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Vol. XIV. 







No. 63.— March, 1905. 

Constitution of the Society, Liftt of Officers and Members 
List of Exchanges 
Annual Meeting... 
Annual Report of the Council 
Balance Sheet ... 

Maori Medical Lore. By Elsdon Best 
"^Principles of Samoan Word-composition. 
Notes and Queries (176-177) 

By William Churchill, B.A. 







No. 54.— June, 1906. 

Mana Tangata. By Lieut. -Col. Gudgeon, C.M.G. 

Te Hekenga a Kahu-hunu. Na Pango-te-Whare-Aublii 

The Migration of Kahu-hunu (translation.) By S. Percy Smith 

The Coming of Tainui. Related by Rihari Tauwhare 

The Iri Karakia. Told by Major Tunui-a-Rangi ... 

Notes and Queries (178) 

Transactions and Proceedings 








No. 55.— September, 1906. 

Maori Religion. By Lieut. -Col. Gudgeo 

Some Whanganui Historical Notes. By S. Percy Smith 

Ngutu-Au. By George Graham 

The Canoe of Maui . By J. Cowan 

Notes and Queries (179-181) 

Transactions and Proceedings 


No. 56. — December, 1905. 

Mjvori Superstition. By Lieut. -Col. Gudgeon 

The Last of the Ngati-Mamoe. By J. Cowan 

Te Korero mo Ngarara-Huarau. Na H. P. Tunui-a-Rangi ... 

The Stor>- of Ngarara-Huarau (translation). By S. Percy Smith 

The Lore of the Whare-Kohanga. By Elsdon Best. Part I. 

Genealogical Line from lo ... 

The Hunakeha Tree. By W. T. Morpeth 

Origin of the Ta-tatau or Heraldic Marks at Aitutaki Island. By Lieut, 

Col. Gudgeon 
Notes and Queries (182-184) 




Hn BxosLLSNOT, Lord Plunkbt, Goveiiior of New Zealand. 

S. Pebct Smith, F.R.G.S. 

O^ounHi : 

M. Fbasbb. W. Kbrb. 

W. L. Nbwican. F. p. Corkill 

W. H. SKiiraER. W. H. Parkbr. 

^hliov^ of 9ovtv%xal : 
W. H. Skinnbr and Wm. Kerr. 

^^HE Society is formed to promote the study of the Anthropology, Ethno- 
logy, Philology, History and Antiquities of the Polynesian races, by the 
pnbUoation of an official journal, to be called " The Journal of thb Poltnbsiak 
SooBTT," and by the collection of books, manuscripts, photographs, relics, and 
other illostrations of the history of the Polynesian race. 

l%e term ** Polynesia" is intended to include Australia, New Zealand, 
Melaoeaia, Micronesia, and Malaysia, as well as Polynesia proper. 

Candidates for admission to the Society shall be admitted on the joint 
leoommendation of a member of the Society and a member of the Council, and 
OD the approval of the Council. 

Eyery person elected to membership shall receive immediate notice of the 
mxae from the Secretaries, and shall receive a copy of the Bules, and on pay- 
ment of his subscription of one pound shall be entitled to all the benefits of 
membership. Subscriptions are payable in advance, on the 1st January of 
cadi year, or on election. 

Papers will be received on any of the above subjects if sent through a 
member. Authors are requested to write only on one side of the paper, to use 
quarto paper, and to leave one inch margin on the left-hand side, to allow of 
binding. Proper names should be written in ROMAN TYPE. 

The office of the Society is at present at NEW PLYMOUTH, New Zealand. 

The price of back numbers of the Journal, to members, is 28 6d. 

Vols, i, ii, iii, and iv are out of print. 

Members and exchanges are requested to note the 
change in the Society's Office from Wellington to New 
Plymouth, to which all communications, books, exchanges, 
ACm should be sent, addressed to the Hon. Secretaries. 


AS AT IsT January, 1905. 

The si^ * before a name indicates an original member or founder. 

I this list will be pabliehed annually, the Secretaries vronld feel obliged if members will supply 
any omissions, or notify change of residence. 


Liliuokalani, ex-Queen of Hawaii, 1588, 2l8t Street, Washington, U.S.A. 
Bev. B. H. Godrington, D.D., Chichester, England 
Bev. Prof. A. H. Sayoe, M.A., Queen's College, Oxford, England 
Hon. Sir J. G. Ward, K.C.M.G., M.H.B., Wellington, N.Z. 
Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., Petone, Wellington, N.Z. 
Professor H. H. Giglioli, Maseo Zoologico, 19, via Bomana, Florence, Italy 
H. G. Seth-Smith, M.A., Chief Judge N.L. Court, Auckland, N.Z. 
Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer, M.A., The University, Melbourne (8/3/04) 
Prof. A. H. Eeane, F.B.G.S., "Aram Gah," 79, Broadhurst Gardens, South 
Hamstead, London, N.W. 


Prof. Otis T. Mason, A.M., Ph.D., Smithsonian Institution, National Museum, 

Washington, U.S.A. 
Bev. T. G. Hammond, Patea, Taranaki, N.Z. 
Te One Bene Bawiri Te Mamaru, Moeraki, Otago, N.Z. 
Bev. Mohi Turei. Waiapu, N.Z. 
Takaanui Tarakawa, Te Puke, Maketu, N.Z. 
Karipa Te Whetu, Whangarae, CroixeUes, Nelson, N.Z. 
Tiwai Paraone, Miranda, Auckland, N.Z. 
Aporo Te Eumeroa, Greytown, N.Z. 
Hare Hongi, Wellington, N.Z. 
Wiremu Eauika, Waitotara N.Z. 
Tati Salmon, Papara, Tahiti. 
Pa-ariki, Ngatangiia, Barotonga. 
Bev. J. E. Moultan, Nukualofa, Tonga Island. 
Churchill, W., B.A., Fale'ula, East 12th Street, near King's Highway, Brooklyn 

N.Y., U.S.A. 
CoRnet, Bev. Claud, S.M., Okato, N.Z. 

Tmiui-a-rangi, Major H. P., Turanganui, Martinborough, N.Z. 


• Adams, C. W., 9, Telford Terrace, Oriental Bay, Wellington 

• Alexander, Dr. E. W., F.R.G.S., Dunedin, N.Z. 

• Alexander, W. D., F.B.G.S., D.Sc, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 
Aldred, W. A., Bank of New Zealand, Christchurch, N.Z. 
Aitken, J. G. W., M.H.B., Wellington, N.Z. 

Ashcroft, B. H., Esq., c/o Taupo Totara Timber Co., Mokai, via Putaruru, N.Z 
Atkinson, W. E., Whanganui, N.Z. 


Biroh, W. J., Bfarton, N.Z. 

Blair, J. B., Terrace, Wellington, N.Z. 

Barron, A., Land for Settlement Department, Wellington, N.Z. 

Best, Elsdon, Buatoki, Botorua, N.Z. 

Boiler, Sir W. L., K.C.M.G.. F.B.S., Terrace, Wellington, N.Z. 

Battley, B. T., Moawhango, N.Z. 

Bamford, E., Auckland, N.Z. 

Benn, H. B., Botorua, N.Z. 

Buchanan, W. C, M.H.R., Carterton, N.Z. 

Bennett, Rev. F. A., Botorua, N.Z. 

British and Foreign Bible Society, 114, Queen Victoria Street, London, E.G. 

Browne, A. H., Barotonga 

Brown, Mrs. J., Eohimarama, Auckland 

Brown, Prof. J. McMillan, Christchurch, N.Z. 

Boston City Library, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

Chapman, His Honour F. B., Wellington, N.Z. 

Carroll, A., M.A., M.D., Denbeigh Ho., Koogarrah, Sydney, N.S.W. 

Carkeek, Morgan, Otaki, N.Z. 

Chambers, W. E., Kepongaere, Gisbome, N.Z. 

Carter, H. C, 475, West 143rd Street, New York 

Comins, Yen. Archdeacon B. Blundell, Norfolk Island 

Chapman, M., Wellington, N.Z. 

Cooper, His Honour Theo., Wellington, N.Z. 

Coates, J., National Bank of N.Z., Wellington, N.Z. 

Corkill, F. P., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

Clarke, A. E. A., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

Clark, Patrick, o/o Wilkie & Co., Danedm, N.Z. 

Chatterton, Bev. F. W., Te Bau, Gisbome 

Cole, Yen. Archdeacon B. H., D.C.L., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

' Denniston, His Honour J. E., Christchurch, N.Z. 
Davies, Henry, Tennyson St., Napier, N.Z. 
Dulau & Co., 87, Soho Square, London 

Drummond, James, "Lyttelton Times ** Office, Christchnrob, N.Z. 
Donne, T. A., Tourist Department, Wellington, N.Z. 
Dixon, Bonald B., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

' Emerson, J. S., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 
fiwen, C. A., N.Z. Insurance Co., Wellington, N.Z. 
Edger, F. H., Judge N.L.C., Auckland, N.Z. 

*Fraser, D., Bulls, Bangitikei, Wellington, N.Z. 
Friedlander, B., Carlstrasse 11 Berlin, N.W. 
Friedlaender, Dr. B., Begenten Strasse 8, Berlin, W. 
Fletcher, Bev. H. J., Taupo, N.Z. 
Forbes, E. J., 8, Spring Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 
Fraaer, M., New Plymouth, N.Z., 
Fisher, T. W., New Plymouth, N.Z. 
Frear, Cbief Judge, W. F., Honolulu, Hawaii 
Frith, John F., Survey Office, New Plymouth. 
Fowlds, G., M.H.K., Auckland, N.Z. 
Fenwick, Geo., •*Otago Daily Time8,**^Dunedin 

' Grace, L. M., N.L.P. Dept., Government Buildings, Wellington, N.Z. 
' Gudgeon, Lient.-Col. W. B., C.M.G., Govt. Besident, Barotonga 

Gordon, H. A., F.G.S., Auckland, N.Z. 

Gnrr, B. W., Chief Judge, Pagopago, Samoa. 

Gill, W. H., Kobe, Japan. 

Graham, Geo., c/o Wynyard & Purohas, Auckland, N.Z. 

Gray, M. H., A.B.S.M., F.G.S., <&c., Lessness Park, Abbeywood, Kent, 


HaddoD, A. C, D.Sc, F.B.S., Inisfail, Hills Boad, Cambridge, Bngland 

* Harsthouse, C. W., Roads Department, Wellington, N.Z. 

* Hocken, Dr. T. M.. F.L.S., Dunedin, N.Z. 

* Hamilton, A., Museum, Wellington, N.Z. 

* HeniT, Miss Teuira, Little Britain, Sheridan Street, Honolulu, Hawaiian 

Harding, B. Goupland, Wellington, N.Z. 
Hutohin, Bev. J. J. E., Barotonga Island 
Hastie, Miss J. A., 11, Ashbum Place, Cromwell Boad, London 
Hutton, Gapt. F. W., F.B.S., Ghristohuroh, N.Z. 
Hughes, B. G., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

loms, William, Masterton, N.Z. 

* Johnson, H. Dunbar, Judge N.L. Court, Whanganui, N.Z. 
Jollie, Mrs., Edinboro Boad, Biocarton, Christcharoh, N.Z. 

* Kenny, Hon. C. W. A. T., M.L.C., Picton, N.Z. 
Eiihl, W. H., W-Jager Strasse, 78, Berlin 
King, John, Oisbome, N.Z. 

Kerr, W., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

Kelly, Hon. T., M.L.C., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

* Lawrence, Bev. W. N., Aitutaki Island, Barotonga 

* Large, Major J. T., Mangaia Island, Barotonga 

* Laing, B. M., M.A., High School, Christchurch, N.Z. 
Leggatt, Bev. T. W. Watt, Malikula. New Hebrides 
Lambert, H. A., Tane, Pahiatua, N.Z. 

Leslie, G., Government Buildings, Wellington, N.Z. 
Lethbridge. F. Y., M.H.B., FeUding, N.Z. 

* Marshall, W. S., Te Hekenga, Pemberton, Wellington, N.Z. 

* Morpeth, W. T., Survey Department, New Plymouth, N.Z. 

* Major, C. E., M.H.B., Hawera, N.Z. 

* MacDonald, Bev. Dr. D., Efate, New Hebrides 

* Mackay, A., Feilding, N.Z. 

Mitchell, F. J., Home Bule, Mudgee, N.S.W. 

Mackay, Captain A. W., Bathurst, N.S.W. 

March, H. Colley, M.D., F.S.A., Portesham, Dorchester, England 

Mair, Captain G. W., F.L.S., Wellington, N.Z. 

Marshall, J. W., Tututotara, Marton, N.Z. 

Marshall, H. H., Motu-kowhai, Marton, N.Z. 

McNab, B., M.H.B., Gore, N.Z. 

Maunsell, B., Eridge, Masterton, N.Z. 

Madaurin, Professor, Victoria College, Wellington, N.Z. 

Martin, Josiah, F.G.S., Auckland, N.Z. 

Marchant, J. W. A., Surveyor General of N.Z., WelliDgion 

Mackintosh, Bev. Canon A., F.B.G.S., Honolulu, Hawaii 

Malone, W. G., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

Matthews, H. J. Chief Forester of N.Z., Wellington 

* Nelson, C. E., Botorua, Auckland, N.Z. 
Nathan, D. J., Wellington, N.Z. 
Newell, Bev. J. E., MtJua, Samoa. 
Nairn, F. E., Hastings, H.B., N.Z. 

Ngata, A. T., M.A., LL.B., Awaroa, Gisbome, N.Z. 

New York Public Library, Astor Library Buildings, New York 

Newman, W. L., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

Oahu College, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 


Peebles, James M., Glenavy, South Canterbury 

* Phillips, Coleman, Featherston, N.Z. 

* Pope, J. H., Education Department, Wellington, N.Z. 
Pritt, Archdeacon, F. G., Gairlook, Brisbane, Queensland 
Partington, J. Edge, F.B.G.S., British Museum, London, England 
Pomare, Dr. M. H. P. N., Health Department, Wellington, N.Z. 
Parker, J. H., New Plymouth. 

Beeve, Wellwood, Tologa Bay, Gisbome N.Z. 

* Butland, Joshua, Canvastown, Marlborough, N.Z. 

* Boy, B. B., Taita, Wellington, N.Z. 
Beweti, Bu, Opua, Auckland, N.Z. 
Boy, J. B., New Plymouth, N.Z. 
Boberts, W. H. S. Newborough, Oamaru 

* Smith, W. W., F.E.S.. Ashburton, Canterbuiy, N.Z. 

* Shand, A., Chatham Islands 

* Smith, F. S., Gisbome, N.Z. 

* Smith, M. C, Survey Department, Wellington, N.Z. 

* Smith, S. Percy, F.B.G.S., New Plymouth, N.Z. 
Smith, H. Guthrie, Eaimoe, Patutahi, Gisborne 

* Stout, Hon. Sir B., K.C.M.G., Chief Justice, Wellington, N.Z. 

* Skinner, W. H., Survey Department, New Plymouth, N.Z. 
Saxton, Henry Waring, F.L.S., New Plymouth, N.Z. 
Smith, T. H., Grafton Boad, Auckland, N.Z. 

Scott, Prof. J. H., M.D., F.B.S.E., Otago University, Dunedm, N.Z. 

Stainton, W., Mokoia, Woodville, N.Z. 

Smith, Hon. W. 0., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 

Spencer, W. E., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

Ssunuel, Oliver, New Plymouth, N.Z. 

* Tregear, E., F.B.Hist.S., Wellington, N.Z. 

* Testa, F. J., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands 
Tumbull, A. H., Bowen Street, Wellington, N.Z. 
Tinline, J., Nelson, N.Z. 

Way, Bight Hon. Sir Samuel James, Bart., P.C., Chief Justice, Adelaide, S.A. 

* Webster, J., Hokianga, N.Z. 

* Wilkinson, G. T., Otorohanga, Auckland, N.Z. 

* Wheeler, W. J., Survey Office, Auckland, N.Z. 

* Williams, Bight Bev. W. L., D.D., Bishop of Waiapu, Napier, N.Z. 

* Wright, A. B., Survey Department, Auckland, N.Z. 
WiUiams, Bev. H. W., M.A., Gisbome, N.Z. 
Williams, J. N., Frimley, Hastings, Hawke's Bay, N.Z. 
White, Taylor, Wimbledon, Hawke's Bay, N.Z. 
Wilson, A., Survey Office, Auckland, N.Z. 

Wilcox, Hon. G. N., Kauai, Hawaiian Islands 

Watt, Bev. W., Tanna, New Hebrides 

Williams, F. W., Napier, N,Z. 

Wallis, Bight Bev. F., D.D., Bishop of Wellington, N.Z. 

Whitney, James L., Public Library, Dartmouth, Boston, U.S.A. 

Woodworth, W. McM., Museum Comp. Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

Webster, W. D., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

Walker, Ernest A., M.D., New Plymouth, N.Z. 

* Yoang, J. L., o/o Henderson A Macfarlane, Auckland, N.Z. 

PRESIDENTS (Past and Present). 

1892-1894— H. G. SethSmith, MA. 

1896-1896— Bight Bev. W. L. WUliams, M.A., D.D. 

1897-1898-The Bev. W. T. Habens, B.A. 

1899-1900— J. H. Pope. 

1901-1908— E. Tregear, F.B.H.S., Ao. 

19041906— S. Percy Smith, F.B.G.S. 


THB foUowiog is the list of Societies, Ac, Ac, to which the Joubhal is sent, 
and from most of which we receive exchanges. There is a tacit under- 
standing that several Public Institutions are to receive our publications free, so long 
as the New Zealand Government allows our correspondence, Ac, to go free by post. 

Agent-General of New Zealand, 13 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 

Anthropologische, Ethnographische, etc., etc., Gesellschraft, Vienna, Austria. 

Anthropologie, Soci^t^ d', 15, Bue Ecole de Medicin, Paris. 

Anthropologia, Museo Zoologica, Florence, Italy. 

Anthropological Society of Australia, c/o Board of International Exchanges 

Anthropological Institute of Great Britain, 3 Hanover Square, London, W. 
Anthropologie, Ecole d', 15 Bue Ecole de Medicin, Paris. 
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, University, Sydney. 
Ante (Te) Students Association, The College, Te Ante, Hawke's Bay, N.Z. 
American Oriental Society, 235, Bishop Street, Newhaven, Conn., U.S.A. 

Bataviaasch Genootschap, Batavia, Java. 

Buddhist Text Society, 86/2 Jaun Bazaar Street, Calcutta. 

Blenheim Literary Institute, Blenheim, N.Z. 

Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 

Bemice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu, H.I. 

Canadian Institute, 46 Richmond Street East, Toronto. 
Cambridge Philosophical Society, Cambridge, England. 

Faculty des Sciences de Marseilles, Marseilles, France. 

General Assembly Library, Wellington, N.Z. 

Geographic, Soci6t6 de, de Paris, Boulvard St. Germain 184, Paris. 

Historical Society, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. 

Institute, The Auckland, Museum, Auckland, N.Z. 
Institute, The Philosophical, Christchurch, N.Z. 
Institute, The Philosophical, Wellington, N.Z. 
Institute, The Otago, Dunedin, N.Z. 

Japan Society, 20 Hanover Square, London, W. 

Eongl, Vitterhets Historic och Antiqvitete Akademen, Stockholm, Sweden. 
Eoninklijk Instituut, 14, Van Galenstraat, The Hague, Holland. 

Literary and Historical Society, Quebec, Canada. 

Museum, Christchurch. 
Museum, The Australian, Sydney. 
Minister of Education, Wellington. 
Minister, Bight Hon. the Premier, Wellington. 
Minister, Hon. The Colonial Secretary, Wellington. 

Na Mata, Editor, Suva, Fiji. 


Public Library, New Pljrmoath, N.Z. 

Public Library, Auckland. 

Public Library, Wellington. 

Public Library, Melbourne. 

Public Libraiy, Sydney. 

Peet, Bey. S. D., Pk.D., Editor of '*The American Antiquarian," 5817, MadiMn 
Avenue, Chicago. 

Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology, Hanrard University, Cam- 
bridge, U.SJL. 

Beading Boom, Botorua, N.Z. 

Boyal Gteographical Society, 1 Saville Bow, London. 

Boyal Geographical Society of Australasia, Brisbane. 

Boyal Geographical Society of Australasia, c/o G. Collingridge, Waronga 

Boyal (Geographical Society of Australasia, 70 Queen Street, Melbourne. 
Boyal Geographical Society of Australasia, Adelaide. 
Boyal Society, Burlington House, London. 
Boyal Society of New South Wales, 5 Elizabeth Street, Sydney. 
Boyal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 87 Park Street, Calcutta. 
Boyal Colonial Institute, Northumberland Avenue, London. 
Beal Academia de Ciencias y Artes, Barcelona, Spain. 

Smithsonian Listitution, Washington. 

8oci6t6 Neuchateloise de Geographic, Neuch&tel, Switserland. 

Secretary, General Post Office, Wellington. 

Secretary (Under) Colonial Secretary's Department, Wellington. 

Secretary (Under) Justice (Native), Wellington. 

Wisooniin Academy of Science and Arts, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A. 



UM at New PlymotUh, N.Z., 3Ut March, 1905. 

Ttn& adjourned Annual Meeting was held as above, the President (Mr. S. Percy 
Sniith) in the ohair, the following members being present :— Messrs. W. L. 
Newman, W. Kerr, J. H. Parker, F. P. Corkill, W. D. Webster, and W. H. Skiniier. 

The Minutes of the last Annual Meeting, together with the Annual Report and 
Balance Sheet, were read and confirmed, and ordered to be printed in the next 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : — President, S. Percy 
Smith ; Secretary, W. ti. NeWman ; Council, Messrs. W. Kerr, M. Frazer, and W. L. 
Newman ; Hon. Auditor, W. D. Webster. 

The following new members were elected : — 

866. Honorary Member— Professor A. H. Keane, F.R.G.S., '• Aram gah," 

79, Broadhurst Gardens, South Hampstead, London, N.W. 
367. Corresponding Member — Major H. P. Tunui-a-rangi, Taranganui, 

Martinborough, N.Z. 
868. Ordinary Member — R. H. Ashoroft, care of Taupo Timber Company, 
Litchfield, N.Z. 
At a previous Council meeting, Mr. W. H. S. Roberts (365), of Newborough, 
Oamara, N.Z., was elected an ordinary member. 



Preunted to the adjourned A nnnal Meeting, 31st March, 1905, in terms of Rule No. 31. 

IN presenting its Thirteenth Annual Iteport the Council desires to congratulate 
members on the continued well-being of the Society. No incident of any 
importance has marked our proceedings, but matters have, as ever, gone smoothly on, 
whilst we may fairly claim that the object for which the Society was founded has 
made some progress. Our quarterly Joubnal has appeared not quite so regularly as 
daring the preoeeding year, dae to the continued absence of the Editor, but it is 
hoped that the ensuing year will see a return to its normal conditions in that respect. 
Vdume Xm. contains a few more pages than the preceeding one, and a good many 
iUustrations. It has often been stated that the size of the Journal might be 
inereased, as there is plenty of matter on hand, if some of our members would assist 
in translating the many papers we possess, some of which are of great value, and 
should be rendered available for members. There are over twenty members of the 
Society who are competent Maori scholars, and who might undertake some of this, 
and thus relieve the Editor of some of this onerous work. 


The Society has, for some years, been without a Patron — indeed, ever since Her 
Majesty Liliuokalani, ex-Queen of Hawaii, ceased to hold her high office as Queen of 
that group — but during the year His Excellency Lord Plonket, (Governor of New 
Zealand, has most graciously consented to accept this office. 

In our last year's report we referred to the new Maori Dictionary, which the Rev. 
H. W. Williams has in hand. We learn that fair progress is being made in the 
matter, and that many contributions from gentlemen who have made collections of 
words have been received, and others promised. As Mr. Williams proposes visiting 
Capetown during this year, advantage was taken of this opportunity to request the 
Bight Hon. the Premier to put Mr. Williams in communication with the Premier of 
the Cape, with a view to his ascertaining the value of the Qrey collection of Maori 
documents, now at the Capetown Library. It is hoped that the short time at Mr. 
William's disposal at the Cape will enable him to obtain some idea of what the value 
of the collection is for, at least, philological purposes. 

We regret that death has removed some of our members during the year, amongst 
whom may be mentioned Te Kahui Kararehe, of Bahotu, Taranaki, a former con- 
tributor to the Journal; and John Fraser, LL.D., of Maitland, N.S.W., a frequent 
contributor to our Transactions. 

On the 1st January, 1905, our numbers stood as follows : — 

Patron . . 1 

Honorary Members . . . . 8 

Corresponding Members . . . . 16 

Ordinary Members .. .. 164 


This shows a decline of six members as compared with the previous year, and is 
due to the fact of a considerable number of members having been struck off the roll 
for non-payment of subscriptions. 

Our financial position is much as it was in previous periods, as a glance at the 
Accounts attached will show. Our total receipts (with balance from last year) were 
£179 8s. 3d., whilst the expenditure was £138 4s. 6d., leaving a balance in hand of 
£41 3s. 9d., all of which was required to meet liabilities. The Capital Account 
increased by £18 9s. 5d. The members in arrear were : — One year, 18 ; two years, 
13 ; representing a sum amounting to £44. 























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VOL. XIV., 1905. 









By Elsdon Best, of Tuhoe Land. 

Part I. — Continued 

The Ngau Paepae Bite. 

THE singular performance known by the above name is one of the 
most extraordinary customs of a strange people — extraordinary even 
for a Maori. It consists of causing a sick person to bite (ngau) 
the beam of a latrine, with which native villages were provided in 
former times. By sick person is meant any one suffering from hara 
(transgression of laws of tapu) or of witchcraft, i.e., any person afflicted 
by the gods ; and the vast majority of ills, pains, and diseases were 
so caused, according to Maori ideas. The one idea which seems to 
pervade this ancient rite seems to be that the paepae hamuti, or latrine, 
which is very tapu and possesses great mana (power, prestige) holds the 
power of being able to prevent or avert the effect of the anger of the 
gods and the shafts of magic, which latter, although directed by man 
are really carried out by the gods. 


It is not the intention to here give all matter connected with this 
subject, which would lead into many byways in which, I believe, are 
traces of an ancient system of phallic worship, or of a recognition of 
and belief in the male and female forces — the active and the passive — 
as applied to the universe. My notes on these matters are getting 
somewhat numerous ; we will reserve them for a future paper, giving 
here some explanation of how such beliefs influenced the treatment of 
the sick. 

These rites performed at the latrine are described as a whiti i te 
mate (averting the evil of death or sickness), or as a parepare, which 
means the same thing, or as a ripa, which signifies to deprive the gods 
of power, to put bounds to their power for evil. But the general term 
for the rite is ngau paepae. An old man said to me, " The paepae is 
the tangata matua, it is the hau ora of man. It is the destroyer of 
man ; it is the saviour of man." Should a person be going on a 
journey he will first be conducted to the latrine and caused to bite 
the beam thereof. That will avert the magic arts of those he is going 
amongst. Persons going through this rite always stand in front of the 
bar, for that is, life. The other side, the rear of the bar, is death, and is 
termed kouka. It is the Po,-' it is the rua iti, it is the realm of Hine- 
nui-te-Po. When performing rites of magic at the paepae whereby to 
slay man the performer stands at the front of the bar, for that is the 
world of life. Should the wairua (spirit) of his enemy cross to the 
Iconka^ it will assuredly be destroyed. 

But that sick person has yet to be cured. In the evening, when 
the sun has set, the priest conducts his patient to the paepae. They 
place themselves before the bar, the priest saying, ^^Engau to waha Id te 
paepae ^' i.^., commanding the person to bite the bar, which he does. 
The priest repeats : — 

** Ea kai koe ki tua 

Ea kai koe ki te paepae 

£ takoto nei 

Eoia nga tapu 

Eoia Dga popoa 

Eoia nga whare 

Eoia nga urunga 

Eoia nga tapu nei. 

He atua kahu koe 

Haere i taa 

Haere i waho 

Haere i te rangi nui e tu nei 

Mahihi ora 

Ei te whai ao 

Ei te ao marania 

Eo rou ora." 

They then return home ; the rite i« over. 
* I.e., Hades, the realm of darkneis. 


It is said that the demon who has been afflicting the person would 
sometimes be seen to leave his body and fly ofif into space, and in the 
gathering shades of night a shower of bright objects would be seen 
flying off, these being the offspring of the expelled demon. 

When a person had been guilty of trespassing on a sacred place, 
such as already explained, the iigau paepae rite will take the tapu off 
him and save him from the effects of his act, Le,, save him from being 
afflicted by the gods. Here is the sort of karakia used on such 
occasions : — 

" Ngaua i te pae 

Ngaua i te wehi 

Ngaua i te upoko o te atua 

Ngaua i a rangi e tu nei 

Ngaua i a papa e takoto nei 

Whakapa koe ki te ruahine 

Eia whakaorangia koe 

E tahito uuku, e tahito rangi 

£ tahito pamamao 

Ki Tawhiti i Hawaiki." 

In time of war any interference with tapu objects, persons, or 
places has the effect of causing the person to be afflicted by Tu-mata- 
rehurehu, i.e., he will become nervous, apprehensive, listless, and also 
lose his power of second sight ; hence he will be of no use in the fray. 
These afflictions may, however, be cured by the above rite, or by the 

Km Ure. 

Anyone suffering from the numerous ills caused by witchcraft 
might be cured by the process or charm known as kai ure. Or it 
may be utilised in order to ward off the shafts of magic, which you 
believe some person to be directing against you. In repeating this spell 
or charm the reciter must clasp his niemhram virile iu his left hand. 
The following is a specimen of the incantation used — possibly not 

Ka rere te ringa maui ki te hopu it te tawhitOy ka titoii-ia, ka 

karakia atu : — 

*' Kai ure nga atua 
Kai ure nga tapu 
Kai ure on makutu." 

Another kai ure spell is that beginning : — 
*' Whakataha ra koe 
£ te anewa o te rangi e tu nei 
He tawhito to makutu 
£ homai nei kei taku ure." &q. 

Which averts or wards off the magic arts, and after which is recited 
the tuaimu spell, in order to destroy the wizard : — 
•' Kei te imu te ruhi 
Kei te imu te mate." Ac, 


These incantations have abeady been given in full in a former 
paper on " Maori Magic."* 

Another " warding-oflf " spell commences : — 
"Kai ure 
Kara ki whakataha te mate 
Taa e patu ai ko taku ure." 

Whakanoho Manawa. 

The rite or invocation known by the above name was for the 
purpose of causing the breath of life to be retained by a dying person , 
and it is said that it was used to restore to life those who had died. 
Information regarding the actions of the priest are lacking, but below 
are given specimens of the invocations repeated : — 

*' Eo to manawa, ko taku manawa 
Heuea mai 

Tutakina mai to manawa 
Hoki mai ki roto nei 
He urunga, he tapu 
Eei te whiua, kei te taia 
Mata taitaia te ibi nei 
Mata taitaia te atua e patu nei 
Haere i tua, haere i waho 
Haere i le pu, baere i te more 
Ka whiwhia ka rawea 
Ea puta ki te whai ao, 
Ei te ao marama 
Eg rou ora." 

He karakia wliakanoho i te manawa o te tupapaku : A charm to 
cause the breath of life to be retained by the sick. 

*' Eo to manawa 
Eo taku manawa 
Ea turuturua, ka ponpoua 
Ei tawhito o te rangi — e 
Eo wai te atua e patu nei ? 
Eo moana nui, ko moana roa 
Eo moana to takiritia 
Ei te whai ao 
Ei te ao marama 
Ea uru U) ora, ka uru ki roto 
Ea uru to mat#, ka uru ki waho 
Uru, ton) hoi." 

The following example \h a gooil ono. A reference to the wluire 9 
attiitf, heretofore mentioned, may Ih* obHorvtHl therein. 
Eai hoa to pii o to luato 7 
Eai run|{a, kai ram 
Eal te hikahika mii no Hlno nuito Po 

* See " Nga Moteatea," p. AOA, for an iiitoroMlinK J^ai nr^. 


Wetekina i runga, wetekina i raro 
Wetekina i te ate 
Wetekina i te manawa 
No hea te atua ? 
No ruDga, no raro te atua 
He tipua koe, he tawhito au 

Wetea mai te whiwhi 
Wetea mai te hara 
Wetea kia matara, kia mawheto 
Tawhito te rangi te taea 
Tia hara nui, hara roa 
Kati te riri 

Rati te patu e te atua 
Ka pikitia e koe te tuahu nei 
Ka kakea e koe te ihi tapu 
Pikipiki, kakekake 
Kia kite koe i te hua mokimoki 
Tu te rupe, tu te kawa 
Ko te kawa i numinumia ai 
Ki te pa tuatahi, ki te pa tuarua 
Ka haramai, ka whakakiki ahu mai 
Ahu mai ki te ao marama 
Mo te ao ano koe 
Kai hea to ara e piki ni koe? 
Kai te rangi tuatahi, kai te rangi tuarua 
Kai te rangi tuatoru, kai te rangi tuawha 
Kai te rangi tuarima, kai te rangi tuaono 
Kai te rangi tuawhitu 
Tukua atu tama kia puta ki te ao 
He ohorere te tokomanri 
Tihe mauri ora ki te ao marama." 
The following is said to be a charm or invocation to ward off all 
evils from the people. The last lines are those of a charm to heal 


'* Tua mai te whiwhia 
Tua mai te rawea— oi ! 
Hao ki uta 

Hao ki te rangi nui e tu nei — oi ! 
Haere ki waenga tapu 
Tapu ihi, tapu rangi 
Toro i rangi 
Tonoa mai te pu 
Tonoa mai te more 
More ki tua, more ki waho ra 
Hukia mai te ihi 
Hukia mai te hata papatea 
Korihi te manu 
Korihi te po, te ata haea 
Huna mai te ruruku 
Kohera mai te ruruku 
Uru ki tua, nru ki waho 
Kei te awhenga, kei a tutaka rewa 
Mahu akuanei, m%hu apopo, 
Mahu a takiritanga o te uaua (? ata) 
Toro hei." 


A charm known as titikura was used by the priests of old to 
restore persons to health. 

When you have been compelled by the exigency of war to strike 
down a relative, and you do not desire that he shall die, you expectorate 
into your hand and then rub the spittle on the prostrate body of your 
relative, repeating as you do so — 
'* Mao ka hoki mai 

Hoki mai ki te ao nei." 

(Return to this world —, to life.) 
For in war time you are under tapu, and hence your saliva is also tapu 
and possesses power, both healing and destructive. A warrior spits on 
his weapon when repeating a charm to make its thrust or blow effective. 
A tree-feller spits into the kerf or scarp in order that his arms may not 
become weary. 

Speaking of the Aboona, or Archbishop of Abyssinia, Winwood 
Beade, in his ** Martyrdom of Man," says — ** This ecclesiastic is 
regarded with much reverence. ... by way of a blessing he spits 
upon his congregation, who believe that the episcopal virtue resides m 
the saliva." 

We have seen that, when a person's illness has been caused by 
magic, the priest can identify the individual who performed the magic 
rite, either at the water side or at the paepae. But if the person be 
dead when the priest arrives, then he will find out who caused his 
death when the body is buried, either when the grave is being prepared 
or when the body is being placed in it, or sometimes afterwards. 

Affections of the throat were thought to be caused by the eating 
of sacred food, such as that prepared for the tapu persons who were 
engaged in burying the dead, or in exhuming the bones thereof. 

A choking person was relieved by means of such charms as the 
following, the sufferer being slapped on the back at the time of 
repetition : — 

" Eaitoa ano koc kia raoa 

Nau ka ngau mai, n^au mai 

Nan ka ngau atu, ngau atu 

Te horo a te kawau 

Horo mania, horo panuku 

Horo, puhaina mai ki waho.*' 
or the following : — 

**T« whai whiti raoa, tapa raoa 

Kaitoa koe kiu raoa 

Na to kai tu, na to kai rero 

Nft to kai haore 

Na to kai tama-wahine 

E hia ou kai ? 

E rua ou kai 

I horomia e koe 

Ko nini, ko nana 


Eo te patari o Wahieroa 
Tama wahine, whakaraakina 
Baoa ki waho 

Hokaikai ana ou ringaringa 
Hokaikai ana ou waewae 
Hotu nuku, hotu rangi 
Hotu pakia 
l^au mai ki waho 
Charms for the relief of choking and those to cure burns and 
wounds all come under the generic term of whai. 

The Maori can stand a good deal in the way of wounds. He 
recovers from severe wounds very often in a most surprising manner, 
as I myself have seen. Tales are told of the warriors of old 
and how they often fought on, though severely wounded : How Pa-i-te- 
rangi fought Tapoto, of Te Kareke, until eight spear wounds brought 
him down ; how Te Ika-poto, of Tuhoe, received six spear wounds in 
the desperate affair at Papakai, and then managed to escape from the 
victors of that Homeric combat ; how Kai-namu, of Te Arawa, received 
six wounds from musket balls at Te Ariki, and lived." 

I have heard natives state that half-castes sometimes die from the 
effects of slight wounds. 

In regard to wounds, there were formerly two methods of treating 
such. One was the time-honoured mode of the neolithic Maori — viz., 
by rite and charm. The other was by the use of certain simples, which 
we will describe in the latter part of this paper. 

If a person cut himself, say with a atone adze while working, he 
would first apply the implement with which he cut himself to the 
wound, and then repeat a charm such as the following, in order to stop 
the flow of blood and cause the wound to heal : — 
'* Te whai one tuataa, one taitaia 

Te haehaea, ko te piere 

Te ngawha, to katikati 

Torokina, toro wheua 

Toro katikati te nana 

E mahu, e mahu — e ! 

Werowerohia atu nei taku tao 

Werowerohia ai Utupaoa. 

E te toto poari, nau mai ki waho 

E te toto potango, nan mai ki waho 

Kinikini, panapana 

Ko mata te hakuwai 

Ki wai ora, ki wai te mumuhu 

Te ara maomao, te tini kai mata 

Ki te ara ki Otuimnkia (?) 

Ka puta kai waho kai te mokopu roa 

E mahu — e ! 

E mahu -e!" 

* See St. John's ** Pakeha Rambles through Maori Lands," p. 29, for some 
good instaoees of Maori fortitude. 


Here is another whai charm for healing wounds : — 

*' Te whai one taatoa, one taitaia 
Eo te piere, ko te ngawha 
Eo te kapi ka — pi 
Mahu akuanei, mahu apopo 
Koi tae mai ki to kiri tipu 
Ei to kiri era, ki to mataniho 
Eai tai rori i tai pupu 
Tenei le rangi ka ruraku 
Bnkatia i o kiko 
I o toto, i o aaua 
E mahn— e ! " 

And yet another : — 

" He nonota, he karawa, he an ika 
Eo Tane tatakina te iwi 
Tane tutakina te nana 
Tane tutakina te kiko 
Tane tutakina te kiri 
Tane tutakina te parapara 
Tane tutakina te kapiti rangi 
£ mahu akuanei 
E mahu apopo 
E mahu a takiritanga o te ata." 

In the case of a broken limb, a piece of manuka bark was placed 
lengthways on the limb so as to cover the fracture, and then wrapped 
round the limb and tied, and there left until the bone set. The 
process, however, was expedited by the repeating of a charm known as 
a hono. 

The following is a very ancient method of treating a person who 
has been wounded, or has a bone fractured, or has been bruised by a 
fall, etc. The priest would proceed to takahi the sufferer —t.<?., he 
would, as the person lay on the ground, place his left foot on his body, 
and repeat the invocation, termed haniru: — 

**Harura ki tua 
Haruru ki waho 
Haruru ki runga ki tenei tangata." 

The priest then repeats the following charm, termed a hono, 
(Were it a bum he would refMnvt the ivhai wera,) 

Ka tu ki hoa 7 
Ka lu lei runga 
Ka tu ki wahu 

Ka tu ki te imiia nui o rangi 
Ma wai ft niiini ? 
Ma tahitn i« tnimi 
Ma wai fi tnimi 7 
Ma t«< ntiia n niinii 
Taku kiri nni 
Taku kiii tapii 
Hit kiri ka tortona 


Ka hahaea ki te taha o te nmn 


Ka toro te kiri ora 

Ka mahu te kiri ora 

Mahumahu akaanei 

Mahumahu apopo." 

The priest places his left foot on the patient's body because that 
foot is tapu. The manea of his left foot will give power, efficacy, etc., 
to the rite. Manea is a term applied to the hau of the human foot 
and footstep. It is the sacred vital principle, prestige, power, of that 
member. The manea is the caretaker and salvation of man ; its 
influence is very great. 

The following is a charm repeated in order to cure a burn. It is 
termed a what wera, and is said to have originated with Tawhaki, a 
remote ancestor who possessed strange powers. 
•• Te whai, te whai 

Te turitakn, te poko taringa 

Te mahine mataa. 

I wera koe ki bea ? 

I wera ki Tarahanga a ue Tawhaki 

Hoki takn tama 

Ka tokia to kiri ki te wai ti 

Ki te wai ta* 

Ka ka te motamota 

Ka ka te Dgarahu 

He wera iti te wera 

He wera rahi te wera 

He wera kaupapa 

Maha akaanei, mahu apopo 

Mahu a tikiritanga o te ata." 

Splints for fractured bones were sometimes made of the thick leaf 
base of phormium tenax. 

Part II. 

We now come to the second part of our paper — viz., the treatment 
of disease, wounds, etc., by various simple remedies. This part will 
not cover much space, inasmuch as the Maori of old relied principally 
upon his priest when attacked by sickness, and the priests did not 
deal in simples, herbal remedies, etc., but believed firmly that their 
cryptic karakia and strange rites were the sole means of saving the 
patient's life. Ridiculous as these beliefs were, it will yet be seen 
that we are not yet out of the wood ourselves, and holy relics, wells, 
etc., are still believed in by the superstitious. Our praying for rain 
and fasting are also survivals of barbarism which die hard. 

* Whai ti and whai ta in another version. 


In regard to the following account of the various simple remedies 
used by the natives, I am hy no means prepared to state that all such 
here given were used in olden times — 1.«., before the arrival of 
Europeans. In fact, I believe most of them to be modem, being based 
on the European methods of treatment of the sick. The use of simples 
was not encouraged in the days of old, for that would have lessened 
the power of the priests, who relied principally upon their absurd 
rites and incantations. For no Hippocrates had appeared to separate 
medicine (!) from theology, and shamanism was rampant. 

DiARRHcEA (Korere), 

Several native remedies obtain for this complaint. One consists 
of the lower part of the young undeveloped leaves of the toetoe plant. 
These are simply chewed. The young leaves of the kokomuka, a 
veronica, are also used in a similar manner, as also are the roots of the 
flax {jpJwrmium tenax). 

The bark of the manuka tree is also used for diarrhoea and 
dysentery. Pieces of the bark are boiled until the water is dark 
coloured, and this decoction is drunk. Here, again, superstition 
steps in. The aged lady who gave me this note states that just 
twelve pieces of bark must be used — neither more nor less — and they 
must all be cut of an even length and size. If this be not done, then 
the medicine will not be effective. The bark of the white manuka only 
is used, the branches of which are drooping and the leaves fragrant, 
and which is said by the natives to be the male tree {rakau toa). 

A diet of fern root causes severe constipation, in which a stick was 
often used to assist evacuation. 

Math Pokapoka. 

The above term is applied to diseases which eat into the flesh, and 
certain forms of venereal disease would come under this head. It is 
applied to patito (ringworm) and hura. The latter is a very disfiguring 
complaint, of which I do not know the European name, and seems 
generally to attack the neck and side of the head, which gets into a 
dreadful state. When cured it leaves the skin much marked, drawn 
and seamed. This complaint is also termed how. It is said to have 
been common here before the arrival of Europeans. 

The patito is here given as the name of an eruption on the head. 
It frequently attacks children. I have also heard that it is applied to 
ringworm. The following is the the local method of treating these 
complaints : — Some wood ashes are placed in a small vessel, and over 
them is poured a liquid made by boiling or steeping pieces of the bark 
of kowhai and manuka trees in water. This delightful mixture is 


stirred and allowed to dry, when it sets hard. When used, the skin 
is scored with a sharp instrument, and some of the block of ashes is 
scraped off and rubbed into the scored lines. This ash mixture is 
termed pureke. 

This scoring of the skin is very common among the natives. It is 
done for headache and almost any pains affecting the body. The skin 
is scored with a needle, and then either pain-killer or vinegar is rubbed 
in, as a rule. 

The above treatment of hura is probably modem, as the mate 
pokapoka are thought to be caused by Buamano, one of the gods, or 
rather demons, of the Tuhoean Pantheon, and divers other attia, or 
demons. Tarakumukumu is another demon of this class, and is the 
cause of the disease to which the same name is applied. It is a mate 
poka (ulcer) which appears ou the thighs. Bathing with hot water is 
the modern remedy. The papaka is another atiut, or disease of the 
mate poka class. It will heal up and then break out in another place. 
Deaths occur from it. It does not seem to have any special treatment. 
It is said to have originated with the Whatu-i-apiti people of Hawke's 

Mate Tokatoka. 

The above complaint is, I believe, what we term piles. One 
method of treating it is frequent bathing in a sulphur spring. The 
method employed in this district is for the person to sit over a small, 
smouldering fire of chips of totara wood. I am told that tokatoka is 
the same complaint as the pre-European paipai, or allied to it. Eating 
of taro causes, it is said, an intense itching of the anus with some 

Ngerenoere (Leprosy). 

This complaint is said to be peculiar to the Taupo district, but I 
give here the few notes I have obtained concerning it. It was 
unknown in Tuhoeland. The disease termed tuwhemta, mentioned 
in native tradition as having formerly afflicted the Ngati-Whatua 
tribe, may have been something similar. Ngei-enyere is a species of 

A singular belief exists among the old natives, that the n/ferengere 
disease is caused by the fish of the sea'*' and by the land birds. The 
aged Pio, of Ngati-Awa, said to me : — "Another atna (god, demon, 
affliction) of the Maori people is the ngerengere. No one recovers from 
that disease. The persons who destroy the Maori people by that 

* This belief seems to support a theory lately enunciated in the London Timet, 
to the effect that leprosy results from the eating of stale fish.— Ed. 


complaint are the fish of the ocean and the hirds of the land. I say 
that the ngerengere is a plebeian complaint, unlike the whewhe (boils) 
and hakihaki (cutaneous diseases), which are aristocratic complaints. 
If a person appears to be recovering from the ngerengere, that means 
that the cause of the disease has fled to the ocean, but ere long th^y 
will return and again assail the person. Then he will die. This 
disease was first introduced by the Ngati-Whatua tribe. It appeared 
at Taupo a long time ago, and the first person afflicted by it there was 
cast into a cave called Orerau." 

It is said that certain persons had the power of causing others to 
be afflicted by the ngerengere — t*.^., by means of a magic rite termed 
wero ngerengere. As the disease progressed, the person's extremities 
dropped off joint by joint. Some assert that Te Whetu, of Taupo, still 
possesses this power. 

Now, in an article on leprosy, contributed by M. Dastre, to a 
French magazine, the writer states that several experts have main- 
tained that the use of decayed fish and thirst-giving salted meats as 
food is one of the most efficacious causes of leprosy. 

The two songs here given were composed by Te Rohu, of Taupo, 
when he was attacked by the ngerengere : — 

'* Ea ura mai te ra, ka kohi au he mahara 
E hoa ma — E ! He aha tenei hanga, E te rau e pae 
Tirohia mai ra aku pewa i taarite 
Tenei ka titiko kai te ngara whakakeo 
£ tere i Taapo 

Eo te rite i taku kiri. ka ura mai i te rangi 
Ea riro aku taonga i a Te Anga-a-mai i tawhiti 
Tatata a Ngati-Whatua 
Whakarongo mai ra, E koro ! 
I Tongariro, i te puke ronuki 
To uru ki te whenua i niahue raatau 
Te tira o te taniwha 
Me i hurihia iho, e au aua taku moe 
Ei taku makau tipu — e ! " 

Te Anga-a-mai — or, perhaps, Te Anga, is said to be the name of 
the ancestor, who was the ariki of the ngerengere disease. 

A Lament. 

liy Te Rohu. He tangi nana, nutna c ngaiia ana e te ngerengere, 

" Tera te ata iti hohoro mai koia 
Matatu noa ana ko au nei anake 
Eai te mura tonu o te pu a Revri e ka ana 
E pa I I heria mai i tua 
Eia rongo atu au i te papa koura 
Hai taoro iho mo te kino 
I taku tinana ka tuaketia 
Ko tahau repera pai tonu tenei e te tangata 


Eo te tika i to pono 

Horahia mai ra, kia ui atu au 

Eo wai to iDgoa ? Eo te ana i Oremu 

Eo taa rakau kai te mata ngira tonu 

Te ngotonga ki roto ra 

Aue ! Te mamae ra ! " 

Tenga (Goitre). 

Goitre is common in this high lying district, but those afflicted 
by it are mostly women. No attempt seems to be made to cure it. 
The term tenga is a singular oue (here pronounced tena). It is applied 
to the Adam's apple of the throat, and also to a bird's crop. Only 
three cases of men being affected by goitre have I noted among this 
tribe, but many women have it, some of them being quite young girls. 

Whewhe (Boils). 

This appears to have been a fairly common complaint in former 
times. When ripe they are squeezed, so as to force the core (whatu) 
out, and in former times human milk was then applied. A sort of 
decoction made from the leaves of the kawakawa shrub (piper excelsum) 
is now used ; it is drunk as a blood purifier. It is probably a modern 
item. Another decoction, made from the rauriki plant, is also used to 
cure carbuncles and that sort of thing. Captain Mair relates a 
singular rite of yore connected with boils.'*' 

Tapoa is a name applied to an abscess, as also is maiao and 

Maki is applied to a scab. 

Huahua is applied to pimples or a rash on the skin. 

HoipUf a blister containing water. 

Murupo. This term is applied to a sort of rash which breaks out 
on the lips. It itches very much. Many small pimples (huahua) 
appear, and the lips feel hot and appear red. Then blisters (hovpu) 

The sap of a plant called parani^ a wild daisy, is used to cure an 
ulcerated (niaoa) mouth. Fronds of the kiwikiwi fern are chewed for 
sore mouth or tongue. 

The term mnte pukupuku is applied to any complaint in which the 
skin becomes rough or pimply (ka papa hueke katoa te kiri or papa 
uku). It includes kawakawa or low fever, and other complaints, such 
as measles. 

See Ahi tapoa, Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. 35, p. 30. 



Hakihaki, a severe form of itch, a skin disease, is common in this 
district, which is not to be wondered at ^hen one notices the native 
diet, mode of living, and aversion to soap and water. It is known as 
harehare among some tribes. This distressing malady was formerly 
treated by the use of a sort of lotion applied to the affected parts. 
The outer bark of the munono (coprosina grandifoliaj was scraped oflf 
that tree, and the inner bark obtained. This was squeezed in order to 
express the sap, which was applied as above, the affected parts being 
first rubbed with oil or fat in order to soften the same and expose the 
diseased parts. The sap of the Iwropito (drimys axillaris j shrub was 
also used to cure skin diseases. 

The paipaif another pre-European cutaneous disease, obtained 
here. It was cured by means of the smoke of a fire of totara wood, 
elsewhere described. The name has also been applied to gonorrhoea, 
introduced by Europeans. Remedies for the latter are the sap of the 
horopito, tobacco leaves, and the bark of the toromiro tree (podocarptu 

Koturetiire. — A venereal disease. It affects both sexes, and causes 
the skin of body and limbs to turn a hideous white, in large blotches. 
Copper filings from a penny are used to cure the kotureture. The 
natives pretend to believe that this disease is caused by eating the 
liver of the shark. Another method of treating this and other venereal 
diseases, as also piles, is to make a hole or short tunnel in an earth 
bank, with a small shaft for on outlet. A small smoky fire of chips or 
shavings of totara is made in this tunnel, the smoke escaping by the 
shaft, over which the person sits, covered with a sheet or old cloak, to 
prevent the smoke from escaping too rapidly. 

Pakewakewa, — If a woman uses her own or another woman's 
clothing for a pillow, she will be affected by the complaint known as 
pakewakewa. The skin of her face and neck will become rough 
(whekewheke), possibly pimply, or covered with eruptions. The pakeu>a- 
kewa, it is said, is followed by the kiri hoko or blotched skin, repulsive 
white patches appearing thereon (see under kotureture). Possibly the 
pakewaketca may be some form of venereal disease. Oil is rubbed on 
affected parts. It seems to me that syphilis is not nearly so prevalent 
among the natives as it was twenty or thirty years ago. 

Patuheni is said to be another name for the paipai Maori or 
original paipai (see ante). 

Mimi taeturi is applied to painful and difficult urination. The 
parts are bathed with water in which leaves of the hutiwai plant have 
been boiled. 


In cases of venereal disease a moss known as angiangi is steeped 
in water and placed on the affected parts. Faea (? fire) seems to be a 
term for gonorrhoea. It is accompanied by retention of urine. In 
these cases a plant known as maaive is boiled, and the water applied to 

The affections of the eyes which trouble the natives are probably 
caused by their mode of living — the smoky state of their huts in winter 

Torlwai, — This term is applied to a weakness of the eyes, in 
which state they are always watering. For anything of this nature the 
sap of the aka kura, a creeper, is used. A piece of the creeper is cut 
into short lengths, one end of which is placed in the mouth, and by 
blowing the sap is forced out at the other end. This is collected and 
applied to eyes. 

Toretore. — This is an inflammation probably. It is a redness of 
the corners of the eye. It does not affect the whole eye. The sap of 
the kopuktipnku plant is applied to the eyes. 

Kiritona, — This is what we term a sty on the eyelid. When niaoa, 
or ripe, it is squeezed to express the core {whatu or nganga), and 
human milk is then applied to the place. Another method of curing(!) 
a kiritona on the eye is simply to point the finger at is. Yet another 
is to hold, with both hands, a piece of fern stalk close to the affected 
eye, so as just to touch the kiritona. The stick is then bent until it 
snaps, while in that position. This process is repeated. My in- 
formant added — ** That will cure the kiHtona for a time, but it appears 

Paeh&na is a term applied to the discharge from sore eyes, or to 
the effect of it upon the skin adjacent. **Ka paehena katoa i waho o 
nga kanohi i te piraii,*' It sounds suspiciously like our word "poison.** 

Paua is a term applied to a light coloured spot, mark, or growth 
on the pupil of the eye. 

Eye complaints were sometimes said to be caused by atua kahu 
(see ante). 

Toothache (Niho tunga). 

Some singular cures for toothache are used by the natives, and the 
old people state that toothache has become much more common since 
the natives have become Europeanised — i.e., since the advent of the 
white man. One method of treating toothache is to place one end of a 
small stick against the tooth and then to strike the other end a smart 
tap with another stick. A Spartan -like remedy this. Another cure is 
for the person to hold some of his urine in his mouth for a time. This 
is done early in the morning. This is said to kill the ngarara (insect, 
grub, or reptile) which causes the pain, according to native belief. 


In olden times charms were repeated in order to cure toothache, as also 
others to cause children's teeth to grow. A modem cure is to place in 
the tooth a piece of the chestnut {maki) of a horse's leg, hut the patient 
must not see the article, or no cure will be effected. He must get 
some one else to procure it and place it in his mouth. Another way to 
cure toothache is to apply to the toothe a piece of the tough, leather- 
like cocoon of a kind of caterpillar which is found attached to branches 
of the manuka shrub. The sap of a plant known as kopukupuku and 
mdruru is also used. The leaves are clenched between the teeth of the 
suffering person, who is then told to sleep, and when he awakens the 
pain will have disappeared. But, as in the former case, the sufferer 
must not see the leaves, or they will lose their virtue. A piece of the 
bark of the ngaio tree {myoporum Imtum) is also used as a cure for 
toothache, and I think that I have heard, on the West Coast, of 
pukatea bark being used for the same purpose. 

In cases of difficult menstruation a decoction made from flax root 
and a creeper called aka taramoa is used. Another medicine used for 
the same is made from the bark and berries of the rohutu tree. 

Wounds, etc. 

A decoction made by boiling in water pieces of bark of the rata 
tree {fnetrosideros rohusta) is said to be an old time lotion for wounds. 
Another lotion for a like purpose is made from the barks of the rimu 
fdacrydium cupressinumj and tawa ( nesodaphne taiva) trees, the bark of 
the former being cut into pieces and that of the latter scraped, and the 
whole then boiled or steeped in water, together with some leaves of 
the tutu shrub (coriaria ruscifolia). 

In preparing such things in former times either stone boiling 
{huahua) or steeping in water was practised. 

Another such lotion is made from a plant called namunamti 
(geranium molle), Mr. Cheeseman informs me that this plant is 
probably an introduced one, but that opinions differ on the subject. 
The namunamu and piripiri, and sometimes other herbs, are boiled or 
steeped in hot water, and the water is used to apply to open wounds, 
or rubbed on as an embrocation for contusions. It is said to be an 
antiseptic. The leaves are also applied as a poultice. 

An infusion of the barks of the kowhai and manuka trees is drunk 
for internal pains and applied outwardly for pains in the back or side. 

Children apply the sap of dock leaves (paewhtnua) to abrasions. 
If I can trust my memory through long years, we used to rub dock 
leaves on the hand when stung by a bee. 


When women have been tramping the rocky beds of these moun- 
tain streams engaged in netting the somnolent kokopu, they find their 
feet (the women's, I mean) sore from treading on rough and sharp 
stones. To ease this feeling they heat leaves or plants at a fire and 
apply them as a sort of dry poultice, the process being known as tdpL 

Wounds are sometimes cauterised, a piece of half dry pirita 
(supplejack, a creeper, rhipogonum scandens), being burned at one end 
held close to the wound. 

In the case of a cut, or any slight wound, a native will often 
urinate on the same, believing that it will prevent swelling or in- 
flammation. This is a very old method. 

A sort of embrocation, applied outwardly for divers aches and 
pains, is made by steeping pieces of rata bark in cold water until the 
latter is discoloured. It is, however, necessary that the person who 
procures the bark does so early in the morning, and no member of the 
household may eat or smoke until he returns, or the medicine will lose 
its virtue. 

In cases where a swelling appears in the groin, as from a wound 
in foot, etc., two cooking stones are obtained from the nearest steam 
oven. One of these stones is held on the swelling while it is struck 
with the other stone. This will cure the swelling — at least so say the 

To restore a person apparently drowned, the process known as 
whakapua is employed. The person is held so that the smoke of a fire 
will enter his nostrils, which will bring him to {ka ketu ake te manawa). 

Pimples, termed huahua, are simply squeezed when ripe. 

Kopito is a term applied to pains in the stomach. 

Hawaniwani is a skin disease which affects children. It is said to 
be cured by applications of the sap of the veronica and hangehanye 

Natives are affected by two kinds of worms, termed nyaio and iro. 
Some assert that both are modern complaints. The ngaio is so named 
because it resembles a worm of that name found sometimes in the 
kokopu fish and in the kaka bird. Both these worms are collected when 
passed, and cast into a fire. Should they burn with a slight report or 
explosion, that is a sign that the worms will soon leave the person. 
Should they not so explode, then the person will not get rid of them. 

The bark of the manono tree, a coprosma^ is crushed and applied to 
cuts and bruises. 

The water which exudes freely from a broken young shoot of the 
supplejack {rhipogonum scandens) is applied to wounds. 


A sort of steam bath was occasionally used by the Maori, in some 
cases by women suffering from soreness after parturition. When, 
having given birth to a child, milk does not flow from the mother^s 
breasts, they are bathed with warm water to cause the milk to flow and 
prevent the affection of those parts termed u taetaej in which the 
breasts get very bad. In cases of retention of the placenta, a modern 
custom is to make a decocfcion by boiling leaves of kopakopa (plantago 
major), clover, and puwha pororua, in which some salt is put. This is 
drunk by the sufferer, and everything will then come away. 

The disease termed hura^ before mentioned, commences its ravages 
on the neck, and extends upwards to the ears and downwards to the 
shoulders or armpits. Then, in some cases, death ensues. 

The placing of sick persons in cold water, immersion in streams, 
was, and is, a common habit, and seems to be done quite regardless of 
what the person's complaint may be. When the siege of the Matai pa^ 
at Waihora (Turanga), was lifted, the rescuers found the garrison in 
the most dreadful state from starvation, etc. So they collected the 
numerous sick and immersed them in the stream hard by — to cure 

The expression ahi mate (extinct fire) is applied to places where 
all the people are ill of some epidemic sickness and so cannot keep 
fires alight. It is the '' cold hearthstone " of Celtic peoples. 

We have already noted the disastrous effects of various epidemics 
which, at different times, decimated the Maori tribes. Captain Mair 
mentions one such which carried off great numbers of the aborigines of 
the Chatham Isles in 1839, and adds that in the same year a great 
plague of influenza committed great ravages among the New Zealand 

Some remarkably interesting, though brief, notes on disease 
among the Maori people, by Dr. Newman, will be found at p. 488 of 
Vol. Xn., Trans. N.Z. Inst. 


The poisonous substances in this district are the wharantfi, tutiij 
traoriki, d^nA piMpua-a-Autahi, The latter is a kind of toadstool, and, 
if eaten without being properly cooked, affected the eater severely. 
He would be unable to walk properly, but would stagger about {ka 
ruriruri te tangata nana i kai). This article was formerly wrapped in 
layers of rangiora leaves and baked in hot ashes. In modem times it 
has been boiled. These modes of cooking render it harmless. 

To cure a person poisoned by tutu berries, the old method was 
to place him bodily in the water, but in late times salt and water has 
come into use, presumably as an emetic. The poisonous properties of 

• See Trans. N.Z. Init., Vol. III., p. 812. 


the tutu berries are termed huurua, and are said to be contained in the 
seeds. The sufferers were usually children, and, when affected, their 
bodies would be immersed in a stream. They would sometimes 

The waorikij a swamp plant, is poisonous to animals, and the 
honey of the blossoms is also poisonous, and sometimes causes death. 
It appears to bloom in the fall of the year. Tatu, of Tuhoe, died of 
eating some waoriki honey. A companion took a dose of painkiller 
and recovered. 

The leaves and honey of the wharangi shrub are poisonous. 
Horses poisoned by it are sometimes cured by being bled, or running 
them about until they sweat profusely. 

The bite of the katipo spider is treated by the whakapua process 
already described — i.e., by holding the person in the smoke of a fire. 
Some state that the sufferer was first placed in a stream. 

The placing of sick persons in cold water appears to have been 
always a habit of the Maori, and doubtless has caused many deaths. 

The wound inflicted by a sting-ray was, I have heard, treated in 
some way with the para of that fish, though what that particular para 
may be, I know not. 

Insanity was formerly believed to have been caused by the gods, 
and such persons were often credited with possessing powers of second 
sight. It is also believed that persons were sometimes rendered insane 
by magic arts, as a punishment for theft. Insane persons often wander 
aimlessly about, repeating meaningless words or sentences. Others are 
said to become insane through being possessed of a kikokiko — 1.«., the 
spirit of a dead person. An insane person is here termed a keka. 

Delirium in sickness is termed kutukutu ahi and kuawa. It is said 
to be the aimless talking of the wairua or spirit of the sick person, and 
is viewed as a fatal sign. 

A tradition of this district is that it was Irakewa, father of Toroa, 
of Matatna, who introduced disease into this island. Irakewa and 
Wairakewa were probably the same person. He seems to have visited 
this country in some mysterious manner just before the coming of the 
Matatua canoe. Before the arrival of these voyagers it is said that 
disease was unknown here — a dubious statement. 

Suicide was by no means a rare cause of death among the natives 
in former times. The women seem to have been more given to suicide 
than the men. They sometimes committed suicide on the death of a 
husband, or on being deserted by a husband, or when made the subject 
of ridicule. A woman of the Arawa tribe committed suicide by 
jumping into a boiling spring, because her husband had favoured 
another woman. 


We will DOW proceed to note a few customs, expressions, etc. 
applying to sickness, as collected in this district : — 

When a native is taken ill away from his own home, it has ever 
been a common thing to carry him back to his own place, there to 
recover or die, as the case may be. The most probable reason for this 
is the desire that he shall die and be buried on his own lands. I have 
known sick persons and bodies of the dead to be so carried on litters 
{amo) for forty miles over this very rough country, and seen dying 
children carried on men's backs when every movement must have been 
agony to them. I have, moreover, encountered bitter hostility when 
endeavouring to dissuade the people from moving children in such 
a state. 

When Te Puehu was taken ill at Oputao, it was resolved that he 
should be carried to his own place lower down the valley. When the 
bearers arrived at the descent to the Rua-tahuna stream tliey stopped 
to rest, putting the litter on the ground while they did so. Afterwards 
a post was carved a la Maori and set up at that spot, and a small shed 
built over it. When the shed decayed another was built. On the post 
were suspended articles obtained from European traders, such as 
pieces of bright coloured cloth, handkerchiefs, etc. Another such post 
was set up at Te Whakatakanga o Te Piki, where the bearers also 
rested. The latter post was destroyed by the Native Contingent 
during Whitmoro's raid on Tuhoeland in 1869, but the other one still 
stands. This custom no longer obtains. 

The reason of thus marking the above places so was that they 
were tapft ; an important chief had lain there when at death's door. 
The })ost set up is termed a Uiapa, It will be fully explained 
in a future paper on " Death and Burial." 

Tapohe is a term applied to the polluting of persons, etc., by 
placing tapK objects in common places. The placing of the food, or 
remains of food, of a taim person in a conmion place — /.<*., a place not 
tapiif would be a tapn/n'. If it happens to be the maafuja (remains of 
a meal) of a sick person, the invalid will have a relapse, and the 
person who coniinitted the dread act of tapohc will also be taken ill. 
If a sacred oven is tapoluiia, it s^k'IIs death for the offender, unless he 
takes time by the forlock and hies him to the priest, or a mCitdmua^ 
who may shrive liini of his sin. 

\Vhakaheht\- This is what we would term a change of air. When 
a person is ill, and the priest or wise man sees that the cause of his 
illness is located where lu' is residing, he tells him to go away to 
another place, and ther^' live for a year or two. The trouble will not 
assail him there. This refers to illness causeil by atmi or malevolent 
spirits, witchcraft, etc., and ills of that nature. 


Some years ago a womau of this district was betrothed to a man of 
the Ngati-Awa tribe at Te Teko. An aunt took her to that place, but 
the young woman found she had no liking for the man, and hence 
returned home. Some time afterwards a party of Ngati-Awa came to 
Bua-tahuna on a visit, and contrived to obtain a fragment of the 
clothing of the woman. This they took home with them to serve as a 
uhonga, or material medium through which to bewitch the woman and 
her relatives. The victims of the magic arts were saved by a tohtirufa, 
or wise man, who was the medium of the god Taimana. He sent 
them all to Waikare-moana, where they lived for two years at the 
Matuahu y>a, leaving there just before Lieutenant Witty's expeditionary 
force found that place deserted. 

I am exercised over the word rata, which appears to have been 
been applied to European doctors in the early days. Williams appears 
to consider it a pakeha word. But what is it ? Riitd is, I believe, a 
genuine Maori word, and signifiies the power of second sight — at least, 
according to the Tuhoe people. ''Mehemea ha woe iho ahau, ka haere 
tokn irairna^ ka kite i tetahi aitua mo takn tamaiti, mo toku papa raiid — 
lie Tutd tena,'' (If, as I sleep, my spirit wanders forth and notes some 
impending misfortune for my child, or my father — that is a rata,) 
Williams has rapa Maori — a familiar spirit — and under rata (as a 
Maori word) gives its common Polynesian meaning of ** tame, quiet, 
friendly.'* Tregear gives the latter meaning only, but in the Poly- 
nesian comparatives gives : Mangarevan — aka rata^ to pretend 
inspiration, to assume to be the mouthpiece of a deity, a prophet, a 
sorcerer, a man possessed of an evil spirit. Observe also an article 
by Mr. Tregear, on the word rata or lata, in Trans. N.Z. Inst., 
Vol. XXIX., p. 83. Now, in the above Maori sentence, written as 
spoken to me by an old native, rata appears to = matakite or something 
similar. I am convinced that there is a kind of sacerdotal meaning of 
this word which we have not yet obtained. 

A woman of this district, near to death, was taken to the hospital 
of the white man, and her life saved by an operation. When she 
returned home, her friends, who had never expected to see her 
again, came to greet her. An old man said — '^Tena ra koe ! E whaka- 
maui ake net.** She had, as it were, risen from the dead, like unto 
Maui of old. Hence the singular expression. 

When a person feels listless and weak (iwimjohe) in summer-time, 
it is said to be caused by Rehua (a star), or rather by his summer 
wife, Whakaonge-kai. 

Ever among the Maori have the sick been much neglected. A 
sick person was, and is, never allowed to remain in a house, but is 
taken away outside the village. In former times a rough shed would 


sometimes be bailt, but afforded little protection to the sufferer. In 
these times a tent is often used. Some person remains in attendance 
on the sick person, but the attendance is of the poorest kind. 

This custom of making sick persons lie out of doors on the 
groand probably sprang from the racial ideas of tapu. If a person 
died in a house, that house would become tapu and be no longer 
habitable, but allowed to fall to pieces and decay. 

Sick persons are not wanted in the social system of the Maori— a 
fact which may be noted among many barbarous peoples. No 
attempt is made to provide the sick persons with comforts of any kind. 
Any such given by Europeans for the use of the sick are probably 
eaten by their friends. I have often prepared food for sick persons 
here, but find it necessary to take the food myself and watch the 
invalid eat it ; otherwise he or she would see but little of it. 

It is but seldom that one can detect any sign of affection for, or 
loving care of, a sick person among these natives, except sometimes 
in the case of children. But, when death comes, then the most 
extravagant demonstrations of affection and sorrow are made, accom- 
panied by much eating of the foods provided on such occasions. 

KdngSngS \ 

Mate aitu \ Terms applied to death from sickness. 

Mate aitua ) 

Mata tara whare Death from old age or sickness. 

Mate atua Death or sickness caused by the gods. 

Mate taua Death in battle. 

Koohi Wasting sickness. 

Kdrawa Inflammation. 

Kirikd Fever. 

Haura An invalid. 

TUpdpdku A sick person. Corpse. 

TUrdrd A sick person. 

Mangeo Itch, tickle. 

Wairau Discoloured, as bruised flesh. 

Kumdmd Denotes the desire of a sick person for certain food. 

Papa reti A term applied to an epidemic. So named from 

the toboggan board formerly used to ride on 

down a slide. 
. I Scurf or dandruff on the head, said to be cured by 

^ ., . I- applying ashes thereto. Ashes are rubbed on 

) the head.'-'' 
Maiarohea=^tnau)roh'(i Applied to an uneasy feeling in the stomach — 
perhaps indigestion. 


Mate whakapioi roa Applied to the illness of a person who looks very 
bad, and appears to be dying, but yet lives on 
for a long time. 

