great business enterprise. This fact, which to a resident of 
another planet not accustomed to our ways might seem strange, 
raises two questions: In the first place, why do national leaders 
enter so coolly, and yet under certain conditions so eagerly, upon 
such a ghastly business as war; and in the second place, why do 



pearl: biology and war 349 

the common people not only permit them to do so, but follow 
them with all their energies when once the business is well under 
way? Some biological facts will help us to understand the 
answers to these questions. 

The general biological fact of individual variation is, of course, 
familiar. No two individual animals of any sort, human or 
other, are precisely alike. Individuals vary or differ among 
themselves. Of these variations or differences some are super- 
ficial and transitory, but, on the other hand, many have a deep- 
rooted and ineradicable germinal basis. Perhaps the most 
general result of modern genetics is to show the extent to which 
variations, often slight in their external manifestations, have a 
definite germinal basis, reappearing unaltered again and again in 
the successive generations arising from the same germinal stock. 
The same fact of variation holds equally true in respect of races 
and national groups, provided in the latter case they have existed 
as socially isolated entities sufficiently long for a distinct feeling 
of nationality to develop. The variation in national groups 
involves, as in the individual, all sorts of characters, psycho- 
logical, social, and moral, as well as physical. In new nations, 
changes in the psychological, social, and moral characters 
appear and become fixed by the process of social inheritance 
sooner than in the strictly physical characters. The fact is that 
the groups of people, which, in political terminology, are called 
nations, in the great majority of cases become rather quickly 
biologically differentiated if they are not so from the beginning 
of their national life. A German is different from a frenchman 
or an Englishman or an Italian. These differences are not merely 
physical. They involve every mental attitude, appetite, and 
responsibility, which are the factors governing action. 

To recognize the fact of biological differentiation or variation 
is in no sense to assert difference of position in the evolutionary 
scale. There is no evidence that among these larger and more 
developed national groups it is proper to speak of one as superior 
or inferior to another. Philosophically, all such comparisons of 
races or national groups are untenable, for the reason that they 
all involve by implication comparison or measurement with some 



350 pearl: biology and war 

absolute and unique base or yardstick. But no such absolute 
base of social evolutionary comparison exists. For example, 
even at this late date, someone might conceivably contend that 
the Germans, were superior to the Hottentots, but it would be a 
difficult thing to prove in general or absolute terms. Measured 
by common sense standards one would no doubt find that in some 
respect — physical, or moral, or even perhaps intellectual — the 
Hottentot is a relatively better man in his environment than 
the German is in his. Plainly, in order to be just to either the 
Hottentot or the Hun each should be measured by a different 
yardstick. But this quite prevents saying in any absolute terms 
which of the two is the superior race. Like so many other things 
"it all depends." But this logical difficulty only makes it all 
the clearer that Hottentots are different from Germans. 

Not only are the different races and national groups generally 
different, but broadly speaking, they all want to stay so, and this 
is what causes all that special sort of trouble, which is war. The 
resentment against the high-handed imposition of that Prussian 
"Kultur" which we are all so strenuously opposing, arises not so 
much from any logically proved defects in this particular brand 
of Kultur (though parenthetically one may remark that they 
appear to be sufficiently numerous), but rather because, being 
different, the people of other nations simply do not want it. 
They prefer their own particular brand of thought and action. 
The one fundamental thing which an Englishman or a Frenchman 
will fight against to the last ditch is any attempt to make him 
over into a German. 

The same feeling is exemplified in every war. We fought 
bitterly for it in the Civil War. The people who originally 
settled in the southern portion of the United States were biologi- 
cally and socially different in several important particulars from 
those who settled in the northern part. The Southerner fought 
hard and well for four years to keep from being dominated by the 
Northerner. He had a strong feeling, which was to a certain 
extent justifiable, that domination meant the obliteration, for 
all practical purposes, of certain differences which had up to that 
time existed between him and his Northern neighbor. The same 



pearl: biology and war 351 

iCeling was a potent factor in making- the Revolution. There 
was a dawning national consciousness in the colonies which was 
based upon a beginning of social and biological differentiation. 
The mother country very unwisely refused to recognize, or foster, 
or even tolerate these differences. In consequence, she lost her 
colonies. 

In general, why men deliberately plan wars is because they are 
different biologically, in structure, habits, mental outlook, 
thought, or other waj^s, and wish to preserve intact their differ- 
entiations. The more truly conscious they become of these group 
differences, the more likely they are to fight as groups. As soon 
as they attain the first glimmerings of such consciousness they are 
apt to see, or to think they see, something in the behavior of their 
neighbors which threatens the maintenance of that which begins 
to mark them as a nationality. It is the business of their national 
leaders to be on the lookout for such things. They may merely 
fancy that they detect some danger to the maintenance of even 
their present status in something that a neighboring nation does. 
It niay be a very intangible thing, and the interpretation of its 
significance may be entirely wrong, but that does not matter. 
The fighting promptly follows. 

But someone will ask: Why does fighting follow? Why not 
arbitration or some- other peaceful means of settling what is in 
many cases, at least, merely a trivial difference at the start? The 
biological answer is again clear. The human animal, in common 
with other higher vertebrates, has come to be endowed wdth 
emotions, of w^hich rage is a very important one. In the inter- 
course of men and nations such things as insults, real or fancied, 
triflings with honor, either individual or national, attempted inter- 
ference with natural or vested rights, larceny of territory or other 
goods — all these and similar sorts of activity vastly too numerous 
to catalog, tend to call forth the emotions of anger or rage. More 
particularly are acts of the sort mentioned sure to stir the emo- 
tions of a people if they are perpetrated by foreigners, those who 
do not belong to the same group. People of one's own kind 
may with impunity do things which another kind of people can- 
not do without exciting very violent emotions. The significant 



352 pearl: biology and war 

biological fact is that, however induced, the emotion of rage 
automatically and inevitably causes certain definite bodily 
changes and activities, as has been demonstrated by the bril- 
liant researches of Dr. Walter B. Cannon, described in his re- 
markable book entitled Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear 
and Rage. The bodily changes induced by rage are precisely 
those, which make the organism ready for a fight. They are the 
visceral preparation for the translation of emotion into action. 
The researches of Cannon have shown, as he says, "a number of 
unsuspected ways in which muscular action is made more efficient 
because of emotional disturbances of the viscera. Every one of 
the visceral changes that have been noted — the cessation of proc- 
esses in the alimentary canal (thus freeing the energy supply for 
other parts); the shifting of blood from the abdominal organs, 
whose activities are deferable, to the organs immediately essential 
to muscular exertion (the lungs, the heart, the central nervous 
system) ; the increased vigor of contraction of the heart ; the 
quick abolition of the effects of muscular fatigue; the mobilizing 
of energy-giving sugar in the circulation — every one of these vis- 
ceral changes is directly serviceable in making the organism more 
effective in the violent display of energy which fear or rage or pain 
may involve." It is clear that we have here a first class reason 
why men fight. It is, in short, because they get mad at each 
other. It is fair to say that this has been suspected for some time 
past. What the physiologist has shown us that we did not know 
before, however, is the reason why rage is more generally followed 
by fighting than by judicial arbitration. 

No interested person or nation was ever known publicly to 
allege any such reasons as those just discussed for participating 
in war. That fact, however, may with safety be taken not to 
invalidate the point. Most men are human and a liking for the 
outward trappings of inner grace is a highly human attribute. 
As war begins, and while it continues, even on to the final ending 
around the table of the peace conference, everyone involved alleges 
a wide variety of highly moral reasons asto why he is participating. 
As a matter of fact, he perfectly well knows, if he is at all intelli- 
gent, and at all given to facing the actual facts as they are, that the 



pearl: biology and war 353 

high principles have absolutely nothing to do with the reasons for 
his fighting. They serve a wholly different and eiuch more useful 
and admirable purpose, in that they justijy instead of explaining 
his belligerency. The explanation of why men fight is very 
simple. It is, first, because their kind of people is different from 
other kinds; second, because they want to make sure that their 
kind shall either maintain or improve its status in the world, and 
that which is thought to ensure most certainly the maintenance 
and extension of group differences in the widest sense is relative 
politico-social domination by the group ; and third, because of a 
general physiological law that certain emotions tend to lead to 
action. So long as men are capable of becoming enraged there is 
potential danger of a fight. 

THE biological CONSEQUENCES OF WAR 

Any discussion of the consequences of war, from a biological 
standpoint, demands as a first requisite the consideration of 
natural selection in relation to war, or, as it is perhaps more com- 
monly put, ''Darwinism and war." German philosophers of all 
degrees of attainment have been particularly addicted to specu- 
lation in this field. The view commonly held is that in war we 
have practically the only existing agency of natural selection 
operating with full vigor upon the human species. It is contended 
that when two nations engage in warfare with each other the 
principle of the survival of the fittest accompanies the operation 
with all its traditional crudity and finality. No better exposition 
of this viewpoint can be found than that set forth by my friend 
and colleague, Vernon Kellogg, in his remarkable book Head- 
quarters Nights, from the after-dinner remarks of the distinguished 
German biologist who figures in the narrative under the name 
"Professor Von Flussen." Kellogg expounds the philosophy of 
war after Von Flussen in the following words: 

The creed of the AUmacht of a natural selection based on a violent 
and fatal competitive struggle is the gospel of the German intellectuals; 
all else is illusion and anathema. The mutual-aid principle is recog- 
nized only as restricted to its application within limited groups. For 
instance, it may and does exist, and to positive biological benefit, within 



354 pearl: biology and war 

single ant communities, but the different ant kinds fight desperately 
with each other, the stronger destroying or enslaving the weaker. Sim- 
ilarly, it may exist to advantage within the limits of organized human 
gi-oups — as those which are ethnographically, nationally, or otherwise, 
variously delimited. But as with the different ant species, struggle — 
bitter, ruthless struggle — is the rule among the different human groups. 
This struggle not only must go on, for that is the natural law, but it 
should go on, so that this natural law may work out in its cruel, in- 
evitable way the salvation of the human species. By its salvation is 
meant its desirable natural evolution. That human group which is 
in the most advanced evolutionary stage as regards internal organiza- 
tion and form of social relationship is best, and should, for the sake of 
the species, be preserved at the expense of the less advanced, the less 
effective. It should win in the struggle for existence and this struggle 
should occur precisely that the various types may be tested, and the 
best not only preserved, but put in position to impose its kind of social 
organization — its Kultur — on the others, or alternatively to destroy 
and replace them. 

That this is a fair and typical exposition of the views of German 
biological philosophers regarding war will be readily granted 
without argument by any evolutionist who is familiar with the 
literature in this field. The principle of natural selection was 
seized upon by no one with greater avidity than the Germans. 
The strictly mechanistic features of this doctrine, which Darwin 
himself seemingly always felt to be a potential source of weakness, 
were the very things which made the strongest appeal to the 
Germans. In the hands of Haeckel, and particularly Weismann, 
natural selection was developed into a complete philosophical 
system of biology, in which any lack of biological evidence re- 
garding the actual operation in nature of the basic principle w^as 
more than compensated for by the wooden finality of the logic. 

As years went on the German statesmen and political philoso- 
phers became acquainted with the content and possibilities of 
what their biological confreres had by that time come to call with 
considerable unction ''Neo-Darwinism." They presently saw 
the great possibilities which the principle of natural selection of- 
fered in fostering and developing in the minds of the people the 
militaristic ideal, the will to conquer. For thirty years every 
German school boy and girl has been taught what natural selec- 
tion means. This same glorious principle that the fittest alone 
shall survive, and its converse that the survivor is the fittest, have 



pearl: biology and war 355 

been the corner stones on which modern Germany has been built. 
Various remote and far removed causes have been assigned as 
contributory to the present conflict, but one highly important 
cause — perhaps in a philosophical sense the most significant of all 
— has been very generally overlooked. I believe it to be literally 
true that the one event in the history of Western Europe which 
more than any other single one laid the foundation for the situa- 
tion in which Western Europe finds itself today, was the 
publication in 1859 of a book called The Origin of Species. With 
what horror would that gentlest and kindest of souls, whose mind 
conceived and executed this work, have been filled could he r ave 
foreseen the frightful welter of blood which has resulted from the 
gross perversion of his views by German biologists. 

Let us examine with some care the meaning of natural selection 
in its relation to war. In the first place, it must be remembered 
that nowhere in nature does natural selection, as indicated by 
modern careful study of the subject, operate with anything like 
that mechanistic precision which the German political philosophy 
postulates. In a recent paper read before the American Society 
of Naturalists, I presented a number of examples from the litera- 
ture illustrative of this point, and I need not repeat them here. 
Nature often does not operate on the natural selection basis, 
though logically— at least in formal logic — it ought to. Much less 
does natural selection operate in a rigid and mechanical manner 
with reference to human affairs. It is perfectly clear that no war 
in this day and age is, in any proper sense of the word, literally a 
struggle for existence. The German people have from the be- 
ginning tried to make it appear that the present war is, from their 
standpoint, exactly this. They have insisted again and again 
that their national existence, their continued survival as a nation 
was threatened by their neighbors, but such a view has only to be 
stated to any fair-minded, unbiased person to prove its utter 
absurdity. Could anyone but a German seriously maintain that 
the French, or the English, or the Italians, or the Russians, would 
have wished for, or would have attempted if they could, the anni- 
hilation of the German people? Theoretically, such a feeling or de- 
sire is conceivable, but practically everyone knows that it did not 
exist. Normal human beings are simply not constituted that way. 



356 pearl: biology and war 

Furthermore, military results are not, in fact, measured in 
terms of biological survival. History shows that defeated nations 
survive just as definitely and truly as conquering races or nations. 
No better example could be found of the fallacy of the completely 
mechanistic natural selection idea with reference to war than our 
own Civil War, which was the most severely and bitterly fought 
of any war in recent history before the present conflict. No 
question of biological survival was involved at any stage ; it was a 
struggle to effect the survival or elimination of certain politico- 
social ideas held by one group of people and not by the ether. 
These ideas were slavery and secession. One of the contending 
groups was defeated ; no military decision can ever be more com- 
plete and final than was that reached in the Civil War. If mili- 
tary conquests or defeats ever mean biological survival or elimi- 
nation the principle should have been exemplified in the Civil 
War. Yet as a matter of fact and of course the defeated group 
was not eliminated in the biological sense, but biologically sur- 
vived, and not only survived, but has become as a group more 
active, more progressive, and more distinctly differentiated 
biologically than it was before the conflict. 

Other wars at other times show the same things. Take the 
case of peoples subjugated by military conquests; they are not 
eliminated, but on the contrary they survive, using the word in 
its strict biological signification. The natives participating in 
the Indian mutiny suffered a stinging military punishment. Yet 
today the natives of India survive, and their institutions survive. 
Again, take another example : it was necessary for us some years 
ago to conquer in a military sense the Filipinos. The unpleasant 
task was accomplished in a thorough-going manner. A complete 
military decision was made, but the Filipinos were not bio- 
logically eliminated, and today have a significantly stronger 
and more real national feeling than probably ever before in their 
history. 

Nearer events prove the same point. No more ruthless at- 
tempt at the biological elimination of a nation was ever made than 
that undertaken by the Germans against Belgium in the summer 
of 1914 and continued to the present time. Yet, does anyone, 
even a German, delude himself into the belief that the Belgian 



pearl: biology and war 357 

people and the Belgian national feeling do not survive today, and 
will not continue to survive? 

The plain fact in the matter is that the proudly ruthless phil- 
osophy of Treitschke and Bernhardi is not only immorally cruel, 
but also immortally stupid. This whole crude and mechanistic 
view of war as a process of natural selection is really most unbio- 
logical in that it takes no account of the most fundamental of 
human biological characteristics — namely, those which dis- 
tinctively differentiate man from lower organisms, his mental 
and moral qualities. Biologically, nationality rests on the group 
spirit of the people, which in turn means differentiant variations 
ineradicably ingrained in their germ plasm. Nationality can 
onl}^ be eliminated in the biological sense by the complete and 
total destruction of the germ plasm of the people of the nation, 
because it depends upon things which are to a substantial degree, 
at least, unchangeably and permanently determined by that 
germ plasm. Killing a percentage of the male population on the 
battlefield is as silly as it is a pitifully sad method of attempting 
to destroy the germ plasm of a nation. What a defeated nation 
loses in war is simply its status in the international political 
hierarchy either temporarily or permanently. It suffers, broadly 
speaking, no fundamental biological loss. The Chinese today, 
after a century of hopeless military defeats which left them an 
inert and pacifist nation are just as truly and completely bio- 
logically differentiated as they ever were. A Chinaman is a 
Chinaman today, and as different from anybody else in the world, 
as he ever was. Contrast this with real biological elimination 
with which this Darwinian School of militaristic philosophy 
draws so false an analogy. ^ATiat comparison exists between a 
Chinaman and a dinosaur? Natural selection operated with a 
real Allmacht on the dinosaurs to a finish that made literally true 
the proverbial statement of the wondering rustic about the 
giraffe: "There ain't no such animal." But the Chinaman hope- 
lessly defeated and crushed in military affairs is still with us and 
quite capable of enjoying life in his peculiar way. He stands in 
the aggregate as a gigantic refutation of the much lauded claim 
which the Germans have made for the "fundamental biological 
basis of war." 



358 pearl: biology and war 

While we are on this subject of natural selection, it will be well 
to examine into another aspect of the subject in its relation to 
war. It has been contended by various persons that war has an 
unfortunate selective action on the individuals engaged in it. 
The operation of war is supposed to be selective within the race 
for the elimination of the best and the preservation o!" the worst 
germ plasm. This is alleged on the general ground that the 
physically, mentally, and morally best of the youth of the nation 
are those most likely to take part in war in the first place, and in 
the second place, most likely, because of these characteristics, to 
be killed in the course of the conflict. Dire pictures have been 
drawn of the effect upon the race of engaging in war, through the 
supposed operation of this dysgenic selection. The more one 
examines the facts, however, the more is it apparent that the case 
has been very much exaggerated. 

Many considerations lead to this conclusion. In the first 
place, the future of the race, in the narrowly biological sense, is 
solely dependent upon the continuity of its germ plasm. In the 
human species the germ plasm of the race is equally borne by both 
the males and the females. But, putting the very worst com- 
plexion on the dysgenic argument, the females of the race are not 
elimated in war. So that if we were to grant for the moment the 
contention that the best males of the race are killed off, it would 
still remain the fact that but very slight deleterious racial effect 
would result, because there would be left behind in the surviving 
females at least half of the total racial germ cells of all qualities. 
Mendel's principles of inheritance teach us that even in such an 
extremely unlikely circumstance that all the germ plasm borne 
in spermatozoa was at the end of the war of an inferior quality, it 
would still be possible through the operation of segregation to 
have again a preponderant stock of superior individuals aft r a 
few generations, provided there were no social restrictions on 
assortative mating, which, broadly speaking, there are not. 

Furthermore, the hypothesis of racial degeneration by elimi- 
nation of the best tacitly assumes that those males eliminated in 
battle have not left progeny before their elimination, whereas, as 
a matter of statistical fact, a considerable portion of them do 



pearl: biology and war 359 

leave behind such progeny. Again it must not be forgotten that 
the whole of the population, both male and female, under about 
twenty years of age is left untouched by war, and available for 
the perpetuation of the race as they grow older. This means in 
statistical terms, that about 40 per cent of the total male popu- 
lation existent at any given moment, and in which all qualities 
of germ plasm, good, bad, and indifferent, are normally dis- 
tributed, as in a random sample of the whole, are not even in- 
volved in war and hence stand no chance to be eliminated by its 
operation. * 

In the second place, even in the most destructive of modern 
wars the proportion of totally eliminated casualties to the whole 
population is not very great. Indeed, it is always found to be 
surprisingly small when reviewed dispassionately by the vital 
statistician after the war is over. To take the case of our own 
Civil War, the proportion of casualties to the total population 
was only 2 per cent, and even in proportion to the male popu- 
lation within the likely breeding period (say fifteen to fifty 
years of age) was slightly under 9 per cent. It is, of course, too 
early to obtain similar estimates for the present conflict. 

In the case of the present war, there are still other considera- 
tions which make it clear that any putative, deleterious, selective 
effect of war on the races concerned will be insignificantly slight. 
In all of the nations involved the fighting men have been taken 
practically at random from the whole population so far as germi- 
nal variations are concerned. The sound biological principle of 
conscription operates to leave the distribution curve of germ- 
plasmic qualities essentially the same after the fighting men have 
been taken out as it was before. The high development of the 
mechanical aspect? of the present war operates to the same end. 
Hand to hand conflicts, man against man, in direct physical 
struggle, are a relatively small part of the present as compared 
with earlier wars. The agents of destruction chiefly relied on in 
the present conflict are entirely impersonal and distribute their 
effects very largely at random. The whole mode of conduct of 
the present war operates to make the chances for elimination of 
the man carrying about withiij his soma the best germ plasm of 



360 pearl: biology and war 

the race, not substantially greater than the chances of the indi- 
vidual bearing the poorest germ plasm. 

CONCLUSION 

Except for lack of time one might go on and consider other 
essentially biological problems of war. We have not discussed 
at all those fascinatingly interesting and important problems 
connected with the individual's part in the actual conduct of war. 
A nation which would systematically and thoroughly investi- 
gate such matters as what sorts of men, physically, psycho- 
logically, and morally, make the best fighters; what biological 
conditions, including internal states, environmental conditions 
in and behind the lines, conduce to most efficient fighting; how 
fighters should be fed to obtain the best results; and other like 
problems, would be in an extremely superior position in any con- 
flict with a group not possessed of definite scientific information 
on • these points. At present our information regarding such 
matters is very largely empirical. It should be said, however, 
that since America's entrance into this conflict a brilliant begin- 
ning has been made in the scientific study of certain of these 
problems, initiated and directed in large degree by Major Robert 
M. Yerkes. The final results of his work will be eagerly awaited 
not alone for their military value, but also for their purely bio- 
logical interest and significance. 

In conclusion, the thought I most wish to leave with you, and 
which I hope I have sufficiently elaborated and illustrated, is that 
while war is a biological business, to the problems of which the 
trained biologist could contribute much, it is not an absolute bio- 
logical necessity. Nations neither lose nor gain biologically by 
war. But this does not mean that wars must not and will not 
be fought. As a biologist I can come to no other conclusion 
than that wars will occur in the future as they have in the 
past until such time as civilized man has become a different 
kind of animal than he now is. Happily every war advances 
him by some degree on the road to that much-to-be-desired 
goal. 



bartsch: land shells of Palawan passage 361 

ZOOLOGY. — The land shells of the genus Amphidromus from the 
islands of the Palawan Passage.^ Paul Bartsch, U." S. 
National Museum. 

JMy paper on The Philippine Land Shells of the Genus Amphi- 
dromus- has had the usual effect of stimulating collectors to trans- 
mit their shells to the United States National Museum for classi- 
fication. In this instance we have been exceptionally fortunate 
in receiving a large sending of carefully labeled specimens col- 
lected by Mr. C. M, Weber, in the islands of Palawan Passage. 
These greatly needed shells throw a flood of light on the systematic 
problem of the complex that inhabits these islands and make it 
possible to give a positive statement about them. It will be 
remembered thatti was forced to say in the paper above referred 
to: "I am quite perplexed by the following species [Amphidromus 
qiiadrasi] and feel at a loss as to the treatment that should be 
accorded to it." 

iVIr. Weber's material shows that on some of the islands off 
southern Palawan these mollusks present a most remarkable 
range of color variation and, what is more, show that similar types 
of coloration occur upon several islands. The present collection 
establishes beyond a doubt the fact that no matter how interest- 
ing they may be from a breeder's standpoint, systematically con- 
sidered these color phases have no more significance than the uni- 
color, unicincta, bicincta, tricincta, amd quadricincta forms of Heli- 
costyla ovoidea which I have found in a single brood of that species. 

The group breaks readily into two divisions. In the first 
groop the tip is always white and the early whorls are flesh-colored, 
turning gradually to yellow which becomes intensified as the shell 
increases and is darkest immediately behind the aperture, or the 
yellow may be replaced Jby green. A very narrow light line marks 
the summit of the turns below which a deep-maroon band en- 
circles the whorls ; the base at the columellar border is also edged 
with this color, while the lip is always white. This is Amphidro- 
mus quadrasi Hidalgo. This species, so far, is known from three 
islands, Candaraman, Coxisigan, and Bekin. 

^ Published by permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 
■' Bull. 100, U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 1, pt. 1, pp. 1-47, pi. 1-22, 1917. 



362 



bartsch: land shells of Palawan passage 



Measurements of a large series of specimens from these islands 
show that there is a decided difference in the size of the specimens 
obtained on the three islands. The difference is probably best 
expressed in table 1. 

TABLE 1 



LOCALITY 



Candaraman. 

Caxisigan 

Bekin 



NUMBER 
MEASURED 


NUMBER OF 
WHORLS 


ALTITUDE 


17 

65 
73 


6.87 
6.72 
6.42 


35.91 
33.53 
30.50 



GREATER 
DIAMETER 

17.76 
17.12 
15.95 



These differences I consider sufficient to demand a trinomial 
designation. The specimens from Candaraman are Amphidro- 
mus quadrasi quadrasi Hidalgo, the type locality for this sub- 
species. Those from Caxisigan may be known as Amphidromus 
quadrasi caxisiganensis Bartsch^ and those from Bekin as Amphi- 
dromus quadrasi ledyardi Bartsch.'* 

The second group we- may consider typified by Amphidromus 
versicolor Fulton. Specimens of this group always have the 
extreme tip dark brown ; the rest of the turns may be white, pale 
yellow or wax yellow, or variously variegated; in the latter case 
the two or two and a half turns succeeding the dark tip are usually 
uniformly flesh-colored, while the ground color of those following 
may be white, yellow, green, or red, or sometimes several of these 
colors, one overlying the other, may be present ; in each instance, 
if otherwise than white, the tint gradually becomes intensified 
toward the aperture. The whorls between the first two and the 
last may be unicolor or they may be marked by axial lines, bands, 
or forked flammulations of chestnut brown. The base may be uni- 
color or spirally banded with yellow, green, brown, or red. The 
columellar area may be white or edged with yellow, green, brown, 
or red. The lip may be white, pink, or purple, while the interior 
ranges from w^hite through pearl gray, pink, pale purple, to spinel 
red. The general impression which one gains by looking at a tray 
of mixed specimens is a rainbow effect. 