Mate whakauru A new or fresh complaint contracted when re- 

covering from another. 

Matahoki A relapse in sickness. 

Mate kikohiko Illness caused "by spirits of the dead. 

Matihe Sneezing ; is looked upon as an evil omen, a 

token of coming disaster or sickness. Several 
short charms are used to avert the trouble. 
Some simply repeat the words ** Mahihi ora.*' 

The above completes the notes on sickness and the treatment 
thereof, as collected from the Tuhoe tribe. It is, of course, very 
incomplete, but will serve to give some idea of how the old-time Maori 
viewed and treated sickness, together with his opinion as to its cause. 

I have said that many of the simple remedies, prepared from 
barks, leaves, and roots, herein mentioned, have most probably been 
devised since the advent of Europeans. Here is an extreme case : 
When Tuhoe collected at Rua-tahuna in order to march northwards to 
fight the pakeha in the Waikato district, their tohunga prepared a 
decoction from various barks, plants, etc., which he put into bottles 
and gave to the fighting men, telling them to drink of it in the hour of 
battle, and no harm could then come to them, no bullet touch them. 
That medicine did not act up to expectations. 

We have therefore seen that most of the ills which afflicted the 
Maori were looked upon as mate atna, caused by the gods, and were 
only to be cured by arts of sorcery, necromancy, and superstitious rites 
of divers kinds. His mind had not risen above this plane; it was 
clouded by superstitious beliefs in magic, in demonology, in the 
malignant powers of the dead. Yet the Maori shows to better ad- 
vantage in other channels of thought. Superstition, that heavy drag 
on advancing civilisation and the evolution of the human race, has 
truly been as a millstone about the neck of the Maori. 

* Scarf, said to be caused by poor diet, or to accomp&njring poor condition. 
Pigeons are affected by it when feeding on leaves and in thin and poor condition. 


By Willum Churchill, B.A. (Yalens), 
Some time Consul-General of the United State$ in the Kingdom of Samoa, 


* Y"l7>\0BD COMPOSITION in Samoan exists more as a necessity 
arising in the orderly arrangement of the dictionary than 
in the free use of the language, an attempt to remedy an 
incompatibility in the effort to deal with a language of one type 
through the apparatus which has come into being in conditions 
characteristic of language of another and very distinct type. To those 
who think in Samoan there is a recognition of that mtangible yet 
easily recognizable element known as the Sprachffeist or genius of the 
language. Under its conditioning influence the ready speaker brings 
into association such roots as may express and shade the ideas he 
would convey, making a momentary compound word. In like manner 
his hearer notes the elements of such a compound, senses the value 
and the relationship of each element and comes into possession of the 
idea sought to be conveyed. Thus Samoan speech may, and does, com- 
pound each vocable with each other vocable save as they are essentially 
incongruent. Such a combination serves well its immediate purpose 
and dissolves into its elements without leaving of necessity any trace. 
When the same need again arises the same elements once more assemble. 
In proportion as the need is apt to arise frequently so does the compound 
word tend to take its place in the armamentarium of the speaker. 
According to the frequency of its usage and the persistency of the need 
for it any particular association of ideas may give to the language 
either an evanescent consociation of roots or a permanent addition to 
speech in the shape of a new vocable. In theory the one is as much 
entitled to a lexical place as the other ; in practice, however, a valid 
distinction will be found to subsist. The evanescent consociation 
musty from the very underlying conditions of its being, be such that 


its meaning shall be patent at its very first hearing and, therefore, 
at any subsequent hearing ; we may, therefore, class it as self-evident 
and self-explanatory and save the space in our dictionary. But when 
such a compaction of roots comes into general currency it becomes 
subject to the universal law which governs speech-units in living 
languages, it takes on sometimes amplifications and sometimes 
restrictions, through metaphor it acquires new connotations, in a word 
it lives its own life and in its maturity may retain scant moral and 
physical resemblance to its infant estate. In our own tongue we may 
see such a change ; for an instance, dilapidation began by meaning 
the taking of one stone down from another in a wall, it winds up by 
becoming a term that will apply to the dropping apart of a wooden 
bouse or an old hat, and the formerly essential concept of stone to 
which the root LAPID still unfalteringly points has vanished from 
the word. 

It is for the lexicographer to certify himself that any given 
compound has entered upon its career as a speech-unit before entering 
it in his dictionary. 

That the Samoan regards the article and the noun as forming a 
compound word is immediately manifest. 

Note that the terminology of the grammar of the inflected 
languages is used for convenience in this early discussion. Later when 
this paper is elaborated to fill its proper place in a comparative grammar 
of the nuclear Polynesian (it being now in the nature of a prolegomenon 
thereto), will be time enough to present these relations more accurately 
in terms proper to the grammar of the agglutinative, or earlier, 
languages. In such a statement we should amend the foregoing to 
read that the Samoan regards the demonstrative and its modifying 
attributive as forming a compound word. 

To any one who feels the spirit in which the Samoan speaks it is 
clear that he uses the noun and the article as together forming a single 
vocable. The same appears in the more vivid of the modern 
languages of the post-inflected, i,e.y analytic type. In French we say, 
aa we write, Venfant\ an outward and visible sign of the fact that 
noun and article are treated as one vocable. Just at present it is a 
little out of the fashion to allow it to appear in the literary dialect of 
our English, yet so very respectable a performance as the metrical 
version of the Psalms admits it freely and calls attention to it by the 
use of the apostrophe, as : 

Bend all their counsels to destroy 

Th' Anointed of the Lord. — Second Psalm. 

Inasmuch as the recurring accent maintains all Samoan speech, 
with scant exception, in a constant trochaic rhythm there is very little 
opportunity for elision, and such as there is does not affect the 


demonstrative le when used with a noun in the function of an article. 
Accordingly this unification of article and noun does not appear at all 
to the eye and may pass unrecognized upon the ear. That article and 
noun are really compacted up to the point of heing compounded is seen 
at once on inspection of secondary compounds where the compound of 
article and noun is subjected to a new compounding. Here are a few 
of just a single type of such compounds, yet enough to illustrate the 
point : 

fa^aleagaga fa*ale^ele^ele fa^alcpo 

(spiritual) (earthly) (a dream) 

fa^aleaiga fa^alelcufi fa^aletino 

(domestic) (heavenly) (bodily) 

fa*aleatua fa*alenu*u fo*aleva6 

(godly) (country fashion (rustic) 

Any one who has attentively heard Samoan spoken must have 
recognized that the proper names involving the article are a single 
word in usage, that is to say a compound. Take in the Fa'alupega 
of Solosolo, the official name of the ruling chiefs, Leota. On Samoan 
lips it is as clearly a single compound word as is the English surname 
Goldsmith or Nasmith. Yet that it is immediately resolvable is shown 
in the formal phrase : 

Tulouna a lua Ota ma le falejia a Leota. 
(Saving the grace of two Otas and the three-house of Leota). 
It is, in eflfect, as though one were similarly to salute Goldsmiths 
and Nasmiths collectively as ** Ye two Smiths.** 

We may go further and say that the spirit of Samoan speech looks 
upon a noun (with or without article) and an adjective as forming 
together a compound vocable. Instances of such compounding where 
the noun with modifiers is treated as a unit are of the type : 
fa'alenuUipo fa^aleolanei 

(as of the land benighted) (as of this life) 

A further development, where a preposition and a noun thereby 
governed form a secondary speech unit, which then is compacted with 
the article into a tertiary unit and that again enters into a quarternary 
compound will be seen in : 

larji lalolagi lelalolagi fa^alelalolagi 

(sky) (under-sky) (the earth) (earthly) 

Other cases are shown where noun and adjective are used as verb, 
and the fact that they are regarded as together a single vocable is deducible 
from the fact that they take the so-called passive termination as a unit. 
Of this type are : 

aga leaga agaleaga agaleagaina 

(conduct) (bad) (to ill-use) (to be ill-used) 


From the most cursory examination of these principles it should 
be patent that we cannot pretend to include in any reasonable dictionary 
all those words, amounting at times to whole clauses, which in the 
Samoan sense are compound units of speech. It would cause an 
absolute duplication of entries; nay more, it would amount to a 
geometrical progression, if every vocable were entered in the dictionary 
with every other with which it might be compounded. In its simplest 
form it would mean that every noun substantive would have to be 
entered under its stem and under the article, definite and indefinite. 
Thus, the noun fanau would have to be split up among the entries 
fanauj lefanau, se fanau, with resultant great confusion. In the case of 
the verbs it would be even worse, for we should have to recognize a 
compound of each negative, le (not) le*i (not yet), resnlting in a tripli- 
cation of entries ; as, alu, lealu, le^ialu. 

Among our existing authorities on Samoan there is no uniformity. 
In general it may be said that Pratt in his dictionary compounds rather 
freely, that the text of the Tusi Pa*ia compounds very little. In each 
are to be found in one place words as compounds which elsewhere are 
two words. And this inconsistency is more marked when we come to 
the effort to develop some system or principle out of their usage. The 
most that can be said is that Pratt in his vocabulary represents a more 
advanced stage of his ultimately great facility in the Samoan and that 
therein in a certain crude and unphilological fashion he has come to 
recognize the fact that many of the expressions in the text of the Tusi 
Pa4a (Bible) needed to be expressed as compound units of speech. 
The limit of disintegration is reached by Meisake in Dr. Stuebel's 
collection, where the language is represented almost in words of one 
syllable. Fortunately " Samoa o le Vavau *' includes practically all 
this material communicated by a more sagacious Samoan authority. 
A reading of a considerable amount of the matter printed for the use of 
Samoans, even down to the current '* Sulu,'* shows that no diligent 
attempt has been made to come to a settlement of this matter. Powell 
in " Le Tala i Manu " is both inconsistent with himself and out of 
harmony with Pratt, at least in so far as Pratt shows any consistency. 
In the volume of **Pese ma Vi*iga '* it is scarcely fair to expect much 
consistency, inasmuch as the hymns are the work of many different 
hands extending over a considerable stretch of time ; yet on the 
contrary, there is such a gratifying degree of internal concord as to 
argue that the revising editor of the collection gave the matter his 
thought. I pass by the Samoan school books and other such matter 
available and mention finally Mr. Beveridge's excellent, though 
illogical, ''Le Fa'amatalaga o le Gagana Samoa,'* based upon a 
preceding and unfinished work of Mr. Newell. This reference to Mr. 
Beveridge's little volume relates solely to this topic of word-composition. 


Yet the opportunity should not be neglected to say that this slim 
volume should prove a most valuable instructor for such as seek to 
acquire a working knowledge of the speech. In the matter of com- 
position the author has proved self-consistent and has evidently set 
before himself the purpose of securing some system that shall prove of 
general application. 

Yet, if it is clear that for lexical reasons we may not pretend to cover 
all the shifting phases of Samoan composition of word elements, 
it should be no less plain that any truly scientific treatment of our 
materials calls for a clearly defined working plan of word-compounding. 
In any such plan we must never lose sight of two prime aud basic 
essentials ; that it be in the direction of the flow of the language and 
never counter ; that it be simple, a system so simple as to accord 
with the vivid simplicity of agglutinative speech. 

That such a need exists may be shown all through the Bamoan. 
I adduce, here, but one example. 

For the verb nofo Pratt gives the five significations, to sit, to 

dwell, to live with, to cohabit with, to remain. 
For the verb mau he gives the four significations, to be firm, to 
have abundance of, to dwell, to be unwavering. 

Now when the Samoan says ** *»/a nofomau *o ia ** he means to 
present a certain distinct and definite meaning which will be found by a 
combination of the significations of each element. In this case the 
compound, as we shall see in its proper place, is of the determinant 
class; that is to say, the second member, man, is supplied to determine 
in which of its senses nofo is employed, namely that one which the 
two elements have in common, to dwell. As that is the meaning of 
the compound vocable nofomau a dictionary of Samoan speech should 
take cognizance of the word and the sense. Otherwise we should be 
forced, on every occasion of its employment, to combine each of the 
four significations of mnu with each of the five significations of nofo 
and essay to select from the resultant twenty senses that which fits the 
case. Furthermore, as soon as nofomau lias through use become an 
established vocable and not a merely temporary association of ideas, 
the psychology of speech takes hold of it as a speech unit, subjects it 
to expansion, selection, metaphor, limitation, all under rules which we 
can recognize though whicii we cannot account for until we shall have 
learned the secrets of the third frontal convolution of the brain and 
its obedient machinery, the apparatus of speech embraced between the 
larynx and the lips. If nofomau bo not entered in our dictionary we 
are completely in the dark as t(5 this series of derived and secondary 
meanings. If this point, to wit, that for lexical purposes we must 
establish a working system of word-composition, really needed any 
proof it would easily be found in the effort to read a single paragraph 


of unfamiliar Samoan with no further assistance than the existing 
vocabulary of our educated by uneducating George Pratt. K this be 
doubted it is easy to test it, try to read the material on pp. 41-50 
by the aid of the remainder of the volume. 

At this point before proceeding to establish a few necessary 
definitions, it will be in order to present as postulates certain data as 
to agglutinative speech and its methods which, when this subject shall 
have been elaborated in the comparative grammar of the nuclear 
Polynesian, will have preceded it with a freedom of treatment for 
which there is here no room. 

It is to say, then, that the families of languages are, in order of 
evolution : 

The Monosyllabic (Chinese) 
The Agglutinative (Magyar) 
The Inflected (Sanskrit) 
The Analytic (English) 

Our care is with the agglutinative family, yet with the necessity 
of harking back for origins into the monosyllabic, and with a lively 
expectancy as to the germ of termination and other apparatus which 
make the inflected family. For the Samoan is a miocene tongue 
revealing in its methods an eocene speech. 

The agglutinative is in evolution the second of the great families 
of speech. It lies on the anterior face of the highest formal develop- 
ment of language as found in the inflected tongues. Therefore it is 
everywhere characterized by great fertility of resource and intense 
activity of trying, proving and adopting new methods of expression. 
From the monosyllabic it differs by a very slight, yet all-important, 
distinction in that it may compact two roots with a distinct sub- 
ordination of one, which determines and modifies the sense of the 
root syllable. This subordinate root in the later stages of speech still 
classed as agglutinative may undergo change progressing gradually 
to the extent of atrophy. Such change of the subordinate root may 
consist of change in form, in sound, in sense, in any or all. 
Monosyllabic and agglutinative share the immutability of the root 
syllable, agglutination has taken the further step of changing the form 
of the subordinate root. 

Now all our authorities are at one in classing the Polynesian as 
among the languages of the agglutinative family, and I am not 
prepared at the present to dispute this classification, though 1 have 
my doubts. I will at this time do no more than put on this record 
the statement that with a very few exceptions (which, in turn may prove 
reducible on further study) the secondary roots in the nuclear 
Polynesian have not yet begun any such alteration in form, sound or 


sense as would suggest atrophy, except as it may be forecast for the 
distant future from the general laws of the growth of language. 
It may, accordingly, become necessary at a later stage of our research 
to vacate the position taken by our systematic philologists and to class 
the Polynesian as a monosyllabic speech ; and this we may do with 
all the more assurance because of the fact that all the philologists from 
Humboldt and Fr. Mueller down who have set our Polynesian in the 
agglutinative family have also bracketed it with the Malayan group, a 
consociation which will now find few supporters. I shall for the 
present continue to speak of the Polynesian as agglutinative, but with 
full reservation of rights to alter the classification. 

If, then, the subordinate roots in nuclear Polynesian show such an 
absence of progression toward that atrophy which is required to bring 
them within the agglutinating class, it is, on the other hand, to be 
noted that there is a marked group of principal roots (the closed roots) 
which have undergone alteration through the elision of a final 
consonant, apparently to establish a concordance with the otherwise 
universal law of these languages to employ only open syllables. 
Taking cognizance here of just the modem phase of Samoan (nuclear 
Polynesian develops some further instances) I illustrate with a single 
example from each of the sub-groups of consonants worn off : 


current item 


earlier root 

dednoed from 


















The great majority of the seemingly primary stems, in fact all save 
for 45 monosyllables in Samoan, are dissyllabic. For the reduction 
of these characteristic dissyllable stems, there lack to-day the method 
by which, and the data upon which to work. Leaving for further 
study as we must, the solution of these dissyllables into monosyllabic 
roots, we find a fresh point of departure in the statement that from 
the composition of these few monosyllables, and of the 525 dissyllables 
which is the maximum number that can be formed from the present 
alphabetic elements of the Samoan (a maximum by no means reached, 
but whose net value I have not yet fully established) from these 570 
primary stems are derived by composition alone the polysyllables which 
form so much of the Samoan speech. 

What then, is composition ? What is a compound word ? 

In the next higher family of language, the inflected, that which 
stands forth as the highest development of the form of speech, we shall 


find composition to be the compaction into one of two or more words, 
each of which is, or may be traced back to one that is, separately 
intelligible. One of the indicia that two or more roots or stems are in 
composition—and it is only roots or stems which are compounded — ^is 
the loss of their individual accents. Another is the possession of but 
one set of inflexions, instead of the individual inflexions of the words 
whose roots have thus entered into combination to form a new word, 
which has its own inflexion as a new speech unit. Apart from the 
fundamental fact that compounds in the languages of inflexion are not 
the combination of words, but of the roots or stems of those words we 
have other criteria by which to distinguish compounds from mere 
juxtaposition of the simple words of which they are or might appear to 
be compounded. Such are : — 

1. The two words not being used together as simple words. 

2. One or both not being used at all independently in the 

form at which they appear when compounded. 

8. One or both losing their proper terminations or inflections. 

4. A vowel being changed or omitted owing to the words being 
brought under one accent. 

6. The meaning of the compound being different from or more 
than the sum of the meaning of the two elements. 

Just how much of this is an accident of inflection and just how 
much is inherent m the nature of compounds may best be determined 
by examination of what constitutes a compound in the final evolution 
of speech, the analytical family of languages. In analytic languages 
(I cite Whitney), a compound is generally a shortened or abbreviated 
description of something, and, though really made up of two, comes to 
seem only one to us ; sometimes the elements stand in the compound 
just as they would in the sentence and seem simply to have grown 
together into one ; but much more often they have such a relation to 
one another that if we used them separately we should have to change 
their order or put in other words to connect them, or both ; the two 
main ideas are put side by side and the mind is left to infer their 
relation to one another from the known circumstances of the case. 

In the compounds of the inflected type of languages we see from 
the fact that the composition is of roots or stems that word-composition 
is an inheritance from an earlier phase in evolution, namely from 
speech of agglutination at the least. In the compounds of analytic 
language we see that the principle which has endured through at least 
one preceding phase of evolution is that two ideas may be set in 
juxtaposition and the inference of the manner or kind of relationship 
may safely be left to man's common sense. Such also we are to find 


compound words in the languages of agglutination, only in far greater 
freedom and perhaps less fixity, as befits the quick vitality of this type 
of speech. 

We may, then, look to find our Samoan compounds in the follow- 
ing classes, deducible as the permanent element which has been found 
to extend through the inflected into the analytic family. 

1. Where two or more roots are compacted into one word which 

expresses either more than the sum of the two units, or 
presents the meaning of the units more distinctly than 
either can do, or indicates a different signification or usage. 

2. Where the two elements used singly would need other words 

to express their relation. 
8. Where the accent of the compound varies from the accent of 

either of the units. 
4. Where the affixation of formative elements, or the employ- 
ment of embracing grammatical apparatus shows the two 
units to be used as a single speech -unit. 
In composition in the inflected family our attention has l)een 
directed to one prime character, namely that it is not between words 
but between roots or stems that composition takes place ; and thence 
we have argued that the active principle of composition was so 
thoroughly established in a prior and agglutinating stage as to fix the 
rule and method of compounding even inflected words. Likewise we 
may see how that in analytic languages word-composition is so strictly 
bound by the rule established in at least a penultimate stage that the 
inflected form of each compound word (that is, the inflection proper to 
it as a speech-unit) sloughs ofif the inflection as far as is possible. 
Now in our nuclear Polynesian the rule that roots or stems, not words, 
enter into composition holds so universally that the need for its 
statement might escape the attention were it not that we see its 
importance in the developed principle in later types of speech. With 
the possible exception of certain irreducible formative adjuncts, or at 
least of adjuncts whose proved or probable reducibility it is not 
necessary here to establish, all words are existent as roots. Yet as we 
change the direction of our view and look backward for origins we may 
need to regard them in turn as stems and to look for their roots in the 
preceding and probably primal phase of monosyllabism. 

One prime distinction we cannot recognize too soon nor keep too 
clearly in our thought. In the nuclear Polynesian we find that we 
are engaged upon a grammar distinctly anterior to the parts of 
speech. The noun is not, and the verb has not yet come into being ; 
ages must pass before the adjective and the adverb are to become differ- 
entiated from either; the conjunction, the preposition, the pronoun 


in all its various phases and the particles of place and time are as yet 
merely fanctional one of the other. None the less do we find a 
grammar, active, vivid in tone, in one aspect expressing the usages of 
Bpeeoh and in another phase sufficiently powerful in its own existence 
to modify speech into conformity with a majority usage. Though real, 
though recording and directing by turns, our Polynesian grammar 
contains few of those categories of grammar which have arisen out of 
the needs and usages of a later stage of speech-evolution. For an 
example, the rule that a verb shall agree with its subject in number is 
80 widespread that we regard it as inherent in the essence of grammar. 
Yet when we examine into the philosophy of it we shall see that it 
dominates grammar Qitrei not 0v<r€t, by usage and selective imposition 
upon the forms of speech by those who consciously use it, not as 
inherent in the nature of things. There was a time in the integration 
of speech forms when it was an even chance whether the concord of 
the verb should hang on its subject or on its object. We shall not 
comprehend the syntax of the Polynesian if we neglect to recognize 
this other and parallel rule, that a verb may agree with its object in 

It is essential to bear in mind this prime characteristic, that we 
are prior to the differentiation of the parts of speech. Yet we find 
still a marked division between two classes of speech-units, possibly 
three if we grant to the expletive or interjection or ejaculation the 
great value which inheres in it as the cry, that first phase of 
vocalization, the beginning of speech which we hold in common with 
much of the chain of life below us. Praetermitting this subject as 
not absolutely germane to this more restricted inquiry, we find in keen 
existence and already rigidly delimited these two parts of speech, the 
demonstrative and the attributive. These two classes, abundantly 
differentiated in our nuclear Polynesian, are sufficient to establish the 
later parts of speech. For as we chain our course to the first 
monuments of the survey of the languages of inflection we shall 
discover how the demonstrative differentiates into the pronoun in one 
phase and into the connective (the conjunction and the preposition) 
in another ; how the attributive splits off the particulars of noun and 
again of adjective and retains its nucleus as verb. These processes 
are in the doing at the horizon of our nuclear Polynesian. The 
attributive words are the expression of acts or qualities. The 
demonstrative words are those rudimentary words which serve to 
specify the act or quality contained in the attributive, to localize it as 
to person variously involved, as to place, as to time, as to its relation 
to other ideas which may have preceded or may yet be to come. 

Having regard to these two parts of speech we may deduce a 
diagrammstic scheme of the possible nature of all tiie compounds 


which may be made in the Samoan, and in the nuclear Polynesfan 
from which it has been so freshly derived, and in its later and more 
highly evolved congeners at the distal ends of the cruises of the era of 
Pacific voyaging. This is the scheme : 

1. Demonstrative with demonstrative : ana. 

a. Demonstrative with attributive : *afai. 

8. Attributive with demonstrative : passives, nouns, in ga, de. 

4. Attributive with attributive. 
It is the most elementary mathematics that there can be no other 
classes, this diagram has exhausted all the possibilities. Compounds 
of each of these classes will be, as new speech -units, either demonstra- 
tive or attributive and as such may and do form members of new 
compounds, but such new compounds are yet reducible within this 
classification. We may here note that the compounds of the types 
demonstrative plus demonstrative or demonstrative plus attributive are 
themselves demonstrative, that those of the types attributive plus 
demonstrative and attributive plus attributive are attributive. From 
this we derive the rule that compound words in Samoan take the 
quality of their initial member. This rule concords with the genius of 
the language, which presents the theme first and the modifiers in 

We will now pass to a more detailed examination of the compounds 
of these several categories. It will be here sufficient to present a few 
examples of each, just enough for explication. In the later elaboration 
of this paper as a chapter in the grammatical study of nadear 
Polynesian it will probably be found advisable to present a list of the 
compounds of the first and second categories with an analysis of each 
word. In the following examples it is deemed proper to select typical 
cases in illustration of the principle, the more complex and doubtful 
cases being reserved for the detailed dissection and discussion whioh 
they shall receive in the fuller analysis of the demonstrative roots. 

In that section of the work it will be shown, among others, that 
the sound a, the first sound of human speech, the sound involving the 
least complicated intervention of the apparatus of vocalization, 
represents in its ultimate reduction the non-ego and the non-tu, that 
which is neither speaker nor person addressed, but which is outside of 
each and beyond the conditions under which they are momentarily 
placed — it is the third person as a pronoun, in place it is the not-here, 
in time it is the not-now, it is centrifugal, peripheral. Qualified by 
other sounds it distinguishes between he, this, that ; it becomes near 
or distant in space, before or after in time. The detailed consideration 
of this fruitful subject will find its proper plac« in a projected 
monograph on '* Pronominal Particularization of the Polynesian 
Demonstrative." This peripheral conception runs through the severid 


vocables ma^ sa, na, ia, a, &c. Let us look at some cases of its 
entrance into composition with other demonstratives, forming thereby 
compounds which are themselves demonstrative. 

(a) Personal, the non-ego non-tu. The a in this sense combines 
with another demonstrative ?, which seems to exist in some uses 
without assignable individual signification of its own but rather to 
serve as an accent upon the meaning of the element with which it is 
combined. When one is dealing with these usages of the childhood of 
speech he must not omit consideration of the other manifestations of 
intellectual activity that accompanied them, above all the gesture. 
Any one may try this for himself, for surely we are not forbidden 
laboratory investigation in linguistics now that thought itself is 
measured with machinery and the utmost speed of the quickest witted 
may not prove too swift for record on the chronograph. In conducting 
this little experiment do not make the mistake of being too refined, 
remember that you are trying to put yourself in the situation of a very 
primitive man, it may be with no more refinement than cave man. 
Stand with all the vocal organs relaxed and lips open. To carry out 
the idea of force clench the fist. Now raise the arm and point out 
some object remote, at the same time exhaling the breath, not failing 
to put a few ounces of force into the gesture. Listen to the sound 
that the breath makes and see if it be not a. Now, when you have 
made yourself familiar with that phase try the gesture with the fore- 
finger extended, a case of sharper definition. Observe the sharp snap 
of finger, eye and brain when the linger rests upon the object. Now it 
is that sharp fining of the sight on the target that the i represents, 
it may be not as a sound we can prove to develop naturally from the 
motion but certainly as a sonant expression of the physical fact of the 
case. Last of all try the gesture in this latter form consciously 
sounding the two vowels, the i while the finger is finding the 
target and the a when it has rested. In all study of gesture this 
can mean nothing but that-one, the fundamental conception out of 
which arise both that and he. Thus we have ia as the basis of the 
Polynesian third personal pronoun. In like manner lend is of the 
third person, but with an obscurer personal element just in proportion 
as /e is less incisive than i ; lendf therefore, comprises the senses in 
which we use '* this " and ** that." 

(b) Of time, the not-now. In the specialization process the 
unmodified a retains the more vivid signification of time yet in front 
of the speaker, the future ; all of which we see in the substantive clause 
*o le a *ou te *a representing a definite future **I shall go away" but 
more literally reaching that sense through saying *' the that- time my 
going-away.'* With a more general and less definite sense we find it 
in the attributive modifier in le fafing dfetnau, literally ''the woman 


that-time giving-birth " and corresponding to our future periphrastic 
<* the woman about to give birth.*' Time in the other direction, time 
behind the speaker, past time, finds its expression in na. As a sample 
of its demonstrative compound look at ana, in which to the *' when " 
or '' if " signification of this a the na adds the preterit sense. 

(c) Of place the not-here. A typical compound involving this 
signification of a as na is shown in i*ind there. 

In the second of these classes of compounds, the demonstrative 
plus an attributive resulting still in a demonstrative, we have 
abundance of examples, none difi^cult of resolution into their elements. 
Such are afai and apau, a as " when " or ** if " with the attributives 
fai and pau respectively. Let us give a passing glance at afai which 
is no more than a determinant of a as *' if." The attributive fai is 
polyphase, it underlies a host of different meanings and enters into 
many locutions in different ways where the basic signification is far to 
seek. In this case it carries a signification which Pratt failed to see, 
yet one of particular moment in Samoan ; it is the substantive verb, it 
means ''to be." It is not Samoan alone that feels a need for 
strengthening its ** if,*' our own English folk-speech, even if not the 
literary dialect, employs exactly the same fortifying agent in the by 
no means uncommon locution '* if so be." Into this same class of 
compounds fall also the non -singular forms of the personal pronouns 
of which mdua and matou are the type. Here the subordinate members 
of the compound, the attributives lua and toluy have undergone a 
modification in form which is not in nuclear Polynesian by any means 
so common as in later developments of agglutinating speech. 

The third class of compounds that in which are attributiye 
compounds with a demonstrative, is of peculiar interest, for 
in it we see the beginning of the process out of which is at a 
later stage to arise the principle of inflection. While there are 
many examples of this class of compound the number of groups which 
may be established is small, because not many demonstratives are at 
our period brought into use as the second and subordinate member of 
the compound. Just as foreshadowing the fuller discussion for which 
there is not now space I note a few examples of several groups. 

1. i. *Eleiy to apply color to siapo ; from *eU, the earth used as 

pigment, and i in a localizing sense. 

2. a*i. Ulua% to be first; from ti/i/, the head, and a't. This 

demonstrative enters characteristically into the formation of 
many reciprocals with prefixture of /<f-, the i seeming to be 
the reciprocating theme. 

8. a, passive. Tu*uaf from tu*u and a» 


4. ia, passive. Alofagia, to be loved; from ALOFAG, to love, 

and ta. This termination is applied to the closed roots in 

5. a, adjectival. Tagatd, manned, peopled ; from tagata, man, 

and a, 

6. ina. The characteristic formative adjunct of the so-called 

passive (and middle). It is a compound demonstrative 
compacted of i and na. 

7. i/a. Though this suffix are formed from verbs several classes 

of nouns, less frequently are met verbs which seem to have 

been formed through this agent. In this case, and in 

the possibly cognate instances of -gatd and -gofie I am not 

prepared to make a definite determination as to whether 

these elements are demonstrative or atrophied attributives. 

I may here mention another point as to which I have as yet 

arrived at no satisfactory solution. That is the function and character 

of the a in such compounds as tanumdga and feasogi. To say that it 

is euphonic seems a mere begging of the question, and its structural 

position is still obscure. 

Mention has already been made of the principle of a shift of accent 
as determining that root-compaction amounts to a full degree of com- 
position, and this is an appropriate place to give the topic a little more 
detailed consideration. The normal incidence of accent in the Samoan, 
in nuclear Polynesian in fact, is on the penultima. That of an equal 
chance to find the incidence of the voice ictus on the former or latter of 
two syllables we find it uniformly on the former I cannot regard as at all 
fortuitous. Remember that the whole system of the language consists in 
the enunoiatiation of the principle idea, the theme, and the secondary 
position of its modifiers. So also in the psychology of speech the 
voice ictus gravitates to the theme. Take so simple a statement as 
"I will go" and see how widely the sense varies as we accent the 
pronoun, verb auxiliary or the verb principal. If, now, such a 
dissyllabic stem as tu*u is invariably accented tu*u we are led along 
this line of inquiry also to face the possibility that in these dissyllabic 
stems we are again dealing with the compaction of roots, monosyllabic 
and very primitive, even primordial. In the example which we have 
under examination I incline to divide the root elements as TU and KU, 
The other disintegration of TUK and Uis schematically possible, and I 
have already called attention to the fact that closed syllables are not 
impossible in the Protosamoan, for one must feel that it is only 
recently the final consonants have dropped off. The crowded signifi- 
cations of tu*u may, indeed require us to accept a devolution from both 
TU'KU and TUK- U. But whether it be TU or TUK, that is the theme. 


the prime member of the compaction, the arsis, the voice ictus falls upon 
it ; the modifying KUot Ua,8 being the subordinate member rests in the 
thesis. Therefore tu^u. In 5 preceding, I have noted one class of 
compounds which prove in effect oxytone. This is but superficial ; 
tagatd is only tagata with -a ; then tagatda, following the uniformity 
of penultimate accent ; then the two vowels coalesce by crasis under 
the accent, which remains where last set. Having then a uniformity 
of penultimate accent the language enjoys the power to call particular 
and distinguishing attention to a word by altering the order from 
arsis-thesis to thesis-arsis, from a trochee to an iambus. It will be 
seen how that must break the rhythm, must challenge the attention 
as anything unusual does, must fix more closely the mind upon the 
word so inverted. To remain effective such a device must not be used 
too often, and that we find is the case in the Samoan. Between stems 
of the same component syllables it serves as a mark of distinction, as 
between nidlUf a shade, and maliif soft. It even serves to mark out a 
terminus ad quem, possibly to compensate for the uncertainty which 
in the current phase of Samoan must subsist as between the two 
prepositions /, in, and *i to; thus we may say *oh tefolau H Saluqfatdf 
*' I am sailing to Saluafdta.** There are uses in which it conveys a 
strong moral connotation, thus : 

*A e alu Hfea ! Whither goest thou ? 

*0m te alu *i/afo I go outside. 

*0u te alu *ifa/6 I am going to get out of this. 

The former reply is merely a statement of fact, colorless. The 
latter reply may contain a congeries of connotations even up to the 
point of conveying a deadly insult, as were one to snap forth in soom 
'< I shall not stay in this house.** Such a thing eludes translatioiiy 
but an angry Samoan knows how much venom he can put into the 
change of accent from paroxytone to oxytone. 

As with the simple words, so with the compounds. There are not 
many which employ the device. Amuliy "hereafter," will serve to 
illustrate the class. 

The fourth class of compounds are the attributives formed by the 
compaction of attributive with attributive. Their number is limited 
only by mutual incompatibility of the two roots in sense, awkwardness 
in sound, or the lack of need in island life for the possible compounds 
which we do not chance to encounter. It is the more particularly in 
this class that we find the need, initially referred to, of some system 
whereby we may keep our compounds within the bounds of a dictionary 
on the one hand, and on the other avoid falling into the aridity and 
baldness of style of the Tusi Pa'ia. We shall now pass from the 
formal consideration of compounds with reference to the nature of their 


components and enter upon a new system of classification, that in 
respect to signification and other characters not formal. 

All oar Polynesian languages (with the interesting hyloglyphs of 
Te Pito te Whenoa standing sole as an exception) have heen reduced to 
written record at approximately the same point of time, the middle of 
the nineteenth century, bat at somewhat different stages of development. 
In the case of these languages, no more than in the case of others, does 
the redaction to writing and more especially the printing and circulation 
of the Bible in the vernacular, entirely serve to arrest development, but 
it is certainly a case of putting on the brakes. There is one important 
conditioning factor that modifies the braking action in the case of these 
languages. They are as yet instinct with expectancy of advancement to 
the crowning phase of formal speech, inflexion ; they are under the 
inertia of constructive evolution. The Indo-European languages have 
passed the divide, their ev(^ution is away from form, destructive of 
inflection, their expectancy is of analysis and not of synthesis. The 
currency of the Tusi Pa'ia, current verbatim in the marvellously 
retentive Samoan memory, tends to establish a norm of speech. The 
vigor of evolutionary growth, restricted in certain directions by the 
mental presence of this norm, must in other directions find its outlet. 
There naturally has begun to result a wide erasure of exceptional 
forms and seemingly irregular uses, a smoothing out of independent 
construction into accord with more general usage as indicated in the 
now written speech. How powerful such a movement may be needs 
only a glance at our own English to see. Observe how much we owe 
to this smoothing out process, powerful enough to swallow the most 
brutally false analogy. Look at our old, strong conjugations of verbs 
and see how many forms familiar to us our very children at school are 
taught to reject and to regard as proper only in the pulpit. Look in the 
dictionary and see what ''adder" and *'newt" and ''ouch" were 
before our forebears tripped up in trying to make the articles uniform. 
Observe how irresistibly " demean " is borrowing larceniously from 
"mean'* and is coming to suggest and idea of "abasement," an 
influence so strong as to disregard entirely the presence of its 
derivative " demeanor '* to point the true meaning. If such things 
can be in the speech of an educated community think what will 
happen on an island of the sea, even though the Samoans have 
learned to boast of their delimitation from the fa*alenu*up6. 

For the purpose of the present investigation I wish to call 
attention to the movement toward uniformity in the expression of 
the various sorts of dependency in the Samoan. We find a movement 
now spreading to express all objects of action by the employment of 
the preposition 't and *ia ; all locatives by t ; agents and instruments 
by e ; objective clauses by e ; purpose by ia ; and so forth. Yet we 


must not permit this to lead us to lose sight of the fact that before 
this harmonizing began these locutions were not of uniform apfdication, 
that some of them might be regarded as having reached the rank of 
rules to which there were many exceptions, others less fully accepted 
were entitled to be held as exceptions to general rules. We fail to 
grasp the genius of Samoan speech if we lose sight of this predominant 
characteristic ; relationship of whatever sort is normally expressed by 
juxtaposition, the character of the relation being left to inference. 
That factor will be found prime in all compound words, patent 
particularly in these compounds of two attributives. 

The tendency of the recording grammarian is to invent rules, to 
draw fine distinctions. As far as is possible I aim to avoid that. 
While in a general way I find it convenient for the present to make 
mention of nouns and verbs and other of the classic parts of speech I 
do not believe that there are such things in the speech of the Samoans. 
It is only for a present convenience that I employ the terms, for 
positive distinctions I refer to the conceptions of demonstrative and 

Thus I might erect any number of classes of these attributive 
compounds, a class for each conceiveable relation which might be 
imagined to subsist between the two compacted roots. This I will not 
do, for in the Samoan Sprachjeint such relations exist only as temporary 
manifestations of the single principle of inferential relation per se. I 
will, however, call attention to a few groups of compounds in order to 
show some of the various manifestations of relationship, and solely for 
convenience in reference do I assign names to such manifestations, the 
same being descriptive terms and not classes. 

Let us recur to an instance which I cited at the beginning of this 
study, the verb nofomau. Let us set in order under each of these stems 
the main themes of meaning : 

NOFO = to sit MA U= to be firm 

to dwell to abound in 

to live with to dwell 

to cohabit with to be unwavering 

to remain 
Each of these vocables exists for our purpose as a stem, each is 
crowded with significations, the combination would theoretically yield 
us the resultant of two significations for nofo plus wau. As a matter 
of fact the resultant is lost in the original force, the parallelogram hM 
vanished in the line. As a matter of fact nofo means too many things 
to lend itself to precise statement, and in any speech the proof of the 
fact that any vocal sound is a word and not mouthing of gibberish is 
that it avails to bridge the gap between the mind of the speaker and the 
mind of the hearer for the safe passage unchanged of an idea N^ 


by itself will not do this, it needs some corrective to make it precisely 
manifest that in any given phrase it is intended to mean ** to dwell " 
and not any one of the four other senses. Add, therefore, another 
stem which also, inter alia, means '' to dwell." The mind ranges the four 
significations of mau alongside the five of iiofo, and when '' to dwell " 
of mau comes in line with ** to dwell " of nofo the two come together 
with a click, verbal circuit is made, the current of idea at once passes. 
We find nofamauy then, to mean << to dwell " and to mean that without 
any of the peradventure subsisting in each of its component stems. 
We may call compounds in which this relationship holds determinant 
compounds, for the subordinate stem determines the sense in which the 
principal stem is sought to be used. This is no new invention devised 
to account for the many compounds of this sort in our nuclear 
Pdynesian, a very early type of agglutinative speech, if indeed it be 
found to be even so far advanced as that. Looking back into the 
preceding phase of undeniably monosyllabic speech we find this method 
of determinants one of the most valid constructive agencies. If it 
were not used, the Chinese, the most cultured of monosyllabic 
languages might never have been able to develop its 450 roots into 
nearly 50,000 words. I will cite an instance which in principle 
exactly parallels the nofomau we have just had under consideration. 
Let us similarly arrange in columns for the two Chinese roots too and 
lu the significations with which each root is crowded : 

TJO=to reach Lf7=to turn aside 

a flag a road 

to lead a vehicle 

to tear away a jewel 

to cover dew 

corn to forge 

a road 
Each of these roots means too many things. But put them side 
by side. Again the same mental process of sliding the lu scale up and 
down alongside the too scale, at <<road" in one and <<road" in the 
other they click and stop, the current passes and too combined with 
lu can mean but one thing, namely *' road.'' 

A group of compounds may naturally be assembled in which the 
action of the subordinate member is regarded as simultaneously effective 
with that of the principal root. We thus have the familiar types of 
compounds expressing the modifications of the root idea as to time, 
manner, means, place, degree and the like, so simple that we need do 
no more than mention them, for examples sxioht^alofatele <' much-love," 
will readily suggest themselves in abundance. 

Another order of relationship is represented by a very considerable 
number of compounds, sufficient to win for it recognition as an active 


principle of word construction. In this the subordinate root foUowi 
upon the action of the principal member, and is not, as in the deter- 
minant compounds, simultaneously effective with it. For this reason 
this class may be described as sequential compounds. After this prime 
characteristic of sequence the relations which may be expressed in this 
class may and do ramify to a great degree. They may cover the result 
of the action of the principal root, its object, its purpose. As in the 
preceding classes let us consider a single example which may be regarded 
as sufficiently typical. 

Pipi'i (root PIKIT) signifies to cling to, to stick to, to adhere to. 
The senses of mau have already been given. Together they form a 
sequential compound, jn'imauy ** to cling firmly to.** That is to say, 
man in its signification of ^' to remain ** comes after the signification of 
pipiH ''to cling'* and expresses the result that *^ it clings and remains," 
it "sticks and stays.** 

This example has been chosen for the reason that it will serve to 
introduce another topic to be considered in this matter of word- 
composition. I have already set forth the fact that the composition is 
not of words but of roots or stems. That this is a vital condition of 
woi*d- composition appears in the fact that it endures into the last 
development of the analytic languages. We may not know just why 
the Samoan should find an objection to pipiHmau and harks back to 
the older or root form to form piUmau, but we must see in it tha 
preservation of a principle handed down from a monosyllabic period. 
It equips us to argue that such methods of composition are anterior to 
the development of reduplication, a view of the matter otherwise 
supported on a priori grounds if we look upon reduplication as a germ- 
manifestation of inflection. 

Another large class of compounds, limited only by the degree of 
sense-compatibility between the two members, is that in whioh the 
subordinate member appears as the object upon which the action of 
the principal member passes. Take such an example as patilinia from 
pati <' to clap ** and lima '' hand.** This is a natural association of 
ideas which we in English compound in the noun ** handclap " though 
not as a verb. It is a compound because it is an abbreviated statement 
devoid of the connectives which would be necessary were it to be 
expressed in a phrase, as e pati una lima. 

Of like frequency are the compounds in which the subordinate 
shows that of which the principal is composed, punarai '* spring of 
water '* ; that which it contains, j\viuu'u, ** bottle of oil.'* 

Wo find thus early a full expression of the method of adjectival 
compounds in which the subordinate qualifies, limits, defines the 
principal in order that they may form a conjoint modifier of yet 


lAother vocable; thus, lima ''hand" and malosi ''strong" unite in 
the compound Umamalod " stronghanded," which we may then use to 
guiUifj a noun, as le tagata limamalosi " the stronghanded man." 

We now come naturally to the Fa*a compounds, the most of 
which are of the sequential type. I shall not in this place go deeply 
into their consideration, for they offer a field of study sufficiently rich 
to warrant a chapter to themselves in the grammar. The logic of the 
language as I interpret it will lead me to deal with them as compound 
words, yet with full recognition of the view taken by the most excellent 
authority that they fall under the head of inflectional development of 
their second root. To this view I oppose the facts that we put our 
Polynesian in an untenable position if we attempt to discuss it in 
terms of the grammar of inflection, that these forms on which the 
suggestion of inflection is based are more simply susceptible of 
explanation on the basis of the grammar of agglutination, and 
furthermore that I shall show that fa*a is not the subordinate but 
itself the principal root and that it may exist as an independent 

This leads me naturally to the consideration of the composition 
members which suggest the expectancy of inflection. It would be no 
difficult task to arrange these in a diminishing series from such forms 
as roo, a plural sign in logic, in the compound le vaotayata " men," 
which is really and grammatically the principal member of the 
compound; down by successive steps of obscuration of sense and 
failure to conserve the dignity of position ; until at last we reach fe 
as in feu or feagaH. Of this we know that it is used to form 
reciprocals and some senses of plurals, but its inherent meaning is still 
by no means clear. It is atrophied, it looks like a prefix, but I 
caanot consent to acknowledge it to be inflectional in nuclear 
Polynesian. If that were granted we should have to yield on fa^a and 
80 on back along the line to vao, and that is a reductio ad absurdum just 
80 long as it is possible to interchange U vaotagata and le van o tagata. 
8uch things are not yet in themselves inflection, they contain the 
germ that may develop into inflection when ignorance of their primal 
signification supervenes and they become mere empty forms. In 
nearly the same degree of atrophy as this reciprocal fe- are the 
composition members -a, -la, -ina, which have the guise of granmiatical 
terminations and the apparent function of creating a passive (middle) 
voice for the verb. So far as I have yet delved the root sense of fe- has 
not been turned up ; not so with these " passive terminations." They 
are demonstratives which limit the action of the principal member of 
the compound, and they are almost personal at that, for they are not 
limited to verb-ideas but are to be found with noun-ideas as well. 
This subject, also, is entitled to treatment by itself, for the mere fact 


of composition is less important than the coloration whiioh these 
members give to the verb-idea. I mention in passing that there are 
other so-called signs of this or that which add to the pictoresqneneee 
and vigor of the Samoan, yet which may easily be proved to be 
compounds of one sort or another and by no means as yet mere 
grammatical apparatus. That comes with age and death, oar 
Polynesian is alive and growing. 

It is proper to take note that some changes, even though slight, 
may in the process of composition be made in the form of the com- 
ponents, all being in the line of the least resistance. Thus, *avatu 
is reached by a simple crasis from *ave atu. In like manner are 
developed the lona, ^ojuij mona, lana, sana, mana, lo latoUy la latou, 
forms of pronominal possessives. 

It may be found possible to show in the case of *aumai that we 
have a more complex modification from *ave mai, the loss of the final 
e and the reduction of the sonant spirant /* of the labial series to the 
sonant and nearly labial vowel u. This is a modulation which 
becomes very familiar in the next family of speech. It would, 
therefore, be of particular moment to find it beginning in agglutination. 

Another type of modulated compound is represented by alofa. 
Aloj apparently grouping its significations about a basic sense of the 
front part, we find in use as a genteel designation of the belly in 
exactly the same usage in which we in English employ the word 
''backside" as more seemly than a more precise distinction of the 
parts. Thus in alo we come to the region of the great pneumogaetrio 
nerve, and it is there that all the emotions are felt ; see how we aseigii 
them to the heart, the Greeks to the diaphragm {<^fiv)t ftnd many 
peoples select the liver for at least certain of the emotiomu 
Unskilled anatomists fail to observe the pneumogastric in their orade 
autopsies, but whatever emotional organ they select is close to the 
tract of that nerve. In OF AG we find the sense of feeling oertain 
emotions. Putting the two elements together with the simple and 
incidental detail of mer^nug o and o by crasis, we have alqfa^ to feel 
emotional excitation of the p^'riphcral nerve-endings of the pneamo« 
gastric, to warm the cockles of the heart, to feel a sinking at the pit of 
the stomach, to bo phronotic. Thus we find ahfa doing equal duty 
for love and grief. 

Now in closing it will be well to lay down the few simple principlee 
upon which I decide in the recognition of a compound for admission 
as such into the dictionary. 

When two or more roots are in turn coiu2)oundcd with the -inm 
etc. of the conveniently dosignatcil passive torniination I shall enter 
them as a compound spoech-iniit. In this I have a general rule of 


application to all the formative composition elements, that when 
two or more roots are treated as a speech-unit in entering into other 
compounds they are a compound word. 

When two or more roots form an abbreviated statement which 
would otherwise require particles of relation, that is a compound. 

Where they vary in meaning or in use from the component parts, 
that is a compound. 

On the other hand I must avoid overloading the dictionary with 
compounds so simple as to explain themselves. Thus it is not 
necessary to make an entry of every negative compound, although 
such a form as leaogd is in a Samoan sense a speech-unit. In the 
same way almost all words may form a compound of degree with tele, 
yet that is self-explanatory. So with the directives, mai, atu, ifo, a*e, 
even though we find cases where the passive termination is applied to 
verb plus directive, as in ^avatua, the compounds are of evident 
signification. Such a form as 'o le faimeau'ameaf blacksmith, (maker 
of hard things), is a compound of the third degree, the compaction 
of fai and meau'amea, yet it is not necessary to make an entry of 
meau^amea, for that explains itself as the association of inea and u^ainea^ 
of which the latter only will find a legitimate place in the dictionary, 
and that for the reason that while its components u^a and mea are 
readily seen and each maintains an independent existence it is not 
self-evident why they are associated in an order that seems to vary 
from the normal arrangement of principal and modifier in the 

Equally shunning indefinite looseness on the one hand and too 
rigid formalism on the other; recognizing that the precisian's 
apparatus of unalterable grammatical rules and fixed exceptions has 
no place in a living tongue but can only be used of the dead, I deal 
with each case on its merits and the few plain principles that I have 
outlined. Basing my studies on scientific method I aim at clarity, I 
seek to avoid redundancy. 


[175] Some Middle Island, N.Z., Place-names. 

Enquiries institated among the Maoris of the South part of New Zealand on a 
recent visit resulted in some information which may be of interest : — 

Motu-rau is an ancient name for the lake called by Europeans Mana-ponri. 
[This name seems to fit the lake, for its meaning is "Many islands.** But the 
name of the lake as given to me by Horomana Patu, an old chief of Ngai-Taha, 
was Manawa-pore {porCy abbreviated form of popore)^ which probably means the 
** anxious heart,** and the name may have arisen through the anxiety of some 
early voyager on the lake as to whether he would survive the squalls common 
there, in his frail canoe. — Editob.] 

Manawa-pore is the name given to the larger and most northern of the two 
lakes called Mavora. 

Hikuraki (Hikurangi in northern dialects) is the name given to the smaller 
and southern Mavora lake. 

Te Rua-o-te-moko is a name given to the extensive mountainous district 
lying westward of the Waiau river, and is connected with Tamatea, the reputed 
captain of the Taki-timu canoe, a name given to the mountain range east of the 
Waiau, and called by Europeans Takitimo. 

Te Wakaa-Maui, a name given to the Middle Island,, Maui*s canoe. 
[It is said by the Ngati-Kuia natives of Pelorus Sound that Maui fished up the 
North Island (or Ika-a-Maui— Maui*s fish) whilst standing on the Middle Island. 

Te Puka-a-Maui, a name given to Stewart*s Island — Maui*s anchor. Its 
ordinary name is Baki-ura (Bangi-ura in Northern dialects). 

Mahutu-ki-te-rangi, said by the Moeiaki Maoris to be an ancient name of 
the Middle Island, and was originally that of a canoe. It is mentioned In the 
following fragment of an old haka:— 

" Kowai tea waka e— 
E Hen E I i wanu atu ai~ 
Ko Te Kaka-a-matua a-i— 
Ko Mabutu-ki-te-ranKi 0-" 
By some Maoris this cauoe is said to be identical with that called ** M&hunoi.** 

Titi-tea is the Maori name of Mount Aspiring, as Henare Te Maire, of Waihao, 
says, and may be translated as the ** upright glistening '* mountain. 

Jambs Cowan. 

[176] Honorific T^rmt used in the Middle Island, N.Z. 

The Murihiku— or extreme south of Middle Island— people use the following 
terms when welcoming Maoris from the North :— 

Te PoroporO'ki'Huariki, used in speeches of welcome and applied to the 
North Island people.—'* Jlaere mat, K Tt Poroporo-ki-Huariki.** The old people 
explain that the allusion is to the poroporo fruit (solanum), which grew in 
UenQkn*s garden in Hawaiki, and which was stolen by Tama-te-kapoa, of **Te 


Arawa " oanoe. This fruit, they say, was brought to New Zealand by Tunui-raki, 
the captain of the "Tairea" canoe, and planted in the North Island. Huariki, 
according to Herewini of Moeraki, is the name of a place in Hawaiki. 

Tarere-ki-whenua-uta, — This is a poetical expression referring to the sea-cliffs 
of Mori-hiko, when welcoming visitors to that district. 

James Oowan. 

[177] Hawaiki. 

The following fragment is from Herewini, the oldest Maori at Moeraki, and 
who is probably aboat seventy-five years old. There were two Hawaikis: — 
Hawaiki-kai, and Hawaiki-raro. The Maori people came from the former. 
Hawaiki-raro was inhabited by the Nuku-mai-tore people (see " Journal," Vol. 
XIII., p. 265), who lived t waenganui i te ora (in the midut of plenty), whose 
hair never grew grey, and whose children were born by the mother being cut 
open ; they had no necks, and their hands grew straight out of their bodies, 
that is, they had no arms. They continuously chattered. In that land the 
kumara grew spontaneously : no cultivation was needed. Te Whiti, of Parihaka, 
Taranaki, also says that Hawaiki-kai was the full name of their ancestral land, 
and was so-called because of the abundance of food there, and little labour 
needed in procuring it. — Jaues Cowan. 

[With reference to Hawaiki-kai, we think this is not really the name of 
the ancient home of the Maori, but that kai is added to the name as exprcEsive 
of the abundance of food growing spontaneously there, i.e.y in the Tropics. 
Hawaiki-raro is to this day the Eastern Polynesian name for the Fiji, Samoa, 
and Tonga groups, whilst Hawaiki-runga is the name given to Tahiti and the 
adjacent islands. For an account of the Nuku-mai-tore, see John White's 
'* Ancient Maori History."— Editor.] 


Bt Lieut. -Col. Gudgeon, C.M.G. 


N any description of Maori life or character, the word mana will 
occur frequently, and as a rule the general reader will be left to 
give his own interpretation to the word, which is probably one of 
the most expressive and comprehensive to be found in any language. 
It must, however, be remembered that this word relates to certain 
abstract conceptions of a spiritual phase of mankind that will not 
readily be understood by Europeans. I have grave doubts whether I 
can do this subject justice. I will therefore deal with the matter 
generally, and illustrate it by incidents taken from well known Maori 
history in which the important element of mana has been a factor. 

Personal mana is, I think, closely connected with the old Polynesian 
religion, and its continuance seems to depend very much on the 
observance of the laws, and rites connected therewith ; there are, how- 
ever, certain classes of mana which would seem to be the result of 
heredity rather than religion. Mana, it may be said, is the result of 
hereditary characteristics transmitted through famous ancestors, and 
strengthened in every instance by the belief — shared by all true Maoris 
— that a man of this type must be under the special care of the gods. 

A man is said to have 7}mna when he possesses genius, audacity, 
and good fortune in a marked degree, for these are the signs of mana, 
and so long as he can retain these gifts he is regarded as a man 
altogether above the common herd, and one not lightly to be offended. 
Indeed, such men have been regarded in the light of gods against whom 
it was hopeless for mere mortals to contend, even though they might be 
as ten to his one. Ma7ia of this description was held in the highest 
esteem by the tribe to which the fortunate man belonged, forasmuch as 
in war time the element of mana was very conspicuous, and invariably 
used in the interest of the tribe ; but it was, after all, but a low type of 
mana, for it depended entirely on success, and was easily lost, as has 
been shown in my paper on the ** Toa."'" I do not wish it to be 

* Journal Polynesian Society, Vol. xiii. p. 238. 


inferred that men possessing even this sort of mayia were ever very 
numerous among the Maoris, for they were not. They come within 
the application of the proverb, ** He kotuku rerenya tahi''^^' 

There were cases in which the inana of a man depended upon the 
facility with which he could communicate with the spirits of departed 
ancestors, that is, upon his capacity to enforce the aid and attendance 
of these minor deities. To this end every man with any pretention to 
mana had a knowledge of certain forms of invocation by which he could 
summon the spirits of Jong departed heroes and ancestors, but it must 
not be supposed that these invocations would necessarily have power in 
the mouths of all men, for such was not the case. The eflficacy of a 
karakia or invocation depended in part on its method of delivery, and 
in part on the mana of the man who used it. 

The following is an instance of mana : When the chief Whakanehu 
lived at Te Poroporo, his son Te Hourangi died, and was buried at 
Tikapa. That same night, the spirit of the dead boy appeared to two 
men in their sleep, and said, ** Etama ma^ kna jtau auete tangata'' (my 
sons, I have been eaten by men). This speech and vision was at once 
reported to Whakanehu, who forthwith inspected the grave, and found 
that the body had been removed. The chief returned to the Tore-a- 
kaia pa, and remained there until dark ; then Whakanehu summoned 
to his aid a familiar spirit or kehiia, whom he intended should precede 
the party who were about to search for the body. At Te Karaka the 
kehua became luminous, and rested for a moment over a certain place ; 
it then moved on to Tuparoa, where it again became luminous, and 
hovered over a large stone by the roadside. By these signs Whakanehu 
knew that those who had carried the body had rested for awhile at each 
place, and placed their burden upon the ground. From Tuparoa the 
kehna led the avengers direct to the Ohineakai pa, in Waipiro Bay, 
where it once more became luminous over a hamji (native oven), and 
thence settled on the ridge of a food store. This place was examined 
by the chief, who found a hand and other remains, sufficient to show 
that the people of this pa^ who could be heard practising a haka in the 
large wharef were the guilty parties. Whakanehu waited quietly until 
his enemies slept. He then invoked the aid of Tawhirimatea (god of 
storms), who answered the call by sending a very hurricane of wind, 
during which the outraged father set fire to the ivhare, and then, 
standing at the doorway, speared and tossed back into the flames those 
who tried to escape. 

To what extent the old Maori religion governed the law of mana 
cannot at the present day be ascertained ; those who might have 
collected and recorded the ancient history of the Maori did not do so. 

* The one flight of the white craoe^ i.e., to be seen only once in a liletime. 


We had no Wyatt Gill among our old missionaries, who, for the most 
part, were sincere though narrow-minded men, who did much to soften 
what we will charitably call the asperities of the Maori character; but 
they died, and left no literary record by which succeeding generations 
might remember them. 

Sir George Grey and John White alone of the men of their genera- 
tion have rescued the legends, songs, and a fragment of old New 
Zealand history from Christian intolerance. The late Judge Manning 
has left us an admirable sketch of the Maori character as it was in his 
time, and indeed in mine ; the chief merit of the same resulting from 
the fact that the Judge thought in Maori while writing in English. 
I submit, however, that we have no reason to thank him for these small 
mercies, for he might have left us ten volumes equally readable, but 
did not do so. 

'< Te Ika a Maui," by the Rev. Richard Taylor, is not only readable 
but instructive, whenever the author succeeds in disentangling himself 
from the '' lost Tribes," and that is seldom enough. There are 
probably many others who are more or less conversant with the 
language and customs of the Maoris, and who may have some notes on 
those subjects, for they possess the ability requisite for the task ; but 
the hoarded manuscripts which in many cases are supposed to exist, 
and which are vaguely referred to by the supposed authors, have not 
yet seen the light. Indeed, it is only since Messrs. Percy Smith and 
Elsdon Best have taken the matter seriously in hand, that those who 
are interested in the history of the Maori people could gratify their 
thirst for information. 

Briefly, then, we may say that we know something of the history, 
songs, and tradition of the Maori, but of their religion next to nothing. 
Mr. C. 0. Davis, in one of his pamphlets, says that he learned casually 
from a Maori that they recognised the existence of a Supreme Being, 
whom they called lo, but that he could learn nothing more than that 
bald fact. Now, Mr. Davis was a man very learned in matters Maori, 
and it may perhaps be thought that if he did not know, it was only 
because there was nothing to be learned. Mr. Davis was, however, the 
exponent of a lachrymose species of religion of the miserable sinner 
type, and though the Maoris had faith in him politically, as the mouth- 
piece of those who initiated the King movement, they none the less 
recognised in him the extreme of Christian fanaticism, and would 
therefore decline to disclose the secrets of their ancient religion to him. 
It may be, of course, that the Maori from whom he derived his 
information knew but little more than the name of the deity, and I 
have reason for thinking that this may have been the case inasmuch 
as they do not at the present day know much of their old superstitions. 


I have asked many men questions about the god lo, and in nearly 
every instance the reply was that they knew of this deity by name only, 
that he was the greatest of all gods, but they knew no more than that. 
I have met only two men who had real knowledge of the Maori god lo, 
and it was to one of these that I repeated the remark of Mr. Davis* as 
to the existence of lo. He replied . ** Yes, it is tnie, but that name 
must not be mentioned in a house ; if we have occasson to speak of lo, 
we go away from the dwelling-places of men into the wilderness, where 
Nature is sacred and unpolluted.** 

Among the old tohuntjaH or priests of the last generation there was 
a good deal of traditionary knowledge concerning many things which 
have now been lost to the young people. On a certain occasion I 
asked a man who was recognised by all as a learned man to tell me 
what a marae was, for I believed that on this point my knowledge 
would prove superior to his. He replied, as I expected, that it was an 
open place in a pa or village, sometimes a platform, from which in 
ancient times the chiefs and priests used to address their followers. 
When he had finished his explanation, I said : ** To your ancestors the 
name implied more than that,* and went on to explain that on some of 
the isles of the Pacific there were viarae that were truncated pyramids, 
built in steps, platform on platform, and that it was thought that these 
structures were^primarily built for religious purposes. He listened very 
attentively, and then said: '* All of this has been made known to me 
by tradition, and I will prove it by asking you : Why were the marae 
built, and why the platforms ? ** I had now to confess my ignorance, 
and he then explained that the steps were for the accommodation of 
the various ranks of the priesthood — the Tauira above the poople, while 
the Pukenga were above both, and above all was the chief priest of the 
particular deity to whom the marae was dedicated, who took this 
elevated station in order to bring himself into more intimate communi- 
cation with those gods who could not approach too near the common 
surface of the earth, which was regarded as noa or common by the 
Maoris, and therefore the reverse of sacred. In fact, his explanation 
showed that they held the same ideas as to the nature of the gods that 
we find of old among the Jews, whose high priest deemed it necessary 
to go up into the mountains in order to communicate with Jehovah. 
My tohunga friend thought that the New Zealand Maoris knew but 
little of their ancient religion or of the wisdom of Hawaiki, inasmuch as 
of old all knowledge was confined to the higher ranks of the priesthood, 
of whom but one (Ngatoro-i-rangi) is known to have come to New 
Zealand. There may be something in my friend's view of the case, for 
it will be remembered that the Tahitian Tupnea, when on board 
Captain Cook's vessel, had a conversation with the Maoris, and 
subsequently told the groat navigator that they were a people who knew 


but little of their history or religion. The Maori knowledge is, of 
course, deficient in the matter of the ancient migrations, but in all of 
the ceremonies and forms of his ancient religion he has a knowledge 
that the true Polynesian has never acquired. This interesting fact has 
not yet been explained, but it may be that these ceremonies, like the 
carving and tattooing of the Maoris, is an indigenous growth, though 
it is probable that this theory would not be generally accepted. The 
only possible solution of the enigma appears to be that the early 
migrations found a people in possession, whose weapons, carving, 
tattooing, canoos, and even paddles they adopted, for all of these things 
are now characteristic of the Polynesian of New Zealand only — 
exceedingly symmetrical, and the weapons beautifully balanced, 
altogether unlike the heavy, awkward clubs of the Polynesians of the 

As I have said, the Maori has a form of invocation, and a ceremony 
to provide against all the ills incidental to savage life ; but many of 
these rites, though well known to the tohungas, are seldom practised, 
and it would seem that certain things cau only be done successfully by 
a few of them ; we may therefore assume that great personal mana is 
required in such cases. An instance of this description came under my 
notice about the year 1872. A girl had quarrelled with her lover, and 
as a natural sequence, he had left her and gone to one of the chief 
towns of the Colony. After his departure, the young woman regretted 
her impetuous behaviour, and wrote to him to return. This he refused 
to do, and when his reply reached the girl, she alarmed her relatives by 
declaring that she would commit suicide. Here, there was every 
chance of a tragedy, for a Maori girl is very unlike her European sister, 
inasmuch as she will, as a rule, announce her intention to commit 
suicide before she does it. I was therefore somewhat surprised to find 
her laughing and talking with her companions shortly after I had heard 
all of these things. Probably my face expressed my astonishment, for 
she saluted me by saying: ** My husband is returning to me." Naturally 
enough, I asked when she had heard from him, and was met with the 
reply that she had not heard from him, but that she knew he must 
come. This speech was sufficiently curious to cause me to enquire how 
she had acquired the conviction that her lover would return, and it 
then transpired that her threat that she would destroy herself had so 
alarmed her relatives that they had appealed to a tohunga uncle to 
exercise his magic powers, and bring back the fugitive. 

The nature of the ceremony that was performed I never could 
ascertain, either from the girl or her uncle ; but the former told me 
that, so far as she was concerned, it was a very serious matter, since 
she had now become sacred to this man by the intervention of the gods, 
and therefore if at any time she proved unfaithful to him, the penalty 


vould be death. She added that her uncle had duly warned her to 
tiia effect, and that she was quite prepared for the consequences. 
Strange to say, the recreant lover did return within a month after these 
incantations had been performed, and I need hardly say that the 
tohunga took the whole credit due to himself ; but he behaved with the 
philosophic composure that is characteristic of his profession, and did 
not on any occasion express the smallest anxiety or doubt as to the 
success of his magic art ; indeed, he regarded the whole affair as 
settled and done with. When I subsequently expressed a doubt as to 
the vmna of bis gods over any pakeha, he laughed as though he recog- 
nised the point, and said : ** Ordinarily they have not, but this is not 
ordinary work ; the man will return, and the girl will die. I have 
warned her, but I know her character, she will never behave herself.'* 
In 1886 I met this same old gentleman, and in course of conversation, 
asked him where his niece was. He looked at me queerly for a moment, 
and then said : ** She is dead ; you will bear me out that I gave her 
due warning." 

Many years ago, while stationed in Taupo, I had two places pointed 
out to me which would seem to have acquired manay and both of these 
were of great interest to my companion, whose ancestors had been 
leading actors on the occasion. One of the places to which I refer was 
called Te Tapapatanga-a-te-Rangitekahutia, and at that date was a 
small conical hillock, barely seven feet in height, and not more than 
that diameter at the base, situated only a few feet from the old war 
track leading from Runanga to Te Awa-o-te-Atua. From the account 
given to me, it would seem that about eight generations previously the 
ancestor, whose name has been given to the hillock, found himself 
alone in the presence of a hostile war party who were passing down the 
valley, but who had not yet observed him, though they were too close 
to permit of his escape by flight. Under these circumstances, Rangi-ie 
Kahutia called upon his ancestral gods for aid, and threw himself flat 
against the hillock, while, scarcely daring to breathe, he saw his foes 
file past him almost within touch, in happy ignorance of the valuable 
prize that lay almost within their reach. This tale appeared to me to 
be slightly improbable, and I hinted as much to my friend, who replied : 
**This is a pukepuke ivhai mana'' (hillock possessing mana). To a 
Maori this answer would have been conclusive, but at that period of my 
life I was too much of a pakeha, and had the bad taste to question the 
truth of tales that bordered on the marvellous. In this instance my 
disbelief was probably apparent, for Maoris, having carried their lives 
in their hands for several generations, are exceedingly observant, and 
presently my companion said : " This is a place of many tipiuu 
(uncanny things). I will show you a place where the spirit of a man 


has existed in the form of a koromiko (veronica) bush for the last five 
generations,** and so saying led me to the spot, and there I saw two 
large circular depressions in the ground, evidently old ovens, and in 
one of them a small shrub, about eighteen inches high, was growing. 
'* Here," said my guide, •* the two chiefs, Te Huriwaka and Te 
Whakatarewa, were slain, cooked, and eaten by a war party. From 
that time the ovens have never filled in, and the koromiko bush has 
always been there. It is now in the same condition as when I first saw 
it more than forty years ago ; verily, it is the spirit of Te Huriwaka, 
and a sign that his mana is still over his land." 

Things inanimate may, it would seem, possess quite as much mana 
as things animate. I have known at least two weapons that were 
almost dangerous to man by reason of the peculiar mana attached to 
them, both being the shrine of certain gods. The ** Taiaha-o-Tinatoka,"* 
sometimes called " Nga-moko-a-te-Aowehea " is an instance. This 
weapon was always consulted by the Ngati-Porou tribe before they 
ventured to engage in battle with another tribe, and this fateful 
ceremony was held in the presence of all the leading warriors of the 
tribe, in order to ascertain their chance of success. If the omens were 
favourable, the taiaha would, I am informed, turn itself over as it lay 
on the mat, in such a manner as to be seen by all. It was, however, 
in single combats that this weapon shone with its greatest lustre, for 
then it never failed. 

Pahekauri, the famous mere of Te Heuheu, has mana even greater 
than that of the taiaha^ inasmuch as it is universally credited with the 
power to render itself invisible to anyone but its lawful owner or 
guardian for the time being. 

A very curious instance of the alleged mana of weapons has been 
related in a Maori newspaper. In White's ancient history of the 
Maori it will be found recorded that, when the children of Heaven and 
Earth (Rangi and Papa) had finally resolved to separate their parents, 
one of the axes with which the props were cut, in order to keep them 
apart, was called " Te Awhiorangi." It will not be necessary to 
expatiate on the antiquity of this weapon, since we find it already in 
existence at the beginning of all things — before the earth-born but 
god-like inhabitants of this planet had ever seen the light of the sun, 
and long before the advent of man. This being a fact proved beyond 
all argument, so far as the Maoris are concerned, it will be readily 
understood that this axe was and is exceedingly sacred, being, as its 
historian relates, left to mankind as a governing power over all the 
stone axes of the world. 

* Taiaha f a weapon combiuiog the advantages of both spear and quaiterstaff. 


This famous weapon had been handed down from eldest son to 
eldest son from the time of Tane, the man-god, to Eakau-Maoiy and 
thence through unnumbered generations to Turi, who braved the 
dangers of the Sea of Kiwa in his canoe ** Aotea/' and settled at Patea, 
on the West coast of the North Island. I need hardly say that he 
brought with him the sacred axe, and when he returned to Hawaiki, 
gave it to Te Hiko-o-te-Rangi, his eldest sou. The origin of this 
weapon is necessarily obscure, but there is a paragraph in the narrative 
from which I quote that justifies me in saying that it was not even 
wrought by the gods of Maori tradition, but was sought for and found 
by Rangi-te-Tipua in the shades among the **Kahui kore,'"^'- and 
remained in possessian of the Arild line of the Turi family, down to 
the time of Rangitaupea, who lived some seven generations ago. 
This old man, when dying, informed his children that he had, in 
accordance with Maori custom in such cases, hidden ** Te Awhiorangi" 
in a sacred burial ground known as Tieke, and probably gave other 
directions to enable them to find it ; but if he did so, they must have 
been faulty, for the Nga-Rauru tribe were never able to find the axe, and 
from that day to the 10th December, 1887, *' Te Awhiorangi " was lost 
to the world. The supposition that the rightful owners of this sacred 
heirloom had neglected to search for it cannot be entertained for one 
moment, for the mere possession of :3uch a weapon was a sign of mana^ 
and patent of nobility ; but it may be that the search had not been too 
keen or inquisitive, forasmuch as the place where the axe had been 
bidden was dangerously sacred, and not lightly to be meddled with. 

This long lost weapon has now been found, and in a very carious 
manner. On the date I have mentioned a party of Nga-Rauru were in 
the neighbourhood of Okotuku engaged in gathering fungus, and among 
them a young girl of another tribe, who fortunately had not heard of 
Tieke, or this tale had never been told. As the party scattered in 
search of the fungus, called hakeke^ the girl Tomairangi took the 
direction of Tieke, and there found a tree covered with the growth she 
sought. As she stretched forth her hand to grasp the nearest cluster, 
a blinding flash of light appeared to issue from the tree. The girl 
started back, and then, for the first time, noticed the axe at the foot of 
the tree. This sight appeared to alarm her so that she fled screaming 
from the spot, and her terror was increased by a sudden and violent 
storm of thunder, lightning, and rain, which warned her that she had 
in some way offended some potent Maori deity. Scarcely less alarmed 
were Tomairangi's friends when they heard her cries ; but among them 
was Rangi-Whakairioiio, u tohunga^ who grasped the situation at onoe. 
Ua first quietcfl the oleni(3nts by a karakia of great potency, and then 

* Spirits of the void. 


asked who had visited the saored place Tieke. Tomairangi asked, 
naturally enough, *< What is this Tieke? " and when that matter had 
heen explained, and its position in one of the bends of the Waione 
creek described to her, she admitted that she had probably been at the 
place, and pleaded that, being a stranger, she was ignorant of the 
sacred places, that she had seen but one thing which was like unto a 
god, and being afraid, had run away, calling for help. 

From this speech the tohunga knew that " Te Awhiorangi " had at 
last been found, and calling on the party to follow him, proceeded to 
the place indicated by Tomairangi, and there they found the axe, and 
brougnt it away in triumph. No man doubted, as he gazed upon the 
weapon, that this was indeed '* Te Awhiorangi,** the property of their 
great ancestor Turi, for they were its natural ciistodiaus, the descendants 
of Tu-taugata-kino and Moko-hiku-waru,* and the m^na of the axe 
had been made manifest to them. After the tohunga had uttered 
many karakias over the long lost weapon, in order that there might be 
no danger to the common people while handling it, it was carried to 
the village, where it was wept over, as though it had been a long lost 
and dear relative. As to the subsequent proceedings, when the leading 
descendants of Turi assembled to do honour to the axe, it is perhaps 
well that I should not speak, for it may be that the men of the present 
day would not believe me : but it is said that when the tohungas, Te 
Kapua Tautahi and Tapuhi, led the party into the presence of **Te 
Awhiorangi," the sky grew dark, and thunder and lightning burst 
forth, and that the elements were only stilled by the magic force of the 
two tohungasA 

The purport of this article was rnana tangata, that is, the mana of 
men ; but rivers, mountains, lakes, and trees may possess mana in a 
high degree, and this Maori conception hnds expression in the tribal 
pepeha (boasts). That of the Heuheu family of Taupo runs as follows : 
*'Tongariro is the mountain, Taupo the lake, and Te Heuheu the 
chief.*' At times it seems doubtful whether it is the tribe who own the 
mountain or river or whether the latter own the tribe. The mana of 
Tongariro is altogether unusual, for a war party crossing the Hangi-po 
desert at the base of that mountain, would, in the good old times, 
carefully abstain from looking at the summit, and by this caution w ou 
avoid the blinding snow storms by which the spirit of the Peak 
punished undue curiosity, on that high bleak plateau. 

* Two gods of makutu or witchcraft, according to the Taranaki tribes.— Ed. 

t See Vol ix, p. 229, for a full account of the finding of this celebrated axe and 
with some of the ancient songs connected with it. —Ed. 


There are instances in which trees have heen ohjects of veneration 
to the Maoris, not hecause they were trees, hut chiefly for the reason 
that they were deemed to he capable of absorbing mana from either 
man or weapons. Until quite lately, there was an exceedingly old 
totara tree lying in the Manga-o-Rongo stream, at no great distance 
from Otorohanga. This tree was a first class tipua of great mana^ and 
was known to everyone by the name of Papa-taunaki. The name was 
derived from the fact that some thirteen generations ago, one Ruateki, 
an ancestor of the Ngati-Maniapoto tribe, while snaring birds, noticed 
that there was a nest of young parrots in this tree, and in order to 
reach the young birds, used his greenstone axe Papa-taunaki to enlarge 
the opening. While so engaged the axe parted from the handle and 
was lost forever within the hollow tree. Now this axe, like many 
notable weapons of old days, was possessed of great mana, indeed it was 
the shrine of a spirit and it would seem that its sacredness must have 
been communicated to the tree, which from that time forth was 
regarded as an object of veneration. Very gradually the tree fell into 
decay, and was at last uprooted by a gale of wind ; but even then it did 
not lose its mana, for we are told that about the beginning of last 
century, the great warrior Wahanui paid a visit to the fallen monarch, 
and addressed it in the following terms. ** So you are the sacred tree 
of whom the Ngati-Matakore are so proud ; let us see if your mana be 
proof against fire." So saying he lighted a fire on the prostrate trunk. 
When the fire had kindled sufficiently to give forth some heat, the huge 
log, it is said began to tremble, and finally with one mighty effort 
rolled itself into the Manga-o-Rongo stream. Here it lay for nearly 
eighty years, until the Native Land Court opened at Otorohanga in 
1886, and then Papa-taunaki broke loose from the position it had so 
long occupied, and floated some distance down the stream. This 
circumstance was noted and referred to by Hauauru, chief of Ngati- 
Matakore, in the Court, as an ill omen denoting that the mana of his 
tribe was about to pass from them. 

As for Wahanui who had committed this wanton outrage on a 
sacred tree, his punishment followed quickly, for tipuas — (demons) may 
not be injured or insulted with impunity. Up to this period he had 
run a long and successful career as a warrior, and though he had on 
more than one occasion shown remarkable skill and activity in getting 
away from the Whanganui people, yet he had a good reputation as a 
fighting man. A man cannot always be brave or successful, but 
Wahanui had had his full share of good fortune, and in the opinion of 
the best Maori authorities might have died on his bed but for this 
freak of childish jealousy against •• Papa-taunaki." As it so happened 
he fell in battle against Ngati-Raukawa only a few weeks after the 


events mboffe reeorded, lo the gnmi satisfKdoo of the latter who had a 
long list of injuries to wipe oat Wahanni was one of those old time 
warriors, ccxiceming whom most marrelloas tales are told, but it does 
seem to be troe that he was a man of great strength, and that he used 
a spear like onto a weavers beam, with which he was wont to spear men 
and toss them plajfoll j over his head. 

*' Papa-taonaki '* no longer exists as a tree, for >Ir. Edwards of Te 
Kiokio has not onlj split his ance^or op and used him for fencing 
posts, bnt worse still, has used the chips and splinters for cooking 
purposes ; an act of cannibalism which had the effect of relieving him 
of the presence of his tribe for many months : thej at any rate could 
not tolerate sndi awful impiety. 

The most desperate fight of modem days was fought solely to pre- 
aure the mama of the A^liaoganni river intact. This battle took place 
in 1864, between a party of one hundred and twenty Hauhau fanatics, 
belonging to many tribes, on the one side, and one hundred men of 
Whanganoi on the other. The battle was, as I have said, fought to 
preserve the mana of the river, for there was really no cause of quarrel 
between the two parties, who only a short time before had been 
amicably fighting side by side against the Europeans at Taranaki. 
Moreover, the up river Whanganui men had always been most consistent 
in their hostility to us, and would not aUo^ any pakeha to ascend the 
river. With a few exceptions they were rabid Eingites, and not at all 
disposed to look with favour on the European ; but in one respect they 
resembled Mark Twain's hero, Buck Fanshawe. They would have 
peace within their boundaries, and to retain that blessing were prepared 
to kill half New Zealand. 

It was while the Whan<,^anui were in this frame of mind that the 
Hauhau — (carrying with them the preserved head of a European soldier 
as the shrine of their god) — marched through the forest from Waitotara 
to Pipiriki, and appeared suddenly among the Whanganui. Here they 
succeeded in converting the most powerful chiefs of the up river 
district, viz., Tnroa and Te Kaioroto, and elated by this success, sent 
messengers to Ngati-Hau, who lived about ten miles from them, 
ordering them to prepare to receive the Hauhau religion, preparatory 
to an attack on the town of Whanganui. The covert menace con- 
tained in this message deeply offended the Ngati-Hau. But they 
returned no answer, for they were by no means certain that the enemy 
bad not told the truth when they claimed to be invulnerable to shot or 
steel. Being in this condition of uncertainty they made uo reply to 
the messenger other than that they would consider their position, and 
having thus rid themselves of the Hauhau envoy, they left their pa 
and fell back on the Ngati-Buaka tribe of Banana. To this place they 
were shortly followed by the Hauhaus, who camped at Tawhitinui on 


the opposite bank of the river, and again sent messengers to the two 
hupus (sub-tribe), but on this occasion the message was couched in 
much milder terms, for they merely requested to be allowed to pass 
down the river, in order to attack the town of Whanganui. This 
request was sternly refused, and the Hauhaus were told that no alien 
war party had ever broken the maiia of the great river nor would ever 
be allowed to do so. The reply was short and to the point, to the 
effect that they would clear a passage for themselves. 

The challenge was joyfully accepted, and Te Aoterangi, Tamehana, 
and other leading chiefs of Ngati-Hau, called on their foes to meet them 
on the island of Moutoa, in mid channel between the two parties. 
The preliminaries were settled that evening, the Whanganuis as owners 
of the soil were to occupy the island diuring the night with one hundred 
men only, thus leaving most of their warriors as mere spectators, the 
Hauhaus were to attack at grey dawn, and were to be allowed to dis- 
embark from their canoes before the hring commenced. This chivalrous 
but astute arrangement was approved by both parties, by the Hauhaus 
because it seemed all in their favour, and by Ngati-Hau because they 
had enormously increased the mana of their tribe by the arrangement 
that 100 men should fight tbe 120. In my ** Reminiscences of the 
War in New Zealand " I have given a brief sketch of this most 
desperate fight, and therefore I need only say that within fifteen 
minutes of the firing of the first shot three-fourths of the Hauhaus 
were dead and some sixty of Ngati-Hau either dead or wounded, but in 
either case perfectly happy, for the mana of the tribe and river had 
been preserved. 

No better instance of tribal mana can be adduced than that which 
occurred at Patea on the South side of Ruapehu. An important meet- 
ing had been convened at that place, by the tribes of the district, in 
order to settle certain boundaries that had long been in dispute, and 
which if undefined were likely to cause trouble in the near future. As 
usual in such cases the arguments were not only forcible, but very 
much to the point. One chief maintained that his title was without 
flaw, inasmuch as an ancestor of his when injured in certain domestio 
relations by an ancestor of bis opponents had not only slain the 
offender, but had also made a binl cage of his ribs and backbone and 
therein had kept a tame parrot as a sign of his mana^ and had more- 
over set up this very cage on the land in dispute, and that these terriUe 
insults had never been avenged. He further stated that if the meeting 
wanted further proof that he would produce it in the form of a mesaage 
from the other world, that it was known to all that the gods themselves 
recognised the maua of his tribe, forasmuch as whenever they moved 
out of their village in a body, whether for peace or war, they 


invariably greeted by thunder from the direction of Bangipo. Further- 
more he expressed himself willing to abide by this test ; he and his 
people would ride in the direction of Rangipo, and if they were not 
greeted with the thunder aforesaid, they would surrender their claim to 
the land, he challenged the opposition to ride with him, and pledged 
himself that if they had any doubts as to his mana the thunder would 
soon remove them. 

To refuse such a test would have been a confession of the weakness 
of their case ; so horses were saddled and the party were ready to set 
out, when suddenly the clouds — that had been gathering all the morn- 
ing — broke with a loud peel of thunder, and one of those violent storms 
so common on this high plateau drove the disputants back to their tents 
and whares. When the storm had passed away, the chief again 
addressed the assembled tribes and asked if there was anyone so 
obstiuate as to deny his mana in that district. To this there was no 
reply, for no one was so bold as to deny a mana that had been already 
acknowledged by the powers of the outer world. 

A tribe may lose its mana in a very simple manner, or it may believe 
that it has lost it, and this I submit will amount to the same thing. 
Such was the position of the very noble tribe of Ngati-Raukawa, who, 
up to the date of the death of their renowned chief Hape, had held 
their own against all comers, but had subsequently been driven from 
their ancient home at Maungatautari, and were forced to take refuge 
with Te Rauparaha at Otaki. These misfortunes have been ascribed to 
the fact that the burial place of the great Hape had been disclosed to 
his Waikato relatives, who had thereby been enabled to perform a 
ceremony that ought properly to have been done by his own tribe. 
This was a terrible blow to Ngati-Raukawa, and for the time being 
deprived them of the mana that was essential to their very existence, 
and as a natural sequence caused all their subsequent misfortunes, 
commencing with the battle of Hurimoana and ending with Omakukara, 
and Roto-a-Tara, where the Nga-Puhi and Kahungunu tribes, under 
Te Wera and Pareihe, avenged their ancient injuries and defeats at the 
hands of Ngati-Raukawa. 

As a tribe may lose its mana so also may individuals, and this 
position may be brought aboiit in many ways. For instance, we are 
apt to regard forbearance as a virtue, but the Maori makes no such 
mistake, for he knows full well that in no possible way can mana be 
more easily lost ; even the little Englander would seem to have a dim 
conception of the truth of this fact. The Maori regards forbearance as 
mere weakness of character, and in illustration of this statement I will 
quote an East coast tradition. 

Some thirteen generations past and gone, the chief Eapi-horo-maunga 
was the sole owner of a rock known as Toka-mapuhia, the chief value 
of which was that it stood in fairly deep water, and was a convenient 


place whereon to stand and catch the fish called kahawai. Now this 
rock was also coverted by his younger brother Tautini, and he in order 
to establish a right over the rock, took possession of it early one 
morning and began to catch fish. While thus engaged he was observed 
by his brother Kapi, who did not at once recognise the intrader, but 
none the less resolved to kill him whoever he might prove to be. On 
his way to carry out this very proper resolution he met one of his 
followers, and asked who it was that dared to fish from the flat surface 
of Toka-mapuhia. The man replied, ** It is your brother Tautini." 
Then Kapi hesitated, for like all weak men he began to conjure up 
possibilities, and it occurred to him that perhaps their father Eahu-kura- 
nui has instigated Tautini to take this action in order to deprive Kapi 
of his mana. With this doubt in his mind he went to the old man and 
ask him whether he had urged his brother to sieze the rock. The reply 
he received was hardly satisfactory, but it was at least characteristic of 
the Maori. '* As you have not killed your brother, and avenged his 
trespass and insult, you had better remain here and grow food for 
him !" Such indeed was the result of Kapi's forbearance, for from that 
time forth Tautini took the position of elder brother, and governed the 
tribe, the elder brother having shown that ho lacked the decision of 
character, which would alone enable the tribe to hold its own in 
troublous times. His duty was quite clear, he should have killed his 
brother first, and asked his father for information afterwards. 

Mana plays a leading part in the ability of a leader, or successes in 
war of celebrated warriors. When a man frequently undertakes daring 
deeds, which ought under ordinary circumstances to fail, but none the 
less prove successful, he is said to possess maua^ and thereafter is 
regarded as one peculiarly favoured by the gods, and in such cases it is 
held that he can only be overcome by some iict or default ; such as a 
disregard or neglect of some religious or warlike observance, which has 
been shown by experience to be essential to success in war ; but which 
our warrior spoiled by a loug career of good fortune, had come to 
regard as necessary to ordinary mortals only and of but little conse* 
quence to men of mmm. 

Such a man was Te Mau-paraoa, of Te Wairoa, H.B., who by his 
courage and ability raised himself from an obscure position (it is said 
that of a slave) to be the fighting chief of the Nga-Puhi confederation 
under Pomare and Kawiti. So great was the mana of this man that he 
succeeded in escaping from the disaster of Te Rore, where Pomare and 
COO men fell under the spears of the Thames and Lower Waikato 
people. It would be wearisome to relate all of the feats of arms per- 
forme.i by this famous warrior, but his last escapade is too characteristic 
of the Maori not to be recorded. 


When the teaching of the early Missionaries bad so far affected the 
Maoris as to render them averse to the conditions of perpetual war to 
which they had been accustomed for more than fifty years, Pomare 
emancipated the slaves that he bad taken from the tribes of the East 
Coast, and gave them permission to return to their homes under the 
leadership of Te Mau-paraoa. The party numbering in all about 180 
set out in 5\e canoes, and en route called at the (Ireat liarrier island 
where they were kindly received. The instinct for rapine and plunder 
was however too strong in these ex-slaves to permit of good behaviour 
on their part ; they were unable to divest themselves of the idea that 
they were members of a Nga-Puhi war party, to whom nothing was 
sacred. For this reason they failed to reciprocate the courtesy of their 
hosts, and not only appropriated all the portable property on which 
they could lay hands, but also began to dig the kumara crop. This was 
more than the descendants of Maru-tuahu could put up with, and a 
messenger was sent to the mainland of Coromandel to warn Te Hoieta 
Te Taniwha that his people were being trampled on by Ngati-Kahu- 
ngunu. The chief responded promptly and had landed on the island 
with all of his warriors before Mau-paraoa even knew that he had been 
summoned. There was now no course open to these wanderers but to 
fight, and they were not backward in accepting the position ; not that 
they were of a very warlike tribe, for that reputation they have never 
had, but they trusted implicitly to the undoubted mana of their leader, 
even when pitted against the famous Horeta alias Hook- nose. 

The battle was long and for some time doubtful, but in the end the 
numbers of Ngati-Maru prevailed, and Te Mau-poraoa retired uncon- 
quered and unpursued to the shelter of the forest, but with only fifteen 
survivors of his onco powerful war party. His canoes had become the 
spoils of the victors, and escape seemed impossible ; but during the 
night these indomitable men managed to construct what are known as 
moklhi, viz., cigar-shaped rafts of rushes, flax stalks, and drift wood, 
and on these frail structures crossed the twenty miles of sea dividing 
the Great from the Little Barrier island, where they managed to exist 
until a passing whaler rescued and carried them back to the Bay of 
Islands. Of those who escaped Tutangawaka of Te Whanau-a-Rua 
was alive in 1894. 

It would occasionally happen that a great toa or undeniably brave 
man would be smitten by fear when on the point of engaging in battle, 
or worse still when actually engaged. This condition of mind is known 
by the name of hauhau aitu^ and according to the description given to 
me by old warriors, the afflicted one would grow cold, tremble like a 
leaf, and become partly blind. On such occasions the cure was simple, 
for the malady was caused by the fact that the sufferer had in some 
way assumed the mana of the eldest born or Arifci of his family. This 


being so he could only recover by submitting himself to that Ariki, and 
therefore the AHki would cause the afflicted one to crawl betwe<jn his 
legs, and by this simple expedient would revive the courage of his 
trembling clansman. The principal recognised in such cases was, that 
it required an act of subordination to the Ariki to revive a courage 
derived entirely from the wana of that man and his gods, the courage 
having first been lost by some act of bumptiousness on the part of the 

Before proceeding on a warlike expedition, all of the great fighting 
men of the tribe were required to squat down in line, while their Ariki 
would pass them in succession between his legs, in order to ward oflf all 
possible misfortune from these valuable men. An absolute loss of mana 
was the result of an inferior stepping over a superior while the latter 
slept ; I need hardly say that no such action could have taken place had 
the superior, or in other words the elder branch of the family, been 
awake. On one occasion only was that great tohumja of the Arawa 
tribe — Te Unuaho — known to fail when calling on the powers of dark- 
ness to aid him, and that occasion was when the Nga-Puhi, armed with 
guns, crossed the Rotorua lake and captured Mokoia, slaying many 
hundreds of the garrison, and carrying as many more away as captives. 
Te Unuaho had assured his tribe, that canoes or no canoes, he could 
prevent the Nga-Puhi from crossing, and it was this assurance that had 
prevented the tribe from migrating for a time to the mountains of the 
Urewera country. At the critical moment, when the enemy were seen 
in their war canoes advancing against Mokoia, Te Unuaho was called 
upon to perform his promise, that is, raise a storm and swamp the 
hostile canoes. The tohuwja did Lis best, using every form of karakia 
known to hmi. Once or twice the waters rose, and it seemed that he 
was about to succeed in his undertaking, but after a little the waves 
fell and a dead calm prevailed so that men thought that the water 
•spirits of Kotorua had joined the cause of Nga-Puhi in order to destroy 
their own people. The Arawa claim to have discovered the true reason 
of this disastrous failure ; namely, that on the night before the attack, 
a son of Te Unuaho having occassion to leave the nhare in which his 
father slept, had thoughtlessly stepped over the sacre<l man, and by so 
doing had for the time being deprived him of the watm, which might 
otherwise have saved the tribe. 

Such is the tale told and believed by the Awara, but the Nga-Puhi 
version of this affair diflers materially from that of their foes. They 
contend that the whole thing had resolve* I itself into a trial of strength 
between rival tohmujas. That ihtMr man, Kniteke, had forscen and 
provided against the contingency of destruction at the hands of Te 
Unuaho's storm fiends ; and therefore il was that while his friends 
were crossmg the lake, Kaiteke sat on the shore and used every art and 


karakia known to him to still the waters, and when he found that the 
spells of Te Unuaho were too powerful and that the waves hej^an to 
rise in spite of him; he, as a last resource, placed the bones of a 
celebrated wizard ancestor — brought with him for that purpose — in the 
water, and from that time the invocations of his rival had no mana. 

There is a Maori proverb to the effect that women and land have 
caused all the wars that devastated New Zealand before the arrival of 
the colonising pakeha, and both may have been important factors 
therein, but they were by no means the only source of trouble. To me 
it would seem that the chief element of discord was the maiia of their 
leading chiefs. No man could be more exacting than a chief of wanUf 
and the smallest breach of etiquette, whether intentional or not, was 
brooded over and sooner or later avenged by some act of violence or 
insult to the offender, which would in Maori opinion wipe out the 
original insult. Any man who by design or mere thoughtlessness 
failed to obey the somewhat exacting code of Maori etiquette, would 
not only cause bloodshed, but might cause the utter destruction of one 
of the tribes. 

As a minor instance of the touchiness of chiefs, I may quote the 
behaviour of old Taipari of the Thames towards a visitor. In a 
previous paper I have mentioned the dislike that any Maori has to be 
asked his name, and that this dislike was the result of a feeling that 
people should recognise a great chief without asking his name. On the 
occasion in question, a chief of the East Coast happened to be at 
Hauraki and as befitted him called upon Taipari, who was personally 
unknown to him. He found the old man sitting outside his whare, but 
not knowing who he was, asked, ** Where is Taipari ?" The old chief 
was annoyed at not being known, and perhaps at the abruptness of the 
question, and instantly indicated his slave Netana who was sitting a 
short distance from them, and said "He is there." Consequent on 
this direction our chief went up to Netana with much ceremony, 
rubbed noses, and then entered into amicable conversation with the 
much puzzled old slave. When the real Taipari thought that his 
malicious joke had gone far enough, he ended the comedy by calling 
out, ** Netana, let food be prepared for my guest." The visitor thus 
rudely awakened to a sense of his ridiculous position, made the best of 
his awkward mistake, for he knew that he had not used the caution 
required in such cases ; but had this little episode only occurred previous 
to the year 1840, the Ngati-Maru would have anticipated the result of 
the joke by repairing their pa, 

A serious case of insulted mana occured about five generations ago 
in the person of Te Tuhi, brother to that Te Tuata who was the father 
of Potatau, the first Maori king. Te Tuhi was by virtue of his birth a 



chief in many tribes, and as such could visit his relatives whenever the 
spirit moved him to do so. On one of these occasions while en route to 
Hauraki, he halted at a small outlying yw of the Ngati-Paoa tribe 
which had been built to protect a very celebrated eel weir (Tarahearoa) 
on one of the outlets of the great Paranui swamp, and one of the 
principal sources of the food of that district. 

Te Tuhi was treated with true Maori hospitality, and regaled with 
the eels for which the place was so justly celebrated. So far the local 
chief had acquitted himself creditably, but Te Tuhi noticed that the 
people of the place had a very large store of dried eels, and conBcioas of 
his rank he waited expecting Kaiiri to pay him the compliment of 
calling out his name and placing the dried eels at his disposal ; for it 
was usual that when a great chief travelled, complimentary presents 
should be made to him. Such presents were not necessarily taken 
away, but in this instance the gift was not made, and the neglect was 
intentional, for Te Tuhi like all of his family, did not bear the best 
possible reputation, and Eaiiri feared to pay him the usual compliment 
lest he should take advantage thereof to found a claim on Paranui. 

Burning with anger Te Tuhi went on his way to Hauraki, and there 
related to the Uringahu tribe the treatment he had received. He said 
** Kill me these Pitoitoi (small birds) at Paranui." Nothing loath to 
kill their friends, the Uringahu sent a small war party of forty men by 
way of the Piako river, and, as by this route they had to pass many 
pas of the Ngati-Paoa tribe who would have turned them hack had 
they but known their errand, the war party took the precaution to cover 
up most of their men with the fronds of the Nikau palm and plumes of 
the toetoc whenever they approached a pa. In answering questions as 
to their business the few men who appeared to paddle the canoe said 
they were taking mataiud (fish, etc.) to Te Tuhi. The ruse succeeded 
admirably. The forty men landed at Tahuna-tapu, and the canoes 
returned to Hauraki. ^leaiiwhiie the people of the Tarahearoa pa, 
having no reason to anticipate an attack from the Piako side, were 
easily surprised and the pa taken. Kaiiri escaped, but his sister, 
Paratore, and many men of Ngati-Ringatahi were slain, and the women 
and children carried off as slaves and kept at the Great Barrier Island, 
where thoy were unable to communicate the news of this treacherous 
attack to their friends. For this reason the Ngati-Paoa were unable to 
ascertain who it was that had dealt them this blow in the dark; 
naturally enough Waikato were blamed for it, with the result that from 
that time forward the two tribes never met without fighting, and the 
feud only ended after the great buttle of Taunuita-wiwi, shortly before 
the arrival of the first European settlers. 



T£ putake i heke ai a Eahu-huna ki te tai ki runga, i mahuetia iho 
ai a Te Manga-tawa pa i Tauranga, he tukunga no ta ratou 
kapenga-ika i te one i Otira. Eaore ano te konae o te ktipenga 
i u tnai ki uta, kua rere a Eahu-hunu ki to whawhao ika mana — ara, ki 
te mum. Ea kitea atu e tona tuakana, e Whaene, kua riro i aia te ika, 
ka riri tt Whaene, katahi ka hopu ki te ika ka whiua atu ki te matenga o 
Eahu-hunu ; karohia atu e ia, ka taha. 

Heoi, ka pouri a Eahu-hunu ki te rawaki a tona tuakana ko tona 
haerenga tera, noho rawa atu i 0-potiki — i roira hoki te tuahine— a 
Haumanga — e noho ana raua ko tana tane, ko Tuna-nui — te rua o ona 
ingoa ko Harua-tai. 

Ea tae a Eahu-hunu ki reira, ka tangi raua ko te tuahine me te 
taokete. Ka mutu te tangi, i te ahiahi ka ui mai te taokete— a Harua- 
tai— ki a ia, '* He aha te putake o tenei haere au?'* Ka mea atu a 
Kahu-hunu, ** He mate noku i to tana hoa, i a Whaene." Ka mutu 
tona korero i nga take i heke atu ai ia, katahi ka mea mai te taokete ki 
a ia, **A! e pehea ana to whakaaro ?" Ka mea atu ia, "Taku 
whakaaro, me haere taua ki te wbawhai." Whakaae ana a Harua-tai ; 
haere ana raua me to raua iwi ki te whawhai, ka hinga ta raua pare- 
kura, ko Te Awhenga te ingoa. Ka riro herehere mai a Ahu-kawa i a 
raua, ka hoki ki 0-potiki. 

Te tamaiti a Haumanga raua ko Tuna-nui i rokohina atu ai e 
Kahu-hunu e noho ana, ko Tu-tamure. Ka mutu teuei riri katahi a 
Kahu-hunu ka heke, a, noho rawa atu i Whangara, ka moe i nga 
wahine o tera kainga, a ka korero kino ratou ki a ia. Ka haere te rongo 
o tenei korero, ka tae ki a Rua-here-tai i Turanga, katahi ka whaka- 
tauki mai tera wahine — a Rua-here-tai — koia tenei ; " Na te mea ra e 
aki ana ki runga ki tai o Maihi-rangi, ka taka mai ia ki roto ki te awa i 
Takapouri, pokopoko noa tona hanga na." Ka haere te rongo o tenei 
korero ka tae ki a Kahu-hunu i Whangara, ka taki id) ka haere mai ki 


Tnranga, ka kite i a Raa-here-tai, ka moea e Eahu-hunn hei wahine 
mana. Ea hapu te wahine ra — a Rua-here-tai — katahi ka hiakai ki te 
mann. Katahi te tangata ra ka haere ki te kimi manu hei whakawaiu- 
tanga mo tana tamaiti. Ea tae ki te ngaherehere ka kitea e ia te nia 
pi Tieke, i roto i te puta rakau, katahi ka taria e ia nga pi Tieke, man 
katoa, ka haria mai ki te kainga, ka tunua ma tana wahine. Katahi 
ka ngata te hiakai manu o te wahine ra. Kihai i roa kua whanan te 
tamaiti a te wahine ra, he wahine ; tapa tonutia atu te ingoa, ko Bua- 
here-tieki — ko nga manu tonu i whakawaiutia raia. 

Ka mahue tenei wahine, ka taki te tangata, ka haere ; noho rawa 
atu i Whare-ongaonga. Ka kitea e tera wahine, e Hine-puariari, ka 
moea e Kahu-hunu. No to raua moenga ka puta tenei whakatauki a 
Hine-puariari, koia tenei : *^ Taku he ki te hua-tea, no muri au i kite 
ai i te hua-uri." Kei te paua te kupu a te wahine ra e mau ana ; koia 
nei te whakamaramatanga o enci kupu, kei te paua, te hua-tea ko te 
hua ma ; te hua-uri ko te hua pangopango. 

Ka mahue tenei wahine, katahi ka haere, noho rawa atu i T^wa-pata 
i Nuku-taurua. Ka kite ia i a Tama- taku- tai raua ko tona wi^ine, ko 
Bongo-mai-wahine i reira e noho ana. Te mahi a Tama-taku-tai he 
whakakairo. Ka kite te tangata ra i te pai o te wahine ra, o Bongo- 
mai-wahine, katahi ka mea atu ki tona iwi, '^ Te whanau E ! he mahi 
kai te taonga. Tatou ka piki ki te ngaherehere ki te kari arohe ma 
tatou." Whakaae ana te nuinga, katahi ka piki ki te ngaherehere. 
Tae atu, e keri ana ; ka pae te aruhe, ka mea atu te tangata ra, 
'* Tikina he aka, kumekumea mai hei te aka-turihunga." Ka mahia 
mai nga aka, ka pae, ka homai ki te tangata ra ; katahi ka whakatako- 
toria nga rona. Ka rite, katahi ka rukea te aruhe ki runga, ka nui. 
Ka mea atu tenei tangata, '^Kati kua nui; ma ia tangata, ma ia 
tangata, o ana e hari, o ana e hari." Kaoro a Kahu-hunu i whakaae. 
Ka ki te rona, katahi ka kumea nga rona, ka niau ; ka whakatakotoria 
nga kawe, katahi ka hurihia te tirakaraka ki runga i nga kawe, katahi 
ka herea nga kawe ka mau. Ka noho te tangata m ki raro, ka pata 
nga pokohiwi i nga kawe, katahi ka whakaarahia ki runga, ka wahS e 
Kahu-hunu. Ka tae ki te taumata, ka waiho ki raro tu ai ; ka roa ka 
hurihia kia taka i te pari. I runga ano e taka ana, e motumotuhia ana 
nga aka herehere. Tana horonga o te aruhe, pae rawa atu i te whati- 
toka o tc whare o tena, o tcna. Ka rou^o atu tc tangata ra, i te kuia, 
i te wahine, e mea ana, '' E ! te hunaonga ma Uitou, E ! tenei ko 
tenei tangata mangere, he whakairo anake tana i mohio ai." 

Ka mutu tena mahi a te tangata ra, i te awatea ka noho i runga i 
ce taumata ka titiro ki te moana, ka kite i te kawau, manu nei, e 
rukuruku ana. Katahi to tangatt^ ra ka pepepope, pepepepe tahi, 
pepepepe rua, pepepepe torn tae noa ki tc warn, heoi, ka haere tona 
tona manawa. Ea te kau noa ake nga pueatanga o te kawau ra, katahi 


te tangata ra ka mea he roa ke atu tona manawa i to te manu ra. 
Katahi ka mea atu ki tona iwi, " Te whanau E I haere ki te tiki ti.'* 
Ea haere tona iwi ki te tiki ti (ara, whauake, te rua o ona ingoa). Ea 
mahia mai, ka pae. Ea mea atu te tangata ra, '^ Whiria, kia matariki 
marie te whiri." Heoi ka whiria, ka pae ; ka mea atu te tangata ra 
*' Taia he kawhiu (ara he heki)." Ea taia, ka oti, ka whiria te taura, 
e hia ranei kumi te roa. Ea mea atu te tangata ra, *' Apopo i te ata, 
me haere katoa tatou ki te one noho ai." 

I te ata ka haere katoa ratou ki te one noho ai, te taenga atu, ka 
mea atu a Eahu-hunu, '^ Hei konei koutou noho ai, ko au e kau atu ki 
te toka e mapuhia mai ra i te moana. Ei te kumekume au i te taura 
nei, kua ki te mea nei i te paua, kumea e koutou/' Ea mutu nga 
tohutohu a te tangata ra, katahi ia ka kau, ka tae ki te toka ra, ka ruku 
te tangata ra, ka ripi i te paua, ka ki te kawhiu, katahi ka kumekumea 
e te tangata ra te taura ka kumea e tona iwi te kawhiu ra. Ea u ki uta 
ka tahuri te tangata ra ki te whakapiripiri i te paua ki a ia. Ea 
mutu katahi ka kau mai ki uta, ki te tunga o te tangata i te taha o te 
ahi. Tana horonga o te paua ki raro, ka kohia e tena iwi, e tena iwi. 
Ea mutu, katahi ka haria te kawhiu ra ki te kainga ka tukua ki te 
tangata whenua. Ea rongo atu a Eahu-hunu ki te kuia, ki te wahine, 
e mea ana, ''E ! te hunaonga ma tatou! Tena ko tenei tangata, he 
whakairo anake tana e mohio ai, ko te mahi kai mo tona puku, te 
pahure, te aha !" Ea mea atu te tangata ra ki tona iwi, *' Ei te kai 
koutou, ko nga hua katoa maku — ko nga paua ma koutou." 

I te ahiahi ka kai te iwi ra, ko nga hua katoa ma Eahu-hunu. I te 
po ko Eahu-hunu ki te kopa-iti o te whare, ko Tama-taku-tai raua ko 
Rongo-mai-wahine ki raro i te pihanga ; kua rongo atu a Eahu-hunu 
kna hihi nga ihu o era, ka rero atu te tangata ra kei te hura atu i nga 
pueru, katahi ka putihitia atu ki roto ki nga pueru o te wahine raua ko 
te tane. Ea rongo te wahine ra i te haunga, ka maranga ki runga 
kohete ai. Eo ana kupu kohete enei : *' Eo te mangere o tenei tangata 
ki te mahi kai mana, ko te kaha o te kaki ki te kai !" Ea mea atu te 
tane, ** E hara i a au, E mea ! nau ano !" Penei tonu ta raua mahi 
a, ao noa te ra. 

I te awatea ka noho te tangata ra i te taumata ; ka kaha te ra ka 
pa ie tokerau (te rua o ona ingoa, o terahau, he muri). Eihai i roa kua 
eke a Tama-taku-tai ki runga i te waka, e hoe ana i te whakahekeheke 
i runga i te tai, ara, ki te whakapupungaru. Tuarua ki waho, ka rere atu 
a Eahu-hunu ki te tauranga ; ka u mai te waka o te tangata ra, ka mea 
atu a Eahu-hunu, '' Eo taua tahi ki runga ki to waka." Ea whakaae 
mai ana a Tama-taku-tai, ka eke raua ki runga ki to raua waka — ko 
Eahu-hunu ki te ihu, ko Tama-taku-tai ki te kei. Tuarua ki waho, ka 
mea atu a Eahu-hunu, '* Eo au hoki ki te kei." Ae mai ana a Tama- 
taku-tai, ka riro ko Eahu-hunu ki te kei. Ea hoe raua ki waho, ka kite 


a Tama-taku-tai i te tai nui (? ngaru nui) ka mea atu, ** E Tama E ! 
He tai nui tenei I" Ka mea atu a Eahn-hunu, ** E hara tenei i te tai 
nui." A, ka tukua to raua waka kia rere i runga i te tai, ka a ki uta. 
£a hoki ano ki waho ; ka kite ano tetehi i te tai nui, ka mea atu, '* E 
Tama ! he tai nui tenei 1" £a mea atu tetehi, << E hara tenei i te tai 
nui." Kihai i roa kua puta mai te tai nui, katahi ka tukua to raua 
waka, unuhia ana e Kahu-hunu te hoe urunga, tahuri ana to raua 
waka, ka totohu tetehi, mate atu ana a Tama-taku-tai — he rapu hoki ki 
te kaukau. 

Heoi, ka mate a Tama-taku-tai, ka moea a Bongo-mai-wahine e 
Kahu-hunu. Ka roa raua e moe ana ka mea atu a Kahu-hunu, *' Taua 
ka haere ki te wai ki te heru i a au." Haere ana raua, ka tae ki te 
wai e heru ana te wahine ra i te tane. Ka matara te mahunga ka maa 
ki nga koromutu hinu e popo ana. Ka mutu, ka mea atu te tangata 
ra, ^'Koukoutia toku mahunga." Katahi te wahine ra ka man ki 
te harakeke — o tera kainga ano — katahi ka herea, ka kumea, ka motu. 
Ka herea ano, ka kumea ano, ka motu. Katahi te tangata ra ka mea 
atu ki te wahine, ** Homai taku tatua." Ka homai e te wahine te 
tatua-pupara. o to tangata ra, ka tangohia ake te harakeke i roto — ^no 
Kawhai-nui hoki, i Kaituna, Maketu. Ka tukua ki te wai ka ngawhari, 
katahi ka hoatu ki te wahine ra, katahi ka herea ki te mahunga o te 
tangata ra, ka mau. Katahi ano te tangata ra ka maranga ki ronga tu 
ai, ka titiro whakraro ki te aorere i te wa ki tona matua, katahi ano ka 
whakatauki, koia tenei : *' Tenei te putiki wharanui o Tamatea i mahue 
atu ra i Taurauga.'' Katahi ano te iwi ra ka mohio ko te potiki tenei 
a Tamatea, ko Kahu-hunu. 

Na 1 ka tuturu ta raua moe ko Rongomai -wahine ; kihai i roa koa 
hapu te \vahine. Ka haore te rongo o te haputanga o te wahine ra, ka 
tao ki a Tamatea i Tauraiiga ; katahi te tangata ra ka whakaemi i te 
kakahu hei hacrenga iiiona ki te wbakataki i tona potiki, i a Kahu- 
hunu. Ka pau nga taonf>;a te einiemi katahi ano a Tamatea ka haere, 
ka tae ki 0- potiki ka ahu ma roto o te awa o Wai-o-cka ; ka tae ki 
waenganui o taua awa ka \Yaiho i reira tona manu, he karoro taua 
manu — kua kohatutia taua niauu i naiauei, e noho mai nei i reira. 
Katahi te tangata ra ka haero ka t^ie ki Moumou-kai ; te taenga atu ki 
reira kua tae niai tc ron<^'o o te tamaiti ra kua whanau, he wahine. Ka 
pouri a Tamatea; ka ^Yhakarel'oa noatia iho nga taonga ra ki reira, ka 
ahu ia ki Te Wairoa, a Mohaka, a \\ hanganui-a-Rotu. Ka tae te rongo 
() tc riringa o Tamatea ki a Kahu-hunu i Tawapata, me te rauiritanga 
noatanga iho o nga taonga o tona matua, ka tapa e Kahu-hunu hei 
ingoa nio tona potiki, ko iiiiie-rnuiri. Kaorc i tu te whare-kohanga mo 
tenei tanuiiti - no muii i tenei, i a Kahu-kura-nui, katahi ano ka tu te 
whare kohan«ca. 


Kp nga tamariki a Eahu-hunu raua ko Bongomai-wahine i muri, 

ko Rongo-mai-papa, ko Tamatea-kota, ko Tamatea-kuku ko 

Tamatea torohanga, ko Weka-nui, ko Taubei-kuri — ka mutu. 
Te wahine tuatahi a Kahu-kura-nui ko Rua-tapu-wahine ; a raua 

tamariki enei : Ko Rongo-mai-tara {he wahine) , ko Rakai- 

hiku-roa {he tane), ko Rakai-nui {he tane), 
Te wahine tuarua a Kahu-kura-nui, ko Tu-te-ihonga ; a raua tama- 
riki, ko Hine-manuhiri {he wahine), ko Rakai-paka {he tane). 
Ko Rakai-hiku-roa, tana wahine tuatahi, ko Papa-uma; a raua 

tamariki, ko Hine-pane (u?), Taraia (e), Tawhao (e), Rangi- 

tawhao (t). 
Ko Rakai-hiku-roa, tana wahine tuarua, ko Rua-rau-hanga ; ta raua 

tamaiti, ko Tu-purupuru. 
Ko Rongo-mai-tara, tana tane ko Kahu-tapere-a-whatonga ; a raua 

tamariki enei : ko Tara-ki-utu (t), ko Tara-ki-tai (t), he 

mahanga raua. 
Ko Rongo-mai-tara, tana tane tuarua, ko Haere-a-tautu, ta raua 

tamaiti ko Te Ao-nui. 
Ko Rakai-nui, tana wahine ko Pou-whare-kura ; ta raua tamaiti ko 

Te Rua-tapui. 
Ko Hine-manuhiri, tana tane ko Pu-karu ; puta mai a raua tamariki 

ko Tama-te-rangi (t), ko Makono (t), ko Hinganga (t), ko Pare- 

roa (<), ko Pupuni (t). 
Ko Rakai-paka, ka moe i a Turu-makina, kia puta ki waho, ko 

Whakapirikura (he wahine, kaore i tu te whare-kohanga) ko 

Kau-kohea {t) (ka tu te whare) ko Rakai-raumea {w), ko Mahaki- 

pare (m), ko Maro-tauia (ir), ko Ure-wera (/), ko Pokia (e), ko 

Puke (t), ko Rawaru (t). 
Ko Rongomai-papa, tana tane tuatahi, ko Rua-pani, kia puta ko 

Tu-maroro (t), Rua-rau-hanga (w), Rua-tapu-nui (e), me etehi 

Ko Rongomai-papa, tana tane tuarua, ko Tuhou-rangi ; kia puta ko 

Manu-hanga-roa (tr), Te Ao-wheoro (it'), Rangi-whakairi-ao [t) 

ko Hapu-riri (u'), ko Ue-nuku-kopako (t). 

Ko Maunoa-a-kahia. 

I te mea kua koroheketia a Kahu-hunu, kua pakeke katoa ana 
tamariki — a Kahu-kura-nui, ratou ko ona tenia, tuahine hoki — ka 
mahia to ratou pa, te ingoa, ko Maunga-a-kahia — kei Kahu-tara i Nuku- 
taurua taua pa e tu aua. 

Na 1 i te wa i wehe ai a Kahu-hunu raua ko Tuna-nui, ko Tuna-nui 
he rangatira whakahaere taua. Tona mahi he haere ki te whawhai ki 
etehi iwi. Na, i te wa ka haere ia ki era atu wahi ka mahue iho tana 
wahine, a Houmanga raua ko tona mokai, ko Ahu-kawa i te pa. Te 
moenga o te mokai nei i te kopaiti o te whare, ko Houmangn ki te taha 


i te pihanga. Heoi, i tetehi po, kna he te wahine nd ki tans mokai. 
Da te wahine ano te hiahia. Ko ta raua mahi tena a tae noa ki te wa i 
hoki mai ai a Tuna-nui. 

I te taeDga mai o te tangata ra, o Tuna-nni (te roa nei o ona ingoa 
ko Hama-tai) i te ahiahi, ka moe raua ko Houmanga, ka awLi atu te 
tangata ra ki te wahine ra, ka mea mea te wahine, *' E mate aiia ahau." 
Ka ni atu te tane, '' He aha to mate ?*' Ea mea mai te wahine ra, 
'' He tamaiti taku mate/' Ka ui atu te tangata la, " Kawxu ?'* Ea 
tatau atu ki nga rangatira i mahue iho hei tiaki i te pa. Poto noa te 
tatau. kaore ra te wahiue i whakaae. Katahi te tangata la ka mea atu, 
•* Na ta taua mokai tonu ?*' Ka mea mai te wahine ra ** Ae !" Ka 
mea atu te tangata ra, <' Nau ? Nana ranei ?** Ka mea atu te wahine 
ra, '< Naku ! He mate noku." Ka mea atu te tangata ra, *' E pai ana. 
Mehemea nana, mo te ata me tahu ki te hangi mo ta taua kai, ki te 
whatitoka nei i te ata. Ko tenei, nau, e pai ana. Kati me taipa noa 
atu au i konei." 

Kihai i roa kiia whanau te tamaiti he tane. Ka tapa te ingoa ko 
Tama-taipu-noa, ko te ingoa o Harua-tai. 

Na ! ka tupu te tamaiti nei, a, pakeke noa. Koa pakeke hoki tona 
tuakana, a Tu-tamure. Ka pakeke rawa raua ka mohio ki te hapai 
patu, ka riro te mahi a to raua matua — a Tunanui — i a raua. 

Na ! katahi ka whakatika te ope a nga tangata nei ; haere ake e ma 
ran ina whitu. Katahi ka haere, ka tae ki tena pa, ka whawhaitia e 
niua, ka horo. Penei tonu ta raua mahi, a, ka tae ki Maunga-a-kahia, 
katahi ka whawhaitia e raua. Na, ka riri raua me nga tama a Kaha- 
huuu. Nawai i waho, i waho, e hara ! ka tapoko nga tangata nei ki 
roto o te tata o te pa. Katahi ka unga atu e Kahu-huna tana potiki — 
a Tauhei-kuri kia haere ki te titiro i te riri a nga tangata ra. Tae rawa 
atu te wahiue ra kua pakaru te meremere maire no te whiunga ata ki 
te taiepa hei tapahi i te aka hohou o te pa. Pakaru ana te meremere 
ra ka rangouo iho e te wahiue ra e whakatauki ana, koia tenei : " Taua 
i te uha, taua i te ake ; mei tikiua ^x^a ki te ika pipiha nui a Tangaroa, 
mau ana te wawara ki runga o Mauuga-a-kahia.'* — (Enei kapu, '* taua i 
te uha," he maire teni ; '' taua i te ake," he ake rautangi tera ; *' te ika 
pipiha-nui a Tan^aroa," he kauae pamoa tera). 

Ka ron<^o iho te wahine ra i te whakataukitanga a tetehi o nga 
t^ingata ra, ka hoki te kohine ra ki te korero atu ki a Kahu-hunu. Tae 
atu, ka korero atu, '' E Koro K ! ka horo te pa nei !*' Ka korero ata i 
te whakauiuki ra. Ka inutu, ka mea mai te koroua ra, '* E hoki ano, 
uia ilio koe, kowai te urn o tenei opt»." Ka hoki ano a Tauhei-kori, 
ka tae ano ki run<^'a ake o nga tangata ra, katahi ka mea iho, *'Nga 
tangata nei ! Taiiioa c riri, tona ano korua e riri. He ui iho ki a ko* 
rua, kowai iv urn o tenoi opi'?" (Tenei kupu, ** uru," he mahanga; te 
maoritanga o t^iuei kupu, he rangatira). Na ! katahi ka peke tetehi o 


nga tangata ki waho o te tata o te pa, ka titiro ki te moana, katahi ano 
ka whakatauki, koia fcenei : " Kaore koe i rongo, * angiangi te muri 
whakarua, tutu te ngaru o te moana, ka tere te ibu-puku !' Ko au 
tenei, ko Tu-tamure I" 

Ea hoki te kohine ra ki te korero atu ki a Eahu-hunu, ka mea atu, 
'* E Roro E ! Eo Tu-tamure E, te tangata nei !" Ea mea atu te 
koroua ra, *< E ! ko to tungane ! Haere ! Eiia atu, kati te whawhai." 
Ea hoki ano te kobine ra, ka tae ; ka mea atu ki nga tangata ra, '^ Eati 
te whawhai ! Eaore ranei e rongo te ope nei i a koe ?" Eatabi te 
tangata ra ka peke, kotahi ano patunga ki tetebi taba, ki tetehi taha ; 
kua mutu te whawhai. Eua hoki te ope ki waho o te pa nobo ai. Ea 
hoki mai a Tauhei-kuri ki a Eahu-hunu, ka mea atu, *' E Eoro E ! 
Eua mutu te whawhai ; kua hoki te ope nei ki waho noho ai." Eatahi 
te koroua ra ka mea atu ki te potiki, ** E Eo ! kaore koe e whakaae 
ki to tungane hei tane mau ?" Ea whakaae mai te potiki. 

Eatahi te koroua ra ka tahuri ki te hakari i te potiki ; ka pai, 
katahi ka tukua kia haere ki te taua. Ea tae ki te puni o te taua, ka 
mea atu te kohine ra, " Eei whea ra te puni i a Tu-tamure ?'* Ea mea 
mai te taua, '* Inana ! inana !" Ea tahi ka haere atu te kohine ra ; 
rokohanga atu e noho ana raua ko tona teina, ko Tama-taipu-noa. 
Eatahi te kohine ra, ka hinga ki runga i te teina, ka mataku te teina, 
ka pana ano ki runga i te tuakana. Tuarua ki runga i tetehi, i tetehi ; 
katahi a Tu-tamure ka haere, ka tae ki runga i te haupapa kohatu, ka 
kite i te wai e tere ana i runga i te haupapa ; katahi ka whakaata ki te 
wai, ka titiro ki a ia. Ea mea i roto i tona ngakau, '* E ! he kino ano 
noku !" Ea hoki te tangata ra ki te puni, ka tae, ka mea atu ki te 
teina, *' Moea ta taua wahine !" 

Heoi, ka moea e Tama-taipu-noa a Tauhei-kuri, ka tuturu ta raua 
wahine ki tona teina, a, hoki atu ana ki to raua na kainga ki 0-potiki ; 
ki to raua na papa me to raua na whaea — me Tuna-nui, me Haumanga. 

Eihai i roa, kua hapu te wahine ra ; a, muri iho ka whanau ana 
tamariki, ko Tawhiwhi, muri iho ko Mahaki, ekiia nei i Turanga, ko te 


Eo tenei wahine, ko Tu-te-ihonga, he pouaru na Tu-pouri-ao. He 
riringa no Tu-pouri-ao me tona iwi ki a Te Poranga-hau me tona iwi, 
ka mate a Tu-pouri-ao ia a Te Poranga-hau. Ea noho pouaru a 

Ea haere mai te rongo o te matenga o Tu-pouri-ao, me te rongo 
hoki o te pai o Tu-te-ihonga ki a Eahu-kura-nui, katahi ia ka haere, 
me tona iwi, a, ka tae atu ki te pa o te wahine ra. I te ahiahi, ka tae 

atu te tangata ra ki te tara o te wahine ra, patoto ai Ea rongo 

ake te wahine ra, katahi ka mihi ake, ko ana kupu mihi enei, *' E ! 
mehemea ko nga mahi a nga tane kua mate atu ra ki te Po 1" Ea 


coogo iho te tangata ra i nga kupu mihi a te wahine ra, katahi ia k^ 
fiomo atu ki te whare, me te ui mai a te wahine, *' He aha taa ?" 
Katahi te tangata ra ka mea atu '* I haere mai au kia moe tana.*' Ka 
mea atu te wahine ra, *' Kaore au e pai. Kia ea ra pea te mate o taka 
cane i a koe katahi au ka pai." Ea ui atu te tangata, '* He aha nga 
cohu te tangata nana i patu to tane ?" Ka whakahokia mai e te 
wahine, " Kaore e ngaro. Ki te puta atu te taua ki waho o te pa, ko ia 
i^nu kua puta mai tu mai ai ; he kakahu-kura te kakahu, he taiaha-kura 
w rakau, he to te hapai o te rakau, ko Te Poranga-hau tena, ko ia tonu 
kei mua e haere ana mai o mua o nga tohu." Ka mutu nga tohutobu 
2k te wahine ra, puta tonu at a Kahu-kura-nui ki waho o te whare. 

I te ata, ka mutu te kai, ka whakatika te taua a te iwi ra, haere ake 
kotahi rau ma whitu, ka haere, a, ka tae, a, ka tata ki te pa, ara, ki 
Poranga-hau. Ka kitea e te tangata whenua ka pa te karanga, *• Ko 
ce whakaariki ! ko te whakaariki E !" (tetehi tikanga o tenei karanga, 
^^ He taua e !) Kihai i roa kua puta te tangata ra ki waho o te pa tu 
niju ai ; he kakahu-kura te kakahu, he taiaha-kura te rakau, he to te 
liapai o te rakau. Kahai i roa te tukunga mai kua tae rawa mai ki 
mua nga ^^^^ ^ ^ ^^^^ ^^' ^> kihai hoki i roa kua hinga te tangata. 
Tiua atu, tiua mai, kua hinga ano te tangata, tokorua i hinga ai. E 
jyirt I kua whati mai te taua ra, ana ka whati mai, whati mai, ka eke 
lu runga ki a Kahu-kura-nui. \N hakahoki noa, whakahoki noa, a 
Kahu-kura-nui, te hoki. Na te mea ano ka matara e mau a Kahu- 
fcura-uui, ka kitea hoki e Te Poranga-hau ; ana haere ana tetehi, haere 
4lia tetehi. Ka tutata raua, kei runga te rau o te taiaha a Kahu-kura- 
nui kei rare tonu te rau o te taiaha a Te Poranga-hau. Tata rawa, 
liua rewa te rau o te taiaha a Te Poranga-hau ki runga, kua hoki te rau 
^ taiaha a Kahu-kura-nui ki raro, kuhuna tonutia atu ki roto ki nga 
tuba a Te Poranga-hau. E hara ! kua hinga a Te Poranga-hau. 
Ijioi ano, kua whati tona iwi. 

Heoi ano, ka patua haeretai, a, horo atu te pa, a Poranga-hau. 
j^ljjii ka arahina oratia mai a Te Poranga-hau e Kahu-kura-nui, a ka 
^ mai kite pa, ka hoatu ki a Tii-te ihonga. Katahi ka patua e te 
^ine ra. 

Heoi, ka pakaru te whare-taua o te wahine ra, ka tuturu ma Kaliu- 
i^pqi a Tu-te ihonga hei wahine mana. 

Sal mate rawa ake a Tu -pouri-ao i a Te Poranga-hau, riro rawa ake 
^ J Tu-te-ihonga i a Kahu-kura-nui, kua whanau ta raua tamaiti. te 
^ ko Rumakina ; ana putau^^a ko : — 

Keari)a Tujika 

Tuiauwhii Mahinaa-ranRi 

I I 

liukai-U' kura Haukawa 


jilim-i-ao («i (Kon-ahu (0 

\ Tuaka (0 ' Wl.akatero [t) 

lKehu(0 (Takihiku \t) 


Te Matenoa o Tu-purupuru. 

Te pptake i mate ai a Tu-purupuru he hae no tona ngakau ki ona 
tuakana, ki nga mahanga a RoDgo-mai-tara raua ko Kahu-tapere-a- 
Whatonga, ki a Tara-ki-uta raua ko Tara-ki-tai. No te mea ko ia te 
tino rangatira o Turanga — ko ia anake, kaore tetehi atu i runga i a ia, 
ko ia te tino rangatira mana nui rawa. Ina hoki : Ki te poua tona 
tokotoko i runga i tetehi taumata, ka haere nga mano katoa o Turanga 
ki te whiu i te kai ki te tokotoko ra. Ki te waiho tona tatua i runga i 
tetehi taumata, ka haere katoa nga mano tangata o Turanga ki te whiu 
i te kai ki te tatua, ara, no reira hoki tenei whakatauki : *' Ko te mana 
koe o Tu-purupuru, a Rakai-hiku-roa." 

Na ! i te mea kua kite te tangata ra i nga mahanga ra, kua pakeke 
ka pouri tona ngakau ; ka mea ia, tena e nuku noa atu te mana o nga 
mahanga ra i tona, tena e riro te mana o Turanga katoa i a raua ra, te 
mana o te whenua, te mana o te iwi katoa. Katahi ia ka whakaaro me 
aha ra e mate ai nga mahanga ra i a ia. 

Te mahi a nga iwi o Turanga i tetehi wa, he ta potaka. Na, ka tae 
ki te wa e hiahia ai nga iwi o Turanga ki te ta potaka, te mahi a nga 
mahanga ra i nga ata katoa he moata ki te haere ki te marae taanga 
potaka ; ia ata ia ata. Katahi a Tu-purupuru ka mohio ka mate i a ia 
nga mahanga ra. Katahi ka taraia nga potaka a te tangata ra, he 
potaka tikitiki (he wherorua tetehi ingoa) ka oti, i rite tonu te hanga o 
nga potaka raka ki nga mahanga ra ; ina hoki he take tonu a runga, he 
take tonu a raro ; ki te whakatungia a runga ka tu ano, na, he mahanga 
te ahua o aua potaka. I te ata po ka haere te tangata ra me ona potaka 
ki te marae-taanga potaka. Kihai i roa kua tae atu nga mahanga ra ki 
reira ; katahi ra ka whakatungia e te tangata ra ona potaka ; ka tu, 
katahi ano ra ka taia haeretai. Ka kite nga mahanga ra katahi ka 
whai haere i te tangata ra ratou ko ona potaka. Ka taia haeretia e te 
tangata ra ka tata ki te taha o te rua, kua kitea ra e ia taua rua i tetehi 
wa. Ka tae te tangata ra me ona potaka me a nga tamariki ra hoki ki 
te taha o te rua, katahi ka taia nga potaka raka e te tangata ki roto i 
te rua ra. Katahi ka karanga atu ki nga tamariki ra, *' E rere ki roto 
ki te rua nei, ki te tiki i a korua na potaka.*' Katahi ka rere nga tama- 
riki ra ki roto, ka tokorua, tokorua atu ano i rere ai ki roto ; katahi ka 
tutakina iho te rua ra e Tu-purupuru. E hara ! Kua mate nga tama- 
riki ra ki roto ; oti iho. 

Ka hoki a Tu-purupuru ki tona pa, hoki atu ano kei te tarai i ona 
manuka hei tokotoko mana; ka oti katahi ka tapa nga ingoa o nga 
rakau a te tangata ra, ko '' Nga toa katoa a Rakai-paka." Kua mohio 
noa atu hoki ia tena ia e whawhaitia mo tana kohuru. 

Na 1 Ka ngaro nga tamariki ra, i te ata a, awatea noa, maoa noa 
te kai o te ata. Katahi a Kahu-tapere ka haere ki te ui haere i ona 
tamariki i tena kainga, i tena kainga, kaore e kitea. Katahi ka haere 


ki te pa Bakai-hiku-roa, ui rawa atu ; ki ana mai nga iangata o reira, 
kaore ratou i kite. Heoi, ka pouri noa iho te tangata ki ona tamariki ; 
ka hoki ki tona pa tangi ai ki a raua. A, katahi ka whakaarohia he 
tikanga ; ka kitea, katahi ka whatua nga manutara e rua. Ea oti, ka 
tapa nga ingoa ko '* Tara-ki-uta, ko Tara-ki-tai.*' Ea whakaemia nga 
tohunga hei tukutuku, ara, hei karakia. Ea emi katahi ka whakaangi- 
tia nga manu ra ; ka rere katahi ka karakia nga tohunga, katahi ano ka 
rere nga manu ra, aua tonu ake, katahi ano ka tiu ki runga ki te pa o 
Rakai-hiku-roa. Ea eke ki runga, ka whakahakahaka iho nga manu 
ra, ka piki ano whakarunga nga manu ra, aua tonu ake, ka tiu ano ki 
runga ki te pa, ara, e rua pikinga o nga manu ra ki runga, e roa 
hokinga ki runga i te pa. Heoi ano, e pokaia ana nga taura, kua mohio- 
tia na nga tangata o te pa, ara, i patu nga tamariki ra. 

Eatahi ka whakatika te taua a Eahu-tapere raua ko Rakai-paka ka 
haere ki te whawhai i a Bakai-hiku-roa ratou ko ana tama. Eatahi ka 
ngaua te pa o Bakai-hiku-roa ; ko Tu-purupuru i te kuaha tonu o te pa 
e noho ana me ana manuka i taraia ra. Eua puta tenei toa, a Rakai- 
paka, hopu tonu a Tu-purupuru ki te manuka i mahia ra mo tera, ka 
werohia atu. E hara ! kua tu tcra toa. Ea puta ano tetehi, ka hopu 
ano ki te manuka i whakaritea mo tera, ka werohia atu. E hara ! koa 
hinga tera. Pena tonu, pena tonu. A muri rawa a Whakarau ; te 
putanga ana, kua hopu te tangata ra ki tona manuka i whakaritea mo 
tera, katahi ka werohia atu. Patua tonutia atu e Wliakarau. E hara I 
kua taha. Ea werohia atu e Whakatau. E hara ! kua tu. Ea peke e 
Eahu-tauranga, ka mea, *' Tangata a te ringa mau ! *' Eatahi ka whaka- 
tauki atu e Whakarau, koia tenei: — '* Waiho ! waiho! kia kahakihaki 
te ikao te aho a Hine-tapua-rau '' — a tona whaea. Nal ka mate a 

Eatahi ka amohia mai, takoto rawa mai i te puni o Bakai-paka ; 
katahi ka whiria nga taura, ka oti, ka tikina te kahika, ka tuaina mai, 
katahi ka toia mai. Ea tae mai ki te puni ka herea nga taura ki runga 
katahi ka whakaarahia te rakau ra ki runga tu ai, ka herea nga waewae 
o Tu-purupuru ki nga taura raka, ka kumea ki runga, ka piupioa kia 
rere ki runga i te pa o Bakai-hiku-roa. Ea tae ki runga i te pa ka 
tangi ake te koroua raka, na te mea ano ka ngau kino i roto i te koro- 
heke ra te mamae ki tona potiki. Eatahi ka tomo ki roto ki te whare 
ka tae ki nga kakahu me nga kohatu e rua, ka ki atu ki te ruahine, 
*' E kui e ! taua ka haere hoi wharikiriki mo ta taua tamaiti.*' 
Whakaae ana to riiahino ra, haere ana raua, ka puta ki waho o te pa ka 
haere, ka tata atu ki te puni o Rakaipaka ra, ka kitea mai e nga tama- 
riki, katahi ka karan<^a atu ratou ki a Rakai-paka. ** E Eoro E ! Ko 
Paua e haere mai nei !'* Mohio tonu atu a Rakai-paka, ko tona tuakana, 


mona anake tena kupu e kiia mai ra e nga taraariki — a '* Paua," no te 
mea mo te rangatira anake tera kupu — ara, mo Bakai-hiku-roa, mo 
tona tuakana. Ka wehi a Bakai-paka ; ka mea atu ki nga tamariki, 
'* Paia atu ! paia atu ! Eei ahu mai ki konei to koutou papa/* Ea ki 
atu nga tamariki, *' Ina tonu ra e haere mai nei na." Eatahi ka mea 
atu te koroheke ra, *' Eati 1 Hurahia atu ; tukua mai to koutou papa." 
Tae mai ano, e tangi ana raua ko te taina. Ea mutu, ka tae te koro- 
heke ra ki nga kakahu me nga kohatu, ka boatu ki te taina, me te ki 
atu ki a ia, '^ Eo nga rautao en a mo ta taua tamaiti, ko nga kohatu 
ano tera hei tao. Taku kupu ki a koe, tukua mai tetehi o nga mokai 
nei hei wharikiriki mo ta taua tamaiti ; mo taua kia noho tahi ai i to 
taua kainga i Turanga.*' Eatahi ka utua atu e Bakai-paka. '' Eaore 
ra e taea te whakahoki o te pahi-taua.** Na ! e mau nei tena whaka- 
tauki i ona uri. £ mea ana, e kore ra e taea te wbakaiti o te pahi-taua 
a Bakai-paka. Na ka mea atu a Kakai-hiku-roa, '* Mahara nei au, me 
aroha mai koe ki au mo taua kia noho tahi ai i te riu o to taua kainga, 
o Turanga. Eo tenei, kati ! Waiho maku e haere ki te Pu-o-Bangitoto 
whakarongo mai ai. E kore pea koe e angia e te hau i muri i a au." 

Heoi ! Hoki ana a te koroheke, a Bakai-hiku-roa, raua ko te ruahine 
ki to raua na pa. 

Te Hekenoa o Bakai-hiku-roa. 

Nga putake i heke ai a Bakai-hiku-roa, ratou ko ana tama, me tana 
mokopuna, me Te Bangi-tuehu, tama a Tupurupuru — no te mea, mate 
rawa ake nei a Tu-purupuru, kua pakeke ano a Te Bangi-tuehu tona 
tamaiti — Tuatahi : Eo te matenga o tana tamaiti, o Tu-purupuru. 
Tua rua : Eo te korenga o tona taina e whakaae mai kia patua tetehi 
o ana toa hei wharikiriki mo te umu o ta raua tamaiti. Mohio ana ia, 
kaore tona taina e aroha ana ki a ia, e aroha ke ana ki to raua tuahine, 
ki a Bongo-mai-tara — ki te whaea o nga mahanga ra. No reira ra hoki 
i whakatauki atu ra a Bakai-hiku-roa ki te tama, " Mahara au, me 
aroha mai koe ki au mo taua kia noho tahi ai taua ki te riu o ta taua 
kainga o Turanga.*' 

Heoi ano, ko te hekenga o Bakai-hiku-roa ratou ko ana tama me 
tona mokopuna, me tona hapu katoa. Haere ake, hokowhitu, na, noho 
rawa atu i Nuku-taurau. Ea tae ki reira ka kite i te waka e hoe ana i 
te moana, katahi ka ui atu i uta, ** No wai tera waka e haere i waho ?** 
Eatahi tera ka karanga mai, *' Eo au ! ko au ! '* Ea karanga atu tenei i 
uta nei, " Eo koe, ko wai ?" ** Eo au ! ko au ! Eo Eahu-pa-roro !" 
Ea karanga atu tenei i uta nei, ** E Eahu e ! Haere ! Haere. e tae koe 
ki Turanga, kei whai mai ta taua tamaiti i a koe ; waiho atu i Turanga. 


Eia hae tona wairoa, hae ki roto o Turanga." Ea mea mai a Kahu- 
paroro, *' Nana tana kai, ka mea noa atu ai tenei/* Heoi ano, hoe ana 
a Eahu-paroro, ka noho te heke ra i reira. 

Eihai i roa e ngaro atu ana a Eahu-paroro, kua hoki mai. Boko- 
hanga mai ano te heke ra e noho ana ano i reira ; tae mai ano, e t5 ana 
i te matau, ka mutu, katahi ka mea atu ki te heke ra, *' Mo a tetehi ra 
maku te ohu kari aruhe ; kia hoe an ki te moana ki te hi ika ma te ohUy 
mo apopo ka hoe ai au ki te moana." Whakaae ana te heke ra. 

I te ata ka hoe te iwi ra ki te moana, ka eke hoki tetehi tangttta 
o te heke ra ki runga i te waka o te tangata ra. Eatahi ka hoe te waka 
ra, ka eke ki runga i te toka, ka tukua te punga, e whiu ana i te matau 
o tetehi taha, o tetehi taha. No muri ka maunutia te matau a te 
tangata ra, a Eahu-paroro, katahi ka whiua ki te wai, katahi ano te 
tangata ra ka takutaku, koia tenei : — 

Titahal Titaha! i o Titahatanga 

I wai Tawake, 

E maa ki to Taiaha-kura. 

Heoi ano. Ea rongo atu te tangata o te heke ra i runga i te waka 
ra, mohio ia, ko nga iwi o Tu-purupuru tera. Eatahi ka whakamate- 
mate i a ia, ka mea, '^ Aue ! aue ! ka hemo au. Eia tere te hoe i au ki 
uta." Heoi ra, ka manawapa te iwi ra ki te tangata ra, katahi ka hutia 
te punga o te waka ra, ka hoe ki uta. Ea u, waiho atu te tangata ra i 
te one ka hoe ano te waka ra ki te hi. I muri ano o te hoenga o te 
waka ra ka ngoi-haere te tangata ra, ka tae ki te puni, ki a Bakai-hiku- 
roa, tae atu ano ka korero ki a Eakai-hiku-roa, ka mea atu. " E koro 
e ! Eo Hika kei runga i te waka ra." Ea rongo te korohcke ra katahi 
ka whakatakoto ritenga mana ; ka oti. 

I te ata katahi ano ka tungia te ohu kari aruhe a Eahu-paroro, hoko 
whitu ona iwi, hoko whitu o Rakai-hiku-roa. Eatahi raua ka haere a, 
ka tae ki te wahi hei keringa nia raua. Eo te iwi a Eahu-paroro ki te 
koko, to iwi o Rakai-hiku-roa ki te uku i te pei o te aruhe. Ea roa, ka 
riro hoki ko te iwi o Rakai-hiku-roa ki te hapai i te ko, ka riro hoki ko 
te iwi o Eahu-paroro ki te aku i te pei o Ui aruke. Ea roa e ko ana, 
katahi ano ka whakahuatia te *' tapatapakau," koia tenei : — 

Ko peka runga, ko peka raro, 
Tenei koia ka werohiu. 