3 Type, Cat. No. 215603, IT. S. National Museum. 
* Type, Cat. No. 215606, U. S. National Museum. 



bartsch: land shells of Palawan passage 



363 



Amphidro77ius versicolor Fulton is now known from Balabac, 
Mantangule, Bancalan, and southern Palawan, all much larger 
islands than those occupied by Amphidromus quadrasi Hidalgo. 

In spite of the great general variability of the color pattern, 
certain phases of coloration prevail on the separate islands which 
would enable one thoroughly familiar with these molusks to name 
with a fair degree of accuracy the island from which a specimen 
was derived. Measurements of a large series of specimens from 
the various islands give the results shown in table 2. 

TABLE 2 



LOCALITY 



Balabac 

Bancalan 

Mantangule 

Palawan Passage 

Palawan, Brooks Pt 

Palawan, Mt. Landargung. 



NUMBER 
MEASURED 


NUMBER OF 
WHORLS 


ALTITUDE 


199 


6.65 


37.88 


255 


6.63 


37.44 


63 


6.51 


34.01 


3 


6.93 


39.86 


25 


6.77 


38.26 


2 


6.80 


38.60 

1 



GREATER 
DIAMETER 

18.89 
18.75 
17.33 
19.93 
19.66 
20.60 



The shell described by me^ from ' 'Palawan Passage" as Amphi- 
drovius quadrasi palawanensis yield measurements that agree 
nearest with those of Amphidromus versicolor everetti which comes 
from southern Palawan, They also agree with this in haVing a 
remarkably uniform color pattern and dark coloration both out- 
side and within, but they lack the obsolete peripheral angle char- 
acteristic of all the Palawan shells seen. It is unfortunate that 
we do not have a definite island locality for them. 

The dark-colored race from the low lands of southern Palawan 
will have to be known as Amphidromus versicolor everetti Fulton, 
and it is more than possible that the shell described as Amphidro- 
mus quadrasi solida Fulton from Palawan will prove to be simply 
a color phase of this race. I have not seen specimens of it from 
Palawan. The forms I called Amphidromus quadrasi solidus in 
my paper from Balabac must now be placed with Amphiaromas 
versicolor versicolor Fulton. The main coloration of Amphidro- 
mus versicolor everetti Fulton is very similar to my Amphidromus 



5 Bull. 100, U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 1, pt. 1, pp. 39-40, pi. I, fig. 15, pi. 20, figs. 1, 4, 
6. 9. 1917. 



364 bartsch: land shells of Palawan passage 

versicolor palawanensis , but the presence of a peripheral angle 
separates it from that subspecies. 

From Mt. Landargung, in the interior of southern Palawan, we 
have seen two specimens collected at an altitude of 2,500 feet 
which, while they agree in general coloration with Amphidromus 
versicolor everetti, are nevertheless much lighter in tone than that 
form, and the interior, instead of being purplish, is white. The 
edge of the lip is dark purple. 

This mountain race deserves to be recognized by a trinomial 
name, and I will call it Amphidromus versicolor monticolus. The 
type« had 6.7 whorls and measures: altitude, 40.3 mm., greater 
diameter, 21.2 mm. 

The greatest range coloration is presented in the forms from 
Vancalan Island, which may be known as Aviphidrovms versi- 
color higginsi Bartsch.^ A selected series shows no less than 
twenty-eight types of coloring, which I shall describe briefly. 

1. Tip dark, the ground color white, with a greenish suffusion which 
is most pronounced on the parietal callus. 

2. Wax-yellow, a little lighter on the early whorls, with a greenish tint 
on the last; tip dark. 

3. Midway in coloration between the last two but with an obsolete 
angle -at the periphery. 

4. Tip dark, the next white with a yellowish suffusion; last whorl 
gradually turning green; edge of the lip maroon. 

5. Like the last. In addition, however, all but the first two and a 
half and the last one and a half turns, are marked by axial flammulations 
of chestnut brown. 

6. Like no. 4, but with the early whorls wax-yellow, and the lip 
white. 

7. Like the last, but the first three postnuclear turns show faint, 
light brown axial flammulations in addition. 

8. Tip dark, the first two and a half turns flesh-colored; the two and 
a half succeeding these with flesh-colored ground upon which strong, 
axial, branching flammulations of chestnut brown are placed; the rest is 
wax-yellow turning greenish on the last turn. The last two and a half 
turns are encircled by a narrow zone of carmine at the suture, which 
color also surrounds the insertion of the columella. 

9. Tip dark; all but the last four-fifths of the turns pale wax-yellow, 
the last portion marked by closely spaced dense axial streaks of varying 

^ Cat. No. 218795, U. S. National Museum. 

' Type, Cat. No. 218420, U. 8. National Museum. 



bartsch: land shells of Palawan passage 365 

shades of brown overlaid with a suffusion of pale green; lip maroon; 
umbilical area wax-3'ellow. 

10. Like the above, but the dark coloration extends attenuatedly 
back over the last one and a quarter turns. The lip, also, is white. 

11. Like no. 9, but with very pale yellow ground color. The space 
between the second and the last three-quarters of the last turn is 
marked by axial flammulations. 

12. Like the above, excepting that the ground color and the lip are 
white. Columellar callus pale yellow and the solid color of the last 
portion of the shell extending over one and a quarter turns. 

13. Tip dark; early whorls flesh-colored, those succeeding pinkish 
flesh-colored with obsolete axial flammulations of pale brown; last 
turn grenadine pink with a yellowish suffusion. Inside of aperture pale 
hermosa pink; edge of peristome dark purplish brown. 

14. Tip dark; next two whorls flesh-colored, the two and a half suc- 
ceeding flesh-colored with light chestnut brown axial flammulations ; last 
turn wax-yellow; periphery angulated; base with two equally wide 
chestnut brown spiral bands of which one is immediately anterior to the 
periphery while the other is situated a little anterior to the middle of the 
base. These bands do not extend over the last half of the base. Peri- 
stome and interior white. 

15. Like the last, but with the last turn deep wax-yellow gradually 
turning to green near the aperture. The two basal bands scarcely extend 
beyond the edge of the lip. 

16. Like no. 13, but with a broad, wax-yellow spiral band whose pos- 
terior edge touches the posterior angle of the aperture. A second wax- 
yellow band marks the columellar area. 

17. Like the last in coloration of the spire; base wax-j^ellow except 
the narrow band of grenadine pink immediately below the angulate 
periphery and a second one of the same color, which is situated on the 
cente ■ of the base, which evanesces before it reaches the middle of the 
last half turn. 

18. Tip dark; the next two turns flesh-colored; all the rest except the 
last three-quarter turns of the last whorl flesh-colored with many axial, 
chestnut brown flammulations and a narrow subsutural wax-yellow zone. 
The last turn graduall}^ darkens to olive green near the aperture. Aper- 
ture pale grayish blue within ; peristome edged with blackish purple. 
A broad yellow band encircles the base at the posterior angle of the 
aperture and extends a little beyond its outer lip. 

19. Like th' last, but with the peristome white. 

20 Similar to the last, but with the last whorl of much lighter color. 

21. Similar to the last, but with the last whorl much lighter in color, 
greenish, purplish, and yellowish shades prevailing. The base, also, is 
wax-yellow and the lip is white with a purplish tint. 

22. Tip dark; the next two turns flesh-colored; the rest at first with 
flesh-colored ground color which gradually gives way to yellowish, 
marked by many chestnut brown axial flamulations. On the last turn 
the axial color bands gradually become fused resulting in a dingy brown- 



366 bartsch: land shells of Palawan passage 

olive patch on the middle of the turn behind the aperture. The area 
near the summit of the whorls remains pale wax-yellow. Base with a 
narrow spiral chestnut brown band whose posterior border touches the 
posterior angle of the aperture; this is succeeded by a broad, yellow 
spiral zone, and this in turn by an equally wide spiral brown band, 
while the columellar area is a greenish and pinkish yellow. Lip white. 

23. Like the last, but with the subperipheral spiral band double. 

24. Like no. 22, but with the base dark chestnut-brown and a spiral 
mid-basal wax-yellow band, the columella area wax-yellow. 

25. Tip dark; the two first turns flesh-colored; the ground color of 
the rest pale wax-yellow excepting the last turn, which is wax-yellow. 
All except the first two, and the last half of the last turn are marked by 
axial chestnut-colored flamulations. The last turn has fine spiral lines 
of chestnut brown. Base with a subperipheral and median band of 
dark chestnut brown, the lest wax-yellow excepting a pinkish line at the 
insertion of the columella. This line is also carried around the inner 
lip of the aperture, the inside of which is pale pinkish white. 

26. Tip dark; the first two whorls flesh-colored; the ground color of 
the succeeding turns flesh-colored, this on the last whorl slowly giving 
way to pale yellow. All but the first two whorls marked by chestnut- 
brown axial flamulations, which, on the last turn, do not terminate at 
the periphery but extend over the base. These axial markings become 
condensed immediately behind the lip and render this portion almost 
unicolor. The inside of the aperture shows the dark color bands of the 
exterior. The peristome is white, but the inner edge of the lip is 
marked by purpUsh dark chestnut-brown bands. 

27. Similar to the last, but of much more yellowish color, and with 
the axial flammulations much broader. These axial broad bands form an 
angle as they pass over the periphery. The insertion of the columella 
is encircled by a dark chestnut band. 

28. Similar to the last but with the base largely dark excepting a 
broad pinkish band a little anterior to the periphery. This band 
becomes evanescent before it encircles half of the last turn. 

The shells from Mantangule Island, which may be called Am- 
phidromus versicolor weberi,^ are by far the most brilliantly colored 
of all the known races of Amphidromus versicolor. However, we 
have here a much more uniform color pattern than in the speci- 
mens in the races from Balabac and Bancalan. All the specimens 
have a dark tip which is succeeded by two or more flesh-colored 
turns. The ground color of the succeeding turns may be flesh- 
colored, tinged with yellow or wax-yellow. In the one type 
of coloration no axial flammulations of chestnut brown are present 
on these whorls, while in the other they are strongly marked. 

8 Type, Cat. No. 218422,. U. S. National Museum. 



bartsch: land shells of Palawan passage 367 

The last turn is usually light near the summit, then girdled with a 
broad, dark area which is of the same color as the dark area of the 
base but is separated from this by a narrow light zone at the pe- 
riphery. The dark coloration of the last turn may be green or light 
coral-red or the latter overlaid with green. The base may be uni- 
color, i. e., white, yellow, green, red, or brown, or it may have one 
or two bands of yellow, brown, or red. The portion of the last 
whorl adjoining the columellar callus is usually coral-red. The 
interior is white, bluish, or pinkish, the peristome white or edged 
with purplish brown. 

The table on page 363 gives additional data as to number of 
whorls and shell measurements. 

The specimens which I have seen from Balabac Island show a 
lesser variability in coloration than those from Bancalan, to which 
they bear the greatest resemblance. There is here a much greater 
tendency to spiral banding of the base than in the shells from any 
of the other islands. All of the specimens of Amphidromus versi- 
color weberi examined have a white peristome but in Amphidro- 
mus versicolor higginsi this is frequently dark. In measurements 
they agree best with the shells from Bancalan Island, i.e., Amphi- 
dromus versicolor higginsi. 

The present sending by no means completes the survey of the 
Palawan Passage region, for as yet we know nothing of the Amphi- 
dromus inhabitants of the three large islands Bugsuk, Pandanan, 
and Ramos, nor do we know anything about the group on the 
lesser islands of Apo, Bowne, Canimeran, Patongong, Gabung, 
Byan, Canabungan, Secam, Malinsono, Sanz, and Paz. Then, 
too, the many islands off the north coast of Borneo should con- 
tribute a large amount of information that should tell us some- 
thing of the derivation of the forms in our domain which are 
undoubtedly of Bornean stock. 



ABSTRACTS 

Authors of scientific papers are requested to see that abstracts, preferably 
prepared and signed by themselves, are forwarded promptly to the editors. 
Each of the scientific bureaus in Washington has a representative authorized to 
forward such material to this Journal and abstracts of official publications 
should be transmitted through the representative of the bureau in which they 
originate. The abstracts should conform in length and general style to those 
appearing in this issue. 

ELECTRICITY. — Radio instruments and measurements. Bur. Stand. 
Circ. 74. Pp. 330. 1918. 
The Bureau of Standards has issued a treatise on radio measure- 
ments, for use by Government officers, radio engineers, and others con- 
cerned. The circular inckides a development of the essential theory of 
high-frequency measurements from simple but precise low-frequency 
theory, the use of reactance curves in the rapid solution of problems, 
descriptions of radio instruments, and formulas and data for radio 
work. The full treatment of fundamental principles will make this 
circular serve as a foundation for later publications which may be is- 
sued by the Bureau on the general subject of radio communication. 

J. H. D. 

TECHNOLOGY. — Stahilized-'platform weighing scale of novel design. 
F. J. ScHLiNK. Bur. Stand. Tech. Paper No. 106. Pp. 28. 1918. 

In this new scale the usual stabilizing element consisting of a pin- 
and-link connection is replaced by a flexible elastic tape, band, or 
wire. This design eliminates practically all the friction inherent in 
existing stabilizing mechanisms. In stabilized-platform scales made 
after the new design, friction is reduced to a very small amount, and is 
unaffected by the position of the load. 

In the paper the earlier types of stabilizing elements are illustrated 
and the limitations of each set forth. The theoretical considerations 
underlying the conditions of equilibrium in weighing scales of the sta- 
bilized-platform type are defined and the methods used in carrying out 
the adjustment of such a scale are outlined. A discussion of the ef- 
fects of static friction on the indications of scales is included and the 
effect of the elimination of this friction in enhancing the accuracy of 
weighings is shown. The paper includes nearly a score of illustrations 
of weighing scales and scale details. F. J. S. 

368 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY AND AFFILIATED 

SOCIETIES 

PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 804th meeting of the Society was held at the Cosmos Club, 
March 30, 1918; Vice-President Humphreys in the chair; 53 persons 
present. The minutes of the 803d meeting were read in abstract and 
approved. 

Mr. D. L. Hazard presented the first paper, on The magnetic survey 
of the United States. The magnetic survey of the United States may be 
said to have had its beginning in 1843, when a plan for the reorgani- 
zation of the survey of the coast was adopted wliich provided for making 
magnetic observations, but progress was slow up to 1899, because of 
lack of funds. Beginning with that year an annual appropriation of 
$25,000 has made possible a systematic survey of the whole country. 
The plan under which the work has been executed provides for mag- 
netic observations at places 30 to 40 miles apart on the average; a sub- 
sequent more detailed investigation of areas of local disturbance; the 
occupation of a sufficient number of repeat stations to determine the 
secular change of the magnetic elements; and the operation of magnetic 
observatories. 

The work has progressed to the point where observations have been 
made at all but about 150 county seats, results being available for about 
5,500 stations, and attention is now being directed more especially to 
the investigation of areas of local disturbance and the occupation of 
repeat stations. Magnetic surveys have been, made of Porto Rico, 
Hawaii, and the Philippines and the accessible portions of Alaska. 
Observations at sea have been made on some of the vessels of the Survey. 
Meridian lines have been established at many stations, and at most of 
the others the necessary information has been secured to enable local 
•surveyors to test their compasses. 

The results of the survey have been published from time to time, 
as the work progressed, in the form of magnetic tables and magnetic 
charts, the latest publication, just issued, being Magnetic Tables and 
Magnetic Charts for 1915, containing the accumulated results to the 
end of 1915. 

While the survey had its origin in the needs of the navigator and 
surveyor, yet the importance of the scientific side has been kept in 
view from the outset and due attention has been given to securing the 
data needed for a comprehensive study of the earth's magnetism, with 
a view to determining its origin and the cause of its fluctuations. 

The paper was discussed by Messrs. Bauer and Humphreys. 

309 



370 proceedings: philosophical society 

The second paper was presented by J. P. Ault, on Cruises III and IV 
of the yacht "Carnegie" in the Arctic and Suh-Antarctic regions, 1914 to 
191 7. Motion pictures were shown of the different operations on board 
the vessel, of her passage through the Panama Canal, and of the 
rough seas and large icebergs encountered during the Sub-Antarctic 
cruise. 

A brief summary was given of the origin and development of the 
science of terrestial magnetism, of its relation to the other sciences, and 
of its use and importance in present day activities. The work of the 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institute was 
described and a chart was exhibited which showed the region thus far 
surveyed, both on land and at sea. The general magnetic survey of the 
globe has been practically completed so that an early publication of 
new and accurate magnetic charts is contemplated. 

For the ocean survey work a special vessel, the yacht Carnegie, was 
designed and built, being constructed wholly of nonmagnetic mate- 
rial. The results of observations made on board this vessel do not 
require corrections on account of magnetic material in the vessel. The 
Carnegie has completed four cruises since her launching in 1909, and 
has covered over 240,000 nautical miles. Cruises III and IV were 
planned to fill in the unsurveyed regions in the Arctic and Sub-Ant- 
arctic oceans, which are accessible to a sailing vessel of her construc- 
tion. In 1914 during Cruise III, the vessel reached the high northerly 
latitude of 80°, west of Spitsbergen, the ports of call being Hammerf est, 
Norway, and Reykjavik, Iceland. Due to the small number of previ- 
ous observations made in these regions, the errors in the existing charts 
were found to be quite large. A brief account was given of the results 
obtained, methods used, and of the peoples and places visited. 

Cruise IV began at New York in March, 1915, and ended at Buenos 
Aires, Argentina, in March 1917. During this cruise the Carnegie 
passed through the Panama Canal, cruised in the Pacific Ocean from 
Honolulu to Dutch Harbor, Alaska, and northward into the Bering 
Sea to 60° north, and thence southward to Lyttelton, New Zealand. 
From Lyttelton a remarkable circumnavigation cruise was made, the 
Carnegie sailing eastward for four months, completely circHng the Ant- 
arctic Continent in one season, returning again to Lyttelton. During 
this time the vessel was in the iceberg region for three and one-half 
months and encounterd very stormy weather. Gales of force 7 to 11, 
Beaufort scale, were experienced on fifty-five days out of 117, and some 
form of precipitation occurred on one hundred days. In spite of the 
adverse conditions, observations for magnetic dip and intensity were 
made every day, and observations for magnetic declination were 
made every day except one. In one region the chart errors increased to 
12° for the British and American charts, and 16° for the German chart, 
the latter being an older chart than the former two. 

The paper was discussed by Messrs. Bauer and Humphreys. 

After adjournment at 10 p.m., light refreshments were served. 

E. C. Crittenden, Corresponding Secretary. 



proceedings: philosophical society 371 

The 805th meeting of the Society' was held at the Cosmos Club, April 
13, 1918; President Burgess in the chair; 49 persons present. The min- 
utes of the 804th meeting were read in abstract and approved. 

The first paper was presented by S. J. Mauchly, on A study of pres- 
sure and temperature effects in earth-current measurements. (Illustrated 
by lantern sUdes). The larger portion of the earth-current data on 
record, was obtained from observations made on commercial telegraph 
lines. For lines of considerable length, the fluctuations in the observed 
current are generally assumed to be very little influenced by local ef- 
fects at the earth plates, but for measurertients made between electrodes 
not many kilometers apart, this assumption is not valid. Most of the 
special lilies installed for the study of earth-current phenomena are 
necessarily limited in extent, and the object of the experiments de- 
scribed in this paper was to investigate the nature and order of magni- 
tude of some of the spurious effects which may function under these 
conditions. 

In one group of experiments a method similar to that used by Des 
Coudres, in his study of the E.M.F. produced by the action of gravity 
in salt solutions, was used to investigate the possible presence of an ef- 
fect due to difference of pressure at the electrodes. It was found that a 
tube filled with soil and provided with an electrode at either end showed 
a component of the total E.M.F. which tended, when the tube was ver- 
tical, to form a cathode at the lower electrode regardless of which elec- 
trode was involved. The order of magnitude of this effect was shown 
to be sufficient to account for certain observed phenomena which ap- 
pear inconsistent with physical principles, provided the effect exists as 
a general phenomenon in nature. 

The results of continuous measurements of P.D. and temperature 
difference made on actual underground systems of earth plates for 
about eight months show that most, if not all, of the diurnal variation 
which has by some observers been ascribed to a vertical earth current 
was very probably due to the variations in the temperature difference 
between the electrodes. 

The spurious effects introduced by temperature-difference variations 
were found to be greatly increased and reversed in sign when the soil 
in contact with the electrodes was frozen. 

While the results are strictly applicable only to the actual installation 
employed during the experiments, they show that the effects which may 
result from temperature difference at the electrodes of an earth-current 
line, and from the variations in this difference, may for short lines be of 
the same order of magnitude as the quantities to be measured and with 
which they are associated. Some of the phenomena which various 
observers have ascribed to a true earth current must be largely influ- 
enced by such effects. The employment of nonpolarizable electrodes 
does not prevent the introduction of temperature-difference effects. 

The paper was discussed by Mr. Bauer. 

Mr. M. Sasuly then presented the second paper, on A general system 
of approximate integration formulae. Several types of quadrature for- 



372 proceedings: philosophical society 

mulas are known for evaluating definite integrals of functions whose 
primitives are unknown. The most familiar formulas are those devel- 
oped by Cotes, Lagrange, Euler, and Gauss. In each of these the 
problem is reduced to finding a certain area under a curve representing 
the function in rectangular coordinates. This area is given in terms 
of the interval of integration and several ordinates (values of the func- 
tion) within that interval. Thus, to a certain degree of approximation, 



f{x)dx = ih-a)^[krf{x,)]. (1) 



j=l,2, 3, ... 71. 

The numbers /(xi) and /^i are ordinates and corresponding " weighting" 
coefficients in the interval (a. . . .6). 

In the formulas of Cotes and Euler the ordinates are equidistant. 
In those of Lagrange the ordinates may be taken at random. All three 
types have equal accuracy of a certain kind, namely, a formula using 
n ordinates gives the exact value of definite integrals of a polynomial 
function of degree n — 1 (or degree n if n is odd). In the formulas of 
Gauss, however, the ordinates must be taken at certain definite points, 
and in virtue of this the maximum accuracy is obtained. A formula 
of n ordinates is exact for the integral of a function of degree 2 n — 1, 

It can be easily shown that the use of any type of ordinate formula 
is valid only in the case of analytic functions (i.e., such as can be de- 
veloped in a convergent power series) . From the properties common to 
all analytic functions, it may be shown that the points Xi and the co- 
efficients k of the corresponding ordinates subsist in a unique functional 
relation. Thus by a simple transformation, we may put 

J»6 p + 1 

/ {x) dx= \ if (t) dt. (2) 

a J-\ 

Then, it can be shown that 

J^ <p{t)dt=2-^k,[^{-r)-^^{+r)] (3) 

^ = 1, 2, 3, . . . n, 

O <n<r.<r, . . . 1\<\, 

in which the numbers ki and /-j are each arbitrary but related as follows: 

1 

' ' 2(2r/+l) ^^ 



-7 = 0. 1,2,3 



This relation determines an infinite number of types of approximate 
integration formulas, combining maximum accuracy with maximum 
flexibility. For k^ and r, may have arbitrary values, consistent with 
their fundamental relation, and subject only to the condition that the 



proceedings: philosophical society 373 

ordinates be selected in pairs sjanmetrically located in the integration 
interval. The formulas of Cotes, Euler, and Gauss may be derived as 
special cases. 

The paper was discussed by Messrs. Sosman, White, and Burgess. 

A third paper, by P. D. Foote and F. L. Mohler, on Ionization and 
resonance potentials for electrons in vapors of magnesium and thallium, 
was presented by ]\Ir. Mohler. (Illustrated by lantern slides). Since 
mercury, magnesium, cadmium, and zinc belong to the same family, 
one might expect that the behaviour of electrons in vapors of these four 
elements should be somewhat similar in character. The single line 
spectrum of mercury is known to be excited at the resonance potential 
of 4.9 volts. Work of Tate and Foote reported at the Chicago meeting 
of the Phj^sical Society, shows that the resonance potentials for cad- 
mium and zinc obey the quantum relation hv = Ve, where v is the fre- 
quenc}' of tli£ single line spectrum. Hence, one would expect the single 
line spectrum of magnesium to follow a similar relation. 

The present writers have employed the method of Franck and Hertz 
for determining the resonance potential of electrons in magnesium vapor 
and Tate's modification for determining the#ionization potential. The 
mean of data so far obtained gives 2.65 volts for resonance and 7.75 
volts for ionization with an accuracy of possibly 0.1 volt. The theo- 
retical values on the basis of X = 4,571 and 1,622 are 2.70 volts and 
7.75 volts, respectively, while the single line spectrum at X = 2,852 
would require a resonance potential of 4.3 volts.' This experiment 
combined with the confirmed results on the other metals in the same 
group suggests that the single line spectrum of Mg is X = 4,571 rather 
than X = 2,852. Evidence was obtained in the present work for a 
series of double points in the current-potential curves similar to those 
found by Tate and Foote for zinc, but further work now in progress is 
required properly to interpret these subsidiary points. 

The resonance and ionization potentials for electrons in thallium 
vapor have been measured by the method described in earlier papers, 
with the modification of the use of a hot equal potential surface instead 
of a hot wire as a cathode. The cathode was similar in principle to 
that used by Goucher and consisted of a platinum (or better, a nickel 
cylinder) insulated from a helix of tungsten wire inside, which was used 
as the heater. Ionization occurred at an applied potential of 6.6 volts, 
which when corrected for the initial velocity observed as 0.7 volts 
gives the final value for the ionization potential of 7.3 volts. The thal- 
lium spectrum is characterized by a set of doublet series. The reso- 
nance potential of 1.07 volts is given within experimental errors by the 
quantum relation hv — eV when v is the frequency of the stronger 
line (X = 11,513) of the first doublet of the principal series. The theo- 
retical value of the resonance potential computed on this basis is 1.07 
volts. We believe this is good evidence that the single line spectrum 
of thallium is X = 11,513. 

We were unajDle to detect any sign of ionization accompanying reso- 
nance or any resonance due to the line X = 13,014. If thallium acted 



374 proceedings: biological society 

in a manner similar to sodiuha or potassium one would expect from the 
analagous relations in the series of these elements to find ionization 
determined by the quantum relation hp = eV when v is the limit of 
the principal series v = 22,786. This requires a value of 7 = 2.81 
volts, which cannot be considered in the light of the experimental data. 
We believe that our work enables the prediction of a new series in 
thallium. It is very possibly of the form v = 1.5 S— mP, a single 
line series of low intensity converging at 1.5 S lying between 57,000 
and 60,000. The highest convergence frequency of any series so far 
known for thallium is 49,263. The present work again brings up the 
question of the separate excitation of hues constituting a doublet. 
Thallium appears to offer a fruitful field for work in this regard. 