Eatahi ano ka worohia, ana hokowhitu ; hokowhitu hoki tera e ftku 
ra i tc pei, Ana! mate katoa— ka rerc ko Rakai-weriwori. Ea taoha 
tera patnnga, ka kainga. Ka pau. 

Katahi ka haere ano tv heke ra, a, Nuhaka. Ea whawhaitia ena iwi 
ka mate. Ea rere ano a Rakai-weriweri. Ka haore ano to heke ra a, 
Te Wairoa ; ka whawhaitia ano nga iwi o reira, ka mate — ka rere ano a 


Rakai-weriweri. Ko te heke nei kei runga i te waka e hoe haere ana, 
na ka mate nga tangata o Te Wairoa, ka rere ano a Rakai-weriweri. 
Ka hoe ano te heke ra, a Mohaka, Waikare, Moeangiangi, Aropawa-nui. 
Ea takoto ki te taha rawhiti o te ngutu-awa o Aropawa-nui ka kitea ake 
te tangata ra e tu iho ana. Eoukoutia te rae, tia rawa ki te huia, ki te 
kotuku. Na ! e tu iho ana i te kiritai o te pa — o Te Puku-o-te-wheke 
te ingoa — Ea kitea ake e Taraia, katahi ka hoaia ake te kohatu, katahi 
ka tipia ake, ara, ka whiua ake. Tahi tonu ki te koukou, E hara ! kua 

Katahi ka hoe te heke ra, ka tae ki te ngutu-awa o Aro-pawa-nui, ka 
whakaungia ki uta, Anal kua riri raua ko te tangata-whenua. Te 
whana a tetehi, te whana a tetehi, E hara ! kua whati te heke ra ; Aua I 
kua kau ki te moana. Eatahi ka aue mai te tamahine a Bakai-hiku-roa 
— a Hine-pare — i runga i te kohatu i te moana. Eo ana kupu aue 
enei, ** Waia o nga tane ; akuanei te hanga kino o tenei wahine mata- 
kitakina ai e era tane !" Eatahi ka akina te taha ki runga ki te 
kohatu — tana pakarutanga, pohehe ana nga tungane he angaanga 
tangata e pakaru ana i te patu. Tana hokinga o Taraia, o Tawhao, o 
ta ratou tama o Te Bangi-tuehu, E hara! kua whati te tangata- 
whenua ; katahi ka patua haeretia, a, haere ana te whati ki roto o te 
awa o Aropawa-nui; ahu rawa ki roto, kua huaki mai te ara a Tangi-aki, 
a te tamaiti a Tikorau (taina o Bakai-hiku-roa), ma uta mai te ara o 
tera ope. Te ingoa o tenei parekura ko Wai koau. 

Na 1 ka mate a Bakai-weriweri me era iwi, ka mau herehere tetehi 
tangata, ko Te Whanga-nui-a-Rotu. Ea uia e te heke ra te ahua o te 
whenua katoa e takoto mai nei i mua i a ratou. Eatahi ka korero te 
herehere ra, ** Eo Te Whanga-nui-a-Botu te tino kainga e takoto mai 
nei i mua i a koutou — he pipi, he kuku, he aha, nga kai o reira." Ea 
taunahatia e Tawhao, ka mea, ** Waiho, ko taku mara tera !" Ea 
hapa a Taraia, te tangata nana te herehere. I te po ka ui atu a Taraia 
ki tona mokai, *' Eahore hoki ranei he wahi momona i tetehi wahi atu 
o te whenua e takoto mai nei ?" Ea ki mai tona mokai, ** He momona 
ano, kei te putanga o Tukituki raua ko Ngaru-roro ki te moana — he 
puna kahawai tera. 

I te ata ka maunu te heke ra, ka hoe, ka puta ki te moana, ka ui 
atu a Taraia ki tona mokai, ** Eei whea te mea i korero ra koe ?" Ea 
mea atu te mokia *' Eei tua o te matarae e ma mai ra." Ea mea atu a 
Taraia, *'Me tapahi tonu to tatou waka ki reira." Heoi ano, ka 
tarewa tonu te waka o Taraia i te au o te moana, ka tapahi tonu ki 
Hukarere, ka tae ki taua matarae, ka tukua taua oko, ara, tona ipu ; tae 
rawa atu ki uta e takoto ana mai te ipu ra, tapa tonutia atu te ingoa 
mo taua wahi ko ** Te Ipu a Taraia,'* a, e mau nei, e mau nei. 


Na ! ka noho nei a Rakai-hika-roa me tana whanau me toDs 
mokopuna, me Te Rangi-tuehu ki Heretaunga. A, ka moe a Te Rangi- 
tuehu i a Rakai-te-kura ; ana ko Hine-i-ao ; ko Tuaka, ko Eehu. 

Ko Tamatea 

Kahu-nuna = Rongo-mai-wahioe 




Te Bangi-tuehu 





Te Ihi-nga-rangi 


Te Bua-kirikiri 








PaDgo-te-whare-auabi ^ 

Te Ipu-whakatara 


Pango-te-whare-auahi ' 



Translated by S. Percy Smith. 

^T^T^ page 164 (note) Vol. XIII of this Jocjrnal, it is stated that a 
IjL fuller account of the causes leading up to the Ngati-Kahu- 
^ ngunu migration from Poverty Bay to Hawkes Bay and 

Wai-rarapa would be given later on. That account now follows, as 
written by an old man of Te Arawa tribe, who died about five or six 
years ago. It would have been a pokanoa (unwarrantable proceeding) 
on his part to write any of the history of a different tribe to his own,, 
were he not descended from some of those who took part in the migra- 
tion related in the following pages. But to prove his right to do so, he 
furnishes in his MSS. many genealogical tables showing his descent 
from them ; only one of which however, will be given here. 

In the early years of the Polynesian Society, the Arawa tribe set up 
a committee in order to assist us by compiling their tribal history. 
The following is the only paper received from them, for soon after they 
had made a commencement the leading man died, and his companions 
— Maori-like — ceased their labours from that time. 

It is to be noticed that the author invariably spells the tribal name 
as Ngati-Kahu-hunu, whereas, the more common cognomen is Ngati- 
Eahu-ngunu, a mere dialectical variation however, but I think there 
can be no doubt, the original hero from whom the present tribe takes its 
name, was Eahu- ngunu. I may observe here, that few ancestors of 
the Maori people have given rise to more controversy than Tamatea, 
acknowledged by all to have been Eahu-ngunu's father ; but whether 
he was a Tangatawhenua (or member of one of the aboriginal tribes) as 
some hold, or was the captain of the Taki-tumu canoe that came here 
with the fleet in circa 1850, is still uncertain. Col. Gudgeon, who has 
enquired into this question more extensively than perhaps anyone, 
comes to the conclusion that he was of the original tribes — see his 
remarks J.P.S., Vol. V.. p. 8, et seq. But there were so many men of 
that name who flourished about the time of the arrival of the fleet, 
that it is difficult to say wherein the truth lies. It is clear that 
Tamatea, father of Kahu-ngunu, is buried at Kawhai-nui, near Te 
Puke, Bay of Plenty, in the lands of an alien tribe. At the same time 
the Southern Wai-rarapa people — who descended from those mentioned 
in this story, all believe that Tamatea was Captain of *• Taki-tumu,** 
and as evidence of the belief in the same story of the South Island 



people — Ngai-Tahu, a branch of Ngati-Eahu-ngana — Note No. 176 
(J.P.S., Vol. XIV., p. 46) shows the connection between Tamalea's 
name and that of the canoe " Taki-tumu." I learn also from Mr. 
Cowen that there are many other references in names of places connect- 
ing Tamatea with the '* Taki-tumu *' mountains named after the canoe. 

This story, however, has very little to do with Tamatea ; it com- 
mences with his son Eahu-ngunu. Old Pango may now be left to tell 
his story : — 

The reason why Kahu-hunu migrated to the East Coast, when he 
left Te Manga-tawa pa, near Tauranga (Bay of Plenty), was the hauling 
of a fishing net on the beach at Otira. Hardly had the " belly *' of the 
net been hauled in, when Kahu-hunu rushed in and seized a fish for 
himself — that is he took it by force (before the distribution). When 
his elder brother, Whaene, saw this, he was very angry ; he seized the 
fish and threw it at Kahu-hunu's head, who warded it off however. 

So Kahu-hunu felt troubled at the conduct of his elder brother, and 
in conse(juence he left, and went to 0-potiki, where dwelt his sister 
Haimianga and her husband Tuna-nui whose second name was 

On his arrival at Opotiki, the sister and brother had the usual tangi^ 
and when it was over, in the evening the brother-in-law Hama-tai 
asked Kahu-hunu, *' What is the reason of your coming ?** Kahu-hnna 
replied, ** It is duo to my ill treatment by our friend Whaene." After 
he had fully explained his reason for migrating his brother-in-law said 
to him, " A! what do you intend to do ?'* He replied, ** 1 propose we 
go and make war.*' To this the brother-in-law assented, and they 
proceeded together to make war, and were victorious in a battle called 
Te Awhenga, where Ahu-kawa was taken prisoner. They then retamed 
to 0-potiki.'-= 

At the lime of Kahu-hunu's arrival at 0-potiki, Han-manga and 
Tuna-nui had a son named Tu-tamure. After the fight mentioned 
above, Knhu-hunu mi<^mted again, and settled down at WhangarA 
(about ton miles north of Gisborne) where he married some women of 
that place, who made uncomplimentary remarks about him. When 
those gos.siping remarks reached Rua-here-tai, a lady of Turanga 
(Poverty Bay), i^he made a remark that has come down to posterity 
(the translation of which would not give its true meaning, nor is it in 
accordanco with polite langiuige to record it here). When the news of 
this saynig reached Kahu-hunu at Whangara, ho prepared himself and 
proceeded to Turanga. He thei*e saw Rua-here-tai and eventnally 

*'rhe author doos not say with what (icople thoy went to war. It wm sufloMnt, 
according to Maori custom, that somo one should suffer for ad affronl, whtthir Ihe 
guilty person or not, was a matter of no consequence. 


roarried her. When the time of birth of her child approached, she felt 
an inclination for some birds to eat. So her husband started out to 
obtain some, in order to cause the milk to flow for his (unborn) child. 
When he got to the forest he found a TiekVs nest in a hollow tree, 
from which he obtained some young birds and, taking them to the 
village, cooked them for his wife. By this means the wife's desire was 
fulfllled. Not long after, the child was bom, a girl ; and a name was 
immediately given to her, Rua-here-tieki, on account of the birdis 
brought for the purpose mentioned above. 

After a time Eahu-hunu left this wife, and proceeded on his travels 
as far as Whare-ongaonga (about twelve miles south of Gisborne, where 
Te Kooti landed after his escape from the Chatham Islands in 1868). 
Here he was seen by a lady of that place named Hine-pu-ariari who 
fell in love with him, and whom he married, and who also gave 
utterance to a '* saying " in reference to Kahu-hunu that has comedown 
the ages — " I was mistaken in the white-fruit ; afterwards I appreciated 
the black-fruit," which has reference to the paua (Haliotis). 

Some time elapsed and then Kahu-hunu left this new wife and 
moved on south to Tawa-pata at Nuku-taurua (Mahia Peninsula). 
Here he saw Tama-taku-tai and his wife Bongo-mai-wahine. The 
former's business was that of wood-carving. When Kahu-hunu beheld 
the beauty of Bongo-mai-wahine he said to his people, " relatives I 
obtaining food is the most desirable accomplishment. Let us ascend 
to the forest to dig fern-root for us all." The greater number assented, 
BO they climed up to the forest, and there commenced to dig. When a 
quantity had been secured, the man said '* Fetch some aka (strong 
creepers) and pull the aka-turihunga (a strong kind)." So they gathered 
the aka, and brought it to the man, who then laid out the creepers to 
form binders, and placed on them a large quantity of fern-root. Then 
said some one, '' Enough 1 there is sufficient, let each take as much as 
he can." But Kahu-hunu would not consent. When the binders were 
full, they were fastened tight and the slings for carrying the bundle 
laid, etc., then inserting his arms within the slings he arose with his 
enormous burden and started home. Arrived at the ridge (above the 
village) he set his burden down, and after a time capsized the fern-root 
over the cliff ; as the bundle fell, the binders broke, and then the fern- 
root came down like a land-slip, piling up at the doorways of the 
houses. Then Kahu-hunu heard the old and young women saying, 
" A ! this is indeed a son-in-law for us ! A ! as for this other lazy 
man, he knows nothing but how to carve." 

After this feat had been accomplished, one day Kahu-hunu sat on 
the ridge above the village to watch the comorants diving. As one of 
the birds dived he held his breath, counting all the time, until the 
comorant appeared again at the surface. After ten experiments he 


found he could hold his hreath longer than the bird's dive. Eahu-huna 
then said to his people, ** relatives ! go and fetch some ti (cordyline) 
leaves.** So his people went and brought back a quantity, and he then 
said, " Twist them ; very closely.** When the rope was twisted, the 
man said, '^ Make a kaivhiu *' (or heki, a basket specially made for pana 
shell-fish). This was made, together with a long rope, indeed how 
many kumi (10 fathoms) long was it ! Then said Eaha-honu, 
" To-morrow morning we will all go to the beach and wait.** 

In the morning they all went down to the beach, where Kahu-hunu 
said to them, ^* All of you remain here whilst I swim out to the rock 
just awash there in the sea. When I pull on the rope the basket will 
be full of /)(i//flf- shells — then you pull it in.'* After these directions he 
swam out, and reaching the rock, dived down and commenced tearing 
off the pana^i ; when the basket was full he gave a pull on the rope, and 
those ashore pulled it in. When it reached shore, he commenced to 
stick paiias on to himself, and then swam ashore, landing where the 
others were standing at the fire. Then fell off the pauas in great 
number ! which were gathered up by the various divisions of the people. 
After tliis the kaivhiu, or basket, was taken to the village and presented 
to the people of the place. Now Kaha-hunu heard again the women 
saying, '' A ! this is the son-in-law for us ! As for this other man he 
knows nothing but carving, and as for food for his stomach, he can do 
nothing." Kahu-hunu said to his own people, " In eating the paua^ 
save the roe for me ; you can eat the flesh." 

In the evening when the people had their evening meal, the roes of 
the paua were kept for Kahu-hunu. At night, Kahu-hunu slept in the 
house at the kopa-iti (or corner nearest the door), whilst Tama-taku-tai 
and his wife Eongo-mai-wahine slept near the window. (The story 
then relates a trick played on his hosts by Kahu-hunu which won't bear 
translation, but which lead to mutual recriminations between husband 
and wife). 

When morning came Kahu-hunu again proceeded to the ridge above 
the village, and as the heat of day increased, the sea-breeze set in. It 
wtis not long before he saw Tama-taku-tai gettmg into a canoe to 
indulge in the ancient pastime of whakaheke-mjaru (or riding in on the 
crest of the breakers). After he had twice performed this feat, Kahu* 
hunu descended to the landing place, and when the canoe got in, he 
said, '' Lot both of us get into the canoe.** To this Tama-takn-tai 
as^^ented, so they both got on board, Kahu-hunu being in the bow, 
Tania-taku-tai at the stern. After twice riding in, Kahu-hunu said, 
*' Let me come to the stern," which being agreed to by Tama-taka-tai, 
he took his place. They then paddled out and soon saw a big wave 
connng in; said Tamu-taku-tai, ** son I that is a very big wave !" 
Kahu-hunu replied, *' That is not a great wave !'* And so they allowed 



their canoe to be carried by the wave until it reached shore. Again 
they paddled out, and the same conversation was repeated. A great 
wave came up, and they flew before it ; Kahu-hunu now pulled up his 
steering paddle, and the canoe broaching to, over she went — Tama- 
taku-tai sinking, and was drowned, for he could not swim. 

So died Tamu-taku-tai, and Rongo-mai-wahine became the wife of 
Kahu-hunu. After some time, on a certain day, Kahu-hunu said to 
his wife, "Let us go to the water so that you may comb (and dress) my 
hair." So they went, and the lady proceeded with her work, until the 
locks of hair had been properly separated, and then oiled. Then said 
the husband, ** Tie up my hair *' (in the usual ancient style, by binding 
it in a top knot). The woman took some flax, of that place, bound up 
the hair, and pulled the ligature tight ; but it broke. Then said he, 
** Give me my belt," which was done — it was a tatua-pvparaj or war- 
girdle of prepared flax — and from it he took some flax, which had been 
grown at Kawhai-nui," at Kai-tuna, near Maketu, Bay of Plenty. It 
was soaked in water until soft, and then bound by the woman round 
her husband's head — and it held. The man then stood up, and turning 
to the north, to the clouds coming from the direction of his father's 
home, said, ** Here is the putikt-whara-mdi of Tamatea, that was left 
at Tauranga." And now, for the first time did the people know that 
this was the son of Tamatea. 

Behold ! Rongo-mai-waihine became the permanent wife of Kahu- 
hunu, and it was not long before she conceived. This news spread, 
even unto Tauranga, to Tamatea, the father of Kahu-hunu, who 
collected together some fine garments to take with him as presents on 
a visit he proposed to his new grandchild. When he had collected 
sufficient, Tamatea started on his journey, and after visiting 0-potiki 
proceeded south by way of the Wai-o-eka valley — about half way up that 
valley he left his pet bird, a karoro, or sea-gull, which is turned into 
stone and may be seen to this day. He proceeded on his journey, and 
got as far as Mou-mou-kai ( — an old joa, about 6 miles up the Nuutika 
Valley, now covered with forest) on reaching which place, he heard the 
news that the child had been born — a girl. Tamatea was much 
distressed about this (query, because it was a girl. Trans :) and therefore 
left all the property he was bringing at that place, and proceeded on 
on himself (without visiting his son) to Te-Wairoa, Mohaka and 
Whanganui-a-Rotu (Port Ahuriri). When Kahu-hunu heard of the 

*Where Kahu-hunu's father, Tamatea, was buried. 

\Putiki'Whara-nui^ the hair cinture of ichara-nui (a particular kind of flax). 
The above is the full name of the Maori village opposite the town of Whanganul, 
called generally, Putiki, and is equally connected with Taioatea, 



annoyance of his father, and the casting away of the presents, he at 
once named his new born daughter, Hine-Raniri (Lady-cast-away). 
There was no Whare-Kohanga built for this child — not until the birth 
of Eahu-kura-nui was one erected.* 

The children of Eahu-hunu by Rongo-mai-wahine were Hine-rauiri, 
Eahu-kura-nui, Tamatea-kota, Tamatea-kuku, Tamatea-toro- 
hanga, Weka-nui, and Tauhei-kuri. 
Kahu-kura-nui by his first wife Rua-tapu-wahine had Rongo-mai- 

tara (/), Rakai-hiku-roa (m), Tikorua (m), and Rakai-nui (m). 
(For other descendants see the Maori version, ante). 


(Another version — in English — of the incidents connected with the 
siege of this pa has already been published by the Society — vide J.P.S., 
Vol. I., p. 146, and some notes on it in Vol. X, p. 208, but it will bear 
repeating, the more so, as this account shows the connection of the 
various people who took part in it. This event took place in the third 
or fourth generation, after the arrival of the fleet in circa 1850, or say, 
about the year 1425 to 1450.) 

Now when Eahu-hunu had become an old man, and all his children 
— Eahu-kura-nui, together with his brothers and sisters — had grown 
up, they built a large pa named Maunga-a-kahia, which is at Eahn- 
tara, Nuku-taurua, Mahia Peninsula. 

Behold ! At the period when Kabu-hunu separated himself from 
his brother-in-law Tuna-nui, at 0-potiki, the latter was a great leader 
of war-parties. His constant occupation was the making of war with 
other tribes. Now, when be absented himself on these expeditions, he 
used to leave his wife, Hau-manga, to the enre of his slave, Ahu-kawa, 
(whom it will be remembered he and Kahu-hunu captured when seeking 
revenge for the slight put upon the latter by bis brother Whaene). 
The sleeping place of the slave was in the kopaiti\ (or left-hand corner 
of the home), whilst Hau-manga slept (in the place of honor) under the 
window. On one occasion the wife misbehaved herself with the slave ; 
and this continued until the time of Tuna-nui*s return. 

On the return of Tuna-nui, in the evening, the woman said to him, 
** I am unwell." The husband asked, " What is the matter ? '* "I 
am about to be confined.*' '* Who was it ? " asked the husband, and 
recounted the names of all the chiefs who had been left behind to 
guard the pa^ but to none of whom would the wife confess. At last he 
said, ** Was it our slave ? " ** Yes/' said the woman. Then said the 

^Whare-kohanga, literally, "nest-house/' a special building erected for the birth 
of high-bom children, in which tlie mother livas confined, and connected with whiefa 
were many ceremonies. 


husband, <<Whose fault was it ?" <* Mine !" said the wife. '' If that is 
so'/' said he, ''It is well. If it had been his fault, we would have 
cooked him for breakfast in front of our door to-morrow morning. As 
it is, thine was the fault, it is well. Enough, I will lay me down 
{tatpu-noa) here ! " 

It was not long after that a male child was born. A name was 
given to him — Tama-taipu-noa, one of Haruatai's names, in remembrance 
of Tuna-nui's words, tatpu-noa. 

Now Behold ! The child grew up to manhood, as did his brother 
Tu-tamure (legitimate child of Tuna-nui) and they learnt the art of 
bearing weapons, so that the work of their father — Tuna-nui — fell to 

On one occasion the war-party of these young men arose, 270, 
(i,e, 640) strong and proceeded on the war-path, taking several pas^ until 
they reached Kahu-hunu's /?a, Maunga-a-Kahia, which they proceeded 
to beseige. For a long time their operations were confined to fighting 
outside the pa, until the time came when the war-party carried the 
outside line of pallisades. At this time, Kahu-hunu sent his daughter 
Tauhei-kuri, to see how matters were going on at the front. Just as 
she got there, a rneremere was smashed, and she heard one of the 
beseigers say, " It was attacked with the tiha (maire club), it was 
attacked with the ake (ake club) ; if the great fish of Tangaroa* had 
been used, then would it resound above on Maunga-a-Kahia." 

When the girl heard this ** saying," she returned and reported it to 
Kahu-hunu. She said, " Sir ! the pa will be taken ! " and repeated 
the " saying." Then the old man said, " Go down and ask who is the 
leader of this war-party." So Tauhei-kuri returned, and on reaching 
above where the men were fighting, called out, " You men there ! 
stop the fighting ; you can go on presently. I am asking you two,t 
who is the chief of this party ? " Then one of the beseigers advanced 
and stood near the outer defences, and turning towards the sea, said, 
'* Hast thou not heard, when the north-west winds sets in, up rise the 
waves of the ocean, and the * blunt-nose ' floats. Tis, I, Tu- 

The girl then returned and said to Kahu-hunu, ** Sir! Tu-tamure 
IS the leader I" The old man then said, " A ! it is thy brother. || Go ! 
Tell him to cease fighting." So the girl returned to the people below 
and said, ** Leave oflf fighting I Will not this war-party obey you?" 
The young man sprang forward, and with a blow on this side and that 
ended the fighting, and the besiegers retired outside the pa. Tauhei- 

♦A club made of whale bone. 

t*'You two" — i.e., the leader and his party, a common form of address under 
such circumstances. 

{ Tamure is the Schnapper fish — hence the play on his name. 

II t.«., a brother according to Maori ideas, really, a first cousin, as Tu-tamore 
WM the child of Kahu-hunu' s sister, Haa-manga. 


kuri returned to her father Eabu-hunu and said, *' sir ! the fighting 
has ended ; the war-party has retired outside." And then the old man 
said to his young daughter, *' lass ! wilt thou not consent to thy 
brother (cousin) as a husband?*' and the girl consented. 

Then the old man tui-ned his attention to adorning his young 
daughter in all the finery of Maoridom, and when ready sent her down 
to the war-party. Arrived at their camp, she asked, " Where is the 
camp of Tu-tamure ? The reply was ** There ! Beyond !" So on she 
went and found him and his brother Tama-taipu-noa sitting together. 
(Not knowing which was which) she fell on the younger, who in fear 
(of his elder brother) pushed her over to the elder. Twice was this 
done, and then Tu-tamure arose, and went down to a flat rock on 
which was a pool of clear water, in which he looded at himself (as in a 
looking glass). He said, within his heart, " indeed I am ugly I" So 
he returned to the camp, and then said to his younger brother (Tama- 
taipu-noa) ** Marry our young lady." 

And so Tama-taipu-noa married Tauhei-kuri, and then the war-party 
returned to their home at 0-potiki, to the father and mother of the 
brothers, to Tuna-nui and Uau-manga. After a time a family was 
bom to the couple, Tawhiwhi, then Mahaki ; from the latter descend the 
tribe of Poverty Bay called Te Aitanga-a-Mahaki. 


This woman — Tu-te-ihonga — was the widow of Tu-pouri-ao. During 
a fight between the latter and his people with Te Porangahau and his 
people Tu-pouri-ao was killed by Te Porangahau, hence was Tu-te- 
ihonga a widow. 

When the news of the death of Tu-pouri-ao reached Eahu-kura-nui 
(eldest son of Kahu-hunu by Bongo -mai-wahine), together with the 
fame of the great beauty of the widow, he with his people started off on 
a visit to the pa where dwelt the lady.'^' In the evening Eahu-kura-Dui 

went to the home of the widow, and knocked When she heard 

this, she '* greeted,'* saying, '' Tis like the actions of the men who 
are now dead and gone to Hades." When the man heard these wordSi 
he entered the house, on which the lady asked, *' What do you want?** 
Said he, '* I came, that we might marry !" The lady replied, ** I do 
not consent. If you will avenge the death of my husband, then only 
will I consent to be thy wife." He then asked, ** What are the dis- 
tinguishing signs of the man who killed thy husband?" The woman 
answered, ^* They cannot bo mistaken. If a war party approaches his 
pa, he will come forth in front and stand there ; he will wear a scarlet 
cloak (of red parrot features) and his weapon is a taiaha-kura (halbert 
with scarlet feather near the tongue end) ; in *' trail " is his method of 
carrying the weapon — that will be Te-Poranga-hau. He will always 

*I believe this pa was at Tc Wairoa, but am not certain. 


be found in front of the oompanies of men that come to attack." On 
learning these particulars, Eahu-kura-nui went forth from the house. 

After the morning meal the war-party arose,— one hundred and 
seventy {i,e, 240) in number, and proceeded on their way, and 
eventually drew near to the pa they were bound for, at Poranga-hau.* 
When the people of the pa beheld the war-party, the cry was raised, 
** An army ! an army ! " Directly there appeared a man who stood 
outside the pa clothed in a scarlet cloak, taiaha at the trail in hand, 
who advanced in front of the attacking party, and immediately slew his 
man. Weapons flashed ; this way and that way, and do\vn went two 
more men. Alas 1 the war-party fell back, retreating until they 
reached where Kahu-kura-nui was. In vain he urged them to return ; 
but to no purpose. As the ranks opened out, Kahu-kura-nui was seen 
by Te Poranga-hau : then these heros approached. As they drew near 
to one another, Kahu-kura-nui held his taiaha aloft (ready to strike 
downwards) whilst Te Poranga-hau trailed his (for an upward blow) 
and on getting within striking distance, Te Poranga-hau raised 
his taiaha whilst Kahu-kura-nui striking downwards and forwards 
thrust his taiaha between the thighs of his enemy, and down the latter 
went. It was enough I the people of the pa fled, followed by the war- 
party, who took Te Poranga-hau's pa, Te Poranga-hau himself was 
brought away alive by Kahu-kura-nui, and when they reached the pa 
of Tu-te-ihonga, was delivered over to that lady, who dispatched him. 

Enough ! The whare-taua (house of mourning — state of tapu) of 
the lady was at an end, and Kahu-kura-nui took Tu-te-iohaga as his 
permanent wife. 

Thus, when Tu-pouri-ao had been killed by Te Poranga-hau, the 

former's wife Tu-te-ihonga became the wife of Kahu-kura-nui, and she 

had by her first husband a child named Ru-makina, whose descendants 

are as follows : — 





Hine-i-ao (/) Toaka (m) Eehu (/) 

Mahina-a-rangi (/) 


Bereahu (m) Whaka-tere (m) Taki-hiku (m) 

*About 50 miles south of Napier, a well known river. The Chief of the place — 
Te Poranga-hau— appears to have been named after the river, and no doubt he was 
one of the tangata-whenua, or aboriginal tribes, for no migration of the descendants of 
of the fleet had as yet taken place. — vide tupra. 


(From Raukawa — who was the son of Mahina-a-rangi by her hnsband 
Tu-rongo, of Waikato, seventh (or perhaps ninth) in descent from 
Hotu-roa, captain of the Tainui canoe, that arrived in New Zealand 
circa 1850 — are descended the Ngati-Raukawa tribe of Mannga-tautari 
and Manawatu. His three sons are also eponymous ancestors of mil 
known fiapus of Ngati-Raukawa. Raukawa flourished approximately in 

The Death of Tu-PURUPrRu. 

Tamatea (The marginal table shows the position of Tu-huruhara 

Kahu-hunu (^^^ ^^ fourth in descent from Tamatea, suppoeed 

I , captain of the Taki-tumu canoe), who flourished about 

Kahu-kura-nui ^^^^ according to this table. What follows shows the 

Rakai-hiku-roa real reason of the migration of these Hawaiki Maoris 

Tn purupuru ^^^ Poverty Bay and Te Mahia peninsula to Here- 

taunga (Napier) and the South.) The cause of the death 

of Tu-purupuru was his insensate jealously of his elder brothers, the 

twin boys of Rongo-mal-tara and Kahu-tapere-a-Whatonga, that is, ol 

Tara-ki-uta and Tara-ki-tai {i.e. elder brethren by Maori custom, first 

cousins by English custom thus : — 

Kahu-kura-nui = Ruatapu-wahine 

Bongo-mai-tara (/) = Kahu-tapere (m ) Rakai-hiku-roa (m) = Rua-raohanga (f) 

I I 

Tara-ki-uta Tara-ki-tai Tu-purupuru) 

The reason of this was, that he — Tu-purupuru — was the principal 
chief of Turanga (Poverty Bay), he alone; there were none above him, 
and he was the chief of the greatest mana. For instance : If he stuck 
his staff into any hill (or place) all the thousands of Turanga would 
bring there all kinds of food for him. If he left his belt in any place, 
the people would also deposit all kinds of food there ; and hence is the 
saying, '* Thou has (equal) nuhia with Tu-purupuru son of Rakai- 

Now when this man saw that the twins were growing up to man- 
hood, his heart was full of foreboding ; and he thought, presently will 
the mana of these twins much exceed his own, and the power, guidance 
and government of all Turanga fall into their hands, together with 
influence over the land and the people. So he considered in what 
manner he could compass the death of the twins. 

One of the occupations and amusements of the people of Turanga 
in those days was top- spinning. On the days that such games were to 
take place, it was the custom of the twins to proceed very early in the 
morning to the ground (to practise top- whipping), day after day. Then 


Tu-purupuru knew that he should be able to accomplish his wish. He 
proceeded to make some tops ; they were long ones (called wherorua)^ 
and were just like those of the twins, pointed at both ends so that either 
end might be upwards — they were like twins. At daylight the man 
went with his tops to the whipping-ground, and not long after the 
twins appeared. He set up his tops and began whipping them, which, 
as soon as the twins saw, they followed suit. The man whipped his 
tops till they came to the edge of a deep pit, which he had noticed 
before. When he and the twins got to this place, he whipped his tops 
into the pit and called out to the twins, " Jump into the pit to fetch 
your tops." The twins jumped in, both of them, and then the man 
closed the pit. Alas 1 the twin died in the pit."^ 

Tu-purupuru then returned to his pa, and on arrival commenced 
making manuka tokotokos, or spears (the purpose of which will be seen 
later), and he named them " All the braves of Rakai-paka." He already 
knew that he would be called to account for his murder. 

Now, the children were absent, from the morning even to noon ; 
the morning food was cooked (but they appeared not). Then Kahu- 
tapere, their father, went about enquiring for his children at this 
village, and that village, but they were not seen. He then went to 
the pa of Rakai-hiku-roa (his brother-in-law, and Tu-purupuru*s father) 
and on enquiring was told by the people of that place that they had 
not seen them. Enough ! the man was disheartened and anxious 
about his children, and returned to his pa and cried over them 
(believing them to be dead). Presently he decided on a course of 
action (by which they might be found) ; he weaved two kites, and 
named them ** Tara-ki-uta and Tara-ki-tai,*' after the twins. He then 
assembled all the priests to say their incantations over them. When 
they met he flew the kites, and as they ascended the incantations were 
recited ; the kites ascended a great height and hovered over the pa of 
Rakai-hiku-roa, Tu-purupuru's father. When at their extreme height, 
they descended, then ascended a great height, and hovered over the pa 
— that is, there were two ascents, and two descents above the pa. 
It was sufficient ; the lines were wound up, for it was now known that 
the people of that pa had killed the children. 

Now arose the war-party of Kahu-tapere (the twins' father) and of 
Rakai-paka (step-brother of the first) and went forth to battle with 
Rakai-hiku-roa and his sons. They beseiged the pa ; and in the attack 
Tu-purupuru stood at the entrance with the spears he had dubbed out. 
Rakai-paka came up to the attack ; Tu-purupuru seized the spear he 

* Presumably this was a rua or pit, such as are used for storing kumarasy with a 
heavy cover to it. 


had specially made for him and lunged at him. Aha ! that warrior was 
wounded ! Another came ; the spear made for him did its work, and 
he fell ; and thus it continued, until at last came up Whakarau, when 
the special spear made for him was lunged at him — it was turned off 
by Whakai-au and passed on one side. Then Whakarau lunged ; Aha ! 
he (Tu-purupuru) was struck. Up jumped Kahu-tauranga, saying, 
''The man of the fast hand!'' But Whakarau uttered his saying, 
thus : '' Leave him ! leave him ! let (me) catch the fish of the line of 
Hine-tapua-rau I** (of his mother). Behold ! Tu-purupuru was killed. 

After that his body was brought away and deposited in the camp of 
Rakai-pAka. They then twisted some ropes; when finished they 
fetched a special kahiha tree, and after fastening the ropes to it, set it 
up. The le^H of Tu-purupuru were fastened to the ropes and the body 
hauled up, and cast into the pa of Rakai-hiku-roa."^ When it reached 
the pa the old man cried over the body of his son, on account of the 
anguish he felt at his loss. He entered the house, and taking some 
garments and two stones, said to his old wife, '* old woman ! Let 
us go and take something on which our son may rest (in the oven)." 
The old woni<;n consented and both proceeded forth from the /ni, and 
when they drew near the camp of Rakai-pika, they were seen by the 
young people who gave notice to him, saying, *< sir ! Here is Paoa 
coming.'* Fiakai-piika understood at cmce that it was his elder brother, 
for to him alone was applicable the words useJ by the young people, 
i,e, Paua, Ix.'Cause it is only used for a great chief — for Rakia-hiku-roa 
for instance. Now Rakai-pAka was alarmed ; and said to the young 
men, *' Shut (the gate) ; do not lot your old father come here." They 
replied, *' He is here already." So Rakai-pftka said, ** Enough ! open 
it, and let your father in." When they met they cried over their dead 
son, and at the end the old man taking the garments and the two 
stones, gave them to his younger brother, saying : *' Here are some 
rantao (covering for an oven) for our child, and here are the stones for 
the oven. My word to you is, give up one of your slaves as a mat on 
which to lie our child (in the oven) in order that you and I may dwell 
together in our home of Turanga." Rakai-p&ka replied, " The pahU 
tana (company of war) cannot be debased," which saying has come 
down to his def^ccndants, and it means, it was impossible to debase 
the warriors of Rakai-paka. Rakai-hiku-roa replied. ** I thought 
you would have had some regard for me, in order that we two might 
still dwell together in the vale of Turanga. But now, enough I Leave 
me to go to the Pu-o-Rangitoto, and listen — probably you will not be 
blown on by the wind after me." 

It WAS enou<,'h, the old man Rakai-hiku-roa and his wife returned 
to thoir own pa, 

*ThiH id not clour, but possibly the kahika tree was used ;is a spring to throw the body* 


The Migration of Bakai-hiku-boa. 

The reason why Rakai-hiku-roa migrated together with his sons and 
grandson, Te Rangi-tuehu, the son of Tu-purupuru — for at the time 
of the death of the latter his son was grown up — ^were two : First, the 
death of his son Tu-purupuru ; second, because his (step) brother 
Bakai-p&ka would not consent to kill one of his warriors as a ''mat " 
for the oven of their child. He well knew that his brother had no 
love for him, but rather felt more affection for their sister Bongo-mai- 
tara, the mother of the twins. Hence he had said to Bakai-p&ka, *' I 
thought you would have had some regard for me, that we might still 
remain together in our home at Turanga." 

But so it was ; and thus Bakai-hiku-roa, his sons, his grandson, 
and all his people migrated. They left Turanga 70 (140) in number, 
and went to Nuku-taurua, Mahia Peninsula, to dwell. When staying 
there, they saw a canoe paddling along on the sea, and called out, 
saying, «* Whose is that canoe paddling along outside?" The answer 
came, ** It is 1 1 It is I !" Said those on shore, " It is thou I who ?" 
'* It is I ! It is I ! Eahu-paroro !*' Then those ashore called out, 
** Kahu ! Go ! Go on thy way ; when you arrive at Turanga do 
not let our child follow thee ; leave him at Turanga so that if he feels 
envious, let his envy be displayed within Turanga." Kahu-paroro 
replied, ** His food is his own ; it is useless my saying anything." So 
he went on his way leaving the migration there. 

It was not very long after Eahu-paroro had departed, when he 
returned again, finding the migration still at the same place. On his 
arrival he set-to to prepare some fish-hooks, and when he had finished 
said to the migration, '' The day after to-morrow I will arrange a party 
to dig fern-root, and will to-morrow go to sea to catch fish for them." 
To this all consented. 

In the morning the people put to sea, and with them, in the chief*s 
canoe, went one of the men of the migration. They pulled out until 
they got to the reef where they anchored, and commenced fishing from 
both sides of the canoe. Afterwards Eahu-paroro baited his hook and 
cast it over and at the same time said his takiitaku^ or charm, as 

follows : — 

Sidle, Sidle, at your sidling, 

At the water of Tawake, 

And bear along tby Bcarlet-dressed taiaha. 

It was enough, when the man of the migration heard this he at 
once knew that it referred to the bones of Tu-purupuru.* 

*One of the greatest insults that could be offered was to make fish-hooks of an 
enemy's bones — it will be remembered that it was Tu-purupuru*8 father who was 


The man at once pretended to be ill, calling out, ** Alas ! Alas ! I 
am dying. Haste and put me ashore/' The people being apprehensive 
about the man, hoisted up the anchor and paddled ashore. They 
landed him then returned to their fishing. The man crawled 9kWB,j 
(pretending illness) till he reached the camp of Bakai-hiku-roa where 
he said, *< Sir ! Hika is on board the canoe there.* On hearing 
this the old man proceeded to consider what course should be taken, 
and finally decided. 

In the morning the party of Eahu-paroro to dig fern-root was 
arranged, there were 70 twice told of them, and an equal number of 
Bakai-hiku-roa's party. So they proceeded to the digging ground, where 
it was arranged that Kahu-paroro*s people were to dig, whikt Bakai- 
hiku-roa's company was to scrape the roots. After some time they 
changed occupations and Bakai-kiku-roa*s people took the ko or digging 
tools (formidable weapons). During the operations the tapatapakau or 
incantation appropriate to the occasion was sung : — 

The branch above, the branch below 
Now then spear it, d'C, &c. 

Then they speared the whole seventy ; seventy also were those who 
were cleaning the fern foot. Ana I all were killed — but Bakai-weriweri 
fled. Then they cooked the fruit of their killing, and ate them, all up I 
(So ended Kahu-paroro and his people). 

The migration now started again on their further journey, and 
reaching Nuhaka, fought the people of that place whom they defeated. 
But Bakai-weriweri again escaped. The migration next proceeded on 
to Te Wairoa where they fought and defeated the people of that place, 
whilst Bakai-weriweri escaped again. The migration were on board 
canoes (? which they got from the Wairoa people — see J.P.S., Vol. XIII, 
p. 154) when they (again) defeated the Wairoa people, Bakai-weriweri 
again escaping. The migration now passed on to Mohaka, Waikare, 
Moe-angiangi, and to Aropawa-nui. Here they camped on the east 
side of the mouth of the river, and there saw the man (? Bakai-weriweri) 
standing, with his hair done up in a knukon top- knot, adorned with huiu 
and kotuku feathers ; ho was standi n<; on the bank of the pa named Te 
Puku-o-te-wheke. When Taraia (the oldest son of Bakai-hiku-roa) saw 
him he took a stone and cast it upwards, which struck the koukou (of 
the man) and cut it otl*. 

The migration now piM Idled down to the mouth of the river Aro- 
pawa-nui and landed. Anu ! there ihey fought the taiujata-wlimua^ or 
people of the place. ()n(> party char>;ed, then the other. Alas ! the 
migration fled even runnint; out to sea. Then Hine-pare, a daughtar of 

*Who Hika may be 1 know not but probably a second name for Tu-pompum. 


Bakai-kiku-roa, stood on a rock in the sea bewailing, saying, ** Fatigue 
of the men ! Presently will the evil works of this woman be gazed at 
by those other men." And she dashed on to the rock a calabash, the 
sound of which in breaking was mistaken by her brothers for a skull 
crushed by a weapon. Thereupon Taraia, Tawhao and their young 
relative Te Rangi-tuehu returned to the fight. E hara ! The people 
of the place now fled in confusion up the Aropawa-nui river, and 
further up they were set upon by the party of Tangi-aki, the son of 
Tiko-rua (younger brother of Rakai-kiku-roa), which had comedown the 
coast overland. The name of this battle was Wai-koau. 

Behold I So died Bakai-weriweri and that people. A prisoner 
named Te Whangaui-a-Botu was taken, from whom the migration 
enquired the kind of country that laid before their course. The prisoner 
replied, '* Te Whanganui-a-Rotu (Port Ahuriri) is the best place that 
lies before you, there are cockles, mussels, and plenty of other foods 
there." Then Tawhao did taunaha^ i.e. take possession of that place 
saying, ** Leave it to be my cultivation !** And Taraia, who caught 
the prisoner, was passed over. In the evening Taraia enquired of 
his prisoner, *' Is there no other rich and desirable place in the land 
that lies before us ?*' His prisoner replied, ** There is ; at the mouth 
of Tukituki and Ngaruroro rivers — there is a celebrated kahawai fishing 
place there." 

In the morning the migration left and pulled out to sea, when 
Taraia asked his prisoner, ** Where is the place you spoke about ?" 
"Beyond the white point there (Napier Bluff).'* Then said Taraia, 
*' Let our canoe strike right across (the Bay) to that place.'* And so 
Taraia's canoe floated on the current of ocean and went straight for 
Hukatere (Napier Bluff), and on reaching it he put his calabash afloat. 
When they reachad the shore there was the calabash, and he called the 
name of that place ** Te ipu a Taraia " (Taraia*s calabash) which name 
has remained to this day. 

Behold ! and now Rakai-hiku-roa, his relations, and his grandson 
Te Rangi-tuehu settled down in Heretaunga, and Te Rangi-tuehu 
married Rakai-te-kura, and had Hine-i-ao, Tuaka, and Eehu. 

Then follows a number of genealogical descents from these and 
other people mentioned in this narrative — one line only, that from 
Tamatea down to the author is given, for which see the original Maori 
part ante. It will be observedun this account, that neither the episode 
of the fight at Heipipi, nor the taking of the pas of the Tini-o-Awa 
tribe up the Tukituki river, are mentioned (see J.P.S., Vol. XIII, p. 158) 
but I believe they both occurred in the times Taraia mentioned above. 


[The following is interesting as giving a much more complete account of the doings 
of Baka-taura — the priest of Tainui canoe that arrived in New Zealand with 
the fleet in circa 1350 — than has ever been published before. We have to 
thank Mr. Jas. Cowen for it.— Ed.] 

^IHARI TAUWHARE, of Kawhia, in giving evidence before the 
JL\ Native Land Court at Otorohanga in 1886, in re the Aotea- 
Taupo-Parininihi block, said : — 
I will now narrate the events which occurred in connection with 
the immigration of the chiefs Hoturoa and Baka and their followers 
from Hawaiki to New Zealand in the Tainui canoe. Hoturoa was the 
chief in the stern of the canoe. Raka had control of the bow, where 
the alter of the priest of Tainui was. While they were crossing the 
ocean Raka fell in love with Eahurere, Hoturoa*s daughter. When 
Hoturoa discovered this he was very angry with Raka. The canoe 
arrived at Otahuhu, or at the Otaiki stream (Tamaki). Raka and all 
the people jumped on shore, and urged that Tainui should be dragged 
overland into Manuka Harbour. Raka ordered the crew to get rollers 
to place beneath the canoe, so that she conld be hauled across the 
portage. It was here that Raka composed his song : — 

" Toia Tainui, tapotu ki te moana ; 
Ma waie to?" Ac* 

Tainui was then dragged on shore. Raka*s sister Hiaroa (or 
Hiaora ?) went to Raka and asked if he were not foolish to try to dng 
the canoe overland ; for Hoturoa was angry. When Raka heard this 
he exclaimed, ** No wonder the canoe went off the rollers (or skids) on 
to the ground I *' 

It was here that Raka planted a pole and tied Tainui to it. There 
it remained. Then Raka left the place and with his section of the 
crew went forth into the country (travelling southwards). They went 

^This hauling song is usually uccreilited to Marama. the wife of Hoftaroa, 
Captain of •'Tainui."--Ei). 


bearing mauri (** hapai-maun"') to set them up and cause the birds of 
the land to he abundant. He said to his followers : ** Go to the 
interior of this land, even to the mountains, and set up mauri-manUf 
while I myself will go to Manuka.*' These mauri were called Tanekaitu 
and Muekakarar The poople travelled inland and beheld the mountain 
Te Pukapuka, from which they saw Motakiora. On ascending this 
they saw another range, Hakarimata. They went up to this mountain 
whence they saw another, Mt. Pukehoua (Pirongia). There Rotu 
settled, at a place called Paewhenua, so called because of a phrase used 
at Hakarimata, "Behold the mountain" {^^ paewlienua/*) At Pae- 
whenua (? near Pironga range) there stood a mangeo tree, resorted to 
by my ancestors for bird- snaring. The tree was called Puke-houa. 
When Maru and Takupu-o-te-rangi were alive they divided the tree, so 
that one branch should belong to Maru, the other to Takupu. They 
placed a stone in the middle of the tree, and that was the origin of tho 
name Puke-houa through the insertion (houa) of the stone in the tree. 
There was a kaka perch on the top of the tree. It was Rotu*s birding 
tree. It was burned by Waikato recently. Ten of Raka's people 
carried viauri with them to set up at various places. Hiaora and 
others came over and occupied Pu-kakaramea. 

Moekakara is a sacred spot. It is at Pu-kakaramea (Maunga-rangi). 
Hiaora there repeated the karalda : — 

" Pi-mirumiru te manu i whakataungia ni te pae-tapu-a-Tane," &c. 

When this incantation was repeated all the birds came to the spot. 
The biggest bird came and settled upon a mangeo tree at Paewhenua. 
Rotu endeavoured to spear this bird but missed it and struck a branch 
of the tree instead. So the bird escaped and fled to the southward. 
It died at Mokau. Its name was Tauherepu. All the great birds 
disappeared there. Hiaora saw numbers of the other birds flying away 
and asked: ** Ko wai, ko wai tera e tapahi mai ra i te Ika-a- Hiaora /" 
(Who ? Who is that who is cutting the Ika-a-Hiaora ?) 

Rotu replied : ** Ko an, ko au, ko Rotu ; wailw, waiho kia whakaraua 

The smaller kinds of birds {manu-ririki) remained on the mountains. 
All those who occupied the mountains for the purpose of establishing 
the mauri were under the orders of Raka. 

Tainui Canoe (being unable to cross the portage at Tamaki) steered 
northwards along the Nga-Puhi Coast. Raka and his sister awaited the 
arrival of the canoe at Puketapapa and Manuka. When they saw 
Tainui outside Manuka, Raka lighted a fire and invoked the gods to 
send the canoe away from land so that she could not enter Manuka. 

•These were evidently whain or sacred stones broaght from Hawaiki with the 
intention of depositing them in selected places in the new land to " hold " the mauri 
of the food supplies. 



When Hotiiroa saw this (or became aware of it) he steered out to sea. 
Then Baka and his sister went to Waikato and then thej separated, 
Raka going to Pukerewa, on the sea-beach. He crossed Whaingaroa, 
and at Karioi he set up his tuahu named Tuahupapa. He blocked the 
entrance to Whaingaroa in order to prevent Tainni landing there, and 
the canoe was accordingly compelled to continue southwards. Aotea 
and Eawhia harbours were also obstructed to prevent Tainui from 
entering. Raka travelled along and built an altar at Heahea ; Ahurei* 
was the name of the alter. The canoe went on until she came to 
Taranaki ; the crew of Tokomaru had already occupied this country.! 
Then Tainui returned and landed at Mimi (near Pukearuhe). There 
Hoturoa planted a pohntukawa tree, which is known to the people there 
as ** Hoturoa's Pohutukawa." Hoturoa then went to the Mokau, 
where the crew landed. There were three poles planted there. | Tainui's 
anchor is also there. Baka went to Te Banga-a-Baka, a beach between 
Moeatoa and Tirua. Then he went to \Vhareorino. 

Hoturoa, travelling along the Coast, arrived at Te Banga, where he 
saw Baka's footprints. He said : ** The deformed foot has come here 
also.'* Thou the two chiefs met on the beach and greeted each other. 
Hoturoa then said : " I forgive you, I will give you Eahurere to wife.** 

Baka asked where the canoe had been left. Hoturoa replied that it 
had been left at Mokau. Raka then said ^' Your people should go 
to fetch it. Let us go to Kawhia.'* The people went to fetch Tainui, 
while Hoturoa and Baka went on to Eawhia. Upon their arrival at 
Moeatoa, they built their altar there and called it '* Te Tuahu-a-Raka- 
taura-raua-ko-Hoturoa." They proceeded further and settled at 
Maketu, on Eawhia Harbour. On the arrival of Tainui here it was 
dragged on shore. 

Baka married Eahurere. Their issue were Houmea, Tu-hianga, and 
lastly Eakati. ^' I will make a covenant between us/' said Raka to 
Hoturoa. '' I will plant here a rock as a covenant between us." Then 
Puna {WhakatupH-taniiata) was planted by the shore. Inland he 
planted Hani, a ** destroyer of men" {Whakarere-tantjata), Hani 
represented Raka whilst Puna was Hoturoa. || 

*Ahurei, named after Ahurei in Tahiti, from which Tainui and the other oanoee 
come. — Ep. 

fThis is confirmed by Taranaki traditions, but these latter say it was the Aotet 
canoe, not Tokomaru.— Ed. 

^ These no doubt give rise to the tradition that the ii^ve of Pomadarie-teinui 
(the only place in New Zealand where it grows) found there sprung from the ikide 
of Tainui Cimoe.— Ed. 

llTbese are the stones near Maketu settlement, supposed to indicate the raiting- 
place of Tainui Canoe.- J. C. 


Then Baka desired to travel and spy out the country. Raka knew 
at the time that others were occupying the interior of the land. Baka's 
children grew up. He said to Houmea ** Your brother Tu-hianga will 
occupy Moeatoa, you yourself will occupy Ahurei ; Tuahu-a-papa at 
Eorioi should be handed over to Eakati." Baka said to Hoturoa, 
** Here remain with your grandchildren, I will depart." Hoturoa said, 
** How shall we see each other ?'* Raka said, " We will salute each 
other with the clouds of heaven." {Me mihi tana ki n(ja purehurehu o 
U rangt), "There shall we meet.'* 

Kahurere and Baka then went on to Pirongia. He called that place 
" Pirongia-o-Kahu," and then he called another mountain ** Kakepuku- 
o-Kahu." A child was born there. He was called Hape-ki-te-Tuaraki. 
Afterwards they came and settled at a place where Kahu took ill. ** Ka 
pnrea e Raka " (the cleansing ceremony is performed) and Kahu 
recovered. This place was called Pure-oro-o-Kahu (a mountain, 
Hurakia Banges). 

At this time, Nga-toro-i-rangi foresaw that Tongariro mountain 
would be climbed by some one, so he ascended the summit of that 
moantam himself. Baka ascended the summit of Puke-o-Kahu ; this 
was where Kahu died, that was why it was called Te Puke-o-Kahu. 
Baka then went towards the West, where Hape was left. Upon his 
arrival at Te Aroha, he called that place ** Te Aroha-a-uta," because he 
felt regret and love for Hape and his mother who were left behind. 
'* Te Aroha-a-tai " was so called because of his love for his children 
left at Kawhia. 

Baka then married another wife at Te Aroha named Hine-marino. 
Here Baka died. 


Told by Major H. P. Tu-nui-a-rangi. 

[Tliere are many instances lecorded in Maori history of the powcrfi of the tohttngn* 
of old to communicate with people at prent distances. The particulars of the 
methods they adopted are now lost, although many of the karakitu*, or incanta- 
tions have been preserved. They do not convey to Europeans any particular 
sense of power, nor, in fact, aie they anything but a seiies of words which might 
equally apply to any other subject. Their potency was, nevertheless, absolutely 
believed in by the ancient Maori, and indeed, we may perhaps find in this absolute 
beliei itnd faith, some evidence of the truth of the Htatements of the old Maoris 
as to the cfiicacy of the charms. Could we but clearly understand the attitude of 
mind adopted by the tohuncfaA when performinj^ the ceremonies connected with 
the iriy some further light on the subject would be thrown. It can only be 
suggested that tlic Maori and his fellow Polynesian had a somewhat complete 
understanding of telepathy as well as of other mental processes, of which we 
Europeans arc only just at the threshold. The following story illustrates a < 
of what is apparently communication by telepathy.— Editor.] 

* Y«j'BOUT three generations ago thero lived at Flat Point (Te Una- 
i ri imu), some fifty miles south of Napier, a man named Tama-i- 
^' pokia, who was a chief of rank of those parts. On a visit to 

Porangahan, he became much enamoured with the fame of a lady living 
at that place, named Wawara-i-te-rangi, though he did not see her at that 
time. On his return home the feeling of love and desire for this lady 
so possessed him that he engaged the tnhnnja of the tribe to try and 
induce the lady to ccmie to him, by the use of karakia-iri, or invooa 
tions, common in such ca^es. The tnhmuja^ selecting a suitable 
occasion when the wind Mew from where he was towards the 
direction of the village of the lady, ascended a neighbouring 
hill and there with all due ceremony i*ei)oated his karakia. 
The lady at her home at Porangahau was at once seized with 
a strong desire to visit Tama-i-polvia, and with some of her female 

THE '^mr' KARAKIA. 101 

attendants quickly got away from the village without the know- 
ledge of her friends, and proceeded on her way to carry oat the 
visit. They travelled along the beach at low water, so that the 
incoming tide should obliterate their footsteps, and thus prevent 
pursuit. She was, however, seen by the people of several villages 
that were passed on the way, and as a woman of rank was invited to 
turn aside to rest and eat. But, carried away by her strong desire to 
reach Tama-i-pokia's home, she resisted all overtures and hastened on 
her journey, finally reaching the pa of her lover. There she entered 
by the main gateway, and marched straight through the pa to Tama-i- 
pokia's house, which she seemed to know intuitively, for she had never 
been there before, nor had she ever seen the man before. In the end 
the two were married, and their son was the late Te Apatu of those 
parts. Wawara was a very great lady, a tino rangatira ; and the latter 
part of her name (i-te-rangi) was given to her on account of her fame 
having spread far and wide. She was in her day as famous as Hine- 
moa, Hine-matioro, or Tamai-rangi, all ladies of great rank and beauty, 
whese fame, their descendants delight to sing. The name Wawara- 
i-te-rangi may be translated as '* the echo in the heavens." 


Ob tke w«n 

t; ** 'traij -f -J:* ^rj=i :f rw ?-uT=e«Lii ^ecoie sr bs kvc an approximate 

•uflacfy <sf ^hAir .2asr:r.'Lrs« v:iji 2i» >£aL&> l-rrrpriaan aaid dMnee to the 
9»&z3«cs. *x« ±r^ zr^rti laeb.'r ::» zc i^ohz wuu cf la^ni^e, bat tha« U also a 
«wmiui>7 >^ .=:pi:rsA:i: ..:i« -.f rtsear^ zi ih^ ^crsiiensiati at ihe M>fwi^!& held in 
'kcywtififtii.-.t -,7 -jiftsfe pe*:pl4— zck iiic ct: . ae pqr • fooivL and the domestic 
f<yvl «r>K. — ^il. tcTK Tf vijch. v» saj afs^zasie came oricxBaDy from Asia. We 
OAj Mk. v«r« :ii«a« %T\ ■^al4 indeii fr:in. 2ae rtx of peoptc to ^"^i****- Hring at a 
«tietinr» frxn ictt'^ rar^.zA. hAbi^AS. 3t v«re ^j^ifj arvsghs bj a Palynesiaii pec^le 
il/tet vi:£C un&j pnis-izi^clT ±ri; jsti. vuk zre*: oocanrnt of Asia (thai is shoold 
vhiij e^er ha-r^ ecc« frifn vcicEjk. 

Can ve tnc« th^ir P /Ij:i<fiui sasMs as orgrnamy amaag anj raee cf pu>ple 
nam nmdaii in India ? For all ve kzior as predCBt the luune ^o«Jbi aaj be of 
Spafuati or Portog^ese or^-.n,* b^:: viii; of can and mom. 

The Maon of Nev Z^aJAnd :iicd ui« name mim to denote the Many rarietie$ 
both lan^ and sznal! lapparentlj witboct distinctioa) ai that woiiderfal race of 
birdiii the dinonud4£, acid on Captain Cook introdoeing the di'WM'itir fowl, which he 
broogbt to New 21ealand "from the islands." the Maori gaTe it two names other 
than moa, which to me seems positive pnxrf that the emigrant Pbljnesians of the 
Arawa and those later migrations, came in actnal contact with the dmomi*, and 
that these birds were not previooalj killed oat by a prerioos raee of peofde whose 
traditions like themselves had becouiv extinct. 

I would ask anj of oar members who maj be in a position to do so, to send in 
the native names which maj be ased to denote the cassowary and the ema in the 
Malay Arcbipeligo, Australia and in Madagascar, as the name of the extinct epiornis. 

When a new animal is introduced to a country it is generally the custom to 
accept of the animal's original name also, as used by thoee who convey it, and so 
we may reasonably expect to trace its original hcnne by this means. 

If we are anable to trace the word aioa as denoting the domeatio fowl some- 
where on the Asiatic continent, may we not assume that wtoa originally denoted the 
dinomU and not gcUlus damfMticuM, and if so that the Polynesian first knew the sioa 
as a dinomU during the existence of a great southern continent now submerged — 
th<f lost Hawaiki ? This is a very bold suggestion, but is it not well to give a 
thought even to what may at first sight appear most fabulous? 

We have Maori tradition that the Polynesian voyagers brought in some of their 
canoes the kuri (dog), the kiore (rat), the paroquet, and the swamp hen, and even it 
is said lizards, but no mention is ma'Ie of the arrival of the moo, the iKirt, or the 
weka, and yet these three last mentioned are of far more food value than those said 
to have been brought, and mast, especially the kiwi and weka^ have at all times 
been a staple article of food, moreover the swamp henpukeho is not found elsewhere, 
except perhaps at Norfolk Island and some other islands. We may therefore plaoe 
no confidence in this tradition, or at least take it cum grano saUs.i 

* We do not think this possible, for the name has been known to the Polynesians 
ages before the Spaniaids discovered Ithe New World. It is probable it meant any 
animal formerly. — En. 

t The pukeko is common in Samoa and other islands. — Ed. 


On certain Paoifio islands the ironwood tree (catiutrinax) is named moa, can 
thig nomenclature originate from the droopiinj fol'uute of the tree as in some degree 
resembling the feathers of the dinornis ? 

It is a matter of surprise that the pig (poaka) was not imported, the more so 
when it was said by Captain Cook that the New Zealanders knew the name of the 
animabt when seeing them on i)oard his ship— a pig being of omnivorous appetite 
would be more easily fed during the voyage than a dog — yet both would consume 
any garbage even human excrement. I would be inclined to suppose that the fowl 
and pig were introduced to the Pacific islands subsequent to the grea Maoti heke, 
Tet I believe the pig and fowl were found by early European navigators even at 
Easter Island. 

On this same subject of moa^ to my thinking the late Rev. William Colenso has 
led ns astray in reference to this bird. Writing from memory of an article 
published in Transactions N.Z. Institute, he says: " Moanwa, small heaps of a 
shining metallic looking substance, possibly iron f>yrites, seen in the vicinity of 
Cape Turnagain.*' Now I have resided for a number of year.^ in that district, but 
have never found any metallic objects ; but when a fire has passed over the land, a 
careful observer will notice small collections of scattered polished pebbles, so finely 
polished as to have a shiny appearance, in one case I found a number of broken 
bones mingled with these stones, a sufiicient proof that the stones were the gizzard 
stones of a large bird, and these are the moajtwa seen by Mr. Colenso, who, no 
doubt, wrote of them from remembrance many years after he was shown them by 
the Maoris. These stones were collected by the bird with difficulty, being rare and 
of necessity the hardest in texture to be met with, mostly a kind of flint possibly. 
I have these bones and gizzard stones yet in possession. Mr. Colenso also gives 
moa as a name for a boring implement. No doubt the Maori intended to show the 
moa stone by which the implement was pointed.— Taymr W^hite. 


By Lieut.-Col. W. E. Gudgeon, C.M.G. 

'j^OWEVER great our astonishment at the intrepidity displayed by 
P^ the ancestors of the Maori people, in their long voya^jes across 
^ the sea of Kiwa ; and much as we may admire these instances 
of adventurous daring, we must never lose sight of the fact that these 
old time Polynesians derived much assistance from their religion. 

A Maori firmly believed, not only in the power of his gods, but also 
in the ability of the tribal inhuntja to invoke or even compel these gods 
to aid the tribe in any great undertaking ; and from this belief it 
followed as a natural sequence, that if the tohiuuia declared the omens 
to be propitious, there was nothing that the warriors of that family 
would not attempt ; for theirs was the faith that could remove mountains. 
Whatever our impressions of the modern Maori may be, there can be 
no question that during the continuance of their ancient religion, or, 
as they themselves express it, during the continuance of the mdna- 
maori they were a most religious people. Indeed, their creed was 
nothing less than this : Keep the laws of the gods and live, break them 
and die. 

With this preface to my subject, I will endeavour to show as far as 
may be done — in a work that does not profess to do more than give a 
popular sketch of Maori manners and customs — what this ri>ligion was 
before the arrival of the European with his disturbing theory of tire 
and brimstone. 

In matters supernatural the mind of man follows much the same 
groove, be he Caucasian, Mongol or Maori ; in each case he is equally 



open to receive religious impressions, though the form of the impression 
may vary considerably, in order to meet the laws of environment and 
satisfy racial instincts. 

Among the Maoris there are traces of two religious systems, one of 
which is purely abstract in its conception of the Deity, and of a very 
exalted type, inasmuch as it attributes the existence of all things to the 
great god '* lo/' The second is probably a later and most certainly an 
inferior conception, in which the powers of nature are personified in 
the persons of certain anthropomorphic gods, and it is this fact that 
constitutes the difference between the two systems. lo, the supreme 
creator occupies a position in the Maori Pantheon, apart from and 
superior to that of any other Maori deity ; he is the great originator, 
the All-Father, who pervades space, has no residence, and cannot be 
localised. Here then we have a clear and reasonable conception of a 
supreme spiritual essence, or controlling power; of a deity who is 
practically unknown to the modern Maori, and it would seem not even 
dreamed of by the pakeha, since we are informed by Doctor Thompson 
and Mr. Shortland that the Maori has a very limited notion of the 
abstract. The conclusion arrived at by the latter is, that the Maori is 
unable to conceive any abstract notion, and hence the powers of nature 
were regarded by him as concrete objects, and designated as persons. 
This assertion I shall show to be without foundation, for the conception 
of lo in New Zealand and Tangaroa in the Pacific, is purely abstract. 
As to lo it is claimed that he dwelt in the expanse. ** / no/w i roto i 
te aaha o te Ao.'* That he gave expression to the thought, that he 
might dwell without habitation, ** noho kore noho a ia,*' In other 
words that he might pervade space. Surely the abstract enters very 
largely into ideas such as these ; but even admitting that the Maori 
capacity for the abstract is limited, we may still doubt whether we our- 
selves are much farther advanced in that respect. Anthropomorphism 
is not a peculiarity confined to the Maoris, and it seems to me, that 
with all our boasted civilisation our tendency is to revert to the worship 
of the graven image on the least possible provocation, even though that 
image may not be the golden calf. I may also point out that the 
singular tales told of the achievements of Maui-potiki and other god- 
like beings mentioned in Maori history are not to be taken as absolute 
statement of fact. I do not think that the learned men among the 
Maoris ever regarded these tales as being other than ancient myths, 
and it has always seemed to me that they were intended to convey 
some great metaphysical truth, which, however obscure at the present 
day, must have been clear enough to the tohunr/afi of old days ; though 
probably at all times obscure to their followers, for whatever his creed, 
when did a tohnn/ja allow his fellow man to become more enlightened 
on any point than was absolutely necessary ? 


It would seem that the name of lo originated in the East, since we 
are told that among the ancient Egyptians lo was the Lunar Goddess, 
and in the language of the Argives the moon itself. This is, however, 
by no means the only instance in which points of identity or resemblance 
may be traced between Maori tradition and the records of India or 

So exalted is the Maori conception of lo that it would seem that 
they had never deemed it proper to address their invocations to him. I 
cannot say that this was always the case, but most certainly lo has 
never been worshipped in any form during the Maori sojourn in the 
Pacific ; nevertheless his name has been so venerated that it was never 
mentioned in a house. It is I think during this same period that the 
Maori has succeeded in evolving from his inner consciousness those 
inferior and anthropomorthic gods who are now held to be pre-eminently 
the guardians of the Maori people ; deities who are not known out of 
the Pacific. 

I cannot say that lo is known throughout Polynesia, for I can find 
no reference to that deity in any of the standard works on the Pacific 
Islands ; this of course is not evidence that he is not known to the 
people, for the same thing might be said of the Maoris since the 
references to lo in any work on New Zealand are few, if any. Indeed 
it is obvious that the Maoris for reasons best known to themselves have 
carefully avoided all reference to this god. The Samoans ascribe to 
Tangaroa those divine powers which the Maoris claim for lo. Their 
tradition is that Tangaroa dwelt in the expanse, and that at this period 
there was neither sea nor earth, but only a rock or foundation, from 
which it was designed that all things should spring. Tangaroa is 
described as striking the rock which gave birth to the earth and then to 
the sea. Subsequently this mother of all things gave birth in succession 
to the fresh water, sky, immensity and space. Then came a boy, a girl, 
man, the spirit, heart, mind, and the understanding ; those last four 
Tangaroa succeeded in combining in man and hence the intelligence of 
mankind. This tradition, it will be seen, difters greatly from that of 
the Maori ; a fact in itself sufficiently astonishing and hardly to be 
accounted for seeing that the Maoris of New Zealand and the Samoans 
have only been separated during the last 500 years. These differences 
may however have originated in the fact that the Maoris have been 
more completely isolated during the last Uxo centuries than any other 
Polynesian tribe, and have therefore retained their ancient su^Kirstitions 
intact, whereas the Samoans have mixed with those Polynesians who 
were in communication with the Melanisian people of the Pacific, and 
may possibly have adopted the theories of that race. To the Maori 
Tangaroa is merely one of the children of heaven and earth and has 
jurisdiction over the sea only ; nor is he the greatest of the brethren by 


any means, though in all matters connected with the sea and it\s fishes 
he requires grave propitiation, for the quarrel between Tangaroa and 
Tu-mata-uenga (the god of man) has not and never will end. 

Among the Greeks, Latins and Germans the earth invariably 
received the epithet of Mother, and we learn from the mythology of 
the first- named people that Uranos (the Heavens) cohabited with Gsb& 
and had issue, Chronos, Oceanos, Hyperion and the Titans, and that 
he subsequently took to wife Rhea, who bore him Hera, Hades, 
Demeter, Poseidon and Zeus (the Ruler of the Upper World). It is 
moreover clear that the Greeks reverenced and personified the vault of 
Heaven as the Supreme Being. In like manner the Maoris hold that 
Papa-tu-a-nuku was the mother of the gods, that is of a certain class 
of gods of whom Rangi (the Firmament) was the father. Therefore 
from Heaven and Earth sprang all things necessary to man, and 
incidentally man himself. In this myth we have probably the germ 
of all religious systems ; born of the awe and perhaps gratitude which 
must necessarily arise in the minds of a thoughtful and observant 
people when contemplating the complex operations of nature. The 
religious system of the Maoris does not however in all cases follow 
that of the Aryan people; there are some very singular omissions; 
for instance, the Maori word ahi (fire) if not actually derived from 
the Sanscrit, is undoubtedly from the same old root, yet notwith- 
standing that nearly half of the old Aryan hymns are addressed to 
Agni. The Maoris do not appear at any period to have either 
reverenced or personified " Ahi,*' and have indeed no very great 
respect for the sun himself, since all that we hear of Tama-nui-te-ra 
is that he was tied, beaten, and generally crippled by Maui-potiM in 
order to regulate the course of the sun and therefore the duration of 
the day. 

The most universal of all religious emotions is perhaps the 
reverence for sun and earth, that is, the recognition of all male and 
female principle of life; and reference to the formulfiB of creation, 
which may be found in the most ancient Maori chants, will show 
how thoroughly that people recognise the receptivity of the earth, 
and that its fertility was due to the warmth and moisture received 
from above. It is, therefore, as I have said, singular that the Maori 
should have little if any reverence for the sun, and that they should 
give all credit to Rangi (the firmament). 

The chief lesson to be derived from Maori mythology is, that after 
lo had by mere force of his will started the powers of nature into 
action the world developed itself by evolution, light springing out of 
darkness. Perhaps the best Maori version of the evolution of the 
world is to be found in the *^ Ika a Maui," a book written by the Bev. 


Bichard Taylor. In this work several chants are given all of which 
aie coached in highly figurative language, and embody abstract ideas 
which are little short of the sublime. The following is a specimen : — 

The word became fraiifal, 

It dwelt with the feeble glimmering, 

And brought forth night, the great night and the long night, 

The lowest and the loftiest night, the black night and the night to be felt, 

The night far stretching bat not to be seen, 

The night that might not be followed, 

The night ending in death. 

This may fairly be called the first stage of the earth's existence or 
chaos, the next stage is that of light : — 

Begotten from nothingness, from nothing the increase, 
From nothing abundance ; 
The power of increase and the breath of life. 
Dwelt with the empty space and produced the Heavens aboye, 
The Heavens floated above the earth and dwelt with the early dawn 
And light appeared. 

The Heavens dwelt with the glowing sky 

And brought forth the sun which appeared as the eye of heaven ; 
Then the Heavens above became light and sent forth the early dawn. 
The early sun, the noontide, and the blaze of day from the sun. 
Then the Heavens above dwelt with the earth and brought forth 
Ta-porapora, Tau-whare-nikau, Kukuparu, Wauwau-a-tea and Whiwhi-te- 

These last named children of heaven and earth would seem to be 
certain islands of the Pacific, the passage may therefore be taken to 
mean that these were the first lands to appear above the sea, but as 
the Maoris are much given to reproduce the names of their ancient 
homes in new lands, it may be that the reference here made is to their 
very ancient homes and may for this reason have a much deeper 
significance than we are aware of. Yet another of these ancient 
recitals, after describing chaos under the name of Te Kore (the void 
or nothingness) proceeds as follows: — 

Nothing but hail dark in colour. 

Hail dashing forth, hail destroying, 

Hail melting and flowing beyond the dark places ; 

Thenceforth nothingness is finished forever. 

The return from nothingness and it's power 

And the pursuit of nothingness. 

Meru the releaser from Hades, 

Mem the releaser from the bonds of Hades, 

Who alone can cause us to retrace our steps to the world. 

To the ancient world that Death may not cleave to us. 

In these chants I have followed the translations given by the Rev. 
Bichaid Taylor for I recognise that he collected these traditions at a 
period when he could and probably did obtain the servicer of the old 


[178] On the word Moa, &c. 

In the stady of the origin of the Polynesian people or at least an approximate 
history of their intercoarse with the Malay Archipelago and thence to the Asiatie 
continent, the first great factor is no doubt that of language, but there is also a 
seemingly less important line of research in the consideration of the animals held in 
domestication by these people— the dog {kuri)^ the pig (poaka)^ and the domestio 
fowl {moa) — all three of which we may assume came originally from Asia. We 
may ask, were these animals traded from one race of people to another living at a 
distance from their original habitat, or were they brought by a Polynesian people 
direct when they presumably first left the great continent of Asia (that is shoold 
they ever have come from thence). 

Can we trace their Polynesian names as originating among any raoe of people 
now resident in India ? For all we know at present the name poaka may be of 
Spanish or Portuguese origin,* but what of kuri and moa. 

The Maori of New Zealand used the name nwa to denote the many varietiet 
both large and small (apparently without^ distinction) of that wonderful raoe of 
birds the dinornid^e^ aud on Captain Cook introducing the domestio fowl, which he 
brought to New Zealand "from the islands," the Maori gave it two names other 
than moa J which to me seems positive proof that the emigrant Polynesians of the 
Arawa and those later migrations, came in actual contact with the dinomU, and 
that these birds were not previously killed out by a previous race of people whose 
traditions like themselves had become extinct. 

I would ask any of our members who may be in a position to do so, to send in 
the native names which may be used to denote the cassowary and the emu in the 
Malay Archipelago, Australia and in Madagascar, as the name of the extinct ejHornu, 

When a new animal is introduced to a country it is generally the custom to 
accept of the animal's original name also, as used by those who convey it, and so 
we may reasonably expect to trace its original home by this means. 

If we are unable to trace the word moa as denoting the domestic fowl some- 
where on the Asiatic continent, may we not assume that moa originally denoted the 
dinomis and not galltu domenticm, and if so that the Polynesian fiist knew the moa 
as a dinomis during the cxistoncc of a great southern continent now submerged — 
the lost Uawaiki ? This is a very bold suggestion, but is it not well to give a 
thought even to what may at first sight appear most fabulous? 

We have Maori tradition tliat the PolyncHian voyagers brought in some of their 
canoes the kuri (dog), the kiore (rut), the paro(|Uet, and the swamp hen, and even it 
is said lizards, but no mention is nia'ie of the arrival of the mo(f, the kivri^ or the 
weka, and yet these three last mentioned are of far more food value thau those said 
to have been brought, and must, cspeciall} the kiwi and ircA'd, have at all times 
been a staple article of food, moreover the swamp hen pukeko is not found elsewhere, 
except perhaps at Norfolk Island and some other islandK. We may tlierefore place 
no confidence in this tradition, or at least take it cum grano salig.f 

* We do not think this possible, for the name has been known to the Polynesians 
ages before the Spaniaids discovered^the New World. It is probable it meant any 
animal formerly.— Ed. 

t The pukeko is common in Samoa and other islands. — £i>. 


On certain Paoiflo islands the ironwood tree (casuarinux) is named moa, oan 
this nomenclature originate from the droopiiuj foliage of the tree as in some degree 
resembling the feathers of the dinornu ? 

It is a matter of surprise that the pig {poaka) wa*i not imported, the more bo 
when it was said by Captain Cook that the New Zealanders knew the name of the 
animals when seeing them on hoard his ship — a pig being of omnivorous appetite 
would be more easily fed during the voyage than a dog— yet both would consume 
any garbage even human excrement. I would be inclined to suppose that the fowl 
and pig were introduced to the Pacific islands subsequent to the grea Maori )uke. 
Yet I believe the pig and fowl were found by early European navigators even at 
Easter Island. 

On this same subject of nioa, to my thinking the late Kev. William Colenso has 
led OS astray in reference to this bird. Writing from memory of an artiele 
published in Transactions N.Z. Institute, he says : " Moanioa, small heaps of a 
shining metallic looking substance, possibly iron pyrites, seen in the vicinity of 
Cape Turnagain." Now I have resided for a number of years in that district, but 
have never found any metallic objects ; but when a fire has passed over the land, a 
careful observer will notice small collections of scattered polished pebbles, so finely 
polished as to have a shiny appearance, in one case I found a number of broken 
bones mingled with these stones, a sufficient proof that the stones were the gizzard 
stones of a large bird, and these are the moamoa seen by Mr. Colenso, who, no 
doubt, wrote of them from remembrance many years after he was shown them by 
the Maoris. These stones were collected by the bird with difficulty, being rare and 
of necessity the hardest in texture to be met with, mostly a kind of flint possibly. 
I have these bones and gizzard stones yet in possession. Mr. Colenso also gives 
moa as a name for a boring implement. No doubt the Maori intended to show the 
moa stone by which the implement was pointed.— Taylor White. 


Minutes of Meetingr of Council. 

The Gounoil met at 8 p.m. on 81st March, 1905, in the Borough Goaneil 

Present : Messrs. S. Percy Smith (President), W. L. Newman, W. Kerr, F. P. 
Corkill, J. H. Parker, and W. H. Skinner. 

New Member: 364 Mr. K. H. Ashcroft was elected on the nomination of 
Rev. Mr. Fletcher. 

The Council met at 4.30 p.m. on 23rd June, 1905, at Mr. W. Kerr's office. 

Present: Messrs. S. Percy Smith (President), M. Fraser, W. L. Newman, J. H. 
Parker and W. H. Skinner. 

The following new Members were elected :— 

365 Major Alfred R. Colhoun, 133, East Sixteenth Stroit, New York. 

Nominated by W. Churchill, B.A. 

366 Dr. Erich Schultz, Apia, Samoa. Nominated by S. Percy Smith. 

367 His Excellency Dr. W. K. Solf (representing H.I.M.'k Government 

of Samoa), Apia, Samoa. Nominated by S. Percy Smith. 

368 Ratana Ngahana, Wanganui. Nominated by Donald Fraser. 

Papers Received : — 

267 Te Ngarara-huarau. Major H. P. Tunuiarangi. 

268 Principles of Samoan Word Composition. W. Churchill. 

269 Mana-tangata. Col. W. E. Gud^'coii. 

270 Maori Religion. Col. W. E. Gudgeon. 

271 The Ngutu-au People. G. Graham. 

272 The Tainui Canoe. J. Cowan. 

It was decided to exchange publications with the University of California. 

The following list of Books, &o., was received :-- 

1737 Queemland GeographicalJournnl, Vol. xix. 

17 38 Popular Maori SoiufH. By John McGregor. 10 copies. 

From the Author, the 

1739 Ko te karakia Kntorika. \ 

1740 Ko te Ilitoria-poto o te Ilahi Katorika. 

1741 KotvKatikihamioteHahiKat.rika. .1 »«>'. Cland Cognet. S.M. 
1742-7 Na Mata. Dec, 1904. to May. 1905. 

1748-9 Pipiwharnuroa. Feb., March, 1905. 
1750-7 The Geo<jraphical Journal Sept., 1JK)4, to May, 1905. 
1758-63 Journal lioyal Colonial IiiHtitute. Dec, 1904, to May, 1905. 
1764 Memoir*, Peahody Muncum of American Archtrology — Archicological 
Retearchet in Yucatan, Vol. iii., No. 1. 


1765 The American Antiquary. Vol. xxvi., No. 6. 
1766-1770 University of California Puhlicatioiis, American Ardueology, 
it'c. Vol. i., Nos. 1, 2 ; Vol. ii., Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

1771 Jourmd, American Oriental Society. Vol. xxv., No. 2. 

1772 Archivio per VAnthropologia, Firenze. Vol. xxxiv., No. 2. 
1773-78 Revue VEcole d'Anthropologie de Paris. Nov., 1904, April,*05. 

1779 Six Pamphlets on Ethnologic and Geologic Subject'*. By Ed. Piette. 

1780 Boletin de la Peal Acodemia de Ciencias y Artea^ Barcelona. 

1781 Mrmoriag „ „ „ „ Vol. ii.. No. 6. 

1782 Bulletinit, Society d'Anthropologie de Parii. 1903. No. 6. 
1783-4 Rapporten Commissie in ^ederlandsch-Inde. 1901-2. 

1785 Notulen van de Algemeene, dtc. Bataviaasch Genootsohap. Deel 

xlii., 3. 

1786 Tijdtchrift voor Indische Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde. Deel 


1787 Dagh'Register, Casteel Batavia 1656-1667. 

1788-89 Metteilunijen der Anthropogisclien GeselUchaft in Wien» 

xxxiv., 3, 4, 5. 
1790 Australian Museum Report for 1903-4. 
1791-2 Papers, Peahody Museum of American Archceology. Vol. 1, 

No. 7; Vol. iv. No. 1. 
1793-4 La Geographic. June, July, 1904. 

1795 Bijdragen, Taal, Land-, en Volkenkwidet dtc. S'Gravensbage, 


1796 Preliminary Report on the Palolo Worm. W. MoM. Woodworth. 


1797 VorWuJiger Bericht, Palolowunn. 

1798 Annates de la Faculte des Sciences de Marsailles. Tome xiv. 

1799 Zur Geschichte der Palolofrage. Dr. B. Friedlaender. 

1800 Several Pamphlets on Mauri Matters. From Mr. Geor^'e Graham. 

1801 Antikvarisk Tidskrift for Sveridge. xvii., 3. 

1802-3 Papers, Peahody Museum of American Archaology. Vol. iii., 1,2. 

1804 Tijdschrift, Indische Taal, dtc. Deel xlvii., 3, 4. 

1805 Bijdragen, Midden Maleisch, dtc. Deel liii. 

1806-7 Memorias, Real Academia de Ciencias y Artes de BarceUma, 

Vol. iv., 40 ; Vol. v., 1. 
1808 Bulletin de la Soci4tS Neuchateloise de Geographic. Tome xv. 


By Lieut.-Col. W. E. Gudgeon, C.M.G. 

'j^OWEVER great our astonishment at the intrepidity displayed by 

L^ the ancestors of the Maori people, in their long voyages across 

^ the sea of Kiwa ; and much as we may admire these instances 

of adventurous daring, we must never lose sight of the fact that these 

old time Polynesians derived much assistance from their religion. 

A Maori firmly believed, not only in the power of his gods, but also 
in the ability of the tribal tohunga to invoke or even compel these gods 
to aid the tribe in any great undertaking; and from this belief it 
followed as a natural sequence, that if the tohumja declared the omens 
to be propitious, there was nothing that the warriors of that family 
would not attempt ; for theirs was the faith that could remove mountains. 
Whatever our impressions of the modem Maori may be, there can be 
no question that during the continuance of their ancient religion, or, 
as they themselves express it, during the continuance of the iniina- 
maori they were a most religious people. Indeed, their creed was 
nothing less than this : Keep the laws of the gods and live, break them 
and die. 

With this preface to my subject, I will endeavour to show as far as 
may be done — in a work that does not profess to do more than give a 
popular sketch of Maori manners and customs — what this religion was 
before the arrival of the European with his disturbing theory of fire 
and brimstone. 

In matters supernatural the mind of man follows much the same 
groove, be he Caucasian, Mongol or Maori ; in each case he is equally 



open to receive religious impressions, though the form of the impression 
may vary considerably, in order to meet the laws of environment and 
satisfy racial instincts. 

Among the Maoris there are traces of two religious systems, one of 
which is purely abstract in its conception of the Deity, and of a very 
exalted type, inasmuch as it attributes the existence of all things to the 
great god '^ lo.'* The second is probably a later and most certainly an 
inferior conception, in which the powers of nature are personified in 
the persons of certain anthropomorphic gods, and it is this fact that 
constitutes the difference between the two systems. lo, the supreme 
creator occupies a position in the Maori Pantheon, apart from and 
superior to that of any other Maori deity ; he is the great originator, 
the All-Father, who pervades space, has no residence, and cannot be 
localised. Here then we have a clear and reasonable conception of a 
supreme spiritual essence, or controlling power; of a deity who is 
practically unknown to the modern Maori, and it would seem not even 
dreamed of by the pakeha, since we are informed by Doctor Thompson 
and Mr. Shortland that the Maori has a very limited notion of the 
abstract. The conclusion arrived at by the latter is, that the Maori is 
unable to conceive any abstract notion, and hence the powers of nature 
were regarded by him as concrete objects, and designated as persons. 
This assertion I shall show to be without foundation, for the conception 
of lo in New Zealand and Tangaroa in the Pacific, is purely abstract. 
As to lo it is claimed that he dwelt in the expanse. ** / noho i roto % 
te aaha o te Ao'' That he gave expression to the thought, that he 
might dwell without habitation, ** nolw kore noho a ia.'' In other 
words that he might pervade space. Surely the abstract enters very 
largely into ideas such as these ; but even admitting that the Maori 
capacity for the abstract is limited, we may still doubt whether we our- 
selves are much farther advanced in that respect. Anthropomorphism 
is not a peculiarity confined to the Maoris, and it seems to me, that 
with all our boasted civilisation our tendency is to revert to the worship 
of the graven image on the least possible provocation, even though that 
image may not be the golden calf. I may also point out that the 
singular talcs told of the achievements of ^laui-potiki and other god- 
like beings mentioned in Maori history are not to be taken as absolute 
statement of fact. I do not think that the learned men among the 
Maoris ever regarded these talcs as boinp: other than ancient myths, 
and it has always seemed to me that thoy were intended to convey 
some great metaphysical truth, which, however obscure at the present 
day, must have been clear enough to the tohHinjiis of old days ; though 
probably at all times obscure to their followers, for whatever his creed, 
when did a tohumja allow his fellow man to become more enlightened 
on any point than was absolutely necessary ? 


It would seem that the name of lo originated in the East, since we 
are told that among the ancient Egyptians lo was the Lunar Goddess, 
and in the language of the Argives the moon itself. This is, however, 
by no means the only instance in which points of identity or resemblance 
may be traced between Maori tradition and the records of India or 

So exalted is the Maori conception of lo that it would seem that 
they had never deemed it proper to address their invocations to him. I 
cannot say that this was always the case, but most certainly lo has 
never been worshipped in any form during the Maori sojourn in the 
Pacific ; nevertheless his name has been so venerated that it was never 
mentioned in a house. It is I think during this same period that the 
Maori has succeeded in evolving from his inner consciousness those 
inferior and anthropomorthic gods who are now held to be pre-eminently 
the guardians of the Maori people ; deities who are not known out of 
the Pacific. 

I cannot say that lo is known throughout Polynesia, for I can find 
no reference to that deity in any of the standard works on the Pacific 
Islands ; this of course is not evidence that he is not known to the 
people, for the same thing might be said of the Maoris since the 
references to lo in any work on New Zealand are few, if any. Indeed 
it is obvious that the Maoris for reasons best known to themselves have 
carefully avoided all reference to this god. The Samoans ascribe to 
Tangaroa those divine powers which the Maoris claim for lo. Their 
tradition is that Tangaroa dwelt in the expanse, and that at this period 
there was neither sea nor earth, but only a rock or foundation, from 
which it was designed that all things should spring. Tangaroa is 
described as striking the rock which gave birth to the earth and then to 
the sea. Subsequently this mother of all things gave birth in succession 
to the fresh water, sky, immensity and space. Then came a boy, a girl, 
man, the spirit, heart, mind, and the understanding ; these last four 
Tangaroa succeeded in combining in man and hence the intelligence of 
mankind. This tradition, it will be seen, differs greatly from that of 
the Maori; a fact in itself sufficiently astonishing and hardly to be 
accounted for seeing that the Maoris of New Zealand and the Samoans 
have only been separated during the last 600 years. These differences 
may however have originated in the fact that the Maoris have been 
more completely isolated during the last five centuries than any other 
Polynesian tribe, and have therefore retained their ancient superstitions 
intact, whereas the Samoans have mixed with those Polynesians who 
were in communication with the Melanisian people of the Pacific, and 
may possibly have adopted the theories of that race. To the Maori 
Tangaroa is merely one of the children of heaven and earth and has 
jurisdiction over the sea only ; nor is he the greatest of the brethren by 


any means, though in all matters connected with the sea and it's fishes 
he requires grave propitiation, for the quarrel between Tangaroa and 
Tu-mata-uenga (the god of man) has not and never will end. 

Among the Greeks, Latins and Germans the earth invariably 
received the epithet of Mother, and we learn from the mythology of 
the first-named people that Uranos (the Heavens) cohabited with Gffia 
and had issue, Chronos, Oceanos, Hyperion and the Titans, and that 
he subsequently took to wife Bhea, who bore him Hera, Hades, 
Demeter, Poseidon and Zeus (the Ruler of the Upper World). It is 
moreover clear that the Greeks reverenced and personified the vault of 
Heaven as the Supreme Being. In like manner the Maoris hold that 
Papa-tu-a-nuku was the mother of the gods, that is of a certain class 
of gods of whom Rangi (the Firmament) was the father. Therefore 
from Heaven and Earth sprang all things necessary to man, and 
incidentally man himself. In this myth we have probably the germ 
of all religious systems ; born of the awe and perhaps gratitude which 
must necessarily arise in the minds of a thoughtful and observant 
people when contemplating the complex operations of nature. The 
religious system of the Maoris does not however in all cases follow 
that of the Aryan people; there are some very singular omissions; 
for instance, the Maori word ahi (fire) if not actually derived from 
the Sanscrit, is undoubtedly from the same old root, yet notwith- 
standing that nearly half of the old Aryan hymns are addressed to 
Agni. The Maoris do not appear at any period to have either 
reverenced or personified ** Ahi," and have indeed no very great 
respect for the sun himself, since all that we hear of Tama-nui-te-ra 
is that he was tied, beaten, and generally crippled by Mani-potiki in 
order to regulate the course of the sun and therefore the duration of 
the day. 

The most universal of all religious emotions is perhaps the 
reverence for sun and earth, that is, the recognition of all male and 
female principle of life; and reference to the formulas of creation, 
which may be found in the most ancieut Maori chants, will show 
how thoroughly that people recognise the receptivity of the earth, 
and that its fertility was due to the warmth and moisture received 
from above. It is, therefore, as I have said, singular that the Maori 
should have little if any reverence for the sun, and that they should 
give all credit to Rangi (the firmament). 

The chief lesson to be derived from Maori mythology is, that after 
lo had by mere force of his will started the powers of nature into 
action the world developed itself by evolution, light springing out of 
darkness. Perhaps the best Maori version of the evolution of the 
world is to be found in the '* Ika a Maui,'* a book written by the Bev. 


Richard Taylor. In this work several chants are given all of which 
are couched in highly figurative language, and embody abstract ideas 
which are little short of the sublime. The following is a specimen : — 

The word became fruitful, 

It dwelt with the feeble glimmering, 

And brought forth night, the great night and the long night, 

The lowest and the loftiest night, the black night and the night to be felt, 

The night far stretching but not to be seen, 

The night that might not be followed. 

The night ending in death. 

This may fairly be called the first stage of the earth's existence or 
chaos, the next stage is that of light : — 

Begotten from nothingness, from nothing the increase, 
From nothing abundance ; 
The power of increase and the breath of life, 
Dwelt with the empty space and produced the Heavens above, 
The Heavens floated above the earth and dwelt with the early dawn 
And light appeared. 

The Heavens dwelt with the glowing sky 

And brought forth the sun which appeared as the eye of heaven ; 
Then the Heavens above became light and sent forth the early dawn, 
The early sun, the noontide, and the blaze of day from the sun, 
Then the Heavens above dwelt with the earth and brought forth 
Ta-porapora, Tau-whare-nikau, Eukuparu, Wauwau-a-tea and Whiwhi-te- 

These last named children of heaven and earth would seem to be 
certain islands of the Pacific, the passage may therefore be taken to 
mean that these were the first lands to appear above the sea, but as 
the Maoris are much given to reproduce the names of their ancient 
homes in new lands, it may be that the reference here made is to their 
very ancient homes and may for this reason have a much deeper 
significance than we are aware of. Yet another of these ancient 
recitals, after describing chaos under the name of Te Eore (the void 
or nothingness) proceeds as follows: — 

Nothing but hail dark in colour. 

Hail dashing forth, hail destroying, 

Hail melting and flowing beyond the dark places ; 

Thenceforth nothingness is finished forever. 

The return from nothingness and it's power 

And the pursuit of nothingness. 

Meru the releaser from Hades, 

Meru the releaser from the bonds of Hades, 

Who alone can cause us to retrace our steps to the world, 

To the ancient world that Death may not cleave to us. 

In these chants I have followed the translations given by the Rev. 
Richard Taylor for I recognise that he collected these traditions at a 
period when he could and probably did obtain the services of the old 


tohungas to explain the highly figurative and obscure language used 
therein. But for this fact I should have been inclined to doubt the 
•correctness of a translation which describes Meru as a breaker of the 
bonds of Hades. Whatever knowledge I have been able to collect 
as to the status of this deity is to the effect, that he was the guardian 
of Hades, namely the Reiuga, from whence there could be no return. 
The old tohiiufjas of the Maori people hold that had the man-god 
Tawhaki, when assaulted and apparently slain by his brothers, passed 
through the gateway of night, and entered Rua-ki-pouri, which is the 
entrance to the shades, he must of necessity have passed those ancient 
ancestors, Rua-toia and Rua-kumea, and had he done so he could never 
have returned to the Ao-marama (world of light). In such case he 
must have proccedcMl onward to Ameto, which is extinction. Now 
Rua-ki-pouri is the house of Meru, the portal through which the 
wairua or disembodied spirit must pass into the nether world ; 
Meru and Kai-pono-kiuo are said to sit on either side of the entrance, 
while further back are Rua-toia and Rua-kumea, and these are the four 
evil spirits who prevent the wainui from re-entering it's earthly 

All over the Pacilic the name of Maru, Meru, or Mini, is either 
suggestive of death or at any rate of a future state. The Mangaiana 
have traditions of a goddess whom they call Miru and they represent 
her as being deformed in figure and terrible to bo looked on. She is 
moreover described as one who feasts on the spirits of the dead. The 
name of ^leru would appear to be of great antiquity. Mr. Gerald 
Massey ^ays : *' A persistent (Jreek tradition asserts that the primitive 
abode of the Egyptians was in Ethiopia and mention is made of their 
ancient city of Meroc or Muru." He adds also that the inhabitants 
of this city were called Sabaeans. North of the Himalayan range 
tradition has placed a mountain called Meru which is said to have been 
the birthplace of the Aryan people, and tliis same place is also claimed 
to bo the centre of the lUiddhist universe and to be surrounded by 
seven circles of rocks. It is these circles that are symbolised in the 
ancient temples and pyramids of Cambodia, notably in that magnificent 
mass of ruins known as Nakkon Wat, and it may be that we have here 
the idea that possessed the builders of those truncated and terraced 
pyramids of the Pacific, known to the Polynesians as heiao or marae. 
At the aforesaid Nakkon Wat the great temple is built on only throe 
terraces, hut the remaining terraces of that ancient city have each a 
substructure of seven terraces in order to correspond with the seven 
circles of Meru. 

We learn from the ^laori t<ihunga^ that in the beginning all that 
there was of life upon the bosom of Mother earth lived, if not in extreme 


darkness, at any rate in a dim twilight wherein the sun's rays never 
penetrated. The men -gods of that period were overshadowed by the 
near presence of the great Rangi, the all father, male principal, and 
origin of all life. Hence the children of heaven and earth were 
dissatisfied inasmuch as they had reason to believe that light might be 
obtained provided that they could permanently separate their parents. 
The situation was discussed and Tu of the fierce eyes proposed that 
Rangi should be slain. This proposition was opposed by Tane-mahuta 
and others of his bretheren who held that mere separation would meet 
the case. To this milder measure all agreed with the exception of 
Tawhiri-matea ; his objections were however disregarded, and Tane- 
mahuta with his back on Mother earth and his feet planted firmly 
against the Heavens above, exerted his vast strength and forcibly 
separated his parents while his brothers fixed the props to keep them 
for ever apart. From this unfilial act arose the war of Tawhiri-matea 
against his brethren. Wind, rain, hail and snow beat upon them and 
they fled ignominiously ; Tangaroa and his son, Ikatere, fled to the 
sea, the other son Tu-te-wanawana fled inland and became a lizard. 
Tane-mahuta transferred himself into the giant trees of the forest. 
Rongo-ma-tane entered into the kumara, and Haumia-tikitiki sought 
safety in the roots of the common fern (Pteris esculmita), Tu-mata- 
uenga alone of the godlike descendants of heaven and earth remained 
unmoved by this war of the elements, and against him even the anger 
of Heaven had little effect ; but he was justly exasperated by the 
cowardly behaviour of his brothers, and therefore it was that he converted 
them into food for his own use and that of his descendants, and hence 
it is that man even to this day eats the fruits of the earth and the 
fishes of the sea. To the rebellion of these children against their 
august parents we may attribute the fact that we have death in this 
world ; indeed the Maoris believe that it was Papa-tu-a-nuku (the earth) 
herself that caused man to return to the dust from which he was made, 
in expiation of the offence of Tu and his brethren. Having given this 
preliminary history of the children of Rangi and Papa I will now show 
in detail who they were, and also the part that each took in the economy 
of nature. 

First among these deities in point of birth though not in reputation 
is Tama-rangi-tau-ke. This god is but little known except to the higher 
priesthood, and the reason is obvious forasmuch as the offspring of 
Tama are held to be the spirits of men. We can therefore understand 
that the ordinary untaught Maori would find it difficult to comprehend 
such a highly metaphysical view of this subject. It is moreover a fact 
that the higher knowledge was carefully retained within the ranks of the 
priesthood, and was not taught to outsiders. I may here mention that 
the Maoris maintain the right to claim their descent from several of 


the children of heaven and earth. From Tama-rangi-tan-ke, because of 
our spiritual nature, from Aitua because of our perishable nature, and 
hence it is that death by ordinary disease is called te mate o AUu, in 
other words death of the flesh, a Maori recognising that the spirit 
cannot die. From Tu-mata-uenga we may claim descent because it was 
he who breathed the breath of life into the riverside clay and so gave 
life to Tiki. We have a right to claim Mako-i-rangi as an ancestor 
because of our descent from the Patu-paiarehe (children of darkness), 
and last but by no means least we may claim descent from Tangaroa 
by virtue of the fact that it was the karakia of his descendant Tinirau 
that caused Hinauri to give birth safely to Tu-huruhuru, from whom 
are descended Irakau and all those people of modern days whose boast 
it is that they are of the Kaivei ika moana (genealogy of the sea fish). 
I will however admit that if I were to mention these things before a 
large assembly of modern Maoris, perhaps not one in a hundred would 
understand me. The spiritual nature of man is not now understood by 
the Maoris. How many are there that could explain the nature or 
origin of the liau, the Mauri, the Wainiaf the hlinengaro^ the Mahara 
or the origin of the sacredness of the Ariki! And yet of old the priests 
did understand and explain these abstract metaphysics to their tauira 

Aitua wa.) the second child of heaven and earth and from him have 
originated all the misfortunes to which iiesh is heir, and hence it is 
said that the offspring of Aitua is misfortune, and all that is perishable 
in man, and therefore, as I have already stated, the Maoris call a natural 
death ** Te mate o Aitu,'' 

The third child of these parents is the great god Bongo-ma-tane 
who has had altars erected in his honour throughout the islands of 
Polynesia where he is known under the name of Rongo or Bono ; I have 
however boon told that the proper name of this deity is Rongo-mata- 
kawiu. Tho Maoris hold that this god has supreme jurisdiction over 
all cultivated food, such as the kuwara and taroy also over all climbing 
plants such as the aka {MetroMfms), the ]whtie (convolvolus) and 
piki-arero (clematis), and bonce these plants ar> called the children of 
Rongo-ma-tane, which is but another name for this deity. 

The fourth on the list is Tane-mahuta who is recognised as the 
guardian spirit of l)oth forests and birds. The god Rupe who takes the 
form of a pigeon is one of his children, and all tho trees of the forest 
are said to bo the oft'spring of Tano, anxl thcroforo in old days when 
it was necossar}- U) cut down a troo in onlor to make a canoo, or indeed 
for any othor pur|x»so, much ceremony was usoil and many karakia* 
said in ordor to prnpitiato this deity who^o children were about to be 


slain. Any default on the part of the workmen would be made manifest 
by the tree resuming its upright position without sign of injury just so 
often as it might be felled. 

Buaimoko is the fifth child of this family. He is the god of 
mountains and earthquakes and his presence is manifested in all the 
convulsions of nature. In the language of ancient Egypt the word Bua 
is said to signify the mountain ; in Maori Bu is the earthquake, and the 
connection of ideas seems very plain in this instance. It is moreover 
worthy of note that the Aryans adored a blacksmith god, the personified 
thunderbolt which they called " Twachtrei," and ii would seem that 
the Maoris must at one period of their history have had a knowledge 
of this fact for they call thunder " Whatitiri '* which is but another 
form of the same name. 

Tawhiri-matea is the sixth on this list and he has mana over storms, 
wind, rain and floods ; he alone of all the children of heaven and earth 
resented the separation of his parents and followed his father to the 
regions above, from whence he has consistently waged war even to the 
present day against all his brethren. 

Ngana is the seventh son and from him proceeded the sun, moon 
and starB. Both in Egypt and Polynesia the word Ba indicates the sun 
and the sun god, but I have never yet been able to ascertain that the 
Maoris regarded Ba as a deity of mdna, nor that he was reverenced in 
any form, although he is known as Tama-nui-te-ra (the great lord the 

Haumia-tikitiki comes next in order of birth and of this god it is 
said that his descendants are all of those plants which, though of 
natural and indigenous growth, are nevertheless used by man as food. 
More especially this deity may be said to be present in the root of the 
common bracken, which is known to the Maori by the name of aruhe. 

Most famous of all this family is, however, Tu-mata-uenga (Tu of 
the fierce eyes) the Maori Mars, who had special jurisdiction over man, 
for by him was created Tiki the first man. Tu alone of his family 
has defied the power and malice of Tawhiri-matea, and has conquered 
aud converted to his own use those of his brethern who deserted him 
at the time of the great fight ; but great as his power and mdna have 
been it must not be forgotten that he it was that brought death into 
the world in expiation of the sin committed when they rebelled against 
their parents. Last but by no means least of this family is Tangaroa, 
second only in importance to Tu of the angry face ; he is the Maori 
*' Poseidon* and his offspring are the fishes of the sea through his 
son Ikatere, and the reptiles of the land through another son Tu-te- 
wanawana. Very great reverence is paid to Tangaroa by the Maoris 
when engaged in fishing, and on no account is cooked food allowed to 
be taken in the canoe at such times, and even old pipes are forbidden. 


No matter how long the fishing might take, those so employed most 
fast until they return to the land, unless indeed they would eat their 
fish raw, a thing that many Maoris prefer to do. The Ngati-Poron, of 
the Kawakawa, and Hicks' Bay, when engaged in moki fishing will on 
no account permit the fish that they may catch be cooked in any 
manner other than the orthodox Maori oven, their impression being 
that any other method would be an insult to Tangaroa and therefore 
sufficient to prevent the fish from returning to their shores. I could 
hardly be accused of exaggeration if I were to say that the ceremonies 
and observances which require attention during deep sea fishing are at 
least thirty in number. 

After the separation of Rangi and Papa, as already related, the 
former is said to have co-habited with Po (darkness) and had issue the 
following children : 

Te Makoirangi, whose descendants are the Patu-paiarehe, the fairies 
or gnomes, the children of mist and darkness who dreading the light of 
day above all things, confine themselves to the gloomy forests and 
fastnesses of such mountains as Pirongia, Moehau, and Kaimanawa. 

Po-whakarere-i-waho was the second child of this connection and 
from him has sprung forgeifulness and death, as also the Aroiroi, that 
is, the quivering heat of the sun that may be seen dancing over 
dry ground when there is but little wind. These things according to 
the Maoris are the spiritual essences of the god and therefore rightly 
described as his children. 

So much for these godlike personifications of the external powers 
of nature. I will now speak of certain other deities who are known as 
the Kahui o te Rangi. Speaking generally it may be said that the 
modem Maori knows nothing of his ancient history or religion, that is, 
he is unable to give any connected narrative of either subject; worse 
still he is unable to explain passages and allusions which are of 
frequent occurrence in his old songs, and which are of very great 
interest to those who would learn something of the ancient history of 
the Maori, and from this it results that those who would enquire into 
and write upon such matters must perforce act as their own 
interpreters, and as a natural secjuenco are often mistaken. Mytho- 
logical fragments may, however, be found which will stTve to disclose 
the outlines of what was the old Maori belief. 

I once heard a Maori — who like many of his race was an authority 
on the Bible — assert that there was not one single incident in the 
world's history as related in that book that was not also to be found 
recorded in Maori tradition. He gave many examples in supi>ort of his 
statement, but 1 regret to say that 1 did not take notes of the 
conversation, for in those days 1 was young and hud merely a passing 
interest in Maori history. I do, however, rumember that he gave a very 


good illustration of his views, and proved his assertion to the 
satisfaction of his audience. Among other matters mentioned was the 
** Deluge," concerning which the Maoris have more than one tradition. 
My friend quoted the Tai o Buatapu as the Noachian Deluge, but in 
this instance he made a very bad selection, for the Tai o Ruatapu 
would seem to have been a purely local flood caused by the anger of 
Ruatapu, who was not a very remote ancestor of the Ngati-Porou of 
the East Cape of New Zealand. He was also the ancestor of most 
of the people of the Cook Islands, and apparently it was at Barotonga 
that the deluge took place, for Puke-hapopo, the hill to which Buatapu 
recommended his people to fly for safety, is situated between Avatiu 
and Arorangi. This tradition is well known to the tribes of Barotonga 
with, however, this difference, that Pupupoonga was the hill to which 
they were directed to fly, and that it was Uenuku, the father of 
Buatapu, who warned them to take shelter on the hills. 

The genuine Maori deluge was that of Tupu-nui-a-Uta and his son 
Para-whenua-mea. For eight long months these men are said to have 
floated on the surface of the water in a sort of primeval ark, while the 
rest of mankind perished miserably in the flood that had been invoked 
by the said Tupu in order to punish those men who at this period of 
the world's history had not only derided the god Tane, but had 
also rejected the teachings of certain deities of whom Tupu was the 
mouthpiece. Hence it was that the latter, moved by certain emotions 
of zeal and vanity which are occasionally dignified by the name of 
religious fervour, besought Tane to deliver the world from such 
unbelieving scoft'ers. The prayer was answered. Tawhiri-matea 
opened the flood-gates of Heaven and mankind perished in an entirely 
satisfactory and orthodox manner. Tradition relates that the ark 
grounded at Hawaiki, and that the first act of these pious survivors was to 
return thanks for their delivery from a watery grave, and an offering 
of seaweed was made to each and every important god to whom also 
rude altars were then and there erected. The ceremonies used at that 
time are performed even to this day whenever the msmbers of the 
Whauwhau-harakeke tribe find it necessary to save their lives by 
invoking the aid of the sea Taniwha. On such occasions the men 
who are thus saved from drowning take pieces of seaweed inland and 
place them at the root of shrubs or trees, and at the same time gather 
a few handfulls of leaves and cast them into the sea, thus recognising 
the mdna of the gods of both land and sea. To the Maori it is a 
matter of the utmost importance that he should at all times recognise 
the mdna of the gods, for he realises that no mem can look deeply into 
the future, nor can he forsee the course of events, neither also can he 
know the day that he may not again require the assistance of his gods. 


The most ignorant among them understand full well that so surely 
as the prosperous man forgets I he existance of his gods, so surely will 
they forget him in his hour of need. 

Maori tradition points definitely to the fact that the earth or at 
any rate those inhabiting the earth have on several occasions been 
partially destroyed, though it would seem not with the aid of water. In 
the days of Puta that man found fault with Mataaho and his tribe 
whom it is alleged were wanting in veneration for the gods, and 
finding it impossible to turn these misguided men from the error of 
their ways Puta struck the earth a sharp blow and it thereupon became 
convulsed and the majority of those living were swallowed up. 

Still further back in the dim past we hear of one Wi, a very great 
prophet, who moved by love for his fellow men strove to lead Miru, 
the king of darkness, into the path of light ; but finding that he had 
undertaken a task altogether beyond his powers he destroyed both 
Miru and his friends. This tale is somewhat apochryphal for the 
Maori Satan is still king of Hades, and so far as I can see has lost 
nothing of his mdna even on this earth. 

The Maori recognised that there was a period in the world's history 
when men as we now know them did not exist ; had not in fact been 
created. Those who did inhabit the earth were of godlike origin 
and attributes with the single exception, that they were not superior to 
king "Death," inasmuch that they were descended from those children 
of Heaven and Earth who had rebelled against their parents, and 
were therefore subject to the decree that in expiation of that offence 
they should again return to the bosom of mother earth. In all other 
respects they were gods having powers altogether super-natural and 
were known as the Kahui-o-te-Rangi. Such were Hema (who the 
Maoris delight to identify with Shem, the son of Noah), Whaitiri, 
Kai-tangata and Tawhaki, the last named of whom is said to have 
succeeded in climbing back into Heaven taking with him his stillborn 
child Te Makawe-nui-a-raugi. This child he wrapped in the sacred hair 
torn from his own hetul and then cast it out into the world in the hope 
that he would thereby induce a sontiniont of joy and gratitude among 
the minor deities of this planet, for Tawhaki's ofi'ering was intended as 
a sacrifice to expiate the oiTences of the world l)elow. From this 
tradition it would seem that the Maoris were not ignorant of the 
doctrine of atonement ; but all of iho tales told of these men-gods are 
equally sensible, some are vvhimsiciil in the extreme. For instance, 
we are told that the elder Maui who was also known as Ruixi-to-;angi, for 
no conceivable reason changed his sister's husl)and, one Irawaru, into 
a dog, with the result that tbo wife, Hina-uri, actuated by that dual 
sentiment of grief and revenge which the Maoris civil whakatnomoir^ 
threw herself into the sea and there drifted about for throe long 


months, until she was at last rescued by the sea spirits Ihu-atamai and 
Ihu-wareware. To these two deities she became enciente, and when 
her condition became known to the great Tinirau he sought her out 
and took her to his home. The birth of Hina-uri's child who was 
subsequently known as Tu-huruhuru was attended with both danger 
and difficulty until the sufferer called upon the name of Rupe, who 
came at her summons and instantly the child was born. It is said 
that shortly after birth the infant was delivered into the hands of Rupe 
who took it to Rehua (Jupiter) in order that the ceremony of tohi 
might be performed. He then returned the child to its mother, and 
subsequently both of them were taken to the eight heaven. From 
this boy Tu-huruhuru came the ancestor Mairatea, and after many 
generations Irakau who for the reasons above given is claimed as a 
descendant of Tangaroa, and hence it is said that the Waitaha tribe of 
the Piako River are of the kauei ika rnoana (genealogy of the sea fish). 
The most energetic of this race of man -gods was the youngest of 
the Maui family, surnamed Potiki. Concerning this individual most 
marvellous tales are told ; not only did he, like Orpheus, descend into 
Hades, but he is also described as regulating the course of the sun, and 
last but by no means least by the mdna of his fish hook, made from the 
jawbone of his ancestress Muri-ranga-whenua, he fished up New 
Zealand from the bottom of the sea. Then, like Alexander the Great, 
finding no more worlds to conquor he endeavoured to persuade his 
brothers to join him in slaying their great ancestress Hine-nui-te-Po 
(the goddess of night) in order that death might be banished from the 
world. The conversation between the brothers on this occasion has 
been handed down by tradition and is exceedingly curious. Said Maui 
to his brothers " Let us rise up and slay our great ancestress, the great 
mother of night, in order that men may increase and multiply in the 
world." The elder Maui answered ** We shall never succeed in this 
undertaking ; indeed it is probable that she who glitters on the horizon 
may slay us. Already thanks to your pranks we have on more than 
one occasion barely escaped the wrath of offended deities." To this 
Maui-potiki replied ** Yet will I undertake this great work unaided, for 
it matters little if I be slain ; I was not suckled at the breast of our 
mother, but wrapped in her head dress, was thrown into the sea, and 
finally cast ashore by the drift of the waves. Thanks to the care 
bestowed upon me by the great Lord of the Heavens and our Lord the 
Sun I became a man, but who cares for deafch ? I will go to the great 
forest of Tane and will there gather together a flock of birds, Tirairaka 
and Popokatea, who will accompany me in my undertaking since ye 
are all afraid." Maui-mua answered him by saying ** Let a man die 
as the moon dies, for that luminary returns again and again with 
renewed vigor, having bathed in the Wai-ora-a-Tane (the water of 


life)." Maui-potiki dissented, saying, ** Bather let us die and become 
like our mother the earth to the end that those whom we leave behind 
us may weep over our bodies and lament our death." With these 
words he went to collect his company of birds by whose aid he sought 
to overcome death, but his enemy, Tuhi-kai-tangata, was at hand, and 
as Maui entered the womb of night that man caused the birds to laugh 
and thereby awakened Hine-nui-te-Po and so cost Maui-potiki his life. 
But for this unfortunate occurrence, say the tohtimjas, Hine-nui-te-Po 
would have been slain, and from that time forth man would have lived 

Outside of these god-like personifications of the external powers of 
nature, there are deities of another class who are usually mentioned as 
the Kahui-o-te-Rangi (Heavenly Host). The origin of these gods is 
obscure, and I am compelled to admit that I ctmnot trace their descent. 
The most important of them are : — 

1. Tama-i-waho 4. Tungia-te-ika 7. Te Marongorongo 

2. Tu-takanahau 5. Tungia-te-po 8. Tara-kumukumu 

3. Eahu-kura G. Tahaia 

These guardians of the tapu are not of equal mnk, nor are they of 
the same disposition in their relations to mankind. For instance, 
Tama-i-waho is said to be of a kindly disposition and well disposed 
towards those who behave respectfully to him, but withal an angry god 
towards evil doers. According to the East Coast tribes his spiritual 
parents were Puna-hamoa and Hine-pukohu-rangi, and they moreover 
assert that he alone of the Heavenly host has earthly descendants. 
Chief among those are the Arawa tribes who still bear the proud appel- 
lation of Ngaoho or Te Heketanga - ningi (Migration from Heaven). 
The traditional account of this incident in Maori history is sufficiently 
curious to justify mention, though somewhat difficult to render into 
readable English. The desire to tmnsmit descendants who should be in 
part human is said to have possessed Tania-i-waho when from his high 
place in the Heavens he watched Toi and his wife Kura-nui-a-Monoa 
conversing together upon earth. Moved by this desire he rendered 
himself invisible to mortal eyes and descending from above, drew nigh 
to the woman whom be touched with his hand. Kura would seem to 
have been sensible of some stninge presence, for she remarked to her 
husliand ** It seems as though some man had touched me though his 
awe (astral form) had alone approached me." Toi replied ** Keep quiet 
and wait." And so it came to pass that the next time that Tama drew 
nigh to the woman they succeeded in catching him, but in what manner 
this invisible spirit was caught is not explained; we may however assume 
that some very powerful /.v/raAt'i paralysed the god for the time being or 
perhaps made visible his astral shape. When Hino-pukohu-ningi saw 
her son a captive she swiftly descended and enveloped the earth in so dense 


a fog that she experienced no difficulty in rescuing him. The result of this 
heavenly visitation was that Kura bore a son who in recognition of his 
exalted rank was called Oho-mai-rangi and from him have descended 
all the Arawa people. Lest their should be any doubt on this point I 
give the genealogy : — 








Rakauri Tia Hei Hou-mai-tawhiti Oro 

Nga-toro-i-rangi Tapuika Waitaha Tama-te-kapua Maaka 

Tu-takanahau is a god swift to anger towards those who break the 
tapu, whether by eating food in the vicinity of the sleeping place of 
chiefs or tohunyas, or by any unauthorised trespass whatsoever, such as 
walking on the borders of the kumara plantations of other men. In all 
such cases of infraction of the law of tapu Tu-takanahau will enter into 
the offender and destroy him, unless indeed the guilty party be conscious 
of his offence in which case he may perchance save his life by sending for 
a competent tohunga who could not fail to understand the symptoms, 
namely the unnatural distension of the patient's stomach, the same 
being an undoubted sign of the presence of Tu-takanahau, or indeed of 
any Maori god, in the human system. 

The Maori tohunga is superior to his European confrere in this 
respect ; that his treatment is more simple and he requires no drugs. 
In a case such as I have described his treatment would be somewhat as 
follows : — Firstly, he would take a hair from his own head and one from 
that of the afflicted man and joining them together would place both in 
the patient's mouth as a means of exit for the spirit, a sort of arch of 
Al Sirat. This done the tohunga would bite the sick man's head in order 
to deprive him of all mdna for the time being and thus bring the patient 
more strongly under the influence of the tohunga ; for it is truly said 
that a man without mana is subservient to all those who have mdna. 
The tohunga would then take a branch of the karangu (Coprosma) and 
wave it over the patient with many exhortations to the god to come 
forth. The following karakia would be used : — 

Tere o te kahui pae, tere o te kahui aparangi 

Haere i o huruhuru, haere i o kaupehatu 

Haere i o mahunu, haere i o pekemua, haere i o pekemuri 

Haere i to waero, haere i to tinana, haere i to petipeti 

I to rangahua, haere i to ahimoana, haere i to taitimu, 

Puta i runga, maha i raro, ko te ara iti, 

Ko te ara i hana i te hemorere, e kuhu, e naomai ki waho. 


I shall not attempt to give any translation of this karakia^ bnt 
provided always that the tohunya himself has miina it is an invooation of 
great potency and sufficient to force Tu-takanahau to leave the man 
whom he had intended to destroy, and free the afflicted man from the 
presence of his able assistants Tungia-te-po and Tahaia who, but for 
the opportune aid of the tnhmKja, would inevitably have slain their 
victim in order to appease the wrath of the guardians of the tapu. 

My readers will by this time have arrived at the conclusion that the 
religious convictions of the Maori differ very greatly from those of 
European nations and they may be summed up in a very few words. 
First, their conception of Hades is that of a place of gloom, rest and 
eternal monotony, rather than a place of punishment and expiation. 
Second, that offences against the gods are punished in this world and 
not in the world to come. Third, that they have never quite realised 
that offences against their fellow man were deserving of punishment at 
the hands of the gods, and it is this omission that is the weak point in 
the Maori system of religion. 

Like the Brahmin the old time Maori believed that he had the power 
to overcome his enemies by the mere force of certain incantations 
which had been handed down to him from his ancestors and were 
addressed for the most part to the tribal god. The modern Maori does 
not now believe that he has this power, for he realises that however 
potent the karahia may be when uttered by a man of mdna it is a mere 
empty form of words when there is no miina tangata to back it. He is 
too shrewd not to comprehend that the mana which had been the 
birthright of the Maori from the time of Tiki down to the advent of 
the Missionaries, left him for ever on the day that he deserted the 
religion of his forefathers and embraced Christianity. 

Maori tradition establishes the fact that they had come to the 
conclusion that their deities could and would suspend the operation of 
the laws of nature at the will of any man who in the hour of need 
knew how to invoke the aid of the tribal or universal god of the Maori 
people — subject always to the extent of the mana inherent in the man 
who called upon them for assistance. Genenilly speaking the gods 
invoked would be those of the tribe such as Maru, Uenuku, llongomai 
or others, who being deified ancestors charged themselves with the 
care of their descendants and specially guard the ariA*/, who is the 
eldest born of the direct male line in whose Ixxly the spirit of the 
divine ancestor is supposed to reside. 

In the matter of war these gods are under the jurisdiction of 
Tama-i-waho who alone presides over the tapUy and as a natural 
sequence governs the destines of war parties. Of all things tapu 
nothing perhaps is so sacred as a war party, and nothing is conducted 
on sounder or stricter principles. The reason why this should be so is 


obvious, lor from the Maori point of view the livea and fortunes of 
those composing the taua (war party) depend entirely upon the 
concurrence of the tribal god, who is supposed to combat above his 
people and contend with the war spirit of the opposing tribe. 

The formal invocation used to obtain the favour of the gods for a 
war party is called an iho or iho taua, and on such occasions it is 
Tu-mata-uenga and the tribal gods who are invoked. These latter 
deities are numerous, each tribe or group of tribes having their own 
god. For instance, the Waikato, Ngati-Maniapoto and Ngati- 
Raukawa would call on Uenuku ; the Arawa and Whanganui on Mara, 
the Ngati-Eahungunu and Ngati-Porou would invoke the aid of 
Rongomai or Tuere, while Ngati-Maru would call on Tu-kai-te-uru, and 
Tuhoe on Te Pou-a-tuatini. But whosoever the tribal god might be 
the concurrence of Tama-i-waho would be essential to the success of 
a war party, that is if they came from the East Coast tribes, but I am 
inclined to think that the votaries of Maru and Uenuku held all other 
gods to be inferior to these two. The words used in the iho taua of 
each and every tribe were not the same ; each one used that form of 
words which experience had shown to be the most acceptable to it's 
guardian spirit, but whatsoever the form might be it*s object was the 
the same, namely, to insure success. The Maoris say that the sign 
of success was Ka tara te karakia ka ngahau, lie tohu ora tena. This 
may be translated as follows : — If the karakia is rythmic it is a sign of 
success. If any part of the invocation be left out or given in inverted 
order it is an omen of death or disaster which may not be disregarded, 
and therefore the war party if it should start at all must proceed with 
extreme caution in order that the results of this omen of ill-fortune 
may at any rate be minimised. 

The ceremony by which a war party is rendered sacred and 
dedicated to the purpose which they have in hand is as follows : At 
the earliest dawn the warriors assemble by the side of some water — 
a running stream is preferred — for the purpose of the tohi or rite of 
purification. When all the warriors are drawn up in line, standing 
with one foot on the land and the other in the water, the tohunga takes 
in his right hand a branch of the karangu shrub and dips it into the 
water, he then waves the branch over the naked warriors so that not 
only every man but every weapon is sprinkled. At the same time he 
raises the chant *' Wetea ki te wai, kia wetea,"' which may be translated 
" Unloose the (sins) with water that they may be unloosed." In this 
chant the whole war party joins and then if the oracles and omens — 
which have already been consulted — are favourable they start at once 
OQ their destroying career, slaying without fail the first person they 
meet for he is called he maroro kokoti ihu waka (a flying fish crossing 
the bows of a canoe). The victim's body would be immediately offered 



to the gods, and this oeremony oould by no means be neglected, though 
it might happen that a man might meet his own father and have to 
kill him, for whatsoever the maroro might be, he or she was like 
Jepthah's daughter doomed to death. 

To obviate the inconvenience and possible danger that might result 
from a too strict observance of this Maori rule of war, it was the 
custom to reserve at least one of the paths leading to or from the 
territory of any two tribes as a path of peace ; so that even in war time 
it might be travelled with safety by those who, being nearly related to 
each party, could act as mediums of communication between the 
two tribes. 

When the service on which the war party was engaged was one of 
unusual danger a victim would be chosen and offered up to the gods 
before the warriors left their village in order that the favour of 
those deities might be more effectually secured. In such case the 
offering to Uenuku would be a man, but to Maru a dog would be 
offered. In each instance the offering would be called a whangai hau 
(feed the wind), for the reason that the heart of the victim would be 
torn out and burned, to the end that the essence might be diffused 
in the upper atmosphere or hau and the gods fed thereby. 

When the war party had accomplished the purpose for which it 
had set forth or perchance had been defeated in its attempts, it would 
return homewards, and when in the vicinity of their pa the chief of 
the party would send forward a messenger to warn the home-staying 
members of his tribe of his approach. Just outside the ;)a the warriors 
would be met by the chief tohunga whose duty it was to demand in a 
loud voice ** E Tu! i haere mat kouton i whea.'** The reply would be: 
"/ te kimihanga i te hahamufa kai mo Uetiuka,'* (Oh, Tu from whence 
have you come ? From the seeking after and searching for food for 
Uenuku). Then the tohunga would once more lead his warriors to the 
water, and by a ceremony similar to that already described, would 
remove from them the tapu of war. This ceremony would be performed 
as quickly as possible in order to prevent possible breaches of the tapn : 
such as the eating of food by any of the warriors before the sacred 
ovens had been opened, or the eating of food by the women and 
children before the men of the spoar had been satisfied, or if we use a 
Maori expression, to prevent the women eating at the point of the 
spear. It was only when the last karakia had been said and the sacred 
kinnara eaten that the warriors were declared free of tapu, and might 
eat and be merry with their wives and families. 

Tu-mata-uenga was, as I have said, the deity who had exclusive 
jurisdiction over man, but he was not his progenitor ; both however 
spning from the same source, both derived their existence from the 
bosom of mother earth. It is not only in Genesis that we learn that 


man sprang from the earth ; Maori tradition gives a similar account 
of our origin and has even preserved the incantations used by Tu on 
that memorable occasion. 

The legend is to the effect that Tu-mata-uenga had seen reason to 
believe that the godlike race of beings who at that period inhabited the 
earth were unfit for the positions they occupied ; he therefore resolved 
to make a man after his own image using the clay of the earth as the 
material wherewith to carry out his purpose. To effect this project he 
built an altar (tiuihu) at Te One-potaka, a place situated in 
Hawaiki, that mythical home of the Maori people. The altar was a 
very rude affair, merely a mound of earth roughly scraped together. 
When it was finished the site was called Te Kauhanga-nui, 
and the alter itself Te Oropuke. In the mound of earth so made Tu 
planted two green branches of the koromiko (Veronica) both of which 
had the leaves and branches intact. The right hand branch he placed 
in the groimd with his right hand and the left hand branch with his 
left hand. This was a matter of the utmost importance since these 
branches represented life and death, and even to this day bright are 
the prospects of a child who, after the tohi ceremony, finds that his 
tree of^ life has taken root and is growing vigorously. The great Nga- 
Puhi chief Tamate Waka Nene was an instance in point, for it is said 
that his tree of life grew, and hence his mdna was very great. Tu 
called the right hand branch, or tree o! hfe, *'Oromatau"; the other 
he called '* Oromania." He then took para-tiku (riverside clay) and 
mixed it, kneading it into the shape of a man, in other words into the 
image of Tu himself, and having done these things he lifted the 
clay, the head of the image in his right hand, and the lower part of 
the body in his left hand, and placed it on the branches of Oromatau 
and Oromania. This ceremony is still followed by tohungas when they 
perform the tohi rite over a newly born child, after the ceremony of 
the Ta-ngaengaetanga (invocation used when the first breath is drawn 
and the naval string cut). It is then that the tohunga lifts the child 
on to the altar, holding as I have said the head in his right hand, and 
repeats the tohi dedicating the infant to such work as the parents 
shall think fit and proper. Be it understeod that until this ceremony 
has been performed the child cannot be relied on to carry out any 
work however simple without making many mistakes. It sometimes 
happens that an infant is dedicated, even before it is bom, to avenge 
some injury of very ancient date ; an injury which has been borne in 
mind by the family, whose sacred duty it was to avenge it. 

When Tu-mata-uenga had lifted the image of clay on to the altar 
he used these words, " Ko waenganui tenei wahi^ ko te manawa, ko taku 
nianawaj he manawa-tina^ he manawa-toka, he manawa-keuketi-ora ; ko tou 
manawa ko taku manawa, ko te manawa-tinaj ko te manawa-toka^ o Tu, o 


Tu-nukUf Tu-rangi, o Tu-papa, o Tu-kerehere^ o Tu-mata-uenga** We 
may translate this speech as follows : — Within this clay are the organs 
of life, the organs of my life, the power of digestion and the enduring 
heart (the heart of the war god) and the beating heart of Tu (the 
circulation of the blood) ; thy powers are derived from me for they also 
are mine, they are the organs of Tu (under his various names). Then 
Tu breathed into the mouth and nostrils of the clay and instantly this 
inanimate effigy of a man was endued with life and sneezed. At this 
sign of life Tu used these words ** Tihe waxiri ora hi te Whei-ao hi U 
Ao-marama" namely, Sneeze spirit of life both in the outer world 
and in the world of light. The Whei-ao is all that portion of space 
which is held to lie outside the realms of this earth and which is there- 
fore called the realm of life. Then Tu uttered another karakia of great 
power and the breathing clay arose and was lifted from the altar 
and then was used the karakia known as *' Tawhiwhi-tu,*' and when it 
was finished the created being was taken to the water at Te One-potaka 
where the ceremony of the tnhi was performed, and from that time 
forth the clay became man and was given the name of Te Ahunga, or 
Tikii-ahua ki Hawaiki, that is Tiki who was formed at Hawaiki. Of 
all these things, says my informant, the most important is the fact that 
the clay sneezed, forasmuch as that sign of the power of the gods 
remains with us even to this day in order that we may be reminded of 
the great work Tu accomplished on the altar of the Kauhanga-nui, 
and hence it is that when men sneeze the words of Tu are repeated by 
those who are present, namely Tihe mauri ora. 

Such was the origin of man, but there is a certain amount of 
obscurity over that of women, though there are traditions to the effect 
that Tiki's wife, lo-wahine, was made subsequently from the same 
material and by the name hands as Tiki. 

I have always noticed a certain amount of hesitation in the answers 
of my tohunga friends when questioned concerning the origin of Tiki's 
wife. They all appear to realise that they ought to know something of 
this important fact, but many of them have said plainly that they did 
not know, while others have said that it was lo-wahine, and that they 
presumed that she was created in the same manner as Tiki. I have, 
however, always been impressed with the fact that they did not know, 
and am therefore not astonished to learn from Professor Giglioli, of 
Florence, that on the handles of certain car>'od paddles from Raivavai 
(one of the Austral Group) Tiki is there depicted as of the female aex. 
This is interesting and confirms my suspicion that Tiki was the 
principal of life in human form, complete in his or herself, and might 
therefore be properly represented as of either sex. 

From the fact that all that is god-like in man is derive<l from the 
breath of Tu it results that the divine, spiritual and intellectual i 


in mankind are both numerous and potent, and as a natural sequence 
the body being of mere clay is of little importance except as a shrine 
for l^e following spiritual or intellectual essences or attributes, namely 
the waima, the hau, the inaharut the kmegaro, and the mauri, and 
last but by no means least the hereditary atua, who is known as the 
kufnonga kai. 

The irairua is the astral body which has a life of it*s own inde- 
pendant of and apart from the earthly tenement. It is that which 
survives of the man after he has left this world and has entered the 
reifiga or shades. I am by no means sure that the waima itself has 
the power to return either to the Whei-ao or to the the Ao-marama,for I 
cannot remember an instance in which the return of the vcairua from 
the shades to this earth is recorded. Indeed in the legend of Tawhaki 
already quoted it is expressly said that he could not possibly have 
returned to this earth had he passed the gates of night and entered 
Ameto. But if the ivairua cannot return to the earth it is clear that 
the awe or shade of the wairua can do so, for my readers have only to 
consult that very amusing book ** Old New Zealand ** to learn how a 
tohunya called back the spirit of a young chief to speak to his wife and 

Of all the spiritual attributes of man the most difficult to compre- 
hend is that known as the hau ; difficult because of the many abstract 
ideas conveyed to us by the way in which the word is used. For 
instance, we are told that the hau is conferred upon the child by it's 
elder relatives when they perform the ceremony of tokiy hence if there 
has been no tohi there can be no hau, and therefore it would seem that 
the tohi developes or perhaps creates the intellectual spark. If a 
Maori were to comment on any European child who had not been to 
school he would say that he or she had no hau. It is a perfectly 
logical conclusion so far as the Maori is concerned to say that the tohi 
produces the fuiu ; because according to their own traditions the first 
man was merely clay until life and intellect was conferred upon him by 
the breath of the god, and the tohi is but a repetition of the ceremony 
performed by Tu, and therefore the Maori is justified in assuming that 
the child is mere clay until the tohi has invested him with the divine 
spark. Of a silent man or one wanting in energy it would be said that 
the man had no hau and from this we may infer that hau is also force 
of character. The Maori is not like a European, he does not readily 
credit a silent man with the virtues and good qualities which he never 

Te hnu o te riri is another expression used by the Maoris and it 
means the breath of battle ; but in this case I think the word hau does 
not refer so much to the intellectual spark as to the wind. 


So also if a man received a present and passed it on to some third 
person, then there is no impropriety in such an act ; but if a return 
present be made by this third party then it must be passed on to the 
original grantor or it is a hau ngaro. All of these matters are however 
merely introductory to the real, or at any rate, most important of the 
many meanings of this word. I gather that in the matter of witchcraft 
the hau is the actual essence of the man's life ; hence if a lock of hair 
be obtained from his head in order to bewitch him it will contain his 
hau and in such cases it is called an ohonga. This is however but a 
vulgar form of bewitchment, for an artist in the black art can take the 
hau of a man's voice while be is speaking to him and then by the aid of 
ceremonies and karakias appropriate to the occasion, can cause the 
death of the bewitched one. Such a man can also take the nrafiea or 
hau of a man's footprints, a method of destruction much used by the 
Ngati-Bakai of Akuaku who were the terror of the neighbouring tribes, 
so that strangers who had occasion to pass the pa of that people walked 
within the wash of the surf so as to leave no footprints. 

The vmhara is the power of thought, the reasoning faculty, and as 
such is a purely intellectual attribute, which though not bom with the 
body yet developes with it, but nevertheless has an existence apart from 
that of the body. 

The hinengaro is the mind or instinct and according to the Maori 
has an existence independent of the thought or reason, but I have 
never yet found a Maori who could explain the metaphysical aspects 
of the two qualities or show where they were antagonistic. 

The mauri is the vital spark, and when a child has been baptised 
or to speak more correctly has passed the ceremony of the toAi, his 
mauri is sent for safe keeping to Rehua, in the eight heaven, but none- 
theless if anything should startle man or woman it is said to be an oho 
mauri, an expression equivalent to our saying that one's heart has 
jumped into one's mouth. 

The Maoris have singular ideas on the subjects of life and death, 
ideas which in many instances are derived horn their earnest belief in 
the dual origin of man ; that is, his god-like descent on the one hand 
from heaven and earth, by virtue of the breath of Tu, and the other lines 
of descent from the same source already mentioned, and on the other 
from Tiki the clay. A tohnntfa placed me in possession of their ancient 
view on this subject in the following words : — '* The old conditions of 
man was such that he lived, died, and lived again. That is he was 
bom into the world and grew old, but he returned again to childhood 
and became once more like a baby in arms. Then again he grew old 
and again renewed his youth but on this occasion he did not return to 
natural childhood but became an imbecile. On the fourth occasion the 
man it is said may renew his youth, but in this stage of existence ho is 


a madman devouring his fish raw and eating the flowers of the forest 
trees for his food. The fifth stage of old age might be known by the 
fact that the man appears scarcely to belong to this world. He has it 
is true the body and appearance of a man but he is unable to speak and 
can but stare in a frightened manner at those whom he may meet. In 
the sixth and last stage of old age the man is no longer a human being, 
but has become a spirit, a patu-paiarehey and that is his end. 

That in old times a tohunga had the power to bring back the spirit 
of a dead or dying man from the gates of night, no reasonable Maori 
of modem days will doubt. For each one of those ills to which flesh 
is heir there was a karakia, which in the mouth of a competent man 
would hold back the spirit from the dread presence of Meru. I have 
the whole matter set forth in writing by a man who is thoroughly 
conversant with the subject, but unfortunately he has dealt with it in a 
manner highly metaphysical, so that in many instances it is difficult to 
discover his real meaning. His remarks are, however, delightfully 
quaint and simple. 

As for natural deaths, which my friend calls Te hemo o Aitu, 
he says : ** Do not delay the ceremony of the * Whakanolio manawa* 
(The ceremony used by Tu to give life to the clay) beyond the first 
day after death or the man will not recover, but if the Manawa-tina 
be implanted in him he will recover,'* and he adds, <* When death is 
struggling against the sacred rite of WhakcLora it will be well to use 
the karakia called Titikura.*' As to injuries by fire he remarks <* That 
when a man has been burnt he may be healed by the karakia called 
Whaij unless indeed he has been quite consumed in which case nothing 
can be done, because he has been eaten up by the fire of Mahuika. 
The remarks made under this head will probably be considered 
superfluous, but my friend has evidently considered it necessary to be 
very exact in his instructions lest the ignorant European should 
mistake his meaning or be misled by his explanation. 

The Maoris hold that the sea has a mysterious power of preservation, 
or perhaps it may be that it is the taniwha of the sea who have this 
power, for on this point the Maoris are not explicit, but in either case 
we have instances of the power in Maori tradition. We are told that 
Taranga threw her immature child Maui-potiki into the sea and that 
he was subsequently washed hither and thither by the waves, 
apparently deriving great vigour from the process, for certain it is that 
he grew into a very famous man-god. In much later times we hear 
that Iwi-pupu, the mother of Eahu-ngunu, took her newly bom son, 
Uenuku-titi, to the sea in order to wash him, and that he was there 
washed out of her arms by the waves and presumably drowned. Very 
long after this mishap, another child was bom to the same woman, 
and was also taken to the water. While washing the infant, another 


child was heard orying on the strand, but the woman fearing thai it 
was an evil spirit returned to the kainya and related the laoi to 
Iwi-pupu who at onoe sent her people back to find the child. When 
the infant was brought to her, she unhesitatingly declared it to be 
her lost son Uenuku-titi, who, it would seem had been reared by the 
sea tanivlia. 

These are but two of many tr.les which might be related of the 
mysterious power of the sea recorded in the Maori tradition. 

I will now speak of the kummuja kai to which I have already 
referred as being one of the spiritual attributes of man. The ariki of a 
Maori tribe is the senior male descendant of the elder branch of the 
tribe, that is, he is a descendant of the elder son of the elder son of each 
generation from the time of the original ancestor down to the present 
day. As such, he was of old regarded almost as a god, inasmuch as he 
represented all that there was of mana and sacredness of his tribe. 
That he should have been regarded in this light is not astonishing, for 
the Maoris believed he was something more than human, in that he was 
the shrine of an hereditary Atua, the guardian spirit of the tribe, and 
could therefore at any time communicate with the tribal gods. The 
mysterious mMa of primogeniture is more fully recognised by the 
Polynesian than by any other people, and when we consider that to this 
feeling of veneration we must add the presence of the kummiga kai, we 
may be able to form some idea of the sacredness with which an ariki 
was clothed in the mind of all true Maoris. Such a man was not only 
tapu in person but he made everything he touched so dangeroosly 
sacred as to be a source of terror to the tribe. To smoke his pipe, or 
drink from any vessel he had touched, was death speedy and certain at 
the hands of the gods, who avenge breaches of the tapu. These terrors 
were very real, yet proud was the tribe who could boast that their ariki 
was a sacred man whose blood like that of Te Haramiti was so sacred 
that it might not be spilt even by his enemies. 

In this chapter I have given a mere outline of the Maori religion as 
an introduction to another chapter which will treat of the superstitions 
of the same people, and it may well be that my readers will find that 
the two subjects so overlap that they might have been treated as one. 
On this point I leave each man to decide for himself. 


By S. Percy Smith. 

IN 1895, our energetic member, Mr. Elsdon Best, made a journey up 
the Whanganui River, and took the opportunity of explaining to 
the natives the object of our Society, and succeeded in interesting 
them in it. One old man, Te Korenga (or Kerehoma) Tu-whawhakia 
thought so well of our work that he wrote two volumes of matter 
relating to the history, etc., of his tribe, which volumes have been 
lying amongst the Society's records for some years past. One of 
the most interesting things he wrote was the story of Whaki-tapui, 
which was printed in Volume V. of the JOURNAL. Such of the 
matter as is of general interest is now published, together with a few 
other notes, but a large part of the old man's writings consist of 
short songs, that have not any particular interest except to his own 
people, and these have not been included. But I have included a 
few which have a wider interest, though, without help from the old 
men of the tribe, I fear the translations cannot be considered 
satisfactory. Like all Maori poetry they are full of allusion to their 
own history, many of which are only known to themselves. He 
also wrote a long story about Tu-tae-poroporo, the famous taniwha 
of Whanganui, but as another edition of this was printed in J.P.S., 
Volume XIII. p. 89, it has not been reproduced here. Tu- 
whawhakia died a few years since. 