Although the usual time of adjournment had arrived, it was moved 
and carried that the program be completed, and Mr. P. D. Foote pre- 
sented a paper on Electronic frequency and atomic number, which was 
discussd by Dr. Swann. 

The meeting adjourned at 10.15 p.m. 

H. L. Curtis, Recording Secretary. 

BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 584th regular meeting of the Society was held in the Assembly 
Hall of the Cosmos Club, Saturday, April 20, 1918; called to order at 
8 p.m. by President Rose; 35 persons present. 

General T. E. Wilcox stated that he had received a communication 
from Ex-President Roosevelt in which he said he was presenting to the 
Society an autograph copy of his book entitled A Booklover's Holiday 
in the Open. Dr. Howard in this connection referred to the 277th 
meeting of the Society when Theodore Roosevelt, then Assistant Secre- 
tary of the Navy, attended for the first and only time a meeting of the 
Biological Society of Washington. 

The regular program was as follows: 

Alex. Wetmore: Lead poisoning in waterfowl. Mr. Wetmore said 
that lead poisoning in waterfowl has been known for a number of years 
and recently has assumed considerable economic importance. Wild 
ducks, whistling swans and a few other birds subject to this disease 
pick up and swallow pellets of shot lying in the mud in marshes and 
shallow lakes about old shooting bhnds. These shot are held in the 
stomach and worn slowly away by grinding against bits of gravel taken 
to aid digestion, so that small particles of lead are being steadily passed 
out into the intestine, and in part absorbed. This causes a severe 
diarrhoea, the feces are stained bright green, the birds are soon unable 
to fly, and a slow paralysis sets in so that they become unable to stand. 
Cases of long standing become much emaciated though the birds eat 
eagerly. By experiment it was found that six number six shot when 
swallowed were fatal in every instance, while in one instance one shot 
of that size was sufficient to cause death from lead poisoning. It was 
also shown that the trouble was due actually to lead and not to arsenic 



proceedings: biological society 375 

or combinations thereof with lead. In all cases this lead poisoning 
seemed to result fatally, and on certain marshes a considerable number of 
waterfowl are destroyed in this manner. The speaker described the 
symptoms and post-mortem appearances fully and gave details of ex- 
periments and observations made in the laboratory and in field work. 
He also exhibited specimens of shot removed from the gizzards of 
ducks, showing how they had been worn by muscular action, and also shot 
dredged from the feeding grounds. 

A. S. Hitchcock: Generic types. The speaker reviewed the tenden- 
cies in generic nomenclature of plants and referred to the rules concern- 
ing generic types in the American Code of Botanical Nomenclature. 
He also referred to the rules in the International Code which concern 
the use of the generic name although these rules do not recognize type 
species. Precision in the application of generic naraes is attained only 
when it is recognized that a genus, however limited as to component 
species, must include the type species. In other words, the type species 
of a genus should determine the apphcation of a generic name. It is 
obvious that the type species is the species or one of the species included 
in the genus when it was established. It is recommended that the 
type species be designated when a new genus is pubhshed. Since the 
older authors in most cases did not designate their generic types, it 
becomes necessary to select the type species for the genera in which the 
types have not been designated. If there is agreement as to type 
species there will be agreement as to the apphcation of generic names. 
Of course it does not follow that there will be agreement as to the hmi- 
tation of genera. One concerns nomenclature, the other concerns 
taxonomy. Mr. Hitchcock has investigated 255 generic names of 
grasses and indicated their type species. Several examples were given 
illustrating the method of selecting the types. 

The paper was discussed by Dr. L. 0. Howard, W. L. McAtee, and 

S. A. ROHWER. 

W. W. Eggleston: Thomas NuttaWs trip to Oregon in 1834, '^iih 
notes on the route. Thomas Nuttall was a member of Captain N. J. 
Wyeth's Second Oregon Expedition. Nuttall's data on localities is 
meager, therefore collections along his route would be useful. Collec- 
tions should begin at Scotts Bluff and cover the country to the mouth 
of the Columbia. The more important places to visit are Scotts Bluffs, 
Nebraska, Laramie Mountains (Black Hills) along Platte River, Granger, 
Wyoming, Soda Springs, Idaho, Fort Hall (furtraders' fort), Idaho, 
Wildhorse Creek, Idaho, Blue Mountains, Oregon, and the region around 
Sauvies Island, Oregon. 

In 1916 the Cusick Brothers and the writer studied the route across the 
Blue Mountains. This Indian trail led up Burnt River and Alder 
Creek to the vicinity of Pleasant Valley, where the party lost the trail. 
Proceeding northward the party crossed Powder River about six miles 
below Big Creek, passed the head of Cusick Creek, and on through Thief 
Valley, relocating the trail at the Powder River, crossing between North 
Powder and Telocaset. Thence the trail follows the foothills and along 



376 proceedings: entomological society 

the southern rim of Grande Ronde Valley to Ladd Canyon, thence drops 
into the Valley west of Hot Lake, and along the base of the rim to Le 
Grande where it crosses the mountains. The old wagon road from Le 
Grande through Meacham to Cayuse now marks this part of the trail. 
In 1917, the trail west of Fort Hall was traced. It passed along Big 
Butte to Big Lost River, thence up Big Lost to the vicinity of Arco, 
Idaho, thence west to Antelope Creek and down the creek to Big Lost 
River again, thence up Big Lost, the East Fork, and Wildhorse Creek 
into Thornburg's Ravine. No pass being located here the party re- 
turned the next morning to the north fork and crossed the Sawtooth 
Mountains by the only pass in this vicinity, the pass now used by the 
wagon road. M. W. Lyon, Jr., Recording Secretary. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 313th meeting of the Society was held at the Cosmos Club, 
May 2, 1918. The meeting was called to order by President Sasscer, 
with thirty-two members and three visitors present. 

The following names were favorably acted upon for membership: 
Mr. C. A.Weigel and Mr. Wm. A. Hoffman, both of the Bureau of 
Entomology. 

The regular program was as follows : 

W. D. Pierce: Medical entomology, a vital factor in the prosecution 6f 
the war. This paper, which will be published in the Proceedings of the 
Society, deals with insects as disseminators of diseases of man and ani- 
mals with special reference to the problems of army-camp sanitation.' 
Following the reading of Dr. Pierce's paper the matter of the relation of 
entomology and entomologists to the health of our army was interest- 
ingly discussed by Dr. L. O. Howard and Mr. A. N. Caudell of the 
Bureau of Entomology, and Major Alfred M. Lund, Captain Robert 
H. Brown, and Lieutenant E. H. Gibson of the army Sanitary Corps. 
The remarks of these army officers were especially appreciated, de- 
scribing, as they did, actual experience in the practical handling of the 
perplexing problems of sanitary engineering in its entomological phases. 

J. A. Nelson: A microcephalic drone bee. This interesting descrip- 
tion of an extraordinary aberrant drone bee will be published in the 
Society Proceedings. 

R. A. Cushman: A convenient method of handling large numbers of 
individuals in life-history studies. Mr. Cushman described and illus- 
trated the decimal system of keeping records of rearing experiments. 
His remarks were discussed by Messrs. Hyslop, Pierce, Caudell, and 

ROHWER. 

H. G. Barber: The genus PlitUhisus Latreille in the United States. 
Read by title. A. B. Gahan, Recording Secretary. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

The Maryland-Virginia-District of Columbia section of the Mathe- 
matical Association of America held its annual spring meeting on May 
4, 1918, at the Catholic University. The following officers were elected 
for the ensuing year: President, A. E. Landry, of the Catholic Univer- 
sity; Secretary, Ralph Root, of the Naval Xcsidemj ; third member ex- 
ecutive committee, L. F. Hulburt, of Johns Hopkins University. 

Professor O. Steels, of the School of Civil Engineering, Univer- 
sity of Ghent, and Professor Albert Van Hecke, of the Faculty of 
Sciences of the University of Louvain, arrived in Washington in May 
as members of the Belgian Mission on Industrial Management. Pro- 
fessor Steels is President of the Mission. 

An "Inventions Section" has been added to the organization of the 
General Staff of the army, "in order to secure prompt and thorough 
investigation of inventions submitted to the War Department." It is 
headed by an advisory board of chemical, electrical, and mechanical 
technologists. D. W. Brunton, Chairman of the War Committee of 
Technical Societies, is chairman of the Advisory Board of the new Sec- 
tion, and Dr. Graham Edgar and Lieut. -Col.. R. A. Millikan, of the 
National Research Council, are members. 

The offices of the Chemical Service Section of the National Arm}- 
have been removed from the building of the Interior Department to 
LTnit F, Seventh and B Streets. 

By an executive ord«r issued May 11, 1918, the President of the 
United States requests the National Academy of Sciences, under its 
congressional charter, to perpetuate the National Research Council. 
The order defines the duties of the Council, which are, briefly: (1) to 
stimulate research; (2) to survey the larger possibilities of science; (3) 
to promote cooperation in research; (4) to bring American and foreign 
investigators into cooperation with the Government; (5) to aid in the 
solution of war problems; (6) to gather and collate information. The 
order further provides for the appointment by the President of govern- 
ment representatives as members of the Council, upon nomination by 
the National Academy, and instructs the heads of government depart- 
ments to continue to cooperate with the council. 

The Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institu- 
tion of Washington, in accordance with a request from Captain Roald 

377 



378 SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Amundsen, has supplied for use in his forthcoming arctic expedition a 
complete set of magnetic instrimients, as well as the necessary direc- 
tions for magnetic measurements and the program of work. Captain 
Amundsen plans to leave Norway this summer in a new vessel, the 
Maud, built specially for arctic exploration, and has made his arrange- 
ments on the expectation that his expedition will require about five years 
for completion. He will make scientific observations of various kinds 
in the arctic regions. The final details with regard to the contemplated 
arctic magnetic observations were arranged at the laboratory of the 
Department by Dr. Nansen and Captain Amundsen on April 5. 

On account of difficulties with transportation, Professor R. F. Griggs, 
of the Ohio State University, has been obliged to abandon his plan 
to lead another expedition this summer to Mount Katmai, Alaska, 
under the auspices of the National Geographic Society. The work 
planned for this summer has not been entirely abandoned, however, 
as two members of last year's expedition, Messrs. Sayre and Hagel- 
BARGER, left for Alaska on May 2, taking with them pyrometers furnished 
by the Geophysical Laboratory, with which it is hoped to obtain data 
on the temperatures of the fumaroles in the " Valley of Ten Thousand 
Smokes." 

Chancellor Samuel Avery, of the University of Nebi;aska, is now 
connected with the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Technology 
of the National Research Council. 

Professor Watson Bain, professor of applied chemistry at the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, is in Washington as a member of the Canadian War 
Mission. 

Mr. H. A. Baker, chief chemist of the American Can Company, is in 
charge of problems of tin plate supply at the U.S. Food Administration. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Hiram Bingham, formerly Professor of Latin 
American History at Yale University, is Chief of the Air Personnel 
Division of the Signal Corps. 

Professor W. C. Bray, of Ihe department of chemistry. University, 
of California, came to Washington in May to engage in research on war 
problems with the Bureau of Mines. 

Dr. A. D. Brokaw, assistant professor of mineralogy and chemical 
geology at the University of Chicago, is on the staff of the U. S. 
Fuel Administration, in charge of oil production east of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

Dr. Joseph A. Cushman, of Sharon, Massachusetts, was in Wash- 
ington for a few days in May, after several weeks of geologic field 
work in the coastal plain of North Carolina. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 379 

Mr. Francis C. Frary, of the Oldbury Electrochemical C'ompany of 
Niag:ara Falls, has been commissioned a captain in the Ordnance Of- 
ficers' Reserve Corps, and is engaged in research with the Trench Wai- 
fare Section, Engineering Bureau of the Ordnance Department, in 
Washington. 

Dr. Grove Karl Gilbert, one of the charter members of the Acad- 
emy, died at Jackson, Michigan, on May 1, 1918, within a few days of 
his seventy-fifth birthday. He had been associated with the scientific 
life of Washington for forty-seven years, having been geologist of the 
Wheeler and Powell Surveys in 1871 and 1874, and one of the original 
staff of the present U. S. Geological Survey at its establishment in 
1879. Dr. Gilbert was a member of the Geological Society of Washing- 
ton, of which he was president in 1895 and 1909; the Philosophical 
Society of Washington, of which he was president in 1892; the National 
Academy of Sciences; and many other American and foreign scientific 
organizations. His broad-minded interest in the problems of the earth 
kept him an active investigator throughout his life, and his published 
papers cover ahiiost the entire range of modern geological science. 

Dr. Herbert E. Ives, formerly of the United Gas Improvement 
Company of Philadelphia, has been commissioned a captain in the 
Signal Corps, and is attached to the Science and Research Division of 
the Signal Corps at 1023 Sixteenth Street, the headquartevs of the 
National Reseafch Council. 

Lieutenant-Colonel C. F. Lee, in charge of the British Aviation Mis- 
sion in Washington, who lectured before the Academy in March on 
Aviation and the ivar, has returned to England for six weeks to inspect 
new models of aircraft. 

Dr. Victor Lenher, professor of chemistry at the University of 
Wisconsin, has been commissioned a major in the Chemical Service 
Section, National Ami}-, and is stationed in Washington. 

Mr. P. W. Mason, formerly assistant professor of entomology at 
Purdue University, was appointed on May 1, 1918, scientific assistant 
in deciduous fruit insect investigations, in the Bureau of Entomology, 
Department of Agriculture. 

Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, special representative of the Norwegian Gov- 
ernment, and an honorary member of the Academy, returned to Nor- 
way on May 11, after signing the general commercial agreement be-* 
tween the L'nited States and Norway which has l^een in negotiation for 
several months. 

To Professor F. H. Newell, of the University of Illinois, formerly 
director of the U. S. Reclamation Service, the American Geographical 




380 SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Society has awarded the Cullom Geographical Medal. Other recipi- 
ents of the medal have been: Rear-Admiral Peary, Fridtjof Nan- 
sen, Sir John Murray, the Duke of the Abruzzi, Sven Hedin, Sir 
Ernest Shackleton, and General Goethals. 

Mr. George A. Rankin, formerly of the Geophysical Laboratory, 
is on leave of absence from the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company and 
is engaged in research at the Experiment Station of the Bureau of 
Mines, at the American University. 

Mr. C. E. Van Orstrand, of the Geological Survey, returned in May 
from a field excursion in Texas, during which he made measurements 
of the temperatures in a new 4,600-foot well near the Damon salt dome, 
Damon, Texas. 

Mr. Rudolph J. Wig has resigned from the Bureau of Standards in 
order to devote full time to his duties as chief engineer of the concrete- 
ship department of the Emergency Fleet Corporation. 

Major Robert M. Yerkes, formerly professor of comparative psy- 
chology at Harvard University, is attached to the Surgeon General's 
Office and is in charge of the psychological testing of drafted men for 
the National Army. 

The following persons have become members of the Academy since 
the last issue of the Journal: 

Mr. Carleton Roy Ball, Bureau of Plant Industry, Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Dr. Robert Ervin Coker, Bureau of Fisheries, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Bertrand Leroy Johnson, U. S. Geological Survey, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Dr. Leo Loeb, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, 
Missouri. 

Professor Archibald Byron Macallum, University of Toronto, 
Toronto, Canada; and Honorary Advisory Council for Scientific and 
Industrial Research, Ottawa, Canada. 

Mr. Donald Francis Macdonald, Ancon, Panama. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Vol. VIII JUNE 19, 1918 No. 12 



CHEMISTRY. — The nitrogen problem in relation to the ivarJ 
Arthur A. Notes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 
Chairman of the Committee on Nitrate Investigations, 
National Research Council. (Communicated by L. J. 
Briggs.) 

The subject with which I am to deal is so vast that it is im- 
practicable to present more than a brief survey of it. I shall not 
attempt to go into technical details, but shall rather attempt 
to give you a general view of the situation, and a brief descrip- 
tion of the various methods we have for meeting the demand for 
nitrogen compounds and of the principles which are involved in 
those methods. 

You all realize the vital importance of an adequate supply of 
nitrogen compounds, particularly of nitric acid and ammonia, 
in ensuring our success in this war. From nitric acid are made 
all the important explosives such as smokeless powder, picric 
acid, ordinary black powder, dynamite, trinitrotoluol, and 
ammonium nitrate. This last has recently come into the greatest 
prominence as one of the most important and valuable of our 
explosives. In fact, it is reported that the Minister of Muni- 
tions of England has said that this war must be won with am- 
monium nitrate, as no other explosive can be produced in quantity 
adequate to meet the enormous demands of the Allied armies in 

^ Report of a lecture given before a joint meeting of the Washington Academy 
of Sciences and the Chemical Society of Washington on May 15, 1918. 

381 



382 NO yes: nitrogen problem in relation to war 

Europe. This development of the use of ammonium nitrate has 
brought about a heavy demand for ammonia. In the early 
stages of the war it was anticipated that what we must look out 
for was an adequate supply of nitric acid, but at the present time 
we are no less interested in a sufficient supply of ammonia. 

Let me briefly recall to you what are our sources of these two 
nitrogen compounds. 

Our first source is Chile saltpeter, or sodium nitrate, which is 
found in a natural state in the dry regions of Chile, and which, 
until recently, furnished the total supply of nitric acid of the 
world. We depend for our own nitric acid supply upon the im- 
ports of Chile saltpeter into this country, which is a rather 
precarious source. In the first place, we are dependent on ade- 
quate shipping, and ships are scarce. In the second place, there 
has always been danger that enemy machinations, through 
interfering with production, destroying the plants, or blowing up 
the oil supply used for fuel, would reduce the production, or that 
our supply might be cut off entirely, by the establishment of a 
submarine base on the Pacific Coast. All of these possibilities 
make it unsafe to rely for our nitric acid supply on Chile salt- 
peter alone. But, even if none of these results actually came 
about, it would still be impracticable to get the huge amount 
of nitric acid that is going to be needed for the American Army 
through imports of Chile saltpeter. 

Our second source is the ammonia from the by-product gas 
and coke ovens — the ovens, that is to say, in which coal is heated 
to produce gas or coke. We have, as I shall describe later, a well- 
developed process for the conversion of ammonia into nitric acid, 
so that if we get,irom any source, an adequate supply of ammonia, 
we can convert in into nitric acid. I shall not enter at any 
length into the production of ammonia from gas and coke ovens. 
I will only recall to you briefly that for a long time, until within 
say ten years, this country was producing most of its coke in the 
so-called "beehive" oven, which is simply a hemispherical kiln. 
The coal is charged into the oven and set on fire, and the products 
of the combustion are allowed to pass into the air, so that the 
ammonia and valuable hydrocarbons that might have been 



NOTES : NITROGEN PROBLEM IN RELATION TO WAR 383 

obtained are lost. During the last decade, and especially during 
the last few years, there has been a very rapid introduction of the 
so-called "by-product" ovens, in which the coal is heated in 
closed retorts and the gases are passed through condensers and 
scrubbers by which the hydrocarbons and the ammonia are 
recovered. It was alleged by some of those representing the by- 
product industries that this supply of ammonia would alone 
suffice to meet the military needs of the Government; but the 
result has proved that it is utterly inadequate. Even if we pro- 
duced all of our coke in by-product ovens, the supply would be 
far from sufficient. Of course, the Government is interested in 
extending the introduction of by-product ovens as rapidly as 
possible; but the by-product industry is tied up with the steel 
industry. It is mainly in the metallurgy of steel that coke finds 
its use, and we can produce ammonia only in proportion as there 
is a demand for coke. It is true that in Germany, where in the 
early stages of the war the need for hydrocarbons was very 
acute, coal was coked extensively just for its ammonia and hydro- 
carbons, and great quantities of coke were piled up, to be used 
after the war. Our Government has not yet felt that our needs 
warrant such extreme action as this, as the value tied up in the 
coke is large compared to the value of the by-products, and the 
difficulties of securing deliveries are serious. 

Our third source of these nitrogen compounds is atmospheric 
nitrogen. During the last fifteen years there have been de- 
veloped a number of chemical processes by which the nitrogen 
of the air is ''fixed," as we say, whereby ammonia, nitric acid, or 
sodium cyanide are produced. I wish particularly to speak 
of the four most important processes which have been operated 
on a commercial scale. These are the cyanamide process, the 
cyanide process, the arc process, and the synthetic process. 

Let me briefly describe to you the principles involved in these 
different chemical processes. I shall endeavor to show you 
what materials are needed and how far power enters as a factor. 

1. In the cyanamide -process we start with lime and powdered 
coke. The first chemical reaction that takes place results in the 
formation of calcium carbide, as follows: 

CaO + 3C = CaCa + CO. 



384 NO yes: nitrogen problem in relation to war 

This is the substance which is used so extensively in the manu- 
facture of acetylene for oxy-acetylene welding. The carbon 
monoxide escapes as a gas. This first step in the cyanamide 
process is carried out in huge electric furnaces. The charge of 
lime and coke in small lumps is fed down through the furnace in 
the center of which stands a large carbon electrode. The walls 
of the furnace form the other electrode. The mixture is heated 
to a very high temperature, and the melted carbide is tapped off 
at the bottom from time to time and allowed to solidify. 

The carbide is then crushed and subjected to the nitrifying 
process. Namely, it is packed into large basket-shaped con- 
tainers 3 to 6 feet high and 2 to 3 feet in diameter, which are 
enclosed in an iron vessel supplied with nitrogen. The basket 
has holes through the sides, and down the center runs a resistance 
wire. The reaction is started electrically by heat produced by 
passing a current through the wire. The reaction which takes 
place is as follows: 

CaCa + N2 = CaCNo + C. 

This gives us a product properly called "calcium cyanamide" 
which contains some unchanged carbide (about 3 per cent), 
and some lime and carbon. 

The cyanamide process was the only one of the fixation proc- 
esses which was being operated on any considerable scale in this 
country when we entered the war, and which is being so operated 
now. There is a plant operated by the American Cyanamid 
Company at Niagara Falls, Canada, which has been producing 
something like 20,000 tons of cyanamide a year. The product 
has been used to a limited extent in agriculture, but unfortu- 
nately the large amount of lime which it contains prevents it 
from being so used in unlimited quantities. 

For the production of ammonia the cyanamide has to be treated 
with steam, whereby the following reaction takes place: 

CaCNa + 3H2O = CaCO.3 + 2NH3. 

This process is carried out in huge autoclaves about 20 or 30 feet 
high and 4 to 6 feet in diameter. The powdered cyanamide is 
fed into an alkaline solution and then steam is blown in; the 



NOYES: NITROGEN PROBLEM IN RELATION TO WAR 385 

mass is heated, the reaction begins and becomes violent, and the 
ammonia is allowed to collect up to a pressure of 12 to 15 at- 
mospheres, when it is blown off. Then, after the reaction has 
spent itself, the residue is again charged with steam so as to get a 
complete removal of ammonia. When carried out properly, it 
is practicable to get substantially all of the original nitrogen in 
the form of ammonia. This gives ammonia free from organic 
matter, except that it contains some acetylene, coming from the 
calcium carbide present. 

2. I speak next of the cyanide process, in which the reaction 
that takes place is, in its net result, as follows : 

NaaCOa + 4C + N2 = 2NaCN + SCO. 

A mixture of soda-ash with finely powdered coke and iron is 
heated at about 1000°C. in nitrogen gas. There is a consider- 
able conversion of the sodium carbonate into sodium cyanide, 
with evolution of carbon monoxide. The iron acts simply as a 
catalytic agent. This operation is carried out in a number of 
different ways. In one of the forms of furnace, so-called ''bri- 
quets," which are really pencils made by moistening the mixture 
and squirting it through a die, are fed down through a long tube 
8 or 10 feet high, which is heated on the outside by flue gases 
from the combustion of coal. The heating gases pass around the 
outside of the tube. The charge feeds slowly down through the 
heated zone and is drawn out from time to time by a special 
device at the bottom.. 

As in the case of cyanamide, so in this case also, to get ammonia 
we have to treat the product with steam. If we treat it at a low 
temperature the cyanide gives ammonia and sodium formate: 

NaCN + 2H2O = HCOONa + NH3. 

When the formate is heated it breaks up, yielding sodium car- 
bonate : 

2HC00Na = NaoCOs + CO + H,. 

Thus the sodium carbonate used in the process is regenerated. 
Really, all that is consumed is the carbon, and the nitrogen taken 
from the air. 



386 



NOYES: NITROGEN PROBLEM IN RELATION TO WAR 



The nitrogen used in both of the processes just described is 
obtained ordinarily from Uquid air by one of the famihar hque- 
faction and distillation processes. 

It will be noted that the cyanide process accomplishes in a 
^ single operation a result which requires two operations in the 
cyanamide process. By using soda instead of lime, we combine 
the two steps (conversion of lime to carbide and of carbide to 
cyanamide) into one. The final steaming is the same in both 
processes. 

3. The synthetic process is an extremely simple one chemically, 
involving the following reaction: 

No + 3H2 = 2NH3. 

There is a rather interesting history connected with this. The 
proportion of ammonia which forms from the elements (hydrogen 
and nitrogen) at atmospheric pressure at any temperature where 
the rate is rapid enough so that it will form within a reasonable 
time is extremely small. The proportions (by volume) of am- 
monia at various temperatures and pressures that are present when 
a mixture of three volumes of hydrogen and one of nitrogen 
reaches equilibrium are shown in the table: 





1 ATM. 


100 ATM. 


200 ATM. 


degrees 


per cent 


per cent 


per cent 


500 


0.13 


10.7 


18.1 


600 


0.05 


4.5 


8.3 


700 


0.02 


2.1 


4.1 



Thus at 500° we find, from the laboratory investigations that have 
been made on the equilibrium of this reaction, that there is only 
0.13 per cent of the nitrogen converted into ammonia when the 
mixed gases are at atmospheric pressure, whereas at 200 atmos- 
pheres there is 18.1 per cent. As the temperature rises the 
result is much less favorable. At 600° we get only 0.05 per cent, 
and at 700° 0.02 per cent, at atmospheric pressure. These un- 
favorable equilibrium conditions of the reaction, and the known 
fact that its rate is very slight until the temperature gets high, 
led to the belief that there was no hope of the development of 



NO yes: nitrogen problem in relation to war 387 

this reaction into a technical process. However, a German 
chemist, Haber, demonstrated, by working at high pressures and 
at the same time at the low temperatures made possible by the 
discovery of a good catalyst, that this reaction can be carried 
out on a commercial scale, and this is in fact being done very 
extensively in Germany. 

4. Finally, we have the arc process, which, like the synthetic 
process, involves an extremely simple chemical reaction : 

■ N2 + Oo = 2N0. 

At a very high temperature nitrogen and oxygen unite to form 
nitric oxide. In this case the effect of temperature on the equi- 
librium is exactly the opposite of its effect on the ammonia equi- 
librium. The higher the temperature, the more nitric oxide is 
obtained; but there is very little until the temperature becomes 
very high. At 1600°, 0.4 per cent (by volume) of a mixture of 
equal parts nitrogen and oxygen is converted into nitric oxide; 
at 1900°, 1.0 per cent; and at 2400°, 2.2 per cent. It is clear, 
then, that we can get a considerable production of nitric oxide 
only by operating at a high temperature. But not only is it 
necessary to operate at a high temperature, but the gases must 
be cooled so quickly that in the process of cooling the reaction 
does not go back again. The gas must be cooled rapidly to such 
a temperature that the rate of decomposition of nitric oxide into 
oxygen and nitrogen is made very small. The only really 
practical way in which this can now be carried out is by using an 
electric arc. An arc produces locally an extremely high tem- 
perature, and the gas can be drawn rapidly away from the arc 
and quickly cooled. 

Before describing the ways in which this reaction is carried 
out commercially, I shall first call attention to the remaining 
reactions which are involved in the production of nitric acid by 
the arc process. The nitric oxide, when the gas cools to below 
150°, combines with oxygen to form nitrogen peroxide: 

2N0 + 02= 2NO2. 

This reaction does not take place instantly and time must be 
allowed for its completion. The peroxide is then treated with 



388 NO yes: nitrogen problem in relation to war 

water, three molecules of it forming two molecules of nitric acid 
and regenerating one of NO. The first reaction has again to 
produce more NO2 before the next step can take place, and the 
fact that these reactions must go on successively explains the 
great difficulty in absorbing these nitric vapors in the absorption 
towers. Towers 60 feet high and 16 feet in diameter, placed six 
or eight in a series, are necessary in order to get 88 to 90 per cent 
absorption of the nitric vapors. As it does not pay to get the 
last 10 per cent in this way, this portion is absorbed either in 
caustic alkali, lime, or soda. 

Two of the forms of furnace used may be briefly described. 
The essence of them all is to form an arc which will have a very 
large surface so that the gas will be brought into contact with the 
high temperature and will then cool off very rapidly. Various 
devices have been used for spreading the arc. The Birkeland- 
Eyde process, which is the one most used in Norway, uses an 
electro-magnet. If a magnet is placed at right angles to the 
arc, the well-known deflection of the electrified particles or 
electrons passing from one electrode to the other is produced, 
and thus the arc is drawn out into a disk-shaped flame. Another 
process for spreading the arc is known as the 'Tauling process," 
an Austrian process, for which a small installation has been 
erected in this country at Nitrolee, South Carolina. The elec- 
trodes are water-cooled metal pipes. The arc forms between 
them and a blast of air spreads out the arc into the wider portion 
between the electrodes. 

The arc process, when carried out in the manner described, 
consumes a very large quantity of electric power, and it is inter- 
esting to know where that power goes, because in this direction 
lies the main possibility of substantially improving the process. 
Of the electric power that is put into the arc only very little 
(3 or 4 per cent) is consumed in causing the union of nitrogen and 
oxygen to form nitric oxide. The rest of it is used merely for 
heating the entering gases from a comparatively low temperature 
up to the temperature of the arc. Only by devising an adequate 
preheating system, by which the outgoing gases heat to a fairly 
high temperature the incoming air, can we hope to increase very 
greatly the efficiency of the arc process. 



NOTES : NITROGEN PROBLEM IN RELATION TO WAR 389 

Before reviewing the economic status of these different proc- 
esses and their relation to our needs in the war, I wish to call 
your attention to one other chemical process, namely, the con- 
version of ammonia into nitric acid. If we are going to fix 
nitrogen as ammonia by either of the first three processes, we 
must convert it into nitric acid, and this is done by the following 
very simple chemical reaction with the aid of platinum gauze 
as catalyst: 

4NH3 + 5O2 - 4N0 + 6H2O. 

Ostwald, some twenty-five years ago, discovered that, when a 
mixture of air and ammonia is passed, over platinum and certain 
other catalyzers, there is an oxidation of the ammonia in large 
measure to nitric oxide, which, when the gases are cooled and 
brought into contact with oxygen and water, goes through the 
two reactions that have already been described, and nitric acid 
is produced. This process has been perfected so that it is now a 
very valuable means for getting nitric acid from ammonia. 

Let me now review the situation as to the development of 
these processes. The cyanamide process uses materials that are 
nearly universally available: limestone, coke, and nitrogen from 
the air. The limestone must be of good quality and free from 
magnesia to work satisfactorily, but there are abundant deposits 
all over the world of suitable limestone. It uses a moderate 
quantity of power; this is used especially in the first stage of the 
process, in the production of the calcium carbide. So, as a 
result of these conditions — the small amount of power and the 
availability of the materials — this process has been installed all 
over the world — in all the countries of Europe, in Japan, and at 
Niagara Falls, Canada. It is understood that since the beginning 
of the war the Germans have greatly extended their cyanamide 
plants, although they have probably been using the product 
mainly for fertilizer purposes rather than for the manufacture 
of explosives. At the present time, this is the only process on 
this continent which has been developed commercially on any 
considerable scale. 

The synthetic process, which had been pretty well developed 
in Germany before the war, and which has undoubtedly been 



390 NO yes: nitrogen problem in relation to war 

much improved since, had fortunately been worked upon in this 
country by the General Chemical Company, and shortly after 
this country declared war, the company offered to the Govern- 
ment the use of its synthetic process for the production of 
ammonia. The company stated that they had so far perfected 
the process — well beyond the point which the Germans had 
reached before the European war — that they were able to operate 
at a temperature of about 500° and at a pressure not exceeding 
100 atmospheres. The Germans, before the war, were operating 
at nearer 200 atmospheres and at a considerably higher tempera- 
ture; and, as we have seen, higher pressures and higher tempera- 
tures both add to the difeculties of the process. The Govern- 
ment accepted the offer of the General Chemical Company, and 
as a result of it a plant is being built to operate this process at 
Sheffield, Alabama, which will have an output of about 20,000 
tons of ammonium nitrate per year. The ammonia produced 
will be put through the oxidation reaction, converting it into 
nitric acid, and combined with more ammonia, because 
ammonium nitrate is the one thing which is needed in very large 
quantities at the present time. 

The arc process would seem especially suitable for the produc- 
tion of nitric acid, as it is as simple as it can be chemically. The 
installation is somewhat expensive, but the really serious objec- 
tion to it, particularly under American conditions, is the very 
large amount of power that is required. While the cyanamide 
process uses 2.2 horsepower-years per ton of nitrogen, the arc 
process uses nearer 10 horsepower-years. It can be economical, 
therefore, only where very cheap power is available. In Norway, 
where power costs about four dollars per horsepower-year, this 
arc process is being carried out on a very large scale, and the 
nitric acid is being sold partly to Germany, but mainly to the 
Allies. 2 In this country not only would the cost be very great 

^ The export of nitrates to Germany is now limited to 8,000 tons of calcium 
nitrate per year, while it is estimated that 112,000 tons (metric) per year will be 
available for export to the United States and Allies. (Agreement signed April 
30, 1918, by representatives of the Norwegian Government and the War Trade 
Board, in effect May 10, 1918.) 



NOYES: NITROGEN PROBLEM IN RELATION TO WAR 391 

because of the large power requirement, but power is not avail- 
able that we can afford to devote to the process. There is a 
great scarcity of power in the eastern sections of the country 
even for the very necessary industries, and while there may be 
certain cheap powers on the Pacific coast, we have no ammonia 
there, as coke is not being produced; and we cannot therefore 
carry out the arc process in the Far West because we would not 
be able to ship the product in solid form. The arc process in 
its present form, therefore, does not look promising for use in 
this emergency; but if it could be perfected by a 50 per cent 
reduction in the power requirement, it would at once become 
an extremely valuable process. The arc process, I may add, is 
available in this country, all details being well known, so that if 
it were not for this power difficulty it could easily be installed. 

There is also developing in this country, as a result of the 
investigations of Prof. J. E. Bucher, of Brown University, the 
cyanide process, which I have already described. The chemical 
reaction involved in it was well known, and the use of iron as a 
catalyzer had also been discovered; but the first attempt to put 
the process on a commercial basis was made by the Nitrogen 
Products Company, which has built a small cyanide plant near 
the Mathieson Alkali Works, at Saltville, Virginia, where nitro- 
gen is available from the ammonia-soda process. The Govern- 
ment is also building a plant to operate this process under the 
rights which the Company has given to it. The Bureau of Mines 
is constructing this plant, which will produce 15 tons of sodium 
cyanide per day. Sodium cyanide itself is important; in fact, it 
is so valuable that it will not pay to convert it into ammonia 
until the market for cyanide has been satisfied; and it is also of 
some use in poison-gas work. Still, the use of cyanide is limited 
in gas warfare, and the demand for this purpose is not great. 

Another company, the Air Reduction Company, has also 
worked out a cyanide process on a similar principle, and is pre- 
pared to make cyanide on a commercial scale. 

Although this process has been put on a semi-industrial basis 
for the production of cyanide, the next step in it — the steaming of 
the cyanide for the production of ammonia — is still in the experi- 



392 NOYES: NITROGEN PROBLEM IN RELATION TO WAR 

mental stage. There is no doubt that ammonia can be Hberated 
almost quantitatively by proper steaming, and it is only a ques- 
tion of time when it can be worked on a commercial basis. The 
Government has no plant for the production of ammonia from 
cyanide, but it has installed a small plant in Rhode Island for the 
experimental production of ammonia, in cooperation with the 
Nitrogen Products Company. 

One rather interesting question connected with the cyanide 
process is "whether it will be best to convert the sodium formate, 
which results from the first reaction of steam on sodium cyanide, 
into formic acid in order to meet the serious shortage of acetic 
acid for airplane dope and other purposes; or whether it will be 
better to regenerate the sodium carbonate and use it over again 
in the process. 

The Government, as I have said, is building a synthetic process 
plant with a capacity of 20,000 tons of ammonium nitrate a year 
at Sheffield, Alabama (U. S. Nitrate Plant No. 1). It is also 
building a cyanamide process plant with a capacity of 110,000 
tons of ammonium nitrate at Muscle Shoals, Alabama (U. S. 
Nitrate Plant No. 2). And a third plant has been authorized 
for the production of another 1 10,000 tons of ammonium nitrate 
per year. It is to be located in Ohio, half of it at Toledo and half' 
at Elizabethtown. It is hoped that the synthetic process in the 
first mentioned plant will be under way in the course of two or 
three months and that it may then be assured of success, so that 
the Government will be able to extend the synthetic plants. 
It is possible, also, that the cyanide process and the arc process 
'may be developed so that they can be utilized. 

Regarding the relative economies of the different processes, 
it is difficult to say anything very definite. It is clear, however, 
that the arc pTocess in its present inefficient form is excluded, 
with power at the high cost that it has when it must be produced 
from coal. The arc process might be operated in competition 
with the other processes if power could be obtained at, say, SIO 
or $12 per horsepower-year. The cyanamide process has the 
advantage that it can be installed in many places in this country 
and that it requires little power. The cyanide process has a 



NOTES : NITROGEN PROBLEM IN RELATION TO WAR 393 

similar advantage in that it, also, requires materials which are 
readily obtainable — soda ash, carbon, and the nitrogen of the 
air — and requires no electric power, \\niile we have no very 
definite information as yet as to the relative costs of producing 
ammonia by the cyanamide and the synthetic processes, the 
estimates of those who have developed the latter and the reports 
that have come from Germany have indicated that the cost of 
production by the synthetic process in normal times will be very 
considerably less than that by the cyanamide process. It is 
true that the synthetic process involves high pressures requiring 
special machinery, but the other elements in it are more favorable. 
The hydrogen that is required in the synthetic process is one 
of its large elements of cost. It is therefore important to get a 
cheap method for the production of hydrogen. The general 
method which has been adopted in Germany is to reduce water 
with coke, that is, to produce a mixture of hydrogen and carbon 
monoxide by the action of steam on coke and then to remove the 
carbon monoxide. This may be done by mixing the gas with 
steam and passing the mixture through suitable catalyzers, where- 
by carbon dioxide and hydrogen are formed : 

CO + HoO = CO2 + H2. 

The carbon dioxide can then be absorbed out by scrubbing with 
water under pressure. This is a promising cheap way of getting 
hydrogen for use in the synthetic process. 

Finally, I would say that the nitrogen problem is by no means 
a simple one, even at present. In order to supply our armies 
with the necessary amount of explosives, we shall need to use all 
our resources: (1) to continue and expand our imports on Chile 
saltpeter; (2) to introduce as rapidly as possible by-product coke- 
ovens; and (3) to develop at once new fixation processes. The 
last is our most vital chemical problem. The development of 
fixation processes is being largely done by the Government 
through the Nitrate Division of the Ordnance Department. 
The Bureau of Mines has also been carrying on extended investi- 
gations in this direction; thus the oxidation process where the 
mixed gases are passed over red-hot platinum gauze has been 



394 oberholser: new genus of timaliidae 

brought to a very high stage of perfection by this Bureau, yields 
of from 92 to 95 per cent conversion of the ammonia being at- 
tained. The process of absorption of the nitric vapors has been 
much simpHfied by the work of the Nitrate Division. And all 
along the line we may hope, as a result of the war, that during 
the next year or two there will be a very marked development of 
our processes of nitrogen fixation. 

I hope that this brief outline may have served to give you 
a general survey of the situation with reference to our supply of 
nitrogen compounds and the means available for meeting the 
demand for them in this country. 

ORNITHOLOGY. — Diagnosis of a new genus of Timaliidae. 
Harry C. Oberholser, Bureau of Biological Survey. 
The genus Zosterornis Grant, a group of Timaliidae allied to 
Mixornis, at present comprises seven species, all peculiar to the 
Philippine Islands. It was originally described^ by Mr. Ogilvie 
Grant for the reception of a new bird, Zosterornis whiteheadi Grant, 
discovered by Mr. John Whitehead in the island of Luzon. 
Since then three more species have been described, and three 
others originally referred to the genus Mixornis have been trans- 
ferred to the same group. All of these, however, excepting the 
type of Zosterornis and possibly Zosterornis striatus Grant, 
which latter we have not seen, are not congeneric, and it is there- 
fore necessp,ry to provide for them a new generic name. 

Sterrhoptilus," gen. nov. 

Chars, gen. — Similar to Zosterornis Hodgson, but tarsus relatively, 
as well as actually, much shorter, being less than one and one-half 
times the length of bill, and only three-tenths or less of the length of 
the wing; middle toe without claw decidedly shorter than exposed cul- 
men, instead of about equal; tail not almost square, but rounded, even 
somewhat graduated; first primary (counting from the outermost) 
about half the length of the second, not decidedly more, as in Zosterornis; 
feathers of pileum narrowed, stiffened, and somewhat pointed, not 
broad and rounded at their ends as in Zosterornis. 

Type. — Mixornis capitalis Tweeddale. 

1 Zosterornis Grant, Bull. Brit. Ornith. Club 3: No. 19, June 30, 1894, p. 1. [50]. 
(type by original designation and monotypy, Zos'erornis whiteheadi, sp. nov.). 
- "Sreppos, rigidu , tttiKov, penna. 



schlink: variance of measuring instruments 395 

Remarks. — One of the nearest allies of this genus is Mixornis 
Hodgson, of which the type is Motacilla rubricapilla Tickell, 
but Sterrhoptilus differs from this group in the very different 
shape of the nostrils, which are not rounded as in Mixornis, 
but narrow, almost slit-like, and very strongly aperculate; the 
rictal bristles are much shorter and weaker; the bill is narrower 
and more slender; the first primary narrower and about half the 
length of the second; and the middle toe without claw is shorter 
than the exposed culmen. All the species here referred to 
Sterrhoptilus have the upper surface more or less streaked, not 
plain as in Zosterornis whiteheadi; and furthermore there is no 
white eye-ring in any of them. This new genus is of interest as 
another instance of the wonderful variety of structure among the 
babblers; and, furthermore, it adds another endemic genus to the 
avifauna of the Philippine Islands. The species referable to 
this group are as follows : 

Sterrhoptilus capitalis (Tweeddale). 

Sterrhoptilus plateni (Blasius). 

Sterrhoptilus dennistouni (Grant). 

Sterrhoptilus nigrocapitatus (Steere). 

Sterrhoptilus pygmaeus (Grant). 

TECHNOLOGY. — Variance of measuring instruments and its 
relation to accuracy and sensitivity .^ Frederick J. Schlink, 
Bureau of Standards. 

While the general concepts of accuracy and sensitiveness in 
connection with measuring instruments are well known, certain 
phases of the meanings of those two terms have not been clearly 
differentiated, and the factor of variance which bears an impor- 
tant relation to the two just mentioned has not hitherto been 
given extended discussion or made susceptible of definite numeri- 
cal expression. 

Accuracy and inaccuracy defined. An instrument is accurate 
when its indications accord with the true values of the quantity 
being measured. Perfect instrumental accuracy, then, is only an 

^ A brief presentation, based on the complete papernow in press, and to appear 
as a Bureau of Standards Scientific Paper. 



396 schlink: variance of measuring instruments 

ideal, but we may define instrumental accuracy numerically 
in terms of the error or correction corresponding to various 
values of the quantity to be measured. The error arising from 
whatever source, observed in an* indication of the instrument, 
divided by the true value of the measured quantity, may be 
termed the inaccuracy at a given reading, the negative term 
being justifiable on the basis of custom and ease of application. 
With this in mind, it is seen that accuracy may be expressed as the 
ratio of the value of the quantity being measured to the error of 
the instrumental indication at that value (this of course being 
the reciprocal of the quantity defined above) . The ratio express- 
ing instrumental accuracy, while not of value in the ordinary 
use of instruments, will be of service in rating the performance of 
an instrument. 

Sensitivity defined and distinguished from immediacy of response. 
Any instrument showing a change of reading for any change, 
however great, in the quantity being measured may be said to 
be sensitive. This term again requires expression in numerical 
terms in order to be of value in studies of measuring instruments. 
Statements of sensitivity of instruments are often erroneously 
based upon that change in the value of the measured quantity 
producing the smallest perceptible response in the indication of 
the instrument. This method of expression is by no means a 
satisfactory one, since it disregards the factor of sluggishness or 
passiveness in instrument performance, a matter more fully 
discussed later — and moreover involves the error of personal 
judgment of the observer. The rating of sensitivity on the 
basis of the purely incidental dimension of some part, such as 
the length of a pointer or an arbitrarily graduated scale over which 
the pointer moves, is also unsatisfactory, since the pointer length 
or the graduation interval is subject to wide change within the 
discretion of the designer, making comparison of the sensitivity 
of different instruments unreliable and dependent upon factors 
of a purely accidental character. A better basis, in instruments 
having a rotating or oscillating indicator, would be the angular 
deflection of the indicator per unit change of the measured quan- 
tity — for example, in a balance, the angular deflection of the rest 



schlink: variance of measuring instruments 397 

position of the beam per unit addition of load to the load pan, the 
first expressed in radians, and the second in grams. Actual 
measurements of sensitivity will, of course, be restricted to small 
deflections so that variations in its value over the range of de- 
flection are negligible. 

The frictional resistance to turning or sliding within an instru- 
ment has an important bearing upon the concept of sensitiveness. 
The effect of frictional resistances is to retard or delay the motion 
of the indicating element for both increasing and decreasing values 
of the quantity being measured, and to prevent response of the 
instrument reading to certain small changes in the measured 
phenomenon. Its existence requires the modification of the 
ordinary concept of sensitivity since otherwise the determination 
of the sensitivity of an instrument would depend upon the absolute 
rather than the relative magnitudes of the quantities entering 
into the observation. During the period in which change of the 
measured quantity is proceeding without the occurrence of any 
motion of the indicator, owing to the effect of static friction, appli- 
cation of the ordinary definition of sensitivity would give a zero 
value for that quantity. It seems necessary, then, to separate the 
sluggishness factor from the insensitiveness factor and define sen- 
sitivity thus : Sensitivity in an instrument is the rate of change 
in the indication of such instrument with respect to change in 
thequantity being measured, it being necessarily assumed for the 
purposes of this definition that friction and lost motion in the 
mechanism have been eliminated' or are negligible. (A similar 
postulate applies to the determination of the scale value in instru- 
ments graduated directly in the units of the quantity being 
measured.) We have thus distinguished between passiveness (or 
sluggishness) and instrumental insensitiveness, a distinction that 
so far as known to the writer, has not hitherto been set forth. 
The amount of the least alteration in the value of the measured 
quantity producing instrumental response, divided by the initial 
value of the measured quantity may be called the passivity 
of the instrument at that point. 

Variance defined and illustrated. Passiveness, defined above, 
is a special case of the phenomenon of variance, which is defined 



398 schlink: variance of measuring instruments 

as the range, at any given value of the measured quantity, of 
variation in reading which may be exhibited by the instrument 
under repeated application of the same value of the quantity 
being measured, after a steady reading has been attained, the 
environment remaining unchanged. This quantity represents 
the range of uncertainty of the indications of the instrument. 
The specific variance may be defined as the ratio of the range, 
at any given value of the measured quantity, of variation in 
reading which may be exhibited by the instrument under repeated 
application of the same value of the quantity being measured, 
divided by the measured quantity itself, the same assumptions 
applying as above as to the attainment of a steady state of 
indication and as to the maintenance of unchanged environment. 
This factor has rarely been determined in tests of measuring 
instruments; ignoring it in their use, as is commonly done, may 
cause appreciable error, and it is therefore important that it be 
recognized or expressed. 

In the case of the usual direct-reading instrument, the variance 
is disclosed in the displacement observed between the upward 
and downward branches of the hysteresis loop obtained by plot- 
ting instrument readings (or corrections or errors) against actual 
values of the measured quantity over a complete cycle of increas- 
ing and decreasing values. The amount of the variance will de- 
pend upon the previous history of the instrument and upon the 
immediately precedent cycles of movement which the instru- 
ment has undergone. The hysteresis curve obtained by plotting 
in the manner outlined is a valuable index to the operating char- 
acteristics of an instrument and leads to the detection of defects 
in design and workmanship discoverable with certainty in no 
other way. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the effect described. In 
figure 1 it is to be noted particularly that the instrument con- 
tains no force-measuring elements of the elastic type, the scale 
in question being a pendulum-operated device, so that the loop 
shown is not the result of hysteresis of inelasticity. The sources 
of the hysteresis exhibited are all expressible as backlash or are 
closely analogous to it. The median line of the loop of figure 1 
gives the characteristic error of the scale correctable by suitable 



schlink: variance of measuring instruments 



399 



alterations of the weight of the pendulums and of the contour 
of the cams about which the load transmitting tapes wrap, 
while the width of the hysteresis loop gives a good index to the 
workmanship of bearings and connections. 

Backlash an important cause of variance. In a measuring 
instrument the maintenance of constant or at least determinate 




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7i 



>l 



/ 




Asadjb, 



/5« 



F'g. 1. Hysteresis loop of automatic weighing scale of the cam-pendulum 
type (comprising no elastc force-measuring elements). Note the manner in 
which the curve of decreasing readings reflects the aberrations of the curve of 
increasing readings, w'th a distinct tendency toward wider separation at the 
middle of the oad range, so that the hysteresis loop would have a distinctly lentic- 
ular form, if the median line or mean error curve were rectilinear. 

intervals between the parts of the mechanism is essential in the 
transfer of the forces or motions from the point of their reception 
to the point of registration or indication. Slack or backlash in 
the mechanism has the same effect as an equivalent advertent 
displacement of operating parts, backlash being used to imply 
looseness of fit resulting in play of the coacting parts. Actually, 
the action of backlash is not the simple one of producing a hystere- 



400 



schlink: vaeiance of measuring instruments 



sis loop of the rhomboidal form of which the two horizontal 
sides correspond to the geometrical clearance in the bearing. 
This type of hysteresis loop may be eliminated from consideration 
since instrument mechanisms almost invariably comprise an 
element to provide force-closure of the linkwork, so that the 
journals tend to remain in contact with the same general faces 
of the bearings. 

In point of fact, the hysteresis loop of an instrument is normally 
lenticular, this form arising from the progressive relative rolling 
and slipping of journal within the bearing, permitting the point 
of contact to occur at successive zones of the interior of the 
bearing, and permitting at the same time divagation of the 



.oco 


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M 


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: 












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FJS 

Fig. 2. Hysteresis loop of dial indicator of screw-train type, having high 
multiplication; an instrument much used for direct reading of small displace- 
ments and other linear magnitudes. 

center of relative motion from the geometric center of the bear- 
ing. This action is suggested in figure 3. The effect of this 
action in producing variance arises in the modification of the 
instrument magnification or leverage ratio which it permits. 
In the case of instruments comprising spring force-resisting ele- 
ments, a similar loop arising from inelastic actions of the spring 
will be combined in the calibration curve with that due to 
backlash. 

When the calibration curve fails to form a completely closed 
loop due to incomplete reversion of the parts of the mechanism 
the residual deflection may be termed the set. 

Clearance between engaging teeth of gearing introduces back- 
lash effects of the same general nature as those outlined above. 



schlink: variance of measuring instruments 



401 



In gear trains, moreover, there is especial likelihood of the oc- 
currence of the rhomboidal type of hysteresis loop since actual 
discontinuities in the transference of motion from one part of 
the train to another will follow directly from any clearance at the 
pitch line. 