As to the tribes that occupy the valley of the Whanganui river, 
they claim to be descended, principally, from some members of the 
crew of the " Aotea " canoe that arrived in New Zealand about the 
period of the fleet of six canoes, i.e., about the year 1350. But it is 
certain that the crew of the " Kura-haupo " canoe also contributed 
to the population ; and the strong probability is, that the tangata- 
whenua, or original inhabitants — te iwi o Toi — formed the basis of 
the present tribes. One of the principal tribes is called Nga-Paerangi, 


and it is believed, that Paerangi, from whom the people take their 
name, was one of the tangata-wheniui. He flourished about 21-23 
generations ago, or about the time of the heke, (or migration) to 
New Zealand, and many families of rank trace their descent from 
him. At the same time, some natives say, that Paerangi came to 
New Zealand with the hekey and more than one line show him 
to be a descendant of Whiro, whose ancestors are shown quite 
correctly on the Maori lines according to Tahitian and Harotongan 

Mr. Best has a note to this effect : " Though all the Whanganui 
people say that Kupe on his arrival here, found only the Hwaiwaka, 
tieke and kokako birds, with no people, yet when questioned closely 
the old men admit the existance of tmigata-wlienua in the valley of 
Whanganui. These were the descendants of Paerangi-o-te- 
moungaroa whose ancestor came from Hawaiki five generations 
l)efore the arrival of Captain Turi in the * Aotea ' canoe. He was 
brought here by his atiia\ he had no canoe. There have been three 
men of the name of Paerangi, one of whom came in the * Aotea.* " 
Now this statement as to Paerangi having been brought here by 
his god, means nothing more than that the old tangata-whenua 
traditions having become overlaid and obliterated by those of the 
more forceful Jieke ; and some origin for Pae-rangi being necessary, 
the marvellous has been invoked, and his arrival accredited to the 
gods. If we may believe the earliest legends extant relating to 
these parts, there was a numerous people dwelling here in the 
time of Turi's children and grandchildren. Tu-whawhakia, in his 
version of Tutae-poroi)oro, mentions a ver>' numerous people named 
Ngu-taha, who lived at Aro-pawa Island and the Sounds, north end 
of the Middle Island. Ao-kohu the slayer of Tutae-poroporo was a 
grandson of Turi; and Nga- Paerangi are mentioned also as a 
numerous people living in the Whanganui valley as far up as Oi>oriki 
(near Corinth) and extending to Whangaehu, at the same (leriod. 
Mr. Best informs me (after having made inquiries in the Uro-wera 
country) that he comes to the conclusion that Paerangi came here 
with Paoa, about five generations before the heke. Col. Gudgeon 
says, the Whanganui ancestor is identical with Paoa*s companion, 
and that there were two of that name — Paerangi— one coming in the 
*' Aotea " canoe, the other the ancestor of Ngati-Haua of upi)er 
Whanganui, about whose tamjata-whemui origin there can 1x3 little 

Ngati-Hau is another tribal name of Whanganui, and indcoil, is 
sometimes used for the whole of the tril)es of that river. This name 
is derived from Hau-pipi, wiio was one of the immigmnts by tlio 


" Aotea " oanoe in 1350. He was the ancestor who is said to have 
given names to the principal places on the coast between Patea and 
Wellington, as embodied in an old song composed by Te Rangi- 
takoru, as an oriori or lullaby to his daughter, as follows : — 

E hine aku ! kei te kimi au, 

Ki to kunenga mai i Hawaiki 

I te whakaringaringa, i te whakawaewae 

I te whakakanohitanga. 

Ka manu, E Hine ! .te waka i a Ruatea^ 

Ko ** Kura-haupo," 

Ka iri mai taua*i runga i a '* Aotea,'* 

Te waka i a Turi, 

Ka u mai taua te ngutu Whenua-kura^ 

Huaina iho te whare, ko Bangi-tawhi' 

Tiria mai te kumara, ruia mai te karaka,^ 

Ki te tai-ao nei 

Karia ibo te pou ko te.puna tama-wahine, 

Ka waibo i nga tuahine, 

I a Nonoko-uri, i a Nonoko-tea** 

Ko te here i runga ko te korohnnga 

Kapua mai e Hau ko te one ki te ringa 

Ko te tokotoko o Tu-roa 

Ka whiti i te awa ka nui ia ko Whanga-nui,^ 

Tiehua te wai ko Whanga-ehu 

Ka hinga te rakau, ko Turakina, 

Tikeitia te waewae, ko Bangi-tikei 

Ka tatutatu, E Hine ! ko Manawa-tu 

Ka rorohio nga taringa, ko Hokio, 

Waiho Te Awa-iti hei ingoa mona, ko 0-Hau.^ 

Takina te tokotoko, ko 0-taki 

Ka mehameha, E Hine ! ko Waimeha, 

Ka ngahae nga pi, ko Wai-kanae,* 

Ka tangi ko te mapu, E Hine E ! 

Ka tae koe ki.a Wai-raka^ 

Mata-poutia, — poua ki runga, poua ki raro 

Ka rarau, E Hine ! 

Ka rarapa nga kanohi, ko Wai-rarapa 

Te rarapatanga o to tupima, E Hine ! 

Ka moiki te ao, ko Te Pae-a-Whaitiri*° 

Kumea kia warea Kai-tangata, 

Ki waho ki te moana, 

Hanga te paepae poua iho, 

Te pou whakamaro te rangi, ko Meremere,^^ 

Waibo te whanau, ko te punga o tona waka 

Ko Te Houmea ko te Te Awhema, 

Kati, ka whakamutu, E Hine ! 

O little maid ! I am searching, 
Thy origin in far Hawaiki 
Where thou wer*t shaped, thy hands, thy feet. 
And given imto thee a face. 
Then floated hither, O child, the canoe of Ruatea !^ 


The far-famed " Kura-haupo ** 

And we (our ancestors)'came also in the ** Aotea/' 

The famous canoe of Turi, 

That landed at the mouth of Whenua-kura' 

Where the house was (built and) named Rangi-tawhi,* 

There was sown the kumara and the karaka* seed, 

In this land of light first seen, 

And pillar set up to the female offspring 

Jjeft in the charge of (or dedicated to) the sisters 

Nonoko-uri and Nonoko-tea 

Bound at top with woven belt. 

Then Hau taking soil of the land in one hand, 

Together with the staff of Tu-roa 

(Went forth on his journey, giving names) 

First he crossed the river, and from its size called it Whanga-nui,^ 

Then next he dipped up water and called it Whanga-ehu, 

Again, he felled a tree to cross and named it Turakina, 

Beyond, with long stride, he reached and named Bangi-tikei 

The next with doubts as to his powers of crossing he called Manawa-ta 

Then a whistling wind in his ears gave rise to Hokio, 

And the ancient Awa-iti, he named after himself, 0-Haa,^ 

Speech-making to his followers, took place at 0-taki, 

The next, disappearing in the sand, was Wai-meha 

Now with glistening, wide open eyes, he crossed Wai-kanae^ 

And with deep sighs, O Lady ! 

Thou wilt see the famed rock of Wai-raka* 

(Kupe's daughter) turned into stone by enchantment 

Now with shining eyes the lake, Wai-rarapa is seen — 

The shining eyes of thy ancestor, O Lady I 

The uprising cloud, with the constellation, Pae-o-Whaitiri^^ 

Who dragged forth (her husband) Kai-tangata 

Out to the open sea. 

Then made the beam, and driving in 

The strengthening pillar of heaven, Mcrcmcrc," 

Tjcaving the offspring, as an anchor for his canoe 

Te Houmca and Tc Awhcma 

Enough ! it is ended, O Lady I 


No. 1. Ruatea, Captain of '^ Kura-haupo.*' 2. Whenua-kura river, a litUe 
South of Patca, where the *'Aotea" landed. 8. Rangi-tawhi, Turi*8 hoUBO. 

4. The kumara and the karaka^ both said to have bi>cn brought over in ** Aotoa.*' 

5. The names of two stars. 6. Whanga-nui, great bay. The native tradition is 
that the sea formerly extended over what is now the town of Whanganui in the 
times of Ao-kehu, circa 1400. The nature of the country seems to 8Upi)ort thi8, 
and hence the name Great Bay seems appropriate. 7. Te Awa-iti, this Khowa — an 
does other evidence — that there were names of these places l)eforc the time of Hau. 
8. Kanaft the glinting of the sunlight on the ripples. 9. Wai-raka, a rock on 
the shore a few miles south of Pae-kukariki, representing one of Kupe's daughters 
whom he turned into stone at that place. 10. Te Pao-o-Whaitiri, name of a con- 
stellation. Whaitiri and Kai-tangatji were ancestors who dwelt in Fiji circa A.D. 
700, and the rest of the story has reference to the legends connected with them. 
11. Is the name of a star. 


The song contains a play on the names of the rivers Hau crossed 
on his journey in search for his daughter. 

Liike many rivers Whanganui has its poetical, or honorific names : 

Te Awa-nui-a-Rua, the great river of Boa 

Te Wai-nui-a-Tarawera, the great waters of Tarawera 

Te Koura-puta-roa, the crayfish's deep chasm. 

Bua and Tarawera are ancestor's names, whilst the last refers to 
the facilities offered by the river for retreat to the fastnesses on its 
banks in case of invasion. Some of these pas of refuge were Te 
Arero-o-te-uru, Ope-riki, and Puke-ika near Banana. Many an 
interesting legend is connected with this beautiful river ; a few only 
have as yet been published. 

Tu-whawhakia may now be left to tell his story : — 

Ko tenei tangata, ko Ruamano, he taniwha. To ratou ariki i 
taua takiwa ko Puhi-kai-ariki, nana i karangaranga nga taniwha, ka 
tere ko Te Ninihi, ko Te Wiwi, ko Te Wawa, ka tere ko Ruamano, 
ka pae ki uta. E hara i te mea i heke noa mai a Ruamano 
ki uta nei ; kaore. Engari he mea ata whakapae marire ; tena me 
titiro ki te waiata a Te Ao-tarewa ; pau katoa nga korero katoa o 
nehe ki roto ki taua waiata. I te mea kaore he tamariki a taua kuia 
nei, ka puta tona whakaaro kia mahia he rakau hei tamaiti mana ; 
he mea hanga ki te whakapakoko rakau, ka oti, ka whakakakahuria 
nga kakahu ki taua tamaiti rakau nei, ka hoatu nga pohoi-toroa ki 
ona taringa, katahi ka hikitia e taua kuia nei tana tamaiti rakau ki 
runga ki a ia, na ka waiata ia i tona oriori. Koia tenei taua waiata : 

Taku tamaiti e ! 

I puta mai ra koe i te toi ki Hawaiki, 

Kai to uranga, kai to ekenga 

Hutia e Maui, 

Ka maroke te whenua ki uta, 

Ka tupu te rakau hei tamaiti maku, 

Tikina e Tangaroa, matai ki roto o Rua-ki-pouri, 

He uri ano koe no to tupuna, no !^uhi-kai-ariki 

I tere te Ninihi, i tere te Wiwi, i tere te Wawa, 

I pae mai ai a Ruamano ki uta 

Koia tana nei, whakapeka ake nga tohunga 

Naku i tango mai hei oriori mo taku tamaiti 

Whakaeaea mai te tu- whenua 

Ka tu mai Tongariro, he maimga atua, 

Ruia e Nga-toro-i-rangi koia te koaro, 

Hoki mai whakamuri ko te komae 

Takahia e te waewae Te Papa-a-Tari-nuku, 

I tu mai to whare ki Tutae-nui 

To tanga-ika ko Tauakira 

Toarua o rongo Papako, 


To heketanga na ko Paritea 

To hiianui na ko Tahuhu-tahi 

To taumata na ko Te Rua-whakahoro, 

Kia anganui koe ki te Rewa-tapu, 

Ko te hirinakitanga o to tupuna — 

Rangi-whakumu, he ariki taua E Tama E ! 

E Tama 1 E tangi nei ki te kai mahau, 

Kaore he kai hei whangainga maku i a koe, 

Ko to kuia, ko ahau, E Tama ! 

Ko To Bahiri, nana i kai te anga o to marama, 

Ko te wai-tokihirangi 

Kai te whakarongo au E Tama t 

Ki te korero a nga whenua, 

1 heke mai ano i a Tamatea 

Kai uiuia koo i Te Mania, i te Hora-a-Moohau, 

Unihia tomokia i tc Rupe-o-Huriwaka, 

Ko tc wharc tcna i heke mai ai tc Pokai akatca, 

I rawe ai ki ahau ko tc Tokoaru no Pae-kawa 

Kihei au E Tama t i rongo tinana — 

He taringa puta-kore, he tiringa muhu-kai, — 

Kotahi te mca i mau mai ki ahau, 

Kai to hiahia, kai to koronga kai a Tano-mata, 

Taumahatia te aruhe poipoi, 

Ka mama koc o hihiri, 

Ka mama koc o mahara, 

Ka mama whcnci, 

Ka mama tau- wharc- kiokio 

Ka mama tc huhi 

Ka mama te rcpo, 

I tu ai tc muka 

He wahino hoki koc i mau ai ki rcira 

Ta tc tano haiiga ko to toki whakamoemoctia-a- 

Ka moo i te ahiahi-i-, titau o, c,- 

Na Tara-hongi, na Tara-honga-a- 

Na Tara-kai>ca, te mata o to toki 

Pokapokaia Hawaiki, whakaturia Kawarau, 10 Tama ! 

Nga mahi a Tu-WHAKATrRi. 

(Me ona uri). 

Na ! Ka noho noi a Tii-whakatiiri i roto i toiia pa i Aro-manga. 
Ka tao ki totohi takiwa ka puta te taua, o haore mai ana ki te kai mftna, 
ki tc riri. Ka hacre mai nei taua ope taua ki te kai tangata m&na i 
Whanpmui nei. Ka tae mai ki konei, ka eke ki runga ake o te pa, ka 
takoto te matua a te taua i reira. Kaore te pa i te kite atu, ongari koi 
te tupnto tc pa ki tc taua, kei puta noa mai ka mate ratou i to taua ; 
engari kua tae mai te rongo o taua taua nei ki a ratou. Takoto mai ra 
to taua i runga i te puke, ka ahiahi, ka pouri, ka ^hakapiri ki te pa. 
Ka tino ix)uri rawa ka tomokia a roto i te pa. Ko tc tangata- whenua 
kua huia kia kotahi to wharc hei nohoanga mo ratou katoa, ko te ingoa 


o te whare e noho ra ratou ko '< Takatu-o-Behua." Eo te nuinga o te 
pa kua whakarerea atu ki te taua; ko te tatau o te whare ka waiho noa 
iho kia tuhera ana, kia kitea atu te tangata i te tatau o te whare e tu 
mai ana, kua werohia atu ki te huata, kua tu, kua mate, kua riro mai 
ki roto ki te whare. Kaore hoki e kitea atu i te pouri o roto o te whare. 
Eo taua whare hoki, he mea kaha katoa nga rakau o nga pakitara me 
nga tuaroa me te tuanui. 

Ka kite te taua e kore rawa e taea taua whare, katahi ka keria i nga 
pou taua whare ; hnri noa, huri noa, tetahi taha, tetahi taha, o taua 
whare. Eo nga tangata ia o roto he moe te mahi, ko nga kai-taupua 
anake e ara ana i te taha ki te tatau. Eo nga tangata o roto o taua 
whare, hoko whitu tuturu, ara 140 ki ta te Pakeha tatau. Heoi, ka 
mahi nei nga mano tini ra ki te keri i te whare ra ; kia taea e ratou ki 
runga nga pou ka huri atu e ratou ki te pari. 

Na, ka marama iti, ka mohio a Tu-whakaturi kua tata te taea te 
whare, ka mea ake ki tona iwi, *' Maranga ! Purutia nga pou o te 
whare, me te tupato ano ki a koutou rakau-patu ; kei kuare koutou !*' 
Ka mea atu ano ki tona iwi. '< Mehemea ki te maranga nga pou o te 
whare, kia kaha ki te huri atu i te whare ki runga ki tera taha ; waiho 
ma ratou e huri te whare ki te pari, kia raruraru ai ratou ki te whare, 
kia kore ai he ringa ki nga rakau-patu.'' Heoi ; ka taea te whare nei 
te keri, katahi ka hapainga ki runga. Pohehe te tana ko ratou anake 
kei te hapai, kaore hoki te tangata- whenua ; kaore ia, ko ratou katoa 
tera e hapai ra i te whare ki runga. Ka rewa ki runga katahi ka tura- 
kina atu e te tangata- whenua ki runga ki te taua — warea ana te taua ki 
te huri i te whare ki te pari, katahi ka hapainga te patu a te tangata- 
whenua ra ; kua haere ake hoki kua marama, ka mate. Pohehe etehi 
te taua ra ki te papa o te taiaha me te pou- whenua me era atu rakau 
patu tangata, ko ta ratou whare e amo ra ki te pari tera e papa ra ; ara, 
kaore ia, ko etehi ano o ratou e patua ana e te tangata o te pa. Ka 
hurihia te whare ki te pari, taka rawa ake ki te pari, kua marama te 
hapai o te patu. Tahuri rawa ake ki a ratou rakau, me pehea ? Kua 
ngau nui tonu te patu a te tangata-whenua ki te taua. Ko muri o te 
taua, kua whati noa atu — ka pohehe ki te harurutanga o te whare ki te 
pari ko mua o ratou kua mate — kaore hoki e ata kitea ana i te ata po, i 
te kohu hoki. 

Na ! ka patua nei nga mano ra tae atu ki runga ki te hiwi ; tae atu 
ki te wahi tika, ka patu tonu ; tae atu ki raro ki te awa, ka patu tonu ; 
piki ake ki runga ka patu tonu. Ka tae ki Kai-iwi te patunga, katahi 
ka hoki mai ki muri ki te whakamene i Te-Ika-a-Tu ma ratou, mo te 
noho ano i roto i to ratou pa ; ka noho, me te koa me te hari o te 
ngakau ki to ratou oranga. Na ! ka aranga te ingoa o tenei parekura 
ko *' Whata-raparapa." Te take i tohia ai tenei ingoa, no te whatanga 
i nga tupapaku, ka ahu ko nga raparapa o nga waewae ki runga, koia 
te take o tenei ingoa. 


Tu-whakaturi Heoi: Ka noho nei a Tu-whakaturi, ka tupu tana 

Tutamou tamaiti a Tu-tamou ; ka moe i a Te Wai-mona, ka 

I puta ko Hihimua. Ka mate atu a Ta-whakatari — ^i 

I mate uoa iho hoki ia, he koroheke ano nana — kaore a 

Rangi-huru-manu Tu-tamou i pakanga ki konei, engari ki waho. Ka 

whakatupuria e Tu-tamou me tana wahine ta raua 

tamaiti tane, i a Hihimua. Tera atu ano ra etehi o a raua tamariki, 

engari ka korero ake au ki to mua. 

Ka tupu nei a Hihimua, a, ka rahi.; ka moe atu i tana wahine, 
puta tonu ake ki waho ko Rangi-huru-manu. 

Ka noho nei taua kaumatua i roto i tona pa i Aromanga me 
tana whanau katoa — tane, wahine, tamariki, — ka tae ana ki 
tetehi takiwa, ka haerc atu ki te titiro i tetehi o ana pa i Pou-tama. 
I reira ano hoki etehi o ana tamariki, mokopuna, e noho ana. 
Ko te matara atu o tera pa i Aromanga, e toru-te-kau ranei nga tini^ 
iti mai ranei. Heoi, te hokinga atu o nga oranga o te taua i patua ra 
e Tu-whakaturi, kore tonu ake i hoki mai, tera te wbakatupu atu ra, a, 
ka tae ki tetehi wa ka noho a Hihimua i Pou-tama. Ka mahia nga 
kumara o Pou-tama, o Oture, ka oti, ka toko a Hangi-huru-manu ki uta 
o Whanganui, ara, ki Tieke ma, ki Utapu ma, ki era o ona kainga. Ka 
tae ki te ngahuru ka whakaaro mai ia kua hauhake nga kumara o 
Kanibinihi o Oture, o Poutama, katahi ka hoe mai, ka tae mai ki raro 
iho o Tau-tara-nui ka kite iho te taua i a ia e hoe ana ; ka kite ake hoki 
ia i te taua ra. Ka oha ake, ka oha iho te taua, me te ui iho ano, 
kowai tenei e hoe nei. Ka mea ake ia, ** Ko au ! Ko Huru-manu I ** 
Ka mea iho te taua, *' Ina te peke o ta kaumatua nei te iri nei 
na !" Mobio ake ia, kua mate tona papa, a Hihimua. Ka mea ake ia, 
" Na wai te ope ? " Ka mea iho tera, ** Naku, na Te Bai-ka-wbiua I ** 
Ka mea iho ano, *^ E noho ! I muri nei tete Hihimua ake mou 1 *' Ka 
mea ake ia, '* Haere ! Ka mau ano to whanaunga ki to ringa ka haere, 
Haere ! Mou tai ata, moku tai ahiahi." 

Na ! Ka noho a Rangi-huru-manu, ka hauhake i ana kumara ki roto 
i te rua i Oture. Ka oti, ka toko ano ia ki uta o Whanganui, ara, ki 
Tieke, ki Utapu, ki te tutu taua mana hei ngaki i te mate o tona papa. 
Ko tetehi hoki tera o ana iwi, i Tieke ; mene katoa mai i a ia nga hapu 
katoa reira. Na, ka hoe mai a Rangi-huru-manu mo tona iwi, me 
Ngati-Atua-roa. Ka tae mai ki konei; ka hui katoa a Nga-Paerangi ki 
konei ; i te taenga mai o taua iwi, katahi ka haere ki te ngaki i te mate 
o Hihimua — ka whai ano i te kupu i kiia atu ra ki a Te Rai-ka-whiua, 
*< Haere ! mou tai ata, moku tai ahiahi." 

Na, ka haere atu nei te taua a Whanganui nei ka tae ki Wai-totara; 
rokohanga atu, ki tonu te pa o te tangata-whonua, ko te ingoa o te pa ko 
Potiki-a-Uehua. Katahi ka karapotia e te taua te wharo nui nei, a 
Toka-anuhea, tae atu ki nga whare ririki. Ka tika ko Bangi-huru- 


manu ki te whare i noho ai a Te Bai-ka-whiua. Ka huaki te ata, 
katahi ka patua te pa ra e te taua, ka mate. I te ata, ka marama, ka 
hurahia te whare o Te Bai-ka-whiua e Haru-mana ; ka ui mai a Te 
Bai-ka-whiua ki a Haru-manu, *' Ko wai tenei ? " Ka mea atu ia, ** Ko 
au ! I ki ake ra koe ki au ' £ noho, i mari nei tete Hihimua mou.* Ea 
ki atu ra au, * Hoatu ! mou tai ata, moku tai ahiahi.' " Ka mea mai a 
Te Rai-ka-whiua '' Haere mai e Koro ! Kaore ana, he awatea ! " Heoi, 
ka patua, ka mate, ka ea te mate o Hihimua. 

Hoki mai ana te taua, mutu ake te pakanga, kore ake nei tenei mate 
i ara mai, takoto tonu atu, he takoto nona. Te ingoa o tenei parekura 
a Huru-manu, ko *' Whata-piropiro " ; ko te take i tohia ai tenei pare- 
kura, no te whakairinga i nga piro katoa ki runga ki te whata. 

(Translation of the Preceding.) 
This man, Buamano, was a taniwha, and their lord at that time 
was Puhi-kai-ariki, who had power to assemble the taniwhas. At his 
call came forth Te Ninihi, Te Wiwi, Te Wawa, and Ruamano, who 
drifted ashore. It is not the case that Buamano came ashore of his 
own will, rather was he forced (by the power of karakia) ; see the 
following song composed by Te Ao-tarewa, in which all ancient 
knowledge is included. Because that old lady had no child of her 
own she concluded to make one of wood, it was made in the form of 
a wooden image, and when finished was clothed in garments with a 
tuft of albatross feathers in its ear, and then she nursed it in her 
arms, and sang to it her oriori or lullaby. This is that song : — 

My little child 

Thou earnest from the peak^ at Hawaiki, 

On thy landing, on thy coming ashore, 

(To the land) that was hauled up from the depths by Maui,' 

And became the dry land on shore. 

And trees grew to form a child for me, 

*Twas Tangaroa that sought in depths of Rua-ki-pouri' 

Thou art a descendant of thy ancestor the famed Puhi-kai-ariki^ 

That caused Te Ninihi, Te Wiwi, and Te Wawa 

To arise and float from their lairs, 

When Ruamano was forced ashore. 

Such was his fate, by the powers of powerful tohungcts^ 

And now have I taken it (this story) as a lullaby for my child, 

Forth from the depths appeared the main land 

And Tongariro stood in his place, a mountain of the gods,* 

Where Nga-toro-i-rangi scattered the seed of the koaro ;* 

Then turned his love to those left behind,^ 

And Papa-a-Tarinuku (? the earth) was trodden on. 

At Ttitae-nui, there stood thy house. 

Thy was Taua-kira hill** 

TwioA was thy fame (heard of) at Papako, 


Thy descent was at Pari-tea 

Thy road was at Tahuhu-tahi 

The brow where thou rested was Te Rua^Whakahoro, 

Where thou turned thy face to Te Rewa-tapu' 

The reclining place of thy ancestor — 

Of Bangi-whakumu ; we are of high bom rank, O Child ! ^ 

little one t that criest for some food, 
There is no food for me to feed thee with. 
For me, thy mother, O little one t 

It was Te Bahiri, who ate the shell of the moon, 

(Called) Te Wai-tokihi-rangi, 

Often have I heard, O little one 1 

The story told in many lands, 

That we came hither with Tamatea ^^ 

Lest thou be questioned at Te Mania, at To Hora-a-Moehau," 

Enter straight the house named the Rupe-o-Huriwaka^ 

The house from which descended the Pokai-akatea 

And whence I gained the Tokoaru from Pae-kawa 

1 did not, O little one 1 distinctly hoar the whole. 
For my ear has no oriface, a deaf ear. 

One thing alone did I grasp, 

Thy strong desire, thy ardent wish towards Tane-mata. 

Offer up the sacrificial fern-root. 

Utter the inciting invocation, 

Utter the invocation of memory 

Utter the invocation 

Utter that known as ** tau-wharc-kiokio *' 

Utter the huhi (swamp) 

Utter the re^xx-. (swamp) 

Wherein grows the flax 

For thou art a woman who was there caught, 

Man's work is the axe 

By Tara-hongi, by Tara-honga — a — 
By Tara-kapea, the edge of thy axe, 
That burst open Uawaiki, that sot up Kawarau — O Lady 1 


No. 1. **the tot at Hawaiki," tot is peak, summit; but other references in 
old songs seem to show it to moan also, the '* sovcrencc *' of the people from their 
old home and associations. It would also mean, that the child descended from 
the high chiefs of Hawaiki. 2. Refers to Maui's hauling up of the North Island, 
by fishing — a well known legend, common throughout Polynesia. 3. Refers to 
the god Tangaroa's search in the nether world — Rua-ki-pouri, for knowledge, a 
tradition of which there are only fragments left. 4. Puhi-kai-ariki, a god of the 
tanaiwlia tribe, also name of the ancestor from whom the Nga-Puhi tribe take 
their name. 5. Tongariro mountain was until quite recent years very sacrod. 
6. The koaro fish is said to descend from Tongariro by a subt<.>ranean stream, into 
lake Roto-a-Ira, where they may be seen at any time ; Nga-toro-i-rangi, the high 
priest of " Te Aniwa " canoe, is said to have plac^Kl them there. 7. Refers to Nga- 
toro-i-rangi calling to his sisters in far Hawaiki for sacred fire, with which he 
ignited the volcano of Tongariro. 8. Taua-kira, a mountain some 40 miles up tho 


Whanganui River. 9. Rewa-tapu is possibly the very saored spot near 
Waiongana, Taranaki. 10. The last 7 lines appear to apply to some migration. 
11. Tamatea, an ancestor and captain of *' Taki-tumu." 12 and 13. Appear to be 
names of Whare-maire or houses of learning such as formerly existed — much of 
the rest of the song is some invocation that requires the old men to translate. 

The doings op Tu-wakaturi and his Descendants. 

Behold ! Tu-whakaturi dwelt in his pa at Aro-manga (near Kau- 
ara-paoa)," and on one accasion a tatui, or war-party appeared, who 
came to fight and obtain food. That tatia came to obtain human 
flesh at Whanganui. When they arrived here above the pa, they 
formed their company there. The people of the pa did not see them, 
though they were on the alert, lest they be surprised and killed ; 
for the news of this taua had already reached them. The taua 
remained concealed on the hill until evening, and it was dark, and 
then they approached the pa. When it was quite dark they entered 
the pa. The people of the place all gathered into one large house, 
named " Takatu-o-Rehua," whilst the greater part of the pa was 
abandoned to the enemy. The door of the house was left open so 
that it might be seen if anyone approached, when he would be 
speared with a huata (long spear), and on being killed he could be 
dragged into the house. Nothing could be seen of the inside of the 
house on account of the darkness. The house had been built very 
strongly, with heavy planks on the sides, ends, and roof. 

When the tatui saw that they could not take the house in 
ordinary manner, they commenced to undermine the posts, on both 
sides of the house. The occupation of the people inside was sleep — 
all but the sentries at the sides of the door. The numbers inside were 
70 — i.e., 140, according to the pakeha's counting. The numberless 
people of the taua continued their work, with the intention, so soon 
as the posts were loosened, to throw the whole house over the clifif. 

Directly a little light was seen where the taua was excavating, 
Tu-whakaturi knew that the object would be accomplished, so he 
said to his people, " Arise, take hold of the post of the house, and 
be careful not to forget your weapons ; be on your guard ! " He 
continued, "If the posts come up, use your utmost strength to throw 

*Eau-ara-paoa, a tributary of the Whanganui on the right bank 7 miles above 
Upoko-ngaro opposite Kuamoa. Hiku-wera is an old fighting pa one mile up this 
the stream. At the mouth of the stream, left bank, is the famous Hamama-te- 
rangi pa^ the high maioro^ or ramparts, of which are still standing, some 16 feet 
high, outside of which is a ditch about 12 feet wide. Ngati-Uine, Ngati-Uinerua, 
and Ngati-rongo-mai-tawhiri are the people here. The modem name of this pa 
was Matai-kai. Major Kepa's carved aukaii post, 30 feet high, still stands at 
tiiiB pa, E.B., 1895. (AukatA the '* pale " boundary). 


the house over to that side; leave it to them to heave it over 
towards the cliff, so that they may be fully engaged with the house 
and have no hands to use their weapons." And now the work of 
digging was accomplished, and the lifting of the house commenced. 
The tatui were deceived, thinking that they alone were lifting the 
house ; not so, all, including the people within were helping. When 
the house was quite clear and above, it was forced over on top of 
the tatia — which all the time had been striving to throw it over the 
cliflf, and thus allowed the people of the place to use their weapons ; 
it was getting lighter by this time, and enabled the people to fall on 
the tatia. Some of the taiuiy hearing the blows of the taiahaa^ pou- 
wheniuis, and other weapons, thought it was the house that cracked 
as they bore it towards the cliff, but it was not so, it was some of 
their own i)eople being killed by the people of the pa. The house 
went over the cliff, and by that time it was quite light enough to 
strike home. When the taua turned to secure their weapons, what 
could they do ? by that time the slaughter was in full swing. The 
rear part of the taica had already fled directly they heard the crash 
of the house over the cliff, thinking it was their advance party that 
had been killed — for they could not see clearly on account of the 
darkness, and it was foggy also. 

And now the many of the taua were followed up, right up to the 
ridge, and on to the level ground beyond, down to the stream, up 
the ascent on the other side, the killing continued. It was not until 
the chase had extended as far as Kai-iwi that the slaughter ended, 
and the victors turned back to collect the Ika-a-Tu — the fish of Tu, 
(the slain), and take them back to the pa, with joy and gladness at 
their escape from death. Now, the name given of this battle was 
" Whata-raparapa," because the dead were suspended from a whata, 
or stage, with the soles of their feet (raparapa) upwards. 

And now Tu-whakaturi dwelt at his pa of Aro-manga, and there 

Tu-whakaturi ^i* ^^^^^ Tu-tamou was born. The latter married 

I Te-Wai-mona, and their son was Hihi-mua. So 

I Tu-whakaturi died — of old age. Tu-tamou did no 

Hihi-mua fighting near his home, but in other districts. 

Rangi-huru-maiiu -^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^'i^G brought up their SOU Ilihi-mua — 

there were others, but I shall only speak of this one. 

Ilihi-mua grow up to manhood and married, and had a son bom 
named Kangi-huru-manu, who also grew up to manhood and became 

The old man dwelt in his pa at Aro-manga together with his 
relatives — men, women and children — until on one occasion he went 
to visit another of his pas at Pou-tama. There were living some of 


his children and grandchildren. Pon-tama is about f ths of a mile 
from Aro-manga. Now, those who escaped from the battle fought 
by Tu-whakaturi, never attempted to return and retaliate for their 
losses, but contented themselves with " growing men " for revenge 
when they were strong enough ; this was up to the time when 
Rangi-huru-manu paid his visit to Pou-tama. After the kumara 
crop at Pou-tama and Oture (opposite Kau-ara-paoa) had been set, 
Rangi-huru-manu went up the Whanganui river to Tieke, Utapu, 
and other settlements of his in that neighbourhood. When summer 
came, he concluded that the kumaras would be ripe at Kanihinihi, 
Oture and Pou-tama, so he started on his way back. When he 
reached a little below Tau-tara-nui, he was seen by a taua, and they 
were seen by him ; the parties saluted, and the tatui called down from 
above to ask who it was that was paddling along. He replied, " It 
is I ! Huru-manu ! ** The taua then said, " Behold the fore-quarter 
of the old man hanging there ! " He knew at once that his father, 
Hihi-mua, had been killed. Rangi-huru-manu then asked, " Whose 
war-party is this ? " The other called down, " Mine I Te Rai-ka- 
whiua ! " adding, " Remain (goodbye), hereafter make another Hihi- 
mua for yourself.* Then said Rangi-huru-manu, " Go ! and take in 
thy hand thy relative. Go ! yours is the morning tide, mine the 
evening tide ! " {i,e, your opportunity is now, mine will come yet). 

So Rangi-huru-manu remained to gather in his crop of kumara 
into the storehouses at Oture, after this he " poled "+ inland up the 
Whanganui River to Tieke and Utapu, to raise a taua to obtain revenge 

* There is a play on the name Hihi-mua here, which I am at a loss to translate. 

t Toko, to pole a canoe, a common expression, used because poling is much 
more efifective than paddling against the strong current of the river. Along the 
banks wherever the rock is seen — and in the upper parts this is usually the case 
— the holes made by the tokos or poles are ever3rwhere visible, and the same holes 
have been used generation after generation. The Whanganui people are probably 
the most accomplished canoe-mon in the country ; and thereby hangs a tale. When 
Tamatea, said to be captain of the *'Takitumu" canoe (circa 1350) visited 
Whanganui, he took a crew of the local men up the river and on overland to Lake 
Taupo. Here a discussion arose as to which was the most difficult river for canoe 
navigation, the Whanganui or the Waikato. The Whanganui men naturally 
supported the claims of their own river. In the end the Taupo people dared the 
others to descend the rapids of the Waikato after it leaves lake Taupo. A canoe 
was consequently launched and the Whanganui crew, with Tamatea at the 
steering paddle, started down the river. A Taupo man accompanied them as far 
as a little islet just above the Huka rapid and falls, whore he jumped ashore telling 
the others to proceed ; they did so, and were soon flying down the deep, straight 
channel just above the falls, not knowing what was before them. The canoe flew 
along like an arrow from a bow, and then the 25 feet perpendicular fall was 
reached, over which the mighty Waikato descends in a mass of beautiful foam — 
hence the name, Huka = foam — Tamatea and his crow saw too late what awaited 


for the death of his father. The people of Tieke and those parts were 
all his own people. So the taiia paddled down the river under Bangi- 
huru-manu, which included also the Ngati-Atua-roa sub-tribe. When 
they arrived here — at Kai-whaiki — they were joined by all the Nga- 
Paerangi tribe, and proceeded on their way to avenge the death of 
Hilii-mua — they were bent upon carrying out the words that had 
been said to Te Rai-ka-whiua, thus, "Go! return, yours is the 
morning tide, mine the evening tide." 

The taua of Whanganui proceeded overland to Wai-totara (about 
20 miles along the coast north of the former river, and where the 
Nga-Rauru people live) and on their arrival found all the people 
gathered into their pa named -:Potiki-a-Eehua. The pa was now 
besieged, the great house, Toka-anuhea, and many other smaller 
ones were surrounded (in the night). Bangi-huru-manu went 
straight to the house where Te Rai-ka-whiua was dwelling. As day 
dawned, the attack commenced, and the pa taken. When it was 
quite light the house of Te Rai-ka-whiua was opened by Rangi-huru- 
manu. The former asked, " Who is that? " The latter replied, " Tis 
1 1 You (formerly) said to me, * Farewell ; hereafter make another 
Hihi-mua for yourself,' and I replied, *Go! yours is the morning, 
mine the evening tide ! " ' Te Rai-ka-whiua then said, ** Welcome 
O Sir! it is daylight." (i.e. There was nothing underhand in Rangi- 
huru-manu's attack ; it was in accordance with his words on the 
previous occasion, and the speaker further implied that his present 
predicament was justly his due). Enough ; he was killed, and thus 
was avenged the death of Hihi-mua. 

The taiui now returned to their homes, and the fighting ceased ; 
this defeat was never avenged, (the account) lies as it was left. This 
battle of Huru-manu's was named ** Whata-piropiro," and the reason 
why it was so called was because the entrails of the killed were 
hung on a stage (whata.) 


I will explain how it is this atua (god, l)ut better translated here, 
as afliction) kills the Maori people. In the summer, in February, 
when the karakii berries are ripe, the kernals are cooked in the 

thorn. The speed the cimoc was travelling at almost shot her out of the water aa 
she reached the top of the falls. With a cry of horror from the crow, the canoe 
des(*A'ndcd peri)endiciilarly down the fall into the deep pool helow, and, say tho 
Tau^Kj iHjople, neither Tama tea, his crow, nor tho amoo, wore ever seen again — 
notwithsUMiding their ability as canot>mon, Waikato was ttw much for them. 
There are sewral phwos on tho Whanganui river which boar names connoctod 
with Tamatca. See some oborvations about this same Tamatca. J.P.8. 
Vol. XIV. p. 81. 


native oven for food, and very good food it is. After cooking the 
berries are placed in baskets, whilst the embers (charcoal) of the fire 
are taken into the houses. When guests are received the charcoal 
is ignited for warmth, which induces the guests to sleep, and the door 
of the house is closed. Whilst asleep the people do not perceive the 
arrival of this god, Patu-pai-arehe ; even if there are 30 or 40 or 
more people, they may all be stricken at the same time. Should, 
however, any man see this god he calls out " A Patu-pai-arehe I " 
and then all the people within the house are dragged outside, and 
are soused with cold water. This will save them all, because that 
aUia is one who will listen when he is propitiated. It is not the 
case that the god is ever seen ; no 1 it is by his works that he is 
known. The head aches, and the ^body trembles, whilst the eyes 
cannot see. 

I myself (Tu-whawhakia) was affected by this atua at Ngati- 
Ruanui in 1881. There were 30 of us who were caught by the god 
in two houses, and we were saved by the people of the place, 
who soused us with water, and thus we recovered, but only after a 
week of illness. The houses we were in were built of planks, in the 
form of the Maori whare-pun% varnished inside. There was a great 
deal of charcoal burnt in the houses the first night we were there, 
and we believed that this god, the Patu-pai-arehe, dwelt in the 
varnish. (Obviously, our friend was asphyxiated by the fumes of 
charcoal. The same name is given to a mythfcal race, who are 
white in colour, usually called fairies). 

The God Maru. 

This god is both good and bad. I will speak of its goodness. If 
the food-crop of any man fails, and he repeats his karakias to Maru, 
it will be saved, however bad the crops may be. Also, if a man 
infringes his tapu and is about to die in consequence, if he says his 
tataku (or invocation) to Maru, he will live. If he neglects to do so, 
he dies ; even if he invokes other gods, such as Kahu-kura (the 
rainbow god) &c. But in case Maru does not listen at first, a native 
dog is caught, his throat cut and cooked in the oven. The head is 
then given to the tohunga (priest) who takes it to the tiuihu (altar), 
and there the teeth are exposed so as to be seen by Maru who 
laughs at the image, and the karakias are thus offered by man to 
propitiate him so that he may show love to the sick person. This is 
the good that I know of Maru, but he has other good points too. 

I will now speak of his evil. He is he atua tangi kai (a god 
always crying for food). If his share is omitted at meals, he 
becomes very evil, even killing men because of their omissions. 


Only by karakia can a man be saved in such a case. If a large eel 
is killed the head must be given to Maru to appease him. But it is 
the same with all fish caught either in the sea or fresh water, their 
heads must be given to Maru. 

His many good points are shown if food is set aside for him, if 
property is given him, if fish is offered, if with him is left the ruling 
of the cultivations, if the ruling of new houses is under his direction ; 
if man neglects him, he becomes evil. 

Numerous cultivations have been ruined through neglecting him. 
Pehi-Turoa* had a kumara farm that was eaten up by the pukeko birds, 
the awheto caterpillar, and by numerous other vermin. Hence the 
old man bemoaned his cultivations, and bewailed them in the 
following manner : — 

1. E ki ana au E ' Keko ! 

He tama iana koe na Punga i runga ra-e-e-i 
I patua iara ki te Wai-ranga-tui 
He toto iana koe no Tawhaki e, i, i, 

2. Ngaro noa atu koe, e tc kai maku, 
E tangi ki te kuru ki Kakau-a-rangi 
Ki taku toki hei whakahoki mai, 
Te hiakai, e, e, i 

Ka tao kau te rongo ki a Manga-tai, 
Tenci au kei tc mahi kai o, c, i 

3. Kotahi au i mate ai 

Ko taku wharo tane ka tupu kau 

Ko te waha pa mai kci Okahu, 

Ho whakamcnenga ki Horo-mauga ra, o, e, i, i 

Ka tu ai au ki runga ra, 

Ka waiho ai koutou 

Hei hapai mo taku marae, e takoto noi, e, e, i, i 

Hoatu hoki au, i pakia nga pac-manu ki tc Ihupuku 

Ki a Tatara e noho mai ra, e, e, i, i. 

1. I am Raying O 'Keko ! * 

Thou art the offspring of Punga ahove * 
Who was killed at \Vai-rang;i-tui, 
Thou art of the blood of Tawhaki, * 

2. Thou art completely lost, O the food for mo 1 
Only by crushing blows with the Kakau-a-rangi^ 
With my axe, will the food return, 

Alas the hunger 1 

The report will reach Manga-tai^ 

That I am engaged in (fresh) cultivation. 

• A very well known chiof of high rank, of NVhangnnui, who diod not many 
years ago. Sih; note at the end of the ^uipiT. 


3. The one thing that afflicts me, 

Is my guest-house that stands desolate, 

A voice was heard at Okahu, 

(Calling) the assemblage at Horo-manga, 

Whilst I stand here alone 

Leaving it to you all, 

To support my meeting-place down there, 

My ill-luck strikes the bird-rests at Ihupuku, 

Where dwells (my rival) Tatara ^ 

1. 'Keko, short for pukekoy a bird. 2. Vermin were supposed to be the 
offspring of Punga. 3. The god Tawhaki was supposed to have coloured the 
red topknot of the pukeko with his blood. 4. Name of the constellation Orion (said 
to be an axe) which the composer proposes to use in his new cultivation. 5 and 
6. His rivals in cultivation. 

The reason of this lament of his was, his trouble lest the news of 
his destroyed cultivations should reach the chiefs named in the 
song, that is, Mangatai and Tatara, who were very great cultivators, 
as was Pehi-Turoa. If the latter heard that those two chiefs had 
very large cultivations, he would increase his own to exceed theirs. 
Hence was he so desolate, and in those days the news of a great 
cultivation spread far and wide, just like news of an invading army. 
Thus shame fell on his eyes. 

At last the old man concluded to flee to his settlements in the 
wilds for fear guests should arrive, and he would die of shame at 
having nothing to give them to eat. He also composed another 
song in reference to his feelings : — 

Ma te tira puta mai e ui, 
Kei whea Bau-kawa e ngaro e, e, i, i, 
Kei te hunahuna, kei te whakangaro 
Kei te whare'^matapihi o Rehua — 
Ki Rangi-huna, kia ngaro ai, e, e, i, i. 

When the company of guests arrive, 
(They will ask) Where is Rau-kawa^ gone, 
He is hiding, he is concealing himself. 
In the windowed house of Rehua,^ 
At Rangi-huna, is he hiding. 

1. Probably a second name for Pehi Turoa. 2. Rehua, a star that rises at 
the time the kumara crops are housed and therefore at that time man is free to 
devote himself to war — to avenge any injury his tribe may have suffered. 

The reason of this affliction was such as I have mentioned above. 
If the direction of the work were given to the god Maru, the 
cultivation would be preserved. But on account of the unbelief of 


the heart, the fruits were destroyed by the god Mam and his god- 
friends Eahu-kura and others. Because he — Maru — is chief of all 

In the following year things were changed, and Pehi-Toroa's 
crops were very abundant, and he was very pleased, because he had 
turned for assistance to the god Maru. Thus it may be seen, 
sometimes Maru is good, sometimes evil. 

A similar case occurred to a man of Ngati-Kuanui, who had to 
lament his kumara cultivations eaten by the vermin — the awheto, 
the inoe-oiu, the moka, the kowhitiwhiti and others — ^through the 
work of Maru, so there was nothing but stalks without leaves left. 
So the old man lamented his loss in the following manner : — 

Tuku ra, e te wai-kohu o te whitu 

He whaitakinga atu naku ki waho ra, 

Te matatakinga, i roto te tau-mutu, 

Te karapatanga atu ki te puke-i-ahua 

Turakina te wai-tao ka hinga ki Bunitu ; 

Turakina te wai-manu, ka hinga ki Wai-manu-katea 

E tia ia nei, ko te one i tahia 

Ka rongo ano au, 

Ko Moana-uriuri 

Te mara a Behua, i kai-taua ai a Maru, 

I kainga tauatia ai a Muru 

Tikina atu ra ki te aitanga a Hino-makinokino 

Ki rokohanga iho, ko Mohio te rangi, 

Ka hinga te kauwaha, ka hinga te moe-ouc, 

Ka hinga te awheto, 

I whakarauikatia ki waenga 

Karia iho te rua, ko Ariki-wareware, 

Te pou o roto, Te Bangi-whakakapua, 

He ai te kopani ko Haniru-mai-roto 

He ai te whakaata, ko Te Kangi-paekuni 

Tana papa-ahu, ko Papa-tahia 

Kimihia ki Whatitiri, ko Mitihanga-tc-koro, 

Nana taku kai ka utoki (or kaupae) iho 

I tu ano au te tahanga i a Kongo 

Ki titiro iho au e tupu auau ake ana, 

Ki whawhatia iho te hou a Kahu-kura, 

Hoi o moku ka kimi ai au 

I te whatu i te one, ka rewa ko te iho, 

Riariaakina nga whakauru ora, 

Ko Ri-rangi, ko Te Rangi-tamaru, 

Ko To Rangi-hou-kura, ko Tc Rangi-pao-kura, 

Nga waka tena o te Kahui-rongo, 

I tere mai i Hawaiki 

Ngaro noa atu koo, 

Ma oku tuakanae pupuru mai 

I roto te tapuae, o, i 

• Whilst Maru was a ver>* powerful god on the West CoARt, it cannot be 
allowed that he was the "chief of all gods*' — nor, if it had been put to him, 
would the author luive placed him before Tu, Rongo, Tangaroa etc. 


Gome oome, ye mists of the seventh month, 

Whilst I go forth to contemplate — 

To behold the work of the season of drought, 

As I look askance at the moulded hillocks,^ 

Overthrown as by vollies of spears, as when Rurutu fell — 

Cast down by swarms of insects, as at Wai-manu-katea 

'Tis as if the earth were swept bare as sand. 

I have heard it said, 
Te Moana-uriuri was the cultivation of Rehua 
That was destroyed as by war, by Mam, 
Who brought the crawling offspring of Hine-makinokino 
And found there Mohio-te-rangi, 
Then fell the Kau-wahat'* fell the moe-onf^ 
Destroyed was the awhetOt* 
And laid in serried rows in the midst 
There was dug the pit named Ariki-wareware, 
With its inside pillar called Rangi-whakakapua , 
And the covering panel, Haruru-mai-roto. 
The reflected light was Te Rangi-pae-kura 
They were gathered and burned in ovens. 

Seek and ask of Whatitiri at Mitihanga-te-kore, 
Who destroyed my crop in heaps, 
I stood by the side of (believed in) Rongo 
That I might see my crop, as living plants 
And delving find Te Hou-o-Kahukura* (the kumara) 
For sustenance was what I sought 
In cultivating the soil ; but useless germs remain. 

Arise the life-giving canoes 
Ri-rangi, Rangi-tamaru 
Te Rangi-hou-kura, Te Rangi-pae-kura 
For those were the canoes of Te Kahui-Rongo 
That hither came from Hawaiki 
But now are all lost 
Let my deceased elders hold 
By their sacred life-giving footsteps. 

1. The /cuTTtara is planted in little hillocks. 2. A large caterpillar. 3. A grub. 

4. The large green caterpillar which becomes afterwards the vegitable caterpillar. 

5. Name, emblematical for the kumara^ which is said by some tribes to have been 
brought here by Kahu-kura. N.B- — Hare Hongi has helped me with the mean- 
ings of some of the lines in this very ancient song, but I fear I have missed the 
meaning some times. 

When his relatives and elders heard this song they were affected, 
and gave him some kumaras for food, and seed for next year. 
Numbers of people have been afflicted in the same way, but I cannot 
give all their laments. 

Maru was the principal god of the Maoris, from our distant 
ancestors down to ourselves, even to the time when his works were 
shut out by Christianity. 


There are some proverbs (whakatauki) relating to the toortofua, 
or warrior, and the toa-ngaki-kai, or cultivator. For the first, 
" E hara te toa tana, he toa pahekeheke. The brave in war, are but 
transitory braves. But Te toa ngaki kai, he toa inou roa, the brave 
in cultivating endure for ever. 

He Whakamomori — (Suicide). 

When Te Uru-manaao, daughter of Pehi-Turoa died, her father 
was very desolate. He said, ** Engari a Huru-tara kei te rekareka 
tona ngakau, ka ora tana tamaiti a Te Kapua, Tena ko au, kei te 
pouri ki taku tamaiti,'* " Huru-tara has a happy heart for his son 
Te Kapua lives. As for me I am desolate on account of my 
daughter." When Te Kapua heard of these words he was much 
troubled at them, for he thought it implied that he would be killed 
by Pehi. He came to the conclusion it would be better to kill 
himself. He went into his house to hang himself, but first he dressed 
himself in all his finery, put plumes of huia feathers and rau-kura in 
bis hair, stuck his greenstone 7nere in his bolt, anointed himself with 
oil scented with mokinioki and Ti-kumUy adorned himself with aute 
bark, and all the signs of chieftainship. The whole house was full of 
sweet scents. But none of his people knew of his death. He had 
two reasons for his suicide, the words spoken by Pehi, and the death 
of his wife. 

Now when Huru-tara died his spirit departed for the Nga-Puhi 
country in the north, to Te Au-pouri, i.e., to Te Rerenga-wairua, the 
Spirit's Leap at the North Cape. The people of those parts saw his 
spirit passing, saw him ascend the hill at Mori-a-nuku, where he sat 
down to sing his farewell to his relatives and home, which was heard 
by the people of that country and retained in their memories. Tliis is 

his song : — 

To ra koia ko tc ra 

He awa rorehu atu ki tc ma, 

Homai kia reia te rcrenga ki Te Tawa-mutu, 

Kia tutaki akc i te wairua e, no to urn, 

Kia tuku pototia nga rongo kino i a au 

Tenei to waua noi he peha kei roa to tau, 

Ka hemo i mua ra i aku rangi 

E manahau ana nei 

Ora ana ra te whetu nui o to rangi 

Kurua o to kanohi kei tae au, 

Kei titiro i to kohu whakairi 

Na runga ana mai i a Koromaki 

Nana noi taku aro 1 waero 

Te tuaki atu i te puni o te waka o maha, 

Ki te utauta ka hara mai ka pakaru 

Ma wai ra au e karawhiu 

Ma Te Tuatini rawa, i te hau kuru 

Ki te hau kaha 

Ko to ngutu ki te whakahoki e. 


The Rewharewha. 

(The above name is given to an epedemic of a most disastrous 
nature which afflicted most parts of the North Island at the close of 
the eighteenth century. It is beleived to have occurred about 1790, 
and the Nga-Puhi traditions say it took place very shortly after the 
loss of Rongo-tute's ship in Palliser Bay, when the crew were 
massacred and eaten. The following is the Whanganui account of 
that great affliction). 

BL^U-ARA-PAOA Pa, Hura-aero. 

Now behold ! The people dwelt in peace in the pa at Eau-ara- 
paoa (about 14 miles up the Whanganui river from the present 
town) until, at a certain time there came news of a large war-party, 
which were descending the river from its sources to attack them. 
There were some 800 warriors in this pa, not counting the old men, 
for in those days the people were very numerous, and the Maori 
people had not commenced to decrease. The war-party came on 
down the river on a raid to the South, and their canoes covered the 
surface of the water with their numbers, for the up river people were 
very numerous. It was just at this time the scourge called the 
Bewharewha attacked our people, it was a very serious calamity and 
vast numbers of people died of it. People were attacked one day 
and did not live over the night, though sometimes two days and nights 
passed before death claimed its victim. It was not a few only that 
were seized, but ten, twenty, or thirty were taken at the same time, 
so that it became impossible for the living to properly bewail the 
dead, owing to the numbers who died. Day after day, there was 
no breathing time allowed to the living on account of the numerous 
deaths. Now, a great fear fell upon the people of Kau-ara-paoa on 
account of this dreadful malady, and through the news of the 
approaching war-party descending the river. So an exodus took 
place, and the people fled to the mountains, to places where they 
could look down on the river and watch the coming war-party. In 
abandoning the pa many of those who were too ill to be removed, 
were left behind — such was the fear lest the war-party should find 
the people in the pa^ for as they fled, the canoes of the invaders 

As the fleet of the canoes reached Kau-ara-paoa, the men turned 
aside and entered the pa, and there found many dead bodies, but the 
greater number had been buried. When the war-party saw all this, 
they uncovered some of the dead to eat. After this they departed 
on their way to make war against the Ngati-Apa tribe (living at 
Wbangaehu, Bangi-tikei, &c.) and also with the Ngati-Eahungunu 


tribe. Shortly after the departure of the war-party, there arrived the 
Nga-Paerangi, Nga-Poutama, Ngati-Tumango and Ngati-PamoftDa 
tribes, indeed all those included in the name Nga-Paerangi, who were 
following the war-party in order if possible to save one of their 
branches — Ngati-Rongo-mai-tawhiri — least they should be killed by 
the war-party ; in which case a fight would have taken place at onoe. 
But it so happened that the war-party met none but the dead in the 
pa, so that, when the above tribes saw where the dead had been 
disinterred, they determined on revenge, and as a first step assembled 
all the scattered people of Kau-ara-paoa pa to decide on a oourse 
of action. It was resolved to follow up the war-party, and they 
sent on in advance a man of the war-party who was related 
also to the combined tribes (how he was left behind is not stated). 
It was arranged by this man, that the others were to follow after 
whilst he went on to Awa-rua, where the war-party was, and there 
the avengers were to conceal themselves, and await a signal. If the 
war-party had divided its force, the man was to ascend a sandhill 
and thence signal the others in the night. If the whole party had 
gone south he would wave a fire stick in that direction ; if part 
remained, ho would wave it to the north, in which case the avengers 
were to rush the 2)a. 

After this had been arranged with Nga-Paerangi the man 
departed, and eventually reached the war -party, whilst the avengers 
l)addled down the river, gathering in the other i^eople of Nga- 
Paorangi who had been dispersed by the war-party as they 
passed, so that they finally numbered about 2000 fighting men. 
On arrival at Awa-i*ua, Nga-Paerangi concealed themselves and 
awaited the pre-arranged signal. As night fell, the signal was seen, 
and one fire-stick was thrown to the south, the other to the north, 
indicating that the \var-party had divided. Nga-Paerangi at once 
closed on the pa of the war-party, and awaited the break of day, 
when the assault took place. As the war-party arose from their 
sleep, they found themselves being killed by the avenging inrty, 
which took the pa, killed great numbers, only a few escaping, who 
lloil after the other division, which had gone south. But they were 
overtaken between Whanga-eliu and Turakina, when the fleetest of 
the pursuers called out, ** Here are we close behind you!*' and the 
killing went on, some of the pui*sued called out, " Whose warriors 
are these?" The reply was, "They are Nga-Paerangi!" Then 
the i)ursued knew that the consequences of their defilement of the 
dciul at Kau-ara-paoa was about to fall on them. 

This battle was named " Wai-puna," and it was the i>ayment for 
" Hura-aero," that is, for the dettocration of the dead at Kau-ara-paoa. 
After the battle, Nga-Paerangi returned to the pa at Kau-ara-paoa 


where every one of the people collected, no one remaining in their 
other homes for fear of the war-party, who might return to seek 
revenge for their losses at Wai-puna. Here they decided to remain 
till the war-party had passed on its way to their homes on the upper 
river. On their arrival at the pa, there was not a soul to be seen 
anywhere, the land was desolate — Tangi kau te hau ki roto o 
Whangarmi — The wind alone blew in Whanganui. 

And now the war-party of invaders returned, and started to 
" pole " up the river, at the same time having much fear in their 
hearts of the Kau-ara-paoa pa, within which they knew all the 
Whanganui tribes had gathered. Hence was their fear, lest they be 
attacked and prevented from passing up to their homes. So they 
came on until close to the pa, when they sent in a messenger to ask 
the chiefs of the pa if they would be allowed to pass. The reply was, 
" You may pass if you behave properly, and do not go ashore to any 
pa or village, but continue right on up the river." The messenger 
replied, " Yes ! we agree to your terms." And so the war-party 
passed on their way up the river. 

After one night had passed, Nga-Paerangi followed up the war- 
party, and after the arrival of the latter at Hikurangi, the advance 
part of the pursuit returned from Ope-riki and reported that the 
others had passed Hikurangi. And now the expedition returned to 
their homes, and all the villages of lower Whanganui were again 
occupied, as well as the pa of Ope-riki. 

[Ope-riki is an extremely picturesque old pa, built on top of a clifif 
overhanging the river on the east side just three-quarters of a mile above 
Koroniti (or Corinth). It is covered with fine kowhai trees, and is 
defended on the north side by the deep canon of the Ope-riki stream. 
Mr. Blsdon Best says, " The earthworks remain in good preservation 
and are still some 12 feet in height. The pa is 113 paces square, 
and must have been an almost impregnable stronghold in former days. 
Tradition states that once only did an enemy enter Ope-riki, and that 
party never came out again. One cold, dark and wet night a surprise 
party of the enemy entered the pa, and finding some of the fires 
alight, stopped to warm themselves. A woman hearing a slight noise 
and whispering going on, gave the alarm to the garrison who speedily 
dispatched the intruders. — From Komene Papanui 1895." 

Mr. Best adds also, " A tatui of Waikato, 800 strong attacked 
Ope-riki, the pa of the Ngati-Pa-moana tribe, many years ago. They 
came down the river in canoes and invested the pa. The siege lasted 
many months, but Ngati-Pa-moana had plenty of food in the pa. 
Seeing that they made no progress in the seige, the enemy constructed 
a huge rangi, i.e., a framework of supplejacks closely wattled so as to 


be impervious to spears. Into this cage-like affair entered 40 men 
who lifted it and bodily carried it up to the fortifications of the pa 
against which they placed it, and then commenced to undermine the 
maiorOf or embankments, by working with ko, or wooden spades, into 
the bank, beneath the shelter of the ran(/i. The besieged, however, 
procured long poles and placed them in a slanting ix)sition against the 
pallisades of the pa so that they projected out and over the rangi. 
After the poles were secured in place, the besiegers climbed out on 
them, and cast down heavy stones and logs on to the rangi, displacing 
and breaking the upper part or roof. They were then able to kill 
many of those within it by means of long spears. The discomforted 
enemy retired, and took up a position on the sloping ground above 
the pa, Ngati-Pa-moana now lined their defences and the towers of 
the pa and with excited yells, recited the following ngeri, or war 

song : — 

Te rongo mai koia koc ? 

Ko to waro hiinanga kai tonci, 

Ko to waro hunanga tangata tcnoi, 

Ko nga tuatara o Kawakawa. 

Koi ngenge kau ou turi 

I to hapainga i to kakau o to hoc 

A, kai riro atu to toka i Matiii 

E tu ako noi te whakawohi o to riri. 

Wilt thou not then understand ? 

This is the chasm in which all food is lost — 

The chasm in which men disappear, 

(By the) tuataras of Kawakawa. 

Lot not thy kncos be fatigued 

In using the handle of the paddle, 

When you are able to take away the rock at Matai, 

That in the river stands, 

Then will be felt the dread of war. 

Te Awe-o-te-kauri of Koroniti says Ope-riki pa was attacked — Ist, by 
Tuhara ; 2nd, by Marama-taupae ; 3rd, by Waikato under Te Tahua, 
Te Rangi -whakarurua and Pehi, but was never taken.] 

Tu-whawhakia continues: Now, the i)eople dwelt in peace at their 
pa of Kau-ara-paoa for a whole year, when news reached them that a 
war-i)arty was forming to avenge the losses at Wai-puna, and the 
death of Te Kangi-whakateka at that battle. Hence were his people 
assembling to come down the river. It was subsequently learnt that 
all the upper Whanganui people were coming also. 

So the fleet of cahoes came on ; the Whanganui river was oovered 
with canoes so thickly, that the eye could not see the water beyond, 
the river was dark with men. When the Kau-ara-i)aoa people heard 
of this they all went up and assembled at Ope-riki ; there was not a 


single warrior left in lower Whanganui, all went to guard Ope-riki. 
It was not many days before the word oame that the enemy was 
approfiM)hing, and shortly after the fleet appeared, besides others who 
came overland. They came on without looking (or considering 
death), without fear, their throats lusting for the flesh of their 
enemies, and the desire of battle. They came straight on to capture 
the pa. The chief of the pa gave the command, " When they arrive 
catch the bodies." (Ka pa ano kia hopu ki te tinanaj As soon as the 
attack was delivered, the defenders of the pa arose as one man, and 
it was not long before the enemy was beaten off, and a large number 
killed, some with the weapons, others by being driven over the cliffs. 
The survivors of the attacking party fled — they were allowed to 
depart without being followed. 

And the name of this battle was Ope-riki. Thus there were two 
victories gained in payment of " Hura-aero " (the desecration of the 
dead bodies). The war ended here, for the enemy never came back, 
even down to this day. 


At one time when the Ngati-Apa tribe occupied the Kohuru-po 
pa at Whangaehu, a large party of Ngati-Eongo-mai-tawhiri, Nga- 
Paerangi and other haptis of Whanganui related to them, went 
thither to attack the first named people. They assaulted the pa and 
in the fight, Te Ata-ura of Ngati-Apa killed Takarangi of Whanganui, 
and in conseqnence of the death of this chief, Nga-Paerangi and the 
other hapics retreated, being alarmed at the death of their leader. 
It was Ngati-Rongo-mai-ta whirl, who originated this war, and it was 
the same hapu that fled first. One part of the expedition (apparently) 
did not join in the fighting, but went " to warm themselves at the 
fire " on account of the cold for it was winter time. This was the 
reason of the flight, and how it was that Takarangi's body was left 
lying there. Turangapito got on to the pallisades of the pa and sang 
his song, a very short one, thus : — 

Kihei koutou i haere mai ki te riri, 

I haere mai koutou ki te patiti ahi 

Hei whakahoki riri, ka turitakutia i ! 

Ngati-Bongo-mai-tawhiri e ! 

Whai-roroa i te riri e, 

Whakarongo mai ra, 

Tenei te hanga kino kei a au anake, 

Hua noa i a wai, he mea purotu koc. 

No maua nei hoki tahi hoki ra 

Nana ra i waiwaha, 

He waka pakaru kino ki te akau raid ra, i 


The oanse of Turanga-pito's song was his sorrow at the death of 
Takarangi-atua, whose daughter was Bora-Awheuru, who married 
Mete-Kingi, and their children were Hoani Mete-Eingi, Takarangi 
Mete-Eingi and others. 

Now when Takarangi's wife Nuku heard of the death of her 
husband she composed a lament for him as follows : — 

1. E karanga kan ana, E Whare f 

E tahuri mai e karanga kan ana, E Whetu t 

E tahuri mai, kowai to ritenga 

I tangi ai to papa, e tata te au kawa 

Te tuku ki Mangaio 

Nana i whakato-a te riri ki Paparoa 

2. E karanga kau ana, E Whare f 

E tahuri mai, E karanga kau ana, E Whetu ! 

E tahuri mai na, ki mai na 

Me manu-kawhaki, 

Tera to nuinga kei nga titahatanga 

Ki Puke-totara ra, 

E karangatia ai Tawhiri-parae i 

3. Taku kai nanenane kei Turakina 
E haere ana, ko ingoa kimihia 

E noho noa mai ira, 

Te nekeneko mai to ta o taku tapi 

Mc whakahei ake hci a Turanga-pito 

Ka rangona o te tini, ka rangona c to mano. 

Ka rongo mai Hongi-hika 

Ka rongo mai Te Wherowhero, 

E taka i te koki ki Hani-paka raia a i 

Here ends Nuku's song ; and the death of Takarangi was never 
avongetl by Ngati- Rongo- mai -tawhiri who originated this warfare 
in which he was killed. In vain did Nuku sing ; her song was not 
considered by those hapm. Some of the ])eople of the pa wore 
killed, but none oiiualled Takarangi in rank. 

The author, Tu-wkawhakia, then writes that ho fears '* the canoe 
will be over laden" (the JoruNAL OF THE Polynesian Society 
will not be able to contain all ho has written), but will write more 


Taikohu, Tau-kai-tu-roa and Tama-tuna were all my ancestors, 
the second being my mother's ancestor, thus : — 

Tu-rere-ao = Whaki-tapui* 

Tu-ranga-pitof = Hine-moana 


Tu-taia-roa = Maru-puku 

Tu-wbakaheke = Hine-pane 

Maiore Taikebu Tai-o te-wiwi Iri-nga-rangi Kai-taiigi-anaii Te Kapetau 

Aiua-rere » Apanga 

Te Rangi-raro-whiu = Puata 

Tu Whawhakia=Tu-rake 

Te Korenga Tu Whawhakia 

Hence it will be seen that Taikehu was a descendant of Tu-rere-ao. 
Taikehu and Tai-o-te-wiwi, together with their sister Iri-nga-rangi 
dwelt at their home at Te Uaneke, below Opiri (a pa just above the 
junction of Upoko-ngaro with the Whanganui), and at that time the 
news came of a party of strangers from Ngati-Kahungunu having 
arrived at Taumaha-ute (the old pa just above Shakespeare cliff, 
opposite the town of Whanganui). It was Karihi who invited them 
to come there, and the names of those stranger chiefs were Te Kuaki 
and Te Wehenga. Te Iri-nga-rangi, hearing of these strangers, arranged 
with her brothers to visit Kanihi and ask him to allow the strangers 
to visit Te Uaneke pa. So Taikehu and Tai-o-te-wiwi pulled down 
the river to Taumaha-ute, and on arrival said to Karihi, " We came 
to fetch the old men so that our sister may see them.*' Karihi asked, 
" When will you send them back ?" ** To-morrow," said they ; and 
80 Karihi consented on the condition that they should not be retained 
long, as it was not ho alone who had invited them, but all the chiefs 
of the pa. Karihi said to his visitors, ** You two had better go along 
with these two old men and return to-morrow," to which they 
assented. Taikehu and his brother with the two strangers entered 
the canoe, and then the latter bid farewell saying, *' E noho ! me 
tatari ake e koutou, e po, e ao, Kei te Awa-a-Taikehu ; kei te kainga 

*An interesting and romantio story relating to Whaki-tapoi and her immediate 
descendants will be found in J.P.S., Vol. Y., p. 155. 

fThis Tu-ranga-pito most not be confounded with the man of tbe same name 
who composed the song, ante. 


tino'tangata" — Kemain here ; await a night and a day (we are) at 
the River-of-Taikehu,* the home of the brave (or very-man, warrior, 
etc.) That was their whakatauki^ or " saying,'* because they felt in 
their hearts considerable apprehension from what they had seen. 
When those on shore heard the news later they felt that the xohahor 
tauki was appropriate. 

As the canoe passed up the river, the strangers asked, " Where 
is the home of you two, with reference to yonder hill ? '* The reply 
was, "There! beyond the hill." They "poled" on until they reached 
Wai-pakura, where Taikehu said, "There! behold -that hill; below it 
is the home of our sister and ourselves." The hill referred to was 
Opiu. When they reached the landing place, the old woman (Te 
Iri-nga-rangi) welcomed them with the usual pohiri, and then the 
strangers were conducted to the village. 

When night came the strangers were killed. The people at Tau- 
maha-ute waited one night, two nights, and then they knew that the 
strangers had been killed, and the prophetic words of the whakatauki 
of the old men, had come true. But these deaths were never 

From the cannibal lady mcntionod in this story — To Iri-nga-rangi — are 
descended the Ngati-Iringa-rangi hapu of Whanganui. 

Pehi-Turoa, referred to ante, was a very great chief of the Whanganui tribes, 
whose aristocratic (according to Maori ideas) lines of descent lie before me. He 
claims as ancestors, Turi, commander of the *'Aotea" canoe; Tama-te-Kapua, 
commander of "TeArawa'* canoe; Tamatea, commander of the **Takitimu** 
canoe ; Hoturoa, commander of the ** Tainui ** canoe — all vessels forming part of 
the fleet of 1350. His son Tahana Turoa died at Wai-pakura, Whanganui, 16th 
August, 1894, and was also a man of mark. The following poropofXhaki, or 
farewell, delivered at the tangi or " wake " over him is very oharacteristio of suoh 
efhisions, and of Maori custom in suoh cases : — 

Haere atu ra ! te puhi o Whanganui. Haere atu ra ! E Aotoa ! 

Haero atu, E te milna o te whenua t Haere atu ra ! te mSna o te tangata ! 

Haere atu ra t E Kahu-kura ! Haere atu ra ! E Tutu-tohora ! 

E Poutini ! Rore atu ra i tenei ao ki tera ao atu ! 

Depart then, the plume of Whsnganui. Depart Aotoa ! Depart ! 
O the embodiment of the power over the land ! Depart, the influential 
one with men ( Depart Kahu-kura (god of Rainbow) ! Depart O Tuiu- 
tohora t O Pou-tini ! Take thy ilight from this world to the next ! 

* To Awa-a-Taikehu is one of the poetical names of the Whanganui River. 



From Information received from Hone Whetu Tangi-tahekk, 


By George Graham. 

.^^GUTU-AU was the name of a strange people who came to this 
J^ place, that is to Whare-kahika (Hick's Bay, East Cape) many 
generations ago. Their cauoe was remarkable for its con- 
struction, and the people for their peculiarities of speech and 
mannerisms. The Ngutu-au came here from abroad seeking a place to 
live, and our people allowed them to settle at Mata-kawa (near Hick's 
Bay) and gave them some kumara seed to plant, as they had none, for 
that was the planting season for kumara when they arrived. 

Ngutu-au pulled up their canoe at that place, built their houses, 
and prepared their cultivation of kumara. 

Some short time after, a party of Ngutu-au went out with our 
people fishing for hofnikuj and were successful until a great hapuku 
broke all the hooks and lines. This great hapuku had been in that 
place for a long time and had given great trouble to our fishing parties. 
It was of such size and strength that no lines or hooks used were 
strong enough to ensure its capture. It was always breaking our lines 
and hooks. We lost so many lines and hooks that this fish was called 
Kai-aho (line-eater). 

When our people returned owing to the loss of lines and hooks, 
and Ngutu-au returned to their village at Matakawa, it was decided to 
make specially strong lines and hooks to catch Kai-aho. The Ngutu-au 
were expert in such work, and made a large hook of wood and a line of 
totoro'hiti (toe-toe fibre) which is superior to harakeke (flax) for this 
purpose. Unknown to us they went out one night, and with their 
great hook and line succeeded in catching the fish Kai-aho. 


When our people had finished making strong hooks and lines they 
went out, but none of the Ngutu-au oame to accompany them, which 
was not understood by our people. Arrived at the fishing grounds^ the 
proper karakias were recited, and the lines bated with tamure (schnapper) 
and let down. They waited a long time, but no bites came, and 
uselessly shifted from one place to another. No success rewarded their 
patience. Thus it was for two days. Then our people became 
suspicious and thought that Ngutu-au must indeed have already caught 
the fish Eai-aho. 

Some of our people went to Mata-kawa to find out, but did so as on 
a visit of courtesy. It was there mentioned that for two days our 
people had fruitlessly tried to catch Kai-aho, but Ngutu-au denied that 
they had already caught that fish. Then it was remarked that the 
canoe of that people had been lately used, but still Ngutu-au denied 
that they had caught Kai-aho. 

Our people disbelieved them and secretly decided to exterminate 
the Ngutu-au for their mean conduct ; the olden people of ours were 
of a very jealous disposition and were really jealous that Ngutu-au had 
succeeded in catching Kaiaho after their own long repeated efforts had 
failed to do so. 

Now Ngutu-au suspected that evil was intended, but to conceal 
their uneasiness quietly proceeded with their cultivations and other 
daily work. They had really decided to leave and return to their 
distant home over seas, and one night they indeed left. 

Next morning, not seeing their fires or any of the people, our 
people went to look for them, and then realised that Ngutu-au had 
departed in their canoe. In a cave on the coast we discovered three of 
their people named Mouterangi, Wharekohe, and a woman named 
Hine-te-ao, who was a sister of Wharekohe. They stated that their 
people had left with the intention of returning to their own home. 

These three people lived with us as slaves until they died, and left 
no descendants. We never heard anything as to the fate of Ngutu-au. 

We preserve an old song concerning Ngutu-au and the three persons 
left among us by them, of which the following is a part : — 

'* Te heke o te Ngutu-au e haere ai ki tetahi whenoa 
Ko tona tuahine ko Hine-te-ao 
Ko tona tonara^ ko Te Wharekohe 
£ hara tenei, he kura-wai-hape, he mahanga rimu tapu 
Kia po-reia ko poihiri ko porara¥ra. 

* Mou-te-rangi waR a man of rank, and Whare-kohe was his slave, that is to nay, 
his man. Tonnra was the Ngutu-au word for tangata — man. I never heard the 
reason why these people were left behind. 


Obtained Februaby, 1905, fbom Ira Hebewini, of Moeraki, 
BY J. Cowan. 

THE expression '* Te Waka-a-Maui " ('Hhe Canoe of Maui "), as an 
ancient name for the South Island of New Zealand, is still 
occasionally heard from the lips of the old people of the Ngai- 
Tahu tribe. The notion that it was from the South Island that Maui 
fished up the North Island (** Te Ika-a-Maui "— **The Fish of Maui ") 
is, however, a purely Southern concept ; it would be hard to convince a 
Northern Maori of the superior antiquity of the Greenstone Land. 
"Te Taumanu-o-te-waka-a-Maui " (** The Thwart of the Canoe of 
Maui ")^-on which Maui stood when hauling up his land-fish — is said 
by the Ngai-Tahu to be the ancient name of a place in the [neighbour- 
hood of Kaikoura. 

The classic name *• Te Waka-a-Maui '* is mentioned in the following 
fftmous song, which was sung as a vuita or prophecy, by a tohunga 
named Kukurangi, of the Ngati Awa tribe, at Waikanae, just prior to Te 
Rauparaha's second and successful raid on Eaiapohia Pa, Canterbury, 
about 1880. Standing in the marae in the midst of the assembled 
warriors, and pointing towards the mountain-cape of Omere that jutted 
into the Sea of Raukawa (Cook Strait), the seer chanted these words : — 

'* He aha te bau e pa mai nei ? 

He uru, he tonga, he parara. 

Ko nga baa tangi rua-e ! 

£ ta ki te rae o Omere ra 

Ea kite koe, e 'Baha 

I te ahi papakura ki Eaiapohia. 

Ma te ihu waka, ma te ngakau hoe. 

A ka taupoki te ria 

O te Waka-a-Maui 

Ei raro ra ! 

Tukitukia ha I Berea ha ! Eopekopea ha ! 

Taku pokaitara — puka 

E tu ki te muriwai ki Waipara ra — 

Hi— ha! 

Ea whakapae te riri ki toa^— ho-o-o !" 



What wind is this that blows upon me ? 

The West? The South? 'Tis the Eastern breease. 

Stand on the brow of Omere* hill 

And you will see O *Baha, 

The glare of the blazing sky at Eaiapohia I 

By the bow of the oanoe, by the handle of the paddle. 

The Canoe of Maui will be overturned 

Below there I 

Then paddle fiercely I Fly through the seas ! Plunge 

deep your paddles ! 
See my flock of seabirds 
In the backwater at Waipara there ! 
Hi— Ha ! ^ 

Beyond that spot will rage the fight ! 

*Omere is said to be the original native name of Gape Te Ba-whiti (Cook Strait). 
The name Te Ba-whitl (" The Bising Sun"), the general Maori term for the East 
Coast, was, through a misconception on the part of Cook's Tahitian interpreter, 
Tupaea, in conversing with the Maoris in 1770, set down by the oiroumnavigator as 
the name of this point. 

rOmcre is the point of land just outside and to the South of Oharin, whieh 
people desirous of crossing Cook's Straits in former times used to ascend to see 
if the sea was smooth enough— hence the lines in the old song: — 

Ea rou Omere ki waho, 

He maunga tutainga aio. 

Where Omere projects outside, 

A spying place for calms. 
Te Ba-whiti means simply "the East,*' which Cook mistook for the name of 
the iK>int, when asking its name of the Queen Charlotte Sound Natives. — Editor.] 


[179] Some Middle Island N.Z. Place Names. 

In Note No. 175 the question of the true name of the lake called by Europeans 
Manaponri, was raised, and the statement made that it should be Motu-rau. I 
have since received from Mrs. Cameron, a half-caste lady, wife of the first European 
to visit the lake, information which seems to settle this question. Siie says that 
the name of the lake has always been Manawa-pore, but that Motu-rau is the name 
of an old Maori settlement on the shores of the lake, near a little stream that is 
about a mile or so north of the outlet by the Waiau river, and where the natives 
were in the habit of camping even within the last 40 years, when fishing and birding. 
This was an old Ngati-Mamoe village in former days, and the stream near was the 
dwelling place of a noted taniwha in ancient times. 

Te Riia-a-te-kai-amio is the name of the limestone caves a little east of Glifden 
township on the Waiau River. 

Te Taniwha is the Maori name of the Snares Islands. 

Nuku-niai is the proper spelling of the place now called Noko-mai. 

— S. Percy Smith. 

[180] Maori Names of Lakes. 

As bearing on the same question raised in Notes 175 and 179, the following 
from a Dunedin newspaper of about 1896 is forwarded by Mr. Jas. Cowan : — 

♦* Mr. Henry E. Nickless, Te Tua, writes: — On reading your paper some time 
ago I saw that Mr. Percy Smith and Mr. Stowell had been giving, as far as their 
knowledge went, the Maori names of two lakes — viz., Whakatipu and Manawapore. 
I don't doubt that the gentlemen named are good Maori scholars, and bein^ familiar 
with the language myself I naturally take an interest in it, and would like to give 
my opinion as far as my knowledge goes with regard to the names of the two lakes 
in question. My information I got from an old Maori chief living at Colac (Korako) 
Bay, who was brought up in his young days at the lakes. His name is Hoani 
Matewai Poko, a son of the chief Te Wae Wae, after whom Te Wae Wae Bay was 
named ; and I believe Poko is the last full-blooded chief of the Ngatimamoe tribe 
now alive. He says that the proper name of the lake now called Manapouri is 
Moturau, and there are two small lakes close to it called by Europeans the little and 
big Mavaura. The larger of these two the Maories name Manawapore, which 
means *' anxious heart,'* and the smaller of the two they call Hikuraki, or 
Hikurangi, which is the northern pronunciation of Hikuraki ; and the proper name 
of Lake Wakatipu is, according to Poke's knowledge, Whakatipu and not Whaka- 
tipua. There are also two or three Maori names of places wrong on the railway 
line between Invercargill and Orepuki — viz., the place called Oporo is properly 
called Opora. Oraki should be Tehaki, named after a woman who was taken 
prisoner at Pahi and killed and eaten at the place now called Oraki. The name 
Oraki is a near approach to Oraka, the name of a stream running into the sea at 
the Maori Kaika or Kainga. If anyone else could give your readers further 



information on the matter of the names of the two lakes mentioned, I should 
consider it a great favour, as I think the names ought to be corrected and th« 
proper names taught in our schools, as otherwise the original and proper names 
will die out and be substituted by ones that are not correct, and should not be in 
in i»ur geographies." 

[181] On the word Moa, &c. 

(See Note by Mr. Taylor White, last issue of Jouuxal.) Can any member of 
the Polynesian Society throw light on the origin of the name Te Itau-a-Moa ? This 
is the name of a locality on the Pirongia Range, about midway between the Waipa 
Yiilley and Kawhia Harbour. It may be that maa is here a personal name, but I 
hardly think so. One meaning of moa is a plot or bed in a gatden [mahinga moii = 
a cultivation). Some natives suggest that there were anciently a large number of 
cultivation-plots here, side by side— hence the name. This, however, is as likely as 
not an effort of the aboriginal imagination. 

A member of Ngati-maniapoto informs me that rait-nfffi-moa was a term 
foiiuerly applied to a jilume of feathers placed in the hair when it was bound up in 
the old style topknot. 

It is no doubt a Hawaiikian phrase, analogous to pahl-hengn^ the feather 
head-drnament of Niue Island. — J. Cowan. 

[We think the name refers to a plume of moa's feathers, like Te liau-o-te-hina, 
d'c. The j art of the name that throws doubt on this meaning, however, is the use 
of •*/» " instead of "O," and this raises the question as to whether Mr. Cowan^s 
first n.e:n<ing, viz., that moa is a man's name is not right. — Ei>itor.j 


Minutes op Mertino of Council. 
The Council met at 4 p.m. on the 22nd September, 1905, at New Plymouth. 

Present: The President, Messrs. W. L. Newman, J. H. Parker, W. H. Skinner, 
F. P. Corkill, M. Fraser, and W. Kerr. 

The following new Member was elected : — 

369 William Smith, Railway Department, Arumoho, Whanganui. 

Papers Beceived : — 

273 The Last of the Ngati-Mamoe. Jas. Cowan, 

274 Wharekohanga. Elsdon Best. 

275 Maori Superstitions. Col. Gudgeon. 

The following publications have been received since last meeting of the 
Council : — 

1809 Maori Names ^ South Island N^ir Zealand. Mr. Roberts. 

1810-17 Ln Giographie. Vol. x , 2 to 6; Vol. xi., 1 to 3. 

1818-20 Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, ccccxxi., ccccxxiii., ccccxxv. 

1 821 -23 Revue de UEcole d^A nthropologie de Paris. May, June, July, 1906. 

1824 Records, Australian Museum, Vol. vi., 1. 

1825 The American Antiquarian. Vol. xxvii., 4. 

1826 Archivio per V dnthropologia. Vol. xxxv., 1. 

1827-30 Bulletins, dbc, de la Soci^tS d'Antkropologie de Paris, 1904. 
Nos. 2 to 6. 

1831 The Northern Maida, American Museum Nat. Hist. From Poland 

B. Dixon. 

1832 Journal, Anthropological Institute, Great Britain, Vol. xxxiv. 

1833 Journal, American Oriental Society. Vol. xxvi., 1. 

1834 Annual Report Smithsonian Institution, 1903. 

1835-39 Memorias Real Academia de Ciencias y Artes, Barcelona. 

Vol. v.. No. 4 to 8 
1840 Boletin „ „ „ „ Vol. ii., No. 7 

1841-2 Journal Royal Colonial Institute. June, July, 1906. 

1843 Inheritance of Digital Malformations in Man. Peabody Museum. 

Vol. iii., 3. 

1844 Report, Public Library, Museum and National Gallei^y, Victoria, 


1845 Victorian Geographical Journal. Vol. xxii., 1. 
1846-48 The Geographical Journal. Vol. xxv., 6; xxvi., 1, 2. 
1849-52 Na Mata. June to October, 1905. 

1853 The Morphology oj the Hvpa Language. Univeisity of California. 


1854 Banket Designs of the Indian* of N. W. California. Umwetatj of 

1855-6 Twenty 'first and Twtnty-seeond Reports, Bureau of Awuriam 


1857 Tenth Report Australian Association Advancement of Science. IQCML 

1858 NotuLen van de Algenteene, dtc.^ Bataviaasch Genootschap. Deel xUL, 

No. 4. 

1859 Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde. Deel zItUI., 

No. 1. 

1860 Rapportenf Commissie in Nederlandsch-Inde, 1903. 

1861 Annual Report Smithsanion Institution, 1902. 

1862 American Antiquarian. Vol. xxvii., No. 1. 


By Lieut.-Col. W. E. Gudgeon, C.M.G. 

EXPERIENCE does not warrant me in saying, that the teach- 
ings of the missionary has had any good or lasting effect 
on the Maori people. The great lesson of Christianity 
appears to be beyond the grasp of the Maori mind, which, 
though exceedingly acute, leans strongly in the direction 
of materialism. It is, therefore, apt to regard religion from a purely 
worldly point of view, so that if no immediate benefit seems likely 
to accrue from the profession of any particular form of faith, that 
faith is regarded as being of little value. 

Christianity, as we understand it, really does not enter into the 
life of a Maori ; he does not comprehend it, and the lessons of 
brotherly love and charity thereby inculcated do not interest him. 
The reward offered is too remote. I am, however, of opinion, Ihut 
the myster^^ of the Trinity has his respect, if only for the reason 
that it is beyond the experience and conception of ordinary men. 
The Maori would, however, make a good Jew of Mahommedan, 
inasmuch that outward observances, and ceremonies, even of the 
most rigorous tyi)e, are very much to his taste. Not even the 
Anglo-Saxon — who has been described by the witty Frenchman as 
having 500 religions and only one sauce — is more open to religious 
impression than the native race of New Zealand ; but the impres- 
sions do not last. 

I have a very great respect for the logical Maori mind; but I 
cannot ignore the tenor of remarks made to me at various times 
by some of the most intelligent of this interesting people, and this 
much may be said in their favour, that the most fanatical or super- 
stitious is a man at all times, and compares very favourably with 


that weak-minded element among the Europeans, who rush hysteri- 
cally into the arms of every new religious crank, fraudulent or 
otherwise, who may hai)i)en to visit the town in which he resides. 
Whatsoever the Maori may do or think he is always manly, and 
somewhat prone to helieve in the sword of the Lord and Gideon. 
He is, therefore, dangerous in his religious fits, and was at one time 
apt to undertake a small "Jehad" on his own account, in order to 
illustrate practically the power and virtue of the particular deity 
than influencing him. 

My long association with the Maoris has afforded me opportuni- 
ties for hearing their sentiments on many suhjects, as to which they 
do not often open up their hearts to Euroi)eans, and that iX)sition I 
have attained by listening sympathetically to all their ancient lore 
and superstition, carefully av(jiding any remark that might exhibit 
me ns prejudiced in favoui* of or against any form of religion whatso- 
(^ver. T simply ]K)sed as a sof>k(M- jifter (ruth, and it followed a« 
a natural sc(iue!ico that 1 often received whimsical confidences, and 
heard very funny remarks, even from Maori catcchists who were 
supposed to be living in the very odour of sancti^. It was a 
man of this type who told me that he was a sincere Christian, 
but not being an absolute fool he knew that one god could not 
attend to everything, ami, therefore, if he wanted any si)ocial 
jissistanee he usually invoked the aid of some Atua-Maori^ who was 
naturally more conversant with his wants, and undoi'stood him 
better than any Euroi)ean god could ])ossibly do. lie evidently 
felt that the position he had taken up was not quiet sound, for he 
added, ''You will understand that 1 could not ask a great God like 
Jehovah to do such little things." This last remark explained all 
ihnt ho had in his mind, for the Supreme Being of the Maori is lo, 
to wliom they will olTer no su])plication for assistance. 

Another man - a good old warrior of a serious turn of mind — 
feclin;i assuio<l that I would sympathise with him in his difliculties, 
consulted me on the subject of the scriptures. lie said that he had 
sttidied them for moie than forty years, and had come to the con- 
clusion that lher(» was nothing in them. Having, moreover, given 
the subject nnu.'h th()u«;lit, he was convinced that the key to the 
Ljj-eat book was in the hands of the Bishops, who selfishly retained 
all that was of real value in their own hands. 1 replied that I had 
uevt^r h(»ard of any such lK>oks; but the old man cut mo ofT with a 
sircastic I'emark U) tlu^ elVect that as I was not a Bishop it was 
hardly likely that 1 could know anything alxnit it, *' For,'* said he, 
"it is not the Maoris only that are I uMug defrauded but the Euro- 
pt»ans ulso." To lht» »»r(linar\ Kuroj.(»an this may sooni a very 


childish view to take, but to my Maori friend such a policy seemed 
not only natural but also probable ; forasmuch as he regarded the 
matter from a strictly Maori point of view, and argued, that where- 
as the Maori tohunga has karakia (incantations) by virtue of which 
they can compel their atuas to minister to the wants of man, so also 
must the learned Europeans have the same power, and as the 
Bishops were merely a superior class of tohunga, they would 
naturally retain these valuable incantations in their own hands, 
and keep them from the inferior clergy and laity. 

Yet another valiant old heathen assured me that the only result 
he had ever seen flow from Christianity was cowardice. Said he, 
Your missionaries come here and talk to our young people about 
Hell fire, and all that sort of thing, until they are absolutely afraid 
to die. Before they came, this was not the case. At that time men 
had no fear, they killed men and were killed, but there was no fear. 
There are no men at the present day, the ichakajjcmv (faith) and. 
Pakeha guns have made us all cowards." 

The doubt latent in the Maori mind, as to the efTicacy or power 
of Christianity is always cropjnng up, especially among the old Jind 
thinking part of the community. During the long drought of 1878 
on the east coast of the North Island, when the whole potato crop 
failed, an old chief took a very gloomy view of the tribal prospects. 
He said, " I do not know what we shall do for food this winter. 
We have a good crop of kumaraj but no potatoes ; that we have 
done something wrong is quiet clear, but what that wrong is I do 
not know. Since the war of 1865 we have neglected your religion, 
and have nevertheless been most prosperous, but last year we agreed 
to rejoin your church, and now behold the result of listening to your 
missionaries." Seeing the bent of the old man's mind, I replied 
that he appeared to think that the tribal Atua was angry at their 
desertion, but such could not be the case since it was known to all, 
that the Maori gods had mdna over the kiivmra, but that the potato 
was a Pakeha vegetable, and as such Eongo-ma-tane could have no 
mdna over it, and the abundance of the kwiiara was proof positive 
that the Maori gods had not been angered. He pondered over this 
for some time and evidently thought my remarks worthy of note, 
for he murmured " ka tika " (it is true) ; but nevertheless he was not 
comforted, for he added, '* there is something wrong somewhere." 

Some years ago it was my good fortune to come across a very 
amusing notice in Maori posted on the door of a country hotel. 
It is so thoroughly Maori that I did not attempt to translate it lest 
it should be said that I had drawn on my imagination. I therefore 
handed it over to a good Maori linguist, and his translation is as 
follows : — 


" Let all men know that Christmas will be celebrated and a raoe 
meeting held at Te Teko on the 25th December next. All those 
who patronise 8]X)rts should assemble at that place, not only for the 
amusement provided, but to honour the new year, and the advent 
of our Saviour from the unknown. We wish Him to know that we 
hold his birthday in reverence and love, so that He may in like 
manner remember and love us on the day of judgment/' 

After this let no man say that the Maori is wanting in a proper 
sense of his obligations either to this world or the next. Above all, 
let it not be said that he neglects to support his church, for it is on 
record in the Gisbome court, that a Maori an-aigned on a charge of 
horse-stealing, pleaded guilty ; but moved in arrest of judgment, that 
though he had stolen and sold the horse, he had been induced to do 
so by the ver^- purest motives, namely, that an important church 
conference was about to be held in his village, at which a collection 
would be made in aid of Maori missions, and he being a poor man, 
l»ad, as it were, been comj)o]leil to steal the horse, to enable him to 
contribute towards the support of his church. 

There are people who think that they understand the working of 
the Maori mind. Indeed, I have once or twice thought I was one 
of those gifted individuals, but the improspion did not last, and it 
vanished forever after a conver«?ation witli si certain Maori ixirent. 
This man sjiid that he ol)jectt(l to send his children to school, not 
that he saw any harm in education, indco<l, he thought all children 
should be t;iught to rciid and write ; but he did (^l)ject to anyone 
making money out of his chil<lren. For sonio monieMts I failetl to 
grasp his nlcaninf,^ but a few judic-ious (jiiestions Si)lved the niVbtory. 
Teachers were paid by the (loveriinient of tlio Colony to teach his 
and other children, and he objected to any such arrangement, because 
the teachers were thereby enabled to make money tuit of his children. 
This he felt was wrong, and therefore he sot his face against all 
schools. We ilid not part in friendshij) on iliis (H-casion for the 
reason that 1 changed the conversation al>rupily by asking if ho had 
ever received any .serious injury to his hoatl. a'ul wIumt he answered 
in the negative I said. '* I am s^orry, for in such case it uni>i ]ye a 
bad case of congenital idiocy, and I only Iiojk* that your children 
may not l)e similarly atllicted." 

1 began this chapter with the fixed intention of writing all that 
I knew on the subject of Maori 8ui)erstition. both ancient and 
modern, and fortunately it is not too late to pick up the lost thread 
of my discourse, which was the facility with wiiich ail Maoris receive 
what are misnamed religious imiu*essions. 


The most widely extended and important of all the religious 
manias, from which the Maoris have suffered during the European 
occupation of New Zealand is that known as the '* pat marire or 
hauhau " faith. A many-sided fanaticism, the offspring of madness, 
racial jealousy of the European, and a too intimate acquaintance 
with the Old Testament. The Maori has not found safety among 
the numerous religions of the Anglo-Saxon ; indeed, the very fact of 
there being so many creeds in existence, has tended to upset his 
belief in any one of them, for, he shrewdly argues, that whereas we 
are unable to determine which is the true faith, he is thereby 
justified in deciding this important point for himself. For these and 
other causes which are inherent in the Maori people, they have at 
all times been prone to adopt any new faith that might seem to 
offer immediate benefit to them, such as success over their enemies. 
To this end they have searched the Scriptures and read again and 
again those passages which treat of the Jewish wars and the promises 
made by Jehovah to his chosen people, not to mention the chapters 
wherein the Jews were commanded to kill everything and every- 
body regardless of age and sex. 

These precepts were so congenial to the Maori mind, and so 
much in accord with their own customs on similar occasions, that 
they may well be forgiven the assumption that these directions were 
dictated for their own special benefit, the more so that it has been 
sedulously impressed upon them, that they were the descendants of 
the lost tribes, and therefore a remnant of the chosen people. It 
was this belief that made them call their prophets of the new faith, 
Tins (Jews). All of this was due to the teaching of certain Mission- 
aries who were good and well-meaning men, the product of a 
thousand years of progressive civilisation ; but they failed to under- 
stand that the Old Testament was about the last book that should 
have been placed in the Maori hands, and that to impress upon men 
who were still savages that they were a chosen people, was, to say 
the least, dangerous. 

About the year 1864 the Maoris were in a highly exalted and inflam- 
mable state of mind, and deemed it ad visible to adopt some form of religion 
more potent than Christianity. Since 1860 they had been fighting against 
the Pakeha, and thanks to the astounding incapacity of many of our 
mihtary leaders, had on the whole been successful ; but the measure 
of success had hardly been sufficient to satisfy a chosen people. 
They were, therefore, in a mental condition very favourable for the 
receipt of messages from the spirit world, and were otherwise ready 
to make fools of themselves on the least possible provocation. 

The Hauhau creed, if creed it can be called, was the inspiration 


of a weiik-miiuled hut liiirinless man (Iloropapora te Ua), who had 
unsettled a mind nevei' very strong hy })rooding over the mysteries 
of the Old Testament ; but it would seem that it was the wreck of 
the steamer " Lord Worsley " at Te Namu on tlie Taranaki coast, 
that caused this miu'derous creed to he inflicted on us. Great events 
do, liowevei', spring from small things, and the adage applies in this 
instance, for Te Ua, annoyed that his tribe should loot the goods of 
the shipwrecked passeng(;rs, began to rave and have visions. Now 
visions are not in themselves objectionable, for it is essential that all 
reputable tohun(jaH should have a few reliable visions; but Te Ua 
went distinctly ahead of his profession on this occasion, for he dis- 
dained mere Maori atiuis, and was content with nothing less than the 
Angel Clabriel, who not only interviewed him on several occasions, 
but also instructed him in the forms and ceremonies of the new 
faith, so he believed. 

Among other tilings, he was instructed to erect a sort of maypole 
to he called a Xiu, round which his converts might assemble, and 
which Xiti should jjossess magical virtues, inasmuch that the true 
believers, while standing in a circle round the pole in order to 
worshi]) the gods of the liauhau creed, would, if worthy, receive the 
gift of tongues, as a pieliniinary lo going forth and teaching the true 
faith to all the earth. 1 do not wish it to be inferred that all men, 
even though sincere belieVers, were to receive this gift ; but those 
violent fanatics, who were subsequently called T///, most certainly 
believed that they could speak any language. 1 liavo often been 
roundly abused by these gifted children of the Wairua tajfU (Holy 
spirit), because 1 had to confess my inability to understand them. 
They, however, all came to serious grief later on. 

It was a standing article of the; liauhau faith that the gods 
spoke to thom through the medium of the preserved hoiuls of 
Kuroi)eans who had fallen in battle. These lieads wore carried 
tibout by tlu; j)rophets, and hung on the A7// whenever the jm or 
village assend)led for family worshi]). It is almost certain that 
ViMitrilt^quism was called in to give etVect lo the terror inspiixxl hy 
these heads, and aid in the conversi»»n »)f unbelievers; for it is 
certain that all of the Ilaidiaus did believe that the heads s]>oko to 
them. Yet another pleasant little fiction in which tlio llauhaus 
placed implicit faith, was that they were invulnemble to steel or 
bullets, provided always that they used the word llau at the proi)or 
moment, and at the same time raise<l the light hand palm outwards 
above their heads. This simple safeguard was supposed to turn the 
flight of the bullets ui)wards. Later on they liad abundant oppor- 
tunity of testing the eflicacy of thi^ melh.ul t-f life insurance, and 


had every reason to call their gods Koroke hangar eka (deceitful 

As for the ritual of Hauhauism, it is said that the Angel Gabriel 
sang a song for the guidance of Te Ua, and that in this song he 
apostrophised the Trinity, but with this exception, the ritual was 
left entirely to the discretion of the prophets, who, inspired by the 
wairua tapu aforesaid, invented a set of chants in doggerel English, 
one of which ran as follows : — 

**Big river, long river, attention 
Qreeks, Germans, attention, etc." 

All of which, being rendered with a very Maori accent, was not 
unmusical, but provocative of much mirth. 

The shibboleth of the members of this creed was Pai marirc (good 
and peaceful), but I cannot say that the members of the sect lived 
up to it. It was, indeed, like all other party cries, intended to mis- 
lead. Another word of even greater mdiui was Han, Hau, the 
meaning of this expression is obscure, but it probably had reference 
to the spirits of the wind, whom the Maoris called Hau anihcra 
(wind angels). 

Durii^ the incubation period of the Hauhau religion, Te Ua and 
his disciples carefully abstained from interference with their neigh- 
bours, whether Maori or European ; but their behaviour was 
altogether too good to last, and very soon a change for the worse 
was observed, and a most bloodthirsty and fanatical spirit of hostility 
was exhibited by all the adherents of the prophet towards the 
Pakeha. I cannot say that I think Te Ua himself was to blame for 
this change in the Hauhau policy, unless, indeed, he possessed 
much greater abiUty than he has ever received credit for, either by 
Maori or European. The instructions given to the several minor 
prophets who were sent forth to preach the gospel of Hauhauism 
were most ably conceived. They were directed to travel through 
the North Island, using the utmost circumspection. They were 
to treat everyone with whom they came in contact with uniform 
courtesy and kindness. They were to carry with them the heads 
of certain Europeans who had fallen in battle, and use them for the 
purpose of converting the tribes visited ; but they were on no account 
to interfere with the Pakeha or those tribes who had thrown in their 
lot with us. 

Had these orders been obeyed, there can be but little doubt that 
every Maori in New Zealand would have become a Hauhau, and, as 
a natural sequence, our deadly enemies. Fortunately, the prophets 
were disobedient, and, when once away from the influence of To Ua, 
each and every one of them behaved as though he was a law unto 


himself. Patara, Matene, Kereopa, Te Wiwini, Horomona, and 
Hepanaia one and all acted as though the mdna of the land had been 
given into their hands. The old and legitimate chiefs of each tribe 
were treated as though they no longer ]X)ssessed either rank or 
authority, and both Pakehas and Maoris were slain without pretext 
and as opportunity offered. By this line of action the prophets not 
only neutralised the able directions given by those who guided the 
Hauhau policy, but they also brought about their own destruction. 
It is, however, to their credit that they expiated all sins of omission 
or commission by dying like men, some by the bullet and some by 
the rope ; and, after all, who shall blame them for taking the bit 
between their teeth and following their own sweet will ? Who was 
Te Ua that he should venture to dictate to Matene Te Rangitauira of 
the best blood of Ngati-Hau ? And if the aforesaid Matene and his 
merry men did come to unuttei'able grief at the hands of his own 
tribe on that grey morning, when he and 60 of his followers lay 
dead on the narrow island of Moutoa, why should they not ? A man 
may not live when his mdna has left him. 

Each of these prophets in due turn met with the same fate. 
Hepanaia, misled by messages from the Hauhau gods of the nether 
world, induced the Ngati-Ruanui and Taranaki tribes to attack Te 
Morere (Sentry Hill), a small but compact redoubt garrisoned by 60 
men of the 57th Regiment. This fort was almost impregnable, but 
the two tribes, led by Titokowaru, Hepanaia, and other chiefs, not 
only attempted to storm the position in broad daylight, but they did 
not desist from the attempt until they had lost nearly 60 men, 
including most of the leaders. Hepanaia was among the slain, but 
Titokowaru escaped with the loss of an eye. 

Patara Raukatauri led his disciples, To Wiwini, Kereopa, and 
Horomona, to convei-t the tribes of the Bay of Plenty, with the result 
that Kereopa incited the Whakatohea people to murder the Rev, Mr. 
Volckner; and about the same time Horomona caused the Patu-tatahi 
tribe to attack the cutter " Kate " otT Whakatano and murder James 
FuUoon and the crew. 

Patara and Te Wiwini carried this gosi)el of blood and fire to 
Waiapu, Poverty Bay, and Te Wairoa, to the utter undoing of those 
tribes and of the Hauhau leaders. 

Horomona and the Patu-tatahi wore captured by Major Mair 
and his friendly Arawa. Horomona and throe of his most desperate 
companions were hanged and otluM-s of the gang sentenced to long 
terms of imprisonment. The Whakatoliea wore defeated again and 
again by the colonial forces, while Kereo])a lied to the hills and 
forests of the Tuhoe country, and there led a imnted and wretched 


existence for the ensuing eight years, until he was finally betrayed 
into our hands by the people with whom he Uved. He was captured 
by that noted warrior, Te Whiu, who handed him over to the Ngati- 
Porou, and he was finally tried, convicted, and hanged in Napier. 

Te Wiwini, who was of the highest type of Maori — a man who 
knew no fear — led a mixed force of Taranaki and Ngati-Porou, and 
fought several battles against old Major Eapata and his followers in 
the neighbourhood of the East Gape; but the same singular ill- 
fortime followed this man, who was shot by Rapata at Pukemaire ; 
and of his Taranaki followers only a remnant escaped by sliding down 
a precipitous cUff at Hungahunga-toroa on the day that Major Biggs 
and Bapata captured the whole force of the Hauhaus at that pa. 

Yet another prophet of minor rank was tomahawked by his own 
men at Waerenga-a-hika, in the presence of the Government troops, 
and this was done for the all-sufficient reason that he had misled his 
disciples by urging them to assault the Pakeha lines on the Sabbath 
day. The prophet reasoned on insufficient data, viz., that the Forest 
Bangers and other Godless material of which the force was composed 
would on that day be engaged in prayer. It is perhaps hardly 
necessary to say that the prophet was mistaken. The men were in 
their rifle-pits, and gave the Hauhaus such a warm reception that the 
prophet was one of the first to fall, and was then and there toma- 
hawked by his own friends — a victim of misplaced confidence and 
imperfect knowledge of the manners and customs of the Forest 

Somewhat more than a year after this last affair the Hauhaus 
made their final effort to assert the supremacy of their religion. It 
was then that the prophet ^Panapa, aided and abetted by the chiefs 
Eipa, Eingita, Tahau, and Nikora, raided down from Taupo and 
Tarawera with the fixed intention of taking the town of Napier. 
That their forces were miserably insufficient for the purpose mattered 
not, for they were in direct communication with the spirit world and 
strong in fanatical courage and aptitude for war. There are probably 
very few people at the present day who realise how very nearly that 
small war party achieved success. Kipa led his warriors, who did 
not exceed 80 all told, to Omaru-nui, while Te Rangihiroa led his 
30 men by way of the Petane Valley. The extraordinary daring 
shown by these men almost passes belief. As a rule, a Maori is a 
thorough soldier, who never does anything without careful considera- 
tion, but in this instance they did not hesitate to commit themselves 
to an attack on forces which might well have been 800 men — to an 
attack which must be made in the open country, where there could 
be no retreat if defeated. At Omaru-nui, though surrounded by 


seven times their own number, they disdained to surrender, but draw 
up in close order in the form of a wedge, and in this formation 
awaited our onset. It was perhaps fortunate for our raw militiamen 
and unwar-like members of the Kahu-ngunu tribe that most of the 
Hauhau leaders fell early in the fight, and were therefore unable to 
give the order to charge, which it was evident that they intended to 
do ; had they done so, who shall say what the result would have 
been ? As it was, Kipa, Kingita, and Panapa were slain together with 
half their men. Nikora and Tahau with the others were captured 
and deported to the Chatham Islands, from which penal settlement, 
thanks to the parsimony and mismanagement inherent in popular 
governments, they in due time escaped, and lived to fight and die on 
other occasions. Nikora fell at Ngatapa, and of all the chiefs who 
led the van of battle at Omaru-nui, only Pahau has survived to tell 
the tale. Of those who marched by the Petane Valley, only Paora 
Toki and a few men escaped. Te Kangihiroa and nearly half of his 
men of the fighting blood of Taupo fell ; and, much as we may regret 
the death of so many brave men, we nmst recognise that it was 
necessary' in the interests of peace and quietness that they should 
die, inasmuch as they had become ivhakamomorc, and as such were 
dangerous even to themselves. 

That the Hauhaus firmly l>eHeved that they were invulnerable 
may be infeiTed from their behaviour on the several occasions I have 
mentioned. They had the courage of their oi)inions, and the very 
rough lesson they received on each occasion did not convince them 
to the contrary. They still insisted that the Hauhau religion was 
sound and true, and that only man was wrong ; in other words, that 
each disaster could be distinctly traced to some sin of omission or 
commission on the part of the prophet, which same had created an 
aitiai (evil omen) of so fatal a t>'iie that it became imix)ssible to 
suceed in that particular undertaking, inasmuch as the gods wore 
thereby compelled to leave tlieni temporarily to their own devices. 

All of these things were carofuUy explained to me at the time, 
and 1 remember that 1 agreed with the Hauhaus to this extent: 
that had the sub-prophets obeyed the instructions of Te Ua, the 
result would beyond doubt have been more favoural)le to them, and 
very much worse for us. There was, indeed, a good deal of method 
in this Hauhau madness, and the instructions given were so well 
conceived that, had they been obeyed, it would certainly have cost 
us the lives of two or three hundred more men, and perhaps another 
million of money. 

The religion professed by Te Kooti and his followers presents no 
special feature requiring remark; it was merely a modifioation of 


Hauhauism, and great as Te Kooti's power undoubtedly was it did 
not depend on his religion. 

The authority of this man was a natural sequence of his personal 
mdna which, in this instance, we may translate ** magnificient 
audacity " as the only English equivalent. Never for one moment 
did he hesitate to destroy his own tribe or relatives, and when he 
made his murderous raid on Poverty Bay he slew as many Maoris as 
Europeans ; not that the former had done him any particular injury, 
but he was simply moved to murder by the fact that he knew the 
character of the race to which he belonged. His object was pro- 
bably twofold : firstly, to remove all the members of his own tribe 
who were of higher rank than himself ; and secondly, he felt that 
to secure power and authority he must strike terror into the hearts 
of his followers. This object he achieved by ruthlessly murdering 
his own people. 

The case of Te Whiti differs altogether from that of Te Kooti. 
Here we have an entirely new departure, a new and unexpected 
phase of Maori character. It is of course true that Te Whiti has 
prophesied many things which have not come to pass, and has very 
often behaved in a manner sufficiently absurd, if judged by Euro- 
pe&n rules. But Te Whiti was not mad in any sense; his only 
weakness was that he believed himself to be the Messiah, and 
fortunately behaved very much as though he had been the exalted 
person he claimed to be. 

Te Whiti is a member of the very warlike tribe known as Tara- 
naki, who from 1860 to 1865 were our most active and bitter 
enemies. They were, indeed, among the first to take up arms 
against us ; but Te Whiti took no part in the fighting, and as his 
authority increased, so also did the hostility of his tribe to the 
Pakeha grow less and less, and, thanks to his wonderful ascendency 
over the minds of the turbulent west coast tribes, he has succeeded 
in keeping the peace even to this day. To attain this one object of 
his life, he has on several occasions found it necessary to send his 
people day by day to fence across the public road in the neighbour- 
hood of Parihaka, in order that they might be arrested and deported 
to the South out of harms way. 

Te Whiti' s doctrine has been the gospel of patience and for- 
bearance, peace at any price, with the reward in view that at no 
distant date God would redress the wrongs of the Maori people by 
establishing a millenium, during which the old mdna of the Maori 
people would revive, and they would once more dwell peacefully, 
untroubled by the restless and encroaching Pakeha, who would, as 
a preliminary measure, be banished to bis own country. An ex- 


ception was, however, to be made in favour of those Europeans bom 
in New Zealand, and I remember that my Maori friends were 
greatly concerned to find that I was not a native of New Zealand ; 
but, after condoling with me, they said, " We must not complain, 
for Te Whiti's word has gone forth. It is the will of Gk)d, and you 
yourself will be resigned when the time comes." 

These theories had a great fascination for the Maoris. They 
were to bow their heads beneath the yoke and practice non-resis- 
tance until God in his wisdom should see fit to relieve them of their 
Pakeha burden. But, none the less, they were to assert themselves 
as the real owners of the soil, and, therefore, when a Pakeha took a 
road through one of their plantations, and by so doing destroyed a 
fence, they were to re-erect that fence so often as it might be thrown 
down, as a protest against European brutality. So also they were 
to ignore the fact that these lands had been confiscated years before, 
and awarded to military settlers. Such lands they were directed to 
plough by way of protest. These excentricitios were not considered 
any infringement of the doctrine of peace, as preached by Te Whiti, 
forasmuch as they deemed themselves to be the rightful owners of the 
soil, and, therefore, if anyone interfered with them, he it was who 
broke the peace. I need hardly say that their views were not 
reconcilable with those held by the settlers, and hence it came to 
pass that the former were not always handled with gentleness when 
the two parties came into collision. 

As to the supremacy of Te Whiti over the minds of his fol- 
lowers there can be no question on that ])oint. They had absolute 
confidence in him, and I think have not lost it even to this day. 
At one of his groat meetings he proclaimed, that on a certain day 
the dead of the Maori people would rise from their graves, and he 
ordered all true believers to attend at Parihaka to do honour to the 
occasion. At the appointed time the Maoris flocked from all 
quarters to Parihaka, firmly believing that they were to meet their 
long lost friends and relatives. Tlicy even carried with them large 
quantities of spare clothing in comical recognition of the fact that 
clothing is not worn in the other world. It must have been a bitter 
disappointment to the majority of those who went to l*ariliaka, tliat 
the dead refused to rise ; but -the mere failure of the i)roi)hecy 
entailed no loss of credit uiH>n Te Whiti, who simi)ly said, " O ye of 
little faith," and exi)laine<l that so long as tluM-(» was any doubt in 
their minds as to the innvtM- of the great (ukI to do that which he 
saw to be good, so long would the dead remain obstinately in their 

The success of Te Whiti as an onikuumiI of tiie ilesif^ns of the 
Supreme Being has naturally (encouraged iiiany vulgar inuiatora. 


Among others, one Ani Kaaro, of Hokianga, visited To Whiti about 
the year 1886, and, on her return, claimed to have been instructed 
by him in all the mysteries of his religion. On these grounds she 
called the people of Waihou together, and set up as a first-class 
inspired prophetess. For some time Ani was regarded with great 
awe as a specially gifted woman ; but in the matter of prophets the 
Maori is £ickle, and very soon a much more able woman, one 
Rimana Hi, set up in the same line, and cut out Ani Kaaro. 

Rimana's doctrine was fantastic, since it was based on the 
assumption that all things white must necessarily be pure, and all 
things black in colour bad, and therefore offensive to God. Follow- 
ing these broad doctrinal lines, Rimana ordered her disciples to dress 
in white. If we may assume that she intended these garments to be 
kept clean, she was, on sanitary grounds, deserving of praise. The 
spirit of prophecy was strong within her, and very soon she had a 
convenient dream, wherein it was disclosed to her that a certain 
piece of land was tapii to her and her sect, and that nothing black 
should enter thereon under penalty of death. From this dream it 
resulted that any pig, cow, horse, or fowl of this obnoxious colour 
straying on to the ground was forthwith killed. A Une of flagpoles, 
from which hung long streamers of calico, marked the boundaries of 
the holy land, the sacredness of which was in some way communi- 
cated to the people, so that it was shortly found improper to do any 
work ; and, as even holy people must eat if they wish to live, 
Rimana's adherents supported life by eating the animals of the 
neighbouring settlers. The only visible occupation of the white- 
sheet fraternity at this period was that of muttering incoherent 
prayers the while they strutted round the flagstaff. 

Rimana's next dream disclosed the hitherto unsuspected fact that 
the New Testament was neither inspired or holy, and therefore the 
Waihou Hauhaus, as they called themselves, must for the future pin 
their faith to the Old Testament. 

It is perhaps unnecessary to remark that there was bitter enmity 
between the rival factions of Ani Kaaro and Rimana Hi, and all 
sorts of reports were circulated to the discredit of the latter, even to 
the extent of alleging that she was guilty of cannibalism. This 
report, though untrue, was very generally believed, and therefore the 
people of Waihou lived in fear and trembhng, not knowing what the 
next dream might bring forth. 

These rei)orts were brought to the notice of the Government 
with the usual exaggerations, and Inspector M' Govern lost no time 
in visiting the fanatics in order to ascertain their actual condition. 
When the Inspector reached the boundary of the holy land he was 


stopped by one Aporo Pangari, who demanded why the two men had 
profaned the sacred land with their black garments, and ordered 
them to leave at once. The Inspector was a man who could by no 
means bo intimidated, and he intimated with characteristic gentleness, 
that he would not leave until he had seen Eimana, and ascer- 
tained what thoy were really doing ; as for fighting, or violence 
towards himself, well, he was quite prepared for that. After a good 
(leal of discussion Aporo agreed to consult Rimana as to his admis- 
sion. The consultation lasted more than an hour, but the result 
was that M 'Govern was allowed to see the prophetess ; but he was 
not allowed to enter the inner enclosure unless he would remove 
everything that was black from his person. A white sheet was 
offered to him, but M 'Govern did not care for that form of penance, 
and told Kimana that ho would do none of these things ; that his 
end had been attained by speaking to her personally, and he warned 
her not to break the law in any way, for if she did so he must 
I'eturn and suppress them once and for all. 

M 'Govern did not fail to report his convictions, that these 
fanatics would sooner or later force him to take action against them ; 
and he had not long to wait, for shortly after, a Mr. Heame, who 
had lost his way in a fog, entered the sacred enclosure, and was 
instantly seized and bound. His boots, sox, and vest, were taken 
from him and bunied, they being of the objectionable colour, and he 
himself was not released until he had handed over all the money in 
his possession, and had promised to send his horse as part of his 

With the limited force at his disix)sal it was sometime before the 
inspector had completed his arrangments in onler to deal finally with 
these fanatics, and in the meantime Rimana liad managed another 
drenm, in which she foretold that M 'Govern would attempt to enter 
the sacrod enclosure, but would fail if her i>eople armed themselves 
with spears and tomahawk, or other i)urely Maori weaix)ns. She 
further informed thorn that no man nood fear the bullets of the 
IH-jlico since they wero invulnorable. That the very worst effect of 
any bullet wouKl l»e a small black s])ot, but that not a drop of their 
blood would be sIuhI, though the whole of the i^olice would be slain. 
Those predictions were not fu I tiled, though the fanatics were quite 
equal to their inirt of the ]HM'formance. M'Gvnern, with iierhaps 
a score of constables and s]K\Mals, ontoivd the enclosure annod with 
warnuits for the arrest i^t these ilisturlnM-s of the iH>ace. M*Govem 
and the interpret or woro Si>ino\vhat in front of the main body, and 
wore at oxwo surroundo^l h\ a im^b oi howlinii fanatics, who not 
ou\\ rotu^od I horn htvuini^ l>ut attom])tod to tomahawk the former, 


who only saved himself by catching the descending weapon. Mean- 
while, the main body had come up, and blows were freely given and 
received until one, Eruera Rapana, the most violent of all the 
Maoris tried to tomahawk the interpreter, then M*Govem called on 
the two constables to fire, and Eruera was badly wounded in the 
arm. This resolute action cowed the fanatics and saved much 
bloodshed, for they saw that bullets would draw blood and that 
Rimana had lied to them. They saw, moreover, that the Europeans, 
who behaved with great forbearance, were becoming angry ; indeed, 
it was well that M'Govem had previously taken the revolvers from 
the specials; for those men would undoubtedly have killed their 
opponents when the fighting commenced, without waiting for orders 
to fire. Had this happened, the trouble would probably have ex- 
tended throughout the North, forasmuch as among the Maoris blood 
is very much thicker than water, and sooner or later any deaths 
would have been avenged, and then who shall say what the end 
might have been ? As it was, matters were well managed, several 
were slightly wounded, and all were arrested ; but none were killed, 
and, after all, a little blood letting and hard labour does a Maori no 

I have already dealt with that side of* the Maori character that 
exhibits him in the light of a blood-thirsty fanatic ; but it must not 
be inferred therefrom that all Maori superstitions are dangerous to 
life, for such is not the case. They have many that are derived 
from poetic fancy, such as their belief in taniwha^ kura, tiptia, 
Phallic trees and stones, patu-pai-arehe, and numerous other minor 
superstitions, all of which may possibly have originated in the old 
home of the Polynesians far west of the Pacific. 

It may be admitted that there are no taniwha at the present 
day. These uncanny beings have either died out or are lying low, 
awaiting the advent of some powerful tohungay whose mysterious 
powers shall call into action their latent life, and once again enable 
them to disturb earth's surface, as they did in 1886 ; when Tuhoto- 
ariki by his incantations set free the powers of Tarawera mountain, 
destroyed the terraces of Rotomahana, and buried the tribes of 
Rangi-Tihi and Tu-hou-rangi beneath 20 feet of mud. It may, 
perhaps, be well to describe what a Maori understands by the word 
taniwha, and to do this will necessitate a short history of some of 
the most famous of these monsters. Some of them are described 
as lizard-like in form, and man-eaters by profession, and this 
variety would seem for the most part to live under water in dark, 
deep holes. Others would seem to have been mere harmless lizards, 
though of great size ; but the really dangerous type had the power 


to take any shape, and were possessed of supernatural powers. I 
will not attempt to classify the genus taniwha, but will simply say 
that they are devisible into two great classes ; namely, those 
possessed of supernatural powers, and who were probably connec- 
tions of the dragon of Wantly, and those who were merely reptiles* 
As to this latter class, I can say positively that they cannot now 
be found in New Zealand ; but it would seem that there was a period 
in the history of the Maoris when they were to be found even by 
those who did not seek their society. 

Of such was the reptile Tutao-poroporo, whose home was in the 
Whanganui Biver, not far from the town of that name. This 
notorious man-eater was slain by that stout warrior, Ao-kehu, some 
twelve generations back, and the method employed to achieve this 
great feat was simple in the extreme. So many canoes had been 
upset, and the crews eaten, that it became a necessity that the 
monster should be destroyed ; and, as usual in such cases, the hour 
brought forth the man in the person of Ao-kehu, who, armed with a 
mirotvutini,'^ obtained the services of a brave crow and x)addled his 
canoe slowly towards the home of tlie monster. When the taniwha 
rose to attack them, Ao-kehu, who was standing in the bow of the 
canoe, dived down its throat, narrowly escaping its teeth, and 
straightway stai-ted to cut his way out in a manner exceedingly 
unpleasant to Tutae-poroporo. I need hardly say that Ao-kehu freed 
himself from his living tomb, and that the taniwha died during the 
operation. 1 I am willing to admit that this tale borders on the 
mai^vellous, and it may be that there are people who will not believe : 
but to such people I say, is not Arapota Tamumu, now or lately 
living, a direct descendant of tlie hero, and has he not invariably 
vouched for the truth of my story ? I have heard the Maoris discuss 
the tale of Jonah and tlie whale, and the conclusion at which they 
arrived was very much in favoin- of the legend of Tutae-poroporo and 
Ao-kehu. They said, " \Vc know that taniwha do swallow men, and 
we also know that whales do not ; therefore, if a whale swallowed 
Jonah, it must have been by accident, and this we do not believe." 

The man-eating taniwha of the higliest order are those of which 
Sir George Grey has written, viz., Hotupuku, IV^kehaua. and others, 
all of whom were slain by the valiant tribe of Ngati-Tama. There are 
circumstances connected with the slaying of these re[)tile8 that will 
bear rei)etition, inasmuch as tho tale told by the Arawa people is so 
vivid, and the details so natural, that one does not like to believe 
that the whole affair is a mere I'ffort of imagination."^' 

tSoe the full ston-. .1. P. S., Vol. Xlll., p. <M. 

•A wooden blad«< with \\ cutting tnl^o (>f sluirks' teeth. 

* We are inclined to say. nither is it the localization of tradition brought from 
far Hawaiki, with details added to fit in to local cin^umf^tanoei*. — ED. 


In the very early days of the Maori occupation of New Zealand 
friendly visits among the neighbouring tribes were not uncommon, 
for at that period the custom of killing and cooking casual visitors 
had not become fashionable : hence it was that the Arawa of Eotorua 
frequently visited their relatives in Taupo, and received visits in 
return. For a time all went well, but suddenly a number of these 
travellers were found to have disappeared, and were never seen again 
by their sorrowing relatives. It was at first supposed that the lost 
ones had extended their visit to other and more distant tribes ; but 
when those who, fortunately for themselves, had taken the path 
across the Kaingaroa plain and returned safely, but without intelli- 
gence of their missing friends, then it became certain that some evil 
agency was at work. 

In due time rumours that men were missing reached the ears of 
the brave Ngati-Tama, who lived at Motu-whanake ; and they, 
fearing neither man nor taniwhay went out to discover who it was 
that had disturbed the peace of the country. Fortunately, they took 
the old warpath that led to Te Kapanga on the Whirinaki stream. 
When near to this place they heard a noise like thunder that seemed 
to proceed from the ground, but they could see nothing, and advanced 
cautiously until they came to the old track between Taupo and 
Botorua. Here they halted, and for the first time saw the taniwha 
Hotupuku travelling through the snow grass in their direction. At 
this surprising sight the warriors, brave as they were, fled with such 
speed that they succeeded in reaching Motu-whanake, where they 
related their adventures to the' chiefs and elders of the tribe, who 
could now accoimt for the disappearance of so many travellers. The 
result of this knowledge was that the Ngati-Tama held a great 
meeting to discuss the situation and consider how they should 
destroy the common enemy. The warrior chief Pitama listened to 
each and every speaker's views, and then ordered a strong rope to be 
made ; and, when this had been done to his satisfaction, he selected 
140 men to accompany him to the lair of Hotupuku, to which place 
they carried the rope and also some wood wherewith to construct a 
snare. With great wisdom Pitama chose a day for his operations on 
which the wind blew from the cave of the taniwha towards the site 
chosen for his snare. The reptile was therefore unable to scent the 
approach of the party, and thus allowed them to complete the work 
in hand. When the work was finished they all returned to their 
homes, but on the following morning the wind had changed, and was 
blowing towards the home of the taniwha. This was the condition 
desired by Pitama, who at once proceeded with his warriors to the 
scene of action, and there divided them into two parties, one of 


which took oharge of the rope and was directed to pull tight the 
noose whenever the monster should have been caught therein, 
while the other party were to hold themselves in readiness to rush 
in and destroy it when the time arrived. 

Pitama reserved to himself the most dangerous part of the perform- 
ance, viz., that of leading the taniwha into the snare. As he drew near 
to the cave, he felt the ground tremble under his feet, and by these 
signs knew that his enemy was astir, and had detected the approach 
of his victims ; he had not long to wait, for soon he saw Hotupuku 
coming towards him. Then Pitama turned and fled, closely pur- 
sued, and when near the snare slackened his speed in order that the 
monster might not turn aside and attack his men, and by so doing 
escape the snare. With this possibility in his mind, Pitama allowed 
his enemy almost to seize him and then bounded through the nooze, 
closely followed by Hotupuku. The seventy men were, however, 
on the alert, and, even as he passed through the snare, Pitama 
shouted " Takiritia !*' and the rope tightened about the neck of this 
enemy of mankind, while the other party, shouting its battle cry, 
rushed in with spear and stone axe, and soon the taniwha was not 
only killed, but cut up ready for the oven. 

The story as told by the Arawa enters a good deal into detail, 
and relates inter alia, that the bones and weapons of those 
previously eaten we?e found inside the reptile. The narrative goes 
on to state that Ngati-Tama ate up this taniwha: but as to this 
part of the tradition I do not feel clear, because if they did eat the 
taniwJia it was a most deadly insult to all of those whose relatives 
had been eaten by that reptile ; since the act would enable them to 
declare with perfect Maori propriety that they themselves had eaten 
those men and women. 

After the destruction of Hotupuku the Ngati-Tama, proud of the 
rei)utation they had thereby acquired, began to look for other 
taniwhas, and while in this frame of mind received information that 
there was yet another reptile at Te Awahou, who was known to the 
tribes of Rotorua by the name of Peke-haua. This particular 
taniwJui had not, so far as was known, eaten anybody, but he clearly 
belonged to the man-eating si)ecies, and might commence at any 
moment. To this end Pitama visited that tribe of the ancient 
people known as Te Ao-rauru, and asked their i)ermission to kill 
Peke-haua. The request was gi-anted, and as a preliminery 
measure he went on to examine the deep pool in which the 
monster had taken up his abode. On his return he ordered his 
tribe to construct a strong taiki (wicker work basket), and taught 
them how to weave in feathers with the wicker work. When all 


was ready he called the people together, and explained to them 4he 
plan on which he intended to act. He explained that the smaller 
rope would be for himself, and the larger one for the taniwha. " I 
am/' said he, ** about to descend into the pool ; if I jerk the smallelr 
rope know that I am pursued by the taniwha, and in suoh oAse pall 
me swiftly to the surface. If, on the other hand, I jerk the lai^r 
rope you will know that I have succeeded in attaching it to the 
taniwha," When Pitama had given these brief directions, he in- 
voked the aid of his tribal gods, entered the taiki, and was lowered 
into the water. Then and there only did the tribe perceive why he 
had caused them to weave feathers into the wicker work, for by that 
means was the water kept out of the basket. 

Pitama went down and down, until he had passed right through 
the darkness, and it had once more become light, and also he per- 
ceived to his great astonishment that he had passed through the 
water and come out on the other side. Very carefully he stepped 
out of his basket, and looking about him, saw the taniwha fast 
asleep. Pitama now uttered a very powerful spell, which had the 
effect of making his enemy sleep even more soundly, at the same time 
he raised the head of the monster and placed the strong rope round its 
neck ; he then jerked both ropes and entered the basket. Probably 
Pitama was actuated by a desire for fair play, but whatever the 
reason, he caused the taniwha to wake just as he stepped into his 
basket, with the result that the monster pursued him, anr^ tliey both 
came to the surface together, where, undismayed by his own danger, 
the brave chief called to his tribe to haul in the slack of the rope, 
so that Peke-haua might not be allowed to dive again to the bottom. 
Then came the tug of war. All Ngati-Tama strove in vain to Uft 
Peke-haua out of the water ; but there united strength was in- 
sufficient for the purpose. The utmost that they could aocompUsh 
was to drag him into the creek, which to this day is called Peke- 
haua, and there he was despatched. 

So far the Bau-hokowhitu (170 twice told, i.e. 340 men) of Ngati- 
Tama had gained much glory, but pride goeth before a fall, and so 
it came to pass in this instance, for the same men marched to the 
blue lake Tikitapu and there slew Kataure, the harmless pet taniwha 
of Hine-mihi, a noble descendant of Tu-o-Eotorua. Her iaribe rose 
to avenge this injury, but in the battle that followed they reeeived 
such rough treatment that but few returned to tell the tale. The 
survivors were, however, successful in enlisting the sympathy and 
aid of Tu-te-ata and Apu-moana, and these chiefs, having the whole 
poww of the Arawa at their backs, defeated the Ngati-Tama at Te 
Wai-ndiiti-inanga with such loss that the survivors fled to Whmie- 


puhunga and Kake-puku, in the Waikato district, and were not 
again heard of as hunters of the taniwha. 

There are tannoha, especially those of the sea, who are held to be 
the ancestors of men. Such was Paikea-ariki, who, when called 
upon by Kahutia-te-rangi, came promptly to his assistance in mid 
ocean and landed him safely at Ahuahu. This incident in the career 
of the great ancestor of Ngati-Porou was brought about in the 
following manner : — Ruatapu, one of the sons of Uenuku-rakeiora, 
while engaged in flying his kite, thoughtlessly climbed on the roof of 
his father's house. Now, from any Maori point of view, this was an 
exceedingly foolish action, for Uenuku was a sacred chief of the 
highest rank, and therefore to climb over his head was in itself 
sufficient to deprive him of a i)ortion of his indna. For this reason, 
when Uenuku hoard the footsteps above him, he demanded to know 
who the offender was. The young man, who realised the gravity of 
his offence, replied, ** It is I, your son Ruatapu." Then Uenuku 
said in his wrath, " It is not for you, the base born, to tread my roof, 
though your brother, the noble-born Kahutia-te-rangi, might do bo." 
This reply was a bitter aiTront to Euatapu, inasmuch as it referred to 
the fact that his mother, Pai-mahutanga, had been captured at the 
great battle of Te Moana-waipu. She had been a woman of the 
highest rank, but being a captive, she was, of course, a slave, and the 
taint had descended upon her son, who had degraded his father by 
merely walking on the roof of his house. 

The rebuke administered to Ruatapu had the effect of rousing the 
worst passions of the Maori nature, and he quickly resolved on an 
extensive scheme of vengeance, which he intended should embrace 
the whole tribe. To this end he sot to work to make a canoe, which 
has since been known by many names, namely, ** Te Huri-pure-i- 
ata," " Tu-te-pewa-a-rangi," and others. When the canoe was ready 
for sea he invited the elder sons of all the chiefs of his father's tribe 
to join him in the trial trip. Kahutia-te-rangi accepted willingly 
enough, for they were ignorant of the murderous intentions of their 
fellow tribesman. Ruatapu took up his position in the bilge of the 
canoe at the place where it is usual to bale out the water, and where 
he had bored a largo hole, so shaped that he could plug it with his 
heel. When the young men had paddled almost out of sight of land, 
Ruatapu removed his heel and the canoe began to fill. His com* 
panions, who believed that the plug had been removed by accident, 
rushed forward to stop the leak ; but Ruatapu seized his spear 
Tu-aro-punga, which he had hitherto kept concealed outside the 
canoe, and killed all of those who came within reach, until at last 
the canoe turned over. Of those who were either speared or 


drowned on this ocoasiou the names of a few only have been pre- 
served by tradition, namely, Haeora, Pipi, Tawhai, Whetoi, Rere-i- 
runga, Tupeora, and Tamahina. Kahutia-te-rangi alone escaped 
death, by virtue of his mdna, for all that his ancestors had ever 
possessed of this particular virtue was concentrated in the person of 
this young chief. His mode of procedure was simple : he first used 
a powerful karakia known as " Whaka-ahuru " in order to retain the 
natural heat of his body, notwithstanding his long immersion, and 
he then used the karakia ** Whakakau ** to compel the attendance of 
his ancestral taniwha, Paikea-ariki, Whainga-ariki, Hurumanu, and 
Whakataka, who were thus called to his assistance. Paikea came at 
his call and landed the chief safe and sound at Ahuahu ; and from 
that day Kahutia discarded his own name and took that of Paikea, 
out of gratitude to his taniwha ancestor, and by this name he is 
known as the ancestor of all the East Coast tribes. 

I have myself seen men who were descended from tanitohas of a 
certain type, for I do not wish it to be inferred that their ancestors 
were either man-eaters or lizards. Prom the description given to me 
by their descendants, I should judge that the ancestor in question 
was a water spirit that scarcely differed from man in outward 
appearance. The tribe who claim this distinguished ancestry are the 
Ngati-Hine-hika, who own that classic ground, the Whakapunake 
mountain and the Beinga falls, on the inland road from Gisborne to 
Te Wairoa. 

The history of the tribe is as follows : — Their ancestor, Tane- 
kino, came to the district some fifteen generations since, and was 
seen and loved by one Hine-korako, a female water spirit, who was 
one of the tribe of taniwha who lived in the Wairoa river under the 
falls of the Eeinga. The lady herself was sixth in descent from 
Iwara, a taniwha of great mAna^ who was sufficiently human to 
reproduce his si)ecies and die of old age at the appointed time, a 
circumstance that has not hitherto come within my taniwha experi- 
ence. Love being a great leveller, the lady waived her illustrious 
descent and became the wife of Tanekino. All went well until her 
son Tuarenga was bom, but then the other women of the village began 
to make mischief, in the manner peculiar to women, by sneering 
remarks about taniwlia mothers and their general unfitness for the 
duties and cares incidental to maternity. The result of this system 
of annoyance was that Hine-korako, unable to endure the taunts of 
her own sex, left both husband and child and returned to her watery 
home under the Beinga falls. 

Since that remote period she has, however, kept watch and ward 
over lior descendants, making her presence known whenever their 


interests demanded the exercise of her supernatural poweni. The 
last occasion on which she intervened to save them was during a 
great flood in the Hangaroa river, when Ngati-Hine-hika were 
flooded out of their homes at midnight and attempted to cross ^e 
river to a village on higher land. They had, however, miscalculated 
the strength of the current, and, despite their exertions, were swept 
down almost over the falls. At this terrible moment, when face to 
face with death, an old man so far retained his presence of mind as 
to call upon Hine-korako to save them. Instantly the downward 
course of the canoe was arrested, and it began to move slowly up stream 
without the least effort on the part of the paralyzed crew, who realized 
that once again their taniwha ancestress had intervened and saved 
them from certain death. It is not necessary for me to believe this 
tale exactly as told, nor do I ask my readers to give it oredenoe so 
far as the supernatural is concerned, but I do ask them to believe 
absolutely that the descendants of Hine-korako will greatly despise 
any man who doubts any portion of the tale as told to me, and most 
certainly will not class him in the list of reasonable beings. 

Of the taniwha possessing supernatural powers the best speci- 
mens will probably be found in Taupo, and of these Horo-matangi 
and Huru-kareao are facile priyiceps. They are taniwha of extra- 
ordinary mdna, and would seem to be in sympathy with those great 
chiefs Te Heuheu and Here-kiekie, probably for the reason thai; men 
of their rank, being sacred in the eyes of gods and men, might take 
liberties even with taniwhas. But woo to the man of infericnr rank 
who ventures to take liberties with the unwritten code of taniwha 
laws : instant death would bo his portion. Not even the nutna of a 
chief nor the invocation of a tohnnga will always avail against a 
taniwha, for neither one nor the other suflicied to save that grand 
specimen of a New Zealand chief, To Heuheu Tukino, who, with 
many of his tribe, was overwhelmed by a landslip at Te Bapa in 
1845. Mere Pakehas adoi)t the conimonplaco theory that these 
people were destroyed by an ordinary landslip, l)ut the Maoris, better 
instructed on that point, and knowing the peculiarities of their own 
land, hold that Horo-ma-tangi was the cause of the disaster, and in 
memory thereof call themselves the Huri-taniwha. 

Concerning Huru-kareao, it is recorded that he was under the 
mdna of certain women of Eoto-aira, and they, having been insulted 
by the people of Botorua, invoked the aid of this twiiwha and his 
confreres, with the result that the ofTenders received short shrift, for 
their pa was sunk hcr.cath the waters of the lake. Modem scientists 
are apt to account for all such occurrences by i-eferenoe to volcanic 
disturbances, but the Maori insists that the taniwha are alone respo- 
sible for the mischief. 


From time immemorial Horo-matangi had been the custodian of 
the mdna of Lake Taupo, aided in all his acts by his familiar, the man 
taniwha, Ati-a-muri, who may be seen paddling his canoe in the 
dusk of the evening on the look-out for unwary strangers. The 
home of Horo-matangi is said to be at no great distance from the 
island of Motu-taiko, and rarely will a canoe attempt to cross the lake 
in a direct line from Toka-anu to Tapuae-haruru, and wisely so if 
the tales told be true. There are men now living who, taking advan- 
tage of the presence of a well-known tohunga, did actually make the 
attempt, and also received a wholesome lesson for their temerity, 
which they did not forget ; for be it understood that those who would 
cross the path of a taniwha must have very great mdna. Indeed, it 
is known that the only human beings who dare brave the wrath of 
Horo-matangi are Te Heuheu and two women, who are probably 
female Arikis, 

The following narrative was given to me by one of the adven- 
turous band, and I will relate it as nearly as possible in his own 
words. " When we left Tapuae-haruru the water was smooth and 
there was no wind, so we steered direct for Toka-anu ; but our 
hearts were troubled, and as we neared the house of the taniwha we 
quickened our stroke and looked neither to right or left, nor did 
anyone speak a word to his fellows. Suddenly the canoe ceased to 
move forward, and began to spin round and a large rock appeared 
above the surface of the water. This we knew to be Horo-matangi, 
for -the reason that taniwha can take any shape they may please. 
In another moment we should have been lost, but our tohunga was 
equal to the occasion. He took a hair from his head and dropped 
it into the water, and as he did so he muttered a brief invocation to 
the gods. In a moment the water became quiet, and we realised 
that the mdna of the tohunga had mastered the taniwha ; but 
though comforted by this conviction we went on our way in fear 
and trembling, and did not feel safe until we found ourselves in 
shallow water." 

Of late years, since Europeans have crossed the lake at all hours 
and in all directions, even the Maori at times may take the direct 
route, but he decidedly prefers to have a Pakeha with him in such 
case, for it is a matter of notoriety that taniwha have no m^dna over 
the Pakeha, and the Maori recognised that he may take liberties 
while in such comi)any that would otherwise be impossible. 

As to the Ati-a-muri. This man taniwha does not appear to be 
personally dangerous to himian beings, his business is rather to 
decoy the unsuspecting traveller within the reach of Horo-matangi. 
He is ther^oie to be feared in the dusk of the evening, at which 


time it is his habit to paddle about in a spectre oanoe, and yisit the 
several kaingas on the edge of the lake, but approaching only 
sufficiently near for the outline of his canoe to be seen. By these 
means he has often deceived the people of the villages, who, hearing 
the measured strokes of the paddles, would turn out to welcome 
the supposed visitors with loud cries of ** Haere mat" until at last 
the ghostly vision would fade out of sight, and di8api)ear in the 
growing darkness, leaving the old and learned of the village alive to 
the fact that Ati-a-muri had once again tried to lead the unwary to 
certain death. 

No longer as of old do tantwha of the Peke-haua and Hotu-pukn 
type deciminate whole districts, but amidst the natural wonders of 
Taupo may yet be heard strange tales concerning the savage Horo- 
matangi, and the cunning of his familar Ati-a-muri. There is also a 
strange connection between these two taniwhas and certain dogs 
who are said to haunt the high land above the Karangahape oliffs ; 
but what particular position these dogs may occupy in the economy 
of nature, is by no means clear, for it would seem that no one has 
ever seen these animals. Indeed, their very existence depends on 
the statement, that when the mist lies thick on the hills two dogs 
may be heard barking on the high land above Karangahape, and 
that those who have been sufficiently curious to visit that place in 
order to investigate the phenomena, have found only two large 
stones. The presumption that these stones are actually the dogs 
that bark when the mist covers the hills, seems hardly well-founded ; 
but it may be that the tohunga of the Taupo tribe have information 
derived from uncanny source and that these stones are really 
goblin dogs who take that form when occasion demands; I will 
therefore offer no opinion on the point. It is said that these dogs 
are on terms of the closest intimacy with Horo-matangi, who will 
resent the smallest familiarity with them as an infraction of the 
tapii. For instance, anyone inadvertently pointing his paddle at the 
mighty bluff of Karangahape does that which might endanger the 
lives of all those in the canoe. But the man who, from sheer 
recklessness challenges the power of the whole tantwha elan by 
calling '* vioi I vioi ! inoi I " simply invites immediate annihilation. 
Now it was this very thint; that a certain friend of mine did, moved 
thereto by a direct impulse from Satan himself, and the effect was 
disastrous. The crew of the canoe, who would have looked death 
cheerfully in the face had it come in an ordinary manner, were 
simply paralyzed by the audacity of the act, and gave themselves 
up as lost ; but after a while, finding that l)oth winds and waves 
remained in their normal condition, they were induced to continue 


their journey and arrived safe and sound at Toka-anu. This was a 
result so unexpected, and so contrary to previous experience, that 
a meeting was held to discuss the fact that they were all alive, and 
the conclusion at which they arrived did them credit. It was, that 
taniwha have no mdna over Europeans, and therefore the fact of 
having one of that godless and unhelieving race in a canoe, was 
beyond doubt a protection, and such being the case it was advisable 
to bear with those little eccentricities of character which, under 
other circumstances might render the Pakeha a very unsafe com- 
panion. Kawhia has the reputation of being the home of quite a 
tribe of taniwha, no less than fifteen in number. They are called 
Ngai-te-heke-o-te-Rangi, and with the exception of one, namely, 
Ngataratu, who is a devourer of men, they are of kindly disposition, 
and are said to save all those from drowning who call upon them in 
the orthodox manner. Their dwelling-place is at Te Mahoe, on the 
Wai-harakeke arm of the harbour, and it is related that those who 
have had occasion to pass by that place in their canoes have heard a 
noise like the shutting of a door. Tradition affirms that Ue-kaha 
was the only man who ever visited the actual home of this tribe. 
It would seem that he was spearing patiki (flat fish), and was led 
on and on, until suddenly the ground gave way under his feet, and 
he found himself in a spacious cavern, wherein there was no water, 
but many taniwha were lying about. These monsters treated Ue- 
kaha well, and kept him with them for a whole week, meanwhile his 
tribe had given up any hope of seeing him again ; but before the 
death 'tangi could be held a spring burst forth close to the village, 
and at the first gush of water out popped Ue-kaha, his hair matted 
with water-weed, but otherwise well in both mind and body. 