Evaluation of irregular variance. In some instruments, especi- 
ally those characterized by poor workmanship or ill repair, 
successive hysteresis loops may be far from concordant in their 
shape or. magnitude on account of actual variations in the fric- 
tion and journal displacements at any particular indication. In 
cases of this kind, the variance may be expressed or defined by 




Fig. 3. Illustrating operation of instrumental backlash 

plotting frequency curves of the readings or error's obtained for 
a given value (or for a series of definite values) of the same meas- 
ured quantity repeatedly applied — one series of points being 
plotted for increasing readings terminating in the value under 
investigation, and another set for decreasing values terminating 
at the same point. Such a curve may exhibit, for example, 
probability of occurrence of any amount of variation from the 
mean instrumental reading. A succession of such frequency 
curves taken over various parts of the reading range will deter- 
mine a surface enabling one to ascertain the probability of a 
given error at any point of the reading scale, but its principal 
utihty will be in affording a criterion as to the comparative 



402 schlink: variance of measuring instruments 

performance with regard to variance, of instruments of diverse 
design or workmanship. 

Far from being a relatively unimportant source of inaccuracy 
in measuring instruments, it can be shown that the hysteresis 
or variance type of error demands consideration in practically 
every type of instrument, while in some (such as pointer-and- 
dial types of displacement-indicators) the variance is a prepon- 
derant factor in design and actually sets the limit of sensitivity 
and accuracy practicably obtainable, so limiting the application 
or utility of the instrument. 

The phenomenon of drift, which is a time effect characterized 
by more or less gradual movement of the indicating element 
asymptotically to a definite reading, after all conditions external 
to the instrument have become constant, is one requiring investi- 
gation from the point of view of the elastician, and although in 
the case of some instruments it is an important cause of vari- 
ance, it cannot be adequately treated in the present paper. 

Reducing variance in the mechanism. A few effective means of 
reducing instrumental variance are readily available. The 
conical pivot may advantageously be substituted for the cylin- 
drical journal and bearing, thus affording the type of bearing 
familiar in the balance wheels of alarm clocks and low priced 
watches. Such a bearing has a low frictional moment, and main- 
tains a practically invariable relation of bearing to journal but 
cannot, of course, support any considerable load. The use of 
flexible or ribbon-like connectors secured by simple clamps at 
their extremities, between members which are to be conjoined, 
instead of the more usual rigid pin-and-link connectors is ofttimes 
a very useful device and has the advantage of providing for 
correction of motion to obtain a linear scale of graduation, by 
the simple expedient of arranging that one or both ends of the 
tape shall wind upon a cam of suitable contour. This type of 
connector contributes very little indeed to the hysteresis of the 
complete mechanism, since practically the only source of irre- 
versibility in such a tape is the hysteresis of inelasticity, which in 
absolute value is very small. Simplifications of mechanism are 
often possible to eliminate the number of links involved and 



schlink: variance of measuring instruments 403 

hence the number of bearings at which backlash effects can 
occur. 

The action of vibration in reducing instrumental variance is 
found to accord well with the principles previously set down. 
Owing to the minimization in the static friction, occasioned by 
the vibration, on account of the momentary disengagement or 
separation of coacting bearings and journals, a considerable 
reduction of instrumental variance arising in mechanistic causes 
will normally take place,— thus the energy required to bring the 
parts to their theoretical equilibrium point is in a sense supplied 
from without the sj^stem. 

Variance as a limiting factor in design and adjustment. In 
designing and constructing instruments, consideration should 
be given to the effect of variance errors in practically limiting the 
sensitivity obtainable by adjustment, as well as in determining 
the optimum interval between graduations or the smallness of 
the units of graduation. It is suggested that the mean interval 
of graduation of laboratory instruments should not be less than 
five times the mean variance, while for commercial or plant 
instruments the ratio of mean scale interva|l to mean variance 
may be of the order of two to one. 

Inconsistencies between the values of sensitivity, variancy, 
and smallness of the units of graduation of instruments are com- 
mon; tachometers, for example, are often graduated to a single 
mile per hour, while there may be a variation of reading at a 
given rotational speed of five miles per hour or more. Similarly 
weighing scales and balances often show variations of a full 
graduation or more. Likewise the sensitivity may easily be 
disadvantageously high, inducing erroneous estimates of the 
precision of results and requiring special care in the calibration 
and use of the instrument. 

In particular cases in fact, a low inherent sensitivity may actu- 
ally tend to reduce the absolute amount of the variance as in pre- 
cision balances, where the advantages gained by the use of a low 
angular sensitivity and high magnification with the resulting 
quick period of oscillation, are well known. 

The factors of maximum or mean inaccuracy (or accuracy), 
sensitivity, variancy, and specific set (the amount by which the 



404 schlink: variance of measuring instruments 

variance loop may fail of closure, divided by the range of the 
deflection cycle) may be referred to the total range of graduation 
instead of to particular values of the measured quantity under 
observation, as a convenient means of arriving at single signifi- 
cant numbers to be composed in,to a "figure of merit" for an 
instrument whose characteristics are being determined. It is 
most desirable to develop definite numerical means of comparison 
between different instruments or different types of instruments 
for the same purpose, and the methods just suggested will afford 
a satisfactory basis for attaining this end, just as the aeronautic 
engineer's choice of structural material for a given purpose may 
be based on a single "figure of merit" involving the unit weight, 
strength, and stiffness determined by laboratory tests. 



ABSTRACTS . 

Authors of scientific papers are requested to see that abstracts, preferably 
prepared and signed by themselves, are forwarded promptly to the editors. 
The abstracts should conform in length and general style to those appearing 
in this issue. 

GEODESY. — Lambert projection tables for the United States. Oscar S. 

Adams. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Spec. Pub. No. 52. 

Pp. 243, including 33 pp. of text. 1918. 
This publication consists of general tables of coordinates for the 
United States, computed on the Lambert conformal conic projection, 
with two standard parallels. The coordinates are given in both meters 
and yards for the intersections of the parallels and meridians at every 
half degree in both latitude and longitude. Detail tables for local 
maps in both meters and yards are given in coordinates for the inter- 
section of the parallels and meridians at intervals of 5 minutes in both 
latitude and longitude; and for two degrees out from a central meridian. 
The introductory text includes a mathematical development of the 
formulas of the projection, followed by a full description of the use 
of the tables in the construction of projections. Eleven diagrams serve 
to illustrate the manner in which the tables should be used in construct- 
ng a map of any section. As a whole, this publication contains the 
most complete set of tables of the Lambert projection ever issued for 
any region as extensive as that of the United States. For the con- 
struction of a general map of the United States the system is about the 
best that can be devised, O. S. A. 

SPECTROSCOPY. — The application of dicyanin to stellar spectroscopy. 
P. W. Merrill. Bur. Stand. Sci. Paper No. 318. Pp. 18. 1918. 
This paper describes the use of commercial photographic plates 
sensitized with dicyanin in stellar spectroscopy. The first observations 
were carried out at the Harvard College Observatory using the 24-inch 
reflecting telescope and objective prism. Fraunhofer's A band (wave 
length 0.760 fx) and a considerable region of greater wave length were 
photographed in numeious stellar spectra. Several new absorption 

405 



406 abstracts: metallography 

flutings were discovered, the most striking beginning at 0.760 /^ nearly- 
coincident with A, and running toward the red. Circumstances indi- 
cated that this band might be due to titanium oxide, and experiments 
since made at the Bureau of Standards have shown a band in this posi- 
tion in the spectrum of the titanium arc. The general conclusions ar- 
rived at are as follows: 

1. Many stellar spectra possess sufficient intensity in the region of 
wave length 0.80 ^ to enable this portion of the spectrum to be photo- 
graphed on plates sensitized with dicyanin. 

2. In favorable instances stellar spectra can be well observed to 
wave length 0.85 m- 

3. The region of greater wave length than 0.70 /x contains features of 
importance, especially in the case of the later spectral types. 

P. W. M. 

METALLOGRAFBY.—Tijpical cases of the deterioration of Mimtz 
metal {GO-Ifi brass) by selective corrosion. H. S. Rawdon. Bur. 
Stand. Tech. Paper No. 103. 28 pp. December 15, 1917. 

Brass of the type 60-copper and 40-zinc, which is used commercially 
in a variety of forms, e.g., wrought bolts, sheathing, condenser tubes, 
extruded forms, etc., often shows a kind of deterioration by which the 
metal changes its color to copper-red and becomes very weak and 
brittle although the shape and size apparently remain unchanged. 
This change of properties is due to a selective corrosion of the alloy, 
which has a duplex structure, when exposed to the action of some 
electrolyte, particularly sea-water. The present study includes bolts, 
boat sheathing, condenser tubes, .and parts which were corroded while 
under stress. 

The examination of the microstructure shows clearly the method of 
the attack, the zinc-rich constituent being electrolytically "leached 
out" leaving a skeleton of weak pulverulent copper. Later the second 
constituent may be attacked so that the whole specimen is converted 
into pulverulent "copper" — the sample becoming so weak that it can 
be broken into fragments in the fingers. 

Conditions that appear to accelerate corrosive attack of this type 
are : the microstructural composition of the alloy, contact with strongly 
electronegative metals, the effect of certain adhering deposits of basic 
zinc chloride resulting from the corrosion, the thoroughness of the 
later than common. There was a roost of about 500 Sturnus vulgaris 



abstracts: ornithology 407 

annealing the sample has previously received, the temperature of the 
electrolyte, and the stresses to which the specimens are subjected 
during the corrosive attack. 

H. S. R. 

ORNITHOLOGY.— T'Fmier birds about Washington, D. C, 1916-1917. 

W. L. McAtee, E. a. Preble, and Alexander Wetmore. 

Wilson Bull. 29:183-187. 1917. 
A record winter list of 48 species for one day in the vicinity of Wash- 
ington was obtained on December 30, 1916. A hst of the species, to- 
gether with the number of individuals of each seen is given in this 
paper. A hst of 33 additional species, all observed during the winter 
of 1916-1917, is also added. This combined hst of 81 species comprises 
about two-thirds of the known winter birds of the region, and represents 
the results of unusually favorable conditions, although the hst includes 
very few species that are rare in the District of Columbia. 

Harry C. Oberholser. 

ORNITHOLOGY. — An abnormal egg of FuHca americana. Alexan- 
der 'Wetmore. Condor 19 : 65-66. 1917. 
A female of Fulica americana, caught alive in the delta of Bear River, 
Utah, was found on the following morning to have laid an egg of strik- 
ingly abnormal coloration, very much darker than the usual eggs of this 
species. The cause of this abnormahty is attributed to the continued 
excitement and fear of the bird at the time of its capture and the conse- 
quent reactions of the nervous system upon the organs of the oviduct. 

Harry C. Oberholser. 

OR^YTYlOlaOGY .—Washington region [June to September, 1917], 
Harry C. Oberholser. Bird-Lore 19 : 277; 339-340. 1917. 

The unusually late spring migration of birds about Washington, D. 
C, during 1917 extended well into June, and many migrants remained 
later than ever known before. Conspicuous among these were Empi- 
donax minimus, June 2, Dendroica castanea, June 5, and Oporornis Phila- 
delphia, June 7. A few of the summer residents were also more than 
ordinarily numerous. 

During August and September, 1917, about Washington, D. C, some 
migratory birds appeared earlier than usual. Most notable among those 
was Marila affinis, seen August 31, of which the earhest previous record 
was September 25. A number of other birds, however, remained here 



408 abstracts: ornithology 

vulgaris in the trees of the Mall, in the city of Washington, whither also 
1000 to 5000 individuals of Quiscalus quiscula quiscula and for a few 
weeks several thousand purple martins, Progne subis suhis, resorted. 

H. C. 0. 

ORNITHOLOGY.— Mw^awrfa ornithologica. IT. Harry C. Oberhol- 
SER. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 30: 125-126. 1917. 
In this, the second, paper on the nomenclatural status of certain 
birds the following changes are indicated : The parrot commonly known 
as Loriculus inducus (Gmelin) must hereafter be called Loriculus asiati- 
cus) (Latham); Polytelis harrabandii (Swainson) must be known as 
Polytelis swainsonii (Desmarest) ; Triclaria cyanogastris (Vieillot) must 
hereafter be called Triclaria malachitacea (Spix) ; Pyrrhura bittata (Shaw) 
is changed to Pyrrhura frontalis (Vieillot) ; Nasiterna pygniea (Quoi and 
Gaimard) is renamed Micropsitta chloroxantha Oberholser; and Mala- 
coptila torquata (Wagler) is changed to Malacoptila strata (Spix) . 

H. C. O. 

ORNITHOLOGY. — Descriptions of two new birds from Haiti. Charles 
W.Richmond. Smiths. Misc. Coll. 68: No. 7, 1-3. 1917. 
In this paper there are described two more of Dr. W. L. Abbott's re- 
markable ornithological discoveries on the island of Santo Domingo. 
The first and most interesting is a new Nyctibus, a genus of big goat- 
suckers not hitherto recorded from the island of Santo Domingo, and 
here described as Nyctibus griseus abbotti, after its discoverer, the well- 
known traveller and naturalist. The single specimen was obtained at 
Port de Pimente, northwestern Haiti. The other new bird is Vireo 
crassirostris tortugae, from Tortuga Island, off the northwestern coast 
of Haiti. Harry C. Oberholser. 

ORNITHOLOGY. — The relationships of the fossil bird (Palaeochenoides 
mioceanus). Alexander Wetmore. Journ. Geol. 25:555-557. 
1917. 
The bird described by Dr. R. W. Shufeldt as Palaeochenoides mio- 
ceanus, from the distal end of a femur found in South Carolina, was con- 
sidered by him to be of Anserine affinities. A reexamination of the 
specimen, however, now shows that it is unmistakably a member of the 
Steganopodes, and is apparently most closely allied to the Pelecanidae, 
though it may represent a distinct family. Harry C. Oberholser. 



abstracts: ornithology 409 

I 

ORNITHOLOGY.— On the fauna of Great Salt Lake. Alexander 
Wetmore. Amer. Nat. 50: 753-755. 1917. 
Contrary to common belief, the Southern Pacific cut-off on Great 
Salt Lake has not interfered with the free interchange of water or of 
aquatic animal life between the portions north and south of this cause- 
way. Brine shrimp (Artemia fertUis) and three species of alkali flies 
of the genus Ephydra occur here in great numbers. Several species of 
water-birds, chiefly Spagula clypeata, Marila afflnis, Clangula dangula 
americana, and Nettion carolinense, together with Steganopus tricolor, 
Lobipes lohatus, Recurvirostra americana, Himantopus mexicanus, and 
doubtless other allied species were feeding on these small animals and 
doubtless destroyed great numbers of both the shrimp and alkali flies. 

Harry C. Oberholser. 

ORNITHOLOGY. — A new cuckoo from New Zealand. Alexander 
Wetmore. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 30: 1-2. 1917. 
Representatives of Urodynamis taitensis (Sparrman) from New 
Zealand differ from those of the same species from Polynesia. Since 
the type locality of Urodynamis taitensis has been fixed as Tahiti, the 
New Zealand bird is here named Urodynamis taitensis pheletes. 

Harry C. Oberholser. 

ORNITHOLOGY. — A new honey-eater from the Marianne Islands. 
Alexander Wermore. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 30: 117-118. 
1917. 
The form of Myzomela rubratra (Lesson), from the island of Guam in 
the Marianne group, is found to be subspecifically different from Myzo- 
mela rubratra rubratra of the Caroline Islands, and is here described as 
Mijzoynela rubratra saffordi. Harry C. Oberholser. 

ORNITHOLOGY. — On certain secondary sexual characters in the male 
ruddy duck, Erismatura jamaicensis (Gmelin). Alexander Wet- 
more. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 52: 479-482. 1917. 
This paper records the discovery of a tracheal air sac in the male ruddy 
duck, Erismatura jamaicensis. This sac and the peculiar internal 
structure of the larynx of this species are described. The sac is absent 
in the females, and functions in the males evidently as an aid in swell- 
ing out the neck in sexual display. The discovery of similar structures 
in other species of the subfamily Erismaturinae is forecast. 

Harry C. Oberholser, 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY AND AFFILIATED 

SOCIETIES 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 324th meetmg was held in the lecture room of the Cosmos Club 
on January 9, 1918. 

REGULAR PROGRAM 

Frank J. Katz: Pleistocene shore lines in Maine and New Hamp- 
shire. Uplifted beaches and deltas in the coastal counties, Cumber- 
land and York, Maine, and Strafford and Rockingham, New Hampshire, 
lie near the margins and somewhat higher than adjacent deposits of 
late Wisconsin marine clays. The shore structures discussed are those 
at maximum elevations in the several localities and constitute a cor- 
related series rising progressively from 155 feet above sea level in 
Stratham, New Hampshire, to 300 feet in Pownal, Maine, and higher 
at points farther west and north. They indicate that the postglacially 
uplifted surface has been tilted 5 to 6 feet per mile in a direction 40°E. 
of S., and that the lines of equal elevation approximately parallel the 
shore of the Gulf of Maine. 

M, R. Campbell: Subdivisions of the Allegheny Plateaus. No 
abstract. 

The 325th meeting was held in the lecture room of the Cosmos Club 
on February 13, 1918. 

INFORMAL COMMUNICATIONS 

Mr. J. Newton Baker presented an appeal for the National War 
Savings Committee for the purchase of War Savings Stamps by members 
of the Society. 

REGULAR PROGRAM 

Bertram L. Johnson: The Valdez delta. The Valdez delta is the 
dominant member of a group of youthful confluent deltas surrounding 
the head of Port Valdez, Prince William Sound, Alaska. It is an 
advancing; steep-fronted delta formed in a rugged, mountainous coun- 
try under glacial or near glacial climatic conditions, the torrential, 
heavily debris-laden, aggrading streams from the Valdez Glacier in 
summer dropping their load suddenly and within short distances in 
deep, quiet, oceanic waters. The subaerial portion of the delta has an 

410 



proceedings: geological society 411 

area of about 10 square miles. This portion slopes to the southwest 
from the foot of the Valdez Glacier at an elevation of 250 feet to tide- 
water, a distance of 4 miles. At the foot of the glacier the delta is IJ 
miles across. The lower edge is 4 miles in length. The submarine 
frontal slope of the delta is steep, ranging from 6^ to 21 degrees. It 
joins the subaerial portion of the delta at a sharp angle, and before the 
construction of the present wharves large ocean vessels could at low 
tide moor in deep water along the delta front and safely discharge their 
cargo by derrick onto dry land. The junction of this frontal slope with 
the gently sloping fiord floor is much less abrupt but in some places seems 
to be quite sharp. The thickness of the delta gravels may be estimated 
by constructing cross sections of the delta. The delta materials rest 
on a basement of metamorphic rocks. Intense glacial erosion has 
impressed on this bedrock a characteristic topography markedly differ- 
ent from the constructional topography of the delta. By a comparison 
of the delta profiles crossing the junction of these two types of topog- 
raphy it is possible to locate approximately the base of the delta gravels 
and to determine the thickness of the delta deposits as probably a little 
over 300 feet. 

R. S. Bassler: Paleozoic rocks and fossils on the Piedmont of Mary- 
land. The western part of the Piedmont plateau in Maryland and 
Virginia contains areas of early Paleozoic limestone infolded in the 
pre-Cambrian crystallines and overlain in part by the Triassic (Newark) 
series. These limestones outcrop at one point next to the early Cam- 
brian Harpers shale, and hitherto it has been believed that they rep- 
resented the Shenandoah limestones of the Appalachian Valley, 
comprising strata from early Cambrian to Middle Ordovician time. 
Detailed mapping of this area and the discovery of fossils have shown that 
this Piedmont limestone consists of a lower massive limestone division 
containing Lower Beekmantown fossils and an upper thin-bedded 
dark blue limestone with a Chazyan fauna, the two separated by a well- 
marked disconformity. The Lower Beekmantown division can be cor- 
related directly with strata in the Appalachian Valley but the Chazj'an 
portion has no representative there. 

O. E, Meinzer: The glacial history of Columbia River in the Big Bend 
region. In the Glacial epoch a lobe of the ice sheet was pushed down 
the valley of Okanogan River, in north-central Washington, and across 
Columbia River, diverting the waters of the Columbia over the upland 
of central Washington. In its new course the river cut precipitous 
gorges several hundred feet deep, developed three cataracts, at least one 
of which was larger than Niagara, formed a large lake in Quincy Valley, 
and performed an almost incredible amount of work in carrying boul- 
ders many miles and gouging out holes as much as 200 feet deep. The 
upper part of this abandoned channel of the Columbia has been described 
by T. W. Sj^mons, I. C. Russell, and F. C. Calkins. Both Symons and 
Russell made vague references to a very large Pleistocene Lake, which 
Symons called Lake Lewis. In the fall of 1916, A. T. Schwennesen 
made an investigation of the water resources of Quincy Valley (see 



412 proceedings: geological society 

U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 425), and most of the present 
paper is based on an automobile reconnaissance that the writer made 
with him in the region through which the abandoned channel passes. 

The region is underlain, for the most part, by Yakima basalt. Where 
the diverted waters reached the monoclinal fold in the basalt that causes 
the descent into Quincy Valley they apparently formed a cataract, 
which retreated about 17 miles, cutting through the basalt a gorge 
several hundred feet deep. The ancient falls resemble Niagara Falls 
in consisting of two parts separated by an island corresponding to Goat 
Island. A short distance down stream there is a similar island past 
which the falls had retreated a little earlier in their history. The 
ancient falls, which may be called ''Grand Falls," as they occur in 
Grand Coulee, were somewhat wider and higher than Niagara Falls. 
As an agent of erosion, the Pleistocene Columbia had two great ad- 
vantages over the present Niagara: (1) It fluctuated much more and 
in heavy floods probably carried at least three times as much water as 
the maximum of the modern Niagara. (2) It was much better provided 
with tools for erosion than the Niagara, as is impressively shown by the 
great quantity of large boulders in the glacial outwash below the mouth 
of the gorge. Although the basalt through which Grand Falls retreated 
was more difficult to excavate than the rocks through which Niagara 
Falls are retreating, less time was probably required to make this 
retreat of 17 miles than for Niagara Falls to make its retreat of only 7 
miles. At the mouth of the gorge the ancient river discharged, in the 
early part of its history, into a lake which occupied Quincy Valley, as 
is indicated by the topography, by fossiliferous stratified deposits, by 
erratic glacial boulders of granite and quartzite which must have been 
carried to their present positions by icebergs, and by two ancient water 
falls along the present gorge of Columbia River obviously caused by the 
overflow of the lake. 

An interesting story of postglacial erosion and deformation is told by 
the well-developed terraces of the Columbia, which are related in vari- 
ous ways to the glacial features. 

The 326th meeting was held in the lecture room of the Cosmos Club 
on March 13, 1918. 

REGUL*AR PROGRAM 

Kirk Bryan: Classification of springs. (Illustrated.) No abstract. 

Arthur J. Collier: A formation hitherto unaccounted for in North 
Dakota. (Illustrated.) In the collection of photographs made by 
A. L. Beekly in the Culbertson lignite field, there are several very good 
views of filled valleys in which the filling is being eroded by the present 
streams which flow through them in narrow canyons or gullies. No 
statement of the materials or agents filling these valleys is given, and 
one is left to infer that it is alluvium deposited at some old level of 
Missouri River. 



proceedings: biological society 413 

Filled valleys of this character are rather common features along the 
Missouri in both eastern Montana and western North Dakota. The 
material filling the valleys is uniformly fine-grained like much of the 
alluvium of the present flood plain. It is generally unstratified but in 
places contains thin layers of debris from the Fort Union formation, 
which crops out higher up on the valley sides. Where cut by the streams 
it stands out in nearly vertical light-colored cliffs from a few feet to 
30 feet in height, having a tendency to break with vertical joints from 
top to bottom. That it is not ordinary alluvium is proved by the fact 
that its surface consists of long even slopes from the valley sides and 
not of level plains. The material is as unstratified as glacial till, but 
unlike till it does not contain angular fragments of granite, and in 
several places it was found resting on glacial till. That the valley fill- 
ings are of comparatively recent age is shown by the fact that from one 
of them the head of a mountain sheep that became extinct in this neigh- 
borhood only a few years ago was found at an elevation of 150 feet above 
the river. While the writer was camped near the Missouri in North 
Dakota several severe wind storms occurred. The river was low and 
exposed a great many expanses of sun-dried mud, and the winds gathered 
up great quantities of dust and carried it high in the air. After a day of 
such wind the tent floors showed a very perceptible coating of dust. 
Some of this dust undoubtedly had been carried for long distances and 
was deposited wherever there was a lodgment free from wind. In the 
winds there is an agent of deposition which is not accounted for, and the 
writer believes that such winds are responsible for valley fillings of this 
character; in other words, that these valleys are filled with loess. If 
this conclusion is correct, it is probable that a large part of the rich soil 
of North Dakota and Montana was brought in and is constantly 
replenished b}^ the wind. 

George L. Harrington: Late Tertiary and Quaternary history of 
the lower Yukon River region. (Illustrated.) In the lower Yukon 
Valley there appears to be no dividing line between the late Tertiary 
and the Quaternary. No fossils have been found in the unconsoli- 
dated silts, sands, and gravels, and interpretations of the geologic 
history are based on the unconsolidated deposits, high terraces along 
the river, and horizontal lava flows. 

The events of the late Tertiary and Quaternary in this region include 
subsidence of the land surface, extrusion of basaltic lavas, further 
subsidence, reelevation, adjustments of drainage in the silt-filled valleys, 
and erosion by the processes normal to subarctic and arctic regions. 

EsPER S. Larsen, Secretary. 



BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 

The 585th regular meeting of the Society was held in the Meeting 
House of the Friend's School, 1809 I Street N.W., Saturday, May 4, 
1918; called to order at 8 p.m. by President Rose; 26 persons present. 



414 proceedings: biological society 

The President announced that the sixth lecture of the Washington 
Academy of Sciences on science in relation to the war would be given 
by Dr. Raymond Pearl, on "Biology and War," Thursday, May 9, 1918. 

Under the heading of brief notes and exhibition of specimens Dr. 
Paul Bartsch called attention to the destruction by fire of one of the 
handsomest rhododendron thickets in the District flora and to the 
breeding of starlings in a deserted woodpecker's hole in one of the trees 
of the Howard University grounds, the hole having been lately occupied 
by a redheaded woodpecker. He also called attention to the habit of 
a terrestrial spider in covering the opening of its burrow with a leaf 
during rains. 

Mr. Alex. Wetmore exhibited a fragment of a Puffinus bone ob- 
tained from Calvert Cliffs, Chesapeake Beach, Maryland. 