Tawake-tara, who of old held sway under the shadow of the west 
side of Pirongia mountain — that is on the high road of all those who 
travel between Alexandra and Kawhia — was a taniwha of the man- 
eating persuasion, and a rival of Hotu-puku. A number of travellers 
had disappeared in a manner altogether unaccountable, inasmuch as 
none of the neighbouring tribes had, so far as could be ascertained, 
been entertaining their friends. As, however, no man of rank had 
as yet disappeared, very little stir was made about it, for men must 
die at some time or other ; and if there was foul play, well the secret 
could not be kept for ever, and vengeance could then be taken, even 
to the extinction of the offenders. At last, however, a young chief 
called Te Kiritara was missed, and the wrath of his tribe could no 
longer be contained, and two famous warriors, Te Whatu and Te 
Ngaupaka, were sent out to investigate the mystery and decide on 
what tribe their vengeance should fall. En route the matter was 


made clear, for the two men caught the taniwha in the act of devour- 
ing a victim, and being made aware in this fashion of the sort of 
enemy with whom they had to deal, they reversed matters by kUling 

To the old type of Maori, and in many instances to their modem 
representatives, the world is full of uncanny things instinct with a 
life derived from the demons who occupy the outer world, and haTring 
little, if any, connection or sympathy with man or his pnrmiito. 
Such things are, of course, invisible to the European eye, and not 
even conceivable by the prosaic Anglo-Saxon, whose training is in 
itself sufficient to prevent him from either seeing or appreciating 
those supernatural manifestations which are hut ordinary incidents of 
Maori life. 



By J. Cowan. 

PROBABLY no section of comparatively recent Maori history 
is so deficient in recorded detail as that which relates to 
the conquest and final extinction of the Ngati-Mamoe' 
tribe, in the extreme south of the Middle Island of New 
Zealand. It is now at least a generation too late to 
gather the full story of the Ngai-Tahu — Ngati-Mamoe conflicts. Such 
men as the late chiefs Paitu, Rawiri Te Awha, and other well- 
schooled natives of Murihiku could have given much information on 
this subject had European historians taken the work in hand in 
time. Just a few fragments are now to be collected from the 
elders of the Murihiku people, in whom the strains of conquerors 
and conquered are blended. While visiting some of the Maori 
settlements in the south this year, I gained a little information 
regarding the subjugation and dispersal of the Ngati-Mamoe, chiefly 
fromTiemi, Kupa Haereroa, and Hone Te Paina, the two best-informed 
elders of Colac (Oraka) Bay, a small settlement on the shores of 
Foveaux Strait. Eupa Haereroa claims descent, on his mother's 
side, from Rakaihaitu, one . of the very early Northern chiefs who 
explored the South Island, and whose name is preserved in the 
proverbial expressions, ** Nga-waipuna-karikari-a-Bakaihaitu" (the 
water-springs dug out by Rakaihaitu, i.e. Wakatipu and other 
Southern lakes), and " Nga-whata-tu-a-Bakaihaitu " (the lofty food- 
storehouses of Rakaihaitu), in allusion to the cUffs of the South 
Island coast. Forty years ago Kupa was accustomed to visit Lake 
Manapouri (or Moturau, as some of the natives call it), " The Lake 
of a Hundred Islands," and Te Anau, in company with Rawiri Te 
Awha, who lived, and fished, and snared birds, on the shores of the 


great lakes, and who pointed out to him the sites of the ancient 
villages of Waitaha and Ngati-Mamoe, and narrated the story of the 
Ngai-Tahu conquests. 

The extinction of Ngati-Mamoe as a tribe took place, as nearly 
as can be estimated, a Jiundred and fifty years ago, in the time of 
the noted chief Te Wera. History was but repeating itself, for 
Ngati-Mamoe had, a few generations previously, extinguished the 
land-tillers of the Waitaha tribe in the customary manner of the 
Maori. My notes deal chiefly with the Ngai-Tahu — Ngati-Mamoe 
fights, along the Waiau River (which drains Lakes Manapouri and 
Te Anau), and the southern and south-western shores of Te Anau. 

Defeated in battle after battle in Murihiku, a section of the 
Ngati-Mamoe retreated to tlie western side of the Waiau River. 
One of their ancient rock- shelters is still to be seen, on Mr. Tapper's 
property, at Clifden, a remarkable wooded limestone ** kopje." The 
place is a labyrinth of caves and galleries, and secret ways and 
thickly matted woodland. On the northern side, the limestone face 
is a series of shallow caves. Deep fissures i)enetrate the rocky hill ; 
these were used as shelters and dwellings by the Ngati-Mamoe. A 
cave hereabouts was known as " Te Ana-o-te-Ngai*ara *' (the den of 
the monster) ; it was the fabled dwoUing-placo of one of those man- 
eating reptilian creatures with which the imaginative Maoris peopled 
many a gloomy cave and mountain. The remains of incinerated 
human bones, together with stone woai)ons and impliments, have 
been found on the kopje ; and the rock itself was a Maori Necropolis. 

It was most probably early in the second half of the eighteenth 
century that these cave-dwellers were assailed by the Ngai-Tahu 
from the south-east, under the Chief Tu-te-kawa. An engagement 
took place in the neighbouring valley of Wai-harakeke, and the 
tayigata-whenuu fled to the rock -recesses. The warriors of Ngai- 
Tahu slew most of the Ngati-Mamoe, and such of the women and 
children as were saved were enslaved ; their slaughtered relatives 
were cooked and oaten. The principal Ngati-Mamoe chief killed was 
Te Whetuki, who is described as a man of strangely wild aspect, 
covered all over with long hair. 

When the fight occurred, two of the Ngati-Mamoe men, Maka- 
tawhio and Pani-te-kaka, wore away eel -fishing at Lake Manokiwai 
(now known as Monowai)," which finds an outlet into the Waiau 
River, some distance above Clifdon. Unaware of the fate of their 
friends they paddled their nwkihi raft, with its load of smoked eels, 

• The naino of this lako, though so vory Maori in appcnranco, war given 
to it hy itK disoovoror, Mr. Jamos ]M('Kt»rrow, aftenvards Sun'oyor-Ooncral, from 
the (fHH'k vumo siiigU'. and Maori vuii wator — i.e.. sulitiiry-watt^r (or liikc. — KD. 


out through the Manokiwai Creek and down the swift Waiau. 
They were about to land (just above where the Clifdon suspension 
bridge now spans the river), when the unusual silence, and some 
indefinable sense of danger warned them that all was not right in the 
pa. All at once they saw a stranger, whom they immediately knew 
to be one of their inveterate enemies, stooping down to drink at the 
riverside. The Ngai-Tahu warrior saw them at the same moment, 
and shouting an alarm, sprang for his spear. Instantly the Qel- 
fishers plunged their paddles deep into the water, and shot the raft 
out into the strong current again. Plying their paddles desperately, 
they swept down the river, and when the warriors of Ngai-Tahu 
rushed to the banks all they saw was the mokihi disappearing round 
a bond of the rapid stream. The two fugitives escaped and rejoined 
some of the rest of their much-harassed tribe, attributing their 
safety as much to the efficacy of the karakia, or incantations, to 
the gods which they repeated as they fled down the river, as to 
their prowess in paddling. A fragment of a song composed in 
memory of this adventure is handed down to this day amongst the 
Southland natives : 

' ' Panapana tu tere poka 
Ko te wairua e moea nei 
Nau mai, ka whakaatu te rere 
Ki Waiau, ko Maka-tawhio, 

The next scene in the tragedy of the Ngati-Mamoe was on the 
southern shores of Lake Te Anau. This region, it may here be 
mentioned, had been originally peopled by some of the crew of the 
" Takitimu " canoe from Hawaiki. About twenty-four generations 
ago the " Takitimu " immigrants, under their chief Tama tea, settled 
at Tarahau-kapiti, near the base of Takitimu Mountain, and 
established kaihas around the foot of Te Anau, where eels and birds 
were abundant. One of these villages was 0-whitianga-te-ra (the 
place of the shining-sun), close to the southern corner of the lake, 
where the Waiau River takes its exit. Here was a noted pa-tuna, 
or eel- weir, whore great quantities of the lake tuna were taken. 
Another settlement was Te Kowhai, close to the present township 
of Te Anau. One of these lakeside villages in later years was the pa 
of Tu-te-makohu, a chief of Waitaha. A memory of the sailor- 
chieftain of " Takitimu " is preserved in a present-day proverbial 
expression — ** Te whakatakanga o te karehu a Tamatea " (in allusion 
to the tattooing of Tamatea), used by the Ngai-Tahu in reference to 
the Murihiku people. Tamatea and his followers, while here, dis- 
covered soot obtained from the bark of certain trees made an excel- 


lent indelible bine dye or pigment {karehu : North Island, ngarehu), 
for tattooing. The pit or hole made for burning the bark, eto., was 
caUed *' Te rua o te moko " (the pit of the tattoo). This, aay the 
Maoris, was the origin of the phrase " Te Bua-o-te-Moko," used as 
in reference to the country round Te Anau, and now often ajyplied 
by the Southland natives to the region extending from the lakes to 
the west coast. Tamatea's tattooing was, no doubt, very different 
to that seen on the faces of old men of the present day, and was 
probably identical with the Tahitian and Marquesan patterns of 
rectilinear devices, as described by Herman Melville in " Typee," 
and observed half a century later by Eobert Louis Stevenson, whose 
two-line picture of a Marquesan chief in one of his South Sea ballads 
might well apply to Tamatea : 

" Round all his martial body and in bands aoross his face, 
The marks of the tattooer proclaim his lofty place." 

In the South Island are still to be seen some of the elders of Ngai- 
Tahu — notably two old men at Moeraki — tattooed in parallel 
straight lines across their cheeks, a fashion unknown in the North. 
Though they have forgotten its origin, this is the old, old moko 
{7 moko'kuri) the last relic of their Eastern Pacific fatherland. 

The shores of Te Anau, Manapouri, the Mavora Lakes, and the 
country round the bases of the Takitimu Mountains, were the last 
inland retreats of Ngati-Mamoe. After these defeats at Te Ihoka, 
Clifden, and elsewhere, a considerable body of them fled np the 
Waiau, and rested awhile at Te Anau. Here they were building 
rafts of korari (flax -stems), and raupOy in order to oross the lake, 
when their relentless pursuers suddenly came upon them. A number 
of the Ngati-Mamoc succeeded in crossing to the northern side of 
South Fiord, and oscai)od into the forests ; but the majority of the 
fugitives were delayed by the construction of a large inokihi, which 
was not finished when Ngai-Tahu attacked them. The final en- 
counter took place on the western side of the lake, near the southern 
point of the entrance to the South Fiord. Hero most of the Ngati- 
Mamoe were killed, amongst them their chief, Pukutahi. The 
leader of the Ngai-Tahu expedition was Te Hau-tapa-nui-o-Tu. 
The survivors disai)i>eared into the gloomy forests, and never a^n 
man's eye beheld them. It is supposed that they made their way 
on their rafts up the lake lo the Middle and North Fiords, and thenoe 
worked across to the \Vest Cinist Sounds — Caswell. George and 
Bligh Sounds, and possibly Milford. 

About the time that those events were ])roceeding in the Lake 
Country, and i>orhaps shortly afterwards, the coast-dwelling remnant 


of Ngati-Mamoe were defeated and dispersed on the shores of 
Preservation Inlet. One of the last Ngati-Mamoe pas was that 
which stood on Matauira Island ; this pa was taken, and nearly all 
its inhabitants slain. Another spot where the unfortunate tribe were 
slaughtered was on the beach of the Inlet, near the present township 
of Oneroa. On the invader's side, one of the most- redoubtable of 
the Ngai-Tahu warriors, a Samson-Uke chief named Tarewai, was 
killed. He was of great stature and herculean strength, and his 
favourite weapon was a club made from the jaw-bone of a sperm- 
whale. A curious stratagem, often employed in Maori warfare, was 
successfully practised on the Ngati-Mamoe on the shores of the 
Inlet. A Ngati-Kuri chief named Maru, dressed in a rough pokekat 
or cloak, of ^ot-leaves, acted the part of a seal gambolling on the 
beach, in the early morning, and succeeded in decoying the Ngati- 
Mamoe down on the sands, armed only with their cutting-knives of 
obsidian. Their concealed enemies suddenly rushed upon them, 
cut them off from their fort, and slew nearly all. The few survivors 
fled in the direction of Dusky Sound. Some of the Ngati-Kuri 
pursued them even there. On the western side of Eesolution 
Island (Tau-moana), they captured and killed a Ngati-Mamoe 
woman named Taki-te-kura. 

These events apparently occurred shortly before the visit of 
Captain Cook to Dusky Sound, in the Eesolution in 1773, when the 
navigator spent six weeks in the fiord, repairing his ship and refresh- 
ing his crew. According to Hone Te Paina and Kupa Haereroa, 
the chief Maru, who had so successfully played the seal on the 
beach at Preservation, pursued the Ngati-Mamoe remnants in his 
canoe, and was living in Dusky Sound when Cook arrived. The 
natives who boarded the Besolution in Pickersgill Harbour, as 
related by Cook, are considered by Te Paina to have been Ngati- 
Kuri, with perhaps Ngati-Mamoe wives. Maru, Te Ao-jiaraki, and 
a woman named Ki-mai-waho, are stated on the same authority to 
have been the principal inhabitants of Dusky Sound at that time ; 
it may have been Maru who went on board the Besolution^ after 
performing an incantation at the ship's side C' the chief took a 
small green branch in his hand and struck the ship's side several 
times, repeating a speech or prayer ; when this was over he threw 
the branch into the main chains, and came on board," Cook's 
Voyages). It was the same chief who presented Cook with a green- 
stone axe. When Vancouver visited Dusky in 1791 no natives 
were seen. 

From 1773 to about 1842 there is no reUable record of native 
occupation in these West Coast Sounds. In, or about, the latter 


year a sealing schooner, commanded by Captain Howell, sailed into 
Bligb Sound one night and dropped anchor. To the surprise of the 
crew fires were seen ashore. Early in the morning a boat's crew 
landed to make investigations. A Maori dwelling was found, and in 
it some mats, a whalebone club, and other articles, but the occupants 
of the lone hatha had fled to the depths of the forest. The tracks 
of the Maoris were followed for a short distance into the bush ; but 
Howell's native sailors did not venture far, fearing to fall into an 
ambuscade, and contented themselves with taking away the paiu- 
paraoa and a mat as relics of the phantom tribe. 

The shores of Lake Ada, in the Arthur Valley, some miles above 
the head of Milford Sound, were probably the last habitat of the lost 
Ngati-Mamoe. Traces of these fugitive children of the mist were 
found here as lately as 1872. In that year Kupa Haereroa, and a 
number of other Maoris from Colac Bay, sailed round to Milford on 
one of their sealing expeditions. Leaving their long sealing-boat 
at the bead of the Sound, Kupa and his companions explored the 
Valley of the Arthur, and went eel-fishing on this lonely lake. They 
swam the (then unnamed) Arthur Eiver, and would have been the dis- 
coverers of the Sutherland Falls but that the bulk of Mount Pillans 
shut it off from their view. At first they imagined they were the 
first to break into this great wilderness, but soon after leaving the 
mouth of the Arthur they were astonished to discover three prints of 
naked feet in the mud beneath a cliff. They inspected these 
mysterious impressions with much the same emotions as Bobinson 
Crusoe did the footprint on the sand, and on their way up the defile 
they kept a careful watch for any other trace that would put them 
on the trail of the supposed Ngati-Mamoe. On the shores of Lake 
Ada they found in several places indications that primitive man had 
had his habitation there. Under overhanging rocks they came upon 
deserted sleep! nf:{-places surrounded by rows of stones, and ashes of 
long-cold cooking firos. At one of these camps there was a separate 
and smaller sloopiiij^^-placo, iiulicatnd by stones arninged in an oblong 
shape, son 10 what apart fn)in tho ollu>r ipiaiiiers. Kupa remarked to 
his coinpaiiioiis " That must have boon the l)ed of the chief." But 
this was all, and with the oxcoi)tion of a numl)or of battered axe- 
heads of no) >h rite, that Donald Sutherland discovered some years ago 
when clearing tho site for his house at the head of the Sound, no 
trace has since boon found of tho vanished tribe. 

Tho Wostland section of the Ngati-Mamoe were probably almost 
exterminated about the same time as the Waiau branch were being 
dispersed at To Anau. It is said that a few of the West Coast tribe 
succeeded in escaping southwards in the direction of Jackson's Bay, 


Big Bay, and Milford Sound. Until a few years ago it was thought 
possible that some members of this Ishmaelite tribe might yet be 
found living in the remoter recesses of Fiordl^nd, still wrapped in 
the darkness of the stone age. This romantic hope has now, how- 
ever, been completely dispelled. But sometimes a Southern native 
will be heard expressing a fanciful belief that the Ngati-Mamoe still 
haunt the great forests of the West. Says a Ngai-Tahu Maori: 
''A remnant of that people may be living to this day in the 
mountains of Te Eua-o-te-Moko, in the regions of the frost. Who 
knows? They were an nvi-kohuru — a treacherous tribe — and given 
to ambuscades. And when pursued their wise men would repeat 
karakias, and invoke the gods of the air, and dense fogs and mists 
would then descend and hid them from their pursuers, and they 
would escape into the depths of the forest. The mists were their 
salvation {na te kohu i whakaora). This is the reason that they are 
not now seen." 



Na Major H. P. Tu-nui-a-rangi. 

KO te kainga i noho ai tenei taniwha, kei Wai-marama, kei Heze- 
taunga. Ka noho nei, a, ka roa, ka puta te aroha ki tona taahine, 
ki a Pari-kawhiti. Ko te kainga o te tuahine kei Wai-rarapa. Eaore 
a Ngarara- hilar ail i mohio, kei hea tona tuahine e noho ana, engari 
katahi ka pihongia ki nga hau. Ka pau nga hau te pihongi, ka tae 
ki to hau tonga ka rangona e ia te kakara o tona tuahine. Katahi ka 
haere mai ma te moana, me te pihongi haere tonu mai ; tae rawa ki te 
ngutu-awa o Pahawa, kua tuku atu te kakara o tona tuahine i te 
hauauru. Ka haere atu a Ngarara-huarau ma roto i te awa o Pahawa. 
Ano ka tae ki te ngutu-awa o tetehi awa, ka kite ia i te rere ; he noi te 
tiketike. Ka oho tona mauri, e kore ia e eke ki runga. Ka huaina te 
ingoa taua awa ko Mauri-oho-o-Ngarara-huarau, i taua ra i karanga- 
tia ai taua ingoa tae noa mai ki tenei ra. 

Ileoi, ka rerc te taniwha nei, kia eke ia ki runga. Kihai i eke. Ka 
tu ona wacwae ki waenganui o te pari, ka tupeke ake nga waewae o 
muri, ka tu ki te tunga o iv^a pcke ; katahi ka rcre, ka eke ki runga. 
Ka haere i roto i taua awa oko noa ki te upurangitanga ki roto o tetahi 
hiwi, ko Maunga-rake te ingoa. Ka eke ia ki runga, ka rongo i te 
ngenge, ka whakatuapuku i tona tuara. He mea mohio e nga tangata 
ki te openga o nga peke i te whenua, ka tapaia te ingoa o taua wahi ko 

Ka haere ia, ka tao ki tetahi awa, ko Koura-rau te ingoa, 10 waero 
pea te matara mai i te wahi i noho ai tona tuahine. Ka noho i roto o 
Koura-rau. Ko te tikimga o tonei ingoa, he nui no te koura-wai o roto 
i taua awa. Ileoi, ka noho nei te taniwha, ko tanamahi, he patn inga 
tira haere ; ara, he kai i nga tangata, horopuku tonu, ahakoa he 
kawonga ta te tangata, ka horomia pukutia e taua taniwha — ahakoa he 
tamaiti i runga i te hakui o waha ana, ka hekc tahi raua ki roto i te kopu 
te tnniwha nei — ahnkoa nga tokotoko me nga taiaha, ka pau katoa te 


Ka mahara mai nga iwi o te taha moana, ki nga tira o reira, kei nga 
kainga o uta e noho ana. Ka pera hoki te mahara o nga iwi o uta nei 
ki o ratoa tira i ahu atu ra ki te taha moana, kei reira e araitia ana e te 
tupuhi te moana te tae ki te mahi kai moana hei maunga mai ma 
ratou ki o raton kainga i uta nei. Eaore! kua pau i a Ngarara- 

No muri mai ka kitea e etahi tangata, kua noho he taniwha ki roto 
o Koura-rau. Ea haere te rongo o te matenga o nga tangata o Wai- 
rarapa ki te tai-rawhiti, katahi ka mohiotia e nga iwi o reira, kua ahu 
mai a Ngarara-huarau ki te upoko o te motu nei. Ko tana mahi ano 
tenei i Wai-marama, he huna i nga tangata o reira. No te haerenga 
atu nei o Ngarara-huarau i Wai-marama, ka ora nga tangata o reira. 
Ka mauria atu te rongo e nga tira haere, ka rongo nga tangata o Here- 
taunga kua mate nga tangata o Wai-rarapa, ka mauria mai hoki te 
rongo nga mahi a Ngarara-huarau i Wai-marama, ka rongo nga iwi 
o Wai-rarapa nei. 

Heoi, ka rapua e nga iwi o Wai-rarapa nei he ritenga e mate ai a 
Ngarara-huarau, a, ka kitea, koia tenei : Me mounu kia puta ki waho 
i tona rua i noho ai, a, me taki haere kia uru ki roto ki tetahi nga- 
herehere. Ko taua ngahere me tapahi he umu mo ia rakau, mo ia 
rakau, ko tetahi taha me waiho kia mau ana. Ko nga rakau e tu ana 
i te taha o te huanui ma te auta haeretanga a te taniwha e turaki nga 
rakau, a, ma te hinganga o tetahi rakau ki runga i tetahi rakau ka 
turaki, a, ka tamia, ka kore e tino kaha ; hei reira ka werowero ai ki te 
tokotoko, ki te huata, me te whiu ki nga patu me nga pou-whenua, a ka 
mate ia. Heoi nga whakamaramatanga mo te ritenga e mate ai ; me 
nga karakia ki to ratou atua. 

Heoi, ka whakaetia e te iwi enei ritenga katoa. Katahi ka whiria 
he taura. Ka oti, ka tapahia haeretia nga rakau o te taha o te huanui 
hei haerenga mo Ngarara-huarau. Ka oti, ka patu te kuri ; ka mutu 
ka kowhiria nga toa tokorua, ka whakapatia o raua waewae ki te atua 
kia tere ai te oma, ka whakaponotia te hau o nga tangata nei me ta 
raua kuri-mate, me te taura hei tukutuku i te kuri ki te waha o te rua 
te taniwha. Ka tae raua ki runga o te rua ka tukutuku i runga i te 
taura. Kaore ano kia tae ki waenganui o te pari ko te tiaho o nga 
whatu kua puta ki waho o te rua ; no muri i puta ai te upoko. Te 
putanga mai, ka haere nga tangata nei — te haere a te taniwha te haere 
a nga tangata. E haere ana nga tangata nei ano ko tiurangi ! ara, ko 
to manu e kiia nei he kahu. Na te mea ano ka ngaro nga tangata nei 
i roto i te ngahere ka tomo tahi hoki te taniwha. No te oinga o te hiku 
ka pa ki te rakau kua oti te tapahi ra, ka hinga ki raro — ko te oinga o 
te upoko, ka hinga nga rakau, ka auru nga peka ki tetahi rakau, ka 
hinga, katahi ka hingahinga nga rakau, ka tamia a Ngarara-huarau ki 
te whenua. Nawai ra i kaha; kua kore e kaha; e werohia ana ki 


nga tokotoko, e patua ana ki nga poa-whenna, a, ka mate a Ngttrara- 

Eatahi ka haea te puku. Anana ! e whakapapa ana te tangata, ie 
wabine, te tamariki i roto i te puku. Heoi, ka tannmia nga tangata, 
ka hoatu ma Mahuika e kai a Ngarara-huaraa. Ko te upoko ka 
tapahia ka whakamaroketia, a, \?hakakohatu tonu iho. Ko te karakia 
nana i tiki i taki a Ngarara-hnarau, ara, ko te tapuae, ko "Pa- 
whakaoho,*' ko ** Tu-mania," ko " Tu-paheke." 

Ea rautu nga koreo o tenei taniwha ; i kite au i te upoko kohata me 
te Mema nei, nie Piukenana — kei te taha tonu o tona whare e tu : 
nei ano. 


(Translated by S. Percy Smith.) 

The orii^iniil home of this taniwha was Wai-marama (about 
twenty miles south of Napier\ in the Here-taunga district. He 
dwelt here for a long time, and then felt a longing to see his sister. 
Pari -ka whit i. who Hved in Wai-rarapa. Ngarani-huarau did not 
know where his sister lived, hut uo lind out) be proceeded to sniff 
the various winds. After trying them all, when he came to the 
south wind, he exi>erienced the sweet scent from his sister. So he 
started on hi-^ way to tind her. coming by the sea, sniffing as he came, 
till he reached Pa-luiw;i iPahaoa. about twenty miles north of Cape 
PalliserK where the ^eent of his sister came from the west, so he 
directeil his course up the river. When he arrived at the mouth of a 
certain stream, he found a waterfall which was very high. His heart 
was startled, for lie thought he would not iv able to ascend it. This 
l^lace is calleil to this day '* The startled heart of Ngarara-huarau.*' 

But the ^/«^^/^( made a jump at the fall, but faileil to get up it. 
Then he placed his legs in the middle of the clitT and drew up his 
hind legs so that they were at the s;\me place as his fore legs; then 
be sprang up and reached the top. After this be followeil up the 
stivam to its s^nuve in a oertain bill luuued Man nga -rake. When he 
got on top he loll very tirotl. and sv^ be stivtohed or roundeil bis back, 
a fact which men arrivevl at by seeing places dug out by bis fore legs. 
and hence lia*; this piaco alway*i Invn calliHl " llau-tuapuku-o-Ngarara- 

After this he went on to a liver named Koura-rau. which was 
about ten miles distant from the place where bis sisior dwelt, and at 


Koura-rau he remained. The name of this place is derived from the 
plenty of koura (fresh water cray-fish) found there. And so the 
taniwha remained there. His occupation was to kill the travelling 
parties passing that way — that is, he used to swallow them all, even 
if they had loads on their backs : mothers carrying children on their 
backs, men with spears or taiahas, all went down his capacious 

The people who dwelt at the sea-side imagined that the travelling 
parties from there were remaining at the inland settlements. It was 
the same with the inland people, who thought that their travelling 
parties who had gone to the coast to bring back fish, <&c., were 
detained by bad weather at the coast. But not so ; they had been 
consumed by Ngarara-huarau. 

Some time after some people discovered that a taniwha had taken 
up his abode at Koura- wai. When the news of the deaths of these 
people of Wai-rarapa reached Wai-marama, then it was known by the 
latter people that Ngarara-huarau had come towards the head of the 
island. His occupation at Wai-marama had been of the same kind — 
viz., the consuming of man. But when the news reached them of 
Ngarara-huarau, then they felt safe ; and when the news of the 
deaths at Wai-rarapa reached the people of Here-taunga, then the 
latter people sent word of Ngarara-huarau's doings to Wai-rarapa. 

So now, then, the people of Wai-rarapa sought means by which 
they might compass the death of Ngarara-huarau, and after a time 
decided on measures as follows : To entice him out of his lair by a 
bait, and lure him along to enter a certain forest. In the forest the 
trees were to have a umu or scarf cut in each tree, leaving part uncut, 
so that the writhing of the tamiuha should cause them to fall on 
the others and bring them down on top of him, and thus press on him 
and prevent him using his strength ; then could he be si)eared, and the 
weapons be used to slay him. This was the explanation of the 
proposal, besides invocations to their god. 

All these arrangements were consented to by the people. Then 
was a rope made, and the trees scarfed along the road which 
Ngarara-huarau was to follow. Then a dog was killed, and two 
brave fellows selected, their legs being touched with the god to make 
them swift to run, whilst the haii, or spirit of the men, their dog, 
and the rope, were subjected to invocations to make them sure. 
When the men got to a place above the cave, they let down the dog 
by the rope, and before the bait had reached mid-cliff, the flaming 
rays of the eyes of the monster were seen coming forth, followed by 
his head. On his coming forth the men fled, followed by the taniwha; 
the men fled hke the flight of the hawk. When they reached the 


forest the taniwha entered with them, and as his tail lashed the trees 
that had l>een pai*tly cut through, they began to fall ; and as his great 
head moved from side to side, the trees fell on the others, and all 
came down, pressing Ngarara-huarau to the earth. He struggled and 
struggled till he was exhausted, and then was he speared, and the 
clubs did their work, and thus died Ngarara-huarau. 

His body was then cut open. Behold 1 there were layers of men, 
women, and children inside him ! After that the men were buried, 
and Ngarara-huarau was given to Mahuika (father of fire, i.e., he was 
burnt). The head was cut off and dried, and it turned into stone. 
The karakiaSy or incantations used to draw forth Ngarara-huarau, 
wore those known as the Tapuae, " Pa-whakaoho," "Tu-naania," 
and ** Tu-paheke." 

Here ends the story of this celebrated taniwha. I have seen the 
stone head, and so has Mr. W. C. Buchanan, for it stands near his 






By Elsdon Best. 

Part I. 

HAVING resolved to put together such notes concerning 
Maori sociology, and more especially those i)ertaining to 
family life, as I have collected from the Tuhoe tribe, I begin 
with those treating on birth, in order to give some idea of Maori 
customs, rites, beliefs, and general ideas connected with generation. 

The native system of genesiology we shall never know in its 
entirety, but enough has been preserved to show that the natives of 
this land treated generation as a most tapu matter, and that they 
possess a complete ritual in connection with conception, pregnancy, 
parturition, and care of the young. It will also be seen that the 
Maori held some very peculiar views and ideas anent these matters ; 
ideas that are by no means restricted to these people, inasmuch as 
many similar items have been placed on record as connected with 
divers barbarous races in various parts of the world. 

The main part of this paper will be divided into four parts, treat- 
ing on Menstruation, Pregnancy, Abortion, and Labour, while 
following the latter will be given an account of the treatment 
accorded to mother and child after they have left the tvhare-kohanga, 
or " nest house." Preceding the main part of the paper will be 
given a few notes concerning sex in Nature, and the tendency of the 


Maori mind to ijersonify natural phenomena, &c., and view such as 

heing represented hy, or having originated with, anthropomorphic 



There appears to have ever obtained among the neolithic Maori 
an universal vivification of nature : a peraonification of, and applica- 
tion of sex to natural phenomena and inanimate objects. The term 
used here, i.e., ijersonifications, has been objected to, it being said 
that allegory would be a more correct expression. I would submit, 
however, that such allegories imply personifications, and that such 
are often the i)ersonified forms of abstract ideas, or continued 
metaphors. This process of primitive thought was even applied to 
the period when man had not yet api)eared on earth. For strange 
mythical beings, probably personified forms of cosmic forces, or 
of unknown tieons, preceded Bangi and Papa (the Sky Parent and 
the Eai*th Mother), and these are alluded to in Maori mythology as 
though anthropomorphous beings ; they cohabited and produced 

The physiogony of Maori myth is both singular and interesting. 
Their system of anthropogeny resembles those of many other primi- 
tive peoples, in that it derives man from the union of earth and sky, 
which were looked upon as being the origin of all things. 

The primitive Maori traced the origin of man, birds, fish, insects, 
trees, plants, <&c., btvck to Eangi and Papa. But long ages before 
that there were a series of gods, or allegorised ei*as, or forces ; and 
tliose personifications were also endowed with sex and produced 
young. From them eventually sprang the earth and sky. The 
remote i)rimal pair who existed before light, sound, the elements, &c., 
were To Rangi-matinitini and Te Ao-matinitini, who are said to have 
been atua (gods, demons, sui)ernatural beings, or forces). The two 
produced Te Pu and Te More, who are described as really one being, 
but possessed of a hi -sexual nature and a double name, the upper 
part being To Pu and the lower part Te More. Such was the origin 
of sex in ^hiori myth. After these beings came Te Weu, Te Aka, 
Te Rea, Te Wao-nui, Te Kune, Te Whe, Te Po, and then came Bangi 
and Pupa, tlio heavens and the earth. The above names are singular 
ones, tliose from number three to number eight inclusive l)eiug terms 
ai)i)lied to trees, their growtli, parts, i^c. Then come conception, 
sound, nothingness or chaos, and darkness or gloom. 

The above allegory accounts for the origin of sex according to 
Maori myth. From Kangi and Papa sprang certain l>eings possessed 
of supernatunil i)owers, though not termed gods, i.e., aiua. These 
were the origin and i)ersonification of war, ixjaco, winds, trees, birds. 


<fec., &c. Among these offspring was one Tane-nui-a-rangi — he who 
searched long for woman ere he found her. His first acts were to 
produce the various forest trees, by means of cohabiting with certain 
beings, who are looked upon as the origin and personified forms of 
such trees. Then he foimd woman. Her name was Kurawaka, and 
she was a daughter of Tiki and Ea. By her Tane had Hine-titama, 
whom he also married, and this was the origin of incest. Ea was 
the first woman of this world, the world of light and being. She 
was taken to wife by Tiki, who was of the Po^ or world of darkness. 

These myths differ somewhat among the various tribes, but the 
above will give a general idea of their nature and of the Maori idea 
of the origin of man and of sex. I have never been able to obtain 
from reliable native sources any corroboration of an unfortunate 
account of the origin of man which has appeared in print, and which 
is undoubtedly the result of missionary teaching. 

According to the myths of the Matatua tribes, the sun {Ba) was 
a male descendant of Eangi and Papa, and who mated with two 
females, one being the personification of summer, the other that of 
winter. For a lengthy account of such personifications and anthro- 
pomorphic agents in Maori mythology, see the JOURNAL OF THE 
Polynesian Society, Vol. viii., p. 94. 

When Tane desired and sought woman, he hied him to Eangi, the 
sky parent, and asked : " O Eangi ! Where is the uha / " (female 
or female principle). And Eangi said : " The whare o aitua ia below ; 
above is the whare o te ora.'* The first of these terms may be trans- 
lated as " the abode or origin of trouble, death, misfortune.^' It is 
here applied to the female organ or principle, and apparently so for 
two reasons : in the first place, man is bom of woman to encounter 
many troubles in this world, and finally death ; again, the female 
organ (or principle) was the origin of death. In this wise, when 
Maui of old sought to gain eternal life for man, he proceeded to enter 
the organ of Hine-nui-te-Po, Goddess of Death and Queen of Hades, 
that he might obtain the Hfe principle, or breath of life, from her 
sacred body, and so conquer death. For the seed of man is implanted 
in that organ and is endowed therein with the breath of life, or life 
principle. But it was not to be, and Maui perished in the organ of 
the Goddess of Hades — that is to say, in the whare o aitua. Hence 
death ever assails man in this world. The term whare o aitiui might 
also be applied to Papa, the earth mother, for she is the personifica- 
tion of the female principle. Her descendants who dwell on her 
broad bosom, t.e., man, birds, trees,. <&c., all perish and are received 
back into the earth mother. For Papa said to Eangi: "Our offspring 
shall return to me in death, and I will conceal them. They shall be 
o\ir legion of the dead.'' 


The expression whare o te ora is applied to the heavens and the 
denizens thereof who have grasped eternal life. For those of the 
offspring of Eangi and Papa who remained on high, i.e., the sun, 
moon, and stars, know not death. 

Ever among the Maori people the organs of generation were 
deeply imbued with tapu (sacredness, sometimes " uncleanness ") 
and vbdna (influence, prestige, supernatural power), both of an active 
and of a passive nature. This may have sprung from an observance 
of the mystery of sex, and the application thereof to all departments 
of nature, as also such items as those above given. When a person 
repeated a magic spell — say, to ward off the witchcraft of others, and 
cause their death — he would place his hand on his genital organs in 
order to give force, sui)ernatural power (m&na) to his incantation. 
This is quite Oriental. Observe sundry passages in the Bible, where 
a man, when making a solemn promise, is said to have placed his 
hand " in the hollow of his thigh." 

The ancient sacerdotal term for the organs of generation is 
tawhito. This was only used in invocations, &c. ; other expressions 
obtained for ordinary use. An old native said to me : "As for the 
tawhito of Hine-nui-te-Po, that was the atti<i which destroyed man ** 
(see ante). And again : " Friend ! the salvation of my ancestors was 
the ure, the tawhito. By its aid were the shafts of magic warded oflF 
and life retained." 

Ur« is the ordinary term for the membrnvi virile, the expression 
in common use. The word tawhito may be rendered as ** ancient,'* 
or ** the ancient one," but I am inclined to believe that another 
meaning of the word, as retained by the natives of Futuna (who are 
Polynesians and allied to the Maori), is the correct one in this case. 
The Futuna word tayito signifies " cause, source, principle, origin.'* 
In one sense, however, all these meanings are allied. The 
Esthonians term their deity " the aged one." 

Another term, presumably a mystical or sacerdotal expression, 
applied i)y the old-time Maori to the male organ, was tangata matua^ 
which would ai)i)ear to have much the same meaning as tawhito. 

In time of war the warriors would, i)rior to sotting forth on a 
fomy, pass lienoath tlie tawhito, in order that the jmhm of that organ 
might prevent them from being alHicted by atna (malignant demons, 
gods), and so be assailed by indecision, faint-hoartedness, &c., in 
battle. This singular rite, termed a hirihiri tana, was effected by 
means of the men i)assing Iwtween the extended legs of the priest. 
In like manner, when a warrior has been affected by such afflictions 
as the above, he will hie him to a tii*stl)orn female of a family of rank 
and get her to cure him. She does so by stopping across his body as 
he lies on the ground. 


The quaint old myth of how the mountains grouped around Lake 
Taupo quarrelled, separated and went away to other places, is an 
exami)le of animism, the vivification of nature. Those mountains 
are endowed with sex, the powers of speech, and locomotion. They 
married and produced young in the form of hail, snow, and sleet. 
Such items are illustrations of the ancient hypothesis of the anima 
muruliy which appears to have obtained among all primitive peoples. 
Maunga-i)ohatu, a mountain of Tuhoeland, is spoken of by the Tama- 
Kai-moana sub- tribe as their mother, that people having dwelt 
beneath it for centuries. 

After Kongo- maui had visited Whanui (the star Vega) and 
obtained from him the germs of the kumara, or sweet potato, he 
returned to this lower world and caused his wife, Pani-tinaku, to 
give birth to the sweet potato, which was thus acquired by the 
ancestors of the Maori. 

Several cases of human beings having been bom in an extra- 
ordinary or supernatural manner are recorded in native myths and 
traditions. Thus Rawaho, a son of Hape of the " Rangi-matoru " 
canoe (which made the land at Ohiwa), was bom from the armpit ; also 
one Tama-mutu, an ancestor of the Tuhoe tribe, entered this world 
in the same manner. Potiki the first, origin of Nga-Potiki, the 
ancient people of Tuhoeland, was not the offspring ot human parents, 
but was the result of the union of Hine-pukohu-rangi (personification 
of mist) and Te Maunga (the mountain). For the Maid of the Mist 
lured to her arms the mountain, who descended from his high places 
to Onini at Rua-tahuna, in the Ure-wera Ooimty, where originated 
the ancient tribe of Nga-Potiki, the Children, or Children of the 

The above Hine was the personified form of the white mists, as 
seen among these forest ranges. And when dawn breaks across the 
vale of Rua-tahuna, you may oft times see the white form of the 
Mist Maiden as she reclines upon the broad breast of her old-time 
lover. But when the sunlight gleams down from rugged Huiarau, 
then is it that Hine fades away and disappears. 

Cases of miraculous or extraordinary conception are not absent 
from Maori tradition and mythology. For example, one Kura-nui-a- 
monoa, wife of Toi the Wood Eater, of immortal fame, is said to have 
been visited by one Tama-i-waho (also known as Puhaorangi), who 
descended from the heavens and is looked upon as a god, and she 
bore to him the child Oho-matua-rau. Similar cases are those of 
Uenuku and Tairi-a-kohu, Te Maimga, and Hine-pukohu-rangi. 
Such myths are of world-wide distribution; many of them are 
allegories based upon natural phenomena, as are the last two aboye 


mentioned. The Aztecan myth of Coatlicue and the humming bird, 
with its Greek ooimterparts, illustrate another common form of 
miraculous conceptions as preserved in many lands. 

Enough has been said to show the supernatural power which the 
generative organs were supposed to possess by the Maori of old, as 
also concerning that form of animism which endowed with sex the 
forces of nature, the heavenly bodies, and other items of the inani- 
mate world. My notes on the evidences of animism and of 
phallicism to be found in Maori myth and ritual are somewhat 
numerous, and must be reserved for a separate paper. 

The word ai signifies to '* procreate, beget," while hika means 
" to generate," and is applied to the generation of fire by the nibbing 
process, as well as to the generating or begetting of children. This 
term hika is also used in connection with certain rites, as hika 
inoana, a rite and invocation to calm the ocean. 

We will now commence the main imrt of our subject, dealing 
with the various divisions in the order given above. 

Menstruation {Paheke), 

The native terms for menstruation are paheke and mate marama^ 
The former term is applied to the menses, and is also used as a veib 
(compare heke, ** to descend, to drip.") The expression tmUe marama 
means literally '' monthly sickness," viarania meaning the moon uid 
the lunar month. The term atua is also sometimes applied to the 
menses. This word is generally translated as '' god," it is applied to 
demons, evil spirits, spirits of deified ancestors, to oaco-doemons, also 
to diseases (thought to be caused by malignant demons), to persons 
of evil or quarrelsome nature, (fcc, also to various phenomena not 
understood, as menstruation, for example. When the Mat&tua oanoe 
an'ivod from far Hawaiki and was coasting along the shores of the 
Bay of Plenty, near Matata, one of the crew said to Wairaka, the 
princiiMxl woman on board : — " Ha ! He atua kai raro i ou waewae^** 
i.e., '* There is an atua l^eneath your limbs," alluding to her pakekB^ 
which ho had obseiTed. Hence the name of Te Awa-a-te-atua ait 
that place, meaning, " The Kiverof the Atua," or menses. The term 
fKirapum is also applied to the menstrual discharge, likewise to thttt 
of birth. (Comimre iktra, ** refuse, sediment, impurity, dross, etc.") 

In regard to the name niate ffMratna, the '* monthly " or *' moon '* 
sickness, I quote from native authorities : — ** The retison of this siek- 
noss lx>ing known as mate marama is l)ecauso it affects women when 
the moon api)ears. It never aifects them when the moon is lost to 
view, that is during the dark nights (hinaitotin) of the moon. Some 
women ai*e atTected when the moon is just seen, and others at various 


stages of its growth, some when the Turn moon appears (i.e., the 
17th night of the moon). A woman is always affected at the same 
stage of each moon, the time of her affliction does not vary.'* Another 
native, an old woman, said to me : — *' Women always paheke at the 
same time, at the same stage of each moon. Hence, when it com- 
mences, they always know what night of the moon it is. (Natives 
reckoned time by the nights of the moon, and the lunar month.) 
Women do not paheke during the dark nights of the moon, nor yet 
while suckling a child, although the child may suckle its mother for 
a long time. When the moon appears the skin of women who have 
a bad time during menstruation becomes affected. '' Ka hinawanawa 
kotoa te kiri o te wahine mate kinOf e ka puta mat te m/xram>a" i.e., the 
skin becomes rough, like unto what we term '* gooseflesh," in cases 
of dysmenorrhoea. When the moon appears, then women say : — 
" The tane (husband) of all women in the world has appeared." 

Another native, an old man, said : — " The moon is the permanent 
husband (or true husband) of all women, because women paheke 
when the moon appears. According to the knowledge of our ances- 
tors and elders, the marriage of man and wife is a matter of no 
moment, the moon is the real husband." 

The above is a very singular belief, the supposed connection 
between the moon and women, but it does not seem unnatural 
to the Maori mind, deeply inbued as it is with the spirit of animism 
common to primitive peoples. For his strange mentality had vivified 
the moon and endowed it with sex and human passions. Moreover, 
the heavenly bodies and man were equally descendants of primal 
chaos, through Bangi and Papa, were derived from the same proto- 
type, an anthropomorphic personification of the origin, or beginning, 
of all things — the Void whence were evolved Light, Sound, Water, 
Fire, and matter organic and inorganic. In a sense, therefore, the 
Maori looked upon the moon as a relative and ancestor of his own ; 
and the Maori ever turned to the spirits of his ancestors to save him 
from evil. The moon is said to have had two wives, Bona and 
Tangaroa-a-roto, both daughters of Tangaroa, who was originally a 
a land deity. 

There was, and still is, a certain amount of tapu connected with 
the menstrual discharge, though that tapu scarcely seems to apply to 
the woman herself, except in the sense of *' uncleanliness." The 
discharge is viewed as a sort of human embryo, an immature or 
undeveloped human being, hence the tapu. *' E ahua tangata ana te 
paheke o te wahine. He whakatipu tangata taua mea.** (The paheke 
of a wcMuan is a sort of human being, it is a person in embryo.) 
Another aged authority states : — '' The menses is a kind of human 


being, because if the discharge ceases, then it grows into a person, 
that is when the paheke ceases to come away, then it assumes human 
form, and grows into a man." 

In native legends there are several instances of the development 
of the menstrual discharge into a human being. Such were generally 
developed after having been cast away by the woman, by means of 
the care and nurture bestowed upon them by supernatural beings, as 
in the cases of Maui-potiki and Whakatau, famous heroes of Maori 
tradition. It would also api)ear, according to some of these old-time 
folk tales, that the menstrual discharge sometimes developed into a 
caco-doemon, a malignant spirit which afflicted man grievously, and 
was termed an atua hahu or kahukahu, a name also bestowed upon 
the malignant spirit of a stillborn child. However, my chief authority 
among the Tuhoe tribe states that these ahm kahu were the spirits of 
stillborn children only, whereas the paheke possessed no wainin* 
(spirit) ; that is to say, the menstrual discharge is not endowed with 
the spirit of life, the spirit which animates man, leaves his body at 
death and descends to Hades. But a stillborn child does possess 
this spirit, and it is liable to resolve itself into a most mischievous 
demon, as we shall see anon. 

On account of the above-described feeling in regard to the paheket 
or menses, the sleeping places, (fee, of women were looked uix)n as 
being unclean and hence dangerous to man, who is tapu. Such 
places are to be avoided by all men of standing, although they might 
not be harmful to a common, ^^;;?^-less person, such as a slave. 
Should a man sit down, or recline on a place were women sleep, or 
rest, or should he utilise an article of female wearing apparel as a 
pillow, he will be i)olluted thereby, his tapu, the sacred spiritual and 
intellectual ichor which pervades, vivifies, and preserves him, will be 
contaminated by contact with " uncleanness." and hence his spiritual, 
physical, and intellectual well-being will he seriously atTocted and 
endangered. He would become kahupotia. The terms kahujx) and 
hinapo signify *' dim-sighted." Not that his ordinary sight will be 
affected, that kind of dim-sightedness is termed viiitHpo, but his 
spiritual sight will suffer, that is to say, he will lose his iK)wer of 
second sight, a most serious affliction to the Maori, and one which 
would have seriously endangered his life in pre-l^iuroiwan days. In 
this state he would no longer be able to observe the numerous signs, 
tokens, by which ancestml gods warn their living descendants of 
impending troubles and dangers. An old warlock of Ngati-.\wa said 
. ^^ . ** Son ! Never recline on the resting places of woman, such 

• See Journal of tbo Polynesian Society, Vol. 9, p. 177, for an account of the 
wairua of man. 


places are unclean. The blood (i.e., paheke) of woman is there. 
They are the undoing of man. But should you happen to do so, 
then be sure that you conciliate your ancestors, that they may restore 
your sight, and continue to guard and preserve you from evil." 

A man would perform the whakaepa rite in order to free himself 
from the polluting effects of the moenga toto, or unclean sleeping place. 

Regarding unnatural discharges, a peculiar case was mentioned to 
me by the Bua-tahuna natives. A woman of the Hamua clan has a 
discharge of blood from the nose at each appearance (kohititanga) of 
the new moon. This is termed her menses by the natives, inasmuch 
as the ordinary discharge is invariably absent. 

The material used here, in Tuhoeland, from time immemorial, as 
a menstruating cloth, is a variety of moss (generic term rtmurimu) 
known as angiangi. It is probably Hypnum clandestinus. It is a 
light coloured, fine, very soft moss, found growing on logs in the 
forest. As used for the above purpose, it is termed a hope. It is 
not prepared in any way, but simply crumpled up and thrust into the 
vagina. After the discharge has ceased, the woman will go off into 
the forest and there bury the hope, each woman has a secret place 
where she does so. It would be a serious matter for her were her 
hope to be seen by anyone. For they would probably make a great 
joke of it, and she would feel terribly humiliated, so much so, indeed, 
that she might commit suicide. 

In cases of difficult, or painful menstruation, the woman was 
usually isolated in former times. In native opinion it is the moon 
that is affecting a woman in this plight. A stoppage of the menses, 
which does not seem to often occur among Maoris, though perhaps it 
it is more frequent among half-breeds, is spoken of as ** he mate kino 
na te inarama,'* an evil complaint caused by the moon. Such an 
illness may continue for a week, during which time the woman will 
take but little food. At such a time women have a great desire to 
drink cold water, but are not allowed to take much, lest it should 
aggravate the trouble. Those who are not ill during menstruation 
are allowed to eat any kind of food, there is no restriction whatever. 
They also bath in cold water at such times, should they desire to do 
so. It does not appear that woman herself is looked upon as being 
" unclean " during the period of menstruation, although the discharge 
is so viewed, indeed the latter is very polluting in its action, as we 
have seen. Women perform their ordinary duties at such times, 
as cooking food, etc. 

There is no recognised rule or custom regarding copulation during 
the period of menstruation. The women seem to please themselves 
in the matter, some indulge while others do not. 


Now, the term paheke has, strictly speaking, throe applications. 
It is the name of the discharge, it is the verb " to menstruate," and 
it is also applied to the period of menstruation or, more properly 
speaking, to the first day thereof. The term koero is applied to the 
second and third day of such period. When a woman does not 
desire to conceive, she will not copulate during menstruation or, 
rather, during the koerotanga (koero stage) of such period, for such a 
connection, she believes, would surely be fruitful. But she will 
abstain until three days after menstruation has ceased. Thns, 
according to native ideas, it is during the koero stage (and immedi- 
ately after it) that the sexual act is fruitful. '' He eke koero tena, ka 
tiqm tonu atu he kingata " — that is, a koero copulation, it will surely 
be fruitful — said my informant. If a woman does not desire to 
conceive, and her husband wishes to have connection with her during 
the koero stage of menstruation, she will say : " Kaore au e pai kia 
mahia koerotia ahan e koe, he hoha noku ki te whanau tamariki " — I 
am not willing that you should have a koero connection with me ; it 
is so tiresome to me to bear children. 

Copulation is desired mostly by women just prior to menstmation. 
It is said by natives that a girl ^^'ill not conceive at her first, nor yet 
her second, menstruating period, but that she will at the third. 

The natives of the Tuhoe tn\ye state that their women have more 
trouble in menstruation of late years than they had formerly. 
Difficult or painful menstruation was very rare in former times ; it is 
much more common now. Possibly this may be connected with the 
increasing lack of fecundity so noticeable among these tribes. 
Native women are generally affected by a slight headache a day or 
so before menstruation commences. (These notes have been 
collected from the Tuhoo or Urewera tri]>e only : hence there is 
necessarily much Maori birth lore, &c., not included in them. Cus- 
toms, rites, &c., differ to a certain extent among the various native 
tribes of New Zealand.) 

The stoppage of the menses is termed papuni. To cure this a 
woman will, at dawn of day, go and bathe in a stream, and then on 
her return she takes a dose of a decoction made as follows : Four 
pieces of flax root [i.e., the native ilax, phonnimn tenax, the harakeke 
of the Maori) and four ))icces of the branchlets of a forest climbing 
plant known as aka taravioa are cut up into small pieces and boiled 
in a vessel until the liquid is considerably reduced in quantity. This 
delightful beverage is said to bo effective in cases of difficult mens- 
tmation. When obtaining these roots and twigs for the above 
medicine, they nmst be taken from the east side of the flax clump 
and creeper, as the mdna, or vii-tue, of them is on that side only as 


regards their use as medicine for menstruating women. This 
singular superstition may be connected with the rising of the moon 
in the east. For when the same materials are being procured for 
the purpose of making a medicine for diarrhoea or constipation, it 
does not matter from which side they are taken. 

Another decoction used as a medicine in cases of difficult mens- 
truation is made in a similar manner from the bark and berries of 
the rohutu tree {myrtus pedunculata). 

It is, however, very improbable that these " medicines " were 
used in olden times, but have only come into use since the advent of 
Europeans. The natives do not appear to have used internal 
medicines in ancient times, or certainly but to a very limited extent. 

Some singular beliefs obtain among the natives in regard to 
menstruation. If a menstruating woman goes on to a sea beach 
where the pipi shellfish (cockles) are found, all those shellfish will 
desert that beach and migrate to pastures new. Or if such woman 
essays to cook the kernels of the berries of the tawa tree {nesodaphne 
tawa) in a boiling spring, they will never be cooked, but remain quite 
hard, although those of other women not so afflicted will be quite 

Or if a menstruating woman goes to an ahi titi (a fire made to 
attract the titij or mutton birds, and at which they were formerly 
taken in great numbers), no birds will be caught. For the birds will 
persistently avoid the fire, and will be heard crying out and screech- 
ing. Then the fowlers will know that a menstruating woman is 
among them. They will know it from the actions and cries of the 

In former times women were not allowed to take part in the 
cultivation of the hice (gourd plant), because it was believed that if a 
menstruating woman went among the plants, they would surely die. 

As few natives know their ages, it is not easy to say at what age 
menstruation commences, but, so far as I can judge, probably at about 
the fourteenth year — perhaps the fifteenth in some cases. It may, 
however, occur earlier. 

(To be continued.) 



By W. T. Morpeth. 

THE following was communicated to the writer by Poanaki, of 
Opatu, Upper Whanganui River, N.Z. Does anybody know 
the tree, or know of it ? 

The Hiumkcha tree was first discovered by a woman called 
Pare-koritawa. Out of curiosity, and knowing no evil, Pare one day 
cut the bark, and the red juice of the tree ran out on her hands, 
staining them as with human blood. Overcome with superstitious 
fear the poor woman quickly cleansed her hands and hastened home, 
where she related her experience to her friends. Soon afterwards 
she sickened and died, and by this it was known that hunakeha was 
a sacred tree. Now this was in times long gone by. (7 mua, % mua 
noa atu) 

Some few years ago, however, a tragic event occurred which 
clearly showed that the hunakclm still flounshes " like a green bay 
tree," and that its baleful mdna has not declined with the years. At 
Tawata, a lonely pa on the Upper Whanganui, an aged chief lay 
dying. Four friends from Pari-nui, named respectively Pateriki, Te 
Piwhara, Riwai, and Te Ikahaehae, made an excursion into the 
forest and returned with some branches and twigs of the hunakeha^ 
in the hope that its magic properties might be invoked and directed 
against the Pale Spectre tliat hovered over the little iclunre of raupo 
tliatch, over against the bush where the sick man lay. And the 
prophets and tohumjas, naked of body, and with many strange rites 
and bodily contortions, recited all thir most potent karakia, and 
prayed to the gods witli savage vehemence and passionate eloquence. 
But they strove in vain, for Te Kore died and was gathered to his 
fathers, and the people came from far and near to celebrate his 
obsequies. When the tangi was over the visitors returned to their 
homes, and directly afterwards the four men from Parinui, who had 
so lightly plucked the boughs from the still green tree, one by one 
fell sick and died. Whether from ignorance or whether with a 
reckless disregard of the consequences, it may not lie known, but by 
their action tlioy had slighted and grossly insulted the deity which 
has its abode in the hunakeha, and, like Pare-koritawa of old, paid 
the penalty with their lives. 


By Lieut.-Col. Gudgeon, C.M.G. 

IT Ir claimed that each canoe that arrived at Aitutaki from Hawaiki 
was carved on the how in a more or less distinct pattern, pre- 
sumably with the heraldic bearings of the chief of the canoe, 
and that this carving was adopted by those who came in the canoe 
as the ta-tatau which should for all time distinguish them from other 

So far as can now be ascertained, the first of these canoes in 
point of time was the Te Uatoaua, under the chief Te Muna-korero, 
a Tongan. This canoe entered by the Avaroa passage, and the crew 
landed in the tapere, or district now called Waiau. They adopted 
the carving of the canoe as the tribal ta-tatau, and it was tattooed on 
their bodies, and occasionally on the neck, wrist, or legs, but never 
on the face. The same mark was placed on the garments and tribal 
ornaments, and any appropriations of this special mark by another 
tribe resulted in bloodshed, for the object of the mark was to preserv^e 
the descent of each family by giving each member thereof the proof of 
his descent on his own person. 

It was Te Muna-korero who gave the name to the small reef 
island of Maina, by throwing himself down in the coral sand to enjoy 
the heat of the sun, jnainaimi ra. His ta-tatau was 

and this mark is called pa-niaunga, or range of mountains, in memory 
of a range in far ofif Hawaiki. 

Katopa-enua was the next canoe to arrive, under the chief Kaki. 
It entered by the Vaimotu passage and landed at Taravao. Their 
ta-tatau is called ptcapuu-iimTiay and the mark was as follows : 


Irakau, the canoe of Ui-tario, came at the same time as Eaki, 
and entered by the Taketake passage. Their ta-tatau was called 
koviua, or the forward thrust of a spear, viz., 

After the foregoing came the Ariki Te-Erui-o-te-Rangi in his 
double canoe, one side of which was called " Te Rangi-matoe," and 
the other ** Te Toenga-rangi." This canoe entered by the Ava-tapu, 
and tlieir ta-tatau is called paeko : 

The last of these ancestral canoes was Tue-moanai with the chief 
Ruatapu, who entered by the Ava-kopuanua, and asserted his fndna 
over all the tribes of tlie island. His ta-tatau is known as punarua, 


Compare the aims of the Montacutes with those of To Munu- 
korero, and the same idea will be seen. 


[182] Ngati-Hau of Whanganui. 

I just send you a line as to the origin of the names of Ngati-Hau, referred to 
on page 182 of this volume, as derived from Haupipi. This was not the origin I 
heard of 40 years ago, which was Ngati-Hau-a-Paparangi, a name which the 
natives themselves did not know the origin of, nor did I until recently, when I was 
talking with a Tahitian member of the Makea family, of Rarotonga, concerning my 
old tribe of Ngati-Hau, and gave them their old name in full. When he heard 
this he said, "My old tribe, Hau-a-Papara'i, the only people who never bowed 
down before the Pomares, who were toas (braves) wherever they went." I take it 
that the tribe brought their own name with them from Hawaiki. 

W. E. Gudgeon, Rarotonga. 

[We are very glad indeed to accept Col. Gudgeon's version of the origin of 
this name, the more so as it is additional testimony that the Maoris came here 
from Tahiti, which is the theory formed by the writer of the above articl<^ after 
visiting Rarotonga and Tahiti in 1897. See " Hawaiki, the former home of the 
Maori." There is an old saying about this man which implies that he lived in 
Hawaiki : " T« urio Hau^nui-a-Paparangi, nana % taotao ts nuku roa i Hawaiki,** 
The descendants of Hau-nui-a-Paparangi, who suppressed the land (?) people of 
Hawaiki.— ED.] 

[183] A taiaha "whai-mana." 

(See Col. Gudgeon's paper on ** Mana Tangata," etc.. Journal Vol. XIV., No. 2.) 
A remarkable, and, I think, hitherto unrecorded instance of the strange mana- 
tapu sometimes attaching to a war-chief's weapon is that of Titoko-waru's sacred 
taiaha " Te Porohanga," carried by that warrior throughout the later campaigns 
in Taranaki, 1868-69. " Te Porohanga" is an historic weapon dating back to the 
old days of inter- tribal warfare. It belonged to a chief of Nga-ruahine as far back 
as the " thirties" of last century. When a war- party of Taupo men raided Wai- 
totara on one occasion they were defeated and many prisoners taken by the 
tangata -whenua. The chief Wai-o-nui (grandfather of the present Tutange- 
Waionui, of Pariroa, Patoa) wished to save them, but the Nga-ruahine chief, who 
had this taiaha in his hand, brought it down with a sufficient gesture, saying as 
he did so, "Cut them down." So the captives were slaughtered, and went into 
the oven. The taiaha received its name, " To Porohanga,'* in commemoration of 
this incident. In after years, when Titoko-waru became the war-priest and leader 
of the Hauhaus, this weapon was the medium of his battle-god Uenuku, and was 
used in a singular manner in the selection of the men who formed his war-parties. 
Titoko-waru's band of warriors chosen for special expeditions and sorties was 
called " Tekau-ma-rua " (" The Twelve ") — though it generally consisted of sixty 
men. An eye-witness has described to me this ceremony, a notable instance of 
which was the " seleotion-by-Zaia/ta " of the war-party which assaulted the 
Tunituru-mokai redoubt, near Hawera, in 1868. The people would all assemble 
in the meeting-house (in this particular case it was the sacred praying-hoose 


"Wharokura" in the Ngutu-o-te-Manu pa). Titoko-wani. standing facing the 
assemblage, would balance his rod-plumed taiaha in a horizontal position on his 
thumb and forefinger. The Kpirit of his war-god Uenuku entered into him, by 
virtue of his karakias, and the weaix)n would turn itself without any effort on his 
part. It was the visible manifestation of t\ic three cumulative niana — if one may 
be allowed the expression — (1) matui-atua (the breath of the gods), (2) mana- 
tangata (Titokowaru's personal prestige), and (3) the inherent mana-tapu of the 
weapon. The taiaha would move, as Titoko stood facing his people, and its 
tongue would point towards a particular man. Titoko would question the man 
thus indicated, and, if his answer were satisfactory, he would order him to stand 
aside as one of the taua ; and so on until the tally of the ** Tekau-ma-rua " was 
complete. My informant adds : " Titoko- warn would not select the over-confident 
men." The repeated success of the Hauhau war-parties in the bush-fighting of 1868 
no doubt considerably enhanced the mana-tapu of ' Te Porohanga.* It is still 
in the possession of Titoko-waru*s people. 

[184] Rakataura. (See J.P.S. Vol. XIV., p. 96.) 

The following short account of Rakataura was given me many years ago by a 

member of the Ngati-matakore tribe (of " King " country), a descendant of Raka: — 

'* Ko Rakataura anake te tupuna i haere mai no Hawaiki i runga i te tuara o 

te ika nui whakaharahara, ko Panciraira te ingoa. I haere tahi mai 

raua ko tana tjimaiti ko Hape-ki-tuarangi, engari ko ia (ko te tamaiti) i 

, tika mai, ara i waha mai e te hau rauwhakarewarewa [a whirlwind], ko 

' Te Apurangi ' te ingoa. I u tahi mai raua ki Wai-te-mata. To take i 

haere mai ai a Raka i runga i te ika, na te mea i kawhakina tana wahine 

ki runga i a Taiuui. He mea whakarere marire atu hoki a Raka ko tana 


THE Tainui Immigrants.— Hone Kaora (John Cowell), of Kawhia, wlian 

giving evidence before the Native Land Court at Otorohanga in 1886 (after detailing 

certain Tainui history), gave the following list of the people (evidently Raka's 

followers) who left the ' * Tainui ' ' at Tamaki : — 

" After Tainui arrived at Otahuhu the persons who carried the mauri-tfianu 
travelled overland. There were ten of them, viz., Hia-ora, Mate-ora, ^lani-kopiri, 
Taranga. Tane-whakatea, Tama-ki-to-marangai, Hinc-puanga-nui-a-rangi, Waihare, 
Rotu, and Puaki-o-te-raugi." 



Abscess, nuiido, makimaki, tapoa, 13 
Abyssinian parallel to a Maori rite, 6 
Ahi mate (dead fire)— the "cold heurtb- 

stone." 18 
Aitutaki. Heraldic marks (Ui-Uitau), at, 217 
Annual Meeting of Society, Minutes of . 

Annual Hei)ort of the Council, xiii 
Awhiorangi, The finding of, .'>5 

Balance-sheet of the Society, xv 

Battle of Waipuna, 151 : of Operiki, 155 

Bk8t. Elsdon. Maori Medical Lore, 1. 
The lore of the whari'-kohanya : Notes 
on procreation among the Maori 
l)eople of New Zealand (Part i.). 205 

Bible coBmo){ony and history said to be 
familiar to the ancient Maori, 116 

Boils (u'hewhef, 13 

Breath of life. Charm to retain or restore, 4 

Bums, Charm for the cure of, 9 

Canoe of Maui, The. J. Cowan, 161 

Charcoal fumes. Suffocation by, attributed 
to an invisible demon, 144 

Choking, Charms to relieve, 6 

CHriu'HiLL. William, B.A. Principles of 
Sanioan word-compoRition. 24 

Cold water, indiscriminate immersion of 
the sick, 18, 19 

Coming of Tainui, The. (Translation). 
Rihare Tauwhare, 96 

Compound Words in Samoan, 24 

Constipation caused by fern-root diet, 10 

Constitution of Society, v 

Cowan, .Tamkh. Some Middle Island place- 
names, 4.'). 163. Honorific terms used 
in the Middle Island (note), 45. Hawa- 
iki (note), 46. The canoe of Maui, 161. 
Maori names of lakes (note), 163. On 
the word tnoa (note). 164. The last of 
the Ngati-Mamoe, 193. A taiaha "whai- 
//tarn/" (note). 219. Bakataura (note). 920 

Creation of Man, 125 

Death of Takarangi, 155 
Delirium, kuawa and kutukutu ahi, 19 
Deluge, Maori tradition of, 117 
DiaiThtpa, Native remedies for, 10 
Diseases, Maori treatment of. 1 
Divination. Weapons used in, 55 
Drowning— treatment of the apparently 
drowned, 17 

Elephantiasis. 11 
Epidemic. The rewharewha, 1.51 
Epidemics among the Maori. 18 
Etiquette, punctiliousness of Maori 

chiefs. B5 
Exchanges, List of, xi 
Eyes, Maori treatment of affections of 

the, 15 

Familiar spirit. Story of a, 50 

Female complaints, Native remedies for, 
15. IH 

Fern-root diet, a cause of severe con- 
stipation. 10 

Finding of Awhiorangi, The, 55 

Fish-diet, supposed cause of leprous 
affections, 11 

Foot, human, the sacred power of, 9: the 
left foot tapu, 9 

Oho-mai-rangi— Maaka, 121 
Ru-makina— Rereahu, 89 
Ru-makina— Taki-hiku, 74. 89 
Tamatea— Pango-te-Whare-Auahi, 80 
Tamatea— Te Purupuru, 90 
Tu-rere-ao— Te Korenga Tu-Whawhakia, 

Tu-whakaturi— Rangi-huru-mann. 138 
God Mara. 145 
Goitre {tenga), 13 
Graham, Georoe. Ngutu-au. an ancient t 

people who visited New Zealand, 159 
Gudokon, Lieut.-Col. Mana tangata, 49. 
Maori Religion. 107. Maori Superstition. 
167. Origin of the ta-tatau or heraldic 
marks at Aitutaki Island, 217. Ngati- 
hau of Whanganui (note), 219 

Hakihaki, or harehare, itch, 14 

Hapuku Kai-aho, The great, 150 

Hau, its twofold meaning— wind, and in- 
tellectual principle. 127 

Hauhau or ftai-fnarire superstition. The, 

Hawaiki (note). 47 

Haiootiiwaui, skin disease affecting chil- 
dren, 17 

HekengaaKahu-hunu. Te Pango-te-Whare- ' 
Auahi, 67 

Heraldic marks at Aitutaki Island, 217 

Herbal remedies little used before arrival 
of Europeans, 10 

Hoipu, watery blister, 13 

Honey, poisonous, of the wnoriki and 
tvharaiwi shrubs, 19 

Honorific terms used in the Middle Island 
(note). 45 

Huahtta, pimple or rash, 13, 17 

Hunakeha tree. The. W. T. Morpeth, 216 : 
a tree supposed to be foand on the 
Upper Whanganui, the handling of 
which is fatal, 216 

Hum, a disfiguring disease of the glands 
of the neck, 10, 18 

lo, the supreme deity of the Maori, 81, 108: 
not to be named save in the open air. 
52. 100 ; Maori reticence concerning, 109 : 
genealogical table showing descent of 
the gods from, facing 210 
Iro and ngaio, intestinal worms, 17 
Iri karakia. The, (translation). Major H. 
P. Tu-nui-a-Rangi. 100 

Kahu-hunu, Legends concerning, 82 

Kai ure, curious rite accompanying the 

recitation of a charm. 3 
Kehua (familiar spirit). Story of a. 50 
Kiritona, stye on the eyelid, 15 
Kooti. Te, Character of. 176 
Kopito, pains in the stomach, 17 
Korere, diarrhoea, 10 
Korero mo Ngarara-hoaraa. Major Tu- 

noi-a-Rangi. 200 
Kotureture, a scrofulous disease, causing 

white blotches, 14 
Kuawa, or kutukutu ahi, delirium, 19 

Lament of Nuku, 156 

Last of the Ngati-Mamoe, 193 

Latrines, sacredness and mana of, 1 








or TUB 




Publialiod imdor the Astlbority nf ttii; Ootuioi], and Edited by tha 

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Vol XIV. 

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