The regular program was as follows: 

Martha Brewer Lyon; Fauna of the human eye. Dr. Lyon had 
made a careful examination of the literature as indexed in the Surgeon 
General's Library and the Index Medicus which reveals the following 
animals occuring in the human eye and its adnexa, the figures' after the 
names indicating the frequency of their occurrence: Treponema pallidum 
infinite; Taenia solium, between 300 and 400; Taenia echinococcus, 
75 to 100; Opisthorchis felineus, 1; Paragonimus ringeri, 1; Agamodistoma 
ophthalm.obiu7n, 1; Monostomulum lentis, 1; Drancunculus medinensis, 3; 
Loa loa, 30 to 50; Agamofilaria oculi, 3; Filaria equina, 2; Filaria con- 
junctiva, 3 ; Thelazia callipaeda, 2 ; Trichinella spiralis, 2 ; Lepeophtheirus, 
pectoralis, 1 ; Demodex folliculorum, 8; Ixodes ricinus, 1 ; Pediculus capitis, 
no cases reported though seen by many ophthalmologists; Phthirius 
pubis, 30 to 50; among the diptera, all larval form, many unidentified, 
those identified or at least named, Hypoderma bovis, 2; Oestrus ovinus, 2; 
Gastrophilus haemorrhoidalis, 2; Musca domestica, 2; Wohlfartia magni- 
fica, 2; Lucillia macellaria, 1; CalUphora vomitoria, 1; Sarcophagasp., 1; 
beetle larvae, Necrobia sp., 1. The fly larvae are mainly represented by 
forms which deposit living larvae. 

Dr. Lyon touched on the early history, geographic distribution, lo- 
cation in the eye, means of diagnosis, description of parasite, symptoms, 
and in some cases the probable outcome with treatment. Some 
interesting observations were brought out as the prevalence of cysti- 
cercus cellulosae in Germany before the inspection of pork by the state 
and its practical elimination since; the many reported cases of pubic 
lice on the eyelashes of children against very few reported for head lice; 
the possibilities of the future study of the cause of chalazia by Demodex 
folliculorum. "the paper was illustrated by lantern slides. It was 
discussed by Drs. L. 0. Howard and Paul Bartsch, and by the chair. 

Maynard M. Metcalf: Opalina and the origin of the Ciliata. This 
will appear in a future number of the Journal. 

M. W. Lyon, Jr., Recording Secretary. 



SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

The Office of Public Roads and Rural Engineering, Department of 
Agriculture, began in May the publication of a monthly 48-page illus- 
trated periodical entitled Public Roads. 

The Biological Society of Washington has just published, as its Bulle- 
tin No. 1, A sketch of the natural history of the District of Columbia, 
together with an indexed edition of the U. S. Geological Survey's 1917 
map of Washington and vicinity} The author and editor is Mr. W. L. 
McAtee, Corresponding Secretary of the Society. The book contains 
historical sketches, with bibliographies, of the development of various 
branches of natural science in the District, including the botany, 
insects, other invertebrates, fishes, batrachians and reptiles, birds, 
mammals, and records of early man; also three chapters on the dis- 
tribution of life in the District of Columbia region. A thorough index 
to the 1917 map of Washington and vicinity, together with a quar- 
tered and index-ruled copy of the map, is included. 

Dr. Charles W. Burrows, associate physicist at the Bureau of 
Standards and in charge of the Magnetic Section of the Bureau, has 
presented his resignation to be in effect July 1, 1918, and will take up 
commercial research and consultation work in New York. He will 
have laboratories equipped for research on magnetic materials at Gras- 
mere, Borough of Richmond, New York City. 

Professor E. C. Franklin, of Stanford University, California, was in 
Washington in May in connection with the war work of the Bureau of 
Mines. 

Mr. Walter M. Gilbert has resigned as assistant secretarj' of the 
National Research Council, and is now attached to the office of the 
Secretary of War. 

Colonel Henry S. Graves, Chief of the Forest Service, has been 
elected an honorarj^ member of the Royal Scottish Arboricultural Soci- 
ety of Edinburgh, in recognition of his eminent services to forestry. 

1 Biological Society of Washington, Biological Survey, Department of Agri- 
culture; piic3 $2.00, or $2.15 post-paid. 

415 



416 SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS 

Professor H. R. Moody, of tne College of the City of New York, 
Professor Samuel A. Tucker, of Columbia University, and Dr. E. R. 
Weidlein, associate director of the Mellon Institute of Pittsburgh, 
are members of the consulting staff of the chemicals and explosives 
section, War Industries Board, Council of National Defense. Ac- 
cording to the Official Bulletin, the consulting staff has jurisdiction over 
questions involving inorganic chemicals, electrolysis, electrometallurgy, 
ceramics and refractories, organic compounds, and dyestuffs. 

Professor Arthur A. Noyes, of the Masschusetts Institute of 
Technology, has been in Washington since May as chairman of the com- 
mittee on nitrate investigations of the National Research Council, 
advisory to the Nitrate Division, Ordnance Department. The other 
members of the committee are Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred H. White, 
formerly prof essor of chemical engineering at the University of Michigan, 
and Dr. John Johnston, executive secretary of the National Research 
Council. 

Professor Miles S. Sherrill, of the department of physical chem- 
istry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is in Washington for the 
summer, and is engaged in work for the Nitrate Division of the Ord- 
nance Department of the Army. 

Mr. J. B. TuTTLE resigned from the Bureau of Standards on April 
15, 1918, and is with the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company of Akron, 
Ohio. 

Captain F. E. Wright has been detailed as Army representative in 
the section of optical glass and instruments of the War Industries Board, 
Council of National Defense. 

The following persons have become members of the Academy since 
the last issue of the Journal: 

Mr. Albert Victor Bleininger, Bureau of Standards, 40th and 
Butler Streets, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Dr. William Wallace Campbell, Lick Observatory, University of 
California, Mt. Hamilton, California. 

Dr. Charles Thom, Microbiological Laboratory, Bureau of Chem- 
istry, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 



JOURNAL . 

OF THE 

WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Vol. VIII JULY 19, 1918 No. 13 



GEOLOGY. — New geological formations in western Wyoming.'^ 
Eliot Blackwelder, Geological Survey. 

As a result of the writer's field work in the Owl Creek, Sho- 
shone, Wind River, Gros Ventre, and Teton ranges of western 
Wyoming, from 1910 to 1913, several new geologic formations 
have been recognized and the names proposed for them have 
been adopted by the U. S. Geological Survey. As the prepa- 
ration of detailed reports on this region awaits the completion 
of the field studies, which have themselves been deferred for 
more urgent work elsewhere, several years may elapse before 
the reports appear in print. It therefore seems advisable to 
publish, in advance, definitions of these new formations, so 
that the names may be available for general use. In fact, while 
this paper was being considered and revised in manuscript, some 
of the names have already been used in print by other writers.^ 

GROS VENTRE FORMATION 

In Peale's^ original description of the Threeforks (Montana) 
section, the Cambrian was divided into the Flathead quartzite, 
Flathead shale, and Gallatin limestone. Later, Hague and his 
associates used the same terms, but restricted the Gallatin to 

1 Published by permission of the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey. 
■^ ToMLixsox, C. W., Journ. Geol. 25: 25.5-257. 1917. Condit, D. D., U. S. 
Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 98-0. 1916. 

3 Peale, a. C, U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 110. 1893. 

417 



418 blackwelder: new formations in Wyoming 

narrower limits. The term Flathead has now been reserved for 
the basal sandstone or quartzite. The use of the term Gallatin 
has been established in Hague's modified sense; but the present 
writer does not concur, because he believes Peale's original usage 
should have been pi'eserved. The intervening greenish and gray 
calcareous shales, with gray, striped, conglomeratic and oolitic 
limestones, is here called the Gros Ventre formation. Its fossils 
indicate Middle Cambrian age. A typical section of the forma- 
tion, exposed in the west slope of Doubletop Peak in the Gros 
Ventre Range, is as follows : 

Gallatin limestone (base) 

Feet. 
Limestone; gray and ocher colored in alternate bands, contains 
black oolitic granules; rock massive and forms a promi- 
nent cliff in association with overlying members of the 
formation. Rests disconformably on underlying beds.. 27-|- 

Gros Ventre formation 

15. Limestone; very massive, dense and gray, top eroded 4+ 

14. Limestone; thin-bedded, gray laminated with olive drab. ... 13 
13. Shale; green shale and flakes of brown-gray limestone, with 
a few beds of flat-pebble conglomerate and oolite. Much 

of this part of the section is concealed by talus 350 

12. Limestone; thin-bedded, dense, hard blackish-gray rock 
mottled with drab and ocher, and containing some shale 
partings. Fragments of trilobites are rather common ... 24 
11. Shale; largely green shale with thin layers of limestone like 

the last ; largely concealed 26 

10. Limestone; like " 12." Surfaces of beds are rough, and some 
of them rather massive. This forms a distinct cliff in the 

slope , 115 

9. Shale; greenish clay-shale with thin plates of limestone. 

Largely concealed by talus 36 

8. Limestone; gray, with irregular laminae and pockets con- 
taining siderite (?), and therefore weathering ocher color. . 10 
7. Limestone; somewhat pisolitic, dark drab limestone weather- 
ing blue gray 2| 

6. Shale; gray calcareous shale and shaly limestone; largely con- 
cealed 4 

5. Limestone; dark drab to bluish limestone, hard but flaggy.. 5 
4. Shale; graj' calcareous shale and shaly limestone; largely con- 
cealed 6^ 

3. Limestone; hard but flaggy, dark gray-bluish, mottled with 
light ocher. Contains traces of trilobites, and forms a 
prominent cliff 52 



BLACKWELDER: new formations in WYOMING 419 

2. Limestone; buff to gray, weathering tawny brown; thin- 
bedded, with uneven stratification 26 

1. Shale; gray micaceous shale, largely concealed by talus from 

above 95 



796 
Flathead Sandstone 

Sandstone; with several beds of sandy shale in the upper 
part about 200 

LEIGH DOLOMITE MEMBER OF THE BIGHORN DOLOMITE 

From the Teton Range eastward at least to the middle of the 
Wind River Mountains and north into the Absaroka Range, the 
massive member of the \vell-known Bighorn dolomite is overlain 
by a thin but persistent layer which deserves special recognition. 
In almost every section it is from 30 to 40 feet thick, and in 
most, if not in all, localities it is I imited both above and below 
by disconformities. A typical section from the west slope of 
Dinwoody canyon, on the north side of the Wind River Range is 
as follows: 

Darby formation (Devonian) 

Feet. 
12. Basal laj^er a stratified breccia consisting of small bits of 
cream-colored dolomite and pink chert in a gray dolomite 
matrix. Base sharp and shghtly uneven 5.0 

Leigh dolomite memher of Bighorn dolomite 

11. Dolomite; pale gray, finely laminated. Contains ostracods 

and a few small moUusks 3.0 

10. Dolomite; thin lavender-gray. Surface checkered with 

cracks which are stained pinkish 5.6 

9. Dolomite; thin, lavender-gray. Rather massive. Contains 

a few ostracods 3.5 

8. Dolomite; massive and thin. Rather brittle and full of 

blind joints 5.1 

7. Shale; finely laminated, pink and maroon. Calcareous. ... 0.3 

6. Dolomite; pale gray, finely streaked and spotted with lav- 
ender. Very brittle and full of cracka 0.9 

5. Shale; calcareous, light to dark red 0.2 

4. Dolomite; like No. 3, but Streaked and spotted with laven- 
der ■ 4.0 

3. Dolomite; like No. 2, but beds 2 to 10 inches thick 3.5 



420 blackwelder: new formations in Wyoming 

2. Dolomite; dense, slabby, pale gray. Beds 1 to 4 inches 
thick. Sprinkled with small crinoid stems, and traces of 
bryozoans (?) Base not visible 2.0 

Massive member of Bighorn dolomite {Ordovician) 

1. Extremely massive, cream-colored dolomite, mottled with 

gray in alga-like patterns over 100 

The Leigh member differs from the rest of the Bighorn in being 
characterized by thin, dense and brittle, flaggy strata with smooth 
milk-white surfaces. It is stated verbally by Kirk and Tomlin- 
son that, to the southwest in the Bear River Range of Utah and to 
the northeast in the Bighorn Range of Wyoming, the thin milk- 
white dolomites of the Leigh member are interbedded with the 
very massive rough weathering strata typical of the Bighorh. 
Nevertheless, it seems probable that correlations w4th the Leigh 
may be made in some districts outside of western Wyoming, 
where it ite typically developed. 

Although the dolomite generally appeals to be barren of or- 
ganic remains, a characteristic fautia, consisting largely of ostra- 
cods with some pelecypods and gastropods, has been found at 
several localities. This fauna is assigned by Ulrich and Kirk 
to the Richmond horizon of the ate Ordovician. The member 
takes its name from Leigh Canyon, on the west slope of the Teton 
Range, for on the south side of that valley there are excellent 
exposures of the dolomite in its typical condition. 

DARBY FORMATION 

The introduction of this new term is made necessary because 
none in present use fits the stratigraphy of w'estern Wyoming. 
In the Threeforks section Peale gave the name Threeforks shale 
to the upper division of the Devonian, but included the lower 
dolomites, which are also Devonian, in his Jefferson limestone. 
Hague, Weed, and others in the Yellow^stone National Park 
later misused the term ''Threeforks" to include also the thin- 
bedded, dark-colored dolomite of the upper part of Peale's Jef- 
ferson, thus limiting the latter term to the very massive beds of 
gray dolomite below. The Darby formation is apparently equiv- 
alent to Peale's Three Forks shale plus the upper part of his 



BLACKWELDER: new formations in WYOMING 421 

Jefferson limestone. The formation rests disconformably on the 
Leigh dolomite member of the Bighorn, or in some places on the 
massive member and is separated from the overlying Madison 
limestone locally, if not generally, by another eroded surface. 
Lithologically, it consists of a varied sequence of shales and 
dolomites in many colors from white to gray, green, lavender, 
buff, red, brown, and black. Somber colors predominate. Some 
of the beds are massive, others thin and brittle. Fossils are rare, 
but have been found in several localities. They indicate Devo- 
nian age, but permit no greater refinement in the determination. 
The name is derived from the canyon of Darby Creek, on the 
west slope of the Teton Range, where the formation is well ex- 
posed. It extends over most of northwestern Wyoming and has 
been recognized in modified condition as far southwest as the 
Wasatch Range. There are strata in the Bighorn Range^ which 
resemble parts of the Darby formation, but it is not certain that 
they actually represent it. 

A typical section of the Darby formation is exposed in the 
east slope of Sheep Mountain near the head of Green River. 

Madison limestone 

Feet. 
26. Limestone; very massive, hard, dense to crystalline; discon- 
formity at the base indicated by irregular eroded surface 
and sharp contact 44^ + 

Darhy formation 

25. Dolomite; gray, weathering brown, with deeply pitted ^rf ace; 

silicified corals and quartz geodes 80 

24. Shale and dolomite; interbedded buff-brown dolomite and 
black to gray calcareous shale; stained reddish on surfaces, 
and covered with Spirophyton markings 22^ 

23. Dolomite and shale; interbedded dense gray, brown-weather- 
ing dolomite, and drab clay-shale, weathering green 41 

22. Shale; pale greenish-gray calcareous shale, with thin beds of 

shaly dolomite 19 

21. Dolomite and shale; Hght brown sandy dolomite with green- 
ish-gray calcareous shale ; ripple marks 5^ 

20. Dolomite; dove-color to russet-oUve, thin-bedded and shaly 19^ 

19. Shale; sandy and calcareous, greenish to lavender 5 

* ToMLiNSON, C. W., Journ. Geol. 25: 47-49. 1917. 



422 blackwelder: new formations in Wyoming 

18. Dolomite; dense chocolate brown 1| 

17. Shale; pale green sandy shale, with laminae of white sand- 
stone and buff dolomite 14| 

16. Sandstone; strong cross-bedded white sandstone ^ 

15. Dolomite and shale; pale drab to brownish dolomite, and 

calcareous shale 18 

14. Dolomite ; massive gray to brown 2 

13. Shale and dolomite; gray calcareous shale, and slaty brown 

dolomite 6| 

12. Dolomite; massive, crystalhne, sepia brown, rich in petroleum 

and slightly fossiliferous (Atrypa reticularis, etc.) 11^ 

11. Shale; olive gray calcareous, weathering green 4 

10. Dolomite; thin bedded to massive, drab-brown, and con- 
taining geodes of jet 16 

9. Shale; sandy to calcareous drab to gray, weathering green, 

with thin layers of gray dolomite 15| 

8. Dolomite; dense gray argillaceous dolomite, with one layer 

of shaly black chert and some geodes like the last 8^ 

7. Shale ; drab calcareous, and associated with dolomite beds .. . 7 

6. Dolomite; slaty, brittle, gray and brown 30 

5. Shale; black to gray, calcareous 2 

4. Dolomite ; dark smoky brown to yellowish, rich in petroleum . . 30 
3. Dolomite; dense, brittle, finely laminated, white and laven- 
der 2 

2. Dolomite; olive green, becoming gray above. Probably dis- 

conf ormable at base 22 



428^ 
Leigh dolomite member of Bighorn dolomite 

1. Dolomite; thin-bedded cream-colored, dense and ringing. 

DORWIN sandstone MEMBER OF THE AMSDEN FORMATION 

. As defined by Darton, the Amsden formation included the 
sandstones, shales, and dolomites intervening between the 
Madison limestone below and the Tensleep sandstone above. 
Throughout western Wyoming the Amsden is divisible into two 
very distinct parts — an upper division of shales, sandstones, and 
dolomites of weak character, and a lower, massive, resistant 
sandstone. On account of their difference in resistance to ero- 
sion, the upper member has generally been stripped off, while 
the lower remains capping the mountains and ridges of Madison 
limestone. It therefore became advisable in practice to map 
the two members separately. To the lower sandstone the name 



BLACKWELDER: new formations in WYOMING 423 

Dorwin sandstone member is given, from Dorwin Peak in the 
Gros Ventre Range, which is capped by this sandstone. It is 
separated from the underlying jNIadison by a distinct discon- 
formity, but graduates into the overlying part of the Amsden. 
In spite of the absence of fossils, the stratigraphic position of the 
sandstone indicates that its age is early Pennsylvanian or late 
Mississippian — probably the former. 

The Dorwin sandstone averages about 60 feet thick in the 
Gros Ventre Range, but dwindles slowly southeastward to the 
vicinity of Lander, where it is about 15 feet thick. Westward 
it has been traced in typical condition as far as Teton Pass, but 
has not been clearly distinguished farther southwest in Idaho. 
It ranges northward into Yellowstone Park, and northeastward 
as far as the southern part of the Bighorn Mountains. Else- 
where it is generally represented by reddish sandy shales. 

PARK CITY FORMATION 

BoutwelP gave this name to certain Carboniferous beds in 
Utah. Having traced them thence, range by range, from near 
Park City, into central western Wyoming, the writer now de- 
sires to indicate their relation to other formations in that region 
and to show the lithologic variations involved. The rocks are 
dolomites, shales, limestones, cherts, and phosphatic beds, con- 
stituting the lower part of Darton's Embar formation, which is 
typically developed in the Owl Creek Range. It includes the 
equivalent of the Phosphoria formation, as defined by Richards 
and Mansfield^ in eastern Idaho, but in addition also the upper 
part of their Wells formation. From the underlying Tensleep 
sandstone it is separated by a disconformity, but it is concordant 
with the overlying Dinwoody beds. Its abundant fossils belong 
to a somewhat unfamiliar fauna which Dr. G. H. Girty assigns 
to the Pennsylvanian and Pennian. Although large collections 
have been made from the formation in the Wind River Range, 
they have yet received only preliminary notice in printed form,' 
and many of the species are undescribed. 

5 BouTWELL, J. M., Journ. Geol. 15: 437-458. 1907. 

^ Richards, R. W., and Mansfield, G. R., U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 577. 1914. 

7 Amer. Journ. Sci. 36: 177-179. 1913. 



424 blackwelder: new formations in Wyoming 

A typical and centrally located section of this formation, to- 
gether with the one next to be described, is exposed in the moun- 
tains at the head of the Gros Ventre River and its tributaries, 
especially north and east of Dorwin Peak. 

Chugivater formation 

Feet 
23. Shale; brick red with thin gray laminae, resting on an ill-de- 
fined and conformable bottom 10+ 

Diniooody formation 

22. Shale; grayish white, with ihin calcareous laminae, ripple- 
marks and sun-cracks 80 

21. Dolomite and shale; thin-bedded, argillaceous dolomite inter- 
bedded with gray shale and very thin quartzose flags. A 
few Lingulas and small pelecypods 20 

20. Shale; calcareous, olive-gray rock with thin beds of dense gray 
argillaceous dolomite. Some beds contain Lingulas, and 
others pelecypods, too poorly preserved for identification. 51 

19. Flags and shale; alternating thin brittle beds of dolomite- 
clay-quartz rocks of pale gray color, but weathering 
tawny brown. Full of brownish Lingula shells 4 

18. Sandstone etc.; olive-gray calcareous sandstone, weathering 
smoky brown and even black, owing to presence of man- 
ganese oxides. Contain laminae and lenses of white chert, 
occasionally more than a foot thick 20^ 

Park City formation 

17. Dolomite; light gray, siliceous, with fossils appearing as 
silicified excrescences: Spiriferina pulchra, Derbya sp., 

Fenestelloid bryozoans 11^ 

16. Chert; alternating massive and shaly chert. The more mas- 
sive beds have a peculiar tubular structure 35 

15. Shale and chert; black shale with thin laminae of black chert 

increasing toward the top 10 

14. Shale; coal black, slightly phosphatic and containing one 2- 

inch layer of back oolitic phosphorite 7 

13. Dolomite; black, but weathers drab. Saturated with hydro- 
carbons 2^ 

12. Shale; black, slightly phosphatic shale 15 

11. Phosphorite; hard, black nodular bed, containing phospha- 

tizecl fossils. Has a stronger odor of hydrocarbons:^ 1 

Lingulodiscina missouriensis 
Productus phosphaticus 
Plagioglypta canna 
Conularia sp. 

« Identified by Dr. G. H. Girty. 



BLACKWELDER: new formations in WYOMING 425 

10. Limestone; gray, petroliferous, crystalline. Filled with 

poorly preserved bryozoans and gastropods 7 

9. Dolomite; gray to white, with white chert nodules 14 

8. Sandstone; smoky gray, weathering brown. Contains angu- 
lar fragments and grains of white chert, and granules of 

cellophane 10 

7. Chert; thin bedded and lumpy, gray to white, with greenish 

shale partings 21^ 

6. Shale; black, slightly phosphatic 8 

5. Phosphorite; soft, crumbling, oolitic; passing upward into 

shale 4 

4. Breccia; fragments of chert imbedded in a brown phosphatic 

matrix, resting on a sharp irregular surface 2 

Tensleep sandstone 

3. Dolomite; light gray, with nodules and laminae of gray chert 4 

2. Sandstone; white, pitted, calcareous 2 

1. Sandstone; creamy white, weathering light brown to pink 

about 300 

DINWOODY FORMATION 

The upper part of Barton's Embar formation consists in this 
region of greenish-gray shales, with many thin plates of dense, 
calcareous sandstone, or argillaceous dolomite, which weathers 
bro"\vn, tawny, and even black. This portion — which is to be 
distinguished from the lower or Park City portion of the Embar — 
is 250 feet thick at Dinw^oody Creek on the north slope of the 
Wind River Range, but thins down to less than 50 feet near 
Lander. In the Owd Creek Mountains it is 75 to 100 feet thick 
near Anchor. Eastward, near Thermopolis, the formation be- 
comes gypseous, and more or less reddish in color. Mr. D. Dale 
Condit^ has traced it into the Bighorn Range, where it merges 
with the lower part of the Chugwater red-beds. Westward it 
becomes progressively thicker, more calcareous, and more fossilif- 
erous, and changes by imperceptible gradations horizontally into 
the Woodside and Thaynes formations of southeastern Idaho. 
It is about 210 feet thick on Crystal Creek in the Gros Ventre 
Range, 350 feet thick at the north end of the Hoback Range, 
and thence into Idaho it rapidl}^ increases in volume. 

The Dinw^obdy formation is conformable both above and below. 
Although some beds contain abundant Lingulas and poorly pre- 

9 CoNDiT, D. Dale, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 98-0. 1916. 



426 standley: omiltemia 

served pelecypods, no fossils of diagnostic value have been found 
in it in Wyoming. From its stratigraphic position conformably 
between the Park City and Chugwater formations, and from 
its relation to the Woodside and Thaynes formations in Idaho, 
which are classified as Lower Triassic, it is inferred that the Din- 
woody formation is either Permian or Lower Triassic or both. 
The name is derived from the canyon of Dinwoody Lakes, in the 
Wind River Range, where the formation is completely exposed, 
and has been measured in detail. 

BOTANY. — Omiltemia, a new genus of Riihiaceae from Mexico. 
Paul C Standley, U. S. National Museum. ^ 

From the large collections of plants obtained in Mexico a few 
years ago by Mr. E. W. Nelson, of the Biological Survey, many 
new species have already been described. A large and probably 
the most interesting portion of the material, however, still re- 
mains to be identified. One specimen, in particular, from the 
State of Guerrero has come to the writer's attention in the course 
of his revision of the Rubiaceae for the North American Flora. 
This plant, although not possessing any very unusual charac- 
ters, can not be placed satisfactorily in any of the known genera 
of the tribe Rondeletieae, the group to which it evidently belongs. 
Consequently it is described here as a new genus, Omiltemia. 

The tribe Rondeletieae is a large group, chiefly North Ameri- 
can in distribution, many of whose genera are based upon rather 
slight differences. Omiltemia falls in the subdivision with con- 
torted corolla lobes, and is related as closely to Deppea and 
Lindenia as to any genera, from both of which, however, it is 
distinguished by the long, exserted filaments. Deppea, more- 
over, has a short, funnelform or subrotate corolla, and Lindenia 
a very long, salverform one. In its general appearance Omiltemia 
is very unlike any of the genera of its tribe. The red tubular 
corolla is suggestive of Manettia, to which the type specimen 
was once referred, but that genus differs widely in its winged 
seeds and scandent habit. 

1 Published by permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



metcalf: opalina and the ciliate infusoria 427 

Omiltemia Standley, gen. nov. 

Branched shrubs, more or less pubescent, the branchlets angulate. 
Leaves opposite and ternate, petiolate, membranaceous. Stipules 
minute, deciduous. Flowers of medium size, red, axillary, solitary, 
long-pedicellate, the pedicels bibracteolate at the base; calyx tube 
narrowly turbinate, the limb 4-lobate, the lobes linear-subulate, sub- 
equal, persistent; corolla tubular, glabrous, the tube elongate, slender 
and constricted near the base, ampliate in the upper three-fourths, the 
limb 4-lobate, the lobes short, oblong-ovate, subulate-acuminate, erect 
or ascending, contorted. Stamens 4, inserted at the base of the ampli- 
ate portion of the corolla tube; filaments filiform, exserted; anthers 
linear, dorsifixed, mucronate, bifid at the base. Disk depressed. 
Ovary 2-celled; style filiform, exserted, glabrous; stigma fusiform; ovules 
numerous, imbricate, the placentae oblong, peltately affixed to the 
septum. Capsule 2-celled, cylindric, elongate, subcoriaceous, costate, 
loculicidally bivalvate at the apex. Seeds numerous, minute, subglo- 
bose, obtusely angulate, the testa lustrous, reticulate; endosperm fleshy. 

Type species, Omiltemia longipes Standley. 

Omiltemia longipes Standley, sp. nov. 

Shrub, about 3 meters high, the branches stout, grayish, terete, the 
branchlets slender, puberulent when young, densely leafy; stipules 
deltoid, about 1 mm. long; leaves mostly ternate, the petioles slender, 
2-6 mm. long, puberulent, often marginate to the base, the blades ob- 
lanceolate or oblanceolate-oblong, 3-7 cm. long, 0.8-1.7 cm. wide, 
acuminate or long-attenuate at the base, acute to long-attenuate at 
the apex, often abruptly so, thin, bright-green, concolorous, glabrous 
above or puberulent along the costa, the venation plane, villosulous 
beneath along the veins or glabrate, inconspicuously striolate, the costa 
slender, prominent, the lateral veins prominulous, 4-6 on each side, 
arcuate; pedicels 1.7-3.5 cm. long, filiform, sparsely short-pilose, 
the bractlets minute, linear, green; calyx very sparsely short-pilose or 
glabrate, the tube 6-7 mm. long, the lobes 3^ mm. long; corolla red, 
about 4 cm. long, the contracted portion of the tube about 1 cm. long 
and 1.2 mm. thick, the upper portion 5-6 mm. thick, the lobes about 
5 mm. long; anthers 7 mm. long, the filaments about 2.5 cm. long; style 
about 4.5 cm. long; capsule 1.4 cm. long, 2.5-3 mm. thick; seeds brown. 

Type ir> the U. S. National Herbarium, no. 399394, collected at 
Omilteme, Guerrero, May, 1903, E. W. Nelson 7054. 

ZOOLOGY. — Opalina and the origin of the ciliate Infusoria.^ 
Maynard M. Metcalf, Orchard Laboratory, Oberlin, 
Ohio. (Communicated by M. W. Lyon, Jr.) 

Study of a large amount of material from th-e United States 
National Museum collections of frogs and toads shows several 

1 Abridged from a paper read before the Biological Society of Washington, 
May 4, 1918. 



I 

428 metcalf: opalina and the ciliate infusoria 

dozen new species of Opalinidae and necessitates revision of the 
taxonomy in the family and in the Cihata. The new forms en- 
able us to gain a comprehensve knowledge of the plan of speci- 
ation among the Opalinidae and the conditions revealed in this 
family throw light upon the origin of the Ciliata. 

The family Opalinidae comprises properly but two genera — 
Protoopalina (new genus) and Opalina. Protoopalina has one 
nucleus or in most species two nuclei. Their nuclei contain two 
distinct sets of large, flat, superficial chromosomes of constant 
and characteristic number in each species, and another more 
central set composed of the same number (in the species thus far 
studied) of slender chromosomes each consisting of a linear ag- 
gregate of granules much as in Paramecium, except that the 
granules are much coarser in these large nuclei. In mitosis the 
daughter nuclei each receive one-half of each chromosome of 
each sort (massive and granular). 

Opalina has many nuclei (4 to several thousand). Each nu- 
cleus contains some (not many) large, flat, superficial chromatin 
masses of varying number in the different nuclei in the body and 
also numerous, more central, slender chromosomes, each a linear 
aggregate of granules. It is probable that these linear chromo- 
somes are of constant number for each species, but they ara too 
numerous for easy study. In the genus Opalina the granular 
chromosomes seem to be as carefully and regularly divided as 
they are in Protoopalina, but the larger masses of chromatin are 
irregularly divided in mitosis, and some of them may occasionally 
remain undivided, passing bodily without division into one of 
the daughter nuclei. 

In both Opalina and Protoopalina the massive chromosomes 
are trophic, the granular chromosomes reproductive. Each 
nucleus contains both kinds of chromatin and there is no special- 
ization, as in the higher Ciliata, of whole nuclei as trophic and 
other whole nuclei as reproductive. 

The most characteristic feature of the higher Ciliata is the 
possession by each individual of a large trophic nucleus and 
another minute reproductive nucleus. The absence of this char- 
acter in the Opalinidae justifies placing them as an archaic group, 
Protociliata, and classing the rest of the Ciliata as Euciliata.. 



metcalf: opalina and the ciliate infusoria 429 

The archaic features of the Protocihata are: (1) the transient 
character of their pleurinucleate condition, the gametes in the 
spring becoming uninucleate; (2) the consequent absence of dif- 
ferentiation of whole nuclei for trophic function (macronuclei) 
and of other whole nuclei for reproduction (micronuclei) , each 
nucleus instead containing chromatin of both sorts; (3) the very 
primitive nature of the contractile vacuole — merely a temporary 
fusion of some of the axial alveoles to form an irregular and usu- 
ally branched tubule opening by a posterior pore; (4) binary fis- 
sion both longitudinal and transverse; (5) sexual union, the com- 
plete fusion of very dissimilar gametes. A secondary feature 
is the complete absence of a buccal groove. Numerous genera 
of Euciliata also show this secondary modification — e.g., Hop- 
litophrya, Anoplophrya, Discophrya, Chromidina, etc. In both 
Protociliata and Euciliata this feature is doubtless due to 
parasitism. 

The author described mitosis in a species of Protoopalina (Opa- 
lina), discovered by Professor J. H. Powers, whose two nuclei are 
found resting in a midmitotic condition (anakhase). Awerin- 
zew described an African species whose usually single nucleus 
rests in a similar midmitotic stage, and because of its uninu- 
cleate character named the species Opalina [Protoopalina] pri- 
mordialis. In the National Musem material is a still more 
archaic species (as yet unnamed) from Bufo regularis whose 
single nucleus is in an earlier phase of mitosis than is that of 
Protoopalina primordialis. Starting with this unnamed species 
we may arrange the Opalinidae according to their nuclear con- 
dition : first a species with a single nucleus resting in a mitotic 
condition but little past the critical (mitotic) phase; then Pro- 
toopalina primordialis with nucleus in an anaphase condition; 
then several species with each a single nucleus in a late ana- 
phase or a telophase condition ; then numerous species each with 
two distinct resting nuclei; then several species each with two 
nuclei each of which is just entering upon mitosis; then two or 
more species each with two nuclei both being in about the critical 
phase of mitosis; then numerous species each with two nuclei 
both in an anaphase of mitosis; others with two nuclei each in a 



430 metcalf: opalina and the ciliate infusoria 

telophase of mitosis. All species thus far mentioned in this 
paragraph are Protoopalinae with characteristic protoopalinid 
nuclei. Simplest in the genus Opalina is 0. lanceolata (of Bez- 
zenberger) with four nuclei; then 0. mimuta (new species from 
Bufo melanostictus) with from five to twelve nuclei; then very 
many species with from one hundred to several thousand nuclei. 

It seems evident that the pleurinucleate condition in the 
Opalinidae is due to some disturbance of the mitotic phenomena 
and the usual nucleus-cytoplasm relation, nuclear mitosis and 
body division being inhibited to a less or greater degree in dif- 
ferent species. As this strange tendency develops we get finally 
bodies with a great number of nuclei. Among the Opalinids 
the culmination of this disturbance of the division phenomena is 
seen in the new species, Opalina segmentata, in which species even 
the vegetative fissions, which occur from time to time in both 
multinucleate and binucleate species, are inhibited after they 
have begun. Opalina segmentata is an elongated cylindrical 
species (snake-shaped) with thousands of nuclei. Numerous 
fissions which have started at different levels in the body are 
still incomplete, giving the whole animal a metamerized appear- 
ance. Of course this is but pseudo-metamerization for it is not 
due to apical budding but rather to interrupted transverse fis- 
sions which have started at different points along the elongated 
body. 

The Opalinidae are an offshoot from the ancestral Ciliata at 
a time when mitotic phenomena and the nucleus-cytoplasm rela- 
tion were becoming disturbed. They have some of them re- 
mained in an early stage of this condition. Others have devel- 
oped the tendency further and have become highly multinucleate. 
The Euciliata, rising doubtless from such pseudobinucleate 
forms as the Protoopalinae, have passed on to a permanently 
binucleate condition, even their gametis being binucleate, when 
properly analyzed. The permanence of their binuclearity, once 
established, allowed the differation of one whole nucleus for nu- 
trition (macronucleus) and of the other whole nucleus for repro- 
duction (micronucleus) . The Opalinidae as a whole are a group 
in which the condition of nucleus and cytoplasm as to mitosis 



MILLER AND GIDLEY: SUPERGENERIC GROUPS OF RODENTS 431 

are still in flux. The Euciliata, advancing from this condition, 
have become stereotyped in a definitely binucleate state with 
secondary nuclear specialization. 

Classification of Ciliata 
Protociliata 
Opalinidae 

Protoopalina 
Opalina 
Euciliata 

ZOOLOGY. — Synopsis of the supergeneric groups of Rodents.^ 
Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., and James W. Gidley, U. S. 
National Museum. 

Work on the taxonomy of the Rodents, living and extinct, has 
occupied much of our time during the past four years. This 
paper contains a brief synopsis of the results. 

The classification which we have adopted is based on the fol- 
lowing conception of the evolutionary course followed by the 
order during its development. This course has been mainly 
conditioned by the mechanical problem of strengthening a chew- 
ing apparatus in which the unusually important cutting func- 
tion of the incisors is strongly contrasted with the grinding func- 
tion of the cheekteeth; the highest degree of efficiency to be 
given always to the incisors and in most instances to the cheek- 
teeth as well. The problem has been solved by five sequences of 
correlated changes in the masseter muscle and the bones to 
which this muscle is attached. All of these sequences could 
originate from the structures present in a generalized mammal, 
but there is no evidence that any rodent during its development 
has passed from one to another. The groups characterized by 
the various sequences are therefore natural. We have treated 
them as superf amilies : the Sciuroidae, Myoidae, Dipodoidae, 
Bathyergoidae, and Hystricoidae. Of the secondary problems the 
most conspicuous has been the strengthening of the cheekteeth. 
These teeth, however unHke their structure in extreme in- 
stances may appear, have all been developed from some primi- 
tive, low-crowned, tritubercular type not essentially different 

1 Published by permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



432 MILLER AND gidley: supergeneric groups of rodents 

from that present in the Eocene Paraniyidae and in Hving species 
of Sciurus. During the adjustment of the cheekteeth to increas- 
ingly heavy fore-and-aft grinding motion, a process which has 
taken place in most members of the order, the crown height has 
been augmented, while the original tubercles and lophs have been 
made more efficient by (a) increase in complexity, and (b) con- 
version into transverse ridges and specialized enamel plates, usu- 
ally with reduction in the number of elements present. In each 
superfamily the characteristic modifications in the muscles and 
skull were begun in connection with the development of the in- 
cisors. Mechanical improvement of the cheekteeth came later. 
All rodent teeth have been developed from an essentially uniform 
original type under the influence of practically identical mechani- 
cal forces. Parallelism in highly specialized dental structures 
between genera and species which are not closely related is 
therefore frequent enough to be one of the noticeable peculiari- 
ties of the order. The history of development extends so far into 
the past that the essential features of structure are modernized 
in the oldest known Eocene rodents. No extinct member of 
the order has yet been found which can be regarded as ancestral 
to any considerable number of subsequent forms. 

The order Rodentia may be defined, as follows: Terrestrial and 
fossorial (occasionally arboreal or semiaquatic) placental mammals 
with both brain and placentation generalized in type ; feet vmguiculate ; 
elbow joint always permitting free rotary motion of forearm; fibula 
never articulating with calcaneum; niasseter muscle highly specialized, 
divided into three or more distinct portions having slightly different 
functions; cecum without spiral fold; dental formula not known to 
exceed i }, c f pm f, m f = 22 permanent teeth; incisors scalpriform, 
growing from persistent pulp, the enamel of the upper tooth not ex- 
tending to posterior surface; distance between mandibular and maxil- 
lary toothrows approximately equal, both pairs of rows capable of par- 
tial or complete opposition at the same time, the primary motion of the 
lower jaw in mastication longitudinal or oblique. 

Superfamily SCIUROIDAE 

Masseter lateralis superficialis with anterior head distinct, this por- 
tion of the muscle not attached to any part of the zygoma except occa- 
sionally to a point at extreme base of zygomatic plate; zygomatic plate 



MILLER AND GIDLEY : SUPERGENERIC GROUPS OF RODENTS 433 

tilted upward, usually broad, with its superior border always above 
lower margin of infraorbital foramen. Infraorbital foramen inferior, 
transmittng nerve only; masseter lateralis passing obliquely upward to 
superior border of rostrum, always to exclusion of masseter medialis. 

THREE-CUSPED SERIES 

Teeth becoming hypsodont on the basis of a tritubercular structure. 

Family Sciuridae 

Skull never truly fossorial; infraorbital foramen with outer wall 
usually though not always forming a distinct canal, its orifice protected 
from muscular action by the presence, at or near its lower border, of an 
outgrowth for attachment of masseter lateralis superficialis; frontal 
with decurved postorbital process; cheekteeth brachydont or uni- 
laterally hypsodont, the fundamental tritubercular plan usually (prob- 
ably always) evident in functional adult teeth that have not under- 
gone considerable wear; external form suited to arboreal or terrestrial 
life. 

The Sciuridae of authors. 

Subfamily Sciurinae. — Orbital region normal, the middle of orbit in 
front of middle of skull (except in genera with greatly elongated 
rostrum) , the lachrymal bone above or in front of anterior extremity of 
toothrow, the zygomatic plate not especially emarginate below, the 
postorbital process indicating an evident boundary between orbit and 
temporal fossa; no parachute membrane. 

The entire family except the members of the two following groups; 
Oligocene to Recent; Northern Hemisphere, South America, conti- 
nental Africa. 

Subfamily Nannosciurinae. — Like the Sciurinae but orbital region 
abnormal, the middle of orbit behind middle of skull (rostrum short), 
the lachrymal bone above middle of toothrow, the zygomatic plate 
conspicuously emarginate below, the postorbital process not indicating 
an evident boundary between large orbit and much reduced temporal 
fossa. 

Nannosciurus of the Malay region, Myosciurus of West Africa, and 
Sciurillus of South America (the last not seen) ; Recent. 

Subfamily Pteromyinae. — Like the Sciurinae but with a well de- 
veloped parachute membrane present. 

The Flying-squirrels; Middle Miocene to Recent; Northern Hemis- 
phere. 

Family Geomyidae 

Skull fossorial; zygoma robust; infraorbital foramen always at end of 
a long canal, its orifice protected from muscle pressure by counter- 



434 MILLER AND gidley: supergeneric groups of rodents 

sinking in an oblique sulcus; frontal without postorbital process; cheek- 
teeth evenly hypsodont or in their extreme development ever-growing, 
the fundamental tritubercular plan lost in functional adult teeth, the 
first and second molars of adult consisting of either one or two simple 
loops. External form in living members of the group highly modified 
for underground life. 

Subfamily Entoptychinae. — Angular portion of mandible mostly 
below alveolar level; cheekteeth rooted, the enamel pattern of first and 
second molars consisting of two simple loops joined at protomere.^ 

Entoptychus; North American Oligocene. 

Subfamily Geomijinae. — Angular portion of mandible mostly above 
alveolar level; cheekteeth ever-growing, the first and second adult 
molar consisting each of a simple prism, with an enamel plate always 
present on anterior surface in upper teeth and on posterior surface of 
lower teeth. 

North American pocket gophers; Miocene to Recent. 

Family Heteromyidae 

Essential characters as in the Geomyidae but skull not fossorial; 
zygoma slender; orifice of infraorbital canal protected from muscle 
pressure by countersinking in a vacuity which extends transversely 
through rostrum; external form murine or saltatorial. 

North American pocket-mice and kangaroo-rats; Middle Ohgocene 
(Heliscomys) to Recent. 

FOUR-CUSPED SERIES 

Teeth becoming hypsodont on the basis of a quadritubsrcular 
structure. 

Family Adjidaumidae 

Zygomasseteric structure^ and infraorbital canal as in the Sciur- 
idae; cheekteeth |-, slightly hypsodont, the enamel pattern unmodified 
heptamerous.* 

Adjidaumo; North American Middle Oligocene. 

2 Protomere = inner side of maxillary cheekteeth and outer side of mandibular 
cheekteeth. 

Paramere = outer side of maxillary cheekteeth and inner side of mandibular 
cheekteeth. 

' Zygomasseteric structure = the combined and correlated structures of the 
masseter muscle and of the skull in the region at which the muscle takes its origin. 

* Heptamerous pattern = the enamel pattern of a flat-crowned cheektooth in 
which each of seven original tubercles is represented by a loop (two on the proto- 
mere, five on the paramere). 



MILLER AND GIDLEY: SUPERGENERIC GROUPS OF RODENTS 435 

Family Eutypomyidae 

Like the Adjidaumidae but with cheekteeth somewhat more hypso- 
dont and the heptamerous enamel pattern complicated by the devel- 
opment of a considerable number of secondary closed loops which ap- 
pear in partially worn teeth as an aggregation of minute enamel lakes 
covering nearly entire surface of crown. 

Eutypomys; North American Middle Oligocene. 

Family Chalicomyidae 

Like the Adjidaumidae but cheekteeth strongly hypsodont and 
enamel pattern reduced-heptamerous (sometimes paralleling that of 
the Hystricidae) becoming rapidly simplified as the crowns wear away; 
skull occasionally fossorial; no postorbital process on frontal; no pit- 
like depression in basioccipital region. 

ChaUcomys (= Steneofiber) and related genera, European Miocene 
and Pliocene; Trogontherium, European Pliocene and Pleistocene; 
Palaeocastor, Eucastor and related genera, North American Upper 
Oligocene and Lower Pliocene. 

Family Castoridae 

Skull with rostrum broadened and deepened and braincase narrowed; 
basioccipital region with conspicuous pit-like depression ; cheekteeth not 
ever-growing but so excessively hypsodont that the slightly reduced- 
heptamerous pattern (parallel : Myocastor) changes little with age and 
rarely if ever wears out; external form highy modified for aquatic life; 
caudal vertebrae flattened. 

Castor; Lower Pliocene to Recent; Northern Hemisphere. 

Family Castoroididae 

Zygomasseteric structure modified by the passage of the shaft of 
the incisor below the infraorbital foramen instead of above it, the ridge 
formed by the tooth dividing the area of masseteric origin on side of 
rostrum into two planes; posterior nares divided horizontally by the 
median fusing of palatine bones over roots of cheekteeth; teeth ever- 
growing, the enamel pattern a series of 5-7 parallel transverse ridges 
(parallel: Dinomyidae). 

Castoroides; North American Pleistocene. 

Superfamily MUROIDAE 

Zygomasseteric structure as in the Sciuroidae except: Lifraorbital 
foramen superior in whole or in part, entered or traversed by muscle 
as \vell as nerve; masseter lateralis seldom reaching superior border of 
rostrum, and never doing this to exclusion of masseter medialis. 

THREE-CUSPED SERIES 

Modifications of teeth based on an underlying tritubercular structure. 



436 MILLER AND GIDLEY : SUPERGENERIC GROUPS OF RODENTS 

Family Muscardinidae 

Skull with no striking modifications of general form; zygomatic root, 
much as in the Sciuridae except that its anterior face is nearly vertical 
instead of strongly oblique, and the infraorbital foramen extends above 
median level of orbit, receiving or transmitting a strand of muscle as 
well as the nerve; no postorbital processes; auditory bullae large, globu- 
lar, rounded in front; cheekteeth ^, brachydont (in Leithia subhypso- 
dont), the enamel pattern reduced-hexamerous in forms with basin- 
shaped crowns, passing to a system of parellel transverse ridges in 
those with flat crowns (parallel : Graphiuridae) ; external form showing 
a combination of murine and sciurine features. 

Eliomys, Dyromys, Glis, Muscardmus, Leithia; Old World Middle 
Miocene to Recent. 

FOUR-CUSPED SERIES 

Modifications of teeth based on an underlying quadritubercular 
structure. 

Family Ischyromyidae 

General characters of the skull as in the Muscardinidae; teeth f, 
moderately hypsodont, rooted, the fundamental structure quadri- 
tubercular, the enamel pattern in worn teeth reduced-heptamerous. 

Ischyromys; North American Middle Oligocene. 

Family Cricetidae 

Fundamental zygomasseteric structure as in the Muscardinidae and 
Ischyromyidae, but infraorbital foramen usually enlarged and special- 
ized, consisting of a rounded upper portion for transmission of muscle 
and a narrow lower portion for transmission of nerve, the zygomatic 
root developed into a broad, oblique plate; skull varying excessively in 
form, but always without postorbital process on the frontal; check- 
teeth f , the crown structure showing all stages from brachydont to 
ever-growing, the fundamental structure quadritubercular, the enamel 
pattern varying from simple heptamerism to excessive specialization, the 
tubercles in the maxillary teeth always presenting a longitudinally bi- 
serial arrangement and never developing a functional third series on 
lingual side of crown; external form murine or fossorial. 

Subfamily Cricetinae. — Skull without special modification, the zygo- 
masseteric structure as usual in the family, the squamosal not devel- 
oping a postorbital ridge or process; molars rooted, their crowns vary- 
ing gradually from tubercular and brachydont to flat-crowned and 
strongly hypsodont, when in the latter condition the prisms not oppo- 
site (compare Gerhillinae) and the posterior termination of m^ and m- 
not angular (compare Microtinae). 

The Cricetinae, Sigmodontinae, Neotominae, and Nesomyinae of authors; 
Oligocene to Recent; continental region of the world; Madagascar. 



MILLER AND GIDLEYI SUPERGENERIC GROUPS OF RODENTS 437 

Subfamily Gerhillinae. — Auditcfry bullae and entire posterior portion 
of skull enlarged; teeth subhypsodont or hypsodont, flat-crowned in 
adults, with opposite prisms, these tending to form transverse ridges 
joined at median line, or, in their extreme development, to separate 
into plates; external form saltatorial. 

The Gerhillinae of authors; Recent only', unless Trilophomy shorn, the 
Pliocene of France is a member of the group; Asia and Africa. 

Subfamily Microtinae. — Like the more hypsodont members of the 
subfamily Cricetinae but cheekteeth often growing from a persistent 
pulp, the enamel pattern always consisting of (at least partially) alter- 
nating triangles, the posterior termination of m^ and m^ never rounded; 
squamosal with distinct postorbital ridge or process. 

The Microtinae of authors; Miocene to Recent; Northern Hemisphere. 

Subfamily Lophiomyinae. — Like the Cricetinae with tubercular, 
slightly hypsodont teeth, but skull with temporal fossa bridged by a 
plate formed of laminae arising from the jugal, frontal, and parietal, 
a structure not known to occur elsewhere among rodents. 

Lophiomys; Recent; Africa. 

Family Platacanthomyidae 

Like the Cricetidae but zygomasseteric structure unusual, the infra- 
orbital foramen of normal cricetine form, but zygomatic plate much 
narrowed, and masseter lateralis profundus extending its line of at- 
tachment along upper zygomatic border to side of rostrum above fora- 
men; cheekteeth subhypsodont, the enamel pattern a modified hep- 
tamerous with tendency to form parallel oblique cross-ridges (parallel: 
Muscardinidae) . 

Platacanihomys and Typhlomys; Recent; Southern Asia. 

Family Rhizomyidae 

Like the Cricetidae but zygomasseteric structure unusual, the infra- 
orbital foramen with neural portion reduced or obliterated by partial 
or entire fusion of zygomatic plate with side of rostrum; skull and 
external form fossorial. 

Subfamily Tachyoryctinae. — Infraorbital foramen with neural por- 
tion reduced to an inconspicuous notch by fusion of the broad zygomatic 
plate with side of rostrum (outline of plate below foramen usually vis- 
ible) ; skull strongly fossorial ; cheekteeth closed at base but extremely 
hypsodont, the enamel pattern not changing in character during adult 
life; enamel pattern in adult consisting of 2-3 parallel curved cross- 
ridges (the concave surface directed backward and outward in upper 
teeth, forward and inward in lower teeth; parallel: Protechimys); 
reduced-heptamerism evident in unworn enamel cap; external form 
modified, though not excessively, for underground life. 

Tachyoryctes; Recent; Africa. 



438 MILLER AND gidley: supergeneric groups of rodents 

Siibfamil}^ Rhizomyinae. — ^Like the Tachyorydinae but peculiarities of 
infraorbital region carried farther, the neural notch being obliterated 
and the foramen appearing as a small orifice confined to upper surface 
of zygomatic root; teeth moderately hypsodont, the enamel pattern 
obviously heptamerous or reduced-heptamerous and changing rapidly 
during adult life. 

Rhizomys and related genera; Pliocene to Recent; southern Asia. 

Subfamily Br aminae.— Like the Rhizomyinae but cheekteeth with 
definitely prismatic structure. 
Bramus; Pleistocene; northern Africa (not seen). 

Family Spalacidae 

Like the Cricetidae but zygomasseteric structure unusual, the zygo- 
matic plate narrowed and turned downward to a nearly horizontal posi- 
tion, thus doing away with the separate neural portion of the opening 
by a process the exact opposite to that bringing about a similar result 
in some of the Rhizomyidae; skull excessively fossorial, the lambdoid 
crest carried forward to level of zygomatic root. 

Subfamiy Myospalacinae. — Mandible scarcely movable at symphysis, 
a large post-symphyseal buttress early developed; cheekteeth growing 
from persistent pulps, the crowns elongated, the enamel pattern con- 
sisting of alternating triangles, the posterior termination of m^ and 
m^ rounded. 

Myospalax; Recent; Asia. 

Subfamily Spalacinae. — Mandible movable at symphysis through- 
out life; cheekteeth moderately hypsodont, rooted, subterete, the pat- 
tern reduced-heptamerous, changing rapidly with wear; skull with the 
characters of the family carried to such an extreme as to make it the 
most fossorial type known among rodents. 

Spalax, Recent, Prospalax, Upper Pliocene, and an undescribed genus 
from the upper Oligocene; eastern Mediterranean Region, and southern 
Europe. 

Family Muridae 

Skull as in the typical Cricetidae; cheekteeth f , the upper teeth with 
a functional row of tubercles on lingual side of crown internal to the 
protocone and hypocone, these tubercles entering conspicuously into the 
plan of modification of the crowns. 

Subfamily Dendromyinae. — Upper cheekteeth with triserial arrange- 
ment not fully developed; manus with only 3 functional digits. 
The DenrfroA/iymae of authors; Recent; Africa. 

Subfamily Murinae. — Upper cheekteeth with fuU.y developed tri- 
serial arrangement of tubercles always evident, though frequently vary- 



MILLER AND GIDLEY: SUPERGENERIC GROUPS OF RODENTS 439 

ing from the symmetrical plan; crowns brachydont or slightly hyp- 
sodont; manus normal. 

Tlie Murinae of authors; Upper Miocene to Recent; Old World, 
except Madagascar. 

Subfamily Phloeomyinae. — Upper cheekteeth with triserial arrange- 
ment of elements obscured by flattening out of each trio of tubercles to 
form a simple, detached, transverse lamina (parallel: Diplomys); 
crowns moderately hypsodont ; braincase relatively small and auditory 
bullae reduced; external form heavy, arboreal. 

Phloeomys; Recent; Philippine Islands. 

Subfamily Otomyinae. — Upper cheekteeth with same modification as 
in the Phloeomyinae, but m^ tending to become the dominant tooth in the 
series, its size always greater than that of m^, and its elements usually 
reduplicated; external form heavy, terrestrial. 

Otomys; Recent; Africa. 

Subfamily Hydromyinae. — Upper cheekteeth with triserial arrange- 
ment obscured by suppres^on of tubercles of outer series; m'' vestigial. 
The Hydromyinae oi anthoYs; Recent; Australian Region. 

Superfamily DIPODOIDAE 

Masseter lateralis superficialis with anterior head not distinct, this 
portion of the muscle attaching along a considerable area on anterior 
border of zygoma; zygomatic plate nearly horizontal, always narrow 
and completely beneath infraorbital foramen. Angular portion of 
mandible not distorted outward at base to permit free passage of a 
branch of the masseter lateralis, its general direction not parallel with 
zygoma. 

THREE-CXJSPED SERIES 

Modifications of teeth based on an underlying tritubercular structure, 
the hypocone when present not entering into the essential mechanical 
scheme of the crown. 

A. — Skull with no special pecularities except that the auditory bullae 
appear to he imperfect or absent (perhaps merely reduced as in Phloeomys) ; 
infraorbital foramen not transmitting muscle; cheekteeth brachydont or 
subhyposodont, their structure essentially as in the less modified Sciuridae. 

Family Paramyidae 

Rostrum and braincase approximately equal in width, infraorbital 
foramen very small, not visible in lateral view of the skull; cheekteeth 
f , the upper molars obviously and simply tritubercular in general plan, 
the hypocone, when present, appearing as a supplement to the original 
structure of the tooth. 



440 MILLER AND GIDLEY: SUPERGENERIC GROUPS OF RODENTS 

Paramys, My sops, Prosciurus, and related genera; North American 
Lower Eocene to Middle Oligocene. 

B. — Skull and teeth as in the Paramyids except that the auditory bullae 
are well developed, the infraorbital foramen is enlarged to transmit a small 
strand of muscle, and the cheekteeth are flattened. 

Family Graphiuridae 

Cheekteeth |, brachydont, crowns wider than long, basin-shaped 
with small tubercles and low ridges (parallel: M uscardinidae) ; skull 
with no special peculiarities, the braincase much wider than rostrum; 
auditory bullae globular; external form muscardinine. 

Graphiurus; Recent; Africa. 

C. — Skull fossorial (except perhaps in the Allomyidae); infraorbital 
foramen not transmitting muscle; auditory bullae well-developed; cheek- 
teeth brachydont, hypsodont, or ever-growing; modification of crownsbased on 
a structure including well developed protoconule and metaconule, and con- 
spicuously trenchant outer commissures. 

Family Allomyidae 

Cheekteeth f , brachydont or moderately hypsodont, the trituber- 
cular structure of upper teeth evident in unworn crowns; protoconule 
and metaconule large; functional cusps in m^ and m'-; mesostyle appear- 
ing in hypsodont forms as a conspicuous median rib on outer surface of 
crown (parallel: Pseudosciuridae). 

Allomys, Haplomys,^ Meniscomys, Mylagaulodon; North American 
Upper Oligocene and Miocene. 

Family Aplodontiidae 

Like the Allomyidae but the skull greatly widened posteriorly, the 
auditory bullae flask-shaped with neck directed horizontally outward; 
cheekteeth growing from persistent pulp, the unworn caps showing 
evident pattern of the Allomys-i:y]iQ, this soon wearing away and leaving 
a simple enamel ring; paramere with conspicuous vertical ridge. 

Aplodontia; Pleistocene and Recent; Liodontia,^ Miocene; western 
North America. 

Family Cylindrodontidae 

Skull fossorial with braincase slightly wider than rostrum; cheek- 
teeth ^, subterete, excessively hypsodont but not growing from persist- 
ent pulp, the enamel pattern in considerably worn upper teeth consist- 
ing of an outer ring and a central lake. 

■ Cylindrodon; North American Lower Oligocene. Position of group 
doubtful. 



New genus, type Meniscomys liolophus Cope. 
New genus, type Aplodontia alexandrae Furlong. 



MILLER AND GIDLEY: SUPERGENERIC GROUPS OF RODENTS 441 



■FOUR-CUSPED SERIES 

]\Iodifications of teeth based on an underlying quadritubercular 
structure, the hypocone always entering into the essential mechanical 
scheme of the crown. 

A. — Skull not specially modified; upper molars with large proioconule 
and mefaconide, and conspicuously trenchant outer commissures, their 
structure paralleling that of the Allomyidae in the three-cusped series. 

Family Pseudosciuridae 

Skull essentially as in the Sciuravidae but with larger infraorbital 
foramen which may have transmitted a strand of muscle. 
Pseudosciurus; European Oligocene. 

B. — Skull excessively fossorial; occipital region obliquely truncate, with 
lambdoid crest moved forward nearly to level of zygomatic root; frontal with 
short postorbital process; bony horn-cores present on rostrum in two genera, 
absent in a third; cheekteeth highly modified from a normal heptamerous 
structure, the grinding function of toothrow in adult almost completely 
taken over by the greatly enlarged fourth premolar. 

Family Mylagaulidae 

General structure of skull much as in the Aplodontiidae; cheekteeth 
f or f ; a reduced-heptamerous pattern evident in slightly worn crowns, 
but this giving place with wear to a system of narrow longitudinal and 
oblique lakes; molars relatively small, soon crowded out by the pre- 
molar, an excessively hypsodont, laterally compressed tooth, closed at 
the base, and rapidly increasing in crown length from the unworn surface 
downward. Skeleton highly modified for underground life. 

Mylagaulus, Ceratogaulus, and Epigaulus; North American Miocene 
and Pliocene. 

C. — Skidl without special peculiarities; infraorbital foramen moderate 
or very large, transmitting both muscle and nerve; cheekteeth subhypsodont or 
brachydont, their modifications based on a heptamerous structure in which 
the ridges are narrow and the reentrant spaces wide {parallels: Funisciu- 
rus, Erethizontidae); external form glirine or pteromyine; under side of 
tail with scaly outgrowths near base. 

Family Anomaluridae 

Skull with moderate infraorbital foramen; lower zygomatic root at 
levol immediately in front of anterior cheektooth; anterior point of 
masseteric insertion on mandible beneath hinder part of nii; no dis- 
crepancy between size of incisors and molars; cheekteeth subhypso- 
dont, their crowns flat, longer than wide; external form pteromyine. 

Anomahirus; Recent; Africa. 



442 MILLER AND GIDLEY." SUPERGENERIC GROUPS OF RODENTS 

Family Idiuridae 

Like the Anomaluridae but skull with infraorbital foramen greatly 
enlarged, the lower zygomatic root nearer to incisor than to anterior 
cheektooth; anterior point of masseteric insertion on mandible in front of 
pm''; incisors excessively heavy; cheekteeth weak, extremely brachydont, 
their crowns flat, wider than long. 

Subfamily Idiurinae. — Flying membrane present; cheekteeth with 
two complete m\3dian transverse ridges. 
Idiurus; Recent; Africa. 

Subfamily Zenkerellinae — Flying-membrane absent; cheekteeth with 
one complete median transverse ridge. 
Zenker ella; Recent; Africa. 

D, — Skull without striking peculiarities other than a tendency to assume 
a form characterized by broad braincase, large auditory parts, and weak 
rostrum {parallels; Gerbillinae, Octodontinae) ; infraorbital foramen trans- 
mitting muscle in all members of the group in which the skull is known 
except probably Sciuravus ; cheekteeth varying from brachydont to ever- 
growing, their modifications based on a heptamerous structure in which the 
ridges are wide and the reentrant spaces narrow. 

Family Sciuravidae 

Infraorbital foramen small, but visible in lateral view of skull, prob- 
ably transmitting nerve only; cheekteeth f, brachydont; the structure 
of the upper molars obviously and simply quadritubercular. 

Sciuravus; Noi'th American Middle Eocene. 

Family Zapodidae 

Infraorbital foramen large, transmitting muscle as well as nerve; 
cheekteeth varying in number from f in the earlier members of the group 
to f in the most advanced; the quadritubercular crown structure usually 
though not always much modified; metatarsals not reduced or fused. 

Subfamily Theridomyinae. — The earlier, less modified members of the 
family: pm* a large, functional tooth; crowns of cheekteeth varying 
from brachydont and simply quadritubercular (Sciuroides) to hypsodont 
and much reduced heptamerous [Issiodoromys; parallel: Eocardia). 

The Theridomyidae of authors; European Lower Eocene to Miocene. 

Subfamily Sicistinae. — Cheekteeth brachydont, |, distinctly quadri- 
tuberculate, the enamel of moderately worn upper molars with a simple 
heptamerous pattern ; external form murine, the hind legs and feet not 
lengthened. 

Sicista, Recent, Eurasia; f Eomys, European Upper Eocene. 



MILLER AND GIDLEY: SUPERGENERIC GROUPS OF RODENTS 443 

Subfamily Zapodinae. — Cheekteeth subhypsodont,| or f , flat crowned, 
the enamel pattern of the upper molars heptamerous, slightly or con- 
siderabh' modified; external form saltatorial, the hind legs and feet 
lengthened. 

Eozapus, Recent, China; Zapus, Napaeozapus, Pleistocene and 
Recent, North America. 

Family Dipodidae 

Like the Zapodidae but with the inner and outer metatarsals reduced 
or absent and the three median fused to form a canon bone; cheekteeth 
hj^psodont, the heptamerous enamel pattern undergoing modifications 
most of which are parallel to those taking place in the teeth of the 
Cricetidae and in the hystricine families. 

Subfamily Protoptychinae. — Upper cheekteeth 4, moderately hypso- 
dont; pm* a large, functional tooth; skull with relatively broad rostrum 
and narrow braincase. 

Protoptychus;'' North American Upper Eocene. 

Suhfamily Dipodinae. — Cheekteeth f or f, strongly hypsodont; pm< 
vestigial; skull with relativelj- narrow rostrum and broad braincase. 

The Dipodidae of authors who recognize the Zapodidae as a distinct 
famil}^; Pleistocene and Recent; Eurasia and northern Africa. 

Family Ctenodactylidae 

Cheekteeth growing from a persistent pulp, the adult pattern re- 
duced to a simple ring infolded on one or both sides (parallel: Odo- 
dontinae) ; external form fossorial. 

Ctenodactylus and related genera from the Mediterranean region; 
Pliocene to Recent. 

Family Pedetidae 

Cheekteeth subterete, growing from a persistent pulp; all trace of 
the original crown structure lost, the unworn enamel cap transversely 
cleft, the adult pattern consisting of a narrow median infold from the 
paramere extending nearl}' across to opposite side; external form con- 
spicuousl}'^ saltatorial, but median metatarsals showing no tendency to 
become reduced or fused. 

Pedetes; Recent; Africa. 

Superfamily BATHYERGOIDAE 

Zygomasseteric structure as in the Dipodoidae except: Angular por- 
tion of mandible distorted outward to allow passage of a specialized and 

' While Protoptychus is a true dipodid with few primitive characters its exact 
position is not clear. It may prove to be a member of the Theridomyinae; but 
for the present we prefer to place it in the Dipodidae on account of its resemblance 
to the recent genus Euchoreutes. 



444 MILLER AND GIDLEYI SUPERGENERIC GROUPS OF RODENTS 

enlarged distal anterior limb of the masseter lateralis superficialis, its 
general direction parallel with zygoma. Masseter medialis arising from 
upper margin of orbit and not passing through small infraorbital 
foramen. 

Family Bathyergidae 

Skull and external form with conspicuous fossorial adaptations. 
Cheekteeth extremely hypsodont, though not ever-growing; enamel 
pattern in adult a ring with or without a reentrant fold on one or each 
side (parallel: Octodontinae) ; number of cheekteeth ranging from | to 
f. (In the genus, Heliophohius, with the greatest number of teeth there 
are never more than f functional at one time; the apparent addition of 
one tooth in the upper jaw and two in the lower jaw to the maximum 
rodent formula is probably due to a specialized condition of the milk 
dentition.) 

The Bathyergidae oi authors; Recent; Africa. 

Superfamily HYSTRICOIDAE 

Zygomasseteric structure as in the Bathyergoidae except: Masseter 
medialis arising from side of rostrum and passing through large infra- 
orbital foramen. 

LATERALIS SERIES 

Masseter lateralis the chief agent in modifying form of outer side of 
mandible; an oblique ridge extending forward from lower border of 
angular process usually present for attachment of this muscle. 

A. — Lachrymal hone small, forming no important part of zygomatic 
root, its lower portion confined within orbit; lachyrmal canal closed in front 
of orbit. 

Family Hystricidae 

Skull with no special peculiarities other than a tendency (most pro- 
nounced in the genus Hystrix) to inflation of the rostral and frontal 
regions; mandibular rami rather freely movable at symphysis; angular 
process deep, neither produced backward conspicuously behind articular 
level nor folded inward along lower margin; cheekteeth \, their enamel 
pattern slightly removed from the simple heptamerous type, the re- 
entrant folds narrow and not angular. 

Old World porcupines; Upper Miocene to Recent. 

Subfamily Hystricinae. — Base of upper zygomatic root over a point 
decidedly behind the anterior extremity of toothrow; cheekteeth 
strongly hypsodont, closed at base but without definite roots; sacral 
vertebrae 4. 

Hystrix, Acanthion, Thecurus; Africa, southern Asia, and Malay 
region. 



MILLER AND GIDLEYI SUPERGENERIC GROUPS OF RODENTS 445 

Subfamily Atherurinae. — Base of upper zygomatic root over anterior 
extremity of toothrow; cheekteeth subhypsodont, with well developed 
roots; sacral vertebrae 3. 

Atherurus, Trichijs; Recent; Malay region. 

Family ERETHIZOXTIDAE 

Like the Hystricidae but: Mandibular rami with conspicuous post- 
SJ^nphyseal buttresses which prevent movement at the symphysis; 
lower border of angular process folded inward; cheekteeth subhypso- 
dont, flat crowned, with reduced-heptamerous enamel pattern char- 
acterized by narrow ridges and wide reentrant spaces, the spaces on the 
paramere tending to become transformed into pits (parallels: Funis- 
ciurus, Anomaluridae) . Upper zygomatic root over anterior part of 
toothrow; feet noticeably modified for arboreal life. 

New World porcupines except Chaetomys: Oligocene to Recent. 
Oligocene of Egypt?^ Extinct South American genera: Asteromys, 
Eosteiromys, Parasteiromys, Steiromys. 

Family ECHIMYIDAE 

Like the Erethizontidae but lower border of angular process usually 
with no evident infolding, feet usually not modified for arboreal life, and 
adult cheekteeth with narrow reentrant folds; cheekteeth varying from 
brachydont to ever-growing, the structure when hypsodont not multi- 
laminar. 

Subfamily Echimyinae.—Fo^'&oviaX specialization usually absent; 
skull and cheekteeth showing great variety of form ; enamel pattern not 
simplified to a ring with an infold on one or each side. 

Tropical America; Miocene to Recent. Spiny-rats (provisionally 
including Chaetomys), Hutias {Capromys, Plagiodontia) , etc.; also many 
extinct genera, among them Acaremys, Boromys, Brotomys, Colpostemma, 
Eocardia (parallel: Issiodoromys), Eododon, Graphimys, Gyrignophus, 
Haplostropha, Heteropsomys, Homopsomys, Isolobodon, Prospaniomys, 
Protadelphomys, Protacaremys, Sciamys, Scleromys, Spaniomys, Sticho- 
mys, Strophostephanus, Tribodon. It is probable that this group needs 
subdividing. 

Subfamily Octodontinae. — FoSsorial specialization usually present; 
cheekteeth, except in earliest known genera, with enamel pattern com- 
pletely simplified to a ring with an infold on one or each side (parallel : 
Ctenodactylidae) . 

South America; Oligocene to Recent. Recent genera: Ctenomys, 
Octodon, Octodontomys, Spalacopus. Among the fossil genera are: Ceph- 
alomys, Dicoelophorus, Eucoelophorus, Litodontomys, Neophanomys, 
Palaeododon, Phtoramys, Pithanotomys, Plataeomys, Scotomys. 

* The genera Phiomys and Metaphiomys, based on lower jaws and teeth, have 
no characters by which they can at present be referred to any other family. 



446 MILLER AND GIDLEY." SUPERGENERIC GROUPS OF RODENTS 

Family Petromyidae 

In general resembling the Ododontinae but crown of each cheektooth 
margined by two elevations on the protomere, these elevations probably 
resulting from the unusual obliquity at which the teeth appear to be set. 
The teeth are rooted, strongly hypsodont; the enamel pattern consists 
of two transverse lobes united by a median isthmus, the outer edges of 
the lobes becoming joined in the upper teeth when worn. No speci- 
mens examined.^ Recognized as a family by Tullberg, partly on whose 
authority we continue to treat it as distinct. The characters of the teeth 
indicate important mechanical peculiarities of the chewing apparatus. 
The enamel pattern appears to be of a type which could be directly de- 
rived from that present in the relatively low-crowned molars of Erethizon 
and the Oligocene African Phiomys. 

Petromys, South Africa: Recent. 

Family Myocastoridae 

In general like the Erethizontidae but upper zygomatic root over 
middle of toothrow, and cheekteeth with structure paralleling that pres- 
ent in Castor; lateral process of paroccipital large, projecting freely 
above base of greatly elongated paroccipital process; in living species 
external form modified for aquatic life. 

Myocastor and related fossil genera; South America; Miocene to 
Recent. 

Family Thryonomyidae 

Like the Myocastoridae but cheekteeth with structure paralleling 
that present in some of the Echimyinae, and lateral process of paroc- 
cipital small, closely applied to base of moderately large paroccipital 
process; external form not modified for aquatic life. 

Thryonomys; Africa; Recent. 

Family Dinomyidae 

Like the Echimyidae but cheekteeth combining a multilaminar 
structure with excessive hyposodontj^ (parallel: Castor aides); so far as 
known the external form is robust, terrestrial. 

South America and the Greater Antilles; Miocene to Recent. In- 
cludes the living Dinomys and the extinct genera Amblyrhiza, Briaromys, 
Discolomys, Elasmodontomys, Gyriahrus, Megamys, Neoepihlema, Olen- 
opsis, Potamarchus, Tetrastijlus. 

Family Cuniculidae 

Not essentially different from the Dinomyidae, but the jugal and part 
of the maxillary are expanded to form a conspicuous cheekplate, the 
surface of this becoming excessively j'ugose in adult ; cheekteeth strongly 

' Mr. Oldfield Thomas has kindly sent us photographs of a skull in the British 
Museum (No. 4.2.3.98). 



MILLER AND GIDLEYI SUPERGENERIC GROUPS OF RODENTS 447 

hypsodont, but enamel structure not completely multilaminar; exter- 
nal form robust, terrestrial. 

Cuniculus { = "Coelogenys"); Tropical America; Pleistocene and 
Recent. 

Family Heptaxodontidae 

First tooth of maxillary series mechanically dominant, cheekteeth 
apparently reduced to -|, conditions not known elsewhere in the Hijstri- 
coidae, and indicating zygomasseteric development along a line different 
from that followed elsewhere in the group; enamel structure multi- 
laminar with reduplication in the anterior tooth; diagnostic cranial 
characters unknown. 

Heptaxodon; Porto Rico; Pleistocene? The genus Morenia from the 
South American Miocene may be a second member of the family; it is 
at present known from isolated teeth only. 

'B.— Lachrymal hone large, usually forming an important part of zygo- 
matic root, its lower portion extending forward out of orbit to a level in front 
of anterior margin of infraorbital foramen; some part of lachrymal canal 
open on side of rostrum in front of orbit. 

Famil}' Dasyproctidae 

Skull generalized in structure, closely resembling that of the less 
specialized Hystricidae; cheekteeth hypsodont but with a nearly unmod- 
ified heptamerous structure, paralleling that in the Hystricidae; ex- 
ternal form cursorial, the legs lengthened, the digits 5-3.^'' 

The Dasyproctidae of authors with Cuniculus removed and Neo- 
reomys added; South and Middle America; Miocene to Recent. 

Family Chinchillidae 

Cheekteeth with heptamerous structure excessively modified, the 
enamel pattern consisting of parallel transverse laminae (parallel: 
Dinomyidae) ; mandible with no sharply defined ridge for attachment of 
masseter lateralis; external form saltatorial. 

South America; IMiocene to Recent. Living genera: Chinchilla, La- 
gostomus, Viscaccia. Extinct genera: Euphilus, Perimys, Pliolagosto- 
mus, Prolagostomus, Scotaeumys, Sphaeromys. 

Family Abrocomidae 

Like the Chinchillidae but cheekteeth with deep reentrant angles on 
both sides, and mandible with sharply defined ridge for attachment of 
masseter lateralis; external form not saltatorial. 

Abrocoma; South America; Pliocene to Recent. 

"> The feet of Neoreomys are imperfectly known, but there appears to be noth- 
ing in the structure of the parts which have been described that indicates the 
presence of more than three digits in the hind foot. 



448 MILLER AND gidley: supergeneric groups of rodents 



MEDIALIS SERIES 

Masseter medialis the chief agent in modifying form of outer side of 
mandible; a conspicuous horizontal ridge for the attachment of this 
muscle present on side of mandible slightly below alveolar level. 

Family Caviidae 

Posterior cheektooth both above and below without reduplication of 
elements, the general character of the toothrow normal. 

The Caviidae of authors with Hydrochoenis and its allies removed; 
South America; Miocene to Recent. Extinct genera: Anchimys, Neo- 
procavia, Orthomyctera, Palaeocavia, Phugatherium, Procardiotherium. 

Family Hydrochoeridae 

Posterior cheektooth both above and below with conspicuous redupli- 
cation of elements, the general character of the toothrow thus rendered 
abnormal. 

Hydrochoerus and its extinct allies Plexochoerus, Prohydrochoerus 
and Protohydrochoerus; perhaps Cardiomys, Caviodon ( = Diocariherium) 
and Cardiotherium also; South America, Miocene to Recent; south- 
eastern United States, Pleistocene. 



ABSTRACTS 

Authors of scientific papers are requested to see that abstracts, preferably 
prepared and signed by themselves, are forwarded promptly to the editors. 
The abstracts should conform in length and general style to those appearing 
in this issue. 

GEOGRAPHY. — Geography of the world's agriculture. V. C. Finch 
and 0. E. Baker, Office of Farm Management. Pp. 149, includ- 
ing 206 text figm-es and 2 inserted colored maps. " 1917" [April, 
1918]. 

This contribution from the Office of Farm Management is an elabora- 
tion of an article by the same authors in the 1916 Yearbook of the De- 
partment of Agriculture, and a sort of forerunner of the Atlas of Ameri- 
can Agriculture now in preparation by the Office of Farm Manage- 
ment under the immediate direction of Mr. Baker. 

Maps in black and white, with the acreage and production of all 
the more important crops of the world indicated by dots, occupy over 
half the space, and in addition there are many instructive graphs. The 
maps of the United States and Europe are naturally more detailed 
than those of other parts of the world, where statistics are not gathered 
so systematically^ One of the colored maps shows land relief and the 
other mean annual precipitation for the whole world exclusive of the 
polar regions ; and by comparing the crop maps with these many more 
or less striking correlations of crops with altitude and moisture can be 
made out. Our knowledge of soil conditions is as yet far too fragmen- 
tary to warrant the preparation of a soil map of the world, but numerous 
correlations between crops and soils are pointed out in the text. 

It is impracticable to go further into details here, but this atlas, or 
album, probably brings out the salient features of the world's agricul- 
ture at the beginning of the great world war better than any other pub- 
lication, and it will be an indispensable reference book for students of 
economic geography and all persons interested in the relation of geo- 
graphic conditions to the distribution of crops and live stock through- 
out the world. 

R. M. Harper. 

449 



450 ABSTEACTS: GEOLOGY 

GEOLOGY. — Possibilities for manganese ore on certain undeveloped 

tracts in Shenandoah Valley, Virginia. D. F. Hewett, G. W. 

Stose, F. J. Katz, and H. D. Miser. U. S. Geological Survey 

Bulletin 660-J. Pp. 26, with maps, and sections. 1918. 

Most of the manganese deposits occur in banded clays that are 

believed to have been derived by weathering in place from the lower 

200 feet of the Shady dolomite which rests on the Erwin quartzite. 

In most place